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- . jP. 


: No 62,416 

iff- By Anthony Berms, Correspondent 

"The Minister has Rover, because, of the feelings 

rejected the ambition of Presi- which had been aroused. 

But . she said that the 
Covermment was now left 
with “painful" decisions and 
“considerable problems” and 
she added that Mr Day might 

. . dent Reagan and Mr Mikhail 
. Gorbachov for. a nuclear-free 
• world as “pic in tte_sky.” . 

In an . exclusive . interview, 
with The Times.Mis Thatcher 
said: “Both the President and 
MrCorbachoy have said that 
they want to see a world 
-without midear, weapons. 

- “I cannot see a world with- 
out nuclear weapons. Let me 
' be practical abend iL The 
.■ knowledge is there to make 
..thorn. ■ - 

“So do not go too band for 
, that pie in the sky because, 
while everyone would like to 

- see it, I do not believe it is 
. going tocome about.” . 

In - one of the most wide- 
ranging and politically impor- 
tant - interviews since the 
election, Mrs Thatcher. 

•Said that Mr Graham Day, 
British Ley land's chairxnan- 
in-waiting. might now get 

- involved in the consideration 
of privatization plans; 

~ •Suggested that the Conserva- 
tive manifesto commitment 
to steel privatization, mid 

- proposals for limited rent 

decontrol, would be delayed 
beyond tbe next election; 
•Said that die expected to 
introduce new industrial rela- 
tions legislation spon after she 
was re-elected for a third term: 
•Gave her 25-year vision of 
popular capitalism; . 
•Attacked “arrogant” critics 
who called for curbs on tax 
cots; ' ' . ■ 

•Said that the failure to 
extract iie. Miss Evelyn 
Gfenholmes; should not be 
allowed . to cloud judgement 
on the Anglo-Irish agreement. 

Mis Thatcher said that it 
was a mistake to think that a 
purely commercial decision 
could have been taken on 
British Leylarid and land 

now get involved because be 
would be “charged with die 
duty of finding the best way 

On her plans for industrial 
relations legislation, Mrs 
Thatcher said she thought the 
dosed shop was “repugnant”. 

Interview 4 

and that that, along with tbe 
enforceability of contracts be- 
tween employers and trade 
unions and an extension of 
ballots for trade union officers 
would have to be considered. 

Asked about her plans for 
education, the Prime Minister 
said that no decisions had yet 
been taken on education cred- 
its to enable parents greater 
choice in schools. 

She said that parents who 
used credits to send their 
children to independent 
schools might have to be taxed 
on tbe “enormous bonus" 
they were getting. 

Challenged on the 
Government's direction and 
momentum, Mrs Thatcher 
said that inflation and direct 
taxes were. coming down and 
more was being privatized. 
But although the Government 
had extended “popular 
capitalism”, it had only just 
got started. 

“hi about 25 years’ time,” 
she said, “there will be quite a 
lot of people, who will be 
inheriting something, because 
for the first time we will havea 
whole generation of people 
who own their own homes and 
will be leaving them, so that 
they topple like a cascade 

down the line of the family, 
leaving toothers not only their 
homes but some of their 
shares, some of their buOding 
society investments, some of 
their national savings certifi- 
cates — only on a bigger scale 
than ever before. 

“So that tbe overwhelming 
majority of people, who could 
never look forward to that 
before, will be able to say: 
“Look, they have got some- 
thing to inherit. They have got 
a basis to start on!” Thai is 
tremendous. That is popular 

The Prime Minister also 
attacked the arrogance of her 
tax cut critics. 

She said: “When people 
come to me and say 'Don’t 
reduce taxT, the first question 
I ask of them is: 'Do tell me, is 
your income in the top half?* 
'Yes’. 'Very considerably in 
the top halfr 

“And 1 say: 'Well, 1 do not 
find many people coming to 
me, teachers, nurses, people 
who are working hand but 
earning below average; I don't 
find them coming to me and 
saying 'you are leaving too 
much of' my own money in my 
pocket, Mrs Thatcher'. 

“I find them coming and 
saying: '1 have not got enough 
of my own money left in my 
own pocket topay my rates, to 
pay my fuel bills, to buy food 
and clothes.' 

Asked about the repercus- 
sions of the failure to extradite 
Miss Evelyn Glenholmes 
from Dublin last weekend, 
Mrs Thatcher said: “When 
these things happen, we feel 
just the same way as most 
other people about them but 
equally, we have to say: “Well 
now, look! Keep calm. Don't 
dash into anything which may 
put the long-term objectives in 
jeopardy!". And that 1 s* ; ll say. 



Back to 
foe future 

How the style of the 
Fifties* the forgotten 
decade of angry 
young men, has 
Found favour with a 
new generation 

Boat race 

Can Cambridge break 
their losing nin? 

The big one 

Bank Holiday 

13m Times Portfolio dally 
competition prize - £4,000 
because there was no winner 
on Wednesday - was won 
yesterday by Mr R A Bonded 
of Worthing. Portfolio list, 
page 3k how to play, informa- 
tion -service, page 16. 

Today, £22,000 can be won - 
£20,000 in foe weekly compe- 
tition and £2,000 in foe daily. 
There is no. Salmday. game 
because the Stock Exchange is 
dosed. Portfolio resumes an 

Airlines tread a .fine line 
between profit or loss. In- 
creased traffic and lower-fuel 
costs could help them survive 
i he pressures of essential capi- 
tal spending and a highly 
competitive market- 
place .. Pages 22-25 

Home News 2-4 
Ow*«4 S.ija 
Appts • W® 
Arts >5 

But Es. deaths, 

Basimss tT-2 t 
Ce*rt • W 
Ok o I? 

Fours i0-*2 
law Report ■ 21 
Leaden . 13 

Sale Room 

Snow Reports 16 
Sport . 28-32 
Theatres 31 
TV&totio 31 
UlUHUNlM 14 
Weather 16 
WBIs . 16 


Tebbit in 
Tory party 
poll alert 

By Philip Webster 

. Political Reporter . 

Mr '.Norman Tebbit, the 
Conservative Party chairman, 
yesterday placed his staff on 
alert for the next general 
election. '* ■ . 

He announced a reorganiza- 
tion of Conservative Central 
Office; aimed at preparing the 
party's election machine for 
what be described as the most 
sophisticated high technology 
campaign ever lb be fought in 

“We are now well into what 
could prove to be the vital 
year of preparation in the run- 
up to the next general election. 
From my point of view the 
campaign has already 
started,” he said. 

Although, it was stressed 
that Mr Tebbit* s move should 
not be seen as an indication of 
an : early election, some Con- 
servative officials found it 
difficult to recall being put on 
such a footing so for from, the 
likely date of the next election. 

There has been growing 
belief among Conservative 
strategists that the next poll 
will not come until 1988, 
although several key ministers 
favour autumn next year. 

The party is facing several 
important by-elections, start- 
ing in Fulham on April 10, 
then in West Derbyshire and 
Ryedde. Eariy polls suggest it 

feres a slump in support 

Mr Tebbit said leading par- 
ly officials would agree on an 
overall strategy for thegeneral 
election in the next few weeks. 

He disclosed that Sir Chris- 
topher Lawson,. Conservative 
marketing director at foe last 
election, will return id Central 
Office for tbe campaign. 

over death 

. A Chief Inspector, an in- 
spector and two sergeants 
were suspended from duty 
yesterday hours after an in- 
quest found that Mr John 
Mikkleson, a Hell] s Angel, had 
been unlawfully killed while in 
police custody, Scotland Yard 

No further details were 
riven, but police sources said 
timber suspensions were ex- 
pected and could total seven. 

The coroner’s jury at Ham- 
mersmith, west London, re- 
turned a unanimous verdict 
that Mr Mikkleson's death be 
considered manslaughter due 
to foe lack of care given to him 
after he was arrested in FeE 
foam, west London, .last July 
in connection with a car. 

Mr John Burton, tbe coro- 
ner, refereed the case to the 
Director of Public^ Prosecu- 
tions at tbe conclusion of foe 
nine-day inquest 

The DPP said a police 
report on foe affair had been 
under consideration for some 
time, but theycouJd not say 
when a decision on any fur- 
ther proceedings would be 

During the inquest a pathol- 
ogist raid that Mr Mikkleson, 
aged 34, of Salters Road, north 
Kensington, died after head 
injuries caused by a truncheon 
had damaged his brain. Dr 
Iain West of Guy's hospital, 
south London, added that he 
would have survived longer if 
be had received treatment 

Dr West agreed that Mr 
Mikkleson could have been 
aspirating his vomit while 
lying on foe ground during foe 
arrest and was dying then. 

Another forensic scientist 
Continued page 2, col 2 

The citizens of Chichester 
she had handed out Ma 

i a warm welcome on a walkabout yesterday after 
iy money to 60 men and 60 women. (Fergie protest page 2). 

US ships 
pull back 
from Gulf 
of Sirte 

From Christopher Thomas 

The United States ended 
military manouevres off Libya 
yesterday, withdrawing its 30- 
ship Armada from Colonel 
GadaffTs “tine of death” with- 
out further attacks or threats 
from Libya. Tbe three-carrier 
group will remain in the 
central Mediterranean for sev- 
eral days. 

White House officials said 
the operation was “definitely a 
success". The manoeuvres, 
which began on Saturday 
night, were due to end next 
Tuesday but the White House 
dearly frit its point had been 
sufficiently put. 

“We have demonstrated 
that we have the right to 
operate in - international 
waters" the State Department 

President Reagan tele- 
phoned the Commander-in- 
chief of the Sixth fleet in the 
Mediterranean yesterday to 
praise foe servicemen for their 

“You have sent a message to 
die whole world that the 
United States has foe wifi and, 
through you, the ability to 
defend the free world's 
Interests” be Cold Vice Admi- 
ral Frank Keisow on board tbe 
fleet’s flagship, Coronado. 

He added that be was 
particularly pleased that no 
American losses had been 
suffered. “The fundamental 
principle of freedom of the 
seas, so important to the 
economy and security of tbe 
free world, has been upheld in 
the face of a reckless and 
illegal Libyan attack.” 

The Pentag on issued a re- 
vised tally of Libyan losses in 
two attacks mounted by the 
US on Monday and Tuesday. 
It confirmed foe destruction of 
only two ships, contrary to 
earlier claims that four and 
possibly five had been sank. 
Those destroyed were a 
French-made Combattante 
missile patrol boat attacked by 
Navy A-7 .planes on Monday, 
and a Soviet-made Nanochka 
class missile patrol vessel 

The Administration yester- 
day urged Congress to speed 
lip action oo a $43 billion plan 
to boost security at the US 
embassies considered to be 
particularly vulnerable to ter- 
rorist attacks. 

In tbe US itself there has 
been a noticeable increase in 
security at some main airports. 
The Federal Aviation Admin- 
istration advised airports and 
airlines to be increasingly 
aware of the threat of terror- 
ism inspired by Libya, bat did 
not recommend specific action. 
Russians explain, page7 

There’s no home like prison 



Life in a Kentucky prison is 
better than coming home for 
one Briton, who has refected a 
repatriation offer. 

The prisoner, servinga five- 
year sentence, earns S80(£53) 
a month working m a prison 
-office, equipped with a stereo 
set and television, where use is 
made of his fl u e n t S p anish . 

The Saturday night menu 
includes vegetable soup, a T- 
bone steak with baked pota- 
toes, salmi bar extras, followed 
by banana cake with cream 
and citified beverages. Tenuis 
rackets and watches can be 
bought at foe prison shop. 

• Bui Edwin Dent, the first 
prisoner to he transferred to 
-Britain under foe new pact has 
given up use of a sauna and 

R imming pool In a Swedish 
jafi so that he can be near his 
wife and family. 

Dent, now in overcrowded 
Wandsworth prison, London, 
has seen them for foe first time 
for a year in which he had had 
no visitors at all. Mrs Dent 
said yesterday before a second 

The Home Office said that a 
second prisoner, Peter Mal- 
colm, who was sentenced to 
five years in June 1964, had 
now been transferred to a jail 
herefrom Sweden. 

Half of the inmates who 
have so far replied to a 
questionnaire sent by the Na- 
tional Cotmrii for the Welfare 
of Prisoners Abroad do not 
want to return even although 
they may be eligible. 

Some say they are better off 
where they are, the Council 

So far, rone of abont 70 
prisoners in jails here, who 
may be eligible, have been 

They are eligible if they are 
nationals of one of the six 
countries which have ratified 
the Coancil of Europe Conven- 
tion on tbe transfer of sen- 
tenced persons and have at 
least six months of their 
sentences, excluding remis- 
sion, still to serve on foe date 
the coaredthm came into force. 

The latest estimate is that 
eligible prisoners ind lode one 
from Sweden, 11 from France, 
33 from the US, 16 from Spain 
and 16 from Canada. 

Kinnock fights to 
limit damage over 
executive walkout 

By Philip Webster, Political Reporter 

Mr Neil Kinnock struggled 
yesterday against taunts from 
his political opponents to 
counter the electoral repercus- 
sions of the Labour Party's 
trouble-tom efforts to bring 
foe Militant Tendency to heeL 

Dr David Owen, leader of 
foe Sorial Democratic Party, 
said that Wednesday's events 
culminating in the collapse of 
the disciplinary hearing 
against UveroooFs Militants 
after a walkout by seven 
members of foe national exec- 
utive committee, underlined 
what • the electorate most 
feared — foe scale and depth 
of the penetration by foe hard 
left of the entire Labour Party. 

At foe Fulham by-election, 
in the Commons and else- 
where, Conservative and Affi- 
ance politicians pounced with 
unconcealed delight to exploit 
Labour’s difficulties. 

But Mr Kinnock, whose 
fory at the action of Mr Tony 
Benn, Mr Eric Hefferand their 
five colleagues in thwarting 
the expulsions of the Miliiams 
was unabated, continued his 
efforts to demonstrate his grip 
over the party and his deter- 
mination to expel foe Militant 

After a long series of broad- 
casts on Wednesday trying to 
limit the damage of tbe NEC 
disaster, Mr Kinnock yester- 
day challenged Militant sup- 
porters to leave the Labour 
Party and fight under their 
own colours, when they would 
be “hammered by foe Labour 
Party and hammered by foe 
British electorate". 

He said that tbe seven 
members who walked out 
were a “very isolated 
minority" and were even 
smaller now as a result of their 
actions. He was expressing a 

view held by several of his 
senior colleagues that foe only 
good that might come out of 
the affair would be a further 
diminution in support for foe 
Benn-Heffer-Denms Skinner 
axis on foe executive. 

Hard left trade union ele- 
ments who would normally 
back them are furious at their 
action and at least one. Mr 
Eric Clarke, of the National 
Union of Mineworkeis, is 
thought likely to face a diffi- 
cult fight to retain his NEC 
seat in the summer. 

Mr Kinnock said in a BBC 
radio interview: “Those who 
walked out, mature people at 
least in years, know very- well 
that what they did cannot do 
anything to enhance our 
standing with the pubHc." 

• Liverpool's Militant ac- 
tivists who thwarted attempts 
to expel them from the Labour 
Party were last night threaten- 
ing more embarrassment for 
the national leadership (Peter 
Davenport writes). 

It was expected to come at a 
meeting of foe temporary 
coordinating committee 
formed by foe national execu- 
tive committee to run parry 
affairs in foe city during the 
district party's suspension. 

Both Mr Tony Mulheam. 
president of the district party, 
and Mr Derek Haiton. deputy 
Leader of the city council, 
have been elected as delegates 
to the 44-member committee. 

It was expected last night 
that moves would be made to 
have Mr Mulheam elected as 
committee chairman and that 
he would then try to recon- 
vene foe district party. 

Last night he said: “The 
battle is far from lost. Right is 
on our side and we shall be 
fighting every step of tbe 

Express threat to 
close after Easter 

By Peter Evans 

Newspapers will which have so far failed to 
reach agreement 
Saying the proposed staffing 
levels were not viable, journal- 
ists rejected plans to cut 1 60 of 
their jobs. Sub-editors at the 
Daily Express are understood 
to have been unwilling to 
rev ert to a five-day week. 

After further talks between 
NUJ negotiators and manage- 
ment being held last night a 
mandagory chapel meeting is 
planned for today. 

Since United took control 
last October after a £317 
million takeover battle, effi- 
ciency' experts have been look- 
ing to see where cuis could be 

Talks between foe company 
and ail unions began at the 
start of 1986 on new manning 
levels and a new house agree- 

It was hoped that by foe end 
of March agreement would be 
reached on foe shedding of 
2,500 of foe workforce and a 
return by all staff to a five-day 
instead of four-day week. 

In return for a five-day 
week, the company offered a 5 
per cent rise instead of the 
expected 3.5 per cent. 

Redundancy proposals 
would have cost the company 
an estimated £40 million. 
Thcv were described as 

Express . . 
close after Easter Monday’s 
publications unless agreement 
is reached on a cost cutting 
package including 2,500 re- 

That was the warning given 
last night to staff in London, 
Manchester and Glasgow by 
Mr Roger Bowes, chief execu- 

He said in a letter to them: 
“Despite the co-operation by 
foe majority of chapels (office 
union branches), we have not 
been able to secure foe agree- 
ment for a number of chapels 
either to the new manning 
level or the new house 

“I am sure you will under- 
stand that the company must 
meet its objectives in all areas 
because of foe frailty of our 
position in the market-place. 

“The company will, there- 
fore. close following the publi- 
cation of Easter Monday’s 
titles, unless we have secured 
all the agreements by Monday 

“As you know, foe en- 
hanced eariy retirement and 
generous redundancy terms 
will also cease at that time." 

United Newspapers which 
recently took over Beet Hold- 
ings, owners of the Daily 
Express. Sunday Express and 
The Star, have been trying to 
cut the 6.800 staff at Express 
Newspapers in a bid to reduce 

THe National Union of 
Journalists chapel is under- 
stood to be among those 


The management hoped the 
cuts would come from volun- 
tary redundancies, non-re- 
placement of staff who left and 
from early retirement. 

Wapping militants, page 2 





By John Yosng 

Buckingham Palace became 
embroiled in controversy yes- 
terday over a decision to ban 
the ose of royal portraits and 
emblems on T-shirts and other 
articles of clothing to com- 
memorate the wedding of 
Prince Andrew and Miss Sa- 
rah Fergoson. 

The Lord Chamberlain. 
Lord Air lie, announced roles 
which go even farther than 
those imposed at the time of 
the Prince of Wales's mar- 
riage to Lady Diana Spencer 
in 198L 

They specifically state that 
royal emblems and images 
may not be used on textiles 
and clothing, apart from 
headscarves and wall 

A Palace spokesman said: 
“It is foe Qneen's decision. 
She does not feef that T-shirts 
are a suitable place for royal 
photographs. Tbe wording has 
been changed to make it 
doubly dear that British firms 
should not make or sell such 

Bnt within hours of foe 
announcement a Commons 
motion had been tabled urging 
tbe Palace to reconsider its 

The motion's sponsor, Mr 
Max Madden. Labour MP for 
Bradford West, said the deci- 
sion would “flash a signal to 
overseas producers to cash in 
on a multi-million pound bo- 
nanza with imported clothing 
bearing emblems, thus petting 
British clothing manufactur- 
ers again in the position of 
facing unfair foreign 

When the earlier ban was 
announced at the time of the 
wedding of the Prince and 
Princess of Wales, 71 MPs 
from all parties signed a 
Commons motion describing it 
as “an absurdity at a time of 
huge unemployment in the 
textile industry ." 

The British Textile Confed- 
eration said it would mean tbe 
market would simply be sup- 
plied by foreign companies. 

Yesterday's Palace an- 
nouncement says that souve- 
nirs most be specifically 
related to the royal wedding, 
must he of a permanent nature, 
“in good taste" and carry no 
advertising Or implication of 
royal custom or approval. 

in the 
sun for 

By John Young 

Unprecedented numbers of 
Britons will be spending the 
Easier break away from home, 
many of them heading for 
Mediterranean resorts to es- 
cape the predicted and pre- 
dictable unsettled weather at 

Heathrow airport yesterday 
had one of its busiest days, 
with more than 100.000 pas- 
sengers. compared with 
75.000 on a normal day. 

Things were not made any 
easier by a security alert after 
threats of reprisal attacks mo- 
tivated by ihe conflict between 
the United States and Libya in 
the Mediterranean. 

Police officers armed with 
machine guns patrolled foe 
airport corridors, and 
plainclothes police and airline 
security officers mingled with 
the crowds, especially around 
Middle Eastern and American 

But a work-to-rule by Cus- 
toms staff, which it had been 
feared might disrupt services, 
appeared to be having little 
effect. Customs and Excise 
officials said that contingency 
arrangements had been made. 

The home travel industry 
also expected a bumper 
Easier. The United Kingdom 
Holiday Bureau, which repre- 
sents the four domestic na- 
tional tourist boards, said a 
survey showed “a fantastic 
boost” to holiday bookings. 

British Rail said it would be 
operating nearly 300 extra 
trains over the holiday. 

However, those holidaying 
in Britain were warned to 
expect showery' weather at 
best, and the RAC warned 
motorists, and caravanners in 
particular, to beware of high 

Coach operators were less 
ebullient, and there was still 
plenty of room for would-be 
travellers. Additional coaches 
will run jo foe more popular 
destinations, but commuter 
services will be reduced. 

Mr John WyatL chief ranger 
of foe Lake District national 
park, warned visitors to be 
wary of conditions on the fells. 
His warning followed the 
death of Matthew Wall, aged 
In, from Bristol, who fell 20* 
feet down Hejveilyn. " ; 
Weather-forecast, page 16 

West Germany to join 
Star Wars research 

Washington — The US and 
West Germany signed an 
agreement yesterday under 
which Bonn will take pan in 
President Reagan's controver- 
sial strategic defence initiative 
(SOI) research programme 
(Our Correspondent writes). 

West Germany becomes the 
second ally after Britain to 
join the so-called “Star Wars" 
project, which is bitterly op- 
posed by the Soviet Union. 

Mr Casper Weinberger, the 

Defence Secretary, and Mr 
Martin Bangemann. West 
German Economics Minister, 
signed foe agreement at the 
Pentagon after months of 

In talks with Mr 
Bangemann on Wednesday 
Mr Weinberger engaged in 
considerable “give and take" 
on defining Bonn's role in the 
research programme, and the 
conirocersial issue of the 
transfer of technology. 

Only one 
coffee tastes 
as good as 
Nescafe Gold Blend! 

aa Q » 1 ?TB frB ! 3 ..118 i ? 5 ?£eI “ ? 

1,000 jobs 
to go at 
firm workers 

bought out 

By Michael Baity, 

Britain's biggest worker 
buy-out. the £170 million 
National Freight Consortium, 
has had serious industrial 
troubles for the first time over 
plans to shed about 1 .000 jobs. 

The NFC board, some of 
whom are near-millionaires 
after share appreciation since 
the buy-out, wants the cuts to 
stop a £9 million a year loss on 
its parcels business. 

The move has been opposed 
by the Transport and General 
Workers’ Union representing 
the staff as workers; but has 
apparently been broadly ap- 
proved by staff as 

The staff paid the Govern- 
ment £53 million for the 
business in 1982. 

In four years, the value of an 
original £1 share is now £22. 
Workers who bought an aver- 
age £700 shareholding with 
the help of cheap company 
loans in. 1982 now have 

-annua! losses roughly equal to 
annual earnings. 

Since NFC was formed the 
two businesses have contin- 
ued to lose money partly 
because they overlap and still 
suffer restrictive practices. 

After several attempts to 
keep both going. NFC man- 
agement decided to merge 
them into a single migrated 
business with about 1,000 of 
the 4,500 jobs being shed. 

The National Union of 
Railwaymen representing 
NCL workers agreed to the 
merger, but the TG WU, repre- 
senting BRS Parcels, opposed 
it and called for industrial 

But there was no response, 
and already 700 staff have 
agreed to co-operate by cross- 
ing from the old BRS compa- 
ny to the new organization. 

If the parcels loss were 
eliminated, as management 
hopes it will be next year after 
the rationalization, the value 
of a £1 share would rise to 
about £30, and the average 
individual shareholding to 
-more than £20.000. 

Sir Peter Thompson, the 
NFC chairman, said: “In an 
employee-owned company, 
the need to make people 
redundant is the most difficult 
decision the board has to take. 

“1 think the reason we have 
had not a single day's loss of 
work despite the TGWU call 
is that we have communicated 
well and done the whole thing 
in as humane a way as 

The parcels difficulty goes 
back to before NFC was 
formed from parts of the 
former British Rail and Brit- 
ish Road Services parcels 

BR's pari of it. National 
.Carriers, at one time had 

“We put up with the parcels 
loss for years, but in the end 
the management plan had to 
be to merge the two business- 
es. retaining the greatest possi- 
ble number of jobs, and with 
generous arrangements for 
transfer or redundancy.” 

Land Rover sale 

may be delayed 

By Edward Townsend, Industrial Correspondent 

BL may decide in the next 
few weeks against the immedi- 
ate sell-off of its sought-after 
Land Rover subsidiary, with 
the aim of staging a Jaguar- 
style share sale next year. 

- Land Rover employees and 
the 65.000 individual private 
shareholders in BL would be 
likely to be given preference in 
a share allocation. 

The possibility of a public 
flotation of shares emerged 
yesterday when the BL board 
made dear that after the 
collapse of negotiations wkh 
General Motors of the US for 
the takeover of the entire 
Land Rover Ley land group it 
might not sell Land Rover to 
anyone for the time being. 

In a letter to Schroder 
Ventures, the merchant bank 
acting for the Land Rover 

management buy-out team, 
BL directors said they might 

wish to hold further discus- 
sions with prospective buyers. 
But this would be “before 
recommending whether or not 
any of the proposals received 
an? to be pursued or the 

companies retained in BL 

The management team, led 
by Mr David Andrews, the BL 
director responsible for com- 
mercial vehicles, and Mr Tiny 
Rowlands's Lonrho group are 
the only remaining bidders for 
Land Rover. 

The possibility of a share 
sale next year took on greater 
significance after the collapse 
of the GM talks. The BL boairi 
had recommended that the 
Government accept the GM 
bid as being in the best 
commercial and industrial in- 
terests of the company. Direc- 
tors now feel that by choosing 
one of the remaining bidders, 
they will be forced to recom- 
mend the second-best option. 

BL’s individual sharehold- 
ers probably would welcome 
an opportunity to acquire 
shares in Land Rover. With 
the Government owning 99.7 
per cent of the company, they 
have had little, if any, say in 
the way BL has been run. 
Their holding ' totals 25 mil- 
lion shares worth f 22 million. 

£25m plea 
for adult 





By Stephen Goodwin 
Political Staff 

The Commons select com- 
mittee on employment called 
on the Government yesterday 
to spend an extra £25 million 
on training unemployed 
adults. , 

The Manpower Services i 
Commission admits to being ; 
“strapped for cash” for adult 1 
training, which lags far behind 
the provision for young 

In a report on the 
commission's plan for 1986- 
90, the committee expresses 
concern at the disparity. “It is 
depressing that mass unem- 
ployment and skill shortages 
exist side by side,” it says. 

The commission's witness- 
es told the committee that 
whereas its youth training 
budget is between £925 mil- 
lion and £1.1 billion for be- 
tween 400,000 and 450,000 
young people, the commission 
is expected to manage with 
£260 million for the training 
requirements of about half 
that number of adults. 

Continued from page 1 
said she had found traces of 
human blood on two police 

The Coroner recorded that 
Mr Mikkleson, who had been 
taken to Hounslow police 
station after being arrested, 
and then transferred to the 
West Middlesex Hospital 
where he was certified dead, 
had been unlawfully killed. 

Earlier Dr Burton advised 
the jury on the possible ver- 
dicts they could reach. 

He said unlawful killing 
would cover both murder and 
manslaughter. Murder was 
killing Somebody deliberately, 
while manslaughter could be 
related to the force used. 

He said that in considering 
the first possibility of man- 
slaughter, the jury would have 
to decide whether police con- 
stable Richard Peacock had 
used reasonable force during 
the arresL 

After retiring for two and a 
half hours, the foreman of the 
jury returned a verdict of 

denies role 
in bomb - 


Terrorist suspect Evelyn 
Glen holmes, on the ran from 
the police in Ireland, yester- 
day denied any involvement in 
ERA bomb attacks in Britain. 

In an “open letter" pub- 
lished in Sinn Fein's weekly 
newspaper. Republican New. s, 
Miss Gfenholmes said she had 
no intention of going to prison 
for offences she did not 

The letter gives no doe to 
her whereabouts, but in it she 
r hanks the people of Dublin 
for supporting her after her 
release by a city court and 
during later incidents when 
she was rearrested and shots 
were fired by a detective. 

The letter said:“I do not 
wish to dwell on the shameful 
and negative aspects of the 
whole debacle except to repeat 
that I am being pursued for 
offences which I had nothing 
to do with. 

“People will say that if I 
have nothing to do with those 
offences then I would have 
nothing to fear if brought to 
court in England, 

“The truth is that I have 
already been tried and convict- 
ed by the British and I have no 
intention of ending up like the 
Maguires, the Birmingham 
six, or the Guildford four, 
serving a sentence for some- 
thing 1 was not involved in. 

“Nor will I allow myself to 
be used by FitzGerald and co. 
in their efforts to suck up to 
Margaret Thatcher.” 

The letter goes on: "This 
letter is addressed mainly to 
the ordinary people of Ireland 
and especially to the people of 
Dublin who morally and phys- 
ically supported me when I 
needed help most. 

“The list is endless but I 
would particularly like to 
thank my 'other family', the 
people who gave me a home 
when I could no longer return 
to my own.” 

Detective in 
chase promoted 

The anti-terrorist unit de- 
tective who fired three warning 
shots in the air in a crowded 
Dublin shopping street dining 
the chase of Miss Glenholmes 
has been promoted. 

Detective Christopher Pow- 
er. who two years ago was 
wounded in a gun battle with 
Dominic McGlinchey, the for- 
mer 1NLA leader, is to become 
a uniformed sergeant 

Two for trial 
on bomb charge 

i wo men from Northern 
Ireland were yesterday or- 
dered to stand trial at the 
Central Criminal Court on 
charges connected with the 
planting of a bomb outside 
Chelsea Barracks, west Lon- 
don, on November 11 last year. 

Peter Conleth O 'Lough lin, 
aged 26, an unemployed car- 
penter, of St Julian's Road, 
Kilbniu. north London, and 
Patrick Joseph McLanghlan, 
aged 26, also unemployed,, of 
Bracken Park, Gal high, Lon- 
donderry, were accused at 
Lambeth Magistrates' Court 
of conspiring with others to 
cause an explosion "likely to 
endanger life or cause serious 
injury to property”. 

Appeal against 
Dutch ruling 

The Dutch Prosecutor’s Of- 
fice yesterday appealed 
against the court ruling that 
IRA members, Brendan 
McFarlane and Gerard Kelly, 
cannot be extradited to Britain 
solely for their part in a 1983 
escape from the Maze Prison, 

The court ruled out the 
escape as an extraditable of- 
fence, saying it was a political 
crime. The Dutch prosecutors 
want The Netherlands Su- 
preme Court to decide what 
exactly are the limits in decid- 
ing what is a political crime. 

Police alert 
for marches 

Mr Tom King, Secretary of 
State for Northern Ireland, 
said yesterday that the Royal 
Ulster Constabulary would 
protect innocent people from 
provocation at Easter Mon- 
day's "loyalist” march at 

Porta down. 

His remarks, in the Com- 
mons, reflected ministers' seri- 
ous concern at the use to which 
hard-line Protestant elements 
will put the imminent march- 
ing season. 

There is particular anxiety 
about this march 

*■* *ar 

> : : .,v: - ’?■ 

'■ ’• •' Mi 

at Maundy 

— ' /- • f „»•- f. I 


TromAlss Hamilton 

- : V : :■ t • :*«- 

•yr. &■, % 'kr:, . 

Four rait wt arrested 
shortly before the Queen ar- 
rived ia Chichester for the 

tradftfomti Boynl Meawb «*• 

rice yesterday. They had dis- 
played a banner describing 
Mbs Sarah Ferguson as a* 

ft ■ - v ': r r& -o - 

* -f . * 







Bat the? sounded foe only 
jarringnese on a day when the 
Qahea went on vfaQuUknt 

among r iSftW'tfrongdty 
centre crowd and had so many 
hooches of daffodils and tulips 
pressed « her that her entoo- 

rage was brought up by police 

U Js a 

fids of flowers. 

light security surreuoded 
the visit, not orfy to screen 
Cttidtesfir’s ancie ut Norman 
cathedral Cron acts of tenor* 

WevS yesteiS^The ferry, kKt in smvice ml960, regies the “"*** v— v 

Tham^towpath between the royal homes at Windsor Castle and Hampton Comt (Photograph - John Voos). 

Countdown to abolition: 2 

Picking the flesh from the bones 

The great carve up is 
nearing its end. From Tues- 
day, only the bones of strategic 
local government in England's 
six largest provincial conurba- 
tions will be left to pick over. 

Opponents of abolition said 
it would be impossible; yet the 
demolition of a complete tier 
of councils will go ahead. 

The Government said it 
would save ratepayers' money 
from dav one; but house- 
holders’ 'bills will show no 
immediate savings. 

Mr Kenneth Baker, Secre- 
tary of State for the Environ- 
ment, waxes lyricaL saying 
that, “like Keats' nightingale, 
they will cease upon the 
midnight with no pain” 

But, only 10 days before 
abolition, the Staff Commis- 
sion which the Government 
set up as a quango to oversee 
the transition arrangements 
for employees, issued a 

Sir Philip Woodfield, its 
chairman, urged successor 
councils: “Do what you can in 
the short time remaining be- 
fore the GLC and metropoli- 
tan councils are abolished to 
ensure that none of their 
employees are made redun- 
dant unnecessarily ” 

Up to 1,000 staff have 
“found themselves in the un- 
happy position of not having a 

In the second of two articles. Colin Hughes looks at 
how the abolition next week of the six metropolitan 
councils will affect 11 million people in England’s larg- 
est conurbations 

permanent job to go to be- 
cause of the tightness of the 
timetable, and various 

The most chaotic, predict- 
ably, is Merseyside, where at 
least 500 jobs will go because 
the three left-wing Labour 
district councils and two Con- 
servative districts started tack- 
ling abolition arrangements 
late in the day, and Found it 
impossible to agree. 

Community groups predict 
another 1,000 job losses in the 
voluntary sector as funding 

Confusion is bound to con- 
tinue. Chairmanship of the 
new police and transport joint 
boards have gone to Knowsley 
council, but Mr Derek Hatton, 
deputy leader of Liverpool 
and feeing surcharge and dis- 
qualification from office, is to 
bead the new fire service 

In South Yorkshire, func- 
tions have been devolved to 
district councils as lead au- 
thorities. Only 251 staff out of 
1,300 are still seeking jobs, 
and £2.9 million has been set 
aside to pay them off Shef- 

field, Rotherham and Doncas- 
ter councils have promised to 
find work for anv left that 
want a job, and 400 have gone 
to Barnsley council, where the 
County Hall is based or to the 
police, fire and transport joint 

The West Midlands coun- 
cils started their preparations 
earlier than most, and had the 
advantage of a liaison com- 
mittee already in existence to 
deal with issues affecting the 
seven districts. 

Bui, as in Greater Manches- 
ter, disputes have blown up 
over the chairmanship of the 
police joint boards. In bath 
areas Labour nominees out- 
number Conservatives, but 
Conservative chairmen have 
been elected because undect- 
ed magistrates have voted for 

The West Midlands carve- 
up has also produced adminis- 
trative lead authorities: 
Sandwdl on fire, Dudley for 
police, Coventry for public 

Privatization has saved con- 
trol of Birmingham Interna- . 
tional Airport and tire West 

Midlands Enterprise Board. 

Mr Gordon Morgan, chair- 
man of West Midlands, says: 
“This change in responsibil- 
ities will prove to be an 
extremely costly procedure.” 

West Yorkshire rate rises 
have shown no improvement. 
In Bradford they will go up by 
30 per cent from next week, 
and by 27 per centra Kirkkes, 
with councillors on both 
claiming that the rises , are 

double because of abolition. 

But the parcelling up of; 
responsibilities has gone 

smoothly on die whole, . in 
spite of a battle between 
Bradford and Wakefield for 
control over the police faeadr 
quarters, eventually iron by 

Tyne and Wear says there is 
“no sign of the savings pre- 
dicted, or of any fewer staff 
being employed”. Only 52 
fece redundancy,- and the 
highest rate increase is 24.6 
per cent, in Gateshead- There, 
too, lead authorities will take 
over functions. 

Mr George Smith, Tyne. and 
Wear's Conservative, opposi- 
tion leader, argues that tire 
first year of abolition is too 
early to assess savings, and 
believes that the new system 
could eventually save up to £2 
million a year. . 


Time of reflection 
and celebration 

cote deaterc who in past years 

have harassed redpiects of the 

Maundy Money tato parting 
with their spedaBy minted 

Yesterday, I2S elderly re- 
dpfenls - *ma» and a woman 
for each year of the Owens 
age - Coed tire cathedral aisles 
te he presented fry tbefr sover- 
eign with it red and a white 
leather poach. .. 

0aec0Dttined£5.50 in ordi- 
nary coinage: £3 for cfothfog, 
£J30 for prorfskms and £1^ ^for 
foe redemption of the royal 
gown, « c u s tom rooted in a 
tune when queens gave a 
discarded frock Co foe poorest 
wma ur of the diocese. The 
other contained 6®p in Maun- 
dy Mosey, again reflecting the 
Queen's age. 

There was a time when the 
monarch washed the feet of 
foe poor, reflecting Christ's 
washing of foe Disciples' feet 

The criterion for receipt of 
foe royal favour is now to have 
rendered Christian service to 
church and conmumity. And 
there ire no aMotions. The 
dttfeefs made hf rural deans, 
and is fro longer confined to 

Yesterday Bishop Comae 
Murphy O'Connor, foe Ro- 
mms utUHc Bishop - of 
Arundel awl Brighton* and 
leading local Methodist and 
Baptist churchmen, joined the 
main dunch procession for the 
first time In the presence of the 
Supreme Governor of the 
Church of England. 

Chichester's 300-year-old 
organ, newly restored at a cost 
of £25Q,<XXL graced tire service 
with HanddY anthem Zadok 
the Priest, as television cam- 
eras. made the first five outside 
bn wfchst of the ceremony. 

Councillors angry surcharge 


man bailed 

From Peter Davenport, Manchester 

From Crajg Seteay Birmingham 

The last operational day of 
the five metropolitan county 
councils to be abolished in the 
north of England was marked 
In contrasting style yesterday. 

In Greater Manchester, foe 
largest of the authorities out- 
side the Greater London 
Cooncfl, all 1,400 County Hall 
staff were invited to a farewell 
party with roast ox, olde ale 
and mailed wine last night. 

But there was a more som- 
bre, low-key mood at the other 
county headquarters in West 
Yorkshire, South Yorkshire, 
Merseyside and Tyne and 
Wear as the removal men 
carried out files and furniture. 

One officer at the South 
Yorkshire cooncfl headquar- 
ters in Barnsley said: "There 

are no special events here, we 
are going out in a blaze of 

The last weeks have been 
dominated by finding jobs. 

The 106 Greater Manches- 
ter councillors will receive 
silver medallions to mark their 
service and the authority has 
sprat £1,700 printing certifi- 
cates for its staff. 

All the authorities, except 
West Yorkshire which met 
yesterday, beW their final 
council meetings early this 

A £5,000 “abolition party” 
a Birmingham bora, for 

In fere well gestures the 
county authority in Wakefield 
gave a grant of £2.6 million 
towards the cost of building a 
new theatre in Leeds. 

at a Birmingham hotel for 
councillors and officials of the 
West Midlands County Coun- 
cil turned sour when a news- 
paper published photographs 
of local politicians letting their 
hair down and sharing kisses. 

it led yesterday to Mr David 
Bell a reporter from .the 
Birmingham Post and Mail , 
being barred from county hall 
and accusations of unprofes- 
sional conduct, as threats were 
made of a complaint to the 
Press CounciL 
One in 10 of the 2,000 
people employed at the 
council's Birmingham head- 
quarters were shill without 

new jobs as the authority 
completed its last week of 

business, bu t reenutment by 
the seven district authorities 
that take over most of the 
county’s functions from next . 
week has proved some of the 
worst fears unfounded. 

Some of the minority Con- 
servative group conceded that 
the county’s 2.6 million peo- 
ple had begun to appreciate 
the council's work, complain- 
ing only as it approached its 
rad that the region had lost a 
strong voice at a time of huge 
industrial decline and high 

Even so, the same Conser- 
vatives expressed regret that, 
the authority's final bequest 
should be a spending spree, 
estimated at between 
£800,000 and £3 million. 

Mr John BofowelL aged 59, 
s retired US naval commander 
who is charged under section 
seven of the Official Secrets 
Act, was allowed hail by Bow- 
Street magistrates yesterday 
with two sureties of £lfi,M0 
until April 24. 

Mr Botiiwefl, of 5t James's 
Square, Bath, is charged with 
preparing to communicate in- 
formation which.. nay have 
useful to an enemy. ■' 

Guidelines on 
child workers 

Fulham by-election 

Labour rocked by Militant 

By Richard Evans, Lobby Reporter 

George Davis 
charged with 
mailbag thefts 

. New guidelines are being 
prepared by die Government 
for checking foe criminal 

work with children in the 
public services. 

- They wifi improve arrange- 
ments. for reporting convic- 
tions for offences committed 
after enga g ement! Arrange- 
ments* to cover the rolontary 
and private sectors will follow 
later. .. 

BBC Walkout 

Mr Nick Raynsford, the 
Labour candidate in the Ful- 
ham by-election, was on the 
defensive yesterday after the 
Militant purge fiasco. 

His Conservative and Alli- 
ance opponents took advan- 
tage of the Labour National 
Executive Council's 
“shambles” and claimed that 
Mr Neil Kinnock was losing 
the battle against extremism 
in his party. 

The Social Democratic Par- 
ty camp was cock-a-hoop over 
Labour's embarrassing failure 
to expel 12 Militants, and see 
it as a perfect issue to exploit 
as polling day on April 10 

“I am confident yesterday's 
events will probably trans- 
form the by-election,” Mr 
Roger Liddle, the Alliance 
candidate, said. 

Mr Liddle pointed to a 
leaflet circulated recently by 
Mr Raynsford in which he 
said “the few extremists” in 
the Labour Party were being 
firmly dealt with. 

“Yesterday the Labour Par- 
ty NEC ended in shambles 
and failed to expel just 12 
Militants. MrRaynsford'shalf 
truths on extremism in the 
Labour Party have been 
exposed,” he said. 

Mr Matthew Carrington, 
the Conservative candidate. 

said the whole Labour cam- 
paign lay in ruins. “Mr 
Raynsford has tied himself to' 
Kinnock's coat tails and now 
that Kinnock has been out- 
flanked by the Left his claim 
to moderation is clearly 

In a damage limitation exer- 
cise, Mr Raynsford said: “I 
very much regret the behav- 
iour of seven members of the 

NEC who in ray view acted in 
an irresponsible way. 

“It will simply postpone,, 
but it will not change, the 


Oeiwrai eiecuon: M. Steven (O 
18.204: A. Powell (Lab) 13.4X3; D. 
Renata. (L/AU) 7 1 94; Miss J. Grimes 
(Ecoi 277 : R Pearce iNF) 229: J. 
Keats dnd L' no. C Mat' 4.789. 

George Davis,- aged 44, of 
east London, was remanded in 
police custody for two days 
yesterday when he made a 
brief appearance at Horsefeny 
Road Magistrates' Coort after 
British Transport Police at 
-Victoria station arrested him 
on a train from Brighton on 
Wednesday night 
He was charged with steal- 
ings quantity of mailbags and 
contents, belonging to the Post 
Office, on Wednesday, March 
26, within the jurisdiction 
the Centra] C riminal Court 
Mr Davis, unemployed, of 
Cotail Street, Poplar, did not 
oppose the remand. .• 

Police are huntute a second 
man who escaped after puffing 
a communication cord. 

Thirty-five BBC vision mix- 
ers walked out on 24-hour 
shrike yesterday, but the cor- 
poration said Easter pro- 
grammes would not be 
affected. ’ 

235 jobs go 

Two hundred and thirty-five 
jobs are to go at the Chkpac 

Carlfeit, CroatelSeranse foe 
management says ft would cost 
too nmch to modernize . 

Bone gjrl dies 

Alison Palmer, aged 17, who 
had bone cancer, has died at 
her. home at Wilson Street, 
Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, 
a month after receiving a 
Children of Achievement 
award for fighting the illness. 

^ — ■ ■ ■ . , _ . . . ~ - viuwini tn Aiiucv 

Hard left stirs np trouble and arms itself in Wap ping dispute 

■».i ■ .. . .. . ^ • The Stwt hr lvdg n>o 

By Michael Horsnell 

In the early hours of last 
Sunday at Leman Street police 
station in the east end of 
London senior officers sur- 
veyed the bric-a-brac of their 
night’s work outside News 
International's new printing 
plant where a crowd of nearly 
7,000 bad staged one of foe 
most violent dramnstratious 
against the newspaper group 
since Janaary, when 6,000 
striking printers went on 
strike and were dismissed. 

Weapons gathered from the 
streets included bricks, bottles 
and pieces of lead. The previ- 
ous weekend a si mitar group of 
w eapon s was found, including 
shotgun cartridges. Inside the 
police station, about a mi tt 
from foe plant, personal de- 
tails of the 59 people who had 

been arrested were collated. 

Only 21 were printers; the 
rest included seven unem- 
ployed, three machinists, five 
students, a messenger, a driv- 
er, a trade union official (Mr 
Tony Dubbins, general secre- 
tary of the National Graphical 
Association) a labourer, com- 
puter programmer, two man- 
agers, two journalists, a 
warehouseman, a technical in- 
structor, shop assistant, 
railwayman, nnrse. an income 
tax officer, a hospital ancillary 
worker, a researcher and 

It is the print workers, 
however, who have been iden- 
tified as being responsible for 
foe recent spate or attacks on 
staff working at Wapping, 
including one man being 
smashed in the fece with a 

broken glass near the 
company's former premises in 
Grays Inn Road and an attack 
with a sharp implement near 
an Underground station. 

No one at Leman Street, 
from which officers are polk- 
ing foe bigaest industrial dis- 
pute since the pit strike, was 
surprised at foe statistics be- 
cause fewer than 30 per cent of 
foe 474 people arrested out- 
side the plant so hr have been 

Ip the days which followed 
police braced themselves for 
the usual tirade from foe far 
left alleging that they have 
over-reacted in controlling 
demonstrators who have previ- 
ously torn down sections of 
fencing and hurled crash 

Deputy Assistant Commis- 

sioner Wyn Jones, in charge of 

policing in the East End, said: 
“Once again on an occasion 
where extreme violence is 
directed specifically at police 
officers the arrests indicate 
that most of those responsible 
have little to do with foe trade 
nnions involved in this 

At times dnring the most 
violent moments of the nine- 
week dispute an estimated 25 
per cent of foe demonstrators 
have marched and picketed 
under foe banners of the 
Socialist Workers* Party , foe 
anarchist Class War and Mili- 
tant Tendency. 

Despite the attempts of 
print union leaders to distance 
themselves from revolutionary 
groups, between whom there is 
a mutual hatred, the dispute 

has been the richest hunting 
ground for the &r left since the 
miners* strike. 

Activists from the SWP and 
foe Revolutionary Communist 
Party have sought to extract 
political advantage from the 
dispute by exploiting the diffi- 
culties @f foie onions which 
they want replaced by militant 
organizations based on the 

Meanwhile the Communist 
Morning Star newspaper has 
accused the TUC of being 
"weak-kneed*' over the 
Wapping affair, castigated Mr 
Norman Willis, TUC general 
secretary. It said: “The rank 
and file must take np the 
cudgels from today”. 

At least 14 printers' support 

London area to raise money 
and mobilize picketing, at 
least some of them reconstitut- 
ed from people who ran 
milters' support groups dnring 
the pit strike. 

Action, have continuetftowork 
within foe Ifrbom Party and 
TUC framework for "massive , 
industrial solidarity” to com- 
bat NewsInternationaL; 

- The Strathclyde region of 
Scotiahd is to get £27 million 
m. loans from foe European 
Investment Bank for water, 
sewerage, roads and real ry 

Miners have been promi- 
nent in marches • to the 
Wapping plant and joining foe 
picket lutes, with delegations 
of teachers, indents, trades 
councils and local government 

groups, encouraged by the 
SWP, have sprung up in foe 

This month Mr Jack Col- 
lins, the Kent miners' secre- 
tary, attended a conference of 
400 trade unionists at Poplar 
Civic Centre organized by The 
News Line, foe organ of the 
Redgrave-Healy faction of the 
Workers Revolutionary Party. 

Other Trotskyist groups, 
such as Militant and Socialist 

Last Satthrday, the hewfy 
formed National Union of 
Journalists "Broad. Left” 
group held its inaagural meet- 
ing at Conway Hall, London. 
Appeals for a £5 membership 
fee,“we hope those who are 
well paid will - contribute 
more” were made by Mr Bub 
McKee, acting secretary, who 
as ptfb&atious editor at a firm 
of London chartered accoun- 
tants, is a freelance member of 
foe NUJ. The group seeks 
am a lgam ation with other 
newspaper mums in the wake 
of foie NUJ’s “failure to act 
effectively in the Wapping 

Premier jobs 

The _ Maiqmwer Services 
Commission has made a 
£170,000 offer for foie former 
grocer's shop home of Mrs 
Margaret Thatcher at 
Grantham, TJncofeshire, to 
tarn if into g training base for 

jobless youths. 

Oft TURiSMm 
uooafcrv® Du 

u' ■< .• 


■ .%■ 

More caught in credit trap 

vs? i' 3 ** By Gavin Bell 

, , Thousands of first-time 

, u sJ -.home buyers are beco ming 
i ? '1 ..hopelessly entangled in The statKtics of the growing 
v i,.> -mounting debt, unable to cope problem of debt, aad its casa- 
t* 5 |, -L* -.and losing their homes, ac- aides, are: 

-x? * .; c0 ^ , ¥ J° * Shelter report More than one million conn- 

■V, published yesterday. df house iwn^ were behind 

week Miss Irene with their rent in 1984. In 
**?.•> - O Connor became one of London the fignre was 
them, adding to the increasing 350,000. Their arrears were 
•numbers creating mounting estimated at £240 million. 

■' alann among financial institn- Bnflding society mArtpap^. 

v ,'>? • uons, government legislators 6-12 months in aneaisrose 
V : ? nd voluntary bodies hurried- from 8,426 hi 1979 to 41,900 
^ .- 'V -.|y 5*J “P w help those caught hi 1984, and property repos- 
-in debt. sessions from 2^30 to almost 

On Tuesday Miss 11,000. 

O’Connor, of Cowper Street, Actions for repayment of 
Luton, lost a long legal battle bank and fiMnw* house *«»■"« 
to save her home after failing have tripled since 1980, and 
to. repay a bridging loan she 1.5 millinn electricity users 
had taken out to cover sub- and one million consumers 
stamial mortgage arrears and are having serious < 
other pressing debts. paying bills. 

She. thereby joined almost Since 1979, outstanding 
1 1,000 people whose homes shop credit ami hire pmriwo* 
were repossessed in similar debts have outstripped new 
circumstances last year — a credits issued each year. . 
four-fold increase in misery Finance house «wmm^ 
since 1979. , with two or more payments in 

In the Court of Appeal, arrears rose fnm 5 per cent in 
Lord Justice Dillon said he 1979 to 7 per cent in 1984. 
^ The real valne of total debt 

“ d*® <»“rtiT increased by 
. SOper cent from 1981 to 
pie judge helped to high- £22 bfflkm last year, 
light a problem that consumer _ _ 

irst-time home buyers 
pay the price of debt 

: * ; '* ^ " ^ ^ , ** *« , r * f ^ f .- Vr v 

®*l " 

r t . \ 

The casualties The advice 

i r» 

r ^<\ 

Oh Tuesday . Miss 
, .? 'O’Connor, of Cowper Street, 
Luton, lost a long legal battle 
.^~'= v* .10 save her home after failing 
-3 -to. repay a bridging loan she 
..'■x- , * _jhad taken out to cover sub- 
• -stantial mortgage arrears and 

i h , -k - QtbCT pressing debts. 

She. thereby joined almost 
-. 11,000 people whose homes 
-v. ■ ..were repossessed in similar 

V .J- ; circumstances last year — a 
L ' ■: - ’ ^<5 ..four-fold increase in misery 
•v ' % since 1979. 

’ In the Court of Appeal, 

? , .. *r,i : Lord Justice Dillon said he 
r - . was troubled by his “prima. 

.fade view that the credit 
■> , .^ii bargain was extortionate". 

. ‘ =i> 

r‘ i -■ r** ‘ ? 

. 9 „ 


associations are treating as a 
national crisis by referring the 
finance company involved to 
..the Office of Fair Trading, 
after learning that the annual 
7 rate of interest on the loan was 
,48 per cent . 

« Mr Ivan Phillips, a director 
of Castle Phillips, nuance 

- which extended the £ 1 1,000 
loan and which will now take 
possession of the boose valued 
at more than £ 22 . 000 , firmly 

-. rejected the implied criticism 
-and suggested that the judges 
were not familiar with credit 

“The normal market rate 
for short-term bridging loans 
is 4 per cent per month, hence 
48 per cent per annum. 

“It was not extortionate. U 
was'fairiy high, but was ade- 
quately justified by the high 
■ risks and costs involved", Mr 
..Phillips told The Times. 

Mr Phillips correctly assen- 
ted that the court had the 
^ authority and the duty to 

7 in court 
on soccer 

Seven men aged between ^2 
and 35 appeared at-^Wfest 
London Magistrates' Court 
yesterday .charged with affray 
and conspiracy to cause affray 
-after police investigations into 
.football violence. 

- Their appearances came af- 
„ter dawn raids on homes on 

The charges arise from inci- 
dents in Liverpool, Birming- 
ham and Loudon last 

’ AU seven were remanded in 
custody until April 3 by Mr 
David Fairbourn, stipendiary 

The seven defendants were: 
Terry Last, aged 23, a solicitor’s 
derk, of Bow, east London; Sean 
O’Farrril, aged 33, an engineer, 
from Carlshahon, Surrey; Ste- 
phen Hickmott, aged 30, setf- 
. employed, of Tud bridge Wells, 
Kent; Dale Robin Green, aged 
24, a Royal Navy cook, of 
-Eastcote, west London; Douglas 
Welsh, aged 22, a plasterer’s 
-mate, of Crawley, West Sussex; 
Vincent Russell Drake, aged 22, 

Sources: National Consum- 
er Council, Audit Commission, 
Building Societies Associa- 
tion, Finance Houses Associa- 
tion, OFT. . 

reopen the loan agreement 
and to determine easier repay- 
ments if it adjudged its terms 
extortionate or unfair. 

“The fact that it did not do 
so is evidence that this was not 
the case," he said. 

Mr Phillips also rejected 
Miss O’Connor’s statement 
that she had not understood 
the contract, saying that she 

•Compare one deal with an- 
other by ssiag the annual 
percentage rate of charge 
(APR) - basically tbe interest 
and other charges made for 
pr ov i ding the credit. 
•Calculate outgoings on a 
weekly or monthly basis, and 
whether there is enough left 
over to meet repayments, as 
well as a reserve for emergen- 

•List credit sources and con- 
sider which type is preferable; 
watch for anyone offering 
interest-free credit; make sure 
there are no hidden charges. 
•Use reputable companies; an 
OJFT licence is necessaty for 
almost all who offer credit or 
hire to the public. 

•Read carefully and under- 
stand the credit agreement, 
and check all figures, before 
signing: it is legally binding. 

•A second loan to pay off 
debts should be avoided. 

•Do not take out a second 
mortgage to pay off debts 
without knowing the risks: it 
could mean losing your 
home. ‘Stop Around For Cred- 
it t Office of Fair Trading, 
Field House, 15-25 Bream's 
Buildings, London EC4A 
1PR, or from toed citizens* 
advice bureaux and Trading 
Standards departments. 

annual interest rates in excess 
of 1,000 per cent." 

Mr Michael Montagu, the 
chairman of the National 
Consumer Council, sounded 
the alarm at a conference on 
consumer debt last January 
when he said: 

“We are all potential debt- 
ors now. Our society runs on 
credit The two million claims 

and the man living with her against debtors which are 
had signed an agreement set pursued through the county 

out in dear, concise and non- 
Jegalistic terms. 

A spokesman for the Office 
of Fair Trading, which over- 
sees consumer credit legisla- 
tion and supervises trading 
licences, commented: “li may 
sound like an extortionate 
rate, but ft is not unusuaL We 

courts each year in England 
and Wales are just the tip of 
the iceberg.” 

Why is it happening, who is 
to blame and what can be 
done about it? Opinions 
among the experts vary, al- 
though there is general agree- 
ment that rising unem- 

have come across cases of ployment, marital difficulties 

and widespread ignorance 
about credit practices are im- 
portant factors. 

Sir Gordon Borne, the di- 
rector of the Office of Fair 
Trading, points the fmger at 
credit card companies, retail- 
ers and others for going to 
what he terms absurd lengths 
in marketing their services 
and then entering into irre- 
sponsible deals wiih financial 
!y insecure clients. 

“There should be less ambi- 
tious rhetoric about expand- 
ing home ownership. The 
potential borrower should be 
more wary about the steady 
drip of over-encouragement to 
borrow that comes from so 
many quarters." 

A report by Shelter issued 
yesterday confirmed that 
many first-time home-buyers 
were ending up heavily in 
debt, partly through being 
misinformed or duped by 
mortgage brokers. 

Sir Gordon also called on 
the Government and finance 
houses to help the casualties 
by supporting voluntary bod- 
ies such as the Birmingham 
Settlement Money Advice 
Centre, which counsels hard- 
pressed debtors. 

A spokesman for the Na- 
tional Association of Gtizens' 

Advice Bureaux said its offi- 
cers were receiving about half 
a million inquiries a year 

^ £, e The Archbishop of Canterbury with the striking triple cross on a new altar marking the spot 
iSSS, nnpm' where Archbishop Thomas Becket was murdered on December 29 1170. Dr Runrie is to re- 
payment. ^ 8 hallow the martyrdom in the north-west transept at evensong tomorrow. 

Mrs Elizabeth Stanton, the 
chairman of an NCC working 
party on tbe problem, believes 
the existing law and practice 
on debt recovery is harsh, 
haphazard and inefficient. 

She has suggested a network 
of enforcement officers along 
the lines of the Northern 
Ireland Enforcement Office, 
which would bring together 
creditors and debtors to work 
out a just and humane way of 
repaying debts. 

Mrs Sianton adds a qualify- 
ing footnote: “It’s important 
to keep the problem in per- 
spective. Most people use 
credit at some time in their 
lives. Most pay off their 
commitments without 

Girl killer to be 
detained for life 

Warning on costs Call to end 
of private health BT P ho " e 

By Nicholas Timmins such as PPP, were likely soon DlODODOl V 

.a painter* ofBrixton, sooth-west 
London; and w ntiam Lloyd 
George Reid, aged 24. a hospital 
poner, of south-east London. 
No addresses were given. 

Last, O’ Farrell and Reid are 
charged with causing an affray at 
Diana Street, Liverpool, on 
December 10, last year. 

■ Hickmott, Drake and Welsh 

are charged with conspiracy to 
-cause an affray in Birmingham 
on December 21, last year. 

. Last and O’Farrell are charged 
with the same offence mi the 
same d* 1 **-, also in Birmingham. 

O’Fanefl fees a charge of 
conspiracy 10 cause an affray in 
London on December 28. 
Jiiekmott and Drake are 
-charged with conspiracy to 
cause an affray in the greater 
Xondon area last December. 

■ All seven are charged with 
conspiracy to cause an affray 
between December 9, 1985, and 
March 25 this year, within the 
jurisdiction of the Centra) Crim- 
inal Court. 

Football thug 
led charge 

By Nicholas Timmins 
tween ^2 SocialSemces 

at"3test Correspondent - 

OF* Growth in private health 
10 care will practically cease soon 

iseamay if the increasing cost of private 
sons into treatment is not moderated, 
. according to Mr Roy Forman, 
031116 ^ chief executive of Private 
omes on patient’s Plan, Britain’s seo- 
. . ond largest health insurer. The 

ram ma- increase in private hospital 
Bmmng- {barges and doctors’ fees has 
in last been running far beyond the 
... rate of inflation in recent 

Mr y ears »^* rFofmansaid - 
LSiarv His comments, in a paper to 

P entuary the Industrial Society, follow 
□ts were: riniilar w^nings at tfae end of 
solicitor’s fast year from Mr Bob Gra- 
don; Sean ham, chief executive of Bupa, 
engineer, Britain’s largest health insur- 
rrey, Su^ er, who told private hospitals 
, that they were in danger of 

tee Wens, “fcjfling the goose which fays 

SiTS ^ golden eggs”. 

; Douglas Mr Forman said:“lf that 
ilastrrer’s increase is not moderated 
st Sussex; soon and sizeably, the net 
; aged 22 , growth of the private health 
30 1 inS care sector in the UK will be 
a hospital very small b«ause many ex- 
ondoEL *sting subscribers will be un- 
jven. able to go on affording ffie cost 

Reid are of insuring themselves." 
b affray at He added that the insurers. 

such as PPP, were likely soon 
to have to take much tougher 
action against commercial 
hospitals that charge insured 
patients more than uninsured 

He also criticized doctors 
who, he said, admit patients 
unnecessarily to private hospi- 
tals when day surgery or out- 
patient treatment could be 
provided; and hospitals and 
doctors who overcharge or 
keep patients in hospital for 
unnecessarily long periods. 

Mr Forman said in the 
paper that the United States 
government imposed price re- 
straints on private hospitals 
and doctors because ft foots 
much of the bill, but no such 
action was likely in Britain. 

The provident associations 
were likely to develop fitness 
assessment, occupational 
health and “stay welT pro- 
grammes among forward- 
thinking .employers, with 
discounts for non-smokers a 

Packages were likely to be 
offered where employees were 
fully covered only if they used 
hospitals on a preferred list 
where charges were 

Rivals to British Telecom 
are railing for its monopoly to 
install telephones to be 

Equipment suppliers and 
manafactnrers have told the 
telephone watchdog, OfteL 
that the pablic would get a 
better deal with competition. 

Installation prices would be 
cat by a quarter and more 
choice would allow users to 
shop around for best prices, 
tbe dealers claimed. 

It is thought open competi- 
tion would exert considerable 
pressure on British Telecom to 
reduce queues for 

Oft el is considering several 
options, which include allow- 
ing British Telecom to install 
main telephone wiring but 
opening up the extension mar- 
ket to competition. 

There are four million 
homes which have not been 
wired for a telephone, but 
there is a growing market for 

Another option is to restrict 
competition to a number of 
qualified and licensed suppli- 
ers, ensuring that telephones 
are properly conn ect ed to the 
British Telecom network. 

A girl aged 16 who took 
“horn lying revenge” and 
killed a middle-aged man she 
believed had raped her, was 
ordered yesterday to be de- 
tained for life. 

The girl left the Central 
Criminal Court in London 
clutching two teddy bears after 
being described as “a great 
danger to the public". 

She poisoned her victim, 
forcing him to swallow 40 
drug tablets, battered him 
with a wooden mallet as he lay 
unconscious and then left him 
dying in his blazing flat 

Judge Robert Lymbery QG 
said that the giii whom he 
ordered should not be identi- 
fied was Suffering from a 
severe psychopathic disorder. 
Doctors forecast that she 
would remain a threat to the 
public “for some considerable 

It would be for the Home 
Secretary and medical au- 
thorities to deride “when, if 
ever, it is safe for her to be 

Judge Lymbery said: “She is 
in fact a casualty of her own 
upbringing, deprived of all the 
Joving. caring, and suitable 
attention as a child."" 

The girt, from west London, 
admitted the manslaughter of 
Mr Sammy Mootoosamy, 
aged 56, an unmarried chef, of 
Horn Lane, Acton, west Lon- 
don. The plea of not guilty to 
murder was accepted on the 
ground of diminished respon- 

Mr Michael Connell. QC. 
for the defence, said that the 
girl, a former undertaker’s 
assistant, complained to po- 
lice of being raped in Ealing 
two weeks before the killing 
but there was insufficient 
evidence to charge the mao, 
not Mr Mootosamy. she 

Mr Connell said that she 
asserted that she had killed Mr 
Mootosamy because he raped 
her while she slept on a 
mattress at his flat. 

She went to his home on 
October II last year, and 
accepted his offer of a bed for 
the nighL When she awoke, 
counsel said, she fouDd her 
clothes awry. 

Mr Roy AmloL for the 
prosecution, told the court 
that the girl came from a 
broken home and had suffered 
“considerable violence and 

Last post 
for oldest 
mail man 

Britain’s oldest postman, 
Mr Sid Smith, aged 75, who 
delivers mail to Osea Island 
off the Essex coast, lost his job 

Mr Smith, of Toll esh ant 
D’Arcy, said: “They say I am 
retiring, but they are sacking 
me. I feel fit as a fiddle and 
could go on for another 10 

Bat a Post Office spokes- 
man said Mr Smith was being 
retired “becaase we feel re- 
sponsible for him and are 
worried he might be taken ill 
in an isolated spot". 

For the past 20 years Mr 
Smith, a part-time postman, 
has driven half a mile over a 
causeway at low tide to deliver 
mail to 12 houses on tbe 
island, in the estnary of tbe 
river Blackwater. 

He said: “1 get £57 a week 
and provide my own van. I was 
promised the job for life. It 
means everything (o me." 

Mr Smith delivered the 
mail— and sometimes groceries 
and medicine as well— within 
four boars, when the tide came 
in. Once be was cut off and had 
to be rescued by boat 

Crash man Severe gales and cold 
can’t stop destroy early crops 

cIaOTIIIHT By John Young, Agriculture Correspondent 

dlvvlUUU Horticultural growers have damage but claims wei 

suffered thousands of pounds streaming in. 

Thief caught 
by £700 in 
small change 

The £700 in one and two 
peace pieces that a man stole 
weighed so heavy tint die 
exhaust of his getaway car 

Police arrested Timothy 
Gardner, aged 21, mtenH 
ployed, of Marine Road, 
Peasant, Abergele, when he 
had to stop for repairs. 

Magistrates in Abergele, 
North wales; were told yester- j 
day that Gardner had stolen 
tbe money from a local amuse- i 
meat arcade to pay for the ! 

Secretary’s spending 
spree ends in jail 

A private secretary spent being at work all day, Mr 
£34,000 which she had stolen So Iky added. 

from her boss’s expense ac- 
count, a court was told 

Mr John Reekers, for the 
prosecution, said Donald-Ed- 
munds worked at the City 

Jacque^e Dou^d-Ed- offire of ite ^n G^ty 
rounds, aged 29, spent and Trust Company New York. 

spent" on her home and 
family, Mr Stephen Solley, for 
tbe defence, told the Central 
Criminal Court yesterday. 

She paid £5,000 for a fitted 
kitchen at her home in Clar- 
ence Road, Bickley, Kent, 
thousands more on carpets 

earning £ 10,000 a year as a 

Her boss travelled widely 
and she filled his expenses, 
pocketing £34,000 in 1 1 

Donald-Edmunds, who ad- 

lpi| phflrffP dpkeep of his car. and bought hundreds 

ACU Mr Gwyu Davies, for Gard- clothes for her two chil 

r\n flip Tin lira ner, described it as an “unpro- aged three, and aged 
UI 1 lUv pullVv fessional and ridiculous months. 

Shaun Kelly, aged 22. was bmglaiy”. Donald-Edmunds. w 

'fed for four months yester- was adjoarned for husband is unemployed 

ty after 2 wild charge on a fortnight, aad Gardner, who that providing “little luxuries" 
)lioe during fighting between Qrfm Ht pdbnrebiry and theft, — including a jeep — for her 
raf football supporters. allowed bafl. family would compensate for 

and bought “hundreds" of mined 27 offences of theft, 
clothes for her two children, was jailed for 15 months. 

Shaun Kelly, aged 22. was 
jailed for four months yester- 
-day after 2 wild charge on 
police daring fighting between 
rival football supporters. 

.. Kelly, a decorator, of Oare, 
Faversbaxn. Kent was con- 
victed at Cl er ken well 
Magistrates' Court of using 
threatening behaviour in a 
clash with West Ham 

As . police tried to separate 
,ihe groups at Euston Station 
Kelly, 2 Manchester United 
^supporter, yelled: "Come on. 
lets get than. It’s only the Old 

Mr Jeffrey Bayes, for the 
defence, said: "He gels carried 
away when with a crowd." 

Bui Mr Christopher Bourke, 
the magistrate^ told Kelly: 

“The time has come for a stop 
to be put on this ferocious 

aged three, and aged six Judge Robert Lymbury, QC. 
months. told hen “People should not 

Donald-Edmunds. whose have the idea that simply 
husband is unemployed, felt because an offender is a young 

.L.. ■ -* * umman with I'hiliirMI thev ran 

woman with children they can 
get away with crimes like 

Mr Walter Nichoii, an 18- 
stone inventor, became a 
sleeping giant after being in- 
jured in a car crash. 

Every midday Mr Nicholl is 
beset by an overwhelming 
desire to sleep. 

Mr Nicholl’s sleeping sick- 
ness — known as “sleep 
apnoea" — is so regular that, 
when he came to give evi- 
dence in his High Court claim 
for damages, he had to leave 
the witness box at midday 
and resume the next 
momingYesterday. a judge — - 

awarded £29,807 damages to f AlTl rtiirAi* 
Mr Nicholl, a§ed 61. whose 
firm designed innovative car . a M* 

siiencen ^ tests tor 

But Mr Justice Turner held __ _ 

that Mr Nicholl would proba- O A I? nnfrv 
bly have developed the afflic- vHii j 

tion and that his crash injuries v 

brought the condition forward By Bill Johnstone 
by three years. Technology Correspondent 

hushanri The 8.000 yOUUg hopefuls 
l SES every year who hive kmbi- 
tions to fly with the RAF will 
have their aptitude tested by 

!!fWh!Sh by ha ^ 10 computer, instead of the pen- 
sleep after lunch. d | £, d paper examinations 

Because Mr Nicholl, of used by their predecessors. 
Beech House, Kingerby, Lin- ^ . 4 . n . 

coin shire, refused an out-of- The computer tests wiD also 
court offer of £125,000. he was assess characterises in appb- 
ordered to pav the estimated cants which might have taken 
£30.000 legal costs since the years to determine, 
offer was made in February. The RAF has developed the 

The award was made - • — — 

against two drivers involved 

-l n:_f - iA*fO 

worth of damage from this 
week's severe gales. They are 
among the more notable vic- 
tims of a winter that has taken 
its toll of the fanning industry 
and which has destroyed or 
retarded crops. 

Glasshouse owners and em- 
ployees in the Vale of Eve- 
sham were unable to work 
throughout Monday because 
of the danger from flying glass. 
A National Fanners' Union 
official said it was too early to 
assess the foil extent of the 

damage but claims were 
streaming in. 

Elsewhere, fruit, vegetables 
and arable crops have been 
affected by the bitterly cold 
weather last month. The sub- 
zero winds shrivelled the 
plants in the frozen soil. 

Many fields have been 
flooded by heavy rain. Plant- 
ing of early potatoes in Corn- 
wall has been hampered. 

The British Farm Produce 
Council said yesterday that 
spring cabbage, greens and 
cauliflowers were all likely to 
be scarce over Easter. 

Check on 

By Thomson Prentice 

Science Correspondent 

Hospital doctors are being 
advised to question patients 
suspected of having a drink 
problem as a routine pan of 
medical assessment. 

The suggestion comes after 
a study which showed that 
more than a quarter of men 
and women admitted as acute 
cases to a London hospital 
were found 10 have conditions 
linked with excessive 

Most of the patients did not 
show obvious signs of alcohol- 
related illness, but a screening 
system in which patients are 
asked about their drinking 
habits could help prevent 
serious physical and psycho- 
logical problems, it is 

The results of the study are 
published in this month's 
issue of the Journal of the 
Royal Society of Medicine. Its 
editorial said: “Alcohol is an 
important contributory factor 
in a large proportion of acute 
admissions to hospital. 

“Detailed inquiry into alco- 
hol consumption by means 
either of a quantity-frequency 
scale, or a detailed history of 
the past week's drinking 
should be adopted as a routine 
part of medical assessment. 

“A screening procedure of 
this kind is simple and inex- 
pensive. Not only can it 
increase the identification of 
patients at risk because of 
their drinking, but it may also 
encourage physicians to give 
patients advice." 

.Although more research was 
necessary, such an approach 
held “considerable promise" 
for the prevention of irrevers- 
ible drink-related problems. 

In the study at St Charles 
Hospital, west London, 28 out 
of 104 emergency admissions 
were thought to have been due 
to alcohol consumption. 
Among those not showing 
classical symptoms, nine were 
found to have taken deliberate 
drug overdoses combined 
with alcohol. 

Six had chest infections or 
complaints in which self-ne- 
glect because of alcohol was 
suspected of being a contribu- 
tory cause. Psychological diffi- 
culties related to drinking 
were suspected in two others. 

Sixty of the patients were 
men, and 44 women. Twenty 
eight per cent of the men and 
20 per cent of the women had 
drunk more than the equiva- 
lent of 20 measures of spirits 
or 10 pints of beer in the week 
before being admitted to 

Aids carrier 
acquitted in 
spitting case 

A young mother with the 
Aids (acquired immune defi- 
ciency’ syndrome) virus was 
acquitted yesterday of spitting 
in the face of 3 store detective. 

Rachel Townslev. aged 24, 
of Buchanan Street Edin- 
burgh, a heroin addict was 
found not guilty of recklessly 
spitting in a store detective's 
face to his danger, knowing 
that she was an Aids virus 
carrier and that such a condi- 
tion was transmitted by body 

Sheriff William Hook ac- 
cepted a defence objection 
that a previous conviction had 
been disclosed during the trial 
contrary to the Criminal Pro- 
cedure (Scotland) Act 1975. 

He acquitted Townslev on 
the spitting charge, but sen- 
tenced her to six months in jail 
for stealing a purse and for 
other theft charges. 

It was Townsley's theft of a 
purse that led to her being held 
tor questioning by Mr Michael 
McConnachie. a store detec- 
tive . 



in the collision ia 1978. 

Wildfowl sanctuary’s 40th birthday 

What began as a “rosy dream" in the 
mind of artist and naturalist Sir Peter 
Scott yesterday celebrated its fortieth 
birthday. _ _ 

Sir Peter, along with comedian and 

amate ur naturalist BUI Oddie, was at 

Britain's oldest and biggest wildfowl 
sanctuary at SUmbridge in Gloucester- 
shire which be set np iu 1946 to study 
wild geese. In the same year he founded 
the Wildfowl Trust. 

To mark tire anniversary, HTV West 
liac made a documentary for Channel 4, 
SUmbridge the Sanctuary on the Severn, 
which will be shown on Sunday, April 6. 
The Easter chicks were ont in force at 

the 900-acre reserve to mark the start of 

Sir Peter, who has dedicated his life to 
tbe preservation and painting of wild 
fowL said: “It all began as a rosy dream. I 
raiw here to study geese and 1 just knew 
it was the place." 

Now it has grown into a unique 
sanctuary for thousands of geese, ducks 
and swans as well as having the largest 
collection of flamingoes in the world. 

Over die years the trust has attracted 
millions of visitors to the Slim bridge site 
and six other sanctuaries around Britain. 

