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First Edition, 2009 



ISBN 978 93 80075 04 4 



©All rights reserved. 



Published by: 

Global Media 

1819, Bhagirath Palace, 
Chandni Chowk, Delhi-110 006 
Email: globalmedia@dkpd.com 



Table of Contents 



1. Origin 

2. History 

3. Collection 

4. Production 

5. Availability 

6. Serving Techniques 




American wine 




A bottle of wine that carries an American designation, rather than a U.S. state, U.S. 
county, or AVA designation of origin. 

American wine has been produced for over 300 years. Today, wine production is 
performed in all fifty states, with California leading the way in wine production followed 
by Washington State, Oregon and New York. The United States is the fourth largest wine 
producing country in the world after France, Italy, and Spain. The production in the US 
State of California alone is more than double of the production of the entire country of 
Australia. 





The North American continent is home to several native species of grape, including Vitis 
labrusca, Vitis riparia, Vitis rotundifolia , Vitis vulpina, and Vitis amurensis, but it was 
the introduction of the European Vitis vinifera by European settlers that led to the growth 
of the wine making industry. With more than 1,100,000 acres (4,500 km 2 ) under vine, the 
US is the fifth most planted country in the world after France, Italy, Spain and Turkey. 



History 

History of American wine 

The first Europeans to explore North America called it Vinland because of the profusion 
of grape vines they found. The earliest wine made in what is now the United States was 
from the Scuppemong grapes by French Huguenot settlers at a settlement near 
Jacksonville, Florida between 1562 - 1564. In the early American colonies of Virginia 
and the Carolinas, wine making was an official goal laid out in their founding charters. 
However, settlers would later discover that the wine made from the various native grapes 
had flavors which were unfamiliar and which they did not like. This led to repeated 
efforts to grow familiar Vitis vinifera varieties beginning with the Virginia Company 
exporting of French vinifera vines with French vignerons to Virginia in 1619. These early 
plantings were met with failure as native pest and vine disease ravaged the vineyards. In 
1683, William Penn planted a vineyard of French vinifera in Pennsylvania that may have 
interbred with a native Vitis labrusca vine to create the hybrid grape Alexander . One of 
the first commercial wineries in the US was founded in Indiana in 1806 with production 
of wine made from the Alexander grape. Today French- American hybrid grapes are the 
staples of wine production on the East Coast of the United States. 



In California, the first vineyard and winery was established by the Franciscan missionary 
Junfpero Serra near San Diego in 1769. Later missionaries would carry the vines 




northward, with Sonoma's first vineyard being planted around 1805. California has two 
native grape varieties, but they make very poor quality wine. Therefore, the missionaries 
used the Mission grape, which is called criolla or "colonialized European" in South 
America. Although a Vitis vinifera variety, it is a grape of "very modest" quality. Jean- 
Louis Vignes was one of the early settlers to use higher quality vinifera in his vineyard 
near Los Angeles . 

The first commercially successful winery in the US was founded in Cincinnati, Ohio in 
the mid- 1830s by Nicholas Longworth, who made a sparkling wine from Catawba 
grapes. In the 1860s, vineyards in the Ohio River Valley were attacked by Black rot. This 
prompted several winemakers to move north to the Finger Lakes region of New York. 
During this time, the Missouri wine industry, centered around the German colony in 
Hermann, Missouri, took off and was soon second to California in wine production. In 
the late 19th century, the phylloxera epidemic in the West and Pierce’s disease in the East 
ravaged the growing American wine industry. 

Prohibition in the United States began when the state of Maine became the first state to 
go completely dry in 1846; it culminated in the passing of the Eighteenth Amendment to 
the United States Constitution in 1920 which forbade the manufacturing, sale and 
transport of alcohol. Exceptions were made for sacramental wine used for religious 
purposes and some wineries were able to maintain their facilities under those auspices. 
Others resorted to bootlegging. Home winemaking also became common, allowed 
through exemptions for sacremental wines and production for home use. 

Following the repeal of Prohibition, American wine making reemerged in very poor 
condition. Many talented winemakers had died, vineyards had been neglected or 
replanted with table grapes, and Prohibition had changed Americans' taste in wines. 
Consumers now demanded cheap "jug wine" (so-called dago red) and sweet, fortified 
(high alcohol) wine. Before Prohibition dry table wines outsold sweet wines by three to 
one, but after the ratio was more than reversed. In 1935, 81% of California's production 
was sweet wines. 

Leading the way to new methods was research conducted at the University of California, 
Davis and some of the state universities in New York. Faculty at the universities 
published reports on which varieties of grapes grew best in which regions, held seminars 
on winemaking techniques, consulted with grape growers and winemakers, offered 
academic degrees in viticulture, and promoted the production of quality wines. In the 
1970s and 1980s, success by Californian winemakers help to secure foreign investment 
dollars from other winemaking regions, most notably the Champenois. Changing taste in 
the American palate has also helped to foster this growth, with 668 million gallons of 
wine being consumed in the US in 2004. Today the American wine industry faces the 
growing challenges of expanding international exports and dealing with domestic 
regulations on interstate sales and shipment of wine. 



Wine regions 




There are nearly 3,000 commercial vineyards in the United States with at least one 
winery in all 50 states. 



• West Coast-The majority of American wine production occurs in the states of 
California, Washington and Oregon. 

• Rocky Mountain Region- Notably Idaho and Colorado 

• Southwestern United States-Notably Texas and New Mexico 

• Midwestern United States-Notably Missouri, Illinois and Minnesota 

• Great Lakes region- Notably Michigan, northern New York and Ohio 

• East Coast of the United States - Notably New Jersey, New York State, 
Pennsylvania, Virginia, and North Carolina 

Appellation system 

The early American appellation system was based on the political boundaries of states 
and counties. In September 1978 the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (now 
Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau) developed regulations to establish 
American Viticultural Areas (AVA) based on distinct climate and geographical features. 
In June 1980, the Augusta AVA in Missouri was established as the first American 
Viticultural Area under the new appellation system. For the sake of wine labeling 
purposes, all the states and county appellations were grandfathered in as appellations. 
There were 187 distinct AVAs designated under US law as of April 2007. 

Appellation labeling laws 

In order to have an AVA appear on a wine label, at least 85% of the grapes used to 
produce the wine must be grown in the AVA. 

With the larger state and county appellations the laws vary depending on the area. For a 
County Appellation, 75% of the grapes used must be from that county. If grapes are from 
two or three contiguous counties, a label can have a multi-county designation so long as 
the percentages used from each county are clearly on the label. For the majority of US 
States the State Appellation requires 75% of the grapes in the wine to be grown in the 
state. Texas requires 85% and California requires 100%. If grapes are from two to three 
contiguous states a wine can be made under a multi-state designations following the same 
requirements as the multi-county appellation. 

American wine or United States is a rarely used appellation that classifies a wine made 
from anywhere in the United States, including Puerto Rico and Washington, D.C.. Wines 
with this designation are similar to the French wine yin de table and can not include a 
vintage year. By law this is the only appellation allowed for bulk wines exported to other 
counties. 



Semi-Generic wines 




Current US laws allow American made wines to be labeled as "American Burgundy" or 
"California Champagne", even though these names are protected in Europe. US laws only 
restrict usage to include the qualifying area of origin to go with these semi-generic 
names. Other semi-generic names in the US include Claret, Chablis, Chianti, Madeira, 
Malaga, Marsala, Moselle , Port , Rhine wine, Sauternes (commonly spelled on US wine 
labels as Sauterne or Haut Sauterne ), Sherry and Tokay . European Union officials have 
been working with their US counterparts through World Trade Organization negotiations 
to eliminate the use of these semi-generic names. 

Other US labeling laws 

In the US, at least 95% of grapes must be from a particular vintage for that year to appear 
on the label. Prior to the early 1970s, all grapes had to be from the vintage year. All 
labels must list the alcohol content based on percentage by volume. For bottles labeled by 
varietal at least 75% of the grape must be of the varietal. In Oregon, the requirement is 
90%. American wine labels are also required to list if they contain sulfites and carry the 
Surgeon General's warning about alcohol consumption. 

Three-tier distribution 

Following the repeal of Prohibition, the federal government allowed each state to regulate 
the production and sale of alcohol in their own state. For the majority of states this lead to 
the development of a three-tier distribution system between the producer, wholesaler and 
consumer. Depending on the state there are some exceptions, with wineries allowed to 
sell directly to consumers on site at the winery. 

Some states allow interstate sales through e-commerce . In the 2005 case of Granholm v. 
Heald, the Supreme Court of the United States struck down state laws banning interstate 
shipments but allowing in-state sales. The outcome of the Supreme Court decision was 
that states could decide to allow out of states wine sales along with in state sales or ban 
both altogether. 

Largest Producers 

As - of 2005 The largest producers of American wine. 

1. E & J Gallo Winery - Accounts for more than a quarter of all US wine sales and is 
the second largest producer in the world. 

2. Constellation Brands - With foreign wine holdings Constellation is the largest 
producer in the world and includes Robert Mondavi Winery and Columbia 
Winery in its portfolio 

3. The Wine Group - San Francisco -based business which owns the Franzia box 
wine label, Concannon Vineyard and Mogen David kosher wine. 




4. Bronco Wine Company - Owners of the Charles Shaw wine "Two Buck Chuck" 
line which accounts for nearly 5 million of Bronco's annual average 9 million 
cases per year. 

5. Diageo - UK based company with American holdings in Sterling Vineyards, 
Beaulieu Vineyard and Chalone Vineyard 

6. Brown-Forman Corporation - Owners of the Korbel Champagne Cellars brand 

7. Beringer Blass - Australian based wine division of Foster's Group and owner of 
the Beringer wine and Stags' Leap Winery brands 

8. Jackson Wine Estates - Owners of the Kendall- Jackson brand 

Argentine wine 




Vineyards in Agrelo, Mendoza. 

Argentine wine, as with some aspects of Argentine cuisine, has its roots in Spain. During 
the Spanish colonization of the Americas, Juan Cedron (or Cidron) brought the first vine 
cuttings to Santiago del Estero in 1557, and the cultivation of the grape and wine 
production stretched first to neighbouring regions, and then to other parts of the country. 

Argentine winemakers have traditionally been more interested in quantity than quality 
and the country consumes 90% of the wine it produces (45 litres a year per capita 
according to 2006 figures). However, the desire to increase exports fueled significant 
advances in quality. Argentine wines started being exported during the 1990s, and are 
currently growing in popularity. The devaluation of the Argentine peso in 2002, 
following the economic collapse, further fueled the industry as production costs 
decreased and tourism significantly increased, giving way to a whole new concept of 
wine tourism in Argentina. The past years have seen the birth of numerous tourist- 
friendly wineries with free tours and tastings. Some wineries even provide 
accommodations (such as is the case of Salentein or Tapiz) for tourists interested in 
staying in boutique hotels specifically oriented towards wine-tourism. The Mendoza 
Province is now one of Argentina's top tourist destinations and the one which has grown 
the most in the past years. 

Argentina is the largest wine producer in South America and the 5th largest in the world, 
with over 1,200 million liters (2003), and the 13th largest exporter in the world (431 
million USD in 2005). Argentina probably produces the best Malbec. Ironically, in the 
1980s, Argentina almost gave up on the grape through government vine pull schemes. 



Due to the high altitude and low humidity of the main wine producing regions, Argentine 
vineyards rarely face the problems of insects, fungi, moulds and other diseases that affect 
grapes in other countries. This permits cultivating with little or no pesticides, allowing 
even organic wines to be easily produced. 



I 




Tapiz Winery, located in Mendoza 



Regions 

The most important wine regions of the country are located in the provinces of Mendoza 
and San Juan (Cuyo region), and La Rioja. Salta, Catamarca and Rio Negro are also wine 
producing regions. The Mendoza Province produces more than 60% of the Argentine 
wine and is the source of an even higher percentage of the total exports (84% by value 
during the first trimester of 2006). 

Mendoza - Valle Central, Mendoza area, Valle de Uco, San Rafael area 

San Juan - Valle de Tulum, Valle de Ullum 

Salta - Valles Calchaqufes 

La Rioja - Valle de Famatina 

Catamarca - Valle de Tinogasta 

Rfo Negro (Alto Valle) 

Jujuy - San Salvador de Jujuy (the northernmost wine producing province, which has 
produced wines at some of the highest recorded altitudes) 

Neuquen - San Patricio del Chanar (developing wine region in the north of the 
Patagonian province) 

Cordoba - Caroya. 

Grapes 

There are many different varieties of grapes cultivated in Argentina, reflecting her many 
immigrant groups. The French brought Auxerrois, which became known as Malbec, 
which makes most of Argentina's best known wines. The Italians brought vines that they 
called Bonarda, although Argentine Bonarda appears to be the Corbeau of Savoie, also 
known as Charbono in California, which may be related to Dolcetto. It has nothing in 
common with the light fruity wines made from Bonarda Piemontese in Piedmont. 



Torrontes is another typically Argentine grape and is mostly found in the provinces of La 
Rioja, San Juan, and Salta. It is a member of the Malvasia group that makes aromatic 
white wines. It has recently been grown in Spain. Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, 
Chardonnay and other international favourites are becoming more widely planted, but 
some varieties are cultivated characteristically in certain areas. 

Red 

Malbec - Mendoza (20,000 hectares) 

Bonarda 

Cabernet Sauvignon 
Sangiovese - Mendoza 
Syrah - San Juan 
Tempranillo - Mendoza 
Merlot - Rio Negro 
Pinot Noir - Rro Negro 
White 

Chardonnay - Mendoza 

Torrontes - Salta, La Rioja, Mendoza and San Juan 

Sauvignon Blanc 

Riesling - San Juan and La Rioja 

Chenin Blanc - Mendoza 

Viognier - Mendoza and San Juan 

Semilion - Mendoza and Rro Negro 

Australian wine 



The Australian wine industry is the fourth-largest exporter in the world, exporting over 
400 million litres a year to a large international export market that includes "old world" 
wine-producing countries such as France, Italy and Spain. There is also a significant 
domestic market for Australian wines, with Australians consuming over 400 million litres 
of wine per year. The wine industry is a significant contributor to the Australian economy 
through production, employment, export and tourism. 




A vineyard in the Hunter Valley. 




History 



Vine cuttings from the Cape of Good Hope were brought to the penal colony of New 
South Wales by Governor Phillip on the First Fleet (1788). An attempt at wine making 
from these first vines failed, but with perseverance, other settlers managed to successfully 
cultivate vines for winemaking, and Australian made wine was available for sale 
domestically by the 1820s. In 1822 Gregory Blaxland became the first person to export 
Australian wine, and was the first winemaker to win an overseas award. In 1830 
vineyards were established in the Hunter Valley. In 1833 James Bushby returned from 
France and Spain with a serious selection of grape varieties including most classic French 
grapes and a good selection of grapes for fortified wine production. Wine from the 
Adelaide Hills was sent to Queen Victoria in 1844, but there is no evidence that she 
placed an order as a result. The production and quality of Australian wine was much 
improved by the arrival of free settlers from various parts of Europe, who used their skills 
and knowledge to establish some of Australia's premier wine regions. For example, 
emigrants from Prussia in the mid 1850s were important in establishing South Australia's 
Barossa Valley as a winemaking region. 

Early Australian winemakers faced many difficulties, particularly due to the unfamiliar 
Australian climate. However they eventually achieved considerable success. "At the 1873 
Vienna Exhibition the French judges, tasting blind, praised some wines from Victoria, 
but withdrew in protest when the provenance of the wine was revealed, on the grounds 
that wines of that quality must clearly be French." Australian wines continued to win high 
honors in French competitions. A Victorian Syrah (also called Shiraz) competing in the 
1878 Paris Exhibition was likened to Chateau Margaux and "its taste completed its trinity 
of perfection." One Australian wine won a gold medal "first class" at the 1882 Bordeaux 
International Exhibition and another won a gold medal "against the world" at the 1889 
Paris International Exhibition. That was all before the destructive effects on the industry 
of the phylloxera epidemic. 

In the decades following the devastation caused by phylloxera until the late 1970s, 
Australian wine production consisted largely, but not exclusively, of sweet and fortified 
wines. Since then, Australia has rapidly become a world leader in both the quantity and 
quality of wines it produces. For example, Australian wine exports to the US rose from 
578,000 cases in 1990 to 20,000,000 cases in 2004 and in 2000 it exported more wine 
than France to the UK for the first time in history. 

The industry has also suffered hard times in the last 20 years. In the late 1980s, 
governments sponsored growers to pull out their vines to overcome a glut of winegrapes. 
Low grape prices in 2005 and 2006 have led to calls for another sponsored vine pull. 
Cleanskin wines were introduced into Australia during the early 2000's as a means to 
combat oversupply and poor sales. Consumption of wine in Australia has greatly 
increased since the introduction of cleanskins and many cleanskin varieties are now sold 
as cheaply as many beers. 




In recent years organic and biodynamic wines have been increasing in popularity, 
following a worldwide trend. In 2004 Australia hosted the First International Biodynamic 
Wine Forum which brought together biodynamic wine producers from around the globe. 
Despite the overproduction of grapes many organic and biodynamic growers have 
enjoyed continuing demand thanks to the premium prices winemakers can charge for 
their organic and biodynamic products, particularly in the European market. 

Grape varieties 

Major grape varieties are Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay , Sauvignon Blanc, 
Semilion, and Riesling. The country has no native grapes, and Vitis vinifera varieties 
were introduced from Europe and South Africa in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. 
Some varieties have been bred by Australian viticulturalists, for example Cienna and 
Tarrango. 

Although Syrah was originally called Shiraz in Australia and Syrah elsewhere, its 
dramatic commercial success has led many Syrah producers around the world to label 
their wine "Shiraz". 

About 130 different grape varieties are used by commercial winemakers in Australia. 
Over recent years many winemakers have begun exploring so called "alternative 
varieties" other than those listed above. Many varieties from France, Italy and Spain for 
example Petit Verdot, Pinot Grigio, Sangiovese, Tempranillo and Viognier are becoming 
more common. Wines from many other varieties are being produced. 

Australian winemaking results have been impressive and it has established benchmarks 
for a number of varietals, such as Chardonnay and Shiraz. Moreover, Australians have 
innovated in canopy management and other viticultural techniques and in wine-making, 
and they have a general attitude toward their work that sets them apart from producers in 
Europe. Australian wine-makers travel the wine world as highly skilled seasonal workers, 
relocating to the northern hemisphere during the off-season at home." They are an 
important resource in the globalization of wine and wine critic Matt Kramer notes that 
"the most powerful influence in wine today" comes from Australia (Kramer). 

Major labels 




Grapevines at Russet Ridge Winery near Naracoorte in the Wrattonbully region 



Australia's most famous wine is Penfolds Grange. The great 1955 vintage was submitted 
to competitions beginning in 1962 and over the years has won more than 50 gold medals. 
The vintage of 1971 won first prize in Syrah/Shiraz at the Wine Olympics in Paris. The 
1990 vintage was named 'Red Wine of the Year' by the Wine Spectator magazine in 
1995, which later rated the 1998 vintage 99 points out of a possible 100. Wine critic 
Hugh Johnson has called Grange the only First Growth of the Southern Hemisphere. The 
influential wine critic Robert M. Parker, Jr., who is well known for his love of Bordeaux 
wines, has written that Grange "has replaced Bordeaux's Petrus as the worlds most exotic 
and concentrated wine". 



Other red wines to garner international attention include Henschke Hill of Grace, 
Clarendon Hills Astralis, D'Arenberg Dead Arm, Torbreck Run Rig and other high-end 
Penfolds wines such as St Henri shiraz. 

Australia has almost 2000 wine producers, most of whom are small winery operations. 
However, the market is dominated by a small number of major wine companies. After 
several phases of consolidation, the largest Australian wine company by sales of branded 
wine was Foster's Group in 2001-2003 and then in 2004 and 2005, Hardy Wine 
Company. Hardys, part of the world's biggest wine company Constellation Brands, had 
the largest vineyard area and the largest winegrape intake in the years 2001 - 2005. A list 
of the major wine companies in Australia and their associated wineries can be found 
below. 

Foster's Wine Estates 
Wolf Blass 
Wynns 
Penfolds 
Rosemount 
Lindemans 
Constellation Brands 
Hardy Wine Company 
Houghton Wine Company 
Pernod Ricard Pacific 
Orlando Wines 
Richmond Grove Wines 
Wyndham Estate 
Casella Wines 
Yellow Tail 




Taylors Wines (known as "Wakefield Wines" in the US and UK) 

McGuigan Simeon Wines 
De Bortoli Wines 
The Yalumba Wine Company 
Lion Nathan 

Major wine regions 

Zones used for labeling the source of Australian wine 

The information included on wine labels is strictly regulated. One aspect of this is that the 
label must not make any false or misleading statements about the source of the grapes. 
Many names (called geographic indications ) are protected. These are divided into "South 
Eastern Australia", the state names, zones (shown in the map), regions, and subregions. 
The largest volume of wine is produced from grapes grown in the warm climate Murray- 
Darling Basin zones of Lower Murray, North Western Victoria and Big Rivers. In 
general, the higher- value premium wines are made from smaller and cooler-climate 
regions. Some well-known regions are listed below: 



South Australia wine 


Victoria wine 


New South Wales 


Western Australia 


regions 


regions 


wine regions 


wine regions 


• 


Adelaide 


• Alpine 


• Hunter 


• Margaret 




Hills 


Valleys 


Valley 


River 


• 


Barossa 


• Goulbum 


• Mudgee 


• Swan Valley 




Valley 


Valley 


• Riverina 


• Great 


• 


Clare Valley 


• Grampians 




Southern 


• 


Coonawarra 


• Heathcote 






• 


Eden Valley 


wine region 






• 


Langhorne 


• Henty 








Creek 


• Mornington 






• 


McLaren 


Peninsula 








Vale 


• Pyrenees 






• 


Padthaway 


• Rutherglen 






• 


Riverland 


• Yarra Valley 








Wrattonbully 



King Valley 



In recent years, the Tasmanian wine industry has emerged as a producer of high quality 
wines. In particular, the Tamar Valley has developed a reputation for its Chardonnay and 
Pinot Noir, which are well suited to the cooler Tasmanian climate. 

Queensland is also developing a wine industry with over 100 vineyards registered in the 
state. Some notable wines are produced in the high-altitude Granite Belt region in the 
state's extreme south, production is centered on the towns of Stanthorpe and Ballandean. 



Bulgarian wine 




Wine producing regions in Bulgaria 



Grape growing and wine production have a long history in Bulgaria, dating back to the 
times of the Thracians. Wine is, together with beer and grape rakia, one of the most 
popular alcoholic beverages in the country. 



Viticultural regions 

A government decree of 13 July 1960 officially divided Bulgaria into five distinct 
viticultural regions. 

Danube River Plains (Northern Region) 

The Danube River Plains or Northern region encompasses the south banks of the Danube 
and the central and western parts of the Danube River Plains. The climate of the area is 



temperate continental, has a hot summer and many sunny days a year. Typical styles are 
Muscat Ottonel, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Chardonnay, Aligote, Pamid and the local 
Gamza. 

Black Sea Coastal (Eastern Region) 

The Black Sea Coastal region is where 30% of all vines are located. The region is 
characterized by long and mild autumns that are a favourable condition for the 
accumulation of sugars to make fine white wine (53% of all white wine varietals are 
concentrated in the region). Wine styles include Dimyat, Riesling, Muscat Ottonel, Ugni 
blanc, Sauvignon blanc, Traminer, and Gewiirztraminer. 

Valley of the Roses (Sub-Balkan Region) 

The Valley of the Roses region is located south of the Balkan Mountains. It is divided 
into an eastern and western subregion, with styles such as Muscatel, Riesling, Rkatsiteli, 
Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot dominating. The region mostly produces dry and off-dry 
white wine and less red wine. The region includes the Sungurlare Valley, famous for its 
wine from the Red Misket grape variety. 

Thracian Valley (Southern Region) 

The temperate continental climate in the area and the favourable distribution of 
precipitation are good premises for the developed red wine growing in the lowlands of 
Upper Thrace. The region includes the central part of the Valley, as well as parts of the 
Sakar mountain. Mavrud, a famous local wine, as well as Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, 
Muscatel and Pamid are grown. 

The Balkan Mountains serve to block the cold winds blowing from the plains of Russia, 
and the region to the south of the Balkans, the valley drained by the Maritsa River, enjoys 
a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and warm, dry summers. 

Struma River Valley (Southwestern Region) 

The region includes the southwestern parts of Bulgaria, the valley of the river Struma in 
the historical region of Macedonia. The area is small in size, but is climatically very 
distinct and characteristic, owing to the strong Mediterranean influence from the south. 
The local style Shiroka melnishka loza (taking its name from Melnik), as well as 
Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot are cultivated. 



Canadian wine 




Areas of grape cultivation in Canada 

While most of Canada is too cold for grape growing, Canadian wine is produced in 
Southern Ontario and southern British Columbia. The two largest wine producing regions 
are the Niagara Peninsula in Ontario and the Okanagan in British Columbia. Other wine 
producing areas include the shores of Lake Erie and Prince Edward County in Ontario, 
and the Similkameen valley, southern Fraser River valley, southern Vancouver Island and 
the Gulf Islands in British Columbia. There are small scale productions of grapes and 
wine in southern Quebec and Nova Scotia. The Canadian wine industry also vinifies 
imported grapes and juice. 

Icewine, which can be produced reliably in most Canadian wine regions, is the most 
recognized product on an international basis. Canada produced 75.9 million litres of wine 
in 2002 (0.3% of world production). 



History 




Vineyards near Lake Okanagan in British Columbia 

Canadian wine has been made for over 200 years. Early settlers tried to cultivate Vitis 
vinifera grapes from Europe with limited success. They found it necessary to focus on the 
native species of Vitis labrusca and Vitis riparia along with various hybrids. However, 
the market was limited for such wines because of their peculiar taste, which is often 
called "foxy." However, this became less apparent when the juice was made into Port- 
and Sherry-styled wines. For a period of time in the 1800s the export of these affordable 
wines to England made Ontario one of the largest wine exporters in North America. 

During the first half of the twentieth century, the temperance movement and later 
consumer demand for fortified and sweet wines, hampered the development of a quality 
table wine industry. However, during the 1960s consumer demand shifted from sweet and 
fortified wines to drier and lower alcohol table wines. At the same time, there were 




significant improvements in wine making technology, access to better grape varieties and 
disease-resistant clones, and systematic research into viticulture. 



After the repeal of alcohol prohibition in Canada in 1927, provinces strictly limited the 
number of licenses to produce wine. The nearly 50-year moratorium on issuing new 
winery licenses was finally dropped in 1974. During the same decade, demonstration 
planting began to show that Vitis vinifera could be successfully grown in Canada. Others 
found that high quality wines could be produced if Vitis vinifera vines were grown with 
reduced yields, new trellising techniques, and appropriate canopy management. 

In 1988, three important events occurred. They were: free trade with the United States, 
the establishment of the Vintners Quality Alliance (VQA) standard, and a major grape 
vine replacement/upgrading program. 

During the 1990s, Canadian vintners continued to demonstrate that fine grape varieties in 
cooler growing conditions could potentially possess complex flavours, delicate yet 
persistent aromas, tightly focused structure and longer ageing potential than their 
counterparts in warmer growing regions of the world. 

Canadian wines have a less than 50% share of the Canadian wine market, making Canada 
one of the few wine producing countries where domestically produced wines do not hold 
a dominant share. 

While there are many small Canadian wineries, the domestic wine market has long been 
dominated by two companies, Vincor International and Andres Wines. In 2006, Vincor 
International, which had grown aggessively in previous years by acquiring wineries in 
California, Australia and New Zealand, was itself acquired by Constellation Brands, a 
U.S. based company and one of the primary consolidators of the global wine business. 

Quality wines 

In 1991, Inniskillin’s 1989 Icewine won the Prix d’Honneur at the prestigious VinExpo, 
in Bordeaux, France. At the St. Catharines Wine Tasting of 2005, a blind tasting of four 
named growth Bordeaux and twelve Ontario Cabernet and Cabernet blends was held at 
Brock University in St. Catharines, Ontario. The fifty Canadian judges were wine writers 
for Canadian publications, wine educators and students at Brock University, Ontario 
vintners, and included three certified wine judges. The tasting ranked five Canadian 
wines above four wines from Bordeaux. The third-ranking entry (an Ontario wine) cost 
$14.95 whereas the 12th-ranking entry (a Bordeaux wine) cost $85.00. It is important to 
note that the price for the Bordeaux wine was artificially inflated due to import taxes and 
tariffs, and was widely available in the US and Europe for closer to $35 US. 

Despite the awards, not all Canadian wine is VQA. "International blends" use a high 
proportion of foreign bulk wine to produce a product which is labelled as “Cellared in 
Canada”, “Product of Canada”, or “Vinted in Canada”. Some of the wine industry's 




organizations, and respected wine writers in Canada and abroad, are quite concerned 
about the blending practices of some producers. 



Exports 

Some Canadian wine is exported. Canada shipped US$4.9 million worth of wine to the 
U.S. in 2001. 

Chilean wine 




Chilean Casillero del Diablo 




Cabernet Sauvignon Santa Monica 



Chilean wine is wine made in the South American country of Chile. The region has a 
long viticultural history for a New World wine region dating to the 16th century when the 
Spanish conquistadores brought Vitis vinifera vines with them as they colonized the 
region. In the mid- 18th century, French wine varietals such as Cabernet Sauvignon and 
Merlot were introduced. In the early 1980s, a renaissance began with the introduction of 
stainless steel fermentation tanks and the use of oak barrels for aging. Wine exports grew 
very quickly as quality wine production increased. 



The number of wineries has grown from 12 in 1995 to over 70 in 2005. Chile is now the 
fourth largest exporter of wines to the United States. The climate has been described as 
midway between that of California and France. The most common grapes are Cabernet 






Sauvignon, Merlot and Carmenere. So far Chile has remained free of phylloxera louse 
which means that the country's grapevines do not need to be grafted. 



History 



History of Chile 




Pedro Lira's 1889 painting of the founding of Santiago by conquistadors. As the Spanish 
conquered the land they brought grapevines with them. 

European Vitis vinifera vines were brought to Chile by Spanish conquistadors and 
missionaries in the 16th century around 1554. Local legend states that the conquistador 
Francisco de Aguirre himself planted the first vines. The vines most likely came from 
established Spanish vineyards planted in Peru which included the "common black grape", 
as it was known, that Hernan Cortes brought to Mexico in 1520. This grape variety would 
become the ancestor of the widely planted Pais grape that would be the most widely 
planted Chilean grape till the 21st century. Jesuit priest cultivated these early vineyards, 
using the wine for the celebration of the Eucharist. By the late 16th century, the early 
Chilean historian Alonso de Ovalle described widespread plantings of "the common 
black grape", Muscatel, Torontel, Albilho and Mollar. 



During the Spanish rule, vineyards were restricted in production with the stipulation that 
the Chilean should purchase the bulk of their wines directly from Spain itself. For the 
most part the Chileans ignored these restrictions, preferring their domestic production to 
the oxidized and vinegary wines that didn't fare well during the long voyages from Spain. 
They were even so bold as to start exporting some of their wines to neighboring Peru 
with one such export shipment being captured at sea by the English privateer Francis 
Drake. When Spain heard of the event rather than being outraged at Drake, an indictment 
was sent back to Chile with the order to uproot most of their vineyards. This order, too, 
was mostly ignored. 

In the 18th century, Chile was known mostly for its sweet wines made from the Pais and 
Muscatel grapes. To achieve a high level of sweetness the wines were often boiled which 
concentrated the grape must. Following his shipwreck off the coast at Cape Horn, 
Admiral John Byron (Grandfather of the poet Lord Byron) traveled across Chile and 
came back to England with a glowing review of Chilean Muscatel comparing it favorably 
to Madeira. The 19th century wine writer Andre Julien was not as impressed, comparing 
Chilean wines to a "potion of rhubarb and senna". 




Chilean Sauvignon blanc 



Despite being politically linked to Spain, Chile's wine history has been most profoundly 
influenced by French, particularly Bordeaux, winemaking. Prior to the phylloxera 
epidemic, wealthy Chilean landowners were influenced by their visits to France and 
began importing French vines to plant. Don Silvestre Ochagavia Echazareta 6 was the 
first, importing Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet franc, Malbec, Sauvignon blanc 
and Semilion in 1851. In 1870 Don Maximo Errazuriz founded the first winery dedicated 
to international varieties. He hired a French oenologist to oversee his vineyard planting 




and to produce wine in the Bordeaux style. Errazuriz saw potential in Chile and even 
experimented with the German wine grape Riesling. In events that parallel those of the 
Rioja wine region, the entrance of phylloxera into the French wine world turned into a 
positive event for the Chilean wine industry. With vineyards in ruin, many French 
winemakers traveled to South America, bringing their experience and techniques with 
them. 

Political instability in the 20th century, coupled with bureaucratic regulations and high 
taxes tempered the growth of the Chilean wine industry. Prior to the 1980s, the vast 
majority of Chilean wine was considered low quality and mostly consumed domestically. 
As awareness of Chile's favorable growing conditions for viticulture increased so did 
foreign investment in Chilean wineries. This period saw many technical advances in 
winemaking as Chile earned a reputation for reasonably priced premium quality wines. 
Chile began to export extensively, becoming the third leading exporter, after France and 
Italy, into the United States by the turn of the 21st century. It has since dropped to fourth 
in the US, being surpassed by Australia, but focus has switched to developing exports in 
the world's other major wine markets like the United Kingdom and Japan. 

Climate and geography 

Climate of Chile and Geography of Chile 




/ 







•Jli v 

urt'" 




Chile's topography with the location of most of Chile's wine regions highlighted. 



