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Secrets exposed 
How government 
hides its 
leaking system 

Big screen TV 
Race for new-style 
viewing at home 

Mort d‘Arfdr 
| George Cole on 
his return 
to the stage 

Battle fields 
Preview of the 
rugby internationals 



By Philip Webster, Political Reporter 

Tire Westland affair yes- tion of that leak by Mr answer questions had angered 

rday developed into an Brittan led to his resignation the Conservative as well as 

igry constitutional clash as Secretary of State for Labour mem here. His first 

stween the Government and Trade and Industry. outright refusal was made in 

The Times Portfolio daily 
competition prize of £ 2,000 
was won yesterday by Mr A 
J Street of Hackney, 
London. Portfolio list, page 
12; how to play, information 
service, luck page, 
omorrow, £42,000 can be 
on - £40,000 in the weekly 
mpetition and £2,000 in 
e daily. 

m sentenced 

1 Richards, aged 19, of 
gharri. Kent who put 
ppy in a hot oven for 
: his living room floor, 
sentenced to three 
s’ detention. The 

cie date 

rhbisbop of Canter- 
- Robert Runcie, will 
Pope in Bombay on 
9, while both men 
ing separate tours of 
Jr Runcie will also' 
Mother Theresa in 
.utta. Lambeth Palace 

Buying power 

A Labour government would 
use Marks and Spencer buy- 
ing methods as the basis for a 
£35 billion a year "Buy 
British" campaign, according 
to Mr Roy Hattersley. the 
deputy party leader. Page 8- 

terday developed into an Brittan led to his resignation 
angry constitutional clash as Secretary of State fo 
between die Government and Trade and Industry. 
Parliament when ministers Mr Paul Channon. hi 
slopped key witnesses successor, stopped Miss Co 
appearing before a Commons lette Bowe. the head o 
select committee to give information at the ministry 
evidence about the leak of Mr John Mogg. prindpa 
the Solicitor General’s letter private secretary in the See 
and Mr Leon Brittan and rexary of State’s office, anc 
government officials refused Mr John MichdIL head of th< 
point blank to answer further air division, from appear! n] 
questions about the leak. before yesterday’s hearing. 

The hopes of the Govern- Sir Brian Hayes, perma 
mem that the Westland nent secretary at the min 
dispute would die down after isuy , who appeared before 
the Pnme Ministers well- |h e committee with two oi 
acclaimed performance in the h is senior officials in place oi 
Commons debate on Monday the barred witnesses, ex- 
were dashed when Conser- pinned why Mr Channor 
vative and Labour anger at had not allowed them to 
Mr Bri nan’s unyielding appear 

stance before the all-party He Mr channon had 
Select Committee on De- in mind that two of the 
fence, and at the tan on three officials (Miss Bowe and Mr 
Department of Trade and Mogg) had already had a 
Industry officials appearing, considerable degree of media 
spilled over into a fierce exposure and the committee 
Commons clash. might want to question them 

Mrs Maigaret Thatcher farther. He said h seemed to 
told MPs that the Govern- Mr Channon that there 
meni wanted to cooperate would be nothing farther to 
with select committees, but ^ l0 what ^ already a 
that the defence committee’s matter of public record- 
request for private secretaries sir Brian was then himself 
and personal staff to give questioned. But when MPs 
evidence had major implicit- raised the circumstances of 
lions for the conduct of the the leak, he said that he could 

Mr Paul Channon. his reply to Mr Winston Chur- 
successor, stopped Miss Co- chill. Conservative MP for 
lette Bowe. the head of Davyhulme. who had asked 
information at the ministry, Mr Brittan whether it was he 
Mr John Mogg. principal who had authorized the 
private secretary in the Sec- Solicitor General’s letter to 
retary of State’s office, and be leaked in a selective 
Mr John Mich el I, head of the manner, 
air division, from appearing Mr Brittan said that the 
before yesterday’s hearing. circumstances bad been fully 
Sir Brian Hayes, perma- dealt with by the* Prime 
nent secretary at the min- Minister and lus own speech 
isuy, who appeared before on Momlay. and he would 
the committee with two of add nothing farther, 
his senior officials in place of Then, 10 ? P/ 1 u ^ e 

the barred witnesses, ex- petenee with Dr John Gtl- 
plained why Mr Channon hert, the senior Labour MP 
had not allowed them to on the committee. Mr Brittan 
anrv»flr refused to answer at least 

nine questions relating to the 

The dispute boiled over 
when Dr Gilbert accused Mr 

Mogg) had already had a ^ pWxri accused Mr 

considerable degree of media Bntta 11 of having a detailed 
exposure and the committee recoilecuon on some matters 
might want to question them ai *d a selective memory on 
farther. He said h seemed to ofaers. 

Mr Channon that there Mr Brittan retorted that 
would be nothing farther to ** “unworthy, unfair 

government and far relations 
between- ministers and their 
private offices." 

But it was dear from the 
committee proceedings that 
the Government has decided 
to block attempts to prise out 
farther information about the 
leaking of Sir Patrick 
Mayhew’s letter to Mr Mi- 
chael Heseltine. Authoriza- 

farther. He said h seemed to 

Mr Channon that there Mr Brittan retorted that 
would be nothing farther to “unworthy, unfair 

add to what was already a a , untrue." 
matter of public record- ’ „ , 

Sir Brian was then himself „ r ,r Humphrey asked Sir 
questioned. Bui when MPs Bnan Hayes whether he was 
raised the circumstances of aware °J unqualified 
the leak, he said that he could P° wer of tjhe select commit- 
not add anything to the *** *° for persons, 
statements made by the P a P ers «* d records and to 
Prime Minister. Asked by Sir secure the attendance of 
Humphrey Atkins, the whoever it wished, 
committee chairman, . Sir Bnan said that he was 
whether all questions relating hut referred the committee to 
to matters covered by the the Government’s memoran- 
ieak inquiry would be met dum of guidance to Civil 
with that reply. Sir Brian said Servants about select 

that it would. 
Mr Brittan’s 


News International dispute 

Thatcher attacks 
Wapping boycott 

o_. yesterday with a Commons 

. suggestion that the Labour 

(fei \aL i ” ts. boycott of all journalists 

_ ™ employed by News Irner- 

JroW S* /7 xWkL national cut at the very root 

of democracy. 

/rf Ca. ,ft W) Mrs Margaret Thatcher 
V ' a J joined in the political back- 

' v^qi \ lash against Labour’s national 

\ executive committee during 

Commons question time. She 
a Z \ said; “I wish those news- 

c / \ papers well in their efforts to 

7 V , v print on the latest 

0^. VM equipment". 

V.AiA ^ I She told Mr Eric Hefler, 

nJiwt Labour MP for Liverpool 

Vp Walton and a member of the 

Kv-wl’ Labour executive: “Unless 

Jj industry under the policies of 

t L v this Government had been 

A7 able l0 become thoroughly 

j* • competitive, we should have 

(JET COIIIUSlOn lost whole industries and the 

K SSSTJSSijSSS SS’K’ten infinitely 

By Anthony Bertas, PoUtical Correspondent 
The Prime Minister agreed Internationa] Wapping plant. 

r \ 

Car confusion 

identical traffic offences can 
expect much- heavier fines' in 
sqme parts of the country 
than elsewhere, according to 
a survey by the Automobile 
Association Page 3 

Oath sworn 

To mark his eighteenth 
birthday- Don Felipe de 
Bourbon. Crown Prince of 
Spain, swore to uphold the 
country’s democratic 
constitution - an unprece- 
dented move Page 8 

Drug verdict 

. J avm Fitzsimmons, aged 
* 4 « *ho died after smoking 
Jfrein in Croxtetb.Liverpool, 
“ ,cd because of his “non - 1 
dependent use of drugs. "an , 
mqucsi decided Page 2 j 

Husain failure 

H “sairi of Jordan's 
Middle Hast peace plan was 
thought to have collapsed 
after the f ai | un . 0 f talks with 
” Ir Tassir Arafat in 
Amman page 8 

Inquiry hitch 

V judicial inquiry into police 

'll Ch * Ie m . ay H 

analysed bv a decision of 
■tree supreme court 
idgcs Page 6 


"Restrictive practices and 
over-manning do not save 
jobs; they lead to the loss of 
infinitely more jobs in the 

But Mrs Thatcher agreed 
with Sir Edward Gardner. 
Conservative MP for Fylde, 
when he said that Mr Neil 
Kinnock’s boycott of all 
journalists employed by 
News International was 
outrageous and “cut at the 
very root of democracy”. 

She also commended the 
view of Mr George Gardiner. 
Conservative MP for Reigate. 
that Mr Kinnock and his 
entire front bench team 
should be transported to join 
the picket line at the News 

$ 3 ki 

“thereby ensuring that every 
worker crosses the picket 

•News International said 
yesterday that Wednesday 
night's production of The 
Times and The Sun was only 
marginally short of the fall 
print run and the best since 
operations were moved at the 
weekend to the new plant at 
Wapping. east London, and 
in Glasgow (John Young 

The Sun printed 4,374,370 
copies, only 52000 short of 
its fall print run, a company 
official said. The Times 
printed 521,680, only 4,500 
short of its target. 

The company also claimed 
that all its drivers had 
reported for work despite 
instructions from the Trans- 
port and General Workers’ 
Union not to cross picket 

Following the granting of 
injunctions against the print 
unions Sogat ’82 and the 
NGA ordering pickets to 
cease to "stop, restrain or 
persistently follow" drivers, 
police restricted the number 
of pickets outside the 
Wapping plant to six. But a 
group of about 200 people on 
the road outside shouted 
abuse at the 

drivers. Mr Todd, the 
TGWU general secretary, 
said as he went into a TUC 
meeting at Congress House 
yesterday that he was “not 
going to throw in the towel 
because people are telling me 
that drivers are still going 
through the picket lines". 

He said he would be 
consulting his national exec- 
utive council and legal offi- 
cers to consider the 
implications of the injunc- 

Mr Eric Hammond, gen- 
era! secretary of the EETPU. 
whose members are cooperat- 
ing in the production of the 
company's four titles, had 
already informed the TUC 
that he would not be attend- 
ing yesterday’s meeting. 

In a letter to Mr Norman 
Willis, the TUC general 
secretary, he repeated his 

Sir Edward Gardner Continued on page 2coI 5 


Leading article, page 13 

US deficit 
soars to 
$148 .8bn 

- FromJBa3ey Morris . 


The US Trade decifit, 
exacberated by the high 
dollar for ail of 1985, surged 
to a record SI48J8 billion 
(£105 billion) last year as 
imports continued to outpace 
exports in a pattern that 
produced the worst trade year 

Administration officials 
said yesterday that the deficit 
in December alone rose to a 
record $17.4 billion despite a 
ten per cent drop in the 
dollar’s value against other 
currencies since last Septem- 

The deficit with Japan 
accounted for an estimated 
one third of the total decifit, 
rising to a record $49.7 
billion last year op from $37 
billion in 1984. 

Congressional officials re- 
acted sharply yesterday to the 
Japan figures, noting a grow- 
ing movement in both » oases 
to take protectionist action to 
stem the tide of Japanese 

The US deficit with West- 
ern Europe rose to $27.4 
billion hist year and the 
decifit with Canada, another 
large trading partner, was 
$13.1 billion. 

Commerce Department of- 
ficials said overall the United 
States did not run a surplus 
with any of its largest trading 
partners last mouth. 

US exports, reflecting the 
high dollar and the sluggish 
industrial pace, totalled only 
$213 billion last year, falling 
22 per cent below 1984 while 
imports rose 6 per cent to 
$361.6 bOlion in 1985. 

The weak trading perfor- 
mance last year was a prime 
factor in reducing overall US 
growth in 1985 when the 
economy grew by only 23 per 
cent, its weakest showing 
since the recession of 1982 
Ecno mists said yesterday 
that the dollar wfl] have to 
drop even farther before it 
has a favourable effect on the 
trade balance by relieving 
pressures on American manu- 
facturers who have lost a big 
share of their overseas mar- 
kets to foreign competitors 
and have been usable to 
compete with cheaper im- 

From Trevor Fishlock, Cape Canaveral 

The search for an answer repeatedly asks people to turn 
the Challenger shuttle over what they find to the 

MCfor KaMma on imtonf - — 

to the Challenger shuttle 
disaster became an urgent 
national -campaign yesterday. 
The best engineering' and 
scientific brains are being 
recruited to find out what 
caused the explosion that 
obliterated the craft and its 
seven crew 75 seconds after 

There is a strong demand 
from a shocked public to 
know the reason for . the 
tragedy.In what will develop 
into the most exhaustive 
inquiry of a technological 
catastrophe ever undertaken. 

teams oF investigators set up.„ fael tank and booster rockets, 
by Nasa are being assigned to transmitted continuously 

cover every aspect of the 

Dr William Graham, act- 
ing administrator of Nasa, 
said here; “Nasa will wort 
with the engineering, scien- 
tific and flight communities 
to draw on the best, the most 
qualified experts we have in 
America. Their expertise will 
be brought to the analysis of 
this issue and its resolution 
and correction." 

Ships combing a 6,000 
square mile area of the 
Atlantic, with the aid of 
helicopters and other aircraft, 
have recovered more than a 
quarter of a tonne of debris 
from .the Challenger, most of 
it twisted and charred scraps. 

Searchers have found what 
appeared to be part of an 
instrument or control panel 
from the Challenger measur- 
ing about 30fL This is the 
largest piece found so far and 
the most significanLlbe 
wreckage is being assembled 
at Cape CanaveraL 

Small pieces of debris, 
including bits of the shuttle's 
.heat resistant tiles, are being 
found on beaches here. Nasa 

throughout the flight. 

Astronauts have also been 
called in to help the inquiry, 
and Nasa has impounded 
film from some newspaper 

Nasa officials are adamant 
in refusing to speculate on 
the cause of the explosion. 
Reporters rehearsing various 
theories - did an explosive 
bolt detonate prematurely? 
Did liquid hydrogen leak 
from the fuel tank or a 
pipeline or pump? - are told 
firmly by officials that 
speculation is futile. 

The two 149 ft rockets 
which provided most of the 
power in the Shuttle launch 
were destroyed by remote 
control 30 seconds after the 
explosion because they were 
OUI of control and one w 

heading towards a populated 
area, according to a Nasa 
officiaL The rocket boosters 
usually separate from the 
Shuttle and drop by para- 
chute after about two min- 
utes of flight This was the 
first occasion on which the 
boosters had to be destroyed. 

Okello now. in Sudan 

Kampala (AP) -The new 
Ugandan president.Mr 
Yoweri Museveni, whose 
rebel army routed govern- 
ment forces and took control 
of Kampala last week, made 
his first Cabinet appoint- 
ments yesterday, beginning 
with himself as Defence 

He chose as Prime Min- 
ister Mr Samson Kisekka. a 
73-year-old physician, who 
had served as Mr Museveni's 
“external co-ordinator” in 

Nairobi for the past five 

Meanwhile the Sudan: 
News Agency said the de- 
posed president. General 
Okello was at a "military 
area" in Juba, in the far 
south of Sudan near the 
Uganda border. He bad not 
asked far political asylum. 

He planned, Sudanese mili- 
tary sources said, "to gather 
his ranks to go back to 

New Premier, page 8 

.ere are not enough hones 
; the growing numbers of 
1 people.A Special Report 
•mines the role of Anchor 
'usmg 23-25 

ne Non 2-5 (PuUukiu 4 
«« MfiUttes 13 

Tobacco firms accused of games sponsor offer 


r- ii 

smntBjOJZ Sport 26-28 

f 13 TV A Radio 31 

Rcpwt 28 Umvencitfa-s 14 
as I^WailHr 32 

* -Ct A 

The tobacco industry offered 
this year's Edinburgh 
Commonwealth Games 
£250,000 to drop plans to 
make the event a “non- 
smoking games” with 
sponsorship from health bod- 
ies. it was claimed yesterday. 

Dr David Player. Director- 
General of the Health Educa- 
tion Council claimed said the 
offer was revealed to him by 
Sir Russell Faiigreave. chair- 
man of the consortium which 
is organizing sponsorship for 
the games. 

Dr Player said: “Sir Rus- 

sell came to see as to ask if 
the HEC was interested in 
promoting the games as a 
'non-smoking games*. We 
said we might be hot Sir 
Russell said the consortium 
was looking for sponsorship 
10 the time of about £] 
million. That is way beyond 
onr means. I said we might 

manage perhaps £100.000. 

“At that point he told me 
that the (tobacco) industry 
was prepared to offer 
£250.000 to ensHre that the 
games were not no-smoking. 
They didn't want any 

advertising for cigarettes or' 
tobacco in return for that, 
simply an assurance that 
sponsorship would not be 
used to pot across an anti- 
smoking message, f was jnst 

Mr John Hitchens, the 
HEC*s director of informa- 
tion. who was present at the 
conversation, co nfir med Dr 
Player’s account-. The 
charges were firmly denied by 
Sir Russell Fairgreave. a 
former Conservative MP, for- 
mer chairman of the Conser- 
vative Party in Scotland and 

who is a director of Hall 
Advertising which is owned 
by Saatchi and Saatchi. 

Sir RasseU said neither he 
raw anyone In die consortium 
which is seeking sponsorship 
for the games had ap- 
proached tobacco companies 
or the Tobacco Advisory 

“I maybe said to Darid 
Player that no doubt the 
tobacco companies were keep- 
ing a watch on what we were 
doing and might be 
interested.’* But be said the 
games was “not taking 

sponsorship from the tobacco 
companies or the anti-smok- 
ing lobby now.” 

There had about a year 
ago, be said, been interest 
from the HEC in making the 
games a non-smoking event. 
“I understand from the peo- 
ple involved before that there 
was the possibility of money, 
like £106,000. being available 
for a non-smoking games. I 
have do donbt I was possibly 
slightly annoyed with David 
Player as the HEC were not 
prepared to keep to tbeir 
original offer. 

Jobless level 

surges to 
record 14.4% 

By David Smith, Economics Correspondent 

A serviceman carries a piece of debris believed to be from 
the sbattle Challenger and found on Cocoa Beach in 
FIorida-The debris is being impounded for Nasa 

Shuttle searchers 
find 30ft-long 
piece of wreckage 

authorities. “Even’ scrap can 
help.” an official said.- People 
a re warned not to touch 
debris that looks dangerous. 

While -the search for debris 
continues in the closed-off 
area of the sea about 15 miles 
off the cape, investigator are 
examining what may prove 
to be more fruitful - the 
detailed film record of the 
shuttle's ascent and the 
explosion at a height of ten 
miles; and the voluminous 
computer record of the con- 
dition of the shuttle and its 

Unemployment has surged to 
a new record level, dashing 
Government hopes that the 
jobless total had stopped 
increasing. The adult un- 
employment total after sea- 
sonal adjustment, rose by 
20.600 to 3204.900. a peak, 
between December and Janu- 

*V raw unemployment 
total; including school leav- 
ers, increased by 134.640 to 
3.407,729, higher even than 
during the depression years 
of the 1930s. The unemploy- 
ment rate rose from 1 3.5 per 
cent in December to 14.1 per 
emit this month. 

Lord Young of Graffham, 
the Secretary of State for 
Employment, said ; “This 
month’s figures do not make 
happy reading. We expected 
the rise in the unadjusted 
total but the rise in the 
seasonally adjsuted figure is 

“But unemployment fig- 
ures do show substantial 
variations from month to 
month and it is too soon to 
conclude that the recent flat 
trend has come to an end. 
After two months’ rise we 
must not over-react." 

The 20,600 increase in 
adult unemployment this 
month follows a 17,700 rise 
in December, a bigger in- 
crease than originally es- 
timated. In the six months to 
November, the jobless total 
fell by an average of nearly 
2000 a month. The Decem- 
ber and January increases 
mean that the ' average 
monthly rise over the latest 
six months is 5.000. 

Vacancies also declined, 
with a fall in the seasonally 
adjusted total of 2400 to 
159,700. The Government is 
getting less help from its 
special employment and 
training measures. The num- 
ber kept off the unemploy- 
ment register by these 
measures was 495.000 at the 
end of December, the same 
as in the previous roc 
months. There is evidence 
that the expansion of the 
Community Programme is 
ailing behind schedule. The 
number of places is targeted 
to rise to 230.000 by the 

The jobless figures were 
condemned by opposition 
politicians. Mr John Prescott, 
the Labour Party's employ- 
ment spokesman, said ; 
“Today’s appalling figures 

Killer widow’s 
case reviewed 

The case of an elderly 
widow serving a life sentence 
in Durham prison for 
murdering her lover is under 
review by the parole board. 

Pamela Megginson, aged 
64. was convicted in 1983 of 
killing the man. aged 79, with 
a champagne bottle in the 
South of France after an 
argument over another 

confirm the Government s 
total indifference to mass 
unemployment. Government 
policies Have produced the 
highest interest, inflation and 
unemployment rates of any 
of our major competitors. 

“It is deplorable sense of 
priorities that Westland Heli- 
copters can produce a Gov- 
ernment crisis and two 
Cabinet resignations, com- 
pared to the total indifference 
to the trebling og unemploy- 
ment of this Government," 

Mr Richard WainwrighL 
the Liberal employment 
spokesman, said : Today's 
figures must jolt the Govern- 
ment into a complete re- 
think of policy." 

Mr lan Wrigglesworth. the 
SOP'S economic and indus- 
trial spokesman, said : This is 
a broken-backed Government 
with broken-backed policies. 
The Chancellor’s economic 
strategy has now 

A spokesman for the 
Trades Union Congress de- 
scribed the figures as 
“horrifying" and added that : 
“The nation is fed up with 
the paper-thin fabrications 
from Government ministers 
about the alleged recovery. 
The nation wants action on 
jobs, not lame excuses.'* 

The CBI President. Sir 
James Cleminson, said that 
the figures were “extremely 
disappointing." “That is why 
our members want priority 
given in the next Budget, not 
to personal tax cuts, but to 
the properly-costed CBI pro- 
posals tackling long-term un- 
employment - particularly in 
the inner cities," he said. 

The latest unemployment 
figures include 101.312 
school leavers. Between 
December and January there 
was a 1.920 rise in school 
leaver unemployment and a 
132.720 increase for adults. 

Over the past year, un- 
employment has risen fastest 
in Northern Ireland, with the 
percentage rate up by 1.4 
points. This was followed by 
Yorkshire and Humberside, 
up 0.7. East Anglia 0.6. 
Scotland 0.5. the South West 
and Wales 0.4. the South East 
and North 0.3. East Midlands 
0.2 the North West 0.1. and 
the West Midlands nc 
change. The national average 
increase was 0.3 percentage 

Direct foreign investment 
in developing countries could 
double to about $20 billion 
(£143 billion ). American 
Bcpress Bank says in its latest 
Revien'.The increase would 
be three times the new tank 
credits proposed under the 
Baker plan for increasing 
capital flows to developing 



S’ V .*.v, .if,.-' 

s »„, , 



■36 Graham Street. London Nl SLL — 


GteesspBace, 38 Graham Street, LandonHlffii. 





$31 jobs facing axe 
at arms factories as 
defence orders drop 

Up to 831 jobs are feeing 
the a$e at two Royal Ord- 
nance armaments factories in 
the North. 

The Ammunition Division 
of the Royal Ordnance com- 
pany said yesterday it was 
looking for "significant 
redundancies" because of 
felling orders from the Min- 
istry of Defence. 

A company spokesman 
said 446 jobs could go at 
Bhtiey, Tyne and Wear, and 
385 at Chorley, Lancs. 

“We currently have 1,300 
workers at Birtley and this 
would mean a 35 per cent 
cut", the spokesman said. 
“At Charley we have 1,765 
workers, and the loss of 385 
jobs would be a 22 per cent 

The spokesman empha- 
sized that some jobs might be 
saved if the firm attracted 
new orders while the number 
of compulsory redundancies 
would be kept to a minimum. 

“We shall be looking for 
voluntary redundancies and 
early retirement wherever 
possible", be added. “The 
need for these redundancies 
arises primarily from a de- 
cline of ammunition orders 
from the MoD.” 

Later last night a union 
official said he had been told 
that the MoD would place an 
order for 30,000 howitzer 
shells — an order which the 
company had said earlier 

might cut the redundancies 
by 10 per cent. 

The MoD cotild not con- 
firm that the order had been 
placed, but said a statement 
would be made in the 
Commons later. 

Of the 831 projected job 
losses. 620 would be mop 
floor workers and the rest 
white-collar staff! 

Mr Tom Buriison, TUC 
North chairman, described 
the job losses at Birtley as a 
“shattering blow" to the 

“This has been designated 
as Industry Year, but with 
the announcement at Birtley 
and today's massive increase 
in unemployment statistics, ir 
really is meaningless to be- 
lieve that 1986 is going to 
bring the North anything 
more than further job losses, 
be said. 

Mr Gerry Ferguson, a 
union convener, said: “We 
are disgusted about, the han- 
dling of the situation by local 
and national management. 

“Other Royal Ordnance 
establishments were notified 
of our redundancies before 
the local management had 
the courtesy to inform foeir 

Mr Ferguson said the 
unions at Birtley intended to 
fight redundancies on the 
basis of a six-point (dan 
which included a call for 

anticipated MoD orders to be 
brought forward. 

Mr Derek Brookes, director 
of the Birtley factory, said be 
was “very sad" a bout! the 
redundancies at Ac/ plant 
which dates from 19B7 and 
up to a few ydrs ago 
employed more tfefi 2,000. 

The proposed ed&ack was 
due to the redhetion in 
ammunition outers from the 
MoD who about 90% 

of their w<g& J 

He confirmed the cutbacks 

could be 
of the po 
MoD bm 
The fin 

rnkjl the cutbacks 
veiled if just two 
won the unions' 
pen put to the 

was the order for 

Police ‘weaken’ 
crown prosecutors 

By Frances Gibb, Legal Affairs Correspondent 

The powers of the new government guidelines, but 
crown prosecutors to weed they will have little incentive 
but weak cases when the new to do so. “The need for 
prosecution service starts cordial police-prosecutor 
later this year will be under- relationships will remain.” 
mined by the continuing Not only may many courts 
control of the police, an view the government policy 

article in this month's Crim- 
inal Law Review says. 

Idines with little favour, 
the police will retain their 

In theory, the new crown— “unbridled power to put 
prosecutors are meant to take caste before the courts . 
over responsibility for what TJc article concludes that 
prosecutions are brought, it ty filing to give prosecutors 
says. But in practice the foie power to initiate 
police will control what cases prosecutions the Government 
come to court. -'has failed to make them 

«ri. u Fn J independent of the police. 

, ** 30 article in the same 

£ issue, another lawyer, Mr 

to decide whether or not Francis R^ ninn ^ ^ 

gSSSS2U^ S fc *^ C the new arrangements show 

terminated , it says. little sign of remedying “a 

The article, by Dr Andrew notorious defect in the 
Sanders, a lecturer at Bir-. present system”, 
mingham University,,' says On matters of deep public 
that “in an understandable concern, such as a national 
attempt to produce a major strike or civil unrest, he. says,, 
reform without completely it will be no easier to find out 
disrupting the criminal jus- why evidence is not being 
tice system”, the Govern- ga thpreri with a view to 
mem is trying to insert a new prosecuting the organizers of 
service into the old structure, cr iminal activities, for exam- 
Police processes in particu- pie “mass picketing.” 

Iar will not ' change. Dr “On questions of whether 
Sanders says. Independence or not to investigate, even 
fipm the police has been where the criminal activity is 
created by giving crown on a national scale, the police 
prosecutors the power to it seems wifi continue to 
drop cases in line with decide”. 

Navy vessels spend 
more time at sea 

Biy Rodney Cowton, Defence Correspondent 

Frigates and destroyers of 
the Royal Navy are spending 
more time at sea than they 
did during the Second World 
War, according to naval 

They are now at sea for 
nearly half the year, whereas 
during theSecond World 
War, and until recent years, 
they were out of port for only 
about 40 per cent of the 
time. It is said that the 
present use of these escort 
vessels is about three times as 
high as in die 1930s. 

There has been concern 
that the time spent at sea, 
particularly since the Falk- 
lands conflict, might cause 
manpower and efficiency 
problems because of separa- 
tion from friends and fam- 

ilies. However, senior officers 
claim that operational stan- 
dards have improved during 
the last 20 years. 

The high level of use at sea 
of destroyers and frigates has 
arisen partly because of the 
Government's policy of limit- 
ing the number of these ships 
to about 50. Also, demands 
made on the vessels has 
tended to rise through the 
need to maintain a naval 
presence around the Falkland 
Islands and in the Gulf area. 

In spite of fears that the 
attractiveness of the Navy as 
a career might be damaged by 
increased work pressure, se- 
nior officers say that they are 
meeting recruitment targets { 
for both officers and ratings, 
although there are difficulties 
in some specialist areas. 



Chandeliers to lampshades 



The eper was a request to 
win bade a contract placed by' 
the HoD with a West 
.German firm, for 15 5mm 
-howjjzcr shells, as part of a 
w&K&iare deal involving the 
UK, fctaiy and West Ger- 

* If this contract was re- 
turned to Britain there would 
be no need for redundancies 
at either Birtley, which would 
produce the shells, or 
Choriey, which would put the 
explosives into them. 

As for fears about the long 
term future of the plant, this 
could be cleared up by the 
placing of a £25 million order 
for a new multi-launch rocket 
system, a joint Nato venture 

declining , 

By Bill Johnstime f 
Technology Correspondent ? 

British consumers are ex- 
pected to buy about 400,000 
fewer home computers this 
year than they did fast year, 
indicating that the market is: 

The foldings are those of 
the stockbrokers Wood, 
Mackenzie who conclude 
that, while consumers will 
purchase 750,000 computers 
this year-dropping from 1.35 
miUion in 1984 and 1.12 
million last year-they are 
prepared to invest much 
more money in their ma- 

The average computer cost 
about £200 last year. This 
year the shopper is prepared 
to spend £350 on a machine 
and is expecting much more 
for his money. 

According to the Wood, 
Mackenzie survey, the first 
generation of home comput- 
ers is bong replaced by more 
complex machines.The Elec- 
tron. the Commodore 64 and 
the Sinclair Spectrum are in 
that category, according to 
the stockbrokers. 

The launch of the Amstrad 
microcomputer last year has 
had a big effect on the 
market. The machine seDsfor 
£399, which indudes a dis- 
play unit, a computer key- 
i board and a printer. 

Commodore has launched 
its new machine in the 
United States and would 
expect to introduce it into 
Europe this year. Sinclair has 
promised new products, 
inducting a portable machine. 
A new model from Acorn 
and its partner Olivetti is also 



for a milli on 

The world's biggest 
lunch .for almost a million 
peopfejs being held in Octo- 
ber in canteens all over 
Britain to publicize a cam- 

A £100,000 fund is being 
set up to help to establish a 
cafe chain, to be known as Dr 
Bs Kitchens, serving a mil- 
lion meals a day to the 

The Princess of Wales Joi 
Centre for the Deaf in No 

in a game of snooker with an enthusiastic Colin Wilson, aged 15, during bar visit to the 
apton yesterday. The princess drew applause When she potted a red with her first stroke. 

Channel 4 spends £40m on season 

By David Hewson, Arts Correspondent 

CTmnnp l 4 IS tO SCRCH fjg fc t 

drama series tndndtng a four-, 
part verson of Mervyn 
Peake's fantasy novel Mr Pye 
starring Derek Jacobi as part 
of its new season costing £40 

The channel's other drama 
pro j ect s include a version of 
Shelley's Gothic novel, 
Zostrozzi, A Romance, and a 
joint Italian-Cbiuese produc- 
tion of the life of Marco Palo. 
The schedules win also fea- 

ture the return of £. F. 
Benson's Mapp and L ad a , 
Prospects, a 12-part aeries 
about two young men trying 
to survive in the newly 
upwardly mobile world of the 
Isle of Dogs. 

The company behind the 
popular C4 soap open 
Brookride will prodace a six- 
part serial aboat the prob- 
lems of adolescence, . . . 
Whet Now? 

Daniel J. Travanti, the star 

of BUI Street Blues, win play 
foe American broadcaster 
Edward R. Marrow in a 
documentary-drama. It 
recreates Marrow’s struggles 
to establish standards of 
American 'broadcast journal- 

The season's documenta- 
ries will include The lunar 
Eye in which the Cambridge 
psychologist Dr Nicholas 
Humphrey expounds his the- 
ory about “natural 

M&S model for Labour in 
‘Buy British’ campaign 

By Anthony Bevins, Political Correspondent 

A Labour government will 
use piirrhastng techniques 
pioneered by Marks & Spen- 
cer as the basis of a £35 
billion a year “Buy British” 
cam paign. 

Mr Roy Hatiersley, the 
shadow chancellor and dep- 
uty Labour leader, told a 
meeting at the London Busi- 
ness School yesterday that 
more attention was needed 
into the way in which public 
money was spent He called 
for a move away from the old 
Labour policy of planning 
agreement coercion to a new 
policy of inducement 

Mr Hatteraley grid that a 
quarter of all public spending 
went on goods and services 
‘ ; and the money should be 
spent wherever possible on 
| British products rather than 
I imports. . 

“Where British products of 
sufficiently high standard do 
not exist then the Govern- 
ment should approach suppli- 
ers with the offer of secure 
contracts in return for an 
improvement in supply”, he 

“Marks & Spencer use 
their huge puefaasing power, 
over 90 per cent of which is 
spent in the UK, to ensure an 
adequate supply of the goods 
it wants at the right price and 

flight success 
for Porsche 

By Our Motoring 
An aero-engine developed by 
Porsche,based on the “flat 
six” engine in its 911 high 
performance car, has 
powered a tight aircraft on a 
100,000km round-the-world 

The 3.2 litre engine is 
claimed to be safer, more 
economical, and more 
ecologically favourable than 
aero-engines of similar capac- , 

It permits the pilot to take ; 
off or land operating one i 
control rather than having to 
balance controls of ignition, 1 
throttle and propeller pitch , 
on conventional tight aircraft. 
The Porsche engine runs on 
normal leaded or unleaded 

quality from its competing 
suppliers. The Government 
could boost the British econ- 
omy by doing the same." 

- He said featherbedding 
could be avoided through a 
policy of contract compli- 
ance, which would ensure 
that a certain proportion of a 
contract price went into 
research and development 

But he acknowledged the 
change needed in Labour 
direction. “Operating through 

Mr Roy Hatiersley, seeking 
new approach to spending 

the market is one of the ways 
in which a Labour 
government's relationship 
with industry will differ from 
that advocated in the past 

“The problem with' the 
planning agreements of years 
gone by was that nobody 
agreed with them and nobody 
implimented them. A new 
approach based on the in- 
centive access to markets, the 
Marks & Spencer technique, 
rather than centralized coer- 
cion, needs to be tried.” 

Mr Hattersley added: 
“Labour's approach, which is 
long term, pro-British and 
value for money, can also be' 
applied to regional and urban 

“Rather than devoting 
scarce resources to footloose 
foreign multi-nationals, as 
was often the case with 
regional policy in the past, 
the same money can be spent 
on developing and building 
up indigenous companies 
who are more likely to 
identify with foe UK.” 

He claimed that for foe last 
six years foe Conservatives 
had created foe wrong cli- 
mate for manufacturing. The 
Chancellor of the Exchequer 
had written it off in favour of 
foe service industries. 

AA in dispute, over 
lead-free petrol 

* . 

By Our Motoring Correspondent 

As an alternative to cheap 
lead-free petrol the Govern- 
ment should cut car tax on 
new “lead-free only” ve- 

The Motor Agents’ Associ- 
ation said last night: “The 
Government is as likely to 
withdraw car tax from lead- 
free cars as it is to reduce tax 
on cigarettes and tobacco. 

“But cars like foe new Ford 
Escort which are able to run 
on both types of petrol are 
coming on to the market this 
year in increasing numbers 
and foe only way to pursuade 
motorists to swap from their 
old petrol is by giving them 
an attractive advantage in foe 
price of lead-free at foe 

Leaded petrol should cost 
the same as unleaded, foe 
Automobile Association said 
yesterday, disagreeing with 
the motor trade, which has 
urged foe Government to 
make' new lead-free petrol 

The EEC requires member 
states to make lead-free 
petrol widely available over 
the next three years. 

The AA said the Govern- 
ment should adjust taxation 
on lead-free, which is more 
expensive to produce, so that 
the pump price of foe two 
fuels would be identical. To 
do otherwise would be to 
penalize users of vehicles 
needing leaded petrol. 

Clash over Tube link 
for dockland railway 

By Hugh ClaytcnuEnviromnenl Correspondent 

Thatcher backs 
Times move 

The future of foe planned 
London docklands railway 
was clouded yesterday by a 
dispute about the siting of its 
Underground terminus in the 

The common council of 
the City Corporation voted to 
oppose London Regional 
Transport’s plan to end the 
: railway at foe Bank Under- 
ground station. 

The common council, 
equivalent of a borough 
council, opted for a terminus 
at Cannon Street near by for 
the light railway which will 
go to foe fast-developing 
industrial area on former 
dockland in the Isle of Dogs. 

It decided to petition 
against foe Bill for a Bank 
terminus which is to be 
promoted by London Re- 
gional Transport, the new 
transport authority for foe 

The terminus was planned 
originally for the Minories, 

near the present British Rail 
Fen church Street station. But 
the transport authority 
backed dockland developers 
who said that a terminus was 
needed nearer the heart of 
the City. The railway, above 
ground for most of its length, 
will move underground for 
its last stretch to the west of 
foe Minories. 

The common council de- 
rided that Bank, one of foe 
busiest commuter inter- 
changes in London, was 
already far too busy to 
accommodate thousands of 
extra passengers from the 
new railway. 

It proposed a travelator 
link between Cannon Street 
and the Bank similar to that 
in use in foe Bank station. It 
said that its light railway 
terminus at Cannon Street 
would not have to be as deep 
as that 'at Bank and would 
allow for possible further 
westward underground exten- 
sions of the railway. 

Continued from page 1 

misgivings about security af- 
ter he and colleagues had 
been kicked and punched 
boih outside and inside 

Congress House on Tues- 

At yesterday’s meeting the 
TUC gene ral co uncil derided 
that the EETPU's actions in 
the dispute might be detri- 
mental to the trade union 
movement. The union would 
be asked to give an explana- 
tion by next Wednesday. 

On BBC Breakfast Tele- 
vision yesterday Mr Todd 
accused Mr Rupert Murdoch, 
chairman of News Inter- 
national. of “industrial 

Interviewed on the same 
programme. Mr Murdoch 
recalled that only seven days 
ago he had offered the unions 
six months' negotiations to 
resolve ihe question of 
redundancy payments. 

“They did not want to 
negotiate. They . thought the 
way to bring me to my knees 

was to go on strike, and they 
miscalculated.” Mr Murdoch 

The prim unions' “rackets" 
- “old Spanish customs" and 
people working only half 
time or even quarter time 
and drawing full pay - were 
deeply resented by journal- 
ists. He was certainly not 
going back. 

Miss Brenda Dean and Mr 
Tony Dubbins, general sec- 
retaries of SOGAT and the 
NGA respectively, yesterday 
launched a joint campaign 
urging the public not to buy 
Mr Murdoch's newspapers. 

• Clifford Longlcy. father 
of The Times NUJ Chapel 
(office branch) said yesterday: 
“1 hope all journalists will be- 
aten to the threat to the 
freedom of the Press in the 
present crisis in the news- 
paper industry. .Any refusal 
to treat Times journalists as 
journalists, by politicians, 
trade unions, or whomsoever, 
puis press freedom in great 

Parliament, page 4 


Channel 4 News Is to 
extend its Friday night edi- 
tion to 50 minutes, and foe 
rock programme The Tube is 
to be repeated late on 

Sonya Braga, recently ac- 
claimed in foe film Kiss of the 
Spidmvoman, stars as an ex- 
prisoner returning to society 
in Dancin’ Days, another 
daily soap opera from Brazil 

school pay 

By Lncy Hodges 

Education Correspondent 

The Secretary of State for 
Scotland, Mr Malcolm 
Rifldnd, is lobbying ministers 
to set np an independent 
Inquiry into teachers' pay In 
Scotland In an attempt to end 
foe dispute there. 

Teachers in Scotland have 
been on strike for 18 months, 
but the ministerial committee 
which is monitoring the 
dispute is loath to grant 
Scottish teachers something 
not given to the others. 

When Mr Rifkind pressed 
his colleagues to accede to foe 
Scottish teachers* demand 
this week, he was told to 
think of arguments why the 
Sods should be treated dif- 

It is understood that the 
Secretary of State for Educa- 
tion and Science, Sir Keith 
Joseph, was about to offer all 
teachers an independent pay 
review last week, but the 
conciliation service Acas 
solved the English and Welsh 
dispute at the eleventh hour. 

The Government is content 
to allow the provisional Acas 
settlement to take its course. 
It feds it is preferable to hare 
Acas-style talks on the prob- 
lems of teachers' conditions 
and pay structure because it 
may be easin' for it to reject 
the recommendations of snch 
an inquiry. 



on boy 

An inquest on Jason 
Fitzsimmons, aged 14. who 
died after smoking heroin 
with other boys at a derelict 
block of flats in Croxteth. 
Liverpool, decided yesterday 
that he had died because of 
his “non-dependent use of 

A friend of the dead boy 
told the Merseyside coroner. 
Mr Roy Barter, at yesterday s 
adjourned inquest foal Jason 
and a friend of his had 
smoked heroin front a small 
bag. He and the other boy 
bad taken less than a tea- 

Jason, of Braybrookc 
Road. Norris Green, died in 
Alder Hey Hospital, Liver- 
pool. four days after being 
found collapsed last August. 

Jason's friend told the 
inquest he first smoked the 
drug at Christinas 1983. and 
tritel it again about three 
weeks la ter. “Then it got more 
frequent than that", the boy 

He bought from people 
living on foe Croxteth Estate 
Prices were from £5 to £6C 
depending on the size of fo 

A large £60 bag gave me 
than half-a-dozen smokes 

The youth said pus* 
could be found from a* 
midday, hanging ar.\ 
derelict flats and on 

Only two pushers de: 
the streets but there : 
three or four houses c : 
Croxteth estate where 
could be obtained. 

“There are plenty of 
where you can buy: 
Liverpool - Croxteth 
worse than anywher 
be said 

Del Chief Insp 
Deary, head o.' 
Merseyside Police 
Squad said figures fo 
abuse of drugs among yi 
people on Merseyside »c., 
absolutely chilling” 

“Of more than 2,000 peo- 
ple who came to our notice 
for drugs offences last yca r 
more than 50 per cent we 
20 years old or under, at 
that is sad”, he said. 

Mr Deary said heroin 
abuse had seen a big rise. A 
local addict would buy a 
gram for about £65 and then 
split it into 10 small packets. 

The jury was told by the 
coroner that there were three 
possible verdicts: death from 
dependence on drugs, from 
non-dependent abuse of 
drugs, and accidental death. 

Mr Barter said the ev- 
idence indicated foal Jason 
was not dependent on drugs. 

If the jury discounted that 
Jason's death was caused by 
drug abuse, they could return 
an accidental death verdict. 

“This will be appropriate if 
you thought he was perhaps 
fooling around, just taking 
things for foe sake of it and 
acting irresponsibly.” 

Judge in damages case 
will inspect cathedral 

A High Court judge will 
inspect the Roman Catholic 
cathedral at Liverpool as part 
of a negligence case against 
foe architect and consultant 
engineer who designed and 
built iL 

The official referee. Mr 
James Andrew-Fox. QC, will 
spend Monday and Tuesday 
in foe city. 

The archdiocesan trustees 
are claiming damages, alleg- 
ing breach of contract and 
negligence against Frederick 
Gibberd & Partners, the 
architects, the estate of the 
late Sir Federick Gibberd and 
Lowe & Rodin, engineers. It 
is claimed inadequate design 
and materials bad resulted in 
severe water damage. 

The defendants deny the 

Yesterday, the eighth day 
of the hearing, Mr Patrick 
Phillips,. QC, for the archi- 
tects, said: “Sir Frederick was 

one of the great architects of 
the post-war period and this 
cathedral whatever com- 
plaints are being made about 
it. is one of foe great 
buildings of that period.” 

Mr Phillips continued: "Sir 
Frederick and Mr Lowe wen- 
faced with foe almost impos- 
sible task of building a great 
building on a shoestring." 

Such financial restrictions 
seemed to have “miracu- 
lously disappeared” now that 
they were talking about 
repairs. “A Rolls Royce is to 
take the place of a second- 
hand Ford Anglia” 

Mr Phillips said the pro- 
posed repairs included replac- 
ing an aluminium roof. ' 
originally costing £70.000. : 
with a £1.5 million lead roof. 

Mr Phillips said one de- > 
fence argument would be foal ‘ 
the trustees brought their: 
claim too long after damage 
first appeared. 


‘As rich and deep and dark and 
luminous and wis e as the forest 
world she so 

— Andre Brink 




Heads seek 
tough line 
on drug abuse 
in classroom 

By Lucy Hodges, Education Correspondent 


The “softly softly" ap- 
proach to drug abuse among 
the young was rejected yes- 
terday by head teachers in 
England and Wales who 
called, for a hard-hitting 
campaign to stop primary 
mid secondary school chil- 
dren experimenting with 
drugs, solvents and alcohol. 

Children found pushing 
drugs or in possession of 
dlegal substances at schools 
should be suspended, and the 
illegal substances should be 
confiscated and handed to 
• the police, the National 
Association of Head Teachers 
said at the launch of a 
memorandum on alcohoL 
drug and solvent abuse. 

L Th e document, which has 
been sent to an 24,500 
NAHT members, said; “For 
schools not to recognize the 
problem or believe it cannot 
exist among their own pupils 
is naive, for the problem is 
not exclusive to any one 
geographic region or any one 
social dass”. 

. . There has been an es- 
timated 28 per cent increase 
m the number of newly 
registered addicts, and heads 
cited cases of children sniff- 
rag glue and correcting fluid, 
taking slimming drugs for 
sports, and smoking heroin. 

The association recom- 
mended that parents should 
be contacted immediately a 
child is found in possession 
of controlled drugs, such as 
heroin, cocaine, cannabis or 

The head should suspend 
the pupil and call in the 
police so that the suppliers 
can be identified. If the police 
ask for the names of the 

children involved, head 
teachers must supply them, 
but otherwise the NAHT 
recommends that names are 
not given. 

Mr Derek Best, the 
association's president, said 
that virtually all secondary 
school youngsters were fully 
aware of the drugs scene, and 
knew the language and drugs 
available. But 9, 10 and 11- 
year-olds were increasingly 
being drawn in. 

He said every local educa- 
tion authority should draw 
up a policy to ensure there is 
off-the-job training for teach- 
ers and a system of referral 
for schools so that heads 
know where to turn. 

Every child who turned to 
solvents or drugs needed 
sympathy and help rather 
than chastisement, the 
NAHT memorandum said. 
“The temptation to pupils in 
our schools is enormous and 
teachers should be aware of 
these facts. Heads should be 
discussing with their- staffs 
what contribution they need 
to make within the curricu- 
lum of the school in order to 
alert pupils to the dangers, 
and take preventative 

The headteachers were 
scathing about what they 
called the Home Office's 
“softly softly" approach to 
the problem, and said there 
needed to be an explicit and 
aggressive publicity campaign 
similar the anti-smoking and 
anti-drinking campaigns. 

Schools should agree a 
statement of policy with the 
governors, and there should 
be up-to-date materials, 
including Alms and video 
tapes, for teacher education. 

Burning cargo ship beached on sandbank 

The Libyan freighter Ebn 
Mogul was towed out of 
Portland naval base yesterday 
and flooded with water jets 
from 10 vessels after a fire 
burning in its bolds for more 
than 40 hours got out of 
controL It sank ia shallow 
water over a sandbank. 

Part of a cargo of dan- 
gerous chemicals, ethanol and 
butanol, were still on board 
but the Dorset fire brigade 

said the danger that they 
might explode was slight. 
The chemicals give off toxic 
fames if bumed.The captain 
remained on board. 

The 7,500-ton freighter 
sent out a distress signal 21 
miles south-west of Portland 
at 5.15 pm on Tuesday after 
fire brake out in a consign- 
ment of animal feed cake its 
No 3 bold amidships. The 
destroyer HMS Manchester 

and the German frigate 
Niedersacbsen escorted it to 
the harbour where, on fire 
officers' advice, it docked 
shortly after midnight 
Firemen from all over 
Dorset, naval ratings and 
civilians from the base 
worked frantically in relays to 
dear the decks of 13-ton 
containers, cars and trucks in 
order to open the hatches. 
Then they struggled to unload 

55-gallon drams of chi 
from the No 1 hoM\whi!e 
firemen in breathing 
rates tried to fight the use m 
No 3. 

But by Thursday 
the fire had spread out 
controL 'At 6.45 am the 
man Libyan crew were evac-\ 
uated and, “blazing from end 
to end" the ship was towed by 
Royal Navy tegs 300 metres 
out into Portland Harbour. 

There it was beached and 
doused with jets from 
firefighting vessels, togs and 
other Iwsats, the brigade said. 

The Royal Navy said: “We 
expect the ship to sink a few 
feet into the water and 
founder and hopefully the 
flames will be doused". 

The crew were being 
and fed at HMS 
irey. the base's onshore 
recreation centre. 

Now the boss is a temp, too 

A new breed of “executive 
temp" will be a regular 
visitor in British boardrooms 
and offices in a move 
announced by the Confedera- 
tion of British Industry yes- 

He is highly specialized, 
probably in the middle of bis 
career, and extremely well 

The professional trouble- 
shooter joins a company for 
anything from five weeks to 

Killer acted in a 
replay of crime 

A man. who took part in a 
police reconstruction of his 
crime, was given three life 
sentences at the Central 
Criminal Court yesterday. 
Stephen Doyle posed as an 
innocent passer by when he 
helped detectives to -replay 
the last minutes in the lift of 
Gtennys Coe. aged 27. a 
betting shop manageress he 
had raped and strangled. 
x Seven months later Doyle. 
* aged 24, confessed when he 
was arrested after the rape of 
a girl aged 16, Mr Anthony 
Hacking, QC. for the 
prosecution, said. 

As Doyle, a ceiling fixer, of 
Boult Road. Laindon. Basil- 
don. Essex, was led away, his 
rider sister Donna, who 
listened to the case, wept and 
said; '‘He should be hanged". 

In 1979 Doyle was jailed 
for four years for stabbing 
Donna 18 times when she 
ought him rifling the gas 

He admitted murdering 
Miss Coe and raping her in 
the car park at Guildford 
, Railway Station on August 
.'0. 1984, and raping the 
schoolgirl on March 1 lost 
>car in Laindon. 

Mr Justice Webster 
decribed Doyle as a “danger 
to the public" and said two 
consultant psychiatrists had 
examined him and found 
nothing mentally wrong. 

Doyle, bespectacled and 
flanked by four prison offi- 
cers, was told by the judge 
that his offences were “quite 
horrifying" and he exhibited 
“a high degree of 

Mr Hacking said Doyle 
probably attacked Miss Coe 
because she surprised him 
late at night as he broke into 
a Jaguar car. He intended 
stealing the vehicle for a 

Miss Coe lived opposite 
the station car park and was 
taking her sheepdog Tara for 
a walk when Doyle grabbed 
her. At the time Doyle was 
living at a Guildford hotel 
and working on a contract 
redecorating a shop. Police 
interviewed him in connec- 
tion with the killing and he 
“hoodwinked” them by mak- 
ing a false statement of his 
movements. Mr Hacking 

Charges lifted 
against riot 

By Crajg Seton 
4 freelance journalist 
who claimed he was beaten 
b> police while working for 
/««• Times Educational 
Siipplauctu during the 
Handswonh riot^ was 
awarded £1,000 costs yes- 
terday when a charge of 
threatening behaviour was 
dropped at Birmingham 
Magistrates' Court. 

„, Mr Howard Shantm, aged 
or King’s Heath. Bir- 
mingham. had been told to 
photograph headteachers. He 
was knocked over and 
stampeded by youths who 
had been stoning police. Mr 
la ”_} oung. his solicitor, said. 

“The disturbing aspect is 
that he was assaulted with 
truncheons while offering no 
evidence and was arrested 
after others told the police 
that he was a bona fide 
journalist covering the rioL" 
Mr Sharron said he would 
sue over the incident 

Health expert 
denies salt 
is bad for you 

Government-backed guide- 
lines for reducing salt 
consumption are “based on 
erroneous judgements”, a 
leading expert in hyper- 
tension said yesterday. 

The guidelines were con- 
tained in a report published 
lost year, but its conclusions 
were based on references 
which, on scrutiny, proved 
irrelevant and drawn from 
unreliable data. Professor 
John Swales, of Leicester 
Royal Infirmary, said. 

The report by the National 
Advisory Committee for Nu- 
tritional Education (NACNE) 
concluded that reducing salt 
intake would kmer blood 
pressure and could do no 
harm, assumptions not sup- 
ported by Professor Swales. 

“Severe salt restriction 
could reduce the capacity to 
survive bleeding from trauma, 
surgery or accidents, for 
example", be said. 

to women 

Women were yesterday 
given a warning that heart 
disease can kill them just as 
surely as it kills men. 

Professor John Catford. 
head of Britain's first Depart- 
ment of Health Education 
and Promotion at the 
University of Wales in Car- 
diff said more than 70,000 
women died every year from 
coronary heart disease in the 

Professor Catford said in 
Boston during a study tour 
that while young men were 
more prone to heart disease 
than young women, the 
overall number of deaths 
from heart disease was only a 
little lower in women than in 

Professor Catford said a 3 
per cent rise in heart disease 
rate among women might be 
the result of increased smok- 
ing and less physical exercise. 
“It is much easier for a man 
to go jogging than ft is for a 

Murder and 
rape trial 

A man accused of murder- 
ing Jacqueline Murray, a 
prostitute, in Park Lane, 
London, Iasi November, was 
yesterday sent for trial at the 
Central Criminal Court on 13 
counts, including four of 

Seven new charges of 
robbery, stealing cars and 
having a firearm with intent 
to endanger life were added 
when the man. aged 22. 
appeared at Bow Street 
Magistrates' Court. 

School survey 
on vandalism 

Thousands of school- 
children in the North-east 
will contribute to a survey on 
school vandalism and theft, 
which cost £360,000 in New- 
castle upon Tyne last year. 

The North-east Regional 
Schools Security Group, 
consisting of officials from 
schools, police and fire 
brigades, has prepared a ques- 
tionnaire for students, aged 
five to 18. who will not have 
to reveal their identities. 

Aviemore centre in £lm sale deal 

The Aviemore Centre, the 
tourist and leisure camples: in 
the Scottish Highlands which 
was losing £500.000 a year, is 
to be sold soon by the House 
of Fraser to the Reo Stalds 
organization in a £1 minion 

The centre was opened 20 
years ago .and comprises 
chalet motels, an ice rink, a 
swimming pooL discotheques, 
a night dab and a conference 
centre on a 100-acre site. Bat 
h was regarded as too down- 
market . If the deal is agreed 
the Stakis organization is 
likely to aim. for a more 
exclusive clientele. 

The Glasgow-based com- 

By Ronald Faux 

pany is (me of the largest 
hotel restaurant and casino 
chains in Britain. It has a 
large investment in the 
Speyside area and success- 
fully runs the Coylum bridge 
Hotel near Aviemore. Re- 
cently the company brought 
the Stathspey Hotel within 
the Aviemore Centre, for 

With the summer attrac- 
tions of the Spey valley and 
the eximnding ski industry on 
Cairngorm the belief is that 
Aviemore has great potential 
as an year-round resortgiven 
proper marketing 

The centre was the brain- 
child of the late Lord Fraser 

of AUeader who lead the 
attempt to establish an all- 
season resort in the high- 
lands. He was one of the 
original partners and the 
architect for the scheme was 
Mr John Poulson. It was 
taken over by the Honse of 
Fraser and while the Spey 
valley ■ prospered and the 
centre became internationally 
well known it was never able 
to generate the revenue that 
had been hoped for. Three 
years ago the centre was 
offered on the market for £3 
million which was considered 

unrealistically high. Recently 
the 240-strong workforce was 
cut by a third - 

two years, either to master- 
mind a particular project or 
solve a crisis. 

From next week the CBf 
will act as a “temp agency" 
putting companies in touch 
with temporal^ executives 
tailored to their needs. 

The scheme is being run 
jointly with Inbucon, the 
management consultants, 
which operates an expanding 
pool of about 600 specialists, 
including managing directors, 
sales managers and technolo- 

gists. They will supply the 
executive temps through the 

Speaking at a press con- 
ference in London, Mr Rich- 
ard Price, employment affairs 
director of the CBL said: “As 
a result of this service, 
companies and parts of 
companies will be better run. 
more efficient, and will reach 
out further, because there will 
be the right guy at the right 
time at the right cost to keep 
the business going.” 

GLC loses m Lords 

Three Law Lords led by 
Lord Bridge of Harwich 
yesterday refused the GLC 
and four London boroughs 
leave to appeal to the Lords 
from rulings that they are not 
entitled to cross-examine wit- 
nesses or make submissions 
at a forthcoming inquiry into 
plans to close Marytebone 

The High Court and the 
Court of Appeal ruled there 
had been no procedural 
impropriety by- the London 

Regional Passengers Commit- 
tee, which is holding the 
inquiry;in refusing them that 

righL \ 

They said natural justice 
did not require the commit- 
tee to permit cross-examina- 
tion of all witnesses, although 
it may be\penniited on 
particular top: 

The Law Lords ordered the 
GLC and Bitnt, Ealing, 
Harrow and Hfljingdon to 
pay the hearing's^ costs. 

courts on 

. By Gifford Webb 

Motoring Correspondent 

Motorists found guilty of 
identical traffic offences in 
Buckinghamshire. West Sus- 
sex and Berkshire can expect 
much heavier fines than in 
any other part of England 
and Wales. On the other 
hand, magistrates in Cum- 
bria. West Glamorgan and 
Tyne and Wear are the most 

Similar inconsistencies in 
the number of penalty points 
awarded and the time taken 
for cases to reach court were 
revealed yesterday after an 
investigation of nearly 8,000 
court cases involving mem- 
bers of the Automobile 

Mr Olaf Lambert, the AA's 
director general, said: “The 
wide variations in the way 
motorists are being dealt with 
by our courts is so surprising 
that we have drawn our 
initial findings to the atten- 
tion of the Home Office. 

The toughest magistrates in 
careless driving cases were 
West Sussex, outer London 
and Bedfordshire where fines 
averaged over £72. That 
compared with under £50 in 
ihe most lenient counties of 
Hereford and Worcester, 
Kent and Merseyside. 

Other examples of careless 
driving fines were Devon. 
£55, Greater Manchester £54, 
Inner London £53, Oxford-, 
shire £60, Lancashire £62 
Surrey £64, and West York-, 
shire £58. 

Penally points awarded 
under the “lotting-tip” proce- 
dure leading to disqualifica- 
tion when they reach 12 were 
equally disparate. Bedford- 
shire courts imposed four or 
even five points in 57 per 
cent of careless driving cases. 
On the other hand, only 7 per 
cent of offenders in Kent and 
9 per cent in Lancashire 
could expect so many points. 


Base Rates are a bit like 
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70 times at the last count. 

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locked into a fixed rate of 

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variable interest rates. 

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fixed rate loan. Or vice versa. 

The loan can cover any 
amount from £2,000 to 

And any period of time, 
up to 20 years if need be. You 
can make repayments either 
monthly or quarterly. 


And it’s even possible 
to postpone the initial repay- 
ment for up to 24 months. 

But don’t postpone 
your application if capital 
expenditure is involved. 

Because after 31 March, 

the rate of tax allowance is 
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Jam Jin nor a bii-mos eu-mmer of Uoviii 
Bank at branch. 


L iwleJ 


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• •/ \V 




IAM&A8V: .30 i 1986- 

Prime Minister in 
clash over Brittan 


Mrs Marytaret Thatcher, the 
PriitK Minister, clashed with 
Simon Hughes (Southwark and 
Bermondsey. JL) over whether 
Department of Trade and 
Industry officials should give 
evidence to the Commons 
defence select committee oyer 
the Westland affair. 

During question time Mr 
Hughes said that, like un- 
employment. the feeling of the 
counliy on the credibility of 
the Prime Minister had reached 
an all-time high with 56 per 
cent of people not believing her 
explanation given durirg the 
debate on the Westland affair 
on Monday. 

Could she tell us (he said) if 
she or her office were consulted 
about the decision to prohibit 
three senior officials of the 
Department of Trade and 
Industry from giving evidence 
to the defence select commit- 

If she authorized that pro- 
hibition. does she intend to 
make sure that no civil 
servants speak to officers and 
members of this House? 

Will she cover up for what 
she has done, or will she let her 
civil servants lell the troth 
even if she cannot? 

Mr Thatcher I set out in 
my own speech on Monday the 
full circumstances. (Labour 
cries of -No!**) I pointed out 
that the accuracy of the 
statement was checked with all 

That is what Mr Hughes 
does not like and cannot get 
over. Of course, the Govern- 
ment wishes to co-operate with 
select committees. 

Those officials who advise 
on policy (she continued) and 
are. therefore, in a position to 
help the defence select 
committee's work on the de- 
fence implications of the West- 
land affair, have cooperated 
fully and will continue to do 

The committee's request for 
private secretaries and personal 
siatT to give evidence has major 
implications for the conduct of 
the Government and for rela- 
tions between ministers and 
their private offices, which will 
need to be thought about 

Mrs Thatcher added: We 
shall be in touch with the 
committee and shall, of course, 
give any requests proper 
consideration. Maybe Labour 
MPs will re member the time 
when the Chancellor of the 
Duchy of Lancaster under a 
Labour government refused to 
appear before a select commit- 

Mr David SteeL leader of the 
Liberal party, said the answer 
the Prime Minister had given 
to Mr. Hughes had serious 
implications for the conduct of 
business in the House. 

She would recall that in her 
two statements she bad laid 
great stress on the future 
inquiries by the defence select 
committee. Mrs Thatcher had 
no right to place any fetter on 
anyone who wished to attend. 

Mrs Thatcher: of course the 
government want to co-operate 
with the select committee. 
Those officials who advise on 
policy and are therefore in a 
position to help the defence 
select committee’s work on the 
defence implications of the 
Westland affair have co-op- 
erated folly and will continue 
to do so. 

Civil servants are either 
responsible to their ministers 

on policy or to the Head of tile 
Civil Service. / 

Mr Robin MaxweU-Hy&P 
(Tiverton O said that when die 
Prime Minister was toiling 
into precedents on ' -elect 
rommioees, ministers and of- 
ficials. she should refresh her 
nemory at the cuTnjpftances 
n which the then 1 Attorney 
General, Mr SamjS&kin, re- 
used to appear befo* a trade 
md industry comm-ttee looki- 
ng into the recovery i 
oil owing the crash of 
rhat was an interesting 

Mrs UmAe I do not have 
details of thaf one but I have 
details of &bat occurred in 
June 1976 when the then 
Chancellor' of the Duchy of 
Lancaster had received an 
invhatuui from the trade and 
iiKlustry committee to attend 
and gj& evidence on public 
Sane on Chrysler, 
on to say that the 
tary of State for 
Trade ami Industry, who had 
ministerial responsibility 
for this, was to give evidence 
J behalf of the whole govem- 
and so be would decline 
give evidence before that 
eomimttee. - 

Hughes: Was Mr 

A total of 5.000 British 
servicemen and women would 
take port in Operation Saif 
Sareea in Oman later this year, ,■ 

■ Mr John Stanley. Minister of ' 

. Stale for the Aimed Forces, 

disclosed when opening the 
debate in the Commons on the 
Army. This would make it the 
‘ largest out-of-area exercise for 
many years and should prove 
’ of great value. 

He gave details of improve- 
ments to the Army's equip- 
. menu emphasizing that there 
had been no let-up in the 
modernization of nudear and 
conventional forces by Warsaw 
; Pact countries on the western 
,* fronL 

Tunning to terrorism he said 

■ it had increasingly assumed an 
; international dimension and in 
1 Northern Ireland took on a 

most sophisticated form.' Last 

• year 522 charges were brought 
! relating to terrorism; 227 weap- 

• ons were found: and nearly 
; seven tonnes of explosives 
i discovered. 

He praised the work of bomb 
, disposal and search teams in 
. saving lives, property, and jobs 

• from destruction. They had 

■ dealt with over 200 devices, 
one of which contained 1,600 

• lbs of explosives. 

Mr DenzO Davies, chief Oppo- 
sition spokesman on _ defence 
(and disannanent, said there 
would inevitably be a decline 
in the total defence budget and 
there was a great danger of cuts 
falling on the Anny. The 
Government might well find 
itself in the ridiculous position 
of cutting front line defence 
and expenditure on weapons of 
first resort while spending vast 
amounts on Trident which was 
described as a weapon of last 

The Labour Party would get 
rid of Trident and, by doing so, 
believed it would be possible to 
maintain conventional defence 
spending. Labour would also 
main the British Army of the 
Rhine. . . _ 

The Ministry of Defence had 
not shown much haste in 
deciding what kind of heli- 
copters it wanted for the Army 
and other Services. Was the 
matter being studied at all? 

The Army needed two or 
three different kinds of heli- 
copter. some to blow up tanks 
and others to carry troups and 
heavy equipment This govern- 
ment had failed to have a 
proper policy in relation to the 
kind of helicopters the Services 

The government lacked an 
industry policy or did not. 

know whether it wanted one. If 
it had such a proper industry 
policy the Westland problem 
would not have arisen in the 
way it did. 

Labour had ex p res se d the 
support for foe European 
-package not because of any 
rabid anb- Americanism but 
because there was a real 
problem for Britain’s defence 
industries. Britain's industrial 
base could probably be better 
protected by having some 
colaborative projects with 
European countries instead of 
risking being gobbled up by foe 
United States. 

One of these days the 
government wifi have to decide 
bow it is going to afford all the 
different roles. 

The only logical way was to 
cancel Trident and concentrate 
on conventional defence. 

Sir Anthony Bade (Colchester 
North,C) said that what was 
needed now in defence was a 
period of quietude. They were 
at the end of the automatic 
increase of 3 per cent in real 
terms - foe Naio committment 
which the government had 
honoured to foe full. There 
would be a fight for limited 
resoures and they looked to the 
new Defence Secretary to 
ensure that this was kept 
within reasonable bounds. 

The time bomb ticking away 


An Alliance motion expressing 
concern about recent cuts in 
rate support grant to rural areas 
would lead to unacceptable rate 
increases and endorsing NFU 
warnings about the collapse of 
British farm income was re- 
jected in the Commons on 
Wednesday night by 262 votes 
to 146 - Government majority, 

A Government amendment 
welcoming various Govern- 
ment measures designed to 

check the decline in rural bus 
services, initiative on conserva- 
tion and the. rural economy, 
was agreed to. 

Mr David Penbaligon 
(Truro, L) said the lobby at the 
House by tin miners that day 
typified the problems faring 
rural areas. These areas were 
green and pleasant lands with 
some picturesque cottages. But 
there was high unemployment 
and low pay which in turn 
created housing problems. The 
time bomb ticking away in 
rural communities was the 
massive erosion of fanning. 

Small cottage hospitals were 
being closed and there was only 
a semblance of transport ser- 
vices in some rural areas. 

Mr Angela Rnmbotd, Under 
Secretary of State for Environ- 
ment. said foe rale support 
grant settlement was a recog- 
nition of the undoubted needs 
of inner cities but involved a 
shift of only 2 per cent overall 
m the grant paid to shire areas. 
Any reduction was unwelcome 
but she did not agree that in 
consequence the dire predic- 
tions that Mr Penhaligon had 
made would ensue. 


hionist MPs stage walkout 

.Newly re-elected Ulster 
Unionist MPs walked out of 
foe Comm ons at the start of 
foe first question time on 
Northern Ireland since foe 15 
by-elections in the Province: 

Mr Martin Flannery (Shef- 
field Hillsborough, Lab) re- 
acted to their action by saying; 
Do, not foe antics of the 
Unionists in coining in and 
walking out and acting as they 
are mean they have bad then* 
own way for so long that when 
it comes to arguing their 
they suddenly refuse to discuss 
it with us? 

They fed themselves in a 
defensive 'and weak position 
and events have overtaken 

Mr Toot King, Secretary of 
State for Northern Ireland: i do 
not underestimate the strength 
of feeling in tire Province and 
the genuine concern Unionists 
have about iL That is more 
son for recognizing foe 

importance of discussions and 
talking about that situation. 
Simply nothing will be 
achieved by abstention and 
absenting themselves. Par- 
liament is here and this is foe 
role of Parliament and I hope 
sensible discussions can take 

Earlier. Mr Xan Gaw (East- 
bourne. C) said if the Govern- 
ment bad believed foe Anglo- 
Irish agreement would have 
been opposed deeply by foe 
minority community in Nortb- 
. era Ireland it would never have 
been entered into. Why then 
was it tight to proceed with it 
when the Government knew it 
was deeply opposed by foe 

_ I am aware and 
have never' concealed that there 
is great concern among foe 
majority community, some of 
whom are instinctively op- 
posed to any closer cooperation 

with foe Government of the 

Irish Republic It will be our 
determination to make sure 
there is a better understanding 
of foe benefits the agreement 
can bring. Benefits can come 
from closer cross-border co- 

operation and there were 
significant changes in the 
Nationalist vote m foe recent 

Mr Mertyn Rees (Leeds 
South and Morley, Lab): l£ 
despite foe Government’s at- 
tempts and m the fight of the 
election results which were 
geared to the November agree- 
ment. the majority of the 
people in Ulster were deter- 
mined to go for independence, 
what would the Government 

Mr King: The whole House 
would recognize -what a most 
unfortunate course that would 
be. We remain willing, ready 
and anxious to talk to repre- 
sentatives of foe majority 
community. They cannot com- 
plain about lack of consultation 
when they refuse to enter into 
any dialogue whatsoever. 

Mr Jeremy Hayes (Harlow. 
Qr ls be not encouraged by the 
opinion polls which seem to * 
indicate that most people in 
foe Province now do not accept ' 
that the way forward is non- 
cope nation cither actively or 



will only be damaging* to the 
economy and future of the 
Province. Increasingly, sensible 
opinion among the majority 
community recognizes the 
necessity for talks and dis- 
cussions to see if a way throi 
can be found. What would 
inexcusable in foe present 
situation is a refusal even to 

Mr David Winnick (Walsall 
North, Lab): Instead of walking 
out would it not be wiser for 
the Unionists to recognize that 
foe Anglo-Irish agreement is 
going to be maintained and It 
is the responsibility of the 
Government to demonstrate 
this is going -to be the position? 

Mr King I wish to accord to 
the Unionist members of this 
Parliament the respect due to 
Members of this House but if 
they are not here it is difficult 
to do so. 

I find it difficult to under- 
stand a position of standing for 
election for foe Parliament of 
the United Kingdom and then 
de clining to play your part in 

Thatcher hacks 
Times move 
to Wapping 


Mr Margaret Thatcher, the 
Prime Minister, said m the 
Commons she wished Mr. 
Rupert Murdoch's newspapers 
in their efforts to print on 
tiie latest equipment. 

She made this statement 
luring questions in reply to Mr 
Peter Tfanraham (Bolton North 
East, O who bad asked her 
utterly to condemn the futile 
and illegal attempts of the TUC 
to stop publication of Mr. 
Murdoch's newspapers. 

She said everyone was en- 
titled to take full advantage of 
the law, including the trade 

Sir Edward Gardner (Fykfe, 
Cy. The Labour leader's boy- 
cott of all journalists is 

Mr Thatcher: 1 agree with 


Mr George Gardiner 
(Reigate, Cy Will she make 
arrangements to transport the 
Leader of the Opposition and 
his entire front bench to join 
the picket line at Wapping to 
thereby ensure every worker 
crosses the picket line? 