Mr Mike Ounsted, the curator, said: 
“We hope that by visiting the trust’s 

sancturaries future generations will be 
more aware and caring.” 

Tbe trust now plays a big role in world 
conservation and has been responsible 
for saving many species of wildfowl from 
extinction at the same time as re- 
introducing some species to their natural 

Bill Oddie, former star of Tbe Goodies, 
was on hand to collect the first returned 
forms foam a group of schoolchildren, 
some of 1,000 who have taken part in 
Wildfowl Watch *86 — a project armed at 
buDding a comprehensive picture of 
Britain's wildfowl population. 

The RAF has developed the 
tests to be run at the Officers 
and Aircrew Selection Centre 
at Biggin HilL Kent The tests 
are able to measure the re- 
sponses of a candidate by the 
speed with which a question is 
tackled, gauge tbe ease by 
which he learns and how good 
is his memory. 

Tbe computer aptitude 
tests, now 1 1 but soon to be 
expanded to 24, can deter- 
mine an applicant’s potential 
to master the controls of a jet, 
operate the electronics, man- 
age air traffic, interpret radar 
pictures and give the correct 
orders if co-ordinating a 

The RAF said the tests have 
generated interest overseas, 
particularly within Naio. 

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Geoffrey Smith talks to the Prime Minister about her past record and her future plans v £ : 

6 Where we are going from here’ 

In one of the most remarkable and wide-ranging interviews of her 
premiership, Mrs Margaret Thatcher discusses some of the areas in 
which Conservative governments, present and future, can push 
forward: education - freer choice, labour relations - new 
responsibilities for both sides, “popular capitalism’’ - new share- 

responstourues tor oom sides, popular capitalism - new snare- 
owning opportunities for more people, disarmament - new realities. 
“We nave not,“she says firmly, “lost our sense of direction.’' 

Geoffrey Smith: 

An impres sio n has been created, 
after the Westland episode, that 
|1 k Government has become either 
acddeat-prone or has lost its sense 
of direction and aomeattm. Can I 

ask you about one or two of these 

episodes in torn? First id 1 all, the 
future of British Leylaad. 

Prime Minister 

The Government has not lost its 
strength, has not lost hs direction, 
has not lost hs momentum, and 
you had only to take one look at 
the Budget to know that. Inflation 
is coming down, we are bringing 
direct taxation down, we are 
privatizing more, we are in feet 
getting popular capitalism — all of 
that We are very active in foreign 
fields, in foreign affairs. We have 
in feet kept our defences up. We 
have in feci added and allocated a 
great deal more to law and order 
and we are getting people involved 
more and more through 
neighbourhood watches. We are 
active as ever in Europe. We have 
lived up to our priority on putting 
more into the health service. 

So we have not lost our sense of 
direction or momentum or inten- 
tion and we are going on in 
precisely the same way. So that is 
that one. Now what was the 
question which did not depend 
upon that at all? 

First of all, do we assume now that 
any possibility of General Motors 
baying British Ley land is now 
dead, and if that Is so, is this not a 
case of the Government actually 
bang poshed off coarse by its own 

It is still the Government’s inten- 
tion to privatize British Leyland. 
May I make that perfectly dear. 
And everything that I have been 
through the last few weeks about 
British Leyland reinforces my 
view that governments ought not 
to be involved in this kind of 
decision or this kind of negotia- 

Nevertheless, when the negotia- 
tions with General Motors became 
public - and it is very difficult to 
do commercial negotiations in the 
full glare of publicity — there was a 
very sharp reaction. Reactions of 
that kind are something which 1 
think you cannot ignore. There 
was 8 very sharp reaction about 
one particular part. As you know, 
we were very anxious to try also to 
consider not only Land Rover, 
Range Rover, but also the position 
with regard to the production of 
lorries and trucks. There is* enor- 
mous • overproduction in this 
country and in Europe. Sooner or 
later, that business will have to be 

We took steps In what we 
thought would be a very good 
rationalization, but it became 
painfully clear that General Mo- 
tors, would not go ahead with the 
lorries and trucks rationalization 
unless they also had Land Rover 
and Range Rover. The negotia- 
tions with General Motors were 
not successful because ihty were 
not prepared to rationalize the 
lorries and trucks unless they had 
Land Rover and Range Raver and 
feeling is running very strong. 

But the British Leyland Board has 
surely indicated that the complete 
deal with General Motors would 
actually have been the best? Do 
you think that is correct? 

Yes, I think that their view on a 
commercial basis was a view they 
held totally and they did not have 
to be influenced by other factors as 
we have to be influenced by other 
factors, and the statement they put 

out indicated that they were sorry 
that the General Motors’ offer had 
not been accepted in its entirety by 
the principal shareholder which, 
of course, is the Government 
That was (heir view on a commer- 
cial basis. When Government, on 
behalf of the people, owns these 
shares, we have to take other 
factors into account as well, but we 
cannot wholly ignore a commer- 
cial basis. That is why we tried for 
a long time to find a comoromise 
Now, the only other factor which 1 
should perhaps mention is that, as 
you know, Mr Graham Pay is 
going to lake up the chairmanship 
fairly soon, I think in a few weeks, 
and it may be that the British 
Leyland Board, in reaching its 
decision, will also wish to involve 
him, because after all, be is going 
to be the person who is going to be 
chairman of the company and will 
be charged with the duty of finding 
the best way ahead. 

Now can I move on to Ireland. Do 
you think that the Gteabolmes 
affair is going to make it more 
difficult to secure a satisfactory 
arrangement in Northern Ireland? 
What has happened is of enor- 
mous concern to us all and when 
something like this suddenly 
bursts on the world, again feelings 
run very very high and there is a 
temptation to say things of a kind 
which you are hinting at, which 
you cannot really mean because 
you know fuff well that what we 
have arranged long-term is the 
best way ahead if we can bring it 

go to them, but you have to 
consider the other things as wdL It 
is not such an open and dear-cut 

You also have to consider 
whether you should take the ballot 
for officers of trade unions further 
down titan you have now. 

Do I lake It that after the Section 
there will be such 

h expect there to be such 
legislation after the election. We 
expect there to be a new Industrial 
Relations Bill after the election 
and probably fairly soon. 

If there is a hmtg parliament after 

the next election do you rule oat 
any kind of deal with toe Alliance? 
I do not expect the conditions to 
arise. I do not like coalition 
governments and I myself would 
be unlikely ever to go into one. I 
have seen the effect of them in 

I will tell you what happens. 
You set out your jphflosophy, you 
set out your principles, you set out 
your policies, yon set out your 
programme. And do you know 
what happens when you get hung 
parliaments or coalitions- That is 
not democracy- So I myself would 
be unlikely to go into a coalition. 

I may say we should never have 
wrought the transformation we 
have in Britain under a coalition 
government. Never, never never. 
You have to be decisive to do that 
and there is a lot of work still to 

me. is your income in the 
half?” “Yes”. “Very co 
in the top half?” “Yes”. And I say: 

And what I am saying is that 
when these things happen, we feel 
just the same way as most other 
people about than but, equally, 
we have to say: “Well now, look! 
Keep calm. Don’t dash into 
anything which may put the long- 
term objectives in jeopardy!” And 
that I still say. 

“We must not let the strong 
feelings run away with us on this 
particular thing, because the An- 
glo-Irish Accord is. I am certain, 
the best way. 

When one takes this phrase 
^popular capitalism” one is look- 
ing at home ownership, one is 
looking at shares ownership. 

You are looking at the levels of 
taxation toa There has been a 
rather shallow debate which has 
attempted to put as alternatives 
more public expenditure and less 
taxation, and it has tended to put 
those alternatives in the way that 
public expenditure is moral and 
leaving people more of their own 
money in their own pockets is not 
so good. Now that is absolute 
nonsense, total and utter 

How tor are yon now planning for 
a third torn? 

A lot of the work that we are doing 
now will be for legislation when 
we return. For example, we call it 
“popular capitalism”. It has only 
just got started. 

How ranch farther can you take it? 
Quite a long way. There are fer 
more propie who would like to 
own their own homes. The num- 
bers of people who own shares and 
have their own little bit of 
independence are still too few, and 
that can go a great deal further. 

In about 25 years’ time there 
will be quite a lot of people, who 
will be inheriting something, be- 
cause for the first time we win 
have a whole generation of people 
who own their own homes and 
will be leaving them, so that they 
topple like a cascade down the tine 
of the family, leaving to others not 
only their homes but some of their 
shares, some of their building 
society investments, some of their 
national savings certificates — 
only on a bigger scale than ever 

A person in my constituency 
put it absolutely right to me in 
1979: “Mrs Thatcher, we have got 
to vote for you in order to get the 
centre back to the middle because 
the centre has gone so fer to the 
left. The government is doing fer 
too much and not leaving us 
enough control over our own 

Governments ought not to run 
industries, but at the end of this 
fcitiament, when we have got 
everything privatized that is now 
going through in legislation and if 
we get British Airways privatized, 
we will be back to the same 
proportion of GDP coining from 
the public sector as it did in 
Harold Macmillan’s time. 

Are you going to be able to put on 
toe menu for the general election 
farther ’ proposals for 

Steel is one obvious one that will 
come np and then we will have to 
have a look at others, but we have 
got quite a way toga 

The overwhelming majority of 
people, who could never look 
forward to that before, will be able 
to say: “Look, they have got 
something to inherit. They have 
got a basis to start on!” That is 
tremendous. That is popular 

Are you going to have to accept 
that there is a hud core of the 
public sector that cannot be priva- 
tized and if so, what is going to be 
done with that? What abort the 
railways, for example? 

The railways are quite difficult, 
but we have already done quite a 
lot. There are lots of subsidiaries 
of railways, like hotels, which 

have been privatized. There is a 
lot of land owned by railways 
which can be sold off and 
privatised. There are a lot of 
things that railways do that can be 
privatized, their catering and so 

You will not forget that keeping 
the finances of Britain on a sound, 
prudent, well-managed basis is 
what people tend to take for 
granted, but his crucial. 

What will be the new directions? 
What abort rent control? 

We will have to free up the rent 
control sector. Things that are 
vacant and things that have never 
been let, which will be comi ng on 
to the market for the first time. I 
think we wiff have to take steps to 
free these and we would put that in 
our manifesto. 

At the moment we have got 
assured tendandes as you know; 
those can be freed from rent 
control That is where you build 
with approval and then you get an 
assured tenancy and it is rent-free. 
We are going a little bit further, 
improved assured tenancy. Im- 
proving property. 

This would take place after the 
next election rather than before? 
That is right. Also, I think many of 
us are very keen to get more 
improvements to council blocks 
so that they can be sokL 
What abort edacatioa? 

I remain exxremdy worried about 
it, particularly in the inner cities. I 
know that some people in the shire 
counties are extremely satisfied 
with tiie education that they are 
getting. I know that there are other 
people who are very concerned, 
even in some of those places, with 
a lot of political indooiiotation, 
but wfaat really concerns me is the 
inner cities and some of the things 
which I learned there from parents 
and from pupils, where undoubt- 
edly the education is not up to the 
standard which most parents not 
only expea but are entitled to 

Now Keith, as you know, is 

trying to do great things about 
having a proper curriculum for 
youngsters, about making certain 
that they do not give up subjects 
which might be quite critical to 
them in their later life. I wish to 
goodness we still had more direct 
grant schools and I will tell you 

There are some children whom 
the large comprehensive schools 
do not suit You go from a 
comparatively small primary 
school where you are quite happy; 
the size is within your perceptions, 
within your consciousness, and 
then at a most vulnerable time in 
life you get catapulted into a big 
school and some children never 
settle down. But there is no choice. 
They cannot get to a smaller one. 

Now, we nave not yet decided 
whether we will be able to have an 
education credit to give parents 
who are unhappy more possibility 
of getting their child into school of 
their choice. It is a very, very long- 
term thing. 

Some people are against It 
because they say that it would give 
an enormous bonus to those who 
send their children to independent 
schools. But you could deal with 
that fry way of taxation. 

Do yra have any plans for 
Anther industrial rotations legist*- - 
tion, either la this Parliament or in * 
the next Parliament? 

I do not think that we shall have 
any more in this Parliament, but 
they are already looking at things 
for the next Parliament 

l think there are certain things 
about the dosed shop that one 
needs still to consider. I still find a 
dosed shop repugnant myself 

I think that there are certain 
things which you need to consider 
about contracts between employ- 
ers and trade unions being en- 
forceable, which they are in other 

After Ambassador Part Nitre’s 
recent travels round Western Eu- 
rope, the United States b propos- 
ing to the Soviet Union the 
complete elimination of owdfmn 
range unclear rtMiiM over three 
years. Are yoa happy with this 
global zero-zero option? 

We said right at the be ginning that 
if the Soviet Union got rid of her 
intermediate missiles then there 
would be no Cruise or Pershings, 
and that really is the zero-zero 
global option, and we are reverting 
to that, so his not a new option.! 
do not find many people still 
concerned, as they were originally, 
about the decoupling of die Unit- 
ed States and Europe, ft is for 
these reasons that we keep our 
own independent nuclear deter- 
rent and so does France, because 
we still would have something, but 
they are last-resort things. So we 
are quite happy to go along with 
the zero-zero global to be readied 
in three years. 

There is room for getting down 
the intercontinental ballistic mis- 
siles on both sides. Both the Presi- 
dent and Mr Gorbachev, have 
said that they want to see a world 
without nudear weapons. I cannot 
see a world without nuclear weap- 
ons. Let practical about it 
The knowledge is there to' make 
them.. So do not go too' hard for 

that pie in the Sky because, while 
everyone would like i 

to see ft, I do 
not believe it is going to come 

Compulsory postal ballots? 

as you knowWe wilThave^ look 
at them. I will not say we will not 

How important » the Fulham 
by-election in immediate political 
terms and how well do you expect 
to do? 

Well we can win. We can win and I 
think that the Budget indicates, 
that we have not lost momentum. 

Every by-election is important 
to me, every single one, and 
sometimes we think we do not get 
our message across cogently 
enough. The really big things are 
the big strategies — toe transfor- 
mation that has come about in 
ownership, the transformation 
that has crane about when yon 
have your finances well and truly 
run properly, run on a sound 
footing; the certainty that inflation 
will be kept down. 

Will the decline in Bnemptoymert 
come throagh before toe next 

t your 

dom is tommisfred and there ma 
lime you know, during toe lifetime 
of a Labour government, when 
right-wing Labour politicians were 
saying: “ff ft goes cm like this we 
shall no longer be a free society!” 
Win it be easier to penmate the 
Cabinet to hold down, public 
expenditure this year than in the 

No, ft wtD be about the same. 
Hew woald yoa Kke your premier- 
ship and your Government to be 
regarded in historyTI really think 
that it was the turn of the tide. We 
were slipping so fast into a 
Socialist stole, where the individ- 
ual mattered less and the collec- 
tive more. That is not right for the 
British character. We turned that 
whole tide because people knew it 
had turned. As my constituent 
said: “We had to vote for you to 
get the centre back to the middle!” 
Are you stiff absolutely deter- 
mined, without eamvocatfon, to 
take the Conservative Party into 
toe next Election? 



Northern Ireland questions 

Labour troubles 

Unionists are urged to accept 
Thatcher invitation to talks 


Mr Tom King. Secretary of 
Stale for Northern Ireland, said 
during Commons question 
time exchanges that he hoped 
that Mr James Molyneaux and 
the Rev Ian Paisley, leaders of 
the two main Unionist parties, 
would accept the invitation of 
the Prime Minister and enter 
into sensible discussions about 
a whole range of issues of 
concern to the people of the 

He joined in criticism of the 
absence, apart from Mr Enoch 
Powell, of Unionist MP$ from 
the Pariiameat of the United 
Kingdom for which they had 
recently stood and been rc- 

to the Anglo-Irish agreement 
and made it clear that any 
subsequent talks would be 
without prejudice to that 
opposition. The Government 
was prepared to talk on any or 
all maueni, including topics on 
which the agreement had no 

Mr Stuart Bell, an Opposite 

— „ — Mion 

spokesman on 

Ireland, said it was right and 

proper that the Unionist 

The Government believes 
(he said) that it has made a 
helpful response to the 
Unionist leaders, recognizing 
the realities of the position and 
the realities of the agrcemcnL 



He pointed out that in her 
letter to the Unionist leaders, 
the Prime Minister hod invited 
them to enter into talks 
without pre-conditions, to 
discuss their concerns and see 
whether progress could be 

AH sensible people will 
recognise (he went on) that 
either there will be talks or 
there will be much more 
serious consequences if this is 
allowed io drift on and if the 
present impasse is allowed to 

On behalf of the 
Government and I hope with 
the support of all MPs. 1 say 
there must be talks. I hope the 
Unionist leaders will accept the 
invitation from Mrs Thatcher 
and enter into these talks as 
soon as possible. 

He added that in her letter 
the Prime Minister recognized 
the opposition of the Unionists 

ft would be tragic it in the 
face of lhai offer, the Unionist 
leaders are not even prepared 
to enter into talks without pre- 
conditions and without 
prejudice to their own position. 
That is an offer that must be 
taken up and 1 hope they will 
respond to it. 

ieis should take up the 
invitation to further talks. 

There is nothing in the 
Anglo-Irish agreement (he said) 
that prevents Unionist leaders 
talking to the elected 
Government of the United 

Earlier. Mr Seamus Malian 
(Newry and Armagh. SDLP) 
said; A sizeable section of the 
population in Northern Ireland 
is in favour of the Anglo-Irish 
agreement and wants to see it 

Mr King: One of the 

consequences of the agreement 
was a recognition among the 
nationalist community of the 
opportunity of progress by 
constitutional means rather 
than by having to support the 
men of violence. 

At the same time it is not in 
the nationalist interest to have 
the degree of misunderstanding 
and discontent that there is 
among the Unionist 
community over the 

working. Wiff he consider 
taking the opportunity to direct 

some remarks to that section of 
the community instead of 
expressing bis own inherent 
Unionism at every 


1 am anxious to see if those 
fears and misunderstandings 
can be relieved and the genuine 
concents can be met in 
discussions with the Unionists 
on a number of aspects, such as 
method of consultation and 
involvement available to item 
as well. 

Powell blames UK governments 

• ultimate resnonsibilitv for House of Commons to join _ 

Hie ultimate responsibility for 
whatever happens in Nonhem 
Ireland over Easter, and in the 
weeks and months beyond, 
would lie. as ever, with the 
ambiguities and insincerities of 
the policies of successive 
British Governments towards 
the Province and its people, 
Mr Enoch Powell (Down 
South. OLTP) declared during 
questions in the Commons. 

Mr Tom King. Secretary of 
State for Northern Ireland, 
commented: We all have a 
responsibility at present not to 
anticipate trouble but to seek 
in every way we can to try to 
discourage any trouble taking 

1 hope 1 can look to Mr 
Powell as a member of the 

with us all in believing that' the 
right way to relieve diflu 

~w~- .Acuities, 

ambiguities and insincerities is 
by discussion and consultation 
and that at no time can there 
be a case for violence and 

Mr Seamus Mai Ion (Newry 
and Armagh. SDLP) said that 

probably one or the most 
serious security issues would be 
the marches; particularly the 
so-called Loyalist march at 
Portadown next Monday 
which, with its coat-trailing 
exerci se in triumphalism 
geared to exacerbate sectarian 
tori mgs and promote the type 
of sectarian strife seen, last July. 

Wedding holiday plea 

A rennecl ihnt the nmmn.c .... 

A request that the Commons 
should not sit on July 23, the 
day of the Royal wedding 
between Prince Andrew and 
Miss Sarah Ferguson, was 
made during Commons 
business questions by Mr Peter 
Bruin reb (Leicester East, Q. 

Mr John Biff™, the Leader of 
the House, replied that that 
privilege was not within his 
gift, but Britain bad fer fewer 
public holidays than most 
continental European countries 
and here was a fhow* to 
redress the balance. 

Labour and 


Criticism of the Labour 
“hypocritical*’ silence about 
way Mr Robert Maxwell ran 
his newspapers, compared to 
their behaviour over Mr 
Rupert Murdoch, was voiced 
during Commons business 
questions by ‘two Conservative 

Mr _ Michael Fallon 
(Darlington, C) asked for an 
cany debate on industrial 
relations in the newspaper 
industry so the Labour Pany 
could end its hypocritical 
silence over the way Mi- 
Max well ran his newspapers. 
Mr John Biflea, Leader of the 
House, replied: I am not sore 
about hypocritical; it is 
definitely spasmodic. 
iVfr peter LOley (St Albans, Q 
said be supported Mr Fallon’s 
request. The House should 
have the opportunity to 
consider why the Labour Party 
refused to have any teniinpt 
with Mr Rupert Murdoch over 
his move to Wapping whereas 
the dispute in Glasgow ted led 
to no such action. Should we 
not (he said) have att 
opportunity to investigate 
whether it is because of some 
financial relationship between 
Mr Maxwell and the Labour 

Mr Biffen replied that the 
debate’s attractiveness 
increased every moment. 
(Laughter) Surely, over the 
next few days with (He Fulham 
by-election the Labour Party 
would take an early 
opportunity for an explicit 
statement as to where they 
stood between toe actions of 
these two newspaper tycoons. 

Making capital out of 
Kinnock’s problems 


Conservative and .Alliance 
backbench MPs used the 
opportunity of Prime 
Minister’s question time to 
exploit the difficulties suffered 
by Mr Neil Kbmock, Leader of 
the Opposition, in his so fer 
frustrated attempts to expel 
Militant supporters from the 
Labour Party. 

The first to raise the issue 
was Sir Hugh Roast (Hornsey 
and Wood Green, Q who 
remarked: Having regard to 
recen\ problems about 
extradition, and if ft is decided 
to make changes in the office of 
the Director of Public 
Prosecutions, will toe Prime 
Minister ensure that 
recruitment does not take place 
from amongst those who 
advised Mr Kjnnock on 
expulsions from toe Labour 
Party? (Laughter) 

Mrs Thatcher. He makes his 
point wry effectively. 

Mr Robert Macleanan 
(Caithness and Sutherland, 
SDP): Following the Prime 
Minister's decision to wipe out 
those local authorities with 
whose policies she disagrees, 
and toe failure of Mr Kinnock 
to curb the cancerous spread of 
fundamentalist extremism 
within the Labour Party, will 
she now seek to protect local 
democracy for trusting the 
people and introducing a fair 
and proportional voting 

Mrs Thatcher No. I note what 
be says hi effect about the 
GLC His constituency is about 
as fer from London as it could 

possibly be. 

Mr Albert McQuurie (Banff 
and Buchan, Q: Will she take 
time to read the national press 

about the shambles in the 
Labour Party? 

Mrs Thatcher I agree with his 
analysis, but I think I have 
more important things to do - 
than read the reports to which 
he refers. 

Efforts to 


Every effort weald be made to 
ensure toe effectiveness of the 
ex traditi Bn process, Mr Ton 
King, Secretary of State for 
Northern Ireland, said wbca 
father abo rt the 
of toe wamtt m the 
case of Evelyn Cffenfadmes, the 
IRA bomb irrmrft 
Sir Pfafffo Good hart 
(Beckenham, C) had asked: 
Wffl he make sure there are 
inquiries into why no attempt 
was made to. arrest Mire 
Gtenbobaes oo a charge of 
being a suspected member of 
the IRA which is an offence 
within the Republic? 

Mr King; There is to be a 
disciplinary inquiry- hi the 
Office at toe DPP. 

Mr Jeremy Hayea (Harlow, 
C); The whole of the 

to da with the Anglo-I 

Minister defends police inquiry 


There was no question of 
dilatoriness or of seeking to 
cover up in tire police inquiry 
into the events at the 
demonstration at Manchester 
University on Match 1 last 
year, Mr GBes Shaw, Minister 
of State, Home Office, said in 
tite Commons. 

He was replying to 
allegations that the key 
witnesses in the inquiry bad 
been harrassed, attacked and 

Articles _ in The Guardian 
had, be said, contained serious 
allegations and if The Guardian 
had any new evidence it sbonid 
be passed to the investigation. 

The complaints arose out of 
incidents daring a visit try .the 
then Home Secretary, Mr Lean 
Britton, to the students anion 

Mr Anthony Lloyd 
{Stretford, Lab) said that toe 
inquiry by the Police 

Complaints Authority to date 
been £ 

had been incompetent. 

Miss Sarah Hollis, who had 
been injured during the 

demonstration, had suffered, a 
considerable amount of 
moiety, fear and. brutal attack 
since then. Following- her 
injuries last year, she bad been 
followed by police vehicles, 
Mr Sydney Chapman 
(Chipping Barnet, C) said that 
Stephen Shaw, one of the 
witnesses, was a constituent. 

- He was interviewed for five 
boors, strip searched - and,' tie 
cteinjs, assaulted. 1 1 understand 
no doctor was present- but be 1 
had to be taken to hospuai-aod 
ft was^ found that- he : .was 
ruptured internally.' : . 



I do not know. I most earnestly 
hope so. An increasing number of 
jobs are coming through and if we 
were not feeing also file simulta- 
neous increase in toe population 
of working age then we should be 
-getting on top of it 
Your other dearestwisk to to farfe* 
taxation down farther s^stonlnf 
ly before toe Election, This wffl 
realty depend on bolding public 
expenditure down to the next 
round. Doyou think that is geing 
to be possible this year?' ' 

I do not know, but I hope vx 1 no- 
tice yon wisely used the wont 
“bold” public expenditure, be-' 
cause if you actually hold it, 
against a background of growth 
you have got what yon warn and 
one reason why our taxation is 
higher here than in some of the 
European countries is that we 
have not yet broken through to toe 
amount of production per head of 
the population which they have. 

When people come to me and 
say “Don’t reduce tax!”, toe first 
question I ask of them is: “Do tefl 


Weil, I do not find many people 
coming to me, teachers, nurses, 
people who are working hard fort 
earning below average, I don’t find 
them coming to me and saying 
you are leaving too much of my 
own money in my pocket, Mrs 
Thatcher. I find them coming and 
saying: “I have not got enough of 
my own money left in my. own 
pocket to pay my rates, to pity my 
fuel bills, to pay food and cwthes. 
Yon look at toe black cash 
economy; that shows how tend 
people will work when they see a. 
direct relationship between what 
they earn and toe effort-So yesj do 
want taxation down, it is people’s 
own money. They are entitled to 
have more of it and I am not so ar- 
rogant as some politicians as to 
think that I know better bow to 
spend it than the people who earn 

But you are rating to hare to 
persuade the Cabinet aren't you to 
boM down public 

Yes I am and I am going to say to. 
them, I do say to them, what is 
moral about saying to your con- 
stituents, “I have spent your tax 
ieliefbecause I think I know better 
how to spend than you do!”? So 
yes, you have a reasonablelevd of 
public expenditure^ We have had 
our priorities with defence and law 
and order and health and our 
pledge to pensions and we have 
honoured the Iol Bat we have to 
watch the rate at which it goes up, 
because ffyourpublic expenditure 







J '■* : ^» 

If If-. 


T ^SL 

* *. *'.yr 

“* * \ 

*>. -V ‘ 

* * % . •.. 4 


ransack ruling 
party HQ and 
kill moderates 

:: From Michael Hanriyn, D flhi 


r “- * 

- ?5 

. * '• 
n :* 

■"». -A 

‘ The, head office of the Akali 
Dsfl, the. “immortal party** of 
the-. Sikhs which rules in 
Punjab state, was ransacked 
and its contents burned by 
extremists of the All. India 
Sikh Students* Federation 
yesterday. ; ‘ - 

.The extremists .ran across 
the’ road that passes through 
tire <K>Wct -T emple complex 
in -Amritsar into -the small 
square of offices where they 
pulled out all the party records 
and smashed furniture before 
potting everything to the 
torch. A few party workers in 
the office at the time, were 
beaten with batons and driven 

A portrait of Sant Harchand 
Singh Longowal,tbe moderate 
leader of the party assassinat- 
ed by terrorists last year, was 
smashed by the militants who 
were: protesting at the police 
shooting in Anandpur Sahib 
on Wednesday -is which seven 
people died. • . 7 
-Police outside the Golden 
Temple fired a shot into the 
air-in a bid: to scare away the 
students, -who were chanting 
slogans against Mr Suijir 
Singh: Bamala, the state's 
Chief Minister, and in favour 
of" Sant Jarnail Singh 
Bhindranwale, the martyred 
terrorist leader. 

The trouble was eventually 
halted by . Mr Gurdev Singh, 
who was put in charge of the 
temple by the extremists when 
they seized control of the 
complex at theend of January. 

Yesterday a series of assassi- 
nations, of. non-extreme Sikh 
leadens continued with foe 
gunning down of Aijun Singh 
Maslana, a former legislator of 
the .Communist Party of In- 
dia. He and his bodyguard 
died when three terrorists, two 
in police uniform, rode into 
his village on a motorcycle in 
foe . early ' hours of foe 

Yesterday's incidents added 
to foe . tofol of death and 
destruction which is likely to 
make this week foe worst week 
of terrorism since foe Akali 

Dal came to power in elections 
last year. The elections fol- 
lowed a pact between Sant 
LongowaJ and foe Govern- 
ment of Mr Rajiv Gandhi. 

. Since then foe Akali Dal 
Government under Mr Surjit 
Singh, has attempted to cany 
out a programme of reconcili- 
ation with the militants. Sev- 
eral hundred extremists have 
been released from jail where 
they were detained undo' the 
draconian National Security 
Act Army mutineers dis- 
. charged after the mass deser- 
tions following Operation 
Bluestar, the military seizure 
of the Golden Temple, have 
been given grants for land and 

The extremists, far from 
being mollified by this treat- 
ment, in fact have been en- 
couraged by it and by the 
Bamala Government's failure 
to move decisively against 

This failure was most strik- 
ingly shown following the 
January capture of foe temple 
by foe militants, who expelled 
foe high priests appointed by 
foe omdafiy-eJected Temple 
Management Committee, and 
began the destruction of the 
Altai Takht — foe seat of 
immortal power — which had 
been badly damaged in Opera- 
tion Bluestar and rebuilt un- 
do- Government direction. 

Then, Mr Surfit Singh and 
his Government had trailed a 
general meeting of all baptized 
Sikhs and apparently intended 
to evict the militants by force 
of numbers. But foe confron- 
tation was called off and foe 
meeting held instead at 
Anandpur thus leaving foe 
militants in undisputed con- 
trol of foe temple. 

The apparent failure of the 
Gandhi-Longowal accord to 
yield anything tangible to the 
Sikhs has been held against 
the Bamala Government 

The Punjab Cabinet was 
yesterday reported to be con- 
sidering matters in an emer- 
gency session. . 

France to 
lethal wine 

-From Swan MacDdnaJd 

' -'Paris •’ 

France has ordered foe de- 
struction of more than one 
million litres of cheap Italian 
wine' being held at foe Medi- 
terranean port of Site. - 

The 1*160,000 Hires has 
been declared unfit for cno- 
sompfow dne to its high level 
of methyl alcohol - np to 10 
times foe permitted amount. A 
total of 2*800,00© litres of red 
wine, originally from Puglia in 
southern Italy, has been 
Mocked for analysis in Sete 
where it arrived by sea. 

There have been general 
alerts in France, Germany and 
Belgian after the adulterated 
wine scandal m Italy which, it 
is alleged; has so far chimed 
eight lives. 

Some wine producers in 
southern Italy have already 
been interrogated by police, 
arid foe ItaHaii Minister of 
Agjriealnne, concerned about 
the image of Italian wine 
abroad, has stated that no-one 
should buy a bottle of wine 
■that is cheaper than a bottle of 
mineral water, 

• MILAN: Officials seized a 
wine power's stock at Apulia 
in southern Italy, which is 
believed, may have poisoned 
some people here this month, 
foe Ansa news agency said 

“(Reuter reports). 

Police believe that foe grow- 
er may be the unregistered 
supplier of a distribution firm 
in foe northern city of Cuneo 
that"- authorities tentatively 
pin posited as the source of the 
poisoned wine 

‘•STUTTGART: Health in- 
spectors said yesterday that 
1,620 ooe-and-a-haif litre bot- 
tles- of 19S4 Barbera d’Asti 
Pfppioue c o ntainin g a danger- 
ously high level of 6.7 grams of 
mefbyf alcohol a litre had been 
found, in an import warehouse 
.near Karlsruhe- (Reuter 

• LONDON: A Department 
of Health spokesman said 

.yesterday that thou was no 
reason to suppose that any 
contaminated wine had been 
- exported to Britain (Robin 
Young writes). 


From Mohsin A3i - 

. The remains of at least four 
of foe. seven astronauts who 
were killed in foe Shuttle 
Challenger explosion on Janu- 
ary 28 have been identified, 
relatives and Nasa space agen- 
cy sources said. 

Family members said earli- 
er this week foatthey had been 
told by Nasa that partial body 
identifications had been made 
by military pathologists. 

“They have made some 
identification— but they are 
being very cautious,” said a 
member of foe family of 
astronaut Ronald McNair. 

Mrs June Scobee, widow of 
the Challenger commander, 
Dick Scobee, was reported as 
saying that she was planning a 
burial at Arlington National 
Cemetery, near Washington. 

Choppy seas and strong 
winds kept foe shuttle salvage 
fleet in port on Wednesday, 
preventing divers from com- 
pleting foe recovery of sunken 
wreckage of Challenger’s crew 
cabin, which is thought to 
contain more remains of foe 

Nasa has said it will not 
comment publicly on the crew 
cabin salvage operation and 
rheexanunation of astronauts’ 
remains until the task is 
completed. This will lake 
another two or three weeks, 
according to the agency. 

Meanwhile, Nasa officials 
are urging foe construction of 
foe new shuttle, Orbiter, at a 
cost of $2.8 billion (£1.9 
billion), and a build-up to 10 
unmanned rockets to meet 
national security needs. 

Mr William Graham, acting 
Nasa Administrator, said that 
foe space agency might launch 
foe next shuttle in 12 to 18 
months, unless more critical 
flaws were found. “We will 
not go back to space flight 
until we are confident we have 
addressed all the safety 
issues.” - 
He also said that work 
continued on a permanent 
space station targeted for 

Meese backs Pakistan 

Islamabad (Reuter) — The 
US Attorney General. Mr 
Edwin Meese, has expressed 
satisfaction with Paki s ta n ’s 
attitude to fighting drug traf- 
ficking to the West. 

Mr Meese was shaking 
after a two-day visit designed 
to underline US support both 
for Pakistan's opposition to 
the Soviet military presence in 
Afghanistan and for its fight 
against drags. 

Ill a speech yesterday to 
Afghan refugees, Mr Meese 
. reaffirmed US support for 
guerrillas fighting foe Soviet- 
backed Afgfran'Governmeat. 

He said foe main purpose of 
his visit was to discuss drug 
co ntrol, for which Washington 
is fimding a crop substitution 
programme to end foe cultiva- 
tion of opium poppies in 
P akis tan’s North-West Fron- 
tier province. ' 

A State Department study 
last, month said Afghanistan 
and bordering areas of Paki- 
stan were foe world’s leading 
source of heroin. 

• PESHAWAR: A bomb ex- 
ploded in a . restaurant here 
frequented by Afghan refu- 
gees, killing at least four 
people and wounding 1 7. 


A masked Chilean student 
throwing a stone, at police 
daring an angry demonstra- 
tion in Santiago against the 
government of General Pino- 
chet. Hundreds of students 
were demanding secure condi- 
tions in which to stndy. 

In a separate incident a 
mother and her small daughter 
suffered burns when a bos was 
set alight by a firebomb (AFP 
reports). Police said it was the 
eighth such attack on a public 
transport vehicle within 48 
hours. The attackers escaped. 

The EEC food mountains 

Soviet bloc picks up a f Ibn bargain 

From Richard Owen 

The EEC last year sold 
mere than seven million 
tonnes of cereals to Russia for 
£785 million, as well os 

162.000 tonnes of batter to a 
value of £137 nutlion, both at 
knock-down prices. 

Libya received 461,000 
tonnes of EEC grain and 

54.000 tonnes of skimmed 
milk also at subsidized rates. 

The main Soviet bloc im- 
porters of EEC foodstuffs — 
Russia, Poland, Balgaria and 
East Germany — did bargain 
basement business with Brus- 
sels to the time of more than £1 
hflikm with Libya and other 
North African states — Alge- 
ria, Tunisia, Morocco and 
Egypt — close behind with 
more than £800 million worth. 

Bat even these large-scale 
cut-price deals have barely 
dented foe EEC food moun- 
tains, and the failure of EEC 
farm ministers this week to 
agree on a policy for disposal 
of foe surpluses leaves the 
Commission keen to conclude 
farther deals, including a sale 
of 100,000 tonnes of batter to 
Moscow through M Jean 
Baptiste Doumeng, the French 
Communist trader. The secret 
subsidy in this deal is said to 
be as ranch as three-quarters 
of the official intervention 

EEC officials deny that foe 
Commiss ion is negotiating 
“secret deals” to sell off 
intervention stocks. But trade 
experts say that those export- 
ers who specialize in sales to 
“sensitive” countries have 
been quietly fold of EEC 
export subsidy offers under a 
discreet tender system. 






0.6 million tonnes 
0.7 million tonnes 
1.1 million tonnes 
15.3 million tonnes 


at end of 
Feoruary 1986 

3.5 billion litres 

Total value ot intervention stocks: £5.7 billion 
Storage costs: £360 million plus interest at £470 million 

Source: EEC Comtmsson and European Paitament Besearcn Dnnston 

The EEC argues that sur- 
pluses would be as mnch as 40 
per cent higher bat for sales to 
foe Soviet Union. Libya and 
other controversial destina- 
tions. Brussels is also seeking 
markets in India and 

Figures obtained by The 
Times show that foe biggest 
importers of EEC cereals are 
foe Soviet Union (seven mil- 
lion tonnes), Saudi Arabia (1.5 

million), Morocco (1.5 mil- 
lion) and Algeria (l_3 million). 
Russia also imported the most 
EEC batter (162,000 tonnes), 
with Egypt some way behind 
(28,000, part in food aid). 

The Rnssians and their 
allies paid only £112 per tonne 
for cereal imports from Eu- 
rope, minus an export subsidy 
of £30-40. Similarly, Moscow 
paid 38p per lb for EEC batter 
compared to more than £1 per 

lb in the West- Nearly all of 
Libya's 9.000 tonnes of batter 
a year comes from the EEC. 

EEC officials point out that 
grain sold to foe Eastern bloc, 
Africa and foe Middle East is 
inferior in quality, and that foe 
butter involved is rancid or 

Mr Bryan Cassidy, Enro- 
MP for Dorset East and 
Hampshire West (Conserva- 
tive), complained this week 
that the British Government 
was failing to promote a new 
EEC scheme for foe sale of 
cut-price concentrated butter, 
in Britain. 

Mr Terry Pitt Labour MEP 
for West Midlands, said low- 
price sales of 750,000 tonnes 
of beef to non-EEC countries 
fast year had cost more than 
£500 million in subsidies, with 
a further £320 million going on 
beef storage costs. 

The Community also dis- 
posed of thousands of tonnes 
of grain as food aid last year, 
including more than 116,000 
tonnes to Ethiopia. 


Totals in £ million 

Volume per thousand tonnes 

























— — 






























































































































* Based on commwctel rate otgSp to the EurapMnCnnwey Unit Figures below 1,000 tonne* Bxciuded. Jan 85 to Dec 85 figures 
for EEC of tore Span and Portugal not inducted. Source: Eurostat -Context 

Open up the 1.3 GL Corollas and you'll 
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Israelis bomb Lebanon 

guerrilla bases after 

PLO attack on border 

In a swift reaction to a 
brocket attack against an Israeli 
-border town, Israeli ieis yes- 

- today bombed Palestinian 
"^guerrilla bases in southern 
-Lebanon, killing ten people 

and wounding 22. 

- The raid was a warning to 
? Palestinians, who have been 

budding up forces in the area, 

- to expect similar retaliation if 
:: the cross-border attacks per- 

- sisL But for from having a 
C deterrent effect, the raid pro- 

voiced vows to continue the 

- Palestinian struggle. 

t: The rocket attack was 
claimed by $he mainstream 
I-Faiah group of Mr Yassir 
* Arafat’s Palestine Liberation 

From Onr Correspondent, Sidon 

l Organization. Mr Badi Abu- “our straggle against the ene- 
i Suleiman, an Arafet loyalist, ray- We shall retaliate in a 
■ claimed that his guerrillas violent way. . . inside occu- 
i launched four Katyusha rock- pied land£ 
i els into Israeli territory, and The mid-morning raid was 
warned that the ensuing air launched less than two hours 
raid would only strengthen after a guerrilla rocket fired 
— MM ™ from south Lebanon hit a 
liiRJ schoolyard in the Israeli bor- 
■? ■'ll der town of Kiryat Shmona. 

Tbc Israeli jets came in 
n^d H from the dear Mediterranean 

Ufa* tri F sky west of Sidon for a five- 

" minute attack. Witnesses said 

LEBANON fX^T the jets made two bombing 

sSSSi Tr runs. In their second pass. 

"v* 8 *"*?* U they said, rockets and bombs 
■Jf l wounded several civilians 

■ "% f 5 who were trying to rescue 

1 snAa-V*— ' ^rr casualties. 

In a gesture that was more 
UiMn ! M i. A symbolic than effective, given 

121 (IIS III 111 the military sophistication of 

LMUIO the Israelis, the guerrillas fired 

j anti-aircraft guns and anti- 

j"B VnV/^llll #1 aircraft missiles when the jets 

Vlj ill UUUU swooped on the Ein Helweh 

7 , . and Miaou-Mia Palestinian 

stein, Jerusa lem refugee camps and the nearby 

striking at selected guerrilla hilltop village of Siroubieh. 
tanutsin Lebanon. A one-storey building be- 

lieved to be a Fatah headquar- 
Israeli mibtery analysts ^ near Miaou-Mia took 
have churned that some 1,000 (Jirccl hits ^ ^ badly 
Palestiuttn goewaB^most off damaged by the rockets, 
them to the Fatah HoutT after the raid, edgy 

*?* Palestinian guerrillas scram- 
estabhsbed toemsdresu. the ^ed among the debris in 
refugee camps around Sidoa m search 0 f victims and 
year .since the Israeli equipment. 
wtthdrawsL A bomb landed on a wide 

Yesterday's rocket attack on street on the outskirts of the 
Kiryat Sfunona, which is be- Ein Hiiweh camp, ripping oft 
lieved to hare originated in the chunks of the facade of a five- 
village of Shakra, well to the storey building and gouging a 
south of Sidon, could have huge, eight-yard deep crater. A 
been used simply as a pretext young Palestinian on the brink 
to strike at this baSd-up. of tears stood near the hole 
The Israefi Army spokes- and, turning to a Swedish 
man reported "good hits*' on radio reporter, said in broken 
the targets attacked, and English: “Remember, one day 
claimed Sat all Israeli aireraft we will not forget any Israeli, 
had returned safely to base. neither man, neither woman. 
The four Israelis famt in the anybody, remember.” 
racket attack were briefly kept But he was told to shut up 
in hospital for treatment, and and was taken away. Police 
all were later sent borne, said seven civilians, including 
Within hours of the attack, life Lebanese, were killed in the 
in the town was said to be back bomb Wast, about WO yards 



Rocket slams into 
school playground 

From David Bernstein, Jerusalem 

Four Israelis, three duMren 
and a teacher, were slightly 
^injured yesterday when a 
Katyasha rocket fired from 
southern Lebanon exploded in 

- the playground (ft a school in 
Kiryat Shmona. 

They were the first casual- 
ties <ft several such attacks on 
northern Israel since the Is- 
raeli Army withdrew from 
• most of southern Lebanon a 
: year ago. 

- The officer commanding 
Israel’s northern front, Msjor- 

- General Ori Onr, appeared to 
'. rule oat speculation that the 

air strike which followed oh 
Palestinian guerrilla targets 
near Sidon may have been in 
direct retaliation for the 

Visiting the town after the 
attack, be said that it had yet 
to be established which of toe 
-several hostile groups operat- 
ing in Lebanon had been 

It has, nevertheless, become 
routine Israeli practice to re- 
spond to such attacks by 




:: * 

'•* ' I-*—* .. 

striking at selected guerrilla 
targets in Lebanon. 

Israefi military analysts 
have claimed that some 1,000 
Palestinian guerrillas, most of 
them klosp^ to the Fatah 
wing of the PLO, have re- 
established themselves in toe 
refugee camps around Sidon in 
the year since the Israeli 

Yesterday's rocket attack on 
Kiryat Shmona, which is be- 
lieved to have originated in the 
village of Shakra, well to the 
south of Sidon, could have 
been used simply as a pretext 
to strike at this baBd-up. 

The Israefi Army spokes- 
man reported “good hits” oa 
the targets attacked, and 

Honduran support troops being airlifted by United States helicopters to Janastran, an area dose to the Ni ca r agu a n border. 

Reagan says lost aid vote was signal to strike 

Washington — President Reaga n, Mr Reagan yesterday said the Nice- invaded . be said, 
confident of having $100 million in aid raguan “offensive” against rebels based In mid- April the Democrats will 
to the Contras approved in the Senate in Hood ocas, was “a slap in the face” to produce their own version of aa aid 

last night, still looks stymied in the Congressmen who last week rejected his package. It falls far short of the 

Democrat-controlled House of Rep re- aid plan. “The Nicaraguan communists substantial unconditional assistance 

seatatives (Christopher Thomas writes). t®ok the House vote as a sign. They sought by Mr Reagan. 

Blacks die ~ , 

ambush CM CJ Dia/>a 

invaded . . be said. 

In mid- April the Democrats will 
produce their own version of an aid 
package. It falls far short of the 
substantial unconditional assistance 
sought by Mr Reagan. 

Tegucigalpa, Honduras 
(AF) — Rebels fighting the 
Nicaraguan: Government 4 by. 
they have surrounded .1,500 
Sandimsra troops, in southern 
Honduras and wilt not. let-, 
them escape bock across the 

Meanwhile, US military he- 
licopters withAmcrican crews 
feriied about 600 Honduran 
soldiers to thesouthem border 
area to join another 3,000 
troops already there. A US 
Embassy official said no fur- 
ther . flights were 

■ Honduran military intelli- 
gence sources said that 200 
Sandinistas have been killed 
and another 150 wounded 
since the fighting bnolce out On 
Saturday between the Nicara- 
guan troops and the Contras,' 

One military .source said 
that “very, important things 
cOukl happen in fovour of the 
Contras and harmful to the 
invading ariny.” He did not 

Mr Frank Arana, a spokes- 
man for the largest Contra 
group, claimed: “The invaders 
are not' going to 1 return to 
Nicaragua. Our troops have 
them surrounded.” 

to DonnaL 

from a Fatah office. 

Shultz seeks bases decision 

From Mario Modiano, Athens 

Mr George Shultz, the US Mr Papandreou, who of- nomic an 
cretary of State, was due to fered the American official Mr Pa] 
id his three-day stay in lunch after talks lasting 90 he prefei 
[hens today' with a largely minutes, said in a toast problem 
mboiic visit to the Ameri- “Truly these two days were date, mr 
n Air Force base adjacent to very productive. I sincerely alienate 

Secretary of State, was due to 
end his three-day stay in 
Athens today' with a largely 
symbolic visit to the Ameri- 
can Air Force base adjacent to 
ZAlhens airport before flying 
no Rome. 

~ The fete of this and three 
;other US military installations 
•in this country once .the 
[current bases agreement ex- 
pires in 1988, was a key issue 
in Mr Shultz's discussions 
with Mr Andreas Papandreou, 
•the Greek Prime Minister, 

at the UN 

From Zoriana Pysariwsky 
New York 

The Soviet Union opened 
the debate in Che United 
Nations Security Council on 
the Libyan- American confron- 
tation in the Gulf of Sirte, 
accusing the United States of 
state terrorism against Libya 
that threatened the stability of 
the entire Mediterranean 

1 Calling the U5 retaliatory 
strikes against Libya “pre- 
meditated bandit attacks” Mr 
Yuri Dubinin, the Soviet rep- 
resentative, urged the Security 
Council to condemn the US 
and adopt measures that 
would protect Libya's territo- 
rial integrity. He said that 
both Libya and Nicaragua had 
borne the brunt of American 
imperialist policies. 

The Security Council con- 
vened at the request of Malta 
and the Soviet Union, which 
said that the US was planning 
farther strikes against Libya. 

■ Although tiie statement by 
Malta lacked the vehemence 
that set toe tone of the Soviet 
opening remarks, Mr George 
Agios, the Maltese represen- 
tative, made dear that his 
Government attached most of 
the blame for the hostilities to 
the United States. 

General Vernon Walters 
the American representative, 
toM the Security Council that 
the US response to Libya's 
hostile actions was measured 
and appropriate- By entering 
the Guff of Sirte, the United 
States was defending freedom 
of navigation for all nations. 

nomic and defence concerns. 

Mr Papandreou insists that 
he prefers to deal with this 
problem nearer the expiry 
date, mainly so as not to 
alienate left-wing opinion 

believe that they constitute a which his government needs 
big step forward in the devet- in a year of municipal 

opment of our relations in all 


Mr Shultz was given an idea 

The US Government wants of the vigour with which the 
to know soon whether its Greek left opposes the pres- 
milhary presence in Greece ence of the bases, after demon- 
can be extended into the next strations in Athens and other 
decade, in exchange for assis- cities on Wednesday devel- 
tance in meeting Mr oped into violent clashes be- 
Papandreou’s growing eco- tween police and extremists. 

Aftermath of the Golf of Sirte clash 

From^ ^ct^ Hcwnsby 

The death toll in wide- . 

spread unrest in South Africa ^ 

in the 24 hours to midnight on 
Wednesday, rose to 30 yester- 
day with the news that police 
killed two blacks in an am- 
bush laid for stone-throwers in 
the Crossroads squatter camp 
outside Cape Town on 

Meanwhile, Mr Louis le ,f%. 

Grange, the Minister of Law ,yy> ^ ■ 

and Order, extended for an- 
other year bans on all gather- 

ings called to promote school nwryAl . v/ * 
’TSto in the tribal home- 

land of Bophuthatswana con- * # tp ^ 

finned that they killed 11 tOV^^‘4 ^ /■ / ’ x I V; - 

blacks on Wednesday when 
they opened fire on a large gflBI (\ < - ; ^ 

crowd, gathered on a football |BS 

ground in the Wintervrid B,"-.-: . ^ -.^i 

shanty town, which allegedly >i 

ignored an order to disperse. : ';?/ . ^ \ 

Dr Lucas Mango pe, the I q ' 1 l- vv. v 

leader of Bophuthatswana. ^ 

yesterday appointed ajudge to ^ .. ;a . •/ ^ 

hold an inquiry. J ‘ : t ^ r J ' J 

Winterveld residents daim |5S - -- . - 

that as many as 20 people were 
killed. They said that police . iliW .. 
later detained scores of NIKKAI DM0100 
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Russians explain inability 
to help in naval skirmish 

From Robert Fisk, Tripoli, Libya 


Libyan — not Soviet — 
military personnel fired the 
Sam 5 anti-aircraft missiles at 

in 1981 — they could not have 
come then to punish this same 
terrorism. So why did they 

American jets over the Gulf of come?” 

Sirte this week and the Rus- Such arguments, however, 
sians were yesterday explain- cannot hide the embarrass- 
ing why they could not help ment which the Russians — 
Libya when the US Sixth Fleet — 
attacked its patrol boats. 0 . . 

Soviet o “ in Tripoli 'Spanish save 

are arguing that one benefit of r . 

the whole affair is an increase 
in Colonel Gadaffi's domestic 
popularity but they are pain- 
fully aware of their own 
inability to protect the Liby- 
ans militarily. 

“What did you expect us to 
do?” a Soviet official asked me 
yesterday. “To strike Ameri- 
can ships? Do you know what 
would happen then? We have 
to hope that the Americans 
will study the situation care- 
fully, that there will be a 
peaceful solution to this 

In Tripoli, the Russians are 
fully endorsing Colonel 
Gadaffi's contention that the 
Gulf of Sirte is Libyan territo- 
rial water, but on grounds of 
precedent rather than interna- 
tional law. “The Gulf of Sirte 
is not an international sea 
lane,” the Soviet official said. 
“There are in the world sever- 
al gulfs considered by nations 
to be their internal territorial 
waters — the Hudson Gulf 
(sic), the Gulf of Mexico, the 
Gulf of Riga, $irte...the Amer- 
icans accused Libya of this 
happening (sic) that took place 
in the airports at Rome and 
Vienna. They have no evi- 
dence about Libya and this. 
And the Sixth Fleet came here 


despite the continued deten- 
tion of a British engineer from 
Plessey, Mr James Abra, who i 
is on trial in Tripoli on charges i 
of passing secret radar defence i 
information to London. 

Nor is Colonel Gadaffi as 1 
universally popular in Libya 
as the Russians claim, aJ- , 
though Western as well as East 1 
Bloc diplomats agree that his 
personal stature has been im- 

Libyan vessel sunk last Mon- 
day by the US Sixth Fleet, and 
put them ashore at Tripoli, 


A rumour is circulating 
among embassies here of an- 
other assassination attempt 

according to reports published a E a * n $t him, while recent gov- 
fa ere yesterday (Harry entmental changes mean that 

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Debelius writes). Seamen 
aboard the tanker Castillo de 
Rkote. bound from the Libyan 

internal security has been 
reorganized to concentrate 
more power among Colonel 

port of Rastamuf with a load of Gadaffi s closest advisers, 
crude o3 for Conmna in north- _ In a sudden decision, o PR- 
west Spam, sighted the snrri- cially taken at the request of 
vors in a Ifteraft in tfae the “General People's 

s £189.90 sr £219.90 

vors in a uferaft in tfae 
Mediterranean slightly north Congress”, nine of the 20 
of the “death fine” designated principal government minis- 
by Colonel Gadaffi. tries have disappeared, to be 

■■ ■■■■■■ - amalgamated with other de- 

lice ministries. The latter's 

Sirt'ff the Libyan security police will 

** ^mediately responsible to 
“They took a bloody nose . lhe Colone rs depmy, Abdul- . 

Ironically, the Libyan patrol Salam Jalloud. His own posi- 
boats attacked by the Ameri- tion has thus become fer more 
cans are believed to have been powerful although he has stat- 
equipped with British naviga- ed publicly that “Colonel 
tion and radar equipmenL In Gadaffi does not have a 
feet, British companies have successor”. Indeed, the Colo- 
been helping the Libyans to nel is being remorselessly built 
renovate their military radar up in the Libyan media a$ a 
systems — despite Mrs near-deity. America's military 
Thatcher's support for Ameri- operation in the Gulf of Sirte 
can policy over Libya and can only have helped. 

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Admiral describes how the conflict began 

Vice-Admiral Frank Kelso, aircraft missiles were fired at 
commander of the aircraft US aireraft crossing the line. 

carrier Saratoga, manoeuvring Four Libyan ships were hit 
off the Libyan coast described during the confrontations on 
how forces under his com- Monday and early Tuesday, 
mand clashed with the Li by- Three were reported to have 
ans at the beginning of this been sunk. 

He said Soviet activity in 
the region was normal Both 
US ana Soviet ships regularly 
ply the waters of the southern 
Mediterranean, monitoring 


Admiral Kelso said there 
had been no further incidents 
between the two sides sineethe 
last one at 5.30 am GMT on 

On Monday, lhe American 
forces struck at the Libyans 
after six Soviet-made anli- 

oeen Asked about the attacks, the 

US Navy planes also strode admiral said: “We did nothing 
at a Soviet-built Sam-S anti- to provoke an action. We were 

aircraft missile site on 

Admiral Kelso said that 
during the exercises no US 
ship had gone closer than 60 
miles north of tfae 12-mile 

not going to permit them to 
attack our forces.” 

Admiral Kelso went ore 
“The (Libyan) missiles were 
fired. They were seen on 
radar. There was no question 
that they were fired 

“The picture happens like 
this the missile is seen on 
radar, fired, your airplanes 
take the required reaction to 
get out of the ’envelope' of 
that missile, which they did 1 
very ’effectively." No US j 
planes were hit, he said 

The admiral explained why ' 
US forces had not tried to 
rescue members of Libyan 
ships that had been hit. 

“1 would have been happy 
to do so if it were prudent, but 
I was not going to go over and 
take the chance ofanotber hit ! 
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family cars 

NISSAN SUNNY 1300 GS — £5726 
VAUXHALL NOVA 1300 GL— £5939 

IAN2A1600GL— £6551 


FORD ORION 1600 LD £6792 

AUSTIN MONTEGO 1600 L— £6799 

FORD ORION 1600 GL £6719 



GA 1500 GL- — £5770 






L CAVALIER 1.3 L— £6409 
TROVER 216 SE £7187 

FORD ORION 1600 GHIA: £7875 

LANCIA PRISMA 1600 — —£6990 
AUSTIN ROVER 216 SE— £7187 

MONTEGO 2.0 HL— £7899 





SEAT MALAGA 1500 GLX — £6293 




FORD ORION 1600 DGL- :;Sa «lSS5fe, - 
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become Which Car?’s 'Best Buy 1 - the Orion, Cavalier, 
Montego - family cars from Alfa to Volkswagen. 

But it took the Fiat Regata to show them all the 
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result beyond doubt 

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“Performance is one of the Regata’s strong suits 
...The twin cam 100 Super can manage a class-leading 
109 mph - and the 0-60 mph dash in under 10 secs!’ 
“.ride comfort is good. ..and handling safe and 
predictable" ■ 

“The Regata’s interior is spacious . . . equipment 
levels are high too. In total, the Regata is quiet and refined" 
‘A truly massive boot makes the point that the 
Regata is a very competent load carrier as well” 

“Fiat have gone to a lot of trouble to make the 
Regata one of the most refined economy machines in its 
class . . . All versions return very good fuel economy, however 
hard they are driven!’ 

And to sum up: 

"Buy a Regata and you get a lot of car for your 
money. All models are well equipped when compared 
with rivals and although the Regata never sets out to be 

a massive car it uses its interior space to great effect 
In addition, all models are pleasanttb chive, handle 

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Melbourne bombing injures 21 
and shakes Austrian nerve 

- A car packed with gclignitc 
■bte w up w ithout warning in 
. the centre of Melbourne yes- 
terday, injuring 21peopte and 
leaving -the . icsktems of 
; Australia’s second city 
locked and stunned. They 
frequently read about ibis 
kind of outrage but have never 
before experienced it 

A policewoman was in a 
critical condition last ni gh t 
and another police officer was 
said to be seriously injured: 
Officials, bowever, said it was 
-only by good, fortune that 
them had not been large-scale 

loss of life. • . 

The sedate commercial cap- 
ital was starting to dose down 
for the Easter weekend when 
the bomb went off just after 
lpm. The stolen car disinte- 
grated outside police head- 

of petrol 
i other pa 

sions in other jKriuad vehicles. 

The indiscriminate attack 
confused police who said they 
had no dear idea who might 
be responsible. 

The police building and the 
adjacent ' . Melbourne 

Magistrate’s Court took the 
mam force of the blast which 
scattered debris for up to 200 ‘ 
yards. A number of other 
central buildings suffered ex- 
ternal damage. " 

Police established a task 
force of 20 detectives from the 
homicide, arson and main 
crime squads, but in response 
to a wave of feverish specula- 
tion as who was responsible, a 
spokesman said: “We have no 
positive leads”. 

Among the plethora of theo- 
ries was a suggestion that the 
bomb might have been the 
work of foreign terrorists but, 
by the nature ofthe target, that 
-seemed unlikely. 

Police made it clear they did 
not see a political motive and 
were more inclined to believe 


that the police station, or even 
the magistrate’s court, was the 
target .. 

A spokesman said: “We 
have had indhddual^veiKkttas 
against police, bm tins kind of 
indiscriminate attack on the 
public is something we 
haven’t seen in Australia 

The only comparable out- 
rage occurred in 1979 when a 
bomb explo ded in a Sydney 
hold during a - Common- 
wealth Heads of Government 
meeting, ki l li n g three people. 

Mr John Gain, Premier of 
Victoria, described the bomb- 
ing as “a barbaric act of 
criminal violence. 

“We have been free ofrthis 
sort of thing — we have read 
about it and abhorred it in 
other parts of the world. One 
can only be very concerned as 
to what the future hoMs.**- . 

Mr Bob Hawke, the Prime 
Minister, was said to have 
been deeply disturbed by the 
attack. Meanwhile, there is an 
over-riding sense of dismay, 
among Australians foal such a 
tiling could happen in their 
own country. 

Deputy Police Commis- 
sioner Keith Thompson con- 
firmed there had been no 
warning before the blast. He 
said it was fortunate there 
were not more people in the 
area at the time. Many coukl 
have been killed, he added. 

A solicitor who was in the 
court building at the time said 
there was total confusion for 
some minutes before police 
started herding magistrates 
and others out of the bade of 
the complex. 

The scene at the police 
building was one of devasta- 
tion. Every window on the 
first five floors of the 11-storey 
Mod: was shattered. A police- 
woman said broken glass lay 
deep on the flora' white flying 
shards had shredded pot 

Spain’s far left in 
search of unity 

- From Richard Wigg 


The almost seven million 
• "“no"votes in the Nalo referen- 
dum have inspired the forces 
on -the left of Spain's ruling 
Socialist fatty to search for 
some kind of common front 
with which to fight lhis year’s 
general election. 

, The election must constitu- 
tionally be held by October, 
but there is tittle- time to Be 
-lost for Andalusia’s regional 
■ejec ti ons, a prior test, are now 
less than three months away. 

• -Find official figures just 
released show that the Social- 
ists won the referendum with 
9,054, 309-votes but the “no” 
'vptes totalled 6,872,421 and 
there were more than 11 
million abste n ti o ns. - 

Just as left-wingers appro- 
priate for themselves all the 
.“bo” votes, those who ab- 
stained have been claimed 
entirely by the right-wing 

The Communists and their 
trade unions, who were essen- 
tially tile organizing force 
’ behind the anti-Naio cam- 
paign, are fascinated by the 
referendum results, especially 
as they polled only 825,000 as 
a party at the last general 

Split now -at least three 
ways, the Cbramumsts know 
they risk parliamentary ex- 
tinction tins time unless they 
. can somehow ride on the 
hnrire of that referendum pro- 
test vote. .. 

But how to keep such a 
motley body as pacifists, ccbl-. 
A gists, disgruntled socialists. 
anti-American intellectuals, 
former communists and hard- 
line communist stalwarts all 
together for a general election 
is already dividing rival Com- 
munist leaders. 

Setter Gerardo Iglesias, the 
secretary general of Spam’s 
mmp comm unist Party, fa- 
vours a loose rein, non-doctn- 
nairc approach to attract the 
young people who flocked to* 
the ann-Nato campaign. 

Two communist veterans. 
Setter Santiago Carrillo, his 
predecessor, and Senor 
Ignacio Gall ego, leader of the 
pro-Moscow breakaway Com- 
munist Party of the Spanish 
Peoples, are both refusing to 
abandon dogmatic claims 
over the working dass._ 

Whether a common front to 
the left of the Socialists gets off 

Suspects caught 

Madrid — P amplon a pofiee 
have caponed tire suspected 
key members rtf ETA’s 
“Nafaroa” squad as well as 
flaw ether suspects (Harry 
Debefias writes). They mdsri- 
ed the squad’s leader, SeAoritii 
Mercedes Galdos, aged 30, 
wanted fra questioafog m con- 
nection with attacks, in Navar- 
ra over tfte >wrsix yfears la 
which eight people were UBed, 
including two generals 

the ground in the coming 
weeks will depend largely on 
whether a group of personal- 
ities heading the other constit- 
uent elements can sink their 
rivalries. . 

The problem of rival per- 
sonalities also conditions 
what Spain’s centre-right and 
right can do in a bid to prevent 
Senor Felipe Gonzdlez from 
winning a second term as 
Prime Minister. 

Two figures, at least, are 
bidding to replace the alterna- 
tive SefioT Fraga has offered to 
socialism with something less 
homespun and right-wing and 
more akin to the French 

One is Setter Miquel Roca, 
the Democratic Reformist 
Party leader, who has now 
openly identified his party 
with the Giscardians in 
France. Senor Oscar Ateaga, 
ladder of the Christian Demo- 
crat wing of Senor Fraga’s 
coalition, is the other. 

Sefior Roca maintains that 
Sefior Fraga’s five million 
votes at the 1982 election 
correspond essentially with 
elements in Spain’s provincial 
society rooted in the former 
authoritarian regime, and thus 
can never hope to win a 
majority over the Socialists. 

Many people would dearly 
like Setter Roca, who is a 
Catalan, to team up with 
Sefior Adolfo Suarez, Spain’s 
first democratic prime minis- 
ter, to revive a centrist alterna- 
tive. But the two men have 
stubbornly refused to 

Spain’s influential big pri- 
vate bankers, who have been a 
force behind political parties 
since the advent of democracy 
and whose disenchantment 
with Senor SuArez was one 
factor behind his decline, do 
not appear keen to back an all- 
out alternative to tire Gonza- 
lez Government. 

Seoul campus clash 

Seoul (Reuter) - .Police 
rated a Seoul university 
today and fired tear psto 
iperse hundreds of students 
tfwring ijpihM t President 
am Doo Hwan. 

Witnesses said about 300 
im-dsthes arte riot police 
nt to the Jesuit Sogang 
uve rs i ty , where about 500 

sidentwl raatiieysayisa 

military dictator. The students 
hurled stones and petrol 
bombs at the police. At least 

one student was arrested. 

At Confuciau Sungk- 
yunkwan University, about 
200 students marched on the 
campus to back an opposition 
campaig n far election reforms. 
At . Keokuk University, 100 
stndents dashed with riot 
police who stopped them 
marchflig in the streets. 

Can you always get your copy of The Times? 

Bar News*rat Please - 

NAME — r-r .i— • T~~ 

A policewoman covered with blood after the bomb attack 

on former 

Honolulu (AP) — A subpoe- 
na has been served on former 
President Marcos of the Phil- 
ippines at his beach-side home 
ordering him to give a deposi- 
tion in connection with a 
double kffling. 

The sobpoeaa was turned 
over to Secret Service agents 
for Mr Dean Alegado, a 
spokesman for the Committee 
for Justice for Domingo and 
Viernes, based in Seattle, 
Washington. Sflme Domingo 
and Gene Viernes were anti- 
Marcos trade union activists 
who were murdered on Jane 1, 
1981, in Seattle. 

Mr Marcos's testimony was 
sought in connection with a 
1982 lawsuit alleging that he 
and his top military aide. 
General Fabian Ver, were 
responsible for the murders. 

The subpoena, issued last 
Friday by the US District 
Court, required Mr Marcos to 
bring with him to the April 15 
deposition any documents in 
his possession relating to the 
murders of Domingo and 
Vienies, Mr Alegado said. 

It also required Mr Marcos 
to bring documents related to 
the use of Philippine National 
Intelligence and Security 
Agency agents who allegedly 
monitored the actions of anti- 
Marcos movement members in 
the United States, he said. 

Widening scandal over Marcos family dealing 

Japan looks into land sales 

The Japanese Government 
has agreed to set up a special 
committee to investigate for- 
mer President Marcos's deal- 
ings with Japan. The 
agreement was sealed yester- 
day at a meeting of the ruling 
Liberal Democratic Party 
(LDP) and the Opposition. 

As the LDP agreed to the 
first such investigation since 
the Lockheed bribery scandal 
of the mid-1970s, the Opposi- 
tion revealed what it said were 
attempts by the Marcos family 
to sell parcels of Philippines 
Government-owned land in 

Mr Kazunori Inoue of the 
Socialist Party showed a Low- 
er House committee docu- 
ments which he said were a 
sales agreement between a 
Marcos agent. Mr Victor 
Nituda, and a Japanese com- 
pany for the sale of three 
parcels of land worth 9.6 
billion yen (£36 million). The 
sale was said to have been 
arranged through a small trad- 
ing company which normally 

From David Watts, Tokyo 

deals in ships for Malaysia. 
The president of the firm was 
not in Tokyo. 

According to documents 
presented by the Socialists, 
agreement for the sale was 
reached in January and was to 
have gone through as soon as 
Mr Marcos approved the de- 
tails. That appears never to 
have happened. 

This is the most embarrass- 
ing allegation yet for the 
Japanese Government since 
the documents appeared to 
indicate that transfer of the 
property’ ownership should be 
done from the Philippines 
Foreign Ministry to its Japa- 
nese counterpart. 

The Government had been 
doing its best to avoid opposi- 
tion demands for an investiga- 
tion of Marcos links, but has 
had to yield to demands that 
overseas aid be investigated 
against a background of allega- 
tions that Japanese firms rou- 
tinely paid commissions of 1 5 
per cent on contracts in the 
Philippines. Much aid was 

tied to contracts with Japanese 
firms. Such commissions are 
not normally illegal. 

• NEW YORK.- The New 
York Times said yesterday it 
had obtained documents from 
Philippines Government 
sources which showed that Mr 
Marcos and his wife began 
accumulating inordinate 
wealth and property soon after 
he took office in 1965 (Reuter 

It said the records also 
showed that by 1970, two 
years before Mr Marcos de- 
clared martial law, his wife, 
Imelda, took trips abroad with 
as much as £150,000 in cash 
and $200,000 in traveller’s 
cheques, and held New York 
bank accounts under an as- 
sumed name with a balance of 

It said the papers indicated 
that a wealthy Filipino busi- 
nessman. who was a secret 
financial adviser to Mr Mar- 
cos, had purchased property 
for Mr Marcos as early as 

Sacked mayors call protest rallies 

Manila (Reuter) — More 
than 1,000 mayors said yester- 
day they would lead simulta- 
neous rallies throughout the 
Philippines to protest against 
the arbitrary dismissal of 
elected officials by the Gov- 
ernment of President Aquino. 

In a full-page advertisement 
in the mass-circulation Ma- 
nila Bulletin, they said the 

three-day rallies would start 
tomorrow in constituencies of 
1,523 mayors who had been 
ordered to resign. 

The mayors, whose six-year 
terms ended this month, asked 
the Government to call an 
election for May 3 rather than 
appoint replacements which 
they described as a “massive 
act of coup d'etat at local 

level”. Many members of the 
New Society Movement of 
former President Marcos ig- 
nored the orders to quit and in 
several places their supporters 
barricaded the town halls. 

The advertisement said: 
“Election not selection. The 
free ballot, not the boot of one 
man. Suffrage, not this out- 


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no.* 8 ft 3 . 5*8 SB IS ..Sfi’SlB 1 

Six months after the earthquake 
which devastated the bean of 
Mexico City. Sehor Eduardo Isias. 
a small tour operator, drives his 
clients around in a van instead of a 
60-scat coach. There is simply no 
longer the demand 

It is hardly surprising. Despite 
the best efforts of salvage and 
reconstruction workers, parts of 
this sprawling and polluted me- 
tropolis — at 18 million the 
world’s most populous — could 
double convincingly as a battle 
zone. Office and hotel blocks still 
stand deserted, with monstrous 
cracks rising up their flanks in 
jagged seams. They are the lucky 
ones: m3ny other buildings re- 
main slumped on to their founda- 
tions. apparently random victims 
of the colossal seismic violence 
which roared in waves beneath the 
city streets, killing 25,000 people, 
injuring 30,000 more and leaving 
100.000 homeless. 

These, at least, are the official 
figures. Isias himself believes the 
true death loll to be far higher, 
swelled by the number of un- 
known. unregistered citizens 
whose corpses may even now be 
mouldering in the debris. It is an 
inauspicious climate in which he 
and his colleagues are trying to 
reassemble the industry which, 
after oil is the country’s largest 

They do so in the fervent hope 
that after the years of impoverish- 
ing corruption by the government 
of ex-president Lopez Portillo, 
exacerbated by the halving of oil 
prices in the past four years. 52 
games of football in eight weeks 
hold the key to a desperately- 
needed economic recovery. With 
the World Cup. Mexico’s second 
in 16 years, just eight weeks away, 
this Catholic nation of 73 million 
finds itself praying for soccer to 
provide what industrial planning 

for its absence) has failed to 

The logic is simple: if visitors 
from the other 23 compering 
nations return home from the Cup 
with favourable impressions of 
Mexico, then me country stands to 
benefit from a major tourist 
boom. If not. the future remains 
bleak. At present the government 
of Miguel de la Madrid, mid-way 
through its statutory six-year 
term. 'must service a foreign debt 
of nearly SI 00 billion. On top of 
this it seems likely that Mexico 
will have to borrow S6.5 billion 
from a consortium comprising the 
International Monetary Fund, the 
World Bank and Lfnited Stales 
finance export agencies. 

Incongruous though it may 
appear, billions of dollars are now 
being spent preparing for a soccer 
fiesta by a country woefully unabie 
to meet its commitments to social 
reform. The most potent expres- 
sion of this contradiction threat- 
ens to explode on the eve of the 
tournament as 50.000 people 
dispossessed by the earthquake 
plan to occupy the capital's mas- 
sive Aztec Stadium in a demon- 
stration against the government's 
“inadequate" rehousing pro- 

Whether or not they gain entry 
to the 120.000-seat "ground tit 
seems improbable, given the 
heavy police presence for the 
Cup), this is scarcely the kind of 
publicity being sought by de la 
Madrid. Mexico's conundrum is 
that while the federal government 
is using the shop window of soccer 
to quicken the long-term prospects 
of international revenue, so the 
homeless are p idling the same 
lever in order to solve their 
immediate domestic problems. 
Those families currently living 
seven or eight to a room in shanty 
settlements away front the city 

Battle zones: six months after the earthquake left its trail of wrecks* 

enire. or camping under suppos- world's' political stage, not so 
dly temporary canvas might be much for international sport or 
breiven for seeing little personal natural disaster as for its careful 
K-nefii in the eovemment’s extren- neutrality between the united 

its trail of wreckage, hopes rest on the World Cop to stimulate a tourist boom as Mexico City attoapts th return. to «nal life 

centre, or camping under suppos- 
edly temporary canvas might be 
forgiven for seeing little personal 
benefit in the government's expen- 
diture on a soccer festival. 

As well as this, violence among 
visiting supporters, despite the 
outwardly-relaxed posture of the 
organizers, is never far from the 
official mind: ugly scenes on the 
terraces or streets could do much 
to thwart the rehabilitation of 
Mexico's image. 

All this has come at a rime when 
Mexico is at the centre of the 

States to the north and the Central 
American revolutionaries. Even a 
brief visit to the capital's purpose- 
built centres for press and TV 
coverage of the Cup demonstrates 
the extent to which the country 
combines "Hurd World poverty 
with hi-tech aspirations, somehow 
cemented for almost 60 years by 
the paradoxically-named Institu- 
tional Revolutionary Party. 

A total of 10,000 UK fens are 
expected in Mexico for the foot- 
ball this summer. A few years ago 
it was not uncommon for twice 
feat number to visit the country — 
without fee lure of such an event. 
But gradually inflation took its 
toll, until in 1982 British Airways 
responded to the dump by with- 
drawing its direct services. Now, 
wife several airlines flying direct 
from European centres to Mexico 
City, fee tourist business is hoping 
to recoup lost trade in the wake of 
;the cup. Last year fee industry's 

total revenue was $4.7 billion, tax 
82 per cent of feat was American 
traffic, wife , most of fee rest ; 

have beat puBed down. Meath 
while fee wrwly-fonnaf Agency 
for Conjunction, Renovation and 

divided equally between Europe ■: Occupation has to . assess the 

''/ THE velvet glove of welcome 

Mexican jails are not holiday camps, but rumours of 
starvation conditions awaiting lawless fans have been 
greatly exaggerated. Police in Monterrey, where 
England's Group F is based, vehemently deny that 
imprisoned supporters face a regime without food. 

