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Fabiola; or, the Church of the Catacombs. 1 
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Heroines of Charity. 


With Preface by Aubhey ue Vkee 


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Cdktbiitb:— 1. The Sinten of VlncBiinM.— !. Jeuiu' "iico 
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The Life of St. rrances of Rome. 

By L4t>r Geobgiasa Full. 
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Catholic Legends 

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The Witch of Melton Hill 

y the Author of " Mi.uut ?t. Lawrence," &p. Si. 






AirrHOB or ''thk snowdrop," "themimrb's dauohtkb," 










Great New Street and Fetter Lane. 

isB history of the brief i 

M Of the t( 

le petsecutjoi 

of ChriEtianit}' in Japan, 

J which it 

utterly e: 

melancholy a: 
nouaepisoae m tne annais oi tne Church, In the Japaoesc 
we behold the moat hiehlj-gifted of the Asiatic racee of 
modern times receiving the Gospel with a joy and a feryour 
which remind us of primitive ages, when thousands in one 
single day would niu at the divine call to &11 the apostolic 
net, and when the multitude of the Mthful, serving God 
vitix one heart and one soul, resembled rather the cnosen 
few who iu later days have left the crowd to follow the 
higher path of evangelical perfeotion, than the mass of ordi- 
nary believers. Bnt if the Japanese excite our admiration 
in their -willing reception of goepel-truth, and their fervour 
in obeying its precepts and counsels, no leas, or rather still 
more exidted are the feelings with which we must regard 
the spirit in which they met the fiery trial which came upon 
them. Never in the times of the old pagan persecutions 
was a more glorious spectacle exhibited of men, women, and 
children, rushing to claim the mactyr^s palm, and seeking 
Bufferings and torments as others seek honours and plea- 
Still the history has its melancholy page, and all the 
more dark and gloomy for the glory which had preceded. 
In this feir and promising land the Church has ceased to 
be, as utterly as if the Cross had never been planted on her 
shores; nay, a far sadder case is hers; for not pagan ignor- 
ance alone, but bitter prejudice and hatred, now close her 
m against the good tiduiga of salvation ; and the Chria- 
, D cannot so much as put one foot upon her soil without 
Dying hie faith by trampling on the sign of his redemp- 




■ conaeqi 

H and tot 

It IB, ne nuiij BBj, olmoat an exceptional in 
hutoiy of Christianity, to see a flouriahing Church thus 
completely e:<tirpateil from the soil where it had blossomed 
and borne each lich and Eolden fruit. True it is, that 
Ohurchea once abundantly blessed have been turned into 
desolation, as in the case of varioos citiea and even whole 
regionsof Asia Minor; but there corruption, and degeneracy, 
and lukewannness, and the spirit of heresy and scliiam, bad 
preceded the storm ; and when the day of trial came, and 
the blast of persecution was let loose, the tree fell, for it 
waa already rotten at the core. It excites in us, therefore, 
more sorrow than wonder, when we behold no longer those 
Churches of the Eaat, once burning lights, which the be- 
loved disciple addressed in accents of solemn waruinK. 
Their candlestick is removed. Qod threatened ; and He has 
made good His word. But &r otherwise was the cose of 
Jupan. She expired in the fervour of her first love ; and in 
this, perhaps soUtary instance, we seem to look in vain for 
the fulfilment of the proverb, ttut the blood of the martyrs 
is the need of the Church. The secret of this severe dispen- 
sation is with Qod, Humanly speaking, however, we seem 
to see one reason to account for so sod a feilure : the delay 
in the formation of an indigenous cler^. It has been the 
custom of the Churah, from the apostohc age downwards, to 
proceed to the establishment of a native clergy whenever 
and as soonaait has been possible and prudent so to do. Bs- 
perieuce has fully confirmed the wisdom of this measure; 
and no Church has been found to possess that inherent 
strength which can alone guarantee its permanence, while 
served only by foreign pastors. Let but a persecution arise 
sufficiently severe and continuous to expel and annihilate 
the missionaries, — and such was the policy successfully car- 
ried out by the Japanese government, — and their unhappy 
and helpless flock, however numerous and zealous, left to 
themselves, or rather in the hands of the ruthless enemies of 
their faith, may, it is true, suffer and die in the first genera- 
tion, but must dwindle away in the second. Without sacra- 
ments, save the one iuitiatury rite ; without ministry, with- 
out teachers, — it can only be a question of time how soon 
the light of faith must become utterly extinguished. 

Doubtless the heroic fathers who planted the gospel in 
Japan saw, or thought they saw, reasons for the delay, the 
consequences of which were so dis,istrDUs. We ought to be 
slow to blame saintly men who sealed their mission in blood 
and tortures; yet may we be allowed to regret that any ob- 


tele should hiiv« been, or have been felt to be, BufGcienti; 

eat to stand in*tho wnjr of bo importaot au object. The 
ratelligeuce of the Japiuieae diapoaitlou, ana the fer- 
Tour and zeal displayed bj numbers of the converts in per- 
forming every Christian work but euch as a participation 
in the miuisliy would have alone qualified them to under- 
take, would appear to have furuiahed great facilities fur the 
formation of a native priesthood, " In the first centuries 
ofChriBtianity"(wequutea modem historian of the Church), 
" in the apostolic ages, men would have uonetiained these 
good Japaaese lords to become priests and even bishops, and 
to he the pastors of those of whom they had been the rulers 
orlcinsB, as in the case of St. Denjs theAreopagite, Synesius 
of Ptolemais, St. Ambrose of Milan, St. Qermanua of Aux- 
erre." And again he observes, " Christianity bad flourished 
in J^inn for twenty or thirty jeara ; it held a domimint po- 
ntion in several provinces and kingdoms. The Japanese 
ObiistianB gave proofs of wonderful intelligence and virtue. 
Moreover, conformably to the Council of Trent, it would 
have been easy in the space of thirty years to have established 
some seminary to train for the priesthood those admirable 
children whom we have seen become the apostles of their 
&milies, and whom we shall behold running to martyrdom 
as to a festal holiday." Indeed it appears from a speech of 
some Japanese ambassadors sent to Rome, that such was 
the project and desire of the great pontiff Gregory XIIl., 
as they even speak of them as being already founded. We 
can, however, discover no trace of any seminary actually 
existing, eicept some of a secular character for the nobles. 
A small number of Japanese priests were ordained previous 
to the ruinous persecution which extirpated the miSBionarv 
&thei8, and fora time preserved the last sparks of the &ith 
in silence and in shade ; but this native clergy, having no 
bishops, were unable lo perpetuote themselves b^ fresh ordi- 
nations, and the veterans of the priesthood died without 

The ■ 
for- ■ 


In the year 1709, an Italian priest. Dr. Sidotti, landed 
from Manilla on tlie Japanese coast, made many proselytes, 
and Bulfered a cruel death after a lingering imprisonment- 
Other heroic missionaries, possibly Spaniards from the Phi- 
lippines, may have trod the same glorious path, and sought 
the crown of upostleship without any other witness than 
Qod and His angels. Be this as it may, it is asserted by 
Coreans who frequent the seas of Japan, that a tradition of 
Hie faith is still sacredly preserved among the people like a 



treasure hidden away iu the secret reccesea of the luid. 
May the prayers of these forlorn sheep arise to the Great 
Pastor of souls, and mingle with the interceesory voices of 
JapBu's CDuatleES martyrs, and the devoted sous of St. Igna- 
tiuB, who by word and example taught them to die for ths 
faith 1 What may not be hoped for a land which possesses 
tho deaceudnnta of io many heroes of the Cross, whose blood 
must plead so powerfully before the throne of mercy for 
their unhappy cotiutt7 1 

Hitherto there has been no ohange in the religious 
condition of Japan ; tho laws excluding straugere ore still 
rigorously enforced. But circumstances have lately arisen 
which seem to evince a. disposition on the part of the Jar 
panese to lay aside their contempt for Europe. Their 
princes are said to learu the Dutch language, and to seek 
information respecting our sciences and arts. Perhaps this 
same curiosity may lead them to become acquainted with 
that religion which lies at the foundation of European 
civiliBation. Nor will this conjecture appear improbahle, 
when we are told, that in 1820 certain Japanese repaired to 
Batavia for the purpose of purchasing uooks of Catholic 
theology and devotion. But anyhow, the inhospitable ex- 
olusivenesaofthis great nation cannot prevent its fishermen 
&om holding communication with the adjacent coasts; 
and Christianity, conveyed to Rome by a fisherman, may 
surely not despair of re-entering Nangasaki and Miako. 

There are two modes of access open ; one from the 
coast of Corea, that land which has beeu so recently hal- 
lowed by the blood of such glorious martyrs, and whose 
catechista may ere long convey the priests of Holy Church 
to the shores of Japan. The other is from the islands of 
Loo-Choo, adjoining and tributary to Japan, to which out 
have already pushed forward their outposts : once 

and yet neither by the skill of his jurists nor by tl 
of his legions was able to uproot the Cross from oi 
province of the empire, the faithful will be long ere tl 
suppose that what Roman tyrants failed to effect has h 
accomplished by the Dairi of Japan. And what hopes ni 
not be entertained of a nation in which the Ohri-^' — — 
gion shall appeal*, not as a strange and alien r 
the hereditary faith of a people whose fathers a 

Tbb luBtory of the nuBsiouB of the Jesuits in FRragutty 
offers to UB another of thoM wihjecta of mingled ivj aud 
sorrow with which the annals of the Church abound. If it 
is Bweet to cotitempkte the woU-nigh paradiEe upon eurth 
which, even upon FroteBtant testimony, the Jesuit Fathers 
created in the wilds of South America, in the faoe of the 
bitter opposition which the avarice and jealousy of their 
countrymen were continually throwing in their way during 
the century and a half of their apostolic labours among 
the Indians, sad indeed is it at last to wltuesa the triumph 
of the evil paasious of men calling themselves Catholics, 
in tho expulsioa of those holy religioua who were the 
guardian-angels of the poor savages of Paraguay. 

If any proof were required of the incalculable benefits 
which, even as respects their temporal prosperity, the Je- 
niitfl conferred on the native races whion they took under 
their protection and fostering care, it may he read in the 
fact, tnat the flourishing settlements which they founded 
dwindled away when the good influences which had nur- 
tured them were vrithdravra. The tract of country occu- 
pied by their missions was fertile and populous under their 
sway in the middle of tho last century ; the principal re- 
dnctionB containiug each 30,000 souls, the smallest SilOO 
or 6000 ; whereas before the year 1825, the whole Indian 
population of those regions had been reduced to a few 
thousand inhahitaiits. Nevertheless it is asserted, " that 
ao part of the interior of South America has so large a. poi^ 
(ion of the soil under cultivation as Paraguay. The abori- 
ffae», too, owing to the unremitting care of the Jesuits for 
a, period (tt eighty years, have almost entirely adopted the 
sgrioulture and the arts of Europe, as far as they are fit for 
a nation inhabiting a country different in climate and other 
natural features."? If such be the results of the Jesuit 
rule, when hut the wreck of what it effected remains, 
what might not by this time have been the state of the 
Indian Christian popuhitiou of the interior ofSouth America 1 
Incalculable is the loes to the unhappy aborigines, and to 

Irioa herself. Paraguay foiiued a nucleus of civilisation, 
Muuds of which were continually widening as long as 
AnnaU of tha Fropytatioo of tho Faith, vol. I. £. 216, Sfl, 
CjolopiOdia of the Socii - ■ 
, — artiolo " Pnmeuay." 


r good worlc tj^| 
ierce and ">vil^^| 

the Jesuits were Buffered to prosecute their g 
the conversjun and humaniaation of fresh fierce a 

It baa been sometimes made matter, if not of ri 
at least of detraction from the praiao awarded on all bands 
to the Jeauita in Paraguay, tliat, altliougii they preserved 
their neophytes in iuuoceucy and peace while they abode 
among them, yet that they kept them, like children, in 
leading-BtringB, and consequently failed to communicate to 
them that manly strengtli of character and capability of 
self-guidance and self-government which might have ens- 
bled them to stand alone when their first teachers and go- 
vernors were withdrawn. Thus tbe veir circumstance we 
have alleged in testimony of the beneficid influence exerted 
b^ the Jesuits, is adduced as a proof of some radical defi- 
aenoy in their system. We think, however, that such oea- 
sure baa been espressed without due consideration of the 
character of the savage races with whom they had to deal. 
Let us hear the Protestant historian Siamoudi : " In Ame- 
rica they (tlie Jesuits) had succeeded in persuading savage 
tribes, who before roamed at large through the forests, to 
adopt a fixed habitation. They had taught them, along 
with tbe first elements of religion, the first acts of civil life ; 
they had induced them to build lilhtges and churches, to 
cultivate fields, and to acquire property. The mis- 
sionaries had solved that exceedjugly difficult problem, in 
which Europeans have ever since invariably failed, to make 
savages adopt a civilised life. Our accumulated experience 
ought to be continually increasing our admiration for the 
success of the Jesuits. They employed only kindness, 
charity, and a paternally providential care; others have 
desired to educate savages by instruction, emulation, com- 
merce, industry; and they have communicated to them tbe 
passions of civilised nations before the reason which could 
control and the discipline which could restrain them. 
Throughout the whole world the contact of European nar 
tions — Engiish, jtutch, French — ^with savages has caused 
them to melt away like wax before a blazing fire. In the 
American missions, on the contrary, the red race multiplied 
rapidly under the direction of the Jesuits. Their Indians — 
so it has b^en said — were only big children. Grant it ; after 
their expulsiou, tbe Spaniards, Portuguese, English, and 
French have made libera of them."" 

• Hiatoire di 


That the Indians were but great children we have u 
iBpoeition to deiij' ; but was it pueaible, in the first instance, 
o make aiiy thing else of them I It must he renieiubered, 
that the red men of the foreata of Pamguaj wore uit, like 
the Japanese, pngana only and barbarians, as compared to 
Europeans, hut they were tavaget. Between the state of the 
savage and the mere barhnrian the difference is immense. 
The diapOHition of the savage, in its most favourable speci- 
mens, exhibits most of the characteristics of childhood; nor 
did the Guarani and his kindred tribes form any exception 
to the nJe. Thej had much of the quickness and aptitude 
of children — the retentive memories, the impressible imagi- 
nations, the pliable faculties ; they had also the docility, 
Blicity, and confiding faith. Such, at least, were the 
qualitiea which religious training and kindness deve- 
_ 1 in the soil of their hearts ; £r in their wild and 
pAgan state the characteristics of the furious beast overlaid 
those of the artless child. Now we have eeen hy the con- 
fession of the Protestant SLsmondi — and his assertioD is 
fuMy borne out by history — that it is impossible to make 
the savage leap the intellectual and moral space which 
Mparates tdm A'om the civilised mau ; hrought into rude 
contact with him, he acquires from Itim oidy nis vices and 
ft more deadly instrnment of warfare. He obtains his g'ln- 
powder and his brandy : he adds drunkenness to ferocity. 
Wlut more ! He perishes away before the white man, even 
* « the latter does not rmse his hand to help on his de- 

Cleitr^ the education of the savage is a difficult, a deli- 
mte, ana a lengthened task : it is not the work of a day, 
nor a year, nor even of a generation ; and if the Jesuits, 
who had effected so much, had not as yet effected more, is 
tiie blame to he laid upon them) Bather, is it not to be 
nttribated to those who arrested a process, hitherto so suo- 
* 1, midway in its coarse ? Is it not much more bir to 



nq)pose that they who, enlightened by that true wisdom 
rad penetration which diviiie grace, and the discipline 
holy life, alone confer, had so well understood the hi 

heart, in the degraded condition of savage life, 
liiem to take the lirst and most difficult steps '. 
of (nviliaation, would have also heen fully equal to their 
talk as time went on, and have adopted whatever modifica- 
tions had been needed to raise the Indian, socially and 
intellectually, to the level of hia European brethren ? 
The dgnal failure which has accompanied all attempts to 


force oiviliBation, wholesale ond fuU-grown, as it were, upon 
the eavage, is a corroboration of the wiadom of the courae 
thef adopted with such brilliant results— results to which 
alone can, in their measure, be compared those which their 
brethren achieved in California ; a work, unhappily, cut 
short lite that of Paraguay in the full tide of its succesa, 
and ere the world coula see the perfect ripening of the fruit 
which these matchtess hnsbandmen, and their worthy suc- 
ceseora, the sons of St. Francis and St. Dominic, had reared 
in the desert, which was already blossoming like a rose 
uuder their cultivation and care. 

E. H. T. 






Deaertption of Jnpau; its climate, producliona, rorm otgoyera- 
meat. Maanora and ciutomi of the poojila, and Uiair reli- 
giua. F. Fmnois Xavier la sausht at Malacca by one of the 

»iiatiTeB ; two JaanlC FaChcrB go lo Eangoiiina ; their roixp- 
tioa ; gu OD to Minko, tlie capital ; but pnsendj ratum to 
Atnanguohi. Ttie work of conieraioii begins. F. Fraacia 
te invited to Bongo ; Buccese with the king, luid in Bontro- 
Tenj with bonEea; ia recalled to India. Other Miaaianariefl 
, aant in his place. Two bonicB cOQvertod in Boogo. Ra- 

markabla oonstaiic? of children. The Crst martyr of ths 
Japanese Church, a ranmlo aJavD in FLnindo. Tiie Miamon- 
re-aaaeoiUe in the Idngilom of Bongo .... 

j^ boniea of Frenoianm. Father Villela's Toyoge to Miako. 

It Baccaf. The Eiunbo'a lev^e. Nubunonga restores the 
L Kumbo'a &mil; at Miako, and destroys the bonus of Fre- 
r DOiuna ; oonspiruuy againat him defeated ; his magnificent 

nt; hia favourable diaiioaitioQ towards ClirisCiaDit; ! 

is castle of Ekandouo. Sumitamlo, king of Omum ; his seal 
'■ tempered with discretion. Father Turres goes to VooDiiuya, 
and aattloB there. Convarsion ot eiimitando and thh-ty 
noblea. Conspiracy against him defeated. Jeauits settled 
at NangBBati. Conversion of the king of Arima. Christi- 
Biutj introduced into Goto. The king's Eon converted . I 




appointed I 

Doitha of Father* TorrM and Villolft. FothiirCabral appointed 
Suporior of the Misdooa. In Omiini Chiiidtmity in fomullj 
reooffoiwd as tho raligion of the State. ConTeimm of the 
■aoond son and the nephew of tho King of Bongo. The 
Qiieen threaten* to murdar the Fathers. Conseraion of the 
King, who abdicates in favour of bia son. CoQver^on of the 
Kia^ of ArimB. An ombnaay to the Pope i* dotemuDed 

Two Japanese prmoes and two noblaa start with Father Valignan 
fbr Roma. Their arrival at Gob, at LiaboD, at Madrid, and 
finally at Rome. Their reception by the Pope. Their return 
to Japan. Important changes during their abfienoe. Deatb 
of NobnnaiigB. Hia auoceflaor begin* to persecute the Chris- 
tiaaa. Death of King Francis and King Bartholomew. Eiila 
of Juato Uoondono. Decree for the bonlshmanl of the Je- 

Cambacondana seod* an expedition to Corea to rid hinuelf of 
hla Christian subjects. Rscal of Juato Uoondono. Death of 
CoQstantine. Arrival of Frnnciflcau miadonarieB. Their im- 
prudont conduct. The lirst bishop of Japan arrives. Mar- 
tyrdom of Franciacan fithera, three Jesiiita, and two childreQ 
at Kasgasalri. Death of Cambacundono, Execution of 
Auguitme, and of the Queea of Tango 


PoTBecution of the Church in tie kingdom of Figo. Charily of 

the Bishop and Jesuit Fathera. Martyrdom of Japanese 

nohlaa, with their wives and fiuniliea. Pereeonljon in Firando 

and Arimo. Heroie martyrdoms of ohildrea and others . 1 



othen baaiahsd from Miolui. Eiile aoil dsUh of JiiaU 
UoDndono. Mora fierce uid luuvemtl poneDUlian. PurUuii- 
^tho flufibiingB of tho mortyrfl at Coohiuflt^u, Nougii- 

aSeriagt of the clergy. Diminution of thoir nambar, a 
conBeqoentl; of the Chmtioiu genemllj. Martyrdom 
FaUiera Pnul, Angelis, and othen ; iKune at the stake, othi 
in freezing water, and others by unheard-of tonurea. T 
BulpbnrouB watora of Cngea. Death of the Xogunu. I 
is Buooeoded by a atil! mors cruel tyrant. Troaehery of t 
Dutch. Portuguese morchanta forbidden (o laod ; mure 
of Fortogueao ambaaaadorB. l^et effort of Jeault nuBEdf 
ariea, who are all martyred. Final extinction of Chriatiimii 
Preieiit atata of Japan 


Desaription of Japan ; its climate, prodiictlonB, 
' of (^ovemmeal. Maiiucn oud oustoms of tbs | 
people, and thei; religion. F. Fmacia Savier ii 
Bought at Malacca by one of the nadies ; two 
Jesuit Putherm ^ to Kangoxlma ; their roception ; 
^ on to Uiako, the capital ; but preaeatly return 

F. Fmncis is invited to Bongo ; Bucceu witl 
Hag, and in oontrorerBj with bonnes ; is rocoiUed to India. 
Other Miuionoriea sent in Ma place. Two boDies converted in 
Bongo- RenuLrkable conHtancy of children. The Qrat martyr 
of the Japaaeas Church, a female dave in Firando. The Mit- 
Bonarios re-aaaomblB in the kingdom of Bongo. 

mllE kingvlom of Japan, situated on the 

most eastern part or the coast of Asia, is 

I composed of many islands, said to have 

been discovered hj Femaiidez Pinto and 

las companions in 1542, though various , 

other navigatflrs of that adventiirous period 

likewise lay claim to the discovery as tlitiir 

own. These islands are described aa very 

s rugged, interspersed with tarren tracts, 

^ deep raileys, and lofty mountains, many of 

^ which are covered with snow all the year 

f round. The climate varies from excessive 

^lieat in stunmer to as intense a cold in winter. Some 

[pf the mountains are volcanic, and mineral springs ana 

ibuudant; those of Ungen, of which such feariul use 

was maae m times of persecution, being of the twnw 
rature of boiling water. Japan likevrise possesses gold 
silver, and copper mines, with abundance of coal, brim^ 
Btone, and naphtha. 

The country is divided into siity or seventy email 

states, gove 

n their turn, are subject 

to the double authority of the Dairi and Kumbo-Sama ; 
the first being at the head of the spiritual, the second 
of the temporal sovereignty of Japan. For many hun- 
dred years the former united both these offices in his 
own person; but in 1585 one of his generals forcibly 
divided them with him, taking to himself the more 
tengible authority comprised in the dignity of Kumbo, 
while he let% to ius late chief just so much of its shadow 
as a spiritual supremacy imder such circumstances migl ' 
be supposed to contain. From that time the Dairi di 
been practically a cipher in his own 
dwells, indeed, in a magnificent pali 
roimded by such homage and reverence as might 
offered to a god ; but the actual power is exercised by 
the Kumbo, who makes and immokes the kings of the 
various petty states at his pleasure ; for though their 
office seems to be partly hereditary, yet since they are 
accountable to him for all their actions, he can always 
either transfer them to another kingdom, or deprive 
them of royalty altogether. Death, however, is ''' 
more usual pnaisbment inflicted on them for any 
conduct, whether real or imaginary, of which they hai 
been guilty. The Kumbo has only to sign the ord 
■for the execiition, and the culprit considei-s it a poi 
of bono™-, not only to submit without a murmur, ' 
to escape the hands of the headsman by inflicting^ 
sentence on himself. As soon as he receives it f 
the officer appointed to superintend its execution, 
invites all his fi^e^ds and acquaintances to a feast, after 
which he makes a farewell speech, draws his sword, 
and inflicts a first wound upon himself, — the deed being 
generally completed by a fevourite relative or confi- 
dential servant This mode of death is considered so 

honourable, and therefore eo desirable, that the very 
children B.fe instructed to use their weapons gracefullv 
for the jiiupose; and the habit ot'euieide thus induct 
was probably one of the severest temptatione of the 
Christian martyrs, wlio even while exercising!; that 
highest degree of courage which consists in passive 
^endurance, were yet often taunted with cowaniice for 
It shortening their sufi'erings by a voluntajy death. 

As a nation, the Japanese resemble the (Jliine^e, not 
' ■ 1 fece and figure, but likewise in many of their 
IB and traditions. They are said to be intelligent, 
I'ln^Te, and honeat; but, on tlie other hand, they are 
FiWood, cruel, vindictive, and luxurious, — covetous of 
r flonoura and of wealth, and intolerant of poverty, which 
bein^ considered as & punishment inilicted by tlie gods, 
always presupposes crime in him who endures it. Poly- 
gamy is permitted and practised to a great extent : me 
women are frequently bought, and may at any time be 
returned after marriage; an occurrence which neither 
entails disgrace on the one parly, nor is considered sin 
in the other. In religious opinions they were divided, 
at the time to which our history belongs, into seveml 
ts ; one of which believed in the existence of a Su- 
me Being' ruling over innumerable inferior deities, 
iwards whom, as his deputies in the affairs of men, 
I worship was more especially directed. The up- 
olders of this opinion professed likewise the immortal- 
r of the soul, and the fact of reward and punishment 
Mr death ; dogmas most emphatically denied by the 
' opposite party, which consisted chiefly of the great men 
about court, to whom the idea of future retribution 
might probably be any thing hut agreeable. The 
priests, however, of all uiese various sects were called 
mdiscriminately bonzes. These men hved in commu- 
nities, and affected great apparent sanctity of life ; but 
in private they yielded to every species of debauchery 
and excess, — a fact amply attested bv the confessions of 
leh of their number as embraced Christianity, and 
U known even to the heathens themselves, n-ho yet 




submitted to their extortions ^Qtu & Buperstitions belidl 
■■.heir influence with the gods. 

Tliis short sketch of the behef and practice of thffJ 
Japanese will suffice to show how repugnant to all the' 
preconceived habits and ideas were the maxim 
Gospel. To men accustomed to look upon suicide a 
heroic couray^e, and to I'eckon riches and pleasures s 
though they were virtues, the poverty, meekness, an 
chastity inculcated by the precepts of Christianit* 
wotdd nave been preacbed in vain without that especiaS 
gift of mission wliicb is the prerogative of the Cathoiioij 
Chui'ch, — the mark by wbieb you may know her amonr 
thousands, acd that which Christ Himself confeiTed 
upon hei in tbose memorable words addi«ssed to her 
first founders : " Go and teach all nations, baptising 
them in the name of the Pother, and of the Son^J 
and of the Holy Ghost." Without this crowning gift^ij 
Xavier himself, for all his zeal, bis eloquence, his pietyj 
and learning, and though bis efforts bad been backeov 
by the treasures of the Indies, must infallibly hava J 
tailed. But with it, poor, unknown, a stranger, and ii^ 
rags, he succeeded in preaching the Cross of Cbriatl 
before the thrones of the most luxurious monarcbs of 
the East ; and the blood-stained annals of the Churcb 
which he founded bear witness to the deep conviction, 
the constancy and courage of those who at his bidding 
renounced the pride and luiury and false wisdom of the J 
world, to embrace the folly of the Cross by becoraingl 
the servants of a crucified God. I 

Wonderful are the ways of the Almighty, and in- J 
serutable as wonderful ! The conversion of China, for 
which the Apostle of the Indi?s had so long and so ar- 
dently sighed, was denied to his prayers ; while that of 
Japan, of which apparently he had never even dreamed, 
was given to him unasked. China was the object of 
all his wishes and aspirations, — the promised land of his 
spiritual ambition. It was in bis di-eams by night and 
luB thoughts by day, — the subject alike ofnis penance « 
and his prayers; when a young Japanese, tormented b 

e of cnnscionco for a crime committod venrs ago, 

rgottm prohably by every body but hunsolf, ar- 

,t Malflcoa, wbcre the Saint tben was, and f.brow- 

ing- himself at hia feet, besouglit of lum tbtit peace and 

erdon which bis native bonzes had been unable to 
stow. The great heart of Francis esiilteil at the 
1 pijspect of winninjr another empire to the linnuer of his 
I Divine Lord ; while his vivid iaith saw in tlie sluiier who 
I had thiia sought him Irnm afar a direct amhussador 
t from Heaven, which had doubtless piirsuei! this youth 
with the fear of retribution, not for nis sake alone, but 
also to effect the conversion of the idolatrous nation 
represented in bis person. 

Frequent conversation with Aneer, — for Mucli was the 
me of the Japanese, — only conbrrned bim in this first 
injon. The deep feeling, the tender piety, and above 
I, the earnest pleadings of this poor heatlien in favour 
f his countrymen, that they also might be enlightened 
by the gift of faith, were arguments which the aeal of 
Francis could not resist : hut be bad to contend with 
innumerable obstacles before he coidd put bis prmect 
into execution; and it was not until two years after- 
wards, that, on the Feast of the Assumption (1549), be 
and his chosen companion, Father Cosmas de Torres, 
landed at Eangoxima, the birthplace of Anger, who, 
under his new name of Paul de St. Foi, accompanied 
the lathers as their guide and interpreter to the nations 
of Japan. 

By a singular arrangement of Divine Providence, 
. ress of weanier had compelled the captain to put in 
tothiB port, — the only one in the whole Idngdom where 
Siey could have hoped for a favourable reception ; and 
jbere their first success was more than enoug'b to con- 
firm their most sanguine expectations. Not many 
hours elapsed before the Japanese convert was sent for 
to the palace, and questioned concerning the etrans^ers 

Ivhom ne had not only br .ught to the city, but lodged 
!b his own house. Paul was in the first fervonr of his 
^inversion, and be answered by a vivid explanation of 


of Japa 

^^Btress c 

^^U this I 
^^Hbey CO 

^^Tjere tbi 

the mysteries of the Christian faith, winding; up hia ac- 
count of the Incarnation by eiMbitins; a picture of tha 
Blessed Mother and her Divine Child, which he had 
broug'ht with him from the Indies. Both the earnest 
manner of the convert and the miracles which he an- 
nounced, hod already touched them witti awe und woader; 
but when they looked upon this picture, which was to 
them as the visible illustration of his mysterious wordb 
Buch an untold reverence tilled their hearts, that all 
bowed down before it, — kiu^ and queen and courtly 
heathens involuntarily doing it homag;e on their Itnees. 

Then they naturally desired to kuow more of tha 
strangle honzes, Irom whom he had heard of these 
wonders ; and the best part of the following' night 
was spent by Francis at the palace, explaimng' the 
articles of the faith. Both the king and queen listened 
to liiin with deUffht; they were never weary ofespresa- 
ing their astonishment at the charity which nad hrongbt 
him so fai' for their salvation; and the peiTnission he 
craved for the fi'ee preaching of the Gospel was readily 
gjanted. Paul had already converted his mothei-, wife. 
and children ; but after these, the first person baptised 
by Fi'ancis was a poor man, who, under tha name of J 
Bernard, soon became illustrious by his virtues; as if I 
God wished to confound the pride and mammon-wfflv I 
ship of the Japanese, by takmg His first-fi'uits froial 
that very class which they most hated and despised. M 
Other converts speedily began to flock to the standard'! 
of the cross ; hut the bonzes had already taken thsa 
alarm. A religion which preached poverty as ^fl 
noblest possession, and chnsti^ as the highest virtue oH 
the human heart, would soon, if suffered to Bucceei^H 
have ruined their credit and retrenched their revenueajB 
ao they raised such a storm at court against it, thtt^ 
Francis was lain to shake the dust ti-om off bis feet, and^ 
to seek a less imgratefiil soil wherem to eow tha seed J 
of the Divine Word, J 

Leaving the little handful of Christians alreadjM 
made under the guidance of Paul, he and Father Torre^f 

IV Lai 


with liis poor convert Bernard, took the way to Firando. 
His heart was yearning- towards Sliako, tlie ca]iit(il of 
the whole empire, and the resort of aU t.lie great and 
learned of the nation. This, he thought, would be the 
best point from wbenoe to difiuse the Qospcl through- 
out the various cities and kingdoms subject to its con- 
trol. Hither therefore he dii'ected his steps, in the 
depth of winter, without guide or money, ill-clad, and 
vith only a httle parched rice, which the faithM Ber- 
lurd carried in the wide sleeve of his oriental garment, 
** his means of subsistence on the road. 

Mountains were scaled, rivers forded, and forests 
iversed, with the indomitable resoluttoa which was 
especially the characteristic of the Saint. Shelter 
every where denied them by the inhospitable Ja- 
se ; and they often lost their way amid the pathless 
Ids through which they were compelled to wander, 
ince, when they were completely entang^led in a wood, 
they were overtaken by a horseman, who agreed to 
conduct them thi'ough it, on condidon that Francis 
^ould carry the box which contained his luggage. 
Bnch an offer suited too well the humility of the Samt 
to be rejected, and he joyfiiHy followed hia guide, who 
trotted on through thorn and thicket at a rapid pace, 
rejgardless of, or perhaps even rejoicing in, the sufferings 
ofhis victim. The livelong day was spent in this un- 
natural exertion ; and when towai'ds evening his com- 
panions came up to the place whei'e the horseman had 
finally left the Father, they found bim lying on the 
' ~ innd, his legs so swollen and his feet so cruelly cut 
.J bruised, that they were obliged to rest for several 
lys before they could continue their journey. 
Miako was gained at last, with its stately streets 
regularly crossing each other at right angles, its six 
hundred thousand inhabitants, and its live hundred 
temples dedicated to the worship of the idols; — a great 
'ftnd populous city, seated in a spacious plain, sheltered 
"- id Wf-surrounded by an amjjhitheatre of hills. The 
ipital of a mighty empire, it was the centi'e ahke of 


religion, of learning, and of commerce, in Jupnn. 
palace of the Dairi fonned & kind of academy for tl 
cultivation of science and the fine arts; and the c 
itself was famed for its manufactures of silk and porce- 
lain, for its highlj-refioed copper, well-tempered st«el, 
and its works in e^Id and silver; wbile every coin 
in circulation throughout the Archipelago was stnick 
at the imperial mintage of Miako. To win such a 
city to the empire of Jesus Christ would have been 
tnily an achievement worthy of Fi-ancis; and yet 
his first reception in it might hardly have seemed to 
hold out any hope of reward for the perils he hod en- 
coimtered in its oehalf. Rehuffs, however, for tiie sttke 
of Christ, are not merely precious for His love's sake 
in the eyes of His saints, but ore likewise coveted by 
tiiem as an earnest of fiiture success in every enterprise 
nndertaken for His g;!ory; and of these Francis drank 
freely in the city of the Dairi. On the road hither he 
bad been twice nearly stoned to death by the idolaters, m 
against whose superstitions he had inveighed ; but her^J 
he was met by that cold contempt, which is harder t^| 
bear than open violence to the loving heart. His povertyj 
precluded him front an audience either with the Dair^ 
or the Kumbo ; neither rich nor poor would listen to higfl 
sermons; and it was all in vain tliat, with indelatigabl^l 
perseverance, be wandered up and down the city, andfl 
through the towns and villages beyond its suburba, J 
preaohing and catechising from morning until nigb^J 
and crying out, in the excess of his tenderness andlove,il 
" Deos, Deos, Deos !"' nntil the very children learned I 
the word, and used to hoot it after liim in deiision as J 
he imssed. 

Fourteen days were thus spent at Miako ; on the 
fifteenth be turned his back upon the haugbty city, 

* Francia always expressed Hmseif by the Porlnguese word 
Deos; fearing that if he employed any nf tbuse in common ' 
nae among the Japanese, they mighl; confoiuid Che idea of the 4 
Divioitv with that of their Eanii and Chadatsehi, the idols to ■ 
which Uisy were gonerallj applied. I 



and passed on tw Auinnpiclii, a town not far distant, 
and tftking its name from the kingdom over which it 
pi-esidod. Misti-ess of some of tiie most productive 
silver mines tlien known io the world, and with the re- 
putntion of being the richest and most dissolute city in 
Japan, the Saint had vainly preached to its inhabitants 
on bis way to Miako ; vet now, on his return, he had 
better success. The Portuguese merchants (who, to 
their honom- he it recorded, were ever the most generous 
and zealous promoters of every effoi't to christianise 
Japan,) pii)cui'ed him an audience with the kin^^ ; and 
he, whether fi-om feelings of admiration, or in order to 
put his OTiest's disintere8te<laesa to the test, offered the 
Saint a lai-M sum of money. Fi-ancis refiised it; and 
on being asked what tite king could offer that woidd be 
move acceptable to him, "Nothing," he answered, "ex- 
cept leave to preach the true Gon in your dominions." 

Charmed with an integritv to which he could find 
no paniUet among; the native honzes, the king not only 
{sranted this request, but likewise gave a place of resi- 
dence to himself and his companions, witn a piece of 
land for the erection of a church. Still the work of 
conversion did not progress. Coiuily favour might 
give leave for the sowing of the seed, it could not foi-ce 
it to take root and blossom ; and though men flocked 
) Francis by night and day, and though they filled 
3 in which he lived, and followed hitn through 
ts, and crowded round him and his companions 
,_Bver they preached in public, yet it was evident 
; they wei-e pi-ompted more "by curiosity than 
Jtion. The fathers were continually hai-assed by 
itiona that were pi-oposed solely with a view to 
t or peiplei them, and not accompanied by any 
for moi-e seiioiis instmetion ; imtil at length that 
, ) of heart, which neither the smiles of the king 
« eloquence of Xavier had been able to accomplish, 
ffecteri by the grace of God I'ewaitling- an act of 
C Immility on the pai't of one of the eompiinions of 
■"-7, a brother of the Sooietyof Jesus, of t!ie name 

10 JAPAN. 

of Fernandez. Thig holy man was preachinji; in one of 
the most frequented [iwta of the city, when a. person in 
the crowd spat derisively in his face. The s]jectatore 
were JndigTiant aX this wanton bi'utnlity; but Feraandez 
himself merely took out his handkerchief, wiped hia 
face, and tliea, without betraying- the slightest emotion, 
proceeded with hia sennon. "it was but the fofbearaoce 
of a moment; yet it proved to be the genu fi'om wlieuce 
numberless conversions were aft«iwai-(is to eprinp;. A 
nobleman, who happened to be present, Bought I^-oncia 
on the spot, declanng that a religion which inspired 
such patience under injury could only have been taught 
by heaven. Many others followed his example; and in 
the course of the ensuing year no fewer than three 
thousand of the natives were instiiicted and received 
baptism at the hands of the Saint. 