Mrs Thatcher: That is an 
excellent question. 

Mr Eric Heffer (Liverpool, 
Walton, Lab): On this day, 
when the highest levels of 
unemployment ever known 
have been recorded due to this 
Government’s policies, it wfll 
not go unnoticed by the people 
of this country that, when the 
printers unions have taken a 
stance to protect jobs - with 
6,000 more jobs at stake - that 
the Conservative benches 
cheered to echo the man 
Murdoch and foe anti-trade 
union legislation fully brought 
into operation and supported 
by the Prime Minister m order 
to create more unemployment 
and not less. That is foe truth 
of foe situation. 

Mr Thatcher I totally reject 
what be has said. Industry 
under the policies of this 
Government has been able to 
become thoroughly compet- 
itive. If not, we should nave 
lost whole industries and the 
unemployment position would 
have been infinitely worse. 

Restrictive practices and 
over-manning do not save jobs 
lead to the loss of 
itdy more jobs in the end. 

The derision by the Labour 
Party and TUC to boycott 
News International journalists 
was foe subject of further 
questions to Mr John Biffea, 
Lord Privy Seal and Leader of 
the House, following his 
announcement of Commons 
business for next week. 

Mr Hany Greenway (Ealing 
North, O asked if he would 
arrange an early debate on the 
freedom of the press, particu- 
larly taking into account the 
attituce enrrens to it by the 
Labour Party and the TUC 
Mr Biffea : He sets out a very 
attractive proposition for the 
use of Government time. The 
problem at present is that there 
is very little Government time 
available for these various 
debates, but I will continue to 
bear these matters in mind. 
Mr Tony Baldly (Banbjry,C) 
asked if Mr Biflen would give 
the Opposition time to explain 
why foe Labour Party wished 
to ban contact with Tne Times 
and The Sun. Did that not 
indicate what life would be like 
under a future Labour govern- 
ment, he added. Mr Biflen: I 
quite understand, but he is 
asking me to make time 
available when it is already 
available. There is an Oppo- 
sition day next week, and we 
will judge how they wish to use 

Mr Hairy Ewing (Falkirk 
EasfrLab) asked during ques- 
tions about Commons business 
for next week whether either of 
the two members of the 
Cabinet who recently resdigned 
bad been able to retain 
ministerial sir and drivers. 

If this is foe case (he went 
on), could the Leader of the 
House, arrange for the respon- 
sible minister to come here 
next week and make 8 state- 
ment indicating under what 
circumstances this is taking 
place and who is paying? 

Mr Biflac If he would like to 
write to me setting out the 
situation, I will have the 
matteriooked at 

Plea to Ireland 

It was a matter of the 
greatest importance and of 
considerable urgency that the 
Irish Government should ac- 
cede to the European conven- 
tion on the suppression of 
terrorism, Mr Tom King. 
Secretary of State for Northern 
Ireland, said 

Milk ban reversed 

The Government ins re- 
versed its ban on the sale of 
untreated or “green top” nritk 
in order to encourage tourism, 
Mr John Gammer, Minister of 
State for Agriculture, an- 
nounced in a Commons writ- 
ten answer. 

Visitors to farms would be 
able to buy untreated milk 
aga i n by the summer provided 
the farmer is registered and 
tells them what they are 

Mr Gammer said: I have 

been struck during my visits to 
farms, particularly in the West 
Country, that many tourists 
want to drink untreated milk 
during farm holidays. They 
must be tokl what they are 
drinking but it seems wholly 
unreasonable to make it impos- 
sible to drink farm milk with 
-the family when - you are 
staying on a farm. 

We are, however, insistent 
that people must know when 
green top milk is sold or 

PM disappointed 
with jobless total 

ETS 1 


The Prime Minister admit- 
ted during Commons questions 
that after several months of 

falling nnemploymenL the un- 
employment figures just pub- 
lished were deeply 
disappointing. But she felt foe 
figures did not necessarily 
indicate that unemployment 
was rising again. 

Mr Nefl Kuusock, Leader of 
the Opposition, bad said that 
unemployment today had 
reached 3.4 million, the highest 
figure ever. When unemploy- 
ment was at 1. 1 million in 
1979 foe Prime Minister had 
confidently promised that she 
would reduce iL 

Will she (he asked) give the 
same promise now? 

Mrs Thatcher; I am the first 
to admit that afto* several 
months of falling unemploy- 
ment. the unemployment fig- 
ures published are deeply 

But just as we do not claim 
last year’s figures were not a 
reverse of the trend when they 
were better, so it is too early to 
say foal two months figures 
indicate that unemployment is 
rising again. The number of 

ile in work has increased 
700,000 since March 1983. 
Mr Khmorlr She must know 
that her claim about 700.000 is 
invalid. Even the Bank of 
England system of calculations 
demonstrates that the number 
of jobs in terms of fiifi-time 
equivalents has fallen. 

Is not the truth that the 
Prime Minister does not know 
bow to get unemployment 
down, and does not care about 
it If kite did she . would not 
allow it to go on and on all foe 

Mrs Thatcher; We shall only 
create more wealth and, there- 
fore, more jobs, by creating 
more work to sell compet- 
itively in the markets of foe 
world. That is foe only way. 

The best indication of the 
growth ofjobs is that given by 
the Department of 
Employments official count 
over three months. 

On the Bank's adjustment 
which refers to full-time 
equivalents ... (Labour 
interruptions) Yes (she went 
on) many of the jobs have been 
part-time, and what is wrong 
with that? 

The bank's adjustment based 
on the assumption about full- 
time employment equivalent is 
inevitably uncertain 

Today’s unemployment figures, 
the highest ever on record, 
warranted a full debate in 
Government time, and well 
before the budget, Mr Nefl 
Kinnock, Leader of the Oppo- 
sition, said during Commons 

Q uestions about next week’s 
om toons business. 

We know (he went on) that the 
Employment Secretary cannot 
speak in such a debate because 
he is in the House of Lords. 
Will such a debate take place, 
and win foe Prime Minister 
speak in it? 

Mr John Biflen, Lord Privy 
Seal and L e a d e r of foe House, 
said no provision was in 
prospect for a debate on 
unemployment in Government 

Mr Allan Roberts 
(Bootle, Lab) said everyone in 
the country would greet with 
disbelief Mr Biflcn’s statement 
that it was not the 
Government's duty to provide 
time for a debate on foe 

unemployment h had itself 

Youth unemployment in ar- 
eas like Merseyside was provid- 
ing the opportunity for 
teenagers to be easy prey to 

Air Biflen said it was hardly 
surprising there should be no 
provision for such a debate in 
Government time when foe 
House would shortly move into 
a period which would be 
dominated by foe Budget 

Mr Eric Heffer 
(Liverpool, Walton, Lab) said 
unemployment was a matter 
for the government of the day. 
Was this Government afraid to 
debate it because it had no 
answers to the question? 

Could not Mr Biflen re- 
consider his earlier answer so 
that foe House could bear what 
the Government proposed to 
do to bring down foe level of 
unemployment, the highest 
ever known in this country? 

Mr Biffea said be bad 
nothing to add to his reply 

Lead weights to go 

The Government will ban foe 
use of lead weights by anglers, 
because of foe damage done to 
swams. if a voluntary approach 
does not work. Lord 
Skdmersdale, foe Government 
spokesman, said during ques- 
tion time in the House of 

. Answering a question on 
progress on the protection of 
swans, he said: “The Govern- 
ment has declared its firm 
intention to take effective 
action to protect swans from 
poisoning by anglers’ lead 

The Government will bon 
the sale of most lead weights 
for angling from January 1 
1987 if the voluntary approach, 
supported by the angling 
organisations, has not proved 
successful by foe end of the 
current fishing season. 

In addition the Minister of 
Slate for Agriculture, Fisheries 
and Food and foe Secretary of 
State for Wales, have issued a 
model bye-law to water 
authorities so they can, if they 
wish, ban foe use of lead 
weights for fishing in their 

man for 

By Stephen Goodwin 
Political Staff 

Mr Roger Liddle, leader of 
the Alliance group on Lam- 
beth Council has been cho- 
sen to fight the forthcoming , 
Fulham by-election for the f- 
Social Democrats. 

The Alliance, hopes for a 
good showing in the former 
Conservative seat in what 
will be the first test of 
electoral opinion since the 
start of the Westland affair. 

Mr Liddle, aged 39, is a 
founder member of the SDP 
and contested the nearby 
VauxhaU constituency in the 
1983 General Election. He 
was chosen from a shortlist 
of seven prominent Social 
Democrats in a secret postal 
ballot of SDP and Liberal * 
constituency party members. 

Mr Liddle worked in the 
electricity supply industry 
before becoming special ad- 
viser to Mr William Rodgers 
when he was Labour’s Min- 
ister of Transport. He 
nowworks in the SDFs 
public policy centre, . on 
economic and social initia- 

IBA win 
in image 

Mr Norris McWhiner yes- 
terday lost a High Court fight 
to lake criminal proceedings 
against ihe Independent 
Broadcasting Authority, over 
the use of subliminal images 
on the satirical Spilling 
Image show. 

Mr McWhirter, aged 59. 
the editor of the Guinness 
Book of Records , complained 
of a “grotesque and ridiculing 
image of my face super- 
imposed on die top of the 
body of a naked woman" 

He said the quarter-second 
shot was not visible to foe 
ordinary viewer but exploited 
the subconscious mind. He 
claimed this was a criminal 
offence under the Broadcast- 
ing Act 1981. 

But Lord Justice Lloyd, 
sitting with Mr Justice Skin- 
ner in the Queens Bench 
Divisional - Court, said no 
criminal offence was- created 
by the Act, which did not 
prohibit the inclusion of 
subliminal images in terms, 
but a duty was imposed on 
the IBA to be satisfied that 
no such images were in- 

He quashed the summons 
taken out by Mr McWhirter 
at Horseferry Road 
Magistrates’ Court and 
prohibited all further 

The shot was seen by Mr 
McWhirter’s nephew, aged 
15, using a . freeze-frame 
button on a video recorder. 

Outside the court. Mr 
McWhirter, who is backed by 
the Freedom Association, 
said he planned to lake the 
matter to the House of Lords. 

Although the two judges 
refused him leave to appeal, 
and ordered him to pa> costs, 
he will go directly to ihe 
House. "It is a mutter of 
profound constnuiional im- 
portance. I think brainwash- 
ing and activities of this kind 
are something w-nch >fc >uld 
be suppressed an-j vmeihmg. 
as a private. ci:..Lr. I want 

“Subliminal messages are 
deceitful and I want them 
stopped. The) - are profoundly 
dangerous. When mv nephew 
saw it, he said. ’Look, there is 
Uncle Norris. - 1 have not yet 
met foe model mv face was 
superimposed on.' but you 
never know | mi^ht in the 

Clerical pay review 

Wage bill up to 40% lower 
in North and Midlands 

Companies based in Lon- 
don could slash up to 40 per 
cent off - their pay costs by 
moving to the North and 
Midlands, according to a 
survey published yesterday. 

Average salaries for sec- 
retaries in central London 
offices are now £7.900 a year, 
against £5.700 a year in 
Nottingham and Derby. Tele- 
phonists receive on average 
£6.900 a year in London, bul 
£4.775 in the Midlands. 

The Clerical and Operative 
Regard survey, published by 
Reward Regional Surveys, 
shows that clerical stall' in 
London are paid 30 per cent 
above the national average, 
while in Yorkshire the figure 
is 8 per cent oelow. ’Add to 
that the difference in prop- 
erty costs, and it is hard :o 
see why office-based compa- 
nies remain in the capital”, 
the survey says. 

Pay rose by 7.5 per cent 
last year for clerical and 
shop-floor workers, nearly 2 
per cent above the rate of 
inflation. With tax gains 

By Colin Hughes 

added in. ihe survey says, 
those in work are on average 
nearly 3 per cent better oil 

The increase in holiday 
time and cut in working 
hours have both begun to 
level out over the past year. 
A decade ago the average 
shop-floor worker was receiv- 
ing £1.25 an hour for a 45- 
hour week, but is now- 
receiving £3.31 an hour for 
39 hours. 

"In general there has been 
a steady reduction in clerical 
hours, bul the movement is 
one of steady attrition, rather 
than a dramatic change.” 

The survev. which covered 
25U.IKJU worker* in 612 
companies. lounJ that skilled 
«!:jp workers ha«c done 
better than most over the 
pest year, wim average pay 
increases of more than 9 per 
cent. The average clerical 
worker recei ves £1 1 1 a week, 
and factory workers receive 
an average £130, 

A separate survey pub- 
lished yesterday by Man- 
power Ltd predicted that 

nearly two million people 
will be working in temporary 
jobs this year. 

If the annual growth rate in 
temporary working continues 
at the pace of the last three 
years, about 11 per cent, 
around one in 12 of all 
working people will be tem- 
porary by foe end of this 

"This is more, even, than 
the increase in computer 
employment, often cited as 
the fastest growing sector," 
Mr Ken Davidson, 
Manpower's director of hu- 
man resources, said. 

Although one m three 
temporary workers are seek- 
ing permanent jobs. 27 per 
cent are pursuing temporary 
work as a permanent lifestyle. 
Manpower's study is based on 
figures contained in Temporary 
n'ork in Grcaj Britain. Labour 
Market Quarterly Report, pub- 
lished by ihe Manpower Ser- 
vices Commission in 
November last year. 

Clerical and Operative Re- 
wards, published by Reward 
Regional Surveys, I, Mill 
Street. Stone, Staffordshire. 

Nine face 

Scotland Yard has said that 
nine men are to be pros- 
ecuted for allegedly 
contravening the rules of the 
British Telecom shares flota- 

Sammonses for offences 
ranging from attempted crim- 
inal deception to conspiracy 
have been issued against the 

The summonses are return- 
able to Bow Street 
Magistrates' Court, London, 
in March. 

The prosecutions come af- 
ter an investigation by fraud 
squad officers from the 
Metropolitan and City of 
London forces after the £4 
billion privatization of Brit- 
ish Telecom in November 

Share applications to foe 
public were limited to 800 a 
person as part of the 
Government's campaign to 
encourage small shareholders. 
Would-be investors were 
warned that they could be 
prosecuted if they submitted 
more than one application. 

Inquiries showed that 
many people Ignored the 
rules and made multiple 

Isabelle Attas and Christopher Burton, of London, setting 
off by tandem front Westminster Bridge yesterday on a 
round-the-world bike ride. They are raising money fiv the 
National Deaf Children's Society (Photograph: Bill 

Gloomy Budget 
for the Irish 

From Richard Ford, Dublin 

The Irish Government has 
heralded a year of austerity 
with a Budget aimed at 
improving the republic’s fi- 
nance. Smokers, drinkers and 
motorists were hit hard. 

Increases in VAT and 
excise duties mean that from 
March the cost of a pint of 
Guinness will be £1.16, a 
small whiskey 97p, a gallon 
of petrol £2.71 and 20 
cigarettes £1.63. 

In Wednesday’s budget, 
which Mr Alan Dukes, Min- 
ister for Finance, said was 
designed to avoid having an 
overall deflationary impact 
on the economy, the Govern- 
ment attempted to shift some 
of the burden of taxation 
from direct to indirect taxes. 

The standard 20 per cent 
VAT was increased by 2 per 

Mr Dukes abolished a 1 
per cent levy on ail income, 
widened the standard 35 per 
cent tax band to ease foe 
burden for middle income, 
earners and reduced the top 
tax rate from 60 lo 58 per 
cent to ease workers’ overall 
tax burden. 

Now- 1 -.000 people will no 
longer pay utx and 191,000 
will pay lower rate tax. He 
increased social welfare bene- 
fits by 5 per cent for the long 
term unemployed and 4 per 
cent for others. 

.kJV* budget statement, 

Mr Dukes estimated that the , 1 . 
inflation rate in 1986 would 
be 4.5 pe r cent and foe 
budget deficit 
Ir£I.2MJ million or 7.4 per 
cent of GNP with the overall 
exchequer borrower require- 
men! at Ii£2,00l million or 
11-8 per cent of GNP. . 

Mr Dukes said the slower 
fa® expected growth in the 
economy and in employment 
during 1985 meant the bud- 
get had to be one that would 
not depress the economy but 
it was necessary to reduce the 
deficit and tackle the black . p 

The budget was .received iii 

almost total silence by gov- 
ernment backbenchers who 
bad been warned that there 
would be little scope for 
"major reductions in taxation 
/which most observers accept 
will be the crucial issue in the 
next general election. 




•V- wukt. 

5 . 

Father of boy 
shot in bed 
is jailed for 

From Tim Jones, Swansea 

A man whose son, 
five, was accidentally shot 
dead during a police search 
was yesterday jailed for five 
, years for armed robbery. 

John Sh orthouse, a gwl 26, 
of Barrens Road, King’s 
Norton, Bir mingham had 
admitted robbing Mr Nor- 
man Aubrey of £180 and two 
cheques at his Old Moat 
Restaurant, Kidwelly, Dyfed. 
Phasing sentence at Swan- 
s Crown Court, Mr Justice 
r udor Price said he would 
ave jailed him for nine years 
at for the death of his son 
his guilty plea. 

Anthony Evans, QC, 
the defence, said 
house realized his son 
not have died had he 
been involved in the 
“He is never 
be able to forgive 
Two other gang members 
«ere also jailed. Stephen 
[Herbert, aged 28, of Walker’s 
■Heath Road, King's Norton 
f received four years after 
[admitting robbery and 
possessing a shotgun. 

I Jonathan Williams, aged 
35, of Firth Drive, YardJey 
Wood, Birmingham, bad de- 
nied the robbery and shotgun 

charges but was convicted on 
a majority verdict. He was 
jailed for 10 years. 

The three men, all with 
previous convictions, had 
expected “rich pickings” 
from the restaurant, the court 
heard, but Mr Aubrey, aged 
49, a former RAF squadron 
leader, had banked the 
takings the night before. 

Detectives showed pictures 

Of local Bir mingham suspects - 

to two schoolboys who saw 
the men mate their escape 
and they identified 
Shorthouse. The boys, Julian 
James and Martm Evans, 
were awarded £25 each by 
the court. 

Two days after the robbery, 
armed police visited 
Shortbouse's home looking 
for him. As they searched for 
the shotgun, a gun went off 
and little John Shorthouse 
died as he lay on a bed. 

After the incident, Mr 
Brian Chester, a West Mid- 
lands police officer, was 
suspended from duty and is 
to answer a summons at 
Birmingham Magistrates’ 
Court, where he will face a> 
charge of manslaughter. 

lies led 
to pig 

By Richard Evans 
A former is to receive 
£7,500 compensation from 
the Ministry of Agriculture 
after deliberate deceit and 
“unreasonable secretiveness” 
by its officials contributed to 
the death of more than 100 . 

n a highly critical report 
■published yesterday, Mr An- 
thony Barrowdough, the par- 
liamentary ombudsman, said 
the ministry acted in a high- 
handed manner and tied, 
causing the fanner “consid- 
erable personal upset - 
The ombudsman upheld 
the man’s complaint that the 
ministry had deliberately 
withheld information from 
him while investigating a 
suspected outbreak of 
Aujeszky’s disease on his 
farm, including tefliug a 
deliberate lie about results of 
tests on his animals. 

The disease is caused by a 
herpes virus and affects pigs. 
The fanner only found out 
unofficially that all but two 
of his herd had been cleared. 

As a result the former, 
mistakenly thinking his 
herd was soon to be de- 
stroyed, stopped feeding the 
jugs specially treated food to 
prevent stomach disorders. 
Two weeks later a dysentry 
outbreak resulted in the 
’death of 106 pigs. 

The ministry has formally 4 
apologized to the former. 

An RSPCA marksman (right) preparing to shoot a badlj 
ofled swan after vandals discharged 2,000 gallons of 
Into the River Tweed at Berwick. At least 60 swans 
beyond saving and destroyed. 

.. . - \Y. ■■■*■■! 

Demand for more spending on mains repairs 

By Hugh Clayton 
Environment Correspondent 
Mach more spending will 
be needed on old water mains 
to avoid arises such as the 
recent tamst hi Leeds, leading 
water researchers said yes- 

Mr Peter Lofthonse, chair- 
man of the Sewers and Mains 
committee of the Water 
Authorities Association, said 
that present spending of £60 
million a year on repairing 
mains was for too low. 

He was speaking at the 

start of a campaign by water 
authorities and the Water 
Research Cadre to find and 
repair corroded mams. Mr 
David Field, Director of 
Engineering at the centrefold 
that most cases of bad tastes 
and smells in water were 

caused by faults . la 
householders* plumbing. 

Bat die 100,000 complaints 
a year aboat low pressure and 
discoloured water from the 
taps usually resulted from 
corrosion in public mainn 





Kenny Dalglish, the Liver- 
pool manager and Scotland 
footballer, yesterday won un- 
disclosed libel damages in the 
High Court over a newspaper 
article, which linked him 
with an agent's activities in 
the transfer of players. 

By falsely stating that Mr 
Dalglish was one of the 
players involved with Mr 
Frank Boyd, doubt was cast 
on his suitability to hold a 
position of trust and 
responsibility, Mr Justice 
Leonard was told. 

It was also a grave 
reflection on his integrity. 

• Mr Richard Rampton, 
counsel for Mr Dalglish, said 
he was not employed by Mr 
QBoyd, had never been a 
director of Mr Boyd's com- 
pany, Media Star Manage- 

He sued. Mirror Group 
Newspapers complaining 
about the article in the 
Northern edition of the Daily 
Mirror in March, 1985. 

Mr Edward Gamier, coun- 
sel for the Mirror, said they 
never intended their article to 
cast any adverse reflection. 

The statements they made 
about him were based both 
,on information given to them 
by Mr Boyd and upon 
notepaper sent to them by 
Mr Boyd which erroneously 
recorded that Mr Dalglish 
was a director of one of Mr 
Boyd's companies. 

Housing is 
blamed for 
job losses 


Scotland's high proportion, 
of council housing has led to 
[unemployment and immobil- 
ity of labour, according to a. 
' .study published today .by 
Aims of Industry.the free 
enterprise organization. 

It has led to a vicious circle! 
in which subsidized low rent 
|‘ policies have increased the 
rate burden. “This has placed; 
an extra burden on business 

which has frequently led ta 
closure or relocation and h as, 
in turn, discouraged new: 
firms from moving in. In,' 
turn, even more people; 
became unemployed,” Rachel! 

' Tingle, the author, says. 


England is more than 00 pen 
cent, figures for Scotland 
show flat 37 per cent ofj 
homes were owner-occupied.. 
9 per cent privately rented, 
and 53 per cent council- 

The most serious problem 
associated with Scotland’s 
council housing was “the 
ensuing immobility of labour 
- and this has serious 
consequences for the whole 
Scottish economy. In a pe- 
riod of rapid economic 
- change, high labour mobility 
is essential if Scotland is to 
achieve the economic growth 
ami prosperity of which she 
is capable”. 

The study. Housing and 
Mobility in Scotland, calls for 
an acceleration in the sale of 
council bouses, encourage- 
ment for the refurbishment 
and sale of vandalized coun- 
cil property, and reform of 
the regulations for the private 
rented sector. 

1 Heather plant 
[move to heath 

' Hampstead Heath in west 
'London, the first area of 
common land preserved for 

t public since 1871, is to 
ergo a transplant opera- 
after the disbandment of 
Greater London 
ncil's conservation team. 
EAn acre of heather of the ling 
Variety, Calluna vulgaris, is 
to be transferred to the 
highland of Parliament Hill 
from the Forestry Commis- 
uon land in Surrey 

EEC told 
to act on 
cereal glut 

By John Young 

EEC form ministers most 
have the enrage to act now 
to avoid a crisis arising from 
the massive cereals surplns, 
Mr Michael Jopling, Min- 
ister of Agriculture, said 

Speaking at an inter- 
national seminar in Berlin, he 
said font, foiling, a new 
initiative of some kind, die 
expected growth in produc- 
tion had no chance id finding 
an outlet. 

Attempts to find new indus- 
trial uses for cereals or to 
expand traditional outlets 
were not enough to solve the 

There were two ways of 
tackling the situation: produc- 
tiou could be physically 
controlled, creating an enor 
moos structure of bnreaa- 
cratic interference and 
denying consumers the bene- 
fits of lower prices, or the the 
industry csdd be more ex- 
posed to market forces. 

“I hear the objection that 
this will lead to the collapse 
of an essential ingredient of 
ow society because of its 
effect on rural fife”, Mr 
Jopling continued. *T frankly 
do not believe that it is an 
essential element of any 
country’s fife to live by 
producing goods that nobody 
wants to boy.” 

There was abo a need to 
examine more critically the 
notion that a main aim of 
European agricultural policy 
should be to favour small 
scale fondly forms. 

New laws urged to 
save small farms 

Legislation may be nec- 
essary to protect the decline 
of small family forms in 
Britain which are the life- 
blood of the countryside, Sir 
Richard Buder, President of 
the National Farmers* Union 
said yesterday (the Press. 
Association reports). 

Special help is needed to 
enable small formers to face 
up to pressures on the 
industry, be said, and some 
areas may need EEC legisla- 
tion. That should deal with 
four areasamotas, payment, 
taxation and structures. 

|49% of clergy will vote 
Alliance, poll shows 

The image of the Church of 
bgland as the Tory Party at 
gayer suffers a further blow 
Kth the disclosure that 
marly half the church's dergy 
■end to vote Uberal/SDP 
Wiance at the next election. 
Jn a Gallup Poll of 
vrgymen published yes- 
■day, 49 per cent said they 
)ula vote Alliance, 24 per 
pt Conservative and 13 per 
pt Labour. 

She poll was conducted for 
jfe Archbishop of 
. ertrary’s Commission on 
Shan Priority Areas, whose 
tpon Faith in the City, was 
»ch criticized by Tory MPs. 
jn a sample of 402 dergy- 
cnen interviewed, 189 were m 
user city areas such as 

xmdon. Birmingham, and 
Jewrasde upon Tyne. 

Inner city clergy, the sur- 
er found. were more sat- 
ined with their ministry 
ban clergy in other areas, 
^ferriage breakdowns were 
top of the problems they had 
W deal with in their parishes. 

relations came bottom 
or the list 

- ***? reported an average 
Snowy attendance at their 
churefos of 1 19 and average 

giving a head of £1.60 a 

Evangelicals reported larger 
congregations than other 

Because they were on 
relatively low incomes they 
were more dependent than 
other professionals on work- 
ing wives. The poll showed 
that 22 per cent of clergy 
wives had full-time jobs and 
24 per cent part-time. 

Only 1 1 per cent of clergy 
listed personal problems of 
faith among their concerns. 

Inner city dergy listed feus 
of mugging, poor education 
for their children, vandalism, 
difficulty in leaving their 
house unoccupied, exhaus- 
tion and being outnumbered 
by people of other faiths and 
cultures among their con- 

But despite their problems. 
43% said they would 
encourage others “very 
strongly” to join the ordained 
ministry and 32% “quite 

Callup Survey of Church of 
England Clergymen (Church 
House Bookshop. Great Smith 
St. London SW1; C-95J. 



Unbureaucratically simple low-cost finance schemes are now available. 


! ; 
1 1 

■ -i 

' j 

.* — 

. jlVSw 




Court ruling threatens 
judge’s inquiry into 
Chile police methods 

From Lake Sagaris 
A decision by three judges 
of Chile's Supreme Court 
threatens to paralyse a ju- 
dicial investigation into the 
murders of three opposition 
leaders - which has created 
serious political problems for 
the military regime of Presi- 
dent Pinochet. 

In March last year the 
bodies of a teachers' union 
leader, a commercial artist 
and a worker in the Roman 
Catholic Chinch's h uman 
rights department were found 
in a field, virtually drained of 
blood with their throats 

Judge Jos6 C&novas's in- 
vestigation has already led to 
the closure of a special police 
department dedicated to 
“anti-subversive'' operations 
and the arrest of several high- 
ranking officers of the Cara- 
bineros police force. 

In August, a member of the 
military junta. General Cesar 
Mendoza of the Caribineros, 
was forced to resign as a 
result of Judge Canovas's 
findings. It caused bitter 
dispute in Chile's normally 
united armed forces. 

But early last week, less 
than a month aller 12 of the 
13 members of the Supreme 
Court had a friendly lunch 
with General Pinochet, three 
Supreme Court judges or- 
dered the release of two 
Carabineros colonels indicted 
by Judge Canovas. 

A Chilean journalist who 
specializes in the court sys- 
tem spoke for many when 

President Pinochet fears of 
influence over judiciary 
she concluded that “recent 
events confirm the evidence 
of the past 12 years: the 
judicial system does not 
function independently of the 

A veteran political ob- 
server, Senor Fernando 
Paulsen, went one step fur- 
ther the Supreme Court . 

decision, he -said, is part of Canovas was forced to order 
the Government's strategy to the release of the informer, 
remove a politically dan- Senor Miguel Estay (alias The 

modus operandi of Chile’s 
security services has become 
increasingly apparent 
A hitherto hidden but 
bitter rivalry between the 
uniformed Carabineros and 
the political police became 
public knowledge when the 
latter provided Judge 
Canovas with the names of 
Carabineros members in- 
volved in the killings. 

The Canovas. case, as it has 
become known, has also 
opened the way for other 
investigations which have 
revealed to Chileans what 
many people abroad already 
knew: detail of the military’s 
“dirty war” against oppo- 
nents since k took powet 
This .month he finally 
found and ordered the arrest 
of one of the most feared 
political police informers, a 
former member of the com- 
munist youth organization, 
whose detention and betrayal 
of his colleagues led to their 
disappearance and probable 
death in 197& 

But this week Judge 

The tail section of an Aero Californian DC3 aiiimer on a hillside near Los Mochis city in 
Mexico, where it crashed on Wednesday, tilling all 21 people on board. 

Nine more counts against Tan 

gerous situation from the 
public domain of the courts. 

From the start, the military 
Government denied any 
involvement in the Canovas 
case, classifying it as criminal 
rather than political. 

But, little by little, as Judge 
Canovas has unwound the 
tangled threads of contradic- 
tory police reports, witnesses’ 
testimony and circumstantial 
evidence, the structure and 

Ghost) after the Supreme 
Court made its decision.. 

. Unless^' the ruling is 're- 
versed, it will be very 
difficult for the judge finall y 
to bring the culprits to 
justice, even though it is 
widely believed that his 
thorough investigation, which 
remains confidential under 
Chilean law, reveals their 
names and details of the 

Singapore (AP) -The 
Malaysian financier and poli- 
tician, Mr Tan Kora Swan, 
was charged in corn! here 
with nine additional c oan ts of 
fraud and cheating involving 
the Pan-Elecfric Industries 
Ltd. conglomerate. 

Mr Tan, aged 45, was 
charged last Thursday with 
six counts of 
inal breach of trust 
to “dishonestly dispose” of 
54 minion Singapore dollars. 
($2 jS million ) worth of assets 
in tiie Pan-Electric group. 

Mr Tan has pleaded not 

guilty to aft the charges, bat 
be is free on bail of 4fi minion 
dollars ($184 rail- 
ills case is scheduled to 
be heard later this year. 

He now feces a total of 15 
-counts of fraud and deception, 
abetting criminal breach of 
trust and fraudulently 
manip ni q ffrig fh» stock mar- 
ket involving assets worth 
about $13.6 million. 

He is charged under the 
Securities I ndustry Act and 
the Companies Axt, which 
carry penalities of imprison- 

ment and fines or both. 

Mr Tan is president of die 
main ethnic Chinese political 
party, the Malaysian Chinese 
Association, the second larg- 
est party in Malaysia’s Na- 
tional Front Coalition. 

He is widely regarded as 
the most politically powerful 
and economically influential 
Chinese in Malaysia. 

Trading in Pan-Electric 
shares was suspended on 
November 19. It was ordered 
into receivership by a court 
on November 30. 

Euthanasia trial 

Mass murder case 
takes gentle pace 
on doctors 9 orders 

From Frank Johnson, Bonn 

The more yo 
the more ita 

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Throughout the coming 
months, and perhaps for the 
whole year, three men 
charged with being acces- 
sories to several thousand 
murders will appear in court 
in Frankfurt — but only once 
a week and then for only 
three hours at a time. 

Despite the almost limit- 
less seriousness of the 
charges, they have to be 
heated gently because of their 
and health. They are in 
ir seventies and all have 
infirmities of one kind or 

Indeed, their physical con- 
ditions have kept them out of 
court for 20 years. It was 20 
years ago that they first stood 
trial and ever since they have 
raged to produce doctors’ 
incates to show why 
further court appearances 
would put a strain on their 

They are experts on such 
matters. They axe themselves 
doctors — the three survivors 
of the medical team which in 
1940 and 1941 allegedly 
carried out the euthanasia 
programme on Germany’s 
insane and terminally i!L 
Arraigned in Frankfurt on 
Wednesday were Dr Aquilin 
Ullrich, aged 71, Dr Heinrich 
Bunke, aged 71, and Dr 
Klaus Endruweit, aged 72. 
They stood trial for the same 
offences 20 years ago and 
were acquitted on the 
grounds that they did not 
know what they had done 
had been illegal. 

Such a verdict was a denial 
of the post-Nuremberg 
morality which said an act 
was not legal amply because 
tire state said it was the law 
or ordered a citizen or soldier 
to do it The prosecution 
appealed against the acquittal 
and the federal high court 
ruled that the three must 
stand trial g gr*’ n 
For the next 20 years, they 
managed to get certificates of 
ill health from sympathetic 
members of their profession. 

On Wednesday, the defen- 
dant Dr Endruweit did not 

appear. His lawyer said he 
had kidney and circulation 
trouble. Given his age, there 
is no reason to doubt it. 

But still the willingness to 
help keep tire three out ol 
court reflects badly on the 
minority of the West German 
medical profession respon- 
sible for doing so. This 
sympathy for those who 
earned out the euthanasia 
programme goes back a long 

The programme was car- 
ried out under the leadership 
of two doctors who were also 
vigorous Nazis: Dr Karl 
Brandt and Dr Werner 
Heyde. Brandt was hanged by 
the Americans in 194S but 
Heyde escaped from Amen- 
«in custody and was con- 
demned xo death in absent iu- 

He practised for years in 
Schleswig-Holstein under the 
name of Dr Fritz Swade. 
protected by other doctors 
and some of the regional 
health officials who knew 
who he really was. Thinking 
himself about to be discov- 
ered, Heyde gave himself up 
in 1959. He would no longer 
have been sentenced to death 
because he would have been 
tried by a West German 
court and tire country had 
abolished capital punistt- 
menL But he killed himself a 
few days before his trial. 

The euthanasia programme 
was carried out under a 
“Fuhrer order” whereby peo- 
ple designated as “useless 
eaters" or those who had “an 
existence without a natural 
will to life" were put to death 

by carbon-monoxide poison- 
ing. Relatives were told they 
had died from natural causes. 

The programme is thought 
to have resulted in about 
70,000 deaths. The victims 
were taken from psychiatric 
hospitals throughout Ger- 
many to three centres 
equipped for the purpose: 
Brandenburg, near Berlin; 
Bernbuxg, in the Saale area, 
which is now in East Ger- 
many, and Pima, Saxony, 
also now in East Germany. 

Pledge by 
China on 

Hong Kong (Reuter) - A 
senior Chinese official prom- 
ised press executives here 
yesterday that Hong Kong 
would retain press freedom 
after it reverted to China in 

But Mr Lu Ping, Secretary 
General of China’s Hong 
Kong and Macao Affairs 
Office, was also quoted as 
saying that Peking would not 
Tow its sovereignty over the 
territory to be harmed. 

“He said there would be 
press freedom on the major 
condition that its sovereignty 
should not be damaged," said 
Mr T. W. Leung of the Hong 
Kong News Executives 

Mr Robin Hutcheon, chief 
editor of the South China 
Morning Post, said Mr Lu 
was told of fears of legal 
restrictions on reporting. 

Police link 
killings by 

Paris (AFP) - Police have 
found a fingerprint to link six 
recent minders of lonely old 
women in Paris with a series 
of nine similar murders in the 
Montmartre area in 1984. 

One police theory was that 
they had all been committed 
by the same killer — but they 
had no proof. Now the 
match i ng fingerprints could 
prove the theory. 

The majority of victims 
were more than 80 years old. 
None was younger than 73. 

The series of m orders in 
1984, within a 1,000-yard 
radius of the Sacre Coeur 
cathedral baffled police and 
no arrests were made. 

A new series started at the 
end of last year. The old 
ladies were either strangled 
or suffocated. Only cash was 


Legal action threatened 

Madrid plea on Goya 
masterpiece auction 

From Richard Wigg, Madrid 

Spain has publidy ap- 
pealed to Christie's, the 
auctioneers, not to go ahead 
with the planned rale of a 
19th century masterpiece by 
the painter Francisco 
Goya. the Culture Ministry 
maintains that the documents 
offered to show its export had 
been legally approved are 

”We do not reckon a house 
with.' a reputation of 
Christie's will go ahead with 
auctioning a painting taken 
illegally -out of Spain," Senor 
Miguel Sastrustegui, secretary 
general at the ministry, said 
The Culture Ministry has 
been on the track of "The 
Marquesa of Santa Cruz”, 
one of Goya's great mid- 
period paintings, dating from 
1805, since the summer of 
1983. It then alerted Interpol 
that the painting had been 
smuggled out of the country 
after being sold by the heirs 
of a Basque banker, going 
first apparently to the United 
States and then Britain. 

"I Just do not believe a 
painting sought by Interpol 
could be auctioned,” Senor 
Sastrustegui said adding that 
the Government intends to 
take legal action where nec- 
essary to recover the 
masterpiece.The possibilities 
of international co-operation 
are good he said 
Three people, including the 
former owners, had proceed- 
opened against them in 
1983 before a Madrid court. 

Under Spain's Protection 
of fre National Patrimony 
Law passed by Parliament 
last summer, any works of art 
more than 100 years old 
discovered being exported 
without the approval of a 
special expert board become 

the property of the stale. 
Fines of up to £500,000 can 
be imposed for illegal ex- 

But even under the pre- 
vious law dating from the 
1930s, approval for export , 
was required and Senor 
Sastrustegui said that * 
authorization for the Goya 
painting had never been 
sought. The senior official at 
the Culture Ministry who 
raised the alarm in 1983, ^ 
after an anonymous claim - 
that the painting was in * 
America, and who raid he 
had seen the export docu- 
ments, described them as ! 

"We would never have 
approved its export," he 
said.“All the famous world 
galleries knew of the picture's 

The authorities here be- 
lieve that the painting, after 
being bought by an Ar- 
gentine-based Spanish 
businessman, was smuggled 
out in a yacht before beug 
sold in Switzerland to g • 
British company, its present i- 
owners. -■ 

The painting, if sold, is 
expected to fetch millions of 
pounds. It was once acquited -« 
by Franco with the idea of J 
presenting it to Hitler be- — 
cause the reclining marquesa J. 
holds a Grecian lyre deco- — 
rated with a swastika symbol- 

The new law was* bat® *v 
needed. In 1983, after the 
alarm was sounded, a men*" * 
ber of the Exports Board said 
more than half of an export? 
never came before then 1 ' ~ 
“ While we are reviewing 
objects of often trivial worth . - 
paintings like Goya’s «■- 
“Marquesa” leave the coon* ■* 
try by other means,” she said- •- 




The French Prime Min- 
ister, M Laurent Fabius, said 
in Paris on Wednesday that 
compensation talks between 
France and New Zealand 
'were stalled by Wellington's 
refusal to negotiate the re- 
lease of Captain Dominique 
. Prieur and . Major Alain 
Mafart of the DQSE intelli- 
gence service, v/ho are each 
serving 10 years for their role 
An the sabotage operation last 



Howe to face 
stiff test 
on apartheid 
in Lusaka 

By Nicholas Ashford, Diplomatic Correspondent 

Sir Geoffrey Howe, the 
Foreign Secretary, will need 
all of his diplomatic skills 
when he attends a meeting of 
foreign ministers of the EEC 
and African “front line” 
states in Lusaka next Mon- 
day and Tuesday. 

Sir Geoffrey is likely to 
come *n for renewed criticism 
by the African leaders for 
Britain’s refusal to impose 
economic sanctions on South 

Although he will argue that 
British jpolicy is in line with 
that of its European partners, 
there is a widely held view 
among the Africans that 
British foot-dragging has pre- 
vented the Community from 
adopting a more robust 
policy towards apartheid. 

The Foreign Secretary 
could also find himself in a 
difficult position if he comes 
face-to-face with leaders of 
the African National Con- 
gress while in Lusaka. 

Although the ANC will not 
be attending the two-day 
meeting, which is being 
hosted by President Kaunda 
of Zambia, chairman of the 
"front line" states, they will 
be very much in evidence at 
\ the fringes of the conference. 
Mr Oliver Tambo, the ANC 
leader, has his headquarters 
in Lusaka and he and other 
senior ANC leaders have 
been invited to attend a 
number of social functions at 
which Sir Geoffrey will also 
be present. 

Although Britain has put 
its name to EEC and 
Commonwealth resolutions 
calling on South Africa to lift 
its ban on the ANC and to 
release its president, Mr 
Nelson Mandela, from 

prison, Britain has steadfastly 
refused to have any official 
contact with the organization 
because it advocates violence. 

Does this mean he will 
refuse to talk to Mr Tambo 
or his colleagues if they try to 
approach him? If he d e d ine s 
he wonkl offend his hosts. 

The meeting, the first of its 
kind between the EEC and 
the foreign ministers of 
Angola, Botswana, Mozam- 
bique, Tanzania, Zambia and 
Zimbabwe, stems from a 
proposal made last year by 
former President Julius 
Nyerere of Tanzania. 

Although South Africa’s 
involvement in Namibia and 
Angola will be high on the 
agenda, Pretoria's domestic 
policies will be the main 
focus of attention. 

The foreign ministers wiD 
closely examine the speech 
which President Botha is due 
to make before the South 
African Parliament today to 
see if it contains any signs 
that the Government is 
prepared to start talking to 
black leaders about moving 
away from apartheid. 

Both the EEC and the 
Commonwealth have warned 
that they will consider impos- 
ing new restrictions on South 
Africa if progress is not made 
SOOn towards dismantling 

On the Commonwealth 
side, a decision whether to 
take further action will not be 
made until after the 
Commonwealth group of 
"eminent persons" has com- 
pleted its report probably by 
early July, on the prospects 

Land of darkness, permafrost - and untold riches 

Selling Siberia to the Russians 

for promoting dialogue be- 
tween Pretoria and blade 

From Christopher Walker 

Yakutsk, eastern Siberia 

As temperatures in this 
remote Soviet city dropped 
fhig week to minus 50 degrees 
C entig rade — about three 
times below that, in the 
avenge domestic freezer — it 
became easy to enderstud 
why the new Kremlin leader 
ship is fighting* losing battle 
to remedy Siberia’s acute 
labour shortage. 

Visibility was redoced to a 
few eerie yards by the 
swirling t am a m, or freezing 
fog that never lifts at sack 
extremes and is thickened by 
the fumes from thousands of 
vehicle engines kept ranting 
round the dock. Eyelashes 
often freeze . together and 
outsiders are m to rob 
themselves with snow* at the 
first teU-Cale signs of frost- 

All bvOdings are erected on 
stilts above the perman ent l y 
frozen sob-soO and triple- 
I fa an effort to keep out 
winter that lasts for ri ght 
months of every year. During 
the rest, temperatures soar to 
a sweltering 32 degrees 
Centigrade and attract 
swarms of virions mosquitoes. 

Yakutsk, ode of the coldest 
inhabited sp ots ra the globe, 
is also one of 'the mala 
administrative centres in- 
volved fa the costly Soviet 
drive designed to persuade an 
estimated one nrillira w orke rs 
to join the search for the 
forbidding region's massive 
deposits of minerals. 

’Tor as, this is a relatively 
mild day, tite schools are still 
functioning above the fourth 
grade ana men are still out 
working on the f wt i iw riM 
sites”, explained the mayor, 
Yari Korkin, whose grand- 
father was banished here by 
the Czars. “It is only tire 
weak who cannot foes it and 

Western economic experts 
regard the Kremlin drive to 
nse material incentives to 
persuade workers to move 
east for a mfatimmn of tone 

US warns firms in Angola 

From Michael Binyon 

As Dr Jonas Savimbi, the 
Angolan rebel leader, met 
President Reagan yesterday, 
the Administration called in 
effect on US oil and other 
companies to consider pull- 
ing out of Angola. 

The State Department said: 
“We are telling American 
companies active in Angola 
that they should take note of 
the feet that they are in the 
middle of a war, operating at 
great risk and that they 
should be thinking about US 
i national interests as well as 
their own." 

He said the US viewed 
with concern the escalation of 
the war in Angola, the 
growing Soviet involvement 
and the failure of the Luanda 
Government to negotiate and 
move towards a settlement in 

Much of the hard currency 
earned from oil exports was 
used to import military 
equipment and pay for Cu- 
ban troops, the spokesman 

His call came after similar 
remarks by Mr Chester 
Crocker, the US Assistant 

Dr Jonas Savimbi: seeking 

aims from Mr Reagan. 

Secretary of State for African 
Affairs, who this week re- 
versed previous Administra- 
tion support for the Gulf Oil 
Company operating in 
Angola's Cabinda enclave. 
He said the presence of the 
company, which produces $2 
billion (about £1.3 billion) 
worth of oil a year, had not 
accelerated the Namibia in- 
dependence negotiating pro- 

Dr Savimbi, the anti- 
Marxist Unita guerrilla lead- 
er, is here for a week to seek 
US arms, mainly tanks and 
anti-aircraft missiles. He had 

talks with Mr George Shultz, 
the Secretary of State, on 

The Reagan Administra- 
tion wants to give effective 
support to the South African- 
backed Unita rebels despite 
strong opposition in Con- 
gress. It has reportedly 
the Senate intelligence 
committee for $10-15 million 
in covert assistance to be 
administered by the Central 
Intelligence Agency. 

Angola relies on oil for 1 
foreign exchange, and in 1984 \ 
the Administration said US 
business participation was i 
“in the long-term interest of! 
both our nations and of all 
Angolans". But the State 1 
Department, while repeating] 
this on Wednesday, sue 
it was no longer really the 
Administration view. 

A clear reason for the' 
change is the belief here that 
if Dr Savimbi is to be given 
more arms and backing, his 
first priority will be to attack 
important targets such as 
Angola's oil installations. The 
Administration does not 
want to be held accountable 
for losses sustained by US 

Paper refuses 
to pay ANC 
case damages 

Johannesburg (AP) - The 
Johannesburg Star yesterday 
said it would not pay £25.000 
in libel damages awarded by 
a British court to a guerrilla 
leader, saying the court had 
no jurisdiction in the case. 

The editor. Mr Harvey 
Tyson, said in a statement 
that the paper apologized in 
print long ago for its error in 
reporting that Mr Joe Slovo, 
a while leader of the out- 
lawed African National Con- 
gress. had arranged the 
murder of his wile, Ruth 
First, in Mozambique in 

He said the retraction did 
not identify Mr Slovo by 
name for fear of repeating the 
libel. The paper later offered 
a settlement to Mr Slovo, 
including damages and pay- 
ment of his legal costs. 

Mistakes committed 
by Gandhi trial judge 

Delhi (Reuter) - The Delhi 
High Court said yesterday 
that the judge in the Gandhi 
murder trial committed ir- 
regularities when he sen- 
tenced the three defendants 
to death last week, but it 
declined to quash the sen- 

A two-judge panel, ruling 
on a petition by two of the 
convicted men challenging 
the validity of the sentencing, 
said it was up to a foil 
appeals hearing to decide 
whether to quash the verdict 
and sentences. Appeals in the 
case will also be held in the 
High Court but have not yet 

The judges ordered 
authorities at Delhi's Tihar 
jail to remove the convicted 
men from solitary confine- 
ment, issue them with winter 
wear, allow them to wear 
turbans and shoes and to 

stop shining floodlights on 
them at night. 

The joint petition by Kehar 
Singh and Balbir Singh, 
convicted of conspiring to 
murder Mrs Gandhi, chal- 
lenged the legality of the 
death sentences on the 
grounds of sentencing irregu- 
larities and omissions by the 
trial judge, Mr Mobesh 
Chandra. The third defen- 
dant, Sa twanl Singh, has yet 
to launch his appeaL 

The judges said sentencing 
did not conform with the 
criminal code because Mr 
Chandra foiled to utter the 
regulation phrase that the 
convicted men should be 
hanged by the neck until 

The judges said the fear of] 
the two convicted men that 
they might be executed with- 
out appeal was misplaced. 

Botha overrules ban on slogans 

From Michael Hornsby, Johannesburg 

. South Africa yesterday 
anceiled an edict burning 
be pobllc display or distri bo- 
ion of all posters, pamphlets, 
tickers and even clothing 
\pressing a politiai tow- 
oint or slogan of any kind. 

The ban, issued on 
Wednesday by the Ope 
own police chief, had been 
enounced as “absurd and 
idiculoas" by dvfl rights 
groups and the anti-apartheid 
Opposition in the white 
House of Assembly, the 
Progressive Federal Party 

Or Frederik van Zyl 
Slabbed, the PFP leader, 
said: “We must be me of the 
few countries in the world 
that pretend to have a 
parliamentary democracy 
where visual protest is 
banned by decree by a 
policeman when the head of 
state is doe to make a crucial 

speech and the no-confidence 
debate in Parliament is about 
to begin". 

Today President Botha will 
open the 1986 session of 
Parliament, which in addition 
to the House of Assembly has 
separate chambers for mixed- 
race coloureds and Indians, in 
a speech that is tipped to set 
the Government's policy 
agenda for the year. 

Mr Botha has been orged 
by the business community 
here, worried about the eco- 
nomic consequences of the 
continuing unrest, and by 
white liberal groups and 
moderate black leaders to 
make a bold statement of the 
Government’s r eform plans. 

Chief Gats ha Bnthelezi, 
leader of the conservative 

Zulu-based Inkatba organiza- 
tion, said he draught the 
inclusion of black MPs or 
even Cabinet ministers in the 

racially-divided Parliament 
might be oae of the moves 
announced by Mr Botha. Bat 
be said that a segregated 
Parliament woald continue to 
be rejected by most Macks. 

Meanwhile, a Mack man 
was shot dead and five other 
people woe injured by police 
on Wednesday as violence 
continued in Mack townships. 

Police said imrest in 
Monzmlle, near Krngersdorp 
north-west of Johannesburg, 
spread to a nearby white 
suburb on Wednesday night 
when a petrol bomb was 
thrown at a private home. 

Some Mack schools in 
Johannesburg, reopened this 
week after months of boy- 
cotts, were disrupted by 
gangs of youngsters aimed 
with hatchets mid sticks. 

Spectrum, page 10 
Botha resists, page 12 

Despite temperatures about three times below the average freezer, life goes oa in the Siberian town of SafikhanL Hot 
the extrem e cold is a big factor In the lodng battle to attract labour to the mineral-rich area. 

years 0n practice, many stick 
it for no longer than one) as 
the key to Mr Mikhail 
Gorbachov's plan to revive 
toe flagging Soviet eco n omy . 
The riches <Kf Siberia indode 
oO, gas, diamonds, gold, coal 
and oranim. 

As well as providing such 
bonuses as three times the 
average Soviet wage, the right 
to queue-jump for a new car, 
holiday rest homes ia the 
Black Sea., son and early 
retirement, the wife is 
also trying to transform the 
e of Siberia from that of 
penal colony to a 
seed-bed of economic reform 
and technological innovation. 

Because of the remoteness. 

many of Siberia's 29 mSQon 
inhabitants (excluding the 
unknown 'total still in labour 
camps) refer to the rest of the 
Soviet Union as “the 
main land". Statistics pro- 
vided by the state airline, 
Aeroflot, show that each 
person flies out on average 
three times a year in an 
a t tem p t to fife tol- 


Senior Soviet officials told 
The Tima flat the mam 
problems outstanding in the 
drive to attract labour was the 
shortage of bousing (a wait of 
over three years in a hostel is 
not uncommon) and of 
kindergartens. Housing costs 
ware estimated by Dr Pavll 

MeUnkov, Chief of Yakutsk's 
p ermafr ost institute to be 
over twice those elsewhere in 
the Soviet Umrau 

The problems feeing the 
Kremlin in exploiting what n 
known as “the Soviet El 
Dorado” were glaringly 
apparent in secondary school 
number six fa the new coal- 
mining town of Nay ung ri, 
where the population has 
jumped from nH to over 
100,006 in ten years, hut 
many more workers are still 
desperately needed. 

In a classroom dominated 
by portraits and sayings of 
Lento, a grasp of 12 model 
pupils were produced to 
explain their thoughts about 

prepared to stay on after their 
education was over, less than 
half raised their hands. 

Of the hardy, ambitious 
and often youthful Soviet 
citizens who have heeded the 
Kremlin's darioa call (the 
average age to Neryimgri is 
26} many have their own 
solutions for withstanding the 
climate. “Every morning, 1 
rub my face with ice, it is the 
best way to keep out tbs 
cold", said Nina Mekfa, wife 
of the foreman of a trade 
repair depot “In the summer, 
I do the same with ice from 
the freezer.” 

N Zealand 
spurns bid 
to ‘buy’ 
two agents 

Wellington (Reuter) - New 
Zealand said yesterday it was 
powerless to force France to 
pay compensation for bomb- 
ing the Greenpeace protest 
ship Rainbow Warrior but 
repeated it would not 
contemplate freeing two 
jailed French secret agents. 

The Prime Minister, Mr 
David Lange, said that there 
was virtually nothing a coun- 
try of 3.5 million people 
could do to make France pay 
for the operation it ordered 
which sank the Greenpeace 
flagship and killed one of the 

“If you're big and you’re 
powerful and you commit a 
crime, you don't, in the 
French view, have to 
acknowledge it." he said. 
“France simply wants to buy 
back two criminals...The sim- 
ple feet is that we cannot in 
New Zealand sell two 

New Zealand has sought 
about $11 million (£7.8 
million) from France for the 
costs of the police investiga- 
tion and as damages for the 
invasion of its sovereignty. 

B ORLEANS: M Jacques 
Chirac, the French right-wing 
opposition leader, accused 
New Zealand of helping 
roups working against 
.tench interests and called 
on Wellington to release the 
two jailed French agents 
(Reuter reports). 



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The shuttle disaster 

Nation rallies to 
Reagan call for 
a return to space 

veni chooses his premier 



From Michael Binyon, Washington 

President Reagan yesterday 
sent a personal letter to be 
read to the 1.200 pupils at 
the school in Concord, New 
Hampshire, where Mrs 
Christa McAulifTe, the 
teacher who died in the 
shuttle explosion, used to 

Governor John Suniwu of 
New Hampshire proclaimed 
an official memorial to Mrs 
McAulifTe, and asked the 
state's residents and religious 
leadere to set aside time this 
weekend to honour her and 
the other astronauts. 

As the nation absorbed the 
initial shock of Tuesday's 
shuttle disaster. Congress and 
public opinion has rallied 
quickly around President 
Reagan's insistence that life 
has to go on and so does the 
space programme. 

Despite early questions 
about the wisdom of continu- 
ing manned space flights, 
congressional leaders, and 
particularly those who have 
flown in space or on the 
shuttle, now say that the 
programme cannot be halted, 
and that America must not 
lose its nerve. They expressed 

confidence that the flights 
would begin again once the 
cause of the disaster had been 

Congressman support in 
the idea of replacing 
lenger, but admit that 
budget restrictions may make 
it difficult to find the money. 
Representative Edward Bo- 
land, a Democrat who beads 
the sub-committee handling 
appropriations for the space 
programme, says he favoura 
building a fourth ortriter to 
replace Challenger. 

But the new vehicle would 
cost $2 billion (£1.4 billion), 
and with the new budget- 
balancing law forcing sharp 
cuts in all domestic pro- 
grammes, a replacement 
would mean a drastic cutback 
in other space programmes. 
As it is, Nasa is due to lose 
$320 million out of its $7.6 
billion for the current finan- 
cial year. 

Both the Senate and House 
of Representatives will hold 
their own hearings into the 
disaster in the next few 
weeks, to look at the way 
Nasa is conducting the in- 
quiry. These will not dupli- 

cate the scientific i 
will give Nasa a 
explain its 

and confidence 
Despite cafis 
of imma 

hires has 
led by 

this has 

the greater 
that public 
space ven- 
generated and 
the funding. 

After its 

and factu al 

die disaster, the 
Soviet press yes- 
terday/ took the opportunity 
to vM the Pentagon that it 
showed how important it was 
not io use space as a military 
arena (Our Correspondent 

Premia said: “Though it 
seemed that the tragic sight 
of people dying in public 
should underscore the basic 
need to unite man’s creative 
efforts in the difficult task of I 
using space peacefully, there 
are some officials in Wash- 
ington who find it possible to 
urge the speedy 
of space." 

Kampala (AP) - Mr YOWerf 
Museveni, the rebel com- 
mander swore in this week as 
Uganda’s President, aai 
himself Defence Minister 
yesterday in his first batch of 
Cabinet appointments. 

As he did so, there were 
reports of violence and panic 
in areas of northern Uga 
to which troops ®f the 

military regime ousted by 
President Museveni have re- 
treated. In at least two towns, 
most residents have fled from 
rampaging soldiers. Western 
diplomats and aid officials 

Mr Godfrey Binaisa, right, a former President 
who was sworn in on Wedn e sday and was once Mr 

President Museveni, 
r s Defence Minister. 

Britain’s hopes for unity 

By Nicholas Ashford, Diplomatic Correspondent 

Prince swears to 
serve democracy 

From Richard Wigg 

Spain's Crown Prince, Don 
Felipe de Bourbon, yesterday 
swore on his eighteenth 
birthday to nphold his 
country's democratic constitu- 
tion at a solemn joint session 
of both Houses of Parliament. 

It was a ceremony of colour 
and some pomp watched Eve 
on television by millions of 
Spaniards. Historians said it 
was without precedent — no 
Spanish crown prince had 
ever before sworn to a written 
constitution — only longs and 
queens. It took effiaab of the 
Cortes, the Spanish Par- 
liament, and the Royal house- 
hold weeks to ftnfa 

Hardly more than 10 yean 
after King Jnan Carlos 
to the throne aft » Franco's 
death, the ceremony served to 
emphasize the continuity and 
stability a monarchy can 
offer. Having been beM in 
Parliament, it stressed the 
present king's remarkable 
insistence on the constitu- 
tional monarchy's identifica- 
tion with the people. 

Spaniards had only to look 
to neighbouring Portugal, 
where the current election of 
a new head of state in- 
troduced a threatening 
polarization of society. 

The ceremony was held in 
the same bnfldmg that almost 
five years ago was the scene 
of a coop attempt by right- 
wing Spanish Army officers 
— an attempt aborted after 
the King's intervention. 

In morning dress, the 
future Philip VI swore the 
oath, which included fidelity 
to the King on the original 
copy of the 1978 constitution, 
before Seflor Gregorio Pieces 
Barba, the Speaker of the 
lower boose and a leader in a 
Socialist Party formally still 
rmmitted to a republic. 

The Prince's parents. King 
Jnan Carlos and Queen 
Sofia, and more than 500 
MPs stood watching the 

Prince Felipe of Astarias 
takes the oath 

The Prince of Asturias — 
the title given to Spanish 
Crown Princes since the 14th 
century — is training as an 
officer cadet at the Saragossa 
Military Academy, Spam's 
Sandhurst Yesterday's cere- 
mony wfll ensue him of the 
throne should anything hap- 
pen to King Juan Carlos, an 
active sportsman, in a country 
troubled by terrorimn. 

Only one MP from a small 
Catalan republican party boy- 
cotted tire ceremony, saying 
he most devote his time to 
Spain's “more important 

Strict security was in force 
in the dty centre for fear of a 
terrorist attack. 

Asked if he would have 
preferred a life different from 
that of future king, Prince 
Felipe replied: “Fmskly yes”. 
Bnt be added: “At times h 
may seem hard but everyone 
has their task to fulfil in life 
and yon must do it to the best 
of your ability.” 

Poll gives 
big lead 

From David Watts 

With a week to go to the 
presidential elections the 
Opposition believes Mrs 
Corazon Aquino has a five 
million vote lead over Presi- 
dent Marcos, according to a 
national opinion polL 

The poll was taken by a 
group called Professional 
Business . Executives for 
Aquino-LanreL Mr Fred 
Nabualy, the organization’s 
c h ai r m a n, said it had covered 
the Philippines’ 13 regions, 
questioning some 2,000 vot- 
ers in each local district In 
Manila, the capital, a cross- 
section of 10,000 people were 

The five million vote figure 
is highly rigmfiramt for the 
Opposition because it is 
believed that for Mr Marcos 
to win next Friday with such 
an opposition margin would 
require cheating so massive it 
would be impossible to con- 

More important for the 
conduct of a remotely fair 
election is a snuggle for the 
accreditation of a monitoring 
service whose quick count in 
the 1984 parliamentary elec- 
tions prevented widespread 

Officially, Britain has re- 
acted with studied caution to 
the military takeover in 
Uganda by 

PresideniMuseveni's Na- 
tional Resistance Army. 

Having seen leaders come 
and go amid varying degrees 
of bloodshed and turmoil in 
the 24 years since Uganda 
became independent, it is 
hardly surprising that of- 
ficials in Whitehall are 
wondering if Mr Museveni 
will be any more successful 
than his predecessors in 
uniting his country and 
restoring stability. 

Privately, however, British 
officials are desperately hop- 
ing that Mr Museveni win be 
as- effective in the political 
arena as he hasbeen on the 

It is feared in London that 
if Mr- Museveni does not 
succeed quickly in uniting the 
country under his leadership, 
Uganda could face a pro- 
longed civil war which could 
spin into neighbouring Kenya 
and lead to intervention by 
radical states to the north. 

The British Government 
has been encouraged by Mr 
Museveni's public state- 
ments, particularly bis 
em phasis on the need for 
stability and respect for 
human rights. It believes that 
if he can consolidate his 
authority, be will follow 
middle-of-the-road political 
and economic policies which 
would allow Uganda, poten- 
tially one of Africa's most 
prosperous nations, to repair 

the damage caused by yeans 
of tyranny and conflict. 

However Uganda's turbu- 
lent past, and in particular 
the country’s endemic tribal 
rivalries, do not give too 
much cause for optimism. 

Britain stands ready to 
provide substantial aid if Mr 
Museveni shows he can set 
up a stable administration in 
Kampala. It has already 
offered to help resettle into 
civilian life the tens of 
thousands of U gandans cur- 
rently under arms. 

Seven members of a British 
militar y training foam have 
been in Uganda since last 
summer, although they have 
been unable to operate effec- 
tively because of the contin- 
ued fi ghting 

President Museveni, whose 
National Resistance Army 
(NBA) guerrillas captured 
Kampala at the weekend, 
pan»ed Mr Samson Kisekka, 
aged 73, a physician, as 
Prime Minister. Of the six 
men appointed to the Cabi- 
net, only one has not been a 
member of the jperi 
movement — Mr Ponsx 
Mulema, the Finance Min- 
ister, who was an MP for the 
opposition Democratic Party 
during the admfaristratioD of 
President Obote, ousted in a 
military coop in Jnly. 

President Museveni says 
that about 6,000 soldiers of 
the oasted regime hare 
surrendered. Bat thousands of 
others hare fled to northern 
Uganda, tu g n giH g m ram- 
pages which hare given the 
President die dilemma of 
whether to pursne them now 
or consolidate his new bold 
on the south. 

Western aid officials said 
yesterday that soldiers of the 
oasted government had taken 
the town of Soroti in east- 
central Uganda, pro mp ti ng 
many of the residents to flee. 

On Wednesday, Uakef and 
Red Cross workers flew to 
Soroti and rescued a British 
ample by plane. 

In north-western Uganda, 
most expatriate aid workers 
had been rescued since the 
arrival of retreating army 
troops and members of an 
allied group composed of 
soldiers who served under the 
dictator Idi Amin in the 

In g«mpah | rtw» mom 

business area was trotting, 
with only banks still dosed. 
NRA soMiers. many of them 
in their early teens, were 
viable throughout the dty. 
Bnt Kampala residents said 
the guerrillas were polite and 
did not harass people. 

Leading article, page 13 

Son of 
hero for 

Bonn (Reuter) - The son of 
a German officer executed by 
tiie Nazis for his attempt to 
kill Adolf Hitler has been 
appointed West Germany's 
Defence Attache to Britain, a 
Defence Ministry spo ke s man 
said yesterday. 

Colonel Berthold von 
Statiffenburg will take up his 
new post in London with the 
rank of Brigadier General on 
April I. 

His father. Claus von 
Siauffenburg, was shot in 
July 1944 after planting a 
bomb at a military command 
meeting with Hitler in a 
failed officers' coup 
codenamed “Operation 
Valkyrie”. He is now 
honoured in West Germany 
as a national resistance hero. 

Snow blacks 
out 60,000 

Privas (AP) - A full 
emergency has been declared 
in the mountainous Ardeche 
gion of south-east France 
after 5ft snowfalls brought 
down electricity lines, cutting 
power to more than 60,000 
people in area and 
neighbouring regions. 

The state-owned power 
service, Ekctricite de France, 
said they could not predict \ 
when the power services 
could be restored. 

The search for Middle East peace 

Husain mission on brink of failure 

From Ian Murray 

The year-old Middle East 
peace initiative of King 
Husain of Jordan is on the 
brink of failure after five days 
of futile talks here between 
leaders of the Palestine Lib- 
eration Organization and the 
United States in which Jor- 
dan has acted as little more 
than a go-between. 

The talks, which were 
reportedly stormy, have foun- 
dered on the question of 
cheating by the regime. | mutual recognition. Mr 
Mrs Aquino dropped her I Yassir Arafat, the PLO chair- 
raiber defensive style yes- 1 man, would not accept UN 

terday and quoted Isaiah in 
defining the election as a 
contest between good and 

“While Doy Laurel and I 
have been doing everything 
humanly possible to bring 
bade power to our oppressed 
people, there comes a point 
Mien God's power has to 
intervene. We cannot win the 
election without God's help. I 
have no cheating 

She quoted the condemn- 
ing words of Isaiah:* You are 
doomed. You make unjust 
laws but oppress my 

anger at 
range deal 

From Our Correspondent 

While Canberra continues 
to maintain a discreet silence 
about the Royal 
Commission's findings on 
British nuclear tests in 
Australia. Aborigines affected 
by the tests have been 
angered by the arrangement 
reached in London last week 
between the Hawke and 
Thatcher governments. 

Lawyers for Aboriginal 
groups say the agreement, for 
a joint investigation by Brit- 
ish and Australian scientists 
into a possible clean-up 
operation at the Maralinga 
range, effectively rejects two 
recommendations by the 
McClelland Commission. 

These are that Britain 
should pay for an operation 
to make Maralinga fit for 
unrestricted habitation again, 
and that Aborigines should 
be represented on a statutory 
supervisory body. 

Senator Gareth Evans. 
Minister for Energy and 
Resources, said after talks in 
London with Mr Norman 
Lamom. Minister for De- 
fence Procurement, that Can- 
berra had not expected 
Britain to accept full liability 
for a clean-up. 

But the lawyers are worried 
the Anglo-Australian arrange- 
ment means that Aboriginal 
interests will be neglected. 

Howe and Dumas look 
at Soviet arms offer 

By Our Diplomatic Corre spon dent 
Geoffrey Howe._ the Gorbachov's offer for direct! 


Foreign Secretary, and M 
Roland Dumas, his French 
counterpart, met yesterday to 
evaluate the latest arms 
control offer pul forward on 
January 15 by Mr Mikhail 
Gorbachov, the Soviet leader, 
and in particular his pro- 
posals for reducing and 
eventually elimi Dating me- 
dium-range missiles in Eu- 

The two ministers, who 
were holding one of their 
regular meetings, agreed that 
neither Britain nor France 
would take up Mr 

negotiations on reducing nu- 
clear weapons until and 
unless the Soviet Union and 
the US bad made big cuts in 
their own Unclear arsenals. 

The British and French! 
independent nuclear forces 
represent only a tiny fraction i 
of those held by the Soviet 

Both countries are, how- 
ever, prepared to discuss 
arms control issues with 
Moscow in the broader con- 
text of improving East-West 

resolutions which implicitly 
give Israel the right to exist 
unless he had simultaneous 
US acknowledgement of the 
right of setf-determination for 
the Palestinians. 

Throughout the long, hard 
sessions round the negotiat- 
ing table, the King fought 
hard to save his plan for a 
confederation between Jor- 
dan and a Palestinian home- 

Craxi pressed 
to hold 
Gadaffi talks 

From John Earle 

Signor Bettino Craxi, the 
Italian Prime Minister, is 
considering a proposal for 
him to meet the Libyan 
leader. Colonel Gadaffi, in 
Malta to discuss the easing of 
tension in the Mediterranean. 

The pr o posal came in a 
tetter on Tuesday from the 
Maltese Prime Minister, Mr 
Carmdo Mi fend Bonnid, and 
is reported to have the warm 
assent of the Libyan leader. 

Signor Craxi has not re- 
jected the proposal but is at 
present cool towards it 
Italian officials say that 
certaincondi lions must be 
met, including Colonel 
Gadaffi demonstrating that, 
he is against terrorism. 

land in what fa now Israeli- 
occupied territory. 

But it has been impossible 
to get tiie plan, agreed with 
Mr Arafat last February, off 
the ground because Israel, 
supported wholeheartedly in 
this matter by foe US, will 
not talk to the PLO until it 
recognizes Israel's right to 
exist. So tiie King has been 
unable to put together a joint 
delegation - with the PLO 
representing the Palestinians 
- to ne gotiat e . 

During the latest talks a 
new American detour around 
the problem was put forward 
by the King: to freeze the 
recognition while ways and 
means of convening an inter- 
national peace conference 
were agreed. At this stage 
Israel would talk to Palestin- 
ian representatives, even if 
they had FLO finks 

Only when the arrange- 
ments were endorsed by 
everyone concerned would 
the PLO be asked to accept 

the relevant UN resolutions 
and thus be given a seat at 
the negotiating table. Broad 
agreement on this route was 
reached in separate meeting 
Mr Richard Murphy, US 
Assistant Secretary of State 
for Middle East Affairs, had 
in Europe last week with 
King Husain and Mr Shimon 
Feres, the Israeli Prime 

But Mr Arafat would have 
none of it, and put forward a 
counter-suggestion for a state- 
ment linking his acceptance 
of the resolutions with US 
recognition of Palestinian 
rights. The Americans in turn 
would have none of that; and 
the detour became a dr »d 

With no progress possible, 
key members of the PLO 
team have left Amman. 
Jordanian sources confirm 
that no more meetings are 

The King now has to 
decide between doing nothing 

The Duke of Kent being welcomed to tiie British military ski championship at Innsbruck, 
Austria, by the captain of a local company of marksmen and children. 

Superannuation with unions deal may frighten Australian employers 

From Stephen Taylor 

After three years of relative 
peace on Australia's turbulent 
industrial front it had become 
possible, until recently, to 
wring the admission from 
even die most hard-nosed 
employer that a Labor gov- 
ernment could have benefits. 
Now. however, a deal between 
Canberra and the unions has 
set boardroom alarm befls 
ringing again. 

Depending on the point of 
view, Australia is about to 
undertake tiie biggest social 
reform since Use Second 
World War, or to give birth 
to a monster. 

