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Aspects of design: I
We designed the Consul series of CRT terminals to appeal to a
broad cross section of the time sharing market.
One way to use a Consul is as a direct replacement for
Teletypes.* With no changes in software.
But this stand-alone terminal is capable of much more. It has
features that allow a user to take full advantage of the inherent
flexibility of a buffered CRT terminal. And thus increase the
capability of his entire system.
Teletype compatibility. The three models— Consul 800, 840 and
880— are all Teletype-compatible. The 800 displays 16 lines of
32 characters; the 840, 16 lines of 64 characters; the 880, 20 lines
of 80 characters. All three are available with an optional
Easy to read. Unlike most computer terminals, the Consul uses a
commercial TV monitor. This allows us to utilize standard
raster techniques which make for sharp, legible characters.
Also, we display black characters on a white display page
centered on the screen. This makes it easy to anticipate the last
character on a line and the last line on a screen. All of these
features sharply reduce eyestrain.
Additional features. The outer shell lifts easily for maintenance.
A plexiglas front panel reduces glare. All three models are
made with the same solid state keyboard, the same TV monitor
and the same proven electronics.
*Registered trademark of Teletype Corporation
Aspects of design
The keyboard. The keys on the left side of the keyboard are
patterned after the standard Model 33 teletypewriter, but have
the feel of an office typewriter. On the right are the keys for
cursor control and editing. There are also keys for blinking
and formatting data.
Operating modes— conversational. This mode gives the Consul
plug-to-plug compatibility with Teletype terminals. Each
character typed appears on the screen as it is simultaneously
transmitted. A scroll feature rolls lines of data up the screen
from bottom to top.
Edit sub-mode. Unlike most Teletype-compatible terminals,
Consul allows the operator to edit in the conversational mode
without retyping the entire line. When the operator moves the
cursor to correct a mistake, the terminal automatically goes
into an edit sub-mode. Once editing is completed the terminal
retransmits the entire line and automatically switches back
to the conversational mode. As a visual aid, the edited line
appears white on a black background, the reverse of the
Operating modes— page. In this mode the operator can write
and edit an entire page of data before transmission. Each
character typed goes into the terminal memory and appears on
the screen. To transmit, the operator strikes the transmit key,
causing the entire page of data to be transmitted to the computer.
Operating modes— message. In this mode the operator can write
and edit a partial page of data. The operator positions the
cursor at the beginning of the message, and the terminal will
transmit only that data between the cursor position and
the bottom of the screen.
Editing controls. To edit, the operator uses the cursor (up,
down, forward, backward and home), horizontal tab and screen
erase controls. An insert/delete feature enables the operator
to insert or delete a character at any position on the screen.
Look-ahead feature. In the page and message modes, a look-
ahead feature saves on transmission time. It scans ahead and if
the rest of a line is blank, the cursor goes directly to the next
line rather than transmit blanks. If the rest of the screen is
blank, the cursor returns to the home position.
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Aspects of design: m
Formatting. When the terminal is in the page or message modes,
a formatting feature allows for the display of both fixed and
variable data. This feature not only makes data entry easier
and faster, but assures that all data is entered.
The operator requests a particular form from the computer (or
sets one up on the screen herself). She then fills in the
appropriate blanks. The terminal transmits only variable data
to the computer.
When the format feature is on, tabbing enables the operator
to skip from one variable data field to the next. Fixed data
appears on the screen as gray characters (half intensity);
variable data appears in black.
During transmission, the look-ahead feature scans ahead to the
end of a variable data field. If the rest of the field is blank,
the cursor goes directly to the next variable data field.
Fixed data cannot be erased or altered accidentally because
the cursor and erase controls operate only on data fields
reserved for variable data.
Communications interface. The Consul has a standard EIA
RS-232-B communications interface so a customer can use
his own modem. The terminal receives and transmits in half
duplex at 110 or 300 baud, switch selectable. It is also available
with a parallel interface for direct connection to a computer.
Optional modem. A built-in modem, which is optional, can
operate either acoustically or with hardwire. The acoustic
coupler uses the handset of an ordinary telephone. Hardwire
connection can be made directly to a Data Access Arrangement.
Consul-800—16 lines of 32 characters each, not available with character insert/delete or
Consul-840—16 lines of 64 characters each, character insert/delete and formatting features
Consul-880—20 lines of 80 characters each, character insert/delete and formatting features
Modes— conversational (including edit sub-mode), page and message.