Chile is a long, narrow country that is geographically and climatically dominated by the 
Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Chile's vineyards are found along an 
800 mile stretch of land from Atacama Region to the Bio-Bio Region in the south. The 
climate is varied with the northern regions being very hot and dry compared to the cooler, 
wetter regions in the south. In the Valle Central around Santiago, the climate is dry with 
an average of 15 inches (38 centimeters) of rain and little to risk of springtime frost. The 



close proximately to the Andes help create a wide diurnal temperature variation between 
day and nighttime temperatures. This cool drop in temperature is vital in maintaining the 
grapes' acidity levels. 

Most of Chile's premium wine regions are dependent on irrigation to sustain vineyards, 
getting the necessary water from melting snow caps in the Andes. In the developing wine 
regions along the Coastal Ranges and in the far south, there is not a lack in needed 
rainfall but vineyards owners have to deal with other factors such as the Humboldt 
Current from the Pacific which can bathe a vineyard with a blanket of cool air. For the 
rest of Chile's wine regions, the Coastal Ranges serve a buffer from the current and also 
acts as a rain shadow. The vineyards in these regions are planted on the valley plains of 
the Andes foothills along a major river such as the Maipo, Rapel and Maule Rivers. 

The vineyards of Chile fall between the latitudes of 32 and 38° s which, in the Northern 
Hemisphere would be the equivalent of southern Spain and North Africa. However the 
climate in Chile's wine regions is much more temperate than those regions, comparing 
more closely to California and Bordeaux. Overall, it is classified as a Mediterranean 
climate with average summer temperatures of 59-64 °F (15-18 °C) and potential highs 86 
F (30 C). 




Wine regions 




Chile's major wine regions 



In December 1994, the Republic of Chile defined the following viticultural regions- 

Atacama, within the Atacama region (III administrative region). Within it are two 
subregions, the Copiapo Valley and the Huasco Valley, both of which are coterminous 
with the provinces of the same names. The region is known primarily for its Pisco 
production. Atacama is also an important source of table grapes. 

Coquimbo, within the Coquimbo Region (IV administrative region). It has three 
subregions: Elqui Valley, Liman Valley, and the Choapa Valley. All subregions are 
coter mi nous with the provinces of the same names. Like the Atacama this region is 
primarily known for Pisco and table grapes. 

Aconcagua, within the Valparaiso Region (V administrative region). It includes two 
subregions, the Valley of Aconcagua and the Valley of Casablanca. The Aconcagua 
Valley is coterminous with the province of that name. The Casablanca Valley is 
coterminous with the comuna of that name. The Panquehue commune is also gradually 
developing a reputation for high quality wine production. Casablanca is one of Chile's 
cooler wine region and is often compared to the Californian wine region of Carneros and 
grows similar grape varietals like Chardonnay and Pinot noir. Casablanca's growing 
seasons last up to a month longer than other regions, typically harvesting in April. The 
northern region of Aconcagua is Chile's warmest wine region and is primarily planted 
with Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. The soil of this region is composed mainly of 
alluvial deposits left over from ancient river beds. 

Valle Central, which spans the O'Higgins Region (VI) and Maule Region (VII) 
Administrative Regions and the Administrative Metropolitan Region. Within it are four 
subregions: the Maipo Valley, the Rapel Valley, the Curico Valley and the Maule Valley. 
This is Chile's most productive and internationally known wine region, due in large part 
to its close proximately to the country's capital Santiago. It is located directly across the 
Andes' from Argentina's most well known wine region Mendoza Province. The Maipo 
Valley is the most widely cultivated valley and is known for its Cabernet Sauvignon. The 
Rapel wine region in the Colchagua Province is also known for it Cabernet. Curico has 



both red and white wine varieties planted but is most widely known for it Chardonnay. 
The Maule Valley still has large plantings of the local Pais but is gradually being planted 
with better red wine varieties. The soil of Maipo Valley is noted for it high salinity 
steaming from irrigation from the Maipo river and low potassium level which has some 
impact on the grapevines. Vineyards in the Maule also suffer from low potassium as well 
as deficient nitrogen levels. Advances in viticultural techniques have helped vineyards in 
these regions compensate for some of these effects. 

Southern Chile, within the Bio-Bio Region (VIII). Two subregions are included: Itata 
Valley and Bio-Bio Valley. The region is primarily known for its mass produce Pais box 
and jug wines though Concha y Toro Winery has experimented with Gewurztraminer 
from this region. The southern regions have more rainfall, lower average temperature and 
fewer hours of sunlight than the northern wine regions. 

Viticulture 




Many of Chile's vineyards are found on flat land within the foothills of the Andes. 

Chile's natural boundaries (Pacific Ocean, Andes Mountain, Atacama Desert to the north 
and Antarctica to the south) has left it relatively isolated from other parts of the world and 
has served to be beneficial in keeping the phylloxera louse at bay. Because of this many 
Chilean vineyards do not have to graft their rootstock and incur that added cost of 
planting. Chilean wineries have stated that this "purity" of their vines is a positive 
element that can be tasted in the wine but most wine experts agree that the most apparent 
benefit is the financial aspect. The one wine region that is the exception to this freedom 
from grafting is Casablanca whose vines are susceptible to attack by nematodes. While 
phylloxera is not a problem, winemakers do have to worry about other grape diseases and 
hazards such as downy mildew, which was spread easily by El Nino influences and 
severely affected the 1997-1998 vintages. Powdery mildew and verticillium wilt can also 
cause trouble. 

There is not much vintage variation due to the reliability of favorable weather with little 
risk of spring time frost or harvest time rains. The main exception, again, is Casablanca 
due in part to its closer proximately to the Pacific. For the Chilean wine regions in the 
Valle Central, the Andes and Coastal Ranges create a rain shadow affect which traps the 



warm arid air in the region. At night, cool air comes into the area from the Andes which 
dramatically drops the temperature. This help maintain high levels of acidity to go with 
the ripe fruit that grapes develop with the long hours of uninterrupted sunshine that they 
get during the day. The result is a unique profile of flavonoids in the wine which some 
Chilean wineries claim make Chilean wines higher in resveratrol and antioxidants. 
Harvest typically begins at the end of February for varieties like Chardonnay with some 
red wine varieties like Cabernet Sauvignon being picked in April and Carmenere 
sometimes staying on the vine into May. 

The Andes also provide a ready source of irrigation which was historically done in flood 
plain style. Chilean vineyard owners would dig canals throughout their vineyards and 
then flood the entire surface area with water allowing some to seep into the ground and 
the run off to be funnel away through the canals. This encouraged excessive irrigation 
and high yields which had a negative effect on quality. During the wine renaissance of 
the 1980s & 1990s more vineyards converted to drip irrigation system which allowed 
greater control and helped reduce yields. The soil composition of Chile's vineyards varies 
from the clay dominated landscapes of Colchagua, which is thusly heavily planted with 
the clay-loving Merlot, to the mixture of loam, limestone and sand found in other regions. 
In the southern Rapel and parts of Maule, tuffeau soil is present with volcanic soil being 
found in parts of Curico and Bio-Bio. 

Winemaking 




Old barrels made of rauli wood outside of Concha y Toro. 

Chile has benefited from an influx of foreign investment and winemaking talent that 
begin in the late 20th century. Flying winemakers introduced new technology and styles 
that helped Chilean wineries produce more international recognized wine styles. One 
such improvement was the use of oak. Historically Chilean winemakers had aged their 
wines in barrels made from rauli beechwood which imparted to the wine a unique taste 




that many international tasters found unpleasant. Gradually the wineries began to convert 
to French and American oak or stainless steel tanks for aging. 

Financial investment manifested in the form of European and American winemakers 
opening up their own wineries or collaborating with existing Chilean wineries to produce 
new brands. These include... 

Robert Mondavi, collaboration with Vina Errazuriz to produce Sena 
Miguel A. Torres, Catalan winemaker opened Miguel Torres Chile in 1979 
Kendall-Jackson, opened Vina Calina 
Chateau Lafite Rothschild, collaboration with Los Vascos 

Bruno Prats, Owner of Chateau Cos d'Estournel, and Paul Pontallier, former winemaker 
of Chateau Margaux, opened Domaine Paul Bruno 

Chateau Mouton Rothschild, collaboration with Concha y Toro Winery to produce 
Almaviva 

Wine laws 

Chile's wine laws are more similar to the US appellation system than to France's 
Appellation d'origine controlee that most of Europe has based their wine laws on. Chile's 
system went into effect in 1995 and established the boundaries of the countries wine 
regions and established regulations for wine labels. There are no restrictions of grape 
varieties, viticultural practices or winemaking techniques. Wines are required to have at 
least 75% of a grape variety if its to listed on the label as well as at least 75% from the 
designated vintage year. To list a particular wine region, 75% is also the minimum 
requirement of grapes that need to be from that region. Similar to the United States, the 
term Reserve has no legal definition or meaning. 



Grapes and wines 





Carmenere 

Over twenty grape varieties are grown in Chile, mainly a mixture of Spanish and French 
varieties, but many wineries are increasing experimentation in higher numbers. For most 
of Chile's history, Pais was the most widely planted grape only recently getting passed by 
Cabernet Sauvignon. Other red wine varieties include Merlot, Carmenere, Zinfandel, 
Petite Sirah, Cabernet franc, Pinot noir, Syrah, Sangiovese, Barbera, Malbec, and 
Carignan. White wine varieties include Chardonnay, Sauvignon blanc, Sauvignon vert. 
Semilion, Riesling, Viognier, Torontel, Pedro Ximenez, Gewiirztraminer and Muscat of 
Alexandria. 

Chilean winemakers have been developing a distinct style for their Cabernet Sauvignon, 
producing an easy drinking wine with soft tannins and flavors of mint, black currant, 
olives and smoke. The country's Chardonnays are less distinctive, following more the 
stereotypical New World style. While sparkling wines have been made since 1879, they 
have not yet established a significant place in Chile's wine portfolio. 

Merlot & Sauvignon blanc 
Carmenere 

In the late 20th century as Chilean wines became more popular, wine tasters around the 
world began to doubt the authenticity of wines labeled Merlot and Sauvignon blanc. The 
wines lack many of the characteristics and typicity of those grapes. Ampelographers 
began to study the vines and found that what was considered Merlot was actually the 
ancient Bordeaux wine grape Carmenere that was thought to be extinct. The Sauvignon 
blanc vines were found to actually be Sauvignonasse, also known as Sauvignon vert, or a 
mutated Sauvignon blanc/Semillon cross. In response to these discoveries several Chilean 
wineries began to import true Merlot and Sauvignon blanc cuttings to where most bottle 
of wines labeled Merlot and Sauvignon blanc from vintages in the 21st century are very 
likely to truly be those varieties. 



International competitions 



In some international competitions, Chilean wines have ranked very highly. For example, 
in the Berlin Wine Tasting of 2004, 36 European experts blind tasted wines from two 
vintages each of eight top wines from France, Italy and Chile. The first and second place 
wines were two Cabernet-based reds from Chile: Vinedo Chadwick 2000 and Sena 2001. 
The Berlin Wine Tasting of 2005 held in Brazil featured five Chilean wines in the top 
seven. In the Tokyo Wine Tasting of 2006, Chilean wines won four of the top five 
rankings. 

Wine in China 




Two bottles of Chinese grape wine 



Wine in China ( ; pinyin: putao jiu) are wines that are produced in China. Grape 

wine has a long history in China, along with other traditional wines which would be 
discussed in the article Chinese wine. 

Beginning in 1980, French and other Western wines began to rise in prominence in the 
Chinese market, both in the mainland China and in Taiwan. French-taught Chinese 
winemakers introduced the wine to a market dominated mostly by beer, and have quickly 
expanded in proportion such that China is set to be the largest market of wine soon, with 
its immense population. 



History 

The history of Chinese grape wine dates back more than 4,600 years: in 1995, the joint 
Sino-USA archaeology team including archaeologists from the Archaeology Research 
Institute of Shandong University and American archaeologists under the leadership of 
Professor Fang Hui ( ) investigated the two archaeological sites 20 km to the northeast 

of Rizhao, and discovered the remnants of a variety of alcoholic beverages including 
grape wine, rice wine, mead, and several mixed beverages of these wines. Out of more 



than two hundred potteries discovered at the sites, seven were specifically used for grape 
wine. Remnants of grape seeds were also discovered. However, due to the inferior quality 
of Chinese grapes, for centuries, grape wine was not as prominent as other alcoholic 
beverages until Han Dynasty, following Zhang Qian's exploration of the country's 
western region in the 2nd century BCE, when high quality grapes were finally introduced 
into China. 

Thus, grape wine is a traditional Chinese alcoholic beverage, along with other traditional 
wines made from sorghum, millet, rice, and fruits such as lychee or ume. 

Modern revival and French wine in China 

French wine was the first foreign wine imported into China. In 1980, at the beginning of 
Chinese economic reform, Remy Martin ventured into China to set up the first joint- 
venture enterprise in Tianjin: the Dynasty (Wang Chao, ) Wine Ltd., which was also 
the second joint- venture enterprise in China. Over the years, the company developed over 
90 brands of alcoholic beverages, and its products won numerous awards both 
domestically and abroad. 

However, most of its products were exported abroad in the first two decades due to the 
low income of the local population, and it was not until after the year 2000 when the 
economic boom finally allowed the domestic population to have the disposable income 
needed to support the domestic market; this relatively recent occurrence coincided with 
the increased popularity of French wine in China. Other companies, including China 
Great Wall Wine Co., Ltd, Suntime and Changyu, have also risen in prominence, and by 
2005, 90% of grape wine produced was consumed locally. 

Also, as globalization has brought China onto the international economic scene, so to has 
its winemaking industry come onto the international wine scene. China has a long 
tradition of the fermentation and distillation of Chinese wine, including all alcoholic 
beverages and not necessarily grape wine, but is one of the most recent participants in the 
globalization of wine that started years ago in Paris, when several countries such as 
Canada realized that they may be able to produce wines as good as most French wine. 

Quite recently, Chinese grape wine has begun appearing on shelves in California and in 
Western Canada. While some critics have treated these wines with the same type of 
disregard with which Chilean and Australian wines were once treated, others have 
recognized a new frontier with the potential to yield some interesting finds. Others have 
simply taken notice that China is producing drinkable table wines comparable to wines 
from other countries. 

In 2006, a U.S. based company, China Silk Wines began exporting wines to the United 
States that were made at the Suntime winery in Northwestern China, near Urumqi in the 
Appellation region of Xinjiang. The company used a former Kendall Jackson winemaker 
to blend their wines for the western palate. They currently have five varietals; Marco 
Polo White, which is 90% Chardonnay with 10% Riesling; Marco Polo Red, a blend of 




90% Cabernet Sauvignon, 5% Merlot and 5% Syrah; Dragon's Kiss Riesling, Emperor's 
Delight Rose and Reserve Cabernet, which is French vanilla oak aged for one year. Both 
of the Marco Polo wines were awarded medals in the San Francisco International Wine 
Competition and the Rose won an award in the Grape Expectations International Wine 
Competition sponsored by the Dallas Morning News in 2007. 

The Xinjian region is on the same latitude as the Loire region in France and Napa Valley 
in California. It is located near the Tian Mountain range and overlooking the Zhungeer 
plain, the landform is located in a montane, plain and dessert step, containing the main 
rivers of Bentoutin and Santun Rivers. 

Market 

As China has one of the world's largest population, its market for wine is projected to 
become the largest in a few decades, even though the current consumption of wine in 
China is only 0.35 litres per person. At the moment, a few large companies, such as 
Changyu Pioneer Wine , China Great Wall Wine Co., Ltd. and the Dynasty Wine Ltd., 
dominate the market, with 50 thousand tons of wine produced annually under the Great 
Wall label; the total production of wine in 2004 was 370 thousand tons, a 15% increase 
from the previous year. Total market grew 58% between 1996 and 2001, and 68% 
between 2001 and 2006. Notable wine-producing regions include Beijing, Yantai, 
Zhangjiakou Hebei, Yibin Sichuan and Tonghua Jilin. 

Statistics show that the main market for white wine is among females, who prefer it over 
beer, still the main alcoholic beverage for most males; red wine has become a symbol of 
the elite and rich and is usually used as a table wine. In 2005, 80% of vineyards produce 
red wine and 20% of vineyards produce white wine, while 90% of wine consumed as of 
2007 is red wine. 

Cyprus wine 



The Cypriot wine industry ranks 37th in the world in terms of total production quantity 
(37,500 tonnes)., and much higher on a per capita basis. Although, chronologically, 
Cyprus belongs to the old world of wine producing countries, the industry has gone 
through changes that place it more on par with the new world. The wine industry is a 
significant contributor to the Cypriot economy through cultivation, production, 
employment, export and tourism. 




Overview 



Cyprus has been a vine growing and wine producing country for millennia. 
Internationally, it is best known for Commandaria wine. Most wine production remains 
based on a few varieties of local grapes such as Mavro and Xynisteri (see table below ) 
although international varieties are also cultivated. 

History 

The history of wine in Cyprus can be broken down into four distinct periods. 

Ancient 




Hellenistic mosaics discovered in 1962 close to the city of Paphos depicting Dionysos, 
god of wine. 

Exactly how far back wine production in Cyprus goes is unknown. Wine was being 
traded at least as early as 2300 BC, the date of a shipwreck (similar to the Kyrenia ship) 
carrying over 2,500 amphorae, discovered in 1999. Its origin and destination are 
unknown, but must have been along the trade route between Greece and Egypt. 



More recently, two discoveries have put that date back by a few more years. The first was 
the discovery of a Bronze Age (2500-2000 BC) perfumery near the village of Pyrgos. 
Near this perfumery, an olive press, a winery, and copper smelting works were also 
discovered. Wine containers and even the seeds of grapes were unearthed. 

The second discovery involved an intriguing sequence of events. Dr. Porphyrios Dikaios, 
a major figure in Cypriot archaeology and once curator of the Cyprus Museum, had 
carried out excavations on the outskirts of Erimi village between 1932 and 1935. During 
these excavations, several fragments of round flasks were unearthed (amongst other 
artefacts). These pottery fragments ended up in the stores of the Cyprus Museum still 



unwashed in wooden boxes. They were dated to the chalcolithic period (between 
3500BC-3000BC). In 2005, well after Dr Dikaios’ death, the chemical signatures of 18 of 
these were examined by a team of Italian archaeologists led by Maria-Rosaria Belgiorno. 
Twelve of these showed traces of tartaric acid (a component of wine) proving that the 
5,500-year-old vases were used for wine. 

Medieval to 1878 

As expected, the history of wine on the island closely relates to its political and 
administrative history. During the Lusignan occupation, the island had close ties with the 
Crusader nations and especially the nobility of France. During this period, Commandaria 
wine won the Battle of the Wines, the first recorded wine tasting competition, which was 
staged by the French king Philip Augustus in the 13 th century. The event was recorded in 
a poem by Henry d'Andeli in 1224. 

During the Ottoman occupation of the island, wine production went into decline. This 
was attributed to two factors: Islamic tradition and heavy taxation. Indicative are reports 
written mainly by French and British travelers of the time; Cyrus Redding writes in 
1851 :the vine grower of Cyprus hides from his neighbour the amount of his vintage, and 
always buries part of his produce for concealment; the exactions of the government are 
so great, that his profit upon what he allows to be seen is too little to renumerate him for 
his loss in time and labour. The quality of the wine produced also lagged behind times 
with Samuel Baker referring to Cypriot wines in 1879 "It should be understood that no 
quality of Cyprus wines is suitable to the English palate”. 

1878-1980 

1878 marked the handover of the island form Ottoman rule to the British Empire. British 
occupation brought a revival in the winemaking industry. Taxation rules changed and the 
local cottage industry began to expand. 1844 saw the foundation of one of the largest 
wineries surviving to date, that of ETKO by the Hadjipavlou family. The Chaplin family 
(at Per Pedhi) was Hadjipavlou’ s main competitor until the arrival of KEO a company 
formed by a group of prominent local businessmen. KEO bought the Chaplin winery in 
1928. In 1943, following a strike, a breakaway of trade union members from ETKO 
created a cooperative, LOEL. In 1947 the vine-growers themselves created SODAP, a 
co-operative to "protect the rights of the growers" . These ‘’big four” wine producers (a 
term widely used to refer to KEO, ETKO, SODAP and LOEL ) dominated the industry 
scene and survive to date. 

The first wave of expansion for Cypriot wines came with the misfortunes of the European 
viticulture sector. The phylloxera epidemic that affected mainland Europe in the late 19th 
century had destroyed the majority of wine producing vines. Cyprus, an island with strict 
quarantine controls managed to remain unaffected . As a consequence, demand for 
Cyprus grapes and wines coupled to the relatively high prices offered resulted in a mini 
boom for the industry. Further demand early in the early 20th century came from local 
consumption and from the regional forces of Britain and France in the Middle East. 




Cyprus produced quality cheap wine and spirits (mainly in the form of Cyprus brandy) 
and the big four companies prospered as a result. 




KEO, one of the Big Four wineries 

The next big export product came in the form of Cyprus Sherry. It was first marketed by 
that name in 1937 and was exported mainly to northern Europe. By the 1960s, Britain 
was consuming 13.6 million litres of Cyprus wines, half the island's production, mostly 
as sweet sherry. A British market research study of fortified wines in 1978 showed Emva 
cream was the leading Cyprus sherry in terms of brand recognition, and second in that 
market only to Harveys' Bristol Cream. The island became the UK's third leading wine 
supplier behind France and Spain. A major factor was that Cyprus Sherry was more 
affordable than Spanish Sherry as British taxation favoured alcoholic beverages with an 
alcoholic content below the 15.5-18% bracket. This competitive advantage was lost a 
few years later with the re-banding of the alcohol content taxation. The fortified wine 
market also began to shrink as a whole due to a change in consumer taste and as a result 
Cyprus sherry sales in the UK fell from their peak in the early 1970’ s by some 65% by 
the mid 1980’s. The final blow came when the EC ruled that as of January 1996 only 
fortified wine from Jerez could assume the title of sherry. 



The other big market for Cyprus wine during the same period was the former Soviet 
block. Large volumes of low quality, mass produced, blended wines were sold to the 
eastern block with the cooperative wine producers (LOEL and SODAP) taking the lion’s 
share. This market began to dry up in the 1980s and vanished altogether with the fall of 
communism. 



1980 onwards 



In response to the challenges faced by the industry the Cyprus vine-products commission 
began efforts to overhaul the sector in order to help it survive under the new 
circumstances. Reforms were intended to improve the quality rather than quantity of 
wine. Three initiatives were launched: 

Firstly, new varieties of grapes were introduced and (financial) incentives given for their 
cultivation. The varieties introduced were considered more suitable for quality wine 
production intended for wines more palatable to overseas markets (than local grapes). 
Examples include grapes such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Carignan Noir 
and Palomino (see complete table below). 

Secondly, incentives were given to create small regional wineries with a production 
capacity of 50,000 to 300,000 bottles per year . This intended to promote better quality 
wines by reducing the distance grapes travelled from vineyard to winery. The big four 
wineries were located in the large port cities of Limassol and Paphos so vine growers 
were forced to transport their harvest for miles in the summer heat. This had an effect on 
the quality of wine as the fermentation process had already begun during transport. The 
knock on effect of this incentive also helped maintain the village population in the vine 
cultivating regions. 

Thirdly a new Appellation of Origin was launched in 2007. 

Quality levels and appellation system 

The Cyprus vine products council has based wine denominations on European Union law 
and is responsible for enforcing the regulations. Currently there are three accepted 
categories: 

Table wine. This is similar to the Vin de Table in France or Vino di Tavola in Italy. 

Local wine (E7riTpa7re^ioc; Olvoq ps r 8wypa(piKf| 'Ev5sii;r|) which follows in similar 
fashion to the French Vin de pays and the Italian Indicazione Geografica Tipica. 
Regulations state that 85% of the grapes used in the production of such wine originates 
from the specific geographical regions and from the registered vineyards. Vines must be 
more that 4 years old with a controlled annual yield per cultivated hectare (55 hl/hectare 
or 70 hl/hectare depending on grape variety). Red wine must have a minimum of 1 1% 
alcohol content whilst rose and white wine a minimum of 10%.] There are four such 
designated areas: Lefkosia, Lemesos, Larnaca and Paphos. 

Protected designation of origin (or O.E.O.II. standing for Oivoi EA,syx6pevr|<; Ovopaalag 
IlposXenari^) is the most prestigious designation and in theory indicates a higher quality 
product. It is modelled on the French Appellation d'origine controlee, whereas the Italian 
equivalent is the Denominazione di origine controllata. Wines with this designation must 
originate from registered vineyards of an altitude above 600 or 750 meters depending on 
location. Vines should be more than 5 years old and yield is restricted to 36 or 45 hi per 
hectare depending on grape variety. There are further regulations dictating the grape 
composition and ageing process. 




Grape varieties 





harvested xynisteri grapes 

The climate allows for cultivation of most grape varieties. However local varietals 
(Mavro and Xynisteri) constitute the bulk of current plantations. Maratheftiko is an 
ancient grape varietal that is currently being revived. 



Table showing areas and quantities cultivated by Vines for Wines by variety: 



Variety 2004 Cultivation 



2004 

Quantity 

(kg) m 



% of 
total 



2003 

Quantity 

(kg) B 



% of 
total 



(decares) ^ 



1 


Mavro 


92,140 


35,690,050 


49.6 


33,124,678 


52.5 


2 


Xynisteri 


26,573 


11,102,700 


15.4 


6,750,800 


10.7 


3 


Carignan Noir 26,573 


8,894,350 


12.4 


7,609,261 


12.1 


4 


Cabernet 


8,129 


2,446,508 


3.4 


1,435,575 


2.3 


5 


Malaga 


3,786 


1,501,930 


2.1 


1,551,251 


2.5 


6 


Mataro 


2,331 


1,196,940 


1.7 


1,946,431 


3.1 


7 


Shiraz 


1,968 


149,750 


0.2 


60,656 


0.1 


8 


Ofthalmo 


1,843 


1,119,800 


1.6 


1,122,278 


1.8 


9 


Palomino 


1,800 


2,509,350 


3.5 


2,189,155 


3.5 


10 


Grenache 

Noir 


1,768 


960,611 


1.3 


1,007,031 


1.6 


11 


Alicante 

Bouschet 


1,509 


589,105 


0.8 


527,685 


0.8 


12 


Oeillade 


1,281 


526,735 


0.7 


500,540 


0.8 


13 


Maratheftiko 


1,249 


204,660 


0.3 


185,961 


0.3 




Total 


159,076 


71,996,587 




63,083,177 





Czech wine 



Many regions of the Czech Republic have large wine producing areas. Production 
centres around local grape varieties, but there has been a recent increase in the production 
of established international strains such as Cabernet Sauvignon. Although Czech wines 
are not particularly well-known on the wider international market, they are popular 
domestically and in neighbouring countries. 




Wine cellar in Chvalovice, near Znojmo, Czech Republic. 




Moravia 



Wine production on the Czech Republic centres around the southern region of Moravia 
and particularly around the River Dyje. Indeed, the area around the towns of Velke 
Pavlovice, Mikulov, Znojmo along with the Slovacko region provide 94% of the Czech 
Republic's vineyards. Wine is labelled according to the region where it was produced. 

Bohemia 



The northern region of Bohemia is home to a smaller collection of vineyards, which are 
predominantly sited on the River Elbe (Czech: Labe) and its tributaries Vltava and 
Berounka. Production here focuses on white wines produced from grape varieties such as 
Miiller-Thurgau, Pinot Blanc (Czech: Rulandske bile) and Gewiirztraminer (Czech: 
Tramm cerveny ) and Grliner Veltliner (Czech: Veltmske zelene). 

Grape varieties 

The most commonly grown varieties of grape in the Czech Republic include the 
following (Czech names given in italics, followed by the percentage of vineyard planting 
given over to that variety): 

Red 




Frankovka grapes 

Svatovavrinecke - Saint Laurent, 9% of vineyard planting 
Frankovka - Lemberger, 5.6% 

Zweigeltrebe - Zweigelt, 4.7% 

Rulandske modre - Pinot Noir, 4% 

Modry Portugal - Blauer Portugieser, 3.9% 

Cabernet Sauvignon, 1.3% 



White 




Ryzlink rynsky grapes 

Mliller-Thurgau, 11.2% of vineyard planting 

Veltllnske zelene - Griiner Veltliner, 11% 

Ryzlink vlassky - Welschriesling, 8.5% 

Ryzlink rynsky - Riesling, 7% 

Sauvignon blanc, 5% 

Rulandske bile - Pinot Blanc, 5% 

Chardonnay, 4% 

Rulandske sede - Pinot gris, 3.7% 

Tramln cerveny - Gewiirztraminer, 3% 

Neuburske - Neuburger, 2.3% 

Muskat moravsky - Moravian Muscat, 1.8% 

Veltllnske cervene rane - Friihroter Veltliner, 1.7% 

Irsai Oliver, 0.4% 

Wine festivals 

The wine-producing areas of the Czech Republic are well-known for their wine festivals 
(Czech: vinobrani) which take place around harvest time in September. The biggest of 
these festivals in Znojmo, Mikulov, Brno and Melnik will feature samples of hundreds of 
local wines as well as local music, dancing and cuisine. 



Identification 





Two bottles of Moravian wine (an Irsai Oliver and a Cabernet Moravia), showing the 
usual labelling for geographical origin 

Czech wine will usually come labelled with its variety, as well as detailed description of 
its origin. 

Origin specification 

Typically, the label will specify the wine's origin with the following terms 
vinarska oblast - region, e.g. Morava (Moravia) 

vinarska podoblast - subregion e.g. Velkopavlovicka (Velke Pavlovice) 
vinarska obec - municipality/village 
trat’ - vineyard 
Composition 

The types of wine is usually labelled with one of the following terms: 

revove vino - grape wine (to distinguish it from other fruit wines; not frequently used) 

stolnf vino - table wine 

jakostnf vino - quality wine where 100 1 of must contained at least 15 kg of fermentable 
sugars 

jakostnf vino odrudove - made of at most three grape varieties 

jakostnf vino znamkove - cuvee, blend of at least two grape varieties 

jakostnf vino s prfvlastkem - quality wine made of at most three grape varieties (label can 

list varieties with contents of at least 15%). Must had to have high must weight (at least 

19 kg of fermentable sugars) and could not be additionally sweetened. For further 

classification see this article. 



French wine 





French wine and French gastronomy are often enjoyed together. 




Vineyards in Vosne-Romanee in Burgundy, a village that is the source of some of 
France's most expensive and sought-after wines. 




Chateau Pichon Longue ville Baron in Bordeaux corresponds well to the traditional image 
of a prestigious French chateau, but in reality, French wineries come in all sizes and 
shapes. 

French wine is produced in several regions throughout France, on over 800,000 hectares 
(over 2 million acres) of vineyards, and in a typical year between 50 and 60 million 
hectolitres of wine is produced, or some 7 to 8 billion bottles. France thus has the world's 
second-largest total vineyard surface (behind Spain) and competes with Italy for the 
position of having the world's largest wine production. The earliest history of French 



wine goes back to the 6th century BC, and many of France's regions count their wine- 
making history to Roman times. Over the last several hundred years, France has been the 
most influential country in the wine world: France is the source of more well-known 
grape varieties (such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Sauvignon Blanc 
and Syrah) and winemaking practices than any other country, the names of many French 
wine regions such as Bordeaux, Burgundy and Champagne are well-known throughout 
the world, and the style of top French wines have long been the benchmark for 
winemaking in most wine-producing countries of the world. French wine therefore plays 
an enormously important role in French identity and pride, and the combination of French 
wine and the equally influential French gastronomy has been an important one. Over the 
last decades, however, international competition in the wine industry has gotten much 
more fierce, and France has been challenged both by winemakers of the New World and 
by traditional wine-producing countries in southern Europe, while domestic consumption 
of wine has decreased. Since the French wine industry is very heterogeneous, and ranges 
from production of very cheap table wine to expensive First Growths and similar 
"luxury" wines, these changes have hit some very hard and others not at all: while some 
regions are plagued with constant overproduction of low-quality wines that can't find 
buyers, and many smaller growers have an increasingly difficult time to make a living, 
some top producers are more profitable than ever before. 

Two central concepts to better-quality French wines are the notion of terroir and the 
Appellation d'Origine Controlee (AOC) system. "Terroir wines" reflect their place of 
origin, which are therefore carefully specified on labels of French wine, usually in terms 
of which appellation the wine comes from. The appellation rules closely define which 
grape varieties and winemaking practices that are allowed in each of France's several 
hundred geographically defined appellations, and those rules must be followed by all 
producers who wish to use an AOC designation for their wines. 

History 

The production of French wine has its origins in the 6th century BC, with the 
colonization of Southern Gaul by Greek settlers. Viticulture soon flourished with the 
founding of the Greek colony of Marseille. Regions in the south were licensed by the 
Roman Empire to produce wines. St. Martin of Tours (316-397) was actively engaged in 
both spreading Christianity and planting vineyards. During the Middle Ages, monks 
maintained vineyards and, more important, wine making knowledge and skills during that 
often turbulent period. Monasteries had the resources, security, and motivation to produce 
a steady supply of wine for both celebrating mass and generating income. During this 
time the best vineyards were owned by the monasteries and their wine was considered to 
be superior. Over time the nobility acquired extensive vineyards. However, the French 
Revolution led to the confiscation of many of the vineyards owned by the Church and 
others. 

Despite some exports from Bordeaux, until about 1850 most wine in France was 
consumed locally. The spread of railroads and the improvement of roads reduced the cost 
of transportation and dramatically increased exports. 




Quality levels and appellation system 



A number of laws to control the quality of French wine were passed in 1935. They 
established the Appellation d'Origine Controlee system, which is governed by a powerful 
oversight board (Institut National des Appellations d’Origine - INAO). Consequently, 
France has one of the oldest appellation systems for wine in the world, and strictest laws 
concerning winemaking and production. Many other European systems are modelled on 
it. With European Union wine laws being modelled on those of the French, this trend is 
likely to continue with further EU expansion. 