The issue which has news- 

paper leader writers reaching 
for such hyperbole is super- 
aim nafiott. About a quarter of 
Australia's workforce is cov- 
ered by a retirement contribu- 
tion scheme. The anions and 
the Government intend that 
by 1988 — which happens to 
be the bicentenary of white 
settlement — ft should be 

Time is tittle dispute about 
tbe desirability of such a 
scheme. The present okl-age 
pension — $Aus95 (£45) a 
week for a single person and 
5Ausl57 for a couple - Bright 
be a bit more generous than 
in Britain, but it does not go 
very for here either. 

There is also the fact that 
each retired Australian »s 

dependent on tax raised from 
fire workers; at tbe rate at 
which tbe labour force is 
diminishing, that ratio will be 
reduced to four within 15 

When the Prices and In- 
comes Accord, the vehicle for 
co-operation between Govern- 
ment and the Australian 
Council of Trade Unions 
(ACTU), was renewed in 
September, little acount was 
at first token of a danse 
which granted, instead of the 
4 per cent increase claimed 
by tbe amons, 3 per cent in 
the form of new or extra 
employers' superannuation 

For the ACTU tbe deal 
was nothing short of a 

triumph. In its keenness to 
see the accord extended, the 
Government had conceded a 
major point of primfyle. 

Business also had cause for 
relief at the accord's surrfraL 
Time lost last year to 
industrial stoppages was only 
a quarter of that in 1981. 

But it took tittle time for 
the implications of tiie mark 
two accord to sink in. Bound 
to wage increases under the 
agreement, the employers 
suddenly realized that it also 
tound them to sqienumin- 
tion. The fact is, according to 
an industrial observer, that 
this deal was done between 
the Government and the 
rations without even consult- 
ing those who are to pay. 

As matters stand, from 
July employers will be 
obliged to pay 3 pm- cent of 
an employee's wage into 
funds to be created for each 
industry in conjunction with 
the appropriate union. Work- 
ers outoide these schemes will 
be covered by a Government 
safety net. 

But there is also another 
significant element. Tbe new 
funds, together with the huge 
capital flow they will gen- 
erate, are to be controlled by 
the anions. Tbe largest exist- 
ing scheme, the Common- 

wealth Public Service 
Superannuation Fund, win be 
handed over to the ACTU. 
This win give the rations 

Syrians jailed 

Vienna (AFP) - Two Syri- 
ans who hijacked a Lufthansa 
Boeing 727 with 41 pas- 
sengers and crew to Vienna 
in February last year while it 
was flying from Frankfurt to 
Damascus, have been sen- 
tenced to five years imprison- 

Militant freed 

Brussels (Reuter) - Mr 
Ronald van den Bogaert, a 
Belgian socialist militant, 
jailed in Zaire for 10 years 
for alleged subversion, has 
arrived in Belgium after 
President Mobutu granted his 
freedom last weekend. 

Cruel sales 

Hong Kong (AFP) - Street 
hawkers in the Chinese town 
of Shenzhen are chopping off 
and trying to form a delega- [ live animals' limbs and 1 
tibia of Palestinians free of (selling them to customers 

| boasting of tbe meat's fresh- 
ness, a local evening news- 
| paper reported. 

Patient lion 

Rotorua (Reuter) - Patients 
and doctors barricaded them- 
selves inside a Rotorua hos- 
pital after a lion entered the 
grounds. It was one of three 
which escaped from the 
i circus for two hours. All were 
captured unharmed 

Junket ban 

Peking (AFP) - Peking is to 
ban unnecessary foreign 
travel by official delegations 
because many members have 
spent too lavishly while 
abroad, draining precious 
foreign currency reserves. 

Minister held 

Seoul (AFP) - A South 
Korean dissident leader, the 
Reverend Moon Dc-Hwan, a 
69-year-old Presbyterian min- 
ister, has been arrested in 
connection with alleged anti- 
government activities. 

Jet deaths 

Sydney (AFP) - The Aus- 
tralian pilot and US navi- 
iter of an Australian jet 
ghter have been officially 
listed as presumed dead after 
their plane crashed into the 
sea during a training mission. 

Strike spreads 

Madrid (Reuter) - About 
300 convicts in three Spanish 
jails have joined a hunger 
strike started last weekendbv 
50 uynates at Barcelona’s 
Modelo prison to press the 
authorities for pardons. 

Ship sunk 

Malaga (Reuter) - Rescue 
teams have recovered the 
bodies of three members of a 
Spanish cargo ship with nine 
crew on aboard which sank 
in stormy seas off the coast 

Nixon better 

Miami (Reuter) -The for- 
mer US President. Mr Rich- 
ard Nixon, has been released 
from hospital after being 
treated for influenza and 

Rabid menace 

Jakarta (AFP) - An average 
of one Indonesian dies from 
raises every five days while 
40 others are bitten by- 
suspected rabbics-canying 

PLO influence. In either case 
observers hold out little hope 
of the plan surviving its first 
birthday on February 1I.“I 
cannot be optimistic any 
more,” one senior Western 
diplomat said. "The whole 
thing fa running into the 

• JERUSALEM: Mr Peres 
said yesterday, on his return 
from Europe, that the ball 
was now firmly in King 
Husain's court (David Bern- 
stein writes). 

He conceded that “there 
has been no fundamental 
change in the situation since 
I left for Europe. Tbe 
Americans - and others as 
well - are waiting to see 
where Jordan fa going." 

King Husain bad “just 
three choices: to continue his 
dealings with the PLO, which 
I don't believe will lead 
anywhere; to move towards 
Syria and President Assad; or 
to try a third option/ 


more _ influence over 
Australia's economy than 
ever before. There are those 
who main tain daddy that ft 
will mean considerably more: 
that the c ount r y is drifting 
into a system with i mm ense 
implication:; without lmyin g 
had the time to consider it 

There remains one 
obstacle to the compact 
3 per cent payment is 
predicated on an award yet to 
be made by the Arbitration 
Comm issio n. Judgment on 
the ACTU claim, which is 
based on increased productiv- 
ity, is expected In April, and 
the commission's reputation 
as a robber-stamp agency is 
not born out by its record. 




A lesson 
from the 
fast lane 

Britain’s three-year trial of the compulsory 
wearing of front seat belts in cars and vans 
ends today . Parliament made the law 
permanent this month, amid speculation 
that the experiment had proved good for 
motorists but bad for cyclists and 
pedestrians. William Greaves reports 

1802: Frenchman Q- 
publishes world's first patentfoL 
"seat belts " 

1920: "Sutton” harness for 
airmen installed as standard 

fitment for aircraft - also i»ea 

by racing drivers at Brooklams. 
1950-59: Various bett patents . 
culminate in the three-point running 
lock, the basis of today's 

- •*** • 


1962: Saab and Volvo among 
first Imported cars to have seat 
belts as standard fittings. 

1965: Seat belts had to be fitted 

underBritish taw to cars and vans 

registered after January 1 that 

tv • ' - ■ Jr*' i _____ 

X s * 

C- v :. ■ 

Driving a motor car is some- 
thing which most other people do 
badly. We are captains at the 
bridge, mentally encased in gold 
braid, surrounded by un- 
predictability. In the league table 
of confessional conversation- 
stoppers “Actually, I'm a bad 
driver” rates somewhere along- 
side “Afraid I'm impotent these 
days” and “Truth to tell, Fm not 
much good at my job**. 

Yet in the last 10 years, 61,000 
people bave been killed on 
British roads and two-and-a-half 
million injured Allowing the 
motoring dictum that “there is 
no such thing as an accident, 
only a mistake”, a terrifying 
□umber of “other 5 ' drivers are on 
the road 

just ignore 

Pottering down to.the shops on 
a Saturday morning or nipping 
along for a business meeting, it 
seems easier to believe we are at 
the controls of a modem conve- 
nience — rather like a dishwasher 
or a hi-fi music centre — than , a 
potentially lethal piece of 
machinery. Are we sinners, or 
merely sinned against? Is the car 
driver or motorcyclist of 1986 a 
sober, upright and responsible 
citizen battling against outra- 
geous fortune, or a Jekyfl-tumed- 
Hyde monster the moment he 
exchanges legs for wheels? 

Is London, for instance, 
becoming more or less like a 5 Op 
dodgem ride played for real? Are 
Britain's motorways the safety- 
first express arteries their plan- 
ners intended, or the amateur 
race circuits their critics feared? 
As a fly in the passenger seat of 
an unmarked police car, I first 
explored the motorway. 

PC Peter Elliott, 13 years with 
Surrey police traffic department, 
eased his white Ford Granada 
out on to the M25 at the 
Godstone junction. His com- 
mentary began moments later. 

“That Volvo in front of us is" 
going to have to pull out into the 
middle lane in front of us-theie 
he signal., .and, at least 
half a mile behind us there's a car 
beetling up the middle 
lane...noLhing else in sfeht of 
him_by hogging the middle lane 
he is effectively reducing .a three- 
carriageway road to ' a single 

.. So whatever happened to foe 
theory (or I thought it was a 
theory) of a slow' lane, cruising 
lane and ah overtaking lane? “A 
myth. It was always.a myth. 
-Unless you are approaching an 
intersection you should stick to 
the inside lane, however fast you 
are going, until you need to puli 

It was 10.15am. the chaotic 
rush hour on London's orbital 
motorway had subsided into a 
steady stream of mid-morning 
traffic and L * driver these last 
27 years, had just had misconcep- 
tion number one exposed. 

A car pulled off the hard 
shoulder. “ Now that was 
dangerous. What he should have 
done was to build up speed on 
the hard shoulder before slipping 
into the traffic. A lot of motorists 
have no idea how quickly a car 
travelling at 70mpb doses on 
another which is near stationary. 
He was lucky to get away without 
being rammed up the back. And 
here come our first speeders. A 
motorcycle and a car coming past 
us at at U^st 85mph, for too dose 
together. The car driver thinks 
-that because be can see beyond 
foe motorbike there’s no danger 
in crowding him. All it needs is 
for, that motorbike to do some- 
thing unpredictable and the car 
would be into him.” 

A red estate car swept past in 
the fast lane, cut straight across 
all three lanes and nipped off 
down the A3 exit “He pit away 
with it, but that was bad. All it 
.needed was for one vehicle to 
block his exit and he would have 
had to make a split-second 
decision whether to overshoot or 
force his way through. A poten- 
tial accident situation if ever 
there was one.” 

It began to rain and, one by 
one, every car around us 
switched on headlights. “Good, 
"very good. That's oik message 

‘/ v fi ■ ! * , r : ’ 

A ~ -J* . . ■ Jr -. t ■: » 


■rV • • 

j* , * ' 0 • ' 

k - » • 

t O' ’•••- 

T* - * *■ 

On the road: Motorway driving (top) and a typical traffic snarl-up in central London 

we do seem to have got across.” - 
A Jaguar XJS swept past Peter 
Elliott put his foot down. Soon 
we were doing 120mph and still 
making little impression on the 
fl ying Jaguar. 

“ That car is built for that sort 
of speed, but is its driver? He’s 
■got a 50mpfa dosing speed on 
just about everything around 
him. A split second's lapse of 
concentration and that would be 
cur tain*. Far, for too fosL” 

Peter Elliott arranged for auto- 
matic matrix systems to flash up 
a 50mph limi t. We waited for 
two minutes on the hard shoul- 
der. Not one car sIowed/Tm. 
afraid I could have told you that 
would happen. It's a psychologi- 
cal fact that no motorist takes 
any notice of a speed warning 
unless he can see the reason for 
iL Hut's why an unexpected 
patch of fog can cause such 

In 40 minutes on the motor- 
way I had 18 examples in my 
notebook of thoughtless, risky or 
dangerous driving. “On foe 
whole, lane discipline has been 
good - they’ve been behaving 
pretty well this morning” was 
foe Elliott verdict 

Before setting out in central 
London with PC John Carroll 17 
years a police driver in the 

capital. Chief Superintendent 
Erie Hyatt, commander of the 
Metropolitan Police Traffic Pa- 
trol, set down what he referred to 
as foe “laws of the jungle”. 

“What we - have~to" accept is' 
that if all motorists stuck rigidly 
to the rules which pertain 
everywhere else, London would 
simply not operate in the rush 
hour at alL But there is a 
frighteningly thin fine between 
playing the percentages and 
cutting comers on the one hand, 
and causing accidents and chaos 
on foe other. 

“An Increased nnmber of 
accidents involving cydists and 
pedestrians in the last two years 
is an area of wony, but quite 
honestly there is no evidence to 
prove that driving standards are 
getting worse.” 

Hist to Hyde Park Comer with 
John Carroll at the wbeeL“ If 
three- or four cars don't go 
through these lights cm red it mil 
be the first time in my experi- 
ence. There t hey go — one, two, 
three, four, FIVE. The three- 
second all-red interval is there for 
safety, but they know they will 
probably get away with it. Look 
at that taxi slashing its way 
across the traffic He knows, you 
see, that foe quickest way to the 
roundabout is on the nearside 

but now he wants to go right foe 
way round and Ik's using his 
vehicle as a battering ram. 

— everyone is 
in a hurry 

“ Now here’s a little van 
tearing up the nearside and 
barging in to turn right at the 
lights. He's got away with it If 
someone had driven into him 
rather than give way that would 
be a tailback half-way to Picca- 
dilly Circus in a matter of 
seconds—” We had been there for 
less than half a minute: 

En route to Scotch Comer, 
Knightsbridge. “Now we’re on a 
one-way street but that car in 
front is waiting to turn right from 
foe left-hand lane. He's stopping 
anyone behind filtering through 
left That's all it needs for a hold- 
up- This Mercedes parked along- 
side a bollard — anything bigger 
than a van couldn’t fit through. 
ThatTl cause trouble. Cyclist 

straight through the lights on red. 
Thinks they don’t apply to him. 
He'll end up getting hurt. 
Another cyclist riding between 
two lanes of traffic: I did that 
once on a police motor bike and 
got sandwiched. It can happen in 
a second and ifs terrifying when 
it does. 

“Now then, box junction and 
three cars stuck on it as the lights 
change. Nothing can get across 
the other way. Total stalemate — 
just because they wanted to beat 
the first lights. That estate car 
wants to turn right into 
Knightsbridge, knows foil well it 
can’t so he's doing a U-turn 
straight across Sloane Street. 
That's fixed him, he’s stuck 
broadside across the traffic. Just 
look at the cars piling up. It's 
selfish — and it's nought 
everybody else to a stop. Van 
with a ladder sticking out on top, 
straight out into Lyall Street, 
knows well stop for him, lucky 
he was right 

“It’s really all down to frustra- 
tion. Everyone's late and frying 
to make up time. People from 
outside London are lost because 
foe direction signs are so inad- 
equate. And people from inside 
London know the police are so 
undermanned that they will 
probably get away with anything. 
It doesn’t take much to stop 
central London.” 

1971: Australian state of 
Victoria becomes first territory in 
the world to make the wearing 
of seatbelts obligatory by law. 
Whole of Australia and New 
Zealand foflow suit in 1972. 

1975: Compulsory seat-belt 

wearing introduced in Sweden, 

Finland! Brazil, Poland, Spain 
and Czechoslovakia. 

198ft Twenty-three countries 
now insist on wearing of seat belts 
for driver and front-seat 
passenger. Despite four attempts 
SnPartiament (1973,74, ’77 and 
79), UK is only EEC country not to 
do so. 

1983: Three-year experimental 
period for compulsory wearing of 
front seat belts begins February 

198ft January 13 - Parliament 
anticipates end of experimental 
period (Jan 31) and votes to 
make obligatory front seat belt 
wearing permanent law of the 

1987: Fitting of rear seat-belts 
willbecome legal requirement on 
Apr8 1 next year on all cars first 
registered on or after October 1, 


tf foe 61,000 people killed and 

24*00,000 people injured on 
British roads in the last 10 years 
woe laid end to end, they would 
stretch over 3,000 miles — twice 
the length of the British motor- 
way system. 

Shocking as this might be, two 
other facts paint a less grim 
picture. France, Germany, Bet- 
gram, Austria, Switzerland, Por- 
tugal and Yugoslavia all have 
more than twice as many road 
deaths per raflUoa population 
than Britain. And as more new 
driven took to the roads in 
Britain in 1941 it took only 2.5 
mHKnn vehicles to kill 9,169 
people - compared with 20 million 
vehicles and “only” 5^500 a year 
iead to£av. 

As far as the seat belt 
experiment is concerned, the 
statistics during the first two 
years appear to produce strong, if 
not spectacular, proof of the value 
'of front seat belts. The number of 
front-seat occupants to suffer 
fatal or serious injury has 
dropped by about 7,000 a year 
(including about 470 deaths) - 
but, at 4387, the number of rear- 
seat passengers to be seriously 
figured in 1984 was at least 200 
higher than in any of the previous 
six years. 

Disquietingiy, during the same 
two years more ti» M " 1300 more 
pedestrians and cydists were 
killed or seriously hurt than in 
similar previous periods. The 
Department of Transport, how- 
ever, believes that when the 
number of road users hit by 
vehicles not covered by the seat- 
belt regulations (heavy lorries, 
coaches and hoses, for instance) 
is discounted ,“it cannot be 
concluded these inoeases were 
associat e d with compulsory seat 
belt wearing”. 

(Additional research by Dr 
Trevor Smith.) 


The weekend starts here 

Playwright who throws his weight around 

The race for the 
big screen 

The television of the future is a giant flat 
screen on the living room waiL Bryan 
Appleyard reports on the high-tech battle 
among scientists to bring the movie 
experience into the home 

• On stage: 
George Cole 

• To Russia 
with love: 
charms of 

Sbdfolio. £ 42,000 
to be won 

Can you always get your copy of The Times? 

Dear Newsagent, plcase-dcliver/iave me a copy ofThe Times 



John Godber’s new 
play about Karen 
Briggs, the world 
judo champion from 
Hull, pulls no 

The. award-winning play- 
wright John. Godber stands 
six feet two indies tall, 
weighs in at 17 stone ami . 
remains hugely frustrated by 
the feet that his powerlifting 
career included one 296 
pound bench press: “Just 
four short of the magic 300”, 
he said, and the memory still 
makes him dench his fists. 

The sheer physical! ty of his 
presence, and the Yorkshire 
mining town background he 
retains so prominently, goes 
some way to explain why he 
has written two plays about 
rugby league — including Up 
W Under which won the 
Laurence Olivier Award — 
and one on night chib 

So it is vaguely puzzling 
that his latest play has been 
inspired by a comparative 
slip of a girl who stands 
under five feet and weighs 
just seven and a half stone. 
Until, that is, one discovers 
two facts. 

The first is that the girl is 
none other than Karen 
Briggs, Britain’s world 
bantamweight judo cham- 
pion who, ia an indisputable 
manner, makes up with skill 
and speed what roe lacks in 

And the second is that she 
lives in Hull — John 
Godber's home for the past 
two years since be has been 
the artistic director of the 
Hull Trucking Theatre Com- 
pany, one of Britain's most 
enterprising touring theatre 

“Having done two plays on 

Fighting talks John Godber and Karen Briggs during rehearsals ® Hull 

rugby league which is the 
biggest sport in Hull, X 
wanted to do a play on the 
biggest individual, mid there 
is no question that, with two 
world titles under her belt, 
Karen Briggs is a bit special”, 
says Godber, swamping a 
theatre seat during rehearsals 
and giugging Lucozade from 
the bottle. 

He went for an initial chat 
with Karen at her home in 
Bransholme, Europe's largest 
braising estate, where 50,000 
people live cheek by jowl 

“I was very impressed. I 
like enjoying myself — I am 
the kind of person who 
would have a curry at 1130 
at night if I felt like it But for 
Karen, judo was a complete 
life attitude — she was very 
srogleminded and very sto- 
ical. And that is what you 
would expea from someone 
who is the best in the world 
at what she does.” 

That was in September. 
Four months later, after 
hours of reading judo books, 
watching videos of Karen's 
top competitions, more talks; 
and even personal experience 
on the judo mat with Karen's 
instructor. Mike Joyce, First 
Dan, be started to write: 

The result is Blood Sweat 
and Tears , which is pre- 
miered in Hull's Spring Street 
Theatre next Tuesday. It will 
then tour Milton Keynes and 
York before coming to 
London’s Tricycle Theatre, 
Kilburn, for a month. It is 
also the subject of a South 
Bank Show documentary and 
will eventually be filmed by 
BBC television as a Play for 

The set of Blood, 
Sweat and Tears 
is a dojo 

Preparation for the first 
night has been arduous for 
Godber believes firmly in 
showing foe action, full 

So the set of Blood. Sweat 
and Tears is a dojo. with a 
real judo mat; and the 
leading actors have spent as 
much time in Karen's own 
dojo, Kingston Judo Club, as 
in the rehearsal rooms. And 
that goes for John Godber 

Godber knew as soon as he 
saw a dojo, that he had a 
naturally theatrical milieu. 
“Put a red and green contest 

mat down, light it with stark 
white lights, and you’ve got 
something exerting.” In a 
way, that was tire easiest part. 

The plot also emerged 
without too much of a tussle. 
“From talking to Karen, and 
people who know her, it was 
obvious foe was going to foe 
top from foe beginning.” Yet 
he wanted to convey Karen 
not so much in terms of her 
gold medals or world titles, 
out more in terms of her 
determination to pursue a 
specific goaL 

The plays heroine is Lou- 
ise Underwood, a 19 year old 
who works in a Hull res- 
taurant and becomes Euro- 
pean middleweight judo 
champion, ft is a tale of the 
road to blade belt, the change 
from being giggly and socially 
feminine — “What, lay on the 
floor with all those men?” — 
to coping with some un- 
pleasant rivalry 

It meant the cast becoming 
proficient in judo, but 
particularly Jane Clifford, 
who plays Louise, for foe had 
to learn Miss Briggs's specific 
style with the big throws, the 
Tai-Otoshi (body drop) and 
Tomoe-Nage (stomach 
throw), for which foe isl 

known afl over the world. 

Miss Briggs was unable to 
coach the actors herself as 
planned, because of injury. 

“When John first came to 
see me he even asked me if I 
would be interested in acting 
in the play, though I admit- 
ted 1 had never been to the 
theatre”, said Karen, who is 
22. “It wasn’t possible be- 
cause I was still competing, 
but I did want to help them 
with the judo, and to give 
them an idea of what it is like 
to fight” 

This is very important for 
Godber, for he feels foal 
realism is crucial. “From 
where I come from — Upton 
and foe Frincldey pit — 
nobody would think of going 
to foe theatre. 

“But the word drama 
comes from the Greek 
Dramanon. which means ‘foe 
thing done'. It is to do with 
action, and I want to put 
action on the so that 

anyone can come 

This is exactly what Miss 
Briggs feels - even though 
.Spring Street Theatre was just 
four miles away, she had 
never thought of going to a 
play. “I thought it would be 
boring”, she said simply. But, 
having seen Mr Godber’s Up 
W’ Under, foe remarked: “It 
was good because it was 
realistic.” — 

With his five-year back- 
ground as a drama teacher in 
his old secondary school, and 
a playwriting history that 
goes back to his first attempt 
at the age of 16 - — John 
Godber (he is now 29) has a 
deeply rooted belief in live 

He has also proved himself 
in television 

"I want to change foe view 
of ordinary people that the 
theatre is a big black box 
with a red curtain which 
opens to let famous people 
walk on.” 

Nicolas Soames 


n« e — ii i i i r ii — *■ — 


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5 Drink into] 

■ American navy 

9 Chaiicr (6) 

IS Scribble (6) - 
*» No« proper (3.1) 

12 Shupdtdine(8) 
(4 Human mind (6) 
*7 Herald’s jacket to* 
19 Returned (4,4) 

22 Chance (4) 

24 Drawingto) 

25 Ejrtfljloa child toi 

26 Wurid money 
reserve (1.1,1) 

27 On/nlto) 

M Ihniianuoinlb) 

2 Fvasi(S) 

3 Oxfimi formal 

4 ILirxh 

imprisonment (7j 

5 NW Indian river 

6 Mull over (S) 

7 S^Ajuunuun liberator 

13 Spice walk ( 1 . 1 . 1 } 

15 Fetter (7) 

16 Hoi plate ( 1) 

17 HU] TOailtoan “ 

a fer&sa™ 

aBE£Sr <s 

SOLUTION TO Nu at 2 ^ I * UC (S * 

ACROSS: 8 Wholesome food 9 Pal 10 Guaranis •* «■- - 
16 Auditor 19 Orbii 22 Viceregal 24 Who * * Sepia 13 Cessni 

DOWN: l Swipes 2DoUoT3Se^ 

7Athent 12 Ecu 14 Smoulder 15 K?I 16 Advise i/rEj? 4 Root uf 
to Bowman 21 Troika 23 Ruin 17 Doaar 18 Right 





A disciplinary hearing begins on Monday into the case of a London obstetrician 

Savage’s fight for her future 

. August 1983 Susan Payne's 
a ughier Lorraine was delivered 
Mile End Hospital by caesar- 
_i after an 18-hour labour. 
“Believe me if I had thought 
uere vas anything wrong with 
way Wendy Savage handled 
'the birth I cer tain ly wouldn't 
have had her for the next baby - 
Stephen, bom in December 1984 
- or allowed myself to be booked 
with her for the baby Pm 
tpectiflg in July,” said Mrs 
iyne at her two- bedrooxned 
incil Sat in the East End this 

Mrs Payne, 28, was angry when 
ie found that the notes on 
jrraine's birth were being used. 
|lf they had asked me I'd never 
ive agreed. I knew well in 
Ivance that the baby was a 
jrcech and that there was a 
sibil ty of a caesarian. 

“I am 6 foot taO - with, as they 
ay, good child- bearing hips - 
i there was no reason nbt to 
to give birth to her normally; 
C-rays were done at 36 weeks to 
lake sure my pelvis wasn't too 

“I went into labour at 2am and 
ito the hospital early because of 
ie position of the baby. Every- 
ling was going along lovely - she 
ready to be delivered at 8am 
at she simply didn't want to 
jme down; she was comfortable 
sre she was. 

“They gave roe an epidural at 
and at 12 my waters broke, 
the contractions just 
topped. At Spin they put up a 
rip io Induce her but by 7 still 
nothing was happening so they 
/ ^decided to do the caesarian. 

* •' “I have never felt any sense of 
implaim against Wendy Savage. 

did the caesarian herself and 
andcd the baby to her dad - and 
prouder dad you never did see. 
\They are inseparable. 

“The thing about Mrs Sa 

ligeon hole you 'breech*. I tell 
p iu when I heard she was being 
accused and that my baby's birth 
being used against her I just 
the children and went out 
■'into the kitchen and had a good 
swear - even my husband said ‘It 
i.can't be possible'.” 

However less than 2 miles 
away in Bow there was a 
iifferent story told by a 37-year- 
divorcee whose daughter was 
riS and still at school when she 
'became pregnant. 

■ j “My daughter, call her Jackie, 
a does not want to be identified 

because she'd lose her job if they 
knew she had a baby. 1 was 
disgusted by the way we were 
treated by Mrs Savage. 

“She was very abrupt from the 
be ginning when we went to her 
clinic for an abortion. It was up 
to her and she took one look at 
me and seemed to think ‘oh she's 
young enough to cope with a 
schoolgirl and her baby’. . 

“Jackie is 4ft lOin and I'd have 
thought anyone looking at her 
would have thought she'd have 
had to have a caesarian. We all 
put our trust in Mrs Savage who 
said she would be there at the 
birth . But when it came to it she 
wasn't, she was at the end of a 
telephone telling the mid-wife 
what to do. 

“Jackie was in labour for 24 
hours and in the end had to have 
a caesarian. The baby was big 
and be bad fractures of the skull 
when he was bom. He is now 16 
- months and perfectly healthy. 
Yes, I‘m landed with him - its 
just like having another one to 
look after but we manage quite 
welL We share.” 

Denise Lewis in Poplar, also in 
the East End.had breech twins, 
Sebastian and Sacha, by caesar- 
ian which was performed with 
both Savage and her chief clinical 
opponent professor Geddes 
Grudrinskas present. 

“I was taken in with pre- 
eclampsia. I am rhesus negative 
and had to have a Mood 
transfusion. I had high Mood 
pressure which got worse during 
labour and both of them decided 
it was time to do a caesarian. I 
didn't agree and asked to be left 
alone but they said it was getting 
a bit iffy. Neither twin suffered 
any ill effect - one was Sib 16 oz 
ana the other 61b Iaz. I cant see 
how or why Mrs Savage can be 
thought to be incompetent. I was 
really shocked to find my case 
was being used. No one ever 
asked me if I had a complaint” 

Linda Ganderson's story is 
touched with tragedy. “I derided 
to have shared care with my GP 
and Mrs Savage during the 
pregnancy and everything was 
really good. On Good Friday 
1984 I started to Meed at SVi 
months and went to hospital 
The doctors listened to the heart 
beat and the baby and said it was 
the best they had hard all day. 
They put me to bed and camp 
around to check the baby's heart 
every four or five hours. On 



On Monday perhaps the most 
extraordinary disciplinary tribunal 
the health service has ever seen 
opens in London. Mrs Wendy 
Savage, a connsltant obstetrician at 
the umdon Hospital, will face 
allegations of professional incom- 
petence, based on her handling of 
five cases of child birth dating back 
to 1983. 

The whole inquiry, including Mrs 
Savage’s suspension on full pay 
since last April, will cost Tower 
Hamlets Health Authority, which 
this year had to make savings of 
£800,000 on its budget, in excess of 
£100.000. Unusually, much of the 
inquiry is likely to be held in public. 

The issues raised have gone far 
beyond the competence or otherwise 
of one individual consultant, but 
have provided a focus for the 

continuing debate between those who 
believe child birth should be as 
natura l as possible, with tiie- woman 
having the right to choose the way 
her child is born, and those who fa- 
vour more intervention in child birth 
in the Interests of the baby. ' 
Only one of the five births has 
been the subject of a complaint, that 
of Asma Udin, who lost her baby, 
within days of him being 
caesarian section by 




The Times spoke to three other 
mothers whose case notes form the 
basis of evidence to the official 
Inquiry even though none feels any 
cause for complaint about the way 
their pregnancies and births ware 
handled. Only the grandmother of 
the fifth baby - born to a 15-year-old 
schoolgirl - was critical. 

Saturday afternoon, it was about 
5 O'clock, they came back to 
check and there was nothing. He 
just died inside me.” Mis Savage 
was away at a conference at the 
time Linda lost her first 
babyfshe had no thing to do with 
it at alL” 

Linda now has another baby, 
Paul, who is 5% months okLOnce 

again she chose to beonder the 
care of Savage, and this time, 
because of the loss of her first 
child she was scanned eryery two 
weeks. When it was noticed that 
the fetus was not putting on 
enough weight she was brought 
on early. 

“At the time I lost the baby I 

didn't really fed anything but 
now I have a baby who is healthy 
and wen I feel worse about it 

than ever I did before. When I 
hold him now I know the 
meaning of loss. It makes you 
fed more bitter knowing the life 
that was lost” 

Alison Miller 

Wendy Savage: Battling An* her future 

Susan Payne and family: No sense of complaint 

I inda Ganderaon: I know the meaning of loss 

>v *. Despite progress, 

: . childbirth is still 
, raising questions. 

' Dr Thomas Stuttaford 

Obstetric forceps were designed 
n Britain in the I7th century by 
’ler Chamberien, and popu- 
rized by his son, Hugh .Their 
ivention defeated natural selec- 
tor). so that women who had had 
woblems with delivery survived 
o have daughters who in their 
urn would suffer similar trou- 

Despite three centuries of 
medical intervention, it is es- 
timated that 90 per cent of 
women would survive natural 
childbirth, although possibly not 
in very good shape, and 75 per 
■ cent can be safely delivered 
without medical interference; 
obstetricians fight to save the 
lives of the remaining 25 per cent 
of mothers and babies. 

Those familiar with childbirth 
in primitive conditions like to 
remember the case with which an 

argri cultural worker goes to the 
edge of a field and has her baby 
as readily as if she were a 
lambing ewe; but they are also 
well aware that in the poorer 
countries up to twice as many 
pregnant women are likely to die 
as in affluent countries. 

Even the concept of painless 
labour in primitive countries is 
inaccurate. Although women may 
recover quicker from a normal 
delivery, the discomfort seems 
comparable; pain is associated 
with complications and, as these 
abound where antenatal care is 
poor, unbearable pain in 
childbearing is more frequent. 

Since such a large majority of 
women labour successfully and 
have a normal delivery, policy 
can never be dictated by the 
experience of a few. Instead, 
much wider surveys are needed 
to compare different methods of 
delivery in order to determine 
the safest methods. Progress is 
being made; in Britain in 1952 
the perinatal mortality (stillbirth 
or death in the first week) was 37 
per thousand; in 1978 it bad 
dropped to 15 per thousand. 
Compared to 1952. the death rale 

in women has dropped by 80 per 

There is a price to pay for the 
increased safety of childbearing — 
a greater reliance on’ operative 
delivery, forceps, vacuum extrac- 
tors and caesarean section. In 
1963 the caesarean section rale 
was 4.6 per thousand, in 1978 7.5 
per thousand; the 1963 forceps 
rate of 8.1 per cent had risen by 
1978 to 13.1 per cent. More 
recent national figures are not yet 
availaMe, but one of Liverpool's 
large, inner-city hospitals practis- 
ing high standards of care in 
deprived social surroundings has 
a forceps rate of 15 per cent and 
a caesarean rate of 10 per cent 

Research workers find it hard 
to evaluate random trials 
in obstetrics. Circumstances vary 
so markedly that it would be 
misleading to draw conclusions 
from a small sample, which 
would in any case be unlikely to 
be random as patients tend to 
select a hospital or obstetrician 
which they feel will suit needsJn 
addition, genera] practitioners do 
their best to direct a patient to a 
suitable obstetrician. 

Most doctors find it impossible 

to justify tbe notion which 
accepts that a certain number of 
babies can be sacrificed in order 
that the majority of women may 
be given a happier, possibly 
home, delivery. Their concern is 
not only to procure the maxi- 
mum number of live babies, but. 
to make certain that then- 
condition at delivery wifl give 
them tbe best opportunity for a 
fit, mental and physical, life. 

Delivery at home has the 
advantage in that the infection 
rate is dramatically reduced, but 
trials which have minimized 
other hazards have tended to be 
carried out by keen GPs working 
in first class practices. 


Why and when does a woman 
have to have an episiotomy? 
When the soft tissue, the peri- 
neum, is delaying delivery to the 
detriment of tbe mother and the 
baby, ft is customary to a 
surgical incision to enlarge tbe 
opening. In Britain this is made 
at an angle, the mcdioIateraL In 
America and on the Continent a 

mkfline incision is usually used, 
but this ha« the disadvantage that 
any extension will tear into the 
rectum. The operation has been 

criticized recently by people wbo 
have no memory of tbe prolapses 
and other gynaecological 
complications which followed 
extensive stretching and tearing; 
it used to be said that obste- 
tricians saved the letter, but 
. destroyed the envelope. If an 
episiotomy can save a rectal tear 
it is worth exchanging a possible 
few weeks of discomfort for what 
can be a lifetime of anal 

How long should my labour last? 
Medically speaking, time is 
irrelevant so long as there is 
progress, always supposing that 
that the mother and baby remain 
in good health. This is why 
surveillance is so important 
Doctors realize that the limita- 
tion of movement which is 
inevitable with most monitoring 
devices is trying, but aigue that 
tbe older regime of listening to 
the baby’s heart for 60 seconds 
every 15 minutes only gives 
cover for 8 per cent of the time 

in which the baby will be making 
the most hazardous journey of its 
life. The great majority of labours 
last fin- under 12 hours, but it is 
impossible to make a hard and 
fast rule. Some mothers and theft- 
babies win be showing serious 
distress long before then, others 
will continue to make slow 
progress and remain in perfect 
health for much longer. 

WHl the forceps damage tbe 

No. Most forceps deliveries are 
what arc colloquially known as a 
lift-out. The baby’s bead is very 
low and can be felt dearly; 
slipping the forceps around tbe 
skull wftl save ft from damage 
and win enable the doctor to 
shorten labour. Mid-cavity for- 
ceps are used when the baby’s 
head has to be turned before ft is 
delivered. Training in forceps use 
today is well supervised. 

Will my baby be M sa d to 
enable my doctor to keep his golf 

No. Induction for the social 
convenience of the obstetrician is 
considered .an unfotgiveaMe sin. 
Occasionally if the mother re- 

quests induction and has good 
reasons to support her plea one 
may be organized, but only if she 
understands everything it entails. 

When there are other indica- 
tions for inductions it may well 
be that labour will be started to 
allow for delivery during “office 
hours” for safety’s sake. It is 
much safer to have a baby when 
the laboratory staff are on hand 
for Mood transfusions, when 
there is a full complement of 
anaesthetists and when the whole 
obstetric team is in tbe hospital. 

Will I be induced if I go over 
my dates? 

In the past ft has been difficult to 
judge dates. Now a decision as to 
maturity is taken after consid- 
ering three factors: tbe first day 
of the last menstrual period, the 
examination findings of an 
experienced doctor about the 
third month of pregnancy and 
the ultrasound results recorded at 
the 16th week. Taken in 
combination these findings give a 
90 per cent accuracy. Most units 
will induce round about tbe 41st 
week, other things being equal. 

Resistance born from the death of a constitution 

A remarkable 
* ' group of 

white women are 
fighting for 
black rights in 
South Africa 

When Molly UMn ., 
white upper middle 
of \roti Elizabei 
was wried early ib 
son* 20,000 blad 
out for the fune 
disp > of Mack af 
unm 'vd the Soul 
autb rities that the 
the nemoriai ser 
was > have been tu 
or kiter on the 
tbatft posed a < 

I, burn was a 
markable oq 
pie women, 
|*^hich has 
1 30th anni" 
ibly done i 
her liberal 
blacks th 
friends rat 
^ _jid to previ 
naiidfc** 150 ) from 
virnkW’ anti-whit 
In her mid-50s at 
of her death. Black 
killed ,® a car acridi 
turn °* dfe yea 
briugjnK «P seven 
she ecu* 1 easily ha 1 
for the com fo nab! 
leged lifestyle for v 
class ana skin cole 
fied her. She looked 
usually dressed in a 
white mouse and 
string of Pearls at ] 

Instead, about four years 
ago. she joined the Black 
Sash, and spent most of her 
time in places where few 
whites go: the dusty streets of 
blade townships, haunting 
police stations in tireless 
pursuit of allegations of 
police harassment and brutal- 
ity, or listening patiently to 
the stream of blacks wbo 
daily bring their problems 
over housing, money, jobs or 
the “pass laws” to the Black 
Sash's dingy advice office in 
Port Elizabeth. 

The Black Sadi was started 
in 1955 when a group of 
white women organised pro- 
tests against the National 
Party’s gerrymandering of the 
constitution for the purpose 
of removing the mixed-race 
“coloureds’* from the com- 
mon voters' roU. 

She sacrificed her 
white privilege 

Those involved were 
mainly English-speaking 
members of women's 
branches of General Jan 
Smuts's United Party, which 
had been defeated by the 
Nationalists in 1948 and had 
fallen into fractious disarray. 
Fed up with the dithering of 
their menfolk, they took 
matters into their own hands 
and formed tbe women's 
Defence of the Constitution 

It was the press which 
coined tbe name Black Sash - 
a reference to their method of 
protest: standing in silent 

Sbeem Drorair 
Sash president 

reproach in public places, 
carrying placards and wearing 
white dresses with broad 
black sashes slung diagonally 
from the right shoulder as 
symbols of their mourning 
for the murder of tbe 
constitution. Tbe name stuck 
and was later adopted as tbe 
official one. 

By 1956 the constitutional 
issue which Had given birth 
to the Black Sash had been 
fought and lost. Instead of 
distending, the leaders de- 
rided to broaden their cam- 
paign to defend civil rig ht s, 
those of South Africa's de- 
prived and disenfranchized 
black majority in particular. 

The decision soon exposed 
the narrowness of South 
African liberalism. It was one 
thing for middle-class ladies 
of English background to be 
asked to protest against the 

unconstitutional machina- 
tions of a Boer government; 
it was quite another to expect 

Molly Blackburn: 

Dhflked traffics 

them to campaign for wp«i 
citizenship with blacks. 

“Membership slumped in a 
few weeks from 10,000 to 
about 2,000” , Jean Sinclair, 
one of the six founder 
members of the o mn na tion 
and now in her 70s, re calls 
“We were ostracised socially, 
and all but a handful of our 
best friends dropped us. 
When we were invited out, it 
was usually a disaster. Sbeena 
and I coukl be relied on to 
break up any dinner party in 
10 minutes flat”. 

Sbeena is Sheena Duncan, 
Jean Sinclair's daughter, who 
is just coming to the end of 
her second term as national 
president of tbe Black Sash, 
which she joined in 1963. A 
robustly built no-nonsense 
woman in her eariy 50s, she 
is about as far removed from 
the image of a sentimental 
and condescending do-gooder 
as could be imagined. 

Picketing and public pro- 

testers are now only a small 
pail of tbe Black Sash's 
activities. (Until the practice 
was prohibited, its members 
used to bold vigils in the 
public gallery of tbe House of 
Assembly in Cape Town, 
earning a famous rebuke 
from a National Party whip 
who told them: “Yon ladies 
must not come to Parliament 
to propagate”). 

Since 1976 ad outdoor 
gatherings have been banned, 
and for at least 15 years, tbe 
Blade Sash’s most important 
work has been done in its 
advice offices, of which there 
are now seven. The biggest is 
in Johannesburg, with others 
in Pretoria, Cape Town, Port 
Elizabeth, Durban, Pieter- 
maritzburg and Grahams- 

They had enough 
of dithering men 

In these shabby offices. 
Sash members, of whom 
there are about 2,000, try to 
help blacks find a way 
through the Kaflcaesque web 
of regulations that enmesh 
almost every aspect of theft- 

In 1984 more than 26,000 
individual interviews were 
conducted in the advice 
offices. Duncan believes *Hnr 
one of the Sash’s most 
valuable achievements has 
been “to expose .and ptibli- 
cize what ft means to live as 
a black in South Africa, a 

subject of which the vast 
majority of whites are still 
astonishingly ignorant”. 

Through the Transvaal Ru- 
ral Action Committee, which 
it set up several years ago, the 
Black Sadi also monitors the 
forced resettlement of Mack 
communities. Its relentless 
vigilance has brought many 
eyes of such resettlement to 
tbe attention of tbe local and 
foreign press. 

In recent years, tbe Sash's 
financial problems have been 
greatly eased by a contract 
with America’s Ford Founda- 
tion under which the founda- 
tion funds the advice offices 
and receives research ma- 
terial and reports on con- 
ditions in South African in 

What keeps the Black Sash 
women going? They know 
that their ability to influence 
the Government is m a r ginal, 
and that whatever political 
system eventually replaces 
white rule is unlikely to have 
much time for their liberal 
concern with individual 

“It is important to have a 
body of people upholding 
oertain values that will al- 
ways be needed, who will go 
on saying that something is. 
wrong?*, Duncan says. 

Perhaps the best, and 
simplest, summary of the 
Black Sash’s credo was given 
by Molly Blackburn. Asked 
once what motivated her, she 
replied: “I don't like b u l li e s ” . 



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Yorkshire Television's receni 
First Tuesday documentary 
about Crown immunity curiously 
omitted a key interview -with 
Lord Shawcross. As attorney 
general under Attlee. Shawcross 
introduced the Crown Proceed- 
ings Bill which apparently guar- 
anteed that servicemen injured 
on duty and fqrbidden to sue the 
Crown would be recompensed 
through pensions. YTV pointed 
out that Shawcross had promised 
in 1947 that such pensions would 
in general equal “the probable 
damages which may be recover- 
able in law" but felt that the 
pledge had been ratted upon. In a 
long interview, Shawcross denied 
that he had given any assurance 
as regards the future but said that 
today's pensions could not keep 
pace with court awards because 
of the “generosities of juries at 
the expense of insurance 
companies". Since juries have 
not decided damages in these 
cases for 20 years, an astonished 
YTV decided to scrap the whole 
sequence. But what of 
Shawcross's fee, raised at his 
insistence from £30 to £100? 
YTV says it takes its promises 
rather more seriously than gov- 
ern men is and the cheque is in the 
post “What I said didn't fit into 
their case." Shawcross told me 
yesterday. "I certainly wouldn't 
have done the thiqg for £30." 

Coat of arms 

Wherever Prince Charles goes, he 
can smell the fresh smell of paint 
Yesterday, during a visit by him 
to the BBC's Kensington House 
offices, the smell could not have 
been too intense: the Beeb had 
only painted the corridors as for 
as the regal eye will see. “It's 
enough to make you anti- 
royalist" said our informant 
The real rub was that the bar was 
being closed the in- 
terests of security. 

Wax lyrical 

Mrs Thatcher is the most popular 
political figure — beating even Sir 
Winston Churchill — in Madame 
Tussaud's latest poll- It shouldn't 
go to her head, however she 
comes second to Hitler in the 
Hate and Fear section. 

Sleeping partner 

John Hume, the SDLP MP from 
Northern Ireland, tell asleep 
during NeU Kinnock's lengthy 
peroration about the Westland 
leak, and his head came gently to 
rest on the shoulder of Seamus 
Mallon, his colleague and the 
province's newest MP. “I know 
you wanted some support in the 
House, John,” murmured 
Maflon,“but I didn't that this was 
what you meant” 


Burning issue 

North London's lop policeman. 
Deputy Assistant Commissioner 
Mike 'Richards, still insists that 
the lakes of petrol at Broadwater 
Farm actually existed as a fire 
trap for policemen during the 
riot He has written an angry 
letter to Police Review insisting 
that “a brave police constable 
saw plastic bags filled with petrol 
being lobbed towards police 
lines." Maybe he did. but the 
police lines were 100 yards away 
from the estate — nowhere near 
the garages where the lakes are 
supposed to have been. One 
senior police officer who dis- 
counts the lakes story is Chief 
Superintendent David Williams, 
the man in charge of the team 
which has prepared a still secret 
but highly critical report on 
police operations. Last week 
Williams told the Enfield Gazette 
that any petrol on the ground 
could have come from the 
ruptured petrol tank of an- 
overturned car. He said: “There 
is bound to be spillage when you 
are syphoning from car tanks. 
They were using very small 
bottles to make bombs and you 
would get as much petrol on the 
floor as in the bottle." Richards 
will not be pleased at that. 


Talk about the rich tapestry ol 
life. Visitors to the V & A can 
now pay their £2 voluntary 
charge not just to see an 
embroidered Napoleon and 
Queen Victoria in the newly 
opened exhibition “Characters in 
Cloth" but also an embroidered 
V &A director, the bespectacled 
Sir Roy Strong. Fortunately, the 
masterpiece will not be subjected 
to any export licence: it was 
commissoned by the museum 
and will remain in its permanent 
collection. PHS 

Schools: how everyone suffers 


I write to you more distressed about the 
state of education than at any time in my 
years at the school. 

I approached the start of this term 
with considerable anxiety. What f find so 
demoralizing is the apparent indifference 
of those involved in negotiations, in 
particular the Secretary of State, to the 
need to talk urgently and persistently 
until a solution is found to the dispute. 
There is no doubt in my mind that 
teachers are poorly paid, particularly if I 
am to recruit the quality of teacher 
whom you and I would wish to see at the 

Teachers vary in how they fry fo 
present their case and I have no desire, to 
identify for you differences of approach 
between the teachers' associations. There 
is enormous frustration among teachers 
that no one appears to be listening. /Their 
dilemma is impossible. 

Chi the one hand, they wish to take ac- 
tion in order to draw everyone’s 
attention to their case but, on me other, 
they are reluctant to harm the.>&ducatioii 
of their pupils. It is a meagre of the 
staff's professionalism that iff an autumn 
term of greater industrial turmoil than I 
have ever experienced in my time at this 
school, the staff helped air least 28 boys 
to gain places at Oxford .and Cambridge 

With the teachers 9 pay 
^dispute still dragging on, 
Bn rlrmghflms liM’A heaHrnag fer 

John Loarridge sent this 
letter to all parents 
setting ont its foil effect 

— which is easily the highest total in our 

The effects of the. industrial dispute 
are, m some ways, obscured' from you 
because 85 to 90 per cent of the boys 
come to school by coach or train and I 
cannot, therefore, readily send boys 
home. However, I think that I should re- 
port .to you as I shall report to the gov- 
ernors on some of the effects of the 

• Lunctime supervision. 1 have not 
closed the school at lunchtime because of 
my anxiety about releasing junior boys, 
unsupervised, into the town, . but the 
present position is uncomfortable owing 
to the low level of supervision. 

• Extra-curricular activities. Much of the 
extra-curricular activity in the lunch 
hour and after school has ceased. This is 
so sad in a school such as ours for it 
should be a significant part of any 
scheme of education here. 

• Cover for absent teachers. Associ- 
ations vary in their response to this. 1 

cover for absent colleagues; this, in turn, 
makes it difficult for me to release 
teachers for in-service training, 
examiners’ meetings and educational 

• Staff meetings! A whole cycle of staff 
meetings, heads-of-department meetings, 
sixth-form tutor, meetings and year-tutor 
meetings, all of which are held after 
school have ceased. These are important 
for the proper running of the school 

• Parents' evenings and school reports. 
These, as everyone knows,- have been 
cancelled or curtailed. 

• General Certificate of Secondary 
Education. I am most anxious that the 
new examination is property and 
effectively introduced. Unless . the Sec- 
retary of State, the. local authorities and 
the teachers' associations resolve their 
differences, the examination will 

I am immensely proud of the 
achievements of the boys and the staff of 
this schooL Both have my wholehearted 
support and 1 very much hope they will 
have yours. 

I plead for an early resolution to the 

John Loarridge is headmaster of Dr 
Challoner's Grammar School , a county 
secondary school in Amersham, Bucks. 

Cape Town 

When President Botha rises in 
the South African parliament in 
Cape Town today to open the 
1986 session awl to set his 
government's agenda for the year 
ahead, he will be doing so in an 
international context that has 
changed utterly over the past year 
or so. 

There will be a difference, as 
usual between the agenda and 
the underlying aim of South 
Africa's niters: the continued 
retention of political control in 
white, preferably Afrikaner, 
hands. What has changed is the 
relation of this strategy to world 

Although opinion outside 
South Africa has for a long time 
been vocally hostile, the 
country's leaden have been able 
to shape their strategy with only 
cosmetic concessions to foreign 
opinion and have frequently 
operated with grand disregard for 

This is not the first of Botha's 
speeches which has been eagerly 
awaited as a pointer to the future. 
The reaction to the last one 
which generated anticipation on 
this scale gave the Afrikaner 
establishment a violent jolL After 
days of rumours that far-reaching 
reforms were imminent, Botha 
delivered a speech to a party 
congress in Durban which con- 
ceded nothing at all. In so many 
words, he told the outside world 
to go to hell. 

In the past he would have got 
away with it — after the ritual ex- 
pressions of outrage around the 
globe. This time, the rand 
plunged in value, and American 
bankers, led by Chase Man- 
hattan. called in their loans. 
Pretoria responded by dosing 
foreign and stock exchanges for 
four days, bringing in currency 
controls and suspending loan 
repayments. Both President Rea- 
gan and Mrs Thatcher were 
forced by new political pressures 
to at least consider sanctions- 

There is therefore a good deal 
riding on what Botha says today 
in a speech which has been 
dubbed “Son of Rubicon” 
(“—We are today crossing the 
Rubicon; there can be no turning 
back.. he said in his earlier 
speech). Superficially, he is in a 
stronger position than he was last 
August Then, unrest and vi- 
olence in the black townships was 
at its height the world’s tele- 
vision screens, now censored, 
were broadcasting nightly pic- 
tures of the carnage .at a time 
when there was not much 
competing news. A slate of 
emergency bad been declared. 

Finally, there was the grossly 
mismanaged build-up to the 
Durban speech. How this hap- 
pened is still something of a 
mystery. It was in part 
attributable to an over-enthusias- 
tic briefing of western officials in 
Vienna by Pik Botha, the South 
African foreign minister, a week 

Others say there was a last- 
minute revolt by cabinet 
hardliners who threatened to 
resign if some of the reforms 
being discussed were not aban- 

Michael Hornsby on the likely tenor 
of today’s speech responding 
to the mounting demand for change 

Pressure on all 
sides — but 
will Botha crack? 

doned. Still others say President 
Botha simply reacted in the time- 
honoured manner of Afrikaners 
under outside pressure and dug 
his heels in. 

Whatever happened, the same 
mi s tak e has not been marie this 
time. High expectations of 
today's speech are being dis- 
couraged. The economic position 
is also somewhat improved. The 
pprice of gold. South Africa's 
main foreign exchange earner, 
has risen sharply in the last few 
weeks, and with It the value of 
the rand. Plentiful rains promise 
a good maize harvest, thus 
obviating the need to spend 
precious foreign currency on 

The government, which went 
through a period of blind panic at 
the end of last year, seems to 
have recovered its nerve. A 
visiting delegation of US con- 
gressmen which met Botha this 
month found him, in the words 

of one, “very stubborn", and 
showing no signs of a man who 
felt the need to court the outside 
world's sympathy or goodwill 

This is causing concern in the 
business community, which fears 
that a repetition of the unyielding 
tone of the Durban speech could 
renew domestic unrest — it has 
shown some signs of waning, if 
only through sheer exhaustion — 
and destroy the improving eco- 
nomic prospects. Their most 
immediate worry is a meeting of 
foreign creditor banks in London 
on February 20 at which Dr Fritz 
Leutwiler, a fomer governor of 
the Swiss Central Bank, will 
submit compromise proposals on 
the rescheduling of South Africa's 

Leutwiler was appointed by 
Pretoria to act as mediator 
between the government and the 
foreign banks. Towards the end 
of last year. South Africa pro- 
posed delaying loan repayments 
until 1990, a suggestion turned 

down flat by 30 or so main 
creditor banks in December. 
Earlier this month, Leutwiler 
visited South Africa to discuss 
alternative schemes. The pro- 
posals he will table next month 
will represent his own attempt to 
bridge the gap. 

Foreign bankers are under 
pressue from anti-apartheid lob- 
bies in their own countries to 
take a tough line. That pressure is 
bound to intensify if Botha 
makes another evasive speech 
with no clearcui commitments to 
abolishing racial segregation or 
moving towards power-sharing 
with blacks. 

The speech will also be dosely 
studied by members of the 
Commonwealth “Eminent Per- 
sons Group" (EPG). which is 
expected to visit South Africa 
some time in February or March. 
EPG's seven members, include 
Malcolm Fraser, the former 
Australian prime minister. Lord 
Barber, the former British 
Conservative Chancellor, Dame 
Nita Barrow, president of the 
World Council of Churches, and 
General' Olusegun Obasanjo, 
head of the Nigerian military 
government from 1976 to 1979. 
Its task is to report back to 
Commonwealth members by the 
end of June on the South African 
government's performance in 
meeting a number of .objectives. 

These call on South Africa to 
declare ■ that the system - of 
aprtheid will be dismantled and 
to announce the steps to be taken 
to that end, to lift the state of 
emergency, to release Nelson 
Mandela, to lift the ban on the 
African National Congress and to 
initiate a process of dialogue 
across lines of colour, politics 
and religion. 

If satisfactory progress is 
deemed not to have berm made 
towards these goals. Common- 
wealth governments will meet to 
consider imposing new sanctions 
on South Africa. These could 
include a ban on air links, on the 
import of “cultural goods" and 
on contracts with companies 
which have majority South Af- 
rican ownership. Sanctions would 
be voluntary, but the moral and 
diplomatic pressure on reluctant 
countries would be substantial 

On past experience, h seems 
unlikely that the Botha govern- 
ment will be much moved by 
these threats. The President’s 
speech, although it will probably 
be presented and packaged more 
diplomatically than “Rubicon", 
seems, likely to do little more 
than confirm reforms already 
promised or indicated in the area 
of the pass laws, black citizenship 
and property rights. 

Little darity is expected on the 
question of future political rights 
for blacks. Clear-cut reforms 
which could still make a big 
impression — such as the 
abolition of the Group Areas Act 
which segregates residential ar- 
eas, schools and hospitals — has 
been ruled out in advance as 
non-negotiable once again. 

Those abroad who have been 
prepared to give Botha the 
benefit of the doubt look likely to 
be disappointed again. 

The Bird that could ruffle Bradley 

Los Angeles 

Tom Bradley. Democratic mayor 
of Los Angeles, who narrowly 
lost the race for the governorship 
of California to the Republicans 
in 1982. is expected to be his 
party's nominee again this year. 

An unusual problem feces 
Bradley, however, a man who if 
elected would be the first black in 
the governor's mansion. What 
can he and his party do about the 
most emotional issue in Califor- 
nian politics — the well-financed 
drive to oust the chief justice 
from the state supreme court? 

Republicans and conservatives 
are intent on removing from 
office Miss Rose Elizabeth Bi«L 
who was appointed to her high 
judicial office by former governor" 
Jerry Brown. The campaign 
against Bird has turned into a 
crusade for the death penalty — 
one of the most passionately 
debated issues in modern Amer- 

Capital punishment was out- 
lawed in California in 1971 by a 
supreme court decision written 
by Donald Wright, who had been 
appoimedchief justice by the 
thengpvemor Ronald Reagan. 
But in 1977 it was reinstated 
when voters approved a special 
ballot initiative to change the 

By then Jerry Brown, in one of 
his most controversial ads, had 
named Bird to the court. Since 
she joined, it has overturned 52 
of 55 death sentences passed to it 
for review from lower courts. 
Bird alone among the judges has 
voted to reverse every one of the 
55. No one has been executed in 
California since 1967. 

The anti-Bird forces, in-eluding 
the California Distri ctA rtomeys’ 
Associate o n .accuse her and the 
court of systematically blocking 
execu-tions, thus of being soft on 
crime. This is a potent charge, 
since a poll last year found that 
83 per cent of Californians 
favour the death penalty, with 
only 15 per cent opposed. 
Mervyn Field, the pollster, said 
this was an all-time high in 
support of the death sentence. 

Supporters of Bird say she has 
led the court in discovering 
numerous deficiencies in the 
capital punishment law. Anthony 
Murray, a former president of the 
state bar association, describes 
the law on sentencing as "very 
badly written”. He recently told a 
news conference that Bird was 
prepared to support the death 
sentence if a case reached the 
court in which the defendant had 
received a fair trial -and problems 
with the law did not arise. 

In any case. Bird's supporters 
believe the death penalty' issue is 
a smokescreen to cover the 
motives of the anti-Bird cam- 
paign — to open her seat to an 
appointee of the Republican 
governor, George Deukmejian, to 
move Californian courts in a 
more conservative direction and 
to make them more responsive to 
a rightwards-shifting public opin- 

In his view, the courts are 
merely the latest point of attack 
from the “new right", and the 
death penalty is the easiet issue 
around which to rally support 

The anti-Bird campaign does 
seem to dovetail with moves by 
the White House and the 
Department of Justice in Wash- 
ington to move the federal 
judiciary to the right through the 
appointment of younger, more 
conservative lawyers who will sit 
on the bench for years to come. 

The campaign to oust Bird has 
been well organized and long- 
planned; it has spent about $2 
million already and last year 
distributed some 4 million pieces 
of mail. Prominent among her 
opponents is state senator H.L. 
Richardson, one of the most 
conservative politicans in the 
state, and a contender in the 
.November elections for the post 

of lieutenant-governor. 

As for Bradley, he supported 
Bird when she came up for 
confirmation by the electors in 
1978 and was returned to her 
office with only 51.7 per cent of 
the vote. But to stand by her this 
lime, with a November poll 
recording only 35 per cent 
support for her, might endanger 
his own difficult race against the 

Democrats say the mayor is 
being urged to say he supports 
Bird's reconfinna-tion but would 
himself not have appointed her. 
Such equivocation, however, 
would be as bad or worse as 
outright abandonment of Bird: it 
would antagonise her supporters 
and give more ammunition to 
Deukmejian and the Republicans 
who say that Bradley “flip-flops" 
on issues. 

Bradley has already expedi- 
ently changed his opposition, to 
tighter controls on the possession 
of hand guns — in 1982 he 
supported controls and may well 
have lost the gubernatorial dec- 
lion for that reason. This time 
around, no matter which way he 
jumps, the Rose Bird issue could 
be the mayor’s undoing. 

Toin Wicker 

© New York Tinas Nam Sonic* 19B6 

David Watt 

Sanctions and 


Syria is h , 3 jJSTihan Ga^ 
for more notS 

Wh* matters is •• 

fir ySTtSd 

After weeks of wavering and 
argument, the EEC foreign at last 
agreed on Monday to a joint 
policy towards Colonel Gadaffi 
of Libya — except that it wasn't 
really united and they couldn't 
even say publicly that it was 
aimed at Gadaffi. 

There is to be an arms 
embargo against “any country 
implicated in supporting 
terrorism", but Greece, sup- 
ported by Italy and France, 
refused to allow a specific finger 
to be pointed at Libya. There is a 
promise not to take advantage of 
other people's economic sanc- 
tions a gainst terrorism, but again 
it is apparently not possible to 
state openly that the only “other 
people” in the case are the US or 
that the sanctions in question are 
against Gadaffi. The consequence 
of this piece of diplomatic 
finagling is that everyone is now 
permitted to make his own 
definition of terrorism and who 
is implicated in supporting iL 

In the light of this pathetic 
performance, you may say, the 
Americans are utterly entitled to 
their violent expressions of dis- 
gust at the feebleness, cynicism, 
and greed of their European 
allies. But what do the Europeans 
observe when they turn to the 
other tide of the Atlantic? 

President Reagan thunders 
denunciations of Gadaffi as a 
“flaky barbarian", sets his whole 
machine to rlisspininatTnfl tO 
every corner of the globe the 
most lurid and demonic picture 
of the Colonel that propaganda 
can devise, cuts off all economic 
links with Libya and sends an 
aircraft carrier to the Gulf of 
Sirte to brandish a big stick 
under Gadaffi' s nose. But the feet 
is that this is all fustian. The 
economic links are insignificant 
anyway. Trade is very smalL As 
for American naval and air 
demonstrations off the Libyan 
coast they represent a mild 
humiliation of Gadaffi, in that he 
obviously dare not try to prevent 
them, but nothing more: 

The conclusion to be drawn 
from all this is banal In a highly 
interdependent world nobody, 
not even a superpower, has very 
much freedom of manoeuvre. 
The reason the Greeks do not 
want to gang up on Gadaffi is 
less to* do with commercial self- 
interest than with the feet that 
Gadaffi is a Soviet client, while 
they themselves are on the 
borders of the Communist block 
and have had, since. the Second 
World War, a very strong Left. 

The I talians have strong ex- 
colonial links with Libya: a quite 
huge Italian population is, in 
effect, hostage There and the 
Libyans have a substantial stake 
in Italian industry, including 13 
per cent of Fiat. By the same 
token, the reason the Americans 
dare not simply topple Gadaffi 
by a coup de main is that they 
would risk dangerous Soviet 
reactions and almost certain 
disaster in their relations with the 
rest of the Arab world 

It is this powerlessness, of 
course; winch drives the Ameri- 
cans mad. It is Castro and the 
Ayatollah all over again. Here is 
the strongest nation on earth 
being deprived by a bad, half- 
mad, tinpot dictator and, god- 
dam it, why doesn't the President 
do something about it? The 
argument that President Assad of 

%■ different 

needs much so ** 

dling than tt has Reagan t 


«S“Jf 53F idiouc of 4, 

struggle with the other SUP®- 


American side. Nevertheless 
while we are all making up cm 
minds about this, there a m 
reason why we should not lookti 
bit more coolly at 
limitai question of terrorist^ 
which is equally ■ me "®“ J 
Europe, to the US ana to. 
everyone else. 

Leaving aside the Utopia 
“solution", which is to cure tts 
injustices from which terronstt 
arises, it is pretty clear what t« 
main options are. One must denj, 
terrorists an easy sanctuary aw 
one must at the same liffit 
improve one's own detracts 
against their activities. It n 
extremely difficult to eliminate 
ait sanctuaries but it must be 
right to try to reduce them. But. 
how? Neither Libya nor Syna can 
be forced to co-operatc: they are.t 
not like "nests" of Barbary 
corsairs which the European 
powers were eventually able Ur 
dean out by force but sovereign 
nations with powerful allies, 
notably the Soviet Union. The 
truth is that unless the US is 
prepared to allow the Russians 
bade into the Middle East game 
in order to secure their beneficent 
influence with their clients, 
nothing very radical on the' 
sanctuary front will come forth. 

Hie alternative strategy of 
improving joint intelligence and 
tightening security among poten- 
tial terrorist targets is often pooh- 
poohed as a second best, but the 
feet is that in spite of past! 
declarations and promises, it has- 
barely begun in earnest. Any top 
policeman who has had anything 
to do with it will bear witness u 
his franker moments to the 
thinness, not to say fatuity d 
most international co-operation 
in the past If large amounts d 
money and co-ordinated political 
commitment' can really now bt 
poured in, for more may be 
achieved than by making evasivr 
declarations in Brussels or ty 
zooming up and down Ubyai 

Moreover . . . Miles Kington 



When 1 was at school we played a 
game called rugby which in- 
volved a lot of running and 
passing the ball and scoring 
things called tries. When I watch 
television these days, 1 some- 
times see men kicking the ball 
kicking each other, blowing 
whistles and having things ex- 
plained to them by the referee. 
This, for some strange reason 
that escapes me, is also called 
rugby, though it seems only 
distantly related to tire game I 
used to play. 

Why, then, do I watch it? For 
the sheer pleasure of listening to 
the commentators. The artistry 
and flair may have gone from the 
game at international level but it 
is all still there in the rugby 
commentary. These fellows en- 
thuse and rave, gasp and roar, as 
if something exciting was really 
going on out fhere. Watching the 
game is nothing, but listening to 
it is terrific, such is their 
invention and imagination. 

If it is a pleasure so for denied 
yon, do watch the next rugby 
international and keep by you 
this check-list of commentators' 
phrases I have made, together 
with their real meaning. 

• “Both sides know that a 
victory is absolutely vital." (This 
is going to be a totally defensive 

“The tackling on both sides is 
absolutely terrific" (There hasn't 
been a single good nut yet). 

• “They're really probing the 
defences.” (So they haveTaecidea 
to kick instead). 

• “The referee has brought the 
play back.” (The referee saw 
someone running with the ball 
and decided he must have broken 
a law). 

“He was dispossessed." (He 
dropped the bail). 

“The commitment on both 
sides is terrific.” (They're stand - 
ing on each other’s faces where we 
can't see them). 

“That had the making* 0 f a 
wonderful movemenL” (A player 
ran 10 yards and fell over.) 

W 7 .- 



•7* 2* i s on here- 

(The stand-off is about to trvt 
drop goal and miss). 

• “What an exciting game this it 
turmng out to be!” (The scons , 
are roughly level). 

• “Oh, my goodness me! Of ' 
you see that?" (I didn’t see dtf- 
and I am about to look mV 
again on video.) 

• “The referee must have set • 
something we didn't see ” // ac'd 
not very sure of the mlcs thS 

n ? r “ lhe referee) . 

• 'JJm* Pky has come to 1 
standstill lets see again 
glorious moment." (Up J* 
replay film of the plover runs* 1 
10 yards and falling av£) . 

?“° D \r t a reaiiy 

ihegrmmd wo touch) : 

anmher penalty *** - 

• “It’s not perhaps a d* S* 
game, but ir s desJSfr ■ 
netting." ar s an £jS: #a 
bonng game and thp vOU'zMt 
still roughly level) Scor & ** A 

kick the bait) Ul *agcm* i 

•‘2*- e jSL us anolh « ^ 


• “Nobody in the crowd ubouS 

to leave before the finni . 

(It's too crowded ta™} 

• “You could cut .{yin*-#- 
with a knife." n \ ! he * cB S5 ■ 
what I am saylL^f. 

• “It’s a shame : 

that the only try rat J 0l ™~f a fs' v , 

sSa ■ 

ivu that mao ru, £ES £3r' r 
and falling over og a f„ Z- 

motion ). soin. 


. ‘ *»Y- •< 





1 Pennington Street, London El. Telephone 01 481 4100 


The House of Commons 
select committee on defence 
wishes to interview some civil 
servants about their roles in 
the Westland drama, in 
. particular their roles in the 
‘ teak of the Solicitor General's 
v "letter. The Government does 
not want those civil servants 
to be interviewed. In the 
short history of the current 
select committee system this 
is not so untoward a disagree- 
ment The definition of ex- 
actly who or what should be 
brought before a select 
committee is not yet set in 
stone. Over the years there 
has been give-and-take on 
both sides as the important 
task of strengthening the 
• legislature’s grip on the exec- 
utive has continued its 

But the current row goes far 
beyond the powers of select 
committees. It threatens the 
future of Mrs Thatcher's 
government and the continu- 
ation of the policies with 
which she is most identified 
and upon which she has won 
two elections. As she consid- 
ers her next move, the Prime 
Minister must look carefully 
t'p the advice that she is 
getting and ask herself 
whether those giving it have 
the same interest at heart as 
she has. 

It is easy to understand the 
arguments used by those who 
never want to see Miss Bo we, 
Mr Mogg, Mr Ingham or Mr 
Powell answering MPs’ ques- 
tions about the events of 
January 6th. They know that 
the Prime Minister's account 
is still incomplete, that she is 
still protecting her officials, 
and that any divergence 
between their version of the 
-events and her own will have 
unpleasant consequnces for 
all concerned. 

They say that the civil 
servants have already an- 
swered questions from an 
internal inquiry team and 
that subsequent grillings by 
the committee would con- 
stitute a double jeopardy. 
They say that she has won the 
political battle with Mr 
Kin nock, that her statement 
on Monday (on which so 
many great party minds were 
consulted) was a triumph of 
.necessary evil over needless 
%elf-sacrifice and that there 


the line should be held. 

There are other arguments, 
however, which are not used 
openly by those advocating 
the current tactic. There are 
cabinet ministers, govern- 
ment whips and senior back- 
benchers who are very much 
enjoying the Prime Minister's 
post-Westland spirit of care 
and consultation. From 
consultation, they believe, 
will come not just a short 
period of consolidation but a 
banishing of Mrs Thatcher’s 
more populist and radical 
instincts forever. In a per- 
verse way, they maybe do not 
even mind too much if the 
affair of the leaked letter 
drags on a little longer, if Mrs 
Thatcher stays just a little 
weaker. The outcome that 
they are determined to avoid 
at all costs is the slightest risk 
of Mrs Thatcher coming a 
complete cropper and plung- 
ing them into an election that 
they would lose. 

It is dear that if the 
Government does not allow 
the select committee on 
defence to interview the 
officials of its choice, this 
damaging episode in the 
Westland affair will, indeed, 
drag on. All the select 
committees are in potentially 
pricklish mood at present 
The hostile preemptive re- 
action to the Lords commit- 
tee on overseas trade last 
October has put them on 
their guard. Subsequent hints 
that the Government wished 
to curb their investigative 
excesses have kept them 

As for the defence commit- 
tee, its constitutional position 
is pretty strong. The relevant 
memorandum from the 
House of Commons derk to 
the committee on procedure, 
incorporated in Erskine May, 
states that “there is no doubt 
that a committee could sum- 
mon a named official if it so 
wished but to summon an 
individual civil servant 
a^inst the wishes of the 
minister to whom he is 
responsible might lead to his 
being instructed by that 
minister not to answer a 
committee’s questions in his 
official capacity”. So, on that 
basis, the committee should 
at least have the opportunity' 

to put questions to the 
officials even if the answers 
are no more officially forth- 
coming than those given by 
Mr Brittan and DTI perma- 
nent secretary. Sir Brian 
Hayes, yesterday. 