By tliis time, the king of Bongo, who was destined 
hereafter to play so considerable a part in the history of 
the Church of Japan, had heard of the stranger bonze 
whom Portuguese ships liad bi-ought to his shores ; and 
being anxious to know sometliing more necm-ately about 
the wonderftd religion he had come so far to announce, 
sent him a pressing invitation to the capital of his king- 
dom. Nothing couid have been more acceptable to the 
zeal of Francis, ever on tii* to caiTy farther and fax- 
ther still the standai-d of his Lord : he left Fathei" Cos- 
mas de Torres to supply his place at AmangTichi, took 
a tender leave of the new Christians there, and set out 
for Funay, the capital of Bongo, conynig a marble 
altar-stone, a chalice, and other mticles tor the cele- 
bration of Mass, in a knapsack on his shouldei-8. The 
Portuguese mei-cliants who resided in tlie city received 
him with i-oyal honom-s ; and as soon as the king heard 
the gtms which they fired to snlute him, he despatched 
a second letter of invitation, of which the followmg is a 
poi'tion : 

" Father bonze of Chinchicogin (the Japanese word 
for Portugal), may your happy an'ival in my estst-e 
be as pleasing to your God as are the praises of 

liis Saints. Gfod Lath not made ine worthy to com- 
mand you ; 90 I only earnestly reniiBBt you to come 
before the rising oi tlie sun. Meantime, prostrate 
before your God, whom I acknowledge for the God of 
all gods, I beg' Him to make known to the baug'hty of 
the world Low much your poor and holy life is pleasing 
to Him, to the end tnat the children of the flesh may 
no longer be deceiyed by the false promises of the 
earth. Send me news of your health, tliat joy may 
give me a good aiglit's repose, ontil the cocks awaken 
me with the welcome news of tout visit." 

This curious epistle, which, with all its eastern 
strangeness of phraseology and flattery, contains so 
much of Christian truth, that it suggests itself to us as 
an inspiration from above, was carried by a prince of 
the blood royal, with thirty lords in his train. 

They were conducted on hoard the ship where 
Francis was now staying; and when they beheld the 
homage which every one paid to him, they could not 
reeist the conclusion, " that the God of the Portu- 
guese must needs be great indeed, since this bonze, 
pool' though he was, coidd yet command the respect of 
the wealthiest of his nation." After these envoys had 
performed their commisBion and departed, the Portu- 
gese besought Francis to allow of^ their accompany- 
mg him witii due honom-s to the palace ; ui^ing me 
necessity both of showing this proud people the reverence 
Christians ever felt for their priests, and also of con- 
founding the bonzes, who hna every where described 
him as a miserable wretch, clothed in rags, and covered 
with vermin. Xavier was most unwilling to part even 
with the externals of his beloved poverty, but at length 
humbly yielded his own opinions to their veiy strong 
desire; and the next morning they set out in grand 
procession from the ship, the boat which brought tliem 
feeing lined with the fairest China tajwatry, and a hand of 
music playing until they reached the shore. They were 
met at the landing by a deputation fi-om the king; but 
Francis refused the litter which had been provided for 

19 JAPAN. 

hLs acconnnodfltion, and they al! went on foot t 
palace; the cnjitain of the sliip WTillring; bare-h( 
Wore him, and five Portugese following. One I 
these horo a boot (the catechism) in a white satin bag, 
another, a fair picture (ns the old chronicler calls it) ^'^ 
our Lady, wrapt up in red dnmask ; a third, the priMf a 
Elippers; a. foiirth, his cone; and the last a ma^iiicent 

Earflsol, snch as in Japan is used only fbr persons of the 
igiiest distinction. 

In this order they proceeded through the city; and 
being met at the palace-gates by the captain of the 
king s guard at the head of five hundred men, were 
conducted into a large hall, filled with Japanese nobles 
in their richest dresses. Here a little childj who had 
been appointed txt the office, being led forward by 
a venerable old man, saluted Francis, and bade him 
welcome to the kingdom ; after which he led him to 
another apaitment, tfi receive a similar compliment from 
the young sons of the nobility ; and from thence, by a 
ten-ace made beautiiiil and migrant by the bloom of 
its orange-trees, to a gallery bung witli tapestry and 
curious paintings, where the highest nobles of the land 
were in waiting to receive him. Two steps more, and 
he was in the presence of the king. Xavier instantly 
prostrated ; but, to the astonishment of aU spectators, 
the king himself bowed down before him, and then 
raising him up, made him sit beside him. Before the 
interview was concbided, Francis was invited to dm*fl 
with his majesty; and strange indeed it must have beee 
in a country where etiquette is so jealously preserved 
to see this poor stranffer seated at the king's awn tabk 
while the native nobles and the wealthier Portugues 
remained in the royal presence, according to c 
humbly on their knees. 

From that day he became a frequent visitor at th&'~] 
palace; for the king, admiring the vii-tnes which ha 
preached while he practised, and practised while he 
preached, delighted in his presence and holy conver- 
sation. Here, however, as at Kangosima, lie bonze?- , 

JAPAN. 13 

. speedily roused to a sense of the danger tlireaten- 
their institutions. At first tliey tried to uivokea 
perstitious teiToi's of tbe king; but titidiog' tbat 
he only laug'hed at their proffnostications of evil, they 
shut up ail the temples of the godis, and excited tlie 
people to rise ag'ainst the Portuguese, whom tliey 
taug'ht them to consider as the cause of this necessuiy 
precaution. The latter, alarmed for their personal 
safety, took refiiffe on hoard their ship; but Francis 
positively refused to follow their example. Nothing 
«ould induce this taithM shepherd to abandon the flook 
rliich he had so recently gathwed into tbe fold of hia 
; so tbe ship put on to sea without him ; but the 
panic was no sooner over than they were seized 
with remorse at having left him in such imminent yerU, 
and the capt^ returned alone to seek him on shore. 
There, indeed, he found him, in a poor hut, surrounded 
by all his faithful Christians, who were well content 
to die, provided they mi^ht do so in the very arms as 
it were of their spiritual father; but to all the well- 
mennt exhortations of the Poi-tugTiese, Xavier only 
answered, "God forbid I should abandon the flock 
which He has ^ven to iny care. You hesitate to leave 
me, thinking; yourself hound to save your passenffers at 
all risks; and shall I he less careful for souls redeemed 
bj the precious blood of Jesus Christ? or what re- 
froaches may I not expect from Him, if I forsake them 
'" a moment when they are in danger of losing their 
'ea, and yet woi-se, their faith 1 You say you love 
and I believe you; yet you almost seem to contra- 
dict your words wnen you try to i-ob me of tbe mar- 
tyi-'s crown, which I have come from the farthest 
ends of the earth to seek." The Father lifted his eyes 
to heaven, and pronounced these words with so much 
~ itness and devotion, that the other could not 

a firom tears. He returned to the ship, and told 
r they might do as they liked, but for his own 
"J would hve and die with the man of God. 
rae not a man among them but instantly sub- 

■ ""J 

14 JAPAN. 

Bcribed to this resolution. The Bhip put back into hw 
botir; but almost before they could reach the land, the 
kiug; had taken such vif^roua measures with the rioters, 
that peace and order were soon restored. 

Foiled in this attempt, the bonzes nest bad re- 
course to other measures ; they petitioned the king' for 
a public disputation with the stranger on their respec- 
tive religions. It was granted ; and ailer a controversT 
of Ave days, the king declared from his tluvne, witu 
the unanimous consent of the whole assembly, that the 
religion of the Btrana^r bonzes was more conformable 
to truth, reason, and good sense, than that of their 
opponents. These last retired, utteiing a thousand im- 
precations agatnat the prince, who, on his part, utterly 
regardless of their indignation, conducted Xavier, with 
every demonstration of respect and esteem, and amid 
the plaudits of the multitude, hack to his abode. 

The Portuguese were now ready to sail ; and 
Francis, who had received letters requiring his presence 
in the Indies, repaired to the palace to take leave of 
the king. He had often bravely and openly reproved 
that monarch for the wickedness of his piivate hie, and 
now he could not part fi'om him for ever without re- 
newing his protest, and warning him of the danger he in- 
curred by persisting in his vices. He spoke with the fer- 
vent energy of a saint, and with the courage which only 
a saintly spirit would have dared to use in a country 
where life and death were at the bidding of the monai-ch, 
and a word too much or too little might have set the 
seal of martyrdom on his doom. He bade him remem- 
ber, that if he were a king, he was likewise a man ; that 
if his subjects were accountable to him, he also was 
aeeouutable to God, who would judge bim with as 
much, or yet more severity than the meanest of man- 
kind. He asked him what answer he-could give at 
the last day, when he should be reminded that Christ 
had sent Sis ministers to him ftom the farthest ends 
of the earth with overtures of peace, and that he bai ■ 
rejected and scorned the proposition; and, :' 

MPAir. 16 

aion, he besought him, with words of fire flowing from 
the very inmost recesses of his bumiag heart, to listen 
to the voice of his Creator speaking through his lips; 
and instead of stifling the good sentiments with which 
he had been inspired, to ciiange his life at once, and 
become a Christian; adding, that he should die content 
jf he could but hear on his return to the Indies that 
e king of Bon^o had been the first a-owned head in 
pan upon which the baptismal waters of salvatioo 
a been poured. The king was much moved fay this 
Rconrse, which Francis pronounced with great ma- 
"y and devotion, ending it by kissing his majesty's 
d, and humbly thanking him for all ms favours. 
On the SOth March, 1551, he sailed from Bongo, 
to which he never retm'ned; but he was not on that 
account nnmindfiii of the dear converts he had left 
behind him, and almost the last act of his life was the 
despatching a fresh supply of missionaries, with Father 
Balthazar Gago at their head, to the assistance of those 
already labouring in Japan. They arrived about eight 
months after his own departure, and were received oy 
the king with the same kindness he had always shown 
. to Xavier himself; but for the present they made no 
lonff stay in liis dominions, proceeding at once to Aman- 
guciii, where they wei'e ansious to confer with Father 
Torres on the afiairs of their mission. One can con- 
ceive the joy wluch these good fathers ftlt on tketr 
first meeting in the distant land to which tliev had 
come, for no other end than the salvation of souls and 
the glory of God, and with no other earthly hope than 
to see both the one and tlie otJier promoted by their 

The festival of Christmas Ijeing close at hand, they 
resolved to celebrate it with all possible pomp and glad- 
ness, adoraing the chapel as well as they couid, and 
inviting; all their converts to assist at the midnight 
Mass, which was sung by Father Torres. The new 
Christians were chaimed with this most lovely feast, 
the commemoration of God's tenderest gil^ of love to 

18 JAPAK. 

man; and the ni^ht was spent in deep devotion; while 
on the following' day they were all invited to dine with 
the fathers, in token of the [leace and chai'ity which 
reigned among them. Tiie college waa tb-onged on 
the occasion ; Etnd, contrary to all the m^ages of Jivpan, 
the rich and noble not only mixed indiscrimmately with 
their [loorer brethren in the feith, but entering into the 
true spirit of the festival, chose to Louour the poverty 
in which Christ was bom by waiting on them at the 

These Christmas festivities being concluded, the 
iathers seimrated for their several missions, leaving 
Father Torres still at Amanguchi, which bad been as- 
signed to Ids superintendence; but not long after their 
departure, one of the civil wars by which Japan is so 
frequently convulsed broke out in that city : the streets 
ran with the blood of the contendinf^ factions; and the 
converts, fearfiil for the life of their pastor, besought 
him to withdraw. For more than a month he [■esisted 
then- entreaties; yet he could not be unconscious that 
while missionaries wei* bo few in number, the life of 
each one in paiticulor was of inestimable value for the 
success of their nadertakiag ; so at last he consented . 
to retire, on condition of being recalled the mstant that 
peace should be re-establishM in the kingdom. That 
night was spent in hearing the confessions of these fer- 
vent converts ; and the next morning all, men, women, 
and cliildren, accompanied him several leagues out of 
the city, receiving bis blessing in tears of gratitude and 
sorrow before he took his final departure for Bongo. 

It should be mentioned, however, that, previous to 
these events, he had bad the happiness of converting 
two of the bonzes most renowned for learning and 
wisdom in Japan. They had long been in the habit of 
attendmg his public instructions, and had already con- 
CQived an earnest admiration for the religion which be 
preached, when one day beai'ing him mention St. Paul, 
they asked some questions which induced him to give 
them a slight sketch of the conversion and laboui's of 

_ 16 Apostle. Chantieil with the ftccoiint, and no long:ar 
^le to conceiU his conviction, the most celebrated of 
i two bonzes, instantly turnings round to the audi- 
ce, eiolairaedj " Behold, Japanese ! I also am a 
Gbristiait ! and as I have hithw-to imitated a Paul by 
my opposition to Jesus, bo will I follow liim hencefortli 
by preacbine^ to the heathens. And you, my friend,'' 
ok added, turning: to his companion, " come with me ; 
and since together we have disseminated eiror, now 
together let us teach the truth." Even as he was 
speaking, the grace from on high which had been poured 
on his own heart filled to overflowing the breast of his 
companion. Together they knelt before Father Torres, 
imploring baptism, and together they received it in sight 

I of that great multitude ; one being called Paul, and the 
ether Barnabas, in memm-y of the incident which had 
Ifbrts led to their pubHclv declaring themselves Chris- 


Prom that moment it became the dearest object of 
It devotion to emulate the zeal and labours of their 
Linesakes ; more especinlly he who had received the 
ime of Paul sought to copy in himself the hfe of the 
.a.post1e: he fasted most rigoronaly, lay on the bare 
ground with a stone for bis pillow, rose to pray at mid- 
night, and at break of day went ont into the villages 
' preach. In this occupation he possessed an ad- 
itage even over the Jesuit fathei-s who directed his 
iboura ; for he not only preached the feith as elogtiently 
^. s themselves, but having been a bonze, he could like- 
Vise, without fear of contradiction, lay bare the impo- 
sitions of hia former associates. It was probably for 
ttis reason that he was sent with Father Balthazar, in 
the year 1567, to preach before the king of Firando ; 
id among the thousands they converted during this 
isaion was a noble lord, a relative of that monarch, 
'bom the father baptised by the name of Anthony, 
" i wife and son followed his example ; and at a later 

iod all three distinguished themselves by their court _ 
id constancy in maintaining the faith. For the pi'e- 

18 JAPAN. 

sent they employed themselTea with diligent zeal in ita 
propapration. Antbocy was governor of two islands 
near I^wido, where tlie uiissionaries prosecuted tlieir 
labours witli such happy results, that in a short time 
the entire population was converted, and three chui'che^ . 
which wei'e put m the <iharG;e of the most fervent of the 
converts, were erected for tiieir use. To theee voluntary 
Buciistans was also assigTied the religious teaching of the 
children, who, luider their care, soon became as pious 
and well instructed as their eldei*. Nothing, indeed, 
is more wonderful in the history of the Cliui-oE of Japan 
than the courage and devotion every where displayed 
even by the youngest of its children. In the times of 
persecution we shall frequently find them smilinjf amid 
torments which, unsupported by Divine grace, the bravest 
of men would have been unequal to endm-e. Of them 
it may be ti-uly said, that they were indeed prevented 
by the grace of God, receiving the faith as readily as 
they kept it steadily, and being often beftirehand with 
the missionaries themselves in their desire for instruc- 
tion. During this vei-y mission of Firando, a young 
child came to seek baptism of Father Villela (who had 
been sent in the place of the bonse Paul) ; it was pro- 
mised him OQ condition of his learning a portion of the 
Chi'istian doctrine or Catechism. " But, father," he 
answered, smiling, " I know it already." Upon exa- 
mination this was found t« be the case; nor would he 
leave the spot until the father (judging that God alone 
could have breathed such eumestneBS into the heiirt of 
a child) had granted his I'cquest, No sooner had the 
baptismal waters touched his brow than the boy seemed 
changed from an almost iniant into an Apostle, preach- 
ing the faith With such successful eeal in his own home, 
tiaX only a few days afterwai-ds he brought his whole 
femily in triumph to be baptised like himself, j 

tfnfortunately the labours incurred at Firando proved I 
too much for the strength of the couvert^ni Paul (PaBllI 
the bonze, as he was usually called); and feeling his.l 
last end appi-oaching, with the consent of his superion,.! 


^^ sent 

JAPA». 10 

be retraced his st^pa to Bongo, that ho mig^Lt diti in 
the arms of Father Torres, his tinst inatruutor and 
spiritual father in the faith. The good old tnun re- 
ceived him with tears of tenderness and compassion ; 
and having administered to hiTu all the last rites of thu 
Ohurch, he had the consolation of seeing him die in 
sentiments of most fervent devotion, the sweet names 
of Jesus and Maiy lingering on his lips up to the very 
moment of his existence. 

His departm-e irom Fii'ando was soon followed by 
tiiat of the tathers who had been his comjianions on 
that mission. Father Balthazar weut to preach at Fa- 
cata ; and a commotion against the pi-ofessors of the 
Christian £uth soon aAerwards induced the king, not- 
withstanding the remonstrances of Prince Anthony, to 
command the depaiture of Father Villela likewise. He 
obeyed, exhorting the converts to patience and for- 
bearance. But Ids submission by no means diminished 
^ persecution; for no sooner was it known that he 
bad left the city, than the bonzes rushed to the 
churohes, and encouraged by the favour or indifference 
,af the king, pulled down the altars, burnt the crosses, 
■"" " the pictm-es into a thousand pieces, and did all in 
' power eilher to provoke the Christians to revenge, 
to bring them back once more to the worship of 
Jr idols. Their efforts were all in vain; not a sisgle 
inrert yielded to the temptation, or forgot the kssoss 
' constancy, peace, and foi^veness which had been 
Icated by the fathers; and thus, by their heroic 
ness, they won for Firaado the honour of giving the 
fiiBt martyr to the Church of Japan. A cross had been 
erected on a hill outside the city ; and ^ere, since the 
spoliation of their churches, they had been in the habit 
Dt meeting for their public devotions. A Christian 
dave who frequented these assemblies was thi-eatened 
br her master with death, if she persevered in the prac- 
3be modestly answered, "that a good Christian 
not death; but that while she would ever be 
d of her duty to her earthly master, she could not, 

20 JAPAN. 

tterefore, forget that which was owing to her God.' 
The next day she went out as usual, and he awaited 
her return with a drawn sword in his hand. The gene- , 
ron8 Christian at once saw and accepted her doom, and] 
kneeling quietly before him, he cut off her head at Bj 
Bing;lfi Ulow. The Christians bmied her with great 
lemnity; and far from being terrified by her fate, th^' 
were never weary of thanking^ God for the constancy 
with which His servant had suffered, and of encouraging 
one another to follow her example. 

Father Balthazar and his companions very narrowly 
escaped a similar fiite at Facata. The bonzes drove 
them with contumely from the city; but before they 
could get cleai" of the country they fell into the banib 
of some heathens, who robbed them of all thev pos- 
eeased, stripping them even of the clothes which they 
wore, and debating in their veiy presence aa to the 
propriety of putting them to death. Finally, they were 
shut up in a miserable cave, where they were left with- 
out food or Iig;ht, until, by the help of some Christiana, 
they succeeded in escaping to the kingdom of Bongo. 
There they were received in triumph and rejoicing, 
the inhabitants of the capital going forth to meet them, 
with wine and fruit for their refreshment, and thanks, 
deep and fervent, to Almighty God for the protection 
which, in the hour of their utmost need, He ha ' 
visibly accorded to His servants. 

K«ubles or persecutions had now reunited in B 
the very same fathers who, only sis years before, 
met fit Amang^chi with such a goodly pi-ospect of 
cess before them ; but however deeply they might feel 
this untoward change in their afiairs, they had far too 
much of the true missionary spirit in their bosoms to 
lose either courage or perseverance. They 
back, but not defeated ; delayed, but not dishearteni 
and while WHittng until a wider field should be be 
opened to their exertions, they occupied themsel 
with zeal and efficiency in promoting the cause of 
ligion in the narrower vineyard to which Providei 


JAPAN. 21 

for the present bad limited their iaboiirs. For this pur- 
pose they dispersed themselves tliroii^hout the cities 
and villages of the kingdom of Bong'o, every where 
preaching and converting thousands, bnivinu: ahke the 
an^r of the bonzes and tlie prejudices of the people; 
and three noble hospitab>, erected at this time in the 
city of Funay, bear witness to the holy indifference to 
all personal conBiderationa of safety with wliich, even 
in the darkest hour of defeat, they could press the most 
unpalatable doctrines of the Christian religion upon the 
minds of a proud and imtable nation. These hospitals 
were destined for the reception of foundlings, of lepers, 
and of the sick poor, — three classes of persons for wQom 
the Japanese had hitherto been taught, both by the 
laws of their country and its religious institutions, to 
entertain feelings not only of utter indifference, but of 
profound contempt. No wonder, then, that the heathens 
marreUed at a charity univei'sal as the feith which had 

(called it into being; or that the kiug was filled with 
Etall higher admiration when, dechning the pecuniary 
aid which he offered ta themselves, the Jesuit Fathers 
besought him to bestow it on these holy institutions ; 
or that the converts, charmed at this unexpected mode , 
of exercising that tenderness which the very name of 
Jeans had ali'eody generated in their bosoms, should | 
have apphed themselves to the solace of the sick with 
I a sweetness and devotion, which was perhaps almost a 
I higher panegyiic on the religion of love they had em- I 
I braced, than the most eloquent oration ever preached 1 
[ among tbem in its honour by their spiiitual fathers. 


Tho boniBS of Franfuama. Pathar Vfflela'a TOyn 
Ej;traordmarj eooverilon of two principal boni* 
Saccaj. The Eumbo's levfs, Nobunanga rasbores tha Kumbn'e 
&nul; at Stiako, fuxd destroys the bonzes of F 
■plntcy ngainst him dofbatod ; bia magniiiceat toumaia«D 
bTOurable diapoaitloii towards Cbristianity. 

It will be remembered that Miako was alike the object 
of tbe dearest ftspirations of Francifi, and the place 
where, to all human appearances, his efforts hiid met 
with the most signal defeat But it was not so in the 
eyea of God. The seed which the Saint had sown, amid 
opprobrium and insult, had fallen upon a hard soil ; it 
lay dormant indeed for a time, but now it was about to 
spring up, and to yield fruit hundredfold to his succes- 
sors in the harvest. 

Very near the city lay the mountain of Frenosama, 
femoua as the principal g^thering;-place of the bonzes, 
and the residence of the Jaco, their spiritual pontiff. 
At one time they are said to have possessed no (ewer 
than three thousand monasteries within ite precincts ; 
but even before the anivat of the Jesuits in Japan, the 
number had been gradually reduced to six hundred. 
At the head of one of these houses was an old man of 
great reputation for sanctity and learning; and vague ru- 
mours reached him, slowly and by degrees, of a stranger 
bonze who had preached a new docti'ine in Miako and 
its neigbbonrhood. The Httle that he heard made him 
long to hear yet more ; and filled with astonishment at 
the subhme wisdom which he could discern even in 
such fragments of Xavier's discourses as were repeated 
to him by others, he wrote to Father Torres, breech- 
ing him to visit Frenoiama, and assurmg bim that 
nothing but his age and infirmity prevented bim from 


ioa. II.] urAs. ?3 H 

prooeedine nt once to Bono'O, to he instnioted in the 
mth. The futher would have ^InAly necepted this 
unlooked-for invitation, but he also was too much 

broken by years nnd labonra to venture on such a jcrtir- ^_ 

nay; he sent therefore in his stead nn espoeitjan of tha ^H 

Cu^Etian doctrine in Japanese characters for the further ^^M 

1 inBtrnction of the honze, and as soon afterwards as he ^^M 

J^v could, he despatched one of his brethren to complete ^H 

^^kus ooDTersion. ^H 

^^K Father Villela was the Jesuit chosen for this ini»- ^H 

W^f MSB ; so he shaved his head and beard,— without which ^| 
T^^ disguise it would have been impossible to [fain admit- 


tanoe to any of the monafiteries of the mountain?,- 
then took shipping for Miako. Innumerable ware the 
disaatflre which he encountered on his way. Almost on 
starting, he had revised tJ) join the sailors in a super- 
stitious offering to their gods ; and from that moment I 
every possible misfortune that occurred, every fonl I 
wind, or rising tempest, or unwelcome calm, was attri- 
huted to the divine indignation against this impious 
travaller. They certainly did what they could on their 
own account to avenge the insulted feelings of thdr 
idols; for they retrenched his provisions, beat him like 
8 slave, abandoned him for ten days together on a de- 
Bert shore, exposed to eveiy vicissitude of wind and 
weather, and finally landed him for away from his des- 
tuMtion, which they left him to seek in the best way that 
he could. After this, it was in vain that he sought a I 
H on board any of the remaining ships in the har- J 
His ill fame had gone befbre him, and no ons I 
■waaildrnn the risk ofhis presence; norwas it until every I 
ssel had put out to sea that he obtained a pas- I 
^ a little bark, which, ill fitted as it was for bo I 
itmg a voyage, succeeded in landing him safely twelve j 

"* from Miako, on the 29th November, 1.^.59. 

first thought was for the ponr bonsie who had 
it invited him; but when he reached the mmratain, 
found to his inespressible sorrow that the old r 
s dead. The bonze, however, who had succeeded 


him in his office, and probably in Boms of his opinions 
also, g^ve a, most consoling; account of his death; for 
to his latest breath he professod his belief in the mys- 
leries Pathei' Toires had unfolded to him by letter, de- 
claring that he renoimced his idols, and died a Obristiaa 
in heart and soul. At the request of this successor. 
Father VUlela preached to the other bonzes of the 
mountain ; and then, going straight to Miako, he 
and his companion spent ten days hi prayer, fusttng, 
and mortification ; after which, having; as he hoped oh- 
tained the blessing of Heaven on his laboui's, he took 
his station in the market-place, holding' aloft the Cross 
of Christ, and calling' upon all ta come and hear the ex- 
position of His Gospel. He was eloquent and learned, 
as well as holy ; and it was soon uniTersally acknow- 
ledged that, in each of these particulars, the European 
bonze iar surpassed any of the native worthies of Pre- 
noiama. All the learned, the idle, and the cm-ious of 
the nation flocked eagerly to bear him, while the de- 
feated bonzes prepared to assail him with their usual 
weapons of calumny and fraud. 

It is curious to observe how these modem heathens 
unconsciously imitated the heathens of ancient times, 
by preferring' precisely the same charg;es agj^inst the 
Christian name as the Bomans had done some flfleen 
hundred years before. Siradarity of calumny surely 
argues simUarityin the doctrine that has called it forth; 
and when we find the Jesuit preachers of Japan accused 
as devourers of men's flesh, suckers of blood, and mur- 
derers of infants, it is impossible not to identify the Eu- 
oharistic Sacrifice at Rome in the first four centurieB 
with that of Japan in the sixteenth, as the common 
source and cause of these horrible accusations. Keither 
in the first case nor in the last could people listen to 
thein unmoved ; the inliabitants of Miako soon shrank 
from Father Villela as they would have shrunk ii'om a 
murderer and a monster; and as nobody would any 
lon^r give him a lod^g, he and his companion were 
obhged to take up therrabode in a ruined shed. Here' I 


liv«d fcr three montlis, in the deptli of wiiiter, wilh- 
it bed or fire, exposed to all weatliei-s, for the Iiiitwas 

ifless ; feedioe: on roots, sleeping on the ground, in 
... itEint peril of his life, staenea to the lips in suffering 
and insult, — for the veiy children were never weary of 
abusing him as a man-eater ; yet, spite of all these out- 
ward miseries, clinging with supernatural tenacity to 
the mission which Xavier himself had been comjielled 
to abaiidon, and resolved to shed his blood in Miako or 
to win it to his Lord. 

Wliat could resist such coumge Hnd pereeyenince ? 
His very life seemed a greuter miracle than the religion 
that he preached. By degi'ees the people became eon- 
vinoed of hie innocence ; the nobles a^rain flocked to 
bear him; a church was built, a residence bought, 
and all seemed going on to the utmost of bis wishes, 
wben one day a rumour ran through the city that two 
bonzes (they were ma^cians too, as well as bonzes) had 
' 'sputedhy the Kumbo to examine into the pre- 
if the Christian religion, and to decide whether 

not it was compatible with the safe government of 
kingdom. Impartiality was not to be expected 
1 such judo^es as these. The Christian converts 
pave up all for lost; and at their request Father Villela 
withdrew a few leagues out of the city, in order to avoid 
the iosultswhicb the bonzes, intoxicated by their hopes 
of certain success, were ali-eady heaping on the pro- 
fessors of the Christian religion. Truly the ways of 
God are not our ways, nor His thoughts our thoughts, 
Wbile the one party was thus glorying in its expected 
triumph, and the other was weeping for its anticipated 
defeat, Divine Providence led one of the fiiture umpires 
into the presence of an unlettered Christian (for such 
he seems to have been) of the name of James, The 
bonze questioned Jiim coDceiTiing his relia;ian : at first 
James was unwilling to reply; but finding that his 
silence whs misinteipretod into the possession of secrets 
diich it was unlawnil to betray, the generou-s ChHstian 

)ke boldly out ; and follovdng the inspiration that was 

given liim, he poured forth a long; and eloquent oration 
on the immortality of the soul, the punishment of the 
wicked and reward of the good, — these heing' precisely 
the doctrines most freqnently denied hy the anti-religion- 
jsts of the court. Contrary to every expectation, tha J 
honze listened to him with profound attention ; and no- i 
sooner hod he concluded, than he bade him fetch thfrij 
Jesuit Jkther, adding', that if the scholar could speal 
with such sublimity, what mig;ht5' things might h 
learn from the master! James lost not a moment i 
going to Saccay, where Father Villela then wt 
when he had declared hiR mission in the full assembly of 
the faithful, neither pastor nor people could believe in its 
reality. Notwithstanding this incrediUity, however, the 
father would willingly have obeyed the summon ' ' 
that the Christiana positively forWde him;, and o 
the Jesuit brothers was despatched ia his stead. ' 
days passed, and nothing was heard of Miuko c 
messenger, Tlie Christians foreboded evil; an. 
other was ahout to be despatched to discover his fah^ -i 
when he made his appearance with the joyfiil tidings; I 
of a Bucceasfiil mission. According to the account ha' I 
brought, the bonze-umpires were only awaiting th«iJ 
father's arrival to be received into the Chiirch; and aM 
they were among the most powerfiil lords of the court, 'J 
there was Hrtle doubt that very many others would 
follow their example. When he had ceased speaking, the 
assembled Christians lifted up theirvoiees, weeping, and 
thanking God for that infinite power over the human 
heart by which He had changed the fiercest enemies 
of the Church into its most zeaJous defenders. As for 
Father Villela, he lost not a moment in setting out for 
Miako, where he found every thing ^just as Brother 
Laurence ha*l described; and by the mfluence of the 
converted bonzes, an imperial edict was afterwards 
obtained for the toleration of the Christian faith, which 
soon began to justify the anticipations of Franeis, 
and to diffuse itaelf rapidly over the adjoining ting*. I 


_-.jy had already received it previously to the 
trotuiles, Father Villela hnving- heen inTif«il 
itber by the governor of the town ; luid that nohle- 
m, after having: heen baptif«d liimself, titted iij) a 
raom as a ohurch, where the lather nnd hia companion 
pivached twice a dny, converting many of the inhahit- 
ants, and even a poition of the gtinison. The world 
wondered to see these Inst exchon^ the license and 
libertiniBm of a ^Tirrison-life for the modesty and devo- 
ticm of the Christian profession; but they wondered yet 
more at the precocious sanctity of the nobleman's cfiil- 
drsn. The hoy was not fourteen when he received bap- 
tism; and being naturally of a gracious a ppenni nee, the 
candour and modesty tvliich ti'om that moment beamed 
hia brow made ms beauty almost angelic ; while his 
Iff heart was so replenished by the Holy Ghost, 
he already bep^an to imitate in hia life the virtues 
tosteritiea of the saints. His sister Monica deserves 
be yet more particularly mentioned, as tlie first 
maiden on the records of Japan who consecrated herself 
to God in the holy state of iiirginity. He Himself had 
isspu^ her with this desire at the instant of baptism ; 
and in order to obtain grace for a slate which she knew 
must expose her to the persecution of iflktions and ridi- 
cule of hiends, she began a practice fi^om that momeat 
of feating three times a week, and spending several 
hours daily in meditation on the Passion of our Lord ; 
and in this course she persevered for many years, until, 
having obtained the consent of her parents, and the ap- 
probation of the Josnit father who at that time gaided 
her conscience, she joyfully cut off her hair, and bound 
herself by vow to that hofy state which, hte the saints 
of old, she had chosen from her childhood. 

But we must return to Miako, where Father Villela, 
no longer hampered by the opposition of the govern- 
ment, threw himself into the labours of the mission with 
bJI the zeal of a true son of St. Ignatius. By day he 
:hing and hearing confessions, without 
ile hia nights were devoted to the trans- 


latioo of Catholic books into the Japanese language, of 
which ho was by this time become a perfect master. 
Such unmitigated toil soon wroug;ht upon him the effect 
of yeara ; and when at liat Father Froea was sent to his 
assistance, be wondered to see him, at the ag« of forty-J 
two, grey-haired and broken down lite a man of foius J 

The new missionary chanced to arrive about the 
season when the g;reat lords and princes of Japan pay 
their yearly homage and tiibute to the £umho, who 
receives them as a divinity, cross-legged, and without 
giving any sign of recognition, save when he conde- 
Hcendmgly waves bis fan to any one whom he more 
particularly desires to honour. 

Father Villela was in the frequent habit of attend- 
ing this lev6o ; end he now took witb him Father Froe^d 
habited in surplice and stole, and wearing over theg^~*fl 
in honour of the occasion, a cloak of ' linsey woolsey" * 
edged with a golden friage. Poor enough it must have 
been, for all its tinsel trimmioge; and yet it seems to 
have particularly taken the fancy of the E-umbo; foraiW 
they nad left bis presence, he sent a special messenger 
to request another view of the father bonze's " hue 
cloak. " I know not," says the chionicler, with won- 
derfid nalwte, "what there could have been in this 
garment, — which I am credibly informed was made by 
the father himself, and lined with old stud's of divers 
colours, — to make it worthy the attention of a prince in 
possession of all that was beautiM and pecious in Ja- 
pan ; but as I cannot believe he could really admire a 
patched and parti-coloured cloak, I must conclude it 
was not the aiticle itself, but the newness of the &sliion, 
which made him covet to see it." Possibly it was those 
very patches and parti-colours which caused it to be 
an object of curiosity to the most luxurious monarch in 
Japan ; but however this may have been, it was safely 
returaed after half an hour's examination, and its owner 
conducted to the mother of the Kumbo, whom he found 
smTounded by her ladies in a kind of oratory adorned 

JAPAW. 20 

with a BtAtue of tlie god Amlda, riclilv diademed, and 
with a ffolden glury on liis Lead. Aistury does not 
tell ns wlieirher Ebo also took b {mey to t!ie wonderful 
oloak; but at all events she received liotb the fathers 
TBiy grecionsly, offering them cha in cups of precious 
metal, and xacane, a land of sweetmeot nincli prized 
in Japan, which she condescendinffly presented with her 
own haods at the end of little sticks. 

A very short time after this interview, the Kumbo 
was deprived of his crown and hfe hy one of those sud- 
den revolutions which render the history of Japan so 
chan^eiiil and perplexing; ; and during' the anarchy 
which followed, the fathers were banishe*^ and compelled 
to retire once more to Bongo. According; to the bar- 
barous custom of the country, the Kumho's family were 
included in his destruction ; one only escaped the general 
massacre, and he took refuge at the court of Nohunanga, 
Idne of Boon. Nobunanga vas brave, powerfid, and 
^nuitiouE, — the best general and ablest pohtician in 
b; yet prohably, in the first instance, it was rather 
for an injured prince than anv ulterior designs in 
own favour that induced, bitn to take the port of 
royal exile, and to send an army under Vatadono, 
the general of his forces, in pursuit of the rebels. Hav- 
ing succeeded in raising a considerable force, the latter 
did not seek tK> avoid the contest ; for whatever the people 
might think of the murder of their moBareh, they had 
no wish to see their country in the hands of a sti-anger, 
especially of one so ambitions and powerful as Hobu- 
nanga was reported to be. For a considerable time the 
two armies lay encamped within sight of each other ; 
the Christian squadrons on either side being plaiidy dis- 
tinguished from the rest by the cross on thcii" standards, 
and the medals engraved with the name of Jesus on 
their helmets. It was winter; and Christmas night find- 
ing them in the midst of these warlike preparations, to 
the infinite astonishment of the heathens, the Christian 
■ -warriors, by mutual consent, laid down their arms ; and 
■entering tlie town of Saccay, confessed and commuui- 


^^^^ or 
^^^le ro 

30 JAPAN. 

eated, and attended to all the religious aorviees 
CLurclij after which they dined, mends and foes toge- 
ther, in the house of FaMer Frees, and then separated 
in peace and g'ood-will to their several encampments. 

The battle which ensued terminated b favour 
PTohtuuiiiga'B forces ; and with his accustomed despat^ 
that monarch brougiht the new Knmbo to Miako, and ia 
fiiU court expressed nis gratitude to the general through 
whose pi'owess Le bad teen enabled to accomplish tfiiB 
triumph. Upon this hint Vatadoao spoke ; bia brother 
was about to become a Christian, he himself was one 
in heart already, and for all the Bervicea he had ren- 
dered Nohunanga, he only craved the recal of the Jesuit 
fethers. A bonze present ventured to suggest the 
danger of this measiu^ ; but Nohunanga hated the 
bonzes, and despised their idols : he answered there- 
fore with words of cutting scorn ; and by his express 
permission Father Pi'oes was speedily restored to his 
forsaken church. Vatadono took him directly to visit 
the king, whom they found on the drawbridge, super- 
intending; the new worlts of a palace he was building 
for the Kumbo. He received them most graciously, 
making Father Froea cover his head on a<!count of 
the intense heat of the sun ; and after a conference of 
two hours, duriug which he inveighed fi'equently and 
fiercely against the wickedness and hypocrisy of the 
bonzes, he gave him full permission to preach the 
Oospel throughout the kingdom, and so dismisaed him. 

Prom that time the (ather made it a matter 
courtesy to visit occasionally at the palace; and on < 
of these occasions Nobunanga caused him to disput 
publicly with a celebrated bonze on the immortality 
of the soul, and expressed himself aftei-warda extremeli 
satisfied with the arguments of the father. This wai 
suificientto excite the jealousy of his antagonist; and in 
his tlurst for vengeance, be not only obtained a license 
from the Dau-i to kill the father wherever he could find 
bira, bat likewise contrived by secret intrigue so 1 
wind himself into Nobunanga^s favour, that during t 

ne ■ 

iporary absence of that monarcli from Miuko, he 
created chief roinuiter of the kiaij;dotn, with u 
er scarcely inferior to tbut whicti hatl been assiKned 
he Kumbo. Such an appointment, would havelietui 
&tal to the interests of reheion ; and Vatadunu advisml 
Fathei- Froes to follow the kin;^ to liis pmsent abode, ti 
order to make a representation of the ill conduct of the 
bonze. This adricu was taken; and the lather found 
HobimaDga sun'ounded by his nobles : he instantly left 
ibem, however, to give birn a most kind inception; and 
tbea, bein^ inordinately vain of his riches and grandeu 
insisted on showing him all orer liis palace. There 
was no reihsing so edacious an oSer ; so on they went, 
through halls, cbtunhers, ^leries, cabinets, and offices, 
"which," says the historian, "the very lords would 
never have seen, had it not been for the lather." No- 
bunangft even introduced him witbout ceremony into 
the apaitmeuts of his children, and of the ladies of his 
hoQsehoId, discoursing; all the while about the ill-man- 
nered bonze, and affairs at Miako. After tliia mn- 
glorioua promenade, the fiitLer was invited to take 
some refreshment; a little dwai'f was made to dance 
for his amusement; and the kin^ " whisperino: the 
young prince," one of the royal children ]>resentea both 
the stranger and his majesty with a cup of tea, the 
Itighest honour that can be done to an inferior in Japan. 
That night he remained by espfecial invitation at the 
palace, and the next morning was dismissed with such 
a letter to the Dairi as put an end to all the vindictive 
projects of his foe, who being afterwards discovei-ed in the 
commission of enormous eiimes, would certainly have 
been condemned to die, had not his spii'itual chief inter- 
ceded in his tavonr. As it was, he was stripped of all 
_ hie dignities and possessions ; and li-om being one of the 
^nchrat, was reduced to the condition of the meanest in 

It is melancboly to relate, tliat Vatadono, the oii- 
l«r and generous promoter of all these advan- 
1 to the Chm'ch, was never pei'sonally em'olled 

among her children. He was at his own fortress, and 
actually under inatruction for baptism, when bis estates 
were unhappily invaded by a neigfbbouiing; lord ; and in 
tiie engagement that ensued he was left dead on the 
field. The Christians mourned for him as for their 
f'atlier and protMtor; hut moat of all Father Froes was 
ineonsolable, because he had died without baptism; 
nevertheless he trusted that, for his good intentions, 
and for the services be bad so pre-emmently rendered 
to religion, Almighty God in His goodness would ex- 
tend His mercy to him. 

