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O—binJ 

DICTIONARY 
OF WINE It 



O— bins 

DICTIONARY OF WINE 



General Editor 

SIMON COLLIN 



BLOOMSBURY 




www.bloomsbury.com 

First published in Great Britain 2004 

Bloomsbury Publishing Pic 
38 Soho Square, London, W1D 3HB 

Copyright © Bloomsbury Publishing 2004 

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may 
be reproduced in any form or by any means without the 
permission of the publishers. 

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data 

A catalogue entry for this book is available from the British Library 

eISBN-13: 978-1-4081-0174-2 

Text computer typeset by Hewer Text Ltd, Edinburgh 
Printed and bound in Italy by Legoprint 

All papers used by Bloomsbury Publishing are natural, recyclable 
products made from wood grown in well-managed forests. The 
manufacturing processes conform to the environmental regulations 
of the country of origin. 




CONTENTS 



Contributors iv 

Preface v 

Pronunciation Guide ix 

A Winemaker’s View: 

Australia: Chester D’Arenberg Osborn x 

California: Randall Grahm; Kent Rasmussen xii 

Chile: Aurelio Montes; Marcelo Papa xvi 

Greece: George Tsantalis xviii 

Italy: Maddalena Pasqua di Bisceglie; Luigi Rubino xxii 

South Africa: Alex Dale xxiii 

The Dictionary 1 



Vintage Chart 



358 




General Editor 

SIMON COLLIN 

Special thanks to: 

Laurie Webster, Dan Wilkinson, Corinna Thompson, Lynne 
Coyle and all the managers of Oddbins branches, past and 
present, whose knowledge and passion for wine have been the 
inspiration for this book. 

Editors 

Lesley Brown, Gordon Kerr 

Pronunciations 

Dinah Jackson 

Adviser 

John Beeston 

Author of Concise History of Australian Wine 
and Wine Regions of Australia 

Maps 

bounford.com 

Text production and Proofreading 

Katy McAdam, Daisy Jackson, Joel Adams, 

Sarah Lusznat, Charlotte Regan, 

Emma Harris, Ruth Hillmore 



BLOOMSBURY REFERENCE 

Dictionaries Publisher Executive Editor Production Editor 

Faye Carney Susan Jellis Nicky Thompson 




PREFACE 

Matthew Jukes 



Over the years I have often found myself both amazed and 
impressed by the level of wine knowledge and honesty of UK 
wine drinkers in discussing the taste of wine. Interestingly, the 
same cannot be said for our friends around the world. In fact, 
wine-producing countries, in my experience, often have the least 
well-informed citizens. I have puzzled over why this might be. 
Perhaps they are too close to the subject and, as they inevitably 
drink wine regularly, often every lunch and dinner, they don’t 
tend to think much about what’s in the glass. Also, they rarely 
drink wine from outside their own locale. We are lucky in this 
respect. Wine drinking is our number one social hobby! 

With a few notable exceptions, we don’t make much wine 
over here, and coupled to the fact that we have long been 
seafarers and merchants and are therefore connoisseurs of wares 
from overseas, we have learned to appreciate wine at a much 
faster rate than other nations. Wasn’t it the Brits whose palates 
changed the style of Champagne from sweet to the dry style it is 
today? Also, over the centuries, the British were responsible, to a 
greater or lesser degree, for the production of other great wine 
styles like Bordeaux, port and Madeira. These days, with easier, 
faster transport and more wanderlust, even historically intro- 
spective regions like Burgundy are teeming with winemakers 
who have worked all over the world, experiencing and enjoying 
the cooking, culture and wines from the New World as well as 
their own beloved Old World creations. This may be true about 
the winemakers, but it is far from accurate when it comes down 
to the everyday Burgundians’ diet. I imagine they don’t often 
drink anything other than their own local stuff. Would any of 
them have ever seen a bottle of Aussie Shiraz or Chilean 
Carmenere? Sadly, I very much doubt it. We, in the UK, are 
the consumers who inhabit the global driving seat, and we 
continue to set the pace. Even the Americans are playing 




vi Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

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catch-up with us as regards Australia, New Zealand and South 
Africa. 

So do we make the most of this fortunate position? On the 
whole, yes. A London cabbie the other day swore blind that he 
hadn’t touched a drop of wine until four or five years ago (he 
was exclusively a beer man), and now he is partial to Chilean 
Merlots, Chianti and Cote du Rhohes, and he even went as far 
as saying he couldn't get his head around South African 
Pinotage. For me this was a remarkably astute rundown of 
his exact wine needs. This core knowledge is creeping into 
society every day. I particularly liked his point about Pinotage, 
which was, admittedly, accurate in my opinion! We tend to take 
our knowledge levels, no matter how small, for granted, because 
wine is becoming ingrained in our foodie culture. But we must 
all congratulate ourselves for coming so far so fast. Even you, 
for picking up (and hopefully buying) this book, would be 
considered an aficionado, whether you feel it is warranted or 
not. 

As a wine writer, I am delighted about this desire for wine 
knowledge because we have never had it so good - there has 
never in history been as wide a range of global wine sold in the 
UK as there is today. More choice, more enthusiasm, more 
chance to try anything and everything. But hang on. If we are so 
good at it then why do we need a brand new dictionary? 

We are fortunate enough to have a very active wine market 
and some cracking buyers in the UK. But it has to be said 
everyone’s knowledge could always be tweaked even more. 

I travel around the country hosting tastings and have met 
thousands of people of all ages and backgrounds. Gosh, some of 
the studious sorts blind me with their knowledge of Bordeaux 
blends, down to the exact percentage, others talk about malo- 
lactic fermentation and Brettanomyces until they are blue in the 
face. I find this exciting and encouraging, as this means that 
there are people out there who are as bonkers about this massive 
and continuously evolving subject as I am. These people I call 
the ‘haves’, and they are all very welcome. But I also adore 
talking to the ‘have nots’. Now before you think me rude, I am 
referring to those who ‘have’ been well and truly bitten by the 
wine bug and those who ‘have not’. The ‘have nots’ are an 
equally fascinating Venn diagram of people. This contented 
band of keen gluggers is happy to bumble along buying what- 
ever seems to work, drinking hits one night and misses the next. 




Preface vii 

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To find out whether you are a have or a have not, did you 
understand the malo and Brett sentence a few lines back? If no, 
this doesn’t make any difference to me, as you are the proud 
possessor of something the ‘haves’ haven't got. You know 
exactly what you like and why you like it. The ‘haves’ pretend 
to like and understand everything, which by the way is im- 
possible. They deliberate over choosing a bottle in the shop for 
hours, wasting valuable drinking time (I am one, I should 
know). You ‘have nots’ are a wonderful lot. You may be 
bemused amateurs and enthusiastic drinkers, but on the occa- 
sion that you do absorb a fact you'll never let it go. To you, 
finding out that Marlborough in New Zealand and Sancerre in 
France share a common grape variety (Sauvignon Blanc links 
them) is nothing short of a revelation. This fact may not have 
bothered you before, as you have always enjoyed both styles of 
wine, but when the penny drops, it is an unexpected and 
welcome bonus and this book can give you a boost like that 
every day. 

Now I have read this book and, despite classing myself in the 
‘have’ category, have learned a ton from these pages. This is not 
surprising, as wine is a monstrous subject never knowingly 
tamed by any one individual, and I suppose that is part of 
its charm. Remember you can never truly be an expert - only the 
wine can be that. 

So for all of you ‘have nots’ who want to make that leap, and 
even for those of you who often can’t be bothered but would like 
to find quickly the answer to a tricky expression, seemingly 
convoluted tasting notes or high falutin’ wine words, this is the 
book for you. And for all of you ‘haves’ who think they know it 
all but have barely scratched the surface, this is also the book 
that will make your lives much easier. 

This is a dictionary, you don’t have to read it cover to cover. 
All you have to do is refer to it whenever you are stuck - grab it, 
locate the page, read and smugly nod - quick, in and out, like an 
SAS raid. No matter who you are or what your level of 
knowledge, this book will open the subject up for you, and 
hopefully answer some of those nagging questions. Happy 
browsing, glass in hand. 

Matthew Jukes is the author of the UK's best-selling 
wine guide. The Wine List, and www.expertwine.com 




PRONUNCIATION GUIDE 



Symbol 


Example 


Symbol 


Example 


a 


at 


n, nn 


not, funny 


aa 


father 


ng 


song 


aw 


all 


o 


odd 


ay 


day 


0 


open 


air 


hair 


00 


good 


b, bb 


but, ribbon 


oo 


school 


ch 


chin 


ow 


owl 


d, dd 


do, ladder 


oy 


oil 


9 


about, edible, item, 


P, PP 


pen, happy 




common, circus 


r, rr 


road, carry, hard 


e 


egg 


s, ss 


say, lesson 


ee 


eel 


sh 


sheep 


f, ff 


fond, differ 


th 


thin 


g, gg 


go, giggle 


th 


this 


h 


hot 


t, tt 


tell, butter 


hw 


when 


u 


up 


i 


it, happy, medium 


ur 


urge 


6 


ice 


V, vv 


very savvy 


jjj 


juice, pigeon 


w 


wet 


k 


key, thick 


y 


yes 


1, 11 


let, silly 


z, zz 


zoo, blizzard 


m, mm 


mother, hammer 


zh 


vision 



Foreign pronunciations 

/kh/ as in German back, Spanish Gijon 

/N/ to show nasalisation of the preceeding vowel as in the 
French pronunciation of un bon vin blanc /oN boN vaN blaaN/ 
jo/ as in French boeuf, German schon 
/ii/ as in French rue, German gemiitlich 

Stress 

over a vowel indicates the syllable that has the main stress, or 
the syllable before this that has the second most important stress. 
’ before / 1/, / m/, or jnj shows that the consonant is pronounced 
as a whole syllable 

Symbols 

0 named grape variety fi named wine 2 tasting term 




A WINEMAKER’S VIEW 



Chester D’Arenberg Osborn 

D’Arenberg 

Australia 

It was a very easy decision to become a winemaker. I was born 
into it! My mother carried me around the winery at the age of 
two telling me how I was going to be an inventive, great 
winemaker. At the age of about six, Len Evans, a well-known 
Australian wine judge and writer, asked me ‘What sort of wine 
are you going to make when you grow up’. I said ‘a yummy one'. 
The point is he didn't ask me if I was going to be a winemaker - 
it was a given. 

A piece of art 

Nowadays, I get caught with mainly flavours, spending six 
hours a day tasting grapes during vintage, followed by hours 
tasting ferments. Outside of vintage, it’s judging or tasting my 
wines amongst the consumers and listening to their opinions, or 
most importantly, tasting each barrel blind, deciphering why it 
tastes as it does, as environment and management of grapes and 
the wine influence the wine. Then I decide which wine blend 
each barrel will go into. 

Getting so intimately involved with each parcel of vines, and 
in turn each batch of wine followed by each blend, means that I 
get very attached to each as if they were my children, making it 
difficult to choose between them. 

Wine and grape flavours and aromas are like sight to me. 
Once you taste the wine, a whole myriad of things are seen: how 
and where the grapes were grown, the season, the winemaking 
method, the individual characters, the balance, type and inten- 
sity of each different taste character. There is an amazing 
amount of detail that you can find in a wine - it’s a real buzz. 

These reasons, and the fact that it is an expression of one’s self, 




A Winemaker’s View xi 

-»t‘ vVr-’iSV vV-r A‘ vVr- »fc‘ •,'SIV%‘ VVT-’»t‘ vVr-’iSV v’W-’»t‘ %Vr 

a piece of art, is why I make wine. There are also all the great 
people and perks that go with the job but they are secondary. 

Boutique winemaking on a big scale 

I doubt whether there is another winery of d'Arenberg’s size 
basket-pressing whites and reds. Included in this are hundreds 
of 4.5 to 5 tonne batches from individual parts of vineyards 
being kept separate in headed-down (submerged cap) open 
fermenters and foot-trod. Pumping over or plunging is not 
used. Over half of the production finishes ferment in small 
oak - much of which remains on lees for over a year. No fining 
or real filtering of the wine is done. Hence, we have small, 
specialist, ‘boutique' winemaking undertaken on a big scale. 

Extreme viticulture is also a motto at d'Arenberg. If a winery 
has had to trim the vines during the growing season, they have 
failed as the vines are too vigorous. In 2003, the average yield 
was 1.3 tonne/acre and in 2004, the average yield was 1.5 tonne/ 
acre. Intense fruit. 

The Australian winemaking scene 

Gradually winemakers are focusing more on the fruit in the 
vineyard as well as making less oaked wines. The structures of 
many are still too open and fat without long, gritty fruit tannins 
that lengthen the palate and give the wine great ageability. It is 
this more fragrant, lengthy wine with great expression of terroir 
that I aim to achieve using extreme viticulture practices and very 
gentle winemaking. Some winemakers are into major manip- 
ulation of the wine in the processing. I don’t like to over-process 
the wine. 

The future 

My goals are to make great wine that I like to drink. I won’t be 
able to grow the business much more as I won’t be able to keep 
on top of all of the tastings required for each vineyard and 
barrel. I would like to think that d'Arenberg would become one 
of the greatest wineries in the world, rolling off anyone's tongue 
when asked the name of a great winery. 

I am very interested in varieties new to McLaren Vale and new 
blends. Who knows whether there is an even more well-suited 
grape to McLaren Vale than Shiraz, Grenache or Mourvedre. 
We have now all the white Rhones and Tempranillo, Souza o and 
Tinta Cao, and possibly Petit Manseng in the future. 




xii Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

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Randall Grahm 
Bonny Boon Vineyard 
California 

You explain your actions to yourself retrospectively, but if I were 
to try to reconstruct my thought process at the time, my motiva- 
tion for becoming a winemaker would have gone something like 
this: having worked briefly in the retail trade and been given the 
unique opportunity to taste the most extraordinary wines in the 
world, I had become thoroughly smitten with the aesthetic of 
wine. Maybe I was a closet synesthete all along, but I imagined 
that I saw and heard organoleptic and textural counterpoint. 
Tasting '71 Scharzhofberger Auslese Goldkapsel was about the 
most hallucinatory experience I enjoyed in the early 70s. I had 
nothing more than the intuition that the craft of winemaking 
could be something like a mandala, a way of finding a sort of 
balance in life, of creating a structured harmony, but in fact, my 
experience of life as a winemaker has largely brought me that - on 
good days. What continues to motivate me to make wine is that it 
appears that I have some proficiency in the craft and that I 
continue to find meaning in what I do. The craft of winemaking 
seems to be sufficiently metaphoric to nourish my minimum daily 
requirement for art/drama/beauty/sensuality/otherworldliness. 

Satisfy and delight consumers 

We try really, really hard and we continuously experiment and 
iterate in the development of new grape varieties, new viticul- 
tural regions and wine styles. There is a certain Faustian 
dimension to all of this. I have personally tried to surgically 
excise the systemic pretentiousness of the wine business in all of 
what we do. We really do try to make wines that satisfy and 
delight the mind, spirit and body of our consumers. 

The Californian winemaking scene 

Wineries are getting a lot more cynical and regressed, i.e. deciding 
that what they personally want to achieve doesn’t really matter, 
but they feel that they must produce wines in a certain style to, 
most importantly, please the important wine media, secondarily, 
the wine public - to the extent that the wine public understands 
what it wants itself. On the other hand, there are a few winemakers 
who are agonising about how they can truly produce distinctive 
wines and a few of them are actually taking the notion of terroir 




A Winemaker’s View xiii 

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seriously. I am heartened that there does appear to be a growing 
interest in alternative grape varieties. Tempranillo is often bandied 
about, but I don’t as yet see a lot of interest in the real warm- 
climate grapes of southern Italy and Greece, i.e. grapes that do not 
come with a snooty, pedigreed calling card. 

Short and long-term goals 

I would really like to make wines that are far more distinctive 
and interesting than the ones that we are currently producing, 
indeed wines that are necessary, wines that make the world more 
interesting. It would also be exceptionally cool if indeed we 
could produce a wine, or wines, that was truly capable of 
expressing terroir. In the near term, my immediate goal is to 
attempt to persuade our growers to make the transition from 
conventional to organic farming and ideally to biodynamie, if 
they can make that imaginative leap. It is my intention to 
exclusively produce wines made from organic grapes within 
the next few years, but there is a tremendous amount of work 
that needs to be done to make that occur. 

The future 

I can’t speak for the rest of the world, but I would ultimately, 
after some significant machination, like to get to a place of 
extreme simplicity, where as a winemaker I am working with 
grapes that arrive in the winery already programmed for success, 
i.e. balanced, sufficiently concentrated, expressive, such that I do 
not have to move heaven and earth to contrive an interesting wine 
from them. It would be great if somehow I could offer a wine that 
was simply a wine rather than a wine ‘brand’. 



Kent Rasmussen 

Kent Rasmussen Winery 

California 

It’s a rare winemaker who wakes up one day in his youth and 
says ‘I am going to be a winemaker'. Instead, winemaking is a 
calling that one arrives at later in life, having experienced other 
vocations along the path. Why develop a passion for wine- 
making versus widget-making? Hard to say, but after having 
been a winemaker for over 25 years now, I can see that it 
requires a certain type of soul. A scientist? An artist? I have read 




xiv Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V v¥r> »t‘ Wr- »t‘ ■***■ •-’W A‘ •,'SlV A‘ VVr-’»t‘ %Vr 

that people are either goal-oriented or process-oriented. A 
winemaker’s work is the epitome of process-orientation, with- 
out it they could never survive! 

My route to winemaking was as different as most others in the 
profession. I was headed down the dusty halls of librarianship, 
another noble and very process-oriented profession, but found that 
I didn't take well to the constraints of four walls and a pay-slip. 
Winemaking had been a passion for me since my teenage years. I 
think the thing that appealed, and still does, to me most about 
winemaking is (as economists say) the ‘vertical integration’ of the 
profession. After all, if you are process-oriented, isn’t it better that 
the process be a long one? The old adage that ‘winemaking starts in 
the vineyard' doesn’t begin to go back far enough. 

Winemaking starts with finding the land and a trip to the bank, 
then planting the vineyard and building the winery (to the bank 
again!), purchasing all that equipment, then grapes (a milestone!) 
and harvest, then the fermentation (with its one million non- 
quantifiable choices of how to turn the aforementioned grapes 
into wine) and at last: The Wine. But then you are only halfway 
through! From there, the process continues: cellaring, package 
design, bottling, ageing and God-help-us, every-winemaker’s- 
nightmare, a goal-oriented activity: Marketing. But is that the 
end? No! Then there are critics, reviews, corked bottles, fame, 
fortune (we all hope) and, oh yes, the goal: someone, somewhere 
enjoys a good bottle of wine. But, in the meantime, the winemaker 
has many more vintages in process. What a life! It is a great life! 

The attraction of two varieties 

While over the years I have worked with many varieties of 
grapes, and made many a wonderful wine out of most of them, 
my true focus and interest has lain with just two varieties that 
are as different as different can be: Pinot Noir and Petite Sirah. 
In my mind Pinot Noir is the world’s greatest grape, and Petite 
Sirah is the world's most Californian grape. Thus, my attraction 
to them is clear - I am a Californian winemaker! 

Pinot Noir’s evolution in California has largely occurred over 
just the last 25 years, with the quality of the variety going from 
bluntly appalling in the 1970s to world-class in recent vintages. 
Some of this improvement can be attributed to the increase in 
wine quality worldwide, using scientific knowledge instead of the 
‘this-is-the-way-we-have-always-done-it’ approach. California’s 
Pinot Noir has improved more by the focus that winemakers have 




A Winemaker’s View xv 

* ■■’VWSfc' VVr.’lSt‘ VVr-’lSt‘ VVr* 'JSlV * 1 '■’Wit' ■***■ VVr* '■’Wit' ',Vr 

given to the issues of grape-growing: climate (particularly the 
discovery of cool growing regions like Cameras), trellising, 
clonal selection and maturity, although changes in cellar prac- 
tice, maturation and finishing procedures have helped also. Pinot 
Noir is every winemaker's challenge. For me, making any wine is 
fun, but making a mind-boggling Pinot Noir is seventh heaven. 

Petite Sirah is another story altogether. Major European vari- 
eties were introduced into California in the mid-1800s, and many 
of the best wines through California’s history have been made 
from Petite Sirah grapes. Although almost unknown elsewhere, 
it is a variety that shines under the California sun. Rich, dark, 
astringent and overwhelmingly fruity, it is the masculine antithesis 
of our delicate, sophisticated Pinot Noir, and yet it is also a 
wonderful wine. In its youth, Petite Sirah (farmers call it ‘Pets’ 
or ‘Petty Sarah’) has a vast and irresistible sensory presence in both 
mouth and nose, with oodles of fruit and masses of tannin. As it 
ages it develops much of the character of a fine Cabernet, and it can 
live a long, long time! I have been making Petite Sirah now for 
almost 25 years, and have never once been disappointed in the 
outcome. Each year I become more convinced that Pets will have a 
much larger place in the future’s history than it has at present. 

The Californian winemaking scene 

Throughout my years as a winemaker in California, each vintage 
has brought new ideas and innovations that make our wines better. 
Twenty-five years ago, California was leading the world into a new 
era of winemaking, merging modern science into the age-old art. 
Now many, if not most, of the world’s major wine-growing areas 
are cognisant of, even if not economically able to use, these 
methods. California is still a major centre for trial and innovation 
in the industry, both in primary research on the academic level, and 
also, due to the economic health of the industry, on the artistic level 
in vineyard and the cellar. Here wine-growing has achieved the 
longevity that allows re-evaluation and the major theme these days 
is to look again at the ideas of the last few decades regarding grape 
growing, particularly at the ultra-premium end of the spectrum, in 
terms of matching varieties to micro-appellations. 

The future 

There is ongoing interest in the many new ‘tools' that modern 
technology has given us, for example non-invasive alcohol 
reduction. In sales and marketing, we are re-evaluating what 




xvi Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V *’*■ Wr- »t‘ ■***■ •-Vf A‘ 'Xtr'i*.' •,'SlV A‘ ■***■ %Vr 

consumers want and deserve. Many winemakers want an end of 
corks as a closure method because of the seemingly unsolvable 
problem of corkiness. 

Like all successful businesses, we re-evaluate continually to 
change with the times, rather like when we first decided to 
become winemakers. And like all great artists, our style matures, 
but doesn’t really change. Like a fine wine? 



Aurelio Montes 

Montes 

Chile 

Somehow I always knew I would be a winemaker. From very 
early on I loved nature sea, soil and space and, even when a 
teenager, was fascinated by wine, vines and climate. The mo- 
tivation was strong, starting with tasting the top world wines, 
especially those that have been highly rated by respected wine 
writers, inspecting and working on the vines and vineyards, 
testing the soil to detect which grapes were the best match for it. 
The challenge is always to do better than the model, which, in 
turn, was a super wine acquired abroad. 

Working with small plots 

My approach is to investigate different varieties in new terri- 
tories, searching for the best fit and then, eventually, achieving 
the best terroir for that particular grape. I insist on vinifying in 
small plots of two hectares at the largest, separating the total 
vineyard into small plots, vinifying each plot separately to 
discover exactly where the best wines in barrels have come 
from. If a plot is consistently above the rest in quality, we test 
how much better it is. Our Montes Alpha ‘M’ (a Bordeaux 
blend) and Montes Folly (100% Syrah), were the result of this 
slow search, both the best of Chile in their categories. 

The South American winemaking scene 

A revolution! Chile has evolved from an uninspiring producer of 
supermarket wines to competing with the best in the world in 1 5 
short years! It has come from almost the Stone Age to state-of- 
the-art facilities. Chilean wines witness to it and ours in parti- 
cular, as we were the first to aim for premium wines. Now we also 
have ultra-premiums! 




A Winemaker’s View xvii 

tjfi? vV-r A‘ VSf^Se 1 ■,’VV.»fc‘ '.Vt-* VS6** 1 »t‘ VSf^Se 1 •,¥*> , A‘ vVr 

Argentina has also quickly evolved and I have started my own 
winery there, named ‘Kaiken’. 

The future 

My goal is to produce distinct wines that are equal to or better 
than the best elsewhere. 

I am now busy with our first super-high-tech winery for our 
premium Montes Alpha red wines and our two super wines, 
Montes Alpha ‘M’ and Montes Folly, and we have concentrated 
our efforts in our two estates, ‘La Finca de Apalta’ (a whole 
mountain, with vineyards in up to 45° slopes, in the Apalta Valley, 
considered to be the best for reds in Chile today, and from where 
our ‘M’ and Folly are sourced), and ‘El Arcangef (in Marchigiie, 
closer to the coast), both in the Colchagua Valley. I expect wonders 
from these two estates and was the pioneer in both. 

As far as the future of the ‘world of wine' goes, it is very difficult 
to see. The only professed indicator is that everyone seems bent on 
quality - some genuinely, others just claiming so. Only a few will 
make history and I would bet on the New World as there are so 
many new regions to explore. I see the greatest enthusiasm in the 
New World and Old World big names seem to have received the 
message. In Chile alone, France has the largest foreign investment 
in wines and they are all top names you would recognise. Overall, 
due to the ever-increasing interest in wines and their increasing 
prestige as healthy beverages, premium wines are certainly the 
future. Ten years from now the standard will have greatly in- 
creased. I foresee a superb future for premium wines from every 
wine region in the world as consumers become more knowledge- 
able and have the disposable income to support their curiosity. 



Marcelo Papa 
Concha y Toro 
Chile 

When I was studying agronomy at University, I had the chance 
to do a winemaking course, which I took just for fun. I never 
thought of working as a winemaker, but once I started, I never 
wanted to stop. 

If I could start again with my life for sure I would decide to enjoy 
and work again as a winemaker. The opportunities that this job 
offers are so special, working with weather conditions and nature’s 




xviii Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

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other elements. So we are at one with nature and our contact with it 
is so strong. We feel it. That is very unusual these days. We also get 
strong feedback from consumers and wine writers about our 
wines, so we know directly how we are progressing. 

The Chilean winemaking scene 

For a long time we got great wines from France, and Bordeaux in 
particular, from 1860 to 1990. 1 think that at this time there were 
not too many changes in style. Flowever, during the 1990s, the big 
revolution in technology in all wineries began. Now I think what 
is going on is that during the last 1 5 years a lot of people have 
come from the USA, Italy, Australia, and other places as well as 
France to help share experiences in style, winemaking, origins 
and many other things. So now in Chile we are an old country 
with long experience of making wine but with a lot of new people, 
full of energy to make changes that we never previously imagined. 
We are now producing wines from many different grape varieties 
across many valleys. Not only concentrating on great wines from 
Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon Blanc and Carmenere, but also 
from grapes like Syrah, Viognier and Pinot Noir. 

Long-term goals 

My biggest goal is to enter and play in a very strong and serious 
way in terms of quality and value at all prices. I believe we are 
continuing to raise winemaking standards in Chile and that we 
have started to produce benchmark wines. We are producing 
wonderful wines. Chile is amazing and my feeling is that we are in 
a very good position to realise our great potential for great wines. 

I am very focussed on expression. I want my wines, at every 
single level, to express the character of our country and culture. 
I don’t want to copy other styles. At Concha y Toro we have 
found our own way: very Chilean and very modern. 



Dr. George Tsantalis 

Tsantali Vineyards and Wineries 

Greece 

I was born to a family of winemakers. My grandfather, father 
and uncle tended their own vines and made wine and tsipouro 
for themselves and this hobby then became their main occupa- 
tion. As far back as when I was nine years old, I was in the 




A Winemaker’s View xix 

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vineyards helping with the harvest and then joining in the 
pressing of the grapes with our bare feet. 

My family founded the company out of deep respect for the 
beauty of the land and a strong commitment to quality. The 
spirit and tradition of nurturing the vines to yield the most 
precious grapes and of a proud winemaking heritage has con- 
tinued to evolve through the passage of time. 

Today, the third generation of our family shows the same 
dedication to the values of our grandparents, continuing to 
create exceptional wines and taking pride in their constant 
commitment to only the finest vineyards and winemaking skills. 

Tradition therefore definitely plays a significant role and 
influences not just our work philosophy, but our life philosophy 
too. Although in the meantime the winery has greatly expanded, 
our way of thinking is closer to that of a winegrower than that of 
a businessman. 

Organic terroir 

In 1971, in the middle of a storm, my uncle Evangelos Tsantalis 
sought refuge among the monks at the domain of Chromitsa. 
There he saw a vineyard that the monks did not tend any more. 
Tsantalis offered his help in tending the unique vineyard, if he 
was also allowed to make wine for himself. The monks agreed to 
this historic step and Mount Athos wine thus came to the ‘outside 
world'. The winemaking tradition that has lasted throughout the 
centuries and made Mount Athos wine renowned is kept alive 
today at the Tsantali Mount Athos Vineyards project. 

The vineyards of the Metoxi (Domain) of Chromitsa, prop- 
erty of the St. Panteleimon Monastery, extend across an area of 
80 hectares. The benevolent climatic and geographic parameters 
enable organic growing without problems, as the relatively dry 
climate and the sandy soil and strict isolation of the vineyards 
from other cultivations offer an excellent basis for organic 
growing. The yields of grapes are lower per hectare, making 
for more concentrated, complex wines. The careful choice of 
varieties optimally accentuates the characteristics of the terroir. 

The Greek winemaking scene 

Dramatic changes have taken place in the Greek ‘winescape', 
with an emphasis on quality and respect for regional varieties. In 
the vineyards, new canopy management techniques produce a 
striking acidity never before attained, while the intensity and 




xx Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

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ripeness of fruit is unbelievable. Modern winemaking practices 
result in vibrant, fruitier, riper wines and the wine is finished in 
new wood, something unheard of until the last decade. 

It would have been a lot easier for Greek producers to plant 
Chardonnay, Syrah and Merlot, the wines of which have won 
awards all over the world, but they grow Greek varieties and 
experiment with different styles of wine. Three years ago, if you 
gave a Limnio to an ‘outsider' they would have stared at you in 
astonishment, but every year the opposition is smaller. Wine 
consumers are becoming more adventurous with their choices. 

If you are looking for excellent quality and uniqueness at a 
good price, then you must shy away from preconceptions and let 
the taste buds discover the wonderful diversity offered by 
indigenous Greek varieties. With Greek wines, you know that 
you are in the Old World, but the wines have ripe modern fruit. 

Long-term goals 

At Tsantali we are trying to achieve a harmony between the 
traditional image of Greece - as a land of life, happiness and 
sunshine - and the new image of a higher standard of quality. 

The Tsantali mission is to deliver consumer-oriented, quality- 
driven wines, based on a value-for-money rationale. The aim of 
our family is to consistently offer the wine lover quality wines 
from naturally cultivated vineyards, with respect to each re- 
gion’s microclimates and local traditions. We want to supply 
outstanding wines and distillates, with a fair price/performance 
ratio, utilising equipment of the latest technology, as well as 
highly developed vinification methods. 

We also hope to convey Tsantali’s commitment to a relaxed 
and sophisticated lifestyle through a comprehensive marketing, 
educational and cultural programme. To this aim, we would like 
to place more emphasis on winery tours, wine seminars, tastings, 
PR, advertising campaigns and events. 

In terms of our work in the vineyards, we have been trying for 
many years, with our cooperating viticulturists, to reduce the 
irrational and unrestrained usage of plant protection products 
in the vineyard, as we are very sensitive both towards quality 
issues and environmental protection, and also because of our 
great viticultural activity. 

With the vine growers of each viticultural area, value is placed 
on a long-lasting collaboration, which develops on a qualitative, 
not a quantitative basis. The constant controls and courses for 




A Winemaker’s View xxi 

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the associate vine growers serve as a guideline for Quality 
Assurance in the vineyard. 

Tsantali also organises seminars and meetings on topics, such 
as wine-grape cultivation, terroir selection, nutritional methods, 
environmentally conscious organic or integrated vineyard farm- 
ing, harvest time etc. 

Through constant supervision of the vineyard workers and 
smooth information exchange, our goal is to optimally exploit 
synergy effects, so that the best is gained from the vineyards. 

The future 

A lack of knowledge and classification of the Greek varieties 
inhibits their spread into other countries. I do believe though 
that in the future the road for the wider propagation of Greek 
varieties will clear, as happened in antiquity with the spread of 
Greek grape varieties (Grecanico, Greco di Tufo, Aglianico etc.) 
to southern Italy. 

It is just a process that will take some time. Winemakers from 
Spain have shown interest in the Xinomavro grape. Let’s not 
forget that most Californian and Australian winemakers, de- 
spite their Italian ancestry, initially turned to the consumer- 
friendlier ‘international’ varieties and only recently have begun 
to return to their roots, experimenting with Italian varieties such 
as Sangiovese. 

Perhaps it is not too late to hope that there will be progress 
regarding the systematic recording of the varietal wealth of the 
Greek vineyard, giving real impetus to the fertile local tradi- 
tions, and that this entire effort will be combined with the best 
that clonal selection has to offer. 

I am a strong believer that the future will bid well for the 
preservation of wine diversity, for wines that have something to 
say. We must not forget that wines tell a story, about people and 
places and about the complex relationship between man and 
nature. 

It is logical that, after a certain degree of homogenisation has 
prevailed in the world of wine, the consumer will tire and turn 
once again to what is genuine and authentic. I believe in the use 
of indigenous varieties in the wines of each area, even in the use 
of local wood for the ageing of these wines. This will safeguard 
the uniqueness of local traditions and will keep the interest of 
the ever more demanding consumer alive. 




xxii Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

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Maddalena Pasqua di Bisceglie 

Musella 

Italy 

My motivations for making wine come very much from my 
family. My grandfather set up a wine business in 1925, therefore 
for us wine has always been a family affair, but in the last 10 
years, with the purchase of the Musella estate, it has become a 
great passion and a way of living. 

We are working hard in the vineyards and in the cellar in 
order to achieve the quality we are aiming for and for us it’s 
crucial to find the right balance between nature and technology, 
the soil and the wine, our traditions and the market. 

Working with nature 

Our main motivation is to work with nature itself, to exploit the 
beauty and uniqueness of the estate and try to project it into the 
wines we produce. Musella is a unique place, a wonderful walled 
estate which dates back 500 years. It is spread over 350 hectares, 
of which 28 are vineyards, rich in ancient forest, rivers and 
canals, hills and lots of history. 

The future 

So what we expect for the future is to produce a wine that you 
will easily recognise as a Musella product. Our aim is to give a 
specific identity to each wine we produce, always respecting the 
nature we have the pleasure of living with every day and the 
tradition of our wine region Valpolicella. 

The future for Italian wines could be to retain a strong 
Italian identity, which we can easily achieve with our indigenous 
unique grape varieties and our unique land and soil. This is 
something the Italian authorities and wine institutions under- 
stand, so there are now incentives offered for planting more 
indigenous grapes rather than Cabernet or Chardonnay, which 
until now was thought to be the right thing to do. From Sicily 
to Veneto we are trying to rediscover the wonder of lost 
grape varieties, such as Oseleta in Verona or Sussumaniello 
in Puglia. 




A Winemaker’s View xxiii 

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Luigi Rubino 
Piane del Sole 
Italy 

I guess what attracted me to winemaking was wine itself. We 
started planting vineyards about 15 years ago and vinification 
came later once the vineyards matured. In 1999 we bottled our first 
product, in our brand-new state-of-the-art winery. The key for our 
winery is viticulture and the uniqueness of our grape varieties. We 
also treasure our collaboration with Riccardo Cotarella, who has 
been our wine consultant since the beginning and who made us 
implement techniques and methods of production in order to 
achieve modern-style wines in a region rich in tradition. 

Ancient and modern 

And this is perhaps our strength: we produce modern-style 
wines with ancient varieties, giving the wines unique character- 
istics. We have planted only indigenous grapes on the 160 
hectares of vineyards all directly controlled and owned by us. 
Primitivo, Negroamaro, Malvasia Nera are the red stars of 
Puglia, producing very intense and warm wines. We are also 
rediscovering Sussumaniello, an ancient grape with wonderful 
characteristics. 

The future 

The rediscovery of indigenous grapes is a trend that is happen- 
ing all over Italy, and in my opinion it is the right direction to 
take. In my wine vision, Italy will represent the best valid 
alternative to the Cabernet and Chardonnay of the world. So 
my aim is to achieve wines that best reflect the characteristics of 
the variety written on the label. 



Alex Dale 
Radford Dale 
South Africa 

I really didn't choose wine; it kidnapped me. Having worked my 
first vintage at 15, in Burgundy whilst taking a month off 
school, I fell completely in love with wine and its wonderful 
way of life. It simply took over my existence. Ever since, I have 
done nothing else - and wouldn't wish to. 




xxiv Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

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I enjoy the excitement and the stimulation of creation. The 
satisfaction of turning an abstract idea into a living reality. An 
elusive and imperfect reality, but one made from my own mind 
and hands. Wine is what makes me tick. It is a combination of a 
love for nature and the gratification of a certain accomplish- 
ment and the fuel of a dream lifestyle. 

Each crop brings a completely new and unpredictable set of 
events, circumstances and experiences, which means that life is 
eternally challenging, unpredictable and magnificently varied. 
Every step is a thrill. An adventure lived differently with each 
season. This is not a job, but a passion. 

Individual and confident 

We aim above all to be individual, both in terms of our wine 
philosophy and our approach to how we conduct our business. 
We aim to produce wines that we enjoy to drink ourselves, in 
the styles that we prefer. We are sufficiently confident in what 
we do to grant ourselves this luxury. But above all, we never 
forget to enjoy ourselves. That is the great privilege of working 
in wine. 

Today, it is so important to consider the requirements of the 
market. Without a customer, we have no future. It is necessary 
to strike a balance between doing what you want and doing 
what you are able to profitably find a market for. When we 
started out, we designed the type of wines and business we 
wanted to put together. Everything has been deliberate. We 
have focused on making premium wines, for example, from 
some of the best vineyards in the Cape, leaving the cut-throat 
volume or commodity wines to others. We are infinitely more 
motivated to produce 250 cases of beautiful Shiraz than 250,000 
cases of branded syrup. 

We also do not let our wine styles be dictated to by influential 
journalists. Our wines are not ‘in your face', but more subtle and 
thoughtful. Such wines can be considerably more difficult to find 
a market niche for in the early years, but in the long term can 
develop a very loyal and passionate following. Consequently, we 
do not seek medals, trophies or other subjective ‘accolades’ - 
which usually reward what I call ‘steroid wines’, with boosted 
sugar, oak etc. We prefer to evolve our reputation by word of 
mouth, dedicated retailers, top sommeliers and so on. Again, this 
is a question of confidence and determination. We are different 
in that we know what we want to achieve. We understand the 




A Winemaker’s View xxv 

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complexity and fickle nature of the market and we are prepared 
to take the hard route to get to our objectives, consistently. 

We are different in that for every level that we produce wines 
at, we are determined to offer good value. What is a wine worth? 
I suppose whatever somebody will pay for it. But what is a good 
value wine? A wine of better quality than the price suggests, and 
one which people will thus give preference and allegiance to. 
Dependably and willingly. 

Finally, we are different in that we always live by the maxim 
‘Work hard, play hard'. A distinction that has opened up many 
friendships around the planet and that ensures a constant flow of 
wine and good times wherever we go - as well as good business. 

The South African winemaking scene 

The South African wine industry is undergoing a great deal of 
structural change. It never feels like it’s going quickly enough 
when you’re immersed in it, but when you take a step back and 
see how far we've come since democracy in 1994, it’s really 
remarkable. Certain conservative die-hards as well as spirit- 
dominated groups continue to dominate the domestic market. 
However, as with the former political regime, international 
influences will cause renewal and progress. 

What’s really interesting at the moment is the surfacing of the 
second phase of the new generation of South African wine- 
makers. Not the best of the first phase, who steered South 
African wines out of isolation into the new era, but the younger 
more travelled and passionate winemakers who cut their teeth 
during South Africa’s re-emergence, making wine for others, 
and who are now starting to release their own wines. Wines with 
greater character and individuality, bursting with passion. 
That’s where we see ourselves - and most of our friends. 

Long-term goals 

Having brought several South African wine interests together 
under one roof, which we have named The Winery, we have set 
ourselves an ambitious goal: to become a leader in South Africa. 
Not only by making some of the most interesting wines, but by 
forging an innovative team with a unique ethic. Our team has 
expanded to include two Frenchmen, an Australian, an English- 
man (with another about to join), and five South Africans - all 
women. We have set out to prove that idealism doesn’t need to 
be limited to the content of our bottle. The lives and experiences 




xxvi Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

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of our entire team are as important to our journey as the wines 
we make, and by focusing on both, we're certain that what we 
do can only be better and more intriguing. There is not one 
person from the vineyard to the bottling who is not passionate 
about what we do. Over time, that will make a huge difference 
and will always underpin our point of difference. 

We are planning to introduce two new ranges into our wines; 
one from the exciting and emerging viticultural area just inland 
from the West Coast of the Cape, the other from a cooler region 
with greater altitude. We believe that the character and styles of 
wines from these new areas will suit a number of varieties that 
we would like to produce, whether as blends or as single 
vineyard wines (and will fully complement what we already 
do in Stellenbosch). By focusing on the greatest strengths of 
each region we work in, we aim to constitute an overall highly 
diverse and yet specialised range, something which is quite a 
unique concept in the Cape. Our goal is to be the source of a 
variety of South Africa’s most interesting wines, from its most 
promising wine regions - both established and emerging. 

The future 

There are currently too many wines and too many producers for 
the existing markets. In most of the major markets consolida- 
tion is well under way - in all aspects of supply, from retailers 
back to importers, and back again to the production base. 
Globalisation is beginning to make deep inroads into the wine 
industry and gone are the days of simple tradition and ‘who you 
know'. With everyone having to fight for space more and more 
competitively, with quality around the world equalling up 
progressively, a crunch has to come. The unavoidable conclu- 
sion therefore is that you need to be absolutely sure that you 
have quality wines, good distribution and a loyal consumer 
base. And in our view, we can achieve this by being notable and 
individual in everything we do. Wines, styles, packaging, work 
ethic, value. These are the pillars of our future. 

As we secure our place, we'll start to play around more and 
experiment with some quirky projects. In fact, we're already 
beginning that phase . . . 




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Life is too short to drink bad wine. Gray Monk 



abboccato 

Italian used to describe wines with a little residual sugar, ranging 
from medium sweet to medium dry ( pronounced abbo kaato) 

Abfiiller 

German printed on labels of wines from Germany to show who 
bottled the wine (pronounced ab f dolor, literally ‘bottler', plural 

Abfuller) 

Abfiillung 

German printed on labels of wines from Germany to show who 
bottled the wine (pronounced ab foblobng, literally ‘bottling') 

See also Erzeugerabfiillung; Gutsabfiillung: Originalabfullung 

0 Ablan another name for Palomino 
abocado 

Spanish medium sweet (pronounced abbo kaado) 

Abruzzo, Abruzzi 

Italy a mountainous wine-producing region on the eastern coast 
of Italy, growing mostly the Trebbiano grape variety for white 
wines and the Montepulciano grape variety for red wines 
( pronounced a brootso or a brootsi) 

See also Montepulciano d’Abruzzo DOC 

abv abbreviation alcohol by volume 

AC abbreviation 

1. French Appellation Controlee 

2. Portuguese adega cooperativa 

2 acacia honey 

(tasting term) a sweet taste or floral aroma associated with white 
wines made from the Marsanne grape variety 

j acerbic 

(tasting term ) used to describe a wine that is assertive and acidic 




2 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

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acescence 

(; tasting term ) an excess of acetic acid in a wine, giving it a sweet- 
and-sour or vinegary smell and taste. As little as 0.1% per unit 
volume of acetic acid will make a wine undrinkable. 

acetaldehyde 

a colourless, volatile, natural chemical compound that exists 
in tiny quantities in good table wine and in large quantities in 
oxidised, spoiled wines. This chemical is in the group of com- 
pounds called aldehydes. It is produced when alcohol reacts 
with air during oxidation. Although in some cases this chemical 
can add complexity to a wine such as fmo sherry, its pungent 
smell is normally noticed on spoiled wine. 

acetic 

(; tasting term) used to describe a wine that has turned sour and 
vinegary through overexposure to air 

acetic acid 

a chemical that is produced as a by-product during the wine- 
making process. Its quantity needs to be controlled to prevent 
the wine from tasting vinegary. 

acetification 

the chemical process of wine turning into vinegar either because 
of spoilage by oxidation or as a result of bacteria converting the 
alcohol content to acetic acid 

Acetobacter 

bacteria that produce acetic acid in wine that has come into 
contact with oxygen 

acetone 

(; tasting term) a sharp but sweet and fruity smell that is normally 
caused by esters 

acid 1 

a chemical that is present in grapes and is produced during the 
fermentation process. Grapes from cooler regions or seasons 
have higher acid levels, while grapes from warmer climates have 
lower acid levels. In wine the acids provide the sharpness and 
definition to the taste of the wine. The three main acids that 
occur naturally in a wine are tartaric, malic and citric acids. 
Each has a different function: tartaric acid provides the sharp- 
ness of a wine and ensures that the ageing process enhances the 




acidulation 3 

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complexity of the wine, while malic acid is often responsible for 
the fruity smell and taste of a wine. The most dominant acid in a 
wine is tartaric, but the levels of all acids are measured (in a 
process called titration) to produce the total acid content, 
written as a percentage of total acids per litre of wine. Dry 
wines have a total acid content of around 0.7%, while sweet 
wines have one around 0.8%. In a well-balanced wine, the acid 
content should enhance the taste and should not be a noticeable 
element - during assemblage, the winemaker can alter the acid 
levels by blending wines from different batches of grapes or 
grapes picked at different times. Those left on the vine longer 
have higher levels of sugar and lower acid levels. 

2 acid 2 

(i tasting term) used to describe a wine that tastes very sharp or 
sour due to an excess of acid 

acid adjustment same as acidification 

j acidic same as acid 2 

acidification 

the process of adding an acid, usually a natural grape acid, to a 
wine during the fermentation process to help balance the taste of 
the wine. It is often used when grapes are overripe and have 
become too sweet. Some grape-producing countries and regions 
with a warm climate allow it, while others don’t. 

Also called acid adjustment; acidulation 

acidity 

2 I . (tasting term ) one of the key elements of any wine, providing a 
sharpness and definition to the taste 

2. the level of acid found in soil. Acidity and alkalinity are 
shown according to the pH scale on which pH7 is neutral, 
numbers above 7 indicate alkalinity, and those below 7 indicate 
acidity. 

acid soil 

soil that has a pH value of 6 or less. Most crops will not grow 
well if the soil is very acid. This can be cured by applying one of 
the materials commonly used for adding lime, e.g. ground chalk 
or limestone. 



acidulation same as acidification 




4 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

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acre 

a unit of measurement of land area, equal to 0.4047 hectares, or 
4,840 square yards 

adamado 

Portuguese sweet (pronounced adds maado) 

adega 

Portuguese a wine estate or wine cellar ( pronounced a daygs) 

adega cooperativa 

Portuguese a wine cooperative (pronounced a daygs ko opsrs 
tee vo. plural adegas cooperativas) 

Adelaide Hills, Adelaide 

Australia an important wine-producing region of South Aus- 
tralia 1 5 km to the east of the city of Adelaide, about 400-500 
metres in altitude and one of the cooler areas of South Australia, 
producing excellent Chardonnay and good Sauvignon Blanc 
and also well-known for good Pinot Noir 

aerate 

1 . to expose wine to air during fermentation to activate the yeast 

2 . to allow a wine to ‘breathe' before drinking it 

aeration 

1. the process of deliberately exposing wine to air. During 
winemaking, oxygen is required as part of the fermentation 
process to activate the yeast, but too much will result in 
unwanted oxidation. 

2 . the process of allowing a wine to ‘breathe' before drinking it. 
This can help break down and reduce the harsh tannins in a 
young wine, but can also alter the balance of a fine older wine. 

aestivalis see Vitis aestivalis 

fi Affentaler Spatburgunder Rotwein 

a red wine made in the Baden region of Germany from Pinot 
Noir (Spatburgunder) grapes. It can vary from dry to sweet. 
( pronounced affsn taalor shpayt bur go“ondar r6t v6n) 

J aftertaste 

(tasting term ) the taste that lingers in your mouth after wine has 
been tasted and either swallowed or spat out. It is often the best 
indicator of the quality of a wine. 

See also finish 




Ahr S 

* VVr* ■.’Wit' VVr' , lSt‘ VVr* 'JSlV * 1 V’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ VVr* 'JSlV * 1 ',Vr 

ageing 

the storing of wine in order to improve its taste. Wine that is 
wood-aged in oak barrels or casks takes on some of the flavours 
of the wood, and ageing often softens the wine and increases the 
depth of flavours as a little of the water content evaporates 
through the wood. Ageing wines in bottles develops further 
depth to the character and flavour of the wine, though during 
the first few weeks after being bottled, wine can suffer from 
bottle sickness. Light wines do not normally improve with 
bottle-ageing, but many other wines continue to develop char- 
acter and complexity during the ageing process. 

r> aggressive 

(i tasting term) used to describe a wine that has a harsh and 
unpleasant taste or texture, usually because of high levels of 
tannin or acid 

0 Aghiorghitiko, Agioritiko 

a red-wine grape variety native to Greece, and the second most 
planted grape there {pronounced agyori teeko) 

0 Aglianico 

a red-wine grape variety grown in southern Italy. The best- 
known producers of pure Aglianico wine are the Aglianico del 
Vulture DOC and Taurasi DOC regions. The best wines made 
from this grape can be aged for up to ten years, {pronounced 
a lyaaniko) 

Aglianico del Vulture DOC 

Italy a DOC region in southern Italy that produces amabile and 
spumante wines, but is best-known for its still red wine made 
from the Aglianico grape variety, which, although high in acid 
and tannins, matures well to produce good, balanced wine 
( pronounced a lyaaniko del vool toor ay) 

0 Agliano another name for Aleatico (pronounced a lyaano) 

agrafe 

a small metal clip for holding the cork in place during the bottle 
fermentation stage when making sparkling wine by the methode 
champenoise. This device is now rarely used and has been 
replaced by a crown cap. 

Ahr 

Germany a small, very old wine-growing region in northwestern 
Germany that is one of the most northerly in the world. It grows 




6 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V '»¥,.’*■ »t‘ vVr-* ■>’VWa.‘ •-Vf A‘ VVt-* Wr- »V %Vr 

the Pinot Noir (Spatburgunder) and Portugieser red grape 
varieties as well as the Riesling and Muller- Thurgau white grape 
varieties, which are all tolerant of the cold climate, (pronounced 
aar) 

o aigre 

French ( tasting term ) having a sour taste (pronounced aygro) 

| aimable 

French (tasting term) used to describe a well-balanced wine 
(pronounced ay maabls) 

Ain Merane see Algeria 
0 Airen 

a white-wine grape variety that is the world’s most commonly 
planted. It is widely grown in Spain and is used to make light dry 
wines. ( pronounced 6 ren) 

Aix see Coteaux d’Aix-en-Provence AOC 
Ajaccio AOC 

France an appellation on the western coast of Corsica that 
grows the Sciacarello grape to make red and rose wines and 
grows Vermentino and Trebbiano grapes to make white wines 
( pronounced a jaksi o) 

Alba 

Italy a town in the Piedmont wine-producing region south of 
Turin that lends its name to a number of well-known red-wine 
producing DOCs, including Barbera d’Alba and Dolcetto 
d’Alba, and to some DOCGs, including Barolo and Barbaresco 
(pronounced albs) 

0 Albana 

a white-wine grape variety predominantly grown in northern 
Italy, rarely producing great wine. The grape is used to produce 
a range of wine styles including still, dry, medium sweet, 
sparkling and sweet. The best-known DOCG is Albana di 
Romagna, (pronounced al baans) 

Also called Biancame; Greco; Greco di Ancona 

Albana di Romagna DOCG 

Italy a DOCG wine-producing zone in the Emilia-Romagna 
region of northern Italy with a history dating from Roman 
times. It produces a white wine made from the Albana grape 
variety. This fine wine has a golden colour and can be sweet 




alcohol 7 

* VVr* ■.’Wit' VVr* 'JSlV * 1 V’VWSt' ■-Vr- , lSt‘ VVr* 'JSlV*' ',Vr 

(dolce or amabile) or dry (secco). It has a DOCG rating, Italy’s 
highest official classification. There is also a spumante sparkling 
wine from the region, but it only carries the lower-class DOC 
rating, (pronounced al baans dee r5 mannys) 

Albany 

Australia a wine-producing area in Western Australia, a sub- 
region of the Great Southern region 

0 Albarino 

a white grape grown in the Galicia region of northwestern 
Spain. The grape's skin is very thick and only a small amount 
of juice can be squeezed from it, producing crisp, refreshing and 
light-bodied wines with hints of citrus and peach, (pronounced 
albs reenyo) 

Also called Alvarinho 

albariza 

white, chalky soil that is characteristic of Spain’s Jerez de la 
Frontera sherry region (pronounced albs reeths) 

0 Albarola 

a white- wine grape variety that is the most widely planted grape 
in Liguria, Italy, and is used with the Bosco grape in some 
examples of Liguria’s most famous wine, Cinqueterre (pro- 
nounced albs rolls) 

albumin 

a water-soluble protein found in egg white, used in fining to 
clarify red wines after barrel-ageing to help remove excessive 
tannins 

Alcamo DOC 

Italy a wine-producing region in the west of Sicily that grows 
mostly the Catarratto grape to produce crisp white wines 
( pronounced al kaamS) 

0 Alcanol another name for Macabeo (pronounced alks nol) 

0 Alcayata another name for Monastrell (pronounced alks yaats) 

alcohol 

the chemical compounds that are the result of the chemical 
process of fermentation when sugars from the grape juice are 
processed by yeast. Alcohol is a tasteless and colourless liquid 
and in wine it mostly consists of ethyl alcohol. It provides much 




8 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •>¥,» v¥, , »V •,¥<■ »V ■¥V»t‘ VSVSSS 1 '¥WSV ■¥V»t‘ *■*' •,¥* 

of the body and balance of a wine. The alcohol content is usually 
shown on the label on the bottle. It normally varies between 8 
and 14% by volume and content for wine. The alcohol content 
of sherry is normally 17 to 20% by volume and for port it is 18 to 
20% by volume. 

alcohol by volume 

a measure of the amount of alcohol per unit volume of wine, 
expressed as a percentage and normally shown on the label. 
Abbreviation abv 

o alcoholic 

(, tasting term) used to describe a wine that is out of balance 
because it contains too much alcohol 

alcoholic content, alcoholic strength 

the amount of alcohol in a wine, usually shown on the label of 
the bottle as a percentage of a unit volume of the wine, e.g. a 
wine with an alcoholic content of 10% contains a relatively low 
amount of alcohol, whereas a wine with an alcoholic content of 
14% is very strong - you can probably even taste or smell the 
alcohol on such wine. For comparison, spirits such as vodka 
have an alcoholic content of between 35 and 45% and beer has 
an alcoholic content per unit volume of between 4 and 6%, 
although alcohol in beer is usually expressed in terms of specific 
gravity. 

alcoholic fermentation same as primary fermentation 

alcoholic strength see alcoholic content 

alcool 

French, Italian alcohol (pronounced alko 61) 

0 Aleatico 

a red grape that is a member of the Muscat family of grapes and 
is grown in Italy and California, USA. It is usually used for 
sweet dessert wines such as some Italian vin santos. Fortified 
wine made from the Aleatico grape, called ‘liquoroso’, is similar 
in style to port, (pronounced alii attiko) 

Also called Agliano; Allianico: Moscatello: Muscateller 

Alella DO 

Spain a DO zone in the northeast of Spain in the Catalonia 
region near Barcelona that grows mainly the Xarel-lo (called 
Pansa Blanca locally) and Grenache Blanc (Garnacha Blanca) 




Alicante DO 9 

* VVr* ■.’Wit' VVr-’lSt‘ •-Vr-* '-Vr* •***■ •***■ VVr* WrW ',Vr 

grape varieties to produce dry and medium sweet white wines. A 
little red and rose wine is produced from the Tempranillo and 
Grenache (Garnacha) grape varieties, (pronounced a lelya) 

Alentejo 

Portugal a huge wine-producing region in southern Portugal 
growing Roupeiro grapes for white wines and Periquita grapes 
for full-bodied red wines (pronounced allon tayzho) 

Alexander Valley AVA 

USA a wine-growing region on the western coast of the USA, 
north of San Francisco in Sonoma County that grows a wide 
range of grape varieties including Cabernet Sauvignon, Char- 
donnay, Merlot, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc and Zinfandel 

0 Alfrocheiro Preto 

a Portuguese red-wine grape variety that is grown especially in 
the Dao DOC, but also in Alentejo, Bairrada and Ribatejo. It 
has a strong colour and for this reason is often used in blends. 
( pronounced alfro shayro pretto) 

Algeria 

a country that was a major wine producer when it was a French 
colony but since independence there has been a significant lack of 
investment. It now has few wine-growing regions and little pro- 
duction. The French set up a VDQS system of 1 2 recognised wine- 
growing regions, which has now dwindled to seven, with the best 
regions A'in Merane, Mazouna and Tanghrite. The vines usually 
grown are Alicante Bouschet, Carignan, Cinsault, Grenache, 
Syrah and Trebbiano grape varieties, but there is now some 
planting of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah and Chardonnay. 
Production and sales of wine are heavily centralised. 

0 Alicante Bouschet 

a red grape that has red skin and red flesh. This variety was 
developed in France in the late 1 880s by Flenri Bouschet and is a 
hybrid of Grenache. Alicante Bouschet is widely grown in south- 
ern France and North Africa and is grown in limited quantities in 
California, USA. This grape variety produces lower-quality 
wines and is often used to add depth of colour to wines made 
from other grape varieties, (pronounced ali kanti bob shay) 

Alicante DO 

Spain a DO zone in the southeast of Spain in Alicante province 
that grows mostly Monastrell and Grenache (Garnacha) grape 




10 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V ■>’VWa.‘ Wr- »t‘ ■***■ •-Vf A‘ W,. »V %Vr 

varieties to produce full-bodied red wines and the Merseguera 
grape variety to produce dry white wines. It also produces a sweet 
white wine from Muscat grapes and the high-alcohol Fondillon 
wine from the Monastrell grape variety, {pronounced alii kanti) 

0 Alicante Ganzin 

a red grape variety that was one of the varieties used in breeding 
Rubired in California (pronounced alii kanti gan theen) 

0 Aligote 

a white grape variety used in blends in many countries and best 
known for its light-to-medium-bodied, crisp, dry white wines 
produced in the Burgundy region of France and in eastern 
European countries, (pronounced alii go tay) 

Also called Blanc de Cabernet Sauvignon; Chaudenet Gris; 
Plant Gris 

alkalinity 

the level of alkali found in soil. Alkalinity and acidity are shown 
according to the pH scale on which pH7 is neutral, numbers 
above 7 indicate alkalinity and those below 7 indicate acidity. 

allergies 

Wine has been found to cause allergies in some people, not 
usually caused by the grape or the alcohol, but arising from the 
other constituents of wine including sulphur dioxide which is 
used as a preservative, yeast cultures, fining agents and hista- 
mines, which are more prevalent in red wine than white 

0 Allianico another name for Aleatico (pronounced a lyaaniko) 

Allied Domecq see Domecq 
Allier 

France a departement in central France where oak forests 
produce the wood for the oak barrels used by many winemakers 
( pronounced alii ay) 

Almansa DO 

Spain a DO zone in central Spain that mostly produces red wine 
from the Monastrell, Tempranillo and Grenache (Garnacha) 
grape varieties (pronounced al mansss) 

2 almond 

(tasting term) a taste or aroma associated with Italian wines, 
especially dry white wines such as Soave and Prosecco, but also 
with red Valpolicella 




Alsace Vendange Tardive I I 

-»t‘ vVr- »fc‘ •.'SIVA' »t‘ *’*' VSIS^* 1 vVr- »fc‘ ','y r 'ih‘ •,¥*> , A‘ •,¥* 

Aloxe-Corton 

France an area in the Cote de Beaune region in Burgundy 
producing red and white wines, including two grands crus, 
Corton AOC (producing red wine) and Corton-Charlemagne 
AOC (producing white wine) {pronounced aa loss kawr toN) 

Alpine Valleys 

Australia a wine-producing region in northeastern Victoria 

Alsace AOC 

France a wine-producing region on the French border with 
Germany that produces distinctive white wines that are, in 
the main, varietal. The main grape is Riesling and the wines 
are dry and rich in aroma. White wines from Alsace are usually 
bottled in a distinctive tall, slim green bottle. The town of 
Colmar is the commercial hub of the region. Alsace Grand 
Cru is a distinct appellation that includes over 50 of the top 
vineyards in the region producing wines made only from 
Gewurztraminer, Muscat, Pinot Gris or Riesling grape varieties. 
A number of wine styles are produced, in the main based on a 
single grape variety. Riesling is recognised as Alsace's noblest 
grape and produces its best wine. It is very different from its 
German equivalent: gunflint and steel are often used to describe 
its complex aromas and fruity flavours. Gewurztraminer with its 
distinctive, fruity, lychee aroma, is dry, low in acidity and big in 
body. Pinot Blanc, known locally as Klevner, makes creamy, 
medium-bodied wines. Alsace’s Muscat is a blend of two vari- 
eties, Muscat a Petits Grains and Muscat Ottonel. The result is a 
crisp, dry, aromatic wine. Pinot Gris, formerly known in Alsace 
as Tokay, is smoky and concentrated. Sylvaner is aromatic and 
flavoursome. Edelzwicker is a blend of grape varieties and is 
generally inexpensive, quaffing wine. Pinot Noir is Alsace’s only 
red variety, producing light wine, and Cremant d' Alsace is a 
sparkling wine most often made using Pinot Blanc, {pronounced 
al zass) 

Alsace Vendange Tardive 

a late-harvest wine from the Alsace AOC region of France that 
uses very ripe grapes with high sugar levels that produce rich, very 
dry wine. The other late-harvest wine from this region is called 
Selection de Grains Nobles and uses grapes infected with Botrytis 
cinerea to produce a very sweet wine. Both wines can only be 
made from Gewurztraminer, Muscat, Pinot Gris or Riesling 
grape varieties, (pronounced al zass vaaN daazh taar deev) 




12 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ ■>¥,»!■' ■***■ ■>¥, »V ■***■ ■***■ ■¥, »fc‘ •,¥<- , A‘ ■>¥,• »t‘ vVr.’»t‘ 

0 Altesse, Altesse Vert 

a white-wine grape variety that is grown in the Savoie region of 
eastern France to produce good quality, full-bodied white 
wines. The majority of the Altesse grapes grown in this region 
are used to produce a sparkling white wine, Seyssel Mousseux. 
( pronounced al tess or al tess vair) 

Also called Maconnais; Roussette 

altitude 

height above sea level. This can affect climate in many ways: the 
temperature drops about 0.5°C for every 90 metre rise above sea 
level. Every 15 metre rise in height usually shortens the growing 
season by two days and may check the rate of growth during the 
year. High land is likely to receive more rain than lowland areas. 

Alto Adige DOC 

Italy a mountainous DOC zone in the northeast of Italy, the 
northern part of the Trentino-Alto Adige region, on the border 
with Austria, that grows all of the premium European grapes, in 
addition to native varieties. Schiava is the predominant grape of 
the area, producing medium-bodied red wines. Other red vari- 
eties found are Lagrein and Pinot Noir. Pinot Gris (Pinot 
Grigio), Chardonnay and Pinot Blanc (Pinot Bianco) are 
amongst the white-wine varieties. Modern methods have raised 
the area’s quality in the last 20 years, (pronounced alto a dee gay) 

Altus 

USA a town in western Arkansas, USA, where wine has been 
produced since the 1800s 

0 Alvarinho 

a white-wine grape variety grown in the Vinho Verde region of 
Portugal. The grapes have very thick skins so produce only a 
little juice that makes good and expensive rich and creamy white 
wines, (pronounced alvs reenyo) 

Also called Albarino 

amabile 

Italian medium sweet (pronounced 3 maabi lay) 

Amador County 

USA an important wine-producing region in California within 
the Sierra Foothills AVA, east of the Napa Valley, that was one 
of the first regions of the USA to have been planted with vines. 
The main grape varieties are Zinfandel and Sauvignon Blanc. 




American Viticultural Area 13 

tjfi? vVr- »fc‘ •.'SIVA' vVr- »fc‘ •,Y,. , A‘ vVf'A" vYr-- »t‘ vYr- »V vYr- »fc‘ ',Y/A‘ -,Yr 

amaro 

Italian used to describe a wine that has a bitter taste or is very 
dry ( pronounced a maaro) 

2 amarognolo 

Italian ( tasting term ) a bitter almond flavour in a wine (pro- 
nounced ammo ronnyslo) 

amarone 

Italian a very dry wine (pronounced ammo ro nay, plural 

amaroni) 

fl Amarone della Valpolicella 

a variety of Valpolicella wine from Veneto, Italy that uses 
grapes partly dried in the sun to increase the flavours and 
alcohol content, resulting in a sweeter wine with a high alcohol 
content. This style of wine can be drunk with cheese or as an 
after-dinner drink as well as with main course dishes. The best 
style is normally termed ‘classicok (pronounced ammo r6 nay 
delo val poli chello) 

Also called Recioto della Valpolicella Amarone 
ambra 

Italian amber (pronounced ambra) 

See also Marsala DOC 

amelioration 

techniques used to improve a wine, including adding sugar, 
water or acid to help balance the taste 

American hybrid 

any one of the varieties of grape that have been selectively bred 
in the USA, usually the result of a cross between a common 
American grape variety and a traditional European variety 

0 Americano another name for Isabella 

American oak 

oak used to make barrels in which wines are aged, giving the 
wines a distinctive vanilla and cedar flavour as well as an oak 
flavour 

American Viticultural Area 

USA any one of the delimited geographical grape-growing areas 
in the USA that have been given appellation status by the main 
Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms in a system 
established in 1970 and loosely modelled on the original French 




14 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ Wt-- »t‘ vYr-- »t‘ VSVSSS 1 ■>’vwa.‘ •,'SIVA‘ »t‘ vVr.’»t‘ ■¥V»V '¥WSfc‘ vVT-’»t‘ •,¥* 

AOC system. The main difference is that an AVA is defined only 
by geographical region, whereas an AOC has extra, complex 
rules governing the types of grapes, how they are grown and 
how wine is made in the region. AVAs include the well-known 
Napa Valley, which itself includes smaller AVAs such as Stags 
Leap District and Sonoma Valley. 

Abbreviation AVA 

American wine 

wine blended from grapes grown in an unspecified state of the 
USA 

amontillado 

full-bodied sherry from Spain. Aged in barrels and with more 
body, colour and flavour than fino sherry, it can be dry or sweet. 
( pronounced 3 monti lyaadS, plural amontillados) 

See also sherry 

amoroso 

a dark and sweet type of oloroso sherry, (pronounced ammo 
rosso, plural amorosos) 

Also called East India sherry 

ampelography 

the study and identification of the species, varieties and clones of 
grapevine, particularly by their physical characteristics 

Ampurdan-Costa Brava DO 

Spain a DO zone in the Catalonia region of Spain, north of 
Girona and next to the border with France, that grows mostly 
Grenache (Garnacha) and Carignan (Carinena) grape varieties 
for red and rose wines, and a smaller quantity of Macabeo and 
Xarel-lo for rose and white wines. It formerly produced much 
of the rancio style of wine, and then concentrated on rose wine 
for local consumption, but is now looking to better-quality 
wines and wider markets, (pronounced ampoor dan kosts 
braavo) 

Amtliche Priifungsnummer 

German a number printed on German wine labels to show that 
the wine has been officially tested and has passed a range 
of chemical tests. ( pronounced amtlikhs probfoongz ndbmsr, 
literally ‘official testing number’) 

Abbreviation A.P.Nr 




Anjou 15 

-»t‘ '.Vr- »t‘ •.'SIVA' »t‘ *’*' vVt-* vVr- »t‘ VVr. »t‘ VSIVA 1 vVr- »t‘ VVr 

amyl acetate 

an aromatic chemical compound (an ester) that is present in 
newly bottled wine and that can give it a noticeable aroma 

Anbaugebiet 

German any one of 1 3 wine-producing regions in Germany that 
are recognised under German wine laws {pronounced an bow go 
beet, plural Anbaugebiete) 

Andalucia, Andalusia 

Spain the southern region of Spain running across the country 
from coast to coast. It includes eight provinces, which have five 
DO regions (Condado de Huelva, Jerez-Xeres-Sherry, Manza- 
nilla Sanlucar de Barrameda, Malaga and Montilla-Moriles), 
traditionally producing wines high in alcohol, which are mostly 
fortified. 

Anderson Valley 

USA a long, narrow wine-producing region between mountains 
in Mendocino County, on the western coast of California. It is 
known for its sparkling wines from Chardonnay and Pinot Noir 
grape varieties as well as still wines using Riesling and Gewiirz- 
traminer grapes. 

anejado por 

Spanish aged by (pronounced an ye haado pawr) 

anejo 

Spanish old or aged (pronounced a nyeho) 

angelica 

a sweet fortified wine, associated with California, traditionally 
produced for use as Communion wine in church. It was formerly 
made from Mission or Muscat grapes and fortified with brandy, 
but is now made from almost any type and blend of wine, 
producing a wine that lacks any distinctive flavour. 

2 angular 

(tasting term ) used to describe a wine that has dominant, sharp 
flavours. The characteristic is most commonly found in young, 
dry wines. 

Anjou 

France a wine-growing area in the western Loire region of France 
that produces mainly white wine made from the Chenin Blanc 
grape variety and a smaller quantity of rose and red wine. The 




16 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ »■*' ^Vr-. »t‘ VSVSSS 1 VVt-* Wr- »t‘ VSVSSS 1 VVt-* iVf*' VVr 

rose wines are the best known, and include the undistinguished 
and often sweetish Rose d'Anjou AOC and the higher-quality 
Cabernet d'Anjou AOC. Good red wine is produced in the 
Anjou-Villages AOC, and light reds, especially from the Gamay 
grape, are made elsewhere in the area, (pronounced aaN zhoo) 

Anjou Mousseux AOC 

France an appellation in the Anjou area in the western Loire 
region of France that produces sparkling white and rose wines 
using the methode champenoise (pronounced aaN zhoo moo so) 

Anjou-Villages AOC 

France an appellation in the Anjou area in the western Loire 
region of France that produces good-quality red wine from the 
Cabernet Franc and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties pro- 
nounced aaN zhoo vee laazh) 

annata 

Italian vintage year pronounced a naats) 

annee 

French year pronounced a nay) 

See also vin de I’annee 

ano 

Spanish year pronounced annyo, plural anos) 

0 Ansonica another name for Inzolia pronounced an sonniks) 

anthocyanin 

a colour pigment that provides the red colour of red wine 

Antinori, Marchese Piero 

an influential winemaker in Tuscany and Umbria, Italy, who 
produces some of the best Chianti wines of the country pro- 
nounced anti nawri) 

antioxidant 

a chemical added to wine during the winemaking process to 
reduce the spoiling effects of oxygen, e.g. ascorbic acid 

Antonopoulos 

Greece a Greek wine company with vineyards in the Patras region 
of the northern Peloponnese in southern Greece but also in Corfu 
and elsewhere in the country pronounced ants noppsllsss) 

AOC abbreviation French Appellation d'Origine Controlee 




Appellation d’Origine Controlee 17 

’»t‘ '¥V »t‘ VS6** 1 '¥V »t‘ VVf »t‘ V¥V»V VVr 

Aosta see Valle d’ Aosta DOC 
aperitif, aperitif 

an alcoholic drink served before dinner, traditionally to stimu- 
late the appetite 

aperitif wine 

a wine served before a meal. In France this category includes kir 
and vermouths or other similar wines flavoured with herbs and 
spices. 

aphid 

a small insect of the Hemiptera order that sucks sap from new 
shoots of plants and can multiply very rapidly, e.g. blackfly or 
greenfly. Aphids can carry virus diseases from infected plants to 
clean ones. 

A.P.Nr abbreviation German Amtliche Prufungsnummer 

n appearance 

( tasting term) the look of a wine, rather than the colour, defined 
in terms of being brilliant (crystal clear), cloudy or containing 
sediment 

appellation 

a designated wine-producing area together with a set of rules 
enforced by the country’s government that covers a range of 
criteria for growing and producing wine in the region to help 
produce consistent, reliable, quality wine. The main countries 
using appellations are France (split into areas given the name 
Appellation d'Origine Controlee), Italy (areas given the name 
Denominazione di Origine Controllata), Portugal (areas given 
the name Denomina^o de Origem Controlada), Spain (areas 
given the name Denomination de Origen), Australia (geogra- 
phically defined into Geographical Indications) and the USA 
(geographically defined into American Viticultural Areas). 

Appellation Controlee see Appellation d’Origine Contro- 
lee (plural Appellations Controlees) abbreviation French AC 

Appellation d’Origine Controlee 

French a system of laws and rules devised in France in 1935 to 
regulate French wine production and quality and define its 
origins. The rules are administered by the Institut National 
des Appellations d'Origine (INAO) and cover almost every 
aspect of wine production, from which varieties of grape can 




18 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ v¥t> »t‘ •*¥<-- »t‘ VSVSSS 1 VVt-* Wr- »t‘ VSVSSS 1 VVt-* •,V,. , A‘ vVr 

be planted in different appellations and which production 
methods can be used to make the wines to vine-planting density 
and expected yields. The rules govern every part of the process, 
including the area in which the grapes can be grown, the 
varieties used, the ripeness of the grapes when picked, the 
alcoholic strength of the wine produced and even the vineyard 
yields. Wines with this label are normally produced in state- 
controlled wineries to produce a consistent, reasonable-quality 
wine; this type of wine represents the top quarter of all French 
wines. Wine producers who have not earnt AOC status can be 
classed (in descending order of quality) as Vin Delimite de 
Qualite Superieure (VDQS), Vin de Pays, then Vin de Table. 
( pronounced apps lassyoN dori zheen koN tro lay, plural 
Appellations d’Origine Controlees) 

Abbreviation AOC 

Appellation of Origin of Superior Quality 

an official category for dry quality wines under Greek wine laws. 
These wines are sold with a pink seal over the cork. 
Abbreviation OPAP 

2 apple, appley 

(i tasting term ) a smell usually associated with young Chardon- 
nay wine, German Riesling and some Chenin Blanc wines. If the 
smell is of bitter apples, it can also be a signal that the wine has 
been oxidised and spoilt or has an excess malic acid content. 

>:> apricot 

(i tasting term) a smell normally associated with Semilions, Mus- 
cats, and some sweet Riesling wines 

Apulia 

Italy a wine-producing region in the extreme southeastern 
corner of Italy with a large number of DOC areas, including 
eight in the ‘heel' of Italy, the Salento peninsula, where the 
region's best wines are produced. Apulia makes large quantities 
of wine, especially red wine, and grows a wide range of grape 
varieties, dominated by Primitivo and Negroamaro. Primitivo 
from Apulia is generally considered the original source of the 
Zinfandel grape variety that is used so much in California, USA. 
( pronounced a poolyo) 

Aq uileia DOC 

Italy a DOC zone in the Friuli region of northeastern Italy that 
grows a number of different grape varieties to produce a range 




are 19 

» VVr* ■.’Wit' ->Vr» VVr* 'JSlV * 1 V’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ •,'SVA‘ VVr* •,'SV , A‘ VVr 

of wines, most of which are light- or medium-bodied and few of 
which are exported (pronounced akwi lay a) 

Aragon 

Spain a wine-producing area in the Rioja region of northern 
Spain that produces dark red wines from Grenache (Garnacha) 
grapes (pronounced arra gon or arragan) 

0 Aragonez another name for Tempranillo (used in Portugal) 

0 Aramon 

a red-wine grape variety used in producing a hybrid rootstock 
that was widely used in California from the 1950s until attacked 
by a new strain of phylloxera root aphid in the late 1980s. 
Aramon is grown for wine in the Languedoc-Roussillon region 
of southern France. It is a high-yielding vine and produces a 
weak, pale red wine, (pronounced arro mon) 

Also called Ugni Noir 

0 Arbois 

France a white-wine grape variety that is grown in the Loire 
district of France and is one of the grapes permitted in wines 
labelled as from the Touraine AOC (pronounced aar bwaa) 

Arbois AOC 

France an appellation in the Jura region of eastern France that is 
known especially for its vin jaune. Arbois produces mostly white 
wine from Chardonnay and Savagnin grapes, including a spark- 
ling white wine, Arbois Mousseux, made from Chardonnay 
grapes using the methode champenoise, but also some rose and 
light red wines from Pinot Noir, Poulsard (a local variety) and 
Trousseau grapes, (pronounced aar bwaa) 

fl Arbois Mousseux 

a sparkling wine made by the methode champenoise in the 
Arbois AOC in the Jura region of eastern France (pronounced 
aar bwaa moo so) 

Ardeche 

France a wine-producing region of central southern France 
producing red, white and rose wines and covering a number 
of AOCs including Cotes du Rhone and Cotes du Vivarais 
(pronounced aar desh) 

are 

a unit of metric land measurement, equal to 100 square metres 




20 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

flSliSiSMiSiiSiSiyS'SSJSiySSSiSiySliSJSiySliS!?^^ 

arenaceous soil 

soil that has a high proportion of sand particles 
Aretini see Chianti DOCG (pronounced ars teenee) 




Argentina 

the world’s fifth largest wine-producing country and potentially 
one of the most exciting and dynamic. Traditionally most of its 
wine has been consumed locally rather than exported, but recent 
investment in vineyards and technology has enabled Argentine 
wine to more than hold its own internationally. Foreign in- 
vestors have been attracted by the opportunity to produce wine 
of high quality at very attractive prices. Crucially, foreign 
consultants and winemakers such as the French oenologist 
Michel Rolland and the Lurton family have become involved, 
and their expertise has begun to create a vibrant modern wine 
industry hungry for exports. The main wine-producing region, 
Mendoza province, produces the majority of the best-quality 
wines from Argentina. Traditionally the most popular grape 
varieties grown have been Mission (Criolla) and Malbec, both 



Arneis 21 

* vVr* ■.’Wit' •***■ WrW •,'SV , A‘ vVr* V’VWSt' vVr' , iSt‘ •>¥,» vVr* ■JSIV * 1 ',¥* 

producing full-bodied red wines. The drive for export markets, 
however, is leading to the production of more international 
varietal styles. Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon have been added 
to Argentina’s rich array of red wines, and Chardonnay is 
proving very successful. 

argillaceous soil 

soil that has a high proportion of clay particles 

argol 

crystals of a natural tartar that accumulate during fermentation 
on the sides and bottoms of wine vats and sometimes in bottles, 
where they are attached to the bottom of the cork 

arid 

1 . used to describe soil that is very dry 

2 . used to describe an area of land that has very little rain 

0 Arinto 

a white-wine grape variety, grown mostly in Portugal, that 
produces fresh, crisp white wines with a high acidic content. 
(pronounced a rinto) 

Also called Pederanao 

arm 

one of the woody parts of a vine that grow out of the cordon. 
Vines can be trained with the arms in different positions. 

Armagnac 

France a district in Gascony in southwestern France that is best- 
known for distilling wine into brandy. There are three sub- 
regions within Armagnac: Bas-Armagnac, Tenareze and Haut- 
Armagnac. Armagnac can be sold younger than Cognac, 
though it is slower maturing, so cheaper Armagnacs often suffer 
in comparison. It is produced in a very similar way to Cognac, 
but uses some different grapes (including Folle Blanche and 
Colombard) and is only distilled once, giving it a lower alcoholic 
content (normally around 53% compared to 70% for Cognac) 
and a different style. The district also uses its grapes for crisp 
white table wines. ( pronounced aarmo nyak) 

Armillaria 

a soil fungus that kills vines (pronounced a'armo lairis) 

0 Arneis 

a white-wine grape variety grown in the Piedmont region of 
Italy (pronounced aar nay eess) 




22 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

list »t‘ •,’VV. »t‘ ■,¥<■ »V ■¥V»t‘ »t‘ vVr.’»t‘ ■¥V»V vVt-* ■¥V»t‘ -,Vr 

Arneis di Roero see Roero DOC 
Arneis DOC 

Italy a DOC wine-producing region in Piedmont, Italy. It 
produces dry white wines that smell of apples and pears from 
Arneis grapes, {pronounced aar nay eess) 

aroma 

{tasting term) the smell of a wine, normally the smell of the 
grapes within the wine or the effects of fermentation of a wine. 
Sometimes, aroma and bouquet are used interchangeably, but 
strictly the bouquet represents the smells due to the effects of the 
wine maturing. 

aroma compound 

one of the chemical compounds responsible for the various 
individual characteristics of a wine’s taste, flavour and smell. 
These compounds are formed during fermentation and vary 
with different varieties of grape and methods of fermentation. 

aromatic 

{tasting term ) used to describe a wine with a very strong or 
particular smell, e.g. the smell from the Riesling grape 

aromatic compound 

one of the chemical substances found in wine that give the wine 
its flavour and smell 

aromatised wine 

a drink created from a wine base to which alcohol, sugar and 
herbs are added. Perhaps the best-known is vermouth. 

aroma wheel 

a circular graphic designed by Professor Ann Noble at the 
University of California, Davis, USA, who organised the types 
of taste and aroma and flavour found in wines into groups, 
giving a basic structure to the process of tasting wines 

arresting of fermentation 

the stopping of fermentation and preservation of any remaining 
sugar in the wine. This can be achieved in a number of ways 
including cooling the wine until the yeast is no longer active and 
using a centrifugal spinning machine to separate out the yeast cells. 

arroba 

Spanish a measure of grapes and the amount of wine this 
produces, equal to approximately 10 kg of grapes {pronounced 
a rbbs) 




Asti DOCG 23 

-»t‘ vVr- »fc‘ ■,’W»V •,’VV. »t‘ vVT-’»t‘ VSVSS 1 vVr- »t‘ •,'SIV’A‘ vVr.’»t‘ vVT-’»t‘ VSVSS 1 vVr- »fc‘ •,'SIVA‘ %Vr 

Arroyo Grande AVA 

USA a subregion of San Luis Obispo, the wine-growing region 
on the western coast of California that grows mostly Chardon- 
nay and Pinot Noir grape varieties (pronounced a royo grandi) 

Arroyo Seco AVA 

USA a wine-growing area, a smaller part of the Monterey AVA, 
in Monterey County, California, that grows mostly Chardon- 
nay and Riesling grape varieties ( pronounced a royo seko) 

asciutto 

Italian very dry {pronounced as cho'oto) 

ascorbic acid 

a chemical sometimes added to wine during the winemaking 
process to reduce the spoiling effects of oxygen 

r> asparagus 

(tasting term) an aroma associated with wines made from 
Sauvignon Blanc grapes, especially Pouilly-Fume and Sancerre 

assemblage 

the process in which the winemaker evaluates the wines from 
different lots to decide which will be used in the final product. 
This usually takes place three to six months after the harvest, 
though it can be later. In France in Bordeaux vineyards, the 
process identifies which lots will be used for the top wine 
carrying the vineyard’s name, which will be sold as its second 
wine and which will be sold under a wider regional designation. 
In vineyards in other regions, assemblage identifies the exact 
blend to go forward to bottling or further ageing. In Cham- 
pagne, assemblage is important in producing a consistent house 
style that does not vary year-on-year. 