But this is no ordinary 
select committee. This form 
of investigation was especially 
• chosen by the Government 
when there was strong case 
for some much tougher in- 
quiry into the facts of the 
Westland saga. The House 
passed the procedure by a 
large majority and Sir Hum- 
phrey Atkins, backed by some 
of the Commons’ more tena- 
cious pariiflnwirrtariflnt has 
stressed that he regards him- 
self as “observing the wishes 
of the House” 

This committee is not 
going to be an easy act to 
beat But the more it has to 
drag its evidence from unwitt- 
ing witnesses and an unwitt- 
ing adminis tration foe more 
the chan ce that ‘A potentially 
unpleasant time for Mrs 
Thatcher will become an 
actual disaster for her poli- 
cies. The m isnniiftntfanrfiflgc 
the resignations, the covers, 
the cover-ups, they att have to 
be put behind her. Before that 
happens, they have to be 
brought unequivocally out 
into die open. And they have 
to be seen to come out in the 
open. It will seem tiresome. It 
will seem boring • even 
probably to those asking the 
questions. It will be some- 
times embarassmg and some- 
times worse. But it has to be 

When it is done, die 
government can get back to 
work. The coming months are 
not likely to be the most 
courageous in the history of 
the Thatcher government but 
the guidelines can even now 
be prepared for the tasks that 
must follow. The Prime 
Minister' ought not to allow 
herself to be worn down by 
prevarication and evasions. 
She ought not to be directed 
towards presenting herself at 
the next election as the 
"steady as we go* 4 candidate. 
She has received a dent to her 
image. There remains the risk 
of a still deeper dent Bat that 
risk is nothing to the danger- 
of allowing herself to be 
ground down into mediocrity. 

From the Secretary 
Britain's Heritage 
Sr, The Bishop of - Rochester 
(January 24) is right to draw 
attention to the serious financial 
problems affecting Fn giish Her- 
itage and thereby the system of 
State aid to historic churches. 
The budget of the Historic 
Buildings .and Monuments 
Commission is being cut by £2 
million in real terms in 1986-87, 
a Government economy which 
should evoke the widest protest 

However the fact remains that 
in the last financial year, some £4 
million was given in grant aid to 
churches, almost all of it to the 
Church of England. Yet there has 
been no erosion whatsoever of 
foe anomalous “ecclesiastical 
exemption” The Church has the 
unique privilege of demolishing 
listed buildings without any 
reference to government or to 
public opinion. Many historic 
churches have been subjected to 
drastic internal alteration in tire 
interests of current liturgical 

The scandalous proposals for 
Ely Cathedral cannot be so 
brushed aside : they exemi 
the problems of a group of 
buildings which are ai foe centre 
of our national heritage. It is a 
matter of grad public concern 
that some cathedrals are driven 
to such desperate measures to 
raise fends. 

It is equally a matter of 
concern that funds raised are, on 
occasions, spent so irresponsibly. 
The mania for refitting and 
reordering continues unchecked 
w hilst insensitive restoration - 
supposedly the preserve of the 
Victorians - is stiD with us. 
Surely the bishop has been to 
Canterbury and seen the oncc- 
veneruble medieval cloister, now 
very largely a modem rebuilding? 

Sadly, both foe financial prob- 
lems of cathedrals and. the 
attitudes of some chapters pro- 
vide a strong argument for 
greater public accountability. 
Yours sincerely, 

KEN POWELL, Secretary, 

Save Britain's Heritage, 

68 Battersea High Street; SW11. 

Risks at Lloyd’s 

From Ms Marguerite Evers 
Sir, The report (January 21) of 
Mr. Richard Needham's refusal 
to pay his Lloyd's losses because 
his agent had promised to place 
him on “safe and sound 
s” is yet another exam- 
of the widespread misunder- 
standings prevalent about the 
nature of Lloyd's membership, 
all the more puzzling because in 
this case it comes from an MP 
who is not only a Name, but 
participated in debate an Lloyd's 
in Parliament. 

As Mr Needham ought to 
know, because the potential 
earnings of Lloyd's membership 
are great, so are the potential 
risks. Someone who has sufficient 
wealth to become a Name is not 
required to sell investments or 
p roperty in order to join Lloyd's. 
They merely enter into written 
unlimited commitment should 
net losses result from the year’s 

trading . 

In return the Name has a share 
of the profit should premiums 
and investments exceed claims - 
as they frequently and substan- 
tially da At the same time their 
money continues to earn for 
them in whatever investments 
they already hold outside the 
market Thus their membership 
of Lloyd's gives them a chance to 
make a second layer of gains on 
the capitaL 

It is self-evident that such a 
privileged position cannot pos- 
sibly rail to carry with it some 
responsibilities, and to expect 
rewards without risk, through the 
medium of a market which owes 
its existence to the idea of risk, 
would be absurd- The essential 
commitment of a Name is to the 
concept that, while standing to 
gain he may lose, and if he loses 
he pays up in ftifl. 

Sudden silence 
at Wapping 

From Dr Alan Bullock 
Sir, I read with dismay in today’s 
paper that “ The Times regrets it 
is unable to reply to corresp 
dents whose letters have not b 
selected for publication”. This 
presumably means that those of 
us whose polished gems perish 
before reaching foe glory of foe 
printed page will now no longer 
receive one of those charming 
notes assuring os, that, although 
it was not possible to find a space 
for our thoughts, the. Editor read 
them with interest. 

I am sure we shall all be 
saddened and diminished by the 
lapsing of this oide-woride cour- 
tesy, perhaps the last remnants of 
a bygone age associated with 
other vanished treasures such as 
foe Fourth Leader and foe “real” 
Personal Column. 

May one hope that when 
Wapping starts to fee! like home 
this genteel custom might be 
revived? Or will it be yet another 
case of ou. sot a les neiges d‘ anion? 

Yours faithfully, 


Department of Italian language 
and Literature, 

University of Leeds, 

Leeds. . 

January 28. 

* The interruption, we believe, 
is only temporary. 

pays up 

only possible 
s of suspected fra 


are cases of suspected fraud, and 
this is not an issue raised by Mr 
Needham in respect of his losses 
on 244. Like Mr Needham, 
agents and Names tend to hope 
for “safe and sound syndicates” 
but in the nature of the business 
of Lloyd's they cannot be 
guaranteed by the one or de- 
manded by the other. 

If Mr Needham regarded such 
a guarantee as a condition of 
membership through his chosen 
agency and pre-oondition of 
honouring his commitments, be 
demonstrates a complete mis- 
conception of his role as a Name; 
and an extremely disconcerting 
lack of grasp (considering his 
parliamentary involvement) of 
how Lloyd's functions. 

Yours faithfully, 


25 Kensington Park Gardens, 


January 22. 


Uganda's new president, founded optimism. As the old 
Yoweri Museveni, has prom- mother country which bad 
ised an era of peace stability . always been aware of its 
and good government after potential - the so-called 
the five years of civil war that 
have badly disfigured his 
country. So, one might add, 
has almost everyone else who 
has preceded him since in- 
dependence more than 20 
years ago. So too has the rest 
of the world accepted and, 
l however briefly, believed 
them - even Idi Amin in 
1971. But this time the 
display of international hope 
and confidence would seem 
to be more firmly based. 

His swift asumption of 
control is welcome in itself, if 
only because it brings to an 
end the period of bloodshed 
and anarchy in which Ugan- 
dans had more to fear from 
their own government troops 
than from anyone else. Not 
the least of Museveni’s 
achievments so far, during 
ten years in the bush, is to 
have maintained a relatively 
light discipline over his own 
soldiers in the National Lib- 
eration Army. That is another 
reason why his victory has 
been welcomed by the people 
of Kampala. 

Britain has erred like every- 
one else in the past by 
greeting each change of gov- 
ernment in Uganda with 
misplaced hope and ill- 

of Africa” - Britain has felt a 
particular responsibility to- 
wards its people. Seven of the 
British military training team 
remain in the country and 
Major-General Anthony Pol- 
lard, temporarily attached to 
the British high commission 
in Nairobi, was in Kampala 
yesterday for talks with the 
new regime over further 
assistance of this kind. Sir 
Geoffrey Howe announced 
last month that Britain was 
prepared to make available 
up to £Sra in overseas aid - 
an offer which apparently still 

Museveni therefore begins 
the job of restoring order and 
perhaps prosperity to Uganda 
amid much good will from 
Whitehall and elsewhere. He 
will need it He personally has 
a clean, somewhat 
puritannical record - un- 
stained by the blood spilled 
by former regimes. But he 
inherits a country whose ' 
suffering arises from more 
fundamental weaknesses than 

number of other lesser 
groupings. They have never 
been reconciled satisfactorily. 

There are the Bantu tribes 
of the South - from where 
Museveni himself comes - 
and the Nilotic and Sudanic 
tribes of the North, home of 
his immediate predecessors. 
But the split in loyalties is 
more complicated than a 
simple North-South divide. 
There are rivalries between 
neighbouring tribes all over 
Uganda. Independence was 
granted in 1962 in an 
atmosphgere of promise and 
good wilL But those who 
based their assumptions on 
the country’s balmy climate 
and fertile soil should have 
paid more attention to the no 
less fertile potential for politi- 
cal mayhem. 

President Museveni has 
started with all the right 
ideas. He is seeking a mixed 
economy, the end of tribal 
quarrels, friendly relations 
with other countries in Africa 
and elsewhere. A sceptic 
might point out that we have 
heard much of this before. 
But Uganda deserves another 
cha nc e. Twenty years is - a 

Concorde ‘profit’ 

From Mr R. P. Holubowicz 
Sir, Coocorde makes £12 million 
“profit" a year for British 
Airways, your journalist reports 
(January 21) from “on board 
champagne Concorde's birthday 

No amount of caviar, cham- 
pagne, or “freebies” for journal- 
ists should be allowed to obscure 
the fact that .this £12 million 
“profit” is operating prqfit, before 
account is taken of the aircraft's 
capital costs. 

privatisation aid. State-owned 
British Airways received its fleet 
of Concordes, in effect, for free. 

Concorde “profit” is simply 
revenue less direct operating 
costs (e^, fuel), which is “profit” 
only if yon believe in fairies and 
have a fairy godmother. 

It is a very different “profit” 
from that which Britain's pri- 
vately owned airlines need to 
stay in business, in competition 
with British Airways. 

Yours faithfully, 


And, lo and behold, there are The European Community’s In- 
1 ramtal ««« »«»». dependent Airline Association, 

Abdag Braiding, PO Box 36, 
Brussels National Airport, 
B-1930 Zaventem. 

January 22. 

no capital costs associated with 
Couxnde, by special decree of 
the Government. Thanks to the 
taxpayer, Concorde's capital costs 
were written off as a pre~ 

Enquiry at Usk 

From Mr A. G. Burgess 
Sir, In his article, “Short, sharp - 
but a failure?" (January 21), 
Peter Evans made reference to a 
formal enquiry at foe detention 
centre in Usk. 

An enquiry at a senior level 
was held there in August, 1985, 
and the Home Secretary has 
since oven consideration to the 
very fell and detailed report 
made to him. Some evidence was 
found of minor deviations from 
authorised procedures, but they 
were of a trivial nature. No 
action was taken against any 
member of staff 
It is fair to say that the 
outcome of foe frill and searching 
enquiry into the regime, 
/inmate relationships and 
methods of control was very 
satisfactory reflecting great credit 
on both local management and 

There is much of which the 
staff at Uric can be justifiably 
proud. The Board of Visitors, 
who perform a “watchdog”, role 
have always known this. They 
have had every confidence in the 
professional and caring standards 
of staff which go hand in 
with a brisk and purposeful 

At Usk there is no sense of fail- 

I would be grateful if you will 
publish these comments to cor- 
rect what might be construed as 
an adverse conclusion drawn in 
Mr Evans’s article. 

Yours faithfully, 

A. G. BURGESS. Chairman, 
Board of Visitors, 

Usk Detention Centre, 

29 Maryport Street, 


January 24. 

an unfortunate succession of short time in African politics, 
corrupt or inadequate leaders. Uganda retains the potential 
The country was founded on w become a larder for many 
what has been described as a of its more poorly endowed 
mosaic of competing tribal neighbours, and Museveni 
interests, including four sepa- looks the best prospect yet to 
rate powerful kingdoms and a husband its resources. 

Future for gas 

i From Sir Kenneth 

Sir, The article in your issue 
today (January 22) refers to the 
difficulty of control of a single 
monolithic structure in legisla- 
tion proposed for a new gas 
industry. 1 believe that this 
difficulty could be avoided, or at 
least minimised, by a structure I 
proposed in a letter which 
appeared in your columns ou 
December 22. 1983. 

Briefly, it was that there should 
be a supply corporation respon- 
sible for procuring, producing, 
storing, and. in the long term, 
manufacturing gas for delivery to 
specified terminals, such as now 
exist in the territory of each of 
the former area boards. The 
terms and conditions of supply 
should be contractually enforce- 

The Supply Corporation would 
issue its own loan stock and 
equity and an like any other 
responsible oil company, it 

would have foe right to'enjoy the 
fruits of its enterprise in any new 
discoveries, whether gas or oiL 

The one restriction on its 
operations would be a commit- 
ment to meet the public demand, 
whether through area boards, as I 
have proposed and still favour, 
or through districts of a single 
retail corporation, if that it was 
the public favours. 

1 firmly believe that foe 
tension inherent m the seller/ 
buyer situation and tire need to 
justify the terms and conditions 
of each supply contract in the 
course of foe negotiations would 
be infinitely more effective than 
foe intervention of a supervisory 
board; while if negotiations were 
to break down there would be a 
right of appeal by either party to 
an arbitration board with clearly 
defined rights and limitations. 

Yours faithfully, 


2 Arlington Road, 



January 22. 

Stranger than fiction 

From Mr W. Myles Edge 

Sir. We have now had three 
weeks of the new series of Yes. 
Prime Minister on BBC2. During 
two of these showings there has 
also been compelling viewing on 
BBCl Nine O Clock News in 

connection with the real Prime 
Minister's activities. We have 
had to decide whether to watch 

the factual farce on BBCl or foe 
fictional farceon BBC2;bofo have 
been equally unbelievable and 

entertaining. If the BBC does not 
reschedule I will have to consider 
obtaining a video recorder. 

Yours faithfully. 



Town field Lane. 



January 24. 

Staying power 

From Mr CJ. Bruxner 
Sir, Referring to Mr Butler's 
letter (January 16) 1 have just 
sewn onto my coat sleeve a 
button with a needle from my 
housewife (pronounced “huzzif ') 
which was issued to me in 1945 
upon entry into tire Royal 
Marines at Deal. It is a kmd of 
small bold-all made of navy-blue 
cotton, and designed to keep 
together linen and cotton thread. 

needles and buttons. 

It saw servile across the seas 
and in Hong Kong and has been 
my constant companion ever 
since. The housewife is rolled up 
to dose it and, in that form, can 
easily be stowed into a kitbag, 
suitcase or rucksack. 

Yours faithfully, 

C J. Bruxner 
87 Manchester Road, 



January 24. 

From Mr BJ.H. Mattinson 
Sir, For 14 years I have been 
writing letters to The Times on 
topics as varied as crossword 
dues, Internationa} toilet signs, 
the magnificent voice of the late 
RSM Brittain, house insulation 
and, most recently, Sir Arthur 
Bryant's wasting secretary. None 
was ever published, but I treasure 
my collection of acknowledge- 
ments; all are different, each one 
politely softening foe blow of 
another failure. 

Now the second historic 
“Wapping” issue announces, in 
heavy blade type, foe end of this 
tradition. We unsuccessful 
correspondents will no longer 
receive replies. The 1 “Wapping” 
computers are not programmed 
to be polite. 

I enclose a stamped addressed 
envelope. Surely, Sir, your only 
honourable course is to print 
this, my final letter to The Times; 
then you may keep the stamp. 
Yours faithfully, 


6 Herisson Close, 


North Yorkshire. 

January 28. 

*Mr Mattinson ’s stamped en- 
velope is being returned to him. 

From Mr Percy Richer 
Sir, How worrying that The 
Times can no longer reply to 
correspondents whose letters 
have not been selected for 

While I concede that such a 
may not be strictly action- 
, it offends against foe 
principle of natural justice. 

I shall now not only have to 
buy your newspaper every day, to 
which I suppose I have no rooted 
objection, but read it carefully as 

O, tempora.- 
Yours etc , 


Upton Britton & Lumb, Solic- 

9 Leigham Hall Parade, 
Streatham High Road, SW16. 
January 28. 

From Mr A.L Jacobs * 

Sir, The “(sic) " appended by PHS 
to “priviledged” in today's Diaiy 
(January 28) would be more to' 
foe point if the same column 
were not itself adorned by “aimer 

The letter page has the- wonder- 
ful neologism “identifical”! 

I had hoped that the new 
printing technology, by eliminat- 
ing one intermediary, might 
reduce the generous supply of 
misprints in the columns of The 
Tunes. Is this hope to be 

Yours faithfully, 


126 Nether Streetm 

Recovered sounds 

From Mr Steve Race 
Sir, In July, 1938. in Cairo, 
Bandsman James Tappern fitted 
a modem mouthpiece to the 
silver and copper trumpet that 
had been found in 
Tutankhamen's tomb. The fan- 
fare be produced from the long 
silent instrument is preserved in 
the BBC sound archive: surely 
one of the most thrilling of aft 
recovered sounds. 

Your s faithfully, 


Martins End Lane, 

Great Missenden, 



Lost forests 

From Mr Guy Mowajort 
Sir, None can question the good 
intention of World Bank loans to 
developing nations, as described 
by JosS Bdtafbgo Goncaives 
(January 20). I fear, however, 
that he has missed the point of 
Touy Paterson's article (January 

How can the $1,000 million 
loan to Brazil be described as 
“for forestry conservation and 
development” when it involves 
the destruction of tens of 
thousands of square miles of 
primary rain-forest? Also the 
destruction of foe ricbest genetic 
resource on earth and of some of 
the most ancient and ecoiogi- 
cally-wise Indian tribes. 

The loss of this unique gene 
bank will be catastrophic for 

science, the pharmaceutical in- 
dustry, plant breeders and animal 
husbandry. The point is that we 
- do not want these iorests 
“developed”. It is unrealistic to 
claim that' the World Bank is 
ensuring “sound agricultural 
practices” in a region where only 
2 per cent of foe land is 
permanently cultivable. 

Most of the 400,000 impov- 
erished sealers along the new 
Amazon highway have already 
given up the attempt to raise 
crops and are selling their plots 
to city speculators. The rich 
American beef barons, who alone 
can afford foe prohibitive cost of 
fertilizers to convert foe land to 
cattle grazing, will contribute 
little to Brazil's economy. 

As for the claim that aS World 
Bank loan projects are subject to 
prior e xamina ti on of the con- 

sequences to the environment. I 
would refer Sr Botafogo to a 
recent statement in a publication 
of- foe International Union for 
Conservation of Nature and 
Natural Resources that, out of 
200 such projects concerned with 
- major land-drainage schemes, 
only nine were supported by 
adequate ecological studies. 

To most conservationists foe 
World Bank and the Inter- 
American Development Rank 
are, for all their good intentions, 
financing in Brazil one of the 
greatest man-made ecological 
disasters in the world's history. 

I am. Sir, your obedient 

(Vice-President, World Wildlife 
Fund (UK)). 

Hurst Oak, Sandy fane 
Lyndhurst, Hampshire 

JANUARY 31 187« 


Alexander Innes hnana. 

Daniel Deronda* 

Even judging it by the 
gather has accustom*! us to. u>» 

to approach perfection- ^ ^ ^ 
which « ^ 
Bwakemar attention is riretted on foe 
heroine, and thenceforward, es siw 
pBaymrtely dazzles and mystinw. 
curiosity is piqued and 
“Was she beautiful, or not beautiful . 
and what was the secret of fonn or ex- 
pression which gave the dynamic 

quality to her dance? Was the good or 
the evil do minan t in those 

beams? Probably the evit else why was 
the effect that of unrest rather than uf 
undisturbed charm? Why was the wish 
to look again felt as a coercion, and no; 
as a longing in which the whole being 
consents?” f 

In the studied significance of that 
prelude, as in the changing aspects and 
wayward moods with which 
Gwendolen Harietb is presented, we 
have the keys to the absorbing 
interests of the story. '‘Probably the 
nil":, the qualifying adverb adroitly 
ffl p gpm t u a worM of doubts and 
papering speculations. We observe 
Gwendolen dbsely, and contrast the 
id»xM of her admirers and denactore. 
while pressing towards conclusions 
that still elude us. The more our senses 
are conscious of the spells of her 
the less is our judgment 
Birliimi to submit blindly to they 
ascendency. Yet on the other hand, it 
nwm» impassible to incarnate in the 
light-hearted girl the guile and supple- 
ness of the serpent, as certain cynical 
critics at Baden are inclined to do, 
simpl y because her toilette has 
arranged itself in green and silver, and 
each of the movements of her graceful 
person resolves itself into waving 
beauty lines. 

Hie brilliant Gwendolen, captivating 
in every company, is shown to us jusl 
as the author sea her. We are free in 
penetrate if we can those secrets which 
niiimiii be open to all the work! lo 
guess. But of the hero, Daniel 
Deronda. as yet we can say nothing. 
We have only had a gbmps of him in a 
mhwl mob; yet it is dear that be is in- 
tended for no wmnMin man! that the 
imapiMtiw Gwendolen facta herself 
finked to him by strange affinities: 
that 1 * appears to pretend to exert an 
authority of her actions, though he 
ahrinlm from the formal presentation 
that might give him some shadow of a 
claim to interfere; and that, in all 
probability, it is he who may enlighten 
her on the question as to whether she 
has a heart or no. But if anyone is to 
win bar hand, the chosen champion 
will have the chivalrous excitement of 
carrying off the prize in a desperate 
meter: and it will take no ordinary tact 
and power combined to tame “the 
fierce maiden hood" of the petted 

As yet Gwendolen, in the trium- 
phant flush of her buoyant existence, 
has thrown the other girls into the 
shade; yet we suspect that one of them 
at least is only colourless by compari- 
son. Little Rita Gascoigne may be 
what aha aeons - a modest type of 
affectionate si mpl icity; but already we 
observe that there is more in the 
retiring Miss Ar ro wpomt than strikes 
the mind on alight acquaintance. That 
Gwendolen to the end will have the 
best of it in society and the salons we 
cannot doubt; the subdued nerve and 
gently insinuated sarcasm of her 
dialogue with the patronizing Mr 
A now point indicate latent powers of 
stin g in g satire and sharp epigram. 

As for the scenery of the story, it fe 
soon shifted from the garish gambling 
rooms of Baden to delightful country 
homes in a sequestered parish among 
the Wessex Downs, and yet situated ui 
a tolerable visiting neighbourhood. So 
we look forward to finished pictures of 
En g lish l andscap es, of which we 
already have a foretaste in foe way of 
enchanting sketches- Altogether, this 
t antalizing fragment has in no degree 
disappointed our anticipations, nor are 
the imp ress i ons it has made upon us at 
all fikriy to be effaced before foe nea 
monthly instalment helps forward the 
solution of its mysteries. 

• “Daniel Deronda." By 

EHot Book 1 “The Spoiled 

William Blackwood and Sons . 1876. 

Sleepers awake 

From Or Martin Lalde 
Sir, Dr Geoffrey Walsh (January 
16) suggests that rhythmic low- 
frequency vibration is longitudi- 
nally located bunks might be 
“positively hypnotic”, but 1 think 
that a more important advantage 
of this arrangement is less 
disturbance of the sleeper when 
subjected to foe longitudinal 
aocejeamoiis or decelerations 
which predominate during foe 
journey. e 

trip Dundee 
toBiutol! ofaaenrcd Iwakefiiliy) 
that on at least force occasions 

chan sed from 
dj«el to electric or vice-versa 

° f m0tion 

changed twice. Each engine 
action was accompanied bv 
considerable jolting and foe effect 
Sfc!itL£ n *!“ prfisem transversely 
S2? Bd .i? toe, S l * position is to 
rotate the body, rolling it 
violentiy towards foe partition or 
(WOJK, towarts the ^ Of "the 

Similar effects were produced 

by long “joSSf '"' enr “P'«< 
stations. J m noisy 

«S h prc^riSS n i- a 
night’s steenSSSrA a 

Rail to avoid enSne^h? 1 * Bril * sil 

to operate sleet*??™; h ngcs and 
^ relatively^ « at a s,ow 
Yours faithfaHy 1 speed 

gj*™ lakje 

besss** ***• 

logy & 


inn ixjvira rKjuL//v* jainUAKY Jl ivao 



January 30 The Princess 
Anne. Mrs Mark Phillips, 
Senior Warden of the 
Worshipful Company of 
Carmen. loday attended the 
court meeting. Master's 
Reception and Court Lun- 
cheon of the Company at the 
Cloth-workers' HalL London 

Her Royal Highness was 
received by the Senior Past 
Master (Lieutenant-Colonel 
F Cox head) and the Master 
(Mr O .Sutherland!, 

The Princess Anne. Mrs 
Mark Phillips, Patron of the 
British School of Osteopathy, 
this afternoon visited the 
School at Suffolk Street, SW1 
where Her Royal Highness 
opened the new lecture ball 
and toured the dime 
Her Royal Highness was 
received by the Principal of 
the School (Sir Norman 

Miss Victoria Legge- 
Bourke was in attendance. 
The Prince of Wales. Presi- 
dent. The Royal Jubilee and 
Prince's Trusts, this morning 


at Kensington Palace pre- 
sided at a meeting of the 
President's Committee. 

The Princess of Wales this 
morning visited Ridgway 
House Elderly Persons 
Home. Towcester. and the 
Northamptonshire Centre for 
the Deaf. Green Street, 

Her Royal Highness, at- 
tended by Viscountess 
Campden and Lieutenant- 
Commander Richard Ay lard. 
RN. travelled m an aircraft of 
The Queen’s Flight. 
January 30; Princess Alexan- 
dra this afternoon visited the 
headquarters of the Metro- 
politan Police Special Escort 
Group at Barnes Police 
Station. SWI3 

Lady Mary Fitzalan-How- 
ard was m attendance. 

The Queen of the Netherlands 
celebrates her birthday today 
A memorial service for ihe 
Dowager Countess Howe will 
be held today at Holy Trinity 
Church, Penn. Buckingham- 
shire. at 3pra 

A service of thanksgiving for 
the life of the Dowager 
Viscountess Davidson (Bar- 
oness NorthchurchJ wdl be 
held today in Westminster 
Abbey at noon 


Canada-!, nited Kingdom 
Chamber of Commerce 
Mr DP MacKinnon. First 
Vice-President of the Canada- 
United Kingdom Chamber of 
Commerce presided at a lun- 
cheon given yesterday’ at 
Stationers' HaD in honour of 
Mr David Steel. Leader of the 
Liberal Party 

Kenneth Severn, and the Ju- 
nior Warden. Mr Alfred 
Shiudler Canon Gerald Hud- 
son responded on behalf of the 
guests and among those present 


Lord and lady Derating, the Master of 
Uw Roils and Dante Mary Donaldson. 
Lorti Justice Goff the Chairman of the 
Baltic Exchange the Master of the 
Chartered Surveyors' Company and 
the Master or the Engineers Company 
and IMr ladles 


Law Society _ _ 

Lord Young of Graffham, 
Secretary of State for Employ- 
ment. was the guest speaker at 
the annual dinner of the Law 
Society's Commerce and In- 
dustry Group held at the Porter 
Tun Room. Chiswefl Street on 
Wednesday night Mr Tony 
Cunfaffe. chairman, presided 

Seven Seas Club 
Mr G S Sanden-Hewett Presi- 
dent of the Seven Seas Cub. 
presided at a dinner held last 
night at Internationa] House. St 
Katharine's Dock Sir Peter 
Gadsden. President of the 
Iron bridge Gorge Museum 
Development Trust also 

Hertfordshire Lieutenancy 
Major-General Sir George 
Boms entertained the Deputy 
Lieutenants of the Hertford- 
shire Lieutenancy on Wednes- 
day at County HalL Hertford, 
on’ hts retirement as Lord 
Lieutenant of Hertfordshire 
since 1961 

Arbitrators' Company. 

The Lord Mayor and Lady 
Mayoress, accompanied by the 
Sheriffs and their ladies, were 
present at a dinner of the 
Arbitrators' Company held at 
the Mansion House last night 
The Master. Mr Frank E. 
Rehder, presided assisted by 
the Senior Warden, Mr 

Service dinners 

Royal Corps of Transport 
Major-General D.H. Braggins. 
Director-General of Transport 
and Movements, presided at a 
dinner of the Royal Corps of 
Transport officers held lost 
night at the Royal Corps of; 
Transport Headquarters Mess, 

RAF Chaplains 
The Principal Roman Catholic 
Chaplain, RAF, was host at the 
annual RAF Chaplains dinner 
held last night at the RAF 
Club. The guests included Air 
Chief Marshal Sir Thomas 
Kennedy and Air Marshal Sir 
Michael Knight 

RAF Support Command 

Air Vice-Marshal J D 
Spomswood. Air Officer Train- 
ing, Support Command, and 
members of Brampton Park 
Officers' Mess held a dinner 
last night. Group Captain D W 
Maunce-Jones presided and 
Air Marshal Sir John Sutton, 
Air Officer Commanding-m- 
Cbief. RAF Support Com- 
mand. was among the guests. 


London House 
Mr Kingman Brewster spoke to 
residents of London House and 
William Goodenough House 
yesterday evening after the 
annual reception arranged by 
the Friends of London House 
in the United States for all 
American graduates. 

Birthdays today 

Sir Lawrence Boyle. 66 . 
Lieutenant-Commander Sir 
Richard Buckley. 58, Miss 
Carol Charming. 65. Mr Chris- 
topher Chataway. 55. Mr Rob- 
ert Chtworthy. 58, Air Marshal 
Sir Christopher Hartley. 73, Air 
Commodore Lord Harvey of 
Presibury 80: Mr George 
Lytileton. 83. Mr Norman 
Mailer 63 Miss Jean 
Simmons. 57 the Rev Lord 
Soper. 83 Brigadier Sir Alexan- 
der Stamer. 87. Datne Freyafl 
Stark. 93 Sir Patrick Thomas, 

London visit 

The President of the Republic 
of Senegal and Chairman -of the 
Organization of African States, 
M Abdou Diouf. will pay a 
visit to the United Kingdom 
on February 4 and S 

Jersey cash 
for Falklands 

A new housing scheme for Port 
Stanley is to be called the 
Jersey estate and paid for with 
a gift of £4.750,000 raised by 
Jersey islanders. 

The money is the residue of 
£5 million raised by the States 
of Jersey in 1982 “Towards the 
expenses incurred in the recov- 
ery and rehabilitation of the 
Falkland I sla nd s.** Some of the 
cash wiO also be spent on 
improving domestic water sup- 
plies with a new water treat- 
ment plant 

The Bailiff* of Jersey. Mr P L. 
CriU. told the Island States that 
this was how the Falklands 
Islands Executive Council 
wanted the money spent and 
that he hoped to visit Port 
Stanley in the summer of 
7987/88 to nnvcil a plaque at 
the new plant 

An auction 
where you can 
even afford 
the time. 

\ tsil nut new ( .iinduii Street 
Silcroom view furniture pairn 
irifis,sihrt andnthei works olan 
I’m es surf tn 1111 US Hi 


MUDAV Sht }\S M Am v • pin 

St SLIM Unit fTB hi am h»4 pm 

Mi >\m\ trd 1TB u am lit ‘2 pm 

S-M .F 1 IMF 

MUMMft TnllTB '•SlipmfttK Hi pm 

Pit vise telcplKine «tH 1 *TW 42411 loi a 
tore bnxfmre 

2li 1 -nndiui Nivel. I undun \\ 1 






Cracking the Inca puzzle 

By Norman Hammond, Archaeology Correspondent 

The dosdy fitted masonry of 
the Inca Empire in South 

America has long been fam- 
ous, both for the huge size of 
some of the blocks and for 
the impossibility of inserting 
even a knife blade between 

Until recently the process 
by which blocks were shaped 
and fined has been a mys- 
tery. but observation and 
experiment by a California 
professor of architecture has 
solved the problem. 

The Modes, of granite and 
andesite, weigh up to 130 
tonnes and some were moved 
substantial distances: the an- 
desite quarries of Rumiqolqa, 
which supplied much of the 
building material for the Inca 
capital of Cuzco, in southern 
Fern, he 35 kilometres from 
the city over rugged terrain. 
Professor Je&u-Pterre 
Protzen, of the University of 
California at Berkeley, has 
surveyed Runuqolqa and also 
the red granite quarry at 
Kaduqhata, across the valley 
from the noted Inca site of 

He found that the Inca had 
constructed shdes and ramps 
to get the blocks down the 
mountain, a vertical distance 
of nearly 3,000 ft at 
Kaduqhata. While most of 
the roads and ramps have a 
tie dope of 8 to 12 
the fina l <iwfe mto 
the valley of Kaduqhata was 
“an awesome drop of some 
250 metres down a slope of 
about 40 degrees”, he reports 
m the Journal of the Society 
*bf Architectural Historians. 

Several different kinds of 
rock were quarried for spe- 
cific purposes: at Kaduqhata 
quarrying was simply selec- 

tion of statable boulders m a 
massive roddaQ, but at 
Runuqolqa, the Llama Pit, 
still has some 250 shaped 
Mocks lying- Oflr-tgs floor, 
abandoned p erh a ps at the fall 
of the Inca Empire in 1532. 
This pit, the most complete 
Inca quarry known, is about 
100 metres long, 60 metres 
wide and between 15 and 20 
metres deep. 

The blocks were shaped by 
pounding with 

hammerstones. These ranged 
m weight from 200 grammes 
up to 8 kilogrammes (about 
17.5 lb), and were of tougher 
rocks than those being 
shaped, including quartzite, 
granite and basalt. They were 
probably made from river 
cobbles. Founding marks are 
still visible on some blocks, 
remarkably similar to those 
seen m Pharaonic quarries at 
Aswan m Egypt. 

Professor Protzen experi- 
mented with hammerstones, 
and found that one free of a 
block could be dressed m 
only 20 minutes. Dressing 
three sides and cutting five 
edges took an hour and a 
half. The edge of each new 
face had to be “drafted” with 
a small hammerstone to 
prevent dapping of the edge, 
and this dightt y receding 
plain* results in the sunken 
joints th a t create such a 
dramatic chiaroscuro effect m 
Inca masonry under the 
Andean sun 

The hammerstone, even 
though heavy, could be used 
easily by letting it foil under 
its own weight, graded by the 
hands; maximum effect was 
gained by twisting it just 
before impact so that d hit 
the rock at an oblique angle 

rather- than vertically, be- 
came (fakrag as well as 

crushing occurred. Fatigue 
was lessened by the feet That 
the hammerstone bounced 
back between 15 and 25 cm. 

.When the blocks reached 
their destination they were 
laid m irregular courses to 
create the cydopean effect 
characteristic of Inca 
architecture. Professor 
Protzen found that the bed- 
ding joint for each new 
come was cut mto the top 
face of the course already laid 
below it. Dus sometimes 
resuked tn concave angles 
being pounded out of tower 
courses, but it also made it 
easy to reconstruct the older 
m which blocks m a wall and 
course were placed m po- 

Die famous knife-proof 
tight fit was obtained by 
placing the upper Mock on 
the lower, outlining the edge 
(for which modem Quechua 
quanymen use a deep yellow 
sap called Uawlli X and then 
pounding the joint out with a 
hammerstone. When the up- 
per block is placed again for a 
trial fit the dust compresses 
where the two feces already 
touch, and remains loose 
elsewhere. Dus shows where 
further pounding is nec- 
essary. In only 90 mmirtp* 
Professor Protzen obtained a 
fit dose to «h«i of an I nc a 

Sometimes only the outer 
edges of. the blocks were 
fitted closely, and the interior 
of foe joint was filled with 
rubble, but often foe fitting 
was tight over the whole 
surface of the jommg planes, 
vertical as well as lateraL The 
fam ed “stone of fiie twelve 

angles” in the wait of the 
Palace of Inca Roca in Guzco 
is the best known end 
product of this process of 
cutting am! fitting: five upper 
stones have their bedding 

planes cut mm its top and 
sides, it has sunken joints 
tracing its outline dramati- 
cally. and all the joints are 
very tight, but there is no 
longer any mystery m how or 
why it exists. 

Professor Protzen has 
shown dearly what lands of 
stone the Inca selected, how 
it was extracted, trimmed, 
dressed, laid and fitted. He 
has also documented the 
systems of ramps and shdes 
by which Modes left the 
quarries, and “marshalling 
yards” wfare blocks were 
stored m transit until wanted. 

One big problem remans: 
while the movement and 
raising of the smaller blocks 
would not have needed 
large labour force, the largest 
stones would have required 
hundreds or even thousands 
of men to shift them. The 
130-tonne monster which is 
presently the largest known 
Inca block would have 
needed some 2,400 men, 
Professor Protzen calculates, 
and it would have been 
difficult to attach enough 
ropes for them to bold, or to 
manoeuvre them m the 
confined spaces of the steep 
Andean slopes. Yet it was 
done: some aspects of Inca 
civilization remain not. just 
mysterious, but awe-mspir- 

Source: Journal of the Society 
Architectural Historians, 
ol 44, 161-182. 


Mr JXSuftcbes 
and Miss ILLTems 
The engagement is announced 
b e tw een James, only son of Sir 
Hamish Forbes, and Mrs 
Jacyntbe Forbes, of The Cot- 
tage. Hambtedcn, near Henley- 
on-Thatnes,Oxfotdshire, and 
Kerry, only danghter of the 
Rev Lee and Mis Toms, of 
Sacramento, California. 

Mr P&Chafaners 
and Miss JjCCampbdl 
The engage m ent is -announced! 
between Peter, son of Dr and] 
Mrs J-D.Cbahnere, of Insch, 
Aberdeenshire, and Jennie, 
daughter of Mr and Mrs James 
Campbell, of Kins bourne 
Green, Harpenden, Hertford- 

Mr PLSU -Forty 
and Miss MXJScUaepfer 
The engagement is announced 
between Nicholas, son of Mr 
and Mrs G.M.Fordy, of 
Greenbow, North Yo 
and Marion, daughter of Herr 
and Frau ACSchlaepfer. ofl 
Lausanne, Switzerland. 

Mr LAJHeodersmKSnssell 
and Miss AXhnch 
The engagement is announced 

between lam, only son of Mr 
James Henderson- Russefl, and 
the late Mr Henderson-RussdL 
of Marfoam, Norfolk, and 
Amanda, only daughter of Mr 
Raymond Crouch, of Denham 
Village. Buckinghamshire, and 
Mrs Scarlett Crouch, of] 
Whberesden House, Great 
Chesierford, Essex. 

Mr FLCMLeyfauid 
and Miss SJehnsfon 
The en ga gement is announced 
between High, younger son of 

the late Mr JiGMLLeyland and 
of Mis BJ GSmalley. of West 
Kyioe, Berwick-upon-Tweed, 
and Sandra, only daughter of 
the late Mis GJohason. of 
Bondmgton. Berwick-upon-4. 


Latest appointments include: 
Mr Cofi* Gandertoa to be a 
non-executive member of the 
Prisons Board. 

University news 

S¥°y 7 § 5 . l i£CSSS?S£ 


January 1 for three yam 
ArnSa^Gentaadberg atudeflbrtpa 

HttiO and P E Morris. 
HaUk Sandy) student 
J S TbomDOon. BA 

S" C'HeeKf MA*pRix 

Not awarded, fiaminon prtzelSBS. 
Members EntfMi 

tips. Util 
d Lendl. 

Lord Justice 

Kerr and sir Edmund 

of social satUTOMioey an 

fl jW l Collage 

Organ ncfaofaotfrtp: N J White. 
Qravuend OS for B 

l P J. Brown. _ — 

A J OoUins- GtWnacxa S 

J N J Koos. Canford S 

CA McCtfdtn. Betimes S. 

Z E. Mundye. Prince 
nova* Free S wmht 

The fi gurehe ad from HMS Victoria, foe but One-decked 
wooden battleship to he boflt, which has become a land- 
mark at the Royal Navy Engineering College at Ptymrath, 
is to be restoved.Tfce finely carved wooden has 

firm in . Exeter and foe phtrto- 
company’s managing 
low-loader lorry. 

been taken to a specialist firm in .Exetx 
graph shows Mr Hugh Harrison, foe cm 
director, with it tied, Guffivcr-like, to a 

Buoyant market for furniture 

By Geraldine Norman, Sale Room Correspondent 

Christie's held their first l 
E nglish furniture sale of 1986 
yesterday and recorded a 
buoyant market 

The smartest items on offer 
were a pair of Regency parcel 
gilt and mahogany side cabi- 
nets which sold for £16,200 
(estimate £ 6 , 000 -£ 8 , 000 ) to 
Hyde Park Antiques of New 
York. Framed by neat ribbed 
pillars, glittering gilt carving 
and a fheze applied with gilt 
metal ornaments, they were 
both asable and obviously 
grand. - 

Standard items of furn i ture 
were making strong prices, 
with two very plain book- 
cases attracting particularly 
strong bidding; functional but 
handsome pieces which had 
not been restored or played 
around with. A mahogany 
breakfroni bookcase with 
glass doors enclosing the 
shelves secured £8.640 (es- 
timate £3,000-£4.000) while a 
similar, rather earlier, oak 
example made £7,560 (es- 
timate £3,000-£5,000). The 
latter was a simplified ver- 

sion of Samuel Pepys's fam- 
ous design for bookshelves at 
Magdalen College, Cam- 
bridge. Both were bought by 
English dealers. 

There was a good market 
for small decorative items, 
with a pair of Regency gift 
metal candlesticks with glass 
storm-lantern shades reaefa- 
£2,052 (estimate £400- 

mg c 

The sale totalled £334*270 
with 15 per cent left unsold. 

cautions. F J Howes. 
. Crawley C J Wl» 

cSuS? H ALL 
dare Hall bursary baa bran awared 
to l tw* teoi nHw btotogy) far 

l ^ORF*JS CHWBT 1 collect: . . 

Elected into a KWfU tellowshtp 
mnOcWxrl A WH Sbe mun. B A. 

° SSS ^-»^n-u - - 


C ^fo8 X S£u ME 

EfecOcm fitira October 1 1 



Uld^DMiy MD 

S5SFc A »S§5gS. l s&. D 5si 

(OMoa^ R M Dortin. BA to tratior 

WDowsttips to cnfturai 

N J Tnotoas. BA 


MA lOxforti). M PM (Landoal 

Pne^iecied Into (he Mraiettaorae 
fenowsUP to cell tookwy tor tore® 

(Oxford) A 

EMiUnL LasU rasaarcA i 
Jowl's Codaoe 

Srience report 

Birds fall victim when elms are felled 

By Hugh Clayton 

Birds are foe forg o tten vie- 
tuns of Dutch elm disease. 
When the trees are killed by 
foe disease, modi of foe 
foliage that would be ex- 
pected to be Bsefal to hedge- 
row birds is destroyed. 

But research on a Dorset 
form suggests that foe birds 
do not suffer madtdy from foe 
effects of foe disease. They 
do. however, suffer if the dead 
trees are felled. 

Mr Patrick Osborne, who 
investigated bird populations 
on foe form for most of foe 
1970s. accepts that his main 
claim about the d i f feren ce 
between tlm disease and 

felling conflicts with some 
made by other researchers. 
But he insists foal his work 
leads to the apparent paradox 
that foe death of foe trees 
causes foe birds ranch less 

trouble than they experience 
from the felling. 

He Is convinced that straw 
birds beeefft when ehns are 
killed by foe disease. The 
larvae of foe beetles that 
cany the disease make a 
read; food supply for such 
birds as tits and wood- 

The death of the trees may 
help other species by allowing 
more sunlight to reach foe 
ground so that more plants 
can flourish- The loss of 
leaves from dead trees does 
not worry foe birds becanse 
very few of them eat eira 
leaves. Several small species 
such as sparrows nest in the 
ivy that climbs round elms, 
bat that goes on gro w ing even 
if the trees are dead. 

" Ehn felling is a wholly 
different matter,* 4 Mr Os- 

borne writes-“Its only advan- 
tage is foot fl owe r s and 
shrubs are encouraged to ' 
grow. AH nest sites and food 
sources are removed, and 
habitat structure is dramati- 
ajty attend. 

Following ehn death and 
felling, eight bird species 
were lost lhrarthe hedges on 
foe Dorset farm, reducing foe 
total from 36 to 28 
spede&Mr Osborne feels 
that his case was strength- 
ened by foe fact that foe 
number of species lost in a 
hedgerow corre s pon d ed ex- 
actly with foe number of elms 

He therefore warns against 
the method ef ” sanitation 
(effing “ practised by some 
councils and pirate land- 
owners. That means feffing 
healthy trees in haramoit 

danger of becoming diseased 
in Order to stop the spread of 
foe disease. If Mr Osborne b 
right about the birds, ” 
sanitation felling “ needs to 
be undertaken with caution. 

He suggest s that dead trees 
should be felled only when 
absolutely necessary and that 
foe job should be done with 
care so that the tumbling 
trees do not cause too much 
havoc on foe ground. ” 
Astonishingly, I have seen 
time trees marked as dead 
elms for feffing,** Mr Os- 
borne writes. ” It is dear that 
such mistakes should not 
happen. “ 

Sonte Journal of Applied 
Ecology, vol 22, no 3; 

Blackwell Scientific Publica- 
tions, Osney Mead, Oxford 
OX2 0EL; subs cr ip t i on £65 a 



Influential editor °f Debrett 

Patrick Montague-Smith, continued to be ’ h |h . 
wbo died on January 26. aged nninUy. » mpletL a nd 
66 , wifi be chiefly remem- Knigniage j9 7 l. 

bered as Editor of Debretx - a Compamonag. “ nI ^ |lor htf 

posiudn he held from 196210 Dum«l h«* a j- or lroC inc 
198a having joined DetjeU of 

as assistant editor m 1946. heirs to " 

He was only the eighth Essex and Oivan^a^ of 

person to hold this position 

baronetcy of VVo!s J;' t 5 ho 

sura John Debreu, who died Mourn Wolsdey. a 
in 1822. and from whom foe flariessly ^ d , h ^omrowrsy gj 
Peerage takes its name; and it ^‘dSKss of^ 

is largely- thanks to his over whether . ik^ 

knowledge that this reference Wmdsor was emit 

ss ^ 

He became interested in SjSiSSons, he wrote foe 
genealogy as a young boy. 

and recalled in later life foe ‘Viff!. f pi.fc.n Dcbatt’s 
mne when he would bicycle ( 19701 . which 

around foe countryside, became a sian- 

gaihenng mfonnation from fo« complex 

distant cousins, and how he VL, Connin' Lilt’ 

onoe bunted a ctus^ colonel J? 1 ,/ Rm d Silver 

m his Turkish hath. '<10771 and Queen 

It was his love of people ,h, Om"n Mother jr 

and anecdotal fenuly history thL L *" 

that brought a light touch to provided the ma- 
terial for his (maternal) 

familv article. Bourne-May 

his exemplary scholarship, 
and divested his research of 

any trace of snobbery. He “'rtf^Hnckinsall. in 

often said how lucky he was iJmiedCU’ntn- (ISth 

to be able to wort in the 5 ™* renowned 

Montague-Smith and lus wife - fVf,r “ s ’ 

Sybil, daughter of William 
Bourne. He was educated at 
Mercers 1 School, and served 
in the RASC from 1940 to 
1946. after which be joined 

The office then was run 
along very old fashioned 
fanes, with a II those whose 
names appeared m foe Peer- 
age being listed in laige 
teatherbound address books, 
which the ednor kept under 
lock and 

His gentle and modest 
nature, and bis readiness ana 
enjoyment in sharing ine 
fruits of his researches, 
brought him very man$_ 
friends. He was especially 
helpful to foe press, en- 
couraging to young students 
and a delightful man to work 

His marriage m 1974 to 
Annabella Newton brought 
him much happiness and 
key. companionship. The world of 

Under Montague-Smith's genealogy has suffered an 
editorship the Peerage irreparable Joss. 


Brigadier Str Otho Prior- he led throughout foe Italian 
PaJmeTDSO, who died on Campaign. He was decorated 
Janury 29 at the age of 88 , in 1945. ^ 

After the war he retired 
from the army to contest 
Worthing tor the Conser- 
vatives. winning by ihe large 
margin of 19.767. a note- 
worthy result in view of the 
Labour landslide throughout 
the rest of the couniry.He 
held the seat with substantial 

was Conservative MP for 
Worthing from 1945 10 1964. 

Prior to that he had had a 
rlidingiirehflri milita ry career. 

Every inch a cavalryman, he 
served in both world wars, 
commanding mechanised 
and armoured formations 
during the second. 

Otho Leslie Pnor-Ralmer majorities at subsequent elec- 
was born on October ^^5 imtH announcing his 
28,1897, the son of Spunner ■ deicision not 10 stand in 
Prior-Palmer, and was edit- 1954 . 

cated at Wellington and 
Sandhnrst.He was 

commisioned in the 9th 
Lancers in 1916 and served 
throughout hostilities. 

In foe Second World War 
he commanded, initially, the 

During this time he was 
Chairman of the party's 
Parliamentary Army Sub- 
committee and Vice-Chair- 
man of its Defence / 1 
Committee and Home Affairs 

Uts VUimilOVMVU, UUU4U1J, un. — _ „ : - 

2nd Northamptonshire Yeo- Committee. Defence and for- 
manr y an armoured regi- ei S n affairs were particular 
ment, and later commanded interests, and he was a past 
foe 30fo and 29th Armoured Chairman of the Nato Par- 
Bngades before going to foe Itamentanans Defence 
7th Armoured Brigade which Committee. 


Winifred Elkin who died 
on January 20 at foe age of 
96, devoted her long life to 
penal reform, women's suf- 
frage and other social con- 

She read economics at 
Newnham College. Cam- 
bridge and thereafter went to 
foe Board of Trade in 1913 
She worked in foe Central 
Labour Exchange Depart- 
ment and as a statistician 
dealing with industrial en- 
quiries. and subsequently 
transferred to the wartime 
Ministry of Food 
Her ardent suffragism led 
to her being a regular speaker 

and writer for the National 
Union of Societies tor Equal 

Later in life she was 
actively invoked m penal 
reform as a voluntary worker 
at foe Howard League and 
this experience gave rise to 
two of her books. English 
Juvenile C ouris and " The 
English Penal Srvem which p 
latter became a minor classic 
Her other book, the standard 
work. The Centra! Bunks. 
was written jointly wifo Sir 
Cecil Kisch 

Winifred Etkm was a 
Fellow of the Royal Statis- 
tical Socictv 


Mr Philip Edmund Jones, 
OBE, wbo was Deputy 
Keeper of the Corporation of 
London Records from (945 
to 1970, died on January 1. 
aged 81. 

Born on November 16, 
1904, Philip Jones entered 
the Corporation Records Of- 
fice uo 1923 and became head 
of the office when be suc- 
ceeded to foe post of Deputy 
Keeper in 1945. 

During his king service 
with foe Corporation, extend- 
ing over 46 years, he ac- 
quired an unrivalled 
knowledge of the ongms and 
history of foe City's construc- 
tion and customs. 

Over these years and also 
after his retirement, he 
contributed greatly to under- 
standing of foe City's history 
through many scholarly arti- 
cles and books, which in- 

cluded calendars of some of 
foe Corporation's medieval 
and 17th century archives 
and histones of two of 
London’s livery companies. 

He was always ready to 
share his extensive knowl- 
edge with others and the 
presentation to him on his 
65th birthday of Studies in F 
London History . a collection 
of papers contributed by 
some of those who had made 
extensive use of the 
Corporation's archives, sig- 
nalled foe widespread reganl 
in which he was held. 

1965 W3S made an ° BE m 

He was chairman of foe 
Society of Archivists 1 954.57 
and had been one of its vice- 
prestefents since 1967 He was 
foe Master of foe Worshipful 
Company of Poulters. 1964 - 


Air Vice-Marshal Leslie During foe Second WnrW 
William Camjon,CB. CBE. War he held icchmSi 
who died on January 27 at appointments with r 2£ 
foe age of 81 was Com- Command and later ^ 
mander-m -Chief of the Royal foe Second Tactical \Tr FmiS 
Pakistan Air Force from 1951 in Fiance. Belgium ^ 
to 1955. an intercalation m Germany, dunne 
an RAF career in which he paign in North Wesi Ei.SJS' 
subsequently rose to be He commanded fo* e 
Director General of Staff College AndovJ? 
Organisation. 1948 to IW9 and w£ T?™ 

Cannon, who was born on Organisation 

April 9. 1904 and educated (Establishments) lor two 
at Hertford Grammar School, before going to Paki- 

entered ihe RAF as an final R AF appom I 

apprentice m 1920. ™ em followed his return m /- 

His service between ihe S'* dSt he rci,r «J 

°T ft rr -j? - or 

China Station and a spell as a Commontea?fo lhe 

ffymg mstrucior at Cranwell Office he o [f c, ations 

before be took au enguieenng f or wnft m° k d Ro s Roycc. 
course at foe RAF College ftLSntenve ?? Seior 
Cranwen in 1932 Ind,a f ™i 














0 - 












y ^ . _ 






fAl tubes it seems as if there 
js a malicious goblin abroad 
■a,„»nose task is to entice BBC 
^executives into foolishness at 
,a: exactly the moment most 
. calculated to prejudice what- 
:*,.ever negotiations are in 
^ progress over the licence fee. 
r - to the Channel 4 series 
{ Opinions. Lord Annan took 
£ stock of some of this evil 
9 Mril ’s successes, notably the 
; , furore caused last year by the 
; BBC governors' action in 
L' banning the Real Lives pro- 
t gramme which sought to 
I- examine the beliefs of senior 
I- IRA men. 

I. He dispensed blame gen- 
erously. not onl;: to the 
■'v^rnors * But &so to. the 
Hives who avoided mak- 
heir actions known to 
superiors, and to the 
bets of the National 
■n of Journalists who, in 
iew, called a strike with 
primary objective of 
iliating the governors, 
f you belong to a great 
em like the BBC you 
it loyally” was Lord 
an’s opinion, pari of his 
?r argument about the 
."s status as a national 
itution and whether this 
Jd be upheld effectively if 
Corporation were wholly 
partly financed by 
nising revenues. 

Opinions series is a 
forum for personal 
nm a variety of 
d contributors. 

- is more gifted 
as a television 
As the chairman 
ommittee on the 
of Broadcasting, 
idings predated the 
n of the fourth 
. his voice should 
iy be heard while the 
bk Committee is con- 
ag the BBC's future, 
■gant as his argument 
however, it did not 
j^Aieod to considering the 
^"delicate balance between the 
- BBC and the independent 
broadcasting institutions. 
This inter-relationship is one 
which the Annan Committee 

■ had the opportunity to ex- 

■ plore in detail, and one which 
could be seriously disturbed 
by a redistribution of 
advertising revenue. 

Lord Annan limited his 
views to the BBC itself; in 
brief, he wanted the Corpora- 
• tion to pull up its socks, 
smarten up its act and look 
as if it deserved a larger slice 
of public funds. 


Celia Brayfield 


Realism that goes 
to profound depths 

Sweet Dreams (15) 

Curzon • 

Alamo Bay (18) 

ICA • 

Revolution (PG) 


Almost a quarter of a century after 
her death, the country singer Patsy 
Cline is still a very real presence in 
Sweet Dreams, the dramatized story 
of her life and her tragic end in an 
air crash. Her voice was strong and 
pure and ranging; and she treated 
country songs as if they were 
ballads, paring them slowly and 
infusing them with extraordinary 
depth of feeling. In the composition 
of the film, Cline's songs not only 
trace the chronological progress of 
her career but provide a strong 
emotional commentary and charge. 
In the best sense, Sweet Dreams is a 

The opening of the film provides 
a pleasant, nostalgic link with Karel 
Reisz's first film as director. 
Momma Don't Allow, co-directed 
with Tony Richardson. Both films 
begin with people arriving at a 
dance hall; and Sweet Dreams opens 
in J956, precisely the period whoa 
the earlier film launched Reisz as 
one of the finest British directors of 
his generation. 

From his first films, Reisz's dear 
commitment has been to that realist 
tradition which has been one of the 
great strengths of British cinema — 
even if it is currently discredited by 
the kind of voguish, weathercock 
criticism that will acknowledge only 
one acceptable style at any one time, 
and has for the moment elevated the 
irrealism of Powell and Pressbuiger 
as the apogee of the national 

Reisz's kind of realism goes 
deeper than setting and subject The 
attraction of Sweet Dreams is his 
ability to convey real people in a 
real society. It is easier to appreciate 
and understand country music 
seeing the place of its unpretentious 
origins. Filming mostly on location 
in Tennessee and West Virginia, re- 
creating the working-class homes 
and automobiles, the motels and 
dance halls and recording studios 
and auditoria of the Fifties, the film 
recaptures a singular piece of 
Americana, and die people who 
inhabited iL Cline herself is shown 
as an artist of exceptional intuitions, 
but she is also a working girt nine- 
tenths of her time taken up with the 
daily problems of living and getting 

Getting along means mostly the 
ups and downs of her marriage. 
Charlie Dick is a good guy and a 
loving husband — except when he is 
not, when he gets drunk, and goes 
whoring, and beats up Patsy, who 
can hit bade anyway. They quarrel 
violently, and separate, yet always 
come back because (arm we are 
convinced of it) they are inextricably 
in love. 

Malting us believe wholly in the 
genuine reeling and intermittent joy 
of this everyday love-affair, Reisz is 
assisted by a fine ensemble of 
performances. Jessica Lange is 
exceptional: her Patsy Cline is open, 
extravert, optimistic; and when she’s 
mad she's really wad t anp» «m 
suggest a whole crowd of muddled 
emotions battling for possession of 
hen and she conveys uncannily the 
look of a first-time mother regarding 
her small miracle. Her most remark- 
able achievement is in the perfor- 
mance of Patsy Qinc's own songs. 
Aware as we are that she is lip- 
synching to the old recordings, there 
is still never a doubt that Lange is 
really singing; nor is the transition 
from Cline's voice to hear own ever 
detectable: “She got the voice”, 
Reisz has explained, "and through 
the voice discovered the character.” 

As exactly, Ed Harris gives the 
sense of a man wbo cannot help it, 
who is powerless against his own 
weakness and waywardness. Ann 
Wedgworth is Patsy's loving mother, 
simple, loyal, unable for long to 
keep her dutiful maternal sternness 
1 from felling into touchingly skittish, 
sisterly confidences. 

In Alamo Bay — another piece of 
Americana observed by an outsider, 
in this case die Frenchman Louis 
Malle — Ed Hams appears in a 
somewhat less sympathetic role as a 
slow-thinking, violent Texas red- 
neck. Scripted by Alice Arlen, who 
also wrote SiBcwood, the film is an 
honourable, earnest tract, based on 
actual events that happened around 
Galveston Bay, Texas, in 1979-81. 
With deteriorating conditions in the 
fisheries, local resentment of the 
hard-working emigrants from Viet- 
nam flared into militancy and resort 
to the Ku-Klux-Klan. 

It is more in sorrow than in scorn 
that one contemplates the disastrous 
Revolution — on whose fete the 
future of British cinema appears to 
no small extent to depend. Its 
shortcomings are not to be blamed 
on the director, Hugh Hudson, as an 
individual but on the whole 
production organization that made 
il possible. Leaving aside whether it 
is a wise strategy for the British 
cinema to essay a story so purely 
American in concern, now was it 
possible, from the start, to commit 
funds that eventually exceeded 

“Never a doubt that she is really singing”: Jessica Lange's 
exceptional aciuerment m Sweet Dreams 

$20m to a script that is so evidently 
inadequate? It gabbles away in 
diffuse, ill-written dialogue, without 
form, without characters, without 
coming near its acknowledged in- 
tentions of relating the drama of the 
American revolution through the 
experiences of private individuals. 

Once committed to this shaky 
blueprint, however, could no one, 
seeing the rushes, have advised tire 
director that aD was not going right? 
That the story was not emerging, 
that the material had no consistency 
or style or rhythm, that the actors 
were not finding characters in the 
script but were being frozen into 
unvarying expressions and moods, 
that resources were not being used 
or intentions achieved? 

The film was not starved of talent 
One of the best British art directors, 
Assbeton Gorton, made a brave job 
of recreating Georgian America in 
East Anglia, and John MoOo 
brought his peculiar expertise to 
recreating the military scene. But 
without the flair and art to use such 
advantages, it is all rather like the 
treasures crated up in Citizen Kane's 

Hugh Hudson’s basic intentions 
are clear, but neither well-advised 
nor realized. Wanting to make links 
between the historical drama and 
the concerns of our times, he has 
proved too naive. Trying to give the 
American revolution the look and 
feel of 1980s street demonstrations. 

he has only sacrificed the authentic- 
ity of his reconstruction. Wanting to 
give his film the urgent lock of 
newsfilm, be has achieved only ugly 
compositions and irritatingly un- 
steady camerawork. Worst, his 
characters speak in a weird muddle 
of accents and anachronistic dia- 
logue. A1 Pacino, in the leading role 
as a simple man reluctantly commit- 
ted to revolution, comes off worst: 
his face frozen into one un- 
comprehending expression, he strug- 
gles with a concocted accent which 
for much of the time fells into 
gangster-era Brooklyn ese. 

Hudson seeks the inspiration of 
the best models: the battle scenes 
and painted feces of the effete 
British owe something to Barry 
Lyndon ; the aftermath of Yorktown 
echoes the end of Kagemusha, and 
Pacino's last-scene struggle against a 
tide of people looks like the end of 
Les Enfants du paradis. But 
comparisons are embarrassing. The 
quirkiness of shooting a battle with 
muted sound and elegaic music 
recalls the oddities of Hudson's first 
feature. Chariots of Fire , in which he 
elected to shoot fast races in slow 
motion. As early as that film it was 
dear that he is one of those directors 
who need a friend, in the shape of a 
forceful creative producer to guide 
him. In this case he clearly did not 
have that 

David Robinson 

"Listen ginls, I have an inportant announcement 
to sake", said Daisy. "Our School play wil l end it's 
ripping 3 year run on 
February 15th. So I want you 

to get all your friends to n - - 

come and see us again ^ PlIUS IT OR 

before we finally break up". GLOBE THEATRE 




Festival Hall/ 

Radio 3 . 

Messiaen's Turangafila- 
symphonie is getting plenty of 
performances at the moment, 
and there are two recordings 
on the way. But Chrono- 
chromie. his next work for 
large orchestra, is a rare bird 
indeed — or rather a rare 
aviary since so much of it 
consists of the cries, calls and 
songs of birds, often in 
collosal amplification. It is a 
work of public oelebratioa 
and joy, and its splendour 
was roundly displayed in 
Wednesday's performance at 
the opening of a Music of 
Eight Decades concert con- 
ducted by David Atherton. 
The wind, and most particu- 
larly the percussionists, of the 
BBC Symphony Orchestra 
were in excellent form, re- 
capturing the fierce alacrity 
they learnt from Boulez in 
music of this sort. The 
concert was off to an ex- 
cellent start. 

Then it turned into marsh- 
mallow. I think Takemitsu’s 
riverrun would have been a 
weak spot in any programme, 
but the stark, sleek and 
exultant Chronochromie was 
a quite alarming contrast, 
especially when Takemitsu 
uses a Messiaen-style (though 
earlier, lusher, Messiaen- 
style) harmony and many 
Messiaen-like touches in the 
combination of piano with 
orchestra. The difference is in 
point of view. Where Mess- 
iaen's rhythms and forms are 
exact and disciplined, 
Takemitsu is content to drift 
in fantasy. The effect is of a 
slice from Turangalila that 
has been efficiently boned 
and left to slide. Paid 
Crossley's rapturous and 
colourful playing of the solo 
part deserved better music, 
so did Joyce's title. 

After the interval there was 
a return to the Boulez 
repertory, and to a work 
Boulez enjoyed playing sev- 
eral times with this orchestra: 
Bartdk's ballet The Wooden 
Prince. If anything Mr Ath- 
erton's performance found 
still wider ranges of tone and 
texture in the music, partly 

because be found it possible 
sometimes to use a lighter 
hand. The rhythmic puppet- 
dance does not, after all have 
to be underscored so unyield- 
ingly, and the grotesque 
sounds unloose themselves 
more freely if it is not All 
that was lacking was a sense 
of intimacy and importance 
at the brief Parsifal-like: heart 
of the score. Otherwise this 
was a rich and dynamic 
concerto for orchestra played 
as such. 

Paul Griffiths 

Beaux Arts Trio 
Wigmore Hall 

The Beaux Arts Trio love a 
party. In 1980, Menabem 
Pressler. Bernard Greenhouse 
and Isidore Cohen were 
celebrating their own twenty- 
fifth birthday. On Wednesday 
it was the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of their first 
London concert at the 
Wigmore Hall and the 
merrymaking, as ever, was 

They started with Haydn's 
Piano Trio in C, made into a 
character piece which said as 
much about them as it did 
about Haydn. It began with 
Pressler crouching low over 
the keyboard, head on one 
side, ready to release a flood 
of twinkling scales from the 
opening chords, or to catch 
Cohen's eye in mischevious 
ascent to the first modulatory 
cadence. It ended with a 
finale whose rondo unwound 
like one long, rapturous 
Jewish joke with its sudden 
harmonic changes, fore- 
shortened phrases and 
exclamation marks of accents 
sharpened by audaciously 
split-second timing. 

when the Beaux Arts take 
their place in history with 
trios like the Thibaud-C&sals- 
Cortot — with whom they are 
already compared — it will 
surely be. not only their 
unique wft but their vora- 
cious appetite for exploration 
which will be remebered. 
Beethoven’s “Archduke” 
Trio was performed on a 
monumental scale, slow and 
spacious enough to exploit 

every level of movement and 
recession within and between 
voices, to find new cues 
(sometimes almost over the 
top in their nudge-and-wink 
rubato) and, in the Andante, 
to separaie out all the 
harmonic threads of its 
chorale and respin them with 
unceasing invention. 

Not all was merriment At 
the centre stood Shost- 
akovich's Piano Trio in E 
minor. Op 67, and the Beaux 
Arts as entertainers stepped 
back. As the opening cello 
harmonics and dark violin 
surfaced from their long 
tunnel Pressler’s fleet fingers 
turned from mischief to 
lapping out an obsessive 
dance of death. His unforget- 
table initiation and summa- 
tion of the long Chaconne 
framed two movements of 
extraodinarily searching ten- 

Hilary Finch 

Steve Reich 
Dominion Theatre 

ticated forms have not done 
his more recent music much 
good either if Vermont 
Counterpoint (1982), New 
York Counterpoint (1985), 
and Sextet (1985) are any- 
thing from .which to judge 
him. The first two of these 
works rely heavily on multi- 
track tapes (of flutes and 
clarinets respectively) plus 
one live player, there, it 
seemed, chiefly to give the 
audience a visual point of 
concentration. Certainly there 
was no added atmosphere of 
spontaneity in either work. 
Of the glossy Sextet, like New 
York Counterpoint receiving 
its British premiere, there is 
little to say. And, like Reich, 
I have no qualms about 
saying that more than once. 

Stephen Pettitt 


A fine 
for all 
that . . . 

Vexed and mischievous: 

Peter Sallis 

Pride and 
Old vie __ 

The medium to which Jane 
Austen’s most approachable 
novel most readily lends 
itself for translation, pace the 
Olivier/Gaison film version 
and the more recent tele- 
vision serial is the radio 
play: the first part of the 
book proceeds almost en- 
tirely by means of dialogue, 
with the authorial eye assert- 
ing itself only when the 
fortune-seeking heroines be- 
gin to explore the wider 
world outside their self- 
contained, garrulous dom- 

David Pownall's stage 
adaptation (by no means the 
first) was taken on tour last 
year by the Cambridge The- 
atre Company, and is here 
revived in a joint production 
by the Birmingham Rep and 
the Leicester Haymarket His 
script edits and compresses 
the narrative proficiently 
enough, although this does 
leave something skimped 
about the build-up to the 
critical confrontation be- 
tween James Warwick's 
straight-backed Mr D’Arcy 
and Tessa Peake-Jones’s pert 

not particularly vulgar, nei- 
ther is it a travesty of tin. 
story's broad theme (heifers 
have a price and so oo 
eligible bachelors: husbandry 
is an economic process) but it 
introduces an unfortunate 
exchange with pau t h "* 
Yates's fussy Mrs Bcnnct on 
the subject of castration 
which sets the tone for the 
off-key situation comedy to 

In the programme (which 
incidentally misspells two of 
the characters’ names ana 
also invites us to believe that 
Sandiion remains unpub- 
lished) Mr Pownall notes that 
he wrote bis adaptation in a 
fortnight “turning aphorisms 
and phrases like a sil- 
versmith" - not perhaps, the 
wisest choice of artisan to let 
loose on Austen's cooL prim, 
judicious periods, as the 
occasional clanging anach- 
ronism bears witness. “There 
remains a shortfall of 
£20.000". says Wickham, 
pressurizing his pre-planned 
betterment scenario. 

Elsewhere, the Regency 
flavour is well seasoned by 
Poppy Mitchell's costumes, 
and Bill Pryde's production 
includes plenty of conversa- 
tion-and-dancing (choreo- 
graphed by Sue Lefton) 
which gives Ian Gilder great 

while the scene tm- ^ ^ ~ s lhe oi | y cup huistic 
mediately following and ^ Mr Collins. “You arc un- 
equally momentous, in which char m-ing“. he as- 

Lydia's elopement with the 
unprincipled Wickham forces 
her father to take a practical 
interest in his family, has 
likewise been plundered of its 
emotive power. 

The celebrated opening 
exposition emerges from the 
Ups of Peter Sallis’s vexed, 
mischievous Mr Bennet and 
to the accompaniment of 
cattle lowing offstage. This is 


The Pit 

In the fiftieth anniversary 
year of Gorky's death the 
Royal Shakespeare Company * he. 
gives Londoners the chance 
to see his first play, written 
with Chekhov’s methods in 
mind but a distinct and 
original piece: a black com- 
edy that accommodates a 
suicide attempt, victim of 
misprized love, and a self- 
obsessed student along with 
such exemplars of hope as an 
open-hearted train-driver and 
a gaoler’s life-loving widow. 

All are relatives or lodgers 
in the house of a truly 
monstrous pillar of the bour- 
ise (David Burke), a 
bully, contemp- 
tuous of his’ family yet 
speaking with rage at anyone 
who dares to escape from it 
Only the cold at heart mil 
fail to enjoy a shiver of 
excitement as his corrupt 
world begins to fell apart 
That the household can 
also stand for Russia is 
iu John Caird's 
engrossing production by 
placing a few silver birch 

sures Lizzie on bended knee. 

Reviewing this production 
in these columns Iasi year. 
Irving Wardle declared it to 
be "ihe most enjoyable novel 
adaptation 1 have seen since 
Nicholas Nicklehy" — a 
judgement of which I see no 
reason to change a word. 

