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THE 



ABSTAINER'S JOURNAL. 



JANtrABY, 1853. 



Usctllaneous C0ntrifiuti0ng, 



IT MOVES. 



Looking around on the aspects of so- 
ciety, and considering the present state 
of public opinion, total abstainers cannot 
but perceive mucli ground for congratula- 
tion. In every direction they are struck 
with signs of progress. The sullen gloom 
of night has given place successively to the 
grey of twilight, and the better streaks of 
dawn. Time works unlooked-for change ; 
and he who can bide with patient faith its 
turns, shall find his occasion and also his 
reward. This the old tried friends of 
abstinence have found. Through good 
report and through bad, amid apathy 
and desertion, standing firm, they occupy 
now a vantage of which they may not 
unlawfully be proud. The time was 
when, as many remember, abstinence as a 
cause was ' nowhere.' An abstainer was 
a tbing useful as the butt of an evening, 
the festive party, or dinner table. On 
him all lavish wit and ponderous dulness 
might discharge their shafts. There v»'ere 
strange doubts and suspicions concerning 
him among the stereotyped ; and in the easy 
jog-trot circles of society, as well as in the 
starched, sensitive, and highly self-con- 
scious regions of the same, he was reckoned 
a man rather unsafe. If not quite a revolu- 
tionist and heretic in disguise, he was at 
least ' something.' Or if obviously a most 
harmless pei-son, then he was crotchetty 
and peculiar — in fact, an ' extreme' man — 
extreme— an epithet deemed enough to 



quench any mortal ; every man being 
extreme, in the vocabulary of certain, 
who happens to stand at the circumfer- 
ence of that little circle of things and 
thoughts which is their own, and 'the 
golden mean,' signifying, in exact English, 
the position occupied by them. The time 
was when the imaginary type of an ab- 
stainer was a man unwashed, unkempt, 
with leathern apron or fustian coat, speak- 
ing very bad grammar, and in a strong 
provincial brogue — denouncing things in 
general, and prepared clearly to abolish 
the world at large ; or when his beau 
ideal was found in the ' reformed drunkard,' 
driven hke ship in distress, to th^^^-'?T^--v^^ 
perate refuge of the pledge, anlf^telling, It]; Tj."^ '. ^ 



may be, up and down, how he oncfr' 
starved his children and beatr-hia .wife. 
For a youth to be an abstSioer then, 
proved that, Copperfield - like, he was 
'young,' a sentence which thetittijiiersof 
society pronounced with everyj,poiHt. apidr 
joint of their bodies, and every glun^ 6]^'^ 
their eyes. Even the coUegian of clerical 
prospects was deemed premature, rash, 
and raw indeed to al 
vocal a cause, thou, 
apologised for by the 
no doubt meant well, 
a ' lecture ' on abstineft^i 
witli that kind of indr 
temptuous, commiser 
sity which we might s' 







'#^a^\~ 



^^ 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



reference to certain recent attempted 
changes in costume ; and the ill-fated 
lecturer, especially if a clergyman, was 
sure to be regarded either as a semi-crazed 
or entirely eccentric person, a sort of phil- 
anthropic lusus, or notoriety-hunter driven 
to shifts. As to an abstinence ' sermon,' the 
bare idea was a solecism ; and the worst 
pagan could not have been locked and 
bolted more firmly out of the orthodox pul- 
pit, than the hapless brother whose aim was 
to enforce this shocking practical heresy. 
The time was when in good society it was 
considered rude to refrain from partaking 
of strong liquors when presented, or when 
others were in the hnmonr to indulge; 
and though a man might refuse any species 
of pudding or soup at table without in- 
curring resentment or derision, it was 
totally different witli wines and spirituous 
potations. To refuse these was flat 
treason against the sovereignty of cus- 
tom, a practical absurdity too obvious 
to need comment ; and however ^acit, 
and passive, and polite, a reflection on 
the company, and withal on the host. 
The time was when a number of chris- 
tians making abstinence a special object 
of Evangelical Alliance, would have been 
deemed ripe for ecclesiastical censure, and 
when an annual public meeting of aught 
approaching to clergy would have been 
regarded a good joke indeed, something 
time enough to be believed when it was 
seen. But since these days things have 
changed. The poet speaks of a ' whirli- 
gig which brings about its revenges,' 
couching under somewhat unceremonious 
language a most grave fact ; and abstainers 
have lived to witness the inauguration of 
.their benevolent revenge on opponents. 
Their principle, received at first with 
profound indifference as a chimrera, and 
thought to be still-bom ; then sought to 
he hushed up in portentous silence ; then 
to be exploded in the loud guffaw of de- 
rision, was found to the amazement of 
most to have survived all chilling and 

TllE 



hostile influence. Disconcerted, its foes 
tried the artillery of argument, before 
which it was hoped it might yield. But 
abstinence had its arguments too, and 
would not be put down. What was to 
be done? The principle, impertinent and 
intrusive as it might be, lived, and had 
most obstinately become a fact. There 
was no lielp for it. It was now necessary 
to admit its existence, absolutely to be 
civil and take it into calculation. Nay, 
as it grew and grew in importance before 
the eyes of men, it was even allowed to 
be respectable ; and upon the whole, now 
it has an established character for bene- 
volence rather than otherwise with the 
general public. A great change has come 
over the public mind. Old tempei-ance 
men have risen, like Rip Van Winkle, 
from the sleep of years, and been lashed 
into a kind of activity. Writing from the 
meridian of the Scottish metropolis, we 
see Societies for the Suppression of Drun- 
kenness formed and ramified. To rally 
round them the country, the theological 
tocsin has been sounded, Music Hall 
gatherings summoned, impressive plat- 
forms collected, ducal and dignified elo- 
quence invoked, fashion and respectability 
conjured by every available spell. An 
immense rage has been stirred against 
public-houses, and we have cries on every 
hand of 'remodel the licensing system.' 
A promiscuous crusade againt the former 
nuisances threatens to be powerful, and 
visions of a British Maine Law looming 
in the future, scares the publican in his 
dreams, and the nightmare of dreaded 
legislation breaks his rest. It is in fact 
as if the popular conscience were touched. 
Elections are got over with flying colours 
in the scenes of former scandals, and all 
this is ascribed to those wondrous causes, 
' the improvement of the age,' and ' ad- 
vancing intelligence.' Now, abstainers 
are complacent enough to attribute a 
good deal of this wholesome excitement 
and new-born zeal to their disrelished 



BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSH V: Wpn 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



agitation, and wicked enough to believe 
that many who before did nothing, and who 
yet cannot do our thing, but feel they must 
do something, have done this either 
as instalment or succedaneum of better; 
and so, while they refuse to shut what 
George Cruikshank would call their own 
shop, they are willing to shut other people's 
shops. An anti-pubhc-house agitation, 
conducted by pm-e abstainers, we could 
indeed better understand and more ap- 
plaud, though in what good others may 
accomphsh fairly, by their organisation, 
we will rejoice. Two things, however, 
we would distinctly repudiate and con- 
demn in any such attempts to suppress 
drunkenness by coercive legislation : the 
basing of coercive enactment on a dis- 
proportionate substratum of public con- 
currence, and the selection for objects of 
attack of one class of dram-shops, those 
frequented by the humble and poor, while 
immunities are demanded for other haunts 
equally dissolute. If the former can be 
attained without the diffusion of abstin- 
ence, and if the latter can be done with 
justice, and so with moral effect, then, by 
all means, let our coadjutors march 
under their own flag. Meantime they may 
try ; and if they impede not us, we 
promise to molest not them, and al- 
ways, when possible and honourable, 
to extend our helping hand. Only, in 
virtue of our position as the paternal 
movement, we shall reserve to our- 
selves the right of administering, as 
in our riper judgment occasion may 
require, such hints and stimulus, from 
time to time, as may benefit our 
junior auxiliary and keep alive filial 
respect. 

Our cause has made great strides. Not 
to leave Scotland, our societies are numer- 
ous and strong. The people in thousands, 
men and women, the life and blood of 
our churches, are fast adherents. 
Elders and students by the hundred, 
ministers by hundreds more ; M.D.s by 



dozens and scores, and even straggling at 
irregular distances — 

rari nantes in gurgite — 
heavy- swimming but valuable D.D.s, 
with others of nimbler limb ; and to crown 
all, parties nearly as fabulous as the sea- 
serpent, to see whom makes us rub the 
eyes and look again; certain real live 
professoi's of theology, not cautiously 
sympathising in closets, but gracing the 
ranks and filling the chair at public 
gatherings in the metropolitan city. ' It 
moves,' as said the philosopher of the 
earth, after the conclave had decreed that 
it should not — It moves. Abstainers 
need not hide their heads and give every- 
body the wall, or be content to exist by 
sufferance. They are, and may feel 
themselves a power in the country and 
in the church, which can not only take, 
but may also henceforth claim a voice 
in making terms. It is well to know 
the fact of our strength and of our progress. 
To the stanchest it is cheering and con- 
firmatory, and to the wavering or timid 
it is a source of impulse and stability. 
The true-hearted, however, will not make 
progress or strength the measure of our 
principle. It was essentially as dignified 
in its most depressed days as now, and 
popularity cannot add to, more than 
detract from its, worth. Much, we have 
said, is gained. In nearly every christian 
denomination there exists a solid nucleus 
of ministers, elders, and students, around 
which may be expected to gather a strong 
abstinence body ; and thus, not by storm, 
but by sure advances, the pulpits of the 
churches shall be filled with the men of the 
new era, and from pulpit to pew, and pew to 
pulpit, shall radiate, by action and reac- 
tion, the influence of our principles. But 
it is to be remembered that much remains 
to be gained. In truth, we are yet on the 
threshold of the great work ; and while it 
is true, and we rejoice in the fact that ' it 
moves,' let abstainers as one man unite 
to keep it moving and rolling with ac- 



THE abstainer's JOURNAI,. 



celerated speed, till the goal is reached. 
Then nitiy the steed be unyoked from 
the chariot ; but till then there shall ever 
be necessity for new relays. The Scottish 
Temperance League have just fastened to 
the car two fresh tracers, the Scottish 
Review and Abstainer's Journal. We hold 
the latter with the bridle hand, and the 
public hear the first crack of the whip as 
' it moves.' 

THE LATE DR CHALMERS. 

AN OMITTED CHArTER IN HIS MEMOIRS. 

In common with many others, we 
waited with uo ordin.ary eagerness for 
the appearance of the fourth volume of 
the Doctor's life. We had hoped that if 
it did not give the cordial sanction of his 
great name to the cause we have espoused, 
it would at least have indicated such a 
degree of favour, as to warrant the convic- 
tion that at the time of his death he was 
almost, if not altogether, an abstainer. 
But what was our surprise to find that the 
only allusion made to the subject is a joke 
in one of the entries of his diary, to the 
eflfect that he had one day, when in Lon- 
don, eaten in a chop house ' a teetotal din- 
ner!' Surely, then, we have ground for 
grnmbliug. Was it possible that such a 
man as Chalmers could look on the tem- 
perance cause with indifference ? And 
ought we not to have received his impres- 
sions of it ? If it be alleged that he has 
left no written record of them, we reply 
that those who knew him best could easily 
have supplied the want. It is too much 
the fiishion in editing the writings of 
others to accommodate them to the taste 
of those among whom they are expected 
to circulate, just as the American Tract 
Society, in reprinting the memoirs of Mary 
Lundie Duncan, suppressed or modified 
several passages in the book condemna- 
tory of slavery ; 'and just as a publish- 
ing house in this country have sup- 
pressed, according to Mr Barnes' own 



statement, two entire pages of his Com- 
mentary bearing upon total abstinence. 
Perhaps, then, we are to attribute to a 
common weakness of humanity the 
omission complained of. That the ac- 
complished and excellent biographer of 
Chalmers should have designedly sup- 
pressed aught he deemed of moment, we 
cannot believe. But stUl to us the 
omission is so important, that we must, 
with all the disadvantages of our position, 
attempt the supply of it. 

It would be no difficult task to gather 
from the Doctor's published works the 
avowal of the very principles on which our 
movement is based. For instance, in his 
articls on Political Economy, in the third 
number of the North British Reviea, in 
defending his views as to abstaining from 
marriage in certain circumstances, he ex- 
pressed sentiments most pertinent to the 
subject in hand. ' Such,' says he, ' at 
the same time was his (Paul's) respect for 
expediency — by which we mean not a 
selfish or poUtical, but christian ex- 
pediency, or what is best and most ex- 
pedient for the good of human souls — 
that on his mind and every mind such as 
his, of highest spiritual philanthropy and 
patriotism, it is an expediency which acts 
with all the Ibrce of a most urgent obliga- 
tion ; and hence the noble declaration 
regarding what in itself he held to be a 
thing of indifference, — Wherefore if meat 
make my brother to offend, I will eat no 
flesh while the world standeth, lest I 
make my brother to oflend.' Now, who 
that has given the slightest attention to 
the temperance question, does not per- 
ceive that its promotion is 'most ex- 
pedient for the good of human souls?' 
Is not abstinence, then, 'an expediency 
which acts with all the force of a most 
urgent obligation ?' 

A very common objection to our prin- 
ciples is, that they supplant the gospel ; 
and that were we to seek the change of 
the heart rather than the change of the 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



conduct, we would establish the reforma- 
tion of the intempei-ate on a for more solid 
foundation. The objection reminds us of 
the Doctor's characteristic remark to Dr 
Tholuck, that there are some who have a 
great nose for sraelling out heresies. More 
to the point, however, is the opinion which 
he has expressed in his Scripture Readings, 
on Matthew chapter third : ' The historical 
precedency of such preaching as that of 
John the Baptist, to the preaching of 
Christ and his apostles, should lessen the 
antipathies of the ultra orthodox to the 
admonition of those who hid men re- 
form their lives and refrain fi-om wicked- 
ness instant er, even before they have got 
a full understanding of the doctrine of 
grace and salvation.' That we are not 
wrong in the application we would make 
of such a sentiment, is evident. A re- 
spected minister of the Free Church, who 
has published an excellent pamphlet in 
answer to the objections usually brought 
against the temperance movement, re- 
lates an anecdote which he had heard 
the Doctor tell with great humour : — 
The Doctor once had a friend, who 
was very strong on the point, that not 
only was a sinner to be exhorted to be- 
lieve in Christ, but that till he did so, he 
was not to be exhorted to do anything else. 
The two would occasionally discuss the 
matter together. One day, after a strong 
discussion, the Doctor at last said, ' Well, 

suppose now, Mr , you were to meet 

such a one, (naming a notorious drun- 
kard) would you reaUi/ think it wrong to 
advise that man to give up his drinking ?' 
This was bringing matters to a point. 
After a little hesitation, his worthy friend 
made answer, ' 0, I micld perhaps say to 
him, Weel, John, you'd as well, when ye 
gang the way, baud past the public- 
house ?' 

What red-hot teetotaler ever uttered, 
during the late scarcity of food, anything 
more to the point on closing the distilleries, 
than what we find in his article on the 



Political Economy of a Famine, in the 
thirteenth number of the No7'th British 
Review f 

' Had the distilleries,' says he, ' been 
stopped, as they were in 1800 and 1801, 
and as we believe they would have been 
now, if the famine, though not greater in 
amount, had only been general, this alone 
would have gone far to repair the defi- 
ciency. If, over and above this, the 
breweries had been stopped, and so for a 
season all malting had been put an end 
to, this would have greatly more than 
covered the deficiency. A humane and 
virtuous despotism could and would have 
done it at once. But, as matters stand, 
government would demur because of the 
revenue, and the agricultural interest, 
for its own factitious good, would have 
reclaimed against it ; and the popular 
voice in Britain, we fear, have been lifted 
up in opposition, fi-om a public not them- 
selves goaded on to it by the agonies of 
hunger. For ourselves, we should have 
rejoiced had there been a sufficient energy 
at head-quarters to overrule all this ; and 
not the less but the more, if, by an entire 
stoppage of the distilleries, the beastly 
intoxications of Scotland had been sus- 
pended. We should even have been glad 
had the malting of our grain, if not wholly 
abolished, been, at least, greatly abridged 
and limited by a heavier taxation, 
although we should thereby trench upon 
the more decorous indulgences of which 
the working-classes participate so largely 
in the beer-shops of England. As it is, 
what between the class interests of our 
grandees and the low and loathsome 
dissipations of our common people, the cry 
of famishing millions has been overborne.' 

Now, if it be right to stop the distilleries 
simply that men may be saved from 
famishing, can it be wrong to stop the dis- 
tilleries that men may be saved from 
drunkenness ? To die of intemperance is 
more awful than to die of hunger. If, 
then, in the lesser evil there be reason 



6 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



sufficient to warrant the legal abolition of 
the destruction of human food, by means 
of the mash tub, surely in the greater 
evil the reason is much stronger. He 
who goes the length of closing the dis- 
tilleries by law, cannot surely refrain 
from closing his own mouth from the 
accursed thing, on which he would bring 
down the whole weight of legislative con- 
demnation. 

We will not deny that the Doctor held 
what we consider very unsound views 
upon the subject of the trafBc. Instance, 
as above, his speaking of ' the more de- 
corous indulgences of which the workisig- 
classes participate so largely in the beer- 
shops of England.' Little was he aware 
that a greater curse was never inflicted 
upon England, than its 'Beer Bill;' and 
that of all places prolific of crime, the 
beer-shops are the most infamous. What 
we particularly refer to, however, are his 
sentiments with respect to the reduction 
of public-houses. In an address published 
about the beginning of 1846,* he speaks 
as a man that felt that the public-houses 
were a nuisance, and a serious obstacle in 
the way of educating the people, either 
morally or spiritually. He asserts that 
they are 'a prodigious incubus on their 
exertions,' ' tliat they obviously subvert 
the comfort and morality of the common 
people ;' and yet he speaks of restricting 
their number to what was ' judged suffi- 
cient for each locality.' To speak of 
merely restricting ' a formidable agency,' 
as he called it, ' for corrupting the morality 
of the people,' is surely neither common 
sense nor sound philosophy. And then 
again, in a letter to Bailie Duncan, 
published in the Scottish Herald of 26th 
Feb., 1847, he speaks of limiting the 
number of public-houses ' to the real 
wants of anj' given locality.' Real wants ! 
How can there be a real want for that 
which affords no benefit, but which injures 



* Address on providing education for the 
working population. 



health and debases mind ? What is the 
want in nature which strong drink sup- 
plies ? The want of it may be created. 
So may there be created a want for 
opium, tobacco, or any other narcotic ; 
but surely it does not become us to speak 
of such as real wants. We are glad, how- 
ever, to find the Doctor so far putting 
himself rightly by saying, ' There can- 
not be a doubt that, if the number of 
public-houses was reduced to those 
necessary for the reception of travellers ; 
and if, in virtue of their small number, 
you could easily make sure the respecta- 
bility of their character, and the enforce- 
ment of all right and wholesome regula- 
tions, it would be the removal of a dead 
weight on every attempt which is now 
making to better the state and habits of 
our people.' We have only to ask if 
strong drink can supply no ' real want,' 
why have it sold even in houses ' for the 
reception of travellers?' If only real 
wants require to be supplied, surely 
strong drink can be dispensed with, when 
facts so abundantly prove that no degree 
of respectability in the dealer can guar- 
antee their use with safety. 

Towards the close of his life, it was our 
good fortune to make his acquaintance. 
To the fact of being identified with the 
temperance movement, we are mainly 
indebted for this favour. Having occa- 
sion to preach a temperance sermon in 
the village of Morningside, where he re- 
sided, we received, on entering the vestry, 
a polite note from him, in which he 
apologised for absence, in consequence of 
cold, and kindly invited us to breakfast 
on the following morning. A few days 
after this he was dining with a friend. 
Two or three temperance people were at 
the table, and the conversation turned 
upon the subject of the sermon. He 
entered into the discussion with all that 
earnestness and generous-heartedness so 
characteristic of his mind ; and, to show 
his good-will to our cause, preferred the 



I 



THE ABSTAINER S JOUKNAL. 



coffee which was provided for the teeto- 
talers, to the wine which the others were 
partaking of. We have heard of other 
instances in which he acted a similar part, 
and in wliich he even declined liquor, 
jocularly alleging that he had become a 
teetotaler. We are not, however, aware 
that in no instance he tasted, although 
the impression was produced on our 
minds, by what we have seen and heard 
of him, that he was almost, if not alto- 
gether, an abstainer. Some time after 
having preached the sermon, we wei-e 
again invited to partake of his hospitality. 
To our regret, we found him in bed suf- 
fering from the effects of a public effort 
the day preceding. This did not, how- 
ever, prevent the kind-hearted and noble- 
minded man asking us to his bed-side, 
and receiving us most cordially. It was 
a scene never to be forgotten. Notwith- 
standing the ' vile influenza,' as he called 
it, under which he was labouring, he sat 
up, and, for a considerable time, expa- 
tiated, with all his accustomed fluency 
and brilliancy, on several of his favourite 
schemes. The West Port Home Mission 
was evidently the jewel of his heart. 
Bat, said we, ' our opinion, doctor, found- 
ed on long experience, prevents us an- 
ticipating much success from such efforts, 
so long as the social habits of the people 
remain unrefprmed.' ' I see, I see,' said 
he : ' you refer to their drinking habits. 
Well, I shall be very happy should you, 
along with my missionary, originate a 
temperance movement down in that dis- 
trict.' ' But,' continued we, ' there is 
little hope of securing any permanent re- 
formation among the poor, unless those 
above them exemplify the practice incul- 
cated.' ' True, true,' replied the Doctor ; 
but evidently evading the point at which 
our observation was directed, ' so much 
am I impressed with the importance of 
what you say, that I think I shall make 
my nest quarterly address to the West 
Port folks on the temperance question ;' 



and then, with one of those peculiar 
flourishes of the left hand, which all who 
have heard him must remember, he ex- 
claimed with an energy that would have 
electrified an audience of ten thousand 
people, ' The temperance cause I regard 
with the most benignant complacency ; 
and those who stand up in their pulpits 
and denounce it, I regard as a set of Theo- 
logical Grey-beards.' 

On another occasion, when enjoying his 
hospitahty, he said, ' I can well enough see 
how that liquors are not essential to health ; 
but what do you say of thek effect on 
strength ? Have you given any atten- 
tion to the physiological view of the 
question ? For instance, should I ex- 
haust myself with preaching, do I not 
require a drop, to recover my lost 
energy ?' ' Well, Doctor,' we replied, ' if 
we understand the nature of these liquors, 
they have not the power so to recover 
you. They may stimulate ; but a develop- 
ing of the latent energy of the system, by- 
means of stimulation, is very different 
from its invigoration, and must always 
be attended by a corresponding weak- 
ness ; so that the very opposite of that 
which you seek is produced. Rest and 
food is what is required, and what can 
alone recover to you that which ^has been 
lost.' ' I see, I see,' continued the Doc- 
tor, somewhat jocularly. ' But why do 
you call that pledge which prevents you 
giving it to others " the long pledge ?" — 
I would call it " the short " one, as it 
puts your neighbour on as short allowance 
as it puts yourself.' • Well, Doctor,' said 
we, ' if we could see anything " short " of 
" the long pledge " that was adequate 
to the cure of the evil wc aim at removing, 
we would most cheerfully embrace it ; 
but the conviction that the long pledge, 
and nothing but the long pledge, is ade- 
quate, binds us over to the necessity of 
contending for its adoption.' 

On the following morning we again had 
the pi'ivilege of spending some time in his 



THE ABSTAINER 8 JOURNAL. 



company ; and, as on all former occasions, 
he liad many questions to ask about the 
temperance movement and its principles, 
and they were questions such as none 
but one thinking seriously of the subject 
could propose. 

In the course of a few days after this, 
he took a journey into England. Having 
been informed at the house of a friend 
that the Rev. William Jay of Bath had 
joined the Total Abstinence Society at 
the advanced age of sixty-seven, he ex- 
pressed great interest in the fact ; and on 
the question being put to him if he had 
any objections to follow the venerable 
Jay's example, he replied, ' Give me a 
society of christian men, without any- 
thing like a pledge, and I will join it' 
Such was his declaration. We give it 
upon the authority of a gentleman who 
was present upon the occasion ; and in har- 
mony with this is his testimony recorded 
in his Scripture Readings. When speaking 



of the Rechabites, he says, ' Let me record 
my sense of temperance, and my friendliness 
to temperance societies.' That he refers 
to societies holding the principles of total 
abstinence is evident from the fact, that 
at the time his Scripture Readings were 
penned, there were no other societies of a 
similar character in operation. He, then, 
who could thus speak and write, was 
surely alKbut an avowed abstainer. In- 
deed, we have it upon unquestionable 
authority j^that for some time previous to 
his death, he bad been acting upon the 
abstinence principle. 

The Doctor's favour or opposition does 
not, however, afiFect the soundness of our 
movement ; but knowing how many are 
influenced by the example and opinion 
of others, especially of those who rank 
high among men, we think it bat justice 
to our cause that the true relation in 
which such a man stood to it should be 
generally known. 



Narrati&e ,Slt£tc5i. 



THE GLASCO' EUCHTS ; OR, THE LOST HORSE. 

AN OWEE TRUE TALE. 



' It's a fine nicht this, sir I' — 

This was true, lor the night on which 
this remark was addressed to me, was 
one of the most beautiful evenings of the 
'leafy month of June,' in the year 18 — , 
when I happened to be strolling along the 
banks of the Forth and Clyde Canal, in 
the neighbourhood of Castlecary. The 
railway between Glasgow and Edinburgh 
was not then completed, and the above 
remark regarding the weather was ad- 
dressed to me by a tall, slouching, country 
'chiel,' who had landed from the ' liy-boat,' 
and now seemed to be proceeding home- 
wards. His dress was better than the 
average run of farm- servants ; and judg- 
ing from his appearance, he might have 
been taken as the son of some moorland 
farmer, well accustomed ' to smear sheep 
and to cast peats.' 

' It's a fine nicht, sir,' was repeated once 
more ; for I was so engaged in reading from 



a small pocket edition of ' Paradise Lost,' 
the beautiful description of ' gloaming ' — 

' Now came still evening on and twilight gray,' 

that I had not replied to the first 
ejaculation with sufficient expertness. 
Not wishing to be interrupted, I mut- 
tered a monosyllable or two, and went 
on to read ; but ' muirland Willie ' was 
not to be baulked in his determina- 
tion for a 'crack;' no, not for Milton's 
Pandemonium itself; for after a short 
pause he advanced right in front, and 
looking in my face, he abruptly said, 
' May I speer, sir, if ye're a lawyer ?' 
Somewhat amused and startled at such 
a question, I dropped Milton into my 
pocket ; and now that the coast was 
clear, my companion, measuring me from 
head to foot, and staring me earnestly in 
the iace, said, ' Ye'll pardon me, sir, gin 
I ask it ye'i-e a lawyer T — ' No, I have not 



THE ABSTAINKK S JOURNAL. 



9 



the honour of being a limb of the law,' I re- 
plied. ' Weel, sir, ye'll exkase me ; but I 
thocht ye were,frae the beuk ye were read- 
ing ; and I'm joost at this same time won- 
nerfu' anxious to get the advice o' a lawyer. 
I hae been east at Falkirk to see an aul' 
frien'o' my faither's wha is a ^mter, but he's 
aff to the Wast on some bisness ; and I'm 
joost gaun back wi' my finger in my 
mouth. An', sir, since tlie law has been 
uppermost in my held a' this day, I joost 
thocht, on coming alang there, when I 
saw ye wi' ye're beuk, that ye micht 
aiblins be a lawyer ; an" I was joost gaun 
to mak as fi-ee as ask ye're advice on a 
sair bisness that has happened to me, 
nae farer gaen than last Monday.' I saw 
at once, that whatever this business might 
be, my companion was in downright 
earnest, and that he appeared to be t!ie 
most open, simple, and unsophisticated 
' kintra chiel ' I had ever met with. I 
expressed sympathy for him, and assured 
him that, although not a lawyer, I vrould 
endeavour to help him with luy advice to 
the best of my ability. 

' Weel, sir, to mak a lang tale short, 
it was very early on ilonday morning last 
that I set aff to the Glasco' Buchts, to 
sell the best horse my faither ever had, 
and the best that was ever seen in oor 
parish. To tell ye the truth, sir, I'm 
a bridegroom I I hae been cried abeady 
ance in the parish kirk ; and oh, su% 
what am I to dae ?' Here the poor fellow 
utterly broke down. ' But what has this to 
do with your horse ?' ' Oh, sir, ye see 
times have na been sae guid wi' sma' 
farmers as they wei-e wont to be ; and 
my faither cam to this at last, that I 
micht sell oor best horse, and the price 
o't wad help me to set up house, and be- 
gin the war! wi.' — Here tiiere were some 
choking sighs, for the poor fellow was in 
deep distress. I was now fairly interested 
in his story ; and seeing this, he proceeded 
— ' Weel. sir, I never was at the Buchts 
o' Glasco' before. I had rigged out my 
hoi-se to the very best ; an' when I was 
staunin' wi' him, a decent-like fallow, 
weel dressed, as I thocht, cam up, and 
asked me to gie my horse a turn or twa 
alang the Buchts. Then he speer'd whar 
I cam firae, and what the beast had been 
accustomed to dae, and whan I was gaun 
hame ; an', man, I thocht he was a rale 
decent fallow, for he gaed aff at ance, and 
said he wad bring me a merchant for my 
horse. He brocht anither man in about a 
minute ; and after looking at the horse, he 
said at auce that he wad gie me twenty- 



acht pounds for't, ready money. I 
was pleased wi the offer ; an', man, the 
twa fallows, as I thocht, very kindly in- 
veeted me tae a public-house, and said they 
wad treat me, and that we wad hae ae 
half mutchkin thegither owre the held o' 
the bargain. Awa we went to a public- 
house. A callant got my braw horse to 
baud at the door, and that was the last 
sicht I got o' 'ini. Drink was got in ; 
au', man, as I had got naething since 
I left oor ain hoose, aboot fom- o'clock i' 
the morning, the deevilish drink soon gaed 
to my heid — the bla'guards, for they were 
naither thing than bla'guards, when I 
thocht they were friens, wad hae me to 
drink; au', oh, man, what a fail I was! 
oh, man, what a fail ! I sang an' tauld 
them o' my marriage, and mah- drink was 
sent for ; and then they told me if I wad 
take a bill for the price o' the horse an' 
pay the drink, and also anither half-a- 
crown, or three shillings for a bill, they 
wad gie me thirty pounds for my horse, 
which w'ad be payable at sicht at Coatbrig 
Bank. Man, I kent naething aboot bills, an' 
aboot pat/able at sicht ; but they tauld me 
that I wad hae naething to dae but joost 
present the paper to Mr Andrew Wamock, 
the manager, as they said, o' Coatbrig 
Bank, an' I wad get the money straucht 
i' my loof, and that this was the way 
a' men o' business did. I thocht a' this 
was richt encuch ; an', man, as twa 
pounds mair was a gi'eat concern to me, 
I agi-eed to tak the bill to Coatbrig Bank. 
I gied the pubhcan three shillings out o' 
my ban' to get what they ca'd a stamp ; 
an' when he brocht the paper, ane o' the 
rascals wrote upon it that I was to get 
thirty pounds frae "Mv Warnock o' the 
Coatbrig Bank, an" that this was to be 
payable at sight, ilair drink was sent 
lor ; there was nae less than a mutchkin 
o' brandy, an' this faurly turned my heid. 
I kent naething aboot whaur I was till I 
waukeu'd in braid day licht next mornin', 
wi' a heid joost like to rive, as if twenty 
harrows had gaen owre't ; an' a throat as 
dry an' burnin' as a brisl't peat, which 
I thocht a' the waters o' the Candren 
burn wadna slocken. Oh, man ! I had 
heard o' the horrors, an' the blue deevils ; 
but I never kent what hell fire was before 
that mornin'. It was here, ay, su:, 
it was here, (laying his hand on his 
breast. ) Ye may weel imagine my horror 
whan I got up frae the bare floor, whaur 
I had been left tae sleep the drink aff, 
whan I fand for my watch that my grand- 
faither gied me whan he deet, an' fand 



10 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



nae watch there ; an' every plack o' siller 
was gane, no ae bawbee left, au' naething 
in my pouch but the paper that I was to 
tali tae Coatbrig Bank. I thocht it was 
a Miercy the bill was nae awa. But, 
man, I got like a perfect teeger whau I 
couldna get my watch ; an' whan I 
couldiia fin' ae broun bawbee in ae pouch 
or auither I was like to bring down the 
house ; but the ill-tongued fallow o' a 
publican stamp'd an' swore, and tauld me 
that I should be thankfu' I hadna lo<t the 
bill ; an' that if I didna tak care o' wlint I 
said about hitn an' liis house, he wad clap 
me in the jvdl at auce for the reckoning, 
and pursue me for defamation o' charac- 
ter. He swore sic hon-ible oaths, and 
sparr'd before me like a boxer, that I was 
glad to get out his house wi' a hale skin ; 
an' the bla'guard gied me this advice as 
he push't me owre the door-step, that I 
should keep a cahn sough and set aff to 
Coatbrig at ance. I took the road wi' a 
sair heid an' a sairer heart tae Coat- 
brig, an' got the bank, and speert for Mr 
Warnock ; but there was nae sic man in 
a' the town ; but a gey ceevil man in the 
bank took my paper; and after lookin' 
at it he threw it doon, cracket his thoom, 
an' said it wasna worth a farthiu', an' 
that I had fa'n in wi' blacklegs, an' that 
my best plan was to go back to Glasgo', 
as fast as I could, and report the hale case 
to Captain Miller o' the police. Oh, 
man, whan I heard that, I thocht I wad 
hae drappit through the grun. I was 
mair like a daft or a decing man, than 
ony ither thing. Back I cam to Glasco' 
through a feari'u' pour o' ram ; but that 
was naething, sir, to the melting o' my 
ain heart. O, sir, whan I thocht o' my 
horse, my watch, my empty pouches, my 
aul' faither, the disgrace I had brocht on 
mysel' an' the family ; and aboon a', when 
I thocht o' her that was tae be my wife, 
I was fairly upset, an' obleeg't mair than 
ance tae sit doon an' greet. I reach'd 
Glasco' like a man that was going to 
be hang't ; an' oh surely, sir, hell canna 
be much warse than I was that day. I 
never had been within the walls o' a police 
office before, and it was sair, sair, against 
the grain to be talkin' tae policemen, 
an' beagles, and red-necks, an' thief- 
catchers, an' sbirra officers, an' a' that 
coufoundit clamjamfrey o' the law; but 
Captain Miller made me sit doon an' tell 
a' my storj', an' wi' ae question an' anither 
I was amaist like tae be dumfounert. 
He took rne afT in a coach tae the public- 
Louse, an' he pat the filthy rogue o' a 



publican tichtly through his facings, an' 
tauld him that he wad dootless loss his 
leeshence. But, man, that never brings 
back my horse, nor mends the maitter 
for me. The Captain advised me tae 
gang awa liame, an' that every means wad 
be used for finding out the rascals. Noo, 
sir, this is Thursday nicht, an' I hae 
never darkeu't my faither's door since 
I left on JMondiiy morning. For the last 
twa nichts I hae been at a frien's house 
in Falkirk ; but boo can I meet my 
fliitlier ? an' what am I to say tae Peggie 
Sinclair, my bride? oh! what am I to 
say tae Peggie ? for it's noo clear that we 
canna be married at this time. 

' Noo, sir, what I want tae ken frae you 
is, if there are nae law steps that can be 
ta'en to get back my horse, an' what 
wad ye advise me to dae?' 

All this was said with an' earnestness 
and an artless simplicity that would have 
baffled even Hogarth or Wilkie to convey 
to the canvas. I felt much for the poor 
fellow, and advised him to go home; 
and although I could give him but little 
hope of ever seeing his horse, or of get- 
ting the price of it, I had no doubt that 
this lesson would he worth more to him 
than even the price of the horse. In 
short, I succeeded in getting him into a 
better state of mind; and before I left 
him, 'he thocht it wad be possible 
for the cries to gang on for the next 
twa Sabbaths ; an' at all events, the 
Glasco' Buchts had done this ae thing for 
him, an' that was to mak' him a teetotaler 
for life.' 

I got him persuaded to go home as 
the best thing he could do ; but the poor 
fellow was sore abashed at the thought of 
meeting his old father, and the rest of the 
family, and his acquaintances in the neigh- 
bouring ' clachan,' and especially at the 
thought of making the sad revelation to 
Peggy. When we parted, I found that I 
had gone with him a stretch of several 
miles, and he had still, as he said, ' sax 
miles through the moor.' I would have 
been glad to have gone the whole way 
with him, but stern necessity forced me 
to return ; and so interested had I been 
in his story, and so much struck with his 
simple, unsophisticated manner, that it 
was only when I had reached my lodg- 
ings that I became conscious of the 
sad mistake I had made in never once 
asking for his address. I have often re- 
gretted this, and have often wondered 
if he had ever got any information about 
his horse, or if the cries went on, or whe- 



THE ABSTAINER'S JODKNAL. 



11 



ther he both lost his horse, his money, sir, and mony thanks for your advice ; 
and his bride. I am truly sorry that an' if I keep my richt senses, whisky 'ill 
on the latter point I cannot give the ne'er cross my craig ; but oh, man I I'll 
young ladies who may read this any [ hae au unco jeering to thole owre a' this 
satisfaction ; but tliis I can say for the at the smiddy, frae Tam Nicol and his 
satisfaction of all abstainers, that amongst ' cronies ; but unless the de'il gets baud o' 
the last words I heard this moorland me a' thegither, drink 'ill ne'er cross my 
fanner utter, were these, — ' Gude nicht, I craig.' 



2Cfi0 2Eemperancc ^ulptt. 



TIMOTHTS STOMACH. 

^Drink no longer wnier, hut tise a Utile wine for tliy slomach's sake, and thine 
qflen infirmities' — 1 Tim. t. 23. 



How often have these words been quoted 
with an air of triumph, by those who love 
a little drop ! What a motley group of 
drinkers of all degrees betake themselves, 
in their extremity, to Timotby's stomach ! 
Certainly, although the apostle thought 
it would be the better of a httle wine, he 
never meant that it shoidd be the place of 
retreat from the assaults of the cold water 
men. Little expenditure of force or am- 
munition is, however, requisite to dislodge 
the moderates from the place of their re- 
treat, and maintain the stomach of the 
evangehst as a strong temperance citadel. 

Many have felt at a loss to connect 
the text with what either precedes or fol- 
lows. Albert Barnes supposes that Paul, 
in writing to his son, had become sud- 
denly impressed with the arduous nature 
of the ministerial office ; and remember- 
ing that Timothy was but a youth, that 
bis frame was far from being robust,- and 
that he had been the subject of frequent 
attacks of illness, he is concerned lest his 
abstemious habits should be unfavourable 
to his health. He therefore expects him 
to take a little wine medicinally. Now, 
we think that a mere glance at the text 
will be sufficient to show, that it is one 
of the very last to which the lovers of 
wine should betake themselves. 

First of all, nothing is plainer than that 
Timothy had been an abstainer. Had he 
been in the habit of using wine, Paul 
would not have thus exhorted him. 
Why, then, was his practice such? This we 
know, that both the Rechabites and Naza- 
rites abstained from the use of wine and 
strong drink. The former, in order that 
they might the better preserve a distinct 
existence, by avoiding the practices of 
large communities ; and the latter, that 



they might be the better qualified for the 
service of God. The law of the Nazarite 
is given in Numbers vi. Samson, John 
the Baptist, and even Paul, it would seem, 
i were Nazarites. (Acts sviii, 18 ; xxi. 
24:.) But if it be objected that the habit 
of the Nazarites partakes too much of the 
former dispensation to find in it the war- 
rant for the practice of a christian evan- 
I gelist, then we turn to a case more di- 
j rectly in point. In Lev. x. 1-11, we read 
] the following prohibition : ' And Jehovah 
spake unto Aaron, saying. Do not drink 
wine nor strong drink, thou, nor thy 
sons with thee, when ye go into the 
tabernacle of the congregation, lest ye 
die : it shall be a statute for ever through- 
out your generations.' Now, as this pro- 
hibition immediately follows an account 
of the punishment which overtook Nadab 
and Abihu, for offering strange lire before 
the Lord, it may be fairly infeiTed that they 
were intoxicated when they committed 
the crime for which they suffered. Here, 
then, is the statute of heaven, forbidding 
that any shall approach the divine altar 
after having partaken of either wine or 
strong drink. And as, under the New 
Testament dispensation, all true believers 
are made ' priests and kings unto God,' 
the same law may be regarded as binding, 
especially on those who minister in holy 
things. 

Now, may we not find in this iact the 
reason of Timothy's abstinence ? Can it 
be, that the spirituality and purity of that 
system wliich was but the shadow of better 
things to come, were intended to surpass 
the things of which it was but the em- 
blem? Is it not the same God before 
whom the servants of Jesus minister ? and 
is he not still the same jealous God? 



12 



THE ABSTAINBE'S JOURNAI.. 



Is a christian minister to be less holy 
than a Jewish priest ? '^o a mind, then, 
like Timothy's, imbued as it was with 
Jewish eentiments and the spirit of 
earnest piety, there was nothing more 
natural than the adoption of abstinence 
practice. But do not the habits of 
Timothy throw some light upon those of 
Paul ? Whose example was the youthful 
evangelist more likely to follow than that 
of him who had been the means of lead- 
ing him up to the full discovery of the 
gospel dispensation, and introducing him 
to the office of the ministry ? Is there 
not, to say the least of it, a probability 
afforded in favour of Paul's own abstinence ? 
Whose mind more congenial to such a 
cause than that of his, who ' became all 
things to all men, if that by any means he 
might gain some ?' And may we not re- 
gard the declaration as actually descrip- 
tive of his practice : ' It is good neither 
to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor any- 
thing whereby thy brother stumbleth, or 
is offended, or is made weak.' This much, 
at least, is plain, that in these days a very 
loud call is addressed to all the ministers 
of rehgion, to abstain from wine and 
strong drink. Not a few of their brethren 
are falling the victims of the social usages 
which they have too long countenanced. 
More than once have even strange scenes 
been witnessed in the pulpit, through the 
influence of wine ; while hundreds of the 
members of our churches are being 
seduced to gross excess by the in- 
sidious system of moderation, which 
their pastors and others have taught 
them was safe, to the shame of their 
brethren, and the scorn of religion. 
Never till the ministers of religion and 
the private members of our congregations 
wash their hands clean of drinking prac- 
tices, will drunkenness cease to be the dis- 
grace of the church ; and their backward- 
ness to do so, says but little for either 
their enhghtenment or disinterested jeal- 
ousy for the sacred cause they have 
vowed to maintain. 

Second, Paul exhorted Timothy to con- 
tinue an abstainer. The impression upon 
the minds of our moderate-drinking 
friends seems to be, that the apostle for- 
bade the youthful disciple to continue in 
the practice of abstinence. Nothing could 
be further from the fiict. The idea of his 
recommending Timothy to betake himself 
to the habitual use of wine, never seems 
to have suggested itself. It is the medi- 
cinal use of wine alone which the apostle 
recommends : ' Drink no longer water, 



bnt use a little wine for thy stomach's 
sake, and thine often infirmities.' The 
phrase, ' Drink no longer water,' is equi- 
viilent to ' drink not water only.' Surely 
the apostle did not forbid his young friend 
' the best drink.' The nature of Timothy's 
maladies is not stated, but they would ap- 
pear to have been similar to those with 
which many young persons of delicate con- 
stitutions and studious habits are affected. 
But what kind of wine was it that Paul 
recommended ? Those acquainted with 
the subject of ancient wines are aware that 
both Aristotle and Pliny treat of certain 
wines which ' produced headaches, dropsy, 
madness, dysentery, and stomach com- 
plaints, and of some which, on the con- 
trary, were salubrious and medicinal, and 
particularly commended for enfeebled or 
diseased stomachs.' Can we then be at 
any loss to infer which of these wines was 
the most likely to be used by Timothy. 
The text in hand is generally quoted in 
favour of drinking the wine in common 
use among ourselves. Now, the liighest 
medical authorities have pronounced such 
wines injurious to the digestive system. 
Alcoholic wines cannot be received into 
the stomach without producing a sensa- 
tion of heat. That glow of heat is nature's 
sentinel, telling that mischief has been done. 
Any feeling in the stomach beyond that 
of satisfaction, is the report of injury. 
Wine received into the stomach, and 
thereby added to the digestive fluid, pro- 
duces a white precipitate, and renders the 
fluid incapable of digesting either animal 
or vegetable matter. Experiment has 
proved that the effect of alcohol, when re- 
ceived into the stomach, not only deranges 
the organ itself, but renders the contents 
of the stomach less digestible, just as 
spirits of wine tends to preserve any 
animal substance which may be placed in 
it. Although a moderate quantity of 
wine may seem to have a tonic property, 
in the long run it will prove exhaustive 
instead oi tonic. Instance the experience 
of a vast number who suffer by that ' loss 
of tone ' of the stomach, which is so com- 
mon an attendant of advancing years. 
Such is medical authority upon the sub- 
ject. 

V/e would have our moderate-drinking 
friends to take a peep into another 
stomach, besides that of Timothy. They 
may have heard of St Martin, a Canadian 
youth, whose stomach was perforated by 
a musket shot. After the wound healed, 
an aperture remained by which the efi'ects 
of various substances upon the stomach 



THE abstainer's JOtJBNAL. 



13 



could be observed. Dr Beaumont, into 
whose service he was received, observed 
that, after the moderate use of ardent 
spirits, wine or beer, ' the mucous mem- 
brane of the stomach was covered with 
inflammatory and iilcerous patches, the 
secretions were vitiated, and the gastric 
juice diminished in quantity, and of an un- 
natural viscidity, and yet he described 
himself as perfectly well, and complained 
of nothing.' Two days subsequently the 
appearances were even more unfavourable. 
Now, who will believe that God would com- 
mend the use of an article so evidently 
pernicious? And yet such are the effects of 
the moderate use of modern wines. The 
wine recommended by Paul was not, then, 
the article passing under that name 
among ourselves. God's word and his 
works are in harmony with each other. The 
text is therefore of no avail as a sanction 
for the use of the article, in behalf of which 
it is so often adduced. We are well aware 
that doctors frequentlj'^ prescribe wine for 



disordered stomachs and frequent infirmi- 
ties ; and we admit that while there may 
he cases in which the prescription is re- 
quired, we protest against Paul's advice 
to Timothy being used as a warrant for 
habitual moderation, and contend that 
on!}' wheu we are in Timothy's condition, 
and possessed of Timothy's wine, will the 
advice in hand avail us a sanction. To 
join in social wine-drinking, and quote the 
words of our text as a warrant, is a per- 
version of scripture which cannot be too 
severely reprobated. Let those who need 
wine for their stomach beware of giving 
countenance to the drinking habits of 
those who need it not. It was the 
medicinal use of wine at the most, to which 
Paul commended Timothy, and hence he 
approved of his general abstinence. Now, 
that the judicious medical use of wine is 
not inconsistent with abstinence, is testi- 
fied by our pledge. Whether then the 
text before us be on the side of the 
moderate-drinkers or abstainers, judge ye. 



E^t Abstainer's JJournal. 



Glasgow, Jancakt, 1853. 



OUR EDITORIAL BOW. 



The attitude assumed by the conductor 
of a temperance periodical is unquestion- 
ably a bold one. He avows hostility with 
practices and opinions sanctioned by all that 
is venerable in antiquity and commanding 
in example. Customs countenanced by 
the pious and the learned, and equally 
favoured by the peasant and the peer, 
he condemns. A system from which 
thousands derive their worldlj- support 
he seeks to overthrow. Appetite, in- 
terest, custom, prejudice, bigotry, are the 
foes with which he proclaims war. The 
man, then, who values his character will 
not surely assume such a position without 
the most perfect conviction of its sound- 
ness. He must be strong in all the 
essential requisites of support. The en- 
terprise, we confess, is one of no ordinary 
magnitude ; but as truth is ever adequate 
to its aims, we dedicate anew the hum- 



ble powers which God has given us to a 
cause in which we have never for a 
moment, duriug a period of nearly twentj' 
years, experienced the slightest misgivings, 
and convinced that we have the same reason 
for anticipating that success will yet crown 
all our efibrts, that we have for believing 
that any system of science founded in 
sound philosophy wiU finally prevail. 

T\'hat then we propose to ourselves is, 
to expose the fallacy that a people can 
ever be temperate in the use of alcoholic 
liquors, and that every eSbrt having for 
its object the suppression of intemperance, 
based upon anything short of entire ab- 
stinence, is a delusion and a snare. We 
shall aim at the destruction of that 
formidable array of objections which a 
perverted ingenuity has spent its strength 
in framing, and behind which both the 
drunkard and the moderate drinker find 



14 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



fellowship and shelter. We ehall bring 
the results of scientific investigation, en- 
lightened biblical interpretation, the 
principle of sound philosophy, and the 
benign genius of our holy faith to the 
ilhistration and defence of our views. 
We shall present, above all, a token of 
Heaven's approval, which no gainsayer 
shall be able to resist, in the debased 
which we have elevated, and in the pol- 
luted which we have refined. We shall 
show how that our cause regards with a 
friendly eye all kindred movements, 
and how that there can be no revival of 
the church's pentecostal glory, and no 
hope of the world's deliverance, till our 
principle has been recognised and ob- 
tained universal adoption. Thus, while 
we are cheered by the fruits of our 
efl'orts, and the countenance of the thou- 
sands who but want enlightenment to join 
in our movement, we shall find in the 
prospect of the future enough to awaken 
the energies of our mind, and bind us in 
alliance with a cause which accords with 
the truest impulses of our nature. 



THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN 
MAGAZINE. 
If there were anything farther needful to 
justify the issue of such a periodical as 
the present, it is to be found in the man- 
ner in which the evil of intemperance is 
generally dealt with by the periodical 
press. Its almost universal silence 
amounts to all but an utter obliviousness 
to the existence of the evil ; or its occa- 
sional expression of opinion shows, that 
till it has gone to school, silence would 
be its wisdom. An illustration of this 
is to be found in the last number of 
the United Preshi/terian Magazine. In 
a former number the statistics of intem- 
perance are dealt with, and in the one 
before us there is what is styled, ' Recent 
Movements in behalf of Temperance.' 
Who would turn to such a subject with- 



out expecting to find a discussion of the 
movement we have espoused? and who 
would not be surprised to find at the very 
outset the announcement, ' We do not 
enter upon the consideration of total ab- 
stinence?' And why? ' On this subject 
the United Presbyterian Magazine has no 
opinion. It is an open question in the 
magazine, as much as it is in the church.' 
And so here is a guide of public 
sentiment telling us, that upon one 
of the chief questions of the day — 
a question that affects every interest to 
which the magazine is devoted — it ' has 
no opinion !' Pray, what is the object of 
the United Presbyterian Magazine, if upon 
this question it ' has no opinion ?' Is it 
the lack of opportunity of forming an 
' opinion,' or the fear of expressing an 
' opinion,' or an aversion to what becomes 
rather a popular ' opinion ?' Pray, who is 
to have ' an opinion,' if a public journal 
has none ? Is not the very object of 
such an organ not only to have an 
opinion but to mould others to its own? 
A magazine without an opinion is fully 
as bad as a government without a pohcy : 
neither of them can command the respect 
of enlightened men. 

' The writer of this article,' we are told, 
' is not himself a member of any absti- 
nence society ; and possibly his remarks 
may be read with less prejudice in some 
quarters on this account.' This savours 
too much of the unchristian fallacy, I 
join no church, and have therefore upon 
religious questions much gi-eater influence 
with reflecting people. ' In other quar- 
ters,' it is however added, ' the opposite 
may be the case, as there is an extreme 
section of total abstainers who are very 
much disposed to indulge the charitable 
supposition, that none can be sincere 
friends of temperance who do not act in 
all respects as they do. This narrow- 
minded and fortunately diminishing class, 
has had its attention confined too much 
to one text of holy writ, " He that is not 



THE ABSTAINER S JOOKXAL. 



15 



with nie, is against me." We ai'e not 
sure but that it ■would be botli sound 
principle and good policy, if they would 
now and then look upon another test, 
which has equally the authority of heaven, 
and which seems to be no less appropriate, 
" He that is not against us, is for us." ' We 
know not whether or not we may be 
ranked with this ' narrow-minded ' class ; 
but this we know, that however sincere 
may be one's friendship for temperance, 
it will not be efficient in the practice of 
anything short of entire abstinence ; nor 
can any shelter themselves under the 
second text quoted above, without first 
showing that they are not against its. 
The fact is, that nothing but moderate 
drinking is the grand source of intem- 
perance. So long as it continues, the 
suppression of the vice is impossible. 
Whatever friendliness, then, any who 
drink moderately may profess, their in- 
fluence is pernicious. The dissipated do 
not find their warrant in the practices of 
those equally abandoned, but in the prac- 
tices of the reputed sober. The sin of 
drunkenness does not originate in the 
excessive use of liquor, but in its moderate 
use; hence those who drink most mo- 
derately may themselves become the 
victims, or the decoys to those who do. 
Unquestionably, then, all but abstainers 
are against us ; and until it can be proved 
that men may drink moderately without 
danger to themselves and others, they 
must not be offended that we charge 
upon them the responsibility of the con- 
tinuance of our national degradation. 

What, then, does the writer in question 
propose? He notices, with special ap- 
probation, the recent attempts to close 
public-houses on the Lord's-day. With 
tills efl'ort we have no complaint. As a 
branch of the means to be employed, it 
is all well. But, as it is not the limita- 
tion, but the annihilation of the evil we 
seek, we regard it, as a means to such an 
end, as utterly inadequate. Sin is sin all 



the week through ; and it is a pitiful 
affectation of jealousy for the honour of 
God, that can content itself with a simple 
suppression of vice on the Sabbath. 
W^hile we say so, we are far from insin- 
uating that the writer of the article in 
question aims only at such a result. But 
still his plans go no farther, nay, do not 
even go that length. We close by observing 
that it is a melancholy position into which 
many have brought themselves, whose 
talents and profession require of them war- 
fare with vice in all its forms. They 
cannot speak from the press, the pulpit 
or the platform, but they exhibit an utter 
inadequacy for coping successfully with 
the vice in question; and hence they gene- 
rally content themselves with silence 
upon the subject, prefemng the charge of 
indifference to that of folly. Abstinence 
would unseal many an eloquent tongue, 
and give freedom to many a masterly 
pen. And the adhesion to our cause of 
the writer of the article before us, woidd 
be a distinguished illustration of the just- 
ness of the remark. 



MEDICAL IGNORANCE OF THE 

DRUNKARD'S DISEASE. 
In the Lancet of October 23 there is a 
leading article upon the subject of asylums 
for the inebriate, in which is exhibited a 
degree of ignorance as to the nature of 
drunkenness, which we did not expect to 
find in such a quarter. The writer says: 
' We think that it is a point deserving the 
most serious consideration of all who wish 
well to their fellow-creatures, whether 
any good might be done by the formation 
of establishments somewhat similar to 
those licensed for tlie reception of the in- 
sane, in which inveterate drunkards might 
be taken care of for a certain space of time, 
the duration of which must be determin- 
ed by experiment, and the endeavour 
made by education, by cultivating the 
moi-al faculties, by kindness, and other 



16 



THE ABSTAINKR'S JOURNAL. 



means, to wean them from their suicidal 
habits.' There is then given a case, re- 
lated b}' i\Ir Dickens, of a man in America 
who sought solitary confinement in the 
prison of Philadelphia as a cure for his 
vicious propensity. Here he remained 
for nearlj' two years, and being at length 
allowed the liberty of working in the gar- 
den, he one day availed himself of the 
opportunity which presented itself of 
scampering cff. 'AVe regret,' says the 
writer, ' that this history is so incomplete. 
Who does not pity the unfortunate man, 
and who does not wish to know whether 
the solitary imprisonment of two years 
acted as a cure ? The information might 
prove instructive.' Now, who that has 
studied the nature of the drunkard's vice 
is not aware that his appetite never dies ? 
If the efforts which have been made in 
connection with our movement to reclaim 
the inebriate have established one fact 
more conclusively than another, it is, that 
if any who have acquired a relish for 
liquor, drink, however moderately, after 
a period of abstinence, however prolonged, 
the old appetite will discover unimpaired 
vitality. The only hope of the drunkard 
is in perpetual abstinence. What a pity 
that medical men ai-e not aware of this 
fact ! How many of all the shattered sub- 
jects that have sought their aid and advice 
have they cured ? Woidd that they were 
persuaded to make a trial of our plan ! 
The results, we assure them, would be no 
discredit to their honourable calling. But 
why send the poor drunkard to prison ? 
Why not rather keep the hquor irom him ? 
Let our drinking usages be abolished ; 
let our drinking places be closed ; let 
the pernicious and insidious nature of in- 
toxicating hquors be faithfully proclaimed 
by the medical profession, and we shall 
hear no more of asylums for the inebriate. 
Oh, there seems a demoniac cruelty in 
sustainmg that system of deception which 
threatens the weakest of our race with 
the utter undoing of their most precious 



interests! The drunkard would break 
away from his cruel tormenter, but then 
at every point the tempter meets him, and 
with blandishments the most specious, 
binds him firmer than ever. 



THE CHANCELLOR'S BUDGET. 
We confess that there were some parts of 
the Chancellor's Budget which alarmed us 
more than even the proposed extension of 
the income tax. If we mistake not, we have 
been threatened with the opening of another 
floodgate of dissipation upon our debased 
and wretched country. What is the ground 
of our alarm ? ' The community,' said the 
Chancellor, ' would be best enabled to bear 
unrestricted competition by cheapening 
those articles which sustain life. The 
House, therefore, would not be astonished 
that Government was prepared to recom- 
mend to Parliament to deal with the 
malt tax. He recommended it upon no 
other plea than the interest of the con- 
sumer. Government thought it their 
duty to recommend that this duty 
should be diminished one-half.' Now, 
is it not established beyond question, 
that every new facility afforded the 
dealer tends to the increase of the vice 
we have leagued ourselves together to 
destroy. The fallacy that price has 
nothing to do with the extent of a man's 
potations, will not bear investigation. 
In 1825, the duty on spirits was lowered 
from 12s 7d to 7s the imperial gallon; 
and from tables before us, it appears that 
the consumption in England and Wales 
rose, in a single year, from 4,132,265 gal- 
lons to 8,888,64:4 gallons ; and with this 
increased consumption, there was a fear- 
ful increase of pauperism and crime. 
Many members of Parhament, in the 
course of the recent debate, affirmed, and 
the newspaper press have reiterated the 
statement, that the proposed reduction iu 
duty would, to no sensible extent, affect the 
consumption of beer. Let us hear the 



TUB ABSTAINEK S JOURNAL. 



17 



testimony of Mr Bass, the member for 
Derby, and the famous brewer. In the 
course of the debate he said : — 

' The late Chancellor of the Exchequer 
told the House on Friday night that there 
would be no corresponding increase of con- 
sumption from the proposed reduction, and 
he instanced the reduction of the duty on 
beer in 1830. It was true there was no 
immediate increase, but by 1 836 the con- 
sumption had increased from 3,500,000 
quarters to 5,000,000 quarters. (Hear, 
hear.) It was said that the brewers and 
maltsters would get all the benefit. But 
how did it happen then, that these two 
classes, who were believed to be so saga- 
cious and cunning, were unfavourable to 
the reduction of the malt-tax ? Here 
were £2,500,000 to be distributed among 
the brewers, and yet to a man they were 
against the measure. (Hear, hear.) If 
they really believed they were to get the 
diflference, depend upon it they would be 
coming to the house to ask for a reduction 
in the duty on malt. It was true that the 
brewers had not made a reduction in the 
price of their beer, although there had been 
a reduction in the price of barley. For 
nearly 20 years the price of barley had 
been remarkably uniform. He had last 
year explained to the House how incon- 
venient it was to have frequent reductions 
in price (a laugh,) and there was ?.n agree- 
ment between the publican and the brewer 
that there should not be sudden and fre- 
quent changes of price. (A laugh, and 
" Hear, hear.") Well, but let the House 
hear him out. It was true that for the 
last four or five years there had been a 
steady and permanent reduction in the 
price of barley up to the present year. In 
the present year they were paying more 
than the average of the last twenty years. 
It was very difficult to make a reduction 
in the price of beer merely on account of 
the reduction in the price of barley. (A 
laugh.) But if the Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer added to that reduction the reduc- 
tion of the malt-tax, the consumer would 
not only get the benefit of that reduction, 
but also an equivalent for the diminution in 
the price of barley. The brewers, he be- 
lieved, would not only give the public 
the full benefit of the reduction in the 
malt-tax, but would then make a hand- 
some allowance on account of the reduc- 
tion in the price of barley. (Cheers.) For 
himself, he thought there ought to be a re- 
duction of from 4s to 6s a-barrel, according 
to the strength of the beer. (Hear, hear.) 



But hon. gentlemen would understand that 
light beer was not capable of such a re- 
duction as strong beer (much laughter), and 
therefore it would be quite unreasonable to 
expect so large a reduction in the price of 
pale ale as in other descriptions of beer. 
(Continued laughter.) The brewer had, or 
ought to have, a profit on the capital he 
employed. So much capital would not be 
required if the malt-tax were reduced one- 
half, and the result would be that there 
would be more competition in the trade.' 

Another proof of the evil of increased 
facilities to the traffic, is to be found 
in the Beer Act of 1830. The in- 
juries done by this single Act to the rural 
districts, villages, hamlets, and road sides 
of England, is proved, by the most ample 
evidence, to have exceeded the evils of 
any single Act of internal administration 
passed within the memory of man. 
Never was direr mischief inflicted by the 
blind senators of a bad government. 
The reason alleged was, that w"ere the 
public furnished with what was imagined 
to be a cheap and wholesome liquor, their 
habit of indulging in stronger potations 
would cease. Facts prove the contrary. 
Returns lie before us, from which it ap- 
pears that the beer-shops became the 
nurseries for the public-houses ; and that 
wherever the former were established, 
the hitter were increased. It was the 
boast of the Duke of Wellington that he 
triumphed more in passing the measure 
by which beer-shops were legalised, than 
in all his victories. He lived long enough, 
we trust, to see his error. And would 
Mr DTsraeli but take the trouble to 
inquire at the Home Office for the 
results of that measure, lie might yet 
be disposed to deal with the malt-tax 
more in the spirit of a paternal govern- 
ment. 

The lamentable ignorance of men in high 
places, men who would even undertake 
the guidance of this great empire, respect- 
ing the condition of the poorer classes, 
and the cause of their debasement, has 
come out in a remarkable manner in the 



18 



THE ABSTAINEE S JOnRNAL. 



course of this debate. ' Not a peasant in 
England,' said Lord John Manners, ' who 
would not benefit by the reduction of 
the malt tax, in being enabled to con- 
sume more of the old English beverage so 
dear to the labouring classes.' Nor is 
the Times more enlightened. 'Let the 
teetotalers protest as tlicy will,' says this 
great organ of public sentiment, ' a glass 
of beer will generally do a working man 
more good than a cup of tea.' Against 
these foolish sayings we place a statement, 
which we defy the entire British Senate 
to disprove. The Rev. Canon Stowell, 
at a late meeting of the Mancester Mecha- 
nics' Institution, said : — 

' A still more injurious influence bear- 
ing upon the working classes, arose from 
the incentives and stimulants and seduc- 
tives to sensuality and crime, -which 
were multiplied around them, generally 
in pi'oportion to the poverty of a neigh- 
bourhood, in the shape of beer-houses, 
public-houses, spirit-vaults, and singing 
saloons ; the combined attractions of 
which often destroyed first the comfort of 
the poor man's home, and afterwards led 
him to sacrifice at the pawnshop all the 
little articles of furniture without which 
that comfort was impossible. It was a 
blot upon our government that such 
temptations should be allowed to be so 
multiplied, especially when their powers 
were brought to bear upon precisely that 
most defenceless portion of the com- 
munity ; they stimulated to drunkenness 
and crime, which the laws were after- 
wards called upon to punish. Drunlcen- 
ness was the hideous sin of England; 
and he never could understand upon 
what ground the keepers of public-houses 
were so petted and flivoured, and allowed 
to desecrate the Sunday, while other 
classes of tradesmen were compelled to 
close their shops. All the evils of this 
system had been aggravated by the Beer 
Bill, the passing of which was one of the 
darkest stains upon modern legislation.' 

But we would set the Times over against 
himself. What does the following para- 
graph mean ? Had he forgotten, when he 
penned it, that he had spoken as above ? 
or does he wish to make amends for what 
he had said ? — 



' The licensing system is a perfect dead 
letter to all purposes of morality and order. 
Let any one walk a mile any direction in 
this metropolis long after twelve o'clock, 
and he will hardly fail to pass half-a-dozcn 
public-houses still in full swing, with all 
the usual scandals in unchecked operation. 
The law, administered as it is, keeps up 
the price of ale, but not the standard of 
virtue.' 

Now, whence this evil ? If it be true 
that a glass of beer is better for a work- 
ing man than a cup of tea, how is it that 
English beer-shops are a public nuisance ? 
Whence originates this evil ? Is it in the 
mere brick and mortar that form their walls, 
or in the pots out of which their frequenters 
drink ? Do we find like scenes enacted 
in our coffee-shops ? The Times or his 
Commissioner may visit every coffee-shop 
in this metropolis, at any hour of the day 
or night that he pleases, and he will find 
groups of working men partaking of whole- 
some refreshment or enjoying rational re- 
creation, but none of the grossness and 
frivolity associated with the drinking of his 
favourite beverage. Is it then the case that 
beer is equally good and harmless as tea 
for the working classes ? 

And what was to be the consequence 
of this cheapening of beer ? Why, in or- 
der that the Ministry might gain the tide 
of popular favour which cringing to abase 
and vulgar appetite would afford them, 
they proposed extending the income-tax to 
all in the annual receipt of £100, doubling 
the house-tax, and levying it upon every 
man who pays £10 of rent. And all this 
that the working classes may have cheap • 
beer ! Had the Chancellor propo.sed the 
abolition of all taxes upon knowledge, he 
might have shown himself a wiser states- 
man and a more enlightened friend of the 
people. The proposed reduction on the tea 
duty is well. Why not on the coflPee duty 
too ? Let these taxes be abolished, and 
then our rapidly-increasing cheap coffee- 
shops will be a formidable rival to our 
low dram-shops. 

Our duty at least is plain. The fallacy 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



19 



that beer or spirits are to be ranked with 
'articles which sustain Ufe,' must be 
boldly exposed. The right of petition 
is open to us; and if at any future 
time the proposal be renewed, we must 
table before the British Parliament 
our indignant protest. Although Eng- 
land may be more immediately affected 
by this measure, our interests are one ; 
and we trust that there shall come from 
the northmost point of Scotland, a clear 
and decided condemnation of that false 
expediency, which would seek an increase 
of revenue at the cost of our national 
morality. 



KICHARD COBDEX AND THE 
MALT-TAX. 

Honour to whom honour is due. Tfrice 
has this gentleman lifted up bis voice within 
the walls of St James' in vindication of our 
principles. We have not yet forgotten liis 
withering exposure of the gross outrages 
connected with the return of a member for 
the Falkirk district of burghs ; and even 
more signal has been the service which he 
has rendered to the cause of sobriety, in the 
recent deb.ite on the Chancellor's Budget. 
He who can brave the sneers of a British 
House of Commons, and can stand alone 
in the attitude of indignant protest, when 
the curse of England is being lauded by 
men in high places, earns for himself a 
brighter fame than the hero of a bloody 
field. It is right that his sentiments 
should be here enrolled in the archives of 
our movement. In the course of his speech 
he said : — 

' The right hon. gentleman (the Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer) had stated that 
beer was, like bread, a primary necessary 
of life, and this had been repeated by other 
hon. members who had spoken since. Now, 
the fact was, that there was a very wide 
difference of opinion on this subject. He 
had repeatedly said, both in that House and 
out of it, that one difficulty of repealing the 
malt-tax arose from a large growing and 
influential body in this country — some of 



them very fanatical too (hear, hear) — who 
were of opinion, not only that beer was 
not a necessary of hfe, but that it was a per- 
nicious beverage. (Cries of " Oh !" from 
the Ministerial side.) Well, but the House 
would have to deal with that party, which, 
within his knowledge, comprised a very 
large, influential, and useful body of men, 
who he thought were entitled to be heard 
in that house, although they might be a 
minority. (Hear, hear.) He would just 
read to the House the opinion which some 
eminent men entertained on this subject ; 
he begged hon. members not to give expres- 
sion to their lively emotions till they had 
heard the names of those who had signed 
that document : — 

'''An opinion handed down from rude 
and ignorant times, and imbibed by Eng- 
lishmen from their youth, has become very 
general, — that the habitual use of some 
portion of alcoholic drink, as of wine, beer, 
or spirit, is beneficial to health, and even 
necessaiy to those subjected to habitual 
labour. Anatomy, physiology, and the 
experience of all ages and countries, when 
properly examined, must satisfy every mind 
well informed in medical science that the 
above opinion is altogether erroneous. 
Man, in ordinary health, like other animals, 
requires not any such stimulant, and can- 
not be benefited by the habitual employ- 
ment of any quantity of them, large or 
small ; nor will their use during his lifetime 
increase the aggregate amount of his labour. 
In whatever quantity they are employed, 
they will rather tend to diminish it." 

' This was signed by upwards of seventy 
of the principal medical men of the king- 
dom, among whom he found the names of 
Sir Benjamin Brodie, Dr Chambers, Sk 
James Clerk, Mr Brandsby Cooper, Dr 
Dades, Sir Aston Key, Dr Lee, Mr Tra- 
verse, and Dr Ure. (Hear, hear.) Now, be 
thought that a declaration signed by such 
names as these would at all events have 
sufficient weight in that house to enable 
him to assert that at that moment it was 
an open question whether the increased 
consumption of beer would increase the 
strength and health of the people or not. 
(Hear, hear.) But the Government asked 
the housekeepers of the country, including 
a large number of the professors of temper- 
ance — to tax themselves in order to relieve 
the country of half the malt-tax. He 
had received many letters on the subject 
from teetotalers, who said that they did 
not consume malt ; that the reduction of 
the malt-tax would therefore give them no 
relief; thut they had abolished the malt- 



20 



THE ABSTAINKR's JODRKAL. 



tax for tV.emselves in their own temper- 
ance ; and, more than that, they believed 
that the consumption of malt was per- 
nicious to the interests of society, and had 
taken pains to persuade their fellow-sub- 
jects that it was so ; and yet the Govern- 
ment asked them to submit to the house- 
tax in order that beer might be cheapened, 
and that a greater consumption of it might 
take place ! The Chansellor of the Ex- 
chequer had placed the matter altogether 
on a wrong ground as regarded this class 
of the community. If he had said that in 
these days of free trade the farmers had a 



right to the use of malt for the purpose of 
fattening their cattle, and that therefore 
he would remit the Excise-tax on that 
article in accordance with all the principles 
of political economy, the chances were that 
he would have got their sympathies as 
free-traders on his side. But, instead of 
that, he had proposed the remission of one- 
half the malt-tax, avowedly in order to in- 
crease the quantity of beer consumed, and 
to enable him to do so, he proposed an addi- 
tion to the house-ta.K — a proposition to 
which he could not possibly expect their 
acquiescenC3.' 



(EorresiJonlJeTice. 



ABSTAINERS AND EMIGRATION. 
(To the Editor of the Abstainer's Journal.) 



Sir, — Having paid considerable atten- 
tion this year to the registration of mem- 
bers for the 'League,' I have remarked 
that our real increase and progress over 
last year will appear less than it really is, 
from the circumstance of emigration. 
Emigration I think will have considerably 
thinned our ranks, perhaps from one to 
two hundred. Had it occurred to me 
sooner, I would have suggested that the 
actual number so withdrawn should have 
been published in the Register, because 
every hard-working member and agent 
of the League deserves as much encou- 
ragement and as little discouragement as 
possible. Closely looked at, however, 
there can be no serious discouragement 
because of the emigration, as a member 
left is not a member lost. It is not a 
change of place, but a change of principles 
— from temperance to intemperance — 
that can be threatening or fatal to our 
movement. I even think that with a 
little energy and tact soon brought into 
play, this emigration of abstainers may 
be turned to a rich account, simply hy a 
perpetuation of membership. By extend- 
ing the pale of our association, we may 
retain the support and the sympathy of 
some first-rate men. There is a double 
reason why we should do this systemati- 
cally — 1st, for the real good of our cause ; 
2d, for the real good of our countrymen. 
The 'nuggets' of prosperous colonists 
would help us mightily. Colonists, on 
the other hand, would become more and 
more prosperous and happy, in exact 



proportion as they continued to cherish 
and practise all the precepts and pledges 
that emanate from our moral association. 
Indeed, by some possible arrangement, 
all our literature — at any rate monthly 
and quarterly — might go regularly out 
and brace them to duty there, and bind 
them closer and closer to all their absti- 
nence brethren here. Special tracts 
might also be furnished by the League 
as an equivalent for all subscriptions sent 
home. By some combination such as 
this, beginning on a small, but developing 
on a great scale, drunkenness might be 
hunted out of the British Empire. If the 
young abstinence colonists are true to 
their principles, and take advantage of 
this or some similar idea, their new home 
may never become infested with drun- 
kards ; and their children may be saved 
from that daily contamination which is 
the shame and the sin of Scotland. There 
is something quite practicable for the 
' League ' here. To be encouraged to 
proceed, we have only to recollect the love 
that many of our members have for absti- 
nence, and the love that Scotchmen abroad 
always cherish for one another. This 
clanishness would enable respectable agents 
appointed by the League to get very di- 
rectly at the proper parties to increase the 
new membership and maintain the old. 
League agents — that is, right-minded, 
philanthropic men — should be appointed 
in all the large towns. Such agents could 
be found by making application to our 
country societies. The committees could 



THE ABSTAINER S JOUKNAL. 



21 



forward the names of worthy persons pre- 
viously or recently left, or soon to leave, 
who would be proud to signalise them- 
selves as heretofore iu the interests of our 
cause. Here many noble-minded ab- 
stainers lament that their circumstances 
are so circumscribed that they cannot do 
more for abstinence. Transplanted to a 
richer soil, they would yield more abun- 
dant fruit. And this ambition to aid 
abstinence k intelligible, when it is re- 
membered what this one word, Absti- 
NESCE, has done for them. From the \ 



hour of their identification with the cause, 
they can date the beginning of a new 
life — the dispersion of tbeir ills, and the 
dawn of their happiness. Let the League, 
then, be careful and conservative of all 
such; it cannot, and it need not afford to 
lose one of them. Everywhere — in Scot- 
land, Australia, or America — such men, 
if united and incorporated, will assist the 
League iu all its beueticeut operations. — 
I am, 

SCOTCS. 



Selections. 



CHILDREN. 

BY MBS HARRIET BEECHER STOWE, 

Auilioress of ' Uncle Tom's Cabin.' 
' A little child shall lead them.' 



OxE cold market morning, I looked into a 
milliner's shop, and there I saw a hale, 
hearty, well-browned young fellow from the 
country, with his long cart whip, and a lion 
shag coat, holding up some little matter, 
and turning it about on his great tist. 
And what do you suppose it was ? A 
baby's bonnet .' A little soft, blue, satin 
hood, with a swan's down border, white as 
the new fallen snow, with a frill of rich 
blonde aroimd the edge. 

By his side stood a very pretty woman, 
holding with no small pride the baby — for 
evidently it was the baby. Any one could 
read that fact in every glance, as they 
looked at each other and the httle hood, 
and then at the large blue unconscious 
eyes, and fat dimpled cheeks of the little 
one. It was evident that neither of them 
had ever seen a baby U/:e that before ! 

' But really, Mary,' said the young man, 
' isn't three dollars very high ? ' 

Mary very prudently said nothing, but 
taking the little bonnet, tied it on the 
little head, and held np the baby. The 
man looked, and grinned, and without 
another word, down went the three dollars 
— all the last week's butter came to ; and 
as they walked out of the shop, it is hard 
to say which looked the most delighted 
with the bargain. 

' Ah ! ' thought I, ' a httle child shall 
lead them ! ' 

Another day, as I was passing a carriage 
factory along one of our back streets, I 
saw a young mechanic at work on a wheel. 
The rough body of a carriage stood beside 



him — and there, wrapped up snngly, all 
hooded and cloaked, sat a little dark-eyed 
girl, about a year old, playing with a great 
shaggy dog. As I stopped, the man 
looked up from his work and turned 
admiringly towards his httle companion, as 
much as to say, ' See what I have got 
here ! ' 

' Yes ! ' thought I, ' and if the httle 
lady ever get a glance from admiring 
swains as sincere as that, she will be lucky.' 

Ah, these children 1 little witches ! 
pretty, even in their faults and absurdities ! 
winning, even in their sins and iniquities I 
See, for example, yonder httle fellow in a 
naughty fit — he has shaken his long curls 
over his deep blue eyes — the fair brow is 
bent in a frown — the rose-leaf lip is pursed 
up in infinite defiance — and the white 
shoulder thrust haughtily forward. Can 
any but a child look so pretty even in their 
naughtiness ? 

Then comes the instant change — flash- 
ing smiles and tears, as the good comes 
back all in a rush, and you are ovenvhelm- 
ed with protestations, promises and kisses ! 
They are irresistible, too, these httle ones. 
They pull away the scholar's pen — tumble 
about his papers — make somersets over 
his books, and what can he do ? They 
tear up newspapers— litter the carpets — 
break, pull, end upset, and then jabber 
nnimaginabls English in self-defence, and 
what can you do for yourself ? ' 

' If / had a child,' says the precise man, 
' you should see.' 

He does have a child, and his child tears 



22 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



up his papers, tumbles over his things, and 
what has the precise man to say for him- 
self? Nothing — he is like everybody else 
— ' a little child shall lead him ! ' 

Poor little childreu ! they bring and 
teach us, human beings, more good than 
they get in return ! how often does the 
infant, with its soft cheek and helpless 
hand, awaken a mother from worldliness 
and egotism, to a whole world of new and 
higher feeling! How often does the 
mother repay this, by doing her best to 
wipe off, even before the time, the dew and 
fresh simplicity of childhood, and make her 
daughter too soon a woman of the world, 
as she has been ! 

The hardened heart of the worldly man 
is unlocked by the guileless tones and 
simple caresses of his son — but he repays 
it, in time, by imparting to his boy all the 
crooked tricks, and hard ways, and callous 
maxims which have undone himself. 

Go to the jail — to the penitentiary, and 
find there the wretch most sullen, brutal 
and hardened. Then look at your infant 
son. Such as he is to you, such to some 
mother was this man. That hard hand 
was soft and delicate — that rough voice was 
tender and lisping — fond eyes followed him 
as be played — and he was rocked and 
cradled as something holy. There was a 
time when his heart, soft and unworn, 
might have opened to questionings of God, 
and Jesus, and been sealed with the seal of 
heaven. But harsh hands seized it — 
fierce, goblin lineaments were impressed 
upon it— and all is over with him forever! 

So, of the tender, weeping child is made 
the callous, heartless man — of the all-be- 
lieving child, the sneering sceptic— of the 
beautiful and modest, the shameless and 
abandoned — and this is what the world 
does for the little one. 

There was a time when the Divine One 
stood on earth, and httle children sought 
to draw near to him. But harsh human 
beings stood between him and them, for- 
bidding their approach. Ah ! has it not 
been always so ? Do not even we, with 
our hard and unsubdued feelings — our 
worldly and unscriptnral habits and max- 
ims — stand like a dark screen between our 
Httle child and its Saviour, and keep, even 
from the choice bud of our hearts, the 
sweet radiance which might unfold it for 
paradise ? ' Suffer httle children to come 
unto me., and forbid them not,' is still the 
voice of the Son of God; but the cold 
world still closes around and forbids. 
When of old, the disciples would question 
their Lord of the higher mysteries of his 



kingdom, he took a little child and set him 
in the midst, as a sign of him who should 
be greatest in the kingdom of heaven. 
That gentle Teacher still remains to us. 
By every hearth and fireside, Jesus still 
sets the little child in the midst of us ! 

Wouldst thou know, parent, what is 
that faith which unlocks heaven I Go nol 
to wrangling polemics, or creeds and forms 
of theology, but draw to thy bosom thy 
little one, and read in that clear, trusting 
eye, the lesson of eternal life. Be only to 
thy God, as thy child is to thee, and all is 
done ! Blessed shalt thou be, indeed, 
when ' a little child shall lead thee ! ' — 
New York Evangelist. 



CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROFES- 
SING CHRISTIANS. 

OcR object is to show that there is 
necessity of a great measure of caution in 
the use of even lawful things, from their 
probable effect upon ourselves; that many 
may be dangerous which are not originally 
criminal ; and, therefore, that we should 
examine before we sufler ourselves to par- 
talce of indulgences which appeal the 
most dii'ectly to our natural feelings; 
whether they will be productive of ulti- 
mate injury or advantage to our character ; 
whether they will tend to fortify or en- 
feeble our principles; whether to en- 
kindle or abate our zeal, to elevate or de- 
base our motives, to purify or contaminate 
our affections ; to render holier and more 
heavenly, or to secularise our habits of 
association and thought, to advance or 
retard our progress in the life that is 
spiritual and divine. We shall endeavour 
to convince you that there are many 
things, which in single instances and acts, 
may not be very censurable, which yet, 
when suffered to become habitual, would 
tend to diminish or to destroy the holiness, 
and dignity, and sacred elevation of a 
christian character. From the tendency 
of such things to produce a desire for their 
reiteration, and an increased difficulty in 
their avoidance, we shall seek to show 
you that they are carefiilly to be con- 
templated in all their consequences, both 
immediate and final, before we venture 
to perform them. You will be reminded 
that all the powers of men are in a state 
of imperfection and disorder, that they 
naturally incline to the corruptions of that 
state through which they are now passing, 
that instead of being as they once were, 
armed on all points against the seductions 



THE ABSTAINER'S JOURNAL. 



23 



of evil, (to which even these, alas ! they 
yielded, being found in their best state 
too feeble to resist its assaults) they are 
now essentially prone to the very ills 
against which they ought to be our de- 
fence ; and that now, when we can but 
walk with faint and staggering steps 
through paths of darkness and peril, we 
have need of the greatest vigilance while 
seeking to pursue the track that leads to 
heaven. We shall strive to show you 
that one of the greatest artifices of our 
spiritual foe is to present evil under the 
disguise of good, to lead through scenes 
of beauty and enchantment, where all 
looks fair, and innocent, and lovely, on- 
ward to destruction ; that our only security 
is found in a timely caution, a sober and 
determined examination of the course 
that lies before us, a resolute and steadfast 
refusal to take the very first step in any 
unwonted, and as yet unknown path, 
till we have reflected whither it will con- 
duct us in the end. We shall call on you 
to recollect how hard it is to retrace our 
steps, to regain the path from which we 
may have wandered, how much easier is 
the descent from one declivity downward 



to another, though each should bring us 
nearer to the fatal precipice, and to a I'uin 
at last inevitable, than to trace back again 
the steep and rugged heights of virtue, 
which even with the best and happiest 
pi'eparation, and when we have been even 
habituated to the attempt, ai-e ever found 
so difficult and so laborious. Our effort 
will be to rouse you to a sense of hidden 
danger, and thus to put you on your 
guard against such foes as may now be 
little suspected ; but which lurk in am- 
bush, through all the fields of pleasure, 
and which, when once they burst upon 
you in an hour of carelessness and false 
security, you may find it not only hard but 
perhaps impossible to overcome. The dan- 
ger which we shall principally pursue, is to 
warn you against yourselves, against the 
allowance of too great a latitude to your 
natural tastes and inclinations, against 
the reposing of too much confidence in 
your firmness and your resolution, when 
set in opposition to your passions and 
your desires. — Sermons hy R. S. M'All, 
LL.D., preached in the ordinary course of 
his ministry, pp. 305-308. 



Operations of tf)E Scottisl^ ^TcmpErance SLeaguc. 



THE TRAVELLING AGENTS. 
Monthly List of Places Visited. 

Mr Easton :— Penicuick, Kirknewton, 
Kirkcaldy, St Andrews, Dunfermline, Cra- 
mond-Bridge, Loanhead, Juniper Green, 
Ford, Broxburn, Queensferry, Dalkeith, 
Ratho, Abernethy, Errol. 

Mr Anderson : — Campbelton, Dalia- 
tober, Largs, Millport, Greenock, Kilnmn, 
Gourock, Dunoon, Rothesay, Helensburgh, 
Musselburgh, Leith, Mid-Calder, Corstor- 
phine, Ratho. 

Mr M'Farlane: — Hawick, Roberton, 
Ashkirk, Lilliesleaf, Bowden, Midholm, 
Ettrick- Bridge, Hopehouse, Selkirk, Gala- 
shiels, Peebles, Innerleithen, Penicuick, 
Carlops, West Linton, Roslin, Lasswade, 
Loanhead, Dalkeith, Edinburgh, Living- 
ston, Bathgate, Shotts Iron Works, Gou- 
rock. 

Mr Duncan:— Aberdeen, Stuartfield, 
Newbyth, Cumineston, Turriff, Methlic, 
Glasgow, Greenock, Port-Glasgow, Bishop- 
ton, Renfrew. 

Mr Stirling :— Gorbals, Fauldhouse, 
Whitburn, Holytown, Paisley. 

Mr Nimmo :— Cardross, Greenock, Cha- 
pelhall, Rutherglen, Blantyre, Camlachie. 



SPECIAL PUBLIC MEETINGS. 

Kirkcaldy. — A deputation from the Exe- 
cutive Committee, consistina; of J. M'Gavin, 
Esq., and Mr Geo. Easton, visited this 
town on Friday, 26th Nov., and addressed a 
numerous and intelligent body of abstainers 
on the claims of the League. The meeting 
was held in Rose Street Chapel, and was pre- 
sided over by Robert Lockhart, Esq. The 
statements of the speakers were attentively 
listened to by the audience, and a formal 
expression of confidence and thanks pro- 
posed at the close, met with a hearty and 
unanimous response. 

Dunfermline.— Nearly 600 persons as- 
sembled in St Margaret's Church, on Monday 
evening, ■29th Nov., to receive the Leagues 
deputation, which consisted of the Rev. 
Wm. Reid, Mr R. Rae, and Mr George 
Easton. John Davie, Esq., presided. After 
the deputies had addressed the meeting, 
complimentary resolutions were proposed 
by the Rev. Messrs Russell, M'Auslane, 
and Harper, and cordially agreed to. 

NEW PUBLICATIONS. 
The arrangements in regard to the 
League's Periodicals announced some time 



24 



THE abstainer's JODKNAL. 



ago, have been completed. The first num- 
bers of the Scoitish Review, the Abstainers 
Journal, and the new series of the AdvisT, 
are now before the temperance public. By 
the aid of numerous friends such a liberal 
share of support has been secured for each, 
as to convince the Executive that the 
changes effected have been warmly ap- 
preciated by the temperance reformers of 
Scotland and England. If all had laboured 
as some have done, the circulation attained 



! would have been unprecedently great. 
Having no object to serve but the advance- 
ment of the movement, the Committee 
confidently renew their appeal in behalf of 
an extensive diffusion of the truths contain- 
ed in these publications. It is hoped that 
every member of the League will feel per- 
sonally interested in the piesent effort to 
extend and improve the Temperance Perio- 
dicals of Scotland. 



^Temperance Neias. 



SCOTLAND. 

DUNDEE. 

Several lectures on the ' Statistics of 
Drunkenness in Dundee ' have recently been 
delivered by Mr James Lowe. He gave 
the following figures to prove that an in- 
crease in the number of public-houses 
proportionally augments the number of 
police committals : — 

L!CE.\CES. POLICE CASES. 

j845 594 3905 

1846 . 570 3083 

1847 535 2953 

185IJ 5-29 2641 

1851 569 3444 

ARBROATH. 

At the usual weekly social meeting of 
the total abstinence society, held on Satur- 
day evening, 4th December, a veiy effective 
and exceedingly instructive address was 
delivered to the audience by Mr M'Kenna, 
one of the Executive Committee of the 
Scottish Temperance League, who, being in 
the town on business, took the opportunity 
afforded him of giving his countenance to 
the weekly re-uuions of the society, and of 
exhibiting his interest in the progress of the 
movement. The address was listened to 
with much interest, and gave great satisfac- 
tion.— i\'br</«;r» Wa7-der. 

CRIEFF. 

The cause was never in a more healthy 
state in this town. The monthly meetings 
originated by the committee have been en- 
tirely successful, surpassing the anticipa- 
tions of the most sanguine. The December 
meeting was particularly interesting. The 
Juvenile Teetotal Band (numbering 80) 
was in attendance under the leadership of 
Messrs M'Gibbon and Cramb, and sung 
some fine temperance melodies. The meet- 
ing was addressed by Messrs Dacker and 
Scrimgeour, after which the president, Mr 
James'^Dow, urged all present to use their 
influence to extend the circulation of the 
Temperance League's publications. A num- 
ber then joined the society. AVithin the last 
few months nearly 200 have been added to 



I the muster roll ; and arrangements are being 
I made to have a course of Sabbath evening 
lectures. 

DU.NBLANE. 

I The fourteenth annual meeting of the 

Dunblane Total Abstinence Society was 

held on Tuesday evening, 14th December. 

Mr Duncan Dochard, president of the 

society, took the chair, who, after constitut-' 

I ing the meeting by prayer, called upon Mr 

Duncan M'Nie, secretary, to read the report 

of the committee. Tlie report stated that a 

soiree and several public meetings had been 

held during the year, that OOl copies of 

the Adviser had been circulated, that 500 

tracts, consisting of 50 of 10 different Nos. 

of the Narrative Series, had been received 

I and stitched up in parcels of 5 in each, and 

I lent from house to house, to be read by the 

I inhabitants; that after expending £11 9s 8d 

to forward the objects of the society, a 

balance of £5 9s 4d was lefD in the 

treasurer's hands, and the report concluded 

by urging the members to exert their in- 

! flueiice for an increased circulation of the 

Leagues temperance periodicals. 

KILMARNOCK. 

On the evening of the Fast-Day, Thurs- 
day, 2d Dec, the Rev. M. Dickie of the 
United Presbyterian Church, Cumnock, 
preached a sermon on the subject of tem- 
perance, in the Clerk's Lane Meeting 
House here. The words of the text were 
the following : ' 'ihe prudent man foreseeth 
the evil and hideth himself, but t!ie simple 
pass on and are punished.' Proverbs xxii. 3. 
The audience,which was respectable, appear- 
ed to be deeply interested and impressed 
with the discourse. 



Glasgow : Printed and Published at the Office 
of the Scottish Temperance League, No. 30 
St Enoch Square, Parish of St Enoch's, by 
Robert Rae, residing at No. 10 Salisbury 
Street, Parish of Govan. 

Saturday, ist January, 1863. 



THE 



ABSTAINER'S JOURNAL. 



FEBETJAKY, 1853. 



iHi'sccIIancous G0ntriljutfons. 



THE ONLY EFFECTIVE REMEDY. 



An eflPective remedy for the evil of intem- 
perance must be adequate to the accom- 
plishment of the following three things: — 
Prevention, Reformation, and Preservation. 
These are our cardinal points. Gain 
these, and the vrork is done ; but any- 
thing that fails of gaining these is un- 
worthy of the countenance of earnest men, 
whUe the remedy adequate is at hand. 
Now, we hold that of all the pjans of 
suppression proposed, total abstinence 
from all liquors which intoxicate can by 
any possibility gain the ends aimed at. 

Nothing short of abstinence can 
PREVENT intejiperance. How does 
the appetite originate ? With the glass ? 
No, but with the drop. Give spirits to 
one who has never before partaken of 
them, and he will aflord no equivocal 
symptoms of strong repugnance. The 
appetite for alcohol, then, is not natural. 
The little drop must precede the glass. 
And it is in the little drop all the danger 
lies. Some think that excess is the 
origin of the evil. Why, excess is the 
evil itself, and cannot therefore be its 
cause. In some, however, this natural 
repugnance is easily overcome, and that 
which on being at first presented only 
begot aversion, is soon not only very 
palatable, but thirsted after with an insa- 
tiable craving. The love of excitement 
exists in all minds to a greater or less 
degree. Alcoholic liquors produce the 



desired exhilaration, and hence the favour 
with which they are regarded. Now, 
while it is admitted that those possessed 
of greatest command over their appetites, 
those supplied most abundantly with in- 
nocent means of enjoyment, those most 
powerfully under the influence of moral 
and religious motives, will be most likely 
to resist the temptation which strong 
drink presents, there is a wide-spread 
class whjse physical and mental constitu- 
tion, whose tastes and dispositions, whose 
social condition and moral character, ren- 
der them peculiai-ly exposed to danger. 
Persons of low tastes and strong animal 
propensities, persons accustomed to un- 
usual depression or of refined sensibility, 
persons reckless of character and indifferent 
to the welfare of dependants, are specially 
liable to give way to indulgence in that 
which is sanctioned so generally by the 
customs and sentiment of society. Who 
then is safe in the use of au article so 
potent for evil? What is the gain that 
will compensate for the hazard that is 
encountei'ed? The father may be encased 
in armoury which no dai-t of the enemy 
can peneti-ate; but what if the wife or 
the child be defenceless? The object of 
dearest affection may be so constituted or 
disposed as to become the easiest victim 
of the destroyer, and yet, for the sake of a 
little animal enjoyment and additional hila- 
rity, he is to welcome their foe at his ta- 



20 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



ble, and honour him as a friend. In the face 
then of these facts, to talk of suppressing 
intemperance by shutting up the dram- 
shops wliile the door of the wine merchant 
is as open as ever— by abstaining from 
distilled spirits, while fermented liquors 
are used, or by limiting indulgence to 
moderation in both, is simply pure non- 
sense, and exhibits an obliviousness to 
cause and effect, wliich all making any 
pretensions to common sense would le 
ashamed to exhibit in any other depart- 
ment of social improvement. Most rigo- 
rously do our shores forbid the approach 
of the slightest taint of the yellow fever. 
Prevention is known to be better than 
cure. But where appetite, and interest, 
and fashion have all to be consulted, 
another policy is the course adopted. Get 
rid to-day of every drurikard in the land, 
and moderation will supply you with a 
fresh crop ere the seed now scattered on 
the ground has brought its fruit to per- 
fection. Arc we not then justified in 
affirming that nothing short of total ab- 
stinence is adequate to the prevention of 
drunkenness? 

We are equally justified in asserting 

that NOTUING SHOUT OF TOTAL ABSTIN- 
ENCE IS ADEQUATE TO THE REFORMA- 
TION OF THE INTEMPERATE. This, we 

believe, is pretty generally admitted. AVe 
have venerable divines so affirming. Dr 
John Brown says, ' Take a familiar illus- 
tration : A person is fond of wine ; it is 
agreeable to his taste ; it is useful in 
refreshing him after severe exertion. But 
he finds that this taste has seduced him 
into intemperance. He finds that there is 
constant danger of its doing so. He has 
fallen before the temptation again and 
again. AVhat is such a person's duty? 
According to our Lord, it is obviously to 
abstain from it entirely, on this plain 
principle, that the evil he incurs by ab- 
staining, however keenly felt, is as nothing 
to the evil to which the intemperate use 
of wine subjects him, even everlasting 



punishment in hell.'* The late Dr 
Lawson of Selkirk, in preaching on Ti- 
mothy's stomach, says, 'There are some 
who cannot swallow a glass without having 
an appetite excited for more, whitli they 
feel themselves incapable of restraining. 
They could perhaps have denied them- 
selves the fiist, but they cannot deny 
themselves the second and the third, and 
then they go on till wine inflame them, 
and they become the scorn of their 
enemies and the object of pity to their 
friends. As a small quantity of strong 
drink is an irresistible temptation to such 
persons, they ought not so much as to 
look on it. Why not look upon it? 
What harm will the sight of it or a little 
taste of it do to us? Would you look 
upon it or taste it if you knew that a 
serpent is in the bottom of the glass, or 
if you knew that the devil was in it? 
But you will soon find, if you indulge your 
licentious appetite, that the old serpent 
was in it, lying in wait to deceive your 
souls to your destruction.' t Now, W3 
have to ask in passing, what have chris- 
tian ministers, and christian elders, and 
christian church members to do with a 
glass that has got the devil at the bottom 
of it? In accordance with the doctrine 
thus expressed, very many are in the 
custom of recommending their intemperate 
friends and dependants to take the pledge 
as their only safety. Times without 
number have persons come to us that we 
might use our influence in inducing their 
dissipated relatives to abstain, mistresses 
in behalf of their servants, and employers 
in behalf of their workmen. Only two 
days ago a gentleman drove up to our 
door and sent in his coachman to take the 
pledge, and get a certificate that he had 
done so. This man had but recently 
withdrawn from the ministry of one who 
speaks from the pulpit reproachfully of 



* Discourses of our Lord Illustrated, vol. i., 
pp. 227. 

t Secession Magazine, 1838, p. 457. 



THE ABSTAIXKR'S JOURNAL. 



27 



abstinence. Had be gone to bis old 
pastor, what could he have done for him ? 
Now, it is all very well to get tlie 
dissipated to abstain, but why is it that 
those who would befriend them will not 
abstain along with them? 'Oh! that's 
quite a different thing,' say they. ' Our 
circumstances are very different. What 
is needed for them, may not be required 
for us.' We grant the difference of cir- 
camstances; and on this very difference we 
base our argument. Ought not the strong 
to help the weak ? Is there anything 
more reasoriable or christian than that ? 
The question for present consideration is 
not, what we need, but what do those 
need whom we would befriend? If we 
be honest in our professed wishes for their 
good, are we not bound to use all lawful 
means for its attainment? And as the 
good aixed at pertains to their highest 
interests, can we stop short of any lawful 
sacrifice in order to its attainment? "Who 
does not see, then, that one who is himself 
an abstainer is by far the most consistent, 
kind, and effective in the reclaiming of 
others? To require another to abstain 
without giving him the advantage of per- 
sonal example, is cruel and mean. It is 
to require Lim to put forth the greatest 
moral strength in the season of greatest 
moral weakness, without giving him the 
aid which might be afforded. Who, then, 
does not see the advantage which the 
abstainer possesses as a reformer of the 
intemperate ? 

To THE PRESERVATION OF TUE RE- 
CLAIMED TOTAL- ABSTINENCE IS EQUALLY 

ESSENTIAL. It is essential that they 
abstain, and it is essential that those with 
whom they associate abstain also. It 
has been well observed by Foster : ' The 
mind is weak where it has once given 
way. It is long before a principle restored 
can become as firm as one that has never 
been moved. It is as in the case of a 
mound of a reservoir — if this mound has 
in one place been broken, whatever care 



has been taken to make the repaired part 
as strong as possible, the probability is, that 
if it give way again, it will be in that 
place.' What is true of principles, is also 
true of passions. And yet we find one of 
superior talents and practical character 
expressing an opinion upon this point 
which we were not prepared for. In a 
pamphlet published about a year ago, and 
bearing the initials of the Rev. Nonnan 
M'Leod of Glasgow, we find him saying to 
the drunkard, ' Whatever you may do 
hereafter, I believe that total abstinence at 
present, and for a time at least, is your 
best and only cure.' No man wlio has 
thoroughly studied the nature of the 
drunkard's disease would ever entertain 
any such sentiment, or give to an inebriate 
any such advice. The apfetite of the 
drunkard dies but with death itself. Like 
the tiger's nature, which may appear sub- 
dued by the influence of training, but which 
the taste of blood rouses anew; so, after 
years of abstinence, a glass may awaken 
the slumbering appetite mightier than ever. 
But let ns hear the reclaimed's own testi- 
mony: 'A thimble-full of spirits,' said 
one, ' would convert me into a demon.' 
There is before ns at this moment the 
narrative of a James Cowan, who com- 
menced business as a draper in Dundee, 
with a capital of £2000, but who de- 
scended through dissipation to poverty, 
and who, in struggling upwards, put upon 
record this remarkable declaration : ' I 
shall, if pressed to take a single drop^ 
produce the page ■\\ hereon my resolution 
is recorded ; and if still enticed, I shall 
look upon that person in the light of an 
infernal fiend.' Nor is evidence awanting 
to prove that these men express no 
groundless alarm. Numerous cases of 
backsliding from the temperance ranks 
crowd upon our memory. Let one suf- 
fice : There lately sat at his brothei's 
table a peer wretch who had recently 
joined the temperance society. The wine 
glass was circulating, and as he and 



28 



THE ABSTAIN EES JOURNAL, 



another were the only abstainers present, 
their abstinence became the subject of 
remark. A doctor of divinity present 
ridiculed the idea of peojjle not being 
able to restrain themselves. And what 
was the sequel ? In a fortnight that poor 
man was reeling through the streets, mad 
with drink, attempted suicide, and is now 
an exile from his native land. Had that 
brother and that minister acted a wiser 
part, and encouraged by their countenance 
the fallen one in his efforts to regain 
himself, how different might have been 
the result! How can the reclaimed find 
safety but in an abstaining community ! 
Every one who adopts abstinence, 
befriends them ; and every one who 
drinks, exposes them to temptations which 
may be the undoing of them for ever. 

Have we not, then, by the most con- 
clusive arguments and facts, made out 
the superiority of abstinence as a means 
of reformation? Is there any other worthy 
of countenance ? Why then hesitate re- 
specting its adoption? To hesitate is un- 
worthy of the emergency. To waste time 
with other means, is tiifling with interests 
the most momentous. 



THE REV. NORMAN M'LEOD'S 
VIEWS. 

The respected minister of the Barony 
Parish, Glasgow, at the opening of the St 
Rollox Refreshment Rooms, last month, 
gave utterance to statements about the 
queerest we have heard of in connection 
with this movement of ours. He said — 

Should they combine with tea and 
coffee the stimulants of ale, porter, or even 
spirits, he must frankly acknowledge that 
he would never object to this, as long as 
sucli establishments were under such 
strict management of a committee of 
christian proprietors as would make it 
impossible for those mercies to be abused 
in them no more than at the private table 
of a christian gentleman. (Cheers.) He 
believed that to suppress drunkenness, 
and to save the well-disposed artizans from 
the temptations afforded by the tavern, to 



make companionship with the dissipated, 
and to become thereby dissipated them- 
selves, it would soon be necessary to adopt 
such means as never yet had been at- 
tempted in our large cities, of aiding the 
christian working man to avoid, as he 
wishes to do, the two extremes of teetota- 
lism, which deprived him of a luxury or 
enjoyment, or a good which he honestly 
believed God gave him, or the sinful ex- 
treme of intoxication which Satan alone 
gave him. He considered the allegation 
of the impossibility of any portion of the 
working classes ever resting satisfied with 
that middle point of sobriety and tem- 
perance with which the vast mass of the 
middle and upper classes, certainly chris- 
tians of every class, were habitually con- 
tented with, was nothing less than a libel 
on the Creator, who made the body with 
certain appetites, or on Christianity, which 
was a living power to control and regulate 
every appetite according to God's will. 
(Cheers.) To deny to his fellow-men 
what he felt himself at liberty to take as 
a christian, he thought looked like hypo- 
crisy. He only wished to aid them in 
taking it as Uod gave it, with sobriety. 
(Hear, hear.) But as he felt assured that 
there was not sufficient confidence felt in 
his plan of reform, he would only advo- 
cate at present the refreshment rooms, 
without the addition of stronger stimulants 
than tea and coffee. 

The radical blunder in our rev. friend's 
views, is that intoxicating liquors are ^mer- 
cies.' We hold the allegation to be nothing 
short of a slander on the bountiful Creator 
of us all. Well has it been said by South, 
' God sends us nothing but what is natu- 
rally wholesome and fit to nourish us, but 
if the devil have the cooking of it, it may 
destroy us.' One fact places all alcoholic 
stimulants at a wide distance from the 
common necessaries of life. Those arti- 
cles which are designed for our use have 
no natural tendency to lead to sinful in- 
dulgence. I eat a certain quantity of food, 
and drink a certain quantity of water, or 
milk, or any other wholesome liquid to- 
day, and there is no desire for an increased 
quantity to-morrow; but if I partake 
of intoxicating liquors, a craving may 
be originated which gains strength day by 
day, and the demands of which keep pace 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURXAL. 



29 



with its growth. Here, then, between 
the bounties of a mercifol God, and the 
products of man's perverted ingenuity, 
there is a wide distinction, and, with this 
distinction in view, we feel that, in virtue 
of the reason he has given us, we are war- 
ranted ia placing the entire class of stimu- 
lating liquors beyond the circle of Liwful 
enjoyments. 

He who now-a- days speaks of the rea- 
sonableness of working men indulging in 
intoxicating liquors, knows but little of 
their condition and the philosophy of their 
debasement. Surely the Barony Parish 
is wide enough, and the condition of thou- 
sands of its inhabitants wretched enough, 
to constitute a field of observation. For 
Mr M'Leod to adduce the condition of the 
' middle and upper classes ' as an argument 
in favour of his views, is about the most un- 
forttmate thing he could have done. Grant- 
ing even their superior sobriety, is it such 
as to be a ground of congratulation ? Which 
family circle, among even these classes, 
have escaped the withering curse of in- 
temperance ? Is there not in almost every 
house ' one dead.' We would adduce no 
more conclusive argument of the utter 
incompatibihty of temperance and modera- 
tion than the condition of these very 
classes. But, ah ! the secret of this sham 
liberality is out : ' To deny his fellow-men 
what he felt himself at liberty to take as 
a christian, he thought looked Uke hypo- 
crisy.' Well, this is honest. It is more 
consistent than the conduct of ' the sup- 
pression men,' who would shut up the 
public-houses while they kept the liquor 
upon their own tables. But it is another 
proof of what we have often said, that no 
man will see clearly upon this subject, or be 
an efficient temperance reformer, till he 
has discountenanced 'all the causes and 
practices of intemperance.' 

But we have a further objection to the 
views of Mr M'Leod. What is the grand 
design of the movement in behalf of 
cheap refreshment rooms ? Is it not that 



the working classes may be provided with 
refreshments apart from temptations? If 
his theory be correct, would not a move- 
ment to secure the sale of coffee and other 
refreshments, in addition to the fiery 
liquid in which whisky-shops traffic, be 
the right way of going to work ? What is 
the difference between a dram-shop which 
sells coffee, and a cofiFee-shop which sells 
a dram ? But, oh, this beau ideal of a re- 
freshment-shop is to be under ' the strict 
management of a committee of christian 
proprietors.' Does not the very suggestion 
prove, notwithstanding all that has been 
said of working men and others drinking 
safely, that the articles which ilr ^I'Leod 
would add to his refreshment-rooms are 
not articles which can be safely used? 
Who ever heard of putting a bread-shop, 
or a flesher's-shop, or a grocer's-shop 
under the ' strict management of a com- 
mittee of christian proprietors ?' Xo, no. 
An honest business needs no such superin- 
tendence ; lawful enjoyments need no 
such guardianship. 

When on the subject of Mr M'Leod's 
views, we may take the opportunity of 
noticing what he has elsewhere given to 
the public. About a year ago he published 
a series of little tracts, with the design of 
promoting sobriety among the working 
classes ; but, since the days of the moderor- 
tion societies, we have not met with any- 
thing so far behind the spirit of the age. 
Amid much that is true and telling, and 
as beautiful as it is pointed, there are 
views expressed which must utterly sub- 
vert any good which the publications in 
question might otherwise have accom- 
plished. In one of the tracts of the 
series he says : — 

I admit ray belief, that the use of 
intoxicating drinks is permitted by God. 
He himself has endowed the body with 
the capacity of being stimulated by 
strong drink. If you ask me. For what 
end ? — I will also grant, that, as far as 1 
can see, it is for the sake of adding to 
man's enjoyment, and sometimes for his 



30 



THE ABSTAINER 8 JOURNAL. 



health. Tlie same bencvclence which 
has provided beautiful colours to please 
the eye — swoot fragrance to gratify the 
sense of smell— harmonious sounds to 
delight the ear — mini.-ters also to lower 
appetites, by making our fond and our 
drink sources of bodily enjoyment. 

Yes; and we don't deny that ' the iise 
of intoxicating drinks is permitted by 
God.' Sin, too, 'is permitted by God;' 
but is that evidence that he approves of it? 
Yes ; and wc admit that ' He himself has 
endowed the body with the capacity of 
being stimulated by strong drink ; ' and 
He has ' endowed the body with the capa- 
city of being' the instrument of sin; but 
is that evidsnce that he approves of it? 
Why, upon this principle we might 
justify any iniquity of which humanity is 
capable. We admit that, in the adapta- 
tion of nature, there is evidence of design ; 
but we deny that there is any adaptation 
between the human system and alcoholic 
stimulants. All the facts of experience, 
and investigations of science, prove that 
there is an inveterate enmity between 
them. We believe that the bountiful 
goodness of the Creator is beautifully 
manifested in making the means of our 
subsistence the ministers of pleasure. 
There was evidently no necessity for this 
arrangement. Food might have nourished, 
and air might have sustained the vital 
play of the heart and lungs ; the sun 
might have shed light upon our world, 
and the earth might have brought forth 
the supply of our returning wants, with- 
out majesty and beauty meeting us at 
every step, and delightful sensations being 
the accompaniments of the ordinary opera- 
tions of the functions of nature. Yet so 
it Is, and here is divine goodness. But so 
soon as we come within the circle of alco- 
holic indulgence a new class of facts is 
presented. Does the argument for good- 
ness, then, here fail ? No. But it mani- 
fests itself in a way entirely different. It 
is seen not in the benefit which these 
liquors confer, but in the havoc and ruin 



which they entail. Alcohol, like a demon 
of wrath, enters in among affections tuned 
to the sweetest harmony, with all that is 
beautiful and true in nature, aud does its 
deadly work as if it felt no pity, and heard 
no groans; and yet in this very desolation 
there are no equivocal tokens of the 
divine bene6cence. This very ruin is the 
voice of a friend telling of danger, and 
urging escape. 

Passing onward, we find Jlr IM'Leod 
meeting, as he supposes, the objections of 
the drunkard to a temporary adoption of 
the practice of abstinence : — 

But, perhaps, you ask again. ' May I 
not he temperate without being a total ab- 
stainer? Why may I not enjoy, as well 
as others, this gift of God with that mo- 
deration which ought to make me love 
him more for his bounty ?' From my 
heart I wish you could I I wish your 
habits were such as would enable you, as 
a sober, well-princijiled man, to take such 
stimulants as you deemed pleasant or pro- 
fitable at your own clean and comfortable 
fireside, without either sinning at home, 
or flying to the debasing influences of the 
dram-shop. 

Mr M'Leod has a wonderful faculty in 
joining together what has no possible con- 
nection. What two things are more 
widely ppart than '■stimulants^ and ^ clean 
and comfortable firesides ? ' We ask our 
friend. Is there not a natural antagonism 
between them ? and do you really believe 
that it were well for the working classes 
to act upon your suggestion ? Drink is 
bad enough in the dram-shop ; but Oh ! 
we beseech you, do not add to the miseries 
of the drinker's home, the pernicious snare 
to children which drinking at the fireside 
presents. The advice, which is bad in any 
case, is reckless, we hesitate not to say, 
when addressed to the reformed drunkard, 
as we have endeavoured to show in the 
preceding article. 

To return, however, to the subject of 
tippling cofTee-sbops, we have to ask, And 
what of their Jceeprrs ? Is it not the fact 
that where drink is sold, especially iu 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



31 



retail, there is fearful risk to the dealer? 
The danger to customers is occasional, the 
danger to the dealer is habitual. But let 
us have facts. In a pamphlet before us 
there are statistics upon this point about 
as startling as anything we Lave met 
with. It is a pamphlet addressed to pub- 
licans, showing them the frightful evils 
and dangers of their traflSc. Let the 
author speak for himself: — 

' To prove,' says he, 'the almost certain 
ruin which attends this trade, I shall 
present you with a picture, drawn not by 
fancy, but from real life. I once collected 
the statistics of the puhliehouses of a 
small provincial town iu Scotland. The 
method adopted to obtain these statistics 
was simply this: — we took down the 
names of twenty-two public-houses in 
this town, numbering upwards of 5000 
inhabitants, and asked two intelligent 
and respectable "old residenters," to give 
the history of all they could remember 
who, in succession, kept each tippling- 
house, omitting their present occupants. 
The result of those inquiries we shall give 
as briefly as possible: — 

No. 1. This house was long kept by a 
man who was sober when he first occupied 
it. He became, at last, a continued 
drunkard. His vice was the immediate 
cause of his death. 