French law divides wine into four categories, two falling under the European Union's 
Table Wine category and two falling under the EU's Quality Wine Produced in a Specific 
Region (QWPSR) designation. The categories are: 

Table wine: 

Vin de Table - Carries with it only the producer and the designation that it is from France 
Vin de Pays - Carries with it a specific region within France (for example Vin de Pays 
d’Oc from Languedoc-Roussillon or Vin de Pays de Cotes de Gascogne from Gascony.) 
QWPSR: 

Vin Delimite de Qualite Superieure (VDQS) - Less strict than AOC, not often used 
Appellation d'Origine Controlee (AOC) - Wine from a particular area with many other 
restrictions, including grape varieties and winemaking methods 
Today there are about 450 different wine appellations in France, yet only 15% of all 
French wines enjoy the marketing benefits of AOC designations. 




Grape varieties 





harvested xynisteri grapes 

The climate allows for cultivation of most grape varieties. However local varietals 
(Mavro and Xynisteri) constitute the bulk of current plantations. Maratheftiko is an 
ancient grape varietal that is currently being revived. 



Table showing areas and quantities cultivated by Vines for Wines by variety: 



Variety 2004 Cultivation 



2004 

Quantity 

(kg) m 



% of 
total 



2003 

Quantity 

(kg) B 



% of 
total 



(decares) ^ 



1 


Mavro 


92,140 


35,690,050 


49.6 


33,124,678 


52.5 


2 


Xynisteri 


26,573 


11,102,700 


15.4 


6,750,800 


10.7 


3 


Carignan Noir 26,573 


8,894,350 


12.4 


7,609,261 


12.1 


4 


Cabernet 


8,129 


2,446,508 


3.4 


1,435,575 


2.3 


5 


Malaga 


3,786 


1,501,930 


2.1 


1,551,251 


2.5 


6 


Mataro 


2,331 


1,196,940 


1.7 


1,946,431 


3.1 


7 


Shiraz 


1,968 


149,750 


0.2 


60,656 


0.1 


8 


Ofthalmo 


1,843 


1,119,800 


1.6 


1,122,278 


1.8 


9 


Palomino 


1,800 


2,509,350 


3.5 


2,189,155 


3.5 


10 


Grenache 

Noir 


1,768 


960,611 


1.3 


1,007,031 


1.6 


11 


Alicante 

Bouschet 


1,509 


589,105 


0.8 


527,685 


0.8 


12 


Oeillade 


1,281 


526,735 


0.7 


500,540 


0.8 


13 


Maratheftiko 


1,249 


204,660 


0.3 


185,961 


0.3 




Total 


159,076 


71,996,587 




63,083,177 





Czech wine 



Many regions of the Czech Republic have large wine producing areas. Production 
centres around local grape varieties, but there has been a recent increase in the production 
of established international strains such as Cabernet Sauvignon. Although Czech wines 
are not particularly well-known on the wider international market, they are popular 
domestically and in neighbouring countries. 




Wine cellar in Chvalovice, near Znojmo, Czech Republic. 




Moravia 



Wine production on the Czech Republic centres around the southern region of Moravia 
and particularly around the River Dyje. Indeed, the area around the towns of Velke 
Pavlovice, Mikulov, Znojmo along with the Slovacko region provide 94% of the Czech 
Republic's vineyards. Wine is labelled according to the region where it was produced. 

Bohemia 



The northern region of Bohemia is home to a smaller collection of vineyards, which are 
predominantly sited on the River Elbe (Czech: Labe) and its tributaries Vltava and 
Berounka. Production here focuses on white wines produced from grape varieties such as 
Miiller-Thurgau, Pinot Blanc (Czech: Rulandske bile) and Gewiirztraminer (Czech: 
Tramm cerveny ) and Grliner Veltliner (Czech: Veltmske zelene). 

Grape varieties 

The most commonly grown varieties of grape in the Czech Republic include the 
following (Czech names given in italics, followed by the percentage of vineyard planting 
given over to that variety): 

Red 




Frankovka grapes 

Svatovavrinecke - Saint Laurent, 9% of vineyard planting 
Frankovka - Lemberger, 5.6% 

Zweigeltrebe - Zweigelt, 4.7% 

Rulandske modre - Pinot Noir, 4% 

Modry Portugal - Blauer Portugieser, 3.9% 

Cabernet Sauvignon, 1.3% 



White 




Ryzlink rynsky grapes 

Mliller-Thurgau, 11.2% of vineyard planting 

Veltllnske zelene - Griiner Veltliner, 11% 

Ryzlink vlassky - Welschriesling, 8.5% 

Ryzlink rynsky - Riesling, 7% 

Sauvignon blanc, 5% 

Rulandske bile - Pinot Blanc, 5% 

Chardonnay, 4% 

Rulandske sede - Pinot gris, 3.7% 

Tramln cerveny - Gewiirztraminer, 3% 

Neuburske - Neuburger, 2.3% 

Muskat moravsky - Moravian Muscat, 1.8% 

Veltllnske cervene rane - Friihroter Veltliner, 1.7% 

Irsai Oliver, 0.4% 

Wine festivals 

The wine-producing areas of the Czech Republic are well-known for their wine festivals 
(Czech: vinobrani) which take place around harvest time in September. The biggest of 
these festivals in Znojmo, Mikulov, Brno and Melnik will feature samples of hundreds of 
local wines as well as local music, dancing and cuisine. 



Identification 





Two bottles of Moravian wine (an Irsai Oliver and a Cabernet Moravia), showing the 
usual labelling for geographical origin 

Czech wine will usually come labelled with its variety, as well as detailed description of 
its origin. 

Origin specification 

Typically, the label will specify the wine's origin with the following terms 
vinarska oblast - region, e.g. Morava (Moravia) 

vinarska podoblast - subregion e.g. Velkopavlovicka (Velke Pavlovice) 
vinarska obec - municipality/village 
trat’ - vineyard 
Composition 

The types of wine is usually labelled with one of the following terms: 

revove vino - grape wine (to distinguish it from other fruit wines; not frequently used) 

stolnf vino - table wine 

jakostnf vino - quality wine where 100 1 of must contained at least 15 kg of fermentable 
sugars 

jakostnf vino odrudove - made of at most three grape varieties 

jakostnf vino znamkove - cuvee, blend of at least two grape varieties 

jakostnf vino s prfvlastkem - quality wine made of at most three grape varieties (label can 

list varieties with contents of at least 15%). Must had to have high must weight (at least 

19 kg of fermentable sugars) and could not be additionally sweetened. For further 

classification see this article. 



French wine 





French wine and French gastronomy are often enjoyed together. 




Vineyards in Vosne-Romanee in Burgundy, a village that is the source of some of 
France's most expensive and sought-after wines. 




Chateau Pichon Longue ville Baron in Bordeaux corresponds well to the traditional image 
of a prestigious French chateau, but in reality, French wineries come in all sizes and 
shapes. 

French wine is produced in several regions throughout France, on over 800,000 hectares 
(over 2 million acres) of vineyards, and in a typical year between 50 and 60 million 
hectolitres of wine is produced, or some 7 to 8 billion bottles. France thus has the world's 
second-largest total vineyard surface (behind Spain) and competes with Italy for the 
position of having the world's largest wine production. The earliest history of French 



wine goes back to the 6th century BC, and many of France's regions count their wine- 
making history to Roman times. Over the last several hundred years, France has been the 
most influential country in the wine world: France is the source of more well-known 
grape varieties (such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Sauvignon Blanc 
and Syrah) and winemaking practices than any other country, the names of many French 
wine regions such as Bordeaux, Burgundy and Champagne are well-known throughout 
the world, and the style of top French wines have long been the benchmark for 
winemaking in most wine-producing countries of the world. French wine therefore plays 
an enormously important role in French identity and pride, and the combination of French 
wine and the equally influential French gastronomy has been an important one. Over the 
last decades, however, international competition in the wine industry has gotten much 
more fierce, and France has been challenged both by winemakers of the New World and 
by traditional wine-producing countries in southern Europe, while domestic consumption 
of wine has decreased. Since the French wine industry is very heterogeneous, and ranges 
from production of very cheap table wine to expensive First Growths and similar 
"luxury" wines, these changes have hit some very hard and others not at all: while some 
regions are plagued with constant overproduction of low-quality wines that can't find 
buyers, and many smaller growers have an increasingly difficult time to make a living, 
some top producers are more profitable than ever before. 

Two central concepts to better-quality French wines are the notion of terroir and the 
Appellation d'Origine Controlee (AOC) system. "Terroir wines" reflect their place of 
origin, which are therefore carefully specified on labels of French wine, usually in terms 
of which appellation the wine comes from. The appellation rules closely define which 
grape varieties and winemaking practices that are allowed in each of France's several 
hundred geographically defined appellations, and those rules must be followed by all 
producers who wish to use an AOC designation for their wines. 

History 

The production of French wine has its origins in the 6th century BC, with the 
colonization of Southern Gaul by Greek settlers. Viticulture soon flourished with the 
founding of the Greek colony of Marseille. Regions in the south were licensed by the 
Roman Empire to produce wines. St. Martin of Tours (316-397) was actively engaged in 
both spreading Christianity and planting vineyards. During the Middle Ages, monks 
maintained vineyards and, more important, wine making knowledge and skills during that 
often turbulent period. Monasteries had the resources, security, and motivation to produce 
a steady supply of wine for both celebrating mass and generating income. During this 
time the best vineyards were owned by the monasteries and their wine was considered to 
be superior. Over time the nobility acquired extensive vineyards. However, the French 
Revolution led to the confiscation of many of the vineyards owned by the Church and 
others. 

Despite some exports from Bordeaux, until about 1850 most wine in France was 
consumed locally. The spread of railroads and the improvement of roads reduced the cost 
of transportation and dramatically increased exports. 




Quality levels and appellation system 



A number of laws to control the quality of French wine were passed in 1935. They 
established the Appellation d'Origine Controlee system, which is governed by a powerful 
oversight board (Institut National des Appellations d’Origine - INAO). Consequently, 
France has one of the oldest appellation systems for wine in the world, and strictest laws 
concerning winemaking and production. Many other European systems are modelled on 
it. With European Union wine laws being modelled on those of the French, this trend is 
likely to continue with further EU expansion. 

French law divides wine into four categories, two falling under the European Union's 
Table Wine category and two falling under the EU's Quality Wine Produced in a Specific 
Region (QWPSR) designation. The categories are: 

Table wine: 

Vin de Table - Carries with it only the producer and the designation that it is from France 
Vin de Pays - Carries with it a specific region within France (for example Vin de Pays 
d’Oc from Languedoc-Roussillon or Vin de Pays de Cotes de Gascogne from Gascony.) 
QWPSR: 

Vin Delimite de Qualite Superieure (VDQS) - Less strict than AOC, not often used 
Appellation d'Origine Controlee (AOC) - Wine from a particular area with many other 
restrictions, including grape varieties and winemaking methods 
Today there are about 450 different wine appellations in France, yet only 15% of all 
French wines enjoy the marketing benefits of AOC designations. 

Wine styles and grape varieties 

All common styles of wine - red, rose, white (dry, semi-sweet and sweet), sparkling and 
fortified - are produced in France. In most of these styles, the French production ranges 
from cheap and simple versions to some of the world's internationally most famous and 
expensive examples. The possible exception is French fortified wine, which tend to be 
relatively unknown outside France's border. 

A very large number of grape varieties are cultivated in France, including both 
internationally well-known and obscure, little noted local varieties. In fact, most of the 
so-called "international varieties" are of French origin, or became known and spread 
because of their cultivation in France. Since French appellation rules generally restrict 
wines from each region, district or appellation to a small number of allowed grape 
varieties, there are in principle no varieties that are commonly planted throughout all of 
France. Most varieties are therefore associated with a certain region, such as Cabernet 
Sauvignon in Bordeaux and Syrah in Rhone, although there are varieties that are 
commonly found in two or more regions, such as Chardonnay in Bourgogne (including 
Chablis) and Champagne, and Sauvignon Blanc in Loire and Bordeaux. As an example of 
the rules, although climatic conditions would seem to allow good examples to be 




produced, there are no Cabernet Sauvignon wines from Rhone, Riesling wines from 
Loire, or Chardonnay wines from Bordeaux. (If such wines were produced they would 
have to be declassified to Vin de Pays or French table wine, and would not be allowed to 
display any appellation name or even region of origin.) 

Traditionally, many French wines have been blended from several grape varieties rather 
than varietally pure. Varietal white wines have been, and are still, more common than 
varietal red wines. 

In many respects, French wines have more of a regional than a national identity, as 
evidenced by different grape varieties, production methods and different classification 
systems in the various regions. Quality levels and prices varies enormously, and some 
wines are made for immediate consumption while other are meant for long-time 
cellaring. If there is one thing that most French wines have in common, then it is that 
most styles have developed as wines meant to accompany food, be it a quick baguette, a 
simple bistro meal or a full-fledged multi-course menu. More seldomly have the wines 
been developed or styled as "bar wines" for drinking on their own, or to impress in 
tastings already when young. 

Labelling practices 



6 <5 




vigneron 

independant 



© * 

The labels on a bottle of French wine often carry important information that can help the 
consumer evaluate its potential quality. Following are some potentially important 
phrases: 

"Mis en bouteille au..." chateau, domaine, or propriete indicate the wine was actually 
made at the same location as it was grown. " Au chateau" means that it was bottled at the 
chateau printed on the wine's label, using grapes from vineyards around the chateau itself. 
"Au domaine" means that it was bottled "at the field," while "a la propriete" means 
bottled "at the estate." "Mis en bouteille dans nos caves" or "mis en bouteille dans nos 
chais" means that it was probably bottled in a different place than it was grown, using 
grapes traded and bought on the open market. 

"Vigneron independant" is a special mark of independent wine-makers, to distinguish 
themselves from larger corporate winemaking operations and symbolize a return to the 




basics of the craft of wine-making. Bottles from independent makers carry a special logo 
that is usually printed on the foil cap covering the cork. 

In previous times, France had no tradition of varietal labelling of wines, with the 
exception of wines from the Alsace region, with their Germanic influence. This was not 
just because wines were made blended, not even traditionally varietally pure wines (such 
as Chardonnay-based Chablis or Chenin Blanc-based Vouvray) displayed varietial names 
on the label. Varietal labelling was not even allowed under appellation rules. After New 
World wines made the varietal names "household names" on the export market in the 
later part of the 20th century, more French wines have started to use varietal labelling. In 
general, varietal labelling is most common for the Vin de Pays category. Some AOC 
wines in "simpler" categories are also allowed to display varietal names, but these wines 
are rather few. For most AOC wines, if varietal names are found, it will be in small print 
on a back label. 

If varietal names are displayed, common EU rules apply: 

If a single varietal name is used, the wine must be made from a minimum of 85% of this 
variety. 

If two or more varietal names are used, only the displayed varieties are allowed. 

If two or more varietal names are used, they must in general appear in decreasing order. 

Terroir 

Terroir 




A Cahors chateau and vineyard 

Terroir refers to the unique combination of natural factors associated with any particular 
vineyard. These factors include such things as soil, underlying rock, altitude, slope of hill 
or terrain, orientation toward the sun, and microclimate (typical rain, winds, humidity, 
temperature variations, etc.) No two vineyards, not even in the same area, have exactly 
the same terroir. 

Wine regions of France 

The major wine regions of France are: 



Alsace, a primarily white wine region in eastern France. Alsace is situated on river Rhine 
and on the border with Germany, a country with which it shares many grape varieties as 
well as a long tradition of varietal labelling. 

Bordeaux, a large region on the Atlantic coast, which has a long history of exporting its 
wines oversea. Primarily a red wine region, the wine style of which is perhaps the world's 
most imitated. The better Bordeaux wines are powerful, tannic and very long-lived, and 
include some of the most collected and traded fine wines of the world. Bordeaux also 
makes dry and sweet white wines and is the home to some of the world's most famous 
sweet wines, from the Sauternes appellation. 

Burgundy or Bourgogne in eastern France is a region where red and white wines are 
equally important. Probably more terroir-conscious than any other region, Burgundy is 
divided into the largest number of appellations of any French region. Better Burgundies, 
both red and white, are often described as elegant wines, and the top wines from 
Burgundy's heartland in Cote d'Or command some of the highest prices of any wines in 
the world. Two parts of Burgundy that are sometimes considered as separate regions are: 
Beaujolais in the south, close to the Rhone valley region, where almost only red wines 
are made, in a fruity style that is usually consumed young. 

Chablis halfway between Cote d'Or and Paris, where white wines are produced on chalky 
soil giving a more crisp and steely style than the rest of Burgundy. 

Champagne in eastern France, close to Belgium and Luxembourg, is the coldest of 
France's major wine regions and home to the world's most famous sparkling wine. 
Corsica, an island in the Mediterranean, the wines of which are primarily consumed on 
the island itself. 

Jura, a small region in the mountains close to Switzerland where some unique wine styles 
are produced. 

Languedoc-Roussillon, by far the largest region in terms of vineyard surface, and the 
region in which much of France's cheap bulk wines have been produced. While still the 
source of much of France's and Europe's overproduction, the so-called wine lake, 
Languedoc-Roussillon is also the home of some of France's most innovative producers, 
which usually try to combine traditional French wine and international styles and don't 
hesitate to take lessons from the New World. Much Languedoc-Roussillon wine is sold as 
Vin de Pays d'Oc. 

Loire valley, primarily a white wine region which stretches over a large distance along 
the Loire river in central and western France, and were grape varieties and wine styles 
vary along the river. Four subregions are situated along the river: 

Upper Loire is known as Sauvignon Blanc land, producing wines such as Sancerre AOC, 
but also consists of several VDQS areas. 

Touraine produces cold climate-styled white wines (dry, sweet or sparkling) from Chenin 
Blanc in Vouvray AOC and red wines from Cabernet Franc in Bourgueil AOC and 
Chinon AOC. 

Anjou-Saumur is similar to the Tourain wines with respect to varieties, but the dry 
Savennieres AOC and sweet Coteaux du Layon AOC are often more powerful than their 
upstream neighbours. Saumur AOC and Saumur-Champigny AOC provides reds. 

Pays Nantais is situated closest to the Atlantic, and Muscadet AOC produces white wines 
from the Melon de Bourgogne grape. 




Provence, in the southeast and close to the Mediterranean. Famous for rose wines but also 
produces much red wine. 

Rhone valley, primarily a red wine region in southeastern France, along the Rhone river. 
The styles and varietal composition of northern and southern Rhone differ, but both parts 
compete with Bordeaux for the image as a traditional producer of powerful red wines. 
Savoy or Savoie, primarily a white wine region in the Alps close to Switzerland, where 
many grapes unique to this region are cultivated. 

South West France or Sud-Ouest, a somewhat heterogeneous collection of wine areas 
inland or south of Bordeaux. Some areas produce primarily red wines in a style 
remini scient of red Bordeaux, while other produce dry or sweet white wines. Areas 
within Sud-Ouest include among other: 

Bergerac and other areas of upstream Dordogne 
Areas of upstream Garonne including Cahors. 

Areas in Gascony, also home the production of Armagnac, Madiran, Cotes de Gascogne, 
Cotes de Saint-Mont, Pacherenc du Vic-Bilh and Tursan. 

Bearn, such as Jurangon 

Basque Country areas, such as Irouleguy. 

There are also several smaller production areas situated outside these major regions. 

Many of those are VDQS wines, and some, particularly those in more northern locations, 
are remnants of productions areas which were once larger. 

Trends 

France has traditionally been the largest consumer of its own wines. However, wine 
consumption has been dropping in France for 40 years. During the decade of the 1990s, 
per capita consumption dropped by nearly 20 percent. Therefore, French wine producers 
must rely increasingly on foreign markets. However, consumption has also been dropping 
in other potential markets such as Italy, Spain and Portugal. 

The result has been a continuing wine glut, often called the wine lake, that has led to the 
distillation of wine into industrial alcohol as well as a government program to pay 
farmers to pull up their grape vines through vine pull schemes. A large part of this glut is 
caused by the re-emergence of Languedoc wine. 

Immune from these problems has been the market for Champagne as well as the market 
for the expensive ranked or classified wines. However, these constitute only about five 
percent of French production. 

French regulations in 1979 created simple rules for the then-new category of Vin de pays. 
The Languedoc-Roussillon region has taken advantage of its ability to market varietal 
wines. 



Georgian wine 





Georgian wine 



Georgia is the oldest wine producing region of Europe, if not the world. Because of 
this, it is often referred to as "The birth place of wine" or "The cradle of wine making". 
The fertile valleys of the South Caucasus, which Georgia straddles, are believed by many 
archaeologists to be the source of the world's first cultivated grapevines and neolithic 
wine production, over 7000 years ago. Many also believe that the etymology of the word 
wine comes from the Georgian word for wine - gvino. Due to the many millennia of wine 
in Georgian history, the traditions of its viticulture are entwined and inseparable with the 
country's national identity. 

Among the best-known regions of Georgia where wine is produced are Kakheti (further 
divided onto micro-regions of Telavi and Kvareli), Kartli, Imereti, Racha-Lechkhumi and 
Kvemo Svaneti, and Abkhazia. 

History 



It has been archaeologically proven that the roots of Georgian viticulture are between 
7000 and 5000 BC, when peoples of South Caucasus discovered that wild grape juice 
turned into wine when it was left buried through the winter in a shallow pit. This 
knowledge was nourished by experience, and from 4000 BC Georgians were cultivating 
grapes and burying clay vessels, kvevri, in which to store their wine ready for serving at 
perfect ground temperature. When filled with the fermented juice of the harvest, the 
kvevris are topped with a wooden lid and then covered and sealed with earth. Some may 
remain entombed for up to 50 years. 




This love affair with the grape was given further encouragement by the arrival of Saint 
Nino in the 4th century. Fleeing Roman persecution in Cappadocia, in what is now 
central Turkey, and bearing a cross made from vine wood and bound with her own hair. 
Saint Nino was swept up in the warm embrace of the Georgians, who became early 
converts to Christianity (in 337 AD, or in 319 AD as recent research suggests.). Thus the 
cross and the vine became inextricably linked in the Georgian psyche, and the advent of 
the new faith served to sanction these ancient vinous practices. For centuries, Georgians 
drank, and in some areas still drink, their delicious wine from horns (called kantsi in 
Georgian) and skins specially treated for this purpose. These drinking implements came 
from their herd animals, as no part of the valued and respected beasts went to waste. The 
horns were cleaned, boiled and polished, creating a unique, durable and quite stylish 
drinking vessel. These horns were prized by the merchants and warriors that travelled the 
fertile valleys of the Caucasus. Today they are still a prized symbol of the historic eras. 

Wine vessels of every shape, size and design account for the bulk of earthenware artifacts 
unearthed by Georgian archaeologists. The Georgian craft of pottery is millennia old. 
Ancient artifacts attest to the high skill of Georgian craftsmen in whose hands water, clay 
and fire turned into an object of an exceptional beauty much admired by people. The 
most impressive of all archaeological finds are kvevri, giant clay vessels in which wine 
was fermented and stored up. The old ones used to dig them into soil, just as we are doing 
now. Georgian museums have on display numerous clay vessels of all designations. 

Some were used to ferment grape juice and to store up wine, such as kvevri, chapi and 
satskhao, and others were used for drinking, such as khelada, doki, sura, chinchila, deda- 
khelada, dzhami and marani. For ages, artisans polished their skills to improve these 
vessels. The secrets of trade passed on from fathers to sons. Modern potters carefully 
study the ancient craft and decorative patterns and create their own pottery making 
extensive use of ancient national traditions and using the latest scientific and 
technological achievements to enrich ancient traditions. 

Many of the unearthed silver, gold and bronze artifacts of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC 
bare chased imprints of the vine, grape clusters and leaves. The State Museum of Georgia 
has on display a cup of high-carat gold set with gems, an ornamented silver pitcher and 
some other artifacts dated the 2nd millennium BC The museum of history has a cameo 
depicting Bacchus. Numerous sarcophagi with wine pitchers and ornamented wine cups, 
found in ancient tombs, are a proof that wine was nothing unusual for Georgians at all 
times. On the basis of this evidence it is safe to say that viticulture is a preeminent theme 
in the long record of Georgian history. 

Viticulture in Georgia today 

Georgia ranks 4th in grape production in the former Soviet Union behind Russia, 

Ukraine, and Moldova, though Georgian wines have always been the most highly prized 
and sought after. Unfortunately due to this, Georgian wines have recently begun to be 
widely imitated and counterfeited, exacerbated by the lax quality control and regulation 
standards of the nations within the CIS. Reportedly, as much as 90% of "Georgian" wines 
that were sold in Russia were from an indeterminate origin, as there is virtually no 




protection of Georgian wine names within Russia. This seems to be one of the main 
reasons that Georgian wines (along with Moldovan wines) were baned from Russia in 
March 2006. However, there also seems to be a heavy political dimension to the ban as 
well. Moscow markets have Georgian wines with names like Kindzmarauli produced in 
cities throughout Russia. Regrettably falsification occurs within Georgia as well, but has 
severally been clamped down upon by the Georgian government recently in order to 
mitigate the Russian ban claims, and to restore its prestige while expanding export 
opportunities to Western markets. The wine embargo has forced the Georgian 
government to officially recognize Georgia's role in falsification and many wineries have 
been closed. Despite these efforts, falsification remains a problem and buyers should 
confirm they are purchasing from an established, and reputable company. Reportedly 
recent exports to Germany were sent back to Georgia after they tested positive for 
falsification at German Customs. 

However the authentic Georgian wine is winning praise, and it was announced as of June 
18, 2007 that a three-year SIPPO - Swiss Import Promotion Program - (aimed at helping 
small and medium sized enterprises in emerging and transition markets, gain access to 
Swiss and EU markets), will promote Georgian wines in Europe. An agreement between 
SIPPO and the Georgian-Swiss Business Association was signed in which they promised 
to implement Georgian wine support projects undertaken by the Swiss Ministry of 
Economy. The three-year SIPPO program targets the promotion of Georgian wine in 
Europe and plans to develop the Georgian wine industry so that it will match European 
standards of marketing, winemaking, bottling, and branding. SIPPO also promises to 
promote Georgian wineries at fairs and exhibitions held across Europe, and to seek 
potential European partners after exhibitions. Trainings, seminars and workshops in 
marketing and branding are planned to be carried out during the six month preparatory 
period in the framework of the SIPPO program, and wine promotion at European 
exhibitions is scheduled for the spring of 2008. 

A group of SIPPO experts went on a three-day monitoring visit to wine factories in the 
Georgian regions of Kakheti (considered to be the cradle of Georgian wine in east 
Georgia) and Racha (a highland region in west Georgia renowned for the Usakhelauri 
and Khvanchkara wine that is made there). The group looked through all wineries, 
checked their technology and equipment standards, tested all possible sorts of Georgian 
wines and came to the conclusion that Georgian wine is quite ready to be exported to 
Europe. 

Dr. Otto Geiges, of Geiges Consulting (a food quality management consulting company), 
was surprised at the high quality of Georgian wines. He also found that most Georgian 
wineries were perfectly equipped and adjusted to Western standards. He predicts that 
Georgia has a good chance of making it in the Western market and says that, in order to 
succeed, Georgia must first learn the tastes of the Western market; begin using only the 
best of their grapes; and to keep away from the old type of low quality sweet wine they 
used to sell in large quantities to Russia. “These sorts of wines have little chance at 
Western market,” he told Georgian media. 




However he also stated “I didn’t expect such high quality, we tested over 60 wines and 
many of them will have a good chance in Switzerland and other western markets.” He 
personally liked Mtsvane and Saperavi, and appears quite confident that the European 
market and particularly Switzerland is ready to accept Georgian wines. 

Oliver Stern, the SIPPO Project Manager, explained that Georgian wines are the best 
from Eastern Europe, and that Georgia has great potential. “This is the reason SIPPO 
took an interest in Georgia,” he said. He personally liked Tetra but thinks that Saperavi is 
the most interesting variety due to the particular microsomes it contains. “Microsomes 
are the very things that wine-lovers in Switzerland are starting to demand,” he explained 
to Georgian media. “The best chance for impacting European markets falls to the 
wineries which still produce wines from the local varieties, and which also think of the 
quality, and are not focused on harvesting high volumes of grapes and producing high 
volumes of wine*.” 

Growing conditions 

When it comes to wine-making, Georgia is blessed. Extremes of weather are unusual: 
summers tend to be short-sleeve sunny, and winters mild and frost-free. Natural springs 
abound, and the Caucasian Mountain streams drain mineral-rich water into the valleys. 
Georgia's moderate climate and moist air, influenced by the Black Sea, provide the best 
conditions for vine cultivating. 

Grape varieties in Georgia 

Traditional Georgian grape varieties are little known in the West. Now that the wines of 
Eastern and Central Europe are coming to international awareness, grapes from this 
region are becoming better known. Although there are nearly 500 to choose from, only 38 
varieties are officially grown for commercial viticulture in Georgia: 

Rkatsiteli (white) is a variety that is so widely grown in Eastern and Central Europe that 
it ranks third in the world in hectares grown. It is the most important grape varietiy used 
to make Georgian white wines. It is high in acidity and is capable of producing wines 
with fine character. 

Saperavi (red) produces substantial deep red wines that are suitable for extended aging, 
perhaps up to fifty years. Saperavi has the potential to produce high alcohol levels and is 
used extensively for blending with other lesser varieties. It is the most important grape 
variety used to make Georgian red wines. 

Mtsvani (or Mtsvane) (white) is also important in Georgian wines, and is often blended 
with Rkatsiteli to which it adds a fruity, aromatic balance. In the Georgian language 
Mtsvane means green. 

Alexandrouli (Alexandreuli,Alexsandrouli, red) 

Alexandria 
Tsolikauri (white) 

Tetra (white) 




Mujuretuli (red) 

Ojaleshi (red) is cultivated on the mountain slopes overhanging the banks of the 
Tskhenis-Tskali river, particularly in the Orbeli village and Samegrelo district (Western 
Georgia). 

Usakhelauri (red) is cultivated mostly in the Zubi-Okureshi district in Western Georgia. 
Izabela (red) 

Tavkveri (red) 

Asuretuli (red) 

Cabernet Sauvignon (red) 

Aladasturi (red) 

Tsitska (white) 

Khikhvi (white) is grown in Kardanakhi. 

Dzvelshava 

Krakhuna 

Georgian wine varieties 

Traditionally, Georgian wines carry the name of the source region, district, or village, 
much like French regional wines such as Bordeaux or Burgundy. As with these French 
wines, Georgian wines are usually a blend of two or more grapes. Georgian wines are 
classified as sweet, semi-sweet, semi-dry, dry, fortified and sparkling. The semi-sweet 
varieties are the most popular. 

White 

Pirosmani is a semi-sweet white wine made from a 40% Tsolikauri, 60% Tsitska blend. It 
has won 3 gold medals and one silver medal at international competitions. 

Tsinandali is a blend of Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grapes from the micro regions of Telavi 
and Kvareli in the Kakheti region. 

Tvishi is a natural semi-sweet white wine made from Tsolikauri in the Lechkhumi region. 
It has won one gold medal, two silver medals and one bronze medal in international 
competitions. 

Mtsvani is a dry white wine made from Mtsvani. 

Alaznis Veli is white semi-sweet wine made from the Rkatsiteii, Tetra, Tsolikauri and 
other industrial grape varieties cultivated in Western and Eastern Georgia. The wine of 
straw color has a characteristic aroma, a fine, fresh and a harmonious taste. It contains 9- 
1 1 % alcohol and has 6-7% titrated acidity. 

Anakopia is a white semi-dry table wine made from the Tsolikauri grape variety grown in 
the Sukhumi and Gudauta districts in Abkhazia. The color range is from light to dark- 
straw. It has a specific aroma and a subtle fresh taste. The alcohol content in the ready 
wine is 9-11%, sugar content 1-2 g/100 ml, titrated acidity 5-8 g/1. The wine has been 
produced since 1978. 

Tbilisuri is pink semi-dry wine produced since 1984. It is made from the Saperavi, 
Cabernet and Rkatsiteli grape varieties grown in East Georgia. The wine has a rich fruity 
taste. The alcohol content is 9-11.5%, sugar content 1-2%, titrated acidity 5-7 g/1. 
Khikkhvi is a vintage white dessert wine made from the Khikhvi grape variety grown in 
Kardanakhi. It has pleasant amber color, a characteristic aroma and a delicate taste. Its 
strength is 15 vol.%, sugar content 18-20%, titrated acidity 4-8 g/1. The wine has been 
produced since 1924. At international competitions it received 4 gold medals. 




Saamo is a vintage dessert white sweet wine is made from the Rkatsiteli grape variety 
cultivated in the Kardanakhi vineyards of the Gurjaani district in Kakheti. It takes the 
wine three years to mature. The golden-color wine has an original fine bouquet, a 
pleasant taste with a harmonious honey fragrance. When ready for use, the wine contains 
17% alcohol, 13% sugar and has 4-6 g/1 titrated acidity. It has been manufactured since 
1980. At international exhibitions Saamo was awarded 4 gold and 1 silver medal. 

Gelati is a white dry ordinary wine made of the Tsolikauri, Tsitska and Krakhuna grape 
varieties cultivated in Western Georgia. The wine of straw color has a characteristic savor 
with a fruity flavor and fresh harmonious taste. Its strength is 10.0-12.5 vol.% and titrated 
acidity 5-8%. 

Kakheti is a white table wine made of the Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grape varieties 
cultivated in Kakheti. The amber-color wine has a fruity aroma with a vanillic flavor. It is 
characterized by an energetic, velvety and harmonious taste. Its strength is 10.5-13.0 
vol.% and titrated acidity 4-6%. At international wine competitions the Kakheti wine was 
awarded one silver and one bronze medal. It has been produced since 1948. 

Bodbe is made from the Rkatsiteli grape variety in the village of Bodbe in the Magaro 
microdistrict, one of the most beautiful places of Kakheti. The wine has a light-straw 
color, a fine aroma of wild flowers and a pleasing tender taste which give the wine 
piquancy highly estimated by connoisseurs. The ready wine contains 10.5-11.5% alcohol 
and has 5-7% titrated acidity. 