All Cup tourists will be issued on arrival with an 
Identity card bearing the legend “Monterrey, better 
than e^er". Should they get into a scrape, this will 
guarantee them immediate access to a member of the 
British consulate. 

The city, with a population of one and a half million, 
has a British community of 5,000. some of whom will 
be supplementing fee stock of hotel rooms (also 5,000) 
w ith bed-and-breakfast for about £18 a night. 

Although the standing of the British fan in Mexico 
is dubious, both because of the Heyse! Stadium 
tragedy and team manager Bobby Robson's com- 
plains about the venue. Sehor Salvador Garibay, fee 
state's director of tourist promotion, claims the 
Monterrey welcome will be cordiaL “Mr Robson has 
been to visit us several times'*, he says, “ and we think 
now he is a very happy man.*’ 

Technologko stadium, Monterrey 
Should a supporter be found guilty of an offence 
such as assaalt on a poHceman, he will find himself in 
a 40-year-old prison with a population of 1^00. 
Rather than imprison Cuts for relatively min or 
offences, such as petty shoplifting or possession of 
alcohol at one of Monterrey’s two stadiums, police wfll 
deport them. 

and Latin America. 

With fee country poised on fee.: 
brink of a bold if rather sad : 
offensive to attract world hueiest,- 
seemingly against all the odds,foe 
true cost of the earthquake can be 
sensed outride the capital as wefe- 
m Ixiapa for example, a new 
holiday resort on foePadfie coast, 
trade has suffered a severe. set-. - 
back. But -though ft lay jast.50 
miles from the epicentre out at 
sea, there was just one death and 
one building damaged. The man- 
ager of one of fee tog holds holds 
up his hands as if in supplication 
to the heavens: “Just when thirds 
were startiu; to go well, this 
happens. Y or* know, people read 
in fee papers -Mexico Destroyed'.. ' 
Exactly feat. Because we say 
‘Mexico’ to mean ‘Mexico City’, 
But some people outride; tbejr 
don't understand. They think tire 
.whole country’s gone! . What 
chance do we stand?” 

Back in the still-mutilated zone 
of fee capital repair work grinds 
on wife a painful slowness. It is 
estimated that 4,499 buildings 
were destroyed or severely dam- . 
aged by fee quake. Of those, 1,7] 9 
were of five store ys or more, and - 
of that figure 529 were condemned 
to partial or total demob lion. Six 
months after fee disaster, only 1 78 

dtnmfe' tf fee homeless on a 
points basis. allocating what tem- 
porary accommodation there is. It 
is little. wonder-feat, when the 
50/300 planning fee Aztec Stadi- 
um protest see fee work going into 
pre pari n g for fee Gup, they accuse 
lire go v ern m ent or a fatterday 
sqaivatent of fiddffiag while Rome 
burns. / • " : • - 

.There is also: fee lingering, 
suspicion feat fee damage was 
compounded . by.- fee endemic 
Mexican disease, corruption, and 
that many of the buildings worn 
affected had been afesmictqd 
from materials cheaper than those 
for which the contractors had beat 

Now fee World Bank is discuss-’ 
jug an rid package ofS2Q0 million, 
os condition that Mexico finds 30 
per cent of iL Tire most bitter 
irony of this is foal it is forcing fee 
administration to siphon money 
away from sevmly- stretched 

Not even tire most chauvinistic 
Mexican is giving his team much 
ofa chance m the tournament. But 
for tire ones who believe that fee 
event can engender sbqre national 
phoenix, the results have become 
strangely academic This time 
around, tire real stakes are being 
played for off fee pitch. 

- v- : 



A malt man’s 
blended life 

Alan Shiack manages to mix the roles 
of whisky chairman and film writer 
with no difficulty. How does he do it? 

The Fifties revisited 

It was the decade of Suez and Aldermaston 
marches and Look Bock in Anger. Above ail, it 
was the decade that saw the emergence for the 
first time of a teenage culture. The Times looks 
back on the decade of Brylcreem, drainpipe 
trousers and string ties — the 1950s 

Malindi Holiday 

monsters Jnmbo 

Fishing The big 
in Kenya crossword 

Can you always get your copy of T2ae Tsaes? 

Dear Newsagent, please detivez/teve me a copy of Tta Ties** 




YESL, rp ~] 3 2 I ! 6 1 I 7 I 

? Scj rebellion lts> LftJj jafl ^5 8 ] 

$ Dow call : 3) ‘ Pi "Mini ** H — T* 

$ Mimou-ivpc shrub f j ( J .U v ] I ( I 

10) 153 efi fi/fl " 

to Deep ditch (6i Ef i - p 8 — fg l T2 | i hV* " — f* 

12 Frcnz> fSi Tj Fj- 

J9 Suck oul (Si 53 “ sgjwg FT 

- 2 Reign (4i “ - pE * — 

24 Drug dependant (b> 1 r° 1 I A t ; ** j 

25 siupidiK (nj tay wy LgE kj tAf T, kT: 

26 Betray trust i J) — tLj — STl pi • fa, 

27 Jap dancing girl tbi R j [_ fc&l 2 * 1 j H~ T I 

28 Jehovah (t» Ba £7 as | t £*3 FT: 

DOWN — . . 

2 Parent’s brother (5) ' £V Malins scC1,on 17 ConcKenew ( ') 

3 Give mi?) ii r'hn DecoRitei l 

4 Disgrace ( ?i 13 [Jjrisimas cl,mbtr :0 Cuts slichth. 1 >> 

5 Moionsi's hotel (5) 1 is Cunaili’i 2! Exirenr.-tri 

fiOfthem,* lb Rowers blade 13) 23 *«*»<*• 


ACROSS: 8 Convalescence 9 Loa lOCelcbrate 11 Scarf 13 
whereby 16 Epauki 19 Pune 22 Filiation li Via 2? Companion- 

isca'cs 2Enigma 3 Watchful 4 Mclk* 5Scsb 61n- 

Aolomh H iS e r rF 1-1 EApp,, '-■ ,ll *5 Bus l6EtTacc 17 
Aplomb IB Trifid 20 Reveal 21 Elapse 23 Ajar 

17 foncKrncKl') 

18 Dvcoratei'l 

20 Cuts slichtK |>) 
2! Euremvlji 
23 health tJi 

M ost of us would like to 
be what we're not, 
which is probably why 
so many businessmen throw 
their hard-earned money be- 
hind plays and an galleries, 
while creative folk gaze wistfiil- 
ly from the other side of the 
fence at the lush, richpastures 
of the City. 

Alan Shiack has the best of 
both worlds. He is the 45-year- 
old chairman and chief execu- 
me of The Macallan, a Scottish 
distillery firm famed for its 
mall whiskies. He is also .Allan 
Scott, a highly successful Holly- 
wood film writer (Don’t Look 
with Julie Christie and 
Donald Sutherland, was one 
of his) and his latest film. 
D.A.R.Y.L.. which has been 
rapturously received by the 
American critics (“A combi- 
nation of Frankenstein, ET 
and a banana split”, wrote one 
of them) opens today at five 
London cinemas. 

There is. he says, no conflict 
in this double life, except that 
every morning he has to 
decide whether to put on a tie 
(City convention) or not 
(movie mode). “Doing two 
things is more fun", he says, 
“and it’s actually easier be- 
cause each helps keep the 
other in perspective.” 

Because he's always been 
known as Allan Scott in the 
film world la pseudonym he 
adopted at university when he 
and his partner weren't meant 
to be writing television 
scripts), few people realize he 
is also a top business man. His 
business colleagues, though, 
are aware ot‘ his film work: 
“Some people imagine you 
can't be the serious chap they 
would like you to be because 
you ha-.c ihis other side", he 
says. "I'm always amazed 
v.hen anvor.e thinks the film 
business is trivial. It's infinite- 
ly larger ihan the whisky 
business. ! know one small, 
privately owned film compa- 
ny whose gross revenue ex- 
ceeds that of the entire whisky 

The Macallan distillery has 
been in the Shiack family 
since 1842. Alar, uas brought 
up practically over the shop 
and just around the corner 
from Gordcmstoun. His father 
died when Man was young 
and he remembers Kurt 
Hahn, the headmaster, being 
summoned by his mother to 
deal with such minor juvenile 

misdemeanours as pinging a 
window wife 3 pea-shooter. 
He went to Gordonstoun, 
which he didn't like very 
much (“I just scraped through 
my O and A levels and my 
leaving report didn’t hold out 
much chance for fee future”) 
into the .Army, which he 
hated, pul in six months’ 
training at another distillery 
and then chose to study 
English at McGill University, 
Montreal, although he’d quali- 
fied for Oxford. 

“I'd been to public school 
and in the Army and didn't 
want to become what I 
thought 1 would become if I 
went to Oxbridge; besides. Td 
always wanted to be a writer, 
although I didn't tell people 
that because I knew, even 
when I was 11. that being a 
writer wasn't a ‘proper’ job. So 
I said I wanted to become a 
journalist. And there was 
something about writing 
which meant the New World 
to me. 1 was able to do modern 
American and European liter- 
ature while my contemporar- 
ies at Oxford and Cambridge 
were still struggling with An- 

H e adored McGill and 
astonished himself by 
getting a FireL At uni- 
versity he was already leading 
a double life, writing most of 
the features in fee daily news- 
paper. getting involved in fee 
annual musical and teaming 
up with another student in a 
son of Flanders and Swann 
double act. 

On the day of their finals fee 
two of them went straight on 
to Toronto and were signed up 
for a television series. They 
performed and wrote scripts 
together for years. “Writing 
and management have two 
things in common*', he says. 
“You need to be a good 
collaborator and be able to 
think dearly. I see my job of 
chairman as thinking through 
the strategy, finding the cor- 
rect ethos under which a 
management team can work 
best — it’s when they’re really 
enjoying what they are dol- 
ing — and then standing back 
lo lake an overall view of the 
whole thing. 

Writing is thinking, too. 
The rest is technique. It can 
take months lo work out the 
plot of a film and maybe only 
six weeks to write it.” 

While he was in Canada a 

‘Doing two things is easier. Each 
keeps the other in perspective’ 

■ An enthusiast by nature, he 
is depressed by the British - 
habit of negative criticism, 
particularly when it’s aimed at. 
creative work: “This is sym- 
bolized by the -Sunday papers 

tamed 'four bottles which 
Ipokcd-ai enticing as ^cough 
medicine. The diairmaa 
sniffed appreciatively at each 
one arid beamed: “It's a new 
product. No, of course I'm riot 

carrying pages and pages of going to reft you what it )V 



-*?$ u 

v ‘>)T t"*- 

Alan Shiack: best of bofe wodds 

cousin ran the business before Lute *}• ThfY lrve both m h o and know whether it will be 

handing over to Alan’s youn- Scotland and in London. r ■ J 1 nice to eat or ndt’V he sakL 

aer brother, Peter. Alan kept As well as being on any ^roprotfese, perhaps, be- ^ d - K __ 1 . 

m dose touch wife both and. number of official committees t ^ eeT1 bls ^ 0bv MdnMrSiLi’w 

to do with whisky and film- 

live director in 1968. made the making, Alan is also a non- mterviewtiays , raid to sipan- w at an st^ 

decision to go public and lay executive director of one of director, who had mst ' 

down sufficient stocks to en- fee country’s largest film fi- & {&£ j fo^e&5£ 

able fee company to market nancmg and production com- mystenouspackage. SSh/wSsW v be a croreS 

vantage single malt whiskies in pames and tos recently started Alan: tore at the wrapping old beanieJscot trading tire 

the Eighties. This foresight producing films: I am very liioe- a child ■ unwrapping, a 'bariev-'” 

paid off. During the height of forgiving to writers who are birthday mat. “Onto gn't tins ■ • 

fee recession, between 1981 late wife feeir deadlines.” exciting?” The parcel con- ” ' SEhMav T/iwa 

and 1984. whisky sales ^ ■ ' - ' ?MneyLOW 

dined while sales of The i ■ 

Macallan increased by 120 per 

cent ... ... ■ . 

When Peter Shiack died in ’ 

1980 Alan became , 

chairman.“It became a full TU17 WHO MDATf ‘ - 

commitment. I didn’t write IHIj itllij UuDilil!i ^ . 

^ r i“w/reTv e a!^e.S^ Ken Livingstone and Enoch Powell show feeir spots 

when the company started to .... .... 

day I was glancing at a draft DENIM RESHAPED, LEATHER REVAMPED 

ing a board meeting. It was too Fashion takes a tough line . . , 

long and i reduced it by half. ■ : 


(very difficult - just try) 


hobby, but wife four films 

either in production or just H/|CTW>C DA 7 A AD • 

about to be. and worfci^wife IrtCiilK ij MMAIl 

Bn'frS City Samurai: what they make, what they spend 

flying. I’ll spend half the flight «■ i* vr j • c i- .x • » • 

Les,le Kenton on fantasy and the face 

attending and fee other half w * 


home by six-feiny and rarely - 

work during fee weekend. In . ; .. 

the summer we takea house in 

the south of France and I 

write, without interruption, “■ 1 v 

every morning from eight ItJ If / '\ m 1 : 

until 10 and am then verv ■ I fin II ■It' T I • - 

much on holiday ” -■ — M- K. / ... 

He is mamed to Cathy, a r ' 

former actress who gave up 
her career when she had their 

now lg, Philippa. 17 and I 332 PAGES OF STYLE, NEWS, FASHION, SOCIETY; HEYffiWS ^ £ \M 

reviews where you have to 
bunt around to find the name 
of the author or fee film- 
maker because the reviewer’s 
name is six times the size. 

I t’s very easy to sneer at 
things and I know people 
who won’t take risks be- 
cause they are frightened of 

On the evening we met.- 
Alan was wearing a flamboy- 
ant pink tie and a paler pink 
shirt with a white collar: a 
compromise, perhaps, be- 

n umber of official committees t ’" een bis two rules? “Oh. Ire 
to do wife whisky and film- ? !wa »» wears a flashy tie on 

making, Alan is also a non- 
executive director of one of 
fee country’s largest film fi- 
nancing and production com- 
panies and has recently started 
producing films: “I am very 
forgiving to writers who are 
late wife their deadlines.” 

interview days”, said hisman- 
aging director, who.- had just 
flown in from Inverness wife a . 
mystenous package. 

Alan: tore at the wrappings 
like a child - unwrapping! a 
birthday treati“Oqtoi5n’ttfns 
exciting?” The parcel ccm- 

That would take all the fimout 
of launching it”. 

He spoke wife passionate 
interest about his other hob- 
bies. He loves doing up. old 
buildings— he and his wife 
have just restored a I7th 
century manor house next to 
tire distiHery far which to 
entertain' prospective custom- 
ers. Then skiing. and cooking. 
“ Td love to. get to feat stage 
when you can .read a recipe 
and kftow whtther it will be 
nice to Oat or not”; he sakL 

Suddenly, he dumped back 
on the sofa and regarded. me_ 
gloomily: “Hn not at all sure 
this is a good idea, you know-., 
Me befeg. interviewed. Tire.; 
best linage for The MacaHan 
woold probably be a crotcbe^' 
old bearded Scot trading the 

. Shirley Lowe 



City Samurai: what they make, what they spend 

Leslie Kenton on fantasy and the face 




Next door to a nightmare 


Uaron Hanotort 

LMiet your mews. 
S®aaqe between 

-V. *—■ 

■ stale agents / have : long 
sincejeamt to sell prop- 
erties by' sin ging - the 
jwajses =of the! nisigb- 
rb^Atioo^ Most of us, however; 
,cmm^s& benefit from a little 
TOyahc? ioformation about the 

how. des ; the res^ : 
,prcSems with: the people next 
UOor Can make life intolerable. . 

4 1 doubt whether I would have 
bought ray'fxrsi flat had I known 
ihe woman in the flat below had 
an afcoholic boyfriend whom she 
regularly threw out in the early 
hours of the morning. He would : 
then .rage ..up .and.jdown ■ the . 
communal stairway, hammering 
on doors,, shouting threats, and' 
curses until the police camef. . . 

;Of cqjurse, people can live 
side-byrside for years, if . not 
actually loving their neighbours 
then at least tolerating them, 
until a particular incident trig- 
geiyoflfa dilute. 

• - And neighbours come and go: 
The nice quiet couple next door 
sell their flat to a pair of DIY 
lunatics,' the elderly widow is 
replaced by a family with three 
teenagers with ghetto blasters; 

Dr Guy Cumberbaich, of As- 
ton University, who has recently 
taken part in a study. Disputes 
Between Neighbours, says: M I qan 
confidently predict that most 
people, at some point in their 
Jives win . have such - serious 
problems with their neighbours 
that they win consider moving ‘ 
home.” Two years ago, asales- 
man and his family from the 
West Midlands did just that — 
because they were fed up with 
die woman next door continual- 
lyappearing topless. " 
Sometimes people stay and 
battle ft out — literally — and 
UiestT are the disputes that can 
end in court Earlier this year, 
there was a case involving a 
boundary dispute between a 
retired .wing-commander and his 
neighbour. There »ere allega- 
tions of an attack with a cricket 
bat rtifographed by ihe 1948 
Australian Test team, and tales 
of a tug-of-war over a terrier. 

Other cases include the moth- 
er-. who turned' a hose on her 
neighbours because they banged • 
on the wall during her daughter's . 
piano practice, and the 63-year- 
old woman who broke her 
neighbour’s new double-glazed 
Window because she was sick of. 
the; noise of power drills and 
electric saws. 

In the first case, the judge 
declined to intervene saying it 
was “six of pne and half a dozen ■ 
of the other", In the second, the 
woman was given a- conditional 
discharge for causing, criminal 
damage; sympathetic magis- 

trates cut the compensation costs 
because the .DIY enthusiast 
“would do most of the work 

As Dr Cumberbatch says:“At 
first sight these incidents can 
seem trivial, almost laughable. 
But if someone has persistent 
problems with a neighbour, then 
relatively trivial incidents can be 
very distressing." 

Eileen- Purfield would agree. 
For years she and her husband 
John, a retired electricity board 
worker, were involved in a 
boundary dispute with their 
elderly neighbour, George Mep- 
ham. in Turkey Road. Bexhill- 
on-Sea. The dispute dated back 
to 1949, r when Mr Mepham 
moved next door to the house, - 
then owned by Mr Purfiekfs 

Originally the houses were 
divided by one footpath. In 
order to solve the arguments, Mr 
Purfiekf called in a surveyor who - 
marked out the. boundary, but 
then the arguments concentrated V 
cm who was, or wasn't a few : 
inches over the line. 

Mr- Mepham pul up a fence. 
Mr Purfield took it down. Mr 
Mepham put up a strongerfence, 
then, a six-foot, high walL The 
Purfields decided to live with the 
wait even though they felt it was : 
on their side of the boundary. . 
One of their sons painted a 
mural on it and Mr Purfield put 
up a shelf for his pot plants. - 

Mr Mepham was otnragged 
that they were “taking poss- 
ession" of his wall, so he 
knocked it down. Mr Purfield 
built another wall on the same 
foundations. Mr Mepham — who 
was in iris 70s — came out with' 
his sledgehammer and knocked 

that wall down too. At this point 
Mr PuTfidd called the police; 
both parties were bound over to 
keep the peace. 

* All this happened six years ago 
and Mr Mepham has since died. 
Mrs Purfield, aged 55, says; “The 
neighbours who moved in next 
were marvellous. But they have 
the house up for sale and it is a 
bit worrying. 

“It makes such a difference if 
you do get on. Before, when Mr 
Mepham was here, however 
much you told yourself to take 
no notice, the atmosphere was 
there all the time. He used to go 
up the garden and cut the heads 
off any of my roses that were 
barely hanging over his side. 

“We did try to be friendly. 
One of my sons asked him round 
for a drink one Christmas but he 
told him. rudely, to go away. If 
someone is being deliberately 
awkward it’s very hard to keep 
turning the- other cheek.” 

P ublicist Dora Dobson 
also had a problem with 
a neighbour when she 
lived, m Chobham, Sur- 
rey. She says:“Neighbour5 can 
make or mar your life. I was 
there for nine years, and for five 
I felt under constant pressure.'” 
■Mrs Dobson and her neigh- 
bour lived in a pair of Victorian 
semi-detached cottages facing 
some open land. She says:“It was 
beautiful — very old and very 
open — but people used to keep 
parking on it. 1 got involved with 
a protection society to stop this. 
My . neighbour felt that the 
society had caused a parking 
problem so he turned his whole 
front garden into a parking 

space, and he used to park his 
dirty old van there. 

“Then his son got an old Jag 
and used to park it aggressively 
outside my house, so that my 
entire view was of a van and this 

“f put up a 6ft 6in fence 
between the gardens and then 
the son started harassing me, 
banging on my window at night 
and shouting that he was going 
to get me." 

Disputes about garden walls 
and parked cars are by no means 
confined to country areas, al- 
though life in the inner dries 
brings neighbour disputes of its 
Own. When Liz and Lucri 
Pugliatti came back to their 
Gospel Oak flat in north Lon- 
don, after some months working 
in Italy, they found that the 
house next door was now occu- 
pied by a group of people, mostly 

Mrs Pugliatti, a teacher, says: 
“The trouble -was that they 
seemed to sleep most of the day 
and come to life at about 8pm. 
-Then the noise — music and so 
On — would go oh until about 3 
or 4am. When we asked them if 
they could be quieter, we were 
told to get lost. - 

“Ir was impossible. We were 
unable to sleep for nights on end 
so eventually we put the flat on 
the market." 

Another north London wom- 
an, who did not wish to be 
named as she is still trying to get 
on with her neighbours, talked of 
the difficulties she feces. 

“I’ve lived in this area for 
years, only it was in a third floor 
flat on the corner of a main road 
where all you could hear were 
the juggernauts thundering past. 

I used to think that if only we 
could get away from the lorries, 
all would be peace and 

“It has not proved to be the 
case. There are as lot of Greek 
Cypriot families here and habits 
one finds endearing on a Medi- 
terranean holiday when you 
don't have to get up early for 
work, are not quite so endearing 
when you do. On fine evenings, 
for instance, they like to sun 
themselves on the steps with 
their ghetto blasters tuned in to 
Radio Famagusta. Although you 
get a brief respite between eight 
and nine when they disappear to 
eat. the noise can go on till 

“And if someone arrives in a 
car, they won’t park and get out 
and ring the doorbell like anyone 
else. They sit in their car (with 
the radio on. of course) and beep 
until the person they’ve come for 
comes down. 

“I can remember one evening, 
there was a particularly loud 
burst of music from the house 
opposite which woke my baby 
up so suddenly that she was 
terrified. I rushed across the road 
with this screaming baby in my 
arms and shouted look what 
you’ve done'. They thought I 
was quite mad, of course." 

Noise is a common cause of 
disputes between neighbours, 
whether it is the sound of 
someone else’s television or hi-fi 
or the persistent drone of a 
lawnmower in the suburbs. 

But if the National Associa- 
tion of Citizens Advice Bur- 
eaux's information booklet on 
neighbour disputes is anything 
to go by, then neighbours can — 
and do - fell out over almost 

anything. Common neighbour 
disputes, it seems, involved 
boundaries, fences, walls and so 
on, animals, repairs and mainte- 
nance of a neighbour's property, 
shared amenities — drains, 
drives and so on — bonfires, 
children, unauthorized use of 
property and parking spaces. 

Mick Bradley, organizer of the 
Balham citizen's advice bureau, 
says disputes between neigh- 
bours — particularly over noise — 
seem to have become slightly 
more common. 

He adds: “it doesn’t take much 
for one person's enjoyment to 
become another person's night- 
mare." But he is also aware of 
the difficulties involved 
insolving such sensitive situa- 
tions. “It is rarely productive to 
start a shouting match or to 
threaten to take legal remedies. 
The police are often reluctant to 
get involved in what they see as 
domestic disputes and although 
taking civil anion in the courts 
may stop someone doing some- ; 
thing, it can be extremely expen- ; 
sive and certainly won't make j 
your neighbour co-operative and i 
friendly in the future." 

D r Cumberbatch agrees. 
He feels that neigh- 
bour disputes are a 
serious problem which 
have yet to be researched proper- 
ly. He woutd like to see a large 
survey carried out to investigate 
the nature of these disputes and 
the ways in which complainants 
aggravate the situation by their 
own behaviour. 

He says:“The Englishman still 
believes that his home is his 
castle and that he has certain 
rights. But when there is a 
difference of values between 
neighbours, it is a question of 
agreeing on terms of reference of 
living next door to each other. 

“Probably most people make 
things worse by complaining. 
The neighbour is going to be put 
on the defensive and is likely to 
be aggressive back. He will take 
the complaint as a personal 

So what are the best ways of 
tackling a problem with a 

• Don't lose your temper; 

• Invite him/her in for a 
drink to talk over ibe problem; 

• Ask other neighbours if the 
problem affects them and see if 
you can make a joint approach; 

• Check your facts before you 
fly off the handle - the local 
CAB office or environmental 
health department can give ad- 

• Think long and hard before 
calling in the police or going to 

The National Association of 
Citizens Advice Bureaux points 
out: “The greatest chance of 
resolving a neighbour dispute 
and ensuring a better relation- 
ship between client and neigh- 
bours in the future is if the two 
sides cart talk to each other." 

Even the legal profession 
seems to agree that the law 
should only be a last resort 
Trevor Aldridge, a lawyer and 
author of Your Home and the 
Law, says:“We are very fond of 
the saying that an Englishman's 
home is his castle, but people 
don't always understand what 
the law allows. It only takes a few 
misunderstandings between 
neighbours for considerable ill- 
feeling to build up." 


Why I’ll never 
have words 
to explain why 
I abandoned 
my baby son 

^ Many years ago — well, perhaps 

m not that many, but long enough In 
social attitudes to feel like an aeon 

Sn — I had a baby which I gave up for 
adoption. At the time the reasons 
for my decision were many and various and 
very pressing. Lack of money, job, parental 
support visible father, borne — the decision 
to give the child up was almost inevitable. 

From the moment of decision, in the sixth 
month of pregnancy, it was the child, not my 
child, my baby. To make the act possible at 
aU, one had to excise rigorously any 
possessive feelings one might be tempted to 

When the child was born, however, it 
became my baby. It had to. I was told I most 
look after it for 10 days before it went to its 
adoptive home. And in those 10 days it 
became my son. 

I was told little of the adoptive parents 
beyond assurances that they were “lovely 
professional people who'll give the baby 
everything yon can't, dear". Those were the 
social worker's exact words. So, at the age 
of 10 days, my son was handed over to Coral 

To survive the experience, it was essen- 
tial to use the same emotional control I had 
exercised during pregnancy: the only time 
control became impossible was on my son’s 
birthday, and 1 wept. I wept each birthday 
for five years, before 1 learnt not to and kept 
the ache inside. But J wondered and 

I watched children of similar ages going 
off to playgroup, primary school, secondary 
school and I wondered; how are yon doing? 
I watched television programmes on juve- 
nile delinquency and child prodigies and I 
wondered: is it yon? 

These days I am happily married with 
two legitimate children (my own mother 
still has to prevent herself from calling 
them realc faOdren, as if the first one was a 
trial run). I have a successful career and we 
live in comfortable middle-class prosperity. 
And we have all the things - and probably 
more — than my son's adoptive parents were 
able to give bim. 

I do resent iL I can’t help it. I resent the 
feet that I didn't know life was going to pan 
out successfully. Perhaps if I'd kept the 
child it wouldn't have — another source of 
guilt I resent the feet that young girls 
today, in the same position as I was, are 
called Single Parent Families and have 
massive back-up and support I shouldn’t 
resent it, but there we are. 

Last year my son must have taken his 0- 
levels. True, I didn’t remember his birthday 
until the actual day, rather than the week 
before, but I still wonder how he did in his 
exams, whether he's planning to stay on at 
school if he's planning to go on to 
university, it he’s unemployed. Damn it, if 
he's still alive. 

Still very occasionally, the cast of a face 
In the street, the tone of a voice overheard in 
a shop, a name called among friends, and 
I’ll wonder is it you? And thanks to well- 
meaning legislators, I live in abiding terror 
that one day f*U open the door to find a 
young man looking at my nice house, my 
swimming pool my boisterous, well-fed 
kids and asking me: ‘Why? What did I do 
wrong that yon gave me away?’ I don't know 
if I'll have the words to answer. 

1 read of some adopted children who 
“can't help wondering if she, or 
rather they, held on to us over all 
these years". Without wishing to — j w 
cause pain or discomfort, I have to M 
answer Yes, ever and always. 

Dilys Jones 

Can emotional stress cause breast cancer? 


■M>m^- 7 TOver the last de- 
cade the possi- 
bffity that. stress 

■ Y may te a trigger 

■ V * .in the devdop- 

■ hrrrS ment of some 

■ "••I' Ira news Ha* been 
investigated. Breast cancer 

come under dose scrutiny, 
and there have been indica- 
tions that women who find it 
difficult to deal with emotional 
turmoil may he vulnerable. 

Next month's issue of the 
British Journal of Cancer has 
thrown further fight on the 
subject with an analysis ®f 
Danish women. The aim was 
to investigate any. Sidra be- 
tween the loss of a husband 
and the risk of developing 

breast cancer. - - 

Divorce, or death of a 

husband, are the most stress- 
id experiences women have to 
suffer. ' The Danish study 
maker optimistic reading: of 
abort 3£0O' women half bad 
breast cancer, die others did 
not There was no arttistically 
significant difference between 

the divorce rates or the num- 
ber of widows in the two 
groups; la fact there were 
slightly 'few widows and - 
divorcees' in the group with 
cancer. Perhaps the role stress 

plays should be re-examined. 

Healing touch 
in the crypt 

For many Christians Easter is 
the most spiritual time of year. 
For a ' group of doctors, clergy- 
men and counsellors the place 


practical dimension. The crypt 
of St Marylehone parish 
■■ church in central London is 
being converted into a centre 
for healing and counselling 
believed to be the first formal 
arrangement to be made be- 
. tween the church and the 
medical profession. 

By the beginning of next 
year .patients will Be able to 
visit the crypt and consult ■ an 
NHS GP. a therapist who 
practises complementary (al- 
ternative) medicine or a reli- 
gious counsellor: An appeal to 
raise funds to complete the 

• Major • •'V. . 


trfseveiBl hundred exceptionany 
fine and medium quality handmade 


, nigs and runners... 

andotherafrOTtterrOTimpoi^ East Inducted are many 

antiques site; keSms. nortarfesantf other unusual items; notgeneraBytobe 
found on thohome martoet 

whichhas teenctemedftomRM. Customs* Brisebcnd, tofascfisposedcfalnomfoalor 

no reservelof immeefiate cash raoSsalion. 

. B^temguEra^aedauthenfc&q^aaviceawaiaaeatiJiTieaviewtfio. 

Tbbetransferred from bonded warehouses and oHeredatthe: 




Sir Douglas Black, President 
(if the Royal College of Physi- 
cians. and Lord Hailsham of 
St Marylehone. 

Conversion of the crypt to a 
series of consulting rooms 
(including a music therapy 
room) will cast well over £lm 
■ and the fund-raisers are more 
than half way to their target. 

Patients consulting a GP 
can expect ordinary NHS 
treatment, although the doctor 
may recommend: that they be 
treated by an acupuncturist or 
an osteopath. Christian heal- 
ing will also take place on the 
premises. Links are already 
forged with the Jewish Welfare 
Board and the Raphael Centre 
which gives psychotherapy, 
and formal contact has been 
made with the mosque at 
Regent’s Park. 

NHS patients wilt not be 
charged for their care and 
patients using ihe other ser- 
vices will be told how much 
they cost and asked to contrib- 
ute what they can. The crypt 
will also house a brain scanner 
to be used by private patients, 
the rent from which should 
defray some of the centre's 

Putting the spice 
back into life 

a Old people find 
il increasingly 
difficult to read 
small print and 
hear whispers, 
but loss of these 
two senses can 
be compensated for fry-specta- 
cles. and hearing aids. Taste, 
one of the other senses, also 
dims with time, but research- 
ers at the University of War- 
wick suggest that this, too, can 

Researchers exposed 900 

people between the ages of 20 
and 80 to 10 everyday smells, 
including roasting meal pep- 
pers, petrol perfumes and 
toothpaste. There was, on 
average, a 20 per cent loss in 
the ability to detect smells 
between the oldest and the 

Dr Steve Van Toller, of the 
department of psychology, 
says that the apparent loss of 
appetite by many old people 
may be partly because food 
starts tasting bland and dull. 
In the United States it was 
found that elderly people en- 
joyed eating again when fla- 
vour was added to their meals. 

Browning meat before stew- 
ing ft, for example, will seal 
the surface and preserve the 
flavour, while adding herbs 
can perk up an unappetizing 
dish. It does not lake much to 
compensate for the loss, says 
Van Toller. Old people just 
need to learn to be more 
liberal with herbs and spices. 

Instant benefit 

It conld soon be 
easier fin- people 
to visit the local 
health centre 
than thesocial 
security office to 
find out what 
their social security entitle- 
ments are. Dr Brian Jarman, a 
GP and Professor of Primary 
Care at St Mary’s Hospital 
Medicrt School west Lraidon, 
has succeeded In doing what 
tiie DHSS has so far failed to 
do — devise a computer pro- 
gram which will calculate 
benefit entitlements on the 

His systmn is already in 
action at the Lisson Grave and 
Kentish Town health centres 
in London and has been well 
received by the public. After it 
has been updated to incorpo- 
rate the latest round of benefit 
changes, ft Is to be made 
available to other GPs in the 
country tins summer. 

Dr Jarman’s program is the 
result of six years' work, the 
DHSS having provided the 
manpower to help with its 
development over the last 
three years. 

Speaking at a meeting orga- 
nized recently by the National 
Information Fornm, -Dr 
Jarman said that half of those 
entitled to family income sup- 
plement did not receive il and 
a third of those entitled to 
supplementary benefit did not 
claim. GPs were in an ideal 
position to spot those who 
might be entitled to and gain 
from financial help. 

The twin link to 
prevent diabetes 

Doctors at Kings College Hos- 
pital and the Middlesex Hos- 
pital, London, have made an 
important discovery in our 
understanding of diabetes 

Studying sets of identical 
twins in which one of the pair 
developed diabfetes while the 
other stayed healthy, the doc- 
tors found that it is possible to 
recover from the disease pro- 
cess that leads to diabetes. 

Many of the twins of diabet- 
ics showed changes in the 
immune system and in sugar 
tolerance around the same 
time as the development of 
diabetes in the sibling. But in 
the healthy twins the immune 
system somehow returned to 
normal and the damage to the 
insulin-secreting cells of the 
pancreas was limited. 

The doctors, who reported 
their findings in last week's 
British Medical Journal, now 
want to find a way oflimiting 
the damage therapeutically. 
They also intend to compare 
closely those twins who devel- 
oped diabetes with those who 
did noi to see if there are any 
common environmental fac- 
tors which might be a due to 
the cause of diabetes. 

Olivia Timbs and 
Lorraine Fraser 






Good dot'iJB at good price* 


0*4^4 * 


Bernard Levin: the way we live now 



The Beeb’s 
April follies 

The BBC's April Fool hoax, which 
I have discovered is due to be 
broadcast on BBC-2 next Tuesday 
night, seems to be going horribly 
wrong. Listed without any flourish 
in the Radio Times as A Question 
of Fact at 7.30 pm. it promises a 
"sensational discovery" narrated 
■ by Magnus Magnusson. That 
"discovery" is a 1936 film showing 
Hitler on a secret visit to England 
to meet Edward VIH. “Evidence” 
is also produced suggesting a link 
between Hitler and the Abdica- 
tion. Magnusson also discloses the 
equally ~ sensational" contents of 
the hitherto unpublished “diaries” 
of Unity Milford, in which she 
writes. “The Fuhrer turned to me 
with the gentlest look in his eyes 
and revealed his plans to deal with 
these horrid Jews. I cannot tell you 
how simply sensible it all is." 
However, I am told the BBC 
hierarchy suddenly fears the pro- 
gramme could deeply offend the 
Royal Family and the establish- 
ment — not to mention the Mil- 
ford family — and 2 believe the 
controller of BBC2, Graeme Mc- 
Donald. has recalled the pro- 
gramme. In a special redubbing 
session, he has apparently cut such 
phrases “horrid Jews". The pro- 
gramme, written by Alistair 
Beaton and produced by Ian Keill, 
is so worrying the Beeb that senior 
; BBC-TV management have been 
tipped off in secret memos. 

Oh lord! 

■Bill Rodgers, Labour minister 
. turned Gang of Four member, 
chose the wrong door to knock on 
when canvassing in Fulham the 
other day. “You're wasting your 
time for two reasons." came a 
familiar voice from inside. “First. 

I do not have a vote," said the 
former Labour Foreign Secretary, 
Lord Stewart of Fulham, “and 
- secondly 1 wouldn't vote Alliance 
even if I did.” 


■; . Lesley Hammond. GLC member 
; 'and Labour chief whip on the 
- Inner London Education Author- 
I - ity. has been served with a bill by 

• Ilea's finance department for 
'.-spending £1,200 of GLC 
- ; ratepayers* money in propaganda 
! -against Rupert Murdoch. She was 

found to have posted letters 
through the GLC urging Ilea's 
governing bodies to boycott News 
International titles. The good 
'fairy, in the guise of Labour 
colleagues, have had a quick 
! whipround. and coughed up £500 
•’ -towards her debt. Just £700 to go. 

No joke . 

• : Whatever happened o to. the 
showbiz career of the sacked 
Rabbi Clifford Cohen, who made 
.^headlines with his risque 
■ wisecracking double-act Maze! 
! and Tow ? Far from becoming the 

• next half of Little and Large, he is 
I now a management training 
* ' consultant in adult education. 


‘Splendid news! I've been 
commissioned to paint 
a photo of the Queen.’ 

Right hooked 

The right on Labour's national 
executive, fuming at the way 
Liverpool's Militants were let on 
the hook this week, should remind 
themselves who dreamt up the 
' quorum rule that allowed a walk- 
out to reduce the meeting to a 
1 shambles. When the right took a 

■ majority on the executive in 1982 
they feared that, the left would win 
votes by default by delaying key 

.decisions until after busy right- 
wing trade-union barons had left 
for other business. Thus their first 
move was to increase the quorum 
from 10. which would have kept 
Tuesday's meeting running, to 
15 - which didn't. 

First strike 

Britain may have pulled out. but it 
; is still treating Unesco to the 
rough edge of its tongue. The 
Office of the Auditor GeneraL 
which has kepi Unesco's books for 
, 40 years, is now lashing out at the 
oiganizaiion's failure to discipline 
staff who went on strike last 

■ December in protest at the auto- 
cratic management style of its 
secretary-general. M'Bow. In a 
letter the audit office notes that 
staff meetings lasted 14 hours and 
work was halted for seven hours 
while seven officials went on 
hunger strike, yet salaries were 
payed in full at the end of the 
month. The audit office also asks 
pointedly the cost of strikers using 
Unesco photocopying and transla- 
tion services during the dispute. If 
Briiain deals out any more brick- 
bats- like these, 1 would guess 
current mutterings by some mem- 
bers countries about ending 
Britain's supervision of Unesco 
finances fa nice little earner 
amounting to over £200.000 a 
vear) could increase in volume. 


I think this country is going mad. 
The rule of law, which is the 
foundation not only of our liberty 
but of our constitution and our 
protection against anarchy, has 
been knocked about a good deal in 
the last couple of decades; by 
governments (particularly their 
law officers); by trades union 
leaders who choose which laws 
they will obey and which ignore; 
by civil servants who similarly 
deride which confidences to keep 
and which to break; by the 
groupuscules of the far left playing 
at revolution but advocating real 
crime in the furtherance of it: try 
local councillors who rob their 
constituents for their own political 
advantage; by university authori- 
ties who curtail free speech at the 
first threat of violence, and fre- 
quently without even waiting for 
the threat; by the whole tribe of 
Single Issue Fanatics;by Mr 
Scargill's Mohocks; by policemen 
who bring false charges against the 
victims of their own illegal acts; by 
Members of Parliament who 
openly despise parliamentary gov- 
ernment ; by such infamies as 
Michael Foot’s closed-shop leg- 
islation and the present 
government's indefensibly un- 
democratic folly of banning trades 
unions at GCHQ; by juries who 
have turned the libel laws into an 
opencast mine for every gold- 
digger who can raise the price of a 
writ: and by the steadily engulfing 
tide of new legislation, most of 
which is unnecessary, much of 
which is pernicious, arid all of 
which presents, in its quantity and 
its incomprehensibility, a mon- 
strous threat to a public no 
member of which can hope to 
understand it or indeed to know of 
its existence. 

"The worst is not /So long as 
we can say 'this is the worst ’. " For 
the latest assault on the structure 
and basis of our law is the growing 
belief — its growth apparently 
unstoppable — that if anyone is 
accused of a serious crime, not just 
by the prosecuting authorities but 
by the neighbours, the press and 
television, or any sufficiently dis- 
reputable MP in search of a 
headline, the accused must in- 
evitably be guilty, and if he cannot 
be put in prison, he should at least 
be sacked from his employment 
and delivered over to the atten- 
tions of a mob gathered outside 
his house to shout abuse and 
smash windows. Lynching never 
took root in this country; if some 
people have their way, it soon will. 

Paula item 

I suppose., it all began when, 
amid collective parliamentary 
hysteria, the law was changed to 
prohibit the .publication : of the 
name of any woman involved as a 
witness in criminal proceedings 
against a man who is alleged to 
have raped her. (After some 
antiquary who still adhered to 
notions of even-handed justice 
pointed out that that was unfair to 
the accused man, the law was 
changed to give him, too, the 
protection of anonymity. Now, to 
the surprise of no one familiar 
with the eel-like suppleness of 
Home Secretaries’ backbones, the 
present one has been dropping 
hints about abolishing the 
anonymity rule for the man but 
not for the woman.) 

When the rule of law was thus 
being bent into strange and un- 
lovely shapes, the louder and 
more unbridled among the groups 
demanding more severe punish- 
ments for rapists (Lord Denning 
has just been advocating castra- 
tion) apparently began to believe 
that any man accused of rape 
must, by virtue of the accusation 
alone, be guilty. That is not much 
of an exaggeration; we have 
already come dangerously dose to 
demands for the abolition, in rape 
cases, of the defence of consent, 
and voices have been raised to 
demand restrictions on the cross- 
examination of women giving 
evidence of being raped. 

Rape is certainly one of the very 
vilest of crimes, for years made 
worse for the victim by the lack of 
sympathy it evoked, particularly 
among judges who behaved as 
though it was a trivial matter at 
best, and tbe fault of the woman at 


When reason 
is raped 
by the mob 

worst. But as the pendulum has 
swung, we are in very real danger 
of an assumption that no woman 
ever deliberately encourages a 
man's advances knowing where 
they are tending, still less that she 
ever brings a wholly false charge; if 
rape is alleged, reason flees. 

And when the alleged offence of 
sexual molestation concerns chil- 
dren, the baying has recently 
become even louder and uglier. In 
the two most recent notorious 
instances, the relevant authorities 
saw, and said, that no prosecution 
could succeed, because of the laws 
which govern evidence by young 
children and the corroboration 
such evidence requires. 

Frustrated by the requirements 
of justice, the hunters, in the press 
and in the streets, found that they 
had at last got- two real targets 
marked down for vengeance, in 
the shape of a doctor and. a 
clergyman, whose homes were 
promptly invested by a crowd of 
amateur executioners eager to 
demonstrate their skills and with 
an alarmingly good chance of 
being allowed to do so. 

I have no doubt that there have 
been cases in which rapists, or 
those who have sexually abused 
children or treated them with non- 
sexual sadistic brutality, have 
gone unpunished because of the 
law's requirements. But that is the 
inevitable result of having a 
system of court law instead of mob 
law, guesswork law, party-political 
law, tittle-tattle law, publicity law 
or no law. A man is not to be 
punished unless he has been 
convicted, in due form and in a 
properly constituted court, 
according to laws and rales laid 
down in advance. If he is acquit- 
ted. or not tried because acquittal 
would be inevitable, he is entitled 
to a presumption of innocence, 
even if the whole village is united 
in thinking him guilty, the media 
have demonstrated as much to 
their own satisfaction, and two- 
thirds of the House of Commons 
are either of a similar opinion or - 
more likely — think it wise to 
placate tire noisier of their constit- 
uents by pretending that they are. 

“Hard cases make bad law.” O, 
but soft ones make far worse! It is 
a natural and understandable 
instinct — an almost essential in- 
stinct — for human beings capable 
of empathy to want to mete out 
retribution to those who have 
violated women or harmed chil- 

dren; womanhood defiled on the 
one hand, and the damaging of 
innocence and vulnerability on 
the other, naturally call forth 
feelings of revenge. 

But it is a distinguishing mark of 
civilization that private revenge 
(and more particularly vicarious 
private revenge) is not to be 
countenanced: vengeance is mine, 
saith the law, I will repay. And if I 
cannot repay, the law goes on, 
because my hands are tied by rales 
made necessary by the require- 
ments of justice, let no man 
presume to usurp my function. No 
feelings, however powerful, wide- 
spread and understandable, are a 
substitute for the careful processes 
of law. and of law, moreover, free 
of all feeling on the part of those 
involved in its operation. 

■ It is a well-nigh universal law, 
that in any situation which in- 
duces insensate anger, among the 
observers of it, nothing but calm 
and reason can deal with the 
situation that has brought about 
the rage. The present state ’of 
affairs demands calm and reason 
as never before. Yet this is the very 
moment at which the government 
proposes to abolish the right to 
trial by jury in cases involving 
criminal charges considered triv- 
ial (for an innocent man there is no 
such thing as a criminal charge 
that is trivial), and to abolish also 
the right of a defendant to make 
three peremptory jury-challenges 
and thus ensure that, in compli- 
ance with the law and the constitu- 
tion. he is tried by a jury of his 
peers. And worst of all, after a 
third recent case, there is now 
growing pressure, of exactly the 
kind governments are keen to give 
in to, for a change in tbe law which 
would enable a jury in criminal 
proceedings. to know of previous 
convictions registered against the 
defendant they are trying. 

Do I really have- to tell Times 
readers why that is a very bad 
idea? Very well, then, I shall It is a 
very bad idea because a jury is not 
required, or even permitted, to say 
whether the accused is a villain; 
they are required to say only, on 
the evidence before them, whether 
he has or has not been proved 
beyond a reasonable doubt to have 
committed the crime of which he 
has been accused; we do not 
punish a man for being tbe kind of 
person who would be likely to 
break the law, only for actually 
breaking it. 

When the word was crucified 

The father who sends his son out 
to look after the family estate 
knowing there are desperate 
armed men about is not generally 
admired. But. says John the 
Evangelist. “God so loved the 
world that he gave his only 
begotten son.” God knew there 
was a tree growing in Palestine 
destined to be a Cross. What sort 
of parent was he? 

The heart of the Christian faith 
is that since before time began. 
God is love. Love demands an 
object. So comes the first glimpse 
of the interioving Trinity of 
Father. Son and Spirit: not three 
gods but one. Therefore all three 
are together in everything God 
does.- The only way to approach 
Calvary is to realize that on that 
Cross are Father and Spirit as well 
as the Son. That effectively dis- 
poses of all the “explanations'* of 
the Crucifixion which are even 
more contorted than the problem 
and its agony. 

Jesus did not walk the Way of 
Sorrows and hang dehydrating in 
the sun to appease a Father whose 
pride had been offended Jesus 
was not a sacrifice to bribe a 
jealous tyrant. Jesus was man as 
God sees him. and God as man 
sees him. 

The church down the centuries 
has tried to plumb the depths of 

An agony and love beyond out questioning; 
a Good Friday meditation by Dewi Morgan 

Atonement with the curiosity of a 
small boy who takes his toy engine 
apart and wrecks it in the attempt 
to find the driver. In such an 
attempt the church has tried to do 
better than the Bible. The New 
Testament, according to some 
scholars, has about 14 beginnings 
of attempts to analyse the process 
of Atonement Yet the only safe 
ground remains with the Creeds: 
“. . . Suffered under Pontius Pi- 
late, was crucified dead and 
buried: tbe third day he rose again 
from the dead.” 

Pon derings and puzzlings not 
only obscure the facts. They can 
come close to the hubris which 
was the beginning of sin. It was. 
significantly, the tree of the knowl- 
edge of good and evil whose fruit 
was forbidden in Eden. Kant 
said:“When we know all things we 
shall know the Divine Wisdom 
was as wise in what He did as in 
the One He revealed” 

Adam and Eve had not read 
Kant. They grabbed the tree and 
released the evil. They had as tittle 
chance as the sorcerers apprentice 
of escaping the deluge. Their 
descendants would be soiled by 

sin. So the second Adam came to 
introduce into the human blood- 
stream a dialysis. The first Adam 
reached for a tree to take. The 
second hung from a tree to give. 

But such words are the cosmic 
poetry of God's promises. 
Humanity looked up at the heav- 
ens and said “Show me. Make it 
real." The essence of Good Friday 
is that it is an Art of God, not the 
act of one of His servants. Even 
the Word did not remain mere 
verbalizing. It became flesh, cru- 
cified flesh. 

The Crucifixion and the 
Resurrection are among the best- 
attested events in the ancient 
world. The events of the Creed are 
historical enough to promote an 
obscure Roman provincial gov- 
ernor (who washed his hands of 
■ the matter) to the permanent role 
of the famous. 

The Cross is the intersection 
between the cosmic, the eternal 
the transcendent and the specific, 
local presem-tense, immanent. It 
stretches the arms of a dying man 
until symbolically they embrace 
eternity and reach out for all 
creation even as it is. 

A few hours of intense agony 
and Jesus was dead “As dead as a 
noxious bird nailed to a barnyard 
door.” said Cardinal Newman. 
We must avoid any sentimental- 
ity, any dichfis, ova- this.. The 
final fart of Calvary is that Jesus 
'was beyond hope- of doing any- 
thing for himself. So be went to the 
place of the very dead “He 
preached to the spirits in prison,” 
says Peter (1 Peter 3: 19). No one, 
even the departed, shall be left out. 

The church has sometimes beat 
careless about its verbs, but we are 
much nearer the truth when we 
say that Jesus “was raised” rather 
than “rose”.- The verb must be 
passive because Jesus, dead, could 
not be active. 

Jesus, wfao had brought new 
blood into this world became the 
pattern of the new life in the next 
He was still Jesus recognizable' in 
his post-resurrection appearances, 
but now he was that Jesus for 
whom his followers would, face 
lionsin the imperial circus. 

The Jesus who was h uman and 
divine had effected, the as-one* 
ness between God and man. Is 
there anyone whose' insight is 
strong enough to gaze straight at 
all this except through : a. glass 

The author Is a former rector of & 
Bride's, Fleet Street. ■ 


This hideous rudi to judgment 
must be halted We are in great 
danger of losing our footing on a 
slope at the bottom of which lie 
things that have no place in' a 
civilized nation, yet there are 
people, not afl - of them un- 
important, without influence, .or 
foolish, urging us all taslide faster. 
If the law is inadequate to' punish 
people whom .the multitude wish 
to see punished the argument 
goes, let the multitude be given the 
power of punishment. If there are 
rales of evidence to ensure a fair 
trial let the rales be altered until 
the outcome of a trial is not so 
much fair as pleasing to the 
multitude. If the law of contempt 
prohibits pre-trial discussion of 
the guilt or innocence of the 
accused,, let a new contempt law be 
framed by the. workings of which 
the multitude .may condemn in 
advance a man whose face or 
demeanour they find displeasing. 

Alternatively, let us remember 

what Plato called it “ that 

golden and hallowed drawing of 
judgment which goes by the name 
of the public law of tbe city”. 
There has been precious little such 
judgment these past few weeks, as 
the public law of the city has been 
trampled in tbe stampede to 
establish a new. kind of justice^in 
which the courts are ignored the 
rule of law rejected, the necessity 
. of proof dispensed witl£ and Ihe 
right to : determine whose ‘ heki 
shall felLgiven.' fo thore who can 
shout the loudest 
: But those .who can rshout the 
loudest do. not necessarily have 
justice on their side, as one of my 
ancestors poin ted out to Barabbas. 
I think it is time,, high .time* for 
Voices tif .be lowered 1 It is im- 
portant for us to reflect lipbn the 
damage already done to our nfleof 
law- while those who profess or 
aspire to lead us have so often 
acquiesced in the damage, and in 
some cases applauded k. But first, 
let quiet reign. If it reigns' long 
enough, we might be able to bear 
tin's exchange, between More and 
Roper, in Robot-Bolt’s A Man for 
all Seasons: 

The law. Roper, the law. I know' • 
what's legal, not what’s right And 
HI stick to what’s legal. . . What 
would you do? Cut a great road 
rAro«£/r the law to get after the 

I'd cut down every law in 
England to do that! 

Oh? And when the last law was V 
down . and the Devil turned round on 
you — where would you hide, ■ - 

Roper, the Jaws all being-flat? This ■ 
country 's planted thick with laws 
from coast to coast - Man’s laws, 
not Cod's — and if you cut them 
down — and you’re just the roan to 
doit — d"you really think you - 
could stand upright in the winds that 
would blow then? 

© TIbim Nwopapm IBM . 

The dash between the US and . 
Libya in the Gulf of Sirte this week 
has been variously interpreted as a 
foolish case of superpower ma- 
chismo and alternatively, as the 
wefl-merited defeat of a serious 

can- equally well be seen as ah 
example, of two politicians, both 
masters.- of -tbe art of publicity, 
grappling with nationalism — the 

. modern world and fruiting it to 
. their own use. -' • 

The advantage of .tins perspec- 
tive is that if explains something 
.that looks' extremely odd on any 
other interpretation - namely the 
fact- that both sides are equally 
delighted by the outcome. Presi- 
dent Reagan is basking in a 
remarkable sunburst of bipartisan 
approval which will help budget 
support for his defence.budget and 
wfll probably, tip the Congress- 
ional balance in favour of aid to 
the Nicaraguan . rebels. Colonel 
Gadaffi has successfully whipped 
up a tempest of 'enthusiasm at 
home by his defiance of the 
“American imperialists”, and 
aroused popular sympathy in 
every country in the Arab world 
The- repercussions on American 
standing m the Middle-East and in 
Europe no doubt seen as trivial to 
Reagan as the failure to' establish 
his dami:to- the whole Cyrenakan 
Sea must to Gadaffi. 

There, is not much point in 
Europeans agonizing about how to 
turn Gaddafi into a quiet, 
statesmanlike member of. the 
international community, rather 
than the Ken Livingstone of the 
Levant It cannot be done. His 
relatively precarious domestic 
situation, as well as his personal 
egotism and vanity, ensure that he 
will continue to devote his consid- 
erable skills to exploiting the 
paranoid aspects of Arab national- 
ism. Assuming we reject tbe risky 
option of a physical attempt (in 
the manner of Suez) to replace 
him with a western puppet, the . 
only pfausihle strategy is to limit 
the damage he can inflict — by 
taking strong practical measures 
against terrorism through helping 
tiie Middle- East peace process, 
and, above all by denying him 
issues on which he can strike 
heroic stances. - 

The. more debatable question 
for Europeans is whether : we 
should try to blunt the force of 
American nationalism, and if so 
. howSince 1917 when the US first 
came on to the world stage, the 
difficulty we have faced in-dealing 
with the Americans has been the 
same. It is that the American 
democracy is virtually incapable 
of acting m foreign affairs except 
under the impulse of emotion. 
/Presidents- may . devise policies 
ba^purejyon a epol perception 
of. national interest, but they 
cannot proceed -to implement 
them' unites they can' mobilize a 
-common sentiment tin 1 Congress 
and public opinioa. T hi s isa very 
difficult thing to do in a gigantic 
plural society unless the feelings 
involved are very strong and 
simple: National pride, anger, 
fear, hate, hope, and moral fer- 
vour are the essential fuels and 
without them the engine of Ameri- 
can world leadership lapses into 
isolationism and despair. 

The consequence has been that 

nearly all American jtresideniB 
who have tried to mobilize sup- 
pose for a positive foreign policy, 
from Woodrow Wilson onwards, 
have had to oveneU j^^S 
Wilson and Roosevelt convtncea 


would produce a world juaj«“ 
which war could be 
Truman scared them into pro- 
digious military expe«btuK*£“ 

Eisenhower, Kennedy and Carter 
an embarked on moral crusade 
for “freedom”; Johnson told them 
at every step of the way uj®} 
technological sppenoaty . vjohjd 
win- the Vietnam' war; Nixon 
pouted a picture of peace in our 
time through detente; Reagan has 
combined a version oi 
tbe“freedom” campaign 
more recent vision of a world from 
which nuclear weapons can be 
banished by technology. . 

' .Every one of these ideas has 

been a profound disappointment, 
and each has eventually pro duced ^ 
disillusio nment and often dan- 
gerous reactions. And yet each, in 
us time, has put together a 
constituency for external action by 
appealing to America's idea of 
itself as specially righteous, spe- 
cially -powerful and spatially en- 
titled to deploy righteousness and 
power on a world Scale. 

This fart has alway&crealed the 
central ' dilemma foe America's 
allies. Accepting that American 
moralis tic nationalism Is the con- 
dition of American action, would 
we rather do without ttlherf Our 
usual answer has been, to try to 
nndn . the p»eicag p and have 
American action without its 
accomjnnying disadvantages. But 
we have constantly been frustrated “ 
by the imperatives of American 
politics —and never more so than 
under this administration. The 
case for Reagan is thatby restoring 
the necessary, emotional elements 
of hope ami pride to America after 
Watergate, Vietnam, Tehran and 
the rest, he has actually ‘restored 
the essential psychological 
foundations of American foreign 
policy. The case against him is 
that he has only been able to do so 
by talking a lot of ideological hot 
air, by distorting' the -American 
economy to deal ^witir a largely 

imaginar y mil itary crisis, and by 

res u rrecting illusions of American 
omnipotence. V 

The .Gadaffi affa ir is the latest ’ 
example of this, contradiction. It 
gives Americans the invigorating * 
impression that they have dipped * 
the wings at an foffi-sbcufi*iiion- 
ster, expunged the humiliation of 
die Achille Laura*., and -/dem- 
onstrated-. Amman power ton 

, sceptical wprid,. In the process- it 
has . .given. , Gadaffi an - un- 
‘ cc^enufied v bonis, treated im- 
' necessity difficulties for moderate 
Arab leaders and lnvited a nem- 
:esis of -anger when new terrorist 
- attacks demonstrate that .nothing 
much has been changed. The 
trouble is that the two con- 
sequences are. inseparable. We 
cannot have one set without, the 
. other. And in these circumstances 
there is nothing for Europe- to do > 
with Reagan, any more than with * 
Gadaffi, except to recognize the 
inevitable and -try to limit tbe 
damage as best we can. . 

moreover . . . Miles 


Here is*a sdection of some of the 
more interesting books due to 
appear during the rest of 1986. 
April - ' 

* Farewell to the GLC, a lavish 
colour book funded by tbe GLC, 
produced. by- the. GLC with an 
introduction by Ken Livingstone 
(GLC £15). 

Everyday Life in the CfIC'by 
Laurie Taylor. Ad amusing, pop- 
sociological survey- of what it was 
like to work in the old -GLC 
Empire, or at least a few amusing 
interviews with people who. used 
to work there (Paradigm, £12). 

Asking Wendy Cope Out for a 
Drink. A new volume of poems by 
Kingsley Amis, including some 
accurate parodies of Kingsley 
Amis (Kaolin & Morphine, £8.95). 

The Wit and Wisdom of Sarah 
Ferguson (Slimbacks 75pj. 

A- Complete History of the 
American- Libyan War, 1986, by 
Major-General Sir Max Hastings- 
Hastings was the first man to walk 
into liberated Tripoli and this is 
his vivid but sober account of how 
he managed to combine winning 
tbe war with running the Daily 
Telegraph (Frontline, £15.95). 

5 Egon Rortay Guide to- Res- 
taurants That Do Not Speak 
English. Mr Ronay*s quest , for 
eating- places not so far covered 
now .extends to menus written 
entirely in pictograms (Chinese), 
inoomprefemsibte languages (Far 
East cookery), French mat the 
French cannot understand (nou- 
velle cuisine)" and En g li sh thatthe 
English cannot understand (every- 
where else) (£4.50). - 

Great Underwater Treasures qf 
the V&A, by Sir Roy Strong. 
Features a cover photo of the 
indomitable Strong in bathing 
trunks and snorkel (V&A, £19). 

Farewril. Halky’s Comet, by Lau- 
rie Taylor. An entertaining survey 
of- people's reactions , to Halley's 
comet or at least a few amusing 
inters wfapeopk who saw it 

J)r Jonathan Miller, In 1985^a 
mysterious studio set worth mil- 

lions of pounds appeared in the 
BBQ labelled Origins. Where did 
it come from? How was it built? 
Where, is it how? Dr Miller 
answers all there baffling ques- 
tions (BBC, £9.99). 

July ■ 

Things That Have Recently -Fallen 
Over and Broken at the V&A. A 
lavish 'picture book by Sir Roy 
Strong, , with a cover photo of the 
author- -'with a tube of Araldite 
(Nicky Bird Books, £17). 

The Wedding. Seventeen books 
of the same name rushed out for 
the marriage of Prince Andrew. 

Watching the World Cup. A 
highly stimulating survey of 
people's reactions to the 1986 
World Clip Finals, or at least a few 
chats between Laurie Taylor and 
some of his mates who saw it 
(Paradigm Books, £13). ' 

Homage to AsdfghM, by Anthony 
Burgess. A srt-of-sparktmg book 
reviews written by Mr Burgess 
entirely on the. middle row oftbe 
typewriter keyboard, and the first 
major work of his without -the 
letter “E” (Gjhdgs Books, £15). 

We Never . Sued Anyone, by 
Richard Ingrams. Mr Ingrams 
achieved his ambition in 1986 of 
stopping being a Shrewsbury Old 
Boj; andgobig straight being 
a grand old man of fetters. In this 
moving memoir, he describes 
what it is Bice to bypass middle age. 
completely (Eyebooks, £14.50).: * 

Cocktail Recipes, by Roger 
j Scruton. Scriiton examines the 
philosophical basis for mail's de- 
sire to mix drinks together, an d 
relates this unnatural practice to 
our modem malaise. His recipes 
for a Wittgenstein Wallbangcr, 
Existentialist Fizz and Long, Slow 
Scruton should provide a talking- 
pointy (Martini &. Nietzsche, 


Egon Ronay Guide ' to Laime % 
Taylots Eating-places. With a 
lavish cover pliofo of Sir Roy 
S^n g^with and stok 

De cember ' . , r,' 

All the' above, remaufoered^for 

rhrtCTinac • *'" v 





.M f yd-fd 





. -. ii 
. **■ 

v - <- 

■ Britain was, until recently, a 
society almost notorious for its 
\ tolerance.; Admittedly, this 
>. was generally explained as the 
} result of. the British peopled 
' ■ lack>oC interest in religious and 
■political questions rather than 
as a -commitment to the prin- 
: dple. oftoleration. - 

Stffll, the practical effect was 
' that; Ithe most eccentric and 
offencsive views could be freely 
: . expressed without blows, being 
exchanged. Not everyone 'ap- 
proved. But if any threat to 
free speech was 
twenty years - ago, it was 
thought to* come from a pu- 
ritan Right of provincial alder- 
men and maiden aunts hostile 
to artistic freedom in sexual 
‘ matters, rather than from any 
political tendency. Left revolu- 
tionaries were then ~too fr^w in 
number for any policy but 
; unqualified support for free 
- speech to be izr their interest 
They -Still are few in number. 
Bm .because , they are . con- 
centrated in a few areas * 
notably higher education, the 
public sector, large cities and 
in . particular their decaying 
centres - some .how appear to 
feel that they can safely and 
justifiably set limits to what is 
acceptable opinion in public 
debate. •: 

: , The controversy over the 
Radford headmaster, Mr Ray 
Honeyford, was the first of 
these recent episodes. No 
sooner had this been settled, 
.however, than it was followed attack upon the Conser- 
vative MP, Mr John Carlisle 
at Oxford Several other speak- 
ers have since been prevented 
■from speaking ax universities 
by the threat of riot 

Two new instances of the 
higher intolerance axe now on 
view in the Bristol area. 
Professor John Vincent h»s 
had- his entertaining history 
lectures at Bristol University 
disrupted by mobs protesting 

against his column in the. Sun 
newspaper. And Mr Jonathan 
Savery is threatened with 
suspension from his post at die 
Avon Multicultural ^Education 
Centre (MEQ in Bristolwhere 
some of his colleagues regard 
his article, “Multicultural 
Education as Witchcraft**, as 
“racist". . 

The two - cases differ signifi- 
cantly. Physical violence was 
used against Professor Vin- 
cent A greater assault on 
academic freedom can scarcely 
be imagined than violently 
halting a professor’s university 
'lectures because of his associ- 
ation with' an outside' institu- 
tion to which the protesters 
objcctit is some consolation, 
however, that the. Bristol 
University authorities appar- 
ently intend to take punitive 
measures against such stu- 
dents as took part in the 

It is from the authorities in 
the Avon education area, how- 
ever, that the threat to suspend 
Mr Savery copies. The Direc- 
tor of Education, Mr P. Cole- 
man, aigues that there is a 
prima facie case against him 

These differences should not 
obscure the central similarity. 
Both men are being punished 
for expressing an opinion. 
Professor Vincent's breezy 
populist Sun column is 
thought objectionable' on 
grounds that it is “sexist? 

Mr Savery is being harassed 
because he expressed the view 
that multicultural education 
should . concentrate upon 
teaching nsefiil lan g ua g e skills 
to minority children rather 
than upon uncovering .the 
supposedly entrenched racism 
of British society as his critics 

Mr Coleman, in a letter to 
The Times on the Savery case, 
advanced foe following jus- 
tification: “If an individual's 
expression of opinion is .ex- 
treme and provocativeenougb 

"... t: S 7 ' . 


* - .yllpjS 

. When Corazon Aquino be- 
came President of the Phil- 
ippines one month ago, foe 

- faced a dear but potentially 
' fovTrive cboica. She bad to 

decide whether to* work, with 
foe ' coiistiuitioinal accoutre- 
'ments of foe Marcosera — the 
National Assembly dominated 
"by his^ KBL~ party and foe 
Marcos constitution of 1973 — 
. or, riding high on her wave of 
'.popular support, to make a 
dean break with the past. 
^Either ebure If 

she derided to sever all ties 
with foe past she risked 
creating an impression of in- 
stability. She also risked critic 

- cisra from those who saw a 
contradiction between foe 
number of people in her own 
Cabinet who had -faithfully 
served foe former regime and 
her abandonment of foe pro- 
Marcos National Assembly. I£ 
on the other hand, foe decided 
to maintain foe mechanisms 
of power associated with ex- 
President Marcos, foe risked 

accusations that her accession 
to power had changed nothing. 
She also risked losing at least 
foe possibility of eventually 
neutralizing the armed-oppo- 
nents of foe Marcos regime, in 
: particular the rnmmiinists 
In these circumstances, foe 
decision to. dissolve the Na- 
tional Assembly and formally 
suspend foe Constitution, 

be made in foe next few weeks 
with the selection of foe 
commission to draft the new 
constitution. The balance be- 
tween political groupings will 
have carefully drawn. 

. The other risk inherent in 
the declaration of the pro- 
visional government is the 
power President Aquino has 

while maintaining the civil now arrogated to herself For 
rights it. theoretically guar- . the' time being, Mrs Aquino's 

an teed, was a shrewdmove. By 
avoiding the ." term 
“revolutionary” -to describe 
her government (preferring to 
call it “provisional”), she also 
avoided alienating middle 
class Filipinos and the 
country’s foreign creditors. 

If nothing else, the decision 
to declare a provisional gov- 
ernment and promise new 
National Assembly elections 
within a year buys foe Aquino 
government time. What it 
cannot do is postpone awk- 
ward derisions indefinitely. 

The first of these will have to 

pledges to use her. power 
judiciously and in consulta- 
tion with her Cabinet can be 
taken at free value; And if the 
timetable for drafting and 
approving the new constitu- 
tion is adhered to, the time 
bought by the derision will 
have been well used and the 
PhiKppmes should have a new 
constitutional and popularly 
elected government within a 
year. But if momentum is lost, 
the country win have a Presi- 
dent with no less power than 
Ferdinand Marcos had in foe 
last years of his rule. 


In foe United 'States the 
. ‘ . “new federalism" has trans- 
■ ; ferred powers and responsibil- 
ities out of the central 
, government to where they can 
be better managed and super- 
vised; by states and local 
. authorities. It is among Presi- 
dent Reagan’s unnoticed 
achievements. In France a 
•■'■>; government of different ideo- 
logical' stripe has pushed 
" V ■ against - centuries of political 
cent ralisat ion- to give French 
administration a genuine re- 
. " gional dement.' This has been 

applauded on right and on left. 

And iu Britain? This, week- 
end foe Greater London Coun- 
cil and foe Metropolitan 
Councils are abolished in a 
welter of partisanship and 
indignity. Power slides further 
to Whitehall and Westminster, 
v Half a cheer can be raised 
that, at last, an unedrfying 
' episode is over. Half a cheer, 

■ ' too, foal foe extravagant busi- 
ness of- demobilisation — * with 
- - its last-minute rush of council 

.grants, gifts and spoils — has 
come. to an end. But this is not 
the end of foe conurbations. 

Derisions about the capital’s 
. ' roads and vehicles must still - 

v be made — and controversy 
about them will nor die just 
: because they will henceforth 
be made in foe bowels of foe 
Department of Transmit. 
Likewise London's river. That 
its future -lies whb a private 
company (The Thames Water 
Authority) will not diminish 
public interest in its cleanli- 
■' ness, -height or traffic. Ditto the - 
disposal of the conurbations’ 
refuse; their protection against 
fire; their encircling green 

The line of authority has 
changed but . the scope for 
controversy and foe ..perti- 
nence of questions about pub- 
lic expenditure: there go on. 
Mechanisms for -achieving 
public consensus will be 
needed, which is why,. already, 
there are voices predicting that 
some kind of conurbation- 
wide representative body will 
before long have ; to be 

Of course there was always a 
case for abolition. — and one 
that could have been -made 
with much more aplomb by 
-ministers. The governance of 
foe city areas of England by trig 
but weak county councils has 
been open to question since 
Mr Peter Walker's reforms of 
the early 1970s. 

It has. never been clear (and 
ft is stifi unclear) why there 
had to be a uniform system for 
such manifestly different ur- 
ban entities as the West Mid- 
lands (a- continuous built-up 
area> and South Yorkshire, 
(four 'separate, free-standing 
towns.) It has never been clear 
(nor has the abolition exercise 
Clarified) why Birmingham: or 
Leeds should not run their 
own buses and fire service and 
police forces. 

The last great report on foe 
government of London was Sir 
Edwin Herbert’s. His dictum 
about foe City of London — 
that -logic .could only, go so for 
— applied also to the arrange- 
ments set iip in 1963. As then 
predicted, foe .GLC was 
squeezed between foe central 
government's perennial in- 
terest in foe way foe capital 
was nm and the -assertiveness 

of the boroughs. The GLCs 
bid to plan oiled when, first, 
its great 1960’s toad scheme 
and. then, its map of future 
development were defeated by 
political partisanship and eco- 
nomic change. The GLC never 
managed to find the bridge 
that could link the disparate 
interests of London's affluent 
suburbs and its poorer core 
and East End. 

But foe principled case for 
re-organising London's gov- 
ernment, say, by depriving foe 
GLC of its executive functions 
while enhancing its delib- 
erative and oversight capac- 
ities, was made by no-one. The 
public has been left with an 
impression of misused central 

Administrative logic has lit- 
tle place in the new. arrange- 
ments. The Inner London 
Education Authority is left, an 
odd vestige of a London 
-Council Council that died 25 
years ago. Rate equafisation, 
the primary means of 
redistributing money from foe 
business class and from the 
more affluent areas, is left 

Since 1981, foe government 
has expended large amounts of 
its energy and parliamentary 
resource on abolition. That is 
now accomplished. But the 
purpose of foe exercise — 
considered among foe prior- 
ities set . for Briiain by Mrs 
Thatcher^- is open to doubt. 

Thai doubt will grow as, 
inevitably, the governance of 
the capital and foe metropoli- 
tan areas continues to demand 
the attention of politicians and 

Concern over attitudes to US 

to be deeply and seriously 
offensive to others, particu- 
larly those with whom he or 
she is supposed to be working, 
then whose freedom is put at 

The answer to that question 
is, quite simply, nobody's 
freedom is put at risk. They 
may be offended. They may 
even be rightly offended. But 
nobody at an institution of 
higher education has any 
grounds for complaining that 
he has been offended by 
contrary opinion, nor any 
claim to be protected from foe 

What is further alarming in 
these two cases is foe extreme 
scope of foe complaint that 
offence has been given. The 
charge of “sexism" against 
Professor Vincent boils down 
to foe feet font his articles 
appear in a newspaper near to 
some photographs judged sex- 
ually offensive. And Mr 
Savery, in effect, is con- 
demned for not demonstrating 
sufficient zeal in his anti- 
racism. If such are the stan- 
dards by which speech is 
banned and punishment deter- 
mined, who shall escape whip- 

Yet for some keepers of the 
liberal conscience, a charge of 
racism is equivalent to proof 
of it, “Sexism", too, is begin- 
ning to acquire the same 
capacity to damn. 

That perhaps explains foe 
ominous calm with which 
these recent cases of censor- 
ship have been greeted both 
outside the universities and 
sometimes within them. It is 
disturbing, for instance, that 
the Association of University 
Teachers has been so slow to 
comment publicly on the Vin- 
cent case. 

■■ Toleration is a fine tra- 
dition. But it should hardly be 
extended to the point where it 
fells to notice intolerance al- 

From the Chairman of BJL.T. 
Industries and others 

Sir, As chairmen of three of 
Britain's largest companies, with 
major investment interests in the 
US as well as other parts of the 
world, may we express our grave 
concern about developments in 
this country which are beginning 
to look to our overseas colleagues 
and partners like a simple resur- 
gence of anti-American prejudice 
which can do nnthing but harm to 
this country's fundamental eco- 
nomic interests. 

1. Tbe Westland affair revealed the 
existence of a strong body of 
public opinion more concerned to 
voice its suspicion of the Ameri- 
cans than to find the best solution 
to a complex industrial problem. 

2. The breakdown of negotiations 
with General Motors over the 
future of Ley land Trucks and 
Land-Rover showed that the body 
of opinion was strong enough to 
influence government action and 
thwart an important proposal for 
Anglo-American business co-op- 
eration which might have pro- 
vided the best solution to another 
complex industrial problem. 

3. The introduction in the recent 
Budget of a discriminatory tax on 
American depositary receipts is 
bound to be viewed in the US as a 
deliberate attempt to Mock US 
investment in British companies. 
It comes ineptly at the very time 
when we and others have made 
great efforts to build up strong US 
shareholdings to support the 

Children in care 

From the Chairman of the Family 
Law Bar Association 
Sir, The letters from Mr Louis 
Blom-Cooper, QC, and others and 
from Lady Faithfbfl (March 19 
and 21) are recipes for inaction. Of 
course in an idol world we would 
have a radically different court 
structure for dealing with child 
care cases, and a radically re- 
formed, and codified, law. 

As it is, we are a long way from 
achieving any kind of consensus 
as to the form of family counts, 
and any new system would require 
finance and resources which seem 
unlikely to be made available in 
priority to other equally compel- 
ling needs. As to the law, although 
we now have a range of reforms 
proposed by the DHSS working 
party, when win they be effective? 