No. 2, a. A notorious drunkard ; b. 
respectable and sober — their house sup- 
ported chiefly by people from the country; 
c. died in drink- -his widow married a 
publican — both drunkards; d. the wife 
became a drunkard. 

No. 3, a. Husband, wife, sons, and 
daughters, drunken ; b. husband, wife, 
sons, and daughters, drunken ; c. hus- 
band, wife, sons, and daughters, drunken. 

No. 4, a. Sober family ; b. husband, 
wife, sons, and daughters, drunken. 

No. 5, a. The whole family drunken 
and blackguard; b. the husband a 
drunkard. 

No. 6, a. Father and mother sober; 
a daughter a drunkard ; a son ruined 
by drunkenness; b. sober family. 

No. 7, a. Died drunk — wife a drunk- 
ard ; b. sober — wife a drunkard. 

No. 8, a. Wife died fiom drunkenness; 
b. husband and wife drunken. 

No. 9, a. Never sober— died of tfeKrittTM 
tremens; b. husband drunken. 

No. 10, a. Sober family ; b. husband, 
wife, and son, drunkards. 



No. 11, a. Wife a drunkard ; b. sober 
family. 

No. 12, a. Son a drnnkard ; b. hus- 
band, wife, and family, drunkards; c. 
was becoming a drunkard, and gave up to 
avoi 1 the temptation. 

No. 13. Wife drunken. 

No. 14. Family bad. 

No. 15, a. Died drunk; b. father and 
mother sober— the family, both sons and 
daughters, became drunkards. 

No. 16, a. Died from delirium tremens; 
b. wife a confirmed drunkard. 

No. 1 7. A widow — daughter drunken. 

No. IS. A widow — was sober, became 
drunken, and died in misery. 

No. 19. Wife died a drunkard. 

No. 20. Both drunkards— family bad. 

No. 21. Wife a drunkard. 

No. 22. The whole family sober and 
respectable. " Never would sell to bad 
characters. Would allow none but re- 
spectable people to enter their house, and 
never omitted family worship morning and 
evening. All turned out well." 

Such are the sad moral statistics of 22 
public-houses, and of 39 families who in 
succession occupied them. Most of those 
hive gone to their account. Some have 
been driven from the trade, beggared in 
means, and ruined in morals. Some have 
escaped barely with their life, while those 
only who sacrificed profit to principle, 
have carried either or both along with 
them to other spheres of labour.' 

Anything more appalling upon the sub- 
ject of the trafBc we have nowhere met 
with. And to whom are we indebted for this 
fearful catalogue of the wretchedness, and 
sin, and woe, entailed by drink upon those 
who deal in it ? Why, to none other than 
the Eev. Norman M'Leod, minister of the 
Barony Parish of Glasgow, who suggests 
that in a refreshment-room for working- 
men there should be sold the very ai'ticle 
which perpetrated all the woe upon the 
keepers of places essentially similar to 
what he would establish. Surely he has 
forgotten his little tract addressed to 
publicans, and the warning which he 
therein gives to those who have not yet 
entered npon the trade. If so, we close 
with quoting it: — 'We would earnestly 
implore them,' says he, ' for the sake of 
their own peace and good, for time and 



THE ABSTAINER 8 JOURNAL. 



eternity, for the sake of the wife of their 
bosom, and the " children of their affec- 
tion," for the sake of Christ and his cause, 
whatever they do, never enter town or vil- 
lage to commence the trade of a tippling 
house.' 

"We wish Mr M'Leod great success in 
the new field of labour upon which he has 
recently entered. Possessed of talents of 
DO ordinary kind, and advanced to a sta- 
tion of commanding influence, onr earnest 



desire is, that he may avail himself of both 
to the greatest possible advantage ; but we 
would in kindness assure him, that while 
this is an achievement on which his generous 
nature is n8 doubt set, failure must un- 
questionably be the result, so long as his 
views are so radically defective upon that 
great remeJial measure, which must enter 
into all our efforts in behalf of the social 
and religious improvement of the com- 
munity. 



Warrati&e Sfeetc]^. 



ADAM DINGWALL ; OR, THE BROKEN PLEDGE. 



A TRXTB TALE. 



' I KNOW, my friends, what it is to he a 
drunkard. Many of you know what I 
once was. Tou have seen me staggering 
along the street. You know how I was 
then clothed with rags, and my wife and 
children were like beggars. But now I 
have turned over a new leaf, and am a 
teetotaler. I have, you see, parted with 
my ragged coat, and have put on one 
which I think you wUl own is a decided 
improvement. My house, too, is now 
changed into a sweet home, and we have 
comforts in it which we never knew of be- 
fore. It is really a grand thing this total 
abstinence fi:om intoxicating drink. In 
conclusion, I would have you all to join 
and take the pledge.' 

Thus spoke the Hvely little shoemaker, 
whom we here call Adam Dingwall, on the 
first occasion we saw him; and the 
hearty cheers with which his words were 
greeted, by a large assembly at a total ab- 
stinence soiree, evinced towards him the 
good feeling of the meeting. He was a 
small thin figure, with a pale countenance, 
considerably marked by small-pox ; he 
stuttered in his speech, and had donned, 
perhaps for the first time, that new coat, 
which he seemed not unwilling to be seen, 
as one of the first-firuits of teetotalism. 
The poor inebriate was generally good 
natured, as seen abroad, and was, there- 
fore, a sort of favourite of the juveniles. 
He might be seen, when in his cups, with 
a band of them at his heels. There 
were persons, too, with older heads on 
their shoidders, who at such times sought 



to enjoy themselves at Adam's ex- 
pense. 

Yet there were others who looked on 
this simple-hearted but unhappy drunkard 
with immingled pity. They were not 
ignorant of his miserable home. A young 
wife was there, who, though in humble 
life, had a heart that once beat, no doubt, 
with love and hope ; and now she was in 
utter wretchedness. Two children, too, 
were there, and their pallid shrivelled 
countenances told you that not only were 
they in want of bread, but that they had 
a drunkard for their father. The total 
abstinence movement was then young, but 
it had in Adam's native town a little 
band of earnest friends. They thought 
of their unhappy brother man ; they ap- 
pealed to his heart, they appealed to his 
reason; and, afl;er much entreaty, they 
were successful. He joined the society, 
and had been a member about a year be- 
fore the meeting to which we have referred. 
Meantime his home had become com- 
pletely changed ; domestic comforts were 
gradually increased ; himself and family 
were decently clothed. A zealous young 
minister prevailed on him, shortly before, 
to attend his place of worship ; and we 
ourselves, when we learned all the circum- 
stances, did not wonder at the interest 
felt in him at the abstinence soiree. 

Adam, however, had enemies to struggle 
with in his new course. He was taunted 
by many, and some of those his near rela- 
tions, as a weak creature, who could not 
keep sober unless bound by an oath not 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



33 



to taste ; as for them, they could either 
take it ia moderation or want it, as they 
pleased. If they were ahout to re- 
pair to ' The Hen and Chickens,' for a 
social glass, they would urge him to ac- 
company them just as he was wont to do ; 
and, since he still refused, they would go 
off in an explosion of disdain, at the silly 
body who could not be neighbour-like. 
Thus they twitted him and teased him, 
cajoling at one time and storming at 
another, yet little Dingwall stood to his 
pledge, and found himself happier than 
ever he had been in his life. He not only 
was received as a member of the church, 
after a period of trial, but appeared, by his 
regular attendance on meetings for prayer, 
and otherwise, to afford good ground to 
hope that he was a sincere convert. In 
this way nearly three years elapsed ; and 
while solicitude was still felt for one in 
whom the appetite lor strong drink had 
been so powerful, expectation grew apace 
that he would stand. 

It is a bitter cold day in winter ; a small 
company of men have just sat down by 
the fire of a country toll-house. Some of 
them are driving carts between two neigh- 
bouring towns, and one of them, who is 
shivering very much from the biting north 
wind, is accommodated with a ride home. 
' A bitter cold this, Adam (for the thin 
shivering man is our abstaining friend) ; 
your teetotalism does not answer a day 
like this ; you would need something to 
warm you when you ride in a cart in 
such weather as this.' So said one of the 
company, and, by way of illustrating the 
practical wisdom of his remark, he tossed 
a glass-full of whisky down his throat, 
protesting, as soon as he drew a long 
breath, that that was the thing to make a 
man feel comfortable in a cold day. The 
others were not slow to follow his example, 
and then they assailed poor Adam with 
one voice to take a little also to warm 
him. Every possible means were employed 
to persuade him just to taste. When he 
spoke of his principles, they laughed at 
him ; when he referred to his pledge, they 
asked who would know that he had taken 
a single half-glass ; when he still urged 
his connection with the society, one sug- 
gested that in this case it was a kind of 
medicine in the cold. There the be- 
leaguered man sat, one against three, and 
for a long time he bravely withstood them ; 
but at length he was stung by a remark 
that he showed ingratitude to those who 
were doing him a favour in helping him 
home, and he gave way, seized a glass, and 



drank it off. The plaudits of the com- 
pany greeted this violation of the teetotal 
pledge, and they prepared now to move 
toward home. But that glass had raised 
the long dormant appetite of Dingwall 
for drink ; drink now he would have, and 
so glass followed glass till the cart was, 
indeed, necessary for him, if he should 
reach his home at all on that sad day. 
As his associates passed into the suburbs 
of the town where their victim resided, 
they pointed some of his acquaintances 
to Adam Dingwall, laid dead drank in a 
cart, and cracked what they thought 
sundry capital jokes at his teetotalism. 
We never heard whether they dared to 
face his poor wife with him in that state, 
and to hear the wail of desolation she 
uttered when her husband was laid drunk 
on the floor. 

It was a most melancholy spectacle, 
and was followed by disastrous results. 
It is, we believe, a great truth, that God, 
in his providence, gives only one best 
opportunity to each man in life for doing 
the work which is the turning point of his 
existence. Each year has but one spring, 
each day has but one noon, each life has 
but one prime, and so, we believe, each 
human being has but one best hour for 
working the work of God and obtaining 
salvation from sin. It might seem, now, 
as if that hour had struck with Adam 
Dingwall. Fallen from the place to 
which he had climbed by laborious effort, 
he appeared to lose self-respect, and, 
for a time, went on frowardly in the way 
of his own heart. He drank hard, and 
soon his home lost the aspect of frugal 
comfort it had assumed ; yet he had the 
manner of a man who feels ill at ease 
with himself. We remember well the first 
time we met him on the street after his 
sad fall, how he hung down his head in 
shame, and slunk out of the way to avoid 
us. By and by, however, we met him, 
and took occasion to speak with him on 
his mournful change. We learned how it 
had happened, and heard from him his 
tale of bitter sorrow respecting his present 
wretchedness. His pastor, and others 
too, had expostulated with him, and ear- 
nestly counselled him again to resume 
the total abstinence practice. After some 
months' defection, and a short period of 
trial, he was once more welcomed back to 
the ranks of temperance. 

Two years more of consistent abstinence 
elapsed, and still Adam continued faithful 
to the principles which had twice raised 
him. He was respectable and respected. 



b2 



34 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



But in an evil day he again yielded to the 
tempter, and fell under the mastery of his 
old &iu. This second fall sealed his doom. 
For a little while he seemed to experience a 
degree of compunction, and to struggle 
against the destroyer. But gradually the 
conflict became weaker, till he resigned 
liimself into the hands of the conqueror, to 
be led captive at his will. Open to expos- 
tulation once, he grew hardened now, and 
in effect said, ' there is no hope.' Provi- 
dence visited him with breach upon breach, 
still he evinced no contrition. His wife 
and children were removed by death, yet 
he seemed past feeling. He might be 
seen, in wretchedness and rags, performing 
some service to any one that would employ 
him, and then looking for his reward in a 
bit of bread or a glass of whisky. At 
length the New Year came, and he was 
early astir, to seize on every chance dram 
that the sintul customs of the day might 
throw in his way. He found some with 
their bottles of whisky ready enough, and 
cruel enough to supply his depraved appe- 
tite. He Avas seen to be drunk, and then 
he disappeared. He crept unseen into an 



empty stable ; ond, in the after part of the 
day, he was found there — dead. 

Our tale is a sad one, but it has a voice 
of instruction to all who will hear it. It 
addresses a solemn warning to those re- 
claimed fi-om intemperance ; it says, take 
heed lest you fall. Continued abstinence 
is your only refuge, abide in it and yo\i 
are safe. It addresses an awful rebuke to 
those who tempt reclaimed drunkards 
to give up total abstinence. We are some- 
times taunted with the number of defec- 
tions from our ranks. To many of those 
who so speak, we must say, ' On you be 
our reproach.' You continue your 
drinking customs before those whom we 
labour to restore ; when they are striving 
to escape from the snare, not a few of you 
deride them, you tempt them, you put 
your bottle to their mouth, and then, 
when they fall, you exclaim with an air 
of triumpli, Where is the strength of your 
total abstinence for reforming drunkards ? 
Take back that word, and let us ask, 
Where is your humanity ? where is your 
religion ? 



2u|)E EempcrancE ^ulpi't. 

DIVINES ON THE DRINK AT THE MARRIAGE OF CANA. 

WARDLAW, CCMMING, AND TRENCH. 

John ii. l-Il. 



Often have the lovers of strong drink been 
restrained in their alcoholic hilarity by the 
unwelcome presence of some member of 
the temperance confederacy. Not more 
admonitory was the corpse of old at the 
festive tables of the Egyptians. Driven to 
extremities, they have felt that rational 
argument was of no avail ; and so, backed 
by divines of no small note, their cham- 
pion has been found in one whose visage 
bore evidence that he gloried more in 
Cana than in Calvary. ' And what do 
you say to our Lord's making wine?' ut- 
tered in a tone of bold defiance, has a 
hundred times over been the rejoinder to 
the silent protest of the witnessing ab- 
stainer. While the divine power and 
considerate kindness of our gracious 
Saviour have thus been quoted as sanc- 
tions for most unholy indulgence, it is 
not denied that not a few of the truly 
godly, righteously jealous of their Lord's 



reputation, have felt uneasy lest our prin- 
ciples and practices should in any degree 
reflect upon his character and conduct. 
Nor has the abstainer, although con- 
scious that the ground on which he stood 
was Mrm, been always able to determine 
with himself in what precise light he should 
really view the transaction in question. 
Now, we do not wonder that the simple 
•should be perplexed, and that the vicious 
should be impiously daring, when scholarly 
divines are to be found giving to the 
passage before us a tippling interpreta- 
tion. For the present we content our- 
selves with those of Dr Wardlaw of 
Glasgow, Dr Gumming of London, and 
Mr Trench, author of various literary and 
religious works of distinguished ability. 
Formidable as is this trio — and perhaps 
moderation was never before so ably re- 
presented — we feel the ground firm 
beneath us, and proclaim with no faltering 



THE abstahteb's jodrsal. 



35 



voice, — abstinence from all that in- 
toxicates. 

Mr Trench, in his exposition of the 
miracle, very properly guards ag;uast the 
supposition that the phrase ' well drunk,' 
could imply ' that the guests at this mar- 
riage festival had already drunken too 
much ;' and then he goes on to say, ' Of 
a piece with this is their miserable objec- 
tion, who tind the miracle incredible, since 
ifthe Lord did not actually minister to 
an excess already commenced, yet by 
the creation of so large and perilous a 
quantity of wine, (for the quantity was 
enormous) he would have put temptation 
in men's way, as though the secret of 
temperance lay in the scanty supply and 
not in the strong self-restraint. In like 
manner, every gift of God, every large 
abundance of the vineyard, might be said 
with equal truth to be a temptation ; and 
so in some sort it is (compare Luke xii. 
16) a proving of men's temperance and 
moderation in the midst of abundance. 
But man is to be perfected, not by being 
kept out of temptation, but rather by be- 
ing victorious in temptation.'* Here, tlieu, 
it is at once assumed that the wine made 
by our Lord was intoxicating ; and we i 
are told that the reason why we have 
been so liberally supplied with intoxica- 
ting liquors, is, that man may be ' per- 
fected, not by being kept out of tempta- 
tion, but rather by being victorious in 
temptation.' That interpretation cannot 
sorely be very sound on which there is 
founded a doctrine so monstrous. Has 
Mr Trench forgotten the prayer which his 
mother taught him when a child, ' Lead 
us not into teaiptation ;' or the warning 
our Lord gives us, ' Watch and pray, that 
ye, enter not into temptation ?' Oh I thei-e 
is an emphasis in that ' enter not.' which 
teaches that our safety is to be found in 
shunning all that coidd possibly over- 
come us. It is all well to be ' victorious 
in teniptation,' when in providence we are 
required to encounter it; but christian 
prudence suggests that the security of 
exemption from conflict, is better than 
the chances of victory when we are caUed 
to it. As we still mean to offer the 
prayer, 'Lead us not into temptation,' 
and to be mindful of the admonition, ' Let 
him that thinketh he standeth, take heed 
lest he fall,' we shall prefer the security 
of abstinence to the glory of all the lam-els 
to be gained on the field of moderation. 

Dr Gumming, in his Lectures on Mira- 



* Trench on Miracles, pp. 107, 1C8. 



cles, D'Israeli-like, appropriates the senti- 
ments of his EpiscopaUau brother, and 
even exceeds him in lauding the virtues of 
temptation. In discoursing on the mar- 
riage at Cana, he says : ' It has been 
objected by one of the German infidels, 
that our Lord did not show a deep sense 
of the danger of wine, when he created 
by a word so excessive a quantity, some 
hundi'ed gallons, by an act of omnipotent 
power. Would not this apply to the case 
of every vintage ? If God gives a plen- 
teous \'intage you would not say. This is 
a temptation to men to drink to excess. 
There was no more temptation to drink to 
excess from his tilling many large water 
jars, than in his being pleased to give the 
sun beams and the rain drops that make 
a plenteous vintage.' 

Now, we think the Doctor would have 
assumed a more advantageous position, 
both for himself and the cause of Chris- 
tianity, had he defied this German infidel 
to prove that it was a dangerous wine 
which oar Lord a"eated, and brought facts 
to prove that it was not. On the sup- 
position that the wine made and used at 
Cana was of a like nature with the wine 
made and ixsed among ourselves, the in- 
fidel has unquestionably the advantage. 
Assuming that the Creator will always be 
consistent in his works, he can demon- 
strate tiiat the wine used in this country 
wages war with the human frame, that it 
lays the foundation of numerous diseaseF, 
that it has in it a tendency to beget the 
drunkai-d's appetite: and that, in fact, 
before we can safely drink ' the vile 
compound' called wine, our physical 
system must he entirely re-organised; 
and, hence, he may argue, that as the 
hqnor made and used by Jesus is not 
adapted to the nature God has given us, 
his divine mission is disproved. What a 
pity it is that the friends of Christianity 
should continue to give this advantage to 
its foes I By interpreting the miracle 
in accordance with plain facts, which 
prove that the wine made by our Lord 
was not intoxicating, and which we shall 
adduce before lea^dng the subject, the 
boasting of the sceptic is put to silence. 

But we are also told by Dr Cumming, 
that ' The secret of temperance is not in 
the cellar, but in the heart of the landlord 
of the wine cellar. A christian man will 
not become intoxicated if he drinks from 
a cask ; a drunkard will become in- 
toxicated if he drink from a bottle. 
It is not in the quantity before 
you that the element of temperance is, 



36 



THE abstainer's JOITBNAL. 



but in the grace of God that has been 
planted in your hearts.' This bravado 
has undoubtedly an aspect of cleverness 
about it, but it is that cleverness which dis- 
appears at a touch of common sense. ' A 
chrbtian man will not become intoxicated 
if he drinks from a cask !' As well tell us 
that a christian man will not burn him- 
self if he put his hand in a flame. His 
Christianity will be no protection to him 
from the fiery element in either case. 
Neither does Christianity nor the gi-ace of 
God destroy the innate principles of 
human nature, or render us proof against 
physical influences. Alcohol has in a 
believer's stomach the very same influ- 
ence that it has in the stomach of an in- 
fidel ; and it is nothing better than an 
affectation of piety to tell us now-a-days, 
that the gi-ace of God is a surer preven- 
tive from danger than total abstinence. 
Why, it is a miracle, and not grace which 
the Doctor, and all who argue like him, 
would require to avert the known and 
natural effects of the use of alcohol. But 
is it the fact that a christian was never 
overcome ? Have we forgotten the cases 
of Noah and Lot ? Or not to go so far 
back, has Dr Gumming forgotten the 
cases which were so lately before the 
Assembly of the Church of Scotland ; and 
do not the social scenes of professing 
christians often present instances, over 
which the mantle of secrecy is thrown ? 
But even were it true that the chris- 
tian is safe, and that only ' the drun- 
kard will become intoxicated if he drinks 
fi"om a bottle,' why let him have the 
bottle if we can keep it out of his way ? 
and can we do this so long as we sanction 
the use of it at our own tables ? 

We are however told, ' that if God 
had designed that men should be univer- 
sally what is called teetotal ; that is, 
should not taste wine, or anything that 
has the least alcohoHc element in it, he 
would have prohibited the growth of the 
vine, and rendered fermentation absolutely 
impossible ; because if there were no fer- 
mentation, there could be no alcoholic 
element generally. But he has not done 
so ; he does give the vintage, and he does 
give the fruit of the vine ; he has allowed 
fermentation just as much as he has 
allowed vegetation ; therefore, it seems to 
me that temperance is to arise, not fi'om 
the absence of wine, but from the pre- 
sence of christian principles.' Now, ac- 
cording to this process of reasoning the 
mere fact that a thing exists, is a proof 
that it was designed for dietetic use. Be- 



cause there is a process in nature called 
fermentation, and because alcohol is 
formed in the course of this process, there- 
fore it is right to guaff the wine cup. Is 
the Doctor not aware, that on the same 
principle he might argue for the common 
use of anything? The fact of fermenta- 
tion is no proof that the product of it was 
designed for common use. Why, vinegar 
is as certainly its product as alcohol ; and 
if the argument be sound, the one ought 
to be used as generally as the other. We 
have to tell Dr Gumming what we are 
afraid he has overlooked, that God has 
given us reason and experience to guide 
us in the selection of meats and drinks ; 
and it is because reason and experience 
teach us that what is called wine does 
not answer the purpose of drink, we re- 
ject it. 

The argument of Dr Wardlaw is not 
much better. In preaching some years 
ago on the subject of temperance, he gave 
expression to views, which to many ap- 
peared to be far from according with what 
the bible and experience really taught. 
Reference having been made to these 
views at a public meeting, the Doctor, 
in self-vindication, published, in the 
Christian News, of May 20, 1852, the 
portion of his discourse complained of. 
We cannot at present deal with all the 
opinions which he has expressed upon the 
question of temperance ; there are, how- 
ever, one or two, which it would be wrong 
to overlook. Like Dr Gumming and Sir 
Trench, he can see no consistency in that 
interpretatiou of the miracle whicli regards 
the miraculous wine as anything else 
than intoxicating wine ; and what is the 
argument by which he supports this 
opinion ? ' It seems,' says he, ' beyond 
dispute, that the setting forth of the in- 
ferior wine (in ordinary practice) "after 
men have well drunk," is to be explained 
from the fact of the inebriating quality of 
the good wine having begun to be so far j 
experienced as to impair that delicacy of 
taste, and that particular attention to 
what they were drinking, which had 
existed at first, and so to prevent the 
change from being observed. It follows, 
that the '■' fjood wine" usually produced at 
the beginning of such feasts was fermented 
inebriating wine; and if so, the "good 
wine " now produced by the Saviour must 
have been wuie of the same description.' 
Nothing could show more clearly how 
much we read the bible through the 
medium of our own prejudices, than to 
allege tliat the inferior wine was produced 



THK ABSTAINEE'S JOURNAL. 



37 



last in consequence of 'the good wine' 
having impaired the delicacy of taste ; 
and in consequence of its having done so, 
it must have been ' fermented inebriating 
wine.' First of all, how does the Doctor 
know that it was impaired delicacy of 
taste that enabled a host to palm off upon 
his guests an inferior article ? Is it so, 
when the good lady at the head of the 
table hands down the third or fourth cup, 
with many apologies for its inferiority ? 
Might there not be a dozen other reasons 
to account for the fact ? Just as in the 
case adduced, might not the very fact of 
the good article having been already 
supplied in liberal measure, be apology 
enough for the introduction of an 
inferior in the event of its being 
required? But even were it impaired 
taste that accounts for this order in the 
use of wines on festive occasions, is there 
nothing but alcohol capable of producing 
this result ? The supposition only shows 
on what a flimsy foundation the entire 
alcoholic interpretation of this passage 
rests. Is there not evidence here of an 
attempt upon the part of the worthy 
Doctor to make out a case ? Is there 
anything whatever in the passage which 
requires an alcoholic interpretation of it, 
and that a sanction in favour of modern 
drinking customs? But instead of in- 
ebriating toine, as the Doctor would have 



us to believe, being regarded by the an- 
cients as good wine, the very opposite was 
the fact. Pliny, who was contemporary 
with our Lord, expressly says, (Lib. iv. 
c. 13) that a ' good wine' was one that 
was destitute of spirit. Had he, then, or 
Columella, Theophrastus, or Plutarch, 
been called to give judgment as to the wine 
in question, they would have expressed an 
opinion the very opposite of the Doctor's. 
Enough, however, for the Divines at the 
marriage of Cana ; we must reserve more 
special reference to the drink, to another 
occasion. Yet we cannot close without 
expressing the opinion, that that interpre- 
tation of the word of God is always to be 
suspected which the vicious and de- 
praved find most congenial to their tastes, 
and beneath which they can most freely 
indulge. Whether will the frequenters of 
your tap-rooms and they that tarry long 
at the wine most approve the tippling 
interpretation of the miracle at Cana, or 
that one which would divest it of the 
slightest semblance of sanction to unlaw- 
ful indulgence? The miracles of our Lord 
were all beneficent in their design and 
tendency. Can those, then, who would 
ascribe to the Saviour the miraculous 
provision of an enormous quantity of in- 
toxicating liquor, to a festive company 
promiscuously assembled, reconcile their 
supposition with this fact ? 



QTfje ^fegtaftter's Journal. 



Glasgow, Febeoary, 1853. 



THE FREE CHURCH MAGAZINE AND THE FAILURE OF OUR CAUSE. 

tion ; at least they took no effectual means 
to provide for the natural wants of socia- 
lity. Temperance coffee-houses and hotels, 
as hitherto existing, can hardly be regarded 
as calculated for the working man, however 
excellent in other respects. This, I am 
persuaded, is very much the cause of the 
failure of these societies. They sought to 
take something away, without putting any- 
thing else in its place. They did not reflect 
that " nature abhors a vacuum ;" and so 
striving against nature, they found them- 
selves beaten, of course; but now I feel 
assured, that the promoters of these refresh- 
ment-rooms have at last fallen on the right 
way of promoting the progress of sobriety 
in this country. They have hit upon that 
which has hitherto been the drag upon the 



In the December number of the Fr-ee 
Church Magazine there is a well-written 
letter upon the numerous and well-con- 
ducted refreshment-rooms for the working 
classes which have recently been opened in 
Edinburgh, The writer, however, expresses 
sentiments which betray much ignorance 
of the real character and present condition 
of our movement : — 

' I have always felt,' says he, ' that this 
was the great defect of the temperance and 
total abstinence societies, that they did not 
take sufficient account of this want of 
human nature. What they sought to en- i 
force was a blank and uncomfortable nega- \ 



38 



THE ABSTAINER S JODRNAL. 



wheel of all temperance, abstinence, and 
sobriety movements; they are in process of 
taking it off, and I feel assured that their 
movements will now go forward with un- 
checked and accelerated speed.' 

In the January number of the same 
magazine there is a spirited letter in reply, 
from our friend Mr Duncan of Peebles, and 
in connection with it certain notes from the 
editor in way of explanation : — 

' Our correspondent,' says the editor, ' in 
last number, found no fault, as Mr Duncan 
alleges, with " the principle of total absti- 
nence," but only with the practical admini- 
stration of " temperance and total absti- 
nence societies." He did not cast any 
reflection on tliese societies, as Mr Duncan 
seems to think, for discountenancing intoxi- 
cating drinks, but he indicated the weak 
point of their policy, in trying to subvert 
the existing plo.ces of social enjoyment for 
the working-man, without providing others 
of a suitable kind in their room. He never 
alleged that total abstinence societies had 
done no good, or had failed quoad omnia, 
but only that they had failed in dealing 
with ihe social propensities of human nature, 
and in giving to these a safe direction.' 

Now, we have to remark, that it is no 
part of our plan or policy to supply places 
of social enjoyment for the working-man, 
nor is it likely to become one of our schemes, 
notwithstanding the reflections which havs 
been cast upon us. Our grand mission is 
to revolutionise sentiment respecting ine- 
briating liquors, and to abolish the customs 
with which their indulgence is associated. 
Do we blame the physician who is instru- 
mental in restoring health, because he does 
not supply the food necessary to its pre- 
servation '? Or, to come nearer the point, 
do we blame the minister who denounces 
from his pulpit all unlawful amusements, 
because he does not devise others of a 
more rational kind ? Convnice the people 
that their bygone practice in the way of 
strong drink is wrong, and there will be no 
lack of devices to supply them with what 
is proper. The very fact of refreshment- 
rooms for the working classes, is proof of 
it. But for our movement, they would 
never have had a being. 



Then as to the failure of our cause, we 
ask where are the signs of it? Failure ! 
when did any other movement make similar 
advances within the same period ? The 
men are yet living who first suggested its 
necessity and guided its infant footsteps. 
Within a quarter of a century it has fought 
its way up from obscurity and indigence, 
from the anvil and the loom, from the 
shoemaker's stool and the carpenter's 
bench, to the bar of the British Parliament. 
Let the nature of the evil to be mastered 
be borne in mind. It is no mere political 
grievance which an Act of Parliament may 
annihilate. Custom, appetite, prejudice, 
interest do not readily give way even in 
the presence of truth. The sentiment 
v?hich must overcome these does not reach 
manhood in a day. Moral contests are 
of slow progress, and the argument which 
would prove our movement a failure would 
prove that it had fared no better with 
Christianity itself. For eighteen hundred 
years it has been in the world, and yet all 
but a tithe of the world disown it. The 
generation of the present, with its low 
appetites and pernicious customs, is passing. 
On the susceptible mind of the coming 
race we build our hopes. But lest we 
should be charged with over-estimating our 
true position, we shall conclude by quoting 
from an able article which recently appeared 
in the Edinburgh Neios : — 

' Whatever,' says the writer, ' any man's 
individual opinions upon the subject of total 
abstinence, it is well that he should be 
acquainted with that vast and determined 
effort and energy with which the votaries 
of that cause are working out their ends — 
an agency of whose power the overwhelm- 
ing mass of this nation are entirely ignorant, 
but which has ceased to be such as the 
nation may still despise or much longer 
overlook. Let society "pooh pooh" this 
movement as it may, the fact remains un- 
doubted that this abstinence crusade is at 
this moment the most active, the most 
earnest, the most united and numerous, and 
therefore the most powerful social-politico 
confederation in Scotland, and that sooner 
than opponents expect will both that social 
and political influence make themselves 



THE ABSTAINERS JODRNAL. 



39 



strongly felt. Already are its claims urged 
in tlie British Parliament by men of rvhoru 
any cause may well be proud ; and the 
national polling-booth and civic contest, 
already feeling its direct influence, may 
shortly be called to do it more direct and 
substantial homage. Were the suffrage 
extended to householders, or even to those 
rated at £5 rent, the total abstainers, from 
their organisation, numbers, and general 
principles, would become one of the most 
powerful political parties in Scotland, while 
their training, untiring energy, and in some 
cases fanatical zeal — in all cases firm deter- 
mination — would convert them into allies 
to be conrted and opponents to be feared 
by those who sought the suffrages of the 
people.' 

PREPARING THE DEFENCES— THE 
PUBLICANS ALARMED. 

The publicans, conscious that their craft 
is in danger, have at length resolved to 
organise for self-defence. Before us is a 
precious document, being no less than a 
constitution of what is denominated ' The 
West of Scotland Licensed Victuallers' 
Association.' The nature of the associa- 
tion may be understood from the following 
extract from the preamble of its constitu- 
tion : — 

' The members of the Spirit Dealers' 
Defence Committee have found, from past 
experience, that there is a strong desire, on 
the part of certain members of Parliament, 
as well as local Magistrates, Justices of 
the Peace, and others, who have little, if 
any, knowledge of the spirit dealing and 
victualling trades, to devise and carry out 
legislative measures detrimental to their 
interests. This feeling, they observe, has 
been frequently manifested of late years, 
and has shovrn itself in the promotion of 
parliamentary bills, crude and undigested, 
of a sectarian and illiberal character and 
complexion, and altogether unsuited to the 
advancing spirit of the age. It has also 
been di.splayed in the mustering of large 
bodies of Justices of the Peace, at Quarter 
Sessions, to outvote the usual Magistrates 
who assemble on these occasions to decide 
upon spirit dealers' appeals; and, more 
rtcently, it has been evidenced in a dispo- 
hitiou to manufacture additional restrictive 
and fettering regulations, calculated to strike 
at those principles of free trade which have 



been recognised and established as the safest 
ground-work for legislating on subjects 
affecting the welfare of great commercial, 
manufactm-ing, and agricultural communi- 
ties.' 

Now, we hail it as no very dubious 
symptoms of progress that the publicans 
are alarmed. The measures of which 
they complain have been the result of our 
movement ; and there are whispers of 
other laws more stringent and fatal to their 
interests. The idea of publicans seeking 
to shelter themselves under Jree trade 
princijjles is rather good. As well speak 
of free trade in thieving, and a confedera- 
tion of thieves to protect their interests. 
The one as certainly as the other belongs to 
' the dangerous classes;' and perhaps were 
we better protected from the snares of the 
one, we would find less need for bolting our 
door and defending our property from the 
invasion of the other. But what does 
protection of the publicans' interests mean ? 
Greater facilities for sacrificing the interests 
of others in the preservation of their own. 
The idea of free trade in what is pernicious 
wont do. Why, what were the loss to 
society were every whisky-shop closed ? 
Who can deny that the general interests of 
the community would be unspeakably pro- 
moted ? And is this then a traffic that is 
to be treated otherwise than a nuisance of 
the most pernicious kind ? Shame on ye, 
ye men who can hiy snares for tlie un- 
wary ; who can rob the workman of his 
hard-earned means, and give him a scorpion 
when he asks and pays for bread. Well 
has Mr M'Leod, of the Barony Parish, put 
words in the mouths of those who come to 
your counters : — 

' There's my money — give me drink ! 
There's my clothing and my food — give me 
drink ! There's the clothing, food, and 
fire, of wife and children — give me drink I 
There's the education of the familv and 
the peace of the house — give me drink! 
There's the rent I have robbed from my 
landlord, fees I have robbed from the 
schoolmaster, and innumerable articles I 
have robbed from the shopkeeper — give 



40 



THE ABSTAINEH'S JOURNAL. 



me drink ! Pour me out drink, for more I 
will yet pay for it ! There's my health of 
body and peace of mind — there's my cha- 
racter as a man, and my profession as a 
christian — I give up all — give me drink ! 
More yet I have to give ! There's my 
heavenly inheritance and the eternal friend- 
ship of the redeemed — there — there — is all 
hope of salvation I I give up my Saviour ! 
I give up my God ! I resign all ! All 
that is great, good, glorious, in the universe, 
I resign for ever, that I may be drunk !' 

But have the publicans really nothing 
to say for themselves? We have not yet 
forgotten the speech of a worthy at one of 
their meetings in Glasgow, when Lord Kin- 
naird's Bill was on the carpet : — 

' Liebig,' said lie, ' the most eminent 
chemical authority in the world upon the 
subject of food, stated in his works, that 
when a man takes his food, or a horse eats 
its grain, the substance is converted into 
alcohol, the stomach, in fact, operating as 
a kind of still, and that the animal is able 
to do more work just in consequence of the 
conversion of the grain into alcohol, which 
was one of the most strengthening and 
nourishing substances in nature.' 

Here's publicans' comfort for ye poor 
wretches who spend your hard-earned money 
at the counter of the dram-shop ! To the 
eye of a publican, human beings are only so 
many locomotive stills, ever in full opera- 
tion, converting food into alcohol. Well, 
be it so. In that case we see less need for 
an artificial supply ; and this is the kind of 
nonsense by which these men would claim 
a place for their traffic among lawful callings. 

Talk of protecting your interests ! Then 
its high time honest people think of pro- 
tecting theirs. When thieves get bold, we 
put on an additional bolt. So let all who 
value the comfort of their family, the safety 
of their character, and the honour and 
prosperity of their country, defeat the 
designs of the publicans, by regarding their 
trade as a self-interested confederacy to 
destroy all that is sacred in domestic life, 
wither all that is lovely in the church's 
piety, and bring the nation down from its 
greatness to the rank of those empires 
which have perished through their sins. 



THE NEWSPAPER PRESS AND 
THE TEMPERANCE ]MOVEMENT. 
It is with singular satisfaction we have 
read three articles in recent numbers of 
the Edinburgh Witness, the Edinburgh 
News, and the Manchester Examiner. 
The first, in an article of great interest 
and research, marks various symptoms 
of progress ; and the second, in an 
article, entitled, ' Teetotalism— its power 
and object,' deals with the present con- 
dition of the movement ; while the third, 
with great force, shows that every man 
engaged in the working of our railways 
ought to be an abstainer. Seldom have 
three abler papers upon the subject of ten;- 
perance appeared in the columns of any 
newspaper. They are everything we 
could wish on their respective themes, 
and may be regarded as the earnest of 
what the daily press will yet do for our 
cause. The spirit of these papers stands 
out in striking contrast with the spirit 
displayed by one or two contemporaries- 
such as the Scotsman and the Scottish 
Guardian, who cannot speak of temperance 
literature without sueei-iug at it. Of 
course, it does not become modest people 
to speak in their own behalf, but we may 
say this much ; if we have gained such 
advances on a powerful foe without the 
aid of the men who preside over the pe- 
riodical literature of the day, what may 
we not expect to achieve when such as 
the editors of the Scotsman and Gtiardian 
lend us the aid of their potent pens? 
The fact that, with all the disadvantage 
of our position, we have succeeded so far 
in creating a healthy public sentiment 
upon the question in hand, is one of the 
most convincing proofs of the soundness 
of the principles on which our movement 
is based. That the periodical press shares 
the improved feeling which we have done 
our best to create, is evident from the 
general and highly-flattering notices which 
it has taken of our new efforts to extend 
more widely our views, as our advertising 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURXAL. 



41 



sheet will testify. Specially would we widely-circulated papers give the tem- 

notice the WeeHi/ News and Chronicle, perauce movement the promineuce to 

published by our friend Mr Tweedie in , which it is entitled, and in virtue of 

London, and the Christian News, published which, they deserve well of all the friends 

in Glasgow. These ably-conducted and of the cause. 



STcmpctance Eftcrature. 



The Scottish Ketiew, a Quarterly 
Journal of Social Progress and General 
Literature. Xo. I. 

If the enterprise and tact displayed by the 
directors of the League, in the issue of this 
publication, do not meet with a full reward, 
it will belie all the grounds upon which 
we usually anticipate success. It enters 
upon a field where it has no rival. A first- 
class journal devoted to social progress is 
a new thing in the earth. We have read 
the first number with unmingled satisfac- 
tion. The articles which compose it are 
of a high order, and only such as men who 
are masters of their theme could write. 
The topics are well selected, and the variety 
is as great as the extended nature of their 
discussion would allow of. Of the eight 
articles which make up the number, four 
are thoroughly temperance. 

The first is on Bitter Beer and Pale Ale. 
We have seldom met with a more satisfac- 
tory exposure of a brewer's hoax. Although 
backed by the testimony of eminent che- 
mists, and pufied into notice by hired 
writers, the trick is made obvious to the 
most incredulous by the exposure which it 
here receives. We rejoice that the temper- 
ance cau=e has at least one advocate who, 
from his high standing and attainments, is 
a match for any class of men, however 
eminent, which interested parties may call ! 
to their aid in palming their vile compounds | 
upon the public. The Messrs Allsopp ! 
having claimed the character of world-wide j 
benefactors, having, as they alleged, con- i 
ferred, particularly apon British residents j 
in India, invaluable benefits by means of 
their ales, the writer takes them up on their 
own ground, and by an arr.iv of statistics 
and facts proves that health in the Indian 
army has varied in exact proportion to its 
temperance, and that the highest degree of 
health has invariably been found in con- 
nection with the practice of abstinence. 

The article upon Emigration is a very 
interesting and able production. It is 
evidently from the pen of one who thoroughly 



understands his subject, and that of total 
abstinence too. The bearing of the one 
upon the other is exhibited, and various 
facts adduced in coufirmation of the views 
expressed. So important do we regard 
this bearing of our movement, that we 
shall probably return to its consideration 
in our nest number. 

With the views expressed upon the Malt 
Tax, Pauperism, and Social Progress we 
fully concur, and did our limits admit, 
would gladly have quoted from each. The 
articles of a general character at once give 
to the Review the impress of chaste and 
elegant writing, and afford the promise that 
it wiU secure the audience of men of cul- 
tivated minds and practical measures. 

The Adviser. A Monthly Magazine for 
Young People. New Series. No. I. 

Most gladly do we place next in order our 
spirited juvenile advocate. ' Keep the feet 
warm and the head cool,' says the doctor ; 
and according to this prescription we have 
both extremities of the temperance body 
judiciously cared for: The Adviser form- 
ing character, and the Review turning 
character to good account. ' Let no man 
despise thee.' Every page of the present 
number bespeaks a hearing, and promises 
conquest. How we do envy our brother 
editor the chair which he occupies ! No 
appetite to master ; no prejudice to over- 
come ; no fashions to put to the sword. 
A generation of generous, susceptible minds 
to impress. A generation of little tee- 
totalers to guard, to keep them but what 
God has made them, and guide them past 
the snares which their fathers have laid, 
to achievements worthy of their promise 
and the age in which they live. 

The Drunkard's Progress, illustrated 
by John Adams. 

Here we have thirteen graphic illustra- 
tions, ' being a panorama of the overland 
route from the station at Drouth, to the 



42 



THE ABSTAINKR S JOURNAL. 



general terminns in the Dead Sea,' accom- 
panied by equally graphic descriptive letter- 
press. We are gi:id to see an artist of so 
much ability devoting his talents to the 
promotion of our cause ; and yet we regard 
both departments of this beautifully got up 
publication as very defective. Why begin 
Euch a series of illustrations with the repre- 
sentation of a drunk farmer f Is drun- 
kenness the drunkard's starting point? 
Why net begin with the boy on his f<ithers 
knee, getting the little drops from his glass? 
and why leave the drunkard dead iu the 
ditch ? Is there no hope for him ? The 
literary part, although the production of no 
novice, is equally defective. Only once is 
there a slight allusion to abstinence as the 
care of intemperance. The evil is apparent 
enough. Its origin and its remedy are the 
points to which temperance reformers require 
chiefly to devote themselves. 



Notes and Narratives of a Six 
Years' Mission principally among 
THE Dens of London. By R. W. 
Vanderkiste, late London City Mis- 
sionary. 

Travel brings a man into contact with 
strange bed-fellows, and this book brings 
before the reader many strange phases of 
human life. Six years spent by the author 
in daily missionary work amid the densely 
peopled, slushy, dingy, bewildering alleys of 
Clerkenwell, whence he was brought into 
contact with the worst characters of the 
metropolis, could not fail to present him 
with ample materials for a strange and 
eventful narrative. And such existing, his 
book is, from beginning to end, another 
proof that ' fact is stranger than fiction.' 
No one can form any idea of this book 
without reading it. There are nine parts 
c f it of which it may be said — 

*Tis strange, 'tis passing strange, 
'Tis pitiful, 'tis wondrous pitiful. 

Such a book, notwithstanding all its dark 
details, is a sure sign of progress ; and 
whilst its appalling revelations may make 
some slmdder, and think ' the former times 
were better than these,' it will move others 
to more vigorous efifort ' to excavate our 
home heathenism.' Thanks to Vanderkiste 
for his able book. It is surely better to 
know where the fire-damp is concealed and 
ever ready to explode, that measures may 
be taken to absorb and draw it off, than to 
sleep on in ignorance of the social dangers 
to which we are exposed. 



A Happt New Year. By Rev. Thomas 

Guthrie, D.D. 
Old Sign Boards. By Kev. Ale.Kander 

Wallace, Edinburgh. 

The idea of a New-Year's-Day tract is 
admirable, and we take blame to ourselves 
tliat we have not before this acted upon it. 
Thanks to the two gentlemen who have so 
well supplied our lack of service. Both 
tnicts coming before os at once, we cannot 
help making a compaiisori of their authors. 
In many respects they resemble each other. 
They are the same in their warmth of ima- 
gination, richness of poetic taste, powers of 
graphic description, noble impulses, and 
generous sympatliy with the down-trodden 
and the outcast. Thanks, then, to the 
noble-hearted authors of these produc- 
tions, which, although small and apparently 
trivial, may go where and do what more 
pretending productions could neither go nor 
accomplish. 

Cost and Consequences of Intoxi- 
cating Liquors in Manchester. 
By J. J. Lees. 

This pamphlet comprehends the substance 
of a lecture delivered at Snlford. It is a 
most statesmanlike document, and on the 
minds of those who think, cannot fail to 
make a deep impression. 

Augusta Howard. By Mrs H. B. Stowe. 

It is only necessary to tell that the story 
is from the pen of the gifted authoress of 
' Uncle Tom's Cabin,' to find for it readers 
everywhere. Here are this lady's rare 
power of description and touching appeal 
brought to bear upon even a fouler and 
more wide-spread curse than American 
slavery. 

The Wedding Days of Former Times. 
By Thomas P. Hunt. 

Recommended by the Rev. Alexander 
Wallace, and published by our friend, Mr 
Robertson of Edinburgh. The evil of drink- 
ing at weddings is illustrated by a series of 
cases, which cannot fail to be powerful in 
the hands of the author of the tract called 
Death hy Measure. 

The Scottish Temperance League 
Register AND Abstainer's Almanac 
FOR 1853. 

Of all the League's successful schemes, few 
have been happier than this one. It is 
quite a temperance directory. No abstainer 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



43 



need be at a loss to find temperance friends 
in any town in Scotlind, if he will but con- 
sult the l^egister— leal men and true, men 
that can give their money for the general 
good of tlie canse. Here, too, we have 
valuable tables of statistics bearing upon all 
departments of the question; and although 
occupying but small space, evidently the 
product of one who might do n.i discredit 
to the office which our friend Disraeli has 
just vacated ; and in addition to all. a long, 
elaborate, and valuable essay upon the pre- 
sent condition nj" civilisation. In the pre- 
face we are informed that th-f present Rer/is- 
ter contains the names of 3-158 members, 
and 251 societies, being an increase since 
last year of 510 of the former and 39 of 
the latter. From 200 to 300 members of 
the League have emigrated since the pub- 
lication of the previous Register. Making 
allowance for such, and those vvho have 



been removed by death, the number of new 
members enrolled is 1147; and while 33 
Societies have failed to renew their con- 
nection with the League, their place has 
been supplied by 82 new ones. The fact 
whicli has struck us as most novel, is that 
respecting the emitjraliim of our members. 
Had their abstinence nothing to do "ith it? 
They were not worthless sons sliifiped off 
by broken-hearted fathers who had taught 
them to drink, but enterprising men, enabled 
by their sobriety to seek and find a more 
profitable field for their industry. May 
God go with them ; and, alive to the 
blessings vphicli abstinence has conferred 
upon them, may they be instrumental 
in the land of their adoption in avertirg the 
ruin whicli intemperance already threatens, 
and laying tlie foundation of a community 
which snail reprove the low indulgences of 
the fatherland ! 



S eUctions. 



SYMPTOMS OF IMPROVEMENT. 



When poor Burns visited Edinburgh for 
the first time, hard drinking vras as com- 
naon among the «-.ore eminent and re- 
spectable lawyers of the city as it is now 
among th« murky denizens of the Canon- 
gate and Blackfriars' Wynd ; and we 
have met with men who used to dine at 
lairds' houses at a time when i; would 
have been deemed an off'ence against 
hospitality to suffer a guest to depart 
sober from table. Nay, we find it stated 
on the authority of one who knew but 
too well that it was a drunken aristocracy 
that first broke down the previously sober 
habits of the peasant poet. After statitjg 
that Burns bad resisted the temptations 
of his native county, the unfortunate 
Heron goes on to say, — ' But the bucks of 
Edinburgh accomplished in regard to him 
that in which the boors of Ayrshire had 
failed. Too many of his hours WlTc now 
spent at the tables of persons who delight- 
ed to urge conviviality to drunkenness.' 
How strangely has this state of things 
changed ! — not in consequence, we fear, 
of any very great elevation, in the stan- 
dard of general morals, but simply in con- 
sequence of a change in the current of 
opinion regarding the fit and the proper. 
The sober habits of a second Burns would 
now be in no danger among the lairds 
or lawyers of Edinburgh, simply because 



drunkenness is now no longer regarded as 
a gentlemanly vice; nor do we despair of 
seeing a similar change wrought among 
the working classes. Nay, there is, we 
trust, such a change actually in progress 
at the present time. The tide of opinion 
seems to be as decidedly sotting in against 
drunkenness among our meu of handicraft 
and hard labour, as it set in, considerably 
more than a quarter of a century ago, 
among the higher class. ]\Iuch, however, 
may be yet dore to encourage the change, 
and much, we cannot doubt, will be done. 
Never, at least, has there been a time in 
which the welfare of the labouring classes 
was more really the object of wise and 
disinterested consideration among the 
better and more patriotic members of the 
classes higher in the social scale, than 
during the last few twelvemonths. 

With all its faults, the literature of the 
country has much improved in one impor- 
tant respect during the last thirty years. 
Curious as it may seem, there were, in 
the last age, writers of Bacchanalian songs 
and poems, who v/ere not themselves 
Bacchanalians. It is told of himself by 
Cowley, that he produced his volume of 
amatory verses, ' The Mistress,' not because 
he was in love, — for in love he was not, — 
but simply because it was held that poets, 
until they paid their ' quit-rent of service 



44 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



to the softer passion, could scarce be re- 
garded as freemen of tlieir company.' 
And the drinking song held in literatui-e 
for many years the same sort of prescrip- 
tive place as the amatory one. Poets 
wrote their drinking songs, whether they 
themselves were drinkers or no. In our 
own country, for instance, Allan Ram- 
say, though a sober tradesman, who look- 
ed well to the main chance, and grew 
rich, was a wine-bibber . in his verse, and 
charged with the Iloratian philosophy ; 
and we know that Burns had written his 
' Scotch Drink' and his ' Earnest Cry and 
Prayer,' while yet a temperate young man, 
scarce known to the ' Nance Tinnock,' 
whose hostlery he described as his fav- 
ourite and frequent resort. There is an 
end to all this hypocrisy on the wrong side 
now; 'Genius no longer dances a Bac- 
chanal ;' and the drinking song has so 
nearly disappeared from our literature, that 
when we stumble upon one in the volume 
of some untaught poet, we deem it such a 
blunder, in a critical point of view, as a 
hoop petticoat would be in a fashionable 
one. The poetry of the tavern is out of 
date. And it is a very great matter that 
it should be so. There is not much in 
the cold water verse that would supplant 
it ; — it is thin, like its subject, and, Hke it 
too, somewhat chill and vapid. The only 
poem on unmixed water which it tasks no 
extraordinary exertion of patience to tol- 
erate, is that of poor Ferguson, who was 
himself unfortunately not a teetotaler. 
But it is something that exquisite genius 
and high talent should be no longer lend- 
ing to intoxication a charm not its own, 
and that the sanction of not only fashion, 
but of intellect also, should be on the other 
side. The enjoyments which even our 
lighter periodicals recommend are en- 
joyments incompatible with a state of ine- 
briation. They demand exercise of mind, 
not an extinction of it. — The Witness, 
Jan. 8. 



POWER OF THE LEAGUE. 

Of the extent and growth of that power 
the 'Scottish Temperance League Alma- 
nac,' furnishes many and striking proofs — 
facts, many of which will be as startling 
to our readers as they were new to us. 
This League, whose head-quarters are in 
Glasgow, appears to be the managing cen- 
tre of nearly all the abstinence societies in 
Scotland. From St Enoch's Square em- 
anates the counsel to guide, and the zeal 
to stir this great Scottish movement ; and 



while its disciples and lecturers go forth 
with an energy and self-sacrifice unknown 
among other associations, this vast enter- 
prise is furnished with a well-tilled trea- 
sury, and its schemes are conducted with 
an economy and skill, such as to set at 
defiance the suspicions of the jealous or 
the doubtings of the timid. Nothing 
would be easier than to turn this body 
into ridicule, as presented in the pages of 
its almanac. An organisation which 
boasted ' one assistant lighthouse-keeper,' 
' five bill-stickers,' one butler, two church 
officers, one coffee-roaster, two grooms, 
eight barbers, and fifty-eight temperance 
hotel-keepers, any one could ridicule. 
Scotland may laugh at the prospect of 
being turned upside down by one starcher, 
one lodging-house keeper, two messengers- 
at-arms, two mole-catchers, four pension- 
ers, and a puddler ; or it may decline 
being led by a retired officer, three ser- 
geants, and a town-officer, whose tile con- 
sists of two snuff-box makers, three um- 
brella-makers, twenty spinners, one hun- 
dred and twenty-nine tailors, with one 
hundred and sixty-nine gentlemen of ' no 
business or profession,' supported by a 
sharebroker and a valet. But the body of 
which these are declared constituent parts 
ought to be viewed from the other side by 
thoughtful men— a side which will set 
scorn at nought, if it do not silence the 
scorner. When the world comes to know 
that this general council numbers 3458 
members from all parts of Scotland, and 
guides the actions, and stimulates the zeal 
of 251 local societies — that it has five 
traveUing agents delivering some 1200 
addresses annuallj' — that some of those 
separate local societies, such as that iu 
Edinburgh, support three missionaries 
from their local funds— and when it is fur- 
ther known that this Temperance League 
have a ' quarterly,' which has just beea 
ably started, with ' monthlies' and ' cyclo- 
pedias' of sterling merit, and that upwards 
of six million pages of letterpress annually 
stream from its office in the shape of 
tracts— it will compel men to think about 
the principles and workings of an agency 
so ramified and poiveri'ul. — Edinburgh 
News. 



P e t r g. 

THE BEER KING. 

The Austrians may groan, and our neigh- 
bours in France 

Beneath the stern yoke of a despot may 
dance, 



THE ABSTAIKER'S JOUENAL. 



45 



Their Emperors govern with absolute sway, 
But our Beer King enjoys quite as much 
his own way. 

The Monarch of Russia's a great autocrat, 
But greater's the tyrant that reigns o'er 

the vat, 
The Sultan's a Grand Tm-k, but grander 

by far, 
Is the Beer King of Britain than Sultau 

or Czar. 

The Beer King sits high on a green cry- 
stal throne 

■Which is raised on glass bottles, so cun- 
ningly blown. 

That the quart but the half of its measure 
contains, 

And so the great Beer King in opulence 
reigns. 

The Beer King has palaces splendid and gaj', 

You meet them in London wherever you 
stray, 

And Monopoly there which no Parlia- 
ment checks — 

Supplies his Exchequer irom dear double X. 



And there, too, strange compounds, and 

mixtures of queer 
Unwholesome ingredients, are vended as 

beer, 
Molasses and liquorice and vitriol — what 

not? — 
In short you may say that there's death 

in the pot. 

Competition full soon would the Beer 

King bring down, 
But the justices stand by his Majesty's 

Crown, 
And shut every door a man ventmes to 

ope. 
Against an Exclusionbt worse than the 

Pope. 

An Englishman's house is his castle, 'tis 

said, 
But if he'd sell beer to procure himself 

bread, 
The Beer King's wise licensers hinder 

his view. 
And his Castle cannot be his Elephant 

too. Punch. 



©pcratfons of tTje Scottis]^ STcmperancc ILtague. 



THE LEAGUE'S AGENTS. 

During the past month, Messrs Easton, 
Anderson, M'Karlane, Duncan, Stirling, 
and Nimmo have been almost constantly 
engaged in addressing social meetings in 
diiferent parts of the country, brief notices 
of which are given in the News department 
of the Journal. Lectures have also been 
given in a number of places. A visit paid 
by Messrs Easton and Duncan to Stranraer, 
has given the movement a powerful impetus 
in that neighbourhood. 



SERMONS. 
On Sabbath evening, 9th January, two 
Sermons were preached in Glasgow, under 
the auspices of the League. One was given 
in Professor Lindsay's Church, by the Rev. 
William Watson, of Langholm ; and the 
other by the Rev. James A. Johnston, of 
West Linton, in the Rev. Mr Edmond's 
Church, Regent Place. Mr Watson's sub- 
ject was — ' British Intemperance as it 
Affects Foreign Missions ; ' and Mr John- 
ston's — ' Drinking Customs Inconsistent 
with Christian Prayers.' 



STcmperance -KTe&js. 



GLASGOW. 

A grand bazaar, under the management 
of the Ladies' Committee of the Glasgow 
United Abstinence Association, was opened 
in the City Hall on 31 st December, and was 
continued on the 1st and 3d days of January. 
Notwithstanding the unfavourable state of 
the weather, the number of visitors was very 
large. The amount received from sales and 
admissions was upwards of £500, the balance 
of which, after defraying expenses, is to be 
devoted to the establishment of a ' Tem- 
perance City Mission,' 

A great tea-party was held in the City 
Hall on the evening of Monday, 3d January. 
The large building was crowded to excess. 



Mr Mitchell, president of the Union, occu- 
pied the chair. He stated that the associa- 
tion had established seven weekly meetings, 
at which upwards of 600 lectures had been 
delivered during the last two years ; that 
300,000 pages of tracts had been circulated; 
that several missionaries had been employed ; 
that upwards of 8000 members had joined 
the society in course of two years ; and that 
in addition to these, there were 10,000 adult 
abstainers in connection with other Glasgow 
societies, besides 18,000 juveniles. Ad- 
dresses were delivered by the Rev. James 
Ballantyne, Edinburgh : Rev. Geo. Blyth, 
Glasgow; Rev. J. fl. Wilson, Aberdeen; 
and Dr M'CuUoch, Dumfries. 



46 



THE abstainer's' JOnRNAL. 



EDINBURGH. 

The sixteenth annual soiiee of the Edin- 
burgh Total Abstinence Society was held on 
New-Year's- Oay, in the Music Hall, which 
was decorated with flags for the occasion, 
and every available poition of which — the 
body, gallery, and oichestra — was com- 
pletely tilled. In front of the grand organ 
were stationed the Edinburgh Total Ab- 
stainers' Musical Association, under the 
leadership of Mr W. H. M'Farlane, who, 
during the evening, sung, with organ accom- 
paniment by Mr Gleadhill, several madri- 
gals and original temperance melodies. Mr 
T. M. Hunter was also present, and contii- 
buted largely to the enjoyment of the even- 
ing by giving, with admirable effect, several 
Scottish songs. The chair was occupied by 
Mr J. S. Marr, president of the society. In 
course of his opening address, he mentioned 
that during the year 1852 the committee had 
held l(i5 public meetings in different parts 
of the city, aLd that nine sermons had been 
preached by ministers of various denomina- 
tions, 4'2,0U0 tracts and periodicals had been 
circulated, and 'dGio persons had been en- 
rolled members of the society. The meet- 
ing was addressed by the Rev. Ale.xaucier 
Wallace on ' 'J'emperance, and the events 
and movements of the day;' by the Rev. G. 
D. M'Gregor, of Portobello, on ' The true 
spring of intemperance ;' by the Rev. VVm. 
Scott, of Glasgow, on ' The dignity of self- 
control ;' and by Henry Vincent, Esq., on 
'Temperance as a means of promoting the 
moral, social, and intellectual elevation of 
the people.' 

TEMPERANCE FESTIVALS. 

Tlie number of social meetings held at 
the close of 1{!52 and beginning of 11353 was 
EC very numerous, that we cannot afford 
space for a separate notice of each. VN'e 
give, in a compendious form, such particulars 
as have reached us regarding the soirees 
recently held throughout the country, but 
are certain that our report does not include 
more than one-half of those actually held. 
Prom the detailed accounts before us, as 
well as from the oral reports of the League's 
agents and other speakers, we have no hesi- 
tation in a.sserting that, as a whole, the New 
Year festivals of 1853 have been more 
numerously attended, and better conducted 
than those of any previous year. 

Abercokn, Monday, 2Uth December. — 
Principal speaker, Mr John Anderson, one 
of the League's agents. 

Aberdeen, Saturday, 1st Jan. — County 
Rooms. Chairman, Dr Linton; spealsers — 
Messrs Duncan, Lindsay, Cook, Walker, 
Buchan, and Rev. R. G. Mason. Numerous 
attendance. 

Albion Street Chapel Society held their 
meeting on the same evening. Chairman, 
Rev. J. H. Wilson, who reported that up- 



wards of 600 names had been enrolled during 
the year. Several ministers and others ad- 
dressed the meeting. 

Aruhoath, Monday, 3d Jan. — Trades' 
Hall. Chairman, Mr J. Sutherland. Ad- 
dresses by the Rev. Mr Sorley, and others. 
The hall was full to overflowing. 

AuCHT. rmuchtv, Tuesday, 18th Jan. — 
Speakers, llev. D. Ogilvie, Broughty-Ferry, 
and Mr Anderson, agent of the League. 

Balfkon, Monday, 3d Jan. — Chairman, 
Rev. John Fairlie. Addresses given by 
Mr M'Farlane, asent of the League, Rev. 
Mr Clerihew, Gartmore, and Rev. P. Lums- 
daine. Kill earn. 

Banton, .Monday, 3d J.an. — Chairman, 
Rev. William Burns. Kilsyth. Speakers — 
Mes.'rs M'Auslane, Edmond, and Service. 
Attendance, 1 30. 

Biggar. — First Soiree of the Society 
held on Saturday, 1st Jan. Addresses were 
delivered by several of the members. 

Broxburn, Tuesdaj-, 25th Dec. -Ad- 
dressed by Mr George Easton, of the Scot- 
tish Temi erance League, and others. 

BUR.^TISLA^D, Monday, 3d Jan. — Ad- 
dressed by Mr Anderson, of the Scottish 
Temperance League, and others. 

Camlachie, Monday, 3d Jan. — New 
Mission House. Chairman, Mr John 
M'Donald. Speakers, Messrs Aitchison, 
Barton, ^teedman, and Davidson. 

Campbklton, Monday, 3d Jan. — Town 
Hall. Chaiiman, Mr Matthjw Andrew. 
Speakers — Rev. Messrs Lauchlan and Gal- 
braith, Provost Colville, and Messrs W. 
Hunter, A, M'Conachy, and J. Murdoch. 

Carron Shore. Friday, 31st Dec. — 
Addressed by Mr Ephraim Smith, jun., 
Glasgow, and several friends from Fal- 
kirk. 

Chapelhali,, Saturday, 1st Jan. — 
Chairman, Mr Robert Dunn; principal 
speaker, Mr John Duncan, of the Scottish 
Temperance League. Attendance large. 

CoRSrcRPiiiNE, Thursday, 16th Dec- 
Addressed by Mr J. Anderson, and others. 

Ceossoatks, Tuesday, 1 8th Jan. — Ad- 
dressed by Mr Easton of the Scottish Tem- 
perance League, and other gentlemen. 

Cumbernauld, Saturday, 1st Jan. — Mr 
John Thomson of Greenfauld delivered 
an address. Society is in a prosperous 
state. 

Cupar, Friday, 31st Dec— County Hall. 
Chairman, Rev. Mr Rankine. Speakers — 
Mr Brown, Dundee; Mr Kennedy, St An- 
drews ; Mr Sinclair, Edinburgh; and the 
Rev. Mr Pillans, Perth. The hall was com- 
pletely filled. 

Darvel, Thursday, 20th Jan. — Mar- 
chioness of Hastings' School. Chairman, 
Mr Gavin Cleland. Speakers— Messrs E. 
Smith, jun., Glasgow; Howie, Galston ; 
Nisbet, teacher, and others. 

Dunblane, Monday, 17th Jan.— Free 
Church school-room. Chairman, Mr Duncan 



I 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



47 



Docfaard. Speakers — Mr James Stirling, | 
asent of the League, and Mr Thomas Reid, | 
Glasgow. Attendance, "200. j 

Dundee (Suppression Society), Mondav, i 
3d Jan. — Thistle Hall. Chairman. Bailie i 
Rough. Speakers — Rev. J. L. Aikman, i 
Edinburgh ; -Mr Wm. Smith, St Andrews ; 
Rev. D. Ogilvie, Broughty- Ferry ; Patrick 
Watson. Esq.; Rev. Robert .Meuzies; and ' 
Mr D. B. Brown, Dundee. The ' Teetotal I 
Society's' soiree on Saturday, 1st Jan., was 
addre-sed by Mr John Anderson, agent of i 
the League, and others. 

Du.\FERMLi.\K, Monday, 17th Jan. — 

Music Hall. Chairman, Mr John Davie. | 

Addresses by several ministers, and by Mr j 

Elaston, one of the League's agents. i 

I DuNSE, Friday, 31st Dec— Chairman, I 

, Rev. Wra. Belch. An adilress was given i 

I by Mr Williams. This society has an agent ( 

— Mr Alex. Beattie. At some of the vil- ' 

I lages recently visited by him, as many as 48 i 

I have come forward and signed the pledge. \ 

DuNSHALT, Wednesday, 19th Jan. — Ad- ' 
dressed by Mr Anderson, one of the agents j 
of the League, and others. i 

Elie, Thursday, 30th Dec— Parish school- ' 
room. Chairaian, Mr Leitch. Speakers — i 
Mr Michie, and the Rev. Messrs Hutchison, 
Wood, and Meikle, I 

Ettrick, Tuesday, ■28th Dec. — Addresses | 
by the Rev. Wm. Crombie, Melrose ; Mr ! 
Clark, teacher, Yarrow; and Mr Young, 
Selkirk. Mr Wood stated that one-fourth j 
of the inhabitants had joined the society. I 

Falkirk, Saturday, 1st Jan.— Chaii-man, ' 
I Mr James Johnston, clothier. Speakers — \ 
I Messrs Brown and Davies, Glasgow. I 

i Freuchie, Monday, 17th Jan. — Prin- 
cipal speaker, Mr Anderson, one of the | 
League s agents. j 

Galashiels, Friday, 31 ?t Dec— Union i 
Street Chapel. Well attended. I 

GiFFORD, Thursday, 23d Dec — Ad- 
dressed by Mr Anderson, one of the League's ' 
agents, and other gentlemen. i 

Gra.ngemouth, Tuesday, 4th Jan. — Earl { 
of Zetland s school- room. Addressed by Mr 
John Anderson, one of the League's agents, ' 
and others. ! 

Greenock, Mocday, 3d Jan. — Masons' j 
Hall. Chairman, Mr Archd. M'Kinnon. 
Speakers — Mr John Nimmo, Glasgow; : 
Messrs Croiley and Jago, Greenock. The i 
hall was crowded. ! 

Haddi.ngton, Wednesday, 22d Dec— j 
Assembly Rooms. Chairman, Rev. Mr ; 
Eraser, of the Free Church, Yester. Speakers i 
— Major Veitcb ; Rev. Mr Thomson, Slate- ; 
ford; Rev. J. Logan Aikman, Edinburgh; | 
Mr John Anderson, one of the agents of the ' 
League. Four ministers of the town were i 
present. j 

Hamilton, Saturday. 1st Jan. — Ebenezer 
Chapel. Chairman, Mr Arthur Robertson. 
Speakers — Rev. Thomas Henderson, and 
Mr J ohn Nimmo. 



Hawick, Saturday, 1st Jan. — Addressed 
by Mr George Easton, and other gentle- 
men. 

Helensburgh, Thursday, 3rtth Dec- 
Chairman, Rev. Mr Anderson. Speakers — 
Messrs M'Farlane and Jsimmo, agents of 
the League. 

Holstoun. Friday, 31st Dec. — Free 
Church School-Room. Chairman, Mr P. 
Barbour. An address was given by Mr 
Angus Chassels, teacher, Glasgow. 

iNXERiEiTHfN, 'Jhursday, 3''th Dec — 
Addressed by Mr Anderson, one of the 
agents of the League. 

I>"VE«ART, Wednesday, 5th Jan. — Chair- 
man, Rev. Kobeit Rose. Speakers — Mr 
Thomas Reid, Glasgow, and the Rev. Gil- 
beit Meikle. 

J !■ DBURGH, Jfonday, 3d Jan. — Addressed 
by Mr George Easton, agent of the League, 
and others. 

KiLSTTH, Saturday, 1st Jan. — Chairman, 
Rev. William Burns. Addresses by Mr 
Ephraim Smith, jun., Glasgow, and others. 

Ki.NGHORN, Friday, 31st Dec— Addressed 
by Mr Anderson of the Scottish Temperance 
League, and others. 

Kirkcaldy, Saturday, 1st Jan. — Parish 
School-Room. Several gentlemen addressed 
the meetin?. And in Rose Street Chapel on 
Monday, 3d Jan. Chairman, Mr Hogarth. 
Speakers — Mr Palmer, Edinburgh, and 
several others. 

La.n'ark, Saturday, 1st Jan. — Chairman, 
Rev. John Ingiis. Speakers — Mr Hood, 
teacher; .Mr M'Farlaue, of the Scottish 
Temperance League, and others. 

Largo, Mouaay, !7th Jan. — Chairman, 
Rev. Mr Kerr of Pittenweem. Speakers — 
Messrs Palmer, E^iinburgh ; Trainer, An- 
struther ; and Lockhart, Gibson, and Skin- 
ner, Kirkcaldy. 

LaSswaDE, Monday, 3d Jan. — Chairman, 
Mr Blair, Dalkeith, who gave an address, 
and was followed by the Rev. Mr Adam. 
Attendance numerous. 

Leslie, Monday, 17th Jan. — Chairman, 
Rev. W. Scott. Speakers— Messrs Mur- 
doch, Kinnaird, and Dobie, members of the 
society. 

Loanhead, Friday, 24th Dec— Speakers 
— Rev. Mr Adam and Mr Ale.x. M'Douald. 
Messrs John Robertson and Wra. M'Donald 
sung a number of temperance melodies. 

Lochee, Tuesday, 4th Jan. — Weavers' 
Hall. Chairman, Mr J. H. Duffus. Dun- 
dee. Speakers — Rev. Mr Hay, Letheiidy; 
Messrs D. B. Brown, William Marshail, 
Lothian, and Scrimgeour, Dundee. 

Lochgelly, AVednesday, I9ih Jan. — 
Mr Easton, of the Scottish Temperance 
League, was the rrincipal speaker. 

Markinch, 17th Jan. — Chairman, Mr 
William Melville. Speakers— Rev. Alessrs 
Rankine, Cupar; Gray, Freuchie ; Brown, 
Markinch ; Messrs Wishart, Kirkcaldy, and 
others. 



48 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



Neflston, Friday, 31st Dec. — Addresses 
by Mr John Nimmo and the Rev. David 
Johnstone, Glasgow. 

New Galloway, Saturday, 1st Jan. — 
An address was given by Mr Kidd, and a 
number of other members took part in the 
proceedings. This society was organised on 
22d September last, and numbers 32 mem- 
bers, 29 of whom were present. 

I^EW Luce, Wednesday, I2th Jan. — 
Numerous attendance. Addressed by Messrs 
Duncan and Easton, agents of the League. 

OxTON, Monday, 3d Jan.— Chairman, 
Mr John Waddell. Addressed by Chair- 
man and the Rev. J. Cooper, Fala. 

Peebles, Wednesday, 29th Dec. — Mr 
Anderson, one of the League's agents, gave 
an address. 

Penicuick, Tuesday, 28th Dec. — Ad- 
dressed by Mr John Anderson, of the Scot- 
tish Temperance League, and other gentle- 
men. 

Perth, Monday, 17th Jan.— City Hall. 
Chairman, Rev. J. Pillans. Speakers- 
Revs. D. Ogilvie and AVilliara Lindsay, 
with Messrs M'Intosh and Irons. 

Port-Glasgow, Friday, 31st Dec— New 
Academy Hall. Chairman, Mr Archibald 
Simpson. Speakers — Mr John Duncan, 
agent of the League; Mr Henry Nixon, 
missionary, Greenock ; and Mr Robert 
Knox, Port- Glasgow. 

Renfrew, Monday, 3d Jan. — Large 
attendance. Speakers — Mr John Robert- 
son, Vale of Leven, and Mr Duncan, one of 
the agents of the League. 

ROBERTON, Friday, 7th January. — Free 
Church. Chairman, Mr Richard Purdom, 
Hawick. Speakers — Rev. Mr Sutherland, 
of the Free Church, Roberton ; Rev. Mr 
DuflF; with Messrs James Walker and Wm. 
Inglis, Hawick. 

Selkirk, Monday, 3d Jan.— Chairman, 
Rev. Mr Nicholl. Speakers — Rev. Messrs 
Russell and Lawson, Selkirk ; and Howie, 
Galashiels. Attendance upwards of 200. 

Smailholm, 20th Nov.— Speakers — Rev. 
Messrs William Crombie, Melrose ; James 
Howie, Galashiels; and Mr Thomson, far- 
mer, Millfield. Since the meeting 27 have 
joined the society. The society numbers — 
adults, 138; juveniles, 109; and is in a 
flourishing condition. 

Staxigoe. — First soiree of the society 
held on Monday, 3d January, presided over 
by Mr Donald Robertson, fish-curer. 

Stenhousemuir, Tuesday, 11th Jan. — 
Very lArge attendance. Addressed by Mr 
John Duncan, of the Scottish Temperance 
League, and several local friends. 

Stirling, Tuesday, 11th Jan.— Court- 
House. Chairman, Mr Thomas Muir. 
Speakers — Mr David Lewis, Rev. James 
Ballantyne, Rev. Alex. Wallace, all of 
Edinburgh. This soiree was got up by the 
Young Men's Abstinence Society. 

Stranraer, Tuesday, 11th January. — 



Ivy Place Church. Chairman, Rev. Robert 
Hogarth. Speakers - Messrs Easton and 
Duncan, agents of the League. The church 
was well filled. 

Strathmiglo, Monday, 17th January. — 
Principal Speaker — Mr John Anderson, of 
the Scottish Temperance League. 

Thornhill, (Perthshire,) Monday, 17th 
January. Chairman, Mr John M'Laren. 
Speakers — Rev. Mr Craig, Doune, and Mr 
Duncan, one of the League's agents. 

.Thurso, Monday, 3d Jan. — Town Hall. 
Chairman, Mr John Miller, jun. Speakers 
— Mr Mackie, Wick, Messrs James Camp- 
bell, George Stephen, and Sergeant Suther- 
land, Thurso. A prize of i.2 2s, to be com- 
peted for by working men in Thurso, has 
been offered for the best essay on Intemper- 
ance and its cure. 

Toli.cross, Saturday, 1st Jan. — Chair- 
man, Mr Maclean. Addresses by Mr John 
Nimmo, and Mr Davidson, city missionary. 

Turriff, Christmas.— Chairman, Mr 
Storer, Veterinary Surgeon- Speakers — 
Mr Watson, Cumineston, Mr Mestan, 
teacher, Tarves, Mr Angus, Mr Lawrence, 
Mr Duncan, and Mr M'Gowan. 

Vale of Leven, Friday, 31st Dec. — 
Independent Chapel, Alexandria. Chair- 
man, Mr Robertson. Speakers — Messrs 
Easton and M'Farlane, agents of the League. 
Attendance, 2,50. 

West Calder, Tuesday, 28th Dec. — 
United Presbyterian Church. Chairman, 
Mr A. Hamilton, Edinburgh. Speakers — 
Mr George Easton, one of the League's 
agents, and the Rev. David Russell, Dun- 
fermline. The Rev. Mr Thomson, minister of 
the church, though not an abstainer, took 
part in the proceedings. 

WiCK, Slonday, 3d Jan. — Temperance 
Hall. Chairman, Mr Robert M'Leod. 
Speakers — Rev. Messrs Sime, Key, and 
Soreby. 

Yetholm, Tuesday, 4th Jan. — Principal 
Speaker, Mr George Easton. 

Refreshment Room at Cupar.— In 
accordance with a suggestion contained in a 
recent admirable lecture of Sheriff Monteith, 
a meeting of gentlemen favourable to the 
institution of a coffee-house and reading- 
room for the working classes in Cupar, was 
held in the Council-room there on Wednes- 
day. Steps were taken to carry out the 
proposal, and from a20 to £30 was collected 
before the meeting broke \yp.— Scottish 
Guardian, Jan. 11, 1853. 



Glasgow : Printed and Published at the Office 
of the Scottish Temperance League, No. 30 
St Enoch Square, Parish of St Enoch's, by 
RoBEET Rae, residing at No. 10 Salisbury 
Street, Parish of Govan. 

Tuesday, Ut February, 1853. 



THE 



ABSTAINER'S JOURNAL. 



MARCH, 1853. 



iHiscElIattEoits ®0ntributi0ng. 



ABSTINENCE AND EMIGRATION. 



What we propose is, to show that the 
principle of eutire abstinence from intoxi- 
cating drinlcs is one of the very highest 
importance and value to the intending 
emigrant. And our remarks shall have 
an especial reference to Australia,' on ac- 
count of the vast numbers of our country- 
men who are at present setting their faces 
thitherward. 

First. Abstinence will be most advan- 
tageous to the emigrant in his preparations 
for leaving his native land. It will enable 
him to go forth with the hest possible cha- 
racter for solriety. This will aid him in 
securing recommendatory testimonials 
from influential parties, which may after- 
wards be of great use to him. It will 
greatly aid him, moreover, in securing the 
requisite funds for the voyage. The voy- 
age to Australia is an expensive one; 
hence it becomes a very difiicult matter 
for many to secure the necessary funds. 
But let him abstain, and lay past him the 
sum which many a working man spends 
weekly upon intoxicating drink, and in a 
short time he will have money which will 
amply suffice to remove his household to 
the land of his adoption. His removal 
will thus be of an honourable character. 
He will leave behind him no unpaid debts, 
will require to borrow no money, will be 
indebted to no friends, but, on the con- 
trary, will be enabled to depart in a spirit 
of honourable pride, looking every man 



unshrinkingly in the face, having provided 
sufficient comforts for the voyage, and 
possessing still a little fund with which 
to settle himself in his new home. It is 
worthy of remark, that during the past 
year upwards of two hundred members of 
the League have emigrated, and we deem 
it no extravagant supposition, that a con- 
siderable number of them would have been 
unable to do so but for the savings of ab- 
stinence. 

Second. Abstinence will be most ad- 
vantageous to the emigrant during bis 
voyage. It will tend to the maintenance 
of his health. The man who drinks no- 
thing stronger than water, is the man who 
endures most successfull}'^ the roughness 
pertaining to a sea voyage, and the vicis- 
situdes of climate. He is, moreover, thereby 
fortified against numerous temptations to 
which others are exposed in such circum- 
stances. The voyage to Australia is 
lengthened and wearisome. Many a man 
has learned to drink ' in his cabin on the 
sea.' The occasional sickness which he 
may have experienced, the loneliness of his 
situation, the unbroken monotony of his 
life, the sameness of the scene perpetually 
stretching out before him, the feeling of 
lassitude caused by the intense heat of a 
southern clime, and the example and in- 
vitation of others, all ssemed to him to 
justify his frequent and free dealings with 
the bottle, and ere he was aware, the ap_ 



50 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



petite for drink was formed. More than 
this, many a ship is little else than a 
floating tavern — the scene of indescribable 
iniquity — and a tavern, alas ! from which 
the man of weak resolution can find 
no means of escape. The writer has 
a letter before him which he has received 
within a few weeks past from passengers 
in an emigrant ship bound for Melbourne, 
describing scenes of dissipation and wick- 
edness which had occurred on board, and 
which could scarcely be surpassed in any 
haunt of profligacy on land. The crew of 
the vessel referred to, from the captain to 
' the man before the mast,' were all dissi- 
pated. They spent their evenings espe- 
cially in revelry and wickedness. Num- 
bers of the passengers joined them in their 
' works of darkness,' and those who did 
not were subjected to endless annoyances 
and grievances. The lives of all on board 
were several times placed in the most im- 
minent jeopardy through the recklessness 
of the crew. Among the passengers was 
one who'had been rescued from the thral- 
dom of intemperance. He had but re- 
cently come out victoriously from the 
terrible struggle for freedom. But, alas ! 
fiends in human shape compassed his down- 
fal. The captain invited him to drink from 
tinie to time, pleaded with him, and used 
every endeavour in his power to persuade 
him to yield. He would not listen to the 
cruel invitation. He resisted manfully, and 
stood firm. At length the captain, bent 
on his diabolical purpose, mixed strong 
drink with some lime juice, which he gave 
him. The accursed plot succeeded. The 
slumbering appetite was awakened anew, 
and the man lay prostrate once more be- 
neath the power of the destroyer. How 
perilous was the condition of those who 
were at the mercy of that man ! The 
probability is strong, that with such a crew, 
and amid such scenes, there were drun- 
kards made during that voyage. Surely, 
then, there is need for those who contem- 
plate emigrating to adopt and maintain, 



and rigidly carry out, a principle that 
will preserve them from the contamina- 
tion of this insinuating vice I 

Third. Abstinence will be most advan- 
tageous to the emigrant as a means of 
prosperity in his new homo. Let the 
intending emigrant bear in mind that 
the state of society in Australia is not 
as yet of a very settled or solid character. 
The elements of which it is composed help 
materially to account for this. Many of 
the people are the merest adventurers, 
many of them are individuals who brought 
disgrace upon themselves in their native 
country, and not a few are run-away con- 
victs. What can be expected of these but 
that their morality should be of a very 
loose kind? There are other classes, 
moreover, who, whilst they are not quite 
so bad as these, cannot be regarded as 
either conservators or regenerators of so- 
ciety. Add to this, the demoralising in- 
fluence of gold, when easily obtained in 
large quantities by a people bent on its ac- 
quisition, and it will be apparent that 
society in Australia meanwhile must he 
anything but inviting. The facts of the 
case hear us out in the position we have 
taken. Drinking and drunkenness prevail 
to an appalling extent. Take the follow- 
ing statements: — We read in M'PkutCs 
Australian News: — 'Melbourne exhibits 
the most lamentable aspect that lawlessness, 
houselessness, overcrowding, and cupidity 
can create. . . . Money to an enormous 
extent is spent in drunkenness.' 'Nine 
out of every ten,' says The Emigrant's 
Letter, ' whom you meet on the streets 
of Melbourne during the day are the worse 
of drink.' MrF. Hobson writes in the Leeds 
Times : — ' 0[}en coaches, with about six 
persons inside, just down from the gold 
fields, are wildly rushing about in all di- 
rections. After they have been to some 
place and got intoxicated, they pay the 
driver anything he asks.' Mr Hobson 
adds — ' Mr Shaw is correct in telling you 
that many will pretend friendship, ask you 



THE ABSTAINER 8 JODKNAL. 



51 



to a glass, and then drug it. This is a 
great practice here. I saw a young man 
the other day, who had just come down 
from the diggings with a friend, whom he 
loved as a brother, and tears rolled down 
his cheeks when he told me that his 
friend had been poisoned in this manner. 
He came ia at night, and told his mate he felt 
unwell, and was dead next day at 12o'clock.' 
The Scotsman of the 7th ult. publishes 
a letter, from which we take the following : 
— ' The public-house keepers are making 
fortunes here (Melbourne). They charge 
enormous prices for their commodities, 
but for all that, I do not think that there 
is more drink consumed in any place of the 
same size on the whole face of the globe. 
The most of the women that one meets on 
the street, seem to Hke their grog as well 
as the men.' 

How strong, then, must be the tempta- 
tions to which the emigrant is exposed in 
such a country ! Far from the pLice of his 
nativity, feeling less the restraints of good 
society than he was wont to do in the land 
from which he has gone, coming into con- 
tact mth numerous people of loose cha- 
racter and habits, \vitnessing appalling 
scenes of profligacy daily around him, 
what need is there that he should maintain 
and exhibit the very strictest sobriety ? 
This will be best done by an unflinching 
adherence to the principle of abstinence. 



THE SUB-COMMITTEE: OR, 
SLAVERY AND STRONG DRINK. 

Some five or six days after the arrival of 
my two friends from An:erica, found them, 
along with myself and Dr Beilboux, at the 
close of one of the May meetings, lingering 
in a corner of the platform of Exeter Hall. 
The elder, Mr Addison, was rising fifty — 
tall, lank, and bony — with a countenance 
sustaining that relation to other counte- 
nances, which cast-metal does to wrought 
iron. There was a hardness about it, sug- 
gesting the idea, not of growth, subject to 



all the softening influences of humanity, 
but manufacture. 

His colleague, Mr Joseph, was as differ- 
ent as could well be imagined. The kalei- 
descope could not assume a greater variety 
of aspects than his countenance. ' From 
grave to gay, from lively to severe.' No 
wonder that the daguerrotype is often found 
at fault, as well as the old portrait paint- 
ing. It would have been in vain to ask 
him to keep his countenance thirty seconds 
in one position. 

An ofiicial made his way to Dr Beilboux, 
and stated that the Sub-Committee were 
waiting to be introduced to Messrs Addi- 
son and Joseph. 

Dr Beilboux, after having introduced the 
Americans to the Committee individually, 
was called to the chair. 

He rose, and fixing his eyes upon the 
table before him, and drawing his eye- 
brows together, as if to get the mind within 
to a nice focal point, so as to be fit for 
action, much in the same way that we gra- 
duate a telescope to the eye, addressing the 
strangers, said — ' Brethren from a far land, 
I have already, in private, made you ac- 
quainted with the design of this Committee. 
The object of our constituents was to 
strengthen the hands of our brethren, the 
Abolitionists of America, by refusing to 
hold communion with pro-slavery men, 
coming to this country. We know your 
characters. Your credentials from the 
Anti-Slavery Society, if you please to lay 
them before us, will enable us at once to 
testify that you are true men. As, how- 
ever, you have intimated to me that yon 
have some difficulty in recognising the 
authority of this Committee, you have 
now an opportunity of bringing this sub- 
ject before us.' 

filr Addison, at great length, explained 
their position, and concluded by express- 
ing his determination not to recognise the 
Committee. ' Except,' he added with em- 
phasis, ' this Committee express to ns 
j^heir readiness to reciprocate our recogni- 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



tion of their authority, by recommending 
their brethren to submit to any similar 
appointment made in America, with regard 
to visitors coming from Britain.' 

• That is the easiest thing possible for us 
to do,' said Mr Bright, one of the Com- 
mittee. ' It is most unlikely that visi- 
tors from Britain should be in any way im- 
plicated in slavery. I think we ought to 
feel no difficulty in pledging ourselves to 
reciprocity.' 

' I beg pardon, Mr Chairman,' said Mr 
Addison, ' Mr Bright has entirely misappre- 
heuded my proposition.' 

' Your proposition was reciprocity' said 
two or three voices. 

' And my design also,' continued he ; 
' but for brethren from Britain to submit 
credentials to a Committee in America on 
the question of slavery, would not be reci- 
procity at all. Reciprocity does not always 
consist in performing exactly the same 
action in a given case, but something equi- 
valent. Reciprocity for the abolition of 
your corn laws would not be for us to 
admit your com free of duty, but your 
manufactures,' 

' What analogous evil,' said Mr Bright, 
' do you suppose to exist in this country, 
which it is within the range of probability 
might become the subject of remonstrance 
from America. It would be folly for us to 
allow ourselves to be turned away from 
effecting present good, by the dread of some 
future evil, perhaps not likely ever to 
occur.' 

During this conversation, I noticed my 
friend, Mr Joseph, several times attempt- 
ing to get into the discussion ; and I 
thought his more cautious companion 
seemed desirous to get him kept out of it. 
If so, however, his efforts were in vain ; for 
a pause occurring after the last speaker, 
which Mr Addison did not seem very readily 
to take advantage of, he was immediately 
upon his feet. 'Mr Chairman and gentlemen, 
brethren,' he said, ' the contingency spoken 
of by my brother, Mr Addison, is only un- 



certain because future ; for I myself have 
been present when the subject has been 
proposed, and only rejected because of the 
difficulty of discerning the exact limit 
when the interference of one nation in the 
affairs of another becomes impertinence.' 

' On what subject, I beg to ask, Mr 
Chairman,' said Mr Bright, ' was this pro- 
position to which Mr Joseph refers ?' 

' To the use of intoxicating drinks,' said 
Mr Joseph. ' Nearly a quarter of a mil- 
lion of men with drinking habits, are 
thrown upon us from your shores annually. 
The safety of our country is the character 
of our people. Rum is bought among us 
at sixpence a bottle ; let a man have the 
desire for strong drink at all formed, prior 
to his coming to America, and he becomes 
a drunkard at once. Thousands upon 
thousands of such exist among ns at pre- 
sent. The very preservation of our country 
from destruction requires not only our 
vigorous efforts at home, but changed views 
on this subject in the countries of Europe 
from whence these multitudes come, and 
principally from Britain, as the chief stream 
of our immigration comes from thence.' — 
After a pause, Mr Bright rose and said, 
' We certainly are disappointed in the result 
of this meeting ; but I would not have it 
go forth to the world that our brethren 
put the use of intoxicating liquors and the 
sin of slavery on the same footing. Nothing 
would more certainly damage the cause of 
abolition in this country. I think it would 
much simplify our future intercourse with 
America if we could understand each other 
ou this subject.' 

The Chairman shook his head. So also 
did Mr Addison. 

My friend, Mr Joseph, on the contrary, 
stood like a grey-hound in the leash, ap- 
parently wishing for nothing more than a 
discussion. He and the Chairman rose 
together. ' I submit,' said the Chairman 
entreatingly, ' whether it be proper for us to 
enter upon such a discussion, and whether 
the least good can be expected to come 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



53 



out of it T Still the general opinion seemed 
to be against him. John Bull is a dogged 
antagonist ; he will not quit the field under 
the suspicion of defeat. He will suffer 
defeat itself first. Jonathan is so confident 
of his strength, that he may be compared 
to a prize fighter at a market, taking all 
possible means of getting into a scrape, to 
show how dexterously he can get out of it. 

Mr Joseph now had the field to himself. 

' I do not wish,' he said, ' to force this 
subject into discussion ; -but I feel that I 
am ahle, and I am also ready, if any gen- 
tleman desires it, to demonstrate the pro- 
priety of classifying intoxicating drinks 
with slavery ■' 

' And / do desire it,' said Jlr Bright, 
evidently getting warm. The other mem- 
bers of committee, by their looks, evinced 
their sympathy with him. 

' I may be permitted to suggest,' said 
Mr Joseph, ' that it will shorten the dis- 
cussion, if Mr Bright will state the grounds 
upon which he opposes slavery, when I 
will attempt to show that the use of intoxi- 
cating drinks is liable to opposition upon 
the same or similar grounds.' 

' Then, I assert,' said Mr Bright, ' that 
scripture does not condemn the use of 
intoxicating drinks.' 

' That,' said Mr Joseph, smiling, ' is 
beginning at the wrong end; but no mat- 
ter. Do you assert that scripture con- 
demns slavery ?' 

'Indirectly it does. It condemns the crimes 
inseparable from it — fornication, concu- 
binage, ignorance, cruelty, etc' 

' Ah I now I understand you,' said the 
dexterous wrangler. 'But you don't 
mean to say that the very sins you have 
named as the product of slavery, are not 
produced also through intoxicating drink ; 
nor, I presume, will you be inclined to 
assert that sins are offensive to God and in- 
jurious to man, when committed through the 
instrumentality of slavery, but not so when 
produced through intoxicating drinks.' — 

It began to be pretty evident that Mr 



Bright had, to use a vulgar phrase, caught 
a Tartar. 

' These evils,' he said, ' are inherent in 
the system of slavery ; but the result of 
excess as regards intoxicating drinks.' 

' There are slaves as happy,' said Mr 
Joseph, ' as virtuous, and in circumstances 
as fitted to foster virtue as man, in this 
world, can be in. These are exceptions. 
So are there virtuous men, the excellent of 
the earth, who use strong drink without 
injury, ^erAops to themselves. — Concerning 
the eflfects of their conduct upon others, 
we say nothing. — They can never prove it 
harmless. But let that stand. Taking 
individual cases, you will find the practice 
of slavery and the use of strong drink ap- 
parently harmless ; but viewing slavery as 
a system, or marking its operations within 
a given district, and viewing the use of 
intoxicating drinks as a system, or noticing 
its efFects within a given district, the sins 
named, and many, many others, are justly 
applicable to both.' 

' Only from abuse,' ejaculated the whole 
committee. 

'Then it is from abuse in both cases,' 
said Mr Joseph, 

' You don't say, at least,' said Mr 
Bright, pettishly, ' that the use of intoxi- 
cating liquors in this country, has rendered 
legislation necessary to prevent men from 
learning to read the book by which they 
must be judged.' 

' I might pass by that argument, I 
think,' said Mr Joseph ; ' but allow me to 
say that in Britain, in innumerable instances, 
intoxicating drink prevents children from 
ever learning to read. In the slave States 
this is done by law. In the free States of 
America and Britain, it is effected by 
intoxicating drink ivithout law ; but it is 
done. I freely admit, however, that there 
are peculiar evils produced by slavery not 
produced by the use of intoxicating drinks; 
as th^re are peculiar evils produced by in- 
toxicating drinks, not produced by slavery.' 

'With your permission, Mr Chairman,' 



54 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



said one of the aged members of the Com- 
mittse, ' I beg to ask Mr Joseph, through 
yon, whether the best men are not repre- 
sented in Scripture as using intoxicating 
di'inks without blame ?' 

' I shall answer that question by aslfing 
another,' said Mr Joseph. ' Are not the 
best men represented as possessing slaves, 
without blame ? But are not some of the 
best men represented also as not using 
intoxicating drinks — Daniel, Samuel, 
Timothy, for instance ? And did not 
Paul state, that if in circumstances in 
which any particular kind of meat or drink 
caused injury to his brother, he would ab- 
stain from that, whatever it might be ?' 

It was evident that a coup-de-etat was 
meditated by the restless Ciiairman. 

' My opposition to your abstinence,' says 
Mr Bright, ' is that it is your gospel — 
those who adopt it swear by it — where it 
is, everything is right ; where it is not 
everything is wrong.' 

' I dare say,' said Mr Joseph, ' we err 
in many things. Had we more Mr Brights 
among us, we should no doubt manage 
matters much better than we do. But are 



you aware that this is also one of the 
Strong objections made to our anti-slavery 
agitation in the States? Embark your 
energies, it is said, in christianising the 
slaves, and then they will be God's free- 
men. We do what we can for that object, 
also. I think I may assert that the 
total abstainers are not behind their 
brethren in their efforts for evangelising 
the country, or in the practice of any good 
work.' 

The Chairman could contain himself no 
longer. Fixing his eye upon Mr Joseph, 
he rose. 

' I suppose,' said Mr Joseph, ' you think 
me out of order.' 

The Chairman said nothing, but his 
countenance assented to the supposition. 

' I shall conclude then,' said Mr Joseph, 
' by stating that, on any platform in your 
country, I shall hold myself ready to prove 
that the arguments adduced in support of 
the use of strong drink will support the 
continuance of slavery ; and that the 
grounds upon which the practice of slavery 
is repudiated, demand, in consistency, the 
abandonment of strong drink.* 



Narratii)£ Sfeetc]^. 



A DRUNKARD'S END. 



A NARRATIVE OF FACTS. 



It was on the evening of Saturday the 
29th of May last, while I was employed 
in the work of preparation for the follow- 
ing Sabbath, the servant announced the 
name of a neighbouring farmer. In a state 
of evident excitement, he informed me that 
a well-known individual of the name of 
John Anderson, who was usually employed 
in carrying timber from the forest of Dar- 
naway to the port of Nairn, was found dead 
about half-a-mile distant, and that his body 
presented a shocking and horrible appear- 
ance. He farther told me that the man 
had been discovered in flames by a herd- 
boy, who had given the alarm, and they 
were only extinguished by a female pouring 



upon the burning body some pailfuls of 
water, from a burn that ran close by. The 
body, he said, was so blackened and burned 
by the fire, that it was doubtful if it could 
be lifted without falling to pieces. The ob- 
ject of his visit was to request me to go 
and break the intelligence of the man's 
death to his wife, who lived in a village 
about a mile distant. Having requested 
the farmer to accompany me, we proceeded, 
without any delay, to the discharge of this 
painful duty. 

The evening was mild and lovely ; and 
as we neared the ct ttage to which our steps 
were directed, I felt as if this world were 
like an instrument sadly out of tune, whose 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



55 



music fell discordant on the ear. The 
outer world was full of melody and mirth, 
but the feelings of my heart were those of 
sorrow and sadness. The scene around was 
clothed with the 'garments of praise,' but 
the scene before me was shrouded with dis- 
aster and woe ; for in that humble abode 
which we now approached, the demon of 
Intemperance had reigned for years, and 
now the spoiler had sprung upon his prey, 
and torn away the husband from the broken- 
hearted wife, and the father from the help- 
less children. 

We entered, and, with as much delicacy 
as possible, informed the poor woman of 
the sad event that had befallen her. She 
received the intelligence with wonderful 
composure and resignation. She held a 
tender infant in her arms ; and her other 
children, to the number of six, and all young, 
came clustering around her, and seemed 
bewildered at the communication. The 
woman uttered no shrieks — she shed no 
tears. The springs of her heart were 
evidently dried up, and the usual emotions 
of grief were repressed by the very heavi- 
ness of her sorrow. 

While we were endeavouring to direct 
her mind to the widow's God, the horse 
and cart bearing the scorched and bloated 
body, and attended by a party of men, 
halted at the door. Dr Grigor, of Nairn, 
in the Report given in to the Procurator- 
Fiscal of the county of Nairn, can best des- 
cribe its appearance : — 

' On approaching the unfortunate man's 
dwelling, on the forenoon of 31st May, I 
found that the funeral had passed on to the 
church-yard of the parish of Dyke, and 
after a little explanation to the attendants, 
I succeeded in getting a hurried autopsy 
within the church. On removing the 
grave-sheet, I found a black incinerated, 
and stiffened body. The legs and arms 
were crossed ; the latter raised from the 
chest. The position was one of ease, and 
the body had not been touched since first 
rolled up. The eyes, ears, and nose were 
burned away ; teeth clenched ; and from 
the mouth bubbled out some white froth 
and gas. The lining membrane on the 
inside of the lips and cheeks was quite 
burned ; also the edges of the tongue, and 
the hair and skin of the head. The skin 
and cellular tissue of the body were much 
charred, the thighs not to the same extent, 
and the burning had ceased about midway 
between the knees and feet, where there 
was a reddish and slightly blistered line. 
' On inquiry, I found the wretched man's 
history to be the following: — He has been 



a carter, as above stated, for several years ; 
has drunk, at least, of ardent spirits daily, 
on a average, a common bottleful, besides 
porter, beer, etc. ; left Nairn, on the day 
of his death, intoxicated; in passing an 
intermediate village, was seen coming on 
"all fours" out of one of those many 
" publics " which are the opprobria of our 
smaller towns and villages in the north of 
Scotland. He was, however, one of those 
" soaking " individuals, who much sooner 
los3 the locomotive balance than a know- 
ledge of his situation and work; hence, 
when on his cart, he could talk and 
manage his horses tolerably well. He had 
a brother carter with him, a neighbouring 
toll-keeper, who was sober; and they parted 
company at the toll-gate of Harmuir, 
within half a mile of the place where the 
body was found. Before this, however, 
Anderson wished his pipe to be lit and 
handed to him ; but his friend, thinking he 
had no need of a smoke, merely put a little 
fire on the old tobacco ash, when he drew, 
and immediately said, " She is not in." 
The conversation went on for ten minutes, 
when the poor man turned his horses' 
heads homewards. All this time the pipe 
was in his hand. The tollman, who was 
much on the mad with him, declared that 
Anderson seldom lighted his own pipe, and 
never almost knew him to carry lucifers. 
The dress was a woollen shirt, canvas 
frock, corduroy trousers, and "a wide- 
awake." The weather was very warm and 
dry. When a little farther on his way 
homewards, smoke was seen rising up from 
the cart in which the man was, and which 
contained a good deal of hay, by a herd 
boy on a neighbouring rising ground, 
about one-fourth of a mile distant. The 
man was next seen to descend from the 
cart, to stand, then to stagger and fall. 
The horses stood still. In a few minutes, 
smoke again appeared from the ground, 
when the boy ran down, and found the 
body lifeless, black, disfigured, and burn- 
ing. He hurried to a cottage close by, 
and returned with a woman having a 
water-pail, with which they drew water 
several times from a rivulet almost at their 
feet, and thereby extinguished the burning 
body and garments. The position was on 
the back, inclining to one side ; arms and 
legs as before mentioned. The time that 
elapsed between the boy seeing the man 
come down from his cart and the water 
being dashed on, is represented as not 
more than fifteen minutes. The body was 
wrapt in a sheet, and removed home. The 
pipe was found lying below the body with 



5G 



THE abstainer's JODKNAL. 



the cap on, apparently as it had been put 
into his hands. The clothes were all 
consumed, except the lower parts of the 
legs of the trousers, where the burning had 
ceased, and a small portion of the shirt, 
frock, and hat, immediately between the 
body and the ground. There was none of 
the hay burned. 

' Remarks. — Thecase atfirstsight appeared 
to me to have arisen from the clothes having 
by some means caught fire, and the smoke 
therefrom producing death by asphyxia — the 
subject being much intoxicated ; but second 
thoughts demonstrated a few points not 
reconcileable to my mind with this viev/, 
such as the position on the back, etc. — 
the event taking place in the open air — 
rigidity of the limbs — no trace of fire — and 
the rapidity and extent of the combustion, 
whilst this latter (compared with the ac- 
counts of martyrs, suttees, and others who 
have been consumed, and the great quantity 
of fuel and the time that have been re- 
quired) and no apparent struggle or attempt 
having been made to cast off the burning 
garments, or to quench the flames in the 
brook running alongside, whilst the man 
was not at all in a state of insensibility 
from his potations, led me to the belief, 
that it was no ordinary combustion 
from the application of fire. I have then 
been induced to regard it as a case of 
progressive igneous decomposition, com- 
mencing during life without the application 
or approach of any hot or burning body, as 
beheved in by several continental physio- 
logists of eminence. Such a state of 
matters I know has been regarded by 
many as almost fabulous ; but the numbers 
of general instances from good authorities, 
and from all parts of the world, of spon- 
taneous combustion, or as Beck more 
properly terms it, preternatural combusti- 
bility of the human body, and written on 
by Dr Mason Good, and received into tiie 
Statistical Nosology from the General 
Register Office, now in the hands of most 
medical practitioners under the appellation 
of Catacausis Ebriosa, show that the 
doctrine cannot be wholly set aside.'* 
But while this case is of curious interest 
* Journal of Medical Science, Dec, 1852. 



in connection with physiological science, 
and while different opinions may be taken 
regarding it, in our apprehension it is far 
more important when viewed in a moral 
and religious aspect, in relation to the 
drinking systems which prevail in our coun- 
try. The occurrence produced a profound 
and salutary impression in the district at 
the time ; and it must be admitted by all 
serious and reflecting persons, that there is 
something about it inexpressibly awful .and 
affecting. When viewed in relation to the 
wretched man himself, who can think of his 
end without feelings of deep commiseration 
and real concern? Yea, who can think 
without horror of a man consumed in his 
own flames, and appearing in the presence 
of his Maker in a state of mental stupefac- 
tion, impurity, and guilt? When viewed 
in relation to the drinking customs of so- 
ciety, we would ask, can the publican, whose 
business it was to supply this man with the 
fatal draught, reflect on his conduct and 
say, ' I am pure from his blood ?' Yea, 
can those who were in the habit of yielding 
to his frequent solicitations for a dram, 
and who thereby contributed, in some de- 
gree, to bis overthrow, revert with any 
measure of satisfaction to the occasions 
when they administered the beverage that 
proved his ruin ? Again, if we view this 
case in relation to the Church (^for though 
he was a notorious drunkard he was ako a 
professed christian), we may well ask, 
where was the faithfulness of the men who 
profess to ' watch for souls as those that 
must give an account ?' It were easy to 
enlarge in this strain ; but ere we close 
these remarks, we cannot halp observing, 
that if any who read the account of this 
melancholy case should feel disposed to 
lament and deplore it, let them remember 
that it must be multiplied by tens of thou- 
sands ere the aggregate of domestic misery 
produced by the drinking systems of our 
land be placed before them ; and that they 
abet and support this cursed system by 
their example, in every glass of drink which 
they take, and lend their influence to foster 
and spread it by every glass of drink which 
they give. 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



57 



E^e QCcmperance pulpit. 



THE DRINK AT THE MARRIAGE OF CANA— WHAT IT WAS NOT. 
John ii. 1-11. 



In a former discourse we attempted to 
dispose of certain erroneous opinions, held 
by several eminent divines, respecting the 
nature of the wine made by our Lord and 
used at Cana. What, then, was the kind 
of wine there made and used ? To this 
question we will not pretend to give a 
definite replj'- ; but we think we are able 
to advance enough to deprive the lovers 
of wine of all the comfort which they are 
desirous to find in the miracle at Cana. 
Of one thing we are sure — and it 
is enough to our argument — that what- 
ever the wine was which was made by our 
Lord, it was not the article in common 
use among ourselves known by that name, 
and hence the miracle in question avails 
nothing as a sanction to the moderate use 
of modern wine. 

The liquor used in this country, 
and called wine, has been well desig- 
nated ' a vile compound ;' and what we 
shall adduce in the support of this 
charge shall be the testimony of wit- 
nesses before a competent tribunal. The 
evidence taken last year before a Com- 
mittee of the House of Commons upon the 
import duties on wine, is the first source 
from which we shall establish our charge. 
Mr James Forrester, an extensive grower 
of wines in the Alto-Douro, and other 
districts of the north of Portugal, declared, 
respecting the manufacture of wine : — 
' There is a mixture called Jeropiga, a 
mere adulteration. This extraordinary 
syrrup, this confection, this compound, 
composed of two-thirds must, or grape 
juice, and one-third brandy — and which 
brandy is about twenty per cent, above 
British brandy proof — is used for bringing 
up character in ports. Then sweetening 
matter, in every variety, and elder-berry 
dye is administered, for the purpose of 
colouring it and giving it a body. Elder- 
berry is the only dye made use of, and 
costs an enormous sum of money.'' Of 
course this large quantity of elder-berry 
juice, for which ' an enormous sum is 
paid,' goes down British throats ; but what 
about that — did not our Lord make wine, 
and countenance its use, at the marriage 
at Cana ! This gentleman also gave in 
evidence, that rich wine never con- 
tains less than fifteen to seventeen gal- 



lons of brandy to each pipe of 116. 
Moreover, Mr Forrester testifies that 
by the present Portuguese law, no unso- 
phisticated port wine is allowed to reach 
this country. Here, then, ere even the 
article is shipped for England, the very 
finest wines, as they are called, are exten- 
sively adulterated ; and yet our Lord's 
wine is to be adduced as an argument for 
drinking this choice compound ! 

Then, as respects adulteration in our 
own country, Mr Cyrus Redding, cele- 
brated as an author who has written much 
upon the subject of wines, described the 
mode by which wines are made by manu- 
facturers in London. He stated that 
brandy cowe, that is, washings of brandy 
casks, colouring, probably made of elder- 
berries, logwood, salt of tartar, green 
dragon, tincture of red Sanders or cud 
bear, were extensively used in preparing 
an article which sells as port. The en- 
tire export of port wine is 20,000 pipes, 
and yet 60,000, as given in evidence, are 
annually consumed in this country. In 
answer to the question where the extra 
40,000 are obtained, Mr W. J. Maxwell, a 
wine merchant, gave the significant reply — 
' I have not any experience of that ; it is, 
however, I suppose, known pretty well.'* 
Mr Redding, in his book on Wines, tells a 
story which shows the facility with which 
the system of adulteration is carried on. 
It is said that when George the Fmxrth 
was in the ' high and palmy ' days of his 
early dissipation, he possessed a very 
small quantity of remarkably choice and 
scarce wine. The gentlemen of his suite, 
whose taste m wine was hardly second to 
their master's, finding it had not been 
demanded, thought it was forgotten, and, 
relishing its virtues, exhausted it almost 
to the last bottle, when they were sur- 
prised by the unexpected command that 
the wine should be forthcoming at 
an entertainment on the following day. 
Consternation was visible on their faces ; 
a hope of escaping discovery hardly 
existed, when one of them, as a last 
resource, went off in haste to a noted 
wine brewer in the city numbered 

* Evidence before Select Committee on 
Import Duties on Wines, pages 16, 661, 662, 
449. 



C2 



58 



THE ABSTAINER S JOUKNAI,. 



among his acquaintance, and related bis 
dilemma. ' Have you any of the wine 
left as a specimen?' said the adept. 
' Oh yes, there are a couple of bot- 
tles.' ' Well, then, send me one, and I 
will forward the necessary quantity in 
time, only tell me the latest moment it 
can be received, for it must be drunk im- 
mediately.' The wine was sent, the de- 
ception answered ; the princely hilarity 
was disturbed by no discovery of the fic- 
titious potation, and the manufacturer was 
thought a very clever fellow by his 
friends. What would Sir Richard Steele 
have said to so neat an imitation, when in 
his day he complains that similar fabrica- 
tions were coarsely managed with sloe 
juice ? The science of adulteration must 
then have been in its infancy. 

Mr Redding also states that — In 
England Champagne has been made 
from white and raw sugar, crystallized 
lemon or tartaric acid, water, home 
made grape wine or perry, and French 
brandy. Cochineal or strawberries 
have been added to imitate the pink. 
Such a mixture at country balls or 
dinners passes off very well ; but no one 
in the habit of drinking the genuine wine 
can be deceived by the imposition. The 
bouquet of real Champagne, which is 
so peculiar, it is repeated, cannot be 
imitated — it is a thing impossible. 
Acidity in wine was formerly corrected 
in this country by the addition of quick 
lime, which soon falls to the bottom of the 
cask. This furnishes a clue to Falstaff's 
observation that there was " lime in the 
sack," which was a hit at the landlord, as 
much as to say that his wine was little 
worth, having its acidity thus disguised. 
As to the substances used by various 
wine-doctors for flavouring wine, there 
seems to be no end of them. Vegetation has 
been exhausted, and the bowels of the earth 
ransacked, to supply trash for this quack- 
ery. Wines, under the names of British, 
Madeira, Port, and Sherry, are also made, 
the basis of which is pale malt ; sugar- 
candy, French brandy, and port wine are 
added in small quantities to favour the 
deception. So impudently and notori- 
ously are these frauds avowed, that there 
are books published called ' Publicans' 
Guides,' and ' Licensed Victuallers' Di- 
rectors,' in which the most infamous 
receipts imaginable are laid down to 
swindle their customers. The various 
docks on the Thames do not Eecure 
purchasers from the malpractices of 



dishonest dealers; iu this many are 
deceived. It has been naturally yet 
erroneously imagined, that wine purchased 
in the docks must be a pure article. 
Malaga Sherry is constantly shipped to 
England for the real sherry of Xeres, 
Figueras for port, and so on. Port wine 
being sent from the place of its growth to 
Guernsey and Jersey, and there reshipped 
with the original quantity tripled for the 
English market, the docks are no se- 
curity. * 

Returning, however, to the report, what 
are the conclusions to be drawn from it ? 
Lest it should be thought that we are not 
iu the best position ibr stating, then let 
us give them as stated by a writer in the 
January number of Tait^s Mufjazhie : — 

' The conclusions which may bo drawn 
from the whole of this very curious and 
isiportant evidence appear to be, (1), that 
nearly all the wine imported into this 
country is previously adulterated with 
brandy or other deleterious infusions ; 
(2), that most of the liquids consumed as 
port and sherry in this country are 
spurious mixtures of various wines and 
spirits, or else are wholly manufactured in 
Great Britain.' 