Soon after his death, Nohunangai resolved 
stroy the bonzes of Frenoiama, who on every oc«w 
sion had endeavoured to thwart hts plans and effei* 
bis niin; and for this piupose he marched an armj 
to the foot of their mountam. The terrilied solita- 
ries endeavoured to propitiate him with a large sum of 
money, while at the same time they sought to rouse 
his superstitious fears by representing the sanctity of 
the spot he had invaded ; but Nobnnango, with all the 
hard irony of his nature, sent them word "that he 
needed not their money; and that as to the sanctity of 
Prenoxama, if their gods were really the bonzes' friends, 
they would doubtless protect them ; but if, on the con- 
trary, they were foes, he himself would avenge their 
quarrel." True to his word, the mountain was instantly 
surrounded; troops ijf soldiers climbed its precipices, 
and entering the monaateries, put all to fire and sword. 
Some of the wretched bonzes cast themselves head- 
long from the rocks; others took sanctuary in the 
temple, or sought concealment in the caves and grottos. 
But Nobunanga had taken his measures too surely to 
allow a chance of escape. He burnt the temple, with 
every other building on the mountain; sent his men 
into all its holes ana caverns, as if he had been chasing 
wild beasts; and finally succeeded so well in his scheme 
of veageance, that not one of those who dwelt on Fre- 
noxama was left to tell the tale of its destruction. 
Satisfied with this wholesale butchery, he then retired to 

JAPAN. 33 

_ [s own kingdom, leaving tlie Kiinibo to play nionaroh 
fcr ft time ut Rliaku; though ha took care to reserve all 
« real authority of that office to himself. 
But in spite of this oasimieii moderation, tlic ¥ast 
power be really possessed, aud the magTiificwice ia 
which lie lived, excited the jealousy of the sui-rounding 
princes, six of whom entered into a conspiracy ag;ainst 
nim. Before they declared open war, however, they 
were very anxious to ohtuin possession of a certain for- 

3 was unhappily persuaded into sending his children 
the court of the conspiratoi's as hostages for tlie safe- 
B^nng of the castle- Nohunanga was much too fiip- 
eeii^ a politician not to be soon aware of the con- 
piracy t&t was on foot ; and having just the same 
reasons for wishing^ to retain the castle which his ene- 
mies had for desirmg to gain it, lie souglit to wrest it 
&oia Justo Ucondono by force of arms. Failing in this, 
he had recourse to Etratagem. Knowing the g'overnor 
to be a true-hearted Christian, and one, there^re, who 
wmdd probahiy prefer the interests of religion to any 
worldly advantage which coidd be offered to liimselli 
lie sent him word, that if the fortress were not in- 
atantlj surrendered, he would Itill the Jesuit fathers, 
Inim the churches, and root the veiy name of Christian 
ont of his dominions. It were vain to attempt a de- 
^ scription of ihe agony of Justo in this terrible dilemma. 
%{ he surrendered, his children would be sacrificed to 
e rage of the conspirators; if he held out, lie knew 
well that Nohnnanga also would be as good as his 
Urord, and that all the Christians of the kingdom would 
*3 involved in one common ruin throu";h his means. 
3 torn to pieces by his fatlierly tenderness on the 
ufi side, and iiis anxieties for refigion on tlie other, 
a wrote to Father Organtin (who had now succeeded 
"ather Froea on the mission), imploring his advice. 


Tlmt. father recommended tlie matter eai-nestly to God;- 
aad tLen going to the fortress, told him that as No- 
hunanga was, in fact, hts sovereign, it was his duty to 
oljey Ms orders in preference to those of any other mon- 
ai-eh; hut at the very mention of the word obet/, the 
governor's wife and mother hroke in npon the confer- 
ence, and potired forth snch hitter Jjimentations over 
the probahie fate of his children, that he became yet 
more nndecided than liefore; and at a late hour tie 
father took his leave, without having succeeded in effect- 
ing any arrangement. After his departure, the wretched 
man felt more miserable than ever; hia love for his chil* 
dren, the tears of hia wife and mother, were rending hi»-. 
heart ; but the ruin of religion, the massacre of the fa- 
thers, and persecution of the Christians, which he fore- 
saw would DC the inevitable consequences of his present 
conduct, were yet more terrible thoughts to beai-. In 
the agonising conflict which ensued, he retired to his 
cabinet, fell on his knees, and after a short hut fe-vent 
prayer, ro?e like a second Abraham, prepared to sacrifice 
all he held dearest in tlie world to the dictates of con- 
science. That very night he was at the court of No- 
bunanga, who received him with unexpected kindueBS; 
but the fether's heart was heavy for his children, and 
no princely &vo«r could give him comfort, until at 
length he heard that his iather, Dairi, had gone to the 
court of the conspirators, and with infinite difEculty 
had succeeded in ohteining the surrender of the hos- 
tages. He was finally restored to the government of 
the fortress, the conspirators were defeated in open 
battle, and two of theu- kin^'doms being confiscated for 
their treacher}", were added to those already in No* 
bunanga's possession. 

Some of these kingdoms he now parcelled out to 
his sons. He hoil long since entirely set aside the poor 
Kumbo, depriving hiin even of tlie shadow of greatness 
which he had foi-merly possessed ; and then, either in- 
toxicated by success, or with a view to the eoneihatiw* 
of the other pi-incea, he i-esolved upon giving a kind 


JAPAN. 35 

of national totimament m honour of his victoriea. In 
order to make it a3 magnificent as possihle, a royal pro- 
clamation forbade tbe attendance of any lord who was 
onahle to g;o to the most extravagant expenses in his 
equipment ; and on their part, hoping to win the favour 
of a monarch who was now considered invincihle, the 
princes vied with each other in the splendour of tlieir 
arrangemeata and the prodigahtj of their presents to 
the royal donor of the wte. The genei-al of the forces 
made gifts to the amoont of Mtf thousand ducats ; 
another spent twenty thousand on nis own equipment ; 
a third made his appearance with fiftj' footmen dressed 
in the most sumptuous silbs of China ; white Jnsto 
TJcondono changed the colours worn by his train, and 
the fashion of their garments, no less than seven times 
in the course of tie <my. The procession was opened by 
seven hundred cavaliei-s, with their attendants in rich 
liveries ; then came Nobunan^'s three sons, shining- in 
gold and jewels ; after them the monarch himself, sur- 
rounded by innumerable officers and attendants, mounted 
on a superb war-horse, and looking as if a shower of 
precious Stones had Mien on his g^ments. " It was 
not difficult," says the chronicler, " to distinguish him 
in that crowd ; for ha showed himself by the majesty of 
Iiis presence and the lustre of his garments, cliina-silk 
wrought in precious stones, with a scarf of inestimable 
Talue cast across his shoulders; tbe housings, bridle, 
and frontlet of his horse were all of silver and gold, the 
reins were set in pearls, and the stirrups of pure gold; 
a thousand cavaliers of the royal household followed, 
and as soon as the king entered the lists the air was 
tent with the acclamations of the multitude. Then the 
gentlemen of the tournament ranged themselves in their 
respective positions, running two and two and three and 
three against each other. The royal princes greatly 
distinguished themselves by their prowess; but to Jfo- 
bauanga, who ran last, the victory was awai'ded." 
\nd the good old chronicler assures us he deserved it 
"fT his desterity, never for a moment seeming 




Jie aduIatioiii^H 
1581) on the ^ 




38 JAPAN. 

pect the possiliility of his owing it to tlie a 
ond slavish iears ofliid subjects. 

Nobunaoga was now (in tiie year 1581) c 
^best [jiDfiacle of his ambition ; the monarch of 
thirt)'-two kingdoma, aad by the power such enormous 
possessions confewed, the vii-tiial ruler of all. Feared 
even more than he was hated, he did what he pleased; 
ghowei'ed kingdoms undisputed on his childr^, mas- 
sacred the bonzes without opposition wherever he could ] 
find them : and patronised the foreign preachers with- 
out regarding the murmurs of that heathen priesthood, 
or the Euperetitious terrors of their fond adherents- 
Yet, though he certainly entertained a Strang feeling 
in fevour of the Christian religion, he never became a 
Christian himself. Possibly ambition had bhnded him 
to desires of aught but material greatness ; or he hesi- 
tated to exchange the voluptuous life of a heathen 
monarch for the stem moi'ality of the Christian's creed; 
or allowing both these circumstances their proper weight 
we shall piwhably find a third, and a far more insur- 
mountable obstade to his conversion, in the hard in- 
creduhty as to the honesty of any priesthood, which 
his thorough knowledge of the hypocrisy of the bonzea 
had rooteu deeply in his heart. Any suspicion of tha I 
motives of the preacher would of course cast a refleo- I 
tion on the reHgion which be preached ; and that No- | 
bunanea, notwithstanding the honourable testimony | 
which Tie ever bore to the virtues of the fathers, could ] 
never entirely divest himself of some doubt as to the 1 
ruling princinle of then' conduct, the following anec- I 
dote will sufficiently prove. I 

Father Organtin had been paying him a visit at the I 
palace, and after a private interview of considerable I 
duration, the kin^ caused the great dooi-s of the audi- I 
ence-chamber to he thrown open, exclaiming, so that I 
all those without might hear, " Prenai'e your wives J 
and children to receive the faith, for trie arguments of I 
these foreign bonzes are irresistible." Tien, turning I 
to Brother Laurence, the companion of the father, he I 


JAPAN. 37 

[prove to all assembled liof.h tlie unity of God 
and the fact of retribution afh-i' deatb. The brother 
obeyed ; and while the hearts of all present were thrill- 
ing beneath the torrent of eloquence wliich flowed from 
his lips, Nobunangtt took him by the hand, and onea 
more, and as if by an irresistible impulse, led Lim and 
the fiither into his private apartments. There, for from 
the curious eyes and ears of his courtiers, he conjured 
them to say without reserve or falsehood whether they 
really beheved the tilings which they tought, adding 
that several bonzes who held in public the doctrines ^^ 
upon which Brother Laurence had been discoursing, ^H 
had acknowledged to him in private that they behevM ^H 
in reality nothing of the kind, merely fostering- such ^H 

I&ncies in the people under the idea of promoting the ^H 
public welfare. Then Father Oi^ntin, with a grave ^H 
and serious countenance hefltting the solemnity of his ^H 
words, vowed by all he held sacred, by the might and ^H 
majesty of God Himself, that he had never presiched 
one iota of doctrine in Japan wliich he did not as £rmly 
behevetobe time as ifhe had seen it with his own eyes; 
and taking a geogi'aphical card which chanced to lie on ^^ 
the table, he pointed out the distant land from whence ^H 
lie had come, the many perils he had encountered on ^H 
the way, the haTd5hip3, the insults, and even dangers ^H 
in the midst of which he was daily living at Miako, ^H 
and insisted upon the folly and madness of which ha ^H 
would have been guilty if he had endured all this, and ^H 
more, merely for the propagation of a ridiculous fable in ^H 
which he did not himself believe. ^H 

The king listened with profound attention, and ^H 
when Father Organtin concluded by toucliing sweetly ^H 
and elomiently upon the certain hope of heaven whicQ ^H 
^H cheered nim on through his earthly labours, Nobunanga ^H 
^^B could bear it no longer, hut giving way to a burst of ^H 
^^H imcontrollable feeling, he declared he was so enchanted ^H 
^^V witli tlie father's wotils, that he could hardly make up ^H 
^^Eltis mind to allow his departure ft-am the palace. That ^| 
^^B'one moment of hesitation was perhaps the tuming'-^Hjint ^H 


his career. Grace had knocked loudly at his hearty 1 
why was be bo imwilling to allow the father to leave 
him ? It had knocked ; but he would not open. Pride, 
and the love of pleasure, and cold infidelity, with all 
its train of ungenerous suspicions, were in the citadel 
before it; and he would not drive them hence for ifa 
admittance. The coll was unheeded, the impnlse 
checked ; and sadly and reluctantly, but still withoat 
an effort to retain lum, he suffered his fuitliful monit^jr 
to depai-t. So the die was cast, the g'ood inspiration 
gone for ever ; and N obunanga, for all his pride of in- 
tellect and scorn of the bonzes' knavish superstitious, 
closed his reirn at last by a mandate compelling his 
people to such a monsti'ous act of g^ross idolatry, as 
woidd have disgi'aoed the rule of the 1 " ' 

of his ancestors. 


Tba ciuQa or BHigjidono. Stunitaodo, Idag of Omurii ; his ical 
tempered with diBcrelion. Father Torroi goss to VocoiiuTB, and 
uCtles there. CoatersioD ofSucoilanJo and thirty noblea Con- 
Ipiracry Bg&inAt him defeatedp Jesuits settled at Kaa^faiaki. 
Convonion of the king of Arima. Chrirtiauity inlroduoed into 
Goto. The king'a aon converted. 

When Francis and Iu3 companions tcmk their depap- 
tuie from Kim^oxima, to seek for a more Losjiitable 
city as the theatre of their labours, chance led titem 
beneath the towers of a lonelj fortress, seated on & stee]) 
TDck, and so entirely surrounded by a broad deep moat 
AS to be utterly inaccessible excepting by a drawbridge. 
Francis paused as he passed; and no sooner was lie 
descried from the lofty roof, than a servant was dee- 
patched with a kind and courteous message from the ffo- 
vemor of Ekandono f for tliis was tlie name of the castle), 
and a request that lie and bis way-worn companions 
would enter and take some refresliment. The true re- 
fresbmejit of Fiancis, -like that of bis Divine Master, 
was "to do the will of Him who sent liim, by making: 
perfect His work ;" and so well did he accomplish it on 
this occasion, that Ijefore he left the fortress he had in- 
structed and baptised the wife of its chieftain, together 
with his eldest son aad seventeen soldiers of the garri- 
son. Among these last was a venerable old man, whose 
prudence and virtue had caused bim to be respected 
by the others as a father. To bim Francis confided 
the care of this unlooked-for little flock, giving him for 
their further and more complete instruction a written 
form of baptism, an abstract of our Saviour's life, an 
Axpoaiticn] of the creed, the litanies and penitential 
pealms, together with a table of Church festivals throueb- 
t t^e year ; all in the Japanese language. He like- 
i, with the consent of the govei-nor, selected a spa- 


10 JAPAH. 

cions apartment for the re]ig;ious exercises of tlie faiOl^ 
fdl ; and biddiag; the old man assemble them there aSM 
stated times, particularly on Fiidajs and Sundays, fi»<l 
prayer and pions reading', he g^ve them his last bless-'l 
ing, and so departed. 

Thirteen yeara passed slowly by, and no other ii__ , 
Bionar^ bod as yet approachea that politory fortress, 
to qtucken the piety or renew the instruction winch 
these g^ood neophytes had bo scantily received. St. 
Francis, cbeir only father in the faith, was g;one to his 
reward, "exceeding great" in heaven; tlie other mis- 
sionaries were sent perforce to the crowded cities and 
more important kingdoms which demanded their aid; 
but Father Torres had never forgotten these poor people 
or their generous eagerness to receive the iiiitli; and 
at last, finding that he had no chance of being able to 
spare a priest for the purpose, he sent one of the lay 
brothers to visit them instead. This time there was no 
need to wait until a servant came with an invitation to 
enter. The Christians knew him at once to be of tlie 
same calling' as the holy man who years before, with his 
saintly looks and words of fii'e, hod won them so hap- 
pily to the knowledge of the tnie God ; eagerly and 
joyfully therefore they crowded wund him, making a 
thousand inqniiies aft«r tlieir dear father ; and when 
they heai-d that he was dead, women and children, young 
men and old, nil together bm-st into tears. Brother 
Almeida did what he could to console them, telling 
them of the holy and happy death of St. Francis ; while 
they on their part showealiim the book of doctrine and 
the discipline which ha had left behind him, and which 
they had ever preserved as most precious relics. 

The old man who had been appointed as their direc- 
tor was also dead: but Almeida soon discovered that 

preached the faith so effectually, both by woi-d and ex- 
ample, that during the two or three daj-s he wmnined 
among them no fewer than seventy of their hi-ethren 


Ion. Ill,] JAPAJf. 

solicited baptism ftt Lis linndg. The son of the gover- 
nor, who had been baptised by Xavier, vras now pliiced at 
their head, Almeida associating with him in this charge 
a young Japanese of rare piety and attainments, and 
atterwards the author of an abridgment of the Scriptures, 
which proved of infinite utility in the young Church of 
Japan. He it was who, when the brother asked him, 
! " What he would do if the king should command him 
to nhjiire his religion?" made that answer, no less re- 
markable for its fervent zeal than for the nice appre- 
ciation of the requirements of the Chi-istian law which 
it BO clearly implied : " My father, thus in such a ease 
would I reply to my king : ' Do you wish, king ! 
that I should be faithiid and true to your service, 
^_. moderate, patient, and obedient, mindful of your int«- 
^^L.iestB and ioi^tful of my own. Ml of charity to my 
^^Vneigbbour, and of forbetu^nce to all who injure or op- 
^^^pose me? Command me, tlien, to be a Christian; lor 
^^Fonly from a Christian can such virtues reasonably be 
^^B expected.' " The noble sentiments expressed in this 
^^V speech were sliared by every member of the gajrison, 
^^f and the governor himself was the only man among 
^^ them who remained a heathen. Even he was an infidS 
only in appearance ; for be promised the brother that ha 
would become a Christian as soon as he could do so 
■without exciting the displeasure of the king. We 
know not whether the grace thus rashly rejected was 
ever oifered him again, Almeida having been obliged 
to depart almost immediately afteiwards, in conse- 
quence of letters which Father Torres had received fiom 
Samitando, the king of Omuro. 

This prince was the son of the king of Arima j but 
hia father had abdicated some time previously in favour 
of his eldest son; he was himself called to the king- 
dom of Omnro by the general consent of its nobles, their 
last monarch having died without leaving any legiti- 
matfl heir to the crown, Sumitando was generous, 
noble-minded, and renowned for courage; and he had 
pffl'gned for some years, honoured and beloved by all 




his subJBctB, vhen a Jnpaoese book, written by Fatlier 
Yillela in answer to the objections of tbe bonzes, 
chanced to fall into liis hands. The lig'ht of truth seems 
to have Sashed at once without a shadow of doubt 
on that ingenuous mind, and it is impossible to read 
his history without ieehng that he rose irom this fii'st 
perusal of the Christian argiinient with a fiim and un- 
compromising; resolution to oecame a Clu'istian himself. 
Pinidaice, however, was hapjiily blended with that great 
firmnees of purpose which was the cliief chai'actei'istic 
of this prince. He knew the opposition which the 
Christian preachers had every where met with from the 
bonzes ; he knew how, in the fivst instance, they had 
been compelled to leave Xan^ouma, how aftei'wards 
they had been impiisoned, and beateu, and barely es- 
caped with their lives at Futmdo; how the multitude 
had been hounded on to their destruction at Miako ; 
and how even at Bongo, under tlie veiy eye and smile 
of the king himself, their libei'ties one lives had been 
often impei-illed by the hatred of the bonzes, who 
raised tumult after tumidt in order to diive them from 
tbe city. He knew all this, and therefore he resolved 
to pave the way for their peaceful reception iit Ids own 
dominions, by representing to his council the advantages 
which would accrue to the nation from ti-affic with tlie 
Portuguese j and when he saw tltat they wei'e peifectly 
ahve to the importance of this measm'e, lie wi'ote with 
their consent to Fadiei' Ton'es, offering his countiymen 
the port of Vocoxiuva as a convenient place for the 
landing of their goods ; while at the same time he 
seized the opportunity of privately inviting him to send 
some of his religiaus to settle in the same town. 

This was the business upon wliich Almeida had 
been recalled ; but, reflecting on the immense impoi-t- 
ance which such an acquisition might prove to the in- 
terests of rehgion. Father Torres ailenvai'ds resolved, 
spite of his age and infiimitjes, to go to Vocoxiuva him- 
self^ which he accordingly did in the year 1562. Under 
hie auspices a church was speedily erected j and no 

III.] JAPAN. 43 

sooner was it known tliat & father was in the town, 
than the Christians of Fii'tindo and the neighbouring 
kingdoms flocked thitlier in crowds. Many of these 
poor people had been more than a year without any 
opportumty of attending their religious duties, so that 
Father Torres was occupied night and day in heanng 
their confess^ioos ; for they were so engiossedby these 
pious exercises as almost to Ui>e in the church, r^^ird- 
less alike of sloe]) and of refi'eshment. Thetr forTOur 
was still fiirther increased during the holy season of 
Lent ; and on Good Friday they accompanied the 
&ther, clothed in sackcloth, and with crowns of tboiTis 
upon their heads, to erect a large cross upon a neigh- 
boming mountain ; the men scoui^ing themBelves with. 
disciplines, and the women shedding teal's of sorrow, as 
they went along. Then with Easter came a change in 
thaiT devotions ; and as they had liithei'to endeavoui^ 
to show their sonvw for sin, and their sympathy with, 
their Saviour by volnntaiy cliastiEemeut and penances, 
EO now, in the true spirit of the Church, they sought to 
unite tJiemselves to the Joy of His resurrection by join- 
ing in the procession of the Blessed Sacrament, crowned 
with flowers and clad in their richest and most costly 
apparel. The Blessed Sacrament was carried by Father 
Torres beneath a magnificent canopy; and as they 
neared the port, and the ships of Portugal fired a royal 
salute, the good old man buret into tears of joy, to 
thinlc how tiie cross of Christ was at length honoured, 
and His name adored, amid a people who, for so many 
ages, had set up the worst passions of the human heart 
as the objects of their wildest worship and moet pas- 
sionftte aaimration. 

Up to this time Sumitando seems to have taken no 
notice of the fethers, in order probably that he might 
avoid rousmg the jealousy of the bonzes; but he now 
paid a visit to Vocoiiuvo, and Father Ton'es immedi- 
ately waited on him, begging him to dine at their house, 
■ the king of Bongo was occasionally in the habit of 
, The invitation was graciously accepted , and the 




Portuguese merchants, wlio were at that time in port, 
not only helped the hospitaUty of the fathers by pre- 
paring; a magtiificent feast, but by wnitina; themselves 
on hia majesty as he sat at their table. This important 

T happily co 
ido to the c 

s almost ravished 
out of himself hy a picture of the Virgin Mother and 
her Divine Child, wliose hean^ exceeded any thing 
that he had ever hefore seen in his kingdom. 

One of the brothers conversed with him for some 
time on the sabject of the Christian law; and Father 
Torres presented him with a gilded fan which had been 
brought from Miako, and npon which was painted the 
Bacred Name of Jesus, with a cross above and three 
nails beneath. The ting eamestjy desu-ed to know the 
meaning of these cyphers ; and Brother Feruandes ex- 
plained to him that it was the sacred Name of Jesus, 
which Father Torres earnestly wished shoidd be en- 
graved on his majesty's heart, seeing that it contained 
many mysteries, the knowledge of which was needfiJ 
to s^vation. Simiitando took his leave; b\it in his an- 
xiety to know more, he was again at the father's liouse 
directly after siipper; and after giving him a short ex- 
plajiation of the creed, Brother Femandes told hira tie 
history of Constantine the Great, and ofthe cross which 
appeared in the skies when he was about to give battle 
to nis enemies. A king himself, and with the spirit of 
a hero burning in his bosom, the quick mind of Snmi- 
tando seized at once npon this story and made it his 
own. Before he left that night he had learned to make 
the sign of the cross ; and the nest morning he sent a 
nobleman to tell Father Ton-es that he would become a 
Christian as soon as an heir was bom to his crown; tliat 
to do BO before would only create disturbance, and 
hinder the real progress of religion; and therefore he 
besought him to pi-ay to God that his desire on this 
head might be speedily accomplished. In the meantime 
he craved leave to have a cross embroidered on his royal 
robes, in order to show that it was indeed engraven on 

,] WPAX. 45 

heart; for Bo groat was the reverence whicli he al- 
ly felt foi' the sign of our redemption, that without 
express permission to that etfect, lie would not ven- 
tui'e to cany it publicly about him. In order to esti- 
mate to the full the heroism of this request, we must 
bew in mind that tlic death of the cross was the worst 
punishment of the meanest felons in Japan, just as it 
had been in days of old amoa^ the Romans. It was, 
therefore, no trifling proof of smcerity in the converts, 
that they could bear to see tiiis emblem raised alofli 
in their churches; but that a king, and one, too, so 
lately instructed in the faitb, and who had not yet re- 
ceived the grace of baptism, should have reverenced it 
so highly as to wish to bear it upon his person, betokena 
sn inwai'd change such as notliing but a miracle of Di- 
vine grace could have effected. So it was, however, 
and having received a fovourable answer fi-om Father 
Torres, he caused a splendid cross of gold to be made, 
which he hung round his neck when he went to visit 
his brother the king of Arima, at whose court he spoke 
EG eloquently in favour of the true religion, that the 
latter also resolved to become a Christian as soon as he 
liad terminated a war in which he was then engaged. 

Some months after this, Sumitando once more made 
his appearance at Vocoxiuva, and in a private interview 
told Father Torres, that his queen havina; given him 
hopes of an heir to his crown, iie was resolved to defer 
his conversion no longer, and bad therefore come with 
thirty of his lords to ask tor baptism at his hands. 
.When the good father heard this declaration, he could 
^Qt refrain ftcm crying out with the aged Simeon, 

Now, Lord, Thou dost dismiss Thy servant according 

>Thy word, in peace ;" and then, following up the idea 
in his own words, he told the king, that since his life could 
never again give him such another joy as he was feel- 
ing at that moment, he would hence&rth ask nothing 

ore of God, save that he might soon depart in peace ; 

id for the rest, he earnestly prayed that his majesty 
prove in very deed the Constantine of Japan, 


riyalUng that emperor lienceforth in goodness, as he 
had hitherto done in courag;e. TLe greater part of 
that night Father Torres s])ent in the mligent instnic- 
tion 01 the royal neopbytjj and hia train ; and very 
early on the next morning these latter repaired to the 
church, where they found the father and hia asaiatants 
waiting to receive them. They first repeated the Credo 
upon their knees j then rising, they all extended their 
arms, as it is the custom of the Japanese to pray, aad 
Father Torres gave them a short but earnest exhor- 
tation ; ailer which he administered the sacrament of 
Baptism to them, beginning with the king. To the 
latter he gave the name of Bartholomew, by which 
title we always henceforth find him distinguished in the 
ecclesiastical annals of his kingdom. Then Sumitnndo, 
rising from his knees, bore testimony to the sincerity 
of those who had been baptised with him. Perhaps 
he feared that the lact of their being his attendants 
might cast suspicion on their motives in accompanying 
him to the font; and he therefore sought to anticipate 
the calumny hy pledging himself, with all the unsus- 
pecting frankness of ms nature, for their fiiture fidehtj 
to their religious engagements, assuring Father Torres, 
with an earnestness quite touching in an Eastern des- 
pot, that though he knew they loved him, yet was he 
very certain they would never have done for his sake 
what they had that day done for the sake of God. 
When he left the church on that memorable morning, 
Sumitando, or Bartholomew., as we must henceform 
call him, was so filled with the joy and consolation of 
the Holy Ghost, that he would willingly have passed 
days and nights in conversing upon spiritual matters 
with the lather; but war had been declared against 
tiim ns well as against his brother, and to his great 
regret he was obliged to depart at once. 

It was a sacred custom among the Japanese never 
to set out on a military expedition without having first 
demanded success of " Mantiffen," the god of war in 
Japanese mythology, a divinity usually represented as 

^KB. itl.] JAPAN. 47 

H^earing a lidmct, find having a cock with open wing;B 
^■Irjr way of a ci'eat. Tlie troops were reg^ularly drawn 
^ up before its temple, and every soldier salanraed cere- 
moniously, lowenng his arms and kissing his sttmdard 
as a token of horaogB and adoration. Great then, we 
are told, was the astonishment of all, when on the veiy 
evening succeeding his baptism, Bai-tholomcw rode up 
to the temple, and set his aiiny in bottle-ai'ray around 
it. They did not know his tlioughts; they did not 
know how the recollection of the heathenish idola- 
_ tries which he had himself foi-merly perpetrated before 
EL^ walls, so filled him with indi|niation ibr the de- 
^K^uded glory of the living God, that he came hither 
^Fflnly to trample and destroy. They knew it soon, how- 
^fjrerj for entering the temple nith some of his officers, 
^Re commanded the soldiei-s to break doivn the less 
^rwteemed idols, while he tiimself, seising on lUatitilfeii, 
f "Iiaoked and hewed at it with his own swoi-d, until he 
Iiad cut off its head. Arrived at the seat of war, he 
took care to profess himself a Christian, by wearing a 
white robe, upon which the Name of Jesus, a cross, and 
three nails (the favourite devices of his fan), were em- 
broidered in gold ; and whenever his more warlike ooen- 
pations would allow it, he occuiHed himself in instruct- 
mg any who asked it of him, li'om the highest officers 
to the lowest soldier of the army, in the mystei'ies of 
religion. These he afterwai'ds sent for baptism to the 
Jesuit iathers who visited the camp: and peace was 
no sooner restored, than he set about destiwymg all the 
idol temples in his dominions, witLout any regard to the 
murmurs of the bonzes, whose anger he had formerly 
been so anxious to deprecate. 

Every day also he fed great numbers of the poor of 
hia dominions, waiting upon them himself with a cha- 
rity which showed how completely the sweet hnmilitj' 
of the Christian had superseded the proud iastidions- 
sees of the princely heathen- A siaiilar feeling caused 
B^'bim likewise always to lay down hLs sword ana poniard 
H&mai'k of deep submission among the Japanese,) whetk- 


48 JAPAN. 

ever lie went to visit Father TuiTes; nor would he ever 
accejit of a seat sat apart irom tiie rest of the congre- 

gitioa ia church, remaing it on the ground that " all 
iiristians as Chriatians were equal to himself;" so in- 
tuitively had he seiaed upon that grand piinciple of tlie 
Chiistian law, which teaches that all men are alike 
in the sig'ht of Grod, eicepting; bo far as their own 
actions maj tend to raise or lower them in the scale. 
The queen's aversion to the faith was for a long; time 
the only cloud upon his joy; and when at length she 
declared herself desirous of instruction, he was so en- 
chanted, that in his warm-hearted zeal he went himself 
to Father Torres to acquaint Lim with the change. 

But not all the goodness and virtue of the king 
could reconcile a portion of his subjects to the destruc- 
tion of theu' idols, and the open scoi-n which he seemecLi 
to take pleasure in exhibiting' towards their superstitionsr,. 
On one occasion, when he was called upon to worsh^ 
the statue of his predecessor, as the king|s of Oninra 
had always heen in the habit of doing before him, ha 
was so indicant, that he di'agged it from its costly 
shrine and uade them cast it on the fire. Anoth^ 
time he gave great offence by refiisiag J 
perstitioua fenst which his countrymen used to offer oi 
a joai to their deceased relatives and friends. On 1 
eve of this festival, most of the citizens leave the town 
and ride forth to the place where the dead are supposed 
to assemble. There they courteously salute the spirits 
of the departed, inviting them to come and take some 
refreshment in the city; after which they return in 
company, the living ana the dead together: t!ie former ^| 
conversuig all the way as if they really believed the^l 
latter were ia their presence. The pi-ocession is headed ^B 
by torches, and the cityisOluminated in its honour; every ' 
house is gaUy lighted, and every table magnificently 
spread, places being carelidly left for the invisible guests ; 
for the Japanese imagine the soul to be still su&cientty 
material in its nature to I>e capable of deriving nom-ish- ~ 
meat from the more subtle poi-tions of the food. Afte^ 

JAPAN. 40 

dinner, they go and visit the tomljs of those whom they 
believe they have heea entertaining; ; the nig;ht ia spent 
R'Jn running to and &o throughout the city ; luid the next 
■ arening the souls ai'e reconducted in praoession to i 
phice whence they came. The whole coimtry is ligh: 
up, in order that they may not lose their way ; and the 
rooms where they are supposed to have heea are care- 
iiilly beaten with sticks, ostensihly to prevent any dull 
spirit from liugemg behind and so becoming embar- 
rassed as to how to regain its companions, but also, it 
voidd seem, &om an unwillingness to meet iooe to face 
a solitary ghost, at a moment when their courage was 
nnsupport^ by good cheer and numerous companions. 
It ia difficult to imagine a superstition more absurd in 
itself, or more likely to he productive of riot and dis- 
Lspation in its mode of celebration; hut although, in 
|,t^r to avoid any imputation of stinginess towards 
^the dead, Bartholomew fed in their stead some thou- 
tnds of the livmg poor of his dominions, he could not 
Beacape the indignation which the bonzes (the only real 
■losers by his depaiture from the ancient customs,) every 
E where escited against him. 

Rebellion is the natural consequence of such a state 
aling in any kingdom constituted hlte that of Ja- 
ft:pan. Accordingly certain lords of the court conspired 
L. to drive Bartholomew from the throne ; and in order to 
conceal their real design, tiiey feigned a desire of be- 
coming Christians. The king, however, could not be 
persuaded that men hitherto noted for their hatred of 
religion should so suddenly be inspired with a desire to 
embrace itj and he warned Father Tonnes ag;adnst re- 
ceiving them without long trial and pi-eparation. We 
are not told whether they ever went so far as really to 
Ksk for baptism ; but wUle the affair was pending, tliey 
Brranged every thing for the intended rchelhon, and the 
king of Firando was engaged to make war on Arima, in 
order to prevent that monarch from coming to the as- 
r instance of his brother. Father Toitps waa destined t< 
t,be the first victim ; tliey tiierefore persuaded the king 


50 JAPAN. 

that he ought to be invited to the approaching baptism 
of the queen, and Dun Lewis, a Christian nobleman, 
was sent to invite him. The feast of the Assumption 
was close at hand when Le arrived at Vocoiiuva, and 
on that day Father Torres was t« take his final vows 
as a Jesuit. Being far advanced in years, and very 
anxious to set the seat on hia rehgioua profession before 
he died, he resolved not to depart for Omura until aAer 
he had done so. On the appointed day the church was 
crowded both with natives and Portuguese to witness 
tlie ceremony ; and when the venerable old man, whom 
many among them bad seen grow grey in the sei-vice of 
the mission, tell on his knees before Father Froes, and 
pronounced bis vows with many teare, and all the fer- 
Toui' of one who is accomplishing the last desires of hia 
heai-t, none could refrain irom joining theu' tears wit^j 
hia. Immediately afterwards Father Froes fell iU^! 
which caused the departure of Father Torres to be agaia ' 
deferred. The conspirators in consequence bi 
alarmed ; and Don Lewis being despatched once mora 
with a most urgent message, Father Torres resolved 
to start the nest morning. But while recommending 
his journey that day in the Mass to God, he felt a su£. 
den desire to put it off a third time ; and Lewis was. 
again obliged to depart without him. 

The devout marvelled, and many Ohiistians were 
almost scandalized, thinking the old man was grown 
weary of labom- ; but the event showed that a higher 
than human wisdom had thus arranged it; for on hk 
way back, Lewis was attacked by the conspiratore, who, 
never doubting that Father ToiTes was in his com- 
pany, out the whole party to pieces without mercy, 
and then marching back to Omura, openly unfurlea 
the standard of revolt. Bartholomew was besieged in 
his own palace ; but brave, strong, and full of confi- 
dence in that God whose cause was identified with hia 
own, he cut his way sword in hand through bis ene- 
mies, and sought a temporary reAige in a forest near 
the city. There he lay, concealed alike from 


^gek. III. 

JAPAN. 51 

and {oe, nud only cared for by a poor Chinese, wl»o 
brought liim his daily food; but escaping afterwards 
to a Ibrtress lpiu' Omura, he was instantly beleaguered 
by tlie army of the rebels. The betttr to palliate tUeir 
conduct, they offered to lay down thuir anas if he 
would renounce the " u[»tart relig;iou" which he had 
embraced, and forbid it for the fiitui-e thi-ouffhout his 
domiuioiis ; but he boldly sent them word Uiat they 
might rob him of his kmgdom, but not of Ms faith ; 
for that he valued the Ci-oas aboye the crown, the title 
of Christian above that of king; nevertheless, that 
they should not conquer without a struggle ; for he 
was resolved to hold out to the last, nothing doubting 
bnt that in the end the God in whom ne trusted 
would grant bfni the victory over all his foes. 

Sucn an answer was not likely to concthate his 
enemies, who now pushed the siege with redoubled 
Y^ur. But Bartholomew held bravely out; he knew 
~|ot that any one was coming to his assistance, yet he 
mid certainly have died hghting on the ramparts, 
Uier than have yielded an inch of ground to his assail- 
8nch was the state of a3airs on botjj sides, when 
loming an army in battle-array was seen slowly 
a; down the distant hills. For a time, there was 
id ho]>e and aniious questioning on either side 
I to which party the advancing hosts were intended 
to reheve. But Bartholomew at least was not long 
in doubt: he knew the stendanl to be his father's. 
The old man hunself was coming to his aid; ibr, 
sternly as he hated the Christian creed, he would not 
€!Onsent to see the crown torn from the brow of his 
son by men whose pretended zeal for the rehgion of 
liieir mthers was, as old Xengandono was well assured, 
nothing but a mask for the concealment of their own 
BinhitioDS designs. Bartholomew, encouraged by his 
father's approach, imfurled his standard emblazoned 
with the Cross, and oonfideatly promising victory to 
' ' ! men beneath that all-conquermg sign, nished out 
I the foe. Xengandono fell upon them at the 

Eame moment from Ijehind ; and tlins attacked both in 
t'rant .ind reai', the reliels soon fled in dismay, leavings 
Bai-tlioloraew not only master of the field, iiut undis- 
puted monarch of the kingdom of Omura, 

The fii-st use Bartholomew made of his recovered 
authority was to reward the poor Chinese, who had 
been faithful to him when hia fortunes were at the 
worst. Hia second was to settle the Jesuits at Nan- 
gaaaki ; for recent events seem to have ffiven him a 
sort of insight into the futui*, and the facilities offered 
by this seaport town for escape fram Japan in case 
of necessity, made it, he thouo^ht, a desirable residence 
for the iathei-s. 