Dimi is an Imeretian-type white ordinary wine. It is made from the Tsolikauri and 
Krakhuna grape varieties grown on small areas in Imereti (Western Georgia) by the old 
local technique consisting in fermenting the grapes pulp to which some quantity of grapes 
husks is added. The dark-straw color has a pleasant specific bouquet with a fruity flavor, 
a fresh harmonious taste and savory astringency. Its strength is 10.5-13.0 vol.% and 
titrated acidity 6.5-8.0%. The wine has been produced since 1977. 

Gareji is a white dry ordinary wine made of the Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grape varieties 
cultivated in Kakheti. The wine has a color ranging from pale-straw to amber, a pleasing 
bouquet and a full harmonious taste. Its strength is 10.0-12.5 vol. % and titrated acidity 4- 
7%. 

Ereti is a white dry ordinary wine made from the Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grape varieties. 

It has a straw color, a fine fruity bouquet and a full fresh and harmonious taste. Its 
strength is 10.0-12.5 vol.% and titrated acidity 5-8%. 

Shuamta is a dry wine produced since 1984. It is made from the Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane 
grape varieties according to the Kakhetian recipe. The wine is of amber or dark-amber 
color and has a moderately astringent harmonious taste with a fruity aroma. The alcohol 
content is 10-12%, titrated acidity 4-6 g/1, extractibility over 25 g/1. 

Alzani (white) is a mid-straw colored semi-sweet wine made from 100% Rkatsiteli. The 
name comes from one of the major river systems of Georgia that borders Georgia with 
Azerbaijan. The climate is slightly warmer than the rest of the Georgian Wine growing 
regions and gives rise to much sweeter grapes than those found elsewhere. It has won one 
silver and one gold metal in international competitions. 

Red 

Akhasheni is a naturally semi-sweet red wine made from the Saperavi grape variety 
grown in the Akhasheni vineyards of the Gurdzhaani district in Kakheti. The wine of 




dark-pomegranate color has a harmonious velvety taste with a chocolate flavor. It 
contains 10.5-12.0% alcohol, 3-5% sugar and has 5-7% titrated acidity. The wine has 
been manufactured since 1958. At international exhibitions it was awarded 6 gold and 5 
silver medals. 

Khvanchkara is a fine naturally semi-sweet red wine made from the Alexandria & 
Mudzhuretuli grape varieties cultivated in the Khvanchkara vineyards in Western 
Georgia. The wine has a strong specific bouquet and a harmonious velvety taste with a 
raspberry flavor. It is of dark-ruby color. The Khvanchkara wine is one of the most 
popular Georgian semi-sweet wines. It contains 10.5-12.0% alcohol, 3-5% sugar and has 
5. 0-7.0% titrated acidity. The wine has been manufactured since 1907. For its excellent 
taste it was awarded 2 gold & 4 silver medals at international exhibitions. 

Kindzmarauli is a high quality naturally semi-sweet wine of dark-red color. It is made 
from the Saperavi grape variety cultivated on the slopes of the Caucasian mountains in 
the Kvareli district of Kakheti. It has a strong characteristic bouquet and aroma, a gentle 
harmonious and velvety taste. The wonderful taste and curative properties have won 
Kindzmarauli general recognition. The wine contains 10.5-12.0% alcohol, 3-5% sugar 
and has 5.0-7.0% titrated acidity. It has been manufactured since 1942. For its supreme 
qualities Kindzmarauli was 3 gold, 4 silver & 1 bronze medal at international wine 
competitions. 

Mukuzani is a dry red wine made from 100% Saperavi in Mukuzani, Kakheti. The wine 
is sourced from the very best wines of the vintage that have been fermented at controlled 
temperatures and with selected yeast strains. The wines are then matured for 3 years in 
oak to give the wine-added complexity and flavor. Mukuzani is considered to be the best 
of the Georgian Dry Red wines made from Saperavi. It has won 9 gold medals, 2 silver 
medals and 3 bronze medals in international competitions. 

Napareuli 

Ojaleshi is one of the best red semi-sweet wines made from the grape variety of the same 
name cultivated on the mountain slopes overhanging the banks of the Tskhenis-Tskali 
river, particularly in the Orbeli village and Samegrelo district (Western Georgia). 
Odzhaleshi has dark-ruby colour, a gentle bouquet and aroma, a harmonious rich taste 
with a fruity flavor. It contains 10-12% alcohol, 3-5% sugar and has a titrated acidity of 
5-6%. 

Pirosmani is a naturally semi-sweet red wine. It is made from the Saperavi grape variety 
cultivated in the Akhoebi vineyards of the Kardanakhi village in the Alazani Valley. The 
wine is fermented in clay jars buried in the ground, an ancient Kakhetian technology of 
wine-making. When ready for use, the wine contains 10.5-12% alcohol, 1. 5-2.5% sugar 
and has 5-7% titrated acidity. 

Saperavi is a red wine made from the Saperavi grape variety grown in some areas of 
Kakheti. It is an extractive wine with a characteristic bouquet, a harmonious taste and 
pleasant astringency. Its strength is 10.5-12.5% and titrated acidity 5-7%. At the 
international wine competitions this wine received one gold and one silver medal. It has 
been produced since 1886. 

Usakhelauri is a naturally semi-sweet wine, which is superior to all other wines of this 
kind for its gentle and subtle qualities. It is produced from the excellent Usakhelauri 
grape variety cultivated mostly in the Zubi-Okureshi district in Western Georgia. 
Vineyards are arranged on the mountain slopes. The wine has attractive ruby color. 




harmonious sweetness with a wild strawberry flavor. It is noted for a pleasant velvety 
taste, a delicate bouquet and inimitable piquancy. The wine contains up to 10.5-12.0% 
alcohol, 3-5% sugar and has 5-7% titrated acidity. It has been manufactured since 1943. 
The word "Usakhelauri" means "nameless" in Georgia. The wine was so fine that it was 
hard to find an adequate name for it. At international exhibitions Usakhelauri was 
awarded 2 gold and 3 silver medals. 

Apsny is a naturally semi-sweet red wine made of red grape varieties cultivated in 
Abkhazia. The wine of pomegranate color has a pleasant aroma, a full and harmonious 
taste with gentle sweetness. When ready for use, the wine contains 9-10% alcohol, 3-5% 
sugar and has 5-7% titrated acidity. At an international exhibition the wine received one 
silver medal. 

Lykhny is a naturally semi-sweet pink wine made of the Izabela grape variety cultivated 
in Abkhazia. The wine has pink color, a specific aroma and a fresh harmonious taste. 
When ready for use, the wine contains 8-9% alcohol, 3-5% sugar and has 5-7% titrated 
acidity. At international exhibitions Lykhny was awarded one silver and one bronze 
medal. 

Mtatsminda is a pink table semi-dry wine produced since 1984. It is prepared by the 
original technology from the Saperavi, Tavkveri, Asuretuli, Rkatsiteli and other grape 
varieties grown in Tetritskaro, Kaspi, Gori and Khashuri districts. The wine is 
characterized by a harmonious taste with a fruity aroma and a beautiful color. The 
alcohol content is 9-11.5%, sugar content 1-2%, titrated acidity 5-7 g/1. 

Aguna is a pink semi-dry wine produced since 1984. It is made from the Saperavi, 
Cabernet and Rkatsiteli grape varieties grown in East Georgia. The wine has a rich fruity 
taste. The alcohol content is 9-11.5%, sugar content 1-2%, titrated acidity 5-7 g/1. 
Sachino is a pink semi-dry wine produced since 1984. It is made by the original method 
from the Aleksandreuli, Aladasturi, Odzhaleshi, Tsitska, Tsolikauri and other grape 
varieties cultivated in West Georgia. The wine is notable for a mild taste, a moderate 
extractibility, a pure aroma and a beautiful color. The alcohol content is 9-1 1.5%, sugar 
content 1-2%, titrated acidity 5-7 g/1. 

Barakoni is a naturally semi-dry red wine made from the unique Alexandreuli and 
Mudzhuretuli grape varieties cultivated in Western Georgia on the steep slopes of the 
Rioni gorge in the Caucasian mountains. This top quality wine of light-ruby color has a 
fine fragrance of violets, natural pleasant sweetness and a tender harmonious taste. When 
ready for use, Barakoni contains 10-12% alcohol, 1.5-2.5% sugar and has 5-7% titrated 
acidity. The wine has been manufactured since 1981. 

Salkhino is a liqueur-type of dessert wine made from the Izabella grape variety with an 
addition of the Dzvelshava, Tsolikauri and other grape varieties cultivated in the 
Mayakovski district (Western Georgia). It has characteristic ruby or pomegranate color. 
The alcohol content is 15%, sugar content 30%, titrated acidity 3-7 g/1. At international 
competitions the wine received 6 gold medals. It has been produced since 1928 
Alaverdi (White and Red) 

Alazani (Red) is a light red, semi-sweet wine made from a 60% Saperavi, 40% Rkatsiteli 
blend. It has won 3 mold medals and 3 silver medals at international competitions. The 
name comes from one of the major river systems of Georgia that borders Georgia with 
Azerbaijan. The climate is slightly warmer than the rest of the Georgian Wine growing 
regions and gives rise to much sweeter grapes than those found elseware. 




Rkatsiteli Mtsvani 
Saperavi Dzelshavi 
Fortified 

Kardanakhi is a fortified vintage white wine of the type. It is made from the Rkatsiteli 
grape variety cultivated in the Kardanakhi vineyards of the Gurdzhaani district. The wine 
matures in oak barrels for three years. The amber color wine has a pleasant specific 
bouquet with a typical port wine flavor and a fine honey fragrance. It contains 18% 
alcohol, 10% sugar and has 4-6% titrated acidity. It was awarded 8 gold and one silver 
international medals. 

Anaga is a madeira-type top-quality strong wine made from the Rkatsiteli, Khikhvi and 
Mtsvane grape varieties cultivated in the Gurjaani, Sighnaghi and Tsitel-Tskaro districts. 
The wine has light-golden to dark-amber color, a strong peculiar bouquet, an extractive 
harmonious taste with a clearly pronounced Madeira touch. The alcohol content is 19%, 
sugar content 4 g/ml, titrated acidity 3-7 g/1. The Anaga wine was awarded 1 
international silver medal. 

Sighnaghi is an ordinary strong wine of the port type made from the Rkatsiteli grape 
variety grown in the Sighnaghi district in Kakheti. The amber-color wine has an 
extractive harmonious taste with a clearly pronounced fruity touch. The alcohol content 3 
g/100 ml, titrated acidity 5 g/1. 

Veria is a fortified vintage white port made from the Rkatsiteli, Mtsvane, Chinuri and 
other commercial grape varieties grown in Eastern Georgia. The amber-color wine has a 
peculiar aroma and harmonious taste. Its strength is 18 vol.%, sugar content 7%, titrated 
acidity 3-7 g/1. At an international wine competition it received 1 gold medal. The wine 
has been produced since 1977. 

Lelo is a port- type wine made from the Tsitska and Tsolikauri grape varieties grown in 
Zestaphoni, Terjola, Baghdad and Vani districts. The wine has a rich harmonious taste 
with a fruity aroma and a beautiful golden color. The alcohol content is 19%, sugar 
content 5 %, titrated acidity 6 g/1. 

Marabda is is a port-type wine made from the Rkatsiteli grape variety grown in Mameuli 
and Bolnisi districts. It has a full harmonious taste with a fruity aroma & light-golden 
color. The alcohol content is 19%, sugar content 5%, titrated acidity 6 g/1. 

Kolkheti is a fortified vintage white port is made from Tsolikauri, Tsitska and other 
commercial white grape varieties grown in Western Georgia. The amber-color wine has a 
specific bouquet and harmonious taste. Its strength is 18 vol.%, sugar content 7 %, 
titrated acidity 3-7 g/1. At an international competition the wine received one silver 
medal. It has been produced since 1977. 

Taribana is a port-type wine made from the Rkatsiteli grape veriety cultivated in Kakheti. 
The wine has a mild oily taste, a low sugar content and a beautiful color. The alcohol 
content is 19%, sugar content 5%, titrated acidity 5 g/1. 

Wine styles 

Lelo is a port- type wine made from the Tsitska and Tsolikauri grape varieties grown in 
Zestaponi, Terjola, Baghdad and Vani districts. The wine has a rich harmonious taste 
with a fruity aroma and a beautiful golden color. The alcohol content is 19%, sugar 
content 5 %, titrated acidity 6 g/1. 

Wine-producing Regions of Georgia 




There are five main regions of viniculture, the principal region being Kakheti, which 
produces seventy percent of Georgia's grapes. Traditionally, Georgian wines carry the 
name of the source region, district, or village, much like French regional wines such as 
Bordeaux or Burgundy. As with these French wines, Georgian wines are usually a blend 
of two or more grapes. For instance, one of the best-known white wines, Tsinandali, is a 
blend of Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grapes from the micro regions of Telavi and Kvareli in 
the Kakheti region. 

Kakheti, containing the micro-regions Telavi and Kvareli 

Kartli 

Imereti 

Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti 

Abkhazia 

Ajara 




German wine 




Steep vineyards on Riidesheimer Berg overlooking river Rhine. These vineyards are 
located in the southwestern part of the region Rheingau at a bend in the river. These 
vineyards are planted with Riesling grapes, with some Spatburgunder (Pinot Noir), and 
produce some of the finest wines in Germany. 




Steep vineyards along river Mosel, close to the village Urzig. 

German wine is produced in many parts of Germany, with most of the production 
concentrated in the southwest of Germany, along river Rhine and its tributaries, with the 
oldest plantations going back to the Roman era. Approximately 60 per cent of the 
German wine production is situated in the federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate, where 6 
of the 13 regions (Anbaugebiete) for quality wine are situated. Germany has about 
102,000 hectares (252,000 acres or 1,020 square kilometers) of vineyard, which is around 



one tenth of the vineyard surface in Spain, France or Italy. The total wine production is 
usually around 9 million hectoliters annually, corresponding to 1.2 billion bottles, which 
places Germany as the ninth largest wine-producing country in the world. 

As a wine country, Germany has a mixed reputation internationally, with some 
consumers on the export markets associating Germany with the world's most elegant and 
aromatically pure white wines while other see the country mainly as the source of cheap, 
mass-market semi-sweet wines (notably Liebfraumilch) which a discerning wine drinker 
wary of his or her reputation should avoid altogether. Among the former category, 
Germany's reputation is primarily based on its sweet wines and for being home to the 
Riesling grape variety, which at its best is used for aromatic, fruity and elegant white 
wines that range from very crisp and dry to well-balanced, sweet and of enormous 
aromatic concentration. While primarily a white wine country, red wine production has 
virtually exploded in the 1990s and early 2000s, primarily fuelled by domestic demand, 
and more than one-third of the German vineyard surface is now devoted to the cultivation 
of dark-skinned grape varieties, with Spatburgunder, the domestic name for Pinot Noir, in 
the lead. 



Wine styles 

Germany produces wines in many styles: dry, semi-sweet and sweet white wines, rose 
wines, red wines and sparkling wines, called Sekt. (The only wine style not commonly 
produced is fortified wine.) Due to the northerly location of the German vineyards, the 
country has produced wines quite unlike any others in Europe, many of outstanding 
quality. Despite this it is still better known abroad for cheap, sweet or semi-sweet, low- 
quality mass-produced wines such as Liebfraumilch. 

The wines have historically been predominantly white, and the finest made from 
Riesling. Many wines have been sweet and low in alcohol, light and unoaked. 

Historically many of the wines (other than late harvest wines) were probably dry 
(trocken), as techniques to stop fermentation did not exist. Recently much more German 
white wine is being made in the dry style again. Much of the wine sold in Germany is 
dry, especially in restaurants. However most exports are still of sweet wines, particularly 
to the traditional export markets such as Great Britain, which is the leading export market 
both in terms of volume and value. The United States (second in value, third in volume) 
and the Netherlands (second in volume, third in value) are two other important export 
markets for German wine. 

Red wine has always been hard to produce in the German climate, and in the past was 
usually light coloured, closer to rose or the red wines of Alsace. However recently there 
has been greatly increased demand and darker, richer red wines (often barrique aged) are 
produced from grapes such as Dornfelder and Spatburgunder, the German name for pinot 



noir. 




Perhaps the most distinctive characteristic of German wines is the high level of acidity in 
them, caused both by the lesser ripeness in a northerly climate and by the selection of 
grapes such as riesling which retain acidity even at high ripeness levels. 



History 




Vine trellising according to the Pfdlzer Kammerbau system traditional to the Palatinate, 
where it was widely used until the 1 8th century. In an all- wooden version (without the 
steel wires), this system is supposed to date back to Roman times. 

Early history 

Viticulture in present-day Germany dates back to Ancient Roman times, to sometime 
from the 1st to the 4th century AD. In those days, the western parts of today's Germany 
made up the outpost of the Roman empire against the Germanic tribes on the other side of 
Rhine. What is generally considered to be Germany's oldest city, Trier, was founded as a 
Roman garrison and is situated directly on the river Moselle {Mosel) in the eponymous 
wine region. The oldest archeological finds that may indicate early German viticulture 
are curved pruning knives found in the vicinity of Roman garrisons, dating from the 1st 
century AD. However, it is not absolutely certain that these knives were used for 
viticultural purposes. Emperor Probus, whose reign can be dated two centuries later than 
these knives, is generally considered the founder of German viticulture, but for solid 
documentation of winemaking on German soil, we must go to around 370 AD, when 
Ausonius of Bordeaux wrote Mosella, where he in entusiastic terms described the steep 
vineyards on river Moselle. 

The wild vine, the forerunner of the cultivated Vitis vinifera is known to have grown on 
upper Rhine back to historic time, and it is possible (but not documented) that Roman-era 
German viticulture was started using local varieties. Many viticultural practices were 
however taken from other parts of the Roman empire, as evidenced by Roman-style 
trellising systems surviving into the 18th century in some parts of Germany, such as the 
Kammerbau in the Palatinate. 

Almost nothing is known of the style or quality of "German" wines that were produced in 
the Roman era, with the exception of the fact that the poet Venantius Fortunatus mentions 
red German wine around AD 570. 



Medieval times 



Before the era of Charlemagne, Germanic viticulture was practiced primarily, although 
not exclusively, on the western side of Rhine. Charlemagne is supposed to have brought 
viticulture to Rheingau. The eastward spread of viticulture coincided with the spead of 
Christianity, which was supported by Charlemagne. Thus, in Medieval Germany, 
churches and monasteries played the most important role in viticulture, and especially in 
the production of quality wine. Two Rheingau examples illustrate this: archbishop 
Ruthard of Mainz (reigning 1089-1109) founded a Benedictine abbey on slopes above 
Geisenheim, the ground of which later became Schloss Johannisberg. His successor 
Adalbert of Mainz donated land above Hattenheim in 1135 to Cistercians, sent out from 
Clairvaux in Champagne, who founded Kloster Eberbach. 

Many grape varieties commonly associated with German wines have been documented 
back to the 14th or 15th century. Riesling has been documented from 1435 (close to 
Rheingau), and Pinot Noir from 1318 on Lake Constance under the name Klebroth, from 
1335 in Affenthal in Baden and from 1470 in Rheingau, where the monks kept a 
Clebroit-Wyngart in Hattenheim. The most grown variety in medieval Germany was 
however Elbling, with Silvaner also being common, and Muscat, Rauschling and 
Traminer also being recorded. 

For several centuries of the Medieval era, the vineyards of Germany (including Alsace) 
expanded, and is believed to have reached their greatest extent sometime around 1500, 
when perhaps as much as four times the present vineyard surface was planted. Basically, 
the wine regions were located in the same places as today, but more lands around the 
rivers, and land further upstream Rhine's tributaries, was cultivated. The subsequent 
decline can be attributed to locally produced beer becoming the everyday beverage in 
northern Germany in the 16th century, leading to a partial loss of market for wine, and to 
the Thirty Years' War ravaging Germany in the 17th century. 

At one point the Church controlled most of the major vineyards in Germany. Quality 
instead of quantity become important and spread quickly down the river Rhine. The 
Development ended when Martin Luther's activities initiated revolts leading to the death 
of millions and affecting culture for centuries. In the 1800s Napoleon took control of all 
the vineyards from the Church, including the best, and divided and secularized them. 
Since then the Napoleonic inheritance laws in Germany broke up the parcels of vineyards 
further, leading to the establishment of many cooperatives. However, there are a great 
deal of notable and world famous wineries in Germany, who have managed to acquire or 
hold enough land to produce enough wine not only for domestic consumption, but also 
for export. 




i ! 




German wine from Franken in the characteristic round bottles (Bocksbeutel) 

The present German wine law was introduced in 1971, and definied the Pradikat 
designations as they have been since then. 

Geography and climate 

The German wine regions are some of the most northerly in the world. The main wine- 
producing climate lies below the 50th parallel, which runs through the regions Rheingau 
and Mosel. Above this line the climate becomes less conducive to wine production, but 
there are still some vineyards above this line. 

Because of the northerly climate, there has been a search for suitable grape varieties 
(particularly frost resistant and early harvesting ones), and many crosses have been 
developed, such as Mliller-Thurgau in the Geisenheim Grape Breeding Institute. Recently 
there has been an increase in plantings of Resling as local and international demand has 
been demanding high quality wines. 

The wines are all produced around rivers, mainly the Rhine and its tributaries, often 
sheltered by mountains. The rivers have significant microclimate effects to moderate the 
temperature. The soil is slate to absorb the sun's heat and retain it overnight. The great 
sites are often extremely steep so they catch the most sunlight, but they are difficult to 
harvest mechanically. The slopes are also positioned facing the south or south-west to 
angle towards the sun. 

The vineyards are extremely small compared to new world vineyards. This makes the 
lists of wines produced long and complex, and many wines hard to obtain as production 
is so limited. 



Regions 




Germany's 13 regions for quality wine 

There are 13 defined regions for quality wine in Germany: 

1. Ahr - a small region along the river Ahr, a tributary of Rhine, that despite its 
northernly location primarily produces red wine from Spatburgunder. 

2. Baden - in Germany's southwestern corner, across river Rhine from Alsace, 
and the only German wine region situated in European Union wine growing zone 
B rather than A, which results in higher minimum required maturity of grapes and 
less chaptalisation allowed. Noted for its pinot wines - both red and white. 
Although the Kaiserstuhl region in the wine growing region of Baden is 
Germany's warmest location, the average temperature in the whole wine region is 
a little bit lower than in Palatinate (zone A). One of two wine regions in the 
federal state of Baden-Wurttemberg. 

3. Franconia or Franken - around portions of Main river, and the only wine 
region situated in Bavaria. Noted for growing many varieties on chalky soil and 
for producing powerful dry Silvaner wines. 

4. Hessische Bergstrasse (Hessian Mountain Road) - a small region in the federal 
state Hesse dominated by Riesling. 

5. Mittelrhein - along the middle portions of river Rhine, primarily between the 
regions Rheingau and Mosel, and dominated by Riesling. 

6. Mosel - along the river Moselle {Mosel) and its tributaries, the rivers Saar and 
Ruwer, and was previously known as Mosel-Saar-Ruwer. The Mosel region is 
dominated by Riesling grapes and slate soils, and the best wines are grown in 
dramatic-looking steep vineyards directly overlooking the rivers. This region 
produces wine that is light in body, crisp, of high acidity and with pronounced 
mineral character. The only region to stick to Riesling wine with noticeable 
residual sweetness as the "standard" style, although dry wines are also produced. 



7. Nahe - around the river Nahe where volcanic origins give very varied soils. 
Mixed grape varieties but the best known producers primarily grow Riesling, and 
some of them have achieved world reputation in recent years. 

8. Palatinate or Pfalz - the second largest producing region in Germany, with 
production of very varied styles of wine (especially in the southern half), where 
red wine has been on the increase. The northern half of the region is home to 
many well known Riesling producers with a long history, which specialize in 
powerful Riesling wines in a dry style. Warmer than all other German wine 
regions. Until 1995, it was known in German as Rheinpfalz. 

9. Rheingau - a small region situated at a bend in river Rhine which give 
excellent conditions for wine growing. The oldest documented references to 
Riesling come from the Rheingau region and it is the region where many German 
wine making practices have originated, such as the use of Pradikat designations, 
and where many high-profile producers are situated. Dominated by Riesling with 
some Spatburgunder. The Rheingau Riesling style is in-between Mosel and the 
Palatinate and other soutem regions, and at best times combines the best aspects 
of both. 

10. Rheinhessen or Rhenish Hesse - the largest production area in Germany. 

Once known as Liebfraumilch land, but a quality revolution has taken place since 
the 1990s. Mixed wine styles and both red and white wines. The best Riesling 
wines are similar to Palatinate Riesling - dry and powerful. Despite its name, it 
lies in the federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate, not in Hesse. 

11. Saale-Unstrut - one of two regions in former East Germany, situated along 
the rivers Saale and Unstrut, and Germany's northernmost wine growing region. 

12. Saxony or Sachsen - one of two regions in former East Germany, in the 
southeastern corner of the country, along the river Elbe in the federal state of 
Saxony. 

13. WUrttemberg - a traditional red wine region, where grape varieties Trollinger 
(the region's signature variety), Schwarzriesling and Lemberger outnumber the 
varieties that dominate elsewhere. One of two wine regions in the federal state of 
B aden- WUrttemberg . 



These 13 regions ( Anbaugebiete ) are broken down into 39 districts ( Bereiche ) which are 
further broken down into collective vineyard sites ( Grofilagen ) of which there are 167. 
The individual vineyard sites [Einze Hagen) number 2,658. 



German wine-growing regions sorted by size (2006 situation) 


Region 


Number 
on map 


Vineyard 
area (ha) 


Proportion 
white: red 

(%) 


Districts 


Collective 

sites 


Individual 

sites 


Most grown 
varieties 


Rheinhessen 


10 


26 281 


68:32 


3 


24 


442 


Muller-Thurgau 





Palatinate 8 



Baden 2 



(16.0%), 
Dornfelder 
(13.3%), 
Riesling 
( 12 . 2 %), 
Silvaner 
(9.5%), 
Portugieser 
(6.8%), Kerner 
(5.1%), 
Spatburgunder 
(5,1%), 

Grauburgunder 

(4.3%), 

Scheurebe 

(3.9%) 

Riesling 

( 21 . 8 %), 

Dornfelder 



23 353 60:40 2 25 



16 008 54:46 9 15 



(13.9%), 

Mliller-Thurgau 

( 10 . 2 %), 

oon Portugieser 

( 10 . 1 %), 
Spatburgunder 
(6.8%), Kerner 
(5.2%), 

Grauburgunder 

(4.5%), 

Silvaner (3.8%) 

Spatburgunder 
(36.7%), 
Mliller-Thurgau 
(18.1%), 
Grauburgunder 
315 (10.3%), 

Riesling 
(7.5%), 

WeiBburgunder 
(7.1%), Gutedel 
( 6 . 8 %) 





Wurttemberg 


13 


11 522 


29:71 


6 


20 


207 


Trollinger 

(21.6%), 

Riesling 

(18.1%), 

Schwarzriesling 

(15.6%), 

Lemberger 

(13.4%), 

Spatburgunder 

(10.9%), 

Kerner (3.3%) 


Mosel 


6 


8 975 


91:9 


6 


20 


507 


Riesling 

(58.2%), 

Muller-Thurgau 

(14.7%), 

Elbling (6.4%), 
Kerner (4.6%) 


Franconia 


3 


6 123 


81:19 


3 


22 


211 


Muller-Thurgau 

(31.3%), 

Silvaner 

(20.5%), 

Bacchus 

(12.2%) 


Nahe 


7 


4 124 


74:26 


1 


7 


312 


Riesling 

(25.7%), 

Muller-Thurgau 

(13.6%), 

Dornfelder 

(11.2%) 


Rheingau 


9 


3 088 


84:16 


1 


11 


120 


Riesling 

(78.4%), 

Spatburgunder 

(12.7%), 

Muller-Thurgau 

(1.7%) 


Saale- 

Unstrut 


11 


663 


73:27 


2 


4 


20 


Muller-Thurgau 

(19.2%), 

WeiBburgunder 

(11.6%), 



















Silvaner (8.7%) 


Ahr 


1 


548 


12:88 


1 


1 


43 


Spatburgunder 

(61.5%), 

Portugieser 

(8.8%), 

Riesling (7.1%) 


Mittelrhein 


5 


460 


75:25 


2 


11 


111 


Riesling 
(67.6%), 
Spatburgunder 
(8.5%), Miiller- 
Thurgau (6.5%) 


Hessische 

BergstraBe 




4 


435 


80:20 


2 


3 


24 


Riesling 

(49.0%), 

Spatburgunder 

(10.1%), 

Mliller-Thurgau 

(7.8%) 


Saxony 


12 


416 


82:18 


2 


4 


16 


Mliller-Thurgau 

(19.5%), 

Riesling 

(14.9%), 

WeiBburgunder 

(12.5%) 



Grape varieties 

Overall nearly 135 grape varieties may be cultivated in Germany - 100 are released for 
white wine production and 35 for red wine production. According to the international 
image, Germany is still regarded to be a region for white wine production. Since the 
1980s the demand for German red wine has constantly increased and this has resulted in a 
doubling of the vineyards assigned for the production of red wine. Nowadays over 35% 
of the vineyards are cultivated with red grapes. Some of the red grapes are also used to 
produce Rose. 

Out of all the grape varieties listed below, only 20 have a significant market share. 



Common grape varieties in Germany (2006 situation, all varieties >250 ha) 






Variety 


Colour 


Synonym(s) 


Area 

(%) 


Area 

(hectares) 


Trend 


Major regions 
(with large 
plantations or 
high 

proportion) 


1. Riesling 


white 




20.8 


21 197 


constant 


Mosel, 

Palatinate, 

Rheingau, 

Rheinhessen, 

Nahe, 

Mittelrhein, 

Hessische 

Bergstrasse 


2. Miiller- 
Thurgau 


white 


Rivaner 


13.7 


13 988 


decreasing 


Rheinhessen, 

Baden, 

Franken, 

Mosel, Saale- 

Unstrut, 

Sachsen 


3. 

Spatburgunder 


red 


Pinot Noir 


11.6 


Baden, 

Palatinate, 

11 807 increasing Rheinhessen, 
Wurttemberg, 
Rheingau, Ahr 


4. Domfelder 


red 




8.1 


Rheinhessen, 

8 231 constant Palatinate, 
Nahe 


5. Silvaner 


white 


Grtiner Silvaner 


5.2 


5 314 


decreasing 


Rheinhessen, 
Franken, Saale- 
Unstrut, Ahr 


6. Blauer 
Portugieser 


red 




4.6 


Palatinate, 

4 683 decreasing Rheinhessen, 
Ahr 


7. 

Grauburgunder 


white 


Pinot Gris, 

Grauer 

Burgunder 


4.3 


4 382 


increasing 


Rheinhessen, 

Palatinate, 

Mosel 







Rulander 










8. Kerner 


white 




3.9 


4 004 


decreasing 


Rheinhessen, 

Palatinate, 

Wurttemberg, 

Mosel, 


9. 

WeiGburgunder 


white 


Pinot Blanc, 
WeiGer 
Burgunder, 
Klevner 


3.4 


3 491 


increasing 


Baden, Saale- 

Unstrut, 

Sachsen 


10. Trollinger 


red 




2.5 


2 518 constant Wurttemberg 


11. 

Schwarzriesling 


red 


Mullerrebe, 
Pinot Meunier 


2.4 


2 424 constant Wurttemberg 


12. Regent 


red 




2.1 


2 183 increasing 


13. Bacchus 


white 




2.1 


2 113 


decreasing 


Franken 


14. Scheurebe 


white 




1.7 


1 781 


decreasing 


Rheinhessen 


15. Lemberger 


red 


Blaufrankisch 


1.6 


1 664 increasing Wurttemberg 


16. Gutedel 


white 


Chasselas 


1.1 


1 123 


constant 


Baden 


17. Chardonnay 


white 




1.1 


1 087 


increasing 




18. Traminer 


white 


Gewurztraminer 


0.8 


832 


constant 




19. Faberrebe 


white 




0.7 


689 


decreasing 




20. Ortega 


white 




0.7 


686 


decreasing 




21. Huxelrebe 


white 




0.7 


677 


decreasing 




22. St. Laurent 


red 


0.7 


673 increasing 


23. Elbling 


white 




0.6 


583 


decreasing 


Mosel 



24. Morio- 
Muskat 


white 




0.5 


541 


decreasing 




25. Acolon 


red 




0.5 


460 increasing 


26. Merlot 


red 




0.4 


416 increasing 


27. Domina 


red 




0.4 


395 increasing 


28. 

Dunkelfelder 


red 




0.4 


372 constant 


29. Cabernet 
Mitos 


red 




0.3 


317 increasing 


30. Cabernet 
Sauvignon 


red 




0.3 


274 constant 


31. Sauvignon 
Blanc 


white 




0.3 


260 


increasing 




All white 
varieties 






63.1 


64 331 


decreasing 




All red 
varieties 






36.9 


37 668 increasing 


Grand total 






100.0 


101 999 


constant 





Grape variety trends over time 

Per cent share of common grape varieties in Germany 1964-2006. Data taken from 
German Wine Statistics. 

During the last century several changes have taken place with respect to the most planted 
varieties. Until the early 20th century, Elbling was Germany's most planted variety, after 
which it was eclipsed by Silvaner during the middle of the 20th century. After a few 
decades in the top spot, in the late 1960s Silvaner was overtaken by the high-yielding 



Mliller-Thurgau, which in turn started to lose ground in the 1980s. From the mid-1990s, 
Riesling became the most planted variety, a position which it probably had never enjoyed 
before on a national level. Red grapes in Germany have experienced several ups and 
downs. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, there was a downward trend, which was 
reversed around 1980. From mid-1990s and during the next decade, there was an almost 
explosive growth of plantation of red varieties. Plantings was shared between traditional 
Spatburgunder and a number of new crossings, led by Dornfelder, while other traditional 
German red varieties such as Portugieser only held their ground. In the last few years, the 
growth of red grape plantations has levelled off. 