Could there then be anything plainer 
than this, that whatever the wine was 
which was made by our Lord and used at 
Cana, it could not be the article called 
wine now in common use ? No such pro- 
cess of adulteration was then pi-actised ; 
and although it had, who can suppose that 
the product of his almighty power bore 
the slightest resemblance to such a fabri- 
cation ? Nor was the process of distilla- 
tion then known by which brandy is 
made ; so that the drinkers of what are 
considered even the best wines have no 
sanction from the miracle in question for 
quaffing their highly bi'andied compounds. 
Now, in the face of facts such as we have 
adduced, it will scarcely do for divines and 
drinkers to attempt to find a sanction for 
even moderate indulgence in the miracle 
of our Lord. 

On a future occasion, we shall approach 
as near as facts and sound criticism will 
allow us, a settlement of the question what 
the article really was which our Lord was 
graciously pleased to create, that the 
marriage festivity of Cana might remain 
a memorial of liis generous kindness and 
almighty power. 

• ' Redding on Wines,' pages 35C, 358, 362. 



THK ABSTAXNER'8 JOUKNAI.. 



69 



C^e Slftstainer's Journal 



Glasgow, March, 1853. 



A MAYOR'S NOTIONS OF RESPECTABILITY. 



At the second annual dinner of the 
Bradford Licensed Victuallers' Protection 
Society, S. Smith, Esq., the Mayor, pre- 
sided, and said some strange things. 
Among others, he enforced the opinion 
that one of the reasons why Bradford 
ranked so high in public morals, was the 
respectability of its puhlicans. We rejoice 
In so high a testimony borne to the good 
conduct of the population over which the 
Mayor presides ; but we suspect that the 
publicans have little claim to the credit of 
it. If this gentleman's opinion be correct, 
it opens up to us a new view of the ti'affic 
in liquor. We had been accustomed to 
regard its influence as invariably at war 
with social order and human well-being ; 
nor are we prepared to abandon this opi- 
nion till we have better reason for doing 
so than even a Mayor's speech at a publi- 
cans' dinner. Certainly, a chief magis- 
trate presidiqg at a publicans' dinner is 
not the best proof of the morality of 
a community. Few are the men. in an 
office so distinguished, who would so lend 
its influence and sanction to give respec- 
tability to a calling so disreputable as that 
which was the subject of Jlr Smith's 
laudations. A higher authority than that 
of the Mayor of Bradford has affixed to 
the calling the brand of infamy. Is he 
aware that the Government, in issuing 
their emigration schedules, append to each 
a significant N.B., to the effect — ' This is 
not to be signed by publicans or dealers in 
beer or spirits ?' Those at head quarters 
were not surely aware of the high charae- 
ter of the Bradford publicans, or there 
would doubtless have been made a special 
exception in their case. 

It had been as well, for the publicans' 
sake, the Mayor had said nothing about 



either their respectability or the oi'der of 
their hor.ses. To attempt to vindicate any 
system of wickedness, only leads to its 
more thorough exposure. It has been so 
in this case. Mr Edward Kenion, a 
member of the Town Council, has ably 

j and spiritedly met the Mayor's assertions. 

I In one letter he says : — 

I ' I thought it was patent to all the 
i world, that drunken orgies are of almost 
: nightly occurrence at one or other of the 
licensed houses of the town. I have been 
told of broken glasses and broken windows, 
tossing, card-playing, and other vices. 
I have the authority of different members 
of the police force that quiet drunkenness 
is far from being uncommon at some of the 
best-conducted inns in the borough.' 

This called forth a denial from Mr 
Henry Gledhill, Secretary to the Publi- 
cans' Association, the character of whose 
production proves him to be a fitting 
representative of such a fraternity. His 
attempted vindication is met by the fol- 
lowing crashing facts : — 

' The Bradford Town Mission has been 
in existence about three years, under the 
patronage of several magistrates, including 
the Mayor. Two reports have been pub- 
lished by its Committee, in one of which, 
after an appalling reference to a Sabbath 
evening scene vritnessed at a beer-house, 
it is stated — " ft is, however, nothing more 
than justice to state, that a number of 
public-houses and tap-rooms in town are as 
great a cause of Sabbath profanation as 
the beer-shops." In the latter report, pub- 
lished a few months ago, is the following : 
— " It is scarcely necessary to state that 
the beer-houses are a fruitful source of 
everything that is demoralising. In at 
least twelve of those dens of iniquity, pros- 
titutes are constantly harboured, and in 
almost the whole of the others every faci- 
lity for wickedness is afforded. Several of 
the public-houses are equally injurious." ' 

But to return to the Mayor's speech — 



60 



THE abstainer's JODKNAL. 



' If persons kept inns and public-houses,' 
he said, * it did not necessarily follow that 
they should encourage drinking to excess. 
(Hear, hear.) By no means. He was a 
great friend to temperance. He did not 
know that he was ever intemperate in his 
life; yet he was not a teetotaler. He 
held that it looked like a libel upon a 
person who was a teetotaler to confess it. 
It was confessing a weakness — that he 
could not govern his own conduct. 
(Cheers.)' 

In the view of this worthy Mayor, he 
v/ho is a teetotaler ' confesses t" a weak- 
ness.' We admit the charge. It is be- 
cause we have seen that thousands trained 
under influences as favourable to a vir- 
tuous course as those enjoyed by ourselves 
have fallen, that we fear we have not 
strength enough to resist the foe by which 
they were mastered, were we weak enough 
to submit to his blandishments. Does 
this Mayor not know that a consciousness 
of weakness is very much allied with the 
virtue of prudence, and that one of greater 
sagacity than what he can pretend to, 
has said, ' Let him that thinketh he 
standeth, take heed lest he fall ?' 

'No man,' adds the Mayor of Bradford, 
'who had any degree of respect for him- 
self would drink to excess, because it was 
the sure way not only to injure himself, 
but to impoverish his family. And be 
was equally sure, that no respectable 
man would encourage another to drink to 
excess.' 

True, no man who has ' any degree of 
respect for himself will drink to excess ;' 
but is it not equally true, that many a 
man drinks to excess who once had 
respect for himself, and that drinking for 
a time, somewhat under the degree of 
excess, had to do with his losing that 
respectability ? We are not, however, so 
sure as the Mayor ' that no respectable 
man would encourage another to drink to 
excess.' We believe the Mayor of Brad- 
ford is a highly respectable man, and yet 
the very countenance he was that evening 
giving to a gathering of publicans, did 
not pass over without .affording a practical 



refutation of his assertion. A chief ground 
on which we condemn all drinking cus- 
toms, public and private, is the fact of 
their giving countenance to excessive 
drinking. When did a public drinking 
company assemble without respectable 
men encouraging others to drink to excess? 
We never heard of such a thing, nor are 
we aware that licensed victuallers are so 
proverbially temperate as to form an 
exception to the rule. 

We trust that henceforth the Mayor of 
Bradford will aflford the influence of his 
respectable name and honourable office in 
behalf of other movements than con- 
federacies formed with the view of per- 
petuating our greatest social evil, and 
sacrificing to mercenary ends the highest 
interests of the community. 



TEMPERANCE IN HIGH PLACES. 
It is with peculiar satisfaction that we 
have learned the fact, that the Countess 
of Zetland is an earnest teetotaler, and 
that the Earl has engaged a temperance 
lecturer to labour amongst the men em- 
ployed in his ironstone works at Marske, 
near Redcur. It will be obsen'ed from 
what follows that the Duke of Sutherland 
is also taking up the subject in a practical 
way. Another nobleman, who stands high 
in the favour of his Sovereign, has also 
declared to a friend of our own, that he 
acts upon our principle ; and if rumour 
be true, we need not be surprised should 
more than one of our leading aristocracy 
ere long - identify themselves with our 
cause. This is as it ought to be, and 
holds out the hope that our drinking cus- 
toms shall ere long yield to the combined 
influence of truth and the will of those 
who regulate the courtesies of life. 



MEASURES IN BEHALF OF OUR 

FISHERMEN. 
The following extract from a letter from 
the Duke of Sutherland to the Wick and 
Pulteneytown Chamber of Commerce, was 



THE ABSTAINER S JOTTRSAL,. 



61 



recently the subject of a most cordial dis- 
cussion at a meeting of that respectable 
body. Speaking of the Wick fishermen, 
he says: — 

' Will not the crews be persuaded to 
take their wages instead of the spirits ; and 
have not all our people the good sense to 
acknowledge that what is bad for others 
must be so for them? Let me request 
you to take such measures as you may 
consider best to effect this result ; if I can 
be of any service in it, I should feel 
obliged to you to inform me. I know that 
much has been done at Edinburgh by the 
establishment of coffee-houses. I would 
readily endeavour to obtain from them 
any information that may be required, or 
be of service in an}- way in my power, — 
feeling much impressed with the impor- 
tance of the object, — so much so, that I 
consider it a duty to urge it. I know that 
in Wick there are who wish to co-operate. 
If I were able to take a part in person 
there, I would willingly do so ; but even 
if I were in the county, my state of health 
prevents attendance at pubUc meetings. 
I must therefore request any who will 
thus favour me to act as representing me 
on this occasion, and kindly forward mea- 
sures, such as a resolution to give the 
crews wages in money, and not to allow 
whisky as a substitute. — I am, Sir, very 
truly yours, &c., 

' SUTHEKLAND.' 

Datid Anderson, Esq. of Strath, 
the Chairman, said the subject was one 
of very great importance, and from its 
intimate bearing on the well-being of the 
people employed in the trade, he hoped all 
would agree in co-operating with his 
Grace. The first time he had come in 
contact with the practice of supplying 
spirits was in the Firth of Forth, where 
the men and women were supplied three 
times a-day, and the consequence was, 
that the population were coarse and de- 
based. He could not think that whisky 
was more necessary for fishermen than 
those engaged in other employments; the 
Americans pursued their whale fisheries 
on temperance principles, and that, he 
believed, was one great secret of their 
success ; and our own fishermen, too, who 
engaged in the white fishing, were in the 
habit of leaving their homes and going out 
for miles on the German Ocean, in the 
depth of winter, with no other provisions 
than some bread and water, clearly showing 
that the use of whisky was not indispen- 



sable. He was quite convinced that if the 
same amount of money were spent on 
warm clothing and proper food, it would 
be much more for the benefit of the fisher- 
men and those engaged in the trade. 
He might state, that on his own stations 
he had not given any whisky for the past 
twenty years, and when money or an 
order was given instead, the consumption 
of spirits was diminished at least by one- 
half, and the Duke of Sutherland was 
quite correct in his views as to the effects 
of paying money in lieu of spirits. The 
practice of giving women whisky was a 
very injurious one, the more especially as 
most of those who resorted to the fishing 
were young women. On his own premises 
he had not given whisky to women for 
many years, and he believed his neigh- 
bour, Jlr Crawford, had followed the same 
course, and had found coffee or beer to be 
a better substitute. As the Duke of 
Sutherland seems to take a deep interest 
in the matter, he hoped that, as Governor 
of the British Society, he would cause a 
refreshment room to be erected in Pul- 
tenejtown, in a convenient place, and if 
so, he (the Chairman) would do his best 
to procure a tenant. He hoped all pre- 
sent would agree to banish the bottle fiora 
their stations. One or two instances he 
might here allude to, as to the evil effects 
of the use of whisky. About two years 
ago, the crew of a ilorayshire boat left 
this harbour in a state of intoxication, and 
on the way, it is supposed, the men had 
quarrelled, and two of them were never 
more heard of. Another Forth skipper 
got intoxicated, and walked over the quay 
instead of walking into his boat. A skipper 
of one of his own boats, at end of last season, 
got tipsy in setthng with his men, and after- 
wards went to sea with a made-up crew ; 
but wlule at sea he became so outrageous 
that, though there was an immense shoal 
offish on the shore at the time, and boats 
hauling 50 crans beside them, they had to 
return without shooting their nets. By 
losing that night's fishing, he knew that 
the man's family were in great misery ever 
since. Lately a crew left this port for 
Duubeath, but were in that state that they 
passed it unknown, and were wrecked 
near Naviedale, making a narrow escape 
■with their lives. All these accidents and 
miseries were the result of the use of ar- 
dent spirits ; and they were very much 
indebted to the Duke for bringing the sub- 
ject of this monster grievance before the 
Chamber. Differences of opinion no doubt 
existed among them as to the policy pur- 



62 



THE abstainer's JOXTSNAL. 



sued in the ruanagement of harbour mat- 
ters, but all were agreed that the Duke of 
Sutherland was a nobleman of the highest 
rectitude of character and benevolence of 
intention, and he hoped all would comply 
with his (thB Duke's) judicious and hu- 
mane request. All that is wished is, that 
the curers should give neither wliisky nor 
an order, but pay the equivalent in money ; 
and he hoped there would be no difficulty 
in carrying out the suggestion. The Duke 
had made a calculation of the quantity of 
whisky used on tlie curing stations, and 
the amount in money was truly very large. 

Several members here stated that they 
had acted on the principle for many years, 
and had found the good effects of it. 

The Chairman asked if any one pre- 
sent had objections to offer to the proposed 
measures for caiTving out this great social 
reform, which was so much needed, 
although he, at the same time, was bound 
to state that the fishermen here were not 
by any means so bad, as regarded their 
whisky allowance, as they were up the 
Firth. There a nine gallon cask was one 
of the first things spoken of in their agree- 
ments. 

Mr Crawford said they should begin 
by reforming at home, and could then re- 
fuse it with better grace to those in their 
employment. 

Mr Reid said he had good hopes of the 
country when such personages as the 
Duke of Sutherland and the Countess of 
Zetland were advocating the temperance 
cause. He understood that at Lybster 
some curers had in the fishing time given 
their coopers a shilling a-week, instead of 
whisky, a plan that was found advanta- 
geous both to the coopers and employers. 

Mr JosiAH Bremner remarked that 
he for one had followed tliat course for the 
last half dozen years. 

After remarks from Messrs J. Louttit, 
Sinclair Couper, Murdoch, Corner, Sinclair 
Bain, and others, who were all of one 
mind on the importance of the matter, it 
was unanimously agreed to follow out the 
plan proposed by the Duke of Sutherland 



— that no whisky, nor order on the dis- 
tilleries, be given to the fishermen, aud 
that money be substituted as an equiva- 
lent. 



BLACKIE'S EDITION OF BARNES' 

NOTES. 
It is but due to the highly respectable 
publishers of the Scotch edition of Barnes' 
Notes, to give insertion to the following 
paragraph from a letter which we have 
received from them, in reterence to an 
allusion in our notice of Dr Chalmers in 
the first number of the Journal. We are 
not aware that Mr Barnes liad B Jackie's 
edition in his eye when he complained of 
the suppression of his notes on the Mar- 
riage of Cana ; we are, however, glad that 
they are now inserted in the more recent 
edition which they have published, and 
have great pleasure in commending it to 
our readers as by far the most beautiful 
and complete edition of the Notes which 
has been published in this country : — 

' About a year ago, our attention was 
called to the fact, that notes on John ii. 
10, were not to be found in our edition. 
This induced us to send immediately for 
the most recent edition from America, 
when we found that these notes had been 
inserted when casting a new set of stereo- 
type plates, and at same time a revision 
of the whole volumes on the Gospels 
had been made. We had our stereotypes 
immediately gone over, these notes, which 
were the only material addition, inserted 
in their proper place, and the other 
emendations found in the volumes made 
throughout. 

' Our work, therefore, contains all Mr 
Barries' notes as he has written them, no 
suppression having taken place on the 
subject of total abstinence or anything 
else.' 



© b 1 1 u a r g. 



THE LATE WILLIAM COLLINS, SEN., ESQ. 



This month we have to add to the list of 
our obituary, the name of a mau which 
will ever stand honourably associated with 
the early history of our movement. 

Wm. Collins was born in the parish I 



of Eastwood, and educated at the parish 
school. That intense desire to do good to 
others, which was the prominent charac- 
teristic of his after life, began very soon to 
show itself. Having obtained a situation 



THE abstainer's JOURNAI.. 



63 



in a large factory at PcUokshaws, the ' 
younger workers iu which had previously ! 
in that neighbor.rhood borne a rather ill ' 
name, he addressed himself immediately to \ 
the task of their intellectual and spiritual [ 
improvement. By week-day evening; and j 
Sabbath evening schools, conducted chiefly 
by himself, a reformatioa was ere long pro- } 
duced, so great and so manifest as not only 
to take entirely awjiy the reproach under ! 
which the factory had lain, but to establish '■ 
for it a character of the precisely opposite : 
kind. Workers from that establishment, 
instead of being avoided as before, were 
held to possess a recommendation in the 
very fact of their belonging to it. When , 
about twenty- three or twenty-four years of : 
age he came to Glasgow, and within little ; 
more than twelve months thereafter was or- I 
dained an elder in the Tron Church. From j 
the day when Dr Chalmers succeeded Dr ! 
M'Gill in the ministry of the Tron Church | 
in 1815, Mr Collins was ever foremost iu I 
carrying out the plans of that greatest re- 
former and evangelist of modern times. 

The temperance cause found in him a 
prompt and able advocate as early as 
1829 ; and at one cf the conferences held 
inGlasgov/ to hear John Dnnlop,Esq,, who 
has the honour of having introduced it to 
Scotland, ilr Collins attended along with 
about twenty other gentlemen. The 
opinions of those present were various. The 
subject was entirely new. One minister 
actually came to the meeting with a 
motion in his pocket prepared to quash 
the movement. No one, however, re- ! 
sponded to his inconsiderate attempt. At ' 
length Mr Collins rose and stated, that the ' 
intemperance of the countrj' had occupied ' 
his attention for some years ; that it had i 
not unfrequently kept him from sleep ; and 
that now he saw, for the first time, some- : 
thing like a ray of hope breaking upon the I 
gloomy scene. Others took courage, and 
through this energetic interposition, the 
meeting was not permitted to prove truit- 
less. On his motion, Mr Dunlop was 
requested to continue his labours ; and 
to report again to an adjourned meeting, 
agreed to be held in a few weeks 
afterwards. He was the first en- 
rolled member of the Glasgow and 
West of Scotland Temperance Society, 
which was formed, November, 1829. He 
placed himself iu the first ranks of the 
movement, and found no equal in the 
energy and abiUty with which he assailed 
the customs and prejudices with which 
drinking was associated. In June, 1830, 
he started ' The Temperance Record,' and 



acted both as its editor and publisher. Its 
pages will remain -a monument of his 
singular tact and zeal. The cause has 
never been able to boast of a more able 
periodical. His labours as a public ad- 
vocate were only limited by time and 
strength. The various towns of Scotland 
and England hailed him as the champion 
of a new reform, which promised emanci- 
pation from the intolerable curse of intem- 
perance. As a proof of his earnestness, it 
may be stated that he went to London, 
and after labouring several weeks, he could 
not get a single person to join him. He 
left London, and when he was fifty miles 
oaf, God put it into his heart to turn back 
and make another attempt ; but his 
second attempt was not more snccessfiil 
than the first, and he again left. He next 
went to Bristol, and succeeded in forming 
a temperance society there. His success 
induced him to return again to London, 
and make a third attempt, and under the 
blessing of a kind Providence he was suc- 
cessful. Sometimes his addresses occu- 
pied three hours in delivery ; and to this 
day, nothing has been published which 
surpasses them as an exhibition and de- 
fence of our principles. To a mind of a 
high order, he brought the aid of a heart 
burning with the purest philanthropy. It 
is not then to be wondered that wherever 
he appeared crowds Hocked to greet him, 
and hundreds left with impressions to 
wldch may be traced, in no small degree, 
the present condition of the temperance 
movement. 

So early as 1834, when the Parlia- 
mentary Committee was sitting, he had 
become convinced of the radical defect of 
the temperance principle ; that is, abstin- 
ence from distilled liquors and modera- 
tion in the use of fermented ones — the 
principle of the first societies. When be- 
fore that committee he said, with respect 
to drunkards, ' We find that though large 
cumbers of them have joined our tem- 
perance societies, and have remained 
sober for one, or two, or even three years, 
yet they genendly fall sometime or other. 
It has always been found that men never 
rest satisfied with a weak stimulant, when 
they have the opportunity of going for- 
ward to a stronger.' In 1835, he became 
so engrossed with the Church Extension 
Scheme, as it was called, that his efibrts 
in behalf of the temperance cause were con- 
siderably abated ; but to the close of life, 
his interest in it never failed. In 1851, 
the Directors of the League requested the 
liberty to publish his ' Harmony between 



64 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



the Gospel and Temperance Societies,' to 
which he cordially assented, and placed a 
new set of stereotype plates at their ser- 
vice. In a note to this edition, he says, 
that in the establishment and prosperity 
of abstinence societies, he cordially re- 
joiced. Soon afterwards he saw it to be 
his duty to give his adherence to the prin- 
ciples of total abstinence. He adopted 
the long pledge, and omitted no suitable 
occasion of pressing the question on the 
attention of those with whom he came 
into contact. He was an honorary 
director of the Glasgow Free Church 
Abstainers' Society at the time of his 
death ; and within the last twelve months, 
was vei-y desirous to prepare a tract spe- 
cially addressed to the members of the 
Free Church, for the purpose of showing 
what the money spent on intoxicating 
drinks might accomplish, if devoted to the 
cause of Christ ; but this object his de- 
clining health prevented him from accom- 
plishing. 

"When in Rothesay last spring, we called 
upon him several times, and were delighted 
to find that his attachment to the tem- 
perance cause was as ardent as at the 
period when he was more actively en- 
gaged in its promotion. On asking one 
day if he could suggest any plans more 
likely to be successful than those in opera- 
tion, he said : ' No; go on as you are doing. 
Multiply your pubUcations and agency, 
and you will ultimately triumph.' He 
stated that he did not expect much good to 
flow fi-om the efforts made to reduce the 
number of licences — his views as to the 
eflSciency of that mode of dealing with 
intemperance having undergone a decided 
change. In referring at another time to 
those who allege that temperance societies 
are opposed to the gospel, he with great 
energy of manner characterised the charge 
as a wicked one. On several occasions he 
spoke of the efforts being made by various 
denominations for the evangelisation of the 
masses ; and in very decided terms ex- 
pressed his conviction, that all such 
schemes would prove comparatively use- 
less, unless abstinence societies were made 
a special and prominent feature in their 
management. This view was stated very 
fully and very earnestly in a letter to 
the party to whom he forwarded his sub- 
scription of £100, in aid of the Free 
Church scheme for improving the religious 
character of the low population of Glasgow. 
He referred repeatedly in conversation to 
the enormous amount of money spent on 
strong drink by professing christians; 



sometimes expressing astonishment at the 
bhndness of christian men in overlooking 
this matter, when devising schemes for 
raising money to spread the gospel, — and 
at other times breaking forth into earnest 
exclamations, as to what might be done 
for the improvement of mankind, if the 
conductors of religious and benevolent 
societies had the money now spent on in- 
toxicating liquors. A missionary com- 
mittee which met in his house one day 
last year, being perplexed at the difficulty 
of raising sufficient funds to pay the salary 
of a congregational missionary, he re- 
minded the gentlemen present that the 
inhabitants of Rothesay drank as much 
every day as would support a missionary 
for a whole year. 

\\^e called upon him again in September 
last, aud found that his enthusiasm was 
even more lively than before. He was 
highly pleased with the changes then pro- 
posed and now successfully carried out, 
in regard to the League's periodicals, and 
passed a high eulogium on the conductors 
of the Scottish Temperance Review^. When 
told that the League intended to publish a 
selection from the temperance writings of 
i\Ir Kettle, he warmly approved of the 
proposal, and said that he intended to re- 
issue his own temperance speeches, to 
enable him to present copies to a number 
of friends whom he felt desirous to interest 
in the subject. We know of no more ap- 
propriate companion for the forthcoming 
volume of Mr Kettle's writings, than a 
volume of Mr Collins' speeches, in accor- 
dance with his own intention. They 
were companions in the early struggle of 
the movement ; and surely on the com- 
munity of Glasgow, at least, where their 
names stood so high, their combined testi- 
mony and warning would produce a salu- 
tary impression on all reflective minds. 



KEY. THOMAS SPENCER, M.A. 

This distinguished friend of every phil- 
anthropic effort died on Wednesday, 
26th Jan., at his residence at Netting Hill. 

He was born October 14, 1796, at 
Derby, in which town his father kept a 
large commercial school. In October, 
1816, the deceased went to St John's 
College, Cambridge. In March, 1823, 
Mr Spencer was elected fellow of St 
John's College, and in March, 1826, he 
was presented to the perpetual curacy of 
Hinton C harterhouse, near Bath — a living 
which he held nearly twenty-two years. 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



Go 



The parish of Hinton contained about 
seven hundred and thirty-seven inhabi- 
tants. Intemperance and pauperism pre- 
vailed to a great extent in the parish. 
About one hundred persons, including 
forty able-bodied men, were receiving 
parish pay ; and the poor-rales were above 
£700 a-year, and on one occasion £1,000. 
This fact gave a character to Mr Spencer's 
future career, which was chiefly devoted 
to the removal of pauperism and intem- 
perance, and to the elevation of the 
labouring classes. On the first intro- 
duction of the British and Foreign Tem- 
perance Society into the city of Bath, he 
signed the pledge, and became one of the 
secretaries of the Bath Auxiliary. This 
was the old Temperance Society, of which 
the Bishop of London was the president. 
In Septemler, 1839, he signed the further 
pledge of total abstinence from all intoxica- 
ting liquors, and formed a society in the 
village of Hinton. Meetings were held in 
the school-room, and an annual tea party 
on the lawn of the parsonage. But the 
great evil to overcome was pauperism, or 
the habit of living on parish pay, instead 
of depending on their own Industi'y and 
forethought. After much effort, however, 
Mr Spencer had the pleasure of seeing 
these idle paupers changed into diligent 
labourers ; the poor-rates were reduced to 
£200 a-year ; the farmers became more 
prosperous ; the money that was once 
paid in poor-rates was now spent in wages 
of labour ; wages became higher ; a 
marked improvement took place in the 
behaviour of the labourers ; and for the 
last ten years of Mr Spencer's residence 
there were no paupers receiving out-door 
relief, and only four or five in the work- 
house, and those either aged persons or 
young children. The efforts of Mr 
Spencer were afterwards extended to 
other parishes. Hinton was incorporated 
with twenty-four parishes in the Bath 
Union, and Mr Spencer was unanimously 
elected guardian ; and in the first year, 
the guardians, knowing the great im- 
provement which had been made in Hin- 
ton, elected him their chairman, and in 
that year the poor-rates were reduced 
from £19,000 to £11,000. In Septem- 
ber, 1 847, he announced to his parishioners 
his intention to resign. Since his resi- 



dence in London he has chiefly dedicated 
himself to the pulpit and the temperance 
platform; and in March, 1851, he was 
requested by the Committee of Vice- 
Presidents of the National Temperance 
Society, who had been appointed to reor- 
ganise that institution, to accept the office 
of secretary, and also the editorship of 
the National Temperance Chronicle. Mr 
Spencer commenced his duties as editor of 
the Chronicle in July, 1851 ; and the cir- 
culation of the magazine at once rose to 
a height greater than had, perhaps, been 
experienced in the case of any other tem- 
perance periodical. 

In the beginning of last year, he began 
to complain of the ' giddiness in the head,' 
and other painful feeling, which indicated 
that in his varied duties he was taxing his 
powers too much. In addition to his 
editorial duties, he was accustomed to 
lecture four or five times in a week, and 
conduct an extensive correspondence. In 
F'ebruary, Mr Spencer was attacked with 
paralysis, which was followed by a pro- 
tracted illness, the consequent suspension 
of his duties as editor of the Chronicle. 
He resumed his duties with the number 
for July, and for a time appeared to be 
improving in health, carefully avoiding 
every kind of excitement. Encouraged 
by his rapid progress, he was induced to 
consent to attend a meeting at Exeter 
Hall for the promotion of the Repeal of 
the Taxes on Knowledge. At the last 
hour he was coinpelleil to send a letter to 
the secretary to state that his health was 
such as to prevent his attendance. The 
results of the excitement he had passed 
through, together with the unremitting 
attention to his favourite duties, were from 
that day apparent. On the 25th a corre- 
spondent wrote : ' Mr Spencer's weakness 
increases fearfully — his christian patience 
and meekness under his complicated dis- 
eases is something quite marvellous, and 
can only be understood by those who 
know the power of divine grace.' At five 
o'clock on the following morning he died. 
The assigned cause of his death was an 
affection of the liver, but there were other 
diseases which attended the complete pro- 
stration of his nervous system. — Weekly 
News and Chronicle. 



66 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



Crorr£sp0n"lJ£nce. 



UNCLE TOM ON THE USE OF TOBACCO BY TEMPERANCE LECTURERS 
AND OTHER ABSTAINERS. 

TO THOSE WHO USE IT. 



Dear Friends, — Will you permit an old 
abstainer to offer you a word of remon- 
strance and advice, in reference to your 
use of tobacco ? My earnest desire to pro- 
mote tlie cause of total abstinence must be 
my apology for presuming to address you 
in the way of censure or admonition ; and 
as I believe that your use of the filthy 
weed, whether you smoke, snuff, or chew, 
is a great stumbling-block in the way of 
your successful advocacy or defence of the 
total abstinence principle, 1 feel myself 
impelled to entreat you, as consistent ab- 
stainers, to remove it. 

I was at one time a smoker myself, and 
know from experience the soreness of being 
found fault with, and perhaps not always 
in the softest way, for indulging in a 
cherished and long-formed habit ; but it is 
just because I know this, and have been 
constrained to renounce it, by a deep cnn- 
vietion of its utter inconsistency with absti- 
nence from into.xicating drink, that I hope 
you will bear with me while I entreat you, 
as fellow-labourers in the same great cause, 
to put it away from you. 

You will tell me, perhaps, as I have often 
been told, that the use of tobacco is not 
hurtful to society, as intoxicating liquor is. 
I grant that this is true, so far. But will 
you tell me that it is in any respects bene- 
ficial, or seemly, or inexpensive? The very 
reverse of all this is the case. Is it not, 
to say the least of it, a vile, stinking, 
poisonous weed ? Is not the use of it, 
whether smoked, or snuffed, or chewed, an 
intolerable nuisance to all but those who 
indulge in it ? The pure air of heaven is 
polluted with the nauseous odour of its 
smoke. In the form of dirty powder, in- 
haled into the nostrils of its votaries, the 
worshippers in the sanctuary, in the midst 
of the most solemn services, are disturbed 
and disgusted by its presence. In the par- 
lour, and at the social fireside, no furniture, 
however delicate or costly ; no feelings, 
however refined, are held sacred by the 
chewer, whilst recklessly he squirts around 
him the filthy juice of the nasty leaf. 

And I believe, when I thus express my- 
self, I am only uttering the sentiments of 
thousands in reference to these practices, 
and the annoyance and disgust which they 
occasion. And then think of the expense ! 



amounting in the United Kingdom, to be- 
tween five and six millions sterling; the 
duty alone for last year, was nearly four 
millions and a half! How can you con- 
sistently reprove the moderate drinker, for 
what you justly term a needless expendi- 
ture for intoxicating drink, wliile you spend 
so much as this upon an article, in whose 
favour, even less can, in various respects, 
be said, than of the other ? How can you 
ask him to exercise the self-denial of giving 
up that, which, in its more immediate ef- 
fects, injures but himself, whilst you persist 
in the use of that which is not only hurt- 
ful to yourselves, in its pernicious influ- 
ence on your physical sy.stem, but univer- 
sally disagreeable to others, and totally in- 
consistent with your professed principles, 
as abstainers from intoxicating drink? 

I entreat you, dear friends, to give it up. 
I appeal to your attachment to the total 
abstinence cause, and your desire for its 
advancement. It will cost you a struggle 
to renounce the habit, whatsoever form it 
has taken ; but it will be an honourable 
one, endured in a good cause. And I can 
assure you, that the satisfaction you will 
enjoy, from such a victory, will far more than 
outbalance the painfulness ofthe sacrifice. 

And, dear friends, do not take offence 
because I have express3d myself strongly 
on the subject. I mean no offence. My 
wish is, that you should be consistent, as 
well as successful advocates of total absti- 
nence ; and I believe you will never be so, 
in a high degree, till you apply to tobacco, 
as well as intoxicating drink, the good 
practical rule, 'TOUCH NOT, T.\STE NOT, 
HANDLE NOT.' 

TRACT BY E. BAINES, ESQ. 
(To the Editor oj" the Ahstidner's Journal.) 
Dear Sir, — Few, if any, ofthe numerous 
excellent appeals which have appeared in 
flivour of ' total abstinence' have produced 
throughout this neighbourhood such a gen- 
eral impression in favour of our principles, 
or so much special conviction, as the recent 
' Testimony and Appeal ' of Mr Baines, a 
proprietor and editor-iu-chief of the Leeds 
Mercury. And I rejoice that so able and 
so influential a public man has broken 
the spell, by which so many of our moral 



TRK abstainer's JOITENAI.. 



67 



and literary guides are bound ; men who 
possess enormous power over the minds 
and habits of mankind, but who are little 
aware how vastly the moral, tlie intellec- 
tual, and the social condition of society is 
advanced, by an abandonment of a class 
of ai;ents which have produced incalculable 
degradation and suffering ! 

Mr Baines's brochure (more especially 
the recent edition) deserves the widest 
circulation, and my sole object in forward- 
ing this note is to offer my humble testi- 
mony to its importance and value. I 
would earnestly recommend, therefore, to 
individuals and to societies the extensive 



circulation of this ' Appeal,' which, whilst 
challenging the upper classes to its fullest 
consideration, is eminently calculated, for 
its brevity and cheapness, for general 
perusal amongst the working classes, and 
none is better adapted for gratuitous dis- 
tribution amongst all orders. I would 
take this opportunity of respectfully urging 
upon emigrants to procure a large supply 
of this cheap manual of temperance, not 
only for the advantage of all on shipboard, 
but also for ultimate distribution in the 
distant countries to which they may pro- 
ceed. — I am, yours faithfully, 

Bradford. Thomas Beaumont. 



^Temperance ILitctature. 



Correspondence, containing Letters 
by the Rev. Mr Ireland of Elion, 
Rev. Dr Gdthkie of Edinburgh, and 
the Revs. Messrs Philip of Ellon and 
Brown of Cruden. 

Remarks on ' A Correspondence.' 
By a Village Layman. 

Reply to the Letter of the Rev. 
Mr Ireland. By R. Philip and G. 
Brown. 

Temperance and Dr Guthrie. A 
Pamphlet. By Rev. James Ireland. 

In February last year the Rev. ]\Ir Ire- 
land of Ellon addressed a note to the 
Rev. Dr Guthrie of Edinburgh, in which 
he states — ' On difiFereut occasions I have 
been met with the statement, by your 
brethren in the Free Church, " But Dr 
Guthrie does not act on the principle he 
recommends." ' 

To this note Dr Guthrie speedily replied, 
stating, that his labours in connection 
with the JIanse Scheme of the Free 
Church, had brought on heart complaint; 
that by medical advice he used a little 
wine ' for his heart's sake ;' that ho 
thought the temperance cause too good to 
abandon it for the insinuations of men 
from whom better tilings might have been 
expected ; concluding by thanking Mr 
Ireland for giving him an opportunity of 
explaining his case, and allowing him to 
make what use of this explanation he 
might think fit. 

The publication of this correspondence 
stirred up the ire of Mr Philip, Free 
Church minister of Ellon, who imagined 
that he was the person mainly referred to in 
Mr Ireland's letter. He instantly wrote to 



! Dr Guthrie, in order to show him and the 
! public that Mr Ireland's statement was 
not fact but fiction, and demanding of the 
i rev. Doctor satisfaction for the sharp 
j words he had used regarding his Free 
I Church brethren in the North. 
I ' I can easily,' he says, ' show you that 
not only am I one of the parties alluded 
to by your correspondent, but that I am 
the principal, if not the onhj individual in 
the district to whom his remarks are in- 
tended to refer.' Well, to the proof. 

'I have made inquiry at several of the 
Free Church ministers in this district, 
and, so far as I have been able to ascer- 
tain, not owe of them ever mentioned your 
name to Mr Ireland, at least in connection 
with the temperance question.' Ergo, I 
am the only one he could refer to. Xot 
so fast, my dear sir, with your conclusion. 
By your own showing, you only inquired 
at several, not all, the Free Church 
miiiisters in the district. Now, those 
wliooi YOU did not interrogate might 
just be the very individuals to whom Mr 
Ireland referred. 

But further, Mr Philip says : — ' At the 
meeting, the particulars of which I will 
immediately give you, when the fact of 
your taking a little wine was alluded to, 
.Mr Ireland said, as several witnesses are 
prepared to testify, that he had " Never 
heard of it before ; and since that time up 
to his writing you, I am not aware that 
he has had any intercourse of one kind or 
another with any Free Church minister in 
this district." ' 

That any such conversation took place 
on the occasion referred to, is denied by 
Mr Ireland : — ' Between that and the 
period of his writing to Dr Guthrie, he 



68 



THE abstainer's JOTTBNAL. 



may have spokeu with twenty Free 
Clmrch miuisters, for aught Mr Phihp can 
tell.' This gentleman remarks, that if 
such had been the case, lie was ' not 
aware of it.' He modestly disclaims in- 
fallibility ; he had bstter also renounce all 
claims to omniscience. 

If, however, he did conjecture that Mr 
Ireland poiuted at him, then surely the 
most direct and speedy way of settling the 
matter was by asking Mr Ireland himself, 
'Do you refer to me?' The credibility of 
Mr Ireland's statement to Dr Guthrie is, 
in our judgment, beyond a doubt. It is 
utterly inconceivable what motive he could 
have in view in making the communicatiou 
to Dr Guthrie on any other supposition 
than his knowing it to be true. And it is 
very especially to be noticed, that the 
fama which he reports to Dr Guthrie as 
being afloat in the North, is the very same 
fama which the Doctor avers has been 
circulated in other districts, and circulated, 
too, by Free Church ministers. 

Further, as a collateral evidence that 
this rumour regarding Dr Guthrie was 
known in Aberdeenshire, and hy Free 
Cliurch ministers, we cnll special attention 
to the fact, that Mr Philip acknowledges 
to having told Mr Ireland that Dr Guthrie 
used wine. He then knew that the Doc- 



tor was a teetotaler; that, nevertheless, 
he used wine ; and he made this the sub- 
ject of conversation. 

We cannot conclude our remarks 
without uttering our strong and em- 
phatic condemnation of the conduct of 
the Rev. Mr Brown of Cruden, in this 
controversy. He deemed it necessary to 
befriend Mr Philip, and to rush into the 
fray. Imprudently assuming that Mr Ire- 
land had pointedly and undoubtedly aimed 
at his friend, he has heaped on him the 
grossest and most vulgar abuse. Referring 
to the language of Mr Ireland's statement, 
he says, ' We used to be taught dealing in 
generals, and keeping clear of details, was 
a distinguishing mark of impostors.' Mr 
Ireland is represented as having gone so 
much into detail as to specify Mr Philip, 
and therefore he has ' maligued a friend.' 
Again, he has not gone into ' details' at 
all, but ' dealt in generals,'' and therefore 
he is an ' impostor.' 

It is rather common to represent 
teetotalers as men who ' do not act 
up to their principles.' And when 
any of our friends exposes and quashes 
such a calumny as Mr Ireland has nobly 
done, opponents must not be allowed to 
put them down by bluster and bravado. 



Poetrg. 



SAIR TRIED LOVE. 



Oh ! wae's me ! wae's me ! my gudeman, 

It's sair j'our love to tyne ; 
To ha'e nae place in a' the heart, 

That ance was only mine : 
To miss the sunshine o' your smile ; 

The blithe blink o' your e'e, 
That hchten'd a' our clean fireside, 

An' made it heaven to me. 

Th's puir, puir heart, that lo'es ye yet, 

Ye've left baith sad and lane : 
Oh ! could I think that I may win, 

Your auld love back again : 
That I micht be the a' to you, 

That ance you vow'd I was. 
Before you drown'd your young heart's 
love, 

Deep in the foaming glass ! 

Canld winter nips wi' bitter tooth, 
Our sweetest, bonniest flow'rs ; 

Robs beauty frae the whiten'd earth, 
An' perfume frae the bow'rs : 



But Drink, wae's me ! wi' sterner pow'r, 

Sheds winter o'er the soul : 
Nae fresh flow'rs blow, nae sweet fruits 
grow, 

Frae out the with'ring bowl. 
But Spring comes back, an' wecpiu' sees, 

The flow'rs by winter slain ; 
An' 'neath her sunny, tearfu' kiss, 

They blushin', wake again. 
An' wha kens but my het, het tears, 

Your frozen heart may thaw ; 
An' bring back a' the sunny days. 

E'er Drink drove Love awa' ? 
I'll keep firm baud o' Faith ; and Hope 

Will her bricht colours lend ; 
I'll lo'e ye yet. Til lo'e ye yet ; 

It maun be that ye'Jl mend : 
It maun be that your ance brave heart, 

Will break this fearfu' chain ; 
An' I'll win back mj' ain gudeman. 

An' a' his heart again. 
Edinburgh, Geo. La-wsok. 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



©perati0rt0 of tfje Scotttsfj QTemperance Eeatjue. 



69 



SPECIAL MEETING OF MEMBERS 
AND DELEGATES. 

A special meeting of the League, con- 
vened at the request of fifty-one members, 
•was held in the Assembly Hall, Falkirk, on 
Thursday, 17th February, at four o'clock 
afternoon. Between thirty and forty mem- 
bers and delegates were present, principally 
from Edinburgh, Glasgow, Dunfermline, 
and Kirkcaldy. Robert Smith, Esq., the 
president of the League, took the chair. 
The Rev. James Ballantyne, of Edinburgh, 
implored the divine blessing on the pro- 
ceedings, after which the Chairman read the 
requisition calling the meeting. Mr Thomas 
Knox, of Edinburgh, then moved the fol- 
lowing resolution : - 

' That the following be adopted as the 
fourth rule of the League, and that rules 
IV., v., and VI., be in future numbered V., 
VI., and VII. :— "That the business of the 
League shall be conducted by a board of 
directors, consisting of twelve members, 
one-third of whom shall retire annually in 
rotation ; those retiring to be eligible for 
re-election. The board shall elect from their 
number a chairman and a treasurer — shall 
also appoint a secretary, and shall have 
power to fill up such vacancies as may occur 
till the next annual meeting thereafter. 
The chairman, treasurer, and secretary shall 
sign all cheqaes on the bank account of the 
association.'" 

The motion was seconded by Mr Lock- 
hart, Kirkcaldy, and after some discussion 
was carried unanimously. 

It was then resolved that the names of 
the present directors be arranged in alpha- 
betical order . the first four on the list to 
retire at the next annual meeting, the second 
four at the anniversary of 1864, and the 
remaining four in 1855. 

The Rev. William Reid pronounced the 
benediction, and the meeting broke up about 
half-past five clock. 

After a brief interval, the friends who 
had attended the Business Meeting, re-as- 
sembled in the same place, under the pre- 
sidency of Mr Smith, and partook of a 
substantial tea, kindly provided by a few of 
the friends at Falkirk. A very interesting 
and profitable conversation took place re- 
garding the operations of the League, and 
many valuable suggestions were made, which 
will in due time be carried out by the board 
of Directors. There was a unanimous 
feeling ou the part of those present, that such 
meetings should be held more frequently. 



PUBLIC ADVOCACY. 

About the beginning of last month a 
special district of the country was assigned 
to each of the principal Agents- 
Mr Easton has been appointed to the 
North, and has already reached Aberdeen, 
having on the way thither lectured at 
Kirkcaldy, Dundee, Arbroath, Brechin, 
Forfar, Kirriemuir, and Montrose. 

Mr Anderson's sphere of labour for the 
next two or three months is expected to 
be the East and South-east of Scotland. 
He has visited Tranent, Pencaitland, Gifford, 
Haddington, Dirleton, Cockenzie, East 
Linton, Dunbar, Greenlaw, Gordon, and 
Dunse. 

Mr M'Farlane has commenced a tour 
through Ayr and Dumfries shires. He 
commenced at Paisley, and has since lec- 
tured at Bridge-of-Weir, Lochwinnoch, 
Beith, Kilbirnie, Kilwinning, Stevenston, 
Saltcoats, Ardrossan, and Stewarton. 

Mr Duncan has visited Kilmarnock, 
Drymen, Killearn, Balfron, Fintry, Kippen, 
Bucklyvie, Gartmore, Thornhill, Douue, 
Deanston, Dunblane, Braco, Stirling, St 
Ninians, and Bannockburn. 

Mr Stirling, though unable to travel 
much, hasfulfilled engagements at Greenock, 
Port-Glasgow, Bishopton, Anderston, Cow- 
caddens, and Mearns. 

Mr NiMMO has addressed a number of 
meetings in Glasgow and neighbourhood, 
and has also visited Greenock, Mearns, 
Shotts Iron Works, with several other 
places. 

Mr Thomas Reid, has agreed, at the re- 
quest of the Board of Directors, to open up 
a new and promising field in the north of 
England. He commenced his labours 
in Northumberland on Monday, 21st Feb- 
ruary. 

Mr Robert Reid, one of the honorary 
directors, has kindly visited a few places, 
for the purpose of awakening an increased 
interest in the circulation of the Scottish 
Review, and other publications of the 
League. He has visited Kilmarnock, 
Irvine, Sanquhar, Annan, Lockerbie, Mof- 
fat, Carlisle, New-Castleton, and Lang- 
holm, and has been successful beyond an- 
ticipation in accomplishing the special object 
of his mission. 

In several localities the efficiency of the 
meetings has been lessened by the in- 
clemency of the weather; but the progress 
made during the month has, on the whole, 
been highly gratifying. 



70 



THE abstainer's JOT7RXAL. 



(ITcmpcrancc Xcfajs. 



SCOTLAND. 

TESTIMONIAL TO MR M'KENNA. 

By invitation of the Directors of the 
Scottish Temperance League, upwards of 
twenty gentlemen diued in Graham's Tem- 
perance Hotel, Maxwell Street, Glasgow, on 
Monday, 2lBt Fel>., in honour of Mr James 
M'Kenna, on the occasion of his leaving 
Glasgow for England, to fulfil the duties of 
an important appointment conferred upon 
him Ly the Anchor Assurance Company — 
Robt. Smith, Esq., president of the League, 
occupied the chair, and the Rev. Dr James 
Paterson acted as croupier. After a sump- 
tuous and elegant dinner had been served 
by Mr Graham, a plentiful supply of coffee, 
fruit, etc., was placed upon the table. The 
Chairman then alluded to the valuable 
services rendered by the guest of the evening 
to the AthencBum and the Scottish Temper- 
ance League, and conveyed to Mr M'Kenna 
the most cordial wishes of the meeting for 
his future prosperity. The Croupier fol- 
lowed in an admirable address, in course 
of whioh he expressed a strong conviction 
that Mr M'Kenna's conduct would con- 
tinue to be marked by the same intelligence, 
integrity, and zeal in the cause of mental 
and moral improvement which had earned 
for him the unfeigned respect of a numerous 
circle of friends in Glasgow and throughout 
Scotland. Mr M'Kenna in returning thanks 
for the honour conferred upon him, said 
that his temperance experience of 17 years 
had greatly contributed lo his happiness 
and success in life, and assured the friends 
with whom he had so harmoniously co- 
operated that the temperance movement 
would never want such assistance as he was 
able to render. Brief addresses were then 
delivered by Messrs Stirling, Service, Rae, 
M'Neill, Maclean, Melvin, Symon, Walker, 
and others. Tea was served about nine 
o'clock, and the proceedings were brought 
to a close about half-past ten. 



HENRY VLNCE-VT, ESQ. 

This talented lecturer has just concluded 
a highly successful six weeks' tour in Scot- 
land on the temperance question. The 
arrangements for this visit were made by the 
Committee of the Edinburgh Total Abstin- 
ence Society. Lectures have been delivered 
in the following towns : — Edinburgh, Glas- 
gow, Langholm, Berwick, Dumbarton, 
Alexandria, Dumfries, Falkirk, Kirkcaldy, 
Dunfermline, and Leith. The meetings 
have been large and influential, and Air 
Vincents eloquent appeals have done much 
to advance the cause in the localities he has 
visited. As he has been unable to overtake 
many of the towns from which invitations 
have lately been sent, he contemplates visi- 
ting Scotland during the autumn. 



THE GLASGOW U.MVERSITY AND TOTAL 
AHSTI.NENCE. 

A meeting of students of all denomina- 
tions, friendly to the abstinence principle, 
was held in the Religious Institution Rooms 
on Friday, 18th Feb. Mr George Gregg 
was called to the chair. Mr Norman S. 
Kerr was appointed interim secretary. Mr 
Carstairs Douglas enforced the necessity of 
the establishment of an abstinence society 
in connection with the College. On the 
motion of Mr John MacGregor, it was un- 
animously agreed that a society be formed, 
having tor its title 'The Glasgow Univer- 
sity Abstainers' Society.' An opportunity 
was then afforded for the enrolment of 
members, and was taken advantage of by 
rineteen, which number has since been in- 
creased to sixty. 

BERWICKSHIRE TEMPERANCE AGENCY. 

A pretty extensive scheme of operations 
has lately commenced in the county of Ber- 
wick under the above title. It originated 
with the Committee of tha Dunse Total 
Abstinence Society, and is wholly under 
their control. Mr Alexander Beattie has 
been engaged as agent, and commenced his 
labours in December last. Berwickshire is 
a moderate-sized county, so that the agent 
is able to visit each parish frequently. 
Dunae, besides being the principal town, oc- 
cupies quite a central position in the county, 
so that it is well adapted to exert an 
influence in every direction. The com- 
mittee are untiring in their efforts to move 
the whole district, and Mr Beattie has 
laboured with great success. Numbers of 
new societies are being formed, and others 
re-organised. The agent visits from house 
to house, gives a tract to each family, and 
delivers a lecture in the evening. Large 
quantities of tracts have been already dis- 
tributed, 5,000 copies of which were 
printed in Dunse, expressly for the agency. 
The fund was commenced by members of 
the committee, who were most liberally fol- 
lowed by the higher classes all over the 
county. The sphere includes, besides 
Duuse, Greenlaw, Lauder, Coldstream, 
Earlston, Eyemouth, Ayton, Coldingham, 
Cockburnspath, Chirnside, Allanton, Gor- 
don, Oxton, Leitholm, Swinton, Whitsome, 
Reston, Hume, and many other places ; all 
which have been visited. In many in- 
tances there have been crowded audiences, 
and great numbers have given in their ad- 
hesion. Where societies exist they have 
cordially concurred in the scheme, and many 
of them promise to aid the fund. The 
friends of the cause should not rest satisfied, 
till every county has an agent. The success 
of this agency demonstrates what may be 
effected by the committee of a single society. 



THE abstainer's JOUENAL. 



'1 



and that of a small country town, wlien 
entered into with energy and decision. 

GLASGOW. 

The annual general meeting of the Glas- 
gow United Total Abstinence Association 
was held on the evening of Friday, 28th 
Jan., in the Congregational Chapel, Black- 
friars' Street, (Rev. F. Ferguson's.) Mr 
James Mitchell, president of the society, 
occupied the chair. The meeting was 
opened with prayer by Lieut.-Col. Shaw. 
The secretary read the report of the society's 
proceedings during the past year, the princi- 
pal facts of which were given in our last nnm- 
ber. The report notices, as an evidence of 
the unanimity and healthiness of feeling 
which pervades the teetotal ranks, the re- 
cent union of the two most important sec- 
tions of the cause in the city, viz., the Gor- 
bals Society on the south, and the United 
Association on the north side of the river. 
After several speeches had been made, and 
resolutions submitted, office-bearers were 
elected for the current year, and the meeting 
broke up. 

P.\I5LEY. 

The half-yearly meeting of the Paisley 
Total Abstinence Society was held on Mon- 
day evening, 31 st January, when a report of 
the society's proceedings for the last half- 
year was read, and office-bearers appointed 
for next si.v months. There have been 453 
new members enrolled since July last, and 
the society's missionary in his visits has 
been well received. A meeting is held 
weekly for addresses and the enrolment of 
members. 

GREENOCK. 

On Wednesday evening, 2d Feb., the 
Rev. Andrew Gilmour delivered the con- 
cluding lecture of a series arniuged some time 
ago by the abstinence society. The subject 
— 'Dietetics' — was very ably treated. A 
strong wish has been expressed that the 
lecture should be published. 

KILMARNOCK. 

The third of the series of sermons on the 
subject of Temperance was preached by the 
Rev. Samuel Spence of Kilbirnie, on Sab- 
bath evening, 13th Feb., in Free Henderson 
Church, Wellington Street, Rev. Mr Lands- 
borough's. The preacher took for his text, 
Luke xxi. 34, 35. Also in connection with 
this, 1 Thess. v. G. 

CUM.NOCK. 

On Thursday evening, 20th Jan., a public 
meeting was convened in the U. P. School 
House, for the purpose of reorganising the 
Total Abstinence Society, which has for a 
long time been in a dormant state. The 
Rev. Mr Dickie, and a few of the old mem- 
bers were present. It was agreed that the 
Society he reorganised, and that a provisional 



committee be appointed to take down names, 
and report to a general meeting. At a 
meeting of committee, on Monday evening, 
the 24th, about a hundred members were 
enrolled, and the necessary arrangements 
made for a union with the Temperance 
League, and for holding a general meeting 
to ratify their proceedings. 

KIRKCONNELL. 

The Kirkcounell Total Abstinence Society 
held its Annual Soiree in the Parish 
School, on Wednesday evening, the 22d 
Dec. The large room was filled to over- 
flowing. After tea Mr James Drummond, 
merchant, Cumnock, was called to the chair. 
Appropriate addresses were given by the 
chairman. Rev. Thomas Pullar, Dumfries, 
and Mr John Laing, sen. Temperance songs 
and duets were sung at intervals during the 
evening, by the Messrs Wylie and Duff 
from Sanquhar, and Mr John Laing, jun. 

SANQUHAR. 

The friends of temperance held their 
Annual Social Meeting on New-year's- day 
evening, iu the Town-hall,which was crowded 
to excess. Mr Johnston, Cumnock, occupied 
the chair, and addresses were delivered 
by the chairman, Messrs John Scott and 
Jas. Kennedy, Sanquhar, and John Laing, 
sen., Kirkconnell. A marked improvement 
in the observance of New-year's-day has 
taken place here within the last few years, 
in consequence of the operations of the 
society. There u;ed to be several balls, 
and much drinking. This year there was 
not one, and very little drinking ; and 
instead of balls there were concerts and 
soirees in behalf of religious and philanthro- 
pic objects, which were well attended. — The 
Society held a soiree ou 27th Jan., in the Rev. 
Mr Simpson s church, which was respectably 
attended. Rev. Mr Simpson, chairman. 
Able and impressive addresses were given 
by the Chairman, Rev. D. L. Scott, Dum- 
fries ; Messrs Johnston, Cumnock ; Robert 
and Thomas Reid from Glasgow. 

CASTLE-DOUGLAS. 

The third anniversary soiree of the Castle- 
Douglas Total Abstinence Society was 
held in the Masons' Hall there, on the 
evening of Wednesda}-, 26th January. The 
president, Rev. Mr Jenkins, in the chair. 
After a service of tea, the audience — which 
exceeded in numbers that assembled on any , 
of the preceding occasions — was addressed 
by the Rev. Mr Watson of J.,angholm, the j 
Rev. Mr Pullar, Dumfries, Dr M'CuUoch, 
Dumfries, Mr Thos. Reid of Glasgow, and 
the Secretary of the Dumfries Society. All 
the temperance publications on sale by the 
society, at the door of the hall, were pur- 
chased in a few minutes by parties as they 
left the meeting, and several new members 
were enrolled. 



72 



THE ABSTAINER 6 JOURNAL. 



DUMFRIES. 

Several lectures recently given here by 
Mr Vincent have been instrumental in 
making an important addition to the number 
of abstainers. At the conclusion of one of 
the lectures, a large number of ladies took 
the pledge. The meetings were large and 
enthusiastic. 

LOCHFOOT. 

At the request of i, number of the inhabi- 
tants of Lochfoot, a deputation, amongst 
whom were Drs M'Culloch and Marshall, 
Rev. Mr Pullar and others, visited that 
place on Thursday, 3d February. The 
deputation was well received. There could 
not be less than 20 ) crammed into the place 
of meeting, the parochial school ; and per- 
haps half as many iilore, who could not gain 
admission, had to stand without. Mr John 
Crocket occupied the chair. The Rev. Mr 
Pullar opened the meeting with prayer; 
after which, able and appropriate addresses 
were delivered by Messrs Welsh and Wat- 
son, the Rev. Mr Pullar, and Dr M'Culloch. 
At the close of the meeting, upwards of 
thirty of the audience signed the pledge, 
and a considerable number have since ad- 
hibited their names, so that there are now 
nearly fifty in and around the village who 
are total abstainers. 

B'^RWICK-ON-TWEED. 

The total abstinence movement here — 
although old in years - is by no means 
marked by decrepitude or frailty. In Dec. 
the Rev, Dr Joseph Brown, Dalkeith, 
delivered a lecture ' on the Slavery of 
Intemperance, with hints from Uncle Tom's 
Cabin.' In Jan. the Rev. G. C. Hutton, 
Paisley, preached a sermon ' on the Causes, 
Dangers, and Culpability of Indecision on 
the matter of Total Abstinence,' choosing 
for his motto that portion of sacred wrt, 
' How long halt ye between two opinions ?' 
The annual soiree, as usual, came off with 
great ec/at. The Rev. John Peden, presi- 
dent of the society, in the chair. The speak- 
ers being Rev. G. C. Hutton, Paisley ; Rev. 
A. Henderson, Coldingham ; Rev. L. Rail- 
ton, Berwick; and Messrs H. Plenderleith 
and George Hunter, Berwick. Two orations 
have likewise been delivered by Henry 
Vincent, Esq., London, ' on Total Abstin- 
ence as a means of elevating the Working 
Classes.' Although the names of converts 
do not flow rapidly into the roll book, there 
is no doubt that the opinion is progressing 
and will progress. 

DUNSE. 

The Annual Meeting of the Dunse total 
abstinence society was held in Boston Free 
Church, on the evening of Monday, iTth 
Jan. last, the Rev. William Ritchie, presi- 
dent of the society, in the chair. The report 
stated ' that never since the 4th day of May, 



1838, when the society was instituted, has 
j there been a year so remarkable in the history 
I of the society. Several schemes have been 
put in operation, on a scale much greater 
than what was ever before attempted ; and 
it is matter of great thankfulness that they 
have, with the blessing of God, been crown- 
ed with such success.' The measures above 
refeired to are the establishment of branch 
societies, the juvenile branch of the society, 
Mr D. B. Brown's labours, weekly prayer 
meetings, the Berwickshire temperance 
agency, tract distribution, soirees, petitioning 
the House of Commons, memorialising the 
justices of peace of the Dunse court and also 
at the quarter sessions at Greenlaw to di- 
minish licences, lectures by members of the 
committee, etc. '^ otice was also taken of 
the Dunse refreshment rooms for hiring 
markets, which were projected and carried 
out by individual members of the commitee. 
The total number on the roll is 746. The 
meeting was addressed by members of the 
society, and after some routine business and 
the pronouncing of the blessing, the meeting 
separated. 

ALLOA. 

A soiree was held in the Assembly Room 
of this town, on Monday, 17th Jan., which 
was well attended. Mr Muirhead, presi- 
dent of the society, occupied the chair, and 
the audience was addressed by Mr Mitchell, 
Glasgow, Rev. P. M'Dowall, v*lloa. Rev. 
James Ballantyne, Edinburgh, Mr Russell, 
Mr Carmichael, etc. 

LESLIE. 

The Rev. Mr Russell of Dunfermline, 
preached in the East U. P. Church here on 
Sabbath, 13th Feb. The audience, which 
was large, although the inclemency of the 
weather prevented many from being pre- 
sent, listened with great attention to the 
able discourse. 

BRECHIN. 

The Rev. Dr Joseph Brown of Dalkeith 
delivered two lectures on ' The Slavery of 
Intemperance, with hints from Uncle Tom's 
Cabin," on 10th and 11th Jan. iu the Rev. 
Mr Gibson's church. The lectures were 
characterised by great power and origiuaiity, 
and produced a deep impression. Both 
were listened to by numerous and respectable 
audiences. At the close a proposal to form 
a juvenile society, was approved of, and has 
since been carried into effect. 

*i(* Remainder of News unavoidably post- 
poned. 



Glasgow : Printed and Puhlished at the Office 
of the Scottish Temperance League, No. .SO 
St Enoch Square, Parish of St Enoch's, by 
Robert Rae, residing at No. 10 Salisbury 
Street, Parish of Govan. 

Tdesdat, Ut March, 1853. 



THE 



ABSTAINER'S JOURNAL. 



APBIL, 1853. 



JHiscElIancous Contrfiutions. 



FORBES M'KENZIE'S BILL AXD THE SABBATH TRAFFIC. 



Since the days when Burns wrote his 
' Scotch Drink ' and uttered his ' Earnest 
Cry and Prayer,' there Lave been many 
state tinkerings at the spirit trade, or at 
what he has facetiously termed ' Auld 
Scotland's Kettle.' Another of these 
state tinkerings we have in the Bill of 
Mr Forbes M'Kenzie, at present before 
the House of Commons. We have had 
many noble undertakings designed as an 
appropriate inauguration of the present 
half century, such as our own gi-eat Ex- 
hibition ; but we hesitate not to affirm that 
one of the most important of these has 
been the passing of what is now well 
known as the Maine Law, by which the 
serpent in several states of America has 
been disarmed of his sting, and reduced to 
the harmless position of a chemical agent, 
or drug. There is at this moment a 
general uprising in the States against the 
traffic in intoxicating drinks. On the 
18th of August last, an Act of the legis- : 
lature of New Brunswick (one of our own . 
British provinces) entitled ' An Act to 
prevent the traffic in intoxicating liquors,' 
was confirmed by an order of her Majesty 
in council, and is consequently now in 
operation. At the last annual meeting of 
the Evangelical Church Union at Bremen, 
the discussion of the temperance question 
occupied a considerable portion of two 
days, and one important conclusion was, 
that it seemed deserving of consideration 



whether the meeting ought not to appeal 
in its corporate capacity to the different 
German governments in favour of a 
stricter control than at present exists, 
both over the production and the sale of 
intoxicating liquors. 

In the midst of this ^^^de-£pread desire 
for legislative enactment in the liquor 
traffic, Mr M'Kenzie's Bill opportunely 
makes its appearance, and whilst it must 
be admitted by all thorough temperance 
reformers as but a feeble remedy for a 
monstrous evil, compared with Neal 
Dow's Maine Law, or the New Brunswick 
Act, or the document lately issued by the 
United Kingdom Alliance, which may 
now be denominated the ' Manchester 
school ' of the temperance movement, still 
this new attempt at tinkering 'Auld 
Scotland's Kettle,' notwithstandbg all its 
defects, is in some respects a decided im- 
provement on any previous ' clouting ' of 
the Scotch ' stell.' In the absence of a 
better, and from the fear that a more 
stringent measure would not be adopted, 
it is devoutly to be wished that this 
Bill may pass, were it for no other 
reason than the bearing it has upon the 
Sabbath traffic ; for one important pro- 
vision in the BQl is, the shutting up of 
all public-houses dming the whole of that 
day. This is at least taking one day — a 
day that should be devoted to the highest 
interests of our being— out of the seven 



74 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



dajs' traffic. By all means, therefore, let 
this Kill come into operation, and the 
sooner the better. Better this than 
nothing. If we cannot get all the ''Jive 
points,' let us take one at a time. If we 
cannot get the traffic in the meantime 
abolished during all the days of the week, 
a consummation which will yet be reached 
in ' the good time coming,' let us take one 
day out of the traffic, and look for more 
by and by ; lest by insisting on more at 
present, we may gain nothing. 

That the abolitioa of the Sabbath traffic, 
for which this Bill provides, would confer a 
great boon upon Scotland, is very obvious 
from the fearful desecration of the Sab- 
bath, arising from the sale of intoxicating 
liquors. For example, on the communion 
Sabbath in April last, in Edinburgh, there 
were 490 open public-houses ; on the first 
Sabbath of November there were 245, and 
on the first Sabbath of the following month 
there were 246. But no one but an eye- 
witness can form any conception of the 
fearful amount of mischief done by these 
open hells on the day of rest. Let eye- 
witnesses, therefore, speak upon this sub- 
ject, and the importance of Mr M'Kenzie's 
Bill, defective as it is in other points, can- 
not fail to be appreciated. All the cases 
now to be cited were witnessed within the 
last two or three Sabbaths. Let any one 
but go to the Canongate, the Cowgate, or 
the West Port on a Sabbath evening 
at this season of the year, and wit- 
ness the open public-houses, with their 
flaming gas-lights, their attractive paint, 
and glare, and glitter, frequented by hun- 
dreds, and if he has a spark of christian 
patriotism within him, he will be glad to 
accept of any measure that will abolish 
this traffic on the Lord's-day. One wit- 
ness states — 'The publican seemed bent 
on making the most of the time allowed 
him by law ; for at five minutes before 
one he threw open his door, and the work 
of degradation and cupidity commenced. 
Ere the hour had struck, the death-like 



rattle of his measures could be heard in 
the street. From the old man of three- 
score, down to the helpless child of five or 
six years, on they crowded, all bent on 
the same errand — whisky. Men, women, 
and children, to the number of seventy, 
entered that public-house in an hour and 
seven minutes. All this was between 
church hours, close to the house of God.' 
In another case, between the hours of four 
and nine o'clock, 311 entered; in another, 
between the hours of four and nine, 300 
entered, among whom we noticed a num- 
ber of servant girls witli their bibles in 
their hands. These girls, instead of being 
at evening worship, as their bibles would 
indicate, entered the public-house at half- 
past six, and remained till a quarter-past 
seven o'clock. Two others entered with 
their bibles in their hands at twenty 
minutes to eleven o'clock. In another 
case, from one till two o'clock, 107 entered. 
Of these, seventeen were boys and girls 
under fourteen years of age, and nineteen 
were under eight years of age. In still 
another case, from one till two o'clock, 
there entered 193 ; and in the same house, 
between the hours of four and nine, 729 ; 
making a total of 922, of which 73 per 
cent were in rags. And finally, in another 
case, between the hours of four and nine, 
there entered a public-house 237 men, 
350 women, and 200 boys and girls, 
making a total of 787. Let it be borne 
in mind that all this occurred on Sabbath 
in Edinburgh, and not far from places of 
worship. It is surely high time that this 
traffic was abolished, and this is one step 
in advance which would be gained by the 
passing of M'Kenzie's Bill. It would drive 
perhaps, at least within the parliamentary 
bounds of Edinburgh alone, 100 low class 
publicans out of the trade altogether — it 
would remove a vast amount of tempta- 
tion that stares the reckless and the dissi- 
pated every Lord's-day in the face ; and 
if, in addition to the shutting up of public- 
houses during the whole of that day, they 



THE ABSTAINER S JOUKXAL. 



were compelled to close at eigbt o'clock every 
■week-day evening, and if employers would 
universally pay their workers on Tuesday 
instead of Saturday, there would be 
a great improvement in point of sobriety, 
not only on Sabbath, but on every working 
day of the week. 

"W^e may perhaps recur in our next 
number to this Sabbath question. In 
the meantime we cannot but express 
great disappointment that this Bill has not 
at once and for ever entirely dissociated 
the grocery business from the spirit trade. 
It provides, indeed, that no hquors shdl 
be drunk on the premises of a grocer or a 
victual dealer; but then he may sell as 
much by retail or over the counter as he 
pleases, and that either by penny glass or 
imperial gallon. "Why have the two things 
not been for ever disjoined ? This is but 
a poor modification of a great evil. Surely 
Mr M'Kenzie does not know what many 
a poor honest working man knows to his 
cost, that many a reckless slattern of a 
wife, tempted by the whisky measures of 
her grocer, proceeds from less to more, 
tiU the whisky drunk over the conater, cr 
carried home to the fireside gathering of 
' neebor wives,' appears in the weekly or 
monthly pass book, according as the hus- 
band's pay may be, as flour, butter, starch, 
or blue. Truly has Bums said — 

And cheek-for-chow a chuflSe '•intner 

Colleaguing join. 
Picking her pouch as bare as winter. 

Of a' kind coin. 

Now this Bill does not in the slightest 
degree touch this crying evil. It will, 
however, break up many a cozie little 
coterie of kindred souls that have been 
wont to gather in back rooms and par- 
lours of a grocery establishment, where it 
was thought far more respectable to dis- 
cuss the afifairs of church or state — of 
pulpit, presbytery, or press — the signs of 
the market, as well as the signs of the 
times, than in any common public-house. 
If this BUI pass, as we hope it will, pray, 
what is to become of these christian topers. 



these cozy conclaves, and these back par- 
lour coteries, that time out of mind have 
found a back door retreat in this and the 
other grocery establishment ? The thing 
is too serious for joking, and all that we 
can say at present is, 

' O, wad ye tak a thocht and men' !' 

yc would find more comfort, dignity, and 
respectability even in the commonest 
working man's coffee-house. 

There is one very glaring defect, bow- 
ever, in this Bill as it relates to the Sab- 
bath trafSc , and one which ought at once 
to be remedied, namely, in the definition 
of terms it is stated that the expression, 
'inn and hotel,' shall refer to a house con- 
taining, at least, two sleeping apartments 
set apart for the accommodation of travel- 
lers. It is of course provided that all such 
houses be open on Sabbath ; but as two 
sleeping apartments are to constitute a 
hotel, it is very obvious that such a silly 
provision as this will open a very wide 
door for the very abuse which this Bill is 
designed to remove, and that town and 
country would be very thickly sown with 
hotels. This phrase should therefore be 
restricted to a house having at least eight 
or ten sleeping apartments. If the un- 
fortunate clause is not altered, the im- 
provement contemplated for Sabbath will, 
to a great extent, be neutralised. 

There are some other defects, but at 
the same time, also redeeming features in 
this Bill that we intended to notice, but 
for this we have not space at present. 
The shutting up of public-houses on the 
Lord's-day is the principal boon which it 
would confer, and this we would most 
thankfully receive as an instalment of a 
still more sweeping measure, and of still 
greater good that must come. ' Coming 
events cast their shadows before.' Mr 
]\I'Kenzie's Bill is but one step towards 
the ultimate adoption of a British Maine 
Law. As such we hail it, and earnestly 
bid all temperance reformers help to get 
it passed, not as a final, but simply as an 



76 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



initiatory measure. We shall have more 
stringent and eflFective legislation hy and 

by- 

' Once the welcome light has broken, 

Who shall say, 
What the unimagined glories of the day ? 
What the evil that shall perish 

In its ray ? 
Aid the dawning, tongue and pen ; 
Aid it, hopes of honest men ; 
Aid it, paper— aid it, type — 
Aid it, for the hour is ripe ; 
And our earnest must not slacken 

Into play ; 
Men of thought and men of action, 

Clear the way.' 



THE WRECK OF THE 'HORN.' 
Quite a sensation was caused in Dundee 
and neighbourhood, about the time of the 
return of the whale ships, last year, by 
the news of the wreck of the ' Horn.' 
The name was a familiar one, indeed, was 
quite a household word. Since first she 
sailed for the Arctic seas, a generation had 
passed away. Many with families now 
around them had not been born when 
first she set out on her dangerous voyage. 
Boys, who had oft been do^vn to see the 
whale ships out, and had come and told 
their parents of how the ' Horn' got to 
the roads, called up, in these same parents' 
memories that they themselves, when 
boys, had told the same. For five and 
thirty years the ' Horn' had gone and 
come, while other vessels had been 
wrecked, and still she was as hale and 
strong apparently as ever. It seemed as 
if she bore a charm about her, so to out- 
brave all dangers; and it looked as if 
sheer age alone would cause her to be 
withdrawn from the hazards of the frozen 
regions. When we heard the news of her 
being wrecked, a question naturally started 
to our hps, where had it taken place ? and 
as we put it, our imagination carried us 
away to scenes of wild and terrific 
grandeur, amidst storms, and snow, and 
ice, far ofi^ within the Arctic circle. But 
the answer to the question brought us 
nearer home, and told us that it was but 
in St Andrew's Bay the wreck had 



happened — within but a few miles of 
the port to which she was steering. By 
some miscalculation, caused by the thick- 
ness of the night, the captain found him- 
self close on the breakers, when he ima- 
gined he had plenty of sea room. Ere 
he could make to sea, the vessel struck ; 
and while all on board escaped, the 
'Horn' herself became a total wreck. 

This wreck has brought vividly before 
us the important thought, that it is no 
security that a person may not become a 
wreck at last, that he has come through 
many a danger. 

How often, in pleading with persons to 
become total abstainers fi:om all that in- 
toxicates, are we met with such a reply 
as this : ' We have all our life kept sober 
— we have never gone to excess. We 
have mixed with society of various kinds, 
and stood many a bruise. We have been 
exposed to many a temptation, and; we 
have not become drunkards, and we feel 
sure we never wUl ; and if you knew all 
we have come through, all we have re- 
sisted, j'ou would be as satisfied on that 
score as we are — at all events, if you were 
not very unreasonable ; and if we stood be- 
fore, we do not see that there is any dan- 
ger of us now !' Well, we may be thought 
a little unreasonable ; and yet, friend, we 
are not so certain of your safety as you 
yourself seem to be. Here was a gallant 
vessel that had often been in the midst of 
terrific dangers — that had been exposed 
to storms, had been crushed by ice, had 
been moored to icebergs, and this for five 
and thirty years ; and even at the begin- 
ning of that period she had long sailed 
the ocean, and had been but refitted for 
whaling expeditions ; and yet, at last, 
though she had an experienced com- 
mander who knew the coast, and though 
she was fully manned with a willing 
crew, her end was to become a total wreck 
close upon port. This occurred, too, when 
there was little or no apprehension of dan- 
ger — when there was in reality no danger 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



77 



compared with what she had often come 
through ; and when a companion vessel, 
which had sailed and returned with her, 
and was under a far less experienced 
commander, came up the river next 
morning quite safe. Many a one who 
has long resisted temptation has fallen at 
last by temptation far less strong than 
once he resisted — has been wrecked in 
circumstances in which it might have 
been thought he was in comparative 
safety. For instance, persons who sold 
intoxicating drinks, and who, amidst all 
the temptations to which they were ex- 
posed, never could be said to be other 
than sober men, have, after they retired 
fi'om the traffic, fallen victims. Others 
who, when young men, were often in so- 
ciety—exposed to its fascinations and sub- 
jected to its allurements — who often sat 
in the company where the wine, and 
ardent spirits, and the song inflamed 
them, and who never could be called 
drunkards— have, in declining years, ac- 
quired a love for drink, and have sunk 
into their graves, wrecks in body and in 
mind. Had it been said to them that 
they might, after so long, become wrecks, 
such as they did become, they would most 
likely have met the supposition as yoia do, 
and have pointed to their former course 
as confirming their confidence. But they 
fell. 

Cases come up before our mind in 
rapid succession, and pass in mournful re- 
view. Here is one who sold the liquor, 
and was long a sober man, but died a vic- 
tim. There follows another, once an 
elder in a christian church, long respected, 
whose intemperance, after a long life of 
sobriety, threw a dark shadow over his 
old age, and enveloped his death in a cloud 
of gloom. There is another, a member 
with him of the same session, who 
often remonstrated as he saw his com- 
panion running into danger, but who 
himself has fallen. Another comes, not in 
office in the church, but still greatly 



esteemed by all who knew him, sitting 
in one of the chief seats of the syna- 
gogue, and liberal in his gifts for the sup- 
port and diffusion of the gospel ; but he 
is gone, and his end was not peace. Still, 
there comes another, and another, and 
another, all cases confirmatory of the fact, 
that no one has been so long so sober as to 
be out of danger, while he continues to 
use intoxicating drink. But here, amongst 
the crowd, there passes one, bearing the 
appearance of a wrecked, a ruined minis- 
ter of the gospel. Yes, there is a noble 
forehead. Once there was light in that 
eye, and from these lips poured words of 
majesty, of tenderness, and love. More 
we shall not, dare not say than this, that 
long, and powerfullj', and with success, 
he preached the glorious gospel ; but over 
him drink got the mastery, until at last, 
under its influence, he lay down by the 
wayside, and there death found him, and 
seized him for his prey. 

say not, friend, you have so long 
partaken, and so long kept sober, that 
now there is no danger of you falling a 
victim — of you becoming a wreck. So 
long as the ship is on the ocean she is in 
danger. The christian cannot say at any 
time that he may not fall into sin, how- 
ever long and faithfully he may have fol- 
lowed Christ. Till he has entered the 
haven of eternal rest, he ought never to 
be off his guard. And far less is he safe 
who uses that which has caused so many 
to make shipwreck of their faith, not 
merely amidst the peculiar temptations of 
youth, or the dangers of maturer years, 
but even when danger seemed to be over, 
and they likely to enter in peace into the 
haven. The ' Horn,' that for so many 
years had gone and come in safety, 
through so many dangers, was at last, 
when all danger seemed over, wrecked 
within a few miles of her destined 
port. 



78 



THE ABSTAINEU S JOUKNAL. 



THE LATE ELECTION OF THE 
TOWN COUNCIL OF CRAIL. 

As elsewhere noticed, in tlie recent 
election of certain members of Paiila- 
ment, there have been witnessed scenes 
of intimidation, bribery, drinking, and 
debauchei'y, that baflle description. Prac- 
tices as discreditable seem to be regarded 
in some places as indispensable to the 
election of even municipal authorities. 
Witness, for example, the proceedings 
connected with the late contest between 
the two rival parties, who assume all 
the responsibility of nonjnating and ap- 
pointing persons to look after the civil in- 
terests of Grail's Roval Burgh. From tlie 
large number of those interested in the 
spirit trade, as it is termed, it does not ap- 
pear possible, in this part of the globe, to 
begin, prosecute, or carry forward any un- 
dertaking to perfection, where due 
homage is not in the first place paid to 
jolly Bacchus, either in his more gorgeous 
or in his meaner shrine. Meet the friends 
of the people must in some place, if they 
are to meet at all; and, however much 
they might differ about burgh politics, 
Whigs and Tories all agree in this respect, 
that they must discuss municipal interests 
over the intoxicating cup. The two par- 
ties then in the recent contest, regarding 
each other v.'ith feelings similar to those 
cherished by Burns' twa dogs, resolved to 
gratify their leading propensities ; the one 
of more gentle blood at the inn, and the 



other of more plebeian pretensions at one 
of the ' wee tippling-houses.' 

On reviemng the manner in which this 
election has been conducted, there are 
many thmgs which might bring the blush 
to the cheek. 

Much has of late been said about the 
propriety of settling disputes without hav- 
ing recourse to the sword ; may not poli- 
tics be settled without having recourse to 
that which begets redness of eyes, and in- 
flicts wounds without cause ? Can it be true, 
that in such a town as Crail no fit place 
is to be found for convening a small num- 
ber of electors, except the inn or tippling- 
house ? Whither have the town-halls 
and school-rooms, not to speak of 
churches, fled ? 

It is, moreover, lamentable to think, 
that a party styling themselves the friends 
of order, and professing such a horror at the 
demoralising eff'ects of intoxicating habits, 
and the too large number of tippling- 
houses, as to petition the Justices of the 
Peace to reduce their number, should act 
as if at a fashionable inn the serpent that 
has elsewhere wounded and destroyed so 
many, might be safely taken to their 
bosoms. 

Pity it is, that such things, should re- 
quire to be recorded ; but to prevent the 
repetition of scenes so discreditable, let 
the friends of temperance, who are the 
true friends of order, promote with re- 
newed energy the cause which they have 
undertaken. 



Warrati&£ Sitttclf. 



THE BRIGHT HALF-CRO^VN. 

BY UNCLE TOM. 



SIr Pekkins was what the world calls 
'a most excellent man.' He not only 
lived in a very nice hoiise, very nicely 
furnished, and dressed very well, allowing 
his wife and daughters the nicest shawls 
that could be had, but attended church 



with great regularity, and was far from 
being niggardly in his cootributions to 
objects of a religious or charitable nature. 
He was, in short, considered a very exem- 
plary and respectable man, in the town in 
which he lived. 



TUB abstainer's JOCRXAL. 



There was one thing, iudeed, which hs 
would not honour with his patronage or 
approbation, and that was ' total abstin- 
ence from intoxicating drink.' At first he 
attended several lectures on the subject, 
bat after a while he gave up doing so. 
' He had heard enough on the subject,' 
he said. ' He thought they went too far, 
and meddled with what did not concern 
them, when they attempted to interfere 
with the sale of other people's goods, and so 
he would not encourage them. Besides, 
these teetotalers were a set of vulgar fel- 
lows with whom he did not wish to asso- 
ciate ; and as for total abstinence itself, it 
might be good enough for drunkards and 
poor people who could not afford to drink, 
but he saw no reason why such a system 
should be adopted by well-doing respect- 
able persons like himself.' 

Mr Perkins was a general merchant, 
that is, he dealt in a variety of articles, as 
is frequently the case in provincial towns, 
such as that in which he resided. 

Among the large stock of merchandise 
which his shop contaiaed, there was one 
article which was not usually set forth in 
his adverlisemeiits, for what reason, is not 
very well known. It was generally un- 
derstood, that such an article was there, 
and it was suspected by those who pre- 
tended to know something about it, that 
it was the most profitable article he had 
in his shop. 

One Satm-da^' evening, just as Mr Per- 
kins was about to shut up and return to his 
comfortable dwelling, a man, or rather the 
wreck of a man, stepped into the shop, 
bearing in his hand a large jug. The 
shopboy, without saying a word, took it 
from him, turned into a dark nook for a 
few moments, and brought it again to the 
counter, evidently much heavier than be- 
fore. 

Just as the man was about to take it 
up, Mr Perkins who had been watching 
the whole proceedings, laid his hand upon 
the jug, and said, 'Mr Drew, you know 
we don't trust any more.' The man in- 
stantly took from his pocket a bright half- 
crown, which he threw upon the counter. 
' There, what do you say to that ?' With 
a softened look, Mr Perkins took up the 
piece of money, examined it on both sides, 
rung it on the counter ; it was good money 
— it was good beyond a doubt. ' Where 
did you get it ?' said he. ' That's none 
of your business,' said the poor victim of 
strong drink, for such he was ; and lifting 
up his jug, and walking off quickly, he 
muttered, ' I got it bard enough.' 



Daniel Drew had that afternoon sold 
his little daughter's woollen shawl, the 
gift of her Sabbath school teacher, to a 
near neighbour, usually spoken of as a 
icorthy resjjectahle icoman. He told her he 
was obliged to part with it to get bread 
for his family, and she took it at a half-a- 
crown, ' merely to oblige' him, though she 
knjw it was worth more than double 
the money, and she could not help 
thinking what a cheap thing it would be 
to give to her own orphan niece, who had 
been cast somewhat destitute upon her 
hands. 

Next morning, Mr Perkins went to 
church and heard a missionary sermon, 
which awakened all his sympathies. So 
ably were the miseries of the heathen de- 
picted, that he felt anxious for the service 
to be ended, that he might have an oppor- 
tunity of contributing his donation to the 
cause. But, alas ! when the time came, 
he found he had left his pocket-book at 
home — left it in his other coat, as many 
people do when they go to church. He 
felt much disappointed, wheu, lo ! he dis- 
covered in his vest pocket, the half-crown 
of the preceding evening, which he had 
deposited there, on receiving it from his 
customer Daniel Drew. 

He placed it upon the plate, with some- 
thing very like a self-satisfied air, and 
then looked round to see whether any of 
his neighbours gave as much. 

He was just leaving the church, when 
he overheard some one say, ' So poor 
Drew has come to an end at last ! He 
was found this morning about a mile 
down the road, with his head completely 
smashed, apparently by a wheel having 
passed over it.' 

Mr Perkins thought of the bright half- 
crown he had put in the plate ; but under 
the uneasy sensations which that thought 
prodaced, he consoled himself by resolv- 
ing to ' do something' for Daniel Drew's 
wife and children. 

Are such occurrences as those now 
narrated, rare ? We fear they are but too 
frequent ; and ' excellent men,' ' respect- 
able menbers of society,' men ' very charit- 
able,' ' very liberal,' are to be found living 
in ' nice houses,' clothing themselves and 
families in ' fine apparel,' and earning 
for themselves the ' praise of men,' not 
upon the profits of honest industry, or 
unimpeachable trading, but at the ex- 
pense of broken-hearted wives, and starved, 
half-clad, uneducated children. And 
this is not only tolerated in society ; the 
traffic itself, so fruitful of evil, is j)atronised 



80 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



and supported by multitudes, not actually 
engaged in it ; by many claiming and ac- 
knowledged to be leaders and examples in 
the cause of religion and benevolence, but 
who have not yet reached that measure of 
the spirit of self-denial, which would lead 



them in practice to respond to the inspired 
maxim of a devoted servant of Christ, ' It 
is not good to drink wine, nor anything 
whereby a brother stumbleth, or is of- 
fended, or is made weak.' 



CTj^e QTentperance pulpit. 

STRONG DRINK AND THE READY TO PERISH. 

Prov. xxxi. 6. 

' Give strong drink unto him that is ready to perish.' 



Perhaps some may think this a text 
which total abstainers had better let 
alone. It may seem to furnish an argu- 
ment against our principles. We have, 
indeed, recently seen it cited as scripture 
authority for the common use of intoxicat- 
ing drinks. We are convinced, those who 
thus cite it, wrest it from its proper 
meaning, and we shall here endeavour to 
show that moderate drinkers receive in 
this passage no countenance for their cus- 
toms. For this purpose, remark — 

The strong drink spoken of. On this 
we shall not take the ground that some of 
our friends occupy, and affirm that intoxi- 
cating drink is not here meant. We shall 
concede what we think truth demands, 
that Shechar here denotes what is intoxi- 
cating. This noun, along with the verb to 
which it is related, is generally used in 
connection with warnings against, or de- 
scriptions of, inebriation. It would appear 
then, usually at least, to denote intoxicat- 
ing drinks, whether brewed from grain, or 
made of dales, or of boiled fruits. ' Wine 
is a mocker, strong drink is raging, and 
whosoever is deceived thereby is not wise.' 
This concession may be caught by mo- 
derate drinkers as favouring their practice, 
but let them not be too fast. For ob- 
serve again, — The persons to tchom strong 
drink is to be given. It is the ' ready to 
perish, and those that be of heavy heart.' 
Those are, the wretched and sorrowful, 
the down-trodden and the drawn unto 
death. As far as this text indicates, 
these alone are to have strong drink given 
them. Let, then, our moderate drinking 
friends say if they can put in their plea 
for using strong drinks, on this ground. 
Are they really ' ready to perish ?' Are 
they truly ' those that be of heavy hearts?' 
If they are not, they have no business 
with this text, as a warrant for their taking 



wine or strong drink. They must leave 
it to whomsoever it may concern ; it does 
not belong to them. And looking on 
many of them, we must say, we do not 
think them so sadly woe-begone. We 
see their rubicund faces, and their joyous 
looks, as they sit around the social board. 
We discern in them no appearance of 
those who are ready to perish, and must 
therefore protest against their taking what 
it seems is to be given to those that be of 
heavy hearts. Surely persons, who, as if 
afraid of going beyond the divine word, 
ask us, where is your scripture for total 
abstinence? will respect this text, and 
when in full comfort, will conscientiously 
refrain from what is intended for the 
ready to perish. Notice again, — The pur- 
pose for which strong drink is to he taken. 
' Let him drink, and forget his poverty, 
and remember his misery no more.' Few 
venture to quote this part of the passage, 
when appealing to the previous clauses as 
a warrant for drinking usages. This looks 
so like a mistaken sentiment of man ; it 
appears so utterly unlike a direction ap- 
proved by God, that some perhaps would 
rather wish it were not in the text at all. 
But there it is, and it spoils entirely the 
authority sought in this scn'pture for 
drinking intoxicating drinks. We have 
found one writer bold enough to appeal to 
it with this view. Yet let us see how it 
sustains such a plea. On this supposition, 
here is a reason assigned for taking strong 
drink — a man is to drink that he may 
forget his poverty, and remember his 
misery no m.ore. Must we hold this, 
then, to be the will of God, that in afflic- 
tion and grief a man is to drink till his 
memory of trouble is drowned, and till he 
remember his pain no more ? Are we to 
reckon this the divine cure for misery here 
revealed ? You see that widowed mother 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAI,. 



81 



mourning the death of her only son, and 
are you to tell her, as your message to her 
from God, that she should drink whisky, 
or brandy, or wine, that she may remem- 
ber her misery no more ? Shall we re- 
gard this an appointment of the same 
book as contains these counsels of love : 
' Call upon me in the day of trouble, and 
I will deliver thee.' ' Cast thy burden on 
the Lord, and be will sustain thee.' Who 
burns not, that the book of truth should 
be supposed to teach such a God-dis- 
honouring sentiment as this — that wretched 
and sorrowful human beings should drink 
that they may forget their misery ? Yet 
this is the sentiment of the text, on the 
principles of those who appeal to it as 
scripture authority for using strong drink. 
Consider finally — 

The connection of the words as a Jcey to 
their (rue ineaning. ' It is not for kings, 
Lemuel ! it is not for kings to drink 
wine, nor for princes strong drink, lest 
they drink and forget the law, and per- 
vert the judgment of any of the afflicted.' 
This looks wonderfully like a sound 
total abstinence counsel, and we would 
not expect the individual who uttered 
this, to couple with it an exhortation to 
give or use strong drinks. This leads us 
to remark, that there is an evident con- 
trast in the passage, — a contrast between 
what is the wisdom of kings, and what is 
the usual course of the miserable among 
men. This course of the miserable is not 
referred to for approval, but simply for 
illustration and warning. This, says the 
speaker, is your wisdom as a king, not to 
drink wine ; give or leave that to those 
who are ready to perish. They are wont 
to take strong drink to drown the memory 
of their grief; they drink, thinking they 
will remember their misery no more. 
Thus we hold, that men are spoken of 
here, on their own principles of action. 
The speaker does not utter a command to 
give strong drink as according to the will 
of God, but merely states a fact as to a 
common practice among men ; and along 
with this is coupled a counsel to the king, 



to have no fellowship with the unhappy 
in this delusion. So we find in other 
parts of scripture, the errors of the un- 
faithful adduced as a warning to the 
upright, to have no communion with them 
in their mistaken courses. Thus God 
commands, ' Though thou Israel play the 
harlot, yet let not Judah offend.' ' Eph- 
raim is joined to his idols, let him alone ;' 
have no fellowship with him in his 
sinful waj's. Thus, too, Jesus addresses 
the Pharisees, ' Give alms of such things 
as ye have, and behold, all things are 
clean unto you.' This he says, not as 
approving their conduct, but he speaks to 
them on their own principles of action ; and 
by his mode of address, he severely re- 
bukes them for their hypocritical deeds. 
In like manner, does this inspired coun- 
sellor exhort king Lemuel to have no 
fellowship with what is deceitful ; but to 
give up strong drink to the ready to 
perish, as a thing which he should not 
taste. And then looking on a common 
custom of the wretched — without, however, 
approving it — the wise monitor continues, 
' Let him drink that he may forget his 
poverty, and remember his misery no 
more.' 

Where, now, in this passage is there the 
remotest countenance for the common use 
of intoxicating drinks ? Is this not, on 
the contrary, an exhortation against it? 
It is implied, indeed, in this text, that the 
distressed and unhappy do drink that they 
i may forget their misery ; but this conduct 
I is disapproved, in so far as counsel is 
given that it should not be followed. As 
total abstainers, we are acting out the 
spirit of this wise counsel. We believe it 
is not for us to drink wine, lest we forget 
the law of our God. We give up strong 
drink to those who are ready to perish. 
We warn them of their folly, when they 
think they will thereby drown the me- 
mory of their misery. But if they will not 
forbear, we remember our text ; and have 
no fellowship v.'ith them. Whether we 
are not right, both in our exposition and 
our practice, Judge ye. 



%^z ^fistainer's Journal. 

Glasgow, April, 1853. 



ELECTIONEERING DEPRAVITY. 

If proof were wanting that every element I strong drink, it is to be found in the dis- 

of human depravity is intensified and closures just made before the Parlia- 

rendered more hideous through means of | men tary committees which have been sitting 

_ 



82 



THE ABSTAINER 8 JOURNAL. 



upon the cases of bribery in connection 
with last election. Let us give a speci- 
men : — 

At Lancaster a pawnbroker named 
Shepherd was installed at the top of the 
Bridge Inn, in a sort of parlour, where, 
on the day of election, the freemen were 
ushered into his presence, and received 
money, and afterwards drink. The voters 
were introduced into this room, and, on 
giving their promise to vote for Mr Arm- 
strong, received £5, either in a note or in 
sovereigns, — whichever they preferred. 
Another agent named Wyse, not only 
gave money, but ordered suppers or drink 
at the various district townships, thus 
securing also the votes of the landlords. 
At one of these suppers 100 voters were 
gratuitously seated round the table. 

At Canterbury tickets were served 
out, which, ' at any of the Tory houses,' 
were equivalent to from one to two shil- 
lings' v/orth of hquor. 

At Blackburn, ' drink was ordered,' 
said the landlady of the Waterloo, ' by Mr 
Copeland and young Henry Eccles. 
There was no limit. People kept coming 
into the bar, and said Mr H. Eccles sent 
them, and then they got drink. There 
was drink of all sorts, but most of brandy. 
That occurred all day, the day before the 
nomination day, on that day, and the 
polling day.' Mr Eccles, it appears, ' with- 
out the smallest idea of what it is for,' 
signed a check for £2,000. He has since 
lost his seat. 

The Clitheboe case furnished a fine 
specimen of what is called in slang 
phrase, ' bottling ;' that is, keeping a gang 
of voters drinking or drunk up to the 
I polling day, and then driving them to the 
voting booth only with powers of articula- 
tion left sufficient to belch out the name of 
the man who furnishes the debauch as a fit 
and proper person to represent them in Par- 
liament. Henry Haworth dejiosed to hav- 
ing been treated six or seven times at a 
shooting-box of Mr Margetson's, at Har- 
den . He remained there with others from the 
Monday till the Wednesday (the polling 
day) ; a coach came for them on that day 
and took them away. A Lancashire far- 
mer had received an order for three hun- 
dred fighting men to do the rough work 
of the election, with the instruction ' that 
the best fighting men and poachers would 
be preferred.' At the ' Craven Heifer,' 
on the nomination day, and for some 
days before, two thousand men ate and 



drank as much and as fast as the land- 
lord could supply them. They were in- 
troduced in parties, with orders from 
known friends of the cause — which cause 
or what cause it matters not to inquire. 

Before the Bridgnorth Committee, a 
quondam ])ublican named Tipton frankly 
stated that he considered his constitu- 
tional privilege as merely subservient to 
the payment of liis score. At a former 
election the Plgot party had run up a 
bill at his house for £34 10s, of which 
£22 had been paid, leaving a balance of 
£12 10s. At the last election he went 
upon the broad and intelligible principle 
that whoever paid his bill should have his 
vote. 

. Could anything half so discreditable have 
possibly occurred in a perfectly sober 
community ? Who, but the frequenters of 
our beer and whisky-shops would so de- 
mean themselves, as barter the most glorious 
rights of free-born Britons for a few days' 
gratification of their beastly appetite? The 
fact is not without its moral. To talk of 
national education while the beer-shops of 
England and the whisky-shops of Scot- 
land are left free to brutalise the population, 
betokens a spirit ill in keeping with the 
lessons taught us by a dire experience. 
Will the friends of the people look at it ? 
Here are the interests of a great nation 
placed at the mercy of a brood of pot- 
house frequenters. The enjoyment, then, 
of our constitutional privileges demands 
not only the unseating of the unprincipled 
men who could purchase a place in the 
House at the price of their country's dis- 
grace, but the adoption of radical mea- 
sures for the elevation of those debased 
communities which they have made sub- 
servient to their purpose, and those mea- 
sures must of necessity comprehend a 
suppression of the making, selling, and 
drinking of the brutalising draught. 



GLASGOW OR EDINBURGH— 
WHICH IS THE MOST DRUNKEN ? 
The closer our social drinking sy/stem is 
inspected, the more hideous it appears. 
Certain returns supplied to Parliament 



THE ABSXAINKR'S JOURKAL. 



83 



on the motion of Mr Hume, reveal most 
startling facts with respect to the com- 
parative sobriety of London, Edinburgh, 
and Glasgow : — 

I Taking the last year embraced in the 
I return — and it seems to be a fair average 
: of the whole — we find that in 1851 the 
number of persons taken into custody by 
the police for being drunk and disorderly, 
in London, was o0,421, the population 
being 2,526,873. In Edinburgh, the 
number was 2793, the population being 
1 66,000. In Glasgow, the number was 
14,870, the population being 333,657. 
In other words, the proportion of persons 
apprehended for being drunk and disor- 
derly, is in London about 1 iu 83, in 
Edinburgh about 1 in 60, in Glasgow 
about 1 in 22 of the population, Tliis 
seems an ugly conclusion for Glasgow ; 
and we are sorry to say that, on further 
inquiry, the matter only looks worse and 
worse. While of 30,421 persons taken 
into custody in London for drunkenness 
and disorderly conduct, the number con- 
victed was no more than 12,278, in Glas- 
gow, there were 9095 convictions out of 
14,870 appveheasious. The convictions 
in Edinburgh were to the apprehensions 
as 1880 to 2793. That is, to put it in a 
plainer way, the proportion of persons 
convicted of being drunk and disorderly is | 
in London about 1 in 200, in Edinburgh \ 
about 1 in 90, in Glasgow about I in 37 
of the population. 

The Scotsman, partaking of the sUly 
rivalry which subsists between our two 
great Scottish cities, has made these re- 
turns the ground of certain sneering re- 
marks at the forwardness of Glasgow in 
every benevolent and religious movement, 
and infers that in view of such facts her 
religion can be nothing better than hypo- 
crisy and cant. The insinuation has 
brought about his ears a perfect swarm of 
indignant editors and insulted town-coun- 
cillors, who, very jealous for the credit of 
their city, have explained, and qualified, 
and afi'ected injured innocence. The con- 
duct of both is equally in vain. Captain 
Smart, of the Glasgow Police, has fur- 
nished a statement which goes, so far, to 
make matters appear somewhat better. 
He states that if he had had time and 



means to show how many cases were 
multiplied by a very small number of 
drunken ne'er-do-weels, he ' has no doubt 
that it would have reduced the namber by 
one-half.' ' A great many of these per- 
sons,' he says, ' (the habitual drunkards) 
have been in the police offices a dozen 
times a-year, and they count a new per- 
son each time ; for example, !Mary Smith, 
alias " the Deil," has been in the Central 
Office, on an average, twenty times a- 
year, during the five years of the return, 
and Mary, in consequence, is made to 
figure as 100 persons.' But grant even 
this to be true, is it not also true, that not 
the half of either the Edinburgh or Glas- 
gow drunkards ever fall into the hands 
of the police, so that, after all, the Par- 
liamentary Eeturns may be regarded as 
giving no exaggerated view of Scottish 
intemperance? There thus remains the 
ugly fact — that in Edinburgh one in sixty, 
and in Glasgow one in twenty-two of the 
population, were in the year 1851 drunk and 
disorderly. 

What a tale does each unit in those 
fearful summations represent ! A son, 
it may be, who having disappointed all 
his mother's hopes, adds disgrace to her 
desolations ; or perhaps a daughter, in whom 
the maddening bowl has extinguished 
that modesty which is the glory of her 
sex ; or a husband, who has insulted and 
wronged the woman whom every motive 
bound him to honour and cherish ; or it 
may be, even a wife to whom her dis- 
tracted partner finds himself joined in 
a moi"e revolting union than were the 
criminals of old to the foetid corpse. 
Think of fourteen thousand eight hun- 
dred and seventy such cases in Glasgow, 
and in Edinburgh two thousand seven 
hundred and ninety-three, if yon would 
compute the wretchedness, crime, and 
vice which our national love of Hquor is 
inflicting upon the two chief cities of 
Scotland. JIagistrates and County Jus- 
tices, will you, on the licensing day, look 



84 



THE ABSTAINES'S JOUKNAL. 



these facts in the face ? Are you prepared 
to let loose anew on the community a 
class of men, whose calling is more diabo- 
lical than that of the Thugs of India ? 
To your hands is committed the charge 
of the horrid monster who has perpe- 
trated all this wrong. Fearful is the re- 
sponsibility under which your office lays 
you. Ministers of the gospel, shall these 
things be held up to the scorn of the 
cause you are consecrated to protect, and 
your pulpits remain silent ? Allied with 
the civil authorities, and backed by all 
the good and the true, you might roll 
back this tide of iniquity. Talk of the 
dangers of Popery ! Talk of the evils of 
Infidelity ! Talk of the sins of Sabbath 
profanation ! The drink that flows around 
your own tables is doing a work of death 
and damnation that no other device of 
the devil's den ever boasted. 



LEGALISED MURDER. 
The conviction of John Williams of mur- 
der at the High Court of Justiciary, adds 
another dark chapter to the doings of 
strong drink. Andrew Mather, a man 
of sixty-four, keeper of the Cleekhimin 
toll bar in the parish of Lauder, accom- 
panied a friend of the name of Aitchison to 
the inn about nine o'clock, on the night 
previous to the murder. But let the inn- 
keeper tell her own story : — 

' Agnes Turnbull, innkeeper at Cleek- 
himin Inn, deponed that the prisoner had 
been at her house on several occasions be- 
fore December last, and that she had for- 
bidden him to come again. After nine 
on Saturday, December 4, Mather and 
Aitchison came to her inn, and she agreed 
to lodge Aitchison for the night. Aitchi- 
son was a little the worse of drink, but 
Mather was quite sober. They called for 
some drink. Aitchison paid for the first 
gill, which Mather and Aitchison, her 
daughter, herself, and Mrs Jeffrey shared 
in. Thomas Jeffrey, son of Mrs Jeffrey, 
came in and got a share with the rest 
of the second gill, which he offered to give, 
but Mather insisted on paying for it. Soon 
after, Peter Anderson and WiUiams came 



in. She ordered Williams not to come in ; 
but Anderson insisted he should come in 
for a bottle of ale, and she allowed him. 
Anderson had had drink. The prisoner 
drank all the ale himself, but Anderson 
paid for it. An argument got up on 
the subject of religion and churches. 
Mather went away at half- past eleven. 
Witness went to the door with Ma- 
ther, and accompanied him about thirty 
yards on the road, carrying a light. 
He was quite sober. He wrapped hia 
plaid over his head and breast for the 
night air. Anderson remained sitting up, 
and called for another gill, but did not 
drink it.' 

The daughter of the murdered man 
completes the story*: — 

'After midnight she became anxious 
about her father's return, and called upon 
her sister to rise and accompany her to 
look for him. They went together, along 
the road towards Cleekhimin. Her sister 
found a hat on the road, which they 
recognised to be their father's. She then 
saw some object on the side of the road. 
On going forward, they saw that a plaid 
was wrapt round a man, and they could 
not see who it was. She then recognised 
it as her father, by the clogs on his feet. 
Her sister took hold of the plaid, and 
pulled it off, and a man under it started 
up. There was more than one person 
under the plaid— one body lying above 
another ; and, on taking off the plaid, one 
of them started up. He said, " Whisht !" 
Did not hear him say any more. Ob- 
served her father's clothes all torn, and 
his breast almost naked. His body was 
warm. Both ran to the Lylestone houses, 
which were nearly opposite, and alarmed 
the people there. A cart was got, and 
her father's body was taken to the toll- 
house. There was a great deal of blood 
about it, and it was disfigured with 
wounds. Recognised the prisoner as the 
person who was lying on her father's 
body.' 

The sentence of death was pronounced 
against the prisoner ; and now the gallows 
at Greenlaw has added another victim to 
the thousands already offered on the altar 
of Bacchus. And yet this is but one 
case selected'from a fearful catalogue of a 
month's crimes. Read any paper, and 
the mind cannot but be appalled at the 
list of horrid deeds which alcohol monthly 



THE abstainer's JOTJENAI-. 



85 



perpetrates. Not a night draws its cur- 
tains, bat under their concealment sonae 
villain goes forth, primed with whisky, to 
the commission of some deed of blood; 
and never does the sun rise, but to reveal 
some fresh atrocity. "Williams, wholly 
unconscious of what he is about, grapples 
in the dark with his boon companion, 
and after various unskilful blows, chances 
upon a vital part. Had ho known what 
he was about, would he have lain himself 
to sleep on the mangled corpse? And 
next the law, to be avenged, hangs the 
man who drank its own legalised liquor. 
Now what is society the better or the 
safer of having strangled this drunkard ? 
We express no opinion as to the right or 
wrong of capital punishment, but we have 
a strong opinion that more essential 
service had been done to society, had the 
licence been taken from Cleekhimin Inn, 
and from every other place in the district 
of a similar description. The law may 
keep the gallows going day by day, but 
so long as it keeps places open for the 
manufacture of murderers, it affords but 
sorry protection to the community. Had 
there been no such place as Cleekhimin 
Inn in the parish of Lauder, this foul deed 
had not outraged humanity ; but if such 
places are still to be tolerated, we need 
not complain if they should continue to 
bring forth their legitimate fruits. If 
farther proof be needed, we have it. 



Within a few yards of the hall in which 
the wretched criminal was condemned to 
die, and within a few hours of his execu- 
tion, a similar deed has been perpetrated. 
On the morning of Sabbath, the 13th ult., 
a scufBe was heard in an apartment 
occupied by a man named Davidson and 
his wife, residing in Hume's Close, Canon- 
gate, Edinburgh. On entering, the man 
was found dead, having been stabbed 
through the heart. Neither being un- 
dressed, indicates that they had not gone 
to bed, and the opinion is, that, as was 
their wont, they had been drinking. The 
woman has been apprehended. Now, 
why hang those who commit murder 
under the influence of liquor? What 
good does it do? A human being in- 
flamed with drink is deterred by no fear 
of consequences. The law must strike 
back of this, as the Yankies would say. 
Let the dram-shops be abolished, and 
there will be less work for the gallows. We 

' obsei-ve a laudable desire upon the part of a 
paternal government to discover and pre- 

i vent the causes of accidents upon our 
railways. Why not be equally wise in 
preventing deeds of a more revolting 

' character ? The cause is obvious. One 
sweeping act, rigorously applied, would do 
more for the country's weal than years of 
legislation on national education, sanitary 
reform, and criminal jurisprudence. 



^ a e t r g. 

SONG. 
AiB — ' The Lass o' Govme.' 



What spot is like ane's ain hearthstane ! 
For love and truth I ken o' nace ! 
There happy thochts skip round the brain, 

Like fairies bright and airy. 
Then, Willie dear, why stray frae me ! 
Nae place like hame can pleasure gie ; 
I ken weel, by your cheerless e'e, 

Nane's kinder than your Mary ! 



I Why wander up and wander doun, 
I Why seek your joys through half the toun ! 
! Leave, Willie, leave ilk wicked loun, 
j That wi' his wiles wad snare ye. 
! True joy, like yon sweet blushing flow'r, 
Blooms best within hame-sheltered bow'r 
Away frae wardly skaith and stour, 
' Beside your wife — your Mary ! 



86 



THE ABBTAINEE'S JODKNAL. 



I lo'e ye mair than I can tell ! 
Ye are my life, my dearer sel' ! 
Oh, Willie, break the wine-cup's spell, 
That frae yoiir hame wad tear ye. 



Joys mair than a' bright gowd can bring — 
Joys sparklin'pure as mountain spring- 
Joys that for aye will round you cling, 
You'll find at hame wi' Mary ! 

Walmugkg. 



Selections. 



DISSIPATION OF ENGLISH WORKMEN. 



Though the open exhibitions of helpless 
intoxication are now by no means so 
common as I can remember them to have 
been in my boyish days, partly owing to 
the spread of total abstinence principles, 
and partly to the prompt and certain in- 
terference of an ever-present police ; yet 
there ai-e but too good grounds for believ- 
ing that the check thus given to the last 
stage of intemperance is but trifling, when 
viewed in connection with the universal 
sway of this degrading and soul-killing 
vice. It has been estimated by those who 
have had better opportunities of judging 
than have occurred to the writer of this 
paper, that, of the labourers, artizans, and 
industrious classes of all grades in tbis 
country, seventy out of every hundred 
spend their evenings at the public-house, 
— resort to it regularly and systematically 
as their appointed place of recreation and 
enjoyment. If this be true (and the re- 
sult of my own observation would tend 
to increase the per-centage, rather than 
diminish it), then here are at once nearly 
three-fourths of the whole immense host 
of British workmen voluntarily separating 
themselves from the available means of 
mental improvement and religious instruc- 
tion, it being preposterous to suppose that 
the nightly inmate of the drunkard's den 
can entertain any true regard for the one 
or the other. What a terrific picture is 
this ! And in what trumpet tones it tells 
of the actual state of Christianity among 
the vast masses that compose the very 
base of the social pyramid, and who are 
at once the originating and upholding 
cause of the commercial prosperity of our 
land. Viewed as a whole, the spectacle 
is most humiliating and discouraging ; but 
the contemplation of its harrowing details 
is mere distressing still. When I look 
back through the vista of weary years, 
and imagination restores the old com- 
panions of my toil, the long-familiar faces 
return again, and fill once more the old 
places which have for ever ceased to 
know them. As their half-forgotten 



forms rise and flit before me, I recognise 
again the bloated countenance, the leaden 
hazy eye, the animal lower lip, lax and 
livid, of the habitual drunkard ; and can 
but mourn as I call to mind how many 
of those who, but for one fatal error, might 
have obtained independence or achieved a 
name, have been dragged down into pre- 
mature graves by the loathsome vice of 
intoxication. At times, too, in my walks, 
early or late, to and from the scenes of 
my daily labours, the friendless widow or 
the helpless orphans of men who drink 
deep for death, and found him in the 
drunkard's bowl, will cross my path — 
forlorn, miserable, and struggling beings, 
who, but for this one desolating vice, 
might yet have been the joyful wife and 
offspring of a husband and sire, sur- 
rounded with comfort and respect. 

Perhaps the most repulsive and hope- 
less results of the perj^etual public-house 
resort above alluded to, are evidenced in 
the persons and practices of a very nume- 
rous branch of the working classes, who 
yet never work. Ruined by drunken- 
ness, or expelled from the workshop 
through the incapacity or irregularity 
which that vice so frequently occasions, 
they have shaken hands with shame, and 
constituted themselves a perpetual tax 
upon the labour of their fellows ; and, in 
the character of tramps, they lead a migra- 
tory existence, chequered with every 
variety of misery and destitution — of 
sensual indulgence and debasing enjoy- 
ment. The whole talent of this worthless 
tribe (and it is not much) is devoted to 
the laudable object of fingering money 
without earning it. From one year's end 
to the other, and from year to year, they 
wander through town and country, and 
by means of some worn-out document in 
the shape of a certificate, introduce them- 
selves into the workshops where their re- 
spective crafts are pursued, and mulct the 
sober and industrious labourers of a por- 
tion of their pay. It is but little they 
collect in the course of the year ; but that 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



87 



little is all too much, and serves to chain 
them to their vagabond life, with which 
they are. for the most part, so thoroughly 
enamoured, that nothing short of actual 
starvation would induce tliem to abandon 
it. Some of these have travelled every 
turnpike-road in England, and, in associa- 
tion with migratory paupers and thieves, 
have made acquaintance with every 
refuge of beggary and destitution with j 
which this country is plagued. It is con- 
sistent with my own knowledge, that j 
some, who, but for intemperance and the i 
laziness it superinduces, might have been 
in circumstances of comfort and useful- j 
ness, have spent so many years upon the 
tramp as to have actually forgotten the 
right use of the itjiplements employed in 
the business to which they served an ap- j 
prenticeship. It is a marvel that the 
sober and industrious workman blinds 
himself wilfully to the character of this 
huge shoal of perambulating scoundrels, 
and persists, as he invariably does, in per- 
petuating their system of plunder by 
getting up a subscription to relieve them 
and ' send them on the way,' the ' way,' 
with cash in hand, being uniformly to the 
beer-house or the gin-shop. If such fellows 
as we have described have the misfortune 
to meet with the employment they are 
professedly seeking, their usual practice 
is to borrow a little money in advance, on 
the plea of securing a lodging, and then 
to disappear immediately from the neigh- 
bourhood. — The Shadoio of Death. B'j 
Charles Smith, printer. 