Encouraged by liis brother's example, the king of 
Arima soon afterwards became a Christian ; and he would 
have proceeded to repress idolatry throughout his domi- 
nions, had not Grod, whose designs are inscmtable, taken 
him out of the world while yet in the lirst fervour and 
innocence of his baptismal regeneration. He died in 
sentiments of the deepest gratitude tor the blessing he 
hEtd jiist received, and embracing the emcifix wliich 
the bonzes vainly strove to tear from his dying gmsp. 
Unfortunately his son was stiU a mere child ; and for 
a time, at least, his infidel tutors compelled h'm both to 

Eersecute Cliristianity and worship idols ; but at length, 
is uncle Bartholomew interfering, he not only became 
a most zealous Christian, but a munificent benefactor 
to the religion he had embraced. This, however, did 
not occur until many years after the death of his fatber; 
for it was only in 1580 that he received baptism at the 
hands of the visitor-general of the Japanese missions, 
and in the same year ):e founded a college and semi- 
naiT in the city of Arima; the one for the Jesuit fathers, 
the other for the youthful nobility of the kingdom, 
whose education he fi'om that time forward placed 
under their immediate superintendence. 

With equal variations of fortune, though without 
any such decided co-operation oa the jmrt of the courty 
Christianity was about the same time introduced ii '""* 

JAPAN. 53 

the kingdom of Goto. The king himself was the first to 
ask for misaionaiies from Father ToiTea, — a proceeding 
by no means uncommon in tiie early annals of i-eligion 
in Japan; for the Chi'istiau law wi-ought such a change 
for the better in the morals of tlie people (as the king 
of Satzuma, himself a heathen, explicitly declared in 
fais letter to the provincial), tliat many sovereigns, haw- 
ever unwilling to submit themselves to its restraints, 
were yet anxious enough to impose tliem on tlieii- 
Bubiects. Father ToiTes happened to have no priest 
at his immediate disposal at the moment when this 

>j»qaest was made ; so he sent Almeida and Lewis, two 
Jesuit brothers, instead. They anived in the city of 
Goto in the year 1566, and wei'e most graciously re- 
-ceived at the palace; a couple of saloons were aiTanged 
fiir their public audience, separated ii-om each other 
by a thin screen of tapestry, behind which the qneen 
and her ladies could see and bear without bein"^ seen ; 
and there, in the presence of four hundred lonGi, with 
the king himself seated on Ms tbi'one, Lewis preached 
aa;ainst the plui-alify of gods with so much iorce and 
eloquence, that the audience was mute with amaae- 
ment, and the king himself only ventm'ed to express 
his delight by slight gestm'es of the band. When 
this brother bad finished speaking, Almeida rose, and 
(fffei-ed to answer any objections tiiat might be made 
* 'nst the discourse; but the king, replying in the 
e of all, declared with a burst of genuine emotion. 
lat "he believed in one God, Creator and Loi-d of all 
B ;" and rising instantly from his throne, the as- 
iBIy was dis-iiolved. Uniortunately, that veiy even- 
toe kmg fell ill ; and the bonzes every where pro- 
led his illness to be a proof that their gods wero 
lot stocks and stones, as the brothers had declared, 
Imt on the contrmy, tJie mighty dispensers of bfe and 
Rdeath, who now infiicted this pimishmont on tiie kiqg 
■fcr having lent a favourable ear to the blaspbemei-s 
-f theb power. They said that some counter-cbai-m 
IS needed to undo the spell which the encbantei's (for 



such they teimed the Jesuit Li-othersi) bad put Ttpon die 
monarch; 6o the sacred books of Xaca were liroug'ht 
in grand procession irom the t«inp!e, and a few pas- 
sages, accompanied by sundry stntng;e contortioiia of 
the body, were read ovei' the sick man. The brothers 
awaited the eyent with considerable anxiety ; for if, on 
the one hand, the ting now recovered, it would be at- 
tributed to the incan&tions of the bonzes, while if, on 
the other, he died, the odium woidd infallibly be cast 
upon them, and they would run no small risk of being 
torn in pieces by tiie people, who wei-e passionately 
attached to theii' sovereign. la this emergency they 
had recourse to God, who alone coidd extricate them 
from their dilemma; and while at prayer, Almeida 
thought an interior voice spoke to his soul, bidding 
bim go himself and heal the king, putting all his 
confidence in Heaven. He followed this suggestion, or 
inspiration, call it which you will; and having soma 
knowledge of medicine from his long attendance in the 
hospitals, went boldly to the palace and ofiered to 
prescribe. The patient was none the better for the 
rehgious ceremonies of the bonzes ; so aa i ' 
Bonrce Almeida's assistance was thankfully 
and with such good success, that five days afterwards^ 
recovery was complete. The queen and the ; 
prince went themselves to thank him for his services^ ] 
and the king gave him leave to continue his sermons. 
But the superstitious fear excited by the bonzes bad 
not yet subsided; and they took such good care to 
keep it alive, that the people unanimously refused to. 
attend. Almeida therefore wished to depart; but un-r, 
wilhng to lose him, the king issued a proclamation,J 
not only commanding the attendance of his subject^* 
but promising to assist himself with his eldest son at ' 
the conferences of the Christian bonzes. This put 
an effectual check to the panic: conversions followed 
thick and last upon the renewal of the sermons ; and 
the country was m a fair way of being converted alta- i 
gethar, when the revolt of one of his vassals compelW 

spted, ^H 




at ^ 

rthe king to summon bis troops to oppose tim. Before 
miiB took the field, lie wished the officers to swear fide- 
1 Jity afte the idolatrous feshion of Japan ; that is to 
1 Bay, by [lartaking of wine which had been ofiered to 
I tiie idols, with heavy imprecations against any one 
li&iliDg; in allegiance. The general-in'cnief was Imnself 
a Christian; and in order to comply with the custom, 
and yet at the same time tn save his conscience, he 
said aloud on taking the ciip, that he was only g^oing 
to drink his majesty's health; but another less com- 
promisiog spirit, knowing how many might lie led 
astray by such an example, sternly 6ade him beware 
how he drank of that idolatrous mixture; and then 
turning to the king, be frankly told him "that such 
an oath was considered itnlawiiul by the Christians; 
but that if they were allowed to swear by the true 
God and Lord of all things, they would one and all 
fight for him to the very Uat drop of their blood, and 
neither fear nor interest should force them from their 
allegiance." Tlie king, so far from being offended by 
this generous ireedom of speech, instantly gave the 
permission demanded, and the Christians took an oath 
of fidehty in presence of Brother Almeida ; who then 
gave to each a little picture of our Lord and His Bles- 
sed Mother, exhorting them to do their duty bravely 
luid to call with conndence upon these holy names in 
the hour of battle. The combat that soon afterwards 
ensued was long and bloody ; but it ended in favour 
of the king, who had good cause to oongratulate him- 
self on his toleration towards bis Christian soldiers; 
since the very heathens were fain to confess, that to 
their courage and conduct the glories of the day were 
principaliy owing. 

After this event the converts became more than ever 
I anxious to have a priest resident among them ; and in 
L compliance with theii' wishes, Father John Baptist de 
I Honti was sent to tbem. He baptised Prince Lewis, 
I the king's eldest son, and was soon afterwards succeeded 
I <Hi the mission by Father Alexander Valignaa, 'sWi t 

ceived into tlie Clmrcli the wife of that prince, 
seventeen of her ladies. The bonzes were fiuioiia at this 

important accession to the ranks of a religion which 
they detested ; and they threatened the king so openly 
with reheUion, that although in tJie first instance he had 
-offered no opposition to liis son, ha now strongly urged 
l>TTii either to renounce the faith altogether, or at least 
to conceal it for a time ; adding, hy way of inducement 
to this coui'se, that he might still remain a Christian at 
heart, even while outwardly complying with the ohserv- 
ances of the heathens. To this advice the young piince 
nobly replied, " That much as he regretted bemg a 
cause of annoyance or danger to his fiither, yet he 
should be unworthy to be called his son, if, through any 
baseness or want of courage, he dared not opienly profess 
what he inwardly believed ; and that as he would far 
rather forfeit his kingdom than betray his faith, so he 
was quite willing, if nothing less woidd content the 
rebels, to give up both that and his life in the quar- 
rel." The king ndraired this courage ; but he had not 
strength of mind to imitate it, and an edict was issued 
commanding all his subjects under pain of death to re- 
turn to the worship of the idols. By this decided mea- 
sure he hoped to appease the discontented bonzes, and 
to shame his son into following the example of the other 
Christians, who would, he never donbted, gladly save 
their lives at the expense of their religion. No sooner, 
however, was the sentence published than the converts 
flocked in crowds to the church, as a sort of public 
protestation against any denial of their faith; and Don 
Lewis himself took hia station in the porch, thus en- 
couraging tiiem to martjTdom Iwth by words and ex- 
ample. Father Valignan preached to them from the 
pulpit on the same subject ; and when he told tliem of 
the mai-tyrs of the primitive Church, their enthusiasm 
was excited to such a pitch, that, as if with one voice, 
all that mighty midtitude exclaimed, "they would d' 
in the cause." The very children sbai'ed in the gener 
enthusiasm J and, dressed in their best appai'el, tliey ii 

^M CB. ttt.] JAPA.V. G7 ^M 

^H eisted on remaining in the cliurcli, hoping thus to attain ^H 
^H with tlieii' jiarenta to the honoui's of martyrdont. One ^H 
^V little fellow cliinp; to his mother, crying, " Do not die ^H 
^^ vrithout me, for I also will go to heaven ;" and another ^^ 
told Father Valignan, "that if the soldiers sought to 
kill him fii'st, he would place himself hetwixt them and 
the father, so that they could not pierce the one with- 
out destroying' the othei'." ^H 
When the king heard that Don Lewis was with the ^^ 
other Christians in the church, he was sorely puzzled; ^H 
for he neither dared to put his foi-mer threat^ into exe- ^H 

Icution, lest his own son should he involved in the mas- ^H 
sacre, nor yet could lie allow his authority to bo thus ^H 
Bet at defiance with impunity. He was still wavering ^H 
between the two extremes, when Father Valignan stood ^| 
st the foot of his throne to plead the Christians' cause, ^| 
snd like the good shepherd of the gospel, to offer his ^H 
own life tor that of his Hock. He tnid the king that if ^H 
the Christians indeed were criminal for adoring one true ^^ 
God and one only, he must he much more guilty for 
having induced them to do so ; and therefore he prayed 
his majesty to be content with his life, and to spare the 
blood of his own sabjects and children, whom he would 
always find the foi'emost to obey him, so Iwig as no- 
thing was demanded against God. and their conscience. 
The kin* was much touched by this generous proposal; 
I hut he had not the strong mind of a Bartholomew 
I to decide for himselij ana therefore laid the matter 
|i before the council of his noMes. Happily they also 
I were struck with admiration at the magnanimity of the 
I father ; and courage being prized by them above all other 
[ Tirtiies, they unanimously resolved not to condemn a 
I inan who had thus fearlessly offered to sacrifice his 
I life for the good of the people. No one was better 
E pleased with this decision than the king himself; and 
1 thus encouraged by his nobles, and naturally inclined 
'o mercy, he rescinded his late edict against the Chris- 
iana, and peace and joy were restored to the kingdom. 
His son soon afterwards succeeded him on tba 

58 JAPAN. 

throne^ and no further religious persecution took place 
at Goto until after the death oi that prince^ an event 
only too speedily followed by those imperial edicts 
issued at Miako, beneath which the entire fabric of the 
Christian Church, so recently given to Japan, was des- 
tined to be then, and to this very houi*, totally sub- 



of Ftttbera Ton-6a and Villala. Father Cabral appointed 
the Miiuani!. In Omura Christiaait}' is formall; ra- 
the religion of the State. CoQTeraion of the Mmond 
nepliew of the King of Bongo. The Queen threateaa 
he Fatheni. Conyetsion of the King, who abdicates 
in faronr of his son, ConTenion of the King of Arims. An 
to the Pope is delermined upon. 

. . HiLE Christianity was making gradual progress at 
Miako under the piHitection of Nobunanga, nud was vet 
more rapidly becomings tlie dominant rehg^on in other 
kjngdoms of the countiT, beneath the faith or fayour of 
their respective monarcns, each and oil of these flouriah- 
Dtissions were destined to sustain a heavy blow, in 
death of him to whom they might almost he said 
have owed their existence; for if St. Francis Xavier 
s won the title of its founder, surely Father Torres 
may as emphatically he styled the nursing-father of 
the young Church of Japan. During the twenty years 
and npwiu^ which he laboured in that country, he had 
imited the austere virtues of an anchorite with the 
active labours of a missionary' a life; makbg his iimit> 
merahle journeys burefoot, even in the depth of winter, 
and never in all that leagtli of years using any other 
food than roots and hei'hs, or rice boiled inwatflr. But 
he who had baptised 30,000 infidels with his own hand, 
who had founded fifty cliurches, besides many semina- 
ries and colleges for the better dissemination of the 
iaith, had long been sinking beneath tlie labours which 
these multifarious offices entailed, and the austerity of 
life hj which they had bees accompaoied. Year after 
year he had written to Rome, imploi'ing a successor in ths 
conduct of the missions ; and when at length, in 1570, 
iPftther Cabral landed at Sequi in that capacity, tha 


60 JAPAN-. 

Baintly old mnn wLom lie superseded coidd only soy 
agaio, as be had said before, on another but scarcely 
to him more joyful occasion, "IVow, Lord, Thou dost 
dismiss Thy seiTant, accoiiiing to Thy word, m peace." 
And in peace indeed he went, with the thoughts of the 
thousanaa he bad given to God to gild the memories of 
the past, and sbed a glowing gloiy on his eternal 
fiitnre ; at a moment, too, when the star of the Church 
of Japan was at ita brightest, and befoi'e one of its rays 
had been quenched in that sea of blood in which all ittj 
beauty and its radiance were destined finally to set. 
Heaven in its mercy took him to his rest while yet reli- 
gion was tolerated at Miako, and more than tolerated, 
even cherished and supported, by the monarch of Bongo ; 
when Omui-a bad almost declared itself Christian, and 
Arima and Goto only awaited a favourable moment to 
do the same. With the prospect before him of succBssea 
Bucb as these to crown the cause for which ha had toiled 
and suffei-ed, lived and died, surely the prayer of his 
heart must have been fulfilled, and his end must have 
been iiill of peace. He was taken ill only a few weeks 
after the arrival of his successor, — as if he had but waited 
that event for the consummation of liis own sacrifice; 
and having' prepared himself by a general confession 
for the reception of the last sacraments, he was carried 
fiont the church, where the holy viaticum had been ad- 
ministered, to hia chamber, — there, amid the tears and 
lamentations of his rehgious, to yield hia pm'e soul to 
God, ou the 2d of October, 1570. He was buried at 
Sequi, where he died, and his panen:]Tic was preached 
by Father Villela; but perhaps his best eulogium may 
be found in the fact, that of all the Jesuit UoUeffe at 
Goa, every one of whose members had offered them- 
selves to accompany St. Francis, the Saint had singled out 
Father Torres as the most worthy to share in the merits 
and labours of the new mission of Japan. His death 
had been preceded about foui' years by that of John Fer- 
nandez, the blather chosen by St. Frsmcis as his second 
associate in tlie enterprise, and to whom the Japanese 



Churcli was nearly as mucli indebted for its early pro- 
gress and prosperity; and it was followed a few months 
afterwords by that of Father Villela, who had been re- 
called from Japan only to expire in India, exhausted by 
labour even more than by years. 

Father Cabral commenced his mission as Superior 
by a general visitation of the several churches, going' 
first to Miako, and fixim thence to Mino, where Nobun- 
angfl, then at the zenitli of his sreatness, received him 
with courtesy and kindness. From Mino he passed 
tm tfl Facata, and from thenee to Amano^chi, the 
Christians of both places hailing; his arrival witli ex- 
(sseding deliffht. The inhabitants of the latter city weifl 
among' the first converts of St. Francis Xavier; and 
fliough it was fiill twenty years since they had even seen 
a priest, they had preserved in all their original fresh- 
ness and fervour the sentiments of rehffion they had 
imbibed from their teacher. Being without any suit- 
able building as a public church, a private ebaiwl had 
* arranged in the house of one of the faitliJiil, and 

, they assembled every- Sunday and holiday ibr 

prayer, pious reading, and the collecting of alms for the 
relief of the poor ; and it is well worthy of observation, 
tiiat undei- God much of this happy state of things was 
owing to the diligent exertions ot a poor Wind man, who, 
as he earned his bread by playing the flute fi-om door 
to door, had many oppoitunities Iwth of kindling the 
iaith in hearts where as yet it had no existence, or of 
i-ekindling it in those where it had bepiin to grow cold. 
Many others, poor hfce himself in oil but caarityand 
iaith, were associated with him in this labour of'^love ; 
and aa an instance of the wonderiiil blessino; which at- 
tended their efforts in the cause of religion, Father 
Cabral tells us of a nobleman who came to be baptised 
during this very visitation, and who fiimkly acknow- 
ledged that he owed his conversion to the instructions 
_ofa poor man, on itinerantvendorofcombs and needles, 
f the comb-selling 


■ able 



1 pomt 


ttpon religion in every house wUioh he visited witli Ha 
wares ; and this nobleman, happening to Lear him one 
day speaking' on the subject, was so much struck by 
tie force of his reasoning', that on his return home he 
immediately cast ail his idols into the fire. His triends 
were gready alarmed, for they thought he must be 
mad; but, with a siirer instinct, the bonzes miessed 
that he was about to become a Christian, and made 
their complaint to the governor of the city. Fortu- 
nately the governor was no friend of the bonzes ; for 
he only lauc^hed at their indig;natian, and dismissed tha 
accused with a iriendly admonition to do his duty by 
the state, whatever might chance to be his i-eligions' 

Numbers of similar or still more extraordinary con- 
versions occurred both before and during Father Cabral's 
residence at Amanguchi ; nor had he less cause to be 
satisfied with the pnigregs which religion was making 
in the kingdom of Omui-a. It is true, indeed, that 
Bartholomew had only just succeeded in quelling a 
eeoond insmTection, less formidable than the first, yet 
having its origin in the same inveterate hatred of the 
Christian religion; but never for a moment had he 
wavered in the iaith, or lost trust in himself or con- 
fidence in God. " Now we shall conquer," he exclaimed, 
on hearing that the rebels had set fire to a church; 
" for they make wai' upon God, not upon us. Now we 
shall conquer." And so, indeed, it proved. The rebel- 
lion was completely crushed ; and, more powerful tlian 
ever, Bartholomew went publiclv to meet Father Cabral, 
and to conduct him iu triurapTi to the capital of his 
kingdom. A less resolute character might have been 
deterred by these repeated insurrections from any for- 
ther prosecution of his desi°jns ; hut Bartholomew only- 
found in them fresh motives for ra-omoting the interests o£ 
Almighty God, to whose especial interposition he attri-'' 
buted his victories. No soonei', therefore, was he rran^ 
stated on his throne, than, assembling the great council 
of the nation, he told them without any circumlocution 



that it was his will that all tlie idols in liia dominions 
should be destroyed; for that he should be the most 
nngratefiil of creatures, if he any longer permitted such 
an insult to be offered to God, alter the sipial protec- 
tion he had just received at His Lands. ■ Tiie princes 
readily agreed to the proposal ; and thus Omura was 
the fii-st kin^om in Japan where Christianity was for- 
mally recon^iised as the reKgion of the state, and ido- 
latry altt^ether abolished. A magniiicent church was 
buift in meraorv of this event ; and after Father Gabral 
had baptised tne queen and tlie remaining; members of 
the royal family, he retm-ned to Bongo, whither he 
had been recalled by a special messenger from court. 

Though the king; of that country had hitherto al- 
ways refused to become a Christian ; though he had 
studiously absented himself titim the pubUc iustructions 
of the fathers, and liad even resolutdy apphed himself 
to the study of the dtilerent sects among the bonzes (m 
hopes, as he afterwai-ds acknowledged, of finding suffi- 
cient reason among them to pt^clude ttie necessity of 
changing his creed), — vet he had never ceased to favour 
the progiwM of the Christion rehgion throughout his 
dominions, nor withdrawn that protection from the mis- 
flionaries which, from his fiiendship for St. Francis, he 
had accorded in the beginning;. Even when he himself, 
during: the earUer pait of their residence at Funay, was 
driven from thence by an insurrection of his loi'ds, 
and the fathers who remained in the city did so at the 
PBitI of their lives, being openly threatened with death 
oy the bonzes of the victorious pai-ty, yet he did not 
forsake them. If he could no longer protect them, at 
least he did what he could to show hie feelinn;8 in their 
favour by repeated messages of sympathy andkindness; 
and no sooner had he regained possession of the city, 
than, utterly regardless of popular opinion, he went at 
once to the Jesuit College, and invited himself to cele- 
brate his triumph by ajning with the fathers. The 
■^ !t of such an intimacy might easily have been fore- 
though he himself had not yet resolved ii^icm 

64: JAFAX. 

changing Lis relig;ion, otliers of his fumilj were idotb 
ojwn to conviction ; and when, according to the cuatom 
of the country, he wished his second son to become a 
bonze, the young' prince indignimtly refused, alleging 
that he was a Christian in heurt already, and would 
sooner die than be made a partaker in the hypocrisy of 
that idolatrous priesthood. The queen, whose hatj'eJ 
of every thing Christian had won Eer the loiriguet of 
Jezabel the second, was furious ; but the kinp was far 
leas angry than perplexed. He had already built a mag- 
nificent monastery, and set aside vast revenues for the 
maintenance of tne future bonze ; and more than all, 
he felt that his people would look to him for the enforce- 
ment of the law. Yet lie loved his son most passion- 
ately ; and having: the highest opinion of the Christian 
code of morality, he was satisfied that should the boy 
become a Christian, be would in all probabiHty be &r 
more submissive to his elder brother (the state reason 
for making him a bonze) than if compelled against bis 
will to enter the priesthood of a reUgioa in which he no 
longer bebeved. Accoi-dingly, Father Cabral was re- 
coiled from Omura, the young prince was intrusted to 
Ids care for instruction, and not very long alter he 
was pubbcly baptised in the church at Vosuqui, the 
king' nia fetlier being present at the ceremony, and re- 
maining uncovered and on his knees during the whole 
of the service; after which he celebrated the event the 
same evening by a magnificent banquet. But the 
queen was implacable. She sent hei' son word that 
he m.ust no longer consider himself as her child, forbid- 
ding him even to appear in her presence ; but Sebastian 
(for this was the name the yoimg prince had tJiken in 
baptism) only answered, " That he was indeed grieved 
at her resolution ; but that lie trusted the Mother of 
God would benceibilh supply ber place, so that be 
should certainly be no loser oy the change." 

The conversion of one so young in yeai'S and so 
high in rank made a deep impression, and was speedily 
fbUowed by many other conversions, both among the 

native nobilitv and the t 

ijal princes of the adjoining 

„ , and the citv was soon ediiied by the 
visible change which took place in their manners. The 
better to keep ahve this their tirst zeal and fervour, the 
fathers formed about til^ of them into a congregation 
under the name and title of our Blessed Lady. They 

met every Sunday and holiday for devotional purposes ; 
after which they held a kind of debating society, " 
putin^ for and against the Christian religion, ana ui 

for this purpose all the objections and sophistries of the 
bonzes. By this means they soon acquired so great a 
facility in answering the arguments of their opponents, 
that it was said none of the latter would enter the lists 
against them ; and when the king's eldest son put this 
to the test by setting several of the most learned of the 
bonzes to argue with his own Christian pa^e, he was 
obliged to confess, though a heathen himself, that the 

Kter had won the day. 
The queen's veiation at the conversion of her son 
s greo^y increased by that of her adopted nephew, 
lioh followed almost immediately afterwards. The 
1 of a nobleman at Hiako, this yoimg luan had early 
been adopted by her brother Cbicata, find in this posi- 
tion had BO entlrelv won the esteem both of the queen 
and her husband, tbat they were on the point of giving 
biTn one of their daughters in marriage, when no re- 
vealed his intention of becoming a Christian. At first 
Chicata made no opposition ; but ui^ed at length by 
tlia fttry of the queen, he took advantage of the ab- 
sence of the king on a hunting expedition to send for 
the youth, and gave bim his choice, — either to renounce 
Christianity, or to return to liia private station at Miako. 
"" t perfect was the spirit of self-sacrifice in which this 
Idiy-minded proposition was met bj his adopted son. 
IS grievea," be said, " at the sorrow of his iatber. 
this very thing hod too long withheld him from 
er declaration of his feebngs. But now, if it 
must be, he waff ready to renounce all ; — the af- 

fection of his father, a marriage and position whi 
princes might have envied, and to return to the f 
and lowly lot from whence he had been tak " 

orldly happiness or advantage could be put 
tition with his duty to hia God." But having' said t&i 
much in vindication of his conscience, Chicatora im- 
plored his father in the most tender and affectionate 
terms not to diive him fi-om his side, but rather, like 
a true parent, to prefer his eternal interests to those 
which were merely temporal, by assei'ting; his ri°^ht to 
choose for himself in a matter which related solely to 
ttie former ; and he concluded this touching addi'ess by 
a solemn promise that on all other subjects his father 
should receive from him even more than the duty and 
obedience of a child. Chicata was moved by these 
generous sentiments; but his sister leaving hi m little 
choice, Chicatora was sent to prison, and carefully ex- 
cluded from all communication with the Jesuit fathers. 
Notwithstanding their vigilance, howevei', Father Cabral 
contrived to send him a letter, exhorting bim to pei"se- 
rerance ; and by the same means Chicatora conveyed 
him an answer, expressive of his soiTowfiil anxiety lest 
he should die, or be put to death, without baying bad 
the happiness of being bajitised. For a whUe he was 
left in prison; but aftei-wards the queen and her brother 
recallea him to court, where they did their utmost to 
compensate by indulgence for the ill-treatment he had 
hitbei'to received at their hands ; nay, in the hope of 
shaking his resolution, they, with the most cruel mge- 
nuity, tried each opposite metliod in turn ; one wMle 
tempting bim to despair by renewed severities, at ano- 
ther endeavouring to seduce him fivm his iidehty by 
the allurements of criminal pleasure. 

One day, while thus at liberty and exposed to 
the last and far more dangcTOus temptation — that of 
sensual indulgence, he rushed to Father Cabi-al, con- 
juring liim by all that was sacred no longer to defer 
"his baptism ; and the fether, feeling indeed that in buA* | 
a perilous position he would not be justified in refusii 

JAPAS. 67 

a grace which waa so iniicb needed and so urgrently 
asked for, at onne complied with his request. It was 
the eve of St, Moi'k, but Chicatora waa baptised by 
the name of Simon, which in Chinese sigfmfies "in- 
structed by a master." In the excess of his joy, be 
tiiviE^essed the bounds of prudence by appe^ng at 
court immediately afterwards with a rosary, as a kind 
of profesBion of Faith, suspended from his neck. TJie 
queen took fire at this open defiance of her will ; Simon 
was once more sent to prison; and Chicata went to 
Father Cabral, imploring him to persuade the boy to 
conceal his religion for a while, promising, in his own 
name and in that of the queen, all sorts of favours in case 
of compliance, and threatening death to the fathers and 
destruction to their chtu'cbes u they refused. To all this 
Father Cabral answered, " That he would rather shed 
the last drop of his blood, and see every Christian 
church in the kingdom reduced to ashes, than counsel 
Or sanction so impious a treachery; that as to being 
allnred by his promises or moved by his threats, the 
Jesuits bad not left the riches and pfeasnrea of Europe 
to seek those of Japan ; voluntary poverty was the 
portion which they had chosen for themselves upon 
earth ; their only real treasure was in heaven ; and 
should he have a mind to put them in possession of 
that, he need not be at the trouble of assembling hia 
troops, for that the fathers would always be found at 
home, both ready and wiUing to die the moment he 
signified his wishes to that effect." 

Chicata retired in a great fiiry ; and, fiiUy beheving 
that he meant to put his threats into execntion. Father 
Cabral assembled bis brethren in chnrch, there solemi^ 
to offer to God the sacrifice of their lives whenever lie 
should choose to demand it at theii' hands. His an- 
ticipation proved coiTect. Chicata almost immediately 
afterwards ordered out his troops, giving them an es- 
pecial warrant for the massacre of the fathers ; but 
' "■ [OUTS of his proceedings had already gone through 

cdt^, and the church was speedily surrounded by a 

68 JAPAK. 

body of Christian cavaliers, who came armed to the 
teetn to defend or to die with their spiritual fathers. 
The Jesuits would wiUinglj have declined their as- 
sistance; hut to every remonstrance tie high-spirited 
soldiers only replied, "that they were come, not to rob 
the fathers of the crown of martyrdom, but to shai'S it 
with them ; that the king' not bemg there to decide be- 
tween them, and Chicata being a mere private indivi- 
dual like themselves, they neither could nor would allow 
him to insult with impunity Giod and His Church." 

It was vain to oppose them, so they wei'e suffered 
to remain at the post which they had chosen ; hut by 
this time the same entbnsiHfiin Lad spread Jar and wide 
throughout the city, and at an early hour of the night 
the watchers in the church were again disturbed by a 
loud knocking at the gates, No one doubted but that 
the enemy were come. The cavaliers sought their 
arms; the fathers prostrated themselves before the 
altar; but on opening the doors, the disturbers proved to 
be only a number ofladifis of the highest rank, who had 
come as Christians to die with their fethera, brothers, 
and husbands in the church. Such an action would 
have been a wondei-fid display of courage and fidslity 
any where ; but in Japan, wliere women are brought up 
in all the jealousy of eastern seclusion, thus to coma in 
the darkness of the night, without attendants, and 
through unfrequented streets, in quest of martyrdom, 
showed a courage aa marvellous to the heathen as it 
was edifying to the Christian, and which afterwards 
proved abundantly fruitfid in the conversion of the 
former. Of course the fathers did what they could to 
induce them to go home ; but with no better success 
than they had had with their lords. Sebastian, bow- 
ever, the king's son, they at last succeeded in persuad- 
ing to retire ; though he did so only with the intention 
of returning the instant the church should be attacked. 

It is not told U8 whether Chicata rejjented of his 
hasty resolution of vengeance, or wbethei- he was afraid 
of putting it into execution after these public demonstra- 

i; but it is certain that the lUisault wliich he con- 
mplated never took place; and while vainly^ waiting 
T it, Sebastian contrived to have aa inten-iew with 
They met by appointment at a place outside 
the city, the royal prince coming to the interview with 
a train of noble cavaliers, the poor prisoner attended 
only by a couple of pases. They had long been united 
by the closest bonds of fiiendship ; and the meeting of 
iJavid and Jonathan, those matchless friends of Scnp- 
ture, could hardly have been more affecting. Simon, 
who was still almost a boy, wept as he mourned over 
the severitj of his father, and implored his friend, by 
the bonds of rehgion, the ties of friendship, and every 
thing he held satred, to assist him in bis miBeralile con- 
dition. Sebastian promised all; and then they parted, 
the one to his voluntary prison, and the other to the 
palace. There, with the lament of Simon yet ringing 
in his ears, Sebastian spoke so openly and vehemently 
of the cruelty practised on his finend, that, between 
Taxation and alarm, the queen and her brother des- 
patched a messeRo;er to the king, accusing the fathers 
of having inducea the people to conspire against him, 
and to set Sebastian on the throne in his stead. 

The yomig prince bearing of this, thought it neces- 
sary to go to riis father, both for his own justification 
ana that of the Jesuits; on his arrival, however, at the 
king's hunting-ground, the latter assured him tliat all 
esplEination wna unnecessary, since he knew too well 
the good conduct of the fathere to believe any thing 
evil against them. On the other hand, the only answer 
which he vouchsafed to the messenger of his queen was 
conohed in the shape of a stem rebuke to her brother, 
whom he commanded instantly to release Simon from 
~ ' )on and restore him to the palace ; for that, if Chi- 
a rejected bim as a cbUd, he, the king, would still 
mtinue to acknowledge bim as a nephew and a son. 
The intelligence conveyed by this double embassy 
daused the king to i*etum almost immediately to Vosu- 
■ i, for the purpose of enforcing obedience to his orders'. 


70 JAPAW. 

but tlie queen atill persisted ia refusing her consent to 
the marriage of Simon with her daughter ; and wpory 
of her ohstinacy, the king', who was at length resolved 
to have his own way in the matter, sent Simon for 
present prot^ition to the Jesuits at Pimay, and then pro- 
ceeded to settle all his domestic disputes by means of a 

Our i-eaders are already aware that this was no 
very difficult affair in Jnpan. His majesty had merely 
to choose another wife, and then send a command to 
the ex-queen to depart fi^m the palace. So secretly 
liad the whole affair been managed, that she was ut- 
terly ignorant of the second mairiage of her spouse, 
until drums and trumpets announced it to the city; aaid 
she was rejoicing in her triumph at having expelled 
Simon from the court, when the royal messenger ar- 
rived with the tidings of her own disgrace. 

From tliat moment peace was restored both to the 
king and the kingdom, and the progress of the former 
towards the Christian religion became marked and de- 
cided. The new queen and her daughter, who was 
espoused to Sebastian, were ah-eady cotechumena; and 
by his majesty's desire, Father Cahral attended every 
day at the palace to give them fiirther instructions. 
He himself was always present at these lectures ; and 
it was soon obseiTed, first, that he had begun to fast 
every Fiiday and Satunlay; then, that he said the 
rosary every day; and at last, that cei-tain httle idols, 
towards which he had always hitherto testified the ut- 
most devotion, had been destroyed by hia orders. Still 
his ultimate intentions remained untold, until one day, 
calling one of the Jesuit brothers into his chamber, 
he declared that, if he had not hitherto become a Chris- 
tian, it was not from want of willingness or of devo- 
tion, but that he had Thought it his duty first to search 
into all the sects of his native land, to discover if aught 
like the truth was to he found among them ; that tiie 
deeper he had penetrated into their mysteries, the less liad 
he found to content the conscience or satisly the soul ; 

rCH. ly.] JAPAN. 71 H 

that tbU Eeemed to him to he the prerogative of tbe Ca- ^H 

tbolic Cliurcb alone, imd therefore he was resolved to be- ^H 

come a Cliristian; but in order to do bo without dist.nrli- ^H 


ing tbe peace of the king'dom, he had determined to ah- 
dicat,e in fttvoiir of his eldest son. Then, as if this open 
denlaration had all at once kindled the desires of his 
Boul beyond the power of restraint, he hade the bro- 
ther hasten Father Cabral to tbe palace ; and no sooner 
bad the latter loade his appearance than, standing hum- 
bly in the midst of bis court, he demanded baptism at 
liis hands, adding: that be would take the name of 
Pi'ancis, since he felt sure he owed to the prayers of 
that departed Saint his present ansiety to oecome a 
Christian. Father Cabral warned him, tliat when once 
lie was received into tbe bosom of tbe Church be 
would no longer be permitted the liberty of divorce ; 
to which the king only replied by taking an oath on 
the spot, that be would remain for ever mflifiil to her 
whom he had lately espoused. He was then solemnly 
baptised by tbe name oi Francis, on the 28th of Augiist, 
1578, in the fiftieth year of his age. And so great was 
the change which instantaneously took place in his soul, 
tliat he, who for twenty-seven years had been himself 
constantly vibrating between truth and eiror, now, as 
he left tbe church, could not refrain from tears at the 
sight of his idolatrous subjects, nor avoid expressing 
a somewhat na^w astonishment that any one could hear 
of the true God, and not hasten at once to worship and 
adore Him. 

In his eagerness fo cidtivate to the utmost tbe talent 
which he bad received, he lost no time in resigning the 
government int« the hands of his son, and in hastening 
the preparations for bis own departure from Bongo. 
He had chosen himself aresidence in tbe adjoining pro- 
vince of Jugo, where he intended to hufld a town, 1 
which should be inhabited solely by Christians, and 
should be governed by laws of a very different charac- f 
terfrom those of Japan. His arrangements for this pnr- j 
I pose being at length completed, he leftVosuqui to take 


73 JAPAN. 

poSHassion of his new abode on the feast-day of his patron, 
the holy father St. Fi'ancis ; and. such was the joy and 
exultation of his soul, that his journey seemed rather 
the progress of a victorious monarch than the depai'- 
ture of one who had abdicated his throne. Banners 
and streamers of snow-whiite damask, embroidered with 
crosses of red and gold, floated from the masts of the 
galley in which he sailed, and all the vessels of the 
little deet that followed were gaily adorned in a similar 

His son accompanied him to the frontiers of the 
kingdom, and then they parted ; King Francis ]iur3u- 
ing his way quietly to Jugfo, and the prince returning to 
Vosuqui, mere to assume the heavy yoke of a despotic 

ffovemment over a fickle and uncertain people. He had 
Lstened to his lather's parting admonitions with every 
appearance of respect and submission, and showed him- 
self in the beginning both anxious and willing to follow 
in his footsteps. No sooner was he properly inaugu- 
rated into his new dignity, than he presented a house 
and college to the iitthers, and put himself under 
their instractions for baptism; though he delayed the 
actual I'eception of that sacrament until he should have 
succeeded in conciliating certain lords of the infidel 
party, — an arrangement to which his father, when con- 
sulted on the subject, very willingly assented, having 
pi-otahly a more intimate knowledge of his son's real 
disposition than the young man had as yet acquired for 

The baptism of Eing Francis, and the anticipated 
conversion of his son, were the first intelligence which 
greeted Father Vahgnan, when, in 1579, lie once more 
landed at Cochinotzu, as visitor- general of the mia- 
BJons of Japan ; but his j oy in these happy events was 
soon clouded by grief for the misfortunes which fell 
upon both princes, and the faithlessness which was 
thereby ehcited in one. 

TaJring advantage of the abdication of its monarch, 
and of the discontent of the infidel party, the King of 

Sateuma declared war upon Bong;o ; and Jugn, the 
province King^ Francis had rraerved for himself, was 
tlio first object of his attack. Chicata was deputed to 
make head against the enemy, which he did at first 
with considerable success; but, grown careless by re- 
peated victories, he at leagrth suffered himself to be 
taken at a disadvantage, and notwithstandinir the pro- 
digies of valour by which be and his adopted son en- 
deavoured to retrieve the fortunes of the day, it was 
irrevocably lost. For one brief instant, indeed, Simon 
had almost succeeded in turning the tide of battle in 
their fevour; but from the vantage-ground which he 
had gained, he saw his father struggUng amidst a num- 
ber of enemies, wounded and worn out by the fatigues 
^^^ the fray ; and forgetfid of every thing else, the 
^Bon of his love and his adoption fought his way sword 
^Bb hand back to the spot, succeeded in bringing him 
^^k a place of comparative safety, and then, covered with 
^^Tonnds, fell demi at his feet. Maddened at tliis sight, 
Chicata rushed once more into the midst of the fight, 
seeking a death which he was not destined to find ; fiw 
though woimded and carried as dead from the field, ha 
finally recovered, and lived to esperieuce that sense of 
disgrace which is the keenest torture of a haughty 
mind, and which in Japan ever attaches itself to the 
idea of defeat. 