Character set— 64 alphanumeric characters, each formed by 5x7 dot matrix.
Display presentation— the data appears as dark characters on a light background.
Screen size— 9" diagonal.
Refresh rate— 60 frames per second.
Type of memory— solid state, MOS semiconductor.
Controls— horizontal tab; screen erase; new line; cursor: up, down, back, forward, home;
insert/delete (Consul 840 & 880); format on/off (Consul 840 & 880).
Panel indicators— power, carrier.
Keyboard— solid state. All TTY alphanumerics and control codes can be generated.
Communications interface— conforms to El A RS-232-B specif ication .
Transmission— half-duplex at 110 or 300 baud (switch selectable).
Modem (optional)— built-in modem operates in two ways: either acoustically coupled, or via
hardwire connection to a DAA. Compatible with Bell System 1 03 datasets.
Power— 115 ± 10% VAC/60 Hertz, 110 VA nominal.
Size— 1 6% " x 20" x 1 4"
Weight— 50 lbs. (approx.)
Applied Digital Data Systems Inc. 89 Marcus Boulevard, Hauppauge, New York 11787* (51 6) 273-7799 00570100
Applied Digital Data Systems, Inc
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MRD-200 Memory Raster Display
Low-cost readout. The MRD-200 makes it practical
to use TV monitors for reading out alphanumeric
data from computers, keyboards, magnetic tapes
or any other serial data source.
Direct data display from its own memory. The
MRD-200 accepts ASCII-coded alphanumeric
serial data, stores it in its own refresh memory and
displays it on one or more standard TV monitors.
Compatible video signal. The composite video
signal is compatible with any commercially
available 525-line television monitor.
Flexible data arrangement. Data can be
displayed in 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 lines with either 32 or
64 characters per line.
Read and write capability. The memory of the
MRD-200 can be read from, as well as written into,
using simple control commands.
Complete cursor controls. The cursor can be
moved up, down, forward, back and home.
Line addressing. Each line of data displayed on the
screen can be individually addressed.
Convenient editing controls. All or part of the
screen can be erased. Any character or
characters can be made to blink.
Flexible display formatting. Data in any location
can be placed in a “protected” condition for
the display of fixed and variable data.
Outstanding legibility. Clear, stable characters are
easy to read. Automatic refreshing keeps
data bright and flicker-free.
The MRD-200 offers an alphanumeric readout that
accepts serial (bit parallel) ASCII-coded
characters, stores them in its own refresh memory
and displays them on one or more 525-line
Its memory can store 32, 64, 1 28, 256, 51 2 or 1 ,024
characters. Data may be arranged on a display
pagein 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 lines, with 32 or 64
characters per line. The data is centered on
To enter new data, the MRD-200 writes new
characters over old. Optional controls are provided
for reading from, as well as writing into, memory.
Separate buffered output and input lines are
utilized for the “read” and “write” functions.
The cursor can be moved in any direction in the
display page by using the cursor controls. The
MRD-200 can also move the cursor to the
beginning of any line by using the “line select”
command. Cursor movement is accomplished
without altering any of the displayed data. Other
controls include a command to erase all or part
of the screen, a command to blink any character or
characters, and a command to horizontally tab.
An optional protection control is available for
displaying fields of fixed and variable data. For this
control, the memory locations allocated to fixed
data are placed in a “protected” condition. This
prevents the fixed data from being altered or read
out. It also enables the user to erase only the
variable data and to tab between fields of variable
The MRD-200 is comprised of three major elements:
editing and control logic, refresh memory,
and video generator.
The editing and control section provides the logic
for changing the cursor location or executing
the control commands. Each command is
initiated by a strobe which the user must provide.
An LSI/MOS shift register memory stores all data
to be displayed. This memory circulates data in
synchronism with the scan rate of the
television monitor and refreshes the display 60
times per second. To meet various user
requirements for memory capacity and data
arrangement, the MRD-200 is available in a Fast (F)
or Slow (S) memory organization. The two
memory organizations and their execution times
are shown in tables 1 and 3.
The video generator provides all timing and
synchronizing pulses, and converts the data stored
in memory into a composite video signal. An
LSI/MOS Read Only Memory (ROM) within the
video generator stores the dot pattern for the
standard MRD-200 character set. Special Read
Only Memories can be supplied to provide
customized character sets.
The MRD-200 can be rack-mounted in a standard
19-inch RETMA relay rack, taking up 5V4 inches
vertically. It plugs directly into a 1 17 VAC outlet.