Common white wine grapes 

White grape varieties account for 63% of the area planted in Germany. Principal varieties 
are listed below; there are larger numbers of less important varieties too. 

Riesling is the benchmark grape in Germany and cover the most area in the German 
vineyard. It is an aromatic variety with a high level of acidity that can be used for dry, 
semi-sweet, sweet and sparkling wines. The drawback to Riesling is that it takes 130 days 
to ripen and, in marginal years, the Riesling crop tends to be poor. 

Mliller-Thurgau is an alternative grape to Riesling that growers have been using, and 
which is one of the so-called "new crossings". Unlike the long ripening time of Riesling, 
this grape variety only requires 100 days to ripen, can be planted on more sites, and is 
higher yielding. However, this grape has a more neutral flavour than Riesling, and as the 
main ingredient of Liebfraumilch its reputation has taken a beating together with that 
wine variety. Germany's most planted variety from the 1970s to the mid-1990s, it has 
been losing ground for a number of years. Dry Muller-Thurgau is usually labeled 
Rivaner. 

Silvaner is another fairly neutral, but quite old grape variety that was Germany's most 
planted until the 1960s and after that has continued to lose ground. It has however 
remained popular in Franconia and Rheinhessen, where it is grown on chalky soils to 
produce powerful dry wines with a slightly earthy and rustic but also food-friendly 
character. 

Kerner 

Bacchus 

Scheurebe 

Gewtirztraminer 

Grauer Burgunder or Rulander (Pinot Gris) 

Weisser Burgunder (Pinot Blanc) 

Common red wine grapes 

Red wine varieties account for 37% of the plantations in Germany but has increased in 
recent years. 

Spatburgunder (Pinot Noir) - a much-appreciated grape variety that demands good sites 
to produce good wines and therefore competes with Riesling. It is considered to give the 
most elegant red wines of Germany. 




Domfelder - a "new crossing" that has become much appreciated in Germany since it is 
easy to grow and gives dark-coloured, full-bodied, fruity and tannic wines of a style 
which used to be harded to produce in Germany. 

Portugieser 

Trollinger 

Schwarzriesling (Pinot Meunier) 

Lemberger 
Released varieties 

According to the German wine law, the federal governments are responsible for drawing 
up lists of grape varieties allowed in wine production. The varieties listed below are 
officially released for commercial cultivation. The lists include varieties only released for 
selected experimental cultivation. 



released white grapes 



• 


Albalonga 


• 


Goldriesling 


• 


Nobling 


• 


Scheurebe 


• 


Amsburger 


• 


Grauburgunder 


• 


Optima 


• 


Schonburger 


• 


Auxerrois Blanc 


• 


Gutedel 


• 


Orion 


• 


Septimer 


• 


Bacchus 


• 


Hibernal 


• 


Ortega 


• 


Siegerrebe 


• 


Blue Silvaner 


• 


Holder 


• 


Osteiner 


• 


Silcher 


• 


Bronner 


• 


Huxelrebe 


• 


Perle 


• 


Silvaner 


• 


Chardonnay 


• 


Irsav Oliver 


• 


Perle von 


• 


Sirius 


• 


Ehrenbreitsteiner 


• 


Johanniter 




Csaba 


• 


Staufer 


• 


Ehrenfelser 


• 


Juwel 


• 


Phoenix 


• 


Veltliner 


• 


Elbling 


• 


Kanzler 


• 


Prinzipal 


• 


WeiBer 


• 


Faberrebe 


• 


Kerner 


• 


Regner 




Burgunder 


• 


Findling 


• 


Kernling 


• 


Reichensteiner 


• 


Wlirzer 


• 


Fontanara 


• 


Mariensteiner 


• 


Rieslaner 






• 


Freisamer 


• 


Merzling 


• 


Riesling 






• 


Frliher Malingre 


• 


Morio-Muskat 


• 


Roter Elbling 






• 


Gelber 


• 


Miiller- 


• 


Roter Gutedel 








Muskateller 




Thurgau 


• 


Roter 






• 


Gewiirztraminer 




(Rivaner) 




Muskateller 










• 


Muskat- 


• 


Sauvignon 












Ottonel 




Blanc 







* 




released red grapes 




• 


Acolon 


• Domfelder 


• Merlot 


• Spatburgunder 


• 


Andre 


• Dunkelfelder 


• Muskat- 


• St. Laurent 


• 


Blauburger 


• Friihburgunder 


Trollinger 


• Tauberschwarz 


• 


Cabernet 


• Hegel 


• Palas 


• Trollinger 




Dorsa 


• Helfensteiner 


• Portugieser 


• Zweigelt 


• 


Cabernet 


• Heroldrebe 


• Regent 






Mitos 


• Lemberger 


• Rondo 




• 


Cabernet 




• Rotberger 






Sauvignon 




• Schwarzriesling 




• 


Dakapo 








• 


Deckrot 








• 


Domina 









List of grape varieties 

Viticultural practices 




In the Mosel region, such as here close to the village of Zell, vines are ofted trained on 
individual wooden stakes, so-called Einzelpfahlerziehung. 

Many of the best vineyards in Germany are steep vineyards overlooking rivers, where 
mechanisation is impossible and a lot of manual labour is needed to produce the wine. 

Since it can be difficult to get ripe grapes in such a northernly location as Germany, the 
sugar maturity of grapes (must weight) as measured by the Ochsle scale have played a 
great role in Germany. 

German vintners on average crop their vineyards quite high, with yields averaging around 
90 hl/ha, a high figure in international comparison. "New" crossings used for low-quality 
white wine commonly yield 150-200 hl/ha, while quality-conscious producers who strive 
to produce well-balanced wines of concentrated flavours will rarely exceed 50 hl/ha. 




Many wines in Germany are produced using organic farming or biodynamic methods. 

Winemaking practices 

Chaptalization is allowed only up to the QbA level, not for Pradikatswein and all wines 
must be fermented dry if chaptalised. In order to balance the wine, unfermented grape 
juice, called Sussreserve, may be added after fermentation. 

Classification 

German wine classification 




A German wine bottle 



German wine classification is sometimes the source of confusion, especially to non- 
German speakers. However, to those familiar with the terms used, a German wine label 
reveals much information about the quality level and dryness/sweetness of the wine. 

Deutscher Tafelwein (German table wine) is mostly consumed in the country and not 
exported. 

Deutscher Landwein (German country wine) comes from a larger designation and again 
doesn't play an important role in the export market. 

Qualitatswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete (QbA) wines are simple wines that meet the first 
level of quality. 

Pradikatswein, recently (August 1, 2007) renamed from Qualitatswein mit Pradikat 
(QmP) wines are of greater quality. The grapes for these wines must meet a certain level 
of ripeness. As ripeness increases, the fruit characteristics and price increase. 




Kabinett wines are made from grapes picked several days after the QbA grapes are 
picked. These are the first picked grapes of the Pradikat level. 

Spatlese wines ("late harvest") are made from grapes harvested 12-14 days after the 
Kabinett grapes are picked. 

Auslese wines ("select harvest") are made from grapes that have been hand-selected out 
from the other grapes. These grapes are late-harvest and have a high sugar content. 
Beerenauslese wines ("berry selection") are made from grapes that have been left on the 
vine longer than the Auslese grapes. These grapes develop the fungus Botrytis, which 
removes the moisture from the grape. Thus these wines are very sweet and make good 
dessert wines. 

Eiswein (ice wine) wine is made grapes that freeze naturally on the vine and reach a 
sweetness of Beerenauslese level. The grapes are harvested and pressed in the frozen 
state. The ice keeps part of the water isolated to achieve the high sugar content of these 
wines. 

Trockenbeerenauslese wines ("dry berries selection") are extremely sweet, concentrated 
and usually quite expensive wines. The grapes used for Trockenbeerenauslese have 
reached an even more raisin-like state than those used for Beerenauslese. 

In addition, wines are classified by the Verband Deutscher Pradikatswein (VDP). Top 
wines are classified according to region and the very best vineyards. 

On wine labels, German wine may be classified according to the residual sugar of the 
wine. Trocken refers to dry wine. These wines have less than 9 grams/liter of residual 
sugar. These bottles are usually identified by a yellow-coloured capsule. Halbtrocken 
wines are off-dry and have 9-18 grams/liter of residual sugar. Due to the high acidity 
("crispness") of many German wines, the taste profile of many halbtrocken wines fall 
within the "internationally dry" spectrum rather than being appreciably sweet. "Feinherb" 
wine are slightly more sweet than halbtrocken wines. 

There are also several terms to identify the grower and producers of the wine. 

Weingut refers to a wine producing estate. 

Weinkellerei refers to a winery. 

Winzergenossenschaft refers to a winegrowers' co-operative wine. 

Gutsabfullung refers to a grower/producer wine that is estate bottled. 

Abfuller refers to a bottler or shipper. 

If the suffix "-er" appears after the name of the town, the wine comes from a particular 
vineyard located in that town. 

Industry structure 

The German wine industry consists of many small vineyard owners. The 1999 viticultural 
survey counted 68 598 vineyard owners, down from 76 683 in Western Germany in 
1989/90, for an average size of 1.5 ha. Most of the 40 625 operators of less than 0.5 ha 
should likely be classified as hobby vintners. Many smaller vineyard owners do not 
pursue viticulture as a full-time occupation, but rather as a supplement to other 
agriculture or to hospitality. It is not uncommon for a visitor to a German wine region to 




find that a small family-owned Gasthaus has its own wine. Smaller grape-growers who 
do not wish or are able to commercialise their own wine have several options available: 
sell the grapes (either on the market each harvest year, or on long-term contract with 
larger wineries looking to supplement their own production), deliver the grapes to a wine- 
making cooperative (called Winzergenossenschaft in Germany), or sell the wine in bulk 
to winemaking firms which use them in "bulk brands" or as a base wine for Sekt. Those 
who own vineyards in truly good locations also have the option of renting them out to 
larger producers who will handle the entire operation of the vineyard. 

5 892 vineyard owners owned more than 5 ha each in 1999, accounting for 57% of 
Germany's total vineyard surface, and it is in this category that the full-time vintners and 
commercial operations are primarily found. However, truly large wineries, in terms of 
their own vineyard holdings, are rare in Germany. Hardly any German wineries reach the 
size of New World winemaking companies, and only a few are of the same size as a 
typical Bordeaux Grand Cru Classe chateau. Of the ten wineries considered as Germany's 
best by Gault Millau Weinguide in 2007, nine had 10,2 — 19 ha of vineyards, and one 
(Weingut Robert Weil, owned by Suntory) had 70 ha. This means that most of the high- 
ranking German wineries only produces around 100 000 bottles of wine per year. That 
production is often distributed over, say, 10-25 different wines from different vineyards, 
of different Pradikat, sweetness and so on. The largest vineyard owner is the Hessian 
State Wineries ( Hessische Staatsweingiitef), owned by the federal state of Hesse, with 
200 ha vineyards, the produce of which is vinified in three separate wineries. The largest 
privately held winery is Dr. Blirklin-Wolf with 85,5 ha. 

Greek wine 



Greece is one of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world. The earliest evidence 
of Greek wine has been dated to 6,500 years ago where wine was produced on a 
household or communal basis. In ancient times, as trade in wine became extensive, it was 
transported from end to end of the Mediterranean; Greek wine had especially high 
prestige in Italy under the Roman Empire. In the medieval period, wines exported from 
Crete, Monemvasia and other Greek ports fetched high prices in northern Europe. 

Modern Greek wines now compete in the international market once more. 



Ancient period 

Ancient Greece and wine 

The origins of wine-making in Greece go back 6,500 years and evidence suggesting wine 
production confirm that Greece is home to the second oldest known grape wine remnants 




discovered in the world and the world’s earliest evidence of crushed grapes. The spread 
of Greek civilization and their worship of Dionysus, the god of wine, spread Dionysian 
cults throughout the Mediterranean areas during the period of 1600 BC to the year 0. 
Hippocrates used wine for medicinal purposes and readily prescribed it. Greek wines and 
their varieties were well known and traded throughout the Mediterranean. The Ancient 
Greeks introduced vines such as Vitis vinifera and made wine in their numerous colonies 
in Italy, Sicily, southern France, and Spain. The Vitis vinifera grape which thrives in 
temperate climates near coastal areas with mild winters and dry summers adapted well 
and flourished in the Northern Mediterranean areas. Classical Greek literature tells of the 
wines that were most highly prized, while archaeological studies of the amphoras in 
which wine was transported tell us of the wines that were most widely marketed. These 
two sources of information are sometimes in conflict. 

The most reputable wines of ancient Greece were Chian, Coan, Corcyraean, Cretan, 
Euboean, Lesbian, Leucadian, Mendaean, Peparethan wine, Rhodian and Thasian. Two 
other names may or may not be regional: Bibline wine and Pramnian wine are named in 
the earliest Greek poetry, but without any reliable geographical details. 

Medieval period 

Literature and trading records from medieval and early modern Europe, from the 13th to 
16th centuries, list several major wines from Greece. They include Malmsey, exported 
from Monemvasia; Rumney, exported from Methoni; and Cretan and Candy wines from 
Crete. The Wine Greek named in English and other sources did not come from Greece; it 
was produced in southern Italy in imitation of the strong, sweet wines for which Greece 
was best known. 

Modern period 

In 1937, a Wine Institute was established by the Ministry of Agriculture . However, wars, 
demographic shifts, economic problems, and other conditions retarded the development 
of the modern wine industry until the 1950s. During the 1960s, retsina , which had never 
been a defining part of the Greek wine culture, suddenly became the national beverage. 
With rapidly growing tourism, retsina became associated worldwide with Greece and 
Greek wine. However, many in government and the industry realized that the future to a 
successful industry lay elsewhere. Greece’s first Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard was 
planted in 1963. In 1966, a winery was established which was devoted to producing 
export-quality wines. In 1971 and 1972, legislation established appellation laws. A 
quality wine revolution occurred during the decade. During the 1960s and 1970s, a group 
of large producers came to dominate the industry and struggle with each other for market 
share. 




Modern appellations and regions 



A system of appellations was implemented to assure consumers the origins of their wine 
purchases. The appellation system categorizes wines as: 

Appellations of Origin of Superior Quality 
Controlled Appellations of Origin 

The main wine growing regions of contemporary Greece are: 

Aegean Islands 

Cretan wines: Peza, Archanes, Dafnes, Sitia 
Limnos 
Paros 
Rhodes 
Samos 
Santorini 
Central Greece 
Attic 
Epirus 
Zitsa 
Thessaly 
Rapsani 
Ankhialos 
Ionian Islands 
Kefalonia 
Macedonia 
Amyntaion 
Goumenissa 
Naoussa 
Peloponnesus 
Mantinia 
Nemea 
Patras 

Challenges 

The Greek wine industry faces a number of challenges. They include declining domestic 
consumption of wine, increasing competition in the international market, and a need to 
increase exports. It faces difficulty in competing economically with large New World 
producers and with well-known grape varieties that are popular with international 
consumers. On the other hand, such consumers are unfamiliar with the hundreds of 
indigenous Greek grapes. In addition, artisanal producers anywhere in the world tend to 
lack economies of scale and brand recognition. However, many observers believe that 
Greece will become successful in promoting its unique varietals in an international niche 
market of upscale consumers. 




Israeli wine 



The Israeli wine industry has wineries numbering in the hundreds and ranging in size 
from small boutique enterprises making a few thousand bottles per year to the largest 
producing over ten million bottles per year. 

Wine in Ancient Israel 

Wine has been produced in the Land of Israel since Biblical times. The ancient land of 
Israel (known at various times as Canaan and Judea) was making wine over two thousand 
years before Europe. In Biblical times the wine industry was the mainstay of the 
economy and wine had significant ritual importance. 

The city of Gibeon was the center of wine making in ancient Israel. In 1959 and 1960 
archaeological expeditions discovered ancient wine cellars saved and preserved at 
temperatures of 20 degrees Celsius. Furthermore it has been determined that wine was 
made and stored in ancient Gibeon between 600 C.E and 700 C.E. 

Michael Bar Yosef writes in his book that through his travels he visited both Gibeon, 
Israel as well as Champagne. Besides the vineyards' difference in size (Gibeon being 
much smaller) Ben Yosef notes absolute similarities between the wine cellars of Gibeon, 
Israel and Champagne, France as if the same architect was involved in the design and 
building of the wine cellars despite the fact that the cellars of Gibeon were built 500 
years earlier than the cellars of Champagne, France. 

After the Roman conquest of Judea in 70 C.E. , many vineyards were destroyed, and the 
remaining vines were torn up during the period of Muslim rule that began in 636 C.E. 

The Muslim conquest led to a 1,200 year halt to local wine production. 

These ancient wines lacked the quality that people have become accustomed to in modern 
times. They were thick and sweet and had to be seasoned just to make them palatable. 

==Be bialik e uma bosta and sandy, crops did not survive the hot sun & the first 
vineyards were struck with phylloxera. 

Rothschild built two wineries, one in Zikhron Ya'aqov and another in Rishon LeZion. 
Because of high temperatures the wine of the first vintages went sour, so deep 
underground cellars were constructed at enormous cost. 

According to Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (86-volume edition), the 
region's export of wine and cognac in 1895 alone amounted to F 277,000. 

In 1906 Baron Edmond de Rothschild passed the management of the wineries onto the 
growers who formed the Societe Co-operative Vigneronne des Grandes Caves and in 
1957 his son, James Rothschild, donated the wineries to the wine growers cooperative. 




Their vineyards covered many parts of Israel, but the main concentration was in the 
coastal regions of Sharon & Samson. The resulting wines were sold under the brand 
name 'Carmel'. 

At the turn of the twentieth century Carmel produced the first Israeli wine to win a medal 
at a wine show (Carmel No. 1 1900 was a gold medal winner at the Paris World’s Fair) . It 
signaled the rebirth of the Israeli wine industry after 2,000 years. 

Well into the 1960s, Israel suffered from a reputation of producing wines too thick and 
sweet to appeal to true wine connoisseurs. 

In the 1970s Carmel began to produce Israel's first varietal wines (Cabernet Sauvignon & 
Sauvignon Blanc) . 

It is fair to say that Israel's move toward producing quality wines really began with one 
special bottle of wine - Carmel Special Reserve 1976 (released in 1980). This wine was 
Israel’s first serious ‘fine’ wine. The wine, which lasted over 15 years, was a definite 
milestone in the production of Israeli wine (the 1979 vintage was also a great success). 

Wine revolution 

Part technology and high altitude, cooler vineyards, the Golan led the country to a new 
dawn of quality wine. They won a host of gold medals and a number of trophies at the 
IWSC in London and Vinexpo in Bordeaux - in particular with their premier label, 
Yarden. 

Winery began to encourage vineyard owners to improve the quality of their grapes and, 
in the American tradition, paid bonuses for grapes with high sugar and acid content and 
rejected those which they perceived as substandard. The winery was also the first to 
realize that wines made from Grenache, Semilion, Petit Sirah and Carignan grapes would 
not put them on the world wine map and focused on planting and making wines from 
Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Sauvignon Blanc , Chardonnay, Pinot Noir , white Riesling 
and Gewurztraminer. 

The Golan wines were a success from the beginning; their second wine, a Cabernet 
Sauvignon from the 1984 vintage, won a gold medal at the International Wine and Spirit 
Competition. 

Many other wineries have made major steps forward in improving the quality of their 
wines. There are now five major wineries, approximately a dozen medium sized wineries 
and a rapidly growing host of small and boutique wineries in the country. Many of these 
are producing wines that are of high quality, and a few even producing wines good 
enough to interest connoisseurs and wine lovers throughout the world. 



As wine writer Oz Clarke said, "Israel is now on the world wine map", and many local 
dry red and white wines are as good as some of the fine wines of California, Australia 




and others of the "new-world" wine-producing countries. Some Israeli wines are so good 
that they are compared favorably to the wines of the respected chateaux of France. 



Boutique revolution 

Starting in the 1990s and continuing in the 2000s there has been an explosion of new 
boutique wineries throughout Israel. The most famous of these is Domaine du Castel, 
situated in the Judean Hills, west of Jerusalem. Castel wines were chosen as Decanter 
Wine of the Month on no less than three occasions. 

Wine growing areas 

The country is divided into five vine-growing regions: 

Galil (Galilee) - the region most suited for viniculture in Israel due to its high elevation, 
cool breezes, marked day and night temperature changes and rich, well-drained soils 
(most suitable for Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay) 
Judean Hills - surrounding the city of Jerusalem, and with a cool climate due to the 
relatively high elevation, this area has proven excellent for viniculture (most suitable for 
Chardonnay grapes) 

Shimshon (Samson) - located between the Judean Hills and the Coastal Plain 

Negev - drip irrigation has made it possible to grow grapes in this semi-arid desert region 

(most suitable for Merlot grapes) 

Sharon plain - located near the Mediterranean coast and just south of Haifa - surrounding 
the towns of Zichron Ya'akov and Binyamina - this is the largest grape growing area in 
the country 

Golan Heights - In the north of Israel, the Golan Heights is a growing wine production 
region, particularly along the Syria border. 

Israel's main wine growing areas remain the traditional coastal regions of Sharon & 
Shimshon, but the best quality wines are coming from the Upper Galilee, Golan Heights, 
Judean Hills & Ramat Arad. The soils are Terra Rossa on the coast, limestone on the 
hills, sandy clay in the south and volcanic in areas of the north. There are approximately 
4,000 hectares of vineyards, which makes Israel one of the smallest of all wine producing 
countries. However there are a surprising number of microclimates that lie between the 
snow covered Mount Hermon in the northern Golan & the Negev Desert in the south, 
which allows for the production of many varieties of grapes. The volcanic basalt soil, the 
relatively cool climate and the night-day temperature differentials of the Golan Heights 
(within the Galil region) have proven ideal for the production of premium quality wine 
grapes. 

Israel is known for its advanced agriculture & technology and these come together in the 
vineyards. Whether it is the use of meteorological stations in the vineyards, the latest drip 
feed methods or planting vineyards in the desert, the Israeli viticulturist is up to date and 
always experimenting. 




Varieties 

The most common grape varieties are Cabernet Sauvignon (The best awards for Israeli 
wines & the premier wine of each winery tends to be with this grape), Merlot, Sauvignon 
Blanc and Chardonnay. Others include Pinot Noir , Cabernet Franc, Johannisberg 
Riesling , Gewlirztraminer and Muscat Canelli . Of the newer varieties, Syrah/Shiraz was 
noted as the most promising. Numerous other varieties are available - from Petit Verdot 
to Viognier. Zinfindel has also come to be planted, thanks to the influx of California- 
trained winemakers. Petite Sirah is similarly undergoing somewhat of a revival due to the 
California- and Australia-trained winemakers, as well as abandonment of the inferior 
clones. There are no longer any indigenous varieties, as the vineyards of antiquity were 
uprooted early during the first period of Muslim rule, although the Muscat of Alexandria, 
prominent in the Eastern Mediterranean and used to make dessert wines, comes closest. 
Emerald Riesling, a cross between Johannisberg Riesling and Muscadelle, is a variety 
which succeeded in Israel more than in California, where it was originally introduced. 

Influences 

Although the Israeli wine industry was built on French roots, Californian winemakers 
were responsible for the significant changes of the 1980s. Today nearly all the 
winemakers from the larger wineries and some from the better boutique wineries are 
internationally trained - mainly in Australia, California, France or Italy. It can be said that 
Australia has now replaced California as the dominant influence. 

Prizes 

Israel wins most prizes for its red wines, in particular Cabernet Sauvignon, but awards 
have been won for traditional method sparkling wines, white wines & dessert wines too. 
Eleven different Israeli wineries have won gold medals at the very highest level of 
international blind tasting wine competitions at least once, and some are regular winners. 

Industry today 

Today there are approximately 12 commercial wineries in Israel and over 150 boutique 
wineries. The largest wineries, which control over 90% of the Israel wine industry, are as 
follows: 

Carmel Winery - founded in 1882 by Baron Edmond de Rothschild. Carmel is the 
historic winery of Israel. It has existed under Turkish, British & Israeli rule and still has 
50% of the local market. 

Barkan Wine Cellars - founded in 1990. The winery opened a modern winery at Hulda. 

In 2004 Barkan were purchased by Tempo, Israel’s biggest brewery (owners of 
Maccabee & Goldstar, importers of Heineken & agents for Pepsi Cola.) 

Golan Heights Winery 




Efrat Winery - founded in 1870 by the Teperberg family in the Old City of Jerusalem. 

For many years Efrat has catered to the religious, orthodox Jewish population by virtue of 
its strong Rabbinical supervision. The winery was move to Motza, at the entrance to 
Jerusalem. 

Binyamina Wine Cellars - founded in 1952 in Binyamina at the site of an unsuccessful 
perfume factory built by James Rothschild. In the 1960’s and 1970’ s, Eliaz it was the 
second biggest winery but was geared mainly to religious Jewish market. In 1992 the 
winery was bought by two Los Angeles filmmakers, renamed Binyamina Wine Cellars. 
Tishbi Estate 
Galil Mountain 
Dalton Winery 

Recanati Winery - located in Emek Hefer, owned by Lennie Recanati of the Israeli 
banking family. The grapes are grown in vineyards in the Upper Galilee. 

The following were awarded stars in Hugh Johnson's Pocket Wine Book 2006 as the 
leading nine Israeli wineries: 

Three Stars 

Domaine du Castel - founded in 1983, by Eli Ben Zaken, located in an old chicken coop, 
at Ramat Raziel in the Jerusalem Mountains. 

Golan Heights Winery - located in Katzrin, on the Golan Heights. The winery produces 
premium varietals, proprietary blends and traditional method sparkling wines, marketed 
under the labels "Yarden", "Gamla", and "Golan". 

Two Stars 
Flam Winery 
Margalit Winery 

Yatir Winery - located at Tel Arad, in Yatir Forest, in the southern Judean Hills, 
established by joint venture between the growers of Yatir Forest and Carmel Winery. 
Yatir has won gold medals in the Challenge International du Vin competition in 
Bordeaux. 

One Star 

Amphorae Vineyard 
Carmel Winery 
Galil Mountain 

Saslove Winery - a family operated winery, established in 1998, located at Kibbutz Eyal. 
The winery vineyards in Kaditah in the upper Galilee produce .5 acres of Cabernet 
Sauvignon and Merlot grapes. The winery also produces Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay 
and Muscat Dessert wines. Saslove wines has won gold medals in the Challenge 
International du Vin competition in Bordeaux. 

Others: 

Chateau Golan - located on the southern Golan Heights. 

Clos de Gat 

Ella Valley = located in the Judean Foothills. 

Mony Winery - owned by an Israeli Arab family, situated in a monastery. The winery 
produces kosher wines. 

Neot Smadar - located in the Negev Desert, not far north of Eilat. 




Odem Mountain - located in the Golan Heights at 1,000 meters altitude. 

Tzora Winery - founded in 1993 by Ronnie James, located in Kibbutz Tzora. The winery 
was the first small winery in Israel to use all the grapes from their own vineyards, instead 
of buying grapes from elsewhere. 

Tourism 

It was announced in early 2008 that a 150-acre wine park would be created on the slopes 
between Zichron Ya’akov and Binyamina in order to promote tourism in the area and 
wine tourism in Israel in general. 

Summary 

Israeli wines of today can not be confused with the syrupy sweet wines of past decades. 
They may be found on the wine lists of Three Star Michelin restaurants or on the shelves 
of premium wine stores. Yarden has been invited to The Wine Spectator's New York 
Wine Experience & Castel to the Decanter Fine Wine Encounter - both events are by 
invitation only, to the finest wineries in the world. Carmel wines are in supermarkets & 
retail stores in Europe & America. Israeli wines may be found in 40 countries in five 
continents, but most exports are to the Americas & Western Europe. Israeli wines may be 
categorized as 'new world wines, from one of the oldest wine producing countries on 
earth.' 

Italian wine 



It has been suggested that Vino cotto be merged into this article or section. (Discuss) 




A classical Italian vineyard scene, with vines growing together with olive trees. 




Italian wine is wine produced in Italy, a country which is home to some of the oldest 
wine-producing regions in the world. Etruscans and Greek settlers produced wine in the 
country long before the Romans started developing their own vineyards in the second 
century BC. Roman grape-growing and winemaking was prolific and well-organised, 
pioneering large-scale production and storage techniques like barrel-making and bottling. 
Two thousand years later, Italy remains one of the world's foremost producers, 
responsible for approximately one-fifth of world wine production in 2005. 



Wine is a popular drink in Italy. Grapes are grown in almost every part of Italy, with 
more than 1 million vineyards under cultivation. Each region is proud of its carefully 
tended, neatly pruned vines. In some places the vines are trained along low supports. In 
others they climb as slender saplings. The people of each region are also proud of the 
wine they make from their own grapes. 

Most wine-making in Italy is done in modem wineries. However, villagers who make 
wine for their own use sometimes still tread the grapes with their bare feet, until the juice 
is squeezed out. They believe this ancient method still makes the best wine. 

As far as generalizations can be made, Italian wines tend to be acidic, dry, light-to- 
medium bodied, and subdued in flavour and aroma. Because of these characteristics, 
Italian wines are, in general, a better accompaniment to food than they are beverages to 
be enjoyed on their own. 



History 




lthough wines had been elaborated from the wild Vitis vinifera grape for millennia, it 
wasn't until the Greek colonization that wine-making flourished. Viticulture was 
introduced into Sicily and southern Italy by the Mycenaean Greeks, and was well 
established when the extensive Greek colonization transpired around 800 BC. During the 
Roman defeat of the Carthaginians (acknowledged masters of wine-making) in the 
second century BC that Italian wine production began to further flourish. Large-scale, 
slave-run plantations sprang up in many coastal areas and spread to such an extent that, in 
AD92, emperor Domitian was forced to destroy a great number of vinyards in order to 
free up fertile land for food production. 

During this time, viticulture outside of Italy was prohibited under Roman law. Exports to 
the provinces were reciprocated in exchange for more slaves, especially from Gaul where 
trade was intense, according to Pliny, due to the inhabitants being besotted with Italian 
wine, drinking it unmixed and without restraint. Roman wines contained more alcohol 
and were generally more powerful than modern fine wines. It was customary to mix wine 
with a good proportion of water which may otherwise have been unpalatable, making 
wine drinking a fundamental part of early Italian life. 

As the laws on provincial viticulture were relaxed, vast vineyards began to flourish in the 
rest of Europe, especially Gaul (present day France) and Hispania. This coincided with 
the cultivation of new vines, like biturica (ancestor of the Cabernets). These vineyards 
became hugely successful, to the point that Italy ultimately became an import centre for 
provincial wines. 

Depending on the vintage, modern Italy is the world's largest or second largest wine 
producer. In 2005, production was about 20% of the global total, second only to France, 
which produced 22%. In the same year, Italy's share in dollar value of table wine imports 
into the U.S. was 32%, Australia's was 24%, and France's was 20%. Along with 
Australia, Italy's market share has rapidly increased in recent years. 

Today, Italy is the largest producer of wine in the world with more vineyards than any 
other place, including France. 



Italian appellation system 





DOCG seal 



Italy's classification system is a modem one that reflects current realities. It has four 
classes of wine, with two falling under the EU category Quality Wine Produced in a 
Specific Region (QWPSR) and two falling under the category of 'table wine'. The four 
classes are: 

Table Wine : 

Vino da Tavola - Denotes wine from Italy. NOTE: this is not always synonymous with 
other countries' legal definitions of 'table wine'. The appellation indicates either an 
inferior quaffing wine, or one that does not follow current wine law. Some quality wines 
do carry this appellation. 

Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT) - Denotes wine from a more specific region within 
Italy. This appellation was created for the "new" wines of Italy, those that had broken the 
strict, old wine laws but were wines of great quality. Before the IGT was created, quality 
"Super Tuscan" wines such as Tignanello and Sassicaia were labeled Vino da Tavola. 
QWPSR: 

Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) 

Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) 

Geographical characteristics 

Important wine-relevant geographic characteristics of Italy include: 

The extensive latitudinal range of the country permits wine growing from the Alps in the 
north to almost within sight of Africa in the south; 

The fact that Italy is a peninsula with a long shoreline, contributing moderating climate to 
coastal wine regions; and 




The extensive mountains and foothills providing a range of altitudes for grape growing 
and a variety of climate and soil conditions. 

Italian wine regions 

Italy's 20 wine regions correspond to the 20 political regions. Understanding of Italian 
wine becomes clearer with an understanding of the differences between each region; their 
cuisines reflect their indigenous wines, and vice-versa. The 36 docg wines are located in 
13 different regions but most of them are concentrated in Piedmont and Tuscany. Among 
these are appelations appreciated and sought by wine lovers around the world: Barolo, 
Barbaresco, Brunello and Chianti Classico. Despite its high quality Amarone is not 
classified as a Docg. 

The regions are, roughly from Northwest to Southeast: 




Italian administrative regions 
Aosta Valley (Valle D' Aosta) 
Piedmont (Piemonte) 

Liguria 

Lombardy (Lombardia) 
Trentino-Alto Adige/Slidtirol 
Friuli- Venezia Giulia 
Veneto 

Emilia-Romagna 



Tuscany (Toscana) 

Marche (Le Marche) 

Umbria 

Lazio 

Abruzzo 

Molise 

Campania 

Basilicata 

Apulia (Puglia) 

Calabria 
Sicily (Sicilia) 

Sardinia (Sardegna) 

Key Italian wine varietals 

Italy's Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MIRAF), has documented over 350 grapes 
and granted them "authorized" status. There are more than 500 other documented 
varietals in circulation as well. The following is a list of the most common and important 
of Italy's varietals. 

List of grape varieties 

Rosso (Red) 

Sangiovese - Italy's claim to fame, the pride of Tuscany. Its wines are full of cherry fruit, 
earth, and cedar. It produces Chianti Classico, Rosso di Montalcino, Brunello di 
Montalcino, Rosso di Montepulciano, Montefalco Rosso, and many others. 