Martin Cropper 

trees in among the furniture. 
On the soil of Russia as 
around this dinner table the 
war is waged beiween parents 
and children, the selfish and 
the loving, honesty and the 

The cast is unchanged from 
the opening at Stratford last 
summer, and their long 
familiarity with the roles 
helps to convey an un- 
commonly vivid sense of the 
company as a community. 
Fiona Shaw’s hollow-eyed 
daughter may be a character 
of ludicrous unhappiness yet 
she becomes an unforgettable 
image of gaunt despair. In 
opposition to this denial of 
life stands the uncomplicated 
Nil], excellently played by 
Tom Mannion so that we 
share his wondering delight 
in love and steam-engines. 
Anna Calder-Marshall's 
merry widow is another 
example of the richness and 
vital contradictions Gorky 
gives his characters and 
which the cast seize on to 
give us. through comedy and 
terror, an image of a real 

Jeremy Kingston 


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Where Philip Glass's brand 
of minimalis m is transpar- 
ently empty, depending upon 
theatrical presentation to 
make any substantial effect at 
all that of Steve Reich is 
much more subtle. This 
concert, given by the 
composer’s own group, Steve 
Reich and Musicians, to a 
huge audience, pointed the 
differences admirably. For 
Reich often disguises vacuity 
with suaveness, a suaveness, 
I might add. that had me 
convinced when 1 first heard 
his music, and bis group 
compounds the illusion with 
a sleek professionalism one 
can only gawk at 

There is not much else to 
do other than gawk, either, 
since his polished system ized 
sounds do not exactly 
encourage active, intelligent 
listening. Yet sometimes the 
processes are fascinating for 
themselves, and none more 
so than in one of the two 
works played here that dated 
from the early 1970s, Clap- 
ping Music, where a single 
clapped rhythm moves slowly 
out of and back into phase 
with itself But even in 
Drumming (1971), from 
which we heard Part 3, 
scored for four glockenspiels, 
piccolo and whistler, one 
feels Reich's slowly shifting 
patterns to be a negative, 
even self-destructive, mode 
of expression, utterly devoid 
of emotion as no other music 

His increasingly sophis- 


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The international drinks industry is the lair of 

Anheuser Busch, Seagrams, Kirin, Suntory. 
These are the giants that will be fighting to dominate 
the drinks business in tomorrow’s world. 

And as each has its own thriving domestic 
brands, they won’t be wearing Scotland’s favours in 

So, if Scotch Whisky is to continue to com- 
pete, it needs a strong champion of its own. 

It is for this reason, more than any other; that 
our offer for Distillers makes so much sense. 

Our joint enterprise will give Britain a repre- 
sentative amongst the top four of the international 
drinks business. 

It is also a rare dovetail of corporate talents. 

On the one hand, Distillers have an unrivalled 
range of world famous brands. 

, On the other, we at Guinness have a manage- 
ment team with unrivalled experience in die 
international marketing of prestige drinks. 

By careful . targetting we can position our 
household names to complement one another, 
rather than compete 

Britain’s recent industrial history is a catalogue 
of international opportunities missed. 

Help us redress the balance Support the 
Guinness Distillers bid. 


Guinness and Distillers- A stroke of genius. 

This advertisement is published by Morgan Grenfell & Co Limited and The British Linen Bank Limited on behalf of Guinness PLC The Directors of Guinness HjC are 
die best of their knowledge and belief l having taken all reasonable cate so ensure that such is the case) the information contained in this advertisement its in accordance with the facts. 






Executive Editor Kenneth Fleet 

Little encouragement 
in latest jobs trend 

It is hard to find the smallest crumb allowed. Guinness is pitching the 
of comfort in the unemployment counter- arguments on three levels. It 
figures. A 20,600 increase in the claims that Seagrams, Hiram Walker, 
seasonally-adjusted adult total in Highland Distilleries and a number of 
January brings the three-month mov- other robust competitors are powerful 
ing average — the traditional measure enough to ensure that the new 
of the underlying trend — to a rise of company will not be able to use its 
10,500 a month. Only last November, dominant market position to raise 
that same three-month average mea- prices against the public interest, 
sure suggested unemployment was Prices will continue to be depressed in 
now foiling by 5,400 a- month. any case by the buying pdwer of the 
It is beginning to look a little like big brewers, with their extensive tied 
early 1984/ "when an autumn of good house interests, and the big super- 
figures , erfcouraged ministers to think market chains, Guinness argues, 
-unemployment was on the turn, only The third argument, used to justify 
or the trend to turn relentlessly up a number of foe recently announced 
gain. The figures for vacancies big mergers, is that Britain needs a 
einforce foe gloomy picture, with a powerful new force in the inter- 
lber on offer in January, national drinks market to compete 

with foe likes of Japan’s Suntory. . 
Argyll, the rival Distillers bidder, is 
rounds for hoping this is a temporary meanwhile thinking of going to court 
setback. The first is that demography with its grievance over foe company’s 
s beginning to work the agreement to pay Guinness’s bid costs, 
jovernment’s way: while in foe early These, it has emerged, could be as 
1980s, foe numbers of school-leavers fajgh as £25 million The agreement is 
were adding subst a ntial l y to the also open ended, making Distillers 
labour force, in foe late 1980s foe to- | jahi«» for foe cost of a second 
zals fall from year to year. This is the underwriting of Guinness shares 
. fundemental reason for a glimmer of should Guinness decide to raise its 
optimism in unemployment forecasts, bid. The Takeover Panel turned down 
Even foe Organisation for Eco- the complaint at a full meeting on 
"ic Co-operation and Develop- Wednesday night but Argyll now 
whose new report on the United apparently believes that it h ^^ got a 
yesterday endorsed its good legal case against the “poison 
as forecast of a slowdown in P flp tactic. If foe Guinness bid fails 

all in foe number on offer in January, 
or the third month in a row. 
There remain, however, some 

thinks the unemployment 
* slightly more favourable than 


. second hope can be extracted 
OECD’s analysis of Britain's 
iir market This, the OECD 
~*ves, is generally less flexible than 
where: wages respond less to 


because of a reference, that means £25 
million off Argyll's capital base, 
assuming its rival and unfavoured 
takeover bid is successful. If the two 
companies fight it out in an auction, 
the loss to Argyll grows with the 
increased costs of Gixmness’s bid. 
Argyll could have a case under 

employment than they do in other section 151 of the 1985 Companies 
juntnes, which reduces the rivaling with use of company 
jovemment’s scope for expansion, f unds to purchase a firms own shams. 
However, the OECD does believe that Distillers is giving finawriai assi stance 
government labour market policies are to a company which is attempting to 
flkcfy to have some effect. buy its shares and that could be 

TJe OECD cites three particular interpreted as a breach of foe relevant 
problems: Britain’s system of mdus- section of foe Companies Art. 
trial relations, its minimum wage Unsurprisingly, Guinness Haims this 
legislation, and the “unemployment ;« nonsense, 
trap” caused by foe narrow margin 15 nonsense - 
bc tween unemployment benefits and \T rt «« 

wages at the lower end of foe labour INO CO IXLII16 HX Oil 
market. Change, the OECD points T/ -^ T 
out, is painfully slow: thus foe picture 1CJ. TTlPfgpf 
remains somewhat gloomy in the ° 

short-term — a view that coincides 
with the Confederation of British 
Industry’s recent forecast Of further 
reductions in manufacturing employ- 

• II 

Guinness undaunted 
by long odds 

Guinness is continuing to express 
confidence that its £2-2 billion 
takeover bid for Distillers will be 
cleared by the Office of Fair Trading 
and the Government With Distillers 
shares languishing at a level which is 
well below the value of Guinness’s 
bid, it is virtually alone in holding 
that view. 

On foe face of it there is an obvious 
and clear cut case for a reference to 
foe Monopolies and Mergers Commis- 
sion. The combined share of the two 
companies in the British Scotch 
whisky market would be in excess of 
foe 30 per cent level at which foe OFT 
has traditionally judged that a 
technical monopoly comes into play. 
Moreover its share of whisky produc- 
tion capacity would be be well in ex- 
cess of 50 per cent 

Nevertheless, mergers that involve a 
breach of foe 30 per cent market share 
rule of thumb are occasionally 

A press report that Imperial Chemical 
Industries and Beecham are in talks 
about a potential £3 billion takeover 
by IQ drew no comments from both 
sides yestrtday. 

Lord Keith of Castleacre, the acting 
chief executive of Beecham since the 
sacking of Sir Ronald Halstead in 
November, had earlier said he knew 
nothing about any bid. The rumours 
about IQ bidding for Beecham are 
not new. Beecham has virtually had a 
For Sale sign up since November, but 
until recently City speculation had put 
Unilever in foe role of most likely 

IQ has been cast in the guise of 
likely bidder several times since it set 
up an inhouse acquisition team in 
November 1984. It was recently 
rumoured to have been- bidding for 
Burmah Oil. 

City analysts are sceptical that IQ 
would launch a full bid for Beecham 
because of the amount of paper it 
would have to issue and the level of 
dilution that would imply. They do, 
however, think IQ could be interested 
in Beecham’s pharmaceuticals side, 
which is strong in antibiotics produc- 
tion. The pharmaceuticals side gen- 
erates 45 per cent of Beecham’s profits 
and Mr Mark QuiHiam of stockbroker 
James Capel estimates it could be 
worth up to £1-5 billion. 

Rank shares soar as profit 
reaches £ 137 m record 

rare and 

the Ici- 
ness equipment 

group, yesterday signalled its 
full return to corporate h eal t h 
with reconi £137 mfltion 
profits which sent the shares 
soaring 48p to 495p. 

The chairman. Sir Patrick 
Meariey, said that last year 
marked the beginning of a 
“revitalized expansion 
phase”. For die fust time in 
at least 20 years, after-tax 
its from Rank-managed 
exceeded those 
Scorn the associate compa- 
nies, principally the bolding 
in Rank Xerox. 

Rank’s pretax profits for 
the year to October 31 rose 
from £105.3 million on 
turnover which fell from 
£724.7 mflKf m to £630.9 

milKo n after the 1984 dis- and Warner holidays twsi- matte growth in holidays and 
posal of the Rank City- Wan nesses and Thom EMI’s recreation where trading 

Screen Entertainment snbsid- 

property subsidiary. Continu- 
ing businesses improved trad- 
ing profits by more than a 
third and the level of net 
borrowings has fallen from 
£240 million two years aso to 
£28J million. 

Sir Patrick said: “The 
cleaning up is over and we 
are now concentrating on the 
more satisfying management 
task of preparing for the 
future”, out he insisted that 
the company was not willing 
to follow foe “extravagances 
of the acquisition arena at the 
present tune”. 

In the past few m onth s 
Rank has been pipped at foe 
post for two major ac- 
quisitions, the Mecca Leisure 

iaiy, both of which finally 
went to management 

Sir Patrick said Rank had 
looked at more than 50 
companies of varying sizes 
over the past year — includ- 
ing Granada and Ladbroke — 
and that many were under 

its jumped from £7.6 million 
to £17.5 milli on. Ranx 
Xerox’s contribution un- 
proved from £63.9 million to 
£68.4 million. . 

.Rank is now placing 
increasing emphasis _ on 
refurbishment, both at cine- 
mas and holds, together with 
major investment in up- 

management review. He put a top price of grading the Butlins centres. 
in g fnr the £200 million on an ac- Lst year’s cinemas ad- 

£200 million on an ac- 
quisition and said that Rank 
would be willing to issue 
shares but only on the basis 
of improved earnings. 

AH of Rank’s trading di- 
visions — which cover films, 
holidays, hotels, and pre- 
cision industr ies — improved 
profits, with foe most dra- 

Lst year’s cinemas 
missions at Rank’s 79 sites 
were up by almost half after a 
four-year plateau, partly be- 
cause of successful price- 
cutting midweek in areas of 

high unemployment. _ No 

films were sold to British 
television because of 
disagreements over prices. 

iperial directors have lost 
their way, says Hanson 

By Patience Wfaodcroft . 

Hanson Trust has renewed 
its attack on Imperial 
Group’s proposed merger 
with United Biscuits with a 
strongly-worded letter dedar- 
ing that Hanson's £2 billion 
Ud - for Imperial offers 
shareholders much better 

“The proposed ’reverse 
takeover* by United Biscuits 
shows that your board has 
lost its way,” writes Lord 
Hanson, the chairman, before 
ing on to rebut criticisms 
Imperial about the 
longterm performance of 
Hanson companies. He 
points out that £ 1,000 in- 
vested in Hanson Trust at foe 

Lord Hansom m plans ta retire 

lights the decision of 

Imperial’s chairman, Mr 

£11,035 while the Kent, to retire next 

same investment in Imperial y®® r - Gordon White and 
would now be worth only J T ** ave 00 such plans,” Lord 
£% 444 Hanson says of himself and 

Loid Hanson also high- foe chairman of Hanson 

be ginning of 1980 would now 
be worth 

Industries in the United 

A Hanson director, Mr 
-Martin Taylor, admits that 
this is still foe “phoney war” 
period in the ted became foe 
Department of Trade has still 
to decide whether either or 
both of Imperial's proposed 
deals should be referred to 
the Monopolies and Mergers 

A decision is expected by 
the mirirfle of February and 
the Minister is expected to 
pronounce on both deals 

There are no competition 
grounds for referrring 
Hanson's bid, but there is a 
lobby in fovour of referral, 
one reason being the employ- 
ment implications of econo- 
mies which would result at 
Imperial after a Hanson 

Broker seeks 
more shares 
in Westland 

The battle for Westland 
intensified yesterday, as the 
helicopter group's stock- 
brokers, Rowe & Pitman, 
went into the market to buy 
shares at prices up to MOp. 
The cheats who wanted the 
shares remained anonymous. 

Rowe & Pitman’s senior 
partner, Mr Peter Wflmot 
Sitwell, said his firm was 
offering two different prices; 
133p a share for stock which 
would be processed in the 
normal way and 140p for 
stock to be ddiwxed within 
24 hours. Only with the 
second' category can foe cheat 
be certain of being able to 
vote the shares at the 
forthcoming Westland meet- 


HOLDINGS: Div 2p for yr to 
30/9/85. spafex tv bldgs ac- 
quired the whole issued share 
cap of spafix tv on 9/1/85. 
This was in connection with 
their entry to the usm. Spafex 
fees has not traded in the 

tv hldgs 
period under 

review, and 

consequently foe comps shown 
are those of spafhx tv for the 
period ended 29/9/84. turnover 
1827.2 (770.7). .operatin g profit 
418J2 (14{L5) interest pble 14.6 
(4.9) mortisatfon of premium 
on acqsn 1 1.7 (nil), pretax pft 
391.9 (135.6). lax 142.4 (65.7) 
amount attrib to preocqsn 55.5 
(nil), eps 6L57p (1.84p). shares 
103 np 3. 

TIES: Interim results for six 
months lo September 30 as 
stated in the prospectus. It is 
intended that a final dividend 
of 0.9p will be paid around 
August.(figs in £000). Turnover 

1024 (7.739). cosi of sales 412 
(7.121). gross profit 812 (618). 
pretax profit 405 (286). after 
administrative expenses 407 
(332), tax 81 (25). earnings per 
share 2.4p (l.9p). 

• JOSEPH WEBB: Results 
for six months to September 
30. 1985. Interim dividend 
0.13l3p (same), payable 
April 11 (figures in £000s), 
t/over 1.894 (2.410) .Op 
profit 386 (310) being holi- 
days 272 (202). Prop inv 1 14 
(108), but after depn 233 
(218). Interest payable 255 
(190). Pretax profit 131 
(120), tax 38 (44) eps 0.34p 
(0.27p). Net rental income 
continues to show steady 
progress. The group has 
recently hunched its scheme 
for caravan sales to private 
owners on selected areas of 
its caravan, parks and holi- 
day villages. 

may sell 

The Hambro femily may sdl 
its controlling interest in 
Hambros PLC the financial 
services company which 
owns the City merchant bank 
of that name. 

Hambros Trust, which 
holds the family's 49.95 per 
cent stake in the company, 
said yesterday that it had 
ackpd the board of Hambros 
PLC to put together pro- 
posals on what to do with the 
yiake, Including a possible 

Hambros Trust said it was 
concerned about the existing 
shareholding structure which 
ft said might be a constraint 
on Hambros development in 
foe rapidly changing City. 

It sate that any offer for its 
shares would go ahead only if 
it had the approval of foe 
Hambros PLC directors and 
its senior management 
■ Hambros Trust has also 
a«kgri the board to look at 
proposals for full enfranchise- 
ment of the company’s 
fimtori voting shares. At the 
moment, the trust, which is 
being advised by Phoenix 
Securities and Cazenove, 
owns 61.54 per cent of foe 
full voting shares and 3.9S 
per cent of the limited voting 
shares, giving h nearly 50 per 
cent of the votes in total. 

Hambros Bank has so for 
not taken part in the City 
revolution. It has stood bade 
from the wave : of change, 
preferring instead to stick to 
traditional markets and ways 
of doing things. Attempts by 
other merchant banks to 
form American style invest- 
ment banking groups by 
buying stock bracing and 
jobbing firms have been 
shunned by Hambros. 


Lonrho for 
Tokyo list 

3 - Tiny" R°“5 ni ll £ 
seriously looking a 
possibility of arranging : • 
listing for the group s shares 
on the Tokyo stock exchange- 
TOe listing, if «t **»>*£ 

lead managed by Nomura, 
largest financial in- 


solution. _ . 

Yesterday. Lonrho an- 

nounced fullyearprofitstor 

foe year to September IW 
of £158 million (£135 mil- 
lion) which were not up to 
foe best expectations of foe 
stock market.The shares 
nevertheless rose 4p to — y P- 

Whisky fall 

A near third decline in 
exports of bulk malt whisky 

— mostly traded with Japan 

- caused a 2 per cent drop 
overall in scorch exports .last 
year, the Scotch Whisky 
Association said. But earn- 
ings on scotch exports were a 
record £994 million. 

Slow payers 

More than half foe bills 
owed to small firms are paid 
late, the Confederation of 
British Industry has found. 
More than 60 per cent of 600 
companies questioned said 
standards had worsened in 
foe last 10 years. Big firms 
were the worst offenders. 

The London International 
Financial Futures 
Exchange launched dollar- 
mark options and futures con- 
tracts yesterday. Liflfe plans to 
add options contracts on the 
long gilt futures; and US Trea- 
sury bond futures contracts by 
foe end of ApriL 

Domino rise 

Domino Printing Sciences, 
Europe's market leader for 
continuous jet industrial 
printers, yesterday reported 
pretax profits of £2.65 mil- 
lion for foe year to October, 
compared with £1.82 million 
the previous year. Exports 
accounted for 81 per cent of 
the machines sold last year 
and licences have now been 
granted for local manufacture 
in both the US and Japan. 

Bids cleared 

The following proposed 
mergers will not be referred 
to the Monopolies Commis- 
sion: Morgan Grenfell with 
Pinchin Denny and Pember 
and Boyle, and Banque 
Paribas with Quilter 


Wall Sum prices opened 
mixed in active trading. Hie 
Dow Jones industrial av- 
erage, which added 2.32 
points to 1558.94 on 
Wednesday, was down 0.69 
points to 1558.25 shortly 
after the market opened 
Advancing issues led de- 
clines 369*288 among the 982 
issues crossing the tape. 
Before the market opened, 
foe Commerce Department 
reported that foe US index of 
leading economic indicators 
rose 0.95 in De cemb er. 

More power 

The electricity industry in- 
creased its share of the energy 
market last year by 3.6 per 
cent compared with 1984. 
Meanwhile gas use rose by 
4.4 per cent. 


* c. 

Some poor economic 
from the United States sot 
the dollar lower against other 
Important currencies yes- 
terday. The pound climbed to 
1.4075 (1.4030), after being 
above 1.41 at one stage. 

The trade-weighted index 
was ahead at 74L6 (74.2). with 
foe pound's value against foe 
mark a little better at 33510 

US leading indicators for 
December rose just 0.9 per 
cent, against forecasts of 
above 1.5 per curt, while the 

US trade deficit was at foe 
top end of estimates at $27.37 
billion, almost $4 teffien 
than foe November 

The dollar dropped a pfen- 
nig on foe news to 23800, 
having been 23880 overnight. 
In Swiss franc terms ft came 
bade to 2.0200 <2-0215) and 
in French franc terns to 

7.2950 (73275). 

Meanwhile the yen ad- 
vanced to a seven-year 
of 19335 against 19. 


The calmer apeO contianed in 
the money markets, awaiting 
Monday 1 * Opec meeting and 
Tuesday's money figures. Pe- 
riod rates were showing little 
with bill trading 
rather slow and 
not w—t H htwg the 
volume of Maturitie s . 

Day to day money was . 
relatively stable daring the 
morn in g, but it was expected 
to become tighter later. The 
shortage was being revised 
upwards to around £350 
mflH nn, foe figure Hmt 


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been hugely expected when 
the Bank sarprised foe mar- 
ket at foe outset with Ms 
modest £150 milli on. 

The Bank sold £74 utiltioa 
of bflb at Its midday opera- 
tions. It also revised its 
estimate of the shortage to 
aronud £400 utiHion com- 
pared with an initial 'forecast 
of £150 million. 

The Bank sold a further 
£162 million of bank bfib m 
the af ternoon, bringing foe 
total operations to £136 

1+1 54b 32 445 

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+1 25b 37 482 

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85 87 

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05 7S2 

• 41 93 85 195 

The Rank Organisation 




Profit before tax 



. Earnings per share 



Ordinary dividend 



Net debt 



The abridged profit and torn aoocmfl tor the year ended 31st October 1989 in an mxtra^t 
frnro the Report &Jtoc uuutii whi c h will be filed with tl 
whiflfo the auditors hare given an mwjiaKfiwd wpoit 

* Profit before tax 

* Earnings per share 




Another year 

■Die 1085 Haport* Accounts will be posted to n 

Copies msy be obtained freon the Secrets.- r ~- ■_ m 
6 Caxxnonght Place, Lonat- , V/2 2Ei. 


HNANCfc anl> indiimky 


Profit fall 
at Shell 

By David Yc 

Shell Oil, the American 
subsidiary of the Royal 
Dutch Shell Group, now 
wholly owned by the Anglo- 
Dutch company, has reported 
record earnings in the last 
quarter of 198S, but a drop in 
overall profits for the year. 

In the final quarter of last 
year profits were $652 mil- 
lion (£465 million) ,$71 
million up on the same 
period in 1984. Overall profits 
for 1985 were $1.60 billion, 
$122 million less than the 
previous year. 

Mr John Bookout, presi- 
dent of Shell Oil, said:“Over 
the past few weeks there have 
been exceedingly volatile 
price movements in the spot 
and future oil markets. This 
is a classic price reaction in a 
period of excess oil supply 
with both the Organization of 
Petroleum Exporting Coun- 
tries (Opec) and non-Opec 
producers struggling to main- 
tain their market shares. 

“The long-term implica- 
tions of this are by no means 
certain. We have made no 
fundamental changes to our 
basic strategies or current 
investment programme.'’ 

Shell Oil will spend $3.9 
billion on new projects this 
year, with $3.1 billion of the 
total earmarked for explora- 
tion and development of oil 
and gas resources within the 
US and for further ac- 
quisitions by the company. 
Spending on developing oil 
products will total $350 
million and $200 million will 
be spent on the company's 
US chemical division. 

Weir rises on 
£9m forecast 

Weir shares rose on the 
stock market yesterday alter 
the group predicted a profit 
jump from £6.8 million to £9 
million for 1985. 

The Glasgow-based en- 
gineering group released its 
profit estimate for the 12 
months to December 27 in 
connection with its bid for 
the neighbouring engineering 
company. Yarrow. 

Dividends per share were 
estimated at 2875p. up from 
2.5 last time, and Weir shares 
rose ftp to 75p on the news. 

The p eople who really count are the day-to-day managers 

Beware of the BES big names 

As the end of the tax year ap- 
proaches, investors are likely 
to find they are bombarded 
with Business Expansion 
Scheme literature aimed at 
tempting them into parting 
with their money to claim 
last-minute tax relief. 

This deluge is compounded 
by the feet that once you 
have invested in a BES 
company you are a marked 
investor. It is common for 
sponsors of BES issues to buy 
from each other their register 
of shareholders. The lists cost 
only £10 and there is a 
statutory obligation to supply 

In view of the impending 
onslaught, and the lure of 
rapidly disappearing tax re- 
lief it is especially important 
for investors to ensure they 
make the right choice. 

A careful investor ought to 
lake into account a number 
of factors in decidi n g where 
to put money. But first you 
must decide your investment 

If you want your invest- 
ment to reflect the spirit of 
the BES you are likely to 
want to avoid the substantial 
asset-backed schemes. In the 
main these are artificially 
created businesses, where a 
company structure has been 
wrapped round assets, usually 
freehold property. 

Some.but not all, _ of die 
hotel and nursuw/redrement 
home schemes fit into this 
.category, as do one or two of 
the pub ventures. There are 
variations in degree, but all 
to some extent are abuses of 
the BES. The worst abuses 
however, the wine-based 
schemes, are now almost 

Recent examples of spint- 
of-the-scheme companies 
seeking BES money are the 
Alan Paul hairdressing 
scheme, the Frew McKenzie 
antiquarian bookshop ven- 
ture (now closed) and Hitech 
Li ghtin g (also closed).They 
are generally in the minority. 

Moreover you must 
remember that a scheme 
which shows a marked ab- 
sence of asset-backing, and ' 
promises to create a number 
of jobs, may still be a huge 
rip oft Many risky but 
enterprising company ideas 
have been ruined by the 
greed of the sponsors, in 
wanting too great a stake at 
the outset and to take too 
much out of the company in 
the event of the company 
proving a success. 

Meet investors in BES 
companies are primarily con- 
cerned about the commercial 
realities, rather than the 
entrepeneurial aims of the 
Government's legislation. 

By Lawrence Lever 

This should not prevent- them 
however from putting a small 
proportion of their money 
into these schemes and the 
rest into the safer propo- 

Indeed many investors put 
money into BES schemes , 
not for any commercial or 
entrepeneurial reason, but 
because the business of the 
company is one that captures 
their fancy. This, if you Wca ( 
indulgence is facilitated by 
the availability of tax relief! 

Looking at the so-called 
safe, asset-backed schemes, 
however, does not mean that 
you can afford to be hap- 
hazard in your selection. 
Many asset-backed schemse 
fit into the "rip off" category. 
And asset-backing is by no 
means a cure-all. 

You should look carefully 
at the small print of the 
prospectus. The material con- 
tracts section should provide 
fairly full details of any 
commercial arrangements 
affecting the company and, in 
particular, those with people 
actually connected to it. 

Look at the costs of the 
issue, the experience and 
record of the 
roonsor/finandal adviser and 
the directors, and at those 
who will be involved in the 
company’s day to day run- 
ning and control. 

There is a fashion for 
companies to wheel in well- 
known people who are paid a 
few thousand pounds to lend 
their names to a BES 
company in which they will 
have precious link: involve- 
ment Their presence in the 
prospectus will normally pro- 
vide little extra to the success 
of the business, except in 
terms of its ability to attract 

It usually requires pains- 
taking work to sort out the 
intricate incentive arrange- 
ments sponsors and directors 
allow themselves. These 
come in the form of share 
optiomtor "A" shares trig-' 
gered usually, but not always, 
by the company achieving a 
certain level of profitability. 
In the early days of the BES 
directors and promoters alike 
were reserving options or 
share arrangements which all 
but allowed them to plunder 
the company if certain profit 
levels were achieved. Thank- 
fully these have more or less 
died out 

Investors in asset-backed 
schemes however should be 
wary of putting their money 
in companies where the 
options or special shares are 
exercisable at the same price 
as investors have to pay at 
the outset 

Asset-backed companies of 
this nature are to be avoided. 
There is no reason why 
investors should have to take 
the risk on a company's 
success, whilst 

sponsors/directors should be 
able to wait until the race is 
run before placing their bets. 

Last, but by no means 
Iwist, is the question of the 
invekor’sway out. As. the first 
BES companies approach 
their fifth year, a number of 
small shareholders will be 
clamouring to get out 

Most prospectuses contain 
bland statements of in- 
tentions when it comes to an 
investor's choice of exit 
route. Yon should bear in 
mind that only a tiny number 
of BES companies will get 
anywhere near the Unlisted 
Securities Market. 

The Over-the-Counter 
market option should also be 
taken with a pinch of salt. 
The success of an OTC 
market depends on finding 
willing buyers. Without tax 
relief available to the. 
purchasers, markets are likely 
to be very thin and prices 
heavily discounted. 

The stronger the statement 
of intentions, the better, but 
bear in mind that no prom- 
ises are made. Some compa- 
nies are only ever intended to 
have a five- year life - 

Call to encourage 
worker ownership 

By Oar City Staff 

New tax incentives should 
be introduced to encourage 
employee ownership, accord- 
ing to a pamphlet published 
by the Public Policy Centre. 

The authors, Mr Keith 
Bradley and Mr Alan Gelb, 
say that employee share 
ownership in Britain is in- 
significant compared with the 
United States. However, the 
extension of tax incentives to 
encourage eployee share 
ownership should be 
accompanied by the follow- 
ing , the report says: 

• There must be safe- 
guards against the concentra- 
tion of shares in the hands of 
just a few, top managers. 
There should be no in- 
centives unless shares are 
widely spread. 

• Shares should carry full 
voting rights and their dis- 
semination among employees 
requires a change of attitude 
promoted by a programme of 
education and a special effort 
of communication. 

• Tax incentives should be 
temporary only and phased 
out as a scheme matures. 

Among the benefits of 
employee share ownership, 
the Public Policy Centre 
pamphlet says, is that there 
should be less pressure for 
inflationary wage settlements 
The present collective 
bargaining system, in the 
absence of widespread em- 
ployee share ownership, 
breeds such settlements even 
when there are three milli on 

Evered Holdings expected 
to bid for TI Group 

Evered - Holdings, the en- 
gineering group, has ap- 
proached a number of City 
“heavyweights’', including Sir 
Peter Parker, the former 
British Rail chief to become 
chairman, a move which has 
fuelled stock market specula- 
tion that Evered is close to 
launching a takeover bid for 
TI Group, the Raleigh bi- 
cycles to Creda cookers 

MrRaschid Abdullah, who 
with his brother Osman runs 
Evered, said: “We have seen 
a number of people about 
coming on to the board, 
including Sir Peter Parker, 
but no decision has been 
taken. It is something you 
obviously need tQ take a lot 
of care about because you 

By Our City Staff 
have to work alongside 

Sir Peter is chairman of 
Rockware, the glass making 

Evered has been working 
hard to polish up its «map» in 
the City and has appointed 
two new directors since last 

They are Mr John Ford, 
formerly of Berai Inns, who 
has become its first finance 
director, and Mr Roy Kettle, 
a group manag in g director of 
Tarmac, who is on the board 
in a non-executive capacity. 

Meanwhile, Mr Raschid 
Abdullah said Evered was 
continuing to keep its options 
open, and had still made no 
decision on whether to go 

ahead and bid or release its 

Mr Route Utiger, the TI 
chairman, said :“I can think 
of no reason why our price 
has gone up. There are so 
many rumours floating 
around the stock market But 
we certainly have had not 
contact from Evered.” 

•Hsons,the pharmaceutical 
group, has made an ac- 
quisition which will enable d 
to manufacture and sell its 
range of anti-allergy drugs 
throughout Mexico. Fisons is 
paying £12 .18 million for 
Bracco de Mexico, a Mexican 
pharmaceutical company. 

•Aspen Communications 
is expecting to make a 
sign leant acquisition soon. 

US pressure 
grows for 
lower rates 

From Bailey Morris, Washing ^ ^ 
The US economy grew at a 

slower than expected rate of the * n dcliN* rj,, °" s 
0.9 per cent last month, or on their * c|l?si .jx mon- 
fuelling speculation that the pnor w > i o) the powerful 
Federal Reserve Board will itored commute*- 

be forced to follow the open marka & lta 

example of Japan and lower The new cewwj ' nuCtJ 

interest rates. released yttwrda lll|>n[ | is . 

Marker analysts _ appear the pattern ot W'j*’ record 
convinced that despite non- revealing, . an /<\ 7 -7 pillion 
commital statements by me trade deficit 01 a * •- , han 
Group of Five nations after j n December anu - , 0 

their London ■ meeting titis predicted growth. largest 
month, ministers did in fart cent gain, althougn | asl 

since 1-3 ,.P cr match 

take a decision to join 
together in lowering global 
interest rates. 

“There is a strong anticipa- 
tion that not only are our 
friends in Japan doing it but 
that other central banks 
around the world. West 
Germany and the United 
States, will be doing it too,” 
said Mr Martin P. Egli, a 
senior vice-president of Ju- 
lius Baer and company in 
New York. He echoed ihe 
views of many analysts that 
the G-5 group has become a 
powerfuI**club” of nations 
capable of influencing the 
world economy. 

US Federal Reserve Board 
officials, who meet in two 
weeks to set annual moniiary 
targets for 1986, bave de- 

since 1 -3 P° r ' ' 'match 
January, did iHW 0 f 

administration |MVth a t 

a stronp.-surec m P h| 

the end of vast 
addition, despite JJ — 
ti mated 10 per cent uroj 
the dollars value J.u. 
other currencies » 
September, US 

main slack and the t 

deficits continue to grew 
At the same time, the 
Treasury, aniictpaimP 
continued high deficit in 
$200 billion range, 
nounced another record qi 
terly financing package. 
Treasure said it would 
the $13.2 billion in new Ct 
next week by selling - 
billion of notes and bonds 
redeem $9.8 billion. 

Ladbroke plans £8 Op 
shopping area fac^ 

By Judith Huntley, Commercial Property Cc 

Labroke Group, the prop- 
erty, gambling and hotel 
group, is planning an £80 
million shopping develop- 
ment in the heart of Bristol. 

City and County Land, 
Ladbroke's retail property 
division, wants to redevelop 
the Broadmead shopping cen- 
tre with a 300,000 sq ft 
scheme in partnership with 
Bristol City Council, which 
owns much of the land. 

The scheme is an attempt 
to ward off competition from 
the out-of-town shopping 
centre planned by the 
Prudential at nearby Cribbs 

Ladbroke's plans involve 
building a covered shopping 
centre in a scheme which will 
cost around £65 million and 

have an in vest mr 
£80 million. The < 
talking to financi 
tions about the fui 
possible that some 
syndicated finance vjj 
used once the schei 
under way. 

It will take three yes 
complete. Ladbroke 
to obtain planning coni 
for its proposals. ^ 

The key will be its empha-* - 
sis on speciality; shopping 
geared to the fashion market. 
Large retailers such as Marks 
and Spencer and Wool worth 
already have stores in the 
centre of Bristol. M&S says it 
will stay in the town centre 
despite its plans to lake a 
150,000 sq ft store ju Cribbs 



Opt for the Jaguar Sovereign, and you’ll find its appointments 
an accurate reflection of your own achievements. 

The ambience of hide upholstery. The quiet glimmer of burr 
walnut on dashboard and doorcappings. The inclusion of air- 
conditioning: The philharmonic quality of the stereo system. 

The authority of a classic six cylinder, fuel injected 4.2 litre 
engine or the awesome 5.3 litre VI 2, both producing ample power 
to minimise driving hazards, and seemingly to diminish every 

other vehicle on the road The uncanny blend of balance and 
unobtrusiveness in handling. 

For 1986, we've even managed some refinements. 

A somewhat lighter interior, employing doeskin pillar trim in place 
of the black used hitherto. The choice of four distinguished new 
exterior colours, with matching coach lines. 

Headlamp wash/ wipe as standard on both models. Etched 
stainless steel front and rear treadplates. (We make no apology. To a 

Sovereign driver, the quality of the treadplates is of importance ) 
And when you consider that a new Sovereign provides all ih, - 
at a cost measurably less than that demanded for 'comparable' * 
motor cars, you’ll agree that the decision to choose a laeunr k 
itself a laudable Teat. J S 16 m 

After all, a Sovereign has always been a sound investment 






I-nwfcn l-mal Proof nnlftJlz zx.i.w, 




Among the financial results for die 
year, shareholders will be glad to see 
record earnings per share - 25-ftp - and 
strong cash balances in excess of two 
hundred million pounds. In fact, 
everything's up. including — ui Iasi — 
the share price. 1 onrlio has had a good 

The largest financial institution in 
Japan.* Nomura, led a very success fill 
convertible bond issue for Lonrho 
during 1985. \Vc would like to be 
among the first British companies to 
establish stronger links with the great 
Japanese trading houses in the Pacific 
basin, and arc researching 
opportunities to do so. 

At the year end. pre-tax profits 
reached a new high of £1 5K-3 million 
on a turnover of £2-6 billion. I am 
sure that shareholders w ill join me 
in appreciation of the sustained efforts 
which the Company has made 
worldwide. The vast majority of 
Lonrho ’s enterprises are grow ing 
individually, tinder enthiisiaMic long- 
term management . The Company 
welcomes shareholders, who. when 
they travel, take an opportunity to visit 
the estates, factories, and 
hotels of the Lonrho 
Group, in which they have 

Looking back over the 
year, 1 would highlight the 
excellent market progress 
of Volkswagen/ Audi 
(U.K.). Sales of vehicles 
reached one hundred and 
twenty thousand. You may be less 
arailiar with the name of Kiihne and 
age], the worldwide handlers and 
shippers, which has continued to make 
an astonishing recovery in the five 
years since joining the Group. The 
long-standing relationship between 
Kiihne and Nagel and the countries of 
the Eastern bloc offers Lonrho many 
potential trading opportunities in 
future years, as trade between East and 
West is. in my opinion, on the ^SLSr — 

brink of an expansion. 1 "* r 

This year saw the 
conclusion of Sir Freddie 
Laker's claim against ,| ; f / ]P 

Lonrho’s pre-tax profits 
of over £158 million 
are a record for the group 

R W Rowland, Chief Executive 

of ore per annum and mining 1 20 acres 
of hard rock scam less than forty inches 
thick. In order to do this, twenty one 
miles of underground l unnels arc 
blasted annually. 

Group gold production has increased 
s° 0 to 41' 9.000 ounces. In addition to the 
expansion at the Ashanti gold mine we 
arc also increasing the production of 
three mines in Zimbabwe. 

The first of two large .shaft systems to 
exploit the extensive gold reserves of 
Eastern Gold Holdings, the major new 
mine partnered by the Anglo-American 
Corporation, has been completed to a 
depth of 7.400 feet. Production is 
scheduled for April 1987, and will rise to 
exceed 400,000 ounces of gold annually. 
We hold 36^0 in this important mine. 


The results of the Group's seven 
sugar estates continue to be restrained 
by the low level of world prices and 
severe transport problems in Malawi, 
where two large estates are situated. 
However, profitability has improved 
with markedly good performances 
being recorded by the Swaziland and 
Mauritius operations. 

In Malawi, the tea crop reached 4-6 
million kilogrammes during the year, 
but there was a fall in the price of tea. 

British .Airways and orher 
defendants in an out-of-court 
settlement in America. The happy 
association with Sir Freddie, which 
continues, has been and is of great 
value to the Group. 

Lonrho has successfully led the 
financing of a 160 million U.S. Dollar 
development of the Ashanti mine in 
Ghana, which operates very 
productively with the strong support 
and encouragement of the Ghana 
Government. This input of additional 
capital will result in a production 
increase of fifty per cent., to over 
thirty thousand ounces per month, 
from one of the richest gold mines 
outside South Africa. 

During the year, the Government of 
Mozambique invited your Company to 
study the recommissioning of several 
large scale agricultural estates, as part 
of the programme to revitalise the 
economy. Shareholders will be pleased 
to hear that the pipeline through 
Mozambique to Zimbabwe has 
operated peacefully and profitably 
through the year, and is now 
additionally carrying aviation fuel. 

The nationalised tea estates in 
Tanzania were this year all returned to 
the Company, by a negotiated 
agreement which the Directors felt to 
be fair and satisfactory- and are once 
again under Lonrho management. 
Expanding in many countries. Lonrho 
continues to be Africa's largest food 

Over the twenty five years during 
which I have worked for your 
Company, the policy of continuous 
development and investment in Africa 
has proved a happy and rewarding one, 
in spite of the many forecasts to the 
contrary. Although Lonrho 
has expanded into 
the Americas and in 
Europe, yours is still 
the largest and most 
widely established 
Company on the 
African continent. 

Reports of the various divisions of 
the Group follow, and outstandingly 
active sectors have been Hotels and 
Casinos and Mining and Refining, 
which I hope you will have the time to 
read. The Directors look forward to 
welcoming you at the Annual General 
Meeting on April 8th — a short film of 
the varied interests of the Lonrho 
Group is shown at 1 1 .30 a.m., half an 
hour before the formal start of the 
proceedings, and new shareholders 
may find this a useful introduction. 


For eight successive years we have 
increased platinum production. 

Further expansion planned for the end 
of this year will result in output of 
platinum group metals of 270.000 
ounces, double that of 1981 . Operating 
margins arc excellent, and these will be 
further enhanced by the plant refining 
rhodium, ruthenium and iridium, and 
by the copper ' nickel refinery just 
completed and now being 
commissioned. All these increases and 
improvements have been self-financed 
by funds generated from operations. 

The present scale of platinum mining 
Involves treating over 2 million tonnes headgear — K estem Platinum, Marikanu. 

Rice being sprayed — John Holt Croup. Nigeria. 

In Kenya. sales of wattle extract 
amounted to over 4.700 tonnes. 

Other large-scale fanning operations 
in East Africa are wheat, maize and 
seed maize crops, soya beans, coffee 
and coffee warehousing, root 
vegetables, dairy products and pork. In 
Zimbabwe alone sales from the herd 
were nearly 1 1 .000 head of, beef cattle. 
The total herd strength in Africa is now 

The farms and estates are so varied 
and widespread that they experience 
very different weather cycles, but it is 
possible to generalise to the extent 
of saying that rainfall — the critical 
factor in Africa — has been reasonable 
to good. We have recently reacquired 
a majority shareholding in the 
well-run Mufindi Tea Estates 
in Tanzania. 

Kalangwa Estates in 
Zambia was 
affected by 
weather condi- 
tions and the 
poor perform- 
ance of the dairy- 

Coffee picking — Vumba 
Coffee Estate. Zimbabwe. 


Major hotels in the popular tourist 
destinations of Bermuda, The Bahamas, 
and Acapulco form the Princess 
Group, wholly-owned by Lonrho. The 

Mount Kenya Safari 
Club — Kenya. 

strength of the dollar caused some drift 
of American tourists to Europe this 
year, but nevertheless profits were 
excellent at U.S.S37 million. 

The tremors experienced in 
Acapulco as an effect of the Mexican 
earthquake did not injure the town or 
the Princess Hotel materially, and the 
company was able to assist in relieving 
hardship in the State of Guerrero by 
furnishing emergency supplies. 

The policy of the Princess Group as 
a whole is to invest continuously in new 
facilities and up-grading, since our 
competitor for tourist business is 
the efficient hotel sector of the 
United States economy. This year a 


Birmingham Metropole. 

major programme began in Bermuda, 
concentrated on the luxurious 
Southampton Princess, where all the 
rooms will be further improved, and 
restaurants rc-dcsigncd. 

In The Bahamas the Princess Hotel 
has wholly taken over the management 
and ownership of the adjoining Casino, 
and with the energetic direction of 
Sir Freddie Laker has organised four 
special rate charter flights a day from 
the Southern Slates, which is proving 
very attractive to tourists. The Casino is 
designed to attract the fun gambler, and 
has a huge variety of "State or the An" 
slot machines. 

Among hotels belonging to the 
Metropole Group in the United Kingdom, 

Jack Barclay, the well-known dis- 
tributor of Roll*- and Bentleys, did well 
throughout the year. The distinguished 
Berkeley Square showrooms continue 
to he a London landmark for residents 
and visitors alike. 

The Dunon-horshaw Group 
distributes British Lcyland vehicles and 
Jaguar cars, and has now 
commissioned a number of specialised 
locations Tar the expanding sales and 
servicing of Jaguars. 

The launch of the SEAT range of 
cars in the United Kingdom occurred in 
November 1985 amid very favourable 
press comment. 

Agricultural machinery has long 
been an interest of the Lonrho Group. 

SEA T cars at London Motor Fair. 

1 1985 AT A GLANCE 

1985 1984 


£2, 586m £2 3 367m 

Profit before tax 

£158. 3m £135.4m 

Profit attributable to 

£67. 6m £55.0m 

Earnings per share 

25.6p 20.9p 

Dividends per share 

12. 0p 11. Op 

Cash balances 

£211m £126m 

The seventy-seventh A nnual General Meeting of Lonrho Pic will be held at the 
Great Room, Grosvenor House. Park Lane, London, W.L on Tuesday. 
8th April, 1986 at / 1.30 a.m. 

MAN trucks from 
MAN- tW Truck and 
Bus — S*mdou. 

the London Metropole did best, with 
record profits. The Birmingham 
Metropole — by far the largest hotel in 
the United Kingdom outside the capital 
— was host to five hundred 
conferences, but the lower level of 
exhibitions during the year at the 
adjoining National Exhibition Centre 
somewhat reduced occupancy at 
Britain's top conference hotel. A new 
conference centre with the latest . 
equipment is currently being added, 
to maintain this dominant 

The results of the Casino sector fell 
short, in part attributable to the closure 
of Crock ford’s during the summer 
months for re-decoration. The directors 
and management feel that 1986 will be 
much improved. The ten clubs represent 
a large share of the United Kingdom 
casino market , with a combined ‘drop* 
of over £250 million last year. 


A number of new products were 
introduced this year, including a four- 
wheel drive Quattro option acnoss the 
entire Audi range, and the desirable 16 
valve Goir GT1 and Scirocco. 

The Group is also sole importer of 
MAN and Volkswagen commercial 
vehicles. Sales of MAN trucks were 
lifted by compared to 1984. 

V.A.G (U.K.) achieved a record 
year in terms of both profit and 
volume of passenger cars and parts. 

The company increased its market 
share to just under 6®#, to maintain its 
position as the leading importer of 
European cars. 

Deutz-Fahr is now imported by us to 
the United Kingdom, and customers 
are enthusiastic. 

At Saville Tractors, the new ly- 
acquired Case-I.H. industrial 
equipment franchise is progressing. 

In Kenya the Toyota, Mitsubishi 
truck and Massey Ferguson franchises 
all took the lead in their particular 
secrors, with overall sales increased by 

Power Equipment in Zambia has won 
Massey Ferguson's world export award 
for sales of agricultural equipment . 

Lonrho continues to be agents and 
distributors in many countries in 
Africa for Mercedes Benz, Toyota, 
Peugeot, Volkswagen, Audi. British 
Leyland, General Motors and several 
other manufacturers. 


Circulation of the 'Glasgow Herald' 
continued to grow throughout tty.* year, 
culminating in a record September. 

Main pruning presses at The Observer — 

St. Andrew's Hill. EC*. 

The ‘Evening Times ‘ also achieved 
significant circulation increases. 

The "Glasgow Herald ' is Scotland's 
leading quality national daily 
newspaper and, once again, Outram 
journalists have won numerous press 
awards, including "Journalist oi the 
Year” and “.Specialist Writer ol the 
Year". The 'Evening Times" also won 
the "Premier British Newspaper 
Design Award 1985". 

‘The Observer ' consolidated its 
position and reputation. 

The Group's provincial newspaper 
company, Scottish & Universal 
Newspapers, has had a highly successful 
year, with 18 of its 21 titles showing 
increases over the previous year. 

All divisions of Holmes McDougall 
performed well, despite continuing 
difficult trading conditions. 

Greenaway - Harrison, the security 
printers, continue to be the largest 
printerof Annual Reports and Accounts 
in the United Kingdom. The Lonrho 
annual report for 1984 received a merit 
award from the premier trade magazine 
‘Printing World'. 

Harrison & Sons primed the stamps 
which won, for the third successive 
year, the “Premier International 
Philatelic Award” for stamp design 
and won Italy's “Golden Stamp 
Award" for the most beautiful stamp. 

Following the acquisition of 
Wiggins Teape Orchard, the enlarged 
Harrison Decorative Papers is now 
the largest United Kingdom producer 
of printed 
papers to the 
with around 
50^0 of the 

British Film Year 

enmmemorame issue by the Britnh 

Post Office --tola sene* ol 5 stamp* pnnn d 

by Harrisons — High Hvciunbc. 


All the companies in the steel 
processing division of First eel earned a 
return on capital of over 30°o. 

Within the engineering division. 
Charles Roberts Engineering has 
introduced a general purpose tanker and 
an aircraft refuelling tanker, sales of 
which augur well for future growth. 
Tollemache is now established in the 
field of waste treatment and its 
conversion into fuel. Lightfoot 
Refrigeration enjoyed another very- 
profitable year. 

The Group's United Kingdom office 
equipment manufacturer, Sheer Pride, 
increased turnover and quadrupled 
exports in a very competitive market. 

Compressor as supplied to the Rural .Susy by 
Lightfoot Refrigeration — Wembley. 

In Zambia the construction company. 
Delkins, has just completed an excellent 
scheme in Kiiwe comprising a shopping 
precinct and residential flats. Vitretex 
Paints has now entered the export market 
with sales to Zimbabwe. In Zimbabwe. 
W. Dahmer and Co. sold their locally- 
manufactured buses and trucks well, with 
a number being exported . 


Whyte & Mackay 
has made sound 
progress, partic- 
ularly in the 
international duty 
free market and lias 
received the first 
‘Duty Free Product 
of the Year Award" jt 
at the 1985 Tax 
Free World 
Exhibition. I’i*. 

i t 

Mali v stdb ai 

Tominioul (ileitlivet Pt- tiller i — Scotland 


i.onrho Pic. Cheapxide House, 138 C hcapside. 1 otidon. I k 2\ ABI . 

I he company has also devdoped a len- 
, ,. ; ,r old single Highland Malt lor 
M^k^S^nccr-lndepenclen. research 

.susses Whyte & Mackay . 
the sixth largest Scotch whisky brand. 

Whvte & Mackay lias been 
iinaltixicd by the industry . cur refit 
.t.Kik surpluses. All three Highland 
Mali Distilleries have m amt. lined 
normal working llirtiughnul ihc sear 

Profits Irom French wine interest , »u 
Bordeaux and the I oirc showed an 
encouraging improve mem over me 
previous vear. A continuing programme 
to improve the quality and reputation -»i 
our wines and to strengthen ihe 
marketing organ i s;u ion throughout me 

world will yield benefits «ner the next 
tew years. 

The Group now operates 19 breweries 
in partnership with African 
Governments and mumupalitie-. 
producing traditional high -pm! cm beer. 

In Zambia, the Kittling company i 
investigating the production ol drinks 
i mm locally produced Iruit*. in addition 
t,i bottling Coca-Cola. The Group aU»» 
operates three PepsiCola 
*1 bottling plants in Nigeria. 

.V- rS • 

Chateau Rcu\un Stvla — 

, « UurdcJh • 


Lonrho Textiles has improved 
further, substantially increasing profits 
over last year. This has been achieved 
through a strong retail performance 
from the company's 250 outlets, trading 
as Brent l ords. Accord and John 
Wilson, and by increased efficiency in 
the factory. 

David Whitehead and Sons' 
operations in the United Kingdom 
continued to do w-ell with trading 
profit s 29 r o ahead of last year 
extending a fit e year record ol profit 

David Whitehead in Zimbabwe ha- 
had a very successful year helped by a 
combination of buoyant local demand, 
increased exports and greater 
production efficiencies. 

Z?/ ii -v — 

■ 8 jr,.»r. Km 


F F -^ 5 .; 

In Malawi. David Whitehead 
increased its export revenue by I23 r « 
with over 11 million metres of cloth 
being exported to twelve countries. 


The Kuhne & Nagel Group of 
companies, operated in partnership with 
Mr Klaus Kuhne. had another year of 
excellent performance. Considerable 
contributions were made by Kuhne & 
Nagel companies in Europe. Canada. 
U.S..A. and the Far East. 

Kuhne & Nagel is expanding its 
netw ork of travel agencies by 
acquisitions and opening travel offices 
in a number of countries. 

Kuhne& Nagel have intensified their 
activities in countries where they 
anticipate an above-average growth of 
their market share, including" China. 
India, Brazil and Scandinav ia. w here 
joint ventures and new offices have 
been established. 


Baumann Hinde. the Group's cotton 
merchant ing company, traded 
profitably in the face of an unstable 
market arising out of a large global 
cotton surplus. 

The Group's insurance division. 

F.E. right, made significant progress 
in many areas of its business and 
current trading condi tion> are good. 

Cii.'sf'rti'Bf HI — one o’" -he 

Cr, ■: t p , tpt-rjic,! aircraft 

John Holt’s confirming operations 
had. a reasonable year in spite of 
difficult trading in Nigeria. 

. 9^ oupi property port folio in the 

L nued Kingdom, comprising both 
residential and commercial proport v. 
has increased to £68 million. 

Peter J. Hopkinson. the wholesale 
distributor of bathroom and kitchen 
equipment, was panicularlv successful 
in extending its sale of Philips huili-in 
kitchen appliances. 

Southern Watch Jfc Clock Supnhc* 
have increased their marker share 
during ihe year by prov iding an 
enhanced service in the trade. 

Turnpan in Zambia, the largest 
supplier of mining equipment and spare 
parts id the copper mines, had a good 
\ cdr< 

Lonrho is an agenr in >ev eral 
countries for substantial American 
aircraft manufacturer*. Our busiest 
agency is Beechcraft. 

The text is taken t nun ihe t.'H 
Statement and Renew . ■/ Opera ;;, ‘ 

, , - . - - heap>i.le Hi W. 

v nearside. London. t\ m 'l .*BI 



•* ’ • *• 1 fcl* U I . 

irib TxivicS r : Ri£>A i JANUARY 31 i 9o6 

New issues market has cost 
firms millions, says Merrill 

By William Kay 

The City's new issue mar- 
ket has cost industry millions 
of pounds because of its 
inaccuracy and because of the 
need to give generous dis- 
counts to existing sharehold- 
ers in companies raising new 
equity capital 
That is the view of Mr 
Stanlislas Yassukovitch, an 
experienced City banker and 
the London head of Merrill 
Lynch. New York’s biggest 
. brokerage house. And he 
claims that his opinion is 
shared by a growing number 
of British companies. 

Mr Yassukovitch predicts 
that the present system will 
be one of the principal 
casualties of the Stock 
Exchange's forthcoming big 
bang, and that change mil be 
part of an incr e a si ng Amer- 
icanization of the City. 

Mr Yassukovitch said in 
an interview with The 
Times: “Clearly big bang and 
everything associated with it 
is designed to produce a 
securities market that will 
bear quite a close similarity 
to the US. It win require an 
organizational structure and a 
series of capabilities similar 
to that required in the US.” 

Chief among those cap- 
abilities. he argues, will be a 
new issue system based on 
Wall Street lines. He de- 
scribed the British method of 
raising new equity capital as 
the next shoe that has to 

The British custom is for 
the merchant bank arranging 
a new issue to have it 
underwritten by investing 
institutions. Thai means that 
they agree to buy any 

‘The UK system 
does not allow for 
accurate pricing’ 

unwanted shares at a special 
discount, and they also re- 
ceive a fee for providing this 

If the shares are being 
floated for a new company, 
the price is pitched at a level 
designed to attract enough 
investors to take up the issue, 
so a discount is built in to 
take account of market 
fluctuations in the week or so 
between the prospectus being 
published and the deadline 
for applications. 

If the shares, are being 
issued by way of rights to 
existing shareholders, again a 
discount is offered to. tempt 
those shareholders to add to 
their stake in the company. 

The Stock Exchange — “destined m become Americanized with tire trig bang" 

Either way. according to 
MrYassukovitch, the com- 
pany is forced to accept a 
lower price for the shares 
than it really deserves, so 
denying it money which 
would be ploughed into the 

“The system in the UK 
does not allow for accurate 
pricing,” said Mr Yass- 
ukovitch. “New issues, 
including privatizations, are 
either grossly oversubscribed 
or flops. Tbe US system is 
more accurate and produces 
higher average prices. Tbe 
cost to British industry of a 
significant discount to the 
market has run into millions 
over then years. That is a 
major burden for UK compa- 
nies competing overseas. 

Like his counterparts in 
other American securities 
houses, Mr Yassukovitch has 
been doing the rounds of 
British company boardrooms 
extolling the virtues of tbe 
US system of bought deals 
and “red herring” 
prospectuses, issued in ad- 
vance so that the issuers can 
guage market opinion. 

Bought deals involve 
securities houses in bidding 
for the new shares, which 
they then distribute to their 
clients and through tbe mar- 
ket The house that makes 
the highest bid gets the whole 

Mr Yassukovitch said: 
“There is a growing pressure 
from the UK corporate sector 
to change the system. They 

are beginning to appreciate 
that the cost is too hi gh and 
too advantageous to institu- 

City critics of the Ameri- 
can approach point out that 
it is a cornerstone of Stock 
Exchange ethics to let exist- 
ing shareholders have the 
first chance to buy new 
shares in their company. 
Some even argue that m 
those circumstances it does 
not matter whether the extra 
money goes to shareholders 
or the company, because tbe 
shareholders own the com- 
pany anyway. 

But that argument holds 
Jess water when a company is 
being floated on the stock 
market for the first time. The 
huge queues seen outside 
Barclays Bank for tbe launch 
of Laura Ashley last year 
were testimony to the 
amount of money that that 
company had to forgo. 

It has not been lost on the 
City establishment that 
Merrill Lynch has a vested 
interest in wanting the sys- 
tem changed to suit them. 

As Mr Yassukovitch put 
iti“The US houses organized 
on these lines are going to 
have a major competitive 
advantage which will more 
than compensate for the 
disadvantages we have — not 
being indigenous, not having 
the traditional roots of the 
domestic operators. 

As part of that process, he 
agrees with Sir Kenneth 
Berrill chairman of the 

Securities and Investment 
Board, that the SIB will come 
nearer to the New York 
Securities and Exchange 
Commission than many u 
the City expect. But Mr 
Yassukovitch believes that 
further legislative chant 
will be needed before the 
system is finally in place. 

“I do think there are some 
pounds for arguing that the 
Financial Services Bill repre- 
sents an interim stage," he 
said. “There has to be some 
legitimate doubt as to 
whether seif-regulation will 

‘There is growing 
pressure to change 
the system’ 

work. Not because of lack of 
integrity, but because the 
shape of the market is 
changing so quickly and the 
industry itself is amply not 
going to be able to cope with 
the changes." 

He shares the widely-held 
view that British players in 
the big bang will require time 
to make their newly-merged 
combinations work. 

Brokers, bankers and job- 
bers have already found that 
it is not easy to work together 
without a considerable 
amount of adjustment And 
that gives tbe new American 
competitors in the Gty just 
the opportunity they need to 
carve out a niche fc 


for them- 


Crystalate seeks new chief 

Crystalate, the electronics 
group, is still looking for a 
replacement for its chairman, 
Mr John Leworthy. whose 
death fuelled speculation that 
the company could be 
vulnerable to a bid. 

Mr John Herrin, chief 
executive, who has temporar- 
ily taken over the chair, said: 
“ We have a number of 
people in- mind but no 
decision has yet been taken ” 

Crystalate shares are at 
present standing at I68p, 
having fallen from a peak last 
year of 240p. The company 
has faced severe pressure on 
its margins since one of its 
main customers. British 
Telecom, began adopting a 
more rigorous approach to its 
ordering policy. 

However, its prospects are 
brighter and there is hope 
that one of its important 
customers. IBM. may be on 
tbe brink of placing a 
substantial order with the 

figures (£000): Dividend niL 
Turnover 24354 (22.782). Pre- 
tax profit 3,333 (3372). After 
interest 9,985 (7,855). Tax 
1394 (1,527). EPS 83p <7.8p). 

• MJ GLEESON: The chair- 
man told the annual meeting 
that group turnover for the 
year to June 30, 1986, may 
slightly exceed the J 984-85 
figure of £61 million, but the 
“work famine” in the public 
sector would prevent any early 
return to higher output. So the 
company is stepping up private 
sector activities, particularly in 
residential estate development 
and property investment. 

sults for the six months to 
September 29. 1985 (£000): 
Turnover 1,958 (683). Operat- 
ing income 815 (589). Pretax 
profit 82.4 (55.2). Interest 
payable 540 (435). Tax 0.675 
(0.675). EPS 1.80p (1. 17p). 


sults for the six months to 
September 30.1985 (£000): 

Rent and service charges less 
property outgoings 3,926 

(3,4561 Surplus on sates of 
properly and other income 
5.603 (5,456). Financing 

charges and other expenses 
2,144 (2,636). Pretax profit 
7,385 (6376). Tax 3,000 
(2,600). EPS 26.87p (22.64pl 
Interim 5p (same). Indications 
are that full-year pretax profits 
will not be down. 

TSWANA is planning a share 
offer which will place 10 per 
cent of an increased share 
capital in tbe hands of the 
public. The offer for sate will 
be for 750,000 new pi shares 
and will be made in the fust 
half of this year. 

business issued in 1985 repre- 
sented a company record with 
premiums totalling £28.1 mil- 
lion. an increase of 42 per cent 
on tire previous year. Annual 
premiums increased by 14.5 
per cent from £133 million to 
£]5.3m, white single premiums 
rose 101 per cent from £63ra 
to £ 12.6m. 

• ARGYLE TRUST: Results 
for 1985 (£000). Income 3.630 
(3,175). Operating profit 604 
(203). Pretax profit 604 (320). 

























M. & S. 








01-794 0123 









Jjtr jr"W 












Licensed Dealers in Sauniies 

108-110 FINCHLEY RD NW3 5JJ 

Tax 201 (78). EPS 1.8$p 
(l-87p) extraord items consist 
of cost assoc with tbe demerger 
of a former sub nil (II) 
expenses of capitalisation of co 
and its subs 30 (8) reorg! And 
other costs 40 (77) disposal of 
inv props tnd assoc costs 79 
(28 cdt) disposal of the busi- 
ness of Goodman anti Sterling 
(Coventry) 963 (nil) attrib tax 
3976 (29). ; 

• MEXICO FUND: Div of 4 
cents per share, representing 
die fund's earnings for the 
fiscal quarter ended' January 
3a 1985. 

GROUP: In his annual report 
the chairman, Mr George 
Stewart, says high I'd of 
activity continues, anc result- 
ing expansion makes him 
confident of further pro g re s s 
this year. 

Final Up mkg 95p (ISp) foryr 
to October 31, 1985 (£000): Inv 
income after all charges 34,598 
(5,062). Corp tax 84 (121). 
Profit after lax 34314 (4,941). 
EPS 99.22p (14.1 5p). 

for the yr ended Sept 30 1985 
(£000): Turnover 3343 (3.117). 
Trading profit 546 (668Jl Profit 
before tax 1,091 (652). Tax- 
ation 286 (284). Extraordinary 
charges 164 (nil). EPS I.83p 

• M AND G: Yr to 30/9/8 S. 

Final 9p mkg 15p (I23pX pay 
27 feh. figs tn £000 Turnover 
106,899 (86396). Unit tsi 
management and related activ- 
ities - revenue 17,585 (12,816) 
less marketing and commis- 
sions 5.805. (3.869) and admin 
5.464 (4331) op profit 6316 
(4,616) assurance activs - Sur- 
plus from long term insurance 
business funds 2,168 (1,739) op 
profit for group 8.484 (6355) 
interest rec and inv income 
1,652 (743) pretax profit iai36 
(7,098) tax 4,006 (2.436) 

extraord dbi oil (695) eps 
32.93p (25. Ip), assets per share 
16235P (136.450). sharehold- 
ers funds 30261 (25352) 

turnover represents revenue 
derived from the issues and 
sales of noils, management and 
other fees and the premium 
income of the long-term insur- 
ance business fund&Shaxes up 
15 at 840 after 850. 

• WIGGINS GRP: 6 months 
to 30/9/85. figs in £000. 
Turnover 30.512 (32.148) gross 
profit 2,659 (3,435) pretax 
profit 128 (loss 101} after 
admin expenses 1,908 (2,81 lj 
net interest pyUe 623 (725) tax 
odts 130 (90) eps 2.6p (lass per 
share O.Ip). all trading divs are 
expected to contribute pos- 
itively during the second half 
and the board will consider the 
question of a nominal div in 
the light of the full year results. 

• WINTRUST: Six months 
to September 30. Interim 
dividend l.Sp (i.6p). pretax 
profit £1.441.801 (£1.260.564). 
tax £585.815 (£501.041). earn- 
ings per share 9.47p (8.33p). 
Highl> satisfactory trend in 
profiiabiln> has' continued 
since half tear end. 

£30m plan 
to expand 
garden site 

By Derek Harm 

Industrial Editor 

Merseyside's Festival Gar- 
dens, already a premier 
tourist attraction that has 
drawn nearly 4 million vis- 
itors so for, is Kkdy to 
become part of a leisure 
development stretching from 
New Brighton aonbss the 
Mersey to the garden festival 

Theme park attractions 
such as pleasure rides are to 
be added to tbe garden 
festival site at a cost of 
around £30 milli on under a 
development plan. 

Negotiations are at an 
advanced stage for operation 
and development of the 
garden festival site by 
Transworid Leisure which 
together with the recently- 
formed New Brighton 
Development Company is 
involved in a £65 million 
renewal scheme for tbe faded 
Victorian resort of New 

A 40-acre seafront theme 
park and a covered water 
park are included in the New 
Brighton pfan.The scheme, 
announced last autumn, is 
expected to create at least 
1,000 full-time jobs with as 
many, again on a part-time 

When Merseyside Develop- 
ment Corporation started 
looking for a commercial 
operator for the garden festi- 
val Mr John Anton, max 
ing director of Transwc 
Leisure, saw the chance of 
building the Liverpool festi- 
val into the overall plan to 
attract particularly families in 
search of a day ont from a 
wide area of England and 

If Transworid is selected to 
run the garden festival site, as 
now looks likely, some of the 
theme attractions at present 
planned for New Brighton are 
likely to be switched to the 
Liverpool side of the Mersey 
The original New Brighton 
plan called for an opening of 
the new attractions there by 
early 1989. The New Brigh- 
ton scheme, which has out- 
line planning permission 
from the Wirral local author- 
ity, will be split into a 
number of development 
skages, each attracting its.] 
own funding. 

Although BBC grants can 
be expected Transworid will 
be looking for investment 
participation at a time when 
the City has been showing 
increasing nervousness over 
leisure developments. 

Opec set for economic 
battle with West 

Even with world oil de- 
mand trimmed to the bone 
and all 13 member countries 
of the Organization of Petro- 
leum Exporting Countries 
much less oil than a 
ago, their combined 
revenue from 18 million 
bands a day is considerable. 

For' that reason there is 
little sympathy among the 
Western public for Opec 
when it complains about its 
members' financial position. 

However, next month 
Opec will be concentrating on 
how it can keep its revenues 
up and win, be forcibly 
pointing out to tbe Western 
countries what they stand to 
lose if Open’s revenues col- 

Opec is paying $1 billion 
more a year than it did in 
1983 in interest payments 
alone to the Western finan- 
cial system, much of it 
coming to London, and next 
month it will seek ways of 
trimming iimt hill. 

Potentially worrying for 

By David Young. Energy Correspondent. 

Onec succeeded in preven ting 
collapse. byUnctfc, 

Britain is the suggestion that 
the Opec countries should 
restrict their imports. Among 
the oil producers’ cane! the 
Arab Gulf states and Nigeria 
are significant importers of 
British products. 

Iran's new oil minister has 
led the call for import 
contracts with tire Western 
world to be used as an 
economic weapon if non- 
Opec oil producers — such as 
Britain — refuse to cooperate. 
Iran has long had an export 
contract with the Coventry 
plant run by Peugot, and 
Nigeria has under review 
several important capital 
projects in which British 
construction • groups have 

Or FadhiJ Chalabi, the 
acting general secretary of 
Opec, said that during 1984 
Opec had '‘stoutly and single- 
handedly" attempted to de- 
fend the world oil price. 

“Despite widespread scep- 
ticism in the oil industry 

JdS&w its" decisions on 
production and pricing , be 

“Despite these sacrifices, 
the North Sea prod***. 
Snoring Opec appeals for 
^operation anddtotogue, 
continued to JP™*** 
maximum capacity a " d S°”" 
tinue to sell as much ofl as 
possible at prices which 
§?uck at the very 
Srions of Opec’s precan- 
balanced price 


mi. bhk against this back- 
ground to the oil scene that 
?9*4 ended. This picture .is 
likely to remain i the saniem 

the vears immediately ahead 
unlessand until thereis a 
general recogruuon of Cfoccs 
standpoint that market stabfl- 
itv is in the interests of all 
producers, and thai the prtec 
ofthat stabihty shoukjbe 

paid by all who benefit from 
it and not by Opec alone. 

London Bicycle in top gear 
for shops expansion 


London & Scottish Marine 
Oik New directors are Sir 
Alistair Frame and Mr 
George Naylor (non-exec- 
utive), Mr Richard Barry and 
Mr Norman Davidson Kelly 

LeisureTime International: 
Mr JJEjL Kidd becomes a 
non-executive director. 

Chambers & Fargus: Mr 1 
PJB. Furness is to succeed 
Mr D.F. Tandifie as manag- 
ing director. 

Northern Engineering In-; 
dustries: Mr Terry Harrison 
becomes executive chairman 
on Sr Duncan McDonald’s 
retirement in May, when Mr 
Graeme Anderson and Mr 
Larry Tisdale are to become 
deputy chairmen. Sir Donald 
Maitland has been made a 
nonexecutive director. 

Wight Collins Rutherford 
Scott: Mr Tim Breene has 
been made a director. 

McCorquodafe: Mr JX. 
Wood and Mr PJ. HoUoran 
are to succeed Mr Alastair 
McCorquodafe and Mr JX. 
Wood as chairman and chief 

Asda-MFI: Mr Derek 
Hunt chairman of MFI, has , 
been made group chief exec- 
utive and deputy chairman. 
Mr John Hardman continues 1 
as managing director of Asda, 
and is appointed a deputy 
chairman. Mr Edward Lea 
succeeds Mr Derek Drew as 
group finance director. 

By Rebecca Efiahoo 

Thirteen years ago, Mr Mi- 
chael Dickson, a young insur- 
ance underwriter left the City 
to start his own bicycle rental 
company, much to the sur- 
prise of his friends, including 
Mr Peter Landau, a broker 
who also left his job the 
following year to become co- 
founder with Mr Dickson of 
the London Bicycle Com- 

“The only reason I joined 
Michael", says Mr Landau, ” 
was that he assured me I 
would be a milli onaire by tbe 
time I was 3(LHe was grossly 

None the less, annual 
turnover from the London 
Bicycle Company's two shops 
has now passed the £1 
million mark and a venture- 
capital company, 

Baronsmead, Associates, re- 
cently made available 
£175,000 to the partners 
under its Business Expansion 

In the next couple of years, 
tbe partners hope to open 
four more company-owned 
bicycle shops as well as four 
franchised shops within a 50- 
mile radius of London. The 
Designers Fitch and Com- 
pany is working on a retail 
cqncept for the company to 
cover interior and exterior 
design, packaging and graph- 
ics. The. Loudon Bicycle 
Company stores will then sell 
everything from accessories 
and maps to specially de- 
signed cycling clothes. 

^Mr Dickson says: “We’ll 
give each franchisee a week 
to learn about the bike trade, 
a week to learn about the 
products and two weeks 
working in one of our shops. 
Then they will be monitored 
over six months to iron out 
any problems.” 

Messrs Dickson and Lan- 
dau tearni the bicycle busi- 
ness the hard way. In the 
early 1970s, a bicycle cost 
about £30 to buy and the 
partners lei them at 75p a 
day, until they realized that 
people wanted to borrow 
bicycles only at the weekend. 
At this early stage they had 
losses of £8,000. 