See also blending 

n assertive 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that has a full, distinctive 
taste, probably with high levels of tannins or acidity 

0 Assyrtiko 

a high-quality white-wine grape variety grown in Greece that is 
able to produce wine with good acidity even in a hot climate 
(pronounced 3 seerti ko) 

Asti DOCG 

Italy a DOCG zone near the town of Asti in the Piedmont 




24 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ *’*' VS6** 1 v¥,»V vVt-* ■¥V»t‘ vVr A‘ •,¥,-■ »t‘ flMSV ■>’vwa.‘ ■¥V»t‘ flIV A‘ vVr 

region of Italy which produces the sparkling white wines Asti 
Spumante and Moscato d'Asti {pronounced asti) 

A Asti Spumante DOCG 

a blended semi-dry sparkling white wine produced in large 
quantities in the Asti DOCG in the Piedmont region of Italy. 
It is made from a Muscat grape variety using a version of the 
Charmat or bulk process, {pronounced asti spyoo man tay) 

2 astringent 

(tasting term) used to describe a bitter, dry sensation in the 
mouth when tasting red wines, and a few white wines, that have 
too much tannin present 

asztali bor 

Hungarian table wine (pronounced aas taali baa) 

aszu 

Hungarian botrytised {pronounced aa sob) 

0 Athiri 

a white grape variety grown mainly on the Aegean islands and 
parts of mainland Greece and used to produce white still and, on 
Rhodes, sparkling wine (pronounced a theeri) 

ATM abbreviation atmosphere 2 

atmosphere 

1. the condition of the air around a plant. If the atmosphere 
is too damp, diseases such as blights and moulds spread 
rapidly; if the atmosphere is too dry, buds fall off and leaves 
shrivel. 

2. a unit of measure of pressure, equal to 14.7 pounds per square 
inch, used to measure the pressure inside a bottle of sparkling 
wine or Champagne. Most commercial sparkling wines such as 
Champagne or Cava contain between four and six atmospheres 
of carbon dioxide gas at room temperature. 

Abbreviation ATM 

j attack 

(tasting term) the initial taste of a wine 

2 attenuated 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that is past its best and is 
beginning to lose the flavour of the fruit as it ages 




austere 25 

» vVr* ■■’WA' Wt-.'*' ->Vr’S>‘ vVr* ■JSIV * 1 V’VWSt' ■-Vr- , iSt‘ vVr* vVr 

Attica 

Greece a wine-producing region in the southeast of Greece 
that grows local varieties of grapes to produce retsina. It has 
participated little in the recent revolutions in Greek wine- 
making. 

Auckland 

New Zealand a wine-producing region in the north of the North 
Island of New Zealand growing especially the Cabernet Sau- 
vignon grape variety for red wines and Chardonnay for white 
wines 

0 Aurore, Aurora 

a hybrid grape variety originally developed in the 19th century 
in France that is still used in sparkling wine production, espe- 
cially on the eastern coast of the USA {pronounced aw rawr or 
aw rawrs) 

Ausbruch 

German the second level of quality Austrian wines, below 
Trockenbeerenauslese, made from grapes infected with the 
fungus Botrytis cinerea and then allowed to dry naturally to 
produce concentrated juice that has both a very high sugar 
content and balancing acid. Ausbruch is associated especially 
with the town of Rust, {pronounced owss brribkh) 

Auslese 

German the class of white wine that is the third-best within the 
Qualitatswein mit Pradikat system under German wine laws. It 
is defined as wine from grape bunches harvested when riper than 
those harvested for the Spatlese class of wine, (pronounced owss 
layzs, literally ‘selected harvest’, plural Auslesen) 

Ausone, Chateau 

France a tiny estate in the Saint-Emilion region of Bordeaux, 
France, producing some of the best red wines of the region and 
graded in the top two premiers grands crus classes in the classi- 
fication of Saint-Emilion wines in 1955 {pronounced aw sBn) 

r> austere 

(i tasting term) used to describe a wine taste that is strong and dry, 
normally with high acid levels and high levels of tannin. It can 
indicate wines that lack depth and roundness, but also describes 
the finest wines from Pauillac and Saint-Julien that will mature 
with age. 




26 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 




Wine regions of Australia 



Australia 

a country that is the sixth-largest wine producer in the world and 
certainly one of the most influential. Australia has had vineyards 
since the 18th century, winemaking started in earnest in the 1860s 
and by the 1980s its wine was being exported around the world. 
Wine is now one of Australia’s major industries, exports having 
risen from A$ 1 3 million in the early 1980s to more than A$2 billion 
in 2001-02, which, in itself, was double the figure for 1999. It is the 
world’s fourth-largest exporter of wine, behind France, Italy and 
Spain. Although only 15% of the wine consumed in the UK is 
Australian, it is claimed that in the vital £4— £6 price range 
Australian wine is responsible for some 50% of UK sales. The 
success of Australian wines in recent times can be attributed to the 
remarkable value for money it offers as well as for its consistency 
and strongly defined varietal flavours. A number of factors enable 
Australian winemakers to produce just about every style of wine 
that there is, from hearty, full-bodied red wines, through fruit- 
driven, buttery Chardonnays to delicate sparkling wines and 
complex fortified wines. Geographically, the wine-growing areas 



Austria 27 

»V VVr* •,'SlVA‘ VVr-’»t‘ -fllV A‘ V¥r- »t‘ •,Y,> , A‘ -?Vr'J>‘ VSlVSe 1 V¥r- »t‘ •,'SlVA‘ %Vr 

lie within ideal latitudes for viticulture, and the temperature is 
moderated by the surrounding oceans. A variety of climates, soil 
conditions and topography provides ample opportunity for a 
proliferation of wine styles in the 56 wine-growing regions. These, 
in the main, cling to the coast across the cooler southern part of the 
country, mainly concentrated in the southeast and southwest of 
the continent. The main regions are in South Australia, New South 
Wales, Victoria, Queensland, West Australia and Tasmania. 
The most commonly grown grape varieties are Syrah (Shiraz), 
Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot for red wine production. 
Chardonnay, Semilion and Riesling are the main grape varieties 
grown for white wine production. Australian wine labels can show 
a single grape variety only if the wine contains at least 85% of 
this grape. Blends are common and grape varieties are listed in 
descending order, e.g. Cabernet-Shiraz, a wine predominantly 
made from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes with a smaller quantity 
of Syrah (Shiraz). Australian influence on winemaking around the 
world has been immense in the last decade. Y oung Australians, 
known as flying winemakers, have taken the Australian wine- 
making philosophy both to other New World countries and to the 
Old World, producing stunning wines in all kinds of conditions. 
Their influence can be seen in recent developments in a number of 
Old World winemaking countries, as they hunger for the kind of 
success that Australian wine has achieved and try to match the 
expectations that Australian wines have created in British wine 
consumers. 

Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation 

the organisation that administers the Australian system of 
Geographic Indication. 

Abbreviation AWBC 

Austria 

a country whose wines are often grouped together with German 
wines in style, but which has a warmer climate that ensures that 
the grapes ripen more, providing more sugar and a stronger 
wine. Austrian wine laws are now very strict, with 1 1 categories 
of quality: Tafelwein, Landwein, Qualitatswein and Kabinett 
and 7 wines classed as Pradikatswein: Spatlese, Auslese, Stroh- 
wein, Eiswein, Beerenauslese, Ausbruch and Trockenbeerenaus- 
lese. The majority of Austrian wine is white, made mostly from 
Griiner Veltliner, Gewurztraminer, Muscat, Pinot Blanc and 
Riesling grape varieties. 




28 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 




autoclave 

a sealed container used to produce sparkling wines using the 
Charmat or bulk process, e.g. Asti Spumante 

autolysis 

decomposition of dead yeast cells after fermentation. If wine is 
left with its lees, this process can add complex and subtle 
flavours to a wine. It can last from months to several years, 
according to the winemaker. 

Auvergne see Cotes d’Auvergne VDQS 

Auxerre see Cotes d’Auxerre 

0 Auxerrois another name for Malbec {pronounced 5 sair waa, 
used in Cahors, France) 

0 Auxerrois Blanc {pronounced 6 sair waa blaaN) 

1. a white-wine grape variety grown in the Alsace region of 
France 

2. another name for Chardonnay 



azienda 29 

’»t‘ VVr* VVr-’»t‘ fllV A‘ V¥r- »t‘ VS6** 1 V¥r- »t‘ »V %Vr 

0 Auxerrois Gris another name for Pinot Gris {pronounced 5 
sair waa gree) 

Auxey-Duresses AOC 

France a village appellation in the Burgundy region of France 
that includes several premier cru vineyards and grows Pinot 
Noir grapes to produce good red wines and Chardonnay grapes 
to produce good whites. Much of its wine is sold under the Cote 
de Beaune-Villages AOC, though the village appellation is 
becoming better known in its own right. ( pronounced 6k say 
doo ress) 

AVA abbreviation USA American Viticultural Area 

0 Avesso 

a white grape variety grown in Portugal, where it is used to 
produce Vinho Verde wines (pronounced a vesso) 

AWBC abbreviation Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation 

n awkward 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that has poor structure or 
is not correctly balanced 

azienda 

Italian a wine-producing estate. The word's presence on a wine 
label indicates that the grapes were grown and the wine pro- 
duced on the estate in question, (pronounced a tsyenda, plural 

aziende) 




-»t‘ •>¥,» v¥, »fc‘ »V ■¥V»t‘ '¥V »t‘ VS6** 1 '¥V»t‘ VVt-* v’W , »t‘ •>¥,» vVr 

They are not long, the days of wine and roses. 

Ernest Dowson, 1986 



BA abbreviation German Beerenauslese 

0 Bacch us 

1. an early-ripening white-wine grape variety, the result of a 
cross between Muller- Thurgau and a Sylvaner-Riesling hybrid, 
that produces wine with low acidity but with good body that is 
often used in Germany in blends with Muller- Thurgau. The 
grape is also grown in England. 

2 . the Roman god of wine. 

Compare Dionysus 

back blending 

the adding of grape juice to a wine to sweeten the final wine 

J backbone 

( tasting term) the quality of red wines that are full-bodied, well- 
structured and well-balanced with the correct level of acidity 

2 backward 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that tastes less developed 
than its age and retains youthful characteristics despite con- 
siderable ageing 

0 Baco Blanc 

a white grape variety grown mostly in the Armagnac region of 
France and widely used to produce brandy (pronounced bako 
blaaN) 

0 Baco Noir 

a grape variety developed in France and used primarily in the 
eastern USA to make light, dry and fruity red table wines 
(pronounced bako nwaar) 

bacteria 

microorganisms that help in the decomposition of organic 
matter but can cause disease and spoil wine. The main bacter- 




Bairrada DOC 31 

»V v¥r- »fc‘ WrW *’*■ •,V,’»k‘ v¥r- »fc‘ •,'Vr'ft' ■***■ vVr-’»t‘ vVr> »t‘ v¥r- »fc‘ •,'Vr'ft' ',Vr 

ium causing problems in winemaking is Acetobacter, which 
converts alcohol to acetic acid in the presence of oxygen. 

See also malolactic fermentation 

2 bacterial 

(i tasting term ) used to describe wines with unpleasant odours or 
flavours 

Badacsonyi 

Hungary a wine-producing region in western Hungary, on the 
volcanic slopes at the southwestern end of Lake Balaton, 
growing mostly Pinot Gris grapes but also a little Keknyelii 
( pronounced buddo chonyi) 

Baden 

Germany a major German wine-producing region stretching 
from the border with Franken (Franconia) to Switzerland in 
the south. It is one of the 13 Anbaugebiete (quality wine- 
producing regions), with 8 Bereiche (districts) that have varying 
geographical conditions and grow mainly Miiller-Thurgau, 
Pinot Gris and Riesling grape varieties for white wine, but also 
some Pinot Noir for red wine. Its warm climate produces wines 
with higher levels of alcohol but less acidity than other German 
regions, (pronounced baad’n) 

0 Baga 

the most popular red-wine grape variety grown in Portugal's 
Bairrada DOC region, producing richly coloured red wine with 
high levels of tannin. It is also planted in the Dao and Douro 
regions. ( pronounced baags) 

bag-in-box 

a method of selling wine inside a vacuum-sealed plastic bag that 
has a small tap moulded into the bottom corner. The bag is 
fitted inside a cardboard box for protection and provides a 
cheap, airtight and convenient container for low-price wines. 

Bairrada DOC 

Portugal a DOC wine-producing region in northern Portugal 
that produces mainly red wine from the Baga grape variety. The 
wines have high levels of tannin and acid due to the traditional 
process of leaving the wine in contact with the skins and stalks 
during fermentation, but recently producers have been seeking 
ways to make softer wines. Some sparkling white wine without 
DOC status is also made in Bairrada. (pronounced b6 raads) 




32 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V '»¥fW V¥,»V '¥V»V '¥V »V %Vr 



J baked 

1 . ( tasting term) used to describe a wine that tastes noticeably of 
alcohol or that has a high alcoholic content 

2. (tasting term ) used to describe a burnt taste in wine from 
grapes grown in hot climates 

baking same as estufagem 

o balance 

(i tasting term) the quality in wine in which each element con- 
tributes to the overall experience with no one element dominat- 
ing. The key elements include sweetness, acidity, tannin, alcohol 
and fruit. The balance of these elements in a wine will change as 
the wine ages, so a fine wine might start out of balance and 
gradually change into a perfectly balanced, great wine. 

balanced wine 

a well-made wine in which no one element of the wine dominates 

Balbi (pronounced balbi) 

0 I. another name for Prosecco 

2. Argentina a well-known winery in the Mendoza region of 
Argentina, now owned by Allied Domecq 

balthazar 

an oversize bottle that can hold 12 litres, equivalent to 16 
standard 750 ml bottles 

2 banana 

(tasting term) the smell of some very young wines due to the 
amyl acetate found in newly bottled wine, which diminishes with 
age 

Bandol AOC 

France a small wine-producing appellation by the sea in Prov- 
ence, southern France, east of Marseilles, that grows especially 
the Mourvedre grape variety to produce good-quality red and 
rose wines. Very little white wine is produced, (pronounced 
baaN dol) 

Banyuls AOC 

France a small wine-producing appellation in the Languedoc 
region of southern France with terraced vineyards above the 
Mediterranean Sea near the border with Spain and the small 




Bardolino DOC 33 

* ■■’VWSfc' -&S3? -.VrW ->Vr’S>‘ VSIVSe 1 vVr* ■***■ ->Vr’S>‘ •,'SVA‘ vVr* ',Vr 

village from which it takes its name. It is best-known for its vin 
doux naturel, a sweet white wine produced from late-harvest 
and sometimes shrivelled Grenache grapes that, by law, must 
contain at least 15% alcohol. Various styles are made, including 
a dark-coloured rancio produced by partly oxidising the wine. 
Red wines produced from the same vineyards are labelled 
Collioure AOC. {pronounced baaN yoolss) 

Barbaresco DOCG 

Italy a small DOCG zone in the Piedmont region of north- 
western Italy. It grows Nebbiolo grapes and the wine is aged for 
at least two years, one of which must be in wooden barrels (three 
years for the riserva variety). Barbaresco shares its elegant, spicy 
but dry style with Barolo, though the wines do not usually have 
the body and intensity of flavour of the best Barolos. {pro- 
nounced baar bo resko, plural Barbarescos) 

0 Barbera 

a red-wine grape variety, native to Piedmont, Italy, that ripens 
late and produces wines with deep colour, high acidity, low 
tannin levels and lots of fruity aroma. It is one of the most 
widely planted varieties in Italy and is also used in California, 
USA, and Argentina. It is used for a wide range of wines, from 
cheap blended wines, as in California, to high-quality aged 
wines in Italy, (pronounced baar bairs) 

Barbera d’Alba DOC 

Italy a DOC area of the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy 
that grows the Barbera grape variety to produce high-quality 
red wines. It neighbours the Barbera d'Asti DOC. (pronounced 
baar bairo dalbo) 

Barbera d’Asti DOC 

Italy a DOC area of the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy 
that grows the Barbera grape variety to produce red wines that 
are lighter than those from neighbouring Barbera d'Alba (pro- 
nounced baar bairo dasti) 

Bardolino DOC 

Italy a DOC area in the Veneto region of northeastern Italy 
producing light red and rose wines blended from several grape 
varieties including Corvina and Rondinella. The name appears 
on labels in various compounds: Bardolino Chiaretto is a rose 
wine, made in still and sparkling styles; Bardolino Classico uses 




34 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •>¥,» v¥, , »V '¥WSfc‘ A‘ v’WiV '¥W*‘ '.Vr A‘ •,¥* 

the better-quality grapes from around the town of Bardolino; 
Bardolino Superiore must be aged a year before release and has 
a higher alcohol content; Bardolino Novello is a light, fruity 
wine that should be drunk when young, (pronounced baards 
leeno, plural Bardolinos) 

J barnyard 

USA (tasting term ) same as farmyard 
Barolo DOCG 

Italy a small DOCG wine-producing area within the Piedmont 
region of northwestern Italy. It grows Nebbiolo grapes, and the 
wines are aged for at least three years (four years for the riserva 
variety) to produce some of Italy’s best red wines that are dark 
red, with high levels of tannin and alcohol and can be aged for 
between 10 and 30 years, (pronounced bs r6lo, plural Barolos) 

Barossa Valley 

Australia an important wine-producing region in South Aus- 
tralia, producing good-quality table wines and growing mostly 
Riesling, Semilion and Chardonnay for white wines and Syrah 
(Shiraz), Grenache and Cabernet Sauvignon for red wines. With 
the adjoining Eden Valley it forms the Barossa Wine Zone. 
(pronounced bs rosso valli) 

barrel 

a wooden, normally oak, container used to store wine for a 
period of time to add flavour and age the wine, A standard 
French barrel, typically used in the Bordeaux region, is called a 
barrique and contains 225 litres of wine. 

Compare butt; cask; piece 

barrel ageing see ageing 
barrel fermenting 

the fermenting of wine, usually white wine, in wooden barrels 
rather than stainless steel tanks. This adds a layer of complexity, 
texture and flavour to the wine and can dramatically change the 
taste of the wine. Red wine is never totally fermented in wooden 
barrels because red wines must be fermented in contact with 
their grape skins and it is very difficult to push grape skins in 
and out of a barrel through the small bung-hole. 

barrelling down 

the pouring of wine into wooden barrels for ageing 




Bas-Medoc 35 

»V VVr* %¥, »t‘ VVr-’»t‘ fllV A‘ V¥r- »t‘ VV^»t‘ •***■ •***■ -fllV A‘ V¥r- »t‘ '.’WiV %Vr 

barrel inserts 

oak slats or oak chips put into wine, as a cheap way of adding 
oak flavour 

barrel maturation 

the maturing of wine in the traditional way by filling new oak or 
older oak barrels with the new wine 

barrica 

Spanish a wooden barrel similar to a barrique ( pronounced ba 
reeks) 

barrique 

French a wooden oak barrel with a capacity of around 225 litres, 
equivalent to a quarter of a tonneau or 25 cases of wine. The 
term is usual in the Bordeaux region; in Burgundy the similar 
barrel is called a piece, (pronounced ba reek) 

barro 

Spanish the clay soil in the wine-producing DO regions of Jerez- 
Xeres-Sherry and Manzanilla Sanlucar de Barrameda (pro- 
nounced barro) 

Barsac AOC 

France a small commune of Sauternes in the Bordeaux region of 
western France, known for sweet white wines made from 
botrytised Semilion and Sauvignon Blanc grapes. Producers 
may use either ‘Barsac’ or ‘Sauternes’ on the label, (pronounced 
baar sak) 

Bas-Armagnac 

France one of the three subregions of Armagnac in southwestern 
France, in the west, producing the best brandy of the region 
( pronounced baa arms nyak) 

base wine 

each of the wines in a blend 

basket press 

a traditional wooden wine press in which the grapes are 
squeezed by a horizontal disc fitting into a cylindrical basket 
of staves bound with hoops 

Bas-Medoc 

France the lower and more northerly part of the Medoc AOC 
wine-producing region of France, north of Bordeaux (pro- 
nounced baa may dok) 




36 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V v¥r> »t‘ '.’VWSV VVf’.f Wr- »t‘ ■***■ fllV A‘ •,'SlV A‘ ■***■ %Vr 

Batard-Montrachet AOC 

France a small grand cru vineyard in the Cote de Beaune area of 
the Burgundy region of France that grows Chardonnay grapes 
to produce outstanding white wines, {pronounced ba taar moN 
ra shay) 

See also Bienvenues-Batard-Montrachet AOC 

BATF 

a USA Federal Government agency that collects alcohol taxes 
and administers wine regulations and the AVA scheme. 

Full form Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms 

baton nage French same as lees stirring {pronounced ba to naazh) 

Baume scale 

a system used in much of Europe for indicating the sugar 
content of a liquid such as grape juice by its density or specific 
gravity. This scale is similar to the Brix system used in the USA 
but 1 degree on the Baume scale is approximately equal to 1.8 
degrees on the Brix system. The Baume scale directly correlates 
to the final alcohol per unit volume for a wine with one degree 
equal to 1% alcohol, (pronounced b6 may skayl) 

bead 

a bubble that floats on top of a fermenting wine or on top of a 
sparkling wine in a glass. 

See also mousse 

Bearn AOC 

France an appellation in southwestern France that grows Ca- 
bernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc grapes to produce red 
and rose wines and grows the Gros Manseng grape variety for 
white wines (pronounced bay aarn) 

Beaujolais AOC 

France a famous wine-producing area in the southern Burgundy 
region of western France that grows Gamay grapes, rather than 
Pinot Noir as in the rest of Burgundy. It produces almost 
exclusively red wines using the carbonic maceration method. 
The best-known style of its richly coloured, light and fruity red 
wines is Beaujolais Nouveau. The wine-producing area is split 
into several sections: to the south near Lyons the wines pro- 
duced are labelled Beaujolais AOC wines; in the north towards 
Macon, there are two styles of red wine, Beaujolais-Villages and 
the higher-quality single cru produced in ten villages (Brouilly, 




5SV VVr* VVr-’iA‘ '-Vr* VVf’l 



Beerenauslese 37 



Chenas, Chiroubles, Cote de Brouilly, Fleurie, Julienas, Mor- 
gon, Moulin-a-Vent, Regnie and Saint- Amour). The majority of 
Beaujolais is blended, bottled and sold by negociants, who buy 
wine from the 4,000 individual growers and 1 9 cooperatives that 
make up Beaujolais. There are around 30 negociants, the best 
known of whom are Georges Duboeuf, Bouchard Pere et Fils 
and Louis Jadot. (pronounced bozhn lay, plural Beaujolais) 

fl Beaujolais Nouveau 

a red wine produced in the Beaujolais AOC region of France 
that is released on the third Thursday of November after the 
harvest. It is a light and fruity red wine that often improves if 
aged for six to eight months, (pronounced bOzhn lay noo v6, 
plural Beaujolais Nouveaux) 

A Beaujolais Superieur 

a red wine produced within the Beaujolais AOC region of 
France that has a lower yield permitted per hectare and at 
least 1% more alcohol content than basic Beaujolais AOC 
wine (pronounced bozhn lay soo payri ur, plural Beaujolais 
Superieurs) 

Beaumes-de-Venise 

France a village in the southern Rhone region of France best- 
known for its sweet white wine, Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise, 
made from Muscat grapes. It also grows Grenache and Cinsault 
grape varieties for red wines, (pronounced b6m do vn neez) 

Beaune AOC 

France an appellation in the Burgundy region of France, with 
the town of Beaune considered the wine centre of the region. 
This appellation grows mostly Pinot Noir grapes to produce soft 
red wines with low levels of tannin, (pronounced bon) 

0 Beaunois another name for Chardonnay (pronounced bo nwa'a) 

Beechworth 

Australia a wine-producing region in northeastern Victoria 

Beerenauslese 

German a German quality rating for wine produced from grapes 
that have been individually selected from a bunch, ensuring that 
the winemaker can use the grapes that have reached optimum 
ripeness, expressed numerically as grapes with at least 110 
degrees sugar on the Oechsle scale. This quality rating is just 




38 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •>¥,» VS6** 1 v¥,»V '.Vr A‘ ■¥V»t‘ VSV3S 1 VVt-* •>¥,» -,Vr 

above the middle level of the six categories that make up the 
Qualitatswein mit Pradikat system in Germany. It normally 
refers to sweet, rich, golden white wines, made mostly from 
botrytised grapes. Not every vintage produces wines that meet 
this specification. Beerenauslese is also an official category of 
Pradikatswein in Austria. ( pronounced bairsn owss layzs, lit- 
erally ‘berry selection', plural Beerenauslesen) 

Abbreviation BA 

beeswing 

a thin shiny sediment that forms in port and some other wines 
when they are kept for a long time after bottling 

Beiras 

Portugal a wine-producing region of Portugal that covers the 
same area as the Dao and Bairrada DOCs and produces Vinhos 
Regionales and lesser wines {pronounced bayrssh) 

0 Beli Pinot another name for Pinot Blanc 
Q Belle Epoque see Perrier-Jouet 
Bellet AOC 

France a small appellation in the French Riviera region in the 
south of France, growing Cinsault and Grenache grapes for red 
and rose wines and local varieties for white wines (pronounced 
bel lay) 

bench graft 

a form of graft used for vines in which the two parts have 
matching notches, rather like two jigsaw pieces, so that they can 
be pressed together, ensuring that they are in tight contact to 
help them grow together. In a graft, one part is the rootstock 
from a phylloxera-resistant vine and the other is a cutting from a 
plant that produces the type of grape required. 

Bendigo 

Australia a wine region in central Victoria that produces very 
good red wines from the Syrah (Shiraz) grape variety 

Benmore Valley AVA 

USA a small viticultural area that is one of three AVAs in Lake 
County, California 

bentonite 

a type of clay that is used in fining to clarify wines, usually white 
wines. The clay is stirred into a wine, and as it settles to the 




Biancame 39 

» vVr* ■■’Wit' •***■ ■,Vr- , iSt‘ •,¥,» ■¥«*.“ ■¥Vit‘ •***■ '¥WSt‘ VV^lSt' VVT.'lSt‘ vVr 

bottom it absorbs any suspended particles and excess yeast that 
could otherwise cloud the wine. The clay is then filtered or 
racked off, taking the yeast protein with it. 

See also fining agent 

Bereich 

German a wine-producing region within an Anbaugebiet (qual- 
ity wine-producing region). There are 43 Bereiche in the 13 
Anbaugebiete. The term usually refers to a rather broad area 
including a number of neighbouring villages and vineyards and 
is, therefore, no indicator of quality, (pronounced bs r7kh, plural 
Bereiche) 

Bergerac AC 

France a large appellation on the Dordogne river near Bordeaux 
in the west of France growing Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet 
Franc and Merlot grape varieties for its red wines and Musca- 
delle and Sauvignon Blanc for its white wines. Within this 
appellation there are several smaller appellations, e.g. the Mon- 
bazillac AOC producing sweet white wines. Dry white wines sell 
as Bergerac Sec AOC. Wines from the Cotes de Bergerac AOC 
are of a better quality than basic Bergerac and have a slightly 
higher alcohol content, (pronounced bairzhs rak) 

Beringer Vineyards 

USA an old-established vineyard in the Napa Valley region of 
California producing a range of very good red and white wines 
from its vast vineyards in the surrounding region. It grows 
Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Chardonnay, Gewiirztraminer, 
Zinfandel and Sauvignon Blanc grape varieties. 

2 berry 

1 . a small fleshy seed-bearing fruit such as a grape. There are 
usually many seeds in the same fruit, and the seeds are enclosed 
in a pulp. 

2. ( tasting term) a sweet fruity taste characteristic of black- 
berries, raspberries or cherries 

berry size 

a factor determining the depth of colour in red wines. Small 
berries have a larger skin area to juice content, which results in 
more colour extraction and more concentration of flavour. 

0 Biancame another name for Albana (pronounced byang 
kaamay) 




40 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •>¥,» v’WiV VSVSS 1 ■>¥<■ »V vVr A‘ ■¥V»V •,¥f , A‘ •,¥* 

bianco 

Italian white {pronounced byangko) 

See also vino bianco 

Bianco di Custoza DOC 

Italy a DOC wine-producing area in the Veneto region of 
northeastern Italy, best-known for its dry white wine and 
sparkling white wine (pronounced byangko dee koo stbtss) 

Bienvenues-Batard-Montrachet AOC 

France a small grand cru appellation in the village of Puligny- 
Montrachet in the Burgundy region of France that grows 
Chardonnay grapes to produce outstanding white wines, (pro- 
nounced byaN vs nyoo ba taar moN ra shay) 

See also Batard-Montrachet AOC 

2 bi s 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine with a full, rich flavour, 
normally as a good point but sometimes implying that the wine 
is not elegant. When describing red wines, it normally refers 
to wine with high levels of tannin and alcohol, e.g. Barolo or 
Chateauneuf-du-Pape. When describing white wines it normally 
refers to wines with high levels of alcohol or glycerol. 

Compare full 

0 Bigney another name for Merlot ( pronounced beenyi) 

Bi I lecart-Sal mon 

a Champagne house in Mareuil-sur-Ay in the Champagne 
region of France that is one of the few still under its original 
family ownership. It produces Champagne of elegance and 
quality, (pronounced beeys kaart sal moN) 

bin 

a set of racks or shelves with compartments for storing bottles of 
wine in a cellar 

bin end 

one of the last bottles remaining from a single production of 
wine, often sold at a reduced price 

binning 

the storing of newly bottled wine or Champagne in bins for 
further bottle ageing 

biodynamic viticulture 

a holistic approach to growing vines, derived from the work of 




black goo 41 

’»t‘ v¥r- »fc‘ •***■ *’*■ •,V, , A‘ v¥r- »fc‘ ■JSIV * 1 •***■ vVr-’»t‘ -.Vf A‘ v¥r- »fc‘ vVr 

Austrian philosopher Rudolph Steiner, that takes into consid- 
eration all of nature's forces that affect the health and growth of 
the plants. Planting, harvesting and bottling are timed to coin- 
cide with certain positions of the planets, and only natural 
preparations may be used to nurture the soil and vines. Bio- 
dynamie, as it is known in France, is growing in popularity in 
almost every wine-producing region of the world. 

biologique 

French organic (pronounced bee olo zheek) 

J biscuity 

(i tasting term ) used to describe a wine with a sweetish, yeasty or 
slightly burnt taste, especially Champagne 

bisulphite, bisulfite see sodium bisulphite 

2 bite 

(i tasting term) the quality of wine with a noticeable level of acid 
or tannin. In full-bodied red wines this can be good, giving the 
wine’s finish a sharp tang. 

2 bitter 

(tasting term) one of the four basic tastes sensed by taste buds 
along the sides and very back of the tongue. It can indicate high 
levels of tannin, which has a bitter taste, or wine that has not yet 
matured; a dominant bitter taste indicates a fault with the wine, 
whereas in sweet wines a trace of bitterness can balance the 
wine. The other three tastes are salty, sour and sweet. 

2 blackberry 

(tasting term) a taste or aroma associated with dark-coloured, 
full-bodied red wines such as those made from the Malbec, 
Tannat, Zinfandel or Mourvedre grape varieties 

2 black cherry 

(tasting term) a flavour associated with red wines made from the 
Pinot Noir or Zinfandel grape varieties 

2 blackcurrant 

(tasting term) an aroma normally associated with the Cabernet 
Sauvignon grape variety or, in a more subtle way, with the 
Sauvignon Blanc grape. 

Compare cassis 

black goo USA same as black rot 




42 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •>¥,» VS6** 1 VSVSSS 1 vVt-* v’VViV ■,¥<■ »V *■*' •,¥* 

0 Black Muscat another name for Muscat Hamburg 
black rot 

a disease caused by the fungus Guignardia bidwellii that attacks 
vines and shrivels grapes. 

Also called USA black goo 

bladder press 

a wine press that uses a perforated cylinder with an airbag that 
expands to squeeze the pomace against its inner wall 

Blagny AOC 

France a village appellation in the Cote de Beaune district of the 
Burgundy region of France, producing good red and white 
wines (pronounced blaa nyee) 

blanc 

French white ( pronounced blaaN) 

See also vin blanc 

blanc de blancs 

French a white wine made from white grape varieties. The term 
can be used to describe any such wine, but is normally used for 
Champagne made solely with the Chardonnay grape. ( pro- 
nounced blaaN do blaaN, plural blancs de blancs) 

0 Blanc de Cabernet Sauvignon another name for Aligote 

( pronounced blaaN do kabbor nay s6 vee nyoN) 

blanc de noirs 

French a white wine made from black or red grape varieties. 
Once pressed, the juice is separated from the skins as quickly as 
possible to prevent colouring. This term can be used to describe 
any such white wine, but is normally used for Champagne made 
solely from the Pinot Noir or Meunier grape varieties, (pro- 
nounced blaaN de nwaar, plural blancs de noirs) 

0 Blanc Fume another name for Sauvignon Blanc (pronounced 
blaaN fyoo may) 

bianco 

Spanish white (pronounced blangko) 

See also vino bianco; Malaga DO 

0 Blanquette 

(pronounced blaaN ket) 

1. another name for Clairette Blanc 

2. another name for Mauzac 




blending 43 

* -.’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ •-Vr-* VVr* VVr.’lSt‘ ■***■ VVr* •,'!IVA‘ '-Vr 

Blanquette de Limoux AOC 

France an appellation in southern France producing sparkling 
wines from the Mauzac (Blanquette) grape variety using the 
methode champenoise (pronounced blaaN ket do lee mob) 

blau 

German used to describe black or red grapes (pronounced blow, 
literally ‘blue') 

0 Blauburgunder, Blauer Klevner another name for Pinot 
Noir (pronounced blow bur go'ondor or blow or klevnsr, used 
in Germany) 

0 Blauer Limburger another name for Blaufrankisch (pro- 
nounced blow or lim burger) 

0 Blauer Spatburgunder another name for Pinot Noir (pro- 
nounced blow or shpayt bur goondar, used in Germany) 

0 Blaufrankisch 

a red grape variety grown mostly in Austria and producing a 
light red wine with high acidity (pronounced blow frenkish) 
Also called Blauer Limburger; Kekfrankos 

Blaye AOC 

France one of three appellations surrounding the town of Blaye 
in the Haut-Medoc district of Bordeaux, western France. It 
grows mostly Semilion and Sauvignon Blanc grapes to produce 
basic white wine. The neighbouring Cote de Blaye AOC pro- 
duces similar white wines from the same grapes, whereas 
Premiere Cote de Blaye AOC grows Merlot and Cabernet 
Sauvignon to produce average-quality red wines, (pronounced 
blay) 

blend 

a mixture of different wines or grape varieties intended to result 
in a more balanced wine or a particular style of wine 

blending 

the mixing together of different wines to help balance the wine 
that is the end product. Almost all wine is, in some way, blended 
- even classic wine-growers might mix wines from different parts 
of their estate or wines from grapes picked at different times, 
and so with different sugar and acid levels, to produce a 
particular style. 

See also assemblage 




44 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V v¥r> »t‘ -,¥<> »t‘ vVr-* Wr- »t‘ -,V,. , A‘ '■SWSS' •,'SlV A‘ VVr.’»t‘ %Vr 

blight 

any one of several diseases of grapevines, usually one caused by 
fungi or bacteria. The destruction caused by the phylloxera root 
aphid is sometimes called blight. 

blind tasting 

a tasting and judging of a selection of wines that are simply 
numbered and have no label or other indication of origin or 
style 

bloom 

1. a flower on a vine. 

Also called blossom 

2 . the period of time when a vine is in flower 

3. a measure of how rigid a sheet of gelatin is when used in fining 
to clarify wine 

4. a grey powdery coating that can cover grapes and is caused by 
dust and wax 

blue fining 

a fining process to clarify a wine by adding a solution of 
potassium ferrocyanide, which removes excess iron or copper 
from the wine. This process is no longer used in most countries 
because it can easily create a very toxic wine. 

j blunt 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine that has a strong flavour, 
often with a high level of alcohol and no interesting aromas or 
finish 

blush 

a style of pale pink wine that is sweeter and has a more fruity 
flavour than a rose. The most common grape source is the red 
Zinfandel, but some blush wines are made from black grapes 
such as Pinot Noir or Cabernet Sauvignon. The juice is left in 
contact with the grape skins for only a short period of time. 

Boal, Bual (pronounced boo aal) 

0 I • a white-wine grape variety traditionally grown on the island 
of Madeira 

2 . a dark, rich style of a medium sweet white wine produced on 
the island of Madeira, traditionally with Boal grapes. After the 
vineyards were devastated by phylloxera in the 1870s the Negra 
Mole grape was often substituted, but Boal is again being 
planted to meet European Union specifications. 




Bolzano 45 

» vVr* ■.’Wit' •***■ WrW •,V,> , A‘ vVr* V’VWSt' vVr-’iSt‘ vVf* vVr* ■JSIV * 1 '-Vr 

0 Bobal 

a red-wine grape grown widely in Spain and often used to add 
colour to red-wine blends (pronounced bo baal) 

Boca DOC 

Italy a DOC region in the Piedmont area of northwestern Italy 
that grows Nebbiolo and Croatina (Bonarda) grapes to make 
red wines (pronounced boko) 

Bocksbeutel 

German a short, wide bottle used for good-quality wines from 
some regions in Germany (pronounced boks boyt’l, plural 

Bocksbeutel) 

bodega 

Spanish a winery, wine producer or wine cellar (pronounced bo 
day go) 

2 body 

(tasting term) the style and weight of a wine when tasted, 
determined by such factors as the level of alcohol, sugar and 
extract present. A light-bodied wine often has a less intense 
colour, is less alcoholic, lighter on the palate and easier to drink; 
a full-bodied wine has a higher level of alcohol and is much 
heavier on the palate; a medium-bodied wine is neither light nor 
heavy and tends to have around 12 degrees of alcohol. 

Bohemia 

Czech Republic a western province of the Czech Republic that 
produces a small amount of wine of modest quality. The other 
region in the country is Moravia. 

Bollinger 

one of the best-known producers of Champagne in the Cham- 
pagne region of France, producing blanc de noirs wines from 
Pinot Noir grapes. It owns large vineyards in the region and is 
unusual in fermenting some wine in oak barrels. It has a range of 
qualities of Champagne, from ordinary non-vintage wine 
through a very good vintage (Bollinger Tradition RD) to a 
great and rare wine (Vieilles Vignes Fran 9 aises). (pronounced 
bollinjsr) 

Bolzano 

Italy a town in the south Trentino-Alto Adige region of north- 
ern Italy, location of a number of wineries (pronounced bol 
tsaano) 




46 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V •-Vf A‘ Wr- »t‘ ■***■ fllV A‘ •,'SlV A‘ VV^ %Vr 

0 Bombino Bianco, Bombino 

a white-wine grape variety mostly grown in southeastern Italy to 
produce basic white wines and often used to blend with other 
varieties, (pronounced bom beeno byangko or bom beeno) 
Also called Trebbiano Abruzzo 

0 Bombino Nero 

a relatively rare and ancient red-wine grape variety grown in 
Apulia in southeastern Italy ( pronounced bom beeno nairo) 
Also called Cesanese 

0 Bonarda 

( pronounced bo naards) 

1. another name for Bonarda Piemontese 

2. another name for Croatina (used especially in Argentina) 

0 Bonarda Piemontese 

a red-wine grape variety traditionally grown in the Piedmont 
region of northwestern Italy (pronounced bo naards pyay mon 
tay zay) 

Also called Bonarda 
bonded cellar 

a wine cellar or storage area in a winery where wines can be 
stored without paying excise duty. Before the wine can be drunk 
it must be moved out of a bonded cellar and the excise duty paid. 
Wine stored in a bonded cellar is often said to be ‘in bond'. 

Compare ex cellar 

bonded warehouse 

a storage warehouse that is allowed to hold wine in a country 
before it passes through customs, and where the wine has not yet 
been subject to excise duty or VAT. A private buyer can store 
wine in a bonded warehouse and buy from imports or from 
stock held in the warehouse without paying excise duty or VAT, 
both of which are only payable when the wine is removed from 
the warehouse for sale or consumption in the country (if the 
wine is exported, no duty is payable). 

J bone dry 

(tasting term) used to describe the driest types of white, rose and 
sparkling wines and some very dry fortified wines 

Bonnes Mares AOC 

France a renowned appellation in the Burgundy region produ- 




Bordeaux mixture 47 

* ■***■ ■.’Wit' vVi-'A" ■,Vr- , iSt‘ •>¥,» vVr* ■¥Vit‘ •***■ '¥WSt‘ ■¥«*.“ ■.’Wit' -,Vr 

cing powerful red wines of excellent quality made of Pinot Noir. 
It is a grand cru of Chambolle-Musigny and Morey Saint-Denis. 
( pronounced bon maar) 

Bonnezeaux AOC 

France an appellation in the Loire valley in western France 
growing Chenin Blanc grapes to produce a grand cru sweet 
white wine (pronounced bonna zo) 

Bonny Doon Vineyard 

USA a winery founded in 1981 by innovative winemaker Ran- 
dall Grahm in the Santa Cruz mountain region south of San 
Francisco in California, USA, that produces a range of unusual 
but very good red wines, including its best-known wine Le 
Cigare Volant, a full-bodied red wine made from Grenache, 
Mourvedre and Syrah grapes, together with white wines and a 
range of eaux de vie 
See also A Winemaker’s View 

0 Bonvino another name for Bombino Bianco (pronounced bon 
veeno, used in the Lazio region of Italy) 

bor 

Hungarian wine (pronounced bawr) 

Bordeaux AOC 

France the largest wine-producing region of France, taking its name 
from an important city and port and accounting for one quarter of 
all wine produced in appellations within France. The region 
produces a very wide range of styles and qualities of wine from 
ordinary Bordeaux AOC wines to the great crus classes; both red 
and white wines are produced, but the red wines predominate. The 
red wines from the area are mostly produced from Cabernet 
Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Malbec and Petit Verdot 
grape varieties, while the white wines are produced from Semilion, 
Sauvignon Blanc and Muscadelle grape varieties. The region is 
divided by the Dordogne river to produce two distinct areas, the 
right bank (with regions such as Saint-Emilion and Pomerol, 
growing more Merlot grapes) and the left bank. The best red wines 
tend to be produced in the north of the region, towards the Medoc 
and in Graves, Pomerol and Saint-Emilion. (pronounced bawr d6) 

Bordeaux mixture 

a combination of copper sulphate, slaked lime and water that is 
sprayed onto vines in the growing season to treat or prevent 
fungal diseases such as downy mildew forming on them 




48 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •>¥,» v¥, , »V ■>’vwa.‘ ■¥V»t‘ »t‘ v’VViSV vVt-* ■¥V»t‘ v¥,» -,Vr 

0 Bordo another name for Cabernet Franc {pronounced bawrdS) 

0 Bosco 

a white-wine grape that is mainly grown in Liguria, Italy. It is 
the main constituent of Liguria’s most famous wine, Cinque- 
terre. {pronounced bosko) 

bota 

Spanish a wooden barrel, similar in size to a butt {pronounced 
botto) 

Botrytis cinerea 

a fungus that attacks grapes and causes them to rot and shrivel 
up. If a white grape is attacked by this fungus, it has the effect of 
concentrating the grape's flavour and sweetness and, if carefully 
controlled, can be used to enhance the sweetness and flavours of 
sweet white wines. When this fungus attacks red grapes, the rot 
simply ruins the grape. When it attacks white grapes, it is also 
known as noble rot or noble mould (in English), pourriture 
noble (in French), Edelfaule (in German) and muffa nobile (in 
Italian). 

botrytise 

to allow white grapes to be attacked by the fungus Botrytis 
cinerea to concentrate their flavour and sweetness and to en- 
hance the sweetness and flavours of the sweet white wine 
produced from them 

bottle see wine bottle 
bottle-ageing 

the process of allowing wine to continue to mature in the bottle 

bottled by 

a phrase printed on a label indicating that the named winery 
simply bottled the wine but is unlikely to have had any part in 
making it 

See cdso cellared by 
bottle fermentation 

a second fermentation that occurs in a sealed bottle, particularly 
in making sparkling wine using the methode champenoise 

bottle sickness, bottle shock 

a temporary state that can affect wines immediately after 
bottling and gives the impression of poor quality or disjointed 
flavours. No one is sure why this happens, but it is presumed to 




Bourgogne Aligote AOC 49 

tjfi? v¥r- »fc‘ •,'SIVA‘ •,’VV. »t‘ VSf^Se 1 v¥r- »fc‘ •.'SIVA' VV-r A‘ VSIVA 1 v¥r- »fc‘ v’W»t‘ -,Vr 

be caused by the sudden temporary exposure to oxygen during 
bottling. The effects only last a few days and then disappear 
totally. 

bottle size 

Glass bottles have traditionally been used for storing wine. 
There are a number of standard sizes for the bottles, regardless 
of the country of origin. The standard size bottle holds 750 ml 
and other sizes are multiples of this basic size, from quarter-size 
bottles up to many times the size. 

See wine bottle 

bottle variation 

the differences seen in aged wine from bottle to bottle. It is often 
said that there is no good aged wine, only good bottles. 

Bouchard Pere et Fils 

France the biggest domaine in the Burgundy region of France 
and also one of the best-known negotiants in the area whose 
vineyards encompass a great range of premiers crus and grands 
crus ( pronounced boo shaar pair ay feess) 

0 Bouchet another name for Cabernet Franc ( pronounced boo 
shay, used in the Bordeaux region of France) 

J bouquet 

( tasting term) part of the overall smell of a wine that derives 
from the fermentation process but, mostly, evolves as the wine 
ages. Sometimes aroma and bouquet are used interchangeably, 
but generally the aroma represents the subtle smells from the 
grape fruit whereas bouquet refers to the smells due to the 
effects of the wine maturing. 

0 Bourboulenc 

a white grape variety that is mostly grown in the south of France 
where it is one of the 13 grape varieties permitted to be used in 
making Chateauneuf-du-Pape red wine {pronounced boor boo 
langk) 

Bourg see Cotes de Bourg 
bourgeois see cru bourgeois 
Bourgogne Aligote AOC 

France an appellation within Bourgogne AOC that uses the 
Aligote white grape variety to produce ordinary white wine 
( pronounced boor gonnys alii go tay) 




50 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V Wr-. »t‘ •-'W A‘ '.’VWSV Wr- »t‘ ■***■ •-'W A‘ '.’VWSV •,'SlV A‘ ■***■ %Vr 

Bourgogne AOC 

France a wide-ranging appellation that covers all the wines 
produced in the Burgundy region of France. There are a number 
of different requirements within this appellation: red Bourgogne 
Rouge wine must be made from Pinot Noir, but Beaujolais, also 
from the Burgundy region, is made from Gamay grapes; white 
Bourgogne Blanc is usually made from the Chardonnay grape. 
( pronounced boor gonnys) 

See also Burgundy 

Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains AOC 

France an appellation within the general Bourgogne AOC that 
requires the wines to be made from at least one-third Pinot Noir 
and the remainder Gamay grapes ( pronounced boor gonnys 
pass too graN) 

Bourgueil AOC 

France an appellation in the Loire valley of France that is best- 
known for its light and fruity red wines made from Cabernet 
Franc grapes (pronounced boor gb ee) 

bourru 

French gruff (pronounced boo ro“o) 

See also vin bourru 

Boutari Group 

Greece a Greek wine company based in Naoussa in northern 
Greece but also with vineyards on the islands of Crete and 
Santorini and with interests elsewhere in the country 

boutique winery 

a winery with only a small amount of land planted with vines 
but producing its own unique wines 

Bouzeron AOC 

France a village appellation in the Cote Chalonnaise district of 
the Burgundy region of France that produces white wine solely 
from the Aligote grape variety (pronounced boo zs roN) 

Bouzy 

France a village in the Champagne region of France that grows 
Pinot Noir grapes to produce some of the best Champagne in 
France (pronounced boo zee) 

Bramaterra DOC 

Italy a DOC region in the Piedmont area of northwestern Italy 
that grows Nebbiolo grapes to produce dry red wine, requiring 




breathe 51 

» VVr* ■.’Wit' VVr* 'JSlV * 1 V’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ VVr* '-Vr 

at least two years’ ageing. A riserva style requires three years’ 
ageing, {pronounced bramms terra) 

J bramble, brambly 

( tasting term) a taste or aroma associated with red wines made 
from the Cabernet Sauvignon grape variety 

branco 

Portuguese white (pronounced brangko) 

brandy 

an alcoholic liquid that is the result of distilling wine and ageing 
it in wood barrels. Brandy can be made wherever grapevines are 
grown, but the greatest quantities are produced in France and 
Spain. The finest French brandies, Cognac and Armagnac, bear 
their own names rather than the generic term ‘brandy’. Any fruit 
can be distilled to form a brandy, but non-grape versions are 
normally referred to by their own names, e.g. Calvados is 
brandy from apple juice. 

o brawny 

(tasting term) used to describe a young red wine that has hard, 
tannic flavours 

Brazil 

a country that, in relation to its size and population, produces 
little wine. Its wine is mostly produced from US-derived hybrid 
vines. 

2 bread 

(tasting term) an aroma of freshly baked bread associated with 
Champagne 

breathe 

to open a bottle of wine (usually red wine) and allow it to stand 
for an hour or two before serving. This practice is supposed to 
improve the flavour of the wine and reduce the effects of the 
tannin, but since the amount of wine in contact with air is so 
tiny in the neck of the bottle, this has very little effect. It is 
better to decant the wine into a decanter, where it has more 
contact with oxygen; this can help balance an older red wine or 
young white wine. Wine exposed to air can, however, lose some 
of its flavour. 

See also decant 




52 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V V¥,»V '.Vf A‘ '¥V »t‘ V’WiV ’,Vr 



breed 

1 . the elegant quality of wines made from good-quality, noble, 
grapes 

2 . the good quality that is the result of a good vineyard, soil, 
grape and winemaker 

Breganze DOC 

Italy a DOC area in the Veneto region in northeastern Italy that 
produces red, rosso and white wines from a range of grape 
varieties including Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot 
Blanc, Pinot Gris and Pinot Noir {pronounced bra ganza) 

0 Brenton another name for Cabernet Franc (pronounced braaN 
toN) 

Brettanomyces 

a yeast that grows on harvested grapes and in wineries that will 
spoil any wine. In tiny quantities it can give a wine a musty taste 
and aroma. 

J briary 

(tasting term) used to describe a young wine that has a peppery, 
earthy taste 

2 brick red 

(tasting term) a dark red colour of wine, not quite brown, that 
usually indicates that a wine has reached maturity 

2 bright 

(tasting term) used to describe a fresh young wine with zest and 
well-defined flavour 

2 brilliant 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that has a perfectly clear 
appearance, with no trace of cloudiness or sediment. It can 
indicate a wine that has been highly filtered and so has lost some 
of its flavour. 

Brindisi DOC 

a wine-producing DOC area in the Apulia region of the south- 
eastern tip of Italy that grows mostly Negroamaro grapes to 
produce dry red and rose (rosato) wines (pronounced brin deezi) 

2 brioche 

(tasting term) an aroma associated with Champagne 

Britain see United Kingdom 




Bual 53 

-»t‘ vVr- »fc‘ vVT-’»t‘ VSVSS 1 vVr- »fc‘ ^Vr-. »t‘ vVT-’»t‘ VSVSS 1 vVr- »fc‘ -,Vr 

Brix scale 

a density scale used in the USA to measure the specific gravity 
of a liquid. In winemaking it is used to check the sugar levels 
in grape juice and so estimate the ripeness of grapes and predict 
the eventual alcohol content of a wine produced from those 
grapes. 

BRL Hardy 

Australia a major wine company in Australia with over a dozen 
estates and brands including the Hardys brand, now part of 
Constellation, the biggest wine company in the world 

Brouilly AOC 

France a large appellation in the Beaujolais region of France, 
producing fruity wines from Gamay grapes, {pronounced broo 
yee) 

See also Cote de Brouilly AOC 
J browning 

{tasting term) a change in colour of red wine that can indicate 
maturity in a great wine or spoilage in other wines 

Brown Muscat another name for Muscat a Petits Grains 

brown scale insect 

a flat brown insect {Parthenolecanium corni) that causes stunted 
growth and leaf defoliation on vines 

bruise 

to harm the flesh of a grape under the skin, usually by hitting it 
Brunello another name for Sangiovese (pronounced broo nello) 

Brunello di Montalcino DOCG 

Italy a famous wine-producing area of Tuscany that produces 
rich wines with lots of depth, tannin and structure from San- 
giovese (Brunello) grapes {pronounced broo nello dee mon tal 
cheeno) 

brut 

French used to describe dry sparkling wines, particularly Cham- 
pagne. Although dry, the brut style of wine can have up to 1 5 g 
of sugar added per litre of wine to improve the balance. Brut 
Champagne is drier than sec, demi-sec and extra dry styles of 
wine, {pronounced broot) 



Bual see Boal 




54 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»t‘ •>¥,» v¥,-»V ■>’vwa.‘ '¥V »t‘ VS6** 1 '¥V»V ■>’vwa.‘ VS6** 1 •,¥* 

2 bubblegum 

( tasting term ) an aroma associated with Beaujolais Nouveau 
and red wines made from the Pinotage grape variety 

bubbly 

sparkling wine, especially Champagne ( informal ) 

Bugaco, Bussaco 

Portugal a town in west-central Portugal, famous for its Palace 
Hotel, which blends its own wines for its guests. They are among 
Portugal’s best table wines, {pronounced boo saako) 

Bucelas DOC 

a small DOC area near Lisbon, Portugal, producing dry white 
wine from Arinto and local varieties of grape {pronounced boo 
kelssh) 

bud 

1. a very young shoot on a plant, which may be dormant, that 
will later become a leaf or flower 

2 . to propagate plants by grafting a piece of stem with a bud 
from one plant into the stem of another plant 

bud break, bud burst 

the swelling and beginning of new growth that takes place in 
buds in the spring 

budding, bud grafting 

a way of propagating plants, in which a bud from one plant is 
grafted into the stem of another 

bud wood 

a stem of a vine that has buds and is suitable for grafting 

Bugey, Vin du see Vin du Bugey AOC 
Bulgaria 

a country in eastern Europe that is said to be the first place in 
the world in which vines were planted and wine was made. 
In the 1980s Bulgarian wine was exposed to western markets by 
the state-owned wine company, with great export success; the 
wines were inexpensive varietals, Cabernet Sauvignon being the 
most popular. The fall of the Communist government left the 
Bulgarian wine industry in some disarray through the 1990s, as 
land was returned to its original owners and wineries were 
privatised, a process which has been slow and is still ongoing. 
It has now introduced authorised growing regions. Declared 
Geographical Origins (DGOs) as well as higher-quality wine- 




bulk process 55 

producing regions called Controlirans. It has also embraced 
modern winemaking technology and planted popular grape 
varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, thus provid- 
ing much of the popular table wine for sale in Europe. 




Wine regions of Bulgaria, Romania and Moldova 



bulk 

1 . wine that has not yet been bottled 

2 . wine sold by the tanker-load and transported by lorry 
between wineries 

bulk process 

a method of producing sparkling wines quickly and cheaply by 
causing secondary fermentation in a large sealed tank rather 
than by the classic methode champenoise of secondary fer- 
mentation within the original small glass bottle. In the USA 
wines made in this way must state it on the label. The method is 
widely used to produce spumante sparkling wine in Italy. For 
example, the Asti Spumante wine is made using a version of the 
bulk process in which the grape must is stored at a very low 
temperature in sealed tanks so that fermentation cannot begin. 



56 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V Wr- »t‘ ■***■ •-'W A‘ VWiV VV,-’A‘ %Vr 

The must is warmed gently and yeast is introduced to start 
fermentation. The carbon dioxide produced during fermenta- 
tion is retained in the sealed tanks. Once the wine has the correct 
sugar and alcohol levels, it is rapidly chilled to stop fermenta- 
tion, then filtered, bottled and corked ready to be sold. 

Also called Charmat process; tank method 

ft Bull’s Blood 

a well-known brand of robust Hungarian red wine, called Egri 
Bikaver (‘Eger Bull's Blood') in Hungary 

bunch 

a cluster of grape berries 

bung 

a stopper used to seal the small opening in a barrel through 
which the barrel is filled and emptied. Made of hardwood or 
rubber, the bung prevents the wine from oxidising. 

bung-hole 

a hole in the side of a barrel through which the barrel is filled 
and emptied 

bung stave 

one of the vertical strips that make up a wooden barrel into 
which the bung-hole is drilled. This stave is the widest in the 
barrel to ensure that it does not split when making the hole. 

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms 

a USA Federal Government agency that collects alcohol taxes 
and administers wine regulations and the AVA scheme. 
Abbreviation BATF 

0 Burger another name for Elbling 

Burgundy 

France a major wine-producing region in eastern France that 
grows a limited number of varieties of grape, mainly Pinot Noir 
for red wines and Chardonnay for white wines, but produces a 
wide range of styles as well as some of the world's best wines. It 
consists of four main regions: Chablis, Cote Chalonnaise, Cote 
d'Or and Maconnais. (Beaujolais is sometimes included, but it 
possesses its own viticultural identity and is better treated 
separately.) Burgundy has a large number of small properties, 
and negotiants (wine merchants) often buy and blend wine from 
many different growers. The quality ratings within the AOC are 
relatively straightforward, with lowest-quality wines labelled as 




BYO 57 

»V VVr* VVr.* V¥r- »t‘ 'JSlV* 1 •***■ VVr-’»t‘ •,'SlV»k‘ V¥r- »t‘ %¥, »t‘ %Vr 

general Bourgogne AOC; one up in quality are the region- 
specific AOCs such as Chablis AOC and Beaujolais AOC; 
above this are village-specific appellations such as Givry, Meur- 
sault and Pommard; above this are premier cru (first-growth) 
vineyards that label wine with the name of the village and the 
vineyard; the best-quality wines are graded grand cru and 
labelled with just the name of the vineyard. 

See also Bourgogne AOC 

burnt 

J I. ( tasting term) used to describe a wine that has a smoky or 
toasted taste 

2 . used to describe overripe grapes 

bush vine 

Australia, South Africa a vine trained and pruned to resemble a 
bush and growing without a trellis. The term can imply a vine of 
considerable age and therefore quality, but these vines are now 
often being replaced by vines with a trellis system. 

Bussaco see Bu;aco 
butt 

a large wine barrel that can contain around 29 litres, or 130 
gallons, of wine and is normally used to store sherry. 

Compare barrel; cask 

2 buttery 

( tasting term) used to describe a rich taste and colour that is 
similar to butter, usually found in a mature or oak-aged 
Chardonnay 

butyric acid 

an acid that occurs in spoiled wine, giving it an unpleasant smell 
of sour milk or rancid butter 

Buzet AOC 

France an appellation in Gascony in southwestern France, that 
produces mostly red wine. The area grows Cabernet Sauvignon, 
Cabernet Franc and Merlot for red and rose wines and Semilion 
and Sauvignon Blanc for white wines, (pronounced boo zay) 

BYO 

an unlicensed or sometimes a licensed restaurant that welcomes 
customers who wish to bring their own wine, for which a fee 
(corkage) is usually charged for opening the bottle (an abbrevia- 
tion of ‘bring your own’, plural BYOs) 







c 

'A‘ '.Vr'A 

A cask of wine works more miracles than a church full of saints. 

Italian Proverb 



0 Cab abbreviation Cabernet Sauvignon 

Cabardes AOC 

France an appellation in Languedoc-Roussillon, north of Car- 
cassonne, that grows Bordeaux grape varieties to produce red 
and rose wines ( pronounced ka baard) 

0 Cabernet another name for Cabernet Sauvignon 

A Cabernet Blanc, Cabernet Blush 

a white wine made from red Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. 
( pronounced kabbsr nay blaaN) 

Also called Blanc de Cabernet Sauvignon 

Cabernet d’Anjou AOC 

France an appellation in Anjou in the western Loire region of 
France that specialises in rose wine made with the Cabernet 
Franc grape (pronounced kabbsr nay daaN zhoo) 

A Cabernet de Saumur 

a light rose wine made in the Saumur AOC in the Loire region of 
France (pronounced kabbsr nay do so mo“or) 

0 Cabernet Franc 

a red-wine grape variety similar to Cabernet Sauvignon that 
grows well in cooler areas and produces wines with a taste of 
blackcurrants that are often used in blends. It is grown in 
France, particularly in the Loire valley and Bordeaux, and in 
Italy, California and South Africa. It produces wine with lower 
levels of tannin and acid than Cabernet Sauvignon. (pronounced 
kabbsr nay fraaN) 

Also called Bordo; Bouchet; Brenton; Carmenet; Trouchet Noir 
0 Cabernet Sauvignon 

a red-wine grape variety that is now one of the most frequently 
grown and best known grape varieties in the world. It is drunk 
as a varietal and also used in blends. It is the main ingredient of 




California 59 

* VVr* ■.’Wit' VVr' , lSt‘ VVr* ',’VViiV V’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ •>¥,» VVr* •,¥,> , A‘ '-Vr 

French Medoc and Graves wines as well as of many of Cali- 
fornia’s great wines. In Europe its planting outside France is 
increasing. It can also be found in Australia, where it is often 
blended with Syrah (Shiraz), and in South America. The grape is 
a hardy plant with thick-skinned grapes that allow it to survive 
cold and be resistant to disease while providing a strong wine 
with plenty of tannin. It is sometimes referred to as the king of 
red grapes. The wine at its best is complex and fruity, with good 
structure, {pronounced kabbsr nay so vee nyoN) 

Also called Sauvignon Rouge 

Cabrieres 

France a wine-producing area in the Coteaux du Languedoc 
region of France, best-known for its light red wines and for 
stronger Syrah-based red wines (pronounced kabbri air) 

Cadillac AOC 

France a small appellation in the Bordeaux region of France 
growing Semilion, Sauvignon Blanc and Muscadelle grapes to 
produce sweet or medium sweet white wine (pronounced kaddi 
yak) 

Cahors AOC 

France an appellation in southwestern France near Bordeaux 
producing dark-coloured red wines with high levels of tannin, 
made from the Malbec grape variety (pronounced kaa awr) 

0 Calabrese another name for Sangiovese (pronounced kails 
brayzi) 

Calabria 

Italy a large wine-producing area in the very tip of the south- 
western corner of Italy encompassing a number of DOC regions 
(pronounced ks labbri s) 

calcium bead 

a hard, inert bead that contains yeast, used in making sparkling 
wine according to the methode champenoise. The beads roll into 
the neck of the bottle and are easily removed during disgorge- 
ment, eliminating the need for riddling. 

California 

USA a state in the extreme west of the USA that is the major wine- 
producing area of North America and is divided into a number of 
geographical AVAs. Wine production was started in the late 1 700s 
by Franciscan monks, and has waxed and waned over the years but 




60 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

rjhf Wt-- » t‘ »t‘ v¥,»V ■,¥<■ »V vVr A‘ vVr.’»t‘ ■¥V»V ■,¥<■ »V '¥V A‘ vVr A‘ •,¥* 

has now developed to cover many thousands of hectares under 
vine. The people involved in making wine in California are an 
eccentric bunch, often people who have dropped out of other 
professions, coupled with a sprinkling of retirees and hippies. The 
most widely grown grape is Chard onnay, the state’s premier white- 
wine variety that is almost synonymous with California wine- 
making; Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Riesling and Sauvignon Blanc 
are also grown. In the reds, Cabernet Sauvignon is the greatest 
success story. The rich, distinctive Napa Cabernet is a true classic. 
Merlot has provided a fashionable and less tannic alternative to 
Cabernet of late, and there is some fine Pinot Noir, especially in the 
Carneros and Russian River Valley AVAs. Cabernet is the most 
widely found red grape variety, though until fairly recently the 
native Zinfandel occupied that position. The best Zinfandels are 
fruity, jammy and irresistible. 

Caluso Passito DOC 

Italy a DOC area in the northern Piedmont region of Italy that 
is best-known for its sweet white wine made from the Erbaluce 
grape variety. The grapes are dried in the sun to concentrate the 
sugar levels and aged for at least five years. ( pronounced ka 
loosso pa seeto) 

Caluso Passito Liquoroso 

a wine from the Caluso Passito DOC region that has been 
fortified with grape alcohol {pronounced ka loosso pa seeto liks 
r6sso) 

calyx 

a part of a flower shaped like a cup, made up of the green sepals 
that cover the flower when it is in bud 

cambium 

a layer of living cell tissue under the bark of a plant that has a 
woody stem such as a vine 

Campania 

Italy a large wine-producing area on the eastern coast of Italy 
that includes a number of DOC zones ( pronounced kam pannys) 

Campo de Borja DO 

Spain a small DO region in northern Spain that grows the 
Grenache (Garnacha) grape and produces ordinary red wine 
with high levels of alcohol, often used to blend with other wines 
(pronounced kampo day bawrhs) 




Canterbury 61 

tjH? »fc‘ v¥r> »V VS6** 1 '¥V. »t‘ VSf^Se 1 Giyas' •,¥,. , A‘ ^Vr-. »t‘ '¥V. »t‘ ',¥/*“ •,¥* 

Campo Viejo 

Spain a large wine producer (bodega) in the Rioja DOCa area of 
northern Spain producing a range of red wines from Tempra- 
nillo and some Grenache (Garnacha) grapes and a little white 
wine from Macabeo (Viura) grapes (pronounced kampo vyeho) 

Canada 

a country that consumes more wine than it grows, with most of 
the wine-producing regions located on the western coast in the 
provinces of Ontario and British Columbia 

0 Canaiolo Nero, Canaiolo 

a red grape variety grown in northern Italy, especially in 
Tuscany and Umbria. It is used in small proportions in Chianti 
wines, (pronounced kann6 olo nairo) 

canary 

a sweet wine from the Canary Islands, similar to Madeira 

Canberra District 

Australia a wine region in New South Wales and the Australian 
Capital Territory about 600 metres in altitude producing ex- 
cellent red and white table wines from Cabernet Sauvignon, 
Syrah (Shiraz), Chardonnay and Riesling grapes 

cane 

a mature shoot of a vine. Mature shoots are brown, new shoots 
are green. 

0 Cannonau another name for Grenache (pronounced ka no no, 
used in Sardinia, Italy) 

Canon-Fronsac AOC 

France a small appellation in the Bordeaux region of France 
producing red wine from the Merlot and Cabernet Franc grape 
varieties (pronounced kan oN froN sak) 

canopy 

the spread of branches and leaves on a vine 

canopy management 

the technique of trimming and training branches and leaves on a 
vine in order to change the way the sun reaches the leaves and 
grapes. Good canopy management improves the quality and 
yield of grapes and reduces the possibility of disease through 
lack of air circulation. 

Canterbury 

New Zealand a wine-producing region in the South Island of 




62 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •>¥,» -.’WiV ■>’vwa.‘ flMSV vVt-* *■*' ',¥* 

New Zealand, south of Marlborough, growing especially the 
Chardonnay, Riesling and Pinot Noir grape varieties 

cantina 

Italian a wine cellar or winery {pronounced kan teens, plural 

cantine) 

cantina sociale 

Italian a wine cooperative ( pronounced kan teens so chaali, 
plural cantine sociale) 

cap 

the mass of skin, pips and fragments of stalks that rises to the 
top of the liquid during the fermentation process of red wine 

capacity 

quantity, as opposed to quality, of the total crop produced by a 
vine 

0 Cape Riesling another name for Crouchen ( used in South 
Africa) 

Capri DOC 

Italy a DOC area on the island of Capri growing Piedirosso 
grapes to produce red wine and Greco and other local grapes for 
white wine 

cap stem 

a small piece of stem that connects each individual grape to the 
bunch 

capsule 

a metal, traditionally lead, or plastic wrapper that covers the cork 
and top of the neck of a wine bottle. The capsule helps protect the 
cork from drying out, which would allow air into the bottle. 

carafe 

a glass container shaped like a bottle with a wide neck and 
opening, used to serve ordinary house wine in a restaurant or 
sometimes used as a container when decanting wine 

carafe wine 

ordinary house wine served in a restaurant or cafe. 

Also called vin de carafe 

2 caramel, caramelly 

(; tasting term) a burnt-sugar aroma and taste, e.g. in Madeira 
wine or in some oak-aged Chardonnays 




V' 



ASP Wr* '&S3? VVr-’iA‘ '-Vr* VV, 



Carema DOC 63 

^SlVaS 1 V’W- , »t‘ V’W , »t‘ vVr 



carbonation 

a method of creating sparkling wine by forcing carbon dioxide 
gas into the liquid stored in a sealed container. This type of 
sparkling wine has larger bubbles that quickly disappear com- 
pared to traditionally produced sparkling wine. 

carbon dioxide 

a colourless, odourless gas that occurs naturally in air and is a 
by-product of fermentation. In still wines the wine is fermented 
in an open container to allow the carbon dioxide to disperse; in 
sparkling wines the wine is fermented in a sealed container to 
force the carbon dioxide into the liquid. Carbon dioxide is also 
sometimes used at other stages of winemaking to displace 
oxygen and reduce oxidation. Some winemakers now also bottle 
white wines with some dissolved carbon dioxide to improve 
freshness and fruitiness. 

Symbol C0 2 

carbonic maceration 

a method of making wine used mainly in the Beaujolais and 
Loire regions of France to produce light, fruity red wine that is 
designed to be drunk when young. In this method, whole grapes, 
with their stalks and without having been crushed, are fermen- 
ted in a closed container to produce wine that is full-flavoured 
with a deep red colour and lots of fruit but that is low in tannin. 
In the usual method of making wine, the stalks are removed 
from the bunches of grapes and the grapes are then crushed and 
fermented without the stalks. 

carborunitrogen ratio full form of C:N ratio 

carboy 

a large container with a narrow neck used as container for 
secondary fermentation 

Carcavelos DOC 

Portugal a small DOC area on the western coast of Portugal, 
mainly known for its sweet white fortified wine made from local 
grape varieties (pronounced kaarks vay losh) 

Carema DOC 

Italy a little-known DOC area in the Piedmont region of Italy, 
north of Turin, that produces red wine from the Nebbiolo grape 
variety ( pronounced kar ayma) 




64 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V *’*■ ■>’VWa.‘ Wr- »t‘ ■***■ •-'W A‘ »t‘ VVr-* %Vr 

0 Carignan 

a red-wine grape variety, widely grown in southern France and 
around the Mediterranean, and also in California, USA, that 
yields a lot of fruit from each vine. It produces strong wines with 
a deep purple colour and a peppery taste similar to that of 
Syrah, which are often used in blends, {pronounced karri nyaaN) 
Also called Carinena; Mazuelo; Monestel 

0 Carignan Rosos another name for Grenache {pronounced karri 
nyaaN r6z oss) 

0 Carinena another name for Carignan {pronounced karri 
nyayns, used in Spain) 

Carinena DO 

Spain a DO wine-producing region in northern Spain growing 
mostly Grenache (Garnacha), Tempranillo and Carignan (Car- 
inena) grape varieties to produce large quantities of red and rose 
wines with high levels of alcohol. Some white wine is produced 
from Macabeo and Grenache (Garnacha Blanca) Blanc grapes. 
{ pronounced karri nyayns) 

Carmel Valley AVA 

USA a small viticultural area in Monterey County, California 

0 Carmenere 

a red-wine grape variety that produces deep-coloured full- 
bodied wines. It was once widely grown in France but was 
abandoned because of its low yields and susceptibility to dis- 
ease; it is now showing some signs of revival in the New World, 
e.g. in Chile, {pronounced kaarms nair) 

0 Carmenet another name for Cabernet Franc {pronounced 
kaarms nay) 

Carmignano DOCG 

Italy a DOCG area in the Chianti region of Tuscany, in north- 
ern Italy, growing Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon and some 
other grapes that are blended to produce red wines similar to the 
wines from Chianti (which are made without the Cabernet 
Sauvignon). This area also produces sweet vin santo and rose 
(rosato) wines - both have the lower DOC status, {pronounced 
kaarmi nyaano) 

0 Carnelian 

a red-wine grape hybrid derived from Grenache and Cabernet 




Cassis AOC 65 

» vVr* ■.’Wit' -***■ ■-Vr- , iSt‘ •,'SV , A‘ vVr* 'XtrW -.VrW ->Vr» vVr* vVr 

Sauvignon, developed and grown in California, USA, and 
producing light red wine 

Carneros AVA 

USA a region across Sonoma and Napa counties, California, at 
the top of San Francisco Bay, known for wines made from 
Chardonnay and Pinot Noir grape varieties (pronounced kaar 
nair oss) 

Also called Los Carneros 
Casablanca 

Chile a wine-producing region to the northwest of Santiago in 
Chile, best-known for its white Chardonnay-based wines 

casa vinicola 

Italian a company that buys in its grapes to produce wine 
( pronounced ka'asss vi neeksls, plural case vinicole) 

case 

a standard quantity for selling wine in a cardboard or wooden 
box containing 12 bottles or 24 half-bottles or 6 magnums 

casein 

a protein derived from milk that is used in fining to clarify wine 

cask 

a wooden barrel or other container used for ageing or storing 
wine, normally made of oak. Casks can also be used to store 
spirits. 

Compare barrel; butt 
j casky 

(i tasting term ) used to describe the smell or, occasionally, the 
flavour of a wine that spent too long stored in a wooden barrel 
or has been stored in a contaminated barrel 

casse 

cloudiness in a wine due to a chemical imbalance. Formerly 
copper casse and iron casse were caused by traces of copper and 
iron from brass or steel fittings and tanks; these problems have 
been cured by the use of modern stainless steel tanks and 
equipment, (pronounced kass) 

2 cassis 

(tasting term ) French blackcurrant (pronounced ka seess) 

Cassis AOC 

France an appellation in the Provence region in the south of 




66 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •>¥,» VSVSSS 1 •,'SIWSfc‘ •,'SIVA‘ W,. »t‘ VSVSSS 1 ■,¥<■ »V '¥VA‘ '¥V »V •,¥* 

France. The area is best-known for its white wines made from 
Sauvignon Blanc, Marsanne and Trebbiano (Ugni Blanc) grape 
varieties; red and rose wines are also produced from Grenache 
and Cinsault grape varieties, {pronounced ka see) 

0 Castelao, Castelao Frances another name for Periquita 

( pronounced kastel yow fran sayss) 

Castel del Monte DOC 

Italy a DOC area in the Apulia region of Italy, producing red, 
white and rose wines mainly from local grape varieties {pro- 
nounced kastel del mont ay) 

castel lo 

Italian a description of a vineyard that can only be used on 
labels of DOC or DOCG status Italian wines {pronounced ka 
stello, literally ‘castle', plural castelli) 

Castilla-La Mancha 

Spain a large wine-producing area in central Spain, to the south 
of Madrid, that includes the La Mancha and Valdepenas DOs. 
It is separated by mountains from Castilla-Leon. {pronounced ka 
stillyo la manchs) 

Castilla-Leon 

Spain a large wine-producing region of north-central Spain that 
includes the Ribera del Duero DO. It is separated by mountains 
from Castilla-La Mancha, {pronounced ka stillyo lay on) 

Castillon see Cotes de Castillon AOC 

Catalonia, Catalunya 

Spain a large Spanish province in the northeast of the country 
that contains many wine-producing areas including the Cava, 
Penedes, Priorat and Tarragona DOs 

0 Catarratto 

a white grape variety native to the island of Sicily, Italy, which is 
mostly used for blending in table wines, in the wines of Alcamo 
DOC and in making the fortified Marsala wine {pronounced 
katts ratto) 

0 Catawba 

a red hybrid grape developed in the USA and grown in the wine 
regions of the eastern USA. It is used to make sparkling wines, 
roses and very fruity white wines, {pronounced ks tawbs) 




cellaring 67 

* VVr* -.’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ •-Vr-* VVr* •,'SV , A‘ VVr.’lSt‘ VVr-’lSt‘ '.’VVSV VVr* VVf , A‘ '-Vr 

2 cat’s pee 

(tasting term) an aroma associated with white wines made from 
the Sauvignon Blanc and Miiller-Thurgau grape varieties 

ft Cava 

a Spanish sparkling wine produced by the methode champe- 
noise. Cava is best drunk young, (pronounced kaavs, literally 
‘cellar’, originally in Catalonia) 

Cava DO 

Spain a large DO region in Spain producing sparkling wines, 
mostly using Macabeo or Parellada grapes, although the better 
wines use Chardonnay or Pinot Noir grapes (pronounced kaavo) 

cave 

French a cellar, or any building where wine is stored or sold 
( pronounced kaav) 

cave cooperative 

French a wine cooperative (pronounced kaav ko oppors teev, 
plural caves cooperatives) 

0 Cayuga White 

a hybrid grape variety developed and grown in the eastern USA 
wine regions, which produces delicate white table wines (pro- 
nounced k6 yoogo w7t) 

CB abbreviation chateau-bottled 

j cedar 

(tasting term) an aroma associated with fine French Bordeaux 
wines and those made from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes or in 
wine that has been stored or matured in a strongly scented oak 
barrel 

cellar see wine cellar 
cellared by 

stored, but not produced, at a winery until it is ready to sell. 

See also bottled by 

cellaring 

1. the processes that a winemaker must undertake to produce 
wine, including clarification, filtration, blending and bottling 

2 . the storing of wine in a wine cellar or at a winery 




68 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V v¥r. »t‘ Wr- »t‘ ■***■ •-Vf A‘ VWiV ■***■ %Vr 

cellar-master 

a person who is in charge of the cellars at a wine-producing 
estate, supervising especially the ageing of wines. 

Compare maitre de chai 

Celsius 

a scale of temperature in which the freezing point of water is 0° 
and its boiling point is 100° 

0 Cencibel another name for Tempranillo (pronounced then thee 
bel, used especially in the Valdepenas and La Mancha regions of 
Spain) 

Central Coast AVA 

USA a large wine-producing area on the coast of California, 
stretching from San Francisco to Los Angeles. The name refers 
primarily to Monterey, San Luis Obispo and Santa Barbara 
counties, although parts of Alameda, San Benito, Santa Clara 
and Santa Cruz counties are included. 

Central Otago 

New Zealand a wine-producing region in the southeast of the 
South Island of New Zealand growing especially the Riesling 
and Pinot Noir grape varieties. It is the world's southernmost 
wine-producing region. 

Central Valley 

USA a large wine-growing region of California including the 
Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys that supplies many of the 
ordinary blended wines popular in the USA 

Central Victoria 

Australia a wine-producing zone in Victoria, to the northwest 
and north of Melbourne 

centrifuge filtration 

a method of filtering wine by spinning a container very fast in a 
centrifuge, which separates any solids from the liquid 

0 Centurion 

a red-wine grape variety which is a hybrid of Cabernet Sauvignon, 
Grenache and Carignan. It is not widely planted, being grown 
mostly in the hotter Central Valley region of California, USA. 

cepa 

Spanish (pronounced thaypa) 

1. a vine, or the root of a vine 

2 . a variety of grapevine 




Chablis 69 

»V VVr* VVr-’»t‘ -fllV A‘ V¥r- »V •***■ VSlS^SS 1 V¥r- »t‘ »V ’,Vr 



cepage 

French a variety of grapevine ( pronounced say paazh) 

cepages nobles 

French the group of great grape varieties used in winemaking in 
France (pronounced say paazh nBbls) 

Cerons AOC 

France a small appellation near the city of Bordeaux that 
produces sweet white wine using Muscadelle, Semilion and 
Sauvignon Blanc grapes. It also produces a dry white wine sold 
under the Graves AOC. (pronounced say roN) 

certified planting material 

plants certified to be of the variety required and free from 
disease that will be used in planting or replanting areas for 
vine cultivation 

Cerveteri DOC 

Italy a DOC area in the Lazio region of Italy growing Sangio- 
vese and Montepulciano and other grape varieties to produce 
red wines and mostly Trebbiano grapes to produce whites 
( pronounced chairvs tairi) 

0 Cesanese another name for Bombino Nero (pronounced say sa 
naysay) 

Chablais 

Switzerland a wine-producing area in the Vaud canton of 
Switzerland in the Rhone valley, growing Chasselas grapes to 
produce white wine (pronounced shab lay) 

A Chablis 

(pronounced shabbli, plural Chablis) 

1 . France a wine-producing area in northern Burgundy, roughly 
in the middle of France. The area centres on the town of Chablis 
and has four main appellations, Chablis Grand Cru AOC, 
Chablis Premier Cru AOC, Chablis AOC and Petit Chablis 
AOC. These all make variations of dry, full-flavoured white 
wine from Chardonnay grapes, often with overtones of grass 
and flint or mineral tastes. The wines are often made without 
any contact with oak barrels. The grand cru wines can be among 
the best white wines in the world, and can sustain considerable 
ageing. 