AMUSEMENTS OF THE POOR. 

Another feature of the time is the regard 
paid to 'he amusements of the poor, and the 
exertions made to provide them with recrea- 
tion — a department long perilously neglect- 
ed by the severer reformers and the better 
churches. One of the grand instruments 
under which reactions against both civil 
and religious liberty have been originated, 
and ultimately accomplished, has been the 
natural love of amusement which obtains 
among the masses, and which, in the pre- 
vious paroxysm of reform, had been un- 
wisely left as an unoccupied post, to be 
seized hold of by the enemy. Well did the 
old ambitious Romans and Greeks, who 
set themselves to subvert the institutions 
of their country, know the potency of this 
element, and powerfully did they appeal 
to it ; and carefully is it calculated upon, 
and sedulously is it courted, by the Greek 
and Roman Churches of the present day. 



Nor is the ' hero of a hundred yeses' unac- 
quainted with its efBcacy. It was one of 
the grand defects of what is known as the 
' Second Reformation' — a defect which did 
not obtain equally in the ' First,' and 
which, had men such as Milton been con- 
sulted, or men such as Cromwell imitated, 
would have attached just as little to the 
' Second' — that it made no allowance for 
the popular love of amusement. It closed 
up the theatres ; and after inhibiting the 
bear-gardens, made, in some instances, 
grease of the bears; but it substituted 
nought in lieu of them ; and hence, ' when 
the second Charles assumed the sway,' the 
wild reaction fit, so happily indicated by 
the striking figure of Cowper — 

' Like a bow, long forced into a curve. 
The mind, released from too constrained a 

nerve, 
Flew to its first position, with a spring 
That made the vaulted roofs of Pleasure ring.' 

— Edinburgh Wittiess, Jan. 8. 



EXAMPLE OF WILLIAM III. 

Most of the crime and sorrow of the pre- 
sent day, and, indeed, the greatest misfor- 
tune that ever befel this country, originated 
from the example given by William IIL 
and his Dutch courtiers, as imbibers of 
ardent spirits. In fact, the laws of England, 
from an early period, sternly prohibited 
the conversion of malt into alcohol, except- 
ing a small portion for medical purposes. 
Queen Elizabeth (and the act, it is said, 
originated from her own virtue of temper- 
ance) strictly enforced this statute, and 
treated the infringement of it as a moral 
dereliction. And those were the times 
when breaking laws made for the health 
and happiness of the people were not 
visited by fines which were easily spared 
by fraudulent mammon profits, but by 
personal infliction on the delinquents. 
. . . In the days when the lower class 
of the people were not worshippers at the 
gin temple, such restraints had some eflfect 
on the fearful crime of robbing the poor ; 
which is little heeded at the present day, 
although fraught with the worst elements 
of evil. But the consummation of all 
injury to the people, was the encourage- 
ment that King William III. was pleased 
to give to the newly-born manufactories 
of spirituous liquors. Strange it is, after 
noting such stringent laws against con- 
verting food into ' fire-water,' that a sov- 
ereign of Great Britain could come 
repeatedly to his senate, to earnestly 
recommend to legislators its encourage- 



THE ABSTAINER 8 JOURNAI,. 



ment! Yet this respectable request of 
royalty stares the reader in the face in 
every Manuscript Journal of Parliament. 
. . . The alteration of the wise restric- 
tive law of Elizabeth was not done in ig- 
norance : more than one luminary of the 
church and law remonstrated. These are 
the words of Whiston :— ' An Act of Par- 
liament has abrogated a very good law for 
discouraging the poor from drinking gin ; 
nay, they have in reality encouraged them 
to drunkenness, and to the murder of 
themselves by such drinking.' Judge 
Hale, who earnestly supported the amend- 
ed law, and opposed its abrogation, de- 
clared ' that millions of persons would 
kill themselves by these fatal liquors.' 
The prediction of the legal sage has 
indeed been fearfully verified owing to the 
acts of this unpaternal reign. — Strickland's 
Queens of England, vol. xi., pp. 258-260. 

THINGS TO BE AVOIDED. 
All things are inexpedient which are 
found to be unprofitable ; not those alone 
which may issue in direct and positive 
injury, but those which are not subservient 
to the great ends of practical religion ; all 
which would render it, in any degree, more 
difficult to fulfil the duties of a christian 
in the world, and in the family, and amidst 
the privacies of a devout retirement ; all 
which would bring down a shade of gloom 
upon his spirit as he draws near to God, 
and inflict upon his conscience the most 
slight and momentary pang; all which he 
could not receive in the silence of mid- 
night, and in the direct view of eternity, 
with purest satisfaction and calmness ; all 
that would make him look with an emo- 



tion of surprise and reluctance upon the 
messenger that should becken him away 
from the scenes and avocations of time 
into those of eternity. "WTiatever hinders 
his preparation for the exercises of relir 
gion, for the duties of common life, for 
the endurance of the cross, for the resis- 
tance of temptation, and for his entrance 
even in its very performance or enjoyment 
into the world above, is then manifestly 
unprofitable and inexpedient. That, 
too, is inexpedient wfiich would restrict 
the usefulness either of our direct 
exertions, or our general example, im- 
pairing the uniformity, the completeness, 
and accuracy of our representations in 
practice of all that constitutes true chris- 
tian character. For the same reason wa 
must avoid what would, in any measure, 
interfere with the fullest and most un- 
embarrassed discharge of every obligation, 
whether official or personal. If we should 
thereby be rendered the less confident or 
the less sorrowful in reproving sin, in 
urging to a course of self-denial, and a 
life of hohness, in exhorting to spirituality 
of mind, and superiority to the pursuits 
and pleasures of the world, if, when we 
enter upon such a duty, we should feel 
the blush mantling our cheek for any 
measure of incompatibility between our 
exhortations and rebukes of others, and 
the tenor of our own behaviour, if we 
should feel ourselves exposed to the 
cutting inquiry, ' Thou that teachest 
another, teachest thou not thyself?' then 
surely such practice is, to the last degree, 
unprofitable and inexpedient. — Sermons 
on Ordinary Occasions hy R. S. M^All, 
LL.D., pp. 295, 296. 



trtis antr fi^nts. 



The WAT TO get to the Deun- 
kard's Heart. — I remember we were 
called one Saturday afternoon, rather 
urgently, into Bristol. As we neared the 
gate of the 'Fire Engine' public-house, 
we perceived that the road was literally 
blocked up by 'return' waggons and 
horses, the drivers of which were in the 
public-house. A boy was sent for the 

drivers. 'Why, is that you, B ?' 

exclaimed Mr Budgett, as a stout-built 
fellow, with a face like a sweep, came 
rushing out of the house, grasping his 
heavy whip in the one hand, and hastily 



drawing the back of the other over his 
mouth fresh from the can — ' I'm sorry to 
see you there ; here, come round to me ;' 

then lowering his voice, he said, ' B , 

my poor fellow, you have a wife and chil- 
dren at home. Have they anything to eat?' 
' Not much, I be afeared, sir,' said the 
man, trying to force a smile on his coun- 
tenance, though he evidently felt ashamed. 
' Well, tell me,' continued Mr Budgett, 
'how nmch have you spent?' 'Why, 
threepence ; but I had it gee'd me by the 
lady 'at hat t' call.' ' Well, never mind 
who gave it to you, but tell me what 



THE abstainer's JOUENAI,, 



89 



you spent as you went into Bristol this 
morning ?' ' Why, threepence.' ' Well, 
the lady didn't give you that ; but no 
matter how you came by the money, so 
that it was honestly obtained. What I 
want you to think about is this : By 
your own showing, you have spent six- 
pence to-day on beer ; if you have done 
the same every day this week, and I fear 
you have, then you have three shillings 
in your pocket less than you might have 
had. Now, as you go along, just consider 
how many little things that three shillings 
would have bought for the real comfort 
of your wife, yourself, and your children. 
You say you fear they have but little to 
eat at home now, and you have spsnt 
sixpence on yourself. Is that kind ? 
Nay, don't make any excuse. I know 
you feel you have done wrong. Don't, 
my poor fellow, repeat it. One word 
more: if you persist in this habit, you 
will become a drunkard; and the bible 
tells you, " Drunkards shall not inherit 
the kingdom of God. " It will lead you 
into all wickedness; and the bible tells 
you, " The wicked shall be turned into 

hell." B ,' he added very solemnly, 

' think of this ; tell your companions there 
what I have said to you, that He may 
make you a more thoughtful and a better 

man.' Poor B listened ; the assumed 

smile disappeared ; his face sank almost 
into his bosom ; and he became evidently 
ashamed to look at us. At the close of 
Mr Budgett's remarks, he touched his 
hat in a respectful manner, and said with 
much apparent feeling, ' Thank you, sir ; 
it's very good for gentlemen such as you 
to talk this ways to poor men like me.' — 
The Successful Merchant, by William 
Arthur. 

The Shoddy Mill. — Have you ever 
seen a shoddy mill ? It is a curious sight. 
You find a multitude of rags and tatters 
gathered from all the winds ; here a patch 
of Irish freize, there a shred of tartan, 
scraps of women's shawls, of men's pan- 
taloons, of flannels, horse rugs, stockings, 
threads, snips, and morsels, blue, black, 
green, and all hues, English, Welsh, Ger- 
man, a strange heap of the off-cast and the 
defiled, hopeless things that no housewife 
could work up, that no shivering wretch 
could look to for comfort. Yet there they 
are for restoration. See how that teethed 
and terrible machine makes them look more 
hopeless still, rends up even rags, tears 
up tatters, champs, wrests, slashes, and 
flings them out at last, fibres and shock- 
ing dust. But next comes the oil can, 



and oil, abundant oil, with working and 
turning, till the heap begins to look like 
some caricature of wool. Then the spin- 
ning frame ; and, lo ! the tatters form to 
yarn once more ; then the loom, where 
the tatters turn to blankets, druggets, 
pilot cloth, and even what would pass un- 
der your eyes as decent broad cloth. This 
shoddy covers many a respectable floor, 
flourishes in palitds of low caste, and goes 
out in blue blankets to New Zealand to 
clothe the Maories. Now, society has its 
shoddy, its off'-cast rags, its hopeless tatters, 
polluted and displeasing to look upon, 
and very undesirable to touch. The re- 
spectable world has passed them by ; they 
have lain in corners and grown viler, till 
they corrupted away, the receptacles being 
ever filled up with new off-casts. But 
God's gospel in the hearts of men has set 
them to search for their refuse, and to 
work them up again into the texture of 
society. — The Successful Merchant, by Wm. 
Arthur, A.M., pp. 301, 302, 

Hip, hip, hurrah ! — At the close of 
the reign of Charles the Second, the 
Guildhall, and the halls of his great com- 
panies, were enlivened by many sumptuous 
bauquets. During these repasts, odes, 
composed by the poet laureate of the cor- 
poration, in praise of the king, the duke, 
and the mayor, were sung to music. 
The drinking was deep, the shouting loud. 
An observant Tory (North's Examin.), 
who often shared in these revels, has re- 
marked that the practice of huzzaing after 
drinking healths dates from this joyous 
period. — Macaulay's History of England, 
vol. i., p. 353. 

Influence of Music. — The eflPect of 
introducing music into one of the villages 
of German Switzerland upon the entire 
moral character of the people was imme- 
diate and striking. They relinquished 
drinking, riot, and debauchery, and all 
disreputable amusements, to join in musi- 
cal recreation. And villages before noted 
for nothing but ill, became distinguished 
for sobriety, order, and purity. — Wood- 
bridge's Annals of Education. 

Vert Bitter Beer. — A very greatly 
increased consumption of bitter ale will 
be the consequence of the reduction of 
the malt tax ; for all the beer we drink 
will be embittered by the reflection that 
we are saddled, in consequence, with an 
additional house duty. — Punch. 

Question on the Budget. — It is 
even said that the diminution of the malt 
tax will not cheapen beer at all. Well, 
perhaps so. Possibly the brewers could 



90 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



tell you that malt has less to do with 
beer than you suppose. — Ibid. 

AsTiPATHT TO Spiders. — Few peo- 
ple like spiders. Ko doubt these in- 
sects must have their merits and their 
uses, since none of God's creatures are 
made in vain ; all living things are endowed 
with instinct more or less admirable ; but 
the spider's plotting, creeping ways, and 
a sort of wiclied expression about him, 
lead one to dislike him as a near neighbour. 
In a battle between a spider and a fly, one 
always sides with tl;e lly ; and yet of the 
two the last is certainly the most trouble- 
some insect to man. But the fly is frank 
and free in all his doings ; he seeks bis 
food openly, and he pursues his pastimes 
openly; suspicions of others, or covert 
designs against them, are quite unknown 
to him, and there is something almost 
confiding in the way in which he sails 
around you, when a single stroke of your 
hand might destroy him. The spider, on 
the contrary, lives by snares and plots ; 
he is at the same time very designing and 
very suspicious, both cowardly and fierce ; 
he always moves stealthily, as though 
among enemies, retreating before the least 
appearance of danger, solitary and morose, 
holding no communion with his fellows. 
His whole appearance coiTesponds with 
his character, and it is not surprising, 
therefore, that while the fly is more mis- 
chievous to us than the spider, we yet 
look upon the first with more favour than 
the last ; for it is a natural impulse of 
the human heart to prefer that which is 
open and confiding to that which is wily 
and suspicious, even in the brute creation. 
The cunning and designing man himself 
will, at times, find a feeling of respect and 
regard for the guileless and generous steal- 
ing over him, his heart, as it were, giving 
the lie to his Hfe. — Miss Cooper's Rural 
Hours. 

Queer Traffic. — We have been 
thinking how it would take should some 
enterprising genius open a splendid shop 
in some great thoroughfare for the sale of 
cholera, consumption, apoplexy, liver 
disease, convulsions, etc. Of course the 
shop should be splendidly adorned with 
Parisian furniture and upholstery, with 
gorgeous paintings, mirrors, etc., and tbe 
various articles on sale should be served 
up with princely magnificence. Does any 
one imagine that such a business would 
not be prosperous and profitable ? We 
know better. We have seen it tried. 
There is not a d.ay in which all these 
diseases are not bought and sold iu New 



York, with the single precaution of 
changing the name of the article. Your 
Broadway saloon keeper will sell an 
apoplesy to his customer, merely calling 
it turtle soup and punch, and it is paid 
for cheerfully and swallowed greedily. 
And thus imder the name of gin slings, 
brandy smashers, mint julips, sherry cob- 
lers, and the like, he will supply his visi- 
tors with every disease known to the medi- 
cal faculty, and so efiectually that the 
whole faculty cannot cure them. Isn't it 
true that some things can be done as well 
as others ? — A'^. Y. Organ. 

The Word Tobacco. — We have long 
wondered whence came the word Tobacco. 
President Hitchcock, a very learned man, 
in his history of the Zoological Temperance 
Convention, says, Mr Simialar, or The 
LoxG Armed Ape, commended to the 
Convention this extraordinary plant, with 
the history of the name. The following 
is his account, wich wliich our young 
readers will be much amused : — The Long 
Armed Ape, Mr Simialar, here took the 
floor, and called attention to another sub- 
stance in very common use among men, 
of which other animals knew nothing, 
save himself and a few others. He said 
it was somewhat allied to alcohol, and the 
two were almost always used by the same 
individuals in alternate order, so as to 
produce an agreeable variety. For the 
use of the one always sharpened the ap- 
petite for the other. The substance was 
called Tobacco; a name which an inge- 
nious friend of his, who was a good Greek 
scholar, had derived from the name of 
Bacchus, the god of wine. For in declining 
that name, according to the rules of the 
Greek grammar, it ran thus : Nominative, 
BaJcc/ios ; Genitive, Tou Bahchou ; Da- 
tive, To Bakcho. The literal meaning of 
which latter case, is, something offered to 
the person or thing spoken of: viz., in 
this case, as he understood it, Tobacco 
means a certain weed dedicated to Bac- 
chus, and it was truly a most acceptable 
offering, for scarcely nothing else pro- 
moted his cause so much. And next to 
alcohol it was a most charming substance. 
The exhilaration was not, indeed, quite as 
strong as from alcohol ; but it continued 
longer, and, indeed, a man might use it 
constantly, except when asleep, with the 
most agreeable results. 

Fatal Effects of Australian 
Gold. — A man named Tierney, residing 
at Nenagh, after eating his dinner, went up 
stairs, but being under the influence of 
liquor, was in the act of going out for the 



THE ABSTAINER S JODKNAL. 



91 



purpose of drinking more, vflien Lis wife 
caught hold of him, in order to prevent 
him doing so, when he made a sudden 
effort to extricate himself from her grasp, 
•which he succeeded in doing, but losing 
his balance, fell down stairs and broke his 
neck. He had just received a check for 
£20 from a daughter who some time since 
emigrated to the gold fields of Australia. 
—Liverpool Mercury. 

A Good Example. — Viscount Ingestre 
lectured recently at the Mechanics' In- 
stitute, Wolverhampton, on ' Social Evils,' 
and at the head of seven of these of which 
he spoke he placed ' Facilities for Intem- 
perance' showing the enormous expendi- 
ture of our population in intoxicating 
drinks, and what good might be done with 
the money if otherwise emploj'ed. He 
forcibly depicted, too, the want of cleanli- 
ness in the dwelling-houses of large num- 
bers of the working classes. 

A Disqualification for Curates. 
— The Rev. Hugh Stowell, in the course 
of a lecture on ' Habit,' which he gave the 
members of the IManchester Young Men's 
Christian Association lately, denounced 
the practice of tobacco-smoking in un- 
measured terms. He said, 'Never mj-self 
will I hire a curate who indulges in it. 
I never now make inquiries for a curate, 
but I invariably inquire is he a smoker 
of tobacco ; if he is, I instantly reject his 
application.' [A case, to our knowledge, 
recently occurred of a most excellent man, 
and a very able minister, a candidate for 
a vacant pulpit, being rejected, from his 
being seen walking along the streets 
smoking. Ec] — British Banner. 

The Daily use of Wine. — 'Wine 
may be a good medicine occasionally, but 
its daily use, like that of opium and tobacco, 
becomes pernicious. The allegory of Pro- 
metheus is strongly illustrative of its in- 
jurious qualities. The mortality in Edin- 
burgh this year exceeds all my former 
experience; and probably may be in some 
measure attributable to the reduced duty 
on wine. Although I never indulged 
much in its use, yet whenever I took it I 
always felt it was a poison; and now that 
I have wholly abandoned it, I daily gain 
strength and appetite.' — Extract from a 
letter of an old West Indian Physician. 

I can't get on. — ' I can't get on, sir.' 
' What hinders you ?' ' Don't know.' 
' Plow much rent do you pay ?' ' Three- 
and-sixpence a week.' ' What does smok- 
ing cost you?' ' Tenpence halfpenny a 
week.' 'And beer?' ' One-and-sixpence; 



one week with another my pipe and beer 
cost me two shillings and sixpence a 
week.' 'Then give up your pipe and 
pot, and put the two shillings and sixpence 
into your pocket. That's the way to get 
on.' 

A Yankee Mode of Settling a Bill. 
— Four sharpers, having treated them- 
selves to a sumptuous dinner at the Hotel 
Montreuil, were at a loss how to settle for 
it, and hit on the following plan : — They 
called the waiter, and asked for the bill. 
One thrust his hand into his pocket as if 
to draw out his purse ; the second pre- 
vented him, declaring he would pay ; the 
third did the same ; the fourth forbade the 
waiter taking any money from either of 
them, but all three persisted. As none 
would yield, one said, ' The best way to 
decide is to bhndfold the waiter, and who- 
ever he first catches shall settle the bill.' 
This proposition was accepted, and while 
the waiter was groping his way round the 
room, they shpped out of the house one 
after another. 

The Reclaimed Drunkard's Gift. 
— A religious society in Yorkshire had 
twenty guineas brought to them by a man 
in low circumstances of life. Doubting 
whether it was consistent with his duty to 
his family and the world to contribute 
such a sum, they hesitated to receive it, 
W'hen he answered to the following effect: 
' Before I knew the grace of our Lord, I 
was a poor drunkard ; I never could save 
a shilling; my family were in beggary 
and rags; but, since it has pleased God 
to renew me by his grace, we have been 
industrious and frugal ; we have not spent 
many idle shillings, and we have been 
enabled to put something into the bank, 
and this I freely offer to the blessed cause 
of our Lord and Saviour.' This was the 
second donation from the individual to the 
same amount. — Sunday School l^eachers 
Magazine. 

A Consolatory Precedent. — ' All 
degrees of nations begin with living in 
pig-sties. The king or the priest first 
gets out of them, then the noble, then the 
pauper, in proportion as each class be- 
comes more and more opulent. Better 
tastes arise from better circumstances ; 
and the luxury of one period is the 
wretchedness and poverty of another.' — 
Sidney Smith. 

' A healthy bodj'- is good ; but a soul in 
right health is the thing beyond all others 
to be prayed for; the blessedest thing 
this earth receives of heaven.' — Carlyle. 



92 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



©peratfons of i\}z Scotttsfj Srempcrance ILea^ue. 



LABOURS OF THE AGENTS. 

MONTHLY LIST OF FLACES VISITED. 

Mr Easton. — Ferryden, Montrose, 
Aberdeen, Kintore, Woodside,, Inverury, 
Ellon, Stuartfield, Peterhead, Fraserburgh, 
Roseliearty, New Pitsligo, Newbyth, 
Cuinineston. 

Mr Anderson. — Chirnside, Auchen- 
crow, Ayton, Coldingham, Eyemouth, 
Berwick, Alnwick, Newcastle, Haydon- 
Bridge, Langley Slill, Haltwhistle, Alton, 
North Shields, South Shields, Templetown. 

Mr M'Farlane. — Galston, Darvel, 
Newmilns, Mauchline, Catrine, Muirkirk, 
New Cumnock, Old Cumnock, Kirkcon- 
nell, Sanquhar, Tbornhill, Minnyhive, 



Closeburn, Dumfries, Castle - Douglas, 
Kirkcudbright. 

Mr Duncan. — Auchenbowie, Stirling, 
St Ninians, Alva, Alloa, Oakley, Dun- 
fermline, Tillicoultry, Crossgates, Miles- 
mark, Inverkeithing, Kinnesswood, Kin- 
ross, Cowdenbeath, Lochgelly, Kirkcaldy, 
Kinghorn, Burntisland, Thornton, West 
Wemyss. 

Mr Thomas Reid. — Ewart Park, 
Millfield, Wooler, Cornhill, Coldstream, 
Berwick, Norham, Ferrick, Holy Island. 

Mr NiMMo. — Pollokshaws, Stenhouse- 
muir, Grangemouth, Dumbarton, Chapel- 
hall, Helensburgh, Anderston, Gorbals, 
Catrine, Cumnock, Hamilton, Strachur, 
Inverary. 



STcmperancE N^ins. 



SCOTLAND. 

UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH. 

The Edinburgh University Abstainers' 
Society held its first meeting on Wednesday 
9th March, in the Religious Institution 
Rooms, York Place. After addresses by 
several gentlemen, the constitution and 
rules were agreed to, and office-bearers 
elected. It was explained that while the 
fundamental rule involved abstinence, it 
committed the society neither to the long 
nor the short pledge, each member being left 
to follow his own convictions in this respect. 
It was further stated, that operations — begun 
in January last — had been so far successful 
that fifty-four members had joined the 
society. 

EDINBURGH. 

An extraordinary amount of interest has 
been created by the delivery at the weekly 
meetings of the Edinburgh Total Abstinence 
Society of a course of lectures on ' Uncle 
Tom's Cabin,' by the Rev. Dr Joseph Brown, 
Dalkeith. A number of valuable sermons 
have also been delivered by clergymen. A 
decided and successful effort has been made 
to collect the statistics of Sabbath drunken- 
ness, the result of which will be reported in 
an early number. Letters and articles on 
this subject have appeared in several of the 
Edinburgh newspapers, and have attracted 
much attention. 

GLASGOW. 

The committee of the Glasgow United 
Abstinence Association have appointed five 
additional missionaries. The staff now in- 
cludes nine, the names of the gentlemen be- 
;ng as follows : — Mr James Mitchell, Glas- 



gow (superintendent) ; Messrs Peter Fer- 
guson, David Dunn, and Walter M'Alister, 
Glasgow ; Messrs George Greer and Robert 
Smith, Airdrie ; Mr James Smith, Salt- 
coats ; Mr James Malcom, Paisley ; Mr 
Robert Brown, Kilmarnock. A district of 
the city has been allotted to each missionary, 
and it is hoped that much good will result 
from their labours. 1 he society has at pre- 
sent eight weekly meetings. 

The Scottish Guardian of 18th March 
contains the last report of the Glasgow Free 
Church Abstainers' Society. It states that 
a new branch was lately formed at Finnie- 
ston, and that others are in course of forma- 
tion. The society has at present a mission- 
ary agent. Sermons were preached during 
the year by the Revs. Wm. Arnot and W. 
B. Clark. The number of members on the 
roll is stated at 4240. 

DUNDEE. 
It will be gratifying to the friends of the 
temperance cause to learn that a division 
which has for some time existed in its ranks 
here, has now been happily healed, and 
there is now only one society in town in- 
stead of two. The cause of the breach, the 
question of female advocacy, and which led 
to the formation two years ago of the Dun- 
dee Teetotal Society, had long ceased to 
exist ; indeed, had been very little acted 
upon ; consequently, its leading members, 
considering the evils arising from an un- 
necessary and unseemly division, became 
desirous of securing an amicable re-union 
with the parent. With this view a meeting 
of the teetotal society, called by the presi- 
dent in terms of a numerously-signed re- 
quisition, was held in the Watt Institution 
Hall on the 28th January ; Mr Allan, the 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



93 



president, in the chair ; when a resolution 
in favour of a re-union with the Dundee 
society for the suppression of intemperance, 
■was moved by Mr James Webster, seconded 
by Dr John Lothian, and carried by ac- 
clamation, and a deputation appointed to 
carry the same into effect. The proposal 
came before the committee of the latter so- 
ciety on Friday evening, 4th Feb. ; Bailie 
Rough, presiding, when the re-union was 
consummated in the most harmonious man- 
ner. The name of the Dundee Teetotal 
Society is therefore now extinct, being ab- 
sorbed in that of the parent society, to 
which its members and two district meetings, 
one in Barrack Street, the other in Ran- 
kin's Court, now belong. It is to be hoped 
this happy consummation will give addi- 
tional impetus to the movement here, which 
never was in a more prosperous state. The 
Dundee Society for the Suppression of 
Intemperance has now eight districts, in 
which nine meetings are regularly held every 
week, attended by large, and in some in- 
stances, crowded audiences. The numbers 
joining the association since the New- Year, 
are greater than at any previous period of its 
history, and are even of a more respectable 
and influential class than hitherto. It is evi- 
dent, also, that if drunkenness is not dimi- 
nished to the extent that could be de- 
sired, at least, public opinion and feeling 
loathe it more and more every day ; 
and the abstinence movement is looked 
to with increasing favour, as furnishing 
the most legitimate and effective means 
of its speedy and summary expulsion, with 
a long train of evils, from our land. 

KIRKCALDY. 

The annual meeting of the Kirkcaldy 
total abstinence society was held in Rose 
Street chapel, on the evening of Tuesday, 
8th Feb., when the minutes for the past 
year were read, and the annual report sub- 
mitted. From the report we learn that four 
sermons have been delivered, seventeen 
soirees and 110 meetings held, at which 233 
addresses were delivered, and 444 members 
enrolled. These include eleven lectures by 
agents of the Scottish Temperance League, 
one by Mr KeUogg, two by Mr Grubb, one 
by the Rev. Mr Ballantyne, and one by Mr 
Vincent. A short discussion took place after 
the reading of the minutes, and a motion 
was proposed, blaming the committee for 
inviting only long pledge advocates to the 
meetings as speakers on behalf of the society, 
when upon a division, 87 supported the 
committee, and only 5 voted against them. 
Office-bearers were then elected, and a 
vote of thanks was given to Mr Hogarth, 
the retiring president. A statement was 
read from Mr Adamson, superintendent of 
county police, from which it appears that, 
in the year ending Sept., 1852, there were 
no fewer than 286 convictions for crimes 



committed in the Kirkcaldy district. That 
out of 203 convicted for assaults, and 
breaches of the peace, 173 were the worse 
of drink at the time they committed the 
offences, and 30 only were sober— of 59 
cases of theft, 53 were committed for the 
purpose of obtaining drink, so that of 262 
cases of assault, breach of the peace, and 
theft, 203 were caused directly by intemper- 
ance. There only remains 24 cases of crime 
to be accounted for, andmany of thesemaybe 
presumed also to have arisen through intem- 
perance. The Kirkcaldy district contains a 
population of 51,278. 

KELSO. 

On Friday, 4th March, being the day set 
apart for hiring hinds, the plan of opening 
refreshment rooms for the supply of tea, 
coffee, bread, beef, pies, etc., which had been 
successfully followed at Dunse, Cupar, and 
other places, was adopted by Mr Thomas 
Rutherford, and met with eminent success. 
The refreshments were served in the Town 
Hall, by permission of the Duke of Rox- 
burgh, and the rooms were visited not only 
by the parties for whom the refreshments 
were more especiallj' intended, but by the 
leading gentry of the town and neighbour- 
hoed, some of whom, indeed, guaranteed 
Mr Rutherford against loss. About 1,460 
persons partook of refreshments. There 
were consumed 228 lbs. of beef and mutton, 
divided into 600 portions; 130 quartern 
loaves; between 200 and 300 pies; 750 
cups of coffee, with considerable quantities 
of soup, lemonade, ginger beer, raspberry 
vinegar, etc. The demand for the more 
substantial articles was so great that they 
were all consumed before three o'clock. It 
was calculated that it would have taken 
nearly double the quantity of beef, mutton, 
pies, and soup to have met the demand. 

EDROM. 

The Edrom total abstinence society held 
a soiree in the school room, on Friday even- 
ing, 28th Jan. The school was well filled, 
there being upwards of seventy persons pre- 
sent. The chiir was occupied by Mr And- 
erson, inspector of works, Blackadder. 
After tea, addresses were delivered by Messrs 
Beattie, Cairns, Cockburn, Young, and 
Williamson. This society is at present in a 
healthy state. 

ALLANTON. 

A soiree in connection with the abstinence 
society of this place was held on the evening 
of Wednesday, 23d February. Although 
the weather and roads were very unfavoura- 
ble there were 150 persons present. After 
tea, Mr Anderson, who occupied the chair, 
gave a very appropriate speech. The speakers 
on the occasion were Messrs Cockburn, 
Young, and Smeaton of Dunse, with Mr 
Beattie, temperance agent for Berwickshire. 



94 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



The annual soiree of the Muirkirk Total 
Abstinence Society -was held in the U. P. 
Church here, on "Wednesday, 9th February. 
The house was completely filled -with a re- 
spectable and attentive audience. The Rev, 
David Young occupied the chair. After 
prayer by the Rev. M. Dickie, Cumnock, 
and an address by Mr J. Hodge, on the 
' Antiquity of Total Abstinence,' the secre- 
tary read the report, •which gave great cause 
to the friends of temperance to thank Crod 
and take courage. Addresses were then 
delivered by the Rev. M. Dickie, and ftir 
Laing (the latter in poetry.) An excellent 
band from Cumnock also contributed not a 
little to the improvement of the meeting by 
their spirit-stirring strains. 

LOGIE- ALMOND. 

On the evening of Wednesday, 16th 
March, a soiree, in connection with the 
total abstinence society in this quarter was 
held in the Free Church, Chapelhill. Al- 
though the night was very stormy and ex- 
tremely cold ; there were upwards of 230 
persons preseut ; Mr John Henderson in 
the chair. The meeting was addressed by 
the Rev. J. M'Leish, Methveu, Rev. J. 
Pillaus, Mr D. Irons, Mr Wm. M'Intosh, 
Ptrth, and by Mr James Peddle, Logie- 
Alraond. 

BRIDGE OF WEIR. 

On the evening of Friday, the 18th March, 
the members of the Bridge of Weir Total 
Abstinence Society held a soiree in the Old 
School-room. Mr James Boag, president 
of the society, in the chair. After tea the 
chairman addressed the meeting, and was 
followed by Mr William Laird. A state- 
ment of the Penny Savings Bank was laid 
before the meeting, showing that it com- 
menced on the 1 3th March, 1852, and had, 
till 13th March, 1853, deposited £69 6s 
lOd; withdrawn J." 6s 7d ; leaving in the 
Government Security Bank £62 Os 3d. 

SHOTTS IRON WORKS. 

The annual soiree of the Total Abstinence 
Society here, was held on the evening of 
Tuesday, :;2d Feb., in the Congregational 
Chapel — Mr John Allardice, president, in 
the chair. After a few appropriate remarks 
by the chairman, Mr John Nimmo, of the 
Scottish Temperance League, delivered a 
powerful address, showing the propriety of 
abstaining from all alcoholic liquors. The 
Rev. John Guthrie of Greenock gave an in- 
teresting account of the rise and progress of 
American slavery. The evenings enter- 
tainment was much enhanced by a copious 
iuterspersion of anthems. Temperance and 
anti-slavery pieces, e.xecuted by Messrs J. 
Louden and \V. Wilson, with their respec- 



tive bands, were greeted with universal ap- 
plause. 

CRIEFF, 

The fifteenth anniversary of the Crieff 
Total Abstinence Society, was celebrated 
by a public soiree on the 23d Feb., which 
was well conducted and ably addressed by 
various speakers. We are glad to find that 
the good cause continues to flourish in that 
town. _ There are on the roll 300 adults, 
and 350 juveniles. 

LERWICK. 

From the annual report with which we 
have been favoured, we observe, that not- 
withstanding some withdrawals in conse- 
quence of internal dissension, the society 
has, during the year 1852, increased to the 
e.xtent of 95 ; of whom, 42 were juveniles. 
j\tuch good was accomplished by the visits 
of Mr Easton, and Rev. R. G. Mason. 

UNST. 

On 10th Jan. a meeting was held in 
the Free Church, which was attended 
by several hundreds from various parts 
of the island, and addressed by three 
ministers and two local preachers. At the 
close of the meeting a number became ab- 
stainers, and a committee was formed to 
promote the interests of the society through- 
out the island. 

ASYLUM FOR INTEMPERATE FEMALES. 

A portion of the spacious premises of the 
Glasgow Night Asylum has been set apart 
for the reformation of females addicted to 
intemperance, where they will be removed 
from temptation and placed under the treat- 
ment of a kind and judicious matron. The 
directors, we imderstand, have been induced 
to adopt this measure by the success of an 
experiment which has been for some time 
in progress on a limited scale. The terras 
of admission are such as to meet the cir- 
cumstances of the better-conditioned of the 
working-classes, and to render this depart- 
ment of the institution self-supporting. We 
lament to think there are many families 
which will be thankful to avail themselves 
of such a refuge. Its advantages ought to be 
made known wherever there is occasion for 
them. Our best wishes are with the direc- 
tors in their benevolent project. — Glasgow 
Chronicle. 

THE DUNSE REFRESHMENT ROOMS. 

Tuesday, loth March, being the Hind's 
Hiring Market here, the Temperance Re- 
freshment Rooms were opened under the 
same auspices as on former occasions, in the 
Town Hall, and met with great encourage- 
ment. There must have been, in all, above 
1000 persons who visited the rooms. The 
evil prevented and the benefits conferred by 
such arrangements are immense. 



THE ABSTAINER S JOUESAL. 



ENGLAND. ! 

LONDON. 

Want of space has hitherto prevented us 
from inserting the following very important 
letter : — 

' The Crystal Palace Company, 

' 3 Adelaide Place, 
'London-bridge, Dec. 14, 18.52. 

' Sir, — I have the honour to acknowledge 
the receipt of your favour of the 13th inst., 
which, as chairman of a temperance meeting 
to be held to-morrow at E.xeter Hall, yon 
ask me whether the Ciystal Palace Com- 
pany ever did or do now contemplate sup- 
plying the public at their refreshment rooms 
with any intosicatiag liquors or strong 
drinks whatever, at any time or under any 
circumstances. I have great pleasure in 
being able to give the most distinct reply to 
your question. The directors of the Crystal 
Palace will not allow, and have never intend- 
ed to allow, the sale of intoxicating liquors or 
strong drinks, at any ti me or under any circum - 
stances in their grounds. The directors of 
the Crystal Palace Company feel that they 
would have failed in duty to the public as 
well as in duty to themselves and to the 
objects they profess, had they not from the 
outset acted upon this determination. It 
has been held as a reproach that the people 
of England are incapable of employing their 
leisure hours without having recourse to the 
bottle. The directors are of opinion that 
the people would never have been subjected 
to the reproach had care been taken to have 
furnished them with a higher and more 
ennobling recreation. The masses have in- 
variably shown that they prefer the highest 
enjoyments to the lowest, and when the 
directors had established their plans for 
securing the former at the Crystal Palace, 
they took care effectually to exclude the 
latter by asking the Prime Minister when 
he granted a charter to insert a clause for- 
bidding for ever the sale of stimulating 
drinks within the park and building of the 
Crystal Palace Company. That clause has 
been duly inserted and runs as follows : — 
" And we do hereby declare that this our 
royal charter is granted on the condition 
following, that is to say, that no spirituous 
or other fermented or intoxicating liquors 
shall be furnished to the persons visiting 
the said buildings or ground of the said 
company." 

' I am, sir, your obedient servant, 
' George Grove, Secretary. 

' George Cniikshank, Esq., 
' 48 Mornington Place.' 

BRISTOL. 

The annual festival of this society, was held 
on Monday, 27th Dec, at the Broadmead- 
rooms, where 600 members and friends sat 
down to tea. We learn from the report 
read by R, Charleton, Esq., that during the 
past year upwards of 300 public meetings 



(including 1 30 in the open air), have been 
held in the city and its nei^'hbourhood. 
More than 1,0 '0 signatures have been 
added to the pledge during the past year ; 
and within the same period about 39,000 
copies of the Bri-Jol Temj>eranca Hera'd 
have been put in circulation. In addition 
to the Heralds, there have been issued from 
the depot upwards of 340,000 pages of tem- 
perance tracts ; 44,000 Band of Hope pub- 
lications ; and 2,000 plates represenoing the 
'progress of intemperance.' The Bristol 
and Somerset Temperance Association has 
continued its usual operations through the 
past year, supplying about forty societies 
with the periodical services of our agent. 

LEICESTER. 

The report for 1851-2 just issued, satis- 
factorily shows that the operations of the 
Leicester Temperance Society continue to 
be conducted with vigour and success. 132 
public meetings ; fouiteen of them in the 
open air, have been h.ld during the 
year, at which the average attendance 
has been about 2.50, giving an aggregate of 
33,000 personal visits to the meetings. The 
society s missionary has visited 3699 fami- 
lies, distributed 5982 publications, attended 
to seventy-eight police cases, and taken 
334 pledges. The collector has taken 261 
pledges, and collected in small periodical 
subscriptions £73 3s llAd. The Ladies' 
Committee superintend a loan tract distribu- 
tion scheme, and have k ept in circulation 
2,000 tracts during the year. The expendi- 
ture from 1st Oct. 185i, till 30th Sept., 1852, 
was ±277 3s id. 

I SALFORD. 

The foundation stone of a new building 
j to be called the Salford Athenaeum and 
Temperance Hall, was laid on Monday, 7th 
' Feb., in the borough of Salford, near Man- 
j Chester, by Mr E. R. Langworthy, who 
presented the site, in addition to ilOO to- 
wards the'cost of the building. Mr Brother- 
ton, JI.P., Mr Frank Ashton, the Mayor, 
Alderman Harvey, and others, took part in 
! the proceedings. 

I PRESTON. 

Dr F. R. Lees has delivered three 
lectu es on subjects connected with the tem- 
perance question, the chairmen at the respec- 
tive meetings being, Lawrence Heyworth, 
Esq., Mr Thistlethwaite, and Mr Livesey. 

LINCOLNSHIRE. 

The Committee of the Lincolnshire Asso- 
ciation for the Promotion of Temperance 
state, in their first report, that returns, com- 
prising upwards of 2000 pledged abstainers, 
have been received during the year ; that 
their agent has, in the same period, delivered 
133 lectures in different parts of the coun- 
try; and that publications, embodying 
their views, have been widely circulated. 



96 



TOE ABSTAINER 8 JOURNAL. 



IRELAND. 

FATHER MATHEW. 

Although Father Mathew has not been 
able, latterly, to hold those demonstrations 
which have hitherto given so great an im- 
petus to the sacred cause •with ■which his 
name is inseparably identified, it must prove 
a source of much satisfaction to the public 
to learn, that since the Very Rev. Gentle- 
man's return from the United States, his 
efforts to suppress intemperance have been, 
■with the divine blessing, attended ■with suc- 
cess. This, we with pleasure perceive, by 
the bridewell reports ; and we are happy to 
state, that the indefatigable apostle attends 
each morning until twelve o'clock, to ad- 
minister the pledge at Lehenagh, the resi- 
dence of his brother, and that he is to he 
found at his post all day on Sunday.— CorA 

Reporter. 

FOREIGN. 

UNITED STATES. 

The Maine Law and its advocates are 
creating no little excitement throughout the 
country. In the State of Maine, where 
this law originated, its repeal ■was made the 
chief issue at the late elections ; but the 
people sustained it by an overwhelming 
majority. Massachusetts, Rhode Island, 
and Vermont have also enacted this law, 
and great efforts are making to secure its 
adoption throughout the nation. Ne^w 
Brunswick in B.A. has passed a similar law, 
and it has received Her Majesty's approval, 
and will soon go into operation. Nova 
Scotia is agitating the question as to its 
adoption, and in Canada the leading poli- 
ticians favour it, as 'well as most of the 
friends of sobriety. — F. W. Kellogg. 

GERMANY. 

At a conference of the German Evangeli- 
cal Union, held at Bremen in September 
last, the subject of temperance ■was intro- 
duced, and occupied a considerable portion 
of two days ; the conclusion come to being, 
that in consideration of the lamentably ever- 
increasing enslavement of the lower orders 
to the demon of brandy drinking, it became 
the stringent duty of all friends to religion 
and humanity to second the efforts of the 
temperance societies, and by this, and all 
other advisable means, to endeavour to drive 
brandy from its present fatal establishment 
as the customary drink of the people ; that 
hence it seemed highly desirable to increase 
the number and sti,mulate the activity of the 
temperance societies ; and, lastly, that it 
seemed deserving of consideration, ■whether 
the meeting ought not to appeal, iu its 
corporate capacity, to the different German 
governments in favour of a stricter control 
than at present exists, both over the pro- 
duction and the sale of spirituous liquors. 

LAPLAND. 

Lawrence Heyworth, Esq., M.P. for 



Derby, in a public meeting lately held at 
Manchester, stated that his son, ■whilst tra- 
velling in Lapland, found many teetotalers ; 
in one parish the minister and all the par- 
ishioners were total abstainers. 

BERLIN. 

The Berlin temperance or ' Anti- Alcohol- 
poison Society ' held a meeting lately, when 
M. Lehman preached on the pernicious effects 
of spirit drinking. Among the useful publi- 
cations recommended by Professor Kranich- 
feld was a tract by the Reverend Pastor 
Thummel, of Bermen, entitled ' It (alcoho- 
lic spirit) is Satan's Blood.' 

MELBOURNE. 

A correspondent of the Cambridge Inde- 
pendent, writing from Melbourne, says,— 
' The numbers that attend the funerals in a 
state of intoxication is abominable ; on 
three occasions I have seen the corpse 
dropped from off the bier ; and also upon in- 
quiry as to the deceased, I have found him 
to be some unfortunate, unknown to 
those present individually, but they were 
fully aware that it was his prosperity that 
destroyed him ; many a time may be seen 
only the minister, clerk, and sexton at 
the grave— no friends to follow. On other 
occasions the reply respecting the deceased 
has been, " he was a lucky digger, and he has 
been drunk ever since he came from the 
Mount ;" " he died in a drunken fit," " fell 
from his horse when drunk ;" " he fell from 
his dray drunk, and the wheel passed 
over him;" " he came from the Mount ■with 
diarrhoea or dysentery."' 

JOHN B. GOUGH. 

Respecting this celebrated temperance 
orator, a lady in Canada thus writes to a 
friend in Edinburgh, under date 23d Nov., 
1852 : ' I have heard some of the most cele- 
brated men of the day, both at home and 
in America, but I never heard such elo- 
quence as his. It would be a great day for 
the temperance cause at home if Mr Gough 
could be prevailed upon to cross the Atlan- 
tic. When it was announced that he was 
to lecture in Toronto, I went to hear him. 
My first impressions of him were anything 
but favourable, but he had not spoken a 
dozen ■words when I found out my mistake. 
On that night I began to think seriously of 
teetotalism ; and for seventeen nights in suc- 
cession I attended his lectures, the admission 
to which was sixpence each. On the last 
night I was one of 753 who became teeto- 
talers.' 



Glasgow: Printed and Published at the Office 
of the Scottish Temperance League, No. 30 
St Enoch Square, Parish of St Enoch's, by 
Robert Rae, residing at No. 10 Salisbury 
Street, Parish of Govan. 

Fbidat, Ut April, 1853. 



THE 



ABSTAINER'S JOURNAL. 



MAT, 1853. 



i^iscElIaneous Crontrtiuttons. 



'BL.iCKWOOD' ON 'TEMPERANCE AND TEETOTAL SOCIETIES.' 



' What is in a name ?' is a pretty old ques- 
tion, bat it forces itself on us at many a 
turn still. Now, while we understand the 
philosophy of the adage that ' a rose by 
any other name would smell as sweet,' we 
know also that a name is often much and 
sometimes everything. We could not help 
thinking so, as we turned over certain 
pages of Blackwood^s Magazine for April. 
Blachtcood has been for a period nearing 
half a century a household word, and syno- 
nyms for literary attraction of a first-class 
order. Who has not heard of the Nodes, 
or luxuriated in the ' numerous prose ' of 
Christopher North ? And who that has 
felt the spell of Maga, but inclines in- 
stinctively to gentle judgment of Black- 
wood? The name has a potent witchery 
stiil even over political foes, though in 
rigorous moods the reader is compelled to 
feel that its prescriptive charm is not by 
any means sustained by the cun-ent merits 
of its later issues. In fact, all know and 
feel — excepting always those to whom 
Blackwood is a political gospel, and who 
may never know — that Blackwood is 
changed. It is the play of Hamlet with 
the part of Hamlet left out. The sun- 
shine and unity of genius which marked 
every number under the former regime is 
gone. Good and clever writing there is still, 
but side by side with it, dreary composi- 
tions, which on no pretence would Wilson 



have tolerated. Not only is the radiance 
wanting which shone in its pages, temper- 
ing its severity, adorning its wit, enrich- 
ing its wisdom ; there is a want of that 
tone of generous and serious philanthropy, 
which, amid the frolics of light writing and 
the necessities of party warfare, did not 
fail to mark its pages in other days. Nor 
can we help noting a dulness and sour^ 
ness in some of its writers, which all the 
prestige of the journal can never render 
palatable, nor all the seasoning and pepper 
of others compensate. We are sorry for 
the accomplished gentleman reputed its 
litei-ary editor, whose better taste must be 
somewhat tried by the ponderous articles 
which, from time to time, if one may 
guess, policy and the pressure of the pub- 
lishing interest compel him to insert. 
^Blackwood' has its circle of old-world 
readers, denizens of Sleepy Hollow, to feed 
monthly, and they must have their dishes 
and doses done to their mind. While un- 
der the glamour of Christopher's eloquence, 
they were often made to swallow what 
they little understood ; but now that they 
are more awake, it is impossible. And so, 
we imagine, to keep this class of readers 
sweet by an occasional concoction of ig- 
norance and bigotry, an efEcient staff of 
old wives has to be retained, upon whom 
the magazine may depend for the necessary 
pabulum of lead. One of these ancient 



98 



THE abstainer's JOnRNAL. 



persons has obviously taken the box-seat of 
Blackwood in the April number, and 
through many a bog and brake does he 
drive the ill-fated journal. We fancy the 
editor taking a long breath after the feat 
is done, and resuming the v?hip in ' John 
Rintoul' with an inward vow that this 
shall serve the antediluvians for some time 
to come. Such a rabid and toothless 
attach we have not lately read, as that 
on 'Temperance and Teetotal Societies.' 
When Blackwood was brought to us by 
a friend, that we might see the said 
article, our first thought was, ' Well, now, 
that is rather a pity; because if Black- 
wood has managed the thing cleverly, 
it may do a Uttle temporary damage to 
our cause in some quarters ;' but when we 
read column after column full of nothing 
but mortal insipidity, and when we finished 
the whole twenty-one pages of the article 
— which from a sense of duty we did, to be 
able to make some honest strictures — we 
felt quite relieved, and pronounced it a 
Priam's dart telum imbelle sine ictu. We 
felt that it could do no harm to any can- 
did mind, being too clearly an effusion of 
spleen, — and no harm to any intelligent 
mind, being notoriously a tirade of ignor- 
ance. As to merriment, we could not see 
how any, but those who laugh in the wrong 
place, were likely to be excited by the flat 
writing and clumsy points of such a paper. 
Its philosophy is as poor as its wit is smalt; 
and while professions of interest in the 
welfare of men and countrymen are of 
course made, they are few, we believe, who 
will set down the writer as one destined 
to prove a martyr in the cause of human 
amelioration. To speak of his ' charity ' 
and his theology, we would need to say 
that the former is very great — towards all 
who are not abstainers; and that the lat- 
ter consists in believing in a ' temperance 
society: the best in the kingdom — the 
Church of England.' 

To follow him through all his rambling 
and incoherent strictures, we can hardly 



promise. Even did the article deserve 
this, space forbids, and our readers would 
hardly thank us to slay the slain. The 
old worn-out fallacies are again paraded; 
the dead and buried corpses of many ob- 
jections are dug up and galvanised into 
hideous life by the resurrectionist of Black- 
wood. But we must present a specimen 
of the style in which the temperance 
movement is discussed by the great literary 
oracle of an ti -progress. And here is the 
ex cathedra opinion of Blackwood on the 
members of temperance societies. Pre- 
mising that there are always ' tares among 
the wheat,' we are informed that — 

' Professors of peace become the dis- 
turbers of the world ; the lovers of liberty, 
tyrants and enslavers of nations ; and, to 
descend to the insignificant, members of 
temperance societies, the most intemperate 
of men. We say, to descend to the in- 
significant, not because we think their 
doings are unimportant, but because their 
extravagant assumptions make them too 
ridiculous to attract much serious atten- 
tion, and as yet they have little influence 
over general society.* 

Again — 

' We have read many of their publica- 
tions; we have seen in them, often in 
subtle disguise, disaffection to the institu- 
tions of our country, disloyalty, and dis- 
sent. Where these are, we expect to find 
more hatred than love, and a lamentable 
lack of that charity which " thinketh no 
evil," and is "the bond of peace." Under 
an affected philanthropy, a universal pity 
for all who are not like themselves, we see 
sweeping and severe condemnations — de- 
nunciations against all who dare to com- 
bat the most problematical of their opinions. 
We are sorry to say that there is the coarse- 
ness of a vulgar hatred in their very com- 
miseration ; and we have no doubt they 
would — that is, the more virulent of them 
— after putting down their weaker breth- 
ren, establish, if they could, in this oar 
land, an Inquisition as detestable as any 
which religious bigotry has inflicted upon 
mankind.' 

' The besetting sin of these temperance 
and teetotal societies is their utter defi- 
ciency of that greatest of the virtues, 
" charity." . . ■ They would invade every 
home, nay, the very sanctity of religion. 
. . . . Rankness springs up under the 



THE ABSTAUTEK'S JOURNAL. 



99 



cloven foot wherever it treads. Rampant 
pride sets up itself as a god of venge- 
ance,' etc. 

' Members of temperance societies ' 
should be pretty well annihilated after aU 
this, and yet more is heaped on the 
unfortunates. But lest readers may 
think Blackwood too cruel, it ought to be 
known that the above remarks are appli- 
cable only to ' some ;' for when, says the 
gentle censor — 

' We compare some of their agents to 
" tares among the wheat," we are acknow- 
ledging that there is wheat — we are ad- 
mitting that there is good seed, and the 
probability that it will not all be choked.' 

For this we should be duly thankful. 
We are not all dissenters and traitors, and 
cloven-footed. Our Mentor ' contends 
not for a moment against the good (how 
liberal !) the societies do, but against the 
manifest evils vihich fearfully preponderate 
over the good. Let temperance societies 
wisely direct their movements, and they 
shall have our (Blackwood's) best wishes 
and support.' "We have thought it right 
to give the above admissions, because they 
are about the sum total made in the whole 
article, and let it be known the italics are 
onrs. And on all this we have but to re- 
mark, first, that since there is ' good ' 
connected with our societies, it might not 
have been unbecoming in Blackwood, just 
for fair play, to have given some speci- 
mens of it. Was it necessary that a tenth 
part of the journal should be given to the 
subject of ' temperance,' and, with the ex- 
ception of perhaps ten lines of 'faint praise,' 
the whole paper devoted to blacken- 
ing the fame of its friends ? Is this very 
honest or very generous ? But perhaps 
there is to be another article bringing out 
our good points. If so, it is still rather 
too bad to leave poor wretches in suspense. 
Might this not have been hinted ? And — 
and might not the paper have been writ- 
ten throughout in the spirit of the admis- 
sion ? We venture to say few will read 
it and not think that its strictures apply 



to temperance men and societies generally, 
rather than to ' some.' A stranger would 
be fully entitled to believe that we were 
indiscriminately a parcel of vagabonds ; 
and the saving clause about the ' wheat ' 
would be regarded as the unavoidable 
qualification which every man must make 
when speaking of tens of thousands of his 
fellow-men — the conventional courtesy of 
all decent speakers and writers. But if 
he wished to find out how the tares might 
be discriminated from the wheat — the 
great point with a practical philosopher and 
true philanthropist — he would certainly 
find no help fi-om the bigoted generalisa- 
tions and reckless aspersions of Blackwood. 
Passing, however, to notice some of the 
accusations, we find that the writer has 
learned what abstinence is, chiefly, if not 
exclusively, from English sources. As 
Scotch, we might therefore plead out, but 
we think our English friends have slight 
reason indeed to flinch from any of their 
impugned positions. With a political 
touchiness which is amusing, and a mis- 
conception of facts and perversion of state- 
ments which indicates the bhndness of 
prejudice and the imbecility of a weak 
cause, the knight-errant of the drinking 
customs comes full tilt against shadows, 
and to mistake windmills for giants is, in 
his state of mind, a matter of course. 
Thus stumbling along on Rozinante, he 
cries — 

' We have this moment hit upon the 
follo^-ing passage in the British Temper- 
ance Advocate for August, 1852 : — " The 
Grand-duke of Tuscany has enacted, that 
all young men leading an iiTegular life, or 
who have contracted habits of rioting and 
debauchery, shall be subjected to military 
discipline. Would that we had some such 
I law for the English ' fast !' " In the same 
I number of the Advocate, we find the in- 
1 consistent deprecation of punishment : 
I " Floggings, tread - mills, solitary cells, 
I chains, hulks, penal colonies, and hang- 
I men, are rude, cruel, and irrational 
I methods of reforming human hearts." 
Here is commiseration for the vagabonds, 
, the usual recipients of floggings, etc., but 
I who are the " fast " men ? who are they to 



100 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



whom this cant word is applied ? Youthful 
members of our universities, and of our 
fashionable clubs. These, indeed, are a 
class out of the pale of commiseration, 
irreclaimable reprobates, truly meriting 
" floggings," and other not less penetrating 
arguments of " Tuscan military discip- 
line." Do we not recognise the incipient 
will that would set up an " Inquisition," 
issue commissions to our universities, and 
send their " alguazils " into our colleges 
and ckib-houses to hunt out and carry off 
to some auio-da-fe the " fast men," every 
drinker of champagne, and, for lack of 
other victims, the consumers of the thinnest 
potations of diluted small-beer? But the 
damnatory obituary of this August number 
shows what parties would be most in 
request by the alguazils of the Temperance 
Inquisition. It is headed '• Wm. M'Vitie, 
a weaver, died last week at Carlisle, in 
consequence of drinking to excess — free 
drink, given by the Tory canvassers." We 
have not heard of any Tory canvassers 
having been indicted for the murder, 
which we may be sure they would have 
been at Carlisle, had any been so guilty ; 
and we hope we are not uncharitable in 
discrediting the account as a (elling fabri- 
cation. To suppose it true, would be at 
least as uncharitable as to believe it to be 
false.' 

If this is not heated imagination, we are 
at a loss to know what is. A semi-jocular 
remark, that ' fast' youth might he the 
better of a little external restraint, is con- 
verted into ' the incipient will that would 
set up an Inquisition !' And then to print 
that William M'Vitie died of drink given 
by the Tory canvassers ! is not that a 
clear proof that abstainers at large are 
Chartists in disguise ? Our honest friend, 
the British Temperance Advocate, would, 
we dare say, have said Whig instead of 
Tory, had that happened to be truth ; 
for Tros Tyriusve, etc., is our common 
motto ; but (query) would Blackwood then 
have been angry, or would this champion 
of ' charity,' that ' greatest of the virtues,' 
have added as his commentary, ' we hope 
we are not uncharitable in discrediting 
the account as a telling fabrication ?' The 
phrase, ' we have this moment bit upon,' 
is clear evidence that the unhappy writer 
is not conversant with the abstinence 



literature he affects to judge, and has just 
been hunting up some paragraphs on 
which, as pegs, to fasten his animadver- 
sions. The same ignorance is unskilfully 
acknowledged in other parts of the article, 
as when he innocently says, ' We are not 
well versed in statistics, etc. We are not 
aware that this country is much worse 
than many others on the score of intoxi- 
cation, etc. They (teetotalers) proclaim 
war against the innocent as against the 
guilty. If you drink anything but water, 
you are a drunkard,' etc. These and a 
multitude of similar remarks make it 
plain that the writer either has not 
patience, honesty, or sense enough to 
understand the position and principles of 
the abstinence movement, which he yet 
has the effrontery to stigmatise. It is 
simply not true that we regard all ' brewers 
and wine merchants' as 'poisoners and 
murderers.' It is simply not true that 
we regard ' every man who drinks any- 
thing but water a drunkard.' We do not 
deny the medicinal uses of alcoholic liquors 
in given cases, as is senselessly supposed 
when we find the winter, 'struck with the 
fact, upsetting their theory, that an artist of 
great eminence was seized in the night 
with spasms, and positively died, when a 
glass of brandy-and-water would have 
saved him.' We will admit, if it is any 
satisfiiction to the v/riter, that teetotalers 
'positively die' as well as others, and that 
if a man eat beef Hke a glutton, and fall 
down in a fit of apoplexy, beef is not 
therefore a poison ;' and to the pleasant 
question, ' Is the butcher to be indicted 
for murder because his neighbour Guttle 
has stuffed himself with veal into the 
undertaker's hands ?' we gravely answer, 
No. To all the fine things about mode- 
ration, use and not abuse, etc. etc., we 
cordially assent. We know them. They 
were not discovered by Blackwood. They 
are the common property of all intelligent 
men. They are the alphabet of the 
moralist, and for the writer laboriously to 



THE ABSTAINER 8 JOURNAL. 



101 



establish and affirm these, is very gra- 
tuitous. If he had sent us a hst of the 
premises he wished conceded, we dare say 
we should have saved him half his trouble 
by admitting the most of them. But 
after all this, the questions remain — ques- 
tions left untouched by the writer, unless 
a few random and vague assertions be 
taken for argument — what are the scien- 
tific facts as to the action of intoxicating 
drinks on the system ? what are the sta- 
tistical facts as to the prevalence of in- 
temperance ? what are the moral facts as to 
the connection between the prevalence of 
this vice and the existence of our drinking 
customs; what are the secondary causes 
of our land's intemperance ? what the 
duty of citizens and christians in regard 
to the known or probable causes and 
occasions of the evil? These are some 
questions which abstainers have mooted 
and pressed, and which are not so much 
as touched by reference to the power of 
religion, in relation to which we hold the 
same views as those professed by the 
writer ; or by quotation of the maxim, he 
'temperate in all things.' And the man 
who persists in thrusting such remarks* 
upon us, betrays total ignorance of the 
points at issue, as well as when he con- 
veniently places ' beef and strong drink 
in the same category, without so much 
as appearing to know or imagine that two 
opinions are possible on the subject. 

The writer has several raving columns 
on the 'pledge,' and seeks to fasten a 
charge of intolerance on abstainers because 
of some strictures of the Temperance 
Chronicle on the conduct of a solicitor's 
clerk, who withdrew his name from ' the 
pledge,' while still ' most heartily approv- 
ing of total abstinence,' because to retain 
it was ' not only unpleasant' among friends 
' fond of a moderate social glass,' but acted 
'hostilely'tohis 'interests.' The Chronicle 
condemns this course as not very brave, 
and so will most unprejudiced persons, 
notwithstanding that Blackwood seems to 



palliate, if not admire. Following this is 
a doleful lamentation. ' English character 
is," it seems, ' deteriorating under the in- 
fluence or tuition of societies and leagues.' 
' Of drunkenness, before the rise of tem- 
perance societies,' the writer ' can trace 
gradual improvement.' ' We indeed sus- 
pect,' it is sorrowfully added, ' that their 
doings retard the cure, while they are 
implanting, we verily believe, a worse 
evil — sowing enmity of man against man, 
and making bigots, by their alliances, in 
religion and politics — creating the worst 
self-pride, and its concomitant intolerance.' 
All this is the language of one who feels 
sore at the thought of 'leagues;' and 
Blachoood probably has some cause ; but 
we protest against this insinuated identifi- 
cation of abstainers with politics. The 
peevishness, injustice, and impotence of this 
kind of aspersion is plain. We feel as 
if Grandfather Smallweed were throw- 
ing his pillow at lis. But because 
the jaundiced vision of the writer sees 
'politics' in every popular movement, 
that is no reason for any sane person 
thinking so. ' Truly thou art a dog of an 
exquisite nose!' we might say to this 
sensitive spirit, to detect ' bigotry, politics, 
and worst self-pride,' in a movement which 
aims to make persons sober, and to expel 
one cause of wretchedness and crime from 
the midst of society. To scent heresy in 
the doctrine of the earth's revolution, was 
surely not much more extraordinary than 
to scent politics in the artless and loving 
effort of the wife to reclaim the husband 
of her bosom from his cups, or in similar 
efforts to win the fallen mother to 
a sense of 'compassion for the son of 
her womb.* Were we as angry as the 
writer, we might apply his own words to 
himself, and say, ' This bigotry is disgusting 
and ridiculous ; it keeps no measure 
with truth.' This was the vulgar cry of 
an earlier period, to which our ears have 
been now long unaccustomed. Yet, amid 
the light and ' charity' of these days, we 



102 



THE abstainer's JOUKNAL. 



have the old Looting ^noise suddenly 
revived by an owl in Blackwood. In 
crying ' politics ' at us, or seeing them in 
us, may the writer not fear that he reveals 
a weakness of his own ? and may we not 
again apostrophise him somewhat in his 
own strain. Alas! temperancer,for you are 
a member of ' that temperance society — the 
best in the kingdom — the Church of 
England ' — and man of ' charity,' whatever 
you may say on the score of politics about 
your neighbour, the honest Ebenezer Styles, 
' Mutato nomine de te 
Fabula narratur.' 

Very severe is this member of the best 
temperance society in the kingdom on 
the differences of opinion which he thinks 
exist among abstainers upon the wine 
question. Now, we have no wish to 
criticise his society ; bat when he sets it 
up in favourable contrast with ours, we 
are entitled to say a word. As abstainers, 
we have among us members of the Church 
of England as staunch probably as the 
self-constituted hero of Blackwood; but 
we never heard them pit their church as 
a temperance society against ours, and 
certainly they would be the last to think 
a friend of the church at liberty to throw 
stones at us on the ground of internal 
differences, considering the well-known 
state of their ' glass-house.' The zealous 
writer has forgot himself very slightly 
here; and besides, it is not true that there 
is the practical 'intolerance' among any 
who differ, which he affirms, nor are 
there anything Uke important practical 
differences at all in our ranks. But the 
May Meetings afford our judicious critic 
much fine sport. The writings on which 
he comments in cold blood are doubtless a 
little warm and rhetorical ; but we would 
certainly prefer the alternative of uttering, 
under a pressure of feeling, some rather 
ecstatic phrases, than appear incapable of 
appreciating objects so humane, and results 
so full of moral interest as those sketched 
by our friends. In so far as vulgarity. 



conceit, self-righteousness, characterise 
any writings or speeches of abstainers, we 
repudiate them as much as any. To 
ascribe these qualities to abstainers as a 
body, or to any but a minority or tail, such 
as may he found hanging to all move- 
ments, we hesitate not, by whomsoever 
done, to pronounce an act of unscru- 
pulous defamation. Our intercourse with 
abstainers has probably been as close and 
extensive as Blackwood's, and having, we 
trust, some grains of regard to morality 
and religion, as well as that very pious 
organ, we are fully as able to judge on 
this subject as any of its staff, not excep- 
ting the member of that ' temperance 
society — the best in the kingdom — the 
Church of England.' 

Spontaneous combustion is disposed of 
in one sentence — 'Can it be true?' and 
Mr Dickens is implicitly blamed for 
adopting it in 'Bleak House.' A story 
that a child was scalded to death with 
hot gravy, is quoted as another of the 
improbable tales of teetotal ' obituaries.' 
The wine of Cana is at once assumed to 
have been alcohoUc ; and the fact that old 
bottles burst, seems taken as proof that 
no unfermented liquor was known. The 
reproach of the Pharisees that Jesus was 
'a glutton and a wine-bibber,' is brought 
apparently as evidence to the same effect, 
although the connection is so loose, that 
we dare not be positive as to the meaning. 
Next follows a silly attempt to show that 
teetotalers are a class who wish to get rid 
of taxes and saddle them all on ' property.' 
This last word will show the nightmare 
which afiBicts the journalist. 

The concluding half of the article is 
chiefly occupied with an attempt to cast 
ridicule on ' bands of hope,' and the criminal 
and Sabbath school statistics of Mr 
Smithies, Mr Teare, and others, ad- 
duced to illustrate the connection between 
crime and the drinking customs, and 
the insufficiency of mere instruction to 
secure our youth against their snares. 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



103 



The candid writer goes to work thus : — 
He first receives as correct the statements 
of Mr Smithies, that certain numbers of 
children and adults found in prison or 
tried for crime had been Sabbath scholars, 
and humorously brands the Sabbath 
schools where they had been taught as 
'drunkard manufactories;' warning the 
reader not to believe that ' Church of 
England' schools are included in the 
number, but that the schools in question 
'belong to the various denominations of 
dissent,' leaving us in doubt which he 
most hates — dissent or teetotalism. His 
remarks on the tricks which prisoners 
play when examined, are so far true ; 
but when intended to discredit the un- 
doubted value of prison statistics which, 
making every allowance for ' tricks,' 
absolutely demonstrate to all willing to 
be convinced, the close connection between 
drink and crime, they become as feeble as 
they are trite. The fact brought out in 
Sabbath school statistics is this — a fact 
which the writer does not face — that the 
many favourable influences of the Sab- 
bath school are to tens of thousands 
neutralised by the drinking customs of 
the day, so that in spite of knowledge 
and good intention, many are irreparably 
ruined. The quotation which he makes 
relative to ' the singing saloons in Roch- 
dale,' with the absurd intention of dis- 
paraging the musical attractions provided 
by certain abstinence societies for chil- 
dren, attractions, unaccompanied by strong 
drink, bears out the very fact contended 
for by abstainers ; and it is unaccountable 
that such a blunder should have been 
made even by our ignorant reviewer. 
Does he not know that it is just these 
singing saloons, where boys and girls may 
find ' pipes ' and ' liquor,' that abstainers 
deprecate as temptations, maintained at 
the doors of our Sabbath schools, chapels, 
and churches, and fitted to neutralise their 
combined influences ? Is it credible that 
the writer really believes that to teach 



children 'hymns,' such as he quotes, 
'There is a happy land, far, far away!' 
has a tendency to induce them, on leaving 
the school, to enter the drinking saloons 
for the sake of more music? If so, we 
have to observe that, even supposing this 
danger, abstainers are not to blame for 
it. Were their wishes realised, no such 
drinking saloons would exist where chil- 
dren could then enter. The blame lies, 
therefore, with those who keep them up. 
But once more, if hymns are so dangerous, 
abstainers have no necessary connection 
with hymns; and if critics will decry 
these as implements of dissent, there is 
no justice in mixing up their merits or 
demerits with that of total abstinence. 
Let Mr Smithies' theory of what Sabbath 
schools should be, be right or wrong, the 
principles of the abstinence movement 
are not at all involved. 

The lengthened disquisition on hymns, 
in which, as on other points, from a 
sense of ' duty,' the writer employs 
' every vein of seriousness and ridicule,' 
with us goes for nothing. "We wash 
our hands. ' Processions,' and ' hymns,' 
and 'banners,' are not essential to our 
movement, but accidental to it ; and while 
we have our own opinion of these adjuncts, 
and believe that, properly managed, they 
are legitimate and have value, we protest 
against the injustice or the stupidity which 
would make the abstinence movement 
stand or fall by their merits. Good or 
bad, no such results could arise as that of 
Sabbath scholars, after leaving school or 
place of worship, turning into the ' Eagle,' 
and taking some ' mixed liquor,' if 
'Eagles' were not in their way, and 
' mixed liquor' invitingly accessible. The 
existence of such temptations is not any 
consequence, it will be allowed, of our 
movement ; and surely if Sabbath scholars 
were trained to habits of abstinence, and 
protected from such exposure, fewer of 
them woald find their way to our prisons, 
and penitentiaries, and haunts of vice, 



104 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



than on the present system ; — and this is 
the sum, we take it, of the statements 
made by Mr Smithies and Mr Teare, 
which seem to afford quite a fund of 
merriment to the Zoilus of Blackwood; 
and here we would be inclined to ask, 
now that his fit may be presumed to be 
over, whether he wdll deny it ? But 
really, looking into the matter, we are 
half inchned to doubt whether it is ' Tem- 
perance and Teetotal Societies' which the 
writer exclusively levels at in the strictures. 
We have heard of a sly rascal who engaged 
in a game of football with one whom he 
owed a grudge, that under cover of kick- 
ing the ball he might by ' accident ' have 
a little revenge by hitting his neighbour's 
shins. We are somewhat tempted to 
think that Blackwood is playing a game 
not nnlike. At all events, his hack is 
squinting, and hinting, and hitting in a 
style which suggests an animus additional 
to spite against teetotalism. It is not the 
Sabbath school system he condemns. He 
wishes this ' clearly understood.' ' Nor 
let it be supposed ' that it is ' temperance 
societies such as they may be, and as 
some possibly are.' Possibly are ! What 
more? 'We would do our utmost to 
suppress drunkenness,' — for the writer is 
a strenuous person, it will be seen. ' Nay, 
we (always meaning by this usual plural 
the individual writer) belong ourselves to 
a temperance society. Be not surprised, 
good reader. Yes ! a temperance society ; 
and, as we believe, the best in the king- 
dom — the Church of England.' Now, 
Mr Smithies, attend — the secret is coming 
out. 'We would recommend him (you, 
Mr Smithies) to try our schools.' Just 
so ; there is the kick on the shins at last ; 
and all this rout and noise about ' hymns,' 
and ' music,' and ' Sabbath scholars ' 
turning into the ' Eagle,' is pretty much 
a fling at dissent as well as at teetotalism, 
which is adroitly made the innocent foot- 
ball. Now, of course, dissenters, poor 
wretches, can expect no quarter ; but was 



it very civil of Blackicood to the Church 
of Scotland and the ditto of Ireland to 
allow it to go forth that of temperance 
societies the Church of England was the 
' best ' in the kingdom ? Positively we 
feel as Scotchmen this is too bad. We 
write in no ecclesiastical capacity what- 
ever ; but since a temperance society is 
produced as the ' best,' we who have our 
predilections in favour of another may be 
allowed to inquire whether this 'best' 
temperance society has no Sabbath 
scholars who ft-equent ' Eagles,' and take 
some ' mixed liquor ?' We crave to know 
what effect this 'best' society, which is 
ramified through the length and breadth 
of merry England, and is incalculably 
potent, has had in ' suppressing drun- 
kenness ?' We beg to be informed whether 
drunkenness has not risen to its present 
magnitude in spite of ' our schools,' and 
this ' best ' society ; and if so, what in- 
veterate anility it is which can set up 
this institute, which has had England to 
itself since the days of Queen Bess at 
least, and has not prevented the rise and 
present enormous dimensions of English 
drunkenness, as its cure ; or which would 
run down if it could the only society in 
modern times which Jias been effectual, in 
all places and circumstances where fair 
play has been afforded its operations, in 
quelling the evil ? This ' best' society, 
we are told, ' does not teach abstinence 
from anything but evil. It is a safeguard 
in education, as far as teaching can go, 
against drunkenness, against every vice, 
against every crime.' The ideas of the 
author of such remarks too cleai-ly run in 
a rut, out of which no tuition will easily 
bring them. It is laid down in his mind 
as a first principle, that intoxicating 
drinks are ' good,' not only as every 
' creature of God is good,' but for the 
purposes to which they are generally 
applied ; and it is another first principle 
with him obviously, that the growth of 
drunkenness is in no way traceable to the 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



105 



nature of these liquors, or tlie ' drinking 
usages.' He seems to lay all this down 
as unconsciously as though it had never 
been contradicted, and as though it were 
not his ' duty' to confute the propositions 
ofabstainers on these points before liecould 
fairly charge them with doing aught else 
than 'teaching total abstinence from what 
was evil.' It would be a pleasure to meet 
objections adv.inced in a calm and scien- 
tific spirit, but it would be doing more 
than even the influence o^ BlackiO'iod ren- 
ders necessary, laboriously to refute as- 
sumptions which are not supported, but 
go in the teeth of evidence, and to argue 
down calumnious attacks. Teetotalism 
has tabled its statistics and doctrines , let 
Blackwood take them up if he can. If 
these are false, let it be proved ; but while 
they are not disproved, nor even the at- 
tempt made, it is cheap to make them the 
topic of a running commentary of very 
vulgar ridicule. 

Very likely statistics are not in Blach- 
wood's line. The writer would probably 
shrink from them, for he is ' not well-versed 
in statiscics,' but it might be a good em- 
ployment for his leisure, before he venture 
to write again on temperance, to master a 
few facts, and ponder their lessons. At a 
public meeting held on the lltli April in 
Edinburgh, Dr Guthrie, whom even Black- 
wood need not be ashamed to respect, 
alluding to the statistics published by the 
Edinburgh Total Abstinence Society, said — 

' They were the most shockhig tables he 
had ever seen published, and he could com- 
pare them to nothing but to the roll of the 
prophet — "written outside and inside with 
mourning, and lamentation, and woe." On 
Sabbath, the 6th of March, 41,796 visits 
were paid from sunrise to suiidowu, in 
Edinburgh, to public-houses. He men- 
tioned this fact from his pulpit tlie other 
Sabbath, and the statement whs met by a 
sort of subdued expression of astonishment 
People could not persuade themselves that 
it was true, and assured him that there 
must have been some mistake. He told 
them that 41,000 visits did not mean as 
many persons, but that some of the parties 



might have been once or twice, or oftener, 
tit the public-house that day ; though, even 
taking the statement with this explanation, 
it was a very shocking one, and. he hail no 
doubt, perfectly correct Of these 41,796 
visitors to the Edinburgh public-houses on 
the 6th of March, he observed that there 
were 22,202 males, 11.931 females, and 
more melancholy still, 4631 children under 
fourteen years of age There were also, 
not of children, but of infants vnder eight 
years of age, no fewer than 3'^32, and he 
had heard one of the men who helped to 
make up these statistics state that, in one 
of these horrible shops, the access to which 
was by three steps from the street, he saw 
a poor, wretched infant come tottering 
along the street with a bottle in its han.ls 
— and such a poor, vreakly, sickly child was 
it, that it reached the bottle to the top- 
most step, and then crawled up the steps 
which it had not the strength to ascend. 
If facts such as these did not make men 
do something to put down such an evil, he 
would only say that he knew little of their 
hearts and consciences.' 

We will not do the writer the injustice 
to believe that he will laugh at this, or 
affect not to perceive in these facts, which 
are, as he may satisfy himself, only a sample 
of what is transpiring in every large town 
and city of the kingdom, a very startling 
and grave social phenomenon. And we 
think that, duly impressed with its lessons, 
he will not so readily consider himself at 
liberty to denounce or vilify societies and 
individuals whose sole object, vrhatever he 
slanderously pretend or insinuate, is to pre- 
vent and remove this flagrant and loath- 
some evil from the land, however much he 
may choose to differ from any of their modes 
of operation. And considering his anxiety 
about the ' wheat,' he will be more cautious 
how he handle the imaginary ' tares,' lest 
haply, in the language of the parable which 
he appears to respect, he ' pluck up the wheat 
with them.' We had begun to think that the 
day of foul-mouthed aspersion was nearly 
by, but it has been reserved for Blackwood 
to gather all the dirt and BiUing.sgate of 
former years, and fling them at the heads 
of abstainers. Whether it is meant to pur- 
sue this honourable vocation we know not. 



k2 



106 



THE abstainer's JODRNAL. 



One thing we know, that the abstinence 
cause has gained a vantage ground and a 
strength of character which will render any 
such attempts vain, from whatever quarter 
they come, and certain to recoil on their 
authors. We should rejoice to see Black- 
wood with us, but we are not alarmed at 
his resistance, while it is conducted in the 
present style. We take it as a proof of 
our progress that the very rere-ward of the 
opposing army has been called into action 
against us. Besides, Blackwood is fairly 
on the ice, and committed to one of our 
points at least : — 

'We join them (abstainers) fully in any pro- 
per appeals to the Government. Beer-houses 
and gin-palaces, as they are now, are moral 
pest-houses : they want severe regulation. 
We know not how to think decently of this 
our Government, while notorious haunts of 
thieves, prostitutes, murderers, are almost 
protected, and brutalities increase. The 
police reports make up a history of disgrace 
to any Government. The fact is, the whole 
law of punishment has been relaxed. We 
carry notions of liberty to an absurdity — 
we would almost say, to a crime. Such 
brutes as Cannon, and others like him, 
ought to be — nor are we ashamed to write 
the word — slaves : they put themselves out 
of humanity's pale. Culprits of almost all 
descriptions are cowards. The old bodily 
punishments were not altogether unsalutary 
— at least, they tended to keep society in 
some safety. A good bastinado would often 
have more terror than a prison — ay, even 
more than transportation. But when we 
read of the " garotte " in the streets — the 
stabbings, the cruel mutilations, butcheries 
sometimes short of death, and sometimes 
not, and are certain that the names and 
haunts of these monsters who commit the 
savagery are well known, and see the com- 
parative impunity that meets them — we 
feel that something is wanted in our home 
government. Here, at least, we have a 
right to demand protection. Beer-houses 
and gin-palaces foster these scoundrels and 
their crimes, without doubt.' 

We read of Saul among the prophets, 
but here is something nearly as remarkable 
— Blackwood among social reformers. The 
Maine Law is not so visionary an object 
after all. Here is Blackwood half way to 
it. These sentences seem to have been 



penned under qualms, and our irate friend 
appears to soften even to us, as if be had 
gone rather far ; for having, in good Irish 
style, thrashed with all his might, he sud- 
denly, at parting, pulls up, and offers to 
shake hands, thus — ' Let Temperance So- 
cieties wisely direct their movements, and 
they shall have our best wishes and support.' 
Now, what does all this mean ? Sim- 
ply that the writer is not very sure about 
his article, and on ' calm review,' before 
sending it finally to the stereotyper, wishes 
to put in a sa^'ing clause. His good 
nature has got the better of him after the 
heat of the writing is past, and his little 
bit of conscience tells him that it will 
never do — for these beer-houses are facts, 
and these squalid mothers and children 
are no fancy pictures — to cut abstainers 
altogether ; for they ai-e doing good, and, 
for aught that may appear, he not being 
'well versed' in the particulars, they may be 
right ; and so, his eye happening perhaps 
to catch a glimpse of his own wife and 
prosperous family serving two or three 
tattered orphans at the door, the victims 
of strong diink, he seizes the pen and 
writes up the margin of his crowded 
sheet, 'Let temperance societies wisely,'' 
etc. etc., best wishes and support.' 

The writer dwells on ' charity.' We hope 
he will allow that we have exemplified this 
virtue towards him. There is another 
virtue, however — faithfulness ; and in 
the exercise of this, we add only one ob- 
servation more, which is, that, in our 
opinion, a serious view of human life 
renders it an impropriety and an im- 
morality to treat a philanthropic cause, 
and even its supposed absurdities, in the 
unscrupulous manner of this article. We 
are not insensible to defects and extrava- 
gances connected with our movement, 
nor do we hold that these are sanctified 
by good intentions. But we do certainly 
hold that the existence of the latter, 
combined with the undoubted beneficial 
results which have accrued, should secure 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



107 



the cause of total abstinence, on all 
hands, from wilful caricature and indiscri- 
minate assault. Nor can any literary- 
organ, however high its pretensions, be- 
come the medium of such vituperation 
and injustice, without incurring the cen- 
sure of the virtuous, and, what may be as 
keenly felt, their neglect. We regret that 
Blackwood should have so far lowered its 
tone, and lost its dignity, as to admit for 
any purpose the spume of intolerance, 
imbecility, and abuse, which meets the 
reader on the threshold of the April num- 
ber. We hope that if temperance is 
referred to at any future time, it will be in 
a more intelligent spirit, and a more manly 
vein. 



SUCCESSFUL EFFORT AGAINST 

LICENSED TOLL-HOUSES. 
The licensing of toll-houses to sell intoxi- 
cating drink is, we are persuaded, one of 
the many pernicious parts of our monster 
licence system. It is a great mistake to 
suppose that the miseries of drunkenness 
are chiefly confined to our large towns, 
and that the rural districts know little or 
nothing of them. The truth must be 
confessed with sorrow, that intemperance 
prevails to a mournful extent among the 
labouring classes in the country as well as 
in cities, and we believe that licensed 
toll-houses are, above all, the places where 
the sons of toil in husbandry are allured 
to this vice. These houses are placed by 
the road-side. They must be passed and 
repassed by farm servants in the duties of 
their calling, while driving the products of 
the soil to market. The toll-keeper is 
usually ready on such occasions with the 
offer of his snuff-box for a friendly pinch, 
and not seldom with his whisky bottle, for 
the first dram. The unsuspecting hinds 
are thus drawn into the house to drink, 
and numbers of them here take the first 
step to confirmed habits of intemperance. 
' I solemnly promised to my wife,' said a 



plain countryman once to us, when wish- 
ing to join the abstinence society, ' that I 
would return home sober that day, but, 
you see, when we reached the toll, the lads 
proposed just a single glass to warm us. 
This I could not resist, and when once we 
were fairly down, we sat and drank till 
we had all too much. And the worst of 
it is, we ran up a score more than we 
could pay, but the toll-man said it did not 
matter, he would get it when we came in 
again. I am determined though, after 
this, he shall get no more from me.' 

The toll-house, too, is frequently the 
principal spring which furnishes the ad- 
joining hamlet with aqua vitce, to make 
the female tea party free and easy, when 
they meet to discuss the weighty details 
of the country gossip, and to consider 
whose character, among their acquaint- 
ance, most needs mending. We have 
heard of a sedate-looking housewife enter- 
ing a toll-house near a lovely rural village 
for a supply of whisky, for a tea party to 
be held in her house that evening. This 
had now become an essential requisite of 
such meetings in the place, and it was 
thought that not a few of the cronies loved 
the after glass better than ' the cup which 
cheers but not inebriates.' When the 
bottle at this time was replenished, the 
hostess of the toll-bar filled a glass of her 
best, to encourage the new comer to come 
again on the same errand. The stranger 
simply tasted the fiery potion, and set 
down the glass on the table. This was 
what her neighbours seldom or never did ; 
the woman of the toll looked on her with 
blank surprise, and said, ' How lang hae 

ye been in ?' 'A twallmonth,' was 

the reply. 'A twallmonth in ,' 

rejoined the hostess, ' and canna drink a 
glass o' whisky yet ! Na, but that beats 
everything ! ' 

Thus it is that these licensed toll-houses 
spread the blighting influence of intem- 
perance through the rural retreats of our 
land, defacing the fairest scenes of nature 



108 



THE abstainer's JOtRNAL. 



with the presence of drunkards, and rais- 
ing up a barrier to improvement, where 
the industry of the husbandman is other- 
wise giving clearest signs of social pro- 
gression. They are often placed in remote 
situations, where neither the eye of the 
police, nor the healthful influence of public 
opinion can effectually reach tliem. The 
lovers of pleasure can retire to them on 
Sabbath without restraint, drinking can 
be continued in them through all hours of 
the day and nioht. They are ever in the 
way of the traveller to tempt him to his 
ruiu, and especially on Fair-days, those 
of them that lie near market towns are 
the scenes of indescribable riot and intoxi- 
cation. 

These considerations have induced the 
friends of temperance in Berwickshire to 
make a special effort to have the licences 
withdrawn from all toll-houses in that 
county. It was suggested to the farmers 
in the district to petition the road trustees 
to this effect. A large number of them 
did so. The committee of the Dunse 
Total Abstinence Society also presented a 
petition. They urged these, among oth?r 
reasons for the withdrawal of these licences 
— that the increase of poor-rates caused 
by intemperance is an argument against 
licensing toll-houses, since the sober part 
of the community are thereby sul jected to 
greater burdens than they ought to be 
called to bear — that, though an increased 
revenue is derived from tolls by licences, 
it appears a most grave objection to this 
mode of reali>ing a revenue, that it seeks 
a pecuniary profit by what endangers pub- 
lic morals — that were those licences with- 
drawn, the amount of crime would be 
diminished, and the expense of prosecution 
materially lessened, so that the decrease 
in the revenue would probably be more 
than counterbalanced by a relief from 
general and local taxes, — and that a great 
moral impression could not fail to be pro- 
duced, by seeing, that a public body of such 
eminent influence as this Trust, hereby 



show a determination to do what they 
could to put down a mighty social evil in 
the land. 

We rejoice to know that this effort has 
been completely successful. The gentle- 
men of the Middle Road Trust respect- 
fully received the petition mentioned, and 
after mature consideration, unanimously 
figreed to withdraw the licences from all 
the toll hovses under their jurisdiction. 
The result is most important in its bear- 
ing on the statistics of intemperance. The 
adherents of the abstinence movement are 
often accused of exaggerating the evil they 
seek to suppress, as if they took pleasure in 
making out their countrymen to be more 
drunken than they really are. Let those 
who prefer this unfounded accusation, hear 
the facts respec;ing these licences now 
withdrawn, and say if they were at all 
prepared for the fearful state of things 
they reveal. The day has now passed 
for letting the toll-houses in question by 
public roup, and what is the result? 
There was on the occasion a keen com- 
petition. Three of the tolls on the same 
line of road, formerly without licence, rose 
in annual rent, one i;23, another £21, 
another £10, indicating an increase of 
traffic in the district. But all the four 
tolls fiom which the licences were at this 
time withdrawn fell in annual rental as 
fo]]ows: — Clocl:mill Toll, near Dunse, rent 
lor past year. £261 ; for present, £207 ; 
decrease, £54. Chimside Toll, rent for 
past year, £174; for present, £102 ; de- 
crease, £72. Starch House Toll, on the 
Border of England, rent for past year, 
£277, for present, £190; decrease, £87. 
Paxion Toll, also on the Border, rent for 
past year, £290; for present, £165 ; de- 
crease, £125. The decrease on the whole 
four, in consequence of losing the licence, 
is £338, which, according to the ratio of 
increase of the others on the same lines of 
transit, they ought to have risen in rental 
at least £80, so that the real diminution of 
income, on account of withdrawing the 



TI!E ABSTAINERS JOORNAL. 



109 



licences, may be computed at about 
£418. 

This, then, is a practical illustration of 
the money value of a spirit licence, in a 
toll-house. By having a licence to sell 
intoxicating drink, a man at Paxton is 
able to give £125 more rent a-year for a 
toll, than he can venture to offer when 
that licence is withdrawn ; another man 
at Chirnside, is able to give £72 more. 
What a revelation do these facts furnish 
of the quantity of spirits sold in these 
places in the course of a year! The 
localities referred to are entirely agricul- 
tural, by no means thickly populated. 
Yet here we have two public-houses 
realising an annual profit on the sale of 
strong drink, — the one of £125, the other 
of £72. We are not concerned to inquire 
who buys all this drink, or where it goes. 
But we ask. Is not this a most startling 
disclosure, that such an amount of in- 
toxicating liquor should, in thsse places, 
be disposed of? Suppose here, that the 
profit oil the article sold is at the rate of 
twenty-five per cent., then we have drink 
sold in one of these toll-houses to the 
amount of above £500, and of £228 in 
another, and this in remote and thinly- 
peopled districts. 

With these unexpected results before 
the mind, let the question be duly 
weighed, What is the effect of all this 
drink sold in these localities ? Enter in 
thought the homes of the neighbourhood, 
and you see the drunken husband or 
wife, or son or daughter — the misery and 
shame of the domestic circle. Pass into 
the churches of the neighbourhood, and 
you see perhaps the man or woman sitting 
at the Lord's table whom you observed 
staggering in intoxication only a day 
before, and whom you will behold a day 
after, raving under the influence of strong 
drink. Go to that poor-law board in the 



neighbourhood, and you hear the harrow- 
ing details, of the destitution of a widow 
with her numerous family, recounted as 
claims for parochial relief, but you are 
told at the same time that the deceased 
father drank himself to death in an ad- 
joining public-house. Yet once more, 
venture into tliat condemned cell in the 
prison of the neiglibourhood, and you look 
on a wretched criminal there, sentenced 
to be executed on the scaffold in a few 
hours; you may learn that the murder 
for which he must die arose out of a 
drunken brawl in a country public-house, 
and that the few pence of profit going 
into the pocket of the publican have 
occasioned the loss of two men's lives, 
and cost the country for the prosecution 
and punishment of crime perhaps not less 
than six hundred pounds. 

These facts call on the advocates of the 
temperance reformation to be diligent in 
using every available means for the sup- 
pression of drunkenness. While we assail 
the great citadel of intemperance by pro- 
claiming our principles as abstainers, let 
us strike down any buttress that we see 
can be taken away. Public opinion is, 
we think, fast growing against our present 
hcence system ; let us give our influence 
to swell the power of the current, and as 
far as it accords with the end we seek, 
work through it for the weal of our 
country. Landed proprietors, so far as 
our observation extends, are looking on 
existing intemperance with growing con- 
cern, and, as the case here mentioned 
proves, not a few of them give practical 
evidence of willingness to diminish temp- 
tation to drunkenness. The fact is aus- 
picious and encouraging. Every licence 
withdrawn from a toll or other public- 
house is another fountain of death dried 
up — it is another step gained in the pro- 
gress of moral and social reform. 



110 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



Narrati&e &hztt% 



THE TEMPERANCE ISLAND. 

The gentle island and the genial soil, 
The friendly hearts, the feasts without a toil, 
The courteous manners, but from nature caught, 
The wealth unhoarded and the love unbought. 



About sixty years ago, a number of Eng- 
lish merchants interested ia the prosperity 
of our West India possessions, fitted out 
an expedition with the view of introducing 
the bread fruit tree into the islands of 
those seas. The ship Bounty, ladened 
with the plants, and under the command 
of Lieutenant Bligh, was on her way from 
Otaheiti. Exasperated by the overbearing 
conduct of the commander, Fletcher 
Christian, the mate, assisted by several of 
the inferior ofHcers and men, seized the com- 
mander, and forcing him along with nine- 
teen others into a small boat, set them adrift 
upon the wide ocean. After suffering 
the greatest privations, and performing a 
voyage of four thousand miles, they came 
safely to anchor in Coupang Bay, where 
they were received with great hospitality. 
No sooner was the Government made 
acquainted with this act of piracy and 
mutiny, than the Pandora frigate was 
despatched in search of the offenders. 
Although this vessel was wrecked, the 
captain succeeded in apprehending four- 
teen of the mutineers ; four of whom were 
drowned in the wreck and ten brought 
safe to England ; three of whom were 
afterwards hung on board the ship Bruns- 
wick, in Portsmouth harbour. 

Upwards of twenty years had passed 
a^ay, and the eventful story of the Bounty 
had ceased to occupy a thought in the 
pubHc mind. About this time an Ameri- 
can trading vessel, chancing to approach 
one of those numerous islands iu the 
Pacific, against whose steep and iron- 
bound shores the ocean continually 
breaks, discovered the mutineers' re- 
treat. Interesting as was this dis- 
covery, it attracted little notice. How- 
ever, in the year 1814, as two frigates, the 
Briton and the Tagus, were cruizing, 
they approached the island home of this 
romantic people. Captain Pipon of the 
latter ship, supposing be had made a new 
discovery, ran in for the land. To his 
surprise he perceived a few huts neatly 
built amidst plantations laid out with con- 
siderable taste. Presently a few natives 
were observed approaching with their 



Bybon. 

one of the little vessels darting through 
the heavy surf and making for the 
ships. Greater still was the surprise when, 
on coming alongside, the voyagers were 
hailed in good English, ' Wont you heave 
us a rope?' The first that sprung on 
deck was a youth of noble bearing, and 
son of the late Fletcher Christian by an 
Otaheitian mother. On inquiry, it ap- 
peared that after setting Captain Bligh and 
his party adrift, the father of this youth 
and leader of the mutiny took the Bounty 
to Otaheiti, where a great part of the 
crew left her ; part of whom were after- 
wards apprehended, while he and eight 
others, who each took wives, and six 
natives, shortly afterwards proceeded to 
Pitcairn's Island, ran the ship ashore, and 
bx'oke her up. 

In consequence of the gross oppres- 
sion to which the mutineers subjected the 
Otaheitians, revolt succeeded revolt, until 
the sole survivors consisted of a man named 
Smith, and eight or nine women with 
several children. This man subsequently 
assumed the name of John Adams, and 
became patriarch of the colony. At the 
time of the arrival of the Briton and the 
Tagus, the inhabitants of the island had 
increased to nearly fifty persons. The 
young men were finely formed but most 
whimsically dressed, some having long 
coats without trowsers, and others trow- 
sers without coats, and others again waist- 
coats without either. The young women 
were singularly handsome and modestly 
attired. Both engaged in the labours of 
cultivating the field, and attending to the 
pigs and poultry. The men are stated to 
be from five feet eight inches to six feet 
high, and of great muscular strength, and 
accustomed to perform with ease feats of 
great prowess. In the water they are 
as much at home as on land, frequently 
swimming the circuit of their island, 
which is a distance of at least seven miles. 
Their diet being of the simplest character, 
and their only beverage being water, they 
are subject to few diseases. The little 
village of Pitcairn is described as built on 
a piece of ground sloping towards the sea, 



canoes on their shoulders, and immediately I and consisting of five houses, that of 



THE ABSTAINER 8 JOURNAL. 



Ill 



Adams occupying a prominent position, 
and the whole concealed from view by 
banana and cocoa trees. 

John Adams being a man of a pious 
disposition, set himself diligently to the 
work of educating the children. Although 
on his landing on the island he could only 
read, he afterwards acquired the art of 
writing, framed a code of laws, and cele- 
brated marriage and baptism according to 
the rites of the Church of England. The 
only books preserved from the Bounty 
were the Bible and the Prayer Book ; and 
aided by these, they met regularly on Sab- 
bath for the observance of divine worship. 
A whaling ship having touched at the 
island, one of the sailors, named John 
Buffet, was so enamoured of the romantic 
life of its inhabitants that he resolved to 
join them. In this person John Adams 
found a congenial spirit and an able co- 
adjutor, cheerfully he assumed the offices 
of teacher and minister; and so blessed 
were their joint labours, that the little 
colony soon became characterised by a 
higher degree of religion, order and mo- 
rality, than what obtains in the most 
privileged states. 

Years passed away, till in 1825 Captain 
Beechy in the Blossom, bound on a voyage 
of discovery, paid them a visit. He and 
his party were received with a cordial 
welcome. The table was spread in the 
house of Christian, son of the chief 
mutineer, and grace was emphatically 
said by John Buffet. One thing struck 
the viiitors, the women were only per- 
mitted to take a place at the table in the 
event of there being room. On the cus- 
tom being called in question, it was de- 
fended on the ground that, as man was 
made before woman, he was entitled to be 
served first. At night comfortable beds 
were prepared for the party, and they 
were lulled to sleep by the melody of the 
evening hymn ; which after the lights 
were put out, was chanted by the whole 
family in the middle of the apartment. 
As morning dawned, the voice of praise 
again greeted their ears, while by their 
bedsides they found ' placed some ripe 
fruits, and their hats crowned with flowery 
chaplets. Sabbath was strictly observed 
as a day of devotion. Having proceeded 
to church, within which was gathered the 
entire community, the service was com- 
menced by singing a hymn, after which 
prayers were read by Adams, while Buffet 
read the lesson. A sermon followed, which 
was well deUvered by Buffet ; and in order 
to impress it properly on the minds of his 



hearers, repeated it three times, the whole 
being concluded with praise. An instance 
of their piety was afForded some years after, 
when Captain Waldegrave arrived with 
supplies for them from England, ' I have 
brought you clothes and other articles 
which King George has sent you,' said he. 
'But,' said Kitty Quintal, one of the 
women, ' we want food for our souls.' 

A sad calamity befel this interesting 
people in 1829, when their chief was re- 
moved by death. Their harmony, con- 
tentment, and virtuous conduct, are to be 
ascribed to John Adams. The dwellers 
on this lone islet in the drear expanse of 
the South Pacific, now number eighty-six 
females and eighty-eight males, or nearly 
twohundredpersonsinall. They still speak 
the language and profess the faith of 
the English nation. Last year there ar- 
rived at Southampton an ambassador from 
this interesting community to our Govern- 
ment to obtain further means of religious 
instruction, and to secure, if possible, more 
frequent visits to the island of English 
ships. 

But a fact remains to be stated to which 
the extraordinary character of this people 
is doubtless in no small degree traceable. 
M'Koy, one of the mutineers, had formerly 
been employed in a Scotch distillery, and 
being an intemperate man, set about mak- 
ing experiments, and unfortunately suc- 
ceeded in producing an intoxicating liquor. 
This success induced a companion, named 
Quintal, to turn his kettle into a still. 
The consequence was that both were 
habitually drunk, and M'Koy, one day in a 
fit of delirium, threw himself from a cliff 
and was killed on the spot. His com- 
panion's conduct was so horribly savage 
that John Adams, along with another, 
considered it necessary for the preservation 
of the general safety, to put him to death by 
felling him with a hatchet. The conduct 
of M'Koy and Quintal so shocked the rest 
of the community, that they resolved never 
again to touch intoxicating liquors, and to 
this day they have kept their resolution. 
The only spirituous liquors allowed to be 
landed on their shores are a few bottles of 
wine and brandy for the medicine chest of 
the doctor. 

Were these simple islanders not wise 
in joining in a confederacy of entire 
and perpetual abstinence? The visitor 
of their secluded ocean home will search in 
vain amid its deep ravines, and towering 
mountains, and lofty trees, for an hospital, 
a workhouse, or a barred and grated gaol. 
Had they, like many who make greater 



112 



THE ABSTAINERS JOURNAL. 



pretensions to sagacity, said, ' Our coin- 
paiiions liave done very wrong in abusing 
tiieuiselves ; but tliat is no reason wliy we 
sliduld deny ourselves a moderate degree of 
the excitement in which they grossly ex- 
ceeded.' would this cominunit)' this d^y 
present to the most highly civilised nations 
a model of a christian stale? iJid they 
then do wrong in at once and for ever re- 
nouncing the use of a liquid in wliicli evils 
so terrible liad uriginated ? and do we do 
riglit in sustaining the system which they 
eschewed, after having learned its nature 
by a more dire experience ? Who in the 
face of the manly forms, and virtuous con- 



duct, and prayerful life of those interesting 
people, will maintain that intoxieatiug 
liquors is essen.ial to health or happiness? 
Often his God employed the simple to 
cotifonnd the wise: and now in that re- 
markable colony, he is presenting to the 
whole world a |>attern of public and univer- 
sal sobriety. He that would seduce that 
people from their habits of ri^id temper- 
ance, would perpetrate a fouier deed than 
that which hlackens the murderer's heart. 
Are those then sinless, who, by sustaining 
the drinking customs, help to make the 
sober intemperate, and keep the intem- 
perate drunken ? 



QTfje Abstainer's Journal. 

Glasgow, Mat, 1853. 



SABBATH LIQUOR TRAFFIC IN EDINBURGH. 



Scarcely have we recovered from the 
dismay occasioned by Mr Hume's statis- 
tics, than there is disclosed to us a deeper 
deep in our social depravity. The com- 
mittee of the Edinburgh Society, startled 
with the amount of drinking in a single 
shop, resolved to take a survey of the 
entire city. Nearly two hundred abstainers 
volunteered their aid to accomplish this 
difficult and even dangerous work. In 
more than one instance the surveyors 
were threatened with bodily harm, in 
others they were exposed to all kinds of 
insult upon the part of the publicans ; 
in some cases the pencil could not keep 
pace with the rushing stream of drouthy 
customers, and the ingenious plan of 
dropping peas into one pocket to repre- 
sent men, and into another to represent 
women, had to be resorted to, relays being 
supplied at intervals. Thanks to the 
perseverance and courage of the noble- 
hearted men who could thus go down into 
the pit of abomination and destruction, 
that they might inform their fellow-citi- 
zens of the dangerous mine beneath their 
feet. The announcement of the result has 
taken the whole city by surprise, as if 
some conspiracy to murder its inhabitants 
had been suddenly disclosed. The meet- 



ing held to expose and denounce the sys- 
tem, at which upwards of two thousand 
of the citizens attended, was one of the 
most influential and enthusiastic ever 
convened in connection with the temper- 
ance movement. 

What, then, are the results of this sur- 
vey? It has been proven that on Sab- 
bath the 6th of Jlarch, between the hours 
of one and two mid-day, and four and 
eleven evening, 312 public-houses were 
open, and that there entered them 22,202 
men, 11,931 women, 7663 children, in 
all, 41,796 persons; and that in addition 
to this, there entered forty-nine taverns 
on the same day, 6609 visitors, making 
an aggregate of fortv-eigut thousand 

FOUR HONORED AND FIVE. And eVCQ 

this is below the mark. Some houses had 
so mr.ny back doors so peculiarly situated, 
that their survey was necessarily imper- 
fect ; others closed to evade the scrutiny. 
Besides, it is well known that, notwith- 
standing the vigilance of our police, the 
traffic is carried on by not a few houses 
even during the hours forbidden by law. 
Various are the devices resorted to. One 
house with a rising ground behind it was 
discovered with a hole in the roof, through 
which, from morn till eve, a bottle was 



THE ABSTAINER S JOCESAL. 



113 



let down and drawn np again, much after 
the fashion of a well with a bucket. Then 
it is well known that at least a hundred 
unlicensed houses ply their trafBc through 
the entire Sabbath, so that perhaps the 
Edinburgh dram -shops have not fewer 

than SIXTY THOCSAXD FREQUENTERS 

EVERY Sabbath. That is the entire 
non-church going population of Edin- 
burgh ; so that while three-fourths of the 
population are at the house of God, the 
remaining fourth are at the devil's sanc- 
tuary. Even the city authorities were not 
prepared for the amount of trafBc carried 
on by single houses. To one there were 
1123 visitors, to another 955, and to a 
third 922, while others ranged between 
500 and 600. So incredulous have been 
those who bad the means of knowing best, 
that the Lord Provost, with his usual 
attention to public interests, had a testing 
survey taken on Sabbath, 17th April, and 
the result has even been worse than the 
former. On the following day, at a meet- 
ing of the governors of George Heriot's 
Hospital, he stated — 

' That, in order to verify the accuracy 
of the statistics published of the Total 
Abstinence Society, he bad selected five 
of the worst cases in their list, and re- 
quested the superintendent of police to 
look out for confidential officers to watch 
these houses yesterday (Sunday.^ He 
also asked the Committee of the Total 
Abstinence Society to send some respect- 
able men along with these officers, in order 
that they might mutually check each 
other. He (the Lord Provost) had got 
tlie result handed to hiua, and he found 
from it, that while the Committee had 
stated in their returns that 4286 persons 
entered into these five houses in one day, 
the actual numbers that entered the pre- 
vious day (Sunday) were certified to be 
4576 ; so that there was an increase of 
290 to the number of persons who entered 
these houses, as compared to the day 
when the Total Abstinence Society took 
their statistics, — thus showing the num- 
ber rather to be under than over-stated 
by them (Hear, bear.) This presented 
a fearful state of matters ; but some parties 
were somewhat doubtful i s to its truthful- 
ness, and in reference particularly to the 



statement in the statistics referred to, that 
320 pertons had been seen entering into 
one house at the top of the Cancngate in 
one hour, between one and two o'clock, 
many respectable parties had told him that 
they could not believe it — that the thing 
was an impossibility. Well, this par- 
ticular house was watched yesterday (Sun- 
day \ and he had the authority of the 
superintendent of police for stating, that 
32.S individuals entered within tiie hour, 
and no fewer than 1253 during the day, 
instead of 1 1 23, as in the published 
statistics. (Hear.)' 

Thus, to these fearful statistics, we 
have the seal of the highest civic authority. 

Two or three facts brought out by this 
survey are worthy of special notice. First, 
the large number of women, amounting to 
11,931, who, in defiance of all decency, 
visited, during one Lord's - day, the 
most disreputable places in our metro- 
polis. What a depth of social debase- 
ment does that fact reveal ! Were any- 
thing needed to make the virtuous and 
sober women of Scotland abstainers, surely 
that fact should do it. Where did many 
of these first acquire the taste for liquor ? 
At the tables of sober and respectable 
masters and mistresses. Another melan- 
choly feature of this subject is, the num- 
ber of young children who that dreary day 
were kept ' trudjiing between the dram- 
shop and home, laden with whisky in all 
kinds of vessels.' Of these, 3032 were 
below eight, and 4631 were between eight 
and fourteen years of age. One poor 
creature was observed making for a door 
with a bottle in its arms, almost as big as 
itself, and on reaching the steps the little 
thing, being unable to mount them, placed 
the bottle upon the topmost one, and then 
on hands and knees scrarebled up after it. 
Those who took the survey witnessed the 
sad process of parents teaching the art of 
drunkenness to those who shall curse our 
land some twenty years hence, if success 
to our cause does not interpose. In 
the mother's arms or by her side they got 
a little drop, or in imitation of those to 
whom the young look for guidance, they 



114 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



entered and ordered drink for themselves, 
or on their way from the dram-shop to 
their wretched homes, drank a little by 
stealth. Will Sabbath school teachers 
look at this? Is it enough that they 
instil into the opening mind the precious 
truths of the gospel? Already is that sus- 
ceptible nature debased and doubly forti- 
fied against their endeavours. More than 
half as many children as go to all the 
Sabbath schools in Edinburgh, visit the 
dram-shop on that holy day to buy and 
drink. Ought not every teacher to be an 
abstainer, and every class to be a little 
temperance society? Then let masters 
look after these tiro and Ucenty thousand 
men who debase their minds, and waste 
their strength, and squander thek money 
on the day of holy rest. Why not pay 
them their wages on the Tuesday or 
Wednesday, and follow the practice of 
some employers, of tolerating not for a 
day a dissipated workman on their estab- 
lishment ? 

Another fact brought out by these 
statistics is, that houses called taverns 
and hotels, and avowedly for the accom-' 
modation of travellers, are rather places 
of a somewhat more genteel dissipation, 
6609 persons having visited the 49 houses 
licensed as such, on the day specified, 
the maximum reached by one house 
being 663. Sabbath-day drinkmg, then, 
is not limited to the inmates of our cellars 
and garrets: but writers' clerks, shop- 
keepers, and merchants betake themselves 
on the day of holy rest to these haunts of 
vulgarity and drunkenness. The entire 
cost of gratifying the appetite of these 
Sabbatarian bibers cannot be less than 
£100,000. Bailie Gray, some years ago, 
estimated it at £112,000, and his estimate 
was founded, we understand, upon in- 
formation provided him by the publicans 
themselves. 

Taking, then, the population of Edin- 
burgh, as given in last census, at 160,084, 
we have a fourth part of that population 



frequenting its Sabbath open dram-shops. 
Fifty thousand Sabbath-day visitors to the 
dram-shops of Edinburgh! That fact 
ought of itself to convert the whole christian 
church to teetotalism, 

Is this foul abomination, then, to con- 
tinue to rear its horrid front in the midst 
of the religion, refinement, and benevolence 
of the Scottish metropolis ? The question 
has been answered by the British Parlia- 
ment. Forbes Mackenzie's BiU has passed 
the Committee of that House, and ere 
long will have passed into law. By the 
provisions of this Bill, all dram-shops are 
to be closed on Sunday. The measure 
will at least be an experiment as to what 
we may expect from legislative interfer- 
ence, and as such its operations will be 
watched with no ordinaiy interest. 



WHISKY-DEALING ELDERS. 
At the last meeting of the United Pres- 
byterian Presbytery of Glasgow, a Mr 
Chalmers, a member of the session of the 
Montrose Street Church in that city, pre- 
sented an overture for transmission to the 
Synod against admitting to the office of 
the Eldership those who dealt in intoxi- 
cating liquors. The matter gave rise to 
considerable discussion, during which some 
rather queer things were said, and the 
motion to transmit was carried by only a 
small majority. Now, while we entirely 
concur with Mr Chalmers in his views, 
we have doubts if synodical deeds are to 
be the means of giving them effect. The 
means upon which we would chiefly rely 
is enlightened christian sentiment. Let 
yet more efifective measures be adopted 
for pervading the church with even a 
more healthful feeling upon the subject, 
and then let the re-invigorated body, by 
its own spontaneous motion, shake oS" and 
keep off all unseemly excrescences. Even 
as it is, we believe there are few churches 
in the land that would call to their spiri- 
tual oversight those who stand more inti- 
mately related to our nation's drunkenness 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



115 



than any other class. Sure at least we 
are of this, that no church could do so 
without sacrificing in some degree its 
moral power. 

Our venerable and worthy friend Dr 
Beattie, in the exuberance of that kind- 
heartedness for which he is distinguished, 
seems, under the excitement of the mo- 
ment, to have permitted all his sympathies 
to flow out towards the class assailed. 
It is a weak but amiable point in human 
nature, that the greatest criminals have 
sometimes more sympathy than their 
victims. Or perhaps to some minds the 
Doctor's feelings will appear more ana- 
logous to the clerical pro-slavery feeling 
of America, which has all its commisera- 
tion for the slaveholder, and all its male- 
dictions for those who would rescue their 
victims from the oppressor's grasp. Of 
this we are sure, such sentiments are not 
suited to the atmosphere of a church 
which numbers many of its best ministers 
and most devoted members among the 
leaders in the temperance ranks. We do 
not, however, intend animadverting upon 
the Doctor's speech. Perhaps less than 
fifty years after this, it will be read as we 
now read the sayings uttered by certain 
worthies some half century ago, some of 
whom continue even unto this day, re- 
specting the wild extravagance of the 
missionary enterprise. We merely put 
the speech upon record as a curious his- 
torical document : — 

Dr Beattie said, in one sense he very 
deeply regretted that the overture had 
been brought forward, but in another 
sense he did not regard it with that 
feeling. He believed for some time that 
the Church was approaching a crisis on 
this question. He had felt that it was 
utterly impossible for individuals holding 
high total abstinence opinions, and those 
holding other views, that they could 
continue to hold fellowship with each 
other. He approved of those who held 
total abstinence opinions ; but bis liberty 
was not to be judged by others. They 
held that certain men were living in great 
sin, and yet they were in fellowship with 



them. It was time that some under- 
standing were come to on this matter. 
He thought the overture should be sent 
to the Synod, which ought to speak out 
honestly and decidedly on the subject, 
which it had not yet done. He would 
not go over the extremely objectionable 
language of Mr Chalmers ; ' whisky-deal- 
ing elder ' was not the language for one 
man to use in speaking about another. It 
was taking for granted that those men 
were anxious to push their whiskj' into 
the hands of their brethren, which was 
untrue — it was bearing an evil report 
against our neighbour. When elders were 
to be elected the Bible must be gone to 
for the rule ; and no such thing was to be 
found in the Bible as a reference to call- 
ings. He found the Apostle had laid 
down the rule that any man was eligible 
to be an elder who was not guilty of 
polygamy, who was the husband of not 
more than one wife. (A laugh.) The 
members of the Church were not the 
legislators, but only the administrators of 
God's law. If they excluded those who 
dealt in spirits, what were they to do 
with those who drank spirits ? (A laugh.) 
If tbey excluded the man who sells, they 
must also exclude the man who drinks. 
He had no objection to the question 
being discussed by the Synod, but he did 
not want to be everlastingly bored by it. 
He thought they should do as the session 
of Montrose Street Church had done — 
transmit the overture, not agreeing with 
the terms of its request. 