King Francis was now obliged to abandon Jngo 

and retreat to Vosuqui. The bonzes eveiy where 

proclaimed the indignation of their idols as the oanse of 

these disasters, and for a moment the fathers almost 

feared that such might be their effect on the feelings 

of the king himself; their apprehensions, however, 

were quite groundless, for, on the contraiy, be met 

^^^liis sudden reverse of fortune with the constancy of a 

^^ttjeat mind and the submission of a good one. " Hap- 

^Bpen what may," he said, " I have become a Christian, 

^^never to change. God only knows the manner of life 

^^bhich I had traced out for myself at Jugo ; but since 

^HSe has willed it otherwise, it is for Him to command, 


and for me to obey." After his arrival at Voauqui, fiiH 
of these heroic sentiuients of self-sacrifice, he applied 
himself more diligently than ever to the care of his 
salvation, drawing' the ties of reliffion yet closer around 
him, in proportion as he felt himself loosened from those 
of earth. Wiffht and morning he made a meditation on 
the Passion of hia Lord, and said the beads daily in 
public witb his family ; he confessed and communicated 
every week, and his tasta and austerities became so 
frequent and severe, that the fethers ventured to r»- 
monstmte with liim on the subject; but he silenced them 
by replying, " that for the very reason they fllleg:ed, and 
because he was old and declimng towards the grave, it 
was neediiil for him to make the most of his time, by 
friving good example to his subjects, and doing penance 
for the sins and enormities of lus past life." 

While the abdicated monaivh thus adhered to his 
principles with a constancy which showed how entirely 
lie had " counted the cost" before he embraced them, 
his son weakly and shamefully abandoned the feith 
without a single effort to defend it. The lords of the 
infidel party had refused to march against the enemy un- 
til he had awom by the Kami and Cbadotschi to restora I 
the ancient worship of the kingdom; and in a moment's 
of fear and inlatuation he consented to t-ake the oath. ■ 

The apostasy availed him little : the King of Sal>. 1 
zuma carried eveiy thing belbre him; and the prince 
was driven from province to province, and from city 
to city, until hia monarchy of only a few montlw' 
standing was almost entirely wrested out of hia hands- . 
in the same number of days. Nothing could exceact J 
tbe anguish of King Francis at this terrible news. li'4 
was not the disgrace which had iallen upon his an 
nor the cities which hod been lost to the enemy, i 
tlie empire which, after having, with a fortune un- 
paralleled in .Japanese history, retained ita integrity for 
lul! thui:y yeai's, he now saw shivered to pieces, — it 
woH the perady of his son which cut hi 
and caused Lim in the privacy of his ov 





^ m 

prompted by the Ihtliera, or ljy aught save the ftiith 
and tirmness of his own lieait, to make n solemn vow to 
God, " thftt thoiig'h even the Jesuit who had lii-oug'lit 
him to the knowledge of His holy nnme should t'enouuce 
it, and thoug'h the Chi'isfians of Kurui>e should cast it 
ftrth fi-om their heaita, and though (which he heheved 
to be impossible) the Pope, the head and giiai'dian of the 
feith, ahonld pi-ove a ti-aitor to his trust, and deny it, 
yet would he himself, standing alone in the midst of 
the ruins of Christendom, continue to coniess, acknow- 
ledge, and adoi-e Him, tbe one true God and Creator of 
the universe, even as at that very moment he confessed, 
acknowledged, and adored Him, without doubt or hesi- 
tation as to a single article of the creed which had been 
proposed to his acceptance." 

The displeasure of his iather, and the ill-success of 
own plan of espediency, made a deep impression on 
the prince; hut, dispirited and ashamed, it was some time 
before he could bring himself either to disavow his act, 
or to seek the presence of King Francis. Matters, how- 
ever, soon became so desperate, that no other course was 
left him than to sohcit the assistance of the latter; 
and the old king once more took the reins of govern- 
ment into his own hands. He left his retreat very 
unwillingly ; but once having done so, he brought all 
his old wont«d energy and decision to bear upon the 
crisiB : he banished the lords whose evil counsel had so 
nearly ruined his son, reunited the scattered elements 
of the army, drove the Satznmans beyond the fron- 
tiere, and having thus restored peace to the kingdom, 
and the kingdom to his son, retired again to his private 
residence at Vosuqui. 

The prince, on his part, taught by sad experience, 
not only expressed unbounded contrition for the past, 
but promised on all iiiture occasions to guide himself 
entirely by the advice of his father ; and precisely at 
the momeJit when this recoocihation was eifected be- 
een them. Father Valignan retiffned from his tour of 
idjon, in the eourae of which the young king of 

76 jAPA^r. 

Arima had fallowed the example of his father and uncle 
by becoming b. Christian. Indeed, Biich abundant evi- 
dence of the rapid progresB of Oliristianity had every 
where greeted the eyes of the Father-Visitor, tliat he 
purposed gomg to the Pope, and representing to him 
the spiritual necessities of tne country, as to boui pastors 
and seminBries, in the missions committed to his care. 
No sooner were his intentions made puUic, than the two 
kings of Bongo, with those of Arima and Omura {Lewis 
of Qoto was already dead), resolved to add a solemn 
embassy of their own, for the purpose of laying at the . 
feet of his Holiness the homage and obedience of thaj 
Christian kings of Japan. 




Tiro Japanese prinoes and tno nobles start with Father 

for Borne. Their arriTal at Goa, at Liabou, at Madrid, aud 

flnaMy at Kome. Their recoptinn by the Po{io 

Japan, Important changea during their absence. Dwtth of 

Nobunanga. HU aucceaaor begins to pen 

Death of King Fraaois and Kiog Burtliolomew. Eiile of Jiato 

Uoondoao. Decree for tbe banishtaent of the Josmts. 

TnBBE-ntid-thirtj yeara had now elapsed eii 
Francis Xayier, witt Ins one Japanese eonvei-t, Paul de 
St Foi, liad landed at Eangoxima; and tbe result of 
Father Valig^nan's visit of inspection sufficiently proved 
that in this short period the number of Christians had 
increased to 150,000, while the Jesuits had prohably 
not a hundred reti^ous of their order to meet the 
Bpiritoat wants of this vast multitude,— scattered as it 
was at wide intervals throughout tlje country, — still lees 
to follow up any of those providential drcurastaaces 
^m which continually invited them to the formation of new 

I With Christianity rapidly progressing in the coun- 
" try, the Father-Visitor saw at once, that no impoi-ta- 
tion of foreign missionaries could ever he made anffi- 
ciently large and continuous to supply the demand •, he 
therefore conceived the idea of forming a native priest- 
hood, irom which the ranks of the Europeans might be 
V occasionally recmited in the beginning, and by which, 
tin the end, their necessity would be altogether super- 

r A proper foundation for seminaries and colleges was 
the first essential towards carrying out this plan; the 
second was a resident bishop, by whom native students 
could be ordained, without the risk of lite or loss of time 
loney which rendered the supply from the Indies 

t and 


Reference to Rome waa 



needed for this hst condition ; tind FatLer Yalignan im- 
mediately perceived that the intended embassy woiJd 
add aji incalculable weight of evidence to any repre- 
sentations which he coidd himself make on the subject. 
Both he and all the other fethere felt that the actual 
presence of these foreiffn princes would give the Pope 
and their religious brethren of Europe a better idea of 
the importance of the kingdom which had been added 
to the Church, than any mere verbal description could 
convey ; while, on the other hand, they thought it by 
no means imdesirable that the Japanese, who considered 
themselves to be, neit to the Chinese, the greatest a—*' 
wisest nation in the world, should learn something 
tha wisdom and greatness of the countries from 
their new code of religion was derived. 

For both these reasons, then, he willingly undertook 
the somewhat onerous charge of the embassy, which 
was intended to consist of two young princes, Mancio, 
nephew and representative of Francis, king of Bongo, 
and Michael, who went in the name, and under the au- 
thorify, of Arima and Omura. To these were subae- 
quenUy added two other nobles, Juhan and Martm, 
none of the four being more than sixteen years o" 
but wise and prudent, we are told — as indeed thei 
sequent conduct sufficiently proved — beyond their _ 
It tiappened, vmfortunately, that all these amba^ad< 
had lost theu- fetbers; and who could bkme thar 
mothers if, terrified at the prospect of so long and peril- 
ous a voyage over tempestuous seas, and to an unknown 
people, livuig in countries distant, in their ideas, as the 
rarthest ends of the earth, they did all in their powM 
to dissuade their sons firom the proposed imdertajdng. 
The day of their departm-e was indeed a day of lamen- 
tation and sorrow. The poor mothers wept over their, 
sons as if they had already lost them ; and though 
tlaer Valignon did what he could to re-assure them, ' 
still remained inconsolable, and he felt that their | 
and desnktion doubled his responsibilities in the i 
guard of their sons. 

It had been pi-eriously ammg^ed that, in order to 
I fitcilitate their joumej, and escape the obeervation of 
I pu'»t«3, who abounded in those unirequented secui, thej 
|i should travel without any such train as would otherwise 
I have befitted their rank. Father Vahgnan therefore 
I took only a few of their pag:es, with a Je^t father 
L aad brother, to assist them on their voyage ; and thus 
I Attended, they sailed from Nangasaki on the S5Ui of 
\ February, 1582, Their faith and courage were destined 
I to be severely tried ; for evea in the commencement of 
r their royage they were overtaken by a tremendous 
storm, which for seven days and seven nie^hts kept them 
in hourly expectation of shipwreck and death. Father 
YahTnau was sorely distressed on their account, and 
. divided his time between prayer to Giod, who alone 
L could deliver them h.vm this imminent peril, and eitdea- 
■ TOUTS by counsel and exhortation to prepare the youth- 
P iiil travellers for the worst that mig-nt beial them. 
That worst, however, never came ; but though the tem- 
pest ceased, they still had to encounter innumerable 
other difficulties and dangers before tiiey succeeded in 
reaching Goa. There they were received by the Por- 
tuguese viceroy of the Indies with all imaginable coui-- 
tosy and kindness; nor -was thL^ favourable feeling iii 
their regard confined in its exhibition to the palace, for 
they were welcomed to tlie city by universal pubhc re- 
joicmgs. The ai'chbishop showed them every fatherly 
attention in his power ; and the Jesuit fathers sent a 
deputation of their scholai-s to congratulate them on 

(their arrival, — a comphment with which the young am- 
bassadors appear to have been particularly dehghted. 
It was not yet the season for the departure of the 
European ships; and while awaiting that event, the 
Japanese princes took up theu' abode at the Jesuit Col- 
lege, where they learned, to then- infinite disappointment, 
t&t Father Valignan would be unable to accompany 
them further, having been appointed provincial of the 
ll^idies during bis absence in Japan. Father Rodnguez, 
lowever, had been named to conduct them to Home in 


his stead, and tbey aooa became aa much attached to hhn 
as they had hitherto been to his predecessor. The viceroy 
himself selected the best and strong'est vessel which sailed 
Irom Goa that year for their passage ; and besides a 
inagnificent g'old chain and reliquary which he presented 
to each, lie placed three thousand ci'owns at their dis- 

Sisal for the expenses of their journey. The voyage to 
iirope proved as fortunate as that to the Indies had 
been the contrary; and without any adventure worth 
j'ecordin^, tliey cast anchor in the Taurus oa the 10th 
of AugTist, 1684, just two years after their departure 
from Nangasaki, 

Intelligeace of their approach had already been cod«J 
veyed hy one of the fastr-saihng vessels of the Indian 
fleet ; and Lisbon was prepared to receive them in the 
most magniiiceat manner. From motives of prudence, 
however, Father Vahgnan had forbidden any public de- 
monstration in their honour at first ; and, worn out by 
the iatiguea of their long voyage, the princes theraseives 
were omy too glad to take reiiio^e from all ceremonial 
in the professed house of tlia Jesuits. The morning 
after their arrival they waited on Cardmal Albert, the 
governor of the kingdom, to whom they presented a 
oup of horn, fashioned in their own counfty, and richly 
set in silver. The few following days were spent in 
examining all that was most superb in the way of 
churches and palaces that the city could boast of; and^ 
then from Lisbon they went to Ebora to visit the aroh-»l 
bishop. It chanced to be the feast of the Exaltation otf 
the Cross, and he invited them to assist at the cere- 
monies in his church. ImmeDse multitudes flocked 
hither to behold them; and when they entered the 
sacred building the whole congregation burst into tears 
of joy to see tbem bow down before the altar,— ambas- 
sanors as they were from a heathen nation, and sent 
hither in its name and at its bidding, to acknowledge 
before heaven and earth the universal sovereignty of 
the one tnie God. 

The next point of intei'est in their travels was Ma-' 


nd. ■ 

v.] JAPAN. 81 

drid. Philip n. received them in the midst of liis 

iamilj, emhracin^ them affectionately, and liidiiing hia 

ohildren do the same. As they had arrived at the 

palace about the time of evensong;, he invited t!iem to 

attend it in the royal chtipel, and they were seated 

directly in front of the altar, " iu order," gays the old 

historian, " that the court might have a g'ood view of 

L their persona;" hut rather, we may he allowed to hope, 

llhat they mig^ht themselves have a good view of the 

■altar. By the king's orders they were afteiivards taken 

H^ see every thing most worthy of notice in Madrid and 

"a environs, — the Esourial, tne arsenal, the treasure- 

_„3oms, with their incalculable wealth of jewels, &c. 

Piftc.; and on their final departure for Italy, Philip came 

in person to take leave of them at the coIlep;e, Kb royal 

munificence following them even to the port from whence 

they were to sail, their journey through the rest of his 

dominions being made entirely at his expense, and the 

lareest vessel in his fleet having been fitted out by his 

caslere for their voyage. Their passage through Italy 

was one triumphant progress from beginning to end, 

until, wearied out hy all these stately honours, the young 

princes literally pined for the moment when, at the feet 

of Gregory XIII., they should have accomplished the 

real object of their travels. That Pontiff hunself, who 

. SBBjas to have had some forebodings of hts approaching 

Ldeath, was not less anxious for their arrival ; but imna- 

Etient as all parties wero, the strangers were compelled 

Pto travel slowly, on account of the illness of one of 

* their number. They were still at two days' journey 

from the city, when the general of the Roman forces 

met them with several troops of cavalry for their escort ; 

but as they wero anxious (probably from motives of 

devotion) to make their entrance as privatelv as pos- 

sible, they prefen^ed doing so by night, and without 

any attendance. 

The precaution availed them little ; all Rome was 

► .eagerly awaiting their arrival; multitudes met them 

jren at the gates, and conducted them in triumph to 

the professed house of the Jesuits, where the general 
Claudius Acqua Vira, at the head of 200 of the society, 
was ready to receive them. 

They were led directly to the church, and the Te 
Dmm was intoned, the amhassadors remaining pros- 
ti-at« at the foot of the altar ; nor could Julian, ill as he 
was, ba induced to retire; so anxious were they, one and 
all, to thank God for this happy and perhaps almost 
unlooked-for fulfilment of their enterprise. 

The Jesuits would have preierred introducing them 
to the Pope in private; but finding tliat they can 
accredited agents from the kiugs of Japan, Gre 
chose rather to give them a public reception, with al 
hononiB usually accorded to the ambassadors of crownsd 
heads. The day after their arrival was according^ ' 
fixed upon for the ceremony, and Julian insisted on 
joining; the procession. He had not proceeded fei", how- 
ever, Before, becoming too weak to sit on horseback, he 
would have been compelled to return, had not a nohl»- J 
man taken him into his carriage, and driven him a" 
once to the Vatican. Gregory received him with t 
most fiitherly expressions of tenderness and joy, giviny 
him his benediction over and over again ; and finally 
succeeded in prevailing on him to retire before the com- 
mencement of the Consistory, promising that he would 
call another as soon as he should be sufficiently recovered 
to attend it. 

The rest of the ambassadors were met at the v 
yard of Pope Julius II. (the spot from whence all g 
ceremonies commenced in those days) by the Bishop of '* 
Imola, who came thither to compliment them on the part 
of the Pope. A procession was then formed by the 
light troops and Swiss guards leading the way, followed 
by the carnages of the Spanish, French, and Venetian 
ambassadors, and by all the Roman princes and nobles 
on horseback. Among these last rode the Japanese am- 
bassadors, immediately preceded by the officers of the 
Pope's household. Mounted on magnificent chargers, 
and dressed in their native ihshion, they formed, of 

ic, Jie 


ivin^ 1 


le vine^l 
shon of '^ 

CH. v.] JAPAN. 83 

(.■ouTse, the principal object of attraction for the day. 
Notkiag*. wc are tutd, could be more splendid than their 
attire, more grave and noble thttn their mien and bear- 
ing'. Three long robes, one over the other, the ground of 
dazzling' whiteness, embroidered witli birds, fiowers, and 
tbliag«, esquisitelj wroug^ht and of singular brilliancy 
in the colouring, were partially open in fi'ont, and 
crossed on the breast hy a scai'i of the same material, 
knotted behind in the fashion of a belt. Their teet were 
sandalled ; their wide sleeves reached only to the elbow ; 
and their swords and sabres, of the finest tempered steel, 
were richly encrusted, both sheath and handle, with 
pearls, prerious stones, and figures variously designed 
m enamel. Their features were no less foreign and 
I Striking than their rarmenta; but there was an inno- 
ence on each youthfiil brow, and a noble modesty 
D every look and attitude, which yet more effectually 
ron for them the involuntary admiration of all be- 

Mancio Ito, as cJiiefof the embassy, rode first; and 
i the foot of his charger touched the Bridge of St 
Uigelo, the tfuns of the castle fired a satur«. They 
rare answered by those from the Vatican ; and long ere 
the warlike echo'es had died away, a stisin of deUcioua 
teugic filled the air, and it was amid a flood of hai-mony 
t they di-ew bridle at last before the gates of the 

In the Snla Regia, and aurroimded by his cardinals, 
f'Gregoty XIII. was waiting to I'eceive them ; and pros- 
tate before his Holiness, and holding the credentials of 
^eir respective monarchs each in his own hand, tie 
ambassadors declared in a few and simple words the 
object of their mission, namely, to acknowledge, in the 
names of the Idngis of Japan, the Poj>e as Christ's vicar 
upon earth, and tn tender to him their homage and 
obedience, as head of the Universal Church ana pastor 
_ of all Christian people. They spoke, of course, m Ja- 
', and Father Mesfjiiita acted as interpreter; but 
e sight of these stranger-princes, so young in years 

r84 JAPAK. 

yet BO Btrong in laith, and the knowledge of tlie diffi- 
cultiea and dangers through which they Imd come, 
spoke a language that needed no tiunslation. Moved 
almost to tears, tlie Pope, as they knelt to kiss Lis feet, 
raised and emhroced them with so much affection, that 
they afterwards said they were more touched hy his 
evident tenderness than by all the honours which they 
subsequently received. 
Tiiese preliminaries over, they were conduct^ to a 
platform, where they stood with uncovered heads while 
the letters oftheii' several chiefs, translated in like 
manner by Father Mesquita, were read to his Holiness; 
and an address, called an obedience, which was usual 
on similar occasions, was then spoken in their name by 

tone of the fathers. After a gracious answer Irom the 
Pope, they were once more conducted to the foot of the 
thiine, when they were saluted and embraced by the 
Cardinals present. Conversation was for some time 
canned on through the medium of their interpreter; and 
to the many questions put to them concerning their 
country and their travels, they answered with a wisdom 
and presence of mind absolutely marvellous in persona 
so yonno: and unused to the ceremonies and scenes ia 
which they thus suddenly found themselves the prin- | 
cipal actors. They dined that day at the Vatican, and | 
afterwards had a long and private interview with the | 
Pope, who questioned them most minutely a» to the 
state of Christianity in Japan; and more than once the 1 

Eood old man shed tears of joy at the rapid progress it ] 
ad so evidently made. He promised a foundation for i 
the seminary which Father Valignan had abeady com- 
menced at Funay, assigning at once a revenue of 400t) I 
ciowns for that purpose. This was at a later interview, | 
and was almost the last official act of the Pope, for i 
only a few days afterwards it pleased God to call Gi«- ] 
gory to Himself; but he thought of his dear Jajianese ] 
to Uie last, and even an hour before ion death sent a j 
messenger to inquire after the health of young Julian. 
He was mourned by these poor strangers as they would i 



)B. T.} JAFAH. 85 

lave mourned for a fether; for tbey not only reTered 
lim as a spiritual superior, but had leaiiied to love him 
ts an eartlilj protector. 

The new Pope, Sixtus V., did what he could to coa- 
Bole them, by showings the same unvarying: kindness 
' r had received from his predecessor. By his order 

r were ranked with the other ambassadors when 
aaaisting' at his coronation ; and he not only promised 
a future bishop to the Church of Japun, but also con- 
firmed the grant in favour of its seminwieB, and added 
two thousand crowns to the four already set aside for 
tiiat purpose by Gregory. 

A sum of three thousand more was also assigned 
liiem for the personal eipenditure of their journey 
liomeward j and prior to theu" leaving' Rome, Siitus pro- 
posed to confer on them the knighthood of the Golden 
Spur, an honour which he thought would be particu- 
'Im-ly acceptable to princes of a warlike and chivalrous 
nation. Accordingly the ceremony took place on the 
:Sve of the Ascension, in the presence of all the foreign 
ambassadors and native nobility of Home. The Fo[)e 
'liimself presented the sword and girdle, the ambassa- 
dors of France and Spain buckled on the spurs ; and 
then Sixtus, throwing the golden chain around their 
ioecks, gave a hearty embrace to the new knights, who 
thanked him for the favour he bad conferred upon them, 
and pledged themselves solemnly to maintain the faith 
f,t the peril of their Lvea,— a pledge which, in the 
.after-yeara of persecution, they au faithiuUy redeemed. 
Their last public appearance was in the Capitol, where 
the citizens of Rome, both princes and people, met 
to present them with the pati'icianahip of the oit^', the 
patents to that effect being made out on coloured parch- 
ment, and stamped with a seal of gold. 

Their progress back through Italy was made in 
ntoch the same state as before. They were particu- 
larly pleased with Venice, which, with its magnificent 
palaces, churches, and pubhc biiildings of all descrip- 


tions, its Bti-eets of water and crowds of gondolas, 
have appeai'sd to tlaeir eastern imaginationa as a veri- 
table creation of the tahsman of the genii. Fifty of ita 
Benators, clad in their scarlet robes of office, were waiting 
to receive them and to conduct them in a barge, hong 
with ciimBon velvet, to the city ; and after an inlei'- 
view with the doge, during which they presented him 
with a sword ana da^^^, the workmansliip of their 
native land, they were taken to see the public build- 
ings, the precious merchandise, and various monufac- 
toriea of the queen of the Adriatic. Among these last 
they were paj-ticularly interested in the giass-worlM, 
that article being altogether unknown at that period in 
Japan. Short aa was their stay in Venice, time was 
found to Lave their pictures taken j and these were 
afterwards hung up in the great hall of council, among 
the ducal nders of the ci^. The annual procesBion 
also, which had been put off until after their arrival, waa 
celebrated with moi'e than ordinary magnificence in 
their honour. Among the hiEtorical representations 
exhibited on the occasion, they were wonderiiilly sur- 
prised and delighted to discover a piotm'e of their own 
presentation to the Pope, which, having now become a 
iact of history, was made, by a delicate flattery on the I 
part of the Venetian contrivers of the ffite, to take a | 
conspicuous place among the pageants of the day. 

In the niidst of all these pleasures and attentions, 
so fascinating and fidl of danger to the young, and 
BO flattering to the feelings of a naturally proud and 
haughty people, the youthful princes, we are told, pre- 
eerved a steadfast piety and modesty of dem^inour 
which made them objects of real admiration to all who 
approached them. Grave and simple as ever, they pur- 
sued theii' way, pleased with the honours and grateful j 
for the pleasure, but as undazzled by the one as they i 
were uncontaminated by the other; contriving, even I 
in the midst of the world, to lead the lives almost of | 
religious; confessing and communicating every week. 


CH. v.] JAPAN. 87 

and allowing neither business nor omusement to pre- 
vent their daily devotions and attendance at Mass, or 
their punctual examination of conscience at night. 

Eui'ope had now unrolled all her shining^ treasures 
to their eyes, and among her Catholic nations, making 
it a pleasiire as well as a duty, Itad done (says an his- 
torian of those limes) "the honoiu^of the whole Chris- 
tian world to them, as to the representatives of the 
infent Churches of the East;" so with hearts weary 
of wandering, and satiated with sight-seeing, yet filled 
to overflowing with the religious inspirations which 
they had gathered on the way, they prepared to return 
to their native land. 

Lisbon was their point of departure, as it had been 
that of tbeii' ai-rivaJ ; and they ware joined at Goa by 
Father Vahgnan, who would yield to no one the plea- 
sure of restoring them to their pai'ents, and who tinere- 
fore accompanied them ta Japan. 

Many and unlooked-for were the changes wliich had 
taken place in that country duiing their absence ; but 
the greatest and roost unfortunate of all for the interests 
of Christiamty was the death of Nobunanga. That 
proud and luxurious chief had gone on Irom one degree 
of prosperity to another, until, almost foig^tt'.ng that he 
was man, he sought like Nabuchodonopor to be wor- 
shipped as God ; and he who had formerlv scouted the 
t«actiing of the bonzes, who had scorned their idola- 
tries and set at nought their superstitions, now caused 
himself to be proclaimed the only Loi-d of Nature, and 
Creator of the Universe, A magnificent temple was 
built in hia honour; thousands of the almost innumer- 
able divinities of Japan were brought together to be 
grouped within it ; and a stone, with the arms of Nobu- 
nan^ engraved upon it, was set up in the midst, to 
which, as the rejireeentative of thnt monarch, and under 
the name of Xanthi, the adoration of the people was 
commanded to be paid. Not a Cliristian obeyed the 
J, summons; but on t!ip ditv of inaugiuntion vast multi- 
tudes of heathens fioekfd to the ceremony, which was 

performed on a seals of extraordinary maeTiificeiice, 
Idng'B eldest son, and future possessor of £is throne, be- 
ing the first to do homage to the idol of his father. 

This crime seems to have filled up the measure of 
his iniquities in the sight of Heaven, and to have hroug^ht, 
his worldly gi'eatness to a close. A conspiracy ww- 
soon atlei-wards formed against bim; and, betrayed t^, 
one of his own creatures, be and his eldest son perished' 
miserably in the conflict that ensued. Whether he died, 
by his own band, accordina; to the ordinary custom of 
the Japanese undei' such cu\;umstances, or whether he 
was consumed in thefiames of his own palace, which t^ 
rebels burnt to the ground, has never been ascertained. 

Faiiba, tlie geneiid of his anny, rose to avenge him, 
and by the aid of Juato Ueondono defeated the rebels ; 
but instead of restoring the goveiimient to the children 
of the late monarch, he assumed it himself, under the 
title of the Cambacundono, or Sovereign Lord, — a dignity 
which had formerly been considered even more exalted 
than that of the Kumbo. Such political tiiinsitiona 
wei* far loo common to create much opposition; and 
being cunning as well as brave, Cambacundono soon 
found means of augmenting his authority, until it greatly 
exceeded tlie utmost which Nobunanga had ever pos- 

It is painfid to have to record, that the ill-conduct of 
the young king of Bongo, tne degenerate son of King 
Francis, was the primary cause of this dangerous addi- 
tion to a power ali-eody too gj^^at for the well-being of 
the empire. Instead of fulfilling his promise of becom- 
ing a Christian, he bad not long been left in sole pos: 
sion of his dominions before he began to lead a n 
dissolute life, falfing Irom one criminal excess into 
other, until he conduded, not merely by peraecutjng 
Christians, but, under a false imputation of ti-eason, pur- 
suing his brother Sebastian with a degree of barbarity 
which has left a too probable suspicion of fratricide at- 
tached to his name. The double scourge of pestUenoe 
and war was the terrible chastisement of his sin. 



OH, V,] JAPAN. 89 

plague broke out and laid desolate the land, wliOe at the 
same tune, the king of Satzuma invading; bis territoriea, 
the unlucky prince would have found himself once more 
di§inheritea, if Cambaeundono had not interfered by 
sending an army under Simon Condera to hia assistance. 
Simon was a zealous Christian, and he did not reinstate 
him on his throne v^ithout rebuking hira severely for liis 
wicked conduct ; until, moved by his reproaches, or by 
those yet bai-der to bear of his own uonscience, tlia re- 
stored piince made up hia mind to become a Cliristian in 
earnest, and was accordingly baptised by the name of 

A second reconciliation with his father followed this 
event; the old man I'eceived him kindly, but his heart 
was utterly broken ; he never thorouglJy recovered this 
hist disBTaceful proof of his son's inconstant and dan- 

Es disposition ; and a slight Utness, from which no- 
serious was apprehended in the beginning, proved 
to a constitution enfeebled by sorrow as much as 
by age. He died, as he had now for many years been 
living, in the purest sentiments of faith and devotion j 
never during his illness did he speak of any thing but 
Giod, the world appearing to be as completely blotted out 
of his memory as if all the days of his life had been spent 
in the desert. His demise had been preceded by that 
of Bartholomew, the first Christian king of Japan, who, 
feithfiil and fearless as he had ever been in his life, was 
not less heroic in the hour of death. " Who are these 
Sanchez and Linus?" he said to one of his attendants, 
who in the moment of his agony wished to speak to 
"~ m of his sons, " Did I not forbid any one to talk to 
e save of Jesus and of Mary ?" And with these sweet 
s upon his lips he expired, having previously ad- 
ed a moving exhortation to his chUdren, " to be 
fcithfid to religion, obedient to their elder brother, and 
tender and affectionate to their mother in her dedining 

With these two princes, the peace of the Church 
r be said to have been buried. The power which 


Cambfleundono Lad both asserted and abown in n 
ing Constantine to bia throne, led to a more imoo 
ditiona] submission of the otber princes of Japan t 
had ever been given to their cbiet monarch before ; 
although this unlimited authority was not at first di 
against the Christiaiis, yet in the end it proved iatal t 
them, by constituting the private edict of the raon 
the iinivereal law of the land, whereas in former t 
it could scarcely have been put into execution ii 
ferent kingdoma without the a] ' " 
of their several rulers. 

In the beginning; of his reign, Cambacundono n 
far fi^m being unfavourable to religion, and the oh 
otficers of the emperor were most of them Christiaiisg 
Justo TJcondouo being governor of Tagatiki; SimonO 
dera, general of the army; and Augnistin, a moatze 
ouB and diatinaiiished convei-t, chief admiral of the flee 
many of the ladies of the queen's honaehold, yrhfot 
Cambacundono singularly respected for their virtue and' ' 
modesty, wereabo Cbiistian; and be was even beard to 
esy that he would himself be a convert to the new reli- 
gion, if it were but a little more indulgent to poor 
Human nature. But the devil seldom allows his vota- 
ries to stop half-way in their career, and the " human 
nature" which prevented Cambacundono from embracing 
Christianity led him at last to oppose it with war to the 

Some Christian ladies of Arima refused to 1: 
the inmates of his seragho ; and the bonze who had a 
dertaken this infamous commission, revenged hima 
for the scorn with which his proposition had been re-1 
jectedjby representing the Christians in general as being[-l 
m a state of revolt. By a refinement of malice, h6^ 
pointed his insinuations more especially against JustOj 
as being one of their principal leaders ; and the gover- 
nor of Tagatiki instantly received an imperial com- 
mand to renounce his religion, or to retire fi^m the kine^ 
"Tell the Cambacnndnno," said the noble CIuth-m 

tian, ''that Justo it 

' to lay down his c 

^RtE. ^ 

JAF^N, 01 

his life, but he dure not forget his allegiance to hie 
God." Tlu3 was enough for a jealous and despotic 
king; Justo'a government was given away on the spot, 
and he prepared to leave the country a Mggar and an 
exile. The hunisliment of a nobleman is generally ac- 
companied in Japan by that of every other member of 
hia family, except in tne case of Christians, who could 
always escape the penalty by renouncing the iaith. 
When, therefore, Justo went to acquaint his fether with 
the Bentence witich had been pronounced against them, 
the old man lifted up his hands and eyes to heaven, 
thanking God for having chosen them to be the first 
examples of fidehty in His service, adding that only one 
thing more was to be desired or prayed for, namaly, 
tliat they migljt all have the bftppiness likewise of ehed- 
dmg their blood in the cause. Both the wife and chil- 
dren of Justo shai'ed in these heroic seatimentB; the 
Christian officers of his household also, while they wept 
over his sentence, besought permission to share it with 
him ; but this their lom declined, urging them, oo the 
contrary, to retain their service under the emperor, since 
any defection fiwrn it would only confirm his suspicions 
of the loyalty of the Chiistians. The very heathens 
lamented the misfortunes of this good man ; many of 
the kings even offered him shelter in their dominions ; 
but Justo refiised them all, probably fearing to involve 
them io the same ruin with himself. The first few 
months of his banishment he therefore spent in wander- 
ing with his family through forests and over mountains, 
without any permanent shelter, and deprived almost of 
the common necessaries of life. At length his finend 
and former convert, Augustin, succeeded in persuading 
him to take retiige in his states ; and the emperor, some 
time afterwards softening a little towards hiin, sent him 
into more bonom-able eiile in the kingdom of Tango. 

The conversion of the queen of that country was the 
consequence of his residence at its court. Beautiliil and 
hly endowed herself, her husband was unhappily a 
Q of brutal habits and violent temper. Justo tried in 

vwn to convert him ; but though the monarch woold 
not follow his counsela, he at least repeated them to his 
wife, who, struck hy the suhhmity of the doctrines thug 
casually and imperfectly hrouffhtto her knowledg'e, he- 
came eitremely desirous of iurther instruction. This 
was no easy matter to accomplish ; for the jealous 
passion of her husband kept her (especially during his 
ahseaoe) almost a prisoner to the palace. One day, 
however, she manag;ed to leave it in disgiiise ; and going 
straight to the church, begged for baptism of the father- 
superior, who chanced to he there at the moment. He 
guessed her to he a person of rank from her intelligent 
conversation and dignified demeanour ; hut feelings un- 
certain of her disposition, he put her off until a later 
period. The next day she wrote to him by one of her 
ladies, requesting a solution of some of her doubts ; and 
from that time she never missed a day in sending some 
one or other of her attendants for fiirther insti-uctions, 
until hy this means they were ali of thera converted. 
Astooishod and dehghted at this uneipected residt, she 
became more than ever anxious to obtain the same 
blessing for herself; and as it was just at the com- 
mencement of the persecution, and there was httle 
chance of his being able to confer it upon her m person, 
the ftther-Buperior commissioned one of her ladies to 
baptise lier in his stead. Tlie lady chosen for this pur- 
pose wa.s rich and beautifiii, and destined in marriage 
ibr one of the greatest nobles of Japan ; but after per- 
forming the sacred rite, she felt herself so raised above 
all the honours of the earth by having been the ad- 
ministrator of a life-giving sacrament, that she made 
a vow of chastity on the spot, and cut off her hair as 
ft sign of her entire renunciation of the world. The 
queen herself, who was baptised by the name of Grace, 
was destined to suffer a continual martyrdom at the 
hands of her husband, who hated the Christians, and 
was fiirious with her for having adopted their tenets. 
He loved her indeed too well to divorce her ; but during 
the thhteen remaining years of her life, he treated her 

OH. T.] JAPAN. 93 

with inconceivaUe cnielty, frequently holding a drawn 
sword to her boaom U> temiy her into renouncing' the 
Christian religion, Grace, however, always persevered 
in the same answer, that he mig-ht take her life, hut he 
could not force her to betray her faith ; and the sequel 
proved that she had not miscalculated her stj'ength, for 
in the early times of the persecution she was one or the 
first to set the seal of martyrdom on her fidelity. There 
is still extant a beautiftU letter written by her to one 
of the Jesuit iathei'S, in which she expresses her joy at 
their resolution of remaining in the country, andffives 
an account of the baptism of her infant son, who, being 
at the point of death, suddenly recovered his health on 
the reception of the sacrament, which was administered 
to hitti hy Mary, the lady who had performed the same 
office for herself, and whom for this reason she was in 
the hahit of calling her spiritual mother. 

The banishment of Justo was followed by an edict 
agninst the Jesuits, who were commanded to return to 
India within six months after its promulgation. 

They immediately assembled at ilrando ; and it was 
there unanimously agreed that rather than abandon 
tiieir neophytes they would die at their posts, though 
in order to avoid all unnecessaiy cause of offence, it 
was resolved that the churches should be dismantled, 
and service pei-formed for the future in the private 
houses of the Christians. No sooner was this resolu* 
tion known, than, with only one exception, all the Chris- 
tian chiefs contended with g:enerous eagerness for the 
hazardous honour of sheltering them in their dominions. 

That exception was the kmg of Bongo, Constan- 
tine, thus tried again, agam was found to waver ; and 
as at such a moment to waver is to foil, he had no 
sooner complied with the imperial mandate by banish- 
ing the Jesuits, than he proceeded on his own account 
to persecute his Christian subjects, and finally made his 

warance at the court of Cambacundono with a little 

I round his neck in token of apostasy. To his es- 
e mortification, the emperor repaid his meanness by 

94 lAFAS. 

i.<ontempt, wliile the otLer king^, who had had the 
courage to hazard all for their principles, were soon 
afterwards receiTed by bha with courtesy, if not with 

Mattera bad proceeded only thus far, when the Ja- 
panese ambasaadors arrived at Goa; and in order to 
avoid the indignation of the emperor, instead of return- 
ing' as a Christian priest, Father VaJignan resolved to 
present himself as the accredited ambassador of the vice- 
roy of the Indies. 

They landed at Ntingasaki in 1590, and foond the 
irings of Arima and Omura waiting to receive them, 
HiUier also soon came the king of Bongo; but instead 
of meeting him in the manner he expected, Mancio Ito 
reproached his royal cousin with his apostasy, and re- 
fused to hold any communication with bim go long aa 
he remained the declared enemy of religion. Constan- 
tine bad already begun to repent of his conduct ; in- 
stead, therefore, of being offended at this noble freedom, 
he besought hia young relative to speak to Father Va- 
lignan on his behalf; and this time, at least, he seems 
to have been really sincere, tor during the remainder of 
his ht'e he remained perfectly steadiaat and fervent in 
his adherence to the Church. 