2. South Africa, USA very ordinary blended dry white wine 




70 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

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chai 

French a building used to store wine before it is bottled {pro- 
nounced shay) 

chalk 

fine white sedimentary rock formed of calcium carbonate from 
animal organisms, widely found in many parts of northern 
Europe 

Chalk Hill AVA 

USA a wine-producing area in Sonoma County, California, that 
grows mainly Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc grapes to 
produce white wines 

chalky 

used to describe soil that is above a chalk layer and contains 
chalk 

Chalon see Chateau-Chalon AOC 
Chalone AVA 

USA an appellation in Monterey County, California, with one 
winery that grows mainly Chardonnay grapes for white wines 
and Pinot Noir grapes for red 

Chambertin AOC 

France a grand cru vineyard in Gevrey-Chambertin in the Cote 
de Nuits district of the Burgundy region growing Pinot Noir 
grapes to produce highly prized red wines {pronounced shombor 
taN) 

Chambertin Clos de Beze AOC 

France a grand cru vineyard in Gevrey-Chambertin in the Cote 
de Nuits district of the Burgundy region growing Pinot Noir 
grapes to produce high-quality red wines (pronounced shombor 
taN klo do bez) 

Chambery 

a light aromatic vermouth made in the French Alps {pronounced 
sham bay ree) 

Chambolle-Musigny AOC 

France a village appellation in the Cote de Nuits district of the 
Burgundy region of France that grows Pinot Noir grapes to 
produce high-quality red wines {pronounced shorn bol moo see 
nyee) 




champers 71 

* VVr* -.’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ •-Vr-* VVr* •,'SV , A‘ •,Vr.'lSt‘ VVr-’lSt‘ •-Vr-* '-Vr* VVf , A‘ '-Vr 

0 Chambourcin 

a red-wine grape variety widely grown in the eastern USA to 
produce table wines {pronounced shorn boor saN) 

Champagne AOC 

France a famous winemaking region in northeastern France, 
centred on the two towns of Reims and Epernay. The region has 
a chalky soil and, as the most northerly AOC, a relatively cool 
climate. The most famous wine of the region is the sparkling 
wine Champagne, though some still wines are also made. The 
sparkling wine is made using the Chardonnay, Pinot Noir or 
Pinot Meunier grape varieties; blanc de noirs Champagne is 
produced entirely from red Pinot Noir or Pinot Meunier grapes, 
or a mixture of both, while blanc de blancs Champagne is made 
entirely from white Chardonnay grapes. Rose Champagne is 
also made, usually by adding a little red wine to the basic 
blended Champagne (called the ‘cuvee’). The grapes for Cham- 
pagne are fermented once in a large vat, usually using a specially 
developed yeast strain, and then fermented a second time in the 
bottle. This second fermentation produces carbon dioxide that 
is forced into the wine within the closed bottle. This method of 
producing wine is often termed the ‘methode champenoise’ and 
is used to produce other sparkling wines, but under European 
Union laws only wines produced within the Champagne region 
can be labelled Champagne. Most Champagnes are non-vintage 
blends made to a consistent style, the house style of the producer 
(the best of which are unofficially termed ‘grandes marques’). 
Vintage Champagne is made from the best grapes of the harvest 
in a year when the winemaker considers the harvest to be 
particularly good. Vintage Champagnes must then be aged 
for three years. The sugar level of Champagne is described 
on the label as ‘brut’ for very dry Champagne with less than 
1.5% sugar, ‘extra sec’ for slightly sweet wine, ‘demi-sec’ for 
sweet wine or ‘doux’ for very sweet wine. 

Champagne cork see cork 

Champagne method same as methode champenoise 
Champenois see Coteaux Champenois AOC 
champenoise see methode champenoise 
champers 

Champagne {informed) 




72 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ v¥t> »t‘ vVr. »t‘ VSIV* 1 vVt-* vVt-* *■*' vVr 

0 Chancellor 

a hybrid grape variety grown in the eastern USA and in Canada, 
producing a fruity, medium-bodied red wine 

chapeau 

French the mass of skin, pips and fragments of stalks that rises 
to the top of the liquid during the fermentation process of red 
wine {pronounced shappo) 

Chapoutier 

one of the most respected growers in the northern Rhone region 
of France producing a range of excellent red and white wines 
around Hermitage and Chateauneuf-du-Pape ( pronounced sha 
poo tyay) 

chaptalisation 

the process of adding sugar to grape must in order to increase 
the alcoholic strength of the wine. Adding sugar at this fermen- 
tation stage of the winemaking does not increase the sweetness 
of the wine. Although this process is necessary and legal in cold 
climates where the lack of sun does not produce enough sugar in 
the grape, the process is often illegal and unnecessary in coun- 
tries with hot climates. 

Also called sugaring 

2 character 

{tasting term ) a distinctive and good style and personality of a 
wine derived from each element of the winemaking process, 
reflecting the soil, grape variety and method of production 

0 Charbono 

a red-wine grape variety grown mostly in California, USA to 
produce wines that are full-bodied, dark red in colour and high 
in tannin and acid levels {pronounced shaar bono) 

0 Chardonel 

a hybrid grape variety bred in the USA from Chardonnay and 
Seyval Blanc 

0 Chardonnay 

one of the most popular white grape varieties that is grown 
around the world. It is often synonymous with popular dry 
white wines, but it can produce a wide range of wines from crisp 
mineral-flavoured Chablis through rich buttery wines to spark- 
ling Champagne. 




Chassagne-Montrachet AOC 73 

-»t‘ -.’w »t‘ *’*' VSVSS 1 vVr- »fc‘ vV-r A‘ VSVSS 1 vVr- »t‘ •.'SIVA' -,Vr 

A/,so called Auxerrois Blanc; Beaunois; Pinot Blanc; Pinot 
Chardonnay 

Charles Heidsieck 

a well-respected grande marque Champagne house based in 
Reims, in the Champagne region of France and producing a 
range of Champagne styles (pronounced h6d sek) 

Charmat process 

a method of producing sparkling wines quickly and cheaply by 
causing secondary fermentation in a large sealed tank rather than 
by the classic methode champenoise of secondary fermentation 
within the original glass bottle. In the USA wines made in this 
way must state it on the label. The method is widely used to 
produce spumante sparkling wine in Italy. For example, Asti 
Spumante wine is made using a version of the Charmat process in 
which the grape must is stored at a very low temperature in sealed 
tanks so that fermentation cannot begin. The must is warmed 
gently and yeast is introduced to start fermentation - the carbon 
dioxide produced during fermentation is retained in the sealed 
tanks. Once the wine has the correct sugar and alcohol levels, it is 
rapidly chilled to stop fermentation, then filtered, bottled and 
corked ready to be sold, (pronounced shar ma'a) 

Also called bulk process; tank method 

Charmes-Chambertin AOC 

France a grand cru vineyard in Gevrey-Chambertin in the Cote 
de Nuits district of the Burgundy region of France that grows 
Pinot Noir grapes to produce high quality red wines (pronounced 
shaarm shombsr taN) 

charming 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that is elegant and 
immediately appealing 

Chassagne-Montrachet AOC 

France a well-known appellation in the Burgundy region of 
France that is best-known for its white wine produced from 
Chardonnay grapes grown in premier cru and grand cru vine- 
yards. It is rated amongst the best in the world, though less 
expensive than the similar wines from the famous neighbouring 
village of Puligny-Montrachet. It also produces red wine from 
Pinot Noir grapes in almost equal quantities to the white, but 
the red is unable to rise to a comparable quality, (pronounced 
sha sannys moN ra shay) 




74 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ vVf* vYr-- »t‘ VSVSSS 1 •,'SIWSfc‘ •,'SIVA‘ VVT-’»t‘ VS6** 1 VSVSSS 1 vVt-* *’*' -,Vr 

0 Chasselas 

a white-wine grape variety commonly grown in Switzerland and 
many other regions of Europe and in Argentina, Australia and 
California, USA. It produces ordinary white table wine, with 
low acid levels, (pronounced shasss laa) 

Also called Fendant; Gutedel 

chateau 

a vineyard or single estate where grapes are grown and wine is 
produced. The word traditionally referred to a product from the 
fine-wine producers of the Bordeaux region of France, but it can 
be used on a label of French wine from any authentic vineyard 
that traditionally used the term. The property referred to may or 
may not have a fine residence that might justify the name 
‘chateau’ (castle or stately home). Spelt chateau, without the 
circumflex accent, the term is also used in the USA in the names 
of some wineries, (pronounced shatto, plural chateaux) 

Chateau 

See also below 

chateau-bottled 

used to describe wine that has been made from grapes grown 
exclusively on the chateau’s vineyard and also bottled at the 
chateau. 

Abbreviation CB 

Chateau-Chalon AOC 

France an appellation in the Jura region of eastern France 
producing vin jaune made exclusively from the Savagnin grape 
variety (pronounced shatto sha loN) 

Chateau-Grillet AOC 

France a small vineyard and appellation in the northern part of 
the Rhone region of France growing only Viognier grapes to 
produce some of the best and most expensive dry white wines 
made from this grape ( pronounced shatto gree yay) 

Chateauneuf-du-Pape AOC 

France an appellation in the Rhone valley, southern France, 
near Avignon. This area produces very high-quality red wines 
that rely mainly on the Grenache grape variety, but, unusually, 
the rules for the appellation allow another 12 grape varieties to 
be grown and used within the AOC. The region also produces a 
small quantity of white wine from the Grenache Blanc, Bour- 
boulenc and Clairette Blanc grapes. Estate-bottled wines display 




cherry 75 

»V VVr* ■,'y r ’A‘ VVr-’»t‘ VVr.-»t‘ V¥r- »V ■***■ W,- »t‘ -fllV A‘ V¥r- »V 'JSlV * 1 %Vr 

the coat of arms of the Pope on the label of the bottle (the name 
means ‘the Pope’s new castle'). In the 1920s the area was the first 
to implement a set of rules to regulate the wine production 
process. These rules were then used as the basis of the Appella- 
tion d'Origine Controlee system implemented across France. 
( pronounced shatto nof doo pap) 

0 Chauche Gris another name for Trousseau Gris (pronounced 
shbsh gree) 

0 Chaudenet Gris another name for Aligote (pronounced sho 
dsnay gree) 

0 Chaunac 

a hybrid red grape variety grown in the eastern USA and 
Canada and producing fruity wines, (pronounced sho nak) 
Also called de Chaunac; Seibel 9549 

Chave see Domaine B. Chave 
Chave, Jean-Louis 

a well-known wine producer in the northern Rhone region of 
southern France (pronounced shaav) 

0 Chelois 

a hybrid red grape variety grown in the eastern USA and 
producing light and fruity red or rose wines. 

Also ccdled Seibel 10878 

Chenas AOC 

France a small cru (village and surrounding area) in the Beau- 
jolais region of France producing high-quality red wine from 
Gamay grapes (pronounced shay naa) 

0 Chenin Blanc 

a white grape variety that is used to produce a range of wine 
styles in the Loire region of France, including the sweet Vouvray 
wines and dry Anjou wines. It is also used in blends in Cali- 
fornia, Australia and South Africa. South Africa and the USA 
now both grow more Chenin Blanc than does France. When 
used to produce sweet white wine the grape can be infected with 
Botrytis cinerea to concentrate sugar levels and flavour, (pro- 
nounced sho naN blaaN) 

Also ccdled Steen 

2 cherry 

(tasting term) a flavour and aroma associated with wine made 
from Pinot Noir or Zinfandel grapes 




76 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ VSVSSS 1 ■>’vwa.‘ ■¥V»V vVt-* *■*' •,¥* 

2 chestnut same as roast chestnut 
Cheval Blanc, Chateau 

France a famous chateau in the Saint-Emilion district of Bor- 
deaux, France, that makes good red wines from Cabernet 
Franc, Merlot and a small proportion of Malbec grapes. It 
was graded in the top two premiers grands crus classes in the 
classification of Saint-Emilion wines in 1955. (pronounced shs 
val blaaN) 

Chevalier see Domaine de Chevalier 
Chevalier Montrachet AOC 

France a famous appellation in the Cote de Beaune district of 
Burgundy producing grand cru white wine from the Chardon- 
nay grape variety (pronounced shs val yay moN ra shay) 

Cheverny VDQS 

France a VDQS area in the Eoire region of France, growing 
mostly Camay and Cabernet Franc grape varieties to produce 
red and rose wines and growing Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc 
and Sauvignon Blanc to produce white wines (pronounced shs 
vair nee) 

J chewy 

(tasting term) used to describe a rich, full-bodied wine that has a 
high tannin content and well-balanced acid levels 

Chianti DOCG 

Italy a large wine-producing area in Tuscany in central Italy that 
is best-known for its range of dry, medium- to full-bodied fruity 
red wines produced from a blend of four grape varieties (San- 
giovese dominates, then Canaiolo Nero, Malvasia and Trebbia- 
no). The DOCG is divided into seven smaller zones: Chianti 
Aretini, Chianti Classico, Chianti Colli Fiorentini, Chianti Colli 
Senesi, Chianti Colline Pisane, Chianti Montalbano and Chianti 
Rufina. Chianti Classico also produces some of the best-quality 
wines in this area, and is also the oldest defined area - it was 
delimited as far back as 1716. Wines labelled ‘riserva’ have been 
cask-aged for at least three years and will continue to mature 
and develop in the bottle, (pronounced ki anti) 

chiaretto 

Italian light red (pronounced keer etto) 




Chile 77 




Chile 

a South American country that is the tenth-largest wine-produ- 
cing country in the world and the fifth largest exporter of wine. 
The narrow 5,000 kilometre-long strip of land that is Chile is 
ideal for growing grapes for wine. Everything conspires in its 
favour: the climate, the volcanic soil and the unusual fact that 
Chilean vines have never been infected with the phylloxera root 
aphid and so have some of the only vineyards growing original 
rootstocks rather than vines produced by the more usual graft- 
ing process onto phylloxera-resistant rootstock that is required 
in other parts of the world. Vines have been grown in Chile since 
Spanish settlers arrived in the middle of the 16th century, but the 
modern Chilean wine industry grew out of the travels of the 
Chilean well-to-do, who, enjoying the fine wines of Europe, 
brought home new vines to make better wine than that made 
predominantly from the Pais grape. Foreign winemakers were 
brought in, early examples of the modern flying winemakers. 
Chilean wine flourished, especially as the rest of the winemaking 




78 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

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world suffered the twin scourges of phylloxera and mildew. In 
more recent times resistance to Chilean wine was created by a 
dislike of the prevailing political situation, but the resolution of 
this situation in the 1980s encouraged further growth and 
investment. Modern winemaking technology was introduced 
and Chile's wine exports soared. Chilean wines are notable 
for their clean, fruity varietal nature. Cabernet Sauvignon is 
the most successful variety, but Chilean Merlots, Pinot Noirs 
and Syrahs also do well. Chardonnay and Sauvignon from the 
Casablanca area are particularly notable. The majority of 
Chile’s wine production takes place from Aconcagua, north 
of Santiago, to Maule, where the majority of Chile’s bulk wines 
are produced. The Casablanca, Maipo and Rapel areas provide 
good quality wines from cool-climate vineyards. 

Chinon AOC 

France an appellation in the Loire region of France that grows 
mostly the Cabernet Franc grape variety to produce a light, 
fruity red wine as well as smaller amounts of rose and grows 
Chenin Blanc grapes to produce white wines (pronounced shee 
noN) 

Chiroubles AOC 

France a small cru (village and surrounding area) in the Beau- 
jolais region of France producing from the Gamay grape variety 
a high-quality red wine which is very light even by Beaujolais 
standards (pronounced shi robbls) 

2 chocolate 

(tasting term) an aroma associated particularly with red wines 
made from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes 

Chorey-les-Beaune AOC 

France an appellation in the Burgundy region of France that 
grows mostly Pinot Noir grapes to produce good-quality red 
wines without cru status (pronounced shaw ray lay bon) 

Cigales 

Spain a wine-growing zone in northern Spain that grows mainly 
Tempranillo and Grenache (Garnacha) grapes to produce rose 
and red wines (pronounced thee gaa less) 

2 cigar box 

(tasting term) a cedarwood aroma on some wines, notably red 
wines made with Cabernet Sauvignon grapes 




. »V ',V<W •,'SIV*‘ ■,¥, 



Clairette de Die AOC 79 

’A‘ ■¥V»V '¥V »V '¥VA‘ VVr 



Cinqueterre DOC 

Italy a DOC area on the Ligurian coast in northwestern Italy 
that grows mostly Bosco and Albarola grape varieties to make 
small quantities of good-quality wine as well as ordinary table 
wines {pronounced ch6ng kway te ray) 

cinquieme cru 

French used in the classification of 1855 to signify the lowest 
category of crus classes in the Medoc district, (pronounced saN 
kyem kroo, literally ‘fifth growth’, plural cinquiemes crus) 
See also classification of 1855 

0 Cinsault 

a red grape variety most commonly grown in southern France 
(Provence and the Midi areas) and also in South Africa, 
producing a very light wine that is often blended with other 
wines. It is one of the grapes allowed in Chateauneuf-du-Pape 
wines. South African wine-growers crossed this grape, known 
locally as Flermitage, with Pinot Noir to produce the Pinotage 
variety, {pronounced saN so) 

Also called Espagne; Malaga; Prunella 

Ciro DOC 

Italy a DOC area in Calabria in southern Italy with a long 
history of wine production that goes back to the ancient Greeks. 
It grows mostly Gaglioppo, Trebbiano and Greco grapes to 
make red, rose and white wines, {pronounced chi r6) 

2 citrus, citric 

{tasting term ) used to describe the smell of lemon, lime or 
grapefruit in the bouquet and as an aftertaste of red or white 
wine 

CIVC abbreviation French Comite Interprofessionnel du Vin de 
Champagne 

0 Clairette Blanc, Clairette 

a white-wine grape variety grown in southern France, Australia 
and South Africa to produce wine that has high levels of alcohol 
and low acid levels and that tends to maderise ( pronounced klair 
ret blaaN) 

Clairette de Die AOC 

France an appellation in the Rhone region of France that is 
best-known for its sparkling white wines made from Muscat 




80 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

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or Clairette Blanc grapes and produced using the traditional 
methode champenoise {pronounced klair ret do dee) 

0 Clairette Ronde, Clairette Rose another name for Trebbiano 

( pronounced klair ret roNd or klair ret ro zay, used in France) 

0 Clare Riesling another name for Crouchen {used in Australia) 

5 claret 

an English term for a red wine produced in the Bordeaux region 
of France. Originally it referred to light red wines, but now it is 
often used as a generic label for a full-bodied red wine made in 
the style of the Bordeaux region. 

clarete 

Spanish used to describe light-red wine, {pronounced kla ray tay) 
See also Valdepenas DO 

claret jug 

a decanter with a handle and a lip for pouring the wine, without 
a stopper 

Clare Valley 

Australia a wine-producing region in South Australia, 140 km 
north of Adelaide, that produces very fine Rieslings as well as 
excellent Semillon white wines and excellent red wines made 
from the Syrah (Shiraz) and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties 

clarify 

to remove unwanted solid matter such as grape skins, pips and 
stalks together with yeast from wine as a stage in the wine- 
making process. The wine can be clarified at three points during 
the winemaking process: before fermentation, the grape juice 
(the must) can be clarified using a filter or by centrifugal force; 
during or after fermentation the wine can be racked; lastly, 
before bottling, the wine can be filtered or fined to produce a 
clear, bright liquid. 

J clarity 

{tasting term ) the condition of wine that has no dullness or 
cloudiness 

Clarksburg AVA 

USA a viticultural area in the Sacramento Delta of California 
that produces very good white wines from the Chenin Blanc 
grape variety 




classification of 1855 81 

tjfi? vVr- »fc‘ •.'SIVA' vVr- »V •,'SIV , A‘ vV-r A‘ VSVA 1 vVr- »fc‘ 'WrW vVr 

classed growth 

a literal translation of ‘cru classe’ 

See also classified growth 

classic 

( tasting term) used to describe wine that is characteristic of the 
region or grape variety 

Classic 

used on labels of German wine to indicate a dry white wine from 
a single region and made with a traditional grape variety of that 
region. 

Compare Selection 
classico 

used as a classification of wine from the smaller region of a 
DOC-classified wine-producing region in Italy that is divided up 
into smaller regions, with the oldest vines and tradition of 
winemaking and normally also the best wine. For example, 
the Bardolino Classico DOC area is a smaller area within the 
Bardolino DOC region, (pronounced klassiko) 

classification of 1855 

a widely influential system introduced in France in 1855 to 
identify which vineyards produced the best-quality wines, to 
allow the judges of the prestigious Paris Exhibition to select 
which wines should be exhibited. The classification system was 
only applied to two areas from the Bordeaux region, Medoc and 
Sauternes, with all other wine-producing regions in Bordeaux 
and the rest of France considered inferior. The classification 
originally included five levels for red wine and two levels for 
white wine; these levels were called crus classes (classed growths) 
and were ranked numerically with premier cru (first growth) as 
the best, then deuxieme cru, troisieme cru, quatrieme cru and 
finally cinquieme cru. Originally there were 60 chateaux in the 
entire classification and just four in the premier cru class of red 
wine; in 1973 Chateau Mouton-Rothschild was promoted to 
premier cru, making five. Only two of the originally classed red 
wines remain in the same hands. In the white-wine category, 
only 24 chateaux were included; the famous Chateau d'Yquem 
was placed in a class of its own, called premier grand cru classe. 
This classification system has been widely criticised, but it 
remains in place. Its oddities include the fact that the classifica- 
tion is linked to the ownership of the chateau, not the specific 




82 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ v¥r> »t‘ Wr- »t‘ ■***■ VSlVSS 1 •,'SlV A‘ ■***■ %Vr 

vineyard, so a vineyard can change ranking overnight if it is sold 
to a different chateau in a different class. 

classified growth 

a literal translation of ‘cru classe’ 

See also classed growth 

clay 

particles in soils smaller than two microns (0.002 mm) in 
diameter 

clay soil 

soil with more than 35% clay-size material. Clay soils are sticky 
when wet and can hold more water than most other types of soil. 
They lie wet in the winter, and are liable to become muddy under 
foot; they are slow to warm in springtime. In long periods of dry 
weather, clay soils become hard and wide cracks may form. 
They have poor workability. 

clean 

(; tasting term) used to describe a wine with a fresh taste that has 
no obvious defects or problems with its aroma, appearance or 
flavour. It does not necessarily mean a good-quality wine. 

Clear Lake AVA 

USA a large wine-producing region in California, north of Napa 
Valley 

climat 

French the particular combination of soil, aspect and climate of 
an individual vineyard site (pronounced klee maa) 

climate 

the general weather of a particular place 

climatic regions 

in California, USA, regions are categorised according to a 
system of measuring the amount of heat received from the 
sun during a growing season. The measurement is then used 
to help identify the suitability of the region for a particular type 
of grape and wine production. The units of heat from the sun are 
measured in ‘degree days’ on the Fahrenheit scale that allow the 
region to be classed into one of five regions: Region I has up to 
2,500 degree days of heat per year, Region II has between 2,501 
and 3,000 degree days of heat per year, Region III has between 
3,001 and 3,500 degree days of heat per year, Region IV has 




closed-top tank 83 

-»t‘ VVr-’»t‘ -fllV A‘ V¥r- »t‘ Wr-W VS6** 1 '&&& V¥r- »V %¥, »V %Vr 

between 3,501 and 4,000 degree days of heat per year and 
Region V has above 4,000 degree days of heat per year. Most 
wine production is found in areas in Regions I, II and III, but 
the optimum region varies according to the variety of grape. 

clonal selection 

selection for desirable improvements within an existing grape 
variety by assessing the yield, quality and other characteristics 
of plants grown from grafted cuttings of the original plant. 

Compare mass selection 

clone 

a vine propagated by grafting or budding from one original vine 
to produce a group of vines with a particularly desirable 
characteristic of the original vine, e.g. resistance to disease, a 
particular flavour, or adaptation to different climatic or geo- 
logical conditions. 

See also cross; hybrid 

clos 

French a vineyard in Burgundy. The term can only be used on a 
label if the vineyard produces and bottles the wine, (pronounced 
klo, literally ‘walled or enclosed vineyard', plural clos) 

Clos de Beze AOC see Chambertin Clos de Beze AOC 

Clos de la Roche AOC see Morey Saint-Denis (pronounced 
kl6 do la rosh) 

Clos de Tart AOC see Morey Saint-Denis ( pronounced klo 
do taar) 

Clos de Vougeot 

France a grand cru vineyard in the Cote de Nuits district of the 
Burgundy region of France that produces red wine from the 
Pinot Noir grape variety (pronounced klB do voo zh6) 

J closed 

(tasting term) used to describe a young, undeveloped wine that 
has not yet revealed its character, aroma or flavour but should 
develop with age. 

Compare dumb 

closed-top tank 

a fermentation tank that has a fitted lid that cannot be removed, 
although there are vents and doors to allow cleaning 




84 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ VVt-* Wr- »t‘ VVt-* »t‘ ',¥* 

Clos Saint Denis AOC see Morey Saint-Denis {pronounced 
kl6 saN da nee) 

Clos Sainte-Hune {pronounced klo saNt oon) see Trimbach 
J cloudy 

{tasting term) used to describe the appearance of wine that is the 
opposite of clear or brilliant and is due to a haze visible in the 
wine. In old wines this can be due to sediment being disturbed, 
but in younger wines it can be a sign of spoiling through 
unwanted fermentation or yeast protein remaining in the wine. 

Cloudy Bay 

New Zealand a vineyard in the province of Marlborough famous 
for its white wine made with the Sauvignon Blanc grape variety 

2 clove 

{tasting term) an aroma associated with red wines made from the 
Cabernet Sauvignon or Merlot grape varieties and with some 
southern Italian wines 

2 cloying 

{tasting term) used to describe a wine that is not very enjoyable 
because it is very sweet or sugary, unbalanced by acid, alcohol 
or intense flavour 

cluster 

a bunch of grapes 

C:N ratio 

the ratio between relative quantities of carbon and nitrogen in 
soils or organisms. Both carbon and nitrogen are needed in large 
quantities as plant nutrients, but if the balance between the two 
is not right problems will occur. If plant material with a high 
carbon content such as straw is added to soil, extra nitrogen 
must be added at the same time to maintain the balance. 

Full form carbon:nitrogen ratio 

co 2 see carbon dioxide 

Coal River 

Australia a wine-producing area north of Hobart on the Aus- 
tralian island of Tasmania 

2 coarse 

{tasting term) used to describe a rough or crude wine that has 
body but a harsh flavour and texture 




cold 85 

’»t‘ v¥r- »fc‘ •,'Vr'ft' •,¥,»V v¥r- »fc‘ ■¥V»t‘ •***■ vVr-’»t‘ v¥r- »fc‘ •,¥<> , A‘ vVr 

Codorniu 

Spain a wine-producing company based in northeastern Spain 
that is one of the biggest producers of sparkling wines in the 
world, including its range of wines from the Cava DO area. It 
also owns the Rondel brand of sparkling wines and a number of 
vineyards producing good-quality still wines, (pronounced ko 
dawr nyoo) 

2 coffee, coffee beans 

(tasting term ) an aroma associated with oak-aged red wines 
made from the Pinot Noir or Carmenere grape varieties 

Cognac 

the finest and best-known of the brandies from the wine-produ- 
cing region in the Charente and Charente-Maritime departe- 
ments in western France, centred on the town of Cognac. 
Cognac is normally made from Trebbiano grapes. If the Cognac 
is labelled fine Champagne, most of the grapes will have been 
grown in the Champagne region. Once the grapes have fermen- 
ted, the liquid is double-distilled in a copper pot still as soon as 
possible, ideally during the winter. This ‘raw' Cognac is then 
oak-aged to soften it and enhance the aroma and taste for at 
least three years. The producer can control the style of the final 
product by such factors as the choice of grapes, the age of the 
oak barrels, the length of ageing and the use of legal additives 
such as caramel and sugar syrup. Cognac labels usually carry 
stars to suggest quality, but there is no official scale - more stars 
merely indicates a longer period of ageing than for the same 
wine with fewer stars. Labels can also carry the abbreviations 
VS (very superior), VSOP (very superior old pale) or VVSOP 
(very, very superior old pale). If the Cognac is labelled extra or 
reserve, it is the best quality from this producer. 

Colares DOC 

Portugal a tiny DOC wine-growing area northwest of Lisbon, 
Portugal, producing chiefly red wines. Its vines are planted on 
sand dunes on clifftops. Because of the sandy soils, the vines 
have never been attacked by phylloxera and grow on their own 
roots. As they must be planted deep in the clay below the sand, 
replanting involves a great effort that is decreasingly made. 
(pronounced ks laaresh) 
cold 

used to describe a wine that is served at such a low temperature 
that its aroma and flavour are hardly noticeable 




86 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

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cold climate 

a climate that is colder than that of a Region I climatic region 
(with less than 2,000 degree days of heat per year) or a winter 
that is so cold that vines suffer damage from freezing. 

Compare cool climate 

cold cream 

(; tasting term) an aroma associated with white wines made from 
the Gewurztraminer grape variety 

cold fermentation 

a method of fermenting grape juice into wine at a lower-than- 
normal temperature (around 13°C or 55°F). This helps conserve 
fruit and character in the wine. 

cold maceration see maceration 

cold stabilisation 

a process for clarifying wine by storing the wine at a low 
temperature (around 0°C) that causes tartrate and other un- 
wanted solids to precipitate into crystals 

cold-stabilised 

clarified by being stored at a low temperature (around 0°C) 

cold stable 

used to describe a wine that can be stored in a cold domestic 
refrigerator without forming a sediment or crystals 

Coldstream Hills 

Australia an estate in the Yarra Valley, Victoria, producing very 
good red and white wines from Pinot Noir and Chardonnay 
grapes respectively 

colheita 

Portuguese vintage ( pronounced kol yayts) 

Colli Albani DOC 

Italy a white-wine-producing DOC near Rome in Italy that 
grows Malvasia Nera and Trebbiano grape varieties to produce 
a range of styles of white wine, dry, sweet and sparkling. It is 
best-known as the local wine for the Pope's summer villa in the 
same area, (pronounced kolli al baani) 

Colli Fiorentini, Colline Pisane see Chianti DOCG (pro- 
nounced kolli fyawrsn teeni or ko lee nay pi saa nay) 




Compania Vinicola del Norte de Espana 87 

tX vVr- »fc‘ •.'SIVA' '.'yCX vVr-- »t‘ '¥V , A‘ ^SVA* '.Vr A‘ vVT>-»t‘ %Vr 

Collioure AOC 

France an appellation in the Languedoc region of southern 
France, growing mostly Grenache and Carignan grape varieties 
to produce dry, full-bodied red wine (pronounced kolli oor) 

Colli Senesi see Chianti DOCG (pronounced kolli so nayssi) 

0 Colombard 

a white-wine grape variety that is widely grown in California, 
USA and in France and South Africa, producing white wines 
with high acidity and good flavour. Some Colombard is also 
used in making Armagnac. (pronounced kollam baard) 

Also called French Colombard 

Colombo, Jean-Luc 

a well-known wine producer based in the Cornas AOC in the 
northern Rhone region of southern France 

colour 

I. the classification of a wine as red, white or rose 
2 2. (tasting term ) the hue and intensity of a wine. The colour of a 
wine changes with age, and red wines fade and turn brick-red 
while white wines darken to a rich amber colour. 

Columbia Valley AVA 

USA a viticultural area in eastern Washington State, USA, that 
includes the Yakima Valley and Walla Walla Valley AVAs 

Comite Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne 

an organisation that represents the grape-growers and Cham- 
pagne houses in the Champagne region of France. ( pronounced 
kommee tay aN tair pro fessi a nel doo vaN do shorn pannya) 
Abbreviation CIVC 

A Commandaria 

a dessert wine made in Cyprus from partially dried grapes 
(pronounced komman daaria) 

commodity wine 

a relatively inexpensive wine bought for its general style along 
with other provisions for everyday consumption 

commune 

a small administrative area with a village or town and vineyards 

Compania Vinicola del Norte de Espana see Cune (pro- 
nounced kompa nyee a vini kola del nawr tay day es pannya) 




88 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»t‘ '»¥fW VWiV VVr-’»t‘ V¥,»V '¥V »t‘ %Vr 



2 complete 

(tasting term ) used to describe a mature wine that provides good 
follow-through and aftertaste 

2 complex 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that has many aspects of 
flavour and aroma all perfectly balanced with the correct 
combination of acid, alcohol and tannin 

compound bud 

a bud that appears at each node along a vine shoot and contains 
three separate semi-developed shoots. The middle one grows 
first, the outside two shoots only growing if the primary bud is 
damaged. 

Comtes de Champagne see Taittinger 
concentrate same as grape concentrate 
2 concentrated 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine with an intense, especially 
fruity flavour or aroma 

Concha y Toro 

Chile one of the oldest wineries in the central valley of Chile. The 
vineyards cover a large area and grow classic French grape 
varieties including Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Mer- 
lot to produce a range of red and white wines. It has the 
distinction of being one of the most popular brands of wine 
imported into the USA. (pronounced konchs ee tawro) 

See also A Winemaker’s View 

0 Concord 

a red-wine grape variety that is native to the USA but is only 
rarely used for producing wine 

Condado de Huelva DO 

Spain a DOC wine-producing area in Andalucia, southern 
Spain, between Jerez and the border with Portugal. It produces 
mainly fortified wines for local consumption, (pronounced kon 
daado day hwelvs) 

Condrieu AOC 

France an appellation in the Rhone region of France that grows 
the Viognier grape variety to produce good and expensive 
intense dry, flowery white wines (pronounced koNdree 5) 

congener 

a complex organic molecule that develops in wine and spirits 




cooked 89 

■J>‘ VVr* VVr-’»t‘ VVr.* V¥r- »t‘ 'JSlV* 1 •***■ •,¥,»V V¥r- »t‘ 'JSlV* 1 %Vr 

during the fermentation and ageing processes, thought to be 
implicated in causing hangovers 

Cono Sur 

Chile a winery in Chile with an extensive range of vineyards in 
many of the valleys of Chile, producing a wide range of red and 
white wines from Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir and 
Gewurztraminer grape varieties (pronounced konno soor) 

Constantia 

South Africa a wine-producing region on the eastern slopes of 
Table Mountain in Cape Province, South Africa, producing 
superb Sauvignon Blanc and Semilion wines. It contains the 
famous estates Groot Constantia and Klein Constantia. Histori- 
cally Constantia produced sweet dessert wines that were consid- 
ered some of the finest in the world, (pronounced kon stanti a) 

consumption 

the amount of wine drunk on average by the population of an 
area or country 

Conterno, Aldo 

a famous wine producer in the Barolo region of Piedmont, Italy. 
His vineyards are in the Monteforte district of Barolo and 
produce a range of red and white wines, including a renowned 
single-vineyard Barolo made from the Nebbiolo grape, (pro- 
nounced kon tairno) 

continental climate 

a climate with greater extremes of heat in summer and cold in 
winter than a maritime climate, where seasonal temperatures are 
more even 

Controliran 

a strictly controlled category of quality wines under Bulgarian 
wine laws, equivalent to Appellation d'Origine Controlee 

Controlled Appellation of Origin 

an official category for sweet quality wines under Greek wine 
laws. These wines are sold with a blue seal over the cork. 
Abbreviation OPE 

cooked 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that has a sweet, burnt 
smell or flavour, usually owing to an excessively high tempera- 
ture during production or to an excess of sugar 




90 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V VVt-* •-'W A‘ VVr 

cooking wine 

a wine that is inferior to normal drinking wine and should only 
be used for cooking - however, the food would probably taste a 
lot better if cooked with wine that is good enough to drink! 

cool climate 

a climate that is cooler than that of a Region I climatic region 
and has less than 2,500 degree days of heat per year. 

Compare cold climate 

cooler 

1. a domestic appliance designed to chill wine 

2 . a piece of refrigerating machinery used in a winery to chill 
wine and grape must at various points during winemaking 

cooling sleeve 

a cylindrical covering for a bottle that can be chilled in a freezer 
or fridge and then placed over a bottle to chill it or keep it cool 

Coonawarra 

Australia a very important wine-producing region in the south- 
east of South Australia, noted especially for its red wines made 
with the Cabernet Sauvignon grape variety and for the ‘terra 
rossa’ soils on which the vines are grown. Coonawarra’s first 
vines were planted in the late 1 9th century, but it was only when 
Wynns and Penfolds bought land in the 1950s that it began to 
establish its reputation. 

See also Wynns Coonawarra Estate 

cooper 

a person who makes or repairs barrels, casks or wooden tanks 

cooperage 

containers used for ageing or storing wine, including barrels, 
casks and tanks 

cooperative 

a winery that is owned and run by a group of small-scale 
producers to help reduce the cost of equipment and marketing 
expenses. Without cooperatives it would be prohibitively ex- 
pensive for many thousands of small-scale producers to produce 
wine from their grapes. Cooperatives can also access European 
Union subsidies that the individual producer would not be 
eligible for. The French term for cooperative is ‘cave coopera- 
tive’, the German ‘Weingartnergenossenschaft’, the Italian ‘can- 
tina sociale’ and the Portuguese ‘adega cooperativa’. 




corkage 91 

»V v¥r- »fc‘ ■,'y r ’A‘ -SYr-W *’*■ -&SS3? v¥r- »t‘ •,'Vr'ft' •***■ vVr-’»t‘ -fllV A‘ v¥r- »fc‘ vV, »t‘ vVr 

Copertino DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC in Apulia in southeastern Italy that 
produces robust red wines primarily from the Negroamaro 
grape variety (pronounced ko pair teeno) 

copita 

a style of stemmed glass that narrows towards the top and is 
traditionally used to taste sherry (pronounced ko pe'eto) 

Corbieres AOC 

France one of the most highly regarded appellations of the 
Languedoc region of southern France that grows mostly Car- 
ignan and Syrah grape varieties to produce full-bodied red 
wines, made primarily by cooperatives. Smaller, individual 
producers can be worth searching out. (pronounced kawr byair) 

cordon 

a permanent, usually horizontal, branch of a vine from which 
the fruiting shoots grow 

Cordon Rouge 

a popular label of non-vintage Champagne produced by the 
Mumm Champagne house (pronounced kawr doN roozh) 

cordon training 

the training of vines so that fruiting shoots grow at intervals 
along a usually horizontal cordon allowing light and air to reach 
the developing grape clusters 

cork 

material used to seal the end of a bottle, traditionally made from 
a round plug cut from the bark of a cork oak. Newer plastic 
materials are more efficient and less likely to include faults that 
can lead to a corked wine but look and feel different and do not 
generally appeal to consumers. An alternative is to use a screw- 
cap, but, again, this does not appeal to consumers particularly 
of fine wine. Corks for still wines are cylindrical and fit into the 
neck of the bottle, but those for sparkling wines (popularly 
known as Champagne corks) are wider and driven into the neck 
of the bottle so that they develop a mushroom shape. Cham- 
pagne corks are usually twisted out by hand rather than pulled 
using a corkscrew. 

corkage 

a charge made by a restaurant if customers want to bring and 
drink their own wine 




92 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

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2 corked, corky 

(tasting term ) used to describe wine that has been spoiled by a 
faulty or contaminated cork, resulting in a musty smell and a 
wine that can range from the slightly unpleasant to the un- 
drinkable. This contamination is now thought to be largely 
caused by a chemical compound called trichloranisole (TCA), 
which is produced when microorganisms in the cork combine 
with chemicals used in the production process, e.g. the strong 
chlorine solution in which corks are usually bleached before 
use. Trichloranisole can be smelt even in minute quantities. 
Corked wine can also result if the cork does not provide an 
airtight seal or if the cork has a growth of mould on the base 
nearest the wine, when it will also smell musty. Faulty corks 
occur in new bottles of wine, but if a bottle of wine is stored 
upright for many years even a good cork can dry out and 
shrink slightly, breaking the airtight seal and leading to a 
corked wine. This is why wine should be stored horizontally 
or at an angle to ensure that the cork remains in contact with 
the wine and so does not dry out. 

cork oak 

a species of oak, Quercus suber , with a thick bark that can be 
stripped off without damaging the tree. The bark is used to 
make corks for wine bottles. 

Also called cork tree 

corkscrew 

a mechanical device used to remove the cork from the top of a 
bottle. A common model has a large screw or spiral that is 
twisted into the cork and then pulled out either using two lever 
handles or by another mechanical device. 

cork tree same as cork oak 

2 corky see corked 

Cornas AOC 

France a wine-producing appellation in the northern Rhone 
region of France that produces good-quality full-bodied red 
wine from Syrah grapes (pronounced kawr naa) 

corriente 

Spanish ordinary (pronounced kori en tay) 

See also vino corriente 




Costers del Segre DO 93 

* ■■’VWSfc' -.’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ VVr* •***■ vVr-’iSt‘ vVr* ',’VViiV '-Vr 

Corsica 

France a French island in the Mediterranean producing red, 
white and rose wines 

0 Cortese 

a white-wine grape variety mostly found in the Piedmont and 
Lombardy regions of Italy, producing a crisp, fruity and well- 
balanced wine (pronounced kawr tayzi) 

Corton AOC 

France a famous grand cru wine- producing district in the Cote de 
Beaune area of the Burgundy region of France, best-known for its 
red wines made from Pinot Noir and white wines from Chardon- 
nay, Pinot Blanc and Pinot Gris grapes ( pronounced kawr toN) 

Corton-Charlemagne AOC 

France a famous grand cru white-wine-producing district in the 
Cote de Beaune area of the Burgundy region of France, known for 
its very good and expensive full-bodied white wines made from 
Chardonnay grapes (pronounced kawr toN shaarls mannyo) 

0 Corvina 

a red-wine grape variety grown mostly in Italy and used in 
Valpolicella and other light, fruity wines from Italy (pronounced 
kawr veens) 

Cos d’Estournel, Chateau 

France a famous chateau in the Saint-Estephe AOC in Bor- 
deaux, graded deuxieme cru (second growth) in the classifica- 
tion of 1855. It produces the best wines of the appellation that 
are full-bodied, dark and tannic and that develop into wines that 
rival those from neighbouring Pauillac. They are made from 
Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and a tiny amount of Cabernet 
Franc grapes, (pronounced k6 dess toor nel) 

cosecha 

Spanish vintage (pronounced ko saychs) 

Cosme Palacio 

a well-known wine producer (bodega) in the Rioja DOCa region 
of Spain, producing good, dark red wines from the classic 
Tempranillo grape (pronounced kozmay paa lathyo) 

Costers del Segre DO 

Spain a small wine-producing area in Catalonia, northeastern 
Spain that is dominated by the Raimat estate (pronounced koss 
tairss del say gray) 




94 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

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Costieres du NTmes AOC 

France an appellation in the Languedoc region of southern 
France producing mostly red table wine from Carignan, Cin- 
sault and Grenache grapes {pronounced kosti air doo neem) 

0 Cot another name for Mai bee {pronounced kot) 

cote 

French a slope, especially a slope covered by vineyards. The term 
is usually used to describe a large region. In the Burgundy 
region, the Cote d'Or includes the Cote de Nuits in the north 
and Cote de Beaune in the south, {pronounced kot) 

Cote, La see La Cote 
Coteaux Champenois AOC 

France an appellation in the Champagne region of France that 
produces still red, white and rose wines {pronounced kotto shorn 
pen waa) 

Coteaux d’Aix-en-Provence AOC 

France an appellation near the city of Aix-en-Provence in 
southern France growing Cabernet Sauvignon, Cinsault, Gre- 
nache and Syrah grapes for red and rose wines and growing 
Clairette Blanc, Grenache Blanc and Sauvignon Blanc grapes 
for white wines {pronounced kotto deks aaN pro vaaNss) 

Coteaux d’Ancenis VDQS 

France a VDQS wine-producing area in the Loire region of 
France, growing Gamay and Cabernet Franc grapes for red and 
rose wines and Chenin Blanc and Malvasia grapes for white 
wines (pronounced kotto daaN say nee) 

Coteaux de la Mejanelle 

France a wine-producing area that is part of the Coteaux du 
Languedoc AOC, situated near Montpellier in southern France. 
It produces red wines from Cinsault, Mourvedre and Syrah grape 
varieties, white wines from a range of grape varieties and rose 
wines from Grenache grapes, {pronounced kotto do la mezho nel) 

Coteaux de I’Aubance AOC 

France an appellation in the centre of the Loire valley in France, 
growing Chenin Blanc grapes to produce white wine {pro- 
nounced kotto do lb baaNss) 

Coteaux de Layon AOC 

France an appellation in the Anjou area of the Loire region of 




Cote de Brouilly AOC 95 

»V v¥r- »fc‘ •***■ vVr-’»t‘ -fllV A‘ v¥r- »fc‘ ■JSIV * 1 •***■ vVr-’»t‘ -fllV A‘ v¥r- »fc‘ ■JSIV * 1 •,¥, 

France, growing Chenin Blanc grapes to produce sweet or 
medium sweet white wines ( pronounced kotto do lay yoN) 

Coteaux du Languedoc AOC 

France a large appellation in the Languedoc region of southern 
France, growing Carignan, Cinsault and Grenache grapes to 
produce red and rose wines (pronounced kotto do”o laaNgo dok) 

Coteaux du Loir AOC 

France a modest appellation in the Loire region of France, on 
the Loir (NB not the Loire) river that produces red, white and 
rose wines (pronounced kotto doo lwaar) 

Coteaux du Lyonnais AOC 

France an appellation in the south of the Burgundy region of 
France, growing Gamay grapes to produce red wines (pro- 
nounced kotto doo lee on nay) 

Cote Chalonnaise 

France a wine-producing area in the Saone-et-Loire departe- 
ment of the Burgundy region of France. It includes the Givry, 
Mercurey, Montagny and Rully AOCs. (pronounced k6t sha Ion 
nayz) 

Cote de Beaune 

France a famous wine-producing district in the south of the Cote 
d'Or area of the Burgundy region of France, taking its name 
from the town of Beaune. Beaune itself is the home of many 
well-known negotiants (wine merchants rather than growers), 
but they are prevented from dominating the wine trade by the 
fact that the surrounding area contains many of the grand cru 
and premier cru vineyards of Burgundy. The area grows mostly 
Pinot Noir grapes for red wine and Chardonnay grapes for its 
world-famous white wines from the grands crus of Montrachet. 
There is also a Cote de Beaune AOC that includes a few 
vineyards that are not classified with higher status, (pronounced 
k&t do bbn) 

Cote de Blaye AOC see Blaye AOC (pronounced kot do blay) 

Cote de Brouilly AOC 

France a small appellation in the Beaujolais region of France in 
the hills above the Brouilly AOC. It grows Gamay grapes to 
produce good-quality fruity red wine, (pronounced kbt do broo 
yee) 




96 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V v¥r> »t‘ V¥,»V Wr- »t‘ -?Vr'J>‘ '.Vf A‘ VVr-* %Vr 

Cote de Nuits 

France a famous wine-producing district in the north of the Cote 
d'Or area of the Burgundy region of France, containing many of 
the grand cru and premier cru vineyards of Burgundy. The area 
grows mostly Pinot Noir grapes for its world-famous red wines. 
( pronounced kbt do nwee) 

Cote des Blancs 

France the area of the Champagne region of France near 
Epernay, which is especially suited to Chardonnay grapes 
(pronounced kot day blaaN) 

Cote d’Or 

France a famous wine-producing area that dominates the high- 
quality wine produced in the Burgundy area of France. It is 
divided into two sections: Cote de Beaune in the south and Cote 
de Nuits in the north, (pronounced kot dawr) 

Cote Rotie AOC 

France an appellation in the very north of the Rhone region of 
France, producing very good-quality red wine from Syrah 
grapes, sometimes with a percentage of Viognier. The wines 
are full-bodied, age well and have a deep colour and rich 
flavour, (pronounced kot ro tee) 

Cotes d’Auvergne VDQS 

France a VDQS area in the Loire region of France producing 
light red wines made with Gamay and some Pinot Noir grapes. 
It also produces some rose wines and grows the Chardonnay 
grape variety for white wines, (pronounced kbt do vairn) 

Cotes d’Auxerre 

France a district of the Burgundy region of France producing 
good white wines from Chardonnay grapes (pronounced k6t dok 
sair) 

Cotes de Bergerac AOC 

France an appellation in the Bergerac region of western France 
whose wines have a higher minimum alcoholic strength than 
simple Bergerac AOC wines (pronounced kbt do bairzho rak) 

Cotes de Bourg 

France an appellation in the Bordeaux region of France on the 
right bank of the Dordogne river, centred on the town of Bourg. 
It produces mainly red wines from the Merlot grape variety. 
( pronounced kbt do boor) 




. »fc‘ '.’VWSV v’W»t‘ vW. »t‘ •,'SIV*‘ '.'SIWSV vVf 



Cotes du Rhone AOC 97 

SP VVT-’»t‘ %Vt> »t‘ V’W- , »t‘ ','SIWiV vVr 



Cotes de Castillon AOC 

France a large appellation in the Bordeaux region of France that 
produces mainly red wines with good structure from the Merlot 
and Cabernet Franc grape varieties (pronounced k&t do kass tee 
yoN) 

Cotes de la Malepere AOC 

France an appellation in the Aude departement in the western 
Languedoc-Roussillon region of southern France (pronounced 
k6t do la mal pair) 

Cotes de Meliton 

Greece an appellation in northeastern Greece that grows French 
and Greek grape varieties to produce red and white wines 
(pronounced kot do mellee toN) 

Cotes de Millau AOC 

France an appellation in the Tarn valley area of southwestern 
France producing red, white and rose wines (pronounced kot do 
mee yo) 

Cotes de Provence AOC 

France a vast appellation in the southern coastal Provence 
region of France, growing Cabernet Sauvignon, Cinsault and 
Grenache grapes to make mostly rose wines (pronounced k&t do 
pro vaaNss) 

Cotes du Forez 

France a wine-producing area in east-central France that pro- 
duces light red wines from the Gamay grape variety (pronounced 
k&t doo fo rez) 

Cotes du Luberon AOC 

France an appellation in the mountainous area of the Rhone 
region of France, growing Syrah and Grenache grape varieties 
for red wines and Clairette Blanc for white wines (pronounced 
k&t doo loo bay roN) 

Cotes du Rhone AOC 

France a large appellation in the Rhone valley in southern 
France that is second only to the Bordeaux AOC in the quantity 
of wine it produces within France. Most of the wine produced is 
red or rose using mainly the Grenache grape variety. The Cotes 
du Rhone-Villages AOC produces higher-quality red wines with 
a slightly higher level of alcohol than those from the bigger 
Cotes du Rhone AOC. (pronounced k&t doo r&n) 




98 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •>¥,» v¥,-»V ■¥V»t‘ vVr A‘ ■¥V»V vVt-* ■¥V»t‘ *■*' •,¥* 

Cotes du Roussillon AOC 

France an appellation in the Languedoc-Roussillon region of 
southern France that produces mostly red and rose wines from 
Carignan grapes. The Cotes du Roussillon-Villages AOC pro- 
duces better-quality red wines from the same grapes, but with a 
slightly higher alcohol content, (pronounced k6t doo roossi yoN) 

Cotes du Ventoux AOC 

France a large appellation in the southern Rhone region of 
France that produces mainly red wines from a blend of Gre- 
nache, Syrah, Cinsault and Carignan grapes (pronounced kbt 
doo vaaN too) 

Cotes du Vivarais AOC 

France a VDQS area in the Ardeche region of Provence, 
producing red wines from Grenache and Syrah grape varieties, 
rose wines from Grenache, Syrah and Cinsault and white wines 
from Clairette Blanc and Grenache Blanc (pronounced kbt doo 
vee vaa ray) 

coulure 

French the failure of flowers on a vine to develop into a full 
crop of grapes, normally caused by bad weather during bloom 
( pronounced koo loor) 

coupe 

(pronounced koop, literally ‘cut’) French 

1 . the process of blending wines to achieve the correct balance 

2. a glass of sparkling wine or Champagne 

courtier 

French a wine broker who acts between the growers and the 
negotiants (the companies who bottle and sell the finished 
wines) (pronounced koor tyay) 

crackling 

USA used to describe wine that is very slightly sparkling. 

Compare petillant 

cradle 

a device used to hold a bottle of wine horizontal while it is being 
decanted 

2 cranberry 

(tasting term) a taste or aroma associated with red wines made 
from the Sangiovese grape variety 




Croatina 99 

-»t‘ '.VViSV •.'SIVA' -.’w »t‘ *’*' -.’WiV '.VViSV •,'SIV’A‘ vy*. »t‘ vVT-’»t‘ •>’VV»V '.VViSV •.'SIVA ■>¥, 

cream see Montilla; sherry 
cream of tartar 

a natural chemical component of grape juice and wine, removed 
during the winemaking process. 

Also called potassium bitartrate 

cream sherry 

a very sweet type of sherry 

J creamy 

(i tasting term) used to describe a wine that has a rich taste and a 
soft mouthfeel, e.g. good Champagne 

cremant 

French used to describe a wine that is more sparkling than 
slightly sparkling (or petillant) wines, but not as sparkling as 
Champagne or mousseux-style sparkling wines (pronounced 
kray ma'aN, literally ‘creaming’) 

Cremant de Loire AOC 

France an appellation for good dry sparkling white wine made 
by the methode champenoise in the Anjou, Saumur and Tour- 
aine areas of the Loire region of France (pronounced kray ma'aN 
do lwaar) 

criadera 

Spanish any of the levels of wine below the final solera in the 
solera system of making sherry (pronounced kree a daira, 
literally ‘nursery’) 

crianza 

Spanish a wine that has been correctly aged according to DO 
specifications (pronounced kree antha, literally ‘breeding’) 

0 Criolla another name for Mission (pronounced kree olya) 

2 crisp 

(tasting term) used to describe white wine that is dry and 
refreshing to taste, normally because the acidity level has been 
well-judged by the winemaker 

Cristal see Louis Roederer 
0 Croatina 

a red-wine grape grown mostly in the Lombardy region of Italy 
to produce round, fruity red wines. Under the name Bonarda it 
is also now grown in Argentina, (pronounced kr6 a teens) 

Also called Bonarda 




100 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

!X •>¥,» •.’VWiV *■*' ■>’vwa.‘ v’WiV vVt-* vV, 1 *' vVr 



Croft 

one of the oldest port companies, founded in 1678, producing 
good tawny and ruby ports from its vineyards at Quinta da 
Roeda. A branch now also produces sherry in Jerez, and 
pioneered the pale cream style of sherry. Both enterprises are 
now part of the International Distillers and Vintners group. 

Croser, Brian 

a famous winemaker from South Australia, best-known for his 
Petaluma winery producing excellent white wines from Char- 
donnay and Riesling grapes 

cross 

1. see hybrid 

2 . to use two existing varieties or species to make a new variety 
with distinctive characteristics 

0 Crouchen 

a white-wine grape grown originally in France but now found 
mostly in Australia and South Africa. ( pronounced kroo shaan) 
Also called Cape Riesling; South African Riesling 

crown cap 

a metal cap that is clipped onto the open end of the neck of a 
bottle of sparkling wine in the bottle-fermentation phase of 
methode champenoise. The cap collects the unwanted yeast 
protein and other sediment that is then removed during dis- 
gorgement. 

crown graft 

a method of grafting in which a branch is cut across at right 
angles, slits are made in the bark around the edge of the stump, 
and shoots inserted into the slits 

Crozes-Hermitage AOC 

France a large appellation in the north of the Rhone region of 
France, growing Syrah grapes to produce red wines and growing 
Marsanne grapes for white wine, {pronounced krb zair mee 
taazh) 

See also Hermitage AOC 
cru 

French a particular style, source or quality of a wine. In France 
the term is used with a very specific meaning, particularly to 
class the quality and source of wine from Bordeaux AOC, 
Burgundy AOC and Champagne AOC. In these AOCs, the 




crusher-stemmer 101 

* ■■’VWSfc' VVr.’lSt‘ VVr-’lSt‘ •-Vr-* '-Vr* VVT- , lSt‘ V’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ '.’VVSV VVr* '-Vr 

term refers to a particular vineyard or estate that produced the 
wine; in Beaujolais AOC it refers to a village producing high- 
quality wine. Other countries use the term ‘cru’ but with a less 
strictly controlled meaning, indicating the top-quality wine from 
a producer. The oldest use of ‘cru’ is as a historical method of 
rating wine by the best wine-producing estates in an area, 
providing five categories of classification for red wines and 
two for white wines in a system developed as the classification 
of 1855. Other areas of France, e.g. the Burgundy AOC region, 
use ‘cru’ to refer to the actual land on which the vine grows; 
there are two levels: grand cru (one of the best wines of the area) 
and premier cru. In the Champagne AOC region ‘cru’ is used in 
a way similar to that of Burgundy but refers to the entire village 
rather than a particular plot of land, (pronounced kroo, literally 
‘growth’) 

cru bourgeois 

French a category of the best wines from estates in the Medoc 
district of Bordeaux in southwestern France that were excluded 
from the classification of 1855. It comes just below cru classe. 
( pronounced kroo boor zhwaa, plural crus bourgeois) 

cru classe (pronounced kroo kla say, plural crus classes) French 

1. a wine placed in one of the five classes of the best French 
wines used in the classification of 1855 

2. any exceptional wine from the Bordeaux region 

3. one of the best wines from a particular region of France, 
selected in schemes similar to the original classification of 1855. 
Also called classed growth; classified growth 

crush 

1. to release grape juice from the berries using a mechanical 
crusher. The stems may also be removed by the same process. 

2. USA the time in the autumn when grapes are picked and 
crushed in order to break open the skin to allow the juice to run 
out 

crusher 

a mechanical device that uses rollers to break open the skin of 
grapes to allow the juice to run out when pressed 

crusher-stemmer 

a mechanical device that removes the stems and leaves from 
picked bunches of grapes before crushing the berries 




102 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

tjfi? »t‘ •.’VV »t‘ *■*' vVt-* »t‘ ^Vr-. »t‘ ■¥V»V vVt-* -,Vr 

crush tank 

a tank that holds the crushed grapes 

crust 

a crystalline sediment that forms inside bottles containing red 
wine or port during long bottle-ageing 

crusted port see port 
cryoextraction 

a process of cooling picked grapes to a very low temperature. 
The temperature is carefully controlled and is just above the 
freezing point for the particular grape or ripeness level of the 
grapes. Any unripe grapes freeze solid before this point because 
they contain less sugar, leaving grapes of the required ripeness 
unfrozen and ready to be pressed. The process mimics the 
natural conditions for the production of ice wine. 

crystals 

harmless tartrates in crystalline form that are often present in 
white wine that has not been cold-stabilised, but sometimes also 
in reds that have been put into a refrigerator on a very hot day 

cultured yeast 

a pure culture of known strains of yeast that have been selected 
to ferment wine correctly and completely, without producing off 
flavours. Wild yeast strains would normally produce unwanted 
tastes or odours in the wine. 

Cune, CVNE 

Spain a long-established wine producer (bodega) in the Rioja 
DOCa region of northern Spain that produces consistently good 
red and white wines. 

Full form Compania Vinicola del Norte de Espana 
currant leaf 

(; tasting term) an aroma associated with young white wines made 
from the Sauvignon Blanc grape variety grown in a cool climate, 
e.g. in New Zealand, and also with red wines made from 
Cabernet Franc grapes in the Loire region of France 

cut 

to blend wine in order to balance it 

cutting 

a piece cut from a vine that grows into a new vine. These pieces 
are usually cut from dormant vines in the winter and propagated 
in the spring. 




Czech Republic 103 

» VVr* -.’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ •-Vr-* --Vr* ■.’Wit' •,Vr. , lSt‘ VVr-’lSt‘ VVr* ',Vr 

cuvaison 

French a period of time in the making of red wine when the 
grape juice is kept in contact with the grape skin and seeds 
( pronounced koo vay zoN) 

cuve 

French a wine tank or vat ( pronounced koov) 

cuvee 

French a particular blend of different wines to produce a 
consistent style, as used in making Champagne, (pronounced 
koo vay) 

See also vin de cuvee 

Cuvee Grand Siecle see Laurent Perrier ( pronounced koo 
vay graaN syeklo) 

cuvee personelle, cuvee reserve, cuvee speciale 

French used on French wine labels to imply a choice wine, but 
with no official status (pronounced koo vay pair so nel or koo 
vay ray zairv or koo vay spay syal) 

CVNE see Cune 

Cyprus 

a wine-producing island in the Mediterranean noted especially 
for its dessert wine Commandaria and formerly as a producer of 
cheap sherry-style wines 

Czech Republic 

a wine-producing country in Central Europe. Production cen- 
tres on two main regions, Bohemia and Moravia, both of which 
make mostly white wine. 

See map at Hungary 




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Th/s w/ne is too good for toast-drinking, my dear. You don’t want to mix 
emotions up with a wine like that. You lose the taste. 

Ernest Hemingway, 1926 



Dao DOC 

Portugal a DOC region of central Portugal, producing big, full- 
bodied red wines from a range of grapes, particularly Alfrocheiro 
Preto. Some dry white wines are also made, (pronounced dow) 

D’Arenberg see A Winemaker’s View 

dark chocolate 

(tasting term) the chocolate aroma found in some wines, notably 
red wines made from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes 

Darmagi see Gaja, Angelo 

Dashwood 

New Zealand a well-respected winery in the Awatere Valley area 
of New Zealand producing very good white wines from Sau- 
vignon Blanc and fruity red wines from Pinot Noir grape 
varieties 

Daumas Gassac see Mas de Daumas Gassac 
deacidification 

the process of reducing acid levels in grape juice or wine by any 
of a range of methods, e.g. cold stabilisation 

decant 

to pour wine carefully from a bottle into another container, 
separating it from any sediment at the bottom of the bottle. 
Decanting is particularly desirable for old wine and vintage 
port. Traditionally a candle or other light is placed under the 
neck of the bottle so that the person pouring can see when the 
sediment reaches the neck and can stop pouring. Wines without 
sediment can also be decanted to allow them to ‘breathe'. 

decanter 

a container, usually made from glass, with any of various 




de Malle, Chateau 105 

» vVr* ■.’Wit' ■***■ ->Vr» •,'SV , A‘ vVr* WrW Wr-W vVr-’iSt‘ vVr* ■JSIV * 1 vVr 

shapes, used to hold wine that has been decanted from a bottle 
before it is poured into a glass 

0 de Chaunac see Chaunac 

Declared Geographical Origin 

Bulgaria an officially defined geographical wine-producing area 
in Bulgaria. 

Abbreviation DGO 

J deep 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine with an intense colour or 
flavour 

See also depth 
degorgement 

French disgorgement {pronounced day gawrzh maaN) 

degree days 

a system of measuring the amount of heat received from the 
sun during a growing season in a particular region. This is then 
used to help identify the suitability of the region for a particular 
type of grape and wine production. The units of heat from the 
sun are measured in ‘degree days’ by obtaining the raw monthly 
average temperature in degrees C less 10 and multiplying the 
result by the number of days in that month, then adding 
together the sums for all seven months of the growing season. 
On the Fahrenheit scale, 50° is the equivalent starting tempera- 
ture. 

0 Delaware 

a hybrid grape variety grown in the eastern USA and used to 
produce still and sparkling wine 

2 delicate 

( tasting term) used to describe a fine wine that has a light and 
well-balanced quality with mild flavour and fragrance 

de luxe 

used on Champagne labels to indicate the best example of the 
house’s style 

de Malle, Chateau 

France an estate within the Sauternes AOC in Bordeaux, south- 
western France, graded deuxieme cru (second growth) in the 




106 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V v¥r> »t‘ VVi'-'A" vVt-* Wr- »t‘ -?Vr'J>‘ ■,¥,»V ■.’VWSV vVr 

classification of 1855. It produces sweet Sauternes wines from 
Semilion and Sauvignon Blanc grapes, (pronounced da mal) 

demijohn 

a large glass bottle or jug, sometimes enclosed inside a protective 
reed or wood wrapper, and usually containing 5 to 10 gallons 
(about 22 to 44 litres) 

demi-sec 

French used to describe a slightly or medium sweet sparkling 
wine, usually from the Champagne district (pronounced da mee 
sek, literally ‘half dry') 

Denmark 

Australia a wine-producing area in Western Australia, a sub- 
region of the Great Southern region 

Denominagao de Origem Controlada 

Portugal a classification system for the best-quality wines in 
Portugal, similar to the Appellation d'Origine Controlee in 
France. The DOC system covers 14 different regions in Portugal 
and provides rules for the types of grape grown, methods of 
production and yield within each area, (pronounced de nom- 
mino sow di ori zheN kontro la ado, plural Denomina^aos de 
Origem Controlada) 

Abbreviation DOC 

Denominacion de Origen 

Spain a classification system for the quality wines in Spain similar 
to the Appellation d'Origine Controlee in France. The DO 
system covers over 30 different regions in Spain and provides 
rules for the types of grape grown, methods of production and 
yield within each area. A higher-quality category, Denominacion 
de Origen Calificada (DOCa), has been introduced to discrimi- 
nate among the very large number of wines that fall into the 
Denominacion de Origen system, (pronounced de nommi nath 
yon do o reehen , plural Denominaciones de Origen) 
Abbreviation DO 

Denominacion de Origen Calificada 

Spain a classification system for the best-quality wines in Spain, 
above Denominacion de Origen (DO), that currently only has 
one region, Rioja, that meets its high standards, (pronounced 
de nommi nath yon do o reehen kaa lee fee kaado, plural 

Denominaciones de Origen Calificada) 

Abbreviation DOCa 




. »V vVr* •,'SIW*‘ •,'SIVA‘ 



deposit 107 

fc'vVr^vV^'-Vr 



Denominazione di Origine Controliata 

Italy a classification system for the quality wines in Italy, similar to 
the Appellation d'Origine Controlee in France. The DOC system 
covers over 250 different regions in Italy and provides rules for the 
types of grape grown, methods of production and yield, alcohol 
levels and ageing to be used. Further regulations cover the look 
and taste of the wine, including its colour and flavour within each 
area. A higher-quality category, Denominazione di Origine Con- 
trollata e Garantita (DOCG), helps define the very best wines in 
Italy, {pronounced de nommi naa tsyaw nay di o reeji nay kontro 
laats, plural Denominazioni di Origine Controliata) 
Abbreviation DOC 

Denominazione di Origine Controliata e Garantita 

Italy a classification system for the best-quality wines in Italy 
that uses rules similar to but more rigorous than those of the 
Denominazione di Origine Controliata (DOC) system. Fewer 
than a dozen regions meet these rules and can use a special seal 
on the capsule on the neck of the bottle, (pronounced de nommi 
naa tsy5 nay di o reeji nay kontro laato e gaaraan teet 3, plural 
Denominazioni di Origine Controliata e Garantita) 
Abbreviation DOCG 

dense 

(i tasting term) used to describe a young wine that has concen- 
trated aromas on the nose and palate 

densimeter 

a measuring device used to measure the specific gravity (density) of 
a liquid, comparing it to the density of pure water. This provides a 
measure of the sugar content of grape juice in the fermentation 
container. The instrument has a hollow cylindrical bulb with a lead 
weight in the bottom to make it float vertically and a number scale 
on the long stem that can be read as it floats in the liquid. 

Also called hydrometer 

departement 

French one of the 95 local administrations that make up France. 
Each has a number and influences the way local cooperatives 
market and sell their wines, (pronounced day paart maaN) 

deposit 

sediment that accumulates at the bottom of bottles of aged red 
and port wines. It does not mean the wine is spoiled, but that it 
should be decanted. 




108 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

!X •>¥,» vVt-* vWiV W,- »t‘ V’WiV VV-r A‘ VVr 



J depth 

1. ( tasting term) the quality of a wine that is full-bodied and 
releases a whole range of intense, complex flavours when tasted 

2. ( tasting term) the intensity of the colour of a wine. For red 
wines, the more intense the colour, the more body the wine has. 
See also deep 

dessert wine 

a sweet wine, sometimes fortified to higher alcohol content with 
brandy, traditionally served with dessert or as an after-dinner 
drink. Well-known dessert wines are port, sherry, sweet Ries- 
ling, Muscat, Madeira and Tokay. 

destemming 

a mechanical process before fermentation to remove the stems 
from the crushed must of grape skins, seeds and juice. The stems 
of bunches of grapes are very bitter and would change the taste 
of the wine if included. 

Deutscher Tafelwein 

German German table wine, the lowest class in the German wine 
classification system, (pronounced doytchs taaf’l v6n) 
Abbreviation DTW 

deuxieme cru 

French the second-best level of wines rated in the classification 
of 1855 that listed 15 estates from the Medoc district of 
Bordeaux in southwestern France, (pronounced dozyem kroo, 
literally ‘second growth’, plural deuxiemes crus) 

See also classification of 1855 

deuxieme taille see taille (pronounced dozyem t7) 

2 developed 

(tasting term) used to describe the maturity of a wine, indicating 
how close it is to being ready to drink. Underdeveloped wine 
needs to be aged longer before it is ready to drink; overdeve- 
loped wine has aged for too long and is no longer at its prime; 
well-developed wines are perfectly matured and ready to drink. 

Dezaley 

Switzerland a well-known wine-producing region in the Vaud 
canton of Switzerland, growing mostly Chasselas grapes to 
produce steely white wines (pronounced day zaa lay) 

DGO abbreviation Bulgaria Declared Geographical Origin 




distillation 109 

* VVr* ■.’Wit' VVr-’lSt‘ VVr* 'JSlVSe 1 V’VWSt' ■-Vr- , lSt‘ VV^lSt' %Vr 

0 Diamond 

a hybrid grape variety grown in the USA and used to produce 
white wine 

0 Diana 

a hybrid grape variety grown in the eastern USA and used to 
produce white wine 

Die see Clairette de Die AOC 
2 diesel 

( tasting term ) an aroma associated with white wines made from 
the Riesling grape variety 

digestif 

French an alcoholic drink such as a Cognac or liqueur drunk after 
a meal, supposedly to aid digestion (pronounced dee jess teef) 

dinky 

South Africa a small bottle of wine, usually containing 250 ml 

Dionysus 

the Greek god of wine and fertility. 

Compare Bacchus 

direct 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that has no hidden 
flavours and is defined immediately by its first taste 

2 dirty 

(tasting term) used to describe an unpleasant smell that can 
occur in a wine, including one caused by a bad barrel or cork, 
and normally a sign of poor winemaking 

disgorgement 

a step in the traditional methode champenoise of making 
sparkling wine in which the liquid and sediment in the neck 
of the bottle are frozen and the ice ‘plug' is removed. Extra wine 
is then added, in a process called dosage, to make up for the 
liquid lost in the ice removed, before the bottle is finally corked. 
Also ccdled degorgement 

distillate 

a product of distillation, e.g. a spirit 

distillation 

the process of boiling wine to turn the alcohol and volatile 
flavour-carrying substances into a steam vapour, which is then 
channelled and cooled along a tube to condense the steam into a 




1 10 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V Wr- »t‘ '.’VWSV VWiV W,. »V %Vr 

liquid that has high alcohol levels and the essential flavours of 
the wine. The resulting liquid is called a brandy and what is left 
of the original wine is thrown away. 

^ distinguished 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine of a very good character or 
quality 

DO abbreviation Spain Denominacion de Origen 
DOC abbreviation 

1. Italy Denominazione di Origine Controllata 

2. Portugal Denomina£ao de Origem Controlada 

DOCa abbreviation Spain Denominacion de Origen Calificada 

doce 

Portuguese sweet ( pronounced do say) 

DOCG abbreviation Italy Denominazione di Origine Control- 
lata e Garantita 

dolce 

Italian sweet (pronounced dol chay) 

0 Dolcetto 

an early-ripening red-wine grape variety widely grown in the 
Piedmont region of northwestern Italy to produce a soft, fruity 
wine that is normally a deep purple colour and is intended to be 
drunk when young. Producers of slow-maturing wines such as 
those made from the Nebbiolo grape often also grow Dolcetto 
to get a quicker financial return, (pronounced dol chetto) 

Dolcetto d’Alba DOC 

Italy a DOC zone in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy 
growing mostly the Dolcetto grape (pronounced dol chetto 
dalbs) 

domaine 

French a wine-growing estate, which can have either adjacent or 
scattered vineyards. The term is mostly used in the Burgundy 
region of France, (pronounced do men, literally ‘estate') 

Domaine B. Chave 

France an estate in the Rhone valley region of France, pro- 
ducing good-quality Crozes-Hermitage and Hermitage wines 
(pronounced do men bay shaav) 




Dom Perignon 1 1 1 

-»t‘ v¥r- »t‘ •,'SIV , A‘ vVr* -fllWSV VS6** 1 VSV3S 1 vVr- »fc‘ ■,’W»V -,V, 

Domaine Clape 

France a well-respected vineyard based in Cornas in the Rhone 
region of France, producing very good red wines from Syrah 
grapes {pronounced do men klap) 

Domaine de Chevalier 

France a leading chateau in the Graves district of the Bordeaux 
region of France, producing good red and white wines (pro- 
nounced do men do sho val yay) 

Domaine du Vieux Telegraphe 

France a vineyard in the Chateauneuf-du-Pape AOC area of the 
southern Rhone valley in France, producing very good red 
wines with intense flavours and the ability to age well (pro- 
nounced do men doo vyo taylay graaf) 

Domaine Etienne Guigal 

France one of the leading winemaking companies in the Rhone 
valley region of France, producing high quality Cote-Rotie, 
Crozes-FIermitage and Flermitage wines from its various vine- 
yards (pronounced do men ay tyen gee gal) 

Domaine Leroy 

France a wine-producing estate in the Cote d'Or area of the 
Burgundy region of France, producing good-quality red and 
white wines ( pronounced do men la rwaa) 

Domane 

German a wine-producing estate, usually one owned either by 
the state or by a member of the former nobility (pronounced do 
mayna, plural Domanen) 

Domecq 

a famous sherry producer with vineyards in the Jerez Superior 
area of southern Spain. It also produces brandy. The firm was 
family owned until the mid-1990s when it became part of the 
global Allied Domecq business, (pronounced do mek) 

A Dom Perignon 

( pronounced dom perri nyoN) 

I. a Benedictine monk, called the ‘father of Champagne’, who 
was a cellar-master at the Benedictine Abbey of Hautvillers in 
France in the late 1600s. Dom Perignon is said to have been the 
first to accidentally trap the carbon dioxide created in the 
secondary fermentation of still table wine to create sparkling 
wine, though there is little historical evidence to confirm this. 




112 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V VV,.* VVf’.f Wr- »t‘ ■***■ VV,-* VVf’.f Wr- »V %Vr 

2. a famous premium Champagne brand produced by Moet et 
Chandon 

0 Doradiilo 

a grape variety, originally Spanish, that was once widely grown 
in Australia for distillation and dessert wines but is now very 
much rarer (pronounced dors deelyo) 

dorado 

Spanish gold 

See also Rueda DOC 

0 Dornfelder 

a hybrid red grape bred in Germany in the 1950s and grown 
there for simple red wines (pronounced dawrn feldsr) 

dosage 

1. a mixture of sugar, water or wine, and yeast added to still 
white wine just before bottling to start secondary fermentation 
and produce sparkling wine. Dosage is used as a means of 
controlling the sweetness of the finished wine and is often the 
way of producing different styles of sparkling wine from brut 
(very dry, with no added sugar in the dosage) to doux (sweet, 
with added sugar in the dosage). 

Also called dosage de tirage; liqueur de tirage; liqueur d’ex- 
pedition 

2 . the process of adding a small quantity of extra wine to each 
bottle of Champagne after disgorgement to make up for the 
liquid lost, before the bottles are closed 

dosage de tirage 

French same as dosage I (pronounced do saazh do tee raazh, 
plural dosages de tirage) 

dose 

an additional ingredient such as syrup added to wine to fortify it 

double magnum 

a bottle that can hold three litres, equivalent to four standard 
750 ml bottles 

Douro DOC 

Portugal a wine- and port-producing region of central and 
northern Portugal that produces some of Portugal’s best wines 
from a wide range of grape varieties (pronounced dooro) 




ASP Wr* ■***■ ■***■ •,'SV-*‘ vVr* •,V,> , *‘ vVr- , <Jt‘ ■***■ 'JSlV* 



dry 113 

SMfcSiSfe’SfeSiSfe 



doux 

French sweet. On a label, usually of sparkling wine, this in- 
dicates very sweet wine, {pronounced doo) 

See also vin doux naturel 

Dow 

one of the top port-producing companies, producing very good 
vintage port as well as a good single-quinta port and white, ruby 
and tawny ports. The company is owned by the Symington 
family, which also owns Warre, Graham and Smith Woodhouse 
port producers. 

downy mildew 

a disease caused by the fungus Plasmopara viticola that affects 
vines and rots their leaves and stems. 

See also powdery mildew 

drain hopper 

a special crush tank fitted with a filter and valve that can be 
opened to allow juice from the freshly crushed grape must to 
drain out. When producing white wine the winemaker does not 
want the juice to be in contact with the seeds and other solids, so 
the juice is drained off. When making red wine the valve is 
closed to allow the juice to macerate and take on the colour and 
flavour of seeds and skins. 

dregs 

small solid particles found in wine that sink to the bottom of a 
container 

2 dried out 

{tasting term) used to describe a wine that is no longer balanced 
and has lost its original fruity taste, normally giving way to 
dominant tastes of acid and tannin 

Drouhin, Joseph 

a famous negotiant of Beaune in the Burgundy region of 
France, producing a range of excellent Chablis white wines 
( pronounced droo aN) 

Drumborg 

Australia a cool winemaking area within the Henty wine region 
of southwestern Victoria 

2 dr y 

{tasting term ) used to describe a wine in which the sugars have 
been almost totally fermented, producing a wine that has no 




1 14 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ '»¥,.’*■ Wr- »t‘ ■***■ VVf’.f Wr- »t‘ %Vr 

noticeable sweetness. A dry wine is commonly defined as one 
containing less than about 0.5% residual sugar. 

See also bone dry; medium dry 

Dry Creek Valley 

USA a wine-growing area in the Sonoma Valley, California that 
is noted especially for its red wines made from the Zinfandel 
grape variety. It also grows Cabernet Sauvignon grapes for red 
wines and Sauvignon Blanc for white wines. 

dry-grown 

used to describe vines watered only by natural rainfall in an area 
where irrigation is usual. It is commonly believed that irrigation 
reduces quality, but lack of water can also stress the vines. 

2 dryness 

( tasting term ) the absence of any sugar that could ferment, as in 
a dry wine 

DTW abbreviation German Deutscher Tafelwein 

Duboeuf, Georges 

a prominent maker of Beaujolais and Maconnais wine in France 
( pronounced doo bof) 

dulce 

Spanish sweet {pronounced dool thay) 

2 dull 

{tasting term ) used to describe a wine that is drinkable but 
uninteresting 

2 dumb 

{tasting term) used to describe a wine that is too young or possibly 
served too cold to show any flavour or bouquet. The term is 
normally used for red wine that could improve with ageing. 
Compare closed 

0 Duras 

a minor grape variety grown in the Gaillac AOC in south- 
western France to produce full-bodied red wines {pronounced 
doo raa) 

Durbanville 

South Africa a wine-producing region northeast of Cape Town, 
South Africa, growing especially Sauvignon Blanc grapes to 
produce white wines 




SSP Wr* '.’VVSV VVr- , A‘ VVr-’iA‘ 



d’Yquem, Chateau 115 

*’*■ VSIV* 1 v¥r- »V ',’VViiV VVr 



0 Durif 

a red-wine grape variety, bred in the 1880s and originally, but 
now rarely, grown in southern France. It is also found in 
northeastern Victoria, Australia and in California, USA. It is 
sometimes identified with the Petite Syrah grape, (pronounced 
doo reef) 

2 dusty 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that gives the impression 
of containing sediment or grit or that has a smell of a dusty 
room 

du Tertre, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Margaux AOC in the Medoc area of 
Bordeaux in southwestern France, graded cinquieme cru (fifth 
growth) in the classification of 1855 and producing good quality 
red wine from Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot grape varieties 
(pronounced doo tairtrs) 

duty see excise duty 

d’Yquem, Chateau 

France a famous estate in the Sauternes region of Bordeaux, 
southwestern France, producing some of the best sweet white 
wines in the world. In the classification of 1855 this estate was 
considered so good that it was placed in a class of its own, 
premier grand cru classe. (pronounced dee kern) 




£ 

-»t‘ »t‘ W,- »t‘ VSVSSS 1 VVt-* *’*' vVf'A 1 v¥, »fc‘ vVr- »V VSIM* 1 %Vr 

Friendships made o’er wine are slight; I Like it, they only act one night. 

Friedrich von Logau, 1654 



early harvest 

wine produced in a cooler-than-usual year when the grapes have 
not reached their expected ripeness. The wines produced are 
light and have high levels of acidity but do not age well. In 
Germany, these wines are labelled trocken or halbtrocken. 

J earthy 

1. ( tasting term) used to describe a simple, country wine that 
reminds the drinker of a rustic, country setting 

2. ( tasting term) used to describe a wine evocative of the pleasant 
smell of damp soil. If too pronounced, it turns unpleasant. In 
French it is termed ‘gout de terroir’ and is noticeable on red 
wines from Graves made from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes on 
the gravel-rich soil of the region. 

East India sherry same as amoroso 

eau de vie 

French any colourless alcoholic drink made from distilled fruit 
juice, e.g. brandy {pronounced o do vee, literally ‘water of life’, 
plural eaux de vie) 

ebulliometer 

a piece of equipment used in the laboratory to measure the 
alcohol content of a wine. It measures the exact boiling point of 
the wine, which can be compared with the boiling point of pure 
alcohol and water to determine the alcohol content of the wine. 

Echezeaux AOC 

France an important wine village in the Cote de Nuits district of 
the Burgundy region of France that produces famous red wines 
from the Pinot Noir grape variety (pronounced ay shay z6) 

Edelfaule 

German noble rot caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea (pro- 
nounced ayd’l foyls) 




Einzellage 117 

* VVr* '■’Wit' VVr' , lSt‘ VVr* 'JSlV * 1 V’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ ■***■ '-Vr 

A Edelzwicker 

an ordinary blended white wine from the Alsace region of 
France (pronounced ayd’l tsviks) 

Eden Valley 

Australia a cool-climate wine-producing region in South Aus- 
tralia, adjoining the Barossa Valley, that is famous for its white 
wines made from the Riesling grape variety. It also grows 
Chardonnay, Syrah (Shiraz) and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. 