Meanwhile children suffer. The 
Family Law Bar Association las 
over 600 members specialising in 
family law. We support the initia- 
tive of Mr Dennis Walters, MP, in 
putting forward a Bill which 
would make modest adjustments 
to the law at comparatively, hide 
cost and which, in our view, would 
be of practical benefit to a number 
of children 

.1 suspect that when your 
correspondents wrote they were 
unaware of the substantial amend- 
ments which had been proposed 
by Mr Walters and which were 
accepted in committee on March 
19. These have the effect of 
limning the for magistrate^ 

Budget reflection 

From Dr Anne Vollmer 
Sir, Until yester da y I was a 
potential user of foe Baimm 
Expansion Scheme. I am tryin| to 
raise finance to start a mnvng 
home in foe Midlands to care for 
the elderly co nfin ed. As I under- 
stand ft ine business wifl no longer 
be efigible ander the BES as it wiB 
have more than SO per cent of its 
assets in the property. 

While these exclusions appear 
to be weD received by many, it 
leaves the genuine small business- 
man in a difficult position. There 
is no advantage in having a high 
asset-backed venture when it 
comes to seeking a traditional 
loan, if the individual is only able 
to put up a very small amount of 
personal capital. The risk remains 
high on account of meeting the 

Might Mr Lawson therefore 
consider amending these new 
exclusions so that people with 
only a very small amount of 
capital may still be eligible? After 
aQ, this was surely the aim of the 

Yours faithfully, 


9 Hatton Terrace, 

Hatton, Warwickshire. 

March 19. 

In place of stress 

From Mrs Cecilv L. M. Toison 
, Sir, The article by Pearce Wright 
; and Craig Seton, “A guide to stress 
and how to get rid of it" (report, 
March 22). misses out the best 
solution of all — namely, the 
Christian faith. 

Those who give their lives to 
God indude giving up their 
stresses to him. They receive in 
return the peace that passes all 
! understanding. 

Yours faithfully, 


45 Northumberland Road. 

Barnet, Hertfordshire. 

At school in England 

From Mrs Barbara Darowska 
Sir, I am sure that the Polish 
community would wish to be 
“included out" from Professor 
Bhilai Parekb’s list of minorities 
allegedly disadvantaged in English 
schools (report, March II). Our 
experience, the longest of all on his 
list, is quite different. 

As a child of six I started 
attending school in rural 
Herefordshire in 1949. I shall 
never forget the kindness and 
good sense with which the teach- 
ers coped with that sudden influx 
of 15 children of assorted ages, 
with no English whatsoever, into a 
school of some twenty-odd pupils 
in two classrooms. 

growth of our own activities in the 

All these movements are 
fraught with dangers. Freedom of 
investment must work in all 
directions. Well-judged inter- 
national investment, whether by 
Americans in Britain or by Britons 
in America or elsewhere, is the 
most powerful of all engines for 
invigorating the world economy. 

The Chancellor himself spoke 
with pride last week of Britain’s 
£90 billion net overseas assets. He 
might also have mentioned that by 
the end of 1 984 American direct 
investment holdings in this coun- 
try had amounted to S32 billion in 
preference to other pans of Europe 
where the money would have been 
just as welcome. We must not 
jeopardise this valuable flow of 
finance and its implications for 

in the real interests of this 
country may we, therefore, most 
urgently ask all those who are 
fuelling this anti-American prej- 
udice, both in and out of Par- 
liament Anri Government, to rhinlc 

Yours faithfully, 

BA.T. Industries pic, 

Chairm an. U nilev er pic, 

The British Petroleum Company 

B. AT. Industries pic. 

Windsor House, 

50 Victoria Street, SW|. 

March 26. 

approval for the return home of a 
child in care to those children who 
are especially at risk of physical or 
moral harm. 

The Bill does not “transfer 
responsibility" from the social 
workers to the magistrates. It 
imposes the need, m selected 
cases, for a second opinion. If the 
soda! workers are as 81 '"** return, 
then there is no return. It is only if 
they propse return that they need 
confirmation from the the court. 
Their second opinion will be a 
support and a safeguard. 

In any case, there is no justifica- 
tion for the assertion that mag- 
istrates would be more likely to 
send children home than social 
workers if required to consider the 
matter judicially, and no justifica- 
tion for the comment that the Bill 
would not have saved Jasmine 
Bedribrd’s life. We cannot tell 
unless the Bill is tried. 

Mr Walters’s Bill would not 
hinder famil y courts or major law 
reform if and when those arrived. 
But while we wait, Sr, let us help 
those children as best we can 
within the limits of what is 
possible — and let us do it now. 

Yours faithfully , 

nuimun, Family Law Bar 

Queen Elizabeth Building, 
Temple. EGA 
March 21. 

Corfe Castle 

From the Director-General of the 
National Trust 

Sr. The National Trust shares the 
concern of Mr Faulkner and other 
coneg wo de n ts (March 2D) for the 
con se rv ati on of Corfe Castle, vil- 
lage and surrounding landscape. 
WO recognise the dangers posed by 
intensive visiting and certainly 
have no intention of 
“redeveloping" the village. 

We believe the route of the 
p ropo s ed by-pass is the key issue. 
The County Council has itself 
collected a compre h ensive body of 
data and opinions (including those 
of the Trust) on the several 
options available. We doubt 
whether an independent study at 
this stage would farther illuminate 
the problem. What is needed is a 
conclusion based upon impartial 
assessment of the facts and argu- 
ments assembled. 

In these circumstances the Trust 
would urge the Secretary of State 
to call in the proposals in order 
that a public enquiry can be held 
as soon as possible, and a decision 
readied which takes account of all 
the national and local consid- 

Yours etc, 

Director-General.Tbe National 

36 Queen Anne’s Gate, SWL 
March 25. 

Finding a fake 

From Mr Roy Alderson 
Sir. I enjoyed Mr Rainford’s letter 
in today's Times. I pay myself the 
notional sum of £4 an hour. A 
cleaner gets £3 an hour. I then 
stand back from what I have 
painted and ponder bow much I 
can get for the painting — £4, £40. 
£400 or £4.000? 

Here is the nub of what every 
artist asks himself! 

Yours faithfully. 


37 Smith Terrace. SW3. 

March 18. 

We came from a community 
traumatised by war and exile, 
betrayed and unwanted, discrimi- 
nated against in jobs and housing, 
destined to live for 10 years and 
longer in Nissen huts with no 
amenities, and with no commis- 
sion for racial or any other 
equality in sight. 

Yet only two of those 15 failed 
to go on to higher education or 
training of some kind. 

To my knowledge we were 
typical of fee Polish community in 
Britain as a whole. In turn I 
brought up my children speaking 
no English, as we speak Polish at 
home, confident feat they would 
learn English at school as quickly 
and naturally as I and my friends 
did. I was not mistaken. 

‘Parlous’ status 
of Prayer Book 

From Professor Basil Mitchell and 

Sir. We are writing as commu- 
nicant members of the Church of 
England who have for some time 
been concerned about the deteri- 
orating position of the Book of 
Common Prayer. Five or six years 
ago there were several vigorous 
and broadly based public protests 
on this matter, and in 1981 the 
bishops responded with a state- 
ment which recognized the need to 
keep the Prayer Book in the 
mainstream of Anglican worship 
and appeared to promise substan- 
tial improvements, especially in 
the theological colleges. 

Since then many people, our- 
selves included, have felt it proper 
to refrain from further comment, 
not wishing to cast doubt on the 
seriousness of the reassurances 
given in 1981, and concerned to 
allow lime within which improve- 
ments might occur. 

However, nearly half a decade 
later, it is our impression that the 
position of the Book of Common 
Prayer in the parishes is much 
worse and in the theological 
colleges is almost as parlous as it 
ever was. Young priests are still 
arriving in the parishes with little 
or no experience of the Prayer 
Book, and in many places there is 
pressure against those congrega- 
tions who still use iL 

Clergy at their own gatherings 
appear to assume that the Alter- 
native Service Book is, in fact, a 
replacement for the Book of 
Common Prayer, in spite of 
numerous public statements to the 
contrary fas, for example, in the 
recent edition of Public Worship 
in the Church of England). 

We. therefore, wish to express 
our surprise and disappointment 
that the hopes aroused by the 
reassurances given have proved 
largely illusory. It is not just a 
matter of pastoral concern for the 
very large numbers who are 
devoted to the Prayer Book — 
though this, surely, should carry 
weight — but that in facing the 
problems of the modern world, the 
Church needs to draw on the full 
measure of its spiritual resources. 
Yours etc. 





Oriel College, 


March 21. 

Scottish salmon 

From Mr Jonathan Stantfeld 
Sir, James Ferguson in his article 
of March 8 speaks of salmon 
resource management by neglect, 
especially in Scotland. The truth is 
that Scottish salmon have been 
managed with intelligence and 
skill and that our salmon stocks 
are still largely intact in spite of 
massive interception, a burgeon- 
ing grey seal population and other 

In the early 1960s when nylon 
made the drift net so deadly, it was 
allowed to develop in England, 
while Scotland enforced a ban. In 
the early 1 970s Scotland tightened 
the screw by banning any form of 
salmon gill or hang netting op- 
erated from a boat The answer 
from England was to turn the drift 
nets over to the even more 
destructive monofilament, and 
double the catch. 

In the 1980s Scotland has 
enacted further measures 
strengthening these regulations by 
extending them to shore opera- 
tions. Meanwhile the English 
north-east drift net fishery has 
issued more licences with hun- 
dreds of endorsements and 
thereby increased their catch yet 

Research has shown that 95 per 
cent of the catch in north-east 
England is made up of Scottish 
salmon intercepted on their return 
migration. The north-east fish- 
eries make up almost three quar- 
ters of the total English catch, so at 
least two-thirds of the so called 
English salmon catch has actually 
been produced in Scotland. James 
Ferguson is biting the very hand 
that feeds him. 

Yours faithfully, 


3 America Street, 



March 12. 

Guessing game 

From Mr J. H. Loveless 
Sir. “Multiple choice" examina- 
tion questions were used at the 
USA flying school I attended in 

To discourage guessing, twice 
the number of marks allocated to a 
question were deducted from the 
total for a wrong answer. 

Yours faithfully. 


69 Wellesley Road. 



March 15. 

For us the real problem now lies 
in keeping up our children’s 
Polish. This. 1 assure Professor 
Parekh. is not the fault of English 
schools or their supposed attempts 
to make ethnic children think of 
their origins as inferior. 

Saturday schools in which Pol- 
ish is taught have been in exis- 
tence since 1948 — privately, not 
funded with public money, as 
indeed wby should they be? I 
would suggest that this is a course 
of action open to all minorities 
who care enough about their 
origins to make the effort. 

Yours faithfully. 


81 Thurieigh Road, SWIl 
March 12- 


Match 28 2885 

An article about the Riviera by 
Alexander Shand. Two previous 
ones appeared on February 19 and 
20, 1885. The franc was then 
worth about 4p. 



There may be differences of 
opinion as to its eligibility as a 
place of residence, but there can 
hardly be a question that Monte 
Carlo is the most lovely nook in all 
the Western Riviera. There is no 
nobler promenade than the circular 
sweep of terrace in front of the 
Casino. . . 

It was to this southern Eden that 
the late M. Blanc made an exodus 
with his croupiers, his tables, and 
his money chests, when be received 
notice to quit the North in the 
renaissance of German morality. 
The speculation must at Gist have 
seemed a risky one to a gentleman 
accustomed “to play upon velvet." 
The tables in Germany were set up. 
as it were, in the highways. They 
were in watering places crowded in 
the season by invalids who found it 
exceedingly difficult to kill the 
time, and the mobs of tourists in 
their annual rush could not possi- 
bly help stumbling across them — 
But M. Blanc, in fact, had little 
choice, if he cared to continue his 
lucrative business: he had to elect 
between Monaco and the Republic 
of Andorra, and there could be no 
question as to the superiority of the 
former. It was on the confines of 
France and Italy, and both French 
and Italians are fond of play. If it 
had hitherto had no name as a 
health resort itself, it was within 
easy reach of sundry celebrated 
winter stations; it had a heavenly 
climate and unrivalled scenery. 
Moreover, the Prince was very 
ready to come to terms with the 
gambling association, in which be 
was faithful to his ancestral tradi- 
tions. The most illustrious of his 
ancestors of the house of Grimaldi, 
from which he was descended 
through the Una, had 

enriched themselves by piracy 
from their robbe r- stronghokL 
Tbeir descendant simply fell in 
with safer modern fashions; in 
place of sending in search of 
passing strangers with his galleys, 
he became the sleeping partner of 
the astute M. Blanc, who made the 
victims of his bank consenting 
parties.. . Last year the season was 
a poor one, yet from high noon to 
eleven at night there were always 
six roulette tables in foil play, while 
two others in the inner salon were 
diverted to trente-et-quarante. In- 
deed what strikes one most at 
Monte Carlo, compared with remi- 
niscences of the old gambling days 
in Germany, is the large proportion 
of petty players who. nevertheless, 
play relatively high. In Germany 
the smallest stake at roulette was a 
florin, or Is. 8d At Monte Carlo 
the minimum is a 5f. piece Jn 
Germany any “serious player 1 * used 
to go to the rouge-et-noir as a 
matter of course, the odds against 
him there being less; whereas at 
Monte Carlo roulette is much in 
favour, even with those who tempt 
fortune with handfuls of napo- 
leons. Egalite et Fratemite might 
always be the inscription over a 
gambling-house, but at Monte 
Carlo the play seems to have been 
more democratized than ever it 
was before. . . 

The mass of the profitable 
customers are men whom nobody 
knows, and whom assuredly no- 
body wishes to know. The men are 
slangy or shabby in dress, as the 
case may be; and of the women the 
less that is said the better. . . 

You may remark some shabbily 
dressed individual, who after much 
hesitation has carefully laid down a 
solitary five-franc piece, trembling 
in every limb and so indifferent to 
those around that be does not care 
to control his emotion; while old 
women, who look like disreputable 
housekeepers out of place, are as 
haggard with the evening’s excite- 
ment as any stage witch in 
Macbeth. . . Whether the Prince or 
the Company administers the pet- 
ty State ell the employes have 
evidently the mot cTordre. A propos 
to the manner of dealing with 
suicides a story fa told, which, if 
not true, is ben trovato. Agents 
have instructional^ keep their eyes 
upon gentlemen apparently think- 
ing of self-destruction that they 
may thrust money into the empty 
pockets of the victims of despair. 
One player, after throwing away a 
few five-Eranc pieces wife every 
sign of intense agitation, clutched 
his forehead, tottered out of the 
room, and disappeared to a sym- 
phony of groans in the darkness. 
The pistol shot followed in due 
course, and he was found lying on 
his face. Hie attentive emissary of 
the admin {station was an his heels 
with a rouleau before the heart had 
well ceased to beat. Passing that 
way again accidentally fee agent 
found to his amazement that the 
body had disappeared, and fee 
police of the Casino, on pushing 
their inquiries, learned that an 
individual answering the descrip- 
tion had left the Monaco Station 
by an early train and made a 
luxurious breakfast at the Nice 
buffet. . . 

Of shoes and ships... 

From Wing Commander S. J. 

Sir. Without wishing to condemn 
the very appropriate Lewis Carroll 
title of fee bicentenary book on 
the Board of Trade (report, March 
22), I am disappointed that it was 
not called "Buttonhooks and 
Dolls' Eyes”, which was the 
general description of the board's 
activities in my days in industry, 
the Board of Trade and the 
Foreign Office. 

I am. Sir, yours sincerely. 


75 Mount Ephraim, 

Tunbridge Wells, 

March 21 


■ u 








March 27: The Queen and 
' The Duke (rf Edinburgh arrived 
-at Chichester Station in the 
Royal Train this morning and 
. were received by Her Majesty's 
Lord Lieutenant for West Sus- 
sex (Lavinia, Duchess of 
l Norfolk J. 

The Queen and The Duke of 
‘ Edinburgh drove to Chichester 
‘ Cathedral and were received by 
Her Majesty's Lord-Lieutenant 

- for East Sussex (the Marquess of 
Bishop of 
. Reverend 

Kemp) and the Dean (the 
Very Reverend Robert Holtby). 

Her Majesty and His Royal 

- Highness attended the Maundy 

Service at which The Queen 
distributed the Royal Maundy. 

The Bishop of Rochester (the 
Right Reverend David Say. DD. 
'Lord High Almoner) and the 
Sub-Almoner (the Reverend 
Canon Anthony Caesar) were 

The Queen’s Body Guard of 
' the Yeomen of the Guard were 
on duty. 

Afterwards The Queen, with 
The Duke of Edinburgh, drove 
to the Council House, was 
received by the Chairman of 
West Sussex County Council 
(Mr P.G. Shepherd), the Chair- 
man of Chichester District 
Council (Mr N. Best) and the 
Mayor of Chichester (Mr A_I. 
French), and honoured them 
with her presence at luncheon in 
the Assembly Rooms. 

The Duchess of Grafton. Mr 
Kenneth Scott and Major Hugb 
Lindsay were in attendance. 

Princess Anne will open the 
Housing and Hostel Scheme for 
disabled people at Eastleigh ran 
by the Raglan Housing Associ- 
ation and Hampshire County 
Council on April 30 and later 
will open a day centre for the 
physically handicapped at 
Cosham, Hampshire. In the 
evening, as President of the Save 
the Children Fund, she will 
attend a gala performance of La 
Cage mix Folles at the Pal- 
ladium Theatre, in aid of the 
Army Benevolent Fund 
(children's section) and the Save 
the Children Fund. 

Princess Alice Duchess of 
Gloucester will open Age 
Concern's Gloucester House in 
Melton Mowbray, Leicester- 
shire. on April 3. 

The Duke of Gloucester, as 
Ranger, will visit Epping Forest 
on April 13. In the evening, as 
President of the British Consul- 
tants Bureau, he will attend a 
reception given by Freeman, 
Fox and Partners at the Army 
and Navy Club. 

The Duke of Gloucester will 
visit goldsmiths' workshops in 
Hatton Garden and Old Street 
on April 16. 

The Duchess of Gloucester. 
Patron of BUSS (Baby Life 
Support Systems), will attend a 
reception to launch a new book. 
Special Care Babies, at the Stock 
Exchange on April 16. 

Queen Ingrid of Denmark cele- 
brates her birthday today. 

A memorial service for Mr Tom 
S hello nd will be held in 
Lincoln's Inn Chapel on Tues- 
day, May 6, at 5pm. 



Mr MJ). Booth 
and Miss MJ. Biggs 
The engagement is announced 
between Michael, elder son of 
Mr and Mrs D. Booth, of 
Marion, Blackpool, Lancashire, 
and Mary, elder daughter of Mr 
and Mrs DJL Biggs, of Kesion, 

Mr O.V.A. Boucher 
and Miss JJL Jonas 
The engagement is announced 
between Oliver, younger son of 
Mr and Mrs PA Boucher, of 
Prinswick. Gloucestershire, and 
Jennifer, drier daughter of Dr 
and Mrs John J. Jonas, of- 
Montreal Quebec. 

and Mbs LJ.W. Jack 
The engagement is announced 
between Robert, son of Dr J.G. 
and Dr A.M. HaU, ofEdmbuigh. 

T jirinAi rinnght-r Of 

Lieutenant-Colonel J.L. Jack, 
retd, of Newnham Green, 
Hampshire, and Mrs GkA. 
Prioieau, of Kingstone Lisle, 

Mr T. Hobbs 
and Miss S-J. Cussell 
The engagement is announced 
between Timothy, son of Colo- 
nel and Mrs B.R. Hobbs, of 
Warminster, Wiltshire, and 
Sandra, daughter of Mr and Mrs 
EJ. Cussell, of Weston Rhyn, 

Mr PJXR. Landale 
and Miss SJ. Younger 
The engagement is announced 
between Peter, eldest son of Mr 
and Mrs David Landale, of 
Dalswinton, Dumfries, and Sa- 
rah, elder daughter of Mr and 
Mrs David Younger, of 
Broughton, Peeblesshire. 

Mr S-IJL Thomas 
and Miss SLA. James 
The engagement is announced 
between Simon, youngest son of 
Mr and Mrs J. Gardiner, of 
Pevensey Bay, Sussex, and 
Shona. eldest daughter of Mr 
and Mrs T.H. James, of 
D anehill, Sussex. 

Mr J.E.C. Grange 
and Miss C Ellison 
The engagement is announced 
between Jonathan, eldest son of 
Mr and Mrs David Grange, of 
Malmesbury. Wiltshire, and 
Claudia, daughter of Mr John 
Ellison and Mis Kitten Ellison, 
of Bermuda. 

Katerina Lycheva, the 1 1-year-old Soviet girl who is touring the United States, holds peace 
doves signed by pupils during a visit to a school in Washington. 

Birthdays today 

The Right Rev Dr C.K.N. 
Bardslcy. 79; Mr Dirk Bogarde, 
65: Marjorie Countess of Breck- 
nock. 86; the Hon George Brace, 
36; Professor Sir John 
Butterfield, 66; Mr Robert Har- 
ris, 86; Mr Peter Holwcll, 50; 
Lord Hutchinson of Lullington. 
QC. 71; Mr Frank Judd, 51; Mr 
Neil Kinnock, MP, 44; Mr 
Raymond Lister, 67; Mr Clif- 
ford Mollison, 89; Mr Martin 
Neary. 46; Mr Michael Parkin- 
son. 31; Professor Merton 
Sandler. 60; Lord Shaughnessy, 
64; Sir John Stephenson, 76; Mr 
Richard StUgoe, 43. 

Memorial service 

Mr C. Graham-Dixoa 
A service of thanksgiving for the 
life of Mr Charles P raha m - 
Dixon, QC was held in the 
Medical School and Hospital 
Chapel, Charing Cross Hospital, 
yesterday. The Rev Lynn Phil- 
lips officiated. Miss Kathryn 
Stanley and Sir Kirby Laing 
read the lessons. Mr Francis 
Graham-Dixon and Mr Andrew 
Graham-Dixon, grandsons, 
read from the worn of James 
Boswell and Andrew MarveiL 
Professor T.W. Glenister, Dean 
of Charing Cross and West- 
minster Medical School gave an 

Funeral service 

Mrs LE.R. Bentafl 
The funeral service for Mrs 
Rowan Ben tall took place on 
Tuesday, March 23, at St Mary's 
Church, Broughton, Hamp- 
shire. The Rev David Howe, 
rector, officiated. Mr Edward 
Ben tall son, and Mrs Nicholas 
Noel-Tod, daughter, read the 
lessons. The bunal took place at 
the family grave at Dorking. 

History prize 

The Royal Historical Society 
has awarded the Whitfield Prize 
for 1985 to Dr K.D.M. Snell a 
lecturer in English local history 
r Unive ’ " ‘ 

sty, for 

book. Annals of the Labouring 
Poor (Cambridge University 

Science report 

Water plants lured back to Broads 

Scientists have devised a sim- 
ple strategy which could lead 
to the re-establishment of 
acquatk plant communities in 
the Norfolk Broads, reversing 
the trend which has hugely 
cleared the now heavily pollut- 
ed waters of natural vegetation 
over the past 30 years. 

A team from the East 
Anglia University has been 
buOding artificial refuges this 
month in Hoveton Great 
Broad, on the River Bure, for 
the minute creatures which 
graze on the algal plankton 
(phytoplankton) now dominat- 
ing most of the 50 shallow 

The refuges are made of 
bundles of twigs, brushwood, 
- netting suspended in the water 
and polypropylene rope 
“plants” floating up from the 
bottom. The theory is that 
Crustacea, particularly water 
fleas (CladoceraU will colonize 
the refuges in sufficiently large 
numbers to dear the water of 
the phytoplankton, and 
catalyse a switch to the state 
where plants win recotoaize 
the water. Algal development 
early in the season prevents 
the growth of acqnatic plants 
by shading them. 

Because most of the surface 
vegetation has disappeared, 
the Crustacea which graze on 
the phytoplankton cannot sur- 

By Gareth Hnw Davies 

rive the predation of fish, 
which feed by day. The refuges 
will give the two millimetre- 
long creatures the daytime 
cover they need, enabling them 
to feed safely by night It was 
considered politically impossi- 
ble to take out the fish. 

The programme is part of 
long-term experimental work 
by the School of Environmen- 
tal Sciences at the university, 
with and on behalf of the 
Nature Conservancy Council 
The scientists have already 
made valuable discoveries 
about the prospect for natural 
recovery in experiments ou 
certain broads over a number 
of years. 

The broads, an average of 
1.5 metres deep, were formed 
between the ninth and four- 
teenth centuries, when peat 
workings in valley wetlands 
flooded naturally. They are 
into an effluent-rich tapestry 
of rivers which carry pollut- 
ants, especially phosphate, 
from sewage and nitrates 
which ran off former grazing 
land recently turned over to 

In the once-dear waters of 
many of the broads, abradant 
submerged plant communities 
snch as stoneworts and the 
nationally rare, bnt once local- 
ly common, greater naiad have 

been replaced by muddy wa- 
ters dominated by phytoplank- 
ton. Holiday boating is not a 
direct cause of the change, 
although it has speeded the 
erosion of banks which had 
lost vegetation cover. 

Refuge building is seen as a 
complement to the essential 
management technique of pre- 
cipitating ont phosphate, 
about 75 per cent of which 
comes from sewage, at sewage 
treatment works. The Anglian 
Water Authority has installed 
a treatment plant on the river 
Ant and is completing another 
on the Bore. Plant commtmi- 
ties are returning naturally on 
Cronies Broad, which is fed by 
the Ant. 

In another experiment, 
Cockshoot Broad was dammed 
in 1982 to isolate it from the 
Bure and phosphorous sedi- 
ment was removed. There was 
an immediate improvement: 
the water has cleared, nitrogen 
and phosphorous concentra- 
tions have fallen and acqnatic 
plants are colonizing the 
broad. The fish popnlatMm has 
steadily recovered but the level 
of phytoplankton remains very 

However, complete isolation 
can only be applied in a few 
cases because there are righis 
of navigation rights over most 

Moreton HalL SBErei^-feZTS.,' 

Sltfopshire^ »$£&£££ 

The following awards have been |nd«MmA R 3!i! r vSS^mcS 
made as aresuft of the scholar- j.e. 

snip examination: Mnniraoanlan (MllineM Junior 

f&SMS* 8 

Motor academic KhcMm 

Deeka (Swanbome Home SchooL 

Milton Keynes*. ShaU 
(Prestatyn High School). 

Minor academic scholarship: 
OiamUan Potter (The Elms. ColwaB. 
Malvern *. 

, .Surf- 

ford). Natasha Vaughan-JonesJPack- 
wood Haugb. Rnyton XI Towns. 

Millfield School 

The following have been 
awarded academic and music 
scholarships at Millfield School 
from September 1986: 

SdKdsrduro: B.O. Hunt (Mmfleld 
Junior School). K.M. GoodenouNi 
(Millfield Junior School). J.E. 
Mnatzaganiui (Millfield Junior 
School). D-J. Payne Wettm* Hour 
School NewartO. A. Rapoowanat 

lews no. LM. 

School Brts- 

(Wethnv House SchooL Newa rk), LM. 
Sampson (Red land Hkjh 6dKMMM 
[toll. 05 Sixteen oBufMtf 


Exhibitions: SO- OtX 
School). Z.M. Domett 
Schooll. E.M. 

i Junior 

_ 1 Junior 


tWathamaton SchooL LyrntngianJ. R. 
Heal CMUtfleM Jtmlor SGmooTMX. 
Jones. (Cow bridge SchooL South 

In addition to these awards, a 
large number of bursaries have 
been given for the coming 
academic year. 

Talbot Heath, 

Talbot Heath celebrates its one 
hundredth birthday on May I. 
1986, which will be followed by 
three days of special events, 
including the dedication by the 
Bishop of Winchester and the 
opening by Lord Eden of Win- 
ton of the Centenary Sports Hall 
on May 2, a formal centenary 
dinner for members of the old 
girls' association on May 3, and 
a service of commemoration 

and thanksgiving at St Michael's 
Church, at which the Right Rev 
Lord Coggan will preach, on 
May. 4. 


Latest appointments indnde: 
Mr A. Reeve, on promotion to 
senior grade, to be Assistant 
U ntter-Secretary of State (Af- 
rica) from April 1, supervising 
the Central African Depart- 
ment, Commonwealth Co- 
ordination Department, East 
African Deportment, Overseas 
Policy Adviser, Southern Af- 
rican Department, and West 
African Department, in succes- 
sion to Mr J.R. Johnson. 

Mr Alan Baker, a former airline 
pilot now working in the com- 
puter industry, to be rfmtnn»n 
of the National Federation of 
Kidney Patients* Associations. 
Dr Alexander Douglas Ian 
Nkol, aged 64, emeritus seo- 
retary-general of the faculties of 
Cambridge University, to be 
chairman of the Cambridge 
Health Authority in succession 
to Mr Stephen Bragg. 

Mr Kenneth Wiltshire to be 
Architect of Worcester Cathe- 
dral from October I in succes- 
sion to Mr Bernard AshwdL 


Lord's Taverners 
Mr Ronald Gerard was host at a 
luncheon given by the Lord's 
Taverners to the English 
Schools’ Cricket Association at 
28 South Street, London, Wl, 
yesterday. Those present were: 

Mr DavM Fran. Mr Hubert Dogcart. 
Mr Raphael Dfanogty. Mr Jtan 
Bromley. Mr Anthony Swalinm. Mr 
Edward Jackson, Mr Tim Brooke- 
Taylor. Mr Geoffrey Downman. Mr 
Cyril Cooper. Mr TOm Hustler and Mr 
Be r nar d Berrtcfc- 

Latest wills 

Sir Harry Neil Marten, of 
Mamon, Dorset, Minister for 
Overseas Development, 1979- 
1983, left estate valued at 
£301.468 net 

Mr Guy Piers Le Gendra 
Starkie. of Clilheroe, left 
£1.967.149 net. 

Dorothy Mary Perceval of Ken- 
sington, London, left £333.479 
net She left £20,000 each to 
Eton College, the Imperial Can- 
cer Research Fund, and the 
King Edward VII Hospital for 

Professor John Patrick 
Micklethwait Brenan, of Kew 
Gardens, Surrey, director of the 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 
1976-1981, left £119,611 net 
Mrs Evelyn Ethel One, of 
Cheam. Surrey, left £202,957 
net. She left her entire estate 
equally between the Guide _ 
for the Blind Association, 
Richard Dimbieby Cancer 
Fund, and the Friends of the 
Animals League, Biggin HilL 
Other estates include 
Flood, Nora Elhna Mary, of 
Wadhuist, East Sussex £636, 1 50 
Marsh. Mrs Elizabeth Ann 
Orledge. of 

Loughborough £385.821 

Mussett, Mr David, of Bickley, 
Kent £460,515 


MJ. Cohen 
and Miss AJF. Courage 
The marriage took place quietly 
in Paris on Friday, March 21, 
1986, between M Jacques Cohen 

and Miss Annabel Courage, of 8 
Rue Fondary, Paris, 75015, 

Mr ILFJSt H. Jerae 
and Mrs SLG. Johnstone 
The marriage took place in 
Lymnonth, North Devon, on 
Tuesday. March 18, bet w e e n Mr 
Hugo rands St tidier Jerae, of 
Lynroouth, North Devon, and 
Mrs Sonia Gay Johnstone, of 

Mr HJL Letik 
and Mbs V. Gibson 
The marriage has taken place 
quietly in Honfaam, West Sus- 
sex, of Mr John Loire, son of 
Mr and Mrs Percy Leslie, of 
London, to Miss Valerie Gib- 
son. daughter of Mr and Mis 
James Gibson, of Liverpool. 

Dr RjL ShJaer 
and Miss J. Sisson 
The marriage took place on 
Friday, March 21, 1986, in 
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 
between Dr Roger A. Shiner, of 
Edmonton, and Miss Janet 
Sisson, of Glasgow. 

Sale room 

has some 
ups and 

By Geraldine Norman, 

Sale Room Correspondent 

An rapredktaMe but essen- 
tially frivolous mood dominat- 
ed Christie's sale of 
Continental f u r n it ure yester- 
- day. 

An eighteentb-century Ital- 
ian commode painted with 
sprays of summer flowers on n 
Breen ground was a universal 
nmrante and was bid up to 
£8,640 (estimate £800-£1200)- 
The paint was falling off, both 
had not been restored or 


An early nineteentli-centary 
mood oak table from Germany 
supported by entwined dd- 
pM as soared to £14,040 (esti- 
mate £2#&I~£3M while a 

Biedenneier bedside cupboard 
formed as a Anted column with 
an Ionic capital made £44160 
(estimate £2,000-£3,000). 

Nobody wanted Ava 
Gardner's bed, however, a blue 
and white painted fit 4 la 
polonaise, which was left un- 
sold at £5^00 (estimate 

Good Dutch marquetry 
could be had at price levels of 
five or six years ago. The sale 
totalled £333,000 with 16 per 
cent unsold. 

A British version of the 
same exotic taste seemed a 
price of £6,600 (estimate 
£3£0<WS^»0) for a small 
W illiam and Mary chest, ve- 
neered in oyster laburnum, at 
Hairy Spencer and Sons of 
Retford on Wednesday. 

Sotheby's offered an histor- 
ic bottle of claret on Wednes- 
day afternoon, a magnum of 
1969 Chateau Lafite which 
was originally bought from the 
chateau by Napoleon's great 
nephew. It had been recorked 
at Lafite last year and was sold 
for £3,520 (estimate £1,600- 
£3,000). The same sale includ- 
ed a box of 150 Rafael 
Gonzalez Coronas cigars, pre- 
Castro and possibly prewar, at 
£660 (estimate £300-£500). 

Sotheby's sale of Impres- 
sionist and modem drawings 
totalled £23 million with 24 
per cart left unsold. The top 
prices were much as forecast: 
£181300 (estimate £158,000- 
£200,000) for Egon Schiele's 
M Knabe Portritt", £143,000 
(estimate £130,000416(1000) 
for Kandinsky's stndy for 
“Blue Segment”, of 1919, and 
£123,200 (estimate £50,000- 
£70,000) for Paul Klee's 
“Nordsee Insel Hauser”. 

Japanese dealers woe over 
in force to buy middle-range 
violins at Phillips yesterday. 
They bought asastly in * the 
£600-12,000 bracket and 
Kubota of Tokyo paid the top 
price in toe sale at £9,900 
(estimate £8,000-£12^)00) for 
a violin by Vincenzo Carcassi 
of Florence, dated 1763. 

Auction launches drive 
on hardwood production 

By John Young, Agriculture Gvrespapdeat 

A national hardwood timber 
auction, claimed to be the fint 
in Britain, is to be launched this 
year to encourage domestic 
production and improve mar- 
keting. The first auction wfll be 
bdd at the National Agricultural 
Centre. Stoodeigh. Warwick- 
shire, on October 22. 

Annual consumption of sawn 
timber is .just over 9,00(1000 
cubic metres. About 1,100,000 
cubic metres are hardwoods, 
less than a third of which are 

The auction is being orga- 
nized by BidweQs, a Cambridge 
firm of chartered surveyors, 
with the support of the Forestry 
Commission, Timber Growers 
UK, and the British Timber 
Merchants Association. Mr 
Ninian Sanders, BidweUs* part- 
ner responsible for forestry, s 
that the auction wiD cot costs 

buyers and improve returns for 

There is a widening gap 
between the price which timber 
merchants can pay and that 
which grown are prepared to 
accept, he says. The mult ties 
largely with the growers in terms 
of poor market research, bad 
marketing and inability to pro- 
vide continuity of supplies. Few 
estate owners have the resources 
to conduct proper market re- 
search and so tend to depend on 
sales by tender. 

Mr Sanders hopes the auction 
will save buyers a great deal of 
abortive travelling and survey- 
ing of private woodlands. 

Also, owners wfll be advised 
how to sefl , standing or felled; 
bow to grade, mark and mea- 
sure and how to dear access 
routes and provide 

University news 


The name of Professor Emeritus 
Ralph Leigh, who is to receive 
an honorary DLitt, was misspelt 
in our University news column 
published on March 13. 

Dr N.Krritmaa, director of the 

MRCs unit for epidemiological 
studies in psychiatry at the 
Royal Edinburgh Hospital, and 
Dr (LM. Gaze, head of the 
MRCs neural development and 
regeneration group at the 
university's department of zo- 
ology, lobe honorary professors 
of the university. 



Journalist, historian and 
public servant 

Elisabeth Batter, who died diplomatic corresponded 

on March 19 at the age of 75, 
had a varied career as a 
journalist, {mb lie servant, and 
writer on historical subjects. 
She was particularly noted for 
her books on the Balkans and 
for her analyses of various 
aspects of Britain’s position in 
the wartime and post-war 

She was bora at Oxford ou 
March 22, 1910, the daughter 
of Ernest and Emily Barker. 
Her falter, then fellow and 
tutor of St John's College, 
moved to London in 1920 as 
principal of Kings 
and Elisabeth, whose 
grace was already marked, 
went to St Paul's School as a 
scholar in 1923. 

From there tire won a major 
scholarship in 1927 to Lady 

like her father, she read mods 
and greats. Uncertain what to 
do next, she went out to 
Vienna in the summer of 1932 
to join her brother Arthur, 
then . The Times correspon- 
dent there. 

At first a visitor, she became 
very much more. Travelling 
all over Eastern . Europe, she 
developed a wide knowledge 
of its countries, especially the 
Balkans, and an equal affec- 
tion for them. She had found 
her metier. 

In 1934, back in London, 
she joined the BBC, working 
in (he news library and later, 
when war became imminent, 
as a sub-editor in overseas 
news. One of her more unusu- 
al tasks there was to lead 
General de Gaulle to the 
microphone on June 18, 1940, 
when he delivered his historic 

Lale in 1941, her knowledge 
of South-eastern Europe was 
in great demand, and she left 
the BBC to join the Foreign 
Office political intelligence de- 
partment (later political war- 
fare: executive), as assistant to 
the Balkan regional director, 
Ralph Murray, whom she 
succeeded in 1943. 

In August 1945, she became 
Reuters correspondent in tire 
Balkans. The clarity and in- 
sight of her despatches and her 
enterprise (she was deported 
from Belgrade in 1947) be- 
came something of a legend. 

Sire returned to London at 
Reuters diplomatic desk, and 
ngoined the BBC in May 1949 
as Assistant in the political 
information unit, becoming 

most at once. , n( j 

The External Servrt. ang 
the polyglot society of™*" 
House were familiar and con 
genial surroundings, ana sne 

would have been cen»nt w 

Though h“ foraS^ble ■““jjj*’ 

to suggest promotion. 

Steretisted, however, unuj 
1965, when she became head 
of European talks and Engl 150 
service. She retired in 1970. 

At this point she tag 30 * 
new career. She had already 
written two books. Truce m 
the Balkans (1948) and \ Mac- 
edonia : its place in Balkan 
power politics (1950), op e 
popular, the other academic, 
but both notably dear, bal- 
anced, and penetrating. Now 
she was encouraged to pursue 
at the Public Record Office the 
documents behind the events 
of European history that she w 
had experienced at first hand. 

A notable series of articles 
and books followed, of which 
Britain in a Divided Europe 
1945-1970 (1971); Churchill 
and Eden at War (1978); and 
The British between the Super- 
powers (1945-1950) (1983) 
were widely acclaimed. 

She was appointed OBE in 

The bare record of her life 
conveys very little of Elisabeth 
Barker's character and person- 
ality, or of her beauty or the 
quick elegance with which she 
moved. It was true that, with 
ambition, tire could have risen 
far higher in the world. If she 
had a fault, it was too modest a gp 
view of her own abilities. But 
she knew what she wanted to 
do and did R. 

Her knowledge was 
equalled by her discretion in 
matters of confidence and 
security, and she was univer- 
sally trusted. At the same 
time, tire was impatient of 
humbug or inaccuracy, espe- 
cially among of fic ial s, and 
could express her disapproval 

But ter generosity to indi- 
viduals was limitless: refugees 
from the countries she knew 
before the war, colleagues and 
friends, received her sympa- 
thy and help, tire was devoted 
to her family, who turned to 
her for advice and returned it 
with love and admiration. 

She is survived by ber • 
daughter and five 


- Charles Starrett. one of the 
cinema's leading cowboy stars 
in. the heyday of the low 
budget Western, died in Cali- 
fornia on March 22 at the age 

Bora in Athol, Massachu- 
setts, on March 28, 1903, he 
made his first screen appear- 
ance while a student at Dart- 
mouth College, playing a 
footballer in the 1926 Richard 
Dix film. The Quarterback. 

After gradnatmg, he acted in 
stock companies in Cmcinatti 
and Indianapolis and had 
supporting parts on 

His film career proper be- 
gan in 1930, when he was put 
under contract by Paramount. 
Handsome and athletic, he 
played mainly romantic leads 
until he was signed by Colum- 
bia to be their principal cow- 
boy star in 1936. With his 

white stetson and impeccable 
dress, he was among a new 
bre6K of. idealised .Western 
heroes who came to replace 
the downbeat stars of the 
cinema's early years. 

His films were strictly for- 
mula pieces, re-cydinga hand- 
ful of basic plots and 
depending on the excitement 
of action ratirer than the 
exploration of character. But 
within their seif-imposed lim- 
its, they achieved a consistent 
standard of technical 

(Men playing a character 
called the Durango Kid, and 
with Smiley Burnette as his 
tide-kick, Starrett maintained 
his popularity throughout the 
1940s. But the spread of 
television eventually meant 
the end of the second feature 
Western and Starrett made his 
last film in 1952. 


seen by many as one of the 
most important procedural 
reforms of the century. 

In 1976 Williams was elect- 
ed to the presidency of the 
World Council of the Inter- 
parliamentary Union, only 
the third British parliamentar- 
ian to be so honoured. At the 
bi-annual conferences, he is 
still remembered for his con- 
siderable diplomatic skills 
He leaves a widow, 
Gwyneth, who supported him 
so well in all his work and 
travels, and a son and a 
daughter, both lawyers. The 
four of them were a living 
example of what a really close 
family could be, even under 
the pressures of parliamentary 

David Crouch, MP, writes: 

As a Conservative Member 
of Parliament, may I be 
permitted to add to your 
obituary of March 3, as one 
who saw Tom Williams from 
the other side of the House? 

He was the perfect example 
of a good House of Commons 
man, fearless in his views, 
absolutely honest and always 
willing to listen to others. 

As Chairman of the Select 
Committee on Procedure, he 
recommended the establish- 
ment of departmental select 
committees. The effect of this 
was to shift the balance of 
advantage between Parlia- 
ment and- Government in 
favour of Parliament and the 
back benches, and this was 

Births, Deaths and In Memoriam 

£4 a few + 15% VAT 

(minimum } Lines) 
Annoimccmmtv arnhemmed h» the 
name and permanent addms of I he 
sender, mai Irwuio 

The times 
PO BOX 484 
Virginia Street 
London El 

or ickrfonni «l*> wkphonc wbucrib- 
ii\ onhl io. 01-481 3024 
Announcnmnu can he rrcciied by 
Kkphonr bemven Qflfarn and 
5 .Ulpcn Monda> to Fndi). on Salur- 
da* tviwcn i.Ouam and 12 noon. 
(01-401 4000 OnljrL For poblica* 
Imn the fhdonine tbt phone by 
MACES. WEPDMGS, neon Court 
and Sotial Papr £0 a Hh * 11% 

Court and Social Pate aimounce- 
irvuis can not be aenrptede bv 
K-kphanc. Enuwncs hx 01-022 
9053, nr send lo 1 

Street, l e nd™ Cl 

GtLUSAM On Mann 20th. to Menu 
and John, a daughter., stillborn. 

MACLACHLAM ■ on March 18th. at 
The John RMcilffe Hospital, to Ma- 
deleine (tHe Kerman) and 
Alexander, a eon. James Tobias. 

PAXTON - On March 19th at (he Oak- 
vllir Hospital. Toronto, to Janet (nee 
Angel) and Anthony, a son James 

POranT . On aom March to Richard 
and Jane. Emily, a sister to Sam and 

MDCUFFE On March 13th. lo Alex 
and Mine, at Countess of Chester 
Hospital, a dauflther Charlotte Fetid- 
ly. a staler for Harriet. 

ROGERS. To Madenne and Stephen a 
Daughter Sian Elizabeth. Born 4U> 
March 1986. A Staler for David. 

SALVESEN -On March 10th. hi Aber- 
deen. to Angelica and Andrew, a 

.. Thou hatt ron mi n wl nor trouble: Sum 
hast Known my mm m aditmuo. 

Pulfli 31:7 


AUNMD On the 26th March, to Kyn 
and John, a daughter Kerry. 

BLACKMON - On 26th March 1986. 
at Queen Charlotte's HospOal. to Aim 
and Alfred, a ion- 

COUCHMAN - On March 17th to Celia 
tore Hayden) and Iran, a daughter 
Jemma Nknte. 

t-On March lllh. teJoaninfe 
Macdonald -Johnston] and Kerry, a 
son Samuel John Richard. 


ASKWHCKT -On March £4th, peace- 
fully at home. Margaret Ann. much 
beloved daughter of Lucie Bradley 
Johnstone and mother of Loftus. Fu- 
neral service on Wednesday April 
2nd. 10.16am al Putney Vale Cre- 
matorium. London. Any donation* to 
the Imperial Cancer Research. 

CHESTER - On March 23nL peaceful- 
ly at St Augustine's Nursing Home. 
Jeme Marla. Remnem Mas* M Christ 
Church. St Leonards-on^Sea. 2nd 
April at 10.30am. 

On 2SUi March 1986. peacefully at 
home, in Opto. South of France, after 
a painful Illness most courageously 
borne- Most dearly loved, loving and 
devoted companion of June Ctemenl. 
and dear brother of Tony SMnnr 
and Shirley Steven. 

MC IUIH. Edmund Austin. Please pray 
for the repose of the soul of Father 
Edmund Austin Dtgnam of the Soci- 
ety of Jesus, peacefully tn St 
Thomas's Hospital. London, on 23rd 
March 1966. aped 82 years. Rea id- 
em mass at I l.OOam an Wednesday 
8th April ai Campion House College. 
Osterfe-y, followed by burial M 
12.30pm al Wimbledon Cemetery. 
Cap Road SWJ9 

DOUGLAS SHAW - On 16th March 
1906. peacefully in her 91st year. 
Elsie, much loved mother and grand- 
mother and widow of Robert. 
Funeral has taken place p ri va te ly. 

FREETH H Andrew R.A. Peacefully 
on March 26th. loving husband of 
Roeeen and lather of Marlin. Tony 
and Richard, a dedicated and gentle 
artw. Funeral arrangements to be 

On March 26th Joan 
Glad Is RauthmeD at Mill Rat*. 
Martulhatush Arayfl. the beloved 
mother of Hector and Alasair. Fu- 
neral service at the Lowland Church. 
Camphet Town. 240pm April 1st. 
Local Friends. Family flowers only. 
Private burlaL 

1 - On 20th March 1986. 
peacefully at Ms home. Cargen 

Mains, tslesteps. 8y Dumfries. Rev. 
Georoe Henry Medhurst aged 81 
years, husband of the late beloved 
Milk cent Edith. Cattw and friend of 
Kenneth and Matcobn and loved by 
June. Grandfather or Jonathan. Ju- 
dith and Ebzabrth. Cremated at 
Carlisle Crematorium on 2Stb March 

HAUE R . Charles aged 77 years 
peacefully on March 25th In Siena 
hospital. Dearly loved father of An- 
nie and Alexe, grandfather of Sam. 
Ham 1 and NalaUa. Funeral will take 
Mace I a Italy. 

O W TO HORSrora. Mona Kath- 
leen aped 76. suddenly at home on 
the 23rd March. Funeral west Nor- 
wood Crematorium. Wednesday 2nd 
April at 2.00pm. Donations to the 
Royal Free HosMtaL NW3. 

ROOMS Leslie OXE.. K.M. Formally 
Superintendent of Police, the Untied 
Provinces of India. Suddenly on 
March 20th. . after a long illness 
bravely borne, beloved husband of 
the lale Ena RoMns. and much loved 
brother-in-law. Unde and Friend. 
Funeral on Friday April 4th 2^0om 
at lewtaham Crematorium (Hither 
Green) SE6. Engutna lo France* 
ChapeL Lee High Road, let 01-802 

On 20th March, peacefully at 
PenAury HosniaL Kent Maurice 
Charles aged 7E- Private cremation 
at Tunbridge Wetta Crematorium on 
lltb April 1986 at U.30atn. 

ROSE - Michael- On March 28th. 
peacefully after a short IBneas. Ed- 
ward Michael Rose CJtLG.. lately 
H.M.. Foreign Service. Funeral Tues- 
day April 1st al 2J30prn at Pariah 
Church. Betcitamp St PauL nr Clare. 
Suffolk. Donations If desbed. to 
Christian AW or Uat Cable Sheet 
Project- A Thanksgiving Sendee wm 
be arranged in London later. 

ROWE On 27th March 1986. peaceful- 
ly al home, in Letcorabe Regis. Chum. 
Grace GreteL beloved wife of 
RKhard and mother of Anthony and 

SMMMM On March 26m at home, af- 
ter a long Ultra, borne with great 
courage. Frauds Nell, beloved hus- 
band of the late Kitty and of Freda 
and dearly loved lather of Susan and 
Rosemary. Funeral service at St 
Mary’s Church, Marhotm. Peterbor- 
ough. on Wednesday April 2nd at 
11.30am. followed by Cremation. 
Family flowers o«y. Donations IT do. 
sired to Peterborough Hospital at 
home, c/o Mrs. Dee George. 
Fotheringbay Manor. Peterborough. 
PE8 5HD- 

SWORD A Service of TtumlagtVbig for 
the Uft of Meg Sword wtiibe Ddd at 
Heythrop Church, near CMpptng 
Norton at Noon an Saturday 6th 
April 1986. Any donations to Chip- 
ptog Norton war Memorial Hospital. 

TURNBULL - On Z3rt March 1986, 
suddenly at hta home a few days af- 
ter Ms 78th birthday. Patrick 
Edward Xenophon TumbuB. M.G, 
soldier and author, beloved husband 
of Elsa, and dear father Of Domonlc 
and Giles. Enquiries to R A H Barter. 
40 Wantage Rd. DklcoL Om. 



the Hfe of Margaret Eteabem Bindl& 
will be held at SL Andrew's Church. 
Curry Rtvel at 3JO pm. on Wednes- 
day. 9th April. 


era™ -Fredrick James. My darling 
Freddie remembered with so much 
love as always, your Ottve. 

JAMES FUMUMM. In loving memo- 
ry of a beloved husband. Sorely 
missed today and every day. VI. 

MCXECttME in fond memory of Dun- 
can. who dtod 28tti March 1956. 

WILSON John aiarnock. of 
Rothanstad and Eastbourne. 
27-3-22. to 2 d,& 8 &, remembered 
with love on thla Ms BtrOMfoy, bv hta 
statent and chUdnn. Also hta wife 
Evo. who died on Good Friday 198S. 

A divided nation? ... or 



Published to coincide with the 5th anniversary of 
die SDP, David Owen's dynamic new book cuts 
to the centre of this country's political and 
economic crisis, confronting those issues that 
divide our society and putting forward a 
powerful argument and a challenge for a better 
Britain - for a united kingdom. - 

A Penguin Original ■ (5) £2-95 


• < 


W - J 

^ • 

Jy* jl -v-* ) a\j& 

\tfs ' 

^ , 8 ^ 





S t^w r Manic touch of regional promise 

marKet No Surrender (15) 

lOrCeS Qdeon Haymarket 

London theatre 

One bright star 



The essence of the real-life 

splendid nostalgic cabaret. Fi- 
nally. Ms Mackie's talent is 
closer to the theatre-filling 
bravura of Garland's daugh- 
ter, Liza Minnelli, than Judy's 

The fraught stratosphere 
..where international politics 
-- 'jostles high technology gave 
“ TV Eye (Thames) the setting 
'.-.T* for Uncle Sam’s La*;* brief 
•■‘J* esanrination of tike way that 

V ? American computer gauds ma- 
'*■ mpulute Cold War paranoia in 

older to thwart oar “sunrise” 
industry's commercial ambi- 
/ > dens in TsstOn Europe. The 
American (Le. the Pentagon's) . 
position is that ostensible 
.. B innocent computers dispat- 
chedto the smiting Birf gars for 
their tourist industry may be 
Vv rejigged to guide distinctly 
••T BBsmiling nuclear missiles in a 
Jrind of terminal five-market 
-i'. 'J- boomerang: export and die. 

Since most technological in- 
:• novation originates from ac- 
;'i ross thd Atlantic, it wonU be 
J - all the -more remarkable if 
America did not do eraything 
in its poster to eco- 

• ' BOmic hegemony. This rep- 

ort’s main, thrust was to point 
dp the absurdity of American 
. } courts imposing fines on Biit- 
'‘ c i ish amphnes who have not 
transgressed British law. One 
“techno-bandit’' from Derby 
who did do so, and who got two 
years imprisonment for his 
pains, declared unrepentantly 
that it was “the patriotic thing 
to do". 

Governmental folly on an 
v,>. epic,. Swiftian scale was the 
■ jji theme of . the 40 mumta 
documentary Nuts! (BBC2), 
which told the deKrioasly 
ridiculous story of the great 
peanut scandal of the late 

- > 1940s, when the Minister of 

Food, John Strachey (Eton, 

• Oxford, Karl Marx), spent 

Y £30 million on a madcap 
scheme to cultivate a large, 

4 arid chunk of Tanganyika, 

- •»! pithily described as “mile 

^ upon mile of damn all". 

Contemporary footage of 
Irish navvies bulldozing trees 
on two bottles of South African 
^ brandy per day per man was 
comphanented by modern in- 
: zuf terviews with survivors of the 
; . Nut Army, whose anecdotes 
have been well polished over 
foot decades in da bbooses and 
.t-j at bridge parties. One was left 
. < ' with the impression tiiat the 

- whole farrago may after all 
have been worthwhile in giving 

rr- thousands of cits a weft-earned 
suntan and the rest of the 
.Y ? nathm a Jolly good langfac. 

^ Martm Cropper 

, •«. *■ • 

; 7 Less than ; 30 years after his 
• - death Sacha Guitry has new 
r:: productions of three of his 

- - comedies playing in three 

- y different Paris theatres; Le 

Veilleur de mui (Theatre 1 3), 
Faisons Un Reve (Saint- 
^Georges) and La Prise de 
Berg-op-Zoom (Michodiire). 
Not by, the design of the 
. producers, an three pieces date 
from die same period — 1911 
,.r> to 1914*- when Guitry was in 
his late twenties, and all 
revolve around variations on 
the triangle .. infernal. Seen 
individually, there are two 
successes and a miss. 

The most remarkable of the 
three is Le Veilleur de nuit , 
which inexplicably has never 
been revived since its Paris 
premiere 75 years ago. Skil- 
fully directed by Jacques 
, Nersou, its urbane vivacity, 
biting wit and emotional ma- 
. nipuladons have lost none of 
V their validity. 

. j A young artist is commis- 
.. . sioned to paint a mural in the 
. home of a young woman,- 
whose comfortable livelihood 
is derived via the somewhat 
\ mechanical attentions of an 
•/ older, richer man. As much by 
his verbal dexterity as by his 
Byron ic good looks, the artist 
seduces his patroness. On 
^ discovering this “love" affair, 

• ' the older man's emotional 

indifference flares into jealou- 
•. sy. He -reasons, however, that 
at his age it is wiser to 

- accommodate one young man 
you ’ know rather than be 

: tormented by visions of those 
you do not. 

The -role of the artist was 
y tailored by Guitry for himself. 

^ Fabric* Luchini nimbly steps 
into the master's shoes and, 

The Girl in the Picture 

Cannon Haymarket 

DJL R. YX. (PG) 

Cannon Panton Street 

The best - British comedy always 
been regional (cC Grade Fields, 
George Fbnnby, Norman Evans, Old 
Mother Riley); and a new decentral- 
ization is a promising sign. Following 
Letter to Brezhnev , Liverpool now 
provides cast and setting for No 
Smrender. Directed by Peter Smith, 
who has worked only for television 
since his notable debut with A Private 
Enterprise 12 years ago, fhfe is 
the first feature film scripted by Alan 
Bleasdale, who wrote the 1 983 televi- 
sion series Boys from the Black Stuff. 

No Surrender is strictly horror 
comic — the nightmare of the new 
manager of a sleazy Liverpool dub, 
who folds not only that the proprietor 
is a mobster and the acts are disasters 
but that the outgoing management 
hqs double-booked the dub to the 
senior dtizen members both of the 
local Orange Cob and of the Irish 
Catholic community. 

The leader of the Orange boys is 
Billy the Beast, who has m tow an 
aged fugitive Ulster gunman. The 
self-appointed boss of the Catholics is 
a blind old boxer, fighting mad and 
determined to use the occasion to 
'settle a lifetime of old scores with 
Billy. As the night wears on and the 
drink swills, all the other crippled 
ancients and their formidable wom- 
enfolk start spoiling for the long- 
forgonen thrill of a punch-up. The 
escalating -tensions are not dimin- 
' ished by the unexpected irruption of a 
parly oflunatic geriatrics, stranded in 
their ambulance, and a couple of 

These crazy old -people suit the 
world they inhabit. The Charleston 
Cub may be hell, but outside is 
worse: inner-city devastation, with 
identical high-rises (a police raid 
unfortunately but understandably 
strikes Attlee Heights in mistake for 
Gaitskell Heights) and bleak waste- 
lands . where ' muggers roam and 
marauding infants disintegrate 
parked cars unless they are paid 
protection money. . . 

With a murder, a death from heart 
failure, bloody torture in the back 
room, fights with fists and bottles, 
and all the venom of sectarian hatred, 
the comedy tends to a darker shade of 
black; but Peter Smith creditably 
manag es foe abrupt shifts of mood 
from farrical to deadly. Sometimes 
though Bleasdale's stytizol one-liner 
repartee seems at odds with the 

Judy Garland was contained .trembling sincerity. 

* # $ l 

Comedy in the characterization: James Ellis’s demented blind pugilist Billy the Beast, with Michael Ripper as 
Bonaparte, his aged delinquent henchman, in No Surrender 

absurd horror of foe ritual hostilities 
(“They niver left the playground", 
says one of foe women, who lend to 
be more mature and less romantic 
than their men about sex and sects). 

The best part of the comedy is foe 
characterization. Michael Angdis as 
foe manager, and Bernard Hill as the 
bouncer whose tough exterior con- 
ceals an infantile intellect, bring off 
foe difficult feat of a poker-faced 
double act Ray McAnally’s cool Billy 
offsets James Ellis's manic blind 
pugilist Avis Bunnage, LG. Devlin, 
Marjorie Slidell, Joan Turner and 
Michael Ripper head foe bizarre cast 
of aged delinquents; and Joanne 
WhaUey, here playing a waifish 
trollop who cooks for foe club and has 
aspirations as a pop ringer, reveals a 
larger talent with every performance. 

The Girl in the Picture, directed 
and written by Cary Parker, is a 
comedy of foe Glasgow school, 
deeply (and not unprofitably) influ- 
enced by Bill Forsyth, whose star 
from Gregory’s Girt, John Gordon- 
Smclair, is foe lead. He plays an 
amiable photographer, earning his 
living with weddings and babies, but 
sporadically working on foe portfolio 
which he hopes will one day get his 
pictures into foe glossies. He is 
meanwhile tormented by the problem 
of whether he should replace the girl 

reunion, and foe philosophical con- 
clusion that, even if they are doomed 
to be miserable together, he would 
rather be miserable with her than 
with anyone else. Such is love. 

It has a lot of charm, but not much 
momentum. The dialogue has foe 
non seq. oddity of the Forsyth scripts, 
and David McKay, as foe hero's 
colleague in foe photographers' shop, 
handles it with foe same offhand 
dexterity as Gordon-Sinclair himself. 
There is an engaging chorus of self- 
absorbed eccentrics; and Gordon- 
Sinclair has some gentle comic 
scenes, including a bleary hangover 
after a night with a junkie lady. But 
the content is finally too thin to 
support a feature film, and foe 
running gags are run to exhaustion 
long before foe end. 

Hollywood has colonized the 
minds of foe young in a great part of 
foe world. The consolation in this is 
that Hollywood films do not embody 
a unified American principle or world 
view. Sylvester Stallone and Chuck 
Norris pictures may promote Second 
Cold War attitudes; but alongside, 
often in foe most unsuspected pic* 
hires, contrary, sceptical, subversive 
views still find expression, question- 
ing foe accepted political structures: 
foe right of force, foe establishment’s 
secret agencies, foe military autocra- 

who has just walked out on him or try cy.the subjection of man to machine, 

to win her back. The final solution is ‘ "The subversives, it is true, are 

generally very small voices, at least in r # 

comparison with Rocky and Rambo. The Merry Widow 

D.A.R.YJL is a quaint little Holly- _ J 

wood fable in which foe unqualified COUSeum 

villains are the Pentagon, with its „ . — 

sinisier sccret research establish- n, e widow is not Merry. On 
ments. and a subservient police force. lh f f iL ^ Annd 
Having expended bdlions developing SLmgS£n J^mSJSSe 

Lifeforra (D.A.R.Y.L), the appalled Auction. It was he after all, 
military saentists discover that what who applied ^ Broadway 
•they have crated is i - i ahoy. This touch t p Q p Fausr ^ by , h J 
dangerous thing lands same token it was, in theory, a 

among real people, and rapidly learns (^^ag ploy to commission a 
human et^onsMdsoaal behay- ^ ^translation from 
tour. The rest of the story is a battle N £/ York City opera's Shel- 
between foe establishment, which don Hamick. LehJr did, after 
uses all its force uying to destroy the ^ gj ve Broadway its cue in 
creature which has passed beyond ur.51 
their control and foe good, plain 

people who claim foe new human as Sure enough, foe cumber- 
one of their own. some old art nouveau designs. 

Directed bv Simon Wincer from a black on scarlet and helio- 
script bv David Ambrose, Allan Scon trope, are given a lift by the 
and Jeffrey EUis. D.A.R. Y.L. tends to 'long, straight chorus-lines and 
sacrifice foe sharper points it might foe opening freezes which 
have made in favour of small-town burst inio knees-up choreogra- 
doraestic drama. Mary Beth Hurt and phy in best RSC tradition. 
Michael McKean, however, bring Stunning visual use is made, 
genuine charm to foe roles of too, of foe long staircase, 
D.A-R.Y.L.'s adoptive parents, and reinforcing foe bold linear 
Bainret Oliver is drily touching as foe movemenL lehar, though, 
robot child, whose transition to cannot live by the eye alone, 
humanity does not impair his special What is more, this sort of 
kinship with machines. visual panache puts consider- 

in the yearning vibrato of her 
voice, and the awkward, 
throaty desperation of her 
manner. Although she was 
technically at her best as a 
teenage thoroughbred, croon- 
ing sweetly at Mickey Rooney, 
the ruinous temperamental 
chaos of her life lent her laier 
work an extraordinary broken 
intensity. In A Star is Bom, 
opposite James Mason, she 
rhapsodizes at foe edge of 
exhaustion, and there is a 
suicidal bum in her hectic 
showbiz panache. 

Terry Wale’s new musical, 
Judy, goes glibly through foe 
backstage horror-story of her 
career, joining foe songs to- 
gether with routine Holly- 
wood pastiche, but, again and 
again, foe show is kicked into 
life by foe belting confidence 
of its star. Lesley Mackie's 
Judy is a raw, gutsy heart- 
breaker, with a big. lived-in 
voice. She puts muscle and 
flamboyance into “Bom in a 
Truck" and "The Man Who 
Got Away" and, when she is 
singing, you are prepared to 
ignore foe production’s lustre- 
less melodrama and you ac- 
cept the evening as a piece of 


The Merry Widow 


The Widow is not Merry. On 
foe face of it. it seemed a good 
idea to get lan Judge to restage 
Colin Graham's original pro- 
duction. It was he, after all. 
who applied the Broadway 
touch to Fausr. and by foe 
same token it was, in theory, a 
cunning ploy to commission a 
zippy new translation from 
New York City Opera's Shel- 
don Hamick. Lehar did. after 
all. give Broadway its cue in 
his day. 

Sure enough, foe cumber- 
some old art nouveau designs, 
black on scarlet and helio- 
trope. are given a lift by the 

David Robinson 

ert Lamoureux) who uses his 
status to the ends of stealing 
away the wife (Yolande 
Foliiot). The commissioner of 
police is again a Guitry tailor- 
made, styled when he was 27. 
Lamoureux, through no fault 
of his own, is not A shoddy 
plot, twittering dialogue and 
token showing of expensive 
underwear are dressed with 
the meticulousness of a cos- 
tume museum-piece. Guitry 
cannot, however, be entirely 

Royal Philharmonic Society concert 

Marvellous representation 
of saintly wonders 

Festival Hall/ 
Radio 3 

held to blame. The original rT 

text has been hacked au rather whatever else may be said of 

than adapted, by foe director 
Jean Meyer. 

Messiaen's opera Saint Fran- 
cois d'Assise, the scale of its 

7 Tbe only wrinkles on foe ^og ta^foTb^ away" 
R fl e WA only because it require 

Paris, practically by 
coincidence, is staging a 
mini-festival ofthe work 
of Sacha Guitry (above): 

Diane Hill reports 

-j- T -| with rheumatism when foe 

I I A Phy was first performed, but 

^ J X v/d-XAC tire later film shows him 

. playing foe seducer as a byper- 

_ _ __ _ smooth man of the world. 

VI V3 Cl TV Today, under foe able direc- 

T A T tion of Jacques Rosny, Claude 

Rich turns foe charvter into 
can imagine was missing in an irascible charmer, 
the original. Yasmina Reza as With ah infectious energy 
the young woman and Marc Rich romps through the witty 
Dudicourt as foe older man dialogue, and the famous tele- 
form the remaining, beautiful- phone scene, to end up as 
ly crafted, comers of the happy as a sand-boy between 
triangle. the satin sheets. Pierre 

By contrast La Prise de Maguelon, as the cuckold with 
Berg-op-Zoom wallows in the equally amoral tendencies, 
shallows. Premiered in J 912, a brings to the part tire right 
year after Le Veilleur. ft was amount of affability. Annie 
written in response to an Singalia’s performance as foe 
intellectual challenge. Guitry susceptible wife is nicely 
was persuaded that he had foe fleshed-oul and believable — 
making s of a vaudeville writ- not always easy to achieve 
er. The result is an excess of with Guitry, whose own diffi- 
bourgeois “carrying-on", from culty in relating to women 
a husband (Daniel Prtvost) manifested itselfin his female- 

are laug h ter Une s. Here, the forees and lasts as 

duwous morals of a fast- ] on g ^ Gduerd&mmerung but 

perhaps more particularly be- 
a madwoman m obbed Suse it takeTon, if only 
^ , ” l ° implicitly, a problem central 
a sop^rate^fag-mpving to Messiaen’s an: that of foe 

minion between religious rev- 

--Tv fa 

^ A* 

although he allows Guitry’s bourgeois “carrying-on .from 
ghost to hover in the wings, he a husband (Daniel Prtvost) 
never lets it venture on stage, who. fears the discovery that 
Luchini sharpens up the wit he has seduced a minor, to a 

ual responsibility were surfac- 
ing and requiring people to do 
something about God, Francis 
look the simple but severe and 
absolute step of just following 
his example. 

It is true that Messiaen 
treats foe subject as a miracle 
story and shows no interest in 
Francis as a person. The three 
scenes given in Wednesday’s 
Royal Philharmonic Society 
concert write foe wonders of 
foe saint's reported life across 
the marvels of foe composer's 

swoops of colour-harmony 
and fantastic bird-calls, im- 
mense chords and some new 
effects, such as foe weird low 
rattling tones of foe ondes 

If the opera is to work as 
hagiography, then it would 
need to be seen, and preferably 
in a manner that took it as far 
as possible from naturalism. 
Anything less is bound to raise 
a question of how one may 
accept so vast and undoubting 
an affirmation of spiritual 

musical inventory, so that, for though at least there was 

instance, a hu^ chorus jabs no worry about foe musical 

elation and everyday exper- 

- Most of his previous works 
had been granted the holy gift 
of indifference to the world. 
They are musical stained-glass 
windows, using all foe re- 
sources of music to paint 
pictures of the most marvel- 

out Christ’s words “I am foe 
Alpha and foe Omega" to a 
bird-shriek last heard in 
Oiseaux exoiiques, or a healed 
leper dances to a -movement 
from foe Turangalila-sym- 
phonie or characters sing in 
foe modal chant of foe rariy 

Nevertheless, there is foe 

Sous stories and promises of temptation to understand 
the New Testament: foe Saint Francois as foe story of a 

and adds a rawness which one commissioner of police (Rob- 

manifested itselfin his female- 
characters, who as often as not 
are little more than emotional 
foils or verbal whipping-posts. 

spend our of resurrected exis- 
tence, foe brilliant glory of tbe 
Transfigured Christ, foe pre- 
ciousness of foe Incarnation. 
They do not ask questions. In 
turning to foe story of St 
Francis, however, Messiaen 
faces himself with a man who 
did ask questions. Born in an 
age when new ideas ofindivid- 


• Peter Bowles is to star as 
Archie Rice in a new produc- 
tion of John Osborne’s The . 
Entertainer which will open at 

-Vie . - -fiyvD barbican 

^ jjglfl VZir SERIES 

4 W' ttnrss^warJtvJL APOnvppk , 

JMk V 1 MUSSORGSKY. Inno and Pirsian Maiden Dasce from khovanchina 

^ [ l RACHMANINOV Piano Concerto Mu- 2 in C minor 

- i> ? B EE THOVEN- -.—Sym phony No. 3 Erwca 




U '■ Seal Price* £10.50. £8.50. £7. 50. £6. £4.50. £3.50 _ 

.. . B« day incL Sun 01-038 SS9V62R 8795 

Sunday 20 April 7.3Upm Barbican Hall 

: Sullivan’s Tost’ Cello Concert© 

iMSfjfal First performance of the wort recorwruciftl 

LH54254 b\ Sir Charles Mackerras and David Matkw 

ci in iv* it ’ — Overture :DiB«iHn‘ 

Cello Concerto in D 

• Pt riB . - Romance 4 arranged lor cello! 

jjgjj Enigma Variations 




. Seal Prices £1030.1-54-50 £7^0. 

-BmOftss M' iiiHlW itav lOd. StiWtysUI-aM M'U *’-£8703 ■ 





The temperature 
in Cornwall 

\S Montego Bay Is In Cornwall 
Jamaica. And right now it's warmer 
than Cornwall England. 

For the Jamaica Information Pack. 
, , write icx Jamaica Tourist Board. 
/ //^XsoStJameslsSi London 

tutr SWtA ^T. (W-4W I?T7>. 

real man, and to wonder what 
the thing means; for only in 
comparatively rare passages, 
notably in foe bugely scored C 
major crescendo of the close, 
does Messiaen dazzle foe 
senses and silence doubt The 
more normal method of foe 
opera is to proceed slowly, 
illustrating each phrase with 

foe Shaftesbury Theatre on 
June 3 following pre-London 
runs at the Haymarket, Leices- 
ter (opening April 9), the 
Theatre Royal Brighton (May 
12), and the Theatre Royal 
Bafo (May 19). Sylvia Sims 
and Frank Middlemass are 
also in foe cast, and the 
director is Robin Lefevre. 
Ibis will be foe first West End 
production of The Entertainer 
since it was originally seen 29 
years ago at the Royal Court, 
with a cast headed by 
Laurence Olivier. 



truth of a positive, large and 
brilliant performance con- 
ducted by Seiji Ozawa without 
a score. 

Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau 
was a giant of solemn author- 
ity as St Francis and Maria 
Fausta Gallamini sang out 
dearly and purely as the angd; 
Kenneth Riegel repeated his 
anguished leper from foe Paris 
premi&re of two years ago. 

Paul Griffiths 

reinforcing foe bold linear 
movemenL Lehar, though, 
cannot five by the eye alone. 
What is more, this sort of 
visual panache puts consider- 
able pressure on foe principals 
to substantiate things musical- 
ly; and it is here that this 
revival falls down. 

English National Opera 


Hiisker Du 

Electric Ballroom 

Hiisker Du, a guitar trio from 
Minneapolis, caused some- 
thing of a stir in the British 
music Press last year, and, 
after seven years of indepen- 
dent label recordings, secured 
a major contract wifo Warners 
and now have a modest hit 
with their album Candy Apple 

While no ad could match 
the ludicrous hyperbole so 
lightly employed by many 
music-paper writers, this see- 
med a rather tame perfor- 
mance even when judged by 
ihe group's previous London 
appearances. For. while Husk- 
er Du have come up with an 
unusual formula by marrying 
foe mellow tunes of the Mid- 
west to the sounds of hard- 
core thrash metal, the suc- 
cessful execution of this odd 
hybrid depends on extremes 
of energy that were not evi- 
dent on this occasion. 

Wearing drab black T- 
shins. they wandered on stage 
and stood around listlessly. 

During foe first half of the 
show there is too much bad. B- 
movie exposition, with the 
supporting cast giving colour- 
less performances in under- 
written and hackneyed mat- 
erial. and the procession of 
songs starts to seem predict- 
able and merely stick. But by 
the interval foe band, previ- 
ously bidden away in foe 
orchestra pit. has appeared on 
stage, and in foe tighter and 
more compressed second half 
foe music exerts an uncanny 
emotive grip while Ms Mac- 
kie's performance deepens 
into a broad, frill-blooded 

As the drugged -out dying 
star she has a range and 
accuracy which outstrips foe 
hollow dialogue and justifies 
John David's solid but un- 
imaginative production. Judy 
is not much of a musical. It is 
an anthology of songs wifo 
some biographical bits and 
pieces to sew them together. 
But Lesley Mackie breathes 
foe grease-paint splendour of 
her subject, and she carries tbe 

Andrew Rissik 

were simply unlucky to have 
Valerie Masterson indisposed 
on their first night. Penelope 
Mackay, temporarily standing 
in, can barely be heard from 
where Judge places her at foe 
top of foe staircase for her two 
crucial entries. And, wifo so 
much to concentrate on physi- 
cally. this Glavari was under- 
standably ill at ease, mincing 
her way, rather than dancing, 
through foe vocal line. 

Things are made no easier 
by Herbert Prikopa's direction 
from the pit. Even when Alan 
Opie. an unusually bearish 
and boorish Danilo, makes an 
effort, as he does commend- 
ably often, to sweep the score 
along, Prikopa is content 
merely to follow. His reluc- 
tance ever to give a lead or to 
lighten the step, sounds com- 
placent at best, and at wont 
reminiscent of whipped cream 
which has sunk far too deep in 
the hoi chocolate. 

Valenrienne, who can so 
often upstage the Widow, 
certainly not only steals, but 
creates, foe limelight. Lesley 
Garrett's is a radiant perfor- 
mance. bugging Letter's music 
to herself as no one else seems 
willing to. Her husband Zeta. 
responds in kind: Eric Shilling 
proves himself in every way a 
worthier suitor than Adrian 
Martin's over-tense Camille. 

Hilary Finch 

before whipping through the 
first three songs in little more 
than six minutes. A four- 
second pause before foe next 
batch confirmed their obser- 
vance of the Ramones's blue- 
print for high-energy stage- 

Bob Mould lolloped abouL 
strumming intrinsically pretty 
chord-sequences at a grossly 
overloaded volume, while foe 
moustachioed Greg Norton 
bashed out inaudible bass 
parts and hopped up and 
down every so often. Little 
could be heard of Grant Hart's 
drumming apart from foe 
snare beat keeping erratic lime 
through the din. Han also 
sang foe majority of the lead 
vocal parts, assisted by 
Mould, and again foe bawling 
delivery' and croaked harmo- 
nies added a deliberate coun- 
terweight to foe otherwise 
attractive melodies. 