An audience with the emperor was less easily ob- 
tained ; but having at last received permission to that 
eSeat, Father VaUgnan made his entry into Miako, at- 
tended by many of the Portuguese merchants, and by 
the young princes his compamons, who were robed for 
the occasion in the European dresses which had been 
presented them by the Pope. Cambacundono had sent 
horses and litters for their better acconimodation ; and 
he received them very graciously, appejuing to be de- 
lighted with the presents of the viceroy, and inquiring 
very minut«ly of the princes concerning their travels. 
He was much pleased by their performance on some 
European instruments of music, and even offered to take 
Mancio Ito into his service; but having other projects than 
those of courtly ambition in his heart, the young prince 

Whp- v.] JAPAN. S)C 

respectfiilly declined the proffered bonour. Notwith- 
staBding all this atipareut cordiab'ty however, Camba- 
cuadono could not be induced to resctad any of liis late 
edicts, and Father Vaignan was obLg;ed to deniirt from 
Miako without having; aecompliahed the obiei olfject of 

During; all the time of his residence there he had 
been allowed perfect freedom in the public exercise of 
his piiestly functions ; and the Christiaos, who liad for 
Bome time been deprived of any spiritual aid, save such 
as the fathers could render tliom in secret, had flocked 
to hira in crowds. 

From Miako he proceeded with the Japanese am- 
bassadors to Arima and Omura, to deliver to the re- 
spective monarcha of those kifia;doms the letters and 
presents which had been sent them by the Pope ; and 
then, havinjf fulfilled the last duty entailed upon them 
by their mission to Rome, these young princes revealed 
to Father Valiffnan their intention of entering the So- 
ciety of Jeans. He was probably already aware, in some 
measure at least, of their design ; for they had mentioned 
it to Fatber Acqua Viva at Eome, who Md re<jiiired only 
the consent of their parents as the condition of theu' 
acceptance by the Society. 

They were therefore immediately admitted into the 
novitiat*, and subsequently became active missionaries 
IB their native land ; one of them surviving almost to 
the latter days of the persecution, and seaiiag his re- 
ligious pi'ofeasion in his lilood. 

This affair being arranged, Father Valignan prepared 
for his final departure, having gained notQing from the 
emperor save permission for a certain number of the 
Jesnits to remain a few months longer at NangasakL 

Even this was not to be considered in the hght of a 
concession, Cambacundono detaining them there only 
as hostages for the safe delivery of the letters and pre- 
sents wMob he destined for the viceroy, and which, a 
Hdoiibt having been thrown on the validity of the em- 
aa^, he fencied Father Valignan would never present 

He also chose another of the Jesuits, whom he attached 
to his court in quality of interpreter; and he seems to 
bave afterwaiils conceived a Bd-ong personal friendship 
for this father (Rodriguez by name), who remained in 
constant personal attendance upon kim during his life, 
and to whom we are indebted for an account of his 
death. Limited and ungracious as these permissions 
were, they were yet far too valuable to be refused ; and 
having secretly aispersed the remaining Jesuits through 
the kmgdoms of the Christian kings. Father Valignan 
reluctantly took his leave of Japan, and returned ti 
charge of his Indian provinciate. 


onndoDO undi an eipediUon to Corea t 
mljeiits. Hecal of Jualo Ucoiidoii 
Arnval of FrauciuiaD miBaiDuancfl. 
conduct. Tho first bishop of Japan arrivi 
Franoiscati fhttierg, tbree JeauitB 
gaaaliL Death of Cambacundono. 
Oftiw Queen of Tsogo, 

rid hlmsslf of hii 

. Death of Cou- 

TLeir UDprudenc 

Martyrdom of 


Cahbacundono did not take poasessinn of the tLrane 
of NoLunai!^ without being' smitten by the same am- 
bition wliich had preceded the fall of that monarch. 
Having received the homage of the Japanese as their 
Hng, Ee desired, like his ]iredecessor, to he adored ako 
as their god. More subtle, however, tiioogh perhaps 
less daring, than Nobuuang'a, he saw that, iu order to 
obtain the object of his unhallowed ambition, he re- 
quired not only such an amount of forei^ conquest as 
might seem to entitle him to claim it, but likewise the 
total annihilation of the Christian converts, who had 
already sufficiently shown that they would never be ac- 
cessary to this great national sin ; and he thought to ac- 
complish Lis twofold purpose by declaring war against 
Corea, — all the posts of honour, and, of course, of danger, 
being conlerred upon the leaders of the Cluistian move- 
ment. A.uguetine was therefore made g;eneralissimo of 
the expedition ; Simon Condera was placed next to him 
in dignity; and the kings of Arima, Omiu-a, Bongo, and 
many others, were all put into positions of distinction 
more or less prominent. The leaders being Christians, of 
com'se the bulk of the army was Christian likewise, as 
each chief brought his own subjects into the field; and 
thus the wily emperor calculated that iu any case his ob- 
Id be effected ; for if the expedition failed, the 
iristians aa a body would be cut to pieces ; and. on 
e other hand, if it should prove successliil, he mig^ht 

faii'ly dfiinsnd the coveted honour of a statue for hiin- 
Relf, while the npwly acquired temtoriea would present 
an easy mode of expatriating; the conquerors, under 
colour of rewarding' their services by the govemmenta 
of Corea. 

At Urst he had intended taking an active part in 
the eafflrprise himself; and in order to ohviate the dan- 
gera of a regency, had conferred his present title and 
autLority upon his nephew, whOe he took that of the 
Teigo-Sama to himself. By and by, however, a not 
unnatural jealousy of the new Cambacundono seems to 
have induced him to change bis plan ; and as lie could 
not with any show of justice deprive his nephew of a 
title which lie had voluntarily conterred, he got rid of 
liim in the usual Japanese fesliion, by a legalised murder; 
the friends and followers of tlie unhappy victim, and 
even his little chOdren, not being exempted from this 
barbarous sentence. 

While deeds of darkness such as these detained thifrg 
would-be divinity in Japan, the Clu-istian warriors i 
Corea were endeavourino; to unite the duties of Te&^ 
^on with the necessary distractions of a time of waJFU 
and for this purpose they invited some of the Jes 
fathers to join the expedition, both for the c 
of the people against whom they were going 
and for the instruction of the soldiers whom they o 
manded. The zealous missionaries were only too happy 
to embrace an oppoitunity for the still more extensive 
propngation of the faith, and under their auspices the 
camp soon became a house of prayer ; nor did the Chris- 
tians fight less bravely, because devotion had superseded 
the ordmary dissipations of military life. Battles were 
won, forts and cities were taken, every whwe the Coreans 
fled before them ; each fresh despatch became merely as 
announcement of a fresh success ; nnd at length, 
bis gratitude and joy for a new empire acquired wi' 
such marvellous rapidity, Teigo-Sama recalled Jus 
TJcondono to court. Their meeting was eurious, aj 
characteristic of the customs of the nation. " Juste 

V«Bi(l tile emperor, on perceiving the disgraced chieftain 

;e more in Jiis chamlier of audipace, " I have not eeen 

1 for d long time ; Imt now I hnve work for you to 

" With a profound reverence Justo professed him- 

Taelf always at Mb majesty's service ; he was theu ia- 

Jvited to a great han<]uet, and all his bonouj's and pos- 

[sessions were g^ven hack to him. Thus, without lault 

Ww forgiveness, accusation or acquittal, as he had heen 

jruinea, so was he now restored ; the emperor's good 

easure being sufficient reason for both. 

Strange to say — and a striking commentary it ia upon 

■tke shortcomings of human wisdom — nearly at the same 

■pioment when Justo so unexpectedly recovered all that 

" e had lost for the sake of tlie fiiith", Constantme, after 

J playing the traitor to his principles, was 

. i Buddenly robhed of all for which tTiey had been 

f bartered. Having incurred the displeasm-e of the em- 

■ peror by some misconduct in the Corean war, he was 

"tripped of his dominions, and condemned to a dreary 

xile in the couii of the king of Sataiima, the deadly 

I^Biemy of his throne and house ; hut though he never 

~ icovered his former |K»sition in the world, yet he had 

far greater happiness of being enabled to make some 

ipensation for the cowardly hackshdings of a former 

iod of his life by the religious steadiness of his de- 

:lining years. Indeed, from the hoiu' of his last recon- 
fliliatjon to the Church by Father Valignan, he had never 
shown any symptom of his former weakness ; his life 
was hencelbrth fonned on a mmlel of eveiy Christian 
Tirtue, and lie died at last in sentiments of contrition 
[and devotion worthy of the son of the good king 

Notwithstanding the services of the Christiana in 
the Corean war, the penal laws were still in force; but 
as in the first instance they had been the result of a 
mere ebnlhtion of temper on the part of the emperor, 




he might, and probably 

) of ti 

3 he would. 

liBve eitheJ' ignored or abolished tliem, had it not been 
^" T the inconsiderate boasting of a Sjianiah captain, who 



showing on a map tlie TOst extent of his sovereign's 
pos^Msions, and being questioned as to the mode of 
their acquisition, repi'esented it as entirely the work of 
the missioDaries, who first contrived, he said, to convert 
the people, and then easUy induced them to submit to 
the king whom they sei-ved. It is hard to say whethOT 
malice or folly were the motive of this speech; but 
wliicheTei' it was, it produced a suspicion in iWgD- 
Sama's mind which could never afterwards be eradi- 
cated, — a suspicion which he bequeathed as an heir-loom 
to his successors, however widely they mirfit difier in 
policy or in blood, and which unhappily to this very day 
exercises its bonefiil influence upon Japan, in the form 
of a law p'ohibiting the admission into the kingdom of 
any professor of the Christian faith. ■ 

Another circumstance also happened about this tim^S 
which tended to confirm and foster this suspicion, oncsl 
engendered : this was the line of conduct pursued by 1 
some Franciscan iriars who arrived irom the Philippine 
Islands, They had been induced to take this step by 
a designing impostor, who hoped by their means to op«i 
the ports of Japan 1o the commerce of Spain, and con^ 
trived to persuade them, therefore, that the emperor 
was moat anxious for their presence in bis doroinions. 
It was true, indeed, that Pope Gregory XIII. had is- 
sued a Bull prohibiting any other missionai-ies save tl 
membei-s of the Society of Jesus fi-om labouring i 
Japan ; and though this was done at the time in op| 
sition to the wish of the Jesuits themselves, yet t 
event showed the wisdom by which the Hdy See I 
been guided; for notwithstanding that the Francisc 
brought piety and zeal, and every other qualificati(S 
which could fit them for the task, yet they not onl^ 
produced confusion in the mission, by their ignorance m 
the customs and peculiarities of the people with whom 
they had to deal, but, by the persecution which their 
impi-udence excited against it, they became the ac»- 
dental causes of its fiiuil extinction. At first, it was a" 
anxious question of debate among the Franciscans, w 

ther Pope Grepjry's decree was liindiite on them ; bnt 
being already m posssBsion of a ItuU o/'Piipe Sixtus V., 
whjct) BTithorised them to preach throughout tlie Indies, 
in which they consiilered Japan to M included, and 
hnming with zeal and desire to cany the Name of Jesus 
to the most distant quartera of the g'lohe, they succeeded 

► ^t last in persuading themselves that, the prohibition 
having been issued under very different circumstances, 
they were justified in supposi^, that under the present 
more ilavourable aspect of a^irs it would not have 
heen enforced. In tnis their zea! misled them; yetwlio 
shall blame the ardour of these simple and earnest men ? 
If, in the fervour of their zeal, they overstepped the 
nice limits of that obedienue which is the only saJs 
eoide in religious undertakings, yet we must not foi^et 
that he who led them on was the very first to lay down 
his life in the cause, and, now a martyr, pleads for us 
in heaven. 

The Franciscans presented themselves at the court 
of Teigo-Sama as the accredited envoys of the g'ovemor 
of the Phihppines; and underneath the shelter of their 

> ambassadorial character they were permitted to settle 
at Miako, but only on condition of retraining: from every 
Dttempt at assembling the people, either for preaching 
or prayer. No sooner, however, had they taken pos- 
session of their new house, than they proceeded to do 
both, with every addition of circumstances that could 
give pubhcity to their conduct. It was in vain that 
their predecessors in the mission warned them that they 
were risking the safety of the whole Christian Church ; 
in vain that the very neathens themselves remonstrated 
with them on the folly of calling the emperor's atten- 
tion to their as yet hardly tolerated residence in the 
country. Tlieir pnre reli^oiis zeal found ample en- 
couragement in the great body of the people, who, ever 
careless of consequences, and only rejoicing in the oppor- 
tunity of assisting once more at the public services of 
Ifjie Church, eagerly docked to hear them ; and charmed 
ut the sight ot so much piety, and ignorant of the real 


dispositions of tlie emperor, tlie Pi-anciscana were not 
unnaturally led to conclude that the timidity of the 
Jesuits had put an unnecessary check upon the fervour 
of their converts. 

To oountei'aot any ill effects, therefore, from tlud] 
fencied over-caution, they thought it necessary to ex*f 
tend their own sphere of action aa much as they coulii» 
' so from Miako they went to Osaka, and from then 
to Nangasaki, where the Jesuits received them v ' 
the utmost cordiality, though the ill effects of tl 
imprudence wore soon felt in the town. Hitherto, not- ' 
withstanding the penal laws, the fathers in that city had 
contiived, by a system of most consummate prudence, 
to pursue their ministerial functions undisturbed. Un- 
der their care Nangasaki had hecome e-mphaticallv the 
Christian town of Japan, and only a httle later its inliabi- 
tants celebrated the conversion of its last pagan citizen 
by an especial festival ; but the arrival of the new mis- 
sionaries cast a shadow over their smiling prospects ; 
the public seiTices in their church excited suspicion; 
and the Christians were prohibited, by sound of trumpet, 
from attending Mass or seimon, or even from praying 
at a great cross wliich had been erected outside the 
walls. The friars themselves were banished ; and they 
retired to Osaka, having I'efused the refuge which had 
been generously ofiered them by the Jesuits. 

After their departure, things gradually returned ti 
their former state, a residt greatly facilitated by t* 
conversion of the governor. He was a young man 
great talent and powers of mind; and having once fon 
himself compelled by his position to act against 1 
Chjistians, he thought it only consistent with justice t 
ascertain what was the real nature of their tenets, — a; 
inquiry which ended in his sohciting baptism himself 
The doctrine of the Incarnation seems to have pai-ticu- 
lai'ly struck him, by the marked contrast which it pre- 
sented to the favomite hero-worship of the Japanese ; 
for, as he shrewdly remarked, there was nothing incon- 
sistent or inconceivable in the idea of a God becoming 


for t!:e creatures He hud made ; while, on the con- 
_ . to attiibiitfl divinity to men, often the worst and 
i3t wiuked of their species, was an act as destnictive 
to morahty as it was repugnant to sense. 

About this time, Peter Martinez, the new Bishop of 
Japan, arrived at Nangasaki with his coadjutor. Steps 
were sooa taken by the principal Christians to secure liis 
reception at coiul;; and, after some little demur, he was 
permitted to pay his respects to the emperor, who showed 
turn the same kliiduess and consideration which he had 
uniformly exhibitod towards the Jesuit fathers whenever 
Woiight personally into contact with tbem, and which 
Beamed very BtronB;ly to characterise bis subsequeDt pei'se- 
eution of the Chnstians as the effect rather ot a mistaken 
diplomacy than of a^ real hatred of the Christian faith 
and its professors. The period of the Bishop's arrival in 
Japan may be considered as the breathing-pause hetween 
the commencement of persecution and its final adoption. 
The sword had been unsheathed ; but, eiceot in a few 
lolated cases, it had not as yet drunk the blood of the 
itians; and under the prudent guidance of the new 
Bishop, united to the pei'sonal consideration which the 
emperor ent«i'tained for the Jesuits individually as well 
as collectively, it is possible that he mie;ht even now 
have been induced to sheath it again, had not the Fran- 
ciscan missionaries still continued to act in such open 
defiance of his orders, that he became more and more con- 
vinced they were really plotting the ruin of his throne j 
and with the words of the Spanish captain, their country- 
man, yet ringing in his ears, it is scarcely to be wondei-ed 
that he should have resolved upon the most snmmarv 
■measures for ridding himself of their presence. GiiarJs 
were set by his command over both their house and 
ithat of the Jesuits ; and this oi'der being misrepresented 
neral persecution of the Christians, it was every 
where hailed by them with feelings of exultation and 
"oy. Justo Ucondono rode at once to the Jesuits' * 
louse, to congratulate them on their good foi-tune ; and 
the two sons of the Governor of Miako hkewise entered 

104 JAPAN. 

tbe city for tlie espresa purpose of sharing the fate 
tlieir bretliren in the faith, 

The elder of these two priaces having assembled 
servants to acquaint them with his resolution, they all 
agreed, in the woi'ds of St. Thomas, to " go and die 
with him ;" and on his objecting to one who wsis ri rp- 
cent convert, and who, he fearecl, might hardly 
the trial, the poor man made snch earnest 
that at last he was allowed to accompany them, 
younger brother, fearing his father's safety might 
compromised by the religion of his children, went to 
acquaint him with the (act of his conversion ; and an 
affecting interview took place, during which the go- 
vernor, with sometliing of the spirit of an ancient 
Boman, told his son " that passionately as he had 
always loved him, and indeed still loved him, yet he 
would put him to death with his own hand if the em- 

Eeror should give hTm an order to that effect." Not 
«8 fii-m, but with the firmness of a Christian spirit "" 
opposed to that of a heathen, was the young man' 
ply. "He had revealed his religion," he said, "1 
cure, not his own safety, but that of his fether , 
whether he met his death by the actual hand of the 
latter, or only by his order, he would still have a double 
debt of gratitmle to pay to him; one for the temporal 
life he Lad hitherto enjoyed, and now a second and 
still greater, for that eternal life which he was about 
to receive through his means." Having said thus 
much, they parted j the son returned to his anticipated 
fate in the city, and the father to his wife, with whom 
he lamented over his unhappy fete ; for that if a mas- 
sacre of the Christiana shoiila be ordered, he would cer- 
tainly be condemned, by virtue of his official duties, to 
he the executioner of his own child. 

Nor were tiiese mere isolated instances of courage 
and resolution. Hvery where the Christians prepared m 
the same undaunted spirit to breast the waves of that 
persecution which was destined to sweep them from 
the face of the earth ; and no sooner was it known that 

-itu J 


and T 

:. VI.] JAPAK. 105 

Tei^Sama desired to have & census of his Christian 
sab]ects, than men, women, and childi'en flacked into 
Uiako to inscribe their names npon the list, hoping; 
thereby to win for themselves a martyr's crown. Va- 
lious interesting' anecdotes are t«1d ot the heroism dis- 
played upon tliis occasion; nnd among them we find a 
onrious instance of the mingling; of the old pa|j;an pride 
with the new-born zeal of the Christian convert in the 
history of a g;ood old man called Andrew. He had 
been a renowned warrior in his day ; and now, in the 
■jeightieth year of his a^e, and the first of his conver- 
""■ L, he was most anxious to die for Jeans ; bnt he 
Id not understand the necessity of dying as Jesus 
died, that is to say, without remonstrance or resist- 
'; passiye endm-aucewas as yetbnt simple cowardice 
mmseyes; "he would die, indeed," he said, "right 
gladly with the good lathers who had brought him to 
a knowledge of the Christian rehgion ; but £rst he 
would avenge their quarrel, kill all he could, and then, 
and not till then, would he lay down his life for Christ," 
In vain his son assiu^d him, that if he would merit the 
mart^'s crown he must not resist the sword; the old 
warnor could not comprehend this doctrine; and he had 
worked himself up into a fit of real indignation at the 
&ncied cowardice proposed to him, when ne chanced to 
enter an apartment where his daughter-in-law was em- 
ployed with her Christian servants in making garments 
if that peculiar kind which the Japanese tdways wore 
is the hour of execution; nnd when, in answer to liis 
iuquiriea, they told him, half in jest and half in earnest, 
that ther were preparing these robes to die for Jesus, 
ias simple honest heart was so touched by their patient 
resolution that he burst into tears, declaring that ho 
also would die as they did. 

In truth, however, the emperor had not as yet made 
up his mind, either to injure the Jesuits, or to shed the 
blood of the Christians wholesale ; and this he caused to 
be intimated to the Bishop, accompanied by as express 
declaration, that his edict was directed solely against 

106 JAPAN. 

the Spanish Franciscans. In fact, alraoat immediately 
afteiTsarda the friars were condemned to lose their 
em's anil noses, and then to be crucified ; und, as a 
warning to the great body of the Christians, twelve of 
those who wei-e most in the habit of frequenting their 
church were included in the same sentence, as were also 
some young childi'en, a Jesuit father, and two Jesuit 
novices, who clianced to he in the house at the moment 
it was surrounded. These last might possibly have 
been released upon proper representation of the case 
to the emperor; hut it wds considered dangerous to 
try the experiment, lest his indignation suould be 
roused against the whole body, if he found that any 
among them had been in communication with the 
friars; and the Provincial was reluctantly obliged to 
leave them to their lat«. The prisoners suffered the 
amputation of a poition of their ears in the high town 
of Miako, the governor, by a rare exercise of clemency, 
having remitted the more barbai-ous mutilation contem- 
platea by the sentence ; and some of these bloody tro- 
phies being afterwards caiiied to the Father Superior of 
the Jesuits, he burst into tears, partly of compassion, 
but most of joy, while, offering them up to God, he 
uttered these touching woi-ds : " Behold, Divine 
Saviour, these first-fruits of our labours in Japan. 
Grant that this blood, poured forth upon the earth, may 
make it fi-uitful in faithiul souls, who shall gloriiy Thy 
Name in this unknown and distant quarter of the 

While this scene was passing in the college, the 
martyrs themselves were conducted in carts about the 
city, their sentence being carried upon long poles be- 
fore them. Far, however, fi-om the insults and deri- 
sions which usually accompanied similar processions, 
the crowd had nothing but i-espectfiil sympathy to ofFci- 
to tlie present victims; many were even moved to teai'f 
as the cart containing the children nassed along, and tbey 
were seen standing togetherwitlitlieir' ..■>..■.! 
them, and their httle faces bathed in 


JAPAN. 107 

T innocent voices tlisy Btill saoff hymns in honour 
heir God. 

Father Peter Baptist, the Superior of the Francia- 
s, and a man posaessiag; every lirtiie except pra- 
loe, preached continually to the people as they went 
ag ; so also did Paul Sliki, the Jesuit, who even 
.verted two of his guards in the coui-se of this circuit, 
Hangasaki was tlie town destined for theii' execution, 
ftnd hither they were soon afterwards despatched ; hut 
so hndly mounted and so poorly clad, that hut for the 
Toluntary charity both of heathens and Christians, they 
.jnnst have died on the road from the iociemency <tf 

None of the Jesuits were permitted to accompany 
'them; even the Bishop was ooli^ed to send liis hless- 
ing by proxy ; hut one of the iathers manag^ed to meet 
them before they arrived at Tfang^saki ; and a halt, 
oontrived hy the friendly governor for this very pur- 
pose, enabled him both to receive their general confes- 
sions and the vows of the Jesuit novices, who were 
most anxious to he admitted into the society before 
their execution. Rodiig^ea also, the emperors inter- 
preter, was hajipy enough to obtain an interview with 
the prisoners ; and Father Peter Baptist, in a spirit of 
hunmity most touching and edifying at a moment when 
all around were honouring him as a future martyr, 
asked pardon of the Jesuit, on his knees, for the injury 
which he now felt that he and his brethren had broug-ht 
upon the mission. Father Rodriguez was not to be 
outdone in humility, therefore he also demanded par- 
don of the Franciscans in the same lowly posture, on 
behalf of his society, if haply any thing had been either 
said or done on its side contrary to Christian chnritv; 
id the two fathers then embraced each other with tne 
iderest expressions of affection and esteem. The con- 
ined Jesuits likewise thanked the Franciscans so 
'ently for the share which they had bad in this 
iBppy consummation of their labours, that the guards 
iilled with wonder, exclaiming almost in the very 

108 JAPAN, 

worda of those Boman soldiers who 1 
his brother to their doom -. " What i 
are these, who ffo to deatruction as others t( 
or a ball ? Whoever saw so much suftering' s 
much joy? A hymn of triumph and a felon's death." 
They might well ask the question ; and greatly most 
their astonishment have increased when, upon drawing 
near to Nangasaki, the crosses destined tor the exe- 
cution became viaihle oa the mountain-heights; for at 
the sight of this new Calvary the martyrs burst into 
fresh exclamations of joy and devotion, and little 
Lewis more especially, seebg three crosses smaller than 
the rrat, eagerly inquired which was to he his, em- 
bracing' it, as soon as he reached the spot, with as much 
eagerness and affection as even the apostle St. Andrew 
had testified for his. 

The boy was only twelve years of age, and might 
easily have escaped when fii-st taken at the convent; 
but ne preferred dying with the lathers to hving with- 
out them. Nor was this a mere momentary impulse of 
love or of enthusiasm. Every one of these poor chil- 
dren remained iirm Irom first to last, notwitustandinc; 
the severe trial to which their constancy was put, both 
during the many days that elapsed alter the cruel mu- 
tUation practised upon them at Miako, and in the 
weary journey and protracted preparations for their 
final execution- In vain did the i)arents of one of 
them beseech him to have pity on their grey hairs, 
and to pimjhaBe safety at the price of his religion ; in 
vain did the governors themselves alternately offer life 
to Lewis and to Anthony, with promises even of ia- 
vonr and promotion, if they would but abandon their 
feith : enti-eaty and proposal were iinhesitatingly re- 
iused ; and baffled and disappointed, the temptei-s were 
at length compelled to leave the children to their fate, 
with their older but not more heroic companions. 

The Japanese mode of crucifixion is not that which 
was suffered by our Lord, and which we naturally a 
sociate with the name. The victim is merely ti ' 


JAPAN. 109 

to his cross by the hands and arms, and by an iron 
ring passing round the neck so as to keep tlie head in 
an erect position ; and u sharp lance than driven into 
the heart eitinguiahes life in a moment. Such was 
the death which the martyrs were now to endure; and 
lying each upon his own cross, they wait«d for the 
moment when they were to he lifted up on high. 
Troops had been ranged round the foot of the hill in 
ordei' to prevent any but the nearest relations of the 
martyrs ti'om approaching tlio spot ; but the vast 
plains extending trom that point to the city were 
thronged by a dense mass of people, come to witness the 
execution. At first a solemn sueuce reigned through- 
out that mighty multitude; every voice was hueUed, 
every heart and eye were fixed upon the fatal spot; but 
when, at a given signal, the crosses were raised, and the 
martyrs were seen hanging each from his own cross, 
with an executioner at his side, ready to strike the 
fatal blow, the feelings of nature could no longer be 
repressed, and from the plains below there I'ose a mourn- 
ful cry that reached even to the ears of the dying saints. 
They respond ad not to the lamentation ; on the con- 
trary. Father Peter Baptist began the Benedictvs, and 
at the sound of his voice the others took up tlie stram, 
and continued it to the end witSi a devotion which quite 
electrified tlie spectators. The children then asked Fa- 
ther Peter to sin^ with them the Laudats pueri ; but 
absorbed in profound contemplation, he heard them 
not; and they sang it therefore themselves, never ceas- 
ing until their innocent voices wei-e hushed in death. 
They were all struck nearly at the same moment, and 
all met their fata with the same courage and constancy 
as they had shown Irom the beginning; but Paul Miki 
seems more especially to have died m a spirit of de- 
votion to the Passion of our Saviour. He it was who 
had petitioned for tliis reason that they might be ex- 
ecuted on a Priday; and having obtaiuedtliis request, he 
^|sd also the consolation of dying with the very words 
W^ Jesufi on his lips; exclaiming, " Into Thy hands I 

lously with tHil^l 
irtyrs had actu-^^^H 


commend my spiiit" almost simultaneously 
blow which sent him to his God. 

No sooner was it known that the martyrs 
ally expired, than hII the scenes of the old Roman 
tyrdoms were renewed in their regard. A poor wretch 
who, thi'oiig'h fear or shame, had oaaely denied his re- 
ligion, was reconverted on tlie spot; and tanf'-ht hy the 
same unerring' instinct which had led the oliilJi'ea of 
the infant Church to seek the rehcs of the honotired 
dead, often evon at the risk of their own lives, the Japanese 
converts now forced the barriers, and bursting through., 
every obstacle, tore off portions of the martyrs' ' ■ 
and dipped veils and handkereliiefe in their ^ 
wounds, until the governor was obliged to double 
guards, in order to remove the people to a distance.' 

The blow which this martyrdom inflicted on the 
Church was speedily followed by a fi-esh importation of 
ChiTStian warriors into the Gorea, and by a new edict for 
the banishment of the Jesuit fatliers. Their churches 
were every where destroyed ; such colleges as they had 
been allowed to retain in the dominions of the Chi'istian 
kings were broken up, and the students scattered to 
their several homes; and, forced at length to yield to 
the storm, the provinoial had actually named some of 
the least useful members of the society to be sent back 
to India, in hopes of being thus enabled to retain the 
others without mcurring the suspicions of Teigo-8ama, 
when that monarch died. The last part of his reign 
had been fiir less fortunate than its commencement. 
Corea, won by the blood and treasures of his Christian 
subjects, had "been lost again by some unhappy failure 
in his negotiations for peace — a fadiu* chiefly to be 
attributed to the delay which his absurd vanity had 
caused liim to make for the more magnificent reception 
of the Chinese ambassadors who had been deputed to 
treat at his court on the subject. Almost at the same 
time, Japan was devastated by frightful storms and by 

• Thofle first martyn of Japan woro canoniBed by Popo Urb 
Vm., and their leatival a cslebratad on the 5tb at February. 


tsuccnssion of c&ithquakea, one oF which destroyed the 
lagnificent city and palace he hnd huilt fur himself; 
t that hd, the mig'hty and unspuroachable munarch^ 
le would-he conqueror of the world, and candidate for 
the honours of divinity, was forced to fly in tlie midst 
of the night fiwrn the ruins of his own abode; and with 
no other Bi)parel than such as he chanced to be wearing 
at the moment, to seek for safety in the kitchen of a 
Blave. But no wai'ning' reached his conscience, no 
misfortune lowered his pride. As he had lived, bo did 
he die. Father Bodrigitez, his interpreter, was with him 
to the last, but he tiied in vain to rouse him to the con- 
templation of eternity ; even in the ag'onies of death the 
ruling; passion of his "life was strong witliin him, and liis 
Boul was engrossed by his anxiety to secure the succession 
to his son, a boy of about eleven years of age, and to pro- 
cure for himself the honour of being placed among the 
idols of Jnoan. The latter wish was far more easy of ac- 
complishment than the firat. As soon as he had expired, 
a temple was erected ; a statue which during his lifetime 
he had had the vanity to have modelled after his own 
likeness was set up in it for adoration, aad he was placed 
among the Chadotachi imder the title of the new god 
of war. Nothinff could have been more favourable to 
the Christian religion, or more fatal to the cause of 
idolatry, than this gross act of adulation to the departed 
fji onareh. The ti'aditiou of his life was yet fresh in 
wSiB memories of men. Every odc knew him to have 
Been ambitious, debauched, cruel, proud, and sordid; 
Eand naturally concluding that if he were indeed a 
fitting object of adoration, the idols among whom 
he had beea placed must probably have been of the 
same character as himself, thousands embraced Chris- 
.ty who had hitherto been deaf to every argument 
le iathers. 

The death of Teigo-Sama put an end to the Corenn 

■ ■ and the Christian princes being thus restored to 

own dominions, religion began to breathe freely 

. Churches were rebuilt, colleges re-established, 



Hnd tfaingB were booh nearly iipon tlie §ame footings 
as thoy liad been in the days ot Nobunanga; but, un- 
fortnaataly, the despotic Mid fluctuating nature of the 
goviuument of Japan rendered every interval of peace 
to tho Chui'ch fleeting and uncertain as the glories of tm,' 
Ajiril day. < 

The yoiuiff prince being still in hia minority whea 
his &ther dieUj Teigo-Sama had appointed a regency, 
oonaistiM; of a chief governor, with fort^-nine of we 
inferior kings to act as his assistants. This singidar 
form of government was apnsi-ently chosen in order 
that the number and mutual jealousies of the persons 
thus strangely associated mig'ht act as a check both 
upon the ambition of the regent and upon that of 
one another; and if the experiment was not altogether 
successfid, it showed at least the sagacity which 
foreseen and endeavoured to remedy the dai 



thnf ^ 

The regent commenced his government under thetidff: 
of the Deim-Sama ; but it soon became so manifest that 
he intended tfl usurp the crown altogether, that Augus- 
tine, Gihonoscin, and others of the governors, who, 
having taken an oath of fidelity to the yotmg prince, 
were resolved to keep it, leagued together against 
him. The good fortune of the admiral, however, had 
at length departed ; in the first pitched battle which 
took place, the combined forces oi the governors were 
utterly defeated, and Augustine taken prisoner. For a 
moment he had a violent temptation to disappoint his cap- 
tors by suicide, an act so common and so admii'ed among 
his fellow-countrymen ; but the law of God forbade 
it, and the Cluistian chief put back the thought, and 
with a nobler courage submitted to his fate. He was 
led at once into the presence of the Prince of Budsen, 
one of the generals m the victorious army, who hBA.^ 
formerly been his bosom friend. The prince ? 
affected at the sight of the lallen chief, that he 
into t«ars, and was tmable to speak. Augustii 
that he was weeping, and raising his head with g_ 
dignity, addreased hmi thus : " Sir, you know wht 

JAPAN. 113 

)ti see what I have dow became. I 
8 therefore nothinc new to say, and but one re<juefit 
make at your hands." 

The prince was silent ; be thought Augustine was 

gmg to itsk his lite, which Le knew to be forleit«d to 
lilu-Sama's vengeance; and therefore he made no 
reply. The prisoner guessed the cause of his em- 
bwrassment, and hastily went on to say, " It is not my 
life that I ask ; had not the law of God forbidden it, I 
had never heea brought alive into your hands to-day. 
I is a Jesuit father who may pi-epai-e me to 
as a Ohrisdan should.'' 

Natural as this request might seem, it was relused 
Deifu-Sama, to whom it was refen-ed ; and thus left 
itute of all human succour, Augustine threw him - 
self upon the mercies of God with such a generous con- 
fidence, tliat, iiir fi'om quailing before the prospect of 
an ignominious death, be rather exulted in the thought 
of being thus bi-ought into closer imitatfca of his Lord 
and Saviour. 

When therefore he and his former friend Gibonoscia, 
with another of their companions in misfoi'tune, were 
led to execution, mounted on pitiful horses, and exposed 
to all the jeers and insults of the mob, it needed act 
to ask who was the Christian, and who the heathen? 
The faith in which they severally had traated was 
written upon their very faces. Filled witli the human 

Eride inculcated and cheiished by their idolatry, the 
eathens were so overwhelmed by the shame of their 
situation — a shame which for them had no bidden value 
to compensate for its exterior hittemesa — that they 
covered tlieir faces with their hands, and wept like men 
in the depths of despair; while Augustine, on tlie con- 
trary, as the disciple of a religion wuich places humilia- 
tion above honour, and gives to vhtue in diaarace a 
Srecious consciousness at its resemblance to the Be- 
eemer of mankind, not only met every insnlt with 
the calmness of one who felt that nothing but sin could 
really lower him in the eyes of God or the estimation 

174 JAPAlf. 

of good men, Irat with an air and manner which showed 
alike his vivid hope of fiitura hiiss and the greatness of 
his present consolation. 

To a feithful Christian, despatclied hy the J^uit 
ftthera to assist him in the hour of death, he declared 
that he died not only content, hut full of joy ; for having' 
confessed and communicated hefore going into battle, 
he had since done all that had been suggested to him 
as a fitting preparation for this solemn occasion. Some 
of tlie bonzes then wished to perform in his favour 
certain superstitious ceremonies usual on such occasions j 
but rejectmg their twice-offered services with scorn, he 
took a picture of our Lady into his hands, and set it 
thi'ee times upon his head — a mark of t!ie greatest 
honour and esteem that can be paid to any tliiug' or 

Srson in Japan. In fear, in trembling, and in tears, 
!Companionsdied; but when his turn was come, with- 
out any change of countenance or of colour, he fell upon 
his knees, and' earnestly recommended his soul to God; 
his head was severed from his body while the words 
" Jesus ! Mary !" the invariable death-cry of the J^a- 
nese Christians, were yet trembling on his hps. Thus 
peiished this great man, — a hero in the estimation of 
the world, a saint in the eyes of the Church. From 
the first hour of his conversion to the day of his death, 
he had been the unwearied promoter of the Christian 
religion, and its most zealous and fearless defender 
against the machinations of its enemies. His military 
talents, his high renown, his wealth and power,^all had 
been devoted to this one great object; and he died at 
last because, scrupulous ofthe oath which he bad taken 
to one prince, be opposed every attempt at usurpation 
on the part of another. His wife and daughter found 
a temporary asylum with the Jesuits at Nangasaki, 
who ofiered them hospitality at the peril of their own 
lives; but instead of resenting this act of gi-atitude to 
their departed benefactor, Deifu-Sama seemed almost to 
give it the sanction of his own apprabation by after- J 
"'irds granting a free pardon to these ladies, who " 

a involved by the laws of the country in one coni- 

1 ruin with tlieir father untl liusbund. 

The Queen of Tiina:© was the only otlier Christian of 
note who perished in this unhappy war. Her husband 
had sided with Deitii-Sama : but when he wpnt to join 
Itis army, lie ffave tiie cruel order that his wife should 
be put to death if the enemya forces approached near 
enough the city to make it likely that she should fall into 
thdr hands. Grace seems to have been neiirly idolised 
by all who were about her ; when therefore the near 
neigbbourhood of the enemy rendered it imperatiTe to 
put the king^'a sentence into execution, those appointed 
to the fatal deed fell upon their knees, and with many 
tears declared their mission, as well as their intention 
of destroying' themselves as soon as it should be acconi- 
plisfaed. Far from being either astonished or dismayed', 
tbe queen adored profoundly that Divine Providence 
which mercifiilly called her from a world that had no 
charms for her; and then, seeking' to console her hea^ 
then servants, who were howling and tearing liieir hair 
with every sign of savage despair, she softly said : " 
iny children, he not afflicted ! Death to a Christian 
Bool is but the passing' from a temporal life to one tJiat 
is eternal. Do therefore your master's ordei-a witliout 
fear or sorrow; hut remember that God forbids you to 
lay violent hands on yourselves, and I, your queen, for- 
bid it likewise. Rather embrace the Christian religion ; 
and then indeed I shall die content." 

Unhappily, this advice was too contrary t« their no- 
tions of honour and fidelity to be at all acceptable to 
those who heard her; and in the name of all the others, 
the captain of the bond declared that nothing should 
induce them to accept a religion which forbade the tri- 
bute of affection they had determined on paying to her 

Seeing all her arguments were in vain, the queen 
letired to her oratory to pray, while they empIov«1 
themselves in filling the outer chambei'S of the paf 
with gunpowder. Tlife done, and the prayere of the 

llfi JAPAN. 

queen concluded, Bbe took a tender and affectionate 
leave of all her women ; and loosing- Lerself the eilken 
robea fi'om off her neck, she snbmitted to her fete with 
the same calmness and serenity which she had Ehown 
thro«g;hout every portion of this trying scene. Her 
reluctent executionpjs reverentially cast a silken mantle 
over the body, imd then setting; fire to the train of 
powder which had been laid, they and every other in- 
mate of the palace perished in the terrible ezplosiaa 
which ensued. 