Nebbiolo - The most noble of Italy's varietals. The name (meaning "little fog") refers to 
the autumn fog that blankets most of Piedmont where it is grown, a condition the grape 
seems to enjoy. It is a somewhat difficult varietal to master, but produces the most 
renowned Barolo and Barbaresco, made in province of Cuneo, along with the lesser- 
known Sforzato, Inferno and Sassella made in Valtellina, Ghemme and Gattinara, made 
in Vercelli's province. The wines are known for their elegance and bouquet of wild 
mushroom, truffle, roses, and tar. 

Montepulciano - The grape of this name is not to be confused with the Tuscan town of 
Montepulciano; it is most widely planted on the opposite coast in Abruzzo. Its wines 
develop silky plum-like fruit, friendly acidity, and light tannin. 

Barbera - The most widely grown red wine grape of Piedmont and Southern Lombardy, 
most famously around the towns of Asti and Alba, and Pavia. The wines of Barbera were 
once simply "what you drank while waiting for the Barolo to be ready." With a new 
generation of wine makers, this is no longer the case. The wines are now meticulously 
vinified, aged Barbera gets the name "Barbera Superiore" Superior Barbera, sometimes 
aged in French barrique becoming "Barbera Barricato", and intended for the international 
market. The wine has bright cherry fruit, a very dark color, and a food-friendly acidity. 
Corvina - Along with the varietals rondinella and molinara, this is the principal grape 
which makes the famous wines of the Veneto: Valpolicella and Amarone. Valpolicella 




wine has dark cherry fruit and spice. After the grapes undergo passito (a drying process), 
the Amarone they yield is elegant, dark, and full of raisinated fruits. Some Amarones can 
age for 40+ years. 

Nero dAvola - Nearly unheard of in the international market until recent years, this 
native varietal of Sicily is gaining attention for its robust, inky wines, and has therefore 
been nicknamed "the Barolo of the South". 

Dolcetto - A grape that grows alongside barbera and nebbiolo in Piedmont, its name 
means "little sweet one"", referring not to the taste of the wine, but the ease in which it 
grows and makes great wines, suitable for everyday drinking. Flavors of concord grape, 
wild blackberries and herbs permeate the wine. 

Negroamaro - The name literally means "black and bitter". A widely planted grape with 
its concentration in the region of Puglia, it is the backbone of the acclaimed Salice 
Salentino: spicy, toasty, and full of dark red fruits. 

Aglianico - Considered the "noble varietal of the south," it is primarily grown in 
Campania and Basilicata. The name is derived from Hellenic, so it is considered a Greek 
transplant. Thick skinned and spicy, the wines are both rustic and powerful. 

Sagrantino - A native to Umbria, it is only planted on 250 hectares, but the wines are 
world-renowned. Inky purple, with rustic brooding fruit and heavily tannic, these wines 
can age for many years. 

Malvasia Nera - Red Malvasia varietal from Piedmont. A sweet and perfumed wine, 
sometimes elaborated in the passito style. 

Other major red varieties are Ciliegolo, Gaglioppo, Lagrein, Lambrusco, Monica, Nerello 
Mascalese, Pignolo, Primitivo, Refosco, Schiava, Schiopettino, Teroldego, and Uva di 
Troia. 

“International” varietals such as Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, and Cabernet Franc 
are also widely grown. 

Bianco (White) 

Trebbiano - Behind cataratto (which is made for industrial jug wine), this is the most 
widely planted white varietal in Italy. It is grown throughout the country, with a special 
focus on the wines from Abruzzo. Mostly, they are pale, easy drinking wines, but 
trebbiano from producers such as Valentini have been known to age for 15+ years. It is 
known as Ugni Blanc in France. 

Moscato - Grown mainly in Piedmont, it is mainly used in the slightly-sparkling 
(frizzante), semi-sweet Moscato dAsti. Not to be confused with moscato giallo and 
moscato rosa, two Germanic varietals that are grown in Trentino Alto- Adige. 

Nuragus - An ancient Phoenician varietal found in southern Sardegna. Light and tart 
wines that are drunk as an apertif in their homeland. 

Pinot Grigio - A hugely successful commercial grape (known as Pinot Gris in France), its 
wines are characterized by crispness and cleanness. As a hugely mass-produced wine, it 
is usually delicate and mild, but in a good producers' hands, the wine can grow more full- 
bodied and complex. The main problem with the grape is that to satisfy the commercial 




demand, the grapes are harvested too early every year, leading to wines without 
character. 

Tocai Friulano - A varietal distantly related to Sauvignon Blanc, it yields the top wine of 
Friuli, full of peachiness and minerality. Currently, there is a bit of controversy regarding 
the name, as the EC has demanded it changed to avoid confusion with the Tokay dessert 
wine from Hungary. 

Ribolla Gialla - A Slovenian grape that now makes its home in Friuli, these wines are 
decidedly old-world, with aromas of pineapple and mustiness. 

Arneis - A crisp and floral varietal from Piedmont, which has been grown there since the 
15th century. 

Malvasia Bianca - Another white varietal that peeks up in all corners of Italy with a wide 
variety of clones and mutations. Can range from easy quaffers to funky, musty whites. 
Pigato - A heavily acidic varietal from Liguria, the wines are vinified to pair with a 
cuisine rich in sea-food. 

Fiano (wine) - Grown on the southwest coast of Italy, the wines from this grape can be 
described as dewy and herbal, often with notes of pinenut and pesto. 

Garganega - The main grape varietal for wines labeled Soave, this is a crisp, dry white 
wine from the Veneto wine region of Italy. It's a very popular wine that hails from 
northeast Italy around the city of Verona. 

Currently, there are over 3,500 distinct producers of Soave. 

Other important whites include Carricante, Catarratto, Coda de Volpe, Cortese, 
Falaghina, Grillo, Inzolia, Picolit, Tocai Friulano, Traminer, Verdicchio, Verduzzo, 
Vermentino and Vernaccia. 

As far as non-native varietals, the Italians plant chardonnay, gewurztraminer (sometimes 
called traminer aromatico ), riesling, petite arvine, and many others. 

Super Tuscans 

The term "Super Tuscan" describes any Tuscan red wine that does not adhere to 
traditional blending laws for the region. For example, Chianti Classico wines are made 
from a blend of grapes with Sangiovese as the dominant varietal in the blend. Super 
Tuscans often use other grapes, especially cabernet sauvignon, making them ineligible 
for DOC(G) classification under the traditional rules. 

In the 1970s Piero Antinori, whose family had been making wine for more than 600 
years, decided to make a richer wine by eliminating the white grapes from the Chianti 
blend, and instead adding Bordeaux varietals (namely, cabernet sauvignon and merlot). 
He was inspired by a little-known (at the time) cabernet sauvignon made by relatives 
called Sassicaia, which openly flouted the rules set down for traditional wines in 
Tuscany. The result was the first Super Tuscan, which he named Tignanello, after the 
vineyard where the grapes were grown. Other winemakers started experimenting with 
Super Tuscan blends of their own shortly thereafter. 




Because these wines did not conform to strict DOC(G) classifications, they were initially 
labeled as vino da tavola, meaning "table wine," a term ordinarily reserved for lower 
quality wines. The creation of the Indicazione Geografica Tipica category (technically 
indicating a level of quality between vino da tavola and DOCG) helped bring Super 
Tuscans "back into the fold" from a regulatory standpoint. 

Lebanese wine 



Map of Lebanon 

Lebanon is one of the oldest sites of wine production in the world. The Phoenicians of its 
coastal strip were instrumental in spreading wine and viticulture throughout the 
Mediterranean in ancient times. Despite the many conflicts of the region, the country has 
an annual production of about 600,000 cases of wine, mostly influenced by French wines 
of Bordeaux and the Rhone. 



History 

History of ancient Lebanon and History of Lebanon 
Vitis vinifera may have been domesticated in Lebanon, although it probably arrived from 
the South Caucasus via Mesopotamia or the Black Sea trade routes. Vines grew readily in 
the land of Caanan, the coastal strip of today's Lebanon, and the wines of Byblos (Gubla, 
Gebal, Jubail, Jbeil) were exported to Egypt during the Old Kingdom (2686 BC-2134 
BC). The wines of Tyre and Sidon were famous throughout the ancient Mediterranean, 
although not all the cargoes reached their destination; Robert Ballard of Titanic fame 
found the wrecks of two Phoenician ships from 750BC, whose cargo of wine was still 
intact. As the first great traders of wine ('Cherem'), the Phoenicians seem to have 
protected it from oxidation with a layer of olive oil, followed by a seal of pinewood and 
resin - this may well be the origin of the Greek taste for retsina. The philosophers Zeno of 
Citium and Chrysippus of Soli are both said to have enjoyed their wine, in fact the latter 
died from overindulgence. 

Wine played an important part in Phoenician religion, and the Greek/Roman god 
Bacchus/Dionysus may have originated in the wine rituals of Canaan. Certainly the great 
temple at Heliopolis (Baalbek) has many depictions of vines and winedrinking, most 
famously captured by David Roberts in pictures such as 'Baalbec - Ruins of the Temple 
of Bacchus'. Such rituals may also have influenced the Greek Bacchae, the Jewish 
Passover Seder feast and the Christian Eucharist. Genesis 14:18 mentions that the 
Phoenician King Melchizedek gave bread and wine ( yayin ) to Abraham, and Hosea 14:8 
suggests "his fame shall be like the wine of Lebanon". Wine also featured heavily in 
Ugaritic poetry such as the Rapiuma : 

"Day long they pour the wine, ... must-wine, fit for rulers. Wine, sweet and abundant, Select 
wine... The choice wine of Lebanon, Most nurtured by El." 




Once Lebanon became part of the Caliphate, wine production declined, although under 
the millet system it was tolerated among the Christian population for religious purposes. 
The Christians also developed arak, an ouzo-like spirit flavoured with aniseed. 

Winemaking was revived in 1857, when Jesuit monks planted Cinsaut vines from Algeria 
at Chateau Ksara near Zahle in the central Beqaa Valley. In 1868 a French engineer, 
Eugene Francois Bran, set up Domaine des Tourelles, and others followed, notably 
Gaston Hochar's Chateau Musar in 1930. Musar would become the standard bearer for 
Lebanese wines in the West, famous for taking grapes through the front lines of the 
Lebanese Civil War which separated the vineyards from the winery. 

The French influence between the World Wars promoted a culture of wine drinking, as 
did the sophisticated Mediterranean culture of Beirut at that time. 

Frenchman Yves Morard of Chateau Kefraya was arrested as a spy during the Israeli 
invasion, and was only released when he proved to the Israelis that he knew how to make 
wine. Things weren't much better during the 2006 conflict, Ksara losing most of their 
harvest as their workers fled the Israeli bombing. On the bright side, there was a surge in 
demand during the fighting as British buyers in particular bought Lebanese wine as a 
mark of solidarity. 

Grape varieties 




Wine producing areas in Lebanon (red) 

Lebanese winemakers have favoured French grapes, particularly Cabernet Sauvignon, 
Merlot and Rhone varietals such as Cinsaut, Carignan and Grenache. However Lebanon 
has a rich heritage of indigenous grapes which are attracting more attention, for instance 
Musar White is made from a blend of Obaideh and Merwah. The Lebanese claim that 
Obaideh is an ancestral form of Chardonnay - it's not impossible that it may contributed 
genetically via the Gouais blanc of the Balkans. 



Wineries 





Vineyards near Zahle, in the central Beqaa Valley 

All the major wineries have their vineyards in the southern Beqaa Valley. Chateau Ksara 
remains much the biggest, with 70% of all the country's production. It is no longer 
connected with the Jesuit monastery of Tanail, it was sold in 1972 and suffered 
considerably during the civil war, but has now bounced back with some stylish reds and 
roses made from Rhone varietals such as Carignan and Cinsaut 
Next biggest is Chateau Kefraya, whose majority of shares were bought by Druze 
politician Walid Jumblat from the De Bustros family in the late 1980s. The former 
winemaker, Yves Morard, has now set up Cave Kouroum nearby. 

Chateau Musar is perhaps the best known in the West, it was a particular favourite of 
Auberon Waugh. Musar achieved international recognition at the Bristol Wine Fair of 
1979 and for a long time was the only Lebanese wine widely available in the United 
Kingdom. The second wine, 'Hochar', is made in a lighter style for earlier drinking. 
Chateau Musar is known for trasporting the grapes accros the Front line during the civil 
war. 

Run by Ramzi and Sami Ghosn, Massaya is the new kid on the block that has come from 
nowhere to become one of the most fashionable wines in France. 

There are several other significant wineries, including Domaine Wardy, Vin Heritage, 
Chateau Faqra, Chateau Nakad, Domaine des Tourelles (who make Bran arak, arguably 
the best in Lebanon), Clos Saint Thomas, Cave Kouroum, Clos de Cana, Nabise Mont 
Liban, Enotica, Chateau Khoury and Couvent St. Sauveur. Lebwine.com has a good 
summary of them, and there's a useful map at lebanonatlas.com. 



Moldovan wine 




Most of the vineyards in Moldova are located on south facing slopes 

Moldova has a well established wine industry. It has a vineyard area of 147,000 hectares 
(360,000 acres), of which 102,500 ha (253,000 acres) are used for commercial 
production. Most of the country's wine production is for export. Many families have their 
own recipes and strands of grapes that have been passed down through the generations. 



History 

The imprints of Vitis teutonica vine leaves near the Naslavcia village in the north of 
Moldova prove that grapes grew here approximately 6 to 25 million years ago. The size 
of grape seed imprints found near the Varvarovca village, which date back to 2800 BC, 
prove that at that time the grapes were already being cultivated. The grapegrowing and 
winemaking in the area between the Nistru and Prut rivers, which began 4000-5000 years 
ago, had periods of rises and falls but has survived through all the changing social and 
economic conditions. 

At the end of the 3rd century BC, links between the local population and the Greeks were 
established and beginning with 107 with the Romans, a fact which strongly influenced 
the intense development of the grapegrowing and winemaking. 

After the formation of the Moldovan feudal state in the 14th century the grapegrowing 
began to develop and flourished in the 15th century during the kingdom of Stefan cel 
Mare, who was promoting the import of planting material of high quality varieties from 
other counties and the improvement of the quality of the wine. Wine was one of the chief 
exports of Moldova throughout the medieval period, especially to Poland, Ukraine and 
Russia. 

In the 300 years under the Turkish Ottoman Empire Moldova saw a big decline in 
grapegrowing, as winemaking was forbidden by law. After the peace treaty of 1812 the 
wine industry started flourishing again. The main varieties were the traditional ones: Rara 
Neagra, Plavai, Galbena, Zghiharda, Batuta Neagra, Feteasca Alba, Feteasca Neagra, 
Tamaioasa, Cabasia and many others of local, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Greek, and Turkish 
varieties. In this period the grape growers gained governmental support and already in 
1837 the vineyard area in Bassarabia (the territory of today’s Moldova plus the Black Sea 



coast) has reached 14,000 hectares, and the wine production has reached 12 million litres. 
The second half of the 19th century has seen an intensive planting of newly introduced 
French varieties such as Pinot Blanc, Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris, Aligote, Cabernet 
Sauvignon, Sauvignon Blanc, Gamay, Muscat Blanc. It was at this time that wines like 
Negru de Purcari and Romanesti, which have made Moldova famous as a fine wine 
producer, started to be produced. After the phylloxera damage at the end of the 19th 
century, it was only in 1906 that the vineyards were started to be re-established with 
grafted planting material. By 1914 Bassarabia had Russia’s biggest vineyard area. 

Both World Wars considerably damaged the Moldovan vineyards and the wine industry. 
The re-establishment of the Moldovan vineyards began during the Soviet years, in the 
50’s. In 10 years more than 150,000 hectares were planted and by 1960 the total vineyard 
area had reached 220,000 hectares. 

In 2006, a diplomatic conflict with Russia began after the 2006 Russian ban of Moldovan 
and Georgian wines. 

Wine growing regions in Moldova 

In Moldova four regions for wine growing are to be found: 

North region 
Codru (central region) 

South region 

South-East region which includes the famous Purcari region. 



Local varieties 




Rara Neagra grapes in a Purcari region vineyard 

Only a few local varieties can still be found in Moldova today: 

Feteasca Alba: White indigenous white variety. Makes crisp, fresh white wines with fine 
floral aromas. 

Feteasca Regala: White. A natural cross between Feteasca Alba and Furmint. 



Rara Neagra: Indigenous red variety. In Romania it is called Babeasca Neagra. Makes 
dark colored, full bodied red wines with fine red fruit aromas. 

Introduced varieties 

White varieties: Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Aligote, Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc, 
Riesling, Traminer, Muscat, Silvaner, Muller-Thurgau, Rkatsiteli. 

Red varieties: Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Malbec, Saperavi, Gamay. 

In 2006 Syrah, Cabernet Franc and Petit Verdot were conditionaly regestred for trial. 

Divin 

Divin - represents the name, patented in the Republic of Moldova, of the country's 
brandy, produced in conformity with the classic technology of cognac production. 

Some producers 




Chateau Lion Gri 

Cricova 

Aurvin 

Kvint - wine and brandy 



Cellars 



The Moldovan wine collection "Milestii Mici", having 1.5 million bottles is the largest 
in Europe, according to the Guinness Book. It stretches for 200 km, of which only 50 km 
are currently in use. 

New Zealand wine 



NMHUMtlflWtHHICH; 




Wine-producing regions in New Zealand 




A selection of New Zealand wines 

New Zealand wine is largely produced in ten major wine growing regions spanning 
latitudes 36° to 45° South and extending 1,600 km (1,000 miles). They are, from north to 
south Northland, Auckland, Waikato/Bay of Plenty, Gisborne, Hawke's Bay, Wellington, 
Nelson, Marlborough, Canterbury and Central Otago. 



History 



Wine making and vine growing go back to colonial times in New Zealand. Due to 
economic (the importance of the protein export industry), legislative (prohibition and 
temperance) and cultural factors (overwhelming predominance of beer and spirit drinking 
British immigration), wine was a marginal activity. Dalmatian immigrants at the end of 
the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century brought with them viticultural 
knowledge and set up the nascent NZ wine industry in West and North Auckland. 
Typically their vineyards produced sherry and port for the palates of New Zealanders of 
the time, and table wine for their own community. 

The three factors that held back the development of the industry simultaneously 
underwent subtle but historic changes in the late 1960s and early 1970s. In 1973 Britain 
entered the European Economic Community, which required the ending of historic trade 
terms for New Zealand meat and dairy products. This led ultimately to a dramatic 
restructuring of the agricultural economy. Before this restructuring was fully 
implemented, diversification away from traditional protein products to products with 
potentially higher economic returns was explored. Vines, which produce best in low 
moisture and low soil fertility environments, were seen as suitable for areas that had 
previously been marginal pasture. The end of the 1960s saw the end of the New Zealand 
institution of the "six o'clock swill", where pubs were open for only an hour after the end 
of the working day and closed all Sunday. The same legislative reform saw the 
introduction of BYO (bring your own) licences for restaurants. This had a profound and 
unexpected effect on New Zealanders' cultural approach to wine. 

Finally the late 1960s and early 1970s noted the rise of the OE (Overseas Experience), 
where young New Zealanders travelled and lived and worked overseas, predominantly in 
Europe. The OE as a cultural phenomenon goes back before this time, but by the 1960s a 
distinctly Kiwi (New Zealand) identity had developed and the passenger jet made the OE 
experience possible for a large numbers of New Zealanders who experienced first-hand 
the decidedly different wine-drinking cultures of Europe. 

First Steps 

In the 1970s, Montana in Marlborough started producing wines which were labelled by 
year of production (vintage) and grape variety (in the style of wine producers in 
Australia). The first production of a Sauvignon Blanc of great note appears to have 
occurred in 1977. Also produced in that year were superior quality wines of Muller 
Thurgau, Riesling and Pinotage. 

The excitement created from these successes and from the early results of Cabernet 
Sauvignon from Auckland and Hawkes Bay launched the industry with ever increasing 
investment, leading to more hectares planted, rising land prices and greater local interest 
and pride. Such was the boom that over-planting occurred, particularly in the "wrong" 
varietals that fell out of fashion in the early 1980s. In 1984 the then Labour Government 
paid growers to pull up vines to address a glut that was damaging the industry. Ironically 




many growers used the Government grant not to restrict planting, but to swap from less 
economic varieties (such as Muller Thurgau and other hybrids) to more fashionable 
varieties (Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc), using the old root stock. The glut was only 
temporary in any case, as boom times returned swiftly. 

Sauvignon Blanc Leads The Way 

New Zealand is home to what many wine critics consider the world’s best Sauvignon 
Blanc. Oz Clarke, a well known British wine critic wrote in the 1990s that New Zealand 
Sauvignon Blanc was "arguably the best in the world" (Rachman). Historically, 
Sauvignon Blanc has been used in many French regions in both AOC and Vin de Pays 
wine. The most famous had been France’s Sancerre. It is also the grape used to make 
Pouilly Fume. 

Following Robert Mondavi's lead in renaming Californian Sauvignon Blanc Fume Blanc 
(partially in reference to Pouilly Fume and partially to denote the smokiness of the wine 
produced due to its aging in oak) there was a trend for oaked Sauvignon Blanc in New 
Zealand during the late 1980s. Later the fashion for strong oaky overtones and also the 
name waned. 

In the 1980s, wineries in New Zealand, especially in the Marlborough region, began 
producing outstanding, some critics said unforgettable, Sauvignon Blanc. "New Zealand 
Sauvignon Blanc is like a child who inherits the best of both parents — exotic aromas 
found in certain Sauvignon Blancs from the New World and the pungency and limy 
acidity of an Old World Sauvignon Blanc like Sancerre from the Loire Valley" (Oldman, 
p. 152). One critic said that drinking one's first New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc was like 
having sex for the first time (Taber, p. 244). "No other region in the world can match 
Marlborough, the northeastern corner of New Zealand's South Island, which seems to be 
the best place in the world to grow Sauvignon Blanc grapes" 

Climate and Soil 

The wine regions in New Zealand stretch from latitudes 36°S in the north (Northland), to 
45°S (Central Otago) in the south. 

Wine regions are mostly located in free draining alluvial valleys (Hawke's Bay, 
Martinborough, Nelson, the Wairau and Awatere valleys of Marlborough, and 
Canterbury) with notable exceptions (Waiheke Island, Kawarau Gorge in Central Otago). 
The alluvial deposits are typically the local sandstone called greywacke, which makes up 
much of the mountainous spine of New Zealand. Sometimes the alluvial nature of the soil 
is important, as in Hawke's Bay where the deposits known as the Gimblett Gravels 
represent such quality characteristics that they are often mentioned on the wine label. 



Another soil type is represented in Waipara, Canterbury. Here there are the Omihi Hills 
which are part of the Torlesse group of limestone deposits. Viticulturalists have planted 




Pinot Noir here due to French experience of the affinity between the grape type and the 
chalky soil on the Cote d'Or. 



The climate in New Zealand is maritime, meaning that the sea moderates the weather 
producing cooler summers and milder winters than would be expected at similar latitudes 
in Europe and North America. Maritime climates tend also to demonstrate higher 
variability with cold snaps possible at any time of the year and warm periods even in the 
depth of winter. The climate is typically wetter, but wine regions have developed in rain 
shadows and in the east, on the opposite coast from the prevailing moisture-laden wind. 
The wine regions of New Zealand tend to experience cool nights even in the hottest of 
summers. The effect of consistently cool nights is to produce fruit which is nearly always 
high in acidity. 

Industry Structure and Production Methods 

There are a diversity of methods of production of New Zealand wine. The traditional 
concept of a vineyard, whereby grapes are grown on the land surrounding a central 
simply-owned or family-owned estate with its own discrete viticultural and wine making 
equipment and storage is only one model. While the European cooperative model (where 
district or AOC village wine-making takes place in a centralised production facility) is 
uncommon, contract growing of fruit for wine-makers has been a feature of the NZ 
industry since the start of the wine making boom in the 1970s. 

Indeed a number of well known quality wine producers started out as contract growers. 
Alternately, many fledgling producers started out using solely contract fruit as their own 
vines matured into production. Some producers use contract fruit to supplement the range 
of varieties they market, even using fruit from other geographical regions. It is common 
to see, for example, an Auckland producer market a "Marlborough Sauvignon Blanc", or 
a Marlborough producer market a "Gisborne Chardonnay". 

Contract growing is an example of the use of indigenous agri-industrial methods that pre- 
date the NZ wine industry. Another example of the adaptation of NZ methods toward the 
new industry was the universal use of stainless steel in wine making adapted from the 
norms and standards of the New Zealand dairy industry. There was an existing small 
scale industrial infrastructure ready for wine makers to economically employ. It should 
be remembered that while current wine making technology is almost universally sterile 
and hygenic world-wide, the natural antibiotic properties of alcohol production were 
more heavily relied upon in the 1970s when the NZ wine industry started. 

This pervasive use of stainless steel almost certainly had a distinctive effect on both New 
Zealand wines styles and the domestic palate. The early wines which made a stir 
internationally were lauded for the intenstiy and purity of the fruit in the wine. Indeed the 
strength of flavour in the wine favoured bone dry styles despite intense acidity. While 
stainless steel did not produce the intensity of fruit, it allowed for its exploitation. Even 
today, NZ white wine tends toward drier end of the spectrum. 




Varieties, Styles and Directions 



Red Blends and Bordeaux Varieties 

New Zealand Reds are typically made from either a blend of varietals (Cabernet 
Sauvignon, Merlot, and much less often Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot and Malbec), or 
pinot noir. Recently, in Hawkes Bay there have been wines made from Syrah, either 
solely or blends, and even Tempranillo, Montepulciano and Sangiovese. 

Early success in the 1980s in the North Island lead to red wine planting and production 
concentrating on Cabernet Sauvignon by Corbans, McWilliams and Mission Estate 
among others. Very often it was found that vegetal characteristics predominated as 
Cabernet Sauvignon struggled to ripen in New Zealand conditions. Mediocre wines were 
often accused of being "stalky". As viticulture improved with experience of New 
Zealand's "cool climate" conditions and more Merlot and other blending wines were 
employed, this fault was increasingly eliminated. This trend continues and can be seen in 
the NZ Wine Institute statistics where hectares planted of Cabernet Sauvignon declined in 
the period 2003 to 2005, from 741 to 678, while Merlot increased from 1,249 to 1,592. 

Typically "bordeaux blends" come from regions and sub-regions that are relatively hot 
and dry for New Zealand, such as Waiheke Island and Hawke's Bay. Wines that have 
made a name for Waiheke Island include Stonyridge Larose and Goldwater Estate. Wines 
that typify the best of Hawkes Bay include Te Mata Estate's Coleraine and Awatea, Esk 
Valley's The Terraces and Villa Maria's Reserve Merlot/Cabernets. In Marlborough there 
are a number of producers of bordeaux varietal wines. 

However, examples of bordeaux blends can be found as far south as Waipara, in 
Canterbury where Pegasus Bay's Maestro has demonstrated the recent decade's drift away 
from Cabernet Sauvignon predominant blends to Merlot predominant with the addition of 
Malbec. 

In general New Zealand red wine tends to be forward and early maturing, fruit-driven and 
with restrained oak. No definitive regional characteristics have developed in New 
Zealand, the principal differences between wines being determined by the vintage, 
vineyard and wine-maker's philosophy. However, some preliminary trends are worth 
commenting on. Central Otago particularly Bannockburn pinot noir can have distinct 
earthy, mineral and wild thyme notes. Hawkes Bay bordeaux blends have greater body 
than other New Zealand reds. Marlbourough Pinot Noirs are notable for their ripeness 
and fruitiness. 

Pinot Noir 

Pinot Noir is a grape variety whose importance in New Zealand is greater than the weight 
of planting. Early in the modern wine industry (late 1970s early 1980s), the 
comparatively low annual sunshine hours to be found in NZ discouraged the planting of 
red varieties. But even at this time great hopes were had for Pinot Noir (see Romeo 




Bragato). Initial results were not promising for several reasons, including the mistaken 
planting of Gamayand the limited number of Pinot Noir clones available for planting. 
However in recent years Pinot Noir from Central Otago has won numerous international 
awards and accolations making it one of New Zealand's most sought-after varieties. 

One notable exception was the St Helena 1984 Pinot Noir from the Canterbury region. 
This led to the belief for a time that Canterbury might become the natural home for Pinot 
Noir in New Zealand. While the early excitement passed, the Canterbury region has 
witnessed the development of Pinot Noir as the dominant red variety. The sub-region 
Waipara has some interesting wines. Producers include Pegasus Bay, Waipara Springs 
and Omihi Hills. 

The next region to excel with Pinot Noir was Martinborough on the southern end of the 
North Island. Several vineyards including Palliser Estate, Martinborough Vineyards, 
Murdoch James Estate and Ata Rangi consistently produced interesting and increasingly 
complex wine from Pinot Noir at the end of the 1980s and into the 1990s. 

At around this time the first plantings of Pinot Noir in Central Otago occurred in the 
Kawarau Gorge. Central Otago had a long (for New Zealand) history as a producer of 
quality stone fruit and particularly cherries. Significantly further south than all other wine 
regions in New Zealand, it had been overlooked despite a long history of grape growing. 
However, it benefited from being surrounded by mountain ranges which increased its 
temperature variations both between seasons and between night and day making the 
climate unusual in the typically maritime conditions in New Zealand. 

The first vines were planted using holes blasted out of the north facing schist slopes of 
the region, creating difficult, highly marginal conditions. The first results coming in the 
mid to late 1990s excited the interest of British wine commentators, including Jancis 
Robinson and Oz Clarke. Not only did the wines have the distinctive acidity and 
abundant fruit of New Zealand wines, but they demonstrated a great deal of complexity, 
with aromas and flavours not common in New Zealand wine and normally associated 
with burgundian wine. Producers include Felton Rd, Chard Farm and Mt Difficulty. 

The latest sub-region appears to be Waitaki, on the border between Otago and 
Canterbury. 

In a recent blind tasting of New Zealand Pinot Noir featured in Cuisine magazine (issue 
1 19), Michael Cooper reported that of the top ten wines, five came from Central Otago, 
four from Marlborough and one from Waipara. This compares with all top ten wines 
coming from Marlborough in an equivalent blind tasting from last year. Cooper sugggests 
that this has to do with more Central Otago production becoming available in commercial 
quantities, than the relative qualities of the regions' Pinot Noir. 

As is the case for other New Zealand wine, New Zealand Pinot Noir is fruit-driven, 
forward and early maturing in the bottle. It tends to be quite full bodied (for the variety), 
very approachable and oak maturation tends to be restrained. High quality examples of 




New Zealand Pinot Noir are distinguished by savoury, earthy flavours with a greater 
complexity. 

White 

In white wines Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc predominate in plantings and 
production. Typically Chardonnay planting predominate more the further north one goes, 
however it is planted and produced in Central Otago. There is no discernible difference in 
styles for Chardonnay between the New Zealand wine regions so far. Individual wine 
makers and the particular qualities of a vintage are more likely to determine factors such 
as malolactic fermentation or the use of oak for aging. 

New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc has been described by some as "alive with flavors of cut 
grass and fresh fruits", and others as "cat's pee on a gooseberry bush" (but not necessarily 
as a criticism). 

Other white varietals commonly include (in no particular order) Riesling, 
Gewiirztraminer, and Pinot Gris, and less commonly Chenin Blanc, Pinot Blanc, Miiller- 
Thurgau and Viognier. 

Riesling is produced predominantly in Martinborough and south. The same may be said 
with less forcefulness about Gewiirztraminer (which is also planted extensively in 
Gisborne). Pinot Gris is being planted increasingly, especially in Martinborough and the 
South Island. Chenin Blanc was once more important, but the viticultural peculiarities of 
the variety, particularly its unpredictable cropping in New Zealand, have led to its 
disfavour. Milton Estate in Gisborne produces an example of this variety. 

The market success of Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay and lately Pinot Noir mean that 
these varietals will dominate future planting. 

Sparkling Wine 

Excellent quality Methode Traditionelle sparkling wine is produced in New Zealand. 
Typically, it was Marlborough that was the commercial birthplace of New Zealand 
Methode Traditionelle sparkling wine. Marlborough still produces a number of high 
quality sparkling wines, and has attracted both investment from Champagne producers 
(Deutz) and also champanois wine-makers (Daniel Le Bran). Other sparkling wines from 
Marlborough include Pelorous (from Cloudy Bay), and the now venerable 
Montana/Pernod Ricard brand, Lindauer. 

Wine Regions of New Zealand 

Wairarapa 




The Wei 1 i ngton/W ai rarapa wine-growing region is one of New Zealand's smallest, with 
several sub-regions, which include Gladstone, Martinborough, Masterton and Opaki. 
Martinborough was the original area planted, on the basis of careful scientific study, in 
the 1970's, which identified it's soils and climate as perfecttly suited to the ciultivation of 
Pinot Noir. As a consequence, many of the vineyards established there are older then 
their counter-parts in the rest of the Wairarapa. Subtle differences are seen in the wines 
from the South Wairarapa (which includes Martinborough), which has more maritime 
influences, to those grown further north. 

Martinborough 

Martinborough is a small wine village located at the foot of New Zealand’s North Island, 
in the South Wairarapa, just 1.5 hours drive from Wellington, the capital city. The 
combination of topography, geology, climate and human effort has led to the region 
becoming one of New Zealand's premier wine regions in spite of it's small size. Less than 
2% of the country's wine production is grown in Martinborough, yet in shows and 
competitions, it rates much more highly. The local Winegrowers organisation states: 
"Officially New Zealand's sixth largest region, Wellington/Wairarapa is small in 
production terms but makes a large contribution to the country's quality winemaking 
reputation." . 

The vineyards are shielded from the elements by steep mountains, while the growing 
season from flowering to harvest is amongst the longest in New Zealand. Naturally 
breezy conditions control vine vigour, creating lower yields of grapes with greater 
intensity . A genuine cool climate, with a long, dry autumn in NZ, provides an ideal 
ripening conditions for Pinot Noir and other varietals, such as Riesling, Syrah and Pinot 
Gris. A small number of wineries are producing Cabernet Franc of a high standard. Most 
of the wineries are located on the area's alluvial river terraces near the township (the Te 
Muna, Huangarau and Dry River Regions). 