For all the noise and pace, 
they lacked the genuine inten- 
sity which they can achieve. 
Having found success with a 
live act that pushes them so 
close to foe limits of physical 
endurance, they are already 
struggling to maintain their 
performance at that level. 

David Sinclair 

^ Bob Lar bey’s new play 

f “makes the 
£ West End 
^ a warmer and 
V more wonderful 
^ place’% 


<L* lil 

i£ti riiO.AN s 



— 0 I-KMH 24 J. 0 I- 2 « 4 M 4 M 

Mb Prom CndH Co* 01 - 7*1 1 

The Royal Opera 






Theatre • - jT 
01-236 5568 A 

Richard Strauss 

Conductor Bernard Haitink. 

March 31 April 4 3 8, 10 at 7.00pm. 

Reservations 01-240 1066/1911 ^ 

Ac cess /Visa! Diners Club, Box office opens 10 M Tomorrow ^ 

< rrir"’ V 


crash on 
kills 21 

Bangui (AFP) — At least 21 
Africans - many of them 
children — died and about 30 
were injured when a French 
warplane crashed on takeoff 
yesterday in this Central Afri- 
can Republic, felling on a poor 
neighbourhood near the end 
of the runway, it was reported 

One of the buildings hit by 
the plane was said to have 
been a Muslim religious 
schooL Rescue workers and 
doctors were working fever- 
ishly to pull survivors from 
the wreckage, and several of 
the injured were said to be in 
serious condition. 

The French Defence Minis- 
in Paris said the plane’s 

g )l, 32-year-old Michel 
heberry. had survived the 
crash with injuries after using 
his ejector seat. 

It said the plane, a Jaguar 
fighter, had crashed due to a 
technical failure, adding that 
an inquiry into the accident 
had been opened. 

The plane, part of the 
regular French contingent 
based here under a defence 
pact, came down early in the 
morning on a densely-popu- 
lated neighbourhood known 
as Kilometre Five, on the 
outskirts of the capital Bangui. 

Inhabitants of the capital 
left their homes and their 
workplaces to rush to the 
scene of the crash. 

Many were said to be angry, 
and national radio suspended 
its normal programmes, 
broadcasting only religions 
.music and appeals for calm. 

Police case 

- Supt Tom Baldwin, aged 43. 
head of the West Midlands 
home defence department, has 
been summoned to appear in 
court next month accused of 
revising to take a breath test 
and driving with a defective 

Run for Africa 

More than 30 cities, includ- 
ing, Birmingham, Manila and 
Seoul, have said they will join 
Sports Aid's Race Against 
Time charity run on May 25 to 
help the starving in Africa, 
organizers said yesterday. 

Today’s events 

New exhibitions 

Puffin Books: iniernatioiially 
- known publishers, the 
Bookspace, South Bank SE1; 
Sun to Sax 10 to 10 (ends April 
6). * 

Suffolk in Per sp e cti ve paint- 
ings and prints by 30 artists. Fir 
Tree House Gallery, Church St. 
Larniham. Suffolk; Tues to 
Sun. 11 to 6 (ends April 20). 

Pottery, paintings, prints, Ti- 
betan rugs, animal* and figures 
by various artists, Campden 
Pottery and Art Gallery, 
Leasebourue. Chipping 
Campden, Glos; Mon to Sat, 9 to 
6 and Easter Sunday (ends May 


Hammer to fall on legacy of alifetime 

By Geraldine Norman 

Sale Room Correspondent • 

Well smoked by loss burn- 
ing in an open hearth and 
rising clouds of nicotine, one of 
the woritTs best private collec- 
tions of English ceramics has 
been transported from Wor- 
cestershire to Sotheby’s in 
London for sale in July. 

Mr Thomas Barn, who 
formed the collection, died 
aged 77 in January 1985. The 
slipware dishes, owls and pos- 
set pots that crowded his 
fireside mantelpiece, some of 
the rarest dated examples of 
English pottery in existence, 
are valued at about £130^)00 

Sotheby’s are to devote foar 
sales to the ceramics and other 
art treasures from the hoase, 
Rons Leach Court, near Eve- 
sham. They are expecting to 

nx»fh flj mill i nn, hwf ^BmI 

price will probably be more. 

Almost every surface in Mr 
Bum’s rambling Jacobean 
home was takes up with rare 
ceramics, htMhg En glish 
delft, saftgfaze stoneware, 
Chelsea, Worcester and & 
early porcelain factories. 

He also collected sevea- 
teeatiheentary English oak 
furniture, and a few fine 
eighteenth-century pieces, to 
set off the ceramics. As well as 
a refectory table and various 
display cabinets there were 22 
early oak stools in the dining 
room where Mr Bum Eked to 
sit. Some sup por te d wood 
carvings and other notable 
works of art, such as two 
carved oak wings from a 
Rheinland Grad&tioo gr ou p 
of about 1500, and a 3ft 
momited warrior with a spear, 
held to be Joan of Arc herself. 

He loved to show off his 
collections to the knowledge- 
able, although dUitntning 
mere tourists. Mr Arthur Ne- 
gus and Mr Edward Heath 
were among those he enter- 
tained with relish, permitting 
the former prime minister to 
give an impromptu recital on 
his rare early English harpsi- 
chord, made about 1710 by 
Joseph Tisseran. 

His devotion to Mr James 
Newman, bis bead gardener, 
companion and latter day 
nurse, was enhanced by the 
likeness he perceived between 
the gnarled old man and a 
slipware portrait of Charles 11 
In a dish on the mantelpiece. 

Six years ago he gave Mr 
Newman and his wife die 
hoase and nursery garden. In 
his win be bequeathed the rest 

Jacques Damase. F/titmr 
d’Art, RozeUe House, Roadie 
Park, Monument Rd, Ayr; Mon 
to Sat 1 1 to 5, Sun 2 to 5 (ends 
April 23). 

East Anglian Arts and Crafts 
Exhibition; Community Centre, 
School Lane, Needham Market, 
Suffolk; 2.30 to 9 Fri, 10 to 10 
Sat, 2 to 9 Mon (ends March 3 f X 

Taunton Cider Mugs, Gris- 
wold Countryside Collection. 
Novthleacfa; Mon to Sat 10 to 
5-30, Sun 2 to 5.30 (ends May 


Bach's St John Passion, by the 
Choir of the Academy of An- 
cient Music and Academy, Bar- 
bican Centre. EC2, 7. 

Concert of Easter Carols by 



■In Prague's Maislova 

of his estate in equal halves to 
Mr Newman, aged 66, and 
Mrs Monica Houghton, aged 
60, former manageress of bis 
nursery garden. 

Mr Bora had three sisters 
who threatened to contest the 
wOL The Attorney General 
also considered ghnifangiag jt 
on behalf of the local councO 
after Mr Burn made a will in 
the 1960s bequeathing the 
house and contents to Eve- 
sham Boroigh Council to run 
as a museum 

Evesham disappeared into 
Wycbavoa District Couacfl in 
the local government reforms 
of the 1979s and Mr Burn 
changed his wflL The Attorney 
General determined in Decem- 
ber that there were no gnnmds 
for challenging the latest wifl 
and the sisters dropped thev 
case in February. They had 
not been on speaking terms 
with their brother 

Rous Lench Court, with its, 
nine-acre garden and 30-acre 
park, was a 21st birthday 
present to Mr Bum from his 
father, Mr Frederick Burn, 
who ran a successful retail 
tailoring chnm^ He waa also 
givet a Rolls-Royce and a gold 

Art connoisseur and collector Mr Thomas 
Bum (right), with one of his prized poodles. 
Mr James Newman (below right), former 
gardener, companion and latter day nurse, 
who was left half of the Worcestershire estate, 
outside the imposing Jacobean house. Mrs 
Monica Houghton (top), former nursery 
garden manageress, who was left the other 
naif of the estate, with part of the collection of 
slipware and ddftware. The Lambeth delft- 
ware figure of Apollo (below), dated 1679. 

lie gift of a Jacobean hoase 
at so tender an age reflected 
young Tom’s passion for col- 
lecting; he already needed a 
home for his art treasures. 

He never married, and lived 
time with his father and 
mother until their respective 
deaths in 1946 and 1971. He 
also ran the tailoring business 
for many years, not surprising- 
ly filling his shops with seven- 
teenth-century oak furniture 
and rare ceramic vessels. 

flatring , the okl Jewish town 
hall boasts a dock with hands 
that go backwards. 

“Why don’t we synchro- 
nize our watches?” asks a 
Czech acquaintance. “Then 
at least we’ll know where 
we’re going." 

In 1968 the political docks 
were stopped in Prague and 
since then, since the Warsaw 
Pact invason, it has been 
difficult to work out the time 
of day. In die Communist 
Party congress, the word 
“reform" was not heard. ■ 

There was some talk of new 
economic stimuli, of innova- 
tion, of change, improvement 
and streamlining,, but 
“reform” remains a six-letter 
word, unfit for television, 
children and the party. Block 
language and you block 

From Moscow, the catch- 
word of the Gorbachov era is 
giazhost— transparency, can- 
dour. But Prague this week 
remained unfash ionably. 
opaque, a society living in 
sealed compartments. 

Improvement In 
dissidents’ lot 

By way of a welcoming 
gesture, rather as flower gar- 
lands are draped on visitors 
to Hawaii, a frail, inoffensive 
woman hands over a type- 
written sheet. 

The authorities (signature, 
indecipherable) hoped that 
journalists would devote 
their full attention to the 
party congress. “We would be 
very sorry,” says the paper, 
“if time were some misun- 
derstanding concerning con- 
.tact with people who take 
part in activities against the 
interests of our state.” In 
other words: “Don’t talk to 

Oddly enough, the dissi- 
dents themselves are happy 
to admit that their lot has 
improved. The everyday re- 
pression has ebbed, some 
have their telephones back, 
the son of the ex-Foreign 
Minister and Charter 77 sig- 
natory, Jiri Hayek, may soon 
be allowed to study abroad. 

or a more open lv 

nonconformists it y 

more imaginative pohcing- 

The real way to SWP 

enters seeking «rt 

out of Prague, as has been 
tried in the past, but lo ng 
the 1 7th congress of the 
Communist Party of Czecho- 
slovakia so fascinating that 
there, is no need to stray to 
different pastures. 

No danger of high 

But with the key issues out 
ofbounds- How do we stand 
to the market economy? 

What can we risk? How do we 

start the dock again? - there 
was never much chance of the 
congress raising blood 

So Prague opted for safety, i 
in and out of the congress 
halL In the congress, by 
ensuring that self-criticisin 
came mainly from the top 
leadership and not from the 
rank and file; and outside the 
congress hall with thousands 
of policemen, constables who 
look like generals with im- 
pressive red epaulettes, on 
every street comer. 

The prostitutes were 
cleared out of the main 
luxury hotels, which were 
converted into pleasant bar- 
racks for the delegates. A 
journalist, or ordinary Czech, 
straying into one of the 
delegates’ hotels immediately 
provoked confusion. 

The concierge rang a spe- 
cial bell and two burly plain- 
clothes men frogmarched the 
intruders out of the building. 
Czechs trying to enter the 
hotel reserved for journalists 
met a similar fete. 

This was to be Prague’s 
great forward-looking con- 
gress, the Czechoslovak an- 
swer to the new Gorbachov 
era. But anyone -who really 
wants to know the time 
should go to Maislova Street. 
The clock . is still going 


Food prices 

The Times Crossword Puzzle No 17,005 

9 I returned, having dined 
with daughter (9). 

10 Flower (not from myosotis 
family) (5). 

11 Pressed on, in dire trouble 


12 Thrilling scheme pursued by 
toff (S). 

13 Number one garden boy in 
Tonga (6). 

15 Make impertinent enquiries 
about work he’s forecast (8). 

18 Stable chain; for one of the 
occupants (8). 

J9 Mischief-maker destroys 
central point of tapestry (6). 

21 Monks caper for schoolboy 
delight (4-4). 

23 In a word, keep cool in still 
waters (6). 

26 Shrub — one in an upland 
area (5). 

27 In an endless party, receipts 
are deceptive (9). 

28 The Red King who got the 
point in the forest (7,5). 


1 Looking like the tailor of 
Coventry (7). 

2 Girl with surprised ex- 
pression is in a state (5). 

3 RI held art-nouveau ex- 
hibition of three-feced fig- 
ures (9). 

4 Hotspur requested of Kate a 
good mouth-filling one (4). 

5 Standard representation of 
gold and colourful bird 

6 Synthetic obtained from the 
north only (5). 

7 Heavenly girl’s no beginner! 
Tine! (8). 

8 A light surrounds saint m 
church changing room (6). 

14 Can a rich revolutionary be 
so lawless? (8). 

16 The Scots verified the Ger- 
man food (9). 

17 Could be early American 
student encircled by North 
in secular uprising (8). 

18 Supplier of 16 though he 
sounds more mysterious (6). 

20 Daughter of Night seems in 
distress (7). 

22 Soldier ant? No. sort of 
aphis (5). 

24 Jester rises to a superior (5). 

25 Mountain in the Trossachs? 
Yes and no (4). 

Solution to Puzzle No 17,004 

irilTV-tniifl ti»1 i3IIi5Bl3E£3 
E B B E m P B 3 

n sr; ra m ra n b 


H • 131 05 0 Q G 


@a ■ o n bhs 


13 [3 E 0 B B S 



the New Barbican Singers, 
12.30; Bach’s S3r Matthew Pas- 
sion, by the English Chamber 
Orchestra and Haberdashers' 
Aske's School Choir. 5; Royal 
Festival Hall. South Bank. 

Handel's Messiah by the 
Royal Choral Society; Royal 
Albert Hall, SW7, 2.30. 

Performance of the St Mat- 
thew Passion by the London 
• Cantata Choir; St Paul's Cathe- 
dral, EC2, 6-30. 

Bach’s Sir John Passion, the 
Priory Festival Choir and Lon- 
don Schubert Orchestra, St 
Banhoiomew-the-Great, West 
Smith field, EC3, 7. 

Concert by the Baroque Solo- 
ists of St Martin-in-the-Fields. 
St Martin-in-the-Fields, Trafal- 
gar Square, WC2, 7.30. 

Stainer's Crucifixion. St 
James's. Sussex Gardens, W2, 8. 

Concert by the London 
Oriana Choir and English Ba- 
roque Orchestra, St John's, 
Smith Sq, SW1, 7J0. 

Recital by the Gwent Cham- 
ber Ensemble and Cathedral 
Lay Clerks; Brecon Cathedral, 

Concert of Easter Music by 
the BexhiD Symphony Chorus, 
De la Warr Pavilion, BexhOl- 
on-Sea, 7. 


1986 Camden Festival; for 
information inquire 01 388 

Easter Eggcitement, 
demonstration by downs, Pur- 
cell Room. 2 

Dagarti Music and Dance and 
Tristan Fry, workshop to teach 
children tire basics of percussion 
music and African music, Pur- 
cell Room, 4; 

Playbox and Common Lore 
Storeytellers for children; the 
Foyer. Royal Festival Haft. 
South Bank. SE1, 1 to 4. (all end 
31st March). 

Pearly Kings and Queens 
visit. Barbican Centre, EC2, 12 
to 3. 

Inverness Folk Festival, in- 
quiries (0463) 238630 (ends 
30th March). 


Births: Raphael. U rhino, It- 
aly. 1483; Saint Teresa of Avila, 

Avila. Spain, 1515; Johann 
Com cuius, educational re- 
former, Ni voice, Czecho- 
slovakia, 1592; Thomas Yugoslavia Dnr 
Clarkson, aphonia Wisbech, iwi»tar«naid«iomreten bank nows 
Cambridgeshire. 1760; Aristide orty as suppled by Barclays Bank PLC, 
Brand, 11 times Premier of Different rawa .apply w traytierg- 
France 1906-32. Nobel Peace {*22?. and fw * 9 " cum ” cy 
laureate 1926. Nantes, 1862; SKWn0S * 

Corneille Heymaos, physiok>- Haraa Pr toa iwgree 3gr.i 

gist, Nobel laureate 1938, J"^^^l"d«<*»edup9.6i « 

Ghent, Belgium, 1892. 


Good Friday is a traditional 
time for fish but the stormy 
weather has affected supplies 
this week, and as a result prices 
have risen drastically. The av- 
erage price of codling fillet is up 
1 3p to £1.66 a Itr, large cod fillets 
up 8p to £ 1 .79; haddock up 9p to 
£1.84; whiting up 7p to £1.35; 
plaice up 7p to £1.89; and fresh 
mackerel up 6p to 68p. These 
are average prices based on a 
countrywide survey, but shop- 
pers in some areas could pay a 
pound a pound more for some 
varieties. Dover soles, down I3p 
to £3.24 a lb. smoked mackerel 
at £1.01. and kippers at 97p are 
just a penny a lb more than last 

The seasonal rise in home- 
produced lamb prices continues 
with a further 2p a pound on 
most cuts, and this applies also 
to New Zealand lamb this week. 
The average price of home- 
produced whole leg is £1.87, 
with a range of £1.58 to £2. 16 a 
pound. Whole shoulder is 90p to 
£1.47 and loin chops £1.75 to 
£2.49. New Zealand lamb leg 
costs from £ 1 .36 to £1.60. whole 
shoulder 69p to 94p, and loin 
chops £1.24 to £1.65 a lb. 

Topside and silverade of 
beef, rump steak and braising 
steak should be slightly cheaper 
this week. Fore-rib on the bone 
ranges from £1.19 to £1.68 a 
pound, and best mince 98p to 
£1.38 a pound. 

Some offers available at shops 
and supermarkets this week are: 
Dewhuisl and Baxters, New 



A~ deep 'depression win 
move E.tpmtrds ScoAud, 
with a trough of tow 
pressure swinging into 
western areas. 

. .6 am to midnight: 


Top video rentals 

4(3 Ramba First Blood 2 
5t4 Mask 
Bra Gremlns 
7(5 Ghostbusters 
8 7 Bevertoy Hifte Cop 
9(20] Oh God You Devi 
10(25) Gulag 
Supplied by nwEwim 

>■ p i * ii « > J t . 'a'il fc ri W- ^ r r r Aw 

1 . 1 1 v V yLi | ilf,* w 

High Tides 

The pound 

For readers who may have 
missed a copy of The Tima this 
week, we repeat below the 
week's Portfolio price changes 
^today’s are on page 20). 

M ■■ Tin M Ttai M *» 

Snow reports 


Concise Cro ss w ord, page 10 

The Times Jumbo Crossword will be published tomorr o w 



L U f 


St Anton 50 350 ( 

Good skiing on upper slopes 

Isola2000 140 200 ( 

Excellent suing ait slopes 

La Ptagne 155 240 j 

Snow cover remains excellent 
Megeve 40 185 I 

Most pistes heavy by afternoon 

Courmayeur 120 250 go 

Lower slopes slushy 

Davos 70 200 ga 

Exceflent skiing on piste 
GdndelwaU 15 120 lata 

Good skiing on upper slopes 
Lbs Dtabiereto 30 90 gw 

Skiing good above 1 600m 

Conditions Weather 

Off Runs to (5pm) 



















powder good 











In the (ton reports, supplied by representatives of the ad dub of &aat 
Brrtam, L refers to tower slopes and U to upper, and art to artificial. 

Lighting-up tim e 


































6 A 












































1 3 





3 9 
















ii » 
9 48 

22 72 
S IS 68 
c 8 48 

17 83 
11 32 
13 55 

23 73 
25 77 
28 82 

17 to 

18 » 
19 88 

. C F 
8 16 61 

* 12 54 
C 23 73 

* 16 61 
8 26 79 
s 18 $9 

s 31 « 
c S 41 
c 11 52 
8 38 95 
S 19 88 
8 24 75 
f 19 68 
t 16 61 
a 19 66 
f 12 54! 
8 21 70 
t 948 
* 14 57 
s 13 5S 
8 13 55 
s 22 72 
l 18 64 
C 9 48 

1 iWMu-US^ 

awa — — — — — 1 

- Old ¥V| 

:l^n5AY MARCH 28 1986 

THE >£gijS& TIMES 


V7 " 

^ ’■ 
-v V 

• !<1n 


! •:• • 


FT 30 Share 
1390.0 (+9.6) 

FT-SE 100 
1668.8 (+14.9) 

USM (Data stream) 
117.46 (+0.27) 


US Dollar 

1.4820 (+0.0078) . 

W .German marie 

3.4538 {+0.021 0) 

Trade- weighted 
76.3 (+0.3) 

. ‘-"v. 

■1 ^ -> . 

* br 





t- : +(L 


‘ f 
* : ' 

, r, 



. * * we ■ 
..*■» ; 






jS* : 

^ ’ 






The bulls 
stay in 

. Stock markets ended the long 
three-week account . is : opti- 
mistic mood. Wall Street’s 32- 
point advance overnight, 
coupled with another Japa- 
nese discount rate cut and the 
lessening tension in the Mid- 
dle East, contributed to the 
view that the bull market had 
some way to run. 

Money market sources, sug- 
gested a 9 to per cent base rate 
'by mid-June This talk boost- 
ed government stocks, which 
closed more than £1 higher, 
additionallyJhelped by a nse of 
1% points in the US long bond 
and the continued strength of 

The demand enabled the 
Government Broker to ex- 
haust, the remaining supplies 
of the Treasury 8 per cent 
2002/06 stock issued last Fri- 
day. The market is again 
lapless as a result 
Taking their cue from Wall 
Street, equities opened with a 
flourish but subsequent end- 
account profit-taking and lack 
of - foUow-tbxougb demand 
soon had prices slipping back. 

However, the FT-30 index 
held a modest rise, up 9.6 
points at 1390, and so did the 
FTSE-100, up 14.9 at 1668.8, 
and there were signs that 
investors were buying for the 
new account after the official 

- Leading shares ended 

- mixed but Thorn EMI, up'25p 

to 494p, stood out after a 
that the troubled sub- 
r Inmos was supplying 
, its revolutionary transpate 
chip to an American computer 

in contrast further consider- 
atibn of Wednesday^* results 
knocked 45p from 
636p. Bul BOC Group, at 
362p*GKtt 373p, Tate & 
Lyle, f' 3p, and Vickers, 483p, 

- improved 6p to 1 Op. . 

Supermarkets made good 
progress. AB Foods extended 
Wednesday’s late advance by 
^another 12p to 340p on stock 
shortage. Tesco was another 
firm spot at 358p, up 8p. 

• Stores were supported again 
with renewed demand for 
Combined English, at 256p up 
13p, on persistent talks of a 
deal with GUS. lSp higher at 
979p. Woohrorth Holdings 
lost another 8p to 603p after 
Wednesday’s results. 

hi textiles. House of I*rose 
was up 23p at I43p in re- 
sponse to a 65 per cent 
earnings expansion. Acquisi- 
tion hopes lifted F H To m ki ns 
lip to 246p and Tarmac 
continued to express satisfac- 
tion with the Thermali te ac- 
quisition, up ISp to 496p. FH 
Electrical ..owed its 5 top rise to 
press comment. 

- -hi quieter banks. Standard 
Chartered climbed 5Qp to 
622p, excited by the £80 
million Mocatla deal and 
betar-Jhan-expected results.- 
The rise was also accompa- 
nied by bid talk but dealers 
were convinced that the move 
was a caiching-up exercise 
after expression caused by the 
tin crisis and Far Eastern 
banking problems. 

Insurances made a drab 
■showing with Guardian Royal 
I8p easier at 848p ahead of 
Wednesday’s results. 

Satisfactory .figures . lifted 
Bridon another lOp to !74p. 
Birarid Qualcast added anoth- 
er 3p to 132p after the annual 
" meeting statement. Glynyr«Ts 
Australian deal and anticipa- 
tion of good results boosted 
shares I6p to 362p. Snaths 
Industries, also reporting 
soon, hardened 4p to 316p. 

Electricals improved with 
STC up another 6p to 136p 
i, after a recent upgrading, Inter- 
Si gnal was also firm 
at 355p, up I2p, and VG 
- Tiw >ith p »bk advanced lop to 
4I4p on further reaction to 
Wednesday's -35 per cent 

Automatic Products rallied 
Up to 242p behind 
Wednesday’s figures from Lu- 
cas. GKN was another to 
benefit at 373p, up 6p. The 
appointment of a chief execu- 
tive helped Kenning Motor to 
another 7p rise at 21 3p- 
Disappointing profits lopped 
8p from Ante Security at I75p 
but J Bfflam, at lOOp up 9p, 
Breed on CIowL 270p up 7p, 
and John X Jacobs; SStop up 
I top. reflected, favourable 

BAT Industries improved 
9p nipre to 400p - on 1 
Wednesday’s results. ReckWs, 

vestment support at 378p up 
-13p. - • - 


an to sue if 
July 1 deadline is not met 

By Alison Eadie 

Lloyd's. names on the loss- 
stricken PCW syndicates have 
been advised by a steering 
committee of names that, tf 
satisfactory prepress towards a 
market settlement of their 
claims is not made by July J* 
writs win be issued. 

The standstill agreement on 
litigation, which was negotiat- 
ed with Lloyd’s and other 
potential defendants, has been 
extended until the end of 
September. It was due to 
expire at the end of this 

According to the letter writ- 
ten yesterday to names, the 
decision to extend the -agree- 
ment indicates “that there are 
grounds for optimism that a 
fair settlement to the PCW 
affair will be forthcoming and 
that it will be forthcoming in 
principle by the end of June”. 

The committee, however, 
has said that it expects to see 
written proposals for a settle- 
ment tabled by potential de- 

fendant by that date, when 
the committee will deride 
whether -sufficient progress 
has been made to defer litiga- 
tion further. 

* Even- if written proposals 
.w ere forthcoming by the end 
of June, it might take several 
more months for as offer to be 
.published to names and for 
that offer to be accepted by 
names, the tetter said. - 

Since the standstill agree- 
ment was negotiated last 
Christmas, the defendants, 
Who include Lloyd's and 
theLlpyd’s brokers Miner 
Holdings, Alexander HoWden 
and Sedgwick, have seen the 
draft statement of datin 
against them. Lloyd’s has been 
actively seeking a settlement 
since then, winch would in- 
volve the brokers and names 
paying a proportion of the 
estimated losses. 

The committee's letter to 
names states that unde Christ- 

mas- there has been a mood of 
realism and better under- 
standing at Lloyd’s of the 
PCW 'affair, which was not 
.evident before. 

Pfcrt of the problem of 
finding- a settlement is esti- 
mating the exact size of the 
potential tosses. The last pub- 
lished figure was £1 30 million, 
but it is feared that the poor 
quality of business and lack of 
adequate reinsurance cover 
could cause this to rise to £200 
million or more. AUA3, the 
agency. appointed by Lloyd's 
to dose down tie okl PCW 
syndicates, is working hard to 
fry to produce up-to-date fig- 

PCW names refused to pay 
their losses last year because 
they said they were caused by 
fraud as well as bad underwrit- 
ing. Former managers of the 
PCW agency, particularly Mr 
Peter Cameron-Webb and Mr 
Peter Dixon, have been found 
by Lloyd's to have misappro- 

priated £39 million of names* 
money between 1968 and 
1982. Mr Dixon was found 
guilty by Lloyd's of diverting 
£12.8 million out of syndi- 
cates for his own personal use. 

The letter to names says it is 
highly improbable that any 
cash calls wifi be made on 
PCW names this year, not 
least because Lloyd's and 
AUA3 appreciate that any 
such call would be vigorously 
resisted. Nearly 200 PCW 
names were suspended from 
underwriting at Lloyd's last 
year for failing to show they 
had adequate resources to 
meet their losses. 

Next week American law- 
yers acting for 50 PCW names 
are coming to London to 
consult with the names’ Brit- 
ish solid tors. They will dis- 
cuss whether the steering 
committee should advise 
names to sue in American 
courts, if a decision is taken to 
proceed with litigation. 

Standard Chartered leads 
race to claim ITC assets 

By Michael Prest, Financial Correspondent 

Banks and other creditors .of 
the Internationa] Tin Council 
are racing to be the first to 
claim their share of the Inter- 
national Tin Council’s un- 
quantified but small assets. 

Standard Chartered Bank 
has secured from the council 
an undertaking that ITC assets 
will not be moved out of 
Britain. The undertaking in- 
creases the bank's chances of 
recovering its £10 million in 
loans to the council in a High 
Court action due to start on 
April 9. 

The key to that action is a 
waiver by the ITC of its 
sovereign immunity in loan 
agreements with Standard 
Chartered. In this respect, the 
bank has the best documenta- 
tion of any lender to the ITC 
and consequently hopes it will 
be first to recover its money. 
The bonk is suing for recovery 
of its loan, outstanding inter- 
est, and damages. 

Kleinwort Benson, which 
also lent the FTC £10 million. 

is believed to have the next 
best douementation. Its agree- 
ments allow for arbitration to 
settle disputes, and the bank 
has instructed its lawyers to 
imtiaie arbitration proceed- 
ings against the ITC 

In. all, banks and other 
finanical institutions lent the 
ITC £340 million. The ITC 
effectively defaulted on these 
debts when on October 24 last 
year its buffer stock depart- 
ment said it had run out of 
money with which to continue 
supporting the tin price. 

The problem for all credi- 
tors now. however, is whether 
the ITC has assets with which 
to meet its obligations. It is 
understood to have very tittle 
cash and a stockpile of about 
1,700 tonnes of tin, which at 
present tin prices of less than 
£4,000 a tonne is worth uniter 
£6 million. 

But Standard Chartered al- 
ready holds entitlements to 
1.500 tonnes of tin as security 
for its . loans. Realizing this 

and the tin directly held by the 
ITC would virtually cover the 
amount outstanding. The 
problem for other creditors is 
that the ITC as such might 
have nothing left with which 
to repay them. 

Banks admit therefore, that 
they could quickly find them- 
selves in legal actions agai 
some or all of the ITCs 22 
member countries, including 
Britain. The complication 
here is that a legal declaration 
of a default by a country could 
trigger cross default clauses in 
loan agreements with other 
lenders to that country. 

Sir Adam Ridley, a director 
of Hambros Bank, has esti- 
mated that the ITCs debts 
total £420 million. 

Banks and other financial 
creditors are owed £80 milli on 
of capital and the same 
amount of interest at a notion- 
al 10 per cent Brokers and 
dealers are owed £180 million 
of capital and another £80 
million of interest. 


share cut 

By Judith Huntley 

Westland, the helicopter 
company and subject of politi- 
cal controversy, wants to cut 
drastically the nominal value 
of its ordinary shares to wipe 
out a £47.8 million loss. 

The company, which was 
the subject of a £75 million 
rescue package by Sikorsky, 
the US helicopter company, 
and Fiat, the Italian company, 
is asking shareholders to allow 
it to write off the £47.8 million 
deficit on the profit and loss 
account to enable future- prof-' 
its to be distributed to them. 

The Westland board wants 
approval to -cut the nominal 
value of the ordinary shares 
from 25p to 2top and to reduce 
the share premium account 
and other reserves by £2122 

millio n. ... 

The move is part of 
Westland's reconstruction 
plans. The company is unable 
to pay a dividend at th e 
moment. Jt suffered a pretax 
loss of £95.3 million for the 
year ended September 30 

Westland's annual meeting 
is to be held on April 25 and 
shareholders will then be 
asked to approve the write off 
of the £47.8 milfioh deficit by 
special resolution. 

The reduction of capital wifi 
not affect assets attributable to 
shareholders. In addition to 
the special resolution 
Westland’s board will also 
have to obtain the approval of 
the courts for its capital 
reduction plan. It is anticipat- 
ed that the court hearing will 
be two months after the 
annual meeting. 

The main reasons for the 
loss were the exceptional pro- 
visions. of £106.6 million of 
which £79.8 million was . a 
write down on civil aircraft. 

Sharp fall in US 
trade deficit 

From Mofasin All, Washington 

United Stales exports rose 
and imports declined last 
month, sharply reducing the 
country's trade deficit, in 
manufactured goods, the 
Commerce Department said 

It said that the shortfall 
between imported goods and 
exports declined to S1Z49 
billion (£8.61 billion) last 
-month from January's record 
$16.46 billion. 

Exports bet month rose by 
4J per cent to S17.73 billion — 
the highest level rinoe last 
June, imports were down by 
9.7 per cent to $30.23 billion. 

The sharp drop in . work) oil 
prices helped February’s trade 
figures. The Commerce De- 
partment .reported that both 
ihe vdhune and dollar value of 
imported 'oil was down last 
month from a month earlier. 

Petroleum imports plunged 
in value by 27.9 per cent 
during February to $3.78 bit* 
lion from $5.25 billion in 

January. Volume was down 
21,23 per cent to 152.26 
miltion barrels from 193.42 

The average price for a 
barrel of imported ofl was 
down by S2J29 to $24.85. This 
was the lowest level since 
November 1979, when pro- 
duction cuts by Middle East- 
ern producers caused spot 
shortages and spiraling oil 
-prices, for for American 

Imports of items other than 
oil such as cam, clothing and 
other goods, fell moderately to 
S22J2 billion last month from 
$23.46 billion in January. 

The improvement in export 
performance last month in- 
cluded a rise in the value of 
manufactured goods sales to 
$12.18 billion from $11.39 
billion in January. 

Sales abroad of aircraft and 
spare parts totalled $1.3 

Property firm flotation 

- By Judith Huntley, Commercial Property Correspondent 

", Clarke 'Securities,' the £70 
million Stafford based private 
property - and- construction 
group, is floating its 'property 
division on the market by. 
reverting into a former manu- 
facturing company, Redman 

.■The new company, to be 
Called St Modwen Properties, 
will have a market capitaliza- 
tion' of £10 million. "Mr Stan 
Clarke, the chairman of 
Clarice Securities, wfll have a 
large stake in the new compa- 
ny and be wfll be its chief 

Redman Heenan sharehold- 
er win be asked to approve a 
subscription, a placing and a 
rights issue to raise £3.1 

million to broaden the 
company's base. 

- St Modwsn Properties will 
have net tangible assets of £1.7 
in Alton, equivalent to 10i05p 
of the enlarged share capftaL 
’* St Modwen plans to devel- 
op over one million sq ft of 
retail space in Britain. Its 
major schemes are the £20 
million, 1 40,000 sq ft Octagon 
Centre' ' in Burton -on-T rent, 
Staffordshire, and the £15 
million 250,000 sq ft out of 
town centre at Junction 28 of 
the Mi motorway. - 
The company has ambi- 
tions to become one of the 
.leading retail and leisure de- 
velopers within the next five 



New York 

Dow Jonas 1634.41 (+23.71) 


Nikkei Dow — 15337.18 (+27746) 
Hong Kong: 


Sydney: AO 1136.6 (+105) 

Frankfurt _ _ 

Commerzbank 2085.5 (+25J3) 



Paris: CAC 

SKA General 

50567 (+35.62) 
354.4 (+05) 

509.40 (same) 


London Firing: 
dOM $343-50-344.00{£2 
232.50) . 

New York: 

Cotnex $344.90-344.60 




FH Tomkins 

Combined English 

House Lerose 



Brit & Commonwealth 378p(+l3p) 
Pearson Grp 4Sttp (+1 Ip) 

Siebe 836p j+20p) 

nphook 248p +23p) 

Standard Chartered ■u. 609p (+37pj 
flegafian — — .. 485p l+20p) 
Acorn Computers ' — — ^ 66p.(+6p) 



Guanfiao Royal 
saver Mines — 




£: SI .4820 
E: DM3.4538 
E: FFr10.6259 
£: Yen266-09 

£: lndflx:76 3 

New York: 

£: 51.4822 
$: DM2.3305 

5: Index: 119.3 

ECU £0.632076 
SDR £0.774925 



Bank Base: ilJMfc 

3-mtft interbank ii'i*-iiH% 

3-mth eligible bite 10 ,s u>-10 ,s rt% 

*---- rajs 

ST” 1 

Prime Rate 9% 

Federal Funds 7tf% 

3-month Treasury Kits 6.34-6.32% 
30-year bonds ifiPwllBtt 

Deputy to 
be next 
of Id 

By Teresa Poole 

Imperial Chemical Indus- 
tries is to hare its youngest 
chairman since its foundation 
60 years ago. Mr Denys 
Hendersoa, who will be 54 
when be takes over on April 1, 
next year, was the frontrunner 
for the job. 

Mr Henderson, a main 
board director for six years, 
who became deputy chairman 
yesterday, will succeed Sir 
John Harrey-Joaes on his 

The flamboyant Sir John 
would be a difficult act to 
follow, be admitted, and he 

Denys Henderson: elected 
by overwhelming majority 

had no intention of being a 

He said^His style and mine 
are different I am my own 
man bat I am so modi In 
sympathy with John’s style. I 
believe that the strategies are 
coming through pretty 

Sir John, who has always 
said be would retire after fire 
years in the job, said be was 
very happy at the choice. “I 
have been very anxious that we 
do not lose the momentum that 
we have built up." 

Until Sir John's retirement, 
the two men, who have known 
each other since 1964 when 
they were both in Japan, 
intend to work dosely together 
to smooth the transition. The 
company's salaries committee 
has yet to decide if the new 
chairman's salary will match 
the £312,991 paid to Sir John 
last year. 

Mr Henderson was bom in 
Sri Lanka, the son of a tea 
planter, and educated in Aber- 
deen, where he qualified as a 
Scottish solicitor. 

His ICI career began in 
1957, after national service, 
when he joined as a lawyer but 
the extrovert Scot soon gradu- 
ated towards the marketing 
and commercial end of the 
business, with a series of posts 
ia many of the company's 

His current responsibilities, 
as a director, include pharma- 
ceuticals, agrochemic al s, col- 
ours, and paints, and last year 
he sec up the ICI acquisitions 

ICTs unique method of se- 
lecting a chairman meant that 
each director was sounded out 
by a trusted teller — in this 
case Sir Robin Ibbs — who 
then reported back to Sir 
John. The vote for Mr Hen- 
derson was overwhelming. The 
future chairman did not envis- 
age any big strategy changes 
but gave a warning against 

City analysts welcomed the 
appointment and were pleased 
that ICI had pre-empted spec- 
ulation over the succession by 
making an early 

Mr Hendersoa has a five- 
year contract but could have 
up to eight years at the top 
before reaching ICTs retire- 
ment age of 62. 

Britannia deal 

Britannia Arrow has agreed 
in principle to acquire MIM, 
an investment management 
company, from Aetna Life 
and Casualty Co. Details will 
be announced shortly. 

Executive Editor Kenneth Fleet 

The end of an era in 
North Sea profits 

Company profits rose by 17 per cent 
last year, according to official figures 
released yesterday. This is a hand- 
some fijgure, in accord with the 
expectations on which the rising 
market in ordinary shares, in its 
earlier stages, was based. But the 
figures may herald the end of an era: 
for the first time since providence 
and the oil companies gave Britain 
North Sea oil. profits from the North 
Sea have fallen. 

Furthermore, the figures for the 
fourth quarter of 1985 contain the 
first him that company profiis are 
coming under pressure: they would 
seem to be inadequate for the various 
claims on them. 

Profits, net of stock appreciation, 
of non-oil companies rose from £31.4 
billion in 1984 to £40.7 billion last 
year, an increase of 29.7 per cent. 
North Sea companies, in contrast, 
recorded a 4 per cent fall in profits, 
from £19.1 billion in 1984 to £18.4 
billion last year. 

The figures are affected by the 
inclusion of British Telecom for the 
whole of last year. Without British 
Telecom, the overall profits increase 
would have been 12 per cent, and the 
rise for non-oil companies 21 per 
cent, or 14 per cent in real terms. 

The evidence of pressures on 
profits are mirrored in a decline in 
the company sector's financial sur- 
plus. In the fourth quarter it fell to 
t377 million, from £1.95 billion in 
the third quarter. Capital investment 
remained high and rising but even 
more interesting was the sharp 
increase in stockbuilding. Having 
fallen by £203 million in the third 
quarter, it leapt to £545 million in the 
final three months. 

Dearly, the boom the Government 
keeps talking about not only exists 
but it is also being .taken seriously by 
industry. And the wherewithal for 
stockbuilding is coming from the 
banks: borrowings rose to £1,753 
million from £743 million in the 
third quarter. 

These trends suggest a further surge 
in demand for bank credit this year as 
undistributed profits, which peaked 
in the first quarter and fell to their 
lowest level since 1983 in the fourth, 
become increasingly inadequate. In 
addition to sustaining high capital 
spending and rising stock levels, 
companies have built into their profit 
and loss accounts higher dividends 
(32 per cent up last year, or 27 per 
cent leaving out British Telecom). 
Other dividends and interest pay- 
ments were 22 per cent higher last 
year than in 1 984, while taxes rose 20 
per cent and pfofits due abroad by 1 3 
per cent All in all, the corporate 
picture is not quite as rosy as it might 

Final reckoning 

United Biscuits managed to add only 
about 1 per cent to its acceptances by 
yesterday's second closing date, tak- 
ing its control to around 23 per cent 
of Imperial against the rival Hanson 
Trust's 28 per cent 

The low level of acceptances js 
hardly surprising so soon after the 
Office of Fair Trading’s clearance and 
so soon before Easter. The real and fi- 
nal battle will be fought next week. 

Hanson has made much of the fact 
that its best offer is the highest on the 
table. With Hanson shares at I79p, 
its all-paper offer is worth 367p 
against UB's best offer of shares, 
convertible and cash at 340p with 
UB's shares at 244p. The two cash 
and share mix offers are level pegging 
at 332p. Imperial shares were at 343p. 

Acceptances for the Hanson bid 
have shown 85 per cent preference for 
the all-paper option. Dearly those 
who have plumped for Hanson have 
taken a view on the future security of 
Hanson paper, which has risen 
strongly lately. Hanson believes the 
Americans are rerating the shares 
after the SCM victory. Others point 
to the fourfold increase in activity in 
Hanson traded options since mid- 
March as indication that the rise may 
not be sustained. 

The battle, however, should not be 
decided by a short-term share price 
movement. The real issue is the long- 
term fate of Imperial, a major force in 
the consumer industry, and where its 
best feture lies. 

Hanson and UB are offering two 
different concepts: the conglomerate, 
which adds on n on-complementary 
businesses and manages them to 
produce the most profitable results, 
against the merger of two highly 
complementary businesses to make a 
world force in food. UB and Imperial 
believe two plus two will equal five if 
they combine, because of the sizeable 
integration savings to be had. 

The question of management has 
been raised fteqently. Hanson would 
have it that Sir Hector Laing, 
chairman of UB, is being over- 
ambitious. But Sir Hector has man- 
aged his businesses through difficult 
times both in Britain and more 
recently in the US. Keebler has come 
through the worst excesses of the 
cookie war better than its compet- 
itors and UB was quick to turn round 
the business when things were going 

The management question is more 
about the types of business to be 
managed. Hanson's experience is 
mainly with industrial companies. 
Moreover, it has not detailed what it 
would want to do with Imperial. UB 
has made clear that it wants to keep 
and develop all Imperial’s businesses. 
It was very sorry Golden Wonder had 
to go. It also has the advantage of be- 
ing supported by Imperial’s top 
management who will stay and run 
the businesses that UB knows less 
about, namely tobacco and brewing. 

The potential growth from two 
complementary businesses and the 
integration benefits to be won from 
combined distribution, sales and 
buying power, which will be far more 
than the conservative £30 million 
outlined by Imperial, should ensure a 
better future for Imps than under a 
conglomerate whose organic growth 
has been legitimately questioned. 









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New York (Remer) - up 32.20. There were 1,103 
Shares rose farther in issues advancing, 568 dedin- 

midsession on Wednesday as 
programmed buying easily lift- 
ed the market in light pre- 
holiday trade. 

big and 380 unchanged. 

Volume totalled 

161.460.000 shares compared 
with 139.250,000 on Tuesday. 

Sentiment was bolstered by Blue chips held strong gains 

tiie apparent easing of tension at midsessKw. 

in the Golf of Sidra after the 
US-Libyan actions. 

Merck, which jumped 4's to 
165% at one stage, dosed at 

The Dow Jones industrial 167%,np 6 7 sJSodak, which 
average, which was op 21 was np to to 63% in the 

points at one stage in the afternoon, dosed at 63 7 s, op 
afternoon, dosed at 1.810.70, 2 s *. 



Marks) rates 

day's range 

March 28 

N York 1.4615*1.4775 
Montreal 2-0504-2.0702 

Brussels 70-25-70& 

Cphgen 12.6455.12.7519 
. Oubw 1.1 



In i 
is i 
It > 



















Amax tnc 
Am'rtia Hs 
Am Bonds 

Am Brocast 
Am Can 76 V 



Am Cyrrrn'd 

Am Express 68 
Am Homo 


Am Hospital n/a n/a 



Am Motors 
Amoco S3 

Armco Steel 11 

Asareo 22X 22 

AsMandOII M% 52 


Avon Plods 33% 

31 a 

BkotBsim 75% 
Bank of NY 


Beaties Fds 49 

20 % 20 

S7% 58V 



Bg Warner 30 30V 

Bret Myers 75% 74 
BP 33V 33V 

Burden hid 39% 38% 

BuHtonNtn 7 ft’s 75 '4 
Burroughs 65* WV 
CmpbeflSp 54 >9 53 

Can Pacific 14V 13 _ 

CanrptfiBT 52V 52 V, 

Ceiariuse 196V 195V 
Central SW 30% 30V 

Champion 28V 28 

Chase Man 46V 45V 

ChmBkNY 54% 53V 

Chevron 37% 37 
Chrysler 45', 467. 

Omtxxp 62 59V 

Clam Equip 23 22V 

Coca Cola 105% 104 
Colgate 38V, 38% 
CBS 145 146% 

CUntua Gas 38% 38V 

Cmtvm Eng 35V 36V 
Cotnwtti Ed 34V 33% 
Gore Bits 41 s # 41 

CnNafQas 50’# 49V 
Core Power 13 12% 

CntrfOaB 24'# 23% 
Coming Q 71"# 69 v 

CPCIml 63 s # 62% 

Crane 47% 47% 

CmZeier 48 45% 

Dart A Kraft 51% 51% 
Deere 33% 33% 
Delta Ak 42V 41% 

Detroit Ed 



154% 154V 

Du Pant 

Eastern Air 

Eaton Core 

Evans Prod n/a 





















inn] eti 












Exxon Corp 









Pimps Oge 












31 V 



Fs) PritwC 








PPG Ind 





















RCA Carp 





Gen Corp 





Gen Oy'incs 
Gen Inn 










Royal Outdi 





Gen Ms 



Sara Lae 



Gan Motors 


















Georgia Pac 



Scott Paper 












Sears Rock 



Gould Inc 



35 >4 

Show Trans 









GfAtrs Tec 


















Gu84 West 





Henz H J. 



Swing Dra 











Swi Comp 



VC Inttt 



















Texas E Cor 






Texas hist 





















TRW Inc 



Irving Bank 



UAL Inc 



JhnsnA Jhn 






Kaiser Alum 



Un Carbide 



Karr McGee 





54V o 




Utd Brands 


23% 7 

K Mart 



US Steed 


22% k 





Utd Techno) 


I Lite 









Jim Walter 


56% , 







Lucky Stra 



WeBs Fargo 


67 ’ 











Whal pool 



37% - 

69 7 






74% J 




Xrirex Corp 


67 n 





24% £ 








167 K16V 
106% 103V 







25% g 




Aicn Alum 



46% £ 

Morgan j.p. 








n/a U 

NCR Corp 



Can Pacific 


19V £ 

NL Indstrs 





13* £ 




Gutt 08 


10* « 






27 « 




HdsnB A6n 


27* £ 






3 1 V » 

Obi Cora 





4031 - 





Ryl Trustee 



3?% * 





74% & 

Pan Am 





28V ft 






32* 2 

Pb casco 




14 Mi 

1329- (.Id 10 
F*Wkfurt3 4202-3.4429 
Madrid 21508^16.16 
MilanM 2330-82-2343.06 
Oslo 10.6762-10.7084 
.Pans 105443.105818 
Srwam 10.8022-10*516 
Tokyo 263-84-265.35 
Vienna 24.07-24.18 
Zurich 2.8751-2-8851 

Market fates 


March 26 

1.4735-1 .4760 

2L0651 -2.0702 




f 1338-1.1348 



215.72-21 6.09 








Ireland — 

3 V- 2 vprem 












1.41-1 SSprern 



22 -So* wu'i 













Canada , 
Norway , 





West Germany 
Switzerland __ 

7 2500-7 JZ3W 




■ 37.62-37.67 

■% LPNOCp ft^ M MOD rPr 

.. TTn yan— ir mwf nr rffn M lf 
Mr cocoa in £ per toone; 

T- Gna^OiaadsupteriiUSf 
par tome. 1 
(JWjaynsm and Conner 
SUGAR -»*• ‘ 

«.■ -> 

May 1944^L0 

Od — «J.W7.o 

Dec 203.^93.0 

Hong Kong 7.8145-7.8165 

Portal _ 15050-15^50 

So ml m 146.l0-14fl.60 

Austria 16^1-18.38 

Staffing Mex compared *tti 1975 ms op at 764) (day's range 754-75). 
Rates aceipM by BarOtrs Bn* HOFBt and ErtaL 

Uoyds Bank International 



Ckramg Banks 11% 
finance House 13 

Dtecoum Market Loans % 

Dvanwht Higrt; 12 Low 10 

Treasury BOi (Discount %) 

2mntft ii^b 
3mntfi 10 u w 

2 nintfi 11% 

Smntti 11 

Prime Bank rate L 

1 mntft 11%-11 "m 2mnth 
3rrmth llfit-11 6mnth lOfit-nP* 
Trade rate (Discount %} 

Imntfi 12 2mrtfi ii“jj 

!”tr fl ninth 10*H 

t*» ... 

7 days MV 
3 ninth 11V 
12 mm 10 

2 mntft 12-11% 

12mm 10K-10K 

Simth 11’i#-1i»n 

7^730 3 ninth 7.30-7.25 

6mnm 750-755 IZmta 7J5-7J0 


Argentina austraT 

Australia dollar 

Bahrain dinar 05S0545545 

Brezfl cruzado* 

7 days 7 7 ib- 7% 
3 ninth 714-7% 

can 7V-6V 
imnft 7%-7% 
Bmrah 7V4-7% 

Cyprus pound . 
Finland marka. 

7 days 5-4% 1 mnm 4'*nP'H 

~ ■' , ia/ a ia 

Graaca drachma . 
Hong Kong dollar 
m*a rupee 

211.40-21 &40 

3 mnm 4 »ht4*m 6mnth 4' . 
French Franc call 9Hr8% 

7 days 17-14 1 mnm 18-15% 

3 mam 12%-1 2% 6 from nv-nv 

Kuwait din 
Mexico p 

7 days 2X-2M 
3 mnm 3-3% 

7 days 86% 

3 ninth 5%-5% 

caa 1654-1414 

Imran 4V-4 
6 man 3 l »i#/ u t« 
ca8 io-9 

1 mnth 5V-5V 
6 mnm 5V-5V 

New Zealand doBar. 
Saudi Arabia nyal _ 
Sngaporedobr — 

South Africa rand 

U A E dirham 








The prices and unit trust 
quotations on this 
page refer to 
Wednesday's trading . 


1 u» HlJI-KUI I 




{ u» . 1416-14 I 

. . 1447-44 




1 u*, . 156545 t 




1 Uwj . V. 2405-02 1 




1 rari .. 2595-75 1 




. T330-3U 






Apr — 



GAS 09- 

... 74S 
— r 147JS0-2S 

_ 73300-3225 ' 

126O0-25J75 ' 



- 13000-29.t» 7 

_ 13350-31 DO 1 




_ 740.0O35JD0 
- 145.00-33.00 : 

4450 1 

UMffldSl pdeaa 

, Price te £ par raMricmaw 
Jlawr in petwa par my «k 

^HudoffWoU* CP. Ltd. report 

Three months. 1QB1JM0QM 
Wo) 915D 

Tone . 



Three Months. 


1000- WOt 








Toro , 



Cash 4276CM2&S0 

Three Months — 43850-09 




TTne Montes . 




nrm , kjm 


Cnh . .. .. 

nm Merita. 




Tone : kfc 


Three NtariM 277D-2T7S 

Voi ras 




Catdenos ocrenS-t Vare. 
ShMpnoe upa<%.mra. 

». 25062^+21371 
. 'nos. donn 19 4%, Mai 
pnee. 7355p|G7to 


Canterw^ down 2.4 V am 
mpnos.itewa oiBekiM 


£ per una» 

Ota* O0N 
ItifJS 17049 



Sept - ' 10080 9MB 
JW. U&95 105.75 



■ BOB 




Tone , 



~ °§M5 "ana 

tors mt 

Jtriy 1013 TOi £ 

Aug . . TOOA 1003 

ice! nm 
was . iota j. 

tfflfl 1(05 % 
T01.0 (015 . 

1005 wso 













1870 - tttO 

WgWrt Un)teo 






. tpartonria 

n Ow 

A PA 10250 MIX. 

May . 11A6O m.MP 

NOir 8150 88.00 

M 91.00 tlOp 

April 10890 1065$ 

■ Vet MS 

ftiu. f raig w rim w u8 
owflra me** 


rMfernm mo 

Apr 86 

JN88 J2S.(WSStff ' 7310 
Octae 8£».0^320 8335 

Jail 47 8SOM60 .O MS 
ap tvr ■ OKo 

Jut *7 - map 

Oct 87 - . «sn 

Jan 88 8009 


V* 100 fere .. 


Mtrff C £w 

Aar 88 8100510.0 8100 

^ap -?s 

d •■■■« 4 

wot 26 res ; r . 

Open teteiaatO* - ' 




Fixed Rate Starting Export finance 

Scheme IV Average reference rate for 
X» February 

M tena t perm February 5 1986 to 
March 4 iSdB inclusive: 12.654 per 


Three Mb 
J unffl _. 
Sep 86 _ 
Dec 86 ™ 
Mar 87.. 


— «Eos 






Eat Voi 

„ 9050 





„ 90.73 





- 90.82 






- 9251 

92.61 92.79 92.81 

rest id/90) 

_ 92.80 



92. SI 


- 92.69 



92. BS 







_ 97-21 

Previous day's total open imerest 5509) 
98-05 97-18 9503 3264 

_ 96-31 





_ 95-06 





- 100-25 

Previous day's total opart nterost 783 
100-60 100.21) 1HL56 Tfin 

n n 




1 oat 

123- 15 

124- 03 



Prevkxja day's total open interest 9700 
12505 123-10 125-03 8441 

125-12 123-31 125-10 58 

124-02 124-00 125-14 50 

123-28 123-28 125-10 40 

Previous day's total open interest 1902 
166.05 16450 165-85 242 

169.20 167.10 169-20 206 


Hflli lorn Owww 

Price Oi~p# p#ore % N6 





8 .. 


17 438 







+.0 353 



Amar Thar 




5 in IKK 



Ang Amer Sac 


• +* 








17 5 15 



Marta Auae 




07 .. 






390 33 *17 












08 .. 
4.4 34.1 



Br top*: Soc 




IS 491 


Bntan bw 


203b 48 27.0 





• .. 






%xz£r c ’ 



• .. 

83b 3*41,4 


Craw: am japan 




03 .. 

i«3 11O 
345 314 
157 134 
5n 420 
516 503 
200 178 
116 103 
367 284 

iai in 
67 75 
127 HD 
140 1>9 
105 85 
167 142 
288 237 
328 387 
120 95 

558 480 
176 145 
333 284 

108 64-1 
i30 ns 
618 480 
145 123 
145 123 
16? 143 
383 322 

90 68 

109 as 

159 lie 

151 138 
310 275 



D*«y tac 
Do Ci 


□nylon pgr Ean 158 

Drayton Japan 568 

Capon Prewar 512 

Dixioh um 200 

Edn Am#r Ann 115 

Ba-turgn M7 

Baanc Gn 358 

EagWi h4 ISO 

Brean Soar as 

Enoasn NY T2S 

Enpqn 157 

Fit Mtenca 104 

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sun shines 

There is nothing like . Easter 

for turning thoughts toTVann 
summer holidays, spent on 
glorious sandy beaches. Ac- 
cording to Imeniatkmal ifi - 
sure, ' the- Iritastm holiday 
groups and Horizon, both of 
which announced results last 
week, many &inilies have 
already, booked their 

lntasun : has taken 1.1 m 3 . 
Eon bookings, against only 
530,000 this time last year. At 
Horizon bookings are run- 
ning at 350.000; which is 
more than double last year's 

. die largest tour 
is understood to he 
in a similar position. Ail three 
expat to sell many more 
holidays this jw ^tran h«t~ 

maEdn and Horizon 500,000. 
- The huge number of early 
sales makes its less likely that 
there will be another bout of 
discounting later. Already 
Horizon and Thomson have 
dashed prices by roughly 20 
per cent Intasun has stood 
back.frqm this cutthroat 
competition, and says the 
average price of hs holidays is 
only !1 per cent less than last 

As a result, Imasnh's mar- 
gins should hold up best Last 
week it forecast profits of 
£23.3 million for the year 
ending this month, against 
£24.8 million in the previous 
yean Excluding exceptional 
uems such , as the profit on 
* ine sales, tins leaves 
at £8.7 milli on, Ontbe 
same basis it could make 
£15.8 -million this year,- 
belped by interest received on 
the £28 million rights issue, 
also announced last week. 

Horizon, battling to recov- 
er market share, is likely to 
see its margins eroded sub- 
stantially, with the result that 
trading could be 
negligible. At 126p, its share 
price owes much to bid 
speculation, as Bass holds 26 
percent and Mr Ron Brieriey 
7 per cent of the shares. 

International Leisure is less 
speculative and with holders 
of 40 per cent of the shares, 
mddding. the directors, not 
taking up their rights, there is 
bound to be some weakness 
in the price. Mr Roy Owens 
of Kticat & Aitken believes 
the shares , which were 1 1! 
yesterday .should be held 
even bought on weakness. - 
For an even safer share, 
investors can opt for Saga 

Holidays , which, because it 
sells specialist holidays to the 
over 6G*s, is under less pres- 
sure to cut selling prices. At 
203p the shares arc trading on 
12 times prospective earnings 

Royal Insurance 

Royal Insurance's decision to 
offer' cut-price rates for 
houses protected by security 
devices tailed to impress the 
stock market yesterday. The 
shares hardly, budged even 
though the move was a fillip 
for security product 

_ Automated Security (Hold- 
ings), which announced re- 
sults for the year to 
November yesterday, was no 
exception, with its shares 
unchanged at 183p. Profits 
were up by 37 per cent to 
£8.66 million before tax but 
this was slightly less than had 
been expected. 

The associate. Network Se- 
curity, contributed £780,000 
and that would have been 
higher but for sterling's 
strength against the dollar. 

ASH also had problems of 
its own making in that its 
unaudited, interim figures 
had shown a first-half in- 
crease of 46 per cent, giving 
rise to hopes of continued 
progress at the same level 
The company now gives a 
warning that trends should 
not be read- into its interim 

Taking a longer term view, 
however, prospects are good. 
The acquisition of Security 
Centres, which contributed 
nothing to last- year's result, 
will have boosted turnover 
substantially. . 

Sales could rise from last 
year's £37.6 million to possi- 
bly £55 million this year. If 
as the company hopes, mar- 
gins remain the same, operat- 
ing profits could rise from 
£10.7 million to £15.5 mil- 
lion. With interest charges 
apparently set to fell pretax 
profits could well be £14^5 
million or so. 

Croda . . 

Croda's dividend announced 
yesterday is unchanged com- 
pared with last year's and is 
no more than was expected. 
The company doubled hs 
dividend in 1982 to stave off 
an unwelcome . bid from 

Burmah, and has been paying 
for il ever since. 

This year, the directors feel 
sufficiently comfortable at 
last to make positive noises 
about a possible increase next 
year. From being barely cov- 
ered in 1982, the dividend 
was covered 1.7 times in 
1985. If the outcome for 1986 
is as satisfactory as the com- 
pany hopes, the intention is 
to make some increase in the 
level of the ordinary dividend 
m 1986. 

In the year to December, 
Croda International achieved 
its fifth consecutive year of 
profits growth. Pretax profit 
was' £22.9 million, a 14 per 
cent increase on 1984. Turn- 
over was up 6 per cent to 
£131 million. 

A breakdown of pretax 
profit shows that Croda 
Chemicals remains by far the 
most-important profit centre. 
Its pretax £14 million, up 1 1 
per cent accounted for 61 per 
cent of profit. 

The poor performance of 
Croda World Traders, down 
nearly £1 million to £1.7 
million, was mainly attribut- 
able to losses in forward 
commodity contracts. 

Since the low point of 1980 
when the company was se- 
verely hit by the recession, 
pretax profits have grown at 
an average annual compound 
rate of more than 25 per cent. 
Much of this is due to the 
significant effort which has 
gone into streamlining the 
business. This process culmi- 
nated in the sale of two 
unprofitable businesses last 
year. The UK printing ink 
operations were sold after 
years of losses and Premier 
Oils, a refiner of edible 
oilseed was sold for £10 

These disposals are a mani- 
festation of one tier of the 
company's strategic approach 
which is to turn round, sell or 
close those operations whose 
profit outlook indicates that 
they have no long-term future 
in the group. 

Croda believes that its 
fundamental problems are 
now. solved and that the 
quality of the group' earnings 
are improving. The shares, 
which dosed up 4p on the 
results, are likely to be under- 
pinned by the yield. Even on 
a modest dividend increase 
of 0.5p net in 1986, the 
prospective gross yield is 6.9 


r , 
* <•*. • 

footwear makers 

By Derek Harris, Industrial Editor 


,£. iV~ 
■ *• ; . 
-* : l\ 

' ■ 5 - 

-w* *' 



Some of Britain’s troubled 
footwear makers may soon be 
expanding again although so 
fin;- only a- minority or the 
inmufacturers expect to. 

This emerges from the latest 
q ua rter l y assessment of the 
industry by the British Foot- 
wear Manufacturers Federa- 
tion which also reports 
volume deliveries by British 
manufacturers last year to be 
up 1 per cent from 1984. 

This was despite overall 
supplies to the market includ- 
ing imports, being down 2 per 
cent at 268 million pairs. The 
British makers delivered 129 
duHkhi pairs. Import penetra- 
tion is still high at 58.6 per 
cent but that is a drop of just 
over l per cent on the year 

A factor in the improved 
performance, of the British 
makers is that their exports 
rose last year in volume by 
some 2 percent. Exports now 
account for about J4-per cent 
of British production. Sales to 
the United States had been 
growing strongly with im- 
provements showing up also 
ui the French, Dutch and 
Italian markets. 

A minority, of British mak- 
ers are now thinking about 
expansion, the federation re- 
ported. Bui it warned that fin- 
most businesses continued 
pressure on margins and lack 
of confidence about trading 
prospects beyond the ne xt few 
months were still a deterrent 
to investment for the time 




~ Chart FL 

- Corn 9% A 
Cranswick M (95p) 

* . Dtatene (128p) 

- Ferguson (J) (10p) 
Gold Gm Trot (If 

- Granyls Surface (5 
Inoco (55p) 

JS Pathology fIBOp) 
Jams Porter (l05p) 

: - Ktearfold (118rt 
. -*• Lexicon (115p) 

, Macro 4 (105p) 

-■ Motivate M (T15p) 

'■ Norank Sys (90p) 

.' Really Useful (330p) 

31 +>2 





SAC inti (lOOp) 

SPP (125p) 
Templeton (215p) 
Sgmex (101p) 
Snowdon & B 
Spice (80p) 

-Tech Comp v ~ 
Underwoods (1 
Welcome (12 T 
W York- Hosp 
Wickes (140p) 


Cullens N/P 
Hartwells N/P 
■NMW Comp 
Porter chad 



Wales F/P 
Westland F/P 
(Issue price in brackets). 









• .* -i 

1 • J 

.*■ t 



' 'v'lH 

Notice to Members 


PakJ-Up Shares 

t Bam 


below na. 000 ) 
abarc £1BJ»3! 

car Ch* 

JLV.Cs to Pwswo Schemes 

Reasfen Fends 

7.00% eawatent to 10 00* 

8.80%" equnotent to 
9.05% eqwfltenl lo 
935% eqiHvatem to 
1000% equnralem to 





7.75% equnaient to 

12^5% gross 

1125% flross 



■WNBUXUtlSQ* « «c «m »i» m 


Building Society 



Provincial Insurance is re- 
structuring after reporting 
substantial losses on all areas 
of general underwriting. 

Estimated results for 1985 
show a general business un- 
derwriting loss of £21.68 mil- 
lion against £12.65 million a 
year earlier although general 
business premiums were up at 
£191.43 million from £157.75 

The final dividend is 15p 
making a total of 25p, up 2p. 

Group profit before tax was 
sharply down to £368,000 
from £3.69 million. 

The directors have decided 
to recommend to shareholders 
a reorganization of the exist- 
ing group structure, involving 
the creation of a new holding 
company. Full details will be 
sent to shareholders in the 
next three months. 

Proposals will include can- 
cellation of the 10 percent and 
25 per cent listed preference 
shares on payment to the 
holders of 140p and 70p per 
share respectively. 

Provincial says substantial 
underwriting losses have re- 
sulted from general insurance 
in all major axeasin which the 
company operates. 

The United Kingdom re- 
corded ■ premium growth of 
29.7 per cent. 


Kenning Motor Group: Mr 
John Take is joining the 
company as group chief execu- 
tive on May 1. 

Burston-MarsteDer UK: Mr 
Timothy Foster has been 
-made creative director. 

Rolls-Royoe: Sir Robin 

Nicholson is joining the board 
on Tuesday. 

incorporated Society of 
Valuers and Auctioneers: Mr 
Brian Goswefl has been inau- 
gurated as president 

Westminster Insurance Ser- 
vices: Mr Edwin Bassett and 
Mr Douglas Harman are now 

Ayer Barker Mr Michael 
Sodeu has become managi n g 

Price Waterhouse: Mr Ian 
Beesky joins the partnership 
on April 15. 

Health First Mr Christo- 
pher Long has been made 
financial director. 

- Smith & Nephew Associat- 
ed Companies: Mr Eric 
Kinder has been named 
ty chairman in addition to 
present position as chief 

Whittingdale: Mr Dale 

Sumner has joined the board. 

. Cranleigh Cferic Mr Bryan 
Fedrick has become managing 

.-ti -yvlxv. ■ 

gloom for 
oil firms 

By David Yoang 
Energy Correspondent 

Falling oil prices will mean 
the financial community will 
need to read oil company 
accounts very carefully, an oil 
industry specialist, said. 

Mr Bernard Clow, of Peat 
Marwick, the accountants, 
told an oil industry seminar 
organized by Fielding Newsoc 
Smith, the stockbroker, that 

assessment Of the finanrial 

performance of oil companies 
will be Thrown into confusion 
once the sharp drop in oil 
prices hit the balance sheets. 

He said: “If sterling oil* 
prices stay at their present 
levels, oil companies will be 
feeing large and unpalatable 
reductions in earnings and 
balance sheet values. 

“Reconciling the long-term 
nature of the projects under- 
taken by the industry with the 
need for short-term financial 
statements has always been 
highly problematical But in 
the light of plummeting oil 
prices, the failure of the 
Geneva Opec talks, and the 
traditionally cautious ap- 
proach taken by auditors in 
assessing profits and losses, 
next year's reports and ac- 
counts will be gloomy reading, 
even if crude prices are to 
recover in the longer term." 

Fielding Nerwson Smith”s 
own oil industry specialist, Mr 
Humphrey Harriron, said: “It 
is not merely that 1 986 profits 
and dividends are impossible 
to forecast Cashflow, which 
has been virtually halved 
overnight, wifi become the 
primary indicator of the oil 
companies' financial health, 
and liquidity wifi become all 
important. If oil prices remain 
depressed, we would expect a 
number of bankruptcies." 

•Lower oil prices wifi make 
new North Sea technology 
more necessary, according to 
the Boating Technology 
Company (Fbalecfa). 

Government likely to scrap 
controversial ADR tax 

The Government looks cer- 
tain to abandon the proposed 
5 per cent tax on the conver- 
sion of British shares into 
American Depository 

The new tax, announced in 
the Budget, has stirred up a 
storm or protest both in the 
City and among British com- 
panies whose shares are ac- 
tively traded in ADR form in 
the United Slates. 

The Stock Exchange is also 
lending its support to the 
campaign to have the tax 
scrapped despite the feci that 
growth in the ADR market has 
meant a considerable loss of 
business to the London mar- 
ket over the last five years. 

ADRs allow the shares of 
British companies to be traded 
in overseas markets such as 
New York without having to 
comply with tough and often 
costly overseas regulatory 

Mr Stephen Raven, chair- 
man of the Stock Exchange's 
international markets com- 

By Jeremy Warner, B 

mince, said the imposition of 
the 5 per cent duty was a 
“disappointing and retrograde 

“The measure disadvan- 
tages those major British com- 
panies who want to raise 
capital in the international 
market place, it will not help 
offset any loss of revenue from 
the reduction in the rate of 
stamp duty on share pur- 
chases because new conver- 
sions into ADRs are unlikely 
to take place, and it will not 
assist the Government in its 
desire to market international- 
ly the shares of newly priva- 
tized industries," he said. 

The Stock Exchange be- 
lieves that anything that 
smacks of protectionism will 
ultimately damage the Lon- 
don market and the City 

Mr Raven said that 
London's reputation as an 
international financial centre 
would be ill served by erecting 
barriers such as the proposed 
ADR tax. 

isiness Correspondent 

Finance directors from a 
number of leading British 
companies have also declared 
their opposition to the tax. 
After a meeting at Imperial 
Chemical Industries* head- 
quarters this week, the finance 
directors said that the duty 
would have serious financial 
and commerical consequences 
for British companies. 

The chairmen of three of 
Britain's leading companies. 
Sir Kenneth Durham of 
Unilever. Sir Peter Walters of 
British Petroleum and Mr 
Patrick Sheehy of BAT Indus- 
tries, said in a letter to the 
Press that the measure was 
inept and looked like another 
piece of anti-Americanism. 

“It comes at a time when we 
and others have made great 
efforts to build up strong US 
shareholdings to support the 
growth of our own activities in 
the United States," they said. 

Some finance directors are 
already considering avoidance 
measures as extreme as chang- 
ing their company's domicile. 

One, who did not wish to be 
named, said the duty would 
raise no extra revenue for die 
chancellor since companies 
would either find ways of 
avoiding the tax or the ADR 
market would dry up entirely. 

The Chancellor, Mr Nigel 
Lawson, announced in the 
Budget that he was halving the 
rate of stamp duty on ordinary 
share transactions to 0.5 per 
cent. In order to recoup the 
estimated £70 million loss of 
revenue, he would be intro- 
ducing a 5 per cent duty on 
ADR conversions and bring- 
ing a number of transactions 
previously exempt from 
stamp into the tax net. 

The Stock Exchange said in 
its Budget submission that 
stamp duty should be abol- 
ished entirely because of the 
effect it was having on the 
international competitiveness 
of London as a financial 
centre and as a market place 
for raising capital by British 

Growing pressure to make 
inflation index homeless 

By David Smith, Economics Correspondent 

Novel £12m 
debenture by 
British Land 

British Land, the property 
and industrial company, is 
issuing a £12 million deben- 
ture of 38-year money at a 
price of £95.52 per cent. 

The debenture arises from 
an innovative “ drop lock" 
debenture issue arranged in 
1981 by Guinness Mahon & 
Co, the merchant bank, and 
James Capel & Co, the stock- 
broker. It has been triggered 
by a fellin' gilt rates to a 9 l 8 per 
cent yield. 

The debenture is secured on 
British Land's Plantation 
House City office block. There 
is an 11 per cent fixed coupon 
The company can draw a 
second tranche of £20 million. 

Rising housing costs and, in 
particular, higher mortgage 
rates, contributed nearly a 
third of the inflation rate last 

Retail prices increased by 
55 per cent in the 12 months 
to January. If housing had 
been excluded from the Retail 
Price Index, the rise would 
have been just 3.8 per cent, 
according to figures in the 
latest Employment Gazette* 
published by the Department 
of Employment 

The treatment of boosing 
within the RPI has been a 
matter of controversy. In June 

1984, the Employment Secre- 
tary announced the reconven- 
ing of the RPI advisory 
committee to look into the 
construction of the index. 

The Government was em- 
barrassed by the effects on the 
inflation rate of increases in 
the mortgage interest rate. 

This embarrassment per- 
sists. Last year, mortgage 
interest payments rose by 18 
per cent and were tire main 
reason for the large rise in the 
boosing component of the 

The argument for the exclu- 
sion of mortgage rates, which 

has been advanced by the 
building societies, is that their 
inclusion as a cost is one-sided 
as there is a corresponding 
benefit from higher rates of- 
fered to savers. 

The RPI advisory commit- 
tee, originally due to have 
published its report by now, 
appears to be baring difficulty 
with this argument. The 
committee's report will not be 
published nntil the end of the 

An alternative to the exclu- 
sion of mortgage rates will be 
proposed by the Institute for 
Fiscal Studies next month. 


Extracts from the preliminary results for the year ended 31 December 1985 

Profit £1168 m: 
Dividend up by 17Va% 

Group Results 

tear to 

tear to 

Pretax profit 



Attributable to BAT Industries 



Dividend per share 



£1 =$1,446 at 31.12*5 ($1,159 at 31.12.84). 

Group pre-tax prefits in 1985 
totalled £1168 million. This 17 per 
cent decline -as reported in 
sterling -owed much to the 
weakness of the US dollar; which 
sharply reduced profits when 
translated into sterling at year- 
end rates. Operating profits 
were 12 per cent lower at 
£1288 million, and attributable 
earnings were 14 per cent down 
at £674 million. 

The year in fact saw growth and 
good performance in most of the 
Group’s businesses. Tobacco 
and paper had a particularly 
strong year; as did life and 
pensions business and UK 
retailing There were however 
unsatisfactory performances in 
some parts of US retailing and 
unexpectedly high claims 
experience in UK general 

Nevertheless total operating 
profit in local currency terms 
showed a further one per cent 
improvement and would have 
reached £1485 million had 
exchange rates remained 
constant during the year After a 
higher net interest charge, pre- 
tax profits would have shown a 
decrease of 3 per cent to £1361 
million. The Group remains one 
of the UK's leading and most 
profitable businesses. 

All comparisons are affected by 
further changes in Group 
structure Allied Dunbar was 
acquired, Soporcel became an 
associate, and Mardon Rackaging 
was sold. It is a striking testimony 
to the Group's financial strength 
and strong cash flow that the 
gross debt/equity ratio came 
down to 50 per cent having risen 
to 64 per cent in early 1985 
following the purchase of Allied 

Taking the increase in Group 
results reported over the two 
years, 1984 and 1985, pre-tax 
profits are up by 19 per cent and 
earni ngs per share by 22 per cent 

Tobacco experienced a 
buoyant year Group cigarette 
volume nose by 4 per cent with 
improved market share in Brazil 
and the US. In local currencies 
Group trading profit from tobacco 
increased by 8 per cent 

Paper also had a strong 
year; with higher sales of 
carbonless copying paper from 
both Wiggins Teape and 
Appleton. With help from lower 
pulp prices profits grew by 19 per 
cent in local currencies. 

Retailing had a mixed year; 
with another sparkling 
performance from Argos 
and good results in 

difficult circumstances from 
Marshall Field's, Saks Fifth 
Avenueand Ivey's. But most of our 
other US stores performed 
inadequately, and it has been 
decided to concentrate our 
efforts on stores which offer 
growth potential and to dispose of 
the others, which in aggregate 
made a substantial loss. 