Edna Valley AVA 

USA a wine-producing area in San Luis Obispo County, Ca- 
lifornia, known in particular for its white wines made from 
Chardonnay grapes 

Eger 

Hungary a wine-producing region in northeastern Hungary 
known especially for its robust red wine Egri Bikaver (Bull’s 
Blood) (pronounced eggsr) 

2 eggs see rotten eggs 
egg white 

albumin from an egg that is used in fining to clarify red wines 
after barrel-ageing to help remove excessive tannins 

egrappage 

French the removal of stems from bunches of grapes (pro- 
nounced ay gra paazh) 

3 Egri Bikaver 

Hungarian the Hungarian name for Bull’s Blood (pronounced 
eggri biks vair, literally ‘Eger Bull’s Blood') 

0 Ehrenfelser 

a white-wine grape variety, a hybrid of Riesling and Sylvaner, 
developed in Germany and mostly grown in Germany to 
produce wine similar to Riesling (pronounced airsn felzs) 

Einzellage 

German the smallest officially recognised unit in the German 
wine classification system, a vineyard that covers more than five 
hectares. The definition resulted in thousands of tiny vineyards 
combining to form a single Einzellage when this system was 
introduced in the 1970s. The next largest area in this system is 
a Grosslage, containing many Einzellagen, then a Bereich (a 




1 18 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V v¥r> VVf’.f Wr- »t‘ ■***■ VVf’.f Wr- »t‘ %Vr 

wine-producing area), then an Anbaugebiet (general region). 
(j pronounced 7nz’l laaga, literally ‘single vineyard') 

Eiswein 

a sweet wine made from grapes that are still frozen. The grapes 
are pressed before they are allowed to thaw, ensuring that any 
juice extracted is very concentrated with sugar and acid. Eiswein 
is the second-highest of the QmP categories of German wine 
classification and one of the categories of Pradikatswein in 
Austria, {pronounced 7ss v6n, plural Eisweine) 

Also ccdled ice wine 

Elba DOC 

Italy a DOC zone on the small island of Elba off the coast of 
Italy that grows Trebbiano grapes to produce white wine and 
Sangiovese to produce red wine 

0 Elbling 

a white-wine grape variety that is mostly grown in the Mosel 
region of Germany where it is often used to produce sparkling 
white wine, (pronounced elb ling) 

Also called Burger 

2 elderflower 

( tasting term ) a taste or aroma associated with white wines made 
from the Sauvignon Blanc grape variety 

j elegant 

(tasting term) used to describe a well-balanced wine of very high 
quality 

elevage 

French the time, care and attention given to good wine during its 
maturation (pronounced ay la vaazh, literally ‘bringing up') 

eleve en futs de chene 

French aged in oak barrels (pronounced ay la vay aaN foo da 
shen) 

eleveur 

French a person who buys new wine that has just been fermented 
and blends it and then bottles the wine to produce a finished 
wine (pronounced ayla vur) 

embotellado de origen 

Spanish produced and bottled at a winery from grapes grown in 




en primeur 1 19 

» vVr* ■■’WA' Wt-.'*' ->Vr» vVr* ■JSIV * 1 •***■ vVr' , iSt‘ vVr* ■JSIVSe' ’-Vr 

the winery’s own vineyards, (pronounced em bote lyaado day o 
ree hen) 

Compare estate bottled 
0 Emerald Riesling 

a white-wine grape variety developed in the USA and grown in 
California, USA to produce white wine 

Emilia-Romagna 

Italy a wine-producing region of north-central Italy, with Bo- 
logna as its capital city. This region is a gastronomic centre and 
produces both red and white wines from Sangiovese, Lambrus- 
co and Albana grapes, (pronounced ay meelys ro mannys) 

J empty 

(tasting term ) used to describe a wine without character. 
Compare hollow 

encapsulated yeast 

yeast absorbed into beads of calcium alginate, now sometimes 
used to eliminate the need for riddling in making sparkling wine 
according to the methode champenoise. The beads roll into the 
neck of the bottle and are easily removed during disgorgement, 
while not interfering with the secondary fermentation. 

0 Encruzado 

a Portuguese white grape variety grown especially in the Dao 
region to produce good white wine (pronounced en kroo zaado) 

J end-palate see palate 

England 

The English climate is not well-suited to viticulture. However, 
even at these high latitudes, some very successful still and 
sparkling wine is being made. The country has several hundred 
vineyards, predominantly in the southern counties of Essex, 
Hampshire, Hereford, Kent, Somerset, Suffolk and Sussex. 
M tiller- Thurgau is the predominant grape variety, and Seyval 
Blanc performs well. Other German varieties such as Huxelrebe 
and Schonburger are also used. The best wines are crisply acidic. 

enologist, enology, enophile 

US spelling of Penologist; oenology; oenophile 

en primeur 

French used to describe wine for sale before bottling, usually in 
the year following the vintage (pronounced aaN pree mur) 




120 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V vVt. »t‘ v¥,»V ■¥V»V ■¥V»t‘ '¥V »t‘ •***■ v’WiV ■¥V»V ■¥V»t‘ vVr 

en tirage 

French used to refer to the period of time a sparkling wine has 
rested in the bottle in contact with the yeast sediment from the 
secondary fermentation, (pronounced aaN tee raazh) 

See cdso tirage 

Entre-Deux-Mers AOC 

France a large appellation within the Bordeaux region of France 
that grows Muscadelle and Sauvignon Blanc grapes to produce 
crisp, dry white wine (pronounced aaNtrs do mair, literally 
‘between two seas’) 

enzyme 

a protein produced by yeast during fermentation that acts as a 
catalyst to start and control the chemical reactions to convert 
the sugar in the grape juice into alcohol. Enzymes are also 
responsible for reactions in almost all plant and animal tissue 
during metabolism. 

Epernay 

France a town considered to be the centre of the Champagne 
region of northeastern France. The city of Reims is much bigger, 
but Epernay is close to the vineyards. Moet et Chandon, 
Merrier, Perrier Jouet, Pol Roger and a number of lesser-known 
companies are based there, (pronounced ay pair nay) 

Epitrapezios Oenos 

Greek an official category for basic-quality Greek wine, below 
the category of Topikos Oenos (pronounced eppi tra pay zi oss 
eenoss) 

0 Erbaluce 

a white- wine grape variety mostly grown in the Piedmont region 
of Italy to make dry white wines or, when the grapes are dried, 
to make sweet white wines (pronounced air baa lob chay) 

Errazuriz 

Chile an internationally respected estate near Santiago, Chile, 
growing mostly Sauvignon Blanc and Cabernet Sauvignon 
grapes. Founded in 1870, Errazuriz was once the largest pri- 
vately owned vineyard in the world and is now overseen by 
Eduardo Chadwick, the fifth generation of his family to be 
involved in the wine business, (pronounced er ra soo reez) 

Erstes Gewachs 

German a new category of top-quality dry white wine from 




Est! Est! Est! di Montefiascone DOC 121 

-»t‘ •>¥,-■ »fc‘ v¥t. »t‘ •>¥,-■ »fc‘ •,'SIV’A‘ vVr-- »t‘ vVT-’»t‘ VSf^Se 1 •>¥,-■ »fc‘ •,'SIVA‘ •>¥, 

narrowly demarcated areas in the Rheingau region of Germany. 
( pronounced airstsss go veks, literally ‘first growth') 

Compare Grosses Gewachs 

Erzeugerabfiillung 

German bottled by the producer. The term is similar to ‘estate 
bottled', but it can also be used by cooperatives, {pronounced air 
tsoygs ab fool loong) 

Compare Gutsabfiillung; Originaiabfullung 
0 Espagne another name for Cinsault ( pronounced es pannys) 

espalier 

a way of training vines so that only shoots and branches on two 
opposite sides of the trunk are kept - any on the other sides of 
the trunk are cut off - and those remaining are tied horizontally 
to supporting wires. The vine appears two-dimensional, wide 
but with no depth. Maximum exposure of grape bunches to the 
sun is ensured and picking is easier, (pronounced e spallyur) 

0 Esparte another name for Mourvedre ( pronounced e spaart) 

espumante 

Portuguese sparkling (pronounced espoo man tay) 

espumoso 

Spanish sparkling (pronounced espoo mSsso) 

estate bottled 

used on a wine label to indicate that the wine was produced and 
bottled at the winery from grapes grown in the winery’s own 
vineyards. It generally refers to good-quality wine and its use is 
carefully monitored in Europe. 

ester 

an aromatic chemical compound produced by the chemical 
reaction between the acids and alcohol in wine that give the 
wine a fruity bouquet 

esterification 

the process of chemical reactions occurring between the acids 
and alcohol in wine to form esters, which give the wine a fruity 
bouquet 

Est! Est! Est! di Montefiascone DOC 

Italy an oddly named but famous DOC zone in the Latium 
region of Italy that grows mostly the Trebbiano grape to 




122 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •>¥,» *■*' '.Vt-* Wr- »t‘ ^Vr-. »t‘ VSVSSS 1 VVt-* VS6** 1 VVr 

produce light white wine. The story behind the name is that a 
bishop on his travels sent his servant ahead to taste the local 
wines on the route and write ‘Est’ (‘it is’) when he found good 
wines; when the servant reached a tavern in this region he found 
the wine so good that he wrote ‘Est! Est! Est!’ on the wall. 
( pronounced est est est dee mon tay fya sk6 nay) 

Estremadura 

Portugal a large wine-producing region north of Lisbon {pro- 
nounced e stray ma doors) 

estufagem 

Portuguese the distinctive method of making Madeira, in which 
wine is placed in a heated tank for at least three months. Fine 
Madeira wine is placed in wooden casks and stored in a heated 
room for years at a time. This gives the wine its distinctive burnt, 
caramelly flavour, {pronounced esh too faazhaN) 

Also called baking 

ethanol 

alcohol produced by the fermentation of sugar by a yeast 
catalyst. It is one of the main by-products of fermentation 
and is the main type of alcohol in wine. 

Also called ethyl alcohol 

ethyl acetate 

an aromatic chemical compound (an ester) that is present in all 
wine but if present in excessive quantities gives a fruity vinegar 
smell that spoils the wine 

ethyl alcohol same as ethanol 

2 eucalyptus 

{tasting term) a spicy bouquet of red wine, particularly those 
made from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes or from Central Victor- 
ian Shiraz 

evaporation 

loss of moisture from wine into the atmosphere, necessitating 
the regular topping up of barrels while the wine is maturing 
unless the wine is on ullage for a purpose, e.g. in sherry-making 

ex cellar, ex cellars 

awaiting the payment of necessary taxes before release. 
Compare bonded cellar 




• »fc‘ VVr* '&S3? '&&& VVr- »V •,'SlV*‘ Aft 



exuberant 123 

»t‘ VVr' , lSt‘ '-Vr-* VVr* VVt-* '-Vr 



excise duty 

a tax levied by a government on some items sold in a country. 
For example, in the UK there is excise duty on wine, beer and 
spirits. Excise duty on wine is payable once it is sold to a 
consumer, but if people buy wine to store and age, they can 
store the wine in a bonded cellar licensed by the government and 
only pay excise duty when the wine is removed from the cellar. 

extended maceration 

a period of time after primary fermentation when the new wine 
stays in contact with the grape skins and seeds. It only applies 
when making red wine, which takes colour and tannin from the 
skin and seeds during maceration. 

extra see Cognac 

extract 

the minerals and trace elements that are part of any wine and 
give the impression of richness or density of colour and texture. 
If you remove the basic elements of water, sugar, acid and 
alcohol what is left is the ‘extract’. 

extra dry 

1 . used on the labels of sparkling wines to indicate that the wine 
is slightly sweet, sweeter than wine labelled brut, and has around 
1-2% residual sugar. In French, the term is ‘extra sec’. 

2 . used on sherry labels to indicate that the sherry is very dry 

extra sec 

French extra dry 

Extremadura 

Spain a large wine-producing region in western Spain, between 
Castilla-La Mancha and Portugal (pronounced e stray ma 
dobra) 

exuberant 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that is lively and full of 
fruity tastes 




-»t‘ -StfSKf v’W’iV v¥, »fc‘ '.Vr A‘ StfSKf Wr- »t‘ ‘StfX '.Vr* St^X Wr- »t‘ %Vr 

Give me books, fruit, French wine and fine weather and a little music out 
of doors, played by somebody I do not know. 

John Keats, August 28, 1819 



0 Faber 

a hybrid white-wine grape variety, similar in style to Riesling, 
that is grown mostly in Germany ( pronounced faabsr) 

J faded 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine that has lost its character, 
colour or flavour as a result of old age 

Fahrenheit 

a scale of temperature in which the freezing and boiling points of 
water are 32° and 212°. To convert Fahrenheit temperatures to 
Celsius, subtract 32, multiply by 5 and divide by 9; so 68°F 
equals 20°C. As a quick rough estimate, subtract 30 and divide 
by two. 

Compare Celsius 
Falerno del Massico DOC 

Italy a DOC area in Campania, southwestern Italy, that pro- 
duces especially red wine from a blend of Aglianico, Piedirosso 
and Primitivo or Barbera grape varieties or from all Primitivo 
grapes. It also produces some white wine, (pronounced fa lairno 
del massiko) 

fan leaf 

a major virus disease of grapevines. Its main symptom is that 
part of the vine’s leaf becomes distorted and has the appearance 
of a fan. 

o farmyard 

(i tasting term ) used to describe a pleasant aroma of straw and 
farms associated with some fine red and white wines from the 
Burgundy region of France. 

Also called USA barnyard 

Far South West Australia see Henty 




Fer 125 

» VVr* ■.’Wit' -.VrW VVr' , lSt‘ VVr* 'JSlV * 1 V’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ VVr* VVT.'lSt‘ '-Vr 

2 fat 

(tasting term ) used to describe a wine that has a favourably high 
alcohol content, is low in acidity and offers a full-bodied, bold 
and rich flavour. When a wine has not enough acidity to balance 
the body, it is referred to as flabby, and if a wine does not quite 
reach the quality of a fat wine, it is termed plump. 

Compare flabby; plump 

Faugeres AOC 

France an appellation in the Languedoc region of southern 
France that grows mostly Carignan, Cinsault and Grenache 
grapes to produce full-bodied red wines. Like a number of areas 
of the Languedoc, however, use of the Carignan grape is in 
decline, being replaced by Syrah, Mourvedre and Grenache, and 
more up-to-date winemaking technology is being introduced. 
(pronounced fo zhair) 

2 fault 

(tasting term) a flaw in a wine that causes it to be atypical of the 
style of wine and impairs enjoyment 

Faustino Martinez 

a wine producer (bodega) in the Rioja DOCa region of Spain, 
best-known for its range of reserva and gran reserva red wines 
(under the Faustino label), together with a range of white and 
sparkling wines (pronounced fow steeno maar tee neth) 

2 feeble 

(tasting term) used to describe wine that lacks any notable 
qualities of aroma, body or flavour 

feher 

Hungarian white (pronounced fe hair) 

2 feminine 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that is soft and delicate, 
especially in comparison with other wines from the same region 
or grape 

0 Fendant another name for Chasselas (pronounced faaN daaN) 

0 Fer 

a red-wine grape variety grown in small quantities in parts of 
southwestern France and in Argentina where it is used to enhance 
the colour and aroma of red-wine blends, (pronounced fair) 
Also ccdled Fer Servadou 




126 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ *■*' ■,¥<■ »V Wt-’iSV vYr-- »t‘ ■¥V»V vVt-* -,Vr 

ferment 

a product of fermentation 

fermentation 

the chemical process during which the juice from grapes is 
turned into alcoholic wine. There are two stages of fermentation 
that can occur. The first stage, called primary or alcoholic 
fermentation, is the process in which the sugars within the 
grape juice are converted into alcohol by a catalytic reaction 
started and controlled by the enzymes in yeast. This first stage of 
fermentation stops either when the sugar has all been converted 
or when the alcoholic content is strong enough to kill off the 
enzymes in the yeast (over 15% alcohol per unit volume). The 
second stage, called malolactic fermentation, occurs when the 
malic acid in the wine is converted into a less astringent lactic 
acid with a by-product of carbon dioxide gas. Almost all red 
wines see both stages of fermentation, but producers of white 
wine often prevent malolactic fermentation to ensure that the 
wine tastes crisp and sharp. This second-stage fermentation is 
also avoided when the grapes are overripe and too sweet. 

fermentation container 

a container that holds grape juice during fermentation. Fer- 
mentation containers were originally wooden barrels and casks 
but are now usually stainless steel tanks that allow the tem- 
perature to be carefully controlled. 

Also called fermentor 

fermentation in bottle see bottle fermentation 

fermentation lock, fermentation trap 

a one-way valve in a fermentation container that allows carbon 
dioxide produced as a by-product of fermentation to escape, 
without allowing air, and so oxygen, to enter the container 

fermentation yeast 

pure strains of yeast that are used to start and control the 
fermentation process. Wild yeasts tend not to be as predictable 
and have largely been replaced with cultivated yeast strains. 

fermentazione 

Italian fermentation {pronounced fur men tatsi o nay) 

fermentazione naturale 

Italian the Charmat or bulk process {pronounced fur men tatsi 6 
nay nattoo raa lay) 




field budding, field grafting 127 

’»t‘ vVViSV •,'SIV’A‘ »t‘ *’*■ vVViSV vVT-’»t‘ vVr- »t‘ vVViSV •,'SIV , A‘ -,Vr 

fermented on the skins 

used to describe wine that has been fermented with the grape 
juice, grape skins and seeds in the same container. The solid 
matter is removed after fermentation. 

fermentor same as fermentation container 
0 Fernao Pires 

a Portuguese white-wine grape variety, grown throughout 
Portugal, {pronounced fair now piresh) 

Also called Maria Gomes 

0 Fer Servadou another name for Fer {pronounced fair sair va 
do 6) 

Fetzer 

USA an estate in Mendocino County, California, producing a 
wide range of good-quality wines from Cabernet Sauvignon, 
Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling, Zinfandel and Chardonnay grape 
varieties (pronounced fetssr) 

feuillette 

French a small wooden barrel of a type traditionally used in the 
Chablis region of France (pronounced fo yet) 

0 Fiano 

a Campanian grape variety used to make Fiano di Avellino 
white wine {pronounced fi aan5) 

Fiano di Avellino DOC 

Italy a DOC zone in the Campania region of Italy, growing the 
local Fiano grape variety to produce a good white wine (pro- 
nounced fi aano dee avs le'eno) 

field blend 

a wine produced from the grapes of a vineyard that has been 
planted with several different grape varieties that are harvested 
together 

field budding, field grafting 

a method of grafting grapevines in which the rootstock is 
planted and allowed to grow for a season. The graft is then 
made by fixing a small piece of the fruiting variety, which has 
just a single dormant bud on it, in a cut in the rootstock just 
above ground level. The graft is held in place with a rubber 
patch and earth is piled up over the graft to keep the bud 
dormant. The following season the original rootstock is cut off 




128 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ »t‘ vVi'-'A" *.»' vVt-* *’*■ VSVSSS 1 VVt-* Wr- »t‘ •,¥, 

just above the graft, ensuring that the dormant bud is the only 
bud available from which a shoot can grow. 

field selection same as mass selection 
fifth growth see cinquieme cru 

2 f'g 

{tasting term) an aroma associated with wines made from the 
Semilion grape variety or, in Australia, with Chardonnay 

fill level 

the level of wine in a bottle 

film yeast same as flor 
filter 

to strain out any solids in a wine and clarify it just before it is 
bottled. The solids are mostly yeast cells and sediment that 
could spoil the wine. 

filtration 

the process of removing solid matter or impurities from a wine 
by pouring the liquid through a very fine filter. It is quicker but 
more expensive than letting the wine settle naturally. Filtration, 
like fining, improves the colour of a wine and provides a clarity 
to the liquid; it is used particularly with white wines. The process 
also removes any unwanted bacteria and yeasts still present in 
the wine that might continue to ferment once the wine has been 
bottled. The drawback is that filtering can remove some of the 
taste and character of a wine and so it is avoided in fine wines. 
See also centrifuge filtration 
Compare fining 

fine 1 

to remove any solid particles left in wine after fermentation. 

See fining 

fine 2 

Italian the youngest of the categories of Marsala wine ( pro- 
nounced feenay, literally ‘fine’) 

See also Marsala DOC 

fine Champagne 

French a term printed on labels of Cognac brandy that indicates 
that the original wine, before it was distilled, was made from 
grapes grown in the Champagne region of France {pronounced 
feen shorn pannys) 




fino 129 

* ■■’VWSfc' VVr.’lSt‘ VVr-’lSt‘ •-Vr-* '-Vr* •,'SV , A‘ ■***■ VVr-’lSt‘ VVr* •,V,> , A‘ VVr 

finesse 

(tasting term) the well-balanced quality and elegant, subtle 
flavour and bouquet of very good wine 

fine wine 

high-quality wine, especially classic wine of classed growth or 
similar quality. The term has no official status. 

Finger Lakes AVA 

USA a wine region of New York State, eastern USA, that grows 
mostly native American grape varieties such as Catawba and 
Concord 

fining 

a method of removing solid matter or impurities from a wine by 
adding a substance to the top of the bottle or barrel and 
allowing it to sink down through the liquid, gathering the 
impurities as it sinks. The original substance used for this 
purpose was egg white, but fine clay called bentonite is now 
used as a more effective agent. Fining, like filtration, improves 
the colour of a wine and provides a clarity to the liquid. It also 
removes any unwanted bacteria and yeasts still present in the 
wine that might continue to ferment once the wine has been 
bottled. Fining is now avoided by most producers of fine wine. 
Compare filtration 

fining agent 

a substance used to clarify and purify wine, e.g. bentonite or egg 
white 

finish 

(; tasting term) the taste that lingers in your mouth after the wine 
has been swallowed. It is often the best indicator of the quality 
of a wine. The length of time the taste lingers can vary from a 
short to a long finish. 

finishing 

the final steps in wine production before bottling, including 
fining, blending and filtering 

fino 

a light-bodied dry sherry, normally the lightest and driest from 
an estate, that is very pale yellow in colour and often served cold 
as an aperitif. Fino is one of the two main types of sherry, the 
other being oloroso. (pronounced feeno) 

See sherry 




130 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

SJhf *■*' VVr-- »t‘ *■*' ■,¥<■ »V '¥VA‘ Wr- »t‘ VYr-- »t‘ VSVSSS 1 '¥WSfc‘ '¥VA‘ '¥V »V ',¥* 

fino amontillado see sherry (pronounced feeno 3 monti laado) 

2 firm 

( tasting term ) used to describe a wine in which the tannin or acid 
content is noticeable, but in a good way 

first growth see premier cru 
Fitou AOC 

France an appellation in the Languedoc region of southern 
France that grows mostly Carignan, Grenache and Mourvedre 
grapes to produce some of the best red wines in the region 
( pronounced feetoo) 

fixed acid 

a naturally occurring acid such as malic acid or tartaric acid within 
fruit. These acids help balance the wine, reacting with alcohol to 
produce aromatic esters and giving the wine its bouquet. 

fizz 

(informed) 

1 . sparkle or effervescence in a wine 

2 . sparkling wine 

2 flabby 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that has too little acidity 
and so does not have a well-defined taste. 

Compare fat; plump 

Flasche 

German a bottle (pronounced flashs, plural Flaschen) 

2 flat 

1 . (tasting term) used to describe a wine that has very low acid 
levels, so is out of balance and lacks any crispness or liveliness 
and flavour 

2. (tasting term) used to describe a sparkling wine that has lost 
its effervescence 

flavescence doree 

a disease that causes yellowing and then kills grapevines which is 
transmitted by an insect and by grafting (pronounced fla ve 
saaNss do ray) 

2 flavour 

(tasting term) the way a wine tastes, or one of the ways in which 
a wine tastes, a complex interaction between grapes, soil, viti- 
cultural techniques and chemical processes 




floraison 131 

* ■.’Wit' ■.’Wit' •***■ ->Vr» vVr* ■JSIV * 1 •***■ WrW •,'*VA‘ vVr* ■JSIV * 1 '-Vr 

J flavoursome 

( tasting term) used to describe a red or white wine with a 
pleasant, full flavour 

2 fleshy 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine with a high alcohol content 
and a low tannin content, giving it a full but smooth body and 
smooth texture. 

Compare lean 

Fleurie AOC 

France a small cru (village and surrounding area) in the Beau- 
jolais area of the Burgundy region of France that grows Gamay 
grapes to produce fruity red wine which should be drunk young 
( pronounced fluree) 

flier 

a tiny particle that sometimes appears in wine that is stored in a 
very cold environment. These particles disappear when the wine 
warms up. 

flight 

a group of wines considered together in a tasting 

2 flinty 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine that has a dry, mineral 
character. It is often used to describe white wines from the 
Chablis region of France. 

Compare stony 

Floe de Gascogne 

a blend of Armagnac and white wine served chilled as an aperitif 
rather in the manner of Pineau des Charentes ( pronounced flok 
do gas konyo) 

flor 

Spanish yeast that is sometimes seen floating and growing on the 
surface of wine during fermentation. It is most commonly 
associated with sherry production or with other wines fermented 
in barrels. The barrels are not filled, leaving enough air for the 
yeast to grow, {pronounced flawr, literally ‘flower’) 

Also called film yeast 

floraison 

the flowering period of grapevines ( pronounced flaw ray zoN) 




132 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •>¥,» •.’VWiV *■*' vVt-* •>¥,» VSV3S 1 vVt-* *■*' •,¥, 

2 floral, flowery 

(tasting term) used to describe white wines that have an aroma 
of fresh flowers, e.g. white Mosel wines 

floral abortion 

a disorder of some varieties of vine that causes many of the 
flowers to fail to develop properly, leading to a very reduced 
crop 

flowering 

the period when a grapevine flowers 

2 flowery see floral 
flute 

1. a tall, thin glass with a long stem, usually used to serve 
Champagne 

2 . a tall, thin bottle used in different countries and regions, e.g. 
in parts of Germany and France 

flying winemakers 

Australian winemakers, usually young and technically trained, 
who take their expertise to Europe and South America to help 
modernise winemaking practices there 

foil 

a thin metal capsule covering the cork and top of the neck of a 
wine bottle 

0 Folle Blanche 

a white grape variety originally grown in the Cognac region of 
western France to make Cognac and Armagnac. It was affected 
by phylloxera and rot and is no longer much grown in these 
areas, although it is still grown in the Loire region, (pronounced 
fol blaaNsh) 

Also called Gros Plant 

0 Folle Noire 

a red-wine grape variety grown in Provence and adjoining 
regions of France (pronounced fol nwaar) 

fi Fondillon 

a high-alcohol sweet white wine made from the Monastrell 
grape variety using a solera system in the Alicante DO in 
southeastern Spain (pronounced fon dee lyon) 

Fonseca, Fonseca Guimaraens 

a famous producer of port (pronounced fon seks) 




frais 133 

* vVr* ■JSIVSe 1 ■***■ ->Vr’S>‘ vVr* vVt-* vV^ vVr' , iSt‘ •,¥,» vVr* •,¥f’A‘ ’,Vr 

2 food-friendly 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine that goes very well with 
food 

2 foodie 

( tasting term) a wine that goes very well with food 

2 fore-palate see palate 
Forez see Cotes du Forez 
fortified wine 

a wine that has had extra alcohol added to prevent further 
fermentation and to increase the alcohol content. Dessert wines 
with high levels of alcohol such as port, Madeira and sweet 
sherry are fortified with brandy during fermentation to stop the 
fermentation process while there is still sugar in the wine to give 
it sweetness. 

fortify 

to add alcohol, usually brandy, to wine to stop further fermen- 
tation and increase the alcohol content 

2 forward 

(i tasting term) used to describe a wine that gives an immediate 
impression of fruitiness, often because it has matured too early 

fourth growth see quatrieme cru 
0 fox grape 

a wild grape, Vitis labrusca, native to the eastern USA that has 
purplish fruit and is the source of many cultivated grape 
varieties 

2 foxiness 

{tasting term) the degree to which a taster can notice the foxy 
taste in a wine 

2 foxy 

{tasting term) used to describe the character of a wine, normally 
one made from a variety of the American fox grape, Vitis 
labrusca 

2 fragrant 

{tasting term) used to describe a wine that is aromatic and 
flowery 

frais 

French used on wine labels to indicate the wine should be served 
chilled ( pronounced fray, literally ‘cool’) 




134 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

tjfif ■.’SIVA' ',’SIV* 1 v'WU'.‘ ',’SIV3fc‘ VSV* 1 '.V, 




France 

the most important wine-producing country in the world. 
France leads the field both in wine production and in consump- 
tion of wine per capita. Consumption is, however, falling, 
although the French are drinking better-quality wines. France 
introduced the admittedly controversial method of classifying 
wines as crus classes in the classification of 1855 and developed a 
strictly controlled national Appellation d’Origine Controlee 
system to help define and regulate wine production in different 
areas of the country. The country makes a very diverse range of 
wine: very light rose wines in Provence in the south, an area 
which also produces full-bodied reds; predominantly white 
wines in the Loire and Alsace; and strong, classic red wines 
in the Bordeaux region that can age for tens of years. The classic 
wines of Bordeaux, Burgundy, the Rhone and Champagne have 
exerted influence on every winemaker and producer in the world 
and have set the standards to which all aspire. Flowever, in 
return, the success of the wines of New World producers in 
Australia and the USA has encouraged the more basic levels of 



Freisa 135 

5SV ■■’VWSfc' '.’Wit' ->Vr» ■&*'*' vVr* V’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ vVr* ■JSIV* 1 '-Vr 

the French wine industry to greatly improve vineyard and 
winemaking practices and the results can be seen in the vastly 
improved wines emerging from regions such as the Languedoc. 

Franciacorta DOC 

Italy a DOC area in the Lombardy region of Italy producing a 
well-known sparkling (spumante) white wine from Pinot Blanc 
(Pinot Bianco) and Chardonnay grapes using the methode 
champenoise. The area also produces good still white wines 
and some red. {pronounced franchs kawrts) 

Franconia 

the English name for the Franken region of Germany {pro- 
nounced frang koni a) 

Franken 

Germany an Anbaugebiet (quality wine-producing region) in the 
north of the Bavaria region of Germany that grows mostly white 
grape varieties such as Sylvaner, Riesling and Muller- Thurgau 
to produce dry white wines {pronounced frangkan) 

0 Franken Riesling another name for Sylvaner {pronounced 
frangkan reessling) 

Frankland River 

Australia a wine-producing area in Western Australia, a sub- 
region of the Great Southern region 

Frascati DOC 

Italy a DOC area in the Latium region of Italy near Rome that 
grows mostly Malvasia, Trebbiano and Greco grapes to pro- 
duce fruity white wine that ranges from dry to sweet {pronounced 
fra skaati) 

free-run 

used to describe red wine that has just fermented and is drawn 
off before it is pressed 

free-run juice 

juice that has come out of crushed grapes (the must) without any 
pressing 

0 Freisa 

a red-wine grape variety grown in the Piedmont region of 
northwestern Italy that produces a fruity light red wine with 
high acid content ( pronounced frayzs) 

Also called Fresa; Fresia 




136 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V '»¥,.’*■ VVf’A' Wr- »t‘ ■***■ VVf’.f *’*■ -,Vr 

Freixenet 

one of the biggest sparkling wine producers in the world, based 
near Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, with a range of good ordinary 
and vintage sparkling Cava wine (pronounced fray shen et) 

0 French Colombard another name for Colombard (pronounced 
french kollsm baar, used in the USA) 

French oak 

a type of oak traditionally used when making wine barrels. It 
imparts a flavour of vanilla and cedar to wine and is used to age 
white and red wines. 

French vermouth 

unsweetened vermouth 

0 Fresa another name for Freisa {pronounced frayzs) 

Frescobaldi 

Italy one of the oldest and most important winemaking com- 
panies in Italy with major vineyards around Florence in the 
Tuscany region and producing a wide range of very good wines 
( pronounced fresko baldi) 

J fresh 

(tasting term ) used to describe a young white wine, or light red 
wine, that has a level of acidity that provides a pleasant, clean 
palate 

0 Fresia another name for Freisa (pronounced frayzs) 

Friuli 

Italy a wine-producing area of northern Italy that includes the 
Grave del Friuli DOC (pronounced fri ooli) 

frizzante 

Indian lightly sparkling. The word is equivalent to ‘petillant’ in 
French and is used to describe sparkling wines made at a lower 
pressure than Champagne or spumante. (pronounced fri tsan 
tay) 

Fronsac AOC 

France a small appellation on the right bank of the Dordogne 
river in the Bordeaux region of western France that produces 
only red wines, mostly from Cabernet Franc grapes (pronounced 
froN sak) 




Fume Blanc 137 

»V VVr* V'VVjiV VVr-’»t‘ -.Vf’ A‘ V¥r- »V 'Xtr'*.' ■***■ -fllV A‘ V¥r- »t‘ VVr 

Frontignan 

( pronounced froNti nyaaN) 

1. another name for Muscat a Petits Grains 

2. see Muscat de Frontignan AOC 

J front palate see palate 
fructose 

one of the two main naturally occurring sugars in fruit, includ- 
ing grapes. It reacts during fermentation to form alcohol and 
esters that provide most of the body and flavour of wine. 

Compare glucose 

2 fruit 

(i tasting term) a fruity taste in wine 

2 fruit-driven 

( tasting term) used to describe the predominant taste of fruit in a 
red or white wine 

J fruity 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine with a pleasant bouquet, 
smell and taste of fruit. This bouquet is produced by the 
aromatic esters developed in a wine by chemical reactions 
between the acids and alcohol. 

Fiider 

German a large wine cask {pronounced foodsr, plural Fiider) 

2 full 

{tasting term) used to describe a wine with a round, rich flavour, 
normally as a good point, but sometimes implying that the wine 
is not elegant. When describing red wines, it normally refers to 
wine with higher levels of tannin and alcohol, e.g. Barolo or 
Chateauneuf-du-Pape wines. When describing white wines it 
normally refers to wines with high levels of alcohol or glycerol. 
Compare big 

2 full-bodied see body 

2 fulsome 

{tasting term) used to describe a wine that is full-bodied and 
fruity, sometimes a bit too much so 

0 Fume Blanc another name for Sauvignon Blanc {pronounced 
fob may blaaN) 




138 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

tjfi? v¥t> »t‘ »t‘ *■*' vVt-* flMSV vVt-* ■¥V»t‘ v¥,» vVr 

fumigation 

the process used to sterilise barrels by burning sulphur in a 
closed barrel. The burning sulphur forms sulphur dioxide, 
which kills any yeast or bacteria left in the barrel. 

fungus 

a microorganism such as a yeast, mushroom or mould. Some 
fungi cause plant diseases such as mildew. Yeasts react with 
sugar to form alcohol during fermentation. 

0 Furmint 

a white-wine grape variety grown in the Tokay region in north- 
eastern Hungary and used to make the well-known sweet dessert 
wine Tokay ( pronounced foor mint) 

fusel oil 

a mixture of higher alcohols and esters that are created during 
distillation of wine and provide most of the flavour of brandy 

fut 

French a barrel (pronounced foo) 

fut neuf 

French a new barrel, which adds to the flavour of the wine 
( pronounced fo“o nof, plural futs neufs) 




Q 

ASP ','SIVSfc‘ »V '¥V»V vVr- »t‘ v’W»(.‘ VW »V v¥-r Jfc‘ '¥V»V '¥VSfc‘ vVr- vVr 

Come, come ; good w/ne /s o good familiar creature if it be well used; 
exclaim no more against it. 

William Shakespeare, 1602 1604 



0 Gaglioppo 

a red grape variety with high sugar content and medium acidity 
best-known as the grape of the red wines produced in the Ciro 
DOC in the Calabria region of Italy (pronounced ga lyoppo) 

Gaia 

Greece a Greek wine producer with vineyards in the Nemea 
region of the northeastern Peloponnese in southern Greece and 
also on the island of Santorini (pronounced g7 a) 

Gaillac AOC 

France an appellation in southwestern France growing a wide 
range of grape varieties including Duras, Fer and Gamay for 
red and rose wines and Mauzac for white wines (pronounced 
g7 yak) 

A Gaillac Mousseux 

a slightly sweet sparkling white wine made in the Gaillac AOC 
in France using the methode champenoise (pronounced g7 yak 
moo so) 

A Gaillac Perle 

a slightly sparkling (petillant) white wine produced in the 
Gaillac AOC in France (pronounced gl yak pair lay) 

Gaja, Angelo 

Piedmont’s most famous, innovative and respected wine pro- 
ducer and an Italian who has travelled the world for decades 
promoting the wines of Barbaresco and Barolo with almost 
missionary zeal. Fie pioneered the method of maturing Italian 
wines in small oak barrels and has even planted Chardonnay 
and Cabernet Sauvignon in his vineyards. His wines are opulent, 
intense, powerful and expensive. When Gaja introduced Ca- 
bernet Sauvignon to Piedmont he named it Darmagi, local 
dialect for ‘What a pity’, which is what his father said every 




140 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»t‘ *■*' VVr. »t‘ *■*' VVt-* Wr- »t‘ ^Vr-. »t‘ VSV3S 1 VVt-* iVf*' VVr 

time he walked past the Cabernet Sauvignon vines that had 
replaced the native Nebbiolo. 

Gallo 

a large wine company based in Modesto, California, USA. It 
was developed by the brothers Ernest and Julio Gallo, (pro- 
nounced gallo) 

gallon 

1 . a measure of capacity equivalent to 8 pints, or 4.55 litres, used 
both for liquids and for measuring dry goods. 

Also called imperial gallon 

2. USA a measure of capacity equal to 3.78 litres, used only for 
liquids 

gallo nero 

Indian a black cockerel logo embossed onto the bottles of 
Chianti DOCG wines (pronounced gallo nairo) 

0 Gamay, Gamay Noir a Jus Blanc 

a black grape variety grown in the Beaujolais region of Bur- 
gundy, France, and used, particularly, as the sole source for 
Beaujolais AOC wines. It is also used in other regions in France 
and in South Africa and California, USA to produce fruity red 
wines, (pronounced ga may or ga may nwaar a zhoo blaaN) 

0 Gamay Beaujolais 

a black grape variety grown in California, USA. It is not 
related to the Gamay grape variety but to the Pinot Noir grape, 
and is now often labelled as such, (pronounced ga may bo/ho 
lay) 

Gambellara DOC 

Italy a DOC area in the Veneto region of Italy, near Venice that 
uses the Garganega grape to produce light, dry white wines 
similar in style to the white wines from the neighbouring Soave 
DOC (pronounced gambs laars) 

j 1 gamey 

(tasting term) used to describe a bouquet of old wines that is 
similar to the smell of slightly decaying game birds 

0 Garganega, Gargana 

a white-wine grape variety widely grown in the Soave and 
Gambellara DOC areas of the Veneto region of Italy to produce 




Gavi DOC 141 

» vVr* -.’VWSt' ->Vr» vVr* WrW •***■ vVr' , iSt‘ '.’VVSV vVr* vV,’A‘ ’-Vr 

light, crisp dry white wines {pronounced gaargo naygs or gaar 
gaans) 

0 Garnaccia another name for Grenache {pronounced gaar 
nachs, used in Italy) 

0 Garnacha another name for Grenache {pronounced gaar nachs, 
used in Spain) 

0 Garnacha Blanca another name for Grenache Blanc ( pro - 

nounced gaar nachs blangks, used in Spain) 

0 Garnacha Tinta another name for Grenache {pronounced gaar 
nacho teents, used in Spain) 

garrafada na origem 

Portuguese produced and bottled at a winery from grapes grown 
in the winery’s own vineyards, {pronounced gars faado na ori 
zheN) 

Compare estate bottled 
garrafeira 

Portuguese a word used on wine labels to indicate a red wine 
that has been aged for at least three years or a white wine that 
has been aged for at least one year {pronounced garra fayra) 

Gascony 

France a wine-producing region of southwestern France known 
especially as the home of Armagnac 

2 gassy 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine that has suffered from 
unexpected secondary fermentation in the bottle, producing 
unwanted carbon dioxide. Though not unpleasant in white 
wines, gassiness produces bitter red wines. 

Gattinara DOCG 

Italy a DOCG area in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy 
that grows the Nebbiolo grape variety to produce good full- 
bodied red wines that are aged for at least four years {pro- 
nounced gatti naars) 

Gavi DOC 

Italy a DOC area in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy 
that grows the Cortese grape variety to produce a good dry 
white wine as well as a sparkling (spumante) version {pro- 
nounced gaavi) 




142 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V v¥r> -Xtr'i*.' »’*' Wr- »t‘ VVt- » t‘ •-’W A‘ VVr 

gaze if ie 

French carbonated ( pronounced ga zay yee fyay) 

Geelong 

Australia a cool winemaking region immediately to the west of 
Melbourne, Victoria, that grows the Chardonnay grape variety 
for white wines and Pinot Noir for red wines 

Geisenheim 

Germany a town in the Rheingau of Germany known for its 
world-famous college of viticulture as well as its vineyards 
growing very good Riesling wine. One of the most significant 
members of the college was Professor Miiller-Thurgau who in 
1882 crossed Riesling and Sylvaner vines to produce the Miiller- 
Thurgau grape variety, {pronounced g7z’n h6m) 

generic wine 

words printed on labels in the USA for marketing blended wine 
produced in the USA of ordinary quality and labelled as if from 
a well-known wine-producing region of Europe, e.g. Burgundy, 
Chablis or Chianti 

generoso 

Spanish used to describe a wine with a higher-than-normal level 
of alcohol that is normally served as an aperitif or dessert wine 
( pronounced henna rbsso) 

2 generous 

(i tasting term) used to describe a wine that is full-bodied, rich in 
flavour and bouquet and has high levels of alcohol 

genetic modification, genetic engineering 

the insertion of DNA from another variety or a different 
organism into the genetic material of a grape variety to produce 
higher yields, improve disease resistance or combine character- 
istics of two or more varieties, e.g. flavour with early ripening 
for cooler northern climates 

Geographic Indication 

in the Australian system of specifying a wine’s origin, a zone, 
region or subregion from which at least 85% of the grapes used 
in the wine’s production must derive. The structure of Geo- 
graphic Indication was introduced in December 1993 to meet 
export requirements for the European Union and the USA. It is 
administered by the Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation 
(AWBC). 




Germany 143 




Georgia 

a wine-producing country, a former member of the USSR, to 
the north of Turkey and south of Russia with a coast bordering 
the Black Sea. Although not well-known, the quality and 
quantity of wine exports are growing. The main regions are 
Kakheti, Kartli, Imereti and Racha-Lechkhumi, growing a 
range of local grape varieties. 

o geranium 

(i tasting term) a smell that is reminiscent of crushed geranium leaves 
and is a fault caused by sorbic acid reacting with lactic bacteria 

Germany 

a European country, the seventh-largest wine-producing nation 
in the world, that mainly produces, and is best-known for, white 
wines because of its cool climate. It grows mostly the Miiller- 
Thurgau, Riesling and Sylvaner grape varieties. Germany has 13 
general growing regions over the country, called Anbaugebiete, 
which are divided into smaller Bereiche (districts), Grosslagen 
(general areas) and the highly specific Einzellagen (vineyards). 
The German wine classification system, set up in the 1970s, has 



144 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 




three broad categories: Qualitatswein mit Pradikat (QmP) for 
top-quality wine, Qualitatswein bestimmtes Anbaugebiet (QbA) 
for middle-quality wines and Deutscher Tafelwein (DTW) for 
table wines. Within the top QmP classification there are six levels, 
ranging from top to bottom as: Trockenbeerenauslese, Eiswein, 
Beerenauslese, Auslese, Spatlese and Kabinett. Under the clas- 
sification system adding sugar to wine (chaptalisation) is allowed 
for DTW- and QbA-quality wines but not for QmP higher- 
quality wines. In addition to these levels of wine classification, 
a further laboratory test on the finished wine is carried out, and to 
confirm that the wine meets levels of sugar and alcohol the wine is 
assigned an Amtliche Prufungsnummer (A.P.Nr), which is 
printed on the label. Germany has long been synonymous with 
cheap, semisweet wines stacked in huge quantities on super- 
market shelves. This has left a lasting impression on wine con- 
sumers, one that the German wine industry is finding it hard to 
shake off. But Liebfraumilch and Piesporter Michelsberg are 
waning in popularity and the future for German wine must lie in 
the drier, fuller single estate wines that are being increasingly 
produced and especially in those using the Riesling grape. 



Gironde 145 

* vVr* ■■’WA' -.’VWSt' ->Vr’S>‘ vVr* VV^ vVr' , iSt‘ '.’VVSV vVr* •,V,> , A‘ ’-Vr 

germinate 

(o/fl plant seed) to start to grow by breaking out of the seed 
casing and forming the first roots and a shoot 

geropiga see jeropiga 

Gerovassiliou 

Greece a Greek wine producer with vineyards around Epanomi 
near Thessaloniki in northeastern Greece (pronounced yerro va 
seelyoo) 

Gevrey-Chambertin AOC 

France a famous appellation around the small town of Gevrey- 
Chambertin in the Cote de Nuits district of the Burgundy region 
of France that grows Pinot Noir grapes to produce high quality 
red wines in various grand cru vineyards, (pronounced zhevvree 
shombsr taN) 

See Chambertin AOC; Chambertin Clos de Beze AOC; 
Charmes-Chambertin AOC; Mazis-Chambertin AOC; Ru- 
chottes-Chambertin AOC 

0 Gewiirztraminer 

a white grape variety grown in the Alsace region of France and 
in Australia, Germany, New Zealand, the USA and Chile. It 
produces highly flavoured, perfumed, spicy medium sweet or 
dry white wines, (pronounced go vo'orts tra meenor) 

Also called Traminer; Tramini 

Ghemme DOC 

Italy a DOC wine-producing zone in the north of the Piedmont 
region of northwestern Italy that produces good red wine pri- 
marily from the Nebbiolo grape variety (pronounced gemmay) 

Gigondas AOC 

France an appellation in the Rhone region of southern France 
that produces mostly full-bodied red wines from Grenache and 
Cinsault grapes (pronounced zhe'e goN daa) 

Gironde 

( pronounced zhee rond) France 

1. a tidal estuary in the Bordeaux region of France into which 
the Garonne and Dordogne rivers flow. Most of the finest 
vineyards of the Medoc are on the right bank of this estuary. 

2. one of the 95 departements of southwestern France that 
covers roughly the same area as the Bordeaux region 




146 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

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Gisborne 

New Zealand a wine-producing region in New Zealand, in the 
east of the North Island, producing mainly white wines from 
the Miiller-Thurgau, Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc grape 
varieties 

Givry AOC 

France a village appellation in the Cote Chalonnaise area of the 
Burgundy region of France that produces mostly fruity, light 
red wine from Pinot Noir grapes {pronounced zheevree) 

glass 

an object that holds wine so that it can be tasted, enjoyed and 
drunk. The shape of the glass is very important, particularly 
when tasting at a professional level: the glass should be clear to 
show the true colour of the wine and the shape of the bowl should 
taper in slightly at the top to allow the scents from the wine to 
concentrate there when the taster smells the wine. There is an ISO 
(International Organization for Standardization) standard 
shape and size of glass that is recommended for tasting wine. 
The only glass not in this shape is a flute-style tall, thin glass for 
drinking Champagne, since the older-style wide, shallow glasses 
for Champagne allow the bubbles to disperse too quickly. 

Glenrowan 

Australia a wine-producing region in northeastern Victoria 

glogg 

a hot punch consisting of brandy, red wine and sherry, fla- 
voured with sugar, spices, fruit pieces and blanched almonds. It 
was originally served in Scandinavia at Christmas. 

glucose 

one of the two main naturally occurring sugars in fruit, includ- 
ing grapes. It reacts during fermentation to form alcohol and 
esters that provide most of the body and flavour of wine. 

Compare fructose 

glijhwein 

warmed red wine flavoured with spices and added sugar (pro- 
nounced glyoo v6n) 

glycerol, glycerine 

a colourless liquid formed during fermentation that adds a little 
to the sweetness and smoothness of a wine 




gout de terroir 147 

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gnarly 

1. used to describe an old, knobbly or twisted vine 

2 . used to describe a rough red wine that has extracted too much 
taste from the grape skins 

0 Godello 

a white grape variety native to the Valdeorras area of the Galicia 
region of northwestern Spain that produces good crisp white 
wines (pronounced go day lyo) 

Gonzales Byass 

one of the best-known sherry houses in Jerez de la Frontera, 
Spain, that produces a best-selling fmo sherry together with a 
range of other styles and a range of brandies (pronounced gon 
zaa less b7 ass) 

2 gooseberry 

(tasting term) used to describe a white wine, especially one 
made from the Sauvignon Blanc grape variety, with a slightly 
but pleasantly acidic taste or an aroma reminiscent of goose- 
berries 

Goulburn Valley 

Australia a large wine region north of Melbourne, Victoria, that 
produces red wines from the Syrah (Shiraz) and Cabernet 
Sauvignon grape varieties and white wines from Marsanne 

Goumenissa 

Greece an appellation in northern Greece that produces red 
and white wines and a good rose from the Xinomavro grape 
variety (pronounced goo menni sa) 

gout 

French taste (pronounced goo) 

o gout de bouchon 

French (tasting term) the quality of a wine that is corked 
( pronounced gob do boo shoN, literally ‘taste of cork’) 

2 gout de terroir 

French (tasting term) the combined characteristics of the region, 
climate and soil (the ‘terroir’) that can be tasted in a wine. For 
example, the tasting term ‘flinty’ refers to the gout de terroir 
of Chablis. (pronounced gob do ter rwaar, literally ‘taste of 
earth’) 




148 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»t‘ '»¥,.’*■ W,. »V -?Vr'J>‘ '.’VWSV •,'SlV A‘ Wr- »V %Vr 

0 Gouveio another name for Verdelho (pronounced goo vayo, 
zAyerf in Portugal) 

governo, governo alia toscana 

Italian a former traditional winemaking technique in Italy, 
especially Tuscany, in which semi-dried must from a previous 
batch of winemaking was added to newly fermented wine to 
start the secondary fermentation process. This was useful in old, 
cold cellars but also produced softer wines with more alcohol 
and a richer colour, and sometimes with slight effervescence. 
( pronounced go vurno or go vurno ala toss kaana) 

2 graceful 

(i tasting term) used to describe a wine that is subtle, well- 
balanced and generally pleasing to drink 

0 Graciano 

a red-wine grape variety grown mostly in the Rioja and Navarra 
regions of Spain that produces a fragrant, richly coloured red wine. 
It has low yields, so has largely been replaced in the Rioja region, 
but is being planted again in Navarre, (pronounced grathi aano) 
Also called Morastel 

graft 

a piece of plant tissue inserted into another plant and growing 
from it 

grafting 

a method of propagating vines that is the only sure way of 
producing plants resistant to phylloxera or other diseases. A 
phylloxera-resistant rootstock is used and a piece of a fruiting 
variety, which has a single bud, is inserted into a hole in the 
rootstock so that the inserted stem (the scion) can draw nu- 
trients from the rootstock and grow. The join heals with time 
and the new fruiting stem produces grapes, while the rootstock 
remains resistant to disease. 

See green grafting; T-bud grafting 

graft union 

the place where the scion joins the rootstock 

Graham, W. & J. 

one of the top port companies producing very good vintage port 
as well as a good second-label port, Malvedos. It is owned by the 
Symington family who also own Dow, Warre and Smith Wood- 
house. 




grande cuvee 149 

-»t‘ vV-r A‘ VSf^Se 1 '.'SIWSV •,'SIV , A‘ -,V,. , A‘ vV-r A‘ •,'SIV*‘ '.'SIWSV v’W»t‘ •,¥, 

Graillot, Alain 

a well-known wine producer based in the Crozes-Hermitage 
AOC in the northern Rhone region of southern France ( pro- 
nounced gr6 o) 

Grampians 

Australia a winemaking region in west-central Victoria, north- 
east of Henty 

grand cru 

French a term with different meanings in different parts of 
France. In Bordeaux, the title is given to some estates, but apart 
from indicating good wine, has no real legal significance and is 
not related to grand cru classe. In Burgundy, it is used to denote 
one of the 30 or so vineyards judged to be the best in the region, 
though it does not always guarantee the best wine, since one 
vineyard in Burgundy is often split between different producers; 
it is above the premier cru classification. In the Champagne 
region, it is the top rating for a village that produces the best 
wines, although in Champagne the estate or Champagne house is 
often more important. In Alsace, it is the top classification for the 
best vineyards and wines of the region, (pronounced graaN kroo, 
literally ‘great growth', plural grands crus) 

grand cru classe 

French a term with different meanings in different parts of 
France. In the Medoc area of Bordeaux, estates listed as 
deuxieme cru, troisieme cru, quatrieme cru or cinquieme cru 
(second, third, fourth or fifth growth) in the classification of 
1855 can use the term grand cru classe on their labels. In the 
much later classification of the Saint-Emilion region, this was 
awarded to the second-best wines of the area, though these are 
still not as good as those of the Medoc deuxieme cru rating that 
can use a similar wording, (pronounced graaN kroo kla say, 
literally ‘great classed growth’, plural grands crus classes) 

Grande Champagne 

France a small area in the Cognac region of western France 
having vineyards that grow some of the best grapes for distilling 
into Cognac (pronounced graaNd shorn pannys) 

grande cuvee 

French used on French wine labels to imply a top-quality wine, 
but with no official status (pronounced graaNd koo vay) 




150 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

rjhf •>¥,» v’VWiV *.»' -.WiV »t‘ vYr-- »t‘ v’VViV •,¥,-■ »V *■*' •,¥* 

Grande Cuvee see Krug 
grande marque 

French any one of the best estates of the Champagne region of 
France {pronounced graaNd maark, plural grandes marques) 

Grand Roussillon AOC 

France an appellation in the Roussillon area of southern France 
that produces sweet wines ( pronounced graaN roo see yoN) 

grand vin 

French used on labels to describe good wine, but with no official 
status {pronounced graaN vaN, literally ‘great wine’, plural 

grands vins) 

A Grange 

an excellent red wine usually made wholly from the Syrah 
(Shiraz) grape that was developed for Penfolds in South 
Australia by Max Schubert 

gran reserva 

Spanish a very good wine that has been aged for at least five 
years (pronounced gran rs zairvs) 

grape 

a fruit, technically a berry, from a vine that is used to produce 
wine. Although many other types of fruit can also be used to 
produce wine, grapes dominate the world market. When making 
wine the grapes are usually crushed to break open the skin, then 
pressed to release the juice from inside the grape, then fermented 
to convert the natural sugars in the grape juice into alcohol. 

grape concentrate 

concentrated grape juice, in which the water content has been 
reduced so that the concentration of soluble solids is increased 
to around 70 degrees on the Brix scale. It is very sweet and is 
used to add sugar to a wine during a process called chaptalisa- 
tion, which is illegal in some countries such as Italy, to increase 
the alcohol content or sweetness of the wine. 

Also called concentrate 

J grapefruit, grapefruity 

{tasting term) a taste or aroma found in some white wines 

grape skin 

the tough skin protecting and enveloping the pulp of grape 
berries. The skin provides the colour of red wine, together with a 
lot of its flavour, acidity and tannins. 




Graves 151 

-»t‘ v¥r- »fc‘ •.'SIVA' -.’W- »t‘ *’*' vVt-* v¥r- »fc‘ •,’VV. »t‘ vV-r A‘ v¥r- »fc‘ •,V,> , A‘ vVr 

grapevine 

a plant of the genus Vitis that produces grapes 

2 grapey 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that smells and tastes like 
grapes 

grappa 

Italian an Italian spirit distilled from the residue (‘pomace’) left 
over from fermentation of grapes, not from wine like Cognac, 
producing a dry highly alcoholic drink. In France spirit made in 
this way is called marc, (pronounced grappa) 

2 grassy 

(tasting term ) used to describe the pleasant aromas and flavours 
in a wine that are reminiscent of newly cut grass or hay. It is 
often used of wines made from the Sauvignon Blanc grape. 

0 Grauburgunder another name for Pinot Gris (pronounced 
grow boor gundar, used in Germany) 

Grave del Friuli DOC 

Italy a DOC area in northeastern Italy that grows a range of 
Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon and other local grape 
varieties for red wines, Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc and Pinot 
Gris for white wines and Merlot for its rose wines (pronounced 
graavay del fri o'oli) 

2 gravelly 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that has the clean smell of 
dry soil, as opposed to damp compost or clay. It is most often 
used to describe wines from the Graves region of France. 

graves 

French a region where the soil is stony (pronounced graav, 
literally ‘gravel’) 

Graves 

France a wine-producing area in the Bordeaux region of south- 
western France, named after its stony, gravelly soil. It produces 
a wide range of very good wines and contains a number of 
appellations, with the best in the north of the area called Pessac- 
Leognan AOC. In the classification of 1855 only the wines from 
neighbouring Medoc area were considered good enough: the 
only non-Medoc exception in the list was Chateau Haut-Brion 
in the north of the Graves area, which was given a premier cru 
ranking. ( pronounced graav) 




152 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 
Graves AOC 

France an appellation in the south of the Graves area of the 
Bordeaux region of France producing red wines from Cabernet 
Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Merlot grapes and dry white 
wines from Sauvignon Blanc, Semilion and Muscadelle grapes 
( pronounced graav) 

Graves de Vayres AOC 

France a small appellation in the Bordeaux region of France 
that gets its name from its stony soil and produces dry white 
wines and red wines. It is not part of the Graves region. 
( pronounced graav do vair) 

Graves Superieures AOC 

France a small appellation producing a small quantity of dry 
and sweet white wines in the south of the Graves area of the 
Bordeaux region of France from Sauvignon Blanc, Semilion 
and Muscadelle grapes ( pronounced graav soo payr yur) 

Great Southern 

Australia a large and important wine region in the southwest of 
Western Australia, having five subregions: Albany, Frankland 
River, Mount Barker, Porongurup and Denmark. It produces 
good red wines from Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah (Shiraz) and 
Pinot Noir grapes and white wines from Chardonnay and Riesling. 

0 Grecanico 

a white-wine grape variety grown in Sicily and parts of Greece 
( pronounced greko ne'eko) 

0 Grechetto 

a white-wine grape variety grown in Italy that produces a rich 
white wine ( pronounced gre ketto) 

0 Greco 

( pronounced greko) 

1. a white-wine grape variety grown in the south of Italy to 
produce rich white wines either in a dry or sweet style 

2. another name for Albana (no relation of Greco proper) 

0 Greco di Ancona another name for Albana ( pronounced greko 
dee an kbno) 

Greco di Tufo DOC 

Italy a DOC area near Naples in Italy, growing mostly the 
Greco grape variety to produce dry white and sparkling 
(spumante) wines (pronounced grekko dee toofo) 




Greece 153 




Greece 

the world's 14th-largest wine- producing country and generally 
considered to be the birthplace of wine. It is uncertain how 
winemaking arrived in Greece. It may have been brought to Crete 
by Phoenician traders, or it may have arrived from the north, by 
land, from Asia Minor. There is evidence of winemaking on Crete 
during the Minoan civilisation in the middle of the third millen- 
nium BC. Evidence also suggests that winemaking was common in 
Greece and around the Aegean a few centuries later. It is known 
that sweet wines were popular and the Greeks were not afraid to 
mix wine with water, honey, spices and even sea water. Greek 
wines often bore the flavour of the pine resin with which they 
coated the amphorae and jars used to store wine. Retsina - pine- 
resin-flavoured wine - enjoys immense popularity in modern 
Greece. Ancient Greece may fairly be said to have invented wine 
as a social and cultural phenomenon, to have technically mastered 
the art of winemaking and, trading wine wherever Greek ships 
sailed, to have been responsible for the spread of viticulture 
throughout the western world. However the Ottoman Empire 
inhibited the industry until the late 20th century. A wide array of 



154 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V v¥r> -Xtr'i*.' »’*' VVr-’»t‘ VVt- » t‘ •-Vf A‘ '.’VWSV Wr- »t‘ %Vr 

different growing conditions, offering an extraordinary palette of 
styles and varieties, encouraged producers and winemakers to 
move away from cheap bulk wines and invest in modern wine- 
making methods and technology. New stainless steel wineries, new 
oak barrels and increased awareness of terroir and microclimates 
have all contributed to a substantial improvement in Greek 
wine. Consequently, numerous producers of quality wines have 
emerged, such as Gaia, Gerovassiliou, Boutari, Tsantali and 
Antonopoulos. Many of the top Greek winemakers have learnt 
their trade in more traditional winemaking regions such as 
Burgundy, Bordeaux and parts of Australia. Legally, three cate- 
gories of Greek wine may be made. Appellation of Origin of 
Superior Quality (OPAP) and Controlled Appellation of Origin 
(OPE) are used to describe wines, sweet and dry, from defined 
areas, made in prescribed ways, using particular grape varieties. 
Some 28 wines enjoy appellation status. Epitrapezios Oenos (vins 
de table) include the Topikos Oenos (vins de pays) and the 
Onomasia kata Paradosi (Traditional Appellation). Topikos Oe- 
nos wines bear the name of the region, county or town, from which 
they come. The vast majority of Greek wines are made from 
unique indigenous varieties such as Xinomavro, Aghiorghitiko 
and Limnio. 

r? green 

1 . ( tasting term) used to describe a wine that is still too acidic or 
too young to drink and enjoy 

2 . ( tasting term) used to describe a wine with high acidity and 
grassy flavours 

green grafting 

a grafting technique that is used to introduce a new fruit-bearing 
grape variety onto an existing rootstock. A T-shaped notch is 
made at the top of the rootstock and the new variety grafted into 
this notch. 

Also called T-bud grafting 
r> green pepper 

(i tasting term) an aroma associated with red wines made from the 
Cabernet Franc grape variety and also from Cabernet Sau- 
vignon grapes grown in a cool climate 

Green Valley-Solano AVA 

USA a small AVA region of California, between San Francisco 
and Sacramento that sells its products mainly locally 




Grillo 155 

» VVr* V’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ VVr* VVT.'lSt‘ V’VWSt' ■-Vr- , lSt‘ VVr-* -,Vr 

Green Valley-Sonoma 

t/SA a subregion of the Russian River Valley AVA in California 
that has a cooler climate than the Green Valley-Solano area and 
grows Chardonnay and Pinot Noir grapes to produce still and 
sparkling white and red wines 

green wine 

a literal translation of Vinho Verde, a wine of Portugal 

0 Grenache 

a red-wine grape variety widely planted around the world, 
particularly in hot and dry regions, and producing big, peppery 
wines. It is very popular in southern France and also in Spain, 
where it is known as Garnacha. (pronounced gra nash) 

Also called Carignan Rosos: Garnaccia; Garnacha; Garnacha 
Tinta; Grenache Noir 

0 Grenache Blanc 

a white-wine grape variety, widely grown in southern France 
and Spain, producing white wines with low acid levels and high 
alcohol content, (pronounced gra nash blaaN) 

Also called Garnacha Blanca 

0 Grenache Noir another name for Grenache (pronounced gra 
nash nwa'ar) 

0 Grey Riesling another name for Trousseau Gris (used in New 

Zealand) 

grey rot 

a disease caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea that can destroy 
grape berries. If the rot is carefully controlled on white grapes, 
its effect of shrivelling the grapes concentrates the sugars and 
produces a very sweet wine. 

See also noble rot 

0 Grignolino 

a red-wine grape variety that was originally from the Piedmont 
region of northwestern Italy but is now grown in other countries 
and used to produce light-bodied red wines (pronounced grinnya 
leeno) 

Grillet see Chateau-Grillet 
0 Grillo 

a Sicilian white-wine grape variety used especially in the making 
of Marsala (pronounced greel lo) 




156 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V Wr- »t‘ ■***■ •-Vf A‘ VV,-* VVr.’»t‘ %Vr 

0 Gringet another name for Savagnin (pronounced graN zhay) 

2 grip 

( tasting term) a firm texture of a wine, usually with high levels of 
tannin and good definition 

gris 

French pale rose, (pronounced gree, literally ‘grey') 

See also vin gris 

0 Grolleau another name for Groslot (pronounced gro lo) 

Groot Constantia 

South Africa a wine-producing estate in Constantia in Cape 
Province, South Africa, producing good Sauvignon Blanc and 
Semilion wines (pronounced hroot kon staantys) 

0 Groppello 

a red-wine grape variety grown mostly in the Lombardy region 
of Italy to produce red and rose wines (pronounced gro pello) 

0 Groslot 

a red-wine grape variety mostly grown in the Loire region of 
France to produce ordinary medium sweet Rose d'Anjou wines. 
( pronounced gro lot) 

Also called Grolleau 

0 Gros Manseng see Manseng (pronounced gro maaN saN) 

0 Gros Plant another name for Folle Blanche (pronounced gro 
plaaN) 

Gros Plant VDQS 

France a VDQS wine-producing area in the Loire region of 
France producing dry white wine from Folle Blanche (Gros 
Plant) grapes (pronounced gr5 plaaN) 

Grosses Gewachs 

German a new category of top-quality dry white wines from 
narrowly demarcated areas of Germany other than in the Rhein- 
gau region, (pronounced gr&ssoss go veks, literally ‘great growth’) 
Compare Erstes Gewachs 

0 Grosse Syrah another name for Mondeuse (pronounced grosss 
sirrs, used in Germany) 

Grosslage 

German a group of separate vineyards that are individually 
called Einzellagen. Grosslagen are then grouped into regional 




gyropallet 157 

* vVr* •***■ vVr-’iSt‘ •,V,> , A‘ '-Vr* ■JSIV* 1 •***■ Wr-W vVf* vVr* vV,’A‘ vVr 

Bereiche and these districts are grouped into the general Bereich 
wine-producing regions of Germany. ( pronounced gross laags, 
literally ‘large vineyard', plural Grosslagen) 

grower see winegrower 
Gruaud-Larose, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Saint-Julien AOC in the Medoc district 
of Bordeaux in southwestern France, graded deuxieme cru 
(second growth) in the classification of 1855. It produces con- 
sistently excellent red wines, (pronounced groo o la r6z) 

0 Griiner Veltliner, Griinmuskateller 

a white grape variety widely planted in Austria and used to 
produce light, crisp dry white wines (pronounced groonsr felt 
leensr or groon moosks tells) 

Guenoc Valley AVA 

USA an AVA area in the Napa Valley region of California that 
has one winery 

Guigal 

an important wine producer based in Cote Rotie in the northern 
Rhone region of France (pronounced gee gaal) 

2 gunflint 

(tasting term) an aroma or flavour associated with Riesling 
wines from the Alsace region of France 

0 Gutedel another name for Chasselas (pronounced goots dell, 
used in Germany) 

0 Gutenborner 

a German-bred white-wine grape variety grown in England 
( pronounced gootsn bawrnsr) 

Gutsabfiillung 

German estate bottled, (pronounced goots ap fool lobng) 
Compare Erzeugerabfiillung; Originalabfullung 

guyot 

French a method of pruning and training (trellising) a vine so 
that branches are only allowed to grow from one side of the 
vine. It is mostly used in the Medoc district of Bordeaux in 
southwestern France, (pronounced gee o) 

gyropallet 

an automatic riddling machine 





ASP •>¥,» '.’VWSV v’W’iV vW»V •,'SIWSfc‘ v’W’»t‘ vVr- vVr 

Strategy is buying a bottle of fine wine when you take a lady out for 
dinner. Tactics is getting her to drink it. Frank Muir 



ha abbreviation hectare 

Halbstiick 

German a wooden barrel used by some winemakers in Germany, 
especially in the Rheingau ( pronounced halp shtook, plural 

Halbstiicke) 

halbtrocken 

German used to describe a wine that is sweeter than a trocken 
wine, with a little residual sugar (pronounced halp troksn, 
literally ‘half dry’) 

half-bottle 

a bottle of wine containing 375 ml, half the 750 ml capacity of a 
standard bottle 

0 Hanepoot another name for Muscat (pronounced haans poosrt, 
used in South Africa) 

J hard 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that has a high level of acid 
or tannin and is astringent, making your mouth pucker in 
reaction. It is often used to describe young red wines that need 
to be aged. 

Hardys see BRL Hardy 
2 harmonious 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine in which all the elements of 
the wine are in balance 

2 harsh 

(tasting term) used to describe a very astringent wine that has a 
high level of alcohol and excessive tannin. This type of wine will 
probably not improve with age. 

0 Harslevelii 

a white-wine grape variety grown mostly in Hungary and used 
for its range of Tokay wines (pronounced haar shleveloo) 




hazelnut 159 

-»t‘ vVr- »fc‘ »t‘ vV-r A‘ VSVSS 1 vVr- »fc‘ •,'SIV’A‘ »t‘ vW. »t‘ VSVSS 1 vVr- »fc‘ •.'SIVA' •,¥, 

Harveys of Bristol 

a Bristol-based sherry company, now part of the Allied-Lyons 
group, that created the cream style of sherry and is most famous 
for Harveys Bristol Cream 

haut 

French geographically high (pronounced o) 

Haut Armagnac 

France one of the three subregions of Armagnac in southwestern 
France, wrapping around the east and south of the region 
( pronounced ot aarma nyak) 

Haut-Brion, Chateau 

France a famous vineyard in the Graves district of Bordeaux, 
southwestern France, producing a very good red wine rated 
premier cru (first growth) in the classification of 1855 (pro- 
nounced 5 bree oN) 

Hautes-Cotes de Beaune AOC 

France an appellation in the upper hills of the Cotes de Beaune 
area of Burgundy in France that grows Pinot Noir grapes to 
make red wine and Chardonnay for white wine (pronounced 6t 
k6t do b6n) 

Haut-Medoc AOC 

France an appellation covering the southern part of the Medoc 
area of the Bordeaux region of southwestern France. It is 
considered to be one of the best areas of the Medoc, and 
produces fine wines from Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon 
and Merlot grape varieties, (pronounced 6 may dok) 

Hawkes Bay 

New Zealand one of the oldest wine-producing regions in New 
Zealand, in the North Island, producing white wines from the 
Chardonnay, Miiller-Thurgau and Sauvignon Blanc grape vari- 
eties and red wines especially from Cabernet Sauvignon and 
Merlot grapes 

J hay 

(tasting term) an unpleasant aroma found in some wines 

2 hazelnut 

(tasting term ) a taste or aroma associated with Champagne 
and oak-aged white wines made from the Chardonnay grape 
variety 




160 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

5SV •>¥,» *■*' ■>’VWa.‘ Wr- »V VVt-* *’*■ -,Vr 



J hazy 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine that is not crystal clear and 
has a cloudy appearance, normally because of tiny particles. It 
may simply indicate a wine that is unfiltered or not fined, but it 
can also indicate a cloudy wine that is likely to be spoiled. 

2 heady 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that is very alcoholic and 
likely to be full-bodied 

heartwood 

the inner part of dead woody tissue (xylem cells) making up the 
trunk of a woody plant such as a vine and giving the plant 
strength 

2 hearty 

(tasting term) used to describe a full-bodied red wine with lots of 
fruit 

heat summation 

a measure of the climate of a region obtained by measuring the 
average temperature each day, over a season. 

See climatic regions 

2 heavy 

(tasting term) used to describe an unsubtle wine that has an 
obviously high alcohol content 

hectare 

a unit of measure for land equal to 10,000 square metres, or 2.47 
acres. 

Abbreviation ha 

hectolitre 

a unit of measure for liquid capacity equal to 100 litres. 
Abbreviation hi 

Heidsieck see Charles Heidsieck; Piper Heidsieck 
Hennessy 

an old-established Cognac producer that merged with Moet et 
Chandon and then became part of the giant LVMH company 

Henty 

Australia a winemaking region in southwestern Victoria, west of 
Grampians and stretching to the coast. It was formerly known 
as Far South West. 




hi 161 

» VVr* ■.’Wit' VVr' , lSt‘ '&k&? VVr* 'JSlV*' •***■ ■-Vr- , lSt‘ VVr* -,Vr 

Herault, I’Herault 

France a departement in southern France, part of the Langue- 
doc-Roussillon region, with many vineyards producing espe- 
cially ordinary red wine using the Carignan grape variety 
( pronounced ay ro or l’ayro) 

J herbaceous 

( tasting term ) used to describe a wine that has a green, grassy, 
plant-like taste or aroma. It is usually associated with grape 
variety rather than climate or soil, particularly Merlot for red 
wines and Sauvignon Blanc or Semilion for white. 

0 Hermitage 

1. another name for Cinsault ( used in South Africa) 

2. another name for Syrah (formerly used in the Hunter Valley, 
Australia) 

Hermitage AOC 

France an appellation in the northern part of the Rhone region 
of southern France that produces some of the best red and white 
wines in France. The wines are capable of many years of ageing 
before being at their best, and are grown in vineyards perched 
dramatically on the steep hillside above the town of Tain- 
l'Hermitage. The red wines are made from Syrah grapes and 
the white wines from Marsanne and Rousanne. (pronounced air 
mee taazh) 

See also Crozes-Hermitage AOC 
Hessische Bergstrasse 

Germany a small Anbaugebiet (quality wine-producing region) 
in Germany that grows mostly the Riesling grape variety to 
produce white wine (pronounced hessishs bairg shtraasss) 

Heurige 

German in Austria, wine from the latest vintage (pronounced 
hoyrigs, literally ‘new wine’, plural Heurigen) 

2 high-toned 

(tasting term ) used to describe a wine that has been made with a 
slight level of volatile acidity to help improve its smell and taste 

2 hind palate see palate 

hi abbreviation hectolitre 




162 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ »t‘ -.’w »t‘ *■*' vVt-* »t‘ vVr-- »t‘ v’VViV vVt-* Wr- »t‘ ',¥, 

Hochgewachs 

German a higher-quality wine in the QbA class of German 
wines, made only from the Riesling grape variety {pronounced 
hokh go veks, plural Hochgewachse) 

A hock 

a German white wine produced in the Rhine region. The term 
originates from the town of Hochheim in the Rhine Valley, and 
is used only in British English. 

hogshead 

a wooden barrel used to store wine and spirits, containing about 
250 litres 

J hollow 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine that lacks depth of flavour, 
with no body and a very short finish. 

Compare empty 

2 honest 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine that is simple, straightfor- 
ward and typical of its type of wine, but nothing special 

2 honeyed 

(tasting term) used to describe a white wine, usually a botrytised 
one, that has a rich, sweet flavour and aroma 

2 honeysuckle 

(tasting term) an aroma associated with white wines made from 
the Muscat grape variety 

horizontal tasting 

a wine tasting that has a selection of wines from the same 
vintage but from different estates or vineyards. 

Compare vertical tasting 

Hospices de Beaune 

France a famous charity hospital in the town of Beaune, in the 
heart of the Burgundy region of France that owns some of the 
best vineyards in the region. Its wines are auctioned before being 
bottled each year in what is often the biggest wine event in 
Burgundy, (pronounced os peess do b6n) 

2 hot 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that has high levels of 
alcohol, giving a burning sensation in the mouth 




>’A‘ VVr* VVr-’lS(.‘ •-Vr-’iA‘ '-Vr* •,'!IVA‘ 



Hungary 163 

■SfVSS* V’W»t‘ VVr 



hotte 

French a basket carried on a worker’s back and used to trans- 
port the freshly picked grapes to a lorry {pronounced ot) 

house 

an estate that produces Champagne 

house wine 

a relatively cheap, but sometimes good, wine in a restaurant or 
cafe that is chosen by the proprietor for continued use and is 
often served by the glass, carafe or bottle 

Howell Mountain AVA 

USA a small wine-producing region within the Napa Valley 
AVA that grows a range of grape varieties, particularly Caber- 
net Sauvignon and Zinfandel 

Hudson River Valley AVA 

USA a viticultural area in New Y ork State with wineries on both 
sides of the Hudson River 

Hugel 

one of the best-known and most influential families of the 
Alsace region of France. Wine producers since the 17th century, 
the Hugels are based in the picturesque village of Riquewihr. 
They have long spearheaded the drive for quality in the region 
and were influential in creating the strict regulations governing 
the local Alsace Vendange Tardive and Selection de Grains 
Nobles styles of wine made from sweet, overripe grapes infected 
with Botrytis cinerea. (pronounced hoog’l) 

Hungary 

a country in eastern Europe that produces a wide range of wines 
in different styles and grows a wide range of grape varieties. The 
two best-known exported wines are Tokay, one of the world's 
great dessert wines, and Egri Bikaver (Bull’s Blood), a full- 
bodied red wine made in the Eger region. In the 1600s, some 200 
years before France, the Tokaj-Hegyalja region around Tokay 
introduced the very first classification system for wine, based on 
quality. During the Communist era Hungarian wine was wholly 
state-controlled. In the ten years since the fall of the Eastern 
bloc, Hungary has successfully modernised its wine industry and 
winemakers are starting to re-establish Hungarian wine styles. 
Foreign winemakers and foreign investment have arrived to 
support these developments. Hungarian wines are labelled 




164 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

■WiSiSiySiiSJSiyS'SSiSiySSSJSiySliSJSiySliS!?^^ 

according to the variety. Indigenous Hungarian varietals mix 
with imported grape varieties. Among the whites, Furmint, 
Kiralyleanyka, Harslevelii, Irsai Oliver and Welschriesling 
(Olaszrizling) are capable of good and even fine wine, along 
with Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay and Gewurztraminer 
(Tramini). Quality home-grown reds include Kekfrankos and 
Kadarka, while Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Pinot Noir 
have been successfully introduced. The great success of the 
imported varieties would suggest a very rosy future for Hun- 
gary’s wine. 




Wine regions of Hungary, Czech Republic, 
Croatia and Slovenia 



Hunter Valley 

Australia a well-known wine-producing zone in the state of New 
South Wales, not far from Sydney, that produces some of the 
best wines in Australia. A warm wine-growing region, it grows 
mostly Semilion and Chardonnay grapes to produce white 
wines and Syrah (Shiraz) and Cabernet Sauvignon to produce 
red wines. 



hydrometer 1 65 

»V VVr* ■,'y r ’A‘ »t‘ vVr-’»t‘ fllV A‘ VVr* •,'SIV , A‘ *’*■ -.Vf »t‘ V¥r- »V %¥, »t‘ %Vr 

0 Huxelrebe 

a white-wine grape with good acid levels and high sugar content 
that is grown in Germany and in parts of England {pronounced 
hooks ’1 raybs) 

0 hybrid 

a grape variety produced either by crossing one species of grape 
vine with another, e.g. crossing the main species Vitis vinifera 
with Vitis labrusca or Vitis riparia (an interspecific cross), or by 
crossing two varieties of the same species (an intraspecific cross), 
to obtain a variety with improved characteristics such as disease 
resistance or winemaking quality 

hybridisation 

the production of hybrid vines by cross-pollination between 
different species or between varieties in the same species 

hybrid vigour 

an increase in size, rate of growth, fertility or resistance to 
disease found in offspring of a cross between parent vines with 
different characteristics 

hydrogen sulphide 

an unwanted chemical produced by yeast combining with 
sulphur that gives a wine a smell of rotten eggs 

hydrogen tartrate 

a salt or ester of tartaric acid, e.g. potassium hydrogen tartrate, 
that forms deposits in wine vats 

hydrometer 

a measuring device used to measure the specific gravity of a 
liquid, comparing it to the density of pure water. This provides a 
measure of the sugar content of grape juice in the fermentation 
container. The instrument has a hollow cylindrical bulb with a 
lead weight in the bottom to make it float vertically and a 
number scale on the long stem that can be read as it floats in the 
liquid. 

Also called densimeter 




/ 

-»t‘ »t‘ •>¥,» v¥,-»fc‘ '.Vr A‘ v’W , »t‘ *’*' vVf'A 1 v¥, »fc‘ '.Vr A‘ v’W , »t‘ •>¥,» -,Vr 

Once wine has been drawn it should be drunk, even if it’s good. 

Marcel Pagnol, 1936 



ice wine same as Eiswein 

IGT abbreviation Italian Indicazione Geografica Tipica 

imbottigliato all’origine 

Italian produced and bottled at the winery from grapes grown in 
the winery’s own vineyards, (pronounced im botti lyaato al o 
riggi nay) 

Compare estate bottled 
Imereti 

Georgia a wine-producing region in western Georgia that uses a 
local method of wine production and a local grape variety 

imperial 

an oversize wine bottle with the shape traditionally used for 
Bordeaux wines that can contain 6 litres, equivalent to eight 
standard 750 ml bottles. 

Compare methuselah 

imperial gallon same as gallon I 

IN AO abbreviation French Institut National des Appellations 
d'Origine 

2 incisive 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine with ‘bite’, because of its 
noticeable levels of acid and tannin 

Indica^ao de Proveniencia Regulamentada 

the second class of wines in the classification system used in 
Portugal. The best wines are called Denominaijao de Origem 
Controlada (DOC), (pronounced indika sow do prova nyensi a 
reggoola men taada) 

Abbreviation I PR 

Indicazione Geografica Tipica 

Italy a classification of Italian wines outside the DOC system 




inorganic pesticide 167 

* VVr* -.’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ •-Vr-* VVr* •,'SV , A‘ •***■ VVr-’lSt‘ VVr* '-Vr 

but considered excellent Vini da Tavola. ( pronounced indi ka 
tsy6 nay jay o graafiks tippiks) 

Abbreviation IGT 

IN DO abbreviation Spanish Instituto Nacional de Denomina- 
ciones de Origen 

Inferno 

Italy an Italian wine-producing region in Valtellina province 
near Milan that produces red wines from the Nebbiolo grape 
variety {pronounced in fairno) 

infiltration 

the action of rainwater as it soaks downwards into the soil. As 
the surface layers become waterlogged the water seeps down 
into lower dry layers. 

ingredient 

one of the components of a mixture. For example, grape juice is 
an ingredient of wine. 