No additional power supplies are necessary.
Simplified block diagram MRD-200, Memory Raster Display
Write data. Takes a character from the input data
lines, inserts it into the current cursor location* and
advances the cursor to the next location. If the
cursor is in the last location of a line, it advances
to the beginning of the next line. If it is in the
last location of the last line, it moves to the
beginning of the first line.
Select line. Places the cursor at the beginning
of the display line whose line number is defined
by data present at the input data lines. Lines
are numbered top to bottom, 0, 1, 2, 3, etc.
up to a maximum of 15.
Screen erase. Erases the entire screen of data and
resets the cursor to the beginning of the first line.
The erase operation consists of inserting
a blank into each character location.
New line. Erases all data from the current cursor
location to the end of the line, and moves the
cursor to the beginning of the next line.
Horizontal tab. Each line is divided into
eight-character fields with tab stops after every
eighth character. The horizontal tab command
erases data from the current cursor location
through the remainder of a field and moves
the cursor to the beginning of the next field.
Read data (optional). Presents the character at the
current cursor location to the output data lines
and advances the cursor to the next location.
If the cursor is in the last location of a line,
it advances to the beginning of the next line.
If it is in the last location of the last line it moves
to the beginning of the first line. The character
presented to the output data lines remains present
until the next read or write command.
*The cursor location defines the location to be
accessed by the next read or write command.
A cursor mark is not normally visible on the screen,
but is optionally available as a six-dot underline.
Optional Protection Control
This control allows the user to hold data in selected
fields constant, while varying data in other fields.
When the protection control is off, all character
locations are unprotected and data may be
entered or altered in any location. When switched
on, data in assigned locations becomes protected.
Note that the fields assigned to protected and
variable data may be of any length.
To utilize this control the user adds an extra tag bit
to each six-bit input character. All seven bits are
stored in the MRD-200 memory. The effect of
the tag bit is explained below.
With the protection control off, all locations,
regardless of the state of the tag bit, are
unprotected and may be altered. Those locations
with the tag bit “true” can then be placed in a
protected condition by switching the protection
All control commands operate normally with the
protection control off. If the blink option has been
specified, data with the tag bit “true” will blink
on and off four times per second.
With the protection control on, characters that
have been written into memory with the tag bit
“true” are placed in a protected condition and
will be displayed at half intensity. Characters
written with the tag bit “false” are unprotected
and are displayed at full intensity.
Control commands will not disturb protected data.
The cursor will skip over all protected data,
preventing it from being addressed, written over
or read out. “New line” or “screen erase”
commands will change only unprotected or
The “horizontal tab” command does not move the
cursor between the normal fixed tab stops.
Rather, it will erase only the remainder of a field
of variable data, regardless of its length, and
move the cursor to the first location of the next
field assigned to variable data.
Characters per line
Table 1: Memory Arrangements
NOTE: This table shows which data arrangements are available
with fast (F) or slow (S) memory organization.
1 J K L
M N 0 P
Y Z X 1
2 3 4 5
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Table 2: MRD-200 Character Set
1 msec, max.
1 msec, avg.
1 msec, avg.
5 msec, avg.
1 msec, avg.
1 msec, max.
Table 3: Execution Times
64 alphanumeric characters. Each character is
formed by a 5x7 dot matrix.
32, 64, 128, 256, 512 or 1,024 characters.
Lines per display: 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16.
Characters per line: 32 or 64.
Number of lines and number of
characters per line must be specified.
The data appears within a display page that is
centered on the screen. The user has a choice
of either dark characters on a light background
or light characters on a dark background within
the display page.
Data and control signal levels
Forward, Back, Up, Down and Home. Movement
of the cursor will not affect any of the data
Cursor mark (optional)
6-dot underline mark indicates the location to be
accessed by the next read or write command.
Composite video signal compatible with EIA
Standard, 525-line TV monitor. 1 volt p-p,
unbalanced, from 75 ohms able to drive more
than 1,000 ft. over RG59/U cable.
Video output connector
Size: 5 1 /4"x19"x8" rack mountable in a standard
19" RETMA relay rack.
Weight: 15 lbs. (approx.)
20 watts at 117 VAC/60 HERTZ; 6 ft. line cord
Operating temperature: 0 to 50°C.
Operating humidity: 10 to 90%
Storage temperature: —40 to 85°C.
Applied Digital Data Systems, Inc. 89 Marcus Boulevard, Hauppauge, New York 11787 (516) 273-7799