By tbe glorious summer of 
1976, they had managed to 
extricate themselves from 
their difficulties and had 
started selling bicycles as a 
sideline. Their turnover had 

Cycling team: Peter Landau (left) and Michael Dickson 

reached £16^200 when they 
decided to commission their 
own -range of bicycles from 
British manufacturers. Their 
Londoner bicycles now ac- 
count for more than half the 
firm's sales. Manufacture is 
put out to tender every year 
to companies such as T. L 
Raleigh, Dawes and Elswick 

The difference between the 
London Bicycle Company 
and most of the small high 
street bicycle shops is in 
approach. Tbe partners view 
their work as a business 
rather than as a hobby, they 
are markeiingfed rather than 
product-led. Three years ago 
they commissioned some re- 
search into what customers 
did and did not like about 
bicycle stores in general and 
used this to brief The 
Creative Business to produce 
a bright red-and- yellow 
layout for their two shops. 

Mr Dickson says: “We re- 
launched the stores with a 
PR company and were lucky 
because there was a Tube 
strike and London Transport 
doubled its fares. It was the 
perfect time for selling 
bicycles." But to expand 
further, the company needed 
more money. 

“We had started with £250 
and had built up the business 
by trying to get banks to lend 
us money," says Mr Dickson. 
”We reckoned the whole 
market was there for the 
taking and set off to the Gty, 
having constructed a good 
business plan with our 

As a small business, the 
company had always been 
restricted to hig£i street banks 
for finance. Their business 
plan opened doors and al- 
lowed them to reach a high 
scale of finance by talking to 
senior people in City firms. 

Hambros cover for exports 

In brief 


tcrim dividend * 26p (26p) 

making 37p on increased cap- 
ital (37p) for I985.(figs in 
£000). Group profit L127 
(7.941). after providing for | 
rebate and tax. Stockholders* 
published funds stand at 
£66.407.000 (£54.638.000). To- 
tal current assets at December j 
3! approximately £2.709 mil- 
lion (£3.055m) 

BANK SCOTLAND is taking 
over one of the main estate 
agencies North of the Bonder in 

£9 million deal, it was 
announced. The deal to make 
Slater Hogg and Howison. 
which has 19 outlets, a wholly- 
owned subsidiary of the bank, 
was signed in Edinburgh. 

Despite the sophistication 
of the currency markets, 
small exporters still face a 
risk when tendering for a 
contract in another currency 

Between submitting tbe 
tender and bring awarded a 
contract - often a period of 
Several months - the equiva- 
lent sterling value can fluc- 
tuate wildly, and profit 
margins can disappear. 

Hambros Bank this week 
launched a new service to 
help small and medium-sized 
companies deal with this 
jlem. For lenders between 
100,000 (£71,428) and $2 
million the scheme.called 
EXTRA, provides foreign 
exchange cover for dollar 

Up until now it has been 
possible to hedge such 
tenders using tbe currency 
options markets but for this a 
frill fee has been payable even 
when such tenders did not 

By Teresa Poole 

lead to contracts. Under the 
Hambros system, about half 
of the initial charge is 
refundable if tbe tender is 
unsuccessful In cases when 
tbe tender leads to a contract 
traditional forms of cover 
such as options can then take 

The EXTRA service was 
devised by Mr John Hey- 
wood, a Hambros director, in 
response to his clients' prob- 
lems, especially last year 
when the dolllar moved in a 
range between 1.03 and 1.49 
against sterling. “One of our 
customers put it to us 
beautifully last year. He said 
there were only two risks 
with a contract one he didn't 
get it and the other be did,” 
MrHeywood said. Now the 
EXTRA contract will provide 
the cash difference in the 
event of any fall in the dollar 
beyond an exchange rate 
threshold chosen by the 
client with Hambros’ advice. 



TheAL Smith & Clayton Partnership tSSSSoi 

Chartered Quantity Surveyors Construction Cost Consultants Haywards Hearn 

The Tooley & Foster Partnership 

architects engineers designers 

Buck hurst Hill 
Essex IG9 5LQ 

consultants for 
15+ years to 

Anchor Housing Association 

So the company will al- 
the exchange rate m the 
market or the chosen thresh- 
old. The Hambros fee de- 
pends on the period of cover 
(which can be up to a year) 
and the threshold chosen. If 
the tender is successful the 
client surrenders the option 
to Hambros. The bank makes 
its profit oyer a large number 
of such d eals 

. "Because we developed it 
m response to what the 
customers want, we have not 
fallen into the irap of 
developing something which 
ts intellectually satisfying but 
omo practical use,” Mr 
Heywood sairLTo start with 
the service is only for dollar 
tenders but other currencies 
may be introduced at a later 



ABN BANK^. 12!/r% 

Adam & Company!! 1216% 


Sav,n 8 s t— 12%% 
Continental Tnist._i2te%(| 

r < ^ erat ^ Bank -l2'A% 

C.Hoare & Co 17(6% 

Lloyds Bank ;Z!!‘" 

Nai Westminster ....!] 2 

Rgyal Bank Scotland 12 V 5 % 

fc-NA— gS’ 

t Mortgage Base Kate. 








\ i 
*-'■ - 

A : 

i • 


4 * 






Offer by 


on behalf of 



of up to 


payable in full on application 

! You are advised Mt to complete this Application Form until you have read the information on Wellcome pk and fall details of the Offer contained in lie Offer document dated 29th January. 1986 (the “Offer document"), which comprises published listing partietdare with regard to die Company in j 
[ accordance with The Stock Exchange (Listing) Regulations 1984. Copies of the Offer document can be obtained from the addresses shown herein. If you are in any doubt about what yon should do, you are strongly recommended to consult your bank manager, stockbroker, licensed dealer, accountant, 
solicitor or other professional adviser. U fas one of the terms and conditions of the Offer that in making an application you are not relying on any information or representation in relation to WeUcome pic or its subsidiaries other than as contained in the Offer document. 



1. The acceptance of applications will be conditional on the Ordinary share 
capital of WeUcome pic (the "Company! issued and now being issued bang 
aHmfrtwi to the Official Lfta of The Stock Ewhany and such admission 
hemming effective not later than the ctae of business an 21st February. 1986 
and on the Offering and Underwriting Agreement referred to in section J of 
‘Additional information' in the Offer doornail (the “Offer document! dated 
29th January, 1986 relating to the offer (the “Offe”) made on behalf of the 
Company and the Trustees of The WeUcome Trust (the “WeUcome Trustees") 
of Ordinary shares of Zip each in the Company (“Ordinary shares") not being 
laminated in accordance with its ta™ prior to such admission. Moneys 
collected in respect of questions will be returned without interest if such 
conditions are not satisfied and, in tire meantime, wiD be retained by Midland 
Bank pic inasquiate account. If any application snot accepted, or is accepted 
for fewer Ordinary shares than the numba applied for, the application moneys 
or the balance of the amount paid on application (as the case may be) w31 be 
returned by cheque through the post, in all cases without interest and at the 
risk of the appUcanttsl concerned. 

2. The right s reserved to present remhtanoes for payment on receipt by 
Midland Bank pic. 

3. By completing and delivering an Application Form, you (as the 

(i) offer to acquire from the Company and/or the WeUcome Trustees the 
number of Ordinary shares specified in your Application Form (or such smaller 
number for which the application is accepted) at a price of L2Qp per Ordinary 
share (the “Offer price! and on the farm* and subject to the conditions set 
out herein and in the Offer document and subject to the Memcaandum and 
Articles of Association of the Company: 

In) mnborireMidhnd Bank to send one or more Letters of Acceptance 
for the number of Ordinary shares for which your application is accepted 
aifci/ar a crossed cheque for any moneys returnable, by post, at the risk of the 
pereon(s) entitled thereto, to your address lor, in the case of joint applicants. 

1 that of the first-named applicant) as set can in your Application Form and to 
procure that your name (together with the namefs) of any other joint 
app&antfs)) is/are placed on the register of members of the Company in 
respect of such Ordinary shares the entitlement to winch has not been 
effectively renounced; 

fixi) agree that, in consideration of the Company and the WeUcome 
Trustees agreeing that they will not, prim to 22nd February, 1986, sell any of 
the Ordinary shares the subject of the Offer to any person erther than by means 
of the procedures referred to in the Offer document, your ^plication cannot 
be revoked until after 21st February, 1986 and that this paragraph shall 
constitute a collateral contract between you and the Company and the 
WeUcome Trustees which wiB became binding upon despatch by post to. or 
hr respect of abdications delivered by hand, receipt by. Midland Bank pic of 
your application: 

(M agree that due completion and deEvery of an Application Form shall 
constitute a warranty Ire you that the remittance accompanying it will be 
homared on first presentation: 

(v) agree that any Letter of Acceptance and any moneys returnable to 
you may be retained by Midland Bank pfopendmgdearwce of your remittance: 

(vi) agree that all applications, acceptances of applications and contracts 
resulting therefrom under the Offer draff be governed by and construed in 
accordance with English few; 

fvff) warrant that, if you sqm an Application Farm on behalf of somebody 
eke, you have due authority to do sx 

(vhi) confirm that in making your application, you are not relying on 
say information or representation in rotation to the Company or its subsidiaries 
other than such as may be contained in the Offer docume n t a n d you accordingly 
agree tint no person responsible solely or jointly for the Offs- document or 
any part tberrof shall have any liability for any such oths information or 

(ix) agree that in respect of those Ordinary shares for which your 
application has bear received and is not rejected, notification to The Stock 
Exchange of the basis of allocation shall constitute acceptance of your 
application on that basis: 

(xj warrant that you are not acting in concert with any other 
person or persons in relation to this application with a view to any 
one person, or persons acting in concert with that person, acquiring 
beneficially more than 2 1,070,000 Ordinary shares as aconsequence 
of allocations made pursuant to the Offer and that no other 
application is being made by yon for yonr own account or by another 
on your behalf forsoefa purpose or, if you are applying as agent or 
nominee of another, that other perso n is not to your knowledge 
acting in concert with any other person or persons as aforesaid; 

(xi) warrant that you are not a US person (as defined in paragraph 6 
below) and are not applying on behalf of, at with a view to resale to, a US 

Ixn) agree that the WeUcome Trustees are offering the shares being sold 
by them in their capacity as the present trustees of The WeDcome Trust (but 
not otherwise) and on the basis that their obligations shall be e nforce ab le 
against the trustees of The WeUcome Trust from time to time and shall be 
binding upon the assets of The WeUcome Trast and that the liabilities of soch 
trustees under or in consequence of the Offer or the safe of any of the Wdkome 
Trustees' Ordinary shares to you shad be limited to soch liabilities as can 
lawfully be met out of the net assets of The WeDcome Trust for the time bong 
in their hnnA or undo* their control and that m wttitinn any liability* d«n 
be limited to the amount of the Offer price of the Ordinary shares sold to you 
and interest thereon at Midland Bank pic's published hsse rate from time to 
time to the date of payment: and 

titiiil agree that any contract made by acceptance (whether in whole or 
in part) of any application shall constitute a separate contract for the purchase 
or subscription of each of the offered Ordinary shares, and these toms and 
conditions shall be construed accordingly. 

4. The basis of allocation will be determined by Robot Fleming & Co. 
limited (“Robert Fleming! in its absolute discretion after consultation with 

5. G. Warburg & Co. Ltd. Baring Brothers & Co. Limited and the Company. 
An applicant map.’ be allocated Ordinary shares sold by the Wellcome Trustees 
and/or new Ordinary shares sued by the Company as Robert Flanfog may 
in its absolute discretion determine. In addition to the application of the 
provisions of paragraph 3txii) above, in accordance with normal principles of 
English law, the remedies available to persons contracting with the WeUcome 
Trustees in relation to Ordinary shares sold by the WeDcome Trustees may 
diffe foam the remedies available to those contracting with the Company in 
relation Lo new Ordinary shares issued by the Company. There is no maxhmim 
in respect of the number of Ordinary shares for which a single application may 
be made, but the right is reserved to reject in whole or in pare or to scale 
down, any application including multiple or suspected muttipfe applications. 
In particular. Robert Fleming has und»taken with the WeUcome Trustees and 
the Company that without the consent of tire Company it mil not knowingly 
permit mate than 21 , 070,000 Ordinary shares to be aDocaied uj any person or 
perms appearing to it to be acting in concert pursuant to tire Offer and your 
attention is drawn to tire warranty in paragraph 3U) above. 

5. Up to 21.080.000 Ordinary shares (representing 10 per cent- of the 
maximum number of Ordinary shares being offered I are reserved in tire first 
instance far allocations to faff-time employees in the UK tire US and certain 
other countries, certain former employees of the Company and its subsidiaries, 
employees of The Wellcome Trust, non-executive Directors of tire Company 
(other than Sir Michael Butler! and of certain of its subsidiaries and retired 
directors of The WeUcome Foundation Limited and Bumwghs Wefcame Co. 
(tire ‘Preferred Applicants!. Such shares are being made available under tire 

Offer and the US l&nployee Offering referred to in section 0 under "Additional 
information” in the Offer documad. From this number, all applications 
received in respect of the Matching Offers, the US Free Offer and the Coopos 
Animal Health Inc. Special Offer referred to in the above mentioned section 
0 wffl be met in fuff. The reserved shares triff be *ifa«rt»ri to 

Pipftwpd Ap pBcmt swho make appfcatjonsthgefor on special farms pro vided 
for them, subject to the applicable Kmit on the number of Ordinary shares 
that may be aDooted to an indhridoal an a preferential basis (as described in 
the above mentioned section 0) and subject to scaling down in the event of 
ovgr-apphcal i oB- The basis of allocation to Preferca Applicants under the 
Offer and tire US &npbyee Offering wffl be the same, save that Uff applicants 
may not be allocated in aggregate more than 42B00.000 Ordinary shares. 


6 rerPivn^H<-nfynftb»OflW WrOTTTriPnf A pplirqtin/I Fnrm 

in any territory other than tire UK may treat tie miw as wwtfrbitmg an 
invitation or offer to bim, nor should he many event tae stick fotm, unless in 
tire relevant territory such an invitation or offer could hwfoffy be made to him 
or such (com could hwfolly be used without contravention of any registration 
w other legal requirements. It is the responsibility of any person outride the 
UK Wishing to make an appHcatinn under tire Offer In satisfy Irnmpff m tn 
fufl observance of the laws of any relevant terraoiy in connection thsewith. 
i nclu di n g the obtaining of any governmental or other consents which may be 
required and compliaDce with any other formalities in such territory, and to 
pay any transfer or other taxes requiring to be paid in such tenitaiy in respect 
of Ordinary shares acquired by ham under the Offer. 

The Ordinary shares offered pursuant to the Offer have not been, and will not 
be registered under tire United States Securities Act of 1933, as amended 
Accordingly, such shares may not be offered, sold, mounted or transferred, 
directly ® indirectly, in tire United States or to or for tire benefit of any US. 
pew® to my person purchasing such shares for reoffer, resale. Tenundatiou 
or transfer in tire United Stales or to or for the benefit of any US pezaon as 
part of the distribution of such shares. Applications unrig tire Offer wiff 
incorporate a warranty under paragraph 31 xi) above that tire applicant is not 
a US person and » nc* emptying on befaaif of or with a view to resale to a US 
person. Registration abdication fauns on Letters of Acceptance will contain 
a warranty to the same rifect by or on behalf nf the pgq on* fa w hraprannps 
the Ordinary shares are to be registered. "US person' means any natioori or 
resident of the United States or the estate or bust of any such pexscai, any 
corporation, partnership or other entity crested or organised in or under the 
laws of the United States, or any political sub-rfivisioa thereoL and aqy United 
States branch of a non-US person: "United States" mams the United Stales 
of America, as territories and poeeesaoiB. 


The Application List wiH open at 10-00 am. on 7th Frimmy, 1986 and may 
be dosed at any time thereafter. The basis on which applications have been 
accepted will be announced as soon as practicable afta- the Application List 
doses. It is expected that letters of Acceptance will be posted to successful 
applicants on 13th February, 1986 and that dealings in the Ordinary shares 
will commence on 14th February, 1986. Dealings prior to receipt of Letters of, 
Acceptance wffl be at the risk of applicants. A person so dealing must recognise 
the risk that his application may not have been accepted to the extent 
anticipated or staff. 

Different Letters of Acceptance wffl be issued in respect of shares allocated 
which are existing Ordinary shares being sold by the WeUcome Trustees (the 
“ftustees* Shares! and in respect of new Ordinary shares being issued by the 
Company (the “Company’s Shares!, Letters of Acceptance in respect of the 
Trustees’ Shares will be white and those in respect of the Company's Shares 
wiff be yellow. Separate Letters of Affotxnent coloured green will be sailed in 
respect of the US Employee Offering, Us last date for reps t gii^ renunciations 
will be the same in respect of both types of Letters of Acceptance and in 
respect of Letters of ABobnent and arrangements are being made for aff 
dealings on The Stock Exchange lo be op the basis that a bargain for the sale 
or purchase of any of the Ordinary shares being offered can be retied by 
defcezyofaienounceabfe Letter of Acceptance in respect of other the "’’rustees’ 
Sara s or the Company's Shares or by a Letter of Allotment in respect of the 
US Bnployee Offering; However, consolidation of one type of Letiff of 
Acceptance with the other or with a Letter of Allotment or vice-versa will not 
be possible. 

Deal ings on The Stock Eirhangp normally take place for settlement on the 
second Monday after the das* of The Stock Exchange account in which the 
bargain is made. This account is a period of two (or occasionally three) weeks. 
Settlement is made against documents of title and duly executed stock transfer 
fonns. However, untff 26th March, 1986. the period while Letters of Acceptance 
and Letters of Allotment remain renounceabie. deali n gs wffl take place for 
settlement due on the business day following the day of the bargain against 
de&sm of duly renounced Letters of Acceptance or Letlm of Allotment. 
Subject to acceptances becoming unconditional, the Ordinary shares now being 
offered wffl be registered, free of stamp duty and regi s t rati on fees, in the 
namefc) of purchasers) or personfe) in whose favour Letters of Acceptance 
are duly renounced provided that, in cases of renunciation. Letters of 
Acceptance (duly completed in accordance with the instructions contained 
therein) are lodged for registration by 3X10 pjs. car 26th March. 1986. Share 
certificates will be despatched on, or as soon as possible after, 25th April, 1986. 

Copies of the Offer document, and Application Forms 
may be obtained from: 

Robert Fleming A Co. Limited 
8 Crosby Square, 

London EC3A 6 AN 

S. G. Warburg & Co. Ltd. 

33 King William Street, 

London EC4R 9AS 

Baring Brothers A Co., Limited 

8 Bishopsgate, 

London EC2N 4AE 

the following branches of Midland Bank pie 

Hoare Govetfc Limited 
Heron House, 

3X9-325 High Holborn, 
London WCIV 7PB 
Rowe & Pitman 
1 Finsbury Avenue, 
London EC2M 2PA 
Cazenave A Co. 

12 Tokenbouse Yard. 
London EC2R 7AN 


Stock Exchange Services 

Mariner House, Pepys Street, 

London EC3N 4DA 
Bir mingham 
130 New Street, 

Bir mingham B2 4JU 
49 Corn Street. 

Bristol BS99 7PP 

114 St. Mary Street. 

Cardiff CFl ILF 

33 Park Row. 

Leeds LSI 1LD 

Ihe following branches of Clydesdale Bank PLC 
Edinburgh Glasgow 

29 George Street. 30 St. Vincent Place. 

Edinburgh EH 2 2YN Glasgow Gl 2HL 

and the following branch of Northern Rank limited 

Donegal! Square West. 

Belfast BTl 6LT 

Poultry & Princes Street. 
London EC2P 2BX 
31 Holborn, 

London EClN 2HR 

4 Dale Street. 

Liverpool L69 2BZ 
100 King Street 
Manchester M60 2 HD 
Newcastle upon Tyne 
77 Grainger Street 
Newcastle upon Tyne 
NE99 ISA . 


The following notes form part oL and should be read in 
conjunction with, the terms and conditions of application set 
out in the Offer document and reproduced herein and with 
the Application Form. Photostat copies of Application Forms 
will not be accepted 

1 Insert in Box 1 (in figures) tire number of Ordinary 
shares for which you are applying. Applications most 
be for a minimum of 200 Ordinary shares or in one 
of the following multiples: 

■ for more than 200 shares, but not more than 500 shares, 
in a multiple of 100 shares 

■ for more than 500 shares, but not more than 5,000 shares, 
in a multiple of 500 shares 

■ for more than 5,000 shares, but not more than 20,000 
shares, in a multiple of 1,000 shares 

■ for more than 20.000 shares, but not more than 50,000 
shares, in a multiple of 5,000 shares 

■ for more than 50,000 shares, in a multiple of 10,000 shares. 

2 Put in Box 2 (in figures) the amount of your 

3 Sign and date the Application Form in Box 3. 

The Application Form may be signed by someone else on jour 
behalf (and/or on behalf* of any joint applicant (s)) if duly 
authorised to do so, but the powerfe) of attorney must be 
enclosed for inspection. A corporation should sign under the 
hand of a duly authorised official whose representative capacity 
must be stated See note 7 for other joint applicants. 

4 Put your full name and address in BLOCK 
CAPITALS in Box 4. 

See note 6 for other joint applicants- 

5 You must pin to the completed Application Form a 
separate cheque or bankers’ draft for the full amount 
payable. Your cheque or bankers’ draft must be made 
payable to ““Midland Bank pic” for the amount payable 
on application and should be crossed “Not Negotiable”. 

No receipt will be issued for this payment which must be solely 

for this application. 

Your cheque or bankers’ draft mist be drawn in sterling on an 
account at a branch (which must be in the UK, the Channel 
Islands or the Isle of Man) ofa bank which is either a member 

ofthe Cheque and Credit Clearing Company Limited or the 

Ckjnunitteeof Scottish Clearing Bankersorwhich has arranged 
for its cheques and bankers' drafts to be presented for payment 
through the clearing facilities provided for the members of that 
com pany or that Committee (and must bear the appropriate 
sorting code number in the top right hand comer}. 

Applications may be accompanied bv a cheque drawn by 
someone other faun the appucant(s), but any moneys to be 
returned will be sent by crossed cheque in favour, and to the 
address, of the person named in Box 4. 

6 You may apply jointly with up to three other 

If you do so you must then arrange for the Application Form 
to be completed by or on behalf of each such joint applicant. 
Their foil names and addresses should be put in BLOCK 
CAPITALS in Box 6. 

Letters of 
sent to the 

itance in the names of joint applicants will be 
it named in Box 4. 

7 Box 7 must be signed by or on behalf of each joint 
applicant (other than the first applicant who should 
sign in Box 3 and complete Box 4). 

of attorney must be enclosed for inspection. 

■ You must send the completed Application Form 
together with the cheque or bankers' draft by post, or 
deliver it by hand, to Midland Bank pic. Stock 
Exchange Services Department, Mariner House, 
Pepys Street, London EC3N 4DA so as to be received 
not later than 10.00 a.m. on 7th February, 1986. 

If you post your Application Form, you are recommended to 
use first class post and allow at least two days for delivery. 




I/We offer to acquire 

Ordinary shares 
of 25p each 

in Wellcome pleat the Offer price of 1 20p 
per Ordinary share payable in full on 
application on the terms and conditions 
of application set out in the Offer 
document dated 29th January, 1986 


and I/we attach a cheque or 
bankers’ draft for the amount 
payable, namely 

(being I20p multiplied by the number 
of Ordinary shares inserted in Box 1 ). 

("I Pin here your cheque/bankers* draft for the amount in Box 2 

Fill in ihK s«iii«»ii milv *»hrn rhere e* murr chan oik- applicant- Thr lioi or sole jpplicmK shiniLt sic;ii in Box 3 and 
O empiric- Box 4. Inxrn brhm onh I hr namt-s and adclrrv*-. ol ihr srctHiri ami Mib-mjitriu applicants, rai h <i| i\h»sr 
signal urr. or ihr sjguaturr of ihr |K-rs<iii signing on thnr hr hall, k rrquirrd fa Box 7. g 


Mr.. Mtv. Mi»« lislr 


Mr. Mrs.. Mf»n, tnW 

Mi.. Mts_ Minor ink- 




Pi<sJ< auk- 






l . Attt-pcuiwr No. 

3. Amount rrcmrd 

6. Olrt|iK- Nix 

Spins Rt-Ktsiranmi 

The Application List will open at 10.00 san. on 7th February. 1986 and may be closed at any time thereafter Th*. J 

Application Form together with a cheque or bankers* draft for the amount payable should be nested, or *ur ^° m pleted 
to Midland Bank pic. Stock Exchange Services Department. Mariner House, Pepys Street, London EC3N anr hand * 
received not later than that time. Any person signing this Form under a power of attorney must enclose that rower *? ** lo *•* R 


Broad advance 

ACCOUNT DAYS: Dealings Began, Jan 27. Dealings End Feb 7. 5 Contango Day. Feb IQ. Settlement Day. Feb 17 

$ Forward bargains are permitted on two previous days. 


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lo advertise your cur. holiday 
home or properly for sale in 
The Sunday Times Classified, 
fill in your advertisement in 
(he space below. (Longer 
messages can be ui inched 

Rates' are: £9.50 per line 
(approximately 4 words, 
minimum.! lines). 

£ 56.00 per s.c.c. full display. 

Has 15% VAT 

Prior to your advertisement 

appearing we will conlacl you 

with the cost and confirm the 


The Sunday Times. Classified 
Deni.. Freepost. London 
WCl 4DR. Or phone 
01407. \ii i/am 


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JANUARY 3 1, 1986 

By Malcolm Brown 






A home from 
home for the 
silent few 

The Vice Chancellor of 
Warwick University, Dr 
Clark Bran din, who chairs 
Anchor Housing, said: 
"Between 1950 and the year 
20000, the number of retired 
people will have risen from 
6.7 minion to 10.1 milli on. 
It's a phenomenal change in 

By no stretch of the 
ima ginati on is enough pro- 
vision being made for this 
change. Anchor and its asso- 
ciated organizations have be- 
tween them built 20,000' 
sheltered homes for older 
people, but the funding of 
such schemes is bcoming 
more and more difficult 

The trouble, says Michael 
Corp, group director of An- 
chor, is that the old simply 
are not and never could be 
effective lobbyists in their 
own cause. 

’They are less physically 
active; they are not economi- 
cally active and politically 
they are not a coherent 
group." Because the voices of 

the old are by and large not 
heard — and are certainly not 
backed by anything like the 
political dout that other 
interest groups in the 
community can muster - 
there is a tendency for those 
in power to make sympa- 
thetic noises, but to procras- 
tinate when it comes to 
practical measures. 

There seems to be no lack 
of goodwill, but a marked 
deficiency of political wilL. 
Perhaps, as a past chairman 
of Anchor put it, this is 
because bousing is never 
’’critically" urgent - unlike 
appendicitis, a Falklands war, 
or a miners' strike, things can 
usually go on a bit longer. 

"There is a chain of 
deprivation", says Michael 
Corp. "Old bousing in poor 
condition is more likely to be 
occupied by old people and 
poor housing has an effect on 
their health and their ability 
to cope.” 

More money is essential, 
he says. If it is not forthcom- 

Anchor help 
older people 

When you’re providing accommodation 
for the elderly on Anchor's scale, laundry 
services are a major consideration. 

Anchor Trust have chosen Miele as 
their leading supplier oflaundry equipment: 
because they know that Miele Washing 
Machines and Tumble Dryers will go on 
washing and drying and coming up with 
dean, fresh, crisp laundry week after week, 
year after yeai; with the minimum of fuss 
or trouble. 

Anchor Trust can take comfort in the 
knowledge that they have invested then- 
money wisely to look after those in their care. 

Miele are proud to be associated with 
this deserving work, helping Anchor help j 
older people. 

Miele Company Limited. 

Fairacrcs, Mar chain RA, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 1TW 
Telephone: 0235 28585. 

mg, the results will show up 
rapidly for groups such as 
Anchor. He adds: "Public 
sector provision through local 
authorities or through hous- 
ing associations, funded as 
we are by the Housing 
Corporation, is subject to a 
careful downward spiral of 

New commitments to pub- 
lic sector sheltered housing in 
the coming year wifi be the 
lowest ever, and this means 
that in two years time, less 
sheltered housing will bbbuflt 
than for many years past.” 

Nor, he believes, will 
private-sector developers be 
able to take up the slack, 
despite the recent boom in 
retirement housing. 

Dr Brundin believes that if 
we do not get to grips with 
the problem of the elderly 
soon we may, quite literally, 
live to r e gre t it If the yean 
up to the turn of the century 
look daunting, he forecasts 
that the following 20 years 
will see even greater changes. 

"In 2020”, he says, 'nearly 
one in four of Britain's 
population will be over 
retirement age, and possibly 
one in 10, five million, will 
be over 75. 

"Each one of us has a 
vested interest in growing 
old,” says Dr Bnradm,"and 
housing is central in the life 
of old people." 


The organizations are: 
•Anchor Housing Associ- 
ation builds sheltered bousing 
for rent It operates through- 
out P-ngfemd and has a strung 
regional presence with offices 
in Altrincham, Merseyside, 
Newcastle upon Tyne, Brad- 
ford, Nottingham, London, 
Bath. Bi rmingham. 

•Guardian Housing Associ- 
ation builds sheltered housing 
for sale and is a subsidiary erf 
Anchor Housing Association 
with which it shares the same 
volimtary board. 

•Anchor Housing Trust in- 
vestigates new ways in which 
the housing needs and prob- 
j lems of older people may be 
| met and fund raises for the 
Anchor family. 

There are three sister 
organizations: Bield Housing 
Association. Corian Housing 
Association and Fold Hous- 
ing Association which carry 
ont similar work to Anchor in 
Scotland, Wales and North- 
ern Ireland. 

■ * .*; v*3 

P mr* 

Anchor people: Mr asd Mrs Symmonds relax hi their Anchor home In Vanxhail Bridge Read; Mrs Norfolk at the cooker in her 
bedsit; Michael Corp (left), group di rector; and a resident at Higbfield House, Bradford 

Soothing the anxieties 

The elderly can occasionally 
be surprisingly ruthless in 
their attitudes to others. 
There is a strong feeling 
among tenants in Anchor 
flats that any tenant who 
becomes seriously ill should 
be moved completely away 
from the sheltered accom- 

University of East Anglia 
sociologist Graham Fennell, 
whose survey of more than 
800 tenants on Anchor 
schemes will be published 
later this year, got a very 
strong response to the ques- 
tion: "What should happen 
to tenants who become very 

Nearly half said that the 
very poorly tenants should be 
moved from the sheltered 
accommodation. They should 
not stay in their flat, nor 
even be moved to a flat in a 
special wing. 

Replies to a supplementary 
question: “How does Anchor 
treat tenants who are very 
poorly?” produced an im- 
portant response, not so 
much in the majority opinion 
that Anchor was “very good 
to them” as for the 38 per 
cent who replied, "Don't 

“This very high 'don't 
know” response far exceeds 
that to any other question 
and this is significant,” says 
Mr FenneLL "Many tenants 
genuinely don't know be- 

cause the issue has not arisen 
during their tenancy, but the 
response also - suggests a 
degree of uneasiness." 

Mr Fenndl says that al- 
though it was a potentially 
distressing subject, the 
researchers felt they had to 
probe further to find out if 
tenants were worried about 
their own personal future. 

One not uncommon anxi- 
ety is that the sheltered 
housing tenants may be more 
vulnerable to being moved 
on than if they had stayed at 
home, simply because the 
warden is by the nature of 
her job, weD-connected with 
the health and social services 
bureaucracy. Nearly a third 
were anxious they would not 
be able to manage. 

Anchor researchers last 
year took a closer look at 
tenants who had moved on 
to further care over a three- 
month period. They turned 
out to number 100 tenants 
which, extrapolated over a 
full year, would be 2.4 per 
cent of the Anchor tenant 
population — smaller than 
would normally move from 
the general “elderly" popula- 

“We also found that the 
age at which people are 
moving from sheltered hous- 
ing into further care is on 
average about 84 which, 
again, is significantly higher," 
says Richard Bettesworth. 

director of the Anchor Hous- 
. ing Association. 

“So, on those two grounds 
alone, the rerearchers have 
surmised that living in shel- 
tered housing does defer, if 
not prevent totally, the need 
for many people to move on 
into further care." - 

Of the 100 who made a 
move, about two thirds had 
mental deterioration. 

The indications seem to be 
says Mr Bettesworth, that the 
physical handicaps and 
disabilities of elderly tenants 
can be coped with more ' 
easily than the problems of j 
mental deterioration. j 

“It's not that the old lady 
with mental deterioration 
needs a lot of active treat- 
ment or . help, but she does 
need a lot of watching." 

Mr Bettesworth says that 
Anchor is very aware of the 
fear that tenants have of 
becoming incapacitated to 
the extent that they may have 
to leave the sheltered hous- 

“It is not within o in- 
capacity to offer a home or a 
facility to every Anchor 
tenant who becomes too frail 
to stay in sheltered housing. I 
think it is within our capacity 
to be able to tell them very 
clearly what is on offer 
within their neighbourhood 
and in that way, try to reduce 
the degree of worry about the 




We congratulate Anchor Housing 
Association on their excellent work in 
providing housing for older people and are 
pleased to be associated with them as their 
investment advisors. 

Schroder Investment Management Limited 

36 Old Jewry 
London EC2R 8BS 
Telephone: 01-382 6000 


iiuau!£uji& _ 

••• • * ,.:W - - r ~ 

Sip# v 

i -M 


m Wi ■ 

.S-V ; U V> 

AD over Britain, fine buildings rfm once 
stood proud are falling foul of neglect. Splendid 
ate* are becoming eyesores. 

But rbe world's Not can help to sop the roc 
We can provide the backing that turns a sad 
sheUiib e S h arpie s HaU into aahekered home 
A borne with a fuD-thne readent warden - 
and a back-up emergency alarm - presiding over 
a fully-fledged, sdfconalnad community : |r * 

own communal meaing places, 

A home where fade thmesmeanafoc — 
chlpgs hi* waist -high efectrkaj sockets. raab-raOs 
on baths, raised toitets and wider stairways for 
powered chair lifts. 

These are |usc a few of die amenities that die 
Halifax Building Sodeiyhdp to provide. 

cffSasr HALIFAX' 

the future; 1 ^ ^theworloSm 




3 Ideal spots in 
i Surrey 

All with beacon alarms, residential 
wardens and someone else to look after the 
ext eh or of your brand new. comfortable, 
modem, easy to run home: 

Epsom ProspectPiace (Epsom 40233) 

1 bed bungalows and apartments from 

Guildford Westmead, WeyteaFarm 
(Guildford 571 299) 1 bed maisonettes & 2 
bed bungalows from £40-56000. 

Merton Park Sf Mar/S Mead SW19 
(01-543 8858) 1&2 bed retirement flats 

from £47-54000. 


The following Consultants are pleased to 
be associated with ANCHOR HOUSING 

Max. Lock. Easton 
Peris ton & King 
(Chartered Architects & 
Chartered Town planners} 
19 John Street London WC1 

Consulting Enginesrs 
(Structural A Civi 



Part ne rship 
(Architects S Planning 
35 South AudtoySL, 
London Wt. 

The Chapman Ba thur s t 
(Btilding Seraces 

32 St Georges Place 
Canterbury, Kent 
0227 68172 

B.M.M.K. CottereO 
(Consulting Engineers) 
Herontye House 
Stuart Way 
East Grinstead. 

Broadway & Mafyan 

(Chartered Architects) 
Weytoridge 0932 45599 


With a history of j 
building which J 
goes back well «| 
over four * 1 ? 
generations, the Jj 
' Llewellyn Groups 
is proud to be ,%gj 
associated with » 
the Anchor Jjjg 
Housing *82 
Association. * 
We have already 
built more than 

ippmess for 

elderly in the centre of 
Eastbourne was opened 
in October 1985 by 
jt— the former Minister 
of Housing, 
Mr Ian Go w 
353 \ T.D.M.P. 
it II IL Our wide 
g n w a ffiL experience 
in the 
of shopping centres. 

MiQfield Court, Eastbourne. 

bunt more titan ' schools, offices, leisure 

4,UUU homes throughout the complexes, housing and factory 

country for Housing Associations. estates and specialist projects 
Our latest project for Anchor, a gives us a natural lead to build 

warden assisted complex for the for your future 


Head Office: 16-20 South Street, Eastbourne BN21 4XE Tel: (0323) 21300 Telex RT 77 I a 

u T 





w ,Ankw_ 



Lame « new 1 and 2 bedroom homes ate specially 
designed (o meet the needs ot' [tw over STs. They am 
warm and oontibRahk and way economical to nn. 

If you arc seeking companionship and a carefree 
tEtuemem, telephone Lairg Retirement Homes. 

Wbeatfa ampngi d - 1 and; 

bedroom dais ani t»o hedtonm 


TdcjAnoc. (CSUS3J 3722 

Browfaton - 1 bcdniom lUo- 
Tdephnr: (0343) OO^txti 

Dunstable- I and'bedtLm 
jnd J bednvvn huncalfiwt 
Tdtptuiie: I J5o>J 60C35.’ 

& Woodfcn) - 1 bed flats. 

Alton (Hannl - f and 2 bed flan- 
TefcjAone U-MJCl SPSS 

hmdwtlii m Mbc In fe 
Enfield. Climgford, Welwyn 
Garden Gry. 


Retirement 1 



Or write ax Apr Sow. MS H3I, London NW7 2ES- 

Cold facts of shelter 
in a bleak climate 

L':m' *!:«'» 

The Social Workers Pennon Fond, which has been 
miming the Anchor Housing Pension Scheme from 
the beginning, is proud to have been associated 
with Anchor Housing since its formation. 

We also operate the pension arrangements for some 
160 other Housing Associations within the National 
Federation of Housing Associations phis nearly 
one thousand other charitable and voluntary 

Isn’t it about time you contacted us about fully 
portable pension arrangements? 

Further details may be obtained from: 

Tony Waterer A.P.M.L or Peter Dickinson, B.A. 

\&7 / Pension Fund 

/ 93-96 Borough High Street 

\ / London SE1 1NL 

\S Telephone 01-403 0301 

The progressive tightening of 
government purse strings has 
had a devastating effect on 
the housing association 
movement as a whole and 
Anchor has not escaped. 
Building programmes are 
having to be cut back 
radically and new sources of 
finance sought. 

Four basic types of accom- 
modation are os offer - 
sheltered housing for rent, 
accommodation tor the Sail 
elderly who need high levels 
of care and both subsidized 
and unsuhsidized sheltered 
housing for sale. 

Each is financed in a 
different way and the first 
three are particularly vulner- 
able to government econo- 

• Sheltered bousmg for 
rent: In the current financial 
year, which ends in April, 
Anchor expects to spend 
about £20 million.- Of that- 
about 80 per cent will be in 
the form of a grant from the 
Housing Corporation and 20 
per cent will be long-term 
mortgages (repayment mort- 
gages spread over at least 40 
and sometimes up to 60 

The money from the 
corporation is an outright 
grant with no repayment and 
no interest (The only money 

that goes back into the public 
purse is the so-called grant 
redemption - rents rise over a' 
period of time in line with 
inflation but the mortgage 
interest charge is fixed, so the 
probability is that even with 
rising management costs 
there will be a surplus. That 
is repayable to the Treasury 
thro ugh a 100 per cent 

The programme is decreas- 
ing because of the severe cuts 
in government finance 
through the Housing 
Corporation. In national 
terms the number of new 
projects approved for 1986- 
87 will be reduced by 25 per 
cent on the current year. The 
total has been going down 
steadily over the past five 

This year Anchor is build- 
ing about -500 units, five 
years ago it was 2^00; and in 
1986-87 it could well halve 


• Frail elderly schemes: 
Anchor has three existing 
schemes - at Bradford, Bir- 
mingham and Milton Keynes 
- which provide for people 
too frail to be accommodated 
in conventional sheltered 

These have been sub- 
sidized through the Housing 
Corporation, but there is now 


If it’s your job to find technical services 
personnel, be sure that The Sunday 
Times Recruitment pages aren't missing 
from your schedule. 

The Sunday Times reaches 27.3% of 
men and women involved in technical 

Which is more than any other nat- 
ional newspaper, magazine or periodical 
-as the BMRC 1984 Businessman Survey 

Moreover, The Sunday Times is read 
by more than 4 million people (source: 
N RS, April-September 1985) and reaches 
more ABO'S under 45 more cost-effect- 
ively than any other newspaper 

The standard Display Rate per single 
column centimetre is just £65 (plus 
VAT @15%). 

To reserve space, write to Shirley 
Margolis, Classified Advertisement 
Manages, The Sunday Times, 200 Grays 
Inn Road, London WC1X 8E2. Or 'phone 
01-837 1234 or 01-833 7430. 





Accounting +PLUS 

gives Anchor Housing a total financial management 
information system at their fingertips - and it can 
. do the same for you. ft’s a simple to operate, multi- 
company, multi-ledger, multiuser system which is 
already used by hundreds of companies, running 
on DEC POP It or VAX. 

L More information 


Bdon Way, Crick, 

Northants NN6 7SL 
, Telephone 
Also at Milton Keynes, 
titest Bromwich 
and Camb&tey, 







London WC2B 4JF. 
Tel: 01-242 6282 


-XCtT. - ■ - - ^ ■ 

; f , ' * 'i 

* f -* •' ’ **• ■**«■ 

Anchor Court, Vicarage Road, Enfield 

are pleased to have been appointed 
for this and other projects by 


Michael TwiggJBrown & Pa rtn e rs 
Architects £ Planners 
Montague Chambers, Montague Cose, 
London Bridge SE1 9DA 

great uncertainty about fend- 
ing in this area, paxticulariy 
for the type of schemes 
Anchor is now planning - 
fall-scale, purpose-built 
projects aimed exclusively at 
the frail elderly. 

Anchor is already working 
on five such schemes and 
making the assumption that 
few of. the schemes will be 
subsidized. The value of the 
programme in hand is about 
£5 million a year and Anchor 
is woriringon the assumption 
that it wm have to be paid 
for by a combination of 
building society loans and 
charity money. 

The present breakdown is 
75 to 80 per cent building 
society loans, up to 20 per 
cent charitable funds and 5 
per cent from other sources 
such as area health authori- 

The running costs of these 
schemes and the interest 
repayments on the building 
society money are crucially 
dependent on the amount 
which the Government is 
prepared to give to individual 
tenan ts by way of Depart- 
ment of Health and Social 
Security “board and lodging” 

These used to be dis- 
cretionary and ran at up to 
£140 a week. But in 1984 the 

'■ .yfer *0/5' 


Putting support into practice: Richard Bettesworth, 
director of Anchor Housing Association, and Caroline 
Cayzer, manager of Appeals and Funding 

Government abolished dis- 
cretion and set a limit of 
£110. upgraded to £120 in 
November. This parsimony 
has very nearly wrecked 
programmes but Anchor has 
decided to go ahead, relying 
more on charity money and 
hoping that the limit will be 
raised again soon. 

• Subsidized sheltered 
housing for sale: In the 
current year about £4 million 
will be speaL Of that, 70 per 
cent would come from tbe 
owner-occupier who is buy- 
ing the unit and 30 per cent 
by way of housing corpora- 

tion grant Most sheltered 
housing for sale on the open 
market is in the £30,000-plus 

The object of the subsidy is 
to make sheltered housing 
available to the less well off 
who may have a house of 
their own to sell but are 
probably, only going to raise 
£25,000 to £30,000 on that 
proper^. The deal gives tbe 
buyer a 70 per cent equity 
stake. On resale 70 per cent 
of tbe increase in the value 
goes to the owner. 

• Unsuhsidized sheltered 
bousing for sale: A private 


b “> eT J a, £ 

100 per ocflti for that be or 

she nets a long-term 
from Guardian which is the 

freehold owner. o; r hairi 

Officials such as Kicnara 
Bettesworth. direcior of .the 
Anchor Housing Association, 
find they arc being stretched 
to the lull to comL- up with j 
cchemes that will allow An- - 
operate at a reason- 1 

ab "The e1 ' need hasn't V 

changed.” he says, “but the ’f 
Sy to finance it through 
public fending has changed 
dramatically. . . 

To trv to make up at least 
pan of the cats m pubhc 

fending, Andior is now ging . 

direct to industry with a 
scheme called “Anchor and 
Commerce m Partnership , t 
It is aimed at companies ?• 
which want to look alter their - a 
own pensioners but do not r . 
know how to do so. 

Anchor suggests that if the T 
companies will put up me . 
loan finance for one (or J 
more) sheltered flats, it wall 
provide accommodation lot- > . 

rent by one (or more) or the ■ . 
company's pensioners at one ’ 
of the Anchor developments. ■ 
Anchor gets development 
finance and in return the * 
company has the right to -■ 
place a pensioner in ' . 
Anchor flat of its choice. 

A close watch on cowboy operators 

There are a lot of wen- 
meaning people providing 
residential care for the frail 
elderly. There are also more 
than a few rogues. The frail 
elderly need a lot of help to 
get through the basic routines 
of everyday life - from getting 
out of bed and dressing to 
preparing meals -‘so they are 
particularly vulnerable. 

The substantial rise in 
Department of Health and 
Social Security rales for 
board and lodging in tbe 
early 1980.S - when dis- 
cretionary payments of £130 
to £140 or even more a week 
were quite common - started 
a boom in private residential 
care for the frail elderly. 

Businessmen, who had to 
cover mortgage payments 
and running costs out of their 
client's (usually DHSS- 
backed) payments, found that 
in practice many DHSS 
offices would stump up 
whatever they asked. 

The quality of what was 
provided, ranged from small, 
almost loving, family homes 
to homes where residents 
were cynically exploited. 

Anchor, which had begun 
to look for an expanding role 
in this specialized area fell 
that there was a strong need 
for someone to set standards, 
both of management and care 
and of financial probity. 

Tbe need has become even 
greater. In 1984 the Govern- 
ment stopped the dis- 
cretionary element of DHSS 
board and lodging payments 
and imposed a limit of £110 
(raised to £120 in 1985). 

Michael Corp, group direc- 
tor of Anchor, is concerned at 
what may be going on in 
some of the . homes set up by 
"cowboy” operators. "There’s 
little doubt that over the last 

two or three years there have 
been many homes set up by 
people who have decided to 
exploit a market sector and I 
think we'd be very worried 
by a residential home that 
was trying to exploit a market 
sector down at £120 a week. 1 
hate to think what’s going on 
to make that a profitable 
venture for tbe proprietors." 

Ironically, the 

Government's change oi 
rales on the board and loding 
payments nearly wrecked 
Anchor’s plans. There has 
been uncertainty about just 
how much will be available 
from now on and particularly 
for the kind of full-scale 
purpose-built projects aimed 
exclusively at the frail el- 

Mr Corp expects about six 
projects, together providing 
accommodation for about 
200, to be operational within 
two years. 

If it were to plan ahead 
with any confidence, Anchor 
had to assume there would be 
little public money available 
for such schemes and that it 
would have to rely on 
mortgage finance and charity 
money. That meant like 
private sector operators, it 
would largely depend on the 
DHSS board and lodging 

"When we started looking 
at this, figures of about £130 
to £140 a week and more 
were regularly being paid 
around the country." Mr 
Corp says. 'Therefore it 
appeared that we could make 
the thing work with building 
society mortgages. Then there 
was the sharp cutback. At 
£110 a week we had no 
chance of making schemes 

"A. £120 we sfill can,t fac,OTi 

make it work for certain but -ph e researcher, a GP with 
we’ve decided that it’s worth a sp^al interest in geriatric 
taking the risk to continue to n^rine, looked in detail at 
develop the schemes m the ^nants in two London 
belief that that sum will go 
up again sometime in the not 

too distant future, and be- Altogether 18 were re- 
cause we’re receiving garded as "housebound" (un- 

timnnrt ” “7^ ... r 

substantial charity support." 
- As part of its efforts 10 
gauge how the needs of the 
elderly are chang in g and ma y 
change in the next decade or 
two. Anchor has also 
commissioned research into 
the extent to which the 

able to go put for an 
appreciable period of time): 
19 were classed as 
’’incontinent": and 13 were 
found to be "mentally 
unpaired” to the extent that 
their daily living abilities 
were affected. 





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And as for the bottom fine, thestandard Display 
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Tb reserve space, write to Shiriey MargoGs, 
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Gain peace of mind in the new way of 
life that comes with retirement. 

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with first class management. 
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Contact: Pat Lacey 
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The world’s NoL in Central Heating 
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When Anchor Housing needed the best, easiest to doing just that for the past 50 years, 
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called on the experience of SteTrad - the world’s biggest Great Britain are successfully taking on the world and heaii ^ 

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10 . 






Staying Put to help the old 

The arithmetic of old age *an 
be stark. The 1981 English 
House Condition Survey 
shows that; 

•Proportionately more than 
uuee times as many house- 
holds with people aged 75 or 
'■ over were found in unfit, 
, seriously dilapidated homes 
than in "satisfactory" homes. 

•Four out of 10 elderly 
owners were living in poor or 
unsatisfactory homes com- 
pared with two out of 10 
non-ekJeriy owners. 

Put that together with the 
tact that the number of 
elderly over 75, already 3.7 
million, is expected to in- 
crease to more than 4 million 
by the turn of the century 
and you have a major cause 
for concern. 

' Sheer pressure of numbers 
means that Anchor workers 
have to turn down many 
more people for sheltered 
accommodation than they 
house. In 1978 they started 
an experiment. Staying Put, 
to try to improve the lot of 
those who wanted or h ad no 
choice but to do just that— 
stay put in their present, 
often severely sub-standard 

The objective was to pro- 
vide technical and financial 
advice to enable older people 
to repair and adapt their 

There were two essential 
dements. The first was to 
exploit the "latent" value of 
the elderly ppeople's own 
homes: what had seemed a 
liability could, with expert 
advice, once more become an 
asset The second was to 
make practical advice avail- 

The elderly need someone 
to help to organize and 
supervise the building work 

Happy and well-honsedrThe sessrity 

Anchor's Higfafield House in Bradford 

University team lived alone 
and most were women. 

Three-quarters were either 
on supplementary benefit or 
got rent rebates: seven out of 
10 had less than £1,000 in 
savings; four In 10. Ins than 
£300; and six in 10 bad 
chronic medical conditions 
or disabilities. Their prop- 
erties were often quite unsuit- 
able: nine in 10 properties 
had stairs; fewer than one in 
five had central heating; 
about one in 100’ applicants 
lived in houses that indeed 
one of the baric amenities - 
hot water, a bath or an inrirfe 

Has Anchor’s approach 
been successful? Rose 
Wheeler believes it has. Of 
. 137 applicants who bad 
completed building work at 
the time of the survey, 109 
said the work had made it 
possible for than to five 
mere longer. 

Mr Coup believes the 
initiative has been a success 

and to give social support 
and counselling. 

The experiment started 
with one small team in 
Manchester which was allo- 
cated £20,000 of Anchor’s 
charity funds. It was soon 
realized that using charity 
money to help clients on an 
ad hoc basis was scarcely 
scratching the surface of the 

"You had to have a more 
thoroughgoing approach to 
the whole thing.” says Mi- 
chael Corp, Anchor’s group 
director. "We worked out 
that with a combination of 
home improvement grants 
and - which was probably the 
most revolutionary thing - 
mortgages, we might be able 

to help people fund repairs 
and improvements. 

There are now eight Stay- 
ing Put Schemes-- in South- 
port, Bradford, Newcastle, 
Brixton, Hackney, Lambeth, 
Brighton, and Birmingham. 

Rose Wheeler of York 
University's Social Policy 
Research Unit, who recently 
completed a major survey of 
the initiative, shows just how 
necessary such schemes are 
becoming. • 

She paints a harsh picture- 
widespread poverty among 
the elctaty with inflation 
diminishing the value of both 
income -and savings. 

Nearly two-thirds of the 
854 Staying Put applicants 
interviewed by the York 

bin the inks of the game 
have been changing. The 
original experiment in Man- 
chester taugfat Anchor that 
the ideal combination was a 
local authority improvement 
grant topped up with an 
interest-only mortgage. 

There was a boom in 
grants in the early 1980s. The 
trouble is the money was not 
going to the dderty, it went 
largely to the young, pro- 
fessional middle-classes who 
used it to "gentrify” prop- 

The Government cut back 
with a vengeance. "Inevitably 
grant money is greatly 
reduced," says Mr Corp. 

Ultimately, he thinks, there 
will be a loosening once more 
of tiie public purse strings. 

■ Mrs G., 63, had let everything slide 
since her husband's death. She had 
spent several periods in mental 
hospital and was showing early signs 
of senility. The exterior of her pro per t y 
was broken down, the interior damp 
and filth y.There was no water supply. 
Mrs G. was described by Anchor 
workers as looldng about 80. The 
neigh boors wanted her evicted. 

The works involved — re-roofing, 
renewing; rotten windows and doors, 
new- hot and arid water supply, extra 

Case histories 

heating and complete redecoration - 
cost £8,050. Anchor received a maxi- 
mum repair grant of £4326 and 
supplemented it with a £33300 Abbey 
National Maturity Advance. Monthly 
repayments on that by the DHSS 
amounted to £23318 which, even with 
the capital renovation costs, is much 
cheaper than the C00 a week it would 
cost to keep her in hospitaL 

■ Mrs D„ 79, a widow for six years, is 
arthritic m both knees and walks with 
sticks outside. Her property was in a 
bad state of repair. 

The anderatairs capboard was con- 
verted Into a downstairs WC, windows 
and guttering were repaired and central 
heating was installed. This and other 
work on rewiring, etexost £6,762. 
Anchor arranged a mortgage to cover 
the sum. Because Mrs D had less than 
£100 savings, the cost of the mortgage 
interest was paid by the DHSS. 

Trials in care 

The Anchor Housing Trust, 
one of whose principal jobs is 
looking for and developing 
new initiatives to help the 
elderly, is funding three key 

•Satelliting- The idea of 
satelliting is to use a sheltered 
bousing scheme as a "mother 
house" into which other 
nearbv properties can be 
linked by an emergency 
alarm system. The first 
experimental units are in 
Brighton where tenants are 
about to move into four 
Anchor-owned properties by 
its Old Viaduct Court shel- 
tered housing scheme, 
i Tenants will be encouraged 
to join in the social life of the 
scheme and flats, although 
separate from the main 
scheme, will be managed and', 
maintained by Anchor. 

It is hoped that ultimately 
similar schemes might extend 
the idea to properties owned 
or rented privately. Officials 
believe that satelliting could 
appeal to old people who 
need the benefits that shat- 
tered housing offers but may 
be put off by the more 
communal atmosphere or 
normal sheltered schemes. 

• Ask Anchor. This hous- 
ing advisory service was set 
-up in Bolton 16 months ago 
to provide skilled and impar- 
tial advice on housing prob- 
lems. It was realized that 
many of the questions which, 
-worried the “elderly most 
about housing had as much 
to do with finance' or social 
circumstances as they did 
with "bricks and mortar”. 

A minor problem such as 
faulty guttering might worry 
an elderly person out of all 
proportion. A specialist team 
of counsellors, supervised by 
a senior member of Anchor, 
is providing advice on re- 
bates to coping with disabil- 
ities and lonelmess.The most 
frequent problems had to do 
with the desire to be re- 
housed and paying for re- 

• Dispersed alarms. An- 
chor, helped by several major 
charitable trusts, is funding a 
Wftich?-typt study, by the 
Research Institute for Con- 
sumer Affairs, into dispersed 
emergency alarm system. 

These systems allow people 
living in their own homes to 
summon help quickly — an 
emergency call initiated by 
the elderly householder is 
received by a permanently- 
manned centra] control that 
directs the help. 

The market for eme r gency 
alarms has often been poorly 
thought ouL The alarms are 
technically inadequate. -The 
laboratory work has already 
been completed on "stand- 
alone" equipment, which 
merely contacts a series of 
telephone numbers. 

An Anchor official said the 
findings are less than reassur- 
ing: "Heath Robinson is alive 
and well; four out of six 
pieces of equipment cannot 
be recommended." 


Whatever the Brick or 
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As Members.of the Association 
of Consulting Engineers the 
Practice is pleased to have been 
involved with Anchor Housing 
Trust in the inception, design 
and professional services to 
provide the correct 
environmental conditions in 
their Sheltered Housing 

With continuing good wishes to 
The Anchor Housing Trust 

Rochford-Thoimpson Ltd. 
(Security Printers) 
Newbury. Berkshire. 

Tel: (0635) 31115 

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When Anchor Housing needed a high- 
quality data network to interlink their 
Oxford headquarters to their five 
regional centres they chose British 
Telecom’s Kilostream Service. 

Incorporating sophisticated 

monitoring and alarm facilities, 
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If you would like more details 
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on their success 

We have enjoyed working closely with 
them over the last 15 years and are 
confident of their success in the future. 

We believe that housing associations 
have a vital role to play in our society and 
are pleased to be widely involved in this 
specialised area. 

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We are very proud to have Anchor as 
one of the most prominent members 
of our Federation. No other member 
has produced so many homes during 
the last 17 years. 

Anchor has brought security, 
friendship and happiness to many 
thousands of elderly people and won 
the admiration of the whole Housing 
Association Movement. 

of Housing 





Tel. (0865) 722261 




Congratulations to Anchor Housing 




Trinidadians urged to 
boycott England 
as pressure mounts 

From John Woodcock 
Cricket Correspondent 

The case for boycotting 
England's cricket tour has 
found a powerful advocate in 
the Prime Minister of Trini- 
dad, Mr George Chambers, 
who says that on principle he 
will uot be attending 
England's matches there. 
Something called the St 
Vincent and Grenadines 
Anti-apartheid Solidarity 
Organization has also de- 
clared its intention of picket- 
ing England’s visit to St 
Vincent, which starts today. 

“If you don't want to see 
Gooch play, as f don't, then 
don’t go," Mr Chambers said. 
He advised Trinidadians to 
exercise their right by “keep- 
ing their money in their 
pockets". Until Trinidad’s 
Minister for External Affairs 
had said much the same 
earlier in the week, recent 
Trinidadian opposition to the 
tour had come from the trade 
unions rather than the poli- 
ticians. Arrival in Trinidad is 
not until February 27 and 
probably the best England 
can hope for there are 
• conditions in which the game 
is playable, albeit before 
small crowds. 

After five days practising 
here in Barbados, the team 
will be glad to fly the 100 
miles to St Vincent and to 
fire the first shots in earnest, 
against the Windward Islands 

Ian Botham played only a 
small part In England's 
practice yesterday because he 
has shoulder trouble. *Tve 
inflamed the tendons and 
can't torn my arm over 
properly to bowl," be said. 
However, be still expects to 
be fit to be available for the 
match against St Vincent 

Graham Gooch also has 
slight shoulder trouble, 
though Ik too wfll almost 
certalaly be available, allow- 
ing England to select from a 

there tomorrow. A certain 
dilatonness crept into 
Wednesday's open-wicket 
practice, partly because of the 
slowness of the pitch and 
spongy nature of the outfield 
at the Cable and Wireless 
ground. Yesterday two sides 
of eightwere chosen from the 
16 players, with the odd 
wager being struck between 
them, which is as the. 
professional golfers do it to 
keep interest alive on practice 

Up the coast at Sandy Lane 
a few golfing professionals 
are. in fact engaged in a 
gentle pro-am tournament , 
(they play an arduous nine 
holes a day), the field having 
a strong racing flavour to it 

Barbados at this time of year 
is full of winning owners and 
successful trainers, reinforced 
at the moment by such wen- 
known golfers as Sam Tor- 
rance and Paul Way. Only 
the English cricketers are not 
on holiday. 

Perhaps inevitably, the 
most remarkable opening 
first-class innings by an 
England player in West 
Indies since the war was by 
Geoff Boycott who made 
261 not out against the 
President's XI in Bridgetown 
in 1973-74. The last time a 
tour began, like this one, with 
a match against the Wind- 
ward Islands, it was played in 
Grenada in 1959-60 on mat- 
ting and Tommy 
Greenhoogh, bowling leg 
breaks and googlies, took six 
for 32 on the ’first day. 

As that tour went on 
Greenhough had increasing I 
difficulty in gripping the ball, 
because of sweating. Against 
Barbados in the next match 
there was a good deal of that, 
MCC finding themselves 
bowling at Sobers and Nurse 
while they added 306 to- 
gether. But the lessons they 
learnt served them well in the 
first Test match less than a 
week later. That is the 
business and the purpose of 
these early practices and 
opening matches. 

Lendl: took Segnso apart 

Hughes loss starts collapse 

The rebel Australian tour- 
ists collapsed from 172 fin- 
two to 210 all out to lose the 
fourth 50-over match here 
and leave the series with 
South Africa square at two- 

It was a finish as riveting 
as the second match in 

Fran I vo Tennant, Cape Tows 

ners. The captain played 
some delighful strokes, reach- 
ing his half century with a 
pulled six off the back foot to 
deep mid-wicket 
There were 16,000 present, 
an even bigger crowd than on 
New ..Year's Day here. By 
mid-afternoon not one seat 

Fougberingham began with 
44, but neither managed to 
consolidate. It was die same 
story for the remainder of the 

Me Ewan and Kirsten, both 
back in the side on their 

Lendl finds 
the time 
to drop in 

From Richard Evans 

Twenty-five years ago, 
Marilyn and Ed Feruberger — 
one of those American cou- 
ples who believe the world is 
there to be conquered — 
started a tennis tournament 
in a local Philadelphia high 
school gym. 

Vic Seixas, the former 
Wimbledon champion, 
played the very first match 
and Jon Douglas, an Ameri- 

Entry for Lipton 
looks impressive 

By Rex Bellamy, Tennis Correspondent 


Thome to 

the blues 

By Sydney Frisian 

When WHlie Thorne meets 
Steve Davis at the Wembley 
Conference Centre this after- 
noon in the quarter-final of 
the Benson and Hedges 
Masters’ tournament, he will 
pay special attention to the 
blue bad. 

This was the one that 
slopped him in bis tracks 
when he seemed to be racing 
to victory over Davis in the 
final ot the Coral UK 
championship at Preston last 

After failing to pot the blue 
off hs spot into a side pocket, 
Thorne could do nothing 
right, and Davis went on to 
wm the match 16-14. Since 
then Thome has been trou- 
bled by his bete bleu and has 
found more profit from the 
black ball, which greatly 
influenced his victory over 
Ray Reardon in the first 
round at Wembley. Davis 
and Thome have met five 
times, the score standing at 4- 
1 is Davis* favour. 

Later today Jimmy White 
plays the urorid champion, 
Dennis Taylor. They have 
not played against each other 
in a professional tournament 
since December of 1983, 
when White beat Taylor 9-4 
in the second round of the 
UK championship. The form 

' Sports 

David Miller > 

Jim Smith is * 

football, as 13 km Brown, w 

than be achieves. T»® semi- 
final ties in the Mdh £“ p 
with Uverpooltardh **- 
•ests that Queens Park 

Rogers, having ehmimjwl 

Chelsea, are bound for Wem- 
biey. but it would be reward- 
ing for Smith, in ptfteabi; 
should they accomplish the 
improbable. Watching Lire£ 
pool uncertainly remove Chel- 
sea from the FA Cup three 
days previously, then- must 
be however, some hope for 
Smith's men. 

It is more than 13 years 
since I travelled to the Fens 
to chat to a young man who 
was making * name tor 
himself in the FA Cup with 
Boston. From there be moved 
upwards to Colchester. and 
took them from the foorfli 
division to the third. On to 
Blackburn, and then, after 
two and a half seasons, to 

UK cnampionsmp. i ne tonn city, whose re- 

of both players suggests that fining promo- 

today s match will be one of At . s^ond Division 

Durban, with the Australians appeared to be vacant, which 
falling 24 runs short of meant that all four 'ong-day 
victory despite needing 61 to representative matches so far 
win off 10 overs with the have attracted capacity 
cushion of eight wickets in crowds. In the absence of 
hand. official Tests, it is axiomatic 

When Hughes and Taylor that this is the public’s fancy, 
were together, putting on 92 South Africa won the toss 
in 20 overs, the Australians and started well on an easy- 
looked the more likely win- paced pitch. Cook and 


home grounds, fell attempt- ran Davis Cup player of that 
mg to increase the pace, era, won the first title. 

Le Roux took 15 runs off 
one Rackemann over to 
propel his country to a total 
of 234 for 9. At the time it 
was questionable whether 
that was enough. 

SOUTH AFRICA: 234 tor 9, 50 
overs (CEB Rica 44) 
AUSTRALIANS: 210 atf out, 4&2 
overs (K J Hughes 60) 

Renard recaptures his title 

Catanzaro, Italy, (Reuter) - 
Jean Mare Renard, of Bel- 
gium, regained the European 
junior lightweight title on 
Wednesday night, stopping 
Marco Gallo, of Italy, in the 
eighth round of a bruising 

The Swiss referee, Frantz 
Marti, stepped in to end the 
contest, which had been 
scheduled for 12 rounds, after 
consulting the ringside doctor 
over a bad cut on GaUo's 

Renard, who had steadily 
weakened' the 30-year-old 
Italian after a slow start to 
the bout, had previously held 
the title for just four months 
in 1984 before losing it to Pat 
Cowddl, Wariey. 

The title fell vacant when 
Cowddl, concentrating on an 
attempt at the World Boxing 
Council (WBQ featherweight 
title, was stripped of his 
European crown last October 
for toiling to defend it against 
Renard. Cowdell's world title 
hopes ended in failure against 
the champion, Azumah Nel- 
son, of Ghana on October 12. 

The win over Gallo gave 
the 29-year-okl Renard, a 
former Belgian motocross 
champion, his 28th victory in 
a 31-contest career. Gallo was 
on the defensive from the 
first round, landing few 
effective punches and staying 
out of harm's way only by 
constant duclnng and weav- 
ing. The -Italian, previously 

unbeaten since 1982 and with 
a record of 26 wins in 34 
bouts, _ cornered Renard 
briefly in the second, but the 

From that moment on, the 
Fernbergers exploded with 
the game itself) always in the 
van of the growing tennis 
movement- fighting and win- 
ning political battles; moving 
into vast modem arenas; and 
offering prize money Seixas 
and his contemporaries never 
even dreamed about. 

So it was fitting that, as the 
Ebel US Pro Indoors, as it is 
now called, prepared to 
celebrate its silver anniver- 
sary, the world's No 1 player 
should answer a desperate 
call to step in at the very last 
minute — literally — as 
replacement for John 

Ivan Lendl was airborne in 

Belgian forced his way out of °PJ. of the few commercial 
trouble with some fierce equipped with in- 


Renard stepped up the 
pace in the fifth round and 
Gallo, visibly tiring, stum- 
bled under the force of a left 
book to the jaw. Renard 

flight telephones when a call 
came through from the Pra 

Chris Lloyd and Ivan 
Lendl are settled to win the 
singles titles in the first of 
this year's four outstanding 
festivals for players of both 
sexes, the Lipton intematinal 
players championships, to be 
played on bard courts at Boca 
Raton in Florida from Feb- 
ruary 10 to 23. The . other 
fortnight-long tournaments 
on which the lipton event is 
modelled will be the French, 
Wimbledon and United 
States championships. 

In -any other year there 
would be a fifth such tour- 
nament, but there will be no 
Australian championships in 
1986 because they are revert- 
ing from the recent Decem- 
ber dates to the traditional 
January time slot, beginning 
in 1987. Those will be the 
last Australian champion- 
ships to be played on grass 
because a different surface - 
a choice as yet to be made — 
will be installed in the new 
national tennis centre, which 
will be ready In time for the 
1988 tournament 

The Lipton champion- 
ships, inaugurated last year, 
were the brainchild of Earl 
(Butch) Buchholz, who had 
six match points against 
Neale Eraser, the eventual 
champion, in a I960 Wimble- 
don quarter- final Buchholz 
later became a professional 

Council's office. The chief an administrator and an 
administrator, Marshall £. n *T?PI* newr ’ Although 

Happen, was, in turn, in 
contact with Ed Fernbnger, 

Buchholz was the driving 

Hana Mandlikova, John 
McEnroe and Jimmy Con- 

Even so, the field will be 
impressive, ' The top four 
singes seeds will be Mrs 
Lloyd, Para Shriver, Steffi 
Graf and Zina Garrison and, 
in the men's singles, Lendl 
Mats Wj lander, Stefan 
Edberg and Boris Becker. 

Except for Kevin Ctmen, 
who was born in South Africa 
but is now a United States 
citizen, the top eight men’s 
seeds are all Europeans. It 
seems reasonable to look 
forward to another resound- 
ing dash between Lendl and 
Becker, though The latter is , 
still learning his trade on 
hard courts. This will be j 
something of a local tour- I 
uament for Mrs Lloyd and 
Lendl who both have homes 
in the area. 

The pattern of the tour- 
nament will be much as it 
was in 1985. There will be 
draws of 128 in the singles, 
64 in the men's and .women's 
doubles and 32 in the mured 
doubles. The mixed draw is 
only half the size it should be 
and a more serious criticism 
concerns the variable lengths 
of the men's matches. In the 
singles the men wfll play the 
best of three sets until the 
quarter-finals onwards (best 
of five) and in the doubles 
they will not confront the 
longer test until the semi- 
finals. As long as this system 

today's match will be one of 
the best in the tournament 
Taylor, as he promised, ran 
a lap of honour round the 
table after be had beaten 
Doug Mountjoy 5-2 on 
Wednesday night It was the 
first time he had won a 
march at this tournament in 
nine attempts and he 
achieved it emphatically. 

He began his victory 
charge by making a break of 
88 to put himself 3-2 ahead 
having squared the match at 
2-2 before the intervaL 
Up to that stage Mountjoy 
< had done little that was 
wrong, and was in feet 
leading 42-6 before Taylor 
took control with a sequence 
of blacks and reds, skilfully 
steering the cue ball to a 
position of advantage. 

was, a year later, to sack him. 

Oxford. under the 
chairmanship of one Max- 
well behaved not much better 
after he had taken the club 
from the third division to the 
first, and now, in his buoyant 
and imresentful way, he is 
attempting to find tbe spot- 
light with Rangers. 

“I need three more players 
of quality,'' he reflects, “and 
then we might be challenging 
for something regularly." 

Few quality 

Smith feels it has never 
been harder than now to find 
those quality players. It is a 

It was a masterpiece of sign °f the times that_ he 
navigation in choppy waters, thinks the traditional mines 

and once Taylor had won 
this frame there was little 
Mountjoy could do to con- 
tain him. 

White, despite his bril- 

for football talent. Lancashire 
and Durham, have in recent 
years fallen behind London, 
where the schools football is 
of a better standard. Of a 

fiance, could face the same Aami youngsters discovered 
problem today. So far, White by Bangers' scouts, ail are 

moved in for a second attack "J 0 a *?° happens to have a 
but was stopped by the belL phone m bis car. Feruberger 

By fTM roSd ^son hisway to make foe backing of several, spon- 
SS2 draw. Would Lendl play? sprs and foe ^operation of 

and draw. Would Lendl 
hje Yes, came tbe answer 

Renard was calmly and craw, would Lend 
confidently waiting for his came tbe answer 
chance to clinch the title. It “ e siaes - 
came just over two minutes Should Lendl /end 
into the round when a cut taking the title he wifi 
opened up near Gallo's left receive S67.500 as oppos 
cy^ the trophy and hand.' 

receive $67,500 as opposed to 

Duran bids to Ambitious Kaylor will 

raonnnivn _ .. V 

the trophy and h a nd s h a k e organization and administra- 
Douglas received all those tion of the championships 

boxing glory 

Panama City (Reuter) - 
Former world lightweight, 
welterweight and junior 
middleweight champion, 
Roberto Duran, returns to 
the ring today for the first 
time since retiring in June 
1984 after being pummelled 
unconscious in a title fight 

That second round defeat 
in his World Boxing Council 
(WBQ junior middleweight 
title fight against American 
Thomas Hearns seemed to 
finish a career spanning two 

•Also in Panama City today. 
World Boxing Association 
(WBA) flyweight champion, 
Hilario Zapata of Panama, 
feces Mexican Javier Lucas 
in what promises to be a 
difficult first defence of the 
title he won last October. 


make Sibson wait 

years ago. 
In those 

tennis was a precarious pas- television fees. Tbe players 
time that, perhaps, attracted not y 6 ? 88 (ully conunxt- 

A possible march between 
Tony Sibson and Mark 
Kaylor, two outstanding Brit- 
ish middleweight moved 
further into the distance 
yesterday when Kaylor de- 
clared that he was interested 
in meeting only boxers above 
him in the world ranking 

Sibson, unranked because 
of 14 months of inactivity, 
made a spectacular comeback 
last week and claims he is 
ready for anyone. But a 
repeat of his bout with 
Kaylor in November of 1984, 
which would be an obvious 
best-seller, will not take 

Kaylor said yesterday; “I 
am not interested in Sibson. 
who is not ranked in the top 
10. 1 am No 9 and my main 


bouts in future will be against 
people who are supposed to 
be better than me. I am still 
only 24 and Marvin Hagier is 
getting on, and things can 
change in boxing in a week." 