J inky 

1 . ( tasting term) used to describe the unpleasant, slightly metallic 
flavour that is present in some red wines 

2. {tasting term) used to describe the deep red colour of some red 
wines 

inner staves 

oak barrel staves suspended in wine, as a cheap way of adding 
oak flavour 

inorganic 

used to describe a substance that does not come from animal or 
vegetable sources and does not contain carbon. Inorganic 
chemicals are widely used, e.g. copper is in Bordeaux mixture 
for use against blight, and sulphur is used against mildew. 

inorganic fertiliser 

an artificial synthesised fertiliser, as opposed to manure, com- 
post and other organic fertilisers that are produced from bones, 
blood and other parts of formerly living matter 

inorganic pesticide, inorganic fungicide, inorganic 
herbicide 

a pesticide, fungicide or herbicide made from inorganic sub- 
stances such as copper or sulphur 




168 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ »t‘ vVt. »t‘ *■*' vVt-* »t‘ vVr-- »t‘ ■¥V»V vVt-* ■¥V»t‘ *■*' •,¥* 

insecticide 

a natural or synthetic substance that kills insects. In agriculture 
most pesticides are either chlorinated hydrocarbons, organo- 
phosphorous compounds or carbamate compounds, although 
some are produced from plant extracts. Insecticides are used in a 
number of ways, including spraying and dusting, or in granular 
forms as seed dressings. In the form of a gas, insecticides are 
used to fumigate greenhouses and granaries. 

2 insipid 

( tasting term ) used to describe a wine that has no particularly 
good characteristics and lacks body and flavour 

Institute of Masters of Wine see Master of Wine 

Institut National des Appellations d’Origine 

France the regulating body responsible for the rules that apply 
to the Appellations d'Origine Controlees in France, {pronounced 
aNstee too nassys naal dayz apps lassyoN dori zheen) 
Abbreviation IN AO 

Instituto Nacional de Denominaciones de Origen 

Spain the regulating body responsible for the rules that apply to 
the Denominaciones de Origen in Spain ( pronounced insti tooto 
nathyo naal day de nommi nath yonness day o ree hen) 
Abbreviation I N DO 

2 integration 

{tasting term) the way in which the structure and other char- 
acteristics of a wine combine to form a harmonious whole 

2 intense 

{tasting term) used to describe a wine with a powerful, con- 
centrated flavour or aroma 

internodal 

situated between the nodes on a plant’s stem 

interspecific cross see hybrid 
interveinal 

situated between the veins of a leaf 

interveinal chlorosis, interveinal yellowing 

a condition of plants caused by magnesium deficiency, in which 
the surface of the leaves turns yellow and the veins stay green 

intraspecific cross see hybrid 




irrigation 169 

» VVr* ■.’Wit' VVr* V’VWSt' ■-Vr- , lSt‘ •>¥,» VVr* ',¥* 

J intricate 

(i tasting term) used to describe a wine with a complex bouquet or 
flavour 

invecchiato 

Italian aged {pronounced in veki aato) 

0 Inzolia 

a Sicilian white-wine grape that is grown for use in Marsala and 
to produce a light fragrant table wine, {pronounced inzo lee a) 
Also called Ansonica 

0 Iona 

a white-wine grape variety developed as a hybrid in New York, 
USA, and often used for sparkling wines produced in the eastern 
USA 

I PR abbreviation Portuguese Indicaijao de Proveniencia Regu- 
lamentada 

iron deficiency 

a lack of iron in the growing medium, resulting in yellowing 
leaves. Iron deficiency occurs in chalky soils, or in soil that has 
been limed too much; it can be corrected by applying iron 
chelate solution. The role of iron in the physiology of plants 
appears to be associated with specific enzymatic reactions and 
the production of chlorophyll. Iron deficiency occurs always in 
soils with a pH of over 7.5. It affects young leaves, which appear 
scorched. It should be dealt with by reducing the pH level by 
adding peat. Aluminium sulphate or ferrous sulphate can be 
used, but they may have the effect of making the phosphate in 
the soil unavailable to plants, resulting in phosphorus defi- 
ciency. 

Irouleguy AOC 

France a small appellation in the Basque region of France, near 
the western Pyrenees, that produces red, rose and white wines 
from local grape varieties, including Tannat {pronounced ee rob 
lay gee) 

irrigation 

the artificial supplying and application of water to land with 
growing crops. Irrigation can be carried out using powered 
rotary sprinklers, rain guns or spray lines or by channelling 
water along underground pipes or small irrigation canals from 
reservoirs or rivers. 




170 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ Wr- »t‘ ',Vr 

0 Irsai Oliver, Irsay Oliver 

an eastern European hybrid white grape variety that produces 
an aromatic white wine rather like a Muscat. ‘Irsai Oliver’ is the 
Hungarian form of the name and ‘Irsay Oliver’ the Slovakian. 
( pronounced eersh6 olivair) 

0 Isabella 

a red-wine hybrid grape variety grown decreasingly in parts of 
Georgia, Brazil, Switzerland and Uruguay. 

Also called Americano 

Ischia DOC 

Italy a DOC area on the island of Ischia in the bay of Naples in 
Italy that produces small quantities of red and white wines. The 
reds are often made with the Piedirosso grape variety, (pro- 
nounced iski a) 

isinglass 

a type of gelatin obtained from freshwater sturgeon fish and 
once used in fining red wines. It is now replaced mostly by 
gelatin made from cattle bones. 

ISO glass 

a standard shape and size of the ideal glass for use when tasting 
wine, established by the International Organization for Stan- 
dardization. 

See also glass 

Isonzo DOC 

Italy a DOC area in northeastern Italy growing a wide range of 
grape varieties but producing particularly good red wine from 
Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc grapes and white wine 
from Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc (pronounced ee zontso) 

Italian vermouth 

a dark-coloured sweet vermouth made in Italy 

Italy 

the second-largest wine-producing country in the world. Italy 
has a wide range of climatic regions, from cool mountain ranges 
in the north to hot regions in the south, and grows an equally 
wide range of grape varieties. Within Italy there are 20 large 
grape-growing regions, which have smaller areas and vineyards 
within them. There are 900,000 registered vineyards. The Italian 
wines are classified in a system similar to the French Appellation 




Italy 171 

fl»iS!si!^s>iS!siys'ss!siys<iS!siy3>iS!^ 

d’Origine Controlee: the highest-quality wines are listed as 
DOCG (Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita), 
which so far only applies to fifteen areas; DOC (Denominazione 
di Origine Controllata) includes a wide range of medium-quality 
wines; Vino Tipico refers to a lower-quality local wine; the 
lowest quality of wine is classed as Vino da Tavola (table wine). 
Italy is a mixture of fierce tradition and sophisticated modern 
methods, and vines are grown everywhere from north to south. 
In Piedmont, in the northwest, the Nebbiolo grape produces the 
fine wines of Barolo and Barbaresco, and the Dolcetto and 
Barbera varieties are also found. On the other side of the 
country, in Friuli-Venezia, Alto Adige and the Veneto, indi- 
genous white grapes such as Garganega, Tocai and Ribolla 
Gialla vie with the imported varieties, Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot 
Gris (Pinot Grigio) and Chardonnay. The popular light, spark- 
ling red wine Lambrusco comes from central Italy, and Tuscany 
provides the world with Chianti. Of note also are the wines from 
this area known as Supertuscans. 

See also Sicily 




Wine regions of Italy 



■iJfeSVr 



J 

• »t‘ ■StlX vVr- •atJX v’VV.V vVr- »t‘ v’W»(.‘ vVr- •St^X v’W.V vVr- »t‘ vVf « 

W/ne is the most healthful / and most hygienic / of beverages. 

Louis Pasteur, 1873 



Jaboulet-A?ne, Paul 

a well-known negociant and grower in the Rhone region of 
France, producing good quality red and white wines (pro- 
nounced zhabboo lay ay nay) 

Jacob’s Creek 

Australia a well-respected winery in the Barossa Valley region of 
South Australia, producing good red and white still wines from 
Riesling, Semilion, Chardonnay, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon 
and Syrah (Shiraz) grape varieties. Britons drink more than 30 
million bottles of Jacob’s Creek a year. 

0 Jacquere 

a white- wine grape variety grown mostly in the Savoie region of 
eastern France to produce dry, light white wines (pronounced 
zh a kair) 

Jadot, Louis see Maison Louis Jadot 
Jaffelin 

an old-established negociant in Beaune in the Burgundy region 
of France ( pronounced zhaf laN) 

Jahrgang 

German year, or vintage year (pronounced yaar gang, plural 

Jahrgange) 

James Herrick Wines 

an Australian-owned wine-producing company in the Langue- 
doc-Roussillon region of southern France best-known for pro- 
ducing white wines from Chardonnay and full red wines from 
Syrah grapes 

2 jammy 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine with a strong, sweet, fruity 
taste of berries 




Julienas AOC 173 

* ■■’WA' VVr.'lSt‘ VVr-’lA‘ VVr.-lA‘ '-Vr* •,'SV , A‘ •***■ Wr- , lSt‘ •,Vr. , A‘ '-Vr* '-Vr 

jaune 

French yellow, (pronounced zhon) 

.Sbe fl/.w vin jaune 

Jerez-Xeres-Sherry DO 

Spain a DO area in southwestern Spain, with Jerez de la 
Frontera as its main city, where sherry is made, particularly 
centred on a smaller subregion called Jerez Superior that has soil 
better suited to the grapes required to make sherry. ( pronounced 
he reth he ress sherri) 

See cdso sherry 

Jerez-Xeres-Sherry Manzanilla 

Spain a sherry-producing area of southwestern Spain compris- 
ing the Jerez-Xeres-Sherry and Manzanilla Sanlucar de Barra- 
meda DOs {pronounced he reth he ress sherri manths neelys) 

jeroboam 

an oversize wine bottle that can hold the equivalent of four 
standard bottles of sparkling wine in the Champagne region 
(3 litres) or six standard bottles of wine in the Bordeaux region 
(4 litres) 

jeropiga, geropiga 

Portuguese partially fermented sweet grape juice that is used to 
blend with port wines to sweeten the blend (pronounced zhair 
roppigo) 

0 Johannisberg Riesling another name for Riesling 
joven 

Spanish used to describe a wine from the previous year’s harvest 
and with little or no oak ageing (pronounced khoven, literally 
‘young’) 

jug wine 

a cheap wine sold in large bottles or plastic containers. Origin- 
ally jug wines were those sold to customers who brought and 
filled their own containers in the shop or cellar. 

2 i uic y 

(tasting term ) used to describe a wine with a lot of sweet fruit 

julienas AOC 

France a cru (village and surrounding area) in the Beaujolais 
region of France growing Gamay grapes to produce relatively 
full-bodied red wines (pronounced zhool yay naa) 




174 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

rjhf »t‘ •>¥,. »t‘ *■*' »V ■¥V»t‘ »t‘ vYr-- »t‘ ■¥V»V •,¥<■ »V ■¥V»t‘ *’*■ -,Vr 

jumilla DO 

Spain a DO area in eastern Spain growing the Monastrell grape 
to produce hearty red wines with high alcohol levels and the 
Merseguera grape to produce ordinary white wines (pronounced 
hoo meelys) 

Jura 

France a wine region named after the Jura Mountains of eastern 
France near the Swiss border that produces a wide range of 
wines but is best-known for a vin jaune (‘yellow wine’) that is 
similar to a pale sherry (pronounced zho'o ra) 

Jurancon AOC 

France an appellation in the Pyrenees region of southwestern 
France that produces dry, aromatic white wines from local 
varieties of grape (pronounced zhoor aaN soN) 





• »t‘ W,»V W,- »V VW»V VVr- »t‘ W,»V VVr. ■***■ VVf Wr- »t‘ W,»V VVr. W, 

Truth comes out in wine. Pliny the Elder, 77 



Kabinett 

German the lowest of the six categories in the German classi- 
fication for its highest-quality wines (Qualitatswein mit Pradi- 
kat, QmP). These wines tend also to be the driest. Kabinett is 
also the first subcategory of Qualitatswein in Austria. ( pro- 
nounced kabbi net) 

0 Kadarka 

a red-wine grape variety grown widely in Hungary and many 
other eastern European countries where it is used to produce 
full-bodied, spicy red wines with high levels of tannin (pro- 
nounced kudurko) 

Kaiserstuhl-Tuniberg 

Germany one of the 43 Bereich regions of Germany, neighbour- 
ing the French Alsace region and growing Miiller-Thurgau, 
Pinot Gris and Pinot Noir grape varieties (pronounced k7zsr 
shtool tooni bairg) 

Kakheti 

Georgia a wine-producing region in the southeast of Georgia 
that grows 70% of the country’s wine grapes 

Kart I i 

Georgia a large wine-producing region in Georgia that grows 
grapes mainly for sparkling wines 

Kasel 

Germany a wine-producing area in the Mosel-Saar-Ruwer re- 
gion of Germany with many individual Einzellagen (vineyards) 
producing good white wines from Riesling grapes (pronounced 
kaaz’l) 

Katnook Estate 

Australia one of the most respected estates in the Coonawarra 
region of South Australia, near Adelaide, producing a range 
of red wines from Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot grape 
varieties, white wines from Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay, 




176 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •>¥,» •.’VWiV *.»' vVt-* »V vYr-- »t‘ '¥V»fc‘ VVt-* •>¥,» -,Vr 

a sparkling white wine from Chardonnay and a sweet wine from 
botrytised Riesling 

keg 

a small barrel used to age or store wine 

0 Kekfrankos another name for Blaufrankisch (pronounced kayk 
frunkosh, used in Hungary) 

0 Keknyelii 

a white-wine grape variety that was once widely grown in 
Hungary but is now grown in few vineyards. It produces slightly 
sweet white wines, (pronounced kayk nyelloo) 

Keller 

German a cellar, especially in an estate or vineyard (pronounced 
kellsr, plural Keller) 

Kellerei 

German a wine cellar, especially at a wine merchant (pronounced 
kells r7, plural Kellereien) 

Kendall-jackson 

a large wine-producing company based in California, USA, but 
with interests also in Chile and Argentina 

Kent Rasmussen Winery see A Winemaker’s View 

Keppoch see Padthaway 

0 Kerner 

a white hybrid grape variety grown mostly in Germany to 
produce wine similar to Riesling ( pronounced kairnor) 

kick-up, kick same as punt 

King Valley 

Australia a wine-producing region in northeastern Victoria 

kir 

a popular aperitif invented in the Burgundy region of France, in 
which a tiny spoonful of creme de cassis (a blackcurrant liqueur) 
is added to a glass of dry white wine to give it a pale pink colour. 
If it is dark pink, it has too much cassis and will be too sweet to 
drink, (pronounced keer) 

0 Kiralyleanyka 

a native Hungarian white grape variety producing an aromatic, 
grapey white wine ( pronounced ki raa le aa nysks) 




KWV 177 

»V VVr* *’*■ VVr.* -.Vr.* •***■ VVr-’»t‘ -fllV A‘ V¥r- »t‘ •,'SIV’A‘ W, 

kir royale 

a popular variation on the traditional kir in which sparkling 
white wine or Champagne is used instead of still dry white wine. 
( pronounced keer roy aal) 

See also kir 

Klein Constantia 

South Africa a wine-producing estate in Constantia in Cape 
Province, South Africa, producing superb Sauvignon Blanc and 
Semilion wines but also a sweet dessert wine made from Muscat 
a Petits Grains grapes (pronounced klayn kon staantya) 

0 Klevner another name for Pinot Blanc (pronounced klefnsr, 
used in Alsace, France) 

Kloster Eberbach 

Germany an ancient former Cistercian monastery, now state- 
owned, in the Rheingau region of Germany that produces 
Steinberg, a famous Riesling (pronounced klSstsr aybsr baakh) 

Knappstein, Tim 

a well-respected winemaker based in the Adelaide Hills region 
of South Australia, producing a range of good wines based on 
Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and Sauvignon Blanc grape varieties 
(pronounced nap st6n) 

Knights Valley AVA 

USA a small appellation in Sonoma County, California, be- 
tween Napa Valley AVA and Alexander Valley AVA, that 
grows mainly Cabernet Sauvignon grapes for red wines 

kokineli 

Greek on retsina labels, rose. 

See retsina 
kosher wine 

a wine made according to strict Jewish law, subject to inspection 
by a rabbi and with each step of the process handled only by 
Orthodox Jews 

Krug 

a famous Champagne house in the Champagne region of France, 
producing high-quality non-vintage wine (called Grande Cuvee) 
and a small quantity of vintage and rose (pronounced kroog) 

KWV 

S African the South African Cooperative Wine-growers Associa- 
tion, a leading exporter of wine and spirits from South Africa. 
Full form Ko-operatiewe Wijnbowers Vereniging 




The Wine of Life keeps oozing drop by drop, /The Leaves of Life keep 
failing one by one. Edward FitzGerald, 1859 



label 

a piece of printed paper that is stuck around a bottle of wine 
giving the name of the wine and other details about the wine and 
its origins 

labelling information 

information printed on the label of a wine bottle. Some of the 
information is required by law, some is provided by the pro- 
ducer. The alcoholic content by volume and the volume of the 
wine contained in the bottle must be shown, and still wines 
usually include the year the grapes were picked, the name of the 
vineyard or estate and the name of the importer or negotiant. 
Wines from some countries also include the name of the village 
or appellation, the standard to which the wine was made or the 
grading supplied for the wine by the country’s quality standard 
and the name of the predominant grape used in making the 
wine. Lastly, the label also includes the name of the importer. 
Some countries such as the USA also require the sulphite levels 
to be noted together with a government health warning. 

labrusca see Vitis labrusca 

La Cote 

Switzerland a wine-producing area in Switzerland growing 
mostly Chasselas grapes for white wine ( pronounced la k6t) 

lactic acid 

a natural acid that occurs in wine, as well as in many other foods 
and drinks, and is only noticeable if the wine has undergone 
malolactic fermentation 

Lafite-Rothschild, Chateau 

France a famous vineyard in the Pauillac AOC in the Medoc 
district of Bordeaux in southwestern France, producing a red 
wine graded premier cru (first growth) in the classification of 
1855 {pronounced la feet rot sheeld) 




Lambrusco di Sorbara DOC 179 

-»t‘ vVr- »t‘ •,'SIV’A‘ »t‘ VS6** 1 VSIV* 1 vVr- »t‘ VVr-’»t‘ VVT-’»t‘ VSV3S 1 vVr- »t‘ •.'SIVA' VVr 

lagar 

a large stone trough traditionally used to tread and ferment 
grapes when making port or sherry. It has now largely been 
replaced by crushing machines and stainless steel vats, {pro- 
nounced la ga'ar, plural lagares) 

La Grande Dame see Veuve Clicquot 
0 Lagrein 

a red-wine grape variety grown mostly in the Trentino-Alto 
Adige region of Italy and used to make big red wines and good 
rose wines (pronounced laag r7n) 

LAI abbreviation leaf area index 

Lake County 

USA a large county in California that covers part of the North 
Coast AVA but also includes three smaller AVAs within its 
boundaries, Benmore Valley, Clear Lake and Guenoc Valley. It 
grows mostly Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon 
Blanc and Zinfandel grape varieties. 

Lake Erie AVA 

USA a viticultural area that takes in parts of the states of 
Pennsylvania, Ohio and New York. It produces wine from 
classic vines, hybrids and native American varieties. 

Lalande-de-Pomerol AOC 

France an appellation in the Pomerol district of the Bordeaux 
region of southwestern France, growing mostly Merlot grapes 
to produce good red wines ( pronounced la laaNd do pommo rol) 

La Mancha DO 

Spain the largest wine-producing DO region in Spain in the 
central Castilla-la Mancha region, producing good everyday 
red, white and rose wines (pronounced la mancha) 

0 Lambrusco 

a red-wine grape variety that is widely grown across Italy, 
especially in the Emilia-Romagna region (pronounced lam 
broosko, plural Lambruscos) 

Lambrusco di Sorbara DOC 

Italy a DOC area in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern 
Italy that grows Lambrusco grapes to produce a well-known 
slightly sparkling (frizzante), medium sweet, pale red wine 
( pronounced lam broosko di sawr baaro) 




180 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ *■*' •>¥<. »t‘ *■*' vVt-* »t‘ ^Vr-. »t‘ v’VViV VVt-* '.Vf A‘ v¥,» vVr 

la Mejanelle see Coteaux de la Mejanelle 
La M ission Haut-Brion, Chateau 

France a cru classe chateau in the Pessac-Leognan AOC in the 
Graves district of the Bordeaux region of France. Its top-quality 
red wine is made from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Ca- 
bernet Franc grapes, {pronounced la meess yoN o bree yoN) 

(5 Lancers 

a brand of medium sweet, slightly sparkling rose Portuguese 
wine that is especially sold in the USA 

Landwein 

German a category within the German wine classification that 
relates to its table wine, Deutscher Tafelwein, and describes a 
better class of table wine. These wines have low levels of sugar, 
so are dry (trocken) or slightly sweet (halbtrocken) and are 
roughly equivalent to the French vins de pays, (pronounced land 
v6n, plurcd Landweine) 

Languedoc 

France a wine-producing area of southern France, the eastern 
part of the Languedoc-Roussillon region, (pronounced laaNgs 
dok) 

See also Coteaux du Languedoc AOC 
Languedoc-Roussillon 

France a large and rapidly improving wine-producing area in 
southern France stretching along the Mediterranean coast and 
producing over a third of all the wine produced in France. It 
includes 4 of the 95 administrative departements (Aude, Gard, 
Flerault and Pyrenees-Orientales). Most of the wine is red, from 
Carignan, Cinsault and Grenache grape varieties. There are four 
areas of AOC status: Fitou, Corbieres, Minervois and Coteaux 
du Languedoc. In its more than 500 cooperatives Languedoc- 
Roussillon also makes more wine of vin ordinaire quality than 
any other part of France, as well as a huge quantity of vin de pays, 
labelled as Vin de Pays d'Oc. Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, 
Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc are used in vins de pays (they 
are not permitted in the AOC wines) and are most often sold as 
varietals, (pronounced \ aaNgo dok roossi yoN) 

Also called Midi 

'2 lanolin 

(tasting term) a creamy flavour and aroma associated with wines 
made from Semilion and Chenin Blanc grapes 




lateral 181 

5SV vVr* ■.’Wit' vVi'-'A" •,¥,» vVr* ■JSIV* 1 •***■ '¥WSt‘ vVf* vVr* vVf'iSt‘ -,Vr 

Lanson 

a well-known Champagne house in the Champagne region of 
France, best-known for its non- vintage Black Label Champagne 
but also producing a good vintage Champagne (pronounced 
laaN soN) 

0 Lardot another name for Macabeo 

La Rioja Alavesa, La Rioja Alta, La Rioja Baja see Rioja 
DOCa 

La Romanee AOC 

France a very small vineyard appellation in the village of Vosne- 
Romanee in the Burgundy region of France classed as a grand 
cru and producing some of the very best red wine in the region. 
It grows Pinot Noir grapes to produce some of the best red 
wines of Burgundy. ( pronounced la ro ma nay) 

La Tache AOC 

France a vineyard appellation in the Burgundy region of France 
producing some of the very best red wine in the region. Rated 
grand cru, like its neighbouring vineyard, Romanee-Conti, it 
grows Pinot Noir grapes on the small vineyard to produce rich, 
intense red wines, (pronounced la taash) 

late bottled vintage abbreviation LBV 
See port 

late disgorged 

used to describe a sparkling wine that has been aged on the lees 
longer than normal, providing more flavour, before it goes 
through the process of disgorgement, when the sediment is 
removed 

late harvest 

used on wine labels to refer to a wine made from grapes left on 
the vine to ripen, often till almost dry and raisin-like, then 
picked. This gives the grapes much higher than normal levels of 
sugar and can also include grapes affected with Botrytis cinerea 
rot, further concentrating sugar levels. The result is a very rich, 
sweet dessert wine. 

lateral 

1 . a bud or shoot that branches off from the main branch of a 
vine 

2 . a root that branches off a main root 




182 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V »’*' ■.’VWSV vVr.’»t‘ -?Vr'J>‘ •-'W A‘ ■.’VWSV VVf’.f VVr 

latitude 

the geographical location of a vineyard described using the 
parallel rings around the Earth running east-west. Vineyards 
in different countries on the same latitude can have similar 
climates and growing conditions. 

Latium see Lazio ( pronounced latti am) 

Latour, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Pauillac district of the Haut-Medoc in 
the Bordeaux region of southwestern France, graded premier 
cru (first growth) in the classification of 1855. It grows Cabernet 
Sauvignon grapes to produce red wine that ages well. The 
second-label wine is labelled Les Forts de Fatour. (pronounced 
la toor) 

Latour, Louis 

a vineyard-owner and negotiant in the Cote d'Or region of 
Burgundy, best-known for his good-quality white wines and 
range of red wines (pronounced la toor) 

La Tour Blanche, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Sauternes area of Bordeaux, graded 
premier cru (first growth, below only Chateau d'Yquem) in the 
classification of 1855. The estate was given to the French 
government at the start of the 20th century and is now a college 
of viticulture, (pronounced la toor blaaNsh) 

La Tour-Carnet, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Flaut-Medoc area of Bordeaux graded 
quatrieme cru (fourth growth) in the classification of 1855. It 
produces good red wines from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, 
Cabernet Franc and Petit Verdot grape varieties, (pronounced la 
toor kaar nay) 

I’Aubance see Coteaux de I’Aubance AOC 
Laurent Perrier 

a Champagne house in Tours-sur-Marne in the Champagne 
region of France, producing a large quantity of non-vintage 
Champagne, a premium Cuvee Grand Siecle and its vintage 
Champagne Millesime Rare (pronounced law raaN perree ay) 

Lavaux 

Switzerland a wine-growing region in the Vaud canton in 
Switzerland, producing some of the country’s best white wines 
from Chasselas grapes (pronounced la v6) 




leafroll virus 183 

» ■■’VWSfc' •***■ vVr-’iSt‘ •,'SV , A‘ '.’VWSV WrW •***■ ->Vr» vVr* '.’Wit' ',Vr 

laying down 

the act of storing wine in the correct environment to age and 
improve it. 

See also temperature; wine cellar 
Layon see Coteaux de Layon AOC 
Lazio 

Italy a wine-producing region around Rome that includes 16 
DOC areas and produces predominantly white wines from 
Trebbiano and Malvasia grapes, {pronounced latsi 5) 

Also called Latium 

LBV abbreviation late bottled vintage (port) 

lead 

The lead content of modern wines is generally extremely low. Lead 
in wine is caused mainly by two things, lead wrappers around the 
top of a bottle (now almost totally replaced with aluminium foil or 
plastic wrappers) and the possible leaching of lead from crystal 
decanters if used to store wines for an extended period. 

leaf 

While leaves are needed for photosynthesis to occur, which 
provides some of the energy for a plant, if a vine produces too 
many leaves, it could produce too little fruit; leaf, or canopy, 
control is therefore important in viticulture. The leaves can also 
shade the grape berries from the sun, which would prevent them 
ripening well, and the different vine training and canopy man- 
agement techniques are designed to avoid this. 

leaf area index 

the area of green leaf exposed to sunlight per unit area of 
ground. 

Abbreviation LAI 

leaf axil 

the angle above a leaf stem at the point where it is attached to a 
plant shoot where buds develop 

leaf burn 

damage done to leaves by severe weather conditions or herbi- 
cides 

leafroll virus 

a disease affecting vines that leads to reduced yields and quality. 
The leaves curl and the grapes ripen slowly. 




184 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ *■*' vVt. »t‘ VSVSSS 1 vVt-* »t‘ ^Vr-. »t‘ v’VViV vVt-* *■*' •,¥* 

leaf to fruit ratio 

a measurement of the ability of a vine to provide enough energy 
through photosynthesis for development while maintaining the 
yield and quality of the crop. The ratio is affected by the way in 
which the vine has been trained. 

2 leafy 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine that has a flavour or 
aroma reminiscent of green leaves 

leaker 

a bottle of wine in which wine is slowly oozing from the cork 

2 lean 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine that is low on fruit with 
noticeable acidity. Leanness is not necessarily a bad quality. 
Compare fleshy 
0 Leanyka 

a white-wine grape variety grown in Hungary and Romania that 
produces soft white wines that are often medium sweet ( pro- 
nounced lay annysks) 

2 leathery 

(i tasting term) used to describe a wine with a definite smell and 
taste of new leather, normally a big red wine with a lot of tannin 

Lebanon 

a country whose wine exports are dominated by the Chateau 
Musar vineyard, which has endured the wars to produce a range 
of high quality red wines and a range of white wines. 

See also Musar, Chateau 

Le Cigare Volant see Bonny Doon Vineyard (pronounced la 

seegaar vo laaN) 

lees 

solid waste matter such as bits of grape skin, pips and pulp, that 
gradually sinks to the bottom of a cask or barrel. Some wines, 
especially white wines, are stored with this waste matter (called 
being ‘kept on its lees’) for a period of time to improve the 
complexity and structure of the wine. If a wine is to be stored 
on its lees in this way, the winemaker does not need to add as much 
sulphur to prevent oxidation during the ageing process in the cellar, 
although this calls for careful winemaking to prevent excess influ- 
ence on the wine’s taste from the lees. In a sparkling wine the lees 
consists of dead yeast cells that are removed during disgorgement. 
Compare sediment 




Leoville-Barton, Chateau 185 

5SV v¥r- »fc‘ «y3V '.W »t‘ v¥r- »fc‘ '.W »t‘ v¥r- »fc‘ %Vr 

lees contact 

the process of leaving a wine in contact with the lees to try and 
encourage the development of more flavour in the wine. 

See also sur lie 

lees stirring 

the process of stirring the lees in the bottoms of barrels contain- 
ing white wines, usually Chardonnays, to increase their com- 
plexity. 

Also called baton nage 
Leeuwin Estate 

Australia a wine-producing estate in the Margaret River area of 
Western Australia, producing excellent-quality red wine from 
Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and white wine from Chardonnay 

2 legs 

(i tasting term ) long lines of wine that run down the inside of the 
glass after the wine has been swirled around the glass. Higher 
alcohol content in the wine produces thicker legs that move 
slowly down the inside of the glass. 

Lehmann see Peter Lehmann 

Lemnos 

an island appellation in eastern Greece that grows especially 
Muscat and the native Limnio grapes 

2 lemony 

( tasting term) used to describe a white wine that is slightly acidic 
and reminiscent of fresh lemons 

2 length 

(tasting term) the amount of time a wine’s flavour and aroma 
will stay on the palate after the wine is swallowed. 

See also finish 

Lenz Moser 

Austria a well-respected winemaking company based near 
Krems in Austria, producing very-good-quality red wines from 
Cabernet Sauvignon and Zweigelt grape varieties as well as 
premium white wines (pronounced lents mozsr) 

Leoville-Barton, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Saint-Julien AOC in the Medoc district 
of Bordeaux in southwestern France, graded troisieme cru (third 




186 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V v¥r> »’*' VVt-* W,. »t‘ ■***■ VV,-* VVf’.f Wr- »t‘ %Vr 

growth) in the classification of 1855. It produces very good red 
wines, {pronounced lay 5 veel baar toN) 

Leoville Las-Cases, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Saint-Julien AOC in the Medoc district 
of Bordeaux in southwestern France, graded deuxieme cru 
(second growth) in the classification of 1855. This large estate 
produces powerful red wines of very good quality, (pronounced 
lay o veel laass kaaz) 

Le Pin, Chateau 

France a famous chateau in the Pomerol district of Bordeaux, 
southwestern France, producing tiny quantities of superb-qual- 
ity red wines which are possibly the most expensive and most 
sought-after red wines in the world. Le Pin is the original 
microchateau and a mere 500-600 cases of its cult wines are 
produced in the garage under a small house on the property. 
( pronounced le paN) 

Les Forts de Latour see Latour, Chateau ( pronounced lay 
fawr do la toor) 

I’Herault see Herault 
fl Liebfraumilch 

a style of sweet, often cheap, white wine exported in vast 
quantity from Germany. It originates in the Rheinhessen region 
and is made from Muller-Thurgau, Sylvaner, Kerner or Riesling 
grapes. It is in the QbA category of wine quality classification 
used in Germany. ( pronounced leeb frow milkh) 

2 lifted 

(, tasting term) used to describe a bouquet of full-bodied red 
wines produced by volatile acidity 

2 light 

1 . ( tasting term) used to describe a wine that is low in alcohol, a 
wine that has a light texture or light body, or a wine that is 
young and fruity and ready to drink young 

2. USA used, almost exclusively in California, to describe wine 
that has fewer calories than normal wine. 

See also light wine 

2 light-bodied see body 
light soil 

soil consisting mainly of large particles that are loosely held 
together because of the relatively large pore space. Light soil is 




Lindauer 187 

* ■.’Wit' •***■ vVr-’iSt‘ VSIWSe 1 '.’VWSV ■JSIV* 1 •***■ ->Vr’S>‘ vVr* vVt- , A‘ vVr 



usually easier to cultivate than heavy soil, but may dry out too 
quickly. 

light wine 

USA a wine with less than 14% alcohol per unit volume. This is 
an official categorisation. 

Liguria 

Italy a region on the northwestern coast of Italy, next to the 
French border, that has few DOC areas and produces red, white 
and rose wines {pronounced li goori s) 

0 Limburger another name for Blaufrankisch ( pronounced lim 
bobrgor) 

lime 1 

calcium compounds used to spread on soil to increase the pH 
level and correct acidity. Lime is usually applied as simple chalk 
or limestone. It takes time to affect the soil's pH level. 

2 lime 2 

{tasting term ) a taste or aroma associated with Australian white 
wines made from the Riesling grape variety 

limited bottling 

a marketing term used to describe wine that is supposedly 
produced in small quantities 

0 Limnio 

a dark grape variety grown on the island of Lemnos, north- 
eastern Greece, and in parts of the northeastern mainland 

Limousin 

France a region in the south of France, near the town of 
Limoges, that grows the oak used in many wine barrels. This 
oak has a more open grain than other oak woods which may 
allow the oak flavour to be extracted quickly, {pronounced lee 
moo zaN) 

2 limpid 

{tasting term) used to describe wine that is brilliant and bright 

Lindauer 

New Zealand a well-known winery producing good-quality 
sparkling wines from Pinot Noir and Chardonnay grape vari- 
eties (pronounced lin dow or) 




188 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V '»¥,.’*■ »’*' VVf’A' Wr- »t‘ VVt. »t‘ •-Vf A‘ VV,-* VWiV Wr- »t‘ %Vr 

Lindemans 

Australia a wine-producing estate in the Hunter Valley area of 
New South Wales, Australia producing good-quality red wine 
from Syrah (Shiraz) grapes and white wines from Chardonnay 
and Semilion (pronounced lindomsnz) 

Lingenfelder see Weingut Lingenfelder 

2 lingering 

(i tasting term ) used to describe a wine whose flavour persists on 
the palate for a long time after tasting. 

Compare long 

liqueur 

a strong, sweet alcoholic drink, often made from wine, usually 
taken after a meal. Most liqueurs are sold under trade names. 

liqueur de tirage 

French same as dosage I (pronounced lee kur do tee raazh, plural 

liqueurs de tirage) 

liqueur d’expedition 

French same as dosage I (pronounced lee kur dek spa dissyoN, 
plural liqueurs d’expedition) 

A Liqueur Muscat 

an Australian dessert wine made from Muscat grapes 

liquoureux 

French (tasting term) used to describe a sweet dessert wine 
(pronounced lee koo ro) 

2 liquorice 

(tasting term) a taste or aroma associated with young tannic red 
wines, e.g. from the Rhone region of France, and also with red 
or white wines made from grapes that have been partially dried 
in the sun 

liquoroso 

Italian a sweet, fortified wine with a high alcohol content, e.g. 
Marsala (pronounced liks rosso, plural liquorosi) 

Lirac AOC 

France a large appellation in the southern Rhone region of 
France that grows mostly Grenache, Cinsault and Mourvedre 
grape varieties to make full-bodied red wines and some rose 
wines (pronounced lee rak) 




long 189 

»V VVr* •,'SlVA‘ VVr.-»t‘ V¥r- »t‘ 'JSlV* 1 •***■ -fllV A‘ V¥r- »t‘ •,'SIV , A‘ %¥, 

Lison-Pramaggiore DOC 

Italy a DOC area in the Veneto region of northeastern Italy, 
growing a range of red and white grapes (pronounced leezon 
prams jaw ray) 

Listrac AOC 

France an appellation in the Haut-Medoc district of the Bor- 
deaux region of France producing red wines from Cabernet 
Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot grape varieties ( pro- 
nounced lee strak) 

litre 

the standard metric unit of volume measurement 

2 lively 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that is crisp, fresh and fruity 

Livermore Valley AVA 

USA a small wine-producing area in Almeda County that was 
one of the first regions to grow vines in California. It now 
produces a range of wines from Sauvignon Blanc, Cabernet 
Sauvignon and Chardonnay grape varieties. 

lodge 

a warehouse where port is stored and aged 

Lodi AVA 

USA a wine-producing area in the Central Valley region of 
California that grows Sauvignon Blanc and Zinfandel grape 
varieties as well as having smaller vineyards growing Chardon- 
nay and Chenin Blanc 

Loir see Coteaux du Loir AOC 
Loire 

France a famous, large wine-producing region in northeastern 
France, running along the Loire river and containing a range of 
famous appellations that produce fine white and red wines and, 
in Anjou, also roses ( pronounced lwaar) 

Lombardy 

Italy a wine-producing region in northern Italy growing mostly 
Nebbiolo grapes for red wine and Trebbiano grapes for white 
wine (pronounced lombsrdi) 

2 long 

(tasting term) used to describe a desirable lingering flavour on 
the palate after the wine has been swallowed 




190 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ *■*' vVt. »t‘ *■*' vVt-* »t‘ vVr-- »t‘ VSVSS 1 '.Vt-* ■¥V»t‘ vVrJV •,¥* 

Long Island 

USA a wine-producing island in New York State that has two 
AVAs growing a wide variety of vines: native American, Amer- 
ican hybrids, European hybrids and especially classic Bordeaux 

Loosen, Dr 

a famous winemaker from the Mosel region of Germany, run- 
ning the family winery and producing a range of very good white 
wines based on the Riesling grape variety ( pronounced lbs’n) 

Los Carneros see Carneros AVA 

Louis Roederer 

a famous though small grande marque Champagne house in the 
Champagne region of France producing some of the best 
Champagnes in the world, including those under its prestige 
label, Cristal {pronounced lo'o ee rSdsrsr) 

Loupiac AOC 

France an appellation in the Bordeaux region of France, grow- 
ing Semilion, Sauvignon Blanc and Muscadelle grapes to make 
a light, sweet white wine similar to Sauternes (pronounced loo 
pee yak) 

0 Loureiro 

a white-wine grape variety grown especially in northwestern 
Portugal to produce Vinho Verde (pronounced loo rayro) 

Lower Great Southern Region 

Australia a large region that is part of the state of Western 
Australia in Australia, growing Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah 
(Shiraz) and Merlot grapes to make red wine and growing 
Riesling, Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc to make white wine 

Luberon see Cdtes du Luberon AOC 

Lunel see Muscat de Lunel AOC 

Lungarotti 

Italy an influential winemaker with vineyards in the Torgiano 
DOCG in the Umbria region of Italy 

Lurton 

a family of wine-estate owners and growers in the Bordeaux 
region of France, some of whose younger members have become 
viticultural consultants throughout the world (pronounced 
loor toN) 




lyre 191 

* VVr* -.’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ •-Vr-* --Vr* •,'SV , A‘ •,Vr. , lSt‘ VVr-’lSt‘ VVr* •,'!IVA‘ '-Vr 

^ luscious, lush 

(tasting term) used to describe a rich, smooth wine with lots of 
residual sugar content, e.g. a sweet white wine from Sauternes 

Lussac-Saint-Emilion AOC 

France an appellation on the outskirts of the Saint-Emilion 
district of Bordeaux, southwestern France, growing mostly 
Merlot grapes to produce good red wine (pronounced loo sak 
sant ay meelyoN) 

0 Lutomer 

a brand of medium dry white wine produced in Slovenia from 
Riesling grapes {pronounced loo tSmsr) 

Luxembourg 

a tiny country between Germany and Belgium that produces 
small quantities of light, fruity white wine from grapes growing 
along the Mosel (Moselle) river, which forms the border with 
Germany to the east. It grows mostly Auxerrois Blanc, Elbling, 
Riesling and Gewurztraminer grape varieties. 

LVMH 

a giant French company that owns a wide range of luxury 
brands including Moet-Hennessy (the MFI of its name) produ- 
cing Moet et Chandon Champagne and Flennessy Cognac 

2 lychee 

(tasting term) a taste or aroma associated with white wines made 
from the Gewurztraminer grape variety 

Lynch-Bages, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Pauillac AOC in the Medoc district of 
Bordeaux in southwestern France, graded cinquieme cru (fifth 
growth) in the classification of 1855. It produces a fragrant red 
wine that has always been highly regarded in the UK. (pro- 
nounced laNsh baazh) 

Lyonnais 

( pronounced lee o nay) 

0 I. a white-wine grape variety grown in small quantities in the 
Bordeaux region of France 

2 . see Coteaux du Lyonnais AOC 

lyre 

a trellis structure developed in Bordeaux to help train and 
support vines to improve the yield and quality of the grapes 




CM 

-»t‘ StfSKf v¥,» VSIM* 1 v¥, »fc‘ StfSKf •>¥,» '¥V»fc‘ -StJX ‘StfX vVA 1 vVr 

It’s a naive domestic Burgundy, without any breeding. But I think you’ll be 
amused by its presumption. James Thurber, 1943 



0 Macabeo 

a white grape variety, now grown widely in Spain, particularly 
in the Rioja region (where it is often called Viura), that produces 
high yields of grapes that make light, fruity white wines that are 
high in acid. The wine does not oxidise easily in the same way as 
wine from some of the more traditional white Rioja grapes that 
it has largely displaced. This grape variety is also blended to 
make sparkling white wines in Spain and is grown in southern 
France, where it is used to produce Cotes du Roussillon white 
wine, (pronounced maks bay o) 

Also called Alcanol; Lardot; Maccabeo; Maccabeu; Viura 

0 Maccabeo, Maccabeu same as Macabeo ( pronounced inako 
bay o or maks bay oo, used in France)) 

maceration 

the period of time during which the grape juice is left in contact 
with the grape skins, seeds and fragments of stem, and the 
processes that take place during this time. This period of contact 
allows the grape juice to take on colour, flavour and acids. In red 
wines maceration lasts at least as long as primary fermentation, 
but may be prolonged, in extended maceration, for up to several 
weeks to increase the colour and flavour. Before primary fermen- 
tation some winemakers undertake cold maceration, in which the 
grape juice is stored with the skins and seeds at a temperature too 
cold to allow fermentation to start. Carbonic maceration, used 
particularly in the Loire region of France, involves fermenting the 
whole bunches of grapes, with their stalks, in a closed container; it 
produces wine that is full-flavoured with a deep red colour and lots 
of fruit flavour but low in tannin. 

maceration carbonique 

French carbonic maceration (pronounced mas say rassyoN 
kaarbo neek) 

See maceration 




*■ ■JS1V3S‘ vVr* 



Madeira DOC 193 

VVT-’»t‘ VVT>’»t‘ V’W , »t‘ VVr 



Macon AOC 

France an appellation that covers a large area of southern 
Burgundy growing Chardonnay and Camay grape varieties 
to produce red, white and rose wine (pronounced ma koN) 

0 Maconnais 

( pronounced ma ko nay) 

1 . France a large wine-producing region in southern Burgundy, 
just to the north of the Beaujolais region, with the town of 
Macon on the Saone river as its centre. Two-thirds of this 
region's production is white wine from the Chardonnay grape. 
Gamay is grown for sale under the Macon Rouge label, along 
with a smaller but increasing quantity of Pinot Noir grapes for 
wine that can be labelled Bourgogne and sold at a higher price. 
The region includes a number of its own appellations, including 
the three regional Macon AOCs of Macon, Macon Superieur 
and Macon-Villages, as well as a number of villages that have 
their own appellations, the most famous of which is Pouilly- 
Fuisse. 

2. another name for Altesse 
Macon Superieur AOC 

France an appellation that indicates wines produced within the 
Macon AOC but with at least 1 % more alcohol per unit volume 
than the standard red or white wine (pronounced ma koN soo 
payree ur) 

Macon-Villages AOC 

France an appellation that produces the best-quality white wine 
of the three Maconnais appellations. The wines can either be 
named Macon-Villages or Macon followed by the name of one 
of the 43 qualifying local villages, e.g. Macon-Vire is a Macon- 
Villages AOC wine, (pronounced ma koN vee laazh) 

macroclimate 

the climate over a large area such as the Cote de Nuits 

Compare mesoclimate; microclimate 

Madeira DOC 

Portugal an island in the Atlantic Ocean about 1 ,000 kilometres, 
or 625 miles, off the coast of Portugal. It is a DOC wine- 
producing area renowned for the famous fortified wine of the 
same name. It can be one of the longest-living wines in the 
world. Most Madeira is produced in an unusual way through 
heat and oxidation, which would usually spoil a wine. This 




194 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V »’*' VV,.* VWiV VV,.* VVr-* VVr 

process is called estufagem, or baking, and in effect accelerates 
the ageing of the wine. The more ordinary wine is placed in a 
lined concrete tank containing a stainless steel coil through 
which hot water circulates for at least three months; finer 
Madeira is placed in wooden casks and stored in a heated room 
for a longer time. The finest wine is not heated artificially at all, 
but is exposed only to the sun. The wine develops a slightly 
bitter, tangy taste and can vary in colour from pale gold to dark 
tawny. There are four different styles of Madeira: Sercial is light, 
dry and pale gold in colour; Verdelho is sweeter and stronger; 
Boal is sweeter, stronger and darker in colour; finally Malmsey 
is the sweetest and darkest. Sercial and Verdelho are normally 
served as an aperitif, Boal and Malmsey as a dessert wine. A 
historic medium dry style called rainwater is still also sometimes 
found. 

Madera AVA 

USA a large wine-producing area of California that covers 
much of Madera County and part of Fresno County. It grows 
mostly Colombard and Chenin Blanc grape varieties for white 
wines and Zinfandel and Grenache for red wines. 

maderised 

(; tasting term) used to describe spoiled table wine that has been 
badly stored and has oxidised, resulting in a wine with a brown 
colour and flat, oxidised taste 

Madiran AOC 

France an appellation in southwestern France around the base 
of the Pyrenean mountains that grows the Tannat grape variety 
to produce red wines (pronounced maddee raaN) 

mad re 

Italian a reduced sweet liquid produced from the previous year’s 
wine, added in the production of vin santo ( literally ‘mother’) 

Mad rid see Vinos de Madrid DO 
maduro 

Portuguese mature or aged (pronounced ma dooro) 

Magdelaine, Chateau 

France an estate within the Saint-Emilion AOC of Bordeaux in 
southwestern France, classed as a premier grand cru classe and 
producing good-quality red wine from Merlot and a small 
proportion of Cabernet Franc grapes (pronounced magdo layn) 




Malbec 195 

»V VVr* •,'Vr'ft' *’*■ V¥r- »t‘ 'JSlV * 1 VVt. »t‘ VVr-’»t‘ -fllV A‘ V¥r- »t‘ %¥, »t‘ %Vr 

magnum 

a bottle that can contain 1.5 litres, twice the size of a standard 
750 ml bottle. 

See also double magnum 

Maipo 

Chile the smallest and most famous of the wine-producing regions 
of Chile producing roughly equal quantities of red and white 
wines, mainly from Cabernet Sauvignon and Semilion grapes 

Maison Louis Jadot 

France an influential grower and negotiant in Beaune in the 
Burgundy region of France that owns a range of vineyards in the 
area producing excellent white wines and very good red wines 
( pronounced may zoN lob ee zha do) 

maTtre de chai 

French a cellar-master who is in charge of the ageing of wines 
( pronounced maytrs do shay, plurcd maitres de chai) 

0 Malaga another name for Cinsault (pronounced mallago) 

Malaga DO 

Spain a small DO region in southern Spain, centred on the city 
port of Malaga, that, historically, was the dominant area for 
sweet, fortified wine production in Spain until it was devastated 
by phylloxera in the late 1 870s. The wine was much drunk in the 
UK and USA under the name ‘Mountain'. Now sherry from the 
neighbouring Jerez area is the best-known sweet, fortified wine 
of Spain. The Malaga region still produces sweet, fortified wines 
from Moscatel or Pedro Ximenez grapes in a range of styles, 
some using the solera system. To qualify for DO status, wines 
must be aged within the city of Malaga. The sweetness can result 
from stopping fermentation by adding grape spirit, by adding 
concentrated unfermented grape must before or after fermenta- 
tion, or, less commonly now, by the traditional method of 
drying the grapes in the sun. (pronounced mallags) 

0 Malbec 

a red-wine grape grown in the Bordeaux, Loire and Cahors regions 
of France, in parts of California, USA, and widely in Argentina 
and Chile. This grape produces wines with an intense deep red 
colour with a berry flavour. Malbec is used alone to produce good 
fruity reds in Chile and Argentina but is blended with other 
varieties when it is used in France, (pronounced mal bek) 




196 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •>¥,. »t‘ *.»' •„y,. , A‘ vW. »t‘ vVr-- »t‘ v’VViV vVt-* *■*' vVr 

Malepere see Cotes de la Malepere AOC 
Malescot-Saint Exupery, Chateau 

France an estate within the Margaux AOC in the Medoc district of 
Bordeaux in southwestern France, graded troisieme cru (third 
growth) in the classification of 1 855. The red wines are made from 
a blend of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc and Petit 
Verdot grape varieties, {pronounced maals sko saNt ekzoo peree) 

malic acid 

an acid present within grapes that is converted to the milder 
lactic acid during the malolactic fermentation process in wine- 
making 

Malmsey 

( pronounced maamzi) 

1. another name for Malvasia {used in Madeira) 

2 . the sweetest and darkest of the fortified wines from the 
Madeira DOC on the island of Madeira 

Malmsey-style 

used to describe sweet, dark fortified wine that is produced with 
grape varieties that are good but not classic or historically 
correct for Malmsey Madeira. True Malmsey Madeira should 
be made with at least 85% of the Malvasia grape variety. 

malolactic fermentation, malolactic secondary fermen- 
tation 

a bacterial secondary fermentation that converts the malic acid 
present in grapes into the milder lactic acid, with a by-product of 
carbon dioxide gas. Almost all red wines include this second 
stage of fermentation, but producers of white wine often prevent 
this stage to ensure that the wine tastes crisp and sharp. It is also 
avoided when the grapes are overripe and too sweet. 

Also ccdled secondary fermentation 
Compare primary fermentation 
Abbreviation M-L 

0 Malvasia 

a grape variety that has both black and lighter-skinned forms 
and is used in many different styles of wine, white or light red. 
Malvasia is one of the most widely planted grapes in Italy. In 
Madeira it is the main constituent of its classic fortified wines. 
( pronounced mal vayzis) 

Also ccdled Malmsey; Malvoisie 




marc 197 

* vVr* ■.’Wit' -***■ WrW vVr* ■JSIV* 1 WrW vVr' , iSt‘ •,V, , A‘ vVr* vVt-* vVr 

0 Malvasia Bianco 

a white-skinned form of the Malvasia grape variety, grown in 
the Tuscany, Umbria and Lazio regions of Italy to produce 
flavoursome white wine that is often used to give character to 
blends {pronounced mal vayzia byangko) 

0 Malvasia Nera, Malvasia Rossa 

a dark-skinned form of the Malvasia grape variety, grown in the 
Apulia, Tuscany and Piedmont regions of Italy to produce 
flavoursome red wine that is usually used in blends {pronounced 
mal vayzia nayrra or mal vayzia rawssa) 

Malvedos see Graham, W. & J. 

0 Malvoisie another name for Malvasia {pronounced mal vwaa 
zee, used in France) 

Mancha see La Mancha DO 
manhole 

a large opening in the side of a wine tank through which the 
pomace and lees can be removed after the wine is drained off 

0 Manseng 

a grape variety that is used for sweet white wines, particularly in 
the southwestern region of France. It has two clones: Gros 
Manseng and Petit Manseng. Gros Manseng is often used for 
drier sweet wines; Petit Manseng has smaller berries than Gros 
Manseng and a thicker skin, giving the wines a stronger flavour. 
Neither type is widely grown, {pronounced maaN saN) 
manzanilla 

a dry, tangy style of fortified fino sherry produced in the Man- 
zanilla Sanlucar de Barrameda DO in the Jerez region of south- 
western Spain {pronounced manza neelya or mantha neelya) 

See sherry 

manzanilla pasada see sherry {pronounced manza neelya pa 
saada or mantha neelya) 

Manzanilla Sanlucar de Barrameda DO 

Spain a sherry-producing DO in the Jerez region of south- 
western Spain centred on the coastal town of Sanlucar de 
Barrameda and producing manzanilla {pronounced manza 
neelya san lo'oka day bara mayda or mantha neelya) 

marc 

( pronounced maar) 

I. French the residue (pomace) of grape skins, seeds and frag- 
ments of stalks left after grapes have been pressed 




198 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V v¥r> '.’VWSV •,'SlV A‘ W,. »t‘ •>¥,> »t‘ Wr- »V %Vr 

2 . a distilled spirit (eau de vie) made in many parts of the world 
by distilling pomace. In Italy it is called grappa. 

Marcobrunn 

Germany a small, but famous, Einzellage (vineyard) in the 
Rheingau region of Germany producing full-bodied, aromatic 
white wines {pronounced maarko broon) 

0 Marechal Foch 

a red hybrid grape variety grown in the eastern USA and Canada 
to produce light red wines {pronounced ma ray shal fosh) 

Margaret River 

Australia a well-known wine-producing area in Western Aus- 
tralia successfully growing Chardonnay, Semilion, Cabernet 
Sauvignon, Merlot and other grape varieties 

Margaux, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Medoc district of Bordeaux in south- 
western France graded premier cru (first growth) in the classi- 
fication of 1855. It produces deep, full-bodied red wines mainly 
from Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot grapes, and also produces 
a little white wine from Sauvignon Blanc grapes, {pronounced 
maar g&) 

Margaux AOC 

France a famous appellation in the Medoc district of Bordeaux 
in southwestern France that includes vineyards around the 
village of Margaux. It has 21 cru classe chateaux topped by 
Chateau Margaux. The AOC grows Cabernet Sauvignon, Ca- 
bernet Franc, Merlot and some Petit Verdot grapes for its red 
wines. ( pronounced maar go) 

0 Maria Gomes another name for Fernao Pires ( used in the 
Bairrada region of Portugal) {pronounced ma reea go mesh) 

Marino DOC 

Italy a wine-producing area in the Latium region of Italy, 
southeast of Rome, that grows Malvasia, Trebbiano and Bon- 
vino grape varieties to produce dry, still white wines that are 
similar in style to Frascati ( pronounced ma reeno) 

maritime climate 

the climate of growing regions near the coast that normally 
enjoy a temperate climate warmed during the day and cooled by 
sea breezes at night. New Zealand is one example of a region 




Marsala DOC 199 

» VVr* ■.’Wit' -■’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ VVr* VVt-* •***■ VVr-’lSt‘ VVr* WrW ',Vr 

with a maritime climate that benefits growing and ripening. 

Compare continental climate 

Markgraflerland 

Germany a large wine-producing Bereich (subregion) in the 
Baden region of Germany, growing mostly Chasselas (Gutedel), 
Muller- Thurgau and Pinot Noir (Spatburgunder) grape vari- 
eties (pronounced maark grayfflsr land) 

Marlborough 

New Zealand the largest wine-producing region in the country, 
in the South Island, with close to 40% of all the vineyards. 
Pioneered in 1973 by New Zealand's biggest producer, Montana 
Wines, Marlborough is especially known for wines made from 
the Sauvignon Blanc white-wine grape variety. Marlborough 
established its international reputation in the 1980s through one 
wine, the renowned Cloudy Bay. 

Marques de Caceres 

Spain a large wine-producing estate (bodega) in the Rioja DOCa 
a region of northern Spain producing mostly red wine from 
Tempranillo, Grenache (Garnacha) and Carignan (Carinena) 
grapes and smaller quantities of fruity white wines from Ma- 
cabeo (Viura) grapes ( pronounced maar kess day kaths ress) 

Marques de Murrieta 

Spain a wine-producing estate (bodega) with vineyards in the 
Rioja DOCa region of northern Spain that produces good red 
wine and a traditional white Rioja that is considered to be one of 
the best in Spain (pronounced maar kess day moori ayts) 

Marques de Riscal 

Spain a wine-producing estate (bodega) with vineyards in the 
Rioja DOCa region of northern Spain whose red wine is allowed 
to contain more Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot grapes than 
other Riojas (pronounced maar kess day reess kaal) 

Marsala DOC 

Italy the DOC area on the western edge of the island of Sicily that 
produces the famous sweet, fortified wine of the same name in 
vineyards around the town of Marsala. Marsala is produced in a 
similar way to sherry and M adeira, with oxidation during ageing. 
Marsala wine can be made from white grapes (Catarratto and 
Inzolia are popular) to produce wines of amber (ambra) or gold 
(oro) colour. Wine made from red grapes (Sangiovese, Nerello or 




200 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

tjfi? •>¥,» •.’VWiV *■*' •,'SIWSfc‘ •,'SVA‘ »t‘ ^Vr-. »t‘ v’WiV •,¥<•’*“ •,¥* 

Perricone grapes are widely used) is called rubino (ruby) Marsala. 
The wines are graded in quality, depending upon ageing and type 
of alcohol used in fortifying the wine, as fine, superiore, superiore 
riserva, vergine and vergine stravecchio, with all but fine made 
using a solera method. The finest quality of Marsala is vergine 
stravecchio, which must be aged in wood for a minimum of ten 
years. ( pronounced maar sa'alo) 

0 Marsanne 

a white-wine grape variety most often used in the northern 
Rhone region of France, but also grown in Australia and the 
USA. It is widely used in white wines produced in the Crozes- 
Hermitage and Hermitage areas of France, (pronounced maar 
san) 

0 Marsanne Noir another name for Syrah (pronounced maar san 
nwaar) 

Marsannay AOC 

France an appellation in the Cote d'Or area of the Burgundy 
region of France that produces red, white and rose wines 
( pronounced maar sa nee) 

Martell 

an old-established Cognac firm, now belonging to the Canadian 
company Seagram 

Martha’s Vineyard AVA 

USA a wine-producing area on the island of Martha’s Vineyard 
in the state of Massachusetts. The single vineyard in this area 
grows mostly Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Chenin 
Blanc grape varieties. 

Martinborough and Wairarapa 

New Zealand a wine-producing region in the south of the North 
Island of New Zealand growing the Cabernet Sauvignon and 
Pinot Noir grape varieties 

J marzipan 

(i tasting term) a sweet, almond taste or aroma associated with 
white wines made from the Chenin Blanc grape variety and with 
young Champagne 

mas 

French an estate house or farmhouse, especially in the south of 
France (pronounced maa, plural mas) 




ASP VVr* '.’VVSV VVr-’iA‘ '-Vr* VVf’l 



Mateus Rose 201 

A‘ *’*■ v’W.V v’W-’»t‘ •,'SVA‘ %Vr 



masculine 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that is big and full, 
especially in comparison with other wines from the same region 
or grape 

Mas de Daumas Gassac 

France an estate near Montpellier in the Languedoc region 
founded in 1970 and once called ‘Lafite of Languedoc’. It 
produces some of the best vins de pays in France, red wine 
from the Cabernet Sauvignon grape variety and white still and 
sparkling wines from Chardonnay. (pronounced maa da do maa 
ga sak) 

Masi 

Italy a famous Italian winery based near Verona producing a 
range of very good Valpolicella and Soave wines (pronounced 
maazi) 

Masson see Paul Masson 
mass selection 

a method of taking vine cuttings with buds, sometimes called 
bud wood, from all the vines in a vineyard to graft onto 
rootstocks rather than taking cuttings from a single plant. 
Also called field selection 
Compare clonal selection 

Master of Wine 

a qualification and title granted by the Institute of Masters of 
Wine (founded in 1955 in the UK) to students who have passed 
intensive study and a rigorous three-day exam that includes 
blind-tasting over 30 wines. 

Abbreviation MW 

0 Mataro another name for Mourvedre (pronounced ma taaro, 
used in Spain) 

J matchstick 

(tasting term) an odour caused by excess sulphur dioxide gas, 
similar to the smell of burnt matches and very occasionally 
found in negligible amounts trapped in bottled white wine. It 
will normally dissipate. 

A Mateus Rose 

a popular medium sweet, slightly effervescent rose wine pro- 
duced from a range of grapes grown in northern Portugal and 




202 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V v¥r> »t‘ VVi'-'A" VV,.* VVf’.f Wr- »t‘ ■***■ VWiV VVr-* %Vr 

produced by the country’s largest wine producer, Sogrape 
(j pronounced matti ass ro zay) 

Matino 

Italy a DOC wine-producing area in the Apulia region of 
southern Italy, producing dry red and rose wines from Negro- 
amaro grapes ( pronounced ma teeno) 

maturation 

the process of maturing, or the period of time taken for a wine to 
mature, normally in a barrel 

mature 

I . to allow a wine time to develop the characteristics that make it 
ready to drink, or to develop these characteristics. 

See ageing 

2 2. ( tasting term) used to describe a wine that is fully developed 
and correctly aged and ready to drink 

Maury AOC 

France an appellation in the Languedoc-Roussillon region of 
southwestern France that grows mostly Grenache grapes to 
produce red and rose wines {pronounced mo ree) 

0 Mauzac, Mauzac Blanc 

a white-wine grape grown in southwestern France, especially in 
the Gaillac AOC. It is usually blended with other wine, {pro- 
nounced mo zak, mo zak blaaN) 

Also called Blanquette 

0 Mavrodaphne 

a red-wine grape variety grown mostly in Greece to produce 
sweet, full-bodied red wines that are often drunk as dessert 
wines {pronounced mavro dafni) 

0 Mavrud 

a low-yielding red grape variety native to Bulgaria with grapes 
that produce a tannic, long-lasting red wine {pronounced mav 
rood) 

Mazis-Chambertin AOC 

France a grand cru vineyard in Gevrey-Chambertin in the Cote 
de Nuits district of the Burgundy region of France that grows 
Pinot Noir grapes to produce high quality red wines {pronounced 
mazzee shorn bair taN) 




medal 203 

* VVr* VVr.’lSt‘ VVr-’lSt‘ '-Vr-* '■’WiV •,'SV , A‘ WrW WrW '-Vr* •,'!IVA‘ '-Vr 

Mazouna see Algeria 

0 Mazuelo another name for Carignan ( pronounced ma thwaylo, 
used in Spain) 

McLaren Vale 

Australia a wine-producing region of South Australia, south of 
Adelaide, with many small wineries. Its reds, made from Ca- 
bernet Sauvignon and Syrah (Shiraz) grapes, are much prized, 
but the diverse soil types and topography allow for many 
varieties: Malbec, Merlot, Chardonnay, Semilion, Grenache, 
Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling and Verdelho, to name just a few. 

J meagre 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that is insipid and lacks 
body and depth 

mealy bug 

a grey insect of the genus Pseudococcus that attacks vines 

o meaty 

(tasting term) used to describe a red wine that is rich, full-bodied 
and chewy 

mechanical harvesting 

the process of using a machine to automate picking the ripe 
grapes from the vine. Traditionally harvesting was, and in many 
vineyards is still, done by hand, cutting off the bunches of 
grapes, but this is slow, hard work. If the vines are trained so 
that the fruit hangs freely below the canopy, a machine can be 
used to cut off the bunches. 

mechanical pruning 

the process of using a machine to automate pruning the un- 
wanted young shoots on a vine. The traditional method of 
pruning is to cut off the shoots by hand, but this is very slow 
work. Mechanical pruning works well if the method of training 
the vines suits the machinery; cordon training is perhaps the best 
suited to this. 

mechanisation 

the introduction of machines in what were traditionally jobs 
done by hand, e.g. pruning the shoots and picking the grapes 

medal 

an award presented to wines in the numerous competitions 
and tastings sponsored by magazines, countries and wine 




204 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»t‘ v¥r> VVt. »t‘ '.’VWSV Wr- »t‘ ■***■ VWiV Wr- »V %Vr 

associations. Medals are normally gold, silver and bronze for 
the top three positions. 

Mediterranean climate 

a climate in which there are very warm summers with little or no 
rainfall and mild wet winters 

2 medium-bodied see body 

2 medium dry 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine that is partially or 
moderately dry. 

See also semidry 

2 medium sweet 

(i tasting term) used to describe a wine that is partially or 
moderately sweet. 

See also semisweet 

Medoc 

France the largest wine-producing district within the Bordeaux 
region of southwestern France. The district has two main area 
appellations: Medoc AOC and Haut-Medoc AOC. Both appel- 
lations produce high-quality red wines, but the wines of Haut- 
Medoc AOC are generally of slightly better quality because of 
better-quality soil. The Haut-Medoc AOC covers the entire 
southern area of the district except for six villages that have 
their own appellations (Listrac, Margaux, Moulis, Pauillac, 
Saint-Estephe and Saint-Julien). The main red-wine grape vari- 
eties grown are Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Cabernet 
Franc. White wines produced in either area are normally sold 
under the more generic Bordeaux AOC label. In 1855 the 
classification of wines in France was limited to the Medoc 
district, except for one wine from Graves, since this was con- 
sidered at the time to be the only place producing high-quality 
wine. It still produces some of the best wines in the world. 
( pronounced may dok) 

Medoc AOC 

France an appellation for red wines grown in the Bas-Medoc, 
the northern area of the Medoc district of the Bordeaux region 
of France (pronounced may dok) 

0 Medoc Noir another name for Merlot (pronounced may dok 
nwaar) 




5SP VVr* VVr-’A‘ '-Vr* •,'!IVA‘ '-V, 



meniscus 205 

*’*' '.’WiV •,'SWSV •,'SVA‘ %¥, 



mellow 

(; tasting term) used to describe a wine that is soft, smooth, 
correctly aged and pleasant to drink 

melon 

( tasting term ) a taste or aroma associated with white wines made 
from the Chardonnay grape variety in parts of the New World 

Melon de Bourgogne another name for Muscadet ( pronounced 
me loN do boor gonnya) 

Melton, Charles 

a famous winemaker who owns an eponymous winery in the 
Barossa Valley, South Australia, and produces high-quality 
classic Barossa red wines from Syrah (Shiraz), Grenache and 
Mourvedre grape varieties as well as a rose from Grenache 
grapes 

Mendocino AVA 

USA a viticultural area in the south of Mendocino County, 
California, that includes Anderson Valley and two other AVAs 
and is the location of the Fetzer estate (pronounced mend a seeno) 

Mendocino County 

USA a county in the north of California that is best-known for 
growing Zinfandel, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot grape 
varieties. It includes the Mendocino AVA. (pronounced mends 
seeno) 

Mendoza 

Argentina a city in northwestern Argentina that is the centre for 
the surrounding wine region of the same name. This region 
produces the majority of Argentina’s wine, (pronounced men 
d6za) 

Menetou-Salon AOC 

France an appellation in the Loire valley region of western 
France that produces white wines from Sauvignon Blanc grapes 
that are similar to the wines from the neighbouring Sancerre 
AOC, together with good-quality red and rose wines from Pinot 
Noir grapes (pronounced menna too sa loN) 

meniscus 

the very edge of the surface of wine in a glass, where the liquid 
touches the glass and is slightly curved up, accurately showing 
the colour of the wine 




206 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V v¥r> »t‘ »t‘ vVr-* ■.’VWSV vVf’A' vVr-’»t‘ ■***■ •-'W A‘ »V ■¥V»t‘ vVr 

Mentrida DO 

Spain a large DO wine-producing region in the central-south- 
west of Spain that grows mostly Grenache (Garnacha) grapes to 
produce red and rose wines that are normally sold in bulk or 
blended with other wines (pronounced men treedo) 

mercaptan 

a chemical compound of a group that form in wines, usually 
white wines, after yeast fermentation, creating an unpleasant, 
sulphur-like smell similar to rubber that is a signal that the wine 
has been badly made or is deteriorating 

Mercurey AOC 

France a well-known village appellation in the Cote Chalonnaise 
area of the Burgundy region of France, producing almost 
entirely red wine from Pinot Noir grapes (pronounced mair 
koo ray) 

meritage 

a marketing term used by a number of US wineries on labels to 
describe good-quality blended wines that do not have a single 
particular grape variety. The term is the result of a competition 
to find a suitable descriptive term and combines ‘merit’ with 
‘heritage’. 

0 Merlot 

a popular black grape variety used to produce red wines in many 
different regions around the world. The wines are rich, fruity, 
and often with blackcurrant flavours. The grape is used as the 
foundation for some of the great red wines of the Bordeaux 
region of southwestern France such as Saint-Emilion and Po- 
merol, and in Bordeaux-style wines around the world. Merlot 
grapes have a thinner skin and more sugar than Cabernet 
Sauvignon and so produce softer red wine with a higher alcohol 
content. The grape is unrelated to Merlot Blanc, (pronounced 
mairlo) 

Also called Bigney; Medoc Noir; Merlot Noir 
0 Merlot Blanc 

a white-wine grape variety, unrelated to the black grape variety 
Merlot, grown in small quantities in parts of France and often 
producing uninteresting white wines (pronounced mairlo blaaN) 

0 Merlot Noir another name for Merlot (pronounced mairlo 
nwaar) 




methode dioise 207 

>’A‘ VVr* ■.’Wit' VVr-’lSt‘ VVr* VV^ ■***■ •,’*V , A‘ ■***■ '-Vr 

0 Merseguera 

a relatively undistinguished Spanish white-wine grape variety 
grown especially in the Alicante, Jumilla and Valencia DOs 
( pronounced mairsss gairs) 

mesa 

Spanish table. ( pronounced maysss) 

See also Vino de Mesa 

mesoclimate 

a climate within a small area such as a hillside or valley that 
could include one or more vineyards 

Compare macroclimate; microclimate 

2 metallic 

(i tasting term ) used to describe a wine that has a taste of metal or 
tin, often caused by excess time in contact with a metal container 

methode champenoise 

French a traditional method of producing sparkling wine, 
originally especially Champagne but now used to produce al- 
most all good sparkling wines. The process includes a second 
stage of fermentation (malolactic fermentation) that takes place 
in the bottle and produces carbon dioxide gas as a by-product, 
which dissolves into the wine to create the sparkling style. 
( pronounced may tod shomps nwaaz, literally ‘Champagne 
method') 

Also called Champagne method; methode classique; methode 
traditionelle; metodo classico; metodo tradizionale 

methode classique 

French same as methode champenoise (pronounced may tod kla 
seek, literally ‘classic method') 

methode dioise 

French a local term in the Clairette de Die AOC in the Rhone 
region of France for a method of making sparkling wine that is 
similar to the methode rurale. The wine is fermented slowly at 
low temperatures for several months, then filtered and bottled. 
Once bottled, the wine starts to warm up and the fermentation 
process starts again naturally, creating carbon dioxide gas as a 
by-product, which creates bubbles in the wine. The sediment at 
the bottom of the bottles is removed by decanting and filtering 
the wine in a pressurised container to retain the effervescence, 
and the wine is bottled again in fresh bottles. Wine made by this 




208 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»t‘ »t‘ VYr-- »t‘ *■*' VVt.* Wr- »t‘ •*¥<-- »t‘ VSVSSS 1 VVt-* Wr- »t‘ VVr 

method must have it stated on the label, (pronounced may tod 
dee waaz, literally ‘Die method') 

methode gaillacoise same as methode rurale (pronounced 
may tod g7 yak waaz, literally ‘Gaillac method', used in the 
Gaillac AOC in France) 

methode rurale 

French a traditional method of producing sparkling wine, now 
generally replaced by the methode champenoise or the Charmat 
process, in which the fermenting wine is cooled to almost stop 
fermentation. The wine is then bottled and warmed slightly to 
restart the fermentation in the bottle, creating sparkling wine 
from the carbon dioxide released during this secondary fermen- 
tation. (pronounced may tod roor raal, literally ‘rural method’) 

methode traditionnelle same as methode champenoise 

( pronounced may tod tra deessyo nel, literally ‘traditional 
method') 

methuselah 

an oversize wine bottle of the shape traditionally used for 
Burgundy and Champagne wines that can hold 6 litres, equiva- 
lent to eight standard 750 ml bottles. 

Compare imperial 

metodo classico, metodo tradizionale 

Italian same as methode champenoise (pronounced mettodo 
klassiko, mettodo tra ditsyo naa lay, literally ‘classic method' 
or ‘traditional method') 

0 Meunier 

a red-wine grape variety in the Pinot family that is widely grown 
in the Champagne region of France where it is blended with 
Pinot Noir and Chardonnay grapes to produce sparkling wine. 
(pronounced mbnyay) 

Also called Pinot Meunier 
Meursault AOC 

France an appellation that includes the vineyards around the 
large village of Meursault in the Cote de Beaune area of the 
Burgundy region in France. It is known mostly for its white 
wines, which are produced entirely from Chardonnay grapes. 
Meursault white wines are soft and rich, (pronounced mur s6) 
Mexico 

a country bordering the south of the USA that has a history of 
growing vines going back to the 16th century but a climate that 




millerandage 209 

* vVr* ■***■ ■-Vr- , iSt‘ •,'SV , A‘ '.’VWSV ->Vr» '-Vr.* vVr* ■JSIV3e‘ vVr 

is not ideally suited to growing vines. The wine that is produced, 
especially in the north of the country, is often fortified or 
distilled to produce brandy. Nevertheless Mexico is now being 
influenced by nearby California and growing a wide range of 
grapes and producing and even exporting some reasonably good 
table wine. 

Michel, Louis 

a well-respected winemaker based in the Chablis area of the 
Burgundy region of France, renowned for his classic unoaked 
Chablis (pronounced mee shel) 

micro-appellation 

in the USA, a winery with only a small amount of land planted 
with vines but producing its own unique wines 

microchateau 

a chateau with only a small amount of land planted with vines 
but producing its own unique wines. The best example is 
Chateau Le Pin in the Pomerol district of France: it has fewer 
than two hectares of vineyards, but produces some of the best 
wines in the country. These wines are sold at prices rivalling the 
best traditional large estates of Bordeaux though all the wine- 
making takes place in the garage under the house, (pronounced 
m7kro shatto, phircd microchateaux) 

microclimate 

a climate found in a very small area, e.g. a few square metres or 
two or three vines 

Compare macroclimate: mesoclimate 
J middle palate, mid-palate see palate 
Midi 

France same as Languedoc-Roussillon (pronounced mee dee) 

mildew 

one of two diseases caused by fungi that affect grapevines. 

See downy mildew: powdery mildew 

Millau see Cotes de Millau AOC 
millerandage 

poor fruit setting, giving rise to berries of different sizes in a 
bunch and no seeds in varieties that usually have them. It 
usually results in yield reductions. 




210 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

tjfi? »t‘ vVt. »t‘ *■*' vVt.* »t‘ vYr-- »t‘ VSVSSS 1 ■,¥<■ »V ■¥V»t‘ *’*■ -,Vr 

millesime 

French a year or vintage year (pronounced mee lay seem) 

Millesime Rare see Laurent Perrier (jtronounced mee lay 
seem raar) 

mineral, minerally 

(; tasting term ) a taste of dissolved nonorganic salts in a wine, 
deriving from the soil in which the vine was grown 

M inervois AOC 

France an appellation in the Languedoc-Roussillon region in the 
south of France that produces good, inexpensive red wines from 
Carignan, Cinsault, Grenache, Mourvedre and Syrah grapes. 
As with other wine-growing areas of southern France, a great 
deal of effort and investment is being put into improving quality 
with the planting of better grape varieties and the upgrading of 
equipment and techniques, (pronounced mee nair vwaa) 

Minho 

Portugal a wine-producing region around the Minho river in 
northern, near the border with Spain. Part of the Vinho Verde 
DOC (pronounced minyo) 

minty, mint 

(; tasting term) used to describe a wine made from Cabernet 
Sauvignon or Zinfandel grapes, especially one from California, 
USA 

Mireval see Muscat de Mireval AOC 
mis en bouteille 

French bottled (pronounced meez aaN boo t6) 

mis en bouteille a la propriete 

French samp as mis en bouteille au domaine (pronounced meez 
aaN boo t6 alia propree ay tay) 

mis en bouteille au chateau 

French used to describe a wine produced and bottled at the 
chateau where the grapes are grown (pronounced meez aaN boo 
t6 o sha t6) 

mis en bouteille au domaine 

French used to describe a wine produced and bottled at the 
estate where the grapes are grown (pronounced meez aaN boo t6 
5 do men) 




moelleux 21 1 

-»t‘ VVr* •,'Vr'ft' VVr-’»t‘ -.Vf A‘ V¥r- »t‘ •***■ VVr-’»t‘ -fllV A‘ V¥r- »t‘ %Vr 

mis en bouteille dans nos caves 

French used to describe a wine made from grapes grown else- 
where and often of lower quality than estate-bottled or chateau- 
bottled wine (pronounced meez aaN boo t6 daaN no kaav, 
literally ‘bottled in our cellars’) 

0 Mission 

the first red-wine grape variety introduced into California, on 
the western coast of the USA, by Spanish Catholic missionaries 
travelling up from Mexico in the 1700s. Little is grown today 
and the wines are normally of poor quality and only used for 
blending. 

Also ccdled Criolla; Pais 

M ission Haut-Brion see La Mission Haut-Brion, Chateau 
mistelle 

French partly fermented grape juice that has had alcohol added 
to stop the fermentation process. Since only a little of the 
natural sugars in the grape juice has been fermented, this juice 
is very sweet, (pronounced mee stel) 

Compare surdo 

Mittelmosel 

Germany a wine-producing region in the centre of the Mosel- 
Saar-Ruwer region of Germany, producing some of the coun- 
try’s best wines and known particularly for its Riesling white 
wines (pronounced mitt’l moz’l) 

Mittelrhein 

Germany one of the 13 Anbaugebiete (quality wine-producing 
regions) of Germany that follows the Rhine river and mostly 
grows the Riesling grape variety. Production is small and mostly 
for local consumption, (pronounced mitt’l r6n) 

M-L abbreviation malolactic fermentation 

Mocadelo di Montalcino DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC zone in the Tuscany region of Italy 
that grows mostly Muscat grapes (locally called Moscato Bian- 
co) to produce sweet white wines that are either still or slightly 
sparkling (pronounced moks dello dee mon tal cheeno) 

2 moelleux 

French (tasting term) used to describe a white wine that still 
has a little residual sugar and is soft and mellow (pronounced 
mwaa 16) 




212 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

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Moet et Chandon 

the biggest Champagne house in France, producing almost 20 
million bottles of Champagne per year under a range of differ- 
ent vintage and non-vintage labels including the prestige Dom 
Perignon label. After merger with the Cognac firm Hennessy it 
later became part of the giant LVMH. {pronounced m5 ay ay 
shaaN doN) 

Moldova 

a country and former Soviet republic that now offers one of the 
most diverse and interesting range of vineyards from the Central 
European region 

See map at Bulgaria 

0 Molette No ire, Molette another name for Mondeuse {pro- 
nounced mo let nwaar) 

0 Monastrell 

a red-wine grape variety widely planted in Spain, especially in 
the Rioja and Alicante regions, that produces moderately heavy, 
dark wines that are high in alcohol and low in acid, {pronounced 
monna strel) 

Also called Alcayata; Morastel; Morrastel; Valcarcelia 
Monbazillac AOC 

France an appellation in the Bergerac region of southwestern 
France that grows mostly Semilion, Muscadelle and Sauvignon 
Blanc grape varieties that are infected with Botrytis cinerea to 
produce medium sweet and sweet wines. Lower-quality wines 
from this region are often labelled with the more generic Cotes 
de Bergerac AOC. ( pronounced moN bazzee yak) 

Mondavi, Robert 

an influential winemaker in California, USA, who emphasised the 
use of traditional European grape varieties. He set up the Opus 
One winery with Baron Philippe de Rothschild, and worked with 
Peter Newton to develop the Sauvignon Blanc grape in California. 

0 Mondeuse, Mondeuse Noir 

a red-wine grape variety that is grown in small areas of France, 
Italy, Argentina, Australia and the USA. The grapes produce 
good-quality wine with a rich, deep colour, {pronounced moN 
doz or moN doz nwaar) 

Also ccdled Grosse Syrah; Molette; Molette Noire; Refosco; 
Savoyance 

0 Monestel another name for Carignan (pronounced mon e stel) 




Montefalco DOC 213 

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Monopole 

French a term used on labels on some French wines to indicate 
that there is one single owner of the wine’s name or that it is a 
trademark. It has no bearing on the wine's quality, which tends 
to be uniform each year, {pronounced monno pol) 

Montagne de Reims 

France one of the four main regions within the Champagne 
region, {pronounced mon tannys do raNss) 

See also Champagne AOC 

Montagne-Saint-Emilion AOC 

France an appellation on the outskirts of the Saint-Emilion 
district of the Bordeaux region in southwestern France that 
grows mostly Merlot grapes to produce good-quality red wines 
( pronounced mon tannyo sant ay meel yoN) 

Montagny AOC 

France a village appellation in the Cote Chalonnaise area of the 
Burgundy region of France that only produces white wine from 
the Chardonnay grape variety (pronounced moN ta nyee) 

Montalbano see Chianti DOCG (pronounced mont al baano) 

Montalcino see Brunello di Montalcino DOCG; Mocadelo di 
Montalcino DOC; Rosso di Montalcino DOC 

Montana Wines 

New Zealand a wine-producing estate in the North Island, New 
Zealand, that is one of the country’s largest estates producing 
high-quality red, white and sparkling wines 

Montecarlo DOC 

Italy a small DOC zone in the northwest of the Tuscany region 
of Italy that produces red wines from Sangiovese, Canaiolo 
Nero and Syrah grapes and white wines from Trebbiano and a 
mix of other local grape varieties 

Montecompatri-Colonna DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC zone south of Rome in the Lazio 
region of Italy that produces a dry white wine from Malvasia 
and Trebbiano grapes similar in style to Frascati (pronounced 
mon tay kom pattri ko lonns) 

Montefalco DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC zone in the Umbria region of Italy 
that produces good red wine from the Sangiovese, Sagrantino 




214 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V '»¥,.’*■ »t‘ vVr-* '.’VWSV VVf’.f Wr- »V %Vr 

and Trebbiano grapes. There is the Sagrantino di Montefalco 
high-quality DOCG zone within this area that is known for its 
rich red wines made from Sagrantino grapes, (pronounced mon 
tay falko) 

0 Montepulciano 

a red-wine grape variety grown widely throughout Italy and 
particularly in the southeast of the country. It is used to produce 
spicy medium- to full-bodied red wines with good structure. It is the 
grape used in Rosso Conero. (pronounced mon tay pool chaano) 

See also Rosso di Montepulciano DOC; Vino Nobile di Mon- 
tepulciano DOCG 

Montepulciano d’Abruzzo DOC 

Italy a DOC region in the Abruzzo region of Italy that produces 
red wines from Montepulciano and some Sangiovese grapes 
( pronounced mon tay pool chaano da brootso) 

Monterey AVA 

USA a viticultural area that includes most of the vineyards of 
Monterey County, California 

Monterey County 

USA a large wine-producing area in California, just south of the 
San Francisco Bay area. The most-used grape varieties include 
Chardonnay, Riesling and Pinot Blanc as well as the more 
common Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Pinot Noir. This 
county includes several AVAs including Arroyo Seco, Chalone, 
Carmel Valley and Monterey. 