Financial services now 

includes Allied Dunbar as well 
as Eagle Stan and both achieved 
substantial growth in life and 
pensions income. Eagle Star's 
general business suffered from 
an unexpectedly high claims 
experience but premium rates 
are now at a more satisfactory 

Associated companies 

had an excellent year in local 
currencies. I masco achieved 
further growth despite 
competitive pressures in 
Canadian tobacco and US drug 

In the light of the year's positive 
features the Board will be 
recommending to shareholders 
a final dividend of 7.35p, making 
a total for the year of 12.10p. an 
increase of 17.5 per cent over the 
previous year and an 85 per cent 
growth in excess of UK inflation 
over the past five years. 

PROSPECTS for 1986are 
forfurthergrowthat operating 
profit level. Factors outside our 
control include exchange rates 
and greatly reduced investment 
incomef rom Brazil. Butweexpect 
an increase in attributable 



Full financial statements will be delivered to the Registrar of Companies and carry an unqualified audit report 
The results are being posted to shareholders. Copies are available from the Company Secretary BAT Industries pic, Windsor House. 50 Victoria Street London SW1H ON L 




- I .. 

as Ilf aM § B II" 8 s i« * « 


From yoor portfolio card check toot 
eight shoe price movement. Add them 
up to give you your overall total- Check 
tab against the daily dividend figure 
published on this page. If it matches you 
nave woo outright or 8 share of the total 
daily prize money stated. If you ate a 
winner follow the claim procedure on the 
back of your card. You most always have 
your ora available when claiming. 



r - 

£ 2,000 - 
Qainis required 


+54 points. - 




Oaiois required 


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Law Report March 28 1986 


y.Wf nuiugar C£I17,46 mit 
JSSytaSKBWfcATa million 
(£ 7-58 millipoL Earnings per 
shwe 9^p ;(6.%>X TheboaS 

and prospects in all divisions are 

? - ~"vV « 

- " ?! S? 

- ■ 

r. » i 

S . 

• t, 

y ■ 

y < r 

■; ; i. 


• ; s* 5 ; ! - 

• NETOGROUPi Turnover 

fbr,t9&S £173 8 mfflkm (£17.9 

5®*®* F 0 ^ £1-8 mil- 


^..dinajy snxsfchoWers £6.5Soffl- 
1km (£5.46. milhonX Turnover 
(premium income) £151. 24 mtf- 

- : .Bm*3S*S2£ , r* mu - 

■ f™™: Total, divi- 
denaW4p on increased capital 
: for^^S^pX^eritx profiTlrish 

^26 million (Irish £4.68 

•MEZZANINE capital 
. CORPORATION: Net invest- 
ment income for the half-year to 
Nov. o 3 Q, ;1985. $4.24 million 

\ti.oo million), against' $4.8- 
m illion. 

•CHRISTY HUNT: Turnover 
to Dec. 3L, 1985, 
“—78 mil Lon f£I.| 3 " million). 

Pretax profit £55UX)0 (£9.000). 


PAN TRUST: Gross invest- 
ment income for the' half-year to 
T<&. 28 , 1586, £274,949 

Sa^ p,,tsta: 

Total dividend for 1985 7p 

Turnover £7 miffion 
("■f, 3 mttfionX Pretax profit 
Z*-76 million- (£3.04 minion). 
™oin» per share 15.8p(9.0pX 


/ £V*? T f 

’ a k ( y 

year to Jan. 31. 1986. Interim 
dividend Ip (0.8p. adjusted). 
Turnover £3.97 million (£3.62 
million). Pretax profit £119.000 

(£116,000). Earnings per share 
3.4p (3.4p). 

CROUP: Six months to Dec. 31, 
1985. Interim dividend 3.75p 

- (nil), payable May 18. Turnover 
£7.51 million (£4.5 million). 
Pretax jprofit £2.02 million 
(£864,000). Earnings per share 
I2.3p (4.8p). For the full year, 
the board remains confident of 
achieving the pretax profit of 
. not less than £4.2 million fore? 
cast in the prospectus. 

• WOLD: No final dividend, 

making 0.7Sp for 1985. The 
company -obtained a USM 
quotation Iasi June. Turnover 
£30.97. million (£26.04 million). 
Pretax profit £465.000 (£1.47 
million). Earnings per share 
0.99p(Sp) ^ 


chanrad total dividend of 5-5p 
for 1985. Turnover £13.9 mil - 
lion (£11.6 million). Pretax 
profit : £429,208 (£443. 114) 

Earnings per . share 9.98p 

• ’SffiTAL CLOSURES: Divi- 
dend for 1985 unchanged at 
6.7p. Turnover £83.7 million 
(£88.48 nrillian) Pretax profit 

dividend for I98S cut from | T| I y I ■ I CJ 
12.75p to 4.8pL Turnover Irish ^ "C 

£ 1 9-23 million (Irish £25.4 mil- - . 

lion). Pretax profit Irish Grant v Edwards 

£130.000 (Irish £3.32 million). Before Sir Nicolas Browne- 

• MOQ RG ATE MER- Wilkinson. Vice-Chancellor. 

CANTILE HOLDINGS: The Lord Justice Mustill and Lord 

company has acquired a port- Justice Nourse 

folio of medium- term secured Pudgmept given March 24) 

Proving beneficial interest in home 

mortgages from Briestowe Fi- An excuse 
nance for £1.05 million, sat- cohabitee as 
isfied by the allotment of 2.23 was not heir 
million ordinary shares. At the title deeds ■ 

request of the vendors, these I sufficient evidence to establish a 

shares have been placed. 


terim dividend 1.76p (same) I in the house. 

I common intention that she 
should have a beneficial interest 

payable on April 

The Court of Appeal so held. 

P«>fit fof the half-year to Oct. allowing an appeal by the olain- 
31 . 19 85, £407,000 (£478.000). tiff; 1 ■ l 'y<? lone Grant, from a 
Earnings per share 5.4 Ip (jedsion of Judge Paul Baker. 
. i^.yo p). OC sitting as a High Court 

• UNITED LEASING: The jfeem, FeWf?, i983 
company- has sold a German Vbnreby he gave judgment for 

°T s T h ?®h GVK - the defendant GeotgeKwards 
* or United was and dismissed the plain tiffs 

uawilbng to commit the addi- daixn for a beneficial interest in 
nonal capital and mara^ent 96 Hewitt Road, Hornsey, Lon- 
resourees to raise GVR from a don. 
local -dealer to a nationwide y, tat ct vm* 
presence m Germany. It prefers w 

to concentrate on the domestic Mr David Schmitz for 

microcomputer market. . ; foe defendant. 


|^s Mortgage Rates 

^ s !' The Royal Bank of Scotland 
%* i \ 1 announces that with effect 
* : ! from 1 May 1986 

j: will he reduced from 12%% 
to 12% per annum, 
i Endowment Mortgage Rate 
will be reduced from 

’ 12%% to 12% - per annum. 


I BnkoTScnltad afeMMmdUOm:SMt. Antov: 
.. MtaatndtaSeuiBidNabHNUtL 

£3.84 million (£7.04 nrilHon) 
Earnings per share 8.30p 
(17. Ip). 


(LONGPORT): Dividend for 
1985 2.5p {3.5p) payable on 
May 21. Turnover £354 million 
(£4.0) million). Pretax profit 
£140.000 (£450,000). Earnings 
per share 3.95p (I3_32p) 

has signed an agreement with 
the company to establish a joint 
venture for compact disc-player 
imnirfactaring. The vemme will 
be called Compact Disc 
Industries. • 





ABN 12)4% 

Adam & Company „.11)4% 

8CC1 11)4% 

Citibank Savirast-., 12«% 

Consolidated ends 1256% 

Continental Trust 11 »% 

Co-operative Bank _1tt4% 

C. Hoare & Co uv4% 

U-pyds Bank 

Wat Westminster 11)4% 

Royal Bank of Scotland ll»% 

TSB 1 lu% 

Cffibank NA 11»% 

t Mortgage Bare Rate. 

u* wunnuae an inc aamtsac r. . . — 

microcomputer market. . ; foe defendant. 

£ BELL: Final dividend of 4p, said that when the plaintiff and 
fhn»oKi i pi ^iq ii g p y»f the defendant fiisa met in 1967 

(2.6p) on increased capital, eadfr was married to another. 
Turnover for 1985 £58.01 mil- The defendant was then bring 

lion (£52.14 million). Pretax in Finrtnny Park but foat year 
profit £3.15 milli on, compared bis wife left him t al ci n g their 
with last year’s forecast of not children with bet 

less than £3 million (£236 
.milUoD for 1984). 

• ROTORK: Total dividend I by her husband, moved to 
5.4p (4Jp). Turnover for 1985 1 Dalston where she lived with 

I miitioQ (£29.84 million). I her two young sons far two 

Pretax profit £5.45 million 
(£4.33 million). Earnings per 

share 13.4p(12.4p). . I the defendant and conceived a 

• VG INSTRUMENTS; Total I child by him On July 2, 1969 
dividend for 1985 2.5p — a 39 1 ghe give birth to a son. 
Turnover I 

per cent increase. Turnover The judge found that ri- 
£66.08 million (£50.89 million), though the previous relation- 
Pretax profit £1431 minion ship betwe e n the parties h yfl 
(£10.61 million). Orders re- been a ra wal one, with their 
cerved in 1985 were 22.5 per son's birth it ehsng^j They 
cent up at £79.6 million and, AvnAvi to live together on a 
with orders in hand at a record more permanent basis. 

£54 million, a significant expan- The y* also took into 

aon in turnover is expected this account' evidence by the defen- 
y ear - - • dant ih« he was thinking of 

• SOUTHBROOK INTER- buying a house to settle down 
NATIONAL TELEVISION: and have a family in and that it 
The company has acquired ai- was the plaintiff whom the 
most all the assets of the US film defendant had in mmd. 
syndication division of 'The house which was die 
Primetime Enter tainment for subject at the action was pur- 
about SI 03 uriUioo (£7 mil ehtnted in the name of the 
lion). This consists of four defendant and his brother, Ar- 
packagcs iff films, a total of 53 thnr, who became the joint 
titles, the related licence agree- registered proprietors and legal 
meats and about $7.2 million in owners of d. 

accounts receiv able a nd cash. The judge found that the 

• SWIRE PACIFIC Results rfwfrwda n i t InM thfr plaintiff that 
for 1985. Total dividend on A her "* nu> was not going on the 
shares 141 cents ()26 cents) and title N**""** it would cat's" 
on B 283 cents (253 cents). Net prejudice in the matrimonial 
profit HK $139 billion (£111 proceedings between the plain- 
million), against HK $954,4 tiff and her husband. 

million. Turnover HK $13.7 
biDion (HK $12 bOfionX 

nut ▼ Edwards defendant bad no real intention 

fore Sir Nicolas Browne- of replacing bis brother with the 
i Hanson, Vice-Chancellor, plaintiff as joint owner when 
ird Justice Mustill and Lord those proceedings were ended, 
slice Nourse Those two findings were of great 

idgmcnt given March 241 importance. 

An excuse made to a plaintiff The judge found that there 
cohabitee as to why. her name was no agreement “as such** 
was not being included on the between the plaintiff and defen- 
title deeds of the house was dant to pool their resources and 
Eficient evidence to establish a he said that the case stood or fell 
tnmon intention that she on whether the plaintiff was able 
3uld have a beneficial interest to show that foe had contrib- 
the house. uted to the purchase price or the 

Die Court of Appeal so held, mortgage payments, 
owing an appeal by the plajii~ The- purchase price of the 
l i Jnrfg lone Grant, from a house was £5,490 of which 
asion of Judge Paul Baker, £4,065 was raised on a first 
Z. sitting as a High Court mortgage in favour of the 
[ge on February 22. 1985 Guardian Building Society and 
lereby he gave judgment for and £468 on a second mortgage 
i defendant George Edwards 111 mvour of Merton Abbey 
1 dismissed the plaintiffs Finance Co Ltd. 
im for a beneficial interest in accepted that the 

Hewitt Road, Hornsey, Lon- plaintiff did pay some of the 
o. mortgage instalments as part of 

Mr LAJL St vnte for the 

mtxfijMrDavid Schmilz for S£ 

defendant. plaintiff a beneficial interest in 

jORD JUSTICE NOURSE the property. 
i ttet when the plaintiff amd In a case such as the present 
drferv i i nt firs t on in 1967 where foere was 1 no written 
fa was married to another, declaration or ap r r i gm ft ,ir 1 nor 
rhe defendant was then living any direct pitmsion by the 
Fiadm ry P ark but foat ynr pluntiff of part of the purchase 
. wife left him t ak i n g their price so as to give raw to a 
Wren with bee. resulting trust in her favour, she 

a April 1967 (be pfowiriff had to establish a common 
mi f f ffffl tly hewi intention between her and the 

her husband, moved to defe n d an t, acted upon by her, 
Ision where she lived with th at she foouid have a bendScial 
two young sons for two interest inthe property, 
is. Dming that period she If she could do that, equity 
ned a dose relationship with would not allow the defendant 
defendant and conceived a to deny that interest and would 
id by him. On July 2, 1969 construct a trust to give effect to 
gave birth to a son. it 

"be judge found that ri- The fundamental and ihvari- 
qgb the previous relation- abjy most difficult question was 
) between the parties bad to decide whether a common 
□ a casual one, with their intention could be inferred from 
*s birth it changed. They the conduct of the parties and in 
ided to live together on a that regard the court had to look 
re permanent basis. for expenditure which was refer- 

, he judge also took into able to the acquisition of the 
Mint evidence by the defen- house. 

it that he was thinking of There was another and rarer 
ing a house to settle down class of case where, although 
[ have a family in and that it there had been no writing, the 
the plaintiff whom the parties had orally declared 
sndant had in mmd. themselves in such a way as to 

he house which was the make their common intention 
jecl of the action was pur- plain, 
ted in the name of the There the court did not have 
mdant and his brother, Ap- to look at conduct from which 
r, who became the joint intention could be inferred, but 
stered proprietors and legal only for conduct which 
leraofiL amounted lo an acting upon it 

he judge found foat foe by the claimant, 
aidant told the pjatntiif that Although that conduct could 
name was Dot going on the undoubtedly be the incurring of 
: because it would cause expenditure whkh was referable 
ocfice in the matrimonial to foe acquisition of the bouse, h 
xedings between the plain- need not necessarily be so. 
md her husband. It was dear that foere was a 

he judge also found that foe common intention that the 

plaintiff was to have some sort need have nothing to do with 
of proprietary interest in the the contributions made to the 
bouse. cost of acquisition. It was only 

The more difficult question necessary to have recourse to 
was whether there was conduct inferences from other 
on ter part which amounted to circumstances, 
an acting upon that intention or. The representation made by 

conduct on which she could not the defendant to the plaintiff 
reasonably have been expected that the house would have been 
to embark unless she was to in joint n«ww< but for the 
have an interest in the house. plaintiffs matrimonial dispute 
The inevitable inference from was dear evidence of a common 
the facts was that ihc substantial intention that foe was to have 
contribution made by the plain- an interest in the bouse. Slid) 
tiff out of her earnings to the evidence was sufficient tv itse** 
housekeeping and the feeding to establish foe common 
and bringing up of the children intention, 
enablol The defendant to pay the The plaintiffhad also to prove 

instalments due on both mon- that foe had acted to her 
gages out of his own income and detriment in the reasonable 
he could not have done that if he belief foat by so acting she was 
had had to bear the whole of the acquiring a beneficial interest -aii rij i i xk.1" 

other expenses as wdL 
The making of substantial 

and there had to be some “fink" 
between foe common intention 

The making or substantial between the common intention 
indirect contributions to the and the acts relied on as a 
mortgage instal men ts was suf- detriment, 
fident to constitute conduct me plaintiffs contributions 
upon which she could not to foe household expenses were 
reasonably have been expected essentially i«nh*< to the pay 

In April 1967 (be plaintiff 
toving recently been abandoned 

years. Dining that period she 
farmed a dose relationship with 
die defendant and conceived a 

have a beneficial interest in the 
bouse. .. 

said that there tod been a 
tendency over the years to 
distort foe principles laid down 
by Lord Diplock 'in Gissing v 
Gissing ([1971] AC 886) by 
concentrating only on part of his 

Lord Diplock's speech could 
be treated as felling into three 
sections, the first dealing -with 
the nature of foe substantive 

to embark unless she was to mem of ^ mortgage instat- 
have a beneficial interest in foe ments by the defendant, 
bouse. .. Without the plaintiffs contribo- 

THE VICE CHANCELLOR lions the defendant's means 

were insufficient to keep up the 

Where the claimant bad made 
payments whkh, whether di- 
rectly or indirectly, tod been 
used to discharge the mortgage 
instalments, that was a suf- 
ficient link between the detri- 
ment suffered and foe common 

In many cases of the present 

t, foe second with the proof sort it was impossible to say 

ve birth to a son. 
i judge found dm ri- 

The judge also found that the 

of the existence of that right and whether or n 
the third with the quantification would have dc 
of the right. on as a detrii 

Once it tod been established thought she k 
that the parties tod a common the bouse, 
intention that both should have Setting up 
a beneficial interest and that the having a bat 
claiman t had acted to his detri- meats to gene 
menu the question still re- expenses (not 
maioed as to what the extent of to enable the 
the beneficial interest should be paid) might ai 
and there the direct and indirect the mutual lov 
contributions made by the par- the parties am 
ties to the cost of acquisition referable to e 
could be crucial. interest in the 

Contributions made by the Once it had 
claimant could be relevant for there was a cc 
four different purposes: that the claim 

First, in the absence of direct an interest in t 
evidence of intention, as ev- done by her i 
iHmi» from which the parties* relating to the 
intentions could be inferred. parties was sul 
Second, as corroboration of . 

direct evidence of intention. . Taking the 

Third, to show that foe claim- “ ““J 
ant tod acted to his detriment entitled to a hi 
Fourth, to quantify the extent no “* J , . 

of the beneficial interest. Lord Justice 

The first question was always a concurring jt 
whether there was sufficient Solicitors: 

direct evidence of a common omon; Singh 
intention. Such direct evidence SonthalL 

whether or not the claimant 
would have done foe acts idled 
on as a detriment even if she 
thought she bad no interest in 
the noose. 

Setting up house together, 
having a baby, malting . pay- 
ments to general housekeeping 
expenses (not strictly necessary 
to enable foe mortgage to be 
paid) might all be referable to 
the mutual love and affection of 
the parties and not specifically 
referable to expectation of an 
interest in foe bouse. 

Once it had been shown that 
there was a common intention 
that the claimant should have 
an interest in the house, any act 
done by her to her detriment 
relating to the joint lives of the 
parties was sufficient detriment 

Taking foe feds of the case 
into account the plaintiff was 
entitled to a half interest in the 

Lord Justice Mustill delivered 
a concurring judgment. 

Solicitors: Livingston Sol- 
omon; Singh Karran & Co, 

Shadowy defence for guarantors 

• . i , i ' ■ • l y' * ■ , * i • . 

• < . TUnMfrrrtiim w nr tvpaWfahrd to V.M-flolh*ctpfcl A Sont tomlifd^nd J.HrmvSctwoWr *mrt Gc.UnriH^onbrtidrof Hmmm TnamxrrtfD Uw au u of WMmffTVntt PUC at rilif peraon 
: * 'i t i p o m fr it fc r ' rtu toforaaflen co mmutri to MmuiiiUkraaU rovxmMc t*rrta<^nurr ibriiAirnaooanxitMiKdi 

. . .._tiw44frmis7iMitaMn«fauicr'^ilirbcifcllirOtivam.WHuiioanMfU,acBC|itMpaniMilyMcoidii«b. - .. — -. 

At last some help for the hard pressed Imperial shareholder. 

Mindful that share prices can vary daily, we are publishing a bulletin 
showing the value of each of the dffersforyour company. 

In order to be perfectly fair, the values we’ve quoted are based on the 
best possible offers. 


Midland Bank pic ▼ PhOfips 
and Others 

Before Lord Justice Slade and 
Lord Justice Ralph Gibson 
[Judgment given March 14] 

On a summons issued by a 
tank under Order 14 of the 
Rules of the Supreme Coiut m 
e nfo rcement of a guarantee, the 
guarantors* evidence that m the 
time the guarantee was given 
tfiey fold misunderstood the 
bank's retentions as to enforcing 
foe guarantee was capable of 
giving rise l&a defence, albeit a 
shadowy one, even though they 
knew what vns meapt by signing 
the guarantee, and not- 
withstanding abseiKe of feult an 
tbepart of foe bank. 

The Cburt of Appeal dis- 
missed an appeal by foe Mid- 
land Bank pic from a decision of 
Mr Justice Nolan who on May 
13, . 1985 allowed an appeal 
against an order dated ^ ^ February 
20, 1985 of Master Warren and 
gaoled the defendants Graham 
Phillips, Phyllis Eugenia Phil- 
lips, Samson Bdfingtam and 
P&uline Dorothy Beffingham, 
leave to defend conditionally 
upon payment into court of 
£15.000 within 30 days. 

The defendants entered into 
separate written guarantee 
agreements whereby m consid- 
eration of the bank or 

continuing advances or other- 
wise giving credit and banking 
fedlmes to Grasam Engineering 
Ltd, the defendants jointly and 
severally guaranteed the pay- 
ment to foe bank of moneys 
owing from the company to the 
extent' of £25,000. 

Mr John Tonoa for the tank; 
Mr Clive Hugh Jones for the 

GIBSON said foal the first and 
third defendants were directors 
and the only shareholders of foe 

company which started trading 
in 1969. The company banked 
with and were granted overdraft 

facilities by the Great Bridge 
branch of foe bank. 

In 1981 a series of letters was 
written by foe bank manager to 
the directors expressing the 
bank's concern at the level of 
guarantee support lor the 

. The bank required guarantees 
at a level acceptable to foe bank 
and evidence :of the future 
viability of foe company, and 
said that inability to comply 
would lead to a reduction of the 
£90,000 overdraft facilities. 

The directors were told that 
the tank would be satisfied if 
their wives,- the second and 
fourth defendants, joined in the 
guarantees on foe security of foe 
family houses. 

On September 11, 1981 the 
wives signed the guarantee 
forms. Before the signing there 
was a long meeting at which the 
precarious financial position of 
the company was di s cu s sed and 
the defendants were told that 

they should be fully aware of the 
extent of the risk taken. 

The history of the relation- 
ship after foat was short. The 
company’s trading figures 
showed large losses. The bank 
stressed that it would not 
countenance an overdraft in 
excess of £90,000. 

By the end of 1981 £121,000 
was required for the company’s 
continued viability, and foe 
bank’s regional head office re- 
fused to continue support. 

The directors were informed 
and in February 1982 a receiver 
was appointed. The bank made 
claims under the guarantees but 
nothing was paid. 

The oasis of foe defence was 
that the defendants' relationship 
with foe bank mawagw was such 

that they grew to like and trust 
him and rely on his advice; that 
he tod never suggested that the 
company might tail, and indeed 
conveyed the impression that it 
would not do so and that it was 
with that in mind that the 
defendants tod agreed to exe- 
cute the guarantees. - 

They further said that the 
manager had tendered no advice 
as to whether or not they should 
sign the agreement and whether 
foe company tod a long term 

Mr " Justice “Nolan tod said 
that no one could have expected 
indefinite support from the 
bank but said that be could not 
exclude foe possibility of some 
misunderstanding without fault 
on the bank manager’s part, 
bearing in mind that the interval 
between foe guarantee and 
putting in a receiver was rel- 
atively short, and that during 
the interval the defendants were 
persuaded by the bank to charge 
their bouses. He said therefore 
that foere could be a shadowy 

The bank contended that foe 
defendants had failed to prove a 
prime facie case of manifest 
disadvantage within the mean- 
ing of National Westminster 
Bank pic v Morgan ([1985] 2 
WLR 588), that they had asked 
for and got continued support 
from foe bank and that was 
valuable to them. 

The defendants contended 
that they suffered a manifest 
and unfair disadvantage in that 
foe wives* homes which were 
beyond the reach of commercial 
creditors were put at risk to 
obtain continuing support and 
that there was no warning that 
the bank might in the near 
future withdraw support if foe 
company did not come up to a 
certain standard of profitability 

irrespective of long term pros- 

They said there fo re foat they 
had entered into a hard and 
inequitable agreement and had 
pm their homes at risk for an 
illusory advantage. 

The bank’s case seemed very 
strong, but the evidence before 
foe court did not justify sum- 
maty judgment because it was 
not' possible to say that a trial 
court would not say foal the 
bank had taken nnfair 

A question also arose as to the 
date at which the nature of foe 
disadvantage should be looked 
aL The bank contended foat it 
was foe date of the transaction 
and the defendants conte nd ed 
that it was the date of foe result 

They were both wrong. The 
court must look at foe terms of 
foe transaction and at what 
happened or might have hap- 
pened. It was a mixed question 
offset and law and a question of 

Order 14 proceedings could 
be a good friend to litigants but 
could also be a terrible dis- 
appointment. There were too 
many very good cases which 
failed, if only just, under that 
procedure, where it would, have 
been better to go to trial and get 
a decision on foe merits. 

agreeing, said that it was a 
borderline case. The defendants* 
case was shadowy, but they bad 
established an arguable defence. 

The defendants on executing 
the guarantees had assumed new 
contingent liabilities for future 
financial commitment. The 
bank had assumed no new 
obligations at alL 

Solicitors; Meredith Robin- 
son & CD; Wilde & Partners for 
Gordon W. Quance, West 

Rates benefit for linked building Direction to 




Debenbams pic v Westminster 
City Council 

Before Lord Justice Fox, Lord 
Justice Neill and Lord Justice 
Ralph Gibson 
[Judgment given March 25] 

A building which was fixed to 
a “listed building”, as defined 
by section 54(9) of the Town 
and Country Planning Act 1971, 
was, under paragraph 2(c) of 
l Schedule 1 to the General Rate 
Act 1967, exempted from rates 
while unoccupied. 

The Court of Appeal, in a 
reserved judgment, dismissed 
an appeal by Westminster City 
Council from the reversal by Mr 
Justice Hodgson of a decision by 
the Metropolitan Stipendiary 
Magistrate (Mr John Quentin 
Campbell} foat the “fixed” 
huilrting - owned by pebentams 
pie, was not included in a list of 
buildings of special architectural 
or historic interest. 

Mr Graham Eyre, QC and Mr 
Richard Hone for the council;. 
Mr Matthew Horton for 

the council had appealed to the 
judge by way of case slated from 

an order of the m a gis t r ate 
whereby the magistrate directed 
that a distress warrant should be 
issued in the sum of £68.696 
relating to a period from Feb- 
ruary 1, 1982 to March 31, 1983 
during which a hereditament 
owned by Debenhams was 

The hereditament consisted 
of three premises: 200/202 Re- 
gent Street, 50/52 Kingly Street 
and 27/28 Kingly Street. Kingly 
Street was more or less parallel 
whh Regent Street. 

Numbers 50/52, which were 
on foe west side of Kingly Street, 
formed the lack of 200/202 
Regent Street. Numbers 27/28 
on tbe east side of Kingly Street 
were connected to 50/52 by a 
footbridge and a tunnel. 

Paragraph 2 of Schedule 1 (as 
amended by Schedule 23 to the 
Town and . Country Planning 
Act 1971) provided.* “No rates 

shall be payable in respect of 

a hereditament for ... any 
period during which-. . .(c) foe 

hereditament is included in 

a list compiled or approved 
under section 54 . . .**. 

Numbers 200/202 were at all 

material times included in the 
list compiled by the Secretary of 
State for foe Environment. 

The council claimed rates in 
respect of The en tire premises for 
foe period in question. They 
contended that the heredita- 
ment consisting of the premises 
was not included in the list; only 
part of it was. 

On that basis they said that 
the case did not come within 
paragraph 2(c), relying on Prop- 

had not been referred to in that 
case. That provided that for the 
purposes of tbe provisions relat- 
ing to listed buildings “any 
object or structure fixed to a 

building shall be treated as 

part of the baflding”. 

Numbers 27/28 constituted a 
“structure” which was “fixed" 
to the remainder of the heredita- 
ment. Accordingly, the whole of 
the hereditament was within the 
exemption in paragraph 2(c). 

Lord Justice Neill and Lord 
Justice Ralph Gibson agreed. 

Solicitors: Mr T. F. Neville; 
Forsyte Kerman. 

Figures based on lhe marketplace* ai 3.30pm nn Thursday. 

Drug smuggling is extraditable 

} H \ IV S O IV T R U S T 1 Inreawtipanang 

COM i~N l’ I N G CR OWT H F _ R O M BaTi C B L S I M E S S E 8 . 

^ .j o : ^w^,-.,^ii.iiWB«guiB‘«iflimdwfldc«DtrirTfcgcrtiwbhwpriff^Ti»e8bowonicr*atiittwfwH^ Act J979, which created the 

nfceatcouagrWitastato How* Gww LW-of «*«■»»«»« ibeiriwMionfaaij Oun mto. of the io%com»n.Meiwn aodiot oflfcnoe of lhe fraudulent eva- 
• MyiilunimMfUilf 1 nrpfMTMf vhAmnfl (fated Hisrulllk. _*■ 

HapsoHatMtihecommlMf prefin red share* of United HlsrulisL 

. .. 

■-VJT- . ' • 

•- ■iVT.*;- . - 

aon of any prohibition in 
respect of goods, created an 
offence which was extraditable 
where the prohibited goods were 
contiolled drugs prohibited by 
section 3 of the Misuse ofDrags 
Act 1971. 

The- prohibition created by 

section 3 or the 1971 Act was 
expressly built into section 170 
of the 1979 Act because the 
penalties imposed were greatly 
increased by subsections (3) ana 
(4) of section 170; thus, the 
offence would be one in respect 
of “any enactment for foe time 
being in force relating to dan- 
gerous drugs'* and so included in 
the tot of crimes in ' Schedule 1 
Of the Extradition Act 1870 
[section 33 of foe Misuse of 
Drags Act 1971]. 

The Queen's Bench Di- 
visional Court (Lord Justice 
Croom-Johnson and Mr Justice 
Mann) so held on March 25 
when it dismissed tbe applica- 
tion for a writ of habeas corpus 
of Ttana Cbotipanang directed 
to the governor of Pratonvilte 
Prison and against the order of 
foe Bow Street Metropolitan 
Stipendiary Magistrate, dated 
December II, 1985, committing 
the applicant to prison pending 
his removal to Sweden. 

jury on 
issue of intent 

Regina v Purcell 

The direction to be given to a 
jury on the issue of intent was 
clarified by the Court of Appeal 
(Lord Lane, Lond Chief Justice. 
Mr Justice Boretam and Mr 
Justice Taylor) on March 11 
when granting an application 
out of time but refusing an 
application for leave to appeal 
against conviction following a 
plea of guilty on in Lewes Crown 
Court (Mr Justice Pain and a 
jury) to causing grievous bodily 
harm with intent. 

The application was made on 
the ground that (he plea was 
based on a passage in Archbold 
Criminal Pleading Evidence <$ 
Practice. 40th edition (1979), 
para 1441a, p948, which was 
disapproved in R v Moloney 
([1985] 1 AC 905, 925). 

said that tbe sort of direction 
which the trial judge would 
gi ven if be had tod the opportu- 
nity, which he tod not, of seeing 
what Lord Bridge tod said in 
Moloney and what Lord 
Scarman suggested in R r Han- 
cock and Shankland < The Times 
March 3; [1986] 2 WLR 357) 
would have been: 

“You must fee! sure that the 
defendant intended to cause 
serious bodily harm to the 
victim. You can only decide 
what his intention was by 
considering all foe relevant 
circumstances and in particular 
what be did and whai be said 
about it-" 

a If such a direction had been ' 
given, the jury would have 
arrived at the same result which 
in foe event followed. 

. .VI -Jl 

•>. ••••:- v- • /-^ v 

* * • * * . . 

March 28,1986 






in fuel should enable airlines to 

move into profit. But essential 

capital spending and pressure 

to reduce fares threatens this 

As airpons' cong &noc 
creases, and fears of icrrarism 
at airports or on airifre /ffigte . 
grow, more, businesses are 
looking at the possibility of 
flying their employees da tbear 
own aircraft . <k on airecaft 
operated for tfcem-A further 
way of bypassing the airlines 
is to hire air taxis. 


nts hsted by /brftwe oaga- 
a oe operate ctotir, «•» atitaft 

of various type* 

The sppimiHated. twm-en- 

?£ ) 

Sixty aviation companies 
offer air-taxi services ip Brit- 
ain, all numbers of the Air 
Transport . Operators 

Corporate aircraft are ga- 
ting bigger, with longer range, . 
and a number of ec-airfineis 
are bring converted for tins - 

slant? rapidly asan executive 
aircraft, with usability to toad 
safely at or rery near sites to 
be "mfced by the peripatetic 
businessman. - 
-Costing the avoidance of 
airline schedules through ihe 
ore of a company’s own plane 
to not easy, involving as it 

amsts valuation of executive 
time. C harte ri ng on right seat 
Citation jet from London fa 
Frankfurt . and -bade costs 

tt* » 4.-» iwwr. n 

The world airline industry has 
moved out of the economic 
turbulence through which it 
flew in the early years of this 
decade, and which produced 

five straight years of losses 
totalling $6.2 billion (about 

£4.1 billion). 

But. it is for from being back 
to the rosy days of the early 
1970s, when traffic rose con- 
sistently by 10 per cent every 
year and everybody made 
enough money to finance the 
purchase of fleets of new 

According to estimates by 
the International Air Trans- 
port Association, the industry 
will do little better than break 
even this year (after having 
recorded an after-interest 
profit of $500 million on 
international scheduled ser- 
vices in 1985). 

It could even return to the 

red. although the continuing 
decline of oil prices should 
revise these estimates in the 
airlines* favour. 

In the meantime, traffic is 
increasing at a reasonable rate, 
although the large majority of 
it is at the cheap end of the 
market from which the air- 
lines make only marginal 
profits and in some cases even 
Jose money. 

The industry continues to 
-sharpen its productivity, hold 
its costs in check and intro- 
duce the absolute minimum of 
new capacity to cope with 
rising traffic. 

But there are signs that the 

tacit agreement between air- 
lines in the last-mentioned 
area is breaking down, partic- 
ularly on the routes across the 
North Atlantic. European air- 
lines complain that United 
States carriers are starting to 
flood the market with seats. 

It is these fears that have led 
the British government to 
postpone yet again the date for 
the privatization of British 
Airways, to the chagrin of 
Lord King, chairman of the 

Lord King has successfully 
prepared BA for flotation by 
turning it around from a near- 
bankrupt state to one in which 
it is highly-profitable. 

Prime Minister Margaret 
Thatcher has assured Lord 
King that the Government is 
determined to press ahead 
with privatization within the 
lifetime of the present admin- 
istration. but no new timeta- 
ble has been set 

Ideas for a management 
buy-out of the airline, floated 
by its advisers, have been 

Government hesitation 

royal family has its own 
Boeing 747 jumbo and the 
Boeing company says that 
about ICO of its mrimeis of 
various types are in use as 
business jets, around the 
world. ■ 

between v 

Tire British BAC 1-1 1 airlin- 
er is taking on a new lease of 
life as a corporate aircraft re-, 
engined with the new Rolls- 
Royce Tay powerpfant. The 
Tay is also the engine chosen 
for the new American 
Gulfstream XV business 

Manchester and 
back £5,900. 

But ad vantages are that ihe 
aircraft can leave ai what time, 
mod from which airport, tire 
diartenax want, and cm com- 
plete in ora day schedules thai 
corid take two by the airlines. 
This raves expensive over- 

over privatization hinges on 
the difficulty of writing a 

prospectus against the back- 
ground of uncertainties con- 
tained in the renegotiation of 
the Bermuda 2 air services 
agreement between Britain 
and the US. 

Annexe 2 of this agreement 
controls the volume of traffic 
which both sides can mount, 
and if not renewed before 

its expiry in 
July, American 
airlines could be 
expected to dump 
thousands of additional 
seats in an overcrowded 
North Atlantic market- It is 
feared that this may under- 
mine the financial position of 
British Airways and British 

The Government in Lon- 
don is also keen to have a 
revision, within the Bermuda 
2 protocol, of the situation in 
which British airlines flying 
into the US are subject to 
American anti-trust laws. 

A lean and dynamic priva- 
tized British Airways would be 
a powerful force with in the 
“world airline industry. BA is 

At the same time, the 
smaller executive aircraft re- 
mains popular. British Aero- 
space has now sold oyer 60&af 
its 125 seven-sealer jet^a large 
proportion of them 10 compa- 
nies in the United States,, 
where some 70 per cent of the 

Drawbacks are that all the 
seats have' to be pokt-fen, 
whether they axe occupied or 
not In Britain it is becoming 
iscrcasiighr difficult to obtain 
take-off tunes : at tire peak 
items at Heathrow and 
Gfitwick air ports. . . 

Long-term pressure by vari- 
ous aviation bodies to obtain a 
tnreexecutiveavMtioa airport 
to serve tire entire London 
area has. so : fir proved 



other top airlines 
which have moved into the 
private sector and companies 
which have been sharpened by 

Deregulation in the US has 
altered the entire face of the 
airline sector, producing a 
wave of massive takeovers 
and new groupings and a 
succession of filings under the 
bankruptcy laws. 

Some which have declared 

0*^ to be 
under chapter II have 
been able to reappear, paying 
lower wages to non-unionized 
labour. Pilots on newer opera- 
tors help load baggage, while 
cabin staff check in passengers 
before the flight 
The traditional pattern of 
the industry is changing, with 
experienced staff leaving un- 
der redundancy schemes. 

This in turn is raising fears 
that the engineering standards 

of the industry may 
W^T befalling, particularly 
^ so after 1985, recorded 
r as the industry’s worst 
ever year for safety. Sir 
John Dent, chairman of the 
Civil Aviation Authority, 
says: “We watch carefully the 
introduction of management 
into the industry with little or 
no airline experience, and 
monitor the financial pres- 
sures on airline companies. 

“There is the risk that loyal, 
but misguided staff of airlines 
in financial difficulties may 
cut corners on safety. This is 
intensifying an important di- 
mension of safety regulation.” 

•a*** 5 ** 

Arthur Reed 

GuHs&esm IH Corporate -Jet Gtdb&titeV latest uses 
Rolls-Royce Tay engines 



At the centre of Britain, and at the meeting point 
of over 135 national, international and intercontinental 



Manchester M22 5 PA. Tel: 061-489 3000. Telex: 665457. Prestel: ‘20240#. 


the airline BUSINESS/2 

Shaping op to the fame: Model of HOTOL, British Aerospace's proposal for a cheaper alternative to the space shuttle; and Concorde, a technological triumph But will soon be ont of date 

Cargo moves into 
executive class 

The character or the air-freight 
industry has undergone a major 
change over the past few years, 
brought about by several diverse 

For many years air-cargo rates 
.had been set by lata, as had 
-passenger fares, but the entry into 
the work! market of several non* 
lata airlines, operating on low 
"budgets, heralded a virtual free- 
for-all in the struggle to maintain 
market share. 

A new professionalism is evi- 
dent in the air-cargo industry. 
Geoff Bridges, cargo manager of 
-British Airways, said: “Air cargo 
has moved out of the boiler-suit 
rimage into the pin-stripe suit.** 

It reflects the attitude of the 
ynajor airlines like BA, who are 
'spending £7 million on upgrading 
their cargo-handling facilities at 
Heathrow, close to the new termi- 
nal 4. 

; .British Caledonian is also look- 
ing at a similar system for its 
Gatwick cargo base to handle this 
year's expected £90 million worth 
pf air-freight. More than half of 
this is destined to travel on the 
North Atlantic route, the busiest 
stretch of sky in the world. 

The over-capacity on the North 
Atlantic, particularly to the East- 
ern Seaboard, has not deterred the 
^one-route” operators. Laker, al- 
though heavily involved in holi- 
day charter-traffic, concentrated 
nis scheduled service to the States. 
I Richard Branson's Virgin At- 
lantic is different It sees freight as 
h definite part of the airline's 
Operation. Selling at a price lower 
than the published rates of the lata 
carriers, Virgin is aiming at the 
smaller consignments, up to about 
100 kilos. 

- The introduction of the wide- 
bodied jet with its huge belly-hold 
capacity has revoluhonalized the 

Smoother service at hi-tech 

air cargo market Freighter aircraft 
are becoming an endangered spe- 
cies, though there are still the 
specialists around like Cargolux, 
operating two 747F freighters 
which regularly fly 100 tonnes of 
freight out of Luxembourg. 

Cargolux survives because it 
specializes in particular routes on 
a scheduled basis. 

These changes, and the shorter 
life-cycle of many Mods together 
with the high cost of keeping large 
stocks, has led to the “just-in- 
time” inventory control method. 
Air-freight, with its rapid transit 
times across the globe, benefits 

Another major influence has 
been the advent of the express 
pared and courier companies, 
such as DHL, Skypak and Emery. 
Emery, in feet, started the 
“express” concept in the States 
more than IS years ago. It 
estimates the worldwide air 
courier/air cargo markets at 
around $19 billion, with SS per 
cent of that being traditional air- 
cargo movements. 

Electronic mail and facsimile 
transmissions are reducing the 
number of documents travelling 
the world, but the small ptfimp 
market is growing fesL 

Today it is speed on the ground • 
that separates the men from the 
boys. Express Customs clearance 
for air-freight consignments is 
essential, as is the door-to-door 
service. It is, perhaps, fee freight j 
forwarders who wifi suffer. 

Those feat have seen fee writing ! 
on the wall are cashing in now. 
Others will follow, but the air- 
cargo industry looks set for a 
comfortable cruise well into fee 
next century. 

Peter D. Smith 

Terminal four at Heathrow air- 
port. London, built by the British 
Airports Authority at a cost of 
£200 million to handle a total of 
eight million passengers a year, is 
due to open early in ApnL The 
construction is symptomatic of a 
trend in airport development 
which may be seen throughout fee 

That is. to squeeze fee last 
square yard of space, and the last 
ounce of productivity out of 
existing airports, rather than build 
new ones on “green-field” sites, 
fee trend during the 1960s and 

Rising costs of construction, 
dwindling suitable sites, and a 
swelling world-wide environmen- 
tal movement has forced the 
former option on fee airport 
operators and fee airlines which 
use them. This has resulted in a 
quickening of fee pace of develop- 
ment of airport automation so 
space in both the air and on the 

ground can be used more 

Many existing airport terminals 
were built in an aviation era! 
before feat of the wide-bodied 
airliners, when a plane-load of 1 80 
passengers was considered large. 
These are now having to undergo 
considerable and expensive 

When British Airways moves its 
long-distance services to terminal 
four next month, terminal three is 
to be virtually gutted and recon- 
structed. Plans are also advanced 
for John F. Kennedy, New York, 
to have billions of dollars spent on 

Airliners such as the Boeing 747 
and the McDonnell Douglas DC-' 
•10 which are now entering 
airlines’ inventories wife longer 
ranges, may result in some air- 
ports facing from the prominence 
which they have enjoyed. Rather 
than fly fee polar route, stopping 
for refuelling at Anchorage, an 

Radar control: A Pkssey a k traffic control system 
installed at Vienna airport for less congestion 

increasing number of arriroes, 
Finnair, Air France, Japan Air . 
Lines, now fly non-stop between 
Europe and Tokyo. This cuts six 
hours off fee journey. British 
Caledonian plans to follow suit in 
1987, and many others are eyeing 
fee route across Siberia. 

If this trend continues, will 
Anchorage, developed at a cost of 
millions of dollars become a ghost 
airport, rather as happened to 
Shannon, Ireland, and Gander, 
Newfoundland, when airliner 
range took another quantum 

From fee passengers point of 
view, fee trend is encouraging. 
Not only does it get him or her to 
their destination more qiriddy and 
less-tirinply, but the less chance 
there is for flights to be interfered 
with by terrorists. - . 

Terrorism and the threat of 
terrorism continues to place an 
increasing burden on airlines and 
airport operators in staff and 
equipment costs. It also reduces 
fee extent to which airport 
premises can be used. Once again, 
fee crisis is producing appropriate 

At both Gatwick and Stansted, 
now given the green, light by 
Government to be developed as 
the feint airport for London, no 
new runways are to be builLThis is 
largely in deference to public 
opinion and fee aviation industry 
is having to learn how to pour a 
quart of airliners into a pint pot of 

Fortunately, fee micro-chip ar- 
rived just at me right time to assist 
in a solution. It is to be found in 
fee on-board computers which fly 
fee airliners with unerring accura- 
cy down the glides lopes and on to 
fee runways, and in fee radar 
centres which monitor and in- 
stinct fee pilots and their high- 
technology aids. 

As anybody who has been 
aboard a flight leaving Heathrow 
at I lam will have noticed, there is 

nataiiy g traffic jam at peak times, 
■ with precious aviation fuel being 
.burned on fee ground as up to a 
dozen airliners jockey for places in 
fee take-off queue. 

Peak “slots” at most major 
airports around the world are now 
fully booked from one year to the 
next. Operators are pushed to take 
up take-off and landing times at 
unfashionable hours when their 
customers do not want to fly. And 
as many airports have noise 
curfews, wife a ten on tafce-ofls 
between late evening and dawn, 
fee total of slots is not infinite. 

When they run out of space at 
Heathrow mid Gatwick, fee air- 
lines will be forced to move some 
of their services to Stansted. 
SchipoL Amsterdam, with plenty 
of spare room, continues to air its 
aspiration to be “London's third 

Many will boy 
duty-free goods 

Congestion on fee runways and 
taxi ways is not fee only limiting 
factor at airports. Overloading of 
the terminal buildings wife pas- 
sengers and their luggage, and of 
the infrastructure around them — 
fee roads and rail links which 
connect them to the communities 
they serve — can be equally 

Consideration is being given by 
airport planners to fee wisdom of 
the traditional practice of calling 
passengers to airports hours before 
their flights and then have them 
sitting around the terminal budd- 
ings awaiting fee departure call. 

During that time, most of them 
will spend money on duty-free and 
tax-free goods. The British Air- 
ports Authority makes half of its 
income from commercial sources 
— but would it not be better to use 
fee expensive airport buildings 

more efficiently, even if duty-free 
profits declined? Britain’s airports 
are to be privatized, and it will be 
interesting to see what line their 
highly-competitive new others 
adopt in this debate. 

Terminal four at Heathrow Is a 
brave experiment in speeding up 
numbers pasting through fee air- 
port. Incoming and outgoing 
streams of passengers are com- 
pletely segregated, while all of 
those leaving from fee terminal's 
18 departure points will mingle in 
one vast lounge, rather than being 
shepherded into a series of sepa- 
rate and smaller lounges. 

There are questions which can 
only be answered once the termi- 
nal is in fuD use. Will passengers 
on fee concourse, which is half a 
mile long, become so confused 
that some of them mil miss their 
flight? Will the fact that fee new 
terminal is on fee south side of the 
airport, while the three existing 
terminals are in fee central area, 
result in some passengers going to 
the wrong terminal? And will 
airliners taxi-ing from terminal 
four to the runways slow down fee 
finely-honed take-off and landing 

Lessons learned at terminal four 
could be applied eventually to 
Heathrow's ultimate terminal, 
number 5. British Airways wants 
to see it built between fee main 
runways at fee western end of fee 
airport on a Thames Water Au- 
thority sewage form. 

If the full economic potential of 
the main London airport, and the 
foremost, aviation crossroads in 
fee world is to be achieved, 
terminal five will probably hap- 
pen. But there is a vociferous 
environmental lobby to be over- 
come and a new home to be found 
for millions of tons of sludge, first 
This debate will continue for some 
years yet 


... mm y * 

This honor, being given for * 
the first time this year, goes tci 
Singapore Airlines in recogni-' 
tion of its reputation among f 
passengers for outstanding J 
cabin service. i 

''Upward, cites as an ■ ■ r : S, 




VWf passenger semce Awara 

irfi ; ■: S :• Ll-.ii'S 

staf award; 


Their superb service 
to Singapore helped 
them win it. 



The airlines that fly the Heathrow-Singapore route 
are renowned for their high standards of service. 

So, when we launched our service to Singapore 
last year; we knew we’d be competing with some 
of the best airlines in the world. 

Now, a year latei; we’re the proud winners of 
the AirThmsport World Passenger Service Award 
for 1985. 

What was it that put us ahead? 

According to Air Transport World it was our 
‘excellent in-flight service! - 

But more than that they found our staff to be, 
‘well trained, courteous and a credit to the airline! - 
To find out for yourself what sets our service ; 
apart, contact your travel agent or telephone 
Air Canada direct. 

AIR CANADA 14014-1 REGENT STREET: LONDON Wl. 01-759 2656 - MANCHESTER 061-236 91U 
Birmingham 021-643 98D7 -Glasgow 04 uil 






The crippling costs of flying on 

Making marginal profits, or no 
profit at all, the industry is in 
grave difficulty in financing the 
purchase of the airliners which it 
needs to replace its ageing fleets. 
The International Air Transport 
Association estimates that, de- 
pending on tire rate of traffic 
growth, airlines will need to invest 
between $150 billion and $200 
billion in aircraft, spare parts and 
other fixed assets over the next 10 

To meet the normal criteria of 
lenders and investors, the industry 
will have to earn an average 
operating profit, before interest, of 
10.5 per cent Past performance 
varies widely between airlines, but 
the overall industry level of 
profitability has fallen far short of 
this for many years. 

While a few airlines have been 
able to keep their fleets up to date, 
other fleets have become older and 
more expensive to maintain — 
inevitable cracks appear in the 
airframes and systems become 

Operators are also under in- 
creasing pressure to pension off 
their older fleets by the new series 
of noise regulations which are 
gradually being introduced — in 
the US last year and in Britain at 
the beginning of this year. They 
will be introduced progressively 
. But one small British all-cargo 
airline, unable to bear the cost of 
upgrading the engines of its air- 
craft, has already met its demise. If 
it could only afford to buy the new 
gaa era lion of airliners, which offer 
highly-attractive savings on direct 
operating costs. They are made of 
lighter materials and incorporate 
the latest aviation ■ electronics, 
enabling them to be flown more 
efficiently and accurately, with 
fewer flight crew. 

Manufacturers are offering 
twin-engine airliners, such as the 
Boeing 767 and the Airbus A3 10, 
which are able to fly long distances 
over water. Airbus is planning the 
A330, which could fly' non-stop 
between London and Los Angeles, 
carrying 350 passengers. 

But although a few airlines are 
already operating twin-engine air- 
craft over water while keeping 

within reasonable distance of land 
in case an engbe fails, the aviation 
authorities on both sides of the 
Atlantic are still not fully con- 
vinced of the safety of what is 
known in the industry as Etops 
(extended twin operations). 

\ Whether the US Federal Avia- 
tion Administration and Britain's 
Civil Aviation Authority eventu- 
ally give coraptetefreedom for this 
type of operation depends on the 
record that current fli ghts bnfl d up. 

While- technological advances 
hold considerable hope of lower 
costs, such reductions have' to be 
balanced against the prospects of 
numerous increases in outgoings. 

Airlines continue tor. find great 
difficulty m unlocking the funds 
which they have' earned in a 
number of foreign countries, par- 
ticularly in parts of Africa and the 
Middle East. Recent estimates put 

Terrorism costs 
aviation dear 



the amount of such blocked 
currencies at $850 million — this 
after the industry managed to 
Setback $450 million during 1985. 

Insurance premiums have risen 
steeply, to such an extent that the 
airlines are planning to bear a 
growing part of the risk among 
themselves. Airlines in the Third 
World complain bitterly that the 
premiums they are asked to pay 
are up to several hundred per cent ■ 
higher than those in developed' 
countries, even though their safety . " 
records are no worse and they 
operate wide-bodied jets. 

Airlines are plagued by landing 
and parking fees at airports, and 
for flying through other nations' 
airspace — the en route charges. 
And. procedures such as tortuous 
courses around defence zones and 
other prohibited areas cost them 
millions of dollars each year, 
particularly in Europe where such 
areas proliferate. The Internation- 
al Air Transport Association is 
engaged in talks with governments 
on tins subject, and Iras succeeded 
in having some tracks 

International civil aviation is 

also prey to political action of 
many kinds. Providing security 
against terrorist attacks is expen- 
sive, and the possibility of such 
attacks reduces the overall num- 
ber of people who are prepared to 


in the back of every airline 
president's mind is the worry of 
reel prices-The two massive fuel 
crises of the 1970s destroyed the 
industry's traditional economic 
framework, and set off a search for 
an. alternative fuel to kerosene, 
notably, hydrogen. Little is heard 
of such research today with the 
price of kerosene below one dollar 
a gallon. .Efforts to reduce fuel 
costs are now concentrated on 
finding more efficient ways of 
burning it - for example, the 
development of jet engines like the 
five-nation V2500, the US-French 
CFM-56-5, and the British Tay for 
the short-term. 

Airliners will undoubtedly be- 
come cheaper to operate after the 
initial investment The trend in 
design for the future seems to be 
away from airliners becoming 
larger. The prospects of an 800- 

sealer - even a 1,000-water - 
have now receded. Such aircraft, 
would result in a redesign of the 
facilities at many airports, al- 
though the new Ter minal Four at 
Heathrow has been built with 
several -stands able to take 
jumbo jets carrying up to twice 
normal load of passengers. 

The aircraft manufacturers see 
the biggest market for the remain- 
der ef this century being in tire 
1 50-seater sector, where, there are 
several thousand, airliners current- 
ly in service, but due for eventual 
replacement And beyond the year 
2000? Most of the nuyor aerospace 
companies are looking at super- 
sonic; hypersonic, even sub-orbit- 
al projects, even though the cost of 
such .projects would be 

Britain could be within reach of 
Australia in a little over an hour 
for air passengers by the year 20 10. 
Air travel, it seems, may not 
become more comfortable, or 
even a lot cheaper, but it will 
almost certainly be fester than 

^ AR 

To buy new airliner types fail of 
partially-tried advanced technol- 
ogy or to stick to weU-knowu bat 
updated rations? The great de- 
bate. caatimes fa tin boardrooms 
of the world's airlines. Some have 
made their decision, many mare 
r amain nffllffftlfd. 

Differing attitudes tothe debate 
have been adopted by the manu- 
America, Boeing and McDonnell 
Douglas have chosen to modernize 
the airliners they first bunched in 
the 1970s by fitting new cockpit 
systems and engines* . 

The Enropean Airbus Industrie 
WKaprttat, with its French, West 
Goman, British and Spanish 
partners,’ has chosen new technol- 
r. ATs 150-sealer A320, due to 
_ next year, will have computer* 
sanding crauBauds to die moving 
surfaces on the wings. Phots wm 
fly it using ridesticks the size of 
gear levers, rather than the tradi- 
tional control pnl nmo*. 

ATs next project, the twin- 
engine A330 and the foar-eagiae 
AMO, both with the same wing and 
faselage, will take this advanced 
technology tether - competition 
far Boeing's latest 747 junta, the 
400 series. 

The US com p a n y is giving the 

To buy or not to buy, 
that is the question 

Future flyer: Boeing's 767-200 will be used for economic long-distance flights over water 

747-400 even l inger range and a 
flight deck on which electro- 
mechanical instruments are re* 
placed by computer-driven 
infaimation, displayed on adorned 
cathode-ray tubes. The cancefla- 
tfan of the flighto^ineert station 
and a cockpit of two will save 
co^derslfie operating costs. 

The operators’ view is that such 
pwnjMrtrinn amt keep the price of 

new ahtinera, already e x ceed in g 

$100 mflii oii for a'Jarge-caparity, 

long-range machine, withfa rea- 
sonable bounds. 1 And the new 
technology generated will also aid 

Tim battle for sales is fierce, 
with both sides claiming that the 
other obtains financial advantages 
for its products from government 
Airbus alleges Boeing dees not pay 
all the taxes that it should, while 
utilizing some of the devefapauiit 
tends it receives from the US 
goven u nenttendHta r y pro j ects hi 
its civil programmes. 

that the Airbus 
obtains help from the 
which back it 
soft loans, and asks why 
the company does not publish 
detailed anneal accounts. 

‘ While the debate goes on, a new 
farm of propalsfan, the andacted 
fan. a jet engine driving a propeller 
is being developed. Unlike eacHer. 
prop-fans, it b aUe fa produce 
speeds through the afr sfarihr to 
those obtained by- jets. 

Research into the undneted fan, 
which promises to save airlines Up 
to 30 per' cent fa fuel costs, -wps 
pmaipted by successive teel crises, 
fuel .Mag tifa Jargest financial:'. 
outgoing for many airlines. The 
current decline fa teel prices has 
not lessened airlines' interest in 
udacted teas, for the industry 
believes that the fang-term trend 
see fuel prices rise. 

Jet engine mawfarires RoUs- 
Royce, Pratt & Whitney and 
General Electric are studying 
inducted tens intensely. Bat there 
are many problems to be solved, 
notably noise, vibration and Made 
containment should an engine 

suffer a tenure or fa JttW* ** * 
large bird during fl^^ ^ 

Boeing has a project c^tne 

717, for a 150 -seater »rliaer 
the fature whkfewouW^ 


- but it would orashte 
and acted tens to the A320 if tat 
advantages prove to n 

Boefag recently signed a raefflj" 
random of understanding am 
Japan to ctMlevetop the W 
should a derision he m*d e 
proceed with ft. This extends 
practice for aerospace companies 
to stave the hM? costs of-tne 

Efficiency wffl 
\g| j be paramount 

All aerospace companies 
investing considerable 


tion methods, in particular die 
development ef advanced aviation 
electronics and the use of carbon 
fibre and other., composites to 
replace traditional pntakuWlafle 
electronic signalling, or 
wire’V between pilot and the flaps 
and ailerons .of an a i rliner is 
already here, it will soon -be 
superseded by “fly-by-tight” , with 
'lasers conveying the instructions. 

Most new afrfiners have signifi- 
cant sections made iff composite* 
-tea few cases, foe entire" Jail 
section. Carbon "fibre engine 
cow ifag C .wipgfflafe and under- 
carriage amis arecommbnplace- 

Brttte steel tadnstryfefightn^ 
the erosion of its old markets witfir ‘ 
the development of new metals 
and new ways of working and 
“stretching” them, such as super- 
plastic farming. 

In the coming generations of 
afrfiners lightness high strengfo, 
and efficiency of operation will be 
paramount as airlines search for 
improvements in their economics 
and in their record of safety. ^ 

. •• .-.'.a. * 
i- • 

V , 

£ Zi. : 

Chances are 
Iwe booked 

we be 



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Deregulation, the Systran un- 
der which the old framework 
of licensing airlines was swept 
away, leaving them free to fly 
between whichever points 
' they like charging highly-com- 
petitive fares, has had a funda- 
mental impact on the airline 
industry in the United States. 
It is also set to spread to other 
parts of the world. 

In Europe the trend is 
known as liberalization, but 
resistance is proving strong, 
particularly among some of 
foe airlines owned and con- 
trolled by governments. 

Liberalization has split Eu- 
rope into two airline camps, 
those who want foe tradition- 
al tightly-controlled system of 
feres and routes unravelled 
and replaced with a “free-for- 
all”, and Those ^fa^ ding te 
the statusqm,.ot at bes£?a 
slow move towards some de- 
ment of greater freedom. 

The arguments have divid- 
ed the 20-strong Association 
of European Airlines. Among 
those which have taken up a 
strong pro-liberalization 
stance are British Airways, 
British Caledonian, and foe 
Dutch airline KLM. Those 
adopting a more-cautious ap- 
proach include Air France, 
Lufthansa, and Alitalia. 

The latter group cites the 
experience of deregulation in 
foe United States when they 
urge caution, pointing out that 
in the US there has been a 
wave of airline failures and 

Perhaps foe most forceful 
among foe group of countries 
seeking liberalization in Eu- 
rope las been Britain. During 
the past two years, it has 
struck agreements, or partial 
agreements, on looser civil 
aviation frameworks with 
Holland. Luxembourg, Italy* 
and West Germany. 

Talks are also 
with France, Scandinavia, ; 
Ireland. The agreement with 
foe Dutch is the most far- 
reaching. It gives freedom for 
airlines on either side of the 
Channel to Open up new 
services to the other country 
without lengthy licensing 

As a result, traffic between 
Britain and Holland increased 
by 50,000 during the first 12 
months that foe agreement 
was in force, and mere were 

for the freedom 

Haute cuisine: Business travellers 
luxurious first-class cabin iff a BritisI 

the comforts fa the 
DC 10-30 

Channel poses 
serious threat 

also some feres bargains on 
what had been a high-fare 

This situation may . also be 
observed on foe North Atlan- 
tic, where 40 airlines. North 
American, European, and 
those countries which fly 
through Europe, scramble for 
traffic. Traffic between Britain 
and the US is controlled by the 
Bermuda 2 air services agree- 
ment. Annexe 2 of that accord 
regulates foe number of ser- 
vices which each side can 

But annexe 2 is due to 
expire this June, and the 
British Government fears — 
and a reason why it has 
postponed the privatization of 
British Airways yet again — 
that without such an agree- 
ment, the US airlines will 
“swamp" the North Atlantic 
routes with seats, resulting in 
financial disaster for bofo-BA 
and British Caledonian. 


Overcapacity is already, the . 
se on routes from the Unitr 

ed States to Europe: As a result 
of agreements signed soon 
after foe Second World War, 
US airlines have traffic rights 
to fly to most points in 
Europe, but European airlines 
have far fewer rights into the 

The European airlines com- 
plain that their US counter- 
parts are able to mount 
uneconomic services into Eu- 
rope. These are heavily subsi- 
dized by their: domestic 
services inside foe US which, 
for many of them, constitutes 
95 per cent Of their business, 
while European airlines have 
to rely on foe Atlantic for up 
to one-third of foeir income. 

The Europeans also argue it 
is unfair to compare foe 
airline competition situation 
inside the US with Europe. 
They say they exist under 
pressure from highly-devel- 
oped motorway and railway 
systems, and cheap charter 
airlines carrying holidaymak- 
ers to the Mediterranean. 

In France, the government 
is pouring billions of francs 
into foe development of foe 
TGV high-speed rail network, 
whose services are cutting into 
foe traffic of foe main domes- 
tic airline, Air Inter. 

The development of the 
fixed rail link beneath the 
Channel in foe early 1990s 
also has serious, implications. . 
for airlines flying between 

London and such destinations 
as Paris, Brussels and 

The continued in-fighting 
within foe civil aviation in- 
dustry and between govern- 
ments which finance it, is. 
producing awider choice of 
fares for the consumer. 

Across the North 'Atlantic, 
for instance, his possible to fly 
for £99 single, on one; of foe' 
new generation of carriers 
which are foe children of 
deregulation. At the Other end 
of foe spectrum foe.single. fere- 
on Concorde betweebLondon 
and New York is £li400. 

There is also a fax -wider 
choice of feres classes. Apart 
from airlines which are very 
heavily business-oriented, like 
Lufthansa and Swissair, first- 
dass has disappeared on ser- 
vices within Europe, now 
replaced by business class. 

Airlines flying over longer 
distances compete for foe 
high-revenue businessman' 
traffic with wider seats. These 
seats convert into beds, offer 
more space, and what they 
claim is improved service on 

A few are wooing the busi- 
ness community with foe 
promise of in-flight tele- 
phones. Some executives 
claim this move to be counter- 
productive, as they use the 
. urae_diuingfoe flight fa-work . 

Deregulation and liberaliza- 
tion are also spawning large 
numbers of smaller commuter 
and regional airlines, particu- 
larly in the United States. 
These are moving in on rentes 
which have been abandoned 
by the larger carriers. . ; 

A' system of “hub-aml- 
spoke” operations is prowujgf 
up in America, with .the 
newcomers feeding passengers 
in from outlying areas to large 
towns and cities where they 
transfer to long-distance ik>- 
■ mestic, or international 
flights. ' • 

So vital has this system 
become to the business of foe 
major US carriers that several 
of them have established their 
own subsidiary companies, 
operating 20-30-seater turbo- 
prop airunera connecting with 
then main lines. 

A new breed, of commuter 
airlines is also emerging 'ml . 
Europe, encouraged by foe 
trend towards liberalization. 

An example is NefoerUnes, 
a Dutch company based in . 
Rotterdam, ana operating out 
of Schipol Airport, Amster- 
dam, to 10 cities in Holland, 
West Germany, France, and 
Austria. NefoerUnes was 
started only in January last 
year, but it already has six 18- 
seater British Aerospace 
Jetstream 31 airliners in 'its 
fleet, and expects to cany 
around 100,000 passengers 
this year. 


Birmingham Executive Air- 
ways started from a bese-at 
Birmingham Airport in foe 
British industrial Midlands i. 
after British Airways pulled' 
off several routes from that 
city because the places which 
British Airways operated were 
too large to make a profit from 
the small amount of traffic on 

BEA also flies Jetstream 
31s, and now links Birming- 
ham with a small network of 
European business centres, 


flight service at feres equiva- 
lent to those charged in club 
class fey the major airlines. ; 

All European airlines are 
waiting to see what impact the . 
London City short take-off £ 
and landing airport will haVe 

on their services when it opens 

late in 1987. 

" Lon don , City is bein g devej- 

^S^ Potenti alfof 
^ City airport 

^oped by foe construction com- 
pany John Mowfam in the 
derelict Royal group of docks, 
six miles, dr a 20-minute taxi 
journey, to foe east of fo e aty - 
ofLondon. The airport should 
handle up to one million*- 
passengers a year when fully ^ 

Brymon Airways, the Plym- _ .. 
oath-based regional airline, is 
likely to be the first operator 
into the airport It is foe only 
British airline which flies foe «- 
de Havilland of Canada Dasfi- - 
7 airliner, a 50-seaier whit* - 
can operate economically into 
and out of foe new airport's • 
2,500 ft runway. 

Brymon is applying for ^ 
routes to Fans, Amsterdam, %■' 
Brussels and a number of ' 
business centres m Britain, ft* 
is bound to take some traffic! ;; c 
away from the more tradition- 
al airline services on sucti. "" 




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If you think advances in air travel don’t 
happen overnight, think again. 

Between die last flight -cm April 11th and 
the first on the 12th, we’ll transfer our Paris, 
Amsterdam and intercontinental services to the 
most modem terminal budding in the world. 

The first thing you’ll notice about Terminal 4 
is that itfs huge: 64 Check-In desks mean less 
congestion, less queueing. 

Avoiding stairs, escalators and lifts you can 
wheel your trolley direct from car to plane. 

There’s easy access by road, parking for 3,200 

cars, a brand new Underground station and our 
own fast, frequent bus service to and from 
Terminal 1 (from which our domestic and other 
European services will still operate). 

British Airways wishes you a pleasant flight 
through the world’s most advanced terminal. 


British ai rways 

The worlds fevourite airline. 

Terminal 4 designed end built by the British Airports Authority 

in a a »■ SB S I ..If 1 1 Vt?f M -- 

Distributors taking over 

By Derek Harris 

Distribution businesses have 
overtaken manufacturers as the 
fastest-growing business sector 
among private companies accord- 
ing to the latest Growth Compa- 
nies Register, out this week. The 
register identifies the 1,000 fastest 
expanding private businesses by 
researching the database of the 
ICC Information Group covering 
80,000 companies. 

Just over half those on the 
register were wholesale, retail or 
service companies compared with 

411 a year ago. Manufacturers 
have dropped from 589 last year 
to 497. The top 1.000 increased 
their profits by an average 130 per 

In construction and civil en- 
gineering there was an average 
profit growth of 192 per cent, 
while the growth rate in motor 
vehicles and transport averaged 
174 per cent. Computer service 
company profits grew by an 
average 165 per cent. Last year’s 
profit growth of 256 per cent in 
metal goods and engineering has 

John has brought high fashion 
to the country smart set 

Provincial dressmahrredo not normally 
rank high ® the eyes of the fashion 
world - so John Bowen, of Malmesbuiy 
in Wiltshire, is an exception. Particular- 
ly as his clients include a couple of 
duchesses and a countess. He started his 
business 12 years ago after graduating 
from Gloucestershire College of Art and 
Design and serving an apprenticeship 
with a London fashion bouse. Ignoring 
the warnings of friends and colleagues 
that he could not succeed out of town, 
he returned to his native Malmesbury 
and set up with the barest of assets: a 
sewing machine and a good pair of 
scissors. . . . 

He began to design and make 
wedding dresses for local gills and soon 
gained a reputation for special occasion 
clothes. The county set discovered him 
and now flock to him - so much so that 
at one London gathering nine Bowen 
ballgowns were counted. 

Why do women who could afford any 
designer in the country go to the Bowen 

The Duchess of Beaufort said: “It’s 
terribly handy coming here as I live just 
down the road at Badminton House. I 
i rayt to get my everyday things from 
Marks and Spencer and go to Belinda 
Belville for special clothes. But why go 
to town when I can get what 1 want here? 
I prefer simple styles and plain rather 
than patterned material.” 

Mr Bowen asked fhe duchess which 
jewellery she intended to wear to a 
forthcoming ball— because he likes to 
d esi gn a gown around important gems 
rather than adding them as an after- 
thought. She said she would “make do” 
with costume jewellery as she hated 

John Bowen: Picnics are a perk 

getting the “good stuff” out of the bank. 

Mrs A TuffneH, who lives in Glouces- 
tershire and is married to a colonel in 
the Queen’s Bodyguard, is a regular 
visitor to the Malmesbury salon with 
her four daughters.She said: “I love 
coming here. John is a very talented 

Most clients are not looking for high 
fashion, but fairly traditional clothes, 
made of superb materials used imagina- 
tively. according to Mr Bowen. 

At 37 he rates himself a financial 
success. He is not prepared to disclose 
his annual turnover but will say that it 
increased by 50 per cent in the last year. 

In common with all fashion business- 
es he has his highs and lows in trading. 
During Christmas. Ascot and wedding 
time he often works through the night, 
but in high summer the worldoad is 
lighter and he can go for a picnic in near- 
by fields. Thau he regards, is one of the 
perks of the provincial dressmaker. 

been slashed to 131 per cent. 

Advertising and public rela- 
tions showed the highest return 
on capital with 58 per cent. 
Average profits growth in the 
sector was 149 per cenL 
The register showed 146 
companies which more than -tre- 
bled their profits. There were 41 1 
companies which more than dou- 
bled them. . „ 

Contact: Growth Companies 
Register , Growth Data Services, 
80 Chancery Lane, London 
WC2A 1DP; £95. 

Revenue are 

Small businessmen have to waste too 
much time over changing tax regula- 
tions and because of ina dequat ely 
trained Inland Revenue staf£ according 
to the Association of British Chambers 
of Commerce. 

A survey found that small firms 
complain that taxation has become 
“ridiculously complicated.” Many Rev- 
enue staff do not understand the tax 
rules because of the frequent changes 
and are unhelpful or incompetent, says 
the ABCC. The survey found ttal 
because of the high turnover in staff 
procedures had to be explained several 
times to different visiting officers. 

VAT inspectors are criticised for 
wasting company staff time in pursuit of 
trivial matters — one example being the 
inspector who spent a day chasing £15 
on coffee machine receipts. The ABCC 
also wants proper briefing for inspectors 
on company working arrangements and 
on what has been agreed with the Tax 
Offices. J . 

The ABCCs main recommendations 
are that tax changes should only be 
implemented if they simplify the sys- 

To simplify payroll calculations the 
ABCC urgently recommends a unified 
PAYE and national insurance system. 

Go West if you need know-how 

Business ventures and self-employment 
are under the microscope at the new 
Bristol and West Job Change Project 
(JCP), writes Salty Watts. It is based at 
the premises of the local enterprise 
agency, so advice and information on 
issues, allowances and business courses 
are easily accessible. 

Spokesman Peter Webster said: “We 

are mainlv professionals and executives 
over 45. so most of os are interested in 
self-employment." JCP, which has links 
with Bristol Polytechnic, draws its 
members, largely by word of month, 
from a 40-mile radios, including Swin- 
don and Marlborough. The project is at 
Bristol and Avon Enterprise Agency, 
Canon's Road, Bristol BS1 5UH; tel. 
(0272) 272222 

“I must say that your rivals for this 
contract all booght me Easter eggs" 



Overlooking Lower Plea- 
sure Gardens. Superior, 
spacious, south facing P/b 
Rat (1981). Entryphone. 2 
bathroom, garage. GCH. 
Quick sale owner re- 

£53.000 ono 

TEL: 0202 760484 



ALOJtKVK cjunrocmo luxury 
(may wuu. tore* secluded 
ynUMh. 8 bedrooms, a bath- 
rooms. sleeps lO. Large POOL 
Dartxjur terrace, oetrsowd 
hum. Avan May/ June -Soil & 
oa. Td 07372 21216. 




Self access storage units 25 sq R - 1.000 so ft. Immediate 
occupancy. Excellent rates. Totally secure. 

Phone 01-381 8677 (24 bra) 


KH CALLOWAY, end terraced 
house, central Manna- 2 recep- 
tions. (uOy IM«1 kitchen, 
larder. 4 double bedrooms, 
study. 2 oaths, cloakroom, pa- 
rage. garden. Often, around 
£40000. 06443-381, 


HJMMEV, hurtaa Country 
house, sporting estate. 40 acres. 
7/8 be dr ooms. 8 reception. In- 
door heated pool. Staff cottage 
Fhhlng; shooting rating. 1-8 

year let. Cl .000 pw negotiable. 
Tele ph one: 029126-4170. 



Secret South. A Taate cM Tusca- 
ny or Sototkkwi of the Venrto. 
A select mo of value lor money 
coach tours. Also villas 6 hotels 
wtui swunramo nools and atv 
weekends. Free brochure truth 
Magtc of Italy. Dept T. «7 Shro 
herds Bush Oreen. wiz BPS 
Tel: OI 749 7449 124 tars 

lolly furnished town home. «. 
Mds. 2 bafcnniei. swnomuig 
poof, fronts rtub. 
besom £42 jOOO. 01 988 6647. 


Are you tooenenong management ptoWem*’ Ota eontwnir 8mptoys 
opeueneed Transport Managers who am hare to nolo Y OU. _ 

We can advise you on all aspect* of Transport M anag e me nt, ya iaip 
business and financial plans or manage vow busewss on a temporary 

All consuhams hoKJ CRC's and can M used by you to gain or keep an 
□aerator s Licence. 

No 10b :oo I .age or too small 

t f*mAuUoH& UMfL 

Unit 72, Central Works Site. Corby. Northern* Wf 17 1VB 
Tel. 10536)200098 

* * * 

Piano. Bvugues & pubes 
S April £209 
12 April £179 
19 Apr* £159 
Tnd nights, food & wine 
01-370 0999 

ATOL 1820 

ndenlial. profesttonal adttce * 
prompt compel I Uve Quotations: 
Rendennal A Commercial 
Mortgage*. Personal * compa- 
ny Pension Schemes 
Telephone John Tasker. Epsom 
1037271 44484 <24 nrs.l. 

B8HDGMC FINANCE aiallaMe 14 
day*. PM Mon gages 6 Fi- 
nances 0488 06786 




87 Regent Street. London W1. 
Trt 439 6834 UK, Ove rsea*. 
Aha m.helBS 'dams temp, perm 




and cootuner surueinanoe 
equipment for both (be ama- 
teur & professional. Ring or 
write for price list 


716 Lea Bridge Rd 

London E10 6AN 
01 5S8 4226 

ENGLISH FOR foreign students. 
Individual 1 union by quauired 
teacher, reasonable rale* TeJ 
01994 1374 oc 014)24 9717. 