A BOMBSHELL. 
On the occasion of presenting the Hon, 
Sir George Grey with a testimonial from 
the working classes of Northumberland, a 
scene was witnessed which may give point 
to a chapter when our cause comes to be 
treated historically. In the monster pavi- 
lion erected for the occasion there were, 
it is calculated, 1500 persons present, in- 
cluding a large portion of the nobility and 
gentry of the district, together with many 
persons of distinction fl-om a distance. 
Among the few men of rank who have 
espoused our cause, Sir W. C. Trevelyan, 
Bart., of Wallington, Northumberland, is 
foremost. On this worthy baronet was 
conferred the honour of presiding on this 



116 



THE ABSTAINER S JOCENAL. 



interesting occasion, and true to his prin- 
ci|iles amid beauty, and fasliion, and rank, 
he protested against the sentiments spoken 
to, being signals for dram-drinking. But 
let the public papers describe the scene: — 

The Chairman rose, and begged leave, 
before proceeding with the regular busi- 
ness, to ask tlieir patience for a few minutes, 
while he songht io explain the reasons why 
he sought to depart from the usual forms 
on occasions lil^e the present. The hon. 
baronet then proceeded to say, that as the 
social evils of too many countries arose 
from ignorance and the prevalence of 
crime and disease, all of which were in- 
duced by the habits of intemperance and 
the drinking customs handed down from 
barbarous ages, such practices were un- 
worthy of a rational being and a chri>tian. 
[Theexiresbion of these sentiments seemed 
to take the meeting by surprise, and to 
produce a visible feeling of disapprobation 
on all sides, accompanied with cries of 
' Hear, hear,' and ' Question.'] He con- 
sidered it to be the duty of all true patriots 
to do all in their power to remedy such 
evils, by discontinuing the practices which 
so unhappily prevailed, and among which 
the drinking ot toasts was most objection- 
able on public occasions. (More disappro- 
bation ) He should, therefore, in giving 
the toasts allotted to him, depart from the 
usual custom, by asking them not to drink 
from their glasses. (Hisses, laughter, and 
cries of ' Sit down,' mingled with applau.se ) 
The chairman, however, still proceeded 
amidst much uproar to state that he had 
been an abstainer for many years, but it 
was impossible, from the noise which pre- 
vailed, to report his further remarks, by 
repeated cries of ' Question,' ' Sit down,' 
and ' We have not come to hear a teetotal 
lecture,' Ac. Ultimately order was restored 
by the hon. baronet proposing the first 
toast on the list, viz , ' The Queen, and 
long may she reign over us.' (Cheers.) 

Farther on in the course of the proceed- 
ings, the Chairman's health having been 
proposed by Earl Grey — 

After acknowledging the toast, he said, 
that it was a proud thing for him that day 
to preside over such an assembly, and he 
was most happy in having his name con- 
nected with reform, and in promoting the 
prosperity of the country. (Cheers.) 
They had heard much of parliamentary 
and other political reforms, bat, in his 



opinion, they erred in being too often 
inclined to begin at the wrung end. (Hear, 
hear.) He believed that if they first 
insisted upon social and moral reform, 
political reform would necessarily follow. 
(Cheers.) If they wished for purity at 
elections, they ought at once to abolish 
the traffic in drink, which led continually 
to impurity of all kinds, both political and 
.-ocial, moral and religious. (Shouts of 
• Oh, oh, oh,' and tiproar.) It was an 
unmitigated evil, because productive of no 
good result, to allow an indiscriminate 
traffic in ardent spirits. (Renewed up- 
roar, hisses, and cries of ' Question, ques- 
tion.') He believed that a measure pro- 
posed to put such practices down, would 
be supported by the respectable portion 
of the community. (Laughter and de- 
risive shouts.) They had then a strong 
government, and a reform government, 
and one which, he trusted, would first 
consider the necessity of rr.oral and social, 
before political reform, and that also pos- 
sessed sufficient intelligence and honesty 
to scorn a species of short-sighted policy, 
by drawing revenue from sources which 
demonilised the people. (Cries of ' Oh, 
oh,' 'What next?' and laughter.) He 
trusted that the government was prepared 
to carry out the recommendation of the 
select committee of the House of Com- 
mons of 1834, who recommended some 
general law for the progressive diminution 
and ultimate suppressii>n of all the existing 
facilities and means of intemperance. 
(Fresh uproar ; cries of ' Question, ques- 
tion.' and 'Are you not done yet?') He 
would like them to hear the verdict of 
that — (Interruption and much confusion, 
with cries of ' Cha'r, chair ') After order 
was partially restored, the hon baronet 
again proceeded, by observing that he was 
sorry they could not respond to that 
verdict, as it had been left for other 
countries to do it, and all he could add 
was, that Ergland was left to follow the 
good example set them. (Oh, oh ) One 
great and powerful nation across the 
Atlantic had enacted laws against traffic- 
ing in the sale of intoxicating drink. 
(Partial cheers and great uproar.) The 
States which had introduced such laws 
had been well rewarded, as crime had 
since diminished among them from 75 to 
15 per cent. Previous to their introduc- 
tion it had been proposed to enlarge the 
gaols and poor-houses, but since then 
they had scarcely a criminal or a pauper 
to put into them ; and h? contended that 
a similar result would follow in England 



THE ABSTAINER 8 JOURNAL. 



]17 



by similar means. TLe worthy chairman 
next referred to the Queen putting her 
sign manual to laws prohibiting the sale 
of intoxicating drinks at New Brunswick, 
but at tills period the noise and impalicnce 
which was manifested was so great that 
it was impossible to hear the concluding 
observations, and he at length retired 
amidst shouts and laughter. 

In that Tast assembly but one voice 
responded to the sentiments of the noble 
chairman. 

Mr Eeaumoxt, M.P., on standing for- 
ward, was received with loud cheers. He 



sympathised most sincerely in that day's 
proceedings, and agreed with every ob- 
servation that had fallen from previous 
speakers, yet in none he coincided more 
than with what had fallen from their 
excellent chairman, for he fully agreed 
that there were other reforms of greater 
importance than political reforms, and 
that was the social and moral condition 
of the people of that country. (Cheers.) 
He was iirt opposed to political reforms, 
he still thouglit that it was of more iin- 
portance, as tending to promote the 
greatest amount of happiness, that each 
man should lirst attempt to reform him- 
self, and then afterwards attempt to re- 
form the nation. (Cheers.) 



STEinperancc 3Lit£taturf. 



The Scottish Review. No. II. April, 

1853 
"We hail the second number of this ad- 
mirable periodical. Well fitted is it to 
sustain the hijth character, which the v.ice 
of the press and public opinitm asi^igned to 
its predecessor. Rsthtrthan characterise 
its various articles, which the lowness of its 
price enables all our readers to dj for them- 
selves, we would indicate the place which 
it appears destined to take in the advance- 
ment of our cause. While ours is a move- 
ment which should reach the lowest classes 
of society, to effect its purpose, it must 
also reach the highest. And perhaps we may 
have too exclusively addressed ourselves to 
the masses, and neglected to employ the 
best means of influencing those minds 
which are after all the creators of public 
sentiment and the controllers of public 
practice. In the Review, however, the 
temperance cause asserts its right to be 
heard by all classes, and effectually explodes 
the notion which some parties have been 
too willing to entertain, that it addressed 
itself only to what they called ' the lower 
orders.' 

But further, in the Review, not only do 
we assert our right to a hearing, but we do 
it in the way most likely to secure one. 
We. here present a medium for the higher 
class of minds among the friends of onr 
cause, uttering their thoughts upon all 
matters of importance connected with it. 
Many who would be unwilling to give the 
world a separate production, and who in 



the smaller periodicals could not find space 
for the full and effective utterance of their 
thoughts will, in connection with iha Re- 
view, find a stimulus for their exert'ons, 
and a means of influencing the world which 
they will gladly employ. 

It should be borne in mind, ton, that 
there are a number of important social pro- 
blems which the Review will help to ven- 
tilate, and the full discussion of which 
will be eminently favourable to temperance. 
The articles will not, of course, be ail on 
one theme — a sort of continued tiJdling on 
one string, which is an exercise, by means 
of which nobody (except Paganini) ever 
gave pleasure to the public, or won praise 
or pudding for themselves. But there are 
a thousand subjects which cannot be in- 
telligently discussed, without aiding that 
Cause which we have at heart. And to as, 
it is the ground of not a little gratification, 
that among those whose names have been 
given to the public as contributors to this 
periodical, we can recognise some, who, 
although well known as friendly to every- 
thing beneficial to men, have never been 
specially identified with our movement. 
This assures the public of the breadth of 
mind, and the liberality of sentiment which 
it will express. And we feel .satisfied, that 
the light which such men will cast upon 
the great moral and social questions they 
are liiiely to ponder, will only tend to ex- 
hibit more clearly the firmness and nubility 
of that foundation on which the temperance 
cause is based. 



118 



THE ABSTAINEE'S JOURNAL. 



^nni&crsarg Prcrcctiings of t\)z S>cattisi} 3r£mpn:ancc ILeajofue. 



ANNIVERSARY SERMONS. 
Sixteen Discourses on the Temperance 
Reformation were given in Glasgow on 
Sabbath, 24th April, the aggregate atten- 
dance at -which was upwards of 12,000. 
The Rev. T. D. Wingate of Kilmun, offi- 
ciated in St Enoch's and St David's Parish 
Churches ; the Rev. Robert Gault, Glas- 
gow, in East Campbell Street Free Church ; 
the Rev. Mr Elmslie of Inscb, in Renfield 
and Union Free Churches; the Rev. P. 
M'Dowall of Alloa, in Renfield Street and 
Wellington Street United Presbyterian 
Churches ; the Rev. Dr Houston of Knock- 
bracken, near Belfast, in West Campbell 
Street and Great Hamilton Street Re- 
formed Presbyterian Churches; the Rev. 
W . Wight, Vicar of Harbury, in St Jude's 
Episcopal Church ; the Rev. John Pillans 
of Perth, in West George Street and Nichol- 
son Street Independent Chapels ; the Rev. 
Robert Hunter, Kilwinning, in Dundas 
Street Evangelical Union and Ebenezer 
Congregational Chapels ; and the Rev. 
James Culross, Stirling, in Hope Street 
and East Regent Street Baptist Chapels. 

ANNUAL PUBLIC MEETING. 

The Annual Public Meeting of the League 
was held in the City Hall on Monday night 
at half-past seven o'clock, under the presi- 
dency of John M'Gavin, Esq., Chairman of 
the Board of Directors. The area and gal- 
leries of the spacious building were filled 
by a highly respectable and enthusiastic 
audience, among whom were a considerable 
number of ladies. On and around the plat- 
form were the Rev. W. Wight, Vicar of 
Harbury ; the Rev. Professor Stowe, the 
Rev. Charles Beecher, Rev. Dr Houston, 
Knock bracken, near Belfast ; Rev. P. 
M'Dowall, Alloa; Rev. Dr Bates, Rev. 
Dr Jas. Paterson, Rev. Dr Lindsay, Rev. 
Mr Arnot, Rev. David Russell, Rev. Thos. 
Henderson, Rev. A. G. Forbes, Rev. Geo. 
Blyth, Rev, Samuel Chisholm, Rev. David 
M'Rae, Rev. F. Ferguson, Rev. John 
Williams, Rev. D. Russell, Dunfermline ; 
Rev. E. Kennedy, Paisley; Rev. William 
Watson, Langholm; Rev. John Guthrie, 
Greenock : Rev. Wm. Reid, Rev. John 
Kirk, Edinburgh; W. P. Paton, Esq.; 
John M'Dowall, Esq. ; Wm. Gourlie, jun., 
Esq. ; Wm. Smeal, Esq. ; George Gallie, 
Esq. ; Wm. Melvin, Esq. ; Archd. Living- 
ston, Esq., etc. etc. 

The Rev. Mr RuSSELL of Nicholson 
Street Chapel having opened the proceed- 
ings with prayer. 

The Chairman read letters from Laurence 
Heyworth, Esq., M.P. ; Rev. Henry Ward 
Beecher, New York, and Lewis Tappan, 
New York ; and stated that notes of apo- 



logy had also been received from Sir Walter 
C. Trevelyan, Bart. ; Joseph Sturge, Esq., 
Birmingham ; Joseph Eaton, Esq., Bristol ; 
and James Haughton, Esq., Dublin. He 
then alluded to the operations of -last year, 
as detailed in the Annual Report, and con- 
cluded by calling on Professor Stowe to 
address the meeting. 

Professor Stowe, who was loudly cheered, 
said — I once heard of a good old orator who 
was accustomed to say when asked to speak 
— ' Well, my friends, I never could begin a 
speech till after I had made a few remarks.' 
(A laugh.) Now, I am afraid I shall this 
evening have to make a few remarks, and 
then sit down without making a speech — 
so I hope you will excuse me. The first 
remark I have to make is, that the temper- 
ance cause in Scotland seems to be just 
exactly where the anti-slavery cause is in 
America. Now, if you in the temperance 
cause here give us a good impulse in the 
anti-slavery cause in America, we will give 
you a good impulse in the temperance cause 
in Scotland. (Cheers.) So that we shall 
help each other ' to do good and to commu- 
nicate,' and thus ' to fulfil the law of Christ.' 
I wish this evening to explain to you, so far 
as I can, the causes, the nature, and the 
operation of the Maine Law, as it is called; 
and, having been engaged in the temperance 
movement for twenty-five years, in all its 
stages, from the lowest depression up to the 
hour of triumph, I am satisfied all true 
temperance movements must culminate 
in a Maine Law. (Cheers.) I first went 
to the State of Maine in 181&, before any- 
thing was said or thought on the subject 
of temperance, and, after living in the 
State for six years, while that question was 
in the lowest state of depression, I re- 
turned in 1850, just as it was beginning to 
enjoy the triumph of the Maine Law, and I 
lived there two years to witness the opera- 
tion and effects of that law. Now, the State 
of Maine is inhabited chiefly by seamen, 
fishermen, and lumpers, that is, men who 
go into those vast forests, spend the winter 
in cutting and drawing the timber on the 
rivers wliile frozen, so that in spring, when 
the rivers break up, the timber will be 
floated down to the sea-ports, whence it is 
transported to all parts of the world. These 
being all employments entailing a great deal 
of hardship and exposure to bad weather, it 
was thought universally that distilled spirits, 
intoxicating drinks, were neaessary for these 
who were exposed to such hardships ; 'and 
being removed to a great extent from the 
restraints of domestic life, it was very na- 
tural that these indulgences should be carried 
to excess. And that was the fact. Through- 
out that State there was the excess of spirit 
selling and spirit drinking which, I am 



THE ABSTAINER S JOUP-NAL. 



119 



Sony to say, I -witnessed in Scotland both 
now and when I visited this kingdom in 
1836. It seemed to me then, as it seems 
to me now, that as Scotland, in its natural 
features and the character of the people, 
bears a strong resemblance to the State of 
Maine, so the drunken habits of Scotland 
very much resemble those which prevailed 
in Maine : and I hope you will ere long 
have in Scotland a law like the Maine Law. 
(Cheers.) The alcohol which was used in 
Maine, was New England rum— a vile 
compound distilled from molasses, and 
generally from bad molasses. But so far as 
I can learn, and so far as I have had ex- 
perience — for I lived in times of drinking, 
and I drank just as other people did, tUl I 
was about 25 years of age, when I became 
a member of a temperance association — I 
suppose the main point is to feel the ex- 
hilaration of intoxication. I believe that 
no alcoholic liquor is agreeable ; like all 
other medicines, it is repugnant to the 
natural taste — the taste for it is wholly 
acquired ; and when we speak of good and 
bad liquor, we mean liquor which will 
make drunk quickly, and liquor which will 
not make drunk so quickly. I am quite 
confident of it from my own experience. 
In a little town in the United States of 
America — one of those muddy villages 
which spring up like mushrooms — a liquor 
shop was set up at one end, and as the place 
got a little larger, another spirit shop was 
got up at the other extremity. Some of 
the customers at the old shop wanted to find 
out if the new store sold as good an article ; 
after a pretty long sitting one evening, the 
decision come to was, that the liquor was 
not quite so good, and they would have 
gone back ; but it was getting late, the 
night was wet, and there was a little 
stream running through the village ; the 
croseing-log -was slippery, one pitched head- 
foremost into the stream — the others man- 
aged to drag him out by the heels, and as he 
cleared the mud from his mouth he said it 
was pretty good liquor after all. (Cheers 
and laughter.) W hen I went to Maine in 
18 19, it was said that the village, composed 
chiefly of lumper men, drank enough to 
float their whole timber to the sea — there 
was so much rum drinking — there were so 
many drunkards— so many paupers — all 
would be ruined. The people thought of 
a society to prevent intoxication. That 
was the first society I ever heard of — 
it was formed by about 25 or 30 indi- 
viduals. The habits of drinking were 
bringing ruin and poverty into every 
town in the State. I was educated ia the 
State of Maine, &nd many of my class, 
in which there were such men as Pierce, 
Longfellow, the poet, Hawthorn, and others 
very much distinguished — some of the very 
finest minds in the College, in every way 
equal to those I have mentioned, and perhaps 



in some respects superior— amiable and in- 
telligent young men, whose names would 
have shone throughout the world, were 
ruined by intoxicating drinks. They acquir- 
ed the habit in College, and before they were 
25 years of age they were miserable drunk- 
ards, beyond all hope of reclamation. Many 
of them died of the most loathsome dis- 
eases ; others disappeared from society, and 
were never heard of. People began to 
think what they should do ; ' this rum,' 
they said, ' will destroy us all — we must 
do something ;' and they began a series of 
efforts — one experiment after another; but 
everything proved more or less ineffectual 
till they came to the Maine Law. They 
did make improvements —they did diminish 
the drinking habits— they did rescue many 
from a drunkard's grave ; but many more 
were drawn into the vortex, and hundreds 
of families were plunged into poverty, re- 
duced to the extremity of misery. At last 
the people said they would not bear it any 
longer. Don't suppose that this Maine 
Law was the act of the Legislature of the 
State of Maine — not so, it was the act of 
the people themselves, and therefore it was 
executed. It was supported by nine-tenths 
of all the women and children, and by 
three- fourths of all the men. (Cheers.) 
Therefore it went high and dry above all 
opposition, and vindicated its own claims to 
support (Cheers.) "What is the Maine 
Law.' It is an Act to suppress drinking 
and tippling houses —to put an end to traffic 
in intoxicating drinks among the people. 
It has nothing to do with a man's own pri- 
vate affairs — it has nothing to do with the 
interior of any man's family — any man, 
wherever he can find liquor, if he chooses 
may purchase it and bring it into his own 
family, and use it there if he likes — the 
law does not touch it or him. It considers 
every man's house his castle, and if he 
has a mind to drink in the bosom of his 
family, and expose himself in that way 
to his own household, it does not take 
hold of him — it leaves him free in that 
respect. But if any man does bring in- 
toxicating liquors into the State for sale — 
if he sells intoxicating drink, to make 
money by it — if he even gives it away, and 
takes something else to evade the law, what 
does the law do ? It takes all his rum 
away, and throws it on the ground. (Cheers.) 
It does not touch his pocket or his pei-son ; 
but it says, You are not a fit person to have 
the possession of intoxicating drink, and we 
shall take it away. (Laughter.) All the 
testimony required is the presence of the 
store itself — wherever it is seen, the criminal 
cannot escape. There is the witness, and 
what do we do with the criminal.' Just 
knock him on the head, and leave him on 
the ground. (A laugh.) If a man makes 
solemn oath that he will not sell, and does 
not intend to sell, any of that spirit, it leaves 



120 



THE ABSTAINER S JOCRNAL. 



him unmolested. If alcohol is introfluced 
for tlie arts and rnanufactures, — and we 
know it to be nece.-sary in many of the arts 
it is not touched. If it is l<ept for medi- 
cal purposes, like opium, calomel, or any 
other article of that kind, - to be user, and pre- 
scribed by a physician, it is not touchfd. In 
every town there are aaents app>iinte(l by 
the town, and |iaid by the town, for the sale 
of alcohol for these purposes — manufactur- 
ing and medcal — but tliey are under oath 
and heavy bonds to sell it for no other pur- 
poses. The certiKcate of a respectable physi- 
cian is sufficient to authorise its sale for medi- 
cal purposes, and the oath of a manufacturer 
is required for its sale toaraanufuctuier. And 
to prevent the effects of monopoly, the agent 
has not the profit-' of the sale— the article is 
sold at cose, and the community or the 
township receives ail the proKt— the agent 
acts for the township and not for any indi- 
vidual. Such is the substance and purpose 
of the law; and it has been most perfectly 
effectual. (Cheers) I never saw a law 
that operated so beautifully and vindicated 
itself so nouly as that law does. (Cheers.) 
But suppose it had been passed against 
the will of the people, it could not have 
been executed at all. It would have 
done more harm than good ; but the people 
were persuaded such a law was necessary 
for their protection, and it was passed, 
although it required the labours of twenty- 
five ye.rs to bring the public mind to 
that position. ^^ hen the law passed, the 
majority of the Legislature were ai,'ainst it. 
I know the Governor of the state was 
against it — the majority of the Senate was 
aga'nst it, and probably a majority of the 
House of Representatives was against it; 
but the repre^eutatives were instructed by 
the people to enact such a law— the law 
was discussed, it was examined by the peo- 
ple, approved b\ the great majority ; tbt-y in- 
structed their representatives to vote for it., 
and there were vei y fewof the representati ves 
that daied to resist the will of the people in 
that re-pect, because they knew the people 
were right. When it came to the Senate 
they dared not resist the whole of the peo- 
ple. But though the majority wa< against 
the bill, the (lovemor was uot particularly 
popular, and they said. We will just pass 
this bill, and, as we know he drinks brandy, 
be is sure !;ot to pass it. Well, the Senate 
passed it, and brou.ht it to the (-rovernor. 
He looked very gluiu — (laughter) — and 
asked. What have you passed this bill for." 
They handed it to him -the responsibility 
was thrown on hira. Well, said he, if you 
have killed the skunk, you must skin him 
yourself— (much laughter) -and thus, the 
bill being the desire'of the people, it was 
signed by the Governor, although, at the 
same time the Senate was opposed to it. 
(Cheers.) Then they all said, Let us judge 
of the law by its effects. In less than six 



months the Governor was in favour of the 
law, when he witnessed its effects. So, 
also, were the majority of the S<-nate ; and 
at next meeting of the Legislature, when 
a tremendous effort was made by one- 
fourth, who were opposed to it, to get 
them and the Legislature against it, the 
major'ty were found stronger in its favour 
than bef->re ; and when, a third time, a 
proposition was made to amend the law, 
it was made even more stringent than it 
wa^ at first. (Cheers.) Well then you 
may say this was an infringement of public 
right ; how do they justify the entire pro- 
hibition of the sale of alcohol ? They 
ju.-tify it in this way -'I hey said, We know 
the use of this article is dangerous, and 
that it did an enormous amount of mischief 
— we know it used to murder the young 
men by hundreds — we know that it intro- 
duced poverty, misery, distress, and a 
thousand evils into domestic life — we know 
that it occasioned two- thirds of all the 
pauperism, three-fourths of all the crime, 
nine-tenths of all the poverty in the state, 
and they did not see that it did any good to 
compensate for all this evil — that it could 
be shown though alcohol did a great deal of 
barm, far from the good preponderating, 
the more they examined into the matter, 
the mere they saw alcoholic drinks were 
not necessary to persons in health, but, cu 
the contrary, generally injurious -that they 
did effect an amount of evil without any 
corresponding good ; and they said further, 
on the part of the pulilic we have a right to 
prohibit this traffic — the same right we have 
for the good of society, to put down counter- 
feiting, smuggling, and other practices, inju- 
rious to th • c immunity at large, that produce 
a great deal of evil without corresponding 
good. They said, if a man com^s into one 
of our towns and sets up a gambling estab- 
lishment, we are perfectly justiKed in taking 
away his implements and destroying t'lem— 
if a man comes and sets up a coining estab- 
lishment, we may take sway his implements 
and destroy them, although they are his pri- 
vate property. If a man smuggles goods, 
the eovernment is fully justified, in certain 
cases, in destroying them — in all these cir- 
cumstances private property is taken and 
destroyed. C)n the old maxim, sa/us poptdi 
suprema lex, they found that the Maine Law 
was the proper form of legislation. They 
illustiated it in this way : The State of 
Maine knew there were two-thirds for it, 
and they said— If a man comes into one of 
our towns and keeps a parcel of bears in his 
yard, and if, when our children are going to 
school, these bears break out and ilestroy 
them, we will tell this man to take bis bears 
away ; and if he says these bears are my 
private property — I am keeping them in my 
private grounds — you have no business with 
them ; but if these bears molest our chil- 
dren, you will find that we will take care of 



THE ABSTAINER S JOnKNAL. 



12] 



them if you -will not. (Cheers.) One liquor 
shop does more harm than twenty bears. I 
would rather my child were torn to pieces by 
bears than be made a miserable, wretched 
drunkard. (Renewed cheers.) But it was 
said that the law is not constitutional. It 
was brought before the Courts, and they 
said, after full examination— Society has a 
right to protect itself against evils of this 
kind ; and as they had tried every way to 
regulate the traffic, as they had tried every 
possible expedient to bring the traffic within 
such bounds as not to do injury to the com- 
munity without eflfect, and fouad the injury 
it did was measured by thousands, and the 
good it did measured not by units but by 
ciphers, no good at all but evil, and if the 
people chose to enact such a law, it must 
be in accordance with the constitution — 
(cheers) — and therefore it stands. (Cheers.) 
Within six months of its being enacted and 
coming into operation, its friends were two 
to one — (cheers)^and many towns that 
had instructed their representatives to vote 
against it, the very next year returned re- 
presentatives in its favour. I will select 
only one instance out of many. The 
little town of Fairfield— a beautiful farming 
town, similar to many between this and 
Edinburgh — with a population of 2400, 
had eighteen dram-shops. When this law 
was enacted, the good people of the town 
went to those dram-shops, and told the 
men to shut up. They generally did shut 
up— all but four, who continued to sell in 
spite of the law. Then the proper officers 
went to these four establishments, took out 
every barrel and every bottle, and quietly 
emptied them all in the river. And what 
was the effect ? The year before this was 
done they bad to pay 1100 dollars in the 
shape of pauper tax ; the year after, the 
pauper tay was only 300 dollars. (Cheers.) 
The inhabitants met — they had cleared 800 
dollars by the operation of the bill, and 
they determined to add 600 dollars to their 
school fund, and keep the 200 dollars to 
empty any other barrels that might come 
in. (Loud cheers.) Property there is 
valued every year, and the tax comes on it 
according to the valuation. They found 
that the value had very nearly doubled 
since the destruction of these eighteen diam 
shops. (Cheers.) This is not a singular 
instance. In some towns pauperism had 
entirely ceased. (Cheers.) In others, 
where there had been many paupers, there 
was not one— even the gaols were empty, 
and their keepers advertised them to let. 
(Cheers.) A friend of mine in Portland, 
one of the wealthiest men in Maine, had 
been very much opposed to the law, having 
just opened a distillery worth 10,000 dol- 
lars, which then became good for nothing. 
No doubt he grumbled a little, but in less 
than six months he came forward in public 
meetings and stated that if he had ten dis- 



tilleries he would go for that law— such 
was the improvement he saw around him ; 
it would compensate for all the loss. 
(Cheers.) Another friend of mine in the 
town of Portland had a large number 
of dwellings ; one was occupied by a man 
who had not paid rent for four or five years. 
He had an interesting wife and family, and 
for their sakes he allowed the man to remain 
another year. At the close of that year, the 
Maine Law had been in operation, the tenant 
paid him not only the year's rent but all 
arrears, and even offered, being a bricklayer, 
to build a brick cistern which would be a 
great improvement to the premises. The 
proprietor was astonished, and asked him 
where he got the money. Oh, said he, I can 
now go to my work in the morning— for- 
merly, I saw a liquor shop at every corner, 
and I was tempted to taste ; then I continued 
drinking all day, and neglected my business, 
my family was ruined, and I was miserable ; 
but now there is no spirit-shop ; I can go to 
work, I have no temptation, I can be a 
sober man; I thank God for that law; I 
hope it will never be repealed while I live. 
The Professor went on to detail other inter- 
esting anecdotes to the same effect, and 
concluded an eloquent speech, which pro- 
duced a most powerful effect on the audi- 
ence, in the midst of loud cheers. 

The Rev. C. Beecher met with an 
enthusiastic reception. His subject was 
the Maine Law. After combating the 
charge of radicalism which had been made 
against the advocates of this law, he went 
briefly to describe it, then to show that the 
people of Great Britain had a right to such 
a law, and, thirdly, that it was expedient. 
In following up the second part of his 
subject, he said it had been attested by the 
best medical testimony, that there was no 
nutrition in alcohol, and in proportion as it 
existed in any beverage, was the nutritious 
power of that beverage decreased. After 
alluding to the enormous consumpt of grain 
in the manufacture of strong drinks, he 
said that if it was right to forbid shooting 
snipe, or fishing at certain periods of the 
year, surely it would he right to forbid the 
waste of harvests which might feed a 
perishing world. (Applause.) He painted 
in dark colours the deteriorating effects of 
alcoholic liquors on the bodily and mental 
system, and denounced the traffic in terms 
of severity, stating that if it were abolished 
about £100,000,000 would be saved to this 
country, a sum sufficient in three years to 
buy up the 3,000,000 slaves of America. 
(Cheers.) He drew to a conclusion by 
asking how could the people of Great 
Britain get what the people of Maine had 
got .' They would get it from Parliament, 
he had no doubt, when they wanted it, and 
to make the people want it, the churches 
and the ministry must take the lead. For 
this purpose they must abandon all use of 



122 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



intoxicating drink themselves— (cheers) — 
otherwise they would break the force of the 
movement upon the working classes, and 
also diminish their influence with the 
churches in the United States towards 
abolishing slavery. Were they willing then 
to make a sacrifice for the sake of emanci- 
pation ? Until they did so they would be 
met with the taunt from America, whether 
logically or not, ' physician heal thyself.' 
(Cheers.) 

The Rev. William Wight next ad- 
dressed the meeting. He said that un- 
questionably there never was a country, 
either in ancient or modern times, more 
distinguished than our own— there never 
was a country under the sun where so much 
had been done for the elevation of the 
neople. Yet, at the same time, it would be 
clifBcult to point to a country presenting a 
mass of pauperism, misery, wickedness, and 
crime corresponding with what we have 
in this highly-favoured country. Its state 
would be a disgrace to any country on the 
face of the earth. Statistics warranted the 
belief that surely Great Britain was a land 
of unparelleled wealth ; yet, only a few days 
ago, they were infomed by the Times news- 
paper that 100,000 persons rose in London in 
the morning who did not know where they 
were to get the night's shelter, or where 
they were to obtain their daily bread. 
(Hear.) Having further referred to the 
wretched condition of the poor in London, 
the speaker said that parliamentary docu- 
ments informed them that there were some- 
thing like 600,000 drunkards in the country, 
and of these 60,000 died every year. He 
called on the meeting to bear in mind the 
fact that thousands of sober people must be 
victimised by the system of intemperance. 
He considered it was right to tell tlie truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing bvit the truth, 
and referred to the walking pestilences in 
human form that paraded our streets at 
night, whose average length of life, after 
entering on their course of guilt, was, ac- 
cording to competent authorities, not more 
than five years. There was a time when Eng- 
land assumed the character of being the most 
religious nation on earth ; but if they were 
to believe those who had given a great deal 
of attention to the subject, they must come 
to the conclusion that one-half of the popu- 
lation were practical infidels. He had tra- 
velled in various countries on the Continent, 
but he had never anywhere witnessed any- 
thing like the immorality of this country. 
Man was a physical being as well as a 
spiritual being — created for two worlds; 
and no greater mistake could be made by 
the religious people of this country than 
attending to the spiritual while they ne- 
glected his physical wants. Till the national 
vice of drunkenness was subdued, all at- 
tempts at the moral elevation of the country 
would be fruitless. He desired to impress 



on the minds of the working people of this 
country, that if they desired to rise above 
their condition, there was nothing in the 
Constitution to prevent them. A large 
number of the most distinguished men in 
the country have risen from a humble 
condition of life, and if working men were 
true to themselves and practised self-denial, 
they might elevate themselves to a condi- 
tion of comparative happiness. Mr Wight 
concluded by inveighing against the dirty 
habit of smoking, and stated that while not 
less than £7,000,000 were wasted on to- 
bacco, barely half a million was given to 
evangelise the heathen. 

The Rev. Wm. Rrid, Lothian Road, 
Edinburgh, said — Who that has devoted 
himself to the great cause of human pro- 
gress will deny the statement that intem- 
perance hinders that progress .' As to po- 
litical progress, how is it to be attained 
while the present state of things continues .' 
Look at the late Parliamentary disclosures 
of electioneering depravity. What although 
we had all the points of the Charter, while 
drink continues so to debase free-bom 
Britons, that they will barter the most 
glorious rights of freemen, for a few days' 
gratification of their beastly appetite ? 
(Applause.) As to social progress, what hope 
have we so long as intemperance sets its 
foot on the very first step at advancement, 
by holding its victims in brutal ignorance, 
prevents the acquisition of property, or 
squanders it where it is acquired, and by 
associating the mind with all that is low, 
hinders the attainment of that refinement 
which is essential to elevation .' Then, as 
to religious progress, you may put a Bible 
in every house, and a missionary in every 
close, and a chapel in every street, and still 
your dram-shops will have the victory. 
The fact is, that the labour of city mis- 
sionaries, and the money contributed in 
supporting them, is little better than so 
much labour lost, and so much money 
wasted, so long as our population are 
soaked in whisky. (Loud cheers.) You 
may just as well preach the gospel to 
madmen as preach the gospel to drunkards. 
Let the christians of this city look at the 
appalling facts brought out by the recent 
survey of the Sabbath traffic. Forty or 
fifty thousand Sabbath-day frequenters' of 
our dram-shops ! That fact should convert 
the whole christian church to teetotalism. 
But measures should be adopted to suppress 
the cause of all this evil. To be efficient 
temperance reformers we must, as an essen- 
tial step, abandon all countenance to the 
causes and practices of intemperance. Those 
who come short of this may be very sincere 
in their desires for reformation, but they 
will never be very successful in their ac- 
complishment. The remedy that will meet 
this evil must be adequate to preserve the 
sober, and nothing but abstinence can do 



THE ABSTAINER S JOtTRNAL. 



123 



that. So long as a drunkard tastes, his re- 
formation is hopeless. And it must be 
adequate to preserve the reclaimed, and 
nothing but abstinence can do that ; for the 
drunkard's appetite dies but with death 
itself, and a thimbleful of whisky may, 
after the lapse of years, suffice to kiudle it 
anew in all its fury. (Hear, hear.) Hav- 
ing adopted, then, this fundamental prin- 
ciple, we are in a position consistently and 
effectively to take practical measures for 
the suppression of the eviL Let all the 
members of the Abstinence Society do all 
they can by the circulation of information 
upon the subject, and by faithful dealings 
with aU within the sphere of their in- 
fluence. Especially let the ministers of 
the gospel never cease to warn their people 
of the evil which is withering the church's 
piety, and blighting all that is lovely in 
domestic life. But all our efforts will be 
comparatively ineffective so long as the 
dram-shops are tolerated. That the number 
of dram-shops has to do with the extent of 
drunkenness is just as plain as facts can 
make it. Establish a dram-shop in a sober 
district, and who that knows anything of 
cause and effect will doubt the speedy in- 
temperance of that district ? It may be 
that those who have acquired a love for 
liquor will stop at nothing by means of 
which this appetite may be gratified; but 
as our hope in this reformation rests chiefly 
with those who have not ac (quired the taste, 
so our wisdom suggests the destruction of 
every facility by means of which it may be 
formed. Then, along with our dram-shops 
I rank the licensed toll-houses. Let the 
noble e.xample of the Middle Road Trust 
in Berwickshire be followed, and the ad- 
vantages to our rural population will be 
immense. In the county of Berwick, in 
consequence of representations made to the 
gentlemen of the Middle Road Trust, all the 
licences were withdrawn from the four 
tolls in the district. Now, what is the 
consequence— a falling off in the rental of 
£418. That speaks of the evil that drink 
was doing among the rural population of 
that district. £418 would have been the 
gain to the Road Trust had these tolls been 
licensed as formerly ; but let it be remem- 
bered that this is the district in which 
Williams murdered his neighbour Mather, 
and that the prosecution and punishment of 
the crime cost the county not less i600. 
I am glad to learn that the other day the 
Dumfries Standard advertises 18 tolls to be 
let in that district with the important note 
appended — ' No spirituous liquors allowed 
to be sold at any of the tolls.' Nor is the 
advantage to be desired a mere problem. I 
may give an instance of a most praiseworthy 
description. Some time ago the carrier on 
a road between Edinburgh and a town in 
the south got into very dissipated habits, and 
the carts were always several hours late in 



arriving at their destination. The cause was 
searched for, and it was found that a certain 
licensed toll-house by the way was the source 
of the mischief. The matter was brought 
before the Road Trust, and a certain noble 
Duke pled for the withdrawal of the licence ; 
but pence triumphed over principle— the 
Trust could not stand the loss of the 
additional rent. Rather than be foiled the 
noble Duke rented the toll himself, 
and over the door the sign, ' Licensed 
to be sold,' gave way to the sign, ' Walter 
Scott, Duke of Buccleuch,' tollman.' (Loud 
laughter.) And from that day the carrier's 
carts got home in good time. Now, the 
question is comiag up of the entire abolition 
of the dram-shops, and of every place estab- 
lished for the mere gratification of the drunk- 
ard's appetite. Of course the publicans will 
put on the aspect of injured innocence, and 
loudly complain of the infringement of their 
rights. The whole system is a system of 
wholesale robbery and death. (Loud cheers.) 
What is the fact ? When a publican re- 
ceives the price of his drink, does the matter 
end there.'' Is it a matter solely between 
him and his customer ? No such thing. I 
would that we had some Duncan M'Laren, 
who, by his figures, would show the real 
price of every glass of whisky to tlje com- 
munity. Instead of pence, it would be found 
to cost pounds ; and who pays the differ- 
ence.' Why, of course, the sober aud indus- 
trious. (Cheers.) And yet we are not to 
speak of crippling these worthies in their 
liberties and privileges of putting their hands 
into our pockets and robbing us of our honest 
gains. They must know that liberty is not 
licensed, and that it is one of the essential 
principles of sound liberty, that we engage 
in no course hurtful to our neighbours. The 
connection between the dram-shop and our 
greater social evils is plain. What said the 
late Sheriff Spiers in his evidence before a 
committee of the House of Commons — ' Of 
50 prisoners taken at random, 49 had got 
the drink in public houses and only one iu a 
private house.' What said Mr Warren, 
the well-known author of ' The Diary of a 
Late Physician,' when addressing the Hull 
Easter Sessions a few days ago, in his 
capacity as Recorder, ' A dram shop had 
always appeared to him, ever since he 
began to take an interest in criminal mat- 
ters, as simply the half-way-house to Nor- 
folk Island or the Hulks.' Any one who 
has doubts upon this point let him peruse 
the important Report by the Assembly of 
the Church of Scotland, published a year or 
two ago, upon the subject of intemperance, 
and he will find that a vast body of returns 
from the various parishes in Scotland, ex- 
hibit three points, that according to the 
number of the dram-shops are the drinking 
habits of the people ; that the introduction 
of these houses has demoralised a sober 
population ; and that their removal has | 



124 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



invariably been followed ■with an improve- 
ment in the social coudition of the com- 
munity. There is nothing, then, left for us 
but to follow the example of those States in 
America which have abolished the traffic 
as a great public nuisance. If Scotland but 
wills it, her Majesty the Queen will put her 
hand to the bill as cheerfully as she did it the 
other day to the bill which abolishes the 
trafSc in New Brunswick. Our Government 
having resolved to abandon transportation 
as a punishmeut, are greatly perplexed what 
to do with their criminals. We rejoice in 
their perplexity. Let them bring in and 
carry through a Maine Law, and their per- 
plexity will cease. (Hear, hear, and ap- 
plause.) Abolish drunkenness, and well do we 
know that there would remain evils enough. 
We might have honest poverty, but pauper- 
ism would cease to be our national disgrace. 
We might have disease, but cholera and the 
other scourges of a vicious people would be 
divested of half their terrors. We might 
have crime, but the jail would cease to be 
the principal building in every town. (Ap- 
plause.) 

After a vote of thanks to the Chairman, 
the meeting separated. 

THE BREAKFAST. 

A Public Breakfast, in connection with the 
proceedings of the League, took place on 
Tuesday morning in the Merchants' Hall, 
Hutcheson Street. The spacious apartment 
was crowded on the occasion by a highly-re- 
spectable company, while numbers could not 
gain admission, and for which accommoda- 
tion had to be provided in one of the ante- 
rooms. Thomas Knox, Esq., occupied the 
chair. The Rev. George Jeffrey asked a 
blessing ; and after the party had partaken 
of breakfast, the Chairman rose, and con- 
gratulated the meeting on the success which 
had attended the temperance movement 
during the past year. Their success had 
been so great as to astonish even the most 
sanguineamongsttbem. Subscriptions, perio- 
dicals, agents, converts, had alike increased. 
In fact, they had had nothing but increase. 

The meeting was afterwards addressed by 
a number of Delegates from branch societies, 
who gave some very encouraging details in 
regard to the progress of the temperance 
cause in their respective localities. Amongst 
the speakers were Rev. R. Gray Mason ; 
Rev. Dr Houston, from Ireland; Mr 
Young, Dunse ; Patrick Watson, Esq., 
Dundee ; Dr M'Culloch, Dumfries ; Mr 
Whittaker, Scarborough ; Mr Wm. Lind- 
say, Aberdeen ; and Mr J. S. Marr, Edin- 
burgh. The proceedings, which were of a 
very interesting character, terminated 
shortly before 1 1 o'clock. 

MEETING OF MEMBERS AND 

DELEGATES. 
The Annual Assembly of the Members of 



the League and of Representatives from 
affiiliated Societies was held on Tuesday 
forenoon, in the Merchants" Hall, at half- 
past eleven o'clock — Robert Smith, Esq., 
president, in the chair. Members and Dele- 
gatts were present from Abercorn, Aber- 
deen, Airdrie. Alloa, Bannockburn, Ban> 
head, Beith, Bo'ness, Bradford, Bridge-of- 
Weir, Burntisland, Carraunnock, Crieff, 
Dalkeith, Darvel, Doune, Dumbarton, 
Dumfries, Duublane, Dundee, Dunse, East 
Kilbride, Edinburgh, Falkirk, Fintry, 
Galashiels, Grangemouth, Greenock, Hamil- 
ton, Irvine, Jedburgh, Kilmarnock, Kil- 
winning, Kirkcaldy, Kirkconnel, Kirkliston, 
Lanark, Langholm, Lochwinnoch, Logie- 
Almond, Mauchline, Minnyhive, Muirkirk, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Paisley, Perth, Old 
Kilpatrick. Rothesay ,St Boswells, Sanquhar, 
Stirling, Tillicoultry, and Vale of Leven. 
The Rev. W. Wight represented the Na- 
tional Temperance Society, and the Rev. R. 
G. Mason the British Association for the 
Promotion of Temperance. 

The Rev. Mr Blyth having opened the 
proceedings with prayer, the Chairman apolo- 
gised for the absence of Mr Heyworth, M.P. 
for Derby, representative of the London 
Temperance Leagne, and called upon the 
Secretary to read the Report, of which the fol- 
lowing is a copy : — 

NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 

Of live Scottish Temperance League, pre- 
sented by the Directors to the AtinucU 
Meeting of Members and Delegates, held 
in the Merchants^ Hall, Glasgow, on 
Tuesday, 26(h April, 1853. 

The Board of Directors have acted upon 
the recommendation made at last Annual 
Meeting, to consider what is the most suit- 
able season of the year for celebrating the 
League's Anniversary. The present time 
has been selected as the best. In conse- 
quence of this change, the Report now to be 
presented will extend over a period of only 
nine and a half months. 

The Publication department of the 
League's operations has occupied a more 
than ordinary share of the time and atten- 
of your Directors. Immediately after last 
Annual Meeting they entered upon a careful 
consideration of the means which should be 
adopted to increase the efficiency of the 
League's periodical literature. After much 
anxious deliberation, they resolved to dis- 
continue the Scottish Temperance Review, 
and to start in its stead two new periodicals— 
The Scottish Review, a Quarterly Journal 
of Social Progress and General Literature ; 
and The Abstainer's Journal, to be published 
monthly. At the same time it was decided 
that The Adviser should, from 1st January, 
1853, be wholly devoted to the interests of 
the young. The Directors entertained a 
confident hope that these alterations would 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



125 



prove beneficial to the temperance move- 
ment, but they did not expect that the new 
publications would so soon attain the high 
position which they already occupy. The 
Scottish Review has been successful beyond 
precedent. It has reached a circulation of 
5000 copies. A large proportion of its 
readers never before subscribed for a perio- 
dical advocating the principles of temper- 
ance. Nearly one hundred newspapers and 
magazines have voluntarily noticed it in 
terms of the highest commendation. The 
Directors expect, however, that the e."c- 
perience gained and the liberal support 
awarded, will enable them, with the assist- 
ance of an enlarged staflf of able contribu- 
tors, to make the publication still more 
useful and attractive. Neither labour nor 
expense will be spared to render the Review 
■worthy of an elevated position amongst the 
first-class periodicals of the day. The other 
new publication — Tlie Abstainer's Journal 
—has been not less successful in the peculiar 
sphere which it was designed to occupy. It 
has a monthly circulation of 4000 copies. 
The change in form and character of 
T]ie Adviser has also been attended with 
the most beneficial results. About 5500 
copies are sold monthly. In a number of 
Sabbath schools it is regularly distributed in 
the same way as missionary and other reli- 
gious magazines. This excellent method of 
enlisting the sympathies of youth cannot be 
be too warmly commended to the attention 
of abstaining Sabbath school teachers 
throughout the country. The Register and 
Almanac V/&S published as usual at the com- 
mencement of the year, and was warmly 
appreciated by the members of the League. 
Of the new publications issued, the more 
important are ' Augusta Howard ' and 
' The Coral Ring,' by Mrs Harriet Beecher 
Stowe, of which 10,000 copies have been 
sold ; and a ' Testimony and Appeal in Favour 
of Total Abstinence,' by Edward Baines, 
Esq., editor of the Leeds Mercury, which has 
already been circulated to the extent of 4 ',000 
copies. A new series of tracts for the young 
will shortly be published, as will also a 
volume of temperance memorials of the late 
Robert Kettle, Esq., at present being com- 
piled by the Rev. William Reid. During 
thejperiod embraced in this Report,6,01 1,500 
pages of temperance literature have been 
issued from the office, being a larger 
quantity than in any similar space of time 
since the League was instituted. 

Although the publishing operations have 
been unusually extensive and varied, the 
Advocacy department has not been neglected. 
The number of lecturers has not at any time 
during the year been less than five, and was 
sometimes as high as nine. The agents have 
delivered nearly 1100 lectures, and have in- 
creased the membership of the League, as 
well as the subscribers to the various publi- 
cations. A few sermons have been preached 



in Glasgow, in addition to those given on 
Sabbath last, in connection with the present 
Anniversary. It has also been arranged that 
a large number of anniversary sermons be 
delivered in Edinburgh on the second Sab- 
bath of May, to be followed by a public 
meeting on the succeeding evening. 

The plan of sending deputies to the larger 
towns to explain the character and detail the 
operations of the League, has been carried 
out rather more extensively than in previous 
years. Deputations from the Board visited 
Edinburgh, Perth, Dundee, Aberdeen, Pais- 
ley, Greenock, Dunfermline, and Kirkcaldy. 
The meetings were attended with the most 
gratifying results. The support accorded to 
the League will be in proportion to the ex- 
tent to which its principles and plans are 
thoroughly understood. 

With the view of attaining the object 
contemplated by a resolution of last Annual 
Meeting, your Directors have petitioned the 
House of Commons for a committee of in- 
quiry into the intemperance of the United 
Kingdom, So much time has been absorbed 
by attending to other matters of pressing 
importance, that the recommendation in 
regard to the adoption of measures to induce 
ministers to decline signing publicans' certi- 
ficates, has not received the attention to 
which it is entitled. 

Your Directors feel gratified in bei ng able to 
state that the recommendation of last Annual 
Meeting, to open refreshment rooms at hiring 
markets and fairs, has been successfully 
adopted at Dunse, Cupar, Penicuick, Kelso, 
and Falkirk. The results have been of the 
most cheering description. At one or two 
of the more populous places, not fewer than 
2500 persons visited the refreshment rooms 
in a single day. Such counteractives to the 
drinking customs of society should be largely 
increased, in towns as well as in country 
districts. Their influence in undermining 
the drinking system will probably be more 
powerful than many schemes of much higher 
pretensions. 

The League has at present 3490 members, 
being 430 more than at last Anniversary. 
Tlie number of affiliated societies is 261, 
being an increase of 15. The membership 
is more limited than would otherwise have 
been the case, in consequence of several 
hundreds of last year's members having 
emigrated to Australia. Several of the more 
active of these have been supplied with 
parcels of the League's publications, which 
it is hoped will lead to the opening of a 
correspondence between the abstainers of 
Australia and those of this country, which 
may prove beneficial to both. 

Notwithstanding the extra expense in- 
curred in starting the new periodicals, the 
financial position of the League is rather 
better than at last annual balance, the defi- 
ciency having been reduced from £30 to 
£10. The income and expenditure have 



126 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



been £125 greater in the past nine and a 
half months than in any entire year since 
the formation of the Association. 

A special meeting of the League, convened 
at the request of fifty-one members, was held 
in the Assembly Hall, Falkirk, on Thursday, 
17th February. The following resolution 
was unanimously agreed to : — ' That the 
following be adopted as the fourth rule of 
the League, and that Rules IV., V., and VI., 
be in future numbered V., VI., and VII. : — 
" That the business of the League shall be 
conducted by a board of directors, consisting 
of twelve members, one-third of whom shall 
retire annually in rotation ; those retiring to 
be eligible for re-election. The board shall 
elect from their number a chairman and a 
treasurer — shall also appoint a secretary, 
and shall have power to fill up such vacan- 
cies as may occur till the next annual meet- 
ing thereafter. The chairman, treasurer, and 
secretary shall sign all cheques on the bank 
account of the association." ' It was resolved 
that the names of the present directors be 
arranged in alphabetical order ; the first four | 
on the list to retire at the present meeting, 
the second four next year, and the remaining 
four in 1855. The directors vyho retire at 
the present meeting (eligible for re-election) 
are Messrs Thomas Brown, George Gallie, 
John Jackson, and Archibald Livingston. 

Your Directors are happy to state that a 
large proportion of the local abstinence so- 
cieties of Scotland are in a flourishing con- 
dition. In Edinburgh, a vigorous agitation 
is kept up by means of meetings, sermons, 
visitation by missionaries, and otherwise. 
The Glasgow Society has nine missionaries, 
with numerous meetings and other impor- 
tant agencies. The friends in Berwickshire 
have formed a County Temperance Agency, 
which promises to be exceedingly useful. 
The denominational societies have received a 
few additional members ; the number of 
ministerial abstainers throughout Scotland 
being now nearly 500. Associations have 



I been formed in connection with the Uni- 
I versities of Edinburgh, Glasgow, and St 
! Andrews, which comprise an aggregate 
membership of 230 students. Seventy-one 
I divinity students of the Free Church, and 
103 of the United Presbyterian Church, 
have also joined the movement. The 
students of the Glasgow Free Church 
Normal Seminary have formed themselves 
into an abstinence society, and it is expected 
that other associations of a similar kind will 
shortly be instituted. It is difficult to esti- 
mate the number of adherents in other pro- 
fessions, but it would be unfair to measure 
the progress gained by the actual number 
who have formally identified themselves 
with the movement ; a large number belong- 
ing to the more influential classes being 
practical abstainers who are not members 
of any society. Nor are organised eflForts to 
eradicate the evils of intemperance confined 
to those who personally abstain from strong 
drink. Many who continue to support the 
ordinary drinking usages of society are 
energetically and earnestly prosecuting 
schemes for the suppression of drunkenness. 
Some are opening temperance refreshment 
rooms and reading rooms for the working 
classes ; others are anxious that the duty on 
spirits should be raised, and that cheap 
foreign wines should be imported free of 
duty ; and a very numerous and influential 
body are devising and agitating measures to 
regulate the traffic in intoxicating liquors. 
The Scottish Temperance League, while 
sympathising with every honest effort to 
suppress intemperance, will continue with 
unflinching firmness and untiring perse- 
verance to press upon the public mind the 
great and simple principle of abstinence, 
which, resting upon incontrovertible facts, 
and confirmed by experience, they believe 
to be the most eff'ective remedy for all the 
evils of the drinking system. 

Mr Service, Treasurer, then submitted 
the following — 



Abstract of Treasurer's Account, from 1st July, 1852, till 16tli April, 1853. 

Becetpts. 

Treasurer's Balance, . . £0 19 1^ 

Membership Subscriptions: — 

Individuals, . . . 479 17 9| 

Societies 136 19 

General Subscriptions and Dona- 
tions, 317 14 6 

Received at Public Meetings, Lec- 
tures, and Sermons, . . 44 7 

Scottish Temperance Review, . 816 

Scottish Review, . . . 344 12 

Abstainer't Journal, ... 93 2 

Adviser, 75 6 

Cyclopcedia 31 1.5 

Register 4 14 

Tracts and Miscellaneous Publica- 
tions 238 18 11 



Payments. 
Salaries and Expenses of Agents, £416 3 
Salaries of Secretary & Assistants, 158 18 
Scottish Temperance Review, . 28"ii 1 
Scottish Review, . . . 183 5 

Abstainer's Journal, ... 49 

Adviser, 112 17 

Cyclopcedia, . . . . 10 17 

Register, 95 17 

Tracts, &c 259 5 

Expenses of Annual Meetings, 

Public Meetings, Sermons, &c., 72 9 
Travelling Expenses of Deputations, 23 6 
Miscellaneous Expenses, including 

Office Rent, Taxes, Stationery. 

Lithographing, &c., . . 89 6 

General Printing, ... 54 4 

Postage 38 9 

Balance in Treasurer's hands, 3 1 1 



^1849 14 2J 



£1849 14 2^ 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



127 



Assets. 
Stock of Publications, 
Open Accounts, 
Treasurer's Balance, 
Deficiency, 



Liabilities. 
Prepaid Subscriptions, 



^306 

177 9 7| Printer's Accounts, 

3 11 6i Salaries due, 

10 16 10 Sundry small Accounts, 



£497 18 



£09 8 

335 5 

54 15 

38 10 



£497 18 

Glasgow, 22d April, 1853. — We have examined the Treasurer's Books and vouchers re- 
lative to Accounts, from 1st July, 1852, till 16th April, 1853, and declare them correct. 

JAMES MORTON. 
ALEXANDER M'CRAE. 
JAMES WINNING. 



The Rev. Wm. Watson, Langholm, 
moved that the Report and Treasurer's Ac- 
count he approved of, which -was seconded 
by Mr John S. Marr, Edinburgh, and unani- 
mously agreed to. 

Mr ROBT. LoCKHART, Kirkcaldy, moved 
— ' That this meeting cordially rejoices in 
the extraordinary success which has attended 
the efforts made during the past year to im- 
prove the character of the League's periodi- 
cals, and pledges itself to co-operate with 
the Directors in endeavouring to give them 
a still more extended circulation.' 

Mr M'Crae, Paisley, seconded the mo- 
tion, which was passed unanimously. 

Rev. Mr Blyth proposed the following 
resolution — ' That while this meeting is 
thankful for the support which the League 
has hitherto received from the public, it is 
strongly impressed with the necessity of its 
funds being greatly augmented to enable 
the Directors to carry on their present 
operations, and to undertake other measures 
which may be found necessary to the more 
effectual suppression of intemperance.' The 
motion having been seconded by Mr Wm. 
Service, Sen., Culcreuch, was unanimously 
approved of. 

Mr George Young, Dunse, submitted 
the following resolution, which was seconded 
by Mr Knox, Edinburgh, and adopted :— 
' That the Directors of the League be re- 
commended to make every effort to establish 
an agent in every county in Scotland, whose 
duty it shall be to lecture, visit, and dis- 
tribute tracts; and that the Directors be 
authorised to offer such a sum of money to 
a committee in each county (as they may 
see fit) as a stimulus for them to raise the 
requisite amount for an agent's salary, and 
other contingent expenses ; it being under- 
stood that counties shall be divided or 
joined when found expedient.' 

At the request of several friends from 
Edinburgh, who required to leave Glasgow 
at an early hour to attend the Banquet in 
honour of Mrs Stowe, the proposal to hold 
the next Annual Meeting of the League in 
Edinburgh was considered at this stage of 
the proceedings, and was unanimously 
agreed to. 

Mr James Morton, Glasgow, moved a 
resolution to the effect, that measures be 
adopted to induce the Legislature to enforce 



an existing law which holds it criminal to 
dispense intoxicating liquors to young per- 
sons under 14 or 16 years of age. Two 
amendments were proposed, which, as well 
as the original motion, were withdrawn. 
Mr James Cunningham, Glasgow, gave 
notice that at the next Annual Meeting he 
would propose a resolution in favour of 
legislative interference for the suppression 
of the strong drink traffic. 

Mr Wm. Smeaton, Dunse, submitted a 
proposal to raise a special fund for the pur- 
chase of refreshment tents, to be used at 
hiring markets and fairs. It was agreed 
that the friends of temperance throughout 
the country be recommended to co-operate 
in purchasing and superintending such tents 
in their respective districts. 

Moved by Dr M'Culloch, Dumfries, se- 
conded by the Rev. Mr Green, Paisley, and 
agreed to: — 'That a loyal and respectful 
address, accompanied by petitions from all 
the total abstinence societies in Scotland, 
be presented to her most gracious Majesty, 
and her Royal Consort, Prince Albert, hum- 
bly and earnestly praying them to examine 
the principles of total abstinence, and the 
facts and arguments upon which they are 
founded ; and that the same, along with one 
or more of the best works on the temperance 
question, be presented by a deputation from 
the League upon the occasion of h.3r Majes- 
ty's next visit to Scotland.' 

The Office-bearers for the year ] 853-54 
were then elected (see Cover), after which the 
following resolutions were submitted and 
cordially agreed to :— 

' That this meeting tenders its raost 
cordial thanks to the Rev. Professor 
Stowe and the Rev. Charles Beecher, for 
their efficient advocacy of temperance on 
the occasion of their present visit to this 
country, and fervently trusts that they, as 
well as the amiable and distinguished au- 
thoress of "Uncle Tom's Cabin," may belong 
spared to give their powerful influence in 
behalf of temperance and other benevolent 
movements.' 

' That the warmest thanks of the League 
be presented to the Clergymen who preached 
in Glasgow on Sabbath last, as well as to 
those who have kindly agreed to deliver 
discourses in Edinburgh on the second Sab- 
bath of May.' 



128 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



' That this meeting gratefully acknow- 
ledges the kindness and courtesy of the 
National Temperance Society and the Bri- 
tish Association for the Promotion of Tem- 
perance in sending the Rev. Wra. Wight and 
the Rev. R. Gr. Mason to represent these valu- 
able Institutions at the present Anniversary.' 



Thanks having been voted to the Pre- 
sident, Secretary, and Board of Directors, 
the proceedings -were brought to a close 
shortly after four o'clock. 

All the meetings were larger and more 
enthusiastic than tho.-e of any preceding 
year. 



temperance Wclns. 



world's temperance CONVENTrON. 

It has been proposed that a World's Tem- 
perance Convention be held at New York 
during the Great Fair that is to come off in 
that city in the course of the present sum- 
mer. 

LICENSING SYSTEM. 

On the motion of MtW. Brown, M.P., a 
Select Committee has been appointed to ex- 
amine the laws under which public-houses, 
beer-shops, dancing saloons, coffee-houses, 
hotels, theatres, temperance hotels, and places 
of public entertainment, by whatever name 
they may be called, are sanctioned, and are 
now regulated, with a view of reporting to 
the House whether any alteration or amend- 
ment of the law cr,n be made for the better 
preservation of public morals, the protection 
of the revenue, and for the proper accommo- 
dation of the public, with power to send for 
persons, papers, and records, so far as they 
may deem it necessary. 

TEMPERANCE REFRESHMENTS AT HIRING 
MARKETS. 

At the Penicuick Hiring Fair, on the 
18th of March, a large tent was fitted up 
under the superintendence of Messrs Cowan 
and Co., paper makers, for the supply of tea, 
coflFee, and other wholesome refreshments. 
The number of visitors was large, and the 
arrangements gave great satisfaction. On 
Thursday, 7th April, the Assembly Hall at 
Falkirk was opened as a refreshment room 
by the committee of the Total Abstinence 
Society, under the patronage of the Earl of 
Zetland, and other influential parties in the 
neighbourhood. Between 500 and 600 per- 
sons visited the rooms, and were highly 



TEMPERANCE PRIZE ESSAYS. 

Some months ago, the Melrose branch of 
the Scottish Association for the Suppression 
of Drunkenness offered three prizes of -£5, 
£3, and £2 each, for the three best essays on 
' Intemperance : its Causes and Cure,' to be 
competed for by working men only, who had 
been resident in the parish of Melrose any 
time during 1852. The adjudicators — the 
Rev. Mr Russell of Yarrow, Rev. Mr Ed- 
monstone of Ashkirk, and Alex. Pringle, 
Esq., Why thank — awarded the prizes to 
three ' factory operatives,' all of Galashiels, 
part of Galashiels being in the parish of 



Melrose. There were fourteen competitors. 
Major Baillie has intimated that he will 
bear the expense of having the first essay 
printed and published. 

EDINBURGH. 

A public meeting was held in Bristo 
Street U. P. Church on Monday evening, 
llth April, to petition in favour of Mr For- 
bes Mackenzie's Bill. The attendance was 
very large, and the proceedings exceedingly 
enthusiastic. A banquet in honour of Mrs 
Harriet Beecher Stowe was held in the 
Music Hall, on Tuesday, 26th April. The 
large hall was crowded ; addresses were 
given by Professor Stowe, Rev. Charles 
Beecher, and others. Lengthened Reports 
of both meetings appeared in the local news- 
papers. Want of space prevents us from 
giving a more extended notice. 

GLASGOW. 

The missionaries of the United Abstinence 
Association, with the superintendent, nine in 
number, were introduced to the public at a 
numerously-attended soiree, held in the 
Merchants' Hall on Wednesday evening, 
30th March. 

The University Abstainer's Society has 
broken up for the session, after having sup- 
plied each of the eighty-six members with a 
parcel of tracts for distribution. 

Social meetings were held on 25th and 
30th March, in honour of Mr John Nimmo, 
who sailed for Australia on Thursday, 7th 
April. 

KIRKCALDY. 

The annual soiree attended by about 
800 persons, was held in Abbotshall 
Free Church on Tuesday, 22d March. R. 
Lockhart, Esq., presided, and addresses 
were given by the Revs. James Robbie, and 
Alexander Hannay, and by Messrs R. Reid, 
Rae, and Beattie. Sermons were preached 
in the Parish Church, on 20th March, by 
the Rev. R. G. Harper, Dunfermline ; and 
in Union Chapel, on 17th April, by the 
Rev. Alex. M'Auslane, Dunfermline. 

Glasgow : Printed and Published at the Office 
of the Scottish Temperance League, No. XO 
St Enoch Square, Pariah of St Enoch's, by 
RoBEAT Rae, residing at No. 10 Salisbury 
Street, Parish of Govan. 

Monday, 2d Map, 1853. 



THE 



ABSTAINER'S JOURNAL. 



NOVEMBEE, 185 3. 



IHiscclIaneous ®ontrt&utions» 



JOHN B. GOUGH. 

CONCLUDING PART. 



Hope, however, began at length to dawn 
upon his path. As he walked the streets 
one Sunday night, a kind hand touched 
him, and a voice which awoke feelings to 
which he had been long a stranger, in- 
vited him to the temperance meeting. 

' A chord had been touched,' says he, 
'which vibrated to the tone of love. 
Hope once more dawned, and I began to 
think, strange as it appeared, that such 
things as my friend promised me might 
come to pass. On the instant I resolved 
to try, at least, and said to the stranger — 

' Well I will sign it. 

' I then proceeded to a low groggery in 
Lincoln Square hotel, and in the space of 
half an hour drank four glasses of brandy; 
this, in addition to what I had taken be- 
fore, made me very drunk, and I stagger- 
ed home as well as I could. Arrived 
there, I threw myself on the bed, and lay 
in a state of drunken insensibility until 
morning. 

' The first thing which occurred to my 
mind on awakening, was the promise I 
had made on the evening before, to sign 
the pledge. 

' All that day, the coming event of the 
evening was continually before my mind's 
eye, and it seemed to me as if the appetite 
which had so long controlled me, exerted 
more power over me than ever. It grew 
stronger than I had at any time known it, 



now that I was about to rid myself of it. 
Until noon I struggled against its cravings, 
and then, unable to en«lure my misery 
any longer, I made some excuse for leav- 
ing the shop, and went nearly a mile from 
it in order to procure one more glass 
wherewith to appease the demon who so 
tortured me. 

' The day wore wearily away, and when 
evening came, I determined, in spite of 
many a hesitation, to perform the promise 
I had made to the stranger the night be- 
fore. The meeting was to be held at the 
lower Town Hall, Worcester, and thither, 
clad in an old brown surtout, closely 
buttoned up to my chin, that my ragged 
habiliments beneath might not be visible, 
I repaired. I took a place among the 
rest, and when an opportunity of speaking 
presented itself, I requested permission to 
be heard, which was readily granted. 

' As I left the hall, agitated and ener- 
vated, I remember chuckling to myself 
with great gratification, " I have done it 
— I have done it." There was a degree 
of pleasure in having put my foot on the 
head of the tyrant who had so long led 
me captive at his will ; but, though I had 
"scotched" the snake, I had not killed 
hira. 

'When I got up in the morning, my 
brain seemed as though it would burst 
with the intensity of its agony ; my throat 



250 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



appeared as if It were on fire, and in my 
stomacli I experienced a dreadful burning 
sensation, as if the fires of the pit had 
been kindled there. My liands trembled 
so, that to raise water to my feverish lips 
was almost impossible. I craved, literally 
gasped, for my accustomed stimulus, and 
felt that I should die if I did not have it ; 
but I persevered in mj' resolve, and with- 
stood the temptations which assailed me 
on every hand. 

' One afternoon, not long after I joined 
the society, a gentleman invited me to 
speak on temperance in the school-house 
on Bnrncoat-plain. That evening I shall 
never forget. I was not, fi'om scarcity of 
funds, enabled to procure fitting habili- 
ments in which to appear before a respec- 
table audience, and so I was compelled to 
wear an old over-coat, which the state of 
my under-clothing obliged me to button 
closely up to my chin. The place assigned 
to me was very near a large and well- 
heated stove. As I spoke, I grew warm, 
and after using a little exertion, the heat 
became so insufferable, that I was drenched 
in perspiration. Jly situation was ludi- 
crous in the extreme. I could not, in 
consequence of the crowd, retreat from the 
tremendous fire, and unbuttoning my coat 
was out of the question altogether. What 
with the warmth imparted by my subject, 
and that which proceeded from the stove, 
I was fairly between two fires. 'WTien I 
had done my speech, I was all but done 
myself, for my body contained a greater 
quantity of caloric than it had ever pos- 
sessed before or since. I question whether 
Monsieur Chabert, the fire king was ever 
subjected to a more " fiery trial." 

'Not long after this, it began to be 
whispered about that I had some talents 
for public speaking, and my career as an 
intemperate man having been notorious, a 
little curiosity as to my addresses was ex- 
cited. I was invited to visit Milbury, and 
deliver an address there. I went in com- 
pany with Doctor Hunting of Worcester. 



Mr Van Wagner, better known perhaps 
as the Poughkeepsie blacksmith, was also 
to speak. I spoke for the first time from 
a pnlpit at this place; and my address, 
which was listened to very attentively, 
occupied about a quarter of an hour or 
twenty minutes. At this time, nothing 
was flirther from my intentions than be- 
coming a public speaker. In my wildest 
flights I never dreamed of this. I can 
sincerely say that I was urged to give 
these early addresses solely by a hope that 
good through my instrumentaUty might 
be done. 

' My time was now almost entirely em- 
ployed in lecturing on the temperance 
cause ; and, as good appeared to be effected 
by my labours, I was encouraged to pro- 
ceed. 

' I must now refer to a circumstance 
which occurred about five months after I 
signed the pledge, and which caused in- 
finite pain to myself, and uneasiness to the 
friends of the cause. I allude to a fact 
notorious at the time — my violation of the 
pledge. This narrative purports to be a 
veritable record of my history, and God 
forbid that I should conceal or misstate any 
material circumstance connected with it. 

' I was at this time delivering addresses 
in the town of Charlton, Worcester county. 
Labouring so indefatigably, and indeed un- 
ceasingly, almost immediately, and for 
some time after suddenly breaking oflF the 
use of a stimulus to which I had been ac- 
customed for years, I became very weak 
in health. 

' On arriving in Boston, I strolled for 
some time about the streets, uncertain 
how to employ or amuse myself. Evening 
drew on, and it occurred to me that I 
might dissipate my mehmcholy, and quiet 
myself down, by going to the theatre; I 
resolved to pursue this course, and ac- 
cordingly entered the play-house. I had 
not been there long before I fell in with 
some old companions, with whom I had 
been intimate many years before. We 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



251 



talked together of old times : and, at last, 
observing my manner, and noticing that I 
talked strangely and incoherently, they 
inquired what ailed me. I told them that 
I felt as if I wanted to move on, that move 
on I must, but cared not whither — in feet, 
that I was very ill. After being pressed 
to accompany them and take some oysters, 
I consented, and we all repaired to an 
oyster-room. It was during the time of 
taking this refreshment that a glass of 
wine or brandy was offered to me. With- 
out thought, I drank it off. And then 
suddenly the terrible thought flashed 
across my mind that I had violated my 
pledge. The horror I felt at the moment, 
it would be impossible for me to describe. 
Enin, inevitable ruin, stared me in the face. 
By one rash and inconsiderate act, I had 
undone the work of months, betrayed the 
confidence reposed in me by friends, and 
blasted every hope for the future. To say 
that I felt miserable, would only give a 
faint idea of my state. For five months I 
had battled with the enemy, and defied 
him when he appeared armed with all his 
terrors ; but now, when I fondly fancied 
him a conquered foe, and had sung in the 
broad face of day my pteans of victory, to 
hundreds and thousands of listeners, he 
had craftily wrought my downfall. I was 
like some bark — 

Which stood the storm when winds were rougli. 
But in a sunny hour fell off ; 
Like ships that have gone down at sea 
When heaven was all tranquillity. 

' On my arrival home I re-signed the 
pledge, and commenced packing up my 
books and clothes, with the full determi- 
nation of leaving Worcester the following 
JVIonday. 

' My friends, who did not desert me even 
in these dark hours of my existence, again 
rallied round me, and persuaded me to re- 
main, in order to attend the temperance 
meeting on the Monday I had fixed as the 
day of my departure. My candid statement 
had, in a measure, revived their confidence 



in me. In accordance with their desires, 
I did remain, and went, at the time men- 
tioned, to the upper Town Hall, where a 
very large audience was assembled, who 
appeared to feel a great interest in the 
proceedings. I was almost broken-hearted, 
and felt as if I were insane ; but I humbly 
trust that I sincerely repented of the f ilsc 
step I had taken, and, cheered by the con- 
siderate kindness of my friends, I deter- 
mined, God helping me, to be more than 
ever an uncompromising foe to alcohol, 

'I have laboured since 1843 in behalf 
of the temperance cause, having, I trust, 
sought and obtained assistance from on 
High, and rested all my hopes for success 
on the right foundation. 

' And now, in reviewing all the ways in 
which the Lord hath led me, I feel, and 
would express, how much I owe to Him 
by whose grace " I am what I am." ' 

At the invitation of the London Tem- 
perance League, he has been induced to 
visit this country, with the view of giving 
it a year of his powerful advocacy. We 
cannot better close these extracts from his 
Autobiography, than by giving his own 
account of his last evening in America. 

In his concluding lecture at Edin- 
burgh he said, ' The last night I spent in 
America, Mrs Stowe's father and mother — 
the venerable Dr Beecher and his wife — 
came across two miles to the house of 
Deacon Moses Grant, to spend the night 
with us. The old doctor has always been 
my friend, and like a father to me. I sat 
down, and said I, " Doctor, I have paid 
my passage to go to England, and I feel as 
if I could pay just that price over again if I 
were detained — if something would occur 
to keep me back." Why was I afraid to 
go, he asked. " The English people and the 
Scotch people want argument. I cannot 
argue this point, for I want logic. I am 
no logician, I have no education. I can 
only go to them, and tell them just what 
I believe to be the truth, in my own way, 
and I feel that I shall not succeed ; but I 



252 



THE ABSTAINKK 8 JOUKNAL. 



tell you what I have done, I have got 
money in my possession — I had to go and 
borrow it — and as soon as I set my feet 
on England's shores, and make my first 
speech, if it's not well received, I shall 
come back again." "John, my son," 
he said, "don't fear; I have prayed for 
you, if the Lord go not up with you, to 
send you not over, and I mean to pray 
for you while you are gone. Go, and 
in God's name talk to the people ; and if 
it is God's will that you do anything for 
his cause, leave it with him ; go, and the 
benison of an old man go with you." 
(Applause.) I took him by the hand and 
told him, " I will go." I say to you, this 
may be my last address in Scotland, for 
it is yet to be decided whether I leave in 
October or remain till Midsummer. If I 
remain till Midsummer, and I have hopes 
of it, I will visit Auld Reekie again — (ap- 
plause) — but this may be my last address 
in Scotland, and I will say to you, my 
heart has been cheered. It was in Scotland 
I heard the first prayer at a temperance 
meeting since I came from America ; and I 
believe, the reason why they hold such 
power in the church in the States of Ame- 
rica is, that they have prayei — is, that they 
have prayed all the way up, and watered 
the path with tears and with faith, till they 
stand where they do on the temperance 
question. It cheered my heart, therefore, 
to find that there was prayer in temperance 
meetings in Scotland.' 



A WARNING TO WATER DRINKERS. 

Vkrt likely a reduction in the wine duties 
will be the attractive feature of next ses- 
sion's budget. It is evident that the 
revenue cannot lose by the change, and a 
large class in the community would accept 
it as a great boon ; those, however, who 
have studied the moral bearings of this 
question, and who are conversant with 
the nature and workings of intoxicating 
liquors, cannot but view with^considerable 



apprehension the progress of a movement, 
the avowed object of which is to effect an 
enormous increase in the consumpt of 
alcoholic drinks. 

The Government, of course, look at the 
subject from a purely financial point of 
view; with them it is a question, not of 
morals, but of money : they will reduce 
the duty, if the people will increase their 
drinking, so as to protect the revenue from 
loss. In fact, the movement for a one 
shilling duty is based upon the assump- 
tion that the revenue would profit by the 
change; that the increased demand for 
wine would not diminish the consumpt 
of either beer or spirits, but that there 
would be, as there has always been, where 
the duties on articles of general use were 
diminished, an increased consumpt of the 
article liberated, without affecting the 
demand for other articles of the same 
class. Now, the revenue derived from 
the wine tax in 1851 was £1,777,259; 
so that to maintain it with a one shilling 
duty, would require the consumpt to 
be increased firom 6,280,587 gallons to 
35,545,180. While we have no reason to 
attribute to the originators and promoters 
of this movement worse motives than a 
desire to increase their trade and their 
gains, we unhesitatingly regard the un- 
dertaking as thoroughly antagonistic to 
the temperance cause ; if their views are 
carried out, not merely will our labours 
prove abortive, but much of the good 
already accomplished will be undone. In 
the calculations of those who support this 
measure, water drinkers and the young 
occupy a prominent place among the future 
wine drinkers of our country ; if they are 
to become such, it requires but little pene- 
tration to anticipate the consequences ; if 
those who were once addicted to habits of 
intemperance, and who have, after a ter- 
rible struggle, succeeded in renouncing 
entirely the use of alcohol, are tempted 
once more to partake of it, whether under 
the guise of light wines or otherwise, a 



THE ABSTAINEE S JOURNAL. 



253 



return to vice and degradation will be the 
result. The consequences of a firebrand 
thrown into a powder magazine, are not 
more certain than are those of a reclaimed 
inebriate tampering with the alcoholic cup. 
Old habits are not uprooted when their 
indulgence has been abandoned, they are 
only dormant, and hable to be roused into 
action by the smallest excitement ; those 
■who have struggled manfully and success- 
fully with the tormentor appetite, know 
this to be the case. These are not hap- 
hazard statements, every one actively en- 
gaged in the temperance enterprise has 
met with many sad illustrations of this 
truth. The experiment was tried on a 
large scale under the old temperance so- 
ciety. Thousands anxious to escape fi-om 
the slavery of drink, abandoned ardent 
spirits and took to wine. And what was 
the result ? Appetite, after a short period 
of cruel torture, regained the mastery, and 
back went every man of them to their old 
habits; nothing short of the starvation 
principle was found adequate ; and those 
who had the courage to adopt and carry 
it out, have not been disappointed with 
the experiment. 

The Select Committee on the import 
duties on wines, have elicited very clear 
evidence on these points, and with which 
the friends of temperance ought to be ac- 
quainted, viz., That a reduction in the 
wine duties would cause an increase in 
the consumpt of wine ; that the con- 
sumpt of spirits and beer would not be 
diminished thereby ; and that a large body 
of consumers would be created. The 
witnesses called in and examined were the 
wine growers, and brokers, and merchants, 
and retailers; for the purposes of the com- 
mittee they were undoubtedly the best 
parties that could have been selected. In 
addition to their being the originators of the 
movement, the fact of their being engaged 
in the branch of trade to be dealt with, must 
have led them to a careful examination of 
the subject. 



Mr J. J. Forrester, an extensive grower 
of wine in the north of Portugal, says, 
' If the duty were reduced to one shilling, 
wine would then become an article, not of 
luxury, but an article of necessity, and 
almost everybody then, I think, would 
drink wine, and almost every one then 
could afford to drink it; so that I feel 
convinced the consumption in port wine, 
especially, would increase sevenfold. I 
consider that with a one shilling duty 
there would be an enormous increase of 
revenue.' 

Mr Short, a dealer in wine, spirits, and 
beer, at No. 333 Strand, London, who 
sells by the pint, half-pint, and gill, says, 
' I consider it would increase my circula- 
tion, and it would increase the revenue to 
more than it is now.' He stated that he 
disposes of about 160 pipes of wine yearly, 
principally port and sherry. Now, as a 
pipe of wine contains 3680 gills, it would 
appear that his single establishment sells 
about 1900 gills daily, in addition to beer 
and spirits. He says, ' If you were to see 
my bar, and see the people come in and 
drink wine; bricklayers, labourers, coal- 
heavers, journeymen carpenters, and men 
of all grades come in and take their four- 
pence glass of wine, and go out and say, 
Mr Short, what a beautiful glass of wine 
that is ! and they go out sober — you never 
see anybody drunk in my house ; we have 
a thousand people a- day in it, and not a 
drunken man amongst them.' From this 
evidence, it appears that the English taste 
is in favour of port and sherry, but espe- 
cially the former. Port contains 23 per 
cent, of alcohol ; two glasses of it being 
nearly as strong as one of spirits; so that 
an increase in the consumpt of this wine 
would necessarily be attended with a cor- 
responding increase of intemperance and 
its attendant evils. Mr Short's boast, 
that nobody gets drunk in his house, is 
something of a kind with the temperance 
of the French ; the fact is, he does not give 
them time to get drunk. They take their 



254 



THK ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



glass of liquor at the bar, and walk out, 
probably going elsewhere to satisfy that 
craving appetite which he has been instru- 
mental in awakening. It would be more 
to the purpose if he could assure us that 
none of his customers ever get drunk ; but 
that he cannot do. If he does not fill 
them drunk, he puts them on the straight 
road to drunkenness, and that is quite as 
bad. Respectable publicans must not lay 
this flattering unction to their souls. 

W. E. Tuke, Esq., Sworn, wine broker, 
who knows the trade since 1809, says, 
' Hamburgh consumes thirty bottles of 
wine per head, and that, observe, in a 
city where the consumpt of beer and 
brandy is decidedly greater than it is in 
the city of London. If you were to reduce 
the duty to one shilling, I think you would, 
in a few years, say three years, raise a 
much larger amount of revenue than you 
do at present.' In Hamburgh the duty is 
about sixpence a gallon. 

Mr J. Lawrie, wine merchant for 21 
years, says, I think in the third year the 
revenue would be five or six hundred 
thousand pounds more than it is at pre- 
sent, and go on in a ratio for ten years, 
then be double at least what it is now.' 

Mr W. B. James, wine merchant for 24 
years, handed in an elaborate paper, show- 
ing how the revenue would probably be 
made up. He estimates that 500,000 
heads of families, representing 2,500,000 
individuals, pay income tax, and presently 
consume 6,600,000 gallons of wine ; he 
calculates that they will increase their 
consumpt threefold, making 19,800,000; 
he supposes that 2,000,000 new drinkers 
will be created, consuming 9,900,000 
gallons; that 2,000,000 invalids will 
consume 1,000,000 gallons; and that 
1,000,000 artizans will indulge occasionally 
in a treat of wine to the extent of 500,000 
gallons ; making a total of 7,500,000 con- 
sumers, consuming 31,200,000 gallons. 

Mr Henry, Lancaster, importer of wines, 
and wholesale dealer for 35 years, says, 



' Men's capacity for consumption far ex- 
ceeds their capacity for buying ; to bring 
the two into juxtaposition would bring 
about a very large consumption.' 

Mr T. G. Shaw, wine merchant for 30 
years, and the author of several produc- 
tions on the subject, says, 'My decided 
opinion is, that the present and a greater 
revenue would be realised very shortly. 
Wine is a thing that can be had exceed- 
ingly cheap, and were it not for the high 
duty, would be within the reach of all per- 
sons of very moderate means, and instead of 
being regarded as a luxury, and sipped 
out of small glasses after dinner, would 
be used as a beverage, and drunk in tum- 
blers as beer now is. The actual con- 
sumers would drink a great deal more, 
and there would be a great increase in the 
number of consumers. Really, when you 
look at this country and its miserable 
quantity, you cannot help thinking there 
would be an enormous increase of wine. 
I believe that within ten years it might be 
made to produce at least six millions of 
revenue.' By this calculation the con- 
sumpt would be increased in ten years to 
120,000,000 gallons! and this exactly 
corresponds with the evidence of another 
very high authority, the late G. R. Porter, 
Esq., of the Board of Trade, who stated 
before the Committee, that he believed the 
increased consumpt would be equal to 
one-sixth of that of France. It is indeed 
a recognised principle in political as well as 
in mercantile transactions, that as the 
price of any article in general use is 
reduced, the demand increases. The 
cheapest railway fares yield the largest 
dividends. The reduction in the prices of 
tea and coifee gave a great impetus to 
their use. In the year 1845 Sir Robert 
Peel reduced the duty on brandy from 
22s lOd to 15s per gallon — the result was 
an immediate increase of sixty per cent, on 
the consumption, and £10,000 in the 
revenue. Now, of the fourpence charged 
by Mr Short for a glass of wine, 22-d goes 



THE ABSTAINER S JOUENAL. 



to the Government, so that, with the al- 
tered duties, he would be able to sell the 
glass for twopence. If such a reduction 
as this did not lead to a greatly increased 



consumpt, then wine would stand a soli- 
tarj- exception to the general rule. 
(To he continued.) 



Narrati&e Sketc^i, 



THE PENSIONER: 

a stoet from eeal life of the evils of intempeeanc b. 

Concluding Chajptbe. 



' The devil is chained,' said a grey-haired 
man whom we visited on his death-bed ; 
' God holds the chain in his hand ; and 
one hair's-breadth beyond what he is per- 
mitted, he cannot go.' After the long 
drunken fever of Sicily, Richmond, it will 
be recollected, was consigned to the quie- 
tude of a French prison ; the re-exhibition 
of his besetting sin was suffered to lead 
him away into the horrors of the valley of 
the shadow of death, from which he escaped 
as if by miracle. It would be a shallow, 
pitiable conceit to imagine that God's 
hand was not in all this ; and yet how the 
liar and the murderer from the beginning 
must hare leered and smiled, when Rich- 
mond disposed of his coffin for the small 
consideration of a gill of rum ! 

The war being terminated, the regiment 
was ordered home. Rejoicing in the hope 
of soon beholding the loved shores of Bri- 
tain, they encountered a vessel in their 
voyage to Portsmouth, having a board 
placed above the quarter-deck, with these 
words inscribed on it, ' Bonaparte in Paris 
with 130,000 men, ready for the field.' 
The ship's course was altered, and they 
bore away for Ostend, where they landed, 
and marched immediately to Ghent. In 
a fortnight more they were on the road to 
the field of Waterloo, which they reached 
about two o'clock in the afternoon of 18th 
June, the last day of the memorable battle. 
They pressed forward into the conflict, 
and soon a cannon shot deprived Richmond 
of his arm. From the field of carnage 
he was conveyed to Brussels, and placed 
in the Ehzabeth convent, where there were 
no less than 9,000 wounded men. Amid 
the suggestiveness of such a scene, and 
the reflections which his own narrow 
escape might well inspire, he remained 
for twelve weeks under medical care, and 
then returned to England. Having passed 



the board, he got a pension of one shilling 
per day. Besides this, he obtained £6 a 
year, out of monies that had been collected 
for the benefit of the sufferers, and of the 
relatives of those who had fallen at 
Waterloo. Thus, after the lapse of fifleea 
years, he returned to his native Paisley, 
with the vice of drunkenness deeply rooted 
in him ; yet girt about with such recollec- 
tions and considerations as might have 
availed to summon him to the most solemn 
watchfulness and determinations against 
it. 'It might have been expected,' said 
he, ' that a calm and serious review of the 
miseries and dangers through which I had 
passed, would now have had the effect of 
making me abandon my evil practices, 
and commence a hfe of temperance. My 
subsequent years exhibit degradation and 
misery as great, because brought upon me 
by my own misdoings. Nothing seemed 
sufficient to change me from a drunken 
to a sober man ; no considerations of reli- 
gion, of self-respect, of danger in this life, 
or retribution in the next, possessed power 
over me to make me resist the fell destroyer 
when presented to me. I continued to 
live on and on in ray drunkenness, like 
the moth we see dancing around the flame 
of the candle, sporting with my destroyer.' 
This indicates that these considerations 
were present to his mind, and were assert- 
ing their authority over him ; but in vaiu. 
The demon of drunkenness had possession 
of him. 

He was only thirty-four years old when 
he returned to Paisley. He married ; but 
no ties restrained him from drunken indul- 
gences. We can only give a glimpse of 
many subsequent years. In one of his 
drunken rambles he walked over the quay 
at the Cart, and was nearly drowned. On 
another occasion he was taken up for 
being drunk and disorderly; and after 



256 



THE abstainer's JODRNAL. 



being all night in the ' lock-np,' was brought 
before the police court next morning. He 
was fined in five shillings ; and having 
no money, and no wish to be re-committed, 
he offered to leave his wooden arm as a 
pledge that he would return and pay the 
money. The offer was accepted. The 
wooden ai-m was hung up amid the laugh- 
ter of the court. Next morning, a para- 
graph having appeared in a newspaper on 
the ludicrous incident, headed, 'Ahero from 
Waterloo,' smote him, hardened as he was, 
with a deep sense of his degradation ; yet 
the lust of drink drove him remorselessly 
on. Often he sold his wife's cap for a 
penny. Rising one morning in the ' horrors 
for drink,' and having nothing of his own 
wherewith to procure it, he went out de- 
termined to steal for the gratification of 
his appetite. He went to a house where 
liquor was sold, and watching his oppor- 
tunity, went boldly in, took a choppin 
measure, and turning a cran, filled it with 
his favourite beverage. He hurried away 
with his booty to a wood not far off, and 
there hid it ; paying it frequent visits in 
the course of the day, till at evening not a 
drop of it was left. Three times his wife 
and family separated from him. Three 
times was he in the poor's-house, because, 
being so well known, he could not get 
lodgings anywhere else. He sunk into 
shame and infamy, into wretchedness and 
comparative nakedness. At last fever 
seized upon him, and brought him once 
more to the brink of the grave. Once 
more he was mercifully restored. His 
wife returned to him with womanly com- 
passion, and removed him from the poor's- 
house to her own well-furnished home. 

It was at this period he joined the absti- 
nence society. His chequered life forthwith 
assumed a new aspect. As time rolled on 
he became more and more satisfied of the 
momentousness to him of entire abstinence 
from intoxicating liquors. The blight 
that had hitherto descended on all ' with 
whom his fortune was associated,' was 
neutralised. He seemed to himself to be 
walking in sunshine. His naturally active, 
buoyant, forward disposition showed itself 
iu a new direction. He not only attended 
public meetings, but at last became a 
speaker. On one occasion, after giving 
some account of his experience of the 
evils of intemperance, he concluded with 



this declaration : ' It is now two years 
since I signed the pledge, and can there- 
fore speak of the contrast, t; Peace and 
comfort abound in my dwelling. I 
believe I have possessed more real peace of 
mind during the two years I have abstained 
Crom strong drink, than I did all my life 
before. I seem to myself, though the in- 
firmities of age may now be coming crowd- 
ing upon me, a being of only two years' 
real existence. I am just now learning 
the real pleasures of living. Temperance 
has done more for me than improved my 
home ; it has also had an influence on my 
heart. It has led me to the house of God, 
and besides making me a member of the 
church, has been instrumental in bringing 
me into the possession of a peace of mind 
which the world can neither give nor take 
away.' But, alas 1 Richmond's peace was 
not what he imagined it to be. For about 
four years he held on in this reformation — 
elated with the change in his condition, 
declaring that he had got out of the do- 
minions of king Alcohol, and could not be 
re-taken without his own consent; which 
consent he was so far from giving, that he 
was resolved to wage an eternal war against 
him in whose service he had experienced 
'so few pleasures, and so many horrors.' 
Having suffered a sore bereavemeut in the 
loss of his eldest son, who was drowned in 
a voyage to Antwerp, all his new princi- 
ples and resolutions gave way, and once 
more he sought consolation in that liquor 
which he had joined others in denouncing 
as 'liquid fire and distilled damnation.' 
An abstinence friend, not knowing the 
lamentable change that had come over 
bim, was much astonished, on entering his 
dwelling one day, to find him partially 
undressed, his face bearing marks of recent 
violence, struggling with his wife to get 
away for drink, and threatened to jump 
over the window unless she allowed him. 
He had just returned from Glasgow, where 
he had been drinking and subjected to 
personal violence. Poor Richmond fell 
back into the gulf of intemperance ; but, 
through a wholesome restraint exercised 
upon him, he did not sink into the same 
depth of public degradation. He passed 
away at last, after a short illness, into that 
awful eternity, on the brink of which he 
had so often hung in uncertainty. 



THE ABSTAINER 3 JOURNAL. 



©ring's ©oings. 



257 



A MONTH'S FRUITS OF INTOXICATING DRINK — SIXTH MONTH. 
{From \2th August to 12ih September, 1853.) 



BY TJNCLE TOM. 



No. 128. — August 12. A labourer, 
while drunk, fell into the hold of a vessel 
at the Broomielaw, fracturing the cap of 
his knee, and receiving other injuries. 

129. — August 14. A man, helplessly 
intoxicated, fell in front of an omnibus in 
Newgate Street, London. One of the 
wheels went over him, and he died in 
five minutes. 

130. — August 15. A drunken carter at 
Stanningley, whilst attempting to kick his 
horse, fell before the cart, when one of the 
wheels went over his head, and killed him 
on the spot. 

131. — August 16. A man the worse of 
liquor attempted to drown himself, by 
leaping from a steamboat into the Clyde, 
but was rescued. 

132. — Same day. Two labourers be- 
longing to Tain, on their way home from 
Sutherlandshire, got very drunk before 
crossing the Meikle Ferry. One of them 
was afterwards found asleep on a stone, 
with the tide up to his neck. The other 
is supposed to have been drowned. 

133. — Same day. A carter residing 
near Neilston was found dead on the pub- 
lic road. He had been drinking hard the 
previous day, and on his way home had 
lain down and died. 

134. — August 17. A young seaman, 
belonging to a vessel in the Clyde, was 
nearly drowned in consequence of faUing 
into the river when very drunk. 

135. — Same day. The body of a porter 
in Banff was found by the salmon fishers 
near the shore. He was last seen the 
previous night on the new pier, in a state 
of intoxication. 

136. — August 19. A shoemaker in 
Glasgow, whUe drunk, fell backwards on 
his head from a stair, and immediately 
expired. 

137. — August 21. The body of a pub- 
lican in Dundee was found in the Victoria 
Dock. He was seen drunk the previous 
night at a late hour. 

138. — August 23. An old woman, while 
intoxicated, threw herself into the Clyde 
at Glasgow, and was drowned. 

139. — August 25. A drunken black- 
smith fell into the canal at Port-Dundas, 
and perished. 



140. — August 26. A shoemaker in Kil- 
marnock, intoxicated, entered an eating- 
house, and ordered some tripe ; on taking 
the first mouthful, he was seized with 
I apoplexy, and died instantly. 
I 141. — August 27. A drunk woman in 
1 Greenock fell into the fire, and was ter- 
I ribly burnt about the head and neck. 
I 142. — August 28. A hawker in Glas- 
■ gow died suddenly from excessive drinking 
the previous night. 

143. — Same day. A stoker in a state 
j of intoxication fell among the machinery 
I of a steamer on the passage from London 
I to Grantown, and was instantly killed. 
I 144. — Same day. An omnibus con- 
j ductor in London, of intemperate habits, 
I committed suicide by opening a vein in 
I his arm. 

I 145. — Same day. The body of a dissi- 
pated shoemaker in Stranraer was found 
{ on the shore. Supposed to have drowned 
J himself. 

I 1 46. — Same day. A man died at Brad- 
ford in consequence of having, a few days 
previously, while brewing beer, fallen into 
the boiling hquor, and been terribly 
scalded. 

147. — August 29. A painter in Edin- 
burgh, while intoxicated, burst a blood 
vessel in the street, fell down, and expired. 
148. — Same day. A woman in Glas- 
! gow, who had become much addicted to 
I drinking, committed suicide by cutting 
j her throat. 

149. — August 30. The body of a drun- 
ken sailor was found in Craig Harbour. 
Supposed to have fallen in during the 
night. 

150. — August 31. A man in Perth, in 
a fit of delirium tremens, cut his throat. 
He is not expected to live. 

151. — September I. A man in the New 
Vennel, Glasg-ow, in a drunken quarrel, 
nearly murdered his wife, striking her with 
i a heavy piece of wood, and then twisting 
- a rope round her neck. 
i 152. — September 3. The body of a 
' mechanic belonging to Glasgow was found 
j on a heap of coals in Dumbarton. He 
I had been drinking hard, and lain down 
■ and died. 

1 53. — September 4. The body of a man 



l3 



258 



THE ABSTAINER 8 JOUHNAL. 



named John Carpenter was found in Sir 
George Duckett's Canal. He had been 
drinking, and is supposed to have drowned j 
himself. 1 

154. — Same dav. Two men quarrelled [ 
in a public-house in Gateshead, and fought. 
Next day one of them struck the other 1 
with a stick, which caused his death three 
hours afterwards. 

155. — September 6. A young woman 
in Greenock, after a fit of hard drinking, 
swallowed a quantity of laudanum, and 
was with difBculty saved from death. 

156. — Same day. The body of a flax- 



dresser in Montrose was found at the foot 
of a stair. He had fallen down while 
drunk, and being unable to rise, was 
sufiFocated. 

157. — September 7. A weaver in Glas- 
gow was found dead in a house of bad 
tame, from the effects of excessive drink- 
ing. 

158. — September 9. A widow in Nairn 
was burned to death in her own house. 
She had been drunk for several days, and 
her clothes had taken fire, causing her 
death next morning. 



STRONG DRINK AND RELIGIOUS OBSERVANCE. 

Deut. siv. 26. 

' And thou shalt bestow that money for whatsoever thy soul lusteth after, for oxen, or for 
sheep, or for wine, or for strong drink, or for whatsoever thy soul desireth : and thou shalt 
eat there before the Lord thy God, and thou shalt rejoice, thou, and thine household.' 



Strong drink and religious observance, 
say some of our readers, what an idea! 
The idea, nevertheless, is in our text, and 
before we have done, we trust we shall be 
able to show reason for prefixing this title 
to our present discourse. The inspired 
■words on which we here remark have an 
important bearing on the abstinence ques- 
tion. The opponents of our principle are 
in the habit of pointing to this text, and 
that other in the bock of Proverbs about 
giving strong drink to the ready to perish, 
as sanctioning the use of intoxicating 
liquors. In a previous number of this 
Journal we have examined the passage in 
Proverbs, and shown that, so far irom 
countenancing the common use of strong 
drink, it is an earnest counsel to absti- 
nence from it. We now proceed to con- 
pider this passage in Deuteronomy, the 
only other text in the bible that seems to 
give a direct sanction to the use of strong 
drink. What was the strong drink here 
mentioned? AVhat was the occasion of 
using it ? And what bearing has the 
divine psrmission of such drink on such 
occasion on the abstinence question ? 

First. Whut was the strong drink here 
mentioned ? The Hebrew word is Sheckar, 
which the translators of our English bible 
usually render ' strong drink.' This is 
not a h.ippy rendering of the original 
term. The epithet 'strong,' for which 
there is nothing equivalent in the Hebrew 



word, conveys the idea that the drink is 
highly intoxicating. But Shechar of it- 
self conveys no such idea. We examine 
the passages where it is \ised, and we find 
it in numerous instances spoken of along 
with Yain ; and as we know this latter 
word is a general term to denote the juice 
of the grape, we conclude that Shechar is 
a general name for liquor made from dates, 
grain, or boiled fruits — the produce of the 
vine excepted. We have no word in our 
language equivalent to the Hebrew term 
Shechar, and it had been better if, like 
some others of this class, it had been left 
untranslated in our version of the scrip- 
tures. In this case it would not have sug- 
gested to the mind a strong intoxicating 
drink. ' This is true,' says the distin- 
guished American scholar, Moses Stuart, 
' of neither Yain nor Shechar. Both words 
are generic. The first means vinous 
liquor of any kind and every kind. The 
second means a correi=ponding liquor from 
dates and other fruits, or from several 
kinds of grains. Both liquors have in 
them the saccharine principle, and tliere- 
fbre they may become alcoholic, but both 
may be kept and used in an un/ermenfed 
state. That my position is correct is 
shown decisively by Numb, vi, 3. There 
the Nazarite is forbidden first to drink 
either Yain or Shechar. This is generic 
in respect of both. Bat, then, in order to 
enforce the precept more thoroughly, the 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



259 



legislator goes ou to particularise. He 
forbids the Nazarite to drink fermented 
wine or fermented Shechar. We should 
not be surprised, then, in case we find both 
spoken of in such a way that in one 
passage it is regarded as a blessing or an 
allowable comfort; while in another it is 
spoken of as a means of intoxication and a 
curse.' For the use of Shechar as a mere 
comfort there is but this one passage in 
the Bible, and here nothing decides it to 
be fermented, but the evidence is all on 
the other side. In Numb, xxviii. 7, where 
Shechar is rendered by our translators 
'strong wine,' it is appointed to be poured 
out unto the Lord for a drink-offering, 
and as we know that all fermented things 
were excluded from offerings to God — 
(Lev. ii.) — the conclusion is forced on us 
that fermented drink can on no account be 
meant in this text before us. This leads 
us to our second inquiry — 

What was the occasion of using the 
strong drink as here specified? We read 
the divine precept thus, ' Thou shalt truly 
tithe all the increase of thy seed, that the 
field bringeth forth year by year. And 
thou shalt eat before the Lord thy God, in 
the place which he shall choose to set his 
name there, the tithe of thy corn, of thy 
wine, (Tirosh, the solid produce of the vine- 
yard) and of thine oil, (Titzhar, or olive 
fruit) and the firstlings of thy herds and of 
thy flocks. . . . And if the way be 
too long for thee, so that thou art not able 
to carry it. . . . Then thou shalt turn 
it into money. . . . And thou shalt 
bestow that money for whatsoever thy soul 
lusteth after, for osen, or for sheep, or for 
wine, (Yain, the juice of the Tirosh before 
mentioned) or for strong drink, (Shechar, 
the liquor made from Yitzhar, specified 
above or like fruit, included in the tithes 
of which the text speaks) and thou shalt 
eat there before the Lord thy God, and 
thou shalt rejoice, thou, and thine house- 
hold.' From this it appears that the 
whole passage is a directory for a reli- 
gious ordinance. The things to be eaten 
and drank were the tithes of all the 
Israelite's increase that his field brought 
forth ; these, if he could not carry to the 
appointed place, he was required to sell, 
and, again, with the money thus obtained, 
to purchase produce of the same kinds, to 
devote to a holy use. Then, the tithes thus 
presented were to be eaten ' before the 
Lord,^ in the place, that is, of his presence, 
in an act of divine worship, along with the 
priest and Levite appointed to share in all 
the tithes, in this way brought to the holy 



shrine. This entire direction, then, is dis- 
tinctive and specific. It is the tithe of 
an Israelite's increase from the field that is 
to be partaken of, and it is to be partaken 
of, in the tabernacle of God in a religious 
ordinance. We may be well assured from 
this that the Shechar to be there freely 
enjoyed was not intoxicating drink. For 
who would not recoil at the thought of a 
holy God appointing free potations of in- 
toxicating liquors to be indulged, in his 
temple, and as an expression of devotion 
to him ? Who could think for a moment 
of a divine appointment to drink freely of 
our brandy or whisky, or brandied wines, 
in a religious observance ? Does not the 
simple fact that this Shechar was ap- 
pointed of God to be freely used in a 
religious ordinance, demonstrate at once 
and for ever, that in this case, at least, it 
was not intoxicating drink ? AVho shall 
dare to say that the God of holiness and 
love desired to be served by his worship- 
pers partaking of a drink which muse 
form a temptation to them to sin ? Perish 
the thought for ever, as dishonouring to 
our holy Lord God ! This, then, we 
must hold to be a very remarkable cir- 
cumstance in favour of the scripturalness 
of the abstinence principle, that the only 
text in the bible where ' strong drink ' is 
spoken of as an allowed comfort, it is as 
used in a religious ordinance, where, from 
the very nature of the case, its intoxica- 
ting quality is inadmissible. 

What hearing now Jias the divine per- 
mission of this drink on this occasion on 
the abstinence question ? It has much 
every way. We hereby sweep all sanction 
of the use of intoxicating drink right out 
of scripture. We see in the bible hundreds 
of warnings against it, hundreds of threat- 
enings against it, but we see now there is 
not in the whole bible one word in favour 
of the common use of it. We observe that 
the circumstances in which the Shechar 
was taken, utterly forbid the supposition 
of its being here intoxicating. But this 
is not the whole force of our argument. 
We must remark further, that whatever 
this drink was, it was used in a rehgious 
ordinance ; and no warrant can be derived 
from its use here, for the use of intoxicating 
Hquor in the customs of daily life. Our 
argument has a double edge. Firsr of all, 
we maintain, since the drink here allowed 
was used iu a religious ordinance it could 
not be intoxicating; and then, secondly, 
whatever the drink was, the divine per- 
mission to use it, in the solemnities of his 
service, aflbrds no sanction to use it, as a ) 



260 



THE abstainer's JOUBNAL. 



common beverage in daily life. We go, 
then, with our total abstinence pledge to 
our bible, and we think it much that we 
find a complete harmony between them. 
We deem it a great thing that the drinks 
from which we abstain receive not one word 
of commendation, but are condemned, de- 
nounced, pointed to, in terms of warning 
and menace in the book of God : ' Wine is a 
mocker, strong drink is raging. — Look not 
on the wine when it is red, when it giveth 
its colour in the cup ; at the last it biteth 
like a serpent, and stiugeth like an adder. 
— Woe unto them that are mighty to 
drink wine, and men of strength to mingle 
strong drink.' These, and such as these, 
are the words of condemnation of intoxi- 
cating drink found in our bible, and not a 
single word, iiot one in its commendation. 
In our pledge, too, we condemn it ; in our 
practice we abstain wholly from it, and we 
give it not to others. Are we not in this 
nearer to the spirit of the bible than those 
who both take intoxicating drink and give 
it ? Nor is this all. God, in the bible, 
does not only condemn intoxicating drink, 
and say nothing throughout his whole 
word in its praise, but he teaches those 
whom he would have to be specially de- 
voted to him, to abstain from it. The 
priests of the house of Aaron he would 
have to be pure in his service ; and this 
is his command to the great Levite, the 
head of their order : * Do not drink wine 



nor strong drink ; tbon, nor thy sons with 
thee, when ye go in to the tabernacle of 
the congregation, lest ye die. It shall be 
a statute for ever throughout your gene- 
i-ations.' This is his injunction to the 
wife of Manoah when chosen to be the 
mother of a Nazarite : * Beware, I pray 
thee, and drink not wine nor strong drink, 
for the child shall be a Nazarite to God 
from the womb.' This is his declaration 
to the tribes of Israel after he had led 
tbem through the wilderness in mercy and 
faithfulness : ' I have led you forty years 
in the wilderness ; ye have not eaten 
bread, neither have ye drunk wine or 
strong drink, that ye might know that I 
am the Lord your God.' Shall we say, 
then, that Israel during the forty years' 
sojourn in the desert were a nation of 
abstainers, and that God led them thus, 
that they might the more know and ac- 
knowledge him to be their God ? 

We cleave, then, to our abstinence prin- 
ciple, because we find it in our bible ; and 
we confess we love our bible all the more 
that it says not a word in approval of the 
use of intoxicating drinks. We love the 
pure Word of God, in that it condemns 
with uniform voice those drinks, that are 
so destructive to men, and in that it 
favours the cause that is dear to our 
heart, and gives us a banner to display 
because of the truth. 



QTi^c Abstainer's Journal, 



Glasgow, November, 1853. 



WINE AND WAR. 



The late'Peace" Conference at Edinburgh 
has brought up prominently to view 
another of our great social evils. As we 
sat in its meetings, we could not fail to be 
struck with the remarkable similarity 
between the evils of war, and those of in- 
temperance ; indeed, when we looked 
around and recognised in almost every 
countenance we knew, a friend of the tem- 
perance movement, and listened to the 
arguments that were advanced, we almost 
fancied ourselves to be seated in the midst 
of some great temperance gathering. 



' War,' said one, ' is the concentration of 
every conceivable evil ;' and may not the 
very same be said of intemperance ? What 
are the evils of war? Murder, theft, 
rapine, falsehood, cruelty, hate, licentious- 
ness, poverty, and debasement. And are 
these very evils not the train-bearers of 
the tyrant Alcohol ? What is the loss of 
life occasioned by the one compared with 
the other? It is computed that at 
Waterloo 70,000 fell ; but it is believed 
that in Britain alone as many perish every 
year through drunkenness. What is the 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



261 



cost of the one compared with the other ? 
It was stated by Mr Bright that the yearly 
cost of our mihtaiy and naval forces 
amounts to seventeen millions sterling, and 
that the entire nations of Europe are spend- 
ing one hundred millions per annum on the 
maintenance of armaments, while we alone 
are spending as much every year upon our 
drinking system. How bitterly we com- 
plain of this seventeen millions wrung from 
the industry of the country, while, with 
a single act of the will, we could rid our- 
selves of a self-imposed system of evil that 
costs us six times as much ! 
It was stated by Mr Bright — 

' We pay twenty millions for the un- 
fortunate policy of our forefathers, and 
there may come a day when that burden 
shall just make all the difference between 
us and the great rival nation on the other 
side of the Atlantic — (cheersj I was 
speaking the other day with an American 
gentleman who has been a good deal in 
Europe, and he was adverting to the fact 
that in the United States they have so 
large a surplus revenue they did not know 
what to do with it. It is a question 
whether they should pay off all the debt, 
or expend the surplus in making a rail- 
way to connect the Atlantic with the 
Pacific. He contrasted the state of his 
country with the state of ours. He said, 
" Your twenty-eight millions a-year is an 
incredible sum ; we cannot comprehend it : 
it is not to be reckoned in dollars and 
cents — (laughter) — but," he said, " I 
reckon there will come a day when Eng- 
land and the United States are about 
neck and neck, and the twenty-eight 
millions upon the industry of the United 
Kingdom will tell something against her 
in her race with the United States " ' — 
(hear, hear.) 

But do men of discernment not perceive 
that there is a more fearful drag upon our 
industry than even this twenty millions 
a-year, in the shape of interest paid on the 
national debt? If America, during the 
twenty years to come, makes progress in 
the temperance cause equal to what she 
has done during the twenty years that are 
past; if with her Maine Law, and the 
great body of the moral worth of her 



people on the side of sobriety, she add to 
her energy the advantage which perfect 
sobriety affords ; while our own nation 
continues debased and burdened with the 
drinking system, may our intemperance 
not yet prove, and that ere many years, 
one of the principal means of hurling us 
from the proud pre-eminence we have 
for so many generations held, and give us 
the place to which every people is entitled 
that will not set itself manfully to the 
work of self-reformation. At present, 
there is no question more worthy of our 
political economists, than the bearing of in- 
temperance upon national prosperity. 
How appropriate to our own cause are 
these telling words of Mr Bright: — 

' When men come to a saner mind, 
when we become a more enlightened peo- 
ple, when we come to be what we profess 
— a christian nation, then our posterity 
will look back to these times with wonder 
and astonishment. They will say, were 
there no churches in 1853 ? Were there 
no chapels ? Were there no ministers of 
the gospel of peace? — (loud cheers.) 
What were the men doing ? Were they 
splitting hairs? Were they disputing 
whether baptism should be by sprinkling 
an infant, or immersing a grown man ? — 
(cheers.) Were they disputing whether 
they might lawfully burn candles on an 
altar? — (loud cheers.) Were they dis- 
puting as to the precise amount of labour 
which a man might do or might not do 
on the Sabbath ? — (loud cheers.) What 
were their ministers and their people 
about ? Were their sects — their profess- 
ing christian sects, hunting each other to 
death ? — (continued cheers.) Why were 
they not pointing the people to this gigan- 
tic and incredible evil ? Why were they 
not endeavouring to wipe away from this 
christian nation the heaviest disgrace 
which has ever attached to it ?' — (hear.) 