Montes 

Chile a wine-producing firm based in the Curico and Colchagua 
Valley regions of Chile growing Cabernet Sauvignon and Mer- 
lot grape varieties for premium-quality red wines and Sauvignon 
Blanc and Chardonnay for white wines. Respected winemaker 
Aurelio Montes is a founding partner, (pronounced mont ess) 
See also A Winemaker’s View 

Monthelie AOC 

France a small appellation in the Cote de Beaune area of the 
Burgundy region of France that produces mostly red wines 
made from Pinot Noir grapes (pronounced moN tay lee) 

A Montilla 

a sherry-style wine produced using the solera system in the 




Morastel 215 

»V VVr* •,'SlVA‘ VVr-’»t‘ -fllV A‘ V¥r- »t‘ •,Y,> , A‘ ■***■ VVr-’»t‘ -fllV A‘ V¥r- »t‘ %¥, »t‘ %Vr 

Montilla-Moriles DO in southern Spain. The types of Montilla 
are similar to the types of sherry, but the names (amontillado, 
fmo etc.) are not allowed on labels outside Spain: they are 
usually given a description such as pale dry, medium dry, pale 
cream or cream. Montilla wines are often not fortified but have 
naturally high levels of alcohol. ( pronounced mon teelya) 

Montilla-Moriles DO 

Spain a wine-producing Denomination de Origen region in 
southern Spain growing mostly Pedro Ximenez grapes to pro- 
duce the sherry-like sweet wine Montilla (pronounced mon 
teelya mo ree less) 

Montlouis AOC 

France an appellation in the Loire region of France that grows 
Chenin Blanc grapes to produce a range of styles of white wine 
(pronounced moN loo ee) 

Montrachet AOC 

France a small vineyard appellation in the Cote de Beaune area 
of the Burgundy region of France, famous for its white wine, 
which is considered to be amongst the best in the world, and is 
one of the most expensive. This small 8 hectare grand cru 
vineyard straddles two villages, and both villages, Puligny 
and Chassagne, as well as several surrounding villages, include 
the name Montrachet in their labels, (pronounced moN ra shay) 

Montravel AOC 

France an appellation in the Bergerac region of France, border- 
ing the Bordeaux region, that grows mostly Semilion, Sau- 
vignon Blanc and Muscadelle grape varieties to produce dry 
or medium sweet white wines of modest quality (pronounced 
moN ra vel) 

Montrose, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Medoc district of the Bordeaux region of 
southwestern France, graded deuxieme cru (second growth) in 
the classification of 1855. It grows Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot 
and a little Cabernet Franc to produce good-quality red wines. 
( pronounced moN roz) 

0 Morastel 

( pronounced morrs stel) 

1. another name for Monastrell 

2. another name for Graciano 




216 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

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Moravia 

Czech Republic a wine-producing region in the Czech Republic 
producing a wide range of red, white and sparkling wines. The 
other region in the country is Bohemia. 

Morellino di Scansano DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC zone in the Tuscany region of Italy 
that grows primarily Sangiovese grapes to produce good-quality 
red wine ( pronounced morrs leeno dee skan saano) 

Morey-Saint-Denis 

France a commune in the Cote de Nuits area in the Cote d'Or 
district of Burgundy in France. The vineyards in this area 
include 5 grand cru vineyards and 20 premier cru vineyards. 
The great growths of Morey-Saint-Denis are Bonnes Mares, 
Clos de la Roche, Clos Saint Denis and Clos de Tart. The 
vineyards produce red wines from Pinot Noir grapes, (pro- 
nounced mo ray saN do nee) 

Morgon AOC 

France an appellation in the Beaujolais region of France that 
grows Gamay grapes to produce intensely coloured and full- 
bodied wines ( pronounced mawr goN) 

0 Morio-Muskat 

a white-wine grape hybrid that is a cross between Sylvaner and 
Pinot Blanc and is grown mostly in Germany to produce 
flowery wines that are often used in blending (pronounced morri 
5 mooss kat) 

0 Moristel 

a red-wine grape variety grown mostly in northern Spain in 
the Somontano region of the Pyrenean mountains ( pronounced 
morri stel) 

Mornington Peninsula 

Australia a cool-climate wine region in the state of Victoria, 
south of Melbourne, growing some of Australia’s best Pinot 
Noir grapes for red wine and Chardonnay of equal quality 
grapes for white 

0 Morrastel another name for Monastrell (pronounced morrs stel) 

Moscatel de Setubal see Setubal DOC 

0 Moscatel lo another name for Aleatico (pronounced mosko 
tello) 




Moueix 217 

» vVr* ■.’Wit' -***■ Wr-’iSV •,¥,» '.’VWSV ■JSIV3e‘ WrW Wr-W vVr* '-Vr 

0 Moscato, Moscato Bianco another name for Muscat (pro- 
nounced mos kaato or mos kaato byangko, used in Italy) 

() Moscato d’Asti 

a slightly sparkling (frizzante) white wine produced in the same 
DOCG as Asti. The main difference is that when making 
Moscato d'Asti the fermentation is stopped sooner, producing 
a wine that is sweeter and has less carbon dioxide so is less fizzy. 
It is sold in normal wine bottles with a normal cork rather than a 
Champagne cork, (pronounced mos kaato dasti) 

8 Moscato di Canelli same as Moscato d’Asti 
Mosel, Moselle 

France, Germany a river that starts in eastern France and passes 
through Luxembourg then through Germany. ‘Mosel' is the 
German form and ‘Moselle' the French, (pronounced mhz’l or 
mo zel) 

See a/so Vins de Moselle VDQS 
Mosel-Saar-Ruwer 

Germany one of the Anbaugebiete (quality wine-producing 
regions) in northern Germany that borders the Mosel river 
and its two tributaries the Saar and the Ruwer. This region 
grows Riesling grapes to produce white wines, low in alcohol, 
that are some of the best Riesling wines in the country, (pro- 
nounced moz’l zaar roovsr) 

Moseltaler 

German a category of wines produced in the Mosel-Saar-Ruwer 
region that must be made from Riesling, Elbling, Kerner or 
Muller- Thurgau grapes and reach the national QbA quality 
level (pronounced moz’l taalar) 

Mossel Bay 

South Africa an area in the southern Cape region of South 
Africa with a cool climate and a number of small vineyards such 
as Ruiterbosch, growing grape varieties from northern Europe 

mosto 

Italian must (grape juice) (pronounced mosto) 

Moueix 

France a well-known negotiant in the Pomerol and Saint- 
Emilion areas of the Bordeaux region of France, producing 
good-quality wines from its range of AOC vineyards and 
chateaux (pronounced moo ayks) 




218 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ iVfA' •.’VV »t‘ *■*' vVt-* »t‘ ^Vr-. »t‘ VSV3S 1 '¥W*‘ *■*' •,¥* 

Y mouldy 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that smells or tastes of 
damp mould, indicating that the wine was made from mouldy 
grapes or that it has been badly stored or produced in dirty 
barrels or tanks 

Moulin-a-Vent AOC 

France an appellation in the Beaujolais region of France, gen- 
erally considered to be the best of the Beaujolais appellations, 
producing good, full-bodied red wines from the Gamay grape. 
These are unlike the lighter style of young red wines normally 
associated with Beaujolais and should be allowed to acquire 
some age. (pronounced mob laN aa vaaN) 

Moulis AOC 

France a small village appellation in the Haut-Medoc district of 
France producing some very good red wines {pronounced moo 
lee) 

Mountain 

a former name for Malaga sweet fortified wine 

Mount Barker 

Australia a wine-producing area in Western Australia, a sub- 
region of the Great Southern region 

Mount Veeder AVA 

USA a viticultural area in California growing Cabernet Sau- 
vignon and Chardonnay grape varieties 

0 Mourvedre 

a black grape variety grown in southern France, Australia and 
California, USA, that produces red wine with strong colour, 
body and the flavour of pine. It requires an environment with a 
lot of sunshine to ripen the grapes. It is used in French 
Mediterranean red wines from regions such as Chateauneuf- 
du-Pape as well as in full-bodied red wines from Australia and 
California, {pronounced moor veddrs) 

Also called Mataro 

2 mousey 

(tasting term) used to describe a sharp, slightly vinegary smell 
and flavour of a wine, caused by bacterial contamination during 
production 




muffa nobile 219 

» VVr* ■.’Wit' WrW VVr-’lSt‘ VV^lSt' VVT.'lSt‘ •***■ VVr.’lSt‘ •,'SVA‘ VVr* 'JSlV*' -,Vr 

mousse 

French the foam on the top of a glass of sparkling wine when it is 
poured (pronounced mooss) 

mousseux 

French used to describe sparkling wine. The term is not used on 
Champagne labels. ( pronounced moo so) 

mouthfeel 

(; tasting term) the sum of the various sensations a wine can create 
in your mouth, covering a range of tastes and textures including 
richness, crispness, ripe, oaked, sweet, spicy and acidity 

mouth-filling 

(; tasting term) used to describe a wine that is soft, full-bodied and 
complex 

Mouton d’Armailhacq, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Bordeaux region of France, graded 
cinquieme cru (fifth growth) in the classification of 1855, owned 
by Baron Philippe de Rothschild and next door to the better- 
known Chateau Mouton-Rothschild. It grows Cabernet Sau- 
vignon and Merlot grapes to produce good-quality red wine. 
(pronounced mob toN daar m6 yak) 

Mouton-Rothschild, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Bordeaux region of France that was 
originally graded deuxieme cru (second growth) in the classifi- 
cation of 1855 but was then upgraded to premier cru (first 
growth) in 1973, the only change ever to the original classifica- 
tion. It produces very good red wines from Cabernet Sauvignon, 
Merlot and Cabernet Franc grapes. Over the years, the work of 
many famous artists has adorned the labels of Chateau Mou- 
ton-Rothschild, including Salvador Dali, Francis Bacon, 
Georges Braque and Jean Cocteau, (pronounced mob toN rot 
she'eld) 

Mudgee 

Australia a wine-producing region in New South Wales pro- 
ducing flavoursome red wines from the Syrah (Shiraz) and 
Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties 

muffa nobile 

Italian noble rot produced by the fungus Botrytis cinerea (pro- 
nounced mooffs n6bi lay) 




220 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

tjfit •>¥,» vVt-* vWiV VV-r A‘ Vy,»V W,- »V VVr 



Muga 

Spain a wine producer (bodega) in the Rioja DOCa region of 
northern Spain producing high-quality red and rose wines 
( pronounced mooga) 

mulled wine 

red wine mixed with any combination of sugar, fresh orange or 
lemon and spices, usually including cinnamon, cloves and 
nutmeg, and served hot 

0 Miiller-Thurgau 

a white-wine grape hybrid, originally produced by crossing the 
Riesling variety with Sylvaner, that is widely grown in Ger- 
many, Austria, Switzerland and New Zealand and is also grown 
in the UK. It has high yields and produces a light white wine 
{pronounced moollsr toor gow) 

Mumm 

a large Champagne house in Reims in the Champagne region of 
France producing mostly the non-vintage Cordon Rouge 
Champagne and small quantities of its premium Rene Lalou 
wine 

J murky 

(i tasting term) used to describe a red wine that lacks brightness 
and clarity of colour 

Murray-Darling 

Australia a wine-producing region in Victoria and New South 
Wales growing the majority of the grapes in Victoria and 
producing mostly everyday-quality white wines 

M urrumbidgee 

Australia see Riverina 

Musar, Chateau 

Lebanon a famous vineyard producing good-quality red and 
white wine {pronounced mob saar) 

0 Muscadel 

( pronounced musks del) 

1. another name for Muscat ( used especially in South Africa) 

2. see Muscadel le 

0 Muscadelle, Muscadel 

a white-wine grape grown mainly in the Bordeaux region of 




Muscat 221 

» VVr* ■.’Wit' VVr' , lSt‘ VVr* V’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ VVr* VVf'lSt‘ %Vr 

France where it produces highly perfumed white wines that are 
used to add sweetness and flavour to other white wines. It is also 
grown in Australia (where it is called Tokay) to produce sweet 
dessert wines, (pronounced mooska del or musks del) 

Also called Muscadet Doux; Sauvignon Vert; Tokay 

0 Muscadet 

a white-wine grape variety grown mostly in the Loire valley of 
France to produce light, crisp, dry white wines, (pronounced 
mooss ka day) 

Also called Melon de Bourgogne 
Muscadet AOC 

France an appellation in the Loire valley of France that is 
named, unusually for France, after a grape variety rather than 
a town or village. The region produces light, crisp, dry white 
wine made from grapes of the same name (elsewhere called 
Melon de Bourgogne). The wines from Muscadet AOC are the 
lowest quality. The best are from the Muscadet de Sevre-et- 
Maine AOC. (pronounced musks day, mooss ka day) 

Muscadet de Sevre-et-Maine AOC 

France by far the largest and the best of the appellations in the 
Muscadet AOC. Its fresh white wines are bottled ‘sur lie', giving 
a yeasty flavour and a slight sparkle, (pronounced mooss ka day 
ds sevr ay men) 

0 Muscadet Doux another name for Muscadelle (pronounced 
moosks day dob) 

0 Muscadine 

a native American grape, found originally in the southeast of the 
USA. It is unusual in that the grapes tend to grow not in distinct 
bunches but as individual berries everywhere and anywhere on 
the vine. The most common variety of this class is Scuppernong. 
They are normally grown for eating fresh but some wine is made 
from these intensely flavoured grapes. 

0 Muscat 

a family of grapes that has hundreds of varieties that range from 
white- to black-skinned grapes and produces fruity, softly per- 
fumed wines. The grapes are grown in temperate climates includ- 
ing in Australia Austria, France, Greece, Italy, Spain and the USA 
to produce a wide range of styles of wine including sparkling wines 
and sweet dessert wines, (pronounced mus kat, mooss kaa) 

Also called Hanepoot; Moscato; Muscatel 




222 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •>¥,» •.’VWiV *.»' vVt-* W,. »t‘ vYr-- »t‘ VSV3S 1 VVt-* *■*' %Vr 

0 Muscat a Petits Grains, Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains 

one of the Muscat grape varieties that is generally considered the 
best. It has small round berries with a concentrated flavour due 
to the low yield. It is used notably in Muscat de Beaumes-de- 
Venise wines, {pronounced mooss kaa (blaaN) aa potee graN) 
Also called Brown Muscat; Frontignan; Muscat d’Alsace 

0 Muscat d’Alsace another name for Muscat a Petits Grains 

( pronounced mooss kaa dal zaass) 

Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise AOC 

France an appellation in the Rhone valley region of France that 
grows mostly the Muscat a Petits Grains variety of the Muscat 
grape to produce a very good, sweet, fortified white wine 
( pronounced mooss kaa do b6m do vo neez) 

Muscat de Frontignan AOC 

France an appellation on the Mediterranean coast in the Lan- 
guedoc-Roussillon region of southern France that is best- 
known for its sweet, fortified white wines made from the Muscat 
a Petits Grains variety of the Muscat grape ( pronounced mooss 
kaa do froN tee nyaaN) 

Muscat de Lunel AOC 

France an appellation near Montpellier in the south of France 
producing fortified wines from Muscat grapes grown locally 
( pronounced mooss kaa do loo nel) 

Muscat de Mireval AOC 

France an appellation on the Mediterranean coast in the 
Languedoc-Roussillon region of southern France that is 
best-known for its sweet, fortified white wines made from the 
Muscat a Petits Grains variety of the Muscat grape {pronounced 
mo“oss kaa do meer vaal) 

Muscat de Rivesaltes AOC 

France an appellation in the Languedoc-Roussillon region of 
southern France that is best-known for its sweet, fortified white 
wines made from the Muscat a Petits Grains variety of the 
Muscat grape {pronounced mooss kaa do reev zaalt) 

Muscatel 

( pronounced musko tel) 

() I. a sweet white wine made from Muscat grapes 
0 2. another name for Muscat 




must weight 223 

* -.’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ •-Vr-* VVr* •-Vr.’lSt‘ VVr-’lSt‘ VSlVSe 1 '-Vr* '-Vr 

0 Muscatel ler another name for Aleatico {pronounced mobsko 
teller, used in Germany and Austria) 

0 Muscat Hamburg 

a white-wine Muscat grape variety grown primarily in eastern 
Europe to produce dark-coloured wine. 

Also called Black Muscat 

0 Muscat Ottonel 

a variety of the Muscat grape producing a much lighter flavour 
of wine. It grows in cool climates and is used to make dry, 
perfumed white wines or rich dessert wines, (pronounced moos 
kaa otto nel) 

2 muscular 

(tasting term) used to describe a red wine that is big and full- 
bodied 

Musella see A Winemaker’s View 
J mushrooms 

(tasting term) a bouquet of fresh-picked mushrooms sometimes 
found in old red wines 

Musigny AOC 

France a vineyard appellation with grand cru status in the 
Burgundy region of France that grows Pinot Noir grapes to 
produce very good light, elegant red wines {pronounced myoo 
seenyi) 

2 musky 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine with a sweetish earthy 
smell and flavour 

must 

grape juice, often including skin, seeds, fragments of stalk and 
pulp, that is produced when the bunches of grapes have had 
their stems removed and are then crushed, but that has not yet 
been fermented 

must weight 

a method used in Germany to determine the likely alcohol level 
of the final wine by comparing the liquid from the fermenting 
wine with the specific gravity of water in degrees on the Oechsle 
scale 




224 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V OWiV OW »t‘ OW »V vWiV OW »t‘ »’*' OW »V OWiV ■***■ vVr 



y musty 

(tasting term) used to describe faulty wine that has a stale, 
mouldy smell due to a faulty cork in the bottle, production from 
mouldy grapes or dirty tanks and barrels 

mutage 

French the process of stopping fermentation by using sulphur 
dioxide or by adding alcohol to the fermenting liquid (pro- 
nounced moo taazh) 

mute 

( pronounced moo tay) French 

1 . partially fermented grape juice that has had its fermentation 
stopped 

2 . a sweetening agent for winemaking produced by fortifying 
fresh juice or by chilling the juice and adding high amounts of 
sulphur dioxide 

MW abbreviation Master of Wine 

mycoderma 

bacteria that give wine a vinegary taste and smell by converting 
alcohol into acetic acid and ethyl acetate 




• »t‘ V’Wirl. VVr- »(. VVt-’A VW»V VVr- »t «* VV-rSt VVt-’A VVf »(. VVr- »t V’Wifc VV-rSt VVr 

W/ne comes in at the mouth / And love comes in at the eye; / That’s all we 
shall know for truth / Before we grow old and die. 

W. B. Yeats, 1910 



Nahe 

Germany an Anbaugebiet (quality wine-producing region) in 
Germany. The Nahe river is a tributary of the Rhine and the 
vineyards are arranged along the banks of this smaller river 
where Muller- Thurgau and Riesling grape varieties are planted 
to produce good-quality wines. ( pronounced naa a) 

nailpolish 

( tasting term ) an aroma like that of the solvent used in nail 
varnish or nail varnish-remover, arising from ethyl acetate or 
amyl acetate and found especially in young wines 

Nairac, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Sauternes AOC region in southern 
Bordeaux, graded deuxieme cru (second growth) in the classi- 
fication of 1855. This estate grows mostly Semilion grapes to 
produce high-quality sweet white wines, {pronounced nay rak) 

Naoussa 

Greece an appellation in northern Greece that grows especially 
the Xinomavro grape to produce good red wines 

Napa Valley AVA 

USA the best-known of the USA’s wine-producing regions, 
situated in northern California and containing over 250 wine- 
ries. Around 65% of the white grapes planted are Chardonnay, 
but Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling, Chenin Blanc and Semilion are 
also present. Red varieties are dominated by Cabernet Sau- 
vignon, but Merlot, Zinfandel, Cabernet Franc and Petite Sirah 
are also found. As well as the main Napa Valley AVA, there are 
13 other AVAs within the main area. Amongst these are 
Rutherford, producing some of the very finest Napa Cabernet, 
Oakville, Mount Veeder, Howell Mountain and Stags Leap 
District. 




226 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

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naturel 

( pronounced nattoo rel) French 

1 . used to describe a wine that has had neither sugar nor alcohol 
added 

2. used on labels of Champagne and sparkling wines to describe 
a wine that has not had a dosage added 

3. used to describe a sparkling wine that is very dry, or the driest 
style from a particular producer. 

See also vin doux naturel 

Navarra DO 

Spain a wine-producing DO region in north-central Spain that 
mostly grows the Grenache (Garnacha) grape variety to pro- 
duce red and rose wines ( pronounced na vaars) 

0 Nebbiolo 

a red-wine grape variety that is grown in the Piedmont region of 
northwestern Italy to produce rich, full-bodied red wines that 
often need ageing to soften the tannins. The wines called Barolo, 
Barbaresco and Spanna are made from the Nebbiolo grape. 
( pronounced nebbi olo) 

Also called Spanna 

Nebbiolo d’Alba DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC area in the south of the Piedmont 
region of northwestern Italy that grows the Nebbiolo grape. The 
wine is only aged for one year to produce a lighter red than 
many other Nebbiolo-based wines, {pronounced nebbi 6lo 
dalbs) 

Nebbiolo delle Langhe DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC area in the Piedmont region of 
northwestern Italy producing ruby-red wines with blackberry 
flavours (pronounced nebbi olo dells langay) 

nebuchadnezzar 

an oversize wine bottle that can hold 1 5 litres, equivalent to 20 
standard 750 ml bottles 

negociant 

French a wine dealer or merchant who buys and sells grapes to 
produce wine or who buys wines wholesale and blends them and 
bottles the blend to sell under the house’s own label (pronounced 
nay go syaaN) 




nervous 227 

■■’VWSfc' '.’Wit' -.’vwst' ->Vr’S>‘ VVr* VVT- , lSt‘ •***■ VVr-’lSt‘ vVr* VVT- , lSt‘ '-Vr 

0 Negra Mole 

a red-wine grape that is most commonly grown on the island of 
Madeira and in the Algarve region of Portugal. It is used to 
produce fortified wines in Madeira, (pronounced neggra m6 lay) 
Also called Tinta Negra Mole 

0 Negrette 

a red-wine grape variety grown in southwestern France and in 
parts of California, USA, where it is called Pinot Saint George. 
It produces smooth red wines with strong berry flavours. 
( pronounced nay gret) 

Also called Petit Noir; Pinot Saint George 
0 Negroamaro 

a dark-skinned southern Italian grape grown especially in 
Apulia for use in blends and to produce powerful red wines 
and some roses ( pronounced naygro a maaro) 

negus 

a hot drink made of port or sherry with water, sugar, lemon 
juice and spices 

Nelson 

New Zealand a wine-producing region in the northeast of the 
South Island of New Zealand growing especially the Chardon- 
nay, Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling and Pinot Noir grape varieties 

Nemea 

Greece an appellation in the northeastern Peloponnese in south- 
ern Greece that grows especially the Aghiorghitiko grape to 
produce intense red wines 

0 Nerello 

a Sicilian red grape variety that produces red wine that is high in 
alcohol (pronounced ne rello) 

0 Nero d’Avola 

a red-wine grape variety grown in Sicily that produces deep- 
coloured full-bodied wines and ages well (pronounced nairo 
davbla) 

2 nerveux 

French (tasting term ) nervous (pronounced nair vo) 

2 nervous 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that is lively and full- 
bodied but well-balanced 




228 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V vVt. »t‘ v¥,»fc‘ ■¥V»V ■¥V»t‘ v’WiV ■¥V»V ■¥V»t‘ '»¥,.’*■ -,Vr 

2 nettles 

(tasting term) an aroma associated with white wines made from 
the Sauvignon Blanc grape variety 

0 Neuburger 

a white grape variety, a cross between Sylvaner and Pinot Blanc, 
that is grown in Austria to make perfumed white wines (pro- 
nounced noy boorgsr) 

Neusiedlersee 

Austria a wine zone in Burgenland, Austria, centred on the lake 
of the same name, producing a good proportion of the entire 
grape harvest of Austria including a large harvest of (normally) 
Botrytis cinerea- infected white grapes for variable-quality white 
wines and Pinot Noir (Blauburgunder) and Cabernet Sauvignon 
for red wines (pronounced noy zeedlsr zay) 

2 neutral 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that is drinkable but has 
no special qualities 

nevers 

French a type of French oak used to make wine barrels (pro- 
nounced ne vair) 

New South Wales 

Australia a state in Australia, the first to cultivate grapevines, 
including 17 regions. Hunter Valley is probably the best-known, 
producing red wines from Syrah (Shiraz) grapes and white wines 
from Semilion grapes. 

Newton, Peter 

a well-known winemaker in the Napa Valley region of California, 
USA, who introduced the Merlot grape to the area and developed 
Sauvignon Blanc with Robert Mondavi. His current vineyard 
produces a small range of very good red and white wines from 
Merlot, Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir grape varieties. 

New World 

New Zealand and Australia, California in the USA, South 
Africa or South America, or these regions collectively, often 
associated with an innovative approach to winemaking 

New York State 

USA a wine-producing state on the eastern coast of the USA 




New Zealand 229 

flS>iS!SIMS>iS!SI¥»'SS!Siy3>iS!Siy3>iS!SIMS>iS!SI^^ 

that is unusual in that most of the vines planted are not 
traditional Vitis vinifera varieties but are native American 
breeds or hybrids. New York State has four main areas: Lake 
Erie, Long Island, the Hudson River Valley and the Finger 
Lakes. New York State has around 140 mostly small wineries, 
growing 50 different grape varieties. Chardonnay, Riesling, 
Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot are the most successful. Spark- 
ling wine is also made, as well as some superb dessert wines, 
namely late-harvest Rieslings and even Riesling ice wines. 




New Zealand 

a country that has been growing vines and producing wine since 
the early 1800s but has only recently become an important 
producer in the world market. Winemakers have imported 
European vines and hybrids to test in the local cool climate, 
and now vineyards are widely planted with the Miiller-Thurgau, 
Chardonnay, Riesling and Sauvignon Blanc white-wine grape 
varieties, although Sauvignon Blanc is the variety with which 
New Zealand has been most successful. The country’s best wines 
are its white wines produced from this range of grape varieties, 



230 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •>¥,» •.’VWiV VSVSS 1 vVt-* »t‘ ^Vr-. »t‘ VSV3S 1 •¥WSfc‘ '¥VA‘ vVr A‘ %Vr 

including sweet dessert wines made from Riesling grapes in- 
fected with the fungus Botrytis cinerea. Its red wines are pro- 
duced from other European grape varieties including Cabernet 
Sauvignon, Pinot Noir and Merlot, and also the South African 
Pinotage. The regions on the North Island are: Auckland, which 
includes some of the country’s oldest established vineyards and 
wineries and is best-known for its Bordeaux-style wines, espe- 
cially its mouth-filling Cabernet Sauvignons and its complex, 
fruity Chardonnays; Gisborne, producing distinctive Chardon- 
nays; Hawkes Bay, where Chardonnay is the most widely 
planted grape variety, but the long sunshine hours are conducive 
to later-ripening red grape varieties such as Cabernet Sau- 
vignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc and Syrah; and Martinborough 
and Wairarapa, populated by small producers making good 
Cabernets and Pinot Noirs. The South Island is dominated by 
Marlborough, New Zealand’s best-known area. Two hours’ 
drive from Marlborough lies Nelson, whose vineyards concen- 
trate on cooler climate varieties: Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, 
Riesling and Pinot Noir account for over 80% of the grapes 
grown. Canterbury’s first vineyard was only planted in 1977 but 
it is becoming well-known and appreciated for its Chardonnay, 
Riesling and Pinot Noir wines. Central Otago is the world’s 
southernmost wine-producing region. The conditions are ideal 
for producing high-quality Pinot Noir and Riesling wines. 

0 Niagara 

a white hybrid American grape that is grown primarily in the 
eastern USA and Canada to produce sweet and medium sweet 
white wines 

noble 

2 I. ( tasting term) used to describe high-quality wine that has 
character 

2 . used to describe grape varieties traditionally used in making 
high-quality wine 

noble rot, noble mould 

the fungus Botrytis cinerea growing on white grapes, which, if 
carefully controlled, enhances the sweetness and flavour of 
sweet white wines made from them. 

Also called Edelfaule; muffa nobile: pourriture noble 

non-filtre 

French unfiltered {pronounced noN feel tray) 




novello 231 

5SV vVr* ■JSIVSe 1 ■***■ ->Vr’S>‘ VSIS^SV vVr* ■JSIVSe 1 VVT.’lSt‘ VVr-’lSt‘ VSIVSV vVr* VV,’lSt‘ •>¥, 

non-vintage 

used to describe a wine produced with a blend of wines from 
more than one year (vintage). Such blending is often used to 
provide a consistent product for Champagne. In the case of 
port, a vintage year is declared by the producer if the wine is 
exceptional, otherwise it is classed as non-vintage. 

Abbreviation NV 

North Coast AVA 

USA a viticultural area in California, USA that comprises the 
major wine-producing areas of Napa, Sonoma, Mendocino, 
Solano, Lake and Marin counties 

North East Victoria 

Australia a wine-producing zone in Victoria encompassing five 
regions: King Valley, Glenrowan, Rutherglen, Beechworth and 
Alpine Valleys 

North Yuba AVA 

USA a small viticultural area in California, USA, within the 
larger Sierra Foothills AVA. It has just one winery. 

0 Norton 

an American hybrid grape variety that is not strongly flavoured 
and not suitable for ageing 

J nose 

1. ( tasting term ) the smell of a wine 

2. ( tasting term) to smell a wine. The best way to smell a wine is 
to use a glass in which the body is wider than the top to help trap 
the smell. A small portion of wine should be poured into the 
glass and the wine gently twirled inside the glass to release the 
smell into the glass before you finally smell the wine. 

2 note 

( tasting term) a distinct element in the taste or aroma of a wine 

nouveau 

French used to indicate a young wine that has just been made 
and has a light, fruity style and that should be drunk immedi- 
ately. The term is most often applied to Beaujolais red wines. 
( pronounced noo vo, literally ‘new’, plural nouveaux) 

novello 

Italian used to indicate a young wine that has just been made 




232 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ *’*' •.’VWiV *■*' vVt-* W,. »t‘ ^Vr-. »t‘ VSVSS 1 vVt-* •>¥,» -,Vr 

and has a light, fruity style and that should be drunk immedi- 
ately. (pronounced ns vello, literally ‘new’, plural novelli) 

See also vino novello 

Nuits-Saint-Georges AOC 

France an appellation in the Cote de Nuits area of the Burgundy 
region of France that has over 30 premier cru vineyards mostly 
producing very good red wines from Pinot Noir grapes (pro- 
nounced nwee saN zhawrzh) 

J numb 

(i tasting term ) used to describe a wine has lost its taste or smell, 
e.g. if it is served too cold 

0 Nuragus 

a white-wine grape variety grown mainly on the island of 
Sardinia (pronounced noor aagsss) 

Nuragus di Cagliari DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC zone on the island of Sardinia, 
growing mostly Nuragus grapes to produce dry, light white 
wines (pronounced noor aagsss dee ka lyaari) 

2 nutty 

(, tasting term) used to describe a wine with a flavour reminiscent 
of nuts, particularly hazelnuts. The term is mostly used to 
describe sherry or port wines. 

NV abbreviation non-vintage 




Wine in, secret out. 



Proverb 



oak 

a type of hardwood commonly used for making wine barrels 
that are used to store and age wine and give it distinctive 
flavours and tannins. The barrels start losing their ability to 
provide flavours and tastes after around five years, but the 
major vineyards producing high-quality wine replace the barrels 
each year. 

oak ageing 

the process of ageing wine in oak barrels. Oak is the preferred 
wood for ageing because it gives the wine flavour and some 
tannins. 

oak chips 

shavings of oak used as a low-cost alternative to storing wine 
in oak barrels, which are expensive. They are added to a vat of 
fermenting wine to provide some of the oak flavour to the wine. 
The wine will not have been aged in an oak barrel, so will not 
have the added complexity of flavour of this ageing process. 

oaked 

flavoured with oak from the wine having been aged in an oak 
barrel, or from oak chips immersed in it 

oak essences 

a flavoured liquid added to a fermenting wine to add some 
flavour similar to that produced by ageing the wine in an oak 
barrel. This is the cheapest way of adding an oak flavour, but 
the least satisfactory for the end user. 

Oakville AVA 

USA a wine-producing region that covers part of the Napa 
Valley region of California, western USA 

2 oaky 

I. ( tasting term) used to describe a smell or taste of vanilla and 
oak in a wine that has been aged in an oak barrel 




234 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V '»¥,.’*■ »’*' •,'SIV A‘ Wr- »t‘ ■***■ •-'W A‘ Wr- »V vVr 

2. ( tasting term) used to describe excessive oak flavours that 
spoil the balance of a wine 

Oechsle scale 

a density scale used in Germany to measure the specific gravity 
of a liquid. In winemaking it is used to check the sugar levels in 
grape juice and so estimate the ripeness of grapes and predict the 
eventual alcohol content of a wine produced from those grapes, 
establishing the quality levels of wine for QbA and QmP. 
( pronounced oksls) 

oeil-de-perdrix 

( pronounced 6 ee do pair dree, literally ‘partridge’s eye’) 

2 I. ( tasting term) a brownish colour tinge to light red wines 
J 2. a white wine made from a black-skinned grape and having a 
pinkish tinge 

oenologist 

a person who studies or practises the science of winemaking 
{The US spelling is enologist.) 

oenology 

the science of wine and winemaking {The US spelling is enology.) 
oenophile 

a person who enjoys wine {The US spelling is enophile.) 

2 off 

{tasting term) used to describe a wine that is spoiled 

off-dry 

used to describe a wine that is not quite a dry wine and is very 
slightly sweet, where the residual sugar is only just perceptible 

2 off-flavour 

{tasting term) a flavour that is not consistent with or typical of 
the type or style of the wine 

Office International de la Vigne et du Vin 

an international organisation that provides standards for the 
production of wine, based in Paris, France, {pronounced ofeess 
aN tair nassys naal dsla veenyo ay doo vaN) 

Abbreviation OIV 

2 off-smell 

{tasting term) an odour of rotten eggs or some other smell 
indicating that the wine is spoiled 




open 235 

* VVr* VVr.’lSt‘ VVr-’lSt‘ VVr* •,'SV , A‘ V’VWSt' ■-Vr- , lSt‘ VVr* VV,’lSt‘ '-Vr 

oidium 

French the fungal disease powdery mildew of grapevines (pro- 
nounced 5 eedee am) 

2 oily 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that has the texture of oil 
and has a fat sensation on the palate caused by a combination of 
high glycerol and low acid levels. Oiliness is sometimes found in 
good-quality wines or sweet wines. 

OIV abbreviation Office International de la Vigne et du Vin 

0 Olaszrizling another name for Welschriesling (pronounced 
Bias reezling, used in Hungary) 

Old World 

Europe and the areas around the Mediterranean, as opposed to 
the New World 

n olive 

(tasting term) a taste or aroma associated with red wines made 
wholly or partly from the Cabernet Sauvignon grape variety 

oloroso 

one of the two main categories of Spanish sherry that is bigger, 
darker and sweeter and has a fuller body than the fmo style of 
sherry (pronounced olio rosso, plural olorosos) 

Oltrepo Pavese DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC zone in the Lombardy region of 
Italy that produces a wide range of red and white wines in a 
range of styles from dry to sweet. It is best known for two styles 
of full-bodied red wine made from Barbera, Croatina and Pinot 
Noir grapes, normally in a slightly sparkling style, (pronounced 
oltrs po pa vay zay) 

Onomasia kata Paradosi 

Greek Traditional Appellation, an official category of Greek 
wines, especially for retsina 

OPAP abbreviation Greek Appellation of Origin of Superior 
Quality 

OPE abbreviation Greek Controlled Appellation of Origin 

2 open 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that is full-flavoured and 
ready to drink 




236 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V '»¥,.’*■ vVi’-'A" »’*' VV,.* vVf’A' Wr- »t‘ •***■ -Xtr'i/t' VVr 

2 opening 

(tasting term) the first smells and flavours encountered when 
tasting a wine 

open-top tank 

a winemaking tank that has no permanent cover, used to 
ferment red wine. This is the traditional design for tanks, but 
it has mostly been replaced with closed-top tanks that are easier 
to clean and manage. 

Opitz, Willi 

a famous winemaker in the Neusiedlersee area of Austria, best- 
known for a range of excellent sweet wines (pronounced opits) 

Oporto 

( pronounced 3 pawrto) 

I. Portugal another name for Porto 
0 2. Hungary another name for Portugieser 

0 Optima 

an early-ripening German white-wine grape variety that was 
created as a cross between Miiller-Thurgau and a hybrid of the 
Riesling and Sylvaner grape varieties. This grape is very sweet 
and is used primarily in blends, (pronounced optima) 

^ opulent 

(tasting term ) used to describe a wine that is smooth and full- 
flavoured 

Opus One 

USA a winery based in the Napa Valley, California, that was set 
up by Robert Mondavi and Baron Philippe de Rothschild. The 
winery makes a very well-regarded red wine from predomi- 
nantly Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. 

2 orange 

(tasting term) a taste or aroma associated with sweet and 
fortified white wines 

0 Orange Muscat 

a variety of the Muscat grape that is highly perfumed and is 
popular in California, USA 

ordinaire 

French an inexpensive, basic wine (pronounced awrdi nair, 
literally ‘ordinary’, derived from vin ordinaire ‘ordinary wine’) 




Originalabfiillung 237 

5SV v¥r- »V VSf^Se 1 v¥r- »fc‘ ■,’W»V -fllWSV WT-’iSt 1 v¥r- »V •,'SIVA‘ vVr 

Oregon 

USA a wine-producing state in the northwest of the USA with a 
cool climate that allows the vineyard owners to grow Pinot Noir 
for red wines and Chardonnay and Riesling for white wines. 
Oregon’s Pinot Noir flourishes in the state’s wet, cool conditions 
and is especially treasured by wine-lovers. There are 1 38 wineries 
and five AVAs, Willamette Valley being the most important. 

organic 

1 . used to describe the growing of vines using only a restricted 
number of permitted chemical pesticides and fertilisers 

2 . used to describe a method of making wine without the use of 
some chemicals and additives such as sulphites (sulphur dioxide) 
during production 

organically grown 

grown using only the fertilisers and pesticides permitted by 
organic growers 

organic fertiliser 

a plant nutrient that is returned to the soil from dead or 
decaying plant matter and animal wastes, e.g. compost, farm- 
yard manure or bone meal 

organic viticulture 

the philosophy and practice of growing vines without the use of 
many chemicals, either as fertilisers or pesticides. Grasses and 
other plants may be grown between the vines to help improve the 
soil and also compete with the vines for water and nutrients in the 
soil, leading to less vigorous growth of the shoots and leaves, which 
allows more sunlight onto the berries ensuring that they ripen well. 

organic wine 

wine that has been produced from organically grown and 
processed grapes. In the USA, this term is not allowed to be 
used on labels and instead a phrase such as ‘made from grapes 
organically grown' is used. 

organoleptic 

used to describe a method of evaluating a wine by taste, smell 
and sight rather than through chemical analysis 

Originalabfiillung 

German bottled by the producer ( pronounced s riggi naal ap fool 
loong) 

Compare Erzeugerabfiillung; Gutsabfiillung 




238 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

5SV •>¥,» VVt-* •>¥,» Vy,»V VW »V VVr 



oro 

Italian gold {pronounced awro) 

See also Marsala DOC 

0 Ortega 

a white- wine grape variety that is popular in Germany and used 
to produce wines with a floral character ( pronounced awr tayga) 

Orvieto DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC zone in the south of the Umbria 
region of Italy, best-known for producing a dry, white wine 
(j pronounced awr vyayto) 

Osborne 

a producer of sherry and Spanish brandy whose silhouetted 
black bull advertisements are a familiar feature of the Spanish 
landscape 

ouillage 

French the topping-up of wine barrels to make up for liquid lost 
through evaporation ( pronounced wee yaazh) 

See ullage 

overcropped 

used to describe a vine that carries more crop than it should so 
that not all the crop will ripen, normally caused by poor pruning 

2 overdeveloped see developed 
overripe 

used to describe grapes that have been left on the vine too long 
before being picked, having extra sugar that can produce wines 
that are unbalanced 

oxidation 

an unwanted change in the flavour or colour of a wine caused by 
exposure to air that causes a chemical reaction in the wine or 
grape juice as it reacts with oxygen 

oxidise 

to react with oxygen and convert a substance into an oxide 

2 oxidised 

{tasting term ) used to describe wine that has suffered oxidation, 
giving it a stale smell or flavour and often changing the colour of 
the wine so that it takes on a brownish tint. Fortified wines such 
as sherry and Madeira gain their characteristics by controlled 
oxidation. 




oxygen 239 

* vVr* vV,’iA‘ •***■ vVr-’iSt‘ •,V,> , A‘ '-Vr* WrW ->Vr’S>‘ •,V,> , A‘ '.’VWSV vV,’iA‘ vVr 

oxygen 

a chemical element (formula O) that is a common colourless gas 
present in the air and essential to biological life. In winemaking 
it is important to exclude oxygen from most processes because 
of the risk of oxidation. Exposure to the air before drinking is 
sometimes thought to improve some red wines. 




<p 



Yet wine is mightier than the king. For great and true . . . though the king 
may be, yet when he drinks the wine rules over him. 

Micha Joseph Bin Gorion 



Paarl 

South Africa a wine-producing region northeast of Cape Town 
in South Africa (pronounced paal or persl) 

Padthaway 

Australia a wine-producing region in South Australia previously 
called Keppoch, producing wines of consistent quality and style. 
Chardonnay reigns supreme, but fine examples of Cabernet 
Sauvignon and Syrah (Shiraz) made from old vine material can 
also be found. 

paille 

French straw, (pronounced p6) 

See also vin de paille 

0 Pais another name for Mission (pronounced p6 yeess ,usedin Chile) 

2 palate 

(tasting term) the way wine tastes in the mouth. It is normally 
divided into three sections: front or fore-palate (the initial 
sensation of the wine), middle or mid-palate (the taste of the 
wine in the mouth) and hind or end-palate (the sensation on 
swallowing). 

2 pale 

(tasting term) used to describe a light-coloured fortified wine or 
brandy 

pale cream 

used to describe a fino sherry or a dry Montilla that has been 
sweetened 

Palette AOC 

France a small appellation in the west of the Provence region of 
France producing red and rose wines (pronounced pa let) 




passing the port 241 

* vVr* vVr.’iSt‘ vVr-’iSt‘ •,V,> , A‘ •,V,- , A‘ ■JSIV* 1 ■***■ ->Vr’S>‘ vVr* vVt- , A‘ vVr 

palido 

Spanish pale, {pronounced paalido) 

See also Rueda DOC 

Palmer, Chateau 

France a well-regarded chateau in the Margaux AOC area of the 
Bordeaux region of southwestern France, graded troisieme cru 
(third growth) in the classification of 1855. It produces very 
good wines from a blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot 
grapes, {pronounced paal mair) 

palo cortado 

a style of sherry that is midway between a pale fino and a dark- 
brown, sweeter oloroso, though this varies between producers. 
( pronounced paalo kawr taado, plural palos cortados) 

See also sherry 

0 Palomino 

a grape variety used to make some table wines, but normally 
used to make sherry in the Jerez de la Frontera region of Spain. 
( pronounced palls meeno) 

Also called Ablan 

0 Pansa Blanca another name for Xarel-lo (pronounced pan sa 
blangka, used especially in the Alella DO) 

y paraffin 

(tasting term) the pleasant slight smell and sensation of paraffin, 
particularly on Riesling white wines 

0 Parellada 

a white- wine grape variety, widely grown in the Catalonia region 
of northeastern Spain that produces good-quality light and fruity 
white wines and sparkling wines (pronounced parrs lyaads) 

Parker, Robert M., Jr. 

a famous American wine-taster and critic whose tasting notes 
and ratings (out of 100) - in his books and in his magazine The 
Wine Advocate - are widely read and respected throughout the 
USA and the rest of the world. A good (or bad) rating can 
transform the fortunes of a vineyard. 

Passe-Tout-Grains see Bourgogne Passe-Tout-Grains AOC 
passing the port 

the tradition of passing a decanter or bottle of port clockwise 




242 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V •,'Vr'ih' Wr- »t‘ -?Vr'J>‘ '.’VWSV VVr-* %Vr 

around a table. After serving yourself, you pass it to the person 
on your left. 

passito 

(pronounced pa seeto, plural passiti) 

1. Italian an Italian winemaking process in which harvested 
grapes are dried before being pressed to help increase and 
concentrate the sugar levels prior to fermentation 

2 . a strong sweet wine made using the passito process 

Pasteur, Louis 

a famous scientist who identified the yeasts that caused fermen- 
tation and so developed pasteurisation, a process of heating a 
liquid then rapidly cooling it to kill off any yeasts, to stabilise 
liquids such as milk and wine and prevent spoilage. This process 
is not used for fine wines, which rely on these bacteria to help 
age and improve the wine. 

pasto 

Italian meal (pronounced pasto) 

See also vino da pasto 

Patras 

Greece an appellation in the northern Peloponnese in southern 
Greece that grows especially white-wine grapes 

Pauillac AOC 

France a famous appellation in the Haut-Medoc area of the 
Bordeaux region in southwestern France producing some of the 
best red wines in France. The area contains three of the five 
premier cru estates: Latour, Lafite-Rothschild and Mouton- 
Rothschild. The area is mostly laid to Cabernet Sauvignon 
grapes together with some Merlot and Cabernet Franc, (pro- 
nounced paw yak) 

Paul Masson 

USA a winery that was established in Santa Clara County in 
California and was one of the first to produce sparkling wine in 
the state. The winery closed and concentrated on musical 
concerts but is now planning to replant vines. 

pays 

French see vin de pays; vin du pays 




Pedro Ximenez, Pedro Jimenez 243 

-»t‘ vVr- »t‘ 'WrW *’*' vVt-* vVr- »t‘ ','SIV , A‘ W,- »t‘ vVr- »t‘ VVr 

pazo 

Spain a wine-producing estate in the Galicia region of north- 
western Spain (pronounced paatho) 

2 peach 

(tasting term) the flavour of sweet peaches in some sweet, late- 
picked wines affected by the fungus Botrytis cinerea, or in wines 
made from Muscat grapes 

2 peak 

(tasting term) the point at which a wine has aged correctly and is 
at its best in terms of flavour and taste. This is very subjective. 

2 pear 

(tasting term) a taste or aroma associated with young light white 
wines and also with Beaujolais Nouveau 

2 peardrops 

(tasting term) an aroma arising from ethyl acetate or amyl 
acetate, found especially in young wines 

Pecharmant AOC 

France an appellation in the Bergerac region of southwest 
France that is best-known for its good-quality red wines made 
from Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Merlot grape 
varieties (pronounced pay shaar maaN) 

0 Pederanao another name for Arinto (pronounced pe dair now) 

Pedesclaux, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Pauillac AOC region in central Bor- 
deaux that was graded cinquieme cru (fifth growth) in the 
classification of 1855. It produces mostly red wine from Ca- 
bernet Sauvignon and Merlot grape varieties, (pronounced 
peddo skl6) 

0 Pedro Ximenez, Pedro Jimenez 

a white-wine grape variety grown in Argentina, Australia and, 
mainly, in southern Spain. Originally used as the main sherry 
grape, it has now been replaced by the Palomino grape variety 
and is used in smaller quantities to add sweetness to a sherry 
blend. In other regions it is used to produce sweet white wines or 
light, dry table wines, (pronounced peddro hi may ness) 
Abbreviation PX 




244 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V VW »V ■¥V»t‘ ■***■ vVr 

2 pencil shavings 

(tasting term) an aroma associated with red wines made wholly 
or partly from the Cabernet Franc grape variety 

Penedes DO 

Spain a wine-producing DO zone near Barcelona in Catalonia, 
Spain, that produces good-quality red and white wines. Its wine 
production has been revolutionised by Miguel Torres. The 
area's important sparkling wines bear the Cava DO label. 
(pronounced penns dess) 

2 penetrating 

(tasting term ) used to describe a wine that has an intense aroma, 
often because of high levels of alcohol 

Penfolds 

a famous estate in Barossa, South Australia, producing a wide 
range of very good red and white wines including the excellent 
Syrah-(Shiraz-)based Penfolds Grange wine, acknowledged as 
the greatest wine produced in Australia 

Penfolds Grange see Grange; Penfolds; Southcorp 

2 peppery 

(tasting term ) used to describe a wine with a spicy flavour, which 
is often found in port and some red wines from the Rhone 
region of France 

2 perfumed 

(tasting term) used to describe the sweet and floral aromas of 
some white wines 

0 Periquita 

a red-wine grape variety grown in southern Portugal that 
produces full-bodied red wines that need ageing to soften the 
tannins (pronounced perri keets) 

perlant 

French used to describe a wine that is very slightly sparkling in a 
way that is only just noticeable (pronounced pair laaN) 

Perlwein 

a slightly sparkling German wine, usually of low quality, that 
has been artificially carbonated (pronounced pairl v6n, plural 

Perlweine) 




. »fc‘ vVr- »t‘ ■,¥■ 



Petit Chablis AOC 245 

SP vVT-’»t‘ •,¥»> , A‘ v¥r> »V %Vr 



Pernand-Vergelesses AOC 

France an appellation near Corton in the Cote de Beaune 
district of the Burgundy region of France (pronounced pair 
naaN vairzhs less) 

0 Perricone 

a Sicilian red grape variety grown especially for use in blends 

Perrier see Laurent Perrier 
Perrier-Jouet 

a Champagne house based in Epernay, in the Champagne 
region of France. This medium-sized producer is best-known 
for its premium Champagne, Belle Epoque, in a bottle with 
flowers painted directly onto the glass. The company is owned 
by Mumm. (pronounced perree ay zhoo ay) 

J persistence 

(tasting term) the length of the flavour and aroma of a wine on 
the palate 

Pessac-Leognan AOC 

France an appellation in the Graves district of the Bordeaux 
region of southwestern France. This appellation was formed in 
1987 and includes the famous Chateau Flaut-Brion, which was 
graded premier cru (first growth) in the classification of 1855. 
(pronounced pess ak lay o nyaaN) 

Peter Lehmann 

Australia a well-respected winery in the Barossa Valley region of 
South Australia, producing a range of good-quality red and 
white wines 

petiliance 

French a slight sparkle in a wine, (pronounced pay tee yaaNss) 
Compare spritz 

petillant 

French slightly sparkling (pronounced pay tee yaaN) 

petit 

French used to describe a style of wine that is of lower quality or 
has less alcohol or body than the original (pronounced ps tee) 

Petit Chablis AOC see Chablis (pronounced ps tee sha blee) 




246 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V v¥r> Wr- »t‘ ■***■ '>¥,• »V %Vr 

0 Petite Sirah, Petite Syrah 

a red-wine grape variety that is grown mainly in California, 
USA, to produce full-bodied red wines with a peppery taste. 
It has no relation to the Syrah grape. 

0 Petit Manseng see Manseng ( pronounced ps tee maaN saaN) 

0 Petit Noir another name for Negrette (pronounced pa tee 
nwaar) 

0 Petit Verdot, Petit Verdau 

a red-wine grape variety grown mainly in the Bordeaux region 
of France to produce good-quality red wines with a deep colour 
and high levels of tannin and alcohol. The grapes are often used 
for blending with Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, (pronounced pa 
tee vair d6) 

Also called Verdot Rouge 
Petrus, Chateau 

France a very famous estate in the Pomerol area of Bordeaux in 
southwestern France growing old Merlot vines on its clay soil 
to produce some of the best red wines in the world. The 
Pomerol area has never been classified, but Petrus is widely 
recognised as being of premier cru status and it generally sells 
for higher prices than any other red wine of Bordeaux, (pro- 
nounced pay trooss) 

Pfalz 

Germany a large Anbaugebiet (quality wine-producing region) 
in southern Germany that runs parallel to the Rhine river north 
of Alsace in France. The region produces large quantities of 
cheap Liebfraumilch white wines, with a few vineyards pro- 
ducing good-quality white wines from Riesling and Miiller- 
Thurgau grapes, (pronounced falts) 

Also called Rheinpfalz 

PH 

a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution, 
which shows how acid or alkaline it is: pH is shown as a number. 
A value of 7 is neutral. Lower values indicate increasing acidity 
and higher values indicate increasing alkalinity, so 0 is most acid 
and 14 is most alkaline. This system is used to measure the 
acidity of wine and the type of soil in an area. Plants vary in their 




Picpoul, Picpoul Blanc 247 

»t‘ V¥r- »V VV^’»t‘ VS6** 1 VS6** 1 V’W* »V %Vr 

tolerance of soil pH: some grow well on alkaline soils, some 
on acid soils only and some can tolerate a wide range of pH 
values. 

phenolic compound same as polyphenolic compound 
photosynthesis 

the process by which green plants convert carbon dioxide and 
water into sugar, starch and oxygen using light as energy. 
Several factors are required for photosynthesis to take place: 
carbon dioxide, light, heat and water. 

phylloxera 

the root aphid Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (formerly Viteus vitifo- 
lii) that attacks vines. It threatened to destroy the vineyards of 
Europe in the 19th century, but the vines were saved by grafting 
susceptible varieties onto resistant American rootstock. 

physiological ripeness 

full ripeness of a grape determined using not only the sugar 
levels in the grape but also by taking into account the balance of 
sugars, acids and tannins that will yield the optimum flavour 

Piane del Sole see A Winemaker’s View 

Pichon-Longueville Comtesse de Lalande, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Pauillac AOC area of the Medoc district 
of Bordeaux in southwestern France graded deuxieme cru 
(second growth) in the classification of 1855. It produces top- 
quality red wines from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Ca- 
bernet Franc grapes, (pronounced pee shoN longs veel koN tess 
ds la laand) 

Also called Pichon-Lalande, Chateau 

0 Picolit 

an ancient white-wine grape variety that is grown only in the 
Friuli region of northeastern Italy. It has a very low yield and is 
used to produce limited quantities of sweet white wine with a 
floral aroma, (pronounced peeko lit) 

0 Picpoul, Picpoul Blanc 

a white-wine grape variety native to the Languedoc region of 
southern France where it produces crisp dry white wines, the 
best-known of which is Picpoul de Pinet ( pronounced peek pool 
or peek pool blaaN) 




248 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

tint •>¥,» •.’VWiV ■.’VWSV vWiV W,. »t‘ •>¥<. »t‘ VVt-* V’W’iV %Vr 



piece 

French a barrel. The term is used in the Burgundy region for 
barrels of a size similar to that of the oak barrels used in the 
Bordeaux region (called barriques and of 225 litre capacity). 
( pronounced pyess) 

0 Piedirosso 

a red-wine grape variety grown in Campania, southwestern 
Italy, especially on the islands of Ischia and Capri {pronounced 
pyaydee rawsso) 

Piedmont, Piemonte 

Italy a major wine-producing region of northwestern Italy that 
includes 4 DOCGs and over 30 DOC areas. The region is best- 
known for its red wines produced from the Nebbiolo and 
Barbera grape varieties, (pronounced peed mont or pye mon tay) 

S Piesporter Michelsberg 

an ordinary white wine from the Mosel region of Germany 
( pronounced peess pawrtsr mikholzbairg) 

0 Pigato 

a white-wine grape variety grown mainly in the Liguria region of 
Italy that is used to produce good-quality, full-bodied, aromatic 
dry white wines (pronounced pi gaato) 

Pin see Le Pin, Chateau 
0 Pineau d’Aunis 

a black grape variety grown in the Loire valley region of France 
to produce red and rose wines (pronounced peeno do neess) 

fl Pineau des Charentes 

a sweet aperitif wine that is essentially a mixture of grape juice 
and brandy matured together in casks and is normally drunk 
cold or with ice. It is made in the Cognac region of western 
France by adding Cognac to grape juice to prevent the fermen- 
tation process, (pronounced peeno day sha raaNt) 

0 Pinot 

a family of French grape varieties including Pinot Blanc, Pinot 
Gris, Pinot Noir and Meunier. Unrelated grapes have often also 
been given the name, which is believed to refer to the shape of 
the grape bunches, resembling pine cones, (pronounced peeno) 

0 Pinotage 

a red-wine grape variety that is a cross between Pinot Noir and 




Pinot Noir 249 

* VVr* ■.’Wit' VVr' , lSt‘ VVr* Wr-W WrW VVr-’lSt‘ VV^lSt' '-Vr 

Cinsault, developed in South Africa and grown widely in South 
Africa, New Zealand and California, USA, to produce medium- 
bodied red wines. The name is a blend of Pinot and Hermitage, a 
South African name for Cinsault. {pronounced pinno taazh) 

0 Pinot Bianco another name for Pinot Blanc 1 {pronounced 
peeno byangko, used in Italy) 

0 Pinot Blanc 

( pronounced peeno blaaN) 

I . a white-wine grape variety in the Pinot family that is grown 
around the world including a concentration in the Alsace region 
of France. This grape produces a pleasant dry, medium-bodied 
white wine that is similar to Chardonnay but without its depth 
or ability to age. 

Also called Beli Pinot; Pinot Bianco 

0 Pinot Chardonnay another name for Chardonnay 

0 Pinot Grigio another name for Pinot Gris (pronounced peeno 
greejo, used in Italy) 

0 Pinot Gris 

a grape variety in the Pinot family with a greyish-to-pinkish skin 
colour that is used to produce a range of white and pale rose 
wines. It produces particularly good, rich white wines in the 
Alsace region of France, but is also popular in Italy, Germany 
and eastern Europe. ( pronounced peeno gree) 

Also called Auxerrois Gris; Grauburgunder; Pinot Grigio; 
Pinto Gris; Rulander; Tokay d’Alsace 

0 Pinot Liebault 

a little-known red-wine grape variety, a clonal variant of Pinot 
Noir, grown and used mostly in the Burgundy region of France 
(pronounced peeno lee bo) 

0 Pinot Meunier another name for Meunier (pronounced peeno 
mon yay) 

0 Pinot Nero another name for Pinot Noir (pronounced peeno 
nairo, used in Italy) 

0 Pinot Noir 

a highly regarded red grape variety in the Pinot family that 
dominates the vineyards of the Burgundy region of France, where 
it is used to produce some of the best red wines in the country. 
It is one of the oldest grape varieties cultivated and is best suited 




250 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ '.’VWSV VVf’.f *’*■ •-Vf A‘ '.’VWSV VVf’.f Wr- »V %Vr 

to cool climates, such as that of Burgundy; it is difficult to grow 
in other areas and countries. It is one of the three varieties of 
grape used to produce sparkling white wine in the Champagne 
region of France and is grown in parts of Australia, New Zealand, 
USA and in Germany, (pronounced peeno nwaar) 

Also called Blauburgunder; Savagnin Noir; Spatburgunder 

0 Pinot Saint George another name for Negrette (used in 
California, USA) 

0 Pinto Gris another name for Pinot Gris (pronounced peento 
gree) 

pip 

a seed inside a grape. If the seeds are crushed when pressing the 
grapes, they can give a bitter taste to the wines. 

pipe 

1 . a unit of liquid measure for wine, equal to four barrels, two 
hogsheads, or 105 gallons (about 478 litres) 

2 . a large container for wine 

Piper Heidsieck 

a Champagne house based in Reims in the Champagne region of 
France, producing a range of Champagne styles. It is owned by 
Remy Martin, (pronounced p7por h7d sek) 

0 Plant G ris another name for Aligote (pronounced plaaN gree) 

plastering 

a process, now outdated, of adding plaster of Paris to grape juice 
to increase its acid levels 

plonk 

simple, ordinary wine (informal) 

J plummy, plum 

(tasting term) used to describe a fruity taste or aroma in red 
wines made from the Syrah (Shiraz), Cabernet Sauvignon and 
Grenache grape varieties 

2 plump 

(tasting term ) used to describe a wine that does not quite reach 
the quality of a fat wine. 

Compare fat; flabby 




Pomino DOC 251 

»V V¥r- »V •,'SlVA‘ VVr-’»t‘ VVr.* VVr* •***■ ■***■ »V V¥r- »V •,'SlVA‘ VVr 

podere 

Italian a wine-producing estate {pronounced pods ray, plural 

poderi) 

points 

a method of rating a wine, used by tasters and magazines, 
assigning points according to a range of indicators 

Poitou VDQS 

France a VDQS wine-producing area in the Loire region of 
France, producing red and rose wines from Gamay and Cabernet 
Franc grapes. Some white wines are made from Sauvignon 
Blanc and Chardonnay grapes, {pronounced pwaa too) 

Pol Roger 

a small but high-quality Champagne house based in Epernay in 
the Champagne region of France {pronounced pol ro zhay) 

polyphenolic compound 

a naturally occurring chemical compound found in grapes and 
wine that contributes to the colour, taste and tannins of a wine 
and its ageing characteristics. 

Also called phenolic compound 

pomace 

the residue of skins, seeds, pulp and fragments of stems left in 
the fermenting vat or cask after winemaking. Pomace is the 
basic ingredient used in the distillation of the brandy called marc 
in France and grappa in Italy. ( pronounced pummiss) 

Pomerol AOC 

France an appellation on the right bank of the Dordogne river in 
the Bordeaux region of southwestern France that grows mostly 
Merlot grapes and produces good-quality red wines that are a 
little softer and less tannic that the better-known wines of the 
Medoc AOC region of Bordeaux, which grows mostly Cabernet 
Sauvignon. The Pomerol area has never been classified, but its 
Chateau Petrus is widely recognised as being of premier cru 
status, {pronounced pomms rol) 

Pomino DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC area in the Tuscany region of Italy 
that produces a range of red wines mainly from Sangiovese 
grapes and white wines from a mix of Pinot Blanc (Pinot 
Bianco) and Chardonnay. The area also produces sweet white 
or red vin santo wine styles, (pronounced po meeno) 




252 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ *■*' •*¥<-- »t‘ *■*' VVt-* Wr- »t‘ ^Vr-. »t‘ VSVSSS 1 VVt-* -,Vr 

Pommard AOC 

France an appellation in the Cote de Beaune area of the 
Burgundy region of France that produces good-quality red 
wines from the Pinot Noir grape (pronounced pom maar) 

J ponderous 

(tasting term ) used to describe a heavy, strong, unsubtle taste or 
aroma in a wine that masks any desirable acidity or tannins 

Pontet-Canet, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Pauillac AOC area of the Bordeaux 
region of France graded cinquieme cru (fifth growth) in the 
classification of 1855. It produces good-quality red wine mainly 
from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, (pronounced poN tay ka nay) 

Porongurup 

Australia a wine-producing area in Western Australia, a sub- 
region of the Great Southern region 

port 

a sweet fortified wine produced by adding grape alcohol to a 
fermenting wine to stop the fermentation process and retain a 
high level of natural sugar, producing a sweet wine with high 
levels of alcohol (usually around 20% per unit volume). Port 
originated in the Douro valley region of northern Portugal and 
European Union law restricts use of the term to a defined area 
there, though port-style wines are made elsewhere in the world. 
Port was traditionally shipped from the city of Porto (Oporto). 
Port is produced as a red wine and a white wine, with two 
effective methods of ageing, either in wooden casks (or in 
cheaper versions sometimes cement tanks) or in bottle. Port 
aged in wood is ready to drink immediately after filtration and 
bottling; port intended to age in bottle spends some time in 
wood then is bottled without filtration. The wine has four basic 
styles: white, tawny, ruby and vintage port. White port is 
produced using white grapes such as Malvasia and Verdelho 
and can be in a dry or sweet style. Dry white port is produced by 
increasing the fermentation period, so reducing the residual 
sugar levels. The three red-wine ports are made using a range 
of different grapes including Tinta Barroca and Tempranillo 
(Tinta Roriz). Tawny port is made from a blend of grapes 
produced in different years and can be aged in barrels for 
between 10 and 40 years. Vintage port is made from the best 
grapes from the best areas of a vineyard harvested in a single 




Portugal 253 

»V VVr* VVt. »t‘ VVr-’»t‘ -fllV A‘ V¥r- »t‘ •,'SIV , A‘ ■***■ VSlVSe 1 V¥r- »t‘ •,'SlV A‘ %Vr 

year and bottled within two years - not all years are considered 
worthy of turning into vintage port, but if the producer con- 
siders it a good year, he or she will ‘declare’ this a vintage year. 
Ruby port is made from lower-quality grapes from the vineyard 
and is aged for two years before bottling. Ruby ports have the 
most fruit in their flavour and tend to be a brighter red colour; 
tawny ports are a dark reddish-brown colour and can age well; 
vintage ports can age for 50 years or longer. Within these basic 
styles of port, there are four categories of quality: single-quinta 
port is produced from a single estate in a non-vintage year; 
second-label vintage port is produced from a single estate when 
the producer thinks the grapes are very good but not quite of a 
quality for a declared vintage; late bottled vintage (LBV) port is 
produced from grapes grown in one year and then aged in 
barrels for between four and seven years; crusted ports are 
blended from wines produced in different years and then al- 
lowed to age in the bottle for three or four years, where a 
sediment, or crust, develops; vintage character ports are blended 
from several different vintages and retain the character and style 
of a ruby port. Bottle-aged ports (vintage, crusted and some late 
bottled vintage wines) need to be decanted before drinking. 

Porto 

Portugal a major sea port in northern Portugal that is the 
mandatory point from which all port wines must be shipped. 
( pronounced pawrto) 

Also called Oporto 

0 Portugais Bleu another name for Portugieser (pronounced 
pawr too gay bio, used in France) 

Portugal 

the fifth-largest European wine-producing country, after France, 
Italy, Spain and Germany. Of the top five, Portugal dedicates 
the highest percentage of its agricultural land to viticulture. It is 
most famous for the port produced around the city of Porto 
(Oporto) in the north of the country and Madeira, from the 
Atlantic island of the same name. Portugal is responsible for the 
medium sweet, rose wines Mateus and Lancers, which enjoyed 
huge international success during the 1960s and 1970s. How- 
ever, since Portugal joined the European Union in 1986, the 
Portuguese wine industry has undergone a revolution, with 
investment and innovation, including the use of stainless steel 




254 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 




fermentation tanks and small, new oak barrels. The old days of 
anonymous wines have been replaced by wines whose region of 
production is stated on every bottle. Estate bottling is on the 
increase and only the best grape varieties are being grown. The 10 
demarcated wine regions of 1985 have risen to 55. Its wine- 
growing is characterised by a huge number of smallholdings, and 
in 1996 it had 367,000 farming estates primarily producing wine, 
about half of these occupying less than 2 hectares. Portugal is a 
treasure trove of indigenous grape varieties, and one of the most 
interesting and exciting aspects of contemporary Portuguese 
winemaking is the trend amongst the new generation of wine- 
makers to produce wines with all that modern technology can 
offer, but using these native varieties. White varieties include 
Alvarinho and Trajadura, used in the making of Vinho Verde; 
Arinto; Encruzado, grown in the Dao region; Loureiro; Fernao 
Pires (Maria Gomes), the predominant white grape in the Bair- 
rada region; and Muscat. Red varieties grown include Baga, 
grown in the Bairrada region; Tinta Roriz, the name used in the 
Douro and Dao regions for Tempranillo and called Aragonez in 



potassium metabisulphite 255 

-»t‘ VSf^Se 1 ^Siy* 1 •,'SIV’A‘ vVT-’»t‘ VSf^Se 1 ■>’W»fc‘ %Vr 

Alentejo, where it is the most widely planted red variety; Touriga 
National, considered the noblest Portuguese variety; and Trin- 
cadeira Preta, the red-wine grape that is the same as the port 
variety Tinta Amarela. Portugal was responsible for one of the 
earliest demarcations of a wine area when, in 1756, the Marquis 
of Pombal ordered that the borders of the Douro valley - the 
home of port - be delimited by 335 stone markers, and in the first 
30 years of the 20th century, the status of Regiao Demarcada was 
awarded to a number of regions - Bucelas, Colares, Carcavelos 
(three small regions near Lisbon), Dao, Madeira and Setubal. 
This mark of quality has now been replaced by Denominagao de 
Origem Controlada (DOC). Other classifications are Vinho 
Regional, the most basic level, similar to French vin de pays, 
and Indicagao de Proveniencia Regulamentada (IPR). Wines in 
this category are termed VQPRD (Vinhos de Qualidade Produ- 
zidos em Regiao Determinada). Portuguese wine regions are, from 
north to south: the Minho, part of the Vinho Verde DOC and best 
known for its slightly sparkling wine; the Douro, land of port and 
some good red wines; Beiras, incorporating the Dao, with its 
distinctive reds, and Bairrada, producing solid, tannic reds, made 
almost exclusively from the Baga grape; Estremadura, home to 
light, quaffable and affordable wines; and Ribatejo, currently one 
of the country’s most exciting regions, with fruity, reasonably 
priced wines and the increasing presence of international grape 
varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah. Peninsula de 
Setubal produces the fortified, sweet wine Setubal (formerly 
Moscatel de Setubal) and good red and white wines. South of 
Lisbon, Alentejo provides the world with cork and is beginning to 
make exciting red and white wines, using modern technology. 

0 Portugieser 

a red-wine grape variety widely grown in Austria, France and 
Hungary and used to produce slightly sweet, light red and rose 
wines. ( pronounced pawrtoo geezor) 

Also called Oporto; Portugais Bleu 

potassium bitartrate 

a natural chemical component of grape juice and wine, removed 
during the winemaking process. 

Also called cream of tartar 

potassium metabisulphite, potassium metabisulfite 

a chemical compound that is added to wine or must (grape 
juice), where it reacts with acids to produce sulphur dioxide 




256 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •.’VWiV ■.’VWSV »t‘ vVr-- »t‘ flMSV •,¥<■ »V '¥VA‘ vVr A‘ •,¥* 

which protects the wine against oxidation and some types of 
bacteria 

J potent 

(; tasting term) used to describe a wine that has a strong, powerful 
or intense flavour 

potential alcohol 

a calculation of what the alcoholic strength of a fermenting wine 
or must would be if the all the sugar was fully fermented 

Pouget, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Margaux AOC area of the Medoc 
district of Bordeaux in southwestern France, graded quatrieme 
cru (fourth growth) in the classification of 1855. It produces 
good red wine from Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and 
Merlot grapes, {pronounced poo zhay) 

Pouilly-Fuisse AOC 

France an appellation in the Maconnais area in the Burgundy 
region of France that produces dry white wines from five 
villages within the area that grow Chardonnay grapes {pro- 
nounced poo yee fwee say) 

Pouilly-Fume AOC 

France an appellation in the Loire region of France that shares 
its centre, the town of Pouilly-sur-Loire, with the Pouilly-sur- 
Loire AOC. It produces white wines from the Sauvignon Blanc 
grape that are crisp and dry with a distinctive smoky flavour, 
hence the ‘fume' (‘smoked’) name, {pronounced poo yee foo 
may) 

Pouilly-Loche AOC 

France an appellation in the Burgundy region of France, neigh- 
bouring the Pouilly-Fuisse AOC, that produces white wines 
from the Chardonnay grape, similar in style to, though usually 
considered not so good as, wines from Pouilly-Fuisse AOC 
( pronounced poo yee lo shay) 

Pouilly-sur-Loire AOC 

France an appellation in the Loire region of France that shares 
its centre, the town of Pouilly-sur-Loire, with the Pouilly-Fume 
AOC. It produces white wines from Sauvignon Blanc grapes 
and in some vineyards from the Chasselas grape traditionally 
grown in the area, {pronounced poo yee soor lwaar) 




premier cru 257 

»V VVr* ■,'y r ’A‘ VVr-’»t‘ -fllV A‘ V¥r- »t‘ 'Xtr'*.' •***■ ',’W.V V¥r- »t‘ %¥, »V %Vr 

Pouilly-Vinzelles AOC 

France an appellation in the Maconnais area in the Burgundy 
region of France that grows mostly Chardonnay grapes to produce 
a white wine that is similar to but lighter in style than that from the 
neighbouring Pouilly-Fuisse AOC {pronounced poo yee vaN zel) 

0 Poulsard 

an unusual and rarely grown grape variety producing perfumed 
red wine that is often blended with other wines. It is particularly 
grown in the Arbois AOC region of Jura, eastern France. 
( pronounced pool saar) 

pourriture 

French rot {pronounced pooree to“or) 

pourriture noble 

French noble rot caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea {pro- 
nounced pooree toor nobbls) 

powdery mildew 

a disease caused by the fungus Podosphaera necator that occurs 
in hot dry weather on the upper surface of leaves of vines. 
Powdery mildew has two forms: primary mildew, which forms 
on young leaves in spring, and the more serious secondary 
mildew, which makes leaves dry and fall off in summer, 
o powerful 

{tasting term) used to describe a wine that has a high alcohol 
content or is full-bodied 

Pradikat 

German a distinction accorded under German wine laws to 
wines made with grapes of a particular degree of ripeness or 
must of a particular weight, (pronounced praydi kaat) 

See also QmP 

Pradikatswein 

German the highest general category of wine in Austria, refer- 
ring to the use of late-picked grapes infected with noble rot and 
including Spatlese, Auslese, Strohwein, Eiswein, Beerenauslese, 
Ausbruch and Trockenbeerenauslese {pronounced praydi kaats 
v7n, plurcd Pradikatsweine) 

2 precocious 

{tasting term ) used to describe a young wine that has the 
characteristics of a mature wine of its type 

premier cru 

French any one of the best wines in a particular region of 




258 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V v¥r> »’*' VVr-* •-Vf A‘ •,'SlV A‘ Wr- »V %Vr 

France. In the Bordeaux region, particularly the Medoc and 
Sauternes areas, it refers to estates graded as the best producers 
of wine in France in the great classification of 1855, when just 
four red-wine estates - Chateau Lafite-Rothschild, Chateau 
Haut-Brion, Chateau Latour and Chateau Margaux - were 
awarded this status (a fifth estate, Chateau Mouton-Rothschild, 
was upgraded in 1973). These five estates can label their red 
wines premier cru. In the Sauternes area of Bordeaux there are 
1 1 white-wine-producing estates judged to be premier cru and 
one of even higher quality (Chateau d'Yquem) judged as pre- 
mier grand cru. In the Burgundy region of France the premier 
cru description confusingly refers to the second-best wines - the 
best are labelled grand cru. {pronounced prom yay kroo, literally 
‘first growth', plural premiers crus) 

Premieres Cotes de Blaye AOC see Blaye AOC (pro- 
nounced prom yair kot do blay) 

Premieres Cotes de Bordeaux AOC 

France an appellation in the Bordeaux region of southwestern 
France that produces good red, white and rose wines from 
Sauvignon Blanc, Semilion and Muscadelle grapes for white 
wines and Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot for 
red wines (pronounced prom yair kot do bawr d6) 

premiere taiile see taille (pronounced prom yair t7) 

premier grand cru 

French the best white- wine-producing estate in the Sauternes area 
of the Bordeaux region of France, Chateau d'Yquem, according 
to the classification of 1855 (pronounced prom yay graaN kro”o, 
literally ‘first great growth', plural premiers grands crus) 

premier grand cru classe 

French any one of the best wines of the Medoc and Sauternes 
areas of Bordeaux and in the Saint-Emilion AOC wine-produ- 
cing area (pronounced prom yay graaN kroo kla say, plural 

premiers grands crus classes) 
premium 

used to describe a wine of high quality and usually commanding 
a very high price, or the vines or grapes from which such a wine 
is made 

press 

I. a mechanical device used to squeeze the juice from grapes. 
There are three main types of press: the basket press, the bladder 




primeur 259 

* VVr* VVr.’lSt‘ VVr-’lSt‘ VVr* '■’WiV V’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ '.’VVSV VVr* •,'!IVA‘ %Vr 

press and the screw press. The grapes are normally first crushed 
to break open their skins and make it easier to press them. When 
making red wine the crushed grapes are first fermented in 
contact with the skins to provide the red colour of the wine 
before they are pressed; when making white wine the grapes are 
first crushed, then pressed, then the fermentation takes place 
without contact with the grape skins. 

2 . to squeeze juice from grapes 

pressing 

1 . the process of extracting the juice from grapes 

2 . the juice extracted in a single pressing operation 

press juice 

grape juice that runs out of a press when squeezing grapes 

press wine 

a juice extracted from grapes after pressing (in the case of white 
wines) or after fermenting (for red wines). It has more flavour 
and aroma, deeper colour and often more tannins than free-run 
juice. It is normally either blended with the free-run juice or 
processed separately as a second-label wine. 

prestige cuvee 

the best wine from an estate 

J pricked 

( tasting term) used to describe a spoiled wine that has a fault 
with its acid levels 

primary fermentation 

the chemical process in which the yeasts and sugars in wine react 
to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide. The fermentation 
process stops when the sugar has all been converted or when 
the alcohol content reaches a high enough level (normally over 
15%) to kill off the yeast. 

Also called alcoholic fermentation 

Compare secondary fermentation; malolactic fermentation 
2 primary fruit 

( tasting term) the fruity aroma and flavour of a young wine that 
has berry or cherry tastes 

primary mildew see powdery mildew 

primeur 

French wine made to be drunk young. The term normally refers 
to the light, fruity red wines marketed between 21 November of 




260 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V '.’VWSV VVf’.f Wr- »t‘ ■***■ VVr-* %Vr 

the year of harvest and 31 January of the following year, of 
which the best-known is Beaujolais Nouveau, (pronounced 
pree mur) 

See also en primeur 
0 Primitivo 

a red-wine grape variety grown mostly in the Apulia region of 
southern Italy, producing robust red wines (pronounced primmi 
teevo) 

Primitivo di Manduria DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC area in the Apulia region of 
southern Italy that primarily grows the Primitivo grape variety 
to produce a dry red wine, and also produces a range of white 
and sweet wines (pronounced primmi teevo dee man doorio) 

Priorat DO, Priorato DO 

Spain a wine-producing DO area in the Catalonia region of 
northeastern Spain that produces mostly full-bodied red wines 
from Grenache (Garnacha) and Carignan (Carinena) grapes 
( pronounced pree aw raat or pree aw raato) 

Private Reserve 

USA a term that denotes quality and originally was used to refer 
to the best wines a winery produced, though this is no longer 
always true 

produced and bottled by 

a term on a wine label that indicates that the winery crushed, 
fermented and bottled at least 75% of the wine in the bottle 

proprietaire 

French the owner of a particular estate (pronounced prb pree ay 
tair) 

0 Prosecco 

a white-wine grape mostly grown in Italy and most commonly 
used to produce crisp, dry sparkling white wines, (pronounced 
pro seko) 

Also called Balbi 

Prosecco di Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC area in the Veneto region of 
northeastern Italy that is best-known for its sparkling crisp, 
dry or slightly sweet white wines made from Prosecco grapes 
(pronounced pro seko dee kone lyaanb val dobbyo day nay) 




Puligny-Montrachet AOC 261 

-»t‘ v¥r- »V VS6** 1 vW »t‘ VSf^Se 1 vVr- »fc‘ ■,’W»fc‘ VW »t‘ VSf^Se 1 v¥r- »V 'WrW vVr 

protective juice-handling 

the protecting of freshly pressed juice from contact with oxygen 
by using antioxidants such as sulphur dioxide or by preventing 
the juice from reacting with oxygen by chilling it. Both methods 
ensure that the juice retains its fresh, primary fruit flavours and 
does not lose its bright green colour (the juice would slowly 
yellow in contact with oxygen). 

protective winemaking 

the procedures implemented throughout the process of making 
(normally white) wine to protect it from contact with oxygen, 
which would discolour the wine and reduce the original fresh 
fruit flavours. This involves careful handling of the grapes so 
that the berries do not split and storing the freshly pressed juice 
either chilled or in a container with an antioxidant. 

Provence 

France a wine-producing region of southeastern France that 
borders the Mediterranean Sea and has a year-long warm 
climate. It is well-known for dry roses and fruity red wines. 
( pronounced pro vaaNss) 

See also Cotes de Provence AOC 

0 Prugnolo another name for Sangiovese (pronounced pro'o- 
nyolo, used in Tuscany, Italy) 

0 Prunella another name for Cinsault 
J pruney 

(tasting term) used to describe an often undesirable flavour of 
overripe grapes similar to the taste of dried prunes 

pruning 

the action of cutting off parts of a plant to make it healthier, 
to encourage new growth or to make it more convenient for 
harvesting. Vines that are pruned tend to be healthier and have 
improved yield and improved quality of grapes. Pruning also 
makes it easier to pick the grapes. 