C/o Times 

P.O. BOX 434 
Virginia Street 
El 9DD 


No premium. 24 hr. ac- 
cess. Prestige furniture 
carpeted offices with tele- 
phone and Uex. From £70 
p wk all inclusive. Shorty- 
long term. Parking 


No Premium 

Prestige firm, carpeted 
showroom offices aH tndu- 
sm with phono + T/X. 
burned avail. Shert/tong 
term. Patvmg taofltws. 
Fnjm £75 pw 


RM PC XT', special clearance 
prices 256K with IBM 10 mb 
hard disk, com blew system 
Cl .975. to mb IBM companbte 
system complete with printer 
81.396. Numerous systems 
available new 8 second user. 
For details A Information pack 
contact Compudara Systems 
.0922) S92S5/5M33. 


STUDIO FOR WENT prune area. 
Wandsworth £90 per week 
Inc rales. Contact Ol 228 0466 


DARTMOUTH. Charm lug top 
noor rut witn balcony. 2 bed- 
rooms. stunning Wiaryvlws. 
quick sole. £39.000. TM Ot 274 





£77,365 pa. 

Great opportunity for 
increased income with 
a potential of 42,000 sq ft 
of single storey vacant 

accommodation, already 
divided into a number 
of small units. 

For farther inf or mat ion 
contact Andrew Hlne. 

061-834 1814 




specialist in architectural mooMIng* 
purpose made joinery. 

Please contact- 

01 739 5991 or 
01 739 6235 for detail* 


tun* avails 

onaX-ACCffiCHT U SENCPAL *•■*?*""•* 

jj”l. — BR7 BBU. Tit 01 4*7 *** 


We are a firm of Joiners/Cafiirat 
to nxceodonaRv hkih standards who have spare 
£]SiSy KiiSigfir interesting and cHaHengms 

proven record for 25 Years. 


In-house design capabilities. 

One-off kitchens a speciality. 

Realistically priced. 

- ■ ^ D ” ig ' 1 ’ "““‘‘SksE 32237 




Exclusive mvestment 

advisory * 

achieved 161% ' 198a . 

Details 01-930 8732. 


«««««• *>**> 




Money secrets. Free 
details Midas. 

10 Jewry SL . 
S023 8RZ 

and nrov«n Injection moulded 
product Huge untapped woru- 
wtde market powflMaL Mum MB 
io raise working capital for fur- 
ther RAD- Principals ooty- no 
tune w aster, please Reply » 
BOX £60 . 




Progress*** company, excellent 
ertgagod M the manufBCture d Wustralmfl 
bone control systems, etearical panels, process eonooi 
lojjm l produce, indus trial de sign and davetopment, software 
packages. Industrial eonstdtanxs. , ain _ 

Lc«mi the soutti. dcse to the firajunefiori 
motorways. Heathrow Airport and Bnlish PW Upper KsBItod Station. 


For farther drtaUt plane contort: 

Bam Hyare FCA. Unnkwnf or Brtaley C. Dongbs 
do Messrs Laagtords, 23 Benfinck Street 
Loodoii W1M SUL 
Tri eptoQ cBI-486 7841 



The Marine Hotel. Seafront, 

Paignton, Sooth Devon. 

Unrivalled holiday position lacing the sea and beaches. 35 
bedrooms (30 letting). Over £80.0)0 of basmea* booked fiw 
1986. 25 week season. Coach and car parkin* .Rendntad 
licenced bar. Full central heating, ideal family business. 
Serious offers only around £285,000, no a ge nts. Further 
details on request. 


38' frontage. Secure 
with parking facilities 
adjacent Clap ham 

North Tube. £55.000. 
Best offer secures. 
01 542 1307 after 

NORTH MULES 4 troul lakes & 
(tthlng dub In IO acral w«i 
luxury owners* residence. pj>. 
for 18 chalets, restaurant, sm 
shop. Tremendous po t enMa l b 
quiet pktirow _ vaUey. 
£149.800 F/H- SercsfOTd Ad- 
MBS 0244 42101.. 

A restaurant ship. 200 fL_ 6 
bar*, refuted. 6004 capacity. 
Own mooring. 01-818 7029. 
Primo location, leisure Iravri. 
Cocnnries: re Box 1881. loo 
G un. CMV 98031 USA. 


jt is possible to turn 
£1000 into £10,000 
very quickly. Low 
known ride. 

01 930 8732 



waited. £45.000. foe 
irmfmg results. Potential 
100% pJL+. Reply » 
BOX E 33 ^to Times 
Newspapers, PO Bax 
dsa v'lfpinta Sl London ~ 


£20,000 into an Estate Ag ency ft gfajB. 
SaccessfidfinrictfPQltA Accomawats Josephs 
fiom Ealing CcumboB « expap& ia . 
Wish , to men a satabte pasoo. 
01-993 1293LAJFTER OFF H&S 0V-993 2296 


in established high tech electron^ 
party Wfth GowrawW contacts, .with 
cashflow forecast for next 3 years of 
£980.000. Gross pro® £300,000. 

Raply to BOX E52 . 


: woirtdnfffor yourocV to an exdwhw treefttwy s*D- 

im adwibtag fcrA.wrfl.a^teateBwI.wut** 


atro roiaMd madfa. You MdU late awr acting 

accoimts and t>« expected to devefopjteW busbresB. 

your CV » P^aagtog Director SrBweUDar- 

IyCaUL2StODilM!^LnteVaiHJ i 


Work from home and earn £10.000+ pa. and free 
travel -Genuine opportunity to be setup and e arn- 
tng 3 weeks from now. Fan package ropp U ed. 
Advtce and support given whilst you leant the 
trade. TeL 0349 61000. Stop drefflrth^ phone roe 
Liz Mackay 


is a unique product serving the vast 
motoring/pet markeL To realise full potential 
investment finance and markrti ng expertise is 
now required. Morriss Upholstery Comply, 
23-25, Station Rd, Tlu»pe Bay, Essex SSI 3JY, 
0702 586229 



n ■ - 1 



\ 5 i 


.I i 

UJC.'s largest mafl ostler 
coni pa ny offer customer 
returns, pool and snooker 
tables. large or smaH auan- 
twes available at huge 
discounts. Returned goods 
sell. Surplus and related do 
notseU. Also thousands of 
cues of various qualities at 
28% off retail. 

Phone 0244 549444 


Ex man order stocks of 
returned goods Including 
doming. furniture, 
hard-ware, household, 
toys etc. Offered at huge 

1S7B BENTLEY TZ. Gresr. brio* 
imrior. 68.000 mOcs. 1 owner, 
my good coad&m. £16000 
no. 01-839 3301. 

£80 p.w. Ol 488 1669 


Block of 60 two bed fiats held by femfly 
Company. 19 vacant 41 tennanted. Company 
for sale by sealed tender. North London Area. 
For details and tender documents apply to CM. 
Alfille & Co. Solicitors, 35 Piccadilly, Wl. 



Aeorm WUNTED MOW ritruma 
nrw nroducu massi*.** market 
no competition, no riock 
required. Trie 061 969 4344 

men 4i women reauireo io mor- 

fcet a particular telephone using 
local tales people Initial sloeli 6 
sales am* £950 Full or sera OC- 
Use part- time. Generous profit 
margin. Company ro ppgrt no t 
car pMiws Do,e Triepbones 
IOZ791 726769 Wday 00 
4 doom lofltce bni. 

SUNBEDS. A genu n sell new 
range Com comimsuon. No m- 
testmenl SAE 21 Abresier 
Streel. BirmmghaiTi. 


* l a d e papdroc* 

* Te operate jour an euienrinl hnemna 

• T*«»M8A 

irm it p^dcsnnuiuspMfiOirguBMMiiMILk. ae «e BowcHtcng Jl suluon 

0 * 5 *™c* ws 8t t?i» ol Dwresaa io tfo eortral d lto» Cult Po*. *n< W tttra Beat 
m ijNk< flemau .. 

l*wn^rv.3tkny'oHato»xlritt«te5tllWri|^w« , twS*«ceweanes5sM^)» 

e me nm oi iu nn no^nty pwi opmnn. 

Hie inufO ceetTrare 4 £>.300 Vcw uescf »>• j uaencegce ak »»UW cao«« tu 

mhwi eu uiei hum ofcncr i ink anmnufy Mr succeu. 

Ieta#ear r 45* BS» la be SoA. m 08JM UK I i*a m b 8u IM u Khbadt. 
ta oa tadm eM pm* hd ddbta. 



A business I eon run easily from home, with unlimited 
potential, an exclusive area, regular repeat orders, 
high profit margins, positive cash flow, minimal over- 
heads, no stock requirement and over £100 per day 
profit, h can work tor you too. For details send a 9x4 
SAt to The Marketing Dvector, Scorpion House, High 
St, Turvet, Bedford MK43 8DB. 

Interesting Investment Stake at the most 
Southern Point of Europe 

Large settlement with authorized planning permission and 
Interes-Touristico offer the following possibilities: 

The layout of a GOLF COURSE with a view of Cape 
Trafalgar. Tangiers and the Straits of Gibralta. 300m to the 
white sandy beach. 230.000 to 530,000 sqjn of land for 
the golf course; 18 or 27 holes. Price Sfr. 4.50 per sqjn. 
113,000 sq.m of ground directly next to the golf course, 
for the building of 600 apartments. Preliminary planning 
already completed, Pnce Sfr. 95 per sq.m. Ready for 

No long term tying up of capital. Favourable purchase 
price as not situated in an industrial area. Above average 
returns possible due to unique position in die countryside. 
We will also hslp you to set up a syndicate. 

The best piece of land of the settlement 30,000 sq.m, 
bordering on most suitable for a beach dub with 150 
luxuiy apartments. Overlooking Cape Trafalgar aid the 
NW-Cape Of Africa. Distance to 4 Star Luxury Hotel 100m. 
Price Sfr. 95 per sq.m. Ready for development 
Apply to 


Grabenstr. 15, CH-7001 Chur, Schweiz 


TM GavcRnnmtf ■ 
of Sou in AufflBa 
tsuee Supply Board Tender 
Tender No. 0309 

Th« South Auatrataa Dm* 
mod of Mines and Energy tavtte 
tenders for ■ CanpMMnatvo 
Ge oft ci enooc infOnnadoa Sy*em 
as part of Ha “Geotechnical Com- 
puter S tra tegic Plan 1986/86". 
Tito fettewiag systems ara 

1) peftumnn EMdora Mon and 
Production Syom IPEPt 

2) Geographic toft ra a Uon 

System ton 

a OmI OetraoH Evaluation Sys- 
tem COES) . • ’ - 

4} Stisralc ramramnon tamtam 


St Graphic kernel Oy aMWt (GKS) 
69 Computer Hardware. Printora. 

VDU> and Otar Graphtcr 


Peru id and rcproductioo: ftdes- 
ikfikt. Paiincn desks. 

Writing lahk-v Davenports sad 
Dnk chain 
Mfkr hr dridt or 
Prrunut I Aim ttriraar . 
"ltd Uni w" DM 9JJ» 

V rtunh SOW. Imetm N«1 
liMm «-7» W* 



Over 1-4 million of the 
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FRIDAY Metes: A complete car 

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Bssbiess to Bnsfeess! 

Selling property, franchises, 
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SATURDAY Overseas Travel: 
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NAME-; -r-_. ’ •--- ' 


TELEPHONE (Dayximcf 


.DATE OF ivtPiynns _ . 

iP V - JSC j t tw » hUK* fcfpP4w<*oU pfunjaklifl 

I f f- l - f t~l~ T I 43 


Motoring by John Taylor 

Mercedes safety balloons 

Airbags which inflate to 
protect car drivers in the event 
ofacoUisaon have come a tong 
way since the Americans start- 
ed experiments in the mid- 
1960s. Then, the idea was 
something akin to a balloon 
which blew up to virtually fill 
the entire inside of a car, 
effectively cocooning the 

In Europe, Mercedes-Benz 
started investigating the sys- 
tem in 1966 and adopted the 
basis of the present system in 
1970. This involves a compact 
airbag mounted in the steering 
wheel boss which inflates to 
provide a large cushion to 
protea the driver from facial 
injury on the steering wbeeL It 
is operated by a sensor mount- 
ed on the transmission tunnel 
which detects an impact of 
1 2mph or more cad fixes a gas 
propeflant dine to inflate the 
basin a thirtieth of a second. 

This system has been in 
production for five years and 
45,000 have been fitted to cars 
on the German market, with 
another 80,000 for export, 
largely to the United Sa t es. 
Now it is to be oflfered by 
Merecedes-Benz (United 
Kingdom) on aU the imported 
car range at a cost of £995.60 

After use, the bag deflates 
rapidly and is claimed to be 
s^e with pcojrfe wearing glass- 
es ami smokers. Rmtting 
the bag and recharging the 
propellant cylinder will cost 
about £400. Mercedes empha- 
sizes that the airbag is a 
supplementary safety device 
and that the normal seat belt 
restraint system remains the 
primary safety device for all 

The introduction of the 
airbag coincides with the 
launch of the latest updated S- 
class cars from Stuttgart, the 
prestigious top end of the 
range. Essentially these com- 
prise five versions of the four- 
door saloon and two of the 
coupe, with three revised 

While retaining the same 
basic lines and concept of the 
original cars, the latest ver- 
sions show unproved aerody- 
namics, new power units and' 
modified interiors. Hie sa- 
loons and coupes have larger 
15in wheels with low profile 

WlUfj i I 

Toyota Space Cruiser: Looks the same but there are many 

Ml U TtMM, 1980. goanfc 
rad. SSLOOOm only. SudoOM A 
fu#y Mnncad ty man JffanL 
OampW sanrK* raoonl wllb 
totally tm M fiitfa h e d inMoiy. 

•MUM Ha Mewed to appreoaie 
Sopot) common. £18.980. TM 
(0432) 266864 OH/27B222 hm. 

deals. All modcM. Tel: 0978 
388777 Dane Motor Go. 
a* coupe or mcmuc bum. 

Roof. 1400 mb. £10498. Tst 
0602-789291 (W- 
imh aoLr on wnue. rooc 
wfwek. E/W. 13.000 mao. 
C7J29B. 0878 7S732m 
SMM MU' CTt In Mock, eucmng 
colouis. and Mm. from 
£7.996. <0281281 4676 <T> 

280 SE. 

September 85, C irtiitmimi . 
suiMMik; 1800 miles. Clas- 
sic wfane. Noe vekmr. baud 
new with km of emus in- 
rhstim sir emd i tinnhm. 7SS 
dearooic nemo 

cssscne/iadio. Owner game 

£17,950 far «** sole. 

01-643 5741 

market cars and the much 
more expensive 60 aspect 
adopted extensively for sport- 
ing versions. Another distin- 
guishing feature of the latest 
cars is the replacement of the 
rather heavy ribbed side pro- 
tection body panels by a flush 
design which harmonizes 
neauy with front and rear 

Power units are straight six 
and V8, the latter being an all 
al nminhim design and both 
show the results of develop- 
ment work aimed at lowering 
pollution levels while improv- 
ing overall economy. The 3- 
litre engine is the straight six- 
cylinder design used on the 
300 SE saloon and the 300 SL 
roadster, both with fuel injec- 
tion. The 4.2 and 5.0-litre Vg 
injection engines are offered 
on saloons, coupes and road- 
sters, and with these engines 
the saloon is also available in 
long wheelbase form. 

Standard features include 
ABS anti-lock braking on all 
but the 300 SE saloon, heated 
door mirrors and front passen- 
ger seat height adjustment. 
Prices range from £20,800 for 
the 300 SE to £40,400 for the 
500 SEC coupe. 

Road Test 

The latest version of the 
Toyota Space Cruiser may 
look the same - and none the 
worse for that - but beneath 
the distinctive exterior lie 
several mechanical improve- 
ments, partly reflecting the 
recall of the original after 
brake problems of which it 
was rapidly cleared. 

The concept of the Space 

degree of luxury and style 
unknown in that market. 

The result is a forward 
control vehicle in which the 
engine is placed between driv- 
er and front passenger, with 
room for eight adults in 

The rear compartment is 
reached through a wide open- 
ing sliding door riving access 
to two rows of seats, the 
rearmost of which splits down 
the middle and folds sideways 
to give a large load area for 
luggage. The whole vehicle is 
well carpeted and has twin 
opening roof panels, both 
tinted. The front panel lifts up 
at the rear and the second over 
the centre seats is an electrical- 
ly operated sliding unit con- 
trolled from a panel above the 

While the basic concept is 
that of a small van, the body is 
unique to the Space Cruiser 
and very distinctively styled 
to look sleek and 
uncommerical. The technical 
improvements include a new 
rack and pinion steering lay- 
out with variable ratio power 
assistance, revised front wheel 
alignment and suspension ge- 
ometry. improved braking 
with dual split safety system, 
new tandem brake booster 
incorporating a load sensing 
and proportioning valve, and 
revised suspension settings. 

The original 1800cc petrol 
engine gave way to a 2-litre 
unit some time ago and the 
fuel tank has been increased 
from 55 to 60 litres (13.2 

I have always had a liking 
for light forward-control vehi- 
cles, notably motor caravans. 

tyre has been taken up Cruiser shows how the Japa- and took to the Space Cruiser 

era over the past year and is 
also used on the mid-range 
and 190 series. 

The 65 refers to the aspect 
ratio of a tyre height of 65 per 
cent of its width. This is a 
compromise between the 70 
aspect used on many mass 

market and exploit it, leaving 
Europe to follow with such 
vehicles as the innovative 
Renault Espace. The leisure 
market offers a chance to 
build a vehicle combining a 
small personnel carrier, van- 
type accommodation with a 

example proved a very lively 
performer and on a recent 
continental trip was able to 
cruise smoothly up to an 
indicated 86mph. The im- 
proved suspension and adop- 
tion of larger tyres give a very 
surefooted feel .free from any 

feeling of frontal instability 
sometimes encountered on 
vehicles of this configuration. 

Its comfort and conve- 
nience won it over to all who 
travelled in it and I would be 
more than content to use this 
type of vehicle for everyday 
motoring. The Space Cruiser 
certainly lacks for nothing in 
comfort, with electrically op- 
erated front windows and a 
high level of sound insulation 
among its attributes. There are 
quite a number in use in my 
part of the country and the 
latest improvements should 
ensure its continuing appeal. 
Automatic transmission is an 
option at £500. 

Vital statistics 

Model: Toyota Space Cruis- 
er S-seater 
Price: £9.350 

Engine: l.998cc four-cylin- 
der. rear-drive 
Performance: 0-60 1 8.0 sec- 
onds: top speed S8mph 
Official consumption: urban 
23.3mpg, 56mph 34.4 m pg, 
75mph 23.2mpg 
Length: 14 Tea 0.7 inches 
Insurances Group 5 

Towards zero 

Citroen has been learning 
from the Japanese as well as 
their own experience in adopt- 
ing a new level of quality 
control in car plants. The 
objective is one of “zero 
defects" and a recent visit to 
the Rennes factory where it 
was first adopted showed an 
intensive attitude to quality at 
all levels. 

Rennes has been producing 
Citroen cars since 1962 and 
turns out just over 1,000 BX 
saloons a day. The zero defect 
principle is based on two 
essential factors: the replace- 
ment of post-production in- 
spection by inspection during 
manufacture and the involve- 
ment of the whole company. 

To facilitate the inspeaion 
during assembly, the Japanese 
Andon system of warning 
lights is used on the tracks. As 
the vehicle goes down the 
assembly lines through differ- 
ent work stations, any opera- 
tor unable to rectify a problem 
at once pulls a cord which 
lights up a number above 
indicating the worker in- 
volved. An inspector comes 
immediately to offer assis- 
tance and if this fails the whole 
track is stopped . 

Citroen estimate that this 
can cost up to a hundred 
vehicles a day over the full 
manufacturing capacity, but 
that the resultant vehicle and 
lower warranty recall make it 
all worth the effort. 

-ia.a o a 1SB »B i S ..SIS S s‘S 1 “f IS - ? 

- ■>. 1 . ^ 





4 k 


Atime for flowers. 


More than words can sac 

All ctasuficd advcmscmcns 
an be accepted by ttkphone 
(occm Announcements!. The 
deadline is S OOpm j days prior 
lo poUkaiion lie S_QQpm Mon- 
day for Wednesday). Should 
you wish lo send an advertise- 
ment m wiling please indndc 
vour daytime phone number. 
PARTMENT. If you have any 
queries or problems relating to 
your advertisement once it has 
appealed, phase contact our 
Customer Services Department 
by telephone on 01-481 3006 


SUSAN ANN WJUtC ta i year oM- 
cr today and » doing very — Ol 
and giving on vuiMUftg. Love ft 




3M m. ongnal news pa per s to 
cflooae from. 24 hr coflectwn or 
posted ri tresatt a nm tube. Or- 
der by phone or letter. 

7to MMr FMa OTJ 

46 The Martel, 

Govern Garten. WC2E 8flF 
Tel B1-379 7778 (24 bn) 

•r 836 5956 




la parakof a Oldbury L#t 


witaou none, ■niuhol ctNmv 

7t fc p ta aef8.7a.W75 

Ctn praftnMnaBy 

written and produced 
curriculum vttae documents. 
Details.' 01-680 2SS9 l 
In nM Kent, introduce your- 
jdl lo mis e*cutn9 nail with a 
weekend nreak. Cuns etc W 
piled. <06941 250700 or 

263709.evenino eelb wetcatne. 
u t mtow e. uw or fwnm. 
Ail ean. areas. Otfettne. Opr 

iQtti 23 AUnodon Road. Lon- 
don W8. Tel: 01-038 lOll. 


I A Mimas. 

i etc Jr Pre 1940 

ftmitura. Tel: 01-086 0148 or 
01-228 2716 

won ted- T op Mices paid -Tel Oi 
828 0778. 

ROYAL BOULTON flgurraroand 
Toby Jug* wanted. 

. Ol 699 7198. 



Wlomdero CorVopJast 
TDes. design natural only 
£8.95 per M yd + VAT. 
Wool mix Better carpets 
4m wide Hessian backed 
£4.35 per sq yd + VAT. 
While stocks last. 


148 Wandsworth 

Parsons Green. _ . 

Tel 01-731-3368/9 

Free cattmata - Expert mans. 

the cm r 

Handmade made to measure 

Prices Root £70 


TEL 01-251 0658 


Marquise top. Good colour. Nr 

flawless. oners around 
£14.000. Far Appointment u> 
new contact BOX A09. 

OKH TODAY. Col T.V*» ft- £49. 
videos tr £99. Tops. Lower 
Stoone Street. SW1. 7300999. 

carving demmairatioii on 
Easier Monday au day at our 
Berkeley showrooms hy one or 
our own c ratam a i . Autneimc 
17th and 18th century roMica 
(Undlnra made hi our own 
WeM Country 

workshops. Telephone <04631 
01 0962- 

Owtng/Ooo r er w e 
labtejf 12fc*4ni. Gem . 
ducHon. SuuaMe 
home/ Ue p an t boardroom, i 
16/18. £1.760. ‘ 

mahoenny chain 
£76 each. Everything 

new < unused, oi 883 0221. 


12 n wide WDon carpets re- 
duced from £22 per so yd lo 
£9.60 sq yd. Chancery Carpet*. 
97/99 Oertxmwca Rd. London 
EC1. Ol 406 MU. 

TK TIWTT 17SS-1SM. Other 
Dues avail. Hand bound ready 
for presentation oho 

"Sundays". £12.50 Remember 
When. 01-668 6385. 

Starlight Em Checc. Lea Mb. 
AB theatre and spans. 

Tel: 821-6614/828-0496. 

A. Ex / VMS / Diners 
Fun Hz* Lam cetemon. Open 
ever holiday. Tel : Mr ViBta 
(028061 646 (Bucks) any time. 
MEW SOU) MLR and diamond 
ladles Rolex watch. Anxmd 
£4300. Offers welcome. Reply 
to BOX £28. 

ITAI9— — Auj' event tac Las 
Mto-Cevent Cdn. Starttgni Exp. 
Wimbledon. Gtynaenourne. oi- 
828 1678. Maw emu cams. 
THE TRIES <1814-19881. Otce 
someone an ort*nai Kstw dated 
the wry day mey own bora. 
Ten 01-486 6306. 




taca eximumb imi 
sk»< (aalelosWpdmoditaqBmr 

f Tiewrincft seat rarma wax be 
a r a pur derm «dn 050 - 25pVsL 

lor irt nii iaujn and strufse 

doth «w9mts made from vuurgan 
cMi.iWuakQO - VAT £3-50. 

an hi fit MR 
!*, frt wd! ton tour non 



™***® toodtlfar 1st 329636 



Umlicd EdtUOfB of weUmpton 
and Witen Bonap W 

£4,800 each. Reply to BOX 

£40 8UNHBU* paid for Royal 
Douimn Figure*. 

tnato also wanted. 01-291 5606. 

RUSSELL FLBfT two janlted «U- 
tun prints, one stoned For 
cMUfMohone 0256 834484. 



6ft Ito 

” Rosewood NO 61795. e*C- 
cand.. rmotuhed. refund. Of- 
fers over SSUOOQ. Ot 736 32T7. 


London’s leading spedtaHi to 
new and restored rt*no»- for 
the largest genui ne let ecOpn 
available. 50* Kioto** Rd. 
NW5 01-267 7671. Frse 


London's leading meaolBt in 
new and restored ptanos for me 
largest genuine selection avab- 
S^sS^HiNigtae Rd. NW6 
DJ-267 7671. Free catalogue 
recently IWhr reoand^bwa^ol 
dark oak on- nutddam ttntru- 
mcnl. Immac T^utfatae*. 
£Z200 ono. Tel 849 1647. 
IUITWOI PIANO 60 2"Grxnd. 
Cworflem coalition Stack case. 
£4.000 01-936 1335 Ktayl or 
01-969 6619 tevesi. 


yachts, planes & 


MBTItAta tf you are medtohav- 
tno the b«* of everything in me 
and now Mi to enjoy the ex- 
tnlaraUnp sport of wmdsurttag 
in the same manner. Tel: 0424- 
440414 for further Informattav 
on the Mtstral Range of 

Windsurfing products. 

MDOOR TOMB - Weekend 
Residential Course. With triple 
WlmtMedon OamaMo. Few 
olaces Icrt 6Ch/6th Aprd Phone 
Racquet Services tattmaBanat 
0442 72573. lanyumej. 


(L 18 yewsgid (fam- 
ily home on Cow CTAzurl 
wtshes ro do exchange VB» with 
English mri/boy of NmUaraee. 
to come to England now until 
nud June. For further details 

DteeseptMoe 01-602 2427 after 

SooTpm l or 0392 32469 over 
‘ weekend). 


CXCUMIVt Evenmg W tar. 
Designer^ samples for sale. Ol- 
631 0823 (9am-6pmi 


io ns fin- Swimming Pool Prod- 
ucts at bargain prices SurexSP 
Products. Unit IO. Airport trad- 
ing EX. Biggin H«B <0969) 
74102 ■'74333. Snata Member. 

9UN0BEH AM WINTER converts 
the widest range and best 
prices Sure* SP Products LIMI 
IO Airport trading £*L Btggto 
Hill <09991 74102/T4333. 


BXNTBKH *T WL Oeganl soac. 
lpniM .1 able bed. nee . K 6 
B CCH. Video, w /roach. £200 
pw Inc cleaner 2 lire pw. Avail 
28 Mar-end June. 01-9566870 
KENSBtBTON Large 2 bed hnro- 
ry flaL CH. only £180 pw- 
Phone 937-40 03. 


Rtog Town Use Apts 573 3433 
NEW KBIBS RD- Lovely comfort- 
able 3 bed Rat to let. £200 pw. 

Tel Ol 909 3683 

KerotnUon. Col TV24hr *rtj. 
tlx. CotUwmam Apts 373 6306 
ST JAMES JWL Luxury 2 bed 
lUUy furnished serviced sot nr 
park. Ol 373 6306 IT). 

Tfl4 LUXURY small d o u bl e ro om 
and staring noose. Nr tube- 
1160 pw rod. Tel: 01 38S 1963. 


BBLL BU. NW7 prof M/F to 
share sudous gdn flaL Own 
rm £60 p.w. Tel: 01-989 6696. 

FLATMATE* Selective Sharing. 
WcO estab muoduciory service. 
Pfse lei for appL 01489 6491. 
313 Brampton Road. SW3 

SW17. RALHA M . Comfortable 
aatm betj flat lop Door ige famBy 
fwe. gch and M. tube/BR £106 
pw roc 673 8442. 

URGENT Young lady artist srth 
part-time lob rewires accom. 
Cent ral Lo ndon- 937 9742 or 
228 2779 

UMWKtt - Female 26+ . own 
room- garden rtaL £180 p.c.ib 
tad. Tet 01 994 6162. 

STREATKAM lovely bright room 
in quiet house, for noo an 
£40 P.W. Inc. 769 3412. 



We frruisA trtjriucls & compo- 
' ip. inf 

nets, negotn ta anfl dip. 

1995 Broatam. Sutt 1500. 
New YqiIl Nt 10023. U SA 

Telex 238667 Raps) UBad AJl 

Te*Hrf»oe (21?) «6 7682 


We stso facMaK nrnnng and 
dsmbunon of yoor produea r 
Die US. 


05 - truB ail u costs to provide 
a years treatment for a leprosy 
paoenL Give whatever you can 
In cash by legacy or covenant • 
so Utal we can rid the world of 
IMS terrible disease. LEPRA. 
Dept T516. Sulle 64p. 376. The 
Strand. London wCzh out. 

requires 4 year a po nsu w hf p or 
loan arrangeme nt to study at a 
respect ab l e college Please ring 

<0246401704 for details. 





intorfjty is pkaed 1 » snaree 
4 fi*therprtg«nme of thee 
pegJgkiusjnd hfcraricnam- 
harted oan& tunneig mast 
Swvbyj if) to 31 August. 
The journey tom London 
Aron spiced « £35 and 
■ndudas Ftet Own return dmL 
Momng Cotfeg, three come 
Luncheon and Aftemoonlfea. 

FfiMufl details trte^wne 
01-388 0510/0519 (Office Hour* 
or cd m nyeta- local BR tovri 






CRETE £139. MfflORCA E12B. 
TB®dFE £197. WOOES El 49. 
KOS £13L POROS £132. . 

Vartous deps Apti/Uay me. 
vdla/apf or noM aeewn. plus Opt 
from Savncl/Mwchestg (subj 





ant ttxxnhQDl the 
BnxfUBS (24 

(vs)/instM bgotongs. 

LOt mOH Q l-ai 5456 
MANCHESTBI 061-634 5033 
SHEFFIELD 0742 331100 



The lowest cost fUghtt 

Eurocheck Travel 

01-542 4613 
01-543 4227 

Estab 1970 


single refum 
Jo-burg/Har C300 £46S 

Nairobi £220 £326 

Cairo £130 £200 

Lagos £238 £335 

IX Bom £230 £340 


ppuaU £420 

Afro Asian Travel Lid 

162 16 8 Regent S I W.J. 
to. oi-<77 aass/ en/ n 








E400 DuU 
£400 Uwbul 
£340 Joatta 
£400 Ktach 
£280 Kii/Sa 
£350 Kwtat 
£335 N York 
£240 Send 
£430 Sfd/Ud 

M£270 Tokyo 

snuwn mwd 












D± 81-431 


Nairobi. Jo’Butg, Cairo. Do- 

bai. tembuL Singapore. K.L 



Delhi. _ 

Sydney. — 

Amenos. EtrniniKO TraveL 
3 New Quebec Sl MaftHe 
Arch London WIH 7DD 

01-402 9217/18/19 

Open Saturday 1 0.00- 1 3-00 

UdlUiritl B ON /MMs.-fiaN 
10 Europe. USA * most desuna 
boas. DtoMmal Travel: 01-730 
2201. ABTA [ATA ATOL. 


Burtdngtam Travel. ABTA. 

Ol 636 8622. 

Travelwtse at 441 till. 

Travelwtse. 01-441 1111. 


Islands Ol 836 4383. ATOL 

Haymorkct 01-930 1366. 

USA from £99. Major travel. Ol 
486 9237. IATA 

01-724 2388 ABTA 

low cost ow eonrtr NY. LA 
Sydney, smgaeore. Bin g fc Mi. 
RM. Santiago. Lima. Natrotw. 
Jotnirg. aO Europe. Freedom 
Hobdays 01-741 4686 ATOL 

LATIN AW B 5 C A . . Low (W 
flights e.* Rio £496. Lima 
£476 rtn. Also Small Omm 
Holiday Journal*. JIA 01747- 


USA. & America. MW and Far 
East, s ATrica Trayvale. 48 
Margaret Start. W». Ol S80 
2928 <vna Accented) 

ROU» WORLD £746 econ. Club 
fr £1699. first fr £2036. Syd- 
ney fr £669 rtn. Cohmlxa. 
Cutlers Carden*. IO Devonshire 
Square. EC2. Ol 929 4261. 

MtCOUNTI X*t/£oanomy Bek 
et*. Tr y tu 


UW COBT FUBHT8. Mow Euro- 


01 402 4262/0062 

61004 ATOL I960 
Worldwide che a pest fare* 
Richmond TraveL 1 Duke si 
Ric hm ond ABTA 01-940 4073. 

FtlgtMs from moot UK airports 
Many late special offers. FaMor 
01 471 0047 ATOL 1640 
TWMU For that perfect holiday 

wllh sunny days 
nights. Weal for March/AprO. 
Tunisian TraveL Ol -S73 44| l. 
USA. l*l /York £169 Miami £198 
LA £299 rtn Also Ch ea p eel 
schedule fw on major US carrt- 
erv 01-684 7371 ABTA 
AUSSM. NZ. SUi Africa. U-Sla 
H ong Kong. Beet Farar 01-493 

SVD/8BEL £618 Perth £S4S All 
major carriers to AU8/NZ. 01- 
584 7371. ABTA 
SOUTH AFRICA Jo-burg hr £466. 
01-684 7371 ABTA 


Pans E69 Cairo £206 
Milan caa J-burg £346 
Alhmv £109 H Kong £096 
On 2ur C79 LA SF £345 
Taro C89 N York £375 
Vienna £129 SydMel £699 
DriW £345 TAvK £169 

st, - Sl ’- N & 1 , S . ANP m 

61-139 2100/734 6668 


Save with Swissair's 
Super Apex. 

London lo Zurich or 
Geneva daily on con- 
venient afternoon 

And daily morning 
flights London to Basle 
(except Sundays). 

Book and pay 14 days 
before departure. 

Stay in Switzerland at 
least until the Sunday 
after arrival. 

Similar savings also 
from Manchester and 
Birmingham direct to 

Book i rigs and full con- 
ditions from travel 
agents or 437-9573-. 




- ,W2 

Charming 3rd flr. FW 
ciora lo Lancaster Cat* 
tube stn. 2 double bedrms. 
pleasant front facing recep- 
tion rm Modem UJed 
luirtien & baUtrrn. £200 

01-262 5060 


Do yon nood a BOta 
row WnmMWi iw ywwr Kfg7 
lima to on ■ ■flavirian 
MendaT. Wa taw* a chosa 
of a Rack or Potart* BMW 
M635CS kt Stock w>Oi M 
sg*. Rtog: 0283 772000 lor 
8 OgtaonwDwtiotL 

Sure 0342 7171*5 


QuaBty erttttotw qaaatlon 





DetoMW 1-bed Ftai 
nil HOUSE SW3 
Rm View 1- bed Ra 
Super 1-bed Flu 

Luxury 1-bed Hat 

Hose 300 






East Bank stufts oflw ■ wde 


ttmo moms « toe Upper 
Leytonstnoa area p5 mauRs to 

city), to newty fimstod Vttsnsn 
Hrms wti beauttoJy «ed 

stand WdMrt twmoms. 
Prtces range tram ESto E40tor 
a sogto aid £45 to £60 to dou- 
bles and seif cooraed studw 
roams wUinottwio else to ml 
P twne East Bank andps an SB 
1201/2 « 989 BIOS or 530 

Belgrevu. Ptmllco. Wcrtmtn- 
urr Luxary hovucs end Rata 
avail able for long or abort lets. 
Pteora ring fbr ciarrrfd ml 
C oous 69 Bucklogtam Rklace 
ROPd. SWl. 01-828 8251. 


avail. « read, tor dfpMmata. 

HI yn* Upfriond A Co. 48. 
Albemarle 9 W1 . 01-499 6334. 

, Fully funwaned 

luxury flat auperb elegant decor 
and rarntaMng*. with french 
.window* * brtcootes la 48 

room*. Big lounge 2 aoubt e tad; 

rooms- a bawooms- rufly mro 
luxury kitchen. £ 2 O 0 p.w. Tet 
722 2366. 

lux flata/bouaea up to £800 
p.w. uvoai fees tee. Phimpe 

Kay 6 Lewis. South of the Park. 

Chelsea office. 01-362 Bill er 
North or the Park. Rrgenrs 
Pro* office. 01-722 8136. 

ouaUty rmUhed/ Unfurnished 
propcrtlc* io KecotagtoP. 

RlcbmuwX. Flora 
£100 pw, Fteara tel with y our 
reoulrmanta Ol 2*« 7383. 



Mtchov . 

coreauMiig. £450 pop. Refer- 
ence* regutred. 0732 863236. 

niture auppaed for ahort or tong 

Can Mr MKtad 
Nortury. John Strand Con- 
tracts Lid. Tel 01-486 8616. 

SJCCRSaMTUN. Lge bright re- 
cently fum 1 bad flt Fitted Wl 
ail maebs. Private gdn. CKne 
tube/buae*. Go let pnf. £200 
pw DC 9 . 373 8046 (Mon/TUe*) 

- 244 8804 forward*). 

LUXURY 2 BEDROOM flat dote 
w Q wo nuray and Hyde Parle, 
cotour TV. warning m a rtitae . 
serviced. £280 pw. Long or 
Short let. Ol 884 7213. 

HYDE PARK «. Unique I 
bed /studio apastiuuiL Terrace- 
Garage. Co let only. 
£176PW.T«L 72* 8897. 

MAYFAEt/NVDE PARK lax 1. 2. 
3. 4 6 6 Bed tats A house*. 
Lopg/short tat*. Bret price*. 

. 936-9612 

UPER ALL EASIER nmk aa rtl 8 

branche* and 26 stall to toot 
you. Over 1800 ratal*. 627 
2610 r 

i 01-689 6481. 

contact us for a competitive A 
reliable service. 01-439 9130 
STY. LUX 2 bed mats. K/B 
LouogfLCH- F/F. T*L £138 pw. 
Tet Ol 661 874a 

bedrro. art bedim, k ft k CH. 
GDI T.V. £120 ».*. 834 9733. 
BESEMIW PARR /Portland Ptuoe. 
Magnlf tux reforb 2 bed Oak. A0 
mod cona. £28taw. 936 9088. 
tube /shop*. Fur/uurur. Ml Ol 
937 3933 


TAKE TUBE OFF to purl*. APv 

Hague. Dubdn. Rouen. Boa* 
loroie 6 Dieppe Time Off. 2a. 
Chester Close. L ondo n SW1X 
7BQ. 01*236 8070. 


e to the 

Palmer * Parker tn ue book . 
AvaUJOta ta Airanc. Un b e l t* 
South of France. USA. B Wert 
bxae*. Moat nave Raff. aB have 

private dooB* none are cheap. 
Bractiro 1049 481) 5413. 



PUU.1QMCA For nottyMa 

house hostelry an with peon 
and away from the uowdsert 
Patricia WWrtuood LW c»a9 
817023 dr 02 -688 6722 ABTA 
ATOL 1276. 

Sim 6. SwtmpeeL Map. view*. 
Ruafow (02618) 2196. 



co»<«J and rural cottages, most 
dans from £100 p.w. 0223 536 
761.337 477. 


Brittany. Alp* A Gen. 
wMh/wttbeot ferries. 01602 



BIYCOms. Vina an beach. 

views, sleep* 


tal. 01-332 9979. 

spume m Corfu. Apro/May 
special price* ta oar attractive 
vton. Ring Pan World HoKtaw 
01 734 2662 

a WCB S APWL R AR e AlRSl wk 

£149 2 wfc* £169 IdcL Tet 
dfewam 0703 863BJ4. 


The new master of Manton talks to Michael Seely 

v . .. 

Sangster’s secret weapon m 

•- • 

Michael Dickinson, temporarily a 
self-imposed hermit, is still jealously 
qpsrrtin^ fortress Manton against all 
mfrudors. Situated in a hollow on the 
windswept downs above Marlborough, 
this historic training centre is . now the 
headquarters of the formerly brillia nt 
National Hunt operator as be prepares 
hims elf for his new role as Robert 
gangster's secret weapon in the Isle of 
Man' based millionaire's fight against 
the Opec rich Arabs for supremacy on 
the British turt 

Before being head-hunted by 
Saagster, ' Dickinson hit the woridof 
jumping like a whirlwind. By combining 
the horse sense inherited from his 
parents, Tony and Monica, with his 
own natural intelligence and experience 
gained as a successful jockey and as a 
member of the family team, this single- 
minded perfectionist enjoyed a startling 
four years in Yorkshire- On Boxing Day, 
1982 he saddled the world record 
number of 12 winners in an afternoon. 
During the 1982-83 campaign he set a 
new national record with 120-winners in. 
the season and was champion trainer on 
three occasions. 

The highlight df-his short reign was 
undoubtedly that dramatic afternoon in 
March 1983 when he trained the first 
five home in chasing's most important 
prize, the Cheltenham Cold Cup. Clad 
in a black covert coat with a velvet 
collar, the trainer was high on adrenalin 
that day as he charged round ' the 
unsa ddlin g enclosure welcoming his 
quintet home. , . . 

Dickinson moved into Manton in 
July 1984. Since then a veil of secrecy 
ha< surrounded its transfor m a ti o n into 
a modern complex of offices, stables 
and renovated gallops, including all- 
weather strips. Sangster himself esti- 
mates an expenditure of over £2 million 
during this period. 

History stalks the beech-lined ave- 
nues and rolling downs of the 2^00-acre 

estate. The house and stables were built 

in 1870 for Alec Taylor, senior, who 
gave the yard its first Derby winner with 
Seftouin 1878. Between 1901 and 1927, 
his son, Alec, despatched 21 classic 
winners, these triumphs including the 
victories of Lemberg, Gay Crusader and 
Gainsborough in the Derby. 


day and lean teO you that ifsa big ship 
to launch." - 

He then discussed the gallops. “You 
mustn't forget that since Geoige Todd 
retired m 1973, tbey^ only been partly 
used. There's a great deal to tuef 
management. There had to be a lot of 
treatment and mowing to encourage the 
growth of grass underneath. They’re 
getting better, but they’re sot TOO par 
cent yeL They’ll be at their best relate 
.'summer. That's one reason why Tm 
anticipating a quiet first haff to the 



Just as nature abhors a vacuum, so 
too do the media and a news-hungry 

public resent being deprived of informa- 
tion, particularly when die subject 

concerns such flamboyant personalities 
as Dickinson and Sangster. 

Dickinson's pre-occupation with his 
work and his meticulous retention to 
detail have long hfiGfUegnndaiy, but re 
present be seems on the best of tores 
with himself and with fife. “You know 
bow uptight I sometimes get," be said. 

Vs the chance of a 
lifetime — I won’t 
get another like ft’ 

The trainer had flu on Tuesday. But 
gallantly aware of his responsibilities to 
fiis fens, he staggered bravely from ins 
sick bed to the telephone -to give the 
latest state of play. Surprisingly he plans 
to be in action quite soon. Haydock^ 
Park on April 9 could well seelhe firing 
of the first eagerty awaited shot > 

“At the moment Tm really relaxed and 
enjoying myself I love Manton and I 
like working for the boss. And I’ve seen 
nrore change during tbepast l 2 months 
than in the whole of my previous fife.” 
Talking about his reasons for switch- 
ing to the said: “ft was saddling 
the first five in the Gold Cup that 
started it After aU 1 couldn't start 
thinking ahoui having the first six. Bui 
when I was first approached, I doubted 

Bfenfatfcast Is tfcesaoe dedicated 
there, Akc Taylor janior 
X)erbywmse£,and o&ersTtf.K^VLake 
and Nuneyev. “The six GoUes Fleeces 
foofc&oe being my oofr chance of getting 
any return on my investment as the 
qoration of insnrtnce ureh Lloyds is stffl 

mKprf ffrf" ^tn pt w UtifL 

Snagrter owns a 20O«rmg band of 
brood-mares, budt up over a periodof 15 
years They include soch topeftss rare- 
mares as Detroit, wimvff of the J 980 Prix 
de TArc de Tricn^jter DurtaL Miss 
Toshiba and Royal He roi n e, who was , 

voted champmnffass mare in the Slates - 0,-1 { 
in 1984. • ’ ; 

The mSfionare then farfocr explained 
his thinking- “In tbe long nm it’s not 
going to be easy fbr bfienlieL «tb ooly 

reffion aj tas k. Tho mntore of these 
pischases aad bones from tben^ own 
starts wmdd ffvt die Arabs too mik^ of ; ‘ 

an advantage. " _ 

the mare this time, 

my ability to do it cm- the Flat and 
red offers 



. "Well Jtevr td fry and find moie 
pareoeish^honexfblrlmu. Fot p rgniffe , 
IVe done a deal witfc the owner of a 
jearunatioB to Ttothem Dancer. His 
ycadmg oo^raa of Detroit wiB go to 

“Bolivia win probably be my first 
runner. She’s a three-year-old! filly who 
won a listed race in Germany in record . 
time last season, though she was a .bit 
disappointing- afterwards.” He afeo. 
intends trying out a few two-year-olds 
before the end of ApriL “Four or five 
have come to hand quite early including . 
Camino Real and Guest Performer. 
Then there’s Veryam Barn, a Storm Bird 
filly out of Queen Of Cornwall, whom 
Michad Stoute won a few races with; 
and Noble Hero, by Storm Bird out of 
Noble Mark, who is a half-brother to 
The Noble Player." ‘ 1 

Kirmann and Waafi are interesting 
additions to the list of older horses. 
“I've only got six of these. Coincidental 
won a six-furlong handicap for Mick 
Lambert last season. HeU act as lead 
horse for the two-year-olds arid we 
might pick up a ample of races with 
him. We bought Kirmann from the Aga 

Khan. He won the Jockey Club Stakes at 

Newmarket last May. Waafi is ah 
interesting proposition. We only had to 
give 1 6,000 guineas for him at Newmar- 
ket as he went to pieces last season. But 
he was a pretty good two-year-old when 
trained by Paul Cole. We bought these 
to give a bit of balance to the team in its 
first season.” 

Astute showman that he is, Diddnson 
has obviously refished shrouding , his 
operations in an atmosphereof mystery. 
However, as with all his actions, an 
underlying seriousness of purpose has 
gui ded his thinlring;. 

“This is the most important part of 
my career,” he explained. “IVe been 
given a marvellous job. ft's the chance 
of a lifetime, m never get another like 
it, so Tve got to put it alfin. I had a year, 
off when I went round the world — to 
Australia and to America four times. 
But the past 1 2 months I've, had to seal 
myself off completely. After aH Tvegot 
to be trainer, estate manager .mid 
building manager aQ colled' into one. 
Everything's been all go and non-stop 
every minute of the day. 

“rm having my press day on May 20 l 
I want to be fair to every one and show ' 
them the place when ifs ready, all of 
them together. That will be Manton’s 

turned offers down. It 

Whittmgham, the American _ . i=k 

who finally changed my mind- . . Mant o a Thtt a n&gna . God alpp e knows 

“Harewood ^ a marvdtoos pto. the 

Bft there were improvements in .>r ; .. : 

ties I waited to instil that the 


I Art 


Brum Powdl and George Fos«^ . foid : »L 
otfief men from Yorirshirethrel’wreiw^^ 
togfveachaiice to.- .V' .; . ■■ ’■ ■■' 

“Robert was another reason. Every- 
one told me that he’s a marvellous man 
to work for and it’s true; He doesn't put 
any pressure on ywL The challenge stifl 
scares me, fooi^gh. Thenfs^ ■ much ■. ' 

competition oh the Hat The .idea of 
taking on the likes Of Cecfl, Stoute, 
Hera, Harwood and company makes 
me shiver in my boots.' 1 

up bafcf hesakt “He's put alotof 
pipe aod^fifort iatn the place, 
got ^fo sa? Jitfs got . guts.” 

However, hones are not just machines to 
Dickinson and he retains _a strong 
affection for ihe brave Chasers that 
brou^it ham feme. “If my fiery ^godmoith- 
ercouldgrantnie a wish,” be went on, “it 
would be that when Wayward Lad and 
Captain Jrdm havefimshed radng. foey 
wQl be aBowed .fo spend the rest of their 
days at Manton as my hacks.”' - 

*•- io-.:- 

- ..1 

’ ») 

* - . - - Si-i 

.1 tr 

■ t ■ : 

; > »» :• 


r 'rfr m -1 

^ --»!■• -JUT- 

H ■ 

the anunmiMmi 
he can’t be expected 
to fire winnn^ salvoes’ 

Wiih^40 two-year-olds and only, ox 
older fiotses, the trainer vriS not be- 
expecting too many firew oihs in his first 
year. And of course the more backward 
two-ycar-okls, the ones, with Classic 
potential, are unhkdy to be 9een until 
later in the season. “Tm new here with a 
young team. We’ve got a lot to leasm 
about Hat raring and also abrattMamoti. 
After aD when you first move into a new 
.house, you don't expect everything io 
workperfediy at tmee.”' . 

He reacted ind^nantiy to die idea that 
Dawn Run outstayed .Wayward lad.m 
that dramatic batflr for the Gold Cup. 
“Utter nonsense,* he ietoiried. “Wayward 
Ladgot tired because he hadn’t had a race 
between Kemptoo and Chehenhain. He'll 
beat tire mate at Lxvopool, just you see.” 

W*— * ■ - 

- - 

Vs ' ' ■ • *• 

: 1* ’ **• 

ty tothei 

obsessed by his pnriraaon. 'Tm a.very 
boring man,” be condutfcd. **rve got flo 
bobbies and -I thrak holidays, me a 
complete waste oftime-ButTmaha^y 
man and, at the end of foe day, that’s 
• what hfc’srdxnti.” . v 

Sar^sier is w^l aware rffthe difficulties 

that vriD face the trainerashe strives to re- 
store Manton. to its 'former poation of 
preentirtence. The man, who has been 
Britain's le a ding owner five times in foe 
past nine years, envisages h» new 
headquarters as playing a vital role: not 
only in foe preservatron and expansion of 
his own i,400horse empire butjflsiysfc 
the fongterm, in that of jaoduong h^h-- 
da^s stallions and mares. 

Dfckinsoo ft wrong. Fimatics may be 
coutroveisial, bull they are neverdufl. 
Mkfaael Dickmson’s pursuit of excetltncc 
on foe Rteiproauses to bcevery bit asen- 
‘ • arid insfiucti ve as was his- 

•. c ar e er ’ under teHmai Hunt 

* . 


foove through 

“It was the man, not foe place, ! wort 
for” he said. ^Michaers bnDiant recpid. 
freaks for itself Tm not worried about 
the trainer or foe estabtifomenti I' juft 
want to get him foebesthoraes— ’.vnfooitt. 
the ammiHution be carft be e xp ec te d to 
fire wimm^ salvoes.” -- ■ ’ 

The Hamer's twowr-alds mdiy k im . 
horses by Gddai Fleece, the dead 1982 

foei&&cs& Encyclopaedia ofF lot Rad ng 
came.te mind. ^Alec Taylor _ had no 
tastefor social fife bribe luxuries that tie 
could wcU have afforded -JL He Jed. a 
frugal fife at Manton, wfaiefahe only left 
fin- a racecourse but never fora holiday. 

•* . w-'*' a v 


•>> * - xv 
■ ^ v ■* 

- Yet .‘The wizard of Manton”; as be 
was popularly known^ WM one of tte 
greal trainers of his era. Truth b often 
aran^r than fiction and histrary also 
has m uncanny hahat ofrepcatihgiisclf 
Michad Dickrittbtt ; ft cerainly casr in 
the same dedicated- : mould -- as Jris 
iBustricms ^wateccssor. .. 

■ '■ r «'’ - 



Beanpole boys are shape of future 


Royal ^Bank feigtiA Cup finals 
has resulted in a switch of this 

centre near Wolverhampton 
were-anything to go by. 

S r's finals on May 11 from the 
tannia Sports Centre in 


Shoreditch to the Oystal Palace 
National Sports Centre. 


Crystal Palace, which can seat . 
more spectators than Britannia, 
will also be the venue next year, 
when it is planned to bold the 
event over two days and to 
presenl four new finals, under- 
17 and under-19 -competitions 
for men and women, to add to 
the present junior and senior 
fianls for men and women. 

The juniors represent the 
future shape of the sport in this- 
country, which is likely to be 
extremely tall, if last weekend’s 
Royal Bank English Schools cup’ 
finals at the Worn bourne spore 

lutlte .... 

team' 'from 

■Portsmouth, were four ^ 
under-46 internationals, all six 
feet tall or more: Chad Franidin, 

vicunious^urbrook under- 1 1 
team; Mark TulL who at 6ft 
4Vzin also {days for England 
under-20, Jason McQueen, the 
captain, and James Blissetri 
Also playing in the under- 16 
team was Bradley Piper, who is 
6ft 2in tall. . 

can effecti v e ly Mode m a s por t 
whidu m internatiouaL terms, 
has become beanpdexftL 

..In England's spud are .men 
likffTony Pinoott, at 6ft 8ia, 
.Marek Bamsiewicz, at 6ft 6Mu 
aad~Stnart Fullerton, axa mere 
6 ft 5!6in. Allowing for y onth's 
natural growing tendencies the 
bcqrs from Purmook cauld end 
up edipsingeven these modern- 
day guurts. 

Anknr Lowcznowski,' foe 
senior men's national coach, is 
taking probably foe tallest Ed- ' 
men’s team ever to the 
ripg Dip competition m Aus- 
l .neat. month. - in foe knowl- 
edge that only the snngiea men 

Sussex chairman 

. Maurice Ledtey is foe- new 
rijarnnan .of Sussex County 
Cricket Ctub.Fonneriy thevtce- 
diamnan,' he takes overfrom Dr 
David Race, who has held foe 
post for five yearn. • 


: -" : <4 - . -‘i 
. - « • • * -4 

- Lacy Soottet the dr en c e st e r 
teenager who hokfe both , foe 
national sonar and woddhmiw 
"titles. : is seeded to play -m foe 
wdnam's firal' of itext- monfo'^ 
Hi-Tec foifofo Openchatapkrtt- 
ships' as Wembley, but her path 
to that sdiednkd-dash vrith 
Susan Devqy; the wodd dttflf- 
pion proper is - frai^ht with 
danger (Cohn McQuillan 
write sL" ' v •' ‘ 

As eariy as foe foird^ round of 
foe c6mpetibofl, M3ss Sontter 
must deal -with tfae challenge of 
Vkkt ChrdwdL'. Austolia’a 29- 
year-old -former- wodd cham- 


* h 





in nature of 


- rs 

r- , •■. 




.ns 1 

.. ■“ )*■ 
. r--!* 









-i •*■• 

There has never btisn so 
much talk as -there is now 
about “uneven Jbounce”. 
From all .around the. cricket 
world batsmen complain 
about it as thdtnb it is a new 
phenomenon. But to what 
extent is that so? 

. • For a start,:- it bias always 
happened and if a fest bowler 
. bends hxs bade for one hoB but 
next .the bounce wifl 
vjOThowever good the pitch. 
That is <MKjrf the thicks of his 
trade and the fester the bowler 

- the^p efflar. the, problem on a 
j : -faat$ map. To blame it on 
'iP®^ hy calling rt uneven 
“^bouncer is inaccurate. 

Ail three Testpitcb- 
'esf^Sabma Park in Kingston, 

'■ WM Oval in Port-of- 
.. Spai^and Kensington Oval 
here ^ have produce^, palpa- 
. hie footers on rife first day of 
v foe 4 * thatches, and that never 
used to be’ the case. In former 

- dfeit ywild more lively haw- 
" Bt^’l^c thiid or fourth day of 

ai match before the first of 
them anpeared. 

" At: Sabina Park in 1967- 
1968 you -could pint .your 
fingers into the cracks that had 
'developed by that stage of a 
match audit was when the ball 
hit one of those that it might 
have kept low. The pitch there 
was always beautifully flat 
Last month it was visibly 
uneven, so that when the ball 
pitched on a slight down slope 
it would shoot whereas from 
an up slope it might slide. 

That is .what is meant by 
uneven bounce — and bowlers 
of the pace of Bolding, Mar- 
shall, : Garner and Patterson 
can- exploit it to devastating 
effect. , ■ 

The - ridge at Lord's also 
produced its entirely unpre- 
dictable flyers, and there is 
now talk cif a iidge at Sydney 
■teving ; the same effect At 
Perth, m Western Australia, 
which onceboasted the fastest 
and truest pitch in the world, 
the game has Quite changed. 
Today, more often foai> not, - 
the 0 ^ moves all over the 
place.- Here /in Bridgetown, 

. what used to be a lovely pitch 
for hatting has became a last 
bowler’s fairground. They say 
it has to be kept grassy, 
otherwise it disintegrates, but 
how. In that case, did they 
have some wonderfully good 
games -of cricket when the 
grass was taken ofi? 

.The last of these was 10 
years ago when West Indies* 
last-wicket pair survived the 
final 7$ minutes of the nwunfr 
to deny Pakistan victory. Pa- 
kistan male 435 and- 291, 
West Indies 421 and 25) for 
nine. The pitch on which 
England lost the third Test* 
here recently was, in feet, a lot 
less green than some. General- 
ly, tnougb,.they put altogether 
too much of a premium on 
speed, which is, of course, the 
strongest West Indian suit 
It is the same through most 
of the Caribbean and this, 
together with all the short- 
pitched bowling, is undermin- 

ing the standards of West 
Indian, batsmanshipu Only this 
week Oive Lloyd was com- 
m eh ting on . foe alarming 
shortage ofhigb-scoring young 
. batsmen. . The only one nnder 
30.toaverage over 30, Living- 
stone Lawrence, came from 
the Leeward Islands. No fewer 
than II bowless average under 

20 with foe ball, eight of them 
members of the fast brigade 
and two of the others mature 
■■ off spinners. ' 

. The First Test match at 
Sabina Park, which itself war- 
canted an . X-certificate. was 
■’ said to. have been a. garden 
party compared with a couple 
of Jamaica's ' Shell Shield 
games there, when Guyana 
and foe Leewards were both 
bowled out for nnder 70. The 
bounce then was as bad as foe 
bouncers ' were inordinate. 
Playing for foe Leewards, 
Richards was out cheaply to 
Patterson twice in a day. 

. - Unless there is a return to 
really good batting pitches — 
fiat hue and one-paced — 
there must be a strong case for 
introducing : into first-class 
cricket out here (as well as 
elsewhere) -something similar 
to foe present orie-day rule on 
li m iti n g, say to one an over, a 
ball bouncing over the 
batsman's shoulder in his 
natural stance at the wicket. If 
not even the West Indians* 
peat natural instinct for bat- 
ting could be suppressed by< 
persistently short-pitched 
bonding on pitches of genuine- 
ly uneven bounce. 

Pakistan squander their chances 

. Colombo (Reuteri — Sri 
Lanka's fourth-wicket pair, 
Asarika Gnrusinghe and Aijuna 
Ranatunga, batted through the 
final day- of the third Test 
puuchagainst * Pakistan yes- 
terday lo force a draw that left 
the series tied 1-1. . 

Gurnsmghe, aged only 19, 
made 1,16 not out, his first Test 
hundred, and Ranatunga 135 
notout, the pair putting on 240 
to take Sri Lanka from 83 for 
three overnight 10 323 at foe 
dok& Pakistan had Ted by 37 on 
first innings. 

Gurusinghe and Ranatunga 
were helped in their obdurate 
standby some shoddy fielding, 
eight catches going down during 
the final day. Ranatunga was 

dropped five tones — at 7, 10, 
12, 25 and 26 — twice each by 
Salim and laved in' the slips and. 
- once by foe wicketkeeper, 
2ulqannin . 

. Imran, foie Pakistan. captain, 
said: “I have never been so 
embarrassed by our fielding I 
am ashamed to be part of a 
fielding side like this,** but he 
praised Gmusingfae’s batting: 
“He played a very mature ana. 
gutsy innings which I : feel was 
foe best of foe-series." But he 
said -be had been very happy 
with the umpires in this Test ' 

- “They were good and I have 
nq complaints. We had a lot of 
faith in these umpires through- 
out this game." Imran’s scathing 
attack 00 the Umpiring after the 

second Test had soured rela- 
tions between the two sides. 
They became so bad at one 
point that Pakistan sa id they 
would cafioff the rest of the tour 
and return home. 

8M LANKA: Hntf tanfamani (IRD 
Usngta 58. A RamuigaSS; Imran Khan 4 

RSIManmbMm 4 

AGunufagtniiotout - IIS 

A OoSmi e Mtandad b imnn 

PA Da 

A Ranatunga not out 

Extras (b 19.b7.nb2, wl) , 
Total Pwkts). 





FALLOF WICKETB: 1-f a aaa 343. 
BOWLING: Aloara 29-11-72-1; knran 25- 
44S« ZaWr 21-4-70-0: Qadr 22-5-70-0; 
Mudacsar 19049-0: Matt 1-HML 
PAKISTAN: PM M«a 318 (Oman 
Raja 122; JR Ratnay*fca4 lor 116 ). - 


Four clubs hot on 
heels of Halifax 

By Keith Macklin 

dare Wood: the spring winner after a discouraging winter (Photograph: Tommy HindJey) 


Youngsters take the stage 
against a bleak backdrop 

By Rex Bellamy, Tennis Correspondent 

Clare Wood of Haywards 
Heath, aged 18. beat Torquay’s 
Valda Lake, aged 17, by 7-5, 6-4 
in the final of the British 
Women's Tennis -Association 
ring tournament at Queen's 
ub. West Kensington, 

The match was less significant 
than the context in which it was 
played: a bleakly discouraging 
sample of foe sort of thing 
British youngsters have had to 
suffer, in order to gain decent 
competition at this time of year. 

Miss Wood who was born in 
Zululand but ranks 13th in 
Britain, is a member of the 
Lawn Tennis Association's 
international squad, and is 
coached by Day Des wherever it 
happens to be convenient — 
Lewes, Haflsham or Eastbourne. 
She is currently busy with her A 

Miss Lake, four places lower 
in the natiorial jumor ranking s, 
has been playing fuH-time for a 
year and is a m ember of 
Britain's 18 and under training 
grOup.She'has been coached at 
Torquay by that renowned sage, 
Arthur Roberts, and at foe 
expense offoeLTA also receives 
additional help - from Ken 
Fletcher at Slough- 





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pair are 

By^ Wfiflam Stephens 

. Tonbridge yesterday recorded 
their fourth win of the public 
schools championship since 
1981 when they retained the 
trophy through Jonathan Long- 
ley and James Waters defeating 
Clifton - (Giles Palmer and 
Damian White) 15-12, 15-1, 15- 
2, L5-8- in the final at Queen's 

Longley, holder of ihe HJC 
Foster Cup, was the outstanding 
player, he was severe in service 
and dominated foe front of foe 
court with lefoaUy cut-kill foots. 
Waters was not-content to play 
second fiddle and shared in foe 
unimnittiittaggiasion. Longley 
registered 24 service winners to 
Waters V seven. Palmer’s four 
and White's seven. 

Tonbridge also 'won foe Sec- 
ond Pairs Cup when -Jeremy 
WBmot- and James Owen- 
Browne defeated' the 
Wdfihgtonians. Paul Tennant 
and wSliam Waghorn, 3-15, 17- 
18, 15-2, 16-13,75-10, 15-1 ma 
fine -match. Eton prevented a 
dean sweep in yesterday’s finals 
when their .Colts (undeMfi) 
pair,. Hatton Swiagfcbuxst and 
Richard Smith- Bingham, de- 
feated the Tohbridgjans, David 
Penfold and Richard GUI, 15-8, 
5-15, 12-15, 15-7, 15-6. 15-8. On 
Wednesday Marlborough 
(Tborold Barker and James 
Hey) won the Peter Gray Cup 
(abder-1 5) beatrngRugby (Rich- 
ard Montgomerie and James 

Fhmds) 15-7, 15-8, 18-13. 


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• j. HOCKEY ; 

UAU get 






By Sydney Friskin 

UAU regained the British 
Universities Sports Federation 
title after beating Scotland in foe 
final at Loughborough yes- 
terday. It was their ninth out- 
right win, the honours having 
been shared in 1974 with 

Scotland who had beaten 
UAU 3-2 in foe group match 
could not recover the sparkle 
they had shown against London 
whom they had defeated 2-1 
after extra time in Wednesday's 
semi-final. UAU, who had an 
easier 4-1 win over their second 
team on the same day, looked 
more composed yesterday. 

Only after Scotland reduced 
the leal to 2-1 in the second half 
did they pose a threat. They had 
five short c o rners in this period 
bur did not have enough vari- 
ation in their drill to confound 
the UAU defence. 

UAU ' went ahead in the 
seventh minute when Bloxham 
converted a foot! comer. David 
Bather consolidated their po- 
sition in the 25th minute by 
scoring from a penalty stroke. It 
was conceeded by Wifliams who 
was judged to have put a high 
stick to the bah as it was 
travelling into goal off Skinners 
scoop. Scotland’s goal was 
scoredby Bradley from a-pass by 

UAU: B BaxamWK A MSfch* C 

I R Champion. CBrt.D 
J Baaa, R Sssn , ~ ~ 

Starmar. A Btoxham. 
SCOTLAND: N Howe* H Kannedy. 0 
Steam, D WAfiams, D McFMand, S 
McCannw. K Knapp. M Smith. D 
Stanfield. M Yrtmateos, R Bradley. 

M Marfan (Eaatom Cour*sJ and 

h {Northern Counties). ■ 

RESULtfe BatafnNr Sctttomd 2. Lorv- 
don 1 ( 00 $ UAU 1 4: UAU U 1. Ffettb UAU r 
2. Scotland 1. Ttttf ptac*: UAU 0. 4 
London 2. nuiatacat iwrthetn Ireland 4. 

Cambridge, i. 'iquM 

Wales a 

Busy time 
for women 

This is foe weekend for hockey 
tournaments and festivals. Un- 
do- the captaincy of Sheila 
Henderson. Scotland are 
.competing at an invitation 
event in Bifthoven, Nether- 
lands, where the 12 participating 
twam* wQl comprise a mixture 
of internationals and dubs 
(Joyce Whitehead writes). 

With the weekend tour- 
nament under their belts, Scot- 
land win then take on a varied 
selection of opponents over . a 
period of three days, . among 
them a team of former Dutch 

The England under-18 side, 
meanwhile, are in Eindhoven at 
an international tournament 
involving France, West Ger- 
many, Netherlands, Scotland 
and Wales. In all they {day four 
matc hes, op e ning to day with a 
game against Fiance. 

At ‘ home foe 2Sfo Easter 
Festival at Penzance has at- 
tracted 40 teams* 

Her mother played table ten- 
nis for England for 10 years and 
there is a remote blood link with 
foe 1961 Wimbledon champion, 
Angela Mortimer. 

In short, these are interesting 
and promising players and, as it 
happens, attractive young 
women. Their problem, shared 
with a host of others, is that the 
winter is only half-used (a 
charitable estimate) in terms of 
competitive preparation for the 
tournaments ahead, foe most 
immediate being foe British 
junior championships. 

The idea for foe past four days 
was to play outdoors on shale. 
Well, they played outdoors, but 
often on foe hard, all-weather 
courts alongside foe LTA of- 
fices. You know the kind of 
weather we have had: the final 
had to be shifted from shale to a 
surface that absorbs rain fester. 
Even so. the match began an 
hour lare. foe foothold was some 
way short of perfection, and the 
wind became a nuisance. 

Some of foe spectators were 
better known than the players, 
lies had come up from East- 
bourne to watch Miss Wood. 
Susan Mappin. the women's 
national team manager, 
emerged from her office to point 
Out that two BWTA tour- 

r aments in consecutive weeks 
had given foe plavers compet- 
itive experience at a time when 
there was not much happening 
at this level. 

Miss Mappin's former 
Wightman Cup doubles partner. 
Lesley Charles, who looks after 
the I Sand under group, reckons 
Miss Lake has improved a lot in 
foe past year “Mentally, she has 
lapses. But her attitude, her 
strokes and her length are all 
getting better." 

The final was umpired by a 
well-known Wimbledon ofirctal 
Georgina Clark, who is also tour 
director of the Women's Tennis 
Association. “In this country," 
she said yesterday, “there is not 
much going on at this time of 
year. They do a lot of winter 
training but there are not many 
tournaments. The BWTA is 
trying to fill some of the gap." 

In this instance foe BWTA 
also had to sponsor foe event 
themselves, for foe first time. 
But for their willingness to do 
so, a bunch of Britain’s ranked 
players— plus others just behind 
them — would have been de- 
prived of even this modest 
chance to test themselves as 
match players. Tennis is not half 
as lough at foe top as it is at the 
other end of the ladder. 

Decisive matches in foe race 
for foe championship will be 
played during the Easter week- 
end. and several of those games 
will be decided in a full Good 
Friday programme today. Hali- 
fax are the leaders, with Wigan, 
Widnes. L eed s and Hull Kings- 
ton Rovers, chasing them with 
matches in hand_ 

Halifhx travel to Castleford to 
meet foe Wembley finalists, and 
the outcome of this game could 
depend on whether Castle ford 
are in a mood to emphasize foe 
justice of their Wembley appear- 
ance. or are content to rest on 
their laurels and ride foeir 
remaining league fixtures 
comfortably. This latter option 
could prove dangerous, since 
Castieford are uncomfortably 
pear the relegation zone, and I 
imagine they will lift their game 
against the league leaders. 

Wigan make the short journey 
to St Helens for the traditional 
ground-packing derby game. 
Ella and Gill expect to be fit, and 
Wigan will face a St Helens side 
who could be demoralized by 
the club's decision to place five 
players on the transfer-list, 
including Harry Pinner, the dub 
and Great Britain captain, at 
£95.000. Again, the attitude of 
foe players is a toss-up: The 
Saints may collapse under foe 
weight of the controversial list- 
ing ofPinner. or the side will rise 
to great heights with foe backing 
of the huge crowd. 

Warrington had their champ- 
ionship hopes badly bruised by 
defeat at Bradford on Wednes- 

day, but they can dimb back 
into contention by winning yet 
another traditional holiday 
derby at home to Widnes. 

In the second division Barrow 
and Leigh, the runaway promo- 
tion favourites, are in action. 
Barrow visit Blackpool Borough 
to face a team capable of rising 
to I he occasion, while Leigh will 
expect to complete the double 
over Rochdale Hornets, the 
contenders for the third promo- 
tion place. 

Not engaged today because of 
tomorrow’s challenge cup semi- 
final are Hull Kingston Rovers. 
This adds to their appalling 
fixture congestion, which in- 
volves the playing of JO games 
in 23 days, a ludicrously cruel 
situation which could rob 
Rovers of the championship 
they currently hold. 

• Des Drummond, Leigh's 
world record £120,000-1 is led 
Great Britain winger, has been 
suspended by the second di- 
vision leaders for a 
fortnight- Leigh have banned 
Drummond after a heated ex- 
change with a director following 
last Sunday's league win over 

A League spokesman said: 
“Efforts to restore peace with 
Des at foe club have taken place 
but the player has been unwill- 
ing to discuss his grievance." 

Drummond replied: “A 
packed players bar was not foe 
right place. I've been training 
and its obvious I want to plav." 


Eilberg is on his own 

By Jenny McArthur 

Ferdi Eilberg on Giovanni 
and David Hunt on Maple 
Zenith, both professionals, once 
again took foe honours at 
yesterday's Dressage Selection 
Trials at Slone! eigh in Warwick- 
shire. Eilberg and Giovanni 
capped lneir win in 
Wednesday's advanced class 
with an even better performance 
for victory in yesterday's Grand 
Prix, beating Hunt,foe runner- 
up, by 14 marks. 

Lady Joicey and her home- 
bred Powdermonkey also con- 
firmed the form they have 
shown abroad during foe winter 
with an authoritative test which 
earned them third place and, not 
surprisingly, a place on the short 
list for foe learn for the World 
Championship in Canada in 

But the most eye-catching 
performance came from Frances 
Rudge on Florida Flash, who 
finished fifth behind Jennie 
Loriston-CIarke on Dutch GokL 
A former eventer, Florida Flash 

seemed to love every minute of 
foe Grand Prix. test As a result, 
Mrs Rudge. together with Jackie 
Fariow and the Dutch -bred 
Arnhem, is one of two “new" 
names on foe short list of eighL 
Jane Bartie-Wilson's Pin- 
occhio, a regular member of the 
British team, was dearly tired 
after bis arduous sea-crossing 
from foe Netherlands at foe 
weekend and performed below 
his usual standard. The selec- 
tors. who insisted he should take 
pan in these trials, can hardly 
have felt their decision to be 
justified. Mrs Bartle-Wilson will 
now have to impress at the 
Goodwood International meet- 
ing at foe end of May after 
which the team of four for 
Canada will be chosen. . 

GRAND PRIX: 1. Giovanni (F EUberaL 965: 
2. Maple Zantt <D tW s&i; a 
Powdwmonkey (E Joicey) 92S. 

champtoortlps snort UsfcAmbetn 
(J Fartow). Dutch Govt tj Loriston-CtarXe), 
note [ fiart (F Rudge). PJnoccfao (J 
Bertte-WBson), Powdennortkey (E JofteyL 
?*» Consort (D Mason), Wongei (A 
Dowry) and WUy Trout (C Barite). 


All that’s best in the biggest 
ever Easter issue- 88 pages plus 
Colour magazine 



Woodrow Wyatt’s diary 

Easier special: what do Christians 
believe in these days? 


Alter egorpicking a wedding 
gown that can be worn 
again and again 




Duel at 
the line 
of death 



Industry under the infuence 

Egon Ronay hits out at 
wine snobs 


Sunday isn’t Sunday without the 
Sunday Times 


Robson’s boldness gives wings 
to winning England strategy 

The statistics were being 
prepared in the press box as 
the England team walked out 
into the huge Dynamo Tbilisi 
stadium on Wednesday eve- 
ning. The fact that they had 
not lost by more than two 
goals since Bobby Robson 
took over seemed sure to be 
mentioned in the subsequent 
match report. 

It seemed ominous that 
Robson bad happened to 
mention it the previous day in 
the middle of revealing the 
extent of the injuries to the 
members of his squad. “Well 
be OK." be said. It sounded 
like a cry of defiance, but those 
who heard it were not ready to 
share his confidence. 

When the line-up was re- 
vealed on Wednesday morn- 
ing. all optimism withered. It 
was surely dangerously adven- 
turous in the circumstances to 
select a winger, but Robson 
had said that he wanted to find 
out if the system that be bad 
favoured for so long would 
work at the highest level and 
he stuck courageously to his 

In doing so he risked ending 
England's sequence of seven 
matches without defeat and of 
damag in g the confidence and 
belief of his squad, it was 

By Stuart Jones. Football Correspondent 
ironic, therefore, that Waddle, shirked a tackle. The talented 

tire lone winger in the party. Hoddle, too, was again re- 
should score the one decisive sponsible for some delighmil- 
goal in a victory that was as ly incisive passing, 
gloriously unexpected as that Wright's vulnerability was 
in Brazil in 1984. once more disturbing. As the 

Waddle himself admitted as Soviets awoke from their as- 
much. "There has been a lot of tonishingly uncertain and 
talk about wingers recently.** nonchalant start, he was guilly 
he said later, “so it was of several moments of wild 
obviously a good time to rashness. Robson thought mat 
score." It was only his second he was “splendid" but conced- 
goal in his 13 appearances and ed that he “made one mistake 
almost certainly saved the role that could have been 
that eilher he or Barnes has punished". For a defender 
filled since the end of the that is one too many. 