Another thing that struck us on looking 
round upon the Conference was, to observe 
here and there men who have always felt 
scruples about joining a movement such as 
ours, which takes along with it those of all 
religious creeds and those of no creed at 
all ; and who rely upon the simple preach- 
ing of the gospel as the only means lawful 



2i62 



THE ABSTAINEtl'S JOITBNAI,. 



to be employed ia the suppression of 
drunkenness. Will they explain to us how 
they can with their notions join the one 
movement, and stand aloof from the 
other. Ah I there is this grand dif- 
ference, and we fear it goes far in explain- 
ing the inconsistency : a man may become 
a peace man or an anti-slavery man, or 
anything else he likes, without sacrificing 
a single appetite, or bearing the scorn of 
friends and associates; our movement, 
however, demands a sacrifice of taste and 
a change of customs; and hence, peace 
principles can be espoused, while absti- 
nence is scouted. We were, however, de- 
lighted to find that the leading men in the 
Conference were men who have identified 
themselves with our movement, such as 
John Bright, Joseph Sturge, Samuel 
Bowly, Dr John Ritchie, Rev. Dr Joseph 
Brown, Rev. Benjamin Parsons, Henry 
Vincent, Elihu Burritt, Lawrence Hey- 
worth, M.P., Alderman Harvey, and 
many others, showing the congruity and 
connection of all good causes ; indeed, 
had the temperance men been withdrawn 
from the Conference, it would have cut 
rather a sorry figure. 

ORDINATION DINNERS. 
Some time ago we gave mortal offence 
by animadverting upon the proceedings in 
connection with a certain ordination 
dinner. The Soreness felt by the parties 
who had got up the affair is the most 
striking proof that their consciences, 
especially when favoured with a little tee- 
total enlightenment, which we thought it 
meet to afford them, were not altogether 
at ease on the subject. We are glad to 
learn that others are taking warning in 
time. The East United Presbyterian 
Congregation in Auchtermuchty — formerly 
presided over by the Rev. Dr Taylor, who 
has gone to Canada to fill a professor's 
chair, and who was long one of our ablest 
and most attached friends— having called 



a successor, met to make arrangements 
for the ordination dinner. It was moved 
and agreed to, that, in the dinner proposed, 
intoxicating liquors should find no place. 
The proposal gave rise to an animated 
discussion. On the question being asked, 
if it was consistent with a christian church 
to countenance customs which were 
bringing so many thousands to a drunkard's 
grave and a drunkard's hell, no answer 
was given. On one observing that a glass 
would do no one any barm, it was 
promptly replied, that with a glass origi- 
nates every drunken cai'eer. 

'Viewing the whole,' says a correspon- 
dent, ' Ave have reason to rejoice ; we look 
upon the result of the discussion as a 
token of better days. A few years ago, 
such a motion would have been scouted, 
but abstinence principles are permeating 
society. Let us not slacken in the warfare. 
In due season we shall obtain the victory.' 
That the step taken by our friends in 
Auchtermuchty is a wise one, is abundantly 
plain. The mischief done by drinking at 
ordination dinners is great beyond all 
estimate. Cases have come to our know- 
ledge which convince us that in no instance 
are our drinking customs more repre- 
hensible and pernicious. One or two illus- 
trations will suffice : — Lately, as we sat at 
the dinner connected with an ordination, 
a friend directed our attention to a gentle- 
man at a little distance, with the remark, 
' He is sure to be drunk to-night.' On in- 
quiry into the case, we were informed that 
he held an official situation in the town, 
and that such were his habits that he 
could join no company, however respect- 
able, where drink was being used, without 
abandoning himself to unrestrained indul- 
gence. Afterwards we learned that it was 
just as had been predicted. Now many of 
the ministers and elders present knew 
nothing of this man's vice. What need 
then is there for caution ? In every such 
company the drink-loving ones of the 
congregation are sure to be present, and 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



263 



here are they getting a sanction to their 
habits from those whose character and 
oflBce demand that their influence should 
be all on the side of virtue and religion. 
Some years ago, an old, gray-headed elder 
turned to a gentleman by his side, just as 
the chairman rose to propose the health of 
the Provost, and said, ' Here is the Pres- 
bytery that was twice out examining into 
the conduct of our former minister, who 
ruined himself with drink, and nearly 
ruined us too, back again, introducing this 
fine young gentleman with the very thing 
that has already done us so much mis- 
chief.' That his fears were not unfounded 
have been proved by facts. That 'fine 
young gentleman ' has followed the steps 
of his predecessor, and been obliged like 
him to demit his charge. More recently, 

at another ordination dinner, a Major , 

who had been invited, as a matter of 
courtesy, to attend, was so pleased with 
the social character of the afiair, that he 
rose, and addressing a member of Pres- 
bytery, who occupied the chair, said, 'I 
beg. Sir, to propose that our friend Mac- 
vicar, at the other end of the table, be re- 
quested by you to favour the company 
with a song.' The scene which the 
address produced, in common language, 
may be more easily conceived than des- 
cribed. In face of these facts, we ask if 
this custom is longer to be tolerated in 
connection with the solemn services of an 
ordination occasion ? 



THE CHOLERA. 
Again this scourge of a vicious people is 
upon our borders. Aware of the extreme 
suspicion with which all our opinions 
respecting the avidity with which it seizes 
upon those who have been in the habit of 
indulging in alcoholic potations are re- 
ceived, we content ourselves with quoting 
the opinions of those who cannot be sus- 
pected of any peculiar bias upon the 
subject : — 

In the directions to mariners and ship- 



owners respecting the cholera, issued from 
the Board of Trade, it is said, — ' Great 
moderation both in food and drink is ab- 
solutely essential to safety. A single act 
of indiscretion has been followed by a 
severe attack ; intemperance at such a 
time is fraught with extreme danger. An 
epidemic atmosphere commonly produces 
great depression both of body and mind, 
and a desire for stimulants. If for the 
relief of this feeling recourse be had to gin 
or brandy, the result may be fatal.' 

As examples of the classes of persons 
among whom the disease has proved fatal, 
and of the condition of the places in which 
it has principally prevailed, it may suffice 
to cite the following : — J. F., of very ir- 
regular habits, been frequently intoxicated. 
He lived in a house in Broad-gates, Hex- 
ham, with his wife, at 59, and family. 
Himself, his wife, and two daughters, at 26 
and 31, all died of cholera on the 21st, 
23d, and 24th ult. 

At 19, Martin-street, Friar-street, 
Borough-road, on the 27th ult., a carpen- 
ter, aged twenty-nine years, died of 
Asiatic cholera (ten hours). Mr Elliott, 
the registrar, mentions that on Saturday, 
the 24th, he was suS"ering from diarrhoea 
and was very tipsy ; and when the me- 
dical offiicer of the district was called in, 
his case was hopeless. 

The Gateshead Observer observes that 
in the visitation in its locality : — ' Excess 
in drink has been a feature. Because 
beer was pronounced to be more dangerous 
than ardent spirits, and spirits were ad- 
ministered to patients as a stimulant, the 
latter have been liberally taken as a " pre- 
ventive." Seldom has there been more 
self-indulgence along the shores of the 
Tyne than on Saturday night. We fear, 
too, that strong drink has been given by 
" friends," without medical warrant, to the 
sick. King Cholera, on his way to the 
graveyard with victims, has on more than 
one occasion met King Alcohol, supported 
by the police, conducting his victims to 
prison. It cannot be too generally known 
that excess in meat or drink, always in- 
jurious, is especially to be guai-ded against 
at the present time.' 

The Bishop of London observes in the 
pastoral letter which he has just addressed 
to his clergy relative to the cholera : — 

' With respect to intemperance, no fact 
was more clearly proved than this, during 
the prevalence of cholera in this country, 
that it found its readiest and most helpless 
victims amongst the votaries of drunkenness 
and vice.' 



264 



THE ABSTAINER 8 JOURKAL. 



And yet, while Pestilence was throwing 
her dark shadows over the fated town of 
Newcastle, what were the municipal 
authorities about ? In a spirited and well- 
timed address issued by the Committee 
of the Temperance Society of that town, 
we are informed — 

' Whilst the ravages of the cholera have 
spread devastation, ruin, and death 
throughout the community — whilst the 
deepest anxiety and solicitude have rested 
upon the minds of the people — and whilst 
the attention of the inhabitants of the 
United Kingdom has been specially 
directed to the moral and sanitary condi- 
tion of this town, this committee has 
learnt with dismay that the Magistrates 
of Newcastle have granted 12 new 
hcences, for the sale of intoxicating 
liquors, in addition to the 424 public 
houses previously existing ; and that they 
have so done, in opposition to the remon- 
strances of a respectable deputation, and 
a most impressive Memorial, signed by 



500 of the rate-payers of the borough. 
That this committee, therefore, resolves, in 
the name of the intelligent, the moral, and 
the religious portion of the community, to 
record its most solemn protest against 
such infatuated exercise of iiTesponsible 
power ; being assured that whilst men of 
intemperate life and reckless habits have 
fallen in numbers before the destroyer, that 
they, the Magistrates, have thereby in- 
creased the evil by the facilities afforded 
for intemperance, and have opened wider 
the floodgates of iniquity, injury, and 
wrong.' 

But what better could we expect of 
a Town Council with a drink-dealing 
Mayor at the head of it, and more than 
one of its members engaged in the same 
traffic? Let the inhabitants of Newcastle 
and other communities learn that their 
interests are far from safe in the hands of 
men whose interests are so directly op- 
posed to their own. 



S e U c 1 1 n. 



JUSTICE TO BRUTES. 



I rise. Sir, to plead the cause of the 
helpless and the injured; and I am sure 
that I have only to state this as my ob- 
ject in a meeting of this kind, in order to 
secure your patient attention. I observe 
that a certain celebrated orator in the pre- 
sent Parhament, sometimes takes to him- 
self the credit of being the representative 
of eight millions of his countrymen. He 
does this, no doubt, for the purpose of 
giving weight to his opinions, and power 
to his pleading. Now, Sir, if numbers 
can give importance to any measure, I do 
assure you that his constituents, nume- 
rous as he says they are, are but a mere 
handful compared to mine; and when I 
tell ycu of this important difference, that 
mine are precluded from pleading their 
own cause, I am certain that the case will 
commend itself to your candid considera- 
tion. When we see a figure in human 
form passing along our streets in a zig-zag 
manner, like a ship beating up against the 
wind; its legs set to 6's and 7's; its eyes 
glazed and glaring as if they had got a 
coating of varnish ; its head in the position 



of a catapulta or battering ram, threaten- 
ing demolition to the walls and the win- 
dows ; its inner man exploded, a mere mass 
of moving matter ; a moral skeleton, aim- 
less, shameless, witless, fitless; I say, 
when we see such an object, we are apt to 
say. There goes a man heastly drunk. 
When we happen to see a crowd on the 
pavement looking at something at their 
feet, and on taking a peep, we perceive it is 
one of our own species who has lost his per- 
pendicularity, and whose fumes fill the air 
with alcoholic effluvia, enough to make 
even temperance reel ; we pass on and in- 
form the first friend we meet that it is a 
man, or it may be a woman, lying as 
drunk as a heast. When we read in the 
newspapers of persons being carried to the 
police ofRce in those open barouches, vul- 
garly called wheel-barrows, the papers 
generally give as a reason for this high 
honour that they were found in a state of 
beastly intoxication. Observe, Mr Chair- 
man, that, in all these instances, a human 
being is the only culprit, while my clients 
are cruelly represented as being art and 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



part, habit and repute associates, in the 
crime. Any person ignorant of the real 
character of my clients, and judging of it 
from the language to which I have referred, 
would naturally expect to see the spirit- 
cellars, tap-rooms, and taverns, crowded 
with all manner of beasts and creeping 
things; and instead of the sounds that 
usually salute our ears from those resorts 
of the drunkard, we might expect to hear 
the noise of neighing, and bellowing, and 
braying, and bleating, and barking, and 
grunting, and squeaking ; and what sights 
might we not look for on our streets : drun- 
ken horses at full gallop, frightening people 
from their propiiety ; drunken dogs snap- 
ping and snarling at every passenger, and 
forgetting that they are but dogs; cats 
leaving the retirement of domestic quiet, 
and after indulging in liquor, casting out 
with other quadrupeds and caterwauling 
on the streets in despite of the police act. 
Now, Sir, I appeal to every person pre- 
sent, that such is not the case in point of 



fact ; and I therefore maintain, that the 
expressions of which I complain are in- 
correct, improper, and injurious; and if 
the beasts had the power and the privilege 
of calling to account in the Court of Ses- 
sion those who thus traduce and malign 
their moral character, I have no doubt that 
damages to a very large amount would be 
awarded them by an impartial jury. In 
the meantime. Sir, and until this is done, 
in the name of all the beasts in air, earth, 
and sea — finned, four-footed, and feathered 
— reptiles, insects, and eels ; and in the 
name of downright dealing and even- 
handed equity, I protest against the con- 
tinuance of the term any longer in the 
English tongue. It is a gross libel. Sir, a 
foul calumny, an arbitrary and tyrannical 
use of the faculty of speech, thus to vilify, 
and slander, and backbite, the whole brute 
creation, by coupling their very name and 
nature with a habit which they disown, 
and repudiate, and detest. — Kettle's Me- 
morials, just published. 



titjs anl3 d^niJs. 



Mr Cobden on Temperance. — The 
following extracts from a letter written by 
Richard Cobden, Esq., M.P., acknow- 
ledging the receipt of a number of petitions 
on the Sunday Traffic Question, from Mr 
J. Boyes of Pudsey, will, no doubt, be 
read with interest : — ' Every day's ex- 
perience tends more and more to confirm 
me in my opinion, " That the temperance 
cause lies at the foundation of all social 
and political reforms." It is in vain to 
seek, by extension of the franchise, or free 
trade, or by any other means, to elevate 
the labouring masses. In fact, their des- 
tiny is in their own hand ; and they will, 
as a class, be elevated or depressed in the 
social scale in proportion to the extent of 
their virtues or vices. They are, therefore, 
the truest friends of the working millions 
who are labouring in the cause of temper- 
ance. And it is a gratifying fact, that 
the ablest and most persevering of its 
advocates have been found among their 
ranks.' 

The Extra Cost of Drink to 
Edinburgh. — At the first meeting ad- 
dressed by Mr Gongh in this city, the 
Hon. Duncan M'Laren, the Lord Provost, 
presided, and in the course of his opening 
address said, ' In conversing with his 
friends who are at present magistrates of 



the city, and with those who held oflSce 
formerly, and indeed with all who had 
the management of the poor, he had found 
an extraordinary degree of unanimity in 
attributing to intemperance almost the 
whole of the crime and poverty which fill 
our jails and workhouses. He believed 
that intemperance was the cause of nearly 
the whole of the expenditure of the jails, 
poor-law boards, and kindred institutions. 
In looking into those matters, it will be 
found that sums contributed for the sup- 
port of the dissipated were so startling as 
to be scarcely credible. The inhabitants 
of Edinburgh paid annually for the sup- 
port of the distressed, and for the mainte- 
nance of peace in one way or other, the 
sum of £80,632. That was an enormous 
sum, but it did not include the whole. It 
was, however, quite sufficient for his 
purpose. There were, besides the fore- 
going, the expense of transportations and 
penitentiaries. There was also that class 
of institutions called ragged schools, which 
were undoubtedly the effects of intemper- 
ance. There were also houses of refuge 
and infirmaries. He had shown to them 
that they had incurred an expense of 
£80,000, all of which was caused more or 
less by intemperance. Many persons in 
that meeting scarcely knew anything 



266 



THE abstainer's JOITRXAL. 



about £80,000, except as a figure ; and 
they were accustomed to read about it 
without attaching any very distinct idea 
to it. To show how far it would go, be 
would mention that it could maintain 1000 
teachers at an annual salary of £80 each, 
for the instruction of our youth. They 
had heard much about the benefits pro- 
duced by parochial schools, but the 
annual sum expended upon them amount- 
ed only to the comparatively small sum 
of £20,000. They had heard a good 
deal about persons bettering their circum- 
stances by emigrating to Australia. Now 
this sum (£80,000) would be sufficient 
to provide 4000 persons with a £20 
passage to that country ; or looking at the 
matter in another light, it would in eight 
years enable one person out of every 
family in Edinburgh to have a passage to 
Australia. Every one had heard of the 
opposition to the annuity-tax which was 
so justly objected to, but here we are 
called upon to pay nine times the amount 
of the annuity-tax for the fruits of in- 
temperance. He was confident that the 
more a mau examines this question the 
more enormous will he find its evils; and 
he held that the man who did anything 
to mitigate this gi-eat evil was entitled to 
be considered and esteemed as a bene- 
factor of his country and of mankind.' 

Happy Homes. — Let it be our object 
to multiply the number of virtuous and 
happy homes. The domestic hearth is 
the seed-plot of a noble and flourishing 
commonwealth. All laws are vicious, all 
tendencies are to be deprecated, which 
increase the difficulty of diffusing through 
every rank the refined and holy influences 
which are cberislied by the domestic af- 
fections. Reckless speculation among 
capitalists, disturbing the steady and uni- 
form course of employment, and its sure 
counterpart, improvidence and debauchery 
among workmen — are the deadliest foes 
of the household virtues. In how small a 
compass lies all the elements of man's 
truest happiness, if society were only con- 
ducted in a rational and moderate spirit, 
and its members of every class could be 
restrained from vicious indulgence and 
the pursuit cf phantoms! A marriage 
contracted with thoughtfulness, and ce- 
mented by a pure and faithful love, when 
a fixed position is gained in the world, 
and a small fund has been accumulated — 
hard work and frugal habits at the com- 
mencement of domestic life, to meet in 
time the possible demands of a future 
family — a dwelling comfortably famished, 



clean, bright, salubrious, and sweet — 
children well trained, and early sent to 
school — a small collection of good books 
on the shelves — a few blossoming plants 
in the window — some well-selected en- 
gravings on the walls— it may be, a 
violin or a flute to accompany the 
family concert — home made happy in the 
evening by cheerful tasks and mutual 
improvement, exchanged at times for con- 
versation of friend and neighbour of 
kindred tastes and congenial manners — 
these are conditions of existence within 
the reach of every one who will seek them 
— resources of the purest happiness, lost 
to thousands, because a wrong direction is 
given to their tastes and energies, and 
they roam abroad in pursuit of interest 
and enjoyment which they might ereate 
in rich abundance at home. This is no 
romantic, visionary picture. It is sober, 
accessible possibilitj', such as even now, 
under the pressure of many adverse cir- 
cumstances, is realised in the homes of 
not a few working men who have learned 
the art of extracting competence from 
narrow means, and maintaining genuine 
respectability in a humble station. — Tay- 
lor's Christian Aspects of Faith and Duty. 

Beadtifl'l Extract. — A little father- 
less boy, of four years of age, sat upon the 
floor surrounded by his toys. — Catching 
sight of his mother's face, as the tears fell 
thick and fast, he sprang to her side, and 
peeping curiously in her face as he put his 
little hands in hers, said, ''you've got me!' 
(Simple, artless, little comforter!) Dry 
your tears, young mother. There is 
something left to live for ; there are duties 
from which even your bleeding heart may 
not shriuk. A talent you may not bury ; 
a stewardship, of which your Lord must 
receive an account ; a blank page to be 
filled by your hand with holy truth; a 
crystal vase to keep spotless and pure ; a 
tender plant to guard from bfight and 
mildew ; a drop that must not exhale in 
the sun of worldliness ; an angel for 
whom a white robe must be made ; a 
cherub in whose hands a golden harp 
must be placed ; a little lamb to be led to 
the Good Shepherd ! 

' You've got me !' Ay ! Cloud not 
his sunny face with unavailing sadness ; 
lest he catch the ' trick of grief.' and sigh 
amid his toys. Teach him not by your 
vain repining, that our Father pitieth not 
his children ! — Teach him to love Him as 
seen in sky and sea, in rock and river! 
teach him to love Him in the clouds as in 
the sunshine ! You will have your gloomy 



THE abstainer's JOTTENAL. 



267 



hours ; there is a void even that little 
loving heart may not fill, but tbere is still 
another, and He says, 'ME ye have 
always!' Fanny Fern. 

A Painful Scene. — The following 
scene occurred in the Mobile City Court, 
on Tuesday, March 5th. Daniel Case, 
convicted of murder, was called on. 
' Have you any thing to say why sentence 
should not be passed upon you ?' He 
answered — ' May it please your honours, 
I have been well raised. But I have one 
fault which I have yielded to, and it is 
drinking too much. I came to this city to 
seek honourable employment. I have 
been on the St Charles at work. I was 
engaged to work on a boat. On the 
night cf the murder I went ashore to a 
friend's house to write a letter. I wrote 
the letter, and wanted to carry it to the 
post office, but was advised it was too 
late, and I had better go and take a game. 
I went and played my first game of 
dominoes. I drank and became intoxi- 
cated. My friends left me. I started 
for the boat, but cannot recollect any- 
thing further — the murder, or any- 
thing that occurred afterwards that night. 
When I first awoke in the morning I 
thought I was in the boat, but found I 
was in the guard-house. I never har- 
boured malice. I could not be guilty of 
the offence of which I am convicted. 
Before God I am innocent of murder. I 
could kiss the corpse of that man now.' 
The Judge then passed sentence on the 
prisoner — Confinement in the penitentiary 
at Wetumpka during his natural life. 

The Age of the Stomach. — Many 



men live exclusively for the stomach, and 
not a few die in its cause. It is the great 
universal source of corruption, moral as 
well as material ; for, when Sir Robert 
Walpole maintained that every man had 
his price, he admitted that the great para- 
mount temptation of money was its power 
of administering new stimulants to the 
pleasures of the table. Epicurism and 
its results seem to constitute the great 
leading objects of modern occupation and 
inquiry. Intellects of the first order are 
devoted to the composition of cookery 
books ; the public become, in consequence, 
more luxurious and profound in their 
banquets; a new set of talents is called 
UTto exercise, and a new series of books 
written to remedy the increasing diseases 
occasioned by good living ; and both sets 
of authors run through numerous editions, 
and make rapid fortunes. Never was our 
culinary literature so rich ; and as to 
medical works upon bile, indigestion, 
flatulency, heart-burn, and stomach com- 
plaints in general, the press groans with 
them. The gormandizers, who are apt to 
be in the same predicament as the press, 
buy them, and consult their authors, and 
get rehef, and then perform a da capo. 
Does any young aspiring surgeon, or 
patientless physician, wish to ride in his 
carriage, let him write a book upon the 
diseases of the stomach, and his fortune is 
made. His subject comes home to the 
business and bosoms, or, rather, the 
bowels of the whole community — for we 
are all enjoy ers of good cheer, and all 
sufferers, in some way or other, from its 
consequences. — Journal of Health. 



<©peratt0ng of t^e Scottisfj STempcrance Heague. 



THE LEAGUE AGENTS. 

PLACES VISITED DURING THE PAST 
MONTH. 

Mr Easton has visited Penrith, Bramp- 
ton, Lockerbie, Lasswade, Loanhead, 
Auchendenny, Penicuick, West Linton, 
Peebles, Innerleithen, Galashiels, Stowe, 
Melrose, Selkirk, Ettrick Bridge, Hope- 
house, Yarrow, Ashkirk, Lilliesleaf, and 
St Boswell's. 

The places visited by Mr Anderson 
have been Portobello, Paisley, Johnstone, 
Bridge-of-Weir, Houston, Lochwinnoch, 
Beith, Kilbirnie, Saltcoats, Ardrossan, 



Kilwinning, Ayr, Stewarton, Darvel, New- 
milns, Galston, Mauchline, Catrine, Cum- 
nock, and Muirkirk. 

By Mr M'Farlane visits have been 
paid to Alva, Alloa, Oakley, Dunferm- 
line, Townhill, Crossgates, Lochgelly, 
Limekilns, In verkei thing, Shotts Iron 
Works, Burntisland, Kinghorn, West and 
East Wemyss, Coaltown, Kirkcaldy, Ken- 
noway, Buckhaven, Leven, and Lundia 
Mill 

Mr Duncan has addressed meetings at 
Aberdeen, Woodside, Muirton, Brechin, 
Montrose, Johnshaven, Arbroath, Kirrie- 
muir, Letham, Glammiss, Coupar-Angus, 



268 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



Blairgowrie, Dunkeld, Tullipourie, Perth, 
Methven, Dunning, Logie-Almond, Bridge 
of Earn, Newburgh, and Dundee. 

Mr Reid has been engaged addressing 
meetings in Wisbaw, Carluke, Braidwood, 
New Lanark, Braehead, and Lanark. 

Mr Scrimgeour's time has been de- 
voted to Cumbernauld, Condorrat, Banton, 
CaiTonshore, Stenhoasemuir, Campsie, 
Kirkintilloch, Neilston, Mearns, Camlachie, 



Busby, Glasgow, Partick, Bridgeton, East 
Kilbride, Gorbals, Chapelhall, Coatbridge, 
High Blantyre, Cambuslang, Renfrew, 
Blantyre Works, Hamilton, and Larkball. 
Mr Stirling, although now very in- 
firm, has been engaged occasionally 
amongst the societies near home, having 
addressed meetings at Milngavie, Kll- 
patrick, and Strathblane. 



STEmperance Ncfes. 



SCOTLAND. 

EDINBURGH. 

From the Seventeenth Annual Report of 
the Edinburgh Total Abstinence Society, we 
give the following interesting extracts : — 

' A very liberal distribution of tracts has 
been made during the year, all bearing on 
the great question with which your society 
is more immediately concerned. These 
consisted of 

50,000 of the Rev. W. Reids Tract on 

Sabbath Statistics, 
5,000 of Edward Baines' Testimony and 

Appeal, 
20,000 of Scottish Temperance League's 

Narrative Series, 
42,000 of miscellaneous kinds. 



117,000 in all, distributed. 

' Besides the Female Committee, a num- 
ber of ladies and gentlemen have very kindly 
aided in circulating the tracts in various 
districts of our city. A large quantity of 
the Rev. W. Reid's tract was spread abroad, 
by being inserted in the leading religious 
periodicals. 

' Your committee were at great pains, 
and no little expense, in obtaining and 
putting into circulation the statistics of the 
public-house Sabbath traffic in the city. 
This part of your committee's work was 
alike painful and instructive, inasmuch as 
it gave them a nearer and fuller view of the 
destructive nature of the strong drink traffic, 
and a stronger conviction of the soundness 
of abstinence principles. The statistics 
were sent to all the members of Parliament 
for Scotland, — to ministers residing in this 
city, — to all the Edinburgh and Glasgow, 
and many of the provincial newspapers. 
Copies of them were also given to the mem- 
bers of the Established and Free Church 
General Assemblies. Numerous letters 
have been received from members of Par- 
liament regarding them ; they have been 
quoted in the House of Lords, — the House 
of Commons, — in the Assemblies, Synods, 
and Presbyteries. The Edinburgh papers 



noticed them at length ; the English and 
Irish ones copied these articles ; and the 
statistics still continue to be referred to in 
all quarters of the country ; and it ought to 
be mentioned for the satisfaction of all 
friends, that they furnished a very powerful 
argument in favour of the Public-House 
Bill for Scotland. 

' During the past year, 3,273 persons 
have signed the society's pledge. Of these 
it is to be confessed with sorrow, that many 
return to their former courses. But this is 
not to be wondered at when we consider the 
countless temptations that exist, and the 
efforts that are made by the ignorant, the 
unprincipled, and the interested, to draw 
them back to habits of intemperance. Not- 
withstanding these discouragements, your 
committee are fully satisfied that the cause 
of abstinence is making great progress. 

' The Female Visiting Committee have 
laboured with their wonted diligence and 
usefulness during the year. The number 
enrolled in the society's books through their 
instrumentality, from April, 1852, till April, 
1853, is 127 ; and during the seven years of 
the committee's labours, 992.' 

From these extracts, taken in connection 
with the fact, that numerous (we had almost 
said innumerable) ordinary and extraordi- 
nary meetings have been held, and a 
zealous missionary has been labouring dur- 
ing the year, we can easily understand 
why it is that the committee can, without 
even seeming to boast, close their report 
thus : — 

' Your Committee regard the prosperous 
condition of your Society as no mean token 
of advancement. The funds have greatly 
increased during the year that has terminat- 
ed ; and the Committee have no ordinary 
pleasure in tendering their most cordial 
thanks to the numerous subscribers for their 
liberality hitherto ; and especially for their 
generous response to a special appeal for 
additional aid for extra efforts during the 
past twelvemonths. They feel warranted to 
regard these as decided proofs of confidence 
in them, and approbation of their exertions; 



THE ABSTAINEE'S JOUBKAL. 



269 



and they fondly trust that they and their 
successors will always be led to act so as to 
ensure a continuance of such testimonies. 

' In conclusion, your Committee have, 
during the past year, disseminated temper- 
ance literature with no sparing band ; they 
have maintained a frequent and powerful 
exposition of your principles from pulpit 
and platform; they have dragged forth to 
public condemnation the Sabbath Spirit 
Traffic in its almost incredible extent and 
iniquity ; they have visited by your agents 
many poor victims of intemperance in their 
own homes, with words of counsel and of 
hope ; and though they may not on all 
occasions have been successful in reclaiming 
the drunkard, they believe their labours will 
be eminently blest in preserving the drunk- 
ard's child. And your Committee venture 
to hope that these various operations in 
which they have been engaged, will not 
only meet with your hearty approval, but 
nnder the guidance and blessing of Him who 
is the supreme Director, largely contribute 
to forward the objects of your society.' 

At the weekly meeting of the Total Ab- 
stinence Society, on Tuesday evening, Oct. 
11, the platform was crowded with gentle- 
men from England, among whom were many 
of the most distinguished of the leaders in 
the temperance cause — the president, Mr J. 
S. Marr, occupied the chair. Addresses 
were given by J ohn Strachan, Esq., of South 
Shields; Lawrence Heyworth, Esq., M.P. ; 
Samuel Bowly, Esq., of Gloucester. The 
audience was numerous, and warmly ap- 
plauded the addresses of the distinguished 
speakers. Seventy-four persons were after- 
wards enrolled members of the society. 

A public meeting was held on Tuesday 
night, Oct. 18, in Kichmond Place Chapel, 
called for the purpose of affording an oppor- 
tunity to a deputation from the Scottish 
Temperance League of explaining the nature 
and extent of the operations of the League 
during the past year. The deputation con- 
sisted of Mr Neil M'Neill, Mr M'Gavin, 
and Mr Reid. Mr J. S. Marr, president of 
the Edinburgh Total Abstinence Society, 
occupied the chair. 

The Chairman, after stating the object of 
the meeting, and bespeaking a favourable 
hearing for the deputation, called upon 

Mr M'Neill to address the meeting. He 
said, the League was instituted in Novem- 
ber, 1844, its object, as stated in the consti- 
tution, being to ' aim at the entire abolition 
of the drinking customs.' The instrumen- 
talities employed by the League for pro- 
moting its object were the platform, the 
pulpit, and the press. The history of the 
League since its commencement had been 
one of continued and steady progress. The 
number entered on its Register was 1166 in 
the year 1849, 1888 in 1850, 2446, in 1851, 
2939 in 1852, and 3458 in 1853, and from 



what he already knew, he thought he was 
warranted in saying that in 1854 they should 
have 4000 members enrolled upon their list, 
and that notwithstanding they had lost a 
gieat many by emigration. During the 
course of last year seven agents had been at 
work throughout Scotland, lecturing from 
town to town, and there was reason to be- 
lieve that no fewer than about 1800 lectures 
had been delivered in that time, independent 
of the sermons that had been preached in 
connection with this institution and the 
various deputations such as the present. 
Mr M'Neill then proceeded to describe the 
alterations that had been made upon the 
periodicals last year, and with what success. 
The ' Adviser' had increased from 5000 to 
5500, and the 'Abstainer's Journal" (for- 
merly the ' Scottish Temperance Review ') 
from about 2000 to nearly 4000, in circula- 
tion. The last impression of the ' Quarterly 
Review," started at the beginning of the 
present year, was 7000. 

Mr M'Gavin, Chairman of the Board of 
Directors of the League, next addressed the 
meeting, recapitulating some of the facts 
mentioned by the previous speaker. He 
referred to the almost unprecedented success 
of their 'Quarterly Review,' which was de- 
voted entirely to social and literary subjects, 
and altogether unconnected with any politi- 
cal party. During the five years preceding 
last year they had circulated about 
30,000,000 pages of letterpress, and at the 
time of the balance in April, last year, two 
and a half months before the expiry of their 
financial year, they calculated the average 
circulation to be about 7,500,000 pages, 
being a very large increase over the pre- 
vious five years. The rate at which they 
had been going during the present year in- 
dicated a circulation of about 9,000,000 
pages of letterpress. 

Mr Robert Reid, the other member of 
the deputation, also spoke at some length, 
and was followed by the Rev. Wm. Reid. 

A vote of thanks was moved to the de- 
putation, and the meeting separated. 

GLASGOW. 

We regret to notice that in spite of the 
timely precautions that have been issued 
against excess, or anything tending to pre- 
disposition to disease, there is no perceptible 
diminution of drunk and disorderly cases 
at the various police districts. In the 
Eastern district alone, within the night of 
Saturday and morning of Sunday, 15th and 
16th Oct., there were no fewer than 43 
persons taken to that office, 23 of whom 
were drunk and utterly incapable of taking 
care of themselves, the other 20 being 
drunk and disorderly, and charged with 
acts of assault. It is really painful to see 
such apathy on the part of those who are 
generally most open to the attacks of epi- 
demics.— jl/a?/. 



270 



THE ABSTAINER S JOCRNAL. 



The Eev. B. Parsons preached on tem- 
perance to a crowded audience on Sabbath 
evening, Oct. 9, in Eglinton Street U. P. 
Church, and on Tuesday evening, Oct. J 1, 
gave a lecture on ' The Traffic ' in the 
Trades' Hall. 

Refreshment Rooms. — We are glad to 
learn that a proposal has been made, which 
will in all likelihood be speedily carried 
into effect, to form a joint-stock company 
for the establishment of temperance refresh- 
ment rooms on a large scale, in different 
parts of the city. 



On Monday evening, 10th Oct., a deputa- 
tion from the Scottish Temperance League, 
consisting of Messrs John M'Gavin, Robert 
Reid, and William Melvin, addressed a 
meeting of abstainers in the New Street 
Hall, on the claims of the League. The 
meeting was crowded, and the appeals of 
the speakers were enthusiastically responded 
to. All present seemed thoroughly satis- 
fied with the statements made by the depu- 
tation. In the same place, on Wednesday 
evening the 12th, a lecture on temperance 
was given by Mr J. Torrens, Glasgow. 

On the evening of Sabbath the 16th, the 
Rev. B. Parsons, of Ebly, preached a ser- 
mon, on behalf of the Abstainer's League, 
in the United Presbyterian Church, Canal 
Street. As was anticipated from the cele- 
brity of Mr Parsons, both as a speaker and 
writer on the temperance question, the dis- 
course gave great satisfaction. 



On the evening of Monday, Oct. 17, a 
meeting for discussion on the Maine Law 
was held in Hammerman's Hall, Barrack 
Street. The hall was tilled to overflowing 
by a very attentive audience. Mr J. H. 
Donnan occupied the chair. Addresses 
were delivered by Mr Lightbonn, Man- 
chester, and Messrs M'Lean and Brown, 
Dundee, which were enthusiastically re- 
ceived by the audience. A goodly number 
of persons enrolled themselves members of 
the Dundee Temperance Society. 

On Friday evening, Oct. 21, a social 
meeting was held in Lamb's Temperance 
Hotel, Reform Street, Bailie Rough in the 
chair, to receive a deputation from the Scot- 
tish Temperance League, consisting of Messrs 
M'Gavin, M'Neill, Duncan, and Robertson. 
The large room was filled with a highly 
respectable company. After tea, the mem- 
bers of the deputation addressed the meet- 
ing, explaining the objects of the League, 
recounting the means employed for the 
attainment of these objects, and urging 
those present to exert themselves to secure 
a large accession of members to the League 
from amongst the abstainers of Dundee. 



The Rev. Alex. Hannay proposed, Mr D. 
B. Brown seconded, a vote of confidence in 
the League Directorate, and of thanks to the 
deputation. Thanks were also tendered 
to Bailie Rough, for his kindness in presid- 
ing on the occasion, and the company 
separated. 

On Saturday evening, the 22d, Messrs 
Duncan and Robertson addressed the meet- 
ing held in Lamb's Hall, Reform Street, 
and were very attentively listened to by 
those who were present, as they exposed the 
evils of the strong drink traffic. 

KIRKCALDY. 

Mr Malcolm M'Farlane, one of the agents 
of the Scottish Temperance League, de- 
livered a very interesting address on the 
' Advantages of Total Abstinence from In- 
toxicating Drinks,' in Rose Street Chapel, 
on the evening of Monday, Oct. 10. Mr 
M'Farlane treated the subject in the way 
that all true and stern advocates of the 
cause do, and seemed to give the greatest 
satisfaction. The principal object of Mr 
M'Farlane's Tisit was to obtain subscribers 
for the League Register, a book that should 
be in the hands of every staunch teetotaler. 
The audience was pretty numerous, con- 
sidering the wetness of the night. Mr 
M'Farlane is a great favourite in the ' Lang 
Toun,' having, when there last season, made 
a large circle of friends, who still remember 
his happy and frank turn. 



The monthly meeting of the total absti- 
nence society was held in the Congregational 
Chapel on Monday evening, Oct. 17, when 
an excellent, philosophical, and argumenta- 
tive address was delivered by Mr J. Douglas, 
which elicited the hearty approval of the 
meeting. The temperance choir, under the 
leadership of Mr T. Brown, having sung an 
anthem, with fine effect, the meeting was 
next addressed by Mr George Murray, who 
replied to some of the more common ob- 
jections brought against total abstinence. 
Another anthem having been sung by the 
choir, the meeting was brought to a close. 

KENNOWAY, 

On Tuesday evening, 1 Ith Oct., a public 
meeting was held in the Parish School here, 
when Mr M'Farlane, an agent of the Scot- 
tish Temperance League, delivered an in- 
teresting address on the evils resulting from 
drunkenness, and the advantages of absti- 
nence. There was a considerable audience. 
The speaker illustrated his remarks by many 
humorous and instructive anecdotes. 



DUNNING. 

Mr David Scrimgeour, agent of the Scot- 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



tish Temperance League, delivered a lecture 
on the principle of total abstinence in the 
Relief Church, here, on Thursday, 8th Sept. 
• — John Rutherford in the chair. The 
audience was large and attentive. The 
lecture was able, lucid, and succinct, and 
delivered in a very eloquent manner. We 
understand Mr Scrimgeour has only been 
lately appointed as agent; and his appear- 
ance here augurs well for his success as a 
public lecturer. At the conclusion of his 
address a society was formed, which now 
numbers 63 members. — On Saturday and 
Sanday, 15th and 16th October, Mr John 
Duncan, agent of the Scottish Temperance 
League, delivered addresses in the Relief 
Church to large and attentive audiences. 
The abstinence society 7ioiv numbers 200 
members, being a very considerable amount 
of progression. May it go on prospering ! 



COUPAR-ANGUS. 

A total abstinence meeting was held in 
the Free Church school on Monday evening, 
(Oct. I7th) at which addresses were de- 
livered by Mr Kyd, teacher, and the Rev. 
Mr Frame. The meeting, which was well 
attended, was presided over by Mr Lundie, 
teacher. The members of the society elected 
office-bearers for the coming year. 



AUCHTERMUCHTY. — WORTUY OF IMITA- 
TION. 

At a meeting of the members of the East 
U. P. Church, held on iOth Sept., prepara- 
tor)- to the settlement of Mr Barlas, it was 
resolved that no intoxicating liquors be 
provided for the ordination dinner to be 
given by the congregation. 



ENGLAND. 

LEEDS — TEMPERANCE AND THE SABBATH 
SCHOOL. 

It is with much pleasure we notice two 
meetings of Sabbath school teachers held at 
Leeds on the evenings of the 4th and 8th of 
last month. About eight hundred male 
and female teachers were in attendance. 
The subject of discussion was, ' The influence 
of the drinking customs of society upon the 
efforts of those engaged in the moral and 
religious instruction of the young.' During 
the meeting it was stated that no less than 
2,400,000 children attend Sabbath schools, 
being more than one-seventh of the entire 
population, and showing the influence 
possessed over the national mind by the 
300,000 who labour as teachers. Mr Wm. 
Allison noticed the appalling fact that nearly 
20,000, under 17 years of age, pass through 
the jails every year. Mr J. Elmor read an 
interesting paper upon the advantages of 
total abstinence societies in connection with 



Sunday schools, from which we extract the 
following : — 'A society the children could call 
their own, would be calculated to engage their 
interest, and to secure the earnest co-opera- 
tion of their teachers in its various proceed- 
ings. On the other hand, the intimate con- 
nection of these societies with the schools to 
which they respectively belong, should by 
no means be such as to make them identical. 
A teacher who cannot join in their object 
should not be made to feel uncomfortable 
on their account. The officers of the socie- 
ties should, if possible, be total abstainers 
as well as Sunday school teachers. Each 
member of the society should be required to 
sign a declaration of abstinence. On receiv- 
ing a signature, a card (the more ornamental 
the better) certifying the same should be 
given or sold to the person signing, and a 
list of all the names so subscribed hung up 
in a conspicuous part of the school room. 
These simple arrangements are recom- 
mended, for the reason that the more widely 
known our professions become, the more 
likely shall we be to continue our adherence 
to them. A card, sufficiently attractive, 
will make a child proud of exhibiting it, 
and thus add to its publicity. Meetings 
should be held not less frequently than once 
a month, where simple addresses could be 
given, and hymns or temperance melodies 
sung. In order to keep the principles of 
temperance continually before the attention 
of our scholars, the permission of the teachers 
might be obtained to sell or distribute re- 
ligious temperance literature in the Sunday 
schools, such as the Band of Hope Review.^ 
The meetings were addressed by several 
Sabbath school teachers and others, and 
evidently produced a deep impression in 
favour of our cause, and we trust that the 
movement will soon become general all over 
the country. 

leiceste:;. 
The members of the temperance society 
in this town held a series of public meet- 
ings in the month of September, to 
celebrate the opening of their magnificent 
hall. The first meeting was presided over 
by the Mayor of the town. Several magis- 
trates and other influential individuals were 
present. The room was densely crowded, 
and the proceedings throughout were marked 
by the greatest enthusiasm. Mr Gough and 
others addressed the meeting on various 
topics connected with the general merits of 
the temperance reformation. 



MARSKS. 

In reference to this district, a friend says : 
' I am happy to say that the cause is pro- 
gressing most favourably among us. The 
first anniversary of the temperance mis- 
sion was celebrated with a tea festival, 



272 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



on the 27th of Septemher. About 200 sat 
down to tea, during which time the Right 
Hon. the Earl of Zetland, and his philan- 
thropic Countess, honoured us with a visit. 
On Jlonday evening the 20th, we had a 
lecture from IMr Ishmael Fish of Malton, 
railway missionary, and the result has been 
an accession of Uventy-five to our numbers, 
including some sixteen or seventeen of the 
men at the works. You may now visit 
some of their cottages, and there see three, 
four, and five teetotal cards suspended over 
the mantel-piece ; and one of the overmen 
told me, that at his portion of the works 
there are not more than one or two who are 
not teetotalers.' 

MR J. B. GOUGH. 

This celebrated American orator has ar- 
ranged to remain in Britain for a few 
months, and says that so long as there is 
such a demand for his services as at pre- 
sent, he will not return to America. He 
will labour in England till the end of the 
present year, and purposes to devote the 
month of January to Edinburgh, and the 
succeeding month to Glasgow. 

IRELAND. 

BELFAST, 

The temperance cause continues to 
flourish in this town. The Belfast Total 
Abstinence Association holds weekly meet- 
ings, where from 80 to 1 00 attend, and a 
great number si^n the pledge. The Rev. 
Mr Hanna preached an eloquent discourse on 
temperance and the Maine Law, on Sun- 
day evening, 9th Oct. ; the church was 
crowded. The Primitive Methodists are 
also doing a great deal by holding congrega- 
tional meetings, which are well attended. 

ARMAGH— YOUNG MEN'S IMPROVEMENT 
SOCIETY, GOSFORD PLACE. 

This society, which has for its object ' the 
moral advancement and intellectual training 
of the members,' continues to hold its 
weekly meetings. On Monday evening, 
Sept. 26, the subject of an adjourned 
debate came before the members, viz., 
' Whether is Temperance or Total Abstin- 
ence the better remedy for the existing evils 
of Drunkenness ?" The chair was occupied 
by the Rev. J. R. M'Alister, the president, 
assisted by Messrs G. Reid and J. Heatly, 
as arbitrators. The several members, three 
in number on each side, argued according to 
their respective convictions on the subject, 
when the president and arbitrators summed 
up, and found that the arguments were in 
favour of total abstinence. Mr M'Alister 
then gave an interesting summary of the 
workings of the two systems, and concluded 
by advising all to enrol themselves as ab- 
stainers. 



BAN BRIDGE. 

The first annual meeting of the Banbridge 
Total Abstinence Society was held at the 
Assembly-Rooms, Market-House, Ban- 
bridge, on Wednesday evening, the 19th 
Oct., the president of the association, the 
Rev. Robert Anderson, in the chair. The 
attendance on this interesting occasion was 
most numerous, comprising representatives 
of every class in our local society, from the 
clergymen and their families to the humblest 
mechanic ; and a more gratifying sight could 
scarcely be enjoyed than that presented by 
the company, whose smiling countenances 
and clean attire manifested the personal 
advantages they already derived from their 
connection with the society, and their praise- 
worthy adherence to its health-preserving 
principles. 

FOREIGN. 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 

The World's Temperance Convention. — 
According to previous announcement, the 
delegates to the World's Temperance Con- 
vention assembled for business, in Metro- 
politan Hall, New York, on the (Jth Sept. 
The attendance was large, including a great 
number of the clergy. J. Cassell, Esq., of 
London, represented the National Temper- 
ance Society, and the London Temperance 
League ; and Dr Lees, of Leeds, the 
British Temperance Association. The 
proceedings were of a very exciting char- 
acter, and at times called forth such 
manifestations of feeling, that gave occasion 
to the enemies to triumph over the weak- 
ness of those who have undertaken the im- 
provement of public morals. It can hardly, 
with any degree of propriety, be called a 
meeting for deliberation ; and we regret 
much that an opportunity for so much good 
should have resulted in consequences reflect- 
ing so seriously upon the wisdom and dis- 
cretion of those whose professed attachment 
to the temperance cause should have, as its 
befitting accompaniment, sweetness of tem- 
per and propriety of behaviour. 

Female ylrffocates.^ Simultaneously with 
the above, a conference was held, partly got 
up and conducted by ladies, which was on 
that account called the Whole World's Tem- 
perance Convention. There was an enthu- 
siasm about the whole proceedings which 
some would be disposed to call extravagant. 
So far as this country is concerned, we are 
persuaded that although public opinion were 
in favour of the fair sex speaking from the 
platform, there is scarcely a lady in the land 
that -would avail herself of the privilege. 



Glasgow : Printed and published at the Office 
of the Scottish Temperance League, No. 30 
St Enoch Square, Parish of St Enoch's, by 
RoBEBT Rae, residing at No. 10 Salisbury 
Street, Parish of Govan. 

Tdesdat, \sl November, 1853. 



THE 



ABSTAINER'S JOURNAL. 



APRIL, 185 4. 



iHtgcenan£0U0 Contrffiutions, 



WELL-AUTHENTICATED RESULTS OF THE MAINE LAW.* 



Within the last few years, we have been 
called to witness, in several of the State 
Legislatures of America, the substitution 
of a law of entire prohibition of the traffic 
in intoxicating liquors as a beverage, for 
the law of license. 

The first to adopt the change was the 
State of Maine. The law for the sup- 
pression of tippling-houses and dram- 
shops, known as the Maine Law, was 
passed by the Legislature of that State in 
May, 1851. In the month of March, 
1852, a similar law was adopted by the 
Territory of Minnesota ; on the 7th of 
May, in the same year, by the State of 
Rhode Island; on the 22d, by the State 
of Massachusetts ; on the 20th of Decem- 
ber, by the Legislature of Vermont ; and 
in a few months after, by the Legislature 
of Michigan. 

The principles of this law are simple, 
but uncommonly efficacious. All sale of 
intoxicating liquors as a beverage, is pro- 
hibited under a penalty of ten dollars for 
the first offence ; twenty for the second ; 
twenty and imprisonment not less than 
three, nor more than sis months, for the 
third ; and the liquors kept for sale 
are liable to be seized and publicly des- 
troyed. 

Places where liquors had for years been 
publicly sold were closed; tippling- 
houses and dram-shops were appropriated 
* By the Executive Committee of 



to other purposes ; tavern-bars, if they 
remained, were supplied only with drinks 
which refreshed, but did not intoxicate. 
In the city of Portland, where there had 
been from 300 to 400 places of sale, none 
were visibly occupied for this purpose, and 
the buildings thus used were soon dis- 
posed of for other business. 

Where individuals were contumacious, 
and kept hquors for sale, they were 
extensively dealt with according to the 
strict letter of the law. Bottles, demi- 
johns, casks, containing every variety of 
intoxicating liquors, from the most simple 
to the most costly, were seized in secret 
places, taken to the public offices, and in 
presence of witnesses, and often of the 
owner, emptied upon the ground. Anti- 
cipated broils and bloodshed have van- 
ished, or not been known. The law has 
moved on in its solemn majesty, and per- 
formed its work. In the State of Maine, 
it is estimated that many thousand gallons 
have been peaceably poured upon the 
ground. The City Marshal of Bangor 
has reported 400 search-warrants made 
by him alone, and continual convictions 
without disturbance or resistance. 

Such an enactment, an outlawry of an 
extensive business, heretofore legalized 
under certain restrictions, and exceedingly 
profitable, causing an interchange of 
millions of dollars and the erection of 
the American Temperance Union. 



7i 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



splendid places of trade; — all for the 
protection of the people from unendurable 
evils, is an anomaly in human legislation. 
We have felt it our duty to collect all the 
prominent facts relative to the operations 
of this law : — 

Our first inquiry has related to the 

BIMINCTION OF DRUNKENNESS. — In the 

city of Portland, at the time of the passage 
of the law, June 2, 1851, there were from 
300 to 400 places \vhere intoxicating 
liquors were sold. In the year previous, 
there were committed to the House of 
Correction, for drunkenness, 74 persons. 
On the 15th of June, 1852, the house 
"WAS EMPTY. This was stated by the 
Mayor of the City in his Annual Report. 
In Bangor, the second city of Maine, there 
were 100 sellers, and men were drunk and 
fighting every day in the streets. The 
cost of drunkards in the House of Correc- 
tion, was reduced 72 per cent. ; and of 
paupers in the Poor-house, 97. This 
report was made to the citizens in a public 
meeting, without contradiction. In the 
city of Lowell, according to a statement 
of the Mayor, the amount of drunkenness 
for the month ending October 22, 1852, 
was 67 per cent, less than the correspond- 
ing months of the previous year. The 
Judge of the Police Court of Springfield 
reported a diminution of drunkenness of 
more than 75 per cent. The present 
Mayor of Portland, the Hon. James B. 
Gaboon, states, in answer to certain in- 
quiries, that the number of intemperate 
heads of families brought to the alms- 
house in 1849, was 172; in 1850, 170; 
and in 1851, 128; but that in 1852, it 
was but 8G ; and in 1853 to October, but 
80. 

The resulc of reform in drunkards' 
families are familiar to all. Here they 
have been peculiarly happy, without the 
fear that the wretched father, sober and 
kind to-night, having perhaps signed the 
pledge, might to-morrow be seduced back 
by some open grog-shop, and return 



again to his wallowing in the mire. 
' Many a miserable inebriate,' said a 
gentleman in one of the principal towns 
in Maine, 'now walks our streets erect, 
showing himself a man, and making his 
fixmily happy.' ' The calls made for as- 
sistance in drunken families in Portland,' 
a City Missionary reported, ' have been 
less than one-seventh : and the cases 
where relief has been actually afforded, 
have been just one-sixth as many as 
during the same months under the pre- 
vious law.' 

Rev. Mr Wood of Lowell, says ; — ' Yes- 
terday, as I was riding, I was stopped by 
a loud call from a house containing four 
families; and, on entering, was greeted 
by a most violent shaking of the hands, 
and the countenance almost delirious with 
delight. " Come in, sir, come in ; my 
husband, ever since the law was passed, 
has been as steady as a clock. I want 
you to see him : and the house as nice as 
a pin. He works every day ; is as clever 
as the day is long ; the children are all 
tidy ; we have begun a new life ; thought 
you would like to see it." And I was 
right glad, for this family had to receive 
from me last winter nearly all their food, 
fuel and raiment, or they would have 
suffered greatly.' 

What heart can refuse a tear of thank- 
fulness at a single result of legislative 
action like this? 

DiJiiNUTiON OF Crime. — One mur- 
der, it is estimated, is committed every 
day in the United States, caused by 
rum ; and there are no less than 200 
suicides caused every year by intemper- 
ance. In the removal of the cause, 
will the evil continue ? 

From the same document from which 
we first quoted, Mr Dow's report as Mayor 
of Portland, it appears that the ' number 
of commitments to the jail of Portland for 
crime, from June 1 to December 1, of 
1850, the year prior to the law, was 192 ; 
for the corresponding months subsequent 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



75 



to its enactment, 89 ; bnt of these, 58 were 
liquor sellers. la Bangor the coaimit- 
ments for crime sank, in three months, 
from 19 to 8. In Lowell, Mass., the 
criminal business of the Police Court was 
reduced, in three months, 25 per cent., 
including liquor cases, and excluding these, 
38 per cent. 

Said a member of the Common Council, 
of Springfield, last autumn, and his de- 
claration was backed by the Mayor, 'By 
a careful collation of the records, it is 
shown that there has been a diminution 
oi thirty per cent, in the commitments to 
our House of Correction.' ' In Providence, 
R. L, the commitments for crime, in each 
of the first three months of the law, sank 
firom 161 to 99. They were one- third 
less than in the corresponding months of 
the preceding year.' — Mayor's Report. 

On the 7th of July, 1853, Levi Under- 
wood, Esq., States Attorney, of Chittenden 
County, Vermont, wrote : ' The law, so far 
as I have seen and known its operation, 
has put an end to drunkenness and crime 
almost entirely. Since the 8th of March, 
two complaints only have been made for 
such ofi'encas, and only one was car.sed by 
drunkenness. I consider the improvement 
the fruit of the " ilaine Law" and of the 
22d Section compeUing the drunkard, when 
sober, to testify against the vender who 
furnished him xvith liquor in particular. 
The law is more popular now than when 
first enacted.' 

The Editor of the Burlington Courier 
says, that 'in 1852, when the present jailor 
took charge of the jail, there were seven in 
its cells, and that there hare since been, 
at different times, thirty others; but now, 
since the Maine Law has had time to pro- 
duce its legitimate efi'ects, locks and keys 
are useless, as their jail is without a tenant. 
And further, he does not know that a similar 
state of things ever existed there before.' 

Political Economy op the Law. 
— The inhabitants of Maine, it is said, ex- 
changed annually two millions of dol- 



lars for intoxicating drinks. Mach of this 
went out of the State, bringing nothing in 
return to improve or enrich the people. 
The State would have been richer if all that 
was received had been poured into the sea. 
This sum now saved and expended upon 
farms, and dwellings, and roads, and ships, 
and schools, and colleges, and churches, 
year by year, must soon give the State, in 
every department, an elevation and strength 
not before contemplated. 

In each of the States of its adoption, 
the Maine Law has greatly added to the 
amount and availableness of human labour. 
Intemperate, indolent and vicious men 
have, under its operation, become sober, 
and ready and willing to go into the field 
and the workshop ; and the money that 
was wasted on liquor now brings into the 
family useful articles, and increases the 
demand for goods and provisions. The 
influence of the law on men employed on 
public works has been signally manifest. 
John M. Wood, Esq., of Portland, the 
contractor who built the Atlantic and St 
Lawrence Railroad, has employed thou- 
sands of workmen of different kinds and 
grades, both Irish and American, in Port- 
land, and along the line of the railroad to 
Montreal. From his own observation, and 
from information derived from his superin- 
tendents and agents, he has no hesitation 
in saying, that the law has been productive 
of great good — that his men, on the aver- 
age, have worked more days in the month, 
have been better able to perform their duty, 
and have had less ' sprees' than before the 
passage of the law. Then, it was common 
for many of them to come to their work 
with red eyes, and trembling from the 
efi'ects of excessive drinking over night, 
and many were turned away for this 
cause. Since the passage of the law, 
this has been of rare occurrence, so that 
he has been able to calculate with almost 
entire certainty, that in a force of fifty 
men, from forty-five to forty-eight would 
attend theu: work punctually; whereas. 



76 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



previously, not more than two-thirds could 
be relied upon to make their appearance 
on the ground, and mnny of those unfit to 
work. The difference, he says, in passing 
from Maine into New Hampshire, was 
very perceptible. As soon as they had 
got fairly into New Hampshire, they again 
suffered from the sprees and irregularity of 
a portion of their labourers. Since the 
passage of the law, the men have saved 
their money. Before, most of it was spent 
for liquor, and in idleness. In this respect, 
he says, the change has been very ap- 
parent. 

Public Peace and Order. — Said 
the Mayor of Augusta, six months after 
the enactment of the law: 'The police 
were usually called out one hundred nights 
in the year; since the enactment of the 
law, they have not been called out once.' 

In Bangor, where there was at certain 
seasons of the year a large gathering of 
lumber men, and river drivers, and rafts- 
men, the most noisy and contentious class 
of the community, living much amid 
grog-shops, the first winter presented a 
most striking contrast to the preceding, in 
which there had been violence, resulting 
twice in murder. A watchman who had 
been on duty eight years, testified that 'at 
no time for all that period had the streets 
been so safe and quiet.' — Prof. Pond. 

At the late State Fair in Vermont, 
Gov. Wright, of Indiana, stated, ' that in 
the two days he had attended, it had 
struck him with surprise that he had not 
seen a drunken man, nor any intoxicating 
liquor drank.' So it is in Maine. At all 
county cattle shows there is no drinking 
or disorder. — Hon. Neal Dow. 

Public Morals and Religion. — 
The Rev. Mr Hadley, of Portland, says : 
' Many here who were utterly callous to 
moral impressions are becoming susceptible 
of them ; we are beginning to exhume and 
resuscitate the stifled and almost extinct 
conscience. We begin already to perceive 
that many of these poor, neglected and 



apparently lost men, have souls, and are 
capable of high moral elevation. Long 
absentees are now gathered in the house of 
God. One hundred dollars will now ac- 
complish more for the moral improvement 
of the poor, than a thousand could under 
the reign of Alcohol.' 

Says the City Missionary of Lowell: 
' The good effects of the law are felt through 
all the business of the city, except one. 
The cause of education is benefited. The 
cause of morality also. And the cause of 
religion ; for the neglected house of God 
begins to be fitted for and sought. No 
one, I think, can take aught from these 
statements.' 

The City Marshal of Salem, Mass., testi- 
fies : ' Inebriates have been reformed, and 
comfort has been the portion of families 
heretofore made wretched by this vice.' 

The Puritan Recorder says — ' For many 
years a great annoyance has been felt in 
the cities and towns in the vicinity of 
Boston, by reason of a form of desecration 
of the Sabbath, which at first view seemed 
to have little connection with drinking 
habits. Through all the principal thorough- 
fares on Sunday, there was a constant 
succession of carriages, filled with young 
men from Boston, who made the Sabbath 
a day of recreation. But now, in those places 
where the Liquor Law has been executed, 
this nuisance has entirely disappeared.' 

Mr Dow says: ' The livery stable men of 
Portland declared that the Maine Law, in 
stopping Sunday riding, would ruin their 
business.' 

The Rev. W. Clark, of Boston, says : 
' Wherever the Maine Law has been faith- 
fully executed, or a community has in any 
other way got rid of the evils of intemper- 
ance, attendance upon the churches and 
Sabbath schools has greatly improved, and 
many of the reformed have become chris- 
tians.' 

In the report of the Maine Convention 
of Congregational Ministers for 1853, we 
find the following : 



THE abstainer's JOITRNAI,. 



77 



'The law works well, and promises well 
for the future. We are assured from 
various parts of the State, that it is win- 
ning friends from among those who first 
opposed it. It has certainly already 
wrought a favourable change in the aspect 
of things in many communities.' 

Canton. ' The beneficial results of the 
law have exceeded our expectations. The 
law has closed three-quarters of the rum- 
shops in this region. Crime, quarrels, and 
drunkenness have greatly diminished. 
The report of the Grand Jury of Norfolk 
County, at its last session, will prove this. 
Oue great benefit the law has accom- 
plished is this, it has driven the rum 
traffic into secret places. The fact that 
it cannot be found now without seeking, 
will prevent the fall of many young 
men.' 

While these natural and inevitable 
results of the Maine Law, faithfully and 
fully executed, stand out to the inspection 
of the public, no results of a disastrous 
and evil character have been known. No 
individuals have suS'ered in their property 
and support more than in other changes 
to which business transactions, com- 
mercial pursuits, and public property, 
are constantly subjected. Buildings used 
for the sale of liquors have soon rented 
for other and better purposes. Says the 
author of the Maine Law : ' In one street 
in Portland there were four " saloons " 
nearly side by side ; two of them are now 
clothing stores, one is a temperance 
grocery store, and one is a store for the sale 
of clocks in all their variety ; thus illustrat- 
ing the truth, that as men cease to spend 
their money for rum, they will buy more and 
better clothes and food, and will have the 
means to make all purchases necessary to 
the comfort of themselves and families.' 

In Fairfield, a farming town in Maine 
of 2400 inhabitants, there were 18 dram- 
shops. All but four were voluntarily 
closed on the passing of the law. These 
continued open until the magistracy laid 



its hand upon them, seized all their liquor, 
and poured it upon the ground. They 
were now without traffic, and their pauper 
tax, which the year previous was 1100 
dollars, was reduced to 300 dollars. The 
inhabitants met ; they had by their ope- 
rations cleared SOO dollars, and they 
i-esolved to add 600 dollars to their school 
fund, and keep 200 dollars to empty any 
other barrels that might come in. Pro- 
perty there is valued every year, and the 
tax in some measure regulates the valua- 
tion. The value, therefore, had nearly 
doubled since the destruction of the dram- 
shops.' 

In the month of October, 1 851, G. W. 
Pickering and about eighty others, leading 
merchants and business men of the city of 
Bangor, published the fjllowing card : — 

' To Owners and Masters of Ves- 
sels. — We, the undersigned, believing in 
good and wholesome laws, and in being 
engaged in a legitimate business, hereby 
agree that we wiU not patronise any ves- 
sel, or master of any vessel, who is known 
to smuggle liquors of any kind into this 
river, against the laws of this State, and 
the peace and happiness of its citizens.' 

Here is a testimonial of a high character 
to the excellent teachings of the law. 

In Chittenden County, Vermont, the 
Grand Jury, in a late presentment says : — 
'The Grand Jurors, in obedience to the 
charge of the Court, have inquired into 
the operation and efiect of the present 
Liquor Law, and are unanimous in the 
opinion of its good effect upon the morals 
and happiness of the community. They 
commend the fidelity of those officers of 
the law whose duty it has been to see this 
law enforced.' 

Recently, some public presses and two 
individuals, Mr John Neal, and Rev. 
Mr O'Donnell, of Portland, have publicly 
stated that the law is a failure; that it 
works badly every way ; that more liquor 
is sold in Maine than previous to its 
adoption ; and that in Portland drunken- 



THE abstainer's JOUKNAL. 



ness with all its attendant evils is worse 
than ever. But these declarations have 
heen at once rebutted by testimony which 
entirely destroys thera. 

The Eev. Mr Hadley, of Portland, 
says: — The law has not wholly annihi- 
lated the use of alcohol, nor corrected the 
vicious habits of all the slaves of appetite. 
But it has closed more than three hundred 
grog-shops, and stopped the open trade 
entirely. We have not now a drop manu- 
factured here — none comes through the 
Custom House, and most that is used is 
secreted in Irish dens. Genteel and 
fashionable families make some use of 
wines and liquors, — not a fourth part as 
much as formerlj-, and not more than 
they did three years ago. 

But more than this. Four hundred 
and thirty-three of the most reliable 
citizens of Portland, headed by Mr 
Cahoon, the present mayor, have given 
their names to the following : — 

Portland, October, 1853. — Our atten- 
tion has been recently called to statements 
made by two citizens of Portland, in rela- 
tion to the operation of the liquor law in 
this city and State. These statements 
are, in substance, that there is more 
intemperance, and more liquor sold and 
drank, iu this city and State, at the 
present time, than before the passage of 
our existing liquor law. We feel it our 
duty to unite in saying— as we do in the 
most unqualified terms — that we deem 
these, and all similar statements, as most 
grossly and p:ilpably erroneous and un- 
founded. 

In reply to several queries made of him, 
the Rev. Dr Burgess, Bishop of the Pro- 
testant Episcopal Church in Maine, says : 

Q. 2. 'Has it (the law) justified the 
expectations entertained in it by its 
friends at the time of its passage?' 

A. The evils of public drinking-shops 
and bars are removed, together with the 
interest of a large body of men in upholding 
them for their own pecuniary advantage. 



Q. 3. ' Have there been any reactions 

in public opinion, so as to indnce the 
belief that, at a future day, it might be 
repealed ?' 

A. In my opinion quite the contrary. 
Should the law be repealed, which seems 
in the highest degree improbable, it will 
be the result merely of political arrange- 
ments ; but I do not believe that any 
political party would venture on a measure 
so hazardous to its own prospects. 

Q. 4. ' Has the law been generally 
executed, and the amount of intoxication 
been speedily diminished in the State in 
consequence ?' 

A. The law has been, I believe, gene- 
rally executed, though not everywhere 
with equal energy; and the amount of 
intoxication been, in consequence, most 
evidently striking, and even, I think I 
may say wonderfully diminished. 

Q. 5. 'Has the health, wealth, morality, 
and general prosperity of the State 
been promoted by it ?' 

A. Unquestionably. 

Q. 6. ' Has the law been found in its 
operation to be oppressive to any citizens 
not guilty of its violation ?' 

A. So fiir as I know, not in the least. 

And now, in view of all these extra- 
ordinary and most gratifying results, 
authenticated and established beyond 
the power of contradiction, to what con- 
clusion shall we come but this: That a 
system of legislation which, in so short a 
period, can effect so much for humanity 
and the State, should everywhere receive 
the approbation and support of the philan- 
thropist, the patriot, and the christian, 
and as speedily as possible be adopted by 
every government that seeks the well- 
beins of its constituency. 



MEDICAL QUACKERY. 

BY JAMES MUfiKAY M'CULLOCH, M.D., 
DUMFRIES. 

Medical men are constantly calling out 
against quackery, and yet, in regard to the 



THE ABSTAINEK S JOUENAL. 



79 



prescnption of alcoholic drinks, they are, 
with a few honourable exceptions, from 
the highest to the lowest of the profession, 
guilty of more unscientific, indefensible, 
and unprincipled quackery in this respect, 
than all the pill and potion puffmg 
rascals in the public prints put together. 
There may be many medical men ignorant 
of the nature and physiological effects of 
alcoholic drinks, and I know there are 
a great many; but they have no right 
to he so. The public are apt to believe, 
that if a medical man is eminent or 
clever, he must know all about the 
medicinal uses of these drinks also ; but, 
unfortunately for the public, this is a 
great mistake; I am sorry to say that, 
in regard to these drinks, I cannot 
accord to the great bulk of my professional 
brethren the miserable plea of entire 
ignorance. They knoiv that by pre- 
scribing them they chime in with a most 
extensively prevalent popular prejudice ; 
that in most cases they will please their 
patients, and they attempt to quiet their 
consciences by saying, ' If we don't pre- 
scribe them, another will, and we will 
lose our patients over and above.' The 
v/ord unprincipled I have therefore used 
with regard to such conduct, and I have 
used it deliberately. From a variety of 
causes which are capable of easy removal, 
the medical pi'ofession, 1 am sorry to say, 
has lost, and is losing a great amount of 
the public confidence. This is not only 
injurious to the profession, but also to the 
public; and their quackery, in prescribing 
these drinks for weakness, indigestion, 
fatigue, disease of the heart, nervousness, 
low spirits, nursing, etc., is adding, and 
will add most extensively to tliis want of 
confidence. The public (I don't mean 
the abstainers, they know it well) are ex- 
tensively becoming acquainted with the 
nature and effects of these di'inks. Such 
men as Mr Gough, Mr Vincent, and Dr 
Lees, from the platform, the trials in 
public courts, and a host of publications, 



treating on these subjects, more especially 
that masterpiece of scientific and logical 
analysis, by one of the first physiologists 
and philosophers of Europe — I mean Dr 
Carpenter's prize essay on alcoholic drinks, 
now popularised, sold for a shilling, and 
getting into thousands of houses in all 
ranks of society — will cause medical men 
soon to find that such prescriptions will 
lose more patients than their drink-pre- 
scribing quackery will retain. I would 
earnestly advise all patients to whom 
these drinks are recommended, to buy 
and read that essay carefully ; it will en- 
tertain, instruct, and save them from much 
danger; then let them ask the doctor who 
has prescribed the wine, or beer, or brandy, 
etc., to them, if he has read it, question 
him upon it, and upon his grounds and 
reasons for so prescribing ; he cannot, he 
dare not adduce the usual sham reasons, 
if he knows that they are well acquainted 
with that essay ; and then, let them tell 
him, ' We do not intend to keep ourselves 
invalided for your behoof Having spoken 
of this admirable essay, allow me to say 
that I differ most respectfully from Dr 
Carpenter in his opinion of the efficacy 
and propriety of using bitter beer in cer- 
tain rare and exceptional cases of indi- 
gestion. I do so most deferentially, but 
it appears to me that we must shut our 
eyes and reason to a great proportion of 
the undeniable facts, and incontrovertible 
reasoning previously contained in that 
essay, and take in lieu of it, a mere 
assertion as to the case of Dr Joseph 
Clarke of Dublin, and one single undetailed 
case under his own observation, before we 
can admit the propriety of his views on 
this point. Turn to the fully-detailed 
case of the venerable and talented Dr 
Bostock, contained in appendix D of Dr 
Carpenter's original prize essay. There 
you have an old man of seventy who used 
these drinks all along as temperately as 
Dr Clarke, all along having very delicate 
health and frequent ailments, giving them 



80 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



up entirely at sixty-six, and very soon chiefly centre, becoming the very hot-bed 



afterattaining excellent health, whilst there 
is no detail of Dr Clarke's case whatever, 
is it not evident, that if Dr Bostock had 
continued to use these drinks and died at 
seventy, that his case might have been 
adduced as logically in favour of them as 
Dr Clarke's ? As to the case Dr Carpen- 
ter has personally observed, he surely 
ought to publish a most minute and 
extended statement of it. No man in 
Europe knows better than Dr Carpenter 
that a name or reputation, however great, 
cannot and will not be taken in the place of 
scientific facts and reasoning ; and in this 
case, when it is directly opposed to his own 
previously recorded facts and deductions, it 
can only be called, a?j unsupported opinion. 
In conclusion, in this as in my previous 
paper, I have used common instead of tech- 
nical words, merely describing sjmptoms, 
and not diseases, and I earnestly recom- 
mend all who wish to know these life and 
death topics, to buy and study Carpentei''s 
essay, or the popular edition of it by Bohn 
of London. 



THE POOR CHILDREN OF OUR 
GREAT CITIES. 
A GREAT social discovery of a Committee 
of the House of Commons * claims prece- 
dence of all the scientific additions made 
this year by the savans. In June last the 
committee reported : — 

' That it appears to be established by 
the evidence, that a large proportion of 
the present aggregate of crime might be 
prevented, and thousands of miserable 
human beings, who have before tliem 
under our present syscem nothing but a 
hopeless career of wickedness and vice, 
might be converted into virtuous, honest, 
and industrious citizens, if due care were 
taken to rescue destitute, neglected, and 
criminal children from the dangers and 
temptations incident to their position.' 

How sad to find that class in which all 
hopes of the world's improvement must 



* Report on Criminal and Destitute Chil- 
dren ; ordered by the House of Commons to 
be printed, 2Sth June, 1853. 



of the direst social evils ! Think of 
children, 9, 12, and 14 years of age 
respectively, no less than 16, 12, and 24 
times in custody. Parents there are, 
who, living on the horrid gains of their 
young ones, trained to vice, have snatched 
them from those who would save them, 
and cast them back again to destruction ; 
and so rapid is the course of crime, that 
of those entering Leeds gaol for the first 
time, nearly 70 per cent., it is stated, 
return hardened criminals; and, of the 
8,000 annual first committals, nearly a 
thousand complete their terrible gradua- 
tion. To back the philanthropic in their 
benevolent efforts, to arouse a heedless 
community, the cost of crime lends its aid. 
A juvenile criminal, from first to last, 
costs the country from £200 to £300, 
while for £25 or £30 each might be 
trained in a ragged school ; the annual 
cost of juvenile delinquency being esti- 
mated at not less than £1,000,000. It 
is evident that we cannot overtake this 
fearful mass of delinquency by our present 
system of reformatory institutions. All 
the witnesses before the committee speak 
most despondingly, almost despairingly, 
upon this point. And statistics go to 
prove how small the field private philan- 
thropy has been able to occupy, and how 
giei.t the need of additional means. Thus, 
in Edinburgh, while there are only 500 
children being trained in the ragged 
schools, no less than from 2,000 to 3,000 
children stand in need of instruction. 
Viewing the subject from our own position, 
we think we can put our finger upon the 
cause of the evil. 

The Rev. G. B. Renzi, chaplain of 
Leeds gaol, says : — 

' There appears to be a very general 
agreement of opinion among all persons 
who have been brought in contact with 
criminals that juvenile crime is to be 
traced to the parents; and I think we 
should inquire whether there are not 
some special circumstances affecting the 



THE ABSTAINEB'S JOTJKKAI,. 



81 



condition of the lower orders of the people, 
calculated to induce those habits which 
result in the neglect and ill-usage of the 
children.' 

Hear, again, the chaplain of Livei^pool 



' Before speaking of prevention, I think 
we must direct our attention to removing 
every inducement to crime. If existing 
measures have been found to promote de- 
pravity and wretchedness in the people, 
we ought not to apply ourselves to ex- 
tensive remedies until we have first done 
all in our power to remove the inciting 
causes. As long as these remain un- 
checked, we must look for poor results, 
and expect disappointment.' 

What, then, are the causes ? One sen- 
tence comprehends them — parental vice 
and neglect, chiefly induced by habits of 
intemperance. Of the 297 children com- 
mitted to Edinburgh prison in 1846, 37 
were the ofi^spring of utterly wortlJess 
parents, and 200 the offspring of drunken 
and depraved parents. Dr Guthrie in- 
forms us ' that 99 out of every 100 parents 
of ragged school children are dissipated 
characters.' And he further adds, ' The 
spirit-shop is the great cause of filling our 
poor-houses, our prisons, and our ragged 
schools.' 

But let ns look a little closer at the 
matter ; when Sir Walter Scott would 
have shown Crabbe the many natural and 
architectural beauties of the modern 
Athens, the poet stopped him, and asked 
to be taken instead, to the homes and 
haunts of the poor, to those tall, reeking 
closses — the scandal and bye-word of 
Edinburgh. Pace up the High Street of 
the northern metropolis, for instance, and 
around you, what melancholy, all-absorb- 
ing studies ! Here are the manufactures 
and their products ; here the system and 
its victims. Almost every second shop is 
a spirit-shop. And it is all glare and 
bustle; your eyes are bedazzled by the 
polished brass and the blaze of gas-light ; 
while on the walls gorgeous cartoons, re- 
mind you of Ceres, and the horn of 



plenty, and of the land of joyous verdure 
and pleasant sunshine. But down yonder 
are wretched hovels, which the red Indian 
would despise. The sun scarce enters; 
but cholera and typhoid hold wild revels 
amidst these crowded dwellings, reeking 
sewers, and noxious abominations. You 
try to enter, but human impediments 
block up the gateway ; bleared, shrunken 
forms, with naughty gait, and hideous 
speech. 

' Bite at the bosom, stai-veling young, 
Thy father is drunk, thy mother is dead. 

Live to be doom'd, live to be hung — 
A pauper, a felon, but die in no bed.' 

Talk of education! Yes, a fearful 
training awaits the denizens of these 
closses. There is no half-Usped hymn, or 
well-loved bible tale ; but the stern 
teachers — poverty, hunger, cruelty, and 
despair. The name of God is heard but 
in oatb. The Sabbath is a very hey-day 
of debauch. Drink, drink — the young 
soul is reared in a very atmosphere of 
wantonness and drink. In the recent 
survey made of Edinburgh Sabbath-drink- 
ing in May last, 3032 children below 
eight, and 4631 between eight and four- 
teen years of age were observed to enter 
the dram-shops. 

In many of our great cities special 
gins and snares are prepared for the young. 
The Rev. Mr Carter of Liverpool lately 
entered a large building, which formerly 
for many years had been a place of public 
worship, but is now a beer-house, in which 
are given theatrical representations. Par- 
ties entering pay 3d, for which they 
receive a ticket, entitling them to a glass 
of ale, or a bottle of ginger beer ; they 
witness the performances, and are expected 
to call for more. 

The low lodging-houses of London seem 
very dens of infamy and vice, and one of 
the great causes of juvenile delinquency. 
No less than 70,000 persons nightly take 
shelter in those places; and of these, 
according to the last return, 1782 were 
children. Of the young men in Mr Nash's 



d2 



83 



THE abstainer's JOUBNAL. 



Colonial Training Institution, 90 out of 
100 ascribe their ruia chiefly to the lodg- 
ing-houses and low theatres. Captain 
W. J. Williams says, that in many cases 
the homes for the London poor are so 
wretched and intolerable, that he can 
easily conceive a child of the youngest age 
seeking relief from them in the streets. 

It is to the wretched homes, and to the 
more wretched parents' hearts that we 
must chiefly ascribe juvenile delinquency. 
Its hiding-places may be fixed, in greater 
or less degree, in all our great cities, — for 
this vice is almost wholly confined to 
those centres of population and commerce. 
A living picture will, better than words, 
describe the evils consequent to these 
localities. The following is part of a 
report recently made on juvenile crime, 
by several of the magistrates and most 
influential gentlemen of Newcastle and 
Gateshead, and their neighbourhood : — 

'We think it right in stating a few 
cases to show the actual circumstances 
under which many children become crimi- 
nal, and to enable persons to form their 
own judgment on the propriety of punishing 
such children by whipping or imprison- 
ment, and on the possibility of reformation 
under our present system. 

' In M — 's Entry there are 45 families ; 
of these 45 mothers, 40 are more or less 
addicted to drink ; in some houses, six 
or eight persons may be found sleeping 
in one room, without any separation or 
distinction of sex or age ; the language is 
most obscene — the place is the picture of 
misery. 

' In D — 's Court, there is a woman with 
her two sons, one 19 years of age, a miser- 
able, sickly boy ; the other 10 years of 
age. They live in a room 10 feet by 5 ; 
it is nearly dark, and contains no furniture. 
The mother is an habitual drunkard, the 
children, without food and nearly naked, 
are driven upon the streets, where they 
exist by begging. 

' A. B lost her mother when she 

was fourteen ; her father, a drunken pro- 
fligate, sold every article of furniture, and 
turned her on the streets. At seventeen, 
she was foimd in a dark, damp cellar in 

G Street, where she had lain down to 

die — and in fact she died shortly after. 
' Mr and Mrs E., in B , can earn 



28s a-week; they are frequently drunk 
for a week together ; they have two little 
girls, seven and nine years of age, who are 
utterly neglected, and, associated with all 
the worst children of the street, are being 
trained for a life of vice and misery. 

' Two sisters, S , their mother died 

when they were ten and thirteen years of 
age. Their father left them to starve, 
and occasionally locked them out at 
night. They were encouraged by other 
girls and by an old woman to steal from 
shop doors, and the articles stolen were 
disposed of at night. Their father even- 
tually married again, and turned them on 
the streets.' 

Thus it is, that thoroughly to eradicate 
juvenile crime, we must wage fierce war 
with all its prevalent inciting causes: — 
the over-crowding of families, with its un- 
avoidable result, the intermixture of both 
sexes and all ages ; parental neglect and 
vice, utter ignorance, unbridled licentious- 
ness, brutal intemperance, destitution, 
filth, corruption and misery. Preventive 
or reformatory schools, like fever or cholera 
hospitals, are, from their very nature, 
merely temporary institutions. We must 
repress, and not merely provide for the 
ravages of this great moral epidemic. 
Common sense would teach this ; and 
glad we are to find the veterans in the 
cause supporting this view of the question. 
One witness most forcibly draws attention 
to the great need of primary education ; 
sanitary reform found also most warm 
advocates. Some would deal with the 
lodging-houses ; others, the licensing 
system ; and another would suppress the 
beer-houses. These may indicate the 
further line of inquiry into this dark social 
problem. For, why disguise it ? we have 
as yet only reached the surface of the 
malady. Nor, need we grow weary or 
disheartened. When we have traced these 
cancerous roots of the malady as they 
extend and ramify to the very vitals of our 
social state, — when we have laid bare all 
this dread anatomy, then, and not till then, 
may we conquer the disease. And, with 
a christian, large, unprejudiced spirit this 



THE ABSTAINER 8 JOUENAL. 



83 



may soon and speedily be done. Another 
commission of inquiry would mightily 
help this ; but so, too, would a larger and 
more liberal extension and support of 
those counteractive agencies already in 
use, — the social and sanitary reform 
movements, improved dwellings, model 
lodging-houses, and the other seeds of 
good, already so widely scattered through- 
out the land. With a more thorough and 



concentrated action of the religious, edu- 
cational, social and sanitary forces, — there 
might soon be no need of ragged schools. 

But this can never be, — nay, all our 
efforts will be vain and fruitless, — a very 
rolling of the stone of Sisyphus, unless 
we cast out from amongst us that agent 
which has made those fathers so brutal, 
those mothers so sunken and depraved. 



Sfeetcfj. 



MR GOUGE'S ORATORY. 
with illustrations. 
Part Second. 



Mr Gough possesses in an eminent de- 
gree what almost no other public speaker 
ever makes the slighest pretensions to — 
we mean tragic power. Unembar- 
rassed by conventional rules, he expresses 
every passion, from the most tender to 
the most hideous, with an overwhelming 
reality. * He paces up and down twelve 
or twenty feet of platform, judiciously left 
clear for him,' says the Nonconformist — 
'paces up and down like an inspired mad- 
man, with hands clenched as in agony, 
or pawing the air to keep off the ghosts 
of memory — pouring out words with such 
spontaneity that they sometimes seem to 
tumble one over another, and smother 
meaning in their fall — scarcely stopping 
at a cheer, never inviting one. He tells 
you with gestures even more significant 
than his passionate and sometimes beau- 
tiful words, — how he went out from the 
home of a poor but pious, loving mother — 
wandered from the straight road — was 
whipped by demons over an arid desert — 
fed upon the hot sand in his burning 
thirst— felt a word of mercy like cooling 
water on his tongue — saw a rainbow of 
hope over the abyss of seven years of sin 
— and was restored to strength and purity, 
if not to happiness.' 

That which, on the lips of another, 
would be bombast, is on his lips true 
oratory. What other speaker would 
attempt a flight so daring as the following, 
and be rewarded with a cordial outburst 
of genuine feeling, instead of a torrent of 
derision that would send him home a wiser 
man ? ' Look at a drunkard ! What is 



he? Look at him! Gibbering in the 
idiocy of drunkenness, the dull waters of 
disease standing stagnant in his eyes, sen- 
suality seated upon his cracked, swollen 
lips. What is he ? His intellectual be- 
come devil, his animal become beast. 
What is he? See him swept out with 
the pitiful leavings of a dram-shop, the 
horrible stench of the last night's debauch 
clinging to him. What is he ? Society 
has shaken him out of her superabundant 
lap as a thing unworthy of love or pity. 
Yet is he a man — not a thing ; a man — 
not an animal ; a being, having a man's 
heart, a man's brain, a man's sensibility, — 
that can stand up and say, " I am greater 
than all God's material universe ; that is 
but the nursery of my infant soul, sublime 
as it is. Which is greater, the child or 
the nursery? I am greater than God's 
material universe. I can say to the sun, 
' I am greater than thou art, thou glorious 
orb, for I shall be when thou art not. 
When thou hast perished, when ten thou- 
sand storms have passed over the moun- 
tain tops ; when the hghtnings of heaven 
shall no longer play on the highest pin- 
nacles of the earth ; when the stars shall 
melt and disappear; when the universe 
shall be moved as a cottage, and all ma- 
terial things shall pass away in the final 
crush of doom — I shall still live; for 
within me is the fire of God, a spark of 
immortality that cannot be put out.' " 
(Loud applause.) Now look at him — 
poor, miserable, besotted, creeping wretch, 
in his deep, dark, damning debasement, 
and will you not curse the influence that 



84 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



makes him what he is ? Will you not, in 
the name of a common humanity, come 
up upon the mighty battle-plain, and war 
against the instrumentality that thus de- 
bases a human brother ?' 

Although he professes no talent for 
poetry, he evidently possesses poetic in- 
spiration in a very high degree. The 
conception of the following is as much 
distinguished by genius as its delivery was 
distinguished by the highest oratorical 
power : — ' No man ever received solid 
satisfaction in wicked pursuits that he 
could long enjoy and hold fast. " Aha ! 
aha!" he says, "now I am happy." It 
has gone from him. And the enjoyment 
that men can obtain in this world, apart 
from the enjoyments that God has sanc- 
tioned, are enjoyments that lead to de- 
struction, through the power of fascination, 
habit, and excitement. It is as if a man 
should start in a chase after a bubble. 
Attracted by its bright and gorgeous hue, 
a gay set of merry companions with him, 
it leads him through vineyards, under 
trellised vines, with grapes hanging in all 
their purple glory — through orchards, 
under trees, bearing their golden, pulpy 
fruit — by sparkling fountains, with the 
music of singing birds. He looks at life 
through a rose-coloured medium ; and he 
leads a merry chase. In the excitement 
he laughs and dances, and dives and laughs 
again. It is a merry chase. By and by 
that excitement becomes intense — its in- 
tensity becomes a passion — its passion 
becomes a disease. Now his eye is fixed 
upon it with earnestness, and now he 
leaps with desperation, pleasure, and dis- 
appointment, mingled with excitement; 
now it leads him away from all that is 
bright and beautiful — from all the tender, 
clustering, hallowed associations of bygone 
days ; it leads him up the steep hot sides 
of a fearful volcano. Now there is pain, 
anguish in the chase. He leaps, falls, and 
rises; scorched, and bruised, and blis- 
tered. Yet stUl the excitement and power 
of evil habit become almost a passion. 
He forgets all that is past, or strives to 
forget it in his trouble. He leaps again. 
It is gone ! He curses and bites his lips 
in agony. He shrieks the wild, almost 
wailing shriek of despair. Yet still he 
pursues his prize, knee-deep in the hot 
ashes. He staggers up, with torn limbs 
and bruised, the last semblance of hu- 
manity scorched out of him. Yet there 
is his prize, and he will have it. With 
a desperate effort he makes one more 
leap ; and he has got it now ; but he has 



leaped into the crater with it, and with a 
bursted bubble in his hand he goes to his 
retribution !' 

Some have complained of a want of the 
argumentative, and a more thorough deal- 
ing with the philosophy of the question. 
To reason, however, it is not necessary to 
employ the form of argumentation. Mr 
Gough reasons by means of facts and 
figures, and by a single illustration carries 
to the mind a conviction more deep and 
abiding than any form of logic ever could. 
His mode is to make a statement, some- 
times very startling, and then, by a simple 
illustration, leave upon the mind a convic- 
tion of the soundness of his position. For 
instance, he asserts that the moderate 
drinker is more dangerous to society than 
the drunkard ; and ere that portion of his 
audience who feel their conduct impuned, 
have recovered from the shock which the 
speaker's audacity has given them, he 
has them half convinced that he is right 
and they are wrong, ' You are walking 
along the street,' he says, ' and you meet 
a drunkard,' and here the speaker's power 
of mimicking comes to his aid — there is 
the maudlin look, and the zig-zag gait, 
and the drivelling tone of voice ; ' and he 
lays his hand upon your shoulder, and 
asks you to turn in with him to the ad- 
joining shop and have a dram; and if 
your boy waits till he takes his first glass 
with a creature like that, he is safe. But 
the same evening a fair one challenges 
you to drink, and you reply, " with plea- 
sure, madam." ' Now, no argument could 
be half so effective in carrying conviction 
upon one of the most important points of 
the whole question. 

While it would be wrong to ascribe Mr 
Cough's power to any one quality, much 
of it doubtless lies in the religious feeling 
by which he is possessed, and which often 
gives a most healthy and impressive tone 
to his addresses ; indeed, we have some- 
times thought that the cause of religion 
will reap as much good indirectly, as tem- 
perance itself from his visit to this country. 
In addition to his frequent references to 
scripture, and allusions of a religious 
character, his explicit acknowledgments of 
its importance in alliance with the move- 
ment have been most refreshing. But 
in addition to all this, he affords a striking 
illustration of the old pagan remark — 
' He is a terrible man that does one thing;' 
and of the secret of his power who said, 
' This one thing I do,' A man, to be truly 
great at any one time, must be, as it were, 
the embodiment and representation of one 



THE ABSTAIlfBfi's JODBNAL. 



85 



idea. The man who can speak upon any 
subject with most creditable ability, will 
not be so mighty for good as he would be 
did he but speak upoc one. Gough, by 
confining himself to a single theme, be- 
comes the embodiment of the one great 
truth he advocates. The man who has 
but one topic is felt to be terribly in 
earnest ; and by his devotion to that one 
theme, he becomes greater in its illustra- 
tion than if his attention and study were 
divided among a dozen. Sincerity, ear- 
nestness, determination, evince themselves 
in every address ; and it is these, allied with 
powers of the highest order, which give 
him such supremacy on the temperance 
platform. ' You have been pleased to 
speak of my efforts,' said he at his farewell 
soiree in Edinburgh. ' Why, I could not 
help making these efforts, for without 
them I could not lie down and sleep. It 
is necessary to my very existence that I 
should make these exertions ; for I sup- 
pose I am like one of your dolls with 
quicksilver in them — I must always be 
moving up and down — (laughter and ap- 
plause) — I am like a jnmping-jack, and if 
the string be not pulled this way it would 
be pulled some other.' (Renewed laughter 
and cheers.) 

Mr Gough's mission is doubtless to 
create an interest upon a question which 
all admit to be important, but which few 
will consider with candour and attention. 
And in fitting him for this ofiice, God has 
qualified him in a remarkable manner. 

Why was such a susceptibihty of feehng, 
why was such a power of utterance, why 
was such a skill of dehneation given to one 
man ? Why did he pass through a course 
so varied, and witness evil in the most 
appalling form, and know wretchedness in 
some of its lowest depths? What was 
all this but the tuning of the instrument, 
the education most appropriate for the mis- 
sion to which it was preparatory ? That 
such a nature should have given way before 
the tide of temptation by which it was 
met, we wonder not; we wonder rather 
that a bark so fi-ail should have outlived 
such a storm. We stand not forward as 
the apologist for any man's errors. Sins 
keenly scrutinised by their perpetrator — 
follies mourned over by the soul that has 
reaped their bitter fruits — acts which have 
been subjected to the severest self-censure, 
are placed alike beyond either apology or 
reproof. But if these most touching con- 
fessions uncover the hell of agony in which 
the inebriate agonises, and begets in any 
mind the resolution to shun the alluring 



path which opens amid flowers, but con- 
ducts to the region of a drunkard's woe, 
we hail the messenger, and God speed his 
mission. 

That Mr Gongh has his faults, his most 
discerning fnends will be the last to deny. 
We no more would contend that he is a 
perfect orator, than that he is a perfect 
man. 

' Whoever thinks a faultless piece to see, 
Thinks what ne'er was, nor is, nor e'er shall 
be.' 

His defects and blemishes have been fully 
pointed out by the public press, and 
generally in a spirit of generous criticism ; 
and he is too wise a man not to profit by 
them. Our object has not been to criticise, 
but to describe ; and in closing, would 
simply add, that all in all, we have never 
seen, and never expect to see, his equal 
upon the temperance platform. 

One thing has surprised us in listening 
to Gough, and it is this, that his recitation 
of poetry never produces a telling effect. 
It is not so with other speakers. Let a 
few lines be quoted, and there is a deeper 
attention and evident elevation of feeling 
in the audience. Now, why is it not so 
in the case before us? Is it that Mr 
Gough recites poetry indifferently ? "While 
he greatly surpasses most men in the 
manner in which he quotes firom the poets, 
we do not think that he is equal to himself 
in this department. But the reason, we 
apprehend, is chiefly to be found in the 
fact that his entu-e addresses are so full of 
poetry, that a formal quotation forms no 
suflBcient contrast to the general style, ' 
greatly to impress. Poetry in the addresses 
of others rises firom the level of common 
prose, and hence the contrast is apparent, 
and the effect consequently perceptible. 
And here, we think, may be found one 
of the defects of Mr Gough's oratory. 
Powerful as it is, it would be more so did 
a less impassioned style pervade his ad- 
dresses. It is well enough to be some- 
times on the mountain tops; but, we 
confess, that in ^=i .--al we like to gaze 
from the plain beneaiu on these glorious 
seats on which sit enthroned the majesty 
of Nature. 

_He is, no doubt, greatly indebted to his 
voice. It is one of singular compass and 
flexibility — passing rapidly from the hoarse, 
rough cry of the naval commander, as he 
issues his orders through his speaking- 
trumpet, to the gentle whisper of a litUe 
child. More still is he indebted to his 
fine ear. Again and again he has avowed 
his passion for music. Now, no man 



86 



THE ABSTAINEK'S JOtJBNAX. 



ever can be a good speaker without a good 
ear. Ear is as essential to speaking as it 
is to music. Wherein then hes the pecu- 
liarity of Mr Gough's power? Other 
speakers may possess greater powers of 
argumentation, and equal capability of 
presenting their thoughts in the garb of 
appropriate illustration. Others may equal 
him in the richness of their voice, and the 
correctness of their ear. He may not sur- 
pass others in the depth of his religious 
feelings and in the earnestness of his pur- 
pose. Not a few may equal him in the 
experience of a drunkard's wretchedness ; 
but he surpasses all in his power of present- 
ing scenes and conceptions by appropriate 
tones, attitudes, and expressions. In a 
word, his style is dramatic — it is true to 
nature, and therefore it is effective. 

It cannot be doubted that much of Mr 
Gough's success arises from the times in 
which his lot has been cast. Had he ap- 
peared thirty years ago, and spoken as he 
does, he might have been regarded as only a 
clever fool. Napoleon's appeal to his sol- 
diers under the shadow of the Pyramids of 
Egypt — ' Forty centuries look down upon 
you ;' and Nelson's famous saying before 
the battle of Trafalgar — ' England expects 
every man to do his duty,' — derived all 
their force, and took rank among the 
finest specimens of military and naval 



eloquence, in consequence of the circum- 
stances in which they were uttered. We 
recollect of reading in the hfe of Dr M'Crie, 
that he published a work upon the subject 
of church establishments, which fell dead 
on its first appearance, but which rose to 
a most vigorous existence so soon as the 
question of which it treated became the 
subject of the day. Gough, therefore, 
owes much to the public sentiment in 
behalf of his theme, which less famous ad- 
vocates had been instrumental in creating. 
The effect of his eloquence we regard as 
a proof that even in these days of the 
might of the press, the platform is as 
mighty an engine as ever. We are told 
that with the advance of intelligence there 
will come a decline of the power of the 
public teacher. We don't believe it. 
They labour in a common field, and yet 
the one cannot supersede the other. The 
permanency of the speaker's vocation is 
founded in a law of human nature. As 
long as there is pathos in tones, and ex- 
pression in looks, his office will assert 
its supremacy. The entire press of 
the kingdom, aided even by the power 
of steam, could not have so effectually 
awakened the response of almost every 
home in the land, and shaken so terribly 
the very strongholds of Satan, as the single 
voice of this remarkable man. 



Efje Abstainer's Journal. 



Glasgow, Apbil, 1854, 



COUNTY AGENCIES. 



This subject was brought under the 
consideration of the last annual meeting 
of the League, and favourably entertained. 
We are happy in being able now to present 
our readers with the results of a year's 
experiment, made by the Dunse Total 
Abstinence Society. In the Keport just 
pubUshed it is stated that — 

' As soon as this measure was resolved 
on, a subscription paper was circulated 
among the landed proprietors and other 
gentlemen connected with the county. 
Out oi forty gentlemen applied to, only 
four declined to subscribe for this object. 
Mr A. Beattie, the agent appointed, has 



visited much from house to house, and 
entered into conversation with the people 
on the subject of temperance. He has 
regularly addressed numerously attended 
meetings, at forty-five different stations 
in the county. He has, besides, cir- 
culated large numbers of temperance tracts 
on the various aspects of the abstinence 
question, so that there are now few, if 
any, of the families in Berwickshire, who 
have not had full opportunity of becoming 
acquainted with the evil we deplore, as 
well as with the claims of the remedy 
which abstainers propose. Mr B. has in 
this manner gone over the entire county 
six times during the year. He has, in the 
same period, delivered above two hundred 
temperance addresses, and circulated about 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



87 



sixteen thousand tracts; in all, above 
thirty thousand tracts have been circulated 
in connection with the agency. 

' The results of these operations for the 
advancement of sobriety are in the highest 
degree satisfactory. In connection with 
this agency, since its commencement, 
1874 persons have been added to the 
lists of abstainers, of whom six hundred 
and forty have joined at the meetings of 
the agent. Ten new societies have been 
formed in the county ; five of these have 
been organised by the agent. Through- 
out Berwickshire there are now about 
412S enrolled total abstainers, so that 
one person out of every nine of the entire 
population of the county is pledged as an 
abstainer from all intoxicating drink; in 
some of the parishes there is one in every 
five.' 

We cannot but congratulate our friends 
at Dunse on this happy issue to their 
sagacity and enterprise. The peculiar 
advantages of such local agencies seem to 
be the following : — 

The temperance cause is brought to 
every fireside — an achievement which the 
periodical visits of an ordinary advocate 



cannot be expected to accomplish. A 
kindly superintendence is also exercised 
over those who join our ranks — a duty be- 
yond the sphere of an ordinary advocate. 

The energies and resources of the friends 
of the cause are more fully developed. Men 
will do for their neighbours what they 
will not do for strangers, and the efi^ects 
of their labour stimulate to continued and 
yet greater efforts. 

And finally, the influential in the 
district are not only got to contribute, 
but seeing around them the fruits of their 
liberahty, they are induced to regard with 
interest a movement which formerly 
secured neither their favour nor aid. 

When it is stated that £1 00 yearly will 
pay the salary of an agent, purchase 
tracts, and cover all incidental expenses, 
we do not see why every county in the 
kingdom ought not to set about organising 
such an agency. We are glad to learn 
that Haddmgton have resolved upon 
commencing operations immediately. 



APOSTOLIC APHORISMS. 

No. II. 
' Work while it is day ; for the night cometh, when no man can work.'— Our Lord. 



Work while it is day ! 
Wait no coming morrow ; 
Sloth will eat all heart away ; 
Idle hands bring sorrow. 

Though to fresh young eyes. 
Gazing through life's portal, 
Robed in light the future lies, 
Radiantly immortal ; 

Mirage-like it may 
Mock thee with its seeming ; 
Fmit-crown'd shade, and flow'ry way, 
Bloom but in thy dreaming. 

Edinburgh. 



Waste not youth's rich dower, 
Far-off bliss pursuing ; 
While the glorious present hour, 
At thy side stands wooing. 

While the sun is high. 
Work with brave endeavour ; 
Ere on Night's cold breast thou lie. 
With clasp'd hands for ever. 

Toilers in life's field ! 
Seed now sown in sorrow. 
Glorious fruitage yet shall yield, 
Through an endless morrow. 

G. L. 



THE abstainer's JOTJBNAL. 



S>tlzcti(in&. 



LIFE ON BOARD A TEMPERANCE SHIP. 



Mr Thorpe, an intelligent working man, 
who sailed to Australia in the John Bar- 
row, the first ship to leave England on 
total abstinence principles — has sent home 
a written narrative of his voyage, claim- 
ing a great triumph for the experiment of 
literal temperance. Part of Ids letter is 
as follows : — 

There were some few on hoard not 
friendly to our principles, who would have 
it go forth to the world that we were not 
better off than we should have been in 
drinking ships ; but when I hear, as I have 
heard since I have been here, by otliers 
who have come out, what they have suflFered 
— when I hear of broken heads and broken 
ribs — when I hear of some six or eight 
drunken fellows taking possession of the 
forecastle, and defying the captain and the 
whole ship's company, and the captain un- 
able to command through drunkenness — 
when I hear of captains, when drunk, 
giving orders to steer in a contrary way, 
and the sailors to shift sails when they 
are properly set — when I hear of a regular 
police court being established on board to 
try the drunken and disorderly — when I 
hear of the mate falling overboard, and 
the captain going after him to try to save 
him, both drunk, and the captain so drunk 
as to be forced to be strapped down — I 
say when I hear all this I give the lie to 
such an assertion, and I contend that our 
principles are vastly superior to the drink- 
ing ones. 

Again, when I think of our moral and 
rehgious privileges, here also our prmciples 
shine forth. Never, I should say, in the 
world's history did a vessel of our size 
leave the port of Southampton, or I may say 
England, under such auspices as we did. 
As regards our religious privileges we were 
highly favoured — we had always, with but 
one or two exceptions, our regular services 
on Sunday three times, and during the 
former part of our voyage we had the 
prayer meetings on board nights and mor- 
nings (during the latter part of our voyage 
we were forced to dispense with our mor- 
ning service), and enough praying men on 
board to engage during the week. I think 
few country dissenting churches could 
boast of more praying men in connection 
with them than we had. There were 
Dissenters, Wesleyans, and Wesleyau Re- 
formers, and all acting in peace and har- 



mony. We had our monthly Missionary 
Prayer Meetings. Then we had our Bible 
Class, Mutual Improvement Society, 
Day School, Singing, a Class for gene- 
ral topics, and a good library. Who 
would have the courage to say (if I 
may call it courage) that all this had 
no effect on the moral character of those 
on board? Although there were some 
who did not care to join us in our 
efforts to raise our fellow-men, yet we 
trust our exertions were not all in vain ; 
and when I hear of vessels going out with- 
out all this, and scarcely any kind of wor- 
ship on board at all, I am constrained to 
say again that our principles have tri- 
umphed. 

Then again, as regards the conduct of 
our officers and crew, here onr principles 
have displayed themselves— first, in our 
Captain, and of him I cannot speak too 
highly. He is a worthy fellow — a rough, 
honest, open-hearted Comishman. He 
carries away with him the good wishes of 
all the ship's company. I am only sorry 
they did not do him the justice they ought 
to have done. I do not know how it was, 
but it was driven off too long, as it was 
intended to have presented him with a 
testimonial (and he richly deserves it), 
and a handsome one, too. I trust if he 
again visits your port (and I hope he will) 
that you wiU give him a cordial reception, 
and that the Temperance Society in Lon- 
don will do so too. We owe a debt of 
gratitude to Captain Cary, and he has my 
best wishes. I hope I shall again have 
the pleasure of seeing him here. Till then 
may Providence bless and preserve him ! 
Whenever anything like a squall or danger 
threatened, there was Captain Cary always 
at his post, night or day. I have been up 
on deck at night, when it has been rough 
and stormy, and he was there. After a 
storm he would come below, and inquire 
after us — ' Well, how are you ; all well ?' 
'Yes, Captain.' 'That's right; you may 
go to bed now, it's all over.' Once a 
heavy sea struck us, and we thought we 
were going down — our vessel lay on her 
side for some time ; he flew to the helm, 
our gallant bark answered and righted, 
and he again came to us and restored and 
cheered as. Supposing he had been under 
the influence of strong drink at the time, 
and he might have been and his men too, } 



THE abstainer's JOURNAIi. 



89 



for it was very trying for them all at the 
time i we bad had rough weather, wet and 
cold ; but instead of strong drink they had 
tea and coffee, therefore they were all calm, 
cool, and collected. Our mates, Messrs 
Smith and Bryant, and the whole of the 
crew, were a credit to any captain in the 
world. I never saw a more orderly set of 
men — as sailors there was no disorder; 
they behaved themselves as men ought to 
behave, every order was answered with 
an ' ay, ay, sir,' and away they went. 
Anything that Captain Gary could do for 
the comfort of the passengers he would do. 

All this, sir, I think, speaks highly for 
our principles. If ever I have to make a 
voyage again, nothing but a temperance 
ship will do for me. I would strongly im- 
press it upon you to advise all your friends 
who contemplate coming out, to be sure 
and come out in a temperance ship. This 
is my advice to all my friends. 

Mr. Tliorpe concludes with saying — 
' My advice is, to all who are doing well 
at home, remain there ; to those who can- 
not get on and can work, especially those 
with families, come out by all means, only 
make up your minds to rough it. But the 
great curse to the colony is strong drink ; 
drink — drink — drink — it's all drink. 
Those who wish to do here must come out 
abstainers.' 



DRUNKENNESS A PHYSICAL EVIL. 

However regenerate a man's heart may 
be, he will never be drunk so long as he 
abstains from drink. There is all the 
difference in the world between covetous- 
ness and drunkenness. We know that 
the desire to possess what it sees, is an 
instinct in the child; that it will endeavour 
to procure the coveted object — that it will 
conceal or excuse its faults ; and all this, 
if you will, springs from the heart. Nay, 
you may trace, as that child grows np to 
manhood, the tendency to commit all the 
crimes forbidden in the decalogue ; but do 
you observe any tendency to drunkenness, 
until that tendency is created by drink, 
until it is produced by artificial means ? 
Mark the difference. The tendency to 
lying or theft springs, and without any 
external application, naturally from the 
heart; you may trace its manifestations, 
and very properly you bring your christian 
principle to correct and subdue it ; but the 
tendency to drunkenness is not manifested 
until a foreign agent is forced into the 
stomach, runs through the system, disturb- 
ing its healthy action, altering its condi- 



tion, and finally affecting the nerves and 
the brain. What is drunkenness then but 
a physical evil — like all physical evils, 
lying at the root of a host of moral evils ? 
The appetite for strong drink is a disease, 
created hy what it feeds on ; requiring the 
physician, not the parson. Drunkenness 
comes within the category of those ' physi- 
cal evils, which are,' using your own 
words, ' within the range of man's power 
to alleviate, and which God has made it 
obligatory upon us to devise and use 
means for that purpose.' The appetite for 
strong drink is utterly incompatible with 
a healthy condition of body. Is it not 
worthy of inquiry, whether an article 
which, in no great quantity, will make a 
man drunk, ought to be taken into the 
human stomach at all ? Do such effects 
as excitement, stupor, and drunkenness 
indicate dietetic adaptations? I am not 
learned in doctrine, and I do not pretend 
to any critical acumen in expounding 
texts ; but I believe the gospel does thus 
much for us — that it promises divine 
assistance upon all proper means employed 
to secure proper ends. I believe that in 
trying to promote good drainage, an 
efficient water supply, and proper ventila- 
tion among the poorer classes, I am using 
the means most likely to subdue and pre- 
vent disease, and that in teaching men 
the nature and properties of intoxicating 
drinks, I am not only taking the most 
efficient means to subdue drunkenness, 
but I am promoting their physical and 
moral improvement, and acting as much 
under the sanction of divine promise, as 
the man who, feeling himself called to 
another department of labour in the vine- 
yard, is speaking to their spiritual necessi- 
ties. — Thomas Beggs, Esq. 



ALCOHOL CHEMICALLY AND 
MORALLY ANALYSED. 

Alcohol is a colourless, transparent fluid, 
yet it soon colours the eyes, arid gives to 
the proboscis a beautiful cherry-red colour. 
It is obtained from fermented liquors by 
distillation ; it ferments the whole man, 
and distils over all that is good, or beauti- 
ful. Alcohol is derived from the Arabic 
word alcool, or alkool, signifying 'very 
subtle,' 'much divided.' It enters into 
the inmost recesses of the human heart, 
giving entrance to the worst promptings 
of Satan, and soon divides the household. 
It was first suggested by the devil, inven- 
ted by an Arab, and is now made by 
poisoners, and drank by fools. Its specific 



90 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



gravity is about 83, but when it enters 
one's cranium, it makes its gravity about 
5000. It boils at a temperature of 176 
degrees, and sets the passions to boiling at 
100. It does not congeal at any known 
degree of cold, but congeals every feeling 
of love and honour in the human breast. 
In the open air it burns with a pale blue 
flame, leaving no residue. When swal- 
lowed, it biuns with flames as black as 
night, and leaves a residue of sin and moral 
corruption almost inconceivable. Pure 
alcohol is composed of carbon, hydrogen 
and oxygen. In the form of whisky, 
brandy, and wine, it contains, in addition, 
vitriol, verdigris, tartar-emetic, tobacco, 
red-pepper, and oil of dead rats, flies, bugs, 
and vermin. It dissolves soap, vegetable 
extracts, several of the acids, oils, resin, 
and balsam, as well as the dearest and 
strongest ties of love and consanguinity. 
It combines with sulphur and the pure 
fixed alkahes, and its subjects with the 
worst dregs of society. It is an exceedingly 
active and diffusive stimulant ; it excites 
cowards to brawls, riots, theft and murder; 
it increases the action of the heart and ar- 
teries; also the number of widows, orphans, 
and maniacs. It produces insensibility, 
sleep, and finally, delirium, convulsions, 
and Death. — Model American Courier. 



JOHN KEMBLE'S HABITS. 

John Kemble was convivial in his habits, 
fond of late hours, and a humorist after a 
peculiar fashion. But his jokes were some- 
what sepulchral ; and even when under the 
influence of Bacchus, he never relaxed from 
his habitual solemnity and importance of 
manner. When a young actor, he fancied, 
by a strange delusion, that he possessed 
the attributes of gay, dashing comedy. 
Tate Wilkinson tells us that he selected 
Plume, Doricourt, Archer, and such parts, 
to please himself, and not by the desire of 
the managers. A smile on his counten- 
ance appeared to wonder how it got there. 
As Croker says, in the Familiar Epistles, 
it resembled the plating on a coffin. He 
then observed — • 

'Young Mirabel by Kemble play'd 
Look'il like Macbeth in masquerade,' 

and adds, in a note, ' I have had the mis- 
fortune to see this exhibition ; truly it was, 
as Shakspeare says, "moKt tragical mirth."' 
Reynolds tells an amusing anecdote, for 
which he quotes the authority of Kemble 
himself. In 1791, the great tragedian chose 



to act Charles Surface. Some time after- 
wards Reynolds and Kemble met at a dinner. 
The flattering host asserted that Charles 
Surface had been lost to the stage .since the 
days of Smith, and added, that Kemble's 
performance of the part should be con- 
sidered as Charles's Restoration. On this 
a less complimentary guest observed, in 
an under tone, that it should rr.ther be 
considered as Charles's Martyrdom. Kem- 
ble overheard the remark, and said, with 
much good humour, ' I well tell you a story 
about this, which proves that you are right. 
Some few months ago I happened to be in 
liquor, and quarrelled with a gentleman in 
the street. On the next mornini;, when I 
came to ray senses, I felt that I was in the 
wi'ong, and offered to make him any reason- 
able reparation. " Sir," interrupted tiie 
gentleman, " at once I meet your proposal, 
and name one — promise me never to play 
Charles Surface again, and I shall be per- 
fectly satisfied." I gave the promise, and 
have kept it.' — Dublin University Maga- 
zine, Feb., 1854. 



TEMPERANCE IN NOVA SCOTIA. 