Kaylor, who has been 
training in California, will 
open his 1 986 campaign with 
10 rounds against an oppo- 
nent who is definitely not 
better than himself 

He meets Tony Harrison, 
of Oklahoma, and one way or ! 
another it could be an early , 
night at the Royal Albert Hall 
an February 19. 

Harrison has won only 10 
out of 18 contests and has 
been slopped five times. On 
the other hand, he has four 
one-round knock-outs on his 
record and stopped four 
successive opponents in 

force, the Lipton tournament endures, the championships 
could not have achieved will not achieve the status to 
instant distinction without which they aspire, 
the backing of several spon- 
sors and the co-operation of Buchholz had a few bead- 
the two players' unions, the aches putting tbe package 
Association of Tennis Pro- together, and last year’s 
fessionals and the Women's inaugural event had its leeth- 
Tennis Association. mg troubles. But there is , 

The ATP and WTA are reason to expea that within a 
heavily involved in the year or two the Lipton 
organization and administra- championships will be as 
tion of the championships firmly and successfully estab- 
and share 20 per cent of the fished as the two other great 
revenue from ticket sales and festivals inaugurated in the 
television fees. The players past decade: the World Team 
are not yet as fully commit- Cup competition in Dussel- 
ted as their unions. Notable don and, the European 
absentees at Boca Raton will Champions' Championship 
be Martina Navraialova, in Antwerp. 

jy7 sors ana the co-operation of 
m the two players' unions, the 
Association of Tennis Pro- 
fessionals and the Women's 
up Tennis Association. 

The ATP and WTA are 
to heavily involved in the 

and share 20 per cent of the 
revenue from ticket sales and 

more eccentrics than it does their unions- Notable 

today. The Fernbeigert’s absentees at Bora Raton will 
cenod champion was the he Martina Navraialova, 
legendary Whitney Reed nr* __ _ - _ J T 

who, in his hey day as the No X OD Sv6Q JL 

I player in America, could f 

stay up all night playing cards O Glfla nnca 
and still bemuse people like IUIJjV 

Ken Rosewail the following „ _ 

afternoon. Kg Bum AP) - Top- 

seeded Chris Lloyd of the 
Reed's reward for winning United States easily defeated 
in Philadelphia was a tape Petra Huber of Austria 6-2, 6- 
recorder. “Yea, I think that’s 1 m Wednesday night to 
what I got," recalled Reed, advance to the third round of 
who was never strong on the $250,000 Virginia Slims 
detail. “I think 1 lost it a few of Florida tournament Lloyd 
weeks later in a crap game." ue&ted only 74 minutes to 

despatch the unseeded 
Reed will not be here at the Huber 

IS? n, Sn;^ th In ** other featured eve- 

pK«-n J™25 Sf*? ■ match ’ sixth-seeded 

*5**“*“ a™ 1 , 2?* Gabriela Sabatini of Aigen- 
champicuK oftins event tina lrounced Britain^ 
Now m tos fifties, Whitney Annabel Croft 64), 6-1. Bar- 
ge** 1 * *£”« *0 become a iier, -Kathy Horvath of the 
fether for the first time bade United Steles came from 
home in San Francisco. Hes behind t o upset seventh- 
™Jg2Pi fi?.?"* seeded CatarinaLindqvisi of 

has won four matches in five 
meetings with Taylor. 

FIRST ROUND: A Knowles bt S 
Francisco 5-1. Frame sooras 
I (Knowles first): 45-57, 65-37, 63- 
62. 83-39. 57-38, 76-18. Dennis 
Taylor bt D Mountfoy 5-2. Frame 
scores (Taylor first): 59-58. 87-43, 
11-72, 24-68. 94-42, 82-6, 84-20. 


Quest for 
army title 

Major David Reed- ' 
Felstead (Blues and Royals) 
meets Captain Giles 
Lotbinieie (15th/16th Hus- 
sars), and Captain Alister 
Maxwell (Royal Green Jack- 
ets) plays Captain Hugo 
Akerman (2 7tb/21st Lancers) 
in today’s semi-finals of the 
array singles championship at 
Queens Club. Iu 
Wednesday's quarter-finals, 
Reed-Felstead, who has won 
his championship twice, de- 
feated Lieutenant Colonel 

rip i rearca Lieutenant i„oionei 

lop seed Lloyd sweeps Campbell <Srats 
aside unseeded Huber !««*&£ 

Key Biscayne (AP) — Top- 
seeded Chns Lloyd of the 
United States easily defeated 
Petra Huber of Austria 6-2, 6- 
1 on Wednesday night to 
advance to the thud round of 
tbe $250,000 Virginia Slims 
of Florida tournament Lloyd 
needed only 74 minutes to 
despatch the unseeded 

In the other featured eve- 
ning match, sixth-settled 
Gabriela Sabatini of Argen- 
tina trounced Britain's 
Annabel Croft 6-0, 6-1. Ear- 
lier, -Kathy Horvath of the 
United States came from 
behind to unset seventh- 

2 . Hi mn 

to afford a family. 



Horvath had lost in the first 
round of her last six tour- 
naments dating back to July 
prior to winning her first 
game on Tuesday. 

The second and third seeds 
also had to pull out the stops. 
Steffi Graf of West Germany 
fought back to beat American 
Alycia Moulton 3-6, 6-4, 6-L 
and Bulgarian Manuela 
Maleeva defeated Janine 
Thompson of Australia 4-6, 
6-3, 6-2. Fifth-seeded Kathy 
Rinaldi of the United States 
overcame Marie Christine 
Calleja of France 7-5, 6-1, 
and eighth seed Wendy 
Turnbull of Australia beat 
Anna Ivan of die United 
States, 2-6, 64, 6-2. 

Lotbinieie beat Captain Mi- 
chad Hough (5th Inniskillin 
Dragoon Guards) 15-7, 15- 
14, 15-11; Maxwell beat 
Lieutenant Charles Fraser 
(Life Guards) 15-5, 15-1. 15-9 
and Akerman beat Captain 
Neil Poiley (I4th/20th Hus- 
sars) 15-11, 10-15, 16-15, 15- 

In Montreal last Sunday, 
John Prenn, the former world 
champion, won tbe Canadian 
Amateur Singles Champion- 
ship by defeating David 
McLemon 3-1; he then won 
the doubles with Charles Hue 

from the south, bar a couple 
from Ireland. 

The game, be says, is not 
what it was, though he thinks 
that three points for a win, 
and this season, ironically, 
the absence of European 
ram petition, have made for an 
improvement. “Tea ies are less 
cautious", he says. "Orig- 
inally, I wasn't in favour of 
three points and still only one 
for a draw, because as a 
professional I thought this 
devalued the draw away from 
home, but what is happening 
is that teams are coming not 
to defend on your ground but 
to attack you. There is more 
open football We have seen 
that here at Loftus Road from 
teams like Everton, Aston 
Villa and Newcastle, and we 
have lost four times at home. 

“Not having the incentive 
this year of going for a place 
in the top six to qualify for 
Europe has also reduced 
some of the pressure and the 
tension, simply because there 
is less .to fight for." Fighting, 
m every sense, has not helped 

A sense of 

Smith does not get the 
pleasme he used to, and feds 
the pressure comes as much 
from directors as managers, 
but the challenge stiJjWo- 
dnees m him that old dailv 
drive and sense of expecta- 

ever had was the season I got 
foe sack at Birmingham. We 

To ? d ’ Arel »k 

Oemmill and Frank 
Worthington, aging but s kiU- 
. players in each area of the 

Williams, the British amateur 8®*®* Pj^es, but then we had 
champion in 1977, by defeat- a ®‘ injuries. The period I 

ing McLernon and Chris- 
topher Pickwoad 3-0. 

Big winner 

Fadeyev’s task may be too great 

■ =3 * 1 1 1 

I 1 


<• v.-q-'.rvii f _ r .Lt 


If Alexander Fadeyev was a 
golfer, given that the sport 
exists in the Soviet Union, he 
would be holing in one on 
successive greens. 

That is a measure of the 
brilliance we can expect him 
to present today at the 
European figure skating 
championships here when the 
men's contest is decided. He 
will attempt in public what 
he has been presenting in 
training all this week: two 
different combinations with 
the triple axel the one with a 
triple salchow, the other with 
triple toe lutz, jumps not 
credible a decade ago. 

Unfortunately for Fadeev, 
tbe world champion, it is 
unlikely- he will topple tbe 

From Michael Coleman 

reigning European title 
holder, Jozef Sabovcik from 
Czechoslovakia. Fadeyev, a 
Kazan-born though Moscow- 
trained skater, committed an 
unusual error during 
Wednesday's seven-element 
short programme, over-rotat- 
ing his critical triple lutz- 
double loop combination, 
forcing an emergency stop. 
All the rest was in overdrive 
but the slip was penalized 
heavily, the French and 
Yugoslav judges awarding 
only 5.4. 

Sabovcik, who acquired the 
title last year in the abscence 
of the injured Fadeyev, 
followed next on tbe ice and 
employed his long, elegant, 
clean line to maximum effect 

with leisurely hid jumps 
without apparent effort. How 
the Soviet judge marked only 
5.4 for technical merit must 
remain a mystery. 

With Sabovcik in such 
evidently confident form and 

enjoyed the most STa! 
Oxford — it wasn't iust «w 
we did on the fieldT^t JhJ 
feeling of what thTclub ml 
d«mg for the commimity^ 

Athens (AP) - An 8-year- caeS?^;! 8 ®!* been kaAdi- 
old boy correctly predicted knSTtojarv to^KLS* *** 
the outcome of 13 Greek will be out wh0 

football marches last Sunday autumn. But “*** 

and won more than 3m basfefe thwTfc!? feels ^e 
drachmas ($20,000) in the 

state-run pooL “I picked the strength ^ 

games all on my own," the nowfe^ SuItaE? does 
boy. Yannis Pappous, said. ^ ^ Tta E 

Hwcker and 5f*^ 0n and 
defender* , ■ cbofee of four 


reeling off quadruple jumps Third division He is nf »h- ^ . 

repeatedly in practice, the v CfiOTterftew the artificial^!?, ? pu,, °n that 

Russian’s task today looks the styteS^ 

insurmountable. He alio ► a lW ?f W&J 2?- er * 

feces the _ additional peril of "eathS? JS !£'* ia K 


7.-30 unless stated 

the Stunning form shown by Stockport v Crewe - . 

his team colleague Vladimir Tranmera v Scunthorpe 

Kotin, an ice exhibitionist RUGBY UNION 

who has so choreographed swTirsjwar^j ^BLB -a --. 

his jumps to the music that uahb Mo88 * y v 

he appears part of the fxy .agjirs Msgr table -b-s 
orchestraT . §5** iatches^ 1 Baft 8 * £siyn Pam 

an weathersT amT £L? u,,n R “* 
to play T *** 

immediately JSSJ! "“K* 

be *"* 

Bedford v London Welsh 

judges verdict, then it is Pontypridd fM6) Pananti v swmLa 
curtains for Fedeyev. trot ponwoai v a*- pnj 

— M t w . A A / UV 


Robson still undecided 
% about defence after 
their Egyptian lesson 

From Stuart Jones, Football Correspondent, Cairo 

3 In Cairo's sunlit inter- the most of his opportunity.’' vious shakiness that he 
national stadium on the Hateley, despite an should be included even as 
banks of the Nile on Wednes- unmistakeable advantage in an understudy in E n gla n d's 
day England were taught a height, and Lineker, who was World Cup party . 
few lessons during their withdrawn after suffering a The position remains a 
wildly misleading 4-0 victory recurrence of a groin strain, problem, as Robson con- 
over Egypt. These should made disappointingly little ceded. “I have a h eadache at 


Prove valuable when the impact, 
practical examination begins “Hau 
m Mexico four months from first go 
HOW. blow c 

impact. centre hal£ It is a job to 

“Hateley did well for the know which one 1 should 
first goal with that hammer leave out. Watson is a 

now. blow of a shot that was tremendous character, Martin 

England's brief education parried out to Steven,’' Rob- is good and has had a great 
was potentially embarrassing, son commented. “He was season so fer, Butcher is good 
It was as though they were unlucky not to score himself and Fenwick has done wefl. 
being asked questions for then and he won some decent “Overall, we have got some 

being asked questions for then and he won some decent “Overall, we have got some 
which they had not prepared bolls in the second half But decent players. Don't forget 
themselves. Egypt, the first be sail has some work to do, that, while we might have 
North African country they particularly on the ground." been involved in a tight or 
bad visited, were frill of England’s midfield was perhaps even a drawn game, 
surprises and, in the explo- never fully in control. Rob- we could have won by six. 
. srve Zeid and particularly in son revealed that he had a Their goalkeeper made some 
i>_ the talented Magdi, they word with Wilkins, the cap- outstanding saves, from 
could point to the two tain in the absence of Bryan Hateley in tire first-half and 
outstanding players on dis- Robson, during the interval, those two tremendous efforts 
play. “I wanted him to bring from Hill and Wallace near 

Apart from the saving everyone into the game and the end. 
graces of Shilton, who pro- to be more positive. He is a “If people criticize our 

graces of Shilton, who pro- to be more positive. He is a “If people criticize our 
tected England's reputation gifted passer of the ball and performance, maybe they 
and confirmed his own as the he created the second, even don't give the Egyptians 
world's best goalkeeper, the though it was an own goal, enough praise and respect 
encouragement drawn by and the third. and for the way that football 

Bobby Robson was limited to “If you go and watch him is developing over there, 
one other individual perfor- playing for AC Milan in Italy, They are not far away from 

mance. He admitted that you might think that be is Algeria, and Algeria beat 

. Cowans, recalled to the left playing square and has be- West Germany in a World 

side of midfield after an come ingrained in that. But Cup tie in 1982. We have to 

absence of 30 months, had he has so few targets, so few be aware that football in the 

ml given him “food for options in front of him . Third World nations is 

thought". Invariably, there are six or developing rapidly. 

_ Cowans opened seven of his colleagues stand- “They are spending a lot of 

timidly.Thrilled to be given ing around him." 
an unexpected and belated The defence, as i 

Stracham yet another Manchester United ipjory 

Cowans opened seven of his colleagues stand- “They are spending a lot of 1 1 £* fil flj il {111 CI S TO 

timidly.Thrilled to be given ing around him." money coaching and training *'■“* **'^' mH *'* * •*'^*‘^*’*^ ^ 

an unexpected and belated The defence, as well as the players, morning and after- -w y » A j • 

invitation to join the World side as a whole, owed a huge noon, and especially on their I I y|lTA/| / C ^OI/CM-^S 

Clip build-up, and with little debt to Shilton. Although the touch ou the ball. L/UllvU- Cl TT UviJ 

more than a few minutes to back four were appearing Wednesday's game gave us a 

find his way during practice together for the fourth warning about Morocco. We Gordon Strachan, the Spurs' football at White Hart 

on Tuesday, that was under- successive time, there was an know now that we are in for Manchester United midfield Lane, where the goals were 

standable. The surface, mot- alarming lack of understand- a hard match against them in player, suffered a hamstring scored by Chiedozie, Allen, 

tied green and bumpy, and ing between them. Stevens Monterrey in June and no injury during his side's 3-0 Falco, Waddle and Hoddle. 

the environment were foreign and Fenwick each had their one involved with England victory over Sunderland in Spurs now meet Everton in 

to him as welL most uncomfortable outing in will be complacent about it. an FA Cup fourth round the fifth round in a tie to be 

It took him an hour to the white shirt of England. “I am not entirely satisfied replay on Wednesday, renew- televised live on Sunday, 

grow accustomed to the Yet the most disturbing with the way we coped ing the threat to his side's February 16. Before then the 

It took him an hour to 
grow accustomed to the 

conditions and to feel feature, and not for the first defensively. On a couple of progress this season. 

ing the threat to his side's February 16. Before then the 

teams have two opportunities 

comfortable in his role in time by any means, was the occasions we were on the Strachan limped off in the to test each other out, in the 
front of Sansom, beside contribution of Wright So wrong side of attackers and fifteenth minute, United’s League tomorrow and in the 

Wilkins and behind Wallace, many of his appearances for two or three of Shilton's sixth hamstring victim of 'the Super Cup on Wednesday. 

Robson emphasized that his country have been flawed saves were exceptional taut season. He said: “1 felt a Across town, Chelsea’s sea- 
“Cowans was very strong in and it is becoming increas- the tip over the comer of the twinge a minute before it sou, so successful until their 

the last half hour" and it was ingly worrying that he has bar from Hazem’s free header went and thought I could run FA Cup defeat at home to 

during that period that he been retained. After all there belonged in the world class, it off. I had a similar injury Liverpool on Sunday, took 

illustrated his growing con- are now only three genuine “While we don't like being six years ago and it put me another turn for the worse 

fidence by advancing to practice matches left before under duress, it is nice to out for six weeks." when they lost a Milk Cup 

claim England's fourth goal the squad leaves for their know that Shilton is as sharp United are under increas- quarter-final replay 2-0 at 
with a crisp drive. training camp in Colorado, as ever. I was impressed by ing pressure at the top of the home to Queen's Park Rang- 

Wallace. Southampton's Although Robson claimed some of their players. Magdi first division and could be ers. To add to their troubles, 
winger, who scored the third that Wright had one of his was outstanding, I lilted Zeid, overtaken tomorrow. None- David Speedie begins a three- 

to mark his debut, was lively better games, be qualified his Hazem and Mayoub and theless, they drew comfort on match suspension tomorrow, 

without suggesting that he praise significantly by adding: Sedki was very quick in Wednesday from the resur- his partner up front, Kerry 
should replace either Barnes “I told him I wanted him to dealing with Lineker. gent form of Bryan Robson, Dixon, having already been 

or Waddle. Beardsley, rattle and dig the fellow he “It was a worthwhile trip, in only his second game since ruled out by the injury he 

should replace either Barnes “I told him I wanted him to 
or Waddle. Beardsley, rattle and dig the fellow be 

theless, they (hew comfort on match suspension tomorrow, 
Wednesday from the resur- his partner up front, Kerry 

brought on for the dosing 30 was marking, to be a more particularly for the sake of returning from injury. 

. minutes, lost little time in competitive central defender, morale and spirit Also one Olsen scored twice (one a 
‘ announcing his arrival on the 1 think he tried to give me or two of the players now penalty) after Whiteside had 

gent form of Bryan Robson, Dixon, having already been 
in only his second game since ruled out by the injury he 
returning from injury. suffered against Liverpool. 

international stage but he that 

Olsen scored twice (one a The match was nine min- 
penalty) after Whiteside had utes into extra time when 

know that they will have a given United a 28th minute McDonald 

feces fiercer competition for “I know he lunged in once job to keep their places." lead, 
places at the head of the or twice but I think that was Robson was without 13 of his .Two m 
attack. because 1 geed him up. He senior representatives, but sure had i 

“Beardsley did not look showed a willingness to offer the Egyptians were also in Cup 
out of place," Robson said, the defensive qualities I need, missing El Khatib, a centre Shreeve, 
“He made the goal for In that respect, he did a little forward who has claimed Hotspur, 
Cowans by rolling a delight- better " Robson's comments over 500 goals in his career, his side p 
fill ball bade to him and he did little to convince those Wright, in particular, still be most emp 
looked determined to make who witnessed Wright's ob- thankful he was absent of an ot 


lead. ahead, Chelsea’s fete being 

.Two managers under pres- sealed by a bizarre goal in the 
sure had contrasting fortunes' last minute. Niedzwiedri, the 
in Cup replays. Peter Chelsea goalkeeper, at- 
Shreeve, of Tottenham tempted to take the ball 
Hotspur, was relieved to see upfiekL lost control and 
his side produce one of their Robinson stepped in to score 
most emphatic performances from just inside the Chelsea 
of an otherwise indifferent half. 

Wycombe want a new home 

Non-League football by Paul Newman 

Wycombe Wanderers are' said: “It is important that tain, who has been signed 
planning to leave their this decision is taken to set from Alfreton Town. 

Loakes Park ground and its the club up for the years ^ r, 

season when they beat Notts 

? ranty Wednesday’s 

Turner, of Aston Vffla, left * 

MiUwall with his side beaten reSUitS 

i-0 and his own future a ti cnm wom i- Egypt o, EngUnd 4. 

looking bleak. 

After five League games VBa ft Tottenham 5. Nona County a 
without a win, relegation- ^ "***1 ct**aaa a, 

troubled Villa are desperate rkkmt hover trofhv: (Northern 

Loakes Park ground and us tne ciuD up lor the years _ . . _ „ trouuea vuia are desperate freight rover tromy: portham 

famous sloping pitch. The ahead, especially if we are to * for points at home to 'SSSnS B T y iLkSST 

Gola League club want to sell achieve our ambition and JJJ. J °u!]ii Southampton tomorrow. i! 

the site, which is in a sought- gain admission to the Foot- Millwall’s winning goal was am. bm 

after position in the middle tali League.” ' .EP’SSSPi KO™i in tbe 57tTmIiute by gSTT 

FaCiLiU ”. ** ■jy.PK’iyH ^UkeW fSl? .95 » S^.'tSSSS'SSjrt 

a new stadium on the edge of new ground would include an 
the Buckinghamshire town, all-weather pitch, a covered 

Wycomte*' ha« in Stirf sSnS ioisi* tte ^ 
principle to sell Loakes Park, pitch and covered terracing 
where they have played for on the other three rides. lo x SuIL 

85 of their 101 years, to • John Brownlie, the ggS* R^wn L & 
developers who want to build former Newcastle United and {25. - ha^omed Hendon 
warehouses on the site. The Scotland defender, has joined L nave joined Hendon. 

dub hope then to move to a Blyib Spartans, the • Southport continued 

manager, s like y to remain kSotbjux &xwiatx 

in ihp inh fnr at I ««e* a mlre a P«Ch, Mill wall WCTC Oxtord. pp* Non** 1, AikmH O. 

in tne JOO lor at least a winners. cami£uM3uc: nu mm Hm 

month while the Gola League -n™» ^ a . &«no n ft (Second dM*jn)\eo*xi a 

_i„u The same could be said of notharham a 

Hidalgo for Marseilles 

new ground at Sands on what Dry broughs Northern League their remarkable run in the to, the European Champion- 
15 now agricultural land. club, and makes his debut FA Trophy this week with a ship i® 1984, yesterday re- 

Howe ver. both schemes have tomorrow against Gretna, 
still to be given planning • Stafford Rangers bo 
permission. that the signing of Gratis 

tomorrow against Gretna. 1-0 home victory over Scar- signed as national technical 
• Stafford Rangers hope borough in a second round, director following a row over 
that the signing of Graham second replay. In tbe pre- his decision to manage 

warehouses on the site. The Scotland defender, has joined Pans (Reuter) - Michel the milh'n naire businessman 

dub hope then to move to a Blyib Spartans, the • Southport continued Hidalgo, who guided France Bernard Tapie to manag e 

new ground at Sands on what Dry broughs Northern League their remarkable run in the to the European Champion- Marseilles, 

is now agricultural land. club, and makes his debut FA Trophy this week with a ship i® 1984, yesterday re- “I have had enough of 
However, both schemes have tomorrow against Gretna. 1-0 home victory over Scar- signed as national technical these unfounded criti cisms, " 

still to be given planning • Stafford Rangers hope borough in a second round, director fpUowiog a row over Hidalgo said. “By leaving the 
permission. that the signing of Graham second replay. In tbe pre- his decision to manage federation I am going to put 

John Goldsworthy, the Bennett from Altrincham for vious round Southport Olymjnque Marseilles, the an end to the unhealthy 

Wycombe secretary, said: “If a “four-figure fee" will help knocked out another Gola first division club. argument that is damaging 

everything goes to plan we solve their goal-scoring prob- League club, Telford United. Hidalgo said in a statement French footbalL" 

could be playing on the new lems. Stafford are eighth in and they now entertain a that he bad taken an “irrevo- Other team* have said 

ground at the start of the their first season back in the third. Kidderminster Harri- cable decision to resign all Hidalgo’s future .role with 

I9S7-SS season. 1 must stress. Gola League, but only Dag- ers. Southport have signed ray functions within the Marseilles is incompatible 

though, ihat wc shall not enham and Barrow have a Mark Paiios, the former French Football Federation." with his job, as technical 

move untij the new ground is worse scoring record. Bennett Tran mere Rovers and Crewe The resignation comes amid director, a post be was due to 

complete in every detail." will form an attacking Alexandra player from Ban- a fierce controversy over his hold until the end of his 

John Goldsworthy, the Bennett from Altrincham for vious round Southport Olymjrique Marseilles, the 
Wycombe secretary, said “If a “four-figure fee" will help knocked out another Gola first, division club, 
everything goes to plan we solve their goal-scoring prob- League club, Telford United. Hidalgo said in a statement 
could be playing on the new lems. Stafford are eighth in and they now entertain a that he bad taken an “irrevo- 
ground at the start of the their first season back in the third. Kidderminster Harri- cable decision to resign all 

I9S7-S8 season. 1 must stress. Gola League, but only Dag- ers. Southport have signed ray functions within the 
though, ihat wc shall not enham and Barrow have a Mark Paiios, the former French Football Federation." 

complete in every detail." 

Brian Lee. the chairman, 


Knott’s goals 
of Durham 

By Sydney Friskin 

Loughborough, who last 
won the tide in 1984, 
qualified for the semi-finals 
of the Universities Athletic 
Union Hockey Champion- 
ship by defeating Durham 3- 

- David Knott scored two 
goals for Loughborough and 
COok one. Durham's scorer 
was Bell. 

Loughborough’s opponents 
on February 12 will be 
Bjrmingham. who defeated 
Liverpool 3-1. The remaining 
matches between Leeds and 
Southampton and Newscastle 
and Exeter were postponed 
yesterday because of bad 
weather and will be played 
□ext Wednesday. 

The only Pizza Express 
London League match, be- 
tween Cambridge University 
and Spencer, was called off 
because of tad weather. 

partnership with Bob Moun- gor City. 

decision to accept an offer by 

hold until the end of his 
contract next June. 


Palmer adds to the groans 

From John BaHantine, Pebble Beach 

As Sandy Lyle. Ken Brown 
and Peter Oosterhuis teed off 
yesterday at Pebble Beach, 
while Bernhard Langer and 
Nick Faldo went away with 
Jack Nicklaus and his son 
Jack Jnr in the celebrity field 
at Cypress Point controversy 
continued here over the 
change to tbe title of the 
national pro-am from “the 
Crosby" to “the AT and T". 

“It's very unfortunate, be- 
cause Bing helped to start 
and popularize the idea of 
staging these charity events," 
Arnold Palmer said. “It's a 
sad note in golfing history.” 

“If Palmer feels that way," 
replied Tom Oliver, the 
president of the Pebble Beach 
Company, which runs the 
historic event, “then where 
has he been for the last six 
[ years? Tempers tend to be 
rather unsettled here just 

Bing’s widow. Kathryn 
Crosby, withdrew the family 
name last year in protest at 
the giant telephone company 

being invited to take over as 
sponsors. Her action was 
defended yesterday by Bud 
Giles, her associate for 39 

"1 back her 100 per cent," 
Giles said. “Before Bing died, 
he warned her and the boys 
□ot to let anyone change the 
tournament and advised her 
to walk away from it if 
anyone ever did." 

The professionals and the 
movie stars who make this 
unique format the success it 
is had differing attitudes. “1 
don't think there'll be much 
difference," the veteran 
George Archer said, while the 
Ryder Cup player Tom Kite 
commented: “It is a shame to 
lose the name, but the same 
people are running tbe 
tournament." Bob Eastwood 
put the point of view of 
many players when be de- 
clared roundly. “Hell, I'm 
still going to can it the 
Crosby." Clint Eastwood said 
he was more worried about 
the state of his game than 

about the same of the event. 

Lyle, who is playing in his 
last tournament before 
returning to London this 
weekend, teed off at 8J24 in 
partnership with one of the 
lowest handicap amateurs, 
Charles Van Linge (3). 
Oosterhuis had a 16 handi- 
capper, Sandy WeOL along- 
side him, while Brown’s 
partner was Bob 
Vaillancourt, (II). 

The three Britons, like the 
rest of the 177 pairs, move 
around the three courses 
(they are at Cypress today 
and Pebble tomorrow), if 
they are among the 70 
leaders, they will complete a 
final round at Pebble tomor- 
row. One advantage they 
have over Langer and Faldo 
is that the courses not hosting 
the celebrities tend to be 
graveyards of peace and quiet 
compared to the circus at- 
mosphere of the show busi- 
ness field, with up to 40,000 
fens flooding everywhere. 

Early start 
favours play 
of Senior 

Hobart (AP) — As gaie- 
force winds howled at Royal 
Hobart yesterday, only nine 
players scored below-par to- 
tals in the first round of the 
Fosters Tasmanian Open. 

Several of the leading 
players, including Ian Rob- 
erts. the defending champion, 
Ossie Moore and Ian Baker- 
Finch, were victims of the 
winds. Jeff Senior, of Queens- 
land. who teed off early, beat 
the worst or the winds and 
the best of the field to take 
the lead with a four- under- 
par 68. 

Senior, aged 28, holds a 
one-stroke advantage over 
Peter Fowler. 

stated): 68; j Senior (Autf). G% P 
Fowter JNZt W Riley (NZ), 7ft B 
Dunk: S Gfrim L Stef an. 71; S 
Bkington, P Jones. 72 J Martin; F 

CondSn, p Croker, K Dukes, G 
Serhan. V Somers, Robert Ste- 
phens. 73: F NobSo (NZ). M 
Persson (Swe) 74s S Helper (Can), 
G Turner (NZ). 7& M Cokndro; A 
Srebranu.CSw*); K Murray (Can). 
7& M Lamw (Swe); P powel (NZ): 



rassive tnreai iu 
supporting role 

U«»)> 1>imI ip i e jM MHtdOtft 

once getting on tbe field. But 
be now displaces Allan 
Simmons of Wasps. 

By David Hands, Rugby Correspondent 

the tors make no radical changes h^df ” 

the after tomorrow's game in beforehaua. 

i-urrentlV ThC 5C |t;v ‘ u .’ 

DCIOrenauw. . 

The selectors 
watch «hc .Performance on 

By travm nanus, ivugu, lhc 

England have selected the tors make no radical changes wotc 
side that beat Wales for the after tomorrow's game in bc ^! n rJLnore win also 
next leg of their Five Nations Cardiff Milne is thc performance on 

championship campaign programmed at 16 st 51bs but ware p ranc is, the 

against Scotland at I suspect the Harlequin video oi™ refctw who 
Murrayfidd on February 15 weighs in at considerably New Wales-Scotland 

when they hope to retain the more these days. i^^ mmorrow. Mr Francis. 

Calcutta Cup won so Simmonds is unlucky to gam _ tcd in season s 

narrowfiy last season. lose his place in the squad who . >iween England and 

The only amendment to after only one opportunity, games when the 

the match squad is among He did well for London ns plavC d Ireland in 

the replacements where Andy during the divisional lustra match official 

Simpson returns. The Sale championship whereas Strap- pumm. * Cup game, 

hooker has watched Peter son was dropped by the ^ ^ renew acquaint- 

Wbeeler, Steve Mills arid North. But the selectors have He will also re 

Steve Brain performing for watched Simpson since then ance annearcd against 

England 17 Anas taS the and arc assured he has P^ n ^ h0 0n aP STi n New 
comfort of the stand without regained the form which has Auckfend. _ 

once getting on the field. But made him the number two Zetland ri 

be Sow displaces Allan for the last five yeare. and Ireland fiew to ^ ^ 
Simmons of wasps. have restored him m the r or ^ game 

It has been remarked knowledge that his expen- disposiuons _ lorriorro w at 

before how difficult it is to ence would be useful m other agamst Their Hamc 

change a winning side with- areas of forward play - at Parc dcs Prince, i nur 

Simmons of wasps. 

It has been remarked 
before how difficult it is to 
change a winning side with- 
out disturbing the confidence 
success has inspired. The 
selectors will have had a long 
hard look at the front row, 
wondering whether Chilcott 

vidco of Bob Francis, jhc 
New Zealand refen*, wno 

eamc tomorrow. Mr Francis, 
who officiated in lasi seasoflj 
games between Engjand and 
Australia and when the 
Australians played tofejjd 
Dublin, is the match official 
for the Calcutta Cup game. 
He will also renew acquaint- 
ance with those England 
plavers who appeared agaiwj 
Auckland on tour in New 
Zealand last summer. 

Ireland flew to Pans yes- 
terday to make \beir final 

(Bath) would prove a better row night and work out at 

scrum mager on the loose 
head than Rendall (Wasps) 
but decided in the . end to 
leave well alone. 

Rendall’s support play at 
the lineout will have weighed 
heavily in his favour: not 
only was he able against the 
Welsh to use his understand- 
ing with Colclough, his for- 

ence woma oc usciui «i «««■* - - Their same 

areas of forward play - ar Pane dcs Pnncss. Their game 

prop for instance or, at a w»H be hu 

required. 00 ° 

^The England squad will England a« d 

gather in Richmond tomor- enham a “f^j-rcd 

row night and work out at Irish. ^ToDcn 

Twickenham on Sunday, intent of 

They are due to meet again game, will not scorn the -odd 

the following weekend, the three points that Michael 

selectors aiming to have as Kieman can collect. 

Twickenham on Sunday. 
They are due to meet again 
the following weekend, the 
selectors aiming to have as 
much practice together as 

ENGLAND (v Scotland): GH Dawlgs 
fWasos): ST Smith (Wasps): SJ 

poaible before travelling. 

The players are due to ^S y A un<teiwood JLetesstert 
stretch their legs at Easter ^ Andrew (Nottingham); NO 

Road, home of Hibernian 
football dub. when they 

mer club colleage, but Dooley arrive in Edinburgh before 
Also said after the match how moving out to Peebles, but 

much assistance Rendall bad two years 
given him. was so ta« 

RendalTs next assignment strictly lim 

two years ago the weather 
was so bad that training was 
strictly limited. Michael Wes- 

ts likely to bring him up ton, chairman of selectors, is 
against the massive Milne, keen to eliminate such a 
assuming tbe Scottish sdec- possiblity by getting as much 

Melvffle (Wasps, PAG 

(Swansea) : PJ WteiWbottom 

& AW 

Skupsoh (Sale); NG Redman 


The state Guiding hand on 

financial tiller 

itij vtlijV By Gerald Davies 

Schools Rugby 
by Michael Stevenson 

The state of rugby in state 
schools may not be perfect 
but it is in better shape than I 
have made out — so speaks 
John Scott, rugby master at 
tbe Bishop of Hereford's 
Bluecoat School 
Scon says that I paint “too 
bleak a picture" in critidsing 
schools rugby and adds that 
after researching group 16 
sides in the Midlands, he 
finds that well over three 
times as many boys are 
picked from state schools as 
from the independents. 

“Most of my fixtures are 
against the Independent 
sector," Scott writes, “and in 
every way we are as good as 
they are. Our first team 
results this season to dale are: 
played 10, won 9. 

"I think you draw too 
bleak a picture. At 16 group 
level in the Midlands, things 
are very healthy in many of 
the state schools." 

Still I suspect that, despite 
the presence of a number of 
very talented youngsters in 
the state Schools, the overall 
standard in the independent 
schools is for higher. Could 
that be why John Scon plays 
most of his fixtures against 
the independents? 

Reg Davenport, master in 
charge at King's Macclesfield, 
is putting out a brochure to 
fond and commemorate their 
forthcoming tour of PortugaL 
He will have been heartened 
by his side’s recent 21-15 
defeat of the powerful Arnold 

While • the Australian 
Schools have been processing 
majestically around Europe, 
St_ Stephen’s — a largely 
Maori school from Auckland, 
New Zealand — have been 
touring England and Wales. 
And they won all five 

Beaumont, beaten finalists 
in the Rydal Centenery 
Sevens in September, visited 
Colwyn Bay again last week- 
end and were unlucky to lose 
15-12 10 RydaL despite scor- 
ing three tries to 1. Rydal 
however, scored a glorious, 
and decisive, try. 

Euros Jones, the captain, 
who had a great game at fly- 
half, broke from fus own line, 
beat several men and fed 
Woollen whose speed and 
elusiveness took him from 
his own 22 to the Beaumont 
line for a try which his 
famous uncle Wilf Woo Her 
would have been proud of in 
his prime. 

Campion’s marvellous suc- 
cess story continues. Earlier 
in the season they hekl the 
Australian Schools to. one of 
the 'most- respectable 
scorelines of the tour (0-13). 
And having beaten Rygate's - 
GS (29-6), after going behind 
early on, their most recent 
victory against Eltham (23- 
11). was achieved in the face 
of some magnificent defence 
and brought Campion, their 
I8th win of the season. 

Perhaps Trinity’s best wins 
were against WimWeton Col- 
lege (12-0), Guildford RGS 
(9-3). John Fisher (22-3), 
Eltham (7-0) and Sl Joseph's 
Blackheath (20-6). 

That wonderfully success- 
ful rugby nursery, Llandovery 
College enjoyed mixed for- 
tunes on their short tour of 
the South East, defeating a 
combined douai and 
pangbouroe side (26-9) and 
losing (16-3) to - the 
fonrnidibte Sl Benedict's. 

“Pr pant y rbed y dwr" is 
an old Welsh promt which 
in its literal translation as- 
serts n very obvious troth that 
water will ran its course, 
inevitably, to foe fertile val- 
ley. Patting aside a 
Welshman’s shyness in talk- 
ing aboot money, but realiz- 
ing exactly its worth, tins 
folksy wisdom means that to 
him that hath it shall be 
given. And usually in abun- 
dance, too. 

So it will be interpreted by 
foe less financially fortunate 
sports as they look on 
enviously at the riches that 
are seemingly going rugby’s 
way. The first British Gas- 
sponsored match between En- 
gland and Wales has gone by, 
and tomorrow it is Toshiba's 
express Wish tO give financial 
support to foe first of foe two 
borne matches they will assist 
at the Anns Park this season. 

What with Schweppes 
sponsoring foe dob cop 
competition, advertising on 
the boardings around the 
pitch and foe television con- 
tract, foe Welsh Rogby 
Union can expect as much as 
£250,000 from these external 
sources of income. 

Three guiding 

From those on foe sidelines 
wbo carp at such success, and 
condemn foe administrators 
for selling ont foe spirit of an 
amateur game, Ken Harris, 
tbe WRU treasurer, cannot 
really suffer sack folly. 

“There is nothing wrong 
with this level of 
sponsorship,” he said, “pro- 
vided that three things are 
observed: that it does not 
infringe on the players, that it 
does not spoil our relation- 
ship with the dabs and that it 
does not in trade on the 
spectators' enjoyment 
“The sponsors, after all 
know what they are getting. 
And let me add, too, es- 
pecially in view of what I've 
been reading recently, the 
ground ticket allocation to foe 
dribs has not been affected in 
any way because what is 
allocated to the sponsors is 
foe committee box in the 
north stand.” Not that the 
WRU committee are so 
altruistic as to relegate them- 
selves to some inferior po- 
sition in foe stalls — they 
have simply been moved lock, 
stock and barrel to the so nth 
stand instead. 

Ken Harris can feel proud 
of what has been achieved 
during his careful steward- 
ship of the anion’s finances. 
This is his Vast year as 
treasurer of the WRU. Dur- 
ing his time he has seen a 
remarkable transformation at 
foe national ground. 

“Do yoo know” he said 
“the ground stank. Some ' 
players often complained that 
when they were tackled tbev 
tasted the _ mock.” To a 
man, conservately suited as 
befitted a baikeT^id 
“aw™* bis words care- 
ftitiy. speaking in a precise 
rhythm so that nothing could 

word seemed to hang in the 

m ^ ith . hi!i avuncular style he 
mm* have cut a cautions 

The days when dogs ran 
around the track a couple of 
Dmes a week have long gone, 
as have the days when the 

*"5 Ta £ so it seemed, 
overflowed its banks to assist 
many a Welsh team. There 

are players now in tbe leam 
who do not remember such 
obviously high, though tar 
from bright, days. Devereux 
and Jones may have been 
more — but not much more ~ 
than just a twinkle in their 
mother's eyes, but they have 
known foe place only in its 
rollered primness and not foe 
allotment patch it once 
resembled, with the grass a 
mere sprinkling of parsley. 

Though he would not care 
to accept it, wishing to 
emphasize the team effort 
involved, Ken Harris has 
been the guiding light behind 
foe change. He is nonetheless 
still surprised that a new 
ground has been made out of 
foe old. “I didn't expect to 
see it finished," he says. 
“The north stand cost £1.2 
million in 1969, by 1984 tbe 
sooth stand cost £5 million. 
In all it cost £9 million. We 
couldn't get rid of our 
debentures first time round - 
an idea that came from 
Scotland incidentally - but 
by tiie second phase of the 
development we were over- 
subscribed three times”. 

And that was the greatest 
achievement? “No," he says 
emphatically. “The greatest 
achievement was solving the 
legal problems of ownership 
and securing the release of 
the greyhound company — 
who had foe right to use the 
Arms Park several times a 
week — from their contract in 
1967 when they had the right 
to stay until 1983. If that 
hadn't happened we couldn't 
have started”. 

What of amateurism?Does 
be fear its hiss in the future? 
“It is a problem, I grant yon. 
but only in foe sense that it 
needs to be overcome. For my 
part, I sternly believe that it 
w a more enjoyable and a 
better game if it is amateur. I 
don't mind that a man hi is 
more beer or more sand- 
inches, as long as be doesn't 
8e l |1 ?! d f w Playing foe game. 

My rear is the difficulty 
we face fa finding able 
administrators, who do it as a 
labour of love. There are 
some administrators, like the 
Players perhaps, who would 
something more. I 
President Kennedy's 
USSi *5“? “ applicable J to 

ragby: Ask not what your 
coiratiy cm do for yoo. Sk 
what you can do for your 

have been around for some 

b« r«h a* 5LT2 

come when the way must be 
made for the yom£er^ 

Good to be 

. ** a time of great 

JS™ 11 “V times. I 

welcome the idea of the 
"orld Cup, if only that no 
one else gets hi on the act. I 
would like to see bow 
it is. On a m£e 
parochial level 1 see the 
Welsh Rngby Union, because 
ofsponsorship and prudent 
paid ° ff 

Jif Jsl a - nd * emphasize 

« importances!! 
pecially for a treasurer nor in 
measure the success *of the 

“WhS terJST 

wav^Hnh* unp ® rtan * isthi 
way dobs, men. hove 

youths can benefit ami * 

W What is ahead oT aT utt” 
>o« consider foe 

cis ions we took JL i j* 6 " 

has been aJhtevSfJfa wh * 
done too badlv haven \ 

For - 




The Catchpool 
to continue 
Gaselee’s run 
of success 

By Mandarin (Michael Phillips) 

Nick Gaselee. the success- that this five-year-old, who 

fill Upper Lam bourn trainer, 
can continue his successful 
season by saddling John 
George's unbeaten steeple- 
chaser. The Catchpool, to win 
the Fairmile Novices' Handi- 
cap Chase at Sandown Park 
this afternoon. 

Gaselee’s young jumpers 
have been nothing short of a 
revelation this season. The 
Catchpool being just one of 
several who have won first 
time out and then gone on to 
better things. 

Following victories at 
Lingfield in December and 
here at Sandown earlier this 
month it was Gaselee's inten- 
tion to take The Catchpool to 
Cheltenham last Saturday for 
a race that was similar to 
today's but over a shorter 

However, after walking the 
course before racing he even- 
tually decided to pull him out 
because he had reservations 
about the ground. What 
weighed on his mind was the 
fact that the start of the 
meeting had already been put 
back half an hour to allow 
more time for the frost to 
come out of the ground 
coupled to bis own knowl- 
edge that The Catchpool 
missed most of last season 
because of leg trouble. “It 
was simply not worth the 
risk." was the way that he 
explained his decision to me 

So The Catchpool was 
immediately rerouted to the 
Esher course which he has 
already conquered in style 
this season. As the fences 
there are among the most 
difficult in the land, es- 
pecially trappy for a compar- 
ative beginner, I expect The 
Catchpool to benefit from his 
earlier experience and now 
give weight and a beating to 
Indiana Dare, Mr Candy and 
Black Earl. 

However, today's nap is 
entrusted to Sonny One 
Shine to win the Wavendon 
Handicap Hurdle and so 
justify his 800-mile round 
trip to Sandown from his 
trainer Richard Allan's home 
in the heart of Roxburgh- 

It can be taken for granted 

has won his last two races at 
Kelso and Ayr, each time on 
soft ground, in the manner of 
an improving horse, has not 
been sent on such a long and 
expensive journey so far 
south simply for the benefit 
of his health. 

At Ayr, Sonny One Shine 
won the New Year Handicap 
Hurdle by die' proverbial 
length of the straight Now, 
with the encouragement of 
his trainer f think that he will 
be capable of making the 
fullest use of his light weight, 
especially as Mr Key and 
Batu have been assessed 
strictly according to how they 
finished at Windsor on New 
Year’s Day. 

Betty knowes would be a 
big danger at his best, but the 
fact remains he did finish a 
very long way behind the 
other two at Windsor after 
being pulled up in his 
previous race. 

Nudge Nudge should be 
hard to beat in the Stanley 
Conditional Jockeys' Handi- 
cap Chase providing that he 
turns out to be as affective 
over 2 ft miles as he has 
shown himself to be over 
only two in the past. 

With Our Fun and Lefrak 
City dropping by the wayside 
overnight, the path now looks 
easier for Pam Sykes' tough 
1 1 -year-old. Jo Colombo, to 
win the Park Handicap Chase 
over what is arguably his best 

Significantly, though. Our 
Fun's trainer. Josh Gifford, 
has decided to rely upon 
Paddyboro and he could 
prove most troublesome with 
only iOst 71b to carry. 

Finally, the two divisions 
of the January Novices Hur- 
dle can go to Ramdi Dawn 
(1.30) and Timely Star (3.S) 

Sandown inspection 

Sandown stewards will bold 
precautionary inspection at, 
7.30 this morning to determine 
prospects for racing. Today's 
other meetings at Kelso (frost) 
and Newton Abbot (waterlog- 
ging) were abandoned yes- 
terday. Waterlogging also 
brought about the abandon-' 
meat of yesterday's Lingfield 
Park card. 

Law Report January 31 1986 

Breach of duty 
creates no 
criminal offence 

HiitJheJe ( The 

tended to so 


Regina v Horsefeny Road 
Justices, Ex parte Indepen- 
dent Broadcasting Authority 
Before Lord Justice Lloyd and 
Mr Justice Stocker 
[Judgment given January 30] 

Section 4(3) of the 
Broadcasting Act 1981, which 
imposed a duty on the In- 
dependent Broadcasting nifTnot inevery case ca 

Authority (IBA) to satisfy dug it &«rol^^f 


tod or bad nol 
todtovouj^^ of 
case carry 

The mere 

Jo Colombo, a fancied contender for the Park Handicap Chase at Sandown today 





000- num BOV g Amra} D CJanny 6-11-0 G OW 

~ at Sum J SKtafl 6-11-0 SSrotti Bed— 
t OC M-Satt} J A Ertvrarts 6 - 11 -OP Bwioo_ 

P DUNDY (PJXriMdl M E French 5-11-0 D Brawns 

04 FLYMQ HUSH (P taenu Ms J Ptarai 5-11-0 M Renan 

GOLDEN MOUNT (Mrs BGaOart) S CMrtm 6-11-0 R Baggwi 

F JD BsworthJ D Bsworfli 5-11-0 C Brawn 

SEA (0 DrantOy) J R jaridro I ‘ 

(Utk b curtsy) 


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BJ Curtsy 6-11-00 Merely (4) 

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RRA.TES PUNC3MG MandraS) O Mandrel 7-11-0. 


Padon) fl Alton 5-11-01 J QTNsM. 

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(Mrs C Has*) O Shanaood 6-11-10 S Sherwood 
DANNY (D)JA WW) A Moore 5-11-10 G Moore 
(T SMtor) C J V MNar 6 11 5 D Browna 
Mrs J Reran 5-11-5 -M -Ptonsn 
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c O^vwjjj^OTJono^RM i_ 5-11-0 R G Hughes 

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3 (BSE AM RUN (Mb I 

broadcast by them did not 
sub limin al did 

not create a criminal offence. 

The Queen's Bench Di- 
visional Court, allowing the 
IBA’s application for judicial 
review, quashed a committal 
summons issued against them 
by (be Horsefeny Road Jus- 
tices on the information of Mr 
Norris Dewar McWhirter, 
which alleged that in breach of 
section 4(3) of the 1981 Acc 
"There was transmitted on 
independent television in the 
course of the programme Spil- 
ling Image — an image of the 
informant's bead in an in- 
decent montage of such brief 
duration that it might influence 
the minds of viewers without 
their being aware ._ of what 
was being done". 

Mr David Kemp, QC and 
Miss Vivienne Rose for the 
I BA; Mr Francis Bennion for 
Mr McWhirter; the justices did 
oot appear and were not 
re p rese nt ed. 


statute wneuid « — * 

with the duty created 

on. the true construction « 

—lute whether a torture w 


_ therp- 



an offence or not. 

His Lordship would 


of the doctrine of contempt ot 

statute? e 

The first mention of coo- 
tempt or statute which fas 
Lordship had found was in the 
Commentary on 
Westminster the First 
pi 63: “Whenever an Act ol 
Parliament doth generally pro- 
hibit anything . ■ • 
erieved shall not have his 
So“y for his Pnvare 
relief, but the offender shall be 
punished at the King s suit Jor 
the contempt of his faw„. . 

The question vast also dealt 
with in Hawkins Pleas 
Crown 8th edition ( 1 824), Book 
1. Ch25, p6. „ f . . . 

The rule in Hawkins had 
It v Price 

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I TOAD (Utm P Harris} P W HanS 5-11-0 H Strange 
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IBA’s solicitors wrote to the Hall ((1891 ) 


1 Roman Sng.12-1 Princo Oraron.l^Srare*^’ 1 

{22,068:2m 4f)(10) 

1 3020/PU LATE WONT EXTRA (Lt CM E Ptrtfca) 

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J T GWfcrf if- 11-0 _ E Murphy 
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Sandown selections 

By Mandarin 

1.30 Ramadi Dawn. LOO Nudge Nudge. L30 The CaichpooL 3.05 
Timely Star. 3.35 Jo Colombo. 4.05 SONNY ONE SHINE (nap) 








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14 120/P- 4F FTT7HERBEHT (A Ford) L Ifanrard 3-10-4 

15 0820 DEVMER (S ttedal) S Malar 6-10-0 G Ctwtes Jones 

16 20042-4 MRANA DARE (Mrs D Goutkw) J R JarMna 10-10-Q S Shanaood 

18 244221 HR CANDY (A Moore) A Mores 7-10-0 G Moore 

21 OOfSZF O DRIVE EASY (Rfes M Dntoto R Pariwr 8-10-0 P Double 

22 iftm M-ACK EARL (A GreW.l P War*. 0-10-0 P Dever 

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L35 PARK HANDICAP CHASE ( 23.048:2m 18 yd) 

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3 0321-21 — JO COLOMBO (B a Brian) Mre W Syfcaa 11-11- 

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1965: Lefrak Cfcy 8-10-7 H Oavtes 92 T Foreter 7 ran 


7 BF-OXM MR KEY (USA) (M re E McManus) P D Haynes S-11-7A YMto 
9 21-02P0 BEnYKNOYS CD) (J Boone) R Mint 8-11-4 — D SnNh 

13 214022 BAtll (D)(Ledy HanraiMnhSuto D M GrtaseB 5-10-13R Ream 

14 20U3P1- BMUCATKM (USA) (D) (F (>oud4 A Moore 7-10-11 G Moon 

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Scot can make world championships the highlight of her 18-year career 

Mrs Clarke on verge of breakthrough 


If Loraa Clarke is picked as 
one of the four riders for the 
British team in the world 
three-day-erent champion- 
ships in Australia in May, it 
will be the first time in her 18 
years at die forefront of the 
sport that she has been one of 
the selectors' initial choices 
for a British championship 

Ever since she and Peter 
Gynt were left out of the 1972 
Olympics in Munich — de- 
lite having won the nuni- 
)lympscs the previous year — 
Mrs Clarke has met with her 
lair share of triumph and 
disaster. Although eventually 
a member of both the 1983 
and 1985 European 
Championship teams, on both 
occasions she replaced some- 
one whose horse had gone 

Now, with both Myross 
and Glentrool on the shortlist 
for the championships, her 
claim for a place in the team 
looks powerful. She is happy 
with either; they both are 
outstanding cross-country 
horses, but the 11-year-old 
Myross, on whom she won a 
team gold medal and individ- 
ual silver at last year's 
European Championships, is 
better at dressage. The Irish- 
bred Glentrool "bates it". All 
eight riders on the shortlist 
vrol travel to Australia bat 
Mrs Clarke will have to make 
a decision on which horse to 
take after the shortlisted 
horses' final outing on 22 
March. The quarantine pe- 
riod starts immediately after- 

Although she could hedge 
her bets by patting both into 
quarantine, that would mean 
missing Badminton. 

“Badminton's like a drag," 
Mrs Clarke says. “Yon don't 
want it but yon can't do 

without it _ the feeling yon 
get if yon complete the coarse 
dear is almost impossible to 
describe, the sheer exhilara- 
tion and the gratitude and the 
‘oneness* - yon feel for your 
horse." . 

She has so far completed 
the event 16 times on 12 
different horses. Although 
she has yet to come in the 
first three (she has been 
fourth three times), her name 
(then Sutherland) has been 
written in the event’s record 
books since 1970 when she 
became only the second 
person to ride three horses 
round in the same year. 
(Australia's Bill Roy croft was 
the first.) 

After three months’ rest m 
the field foflowing their 
autumn campaign, Myross 
and Glentrool c ur re nt ly are 
being honed into shape at 
Mrs Clarke's remote fitrm in 
Kirkcudbrightshire. (She 
bought the 450-acre farm 
with its magnificent bouse in 
1974 but she and her hus- 
band, Richard, a farmer, did 
not move there permanently 
until a year ago.) 

Four weeks' walking is 
followed by trotting and some 
dressage. By mid-February, 
they will be cantering and 
jumping small obstacles, and 
by the end of that month they 
will start to gallop. Mrs 
Clarice does not subscribe to 
the relatively new “interval" 
training used by Lucinda. 
Creed and other riders. “I 
find my method works and 
keeps the horses sound, so 
why change?" she said. 
Surrounded by hills, there is 
no problem getting horses fit 
but trying to practise dres- 
sage on a windswept Scottish 
hillside is a different matter. 

Mrs Clarke, who is fiercely 
Scottish, does most of the 

her than. Mr and Mrs 
Mossop have boOt Mrs 
Clarke's stables and recently 
put up a sturdy horse shelter 
in the field. 

Because of limited re- 
sources for spending, on 
horses, Mrs Clarke has 
developed a keen eye for a 
cheap horse, often going for 
small horses rejected by other 
riders. Popadom, the coloured 
horse on whom she leapt hi to 
the public eye in 1967 with 
her first of two wins at 
Bmghley, cost £400 and Peer 
Gynt £550. She recently has 
added a new, intermediate 
horse, Feartfth Mer, to her 
yard. He was first spotted by 
Ian Stark but was too small 
for him. Mrs Clarke is a trim 
5ft 3in. 

One lesson learned over the 
years is that there is no credit 
for getting a bad horse going 
half decently. Two horses 
drove the lesson home — 
Mrs Clarke: unsponsored — Aladdin, who got to the 

seventeenth fence at Bsd- 

foar weeks. like Badminton, 
it is a drug. 

At 42, her enthusiasm is 
mHfrmmed. While admitting 

work herself — fitting it m 
with the demands of being a 
wife and mother. Besides 
their own son. Roddy, aged 6, 
there are three other children 
by her has band's first mar- 

_ Unlike most of the leading 
riders, she is content to 
remain nnsponsored. “I like 
to be my own boss and make 
my own decisions about 
where to ride and when.” 
Accordingly, she makes do 
with a mmirnmn of help. 

"Occasionally, 1 feel a 
pang of envy ft I'm at mi 
event wrestling with a stud 
that won't go in to a shoe and 
a rider with a team of grooms 
and helpers sweeps by," she 
said. But Mrs Clarke does 
have help from a retired 
couple who live on the fans 
and many riders would envy 

mutton, and Swap Shop, who, 
although bought to sell as a 
Pony dub pony, got to 
Bmghley only to dig his toes 
in at fence eight of the 
sh o w ju m p ing. Both perfor- 
mances exceeded her own 
expectations, bat as neither 
borse was placed no one was 

That she would even have 
attempted to get those horses 
to Bmghley or Badminton is 
a reflection of her extraor- 
dinary deter min ation. She 
has had several interruptions 
to her career — an 
inexplicable near loss of 
nerve in 1974, the birth of her 
son in 1979 and a broken leg 
in 1980 (after a fall from 
Greco at Badminton) — but 
each time she has come back. 
In the case of her son's birth 
she was competing after only . 

that she probably has seen 
the best years of the sport — 
“It's all so professional now" 
— she thrives on the compet- 
itiveness, constantly spurring 
herself on to new heights. 
Throughout her career she 
has had the unflinching 
support of her mother, 

Sap port was not quite how 
Irish television saw it in the 
1970 world championships in 
Panchestown. They dubbed 
her a “cruel eventing 
mother." Her offence had 
been to stand at the most 
dangerous fence on the course 
and, when Loraa took her 
second fall on die course 
there, Mrs Sutherland swept 
her back into the saddle and 
sent her on ho 1 way before 
there was time to draw 
breath. Mrs Clarke remem- 
bers it with a smile and with 
gratitude: "No other mother 
would have done it bat she 
knew what it meant to me to 
finish the championships." 

At this year's champion- 
ships Mrs Clarke will be 
setting berself a higher target 
than merely finishing. In 
order to beat the Americans, 
the reigning Olympic cham- 
pions, the British perfor- 
mance will have to be 

Ironically, it is the advice 
given by an American rider at 
Munich that she still carries 
with her. Learning of her 
exclusion from the team, be 
told her. “YouNe just got to 
do even better." Mrs Clarke 
will be out to do just that — 
but win it be as a team 

Jenny Mac Arthur 


The importance of the duel in the crown’s destination 

By Paul Harrison 

Speedwell Rucanor and 
Polonia, the leading teams in 
the Royal Bank League first 
division, are girding them- 
selves for their first meeting 
this season, a match which 
could decide the destination 
of the title. 

Both are undefeated but 
Polonia have games in hand. 
Realistically, no other team is 
in with a chance. Dragonara 
Leeds, in third place, have 
lost six times. 

Speedwell's progress so for 
this season has been fairly 
serene, while Polonia have 
stumbled only once, against 

Radio Trent Rockets, of the 
second division, in the Royal 
Bank Cup. 

The two should have met 
before Christmas, but 
Polonia's engagements in the 
European Cup put (he match 
off until Sunday week, when 
they will do battle not at 
Speedwell's normal home 
court in Bath but at the 
Soundwel! Technical College 
in Bristol. 

The Bath venue is unavail- 
able on that day. Soundweil 
is Speedwell's old home and 
where their women's and 
reserve sides still play- 

Steve Nuth. the Speedwell 
coach, says that he expects 

Polonia to be very sharp, as 
the league is all they have 
left. Speedwell themselves 
expect to be ready. Against 
Malory they will be putting 
out their full side for the first 
time for some time as Barry 
Clark, who has been sus- 
pended. and Paul Edwards 
and Steve Pincott, who have 
been injured, return. 

Speedwell did not play last 
weekend but Polonia made 
up valuable ground with 
victories over Newcastle 
(Staffs) and Spark Crook Log. 

The return is scheduled to 
be at Polonia's west London 
home court on February 22. 
By the end of that match the 

league title should have been 

With 12 games played and 
six to go, the position in the 
Royal Bank Scottish League 
remains equally balanced be- 
tween two teams. Volvo 
Trucks, with only one defeat 
lead Murray Internationa] 
Metals. Scotland's leading 
team over the past decade, 
who have lost twice: 

The crucial match there 
takes place also on February 
22, when the nyo are sched-- 
uled to meet on Volvo's 
home court. Both still have 
to play. DV '81, who, al- 
though they are not .in 
contention for the title, are 

quite capable of taking sets 
off either. And the title may 
all c ome down to set dif- 

In the women's first di- 
vision, the position is equally 
tight. Provincial Insurance 
(formerly Telford) lead Scot- 
tish Farm (formerly Airdrie) 
on set difference. They both 
also have six matches to play, 
and key engagements should 
be Scottish Farm's match 
against Finnies Sport tomor- 
row. Pinnies having been the 
only team to beat Scottish 
Farm this season, as well as 
the meeting of. the two 
leaders on February 1 5. Tliat 
should decide the title. 


Radley fall 
on a rock 
of ages 

By Williams Stephens 

Winchester's 3-0 win over 
Radley, the holders, at 
Queen's Cub has given them 
the Henry Leaf Schools' Old 
Boys real tennis cup for the 
29th time since the com- 
petition started in 1922. 

Radley had taken the cop. 
for the first time last year, 
ending an 11-year 
Wykehemist reign. Alan Lov- 
ell. the amateur .champion, 
has played in 12 of these 
Winchester victories and this 
time he took revenge on 
Julian Snow, who beat him 
last year. 

Snow, ranked No 2 among 
the amateurs, is determined 
to become amateur champion 
and demonstrated his fervour 
against Lovell who lost the 
first seL He took the second, 
however, as Snow lapsed into 

The third set produced the 
best tennis. Lovell, serving an 
accurate railroad, was strong 
on the volley and forced the 
grille frequently. He gained a 
5-3 lead before Snow raised 
his game to have set point at 
5-5 and 40-1 5 attacking chase 
2 and 3. Lovell showed 
discipline and composure in 
overcoming the challenge and 
won by 5-6, 6-2. 6-5, 6-1. 

Winchester’s third string, 
Peter Seabrook, has repre- 
sejrted Britain in the Bathurst 
Cup amateur international 
team competition and has 
featured in nine Wykehemist 
victories. He beat Mark 
Drysdale, the replacement for 
chicken poxvictim Thane 
Warburg, in straight sets. 

The coup de grace was 
administered by a key partici- 
pant in Winchester’s 16 
victories in the last 20 years 
—Howard Angus, the former 
world champion of both real 
tennis and rackets. 

Now 41. Angus was able to 
find the resources to repel a 
remarkable assault by James 
Male, the 21-year-old 
amaieaur rackets champion. 
Angus lead 24) but Male's 
astonishing powers of retriev- 
ing and match temperament 
turned a foregone conclusion 
into a war of attrition. At two 
sets all and 3-3. Angus 
mentally went back to first 
principles and rediscovered 
the ability to put the bail 
away with severe cut 10 win 
by 6-4. 6-3, 2-6. 4-6. 6-4. 

justices' clerk stating that the 
justices had no jurisdiction to 
hear the summons since it 
disclosed no offence known to 
the law. The clerk replied that 
the point of law raised by the 
I BA would have to be raised at 
the dose of the prosecution 
case when the summons was 

In the light of that reply, the 
present proceedings for judicial 
review were launched. 

The sole question was 
whether, assuming a breach, 
section 4(3) created a criminal 
offence. Thai was a pure 
question of statutory construc- 

Where Parliament intended 
to create a criminal offence, it 
almost invariably said so in 
terms. That was certainly so m 
modern statutes. There was no 
express provision creating an 
nee in relation to section 

Counsel for Mr McWhirter 
submitted that -that was not 
conclusive, and relied on the 
ancient doctrine of contempt of 
statute. Breach of the duty 
under section 4(3) was suf- 
ficient, it was said, to put the 
1BA in contempt of statute, 
and render them liable on 
indictment to .an unlimited 
fine. There was nothing in the 
section, he said, to disapply the 

He further submitted that 
| section 4(3). unlike section 
4(1), did not involve any value 
| judgments- The IRA could 
readily satisfy themselves that 
subliminal images were not 
included in programmes by the 
urchase of a cheap device and 
lilure to use such a device 
should be indictable. 

Assuming for the moment 
that the doctrine still existed, 
though ail but obsolete, his 
Lordship disagreed with those 
submissions for several rea- 

First, nowadays. Parliament 
[almost always said in terms 
when it intended to create an 

Second. -to deny that section 
4(3) created an offence was not 
[ to deprive h of all effect. If die 
(BA neglected or refused to 
perform their duty under the 
subsection, ft rrouJd be open to 
the Attorney-General, or per- 
haps an individual, to apply for 
an order of mandamus. 

Third, the standard of com- 
pliance with section 4(3) was a 
subjective one. and an obliga- 
tion to use “best endeavours": 

747). The 

7 !evto ([1932] P 78). and was 
cited with approval in 
Rathhone v Bunaock ((1962] 2 
QB 260), and R * 

Wright ([1973] Com LR 529). 

In 1976. the Law Commis- 
sion described the doctrine of 
contempt of statute as obsolete 
but not dead. They recom- 
mended that it be abolished. 
They sakL“In essence this is a 
matter of statutory construc- 
tion: and the modem approach 
would ... be to ask whether, in 
absence of an express provision 
making particular conduct an 
offence, there was any intent by 
Parliament to penalise that 
conduct. The answer today, we 
suggest, would always be in the 

What emerged dearly from 
all the authorities was that it 
was a question of construction 
whether a breach of statutory 
duty for which Parliament had 
provided no remedy created an 
offence or not 

Among the factors which had 
to be considered were: 

, (i) whether the duty was 
' mandatory or prohibitory: (ii) 
whether the statute was ancient 
or modem; and (iii) whether 
there were any other means of 
enforcing the duty. 

In the case of a mandatory 
duty imposed by a modem 
statute, enforceable by judicial 
review, ft was an almost 
irresistible inference that Par- 
liament did not intend to 
create an offence. 

It was unnecessary, as the 
IBA urged, to say that the rule 
had ceased to exist. The “rule" 
or “doctrine" had never been 
more than a rule of construc- 

There was no longer any 
presumption, if indeed there 
ever had been, that a breach of 
statutory duty was indictable. 
Nowadays, the presumption, if 
any, was the other way. Put 
another way, it required dear 
language, or a dear inference, 
to create a crime. 

Section 4(3) imposed a 
mandatory duty. No offence 
was defined; no penalty im- 
posed. The duty was enforce- 
able by judicial review. On fts 
true construction, it created no 

Tbc IBA were right to apply 
for judicial review when they 
did. The application would be 
granted, the summons quashed, 
and all further proceedings 
would be prohibited. 

Solicitors: Alien & Overy 
Kidd Rapinet Badge & Co. 

Time limits must 
be enforced 

Hollis v R-BJeakins (a firm) 
and Another 

It was in the public interest 
that the time limits ^prescribed 
by the Rules of the Supreme 
Court for issuing a notice of 
appeal and for setting down 
appeals should be enforced. 

The Court of Appeal (Lord 
Justice May, Lord Justice 
Ralph Gibson and Mr Justice 
Stocker) so stated on January 
29 granting an application by 
the plaintiff to strike out a 
notice of appeal issued fry the 
first defendant against a 
ment of Mr Justice Bel 
who on March 7, 1985 bad 
awa rded the plaintiff £180.000 
damages for personal injuries. 
The court dismissed the first 
defendant's application for an 
extension of time for setting 
down the appeal. 

other cases and to society 

Delay in one case had a 
domino effect on all fori™ 
cases, the hearing of which 
would be put back as delayed 
rases were inserted into foe 
for speedy hearing. ■ 

^De fendants' solicitors and 
their clients, especially [hose 
who .frequently engaged ^ 
litigation where insurSTw^! 
judg- the effective defendant^ 5 oHJjJJ 

in mind. Attempts to nesniiM* 

Attention should 

that failure to comply with the 
time limits imposed by Order 
59 of the Rules of the Supreme 
Court ca u sed prejudice not 
only to the other parties to the 
litigation but also to litigants in 

the words "of*" Lord P?* 1 . 10 
Griffiths in 
ro/dr BY v 

([1983] 1 WLR207^T?f? J™ 
Practice Note 7-tnZvh ^ “ 
menu) ([1983] ’ Doc*- 



thZ 2 All ER 4I6L 

The seven-month delav {« 
is case was utt*rt u m 

Inspector can consider 
other matters 

SecretSTof 7 &Ef7w L, ttie «>dwiwiS2 e - 9F- 

“^ d _ Aaou,w .- SKfJSS ■£ 

Newbury objective 

Tangogpat, an impressive 
winner at- Cheltenham last 
Saturday, is set to make a 
quick reappearance in . The \ 
Stroud Green Hurdle at 
Newbury next Friday.. 




An inspector appointed by 
the Secretary of State for the 
Environment for the purpose 
of determining an appeal under 
section 88 of the Town and 
Country Planning Act 1971 was 
under a duty to ensure that his 
decision - was correct in law 
even though foal might mean 
considering questions of law 
not raised by the appellant. 

decision of 
state by his of 

September 15 ujJFJg L dated 

foe company's 

decision of fe°m the 

enforcement notices uS* - lw ?° 
"fPea of it in 

Planning control breach es of 





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Luxury Living in Holland Park 


™ -the Scrmirui Comte- 
tenia 01-493 7001. 



BHnraatic and reflate* person 
who rriKn-i working with poo 
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* week. Hrs 1M alternate Sat- 
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An cmnusuM required as PA. 
proien sale* aMUty essential, 
langi.. sec suit* and degree 
BSefid. Low saury But 30% 
<Omn> Only people nwMe a f 
coming £23.000* need apply. 
Tel 01-581 8196. 


MtAU. UVH.Y company In 
Jermyn Street needs last arm- 
rwe Tram Person Friday foor 
“Rernoons a week imes-FTu 
when RarUanmi is buium. 
pern* ring MeUme Mullamey 
Ol B39 -1HH7 

Apents require a book-keeper to 
ttey per week for young office 
team, oi an ust. 

M wHh good shorthand and lyp- 
(BO lo work J-J days a week Ip 
knety Chelsea home. Maturity, 
numeracy and mmaih-e essen- 
tial. WP knowledge useful. Can 
01-493 8884. Judy 

Targuharson Limited iRrc 
Oonsi. 47 New Bond Street. 
London. Wl 

FA with pood shonhand & typing 
lo wort 8-3 days a week In 
Imety Chelsea home. Maturity, 
numeracy A fteuauv* eaenUaL 
«P knowledge useful. Can Ol 
493 8884. Judy Farquharson 
Ltd Wee Canal. 47 New Bond 
Street. London wi. 