Puisseguin-Saint-Emilion AOC 

France an appellation on the northeastern outskirts of the Saint - 
Emilion district in the Bordeaux region of France producing good- 
quality red wines (pronounced pweess gaN saNt ay meel yoN) 

Puligny-Montrachet AOC 

France an appellation centred on the small village of Puligny- 
Montrachet in the Cote de Beaune district of the Burgundy 




262 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V '»¥,.’*■ W,. »V ■***■ •-Vf A‘ •,Y,. , A‘ »t‘ Wr- »t‘ %Vr 

region of France that produces some of the world's best white 
wines from Chardonnay grapes, {pronounced poo lee nyee moN 
ra shay) 

See also Montrachet AOC 
pulp 

the soft part of a grape, inside the skin, that contains the juice 

pumping over 

the process of passing wine over the cap (the mass of skins, pips 
and fragments of stalks) floating on the surface of red wine 
during fermentation to ensure that the cap does not dry out, 
which could allow bacteria to develop, and to allow the wine to 
extract the maximum colour and flavour from the cap 

punch 

a drink made with a mixture of fruit juice, spices and wine or 
spirits, usually served hot 

puncheon 

a large oak barrel 

punching down 

the process of pushing the cap (the mass of skins, pips and 
fragments of stalks) floating on the surface of red wine during 
fermentation down into the liquid to ensure that the cap does not 
dry out, which could allow bacteria to develop, and to allow the 
wine to extract the maximum colour and flavour from the cap 

2 pungent 

(; tasting term) used to describe a wine with a powerful aroma, 
normally due to high acid levels 

punt 

the indentation in the bottom of a bottle. 

Also called kick-up 

puttony 

a measure of the sweetness of Tokay dessert wines from 
Hungary. The word derives from the tubs used to collect the 
late-picked grapes - three puttonyos is equal to three tubs of 
grapes - and ranges between three and six puttonyos. (pro- 
nounced puttonys, plural puttonyos or puttonys, a term ap- 
proved by the European Union) 

putts abbreviation Hungarian puttonyos 
0 px abbreviation Pedro Ximenez 




- »t‘ •,'SIV*‘ vVr- v’WiV vVr- »t‘ vVr- v’W»t.‘ vVr- »t‘ v’W»>.‘ vVr- vVr 

Th/s bread / break was once the oat, / This w/ne upon a foreign tree / 
Plunged in its fruit; I Man I in the day or wind at night / Laid the crops low, 
broke the grape’s joy. Dylan Thomas, 1936 



QbA 

German the set of German laws, enacted in 1971, that define the 
levels of quality of wine. 

Full form Qualitatswein Bestimmtes Anbaugebiet see Ger- 
many 

QmP 

German the highest quality of wines within the QbA quality 
levels defined in Germany. 

Full form Qualitatswein mit Pradikat see Germany 
2 quaffable 

(tasting term ) used to describe a wine that is pleasant to drink 
but not deserving of careful tasting attention 

J quaffing wine 

(tasting term) an everyday wine that is pleasant but not deser- 
ving of careful tasting attention 

Qualitatschaumwein 

German the highest official quality of sparkling German wine, 
which is usually produced using the Charmat process and often 
using the Riesling grape variety, (pronounced kvalli tayts 
showm v6n, plural Qualitatschaumweine) 

Also called Sekt 

Qualitatswein 

German in Germany and Austria, wine of a particular defined 
quality. In Austria it is both a category including Kabinett and 
a subcategory of wine, (pronounced kvalli tayts v6n, plural 

Qualitatsweine) 

Qualitatswein bestimmtes Anbaugebiet 

German full form of QbA (pronounced kvalli tayts v6n bo 
shtimtss an bow go beet) 




264 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ »t‘ ■>¥,»' ■.’VWSV vVr-- »t‘ v’VViV vVt-* vVr A‘ •>¥, 

Quali tatswein mit Pradikat 

German full form of QmP (pronounced kvalli tayts v6n mit 
praydi kaat) 

Quarts de Chaume AOC 

France an appellation in the Loire region of France, producing 
sweet white wines from Chenin Blanc grapes (pronounced kaar 
do shdm) 

quatrieme cru 

French the fourth-highest quality of wine in the classification of 
1855 within the Medoc area of Bordeaux (pronounced kattri em 
kroo, literally ‘fourth growth', plural quatriemes crus) 

Queensland 

Australia a state and wine zone in northeastern Australia 
producing wine from the Syrah (Shiraz), Cabernet Sauvignon, 
Semilion and Chardonnay grape varieties. It now has two wine 
regions: Granite Belt and South Burnett. 

j quince 

(tasting term ) a taste or aroma associated with white wines made 
from the Chenin Blanc grape variety in the Loire region of 
France 

Quincy AOC 

France an appellation in the Loire region of France, growing 
Sauvignon Blanc grapes to produce a dry white wine (pro- 
nounced kaN see) 

quinta 

Portuguese a wine-producing estate or vineyard (pronounced 
kints) 





- »t‘ ',¥/*' v’VV’.V vW»V vVr- »t‘ v’W»(.‘ vVr- W,- »V vVr- »t‘ v’W»(.‘ vVr- vVr 

Here among flowers I one glass of wine, /with no close friends, I pour it 
alone. / / lift cup to bright moon, beg its company, i then facing my shadow, 
we become three. Li Bai, 8th century 



Rabaud-Promis, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Sautemes AOC of the Bordeaux region of 
southwestern France graded premier cru (first growth) in the 
classification of 1855. It produces good white wines from mostly 
Semilion and Sauvignon Blanc grapes, {pronounced rabbo pro mee) 

0 Raboso 

a red-wine grape variety that is mostly grown in the Veneto 
region of northeastern Italy to produce red wines that are high 
in acid and tannin levels and have a deep red colour. It is often 
used in blends, {pronounced ra b6zo) 

0 Raboso Veronese 

a variety of the Raboso red-wine grape that provides higher 
yields and as a result is more widely grown than the original 
Raboso vine. It is grown mostly in the Veneto region of north- 
eastern Italy, {pronounced ra b6zo vers nay zay) 

2 race 

{tasting term ) the distinctive taste of a wine, by which its grape 
variety or region of origin can be identified 

racemic acid 

a form of tartaric acid found in grape juice 

Racha-Lechkhumi 

Georgia a wine-producing region in Georgia, north of Imereti, 
that grows grapes with a high sugar content 

racking 

the process of transferring wine from one cask or barrel to 
another to separate it from its lees 

2 racy 

{tasting term) used to describe a light wine with a lively quality 
from well-balanced acid levels 




266 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •>¥,» VS6** 1 v¥, , »V ■>’vwa.‘ A‘ vVr A‘ v’VViV vVt-* *■*' •,¥* 

Radford Dale see A Winemaker’s View 
Raimat 

Spain a wine-producing estate in Catalonia, Spain that occupies 
about a third of the Costers del Segre area and grows French as 
well as indigenous Spanish grape varieties {pronounced ray 
maat) 

rainwater 

a historic medium dry style of Madeira fortified wine, still made 
in small quantities 

raisiny 

(i tasting term) used to describe a wine with a rich, concentrated 
taste of grapes. A raisiny quality is considered an asset in sweet 
fortified or late-harvest wines but a fault in dry white table 
wines. It is normally caused by the grapes drying out while still 
on the vine. 

raki 

an aniseed-flavoured alcoholic drink from the eastern Mediter- 
ranean, especially Turkey and the Balkans, made from grapes or 
sometimes other fruits (pronounced raaki) 

rancio 

a wine with a sweet, nutty flavour like that of an old sherry or 
port, produced by leaving a barrel of wine in a hot room, or, 
traditionally, in the sun, to oxidise the wine. The process is 
rather like that used to produce Madeira wines. This style of 
wine is found in Spain and France, e.g. in the Banyuls AOC. 
( pronounced ran thee 5 or raan syo, plural rancios) 

rape 

the skins and stalks of grapes after their juice has been extracted 
for use in winemaking 

Rapel 

Chile a wine-producing region of Chile noted especially for its 
red wines made from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes but also 
growing Semilion grapes for white wine 

raspberry 

(; tasting term) a taste or aroma associated with red wines made 
from the Pinot Noir grape variety, e.g. in the Burgundy region 
of France, and with some red wines from the Rhone 




rayas 267 

>’A‘ vVr* vV,’iA‘ -.’VWSt' vVr-’iSt‘ -,V,. , A‘ ■,'VWSt‘ V’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ vVr* VV,’lA‘ '-Vr 

Rasteau 

France one of the villages entitled to the Cotes du Rhone- 
Villages AOC growing mostly Grenache grapes for a sweet 
dessert wine (vin doux naturel), sweet white wines and strong 
red wines {pronounced ra sto) 

ratafia 

a style of aperitif wine produced in France by mixing grape juice 
with brandy to prevent the fermentation process (pronounced 
ratts fee a) 

Rausan-Segla, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Margaux AOC of the Bordeaux region 
of southwestern France graded deuxieme cru (second growth) in 
the classification of 1855. It produces good-quality full-bodied 
red wine from mostly Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot grapes. 
( pronounced ro zaaN say glaa) 

Rauzan-Gassies, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Margaux AOC of the Bordeaux region 
of southwestern France graded deuxieme cru (second growth) in 
the classification of 1855. It produces red wine from mostly 
Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Merlot grapes, {pro- 
nounced ro zaaN ga see) 

0 Ravat 51 

a hybrid white-wine grape variety developed in France by J. F. 
Ravat, who bred a range of hybrid varieties. It is grown in the 
east of the USA to produce dry or sweet table wines, {pro- 
nounced ra vaa) 

Also called Vignoles 

0 Ravat 262, Ravat Noir 

a hybrid red-wine grape variety developed in France by J. F. 
Ravat, who bred a range of hybrid varieties. It produces light, 
fruity red wines but is not often grown, (pronounced ra vaa or ra 
vaa nwaar) 

j raw 

(tasting term) used to describe an undeveloped, young wine, 
often high in alcohol and acidity and therefore harsh 



rayas 

lower-quality oloroso sherry used in blending medium dry 
sherry (pronounced xl ass) 




268 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»t‘ •>¥,» v'VWiV *■*' vVt-* vVT-’»t‘ ^Vr-. »t‘ VSVSSS 1 vVt-* *’*■ -,Vr 

Rayne-Vigneau, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Sauternes AOC of the Bordeaux region 
of southwestern France graded premier cru (first growth) in the 
classification of 1855. It produces good dry and sweet white 
wines from mostly Semilion and Sauvignon Blanc grapes. 
( pronounced rayn vee nyo) 

0 Rebula another name for Ribolla Gialla (pronounced re bools, 
used in Slovenia) 

recioto 

a style of wine produced in the Veneto region of northeastern 
Italy, made using the passito method in which the grapes are left 
to dry out in the sun to increase the natural sugar levels and 
produce good-quality dry (recioto amarone) or sweet (recioto) 
wines. The method is used in the Valpolicella, Gambellara and 
Soave DOC regions, (pronounced re chOto) 

A Recioto della Valpolicella Amarone same as Amarone 
della Valpolicella (pronounced re choto dels val poli chells 
ams r6 nay) 

A Recioto di Soave 

a sweet white wine made in the Soave DOC area of the Veneto 
region of northeastern Italy using the passito method in which 
the grapes are left to dry out in the sun (pronounced re choto dee 
swaavay) 

recolte 

French a grape harvest (pronounced ray kolt) 

red spider mite 

a red mite in the Tetranychus genus of which several species 
infest vines in warm dry conditions 

J reduced 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine, typically one made from 
the Syrah grape variety in a hot climate, that has a smell of 
mercaptan, because of a shortage of oxygen 

red wine 

a style of wine made by crushing red- or black-skinned grapes 
and leaving the juice in contact with the skins during fermenta- 
tion to allow the colour and tannins from the skins to transfer to 
the wine. Rose wines are made in the same way, but the skins are 
not kept in contact with the fermenting wine for as long. 
Compare white wine 




ASP VVr* fllWSV‘ '-V. 



Region I, II, III, IV, V 269 

*“ •,V,. , A‘ VVr' , <Jt‘ VVr-’<J(.‘ '.’VWSV '-Vr 



2 refined 

( tasting term) used to describe a high-quality, well-balanced 
wine 

0 Refosco another name for Mondeuse [pronounced re fosko) 

refractometer 

a device used to measure the sugar content of grape juice or 
must. The device relies on the characteristic of a liquid to bend, 
or refract, light at different angles according to the levels of 
sugar dissolved in the liquid. The light strikes a scale that is 
calibrated to show the sugar content and the possible alcohol 
level of the finished wine using the Baume, Brix or Oechsle scale. 

Regiao Demarcada 

Portuguese an old term for the highest-quality wine produced in 
Portugal, now replaced by Denomina$ao de Origem Controlada 
(DOC) (pronounced re zhow day maar kaaads) 

region 

1 . in general use, a relatively large wine-producing area that is 
geographically or administratively distinct 

2. in the Australian system of Geographic Indications, a 
single tract of land containing at least five independently owned 
vineyards of at least 5 hectares each and usually producing at 
least 500 tons of wine grapes per year. A region must be distinct 
from other regions and, according to the AWBC Act that 
established the system, have ‘measurable homogeneity in 
grape-growing attributes over its area’. It may contain one or 
more subregions. 

regionality 

Australia, New Zealand, USA the local conditions in which 
grapes are grown and that influence the final wine. The term is 
similar to French ‘terroir’, which describes everything from the 
climate to the soil surrounding a vine. 

regional wine 

a wine blended from wines produced in different parts of a 
region, e.g. ‘Bordeaux regional wine' is blended from wines 
produced anywhere within the large region of Bordeaux in 
southwestern France rather than from a specific estate or 
vineyard 

Region I, II, III, IV, V see climatic regions 




270 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

tjfi? •>¥,» v’VWiV *■*' ■,¥<■ »V *’*■ •.’VWSV v’VViV vVt-* v¥,» vVr 

regions see climatic regions 
Regnie AOC 

France an appellation in the Beaujolais region of France that 
was originally a part of the Beaujolais-Villages AOC until 
upgraded. It grows mostly the Gamay grape variety to produce 
a range of styles of red wine, (pronounced ray nyay) 

rehoboam 

an oversize bottle, no longer made, that could hold 4.5 litres, 
equivalent to six standard 750 ml bottles 

Reid 

German a vineyard in Austria (pronounced r6t, plural Reide) 
Reims, Rheims 

France the larger of the two towns at the centre of Champagne 
production in the Champagne region of northeastern France. 
Epernay is closer to the vineyards, (pronounced raNss) 

remuage 

French a process used in making Champagne in which the 
sediment is removed after secondary fermentation has occurred 
in the bottle (pronounced rs mwaazh) 

Remy Martin 

a long-established Cognac house making a range of good 
brandies 

Rene Lalou see Mumm 
reserva 

Spanish used to describe good-quality wine produced from a 
good vintage that meets various regulatory specifications on 
ageing. Red wines should have been aged for at least three years, 
including at least one year in a wooden barrel; white and rose 
wines should have been aged for at least two years, including at 
least six months in a wooden barrel, (pronounced re zairva, 
literally ‘reserve') 

See also gran reserva 

reserve 

a term used on wine labels to imply a choice wine, but with no 
official status. 

See also Cognac 

reserve 

French reserve (pronounced ray zairv) 




Reuilly AOC 271 

»V v¥V»V ■¥V»t‘ •***■ V’WiV v¥V»V ■¥V»V vVr.* v¥V»V •,¥<> , A‘ ',Vr 

residual sugar 

natural sugar that remains in a wine after the fermentation 
process or that is added to a sparkling wine as a dosage to cause 
secondary fermentation in the bottle. The natural sugars remain 
in a wine either because the original grape juice had so much 
natural sugar to start with that it is not all used up in fermenta- 
tion, e.g. when producing sweet wines; because the fermentation 
process was stopped by adding alcohol (raising the alcohol level 
to one that prevents the yeast from working), e.g. when produ- 
cing fortified sweet wine such as port; or because they are of the 
small proportion of the types of sugar that do not easily 
ferment. Residual sugar is usually measured by percentage, 
weight or volume. 

residuo 

Italian residual sugar (jjronotmced rs ziddoo 5) 

2 resinous 

(i tasting term ) used to describe a wine with a pungent smell and 
taste of pinewood. A resinous quality is normally found in 
Greek wine such as retsina, which has been processed with pine 
resin. 

resistant 

used to describe a microorganism that is not affected by specific 
pesticides or a plant that is not susceptible to specific diseases or 
unfavourable climatic conditions 

Restzucker 

German residual sugar (pronounced rest tsookor) 

resveratrol 

a phenolic compound found in red wine as well as other foods 
that is believed to provide anti-inflammatory and anti-carcino- 
genic effects 

retsina 

a style of wine made according to a traditional process used in 
Greece for several thousand years, in which pieces of resin from 
pine trees are added to the grape juice and left in it until racking, 
giving the resulting wine a pungent smell and taste of pine- 
wood. White wine produced in this way is called simply ‘retsina’ 
and rose wine is called ‘kokineli’. (pronounced ret seens) 

Reuilly AOC 

France a small appellation in the Loire region of France 




272 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V '»¥,.’*■ VVr-’»t‘ -Xtr'*.' VV,-* »t‘ Wr- »V %Vr 

neighbouring the Sancerre and Pouilly-Fume AOCs and using 
Sauvignon Blanc grapes to produce dry, crisp white wines and 
Pinot Noir grapes to produce light red wines (pronounced ro yee) 

Rheims see Reims 

Rheingau 

Germany an Anbaugebiet (quality wine-producing region) that 
runs along the right bank of the Rhine and along the Main river, 
growing Riesling grapes on the steep vineyard slopes to produce 
good-quality rich, fruity white wines (pronounced r7n gow) 

Rheinhessen 

Germany the largest Anbaugebiet (quality wine-producing re- 
gion) in Germany that runs along the Rhine river between the 
other Rhine regions of Rheingau and Pfalz. It mostly produces 
cheap Liebfraumilch white wines, with a few vineyards produ- 
cing good-quality white wines from Miiller-Thurgau grapes. 
( pronounced r7n hess’n) 

Rheinpfalz 

Germany same as Pfalz (pronounced r7n falts) 

0 Rhine Riesling another name for Riesling 
Rhine wine 

USA medium sweet white wine. The term does not refer to wines 
from Germany. 

Rhone 

France, Switzerland a river that starts in Switzerland then runs 
through France, with vineyards either side of it, forming one of 
the major wine-producing regions of France and including 
many well-known appellations. In the north Syrah is the only 
red grape allowed and it produces the region’s rarest and most 
expensive red wine. Marsanne and Viognier are grown for white 
wines. Cote Rotie and Hermitage are the best-known red wines 
of the northern Rhone. Other appellations are Condrieu, Cha- 
teau-Grillet, Crozes-Hermitage and Saint-Joseph. Some of the 
world's greatest producers work here: Chave, Guigal, Graillot 
and Colombo to name but a few. In the southern stretch of the 
river mostly Grenache grapes are grown for red wine, but 12 
grapes in total are permitted, and a range of grapes are allowed 
for white wines. Chateauneuf-du-Pape is the most famous wine 
of the southern Rhone, but there are other well-known areas: 




rich 273 

-»t‘ VVr* •,'Vr'ih' VVr-’»t‘ VVr-* '.Vr- »t‘ ■>¥,. »t‘ •>’W»V V¥r- »t‘ %¥, »t‘ %¥, 

Vacqueyras, Gigondas and Tavel, home of rose wines, (pro- 
nounced ron) 

Rhone Rangers 

a group of winemakers based in California, USA, who are 
dedicated to growing the grape varieties from the Rhone region 
of France (Grenache, Mourvedre and Syrah). Their base in- 
cludes an area of Los Cameras County that, due to its climate, 
provides good conditions for growing these grape varieties, as 
well as those required for sparkling wine. 

Rias Baixas DO 

Spain the main DO area in the Galicia region of northwestern 
Spain producing dry white wines from the Albarino grape 
variety (pronounced ree ass bay shaass) 

Ribatejo 

Portugal a large wine-producing region of Portugal, divided by 
the River Tagus (pronounced reeba tayzho) 

Ribeiro DO 

Spain a wine-producing DO area in the Galicia region of 
northwestern Spain that grows mostly the Palomino grape to 
produce predominantly white wines, although Grenache (Gar- 
nacha) is also grown for red wines (pronounced ri bayro) 

Ribera del Duero DO 

Spain a wine-producing DO area in Castilla-Leon, northern 
Spain, running along the Duero river and best-known for its 
good red wines produced from Tempranillo grapes (pronounced 
ri baira del dwairo) 

0 Ribolla Gialla, Ribolla 

a white-wine grape variety grown in some European countries, 
notably Italy, Greece and Slovenia, and used to produce dry, 
crisp medium-bodied white wines. Ribolla is the Italian form; in 
Greece it is Robola and in Slovenia Rebula. (pronounced ri bolla 
jaala) 

0 Ribolla Nera another name for Schioppettino (pronounced ri 
bolla naira) 

2 rich 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine with good body and full 
flavour and bouquet 




274 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •>¥,» VS6** 1 *.»' ■,’W»V •>¥,» v’W»V ■>¥,. »V *’*■ -,Vr 

Richebourg AOC 

France an estate appellation in the Cote de Nuits district of 
Burgundy growing Pinot Noir grapes to produce one of the 
great red wines of Burgundy (pronounced reesh boor) 

riddling 

the process of removing sediment formed during secondary fer- 
mentation when producing Champagne. Once the still white wine 
is bottled, a dosage (a mix of sugar, water or wine, and yeast) is 
added to each bottle to start secondary fermentation in the bottle. 
This secondary fermentation produces some sediment inside the 
bottle, which needs to be removed. The bottles are arranged at an 
angle with the neck pointing down; once all the sediment has 
collected in the neck, it is removed in the disgorgement process. 

0 Riesling 

one of the world's great white-wine grape varieties producing 
good-quality, fruity white wines that can range in style from dry to 
sweet. Grown around the world, it is best-known as the source of 
the best-quality wines from Germany. There is a wide range of 
different names and clones of the Riesling grape: Rhine Riesling 
and Weisser Riesling are names for true Riesling, whereas Cape 
Riesling is a Crouchen grape variety and Sylvaner Riesling is a 
clone of the original Riesling grape variety, {pronounced reessling) 

0 Riesling Italico another name for Welschriesling (pronounced 
reessling i talli ko) 

Rieussec, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Sauternes AOC of Bordeaux in south- 
western France graded premier cru (first growth) in the classi- 
fication of 1855. It grows Semilion grapes to produce good- 
quality sweet white wine, (pronounced ree yo sek) 

Rioja DOCa 

Spain the only DOCa region of Spain, in the north of the 
country, that produces some of the country’s best red wines, 
as well as some whites and roses (rosados). The region is divided 
into the three areas of La Rioja Alavesa, La Rioja Alta and La 
Rioja Baja, of which La Rioja Alta generally produces the best- 
quality wines. The region grows mostly Tempranillo and some 
Grenache (Garnacha) grapes to produce the red and rose wines 
and Macabeo (Viura) grapes to produce the white wines. 
(pronounced ri oho) 




roast chestnut 275 

» vVr* ■.’Wit' ■***■ ■,Vr- , iSt‘ •,V,> , A‘ '.’VWSV WrW ■***■ ->Vr’S>‘ vVf* vVr* vVf'iSt‘ '-Vr 

ripasso 

Italian a winemaking process used in the Veneto region of 
northeastern Italy in which a batch of newly fermented wine 
is put into a vat that contains the lees (skins and pips) from a 
previous batch of recioto-style wine, in which the grapes were 
sun-dried to increase the concentration of the sugars and 
flavours. It is used by some producers to create red wines with 
additional flavour and body, (pronounced ri passo) 

o ripe 

(i tasting term ) used to describe a wine that is rich, fruity and 
characteristic of correctly ripened grapes 

ripeness see physiological ripeness 
riserva 

Italian used to describe wine produced in a DOC or DOCG 
region and aged for three or more years (pronounced ri zairvs, 
literally ‘reserve’) 

Riverina 

Australia a wine region centred on Griffith, 600 km southwest 
of Sydney, providing the majority of New South Wales wines, 
mostly of average quality, but renowned for its botrytised 
Semilion styles, which rival even Sauternes in lusciousness 

riserva speciale 

Italian used to describe riserva wine that has been aged for an 
additional year or more (pronounced ri zairvs spe chaa lay, 
literally ‘special reserve’) 

Rivesaltes AOC 

France a small appellation in the Languedoc region of southern 
France that produces red, white and rose wines but is perhaps best- 
known for its sweet, fortified wines (vins doux naturels), the best of 
which is produced from Muscat grapes, (pronounced reev zaalt) 

See also Muscat de Rivesaltes AOC 

0 Rkatsiteli 

a white-wine grape variety used for table wines, fortified wines 
and brandy in Russia, Georgia, Bulgaria and other countries of 
eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union (pronounced rs kat 
si tellee) 

2 roast chestnut 

(tasting term) an aroma associated with full-bodied southern 
Italian red wines 




276 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V '»¥,.’*■ VVf’A' Wr- »t‘ ■***■ '?Vr'f>‘ •,V,> , A‘ VVr.’»t‘ %Vr 

Robert Mondavi 

t/SA an influential estate in the Napa Valley region of Cali- 
fornia, originally set up by Robert Mondavi, that produces 
white wines (including its well-known Fume Blanc) from oak- 
aged Sauvignon Blanc grapes and red wines from Cabernet 
Sauvignon grapes 

Robertson 

South Africa a hot dry wine-growing region east of Paarl that 
grows white-wine grapes, including Chardonnay, but that is also 
now looking to produce good red wines, especially from Syrah 
(Shiraz) grapes 

0 Robola another name for Ribolla Gialla (pronounced ro bolo, 
used in Greece) 

2 robust 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that is full-bodied with 
intense fruit aroma, normally red wine 

Roederer see Louis Roederer 

Roero DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC area in the Piedmont region of 
northwestern Italy that produces red wine from Nebbiolo 
grapes and some white wine. A style of white wine made from 
Arneis grapes in this area is called Arneis di Roero. (pronounced 
ro airo) 

Rogue River Valley AVA 

USA a wine-producing region in Oregon, western USA, that 
grows mostly Chardonnay grapes for white wine and Cabernet 
Sauvignon grapes for red wine 

Rolland, Michel 

a well-known oenologist travelling and advising over 100 vine- 
yards around the world on good winemaking and the style of 
winemaking from Bordeaux. With his wife he also runs their 
own vineyards in a number of regions of France, including 
Pomerol and Saint-Emilion. (pronounced ro laaN) 

Romance, La AOC see La Romanee AOC 

Romanee-Conti AOC 

France a very small, yet hugely famous grand cru vineyard in the 
village of Vosne-Romanee in the Burgundy region of France. 




Roriz 277 

-»t‘ v¥r- »t‘ •.'SIVA' -,V,. , A‘ VVT-’»t‘ VSIS^* 1 v¥r- »V 'WrW v¥r- »t‘ •.'SIVA' %Vr 

It grows Pinot Noir grapes to produce excellent and expensive 
spicy red wines, {pronounced ro ma nay kontee) 

Romanee-Saint-Vivant AOC 

France a small grand cru vineyard in the village of Vosne- 
Romanee in the Burgundy region of France. It grows Pinot 
Noir grapes to produce some of the best red wines in Burgundy, 
though it is less famous than neighbouring vineyards in the 
village, {pronounced ro ma nay saN vee vaaN) 

Romania, Rumania 

a country in eastern Europe with a long history of wine produc- 
tion. It grows a wide range of grape varieties, classic as well as local. 

See map at Bulgaria 

Rondel see Codorniu 
0 Rondinetla 

a red grape variety grown in the Veneto region of northeastern 
Italy to produce light, fruity red and rose wines {pronounced 
rondi nells) 

0 Rondo 

a red-wine grape variety developed in the Czech Republic and 
producing full-bodied ruby-red wines 

room temperature 

the ideal serving temperature of red wines, which should be 
around 15-16°C, or 60°F, though this can be cooler than the 
often very warm temperature of rooms, and wine should not 
really be served at a temperature warmer than 18°C (around 
65°F). Cellars where wine is stored are usually cooler, around 
10-13°C, or 50-55°F, so red wines need time to warm slightly to 
ensure that the aroma and flavours of the wine are realised. 
Some red wines can be served cool, e.g. some of the reds from 
the Loire valley in France and those made in Australia from the 
Tarrango grape variety. 

rootstock 

the part of a vine that includes the roots and the first few 
centimetres of the stem above ground. Most vines consist of two 
different varieties: a disease-tolerant rootstock that can resist 
the phylloxera root aphid and a fruiting variety grafted on to it 
to produce the variety of grapes required. 

0 Roriz another name for Tempranillo {pronounced ro reez, used 
in Portugal) 




278 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

tint •>¥,» vVt-* vVT-’»t‘ •>¥<. »t‘ V¥,»V '¥V »V •,¥* 



rosado 

1. Spanish rose {pronounced ro saado) 

2. Portuguese rose (pronounced ro zaado) 

rosato 

Italian rose (pronounced ro zaato) 

rose 

(tasting term) a taste or aroma associated with white wines from 
Alsace or made from the Muscat grape variety, but also with 
some red Burgundies and Barolos 

Rose d’Anjou AOC 

France an appellation in the Anjou area of the Loire valley in 
France that produces moderate-quality slightly sweet rose wine 
from a range of grape varieties including Malbec and Gamay 
(pronounced ro zay daaN zhoo) 

Rose de Loire AOC 

France an appellation in the Loire valley of France that covers a 
wide area and produces dry rose wines from a blend of Cabernet 
Franc and Gamay grapes (pronounced r6 zay do lwaar) 

Rose des Riceys AOC 

France a small appellation in the Champagne region of France 
producing an unusual and rare still rose wine made from Pinot 
Noir grapes (pronounced roz day ree see) 

Rosemount Estate 

Australia an estate in the Hunter Valley region of New South 
Wales producing consistently good-quality white Chardonnay- 
based wines and good red wines 

rose wine 

French a pink-coloured wine that is usually made from red-skinned 
grapes in a similar way to red wine, except that the grape skins are 
only left in contact with the fermenting wine for a very short time - 
only a few days - ensuring that the wine has only a light tinge of 
colour from the skins, but also reducing the flavour, tannins and 
structure that the skins impart to a red wine during fermentation. 
Rose still wine is normally light, fresh and slightly sweet and best 
drunk cool rather than at room temperature. Rose Champagne is 
made by adding a little red wine to a normal white Champagne just 
before the secondary bottle fermentation. 

See also vin rose 




Rothschild 279 

* VVr* ■.’Wit' VVr-’lSt‘ •-Vr-* '-Vr* 'JSlV * 1 V’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ VVr* 'JSlVSe 1 %Vr 

0 Rossese 

a red grape variety grown in the Liguria region of northwestern 
Italy to produce fruity red wine (pronounced ro say zay) 

Rossese di Dolceacqua DOC 

Italy a small wine-producing DOC area in the Liguria region of 
northwestern Italy producing fruity red wines from the Rossese 
grape ( pronounced ro say zay dee dol chay akwa) 

rosso 

Indian used to describe red wine, especially in a dry style 
( pronounced rosso) 

See also vino rosso 

Rosso Conero DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC area in the Marche region of 
central Italy that produces red wine from Montepulciano and 
Sangiovese grape varieties (pronounced rosso ko nairo) 

Rosso di Montalcino DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC area in the Tuscany region of Italy 
that grows the Sangiovese grape (called Brunello locally) to 
produce a light red wine (pronounced rosso dee mont al cheeno) 

Rosso di Montepulciano DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC area in the Tuscany region of Italy 
that grows a mix of Sangiovese (called Prugnolo locally) and 
Canaiolo Nero grapes to produce a flowery, light red wine 
(pronounced rosso dee mon tay pool chaano) 

Rosso Piceno DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC area in the Marche region of 
central Italy that produces a dry style of red wine from Mon- 
tepulciano, Sangiovese and Trebbiano grape varieties. If aged 
for a year, the better wines with a little more alcohol are given 
the label ‘superiore'. (pronounced rosso pi chayno) 

Rothschild 

France the name of a European family whose members have 
been influential vineyard owners. The French branch of the 
family acquired Chateau Lafite (now Lafite-Rothschild) in 1868 
and subsequently other top Bordeaux properties, as well as 
interests in Chile, Portugal and the USA. The English branch of 
the family bought and developed Chateau Mouton-Rothschild. 
( pronounced rot sheeld) 

See Lafite-Rothschild, Chateau; Mouton-Rothschild, Chateau 




280 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V '»¥,.’*■ W,- »V •-Vf A‘ -Wr'i/t' Wr- »t‘ %Vr 

Rothschild, Baron Philippe de 

the member of the Rothschild family who successfully cam- 
paigned to have Chateau Mouton-Rothschild promoted in 1973 
from deuxieme cru (second growth) to premier cru (first growth) 
status. He advocated chateau-bottling and introduced designer 
wine labels. With Robert Mondavi he also set up Opus One, a 
winery based in the Napa Valley, California, USA. 

Rotling 

pink-coloured wine produced in small quantities in parts of 
Germany from a mixture of red-skinned and white-skinned 
grapes, rather than from just red-skinned grapes, as with French 
rose wines (pronounced rotling) 

See also Schillerwein 

2 rotten eggs 

(tasting term) the smell of sulphur from spoiled wine 

Rotwein 

German red wine (pronounced rot v6n, plural Rotweine) 
rouge 

French red. (pronounced roozh) 

See also vin rouge 

2 rough 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that has a harsh texture or 
flavour due to an excess of tannin or acid. In some wines this 
character can dissipate with ageing. 

2 round 

(tasting term) used to describe a smooth, full-bodied and well- 
balanced wine 

0 Roupeiro 

a Portuguese white-wine grape variety grown especially in the 
Alentejo region of southern Portugal (pronounced roo payro) 

0 Roussanne 

a white-skinned grape variety grown mostly in the northern 
Rhone valley region of France, and in limited quantity in parts 
of Italy and in Australia. It produces a delicate white wine and is 
used in many Rhone estates for blending, but is also the main 
grape of the well-known white wines from the Chateauneuf-du- 
Pape and Crozes-Hermitage AOCs. (pronounced roo san) 




Ruche 281 

-»t‘ vVr- »fc‘ v’W»t‘ -,V,. , A‘ *’*' vVt-* vVr- »fc‘ vYr-- »t‘ VVT-’»t‘ VSf^Se 1 vVr- »t‘ ',’WiiV •,¥, 

0 Roussette another name for Altesse (pronounced roo set, used 
in the Savoie region) 

Roussette de Savoie AOC see Savoie (pronounced roo set do 
sa vwa'a) 

Roussillon 

a wine-producing area of southern France, the western part of 
the Languedoc-Roussillon region, (pronounced roo see yoN) 

See Cotes du Roussillon AOC; Grand Roussillon AOC; Lan- 
guedoc-Roussillon 

0 Royalty 

an unusual red-skinned grape that produces red-coloured juice 
rather than the more usual white juice when the grapes are 
pressed. It is grown in small quantities in parts of California, 
USA, and is mainly used in blends. 

2 rubbery 

(tasting term ) used to describe the unpleasant smell of rubber on 
a wine, caused by the chemical compound mercaptan and 
normally the result of poor winemaking 

rubino 

Italian ruby (pronounced roo beeno) 

See also Marsala DOC 

0 Rubired 

a red-skinned grape variety with red flesh that produces red juice 
rather than the more usual white juice when the grapes are 
pressed. It is grown in small quantities in parts of California, 
USA, and is mainly used in blends, (pronounced roobi red) 

0 Ruby Cabernet 

a red-wine grape variety produced as a cross between Cabernet 
Sauvignon and Carignan varieties, grown in small quantities in 
parts of California, USA. It provides high yields but without the 
structure and flavours of the original grape varieties. 

ruby port see port 
J ruby-red 

(tasting term ) used to describe a wine with a deep purplish red 
colour 

0 Ruche 

a little-used red grape variety grown in the Ruche DOC of 




282 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ '»V,W vVi'-'A" »’*' VVt-* •,'SIV A‘ Wr- »t‘ ■***■ Wr- »V VVr 

Piedmont in Italy to produce a red wine high in tannins and with 
a bitterish aftertaste {pronounced rob kay) 

Ruche DOC 

Italy an ancient DOC area in the Piedmont region of north- 
western Italy that uses the local Ruche grape variety to produce 
red wines {pronounced rob kay) 

Ruchottes-Chambertin AOC 

France a grand cru vineyard in Gevrey-Chambertin in the Cote 
de Nuits district of the Burgundy region of France that grows 
Pinot Noir grapes to produce high-quality red wines [pro- 
nounced rob shot shorn bair taN) 

Rueda DOC 

Spain a wine-producing DO region in the Castilla-Leon region 
northeast of Madrid, best-known for its good-quality white 
wines produced from Verdejo and Macabeo (Viura) grapes. 
It also produces a sweet wine similar to sherry, called palido for 
the pale, fmo style and dorado for the darker, nuttier style. 
( pronounced roo ayds) 

Rufi na see Chianti DOCG (pronounced roo feeno) 

Ruiterbosch 

South Africa a vineyard near Mossel Bay in the southern Cape 
region of South Africa with a very cool climate, allowing the 
cultivation of Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Rhine Riesling and 
Sauvignon Blanc grape varieties (pronounced r7tsr bosh) 

0 Rulander another name for Pinot Gris (pronounced rob landsr, 
used in Germany) 

RuIIy AOC 

France a village appellation in the Cote Chalonnaise area of the 
Burgundy region of France that grows Chardonnay grapes to 
produce crisp, dry white wine and grows Pinot Noir grapes to 
produce light red wines (pronounced rob yee) 

Rumania see Romania 

rural method same as methode rurale 

Russia 

a country that produces red wines from Cabernet Sauvignon 
grapes grown in the south and east of the country and white 
wines from a variety of grapes including Muscat, Riesling and 
especially the native Rkatsiteli 




Ruwer 283 

-»t‘ v¥r- »t‘ •.'SIVA' VVT-’»t‘ VSIVA 1 v¥r- »t‘ VSf^A 1 v¥r- »t‘ ^SIV* 1 %Vr 

Russian River Valley AVA 

USA a high-quality viticultural area in Sonoma County, Cali- 
fornia, that grows Pinot Noir grapes for red wines and Char- 
donnay, Riesling and Gewiirztraminer for white wines 

rustic 

(; tasting term) used to describe a wine that is either made using 
an old-fashioned, traditional process or a wine tasting as if it 
had been made using an old-fashioned method 

Rutherford AVA 

USA a wine-producing region in the Napa Valley of California 
that includes a large number of wineries 

Rutherglen 

Australia a wine-producing zone in North East Victoria, known 
especially for its sweet dessert wines made from Muscat grapes 

Ruwer 

Germany an area around a small tributary of the Mosel river in 
the Mosel-Saar- Ruwer region of Germany with some of the best 
vineyards in Germany (pronounced roovor) 




Yr 



s 



'.Vr'St' vW»V vVr- »t‘ vW»V vVt-- » t‘ -?¥r'ft‘ vW»l,‘ VSIV*‘ vW»V VSV*‘ vVr 



Let us hove wine and women, mirth and laughter, / Sermons and soda- 
water the day after. 

Lord Byron, 1819-1824 



Saale-Unstrut 

Germany a small Anbaugebiet (quality wine-producing region) 
in eastern Germany that grows mostly the Miiller-Thurgau and 
Sylvaner grape varieties to produce white wines {pronounced 
zaals oon stroot) 

Saar 

Germany an area around a small tributary of the Mosel river in 
the Mosel-Saar-Ruwer region of Germany that can produce 
some of the country’s best wines {pronounced zaar) 

Sachsen 

Germany a very small Anbaugebiet (quality wine-producing 
region) in eastern Germany around the Elbe river that grows 
mostly the Miiller-Thurgau and Gewurztraminer grape varieties 
to produce white wines {pronounced zaks’n) 

sack 

an old name for white wine from Spain, Portugal or the Canary 
Islands 

Sacramento Valley 

USA the northern half of the Central Valley area of California. 
The Central Valley accounts for three-quarters of all grapes grown 
in California because of the good climate and high yields. 

0 Sagrantino 

a red grape variety grown especially in the Umbria region of 
Italy to produce a rich red wine that is high in tannins {pro- 
nounced sa gran teeno) 

Sagrantino di Montefalco DOCG see Montefalco DOC 
saignee 

( pronounced sayn yay) French 

I. used to describe a rose wine that has a dark pink colour 




Saint-Emilion AOC 285 

» vVr* •,V,. , A‘ ■***■ ->Vr» vVr* WrW Wr-W ->Vr’S>‘ '.’VVSV vVr* WrW '-Vr 

2 . used to describe the process of pressing grapes lightly and not 
using this lightest-coloured juice, allowing it to run off, and then 
pressing the fruit again and collecting the darker-coloured juice. 
The higher skin-to-grape juice ratio results in a darker and more 
full-flavoured wine. This is sometimes used to produce darker- 
coloured red wines from grape varieties that normally produce 
lighter-coloured red wines, e.g. Pinot Noir. 

Saint-Amour AOC 

France a small appellation in the north of the Beaujolais region 
of France that produces light, fruity red wines from the Gamay 
grape variety (pronounced sant a moor) 

Saint-Aubin AOC 

France an appellation in the Cote de Beaune area of Burgundy 
in France that produces red wines from Pinot Noir grapes and 
very good white wines from Chardonnay grapes (pronounced 
sant o baN) 

Saint Bris see Sauvignon de Saint Bris VDQS 
Saint-Chinian AOC 

France an appellation in the Languedoc region of southern 
France that produces good-quality full-bodied, spicy red wines 
from Carignan, Cinsault and Grenache grapes ( pronounced saN 
shee nyaaN) 

Sainte-Croix-du-Mont AOC 

France an appellation in the Bordeaux region of France, on the 
northern bank of the Garonne river, opposite Sauternes, that 
produces sweet white wines (pronounced sant krwaa doo moN) 

Saint-Emilion another name for Trebbiano (pronounced sant 
ay me'el yoN, used in France) 

Saint-Emilion AOC 

France a famous appellation centred on the village of Saint- 
Emilion in the Bordeaux region of southwestern France. Lo- 
cated on the eastern side (the right bank) of the Dordogne river, 
it grows Merlot grapes, along with some Cabernet Franc, 
Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec, to produce very good red 
wines. The classification of 1855 did not cover Saint-Emilion, 
and it was not until a hundred years later, 1955, that it began its 
own listings, grading the hundreds of estates into premiers crus, 
grands crus classes or grands crus; below this, wines that do not 




286 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ '»¥,.’*■ »t‘ vVr-* •,'Vr'i/t' •-Vf A‘ VV,-* VVf’.f Wr- »V %Vr 

reach the grand cru level can be graded as Saint-Emilion AOC, 
and below this level as Bordeaux Superieur AOC or plain 
Bordeaux AOC. ( pronounced sant ay meel yoN) 

Saint-Estephe AOC 

France an appellation in the Haut-Medoc area in the Bordeaux 
region of southwestern France that produces good-quality red 
wines and includes five grand cru classe chateaux, including the 
well-known Cos d'Estournel. The appellation grows Cabernet 
Sauvignon, Merlot and Cabernet Franc grapes to produce 
tannic, full-bodied red wines, {pronounced sant e stef) 

Saint-George d’Orques 

France a wine-producing area near the town of Montpellier in 
the Coteaux du Languedoc AOC of southern France (pro- 
nounced saN zhawrzh dawrk) 

Saint-Georges-Saint-Emilion AOC 

France a small appellation on the outskirts of the Saint-Emilion 
district of the Bordeaux region of southwestern France that 
grows the Merlot grape to produce good-quality red wine 
( pronounced saN zhawrzh sant ay meel yoN) 

Saint-Jean-de-Minervois AOC 

France an appellation in the Midi region of France producing a 
vin doux naturel from Muscat a Petits Grains grapes ( pro- 
nounced saN zhaaN do mee nair vwaa) 

Saint-Joseph AOC 

France an appellation in the northern Rhone valley region of 
France that produces good-quality, full-bodied red wine mostly 
from Syrah grapes and good-quality white wine mainly from 
Marsanne and Rousanne grapes (pronounced saN zh o zef) 

Saint-Julien AOC 

France a famous appellation in the Flaut-Medoc area of Bor- 
deaux in southwestern France that includes 1 1 cru classe cha- 
teaux. It grows mostly Cabernet Sauvignon grapes to produce 
very good red wine, (pronounced saN zhool yaN) 

0 Saint-Laurent 

an unusual and rarely grown red-wine grape, originally from 
Austria, producing high-quality full-bodied wine (pronounced 
saN law raaN) 




Samos 287 

* VVr* ■.’Wit' WrW '&S3? VVr* VVf'lSt‘ V’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ VVr* •,'!IVA‘ VVr 

Saint-Nicolas-de-Bourgueil AOC 

France a village appellation in the Loire valley of France, that 
produces light, fruity red wine from Cabernet Franc grapes. 
This red wine can be served cool, (pronounced saN niko laa do 
boor go ee) 

Saint-Peray AOC 

France an appellation in the north of the Rhone valley region of 
France producing white wine using the Marsanne grape. The 
area also produces a sparkling white wine under the Saint-Peray 
Mousseux AOC. (pronounced saN pay ray) 

Saint-Pierre, Chateau 

France a small chateau in the Saint-Julien AOC of the Haut- 
Medoc area of Bordeaux in southwestern France graded qua- 
trieme cru (fourth growth) in the classification of 1855. It 
produces good-quality, full-bodied red wines from Cabernet 
Sauvignon and Merlot grapes, (pronounced saN pyair) 

Saint-Romain AOC 

France an appellation in the Cote de Beaune area of the 
Burgundy region of France that grows Pinot Noir grapes for 
red wines and Chardonnay grapes for white wines (pronounced 
saN ro maN) 

Saint-Veran AOC 

France an appellation in the Maconnais area of the Burgundy 
region of France that grows Chardonnay grapes to produce 
good-quality white wines (pronounced saN vay raaN) 

Salice Salentino DOC 

Italy a DOC area in the Apulia region of southeastern Italy that 
grows mainly Negroamaro grapes to produce robust red wines 
( pronounced sa leechay salen teeno) 

Salmanazar 

an oversize bottle that can hold 9 litres, equivalent to 12 
standard 750 ml bottles 

ri salty, salt 

(tasting term) used to describe the taste of manzanilla sherry 



Samos 

Greece an island appellation in eastern Greece that grows 
especially Muscat grapes to produce dry and sweet white wines 




288 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

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Sancerre AOC 

France a well-known appellation in the Loire region of France 
that grows Sauvignon Blanc grapes to produce crisp white wines 
and also produces small quantities of light red and rose wines 
from Pinot Noir grapes {pronounced saaN sair) 

Sandeman 

a large producer of port and sherry with a facility in Jerez, 
Spain, producing fine sherries and a facility in Portugal produ- 
cing a range of ports. It now belongs to the Canadian company 
Seagram, (pronounced sandi man) 

sangaree 

a chilled drink of wine mixed with fruit juice, nutmeg and 
sometimes other spirits ( pronounced sang go ree) 

0 Sangiovese 

one of the most important red-wine grapes used in Italy. It is 
grown widely, particularly in central and southern Italy, and 
produces red wine that is high in acid and tannin and can be 
used to make a range of different styles of wine, from fresh, 
light, young wines to full-bodied reds. It is best-known as the 
main grape used in the Chianti red wines (where it is called 
Sangioveto). Some Sangiovese is now also grown in California, 
USA. (pronounced san j5 vayzi) 

Also called Brunello; Calabrese; Sangioveto 

0 Sangioveto another name for Sangiovese (pronounced san jo 
vayto, used in the Chianti DOCG area of Tuscany) 

sangria 

a chilled drink, originating in Spain, of red wine, fruit juice, 
lemonade or soda water and brandy or another spirit, usually 
served in a jug with pieces of fruit (pronounced sang gree a) 

Santa Maddalena DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC area in the Alto Adige area of the 
Trentino-Alto Adige region of Italy that produces good-quality 
fruity red wines from mostly Schiava grapes, which should be 
drunk young (pronounced sants mads layns) 

Santa Rita 

Chile a wine-producing company based in Chile noted as the 
main exporter from the country. It has vineyards in a variety of 
regions including the Casablanca region of Chile, producing red 
and white wines. 




Saumur Mousseux AOC 289 

tjH? v¥r- »fc‘ VSf^Se 1 v¥r- »fc‘ VVT-’»t‘ VSf^Se 1 v¥r- »fc‘ v’W , »t‘ vVr 

Santenay AOC 

France a small village appellation in the Cote d'Or area of 
Burgundy that includes a number of premier cru estates that 
produce good-quality red wine from Pinot Noir grapes {pro- 
nounced saaNts nay) 

Santorini 

Greece a wine-producing region that encompasses many islands 
in the Cyclades where the Assyrtiko grape is grown to produce a 
dry and sweet white wine 

Sardinia, Sardegna 

Italy an island in the Mediterranean off the west coast of Italy, 
growing mostly traditional grape varieties and producing red 
wines especially from Grenache (Cannonau) grapes and white 
wine from Nuragus and Torbato grapes 

Sassicaia DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC that is unusual in being a single 
private estate, in the Tuscany region of Italy. It grows Cabernet 
Sauvignon grapes to produce very good red wines in a Bordeaux 
style, (pronounced sassi k7 a) 

Saumur AOC 

France a large appellation, centred on the town of Saumur, in 
the Loire valley region of France that produces red and rose 
wines using Cabernet Sauvignon and Pineau d'Aunis grapes and 
white wines using Chenin Blanc grapes. The better-quality rose 
wines are often sold under the Cabernet de Saumur label. The 
area contains several smaller AOCs. {pronounced so mo“or) 

Saumur-Champigny AOC 

France an appellation within the Saumur AOC in the Loire 
valley region of France that produces fruity red wines from the 
same Cabernet Sauvignon and Pineau d'Aunis grapes as the 
Saumur AOC but of better quality. These red wines can be 
served cool (pronounced s5 moor shorn pee nyee) 

Saumur Mousseux AOC 

France an appellation within the Saumur AOC in the Loire 
valley region of France that produces sparkling white wine from 
Chenin Blanc, Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc grape vari- 
eties. The same region also has the better-quality Cremant de 
Loire AOC sparkling wine appellation, {pronounced so moor 
moo so) 




290 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V VSlV* 1 '.’VWSV VVf’A' Wr- »t‘ ■***■ '»*' '.’VWSV VVf’.f Wr-* %Vr 

Sauternes AOC 

France a famous appellation in the Graves district of the Bor- 
deaux region of southwestern France that produces some of the 
best sweet white wines in the world. It grows mostly Semilion 
grapes and a little Sauvignon Blanc. Its climatic conditions are 
conducive to infection of the grapes with the Botrytis cinerea 
fungus, which adds more flavour and complexity to the finished 
wines. This may be late in the season, or not at all, or patchily, and 
the best wine is produced by the growers who give the greatest 
attention to the grapes' development and often by those who take 
the greatest risk in not picking the grapes. If the weather does not 
allow the grapes to ripen fully, the estates often use them to 
produce a dry white wine. The chateaux in the region were graded 
in the classification of 1855, with the best estate. Chateau 
d'Yquem, in a class of its own, called premier grand cru, 11 
premiers crus (first growths) and 15 deuxiemes crus (second 
growths), {pronounced so turn, plural Sauternes) 

0 Sauvignon 

( pronounced so vee nyoN) 

1. another name for Sauvignon Blanc 

2. another name for Tocai 
0 Sauvignon Blanc 

a white-wine grape variety grown around the world, particularly 
in California and in the Loire and Bordeaux regions of France, 
but also in Italy, Australia, New Zealand and South America. 
White wine produced from this grape is normally dry, crisp and 
acidic and with characteristics that are often described in terms 
such as herbaceous, grassy, gooseberries, elderflower, currant 
leaf and nettles (but also cat’s pee). In the Loire valley region of 
France, dry white wines are made exclusively from this grape; in 
the Bordeaux region, it is blended with the Semilion grape to 
improve ageing qualities, (pronounced s6 vee nyoN blaaN) 
Also called Fume Blanc; Sauvignon; Sauvignon Jaune; Sau- 
vignon Musque 

Sauvignon de Saint Bris VDQS 

France a VDQS area in the Burgundy region of France produ- 
cing a dry white wine from Sauvignon Blanc grapes (pronounced 
s6 vee nyoN do saN bree) 

0 Sauvignon Jaune, Sauvignon Musque another name for 
Sauvignon Blanc (pronounced so vee nyoN zhon or so vee 
nyoN moo skay) 




Schaumwein 291 

* vVr* ■.’Wit' -***■ ■,Vr- , iSt‘ •,'SV , A‘ vVr* vVWa,' '>Vr» •>¥,» vVr* ■JSIVSe 1 vVr 

0 Sauvignon Rouge another name for Cabernet Sauvignon 

( pronounced so vee nyoN roozh) 

0 Sauvignon Vert another name for Muscadelle (pronounced so 
vee nyoN vair) 

0 Savagnin, Savagnin Blanc, Savagnin Jaune 

an unusual white-wine grape variety that is grown mostly in the 
Jura region of eastern France to produce the local vin jaune, 
which is made in a similar way to a sherry, producing a light, 
sweet, nutty wine, (pronounced saws nyaN or savvo nyaN 
blaaN or savvo nyaN zhbn) 

Also called Gringet 

Savagnin Noir another name for Pi not Noir (pronounced 
saws nyaN nwaar) 

0 Sav Blanc abbreviation Sauvignon Blanc (informal) 

Savennieres AOC 

France a small appellation in the Anjou area of the Loire valley 
region of France that produces very-good-quality white wines 
from the Chenin Blanc grape (pronounced saws nyair) 

Savigny-les-Beaune AOC 

France an appellation in the Cote de Beaune area of Burgundy 
that grows Pinot Noir grapes to produce a relatively light red 
wine and grows Chardonnay grapes for white wine (pronounced 
sa vee nyee lay b6n) 

Savoie 

France a wine-producing area in eastern France, near the border 
with Switzerland, that produces dry white, red and rose wines. It 
contains several AOCs. The Vin de Savoie AOC produces 
mostly white wine from Jacquere grapes and red wine from 
Gamay and Mondeuse grapes. Sparkling white wine is produced 
in the Vin de Savoie Mousseux AOC and the Roussette de 
Savoie AOC produces dry white wine from Altesse (Roussette) 
grapes, (pronounced sa vwaa) 

0 Savoyance another name for Mondeuse (pronounced sa vwaa 
yaaNss) 

Schaumwein 

German the lowest-quality category of sparkling wine in Ger- 
many (pronounced showm v6n, plural Schaumweine) 




292 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •>¥,» •.’VWiV *.»' -.WiV vYr-- »t‘ VSV3S 1 VVt-* VS6** 1 %Vr 

0 Scheurebe 

a white-wine hybrid grape variety, a cross between Riesling and 
Sylvaner grapes, that is widely grown in the Rhine region of 
Germany. It produces good-quality white wine with high alco- 
hol and sugar levels and because it suffers easily from the 
Botrytis cinerea fungus it is generally used to produce sweet, 
late-harvest wines, (pronounced shoy raybo) 

0 Schiava 

a red-wine grape grown in the Trentino-Alto Adige region of 
Italy to produce light, fruity wines that are best drunk young 
( pronounced skyaavs) 

Schillerwein 

a style of rose wine produced in the Wiirttemberg region of 
Germany by fermenting red and white grapes together ( pro- 
nounced shillor v6n, plural Schillerweine) 

See also Rotling 

0 Schioppettino 

a red-wine grape variety grown in the Giulia region of Italy to 
produce dry, full-flavoured red wines, (pronounced skyopps teeno) 
Also called Ribolla Nera 
Schloss 

German a castle. The term is often used in wine labels to refer to 
an estate, (pronounced shloss, plural Schlosser) 

Schloss Johannisberg 

Germany one of the most famous estates in Germany, in the 
Rheingau, that can trace its history back to the 12th century. Its 
wines are very good Rieslings with good ageing potential. 
(pronounced shloss yo hannis bairg) 

0 Schonburger 

a German-bred hybrid pink grape variety grown for wine in 
England (pronounced shurn boorgsr) 

Schubert, Max 

an influential winemaker in Australia who was the chief wine- 
maker at the Penfolds winery and developed its famous Grange 
wine as well as developing and promoting the Australian wine 
industry generally 

0 Sciacarello 

a grape variety that is unique to Corsica, where it is grown to 
produce light-coloured but alcoholic red wines and crisp rose 
wines (pronounced sha karello) 







tX »’*■ ■afeSSe‘ vV^»t‘ ■***■ 



seco 293 

VA‘ '.VrW %V, 



screwcap 

a top that screws on the top of a wine bottle, as a substitute for 
the traditional plug of cork. This is a modern solution to sealing 
a wine bottle, about which there is a huge debate in the wine 
industry. The increase in consumption of wine has meant that 
more corks are required, but the cork oak supply is limited, so 
corks are not always of perfect quality. They can contain 
bacteria, or be unsuitable for storing the bottle for a long time 
on its side, when the cork could dry out and shrink, allowing 
oxygen into the bottle. A screwcap solves these problems, but is 
not considered aesthetically pleasing by traditionalists. 

See also Stelvin closure 

screw press 

a type of wine press with a screw in a cylindrical housing with 
perforations. The screw puts increasing pressure on the pomace 
as it moves along the housing and the juice extracted at the 
beginning of the process is clearer than that at the end. The 
method is not suitable for making fine wines. 

0 Scuppernong 

a white-wine grape variety belonging to the species Vitis rotun- 
difolia that is grown in the southeastern USA to produce an 
unusually flavoured, sweet white wine 

Seagram 

a very large Canadian firm that owns many spirit brands, 
including that of Martell brandy, and also the port producer 
Sandeman 

Seaview 

Australia a winery near Adelaide in the McLaren Vale region of 
South Australia best-known for producing good, affordable 
sparkling wine from a Chardonnay and Pinot Noir mix. It is 
now part of the Southcorp company. 

sec 

French used to describe a wine, especially Champagne, that is 
dry in taste {pronounced sek) 

secco 

Italian dry (jjronounced seko) 

seco 

Spanish dry {pronounced seko) 




294 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

fX •>¥,» vVt-* W,. »t‘ •>¥<. »t‘ V’W»V '.Vt-* VW »V vVr 



seco 

Portuguese dry (pronounced seko) 

secondary fermentation 

1 . in the methode champenoise for making sparkling wine, the 
fermentation that occurs in the bottle once the dosage (a 
mixture of sugar, water or wine, and yeast) is added. This 
creates carbon dioxide as a by-product, which - in the sealed 
bottle dissolves in the wine creating the sparkling wine. 

2 . in making still wine, the second stage of the fermentation 
process that occurs when the bitter malic acid present in grapes 
is converted into a less astringent lactic acid, with a by-product 
of carbon dioxide gas. Almost all red wines include this second 
stage of fermentation, but producers of white wine often prevent 
this second stage to ensure that the wine tastes crisp and sharp, 
although it is also avoided when the grapes are overripe and too 
sweet. 

Also called malolactic fermentation 
Compare primary fermentation 

secondary mildew see powdery mildew 
second growth see deuxieme cru 
second label 

a wine produced by a chateau or estate that does not quite reach 
the quality level to be sold under the vineyard's main and best- 
known label and so is sold under a separate name 

second-label vintage port see port 
sediment 

solids deposited at the bottom of a bottle of wine as it matures. 
This normally means that the wine has not been overfiltered. 
Compare lees 

0 Seibel 9549 another name for Chaunac (pronounced s7b’l) 

0 Seibel 10878 another name for Chelois (pronounced s7b’l) 

Sekt 

German the best quality of sparkling wine produced in Ger- 
many, officially called Qualitatschaumwein, which is usually 
produced using the Charmat process and often using the Ries- 
ling grape variety (pronounced zekt, plural Sekte) 

Selak 

New Zealand a wine producer in Auckland producing a range of 




Sercial 295 

* VVr* ■.’Wit' VVi-'A" VVr' , lSt‘ VVr* ',’VViiV •***■ ■-Vr- , lSt‘ •,'SVA‘ VVr* VVt-* '-Vr 

good-quality wines from Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay and 
Cabernet Sauvignon grapes as well as one of the country’s first 
sparkling wines made by the methode champenoise 

Selection 

used on labels of German wine to indicate a dry white wine 
(unless made from Riesling grapes) from a single vineyard and 
made with a traditional grape variety of the region. 

Compare Classic 

Selection de Grains Nobles 

a type of wine produced in the Alsace region of France made 
from late-harvest grapes (Riesling, Gewiirztraminer, Pinot Gris 
or Muscat) infected with the fungus Botrytis cinerea to produce 
very sweet, concentrated white wines ( pronounced say lek syoN 
do graN nobis) 

2 semidry 

( tasting term ) medium dry 

0 Semilion 

a white- wine grape variety that is grown around the world, most 
notably in the Bordeaux region of France, in Chile, in South 
Africa and in Australia. It is most often used in blends with 
Sauvignon Blanc grapes, deriving complexity and depth from the 
two complementary grapes and providing wines that range in 
style from the full-bodied dry white wines of the Hunter Valley to 
sweet white wines from Sauternes. (pronounced say mee yoN) 

semi-seco 

Spanish medium dry {pronounced semi seko) 

semisweet 

medium sweet 

Sercial 

( pronounced sair syaal) 

0 I • a white-wine grape variety grown mostly in the Dao region of 
Portugal, producing highly perfumed but very acidic wines. It 
was used in the original vineyards of Madeira before being killed 
off by the phylloxera aphid in the late 1870s, and for many years 
was neglected, but European Union regulations are fostering a 
revival. 

2. the driest, lightest style of sweet Madeira wine. 

See also Madeira DOC 




296 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

tint •>¥,» ■.’VWSV vWiV W,. »t‘ •>¥<. »t‘ Vy,»V VVt-* VVT-’»t‘ %Vr 



serre 

French in the Champagne region of France, the juice released in 
the first pressing of the grapes, used to produce the best 
Champagnes, {pronounced sair) 

Also ccdled vin de cuvee 

Se tubal DOC 

Portugal a wine-producing DOC region south of Lisbon in 
Portugal that grows Muscat and other grapes to produce a 
fortified wine. Until Portugal joined the European Union this 
wine was known as Moscatel de Setubal, but local regulations 
allowed a higher proportion of other grapes than EU practice 
allows for a grape name to be used for a wine, (pronounced se 
toob’l) 

Seyssel AOC 

France an appellation in the Savoie region of eastern France 
producing white wines and best-known for its sparkling white 
wine Seyssel Mousseux, made by the methode champenoise 
from mostly Molette grapes (pronounced say sel) 

0 Seyval Blanc, Seyval 

a hybrid grape of French origin that is widely used in the USA 
and in parts of the UK and France to produce crisp white 
wines (pronounced say val blaaN) 

2 sharp 

(tasting term ) used to describe a wine that is too acidic, with a 
biting taste 

Shenandoah Valley AVA 

USA a wine-producing region in the east of California that 
grows mostly Sauvignon Blanc and Zinfandel grape varieties 

sherry 

a fortified wine produced in the Andalucia region of southern 
Spain and officially made in the Jerez-Xeres-Sherry and Man- 
zanilla de Sanlucar de Barrameda DO areas. Sherry-style wines 
have been made elsewhere, e.g. in Cyprus, but under European 
Union regulations only those from the Spanish DOs can label 
themselves as such. Sherry is normally made from the Palomino 
grape variety, using the solera system. There is a wide range of 
styles of sherry, but they can be divided into two main types: 
fino, which is very dry, light in colour and taste with lower 




Sicily 297 

»V V¥r»t‘ vVr-’»t‘ VVr.* V¥V»t‘ ',’WiV VSlVSe 1 V¥V»t‘ •,¥<> , A‘ %Vr 

alcohol levels; and oloroso, which has oxidised to a deep brown 
colour and has a richer taste and higher levels of alcohol. Fino 
sherry is also produced in different styles with a fino amontil- 
lado (aged for five or six years and a darker amber colour with a 
trace of the nutty flavour of an oloroso), amontillado (aged for 
longer than a fino amontillado and darker and richer as a 
result), manzanilla (a very light and tangy fino, made in Sanlu- 
car de Barrameda), manzanilla pasada (an aged manzanilla that 
has a darker colour and richer taste) and pale cream sherry (a 
fino that has been sweetened). Oloroso is also made into other 
well-known styles of sherry including cream sherry (lower- 
quality oloroso that has been sweetened) and amoroso or East 
India sherry (oloroso that has been sweetened); in addition 
rayas is lower-quality oloroso used in blending medium dry 
sherry. Lastly, a palo cortado is a fino sherry that has been 
oxidised further to produce the flavour of an oloroso. During 
production of fino sherry, a layer of yeast builds up on the 
surface of the liquid in a cask; this is called the flor, which 
protects the wine below from oxidising (keeping it a pale colour) 
and introduces a tangy taste to the sherry. 

0 Shiraz another name for Syrah {pronounced shi raz) 

shoot 

a new growth of stems and leaves from an existing stem or 
branch of a plant 

shoot positioning 

the process of training young shoots on a vine so that they 
conform to a particular training system such as the espalier 
system or the guyot system 

shoot thinning 

the process of removing unwanted young shoots from a vine so 
that only one or two remain to be trained in the desired way 

2 short 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine with very little aftertaste or 
finish 

Sicily 

a large Italian island off the toe of the mainland that has a hot 
climate and a long winemaking tradition. Historically its pro- 
duction was dominated by Marsala fortified wines, but it now 
produces a range of table wines (often outside the DOC system). 




298 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V v¥r> »t‘ VVi'-'A" »’*' '.’VWSV VVf’A' '»¥,.’*■ •***■ •-Vf A‘ VVt-* VVr-* %Vr 

The island has various distinctive grapes, including Nerello, 
Nero d'Avola and Perricone for red wines and Catarratto, 
Grillo, Grecanico and Inzolia for white wines. 

Sierra Foothills AVA 

USA a wine-producing region in California, east of the Napa 
Valley, with over 30 wineries growing mostly Zinfandel grapes 

2 silky 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine that has a soft, smooth 
texture and finish 

2 simple 

(i tasting term ) used to describe a wine with a straightforward 
character that is not complex, but is good 

2 sinewy 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine that is lean and not very 
fruity but has a good balance of alcohol and acidity 

single-quinta port see port 

skin see grape skin 

skin contact 

in making white wines, the leaving of the crushed grape juice in 
contact with the grape skins for a very short period, often less 
than a day, to improve flavour and taste. The skins are then 
removed and the juice fermented. 

Slovakia 

an eastern European republic that grows some wine-grape 
varieties similar to those grown in neighbouring Hungary, 
including Irsai Oliver (Irsay Oliver) 

Smith Woodhouse 

a port company that produces a range of non-vintage ports 
including tawny and ruby ports and also a good vintage port 
and a well-regarded late bottled vintage (LBV) port. It is now 
owned by the Symington family, who also own Dow, Graham 
and Warre. 

2 smoky 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine with an aroma or taste 
suggestive of smoke, often from the soil in which the vine was 
grown or if the wine was aged in an oak barrel 




solera 299 

* vVr* v’VWSt' ->Vr’S>‘ •,¥,» vVr* ■¥«*.“ •-Vr-* vVr* •,¥f’A‘ ',¥* 

2 smooth 

( tasting term) used to describe a range of characteristics of a 
well-balanced wine 

2 soapy 

( tasting term ) used to describe a wine with an unpleasant taste 
like soap and water that is a fault except in wines made from the 
Riesling grape variety that are not yet ready for drinking 

Soave DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC zone in the Veneto region of 
northeastern Italy that grows the Garganega and Trebbiano 
grape varieties to make a very popular dry white wine. If it is 
aged, the wine is labelled ‘superiorek There is also a subzone 
that produces better-quality ‘classico’ wines, (pronounced swaa 
vay) 

sodium bisulphite, sodium bisulfite 

a water-soluble chemical that produces sulphur dioxide when 
heated and is used for sterilisation in winemaking 

2 soft 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that is low in tannin or 
acidity and so is full and gentle on the palate, though this can 
also result in wine that lacks clarity and definition 

softening 

a process that happens to a young wine as it ages, reducing the 
tannin and acid levels and providing a balanced wine 

Sogrape 

the largest wine producer in Portugal, known especially for its 
Mateus Rose 

Solano see Green Valley-Solano AVA 
solera 

( pronounced so lairs) Spanish 

1 . a cask containing mature wine that has been aged and is ready 
to bottle 

2 . a method of producing wine that is a blend of different 
vintages using a graded series of casks. A proportion of the wine 
from the cask with the most mature wine is bottled, and replaced 
with younger wine from the cask containing the wine that is next 
in maturity, which in turn is refilled with younger wine, and so 
on. Once a solera is set up, all the casks will contain blended 




300 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V •<-¥,. »t‘ •,'SlV A‘ Wr- »t‘ ■***■ •-Vf A‘ •>¥,-■ »t‘ %Vr 

wine. The system is used especially in Spain for making sherry 
and also Malaga, Montilla and Alicante’s Fondillon, but also in 
Sicily for Marsala wines. 

solid 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine that is full-bodied and 
well-structured 

sommelier 

French a waiter in charge of the wine in a restaurant, normally 
responsible for looking after the cellar in the restaurant and 
advising on wine with different foods (pronounced so melli or) 

Somontano DO 

Spain a wine-producing area in the Pyrenean foothills in north- 
eastern Spain that grows both local and French grape varieties 
to produce powerful red and some white wines (pronounced so 
mon taano) 

Sonoma see Green Valley-Sonoma 
Sonoma Coast AVA 

USA a large viticultural area in California that has a relatively 
cool climate and grows a range of different grape varieties 

Sonoma County AVA 

USA a viticultural area in California that, with the Napa Valley 
AVA, has helped to bring up the quality and production of wine 
in California from the 170-plus wineries in the region. The 
region has a range of climatic conditions and can grow a range 
of grapes including Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Pinot 
Noir, Sauvignon Blanc and Zinfandel. 

Sonoma Valley AVA 

USA a viticultural area in western California, northeast of San 
Francisco, extending northwards from the city of Sonoma and 
famous for its wineries 

sound 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that has no obvious faults 

sour 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that is starting to turn to 
vinegar 

South Africa 

a well-established wine-producing country that first started 
growing vines in the 17th century and is now the world's 




South Africa 301 




ninth-largest wine producer. The major wine-producing re- 
gions are in the southwest of the country and are now regu- 
lated by an appellation system called Wine of Origin (WO), 
introduced in 1973 and equivalent to the European model. As 
in all the other wine-producing countries in search of export 
markets, new plantings are rapidly being carried out. The 
country’s wine production has historically been dominated 
by sweet fortified sherry-like wines, but it now produces a 
wide range of good-quality red, white and sparkling wines. The 
main white-wine grapes grown are Chenin Blanc (called Steen 
locally), still the country’s most widely planted variety, to- 
gether with Crouchen, Clairette Blanc, Semilion, Colombard, 
Muscat and the ubiquitous Chardonnay. Red-wine grapes 
include Cinsault (called Hermitage locally), Pinotage, Merlot 
and Syrah (Shiraz). The South African wine industry suffered 
greatly during the apartheid years when international trade 
diminished as sanctions were introduced. The arrival of de- 
mocracy in 1994 forced change, and the South African Wine 
Industry Trust was created in 1999 to promote the transforma- 
tion of the wine industry. White owners still predominate, but 



302 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V '»¥,.’*■ »’*' VVr.’»t‘ ■***■ •-Vf A‘ VV,-* VVf’.f -,Vr 

change is happening slowly. In 2001 the Vineyard Academy 
was launched to provide vineyard workers with skills training 
in various fields. Amongst the most important areas are: 
Constantia, boasting some of the most famous estate names 
such as Groot Constantia and Klein Constantia, producing 
superb Sauvignon Blanc and Semilion wines; Durbanville, 
which offers some wonderful Sauvignon Blancs; Paarl, which 
has cellars both large and small and wine from the ordinary to 
the sensational - the focus is on Syrah (Shiraz), but some fine 
Chenin Blancs and Pinotages are also produced; Robertson, 
which is looking to produce good red wines, especially from 
Syrah (Shiraz) grapes; and Stellenbosch, considered by many 
to be South Africa’s best wine-growing area, with more than 80 
wineries and all the most famous South African wine names 
and growing Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinotage and 
Chenin Blanc. 

0 South African Riesling another name for Crouchen 
South African Wine Industry Trust see South Africa 
South America see Argentina; Brazil; Chile; Uruguay 
South Australia 

Australia a state on the south coast of Australia, of which 
Adelaide is the capital, that grows close to half of all the grapes 
harvested in Australia. South Australia produces some of the 
country’s best red, white and sparkling wines and includes the 
well-known Barossa Valley region (home of the famous Pen- 
folds Grange wine estate), Adelaide Hills, McLaren Vale, Coo- 
nawarra and Padthaway regions. 

Southcorp 

the Australian holding company that includes Penfolds, Linde- 
mans, Killawarra, Seaview and many other famous Australian 
wine names and brands 

South Eastern Australia 

Australia a large area that includes the whole of New South 
Wales, Victoria and Tasmania, and part of Queensland and 
South Australia. The name was created for use on wine labels, 
especially for the export market. 

Southern Vales 

Australia a wine-producing region in the state of South 




Spain 303 

ASliS’SIS^SliSJSiyS'SSiSiySSSiSiyS^^ 

Australia, growing Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah (Shiraz) and 
Grenache grapes for red wines together with Chardonnay 
and Riesling grapes for white wines 

Southwestern France 

France an area of France that includes Bergerac, Cahors, Gaillac, 
Monbazillac and Pacherenc. The term does not normally refer to 
the Bordeaux region, which stands on its own. 

0 Souzao 

a red-wine grape native to Portugal but now grown mostly 
in the western USA and South Africa. It produces deep-co- 
loured red wines and is often used for producing port-style 
fortified wines, {pronounced soo zow) 




Spain 

one of the largest producers of wine by volume, exceeded only 
by France and Italy, and with more land devoted to the vine 
than any other country. Spain is best-known for a diverse 
selection of regional wines including the fortified wine sherry, 



304 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V VVt-* Wr- »t‘ VVf’.f Wr- »V %Vr 

red Rioja wine and its Cava sparkling wines. The Spanish wine 
industry has been benefiting from huge investment in wine- 
making technology. Stainless steel, temperature control and the 
legalisation of irrigation have drastically improved the pro- 
spects of Spain’s wine regions. Spain’s wine-producing regions 
are classified and recognised by the Denominacion de Origen 
(DO) label, but this is now considered inadequate for high- 
quality wines, so a higher grade has been introduced, the 
Denominacion de Origen Calificada (DOCa). So far there is 
just one region that meets these higher standards - Rioja, in the 
north, Spain’s premier wine region, whose wines are predomi- 
nantly red and aged in oak barrels, lending them earthy, vanilla 
flavours. Spain has 5 wine-producing regions, classified by the 
DO system: Penedes, the centre of the Cava industry; Ribera 
del Duero, on the banks of the River Duero in north-central 
Spain, rivalling Rioja in producing quality red wines; Rueda, 
producing white wines, mainly from the Verdejo grape; Val- 
depenas, in south-central Spain, producing soft, red wines from 
Tempranillo (Cencibel) grapes; and Jerez, Spain's sherry-pro- 
ducing region. There are two other legal descriptors for wine. 
Vino de la Tierra (VdlT) is not unlike France’s vin de pays and 
describes wine from a specific region produced according to 
certain local strictures. Vino de Mesa (VdM) refers to unclas- 
sified or blended wine. As in Italy, there are some very 
expensive wines that, falling outside the other appellations, 
use this lowly nomenclature. Spain has literally hundreds of 
grape varieties. The aromatic Tempranillo, the grape of Rioja 
and Spain’s most widely planted variety, is perhaps its best- 
known. Grenache (Garnacha) is used to make red wine in 
northern Spain and the white Airen, planted in La Mancha and 
Valdepenas, makes light, dry wines. Palomino, the grape of 
sherry, is found in Jerez, as well as other parts of Spain, 
including Rueda. The Pedro Ximenes grape makes sweet wines 
and is also used in Montilla, while Macabeo (called Viura in 
Rioja) is used in Penedes in the making of Cava. Needless to 
say, as elsewhere, international varieties are increasingly to be 
found. 

0 Spanna another name for Nebbiolo 

sparkle 

1. to effervesce 

2 . effervescence in wine 




sparkling wine 305 

»V v¥r- »fc‘ ■■’Wit' *’*■ v¥r- »V ■,’W»fc‘ •,V, , A‘ v¥r- »fc‘ •,'SIV , A‘ vVr 

sparkler 

a sparkling wine ( informal) 

sparkling 

used to describe wine with bubbles of carbon dioxide, either 
naturally occurring or created by injecting carbon dioxide gas 
into the liquid. Wine can be fully sparkling (petillant in French, 
frizzante in Italian, spritzig in German, crackling in the USA) or 
slightly so (mousseux in French, spumante in Italian). In French 
cremant refers to an intermediate degree of effervescence. Spain 
describes sparkling wines as espumoso and Portugal as espu- 
mante. 

sparkling Burgundy 

1. a sparkling wine from the Burgundy region of France, red, 
white or rose and usually of relatively low quality 

2. in the USA and some other non-European countries, a lower- 
quality sparkling red wine 

sparkling wine 

wine with bubbles of carbon dioxide. Sparkling wines are 
produced worldwide. The most famous is Champagne from 
France; Spain has its Cava wines, Germany its Sekt and Italy its 
Asti Spumante and Prosecco. In Portugal Sogrape produces 
Mateus Rose; in New Zealand Lindauer and Selak are known 
for their good-quality sparkling wines, and in Australia Seaview 
and many others including Seppelt, BRL-FIardy, Petaluma and 
Domaine Chandon (called Green Point in the UK). Among the 
notable producers in the USA is California’s Anderson Valley. 
There are several different ways of producing sparkling wine, 
and practice varies according to the quality of wine and the 
country of origin. These are: the traditional methode champe- 
noise, in which a dosage (a mixture of sugar, water or wine and 
yeast) is added to still white wine just before bottling to cause a 
second fermentation to take place in the bottle, creating carbon 
dioxide as a by-product; the largely superseded methode rurale, 
in which the fermenting wine is cooled to almost stop fermenta- 
tion before bottling and then warmed slightly to restart the 
fermentation in the bottle (the methode dioise and the methode 
gaillacoise are local variants of this); the transfer method, which 
is similar to the traditional methode champenoise, except that 
the finished sparkling wine is filtered in a pressurised container 
to remove the sediment from the second fermentation; the 




306 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V v¥r> »t‘ »t‘ vVr-* VVt-* Wr- »t‘ VVr 

Charmat or bulk process, which takes place entirely in a 
pressurised container; finally, the injection of carbon dioxide 
gas from a canister into the wine under pressure, which is used 
to produce the cheapest variety of sparkling wine. 

Compare still wine 

0 Spatburgunder another name for Pinot Noir {pronounced 
shpayt boor gcfondsr, used in Germany) 

fl Spatlese 

( pronounced shpayt layzo, literally ‘late harvest’ or ‘late picked’) 
German 

1. a white wine made with sweeter, late-harvest grapes 

2. one of the subcategories of the official German classification 
of quality wines, Qualitatswein mit Pradikat (QmP), and the 
first category of the Austrian Pradikatswein classification 

specific gravity 

a scale used to measure the density of a liquid, including wine, 
and compare it to the density of pure water. It is measured on 
the Brix, Oechsle or Baume scales in different parts of the world. 
Grape juice with natural sugars dissolved in the liquid has a 
specific gravity higher than pure water, but this drops during 
fermentation as the sugar is converted into alcohol, which has a 
specific gravity lower than pure water. 

2 s P ic y 

{tasting term ) used to describe the complex aroma and taste of a 
wine that is reminiscent of a spice, e.g. cinnamon or pepper 

spitting 

the practice of spitting out rather than swallowing a wine after 
tasting it. Professional wine tasters can taste hundreds of wines 
in a day, so this is essential to their health. 

spittoon 

a receptacle into which wine is spat after tasting 

Spitzenwein 

German good-quality Austrian wine {pronounced shpitssn v6n, 
plural Spitzenweine) 

split 

a small bottle size containing 187.5 ml or one quarter of a 
standard 750 ml bottle, normally used for Champagne or wine 
served on aeroplanes or trains or in hotels 




stalky 307 

»V VVr* %¥, »V W,. »V fllV A‘ V¥r- »V •,'SIV , A‘ VYr- »t‘ V’W»t‘ -fllV A‘ V¥r- »V '.’WiV VVr 

spritz 

a slight sparkle in a wine. 

Compare petillance 

spritzer 

a drink consisting of wine, generally white, diluted with spark- 
ling water or lemonade 

spritzig 

German slightly sparkling ( pronounced shpritsig) 

J spritzy 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that has a very slight 
sensation of effervescence, most common in very young wines 
and sometimes considered a minor flaw. The French equivalent 
is ‘perlant’. 

spumante 

Italian sparkling, (pronounced spoo man tay, literally ‘foaming’) 
Compare frizzante 

St abbreviation Saint 

stabilise 

to remove any residual particles of yeast or protein or tartaric 
acid crystals from a wine that might cause the wine to go cloudy. 
Wine can be stabilised at a warm temperature by using a fining 
agent that collects the particles as it drifts slowly down through 
the wine, collecting as sediment at the bottom of the vat. It can 
also be stabilised by cooling the wine to a very low temperature 
at which any particles of tartaric acid drift to the bottom and 
can be removed. 

Stags Leap District AVA 

USA a wine-producing region in the Napa Valley region of 
California that grows Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot grape 
varieties to produce very good red wines 

2 stale 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that is lifeless, without any 
fresh, lively qualities 

2 stalky 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that has an often un- 
pleasant taste of grape stems, vines or underripe grapes. 
Compare stemmy 




308 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •>¥,» v'VWiV *■*' vVt-* •>¥,» vVt-* v¥,» vVr 

starter 

a yeast culture added to grape juice (must) to initiate the 
fermentation process. Although fermentation would probably 
occur naturally because of the yeast spores in the air and on the 
grape skins, a starter culture gives the winemaker greater con- 
trol over the process. 