Half-way to Windsor, the coach stopped, 
professedly for dinner ; but the meal, ac- 
cording to what I afterwards found cus- 
tomary in roadside inns, was of no such 
distinct character. In a neat upper room, 
with a blazing wood-fire on the hearth, a 
table was spread with an entangled com- 
plication of dinner and tea. As I never 
could acquire the habit of taking tea at 
one o'clock as a finish to a solid meal, I 
declined the offer of a cup; but all the rest 
of the company, chiefly farmers, made this 
their only beverage ; a circumstance which 
showed the remarkable extension of tem- 
jjcrance principles in the country. Not a 
di-op of intoxicating liquor was consumed ; 
and I may add, that during all this journey 
in Nova Scotia, I saw no beverage stronger 
than tea or coffee. I cannot say I admire 
the fashion of taking tea to dinner, any 
more than that of beginning breakfast with 
potatoes, which seemed everywhere com- 
mon ; but anything is better than an ever- 
lasting appeal to the gill-measure or pint- 
pot. I was beginning to see new social 
developments — farmers solacing them- 
selves with tea instead of whisky, and 
commercial travellers who can dine without 
consuming half-a-crown's worth of sherry. 
— Things as tliey Are in America, by Win. 
Chambers. 



THE ABSTAINER'S JOURNAL. 



91 



THE CAUSE OF CRIME— JUSTICE 
TALFOURD'S LAST WORDS. 
In our last, we gave the melancholy cir- 
cumstances connected with the death of 
Justice Talfourd, at Stafford, on Monday, 
together with the leading facts of his life. 
The greatly-esteemed judge, when seized 
with the illness which terminated fatally 
in a few minutes, was deploring the increase 
of crime and endeavouring to trace its 
causes. He said — ' I cannot help myself 
thinking, it may be in no small degree 
attributable to that separation between 
class and class, which is the great curse of 
British society, and for which we are all 
more or less in our respective spheres in 
some degree responsible, and which is more 
complete in these districts than in agricul- 
tural districts, where the resident gentry 
are enabled to shed around them the bless- 
ings resulting from the exercise of benevo- 
lence, and the influence and example of 
active kindness. I am afraid we all of us 
keep too much aloof from those beneath 
us, and whom we thus encourage to look 
upon us with suspicion and dislike. Even 
to our servants we think perhaps we fulfil 
our duty when we perform our contract 



with them — when we pay them their 
wages, and treat them with the civility 
consistent with our habits and feelings— 
when we curb our temper and use no vio- 
lent expressions towards them. But how 
painful is the thought that there are men 
and women growing up around us, minis- 
tering to our comforts and necessities, con- 
tinually inmates of cur dwellings, with 
whose a.Tections and nature we are as 
much unacquainted as if they were the in- 
habitants of some other sphere. This 
feeling, arising froTr; that kind of reserve 
peculiar to the English character, does, 
I think, greatly tend to prevent that ming- 
ling of class with class, that reciprocation 
of kind words and gentle affections, gracious 
admonitions and kiud inquiries, which 
often more than any book education tend 
to the culture of the affections of the heart, 
refinement, and elevation of the character 
of those to whom they are addressed. And 
if I were to be asked what is the great 
want of English society — to mingle class 
with class — I would say, in one word, the 
want is the want of sympathy.' These 
were the Ir.st words he uttered. — Glasgow 
Uerald. 



©tJtis anlJ ^ litis. 



Testimony of the Chancellor of 
THE ExcHEQCEK. — Mr Gladstone, in 
announcing his late budget, said : Another 
measure with respect to which I wish to 
give information to the committee, is the 
augmentation of the spirit duty iu Scot- 
land. The result of that measure is also 
perfectly satisfactory, for, though there is 
an apparent defalcation on the amount of 
increase which I ventured to anticipate, it 
is a defalcation fairly to be explained by 
circumstances entirely apart from the aug- 
mentation of the tax, and especial!}- from 
any suspicion of an increase of illicit dis- 
tillation. (Hear.) I estimated in April, 
1853, that the addition to the revenue 
from the Is added to the spirit duty on 
Scotland would be £278,000. As I now 
estimate the produce of that tax, its amount 
will be, not £278,000, but only £209,000. 
It is known to all gentlemen connected 
with Scotland, and to many also who are j 
not so connected, that a stro/iff religious ! 
sentiment has settled, if I may use the ex- I 
pression, in that country against the gre'tt 
consumption of spirits ; and that state of 
public opinion led during the last year to 
the enactment of a restrictive law in this 



house, by a bill, which, by greatly naiTow- 
iiig the means of selling spirits, led neces- 
sarily to a diminution in their consump- 
tion. Accordingly, we find the increased 
revenue from the augmented duty on spirits 
amounts only to £209,000, instead of to 
£278.000; but I have the utmost satis- 
faction in stating that there is not so much 
as a breath of suspicion that any part of 
that diminution is connected with a revival 
of illicit distillation. 

A Surfeit of Intoxication. — The 
Spectator mentions a curious remedy in 
use in Swedish hospitals, for that form of 
madness which exhibits itself iu the uncan- 
trollaule appetite for alcoholic stimulants. 
The process may be easily described. We 
will supj;cse that the liquor which the pa- 
tient is addicted to drinking is the common- 
est in the country — say gin. When he 
enters the hospital for treatment, he is 
supplied with his favourite drink, and with 
no other; if anything else is given to him, 
or any other food, it is flavoured with gin. 
He is in heaven — the very atmosphere is 
redolent of his favourite perfume ! His 
room is scented with gin ; his bed, his 
clothes, everything around him ; every 



92 



THE ABSTAINER 8 JOURNAL. 



tnoutbfal he eats or drinks, everything he 
touches ; every zephyr that steals into his 
room brings to him still gin. He befits 
to grow tired of it— begins rather to wish 
for something else — begins to find the op- 
pression intolerable — hates it — cannot bear 
the sight or scent of it ; longs for emancipa- 
tion, and is at last emancipated : he issues 
into the fresh air a cured man ; dreading 
nothing so much as a return of that loathed 
persecutor which would not leave him an 
hour's rest in his confinement. 'This 
remedy,' says our contemporary, ' appears 
to have been thoroughly effectual — so effec- 
tual, that persons who deplored their un- 
controllable propensity have petitioned 
for admission to the hospital in order to be 
cured: and they ham been cured.' 

DlSC< VERY OF A STILL IN A ChURCH. 

— Considerable sensation has been created 
in this neighbourhood by the discovery of 
a still in Euxton Church, near Chorley. 
A few weeks ago some workmen were em- 
ployed in making some repairs in the 
church, when they discovered, concealed 
underneath the pulpit, a perfect still. The 
minister of the church, whose parsonage is 
adjoining, was apprised of the circum- 
stance, and the still was removed from the 
pulpit into the vestry. Notwithstanding 
the above extraordinary fact became known 
to a few individuals, so well has the secret 
been kept that it was only on Saturday 
night last the Excise became acquainted 
with it. Early on Monday morrjing, there- 
fore, Mr Peacock and Mr Bently, Excise- 
officers of inland revenue, obtained a search- 
warrant from Captain Anderton, of Euxton 
Hall, and, proceeding to the parsonage first, 
found a part of the still in the pantry ; 
another portion was found in the coach- 
house, and, on searching the church, the 
remainder was found under a heap of other 
things in a cupboard in the vestry. The 
still being thus completed, was brought 
away by the officers to Chorley, and the 
particulars of the seizure communicated 
to the Board of Excise in London. — Pres- 
ton Chronicle. 

Lord Byron's Account of a Party' 
WITH Sheridan, etc. — It was first silent, 
then talky, then argumentative, then dis- 
putatious, then unintelligible, then alto- 
gethery, then inarticulate, then drunk. 

The Ti mperance Ship California. 
— The officers and passengers of the tem- 
perance ship California, on completing the 
voyage to Australia in October last, in 
heiilth and comfort, without the use of 
alcoholic drinks (except for medicinal 
purposes), signed a declaration of their 



conviction that it would materially cou- 
duce to the safety, welfare, and comfort of 
emigrants if the voyages were conducted 
upon that principle. 

A Moderate Man. — Dr G. Fordyce 
contended that as one meal a day was 
enough for a lion, it ought to suffice for a 
man. Accordingl}', for more than twenty 
years, the doctor used to eat only a dinner 
in the whole course of the day. This 
solitary meal he took regularly at four 
o'clock, at Dolly's Chop House. A pound 
and a half of rump steak, half a broiled 
chicken, a plate of fish, a bottle of port, a 
quarter of a pint of brandy, and a tankard 
of strong ale, satisfied the doctor's mo- 
derate wants till four o'clock next day, 
and regularly engaged one hour and a 
half of his time. Dinner over, he returned 
to his home in Essex Street, Strand, to 
deliver his six o'clock lecture on anatomy 
and chemistry. — Salad for the Solitary. 

Distilleries in Caithness. — At a 
meeting in Wick on the 1 st inst., Mr Dunn, 
excise officer, stated that there were five I 
distilleries in Caithness which annually ] 
manufactured S0,000 gallons of whisky, 
all for home consumption, at a cost of 
£40,000, or £,5000 more than the assessed 
rental of the county in 1815, or about 
half the real rental at present. He be- 
lieved the population of the county was 
about 38,000, which would on an average 
give two gallons to every man, woman, and 
child. But as the children could not use 
the whisky, and as the ladies, of course, 
never polluted their lips with the poison, 
tiiere must be a good share to some people. 
The Brewer's Dog. — A Strathspey 
correspondent sends the following to the 
Inverness Courier: — 'Taking an evening 
walk lately, accompanied by another per- 
son, along the road near Grantown, I saw 
two men supporting a third, who appeared 
unable to walk. "What is the matter?" 
I inquired. "Why," replied my friend, "that 
poor man has been sadly bitten by the 
brewer's dog." " Indeed," said I, feeling 
rather concerned at the disaster. "Yes, 
.sir, and he is not the first by a good many 
that he has done mischief to." " Why is 
the dog not made away?" "Ah, sir, he 
ought to have been made away with long 
ago, but it wants resolution to do it. It is 
the strong drink, sir — that's the brewer's 
dog."' 

Alcohol a Poison. — At the request 
of several gentlemen, Professor Youmans 
delivered a lecture, and exhibited his 
chemical chart, in Dr Tyng's vestry, on 
Monday evening, the 13th nit. About 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



93 



300 were present. The substance of his committed the ofifences, with which they 
lecture is in his book, of which we give were charged, under the influence of in- 
an epitome. His lecture was extempore, I toxication ; 114 were known to be of 
and, at times, quite eloquent; and, as he i dissipated habits; 47 were doubtful; and 
developed truth, he was often loudlv ap- only 15 were known to be sober persons.' 
plauded, especially in an experiment in | Does it not appear manifest, from such 
which he showed that alcohol was a j testimony as this, that but for the license 
poison. This he did by taking the white j and drinking system nursing intempe- 
of an egg (which is albumen, like to that j ranee among us, our jails would be almost 
portion of the masticated and digested ! whoUj' untenanted ? our police force, so 
food which nourishes) in a wineglass, ; needful now, might be well nigh spared; 
and adding to it known poisons. The ; and the communiij' freed from a burden 
effect of this was to harden, or turn the ' of taxes, that presses so heavily on pro- 
h'quid into a solid, or very thick jelly, perty and industry in the land. — Report 
He tirst added to it corrosive sublimate, of the Dunse Society. 
It immediately underwent a change of I Politeness. — There is something 
colonr, and solidified. He nest added oil higher in politeness than christian mora- 



of yitriol ; the same effect was produced. 
Next, cloro-hydrociauic-acid. The same. 
Next, Aquatbrtis. The same. Nest, 
creosote. The same. And nest, alcohol. 



lists have recognised. In its best form, 
simple, out-goin^, all-pervading 
I spirit, none but the truly religions man 
I can show it. For it is the sacrifice of 
The same. When this was seen, all at (self in the little habitual matters of life 
once were ready to exclaim with the I — always the best test of our principles — 
lecturer — ' the folly of taking alcohol together with a respect unaffected for 
into the stomach to help digestion !' A | man as our brother under the same grand 
vote of thanks was returned to him for ! destiny. 

hb lecture, and he was earnestly requested | He who lies in bed during a summer's 
to deliver a course in the city. | morning, loses the best part of the day ; 

Beerhouses and Robberies. — The j he who gives up his jouth to indolence, 
Grand Jury at the Manchester quarter , undergoes a loss of the same kind, 
sessions this week made the following I The Letter H. — Five of the sweetest 
presentment at the close of their duties, to ' words iu the English language begin with 
Mr R. B. Armstrong, the recorder : — H, which is only a breath — Heart, Hope, 
' Resolved, That this jury has noticed Home, Happiness, .and Heaven. Heart 
particularly that many cases of robbery, is a hope-place, and home is a heart-place, 
etc., have arisen, or been induced, or pro- aud that man sadly mistaketh who would 
moted by brothel keepers, who are exchange the happiness of home for any- 
sheltered by being licensed beerhouse- thing less than heaven, 
keepers, and this jury is of opinion that THE PARTING GIFT, 

some extra means should be used to pre- As sung by Sir James Graham at the Re- 



vent parties keeping brothels from obtain- 
ing a licence to sell beer. The jury ex- 
pressly refer to cases Nos. 70 and 71 in 
the calendar.' This evil greatly requures 
correction in Manchester. 

Intemperance and CRniE. — The 
keeper of the jail at Dunse furnishes 
this remarkable testimony : — 'I find, 
upon examining my journal, that dur- 
ing eight years past, 579 persons were 
apprehended under my cognisance for 
crimes and misdemeanors. Of these, 403 



form Club. 
(Tenderly.) 
I give thee all, I can no more, 

Though poor the offering be ; 
I give thee leave to declare war 
Within the Baltic i>ea ! 
(Jauntily.) 
And if they ask thee why it is 

I give this leave to thee ? 
It is because we ' baiih hae got 
A drappie in our ee I' 

Morning Herald. 



©perations of tfje Srotti'sfj STratp trance Urague. 



SERMON AND PUBLIC MEETING. 



delivered a discourse in Dr King's Church 
Albion Street, on the evening of Sabbath, 
At the request of the Directors of the 19th ult. The church was well tilled, 
League, the Rev. Wm. Reid, of Edinburgh, and tl:e preacher, choosing for his subject 



94 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



the parable of the good Samaritan, was 
listened to with marked attention, as he 
vividly depicted the pitiable condition 
into which the victim of the drinking 
system has been brought, denounced the 
sinful apathy which would leave him in 
his wretchedness and guilt, and com- 
mended that movement which seeks to 
raise him, and conduct him to a place of 
safety. 

On the evening of Monday, the 20th, 
a meeting of the members and friends of 
the League was held in St Enoch's Hall, 
Dixon Street. John M'Gavin, Esq., pre- 
sided, and addresses were given by Revs. 
J. W. Borland, and John Williams, 
Glasgow, and Wm. Eeid, Edinburgh. 

THE LEAGUE AGENTS. 

PLACES VISITED DURING THE PAST 
MONTH. 

SixCE last report Mr Easton has con- 
tinued his labours in and around Dum- 
fries, visiting Old Abbey, Dunscore, Iron- 
gray, Crocketford, Haugh of Urr, Dal- 



beattie, Kirkbean, New Abbey, Auldgirth, 
Gaston, Mousewald, Caerlaverock, Kirk- 
mahoe, Torthorwald, Terregles, Kirkmi- 
chael, Lochend, Collin,Dumfries, Closeburn, 
Auchencairn, and Lochmaben. 

Mr Anderson has vjsited Aberdeen, 
Fraserburgh, Rosehearty, Stuartfield, 
Newbyth, Cumineston, Ellon, TurriiF, 
Banff, Aberchirder, Keith, Elgin, Find- 
horn, Forres, Edinkillie, and Grantown. 

Mr M'Farlane has visited Linlithgow, 
Paisley, Bridge of Weir, Houston, Loch- 
j winroch, Beith, Kilbirnie, East Kilbride, 
! Ardrossan, Stevenston, and Kilwinning. 
[ Mr Duncan has visited Ewart Park, 
\ Lowick, Galewood, Heiton, Haymount, 
: Miilfield, Forge, Ford, Kilham, Wooler, 
j Yetholm, Mcrebattle, Smailholm, Kelso, 
I Melrose, Earlston, Lauder, and Oxton. 

Mr Scrimgeour has visited Dunferm- 
line, Crossgates, Lochgelly, Kinross, Fordel, 
Limekilns, Inverkeithen, Burntisland, 
Linlithgow, Torphichen, Kinghorn, Kirk- 
caldy. West Wemyss, East Wemyss, 
and Kennoway. 



Ccmpcrance Wcins. 



SCOTLAND. 

EDINBURGH TOTAL ABSTINENCE SOCIETY. 

The progress of the cause in Edinburgh, 
during the past month, has been highly 
encouraging. Since last report, eight puldic 
meetings have been held in different parts 
of the city, at which lectures and addresses 
have been delivered by the Revs. William 
Reid, James Ballautyne, of Edinburgh; 
A. D. Kininmont, Leith ; John M'Kenzie, 
late of Ratho; Peter M'Dowall, Alloa; 
Archibald M'Donald, M.A., Manchester; 
Joseph Brown, D.D., Dalkeith ; J. W. 
Jackson, Esq. ; John Stewart, Esq., Editor 
of the Edinburgh News; Messrs. T. H. 
Milner, A. J. Murray, and William Blair, 
M,A. The audiences have been numerous 
and respectable, and the various speakers 
have with much earnestness, eloquenoe, 
and zeal, enforced the claims of total ab- 
stinence on all classes of the community. 
Such an amount of talented advocacy can- 
not fail to be followed by lasting good 
effects. The series of sermons has just 
been brought to a very successful and 
satisfactory termination. Since last month, 
four sermons have been preached in the 
Music Hall, by the Revs. (x. D. M'Gregor, 
Portobello ; J. L. Aikman, Edinburgh ; 
Duncan Ogilvie, Broughty- ferry ; and the 
Rev. Joseph Brown, D.D., Dalkeith. The 
audiences have on all these occasions been 
crowded, and at the last, hundreds had to 
retire for want of room. 



} The committee are at present busily 
engaged, in getting up a new series of tracts 
in a neat style, the first three of which are 
nearly ready — No. 1 , by the Rev. Horatius 
Bonar, D.O., of Kelso; No. 2, by John 
Stewart, Esq., Editor of the Edinburgh 
News ; and No. 3, by Archibald Prentice, 
Esq., of Manchester ; to be followed by 
nine others from the pens of several dis- 
tinguished authors. They have also com- 
menced a series of popular concerts, in the 
Waterloo Rooms, on the Saturday and 
Monday evenings, in order, if possible, to 
supply to some extent, a want long felt 
by the industrious classes in large towns. 
These are carried on under the direction of 
Mr Edmond Hamilton (of the Royal Har- 
monic Hall, Perth), the celebrated vocalist 
and performer on the harmonium. So far as 
they have gone, they have given great satisfac- 
tion and seem to be appreciated. The result 
of the whole has been, that during the month 
nearly five hundred have been enrolled 
members of the society. 

United Kingdom Alliance. 
The Edinburgh Auxiliary of the United 
Kingdom Alliance was inaugurated on 
Thursday evening, 9th March, when an 
enthusiastic and crowded audience assembled 
in the Music Hall. In the unavoidable 
absence, from family affliction, of the Rev, 
Berkeley Addison, M.A., president of the 
Auxiliary, the chair was occupied by Sir 



TOE ABSTATSEK 8 JOUENAL. 



95 



Walter Trevelyan, Bart., who presided, it 
may be remembered, at the inaugurative 
meetiog of the Alliance at Manchester. 
The speakers were the Revs. AVLlliam 
Amot, of Glasgow (Free Church) ; W. 
Reid, of Edinburgh (United Presbyterian) ; 
Dr M'Kerrow, of Manchester (United 
Presbyterian) ; A. Wallace, of Edinburgh 
(United Presbyterian); W. Ritchie of 
Dunse; William Graham, of Newhaven 
(Established Church); and Fraucis John- 
ston, of Edinburgh (Baptist) ; and Messrs 
Forsyth, R. Foulis, M.D., and F. R. Lees, 
Ph. D. The resolutions were all adopted 
with enthusiasm. 

GLASGOW. 

Soiree to J, B. Gough, Esq. 

On Tuesday evening, Feb. 28, the ladies 
of the Glasgow Temperance Visiting Asso- 
ciation gave a splendid soiree, in the City 
Hall, in honour of J. B. Gough, Esq., on 
the occasion of his departure from Scotland 
for some months, to fulfil other engagements. 
The hall was densely crowded in every ac- 
cessible part, hundreds having been unable 
to procure tickets of admission. Archibald 
Livingston, Esq., president of the United 
Abstinence Association, who occupied the 
chair, stated that during February Mr Gougb 
had addressed seven meetings in Glasgow, 
attended by upwards of 20,000 persons, and 
that he had written the pledge in eighty- 
three ladies' albums. Addres;es were given 
by the Revs. Alex. Wallace and William 
Reid, Edinburgh, after which Mr Mitchell, 
in name of the committee of the Ladies" 
Visiting Association, presented Mr Gough 
with a beautiful silver tea set, elegantly 
inlaid with gold, bearing an inscription ex- 
pressive of the kind wishes of the association 
on behalf of his lady and himself. Mr 
Gough made a suitable reply, which he fol- 
lowed up in a brilliant oration of nearly an 
hours length. The proceedings terminated 
at a quarter past eleven. On Slonday even- 
ing Mr Gough gave an address to a crowded 
audience in Hope Street Gaelic Church, 
under the auspices of the Free Church Ab- 
stainers" Society. 

Atmiversary Soiree. 

The Milton Foundry Total Abstinence 
Society celebrated its first anniversary by 
a soiree on the evening of the 22d Feb., 
in the Caledonian Hall, Buchanan Street. 
150 sat down to tea. Sevei-al addresses 
were delivered, interspersed with songs and 
recitations. 

New Temperance Organisation. 

At a large and influential meeting of 
gentlemen, belonging to various temperance 
associations in Glasgow, held on Wednesday 
evening, March 22d, in Welsh"s Temperance 
Hotel, after an interesting conversation, it 
was resolved unanimously to form a new 
organisation, under the designation of 
' The Glasgow Abstainers" Union,' when the 



following gentlemen were appointed office- 
bearers : — Neil M'Neill, Esq., president ; 
.Messrs William Melvin and Ebenezer 
Anderson, vice-presidents ; Mr John Lamb, 
treasurer; Mr N. S. Kerr, secretary. 
Committee — Messrs William Fulton, 
Thomas Brown, Robert Stark, Thomas 
Steel, Archibald Bow, William Scott, 
Robert Robertson, Hugh Lamberton, 
James Morton, and James Cunningham ; 
with a list of honorary directors. 

CALDER IRO.\ WORKS. 

A lecture on intemperance was delivered 
by the Rev. A. M. Wilson, of Airdrie, in 
Mr Baird's School-room, Calder Iron Works, 
on the evening of Wednesday, March 1, to 
a large and attentive audience, when fifteen 
new members were enrolled — making 235 
in whole since the formation of the society 
in August last. 

AIRDRIE. 

The Maine-law principle is said to have 
been successfully enforced in the neighbour- 
hood of Airdrie. For a loner time the work- 
men in the employment of the Monkland 
Iron and Steel Company were observed to 
be growing more and more dissipated in 
their habits. Not unfrequently the works 
were brought to a stand, owing to the men 
being drunk instead of at their work. It 
was judged that things would continue in 
the same state so long as whisky was sold 
at the stores ; so, a short time since, an 
order was given for the total discos tiniiance 
of the sale of that article. The result has 
been of a highly satisfactory kind. Di-un- 
kenness has greatly decreased, and the men 
are to be found regularly at their work. 

DUNBLANE. 

The Dunblane Total Abstinerce Society 
held a soiree in the \-illage of Kinbucic 
Schooi-room, on Wednesday evening, March 
15 — Mr Duncan Dochart, president of the 
society, in the chair. Addresses were de- 
livered by Messrs John Robertson, Vale of 
Leven, and James Morison. vice-president 
of the society ; and a r.uraber of temperance 
melodies were s-jng. — The total abstinence 
society of this place originated in Kinbuck, 
in January, 1839, and is at present in a 
very prosperous condition. 

PROGRESS OF THE CAUSE IN AYRSHIRE. 

A meeting of delegates from various 
societies was held at ^lauchline, on the 15th 
March. Mr Robert Howat, merchant, 
Galston, having been called to the chair, 
the meeting was opened with prayer by Mr 
Gavin Cleland. 

The several delegates gave reports respect- 
ing the various societies which they repre- 
sented, and which were generally of an en- 
couraging character. The members of the 
conference also expressed their views as to 



96 



THE ABSTAINER 8 JODRNAI,. 



the propriety of abstainers countenancing 

entertainments where intoxicating liquors 
are used. The general opinion expressed 
was, that each must be left to judge for him- 
self 'in a matter of this kind. 

The meeting then proceeded to consider 
what measures ought to be adopted to make 
this conference practically advantageous in 
promoting the temperance principle, when 
the following resolutions were unanimously 
adopted : — 

1. 'That this meeting considers it would 
tend much to the diffusion of temperance 
principles in the district, if soirees and other 
public meetings were held as frequently as 
possible in connection with the cause ; and 
would therefore recommend that societies 
should assist each otherin pro vidingspeakers, 
singers, etc., on these occasions.' 

2. ' That this meeting highly approve of 
the objects of the Scottish Temperance 
League, and the delegates present agree to 
use the utmost exertions, in their several 
localities, in procuring additional members, 
and generally furthering the schemes of that 
association, which is the most efficient 
organisation that has ever been formed in 
Scotland in connection with the temperance 
question.' 

3. 'That this meeting would recommend 
the several societies not to entol members 
until the pledge has been fully explained to 



subject of Temperance Libraries under con- 
sideration. 

DUNFERMLINE. 

The First Annual General Meeting of the 
Adult Total Abstinence Society was held 
in the Baptist Chapel, James's Street, on 
the evening of Tuesday, the ■28th February. 
John Davie, Esq., president, in the chair. 
During the short period of this society's ex- 
istence, its directors have not been idle, as 
the following extract from the secretary's 
report will show : — 

The society was formed on the 11th May, 
1853, and its pledge signed the same evening 
by i4 individuals. The number of enrol- 
ments since the formation is 215 — giving an 
average of about 23 per month. 56 of these 
were formerly in connection with the ' Dun- 
fermline Total Abstinence Society.' It is 
giatifying to notice, that the whole of these 
56, so far as the directors are aware, have 
kept their pledges faithfully. On the other 
hand, it is to be regretted, that of the other 
entries, 37 ha\e violated their pledges — 11 
have, however, rejoined the society. These, 
with one or two other deductions, leave the 
nett number of members on the roll, 17-. 

The treasurer's report was next read to 
the meeting. The income being £I0(» I'Js 
<;:]d, and the expenditure i.'9.5 U's 2d — 
leaving a balance of 15 9s 4.^d in the 



them, and that meetings should be held for j treasurer's hands. The reports of the 



that purpose as frequently as possible. 

4. ' That the representatives present 
should consult their several committees as 
to the propriety of engaging a lecturer to 
labour in the district for a few weeks to- 
gether, and report the result to next meeting 
of delegates.' 

5. ' That Sabbath evening lectures having 
been found very beneficial in strengthening 
the cause in several localities, this meeting 
would recommend that the societies should 
procure the services of talented men for such 
lectures as fie(|uently as possible.' 

6. ' That a Grand Union Pleasure Excur- 
sion shall take place during the course < f the 
ensuing summer, and that the Mauchline 
committee be appointed to apply for a<lmis- 
sion to the grounds at Drumlanrig Castle, 
negotiate with the railway company, and to 
make the other necessaiy arrangements to 
cany the resolution into effect.' 

7. 'That a meeting of representatives 
from Darvel, Galston, Mauchline, Catrine, 
Auchinleck, Muirkirk, Old Cumnock, New 
Cumnock, and such other societies as may 
be willing to co-operate, will henceforth be 
held at Mauchline on the first Wednesday 
of April and October in each year, for the 
purpose of considering the united measures 
that will be most likely to promote the spread 
of temperance principles throughout the 
district.' 

Mr White gave notice, that at next 
meeting of delegates he would bring the 



treasurer and secretary having been unani- 
mously adopted, office-bearers, etc., were 
elected for the current year, and after a 
vote of thanks to the chairman, the meeting 
separated. 

HADDINGTONSHIRE. 

The friends of temperance in Haddington- 
shire have resolved to estal)lish a county 
temperance agency similar to that which has 
existed for some time in the county of 
Berwick. 

ENGLAND. 

LONDON. 

At a meeting of the London Temperance 
League, held last month, it was resolved 
that a petition, praying for a speedy enact- 
ment, forbidding the further use of whole- 
some grain in the processes of brewing and 
distillation, be forthwith presented to both 
Houses of Parliament. — The list of petitions 
presented to Parliament up till the "id ult., 
included IB, with 4352 signatures, for pro- 
hibiting the sale of intoxicating liquors on 
Sunday, and 81, with 5287 signatures, for 
closing public- houses and beer-shops on 
Sunday, except to lodgers and travellers. 



Glasgow : Printed and published at the Office 
of the Scottish Temperance League, No. 30 
St Enoch Siiuare, Parish of St Enoch's, by 
Robert Rae, residing at No. 10 Salisbury 
Street, Parish of Govan. 

Satukdat, \st April, 1854. 



THE 



ABSTAINER'S JOURNAL. 



MAY, 1854. 



i^t0cellaneou0 Contrtfiutions. 



THE LIGHT WINES AND HEAVY DRINKING OF THE CONTINENT. 



In a discussion on the subject of temper- 
ance in the German Protestant Conference 
for Inner Missions at Bremen, held on the 
16th September, 1852, a paper was read 
by superintendent Dr Wald of Konigsberg, 
which contained, among other statements 
relative to the progress of intemperance in 
Germany, the following facts of a statis- 
tical nature: — 

That in the states of the ZoUverein, 
(including Prussia,) according to official 
returns, there is a yearly consumption of 
367 millions of quarts of alcoholic liquor, 
at an expense of 122 millions of dollars, 
(more than 18 millions sterling,) mostly 
drawn from the earnings of the lower 
classes, and nearly double the entire re- 
venue of these states. 

That BerUn had in 1845, 1500 more 
public-houses, and one church less than j 
100 years before, and that in one of the 
newly-built streets, 6 public-houses were 
found side by side; that in an orphan 
asylum in Berlin, out of 60 children under 
6 years of age, 40 were found that had 
daily been accustomed with their parents 
to taste spirituous liquors, and 9 of these 
infected with a depraved appetite for 
them. 

That in the vale of Barmen, one of the 
most religious districts of Rhenish Prussia, 
there were more than 400 public-houses 
where Branntwein was sold ; and out of its 



population of 80,000, not less than 13,000 
habitual brandy-drinkers. 

That in taking the conscription in the 
spring of 1852 for a district of Western 
Prussia, out of 174 young men, only 4 
were declared admissible by the reviewing 
army surgeons, the rest being physically 
incapacitated by the use of alcohol. 

That from year to year the prisons and 
lunatic asylums become more crowded, 
there being thousands of the inmates of 
the latter who have been reduced to per- 
manent insanity by delirium tremens, and 
that of the multiplying divorces, which 
are constantly on the increase, nine-tenths 
are produced by the same cause. 

That in the electorate of Hesse Cassel 
more than the half of the whole corn and 
potatoes requisite for the annual consump- 
tion are turned into spirits ; and that in 
the enture north of Germany, the quantify 
of Branntwein (the general name for spiri- 
tuous liquors) now used, is 9 times more 
per head than it was in 1817, or has in- 
creased nine-fold in 35 years, so as to 
threaten the whole land with a universal 
deluge of alcohol in the course of another 
generation, unless speedily checked. 

These statements are extracted almost 
literally from the Report of the Transac- 
tions of the Congress for Inner Missions, 
published by authority of the German 
Kirchentag. Berlin, Hertz, 1852. 



98 



THE ABSTAINER S JOUBNAL. 



Similar statements were made by other 
speakers, and the Congress, consisting of 
the leading men in the German churches, 
thongh by no means united in the total 
abstinence principle, passed resolutions as 
follows :— 

1. The Congress for Inner Missions 
declares that, hj the growing subjection of 
the German people to the slavery of 
Branntwdn, it has become the bounden 
duty of every one to abstain from it — as 
also to testify against it, and seek its 
expulsion from common use. 

2. The Congress recommends the sup- 
port and origination of such temperance 
societies as are based on christian princi- 
ples. (This limitation was judged neces- 
sary from the mixed membership of some 
associations.) 

3. The Congress recommends the Cen- 
tral Committee for Inner Missions to 
apply to the different governments for the 
improvement of the present laws that so 
far restrict the sale of spirituoas liquors, 
and for their rigorous enforcement in the 
meantime. 

These resolutions were all pass«d unani- 
mously. 

These are very remarkable facts. 
They present a startling lesson to our 
country in the present crisis of its his- 
tory. While Britain is just now strug- 
gling against the swelling tide of intem- 
perance, it is proposed to introduce the 
light wines of the Continent, at a low 
price, as a remedy for the alarming evil. 
This is done under the plea that if our 
people could procure cheaper wine they 
would not intoxicate themselves as they 
do with whisky. Now, these facts de- 
monstrate that the supply of light wines 
do not keep a community sober in their 
habits. The grand argument of theorists 
on this point is, that if only these mild 
beverages could be obtained at a reason- 
able price, the taste for stronger drinks 
would be abated, and drunkenness greatly 
dimimshed. But here is an array of facts 



that rise np in the face of these plausible, 
but hollow theories. The advocates of 
this proposal need not talk of what a 
paradise of sobriety England would be, if 
only possessed of Continental wines at a 
shilhng a bottle. They need not specu- 
late on what might be the diminished 
intemperance of Scotland, if only a milder 
beverage than her own fatal mountain 
dew were plentiful. Here we point them 
to the actual state of things where these 
wines are cheaper and more abundant 
than they could ever be with us. There, 
we say, is the terrible fact — the light 
wines of the Continent and the alarming 
drunkenness of the Continent — the juice 
of the grape to be had in abundance, and 
yet strong intoxicating liquors vastly pre- 
ferred by the people. Will these gentle- 
men, then, so busy in constructing and 
recommending a theory, only set them- 
selves to reconcile their theory with exist- 
ing fact ? We tell them that in the midst 
of the light wines of the Continent, drunk- 
enness is to an alarming extent increasing 
on the Continent. Some people may 
think that the drinking of wines, however 
slightly intoxicating, goes to form an ap- 
petite for something stronger, and that the 
use of Branntwein very likely arises from 
the free indulgence of Rhenish wine. But 
however this be, account for it as you 
may — there, we say again, is the fact, the 
light wines, and the growing drunkenness 
of the Continent. Is it not, from this, 
plain to common sense that a supply of 
light wines do not keep a people sober ? 

May we not advance a step farther, and 
ask. Is it not still more plain from these 
facts that a supply of light wines will not 
make a people sober in their habits, who 
are already addicted to intemperance? 
How can these wines be held forth as a 
cure of a country's drunkenness, when 
they have failed to preserve other lands 
from drunkenness ? Is it an easier thing 
to cure an evil than to prevent it, that the 
very liquors that have failed to effect the 



THE abstainer's JOUBNAL. 



99 



one are proposed as the means to accom- 
plish the other? Will men have the 
assurance to stand up before the increasing 
intemperance in Germany and tell ns, that 
if only Britain possessed the hght wines 
which are abundant in Rhenish Prussia, 
our intemperance would gradually cease ? 
We tell these shallow and daring theorists 
that we read the lessons of history, rather 
than the dreams of romance. We tell 
them that we are for legislation based on 
facts and reason, rather than on fancies 
and speculation. We tell them our coun- 
try is not in a condition at this perilous 
conjuncture to bear experiments on the 
introduction of new intoxicating agents, 
especially as they themselves candidly 
inform us that they reckon on a new class 
of consumers for these, and do not count 
for a diminished consumption of ardent 
spirits and brandied wines. When we 
shall have new legislation on this subject, 
by all means let us have it in the right 
direction ; let us have it not in the intro- 
duction of new intoxicating drinks, but in 
the banishment of the old. We go for 
Neal Dow as our leader on legislation 
about strong drink, much rather than for 
Mr Oliveira. Once more we urge temper- 
ance reformers to rouse themselves to 
organised eflFort against this selfish, mischiev- 
ous proposal — the introduction into our 
country of the light wines of the Continent. 



THE TRAFFIC IMMORAL. 
If the traffic in strong drink is lawful, by 
all means let it continue, and let God bless 
it; but if it be found at variance with 
what is right, let the fact be known, that 
honest men may escape from its plagues. 
A conclusion, calmly reached, is, that the 
traffic is immoral ; and this conclusion is 
justified by certain unerring principles: 
Every man is bound, in the transaction of 
his business, to give to tJiose with whom he 
deals an equivalent for the value which he 
receives. But the dealer in strong drink 
takes his customer's money and gives iu 



return what is worse than useless — what 
is positively pernicious. He takes his 
customer's money and gives him in return 
what will destroy his health, deprave his 
morals, beggar his family, and ruin his 
souL It may be alleged, in opposition to 
this opinion, that as the customer is aware 
of the nature of the article which he re- 
ceives, he alone is responsible for its eflPects, 
and is by no means defrauded. To which 
it may be replied, that the customer 
receives something different from what 
he pays his money for. The traflac in 
question being in liquids, there is an op- 
portunity for adulteration, which scarcely 
any other business afibrds ; and that adul- 
teration is universal, will not be denied 
by any acquainted with the facts of the 
case. But even could no such charge be 
substantiated, as a man is responsible for 
the known effects of any dangerous prac- 
tice in which he indulges, a trader is 
responsible for the known efiects of his 
calling: 'If an ox gore a man or a ' 
woman, that they die : then the ox shall 
surely be stoned ; but the owner shall be ; 
quit. But if the ox were wont to push 
with his horn in time past, and it hath 
been testified to his owner, and he hath 
not kept him in, but that he hath killed 
a man or a woman ; the ox shall be stoned, 
and his owner also shall be put to death.' I 
(Exod. xxi. 28, 29.) ' In the trial of the ' 
owner of the ox,' it has been remarked, 
' the only questions to be asked were these 
two : Was the ox wont to push with his 
horn in time past ? Did the owner know 
it when he let him loose ?' If both these 
questions were answered in the afiBrmative, 
the owner was responsible for the conse- 
quences. This is a rule which God him- 
self has established, and it applies to the 
case in hand. Are intoxicating drinks 
wont to produce wretchedness, misery, 
and death? Has this been testified to 
those who deal in them, i.e., the makers 
and retailers ? If the affirmative of these 
two questions can be established, tlie 



100 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



inference is inevitable — they are respon- 
sible. 

Again, every man is hound to engage in 
a business that is fitted to promote the 
general welfare of the community. Is it 
not the fact, that as the traflBc in strong 
drink prospers, the welfare of the com- 
munity suffers? Poverty is increased, 
crime is increased, disease is increased, 
irreligion is increased. There is not a 
social evil but what is aggravated by the 
business in question. 

Once more, every man is hound to engage 
in a iusiness that is glorifying to God. 
We are required, whether we eat or drink, 
or whatsoever we do, to do all to his 
glory. Surely our worldly calling is not 
excepted. Who then will maintain that 
God is glorified by the trafBc in strong 
drink? The shoemaker, the tailor, the 
grocer, and the baker, all glorify God in 
their respective callings, by contributing 
to human happiness ; but in what single 
instance is the divine glory promoted by 
the making and selling of intoxicating 
liquor ? Who ever chose this business as 
a means of doing good? Who ever at- 
tempted to vindicate the traffic upon its own 
merits? So intrinsically bad is it, that 
even the vilest would abandon it were it 
not the gains which it bi-icgs them. And 
a calling which can only be defended on 
the plea of gain, is not a calling for the 
people of God to engage in. 

Finally, every man is hound to engage 
in a business that will not injure the spiritual 
interests of either himself or those related 
to him. An honest trade cannot be op- 
posed to our religious advantage ; nay, it 
affords a healthful exercise for those 
principles by the perfection of which we are 
to be prepared for the kingdom of heaven. 
But who can be in a liquor trade without 
gathering around him the very offscourings 
of society ? A man to prosper in his busi- 
ness, must he on good terms with his 
customers; an J hence the dealer in strong 
drink must be on friendly terms with the 



thief, and the swearer, and the sensualist 
— listen to their low and filthy conversa- 
tion, overlook their abominable practices, 
and connive at their positive wickedness. 
What soul can breathe such an atmosphere 
and preserve its purity ? What publican 
can order his house according to the 
hundred and first Psalm — ' I will walk 
within my house with a perfect heart. I 
will set no wicked thing before mine eyes : 
I hate the work of them that turn aside ; 
it shall not cleave to me. He that worketh 
deceit shall not dwell within my house : 
he that telleth lies shall not tarry in 
my sight'? Will any christian pub- 
lican read that portion of scripture each 
morning in his family, and go to 
bis business with an easy conscience? 
Who can expose his wife and children 
to the common talk and doings of a 
drink shop without inflicting on them 
an injury which uo gain can compensate 
for? Who can engage in such a traffic 
and expect the blessing of God to rest 
upon him ? Bring it to the test of scrip- 
ture, and every precept with which it is 
confronted will proclaim its condemnation. 
Now, what the great Head of the church 
has to complain of is, that those pursuing 
this trafiic are tolerated in her fellowship. 
Ought they then to be expelled? There 
is no propriety in urging measures which 
may be in advance of the sentiments and 
practices of those required to promote 
them. If the trafiic in liquor be wrong, 
indulgence in liquor cannot be right. 
Effectually to rebuke any course, our own 
hands must be clean of the conduct con- 
demned. Instead, then, of recommending 
specific measures with the view of deliver- 
ing the church from the scandal of sanc- 
tioning a forbidden calling, we would 
rather urge upon the general body of its 
membership a practice that would spon- 
taneously throw off the unseemly excres- 
cence. Those who live on the debasement 
of society would shrink from a rebuke so 
formidably expressed. 



TQE ABSTAINER 3 JOURNAL. 

Narrati&£ Sitetc]^. 

THE I M PENITENT'S TALE. 

A TALE OF REAL LIFE. 

Chapter II. 



101 



' It is some years,' said he, ' since I first 
adopted the practice of degrading myself 
to be revenged on society. I have made 
thousands of drunkards. Your laws, your 
social festivities, your marriages, births, 
and funerals, your very exalted opinions 
of hospitality, and your venerable customs, 
gave me glorious facilities ; and I did not 
neglect them.' He stopped with another 
scowl of self-reprehension ; and I hastened 
to say, ' All this is yet inexplicable to me ; 
you could not practise the seduction of 
others fi-om the mere love of sin; you 
must have had other impulses.' 

' No, Eo, sir,' he hastily interposed, ' I 
had no other inducement, aim, or motive, 
than that of producing in others the same 
prostration as now dwelt with myself — 
moral ruin and domestic desolation. In 
the social circle, at the banquet board, 
society first betrayed me to intemperance, 
and then flung me aside with obloquy and 
contempt. You are well read in the book 
of nature, are you not? I have spoken 
to little purpose if I have not opened to 
you a page in that book darker than all 
the rest, and inscribed with only one 
word — revenge. You do not understand 
me.' 

' Not precisely,' I said. ' Listen, 
then;' he said, "and although it is of 
no great importance to me now, as I 
neither wish for, nor hope to obtain the 
esteem of my species, you shall hear my 
justification.' 

I looked earnestly and sorrowfully on 
the speaker. 

' I am,' he at length began, ' a native of a 
border district of Scotland. The name I have 
disgraced I have long since ceased to bear. 
My early life may be passed over. It had 
no share in the culture of the rank weeds 
that have over-run the garden of my man- 
hood. My life is an inexplicable enigma 
even to myself. The scenes and memo- 
ries of youth are all as of one dead. 
They are not remembered as things seen 
or acted by me, but borne fi-om the re- 
cital of another, and yet I know them all 
as identifying me with some former era. 
Some sages allege that our dreams, so far 
from pointing to the future, are the dim 
and indistinct visions or memories ill- 
defined of a previous life — a dark remem- 



brance of some one or other of the soul's 
transmigrations. Something like this 
heathen philosophy connects my sinful 
manhood with my life of early innocence. 

' My mother was in early life left a 
widow under very painful and suspicious 
circumstances. The cause of my father's 
death was the same that wrought my 
severer doom, that consigned me to this 
living death. After this event our cir- 
cumstances were improved by a respect- 
able legacy from a female relative. This 
gave rise to an honourable ambition, and 
it was resolved in full family council that 
we should remove to the capital, for the 
convenience of the university for me, and 
fashionable seminaries for the girls. A 
city relation, who had, since my father's 
death, totally neglected us, now, in our 
prosperity, showed us the readiest friend- 
ship. This man was my father's half- 
brother by the mother's side. My poor 
father and this gentleman had ever been 
on friendly and intimate terms. They 
were inseparable when the then needy 
and struggling trader made our house his 
home, when on his periodical tour of 
business through the eastern borders. I 
have heard that he was in embarrassed 
circumstances when he last visited us. 
My mother could never account for his 
precipitate departure on the morning after 
the catastrophe that left her a widow. 
The disappearance of a large sum she 
knew her husband had drawn on the day 

of his death from the bank at B was 

equally mysterious. The merchant's 
estrangement was continued. Meantime 
he had emerged from his difficulties into 
the great and prosperous wine merchant, 
and in progress of time had become a 
magistrate. Whatever caused the cessa- 
tion of his and our family's intercourse, it 
could not be a want of feeling on his part, 
as on the first intimation of our desire to 
migrate, preceded, indeed, by a report of 
our accession of fortune, he evinced the 
greatest alacrity to serve us. 

' I prosecuted my allotted studies with 
promptitude and success, more as intel- 
lectual exercises I delighted in, than with 
any view to their futm-e practical use. 
My associates were few ; but, like myself, 
they were modest and virtuous. I knew 



102 



THE ABSTAINER S JOITRNAL. 



only of drunkenness by name, and by one 
awfial event — my father's death ; and I 
had vowed to eschew it for ever. I loved 
my sisters, and adored my mother ; and 
over all was sedulous and sincere in my 
devotions. But why do I repeat this 
fo'ly? Your pardon. I have strayed 
from the horrors I promised you.' 

'I beseech you to go on,' I said, desirous 
that the sunlight of these resolutions 
might spread through the dark places of 
his mind. 'I wish to hear the minutest 
details of your progress; pray continue 
your reminiscences.' 

' Since you prefer it then,' said he, 
with a sneer, ' sir, there is not a dead 
lightning -blasted tree by the broad 
stream in my native vales that is as 
worthless in the eye of the peasant as I 
have made myself in the estimation of my 
countrymen; and yet that blighted tree 
holds not its bare arms more disdainfully 
to the blast than I do these chained limbs 
against their wrath or execrations. Nor 
does that incensate tree dream less of the 
revival of its withered verdure than I do 
of the return of my departed reputation, 
or the good opinion of my fellow-men. 

' I have told you my uncle was a magis- 
trate, as well as wine and spirit merchant. 
He was esteemed wealthy, and had a 
newspaper reputation for charity. People 
said, too, that he did honour to the judg- 
ment-seat, and other civic functions. We 
shall see. I had been many times a 

guest at his mansion at D Place, and 

an incipient attachment between his 
youngest daughter and myself began to 
put forth its bashful symptoms. By the 
death of a maternal uncle in India this 
young lady had recently become an 
heiress ; previously, the girl had been 
viewed rather in the light of an incum- 
brance ; no sooner, however, had the 
caprice of the Nabob made her richer than 
it was in her father's power to make her 
sisters, than he discovered that he felt a 
wondrous afltection for his dear child. 
She was then an object of as much solici- 
tude as an increase of capital to the firm ; 
she had a specific currency now ; she had 
reached, nay, was over par with her rela- 
tions : her value was now esteemed by a 
golden standard, and accordingly to be 
guarded like the Hesperian apples.' 

It was evident now that something 
was to be related that had more of the 
practical than the ideal in its incidents. 
He looked at me with that kind of in- 
quiring eye that the arraigned criminal 
looks upon his jury withal — endeavouring 



to guess how far the fee'd advocate — ' to 
prove the worse the better cause' — had 
succeeded in his purpose of deceiving the 
jury. He seemed to be conscious that he 
was using all these extraneous episodes, 
as the quirks and quibbles of the bench 
are employed to procrastinate the denou- 
ment of an interesting case of forgery or 
homicide. Seeing that I grew rather 
impatient of his tedious digressions, and 
lingering descriptions, he spoke more of 
things than abstractions. 

' I need not trouble you with memoirs 
of the growth of our intimacy. They can 
be stated in an outline. She was fond of 
poetry, and when we met this was our 
theme. She was romantic, as most se- 
cluded girls are ; and I was an enthusiast 
in my love of imaginative literature ; and 
our converse was less of our mutual loves, 
than of the wonderful and lovely creatures 
of poetic genius. There was nothing in 
our demeanours to justify his suspicion 
that we had committed the unpardonable 
crime of falling in love. But who, says 
the " man of money," sees any thing in 
an heiress but her gold. But let us for- 
ward. A copy of verses I had addressed 
to the young heiress, on the anniversary 
of her birth-day, were intercepted. The 
lady had then attained the matronly age 
of sixteen ; I had all the mature experience 
of eighteen summers on my head. The 
puerile effusion was kept as secret evi- 
dence against me. Ellen, indeed, in- 
formed me, after a "fishing" hunt of 
mine, that she had never received the 
lines, accusing the innocent letter-carrier 
for his negligence; but I promised to 
write another copy, little dreaming of the 
consequence attending the perpetration of 
the first offence. One evening, my 
cousin George called upon me somewhat 
late, with a pressing invitation to me to 
sup with him at his father's mansion. 
" Some one," said he, " has sent our 
heiress a complimentary address in verse ; 
and the conceited minx has shown them 
to all of our circle. The address was read 
after dintier this afternoon, and very much 
praised indeed. My father speaks of 
having the poem framed, and hung in the 
dining room beside my grandfather's 
Burgess ticket, as another family trophy." 
temptation, in whatever folly you 
would have a man engage, come in the 
guise of flattery, and the deed is done ! 
If any designing knave wishes to purchase 
the fee-simple of a young poet's existence, 
nay, his soul's perdition, let him shroud 
his purpose in the incense of praise, and 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



103 



body and soul he has bought him. I 
went to the ill-omened party ; I left my 
mother's house as I never left it before, 
resting alone on my purity, fortitude, and 
wisdom. On entering the supper room 
of my uncle's splendid residence, I was 
astonished to perceive the condition and 
characteristics of the guests, and the 
scene. There were no ladies there, as my 
cousin had led me to expect. It looked 
more like the continuation of an after 
dinner revel, than the composed conclu- 
sion of a family day. 

' The conversation, as might be expected 
from men consciously intoxicated, but 
striving with all their might to appear 
sober, was as vapid and inane as it was 
desultory. A private signal from my 
uncle, produced an interregnum in the 
Babel, during which a gentleman not far 
from me opened full cry in praise of 
poetry, particularly that of Bums, whose 
genius he said had shaken the dumb palsy 
from the poetical mind of Scotland. He 
appealed to me for my opinion. I gave 
it timidly and briefly, and to my infinite 
delight and astonishment, the few common 
places I had uttered were received with 
what the play-bills call " shouts of rapture 
and applause." Cousin George, in par- 
ticular, dilated on my excellent taste, my 
critical acumen, • my eloquence, my 
thorough knowledge of my subject, and in 
a flaming peroration to a burning eulogy 
on my parts and learning, proposed my 
health. It was drank enthusiastically; 
and the company were respectfully wait- 
ing for my reply. A glass brimming with 
"blnid reid wine" stood before me. I 
whispered George to apologise ; I entreated 
him to make my excuses to his father's 
guests; to explain my repugnance to 
wine. He was pohtely inexorable — most 
affably obstinate in his refusal to do so. 
He argued with me, reproached me for 
my want of sociality, coaxed me, wheedled 
me, and at length descended to the shallow 
subterfiige of protesting, that, knowing 
my abstemiousness he had provided a 
harmless cordial for me, unknown to the 
other guests ; and in proof of this mean 
falsehood, he appealed to the servaat in a 
whisper, heard only by me, and was of 
course corroborated by the menial. Mean- 
while the company waxed impatient, and 
Mr Atkin called to his son to know why 
his cousin did not honour the glass. " You 
have a' the conversation to yourselves, 
nephew Robin — you and young Wisdom, 
your cousin. Is be persuading you no to 
favour us, least you put his pipe oot ? To 



your feet, my man, an' eclipse the block- 
head an' enlighten us." ^^'^ill you believe 
it, I was deceived even by this palpable 
flattery ? I rose and stammered out some 
real, uusophiscated, stereotyped, ten-thou- 
sand-times-before repeated expressions, 
which I had read in reports of after dinner 
speeches, not even varying a single phrase 
of the stale verbiage patent to those occa- 
sions, and ended by draining my glass. 
At that moment my guardian angel left 
her charge on a sad and drooping pinion. 
I was doomed. I declare to you, until 
then I was ignorant of the influence or 
taste of wine save by description. Its 
efi'ects were therefore instantaneous, even 
if I had not been intoxicated already with 
undeserved applause. I sat awhile en- 
tranced; my brain seemed filled with 
glorious shapes and my heart with delight- 
ful emotions. The anonymous verses 
were produced, they were praised with 
every hyperbolical epithet the speakers 
could command ; the most exaggerated 
terms of approval were contributed from 
all parts. As an instance, one gentleman 
declared that if the poem remained unac- 
knowledged, the literary world would be 
convulsed to its centre with eager inquiries 
respecting its parentage. " Sir," he said, 
addressing me, " you are a young man of 
astonishing parts. The gorgeous temple 
of poetry, with all its shrines of holiest 
purity, has been opened to you ; you are 
versant in every style of composition. 
Tell us — and we swear to abide by your 
decision — whose manner does this, ' gem of 
purest ray serene,' resemble?" Conceive 
if you can the blindness that prevented 
me from detecting the unconcealed irony 
of this nonsensical rhapsody, or the others 
equally bombastic that were spouted at 
me. I was literally drank with wine and 
conceit. And I rose, and with much con- 
descending dignity proclaimed myself the 
author, and that I had imitated no 
author, ancient or modern ; I disdained to 
do so. 3Iy own genius was snfiicient for 
me. I am the modern Shenstone. This 
announcement was received with shouts 
of mockery, which I accepted with 
" becks, and nods, and wreathed smiles," 
as genuine offerings to my transcendent 
poetical merit Let us finish the absur- 
dities of the night, and come to its 
melancholy conclusion. I soon grew 
the dictator of the company ; I sang songs 
of my own composition, and recited odes 
on all imaginable subjects. I was most 
ineffably ridiculous. 

' I am hardened now, bronzed over, and 



104 



THE ABSTAINER 8 JOURNAL. 



every feeling ossified ; but I still burn with 
mortification, shame, and unquenchable 
fury when I think of the rare folly of that 
night. I left the house in a pai-oxysm of 
drunken vanity, with young Atkin and some 
others, and in the morning I found myself 
with a burning throat, contused hmbs, 
and a discoloured eye, in one of the noisome 
cells of the police office. One by one, as I 
lay on the hard boards, the hideous doings 
of the past night passed clear and un- 
disguised before me. My doom for the 
future was pronounced during the first 
minute of intense consciousness. Instant 
as a flash of lightning I saw that one of 
two alternatives awaited me — suicide or 
revenge ! I chose the latter. I was 
called at the usual hour by a callous, 
grinning official to take my place at the 
bar of the police court, as " No. 45, 
Drunk and Disorderly." Who should 
occupy the bench but my immaculate 
uncle, our tipsy host of the preceding 
evening? There I stood as a criminal, 
before the very man whom I had seen a 
few hours before, the master of revels, of 
riot, and of unrestrained license. I after- 
wards understood that my uncle's principal 
shopman was used as security for the ap- 
pearance of George and his co-mates on 
all occurrences of the kind. Very little 
difficulty was ever experienced to silence 
the prosecution, and policemen are easily 
mollified. Take this account of the pro- 
cess. Mr Atkin was a bailie, an extensive 
wine merchant and a great wholesale and 
retail spirit dealer besides. The foreign 
patrician beverage was dispensed on the 
first floor of the establishment, the plebeian 
home-made distillation in the area beneath. 
When Stoddart, the presiding genius of the 
"Low Shop," went to procure the keys 
from the "house" in the morning, bis 
first inquiry would be, " What time did 
maister George come hame, Izie; or is he 
hame ava'?" If the response was, as it 
would be on the morning succeeding our 
revel, " he hasna been in a' nicht, John. 
Something's up, I'm sure — or ye had better 
gang up bye and speer, or ye open the 
laigh shop " — I say if this was the answer, 
John hied offto the officer, and inquired the 
name of the constable who had made the 
charge — had hira sent to the " Laigh 



Shop," where he speedily convinced " the 
ancient and giant watchman," of the im- 
propriety of having a gentleman and a 
bailie's son fined or imprisoned. You 
look dubiously ; but that it would attenuate 
a story already overlengthened, I could 
relate many an instance of this, ihat would 
blow your unbelief to the winds. I was 
before the magistrate. A lisping, wan, 
black-haired clerk read the accusation. 
It set forth that Robert Ker — I give you 
my present alias — and others, had con- 
ducted themselves in a riotous and dis- 
orderly manner in that respectable tavern, 
the " Flambeau," and had moreover broken 
the King's peace by maulling sundry well- 
dressed and orderly citizens, at three 
o'clock on the morning of 22d current. 
To give a show of impartiality to the 
formula, witnesses were called, duly 
sworn, and examined. Even a show of 
defence was made, by an underling clerk 
cross-examining a tattered Irish drunken 
vender of rotten fruit, who had identified 
me as the leader of a party who over- 
threw the barrow, and tossed himself 
amongst its unsavoury contents, but for 
which he admitted we paid him three 
times the value. But this only served to 
inculpate me the more. Also the bloated, 
blear-eyed waiter of '' the Flambeau," 
when interrogated a second time, not only 
repeated his former evidence against me, 
but exonerated all my companions from 
blame, stating that they were zealous in 
their endeavours to keep me from doing 
any violence, but were defeated by my 
superior strength and passion. I alone 
was found guilty. The worthy man on 
the bench, lamenting, no doubt, the hard 
necessity, pronounced my sentence. 
" Young man," he said, " I find you in a 
situation unbecoming your station in 
society. I am sorry to see you here ; and 
that sorrow is deepened by the fact that 
you are my own relation. I proclaim it 
in the face of the court, you are my kins- 
man ; and I do this the more readily that 
the whole world may see, if they like, in 
the sentence I am compelled to pro- 
nounce, the incorruptibility o' the magis- 
terial chair." Every word of this mocking 
speech is branded on my memory. 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



Glasgow, Mat, 1854. 



105 



THE ANTI-TEETOTALISM OF THE LONDON TRACT SOCIETY. 



We have often had occasion to wonder 
that this Society, which has exhibited so 
much zeal in the cause of godliness, should 
have done so little for the cause of sobriety. 
So far as we are acquainted with its pub- 
lications, we know not of one which would 
afford a drunkard safe direction how to 
escape from his bondage, or a young per- 
son warning adequate to preserve him from 
the snares to which the dram-shop and 
drinking usages expose him. In this re- 
spect, the London Tract Society stands 
in unfavourable contrast with its sister 
institution of the United States. At pre- 
sent we have before us twelve volumes of 
the tracts issued by the American Tract 
Society, containing some forty or fifty 
tracts each, and on glancing through them 
we find not fewer than twenty-three de- 
voted to various aspects of the temperance 
question, and all presenting the subject 
in its true light, while many of the other 
tracts are so largely pervaded by sound 
temperance sentiments as to render them 
of equal service in the promotion of our 
cause. Whence this diversity ? Is warn- 
ing and advice not as requisite on this 
side of the Atlantic ? Are not tracts de- 
signed for the very class chiefly exposed 
to danger and most in need of sound 
counsel? Were drinking strong liquor 
abolished, would not tracts in general 
meet ^vith better treatment, and produce 
upon sober minds a happier effect ? 

We have been led to these remarks by 
the publication of a little book called 
' Good Health, and the Means of obtain- 
ing it,' published by this society in its 
monthly series. With the general senti- 
ments of the volume we cordially agree, 
and but for the unsound advice we are 
about to notice, believe it would go far to 
gain the end of its publication. If any- 



thing, however, is fitted to shake our 
confidence in a medical man's prescrip- 
tion, it is the expression of sentiments such 
as the following. At page 45 we read, — 

'A sense of exhaustion will justify the 
slight stimulus of a glass of wine or beer 
before eating; for if the circulation has 
run down, this is another impediment to 
secretion; but then it would have been 
better to eat sooner, and before this degree 
of fatigue.' 

Now, could any advice more injudicious 
have been given to a very large class? 
How many are there who, by the hour 
for dinner, especially on this side of the 
Tweed, have ' a sense of exhaustion ?' 
And besides, to what class is ' a glass of 
wine or beer ' more hazardous ? They 
are your nervous constitutions, liable to 
frequent lassitude, to whom alcoholic po- 
tations are most pernicious, and who are 
most liable to be victimised to a use of 
stimulants. Regular hours, moderate 
exercise, and well-ventilated dwellings, 
are the true remedy for such ' a sense of 
exhaustion.' ' To prefer,' says Dr Car- 
penter, ' to such natural means of sus- 
taining the vigour of health, the artificial 
and delusive aid of alcoholic liquors, is to 
act like the extravagant trader who bol- 
sters up his failing credit with accommo- 
dation bills, instead of restricting his ex- 
penditure within his legitimate profits; 
and thus to carry onwards, from page to 
page of the ledger of life, a heavy balance, 
which mvst be accounted for at some sub- 
sequent period.' 

Then at page 73 we read, — 

' " Take a little wine for thy stomach's 
sake, and thine often infirmities," is still 
very salutary advice for many people. 
But the necessity for stimulants is more 
frequently fancied than real. If any in- 
dividual discovers, by abstinence, that he 



b2 



106 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



can do without them, he -mil be greatly 
the better for abjuring them entirely.' 

What a discovery for an individual to 
make, ' that he can do without ' stimu- 
lants! Does the writer mean to assert 
that all cannot do without them ? What, 
then, will he make of the fact, that a large 
proportion of the inhabitants of the globe 
' do without them ?' What will he make 
of the fact, that thousands in our own 
country ' do without them ;' and will 
their health stand an unfavourable com- 
parison with these who follow such inju- 
dicious prescriptions? But even this 
same writer, in the very sentence next to 
the one just quoted, refutes himself. He 
remarks, — ■ 

' It has been proved, over and over again, 
that the severest fatigue and the greatest 
exposure are best borne without any re- 
course to stimulants, and that the health 
of the habitually intemperate will not 
suffer even from the sudden and complete 
withdrawal of intoxicating fluids, the ex- 
ceptions to this rule being found mostly 
in cases where active disease has to be 
encountered.' 

So, after all, we are informed that ab- 
stinence is most consistent with health. 
We would have concluded from such an 
extract that such was the writer's senti- 
ments, but he immediately adds, — 

' Let the reader engage honestly in the 
praiseworthy attempt to find out what is 
the least amount of stimulating drink 
under which he can preserve his health 
and spirits, and not how much he may 
take without immediate injury, and he 
will require nothing more to guide him in 
the employment of either wine, beer, or 
spirits, bearing in mind that well-fer- 
mented, unsweet, and well-hopped beer, 
ranks first in the gradation of wholesome- 
ness, and that spirits are quite at the 
opposite end of the scale.' 

And so this gentleman, who would pre- 
scribe for the health of the community in 
general, teaches, at tliis day in the tem- 
perance reformation, that stimulating drink 
is necessary to preserve health ; and this 
immediately after he has told us that ' the 
health of the habitually intemperate will 



not suffer even from the sudden and com- 
plete withdrawal of intoxicating fluids.' 

Now, to combat the views of this writer 
it is not necessary to quote from either 
the Medical Certificate, with its two thou- 
sand names, or from the works of Dr 
Carpenter. Let us adduce a testimony 
which the writer will not gainsay. Speak- 
ing of intoxicating liquors, it has been 
well s£ud, ' The healthy can do best with- 
out them — to do without them is one 
great means of being healthy.' And the 
same authority gives the reason : ' Alco- 
hol,' he says, ' in its various forms of 
wine, malt liquor, and distilled spirits, 
acts directly on the lining of the stomach, 
and its habitual employment keeps this 
membrane in a state of irritation, verging 
on and frequently amounting to inflam- 
mation ; and this is one of the wjiys in 
which it destroys digestion.' 

And who is the authority which we 
have just quoted? Why, none other than 
the author of this same work on ' Good 
Health, and the Means of obtaining it.' 

The inconsistencies of this writer will 
be more apparent by another quotation. 
At page 175 he tells us, — 

' It is impossible to specify the exact 
circumstances under which it may be 
beneficial to take a moderate allowance 
of alcoholic stimulus, or to employ any 
artificial mode of acting on the mind. 
There are undoubtedly many cases of lan- 
guor and depression which would disqualify 
for the discharge of duty, if it were not for 
the temperate excitement of the powers 
which is procured by wine or malt liquor. 
And some people must be allowed, with- 
out reproach, to allay excitement and 
compose their nerves, after the labours of 
the day, by the pipe or the cigar.' 

We more than suspected that the writer 
enjoyed his glass, and now it turns out 
that he enjoys his pipe too. The London 
Tract Society might have known by this 
time that one of such habits is not the 
best to write upon the subject of health, 
and that the moral influence of such a pen 
cannot greatly advance its object. But 



TUB ABSTAINER S JOUENAX. 



107 



let us hear him a little farther. He im- 
mediately adds, — 

'With respect to every one of these 
ailificial methods of acting on the mind, 
the proof of keeping within the bounds of 
pnidence and duty in their employment, 
is to be sure that it is earned no further 
than just enables the individual to make 
use of better remedies than artificial re- 
storatives — and these are food, sleep, good 
counsel, ti"ue consolation, and virtuous 
resolve, and hope that is never long in 
coming to its assistance. If this limit be 
observed, there will be no danger of im- 
pairing either health of body or health of 
mind, for both will profit.' 

And so this -writer in behalf of a reli- 
gious society commends strong drink in 
seasons of mental and rehgions depression. 
We are to use them till we bring ourselves 
up to that point of excitement that "vvill 
enable us taking the advantage of ' food, 
sleep, good counsel, true consolation, and 
virtuous resolve.' Is this the advice which 
either experience or piety gives ? "Who 
is there that knows not that thousands 
betaking themselves to such expedients 
have only plunged deeper in the depths 
irom which they would escape, and be- 
come at last the victims of a direr foe 
than that whose torment they so much 
dreaded ? 

Speaking of the effects of stimulants 
upon the mind in such cases, it has been 
well said : ' That which at first excited 
its powers of thought and imagination, 
and seemed to lift the man above himself 
and his sorrows, ends iu making him a 
degraded, dejected, useless encumbrance 
to himself and society. In short, there is 
no source of sin and misery to be compared 
with the sin of dehberately relying on the 
efl'ects of artificial stimulus to influence 
the mind and feelings.' 

And by whom is this judicious opinion 
expressed? By none other than this 
\vriter who recommends ' artificial methods 
of acting upon the mind,' and expressed 
upon the pages of the very book cont^n- 
ing those most unphilosophical and dan- 



gerous sentiments. In the quotation pre- 
ceding the above he says, ' If this limit be 
observed, there -mil be no danger ;' and 
yet on the very same page the caution is 
recorded, ' As long as human nature re- 
tains its frailty, safety ean only be found 
with certainty in|entire"abstinence2from 
all artificial stimulants.' 

Altogether, we have not met, within 
the same space, such a jumble of incon- 
sistencies and conti"adictions. The man 
who can thus assert and deny in almost 
the same breath would be driven with 
disgrace from any witness box in the 
kingdom ; and yet these are just the in- 
consistencies into which any man will be 
led who in this day will attempt to write 
in favour of moderate drinking. Absurd 
as the sentiments of the writer are, the 
book is not harmless. Thousands will 
seize upon its prescriptions as favouring 
a dai'hng appetite, without attending to 
the cautions by which they are meant to 
be accompanied ; and on this groimd we 
conceive the London Tract Society has 
incurred a heavy responsibility in giving 
the sanction of its great name to senti- 
ments so pernicious, and in employing the 
extensive agency which it commands in 
circulating a work fitted to defeat the 
grand object for which it has been insti- 
tuted. To stem the tide of demoralisa- 
tion, the help and not the opposition of 
all religious and benevolent societies is 
imperatively demanded. 



PIOUS AND PATRIOTIC PUBLI- 

CANISJI. 
That the traffickers in strong drink are 
more than uneasy at the turn which 
affairs are taking, is very evident. We 
have another proof of this in the case of 
the publicans of Arbroath. Joseph Hume 
has presented to the House of Commons 
a petition signed by 193 of them, La 
which we find the following piece of 
precious reasoning: — 

' Second — That, with respect to the 



108 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



provision enforcing the closing of public 
houses on Sunday, your petitioners, while 
holding, and in all humility they venture 
to affirm not less conscientiously than 
their fellow-citizens in other professions 
and trades, the duty incumbent upon all 
to observe divine ordinances, they at the 
same time fail to see how the enforcement 
of the clause in question will cause the 
Sunday to be better kept than under the 
existing system. On the contrary, your 
petitioners are convinced, and statistics 
could be adduced in support of their con- 
viction, that matters may be made much 
worse by the complete shutting up of 
houses on Sunday. The case of Black- 
friars' Wynd, Edinburgh, where the Sun- 
day closing experiment was tried, is a case 
in point. When the residents in that 
wynd and its vicinity found they could 
not get liquor on Sunday, they bought it 
on Saturday night, and carried it away 
in jugs to consume in their own houses 
on Sunday, thereby securing a larger 
quantity than the same money could have 
procured if consumed where purchased; 
the consequence, as a matter of course, 
being increased drunkenness, because of 
increased consumption. It is, therefore, 
your petitioners respectfully maintain, per- 
fectly apparent that drinking, instead of 
being diminished, is actually increased, 
the scene of consumption only being 
shifted — the private house being substi- 
tuted for the public. Still farther upon 
the Sunday closing clause, your petitioners 
can perceive that pernicious consequences 
will result through driving people into 
private houses; your petitiocers here, of 
course and of right, assuming that no Acts 
of Parliament can or will prevent persons 
drinking on Sunday, if so inclined, as on 
any other day. And these hurtful con- 
sequences are substantially that, while 
over a public place of resort official sur- 
veillance is exercised, rules and regula- 
tions laid down by local and district au- 
thorities must be observed, over a private 
house there is no such thing, no law to 
be observed save (where there happen to 
be drinking parties) that of uncontrolled 
license ; in brief, where without let or 
hindrance scenes of revelry may be enac- 
ted.' 

The publicans of Arbroath stand along- 
side of their worthy companion, Mr Searle 
of Pietermaritzburg. In the Natal Wit- 
ness of 4th November last, we have the 
following advertisement: — 



' Henry Searle seeing that, in conse- 
quence of the badness of the times, his 
old customers, and the public generally, 
cannot afford to imbibe such quantities of 
his good drinkables as formerly, and hav- 
ing, moreover, observed with considerable 
grief that the public health has consequently 
declined, has now determined patriotically 
to make, solely on their account, a ma- 
terial reduction in his prices. These will 
now be as follows, for cash : — 

8. D. 

Good French Brandy, single bottle, "2 

Hollands Gin, " 1 9 

Old Rum, " I 9 

First-rate Sherry, " 2 9 

Port, " 3s and 3 6 

Champagne, " 3s and 4 
etc., etc., etc. 

' The above reduction, however, he se- 
riously hopes, will not have the effect of 
promoting iniemperance.'' 

Now, as to the publicans at Arbroath, 
we have simply to say that we are very 
suspicious of any argument from such a 
quarter based upon moral or religious con- 
siderations. If it be the fact that the 
shutting of the dram-shops upon Sabbath, 
as in the case of Blackfriars' Wynd, leads 
to ' increased drunkenness, because of in- 
creased consumption,' we think they are 
the last to complain, as they will sell 
more liquor, and that without being re- 
quired to labour upon the day of rest. 
If they get profit by the change, why 
grumble at it? But we forget that 
it is not from selfish but from pious 
motives that the argument is adduced. 
Would it not give these friends of 
religion in the North stronger claims 
still upon Parliament were they to 
propose that in all their establishments 
there should be upon the Sabbath prayer, 
praise, and preaching during the ordinary 
hours of worship ? That would be truly 
public religious services, and might com- 
bine, in happy proportions, their ideas of 
' the observance of divine ordinances,' and 
a modified indulgence in alcoholic pota- 
tions. It is so far unfortunate for 
these simple but well-meaning men that 
the Blackfriars' Wynd case, upon which 
their argument is based, has never had 



THE ABSTAINER'S JOTTSKAI.. 



109 



any existence but ia their own brain. 
No such experiment was ever made. 
To close the dram-shops in a single 
wynd would avail nothing while the ad- 
jacent streets were full of them. It is 
a general closing which can alone prove 
effectual ; and we shall be more ready to 



grant the Arbroath publicans the sound- 
ness of their arguments, although not less 
dubious as to the purity of their motives, 
ia the event of the c;^se being as they re- 
present, after a twelvemonth's experiment 
of the New Public House Bill. 



temperance ILitetatur^. 



Christian Witness bearing against 
THE Sin of Intemperance. By the 
Rev. Horatius Bonar, D.D., Kelso. 

Look before tou Leap. An Appeal i 
to Young Men. By John Stewart, i 
Esq., Edinburgh. j 

Better Dwellings for the Work- 
ing Classes. By Archd. Prentice, I 
Esq., Manchester. 

A Word bt the Wat to the Wives 
OF Working Men. By the Rev. 
Dancan Ogilvie, A.M., Broughty- 
Ferry. 

These little treatises are the first four 
of a series of Temperance Tracts, at 
present being issued by the Edinburgh 
Total Abstinence Society. They are 
designed for different classes, and are got 
up in a style which will find for them 
admission to any circle. The idea is 
admirable. Tracts have been too gene- 
rally prepared for the lowest class of 
readers. This series is designed equally 
for the highest. 

We hail the name of Dr Bonar as a 
temperance reformer ; and if his pen 
renders the cause of sobriety service equal 
to what it has rendered to the cause of 
religion, we may yet regard his accession 
as one of the greatest importance. While 
in the tract before us there is much sound 
argument and christian appeal, the ground 
assumed is that very often taken by one 
amid the timidity and imperfect views of the 
question, common at the outset of his tem- 
perance advocacy; ground, however, which 
we hold to be untenable, and such as the 
Doctor is not likely to content himself 
with after having spent, as we have done, 
some twenty years in this warfare. In 
replying to a supposed objector to his 
appeal, that something may be done for 
the suppression of intemperance, he says : 

'But you object to us. because you 
think that we take up untenable and un- 
scriptural ground. You say that you can 



never bring yourselves to believe that the 
simple drinking of wines or spirits is in 
itself sinful, seeing it is so frequently 
spoken of in scripture as innocent, and 
seeing the apostle Paul has said, " Drink 
no longer water, but use a little wine for 
thy stomach's sake ;" and, seeing at the 
supper of the Lord, we are commanded to 
take the cup and drink it in remembrance 
of him, and in memorial of his blood shed 
for the remission of sins. 

'Now let me say here that you are 
mistaken. We do not ask you to take up 
this position. If I believed the taking of 
wine to be sinful, I could not receive 
many parts of scripture, and I could not 
comply with the last command of love, 
" Drink ye all of it." We do not ask you 
to take up this gi'ound ; nor do you need 
to do so in order to join us in our testi- 
mony against the intemperance of the age. 
I am willing to concede this point ; nay, I 
could not feel myself free to join the 
movement were this concession not made.' 

The Doctor, in our opinion, grants his 
opponent too much. Opponents argue in 
behalf of a liquor which is nowhere sanc- 
tioned by God, Is there a word in scrip- 
ture in favour of our adulterated and 
highly-brandied wines ? When once we 
have got scripture-sanctioned wines, it 
will be time enough to adduce scripture 
sanction in their behalf. That intoxicat- 
ing liquors were used in scripture times 
no one who is acquainted with the Bible 
will deny ; but that scripture anywhere 
sanctions the use of intoxicating liquors of 
any kind, no one acquainted with the 
Bible will affirm. 

The second tract, by Mr Stewart, is an 
able, earnest, and eloquent appeal to 
young men. With equal delight we hail 
the accession of the writer ; placed, as he 
is, at the head of one of our metropolitan 
papers, which obtains a wide circulation, 
chiefly among the working classes, he 
I possesses an opportunity of doing good, 



110 



THB ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



and the power of doing it, with which few 
are favoured. 

The third tract, by Mr Prentice, is 
characterised by all that racy, vigorous 
writing, and clear, original thinking, for 
which he had been so long distinguished. 
The fact that the first three of a series of 
temperance tracts are from the pens of 
three such men as Bonar, Stewart, and 
Prentice, is a good omen for our cause. 
A literature which is the product of such 
minds is not to be sneered at. As to the 
means by which working people might 
get better dwellings, Mr Prentice says: — 

' The demand for better dwelling-houses 
would lead to their erection. It is but for 
the workmg classes to say that they shall 
have better houses, and they will have 
them. The man who now can spend a 
shilling a«week on beer, or gin, or whisky, 
could pay a shilling a- week more on the 
rent of a better house. He might tire of 
the tedious process of accumulating until 
he could spend £100 in the erection of a 
house ; but he can, on any day, or at 
least on any quarter-day, enter upon his 
more comfortable and more healthful 
dwelling, by simply giving over his visit 
to the public-house. A resolution that 
the weekly cost of the sensual and selfish 
indulgence should be thus devoted would, 
in the great community in which I live, 
add 5000 to the list of borough voters ; 
and surely the importance thus given 
should be considered as at least equivalent 
to the "hour's importance" in the tap- 
room. But this, greatly as the franchise 
may be prized — gi-eatly as it ought to be 
prized — would not be a tithe of the 
benefit derived. That single shilling in 
the week saved, and the saving thus 
directed, would lift 5000 families out of 
locahties where the annual mortality is five 
per cent., and place them where it is not 
two. There is one street in Manchester 
where the advocates of total abstinence 
from intoxicating drinks have been perse- 
veringly active, and the curious result has 
been a constant change of its inhabitants ; 
for whenever a man was converted to their 
principles, he was removed to a £10 
house, in a more open and airy part of the 
borough, to be succeeded by another, in 
his turn to be converted, and in his turn 
to make a like advance in his social posi- 
tion. Is it a dream to believe that what 
has been done in one street may be done 
in the thousand streets, lanes, and courts, 
which constitute our two boroughs ?' 

The fourth tract, by Mr Ogilvie, is 
characterised by all the excellence of this 



long-tried and able advocate of the tem- 
perance cause. The illustration is pursued 
in the form of a succession of advices 
given to a variety of women, who are 
supposed to have some objections to join- 
ing the temperance society. The danger 
to which women are exposed by the pre- 
sence of liquors in their houses is thus 
expressed : — 

' There are certain states of feeling, 
both of body and mind, in which there is 
every probability — firom the mistaken 
ideas prevalent as to intoxicating drinks, 
and the well-intentioned but erroneous 
advices of neighbours — that, if you keep 
these drinks iu the house, you may be 
tempted to take them. You may not have 
had such feelings ; but many a woman has 
been ruined by having intoxicating liquors 
at hand, when such feehugs were upon 
her. Relief was experienced for the time ; 
but the feelings they allayed soon returned, 
and with the greater power, just because 
of the drink taken. Others, who like the 
drink, may contrive to lead you to join 
with them in their gossiping drinking 
pai-ties. Thus, in various ways, as the 
female constitution is easily affected by 
such drinks, an appetite may be formed, 
which will continually cry, " Give, give," 
and you become a drunkard. Better 
banish the enemy altogether. Let him 
have no place in your press or pantry, if 
you value your own safety.' 

A series of tracts every way so excel- 
lent cannot but command an extensive 
circulation ; and we rejoice to hear that 
they have already become exceedingly 
popular. 

The Edinburgh Maine Law Tracts. 
Nos. 1-3. E. Henderson, 10 Nicolsoa 
Street. 

The first of these tracts treats of the 
question, 'Shall we move for the Maine 
Law?' and answers it in a very satis- 
factory manner. The writer would not 
' undervalue any of the remedial measures 
which have been adopted.' He argues 
that we are making little progress by our 
ordinary means, points to the success of 
the law movement in America; and that, 
as it is the abolition of the drinking 
system, and not any particular theory we 
contend for, we ought to go for the Maine 
Law. 

In the second tract, he takes up the 
question, 'Why should the Government 
Legislate on Temperance ?' He conceives 
that it ought to do so, because its grand 



THE ABSTAINEE'S JOURNAI,. 



Ill 



end is to defend men from the conduct of 
the lawless and wicked. 

In the third tract, he adduces the care 
of wives and children as a plea in behalf 
of his argument. The tracts are all writ- 
ten, evidently, hy one who knows the 
question, and is well able to defend it. 

Who Causes Pestilexce ? Four Ser- 
mons, by the Rev. Charles Kingsley. 
London and Glasgow : Griffin. 

The object of these sermons is to show 
that cholera is firom man, and not from 
God; and this he has done, we think, 
without being guilty of irreverence or 
blasphemy. In his preface, he says, 
speaking of the duty of ministers : — 

' Let them read the excellent sheet is- 
sued by the Board of Health, which proves 
that the number of lives destroyed every 
year by diseases which sanitary reform can 
extirpate, is several times greater than the 
number of lives lost in battle during any 
year of the great French war. Let them 
read the recent pamphlet by Dr South- 
wood Smith, and there see the actual prac- 
tical results which have been obtained by 
sanitary reform, and the providing of fit 
dwellings for the lower classes, not merely 
in extirpating disease, but in extirpating 
drunkenness, ferocity, and those coarser 
vices of which too many preachers speak 
as if they were the only sins worth rebuk- 
ing-' 

If retribution is according to the sin 
committed, then the judgment, in the case 
of cholera, points to our wretched sanitary 
condition as a people. By all means, let 
us humble ourselves under every judgment, 
but let our repentance be accompanied by 
a turning from the sin that has brought 
upon us the visitation. Let any one who 
doubts the preventability of cholera read 
the first article, by Dr Carpenter, in the 
April number of the Scottish Review, and 
his scepticism will be dispelled. Two 
facts are well established: First, cholera 
seizes most directly upon those of in- 
temperate habits ; and, second, it seizes 
upon those who reside in districts made 
wretched by intemperance. 

Benefit Societies : What thet are, 
AND What they Might be. By 
John Jordison. London : Tweedie. 

This is one of the most interesting and 
important pamphlets which has issued 
from the temperance press. It deals at 
length, and with great ability, upon the 



evils resulting from benefit societies hold- 
ing their meetings in places where liquor 
is sold. We could wish that some friend 
of the movement would expose the extent 
of the same cause of intemperance as 
respects Scotland. That similar practices 
obtain among ourselves we know, but 
as yet none have grappled with the evil. 
A few extracts will afl"ord an idea of the 
character of the publication : — 

' Without entering into any elaborate 
statistics, it may be stated as probable 
that above one-fourth of the male adtdt 
popnhtion of England are exposed to the 
temptation of the public-house through the 
medium of Benefit Societies alone. 

'For the last twenty years these societies 
have increased almost with the increase 
of the number of pubHc-houses, and, as 
now constituted, they may be regarded as 
the ofi'spriug of the pubhcan. No sooner 
does a new-pledged publican, no matter 
whether he be a retired prize-fighter, a 
superannuated gentleman's servant, a re- 
tired police-officer, or a working man with 
a predilection in favour of personal ease, 
no sooner does he obtain his licence than 
he applies his wits to form a club. He 
knows (and who does not ?) some clever 
workman given to beer, and who has con- 
siderable influence in workshops ; he gives 
him an invitation to drink, which is cheer- 
fully accepted, and before long the projec- 
ted club is mentioned. The beer-drinker 
is grateful for what he has received, and 
probably expectant of more, and promises 
to help him all he can. He then moots 
the subject among his fellow-workmen, 
keeping the previous conversation with the 
publican to himself, and takes some of his 
companions to the inn. The subject is 
talked over to the landlord, more beer is 
brought out, the host in his liberality ofiers 
to advance any capital requisite to com- 
mence with, which may or may not amount 
to 20s. Another extended conversation 
among his fellow- workmen, hints of liberal 
principles and enlarged views, and so forth, 
produce the desired impression, and a 
third meeting elicits more beer, and the 
new club becomes a reality. The Me- 
chanics^ Arms Benefit Club is ushered into 
existence, the landlord is made the trea- 
surer and president, his beer-loving friend 
is appointed secretary, and their most in- 
timate companions are created stewards ; 
the rules of a neighbouring pnbhc-house 
club become those of the Mechanics' Arms 
Club, by the alteration of the name, and 
the publican has now got so many regular 
aislomers. This sketch is a tolerably faith- 



112 



THE abstainer's JOUENAL. 



fill one of the manner in which thousands 
of societies are formed, and so well is this 
known that the con-ectness of the descrip- 
tion would hardlv be questioned by any 
working man. 

' In nearly all Yearly Clubs there is a 
rule that so much (generally threepence 
per member) be spent every meeting night 
in liquor, for " the good of the house," as it 
is termed, no matter how few members he 
present, still the 3d per member is all spent, 
and the liquor drank by the members 
present. In most Life Clubs this rule is 
omitted, and a sum per annum is paid as 
rent, but members are, nevertheless, ex- 
pected to di-ink, and excepting as regards 
teetotalers, landlords generally have little 
occasion to find fault. 

' Societies being held at public-houses, 
liquor is introduced into the club-room, 
and every one drinks ; after business is 
over, drinking is continued often till a late 
hour, as a social enjoyment, and mem- 
bers who leave the house without drinking 
are called " shabby." Late hours of drink- 
ing produce the desire for stimulants the 
following morning ; morning tippling soon 
requires the stimulant to be repeated at 
shortening intervals, and the habit con- 
tinued eventually brings a member on the 
sick list, and a long sick list soon brings the 
club to ruin, and the " shabby" members, 
who have paid to the club for ten or twenty 
years, find the funds eaten up by self-made 
invalids and suicides, and not only have 
they lost all they staked, but they are 
unable, from age, to find entrance into an- 
other club. As institutions for mutual 



support, then, they fail, through their con- 
nection with the public-house ; their laws 
for prohibiting inehgible persons from be- 
coming members being comparatively use- 
less, and those for preventing the fiinds 
from being wasted upon members, who 
bring upon themselves sickness by their 
own immoral conduct, not being carried 
out. From January, 1851, to January, 
1852, no less than 86 lodges of Odd-Fel- 
lows of the Manchester Unity, were closed, 
the number of members being nearly 
4,000. 

' Remove the club from the public-house, 

and its legitimate object is understood and 

recognised. It ceases to be a society for 

helping the pubhcan ; and the temptation 

i to drink being removed, there will then 

! be no danger, as is now the case, of men 

becoming intemperate through joining it ; 

and the consequence of such a change 

would be that numbers of respectable 

members, who now keep away, would at- 

! tend and give their aid in managing its 

affairs, and thousands of respectable men, 

who now stand aloof, would join and help 

j to raise the character of the society. The 

i amount of sickness will decrease ; the rate 

I of mortality will be lessened ; there will 

I be less jealousy, less envy, and fewer bick- 

1 erings and quarrels. Clubs will no longer 

i be Friendly Societies in name only, but 

j be recognised throughout the land as noble 

j and glorious institutions, the emanations 

of independent minds, a blessing to the 

afflicted, the fatherless, and the widow, and 

meriting the support of every lover of his 

; kind.' 



Selections. 



UNWHOLESOME MILK. 



In many if not in most of the dairies sup- 
plying our city, the cows are fed upon 
brewers' grains, and distillery slops — grain 
reeking from fermentation, and fluid nearly 
exhausted of nutriment, but fierce with a 
stimulant principle, forcing the animal 
organs to unnatural exertion — to a quick, 
diluted, diseased yield, and to rapid decay. 
Common sense needs no demonstration 
that such is not fit food for brutes, and 
can furnish only a poisoned decoction for 
human use ; but common sense goes to 
sleep, and needs an awakening repetition 
of daily-working facts. Besides common 
sense, the money sense sees that this Still 
slop furnishes an easier and cheaper pro- 



duct, at five cents a quart, than grass, or 
hay, or unperverted grain ; and it is at a 
loss for a remedy. A home argument, 
this ; strong enough, it should seem, to 
carry a casting vote for legislation against 
a system whose open current sweeps 
deadly through our streets, and whose 
subtly-flowing drainage undermines the 
purest households. 

A frightful proportion of the mortality 
among city children, from slow pining, 
from unexplained attacks, including ano- 
malous eruptions, and especially firom 
cholera infantum, will be found to arise 
from the use of impure or diseased milk. 

Within two years, I was called to visit, 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



lU 



in this city, a child covered from head to 
foot with a virulent eruption. Its food, 
the parents assured me, was hread and 
milk. Learning that the milk was pro- 
cured from a distillery-fed dairy, I prohi- 
bited its use ; ordering, instead, as pure 
milk could not be obtained, simple com- 
pounds of flour and water. The eruption 
very soon subsided, and in a few days, the 
child was well, without medicine, simply 
by change of diet. 

Hartley, records many cases similar to 
this, and equally striking. 

A child of his own, weaned at the age 
of nine months, and fed upon cow's milk, 
so proportioned with water and sugar as 
was believed to substitute its natural 
nourishment, became, at first, remarkably 
changed in temper — 'irritable, restless, 
and unmanageable ;' then haggard and 
feeble, ' so that at the age of fifteen months, 
his weak and emaciated body would 
scarcely sustain itself without bolstering.' 
He sank day by day, till death from 
emaciation seemed inevitable ; when it 
firsj; occurred to the father to suspect im- 
purity of the milk, which was its food. 

That was, with some difficulty, ex- 
changed for milk produced from natural 
food ; and then, without other change in 
the child's circumstances, a sudden and 
remarkable improvement in health follow- 
ed. But the' child was permanently 
enfeebled; and, as in other cases cited, 
where life, almost destroyed, was saved 
by change of food, doomed to suff'er to the 
end of it, from the deep poisoning of its 
infancy. 

It is not merely upon the delicate organs 
of children that the harmful eff"ects of still- 
slop milk is perceptible. 

1 felt its power some years ago in New 
York too plainly to be mistaken. I went, 
forafew weeks' sojourn, to 'a distinguished' 
boarding house, where, at my request, a 
daily allowance of milk was provided for 
me. It was at that time a large consti- 
tuent of my food, whose other articles were 
so few, that the unintended experiment 
was a very clear one. In two or three 
days I lost strength and spirits strangely ; 
in less than a week, became so feeble as 
to make some change imperative ; when, 
hearing that I was drinking 'slop-milk,' 
I excused myself to my kind landlady, 
and removed to a house which I knew to 
be supplied with pure country milk. No 
other change was made in my regimen, 
and the depression could not be attributed 
to locality ; but, elasticity returned at once, 
and in three days I was well. — Dr Mussay 



in the American National Temperance 
Organ. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF 
ALCOHOL. 
Does it promote or aid digestion ? First, 
Is it digestible itself? No. It passes 
into the stomach, and is taken up in the 
veins, and carried round the system, but 
always remains by itself; may be found in 
the brain, and may be distilled from the 
blood of the drunkard. Does it aid diges- 
tion ? The gentleman said he had eaten 
too much dinner, and he must take some 
brandy. But if he had taken the contents 
of his stomach, and put them into brandy, 
it would have preserved them. Thus 
when men would preserve a dead body, 
they put it into spirit. Were it not that 
wine and spirits are rapidly absorbed, the 
introduction of these into the stomach, 
in any quantity, would be a complete bar 
to digestion. 

Does it help nutrition ? Is it nutritious 
in itself? No one pretends it is. It has 
nothing from which can be formed muscle, 
flesh and bone. It contains no Nitrogen, 
while all animal tissues abound with it. 
Man lives and strengthens by air, water, 
and food. Of these, an adult man con- 
sumes 3000 pounds weight in a year. 
Water is the great vehicle of vital changes. 
It is essential to all life. Four-fifths of 
the blood, and three-fourths of the brain, 
muscles, nerves, and tissues of all organs 
that make up the apparently solid flesh, 
consist of water. Water is the chief agent 
of digestion, absorption, nutrition, secre- 
tion. Does Alcohol aid it in the perform- 
ance of its work ? No. It hinders it in 
every part. It has such a powerful 
attraction for animal tissues that, whenever 
it is brought into contact with animal 
membrane or flesh, it is at once absorbed ; 
penetrating, and difi'using itself, espelling 
the water, and causing a shrinking of the 
animal substance. Does it aid the Albu- 
men, the alimentary principle of all food? 
No. It has the same eS'ect upon it as 
heat. It coagulates it, throws it from the 
liquid to the solid state, as may be seen 
at any time, by mingling it with the white ' 
of an egg. Says the highest chemical 
authority (Regnanlt), 'Concentrated Alco- 
hol acts as a poison on the animal economy, 
and will produce death when taken in 
large quantities. Injected into the veins, 
it produces almost sudden death by coagu- 
lating the Albumen of the blood.' In 
small quantities it may not do this, but 



114 



THE ABSTAINER'S JOURNAL. 



it does not follow that in small quantities 
it is either neutral or inactive. It must 
ever tend to harden and solidify. 

Is Alcohol valuable as a protection 
against cold ? No ! for, by over- stimulat- 
ing, it robs the coming hours of the vital 
energy which is their due, and instead of 
fortifying the body against extreme cold, 
it actually weakens and breaks down its 
powers of resistance. 

Is it valuable as a stimulant ? No ! for 
it causes irritation and inflammation. The 
constitution of our nature calls for no such 
thing. 

Is it valuable as a tonic ? No ! for the 
Alcohol, when applied to the living tissues, 
exalts for a time their vital activity ; this 
exaltation is followed by a corresponding 
depression. 

Is it valuable as creating an appetite 
for food ? No ! for that appetite is fictitious 
— a sheer fraud upon the system. The 
excess of food it creates is a fruitful source 
of disorder. 

Does it protect from contagion ? No ! 
it rather encourages it. The body is never 
so healthful and well protected as when in 
the free and natural use of all its functions ; 
but Alcohol wonderfully disarranges them. 
The whole medical faculty declare that 
the first subjects of epidemics are the men 
who use ardent spirits. It is in itself an 
eflBcient cause of disease, especially of 
diseases of the stomach. It produces in- 
ternal disease when the patient is appar- 
ently well. 'It exercises a singularly 
direct and potent influence,' says Dr 
Frances, ' upon the liver. It may become 
preternaturally hard or schiiTous through 
its use.' , 

Is its operation valuable upon the brain ? 
It is a most important inquiry, for the 
brain is the man, the seat of the immortal 
mind. Let this material organ become 
disordered. Alcohol, it has been shown, 
is a poison, and it is a remarkable feature 
of poisons that they have a local action 
within the system. Strychnine acts upon 
the spinal chord. Oil of tobacco, on the 
heart. Arsenic, on the alimentary passages. 
Mercury, on the mouth. Cantharides, on 
the renal organs. Iodine, on the lymphatic 
glands. Manganese, on the liver. Is 
Alcohol governed by this law. Does it 
fasten itself upon any one part ? Yes, — 
upon the brain. Alcohol is a Brain 
Poison ! It is so to all intents and 
purposes. It seizes with its disorganising 
energy upon that mysterious part whose 
steady and undisturbed action holds man 
in true and responsible relations with his 



family, with society, and with God ; and 
it is this fearful fact that gives to 
government and society their tremendous 
interest in the question. Courts hold that 
drunkenness is itself a crime, and no excuse 
for wrong-doing. ' The drunkard is volun- 
tariet dcemon, and whatever ill he doth, 
his drunkenness shall aggravate it' (Lord 
Coke). In other cases of insanity, the 
criminal is not held responsible. Hence 
it is voluntarily brought on, and is there- 
fore crime, and the drunken murderer is 
hung upon the gallows. But are not 
society, is not every individual who makes, 
sells, or patronizes the use of Alcohol, 
and leads the wretch on to temptation 
and death, responsible also ? Must not 
Alcohol be a subject of law ? Sorely it 
must. There has always been a juris- 
prudence of Alcohol, there is still, and the 
necessity for it will continue. But the 
demand of the age is for a new, a higher, 
andjuster legislation; for more thorough 
and potential law, through which the most 
ubiquitous and omnipotent energy of 
government shall be expressed for the 
protection of society. — Abridged from the 
ConstiliUion of Man, hy Professor Touman 
of America. 



LETTER FROM REV. PROFESSOR 
STOWE. 

[Rev. Dr Burns, of London, having re- 
ceived the following reply to a letter ad- 
dressed by him to Dr Stowe, has placed it 
at our disposal. As several inquiries on 
the subject to which it refers have been 
proposed to us at various times, we publish 
it the more readily — simply premising that 
while the medicinal use of alcohol is an open 
question, abstainers can never too carefully 
avoid giving room for suspicion affecting 
their thorough consistency and uncompro- 
mising devotion to the great principle they 
have espoused — Ed. N.T.C] 

Andover, Mass., Feb. 20th, 1854. 

Rev. and Dear Sir, — * "* • 
I can assure you that Mrs Stowe and 
myself never used wine as a beverage, and 
that we uniformly and conscientiously ab- 
stained from it at every entertainment 
of every kind while in England and Scot- 
land, as well as in America. But we were 
both of us under medical treatment while 
in Britain, and. have been so for several 
months before — constantly subject to 
great prostration and nervous exhaustion. 
Under medical advice, and simply as a 
medicine, I found it necessary, while at 
Mr Paton's in Glasgow, and while at Mr 



THE ABSTAINER 8 JOURNAL. 



115 



Sherman's in London a few times — I be- 
lieve always at night — after attending a 
meeting — to take a single glass of wine 
and water. On no other occasion, and at 
no other place, did I do it, so far as I re- 
member. 

For the same reason, and in the same 
way, Mrs Stowe took about the same 
quantity at Mr Binney's and Mr Sher- 
man's, and we can recollect no other in- 
stance. Since our return home we have 
been able to refrain entirely from wine, 
except what is necessary for the Lord's- 
Supper. 

Our daughter, who was ill, used about 
two bottles of claret ; but she is now so 
much better that we have none in the 
house. 

Thus we have used wine just as we 
occasionally use laudanum, calomel, or 
opium, and in no other way. AH the 
world is welcome to the facts above 
stated. 

The cause of Temperance here is 
bravely and constantly onwards, but 
the cause of the slave is under a tre- 
mendously heavy pressure. It is just 
the reverse with you. Each in his own 
place must bear his burden and fight his 
battle. — Truly j'ours, 

C. E. Stowe. 
— National Temperance Chronicle. 

WHAT THE TRAFFICKER IN 
DRINK CAN DO. 

A company of individuals unite them- 
selves together in a mutual benefit society. 
The blacksmith comes and says — 

' Gentlemen, I wish to become a mem- 
ber of your association.' 

'Well, what can you do?' 

' Oh, I can shoe your horses, iron your 



carriages, and make all kinds of imple- 
ments.' 

'Very well, come in, Mr Blacksmith.' 

The mason applies for admission. 

' And what can you do, sir ?' 

' Ob, I can build your barns and houses, 
stables and bridges.' 

' Very well, come in — we can't do with- 
out you.' 

Along comes the shoemaker, and says, 

'I wish to become a meml)er of your 
society.' 

' Well, what can you do ?' 

' I can make boots and shoes for you.' 

' Come in, Mr Shoemaker — we must 
have you.' 

So, in turn, apply all the different 
trades and professions, till lastly an in- 
dividual comes, and wants to become a 
member. 

'And what are you ?' 

' I am a beer and spirit seller.' 

' A beer and spirit seller ! and what can 
you do ?' 

' I can build jails, and prisons and poor- 
houses.' 

' And is that all ?' 

'No, I can fill them; I can fill your 
jails with criminals, your prisons with 
convicts, and your poor-houses with 
paupers.' 

' And what else can you do ?' 

'I can bring the gray hairs of the 
aged to the grave with sorrow ; I can 
break the heart of the wife, and blast 
the prospects of the friends of talent, and 
fill your land with more than the plagues 
of Egypt.' 

' Is that all you can do V 

'AH I can do?' cries the beer and 
spirit seller, ' is not that enough V — 
From the American. 



tilrg antJ ^nbs. 



Intemperance of English Arti- 
ZANS. — A district surveyor, writing in the 
Builder, says : — ' The amount of habitual 
intemperance to be met among workmen 
of all grades, is perfectly fearful, and is an 
insuperable barrier against their improve- 
ment, moral and material. To some ex- 
tent it may be attributed to the prevalence 
of the fallacious idea that drink — i.e., beer 
— is necessary to them on account of the 
nutritive character of that beverage. Lie- 
big has shown that this is very small 
indeed. Of its noxious properties we 



have full evidence ; this has been demon- 
strated by actual experiment, and any 
one may test it. The greatest amount of 
continuous physical effort and exertion 
can be gone through on water ; this has 
been proved in the hayfield, and in men 
under training. I believe that, physically 
and morally, a better and healthier race 
of men wiU never arise until all stimulating 
drinks — i.e., beer, wine, and spirits — have 
been wholly abandoned as unnecessary 
and injurious.' 

King Janus on the Vine Plant. — 



116 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



The Romans asserted that their old king, 
Janus, planted the first vine in Italy, and 
that, later, Numa taught them how to 
trim it. That noble people knew how to 
appreciate such blessings, and in order to 
demonstrate that wisdom is always to be 
found in wine, they never failed to place 
ou their altars the statue of Minerva 
beside that of Bacchus. The inflexible 
muse of history has preserved to us the 
name of the individual who doomed him- 
self to a sorry sort of immortality by in- 
venting the custom of mixing water with 



wine ; it was Cranaus, King of Athens, 
1532 B.C. The gods, doubtless to punish 
him, caused a great part of Greece to be 
inundated, and it was not long before he 
was dethroned. Pliny accuses the obscure 
Staphil, son of Sithen, of this deprivation 
of taste, which gained upon imitators to 
such an extent that, in the time of Diod- 
orus of Sicily (45 B.C.,) the guests still 
mixed water with their wine at the end of 
the repast. It is true that they were 
then all intoxicated. — Soyer's Pantropheon. 



©peratfons of tfje ^catti&i} CEiitperance iLeaflue. 



SERMONS AND PUBLIC MEETING. 
Since last publication, Sermons have been 
preached in Glasgow, by the Revs. Dr 
Joseph Brown, Dalkeith ; John Williams, 
and J. W. Borland, Glasgow ; and on 
Monday, 27th March, a Public Meeting 
was held in St Enoch's Hall, Dixon Street, 
Neil M'Neill, Esq., in the chair, at which 
addresses were given by the Rev. Dr 
Bates, John M'Gavin, Esq., A. H. M'Lean, 
Esq., and Mr AVilliam Logan. 



THE LEAGUE AGENTS. 

PLACES VISITED DURING THE PAST 
MONTH. 

Since last report Mr Easton has visited 
Waterbeck, Dumfries, Kirkmahoe, Virgin- 
hall, Minnihive, Kirkconnel, Sanquhar, 
Crocketford, Haugh of Urr, Dalbeattie, 
Mainsriddle, New Abbey, Tinwald, Mouse- 
wald, Torthorwald, Old Key, Dunscore, 
Irongray, and Shotley-Bridge. 

Mr Anderson has visited Elgin, Keith, 
Huntly, Rhynie, Upper Cabrach, Lower 



Cabrach, Aberdeen, Luthermnir, Brechin, 
Montrose, Ferry-Den, Arbroath, Letham, 
Kirriemuir, and Glammiss. 

Mr M'Farlane has visited Glasgow 
(Working Men's Society), Ayr, Maybole, 
Dalmellington, Stewarton, Kilmarnock, 
Hurlford, D.arvel, Newmilns, Galston, 
Mauchline, Catrine, Cumnock, Auchin- 
leck, and Biidgeton. 

Mr Duncan h-as visited Fala, Path- 
head-Ford, Roslin, Liberton, Inverury, 
Aberdeen, Woodside, and Wick. 

Mr Scrimgeour has visited Braco, 
Auchterarder, Dunning, Perth, Logie- 
Almond, Aberuthven, Abernethy, New- 
burgh, Auctermuchty, Dunshalt, Freuchie, 
Falkland, Pitlessie, Cupar-Fife, Ferry- 
Port-on-Craig, Panmurefield, Monifieth, 
Carnoustie, and Dundee. 

Mr Greer has addressed meetings in 
Clyde Street, Anderston ; Port-Dandas 
Mission House ; Partick, Cambuslang, 
John Street U. P. Church Mission House, 
Dempster Street, Chapelton, St Luke's 
School, Main Street, Calton, and Greenock. 



^TEmperance Wetos. 



SCOTLAND. 

EDINBURGH. 

Edinburgh Total Abstinence Society. 
The operations of the committee for the 
past month have been productive of the 
most cheering results. No fewer than ten 
public meetings have been held in the city, 
at which an amount of varied talent has 
been brought forward which has seldom been 
equalled, as the following will show : — Rev. 
Dr Ritchie, on ' The Social Claims of the 
Total Abstinence Society;' Rev. John Kirk, 
on ' The Influences on which we depend in 
seeking the triumph of Temperance Reform;' 
Rev. Alex. Wallace, on 'The Workshop 
and the Dramshop ;' Rev. W. G. Moncrieff, 
on ' Total Abstinence and the Maine Law ;' 
Rev. Thomas Adams, on 'The Tyrant we 



seek to Slay;' Rev. Archibald Macdonald, 
of Manchester, on ' The Homes of the Peo- 
ple, how to make them happy and free ;' 
Rev. George Cron, of Hamilton, on 'The 
Intellectual Consequences of Intemperance;' 
Mr William Blair, M.A., Kirkcaldy, on 
' Popular Objections to Total Abstinence 
considered and refuted ;' Mr John Strachan, 
on ' Popular Reasons in favour of Drinking 
considered ;' and by Messrs W. B. Tumbull, 
A. M'Donald, James Palmer, and David 
Butler. To give a mere outline of the above 
interesting lectures and addresses would 
occupy more space than can at present be 
spared ; suffice it to say, that the topics 
chosen by the various speakers were treated 
in an able manner, and the numerous audi- 
ences which have assembled during these 



THE ABSTAINER S JOUENAL. 



117 



meetings have no doubt been amply re- 
warded for their attendance. It is gratifying 
to add, that upwards of five hundred persons 
have been enrolled during the month, mak- 
ing altogether, since the 1st January, nearly 
three thousand -who have become members 
of the society, a great proportion of ■whom 
belong to the more respectable portion of 
the community. The first five of the New 
Series of Tracts have just been issued. They 
are neatly got up, and will no doubt tend 
very much to promote the cause. The re- 
mainder of the series will soon be ready. 
Nevj College. 
The New College Branch of the Free 
Church Abstainers' Society held its con- 
cluding meeting for the session on Friday 
evening, March 31, in Dr Cunningham's 
class-room. The President, Mr David K. 
Guthrie, in his valedictory address, stated 
that the branch, though only in the third 
year of its existence, contained (besides nine 
non- theological members) ninety-six stu- 
dents of divinity, being very nearly half the 
number attending the halL 

GLASGOW. 

United Total Abstinence Association. 
Mr Archibald Livingston, president of 
the Glasgow United Total Abstinence As- 
sociation, entertained the directors of the 
district societies, with their wives, at a 
soiree on Tuesday night, llth April. St 
Enoch's Hall, Dixon Street, was quite filled. 
The speakers were the chairman (Mr Living- 
ston); Mr Mitchell, who gave an interesting 
account of the past and present state of the 
movement in Glasgow ; Mr Thomas Trench, 
whose remarks with regard to the expendi- 
ture of the society were followed by a sub- 
scription among those present amounting to 
j£30 ; and Mr Torrens. The proceedings 
terminated at half-past eleven o'clock. 

Auxiliary of U. K. Alliance. 

A public meeting of the Glasgow Auxi- 
liary of the United Kingdom Alliance for 
the suppression of the liquor trafEc was held 
on Tuesday evening, in West Campbell 
Street Reformed Presbyterian Church — 
Rev. Dr Bates in the chair. The meeting 
was addressed by the Rev. R. Gault ; and, 
on the motion of the Rev. George Blyth, 
seconded by Mr Lamb, it was unanimously 
resolved that the trafEc in intoxicating 
drinks is highly prejudicial to the best in- 
terests of the nation, and ought, therefore, to 
be prohibited by law. Several members 
were enrolled at the close of the proceedings. 
The weekly meeting was addressed on Fri- 
day week by Messrs Lamb and Macnair. 
Commercial Abstinence Society. 

The quarterly social meeting of the Glas- 
gow Commercial Abstinence Society, was 
held on Tuesday evening, 18th April, in the 
Temperance Hall, Stockwell Street, under 
the presidency of John M'Gavin, Esq. Ad- 



dresses, songs, and stories, varied the inter- 
esting proceedings. 

Inauguration Soiree of the Abstaiiicrs' Union. 

The inauguration soiree of the Glasgow 
Abstainers' Union took place in St Enoch's 
Hall, Dixon Street, on AN'ednesday evening 
19th April; Mr Neil M'Neill, President of 
the Union, in the chair. The commodious 
hall was filled with a most respectable com- 
pany. After an abundant supply of tea. 

The Chairman made a neat and appro- 
priate address, and sat down by calling on 

Mr E. Anderson, the secretary, who 
read letters of apology from the Rev, Dr 
Bates, Rev. . James Morison, Rev. William 
Scott, and Mr Robert Smith, and extracts 
from the minutes, giving an account of the 
formation of the Association. 

Mr William Melvin, one of the vice- 
presidents, proposed the first resolution : — 
' That this meeting cordially approves of 
the constitution and objects of the Glasgow 
Abstainers' Union, and resolves to accord 
to it their most strenuous support.' Mr 
Melvin stated that this Union had been 
recently formed with the view of promoting 
the greater eCBciency of the temperance 
reformation in Glasgow. The Union had 
not, however, been established in opposition 
to the Glasgow United Association. There 
is work enough for all, and no occasion for 
opposition or discord. Since the late visit 
of Mr Gough to this city, a very general 
feeling prevailed among the temperance 
reformers that an attempt should be made 
to sustain, by some other plan of operations, 
the growing interest in the temperance 
cause ; hence the formation of the Glasgow 
Abstainers" Union. From the constitution 
of the Union, societies established in the 
various quarters of the city, becoming con- 
nected with it, retain their independence, 
while at the same time they secure the 
advantages of mutual counsel and co-opera- 
tion. The Union is composed of individual 
members, as well as representatives from 
societies. Arrangements have been made 
for holding a weekly public meeting, and 
the directors have engaged St Enoch's Hall 
for a year ; in which it is intended that a 
.meeting shall be held every Wednesday 
evening, when addresses of a first-class 
character may he expected. At the same 
place it is proposed to enrol new members ; 
and as objections have sometimes been 
urged to the name of a pledge, an agreement 
has been adopted, which is as follows : — 
' We do agree that we will not use intoxi- 
cating liquors as a beverage, nor trafEc in 
them, nor provide them for others ; and 
that we will, in all suitable ways, discoun- 
tenance their use in the community.' An- 
other prominent object of the Union shall 
be to secure the advocacy of our principles 
both from the pulpit and the press. Glasgow 
has been, in this respect, somewhat behind 
other places. The Circulation and 



118 



THE ABSTAINEB'S JOURKAL. 



SALE OF THE PUBLICATIONS OF THE 

League is another important mode of ope- 
ration •which it is proposed to prosecute. 
The directors are very desirous that an 
attempt should he made to establish, in 
various parts of the city, coffee shops for 
the working people, so that, in some measure 
at least, the temptation to enter public- 
houses may be counteracted. The impres- 
sion on the minds of the leading members 
of this association is very deep that Glasgow 
has not taken the full share of advantage 
which may be had from that great national 
association, the Scottish Temperance League. 
Instead of co-operation and concord with 
that powerful organisation, there has in 
Eome instances been coldness, and even 
opposition. They are determined that this 
state of things shall no longer continue, and 
for this purpose have agreed to request the 
directors of the League to send represen- 
tatives to the meetings, so that the greatest 
cordiality and co-operation may prevail 
between the two associations. 