SMALL lively company In 
Jermyn Street needs Iasi accu- 
rate Typist Person Friday tour 
afternoons a week (TUes-Frl) 
when Parliament M stung. 
Please rmg Meume Muuarkey 
01-839 4887. 

mnaa city office of nr Interna- 
tional company needs yarn 
pood audio tywng skills lefe- 

Bemuimenl 01-836 6644. 

MBT.'ISH TYPIST requ ir ed In 
Jermyn Street each Wednesday 
and Friday when Parliament is 
attuno- Please Ring Melanie 
MuUantev Ol 839 4887. 

SCCMCTAmr Pat-unr SO hour* 
per week Oood shorthand A 
typing esseniM. small office 
mar Lancaster Gate. Phone 
Stuart cmg. 01-002 1473. 

Agent! require a hook keeper to- 
day per week for yotmg office 
learn, at 881 3136. 


(m HI 96 Earls Court Road, 
il m LONDON W8 

k I 9373811 

£8,179,00 «m 
T ola Oxford 




IsNpaIh Ml Charming Georgian 

canape In quiet rul-de-ov close 
lo Irarapoct. dble rrrep uto 
•Quipped kitchen, balhrm. two 
owe iwl. sman south loans 
garden. At an 3 4yrt £160 
P-w 01-369 2125(0. - 
■cal rest vtsnotts. south 
Keasmgtdn. luxury rut for a. 
Maid service. UfL telephone. 
Cdlow TV. OH. etc. 01-664 
3414 pr 01-786 aaai. 

MBJCO Ml, Prof m.-f own 
roam in luxury how. £300 
petti exclusive. Tel 01-891 SOZT 
SW16 Lively prof 33+ o r dou- 
ble. Lovely me £160 pent. Nr 
lube 946 0667 after 7pm 
■M — SW AP Superb newly dec- ' 
anted 1 bad flat fully fitted 
Mt/kmae. ban. Baceflani ref 
mnea required. £180 pw. TM 
01 438 5376. 





We spadaisa in vtta 
holidays on Corfu and 
Paxaa. and have satoct- 
•d a quality mge of 
beach villas, seouded 
cottages in Olive grove 
and fadeaways tor two 
dose to some of the fin- 
est beaches on the 

island - the petted 
backdrop for a relaxing 

Corfu A* fa Carte 
(0635) 30621/35434. 
ATOt. 1579. 


We specialise to vWa 
holidays on Corfu and 
Paxas, and have select- 
ed a quality range of 
beach visas, secluded 
cottages in Olive grove 
and hideaways far two 
dose to some of the fin- 
est beaches on the 
Island - the . perfect 
backdrop for a relaxing 

Corfu A* la Carte 


Secure investment, highly attractive to a U.K. 
taypayer. For details, apply in strict confidence 

BOX A39, 

Times Newspapers, P.O. Box 484, 

' Virginia Street, London, EL. 


Secure Investment hfottty attractive to a U JC tax- 
PW. For detataappiy in strict ooafldence to: 

Box P234H. 

Li ! Il 1 1 j 

colour TV. CH- etc. 01-684 
3414 or 01-783 4381. 
Feb only, mixed noun. £166 + 
Tel. 01-319 8763 (Daytime), 
senui Lively. pear a»+ a/r dou- 
ble. Lmraty hn £160 pan. Nr 
MM 946 0667 otter 7pm. 


NR HOOK VWW Hants. Lovely 
detached chalet «yt* home, m 
to prp bid mturt garden. 
(Meal lor paadock and *UMe*i 
4 beta. 2 bMI». utility dining 
room, lounge, farmhouse kitch- 
en. CM. In need of same re- 
decoration. Freehold. 

B ere av e* h r ut Mr. £1374X10. 
HccUMtf (073383) 616. 


CASTELL. 3 bMrm bungalow. 
Master be am s And lounge wxp 
french windows Bo Milo wuh 
sra views. Fully Hoad kitchen, 
luxury batnrai. store rm. Op- 
tional booking* until end Seat. 
£39.900 toe w luxioy ftxhns 
+ tBimps. Lawyer available 

Please seoa youruv 10 jqyce ran}, ramnuj* 
Brr ffAa wti hB Authority, 70 Brampton Road . I 
01-584 7011 ffld 390 for an application form. 
Closing date: Mth ftbnraiy 1986. 

i SW3 or telephone 

TW0773M131 14 or 613213 
•86 W on* P ayee Surer spirt 

(02871 794 344 

i uw p 

bookshop superb »«"*■ 
Premises baoksettre 
retire. DWe shop. 3 fleM*** hMJJJ 
A 2 bedmi HM A CQttsp e. B oth 
■ub ie< producing rental 

■MOP New IS yr lease- Price 

MuSig Mock £49.000 «">- 
BOX NO: 1376 R. 

FM 1 only £179.00 

F*P B. only £189.00 

Feb 18 only £199.00 

TOP French A Swtac Resorts 

ROLLS 1 : A 





(0773) 613114 or 613313 
*83 C Ferrari Mondial Catarto- 
lec. Met Uue. ttn hide, blue 

flood. XOOO DUS -£34.900 

■86 C Ferrari 308 cm Qv 
Mam red. btsck hide, streond 
front a rear spoSer. oeilular 

Phene. 3.000 mis £34.980 

•86 Mtnxou BOO BBC Rack. 
Cream hide. UK supp. 1.000 

»• C Reg white, uoo tete B 
■peed, sunroof, fun body Ptrb 
nod spoUera, low profile tyres 
and bUov whe els- £8. 960. Tab 
Burgh Heath (073733 60811 

BMW SSS 1984 mod*. 19000 
anflea. s/r. Henna, r/mfler. 
FAROMOSM. Tel : 0703- 

with p small portable etac- 


O teering Wheel it born bunon 
in Mde. Badge bar. RJt. badges 
tt> quarter paoett. Oold MmooL 
W.W. tyres. Oanutne reeton for 
■ale by owner at C8&000. 0323 . 


BOH* BOYCS. Shadow L Late lUCSW Frtaxay CbaM boUktays 
•74. mao mis. Widow paid. I hi Courchevel u Sid 0484 
FSH. MOT. Must be NOL | 3 i l »96. 

£ia749 WanMna 48839 1 
Cventnas /Weekend. 

911 SPORT 

1 9B 4 SAAB 900 TURBO APC 16 
value DOHC. Dght Mne HIM- 
He. ZLOOO miles. £9.800 Tel: 
Chester (0344) 28749. 

3BB4 SAAB 900 TUrbo APC 16 
valve DCMC. Ugm Hue metalHE 
23000 miles. £9.730. Tel: 
Owner (0244) 38749. 



SL Wl. 039 6176. 113th 

HIBITION. UMfl 21 Fkb. Mon-fri 
9 -30-6JO: Thin until 6Ja 

OMAN. Exporter wan spotnorstn 

HI Tarts 86 model c Reg. 
guards red/dark Hue leanwr 
LSD. alarm, etc. 3.700 mis UK 
stamped- £41.000. Phene 
1043831 4834. 


1st registered June 
1984. Chocolate 
1 2,000 miles. Full ser- 
vice history, one 
grandmother owner. 
£6^50. 6202-210323. 

lade 17.000 mfla £26430 
073823 3304 Office. 

■44 1BS4 Cnard* PAS. POM. 

ran. 21S-*. raw. iB-ooo m. 

£16730 one. Tec 0833 

1 *» HI SC « p eel Mocha 
Brown. bOlOOO tunes. FSH. 
CiiJKXL man Bar 44781. 



1985/6 TURNOVER £2M. 
PRE-TAX PROFIT £200,000 

Rapidly expandng Yoricsbire based company with wdl 
known Hade name and young, aggressive management 

lookhu for either a small listed pic seeking acquisitions 
and additional management ora similar company far a 

For further information contact: 

Roger Hoyle or Richard Bailey 

N M Rothschild & Sons T iminvf 

3 York Stmt, Mop Che st er M2 2AW. 
Toiephono 051-833 OSSS. 


caravan accessories business 

PIds very large Calor Oh deHveiy service wHh espamkai paten- 
IteL Approx £300000 T/O per annum. London /SurTcy 

£49,000 plus SAV 
Reply Box No 1207R 

MadMH Muund Qaorc 
fL T/O £306000 4- ' 

Box no: 1618 

■ A wortqfficp apptxwt m a tel y 4000 sq 

New houses 


Prices from 
£45,450 to £74^50 


Stephen Robson on 
Portsmouth 817270 

kteal Homes Soihham Lid 

MAP or COVkU WHh Board 
mo school rxnrnrncc- riginiH! 

1 Jim uli mUdrnlUJ fOtlKf 

S^Nrwhurv DokiUi *rt»m - 

Vjrtmul Sludlrt P^W-J^'' 
T>’dmom». Newtiun . aar** 




Fun mne day. 4 wrehs. Dniui- 
FuB^nmc a Marti 

Htftwhcr any 

phone: Mr* M fWk» 

Lanplum See retar 
18 Ounrjvrn Slrrrt. Park J-wr. 
London W1Y S8L TN 01-639 



Latest releases for Spectrum, Com 64, Amatrad, computera- 
Beantifid pi emu ietiiHi horm i product. Normal RRP £7J5 
and£8J» - %600 anflsble. Min mder 500. Price £3 each. 
Bing: 0443 229448 office hours for details. 

741 9999 

m Can 34 nr 7 day a 240 

Gm &U09 930 6133 


Red price tew 8th end 6th March 


—W C *. Tenerife. Omk l» 
Mnda. Algarve, visa*, apt*, 
pennons, menus, holidays 
and flights summer, winter. 
Brochures booking* only d ire ct 
front Die specialists. Ventura 
Hobday*. Tot 0743 331100. 
ATOL 3004. 


EXE CUT IV E with tea level 

YOUNG VIC 628 6363 CC 
379 4333 Feb 6 ■ Mar 23 


TU Tomoe ■ Eies 745 

Funeral Games & Gorilla 
in the Rases 


(IBUB WC2 Ol 836 
3660 1- 4143 '81 90. idonday- Fri 
day Evge 8.0 Mate Wad 2.30. Sal 
530 A B JO 
A JO Y TO BEHOLD** Sandanl 
■ NffiNMlT FUNNY” Fin. 




-John Chapman A Michael 
Penwe rn comedy la obviously das- 

Kings Road innlrt Tub*- 
Sloane Sgi MHiHH Devuk-v 
1181 Film M 1 OO 300 01*1 
700 OOO Scots Bookable iw 
l» eve pert 

Street. Cora* Bowne, lan Hamv 
In Drnna Pntln’v 

Z.OOinot hum 4.106.20 ibjo 


Cumn Street 499 3737 
coral Browne. Up Hobn 
•Superb DerlanTunm' F Times 
in Dennis Potter's 


■Sheer encnanlmenr S Evp 
•A complete InumWV S Tel Film al 
2 OO (Not Sum 4.10. A ti 4C 

Shafiunary Avenue Wl 
43B 4805 

Jess ica Lan ge. Ed Harris 
Film M 2.00 




EXECUTTVE with hp level oon- 


WOSIAN WANTS ■ irmporafy 
wort inr 5 4 monlhs. No typ- 
ing. 01 7376889. 

69. leekv mkmnng. quarter- 
pme mb Wiae hPeresta 
London pref. Reply lo BOX 
. *2* 



. al Head Chef IFCXA. ‘CC. ACT] 
seeks Harrier ponuon a* Exec 
V uove Chef. Ouaramre ben 
resuh* irom Haute Cum nr. 
guaranired OP**, nvqtene -nan- 
darn* and serf momauon. Only 
aerHHn profeiumnal poNUo m 

eormdrred Solan £18.000 
mfrrrM South East area, 
pnorv cuunforn i0483i 64200 

Very rare 1974 MasaraN 
Khamsin. Auto, white / 
Mack leather Interior, re- 
cent history, tax/ moL 
offers tn region or Bfijooo. 


(0932) 240 190 

MOT MrtUMd. Bargain £1200. 
V reoutred. garage Inspection 
available. Phene 01-736 3722 



BINS fora long stay. B passes uie <TVoi Sunl 4 lO. 6204. 8.40 From 
time as pteassnOy as a large GUi March 7 Kurosawa's RAM U5« 
and Tonic" Sunday Tunes BOOK NOW) 

mrecied by Mike Ockrem 

“The very best or Brtpunb 
co mi c Hem" a. Man 


see Shaftesbury Theatre 


see Ambassadors Theatre 


see Criterion Theatre 


see Duchess Theatre 
Four Ml comedies 

3LS6 , f(? > ' nSo DrO0 ‘ OMIy 

SSco^ “ ,Won ' ««“«W 


Box Office 01-734 8931 

ratST CALL xe-hr 7 day 
or BaekteBs Bl-BM 3464 

Group Sales 01-930 6133 

8 rain London Bridge. El 30 
K>* OI-eniTIO oner « pn. 

ppmmu on Monday 2TB 
January. PrtrMo iantfiy eranan- 
W Memorial Ser v ice at AU 
sarnie cnureti. MnMiqwi. nr 
KBeKMR. al 1 l.SQara an FO- 
day aim Feeruary. No flowers 

i lam. looay. Friday 3 >m Janu- 
ary 19B&. Family nowara only 

Ow approach to recnjftmerrt is somewhat different 
We believe there are many high level 


with earnings of 20K+ who would fike to find out 
why and hare an opportunity tb discuss their 
career objectives and ambitions in strictest 
confidence and completely without obligation. 

Make an appointment to meet oir executive 
recruitment manager Graham Massey at... 





MANCHESTER ™ F ^ 1986 


flf you cannot attend these dates, an alternative can be arranged} 


You could gan a better fate. 

appointment 01-681 5623/4 

01-681 5623/4 



UnionBd UxL, Orchard House, 1 14-1 1 8 Cheny Orchard Road, 
Croydon, Surrey CRO 680 . Tafaphone: ( 011 - 681 5623/4 
24 hour answering service 

rr a i a n « « , k’h,' i 


computer, gntaraUy Mp rad in 
a busy, frfamiiy office, woedd 

(or SL HawM Cnureti. i __ 

nam Norton. Nomu. { MEMORIAL SR VICES 




3 * 




personality and note needed 
Sot a variety ef Central London 

Coral. *7 New Bond 8M. 
London wi. 

■onwr/MiBrur for 

tMUM interior dnaau stoow- 
rooni off Futoara Road. Good 



n«le bed. m gas eb. cJi.w. 
Rada. gdn. COW 1-3 yrs. CdTB 


ary al mr Russian Orthodox 
Oath. Enrutraarr Cardenv 






bar. Hot a crane lunch with 
cigars A Hautr. cJBb ramv 
ben badge A hotaHanty 

recop. PdL au oactrtnra. Co Lei 
can . OO par. OI«S QOSO. 






C7JCO- experienced recsp Buu - 
M oougM by oraeal Carden 

bouse. Own room. C220 pen 
■ w ar e MBs. Rug 01223 SMZ 


ktTM,ha ft r 3 March 1778. 
22 Fefcrary 1779, 2 Mar 
1788. 18 Much. 18 Ayefi. 38 
Aprfl 1782. and Feb 1785. 
The amur of cs p yt l f hl fa 

m m 

January. NHdi WyMum. 
aged 66. nepceilaiy alter a Mug 
■ma 90 paaendy borne. Dor 

Company/Commercial Department 
Litigation Department 

We are a substantial City firm but young enough and 
flexible enough to remain fiiendly and informal wMI Lst 
offering outstanding career prospects to lawyers of nign 
ability. That includes progress to partnership for people 
with die right qualities. 

Our company/commercial department and our litigation 
department are each looking for two able young lawyers. 
Both departments have a wide range of high quality and 
interesting work. 

If you have true professional commitment and can think 
creatively, we would like to tell you about the terms and 
career prospects we have to offer. 

Even if you are newly qualified, without relevant 
experience, but are confident of your potential to become 
a lawyer of high calibre, we would still like to talk to you- 

Please write to Tbny Leifer in our company/commercial 
department and Colin Joseph in our litigation department 
with a full cv. 

D.J. Freeman & Co., 43 Fetter Lane, London EC4A 1NA. 


£ 1 4 , 000 - £ 20 , 000 p^.incl. 

The Sofcfcrto&w Central Bectritity 

lo wort in the Legal Department at the 
Headquarter Offices near St Pa/s. 

The duBesoffte post cover general Kgafan 
work, nefadng Personal Injury. There are 
opportmto far 8M)lvemert in other areas of 
workauchasPlannmg, ParSamertmyand 
CommerctaLThe post affords good career 
prapeebtaran able lawyer. 

Appficanls should have at least two years 
post-acfai8Sfanajq)eriencenpri^ practice 

The starting safaryfartteapportmertwa 
depend on experience and quaffcafexts. 

Appficatnns, fa wring only, gnring&l caeer 
defaisinclutfag age, q u aH o dfa na , present 
posfaonarfasateByshoiid be sent toffw Group 
Personnel Officer, CEGB,SucfciKy House, 

15 NewgateS&eet, London EC1A7AU by 
10 Fatxuary 1966. Quote ReL 

imgng/lg. mm 

TheCEGBisanequaioppataty Wft 

mpbpL - an 

Regional Solicitor 

POTIffiSBAR c.£22 5k 

Apportions are invited for the post of Solidly fo be 
based d Regiond Headquarters, Patter* Bar, Herts. 
The successful carxSdrte wfl be prirafcdly concerned 
with prowling a legal service to Eastern Region and ih 
confluent functions and deprxtmentiTheSoridtarwifl 
mange and ad as the professional Head of the Legal 
Department whose members comprise both cdnOed 
aid imadmfaed staff. Generally, the wed of the 
Department indudes common low matters end 
fitigafion, conveyancing, commercial, indued and 
employment law Appropriate professional 
quafifiarfons are essentU together with several yeas' 


afiav a public or local aulhorty or in private practice. 
Cammendng salary not less than £22,400 per annum 
inducting Allowance. Excellent benefits 

package indudmg relocation assistance where 

appearance of As advertisement to: Personnel 
Dnecto^ Br^ish Gets Eastern, Star House, Mutton Lane. 
Rotten Bag Herts EN62PD. 



£7,551 - £10,908 pjL 
TT» is an extremely busy Dhosion daat- 
"8 "Wi afl aspects of the Counci's 
career work. The post offers you an 
•deal base from which to start or con- 
tinue a career in local government legal 
work and to study far Legal 

to your prwren 

experience of cHferent aspects of the. 
work in the Legal Division in order to be 
flwwifs pood a ^oundng in taw as 
possible, ftataliy, you wil Jan the Con- 
veyandng team, which deals wfih both 
coremerdal and domestic convsyano- 
ing. tnefuefing "Right to 8uy"sales. 
App H n at io n form from and 
turned toe De pa rt m ents 

IUL 9 JfrO.30 MOtvFrt C7JOO 
n Mg. aac. Plate fat uw .1 


an equal ippmuntfes emote; crl 


SECRETARIES - Sales & Marketing 
Curator Street EC4. £7,500-£8,000 

Due to our recent and continuing expan- 
sion, we as American Express now have 
several prestigious appointments for ex- 
perienced secretaries who can match 
their professional flair to our Interna- 
tionally successful operation. 

Exciting career opportunities now exist 
in our expanding Sales and Marketing 
functions. Within marketing you will be 
a vital pan of the team working with 
either our Marketing Director or 
Marketing Manager. l n sales 
opportunities exist working with either 
our London Regional Sales Manager 
and his tram, or our three National 
Accounts Directors. 

In all instances we need people who can 
cope well with, a highly pressurised 
remaining calm and 
in control. You must be well presented 
as contact with the. press, ikTSd 
marketing milieux will be frequent. 

If you can offer us 2 years office 
experience excellent secretarial skiS 
“f blht y to excel under pressure we 
can offer you a salary of £7S00-£8 000 
excellent benefits and suSh 
opportunities to advance 
American Express. w uhm 




HAPPY a*T ■MTTMDAV 10 our 
nut* Slmotfa Win «9 lou 

Mm *-- — 

jomm amt ni in » 

CUy 19* V * DffVMT- 

fa FMW il* fa> *«TL 


now Aloiwy Coraoraa 
•0»*a86l 361 Evawi 6 



AUDIO secretary m'a tor 

P^llipnnip m W! SUnpw 
“v arranra—ool. 
Tn Vim CM ninai.T?7 6474 
* , i^f 0 *^AL Sermon wnrunr to 
^ , t ° T £9.000 

“rrra* trap iVov imp Unguara 
W'**' OI«36 ldCT7 

WI. ser rVtma 
— ■ Ih 'PI "■ lund UMO M 
•O rW OOP Krrv4pa(Qn 
Con. Q| 930 PlSl ” 

Senior Legal 

Salary £12^67 - £12,921 p^. iadosivs 

We are looking for an experienced Legal 
Executive or newly qualified Solicitor for a 
demanding post which involves County 
Court and High Court Btigatton, particular- 
ly debt recovery and possession actions; 
handHng a variety of associated legal mat- 
ters, including advocacy in the County 
Court supervising and training junior 

pis post is subject to the LMGSC ring 
.fence procedure. Applications are weL 
l corned from any candidates. GLC and 
London Borough of Hammersmith and 
Fulham (Personnel), Town Hall Extension, 
King Street, Hammersmith W6 SJU, tele- 
phone 01-741 0904 (24 hour answering 
service) quoting ret LHS.17. 

Qosing date: 11th February 1986. 

Interested? Send fall CV to u Q . 
Conlson, American Em® 

Ltd, 22nd Floor. Portland 
Place, London SWlE 5BZ. ' 


< i a » e r»6'i j’i . 

Y floni Secretary 
RMaH Co Wl 
To £3.000+ 

An ora te Ite ratoen lor a 
ana tamer witn sou 
onrafaw fa a*e ibm 
D tett pwr t far BM Who en- 
faysBVBrtetyof AgurYD-nna 
•M Wilteff secretarial 
q uite FHofly Bivtron- 

rate. EfaraOraif Braafalfa* 

Call Paul Sprigs on 
01-831 3401 

Ch allice 

. (T fate i * Roc Craw 

IE I M — B a 





ousaujg swr * 

Level Stoxtea mm a tj- ?**?*)>' 80 b and .a* 

tnnnpraatMi beaT * otl 

ta “ ^, 13 ^ 

Goal anatom 

tefaMl TiafaCfeay, -wnn( , r .tofr Cfatfacn « — 

’■“™ y 



Today’s television and radio programmes 

Edited by W** Dgg 
and Peter Pa» ati g. 


rax AM. News 
dimes, weather, travel 
sports bulletins. Also 
jiiatte to viewers with 
.revision sets without the 
Breakfast Time with Frank 

Bough and Debbie 
Greenwood. Weather at 
6.55, 7.25, 7.55, 8-25 and 
8,55; regional news, 
weather and traffic at &57. 
7JZ7, 7.57 and &27; 
national and international 
news at 7MJ, 730, 8410, 
8.30 and 9.00; sport at 
7.20 and 020; Lynn Faulds 
Wood's consumer report 
at 8.15: a review of the 
morning newspapers at 
827. Plus. Improving 
1 Britain's football image; 
shopping advice; 
gardening hints; and the 
latest pop music news 
920 Ceefax 1020 Play School, 
presented by Brian 
Jameson with guest, 
Elizabeth Wans (r) 1020 

^220 News After Noon with 
Frances Coverdale end 
Moira Stuart includes 
news headlines with 
subtitles 1225 Regional 
news. The weather 
i details come from 
Michael Fisn ■ 

1-00 tPebbie Mill at One. Today 
i the launch of the 
ard Burton Drama 
Award - a play writing 
competition, in the studio 
are the judges - Salty 
Burton, the actor's widow, 
actpr John Hurt; 
playwright Pam Gems; and 
from the RSC, CoHn 
Chambers and Ron 
Daniels 1.45 King Rollo. A 
See-Sa pprocramme tor 
the very young (r) 120 
Bric-a-Brac (r) 

<220 International Snooker. 

H The mird quarterfinal of 
the Benson and Hedges 
“Masters, introduced by 
Dtavid take from the 
wfembtey Conference 
Centre 322 Regional 


325 Cm nt Me in. Antony 
Joh ns toes his hand at 

ten iis 4.10 Heathcfiff- the 
Cti i Gold Digger Daze (rl 
4.1 j Jacfcanory. Sarah 
Greene reads part five of 
ThQ Hundred and One 
Dalraiatians 420 Secrets 
Out; The panel have to 
gu'ess guests' unusual 

r ‘ ■‘'■yotiK i 

-r, : .--w 

-t m\ 

6.15 Good 
Diamond and Nick 
news with Gordon 

bv Anne 


Honeycombe at 627, 820, 
720, 720.8.00, 820 and 
9.00; exercises at 6-20 and 
9.17; sport at 625 and 
724; cartoon at 724; pap 
video at 725; Nigel 
Dempster's gossip column 
at 8.1 7; Jimmy Greaves’ 
television highlights at 
824; director Hugh 
Hudson talks about his 
film Revolution at 8 j 45; 
cooking at 924; and a 
colection of priceless 
jewellery at 9.12 




425 Newsraund Extra. Paul 
McDowefl reports on the 
modem day Exodus when 
thousands of black Jews, 
known as Falashas. were 
takenfram Ethiopia to 
Israel * 

5.10 Grange Hffl. Episode eight 
,gqriZjogy»s in trouble 
agairrtCeefax) 525 FaxL 

■ Effli Odie send his team 
anser more 1 viewers’ 
questions J 

620 News with Sue Lawtey and 
Nicholas Wfichell. Weather 

625 London 

720 Wogan announces the 
winner of the Spot the 
Stars competition, talks to 
Donald Smden and Bnan 
Jacques, and listens to 
Richard Clayderman 

7.40 International Snooker. 

The fourth quarterfinal of 
the Benson and Hedges 

&15 Dyrasty. Alexis and Des 
deder King Galen to 
Denver, while Blake is 
having marital problems 
wnhhis wife's 
doppei ganger (Ceefax) 

920 News with John 

Humphrys and Andrew 
Harvey. Weather 

920 Lovejoy. The wheeler 
dealer investigates a 
puzzle left by a dead 

1025 Victoria Wood - As Seen 
on TV. Comedy sketches 
and songs (r) 

1120 International Snooker. 
Further coverage of the 
fourth quarterfinal of the 
. Benson and Hedges 
Masters introduced by 
David take from the 
Wembley Conference 
Centre. The 
commentators are Ted 
Lowe. Jack Kamehm and 
Clrve Evert on 

12.45 Weather 


The Cheors company:(Chamiel 4, 10.00pm). Centre: Rita Tnshi: 

(Channel 4, 1130pm)Right. Patricia Phoenix and 

_ i: A Taste of Honey 
leDa Gee (ITV^JOpm) 

925 Thames news head foes 
920 For Schools: the woods fri 
springtime 9A7 How we 
used to five - coping with 
flu epidemic 10.09 
Mathsimirrors 1026 
Science - force and friction 
10.48 English - making 
meanings 11.15 Making 
Cleese in a farm and a 
factory 11-27 Helping the 
- elderly and children who 
have walking pprobtems 
11.40 The uses of 

1220 Benny, presented by 
Diane Wikner 12.10 

Rainbow. Leaminbg 
about communication 
with the help of puppets 
1220 Here to Stay. Trevor 
Hyett in the fifth of Ws series of 
six on Britain's ethnic minorities 
talks to a group from London's 
Arab community 
1.00 News at One with Leonard 
Parkin 120 Thames news 
presented by John 

1.30 Farm Eyewitness* (1956) 
starring Donald Sinden. 
Muriel Pa Wow and Nigel 
Stock. Drama about a 
young woman who 
witnesses a murder and 
then is pursued by the two 
kilters. Directed by Muriel 

320 Mr and Mrs. Quiz game for 
married couples 325 
Thames news headlines 
320 Sons and Daughters 

4.00 Rainbow. A repeat of the 
programme shown at 
12.10 4.15 The Tefebugs 
425 Worldwise. 

Geography computer 
game for schools. 

Presented by David 
Jensen (Oracle) 420 The 
Best of Behind the Bike 
Sheds. Comedy series 

5.15 ice Skating. The Ladles’ 
Free Programme of the 
European Figure 
5.45 News with Carol Bames 
620 The 6 O'Ctock Show. 
Michael Aspei and his 
team take the bd off the 
lighter side of London life 

7.00 Aibion Market Lynne is 
questioned by the police 

720 Murder, She Wrote: 

Armed Response. Jesica, 
in hospital with an mjured 
ankle becomes mixed up 
in a murder when one of 
her fellow patients is 

020 Constant Hot Water. 
Comedy series about two 
rival seaside landladies 

920 The Gentle Touch. The 
slice are called to a tower 
[Of flats where the 
residents are threatening a 
mother and her 28-year 
old retarded son. 

Apparently the man has a 
habit of attacking other 
residents and because the 
police had taken no action 
they nave decided to take 
the law into their own 
hands (r) (Oracle) 

10.00 News at Ten with 
Sandy GaU and 
Pamela Armstrong 

10.30 The London Programme: 
John Taylor examines 
Fleet Street's latest 
crisis. Followed by LWT 

1120 South of Wafted. Hugh 
Laune examines the 
shop design revolution 
1120 Ice Skating. The Men's 
Free Programme of the 
European Figure 
1220 Night Thoughts 


920 Ceefax 

925 Daytime on Two: French 
conversation 922. Part 
four of The Boy from 
Space 10.15 Maths: minor 
images 1028 A tour of the 
medtewalHaddon Haft, on 
the outskirts of BakeweU 
in Derbyshire 1120 
Behind the scenes at John 

Lewis' s store in 

‘Edinburgh 1122 A portrait 
of the Untied States' 'Sun 
Beff city - Phoenix 1124 
Jobs for women 1226 
Part fair of the series 

Hustrating the i 
of computers 1J 
Computers In education 
lends at 1.00) 1.10 
Science: the PeriocSc 
Table 123 The Panorama 
programme about the 
Japanese scout who 
smuggled heroin 220 The 
Welsh tecSes’ rugby team 
from the vfiage of Magor 
220 Engtistn the power of 

225 Ceefax 

320 in t ern ati onal Snooker. 
Further coverage of the 
third quarterfinal of the 
Benson and Hedges 
Masters, introduced by 
David take 


220 A Question of 

Econo m i c s. The second 
and Anal part of a feature 
on lha merits of both 
nationalization and private 
enterprise, (rl 

320 Dance Matinee. The 
Sydney Dance Company 
perform a raticai re- 
interpretation of the 
dassictafe, Oaphnisand 
Chloe; and Syvdta, Ayoka 
Chenzira’s portrait or 
black American dancer, 
Syvtta Fort 

420 Countdown. Yesterday's 
winner of the anagrams 
and mental a rit h m eti c 
game is challenged by Sue 
PWttps from Leyiandtn 

5.00 1 Dream of Jaannie.The 
last of the currant series 
and Tony, after telling 
Jsannte that he is going to 
search for Captain Kidd's 
treasure, is taken back in 
time to serve as a deck 
hand on one of Kidd’s 

520 The Tribe presented by 
Joots Holland and Paiia 


520 NewsSomms 


525 The Scarlet 

Pbnpemef* (1934) starring 
Leslie Howard. Merle 
Oberon and Raymond 
Massey. Baroness 
Orczy's classic, set at the 
time of the French 
Revolution, about a 
seemingly foppish British 
aristocrat who is , m 
reality, a mysterious hero 
who is saving the lives of 
members of the French 
aristocracy. Directed by 
Harold Young 

720 Micro Live incfudes a 
report Pittsburg' Camegte- 
MeUon University which 
boasts a Sismfinon 
campus com p ute r system. 
Presented by Ian 
McNaught-Davfs and Fred 



720 Ebony. Magazine 
programme for Britain’s 
black communities, 
presented by Juliet 

820 Traveflers fn Time- The 
story of Sir Alan Cobham's 
flight in 1925 from 
Croydon to Cape Town 
and back (r) 

820 Gardeners’ World. An 
autumn tour of the Hitter 
Arooretum in Hampshire. 
WHh Roy Lancaster and 
Geofl Hamilton 

920 Tom O’Connor. This week 
the entertainer examines 
another peculiar aspect of 
our culture with assistance 
from Roy Hudd 

925 Three Painters. Sir 
Lawrence Gowing 
examines works by 

10.15 Did You See.? Michael 
and Diane i 

comment on Saturday 
Review. Spitting (mage 
and From the Horse’s 

1120 Newsnight.11.45 


1120 European Figure Skating 
Championships- The 
Men's Free Programme. 
Ends at 1220 

,8ve are 

tin Ratio, Itahman 
Levi and Batons Some 
7.00 Channel Four news with 
AJastair Stewart Weather 
720 Right to Reply. Clrical 
psychologist Dr David HB1 
accuses Central 
Television’s Zero Options 
of being a disservice to 
schizophrenia sufferers 
820 What the Papers Say. 
John Lloyd of the Financial 
Times casts a critical eye 
over how the Press has 
been treating the week's 

6.15 A Week In Politics, 
presented by Peter 
Jay.Tbis week's edition 
includes a report on the 
decline of unron power 
under Mis Thatcher. Plus, 
the latest news on the 
Westland saga 
920 Brothere. Joe tsthrfitedto 
bits when his daughter 
graduates frbm High 
School, and decides to 
buy her a car. But raising 
the necessary cash is a 

How Does Your Garden 
Grow?.PhiNp Wood and 
David Wilson visit the 
-Bready, Go Tyrone. • 
garden of Boo Deveraux 

1020 Cheers. The fust of a 
new series of the 
comedies 9et in a Boston 
bar finds Frasier an 
emotional wreck after 
being left at the church 
by Dtane; and a new 
barman to replace the 
lamented Coach who 
died (Oracle] 

1020 Just Leave Your 

Luggage at the Door, 

lirancSftfa^^en Buddhist 
teacher and a director of 
MIND. This documentary 
meditation (Oracle) 

1120 Fine A Taste of Honey* 
(1961) starring Rita 


ingham and Dora 
Bryan. The touching 
Shelagb Delaney story of 
the plan girl, living in 
Salford with her duttish 
mother, who becomes 
pregnant by a sailor and 
is befriended by a young 
homosexual. Directed by 
Tony Richardson 
120 FHm: Muscle Beech* 

(1 950) The macho men of 
a beach in the United 
States. Directed by 
Joseph Strick and Irving 
Lerner. Ends at 120 

( Radio 4 ) 

fri tong 

wavs and also VHF 

620 NEWS 
: Wtether. 

8.10 FARMING. 625 

620 TODAY fod 820. 

720. 820 News. 625, 725 
Weather. 720, 820 
News. 725, 825 Sport 825 
Yesterday In Parliament 
820 Letters. 827 Weather; 
TravaL ■ 

. 920 NEWS. 

925 Desert island discs. 

Michael Parkinson tabs 
to Roy Hattersley, MP (i) t 
925 The Armada i 

Fifth of Six taBcs on I 
by Ray Gosling (rj. 

1020 News; In tern ati onal 

1020 Momfogstorr; Weekend 

: Mary Wimbush. 

1045 Defy service (New Every 
Morning, page 105). 

1120 News. Travel; PWars of 
society. Robert Carvel 
examines the Bishops of the * 
Church of England (r). 

1120 Natural selection. Red 
howler monkeys. 

1220 News; The food 

prog ra mme with Derek 

1227 In One Ear. Comedy hatt- 
hour (r). 1225 Weather. 

120 The World at One: News. 

1.40 The Archers. 125 

220 News; Woman's Hour 
from B ir mi ngha m. 

Includes a special teetue on 
autistic chtidren. snd an 
interview with Queen Mary’s 
hairdresser, HJ3. Sterner. 

320 News: Jude the Obscure. 
Thomas Hardy's novel 
d rama ti ze d tn 6 parts, with 
Mctael Pennington as 
Jude (1) with Michael 

Pennington (r)t 

420 News. 

425 Frank Muir goes into- 
Eccentricity. With ALfrad 
Marks (r)L 

420 Kaleidoscope (a second 
chance to hear last 
night's edttonXR). 

520pm: News 
Shipping Forecast 

25 Weather. 

6J)0 News; Financial Report 

620 Going places. CSve 
Jacobs and Ms team 
monitor the world of travel 
and transport 7.00 

725 The Archers. 

720 Pick ot the week. TV 
and radio extracts, 
chosen by Margaret 


820 Law in Action-Makers of the 
law talk to Joshua 

845 Any Questions? John 

Gummer. MP, Dr 
Cottrell; DanzB 
Davies. MP. end .lack 
. Boddy tackle issues raised 
hy an audience In 
Swattham, Norfolk. 

920 Letter from America, by 
Alistair Cooke. 

9.45 Kaleidoscope. Includes 
items on the BBC2 series 
Fbttes and volume one of the 
Keats correspondence. 

10.15 A book at bedtime: 

Vrind, Sand and Stars by 
Amone oe Saim-Exupery 
(final part). Reader John 
Bennett 1029 Weather. 

1020 The world tonight 

,1120 Today in Partament 

11.15 The financial world 

1120 week Ending. Satirical 
review of the week’s 

1220 News; Weather. 1223 
Shipping Forecast 

VHF (available in England and 
S.Wales only) as above 
except: 525-820 am 
Weather; Travel. 1120- 
1Z00 FOR SCHOOLS: 1120 
Singing Together. 120 
Consecration - Now! 1140 
The Music Box. 1120 See 
For Yourself. 125-320 pm 
Listening Comer. 225 Let's 
Join In. 225 Listen and 
Read. 240 Listen' 520-525 
pm (continued). 1220- 
1.10 am Schools night-time 


Radio 3 j 

625 earner. 7.00 News. 

725 Morning Concert * 

Bruch's Swedish Dances 
Leone Smlgag&a' Adagio 
tracpco (RlAS^Sinfinietla); 
Poulenc's Chansons 
rs (Gerard St 
land Dalton 

Baldwin, peno); Prokofiev’s 
Violin Concerto No 1 
(Mintz with Chicago SO 
under Abbado) 8.00 

825 Momina Concert (conTd: 
Gershwin's Promenade, 
watine the Dog (Los Angles 
PO): fematwn s 
Chichester Psalms (Vienna 
Youth Choir and Israel _ 
PO). Copland’s ftwn music 
from Our Town (LSOJ; 

Roy Harris's Symphony No 3 
(New York POL 9.00 

925 This week's Composer 
Delius Concerto tor ceMo 
and orchestra (Jacqueline du 
Pre and RPO); Sonata No 
3 (Ralph Holmes, xxMn and 
Fenby, piano); Cvnara 
(John Sranay-Ouirh, baritone 
' and Royal Liverpool PO) 

1000 Medelssohn and 

Schumann: Katrieron 
Sturrock (piano). 
Faschmgsschwank a us 
Wien; ana Mendelssohn 


NO 42. 


Shipway), with Roberto 
Aussel (guitar), Richard 
Adeney (flute), Leslie 
Pearson (harpsichord). 
Sibelius’s Suite Champetre; 
Mompou's Scenes 
d'en rants: Leo Brouwer's 
Retratos Catalans: 

Nussio's Rubenstana. 

1 1 40 Counter-tenor and 
lute: Charles Bren and 
Robert Spencer. The 
works indude MachauTsSe 
is souspir; Bmchots's 
Margama, fieur be vateun 
Alan Ridoufs Lute Sute, 
1970; Rosseter's What then 
is love but mourning? 

12.15 BBC Walsh SO (under - 
Jacek Kasprzyk), with 
Jennifer Strath (soprano). 
Pan one. Grace 
WUbams’s Sea Sketches; 
Mozart’s Symphony No 
31.120 News. 

125 Concert part two. 

Matter's Symphony 

225 Thee King and the 
Budapest String Trio: 
Mozart’s arrangement of 
Bach's Adagio and 
Fugue in G minor. K 404a No 
2; KokaJ's Quartettino for 
clarinet and string too; 
Rote's String Trio No4. 

220 Bournemouth 
Stafowetta (under 
NomngtonL with Ronald 
Thomas (violin). Britten's 
Smtometta op 1 : Finzi's 
Introit Schubert’s Symphony 
No 2. 

340 Bach: Virginia Black 
(harpsichord) plays the 
French Suite NofimE, BWV 

4.00 Choral Evensong: 
from Chelmsford Cathedral; 
4.55 News. 

5.00 Mainly for Pleasure: 
Graham Fawcett's selection 
of recorded music. 

620 Guitar Music: Martin 
Mystivecak plays Rak's 
Finnish Story; Antonio 
Laura's Variations cm a 
Venezuelan Children's Song; 
Fore's Variations; Carlos 
Seixas’s Sonata; Petr Eben's 

720 One-shot McBean: 

Angus McBean, the 
noted photographer, in 
conver satio n with Colin 

720 I Caputeti e i MontecchL 
BeUnss opera. Sung in 
Italian. Riccardo Muti 
conducts the Chorus and 

tamieMe'fl"*’*! 1 


9.10 v &^ it 1 **** 

» too second ^ 

iai5 New Premises^ ost 


Games s arts reviews. 

VI oo Emu coon: the 

ot to pfogiammes. 
Proko»'C?s gono. - No- 8 
tn 8 Hat. Of 3 ** 

movemunre from 

1127 News. 12 -OOCk^cuCwn. 

Radio 2 

am. 620. 720 anauasaog 
Ctask 1 05 pm. 2.02, 3.0Z. **■?■ 
6.32. 645 <mfl 
^”oOamCokn3c»ry 820 
M«ve. 825 KenBro^^aW 

Hurmilord 3.30 Mitstc aG thoway- 
4.00 David Hartvho 0 6.00 Jotm 
Dunn 7.30 music 

service. 920 The orgarwt _ 

Par Mooney. 1020 E 
(stereo from ndntftt 120 OT 
Jean Chalks. 3.00-42C A Ui» 
Night music. 

( Radio i ~) 

News or toe half hour hern 
S.30 am until 920 wn and at 12 
mxsmgnt s.00 amjWfian Jong- 
720 Mjkp Read S20 Simon Bates. 
1220 pm Newsoeat (Frank 
Partndoe). 12.45 Gary Da*tes. 320 
Paul Jordan. 5.30 N.wustieat 
(Frank Partnoce? 5.45 Bruno 

Brookes. 7.30 Andy Pt*bir<s. 

1020-12.0CTho Fridav Rock Show 
(Tommy Vance). VHF RADIOS 1 
82 42o am As Radio 2. 1023 pm 
As Rad® 1. 12.C8-4-00 am As 
Radio 2. 


6.00 Nevruwsk 7.C0 Nsw-, 7S£> r^venty- 
toix Hours 7.30 Ju w* 

Merchant Navy P.-cyjmma 
SOS Rettecwro S-lfi Scunds oj S^irg. 
820 Mus«c Now 940 NbwS 9.09 Reyw 
oil he Bnttsh Pres. 9.15 TIM WOrtd 
Today 920 Fiiumam 4.40 L?ok 
ihSiftAS Poets on Muee 10.00 
1001 Sing GosccH 10-15 Mercham Navy 
Prooranmw 1020 Busrvns Miflars 

11.00 Maws 11.09 Maws adoui liman 
11.15 m mo Medirwro 1125 A Lonor 
From Norttietn tietuio 11.30 

1100 Radu Ncwsreoi 12.15 
The Asknq 12.46 Spore: RouwJva 120 
News 1JJ9 TwenW-toar Hours Neni 
Summary120 John P«4 220 News 221 
Outlook 2.45 Lattoroox ICO Undo 
NewsreoO.15 Las Mrwractes 4X3 News 
409 Commamerv 4.15 Saanco m Acnon 
425 The World Todcy 520 Nows 5.09 A 
Letter Irom Northoin IreLeid 5.15 Sortfl 
and Company 020 News 829 Twenty- 
Four Hours 

0.15 Mum: Now 945 Foroton Altolrs 
mca News 1009 The Wwd T«ny 
1025 A Letter From Northern Ireland 
1020 Financo! News 13.40 Reflections 
1045 Sports Rounduo 11.00 News 1121 
Commentary 11.15 From The weaMet 
1120 Taking About Muse. 12.00 News 
1229 News About Britain 12.15 FLnSO 
Newsreel 1220 Atxwt Bnan 12.45 
Reoardng of the Weak 120 News 121 
Outlook 120 S*g Gospe! 1.45 Letterbox 
220 News 229 R**»w Of The Bnbsh 
Press 2.15 Neiworh UK 22S Pj opk- 0x3 
PoMks 3.00 News 3.C9 News About 
Bntwn 3.15 The World Today 130 Quote 
Unquote 420 Newsdesk 420 That's 
Trad 5.45 The World Today (AD ttnoa ki 

1 5kHz/M7nv. VHF - 
BBC Radio Loo- 


120 That's Hollywood L20 
Granada Reports 120 Film" Iron 
M aiden, (Michael Craig) 3.15 
Adaptation to Ocean Environment 
325 Granada Reports 320- 

New Avengers 1220am Film: 

for Wealth 120 Lunchtime 120 
Fant The intruder (Jack Hawkins) 
320 Mr & Mrs 320420 Per- 
sonal View 620 Good Evening Ul- 
ster 625 Sportscast 640-720 
Advice with Anne Hailes 720220 

1120 Witness 1125-1220 am Fai- 

CENTRAL As London «- 
_ cepe I220pm-I20 

Search for wealth 120 News 
128220 FBnr The Trap (Oliver 
Raed) 620-720 News 720- - 
820 Knight Rider 1020 Centraf 


Weekend 1220 Film: Nut- 
cracker (Joan CoOns) 145 

BORDER London ex- 

— - cept 1220pm-120 

Search for Wealth 1.20 News 
120 VWsh you Were Here.™? 220 
Ffttc Love Thy Neighbour 320- 
420 Young Doctors 620 

Lookaround 620-720 Funny 
You Should Sav That 1020-1120 
Bordertfve 1220am News, 

TWS *5 London exceffl: 

—AS I220pm-120 Search for 
Wealth 120 News 120 FSm: 
Death Penatty325-420 Young 
Doctors 620Today South West 
625 Action South West 620-720 
What's Ahead 720220 Mag- 
num 1022-1120 The Sweeney 

1220 am Postscript 

ANGLIA A? London except 
- I220pm-I20 Search 

for Wealth 600-720 About An- 
oHa 1020 Cross Question 1 120- 
1120 Short Story Theatre 1220 
am Gospel at the Bygones Bam, 

Search for Wealth 120 News 
120 Country practice 220 On the 
Market 320220 Mr 8 Mrs 6.00 
News and Scotland Today 620- 
720 Report 720620 Shindig 
1020 Ways and Means 11201120 
Wanted Dead or Altve 1220am 
Late Call, Closedown. 

P BPigs gas^ 

120 Search for Wealth 120 
News 120 Film: Hostile Witness 
320220 Home Cookery 620 
Northern Life 620-720 What 
WOuid You 00? 720820 Fall 
Guy 1022 Extra Time Basketball 
Special 1120 Film: The Man 
Who Could Cheat Oeeth 120 am 
Christian Calendar. Closedown. 

Noreen KersbawtThe Geo- 
tle Touch, ITV, 9.00pm 





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Directed by David on more 
Eva* 8 O Man Wea 5 0* Sat 4 0 
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Show 8 am- Ro om now 

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February 13 lo 17 MRS 






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The Star 


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By Ronald Faux 

The number of young 
leukaemia victims living near 
Dounreay nuclear plant in 
Caithness gives “cause for 
concern" says a study into 
the incidence of cancer in 
northern Scotland. 

“The study, carried out by 
the Scottish Health Service 
Common Service Agency, 
found five cases of leukaemia 
in young people under the 
age of 25. four under 15-year- 
olds, in the area of Dounreay 
between 1979 and 1984. Four 
of the victims lived in 
Thurso. 12 kilometres from 
the nuclear station. The fifth 
lived only 3 kilometres away. 
There were no similar re- 
corded cases of leukaemia hr 
the area between 1968 and 

Four were originally reg- 
istered as acute lymphoid, 
and one as acute myeloid 
leukaemia, but this diagnosis 
was changed. There were no 
similar recorded cases of 
leukaemia in the area be- 
tween 1968 and 1978. 

“On the other hand, the 
iact that all reported cases 
within 251an occurred within 
a five-year period, five of 
them were in children under 
15 and five within 12Jkm of 
Dounreay, may increase its 
potential importance. Similar 
findings have been reported 
from near other nuclear 
installations: Sellafleld. 
Huntersdon, Aldermaston 
and West Bnighfield,” the 
study said. 

The finding? were given in 
a letter today to The Lancet 
by Dr. Michael Heasman, 
director of the Information 
Services Division of the 
agency. He said that while 
the findings were difficult to 
evaluate, they were cause for 
concern. An examination of 
all other childhood cancers 
and of leukaemia and certain 
types of cancer in adults 
showed no significant in- 
crease around Dounreay. 

The study was commis- 
sioned as part of the public 
inquiry into plans to develop _ 
a nuclear reprocessing plant - 
at Dounreay. 

Paris ‘couture’ is back in fashion 

Hotel in sean 
Of its past 

From Suzy Menkes, Paris 

The youngest, freshest and 
sexiest collections for 20 
years have put Paris couture 
back on the fashion map. 

A new-found confidence 
and energy pulsated through 
the shows, as the once-staid 
designers hoiked skirts above 
the knee and moulded their 
clothes sensuously round the 

Curvy tutoring, seductively 
draped evening dresses, deli- 
cate lace and sweeps of silk 
Jersey all suggested a return 
to traditional couture ele- 
gance. The designers are 
trading again ia a fashion 
currency debased by the 

swinging sixties ami the 
sportswear revolution. 

, In a return to the style of 
the 1950s, Yves Saint Lau- 
rent and Givenchy both 
paraded their collections 
without background muse. 
Models, once slaves to the 
rhythm, glided silently down 
the catwalk to show off the 
superb clothes. 

Audiences have doubled in 
the last two years and the 
couture collections are now 
bursting out of the gilded 
salons. Next season, they wffl 
be united under one roof in 
the foyer of the Grand Palais, 
which houses France's finest 
art exhibitions. 

Money is the key to the 

new-foami success and cre- 
ative energy of the once 
moribund haute couture 
(starting price £10,000). 

Tfce number of elite cus- 
tomers has remained staMe at 
3^00, but this international 
clientele is baying an increas- 
ing number of outfits. A 40 
per cent increase in couture 
tur no v er is reported by M 
Jacques Moodier, president- 
elect of the Chambre 

The strength of the United 
States dollar has brought 
American customers bade to 
the couture, according to M 
Moodier. But the most im- 
portant source of patronage is 
undoubtedly the Arab cus- 


More significant for the 
French fashion industry as a 
whole is the latest surveys by 
tite Comite Colbert of tourist 
shopping habits. Designer 
labels account for 82 per cent 
of fashion purchases made by 
visitors to the capital. 

The socialist go v er nm ent, 
greeted with dread by the 
French high fashion industry, 
has in feet been it’s great 
benefactor. Investment in the 
new fashion m us e um alone 
has been £5 million. Culture 
minister M Jack Lang, the 
Minister of Culture, has 
green public recognition to 
fashion as art by allowing 
ready-to-wear shows to be 

Today’s events 


Per forma nces of chamber 
works by Priaulx Rainier, 
selected by her and performed 
by her friends; British Music 
Information Centre, 10 Stret- 
ford Place, Wl; 7.30. 

Cello recital by Julian Lloyd 
Webbe r; L ion Music HalL 

^Ccracenby NCOS Symphony 
Orchestra; Sl John’s Smith 
Square, SW1; 7.30. 

Don Rendefl Duo, saxo- 
phone, flute, clarinet, guitar 
and bass; Royal Festival Halt 

Recital by Ann Hooley 
(violin) and Stephen Betted dge 
(piano); Purcell Room, Royal 
festival Halt 730. 

BBC Concert Orchestra, 
Stanley Black (conductor); The 
Hexagon; Rcwbg; 7.30. 

East of England Orchestra; 
William Houghton (trumpet), 
Mansfield Leisure Centre; 730. 

Songs by Schumann, Strauss 
and Wolf; Mitsuko Shirai 
(soprano) and Hartmut Holl 
(piano); Wigmore Hall, WI; 

Youth disco, by Sarbez 
Roadshow; S Utingboitue Town 
Halt 7. 

Albany Brass Ensemble; 
Royal Institution, River Street, 
Tiwe, 730. 

Organ recitals by James 
Parsons; Reid Halt Edinburgh 
University, 1.10, Houston 
Church, Renfrewshire, 8. 

Organ recital by John Scott; 
German Christ Church, Mont- 
pelier Place, SW7; 730. 

Steve Reich and Musicians; 
Manchester Concert Halt 
Royal Northern College of 
Music; 730. 

■ A Tribute to Nat King Cole 
with Danny Williams; St 
David’s Halt The Hayes, 
CardUE 7.30. 

Indian community dance 
gala; South Hill Park Wilde 
Theatre. BrackneD; 730. 

Concert by the Beaux Arts 
Trio; Dadley Town Halt 7.30. 

Chandos Chamber Choir, 
Messiah from scratch, St 
Stephen's Church, 

Dulwich3E21; 73a 

Talks, lectures, films 

June Redfem opens her 
studio to visitors. Artist in 
Residence; The National Gal- 
lery, WC2; 2. 

Masterpieces of Persian, 
Turkish and Mughal painting, 
by Barbara Brend; 12; Manu- 
script treasures from India, by 
Barbara Brend; 2;The British 
Library galleries, WC1. 

A Penny Reading: A Vic- 
torian evening of prose, verse 
and worse by 19lh Century 
writers; by Gabriel Woolf. 
Leysland High School, 
Coantesthorpe, 730. 

Time - Cult and Calculation'; 
m Hellenistic and early medi- 
eval schools; by Professor 
Wesley M Stevens; Durham ; 
University, 43 North Bailey, i 
Durham City; 8. 

Salvator Rosa, Witches at ; 
their incanlationsjecture by j 
Felicity Woolf; National Gat ' 
kay, WC2; 1. j 

Variations on a theme. The 
redining female figure; lecture 
by Mary R Elliss; I.; Video 
Artists on tour; Kevin Ath- 
erton; 8. Tate Gallery, SW1. 

Food prices 

The Time s Crossw ord Puzzle No 16,957 

■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 
£!■■■■■■■ !!■■■■■ 

■ £11 


■ ■ mum 





Births: Franz Schubert, Vi- 
enna, 1797; Zane Grey, nov- 
elist, Zanesville, Ohio, 1872; 
Anaa Pavlova, fen ingrad, 1882. 

Deaths: Gay Fawkes, to- 
gether with three fellow 
conspirators, was hanged, 
drawn and quartered, London, 
1606; Charles Edward Sturt, 
the Young Pretender, Rome, 
1788; John Galsworthy, nov- 
elist, London, 1933; AJL 
Milne, writer, creator of Chris- ; 
topher Robin, etc. Hartfidd, 
Sussex, 1956; Samuel GoMwyn, 
film ‘producer, Los Angeles, 

Top Films 

The top box-office films h Lon- 

It-) RockylV 
2 fl ) A Chorus Lino 
3(3 ) Kiss of fhaSpkter Woman , 
4(2) Back to iha Future 
S (-) Teen Wolf 
6(5 j Year of the Dragon 
7(6) Defence of the Realm 
8 (- ) Death in a French Garden i 
9(4) Death Wish DJ 
10(7 ) Latter to Brezhnev 
The top ficus in the provinces: 

1 Back to the Firiure 

2 National Lampoons European 

3 Death Wish ill 

4 PrtaTs Honour 

5 Plenty 



1 Small co n t ain er, say. -whh 
decoration on top (3-3). 

5 Scottish poet's alternative to 


9 Kg's extended nap Oh- 
io Sheep from Ireland found in U 

ll Fail lo find our RtUe stood stale 

12 Gown Romeo hid in (6). 

13 Some Romans were doubtless 
satisfied (SL 

15 Story-teller requiring good 
memory? (4). 

IT Open defeat (4L 
19 Son at match that prod u ces 
conflict (8L 

ID Raiser of Derby’s bid by 500(61 

21 Gening stuck into food, ending 
with fish (SL 

22 Hearty, hard to shift, and robust 

23 Triumph or disaster for Kipling 

24 Sort or university - ruddy good 
SOr t (81 

25 Cdd sweethearts parted in 
Reach town (2.41 


I A rirrie TB dig out for (towers 

3 Pan of *oaL for Tennyson to 

4 Penny comes bach to mind, or 
preceding announcer (9). 

5 Trusty device used by c rimina l? 

6 Ctafarioa of printers plain in 
Hack and white (7). 

7 Send-off for Ion after title fight, 
perhaps (8). 

8 Artist's sign on a way in (81 

14 Special operation shortly ar- 
ranged for this church (9). 

15 Painter with n view of the 
country? (8). 

1C Excessive American ovcncac- 
tion to strike (3-5). 

17 Relations with American haidrre 
- and government (SJ). 

IS Urban cen tr e in Bangor, for 
example (81 

19 Brighter student (71 

Solution oTPnzzte No 1(J56 



T, tl rr, n ry ~ 

n r\ n cj * r; 9 

£.« S r? et - a % Tj' t. : .-i *1 n 5? 1 - 
• t ' a ~r. rr. s - 

B >T " '-5 n ^ n 

rj rr "Z 7? ” 75 

r » p 6 f ! 73 !T; 

Top video rentals 

1 {-) Rambo: First Blood 8 

2 jl) Ghostbusters 

3 (2 ) Gremfins 

4(3) Beverley H*s Cop 
5(4) The Term in ator 
6(5 ) The Never Encfinq Slot 
7(6) Wizards of the Lost 

806) Into the Night 
9$) The Last sarfloMer 
10(8} Water 
Suppfied by Mtta&s*Mss 

The pound 




Denmark Kr 
Finland Mkk 
Franc* Fr 
Ganmoy Dm 
Gnm Or 
Hong Kong* 

Ireland Pt 
Italy Lira 
Japan Van 

Ha t way Kr 
Portugal Ese 
South Africa Rd 
Spain Pta 
Swttzortand Pr 

Yugoslavia Dor 

Rasas lor small danotntonHon bank notes 
only as stapled by Barclays Bank PLC. 
Diflerem rates apply to traveMrs' 
cheques and other foreign ourrency 

Ratal Price Index: 37IL8 

Loudotr The FT fndax absatf sp 3.1 Bt 

7 *32. 7. 

Retail meat prices have 
fallen this week, with the 
biggest change on beet rump 
and siriion steaks which are 
(town 4p per lb to an average- 
0.85, mid £330 respectively.' 
Top side and silveraide, at 
£2.16 a lb, is down 2p. Leg of 
pork averages £1.04, down 
2pJLoin chops at £1.40, and 
boneless sboidderat £132, are 
also cheaper. All borne- pro- 
duced lamb is down about Ip 
per lb, with the exception of 
best- end chops and middle 
necLAverage price for whole 
leg is £1.71, loin chops £1.93, 
and whole shoulder £1.03. New 
Zealand loin chops also down 
to an average £1.44 per lb. 

■ Some good meat buys at 
shops and su p er mar kets this 
week : Salisbury Topside of 
beef £1.88 per lfc, New Zealand' 
whole shoulder of lamb 58p Hr, 
Azda home produced minced 
beef 89p lb, frozen,, grade A 
turkey 31b 4oz at £139 lb; 
Safeway beef shoulder braising 
steak £1.39 per lb and breaded 
turkey escalopes £135 each ; 
Fine&re frozen 31b 

4ozs to 4Ibs 47p per lb; 
Dewhurst and Baxter ramp 
steak £2.79 per lb, Tesco New 
Zeala n d lamb leg 98p per lb 
and shoulder 52p per lb; Bejam 
pork chump chop 2tt-3lb pads 
95p per lb and New 7mi mf 
lamb legs 99p per lb down 30p. 
Marks and Spencer have 20p 
per lb off their beef cuts. 

Trout, once a luxury food, is 
now widely available cm fee 
fish farms throughout the 

Supplies of sea fish are also 
particularly rood for fee time 
of year. Fresh herrings at 89p 
per Ih, kippers, 96p per lb, ana 
mackerel, fresh 62p, and 
smoked 99p, can all be 
recommended. Large quantities 
are slightly cheaper at around 
£1.72 per tb, as are haddock, 
£1.75, Whiting at £139, and 
plaice £1.9QJLemou- sole is 
becoming more plentiful and is 
down by Sp to £235 per lb. 


Loudon and South-east: 
A3005: Single alternate line 
traffic in Norwood Road, 
junction of ferry Lan. A205: 
Single alternate fine traffic 
bet w een Kew Bridge and 
Chaflcers Corner (A316). A31: 
Gas repairs at junction wife 
Jaddin Lane, West Street, 
Airesford. Hampshire. 

Midlands: Ml: Contraflow 
on roundabout at junction 18 ( 
A425/A5, Crick); slip road 
dosed; diversion from Ml at 
junction 16 and 20. A141: 
Temporary lights 24 hours a 
day on Warboys to C ha tt eris 
road. A446: Contraflow until 
March on Colesfafll by-pass. 

Wales and West MS: One 
lane southbound between junc- 
tions 25 and 26; bard shoulder 
and inside lane dosed. A39: 
Restrictions between Street and 
A361 at Walton, Somerset. 
Road works at Holland Anns 
on Holyhead to Genigydrydioa 
road; temporary fights at Bc- 

Nntk M61: Left-hand lane 
closure on both north and 
southbound carriageways, on 
Blacow Bridge, M61 fink at 
Walton Summit. 

Scodaod: A832: Reconstruc- 
tion work south of Gairloch. 
A8I1: single lane traffic and 
temporary signals E of 
Gartoocharn. A814: Sm^e-fine 
traffic and temporary signals W 
of Dumbarton East station, 
Glasgow Road, Dumbarton. 

Information supplied by the AA 

Parliament today 

staged at the Louvre court- 
yard and in tbe TaDeries 

With the French general 
election only six weeks away, 
all sides are showing a -high 
fashion profile Yesterday, 
the rightist major of Paris M 
Jacques Chirac, the Rightist 
mayor of Paris, lasted the 
Golden Thimble awards 
The two sides came ele- 
gantly together at fee show of 
Madame Gres, aged 84, fee 
of haute couture. But Ma- 
dame Mittenuid, ia a discreet 
brown suit, and Madame 
Chirac, in cobalt Mae, were 
tactfully placed m different 
rooms of fee couture salon. 
(Photographs: Harry Kerr) 


A cdd E airstream cov er s 
fee British Isles. 

6 am 10 midmghf; 

London, SE, central S, cen- 
tral N England, Midlands: 
Rather ctaody, mainly dry but 
scattered shows of ram or 
sleet; wind NE fresh or strong; 
max temp 4c (390. 

East Anglia, E, NE England: 
Mostly cloudy, occasional 
showers of rain or sleet, mow 
on high ground; wind NE 
strong to gale; max temp 4c 

Channel Islands: Rather 
doudy. occasional rain or sleet, 
bright intervals; wind NE fresh 
or strong; max temp 4c (390 

SW, NW England, Wales: 
Mainly fey, rather doudy at 
times, bright or sunny inter- 
vals, wind NE fresh or strong, 
■max temp 6c (430 

Lake District, Isle of Man, 
SW, NE, NW Scotland, Glas- 
gow, Argyll, Orkney, Shetland, 
N. Ireland; Mainly dry, rather 
doudy at tunes, bright or 
sunny intervals, wind NE 
moderate or fresh, locally 
strong, max temp 6c (430. 

Borders, Edfnbnr gh , Dundee, 
Aberdeen, Central ffipMawds, 
Moray Firth: Rather doudy, 
occasional showers of rain or 
sleet, snow on high ground, 
wind NE moderate or fresh, 
locally strong; max temp 5c 

Outlook Ear tomorrow and 
Saturday: Little change. 

Tbe Hotel de la Grande 
Bretagne has launched an 
appeal to its friends and 
patrons worldwide to enrich 
its archives by coming for- 
ward with any significant 
mementos of its chequered 
history which began in 1874. 

Athens was then a mid- 
dling town of 67,000 people, 
plagued by a chronic water 
shortage that often brought 
the new hotel's liveried 
servants out on the street to 
buy drinking water for the 
guests from itinerant ven- 

The GB, as it is affec- 
tionately known to genera- 
tions of Athenians, is not just 
the oldest existing hotel in 
town. It is an historic 
landmark that was often the 
hub of this nation's political 
fortunes, a silent witness of 
its vicissitudes — eleven 
coups d'etat, four dictator- 
ships, a civil war, two world 
wars and - fee German 
occupation, when it was 
converted into the 
Wehnnachfs headquarters. 

At one point in 1944, when 
the communist guerrillas had 
overrun Greece, the GB and 
a few blocks around it were 
the mly patch of free Greek 

Tbe hotel was the seat of 
the beleaguered Greek Gov- 
ernment, then led by George 
Papandreou, fee present 
Prune Minister’s late father. 
It was also the headquarters 
of the British Army which 
eventually defeated the com- 
munist bid for power, as well 
as the haunt of celebrated 
war correspondents who 
watched history in the mak- 
ing practically from the GB 
tarn's doorstep. . 

In a spectacular reaction 
against Winston Churchill's 
surprise visit to Athens over 
Chistmas 1944, the com- 
munist insurgents planted 
one ton of TNT in a sewage 
tunnel directly under the 
hotel to blow it up. 

But a British sapper on 
guard duty espied a sus- 
picious coid through a man- 
hole and tragedy was averted. 

Mercifully, no mementos 
from this gruesome incident 
were displayed at the prelimi- 
nary exhibition of memo- 
rabilia from tbe hotel's past' 
that was inaugurated in 
Athens this week. 

But there .,m 
from an artilleo ^ ' l 
1917 by the 
against the hotel f Tfo 

owner was % 


This was on show. ^ 
side with the hotel 0 j 

of 1896 with the sgJJJ 1 j m 
foreign athletes 0 f 

fee firei modern^ the 
fee Olympic Gam^s 
Athens Stadium. ca lli- 

Next to it *®L! iirjmw 

Next to h 4irJ n|M* 

graphic «w«P* Juie hotel's 
compote, as well as ‘ tthert . 
guestbook., left opt" nov _ 

IrSwU; SE 

year are fairly Wc-ik. - 
because of terrorism- 
The occupancy rau these 
days is just abo'C ten per 

oSl Three tore*-' * n 

Athens have gone hankropt- 
Others sought to retrench 
their expenses- 

Irue. the nuntl>' r 
eign tourists leapt from six to 
seven million inl^andfoc 
British were again in fee kux 
with 1.3 million. But for the 
first time then: were fcwt-r 
Americans and this hurts 
luxury hotels like the GB 
The Greeks blame all this 
on the travel warning put out 
by President Reagan last 
June uiging Americans to 
keep out of Athens Airport- 
after the hijack of the Tv ,A , 
flight to Rome. . 

Security at Athens at»T«« 
has since been lightenc^- OU 
the proliferation of *9™™? 
acts in the region in U ht 
quarter of 1985 induc'd the 
Americans to be ® ! 

European airports or ,™ 1 ' 
terranean cruises, anc* 
their pleasures nearer 
“There is one com toning 
thought in all this." KJ, “. , 
general manager, mt. 
Apostolos Doxiadis. ‘ s 
that in a way we are all — ts- 
raeJL Italy, Spain and we — to 
fee same tag- So wc can 
combine forces to tight 
back." . 

Mario Modiano 


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Goobods: (930) Children 
and Young Persons 
(Amendment)ffifl, second read- 
ing and other Private 
Members’ Bills. 


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Tkla maaaurad in matraa: 1nb>a2G08(L 

741 am 448pm 


j^OTEO-Kje ft. Prin ted and momafaefl 
Wr Nows teaen ntlonal Untied. 1 
Penfttngton Street. London. El. TeM- ; 

q«r A IOO. Friday .Wnmry 

Snow Reports 

Depth Conditions Weather 

(cm) Off Runs to (5pm) 

L U Piste Piste- resort - °C 


IschqJ 140 260 good heavy good fine -1 

Fierce winds, upper Hfts dosed 

KRzbuhel 70 IK) fair varied far fine 1 

Icy patches on lower slopes 

Oberaurgl 50 140 good crust good cloud 

wow good rai all runs 

Ralne 180 380 good powder good ckxid -2 

Top lifts Cmtted due to winds 

Las Arcs 138 238 good varied good doud -5 

. Good snow, cold wind 


SoJdeu 140 260 good heavy good dbud -1 

Good skSng everywhere 

Selva 50 80 fair fair good snow -4 

Goo d skiing on most pistes 


ana 145 220 good powder good One -2 

Good skiing on ad slopes 

Davos 130 200 good powder good f Ine -7 

Excellent skBng conditions 

Gstaad 60 150 good good good snow -2 

Ex cellent conditions 

Lenzerheide 90 130 good varied good fine -2 

Sknng restricted due to high winds 
St Moritz 70 70 good - powder good snow -10 

New snow ongood base 

Verbter TO 220 good varied fair - doud 0 

Good piste siding 

In the above reports, supplied by representatives of the SW Club 
of Great Britain, L refers to lower slopes and U to upper, and art 
to artificial.. . 

These denotes Wednesday’s figures 

&58m . 1145 on 
Lost quarter Falauaiy 2 

lighting-up time 

Lo n don 5.18 pro to 7.10 am 
OdrtBl 5^8 pm 10 7.18 am 
Edtatawgb 5.1 3 pm to 7J8 am 
Mtneaai tor 5.19 pm to 7 US am 
Pamnea 544 pm to 7.27 am 

* Yesterday 


C F c F 

BWttsat r 4 39 Oaniaay s 5 41 

trim a h aw r 3 37 hwtn aai r 3 37 

tt w pm e 4 39 Jn rn ay f 5 41 

BriaM c 3 37 London e 5 41 

CMH c 3 37 Hrndwtor c 4 39 

nto l wi i al i 4 39 Htncailla G 4 38 
Gtaagoar r 4 39 mdd — a y c 5 41 

Aronnd Britain 


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Dmain 12 jtn 

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Pooto -155 

WiroMfli -12S 

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B— nuHi 06 44 

Tefonaoum 2.1 J3S 

Tonpagr 22 J31 

Ftomouto 7.1 24 

Pamanen 55 3\ 

Jnay ai 43 

Guamm 02 37 

Sc*y Max 23 24 

Wonq ua i 6.1 SO 


15 5 4i ctoudtf 

® 5 41 doudy 
3 |7 snow 
n 3 37 bright 

M 7 45 sunny 

K 4 39 shnt 
93 4 39 d 

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Arid Draw tpflcther to detantona 
your weekly Pertfooo total. 

if jjour. ratal mairnes ora patmanen 
wwfilif dlvkUnd dguni you Have won 
o utrtaM or a share of (he prize money 
stale r for Prat wmrfc. and mini claim 
your prbr u Instnieud below. 

HAW EO ctakB 

TtkdMW TM Times Portioao etabn 
■me wsmssjj banman mao am ana 


noun. eafl 

Vou must hm your card with you 
when you Idepboiw. 

If you arv unable to lefcptiom 
someone- else can claim on your behalf 
bw Uray miisr hate yobr card and can 
The Times Portfolio clauna Una 

MIDDAY: c,d 

Maccto f n 

AlntoM f H 

AtoX-dds c 18 

Nglai c 17 

Hw«i denote Wednesdays Squibs 


foud: 4 drt^ f, fato 19 . fog: r, rah; s. sun; sn, 

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M c 12 54 HWtta S B a 

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4A *. 5 £ *SS«d a 4 39 

let wean Ura aUMlIOIM U 
No mponMbUHy can 
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for loll ore to contact the culms office 

? £L/£ nY ^eas0,,, w,BUn ““ j 

.The above tmtructtana are as- j 
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iXlSSSS!' Thta. card. «, not 

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as oof ore. 

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68 Madrid* f B 46 ££2\ » B 64 


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