Ste abbreviation French Sainte 

2 steely, steel 

( tasting term) used to describe a metallic taste to a wine caused 
by high acid levels or because the vineyard has very mineral-rich 
soil. This is a notable characteristic of Riesling white wines. 

0 Steen another name for Chenin Blanc ( pronounced stay on or 
stayn, used in South Africa) 

| Steinberg 

a famous Riesling wine made at Kloster Eberbach in the 
Rheingau region of Germany (pronounced sht6n bairg) 

Stellenbosch 

South Africa an important wine-producing region, classed as a 
Wine of Origin (WO) in South Africa and producing good red 
wines from Merlot, Syrah (Shiraz) and Cabernet Sauvignon 
grapes and good white wines from Chardonnay and Sauvignon 
Blanc grapes (pronounced stellan bosh) 

Stelvin closure 

a type of long screwcap 

stemmer 

a mechanical device that removes the grape stems once the 
bunches of grapes have been crushed 

2 stemmy 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that has an often un- 
pleasant taste of grape stems, vines or underripe grapes. 
Compare stalky 

stem retention 

the addition of some grape stems into the must when making red 
wine to help increase the levels of tannin. Some winemakers do 
this, but it must be done carefully to avoid making the wine too 
tannic and bitter. 

sterilise 

to make something sterile by killing microorganisms 




stum 309 

* ■■’VWSfc' VV,’lA‘ V’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ '.’WiV --Vr* •,'SV , A‘ V’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ •-Vr-* vVr* '-Vr 



still wine 

wine that contains no bubbles from dissolved carbon dioxide 
gas. 

Compare sparkling wine 
stock same as rootstock 
2 stony, stones 

(i tasting term ) used to describe a clean, earthy characteristic in a 
wine, typically a young white wine. 

Compare flinty 

stravecchio 

Italian extra aged, (pronounced stra vekkyo) 

See also Marsala DOC 

2 strawberry 

(tasting term ) a taste or aroma associated with red wines from 
the Beaujolais and Burgundy regions of France or from the 
Rioja region of northern Spain 

straw wine 

a sweet wine made from grapes that have been partially dried in 
the sun, especially on a bed of straw. 

Compare Strohwein; vin de paille 

Strohwein 

German a category of Pradikatswein in Austria made from 
overripe grapes dried on straw or reeds, (pronounced shtrS 
v6n, literally ‘straw wine', plural Strohweine) 

Compare straw wine; vin de paille 

2 strong 

(tasting term) used to describe a powerful and robust wine with 
a full body 

2 structure 

(tasting term) the way in which a wine is built up from different 
elements such as acid level, tannin, alcohol, fruitiness and 
body. All wines have structure, but it is not always well-built, 
so the term is usually used with another descriptor, as in ‘good 
structure'. 

stum 

1. same as must 

2 . to ferment wine by adding must to it while it is in a cask or vat 




310 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •>¥,. »t‘ *.»' •„y,. , A‘ v’WiV vVT-’»t‘ •,’VV. »t‘ v’VViV vVt-* vWiV *’*■ -,Vr 

2 sturdy 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that has an assertive and 
robust aroma and taste 

style 

the particular quality of a wine that derives from the grape 
variety, place of origin or ‘terroir’, or the manner of production 

J stylish 

(tasting term ) used to describe a wine that has a bold but elegant 
character 

Suau, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Sauternes area of Bordeaux in south- 
western France graded deuxieme cru (second growth) in the 
classification of 1855. It produces sweet white wine from Semil- 
lon and Sauvignon Blanc grapes, (pronounced syoo o) 

subregion 

1 . in general use, a wine-producing area that is part of a larger 
region 

2. In the Australian system of Geographic Indications, a sub- 
region is defined in the same way as a region (a single tract of 
land containing at least 5 independently owned wineries of at 
least 5 hectares each and usually producing at least 500 tons of 
wine grapes per year), but it must have ‘substantial’ rather than 
just ‘measurable’ homogeneity in grape-growing attributes over 
its area. 

2 subtle 

(tasting term) used to describe a positive characteristic of a 
delicate wine that has complex layers to its flavour and aroma 

Suduiraut, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Sauternes area of Bordeaux in south- 
western France graded premier cru (first growth) in the 
classification of 1855. It produces very fine, sweet white wine 
from Semilion and Sauvignon Blanc grapes, (pronounced syoo 
dwee r6) 

sugaring 

the process of adding sugar to grape must in order to increase 
the alcoholic strength of a wine. Adding sugar at this fermenta- 
tion stage of the winemaking does not increase the sweetness of 
the wine. Although this process is necessary and legal in cold 




superiore 311 

»V v¥r- »fc‘ ■,'y r ’A‘ vVr-’»t‘ -fllV A‘ v¥r- »fc‘ ■JSIV * 1 %'YrW •,V,’»k‘ v¥r- »fc‘ ■JSIV * 1 vVr 

climates, where the lack of sun does not produce enough sugar 
in the grape, the process is often illegal and unnecessary in 
countries with hot climates. 

Also called chaptalisation 

sulphite, sulfite 

a chemical compound of sulphur present in tiny quantities in 
some wines that typically have had sulphur used in them at some 
stage of the winemaking process - either sprayed onto the 
grapes on the vine as an insecticide or as sulphur dioxide used 
as a disinfectant to remove natural yeasts from a barrel, or 
added to a newly fermented wine to kill off all yeasts and 
prevent any further, secondary fermentation in the bottle. In 
some countries such as the USA wine with more than 10 ppm of 
sulphur compounds must indicate this on the label to warn 
people allergic to sulphites. 

sulphur dioxide, sulfur dioxide 

a chemical used to inhibit natural microorganisms from spoiling 
the wine during the winemaking process 

o sulphury 

( tasting term ) used to describe an unpleasant smell resulting 
from excessive use of sulphur dioxide 

0 Sultana 

a white grape variety, small and golden in colour, grown for 
wine production in small quantities in the USA, Australia and 
parts of South America to produce undistinguished white wines. 
It is in fact widely planted in California, USA, but for use as a 
dried fruit and for the table. 

superieur 

French better, or of better quality, than the standard. It is 
normally used to describe a wine with a little more alcohol 
than usual produced from vineyards with a lower yield and aged 
for a certain amount of time, (pronounced soo payr yur) 
Compare superiore 

superiore 

Indian better, or of better quality, than the standard. It is 
normally used to describe a wine with a little more alcohol 
than usual produced from vineyards with a lower yield and aged 
for a certain amount of time, (pronounced soo pairi aw ray) 
Compare superieur 




312 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ -.Vt-* •.’VV »t‘ *■*' ■,¥<■ »V ■¥V»t‘ WT.’»t‘ vVr-- »t‘ v’VViV •,¥<■ »V ■¥V»t‘ -,Vr 

A Supertuscan 

a premium Tuscan wine with an intense fruit and heavy oak 
character. The term was coined when the Marchese Incisa della 
Rochetta of Tuscany worked with Baron Philippe de Rothschild 
to bring new varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines into 
Tuscany. They aimed to concentrate not on the traditional 
Chianti wines of the region but instead on high-quality, low- 
yield premium wines that have almost nothing in common with 
the traditional Chianti DOC requirements. They are labelled 
Vino da Tavola. Their changes have revolutionised the wine- 
making of the region. 

2 supple 

( tasting term) used to describe a red wine that is smooth, well- 
structured, soft and rounded on the palate 

surdo 

Portuguese grape juice to which alcohol such as brandy has been 
added to stop fermentation. The mix is very high in natural 
sugars and is used to sweeten other wines, notably Madeira 
fortified wines, (pronounced soordo) 

Compare mistelle 

sur lie 

French used to describe the technique of storing wine, prior to 
bottling, in contact with the sediment of dead yeast and grape 
particles (lees) from the fermentation, which adds complexity 
and a slight yeasty taste to the wine and can also make the wine 
very slightly petillant ( pronounced so“or lee, literally ‘on the lees’) 

2 surmaturite 

French ( tasting term ) an unpleasant taste in a wine that is 
reminiscent of port or prunes. Before a wine turns towards this 
taste, it offers the highly sought-after tastes of dark chocolate or 
black cherry, (pronounced soor ma too ree tay) 

Siissreserve 

German naturally sweet grape juice that has not been fermented 
is added to a finished dry wine from the same source to provide a 
required level of sweetness. This means that the fermentation of 
the wine does not have to be controlled quite so carefully and 
can be allowed to finish naturally rather than being stopped 
when the wine reaches a particular level of sweetness, (pro- 
nounced zo'oss rs zairvs) 




Sylvaner 313 

-»t‘ »t‘ V , W , »t‘ •,'SV , A‘ v¥r- »t‘ •,'SIV , A‘ ^Vr-. »t‘ V , W , »t‘ VVT>’»t‘ v¥r- »t‘ •,V,> , A‘ %Vr 

sustainable viticulture 

land, soil and vine care that ensures that the environment can 
continue to support vines over a period of years 

Swan Valley, Swan District 

Australia a very hot winemaking region in Australia, immedi- 
ately to the north and east of Perth in Western Australia 

2 sweet 

(i tasting term) used to describe a wine that contains a noticeable 
amount of residual sugar, which occurs when not all of the grape 
sugar has been converted to alcohol during fermentation or 
when grape concentrate has been added in the process called 
chaptalisation. A winemaker can allow fermentation to con- 
tinue till there is no more natural sugar left in the wine or can 
stop fermentation early to create a wine with some residual 
sugars. The fermentation can be stopped by adding sulphur 
dioxide or by cooling the wine or, for fortified wine, by adding 
alcohol. Fermentation cannot usually continue when the alco- 
hol level goes above approximately 16%, because yeast cannot 
live in this environment, and some very sweet grapes contain so 
much natural sugar that even when the fermentation has fin- 
ished naturally, when the alcohol level is too high for yeast to 
live, there is still plenty of residual sugar in the wine, producing 
sweet unfortified wines such as those from Sauternes, France. 
See also medium sweet 
Compare dry 

Switzerland 

a small, land-locked country in Europe that drinks most of its 
own wines. The wine-producing regions can be divided in the 
same way as the administrative districts (called cantons) of 
Switzerland into French-, German- and Italian-speaking areas, 
each producing styles of wine reminiscent of these neighbouring 
countries. Each canton applies its own regulations for wine- 
making processes and labelling. Most Swiss wine is white and 
blended, produced from a wide range of grape varieties but 
especially from Chasselas; some red wine is produced from 
Pinot Noir and Gamay grapes. 

0 Sylvaner 

a white-wine grape variety that was historically widely planted 
in Germany but has now been replaced in many areas by the 
Muller- Thurgau grape. It is also grown in small quantities in the 




314 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ VS6** 1 *.»' vVt-* Wr- »t‘ -.Vr-- »t‘ VSV3S 1 vVt- »V VS6** 1 %Vr 

Alsace region of France, in Switzerland and in northern Italy. 
(j pronounced sil vaansr) 

Also called Franken Riesling 

0 Sylvaner Riesling see Riesling 

0 Syrah 

a classic red-wine grape variety historically grown in the Rhone 
valley region of France where it produces very good, spicy, 
aromatic red wines with aromas of berries. This grape variety is 
widely grown in other countries, including Australia (where it is 
called Shiraz and is now the most widely planted variety in the 
country), South Africa and in the western USA. (pronounced 
sirrs) 

Also called Shiraz; Hermitage; Marsanne Noir 
2 syrupy 

(tasting term ) used to describe a rich, sweet wine that seems thick 
on the palate 

szaraz 

Hungarian dry (pronounced saaroz) 




T 

-»t‘ •>¥,» v¥,-»fc‘ v¥V»V ■¥V»t‘ •>¥,» vVf'A 1 v¥, »fc‘ v¥V»V ■¥V»V •>¥,» vVr 

Wo//s hove ears, w/ne bottles have mouths. Anonymous 



table wine 

any wine that is not fortified and not sparkling 

Tache see La Tache AOC 
Tafelwein 

German table wine. This is an official category in Germany and 
Austria. ( pronounced taafT v6n, plural Tafelweine) 

taglio 

Italian cut 

See also vino da taglio 
taille 

French in the Champagne region of France, the juice from each 
pressing of the grapes after the first. The juice from the first 
pressing, also the finest juice, is normally the only juice used for 
Champagne; the second pressing provides ‘premiere taille’, the 
third ‘deuxieme taille' and so on. ( pronounced t6) 

Taittinger 

an important Champagne house based in Reims, France, estab- 
lished in 1734. The company produces a range of non- vintage 
Champagne and its premium Champagne, Comtes de Champagne, 
in both blanc-de-blancs and rose styles, {pronounced t7tingsr) 

Talbot, Chateau 

France a chateau in the Saint-Julien AOC in the Flaut-Medoc 
district of Bordeaux in southwestern France graded quatrieme 
cru (fourth growth) in the classification of 1855. It grows mostly 
Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot grapes to produce good-qual- 
ity full-bodied red wine, as well as making a little white wine 
from Sauvignon Blanc grapes, (pronounced taal b6) 

Tanghrite see Algeria 

2 tan gy 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine with lively citrus or salty 
tastes 




316 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V '»¥,.’*■ »’*' VVf’A' Wr- »t‘ VVt. »t‘ •-Vf A‘ VV,-* VVf’.f -,Vr 

tank method 

the making of sparkling wines by the Charmat or bulk process 

tank press 

a wine press that is fully enclosed to limit contact of its contents 
with air 

2 tanky 

(i tasting term) used to describe a wine that is stale and has a dull 
character, often from being aged too long in tanks 

0 Tannat 

a red grape variety, grown mostly in southwestern France, but 
also in Uruguay and to a lesser extent in Argentina, producing 
richly coloured red wines with high levels of tannin and alcohol 
(pronounced ta naa) 

2 tannic 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine in which the tannin levels 
are too high and overpower the fruit and other components, 
resulting in a wine that is not balanced 

tannin 

a naturally occurring phenolic compound that is found in grape 
skins, stalks and pips, and, to a much lesser degree, in wooden 
barrels, that acts as a preservative of the wine. The taste of tannin 
in a wine is bitter and gives the impression of drying out your 
mouth, but these tastes soften as the wine ages or if it comes into 
contact with air and oxidises, when the tannin compound breaks 
down. A young wine often has a very strong taste of tannin, but 
this can be reduced before serving by decanting the bottle or, 
more simply, by swirling the wine in your glass to oxidise the wine 
slightly, breaking down the tannin. 

tap 

to draw off wine from a barrel by means of a tap 

Tarragona DO 

Spain a large wine-producing DO area in the Catalonia region 
of northeastern Spain that grows Macabeo and Parellada grapes 
to produce white wine as well as Grenache (Garnacha) and 
Carignan (Carinena) grapes for red wines. Tarragona Clasico is 
a sweet, often fortified wine, (pronounced tarrs gons) 

0 Tarrango 

an Australian red-wine grape variety that produces light-bodied 
red wines that can be drunk chilled 




Taurasi DOC 317 

»V v¥r- »fc‘ V'VVjiV vVr-’»t‘ -.Vf’ A‘ v¥r- »t‘ ■JSIV * 1 •***■ v¥r- »fc‘ vVr 

2 tarry, tar 

(tasting term) used to describe a full taste or aroma of red wines 
such as Barolo made from the Nebbiolo grape variety or of 
wines from the northern Rhone region of France 

2 tart 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that is acidic and harsh or 
sharp to taste 

tartar 

a substance consisting mostly of potassium bitartrate that is 
deposited in wine casks during fermentation 

tartaric acid 

the main natural acid in wine 

tartrates 

harmless crystals of tartaric acid in a wine. They often form on 
the bottom of a cork, near the top of the wine, or float in a bottle 
or cask. They can be removed by stabilising the wine at low 
temperature. 

taste see wine tasting 

taster 

1 . a small cup for tasting wine 

2 . a person who engages in wine tasting 

tastevin 

French a small, shallow cup, usually silver, originally used in the 
Burgundy region of France by tasters and sommeliers to taste 
wine and see its colour clearly (pronounced tasts vaN) 

tasting see wine tasting 

tasting term 

a word or expression used to refer to a particular quality or 
characteristic of a wine, its taste, smell or texture, e.g. black- 
currants, rough or peppery. The characteristic can originate 
from any of the elements involved in making wine, from the soil 
to the grape itself to blending, crushing, fermenting or bottling. 

Taurasi DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC area in the Campania region of 
Italy that grows mostly Aglianico and Barbera grapes to pro- 
duce good-quality red wines that age well. A higher- quality 
riserva appellation, Taurasi Riserva DOCG, is used for wine 




318 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V '»¥,.’*■ »’*' ■.’VWSV vVr.’»t‘ ■***■ ■,¥, »V »V ■¥V»t‘ '»¥,.’*■ -,Vr 

made from the best grapes and aged for at least four years. 
(j pronounced tow raazi) 

2 taut 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine that is not soft and full and 
may be relatively high in acidity. It can indicate that the wine is 
still too young for drinking. 

Tavel AOC 

France an appellation in the southern Rhone region of France 
that grows Grenache and Cinsault grapes to make very good 
rose wines {pronounced ta vel) 

tavola 

Italian table 

See also Vino da Tavola 

tawny port see port 

Taylor Fladgate and Yeatman 

one of the best port houses in Portugal producing classic vintage 
ports and a range of other non-vintage styles including tawny 
and late bottled vintage (LBV) 

TBA abbreviation German Trockenbeerenauslese 

T-bud grafting 

a grafting technique that is used to introduce a new fruit-bearing 
grape variety onto an existing rootstock. A T-shaped notch is 
made at the top of the rootstock and the new variety grafted into 
this notch. 

Also called green grafting 

TCA abbreviation trichloranisole 

j tears same as legs 
0 Teinturier 

a class of dark-red-skinned grape varieties that is unusual in 
having red pulp and producing red juice when pressed. It is 
generally used to blend with other wines to add colour, (pro- 
nounced taN to“or yay) 

temperature 

A temperature of around 10°C, or 50°F, is ideal for storing wine, 
though it is more important that the temperature remains 
constant. When serving wine the temperature varies according 
to the type of wine; if a wine is served too cold, it impairs the 




Terret 319 

» VVr* ■.’Wit' VVi'-'A" VVr* -XtrW •,V, , A‘ VVr* 'JSlV*' VVr 

flavour and aroma and makes the wine seem dull. Sparkling 
wines and sweet white wine can be served cool at between 4 and 
10°C (about 40-50°F); most white wines should be served 
between 7 and 10°C (about 45-50°F), while rich white wines 
such as Burgundies should be a little less cold at 10-13°C (about 
50-55°F) to help release the complex aromas. Light red wines 
can be served cool at around 10-13°C, whereas red wines from 
Pinot Noir grapes, particularly Burgundies, should be around 
15-16°C (about 60°F). Full-bodied red wines can be served up 
to 18°C (about 65°F). Most of these temperatures are below 
modern ‘room temperatures’, which are often too warm for a 
wine. 

See also room temperature 
temperature control 

1. the process of ensuring that the temperature in a cellar is 
correct for storing wine, normally around 10°C 

2 . the process of ensuring that the temperature of a fermenting 
wine is correct, allowing fermentation to progress in a steady, 
controlled way. Wine can be cooled to slow or stop fermentation 
and warmed to start or speed up fermentation. 

0 Tempranillo 

a red-wine grape variety widely grown in northern Spain, Por- 
tugal and Argentina, producing good-quality red wines. It is a 
main ingredient of Rioja wines. ( pronounced temprs ne'ellyo) 
Also called Aragonez; Cencibel; Roriz; Tinta Roriz 

Tenareze 

France one of the three subregions of Armagnac in southwestern 
France, to the north of the region, producing some of the best 
brandies in the area (pronounced tay na rez) 

terra rossa 

a reddish brown soil found in parts of southern Europe, North 
Africa and Australia, notably in the Coonawarra region of 
South Australia 

0 Terret 

a red grape variety, grown mostly in southern France, that is 
one of the 13 varieties allowed in the production of Chateau- 
neuf-du-Pape red wines. Small quantities of a white wine are 
produced from this grape in some parts of the Languedoc region 
of southern France, (pronounced tay ray) 




320 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ »■*' vVt. »t‘ VSVSSS 1 ■,¥<■ »V »t‘ vYr-- »t‘ v’VViV ■,¥<■ »V •>¥,» -,Vr 

2 terroir 

French { tasting term) the entire physical and environmental 
characteristics around a particular vineyard that can influence 
the grapes and so the final wine, including the climate, soil, 
location, amount of sunshine and altitude, {pronounced te 
rwaar, literally ‘soil’ or ‘earth’) 

See also gout de terroir 

2 texture 

{tasting term ) the quality of a wine that gives a thick, full-bodied 
sensation on the palate 

Thackrey, Sean 

a well-known idiosyncratic winemaker running a vineyard in 
Marin County, California, USA, producing good brawny red 
wines 

0 Thalia another name for Trebbiano {pronounced taali a) 

2 thick 

{tasting term) used to describe a wine that is rich, concentrated 
and often with low acid levels 

thief 

a syringe-like instrument used to remove a sample of wine from 
a cask, tank or barrel. 

Also ccdled wine thief 

2 thin 

{tasting term) used to describe a wine that lacks body, depth and 
flavour 

third growth see troisieme cru 
Ticino 

Switzerland an Italian-speaking wine-producing canton (district) 
around the southern Alps in Switzerland that grows mostly 
Merlot grapes to produce red wines (pronounced ti cheeno) 

tierra 

Spanish country {pronounced tyairo) 

See also Vino de la Tierra 

2 tight 

{tasting term) used to describe a wine that is still young and 
underdeveloped without the full body or structure of a mature 
wine 




tireuse 321 

* VVr* WrW VVr* •,'SV , A‘ VV^ VVr-’lSt‘ •,'SVA‘ VVr* 'JSlV * 1 '-Vr 

2 tightly knit 

( tasting term ) used to describe a wine that is well-structured but 
requires time to develop 

2 tinny 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine that has a slight metallic 
aftertaste 

0 Tinta Amarela another name for Trincadeira Preta (])ro- 
nounced tints amsrells, used especially in the north of Portugal) 

0 Tinta Barroca 

a red-wine grape variety used to make port in Portugal and 
grown also in South Africa (pronounced tints bsrokks) 

Tinta Cao 

a red-wine grape variety grown in the Douro and Dao DOCs of 
Portugal and used to make port (pronounced tints kow) 

0 Tinta Negra Mole another name for Negra Mole (pronounced 
tints neggrs mSlay) 

0 Tinta Roriz another name for Tempranillo (pronounced tints 
ro riz, used in Portugal) 

tinto 

Spanish red (pronounced tinto) 

0 Tinto de Toro 

a variant of the Tempranillo red-wine grape variety grown 
especially in the Toro area of Castilla-Leon, Spain (pronounced 
tinto day torro) 

tipico 

Italian typical 

See also Vino Tipico 

tirage 

French the process of removing wine from a barrel or vat for 
bottling, (pronounced tee raazh) 

See also dosage; en tirage 

2 tired 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that is past its best and 
rather dull 

tireuse 

French a bottling machine (pronounced tee roz) 




322 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ iVfA' •.’VV »t‘ *■*' vVt-* »t‘ vYr-- »t‘ VSV3S 1 vVt-* *’*■ -,Vr 

Tischwein 

German ordinary table wine that has no regulations governing 
quality (pronounced tish v6n, plural Tischweine) 

2 toasty 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine with an aroma and flavour 
of toast, similar to that of caramel or vanilla. The taste is 
normally produced by ageing in an oak barrel. 

2 tobacco, tobacco leaf 

(tasting term) an aroma associated with red wines made from the 
Sangiovese grape variety, e.g. Chianti, and some wines from the 
Bordeaux region of France 

0 Tocai, Tocai Friulano 

a white-wine grape variety grown in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia 
region of northeastern Italy and occasionally in California, 
USA, to produce an aromatic white wine, (pronounced to k7 
or to k6 fri oo laano) 

Also called Sauvignon; Tokai 

j toffee 

(tasting term) a taste or aroma associated with oak-aged red 
wines made from the Cabernet Sauvignon grape variety 

0 Tokai another name for Tocai 

(1 Tokay 1 , Tokaj, Tokaji 

a renowned sweet white wine produced in Hungary around the 
town of Tokay, made mostly from Furmint grapes that are 
sometimes infected by the Botrytis cinerea fungus at the end of 
the summer ripening to produce a very concentrated, sweet 
grape juice. Sweetness is measured in ‘puttonyos’ on a scale 
from three to six. Tokay Essencia is the most rare and finest of 
the range and is produced from the small amount of juice that 
escapes from the natural crushing due to the weight of grapes 
piled on top of each other. Tokay Aszu is made from grapes 
infected with the Botrytis cinerea fungus, whereas Tokay Sza- 
morodni is made from the standard grapes of the area, unin- 
fected with the fungus, (pronounced to k7) 

0 Tokay 2 another name for Pinot Gris (pronounced to k6, for- 
merly used in Alsace, France) 

fi Tokay Aszu see Tokay 2 (pronounced to k6 usss) 




Torres 323 

* ■■’VWSfc' WfW VVr.’lSt‘ VVr-’lSt‘ •-Vr-* '-Vr* V’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ VVr* 'JSlV*' %Vr 

0 Tokay d’Alsace another name for Pinot Gris {pronounced to k7 
dal zass, used in France) 

fl Tokay Essencia, Tokay Szamorodni see Tokay {pronounced 
t6 k6 esenzio or t5k6 sumorodni) 

tonneau 

French a measurement of volume used when selling wine, 
typically in Bordeaux, equal to around 900 litres or four 
barriques (barrels) {pronounced tonno, plural tonneaux) 

Topikos Oenos 

Greek an official category for good-quality Greek wine, bearing 
the name of the region, county, or town from which it comes 

topping up 

the process of adding wine to a container to make up for liquid 
lost through evaporation to ensure that there is no empty space 
between the top of the wine and the barrel that would allow air 
to be in contact with the wine and start to oxidise it. The process 
is known as ‘ouillage' in French. 

0 Torbato 

a white-wine grape variety grown in Sardinia {pronounced tawr 
batto) 

Torgiano DOCG 

Italy a wine-producing DOCG area in the Umbria region of 
Italy that produces high-quality red wines from mostly San- 
giovese, Canaiolo and Trebbiano grapes and white wines mostly 
from Trebbiano and Malvasia grapes. A riserva wine is also 
produced from the best grapes and allowed to age for at least 
three years, (pronounced tawr jaano) 

Toro 

Spain a wine-producing area in Castilla-Leon, Spain, producing 
robust red wines especially from the Tinta de Toro grape variety 
(pronounced torro) 

Torres 

a renowned family-run winemaking company based in Penedes, 
Catalonia, Spain. Members of the Torres family, especially 
Miguel Torres Senior and Junior, have transformed the local 
Catalonian wine production methods producing consistently 
good red and white wines, (pronounced to ress) 




324 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V '»¥,.’*■ Wr- »t‘ ■***■ •-Vf A‘ VV,-* VVf’.f ',Vr 

0 Torrontes 

a white-wine grape variety grown extensively in Argentina, and 
increasingly in Spain, to produce light but assertive white wines 
with natural acidity {pronounced toron tayss) 

2 tough 

( tasting term) used to describe a full-bodied wine with an 
astringent taste due to excess tannin. This will often soften with 
ageing. 

Touraine AOC 

France a large appellation in the Loire valley region of France 
that produces good red, white and rose wines. It grows Cabernet 
Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Gamay and Pinot Noir grapes to 
produce red wines and uses these grapes and Pineau d'Aunis for 
its rose wines. White wines are produced from Chenin Blanc and 
Sauvignon Blanc grape varieties, {pronounced toor ren) 

Tour Blanche see La Tour Blanche, Chateau 

Tour-Carnet see La Tour-Carnet, Chateau 

0Touriga Francesca 

a red-wine grape variety that is grown and used in Portugal in 
blending port {pronounced too reego fran cheska) 

0Touriga Nacional 

a low-yielding but excellent red-wine grape variety grown in 
Portugal primarily for use in port but also as a constituent of 
Dao red wines (pronounced too reego nass yo naal) 

Traditional Appellation 

an official category of Greek wines, especially for retsina. 

See also Onomasia kata Paradosi 

0 Trajadura 

a Portuguese white grape variety used especially in making 
Vinho Verde, where it adds body {pronounced trazho dobra) 

0 Trammer another name for Gewiirztraminer 

0 Tramini another name for Gewiirztraminer {pronounced tru- 
minni, used in Hungary) 

transfer method 

a method of making sparkling wine that is similar to the methode 
champenoise except that the sediment resulting in the bottle from 




Trimbach 325 

>’A‘ vVr* ■.’Wit' -■’vwst' vVr-’iSt‘ •,'SV , A‘ vVr* ■.’Wit' WA' 'Wit' Wit' ■Wit' ■Wit' W 

the second fermentation is removed by transferring the wine to a 
pressurised container, where it is filtered before being bottled 
again 

0 Trebbiano 

a famous white-wine grape variety originating in Italy but now 
very widely planted around the world, including in Italy, eastern 
Europe, Portugal, France, Australia and South America. It is 
normally used to produce white wines, but is also blended in small 
quantities into red Chianti wines and is widely processed to pro- 
duce Cognac and Armagnac brandies, (pronounced tre byaano) 
Also called Clairette Ronde: Clairette Rose; Saint-Emilion; 
Thalia; Ugni Blanc 

0 Trebbiano Abruzzo another name for Bombino Bianco (pro- 
nounced tre byaano a brootso, not related to Trebbiano) 

trellis 

a structure to which a vine is attached for support. A common 
type of trellising consists of a series of posts with wires between 
them along which the arms of the vines can be trained. 

Trentino-Alto Adige 

Italy a large wine-producing region in northeastern Italy that 
encompasses Trentino in the south, with essentially Italian-style 
wines, and Alto Adige in the north with affinities to Austria 

Trentino DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC area in the south of the Trentino- 
Alto Adige region of Italy that produces a wide range of wine 
from Austrian-style wines near the border with Austria to more 
Italian-style wines further south in the area. It grows a wide 
variety of grape types to produce table wine and sweet vin santo. 
( pronounced tren teeno) 

trichloranisole, trichloroanisole 

a chemical compound that is thought to cause corked wine. It is 
produced when microorganisms in cork combine with chemicals 
used in the production process, e.g. the strong chlorine solution 
in which corks are usually bleached before use. Trichloranisole 
can be smelt even in minute quantities. 

Abbreviation TCA 

Trimbach 

France a well-known winemaker from the Alsace region of 
France who, with the Hugel family, has tirelessly promoted 




326 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •>¥,» •.’VWiV *.»' vVt-* *’*■ VSV3S 1 »V ■¥V»t‘ '¥V »V %Vr 

and developed Alsace wines, including the excellent Riesling- 
based Clos Sainte-Hune {pronounced trim baak) 

0 Trincadeira Preta, Trincadeira 

a Portuguese red-wine grape variety producing a rich wine used 
in making port and also for table wines, especially in the 
Alentejo region, {pronounced trinks dayrs pretts, used especially 
in the south of Portugal) 

Also called Tinta Amarela 

trocken 

German dry {pronounced trokksn) 

Trockenbeerenauslese 

German a top German QmP classification for very-high-quality 
sweet white wine produced from hand-selected grapes. Trock- 
enbeerenauslese is also the top category of wine in Austria. 
{pronounced trokksn bairsn owss layzs, literally ‘dry wine from 
selected berries’, plural Trockenbeerenauslesen) 

Abbreviation TBA 

troisieme cru 

French the third-highest grade of wines within the classification 
of 1855 that graded wines in the Medoc area of Bordeaux 
( pronounced twaazyem kroo, literally ‘third growth’, plural 

troisiemes crus) 

Troncais 

a type of French oak from trees grown in the region of the same 
name, used for wine barrels ( pronounced troN kay) 

2 tropical fruit, tropical 

{tasting term) a taste or aroma of fruit such as mango, lychee or 
papaya associated with some rich white wines, e.g. those made 
from the Muscat grape variety 

0 Trouchet Noir another name for Cabernet Franc {pronounced 
troo shay nwaar) 

0 Trousseau Gris, Trousseau 

a red-grey coloured grape variety used to make white wines and 
grown mainly in the Jura region of eastern France, in parts of 
California, USA, and in parts of New Zealand {pronounced 
trooso gree) 

Also called Chauche Gris; Grey Riesling 




Tuscany 327 

tjfi? vVr- »fc‘ v’W»t‘ »t‘ *’*' VSf^Se 1 vVr- »V »t‘ *’*' vVt-* vVr- »fc‘ •.'SIVA' •,¥, 

Tsantali Vineyards and Wineries see A Winemaker’s View 
tsipouro 

a Greek spirit distilled from the residue (pomace) left over from 
the fermentation of grapes 

tun 

1. a measure of liquid volume for wine equal to 210 gallons, or 
955 litres 

2 . a large wine cask 

Tunisia 

a North African country whose wine-producing regions were 
originally planted by the French. It produces red, rose and sweet 
white fortified wines. 

Turkey 

a country with an ancient history of winemaking that was 
mostly stopped with the arrival of Islam. The country restarted 
its wine production in the 20th century and now grows a range 
of European-variety grapes including Cabernet Sauvignon, 
Carignan, Chardonnay, Merlot and Pinot Noir. The bulk of 
the wine is produced in a government -run winery, but there are 
also over 100 private vineyards in the country. 

J Turkish delight 

(i tasting term ) a taste or aroma associated with white wines made 
from the Gewurztraminer grape variety 

Tuscany 

Italy a region of Italy on the northwestern coast of the country 
that is one of the leading regions for quality-wine production in 
Italy. It is best-known for its Chianti wines. 





-»t‘ •>¥,» vW»fc‘ ■>’vwa.‘ •,'SIVA‘ vW »V vVT.’»t‘ v¥,-»fc‘ •,'SIV*‘ V’W , »t‘ '¥V »V %Vr 

Here with a Loaf of Bread beneath the Bough, I A Flask of Wine, a Book of 
Verse and Thou / Beside me singing in the Wilderness / And Wilderness is 
Paradise enow. Edward FitzGerald, 1859 



0 Ugni Blanc another name for 

Trebbiano (pronounced oo nyee blaaN, used in France) 

0 Ugni Noir another name for Aramon ( pronounced o'o nyee 
nwaar, used in France) 

UK see United Kingdom 
ullage 

the empty space in a wine bottle or barrel between the bottom of 
the cork or top and the surface of the wine. In a barrel or cask 
this space must be kept to a minimum by topping up with wine 
to prevent oxidation, though in some wines such as the vins 
jaunes of Jura a flor develops and protects the wine. In a bottle, 
old wine can develop a big space through natural evaporation, 
but in younger wines it could indicate a faulty cork. 

ultra-premium 

used to describe a wine of the highest quality and commanding 
an exceptionally high price, or the vines or grapes from which 
such a wine is made 

Umpqua Valley AVA 

USA a wine-producing zone in Oregon that has a cool climate 
and grows especially Pinot Noir grapes to produce red wines 
and Chardonnay grapes to make white wines 

^ unbalanced 

(i tasting term) used to describe a wine in which one element such 
as sweetness, acidity, tannin, alcohol or fruit dominates the 
others 

c) unctuous 

(i tasting term) used to describe a full-bodied and often sweetish 
wine 

J underdeveloped see developed 




unoaked 329 

* VVr* VVr.’lSt‘ VVr-’lSt‘ '.’WiV '-Vr* 'JSlV* 1 V’VWSt' VVr-’lSt‘ VVr* •,'!IVA‘ '-Vr 

unfiltered 

used to describe wine that has not been filtered, a process that 
removes sediment from the wine and clarifies it but can also 
remove colour and flavour 

unfined 

used to describe wine that has not been fined, a process that 
removes sediment from the wine and clarifies it but can also 
remove flavour and body 

unfortified 

used to describe wine that has had no extra alcohol added 

unit 

a measure of alcohol intake used in monitoring the effects of 
alcohol on the body. One unit is roughly equivalent to the 
alcohol in one glass of wine or a single measure of spirits. 

United Kingdom 

a wine-producing country that concentrates its vineyards in the 
southern regions of England and Wales, which together have 
over 400 vineyards producing a range of mostly white wines, 
with some red and sparkling wines of good quality. Because of 
the climate, similar to that of northern European countries such 
as Germany, the main grape varieties grown are Muller- Thur- 
gau, Seyval Blanc and Schonburger, though some vineyards 
grow small quantities of Pinot Noir. 

Abbreviation UK 

United States of America 

a wine-producing country that is around the fourth-largest 
producer of wine in the world. California dominates the wine 
production in quantity (with over 95% of the country’s produc- 
tion) and quality, but wine is made in the majority of the other 
states, notably in Washington, Oregon and New York. Within 
the USA there are over 120 wine regions (AVAs) that work in a 
similar way to the French Appellation d'Origine Controlee but 
with a strictly geographical emphasis and with far less stringent 
rules, controls and regulations. Most wines in the USA are sold 
under the name of the winery and then the name of the main 
grape used to make the wine. See map overleaf 
Abbreviation USA 

unoaked 

not subjected to oak ageing 




330 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 




Uruguay 

a wine-producing country in South America that began viticul- 
ture in the late 19th century with the Tannat grape variety, 
introduced by Basque immigrants, but that now grows a wide 
range of classic and hybrid grapes 

USA see United States of America 
Utiel-Requena DO 

Spain a wine-producing DO area in eastern Spain that produces 
full-bodied red wines and rose wines from the Bobal grape 
variety and white wine from Macabeo grapes {pronounced o'oti 
el ra kayna) 

uva 

Italian a grape (pronounced oova, plural uve) 

0 Uva di Troia 

a red-wine grape variety that is only grown widely in the Apulia 
region of Italy, where it is used to produce good-quality red 
wines (jtronounced oova dee troy a) 




V 

rjhf »t‘ •>¥,» VS6** 1 v¥, »fc‘ »V ■¥V»t‘ •>¥,» v’WiV '¥V»fc‘ v¥r- »V ■¥V»t‘ »t‘ •,¥* 

And wine can / of their wits /the wise beguile, / Make the sage frolic, and 
the serious smile. Alexander Pope, 1725 



VA abbreviation volatile acidity 

Vacqueyras AOC 

France a village appellation in the south of the Rhone region of 
France producing good red wines from Grenache and Syrah 
grapes and some white wines (pronounced vak ay raa) 

Valais 

Switzerland a wine-producing canton (district) in southwestern 
Switzerland that produces white wine from Chasselas grapes 
and red wine from Pinot Noir and Gamay grapes (pronounced 
va lay) 

Valcalepio DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC region in the Lombardy region of 
Italy that produces white wines from Pinot Blanc and Pinot Gris 
(Pinot Grigio) grapes and red wines from Cabernet Sauvignon 
and Merlot grapes (pronounced val ka leppyo) 

0 Valcarcelia another name for Monastrell ( pronounced val kaar 
chaylys) 

Valdadige DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC region including parts of the 
Trentino-Alto Adige and Veneto regions of Italy producing 
single-grape white wines from Pinot Gris (Pinot Grigio) and 
Schiava grapes and blended red, white and rose wines (pro- 
nounced val da dee jay) 

Valdeorras DO 

Spain a wine-producing DO area in the Galicia region of 
northwestern Spain that produces mostly red wine from the 
Grenache (Garnacha) grape but also good crisp white wine from 
the native Godello grape (pronounced val day orross) 

Valdepenas DO 

Spain a wine-producing DO area in the Castilla-La Mancha 




332 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V v¥r> »t‘ •,'SlV A‘ Wr- »t‘ ■***■ •-'W A‘ VVr 

region of Spain that is best-known for its light red wine (called 
clarete) produced from Tempranillo grapes blended with white 
Airen grapes {pronounced val day paynysss) 

Valengay VDQS 

France a wine-producing VDQS region in the Loire region of 
France, producing red wines from Cabernet Sauvignon, Caber- 
net Franc and Gamay grapes and white wines from Arbois, 
Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay grapes {pronounced val aaN 
say) 

Valencia DO 

Spain a wine-producing DO region on the east coast of Spain 
that produces white, red and rose wines from mostly Merse- 
guera grapes for white wine and Bobal and Grenache (Garna- 
cha) for red and rose wines (pronounced vs lenssis) 

Valle d’Aosta DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC region in the northwestern corner 
of Italy bordering France and Switzerland that produces red, 
rose and white wines from a wide range of over 20 approved 
varieties of grape {pronounced val ay da osts) 

Valpolicella DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC region in the Veneto region of 
northeastern Italy that produces more red wine than any other 
region in Italy except Chianti. It grows mostly Corvina and 
Rondinella grapes to produce a light, fruity red wine. There is a 
Valpolicella Classico zone that produces better-quality wines, 
and ‘superiore' on the label means that the wine has been aged 
for at least one year and will have slightly more alcohol. 
( pronounced val poli chells) 

See also Amarone della Valpolicella 

Valtellina DOC 

Italy a wine-producing region in the Lombardy area of northern 
Italy that produces high-quality red wines mostly from Neb- 
biolo grapes {pronounced val te leens) 

vanilla 

(tasting term) an aroma in a wine usually due to ageing the wine 
in new oak barrels 

varietal 

I. a wine produced largely from, and named after, a single 
cultivated grape variety. Proportions of the named grape re- 




veloute 333 

* vVr* •***■ ->Vr» •,¥,» vVr* WrW '¥V , it‘ '-Vr-* vVr* ■JSIV* 1 ',¥* 

quired for a varietal vary according to the region or country. 
Traditionally European wines were identified by the region or 
estate, but New World, especially Australian, practice has to 
some extent moved emphasis to the dominant grape variety. 

2 . referring to a cultivated grape variety 

variety 

a named type of cultivated grape, e.g. Merlot, Syrah or Pinot 
Noir 

Vaud 

Switzerland one of the main wine-producing cantons (districts) 
in Switzerland, at the top of the Rhone valley, that produces 
white wine from Chasselas grapes and red wine from Pinot Noir 
and Gamay grapes {pronounced vo) 

VC abbreviation Spanish Vino Comarcal 

VdIT abbreviation Spanish Vino de la Tierra 

VdM abbreviation Spanish Vino de Mesa 

VDN abbreviation French vin doux naturel 

VDQS abbreviation French Vin Delimite de Qualite Superieure 

VDT abbreviation Italian Vino da Tavola 

vecchio 

Italian old or aged {pronounced vekki o) 

Vega Sicilia 

Spain an old-established wine producer in Ribera del Duero, 
Castilla-Leon, Spain, established in 1864, whose top red wine is 
often considered the finest in Spain {pronounced vaygs si 
theelys) 

2 vegetal 

{tasting term) used to describe an aroma or taste on a wine that 
is similar to that of leafy plants or vegetables 

Velletri DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC region in the Latium region of 
Italy that produces red wine from Sangiovese grapes and white 
wine from Malvasia and Trebbiano grapes {pronounced ve 
lettri) 

2 veloute 

French {tasting term ) velvety (pronounced vs loo tay) 




334 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V '»¥,.’*■ VVf’A' Wr- »t‘ ■***■ '?Vr'J>‘ VWiV Wr- »V %Vr 

2 velvety 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine with a rich, smooth, silky 
texture 

vendange 

French a vintage or harvest (pronounced vaaN daaNzh) 

vendange tardive 

French a late harvest, (pronounced vaaN daaNzh taar deev, 
plural vendanges tardives) 

See also Alsace Vendange Tardive 

vendemmia 

Italian a vintage or harvest (pronounced ven demmyo, plural 

vendemmie) 

vendimia 

Spanish a vintage or harvest (pronounced ven deemys) 

Veneto 

Italy a large wine-producing region in northeastern Italy, sur- 
rounding both Venice and Verona, that produces more DOC- 
graded wine than any other region in Italy. It includes areas such 
as Bardolino, Soave and Valpolicella. (pronounced vo nayto) 

Ventoux see Cotes du Ventoux AOC 
verde 

Portuguese young (pronounced vairds) 

0 Verdejo 

a white-wine grape variety grown mostly in Spain to produce 
full-bodied, dry white wines and sherry-style fortified wine 
(pronounced vair de ho) 

Verdelho 

( pronounced vair dellyo) 

0 I. a white- wine grape variety widely grown in Madeira and 
grown in mainland Portugal for white wine and white port. It is 
now also grown in Australia to produce a fruity, slightly spicy 
white wine that can be drunk as an aperitif or with food. 

Also ccdled Gouveio 

2. a light style of Madeira fortified wine (plural Verdelhos) 

0 Verdicchio 

a white-wine grape variety originating and grown in central 
Italy to produce a light, crisp, dry greenish-coloured wine 
(pronounced vair deekyo) 




Vernaccia 335 

tjfif vVr- »fc‘ vVr-- »t‘ ^SIV * 1 vYr-- »t‘ vW. »t‘ VSVSS 1 vVr- »fc‘ •.'SIVA' -,Vr 

Verdicchio dei Castelli di jesi DOC 

Italy a wine-producing DOC region in the Marche region of 
Italy that grows predominantly the Verdicchio grape to produce 
very good crisp, dry white wine. It also includes a small classico 
area producing better-quality wines that have been aged, and 
uses the same grapes to produce a sparkling (spumante) white 
wine, {pronounced vair deekyo day ka stelli dee yayzi) 

0 Verdot Rouge another name for Petit Verdot {pronounced vair 
do roozh) 

0 Verduzzo 

a white-wine grape variety originating from and mostly grown 
in the Venezia region of northeastern Italy that produces rich 
medium sweet and sweet white wines with a floral aroma 
( pronounced vair dootso) 

vergine, vergine stravecchio {pronounced vairjeenay, vair- 
jeenay straa vekkyo) 

Italian see Marsala DOC 

0 Vermentino 

a white- wine grape variety grown mostly in the Piedmont region 
of northwestern Italy as well as the islands of Corsica and 
Sardinia that produces fruity, full-bodied white wine but it is 
often blended with Trebbiano grapes to produce a lighter wine 
( pronounced vair men teeno) 

vermouth 

a fortified wine that has been flavoured with aromatic herbs or 
spices and is most often used as an aperitif or in cocktails. Dry 
white, or French, vermouth can be served by itself or as part of 
classic dry cocktails such as the martini; sweet vermouth is a 
dark golden colour and can be served by itself or as part of 
classic sweet cocktails. Chambery is a light aromatic vermouth 
made in the French Alps. 

0 Vernaccia 

( pronounced vair nachs) 

1 . a white-wine grape variety, primarily grown on the island of 
Sardinia, off the west coast of Italy, that produces a crisp, dry 
white wine. It is also used to produce a sherry-like wine. 

2. a white-wine grape variety local to the Vernaccia di San 
Gimigniano DOC in Tuscany, Italy, that produces a distinctive 
dry white wine. It is not the same as the Sardinian Vernaccia. 




336 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ •>¥,» VS6** 1 VSVSSS 1 vVt-* W,. »t‘ VSVSSS 1 vVt-* v¥,» -,Vr 

Vernaccia di San Gimignano DOC 

Italy a DOC area in Tuscany, Italy, near Siena, that grows the 
local Vernaccia grape variety to produce a distinctive dry white 
wine (pronounced vair nachs dee san jimi nyaano) 

vertical tasting 

a wine tasting that has a range of wines from different years 
from one estate or vineyard. 

Compare horizontal tasting 

very superior, very superior old pale, very, very super- 
ior old pale see Cognac 

Veuve Clicquot 

an important Champagne house in Reims in the Champagne 
region of France, producing large quantities of non-vintage 
Champagne as well as its vintage wine, La Grande Dame, 
named after the original Madame Clicquot, who took over 
the vineyard when her husband died (‘veuve' means ‘widow’ 
in French). Madame Clicquot is also known as the person who 
discovered riddling, a way of removing sediment from Cham- 
pagne after fermentation. Veuve Clicquot is now owned by the 
giant French firm LVMH. (pronounced vurv klee k6) 

V-graft 

a method of grafting vines in which the stem of the stock is 
trimmed to a point, and the stem of the cutting is split to allow it 
to be fitted over the point of the stock 

Victoria 

Australia a state in southeastern Australia, of which the capital 
is Melbourne, that includes the wine-producing areas of Goul- 
burn Valley, Yarra Valley, Mornington Peninsula, Grampians, 
Rutherglen and many others. Victoria boasts more than 350 
wineries producing a diverse range of wine styles. 

0 Vidal Blanc 

a French hybrid white-wine grape variety grown in the eastern 
USA to produce a wide range of white-wine styles (pronounced 
vee dal blaaN) 

vieilles vignes 

French old vines. The term is normally used to indicate wine 
made from grapes grown on old, established vines, (pronounced 
vyay veenys) 




vin bourru 337 

»t‘ VVr-* VVr-’»t‘ V¥r- »t‘ ■***■ V’VWif ',’W.V V¥r- »V VVr 



Vieilles Vignes Frangaises .see Bollinger 
vigna 

Italian a vineyard {pronounced ve'enys, plural vigne) 
vigneron 

French a winemaker {pronounced veenys roN) 

vignoble 

French a vineyard or wine-growing area {pronounced vee 
nyobbls) 

0 Vignoles another name for Ravat 51 {pronounced vee nyol) 

2 vigorous 

{tasting term) used to describe a full-bodied wine with an 
assertive, lively character 

Villages 

French used in the names of wine from the better part of an 
AOC area, e.g. Cotes du Rhone-Villages or Beaujolais-Villages 
( pronounced vee yaazh) 

0 Villard Blanc 

a white-wine grape hybrid mostly grown in the eastern USA and 
the Languedoc-Roussillon region of southern France. It is 
mostly used in blends to produce basic white wines, {pronounced 
vee yaar bla'aN) 

0 Villard Noir 

a red-wine grape hybrid that was popular in the eastern USA 
and parts of France but is now being replaced by better-quality 
grapes (pronounced vee yaar nwaar) 

vin 

French wine {pronounced vaN) 

vina 

Spanish a vineyard {pronounced ve'enyo) 

vin blanc 

French white wine (pronounced vaN blaaN, plural vins blancs) 
vin bourru 

French wine that is siphoned from a barrel immediately after 
fermentation, giving it a lively, slightly effervescent style (pro- 
nounced vaN boo roo, plural vins bourrus) 




338 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

tjfi? •>¥,» •.’VWiV *■*' vVt-* *’*■ v¥,»V vVt-* •,¥* 

vin de carafe 

French carafe wine (pronounced vaN da ka raf, plural vins de 
carafe) 

vin de cuvee 

French in the Champagne region of France, the juice released in 
the first pressing of the grapes, used to produce the best Cham- 
pagnes. (pronounced vaN da ko“o vay, plural vins de cuvee) 
Also called serre 

vin de garde 

French a wine that improves with ageing (pronounced vaN da 
gaard, plural vins de garde) 

vin de I’annee 

French wine produced from this year’s crop of grapes, e.g. 
Beaujolais Nouveau ( pronounced vaN da la nay, plural vins 
de I’annee) 

Vin Delimite de Qualite Superieure 

French a classification of a second-level quality of French wine 
between vin de pays and AOC (Appellation d’Origine Contro- 
lee). (pronounced vaN day lee mee tay da kalli tay soo payr yur, 
plural Vins Delimites de Qualite Superieure) 

Abbreviation VDQS 

vin de paille 

French a sweet wine traditionally produced from grapes that 
have been dried on straw mats to increase the concentration of 
natural sugar in the grapes, (pronounced vaN da p7, plural vins 
de paille) 

Compare straw wine; Strohwein 
vin de pays 

French a general classification of a third-level quality of French 
wine below AOC (Appellation d’Origine Controlee) and VDQS 
(Vin Delimite de Qualite Superieure). (pronounced vaN da pay 
ee, literally ‘wine of the country’, plural vins de pays) 
Compare vin du pays 

Vin de Pays d’Oc 

French vin de pays from the Languedoc-Roussillon region of 
southern France (pronounced vaN da pay ee dok) 

Vin de Qualite Produit en une Region Determinee 

French a European Union labelling term for a quality wine. The 




vine age 339 

»V VVr* •,'Vr'ft' »t‘ vVr-’»t‘ VVr.* V¥r- »t‘ •,'Vr'ft' •***■ VVr-’»t‘ -fllV A‘ V¥r- »t‘ »V %Vr 

abbreviation is sometimes expanded appropriately in other 
languages, e.g. Portuguese Vinho de Qualidade Produzido em 
Regiao Determinada. (pronounced vaN do kalli tay prodwee 
aaN oon ray zhoN day tairmee nay, plural Vins de Qualite 
Produits en une Region Determinee) 

Abbreviation VQPRD 

Vin de Savoie AOC, Vin de Savoie Mousseux AOC see 

Savoie (pronounced vaN do sa vwaa (moo so)) 

vin de table 

French same as vin ordinaire (pronounced vaN do taablo, plural 

vins de table) 

vin d’honneur 

French wine that is served in honour of a guest, e.g. at a 
celebratory dinner (pronounced vaN do nur, plural vins d’hon- 
neur) 

vin doux naturel 

French a sweet fortified wine made from grapes with a naturally 
high sugar content, e.g. Muscat. Fermentation is stopped by 
adding alcohol to produce a sweet wine with an alcohol level 
between 15 and 20%. ( pronounced vaN dob natoo rel, plural 

vins doux naturels) 

Abbreviation VDN 

Vin du Bugey AOC 

France an appellation in the Savoie region of eastern France 
producing a range of white, red, rose and sparkling wines 
( pronounced vaN dob boo zhay) 

vin du pays 

French a local wine. The term is no indicator of quality. 
(pronounced vaN dob pay ee, plural vins du pays) 

Compare vin de pays 

vine 

a plant of the genus Vitis that yields grapes, normally a fruit- 
bearing variety grafted onto a disease-resistant rootstock 

vine age 

the age of the vine is significant in that older vines have deeper 
roots and so reach mineral-rich subsoils that can give grapes 
extra depth of flavour 




340 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»t‘ •,'SlWSV VVt-* VWiV '.W »t‘ VVr-* VW »V VVr 



vineal 

referring to wine, vines or winemaking 

2 vinegary 

( tasting term ) used to describe the strong smell of vinegar from a 
wine, indicating that it is spoiled through oxidation or other 
problems during winemaking 

vine pull scheme 

any of the governmental schemes introduced in the 1980s, 
notably in the European Union and South Australia, to en- 
courage owners to remove vines from unproductive vineyards. 
In Australia this unfortunately also resulted in the loss of some 
well-established old-vine vineyards producing classic wines. 

vinery 

an area or building, especially a greenhouse, in which grapevines 
are grown 

vine spacing 

the distance between vines, determined by the local conditions 
and method of growing them. In a wet area of France, a vine can 
survive on a small area of ground; in a dry, arid area of Spain, a 
vine needs a much larger area for its roots to try and find water. 
Old vineyards also tend to plant vines in rows close together 
where a man or horse can pass along the row. In Australia vines 
are planted with more space between the rows to allow machines 
to pass along the rows to pick the grapes. 

vine weevil 

a flightless beetle ( Otiorhynchus sulcatus) whose larvae are white 
with brown heads and attack roots of vines in open ground 

vineyard 

an area of ground planted with vines that are cultivated to 
produce grapes 

Vineyard Academy see South Africa 
vin gris 

a style of very pale rose wine produced from Pinot Noir, Gamay 
or Cabernet Sauvignon grapes that have had very little time in 
contact with the skins after pressing ( pronounced vaN gree, 
plural vins gris) 

vinha 

Portuguese a vineyard ( pronounced veenya) 




vin jaune 341 

5SV VVr* ■■’WA' ■.’VWSt' ->Vr’S>‘ --Vr* •***■ VVr-’lSt‘ •-Vr-* '-Vr* VVr 

vinho 

Portuguese wine ( pronounced veenyo, plural vinhos) 
vinho de mesa 

Portuguese table wine (pronounced veenyo de mayzo, plural 

vinhos de mesa) 

Vinho de Qualidade Produzido em Regiao Determina- 
da 

Portuguese a wine classified Indicagao de Proveniencia Regu- 
lamentada (IPR), the second class of wines in the classification 
system used in Portugal, (pronounced veenyo de kwalli daad 
prodoo zeedo eN rezhi ow detairmi naado, plural Vinhos de 
Qualidade Produzidos em Regiao Determinada) 

Abbreviation VQPRD 

Vinho Regional 

Portuguese a wine from single a region that does not have DOC 
status but conforms to particular standards, (pronounced 
veenyo rayzho naal, plural Vinhos Regionales) 

Abbreviation VR 

Vinho Verde DOC 

Portugal a large wine-producing region in northwestern Portu- 
gal that is best-known for growing Alvarinho and Loureiro 
grapes to produce fresh, fruity white wines with a slight sparkle. 
A slightly sparkling red wine is also produced, but is usually 
drunk locally, (pronounced veenyo vairdo) 

viniculture 

the study and science of growing grapes and making wine 

vinifera see Vitis vinifera 
vinification 

the processes involved in making wine, especially up to the end 
of fermentation, before any blending and bottling 

vinify 

to produce wine from grapes 

vin jaune 

a style of straw-coloured wine produced in the Jura region of 
eastern France, often from Savagnin grapes, that is aged for at 
least six years, in which time, like sherry, it acquires a layer of 
yeast on its surface that protects against oxidation but colours 




342 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V '»¥,.’*■ »t‘ vVr-* ■.’VWSV ■***■ •-’W A‘ »V ■¥V»t‘ 

and flavours the wine (pronounced vaN zhon, literally ‘yellow 
wine', plural vins jaunes) 

vino 1 

Italian wine (pronounced veeno, plural vini) 
vino 2 

Spanish wine (pronounced veeno, plural vinos) 
vino bianco 

Italian white wine (pronounced veeno byangko, plural vini 
bianci) 

vino bianco 

Spanish white wine (pronounced veeno blangko, plural vinos 
blancos) 

Vino Comarcal 

Spanish a wine from a single region that does not have DOC 
status but conforms to particular standards, (pronounced wee no 
komaar kaal, plural Vinos Comarcales) 

Abbreviation VC 

vino corriente 

Spanish ordinary basic-quality wine (pronounced veeno kori en 
tay, plural vinos corrientes) 

vino da pasto 

Italian a wine drunk with a meal rather than before (as an 
aperitif) or after (as a digestif), (pronounced veeno da pasto, 
plural vini da pasto) 

Compare vino de pasto 

vino da taglio 

Italian a wine with high alcohol levels and a deep, rich colour 
that is added in tiny quantities to adjust the characteristics of 
another wine during production (pronounced veeno da talyo, 
plural vini da taglio) 

Vino da Tavola 

Italian a wine of the lowest officially recognised quality of 
ordinary Italian wines that do not fit into DOC regulations. 
( pronounced veeno da tavvolo, plural Vini da Tavola) 
Abbreviation VDT 

Vino de la Tierra 

Spanish a basic-quality, local country Spanish wine that 




Vinos de Madrid DO 343 

5SV vVr- »fc‘ vW »t‘ vVr- »fc‘ •,WA‘ vW »t‘ vVr- »fc‘ •,¥, 

conforms to particular standards, {pronounced veeno day la 
tyairs, plural Vinos de la Tierra) 

Abbreviation VdIT 

Vino de Mesa 

Spanish a wine of the lowest officially recognised quality of 
ordinary wine in Spain. ( pronounced veeno day maysss, plural 

Vinos de Mesa) 

Abbreviation VdM 

vino de pasto 

Spanish a wine drunk with a meal rather than before (as an 
aperitif) or after (as a digestif). ( pronounced veeno day pasto, 
plural vinos de pasto) 

Compare vino da pasto 

vinometer 

a device that measures the alcoholic content of low-alcohol dry 
wines, though not of sweet or fortified wines 

Vino Nobile di Montepulciano DOCG 

Italy a wine-producing DOCG region, the first DOCG area 
designated in Italy, in the east of the Tuscany region of Italy that 
grows mostly Sangiovese grapes to produce a well-known red 
wine that is then aged for two years, or three years for the riserva 
variation of the wine {pronounced veeno n6bi lay di mon tay 
pool chaano) 

vino novello 

Indian light, fruity red wine bottled very soon within the year of 
harvest and drunk young and cool. It is sold in a similar way to 
Beaujolais Nouveau, {pronounced veeno ns vello, plural vini 

novelli) 

vin ordinaire 

French basic-quality wine that is below any of the standard 
classifications such as AOC, VDQS or vin de pays, {pronounced 
vaN awrdi nair, plural vins ordinaires) 

Also called vin de table 

vino rosso 

Italian red wine, especially dry red wine {pronounced veeno 
rosso, plural vini rossi) 

Vinos de Madrid DO 

Spain a wine-producing DO region centred on Madrid, the 




344 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ vVf* VSVSV *■*' •,'SIWSfc‘ VSIViSV vVt-* VSySV vVr 

capital of Spain, that grows Tempranillo grapes for full-bodied 
red wines and Malvar and Airen grapes for good-quality white 
wines (pronounced veenoss day ms dreed) 

vinosity 

(; tasting term) the distinctive and essential character of wine, 
including qualities such as body, colour and taste 

vino tinto 

Spanish red wine ( pronounced veeno tinto, plural vinos tintos) 
Vino Tipico 

Italian an official Italian category of wine quality, above Vino 
da Tavola and below a DOC-graded wine (pronounced veeno 
tippiko, plural Vini Tipici) 

vinous 

(tasting term) used to describe a taste or aroma that is essentially 
that of a wine 

vin rose 

French rose wine (pronounced vaN ro zay, plural vins roses) 
vin rouge 

French red wine (pronounced vaN roozh, plural vins rouges) 
vin santo 

an Italian style of sweet white wine made in several regions of 
Italy, particularly Tuscany, from grapes that have been dried 
out to increase the concentration of natural sugar. These grapes 
are crushed, pressed and fermented in the usual process for 
making white wine but are stored in small vats or barrels that 
contain a small amount of ‘madre’, a reduced sweet liquid 
produced from the previous year’s wine. The wine stays in these 
barrels for up to five or six years and is allowed to oxidise and 
vary in temperature, all of which helps the ageing process to 
produce sweet white wines with a rich golden colour and an 
alcohol content of below 17% that is relatively low compared to 
a fortified sweet white wine, (pronounced vin santo, plural vini 
santi or vin santos) 

Vins de Moselle VDQS 

France a VDQS wine-producing area in eastern France around 
the Moselle river, producing white wines, (pronounced vaN do 
m5 zel) 

See also Mosel 




viticulteur 345 

5SV v¥r- »V VSySV vW »t‘ v¥r- »fc‘ vVr-’»t‘ vW »t‘ v¥r- »V 

Vins d’Estaing VDQS 

France a VDQS area of southwestern France that produces red 
and white wines {pronounced vaN dess taN) 

vintage 

the year the grapes were harvested and the wine was made. Non- 
vintage (NV) wines, when two or more wines from different 
years are blended together, are usually only specified as such for 
Champagne or other sparkling wines. 

vintage chart 

a chart that gives information about which vintages are re- 
garded as especially good and when the wine from that year is 
suitable for drinking 

vintage port, vintage character port see port 
vintage year 

a year in which the wine that is made is of excellent quality 

vintner 

a person who makes or sells wine 

0 Viognier, Vionnier 

a white-wine grape variety that was formerly not widely planted, 
but that is now grown in the Rhone valley of France, in parts of 
Australia and South America, in South Africa and in California, 
USA, to produce very good intense, dry white wines with a very 
flowery bouquet. Unusually, this white grape is allowed in 
several appellations in France to be added as part of a blend 
when producing red wines, particularly in the Cote Rotie area of 
the Rhone region, (pronounced vee on yay) 

Vire-Clesse AOC 

France an appellation in the Macon area of the Burgundy region 
of France producing good-quality white wines from Chardon- 
nay grapes (pronounced vee ray kle say) 

2 viscous 

(tasting term ) used to describe a wine with a rich texture and 
concentrated taste, often with high levels of glycerol in the wine, 
producing legs on the glass in which it is drunk 

viticulteur 

French a person who owns or cultivates a vineyard (pronounced 
veettee kool tur) 




346 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»t‘ *■*' vVr. »t‘ VSVSSS 1 ■,¥<■ »V ■¥V»t‘ »t‘ vYr-- »t‘ ■¥V»V '¥WSV *■*' vVr 

viticultural 

relating to the growing of grapes, especially for wine production 

Viticultural Area see American Viticultural Area 
viticulture 

the study and practice of growing grapes, especially for wine 
production 

Vitis 

the genus of the grapevine 

Vitis aestivalis 

a species of vine native to the USA ( pronounced vitiss eesti 
vaaliss) 

Vitis labrusca 

a species of vine used widely in North America, including the 
Concord variety (pronounced vitiss la bruska) 

Vitis riparia 

a species of vine, best-known for its resistance to the root aphid 
phylloxera, that is often used as a rootstock (pronounced v itiss ri 
pairi a) 

Vitis rotundifolia 

a species of vine native to the southeastern USA and Mexico 
( pronounced vitiss rotundi fbleea) 

Vitis vinifera 

the species of vine that is used to produce nearly all of the 
world's wine grapes. It has thousands of different cultivated 
varieties ranging in character from Riesling to Merlot. (pro- 
nounced vitiss vi niffara) 

0 Viura another name for Macabeo (pronounced vee oora, used in 
the Rioja region of Spain) 

Vivarais see Cotes du Vivarais AOC 

volatile 

used to describe a wine that is deteriorating and becoming acetic 

volatile acidity 

the level of acetic acid present in wine. Some volatile acidity 
helps improve the smell and taste of the wine, but too much 
causes it to go off or taste of vinegar. 

Abbreviation VA 




VS, VSOP, VVSOP 347 

* ■■’VWSfc' VVr.’lSt‘ VVr-’lSt‘ •-Vr-* VVr.’lSt‘ •***■ ',Vr 

Volnay AOC 

France a village appellation in the Cote de Beaune district of the 
Burgundy region of France that produces a good-quality light 
red wine from Pinot Noir grapes (pronounced vol nay) 

voros 

Hungarian red (jvonounced vurur) 

Vosne-Romanee AOC 

France a village appellation in the Cote de Nuits district of the 
Burgundy region of France that produces some of the best red 
wines in the region. This appellation includes five famous grand 
cru vineyards including Romanee-Conti and La Tache, growing 
Pinot Noir grapes. ( pronounced von ro ma nay) 

Vougeot see Clos de Vougeot 

Vougeot AOC 

France an appellation in the Cote de Nuits district of the 
Burgundy region of France that produces red wines from Pinot 
Noir grapes and a little white wine from Chardonnay grapes 
( pronounced voo zho) 

Vouvray AOC 

France an appellation in the Loire valley region of France that 
grows Chenin Blanc grapes to produce a range of styles of white 
wine, from dry to sweet, still and sparkling (pronounced voo 
vray) 

VQPRD abbreviation 

1. Portuguese Vinho de Qualidade Produzido em Regiao De- 
terminada 

2. French Vin de Qualite Produit en une Region Determinee 
VR abbreviation Portuguese Vinho Regional 

VS, VSOP, VVSOP see Cognac 







W 

-»t‘ •>¥,» v¥,-»fc‘ '.Vr A‘ v’W , »t‘ •>¥,» -.Vt-- » t‘ v> 

When the wine is in, the wit is out. Proverb 



Walla Walla Valley AVA 

USA a viticultural area in eastern Washington State and north- 
eastern Oregon within the larger Columbia Valley AVA 

0 Walschriesling see Welschriesling 

o warm 

(tasting term) used to describe a soft, immediately pleasing red 
wine 

Warre 

the oldest English-owned port company, founded in 1670, now 
owned by the Symington family who also own Dow, Graham 
and Smith Woodhouse. Its vintage port is one of the best. It also 
produces a good single-quinta port. 

Washington 

USA a wine-producing state in the northwest of the USA that is 
second only to California in the quantity of wine produced, 
though its production is still relatively small. It includes over 80 
vineyards with the best wineries located in the east of the state, 
the location of the three main AVAs (Columbia Valley, which 
includes the Walla Walla Valley and Yakima Valley AVAs). 

r> watery 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine with not much taste, 
lacking in an element such as body, flavour or acidity 

2 weedy 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine with a grassy aroma or 
taste 

weeper 

a bottle of wine that is leaking slightly from around the cork, 
either because of a faulty cork or poor storage allowing the cork 
to dry and shrink slightly 




Weissburgunder 349 

-»t‘ v¥r- »fc‘ vV-r A‘ VSf^Se 1 vVr- »t‘ •,'SIVA‘ W,. »t‘ VSf^Se 1 vVr- »fc‘ ■,’W»V %Vr 

weeping 

used to describe a bottle of wine that is leaking slightly from 
around the cork, either because of a faulty cork or poor storage 
allowing the cork to dry and shrink slightly 

2 weighty 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine that is full-bodied with a 
powerful aroma or taste 

Wein 

German wine (pronounced v6n, plural Weine) 

Weinbaugebiet 

German a designated wine region producing the lowest recog- 
nised quality of German wine, table wine (Deutscher Tafelwein) 
( pronounced v7n bow go beet, plural Weinbaugebiete) 

Weinberg 

German a vineyard (pronounced v7n bairg, plural Weinberge) 
Weingartnergenossenschaft 

German a wine cooperative ( pronounced v7n gairtnsr go noss’n 
shaft, plural Weingartnergenossenschaften) 

Weingut 

German an estate, including the vineyard, cellar and winery 
( pronounced v7n goot, plural Weingiiter) 

Weingut Lingenfelder 

Germany a winery in the Pfalz region of Germany producing a 
range of red, white and rose wines from Riesling, Muller- 
Thurgau, Pinot Noir and Scheurebe grape varieties (pronounced 
v7n goot lingsn feldor) 

Weinherbst 

German a style of rose wine produced in Germany from a single 
grape variety and of Qualitatswein grade (pronounced v7n 
hairbst, plural Weinherbste) 

Weinkellerei 

German a wine cellar. On a label it can mean that the producer 
of the wine does not own a vineyard and buys in grape juice to 
produce wine in his or her own premises, (pronounced v7n kels 
r6, plural Weinkellereien) 

0 Weissburgunder another name for Pinot Blanc (pronounced 
v7ss boor go“ondor, used in Germany) 




350 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V '»¥,.’*■ W,. »t‘ ■***■ VVf’.f »’*' %Vr 

0 Weisser Riesling another name for Riesling (pronounced 
v7sssr reessling, used in Germany) 

2 well-balanced 

( tasting term) used to describe a wine with no one element such 
as sweetness, acidity, tannin, alcohol or fruit dominating 

0 Welschriesling, Walschriesling 

a white-wine grape variety that is widely grown in Europe, 
including in Austria, Hungary, Romania and the Czech Re- 
public. The grape is no relation to Riesling, despite its name, 
and produces a light still or sparkling white wine, (pronounced 
velsh reessling or valsh reessling) 

Also called Riesling Italico; Olaszrizling 

Western Australia 

Australia a state of Australia and one of its newest wine- 
producing regions, producing good quality red and white wines. 
It includes the well-known areas of Margaret River, Mount 
Barker, Frankland and Swan Valley. 

2 wet stones 

(tasting term) an aroma associated with white wines from the 
Chablis region of France 

white port see port 

0 White Riesling another name for Riesling 
white wine 

wine that is made from a light-skinned (pale yellow or green) 
grape or from a dark-skinned (red or black) grape in which the 
pressed grape juice is immediately separated from the coloured 
skins. When making red wine, the skins would normally be left 
in contact with the grape juice while it fermented, allowing the 
colour from the skins to transfer to the wine. 

white Zinfandel 

a style of pale rose-coloured slightly sweet wine, popular in the 
USA, that is produced from the red-skinned Zinfandel grape. 
This style of wine is called ‘blanc de noirs’ in France, and ‘blush' 
in the USA. 

whole-berry fermentation 

a variation on the normal red-wine fermentation process in 
which the winemaker keeps some of the whole grapes separate 
while the bulk is crushed, pressed and then fermented. The 




wine bottle 351 

* ■■’VWSfc' VVr.’lSt‘ VVr-’lSt‘ •-Vr-* '-Vr* •***■ VVr-’lSt‘ •-Vr-* '-Vr* -,Vr 

whole grapes are added during fermentation, extending the 
fermentation process and reducing the tannin level of the wine 
and adding more of a berry flavour. 

whole-bunch fermentation 

a traditional winemaking technique originating in the Burgundy 
region of France, but adopted around the world (particularly 
with Pinot Noir grapes) in which an entire bunch of grapes is 
fermented, rather than individual berries. This reduces handling 
and improves the flavour and colour of the wine. 

whole-bunch pressing 

a method of pressing an entire bunch of grapes rather than 
crushing the individual berries. This ensures that only the juice 
has the lowest amount of phenolic compounds and is the finest and 
most delicate juice from the berries. This is considered an essential 
process in producing high-quality sparkling white wines. 

wild-fermented 

fermented using a wild rather than a cultivated yeast strain 

Willamette Valley AVA 

USA a viticultural area in the north of Oregon that grows a wide 
variety of grapes but especially Chardonnay, Riesling and Pinot 
Noir 

wine 

fermented juice from grapes. The term is often extended to 
include fermented juice from a range of juicy fruit such as the 
blackberry and other fermented drinks such as rice wine and 
ginger wine, but these are not the subject of this book. There are 
four basic styles of wine: still (non-sparkling); sparkling (effer- 
vescent due to dissolved carbon dioxide gas); fortified (e.g. 
port), in which alcohol has been added to stop fermentation, 
increasing the sweetness, and boost the level of alcohol; and 
aromatic, flavoured with herbs. 

wine bottle 

There is a wide range of styles and sizes for containers used to 
store wine. Some wine bottles are designed with a particular 
purpose, e.g. Champagne bottles are made of thicker, stronger 
glass to withstand the extra pressure generated during the 
second in-bottle fermentation. There is a range of sizes, but 
the standard size contains 750 ml; the other sizes are variations 
on this size: split = quarter size, half = half a standard bottle, 




352 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

-»t‘ »t‘ VVr-* ■>¥,- »V VVf’A' Wr- »t‘ •***■ '>¥, »V '.Vf A‘ ■***■ '¥, 

magnum = two standard bottles, double-magnum = 4 stan- 
dard bottles, jeroboam = 6 standard bottles, methuselah = 8 
standard bottles of the shape used for Burgundy and Cham- 
pagne, imperial = 8 standard wine bottles of the shape used for 
Bordeaux, Salmanazar = 12 standard bottles, balthazar =16 
standard bottles, nebuchadnezzar = 20 standard bottles. 

wine cellar 

a cool, dark storage location that maintains a constant tem- 
perature of around 10°C, or 50°F, and a modest humidity level. 
This provides the ideal way to store wine for decades at a time. 

wine cooler 

1 . a container filled with ice or a refrigerant and used to keep one 
or more bottles of wine cool 

2 . a mixture of wine and fruit juice, sometimes with carbonated 
water, sold in bottles 

wine glass 

a glass suitable for drinking wine, with a bowl mounted on a 
stem and usually a rounded base. 

See also glass 

winegrower 

a grower of grapes for making wine, especially the owner or 
manager of a vineyard who also oversees the winemaking 

winemaker 

a person who produces wine, from the growing of the grapes to 
the finished product. Specifically, however, a winemaker over- 
sees the vinification processes that take place in the winery up to 
the end of fermentation, before any blending and bottling. This 
is a technical task, and has seen many changes and develop- 
ments in the last few decades. 

See also flying winemakers 

winemaking 

the art or business of producing wine, from the growing of the 
grapes to the finished product 

Wine of Origin 

a rating scheme used in South Africa to provide a basic quality 
standard and assurance that the wine has been made from 
grapes grown in the region. 

Abbreviation WO 




woody 353 

»V VVr* VVr-’»t‘ -fllV A‘ V¥r- »V 'JSlV* 1 •***■ •,¥,»V V¥r- »V •,'SlVA‘ %Vr 

wine press 

a piece of winemaking equipment that squeezes the juice from 
grapes 

wine producer 

a wine-grower or winemaker 

winery 

a building and the equipment used to produce wine. This was 
originally an American term, but is now widely used. 

wine tasting 

the serious pursuit of judging wines according to a range of 
criteria to determine their quality. These include the sensation in 
the mouth, the aroma and the appearance of the wine. A blind 
wine tasting provides the tasters with a range of wines with no 
labels - the tasters must use their judgment to source the wines 
and determine the quality. In a vertical tasting there is a range of 
wines from different years from one estate or vineyard; in a 
horizontal tasting there is a range of wines from different 
vineyards in a region from one year of production. 

wine temperature see temperature 

wine thief see thief 

witbiits 

South Africa illegally distilled alcoholic liquor, usually made 
from grapes (pronounced vit blits) 

WO abbreviation South Africa Wine of Origin 

Wolf Blass 

Australia a well-respected winery based in the Barossa Valley 
region of South Australia and producing a range of very good 
red and white wines 

wood 

(tasting term) the taste of a wine that has been aged in oak 
barrels 

wood-aged see ageing 
woody 

(tasting term) used to describe a wine that has too much aroma 
and taste of oak, usually caused by ageing for too long in a 
barrel or cask 




354 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V vVi'-'A" »’*' '.’VWSV vVf’A' Wr- »t‘ ■***■ -?Vr'J>‘ W,. »V VVr 

woolly vine scale 

a brown insect ( Pulvinaria vitis) that infests vines 

Wiirttemberg 

Germany one of the 13 Anbaugebiete (quality wine-producing 
regions) of Germany, situated along the Neckar river and 
growing equal amounts of red-wine and white-wine grapes 
(unusual in any German region) and producing especially rose 
wine {pronounced voortsm bairg) 

Wynns Coonawarra Estate 

Australia a famous estate in the Coonawarra region of South 
Australia producing very good red and white wines 




Wine is wont to show the mind of man. 

Theognis of Megara, 6th century bc 



0 Xarel-Io 

a white-wine grape variety grown widely in Spain, particularly 
in the Catalonia region in the northeast, where it is normally 
blended with other grapes to produce sparkling wines, (pro- 
nounced ha rello) 

Also called Pansa Blanca 

Xeres see Jerez-Xeres-Sherry DO 

0 Xinomavro, Xynomavro 

an important Greek red-wine grape variety grown especially in 
the Macedonia region in the northeast of the country (pro- 
nounced heeno maavro) 

Yakima Valley AVA 

USA a wine-producing region in Washington State that has a 
cool climate and grows a range of grape varieties including 
Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Merlot to produce a 
wide range of wine styles 

Yarra Valley 

Australia a wine-producing region near the city of Melbourne 
in the state of Victoria that is best-known for its wines produced 
from Chardonnay, Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes 

yeast 

a microscopic organism that causes the fermentation process to 
occur. Wild yeasts are present on the skins of grapes and would 
start the fermentation process of grape juice naturally, convert- 
ing natural sugars in the juice into alcohol, but winemakers 
normally add cultivated yeasts to the grape juice to provide 
more control over the fermentation process. Yeast cannot exist 
when the level of alcohol is above around 16% in wine, which is 
why alcohol such as brandy is added to a wine to stop fermenta- 
tion and produce a fortified wine. 




356 Oddbins Dictionary of Wine 

»V VVt. »t‘ •,'SlV A‘ Wr- »t‘ ■***■ '?Vr'J>‘ VVf’.f VV, 1 * 1 VVr 



2 yeasty 

(, tasting term) used to describe a wine, usually Champagne, that 
has the smell of bread dough or yeast, normally pleasant in 
small quantities 

Yecla DO 

Spain a wine-producing DO area in eastern Spain that is best- 
known for its highly alcoholic red wines (up to 16% alcohol) 
produced from Monastrell and Grenache (Garnacha) grapes 
( pronounced yaykla) 

yield 

the amount of grapes that are produced by a vine or by an area 
of land planted with vines. A yield is normally measured in 
hectolitres per hectare (though in the USA and Australia it is 
measured in tons per acre), where one hectolitre of grapes per 
hectare would fill over 130 standard bottles with wine. Different 
grape varieties have different yields according to factors such as 
the size of the grape bunch, and high-yielding vines tend to 
produce grapes of lower quality. The yield also varies according 
to the soil and climate of the vineyard. In most regulated wine- 
producing regions such as those under the AOC system in 
France there are strict limits on the maximum yield for the 
appellation to ensure that the finished wine is of good quality. 

2 young 

(; tasting term) used to describe a wine that is light, fresh and 
fruity, or one that may be expected to develop further 

Yquem see d’Yquem, Chateau 

fi Yvorne 

Switzerland a good-quality white wine produced in the village of 
Yvorne in the Vaud canton of Switzerland, made from Chasse- 
las grapes ( pronounced ee vawrn) 

Zentralkellerei 

German a central cooperative that gets its wine or must from 
smaller cellars in the area and blends, produces and bottles the 
wines (pronounced tsen traal kelo r6, plural Zentralkellereien) 

2 zesty 

(tasting term) used to describe an assertive, especially young 
wine 

0 Zin abbreviation Zinfandel (informal) 




Zweigelt 3S7 



0 Zinfandel 

a red grape variety that is most commonly grown in California, 
USA, where it now dominates the planted red-grape vine crops 
in the state. It is used to produce a wide range of wine styles 
from slightly pink (called blush) medium sweet white wines to a 
range of red wines that include light, fruity reds best drunk 
young and full-bodied reds. Zinfandel is generally considered to 
derive from the Primitivo grape variety from Apulia, Italy. 
( pronounced zin fand’l) 

zone 

1. in general use, a wine-producing area that does not usually 
coincide with any particular geopolitical or administrative 
boundary 

2. in the Australian system of Geographic Indications, a zone is 
any area of land, not strictly defined in the way that a region or 
subregion is. Most Australian states are zones. 

0 Zweigelt 

a hybrid red-wine grape variety developed and grown in Austria 
( pronounced tsv7 gelt) 




VINTAGE CHART 



Vintage charts are by their very nature dangerous things. Not 
only are the judgements fairly subjective, but wine, being a living 
thing, is constantly evolving and changing in the bottle. There 
will also be individual wines and producers who buck the trend. 
Therefore, vintage charts should be treated as no more than a 
snapshot of a wine or an area or country at a given moment and 
should be used only as a general guide.