The Rev. Mr M'Rae seconded the resolu- 
tion. In doing so he explained that he stood 
there for himself only, and not as repre- 
senting any society or union whatever. He 
had long been favourable to the temperance 
reformation, and he came there from a love 
to the cause, which he desired to see advan- 
ced in the city. He had carefully perused 
the constitution of the new Union which 
they had now met to inaugurate, and heartily 
approved of it— indeed, was delighted with 
it. He had readily agreed to attend the 
present meeting, not to make a speech, which 
he had been saved the necessity of doing, 
but to give it his countenance. He fully 
accorded with all that had been so well said 
by the mover of the resolution. 

Mr A. H. M'Lean moved the second 
resolution — ' That this meeting is impressed 
vrith the importance of the creation of a 
healthy public sentiment on the temperance 
question by means of the pulpit, the plat- 
form, and the press, and hails the formation 
of this association as an important addition 
to the measures formerly in operation.' He 
delivered a highly humorous speech, in which 
he depicted some strange scenes and adven- 
tures witnessed by him and others in excur- 
sions into the country districts, when pioneers 
in the temperance reformation. 

Mr James Stirling seconded the resolution. 
He had been called Father Stirling, and 
being turned of fourscore he was perhaps 
well entitled to the name ; and although he 
could not be supposed to possess the power 
of fancy and brightness of intellect that he 
formerly did, he was still able to give his 
advice on a subject which was so dear to 
him, and so valuable to those who were its 
disciples. He was regarded as the old 
fugleman of the teetotal army, and it was 
well known that it was not the duty of a 
fugleman to speak, but to act ; and his ad- 



vice to them was to speak less and act more 
Action he had found was better than ver- 
bosity in advancing any cause. He strongly 
enjoined on the ladies to do all in their 
power to promote total abstinence. If they 
would be verbose at all, they should be so 
in dinning the evils of intemperance into the 
ears of all they came in contact with. They 
had a great and powerful piece of mechanism 
in the total abstinence movement. This 
required to be oiled and kept in good work- 
ing order, by a good and loving feeling and 
a harmony of action, which was so essential 
to the promotion of the cause. 

The Rev. J. Williams proposed the third 
resolution — ' That this meeting, while de- 
ploring the prevalence of intemperance, re- 
joices in the remedy the abstinence principle 
provides against it, and recognises it as the 
duty of all Christians to lend it their aid.' 
Owing to the lateness of the hour, he declin- 
ed enlarging on the subject. 

Mr Wm. Fulton seconded the resolution, 
which, on being put from the chair, was (as 
had been the others) unanimously approved. 

After a vote of thanks to the chairman, 
the benediction was pronounced by the Rev. 
Mr Williams, and the meeting separated. 
University Abstainers' Society. 

The second annual meeting of the Glasgow 
University Abstainers' Society was held in 
the Religious Institution Rooms, on Thui-s- 
day evening, 20th April, Mr James Tennant 
in the chair. Addresses were delivered by 
Messrs Logan, Dancan, FuUarton, Wallace, 
Macgregor, Naismith, Ross, and Kerr. 

abekdeen. 
At the weekly meeting of the Aberdeen 
Temperance Society in Mr Sinclair's Hall 
on Monday evening, 10th April, Mr John 
Dancan, Agent of the Scottish Temperance 
League, delivered a lecture on some of the 
most common objections and impediments 
to the temperance reform ; and at the meet- 
ing on Monday, 17th April, Mr A. Linton, 
Surgeon R.N., delivered a lecture on the 
composition and properties of fermented 
intoxicating liquors, particularly of malt 
liquors; exposing the fallacious opinions 
which have been hitherto generally enter- 
tained in regard to their nutritive qualities. 

PERTH, 

The seed sown by Mr Gough on his late 
visit to Perth, or other seed of the same 
kind, is bringing forth fruit. At the monthly 
meeting of the temperance society on Friday, 
7th April, between seven^ and eighty new 
members were aunoonced as the converts 
for the month. 

BROUGHTT-FERBY. 

Of late the temperance cause has been 
making most cheering progress in Broughty- 
Ferry. On Mr Gough's visit to Dundee, a 
large number of the inhabitants had tiie 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



119 



pleasure of hearing his orations. A good 
eflFectwaa produced, -which has heeu followed 
up by a series of meetings. First, Rev. D. 
Ogilvie, president of the society, preached 
on a Saboath evening to a crowded audience 
in the Free Church; and, at short intervals, 
lectures on week nights, largely attended, 
were delivered by Rev. Messrs Hannay, 
Dundee, and Russell, Rattray. Mr Scrim- 

feour, agent of the Scottish Temperance 
league, being about to visit the locality, a 
soiree was arranged for, and held in Union 
Church, on Thursday, 6th April, addressed 
by Rev. Mr Hannay, Mr D. B. Brown, 
Dundee; by Mr Scrimgeour, and by Mr 
John Methven, one of the oldest and most 
respected residenters in the village, who 
came forward, and in a telling speech, 
avowed his adoption of abstinence principles, 
and his determination to do his part in their 
advancement. Since then Mr Scrimgeour 
has addressed meetings at Panmurefield and 
Monifieth, and in Union Church, with good 
effect. The cause never has flourished as it 
now does, the evidence of which is seen in the 
accession to the society in the pdliod referred 
to, viz., eight weeks, of no less4;han ninety- 
two adults and twenty-eight juveniles. 

DDNNINS. 

The total abstinence society in this place 
was re-organised in September last, and has 
been making steady progress ever since. 
There is now upon the roll 321 members, 
and the public mind seems more favourable 
to the cause than it was twelve years ago. 
There is a preliminary savings' bank estab- 
lished in connection with the society, and a 
meeting is held once a fortnight, for the 
purpose of receiving deposits, and instructing 
the young in our principles. The Rev. Mr 
M'Leish of the Free Church, Methven, de- 
livered a very powerful sermon in behalf of 
the society, on Sabbath, 16th April ; the 
audience was large, and listened with great 
attention. 

GREENOCK. 
According to the report read on Monday, 
10th April, at the annual meeting of the 
Greenock Total Abstinence Society, 509 
members have been added to the roll during 
the past year, fifty-two weekly meetings 
have been held in the Masons' Hall, and 
thirty other meetings throughout the town, 
and 4000 tracts distributed. Facilities for 
obtaining strong drink exist in Greenock to 
an extraordinary extent. In one street, 
containing twenty-six shops, there are nine- 
teen spirit shops. 

OLD KILPATRICK. 

Mr William Lindsay lectured on temper- 
ance here, on Monday evening, 10th April, 
to a numerous audience, chiefly composed 
of young people. Mr Alexander Tennant 
presided. 



AUCHTERMUCHTY. 

The cause of total abstinence is prospering 
here. Between 60 and 80 have been added 
to the roll of members since New-year. A 
soiree was held in the Town Hall, on 
Wednesday, Sth April. The chair was 
filled by the Rev. John Wise. There also 
took part in the proceedings, the Rev. J. 
M'Nair, G. Barlas, and Thomas Stevenson. 
The committees of the Auchtermuchty, 
Dunshalt, and Strathmiglo Societies, have 
recently formed a local union for the more 
effectually promoting the abstinence cause 
in that quarter of the country. At a meet- 
ing held in Auchtermuchty, on SOth Jan., 
it was unanimously agreed to memorialise 
the various kirk-sessions in the district on 
the subject of intemperance. 

THORNLIEBANK. 

The committee of the total abstinence 
society held their second quarterly tea meet- 
ing on the evening of Saturday, the Sth of 
April. There were upwards of 60 present. 
Addresses were given by a number of the 
members upon the duties of total abstainers. 
At eleven o'clock the meeting broke up, 
highly delighted with the evening's enter- 
tainment. 

The society numbers, at present, about 
220 pledged members, though only in exis- 
tence about five months; for the old so- 
ciety foi-med in May, 1850, by Mr Ferguson, 
from Glasgow, though it prospered well for 
a while, was extinct eighteen months pre- 
vious to the formation of the present society, 
about the beginning of December last. 

A savings' bank was formed in connection 
with this society about the beginning of 
February. It was designed principally for 
the young, receiving deposits as low as a 
penny. There are at present about thirty 
depositors ; and though its success has not 
been so great as the committee at first 
anticipated, they find that it materially aids 
in securing the permanency of the society. 

DUNFERMLINE. 

The seventeenth annual meeting of the 
Dunfermline Total Abstinence Society was 
held on Friday evening, the 10th March, in 
the Baptist Chapel, James Street— Mr J. 
Barns, President of the Society, in the chair. 
After prayer by the Rev. A. M'Auslane, the 
annual report of the operations of the society 
was read by the Secretary, from which we 
learn that considerable success has attended 
the labours of the committee during the 
year. Two excursions by railway, nine 
soirees, and seventy other meetings had been 
held; 5000 tracts distributed. 261 names 
have been enrolled. The failures are 31, 
several of whom have re-entered the society. 
The income of the society during the year, 
including £\ 1 14s 6d from last year, was 
£159 3s, the expenditure £149 10s Sid, 
leaving a balance on hand of £9 12s SJd." 



120 



THE ABSTAIXER S JOURNAL. 



This was the largest annual meeting of 
the society which has heen held for several 
years past, and every thing went on harmoni- 
ously and pleasantly. 

Young Mens Association. 
The annual meeting of the Young Men's 
Total Abstinence Association for Mutual 
Improvement took place in Pilmuir Street 
School, on Saturday evening, the 11th 
March. From the report it appears that the 
pledge of the association is the same as that 
of the Juvenile Society. The number of 
members is upwards of 100. The meetings 
take place every Saturday evening, at eight 
o'clock. They have a library of nearly ninety 
volumes, which they are desirous of en- 
larging. They also get the periodicals of the 
Scottish Temperance League. A yearly 
society has also been going on for a year, 
and been highly successful. 

BRIDGE OF ALLAN. 

A public meeting of the inhabitants of this 
interesting village was held in the Free 
Church school-room on Tuesday evening, 
21st March, for the purpose of forming a 
total abstinence society. 

The Rev. James Blair, of Viewfield, 
Bridge of Allan, being called upon to preside, 
opened the meeting with prayer. 

He then, in the course of a very appro- 
priate speech, gave a clear exposition of the 
principles upon which the proposed society 
would be based, and stated the reasons which 
had induced the leaders of the movement to 
attempt the formation of a society iu Bridge 
of Allan. 

After the conclusion of this address, a 
Committee was elected and office-bearers 
appointed— the Rev. James Blair was unani- 
mously chosen President of the society, and 
Thomas D. Pattison, Esq., Vice-President. 
Upwards of 100 have already joined. 

ENGLAND. 

LONDON FITZROY ASSOCIATION. 

April 14th, Good Friday,a large gathering 
of the friends took place in the society hall, 
St Mary's Close. The arrangements for the 
soiree were satisfactory ; and the speeches 
delivered excellent. Stephen Gray, Esq., 
presided, supported by J. H. Pope, LL.D., 
J. Everett, Esq., of Luton, Mr Samuel Sims, 
and Mr W. Craft, an escaped slave from 
American bondage. The addresses of these 
gentlemen, and the choruses performed 
between, by the Temperance Musical Asso- 
ciation, engaged the marked attention and 
interest of the assembly. 

MACCLESFIELD TEMPERANCE SOCIETY. 

The annual public meeting of the Maccles- 
field Temperance Society was held in the 
large room of the Macclesfield Sunday school, 
on Wednesday evening, •29th March. The 
attendance was numerous and very respec- 



table.— Mr Richard Wilson in the chair. 
The report having been read by Mr White, 
addresses were delivered by the Rev. Dr 
M'Kerrow, Manchester, Mr David Oldham, 
Rev. F. Howarth, of Bury, and Mr Swaine. 

FOREIGN. 

MELBOURNE. 

From the Victoria Liquor Law League 
Advocate we learn the formation, under very 
favourable auspices, of the League of which 
it is the organ. In answer to the challenge 
of a Mr Thomas Fulton, ten individuals 
had subscribed £lOO each, for the establish- 
ment of the League. A provisional com- 
mittee had been formed ; and, at a public 
meeting held in the Mechanics' Hall, a con- 
stitution was submitted and adopted. An 
efficient working committee had been formed, 
and by this time, doubtless, are agitating 
what the Advocate describes as this great 
national question. The Church of England 
association for promoting temperance, con- 
template the erection of a coffee-house and 
reading-room on a large scale, for the use of 
the industrial population. 

ADELAIDE. 

On Monday afternoon, January 2d, the 
anniversary of this society was celebrated by 
a public tea party in Bentham Street 
Chapel, it being the fourteenth anniversary 
of the advocacy of total abstinence from 
strong drink in South Australia. 

After the tables had been removed, the 
annual public meeting was commenced by 
singing and prayer. In the absence of the 
president of the society, Mr John Pickering, 
of Hindmarsh, occupied the chair, and 
opened the meeting with a most appropriate 
speech. 

The annual report was read by Mr James 
Hollins, from which it appears that meet- 
ings had been held and signatures to the 
pledge obtained at North and South Ade- 
laide, Norwood, Bowdeu, Mitcham, Ed- 
wards Town, etc., etc. Societies had heen 
formed at Kensington and Mount Barker, 
under pleasing prospects. The number of 
persons having signed the pledge during the 
year in Adelaide and neighbourhood is 259. 
A total abstinence band of hope has likewise 
l)een formed from amongst the juveniles, 
and 116 have taken the pledge, whose num- 
bers are weekly increasing. 

The balance-sheet of the accounts of the 
Society's receipts and expenditure showed 
that the receipts were £92 12s 3Jd, and 
the expenditure, including a remittance to 
England for tracts, £87 13s 2d. 



Glasgow : Printed and published at the Office 
of the Scottish Temperance League, No. 30 
St Enoch Square, Parish of St Enoch's, by 
Robert Rab, residing at No. 10 Salisbui'y 
Street, Parish of Govan. 

Monday, Ist May, 1854. 



THE 



ABSTAINER'S JOURNAL. 



JUNE, 1854. 



^iscElIaneoas C0ntrfbtxtions. 



ARE HOME MISSIONS A FAILURE? 



'CiTr Missions are a failure,' said a 
friend to us the other day, ' and to con- 
tinue their operations apart from direct 
efforts for the suppression of drunkenness 
is a farce.' Now, as we know something 
of the condition of our unchristianised 
poor, we couid not deny the charge, 
melancholy and startling though it be. 
Thousands of pounds are heing expended 
every year in the large cities and towns 
of Scotland in weU-meant efiForts to carry 
the gospel to the perishing at our own 
doors ; hundreds of devoted men are 
braving the pestilence, and all the sicken- 
ing horrors which present themselves in 
the haunts of dissipation, iiTeligion, and 
vice ; and hundreds more of the best men 
in our churches are sitting upon commit- 
tees and collecting funds, and listening 
month after month to the same detail of 
indifference, debasement, and hopeless 
death-heds. If it be thought we over- 
colour, then we ask, where are the fami- 
lies our home missionaries have brought 
under the influence of the gospel ; what 
minister, as he casts his eye along his 
well-filled pews, is gladdened by the sight 
of back-closs reprobates among the fre- 
quenters of the sanctuary; of aU who 
wait upon the pastors of om: churches 
from month to month, how many trace 
their awakening to the visits of the mis- 
sionary ? That our home agency has | 



done good, we gladly admit ; but the 
good accomplished is not yet discernible 
npon the surface of society, nor is it a 
tithe of what might have been done but 
for the formidable obstacle which the 
drinking habits of the people everywhere 
presents to all evangeUcal efforts in their 
behalf. "Were the dram-shop and its con- 
sequent evils abolished, £5 given to our 
tract, bible, or home mission societies, 
would, we are persuaded, do more for the 
souls of the perishing than £100 will 
accompUsh while the present state of 
things continues. 

It has been well said b}' Mr Smith, the 
exceUent Governor of the Edinbm-gh pri- 
son, ' Build a church and penitentiary in 
every street, with all the means and ap- 
pliances on the side of rehgion and viitue, 
and allow a dram-shop to be opened every 
second or third door, with all its means 
and appliances towards vice and crime, 
and the result will be that, seconded by 
the inherent depravity of our nature, cri- 
minals of all sorts will be produced much 
faster than they can be reclaimed.' What 
said Mr Vanderkiste, the author of ' A 
Six Years' Mission among the Dens of 
London ?' — ' We may build churches and 
chapels, and multiply schools, but until 
the drunken habits' of the lower orders 
are changed, we shall never act upon them 
as we would wish. AVhile the pot-house 



122 



TUE ABSTAINER 8 JOURNAL. 



is their church, gin their sacrament, and 
the tap-room their school-room for evening 
classes, how can we adequately act upon 
them for the conversion of their souls ?' 

An able and devoted missionary labour- 
ing in a district comprehending three 
hundred families and thirty dram-shops — 
that is, one dram-shop to every ten fami- 
lies — says in a letter to the writer : ' From 
more than two and a-half yeai-s' experience 
in missionary work, I feel convinced that 
until the church use all her influence for 
the entire removal of the drink traflic, 
she is doing Httle better than wasting 
money in supporting me as a missionary.' 
In this same town, a certain congregation 
has provided a church and school, and 
two devoted missionaries, for one of the 
lowest districts, while a lending member 
of another congregation of the same de- 
nomination has fitted up in that same 
district, at the expense of several hun- 
dreds of poimds, a shop for the sale of 
liquors, and which is capable of accom- 
modating a greater number of persons 
than the mission chapel ; nor is it neces- 
sary to say which of them is most nume- 
rously frequented. Now, in the face of 
facts like these, do we need to ask why 
home missions have hitherto proved a 
failure? 

Even at the risk of being deemed here- 
tical, we avow the opinion that there is a 
more intimate connection between the 
physical and religious condition of a peo- 
ple than many may be disposed to admit. 
Look, then, at the sanitary and social 
condition of our non-church-going popu- 
lation, and what do we discover ? You 
carry the gospel to a people whose only 
inquiry is, ' What shall we eat, and what 
shall we drink ?' as to the ' wherewithal 
we shall be clothed,' they have not got 
that length yet. The supply of mere 
animal wants is then: only concern. With 
abodes possessed of scarcely a single es- 
sential requisite of a human habitation, 
and such as many would not lodge their 



dogs in ; with appetites for alcohol which 
bad ventilation and early training have 
originated ; with minds destitute of men- 
tal discipline and resources, and a settled 
conviction of the impossibility of ever 
rising above the level of the common 
herd, they abandon themselves to hopeless 
sensualism. Whiskj' is their only relief. 
They may get food, but they must get 
whisky. Now, what can a missionary 
do among such a people ? He finds the 
native depravity of the soul tenfold inten- 
sified, the conscience seared, the hope of 
improvement well nigh extinct, everything 
that might ennoble prostrate before a mas- 
ter appetite. He may expostulate, and 
warn, and instruct; and even where he 
for a little succeeds, another visit to the 
dram-shop, and all impressions are effaced. 
A striking instance of this lately occurred. 
In a district with which the writer is ac- 
quainted, an attempt was made, by extra 
means, to rouse its inhabitants to a sense 
of their spiritual condition. Crowded 
meetings were held night after night, and 
a most hopeful spirit of inquiry pervaded 
the locality. No sooner had the effort 
terminated, than the district was flooded 
with a perfect deluge of whisky, and on 
investigation being made, many acknow- 
ledged that to drown their convictions 
they betook themselves to drinking. 
Now, is it not as obvious as facts can 
make it, that but for the drinking habits 
of this people, and the facilities afforded 
by the dram-shops for their indulgence, 
a blessed hai-vest of souls might have 
been gathered ? 

That God can caiTy on his work in 
the face of all obstacles, we are well 
aware; but he works by means, and as 
there is a state of mind peculiarly favour- 
able to the reception of saving impressions, 
any means that will conduce to that state 
of mind is no disparagement to his grace. 
A mind under the influence of insanity, 
or the delirium of fever, or some debasing 
lust, is not in the state most likely to be 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



123 



impressed ; why then -wonder at the lack 
of success attending all our evangelical 
efforts in behalf of the irreligious portion 
of our population, when nine-tenths of 
them are in the very condition supposed? 
But we can confirm our position hy the 
results which have attended all temperance 
evangelical efforts. An array of facts 
present themselves which inspire us with 
hope. We might fill the entire number 
of our magazine with the detail of indi- 
vidual cases which have come under our 
observation. What missionary is there 
that cannot adduce some such case? 
The writer laboured for many years in 
this field of christian enterprise, and he is 
free to afSrm that he remembers no in- 
stance of apparent good bsing accomplished 
among the adult part of the population 
but in alliance with an abandonment of 
drinking habits. The success of the 
Ragged Church in Aberdeen, under the 
pastoral care of Mr Wilson, is a case in 
point. The district selected was one of 
the lowest imaginable. A police officer 
thus describes it in the first year's re- 
port: — 'A more degraded locality was 
not iu Aberdeen — no, not in Scotland.' 
Thirty persons attended the first even- 
ing the place of worship was opened. 
They were literally of the poor, the halt, 
the maimed, and the blind. One lame 
man led in his blind sister ; a cripple 
was able to walk into the chapel on his 
staves; and a vagrant sailor, without 
legs, was carried to a seat from a low 
lodging-house near by, where his com- 
panions were eating, drinking, dancing, 
and fighting, while he attended with 
earnestness to the preaching of the truth. 
Well, how has the enterprise succeeded ? 
' Truly gratifying have been the results,' 
says the report from which we have 
already quoted ; ' in a spiritual sense, it 
has been a recruiting station for the service 
of God. Some of the reclaimed have died, 
witnessing a good confession ; some are 
members of Frederick Street Congrega- 



tional Church ; some have been restored 
to other churches from which they had 
fallen ; while not a few cling to the stated 
services of the chapel as the home of their 
first affections. 

' In a social point of view the fruits have 
been no less cheering. The local authori- 
ties have certified that the moral condition 
of the locality is altogether changed. 
Sheriff Watson, at a meeting of the Aber- 
deen Prisons Board, held lately, said: — 
" It was an interesting fact that, in Albion 
Street, where there had been a theatre of 
the lowest description, and which did great 
evil, a neat chapel had been built on the 
very site where the theatre once stood. 
Sabbath-day services and week-day meet- 
ings were conducted in the chapel, and 
great good had been done." 

' Mr Barclay, superintendent of police, 
says: — " I am happy in being able to state, 
that, since the chapel was erected in that 
most depraved and destitute locality, the 
moral character of the district has been 
very much improved. Numerous instances 
are known at this office, in which persons 
who were habitually given to intemperance, 
debauchery, and crime, have been re- 
claimed." ' 

And what is the share claimed by the 
temperance cause in this most gratifying 
result? 'Here is a marsh,' the report 
proceeds to observe ; ' you wish to make 
it fruitful. In order to this, it must first 
be drained. The drunkard's mind is this 
marsh, and our temperance society the 
machine by which it is drained. Surely 
ten men who join our temperance society 
on the Tuesday are much more likely 
to attend the preaching of the gospel, 
and get "the good seed" sown in their 
minds to profit on the Sunday, than ten 
collected on that day whose minds have 
been stupified by drink. It would be a 
great good to have the bog drained, even 
were there only a green sward to grow ; 
but a greater when the cultivated field 
yields fruit. It is a social gain the re- 



124 



THE ABSTAINER S JODENAL. 



clamation of the drankard, but our con- 
stant aim is to get him into a fruit-bearing 
state, and this, we believe, has been by 
God's blessing to a far greater extent 
realised in the history of this mission than 
would have been the case without our 
temperance society.' 

Nor is the Aberdeen case the only one 
of the kind that may be produced. In 
the November number of the Missionary 
Record of ihe United Presbyterian Church, 
it is stated respecting the Mission Church 
in Glasgow under the pastoral superin- 
tendence of the Rev. David M'Rae, ' that 
four-fifths of the members were previously 
unconnected with any church, and, so far 
as known, all of them are abstainers from 
all intoxicating drinks.' Now, we happen 
to know something of this district, and are 
assured by those who have taken an active 
interest in the mission, that the previous 
labours of the total abstinence society 
went far to prepare the people for giving 
Mr M'Rae and his message a cordial wel- 
come. An able and excellent minister of 
the gospel in Glasgow, who had watched 
over the mission from its commencement, 
was so struck with the influence of the tem- 
perance movement upon its success, that 
he was constrained to give it his adhesion. 
Such was his acknowledgment to the 
writer. Other facts of a kindred nature 
might be adduced. It is stated in the 
report of the Bible Society in Fayetville, 
Ohio, that 'thirty-five, years ago they 
had thirty distilleries in their county and 
no churches, and that now they have 
thirty churches and no distillery.' The 
venerable Mr Burns of Kilsyth, in speak- 
ing of the remarkable revival which took 
place there some years ago, has declared 
that it 'was considerably helped by the 
introduction of the temperance principle 
into the parish.' The Rev. Dr Marsh, of 
Leamington, says : — ' In this neighbour- 
hood, and in some striking instances, the 
total abstinence plan has led several from 
drunkenness, and brought them to the 



house of God.' The Rev. Newman Hall, 
A.M., Hull, lately invited to become the 
minister of Sun-ey Chapel, London, says : 
' Several members of my church were 
plunged in the worst kind of infidelity — 
the infidelity of habitual profligacy — until 
grappled with by total abstinence. Hav- 
ing thus become sober, they are now also, 
through the grace of God, living a righteous 
and godly life.' 

Now, if it be the fact, as we think none 
will deny, that a district free from the 
practices of intemperance is in a better 
moral and physical condition for the re- 
ception of the gospel, why not make every 
sacrifice and employ every means that 
will bring our community into that con- 
dition, that will hold out hope to our 
devoted town missionaries that their la- 
bours will not be crowned with utter 
failure ? To this the following things are 
essential : — 

1st, Every home missionary must be 
an abstainer. The injunction is scarcely 
necessary, as the necessity of abstinence 
to success is so obvious to all who seek 
the religious improvement of the poor 
that the instances are rare in which 
town missionaries are not zealous ab- 
stainers. 

2d, Every means must he used to rid 
our community of dram-shops, and gain 
over the inhabitants of our mission dis- 
tricts to the temperance cause. While 
we beUeve that nothing short of an utter 
abolition of the entire drinking system 
will ever secure to our country sobriety, 
we could join heart and soul in a crusade 
for the immediate and universal abolition 
of the dram-shop system. We will very 
cheerfully take fifteen shillings in the 
pound, especially when we have the pros- 
pect of getting the other five soon after. 
With the abolition of the dram-shop sys- 
tem there would arise, we are persuaded, 
a healthier pubhc sentiment upon the 
whole question of temperance, and a step 
would be gained which would advance us 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



125 



to a speedier achievement of the complete 
triumph of our canse. 

3d, The directors of our home mission 
operations must henceforth throw all their 
influence into the scale in favour of the 
temperance movement. Are they longer 
to tolerate the failure of their efforts by a 
canse which they have the power to de- 
stroy ? They must no longer countenance 
at their tables the practices out of which 
grows this formidable barrier to mission- 
ary success, but like men in earnest, go 
forth to the community with clean hands, 
declaring their determination to shrink 
from no sacrifice and spare no efforts, that 
' the gospel of Christ may have free course 
and be srlorified.' 



THE MODERATE DRINKER— 
WHAT HE DOES. 
The moderate drinker, as such, does a great 
many things. Some of these are not very 
creditable. The consequences of them are 
sufficiently appalling. He shuts his eyes 
to these, it is true ; he cannot make up 
his mind to look at them, because he has 
a sort of consciousness within him that if 
he did so, he would be struck with horror, 
and probably be persuaded to renounce 
for ever the drinking system. Yet, the 
consequences are not the less real and 
appalling, because the moderate drinker 
will not contemplate them. 

What are some of the things referred 
to ? Let us see. Moderate drinking friend, 
be persuaded to look with ns for a moment. 

1st, The moderate drinker helps to per- 
petuate a great delusion. — What is that 
delusion? That strong drink is a good 
thing. That it is necessary for the pre- 
servation of health. That it makes a 
man truly cheerful and happy. That it 
promotes sociality. That it drives care 
away. That it is an exercise of christian 
liberality. Is not this a manifold delusion ? 
Is it not utterly devoid of everything like 
truth ? What a fearful hinderance, more- 



over, it is to the progress of the truth ! 
It shuts the minds of men against it. 
And how fatal, too, the consequences which 
ofttimes flow from it ! It is a moral 
ignis-fatuus, which gradually leads men 
on until they plunge into the terrible abyss 
of dissipation. Think, my moderate 
drinking fi-iend, how that by every glass 
you take — by every association with a 
drinking party — by your entire conduct, 
you aid in perpetuating and extending this 
manifold, gi-ievous, destroying delusion. 
Perhaps yon profess to be one of the 
'lights' of the world. It ought to be 
yours, then, to dispel, not to perpetuate 
delusion. Bat, in regard to this matter, 
' the light that is in you is darkness.' 

2d, The moderate drinker helps to per- 
petuate drunkenness. — What is drunken- 
ness ? It is excess in the use of intoxica- 
ting drink. J'ut how is the habit of 
excess attained to ? Not by one simple 
act of drinking. Not in a day. It is a 
gradual attainment. It is the growth of 
years. The steps by which it is marked 
are just the habit of moderate drinking. 
If we compare drunkenness to a sea, then 
moderate drinking practices are the thou- 
sand rills and streams by which it is sup- 
plied. If moderate drinking were to 
cease, then drunkenness would immediately 
become numbered amongst the things 
that were. If moderate drinking continue, 
drunkenness will still overflow the land. 
Moderate drinker, note therefore that you 
are swelling the fearful tide of intem- 
perance. As it bears away immortal 
souls to ruin and death, remember that 
you are helping to deepen, and widen, and 
invest with fresh energy the fiery billows. 

3c?. The moderate drinker helps to make 
men drunkards. — This is a startling state- 
ment. The moderate drinker an assistant 
manufacturer of drunkards ! Yet it is 
not less startling than true. How, then, 
does he help to make drunkards? He 
does so by upholding the usages that 
make them. The drinking system is 



126 



THE ABSTAINEK'S JOUKNAL. 



just a huge drunkard manufactory. It 
turns out some 60,000 new-made ones, 
in Britain alone, every year. And who 
keep the terrible and destructive ma- 
chinery going? Who but the moderate 
drinkers? They have created it, they 
work it, they perpetuate it, they invest it 
with its fell and awful power. They, too, 
entice men into the drunkard factory. 
They are led, all unsuspecting, thither. 
They enter it sober, and they come out 
dissipated; they enter it wise men, and 
they come out fools; they enter it rich, 
and they come out beggared ; they enter 
it happy, and they come out miserable. 
The curse of Heaven rests upon the sys- 
tem ; and, among other respects, it is seen 
in this, that the most fearful retribution 
not nnfrequently overtakes those who are 
engaged in supporting it. While men 
are engaged in making others drunkards, 
they ofttimes, all unconsciously, become 
drunkards themselves. 

4:th, The moderate drinker hinders a 
great work. — A great work is a noble 
thing. And we know few greater works 
in the present day than the temperance 
reformation. What is the object of that 
work ? It is to put down a great iniquity 
in the midst of us. It is to abolish cus- 
toms and practices replete with deepest 
injury to thousands of our race. It is to 
disenthral the poor drunkard, to deliver 
him from a premature death, and, by 
divine grace, from the woes of hell. It is 
to rescue the moderate drinker ere he fall 
into the deep gulf of intemperance. It 
is to throw over the young a shield of 
protection against this destroying vice. 
It is to destroy our country's greatest 
social evil, and to remove the greatest 
obstacle in the way of the progress of 
Messiah's kingdom in our land. Is not 
this a great work? But the moderate 



drinker hinders this work ? He stands in 
the way of it. His principles, his practices, 
his influence are all against it. Is there 
no blame-worthiness in this? Not only 
does he not help the work himself, but he 
actually stands in the way of its advance- 
ment. Meroz was cursed because he 
came not up to the help of the Lord 
against the mighty. But what if he not 
only had not come up, but had openly enter- 
ed the Usts of the enemies of Jehovah and 
fought against him ! How many of our 
moderate drinking friends are taking up 
even this position ! They are more or less 
openly doing battle with the temperance 
movement ; and inasmuch as it is a 
great work — the work of humanity and 
God — is it not to be feared that they shall 
not be held guiltless? Will they be 
satisfied to continue in such a false and 
dangerous position ? Will they not be 
persuaded to change sides in time ? 

Are these things true? Who shall 
deny them? If true, then, surely we 
may ask our moderate drinking friends, 
ought you not to pause and reflect ere 
you drink again ? Will you help to per- 
petuate those delusions by which men are 
deceived and made wretched ? Will you 
continue to swell that fiery tide that is 
sweeping with such desolating power across 
our land? Will you sustain a system 
which is daily breaking hearts, opening 
graves, and ruining souls ? Will you throw 
in all your influence and example against 
the cause of humanity, of progress, of 
God? If there be anything solemn in 
principle, in influence, in responsibility, 
in destiny, we entreat your consideration 
of these things. Again we say — pause 
and ponder — seek the guidance of Heaven 
— weigh consequences, and henceforth the 
language of each, we have no doubt, will 
be, ' I will abstain.' 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



127 



]!:^axrati&£ Sketc]^. 



THE I M PENITENT'S TALE. 

A TALE OF REAL LIFE. 

Chapter III. 



From that bar I was conveyed to prison 
in a state of wild delirium, all the wilder, 
perhaps, from its very silence. I entered 
the black, scowling gate of the jail, and 
for a week the internal boiling excitement 
continued. At the end of that period I not 
only began to take note of the objects, 
sights, and sounds that surrounded me ; 
but to recall the treatment I received on 
my admission. I recollected how the 
stern old ruffian who first had me in 
charge jested and joked about my sen- 
sitiveness, and how each of these function- 
aries had his thirty-times-told witticism 
about ' tying my hair before it was long,' 
and the ' girl I had left behind me," and 
whether my mother was aware of my 
being in.' I remembered all this, and a 
thousand other incidents that proved how 
jail discipline destroyed in the men who 
administered it every vestige of generous 
feeling. I do verily believe that no man 
who has passed ten, fifteen, or twenty 
years in a jail, as a paid keeper, or in the 
army, can, after these periods, retain any 
of the home feelings, the domestic decen- 
cies, or the private amenities of life. These 
men are not there by compulsion. They 
have voluntarily abjured society; they 
are monks of a thievish order — fellows of 
an unholy craft; they take the wages of 
sin cheerfully — their pay is the exudation 
of crime, of drunkenness, prostitution, 
hatred, malice, and all uncharitableness ; 
and for such pelf, ' from night to morn, 
from mom to dewy eve,' they accustom 
their eyes and ears to scenes and sounds 
that defy description or detail. 

Even I, who had inscribed mj' surname 
in the recording angel's book of doom ; I, 
who had sworn, deeply, irrevocably sworn, 
to wear for evermore the garb and vesture 
of vice; I, who had abjured emphatically 
the seemly decencies of life — who had 
resolved to lay aside reputation, and 
trample on morality, and disown piety, 
and abjure all self-respect by a systematic 
commission of a vice including in, and 
concentrating all these, and all that are 
otherwise horrid, and vile, and sinful, viz., 
drunkenness ; — yet I felt contaminated by 
a communion with these wretches, which 
the turnkeys did not seem to feel. I got 
through that weary month at length. 



Charles Dickens, your inimitable dis- 
sector of human passion, and feelings, and 
predilections, tells us, in one of his rare 
productions, of the weary and painful 
hours of a fever-stricken patient. Power- 
fully, graphically are those ghastly hours 
depicted ; but what pen, what imagination 
could portray the slow, torturing, leaden 
hours of misery passed by the deserted, 
lonely culprit in the ignominious cell ? 

During my confinement, I had never 
held any communication with my family, 
nor did I immediately return home on my 
liberation. It was a cold, wet, scowling 
day — one in exact unison with my 
thoughts. Few but the wretched or 
necessitous were abroad, in the outskirts 
of the town, where I lurked about. Those 
few wayfarers that I met seemed by their 
demeanour to have observed my agitation. 
I was unlike any one else. The long 
yellow curls my poor mother had been so 
careful of, had been shorn, and cropped 
again in mid term of my confinement, 
and I had a haggard and shame-stricken 
look. My fashionably-made apparel was 
crumpled and soiled with mud, as when 
the jibing turnkey tore it off my person, 
and altogether my squalid tout ensemble 
augured to the passers-by an intended 
attempt at self-destruction. Appearances 
are proverbially deceitfnl, and mine was 
so when it betokened one bent on suicidal 
purposes. Life, it is true, could never 
yield me now even one of the many thou- 
sand delights its promises of a month back 
held up for my acceptance. Every throb 
of my heart was henceforth to be a pul- 
sation of agony, and every nerve would 
for ever vibrate with intense torture. Yet 
I never felt the desire to live, never feared 
so much to die, as on that miserable day. 
No, no. The work was before me, and I 
would live to do it. The evening at 
length set in, and I mustered courage to 
move homeward. My latch-key was 
still in my pocket, and I entered as I had 
been wont, but no one sprang up to wel- 
come me ; yet all the three were there. 
My sisters — Eliza looked careworn and 
sad, and Jane had lost every trace of her 
blooming, Hebe-like complexion and figure 
— she was wasted to a shadow, and pale 
as a corpse. They did not speak. They 



128 



THE abstainer's JOITRNAL. 



had expected me all day, and their mute, 
chilling reception was the initial step to a 
life-long dreadful doom. They did not 
even look at me, but both kept their ejes 
on the strange motions and gestures of a 
female reclining on a sofa near the fire. 
This was my mother. I did not at first 
recognise her, so much was she altered, in 
look, form, and dress. That idea most 
of all tormented me during my imprison- 
ment, ' How will my mother bear this ?' 
and the invariable reply was, ' She will 
lose her senses.' The dreadful surmise 
was true, and there she sat in all the 
loneliness of absolute fatuity. She could 
not recognise me, for, indeed, she knew 
no one. I did not relent at the sight of 
my humiliated parent ; on the contrary, 
her abject state was a new incentive to 
the prosecution of my vow of revenge. 

It was long before I could extort from 
my wretched sisters a history of their 
proceedings. At length I was informed 
that my mother had endeavoured to pro- 
cure a reversal of my sentence. She ap- 
plied, in the first instance, to the Lord 
Advocate, who informed her that a peti- 
tion to the Home Secretary could alone 
effect the mitigation asked for ; and to 
obtain his consent it was indispensable 
that the presiding magistrate should en- 
dorse the memorial. The magistrate was 
my uncle, as you have heard, and to him 
she went in an evil hour. She gained 
admittance with some difficulty. The 
magistrate had dined alone, and on such 
occasions his port libations were copious 
and full. He was a solitary sot, in fact, 
whenever he could find an opportunity. 
My mother received a surly, half-drunken 
recognition, and being seated, related her 
business. The old man had no intention 
of doing any such thing, he said, ' The 
young fellow had behaved most scanda- 
lously to him — had doon nae less than 
treacherously snoove himsel' into my 
daughter's affections, and would audaciously 
hae run away wi' an' married her owre the 
marsh, as ye did your ain sel' wi' your 
bonny dusty miller.' (My father was a 
flour miller, as well as extensive agricul- 
turist.) ' Steenson, show that woman 
the gate to the street.' This last sentence 
was addressed to a servant. 

My mother had a little, a very little 
spirit, and it was roused at the indignity. 
She retorted that the Bailie himself was 
the primary cause of my dishonour, and 
volubly reproached him with punishing 
as a crime the main source of his own 
wealth and respectability, viz., the in- 



temperance o' silly callants hounded on 
to their fauts by the bad example set 
them by their elders; and thus roused, 
she gave expression to the suspicion which 
had lurked in her bosom for years. ' You 
might forgive my Robert,' she said, 
' though you didna spare his father. You 
are no now in danger of insolvency, as 
you were yon day; an' if ye were, Robert 
has nae cash in the bank to be robbed 
of.' 

The servant Steenson, who had been 
summoned to show my mother out, was 
still in the room, and from him I after- 
wards' learned, that upon hearing my 
mother's angry inuendo about robbery, 
his master turned suddenly pale as a 
sheet, sat forward in his chair, grasping 
its padded arms, until his fingers were 
buried in the cushions — glared, with eyes 
protruding an inch beyond their sockets, 
and trembled, or rather shook, from head 
to foot, and with the foam spouting from 
his bursting lips at every word, screamed 
a long round of diabolical imprecations 
against the now terrified woman. ' Out, 
ye accursed hag,' he at length articulated 
in a somewhat more connected manner. 
' Away wi' ye, wretch o' perdition. What! 
comes the drunkard and jail-bird's mother 
to me for mercy? Let him rot in the 
jail, the young debauchee, the aspiring 
genius that wad win heiresses wi' his 
doggerel rhymes, Barberie Allan and 
Jeems the Rose — bah.' 

His voice had been gradually growing 
hoarse and hollow, as the maniac raved 
in this manner; and the quivering, creep- 
ing motion of his flesh was visible, even 
through his clothes, beginning to subside 
as his feet grew rigid and fixed, in a 
graduated ascension towards his head; 
and after his voice entirely failed, he pre- 
sented the strange spectacle of paralysis 
in every part of his body save his head, 
which continued to oscillate in a fright- 
ful manner for several minutes after all 
the other members were stiff and inani- 
mate. At length nothing moved but the 
red, glaring eyes ; and they were indeed 
the beacon-lights of fear and terror. Even 
that horrid lustre waned ; and the wretch 
was dead. This complication of horrors 
was too much for my parent. Her 
reason sank under the fearful certainty 
that she had not only discovered the mode 
of her husband's death and his murderer 
at the same moment, but she also knew 
herself to be the inadvertent avenger of her ■ 
own wrongs; Providence had slain the 
manslayer through her instrumentality. 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



129 



The whole catastrophe was traceable to 
her as agent. 

I need not weary you with other re- 
flections. My poor, unfortunate mother 
never knew me again. Soon after the 
funeral, I started on my fatal career. 
For many years I was absent from Scot- 
land. Climate, fatigue, and above all, 
my dissipation, when I returned to the 
scene of my disgrace, rendered me unre- 
cognised there. All my old companions 
of that fatal night had succeeded ; and 
whether lawyers or merchants, they were 
now prosperous men. I sought them all 
out. By a fascination known but to myself, 
I led them step by step into the very 
gulf they had plunged me into. I have 
seen some of them tottering from tap- 
room to tap-room bloated beggars for 
drink. And in George Atkin I was fully 
avenged. I purposely affronted him; a 
challenge ensued; I met him front to 
front, and he fell. I tell you the crime for 
which I am now banished is venal com- 
pared to the moral evils I have inflicted 
on society. And would you seek the 
reformation of such an one? Why, sir, 
the expounders of our legal mysteries, 
the statutes, say that my offence was 
homicide — manslaughter. I slew my 
enemy, my own destroyer, in full accor- 
dance with your boasted code of honour. 
It was said that I used exulting and re- 
vengeful expressions over the prostrate 



body of my foe. I did so; I disclosed 
myself to him ; I forced him to confess, 
under the fear of death, much of what I 
otherwise could never extract from him, 
and left him to perish in a ditch. They 
called it murder. It was so. I admit it; 
your laws can meet that crime. But far 
more heinous deeds have I committed, 
as the slayer of men's peace, happiness, 
and prosperity ; and laughed at all your 
edicts. Speak no more to me of repen- 
tance. I am irreclaimable. 

We leave the Impenitent at this point 
to his shame and his exile. Whether the 
light of divine mercy was ever manifested 
to him, like dew-fall on the parched 
flowers, or whether, holding to his gloomy 
creed, he 'died and made no sign' of re- 
pentance, we cannot tell. The reader, 
of course, will extract his own moral from 
the sketch. It will be apparent to all 
that this most desperate monomaniac is no 
ideal personage, otherwise the character 
would have fewer inconsistencies, and his 
reflections fewer discrepancies. He has 
unhappily too many resemblances in so- 
ciety. The class of injured sentimentaUsts 
whose merits the public have either not 
seen, or seeing, have neglected to reward, 
and who, in ' deep dudgeon,' betake them- 
selves to intemperance, are numerous ; 
rather fewer, let us hope, are the number 
who carry their resentment as far as our 
Impenitent. 



^^z Abstainer's Journal. 

Glasgow, June, 1854. 



OUR ANNIVERSARY. 



Ax no period of our existence as a League 
have we possessed so many of the elements 
of stability. When we say so, it is in no 
spirit of vanity or conceit, but of hearty 
rejoicing on account of our cause. All 
who were present at our late annual 
gathering, must have been impressed with 
this fact. On the previous Sabbath ser- 
mons were preached in both Edinburgh 
and Glasgow by several of the most able 
ministers connected with our movement. 
The plan adopted by the League is most 
admirable: instead of depending merely 
upon evening audiences, which are gener- 
ally composed of those who have espoused 



our cause, they sought and obtained ad- 
mission to several pulpits of various deno- 
minations during the ordinary hours of wor- 
ship. By this means hundreds who would 
never think of going to hear a temperance 
sermon listened with great readiness when 
the subject came before them in the ordi- 
nary course of their Sabbath-day exercises. 
If we are to judge by the appropriateness 
and acceptability of this part of our anni- 
versary services, from what we were for- 
tunate enough to hear, we cannot estimate 
too highly the good which must have been 
accomplished. It has never been our 
privilege to listen to two more elegarit, 



r2 



130 



THE ABSTAINEB S JOUENAL. 



eloquent, and masterly discourses than 
what we that day heard at the lips of the 
Rev. Dr M'Kerrow of Manchester ; and 
we know that were these able expositions 
of christian self-denial, in its application to 
the use of strong drinks, published for 
general circulation, a very strong desire 
for their possession in a permanent form 
would be gratified. 

The meeting on Monday evening was 
worthy of the occasion. Mr M'Gavin, 
who is in himself a type of the prudence, 
energy, and high moral purpose of the 
League, gave a brief outline of last year's 
proceedings. The funds, through the 
charity of the late Mr Kettle, are in a 
most satisfactory condition. "We trust 
that those connected with our movement, 
who are in the possession of worldly 
means, will be forward, on making their 
last will and settlement, to follow his ex- 
ample. But as the gifts of the living are 
even more appreciated by our excellent 
Treasurer, Mr Service, than those of the 
dead, we hope our more wealthy friends, 
while spared among us, will be mindful of 
his wishes. The appointment of Mr J. S. 
Marr to the Secretaryship, ' proves that the 
government intend to do something se- 
rious,' as was said of Sir Charles Napier's 
appointment to the Baltic fleet. We are 
very short-sighted indeed, if his energy 
and sagacity do not tell ere long upon the 
whole length and breadth of Scotland. 

The Breakfast Party was unquestionably 
the most delightful meeting of the kind 
ever held in connection with our opera- 
tions. Dr Wm. Menzies, the chairman, 
one of the oldest and most devoted friends 
of the cause, was fitly selected to preside 
on the occasion. When medical men 
knew little and cared less about it, he 
embarked in it with all the ardour of 
youthful enthusiasm; and now that some 
twenty years' service has matured his 
views, and advanced him to one of the 
most extensive medical practices in the 
metropolis, he is as warm a friend as 



ever, although the extent of his professional 
engagements now forbid him rendering us 
much active service. The honour of pre- 
siding was a graceful tribute to one most 
worthy. The speeches of Messrs Tweedie 
of London, and Raper of Bolton, were 
peculiarly happy, and contributed greatly 
to the interest and effect of the occasion. 

The meeting for business, and which 
consists entirely of delegates from societies 
and members of the association, was pre- 
sided over by Robert Smith, Esq., a 
gentleman who has not only honoured our 
cause, but has done honour to his own 
high social position, by daring to set an 
example of teetotalism to the merchant 
princes of the West. The main feature of 
this meeting was the discussion of resolu- 
tions respecting the position which the 
League ought to occupy in relation to the 
movement in behalf of legislative action, 
and the conclusion come to was most 
satisfactory. 

It must be obvious to all, that in 
an association of this kind there must 
always be no ordinary amount of forbear^ 
ance manifested towards one another. 
And at no stage of our progress has this 
grace been more required than at the pre- 
sent. It will not do to talk of temperance 
men being very patterns of unity, and 
then whenever an occasion presents itself 
which gives rise to a difference of views, to 
see parties assuming hostile attitudes. If 
we understand the Scottish Temperance 
League, it is an association formed on a 
basis broad enough to unite all honest 
abstainers for the promotion of every 
practical measure, with the view of sup- 
pressing intemperance. If, then, a differ- 
ence of opinion arises with respect to any 
practical measure, ihe course of operations 
must be plainly determined by the voice 
of the majority ; yet, even where there is 
a majority, it is not always wise to give 
effect to its voice. Now the question 
is, Do legislative enactments, with the 
view of suppressing intemperance, belong 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



131 



to those class of measures which the con- 
stitution of the League embraces? We 
think they do. The constitution has been 
wisely left broad enough to admit of even 
a Maine Law agitation, if those who form 
the association shall deem that prudent. 
Nay, we hold, that to gain the object of 
the League, viz., ' The enire abolition of 
the drinking system,' legislative measures 
are essential. Without these the drinking 
system never can be abolished. As long 
as man's heart remains depraved there 
will be parties reckless enough to drink 
alcoholic liquors, and parties sordid enough 
to sell them. Now, when we speak of 
the League taking part in the legislative 
movement, we do not mean to insinuate 
that the total abstinence movement has 
been a failure. They who say so have 
studied but very imperfectly the philosophy 
of the question. They might just as well 
affirm that the dawn is a failure because 
it is not the day. Without the total ab- 
stinence movement we never would have 
heard of a Maine Law, and no movement 
can be effective which is not based upon 
the total abstinence principle. 

Holding, then, as we do, the perfect 
compatibility of legislative action with the 
constitution of the League, the next ques- 
tion is one of policy : ' All things may be 
lawful, but all things are not expedient.' 
How far, then, is the League justified in 
identifying itself with the new movement ? 
Those who compose it must settle that 
point. If it be the fact that a large body 
of its members, or even that any con- 
siderable number, are opposed to legislative 
action, then we would be the last to enter 
upon such a course. If, however, the 
great body of its members are in favour 
of a Maine Law, or rather, we Avould say, 
legislative enactments, then the time has 
come for the League throwing itself heart 
and soul into the movement. 

What, then, ought the League to do in 
present circumstances? The resolution 
carried wisely answers the question. It 



runs as follows : — ' That the members of 
the Scottish Temperance League now 
present rejoice in the success and efficiency 
of the Maine Law in several of the States 
of the American Republic, and earnestly 
sympathise with the efforts which are 
being made to create a pnbhc opinion in 
favour of a similar measure in this coun- 
try.' As many members absent are 
opposed to all legislative action, the re- 
solution very properly expresses only the 
opinion of those who composed the as- 
sembly. The fact, however, that such a 
resolution was passed unanimously, plainly 
indicates the direction which the move- 
ment is taking, and affords ground to 
believe that a short period longer of 
mutual forbearance will enable those in- 
trusted with the direction of the League's 
affairs to take measures that will bo satis- 
factory to all who compose its membership. 
Even as it is, we confess we begin to 
breathe somewhat freer, and feel that we 
may express our opinions upon the legis- 
lative movement with a freedom becoming 
its importance. 

The concluding meeting on Tuesday 
evening was presided over by Ebenezer 
Murray, Esq., one every way admirably 
qualified for the position he holds in con- 
nection with our metropolitan society. 
Such a gathering even the Music Hall 
has rarely witnessed, and even Gough has 
rarely equalled that night's advocacy. 
Every renewed hearing only increases our 
admiration of this wonderful man. The 
feelings which he awakens in every bosom 
are such, that we verily believe that to 
listen to him six nights in succession 
would throw the half of his audience into 
a fever. We need not say that his pi-e- 
sence was the great attraction of this 
most memorable Anniversary, and his 
unrivalled advocacy the main cause of 
that deep, and, we trust, abiding impres- 
sion which the meetings connected with 
it have produced. 



132 



THE ABSTAINER 8 JOUKNAI,. 



THE NEW PUBLIC-HOUSE BILL. 
At the commencement of the operations 
of this most important measure, it may 
be well to notice anew its chief provisions, 
and the duty which devolves upon us in 
giving them effect. 

In the preamble it is stated—' Whereas 
in Scotland great evils have been found to 
arise from the gi-anting of certificates for 
spirits, wine, and exciseable liquors, to be 
drunk or consumed on the premises, to 
dealers in provisions and other such com- 
modities; and it is expedient that a remedy 
be applied to such evils, and that further 
provision be made for the regulating of 
public-houses in Scotland!' Here, then, is 
an indication that our legislators are be- 
coming alive to the evils which flow from 
our dram-shop system. 

The first clause of the Bill provides that 
no licence be granted unless with express 
condition that no groceries be sold on 
the premises. The clause runs thus—' It 
shall not be lawful to the Justices of the 
Peace for any county or district, nor to 
the magistrates of any royal burgh in 
Scotland, to grant any certificate for 
spu-its, wine, or exciseable hquors to be 
drunk or consumed on the premises, with 
respect to any house or premises not pre- 
viously licensed, unless on the express 
condition that no groceries or other pro- 
visions to be consumed elsewhere shall 
be sold in the house or premises with 
respect to which such certificate is granted 
within the period to which such certificate 
applies; and from and after the term of 
Whitsunday next ensuing from the passing 
of this Act, it shall not be lawful to such 
justices or magistrates to grant any certi- 
ficate, with respect to any house or pre- 
mises, whether previously licensed, unless 
on the express condition aforesaid.' 

The Bill, then, provides that no grocer 
will be allowed, in any town or village of 
Scotland, to sell or even give gratuitously 
a glass of any alcoholic Uquors to be con- 
sumed on the premises. This provision 



is designed to mitigate a crying eviL 
The sale of liquor's by grocers affords tip- 
plers a facility for drinking under pretext 
of purchasing really useful articles. The 
provision in question, however, does not 
strike at the root of the evil. There will 
be still the filUng of the little bottles, and 
the carrying home of the poison in the 
same basket with the ordinary necessaries 
of life ; and still, in numerous cases, the 
swallowing of alcohol by droutliy dames, 
while the charge goes down in the pass- 
book as meal, barley, peas, soap, soda, or 
starch. So far, however, this clause of the 
Bill will be healthful in its operations. All 
those clubs, composed of the drinking 
members of our police commissioners, and 
parochial boards, and special constables, 
and httle municipal functionaries, which 
used to meet in the back rooms of several 
of our dram-selling grocers; and those 
who were not yet low enough to drink at 
the counter of a common dram-shop, must 
now drink where their habits will appear 
in their undisguised manner. 

It also forbids the granting of a licence 
to 'any blacksmith at his smithy, or at 
any house occupied by him in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the same, or to any 
tacksman of toll, or toll-gatherer, or to 
any person occupying a house not hitherto 
licensed to sell exciseable liquors situated 
at or near to any toll-bar in Scotland, any 
certificate to sell wine, beer, spirits, or 
other exciseable liquors, anything in any 
Act of Parliament to the contrary not- 
withstanding, unless such toll be situated 
more than sis miles from any other house 
licensed to sell exciseable liquors within 
the same county.' This provision of the 
Bill must prove an immense boon to our 
rural population. 

Mere dram-shops are, by this Bill, com- 
pelled to close during the whole of Sabbath, 
and not to open sooner than eight o'clock 
in the morning or later than eleven o'clock 
at night during the ordinary days of the 
week. It also forbids the keepers of such 



THE ABSTAINEE S JOURNAL. 



133 



places to ' permit any breach of the peace, 
or riotous or disorderly conduct -within 
the said house or premises; and do not 
knowingly permit or suffer men or women 
of notoriously bad fame, or girls and boys, 
to assemble and meet therein ; and do not 
supply liquor to boys and girls apparently 
under fourteen years of age, or to persons 
who are in a state of intoxication ; and do 
not permit or suffer any unlawful games 
therein.' 

With respect to inns and hotels, it for- 
bids ' any drinking on any part of the 
premises belonging thereto, or sell or give 
out therefrom any liquors, before eight of 
the clock in the morning, or after eleven 
of the clock at night, of any day, with the 
exception of refreshment to travellers or 
to persons requiring to lodge iu the said 
house or premises ; and do not open his 
house for the sale of any hquors, or sell or 
give out the same, on Sunday, except for 
the accommodation of lodgers and bona 
fide travellers ; and, lastly, do maintain 
good order and rule within his house and 
premises.' Provided always, that in lo- 
cahties requiring other hours for opening 
and closing public-houses, inns, and hotels 
than those contained in the said schedule, 
it shall be lawful for such justices or 
magistrates to insert in the said schedule 
such other hours, not being earlier than 
six o'clock or later than eight o'clock in 
the morning for opening, or earlier than 
nine o'clock or later than eleven o'clock 
in the evening for closing the same, as 
they shall think fit.' 

Thus, the keepers of inns or hotels are 
prohibited from supplying any party, ex- 
cepting lodgers and travellers, with hquors 
beyond the hours specified, or upon Sun- 
days to any but lodgers and bona fide tra- 
vellers within the same. It is also declared 
that 'the expression "inn and hotel" in 
certificate (No. I.) [i.e., the inn or hotel 
licence,] shall refer to a house containing 
at least four sleeping apartments set apart 
for the accommodation of travellers.' 



The BUI also provides that ' it shall be 
lawful for any police officer or constable 
at any time to enter into any public-house, 
or any house where refreshments are sold 
to be consumed on the premises ; and any 
person who refuses to admit or shall not 
admit such police officer or constable into 
such house, or shall offer obstruction to 
his admission thereto, shall be deemed 
guilty of an offence, and shall for the first 
offence pay the sum of five pounds, with 
the expenses of conviction, or failing pay- 
ment, the offender shall be imprisoned for 
a period of one calendar month ; and for 
the second and every subsequent offence, 
the offender shall forfeit the sum of ten 
pounds, with the expenses of conviction ; 
and in case such penalty and expenses 
shall not be paid within the space of four- 
teen days next afler such second or sub- 
sequent conviction shall have taken place, 
then the offender shall be imprisoned for 
a period of two calendar mouths, unless 
he shall sooner pay such penalty and ex- 
penses; and it is hereby provided and 
declared, that the several penalties and 
terms of imprisonment may be mitigated 
by the court; provided always that by 
such mitigation such penalties and terms 
of imprisonment respectively shall not be 
reduced to less than one-fourth thereof 

Such is an outline of the main provi- 
sions of this most important Bill, which 
has now come into operation. A Bill, 
however, can do nothing unless it is 
vigorously enforced. Even in America, 
the Maine Law is a dead letter in those 
towns where the friends of the temperance 
cause are few or inactive. To whom, 
then, are we to look for the enforcement 
of this measure ? To the general com- 
munity ? No ; much as they are cursed 
by intemperance, they are not yet fnUy 
ailve to the importance of radical means 
of cure. To our magistrates or pohce 
officials ? Many of them are most anxious 
to do their utmost, but they must be 
backed by a powerfiil public sentiment. 



134 



THE abstainer's JOUKNAL. 



It is with the members of our abstinence 
societies rests the execution of this law. 
We would therefore recommend that in 
every town where such a society exists a 
moral police force, consisting of abstainers, 
be established, that it shall be their object 
to see that the publicans literally comply 
with the conditions of their licence. The 
enforcement of the Sabbath clause must 
be especially attended to. It might be 
well, too, that in every case where a 
society possesses the means, two or three 
paid agents should be employed to devote 
their entire time to the duty of surveil- 
lance. We are aware that some societies 
are already making arrangements of this 
nature. Indeed, in certain towns and 
districts the entire duty must devolve 
upon the abstainers, as they have not 
even a single policeman to keep the pub- 
lican and their victims in order. We, 
however, leave the matter, with the utmost 
confidence, in the hands of those ■who are 
longing for our country's deliverance from 
the bondage of intemperance, and who 
have pledged themselves to the use of all 
lawful means of its suppression. 

THE ECLECTIC REVIEW AGAIN. 
In the March number of this periodical, 
we have an attempt to prove our prin- 
ciples unscientific. It is not the first 
time that this periodical, professedly 
devoted to popular interests, has shown 
what it would do if its power were as 
great as its wish. In a review of Liebig's 
Letters on Chemistry, it is observed : — 

Thus Liebig states, that as much flour 
or meal as can lie on the point of a table 
knife is more nutritious than eight or ten 
pints of the best Bavarian beer — ' that a 
person who is able to consume that 
amount of beer daily, would get from it at 
the end of the year about as much nourish- 
ment as would exist in a five-pound loaf of 
bread, or in three pounds of flesh.' But we 
must not suppose that although thu beer 
aflfords so little direct nourishment, it is 
altogether useless. Besides those articles 
of diet which go to build up the sohd and 



essential structures of the body, another 
class of aliments are requisite. In order 
to maintain life, man requires a supply of 
oxygen, to support combustion and animal 
heat; of this, an adult wUl consume from 
seven to eight hundred pounds annually. 
None of this remains. It goes to combine 
with carbon and hydrogen, to pass off at 
the lungs and the skin in the form of 
carbonic acid and water, and to support 
animal heat. This veritable combustion re- 
quires a supply of fuel, — i.e., of substances 
abounding in carbon and hydrogen. 
These are of a different class from the 
principles of food which really form the 
solid tissues of most importance in carrying 
on the machinery of life, and beer is one 
of them, although, perhaps not one of the 
best. 

If, then, beer be not one of the best 
means of supplying the body with heat, 
what of the reviewer's argument against 
abstinence? A greater than he, viz., Dr 
Pereira, has well said in his Materia Medica, 
' If I had to point out the hijurious 
qualities of alcohol, I could soon prove, 
that though it evolves heat in burning, it 
is an obnoxious and most expensive fuel.' 
And yet the reviewer, upon the authority 
of Liebig, gives us what he calls ' a curious 
fact, showing that alcohol is food. When 
the Peace Society met at Frankfort, most 
of the members being teetotalers, their 
landlord observed an enormous consump- 
tion of farinaceous food, " an unheard-of 
occurrence in a house in which the amount 
and proportion of the dishes for a given 
number of persons has been for some years 
fixed and known."' So because abstainers 
have a better appetite than tipplers, ' alco- 
hol is food.' By the same mode of argu- 
ment it may be shown, we suppose, that 
a person may get fat upon a fever. But 
he further says : — 

' That alcohol in large doses, and in the 
concentrated form, is a poison, is beyond 
a doubt, but it differs from ordinary 
poison, such as prussic acid and arsenic, 
in being assimilated in small quantities, 
which these never are ; i.e., in small quan- 
tities it is food, being closely analogous to 
oil or fat in its chemical composition. It 
is one of the combustible articles of diet 



THE ABSTAINEE'S JOUKN AL. 



135 



already spoken of. But it is an article 
somewhat sui generis, being both a stimu- 
lant in moderate doses, and a supporter 
of combustion, in large doses a poison, not 
so poisonous, however, according to some 
recent unpublished experiments on ani- 
mals, as thein or caffeiu, the active 
principle of tea and coffee, which also is 
supposed to answer important purposes in 
digestion, partly by reinforcing the biliary 
secretions, partly by an effect on the 
nervous system. The opposition, then, 
of some of the more violent of the teetotal 
doctrinaires to the use of alcoholic fluids 
in any form, on the ground that they are 
absolute poisons, is not supportable, but 
the propriety of total abstinence from 
alcoholic drinks may be urged on the 
following grounds — viz. : 1st, for the sake 
of example; 2nd, from the danger of 
moderate indulgence leading to the use of 
them as stimulant drugs; 3d, because 
they are expensive, and can be dispensed 
with.' 

We give these quotations not so much 
for the purpose of attempting their refu- 
tation, as for the purpose of furnishing 
our readers with all that is publicly said 
against us. The most which our opponents 
will venture upon is a single shot, here 
and there, in true Russian style, scamper- 
ing behind their retrenchments again with 
all convenient speed; and their policy 
seems to be that of the Czar, quietly to 
sit still, and act as little on the offensive 
as possible. 

The reviewer then declares that ' the 
opposition of some of the more violent of 
the teetotal doctrinaires to the use of alco- 
holic fluids in any form, on the ground 
that they are absolute poisons, is not 
supportable,' etc. He asserts that ' they 
are assimilated in small quantities, i.e., in 
small quantities it (alcohol) is food,' and 
he refers to Liebig as an authority. Now 



Liebig does not advance his doctrines 
physiologically and pathologicallj', but 
only chemically; he nowhere proves that 
alcohol is ever assimilated ; he oSers no 
proof against the fact of its being a poison; 
he makes no assertions to the contrary. 
As the reviewer refers to his Familiar 
Letters on Chemistry, it may be observed 
that he there only declares an opinion, and 
does not give scientific proof; so far from 
that, he, according to the reviewer's own 
showing, founds that opinion upon a 
Frankfort innkeeper's report of the ap- 
petites of the teetotal members of the 
Peace Society, and upon ' a merry tale of 
the jovial disposition of the Ehinelander,' 
which possesses the same amount of 
scientific value as Falstaff's eulogium 
upon Sherris Sack! Had the reviewer 
possessed any scientific knowledge of the 
subject, he would never have considered a 
mere opinion, supported by such incon- 
sequential references, though that opinion 
be Liebig's, as being entitled to weigh, for 
one moment, against the dhect experi- 
ments upon the physiological effects of 
alcoholic drinks, made by the late very 
eminent Dr Prout, Yierardt, Bocker, 
Drs John Davy, Beaumont, Dundas Thom- 
son, Percy, Sewall, etc., all proving their 
poisonous effects in any and in every 
form and quantity. The reviewer speaks 
of 'the more violent of the teetotal 
doctrinaires;'' violence is unscientific and 
proves nothing — the reviewer should have 
given their names. The reviewer is not 
violent, but he has violated the rules of 
propriety, by treating upon a subject he 
evidently knows very Uttle about. 



^ e t r 2- 

DEATH'S CHOICE. 

BY MRS SIGOtlRNET. 

The shadowy monarch, on his throne of j Since he of Eden felt a brother's hate, 



skulls, 

Sate, wearied and displeased. 
My cheerless task, 



Down to the brow that blanches as I speak, 
Hath known no respite. Would that there 
were one 



136 



THE ABSTAINER 8 JOURNAL. 



With 'whom to trast my cares awhile, and 

SDatch 
One moment of repose. Ho ! ye who wait ! 
Give notice that with him most worthy found, 
By previous deeds to waste the race of man, 
The King of Terrors will delight to share 
The glory of his kingdom. 

Mighty Winds, 
Swollen high to earthquake, violence, and 

tones 
Of many waters, like wild, warring seas, 
Proclaimed the edict, while the lightning's 

spear 
Wrote it in flame on ev'ry winged cloud ; 
Yea, with such zeal the elements conspired 
To publish the decree, methought there lurked 
In each some latent, lingering hope, to win 
The promised regency. 

The Passions came, 
Throned on their storm-clouds, and with 

varied voice. 
Thundering, or eloquent, as best beseemed 
Their several natures, boasted how to quell 
Life's feeble springs. 

But to their claims stern Death 
Gave credence cold. 

Next fleshless Famine stalked, 
Followed by fierce, unpitying Prestilence ; 



Still ever in their ear a mournful sound — 
The weeping of the nations. 

Loudly shriek'd 
A martial trump, and on his bannered car, 
War, like a sovereign, came. Unnumbered 

spoils 
Were strew'd around him, and the blood of 

men 
Flow'd, as a river, 'neath his chariot wheels. 
His eagle eye the promised honour scann'd, 
As an undoubted right. But still pale Death 
Ponder'd, and spake not, till, with haughty 

pride. 
The candidate withdrew, and trembling earth 
Shrank at his kindled wrath. 

There was a pause, 
As if none dare in that foil'd champion's steps 
Essay to tread. At length a bloated form 
Moved slowly on, with mix'd and maddening 

bowl; 
But, ere the footstool of the throne he press'd. 
Death, with a father's fondness, hasting down, 
Embraced, and in the seat of empire placed. 
Great was the wonder, but none dare gainsay ; 
For, with a fearful shout, all Nature's foes — 
Diseases, passions, wars, and sins — confess'd 
Intemperance their king, and at his feet 
Their boasted, time-cemented trophies ca^t. 



^nnibersarg ProcEEtinss of tj^e Scottigfj Ezm^txmtz SLcaguc. 



ANNIVERSARY SERMONS. 
The Ninth Anniversary of this Associa- 
tion has been celebrated at Edinburgh 
and Glasgow during the past month. 
The proceedings were inaugurated by the 
delivery of twenty-five sermons on Sab- 
bath, eleven of which were preached in 
Edinburgh, and fourteen in Glasgow. 
Nearly all the preachers had numerous 
congregations. The average exceeded 
800, so that upwards of 20,000 persons 
in the two cities listened on Sunday, 14th 
May, to an exposition of the principles of 
the League. 

In Glasgow, the Rev. T. C. Wilson, 
Dnnkeld, officiated in St Stephen's and 
St Andrew's Established Churches; the 
Rev Robert Hose, Inverary, in Argyle 
(Gaelic) and Gorbals Free Churches; 
the Rev. M. N. Goold, Dumfries, in Sham- 
rock and Campbell St. U. P. Churches ; 
the Rev. W. Anderson, Loanhead, in West 
Campbell and Great Hamilton Street 
Reformed Presbyterian Churches; the Rev. 
G. D. Macgregor, Portobello, in West 
Nile and West George Street Congrega- 
tional Chapels; the Rev. Joseph Boyle, 



Leith, in East Regent and Pitt Street 
Congregational Chapels; the Rev. Dr 
Paterson, in Hope Street Baptist Chapel, 
and the Rev. John Williams, in Trades' 
Hall. 

In Edinburgh, the Rev. Charles Stuart 
Maclean, Glasgow, officiated in New 
Greyfriars' and Canongate Parish 
Churches ; the Rev. Wm. Burns, Kilsyth, 
in St Mary's and John Knox's Free 
Churches ; the Rev. Dr M'Kerrow, Man- 
chester, in Lothian Road U. P. Church 
and the Music Hall, George Street ; the 
Rev. Alexander Hannay, Dundee, in Pot- 
terrow U. P. Church, and in Richmond 
Place Congregational Chapel ; the Rev. 
John Guthrie, Greenock, in Brighton St. 
and in St Andrew Street (Leith) Congre- 
gational Chapels, and the Rev. Francis 
Johnston, Edin'ourgh, in the Waterloo 
Rooms. 



ANNUAL PUBLIC MEETING. 

The Annual Meeting of the members of 

the Scottish Temperance League was 

held on Monday, 15th May, in the Music 

Hall, which was filled tooverflowing. There 



THE abstainer's JOUKNAL. 



137 



was a trifling chai'ge for admission. In 
the absence of R. Smith, Esq., president 
of the association, from whom a letter of 
apology was read, John M'Gavin, Esq., 
chairman of the Board of Directors, pre- 
sided. 

Prayer Laving been offered up by the 
Rev. P. M'Dowall of Alloa, the assem- 
blage joined in singing the following tem- 
perance anthem, written expressly for the 
occasion, by Thomas Knox, Esq. : — 

I. 

God make the truth supreme, 
Be it our constant theme — 

God speed our cause ! 
Now let thy blessing come, 
Aid us to rescue some, 
Till every foe be dumb ; 

God speed our cause ! 

II. 

Scotland, thy weal we seek, 
Hope in thine ear we speak — 

God speed our cause ! 
Fain would we heal thy pains — 
Wipe away all thy stains ; 
Over thy hiUs and plains, 

God speed our cause ! 

III. 

Then shall each hardy son 
Grown'd be with honour won — 

God speed our cause ! 
Vice then shall meet its doom, 
Homes then shall lose their gloom, 
Fairer the land shall bloom — 

God speed our cause ! 

IV. 

Bright dawns that happy time 
When Earth shall rest from crime — 

God speed our cause ! 
Man shall not then employ 
Aught that can man destroy ; 
Life shall be peace and joy — 

God speed our cause ! 

The fine organ accompanied the sing- 
ing of this anthem ; and, as the whole 
audience joined with great heartiness, the 
effect was very fine. 

The Chairman then rose and said : — 
You will permit me for a few minutes to 
refer to the origin and progress of the 
Scottish Temperance League. As its name 
implies, it professes to be a national tem- 
perance institution, founded for the pur- 
pose of organising, and consolidating 
the temperance cause throughout the 
kingdom at large. Previous to the in- 
auguration of the League, two such 
societies had been in existence, the Eastern 



and Western Unions, bat it was thought 
advisable that these should be united, and 
accordingly in November, 1844, the League 
was formed, and soon thereafter combined 
the strength of both of the previously 
existing associations. 

The League's bond of union is what is 
generally known as the long-pledge, that 
is, that its members neither take nor give 
intoxicating drinks. It is composed of 
individuals who have accepted this bond, 
and who contribute to its funds not less 
than 2s 6d annually, and of temperance 
societies which contribute ] Os yearly. 

Our object is the entire overthrow of 
our drinking usages. Our weapons are 
appeals through the pulpit, the platform, 
and the press. 

The history of the League has from the 
first been satisfactory ; we have grown 
with each year, and I am happy to say 
that our present position is the most sa- 
tisfactory we have yet occupied. In point 
of numbers, of agency, of publications, and 
of finance, we are now stronger than we 
ever were before. 

We have thus to return thanks to our 
friends for their support during the past 
year, and doubt not but the same support 
will be tendered during the year to come. 
We have made arrangements, indeed, for 
greater things for the time to come. Our 
office-staff has been increased. Mr Robert- 
son, who acted as secretary since August 
last, will henceforth devote his attention to 
the literary department of the League; 
and Mr Marr, so well and favourably 
known to most of you, has undertaken 
the duties of secretary, and we have the 
fullest confidence that he will discharge 
these with a promptitude and energy that 
will increase the efficiency of the League. 
Amongst others, we expect Dr Lees will 
be with us by September ; and Mr Gough 
will be on the field to give permanency to 
the extraordinary impulse he has already 
given to the cause iu Great Britain. 

Besides all these, we hope to have all 
you with us ; and I am sure you cannot 
lend your influence to a cause better 
adapted to elevate our fellow-countrymen, 
to introduce comfort into thousands of 
homes now desolate, and to wipe out the 
stain of British intemperance. 

Mr TwEEDiE, Honorary Secretary of 
the London Temperance League, said, he 
would confine himself to a few facts which 
he had collected to bring under their notice 
to show how the temperance movement 
was progressing throughout the United 
Kingdom. The literature of the temper- 



138 



THE ABSTAINER S JOUENAL, 



ance movement had been referred to by 
the Chairman, more especially the publi- 
cations of the League. He (Mr Tweedie) 
was happy to say, as far as his knowledge 
extended, that the literature of the tem- 
perance movement was never in so good a 
condition as at the present moment. 
(Cheers.) He believed that at least £500 
a-month was spent by the teetotalers of 
the United Kingdom on their literature. 
(Renewed cheers.) He had made a few 
calculations to show how the cause was 
progressing, so far as he could gather from 
Government returns. From these returns 
he found that there was a very large de- 
crea.se in the consumption of all kinds of 
intoxicating liquors. It would be quite 
unfair to take one year and compare it 
with another in looking at the statistics of 
this question, because any one who had 
studied the statistics of the temperance 
question knew this, that one year there 
was a large amount entered for home con- 
sumption, and that the next year there 
was a considerable decrease ; in fact, look- 
ing over for five or ten years, they found 
they just ranged from five to ten and back 
to five again. He v?ould, therefore, take 
the first five years of the temperance 
movement, and compare it with the last 
five. Proceeding in this manner, he 
Ibund in the article of malt, that during 
the first five years of the temperance 
movement — that is to sav, fiom 1835 to 
1839— there were 185,126,420 bushels of 
malt used in the United Kingdom; that 
during the last five years — from 1849 to 
1853— there were 159,709,227 bushels, 
making a decrease of 25,000,000 bushels 
in the quantity of malt used. (Applause.) 
He would take the next article, British 
spirits. He confined himself to these ar- 
ticles, as they were most in demand. He 
found that from 1835 to 1839, 127,000,000 
gallons of British spirits were entered for 
home consumption; and that from 1848 
to 1852, 1 17,000,000 gallons were entered 
for home consum.ption, making a decrease 
of 10,000,000 gallons. (Applause.) This 
enormous decrease would be still more ap- 
parent when they took into consideration 
the population during the time he had re- 
ferred to. The population of the United 
Kingdom in 1841 was, in round num- 
bers, 25,000,000; while in 1851 it was 
27,000,000 ; so that, while the consump- 
tion of intoxicating drinks had decreased, 
the population had increased. Then, take 
drunkenness just as it existed in London; 
be found that, in the year 1831, there 
were 31,000 commitments in London for 



drunkenness, while in 1841 there were 
only 15,000, and in 1851 the number 
was still further reduced, there being only 
10,000. (Cheers.) In his opinion these 
statistics were very encouraging, as they 
showed that the eflPorts that extended firom 
this platform, and were made by the 
Scottish Temperance League and similar 
associations throughout the United King- 
dom, were not made in vain. 

Jlr Raper, one of the directors of the 
British Association for the Promotion of 
Temperance, next addressed the meeting. 
After referring to the fraternal feeling 
which existed between the different tem- 
perance organisations throughout the 
country, one manifestation of which was 
the appearance of the representatives of 
one League at the anniversary meetings 
of another, and stating that this accounted 
for his appearance amongst them that 
evening, Mr Raper said that he would 
say a word or two as to the character of 
the constituency he represented. The 
body on whose behalf he appeared was, 
he believed, about the oldest organisation 
of temperance societies in existence. Their 
next conference, which was to be held at 
Hull, would be their twentieth annual 
meeting. (Applause.) Their constitution 
was very much like the Scottish Tempe- 
rance League. They had afilliated societies 
at Leeds, York, Hull, Manchester, Bir- 
mingham, Stockport, Bolton, and other 
places. (Cheers.) The British Tempe- 
rance Association had the same object in 
view as the Scottish Temperance League — 
the entire eradication of the drinking cus- 
toms and usages from their end of the 
island — and they used precisely the same 
agency. They had four lecturers, who 
were delivering at the rate of 1000 lectures 
per annum, besides preaching very fre- 
quently on Sundays. They had a number 
of district unions connected with them, 
besides the aflSliated societies, and they 
were in the habit of supplying them with 
agents. They had some of these at Bris- 
tol, Lincolnshire, North Wales, and other 
places. That was pretty much like an 
outline of the constituency which he re- 
presented. He would like that a report 
was given by some one of what had been 
done in the temperance reformation during 
the twenty years that had rolled over them 
since it had first commenced. It appeared 
to him that during the time to which he 
had referred they had certainly got two or 
three things settled. Mr Tweedie had 
referred, in the course of Lis address, to 
the difficulties with which the temperance 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



139 



reformers had still to contend; but he 
could state, from his own experience, that 
great as they were, they were nothing like 
what they were twenty years ago. He 
thought they had managed to get up the 
feeling that the whole of the business of 
the manufacture of demoralising poison 
from human food was essentially immoral 
— (cheers) — that the employment of 
40,000 maltsters on the Sabbath, and all 
the ramifications connected with the traffic 
in intoxicating drinks, was immoral. 
Politically they had nearly got up to this 
point, that the Government had three lines 
of conduct to pursue, one of which they 
might choose, towards this traffic. To 
make the traffic entirely free, so as to 
allow every man, woman, and child in 
England to go into it, seemed to be pre- 
posterous. That a christian government 
should derive its support out of the vice 
and immorality of its people, seemed 
also to be out of the question, as public 
opinion appeai-ed to be rising to that 
point ; and, therefore — this was the point 
— the nation, and the Government as its 
executive, had no course left but to 
say, ' We'll have done with the business 
entirely, at once, and for ever.' (Loud 
and repeated cheers.) Now, the really 
difficult matter at the present moment 
for the temperance reformers was to con- 
sider how they were to get that accom- 
plished ; and that had come to be a ques- 
tion of manner, and not of matter. For 
his part, he would say that the best way 
was to get to the end of their journey as 
soon and as safely as possible. (Cheers.) 
Of one thing he was sure, and that was, 
that every man and woman in this assem- 
bly could aid in this movement by adopt- 
ing the principles of this League to-night. 
This could be done without legislation, as 
each one could pass for him and herself a 
perpetual Maine Law. (Loud cheers.) 
He was exceeding anxious that this should 
be the result of the meeting that night, 
and that those who did not already belong 
to the League would come forward and 
sign the pledge, and consistently act up 
to it. (Loud applause.) 

Mr GouGH was the next speaker. 
' Allow me to say,' he began, ' that it is 
most pleasing for me to stand, as I do, 
along with the representative of the Lon- 
don Temperance League, and under the 
auspices of the Scottish Temperance 
League. It seems to my mind appropriate 
that I should be present on such an occa- 
sion as the present; for I cannot forget 
that the Scottish Temperance League and 



the association represented by Mr Raper, 
were the first societies on this side the 
Atlantic, which honoured me with an 
invitation to come to Great Britain for 
the purpose of advocating the temperance 
cause. I repeat, therefore, that to me it 
is a source of exceeding great joy tliat I 
should stand here in the position which I 
occupy to-night.' He continued to say, 
that after his long and exciting labours in 
London, which only concluded last Thurs- 
day evening, and the long journey from 
the metropolis, he hardly felt in right 
trim for attempting to interest an audience. 
The gentleman who last addressed the 
meeting spoke of the progress of the tem- 
perance enterprise. It was, indeed, a 
progressive work. That speaker had said 
that he could remember well when they 
were fighting the first battle; he (Mr 
Gough) could not remember when the 
movement first began in the United States 
of America, but he remembered reading 
the constitution of the first temperance 
society, which was formed there in 1 809. 
It was a strange sort of society that ; it 
was a very temperate temperance society. 
(Laughter.) One of the regulations was 
to the effect that every person who 
should be convicted of intoxication should 
be fined a quarter of a dollar, unless such 
act of intoxication should be committed 
on the 4th of July, or any regularly ap- 
pointed military muster. (Renewed 
laughtei".) Now, in 1854, opponents 
smiled with contempt upon the movement 
which then was but small : but it was a 
movement in advance of public sentiment, 
and though it had encountered the fires 
of persecution, its advocates and supporters 
were still resolved to persevere in the face 
of difficulties. Really, after all, the 
greatest opposition they had to contend 
with was that which they could not take 
hold of. All the positive opposition with 
which they had to contend was little to 
be feared ; it was the apathy and indif- 
ference of the people which they sought 
to remove. 'Oh!' he exclaimed, 'for 
something to stir up the dead, duU, stag- 
nant pool of indifi'erence with regard to 
the evil of intemperance. Drunkenness! 
It is a word easily spoken ; what does it 
mean? Think of it, dream of it, look 
upon it in the light of eternity. What is 
it? God made man upright and in his 
own image; what is it which mars that 
image, and stamps it with the counterpart 
die of the devil ? It is drunkenness ; it is 
the drink that will do it. Man can stand 
erect and lift his forehead to the stars ; 



140 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



God has given him a crown and autho- 
rity, given him dominion over the beasts 
of the field, and crowned him lord 
of creation ; what tears that crown 
from his brow and grinds it before him in 
the dust? What hangs yon trembling 
wretch upon the gallows, fills our jails with 
prisoners, and our work-houses with poor ? 
It is the drink. What beclouds the 
glorious mind of man, and then renders 
him the vile creature of his mad passions ? 
It is the drink throughout the length and 
breadth of the land ; it is the drink that 
emaciates man's body, which is fearfully 
and wonderfully made, robbing it of its 
breath, and making it so fonl a carcase 
that a demon would scorn to inhabit it, 
and the shivering soul flies from it in dis- 
gust. Sometimes it seems to me as if it 
were necessary to call into court all the 
victims of this vice to testify against the 
terrible evil, yet men fold their arms, and 
stand in mute indifference, while the tide 
of burning desolation is rolling by. Oh ! 
the drink, the drink. I myself, though I 
have only been in your country nine 
months, have seen enough that is fitted to 
lift the skin from the scalp to the ancles, 
and make every hair stand on end. To 
see a man lying upon a bed of straw, and 
that his death-bed, who had but a few 
years before moved in a good circle of 
society, and who, when asked the cause of 
all this, replies in a faltering voice, with 
the death-rattle in his throat, at the same 
time raising his skinny emaciated arms, 
bringing his bony fingers together, and 
drawing his thin lips tight across his teeth 
— the bottle did it, the bottle, the cursed 
bottle. The bottle is the end of thousands 
in this country of Great Britain, who are 
dying from its effects every day. Let us 
then, brethren and friends, join, who have 
hands to work, heads to plan, and hearts 
to feel, rise up and do battle against this 
damning vice, that is sweeping thousands 
into the drunkard's grave and the drunk- 
ard's doom, and with burning foot-prints 
marching over this fair domain of heaven 
— glorious, free Great Britain. (Loud 
applause.) The apathy and indifference 
of which I have spoken manifests itself in 
various ways, and oftentimes the cause 
of the evil is misrepresented.' Mr Gough 
went on to state that there were those 
whom they had no expectation of moving, 
and who, to use a familiar expression, 
were scarcely worth powder and shot. 
Many people opposed the movement be- 
cause they did not understand the subject; 
some said the total abstinence principle 



had a tendency to engender and promote 
infidelity — a charge which he indignantly 
threw back in the face of those who uttered 
it. He would defy any one to point out a 
single individual who had been infidelised 
by the adoption of total abstinence princi- 
ples. (Applause.) He would rather have 
a sober infidel than a drunken infidel, and, 
he begged to say, he would rather have a 
sober infidel than a drunken professing 
christian. In conclusion, Mr Gough 
bespoke the influence and aid of the 
Church. If this cause was to be carried 
on successfully, he believed it must be 
through the influence and agency of the 
Church. This cause must be borne up 
on the shoulders of God's ministers and 
God's people, or it never would ascend. 
He was confident, however, that it would 
ultimately triumph. 

After a vote of thanks to the Chairman, 
on the motion of Mr Knox, the assemblage 
separated. 



BREAKFAST PARTY IN THE 
MUSIC HALL. 

A Breakfast Party of the members and 
friends of the League assembled in the 
Music Hall, on Tuesday morning, at eight 
o'clock. The gathering was the largest 
and most successful of the sort we ever 
witnessed. The auspicious weather had 
drawn out many of the strangers at an 
early hour in the morning ; and at eight 
o'clock precisely, the tables, which filled 
the entire area of the spacious hall, were 
surrounded by a company numbering 
upwards of six hundred — all of them ready 
to do justice to the good things provided 
with no stinted hand by our friend, Mr Geo. 
Johnston, Nicolson Street, and afterwards 
to enjoy the addresses of the delegates and 
others. Grace was said by the Rev. T. C. 
Wilson, parish minister of Dunkeld, and the 
Rev. Mr Arthur returned thanks. Wm. 
Menzies, Esq., M.D., by whom the chair 
was occupied, in a few introductory 
remarks, expressed his high sense of the 
honour which had been conferred upon 
him in asking him to preside on that 
occasion. He had intended to say a few 
words on the progress of the Scottish 
League ; but, knowing that several gentle- 
men from a distance were present for the 
purpose of addressing the assembly, he 
thought he should best consult the feelings 
of his audience by calling upon 

Mr James Rapek, of Bolton, the 
representative of the British Association 
for the Promotion of Temperance, who said 
he quite differed with the Chairman in his 



THE abstainer's JOUKNAL. 



141 



opinion relative to the account of the 
progress of the Scottish Temperance 
League. He confessed that he thought 
the progress of that league could not be 
too often reiterated. He might say, in 
coimection with the labours of the friends 
of temperance in England, that they on 
the south side of the Tweed were looking 
with very great anxiety towards Scotland 
at the present moment. That was the 
week on which the new statute with regard 
to Scottish public-houses came into force. 
(Applause.) The organisation with which 
he bad been connected for many years 
had been working assiduously towards 
the point which that act of Parlia- 
ment had now secured for their com- 
patriots in the north. They had for the 
last two or three months been flooding 
the Houses of Parliament with petitions 
against the Sunday traffic ; but he felt 
quite sure that, although Mr Adderley had 
consented to introduce the bill, there would 
be an almost universal disposition on the 
part of the members to wait and see how 
the Scotch bill answered. He asked the 
Scottish Temperance League to make 
that statute not one of letter, but of spirit 
and action ; and he knew they were well 
able to devise the means for accomplishing 
that end. The temperance societies of 
England trusted that they would see the 
New Public-house Bill fully and faithfully 
enforced. They were persuaded that the 
temperance reformers of Scotland, with two 
and a half millions of population — with the 
press and the pulpit so far at their command 
— would be able to work out some very 
remarkable impi'ovement. And their 
fellow-labourers in England held them 
responsible for the manner in which they 
accomplish their work. He had to saj, as 
fiir as England, or rather the North of 
England, was concerned, that they were 
making decided head-way. All the me- 
dia through which public opinion is 
created were becoming more and more 
under the influence of the temperance 
principle. The press, the pulpit, and 
the platform were daily giving token of 
being more and more on the side of tem- 
perance. No meeting could be held in 
connection with ragged schools, or juvenile 
vagrancy, or any kindred subjects, without 
the opinion being openly avowed, that the 
use of intoxicating liquors must be banished 
from the land. (Applause.) He might 
mention that, in their recent operations, 
they had borrowed a good deal from the 
Scottish Temperance League; and for 
some time their agents had been instructed 



to spend as many evenings in the week as 
possible among the rising generation. 
The speaker referred to the fact, that in 
the question as to the nianntr of carrying 
out, to a successful completion, the work 
in which they were engaged, they fre- 
quently found their greatest difficulty. 
He might mention, however, that they 
had, by a great majority, approved of the 
formation of the Maine Law Alliance — 
(loud cheers) — although some of their 
best men had viewed that movement with 
considerable apprehension. They had 
passed a vote of sympathy with the Alli- 
ance, just as thej' had passed similar votes 
with respect to many other movements, 
giving them the hand of welcome; not 
committing themselves in any shape or 
form, nor expressing themselves in a way 
that could be offensive to those who had 
been in many instances their most effective 
co-workers. The United Kingdom Alli- 
ance stood altogether as a separate move- 
ment; the British Association were not 
committed at all to it. (Applause.) And 
here he would add, that whatever had been 
done in times past, it was now most clearly 
the time for direct and incessant enforce- 
ment of the total abstinence principle. 
They saw men coming on their platforms, 
professing attachment to that principle, 
and yet keeping drink in their own houses. 
This practice must not be perpetuated; 
and if the principle of the temperance 
societies was to be faithfully expounded, it 
must be clearly and distinctly enforced, 
that alcoholic liquors are poison, and that 
barons and countesses cannot safely use 
them, even if they should have them im- 
ported from Spain and Portugal. (Loud 
applause.) 

Mr W. Tvi^EEDiE, Honorary Secretary 
of the London Temperance League, next 
addressed the meeting. When he told 
that assembly that the London society was 
not the oldest in the kingdom, that they 
were a very young society indeed, and 
that they were modelled on, and had their 
example set by the Scottish League, they 
would readily admit that he had great 
cause to be proud of the position he then 
occupied, in coming to tell them how their 
youngest son was getting on. Mr Tweedie 
gave a rapid and succinct account of the 
origin and progress of the London League, 
which originated in 1851, and successfully 
inaugurated, in spite of the great difficulties 
which always attended a new organisation 
in such a disconnected population as that 
of the metropolis, now occupied a most 
influential position. Its constitution, he 



142 



THE abstainer's JOTTHNAL. 



said, they had taken almost word for word 
from that of the Scottish League. The 
first lecturer whom they engaged was Mr 
Kellogg, of America; that gentleman was 
followed by Dr Lees, -whom they brought 
from Leeds to lecture to large audiences in 
Exeter Hall ; he, again, was succeeded by 
the Rev. Newman Hall, of Hull, now of 
Surrey Chapel, London; while a great 
impulse was given to the work by Mr 
Sinclair, of Edinburgh, at the termination 
of whose labours a meeting of the juveniles 
to whom he had lectured was held in Exe- 
ter Hall, attended by nearly 7000 children, 
5000 having been unable to obtain admis- 
sion. The next event in the history of the 
League was the bazaar, which, the largest 
ever held in connection with the temper- 
ance movement, was visited in two days 
by 30,000 people. There were forty 
societies in London acting in concert 
with the league ; over these the league 
exercised no control whatever, as they 
were not affiliated societies, but they 
could always count on their best sym- 
pathies and support. They thought this a 
better plan than having them affiliated, as 
it neither committed the league to their 
actions, nor them to the proceedings of 
the league. The engagement of Mr Lo- 
max tended to raise the tone of the advo- 
cacy ; and that brought him to the greatest 
thing they had ever done yet, the bringing 
Mr Gough to England. (Loud cheers.) 
And that brought him to explain how 
they got Mr Gough, when the Scottish 
Temperance League could not. It was 
through their devoted friend, Mr Kellogg, 
who, receiving injunctions from them on 
his departure for America, gave Mr Gough 
no peace until he promised that he would 
visit Britain during his holidays. (Cheers.) 
' That promise,' said the speaker, ' Mr 
Gough faithfully fulfilled. Now that we 
have got him here, it is for you and for 
us to say when he shall get back again.' 
(Loud and prolonged cheering.) Mr 
Tweedie added some particulars as to the 
instructions they had given Mr Kellogg, 
and remarked, that it was out of no 
gi-eater respect for the London Association 
or disrespect for the Scottish League, that 
Mr Gough had refused the invitation of 
the one, and accepted that of the other. 
(Applause.) Mr Tweedie said that the 
visit of Mr Gough had given the greatest 
impulse to the temperance cause which 
hnd ever been communicated in the me- 
tropolis. In all movements there came a 
time of reaction. With them that time 
had come, when Mr Gough opportunely 



arrived among them, arousing the indif- 
ferent, and rekindling the fires of their 
first love. Mr Tweedie then gave a 
statement with regard to a temperance 
petition to Parliament which is being 
signed by the metropolitan ministers. 
This petition has been got up mainly 
with a view to the introduction of the 
temperance principle to these clergymen. 
It had been signed by the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, the Bishop of London, and 
all the leading Dissenters — a total of one 
hundred and sixty names having been 
appended before he left for Scotland. In 
addition to the gentleman whom they 
employed to visit the clergy, thej' had 
engaged Dr Henry Mudge, of Bodmin, 
Cornwall — (loud cheers) — as a missionary 
among the medical profession, believing 
that the doctors needed enlightenment 
upon this subject — (laughter) — as much 
as any other class of the community. 
(Renewed laughter and applause.) Al- 
luding to the temperance ships — one of 
the greatest facts in the modern history 
of the temperance movement — the speaker 
concluded by giving one word of advice, 
to the efi"ect that the teetotalers of Edin- 
burgh and everywhere else should have 
faith in one another, enforcing the advice 
by a quotation from an eloquent poem 
by Mr Knox of Edinburgh. 

Mr Gough was the last speaker. He 
began by giving a graphic sketch of what 
had been accomplished in America, or in 
New England at least. They were very 
well aware that in Massachusetts there 
was a prohibitory law. But he would 
say something in reference to the move- 
ment long before the passage of that law. 
The law was passed in accordance with 
the almost unanimous voice of the people 
of the State. For years the friends of 
the noble enterprise had been labouring to 
instil into the minds of the young a love 
for total abstinence and a hatred of the 
instrumentalities that were calculated to 
perpetuate the sin of intemperance. Long 
before the passage of that Law, in three 
hundred and twenty townships which 
he knew, there were one hundred and 
seventy-eight in which liquor could not be 
obtained for love or money, except in 
the apothecary's. There was not a licence 
granted in the whole State for seven years 
before the passing of the law, except 
in one county ; and this arose entirely 
from the prevalence of the temperance 
principle. He feared that all restric- 
tive laws were nothing but mere cob- 
webs, without public sentiment were 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



143 



strong enough to carry them into effect. 
As regards the manner in which the 
puhlic temperance feeling in America 
frequently exhibited itself, he mentioned 
that hundreds of ladies have banded them- 
selves together on this point. They 
determine that they will not purchase a 
farthing's worth of anything from a man 
engaged in the liqaor traffic. Referring 
to the case at Boston, which, with 115,000, 
had 1500 places where liquor was sold, 
he remarked that 1250 of these were 
kept by foreigners; and further stated, 
in reference to the boast that there are 
hut 1000 grog-shops in Edinburgh, with 
a population of 160,000, the curious 
fact, that thither the drunkards of Maine, 
Vermont, and other States where the 
liquor traffic had heen thrown out, flocked 
in hundreds, and permanently settled. The 
prevalence of liquor shops arose from the 
fact that the magistrates refused to put 
the law into force. The city of Boston 
had got a mayor who said that he would 
put the law into force; but he (Mr 
Gough) confessed that rather than have a 
law a dead letter on the statute book, he 
would have no law at all. If they had 
not strength and force enough in public 
sentiment to make that law directly hon- 
ourable, then it should not be adopted. 
A community must be ripe for this enact- 
ment before it can be beneficially enrolled 
on the statute book; and while he believed 
this, he thought they had a perfect right 
as individuals to agitate the question to its 
fullest extent — to stir public sentiment to 
its very depths. As individuals, every 
step we take against private intemperance 
will help to demolish the instrumentalities 
of this traffic. If agitation was to come, 
then he counselled to discuss in a spirit of 
brotherly love, kindness, and love. He 
concluded by calling upon them to be 
bound by the three-fold cord — love, truth, 
and fidelity; and all the hosts of hell 
could not prevail against them. ' Let us,' 
said he, ' have faith in one another ; faith 
in the truth of our principles ; and faith, 
above all, in God. He is the author of all 
good. No blood has marked our track 
— no bitter tears of wailing have followed 
the work which we have wrought in the 
world — no curses from the lips of the poor 
dying drunkard have been levelled at our 
deeds. And let us patiently plant, and 
sow, and pray, although we never see one 
blade of green grass rising in the wilder- 
ness; for then we may stand on the shores 
of the blessed, and welcome our successors 
as they come laden with sheaves reaped 



from the field wherein we have laboured.' 
(Loud and prolonged applause.) 

The proceedings then concluded at half- 
past ten o'clock. 

ANNUAL ASSEMBLY OF MEMBERS. 

The Annual Assembly of the members 
of the League, and of representatives from 
affiliated societies, was held in the Music 
Hall, on Tuesday forenoon, ateleven o'clock. 
Robert Smith, Esq., president of the in- 
stitution, presided. There was a very 
large attendance of members and delegates. 

The Rev. Dr Paterson, Glasgow, having 
opened the proceedings with prayer, the 
Secretary read the Report, of which the 
following is a copy :— 

TENTH ANNUAL REPORT 

Of the Scottish Temperance League, pre- 
sented iy the Directors to the Annual 
Meeting of Meiniers and Delegates, held 
in the Music Hall, Edinburgh, \&th 
May, 1854. 

In accordance with the resolution of last 
Annual Meeting, the Anniversary of the 
League is held this year in Edinburgh; 
and, in submitting this their Tenth Annual 
Report, the Directors have much pleasure 
in being able still to speak of progress. 
This progress has not been the result of 
special or fitful efforts in any one depart- 
ment; but has reference to all the de- 
partments of the League's operations. In 
the matter of finance, as will be seen from 
the Treasurer's Statement, there has been 
considerable improvement. Instead of a 
deficiency, as in some former years, this 
year's Balance Sheet reports a considerable 
excess. 

The number of Members continues 
steadily to increase. The present year's 
Register, containing the names of 4047 
individuals and 269 societies, shows an 
increase over 1853 of 589 individuals and 
18 societies; whilst that of 1853 exceeded 
its predecessor by 519 individuals and 39 
societies. 

The Membership at last Annual Meet- 
ing was 3490 individuals and 261 so- 
cieties, and at this 4125 individuals and 
303 societies, being an increase on the 
former of 635, and on the latter 42. 

The Publication department is also in 
a prosperous condition. Although few 
new publications have been added to the 
list, the number of pages issued, 9,513,000, 
has been considerably above that of any 
former year — showing a steady increase 



144 



THE ABSTAINER S JOURNAL. 



in the demand for temperance publications, 
and encouraging still further eflforts. 

The Scottish Review continues to main- 
tain its position; but the Directors are 
satisfied that very much may be done to 
improve that position, and, permanently, 
extend the circulation. 

Not being exclusive in its character, 
the Heview can, with perfect propriety, be 
recommended to the notice of non-ab- 
stainers ; and it needs only to be brought 
before the reading portion of the com- 
munity to be received and welcomed. 
Thus, then, our friends, by procuring sub- 
scribers for the Review, would gain a 
hearing for their principles from many 
who would not deign to open a purely 
temperance publication. In conducting 
the Review, the Directors have endeavoured 
to secure the highest order of talent; and 
although, perhaps, not always successful, 
they have been so quite up to the average 
of similar publications, and far beyond 
that of any former one in the interest of 
the temperance cause. 

The Abstainer's Jouimalhas also main- 
tained its circulation and character, and, 
were the committees cf the several societies 
to exert themselves, that circulation might 
speedily be doubled. Committees might 
also increase its usefulness, by transmitting, 
from time to time, details of any special 
modes of working, along with reports of the 
progress of the movement in their districts, 
thus providing material for an interesting 
monthly resumd of temperance proceedings. 
A very important, and, as it has proved, 
popular addition has been made to the 
Adviser. In the number for January of 
this year, was commenced a series of 
temperance songs (original, or carefully 
selected), with music. By this means a 
long-felt desideratum is in the course of 
being supplied, the circulation of the little 
monthly has been doubled, and a still 
greater increase made certain. Committees 
and private friends would find the Adviser 
an excellent means of conveying temper- 
ance truth to the hearts of the parents of 
our country ; and the Directors trust they 
will avail themselves of it, in no stinted 
measure. 

The new publications issued this year 
have been — the Memorials of the late 
Robert Kettle, Esq., of which about 
1000 have been sold, an Address to the 
Ladies of Glasgow, by J. B. Gough, Esq., 
the sale of which has exceeded 9000 
copies, and the third series of Juvenile 
Tracts, a large quantity of which has been 
disposed of. 



A number of new tracts and lai^er 
publications are in preparation, and will 
be published at an early date, it being 
found, that, with the publications of the 
League, as with a commodity of an entirely 
opposite tendency, the experience is quite 
exceptional to a cherished economic prin- 
ciple. In both instances, the supply, in a 
great measure, regulates the demand, instead 
of the demand regulating the supply. 

Shortly after last Annual Meeting the 
Directors had to regret Mr Rae's resigna- 
tion of the Secretaryship, an office which 
he had filled for seven years with a 
devotedness, energy and zeal, which in 
no small degree contributed to the success 
of the institution ; they are, however, 
happy to state that they still enjoy the 
benefit of his presence and experience at 
their Board meetings. Mr Rae was suc- 
ceeded in the Secretaryship by Mr J. B. 
Eobertson, late of Edinburgh, who has 
most assiduously discharged the duties of 
the situation. From the increased and 
increasing operations of the League, how- 
ever, it was found necessary to make 
some important additions to, and altera- 
tions in, the ofiace staff. After mature 
deliberation, it was resolved that Mr Ro- 
bertson's attention should be chiefly de- 
voted to the superintending of the literary 
department, an arrangement which the 
extent and importance of your publishing 
operations has rendered absolutely neces- 
ary ; and that the Secretaryship be oflFered 
to Mr John S. Marr, of Edinburgh, a 
gentleman whose long public connection 
with the movement marked him out as 
peculiarly fitted for the situation. Mr 
Marr cordially acceded to the wishes of 
the Board, and has recently entered on his 
duties. 

In the Agency department there has 
been no slackening of effort. The same 
number of Agents have been employed, by 
whom about 1200 lectures have been 
given, with a measure of success at least 
equal to that of former years. The Di- 
rectors, however, may be allowed to sug- 
gest, that that success might be greater, 
were some plan adopted, by the local com- 
mittees, for more fully advertising the 
Agent's meetings, as well as for aiding 
him in procuring subscribers for the pub- 
lications. Not, by any means, that such 
assistance has not hitherto been rendered ; 
but that, in some districts, there might be 
an improvement. 

During a few weeks in winter, Dr F. 
R. Lees visited, in connection with the 
League, a number of the societies, and, 



THE ABSTAINER'S JOURNAL. 



145 



although the season and other causes 
operated unfavourably, the result of the 
tour was, on the whole, encouraging, and 
the Directors believe, that, were Dr Lees 
to be secured for another season, he would 
receive a heartier welcome, and be listened 
to by much larger audiences. 

In addition to the Anniversary Sermons 
and Meetings, in Edinburgh and Glasgow, 
a few Sermons have been preached and 
Meetings held in the latter city. 

Towards the close of the year, Deputa- 
tions from the Board visited Edinburgh, 
Perth, Dundee, Aberdeen, Barrhead, Pais- 
ley, Dumfries, Galashiels, Hawick, and 
Dunfermline, and were very cordially re- 
ceived. This plan of bringing the claims 
of the League before the various societies, 
of cherishing proper feeling, and exciting 
to mutual helpfulness, might be consider- 
ably extended, and with increasingly bene- 
ficial effects, both as regards the League 
and the societies. 

The County Agency recommendation 
of last Annual Meeting has also received 
a measure of attention, and has, in a 
modified form, been acted on. In several 
localities it has been found diflScult to 
secure suitable agents, or to support one 
for a lengthened period, and an agent has 
been employed for a few months, or the 
services of a League Agent secured, by 
contributing proportionately to the funds. 
The visits of the Agents, when thus given, 
have been very useful, and were this plan 
more generally adopted, there is reason to 
believe that the League Agency might be 
so extended as to allow of each district 
having an agent always in it, relieved, or 
assisted, as the necessities of the case might 
require, by the other Agents. 

Your Directors are happy to be able to 
state that subsidiary means for repressing 
and removing intemperance have received, 



during the past year, a considerable 
amount of attention, both from abstainers 
and others interested in the work. The 
plan of opening tents at fairs has been 
extended, and with good results. Refresh- 
ment-rooms for the working classes are 
also making way in the community, 
being found to be reraunei'ative commercial 
speculations, as well as valuable reforma- 
tory establishments. As this fact becomes 
known, we may expect to see them sup- 
planting the whisky-shops and drinking 
houses, which at present cluster by every 
thoroughfare. Almost all classes, certainly 
all who seek to improve the condition of 
the people, are turning their attention to 
the temperance reform, and are seeking by 
some one or other of the methods already 
in operation, or by some new scheme of 
their own, to help it forward. 

Forbes M'Kenzie's Act and the United 
Kingdom Alliance, have excited consider- 
able interest ; and, as the result of a va- 
riety of instrumentalities, among which the 
labours of John B. Gough, Esq., have 
been pre-eminent, the strictly temperance 
movement has received an upward and 
onward impetus, which your Directors 
trust will not have spent itself until the 
system against which you, as an association, 
are leagued, has been completely subverted. 

It is, therefore, a matter of sincere con- 
gratulation with jour Directors, that an 
engagement has been entered into with 
Mr Gough to labour, in connection with 
the League, for at least four months of the 
coming winter; and their hope is, that the 
several societies which may be visited will 
so labour in their respective localities as that 
the full benefit of that visit may be reaped ; 
and that those localities which must be 
disappointed, will, by a more than ordinary 
amount of other agencj'', make no less pro- 
gress than their more favoured neighbours. 



Abstract of Treasurer's Account, firom 16th April, 1853, till 4th Mat, 1854. 



Receipts. 

Treasurer's Balance, 

Membership Subscriptions : — 
IndividuaJs, .... 
Societies 

General Subscriptions and Dona- 
tions, 

Received from Public Meetings, 
Lectures, and Sermons, . 

Scottish Temperance Review, 

Scottish Review, 

Abstainer's Journal, . 

Adviser 

Cyclopcedia, .... 

Register 

Tracts and Miscellaneous Pub- 
lications, .... 

From the Trustees of the late 
Robert Kettle, Esq., 



529 


3 


3 


165 


7 


6 


309 


19 


6^ 


136 


7 


a 


8 


10 


5* 


642 


19 


6* 


227 


8 


9* 


102 


7 


a 


28 


13 


4j 



2 14 10 

389 17 41 
540 



£3087 1 6 



3 


10 





908 


15 


10 


235 





6 


101 


9 


3 


19 


4 





47 


7 





337 


8 






Payments. 

Salaries and Expenses of Agents, £711 5 5^ 

Salaries of Secretaries & Assistants, 256 1 2 8 

Scottish Temperance Revieiu, 

Scottish Review, 

Abstainer's Journal, . 

Adviser 

Cyclopisdia, .... 

Register, 

Tracts and Miscel. Publications, 

Expenses of Annual Meetings, 
Public Meetings, Sermons, &c., 177 18 8 

TravellingExpensesof Deputations, 35 16 10 

Miscellaneous Expenses, including 
Office Rent, Taxes, Stationery, 
Lithographing, &c., . . 152 11 

General Printing, . . . 50 3 

Postage 38 15 11 

Balance in Treasurer's hands, . 113 41 

£3087 1 6 



146 



THE abstainer's JOURNAL. 



Assets. 
Stock of Publications, 
Open Accounts, 
Treasurer's Balance, 



£648 








402 


11 


Oi 


. 11 


3 


4^ 









£1061 


14 


5 



Liabilities. 
Prepaid Subscriptions, 
Printer's Accounts, 
Salaries due, 

Sundry Small Accounts, . 
Excess of Assets, 



£38 1 7 

544 6 

37 4 3 

35 7 9i 

406 14 9i 

£1061 14 5 

Glasgow, 11th May, 1854.— We have examined the Treasurer's Rooks and Vouchers re- 
lative to Accounts, from IGth April, 1853, till 4th May, 1854, and declare them correct. 

JAMES JOHNSTON. 
JAMES CLARK. 
JAMES MORTON. 



The Rev. P. M'Dowall of Alloa moved 
— ' That the report and abstract of trea- 
surer's accounts now read be approved of.' 

Mr J. Hooper Dawson seconded the 
motion. 

The resolution was carried by acclama- 
tion . 

Mr Robert Lockhart, Kirkcaldy, with 
great pleasure moved — ' That the best thanks 
of this meeting be tendered to Robert Smith, 
Esq., president; John M'Gavin, Esq., 
chairman of the board of directors; William 
Service, jun., Esq., treasurer; and to the 
Board of Directors, for their valuable 
services during the past year.' (Cheers.) 
The report read that morning proved that 
the services of these gentlemen liad been of 
the greatest use not only to the Scottish 
Temperance League, but also to the general 
temperance movement throughout the 
country. 

The Rev. Ebenezer Young, of Annan, 
seconded the resolution, which was carried 
unanimously. 

Mr Neil M'Neill moved — ' That the 
warmest thanks of this meeting be presented 
to the ministers who preached the anniver- 
sary sermons of the League in Edinburgh 
and Glasgow last Sabbath.' (Cheers.) It 
was always, said Mr M'Neill, very pleasing 
to return thanks for labour performed, and 
more especially when that labour had been 
performed in a way which deserved and met 
with approbation, and was everything that 
could be desired. 

Mr Thomas Knox, of Edinburgh, second- 
ed the motion which was carried unani- 
mously. 

The Office-bearers for 1 854-5 were then 
elected. (See Cover, j 

The Rev. William Watson, United 
Presbyterian Church, Langholm, moved — 
' That the cordial thanks of this meeting be 
tendered to the representatives of the London 
Temperance League, and British Association 
for the Promotion of Temperance, for their 
valuable assistance at the present anniver- 
sary.' 

Mr M'Gavin seconded the resolution, 
which was carried with great enthusiasm. 

Mr TwEEDiE briefly acknowledged the 
compliment, accepting the recognition as a 
graceful compliment, not to himself for any- 
thing he had done, but to the institution 
which he represented, and which was vigor- 



ously labouring in another part of the 
island in the propagation of their common 
object. 

The Rev. Dr Paterson, of Glasgow, 
said a great many had received votes of 
thanks, and he was sure that the meeting 
did not begrudge the hearty meeds of praise 
which they were according. But there was 
one gentleman who had been referred to not 
unfrequently, to whom, he felt sure, the 
meeting would feel greatly indebted. They 
were indeed bound to render their most 
hearty thanks to him for the sincerity, the 
devotedness, as well as the zeal and ability, 
with which he promoted morals and religion. 
He, of course, referred to Mr Gough. 
(Applause.) 

The motion was seconded by Mr JoHN 
Jackson, Glasgow, and carried with great 
enthusiasm. 

Mr Gough thanked the meeting for the 
expression of its esteem. He felt some- 
times that votes of thanks were mere 
matters of form ; but still he did not believe 
that the members of the Scottish T