Martinborough wineries are relatively small and typically family-owned, with the focus 
on producing quality rather than quantity. Relatively small yields enable Martinborough 
winemakers to devote themselves to handcrafting superior wines. Among the many long- 
established wineries, several, including Te Kairanga, Ata Rangi, Palliser Estate, Murdoch 
James Estate and Dry River, have become internationally recognised as premium 
producers of Pinot Noir . 

Key production figures: 

The total Wellington/Wairarapa producing area is 758ha. 

The Wairarapa currently has 54 wineries, more than twice the 24 in the region in 1995. 
Predominant varieties for the 2006 vintage were: Pinot Noir (38%); Sauvignon Blanc 
(35%); Chardonnay (11%); Riesling (0.08%); Pinot Gris (0.03%). & the Cabernets (incl. 
Cab sauvignon & franc (0.012%); and the remaining 16% includes Merlot, Syrah, 
Malbec, and Gewurztraminer. 




In 2007, the producing area in Wellington/Wairarapa represented just two percent of the 
total New Zealand wine producing area. 



Trends in Production and Export 

The initial focus for the industry's export efforts was the United Kingdom. The late 1970s 
and early 1980s were not only pioneering times for production but also marketing and as 
with many New Zealand products, wine was only really taken seriously at home when it 
was noticed and praised overseas and in particular by British wine commentators and 
critics. For much of the history of New Zealand wine exportation the United Kingdom 
market, with its lack of indigenous production, great thirst and sophisticated wine pallet 
has been either the principal or only market. In the last decade the British market's 
overwhelming importance has eroded; while still the single largest export market, it now 
(2006) makes up only one third of total exports by value, only slightly larger than the 
American and Australian markets. Japan is a particularly strong importer of high-end 
New Zealand wines: in 2006, it spent NZ$14.44 per liter of wine imported, compared to 
New Zealand's average price of NZ$8. 87/L. 

New Zealand's wine industry has become highly successful in the international market. 

To meet the increasing demand for its wines, the country's vineyard plantings have more 
than tripled in the ten years ending in 2005. Sales continue to increase. For example, 
"From 2004 to 2005, exports to the United States skyrocketed 81 percent to 1.45 million 
cases, more than two-thirds of which was Sauvignon Blanc, still the country's undisputed 
flagship wine." 

Praise for and criticism of New Zealand wine 

One critic described drinking Cloudy Bay Sauvignon Blanc to "hearing Glenn Gould 
playing Bach’s Goldberg Variations” . Cloudy Bay Vineyards set a new standard for New 
World Sauvignon Blanc and was arguably responsible for the huge increase in interest in 
such wines, particularly in the United Kingdom. Veuve Clicquot, the French Champagne 
producer, now owns a controlling interest in Cloudy Bay. 

In 2006 Grove Mill Marlborough Sauvignon Blanc won three trophies at the International 
Wine Challenge in London, the most prestigious award was for the best Sauvignon Blanc 
in the world. Continued acclaim for the wines of Marlborough will add to the ground 
work of such companies as Cloudy Bay Vineyards, Saint Clair Estate Winery and 
Montana. 

Following on from the early success of Sauvignon Blanc, New Zealand has been building 
a strong reputation with other cultivars; Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris and Syrah are just three 
examples. 




The opinions of expert commentators vary. For example, renowned wine critic Robert 
Parker in his Wines of the World, while noting the success of New Zealand's Sauvignon 
Blanc and the enormous amount of interest in New Zealand's wine, only devotes a couple 
of pages in a very large two volume book to New Zealand. Parker disparages most New 
Zealand red wine as 'atrociously vegetal', saying that it is 'unbelievable' that anyone could 
find something to praise in those offerings. He does, however, make more complimentary 
remarks about New Zealand Pinot Noir. 

By comparison, Jancis Robinson observes, when commenting on NZ Pinot Noir that, 
while "comparisons with Burgundy are inevitable, New Zealand Pinot Noir is rapidly 
developing its own distinctive style, often with deeper colour, purer fruit and higher 
alcohol. While regional differences are apparent, the best wines do have Burgundy’s 
elusive complexity, texture and “pinosity” and are capable of ageing". She goes on to say 
"It is a testament to the skill and craft of New Zealand producers that poor examples are 
infrequently encountered". 

Wine competition controversy 

In late 2006, questions emerged about the integrity of New Zealand wine competition 
following the accusations of cheating by Marlborough based winery Wither Hills in the 
October Cuisine Magazine annual wine competition. Wither Hills was accused of 
submitting a smaller batch production under the same label of a different wine that was 
available for public purchase. During the competition the Wither Hills 2006 Marlborough 
Sauvignon blanc won a perfect five star rating but when compared to a supermarket 
purchased bottle of the same label was found to be a different wine with varying degrees 
of alcohol and sugar content. Winemaker Brent Marris claimed the discrepancy came 
from two separate bottling runs and that the wine sometime commonly changes from 
when it is bottled in July and a second batch is later bottled in December. The wine 
submitted for the wine competition was a limited first run bottling. An external audit by 
the New Zealand Winegrowers Association found no irregularities in Wither Hills 
accounting of their production and no evidence that Wither Hills deliberating submitted a 
different quality wine to wine competitions. In the previous decade, two other wineries 
were found guilty of this offense Lintz Estate and Coopers Creek and stripped of their 
wine competition awards. 

In response to the controversy, the New Zealand Wine industry looked into the problem 
of having different wines potentially being sold under the same label. A criticism of 
Wither Hills was the lack of labeling their wine submitted for wine competition as a first 
release wine which would have distinguished it from the different wine that was 
available in the supermarkets. Many New Zealand wineries do make it a practice of 
labeling smaller or first run batches with a different label then its larger runs and these are 
typically the wines that are submitted for wine competitions. This presented another 
question for the wine industry in judging the value of wine competitions when the sizable 
number of these wines will not be available for the public. This opened up the 
competitions to criticisms of being "gold-medal or high-score hunt(s)". A possible 




solution that has been proposed is for wine competitions to purchase entrant wines from a 
supermarket or public seller instead of having the wineries supply the wines directly. 



Statistics 



New Zealand wine production 



Year 


1995 


1996 


1997 


1998 


1999 


2000 


2001 


2002 


2003 


2004 


2005 


2006 


2007 


Productive 
vine area 
(hectares) 


6,110 


6,610 


7,410 


7,580 


9,000 


10,197 


11,648 


13,787 


15,800 


18,112 


21,002 


22,616 


24,660 


Total 

Production 
(millions 
of litres) 


56.4 


57.3 


45.8 


60.6 


60.2 


60.2 


53.3 


89.0 


55.0 


119.2 


102.2 


133.2 





The National grape harvest has increased dramatically in the last decade. 

New Zealand wine production by grape variety (hectares) 



Year 


2003 


2004 


2005 


2006 


2007 


Sauvignon 

Blanc 


4,516 


5,897 


7,043 


8,860 




Chardonnay 


3,515 


3,617 


3,731 


3,779 




Pinot Noir 


2,624 


3,239 


3,623 


4,063 




Merlot 


1,249 


1,487 


1,492 


1,420 




Riesling 


653 


666 


806 


853 




Cabernet 

Sauvignon 


741 


687 


678 


531 





Source of statistics: New Zealand Winegrowers Statistical Annual 2007 



Portuguese wine 






The traditional rebelo boat, used to transport Port Wine from the Douro Valley to the 
cellars near the city of Porto. 

Portuguese wine is part of the ancient traditions introduced to the region by ancient 
civilizations such as the Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Greeks, and mostly the Romans. 

It started to export its wines to Rome during the Roman Empire. Modern exports 
developed with trade to England after a treaty in 1703. 

Portugal has the oldest appellation system in the world, the Douro Valley. This region 
and Vinho Verde region, in the Northwest produces some of the world's finest, unique 
and highest value-added wines. Alentejo and Dao regions produces fruitful flavour wines, 
suitable for a casual wine drinker. 

Portugal has two wine producing regions protected by UNESCO as World Heritage: the 
Douro Valley Wine Region ( Douro Vinhateiro) and Pico Island Wine Region ( llha do 
Pico Vinhateiro). 

Portugal has a large variety of native breeds (about 500), producing a very wide variety 
of different wines with distinctive personality. The Oxford Companion to Wine describes 
the country as having "a treasure trove of indigenous grape varieties". With the quality 
and uniqueness of its wines, the country is a sizable and growing player in wine 
production, being in the top 10, with 4% of the world market (2003). The country is 
considered a traditional wine grower with 8% of its continental land dedicated to 
vineyards. Only the highest mountain peaks are unable to support viticulture. Portugal 
produces some of the world's best wines, as reflected in its success in international 
competitions. 



History 



Demarcated Wine 



Regions (D.O.C.) 



Vinhos Verdes 
Porto e Douro 
Dao 

Bairrada 

Bucelas 

Colares 

Carcavelos 

Setubal 

Alentejo 

Lagoa 

Lagos 

Portimao 

Tavira 

Madeira 



In Mythology, Luso was son or companion of Bacchus, the god of winery and Feast. 
Mythically, Lusitania gained its name from Luso. Lusitania was an ancient Roman 
province in the present day Portugal. 

There are some theories that the Tartessians first cultivated vineyards in the Iberian 
Peninsula in the Tagus Valley about 2000 BC. Later in the 10th century BC, the 
Phoenicians introduced vineyards in the region. But it was in the 7th century BC, when 
the Greeks installed in the Peninsula that the wine making art developed. In Alcacer do 
Sal, a cratera was found, the cratera is a vase used by the Ancient Greeks to drink and 
dilute wine with water, showing that the Ancient Greeks also drank Portuguese wines. 

During the Roman rule over Portugal, the vineyard culture greatly developed, as the 
region supplied Rome with its wines. The wines became popular in Rome, leading to the 
demand being superior to wine production. 

During the Reconquista in the 12th and 13th centuries, with the populating (povoamento ) 
of the conquered territories, areas that due to religion the Arabs reduced wine production, 
and planting grapevines were a priority. During this period, some new varieties were 
added to the ancient ones, from Burgundy came the French varieties. And during the 
period of discoveries, Henry the Navigator brought to the newly discovered island of 
Madeira the moscatel and malvasia from the Greek Island of Crete. 

Due to historical reasons, England was to where Portuguese wines were most exported. 
Exports of Portuguese wines from Northern Portugal to England are known since the 
12th century. From this commerce a wide variety of wines started to be grown in 
Portugal. And, in 1758, the first wine-producing region of the world, the Regiao 



Demarcada do Douro was created under the orientation of Marquis of Pombal, in the 
Douro Valley. The demarcated region had the aim to guarantee the production of 
excellent quality wines. 

In the Reign of King Charles, the Regiao Demarcada do Vinho Verde and the Regiao 
Demarcada do Dao among Colares, Carcavelos, Setubal, and Madeira were created. 
These wines were already famous before the creation of the Demarcated region. In 1979, 
Bairrada was added and in 1980 the Algarve region (Lagoa, Lagos, Portimao, and Tavira) 
was finally demarcated. In 1998, the Alentejo region was demarked by the gathering 
several smaller demarked regions created in 1995. 

Portugal is home to one of the greatest international wine success stories of modern 
times. That is the production and marketing of medium sweet, lightly sparking roses. In 
the late 1980s, Mateus accounted for over 40% of the country's total table wine exports 
and was especially popular in Europe. Lancers is better known in the United States, 
where it continues to be successful. 

Grapes 

The type of grapes ( castas ) is as important has the type of soil and climate, creating the 
different Portuguese wine breeds, the Castas - grape varieties. 

It produces distinctive wines from the Northern regions to Madeira Islands, passing by 
the Algarve and the Azores. 

The particular breed of wines makes Portugal a country with distinctive personality in 
terms of wine growing. But this distinctiveness brings more diffulties than advantages, 
due that it would be easier to produce international wine varieties. 

In Portugal only some varieties of castas are authorized in the Demarcated regions: 

Vinhos Verdes - white and red castas 

Porto - white and red castas 

Douro - white and red castas 

Dao - white and red castas 

Bairrada - white and red castas 

Bucelas - white castas 

Colares - white and red castas 

Carcavelos - generous castas 

Setubal - generous castas 

Alentejo - white and red castas 

Algarve - white, red, and Liqueurous castas 

Madeira - generous castas 




Each region has its own Comissao Vitivinicola to supervise the quality of the wines in 
various aspects of the cultivation and preparation of vineyards, but also in assuring the 
quality of the wine, for instance, in its flavour and scent. 

The Appellation System 

Denominagao de Origem Controlada 

The appellation system of the Douro region was created nearly two hundred years before 
that of France, in order to protect its superior wines from inferior ones. 

The quality and great variety of wines in Portugal are due to noble castas, microclimates, 
soils and proper technology. 

Officional designations: 

Quality Wine Produced in a Specific Region (QWPSR) or VQPRD - Vinho de Qualidade 
Produzido em Regiao Demarcada 

These are the most protected wine and indicates a specific vineyard, such as Port Wine, 
Vinhos Verdes, and Alentejo Wines. These wines are labeled D.O.C. (Denominagao de 
Origem Controlada) which secures a superior quality. 

Wines that have more regulations placed upon them but are not in a DOC region fall 
under the category of Indicagao de Proveniencia Regulamentada (IPR, Indication of 
Regulated Provenance) 

Regional Wine - Vinho Regional Carries with it a specific region within Portugal. 

Table Wines - Vinho de Mesa carries with it only the producer and the designation that 
it's from Portugal. 

Vinhos Verdes 

Vinho Verde 




Wineyards in Vinho Verde Demarcated Region in Minho, Portugal 

Vinho Verde is produced from grapes which do not reach great doses of sugar. Therefore, 
Vinho Verde does not require an aging process. 



These wines are produced in the Northwest of Portugal in the historical regions of Minho 
and Douro Litoral. The region produces wines from very Ancient times; only in 1908 the 
region was demarcated. Vinho Verde is influenced by the nearby ocean and high 
humidity, typical aspects of the region that can be observed in the wine's refreshing taste. 
Thus, Vinho Verde always requires low temperatures before serving. It is known for 
having diuretic and digestible properties. And, are a category of wines that are unique and 
typical of Portugal. These are very light wines and naturally gassy. 

Vinho Verde wines are now largely exported, and are the most exported Portuguese 
wines after the Port Wine. The most popular variety in Portugal and abroad are the white 
wines, but there are also red and more rarely rose wines. 

A notable variety of Vinho Verde is Vinho Alvarinho which is a special variety of white 
Vinho Verde, the production of Alvarinho is restricted by EU law to a small sub-region 
of Mongao, in the northern part of the Minho region in Portugal. It has more alcohol 
(1 1.5 to 13%) than the other varieties (8 to 1 1.5%). 

Port Wine and Douro wines 



Port wine 




A glass of tawny port. 



The port wine vines need to grow on soil that is rich in schist and require a specific 
climate. Made using a unique vinification method, this wine is very special and known 
worldwide. The red varieties are the most common. The wine is produced in the beautiful 
landscape of the Douro Valley in Alto Douro region, a region that is now classified as 
World Heritage by UNESCO, and the wine is exported from the city of Porto, thus 
acquiring the name porto (or "port" in English-speaking countries). There are several 
varieties of port wine: some of the most popular are the tawny, white, ruby, and Late 
Bottled Vintage (L.B.V.). 

Vinho do Douro 

Douro wine (Vinho do Douro), from the same region of port wines, originally were bitter 
wines, but the relation between Portugal and England led the English to enhance this 
wine with a kind of Portuguese brandy known as aguardente for it to support a voyage 
from Portugal to England. And since then, the wine only got better, and it appears by the 




first time in the registries of exports in 1679. Today's Douro wines are favourite table 
wines with some traits that are reminiscent of a port wine. 



The "Barca Velha" is a widely notable wine, which is not only seen as, perhaps, the best 
Portuguese wine, but also as one of the best wines of the world. 

Dao wine (Vinho do Dao) 

Vinho do Dao 

Dao wine is from the Regiao Demarcada do Dao, a region demarcated in 1908, but 
already in 1390 there were taken some measures to protect this wine. The Dao Wine is 
produced in a mountainous region with temperate climate, in the area of the Mondego 
and Dao Rivers in the north region of central Portugal. These mountains protect the 
castas from maritime and continental influences. 

The Dao wines, both red and white have fruitful flavour. Some of the used castas, such 
has the Touriga Nacional, are unique to the country and do not exist anywhere else. It has 
a minimum alcohol by volume of 11%. Many vintners consider these wines to be the best 
Portuguese table wines, the most notable are the "Grao Vasco" and the "Alianga". 

• Red Castas: 

Alfrocheiro, Jaen, 
Rufete, Tinta Roriz, 
and Touriga 
Nacional; 

• White Castas: Bical, 

Cerceal Branco, 
Encruzado, and 
Malvasia-Fina. 



Bairrada Wine (Vinho da Bairrada) 

Vinho da Bairrada 

Bairrada wine, is produced in the Regiao Demarcada da Bairrada. The name "Bairrada" 
is from "barros" (clay) and due to the clayey soils of the region. Although the region was 
classified in 1979, it is an ancient vineyard region. The vines grow exposed to the sun, 
favouring the further maturity of the grapes. The Baga casta is intensely used in the 
wines of the region. 

The Bairrada region produces table, white and red wines. Yet, it is notable for its 
sparkling natural wine: the "Conde de Cantanhede" and "Marques de Marialva" are the 
official brands for this wine. 




In Portugal, Bairrada Wine is especially notable to drink in restaurants along with a 
typical roasted piglet, the Leitao da Bairrada. 

Moscatel wines 

Muscat (grape and wine) 

Moscatel is a liqueurous wine from the Setubal Peninsula. Although the region has 
produced wines since the dawn of nationality, it was in 1797 that the wines of Setubal 
were first mentioned. Since 1870, most of the Setubal Moscatels have been grown with 
special care. And the most known is "Moscatel Roxo", a wine that only becomes 
commercialized after aging 20 years in a cellar. 

There is another variety of Moscatel wine, the "Moscatel de Favaios", in the Regiao 
Demarcada do Douro, it is made from a different casta, and the "Galego" (white), while 
Moscatel Roxo is made upon a casta with the same name has the wine. 

Alentejo wines 



Alentejo Wines 




Cellar in the Alentejo Demarcated Region 

Located in southern Portugal, Alentejo is ideal for the production of high quality wines 
suitable for the occasional consumer which makes it one of the most popular Portuguese 
wines. The grapes are planted in vast vineyards extending over rolling plains under the 
scorching sun which shines on the grapes and ripens them for the production of Alentejo 
Wines. 

Alentejo produces white wines with an intense original nose which are fruity. The red 
wines are slightly acidic with a bouquet of very ripe fruits yet soft and balanced on the 
palate. 

Alentejo Wines are, with Vinho Verde, the preferred wine for the Portuguese consumer, 
as they represent 47% of the quality wine market's quota with only 12% of the national 
wine production. This is largely due to excellent nationwide marketing as well as the 
appeal of Alentejo wines to the occasional consumer. This preference is also reflected in 



the export market, as Alentejo wines are also sold in the far east, namely China, a nation 
without a wine-drinking tradition. 



Colares sand wine 

Colares is type of wine produced in sandy soils outside Lisbon between the foothills of 
Sintra and Roca Cape. Because of Lisbon's urban sprawl, the lands available for 
vineyards became so small, that the demands has always been higher than the production, 
making it one of the most expensive Portuguese wines. The Colares sand wine tastes has 
a soft blend of nuts and red fruits. Preferred temperature for consumption is 18 degrees 
Celsius for red wines and 12 for white wines. 

Some Portuguese wine terms 

Adega: Winery 
Branco: White 
Casta: Grape variety 
Colheita: Vintage year 

Garrafeira: A reserva red wine aged at least two years in a barrel and one year in a bottle; 
a white wine aged at least six months in a barrel and six months in a bottle. 

Maduro: mature (in opposition to verde). Mature wines are Portuguese wines produced in 
all regions except the ones produced in Vinho Verde region, due to that, the term 
"maduro" rarely appears on bottles. 

Quinta: Vineyard 

Reserva: Superior quality wine of a single vintage 
Seco: Dry 
Tinto: Red 

Verde: green (in opposition to maduro). Wines produced in Vinho Verde region with a 
distinctive method. 

Vinho: Wine 

Romanian wine 



Romania is one of the world's largest wine producers, producing (as of 2003) around 
545,700 tonnes of wine. In recent years, Romania has attracted many European business 
people and wine buyers, due to the cheap prices of both vineyards and wines compared to 
other wine producing nations such as France, Germany, and Italy. 



History 




Wine was first introduced 3,000 years ago in Dacia (present-day Romania) by the 
Greeks, who arrived from the Black Sea. Due to the mild mediterranean climate and 
fertile Danube Delta, the location proved to be successful and the grape vineyards 
thrived. 

Later on, during the medieval ages, Saxons emigrated to Romania, bringing along with 
them different variations of Germanic grape vines. However, by the 1800s, most of these 
grape vines were replaced by grapes from Western Europe. 

In the 1880s, phylloxera (a pale yellow sap-sucking insect that attacks the roots of vines) 
arrived in Romania from North America. The phylloxera wiped out a majority of 
Europe's vineyards, including those in Romania. Eventually, many of the Romanian vines 
were replaced by those imported from France and other foreign nations, such as Merlot, 
Chardonnay, and Pinot Noir. 

In 2003, Romania was the twelfth largest wine producing country in the world. 

Wine producing regions 



• Cotnari 

• Dealu Mare 

• Murfatlar 

• Odobe§ti 

• Reca§ 

• Tarnave 

• Vanju Mare 



South African wine 



South African wine has a history dating back to 1659, and at one time Constantia was 
considered one of the greatest wines in the world. Under apartheid, the industry struggled 
with inferior grape varieties and industrial winemaking, but the dismantling of the old 
state cooperatives and access to international markets has unleashed a burst of new 
energy and new investment. 

Production is concentrated around Cape Town, with major vineyard and production 
centres at Paarl, Stellenbosch and Worcester. 



History 




On 2nd February 1659 the founder of Cape Town, Jan van Riebeeck, produced the first 
wine recorded in South Africa. In 1685, the Constantia estate was established in a valley 
facing False Bay by the Governor of the Cape, Simon van der Stel. His 'Vin de 
Constance' soon acquired a good reputation. But it was Hendrik Cloete, who bought the 
homestead in 1778, who really made the name of Constantia famous, with an unfortified 
wine made from a blend of mostly Muscat de Frontignan (Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains), 
Pontac, red and white Muscadel (probably clones of Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains??) and 
a little Chenin Blanc. It became a favourite tipple of European kings and emperors, from 
Frederick the Great to Napoleon. But the vineyards were decimated by phylloxera, the 
Cloete family were bankrupted, and Groot Constantia was sold to the government as an 
experimental station. In 1980 Duggie Jooste bought Klein Constantia, redeveloped it, and 
is now selling a new version of Vin de Constance made from Muscat Blanc a Petits 
Grains. 

On 8th January 1918, growers in the Western Cape founded the Kooperatieve 
Wijnbouwers Vereniging van Zuid-Afrika Bpkt (KWV). KWV came to dominate the 
industry until the end of the apartheid. In the 1930s they set up the South African Wine 
Farmers Association (S AWFA) as a 50:50 joint venture with their British agents, Vine 
Products, taking full control after the Second World War. 

Restrictions on the sale of "whites man's liquor" to black South Africans were lifted in 
the 1960s. Restrictions were never placed on Coloured South African laborers for fear of 
collapsing the wine farm labor force. Production quotas were abolished in the 1990s, and 
KWV shed its regulatory functions to the South African Wine Industry Trust and its 
producing interests to the Wijngaard Co-operative, leaving a publicly-quoted marketing 
company. 

Classification 

There are about 60 appellations within the Wine of Origin (WO) system, which was 
implemented in 1973 with a hierarchy of designated production regions, districts and 
wards. More recently 3 "Geographical Units" have been declared, which may cover a 
number of WO Regions plus some additional districts and wards. 

WO wines must be made 100% from grapes from the designated area. "Single vineyard" 
wines must come from a defined area of less than 5 hectares. An "Estate Wine" can come 
from adjacent farms, as long as they are farmed together and wine is produced on site. A 
ward is an area with a distinctive soil type and/or climate, and is roughly equivalent to a 
European appellation. A district can contain several terroirs, whereas a ward can't, which 
explains why Cape Point, with just one winery, is a district and not a ward. 

Varietal WO wines must contain at least 85% of the named variety (75% before 2006). 
About 75 varieties are currently approved for WO wines. 



KwaZulu-Natal 




KwaZulu-Natal wine 



On the east coast around Durban, the newest of the Geographical Units has little history 
of winegrowing but early efforts look promising. 

Northern Cape 

Northern Cape wine 

Along the valley of the Orange River, the river creates a cool microclimate that 
traditionally has favoured white wines. This Geographical Unit includes the district of 
Douglas and the wards of Hartswater, Lower Orange (Benede Oranje, home to most of 
the national sultana crop and a lot of Colombard) and Rietrivier Free State. 

Douglas 

Douglas wine 

This district near Kimberley has just one cooperative. 

Western Cape 

Western Cape wine 

This Geographical Unit covers almost all of the South African winelands, including the 
regions of Breede River Valley, Coastal Region, Klein Karoo and Olifants River. It also 
includes the otherwise unassigned southern districts of Bot River, Cape Agulhas, 
Overberg, Plettenberg Bay and Walker Bay, and the wards of Cederberg, Ceres, 
Herbertsdale, Prince Albert Valley, Ruiterbosch and Swartberg. 

Bot River (Botrivier) 

Bot River wine 

There are three wineries on the banks of the 'butter' river, Goedvertrouw, Beaumont 
Wines, and Wildekrans Estates. 

Cape Agulhas 

Cape Agulhas wine 

The southern tip of Africa, where the Atlantic Ocean meets the Indian Ocean, offers a 
unique terroir where Sauvignon Blanc thrives, particularly in the ward of Elim. 



Overberg 




Overberg wine 



This district south of Paarl is cooled by Atlantic breezes and is producing some exciting 
cool-climate Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay and Pinot Noir. It includes the Elgin and 
Klein River wards. 

Plettenberg Bay 

Plettenberg Bay wine 

Newly declared WO that is home to Bramon Estate, who are best known for a sparkling 
Sauvignon Blanc. 

Walker Bay 

Walker Bay wine 

West of Cape Agulhas, this coastal district produces some high quality wines from the 
Burgundy varieties. Hemel-en-Aarde Valley, Sunday's Glen and Upper Hemel-en-Aarde 
Valley were recently declared as wards. 

Breede River Valley 

Breede River Valley wine 

This region lies about 90km northeast of Cape Town, between Paarl and Worcester. 
Centred on Rawsonville, this region used to concentrate on bulk sweet wines. 

Breedekloof 

Breedekloof wine 

Recently split out of Worcester, this district contains the wards of Goudini and 
Slanghoek. 

Robertson 

Robertson wine 

About 150km east of Cape Town, this offshoot of the Breede River Valley is perhaps best 
known for Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc, and is establishing a reputation for quality 
reds. Its vineyards and orchards are cooled both by the Breede River and the on-shore 
breezes, so the climate is quite temperate. The district includes the wards of 
Agterkliphoogte, Bonnievale, Boesmansrivier, Eilandia, Hoopsrivier, Klaasvoogds, Le 




Chasseur, McGregor and Vinkrivier. In early June there is a Wacky Wine Weekend, with 
festivities and "open house" at many wineries. 

Swellendam 

Swellendam wine 

This districts covers the wards of Buffeljags and Stormsvlei. 

Worcester 

Worcester wine 

The Worcester district 120km northeast of Cape Town is South Africa's biggest producer 
of wine and brandy by volume, although hitherto the quantity has not been matched by 
quality. It includes the wards of Aan-de-Doorns, Hex River Valley, Nuy and 
Scherpenheuvel. 

Coastal Region 

Coastal Region wine 

This contains the famous winelands of the Cape, including the most famous ward of all, 
Constantia. 

Cape Point 

Cape Point wine 

This one-winery, 30ha district was created in 1998 to recognise the achievements of 
Sybrand van der Spuy at Cape Point Vineyards. The ocean breezes allow slow ripening, 
with excellent results from Sauvignon blanc and Semilion in particular. 

Darling 

Darling wine 

This district used to be part of Swartland, but was split off in recognition of its unique 
climate that benefits from cooling breezes from the Atlantic. It includes the high-altitude 
Groenekloof ward, which is best known for Sauvignon Blanc. 

Paarl 



Paarl wine 




About 50km east of Cape Town lies the Paarl district, one of the most famous of South 
Africa's winegrowing areas, particularly for Rhone-style red wines such as Syrah and 
Pinotage, and more recently Viognier-based whites. It covers the Franschhoek Valley, 
Wellington, Simonsberg-Paarl and Voor Paardeberg wards. 




Stellenbosch vineyard 



Stellenbosch 

Stellenbosch wine 

Stellenbosch is a university town south of Paarl, about 50km southeast of Cape Town. It 
is the heart of South Africa's greatest wine region, notable for the number of small 
wineries concentrating on red wines, including many of South Africa's best. It includes 
the Banghoek, Bottelary, Devon Valley, Jonkershoek Valley, Papegaaiberg, Polkadraai 
Hills and Simonsberg-Stellenbosch wards. 

Swartland 

Swartland wine 

Some 60km north of Cape Town, the 'black land' has traditionally produced fortified 
wines and some concentrated reds from Pinotage and Shiraz vines grown without 
irrigation. Malmesbury is the most famous ward, there is also Riebeekberg. 

Tulbagh 

Tulbagh wine 

Nestling in the shadow of the Winterhoek Mountains, the Tulbagh district has a variety of 
microclimates and is home to 5 estates and 2 cooperatives. Traditionally a producer of 
white wines and sparkling wine, it is moving towards quality red wines. 




Tygerberg 



Tygerberg wine 

Cooled by the sea, this district wants to become the Bordeaux of South Africa, with the 
Philadelphia ward producing Cabernet Sauvignon-based wines, and the Durbanville ward 
favouring Merlot and Sauvignon Blanc. 

Boberg 

Boberg wine 

Boberg is a region for fortified wines ("dessert wines" in local parlance) that overlaps 
most of the Paarl and Tulbagh still wine districts. 

Klein Karoo (Little Karoo) 

Klein Karoo wine 

This semi-arid region in the central Cape has a range of microclimates that allow a 
variety of wines to be produced, including some famous Muscadels and a range of 
brandies and fortified wines. It includes the wards of Montagu, Tradouw, Upper 
Langkloof (47ha) and Outeniqua. 

Calitzdorp 

Calitzdorp wine 

The climate and soil of this district is similar to those of the Douro, and it has a reputation 
for fortified wines made from the port grapes. 

Langeberg-Garcia 

Langeberg-Garcia wine 

This district was only defined in November 2006. It lies between the Brand River and 
Gourits River. 

Olifants River 

Olifants River wine 

While some wine had always been made on the west coast of South Africa, production 
began in earnest with the construction of a canal to irrigate wines in the Olifants River 




Valley, some 200km north of Cape Town. It includes the wards of Bamboes Bay (just 
6ha!), Koekenaap, Spruitdrift and Vredendal. 

Citrusdal Mountain 



Citrusdal Mountain wine 



This picturesque district includes the ward of Piekenierskloof. 

Citrusdal Valley 

Citrusdal Valley wine 

As the name suggests, this region is best known for its citrus orchards, but grapes are also 
grown. 

Lutzville Valley 

Lutzville Valley wine 

The area around Lutzville is meant to have a particularly good climate for growing vines, 
with misty mornings and cooling sea breezes. It includes the ward of Koekenaap. 



Grape Varieties 



South Africa can claim her own grape variety in the 
Pinotage, a cross between Pinot Noir and Cinsault 
(known locally as Hermitage (grape)). Pinotage was 
bred in 1925 by Dr. Abraham Izak Perold, the first 
Professor of Viticulture at the University of 
Stellenbosch. 

South Africa is also notable as the second home of 
Chenin Blanc, known locally as Steen. However there is 
a lot of dreary white wine produced from some low 
quality clones of Steen and Colombard.The grapes 
known locally as red and white Muscadel are probably 
Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains demonstrating its variable 
colouring. 



| Grape 


Vineyards 


Chenin Blanc 


18.7% 


Cabernet Sauvignon 


13.1% 


Colombard 


11.4% 


Shiraz 


9.6% 


Sauvignon Blanc 


8.2% 


Chardonnay 


8.0% 


Merlot 


6.7% 


Pinotage 


6.2% 



In 2006, SAWIS (South African Wine Information and Systems) reported that the 
country had 100,146 hectares of vineyards, with about 55 percent planted to white 
varieties. See table (right) for the major varieties planted in South Africa. Other grapes 
include Riesling (known locally as Weisser Riesling), Crouchen (known as Cape 
Riesling), Trebbiano (Ugni Blanc), Semilion (Groendruif) and Muscat (Hanepoot). 






Spanish wine 

Spanish wines are wines produced in the southwestern European country of Spain. 
Located on the Iberian Peninsula, Spain has over 2.9 million acres (over 1.17 million 
hectares) planted— making it the most widely planted wine producing nation but it is only 
the third largest producer of wine in the world, the largest being Italy and France.. This is 
due, in part, to the very low yields and wide spacing of the old vines planted on the dry, 
infertile soil found in many Spanish wine regions. The country is ninth in worldwide 
consumptions with Spaniards drinking, on average, 10.06 gallons (38 liters) a year. The 
country has an abundance of native grape varieties, with over 600 varieties planted 
throughout Spain though 80 percent of the country's wine production is from only 20 
grapes— including Tempranillo, Albarino, Garnacha, Palomino, Airen, Macabeo, 
Parellada, Xarel lo, Carinena and Monastrell. Major Spanish wine regions include the 
Rioja and Ribera del Duero which is known for their Tempranillo production; Jerez, the 
home of the fortified wine Sherry; Rfas Baixas in the northwest region of Galicia that is 
known for its white wines made from Albarino and Catalonia which includes the Cava 
and still wine producing regions of the Penedes as well the Priorat region. 