South American tour two Wright's error led, indirect- 
years ago. ly. to the penalty conceded by 

Both of them have since Anderson, that was missed by 
feiled to be convincing and. if Chivadze after a quarter of an 
Waddle had done so again, hour. If the Soviet captain had 
Robson would have been scored instead of almost up- 
tempted to dip his one wing rooting a post, the crowd of 
and revert to a midfield of 62,000 might have been 
four. He did so, anyway, for stirred from their extraordi- 
thc closing 15 minutes on nary apathy. 

Wednesday by bringing on Hurt by defeat in Mexico 
Steven in place of Waddle. and in Spain earlier this year. 

But, although the contribu- the Soviets were devoid of 
lion of Cowans was disap- passion. Zavarov, who is sure 
pointingly fragile, the midfield to become one of the more 
controlled England's unfore- attractive individuals in Men- 
seen triumph. Wilkins, so co this summer, was almost 
admirable in Israel last alone in Ufung their enfeebled 
month, was outstanding. Rob- . display. But that should not 
son described his performance diminish the credit that was 
-as “absolutely super" and deservedly claimed by 
pointed out lhai he never England. 

Rampant Scotland must not 
throw caution to the wind 

It would be ungracious, even 
if there are some reservations, 
not to congratulate Scotland 
upon their emphatic win over 
Romania on Wednesday night 
in their last home match before 
the World Cup finals. 

They were often exciting 
when going forward; Stracban 
on the right flank of midfield. 
Gough behind him at full back 
and Bannon on the left of 
midfield bad their side pouring 
into attack against a Romanian 
team adroit with the balk 
though visibly lacking comm- 

“Three-nil is very good lan- 
guage and Sirachan had a terrific 
game," Franz Beckenbauer said 
afterwards, having studied one 
of West Germany's three first- 
round opponents after present- 
ing Kenny Dalglish with a silver 
and gold trophy to mark the first 

Scotsman reaching 100 caps. 

“All four teams in our group 
will be roughly equal. I think, 
and the top two will probably 
need some hick." Beckenbauer 
added. Schuster, who returned 
after injury to the Barcelona 
team on Sunday, had to decide 
by the end of this week. 
Beckenbauer said, whether he 
would join the German squalL 
“We have talked long enough." 

It is the ability of a player such 
as Schuster or Laudrup, of 
Denmark, together with the 
Scots' own commendable en- 

By David Miller 

thusiasm for throwing them- 
selves forward, which obliges 
me to have reservations about 
Scotland's prospects. Alex Fer- 
guson. the manager, allowably 
satisfied with this performance, 
did admit afterwards that there 
were in the first half one or two 
moments when the defence 
“was a bit too positive (going 
forward).” Exposed would be 
another word for it. 

With all four midfield men. 
including Sou ness, looking to 
attack, there was no bolding 
cover in front of the back four, 
who. but for some resolute and 
well- limed tackles by Miller, 
would have had their record of 
conceding only one goal in the 
last eight matches rudely 
denied. As it was. Romania 
twice hit the bar and missed two 
inviting chances. Hagi. Caroa- 
taru and Coras were too often 
allowed sight of Gorara. who 
performed ably as deputy 

Scotland will need to be more 
circumspect. 1 feel, in next 
month's encounters at Wembley 
and in Eindhoven, and Fer- 
guson should also look carefully 
at the matter of Scotland's style 
of play for Mexico. Strachan, 
Bannon and Gough cover much 
ground and such an expense of 
energy may not be possible at 
altitudes, where the ball must do 
the work. That is why. although 

Ferguson is temperamentally 
committed to his Aberdeen 
centre backs. Miller and 
McLeish. it could be prudent to 
consider the value of the hugely 
experienced, ball-playing Han- 
sen. who brought imaginative 
distribution from the back in the 
second half when he came on for 
the slightly injured Miller. 

The connoisseurs' joy of the 
evening came, suitably, from the 
evergreen Dalglish, now in his 
35th year. He failed to gain a 
record-making 31st inter- 
national goal but gave a classic 
exhibition of the control vision, 
anticipation and economy 
which have distinguished his 
career. He began the moves, 
among many others, for the first 
two goals by Strachan and 
Gough with zephyr-like feints, 
and regularly retained pos- 
session when surrounded by two 
or three opponents; a coach's 

He is indispensable to 
Scotland’s planning, though 
modestly be says that he wiU 
discuss in due course with 
Ferguson whether he is in 
condition for Mexico. Mentally, 
be is a tap ahead of the rest. 

Scotland's group may be for- 
midable, but there is evidence 
that they are going to put up an 
exciting campaign to reach the 
second round. 

Oxford pair please Charlton 

There was nothing grand 
about Jack Charlton's introduc- 
tion to international team 
management. Wales provided 
the opposition; the wind blew 
and rain lashed; most Irish 
football followers stayed home 
to watch England on television; 
the Lansdowne Road pitch was 
bumpy; and Jack's new team 
lost to a goal pinched by Wales 
from a set-piece early on. 

Inauspicious is not the word. 
Backstage afterwards Chariton 
remained on good terms with 
himself and the world. Friendly 
internationals are false, this one 
particularly so. because so many 
established players withdrew be- 
cause of injury. 

Jack had lost eight including 
Mark Lawrenson, Kevin Shcedy 
and Frank Stapleton. The day 
bad been part of the learning 
process. He had learned a lot he 
proclaimed, jaw set in grim 
determination- Jack is not sub- 
tle, be does not mess about You 
could tell he did not mind losing 
and was big enough to deal with 
the Irish public's sense of anti- 
climax. It was equally dear that 
what pleased him pleased him 
very much and that whai did not 
please him would be sorted out 

H ] knew what 1 wanted and I 
told the players,” he explained. 
“Some of them did their stuff 
some did noL Most pleasing 
from his point of view were the 
performances of the Oxford 
United pair upon whom he had 
bestowed Irish citizenship; Ray 
Houghton and John Aldridge. 
Both played magnificently in 
difficult circumstances. 

From Eamon Dunphy, Dublin 

Houghton on the right side of 
midfield was quick, cheeky and 
skilful. He is a find for Ireland. 

Aldridge had Lbe unenviable 
task of partnering flashy Mi- 
chael Robinson, of Queen's 
Park Rangers, up front While 
his partner put on his usual 
sprinting and tumbling display, 
Aldridge worked intelligently 
and tirelessly with a ready eye 
for the balfchance. He had the 
bad luck to bit the woodwork 

Aldridge and Houghton are 
types who would never get in an 
England side; but that is 
England's problem for they are 
good professionals, team play- 
ers. the kind of footballers that 
Northern Ireland have in abun- 
dance. As Glen Hoddle will tell 
you, football is a team game. 

Jack Chariton has declared 
his intentions in this context 
His Republic of Ireland will 
embrace the collective ethos — 
'which begs the question of Liam 

No fracture 

Neville Southall the Wales 
and Evert on goalkeeper, did not 
fracture his ankle as at first 
thought during Wednesday 
Bight's Internationa] match 
against the Republic of Ireland 
in Dublin. The injury has now 
been diagnosed as a severe 
dis locatio n, but he is still out for 
the rest of the season. 

Evertoa have recalled Bobby 
Minims, the reserve goalkeeper, 
who was mi loan with Notts 
County, and hoped to sign 
further cover yesterday. 

Their journey was lengthy, 
the facilities in their hotel 
could hardly have been more 
spartan, their preparations 
could scarcely have been lew 
favourable and Robson’s 
plans were severely disrupted 
on the eve of die fixture. 
Instead of folding underneath 
such problems the squad re- 
sponded in an enthusiastic 

and responsible manner. 

In booming the first visi- 
tors to win or even to score in 
the Soviet Union since West 
Germany in 1979 (apart from 
Czechoslovakia's victory in an 
Olympic qualifying tie two 
years ago), England sent a 
warning around the world. As 
Waddle said; “If we play like 
that in Mexico, we'll take 
some beating." 

• Moscow (Reuter) — Soviet 
newspapers complained yes- 
terday at the national team's 
lack of firepower after the 
defeat by England. "They 
have not yet learnt to score, 
Sovetsky Sport headlined its 
report from Tbilisi and re- 
proached the team for inaccu- 
rate shooting. “There were 
two or three dangerous mo- 
ments near the England goal 
and that was all" Lev 
Lebedev, Prordd s correspon- 
dent, lamented. 

sale of 

Mill wall's hooligan element 
caused the £125,000 transfer of 
forward John Fas h a nu yes- 
terday to their second division 
rivals, Wimbledon. The 
Mil] wall manager, George Gra- 
ham. was against selling 
Fashanu, but his chairman. 
Alan Thorne, insisted he had to 
go in order to help to balance the 
books following the three- 
month all-ticket ruling for borne 

In other moves before the 
transfer deadline. Martin 
O'Neill signed for Fulham, arm- 
ing to complete a remarkable 
comeback which will put him in 
the Northern Ireland squad for 
the World Cup finals. 

Wolves signed an 18-year-old 
midfield player. Russell Turley, 
from Nottingham Forest on a 
free transfer. Huddersfield 
signed a Chelsea reserve for- 
ward, Duncan Shearer, for a 
small fee and released Dale 
Tempest on loan to Gillingham. 

Derby County signed the 
West Bromwich Albion defend- 
er, Mike Forsyth, for £20,000; 
Scunthorpe have York’s Keith 
Hooches for the same price. 

Hull took Middlesbrough's 
midfield player. Pat Heard, on 
loan; the Derby County for- 
ward, Steve Biggins, joined Port 
Vale on loan. 

The Grimsby forward. Tuny 
Ford, has joined Sunderland 
until the end of the season; 



740 unless stated 

Second division 

OWrtam v Leeds (11.30) 

Third division 

Cardiff v Plymouth (745) 

Fourth division 
Cambridge v Rocndstt 
Cotcheswr v Swtndon 
Halifax v Hartlepool 
Scunthorpe v Stockport 

Wortagton (3.0V 

H1.0).QKtwstsr « AiundA Eaunoums « 
Lancing. Hailsham * WMionawk; 
Lmtehampton v Mfcjhurst and E: 
Snoranam w SreynM. 

SOUTHERN LEAGUE: Premier cflvMan: 
«Hpoft v FareOam (3.0): Wettng » Ftsmr 
m30l. Fofceatom v Crawley It 1.30). 
JMi-«M V 3* V vttoa'OT 

FESTIVAL; Lrwrpool Ramblers AFC. 


Itaafc Nottingham v Wasps. 

CLUB HATCHES: Aberayon v Northamp- 
ton (6 JO). Birkenhead Part . Wasps (3 ft 
fwartt » Bartanans (3 30): Sato v Vale ol 
uaie: Weston-super-Mare v Liverpool: 
Baft OE v Ok) SiftAiarts. Bridgwater and 
A»ion i Henley. Brlxtium * Burton: 
Camoorne Res v KanWito Faknouft i 
Dudley KJngswjntord; Hayte v Cramier. 
L aunce ston « Camborne: Pawyn v OW 
DtPSawns; Reoruft v St Mary's Hoo- 

8g,TES.. w °“ """"s * 


Slalom lager championship: 

Casttoford v HaBtac St Helens v Wigan 
&Q: Salford v Dewsbury Stanton v 
Ottnem <8.0* Httmnt it a i • Widnes (&ft. 
P oa tponod: HuR KH v HtA Leeds v 

Bradford. Second (Mskxc Banov v 
Doncaster [Sift Blackpool « Barrow (6.0); 
Leigh • Rochdale (3.30k Wort d naton v 
Wiwanaven (130). 


FESTIVALS: Mam At Blackpool Bourne- 
mouth, Ctacun, Folkestone. Jersey. 
LpwKMofL Torbay. Weston-super-Mare. 
Weymouth, Wonntag. Woman: At Pen- 
zance. Southend, weynorh. 


BAOMNTON.* Mends (nsmnce Group 
Guernsey tournament (at Si Pater flo 
Uniehamaton Easter Tournament 
LAWN TENMS: WstheraH North of En- 
gland hard eotxt champtonsmps (at 
Southport Argyta LTCj. 

SNOOKER: Entu&sy wood professorial 
championship*: Qualifying (at Preston 

SCHJ ASM RACKETS: Bournemouth Easter 
(estival (at West Haras. Meynck Park). 

Essex boost | 

Essex, the John Player League ! 
champions and Natwest trophy 
holders, made a record net 
profit last vear of £85.466. with : 
income from membership 1 
subscriptions increasing by al- 
most £30,000 to £ 1 75,000. 

Warrington 2. 

SECOND DIVISION: Keighley 21. 
Huddersfield IP. 


Chsmon 2. Brighton l . OPR 1. 
SWJSSraAGUfc Basie 0. 1«JIW BOyt Bern* 
1 NeuditaM Xama, 0. Serwras Geneva 1: FC 

Zurich i . Lucerne i . LausanneO. Wen ngen 0 

Leering position* i, Naucnftw. 28 pts. Z. 
Grassnopp**, 2$. 3. Young Boys Berne, 2«. 

look too 

By Clive White 

It is generally accepted that j 

Northern Ireland's shield of 
invincibility will become as thin 
as the air in Guadalajara at this 
summer’s World Cup finals. 

The altitude and tbe heat of 
Mexico will put all the European 
contenders at a serious dis- 
advantage, but none more so ; 
ihan the Irish, whose game ; 
draws more heavily on physical 
resources than perhaps any 
other team in the world. 

Sepp Piontek, the manager ot 
Denmark, the latest European 
power - albeit a depleted one - 
to be frustralingly defused by 
Irish fortitude, does not believe 
that what Northern Ireland 

achieved in the glorious mud 

and refreshing rain of Windsor 
park on Wednesday evening can 
be repeated in South America 

Even Billy Bingham, at me 
bright of celebrations after bis 
50ih match in charge, had to 
concede the Irish will have to 
adjust their style. 

The extent of that modifica- 
tion can only be min i mal . Thor 
deficiency in skill at the highest 
level and lack of real 
improvization in attack gives 
the Irish little room for manoeu- 
vre. It must be a source of regret 
to Bingham that a country 
which threw up such prodigious 
forward talent as Peter Doherty 
in tbe 1940s, Bingham himself 
in the 1950s and the inimitable 
George Best in tbe 1960s and 
1970s cannot unearth a match- 
winner in the 1 980s at a time 
when they have never been 
better equipped to defend an 

Instead they have something 
approaching a luxury in defen- 
sive qualities. With their sev- 
enth consecutive game without 
defeat and only one goal con- 
ceded in 10 hours and 18 
minutes of football against the 
world's best, it would take a 
mad meddler to tamper with tbe 

Consequently, McClelland, 
arguably their most dependable 
defender in the evocative World 
Cup campaign of 1982 and the 
subsequent double over West 
Germany, finds himself on the 
sidelines with tbe boot on the 
other fooL He draws a parallel 
with 1982 when an injury to 
O'Neill enabled him to establish 
himself in the side for Spain. 

McClelland's foot injury, now 
perfectly healed, has given Mc- 
Donald his chance and he has 
seized it with zeal starring in 
mpIi of his first four inter- 
nationals and capping 
Wednesday’s 1-1 draw with 
Denmark by giving Northern 
Ireland the lead for 78 minutes 
with a header. 

Nevertheless the suggestion 
that the Irish centre backs could 
be exposed for lack of pace mid 
flexibility on a less cloying 
surface than Windsor Park re- 
mains. And since Northern 
Ireland's fi nri rehearsal for 
Mexico is at home against the 
unconsidered Moroccans on 
April 23 we may not discover 
the truth until they face Spain m 
their second, possibly most 
decisive, match of the World 


Stripes galore: Players from Royal Belfast (left) 

iatf St Bees tBspete pwwewio a 

Under-23s turn to 

capped players 

By David Hands, Rugby Conrespaadent gUlUIW 

Into the cauldron with Kettering 

Six senior capped players 
hare been chosen for England^ 
under-23 team to play Spam at 
Twickenham on Apnl 9, among 
them Nigel Redman, the Bath 
lock, who will captain the side. 
He win have alongside tam 
Richards, the Leicester No. 8, 
and in the back division Simms, 
Clough, Barnes and Under- 
wood. . , 

It comes as a feint surprise to 
find Bames is still eligible for the 
under-23s, for whom , he first 
appeared in 1982. It is also a 
debatable point whether players 
who have already appeared for 
England at senior level should 
also be selected at this level bat 
in this inrt" '—and it has not 
always been the case — tbe sole 
criterion has been whether or 
□ot players have the birth 

All too fresh in the minds of 
the selectors moreover is foe 
defeat inflicted by Spam upon 
England's seven in Sydney at the 
weekend. That may not bear too 
much relation to the 15-a-side 
game but it is a warning none 
the less that Spain prepared 
' thoroughly for that tournament 
and will be keen to make a 
similar impression on their two- 
match visit to England. Their 
two heroes in Sydney, Rivero 
and Pnertas, at wing and full 
bade respectively, are both in 
the party which will ptay Devon 
and Cornwall at Torquay on 
April 6. 

The selectors picked the team 
after watching the combined 
English students beat Welsh 
students 27-15 at Cambridge on 
Wednesday evening, despite the 
surrender of an early -15-0 lead. 
Although the four English tries 
were shared among the backs 
(Nelson-Williams scored twice, 
Risman and Oti registered tire 

others), two forwards obviously 

confirmed earlier . good im- 
pressions: Mullins, foe Durham 
University prop; wili appear 
against Spain, as will Robinson, 
the Loughborough and Bath 

The undcr-23s will gather at 
Twickenham on April 5 for a 
training weekend conducted by 
Des Seabrook. their coach, wto 
will also have England's sensor 
coaches, Martin Green and 
Brian Ashton, to assist him. 
“We talked about whether w 
wanted to use the match as an 
experiment," Seabrook. said, 
“but the general opinion. was : 
tha t we should pick the strongest 
side." . 

Hodpunaon 1 


A MoMm (Pwnan 




• Oti, the Durham _ University 
wing, makes his third appear- 
ance for Nottingham today in 
their John Player Special Cup 
quarter-final against Wasps- He . 
plays on the left wing white 
David Hokbtocfc moves to foe 
right where his brother, Sieve, 
now in Australia, used to play. 

. Nottingham are at nril 
strength against a Wasps side 
lacking the injured Davies and 
Melville. The prize for the 
winners is a home semi-final 
a gainst London Scottish. 

• Jonathan Davies, foe Neath 
stand-off- half who joins the 
Barbarians this weekend on 
their annual Easter sour to 
South Wales, becomes > an 
hononary Irishman next week-, 
end when he teams up with the 
Irish Wolfhounds ax foe Cathay 
Pacific Hong Kong Bank Sevas 
tournament, their third 
successive visit- 

dm ftstd. R Andaman 

sttyK Jl 

Constitution)- B 
OlMacaB (Umdan. -tM& Ut Andaman;. 

:^FtiarMvsa> ; 

The Turner* Club National 
Schools sevep-a-side tour* 

might have e n joy e d 
better weather than for many a 
year, antfforibsi a multi rude of 
piayas win have been thanUuL 
They were able to give foe ball 
stir is firm gmng. hut foe absence 
of a flyer has been a common 
factor among foe. majority of 
schools » the two major com* 
petitioned* Festival and the 
Open, whose final rounds took 
place as Roebampcon yesterday. 

West Paric. prompted by .Da- 
vid Pifiungton, one of foe 
louroaraemV more skilful play- 
ers, most certainly would have 
profited from fielding a Speedy 
rmnier. and someone to finish 
off their movements in the 
quarter-final against Newcastle- 
under-Lyme, to .whom they lost 
by two tries WmL-'j,, . 

The big suprise in foe sixth 
round, was the narrow defeat of 
foe^ iaueb-feaded Mdlfidd side 
by a b^tiraraudutg seven from 

. - Newcartte-tmdef^Lynie^ sue*, 
cess against Hampton was a 
dose-run thing, too, but West 
Park'S subtleties confounded a 
gallant side from Aylesbury who 
were overwhelmed 19-0. 

Wobeistoft Hah made a good 
impression by beating City of 
London, Warwick's competent 
side knew too much, -for 
Cwrotawc. and - Ampfeforth’s 
greater speed and stall enabled 

them to usher is three tries by 
halftime against Ashvilte. 

GMdtonft . 26 ; cwpon tat mmom 

Warwick 17‘AsManff, Amplitorft l«. 

Ctionan-20; NnKatta-undw-Lyina 8. 

Hrt 0. wfiarv** 

•JQMOn. QMar FINAL: OuMdi 
CofegfrlD. HmqbwCS 0. 

Brady, Ireland's den Hoddle. 
Although he did not spell it out; 
Chariton may well have been 
referring to Brady when be 
spoke of “those who did not do 
their stuff on Wednesday. Jack 
had redefined Brady's midfield 
role. He wanted the Inter Milan 
player to take a more attacking 
position behind Aldridge and 
Robinson. Alas, Brady looked 
lost possessing neither the phys- 
ical sharpness nor the football 
intelligence to impose himself 
on the game. 

Heavy-legged and lost. Brady 
resembled nothing more than a 
29-year-old child on whom too 
much indulgence had been lav- 
ished. It will be fascinating to 
see what Big Jack does about 
Brady. Nobody has cause to 
doubt Charlton’s conviction, it 
is indeed his greatest asset, but 
the Brady problem may require 
all the conviction his manager 

The discovery of Houghton 
and Aldridge adds considerably 
to an already talented squad. 
Next month Uruguay visit Dub- 
lin and ahead lie the European 
championships where the 
Republic must face Scotland, 
Belgium and Bulgaria. Although 
there have been doubts about 
Jack Charlton's commitment to 
football he seems excited by the 
challenge of the international 
game. Freed of the petty politics 
and debilitating financial con- 
straints of club football piven 
quality players to work with at 
last he exudes a sense of 
purpose. This time Big Jack is 

Wednesday’s results 

(retand 1. Denmark i; Scotland 3. Roma- 
nis 0; France 2. Argentina ft Italy 2. 
Austria i; Spain 3. Pound 0. 

ttf-fin*!. «eoni! log: England 1. Danmark 
1 rEngbnd «*ri 7A on lagg). „ _ 

FOURTH tXVISION: Ewhw C&y Z. Tor- 
quay Untied 2 P e t e rborough United 0. 
Hereford Untied 0. 

finefc Port Vale t. Wigan AtNMic 2. 

QOLA LEAGUE: Cteiwnhsm 2. Kidder' 
nww 0. Bob Lam Trophy: SomMtaafc 
Weymouth 0, Barnet i. 

CENTRAL LEAGUE: FI* (flvbtorc Bflms- 
fey 0. ManetaBOf CWy f: Hue T. Liverpool 
3; Manchester United l. Leicester 1: 
SheffNM United 3. Sheffield Wednesday 
2. Second AMor: Wolverhampton 
Wanderers 0, Swderland 1. 

S0UTWRN LEAGUE: Midland dMston: 
VS Ru«>y 9. Otdtwy ft Weflngton Z 

ws ion touts* Horsham 2, Egftam 1: 
Rack*#) Heath a, SouthwK* 2. 

Smwfiwfi replay: Cofcw Row l.Waltnain 

rugby union 

CLUB MATCHES; Newport 39. Mwsteg 3: 
Bndgand 32. Newbridge 9; Coventry 22. 
Nuneaton o. 


FIRST DIVISION: Bradford Northern 16. 

Nervous Needham Barbarians 

David Needham has experi- 
enced plenty of Mg occasions in 
Mi football career. The former 
Notts County, QnetaY Farit 
Rangers and Nottingham Forest 
defender aadc more than 500 
Football Lessor appearances, 
played m two League Cop finals 
and was an important (aember of 
the alf-conqnering Forest team 
of the late 1970s. 

Yet tomorrow be win be more 
nervan watching tbe Kettering 
Town team he has man a ge d for 
foe last two years and a half 
than be ever was as a player. 
Tbe Northamptonshire ride 
travel to Rnncorn for foe fost Ire 
of thdr FA Trophy send-final, 
and with Wembley only two 
games away the next week will 
be foe most important of Us 
managerial career. 

“I always had a reputation for 
being the calmest player in the 
team, no matter what the 
occasion," Needham said. “Now 
I'm the most nervous person in 
foe whole ground. When you’re 
out on the pitch year major 
concern is your own game. Now I 

they drew « crowd of 2312. 

Yet, for all thdr rapport, 
Kettering have had a difficult 
time in foe last five years. They 
only ntfTOwty avoided rdcgstlmi 
from the Goto League daw 

lo the brink afdoaare 

Ho w ev e r, the sale of foe 
mad last aramwr m a local 
firmer, who has leased R hadUo 
the dab, has wMnnt of foo 
off-the-Qdd difficaitles and 
Needham's astate managemen t 
has brought a steady Improve- 

I also have the dob and the 
crowd to think aboot. 

“These two games wfll be 
tremendous occasions. We're 
taking at least 15 c o achloads of 
supporters to Runcorn and there 
should be t ho esan ds at our 
ground for the second leg.” 

Kettering have always been 
one of the best s u pported aon- 

this season average 1,200 and in 
the last round of foe Trophy 

la Us first fafl season Kd- 
teriaa d 12th and that b 

Hkdy to be bettered fob jw, 
thanfca in partkabr to a flying 
■tart which saw them briefly 
I f n fl foe t f gpw- 

Needham has gradually str- 
engthened foe side, namely with 
rignings from other noo-League 
dabs, but kb greatest saccess 
was in persaadtag Dave Watson, 
foe former England defender, to 
cone to Rock i ngh a m Read. 

The example of Watson, new 
aged 39. might have been ex- 
pected to tempt Needham , three 
years hb j unior, oat of retire- 
ment. However, with his own 
business to ran ou t side the 
same, Needham finds that foot- 
ball management takes up more 
than enough of his spare time. 

“I tried the player-manager 
role for a short while but quickly 
gave it up," he said. “I just 
couldn't do foe job properly if I 
had my own game to worry about 
as well as everyone rise's." 

Paul Newman 

It isa little ironic that, in what 
b proving to be focir best season 
for many a year, Penarth should 
be ptayim the Barbarians for foe 
last ti me this afternoon in their 
traditional aind important Good 
Friday fixture. After 75 yean the 
Ba r b arian s win bid farewell to 
the S e a sidera. 

The four Easter matches in 
Wales were considered to be the 
c or nerstone of Barbarian tra- 
. dition; a foundation which has 
1 eroded somewhat and has not 
bees able to withstand foe winds 

saw the game with' Newport 
struck from the fixture list, now 
ft is Penarth’s turn, leaving only 

By Gerald Dories 

Cardiff on Easter Saturday and 
Swansea on Monday. 

Surely in this day and 
crowded age of ovewerious 
sport, the Corinthian still has his 
place, the player who'dares to do 
things as the spirit moves him. 
British rugby owes the Barbar- 
ians* debt and will continue to 
do so. Turning a blind eye to 
their style has cost the game 
dearly in this country in recent 
years and cold shouldering them 
out will do no good at alL Their 
intention, though they do" not 
always succeed, is to go out and 
win, but also that the game 
should be spiced with elements 
of risk and, dare I say it, fun. 

“There is. inevitably, a sad- 
ness in Penarfo.” Mr Cyril 
Lewis, the club secretary, says 
There should be a good crowd 
there today to see foe. last of 
these femous matches arid to see 
whether Penarth can emulate 
the team of 1980. It was tbeir 
centenary year and it was the 
last time they beat tbe 

Record fee asked 

Hany Pinner, the St Helens 
arid Great Britain rugby . league 
captain, hasbeen transfer-listed 
for a club record fee of £95,000. - 


* It**'- 

. e r - 

K?-. a- . 

WYNDHAMrS 836 3028 OC 379 
6666/379 6*33. Cm 836 
3962. Eves 8PTO. SM 6 * SM. 
Wed nuns 3. No B«rft Good Fri- 
day or Easter Monday. 


A musical stay by nooog RAY. 
Based on mo BA & nude c I 




YODNa VK 998 6563 ThoMr 

Ovyd Pro duction 


Wilkie takes on tough 
mission with Barrow 

Non-League Football by Paul Newman 

"tipeLljecitiM-Oiln. Eves 8pm 
CAST x an XU Wed* Sat Mai* 
3am. NO pews BANK 


ssr c£KB. V to r “™E 

DOWN, to s Apr. Eves 8m. 


Ray Wilkie, who for the last 
two years has combined foe 
posts of chairman and manager 
of Gateshead, bas left the club to 
become manager of Barrow. He 
succeeds David Johnson, the 
former England forward, and 
feces a difficult task keeping 
Barrow in the Gala League. 
With only nine matches remain- 
ing they are six points adrift at 
the bottom of the table. 

Wilkie’s departure is a serious 
blow to Gateshead's hopes of 
winning promotion from the 
Multipart League back to tbe 
Gola League. He had been 
manager ever since the dub 
were re-formed in 1977 and had 
done a remarkable job in keep- 
ing them at the highest level 

Even during thdr two years in 
the Gola League — they were 
relegated last season — 
Gateshead's average gate was 
less than 300 and Wilkie con- 
sequently had to run the team 
on the tightest of budgets. He 
now leaves the club on the verge 
of perhaps his greatest achieve- 

ment. for Gateshead lead the 
Multipart League and are press- 
ing for a return to the Gola 
League at the first attempt. 

Bill McCullough. Barrow’s 
chairman, said: “We've made 
some bad managerial appoint- 
ments in recent times, out I’m 
convinced Ray win do a good 
job for us. His record of the last 
few years is second to none." 

• Derek Bell Boston United’s . 
recent signing from Scunthorpe 
United, scored twice on Ins ! 
debut, a 2-1 win at Maidstone ! 
United in the Gola League. 

• Scarborough have reported a 
loss of nearly £15,000 for the 
year ending May, 1985. The 
Gola League club lost £26*000 in 
the previous year. 

Boot money 

Chelsea, the only top club 
without a sponsor, have secured 
two deals with West German 
firms. They have signed a 
“lucrative" two-year deal with 
Puma, the sportswear firm, to 
wear their boots 

CMHICN PLAZA 088 3W3 tOm. 
Canwwi T own tube) Caurtrj 

DoienvEiin. ram m loo. 

3.oa b oo. 7.00. 9>xa - 

CHELSEA CINQ — 381 3742 
Kings Rom (Nearest tub* 
Skane Sol. TantMctkinM 
PARK US) Film a 1430 3-00 
600 T.oo 9.00 Scats hoolamc 
tor Mat Eve ptrf. 

Street 499 3737 Cord Browne. 
On Holm ns Dnnfe nun 
. MCAMCHU (M) FBm at 
. 200 (Nat Onto 4.10. 620 A 
8.40. lm weeks, from abt.ii 
Maggie Sndthand Denholm 

- -r^ 


Today’s television and radio programmes 

Edited by Peter Dear 
and Peter Davalle 



BBC 1 

6JOO Ceefax AftL 
&50 Breakfast Tbne wrth Frank 

. Boug h and SeHna Scott. 
Weather at R5S. 7 JK 
regional news, weather 

- ? 1 «i tra ^J,®L 6 - 57 « 7J7, 
7^3^8-27; national and 

sport at 7.20 and 12ft 
Lynn Faufefe Wood's 
consumer report at 8.1& 
and a review ot the 
gwrolnjg newspapers at 

9120 RotendRatfo Easter 

• Don't You- 10.15 
^gonr-iojopiay . 

10.50 The Gospel AccanSna to 
• V StMatSSw.T^Kaf 
seven films featuring Peter 

- Friday. Children from the 
Roman Cathofic Junior . 

School of St Mary and St 
Benedict Bamber Bridge, 

- tefl the story of Good 
S^^wordsand music. 
12X15 The Roaches’ Tale. A day 
In the life of the pop arouD 

Madness. ^ 

1ZJ0 News After Noon. 1240 
Regional news 


David HayamcThe Holy City, 
On BBCl, 9-45ptn 

justa super (or supernatural) 
mouthpiece for a campaign to 


make a New Jerusalem out of 
Old Glasgow merely by 
getting the dockside cranes 
working a gam. My difficulty 

with 7Be Haiy Olty is trying to 
work out whether the fwn is 
reaHy about the Second Coming 
or the First The Gospel 
elements are firmly in place an 
right (riding into town on a 
donkey. Last Supper, raising of 
the daattsuiade of Judas 
etc), but then one barber-shop 
character reminds another 
that soapttsm about the arrival of 
a Redeemer is nothing new 
because "we didn't believe in the 
last one". 

(JTV,7.30pm)c8 led rates the 
series' first quarter century of 
vigorous Nte with clips from some 
orits best editions, and a 

balance sheet showing what 
hasfand what has not) been 
achieved in the way of 
conservation since Survival 
first started sending out warning 
signals about what Man was 
doing to wildlife and its 
environment.! am glad that 
this anniversary compilation 
contains some of my own 
Survival favourites such as the 
spitting coora. the pelican 
that concealed a cameraman, 
m.end the ospreys of Cape 
Kennedy who continue to nest 
despite the roaring launch of 
the space shuffle 
•Radio cho<ce:Spike 
Milligan is interviewed in 
Kaleidoscope (Radio 4. 

9.45pm). and there is the Welsh 
Nanonal Opera production of 
Parsifal (Radio 3.3.00pm) 

Peter Davalle 

(Nocturne: Lagoya, guitar), 
Mompou (Los 
Improperi os. with Rungs, 

11.57 News. 12.00 Closedown 
VHF only: Open University. 

From 6.35am to 6.55. The 19th 
century novel: melodrama. 

Radio 2 

On medium wave, except for 
VHF variations. 

News on the hour (except 930 
pm). Headlines 5 JO am, 6J0, 7 JO 
and 8J0- Sports Desks 1.02 
pm, Z02, 3.02, 4.02, 5J5, 6.02, 
6.45 (mf only). 935. 

4.00 am Cowi Berry (s) 6.00 

BBC 2 



125 Gym na stic! A gala 

performance offfiythmte 
gymnastics. LSSWMBfo 
on One: The Bat that 

©racked the Frog Code, 
of the Panamanian frinoe 



Peck, Jean Simmons and 
Chariton Heston. A 
Baltimore gentleman 
travels West in order to 
marry a rancher's 
daughter and becomes 
reluctantly embroiled in a 
feud. Directed by Wffllam 
Wyler. 1 

5XJ5 Voices from flu Holy . 
Land. Aled Jones with the 
BBC Welsh Chorus in a 
programme of devotional 
music fbr Easter. 

5J55. News and weather. 6X15 
Regional news. 

6.10 Driving Force. The Seafink 
British Femes Challenge, 
a two-day prtxirtebrity 
driving event 

7JW Wogaa As well as two 
more Song for Europe 
hopefuls, mere are visits 
from Princess Stephanie 
of Monaco, LordSoper 
and Eartha KitL 

7M Pva Got a Secret The first 
of a new series in which a 
panel of celebrities fry to 
guess guests' innermost 
secrets. On this evening's 
panel are Jan Learning, 
Derek Jameson, Sandra 
Dickinson and Barry 

8.15 The 1986 Golden Egg 
Awa rds p resented by Noel 

840 Dynasty. There are threats 
of a counter-revolution in 

6.55 Open University: North 
' Utst - Where Sunday 
Survives 7 M Weekend 
Outlook. Ends atTXS. 

9.00 Ceefax. 

11.45 Harold Lloyd*. Highlights 
from the silent comedies 
Movie Crazy and The Kid 
Brother, (rt 

12.05 WLndmBL Chris Serf* and 
his guest, Jan Francis, 
avail themselves of the 
world’s largest film and 
videotape nbrery and 
watch dips from 
classics. (r) 

1.00 Fttac Marne Town* (1947) 
starring James Stewart A 
comedy in which an 
opinion poHster discovers 
a small town that mirrors 
the views of the entire 
nation. His potential 
pottstars goldmine is then 
threatened by a lady 
industrialist who wants to 
expand the town by 
introducing more 
bus i nesses. Directed by 
Wiffiam A. WeHman. 

2M Global Report 40 Years 
On. Five women - from 
Ethiopia, India, Spain, 
Ecuador and Indonesia - 
teUthetr story of the last 
four decades. (!) 

4 JO dose Harmony. The first 
of an occasional series 


cathedrals andthefr 
music. Canterbury 
Cathedral is today's venue 
and the programme fs 
presented t^Banry Rose, 
Master ofthe Choirs et 
King's School, Canterbury. 


5.05 Film: Trapeze (1956) 
starring Burt Lancasti 
Tony Curtis and Gina 

: i C'J>- 

SJ0 News with Moira Stuart 

945 The Holy Cify. A modem 
tlay version of the story of 
■■ the Crucifixion, set In * * 

Glasgow, written and _ 
drected by The Mysteries 

director. ffifl Bryden. David 

Hayman stars as ThafrAan, 
regarded by the 
authorities as a Scottish 
Lenin, who wants a new 
form of democracy . 
(Ceetex) (see Choice) 

IMP The Gospel Accorcfingto 
St Matthew. A repeat of 
the programme aiown at 

11.15 Fane Better Late Than 
Never (1982) starring 
David Niven, Art Carney 
and Maggie Smith. A 
comedy about a has-been 
entertainer and a 
mediocre photographer 
who are summond to the 
South of France to look 
altera precocious 10-year 
old who has recently 
inherited a fortune. Both 
men had an affair with the 
girTs grandmother and 
either one of them could 
be the young giiTs 
. grandf a ther. Written and 

Copperfieid. presented by 
Angie Dickinson. A 
showcase of the talents of 
the remarkable magician 
who. among hat feats this 
evening, makes an 
elephant disappear into 
thin air. 

7XJ0 ADtion Haricot. Sharmas’s 
future looks somewhat 
cloudy. But is there a sSver 
fining? (Oracle) 

7 JO SurinvuSpecnLA 
celebration of the 
programme’s 2Sth 
anmveiBary, reviewing the 
exciting conservation 
projects with which the 
senes has been 
associated. (Oracle) (see 

8J0 That's My Boy. Comedy 
series starring Moffie 
- Sugden. (Orade) 

9X)0 AifrWeaecreben, Pet 
The Geortfie brickies 
continue to court trouble 
as they renovate Thomlay 
Manor. (Oracle) 

1040 News at Ten 

10.15 The Sooth Bank Show. A 
documentary Mm about 
the fife and work of 
American composer, 

Effiott Carter. Foflowed by 
LWT headlines. 

11.15 Ffen: Vamsteng Pofrit 

adventure about a 

tfirected by Bryan Forbes. 
12.45 Weather. 

Lofiobrigfda. Circus drama 
about a young trapeze 
artist who arrives in Paris 
dangerous aerial 
somersault from his 
tether's old partner, now 
crippled. The older man is 
persuaded to be the 
upstarts catcher but 
jealousies erupt with 
arrival of the luscious Lola. 
Directed by Card Reed. 

645 100 Great Sporting 

Moments. The 1977 Grand 

7.00 Swatiowa end Amazons 
Forever! A dramatization 
of Arthur Ransome’s 
diBdren’s adventure set 
on the NorfoDt Broads in 
the eariy Thirties, starring 
.. Rosemmy Leach, (r) 

8J0 Gardeners’ World from 
Bamsdaie. presented by * 
Geoff Hamilton and John 
Kefiy. Among the items is 
advice on dug control by 
expert Dr Peter Newel! of 
London University. 

9XXI Sporting Chance. Trevor 
McDonald has a tennis 
lesson from Virginia Wade; 
Stan Boardman goes 
scuba cfiving; ana Brian 
Blessed enters his first - 
field archery competition. 

9h30 Rbrc Pennies From 

Steve Martin . 

Peters and Christopher 
Walken. Dennis Potter's 
musical fantasy set in 
Chicago during the 
Thirties about a sheet- 
music salesman who 
wants to live in a work} 
where the songs come 
true. Directed by Herbert 

11.15 Articles of FaUh. 

Professor John Bowker 
- reflects on the fmpHcatian 
of the first Good Friday. 

11.35 Weatfcervfsw. 

starring Barbra Streisand, 
Walter Matthau and 
Michael Crawford. Musical 
comedy about a widowed 
ma tch ma ker who, Ini B90s 
New York, sets her sights 
on the skinflint merchant 
who wants her to find a 
husband for his niece. 
Directed by Gene Kelly, 
and based ana pfay by 
Thornton Wilder. 

5.00 The Tube. Joois Holiend 
and Paula Yates present 
highlights of the top live 
performances and videos 
from the present series. 
These include 

John, Go West Sting, 
Simple Minds and Dire 

7 J00 News summary and 
weather followed by St 
John Passion*. A free 
interpretation of Bach's St 
John Passion, directed by 
Werner DuggeDn, placing 
it in the modem world. 

Man fs seen searching for 

God guided by a shepherd 
on a motorway and a 
preacher in an empty 
church, then he Is led to a 
backyard in Naples where 
children reconstruct the 
scene of the Crucifixion. 
With Zeger Vanda rstsene, 

Wolfgang Schone and 
Hans Franzan with the 
Choir and Chamber 
Orchestra of Femsehen 
DRS (Zurich), conducted 
by Armin Brunner. 

8J5 Inner City, Inner FMth. An 
Easter message from the 
Bishop of Stepney, the Rt 
Rev Jim Thompson, for 
those faring in timer cities, 
on the importance of Good 

9XM The Cosby Show. Comedy 
series starring BU Cosby 
as an obsetridan who 
finds it easier to defiver 
children than to live with 
them. This week one of his 
daughters and her friend 
cause chaos in the kitchen 
with a new gadget that 
they were speaficaHy told 
not to touch, 

9J0 Gardeners’ Calendar, 
Introduced by Hannah 
Gordon. This month there 
are items on planting and* 
sowing unusual 
vegetables: starting vines; 
and pruning peach trees. 

• (Oracle) 

1QXM Cheers. The pub regulars 
challenge a rival 
establishment to a ten-pin 
bowling tournament in an 
attempt to avenge losses 
at other sports. Defeat 
looms large until they 
produce an unexpected 
. ace. (Orade) 

1030 Font Catch 22(1970) 
starring Alan Aria rt. An 
anti-war black comedy 
about a United Stales Air 
FOroe bombardier, based 
In the Mediterranean in 
1 944, who is sick of aH the 
carnage for which he is 
responsMe. He asks the 
base's doctor to certify 
him unfit to fly on the 
grounds of mental 
testability but the doctor 
claims that he must be 
sane in not wanting to fly. 
With Martin Balsam, 
Richard Beniamin, Ait 
Garfunkel, Orson WeHes, 
Martin Sheen and Bob 
Newhart Based on the 
novel by Joseph Hefler 
and directed by Mike 
Nichols. Ends at 12L45. 

Radio 4 

535 Shipping 6-00 News 6.10 

8J0 News 635, 7J55 
weatner 7.00, 8XX) News, 
preceded by the Hymn 
tor Good Fnday 7J5, BJ5 
Sport 7 j 4S Thought for 
the Day, 8 J5 Yesterday in 
Parliament BJ0 Letters 
8.57 Weather; Travel. 

9.00 News 

9J5 Desert Island Discs. 
Michael Parkinson talks 
to Shirley WdKams(r)(s). 

045 The Fisherman's Tale. 
Malcolm Bfflmgs and 
Bran Clarke meet on the 
River Test to talk about 


10.00 News; Litany and Ante- 
Communion from 
Hereford Cathedral (s). 

10.45 All Stations to the Cross. 
Holy Week talk by Robert 
Foxcroft. All Change. 

11X» News; Travel; The case 
for the Crown. With the 
introduction of the new 
Crown Prosecution 
Service next month, the 
programme examines 
how our legal system wffl be 

1148 Hampshire Days. P J. 
Kavanagh reads an 
account of the drama that 
followed a cuckoo's 
laying her egg in a robin's 

12 X)0 News; The Food 
Programme. Derek 
Cooper on the art of 
smoking fish. 

12J7 Son of Ckche. Comedy 
show starring 
Christopher Barrie. Nick 
Maloney and Nick Wilton 
(s). 12JS Weather. 

1 JM The World at One: News 
1.40 The Archers 1J5 

2XX) News: Jesus. 

Dramatization based on 
the Gospel narratives (4) 
Crucifixion and 
Resurrection. With Paul 

7.00 News 

7.05 The Archers. 

7 JO Pick of the Week. A 

selection ot extracts from 
BSC radio programmes 
made by Anne 

&20 Stop Press. Nigel Rees 
examines what's been in 
the newspapers this week. 

645 Any Questions 7 Lord Fitt. 
Lord Chappie. Sir 
Campbell Fraser and Mary 
Baker tackle issues 
raised by thB audience in 
Danford. Kem. 

9.30 Letter I rom Amenca. 

9.45 Kaleidoscope. Laughter - 
The Secret Weapon. Paul 
Allen talks to Spike Milligan. 

10.15 A Book at Bedtime: A 
Perfect Spy written and 
reed by John le Carre (10) 

10 JO The World Tonight 

11.15 Dear Loving Beautiful 
Fnend .. Audrey Napier- 
Smith talks about her 
relationship with John 

11.45 A Meditation for Good 
Friday. The Darkest 

12X10 News; Weather 12.33 

VHF (available m England and 
S. Wales only) as above except 
535-6.00 am Weather; Travel 
135-2XM) pm For Schools: 
Listening Comer 530-535 pm 

Radio 3 

6 J5Weather. 7.00 News 

7.05 Morning Concert Delius 
(Sleigh Ride). Chabrier 
(Joyeusa marche). Da mass 
(Seventeen variations for 
wind quintet, Op 22), 
Debussy (Cortege: Air de 
danse). Rachmaninov 
(Rhapsody on theme of 
Paganini: Ashkenazy with 
LSD). 8 JO News 


by John Hilton. Thomas 
Brewer, Purcell. Adrian 
Beaumont (Judas, betrayer 

John Wilson 

12.00 Concert: BBC 

Philharmonic under 
Downes, with Fou Tseng 
(piano). Pan one. 

Beethoven (Symphony No 
B). Mozart (Piano 
Concerto No 15). 1.00 News 

1.05 Concert-part 2. 

Shostakovich (Symphony 

140 Schutz: Seven Words of 
Jesus Christ from the 
Cross . The Sixteen. Les 
Fiiies de Saime-Colombe 
ZM Scnubert Albemi Quartet 
with Thomas Igloi IceUo). 
Sgring Quartet in C. D 955 
3XK) Parsifal: by Wagner. 

Sung in German. Sir 
Reginald Goodail conducts 
the Chorus and 
Orchestra of the Welsh 
National Opera. With 
Warren ETUsworth in the title 
roie.and cast including 
Waitraud Meier, Nicholas 
Fofwell and Donald 
McIntyre. Act one. 

5XH) John Masefield and the 
Romans: Patnc 
Dickinson's compilation is 
read by Peter Copley. 

Sean Barrett and John 

5.20 Parsifal: the second act. 

Act three starts at 
6-50-aftar an interval reading 
BJ0 Violin and Piano: Ernst 
Kovadc and David Owen 
Noms play works by 
Jonathan Uoyd (It's an 
Sauce to Me). Bach (Partita 
in D minor, BWV 1004), 

Nigel Osborne (Mbira), and 
Elgar (Sonata m E minor. 

Op 82: Chanson de nuit) 

9J5 Take Care of Your 
Books: Morton Cohen 
talks about the pioneer book 

Martin Kelner fs) 8.05 Ken Bruce 
plus Song tor Europe preview 
(s). 10 JO Smgatongamax (Max 
Bygraves) fs). 11.00 Ray Moore 
visits Norwich (s) 1-05 pm David 
Jacobs (s) 2.00 Anneka Rice 
with a special Good Fnday mix of 
guests and music 3J0 Music 
Ail The Way (s) 4 JO David HamBton 
ind today's two entries for A 
Song tor Europe 6.00 John Dunn (s) 
8J0 Friday Night is Musa: Night 
(s) 9.15 What a Mouth Cosmotheka 
celebrates the songs ol Harry 
Champion (s) 9.55 Sports Desk 
10.00 Castle's Comer, (with 
Roy Castle) 10.30 Cynthia Glover 
sings 11.00 Stuart Hall (stereo 
from midnight) 1.00 am Bil 
Rennells presents Nightride (a) 
3.00-4.00 A Little Nignt Music. 

Radio 1 

On medium wave .except for 
VHF variations. 

News on the half -hour from 
BJ0 am untfl 9 30 pm and at 23X10 

6 JO Andy Peebles. 7 JO Mike 
Read 9 JO Simon Bates 12J0 pm 
News be at (Rod McKenzie) 

12JS Gary Davies 3JM Paul Jordan 

5.30 Newsbeat (Janet Trewin) 

5.35 Bruno Brookes 7 JO Andy 
Peebles 10.00-12.00 The Friday 
Rock Show with Tommy Vance (s) 
VHF RADIOS 1 & 2. 4 JO am As 
Radio 2. 10.00 pm As Radiol. 
12XMM.00 am As Radio 2 

2.45 The Enthusiasts. Alan 
Smith meets The Mighty 

3XX) News: The Betrothed by 
Alessandro Manzoni (3) 

The Convert (s). 

4J0 News 

4X» The News Hoddlnes. 

Roy Hudd with June 
Whitfield and Chris Emmett. 

430 Kaleidoscope. Last 
night's edition, repeated. 

5J0 Pm: News magazine 550 
flipping 5 l55 Weather. 

6J0 News 

6J0 Going Places. The world 
of travel and transport 

FREQUENCIES: Radio 1:T053kHz/285m;1089kHz/275m; Radio 2: 693kHz/433nr. 909kH/433nr. Radio 3: 1215kHz/247m; VHF -90- 
92.5; Radio 4: 200kHz 1500m: VHF -92-95; LBfc 1152kHz/261m; VHF 97 Capital: 154&kHz/194m: VHF 95.8; BBC Ratfio London 
1458kHz/206m: VHF 945; World Service MF 648kHz/463m. 

BBCl WALES 1245am-1250 

ORyJ Mou: nnrl Maim RTr 

News and waatnar SCOTLAND 



Easter 3JD-3L30 Portrait ol a Legend 

4.15 CMps 5-15-5.45 Blockbusters 11.15 
Fan: The Wav We Wore (Barbra 
Streisand) 1 3D am From Calvary to Kgmi, 


3J0 Rim: People That Time Forgot 4J0 
Magic of Dawd Copperfieid 5Jf Car- 
toon S.1&&45 Biockbuslsrs GJO News 
and Scotland Today 630-7.00 Re- 
port 11.15 Late CaH IIJM Sion John In 
Central Park 1230 ■» Qcsedown 


at Easter 1 J5 pm Lunchtime 1.15 
toor 3.15 iW & Mrs 1A5 Roco«oc- 
tkx«s 4.15 Cyrano de Bergerac 6J0 Good 
Evenmg Ulster 630 Sporttcast 640- 
7 JO Advx» warn Arete HaSes 11.15 Fal- 
con Crest 12-10 am Crcuit of Ireland 
'66 1240 News. Closedown. 


- cent: 935 am- 935 
Disney at Easier 1.05 pm Cartoon 

1.15 People Thai Time Forgot 3.05 Sons 
and Dauantws 335 Thiel of Bun- 

dad 11.15 Film: Deatn Salk 1235 am 
Wide Awake. Closedown. 


1235 am Frm: Death Stalk. 

TSW ^J£"ti° n ««egr*35am 

935 Disney at Easter S.MBnt- 

tsn Candid Camera X2S Young Doc- 
tre* 333 Getaiong Gang 4.15 Chips 5.15 
- 5.45 BlOCkbuswrs 11.15 Film: 

Trapped (James Bretin) 1235 am Post- 
script. Closedown. 

S4C Sram 1 - 00 P*" Countdown 

1,30 Fanrty Ties Z20 Siori SM 

2.15 Sr Jorm Passion ’ 335 D<yn 
lesu 430 Y Coracnod 430 Mtsus 
Potpupur 530 The Tube 7.00 
Newydaon Saiih 7.15 Tedwng ywr Oen 
735 Prod y Cwm 835 Ma' Itan 'Mai 

9.00 Palu -Mfaen 9.15 Byd Cerdd 935 
Sylw Un 1605 Run The King and the 
Queen. Drama set in the Spanish Cnnl 
War 12.15 am Closedown. 


unwiiMUH oept935en»-93S 

11.15 Film: Daring UlifJuSe 
draws. Rock Hudson) 140am 


Disney at Easter 600 pm - 330 A 
Piece ot Cloth 430 Cartoon 4.15 
K mg hinder 6.00 Wish You Were 
Heref 630-730 What Would You Do? 

11.15 Film. Ecnoes ot Summer (Rich- 
ard Hams) 1.00 am Three s Company. 


Dsney at Easter 230 pm Cartoon 
330-330 Wrsn You W&re Here’ 4.00 
Canoon 11.15 Film: Czech Mata (Su- 
san George) 1240 Meditations tor Holy 
Week 1230 Closedown. 

ney at Easier 135 pm Cartoon 130 
Film: People That Time Forgot 335 Wish 
You Were Here’ 335 Young Doctors 

4.05 Cartoon 4.15 Fall Guy 11.15 The 
Sweeney 12.15 am Closedown. 



In i 
is i 
It ■ 











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■ .• • : - V- ; 



fi * * * * *.%. 


United poised 

to gamble 

their final ace 

By David Miller 

Manchester United's ailing 
pursuit of the League champi- 
onship. which they last won in 
1967, is being held up not by 
the proverbial shoestring but 
bv a shoulder brace. Bryan 
Robson, the fulcrum of the 
both United and the England 
international team, said yes- 

terday that he was prepared to 
y fo 

play for the rest of the season 
and throughout the World 
Cup wearing the harness 
which he used in Wednesday's 
reserve match against Leices- 
ter City. 

This desperate, last-ditch 
attempt to revive United's 
prospects, which have slipped 
so persistently in Robson's 
absence during a succession of 
injuries, is a calculated gamble 
on his longrterm physical 
health, which it is to be hoped 
will not be jeopardized, know- 
ing that the realistic step at 
this time is an operation 
following two disclocations. 

Robson, one of the bravest 
players you will find, yester- 
day said, full of assurance: *M 
felt completely secure on 
Wednesday night and was not 
aware of the presence of the 
harness." But that is not to say 
it can fully protect him. 

He will play at St Andrews 
tomorrow and. there being no 
further problems, in the criti- 
cal clash with Everton at Old 
Traffond on Monday. It is 
three weeks since he 

disclocated his shoulder for 
the second lime, at West Ham, 
and he has now missed 25 
senior games this season. 
Clearly. Robson is a willing 
party to the gamble but it is ill- 
advised if he is being exalted 
to take the risks by a crowd 
craving for success. 

There are people, within the 
club and among supporters, 
who suspect that Manchester 
United are too concerned with 
commercial ends. The club 
have been foremost of those 
trying to achieve re-accep- 
tance for entry into European 

More football, page 30 

Robson: worth the risk 

competition, a move which 
John Smith, the chairman of 
Liverpool, has said would be 
unwisely premature. 

Equally disturbing is the 
transfer turnover by Ron At- 
kinson. at times bordering on 
the frantic, and also the fact 
that Martin Edwards, the 
managing director who is 
probably the best paid man in 
British football, takes t per 
cent of any profit on the year's 
transfers. Had Atkinson not 
bought the two Gibsons and 
Davenport, the sale of Hughes 
to Barcelona for £2 million 
could have been worth 
£20,000 personally to 

This willingness to sell play- 
ers, with the announcement 
coming, as in the case of 
Wilkins two years ago, at the 
climax of the League season, 
can hardly be good for dress- 
ing-room morale or for loyalty 
among the most exceptional 
supporters in the land Tt is 
understood that in addition to 
Hughes and Brazil, there were 
proposed transfers abroad of 
Whiteside and Stapleton, to 
which the players refused 

Robson's injuries is not the 
only aspect of policy in which 
the club seem to be acting on 

an optimistic toss of the dice 
rather than patient cohesion. 
Olsen has wen dropped be- 
cause, seemingly, be does not 
deliver away from home. A 
club with United's strength in 
depth should have been able 
to find a system which utilized 
Olsen’s special skills. Or did 
they not really need both 
Olsen and Strachan? And 
Barnes too? . 

How hard have United 
with their substantial re- 
sources, attempted to per- 
suade Hughes to slay? 
Integrating Davenport, as any 
manager knows, may take a 
year or more. Atkinson has, 
partially unnecessarily, found 
himself in the position of an 
international manager, con- 
tused by an abundance of 
talent and choice, when, as 
Liverpool, Everton and West 
Ham have proved simplicity 
is the key. 

Concern about Robson is 
not their only anxiety for the 
match against Birmingham. 
Atkinson has to decide who 
shall partner McGrath at cen- 
tre back Moran is out for the 
rest of the season, Higgins was 
suspect on his return to first 
team football against Man- 
chester City last week, while 
Hogg is only just feeling his 
way back in the reserves after 
an operation. The answer 
could be to switch Stapleton to 
an emergency role, which he 
has previously filled during 
the course of a match because 
of injury. None of this can 
help United's stability but 
with what should be an easy 
match tomorrow, they could 
strike a vital blow on Monday, 
when Everton will have 
Mimms, an untried reserve 
goalkeeper signed from Roth- 
erham, exposed to the intensi- 
ty of a 50.000 Mancunian 
crowd longing for a return of 
the title they so long ago 
regarded as theirs. 

to beat 


The Cambridge Boat Race 
crew 2m caSte .Mr fed® 
ffa, canary- yeltow craft, “The 
BcB Boat* Indeed; one sees 
Cambridge oarsmen ** a 
beach of damned soufeu am- 
teamed to eternal frustration 
as, far 10 too* ym% Oxford 
tare heaped the coafeof defeat 
on tap of then, Bat this year; 

nr -. 

1 Sfefcv 

In the frame for the big race: Carole Burton .coxswain, and die Cambridge crew (Photograph: Tommy Bradley) 

Art of not living dangerously 

By JimRailton 

Oxford and Cambridge, 
wn for 

continuing the countdown for 
tomorrow's Boat Race, were 
yesterday rehearsing the ritual 
of its start The preparations 
are so precise' because the 
crews must be ready for the off 
and on the stake boats before 
3.15.Crucially, too, the cox- 
swains will be under the eagle 
eye of the umpire, Michael 

In last year's race the coxes 
lived dangerously. Somehow 
the oars were intenneshed in a 
form of nautical jousting, but 
luckily there was no disastrous 
clash. Oxford's Seth Lesser 
and Cambridge's Henrietta 
Shaw appeared to have the 
death wish. 

There has been only one 
foul awarded in the Boat Race 

and that was in 1849 when 
Oxford were awarded the race. 
This year the coxswains. Andy 
Green and Carole Burton, will 
need no reminding that they 
have a tough umpire in 
charge. If they are hard of- 
hearing then deaf aids should 
be the order of the day. 

the Tideway and interpreta- 
tions of the correct stations. 

Last year's rehearsal was 
hilarious. The coxes draw the 

coaching launches side by side 
from Putney to Mortlake. 

It is no easy task coxing a 
formula one racing shell on 
the Queen's highway, devoid 
of a tine to indicate the Surrey 
and Middlesex stations. There 
can be a degree of subjectivity 
and certainly, in normal con- 
ditions, the coxswains will be 
fighting for the centre of the 

Henrietta Shaw drove .Ama- 
ryllis and Seth Lesser 
Bosporus with the umpire, 
Ronnie Howard, in pursuiL 
By all accounts, the launches 
were lucky to survive and 
became nautical dodgem cars. 

The other problem Is that 
Oxford and Cambridge appear 
to have different road maps of 

Let tomorrow's coxswains 
beware. Mike Sweeney is a 
tough character as well as 
being an international umpire. 
If necessary he will disqualify 
and that would be a sad end to 
a 432nd Boat Race. 

TODAY’S OUTINGS (tram Putney): 
Oxford 9am and l-dOpm. Cam- 
bridge: 9am and 2pm. 



Male pride upheld Day of mixed fortunes Ailing Cram will 

in final round 


Masculine pride was finally 
upheld when Ronan Rafferty 
and Roger Chapman, profes- 
sionals from Ireland and En- 
gland respectively, won the 
Sunningdale Foursomes yes- 
terday. They inflicted a rare 
defeat, by one hole, on the 
Irish amateur pair, Mary Mc- 
Kenna and Maureen Garner 
(nee Madill). 

It was only the third setback 
for the women in 30 matches 
in this competition. They were 
receiving nine strokes from 

the men, a handicap that other 
players had declared impossi- 
ble, but Rafferty and Chap- 
man, perhaps profiting from 
external agency, won the 1 7th 
to go one up and realize 
expectations by retaining their 
lead, though Miss McKenna 
and Mrs Gamer hunted them 
all the way up the 18th. 

It was a match undistin- 
guished for its golf, rather as if 
both pairs had left their best 
form in the clubhouse at 

From Mitchell Platts 
Ponte Vedra, Florida 

Tony Sills, aged 30, from 
California, improved his pros- 
pects of a first lour victory 
with an opening round of 66 in 
the Tournament Players 
championship here yesterday 
as Bernhard Langer relied 
heavily on his putter to keep 
his own chances alive. 

green from 240 yards out but 
be succeeded only in finding a 
watery grave with his fairway 
wood shot. A seven looked on 
the cards but he once again got 
up and down and another 
single putt at the 18th enable 
him to turn in 36. 

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Langer looked extremely 
comfortable on the greens 
throughout his opening nine 
holes, but his striking from tee 
to green lacked its usual 
consistency. He started at the 
tenth bole and there were 
some outstanding shots, like 
the aggressive seven iron he 
fired straight at the stick at the 
13th (172 yards), but he was 
too often fighting for pars after 
wayward shots. 

Langer has been experi- 
menting this season with the 
Pelz Putter, which utilizes 
three golf balls for alignment, 
but he will not be too con- 
cerned if the United States 
Golf Association succeed in 
their efforts to outlaw the 
short-face version of the 
putter. The USGA has stated 
that it does not conform to the 
Rules of Golf but a temporary 
restraining order has been 
filed in the federal court by the 
Dave Pelz Golf Company. 

as the short-face version has a 
striking face of 2 2 inches 
compared with a length of 5 
inches it does not conform to 
(he rules. There is a back 
blade, which is 5.2 inches 
wide, but the USGA has 
questioned its function and 
told Pelz the patter 'is not 

stick to his plans 

By Pat Butcher, Athletics Correspondent 

Weibring, who was runner- 
up in the Tournament Players 
championship last year, says: 
“It is definitely not a gimmick. 
It is the product of extensive 
research designed to provide 
better alignment, dub balance 
and acceleration. You just 
have to accept it looks ugly." 

He took single putts at three 
of his first four holes, twice for 
birdies, and he was required to 
do so again at the long 1 4th to 
avoid dropping more than one 
shot after a pushed dri ve and a 
pulled eight iron which left the 
ball in a bunker. 

Langer has only employed 
the putter in three tourna- 
ments but he has found tre- 
mendous value in using it on 
the practice putting green. 
Thau of course, he will be able 
to continue to do even if the 
putter, which is regularly used 
by the American golfer 
D. A. Weibring, is outlawed. 

Meanwhile Langer, using a 
conventional putter, attempt- 
ed to remain ‘in couch with a 
galaxy of players who took 
advantage of calm conditions 
to make encouraging starts. 
They included Bob Tway, out 
in a five-under-par 31, and 
Lanny Wadkins, Mark 
O'Meara, Andy Bean and Jim 
Thorpe, who all turned in 32. 

The catalogue of Steve 
Cram's ailments is getting as 
long as his list .of athletic 
achievements. After finishin g 
a “pathetic" 15th in the 
Newcastle city-centre road 
race on Wednesday, Crain 
went into hospital yestenlay 
for tests to discover how bad 
are die kidney stones which 
curtailed his training leading 
up to the race. 

In addition to Achilles ten- 
don injuries, “compartment 
syndrome”;, runners' knees, 
sprained ankles and the like, 

the world, European, and 
tlth 1500 metres 

Reign ended 

Langer stared another disas- 
ter in the face at the long 16th. 
He gambled on going for the 

Weibring, however, is con- 
cerned as. of course, is Pelz. 
with the USGA’s verdict but 

England's grip on die 
Vilmorin Cup women’s ama- 
teur golf trophy came to an 
end at Saint-Cloud yesterday. 


champion has bad the kidney 
problem, albeit less acute, fair 
more than five years. 

Occasional hospital treat- 
ment has helped to cure the 
problem in the past, but, 
although Cram admits it will 
not constitute a grave setback 
to training, be may need laser 
treatment to disperse them 
this time. 

- Cram's immediate plans are 
to go for his regular spring 
altitude training in Colorado 
throughout April, and he has 

reiterated kis wish to run both 
the 800 and 1500 metres at the 
Commonwealth Games in Ed- 
inburgh, followed by the 1 500 
metres at the European cham- 
pionships in Stuttgart 

Steve Harris’s victory in the 
Newcastle 5,000 metres race 
signalled a return to top form 
after his own spate of injuries 
had held bade his progress 
since ! 983. It was then that the 
1982 junior national cross- 
country champion catme to the 
forefront of Britain's senior 
runneis with a victory in the 
AAA 10 kilometre champion- 
ship (beating Steve Ovett) and 
then going on to win the 
World Studem Games 5,000 

A displaced pelvis, the same 
legacy of hard road-nmmi 
from which David Moorcn 
is still suffering, kept Harris 
out throughout 1984. But he 
achieved minor success last 
year, coming third in the 
European Cup 5,000 metres 
race in Moscow ami now he 
has his sights set on nnming 
the 10,000 metres at the 
Commonwealth Games. 



Selectors Porterfield 

give in 
over Dew 


By Richard Eaton 

There will be cries of “play- 

er power" following the deci- 
sion yesterday to allow Martin 

Dew to travel separately from 
the England squad for the 
world team championships in 
Jakarta next month. 

The European doubles 
champion bas been in dispute 
with Jake Downey, the En- 
gland manager, who dropped 
the player from the squad 
when he refused to travel with 
the team. Downey's actions, 
however, led many of the top 
players to cadi for Dew’s 
inclusion and eventually led 
to the players' petition for 
Downey's removal from his 

Downey subsequently won 
a vote of confidence from the 
executive committee of the 
Badminton Association of En- 
gland — although yesterday he 
received anything but that 
from his own selectors. Dis- 
cussing matters independently 
they voted unanimously to 
change the derision that the 
squad travels together. “ Dew 
is an indispensable part of the 
team and therefore must be 

Sheffield United's football 
supporters finally got their 
way yestenlay with the dis- 
missal of the manager, Ian 
Porterfield. The subject of 
demonstrations and abuse 
from supporters, Porterfield 
was dismissed at an emergen- 
cy board meeting. 

The chairman, Reg Brealey, 
said: “The decision was taken 
with regret but has been made 
because it became increasingly 
apparent that the manager had 
lost the confidence of the fans. 
It is in the best interests of all 
concerned that he should go.” 

The youth team coach, Billy 
McEwan, will take charge 
until the end of the season 
while the board look for a 
replacement Among the 
favourites will be Trevor 
Cherry, who steered 
neighbouring Bradford City to 
the second division 

Twin call-up Leighton 

Chris Bailev ' ased 17. of •- O - 

Navratilova: Czech r e t ur n 

Chris Bailey, aged 17, of 
Norfolk, and Hampshire’s 
Lawrence Matthews,, aged 18, 
have been called up by the 
British national tennis trerny 
manager, Paul Hutchins, to 
the new Laing LTA 1986 
team. The pair join existing 
members, Austen Brice 
(Cheshire) and Jason GoodaQ 
(Berkshire), in a squad which 
wfll compete in European 
junior tournaments. Hutchins 
said: “They are both in their 
final year as juniors and wifi 
benefit tremendously.” 


for Scots 

Service return Non-starters 

Prague (AP) — Martina 
Navratilova will be allowed to 
return to her native Czecho- 

slovakia to play Federation 
lis for the United 

Cup tennis ... 

States from July 21 to 27, the 
Czechoslovak Sports Union 
confirmed. She has not re- 
turned since her defection in 

Nairobi (Reuter) — Two 
new turbocharged Chroens 
have been ruled out of the 
Safari motor rally, starting 
tomorrow, for technical rea- 
sons. “The new car is not 
quick enough," a spokesman, 
Richard Seth-Smith, said, re- 
ferring to the four-wheel drive . 
Citroen BX4TC. 

, 'Prep- 
arations have recerveaa se- 
vere jolt with tbe revelation 
foal Jim Leighton, lhar first- 
choice eoaJkeeper, may not be 
available for a month. Lets 
ion will miss Scotland's, h 
two internationals fcfbre-'tbe 
finals in Mexico, agains t En- 
gland at Wembley on April 23 
ate Netherlands in Eindho- 
ven six days later. V _. 

Pyatt in line 

Charity goals Sibson bout 

Chns Pyatt, of Leicester, 
who recenuy won the British 
light middleweight title from 
Prince Rodney, has been con- 
firmed by the European Box- 
ing Union as the official 
contender for the European 
championship, held by Said 
Skouma, of France. 

Kenny Dalglish has pledged 
to help the Scottish public 
.who have helped him become 
one of the country's best-loved 
footballer. The Liverpool 
player-manager,' who wonhis 
100th cap against Romania on 
Wednesday, is to give a “sub- 
stantial sum" from his. testi- 
monial fund to charities. 

Tony Sibson continues his 
bout-a-month campaign when 
he meets Alex Ramos, of the 
United States, on April 16. It 
will be the third instalment of 
his comeback which bas 
brought him two impressive 
wins. The contest will be 
staged at the Royalty Theatre 
in London. 

Leighton . trussed 
Wednesday's 3-0 victory over 
Romania at Hampden Pfcrfc 
because of a suspected dislo- 
cated finger — but a farther 
examraatton yesterday - re- 
vealed more serious damage. - 
“Jim has a flaked bone is 
bis finger and itteofes as if he 
win be ont for a month;" Alex 
Ferguson, foe : Aberdeen and 
Scotland manager, said. ' 

The injury to Leighton took 
the gloss off. an otherwise 
successful night for Scotland 
and- the country’s most suc- 
cessful footballer, • Kenny 
Dalglish, who was winning his 
iOOfo cap. - 

Certainly- tt is easy enough 
is believe thfa, «hea you go 
down to Pamej and stiff foe 

crew. Jobs Pritchard, 
vastly experienced Stroke, 
slid: “ A tot of trsintofc ate 
rowing ht groeHmg — 1a fact, % 
bloody fesria# »'* wore accu- 
rate description. T1» only 
reason ! do it is betaase f im 
good at it. But ton weekend, 
Mdf the, river after a 


CoRege School and Morton), 5 
H M MacDcdd (Momson's Acad- 
emy and Mansfield]: ■ fi Unman 
(St Otavg's, Orpington and Wbreos- 
terfc *G R 0 Jones (Sydney towee- 
sity and New CoHeoak'VM FNfe 
(Bryanston, Cambridge University 
and Worcester): C H &ric |Ca«ar- 
nia University and Unweritty); & 
Livingston ffcaSomia University 
end Oriel); 'AMS Thomas (WSn- 
cbester and Pembroke), stroke; A S 
Green (Haberdashers' Asha's and 
Christ Church), cox. 

CAM8MDGE: I R Ctwtai (Snxvpart 
HS and FfewSam): bow; « UHam 
(Princeton University and Tnwtjr 
HaB); M D Hughes [Bedford Modem 
and Downing); J 5 Few (Stanford 
University and TrMtyfc *S Aft Peel 
(King’s, Chester and Downi ng); 
Broughton {Kelly _ 
Southampton University and 
dafene); E AF Gfoeon (On 
University. Ontario and ChucteQ; M 
M Pritchard (St dement Danes and 
Robinson), stroke; C A Burton (A&ca 
OtHey and FtawflHam). cox. ' 

* A Blue ... 

And ff a ertw eaa smtie after 
rowing, that yoo know ymYe 

start level rathe 
Oxford. They 
fast year to end 
streak tat 


tberood^has resfrodwedfor 
selection procedure aa* the 
a arnin g ptogtaiw e “ftca top 
first fofi year M. cfaro of 
Cambridge and Ws ptoas for 
starting with c atena a re* he 
believes, looking good. .•> * 
Last year, theme waaetee 
for a ^ fcg way. Cambridge 
rowed Jtbwgstfe Oxford for 
faro and a half rates tat coaid 
Dorstay there*** slowlyfcU 
awn?- It won't happen this 
year, Ians tafieros; “I have 
pfacedL tkesfress on endurance 
wori l We hato done tong 
pieces ofrewtog and umltipte 
repetition fat the gyv: repeti* 
titan sad nrifcase «** * " 
lias faas-tacn backed op fay 
the Caaadtoa, Neil Campbell, 
in foe taaditog; CaiajpbeB, a 
iMWwa B d ,totiryeta^edmoti- 
tetterwto tattled fcfeCanaifc 
an etofa# to a gold -medal at the 
tost Otympfc Games. “They’re 
-sate different people, the faro 
crakes,” thrOmbridge pres- 
ident; Quotas ; Travis, said. 
*We3 fa eamtiin^ and Alan b 
a nchoring .Jtittfe bastard. 
Ttayarea good team.* . 

■i . 

Puufch-up ends a 
black weekend 

Cambridge have certainly 
had their share of hard times 
ro the Way to tbe nee. The big 
freeze ataust frote them rigid. 
Certainly if froze the river at 
Ely, where they train, a prob- 
lem Oxford never face, since 
the Thames, where they train, 
never freezes. The answer was 
to go down to Lenten to train, 
which involved a succession of 
two and a half hoar trips by 
van, followed fey nights te 
people's floors. The long jour- 
neys, with the windows closed 
ate tire heaters on, were a 
splendidly efficient means rtf 
ensuring cress-mfoctiom a fe- 
rodovs fla tag made the 
routes ef. tte crew, making 
training with tte hll crew 
iposstMe fbr.wedcs- : • < 
One Mack weekend, their 
van broke down, : tee crew 
member put his batik out ate 
had to withdraw, they pat a 
hole in their brand new boat, 
and Becauto ^ the weather was 
soterriWe they coahbrt train 
oit tiie tideway ate went to 
train to the dock - and 
discovered foergatoshatate a 

* ft* -*«. r ? 

i f t 


ptatoba sank, so. the session 
had to becanceBed-To add the 
final toocfr ton glorious week- 
end, there was-a fight between 
two members of the Gokfte 
'ere w.:; ' 

: ^away it was good^ fortbe 
crew," Travis said. “K kept' 
then back ate prevented as 
from peaking tro early. Mote 
importantly, it dmnpti a 
iwtnritjr iB the crew; we: have 
faced every difficulty possible 
ate coped.** It was av wtoter 
packed with diffiorities, sa 
mock so tint Ted Gibsoa, the 
No 7, said he frit as if he was 
rowingmaboatfroafrriL Tie 
crew, agreed -with -tire senti; 

meats and damecTthe tart in ' 

; 7 d 


“It was a.trongh. After ft, 
the crew took ofTHfrarisssid. 
Tram fa not iatheexewi beis 
die first non-rowing president 
since 1947, when aman catted 
Archie Nicholson was .to the 
same position. Cambridge won 
that year. 

■ A more sahstontial pphter 
to wtoy comes too Pritch- 
ard, who, with two successive 
defeats behind him, .fa some- 
thing an authority on lating 
foe Burt Rac& He tioes art 
expect to add to this kite pf 
experience. “We are an oWer 
crew than . to previous ye«» 
ate we have a great deal of 
totonatimte «qtorinree. r< 1 re 
said. "It makes a rtgnfffrari 
psjdhofogfcal deference. AVe 
know our. abilities ^ ate 
know we don^t tare to rawmd- 
of our sfcufa to gi«e a mo# 
a^ethnepeifonnance ^ if^ ^We 
are to win. We'tepl; tare to 
perform to ore faD potentfak 
no more, f betteye that wfflke 


.. k 

,< L v 


*•': :*Z"