The king' her husband lamented her death with a 
^ef as eKtravag;ant as thouc^h he had not been himself 
the author of her doom ; and hearing that the Jesuits had 
collected some half-burnt bones, supposed to be thorn 
of the murdered queen, with the intention of giving' 
them decent interment, he ordered them to perform a 
funeral Mass for her at Osaka. The church was hung 
with black, and a ohapdle ardente heatg placed before 
the altar, the Mass was suno; witJi so much majesty and 
devotion, that the king, who with all his nobieB was 
present, declared that the ceremonies of his native 
bonzes were i^ inferior to those in use among the 
He was also much struck by the disinte- 
jf the Jesuit fathers, to whom he presented 
a large sum of money, but which they immediately 
afterwards distributed among the poor ; and from that 
time he eave free permission to all his subjecta to pro- 
fess the Christian religion ; thongh he nevei' attempted 
to embrace it himself, — being one of those instances so 
often to be met with in the history of Japan, and, alas, 
not less frequently in that of the world at large, of men 
who see the truth, admire and confess it, and yet liva 
and die without making it their own. 





^^HhnMDtitiii of Ibe Church in the kii;gdom of Ft^. Cb&rib; of tbe 
^^" Bnhop and Josuit Futhora. Manj-rdoin* of JapaDeu nobles, 
iribh their viv« and tunilioB. Ponecutlon in Finkado aud 
Arima. Heroig martyrdoaui of otuldren and others. 

The deatli of Augustine and his compeers effectually 
repressed any further attempt agninst the power a. 
QeiAi-Sama ; and thus left to pui-aue his ombi'ious 
designs unchecked, he no long«r hesitated to tuke the 
I title of the Kumbo-Soma, wliich had never been iu use 
I the days of JVobuaoLga. Though the com- 
01 his reign was not marked by persecution, 
,_ flt it is evident that the speech of the Spanish captain, 
which had poisoned the mind of his predecessor against 
the Christians, still rankled darkly and silently m his 
own; for however kindly he ought express himself 
towuds individual professors of that religion, he never 
ooold be persuaded either to repeal the persecuting laws 
ofTeigo-Sama, or to interfere with such of the inferior 
nKmarchB as chose to put them mto eiecution. In this 
way hundreds of the hesC and noblest of Japan perished 
BHaer the jurisdiction of men scarcely their superiors, 
and often only their equals, throng'h some caprice of 
fortune, or of imperial favour, which had put them in 
possession of a conquered kingdom. 

The king of Figo led the way in the ranks of the 
persecutors by a sentence of outlawry against his Chris- 
tian subjects, who, iu consequence of this sentence, 
were driven irom their bouses and deprived of ail oflioe, 
revenue, and rank ; whi!e the food and shelter which 
1^ peonlo of their own nation were forbidden to give 
them, tSiey were, by a most fiendlike ingenuity, pro- 
hibited under pain of death Irom seeking elsewhere. 
It is plain that death itself would have been ohuost a 


118 JAPAN. 

mercy, compared to the miseries entniled by sneli a p 
nalty as this ; nevertheless cold, hunger, latigTie, and' ■ 
death itself witli its attendant horroi-s, all were endured' * 
without a murmur for tlie sake of Christ ; and at last, 
at the end of sis months, the sufferers were permitted 
to ^o and seek the hospitality of their brethren at Ifan- 
"Tiaaki, where they were received with the utmost ten- 
derness and affection, the Bishnp and his clergy (the 
Jesuits) devoting to their support all the alms that 
native Christians or foreign princea had offered for 

Scarcely had the esilea reached this hospitable aay* _ 
lum ere another edict was pubhshed in Figu, command*'^ 
ing all the remaining Christians to repair to the houa' 

of a bonze appointed for the purpose, and in hi 

to perform a certain eeremoDy, which vras t 
sidered as a declaration of their belief in his teachini 
Death was to be the penalty of a relWal; andtwonobl^ 
men, named Jolm and Simon, were chosen as ezamplM 
of severity to the rest. Both were fi'iends of the governfflT 
to whom the order had been intrustod, and he did whJ 
he could to save them. " If tbey would but _/«^ eon _ 
pliance with the king's decree," or " have the ceremony 
privately performed at their own houses," or "bribe the 
Iwnze to allow it to be supposed he had received their 
recantation," — each of tliese alternatives was as eagerhr 
nrged as it was indignantly rejected ; and when a oai^ J 
of nilGans dragged John to the liotize's house, and set'l 
the superstitious book which was to be the token of his^l 
apostasy by main force upon his head, be protested e^m 
loudly and vehemently against the violence done to imM 
will, that nothing remained but to sentence him t^l 
death. The execution took place in the presence oPj 
the ^veraor ; and from the cbamhei', still reekin^'l 
with the blood of one friend, be went to the house m^ 
the otbei" on a similar mission, and with equal i-eIuot-« 

Simon was quietly conversing with his mother whe^H 
the governor entered ; and the latter could not re&aflH 


from weeping' as he beBoii"'ht thnt lady to have pitj 
upon tLem both, and hy advising compliance with the 
kuig''s command?, to spat'e herself the an^ish of losing 
u sou, and himself that of imbruing' his hands in the 
blood of a friend. Touching' as was the appeal, it 
WU8 made in vain ; for in her answer the Cnristian 
mother pi-oved true to her faith; so that the g;ovemor 
left the house, indignantly declaring that by her obsti- 
nacy she was fjuilty of the death oi her son. Another 
nobleniaii entei'ed soon afberwards, chiu-[!;ed with the 
personal execution of the sentence. This was no unusual 
^— "*'iod of proceeding, since every Japanese nobleman, 
ige to say, may at any moment be called upon to 
ate in such cases, it being a favour often gi-anted 
persons of rank to die by the hand of a ii'iend or a 
servant, rather than by that of the ordinary beadsman. 
Jotiv&va was a friend of Simon's, and ha proceeded 
with what heart he might to his sad and revoltiag duty. 
Knowing his errand weU, Simon received him with an 
affectionate smile, and then prostrated himself in prayer 
before an image of our Saviour crowned with thorns, 
while his wife and mothei" called for warm water that 
he might wash, — a ceremony the Japanese always ob- 
serve upon joyful occasions. Tears of natui^l regret 
would now indeed even in the midst of this generous 
exultation ; and Agnes, falling upon her knef s, besought 
her husband to cut offher hau*, as a sign that she never 
would marry again. After a httle hesitation, he com- 
|died with this request; prophesying, however, that she 
.and his mothei" would soon follow him to heaven ; and 
m, accompanied by the thi'ee Giffiaqven, or officers of 
le Confiiiteniity of Mercy, whom he had summoned to 
} present at the execution, they all entered the hall 
where it was intended to take place. Michael, one of 
the Giffiaques, carried a cnicihs; the other two bore 
lighted torches ; and Simon woJked between his wife 
and mother, while his disconsolate servants brought up 
'le rear. An unhappy renegade met them at the en- 
ice to take leave of Simon ; but struck by the con- 

130 JAPAR. 

trast between his own conduct and that of the mBityT, 
! burst into tears, and was unable to speak. Most 
eloquently did Simon urge him to repentance, uncon- 
sciouflly using almost the very words of his Divine 
Master, as he bade him weep, " not for his own ap- 
proaching fate, but for the fell apostasy by which he, a 
reneg^ade, had rendered himselt guilty of bell-fire ;" 
then distributing his rosaries and other objects of de- 
votion as memorials among bis jriends, he relnsed to 
give to the apostate a sing'lB head, urgently as he be- 
sought it of him, unless hn woidd make a solemn pro- 
mise of repentance and amendment. 

The condition was at length accepted, and Simon 
joyfiUlv returned to his prayei-s. He and his friends re- 
cited the htany ; and then, bowing before a picture of 
om' Saviour until his forehead toucned the ground, the 
nobleman who acted as executionei' took offhis head at 
a single blow. It fell at thefeetofoneof theGifBaques; 
but his mother, with the courage of a Machabee, took 
it in her hands, exclaiming, " O dear head, resplendent 
now with celestial glory ! happy Simon, who hast 
had the honour of dying for Him who died for thee! 
My God ! Thou didst give me Thy Son ; take now thiv 
son of mine, sacrificed for the love of Thee 1" 
the mother came poor Agnes, weeping some 
teai-s over the rehcs of her husband ; and then, 
seeing that her own death would speedily follow 
upon his, she and her mother betook tliemselves to 
prayer, the three Gifliaques remaining in nttflndanee 
in order to be able to assist at their execution ; and, in 
fact, twenty-four hours had not elapsed before it was 
told them they were to die ; the officer who came to 
acquaint them with their sentence bringing with him 
Magdalen, the wife of John, and Lewis, a little child 
whom the latter had adopted as his own, both of whom 
wei'e condemned to n similar fate. 

With eager joy the prisoners embraced each other, 
praising, blessing, and thanking God, not only i' 
they w€ire to suffer for Jesus, but also that they « 

wtJdtf ■ 

fore- a 

JAPAN. 121 

is like Jesus ; and then, robed in their 
best attire, they set off for the place of execution is 
palanquins which the guards had provided for the par- 
pose. The GiUiaques walked at their side ; but small 
need had they to offer motiTes for constaucj to these 
heroic souls, burning with the desire of martyrdom, and 
eager to enter the path by which tbeir nearest and 
direst had already ascended to heaven. Jane, the 
mother of Simon, beeoug'ht the executioner to bind her 
limbs Ds tightly as possible, that ebe might tbus share 
the anguish which the nails inflicted upon those of 
Jesua; and she preached from ber cross with so much 
force and eloquence, that tlie presiding; ofGcer, fearine 
theefiects ofberwords upon the people, had her stabbed 
without waiting for the rest of tue victims. Lewis and 
Magdalen were tied up next. They bound the child so 
Tiolently that he could not refrain from shrieking ; but 
when they asked him if be was afraid to die, he said he 
was not ; and so they took and set him up directly op- 
posite his mother. For a briel' interval the martyr and 
her adopted child gazed silently on each other ; then, 
snmmoning; all her strength, ^e said, " Son, we are 
going to heaven : take courage, and cry, ' Jesus, Mary !' 
with yonr latest breath." And again the i^d repUed, 
as he had done before when, on leaving their own 
home, she had made him a smiilar exhortation, " Mother, 
you ahali be obeyed !" The executioner stmck at him 
BTSt, but missed his aim; and more than ever fearing 
for his constancy, Magdalen exhorted him from her 
cross, while Michael, standing at its foot, spoke words 
of comfort to him. But the child needed not their 
urging; he did not shriek again, nor did he shrink, 
but waited patiently imtil a second blow had pierced 
him through and throngh ; and the lance, yet reeking 
I with his blood, was directly afterwards plunged into the 
f heart of his mother, whose shai'pest pang had pro- 
i hably already passed on the instant when the son of 
Lier iDTe expired before her. And now the lair and 
^outhfiil Agnes alone remained, kneeling, as when she 



first had reached the place of eaecution; for no one hi 
yet had the courage to approach her. Like the heada-J 
man of lier namesake, tlie loveliest cliild of Christian 1 
story, her very executionera could only weep that they 
were bid to mar the beauty of any thing; bo fail' ; their 
hands were powerless to du their office ; and finding' at 
last that no one sought to hind her, she went herself 
and laid her gently and modestly down npon her cross. 
There she lay, waiting; for her hour, calm and eerena 
as if pilloweit on an angel's bosom, untd at length 
some of the spectators, induced partly by a bribe 
offered hy the executioner, but chiefly by a bigoted 
hatred of her religion, hound her, and lilted up her 
cross, and then stjiiek her blow after blow, until be- 
neath their rude and unaccustomed hands she painiully_ 
expired. For a year and a day the bodies were left tr 
hang upon their crosses, as a terror to all others of tb 
same religion ; but Christians were not wanting to watcl 
the blackening corpses, and, with a love like that a 
Hespha, the mother of the sons of Saul, to drive from 
thence the fowls of the an* hy day, and the beasts of the 
field by night ; and finally, when the period of prohi- 
bition was expii'ed, reverently to guther the haUowe ' 
bones to their last i-esting-place in the church of Nai 

The Giffiaquea were the nest who felt the tyrant*! 
rage. The governor himself urged on their punish- 
ment, for the loss of his friends had made him nirious j 
and, attributing it entirely, as indeed it was entirely to 
be attributed, to the fact of their religion, he resolved to 
wreak his vengeance upon all others who professed it. 
One difficulty he had, however, in the fiill aceompiiah- 
ment of his desire, namely, that no punishment which 
he could devise for his victims was too dreadful to be -i 
accepted by them with alacrity and joy. " What si 
I do with these men?" he ci'ied, in a kind of savi ^ 
perplexity upon being told that the Giffiaques had n 
ther courted than evaded tbeir imprisonment : "De ' 
they rejoice in, as in the acquisition of an empire, I 


3APAS, 123 

they gn to eiile as a slave to freedom. Tbe cross is a 
royal throne, which they mount with pleasui'e and oc- 
cupy with pride. I will therefore conti'ive lor tliem a 
late which shall make danth, under any form whatever, 
a boon to bo desired, but not to be attained." Within 
the oity-wnlls there was a prison which the king Lad 
constructed for the reception of hia debtors. Open on 
eveiy side, its inmates were exposed both to the curious 
gaze at the passing crowds and to the alternate sut- 
iraring; of heat and cold, as summer or winter revolved 
over their heads. There, huddled together in this en- 
cloaui'e, the prisoners lay, not upon mats, nor yet upon 
the damp cold earth, winch in comparison would have 
been a mercy, hut upon heaps of horrid filth, the accu- 
mulation of many years ; for by a hideous cruelty of 
BJBTention, the monster would never permit the cleans- 
■'isg out of these ioathsome places, hoping by the hor- 
rible condition of their dungeon to extort a speedier 
payment from his victims. Into this den of suffering- 
the governor cast the three Christians whom he bad 
selected for his prey, never doubting that they would 
be soon subdued by tlie anguish of a lil'e more terrible 
than the most lingei-ing and painful death; and so for 
years the Giffiaquea lingered on, breathing this infected 
air — pillowed, sleeping and waking, on the loathsome 
dung' which matted all tbe pavement, feeding upon 
such diy crusts and filthy water as their jailors chose 
to give them ; until at length one among them died, 
and then the tyrant, weary of such willing victims, 
commanded the other two to he cut in pieces. 

According to the usual custom of Japan, their chil- 
dren were condemned to suffer with them ; and how- 
ever hateful such a practice nrnst apjwar to the natural 
heart of man, yet was it ever to the martyrs a most wel- 
come boon ; for theirs was a Christian as well as a pa- 
rental love, teaching them to set the spiritual above 
the temporal welfare of tJieir childi-en, and tljei-efore 
rather to rejoice in, than simply to meet with calm sub- 
mission, that double condemnation which, by uniting the 


fete of their little ones with their own, snatched them 
from any fiiture chance of perrersion, and put thora at 
once in possession of their heavenly kingdom. 

One of these httle victims was sleeping when they 
came to fetch him: he wes only sis years old, and 
so tiny, that he had to i-un as feat as he could in order to 
keep up with the soldier who conducted him to execu- 
tion ; yet, so far from heing frightened at his fate, be 
even gazed without dismay on the disfigured corpses 
of his father, uncle, and cousin, who had all suffered 
ere he reached the spot ; and then, kneeling down and 
joining Lis hands together, looked up smiling in the 
fece of him who was to lay him at their side. That 
look disarmed his executioner. The man suddenly 
sheathed his swoi'd, declaring that he had not the 
heart to perform his office ; and when two others 
sought to do it for him, they also hurst into t«ars as 
that innocent smiling face met their downward gaze ; 
nor was the deed accomphshed uutil a commou slave, 
compelled by force to the odious duty, literally hacked 
and hewed the poor infant to pieces. 

White these scenes, and scenes like these, were con- 
atantly recurring at Piso, t!ie kingdom of Firando, 
where persecution hod first commenced, and where it 
never coidd he said to have entirely ceased, was hke- 
wise giving its t|uota of martjT-triumphs to the Church; 
Damian, the hhnd man of Amangueclii, whom we have 
honourahly mentioned in a former chapter, being al- 
most the first to lay down his hte for the faith. Prom 
the time when the Jesuit fethers were forcibly driven 
out of that city, the entire management of the infant 
mission had devolved upon this poor old man, whose 
life was henceforth passed in preaching, catechising 
and baptising, visiting the sick, and burying the Aeaa, 
and doing as much of the work of a zealous missionary 
OS could be accomplished hy any one lacking holy oi'- 
ders. Tliis was sufficient for the tyrant, and Damian 
received his choice between Christianity and death OB I 
t^he one hand, and on the other, apostasy and life, witbifl 

Td.J JAPAN. 125 

that could make life most desirable to the heart of 

The brave old Cliristtan was not lon^ va making 

obotce; and he died for a testimony to the faith, as 
be had lived for its propagation, his body being; cut to 
{Hscea, in order to prevent the other Christians &om 
«(dleoting his relics for more honourable interment. 

His death was the signal for innumerable other 
this and other kingdoms of JapFui ; but 

■here was the heathen enmity more unreli?nting!y 
Ijsplayed than in the once fiourisbing and Christian 
knigdom of Arima. The king of that country had 
indeed caused all his children to be brought up Chris- 
tians ; but the eldest, Michael, by no means resiwnded to 
the care and anxiety which had been lavished upon him. 
Mean, heartless, and ambitious, he possessed less of the 
convictions of a Christian convert than of that lust of 
power and worldly honour which especially distinguished 
his heathen ancestors, — a passion which ultimately caused 
him to stop at no means, however base and wicked, 
whereby he migiit be enabled to gratify his desires. 

Actuated by this double motive, "be divorced his 
Witimatewife for the purpose of espousing the daughter 
of the Kumbo; the old king, Christian tuough he was, 
weakly and wickedly connived at this intrigue, and had 
tiO mourn tor the rest of his days over the mingled sin 
and folly of his conduct; for Michael, false to his fathei- 
as he had been treacherous to bis God, did not hesitate 
to USB his new wife's influence at court in order to witat 
the government of Arima out of bis hands. This reverse 
brought the old monarch to his senses. Like another 
David, he confessed that he had sinned ; and acknow- 
ledging that the Cod upon whose laws he had trampled 
had d^lt justly by him, he accepted his sentence with- 
out a murmur, and led a most exemplary and penitential 
life in the exile to which his son had consigned him. 
By and by, however, the latter, fearing lest some future 
" uliange of fortune might restore him to the Kumbo's 

favour, obtained froi 

The clioice of suicide, as the more honourable mt 
of death, was given to him ; but the king made an 
r wortliy of his bett«r days : " He wanted," he 
said, "neither courage nor resolution to die by his own 
hand; but the law oi God forbade it, and lie chose rather 
to pass for a coward in the eyes of men than to prove 
really a rebel in the sight of God," 

There was no priest to soothe and encourage him iff' 
his dying moments ; but Jiia wife Juata remained with 
him to the last, exhorting him continually to repentance 
and to confidence in God. Before he died he wrote a 
letter to his wicked son enti-eating his forgiyenesB (as if 
he were the injnrer and the other but his victim) ; and 
then, having caiised the history of the Passion to be 
read aloud, he submitted with patience and firmness to 

r to have rid himself of 
power ; but he was timid 
iispiciona, as tyrants ever are, and he could not 
forget that he had still two brothers, who, though as 
yet but infants, might one day live to avenge their 
father's quarrel and to take possession of his throne. 
They were the children of a second marriage, and there- 
fore only half-brothers to the unnatural Michael; tlia 
eldest, JPrancis, was not more than eight years old, i 
the youngest little better than an infant; hut, tha 
to the training of their mother, Justa, they possessed 4 
strength of purpose in the matter of religion i ' ' 
might have put older and better instructed uhristii 
the blush. " Why will you not denounce the God of ■ 
Christiana 1" demanded Michael's heathen wife, paiisi 
in the midst of the treacherous caresses she was lavl 
ing on Francis ; but the boy only answered, " that be 
would rather die;" and, again, when the youngest was 
urg^ed to put aside the beads which 1; 


1 replied, " that he would not, lest ] 

I. Vll.] JAPAN. 127 

sbonld say be had renouuced tlie faifh." Answei-s 
sucli as these soon set the seal upon tlieir iat«. Michael 
felt, or fancied, that with such a strong bias in favour 
of the Christian religion, the eyes of all others of that 
persuasion (and it uumbered already almost the entire 
population of the kingdom) would he fixed upon them 
as upon their legitimate chiei^ins. There could be no 
truoe to his jealous fears while they were livings, and so 
they were condemned to die. But while he resolved 
upon the deed, he yet shrank from thu odium which it 
. would attach to his name; and tor fiiH two months 
L;they were kept immured in the vaults of his own 
aloce, before ce ventured to issue the oi-der for their 

We are indebted to a Christian servant, by name 

Ignatius, for a touching account of tbeii' last moments, 

ae he afterwards gave the story to the Jesuits at Nan- 

gasaki. Accustomed as all Japanese children are finm 

their infancy to the idea of murder, probably they had 

all along had some presage of then' owu fiiture fate ; for 

the entire period of their imprisonment seems to have 

been spent by them in fasting and in prayer. Often 

^t tiieir guards could scarcely prevail upon them to eat 

^■sufficient for the preservation of hfe; and the ven 

^L night upon which taey died, Francis subjected himsel 

^V (o an additional abstinence, in punishment for some 

^B'^ord or action wliich he fancied had been unkind to 

^V^liis keeper. Long also al^er his little brother was iast 

^f ssleep, moved as it seemed by some hidden impulse, 

he continued to watch in prayer, until, yielding at length 

to the remonstrances of his faithful friend Ignatius, 

the little prince prepai'ed for rest. First, however, he 

paused in prayer before a pious picture ; and Ignatius, 

knowing what was going to happen, seized the op- 

poi-timity to praise the pi-actice of recommending the 

soul to the Blessed Virgm as if it was to be called to 

its account that very night. Quick aa hghtning the 

child acted upon the suggestion, and said aloud, " By 

W'&a passion and death of Jesus Christ, be mindiiii of 


198 JAPAN, 

rae this night, Mary ! Mother and mistresa of w 
hecu-t, to you I commend both body and soul, snd 
put my eternal safety into your hands." 

So beautiful and appropriate was this mpramptu 
rayer, that it must have seemed as an inspiration to 
is awe-struck listener; but he might not reveal hia 
emotion ; and when the child had tniteo holy water, and 
laid himself down to sleep with the sweet namea of 
Jesus and Mary yet tremblinff on hia innocent lips, 
Ignatius left the room, unable to endure the cmA 
tragedy which be knew was about to follow. Next 
morning, wheu he returned to his post, he found both 
the intaots lying drowned in their own blood; but, 
with a merciful cruelty, the executioners bad stabbed 
without arousing them ii'om their slumbers, bo that 
they passed irom life to death before they had e 
feared or l^ncied that a murderer was at band. 

Meanwhile Michael proceeded every day to commit 
fresh acta of cruelty against the Christians of Arima, 
Under the guidance of his chief minister Safiori, who 
in hia turn was plottina; for the crown, of which Michael 
himself bad robbed lus father, he had already pulled 
down the churches, overthrown the crosses, sent hun- 
dreds of the principal Christians into exile, and banished 
the Jesuit lathers, to whose infiuence he attributed their 
constancy in the struggle ; and having thus, aa be 
hoped, destroyed eveiy landmark to which they could 
confidently look for guidance, he published an edict 
commanding them all to embrace idolatry or die. At 
the first mutterings of the coming storm, the ChiiBtian^. 
by general consent, had enrolled themselves in a c 

iratemity, styled especially " of martr^rs," because, 

sides the usual practices of prayer, fasting, and penauo& 
common to all similar Bsaociatjons, the members pledged 
themselves to auS'er loss of property, banishment, or 
martyi-dom itselij faithfully and joyfully, for the Name 
of Jesus. This conA'atemity aft^i'wards extended itself 
over other parts of Japan ; and it was even adopted by 
*''^ htUc children, who were destined to play nearly aa 


CH, VII.] JAPAN. 129 

prominent a part in the coming persecutions aa tlieir 
parents themselves, and to whom it was therefore ^ven 
oy the Jesuit lathers, with rules and practices adapted 
to their tender years. Thus prepared and strengthened 
for the struggle, the Chiistiaas waited m patient cou- 
rage its oommencement ; and they had not long; to 
wait. A oelehrated bonze was sent for to Aiima, avow- 
edly for the purpose of reconverting' the Gliristian re 
cusanta to the religion of theu' fathers ; hut his sermon: 
were unattended, or attended by those who went less tt 
listen than to refute; nor woidd the Christians evei 
visit him without having ttieir beads suspended from 
their necks, — a circumstance which caused him all the 
deeper mortification that the wearing of a rosary was 
always considered by the Japanese as most unequivo- 
_ «&I declaration of Cludstianity. In vain the king com- 
1 manded, and the queen received the missionary bonze 
FWith every possible reverence and submission at the 
' palace ; the very ladies of her com-t refused obedience. 
They would not even hearken to the teacher of idola- 
try; their precious rosaries still sparkled on their necks; 
and imprisonment, Ul-usage, and starvation, were all 
employed without success to compel them to retract 
their spirited determination. 

Thus foiled and defeated at the veiy footsteps of hia 
throne, Hiohael sent for a nobleman of the name of 
Thomas, renowned for his prowess both by sea and by 
land, and with every art of persuasion in his power, 
sought to induce biiri to yield obedience to his orders. 
The blunt soldier listened impatiently to the miserable 
sophisms of Ilia chieftain, and then notly told him, that 
as a seldier would be deserving of death for deserting 
hJB colours, so he should consider himself the most des- 
picable of human beings, if for feai- or favour of earthly 
monarch he could desert that Kin^ of kings to whom 
on the day of his baptism he had sworn allegiance; 
ending ^30 great was his indignation that he could not 
!■ contain himself) with a rough speech, to the efiect that 
Ue hated traitors as he hated treason, and would prefer 

death itself to the bnsenesB of committing the one, or of 
being asEOcinted with the other. Such a speech to each 
n man the Christian well knew could only De utt«red at 
the hazard of his head ; no sooner, therefore, had he 
left the royal presence, than he sent for one of the Je- 
suit fathers, tiien lying hid in the city, and prepared 
himself for death. When urged by his friends, for his 
own sake, and for the sake of his family, who wovdd 
otherwise be involved in bis ruin, to seek safety by 
fligbt, be answered with characteristic spirit, " that so 
fer from flying martyrdom, he would go to the end of 
the earth to seek it ; and that he loved his cliildren all 
too well to think of depriving them of a blessing which 
he coveted for himself above the empire of tlie world." 
The next day the governor of the citr invited him 
to dinner (so sti'angely do they manage these afiairs in 
Japan) ; and Thomas, well aware of his approaching 
fate, took an affectionate forewell of his wife and chil- 
dren before accepting the ominous invitation. While 
he sat at table, bis nost presented him with a sword, 
asking Ida opinion aa to its capabilities for the decapi- 
tation of a human head. Thomas, looking at it care- 
lessly, pronounced it well made, and fitted for such a 
work ; whereupon the governor, receiving it out of his 
hands, stabbed him dem on the spot. A few hours 
afterwards his brother, quite as uncompromising a 
Cliristiac as himsellj suflered a similar fatB; his mo- 
ther Martha and h^ two young sons were also con- 
demned; while bis wife and daughter were, by a caprice 
of mercy, or perhaps of cruelty, etempted fi^m tie sen- 
tence. Very different fi^m the ordinary effects of snob 
opposite judgments were the feelings elicited by them 
on the present occasion ; those who were to die blessed 
God, in an ecstasy of pious joy, that He had called 
them to anffer for the fejthj wMle she who was to live 
— a widow, and now aU hut childless — gave way to an 
agony of grief at the double loss she was destined 
to endure. White she wept over her cruel lot, Martbft -i 
called her grandchildren, and embracing them t*aidorly^ 

.1.] JAPAN. 131 

told them, that as their father had died for Jesus Christ, 
80 she and they were now to do the same, and then to go 
Mid hve with liim in heaven. The children quietly an- 
Bwered, " tliat there was nothing which they wished for 
"ettorj" asking, at the same time, "when it was to be." 
Just now," she said ; " so go and take leave of your 
inother, and prepare yoTirselves for death." With smil- 
ing' counts ances, the children hastened to ohcy; and 
having distrihuted their toys among their playfellows, 
and inade some parting presents to their nurses, they 
clothed themEelveB in the white robes which Martha 
had taken cai'e to provide for the occasion, and knelt 
before their mother, saying, " Adieu, dear mother; we 
are goiiig to be martyred." She was weeping at the in- 
stant as if her very heart would break ; but fearing to 
discoia'a";e her children, or cast tiie shadow of her own 
matemaT grief over their coming hour of trial, she em- 
braced them, saying, " Go, dear children ; and remem- 
bering Him who died for you, tread courageously in 
the fooleteps of your father and your uncle. Behold 
them stretching out their arms to help you; behold 
the saints and angels with crowns preparea to set upon 
yoor heads; behold Jesus Christ Himself inviting you 
to His most sweet embraces ; and when you reach the 
'idace of execution, show yourselves to m indeed His 
illowera by your contempt of death. Fall on yom' 
IS, loosen your collars, join your hands, bow down 
■ heads, and cry out Jesus ! Mnry! with your latest 
th. Oh, how wretched am I that I cannot be with 
in that hour !" Then, hiding her face in the arms 
flf hei" little ones, the poor inother bui-st into an uncon- 
!,' tollable fit of weeping, moving the very soldiers to snch 
^ compa-'sion, that, fearful of yielding to their feelings, 
i4he^' tore the children &om her embraces, and almost 
'tiirew them into the palanquin which was to convey 
tbem and their grandmother to the place of execotinn. 
' During the Bhort transit thither, that venei-able Chris- 
tian took care to occupy the little victims in prayer find 
^ous ejaculations ; nor did she cease her guardian-care 




when they reached the fataj spot; for she stood and sai 
them one by one hutchereii ualbre her eyes, and theuj 
advancmg; with a grave and stotely pace, she 
turn submitted to the sword. 

After this esecution, eig'ht of the principal citissenB 
of Arima were summoned to the presence of their king'^ 
and there commanded to abjure the faith ; while he^ 
persecutmff tyrant as he was, had the face to tell them 
that he only required an external Bubmission, since he 
too was in heait a Christian like themselveB, though 
compelled for the present by the emperor's orders to 
conceal his iaith. Five out of the ei^ht agreed to this 
infamous proposal ; but four of them afterwards aineerely 
repented. The others were not to he eiyoled out of their 
convictions, and were consequently condemned with their 
femilies to the penalty of fii-e. As soon as t 
tencewas ntade known at Nangasaki, one of the Fathers 
came privately to Arima to ajive spiritual si 
the captives, and thousands ol Christians also flocked 
from every part of the country to witness their 

Never before perhaps had the Ghm'ch presented 
such a spectacle to the world ; and possibly never will 
she offer such another again. For three whole days 
that vast multitude remained camped in the open field^s, 
patiently waiting for the esecution of their brethren : 
but their presence struck terror into the heart of the cra- 
ven king ; and dreading lest they should either rescue 
the pi-isoners or seize upon the town, he feltered in bis 
purpose. It never occurred to him that they of whom 
ha feared such things would as soon have thought of 
robbing him of his material crown as of depriving the 
martyrs of theh' palm ; they had, in fact, been careful 
to come without even their ordinary weapons of defence, 
in order to avoid the possibihty of a doubt as to their 
peaceable intentions ; and no sooner did they suspect 
the cause of the delay, than some of the gravest of their 
number waited on the governor to explain that thfy,| 
were merely there to witness the ceremony, ami 1 


p'omise that there should be neither tumult noi' res 
anoe if tiey were permitted to remain. Thus encoufag:ed[] 
and reassiu^, preparatioua for the martyrdom went on 
apace. A wide plain just beneath the castle of the 
town was chosen for the purpose; the prisoners were 
coni'essed and communicatm oj a Jestut father ; and 
on the day appointed they came forth, dressed in their 
Tohes of ceremony, and with their hands tied behind 
their hacks, accompanied by upwards of 40,000 Chris- 
tiana, bearing lights in their hands and g^'lands on 
their heads, and singing the Litanies of our Blessed 
Lady as they went along. Among the victims was a 
boy not more than eleven years old, and a young girl 
called Magdalen, who having already made a vow of 
vir^inily, bad always led a life holy and pure as that 
of the maitvr-virgins of old. 

These cTiildreo, aa well as their elder companions, 
all affectionately embraced the stakes to which they 
were aiterwards tied ; then Caspar, the chief of the 
Confraternity of Martyrs, unrolhng a bannei' upon which 
was displayed a figure of the Son of God, boimd like 
themseiTes to a pular, made them a brief exhortation 
to perseverance ; and even as he was speaking, fire was 
set to the piles of combiistible materials, which had been 
laid at a eonaidemble distance irom the martyrs, for the 
cniel purpose of prolonging their tortures. As the first 
gleam of this feai'ful element of death shot upwards to 
the skies, the entire multitude fell with one accord upon 
their knees ; and still, as the fire drew near its victims, 
the plain re-echoed with the oft-repeated "Jesus ! Mary ! 
— "Jesus! Mary!" of the spectators, who sadly stn 
their breasts in penance for tneir own sine, and to obt 
the grace of perseverance for their brethren. Net 
and nearer yet it hurried ; but even above the roar of 
the rapidly-approaching Sames, and the sighs and 
lamentations ot those wlio watched them, the voice of 
the martyrs might be heard, praising God, and ani- 
mating each other to constancy and coui-age. At lenf 
the fiery sea had reached them, and their cords 


buret ; and then every eye was riveted on the child, to 
see whetiier he wonld stand of his own free will in that 
burainff Boorching furnace, A momeni's pnuae — he 
leaves his stoke; but it is only to run through the 
dense Oam^, until he has reached and Hung his arms 
around his mother ; while the young Magdalen avails 
herself of her freedom to stoop to the bni'ning embers, 
and, picking up the hving co^, set them ns a garland 
of roses on her head. She died almost in ilie very 
effort ; but the mother of the child James, with a he- 
roism of even perhaps a higher order, found strength 
in the midst ot her own tortures to speak words of coo- 
rage to her litde one, untU death releaeed them from 
their sufferings. The flames had scorched the bodies 
but had not consumed them ; imd they were cnme4,« 
off, together with the blackened imd halt-burnt stakesjjf 
as precious relics by the assembled Christians, 
bodies were laid to rest in the church of Nangasakixj 
where over their honoured graves was afterwards erecte^ 
a monument, telling alike of their heroic end, and callH 
iufi" unon all who read to follow in their footsteps. B 

e tiger had now thoroughly tasted blood ; and bftl 
iQd no longer. Esecution after esecntion followed 
in Arima ; until the infatuated Michael was deluded into 
resigning his kingdom to the Kumbo, and demanding 
another in its stead. The areh-traitor who guided hu. 
counsels had led him to believe that by tbin monceuvra ■ 
the emperor would be induced to assign to him a lai^W i 
and wealthier government : but the result only proysd ] 
the folly of the king and the acuteness of his aavise 
for Michael, to his inexpressible mortification, was rft- 
i inferior kingdom,— while that of A 
i npon Safiori, who &om first to last had | 
been plotting his destruction. 

fCH. Vlll.] JAPAN. 18& ^M 


Treoohoiy nf Dutch ProtoatantB, Gensrol pareeoutioa of the Cbrii- ^H 



Horoio oonduot of ChrUtiBii virgiaa. The Jew 
othon banished from Ulako. Eilla and death of Juato tJoan- 
dono. More flaroe and universal persecution. Partioujan of 
thfl anffenngs of the Toart^rrs at Coch'Dotxa, Nangosaki, Miako, 
and elseirliere. 

The year 1614 dawned darkly on the prospecta of the 
Church of Japan ; for with it commenced that direct 
imperial persecution, which, however it might now and 
then he modified hy circurastaaces, yet never really 
ceased its efforts, until hy the stoke or hy the swora, 
hy the boiling waters of Ungen or the frozen rivei-a of 
Xindai, the last germa of Cliiistianity had been rooted 
out of the soil. Up to this period the Kumbo had been 
content, by a nicely-adjusted system of neutrality, to 
countenance, without absolutely authorising, the ci-uel- 
ties of the inferior kings ; but unhappily tne events of 
each succeeding year bad added Eti'ength and consist- 
ency to bis own suspicions of the Christiana. The 
Spiuiish captain had by bis boasting cast the seed; 
the vast and ever-increasing possessions of his nation 
in the Indies and elsewhere hod fostered it in the bud ; 
but to the Protestants of Holland was reserved the 
honour or the iniamy of carefidly cherishing into fullest 
vigour that fell upas-tree of suspicion, beneath whose 
deadly shade the Christianity of Japan was destined to 

Never, perhaps, since that dark hour when Christ 
Himself was sold for sdver to the Jews, had the doctrines 
which He came to teach been betrayed more dehberately, 
or in a more wboieBitle manner, than upon this occasion. 
For the wicked, or perhaps only the inconsiderate word 
of one of her careless sons, Spain had given in atone- 

136 JAPAN. 

ment the blood of her nuBBionaries, the treasures of hef 
Kings, the chai-ities and prEyera of thousands of hoT; 
people. Portug^ miffht hoast that Cliristianity wa«. 
mdehted for the very Fftct of its existence in Japan to 
the zeal and exertions of her merchant-princes. They 
it was who had brought Anger to the feet of Xavier, 
and Xavier himself to the court of the Satsumian mon- 
arch ; they it was who had reverently escorted him 
into tlie presence-chamher of the almost inapproachable 
Kmnbo ; they it waa who had put back to Bongo to 
rescue or to die with their saintly missionary, when 
wind and tide had already carried them far irom tlw-, 
lu'derous machinations of the bonzes; and finally, they' 
was too, who, not once only, but oa many ocoaaionB, ■' 
setting the interests of Jesus above those of their own 
material commerce, left a rich and lusiffious city to 
trniiic at a poorer port, in order that they might thereby 
enoDurnge ike hberal sentiments of the ruler in the one 
case, or repress by motives of personal gain the perse- 
cuting design of a despot in the other. The glory of 
Poi-tugal may have gone out of her, and the names of 
such men as the Gamas and Alvarez may no lon^ be 
inscribed on the annals of her kingdom ; but the virtues 
of the dead are not to be effaced by the degeneracy of 
the living; and wherever honest history is read, or truth 
prevails overthe distorted fictions of prejudice and error, 
the erime of ti-eading out the expiring embers of Chris- 
tianity in Japan will be a stain on the shield of Holland; 
while of the Portuguese it must still be written, that 
but for their fostering cbaiity, and unprompted and 
most disinterested zeal, thousands of noble-hearted 
tyrs would never have won their palms, and thi 
and tens of thousands of saintly and most faithiidCl 
tians would have hved and died, and been gathered 
their fathers, unsnnctified by the saving watera of baj 
tism, unblest by the knowledge and love of Jesua Chris 
Had tho Dutchmen been heathens, there might hai 
been something to reprobate, but nothing to wonder t 
in theii' conduct; but they were Chiistians, pledgrf, 




CH. VIII.] JAPAN. 137 

by that name, and by all which that aonie implies, to 
tho belief thftt faith in the Reileemer is necessary to 
salvation ; yet they acted towards Christianity the part 
of Judas, and for the same meam motive ; and it was an 
evil hour for the Japanese, and for their children, and 
their children's children, when love of lucre brought 
the mouey-minded men of Protestant Holland to ti'af- 
fic on their shores. Small chance hod tliey with their 
cloth, and cheese (which latter tho Japanese never eat), 
and their other uaefid but homely wares, of winning; 
the fevour of this luiurious people from the ships rf 
Bpiun and Portu^l, laden as they ever were with the 
treasnres of the Indies; and no sooner did they become 
cognisant of this tact, than, with a voridly wisdom as 
fer-seeing as its morality was dotestaWo, they resolved, 
if they could not sHccessftilly compete with then' rivals, 
treacherously to diive them fvora the market altogether. 