History 

History of Spain 

The abundance of native grape varieties fostered an early start to viticulture with 
evidence of grape pips dating back to the Tertiary period. Archaeologists believe that 
these grapes were first cultivated sometime between 4000 and 3000 BC, long before the 
wine-growing culture of the Phoenicians founded the trading post of Cadiz around 1100 
BC. Following the Phoenicians, the Carthaginians introduced new advances to the 
region-including the teachings of the early viticulturist Mago. Carthage would war a 
series of wars with the emerging Roman Republic that would lead to the Roman conquest 
of the Spanish mainland, known as Hispania. 



From Roman rule to the Reconquista 



Ancient Rome and wine 





Roman aqueduct built in the Castile-Leon city of Segovia. 

Under Roman rule, Spanish wine was widely exported and traded throughout the Roman 
empire. The two largest wine producing regions at the time were Terraconensis (modern 
day Tarragona) in the north and Baetica (modern day Andalucia) in the south. During this 
period more Spanish wine was exported into Gaul than Italian wine, with amphorae being 
found in ruins of Roman settlements in Normandy, the Loire Valley, Brittany, Provence 
and Bordeaux. Spanish wine was also provided to Roman soldiers guarding border 
settlements in Britain and the Limes Germanicus in Germania. The quality of Spanish 
wine during Roman times was varied, with Pliny the Elder and Martial noting the high 
quality associated with some wines from Terraconensis while Ovid notes that one popular 
Spanish wine sold in Rome, known as Saguntum, was merely good for getting your 
mistress drunk. ( Ars amatoria 3.645-6). 



Following the decline of the Roman Empire, Spain was invaded by various barbaric 
tribes-including the Suebi and the Visigoths. Little is known about progress of viticulture 
and winemaking during this period but there is evidence that some viable form of a wine 
industry was present when the Moors conquered the land during the early 8th century 
AD. While the Moors were Muslim and subjected to Islamic dietary laws that forbid the 
use of alcohol, the Moorish ruler held an ambiguous stance on wine and winemaking 
during their rule. Several caliphs and emirs owned vineyards and drank wine. While there 
laws written that outlawed the sale of wine, it was including on lists of items that were 
subject to taxation in Moorish territories. The Spanish Reconquista reopened the export 
possibilities of Spanish wines with Bilbao emerging as a large trading port-introducing 
Spanish wines to the English wine markets in Bristol, London and Southampton. The 
quality of some of these exported Spanish wines appear to have been high. In 1364, the 
court of Edward III established the maximum price of wine sold in England with the 
Spanish wines being priced at the same level as wines from Gascony and higher than 
those from La Rochelle. The full bodied and high alcohol in most Spanish wines made 
their favored blending partners for the "weaker" wines from the cooler climate regions of 
France and Germany though there laws that explicitly outlawed this practice. 



Colonization of the New World 




Under the reign of Phillip III, Spain became more dependent on the income from 
exporting Spanish wines to the colonies in South America. 

Following the completion of the Spanish Reconquista in 1492, Christopher Columbus 
discovered the New World under the sponsorship of the Spanish crown. This opened up a 
new export market as well as new opportunity for wine production with Spanish 
missionaries and conquistadors bring European grape vines with them as they colonized 
the new lands. During this period Spanish exports to England began to wane as Spanish- 
English relations steadily deteriorated following the divorce of Henry VIII of England 
from his Spanish wife Catherine of Aragon. English merchants from the Sherry 
producing regions of Jerez and Sanlucar de Barrameda as well as Malaga fled the area 
due to the fear of persecution by the Spanish Inquisition. 



The defeat of the Spanish Armada by Elizabeth I of England greatly reduced the strength 
of the Spanish navy and contributed to the country's debt occurred during the reign of 
Philip II. Spain became more dependent on the income from its Spanish colonies, 
including the exportation of Spanish wine to the Americas. The emergences of growing 
wine industries in Mexico, Peru, Chile and Argentina were a threat to this income with 
Philip III and successive monarch issuing decrees and declaration ordering the uprooting 



of New World vineyards and the production of wine by the colonies. In some countries, 
like Chile, these orders were largely ignored but in other regions, like Argentina, they 
served to stunt the growth and development of these countries till they gained 
independence from Spanish rule. 

From phylloxera to modern day 

History of Rioja wine 

The 17th & 18th centuries saw periods of popularity for various Spanish wines-namely 
Sherry (known in Britain as "sack"), Malaga and Rioja wine but the Spanish wine 
industry was falling behind other European countries which were embracing the 
developments of the early Industrial Age. A major turning point occurred in the mid 19th 
century when phylloxera epidemic ravaged European vineyards-most notably those of 
France. With the sudden shortage of French wine, many countries turned to Spain with 
French winemakers crossing the Pyrenees to Rioja, Navarre and Catalonia-bringing with 
them their expertise and winemaking methods. One of these developments was the 
introduction of the 59 gallon (225 liter) oak barrica. Phylloxera eventually reached 
Spain, devastating regions like Malaga in 1878 and reaching Rioja in 1901. Its slow 
progress was due in part to the wide tracks of land, including the Meseta Central, that 
separated the major Spanish wine regions from each other. By the time the Spanish wine 
industry felt the full force of phylloxera, the remedy of grafting American rootstock to 
the European vines had already been discovered and widely utilized. 





One of the lasting legacies from the reign of the military dictator General Miguel Primo 
de Rivera was the early development of the Denomination de Origen (DO) appellation 
system. 

The end of the 19th century also saw the emergences of Spain's sparkling wine industry 
with the development of Cava in Catalonia. As the 20th century progress, the production 
of Cava would rival the Champagne region in worldwide production. Civil and political 
upheaval would mark most of the 20th century, including a military dictatorship under 
General Miguel Primo de Rivera. One of the measured instituted by Primo de Rivera was 
the early groundwork of the Denomination de Origen (DO) appellation system first 
developed in Rioja in 1926. The Spanish Civil War saw vineyards neglected and wineries 
destroyed throughout Spain with regions like Catalonia and Valencia being particularly 
hard hit. The Second World War closed off European markets to Spanish exports and 
further damaged the Spanish economy. 



It wasn't till the 1950s that domestic stability helped to usher in a period of revival for the 
Spanish wine industry. Several large co-operative wineries were founded during this 
period and an international market was created for generic bulk wines that were sold 
under names like Spanish sauternes and Spanish chablis. In the 1960s, Sherry was 
rediscovered by the international wine market and soon Rioja wine was in demand. The 




death Francisco Franco in 1975 and the Spanish transition to democracy allowed more 
economic freedom for winemakers and created an emerging market with the growing 
middle class of Spain. The late 1970s and 1980s saw periods modernization and renewed 
emphasis on quality wine production. The 1986 acceptance of Spain into the European 
Union brought economic aid to the rural wine industries of Galicia and La Mancha. The 
1990s saw the influence of flying winemakers from abroad and broader acceptance of the 
use of international grape varieties like Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay. In 1996, 
the restriction on irrigation were lifted which gave winemaker greater control over yields 
and what areas could be planted. Soon the quality and production volume of premium 
wines began to overtake the presence of generic Spanish bulk wines on the market and 
Spain reputation entering the 21st century was that of a serious wine producing country 
that could compete with other producers in the world wine wine market. 

Geography and climate 

Geography of Spain 



The mountain ranges of Spain influences the climates of many Spanish wine regions, 
isolating regions like Galicia in the northwest and protecting the Rioja region from the 
rain and cool wines from the Bay of Biscay. 



One of the dominant geographical influences of Spanish viticulture is the vast plateau 
known as the Meseta Central that covers much of central Spain. From there flows to the 
sea several of Spain's principle rivers that are at the heart of many Spanish wine regions. 
These include the eastward flowing Ebro river that runs through the Rioja and several 
Catalan wine regions; the Duero which flows westward through the Ribera del Duero 
region in Spain before crossing the border into Portugal's Douro Valley which is at the 
heart of Port wine production; the Tajo which runs through the La Mancha region; 
Guadalquivir which flows into the Atlantic at the Sherry producing village of Sanlucar de 
Barrameda. In addition to the Meseta Central, several mountain ranges known as 
cordilleras serve to isolate and influence the climate of several Spanish wine regions. 
These include the Cantabrian Mountains that spur westward from the Pyrenees and 
protect regions like the Rioja from the rain and the cool of westerlies coming from the 



Bay of Biscay. The Cantabrian Mountains act as a rain shadow with the coastal regions of 
the Basque Country receiving an average of 59 inches (1,500 mm) while the winemaking 
region of Rioja, near Haro, around 62 miles (100 km) away receives only 18 inches (450 
mm). In Galicia on the northwest coast, the region receives annual rainfall that range 
from 39 inches (1000 mm) on the coast to 79 inches near the mountainous border of 
Castile and Leon. 

The climate gets more extreme the further inland towards the Meseta Central and is 
characterized by hot summers with temperatures that can reach 104°F (40°C) with 
drought conditions. Many regions receive less than 12 inches (300 mm) of rain annually 
with most of the rain falling during sudden downpours in the spring and autumn that can 
pose the risk of flash flooding. Winters in these regions are characterized by cold 
temperatures that can often fall below freezing around -8°F (-22°C). Towards the 
southeast, around Valencia, the climate is more moderate with the strong Mediterranean 
influence. In the south, the climate of the Sherry and Malaga producing regions of 
Andalusia contain some of the hottest parts of Spain. North of the Sierra Nevada 
mountains in the Guadalquivir Valley, temperatures often reach 113°F (45 °C) in the 
summer. To adapt to this high temperatures, many Spanish vineyards will be planted on 
higher elevations, with many vineyards located over 2000 feet (650 m) above sea levels. 
These high altitudes creates a large diurnal temperature variation with low night time 
temperatures that allow the grapes to maintain acidity levels and coloring. In regions with 
lower altitude vineyards, such as along the southern Mediterranean coast are prone to 
producing grapes of high alcohol levels and low acidity. 

Classification 




PENEDES 

DENQM IN AC30 D QR1GEH 

Wine produced under a Spanish DO or DOC, such as the Penedes region in Catalonia , 
will have that region's DO stamp on the wine label or bottle seal. 

Spanish wine laws created the Denomination de Origen (DO) system in 1932 and were 
later revised in 1970. The system shares many similarities with the the hierarchical 
Appellation d'origine controlee (AOC) system of France and Italy's Denominazione di 



origine controllata (DOC) system. As of 2007, there was 67 DOs across Spain. In 
addition there are Denominacion de Origen Calificada (DOCa or DOQ in Catalan) status 
for DOs that have a consistent track record for quality. There is currently only 2 
DOCa/DOQ-Rioja and Priorat. Each DO has a Consejo Regulador, which acts as a 
governing control body that enforces the DOs regulations and standards involving 
viticultural and winemaking practices. These regulations govern everything from the 
types of grapes that are permitted to be planted, the maximum yields that can be 
harvested, the minimum length of time that the wine must be aged and what type of 
information is required to appear on the wine label. Wineries that are seeking to have 
their wine sold under DO or DOC status must submit their wines to the Consejo 
Regulador laboratory and tasting panel for testing and evaluation. Wines that have been 
granted DO/DOC status will feature the regional stamp of the Consejo Regulador on the 
label. 

Following Spain's acceptance into the European Union, Spanish wine laws were brought 
in line to be more consistent without European systems. One development was a five-tier 
classification system that is administered by each autonomous region. Non-autonomous 
areas or wine regions whose boundaries overlap with other autonomous communities 
(such as Cava, Rioja and Jumilla) are administered by the Imtituto National de 
Denominaciones de Origen (INDO) based in Madrid. The five-tier classifications, 
starting from the bottom, include: 

Vino de Mesa (VdM) - These are wines that are the equivalent of most country's table 
wines and are made from unclassified vineyards or grapes that have been declassified 
through "illegal" blending. Similar to the Italian Super Tuscans from the late 20th 
century, some Spanish winemakers will intentionally declassified their wines so that they 
have greater flexibility with blending and winemaking methods. 

Vinos de la Tierra (VdlT) - This level is similar to France's vin de pays system, normally 
corresponding to the larger comunidad autonoma geographical regions and will appear on 
the label with these broader geographical designations like Andalucia, Castilla La 
Mancha and Levante. 

Vino de Calidad Producido en Region Determinada (VCPRD) - This level is similar to 
France's Vin Delimite de Qualite Superieure (VDSQ) system and is considered a stepping 
stone towards DO status. 

Denominacion de Origen (Denominacio d'Origen in Catalan - DO)- This level is for the 
mainstream quality- wine regions and are regulated by the Consejo Regulador who is also 
responsible for marketing the wines of that DO. In 2005, nearly two thirds of the total 
vineyard area in Spain was within the boundaries a DO region. 

Denominacion de Origen Calificada (DOCa/DOQ - Denominacio d'Origen Qualificada in 
Catalan)- This designation, which is similar to Italy's Denominazione di Origine 
Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) designation, is for regions with a track record of 
consistent quality and is meant to be a step above DO level. Rioja was the first region 
afforded this designation in 1991 and was followed by Priorat in 2003. 




Additionally there is the Denomination de Pago (DO de Pago) designation for individual 
single-estates with an international reputation. As of 2007, there was 5 estates with this 
status. 



Spanish labeling laws 




Spanish red wines labeled "Reserva" spend at least 1 year in oak and 3 years overall 
aging before they are released to the market. 

Spanish wines are often labeled according to the amount of aging the wine has received. 
When the label says vino joven ("young wine") or sin crianza, the wines will have 
subjected to very little, if any, wood aging. Depending on the producer, some of these 
wines will be meant to be consumed very young-often within a year of their release. 
Others will benefit from some time aging in the bottle. For the vintage year ( vendimia or 
cosecha ) to appear on the label, a minimum of 85% of the grapes must be from that year's 
harvest. The three most common aging designations on Spanish wine labels are Crianza, 
Reserva and Gran Reserva. 



Crianza red wines are aged for 2 years with at least 6 months in oak. Crianza whites and 
rose must be aged for at least 1 year with at least 6 months in oak. 

Reserva red wines are aged for at least 3 years with at least 1 year in oak. Reserva whites 
and rose must be aged for at least 2 years with at least 6 months in oak. 



Gran Reserva wines typically appears in above average vintages and with the red wines 
requiring at least 5 years aging, 1 8 months of which in oak. Gran Reserva whites and rose 
must be aged for at least 4 years with at least 6 months in oak. 

Wine regions 

Spanish wine regions 

Spain has a relatively large number of distinct wine-producing regions, more than half 
having the classification Denominacion de Origen (DO) with the majority of the 
remainder classified as Vinos de la Tierra (VdlT). There are two regions nominated as 
Denominacion de Origen Calif icada (DOCa) - Rioja and Priorato - the flagship regions 
of Spanish winemaking. While most DOs make both red and white wine, some wine 
regions are more dominated by one style than the other. 



Viticulture 




In many Spanish wine regions, such as Galicia , vines are widely spaced in the vineyard. 

Viticulture in Spain has developed in adaption of the varied and extreme climate of the 
region. The dry weather in many parts of Spain, reduces the threat of common viticultural 
hazards like downy mildew and powdery mildew as well as the development of Botrytis 
cinerea. In these parts, the threat of drought and poor fertility of the land has encouraged 
Spanish vineyard owners to plant their vines with wide spacing so that there is less 
competition between vines for resources. One widely adopted system is known as macro 
real and involves having 8 feet (2.5 meters) of space between vines in all directions. 




These areas, mostly in the south and central regions, have some lowest vine density in the 
world— often ranging between 375-650 vines per acre (900-1600 vines per hectare). This 
is less than l/8th of the vine density commonly found in other wine regions such as 
Bordeaux and Burgundy. Many Spanish vineyards are several decades old, with the old 
vines producing even lower yields of fruit. In the Jumilla region of Castile-La Mancha, 
for example, yields are often less than 1.1 ton and acre (20 hl/ha). 

In the 1990s, the use of irrigation became more popular after droughts in 1994 and 1995 
severely reduced the harvest in those years. In 1996, the practice of using irrigation in all 
Spanish wine regions was legalized with many regions quickly adopting the practice. In 
the Toledo province, Australian flying winemakers helped to popularize the use of 
underground drip irrigation to minimize the affects of evaporation. The wide spread use 
of irrigation has encouraged higher density of vine plantings and has contributed to 
higher yields in some parts of Spain. 

While traditionally Spanish vineyards would harvest their grapes by hands, the 
modernization of the Spanish wine industry has saw increased use of mechanical 
harvesting. In years past, most harvesting had to be done in the early morning with 
wineries often refusing grapes after mid day due to their prolong exposure to the 
blistering heat. In recent years, aided in part by the wider spread use of mechanical 
harvesting, more harvests are now being done in the cooler temperatures at night. 

Grape varieties 




Tempranillo is the second most widely planted grape in Spain and is an important grape 
in the Rioja, Ribera del Duero and Penedes regions. 

Some records estimate that over 600 grape varieties are planted throughout Spain but 
80% of the country's wine production is focused on only 20 grape varieties. The most 
widely planted grape is the white wine grape Airen which was prized for its hardiness 
and resistance to drop. It is found throughout central Spain and for many years served as 
the base for Spanish brandy. Wines made from this grape can be very alcoholic and prone 
to oxidation. The red wine grape Tempranillo is the second most widely planted grape 
variety, recently eclipsing Garnacha in plantings in 2004. It is known throughout Spain 




under a variety of synonyms that may appear on Spanish wine labels-including Cencibel, 
Tinto Fino and Ull de Llebre. Both Tempranillo and Garnacha are used to make the full 
bodied red wines associated with the Rioja, Ribera del Duero and Penedes with Garnacha 
being the main grape of the Priorat region. In the Levante region, Monastrell and Bobal 
have significant plantings, being used for both dark red wines and dry rose. 

In the northwest, the white wine varieties of Albarino and Verdejo are popular plantings 
in the Rras Baixas and Rueda respectively. In the Cava producing regions of Catalonia 
and elsewhere in Spain, the principle grapes of Macabeo, Parellada and Xarel-lo are use 
for sparkling wine production as well as still white wines. In the southern Sherry and 
Malaga producing regions of Andalucia, the principle grapes are Palomino and Pedro 
Ximenez. As the Spanish wine industry becomes more modern, there has been a larger 
presence of international grape variety appearing in both blends and varietal forms-most 
notably Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Syrah, Merlot and Sauvignon blanc. Other 
Spanish grape varieties that have significant plantings include Carinena, Godello, 
Graciano, Mencia, Loureira, and Treixadura. 



Winemaking 




Extended periods of aging in American oak has long been associated with Spanish wine 
from regions like the Rioja. 




In Spain, winemakers often use the Spanish word elaborar (to elaborate) rather than 
fabricar (to produce/make) when describing the Spanish winemaking philosophy. This 
relates to the view that the winemakers acts more of a nurturer of the grapes and wine 
rather than as a producer. For many years, Spanish winemaking was very rustic and 
steeped in tradition. This included the judicious use of oak with some wines, even whites, 
spending as much as two decades aging in the barrel. This created distinctly flavors that 
were internationally associated with the wines from regions such as the Rioja. In the 19th 
century, wine writers held negative views about Spanish winemaking. Richard Ford 
noted in 1846 that the Spanish made wine in an "unscientific and careless manner" while 
Cyrus Redding noted in his work the History and Description of Modern wines that 
Spanish gave "rude treatment" to the grapes. Some of these criticisms were rooted in the 
traditional manners of winemaking that the were employed in Spain. Crushing and 
fermentation would take place in earthenware jars known as tinajas. Afterwards the wine 
was stored in wooden barrels or pig skin made bags lined with resin known as cueros. In 
the wanner climate and lower elevation regions, the red wines tilted towards being too 
high in alcohol and too low in acidity. The standard technique to rectify those wines was 
the addition of white wine grapes which balanced the acidity but diluted some of the fruit 
flavors of the red grapes. 



The advent of temperature control stainless steel fermentation tanks radically changed the 
wine industry in warm climate regions like Andalucia, La Mancha and the Levante, 
allowing winemakers to make more fresh and fruiter styles of wine-particularly whites. 
While many producers focused on this crisp, fresh styles in the early 1990s there was a 
resurgence in more active use of barrel fermenting whites as a throwback to the 
traditional, more oxidized styles of the 19th century. The use of oak has a long tradition 
in Spanish winemaking, dating back even centuries before the French introduced the 
small 59 gallon (225 liter) barrica style barrels. Gradually Spanish winemakers in the late 
19th and early 20th century started to develop a preference for the cheaper, and more 
stronger flavored, American oak. Winemakers in regions like the Rioja found that the 




Tempranillo grape, in particularly, responded well to new American oak. In the 1990s, 
more winemakers started to rediscover the use of French oak and some wineries will use 
a combination of both as a blend. Most DOs require some minimum period of barrel 
aging which will be stipulated on the wine label by the designations-Crianza, Reserva and 
Gran Reserva depending on how long it spends in the barrel. The tradition of long barrel 
and bottle age has meant that most Spanish wines were ready to drink once they hit the 
market. A new generation of winemakers have started to produce more vino joven (young 
wines) that are released with very little aging. 

Sherry 



Sherry 







A glass of Amontillado Sherry. 

Sherry is a fortified wine produced in southern Spain around the towns of Jerez, Sanlucar 
de Barrameda, and El Puerto de Santa Marfa. In the 1990s, the European Union restricted 
the use of name "Sherry" to the wine made from this region. It mostly made from the 
Palomino grape, accounting for nearly 95% of the regions plantings, but Moscatel and 
Pedro Ximenez can also be used. While the wine is aging in the barrel, a naturally 
occurring yeast native to the region, known as flor, will develop and distinguish certain 
styles of Sherry. The flor needs fresh wine in order to survive and is added by the use of a 
solera system that also gradually blends the wines of different vintages together. 

Palomino wine, by itself, typically ferments to an alcohol level of around 12% with 
Sherry producers adding brandy to the wine in order to increase the alcohol level or kill 
the flor yeast which will not thrive in alcohol levels above 16%. 

Sherry has many categories: 

Fino Sherry is a very light and delicate Sherry. These wines are characterized by flor. It 
often contains 15 to 18% of alcohol. 

Manzanilla Sherry comes from the Sanlucar district along the sea coast. The sea air leads 
the Sherry to develop a salty taste. These wines also have flor. This wine is produced 
using exactly the same process than Fino, but as weather conditions are very different in 



Sanlucar district it grows to a slightly different kind of wine. It often contains 15 to 19% 
of alcohol. 

Amontillado Sherry is similar to Fino, however it does not have the as much flor 
development. These are deeper in color and drier than Finos and are left in the barrel 
longer. It often contains 16 to 22% of alcohol. 

Oloroso Sherry is deeper/darker in color and have more residual sugar. These are more 
fortified. It often contains 17 to 22% of alcohol. 

Cream Sherry is very rich and can be a good dessert-style wine. It often contains 15.5 to 
22% of alcohol. 

Pedro Ximenez Sherry is very rich and is a popular [[dessert wineldessert-style wine]. It's 
made from raisins of Pedro Ximenez grapes dried in the sun. It often contains around 
18% of alcohol. 

Palo Cortado Sherry is very rare, as its an Oloroso wine that gets older in a different way 
only produced by nature (not able by human interaction). It often contains 17 to 22% of 
alcohol. 

Cava 



Catalan wine#Cava 




Xarel lo is one of the principle grapes of the Spanish sparkling wine Cava. 

Cava is a Spanish sparkling wine made in the traditional method of the French sparkling 
wine Champagne. It originated in the Catalonia region by the Codorniu Winery in the late 
19th century. The wine was originally known as Champana until Spanish producers 
officially adopted the term "Cava" (cellar) in 1970 in reference to the underground cellars 
when then wines ferment and age in the bottle. The early Cava industry was nurtured by 
the phylloxera epidemic of the late 19th that caused the destruction and uprooting of 
vineyards planted with red grape varieties. Inspired by the success of Champagne, 
Codorniu and others encouraged vineyard owners to replant with white grape varieties 
like Macabeo, Parellada and Xarel lo to use for sparkling wine production. These grapes 
are still the primary grapes of Cava today though some producers are experimenting with 
the use of the Champagne wine grapes of Chardonnay and Pinot noir. 

For most of existence, the production of Cava was not regulated to a particular region of 
DO but rather to the grapes and method of production. Upon Spain's acceptance into the 
European Union in 1986, efforts were undertaken to designate specific areas for Cava 
production. Today use of the term "Cava" is restricted to production around select 
municipalities in Catalonia, Aragon, Castile and Leon, Valencia, Extremadura, Navarra, 
Basque Country and Rioja. Around 95% of Spain's total Cava production is from 



Catalonia with the village of Sant Sadurnf d'Anoia being home to many of Spain's largest 
production house. 



Ukrainian wine 



Location of Ukraine 

The wine industry of Ukraine is well-established with long traditions. Several brands of 
wine from Ukraine are exported to bordering countries, the European Union, and North 
America. 



History 

A wine culture existed in the today's Ukraine in already 4 century B.C. Chr. at the south 
coast of the Crimea. Presses and amphoras were found from this period. Wine cultivation 
developed in the northern part (round Kiev and Chernihiv) however only starting from 
the 1 1th century by monks. 

Under Catherine II. (1729 - 1796) in 1783 the Crimea became a part of the Russian 
Empire. Count Mikhail Vorontsov put the first wine gardens in 1820 establish a large 
winery near Yalta. The viticulture research institute Magarach was founded then in 1828. 
The founder of the famous foam wines is prince Lev Golitsyn, which for the first time 
manufactured Russian “Champagner” after the Crimean War (1854 to 1856) on its 
property Novyi Svet near Yalta. Later, under the last Tzar Nicholas II (1868 - 1918) the 
today's state winery of Massandra was founded. During Soviet times Ukraine with 2,500 
km 2 was the largest supplier of the wines in the USSR. It came to a disaster in 1986: 
about 800 km 2 of the vineyards were destroyed, when Mikhail Gorbachov started a 
campaign for the delimitation of the consumption of alcohol in USSR. Since 2000 the 
production as well as the export of the wines increase rapidly. 

Main vine-growing regions 



• Crimea 

• Bessarabia 

• Carpathian Ruthenia 

• Southern Ukraine: 

Kherson, 

Dnipropetrovsk, and 
Odessa Oblasts 




Varietals 

The main varietals are Aligote, Muscat, Isabella, Traminer, Cabernet Sauvignon, 
Chardonnay, Feteasca, Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris, Rkatsiteli. 

White wines 



• Aligote: original 

wine. Colour: from 
light-straw to golden 
one, pleasant fine, 
distinctive taste with 
a shade of violet. 

• Pinot group (Pinot 

Gris and Pinot 
Blanc) : Wine has 
golden shades and 
harmonious delicate 
taste. 

• Riesling: after 1,5 

years of seasoning it 
obtains the particular 
freshness, 
refinement, flower 
fragrance with the 
pleasant tints of fir 
and pine pitches. 

• Chardonnay: The 

colour is light gold 
shades. 

• Traminer : 

Predominating 
shades of rose and 
dogrose leaves. 



Red Wines 



• Cabernet Sauvignon: 
King of red wines. 
Color is intensive 
dark-red.Full-bodied 
fragrance and taste 
of black currants, 
and black currants 
leaves. 




• Merlot: With shades 

of sweet-cherry 
and/or cherry, the 
wine has long 
aftertaste. 

• Pinot Noir : full- 

bodied, oily wine. It 
is used as a base in 
blend wines. 




Sparkling wine from Artemivsk 

Sparkling wines 

Production of sparkling wine like Sovetskoye Shampanskoye ('Soviet Champagne') is 
increasing. Most of the sparkling wine is produced around large cities like Kiev, 
Artemivsk, Lviv, Odessa and Kharkiv. Most of the production is based on Pinot Blanc, 
Aligote, Riesling and Feteaska. 

Special wineries 



• Magarach Wine 

Institute near Yalta 
with possibility to 
sample some of their 
20,000 different 
wines derived from 
3,200 vine species. 

• Winery Massandra. 



Wine from the United Kingdom 




Wine which is grown and produced in the United Kingdom is generally classified as 
either English wine or Welsh wine (depending on country of origin), but should never be 
referred to as British wine as that term is generally linked with an inferior grade of 
product (see below). Traditionally seen as struggling with an unhelpfully cold climate, 
the English and Welsh wine industry has been helped by the warmer British summers 
over recent years and it is speculated that global warming may encourage major growth 
in the future. 



The United Kingdom is a major consumer, but only a very minor producer of wine, with 
English and Welsh wine sales combined accounting for just 1% of the domestic market. 

Geography 

English Wine 

At the last official count, the Wine Standards Board reported that there were just over 350 
vineyards producing wine throughout England. The largest of these is Denbies Vineyard 
in Surrey which, as of mid-2007, has 265 acres of vines. 

Welsh Wine 

According to the Wine Standards Board, there are currently 17 operational vineyards in 
Wales. 

’British Wine' 

The term British wine is commonly used to describe a drink which is made in Britain by 
fermenting imported grape juice or concentrate that can originate from anywhere in the 
world. The most common style is a medium or sweet high-strength wine that is similar to 
sherry. 




History 

Roman to 19th Century 

The Romans introduced wine making to the United Kingdom, and even tried to grow 
grapes as far north as Lincolnshire. However, the British climate was simply too cold and 
too wet to grow grapes for making wine. Winemaking continued at least down to the time 
of the Normans with over 40 vineyards in England as mentioned in the Domesday Book, 
although much of what was being produced was for making communion wine for the 
Eucharist. 

From the Middle Ages, the English market was the main customer of clarets from 
Bordeaux, France, helped by the Plantagenet kingdom, which included England and large 
provinces in France. However in the 18th century, the Methuen Treaty of 1703 imposed 
high duties on French wine. This led to the English becoming a main consumer of sweet 
fortified wines like sherry, port wine, and Madeira wine from Spain and Portugal. 
Fortified wines became popular because unlike regular wine, it does not spoil after the 
long journey from Portugal to England. 

Later in the 19th century, many upper and upper-middle class people started to drink 
wines from many parts of Europe like France, Spain, Italy and Germany. 

20th Century 

Viticulture was revived in the 1970s onwards, possibly helped by a rising local 
temperature due to global warming, making many parts of Hampshire, Sussex, Kent, 
Essex, Suffolk, Berkshire and Cambridgeshire, dry and hot enough to grow grapes of 
high quality. The first English wines were influenced by the sweet German wines like 
Liebfraumilch and Hock that were popular in the 70s, and were simply blended white and 
red sweet wines and were called cream wine (creams). The largest vineyard in England is 
Denbies Wine Estate in Surrey, which has 265 acres under vines, and a visitors' centre 
that is open all year round. 

The growth of English wine accelerated in the late 90s, helped by popularity of wine 
from the new world, especially Australia, Chile, Argentina, New Zealand and South 
Africa which made consumers in the British Isles more accepting of wines that were not 
from the traditional wine growing regions of Europe. They were made popular by their 
single vintages, brand labels, and general non-fussiness of the wine. This influenced the 
English wine industry to copy what happened in the new world and produced good- 
quality wines with grapes like Chardonnay and Pinot Noir. In 2004 a panel judging 
European sparkling wines awarded most of the top ten positions to English wines - the 
remaining positions going to French Champagnes. 

Winemaking has also spread to the South West including Wiltshire, Dorset, Devon, 
Somerset, Cornwall and the Isle of Wight. The Midlands and the north of England, with 




Yorkshire, Shropshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire and Lancashire boasting at least one 
vineyard each as of 2007. 



21st Century 

Significant plantings have been happening across the south of the country with a number 
of farmers contract growing vines for some of the major English producers. Farmers are 
looking at the potential benefits of growing vines as the return per tonne for grapes over 
more traditional crops are not to be ignored. A field of wheat might yield 3 tonnes per 
acre at around £120 per tonne. Growing grapes could yield 3 to 4 tonnes per acre at 
around £950 to £1 100 per tonne. It is a significant difference but growers will need to 
invest money for no initial return, crops tend to come in the 3rd or 4th year. 

Another explanation for the growth in viticulture in the UK, is the local food movement, 
and the desire by consumers to cut the amount of food miles connected with the produce 
that they buy, including locally produced wine. 

Grape varieties 

As of 2004, Seyval Blanc was the most grown variety, with Reichensteiner next, with 
Mliller-Thurgau and then Bacchus following closely behind. However, Miiller-Thurgau, 
which was one of the first to be grown during the 20th Century renaissance(see below), has 
recently lost favour, dropping from 134.64Ha(lst) in 1996 to 81.1Ha(3rd) in 2004. Other 
widely grown varieties of white grape include Chardonnay, Madeleine Angevine, 
Schonburger, Huxelrebe and Ortega. Red varieties include Domfelder, Pinot meunier and 
Pinot Noir, and a few others, but red grapes tend to be lesser grown, with 20184 hLs of 
white wine and only 5083 hL of red wine made in 2006. 

Effect on the British economy 

Although there has always been a worldwide market for Scotch whisky, most of the wine 
consumed in Britain is imported from other countries as it is usually hard to grow grapes 
due to the British climate. However, now that English wine is being produced in larger 
quantities more people in the British Isles are buying it as opposed to imported wines. 

The quantities produced are tiny compared to the volumes consumed, less than 1% 
according to DEFRA. 

Rules of wine labelling 

There are several official categories of wine in the UK. For still wines (i.e. not sparkling) 
there are United Kingdom Table Wine, English Regional Wine, English Quality Wine, 
Welsh Regional Wine, Welsh Quality Wine. All but UK Table Wine have to go through a 
testing and tasting procedure before they can be so labelled. For sparkling wines the 
categories are English Sparkling Wine and English Quality Sparkling Wine with Welsh 
equivalents. These wines do not have to be tested or tasted before being so labelled.