The unlucky saying' of the Spaniard had long since 
become a sort of hye-word in the nation ; and quite os 
patent to the people were the suspicions it had ene;en- 
dered in the minds of then' rulers. The Dutchmen (and 
there was an Englishman among them too) seized upon 
the calumny, and plyinD^ the Kurabo with taJse and exag- 
gerated tales of the ambition of the King of Spain, mah- 
oiously represented the missionaries to he mere pohtical 
emissaries in his pay, saying that they were men so noto- 
rious for intrigue as to have been long since banished 
from England, Sweden, Denmark, Holland, and, in feet, 
from eveiy country where the monarch valued his 
authority, or wished to keep possession of his crown. 
This foul slander speedily produced its proper and ex- 
pected fruit. 

If Christian kings feared Christian priests, what had 
not lie, an idolater, to di-ead from their machinations? 
And if Christian kings were not ashamed to drive 
Christian priests out of their dominions, whyshoidd ha, 
the emperor of a heathen land, ruUng too over bonzes 
most hostile to their teaching, hesitate to do so also? 
In ^t, he did not hesitate. Perseoution was abnost 



instantly resolved on ; but as it was found, on inquiry, 
that the pahwe itsetfwas filled with Christians, he was 
obliged to coumience the projected work among the 
members of his own household. Fourteen of those 
more immediately in attendance on liis own person or 
that of the queen, were driven into banishment ; and 
among them was that Corean Juha, who irom the 
desolate rock to which she was esiled, wrote such won- 
derliil things to the Jesuit lathei's of the consolation 
with which her soul was overflowing in the midst of 
her desert J and Didaques, a young man of such holy 
mind and innocent manners, that his very name had 
passed ioto a pi-ovei'h for purity among the heathens; 
and to say that such a one had become a " Didaques," 
was only the familiar mode of expressing that he had 
passed m>m the vices of a heathen comt to a more 
edifring and exemplary way of hying. 

The first blow wiia now struck ; and in the Kumbo's 
present disposition hut little was needed to ensure its 
repetition. The attendance of the Jesuit fathers at the 
execution of a Chi-istian criminal gave great offence, 
and a hasty older was immediately issued for the 
burning alive of every person who would not conform 
to the religion of the stat^. Miako, like the palace, 
was filled with convei-ta ; and the nest morning' innu- 
merable stakes, set by the Christians each at the door 
of his own dwelling, gave aotice that nearly half t 
population of the city would rathei- die than deny tl 
faith. The execution of the sentence would have mai 
a desert of Miako ; it was not even to be thought (^ 
and every effort was therefore made to reduce them by 
other means to obedience. Bribes, tb'eats, and sti-ata- 
gema, were tried alternately, and tried in vain j and then 
followed every possible species of violence short of the 
actual infliction of death. Men, women, and children 
of every age and rank, were tied naked into sacks par- 
tially nlled with sharp stra\v3 and other wounding 
substances ; and after naving been carried about the 
town upon men's ahoulders, exposed to the jeers s "~ 

lalf tMj 
any th^H 

ght of, ■ 



insults of the mob, were tlirown aside with as little 
eeremony as if they had been indeed sacks of straw, 
being; socnetimes left for more than twenty-four hours 
at a time exposed to the cold and biting; air of winter, 
piled and huddled one upon another ia such a careless 
lashion, that many of them narrowly escaped with life. 
Thia disgracefid treatment was practised towards even 
certain pious women who had taken vows of chastity 
and lived in community, spending' their time in deeds 
of charity and devotion. MoreoTer, with tliat hatred of 
all that IS holy and pure which from the days of Cain 
to the present hour has been the tribute that vice ever 
pays to virtue, a still deeper ignominy was reserved for 
these pure virgins, — the same that had been prepared 
for some of the Christian vu'g;ins of ancient Home. But 
He who had clothed an Agnes with a halo of light to 
defend her against those wno sought to rob her of her 
dearest treasure, was not wanting to these Christian 
majdens of Japan, who so earnestly invoked His help. 
He did not indeed interpose miraculously in their behali: 
but He inspu'ed them with a courage still more miracu- 
lous; and when the tempters came to seek their preT> 
they found them so bleeding and disfigured by the 
wounds which they had inllicted ou their own faces, that 
in horror anddisgust they were fein to withdraw. Such 
scenes as these were afterwards frequently repeated in 
other parts of the empire, not merely upon religious 
womet), but also upon those whose social ties still re- 
tained them in the world ; and always and in all places 
every attempt to degrade them was met by those de- 
fenceless beings in the same undaunted spirit of resist- 
ance which had saved them at Miako ; while on the 
other hand, in one or two instances it elicited acts of 
apostasy from men, who, although they had heroically 
endured scoui^e and torture in their own persons, yet 
lacked the necessary laith and coinage to endure the 
insults heaped on their wives and daughters. 

Enraged at finding himself foiled in every attempt by 
the constancy of the Chiistians, the Kumbo proceeded 


140 JAPAN. 

to banish tiiem by hundreds, not merely out of Miako, 
but out of Japan ; and in this sentence the Jesuit and 
Franciscan fathers were formally included. Fortunately 
most of the former, in anticipation of some such event, 
had been dispersed throughout the eountij in various 
disgiiisea : but it was impo93ible for those living openly 
in the college to evade it ; and a sad day it was, both 
for them and for tlieir flock, when they found themselves 
forced to depart Irom a Church, which in sunshine and 
in storm they had now governed for upwards of fift" 
years. PifbyyearsitwasindeedainoeFatlierVillela' 
by his heroic patience, won the city to his mission ; 
though during this Ions' lapse of time the Jesuits had 
oasionally been compelled to leave it, the intervals of tl 
absence were so few, and of encb short duration, that 
they could not be said to have ever really reliaquished 
it They had dwelt there in peafce, even when persecution 
was rife in other kingdoms of tbe country ; and their 
college, which had existed since the days of !Nobunanga, 
had become the resort alike of all classes of Christians 
as well aa of heathens, — of the rich as well as of the 

C,— of men of coui'tly lives, aa well as of those of 
ling or of commeive. Some souo'lit them for the 
knowledge of Jesus Christ ; others for instruction in 
mathematics and astronomy, — sciences for which the 
Society has ever been justly renowned j indeed, so great 
was the thirst of the Japanese for learning, that S the 
Jesuits had chosen to throw aside their missionary cha- 
racter, and to apply themselves entirely to the work of 
secular instruction, they would have easily succeeded in 
monopolising to themselves the highest honours and 
emoliunents of the state. That they did not do so is at 
once the sign and seal of their missionary vocation, 
and the only answer needed to the foul slander of their 
calumniators, both ancient and modem." 

* The Jupaoeee stlU ntais na oameat desire fai acquire that 
knowlodga wliiah is donlod thoni tiy tbe ajoluaivenesa of thdr 

niaa, immod Jjiitnon, woa briboil into pladginp hiiiiaolf to remidn 
nmong them ; and he ig prahnbiy at this momant residing at Yeddo, 

^f CU. VIII.] JAPAN, 141 ^H 

Such was the respect and reverence in whiuh tLey ^H 

were held even by tbeii' most determined enemies in tlie ^H 

court of Japan, tuat they were permitted to say a &re- ^H 

■ well Mass publicly in their church, and afterwards to ^H 

receive the adieus of their sorrowjid ilock. Vast loulti- ^H 

tudes attended upon this occnsioa; and when Hl^li Muss ^H 

was over, the Jesuits pi'oceeded to tlie mouiiilu] cere- ^| 

ony of stripping the alters, tlie people weeping piteously 
ad tne while, and the fathers nearly as bfokeu-heai'tjid 
as themselves. AU was at length removed that could 
tempt to sacrilege; the sacred vessels and robes of 
ceremony were conJided to the care of such of the Chris- 
tians OS could best be railed on, the church-dooi'S 
flung open for all who might choose to enter ; and the 
nest morning the lathers, under a guard of soldiers, 
were fai' on their way to Nan^aki, where SaSori had 
gladly undertaken tne task of their embarkation. At 
that town they were joined by such numbers of prisonei's, 
both clerical and lay, collected irom all parts of the 
country, that iinallj sisty-tliree Jesuits, with a crowd 
of converts of every age, sex, and condition, were em- 
barked for Macao; while twenty-thi'ee othera, besides 
a proportionate number of Frnnciscans, Dominicans, 
and Auguatinians (for each of these orders had now 
missions in Japan), were despatched to the Manillas. 

With these last went Justo Ucondono and his fe- 
mily, again in poverty and disgi-ace for the sake of Jesus 
Chnst; but this time with the additional bai'dsbip of a 
sentence of eiile fi'om his native shores. Most of the 
missionaries with whom he was embarked retiu^ed at 
diflerent intervals, and in various disguises, to Japan. 
He remained at the Manillas, where ne bad been re- 
ceived by the governor with all the courtesy and affeo 
tion due to a man of such tried and eminent merit ; 
though so natural to his own true-hearted zeal did hia 
conduct appear, that to the last day of his life he never 

the present onpitnl, employad in liie constniofion of oharta, and 
mabng oatmnooiical obaervationa. What would not aueh a panple 
have dono lor the miaBionariea, whuse labours were gratuiloua I 



could understand why or wlierefore ancli hanout' i 
been lavished upon him, "I have done Dothing fi_. 
the King of Sjmin," he was wont to say with a kind of n 
blunt simplicity ; " why then should I look for iavoura 
at his hand f" And when the governor offered to procure 
a pension fur him, Jie answered, with all the true instinct 
01 a martyr, " That lie never would consent to receive 
again at the band of man that which he had abandoned 
in spirit as well as in fact for the love of God," So 
also, when a little wbilo afterwards he lay upon his 
deathbed, be set the seal and erown iqion a life of self- 
denial and devotion in tliese noble words, bis last and 
only l^acy to his children : " I bequeath them nothing, 
and I recommend them to no man s care ; it is enough 
of riches, and enough of honour, that they have suffered 
forthefaithof JesusChrist." And in sentiments sucbaa 
these be breathed his last, Eurroimded by the best and 
noblest of whom the Manillas could boast ; the go- 
Temor of the island, with the chief officers of his suite, 
bearing bis body to the grave amid honours which 
would have better suited a monarch than a private 
man, if that man had not been Justo Ucondono banished 
for the faith. 

In the same year (1614) in which this wholesale 
baniabment took place, the Christians had to mo«m for 
the death of Lewis Cerquiera, Bishop of Japan. He had 
succeeded to this office on the demise of Peter Martinez, 
with whom he came over, and whose coadjutor be had 
been ; and Le is said to have literally died of a broken 
heart for the niin that had fallen on the infant Church 
committed to hts love and care. It is true, indeed, 
that &om the first he had undertaken the task in times 
of great difficulty and danger j hut at the period of his 
arrival, though tnere was much to discourage, there had 
dao been much to strengihen and to cheer his heart. 
From Nangasaki, where he had fixed his residence, 
he had succeeded in making innumerable journeys to 
the most distant parts of the kingdom ; and whither- 
soever be went, thousands had flocked around him for 

P"CH. V11I.J JAPAN. 143 

instructiDii and coiiiinnation. No kingdom or citywas 
too distant, no road too untrodden, do mountains too 
high OT too rugged to be accessible to his zosl ; and 
vhen he rotui'ned from these weary wanderings, he 
could sit down at Nangasaki, end teel that there at 
least Almighty God had the entire homage of all hearts ; 
for not only was it wholly inhabited by ChristianM, but 
the five parishes into which it was divided were go- 
verned by native pastors, the truest test of the conver- 
BJon of a people, and one which only the Cathohc Church 
has ever succeeded in presenting to the world in the 
histoiy of the propagation of the Christian faith. 

Sadlj had thb fair scene changed within the last 
few years, and rapidly Itad all that was brightest and 
hest disappeared from tbe picture. At tbe moment of 
the bishop s death, tlie emperor bad fulminated his linal 
edict against the Christians. Pigo, Amnnguchi, and 
Firandowere already deluged in their blood; Nanga- 
Baki was the bead-quarters of Safiori, their implacable 
he, and an army of t«n thouaand men had been let 
ixBC upon Arima, to exterminate religion by fire and 
sword. Whenever any of these ti'oops were sent into a 
district, a judgment-seat, surrounded by a pabaade, was 
set up in the most puhhc place of the city ; the best 
known among the Christians were then dragged by the 
hair and cast mto the enclosure, thrown upon the ground, 
trampled under-foot, beaten until they were half-dead, 
and their legs, by a cruel contrivance, broken between 
two pieces ofwood ; the most intrepid were then put to 
death, and their bodies, being cut into pieces, were cast 
to the birds of prey. At CochinotBu sixty Christians 
were taken, five and five at a time, with their hands 
tied behind them, lifted high up into the air, and then 
dashed upion the gi^onnd witli so much violence, that 
Hood gushed from the eai's, eyes, and mouths of the 
snffiirers. Many of them were dreadfidly lacerated, 
others had all their bones broken ; and as if this were 
not already sufficient torfiire, tliey were afterwai-ds 
pricked and pierced with sharp instruments all oyer their 


144 JAPAN. 

bodies. The governor all the wliile was exhortinff them 
with afFected compassion to spare themselves tiirther 
torments by renouncing their rehg^onj but when he 
found that they were deaf to his entreaties, be proceeded 
to inflict a new punishment, so horrible that it is diffi- 
cult to conceive tie cruelty of the mind by which it was 
invented. The victim being made to lie tint on the 
ground, a stone, which four men could scarcely lift, was 
placed on his htLck; and then, b3' means of a pulley, 
with cords attached to the leg;s and arms, he was raised 
fi'om tlie earth in such a manner that the body wns bent 
completely backwards, the limbs cruelly crushed and 
broken, and in many instances the eyes forced out of 
their sockets; the fingers and toes of the victims were 
then cut oftj tbe teeth knocked out, and if the eyesight 
vet remained, it was now destroyed. Many were not 
beheaded until death had indeed become a mercy; 
while othei-s, less fortunate, eAer undei^ing a yet 
further mutilation of their persons, were compelled in 
the midst of their agony to climb up and down a flight 
of stairs for the amusement of then* tormentors ; aStev 
whicb tbey were consigned to the care of their fiieuds, 
imtU one by one, as the strength of their constitutions 
more or less prolonged the stniggle of death, they 
passed from their painfiil martynlom to the crowns 
prepared for them in heaven. 

The bloody scenes of Cochinotzu were only n 
sample of those which likewise desolated Aria, Obama, 
Simabara, Swota, and every other cit^ of note in the 
kingdom of Arima; but more especially the capital, 
where Saiiori presided in person over the cruelties which 
he had invented for his victims. For a little while, 
however, he was iatermpted in this pleasant pastime 
by the revolt of Fideyori, the son of the late emperor, 
who had at length resolved npon asserting his right to 
the crown ; hut the subsequent defeat and death of that 
unfortimate prince putting an end to the war, Safiori re- 
turned to Arima, again to attempt the eradication of a re- 
ligion which had become thoroughly fixed and rooted in 

^— CIOG 


JAPAN. 145 

liGarte of tlie people. His success, however, not 
iping' piice with uis zeal, he was finally diBgmitid, 
' his kingdom given to another. Meanwhile, in the 
ind year of the u^^cution, the KumbosamtL died, and 
succeeded bv nis son, under the title of tlie Xognno, 
fho proved to De a far more danKerouB and ineiora- 
le foe than any who had as yet ueon opposed to the 
Christians, More cruel in disposition, more determined 
and prompt in action, and gifted with far more acute- 
nesB and ijenetration, he seized at once upon a truth 
which his father had only recogTiised when dyin^;, 
aamely, that whatever number of Christians he mig'St 
put to death, he would never succeed iu extirpating 
their reUg'ion so long as one Christian priest was left in 
the counb-y to fortily the confessors, to animate the 
martyrs, and to baptise and instruct the infidels, whom 
euchlreeli deed of heroism, instead of deterring, g;atliei'cd 
by hundreds into the Cliui-cli. The shepherd must be 
smitten if the sheep were to be dispersed; — such was the 
deep and deadly policy contained in the late Kiunbo's 
deathbed exhortation; and Jrom that hour, tbougb 
merciless butobeiy was still the portion of all die 
Christiana, the chief weight of the Xoguao's arm fell 

ri their pastors. The law hy which he proceeded to 
t his purpose bore a considerable affinity to that 
enforced in Eng;!and neai'ly at the same time, and with 
a similar intention. To prevent any further addition 
from without to the number of tiie missionaries already 
in the kingdom, aU the ports of Japan were irrevocably 
closed against the vessels of Europe, with the exception 
deed of Nangasaki fl»d Pirando, which were always 
ider the rigid surveillance of the officers of the Xoguno. 
was also made death to be convicted as a priest, op to 
discovered in the exercise of priestly timctions ; death 
to intruditce a priest into the kingdom, and death to 
give him shelter ; death not only to the person so exer- 
cising hospitality, but likewise to his ten next neighbours, 
Trith their innocent wives and children, — a reward being 
iKenerally offered for the discovery of those who, in any 


146 JAPAN. 

of theao ways, sliould have incurred the penalties of tl 
law. From that hour the life of eacL individual pries 
was ftt the mercy of every one to wLom he had hee 
previously known ; while tbe hves of those who shelters 
tiim were equally haiile to be forfeit to the curiosity or 
cupidity of such of their neis;hhoiirB as might chance to 
discover the fact of their delinquency. Immediately 
upon the promulg'ation of tliis edict, many of the mis- 
Bionaries, in order to avoid compiumiaing the safetv of 
their brethren, left the towns, and went out to dwell in 
the woods and deserts ; and in this way one of them. 
lived for twenty years, like a veritable 8l John the 
Baptiet, in the wilderness ; while others took up their 
abode in caves, grottoes, deserted stables, or cupbo^ds 
and cells constructed for tbem by tbe &ithfid in the 
recesses of their own houses, without other light than 
such as a chance chink in the boards might give, or 
other food save that which at rare intervals could be 
conveyed to them by those to whose charity and courage 
they wei'e indebted for their shelter. In these hiding- 
places they were often compelled to remain for several 
weeks together ; one of them dwelt during the intensest 
heat of summer no less than sixty days in just sucha" 
cell as we have described ■ but at night they used td 
sally forth to visit and instruct their flocks, to baptJM 
children and converis, to anoint the sick and dyine 
and, in short, to do as much of their missionary duues ai 
their cramped and perilous circumatancea woidd admit oJ 
But tbe eyes of the whole nation were upon them ; a 
though cere and caution might avail them for a tii 
sooner or later the tyrant was certain of seizing on h 
irey. To Father John Baptist Machades, a Jesuit, as 
father Peter, a Fi'anciscan, the honour was accorded 
if taking the first place on this !ong list of priestly vio-' 
tims. The former was going to Omura by order of his 
superior, when be and h^ catechist were made prisona^ 
at GJoto, and sent by sea to the capital. Conttaiy 
winds, however, detaining them at Canomi, the n ' ~ 
trat£s of that place received Father Machades C 

f ' 

^K CH. VJII.] JAPAN, 117 

^H iKodin^ with every mnrk of courtesy and kindness. An 

^H anrestriDt«tl coniiuiinicLitioii was [lei'tuitted with the 

^B Christians, who flocked to him in crowds; and after the 

due administration of the Sacraments he muds tliem a 

most spirit-stirring addresa, in the couiBe of which he 

told them, that even so early as seven years of age he 

Phod been moved by some secret impube to a strong 
. desire of pi-eacUin^ the Gospel to the Japanese. 
These duties iiavino^ been fulfilled, the lather re- 
tnrnedofhis own accord to his prison on board the ship. 
But so great was the veneration inspired by his virtues, 
that the very sailors refused to bind him as be wished; 
and thus unshackled, and almost unwatcbed, he re- 
mained until he ai-rived at the prisons of Omura. There 
he foimd a Franciscan fatlier lying under the same sen- 
tence of death as himself; and great was the jubilee 
with which these holy missionaries greeted each other 
in their dungeon, and swe^t and holy the conference 
which they often held together upon the subject of their 
approaching martyrdom. And when at length the man- 
date came, and they knew that they were to die that 
night, Father Peter told, in his simple-hearted gladness, 
how he had made this the object of all bis prayers ever 
since be bad entered the prison ; while in the same spirit 
of holy esultation, Macbades declared he had known 
three really happy days in his life, that on which he had 
entered the Society, that on which he had put on chains 
for Jesus Christ, and now this, incomparably the hap- 
piest and most glorious of all, on which bis name was 
to be inscribed among the martyrs of the Church. They 
both declined the food which the Prince of Omura, 
with a touch of unwonted courtesy towards Christians, 
sent them before nightfall ; and then, having previously 
cozifessed and communicated each other, they set oat 
to the place of execution, — each carrying his cmcifix 
and the crowd as they went along, until the 
final moment came, when each affectionately embraced 
the other, and then in peace and joyfiilness submitted 
to his sentence. Theh-s was the first execution 




priests which Lad taken place gince the days of 1 
go-Sama ; and probahly it was this fact, coupled with 1^^ 
long train of niture eTils which it unfolded to theoTj 
vision, that caused a gi-ief so ovei'wlieluung' among the 
Ohiistians present on the occasion as to excite the pity 
of the executioners themselves, and to induce them to 
permit tlieii' canying away the hodies of the raartyra 

About the same time six other i-ehgious commenced 
a still longer captivity in tke prisons of Oraiira. Three 
were Dominicans, one a Franciscan, and tite two others 
Jesuits, Father Charles Spinola, and Ambrose Fer- 
nandez, a Brother of the Society. When first they were 
taken prisoners they had been thi'own for greater se- 
curity into a sort of subterranean cave, where they lay 
hudifled together and deprived of hght; nor was their 
condition much imiirovea by their removal to a prison, 
which, like all similar buildings in Japan, left them ex- 
posed to the changes of the weather, and in which, by 
another cruel regulation, they were so scantily supphed 
with food and clothing that many of tliem frequently 
fainted away from weakness and exhaustion. Even 
their jailors were sometimes moved to pity, and per- 
mitted the Chiistians to enter with food; but tliis con- 
nivance being discovered by their superiore, they were 
compelled to sn-ear that it should not happen again. 
One of them, however, was a Christian; and as he 
refused to swear by Xaca and Amida, the unlawful 
oaths administered to his companions, he met with a 
martyr's iiite on the following morning. Thus effect- 
■caUy deprived of every succour irom without, the pri- 
Boners nevertheless contrived to lead a life of angelie 
happiness within the walls of their dreaiy piison. Every 
day the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, meditation, and 

g'ous reading, succeeded each other with as much re^- 
rity as if tliej had been still in the cloistered secunty 
of a rehgious house ; nor were their voluntary austerities 
suspended, because mingled of necessity with all the it ' 
voluntaiy hardships of a convict's life. The disci|d' 

JAPAN. 149 

s in li'equeDtuBe among them, and even their scanty 
d was considerably retrenched by their frequent fast- 
ings ; while during the foTir years lie remained a cap- 
tive, Father Spinola always wore a hair shirt, which he 
never could be prevailed upon to lay aside, even during 
the many and severe illnesses consequent upon the pn- 
vations of his prison. All his relig^ious li^, mdeed, bad 
been marked hy the same persevering nractioe of per- 
sonal austerity. During his lone: residence in Japan 
lie had lived entirely upon rice and ill-hoiled herbs, nor 
had he ever allowed himself the use of fruit ; although 
in the summer-seasoa of that eaatera olimate it is not 
only one of the y;reate9t of luxuries, but almost one of 
the necessaries ot life. From his childhood also he had 
dreamed of martyrdom as other children dream of 

Sleasures and of toys ; it was this which drew him to 
apon OS soon as he had finished his studies for the 
pnestliood ; it was this which made him, however in- 
^Hulgent and considerate for others, so uniformly severe 
to himself; and it was this which, on his first entrance 
^to the pi-isons of Omura, forced him to esclaim, in all 
"" e overflowing fervour of his spirit, " Behold the place 
f my rest : here will I abide, oecause I have chosen 

It was not until the close of the year 1622, that an 
^order arrived for the removal of these reIi°;ious and 
other Christian prisoners to Nangasaki, and tor their 
subsequent execution. They were thii-ty in numbflr 
as they marefied out of Omura ; and, piirtly by sea and 
partly by land, each with a rope round hia neck," and 

* The bindiDg of a Jcpaaofie prisoner iabjno meanB a Himple 
„:_i «■_:_ Corjg of Bbnnt the thicknaee nf a finfjer ure used 

, . , ._ doureo, mora painM. They ore fasteDed hy a 

ragulatod number of knots ajid doosos round tho breast, neck, and 
arms ; the hands ara bomid to^tter, the elbows nsnrly touch eaoh 
other, &nd all the ends of these larious ties are united tu one long 
oord held by the exeautioner. The sUghtcst effort bo esoape thna 
bring! the elbomi oompletely into oontBCt ; and Ughtenm 
i round the neok of the unhappy priaoner ahnont tj3 atrai 
affeotually preients lum from ac(iDmpliahiii|{ his abjaot. 



150 JAPAN. 

an executioner at hia side, they went on their way to' 
the old city of the Christians. It was not oonsidered 
prudent that they should enter Nangfasaki, bo the 
inhabitants went forth in multitudes to meet them, and 
flinging themselves at their feet, \te.gged with many tears 
theii' hlesaings and their prayers ; and thus escorted, 
the martyrs Etood at length upon that high hill be- 
tween the city and the sea, where just twenty-aii veal's 
before the martyrs of Teieo-Sama had accomplished 
their doom. A moment of suspense followed. Some 
victim or spectator was yet wanting' to the solemnity; and 
every eye was dii'ected towards &e town, from whenee 
a troop of persons might be descried approaching', — 
men, women, and chCiS-en ; thirty of the former, with, 
of course, a for lai^er proportion of the latter. Ever 
doubt as to the ultimate destination of this compt 
soon vanished, when it was seen that they were dre 
in their rohea of ceremony, and with looks of g 
ness and of holy Joy were ascending to the calvary-^ 
the Ohristians. One of the new-comera had been guilty 
of giving shelter to a roiBsionarj ; the others wei-e hia 
ten next neighbours, with their families, besides the 
wives and children of some previous martyrs ; and of 
thin almost incredible number of victims, amounting to 
upwards of a hundred, some were to be beheaded, whUe 
others were to perish by the slower martyi'dom of fire. 
A throne had oeen erected overlooking this scene of 
slaughter; and when the governor had taken his seat 
upon it, those who were to undergo the aentence of fire 
wei'B fastened to their stakes, but looaely, in order 
that they might eacape if only they chose to apos- 
tatiae, and then the executioners prepared to decapitate 
the others. Among these last was Isabella, the widow 
of the man in whose house Father Spinola bad been 
taken captive, and her son Ignatius, a chdd now about 
four years old, hut at that time a new-bom infant, 
whom he had baptised on the very evening before his 
arrest. From the stake to which he was alrea" 
bound, the futher had been exhorting both natives a 



ICH. Till.] JAPAH. 161 ^M 

Portuguese to perseveraneej telling; them, almost in a , ^H 
Spirit of proplieuy, tliat tbey need not look for any ces- ^H 
ffttion in the persecution, which would go on increasing; ^H 
ID liiry irom day to day ; when chancing; to see Isabella 
BtandJng; in the crowd, and anxious for the fate of lier 
child, he suddenly cried out, " Where tlien is my little 
Ifi;natius 1" The mother held him up, exclaiming, 
''Here he ia, my father, ready and glad to die for 
Jeaua;" and then addressing the infont, she bade him 
Bsk the blesaing of the good father, who in the waters 
of baptism had conferred upon him a spiritual life in- 
finitely more precious than that which he was now 
about to forfeit for his God. Instantly the tittle crea- 
Ime fell upon his fcaeea, joining his tiny hands together, 
as if he would supplicate the blessing of the tkther. 
So touching in its simpUcity was this little scene, that 
the crowd, ali'eady interested hy the movement of the 
mother, now broke into such open raui'murs of coropas- 

teion, that they were obliged to proceed at once to the ^^ 
execution, in order to prevent the possibility of any ^^M 
Attempt at a rescue. Two or three 'heads bad already ^^M 
feUen close hy the child's side, and now his mother's fol- ^| 
lowed; yet it was observed that he neither shrank nor 
changed colour, hut his turn being nest, he fell upon his 
knees, loosened ^for there was no one to do the office 
for hira) with his infant but nntrembling fingers the 
collar that would have impeded the aim of the exe- 
cutioner, and without a cry or murmur submitted to 
the swoid. 

The remaining victims were speedily despatched; 

L and their heads having been placed opposite to such of 
I liheir companions as were to die at the stakes, fire was 
■ £et to the piles of wood by which the lattei' were sur- 
■"Wnnded, With the nsiml diabohcal ingenuity of the 
W Japanese pagans, the faggots had been placed tuU fiv&- 
1 Bud-twenty feet from the stakes ; and whenever the fire 
I Iras seen to gain too faet upon its victims, water was cast 
upon it, that inch by inch they might taste the fiill 
agony of the sentence to which they had been con- 

demned. Many of them died from the mere effects of 
the heated atmosphere; — among others, Father Rim ura, 
a Japanese priest, after having; lived for foil three honra 
in the midst of the dames ; and Father Spiitola also, 
whose body was afterwards found unbiimt, and wrapped 
in his Boutane, which was literally glued to the flesh by 
the combined action of the heat and of the water wbicb 
had. been cast upon his person. 

Terrible beyond expression as their sufferings 
have been, two only of this heroic company showadl 
the slightest ^mptoms of being even conscious of' 
its angnish. Both were Japanese, and very young; 
and both simultaneously, and as if from an aosolute 
physical inability to endure such frightful torture 
any long;er, rushed out of the flames, ana threw them- 
selres at the feet of the gBvemor, imploring his mercTp 
They did not, however, ask for lU'e ; they asked onljf' 
for an easier and quicker death. But, poor as '*"' 
boon was, it was denied them, save upon tlie condil 
of apostasy, which they would not accept ; and 
they were flung hack into the flames. 

This martyrdom, which was distinguished amon* 
the Japanese as the "Great Martyrdom," on accouiS 
both of the rank and number of its victims, had been 
preceded by another at Miako, which took place under 
circumstances of pecidiar barharitv. One of the victims 
was in daily expectation, of givmg birth to a child; 
nevertheless she was included in the sentence which 
sent her husband, a nobleman of the big;hest rank, and 
their sis younff children, with upwards of forty other 
Christians, to the stake. 

The tragical situation in which she was placed had, 
however, no terrors for this heroic woman. She em- 
ployed her prison-hoiii-s in preparing robes for herself 
and her children to wear at their execution ; and when 
she was brought to the destined place, calmly, and 
without assistance, she stepped fi^m ttia cail^ and, "throw- 
ing a rich mantle over her shoulders, prepared to sufRff 
with a modesty and composure that won her the *"" 


ClI. VIII.] JAPAN. 153 

miratioQ of all beholders. It was dark night before 
tire was set bi their sevei-al piles ; but as soon fls the 
smoke had cleared away, the martyrs were seen by the 
light of the bright flames amid which they stood, with 
eyes flsed on heaven and forms motionless and erect, 
as though they had been figures chiselled out of stone. 

In Tery iiorror the spectators were silent, and the 
BtOlness and liush of death was upon the midnight air, 
■when suddenly from oiit of that liery iiiniace a flood 
of melody was poured, — men and women and childi-en 
sinking the praises of the living God as sweetly, and 
witn notes as true, as though the ted and thirsty flames 
bad been but the dews of heaven upon tlieir brows. 
The sighs and prayers of the assistants, which conid no 
lon^r be repi-essed, the shouts and eieorations of the 
eoicUers and executioners soon mingled with this death- 
song ; and these, and the dark night, and the fierce fire 
that iUuminattiil its g;Ioom, now hashing intolerabls 
light upon the victims, now glancing lividly on the pale 
faces and shrinking forms of the densely-packed spec- 
tators, altogether tormed a union of sights and sounds 
that alternately swayed the feelings to terror and com- 
passion. But the music of that marvelious choir died 
gradually away; and the sudden failing of each glad- 
Bome voice, the silent sinking of each upright form, 
telling that another and yet another had yielded to 
their doom, was marked hy the watchers with redoubled 
lamentations ; though tlieir tenderest sympathies were 
Btai reserved for tlie mother dying iu IJie midst of her 
little ones. 

From the cross to which they had bound her, 
Theela (for such was her name) still kept her eyes 
fixed upon her children, animating' them by gentle 
smiles and words of comfort to stiiier well ; while the 
youngest, an infant only three years old, she held with 
almost superhuman courage in her arms during the 
whole of the tenible scene that followed. Her own 
. anguish had no power to eatort a single sigh fi^m her 
■1 lips J hut those who watched her wept t^ see the use- 


154 JAPAw. 

less efibrts whicli sbs made to diminisli tbo sufFeringa 
of her babe. She caressed it, sootbed it, bushed its 
cries, wiped away its tears, soug'bt with, ber own bands 
to shelter its tender feoe from the terrible contact of 
the fire, and died at last witli the little victim so closely 
folded to her bosom, that it was almost impoBsible to 
separat* the mother and the child- 

These martyrdoms are only Bpeciniens of those 
which during this period contmually took plnoe in 
JajBm. Some Christians were crucified, others burnt, 
othera beheaded ; numbers ag^in branded upon the cheeks 
and forehead with the dgn. of the cross, their fingers 
and toes cut off, and their eyes forced out ; and uius 
maimed and helpless, they were sent back to their &- 
milies, who (to toeir honour be it written) never failed 
to receive them with all the more pride and affection, 
the more deeply and hideously they hod been disfig^ored 
for the sake of Je^ns. 




jT ths olergy. Diminution or Ihrfr number, and oon- 
Beqnently of tlie Uhriiliana gotierally. Martyrdom of FntbetB 
Piku], Aasolis, and Dthan ; some nt the etnfco, others in fVeesiDg' 
, and others by uuheard-of torturee^ The oulphnroufl 
n of Uaffva. Di^th of Uie Xnguno. He is euoceeded by a 
■till more oruol tyrant. Trenohory of the Dutch. Fortuguesa 
morchanla forbidden to land; mnrder of Portuguese ambu- 
Kwlors. Lust efforts of Jesuit oaiaalonariea, who are all nmrtyrsd. 
Finil sitductiaii of Chtistinnity. Presont atate of Japan. 

The law wliich the XogTino had inti-odiiced against the 
Glirktiaa priesthood, soon began to tell rapidly and with . 
fe,tal effect upon theii" numbei-s, and of course upon the I 
prosperity of the Church committed to tlieir keeping;. ' 
So long as there were left missionaries enough to aid ' 
them, neither fire nor aword had prevented the progTess 
of religion among the infidels ; and even in the first 
thi'ee years of the persecution, when the panic might he 
supposed to be at its height, it has been calculated that 
no less than 1 5,000 perBons were received into the bosom 
of the Church; but now, thinned by persecution from 
within, and preTsnted by the rigid enforcement of the 
recent regulations from all recmitin^ irom without, each 
I new casualty among the fathers left a larger field with I 
I less assistance to the labours of the survivors : whole | 
kingdoms came at length to be confided to the care of 
a single man; andinpursuanceof such widely-extended 
duties, the missionary had to travel unceasingly fi'om 
city to city, and from province to jirovLQce, — his journeys 
rendered doubly tedious by the necessity of being per- 
formed at night, while in the daytime he was forced to 
conceal himself in hiding-places so cramped and miser- 
able as rather to exhaust than to recntit the strength. 
Those more especially who were devoted to the task of | 
instructing the exiled Christians underwent almcst ii 

credible hardships ; for tiiey bad contmuaUy to trave! 
over Higgled rocky moimtains, through patluess forests 
and deep valleys, filled in the win ter- time with enow, in 
oi'der to reach the objects of their charitable zeal, who, 
Beparated from the rest of the empire by a long chain 
of netirly inaccessible mountains, dwelt amid the silent 
snows asd treeless deserts of a distant and inclement 

Erovince, literally the Siberia of Japan; or, still less 
appy, were distributed as common slaves, to labour in 
the mines with which Chat part of the country abounded. 
Stricken down by the pressure of such work as this, 
many a man with apparently years of streng'th and la- 
bour in his yet unexhausted fi'anie became suddenly 
old before his time, and decrepit and useless on the 
mission. Sickness and death in some cases supervened; 
and aided by such casualties as these, the Xogimo had 
less difficulty than might have been expected in cai-rr- 
ing out his favourite scheme tor the extirpation of the 
priesthood. He hkewise received considerable assist- 
ance Irom the Dutch, who, unprincipled and treacheitnia 
as ever, continued to play their accustomed part, and 
to sacrifice to their unhallowed love of gain the lives not 
only of the missionaries tliemselves, but those of the 
Bailors who brought them over, and of the suflering 
Christians for whose consolation they bad come, a 
Japanese convert of the name of Joacliim had received 
two missionaries in the guise of merchants on board his 
junk; but the Dutch, suspecting the real nature of their 
profession, seized upon the vessel, and delivered her and 
her crew to the proper authorities at Firando, declaring; 
at the same time their suspicions as to the concealment 
of a priest amon^ the passengers. This event occuiTed 
some ehoi-t time oefore the execution of Father Spinola 
and his companions, and they were brought fi-om their 
dungeon to oe confi'onted with the suspected religious. 
The condition to which this venerable company ot con- 
fessors were by this time reduced excited compassion 
even in the minds of the men who were conspiring ton 
place others in a similar position. 

^Bou. : 


IX.] JAPAN. 157 

Father Spinola was already known to the Dutchmen 
as the Bcion of one of the noljlest families in the GeiTnan 
empii'e. The hloodof a loag'line of heroes flowed in his 
veins : his fathci' had not only heen a faTDured &iend 
of the Emperor Eodolph II., out had also held one of 
the hig'hest offices ahout his person ; and they could not, 
irithout some Datm-al touch of [)ity,Bee such amaninthe 
position of a common ciiminal, manacles on his hondB, 
the bones protruding- irom liis discoloured skin, his robe, 
a soutane, tattered and unwashed, and himself living in 
a den where they would never have dreamed of even 
Btablii^ their horses. Such at least is the account 
which they themselves have left us of their own feel- 
ings. Yet taint and fleeting must have been this passing 
emotjan of compassion, since it does not appear to have 
had any efl'ect on their conduct ; fur even during the 
present trial, they were so bent on retaining at all 
Oauarda the tavour of the Xogiino, that on the recap- 
ture of one of the prisoners who had contrived to escape, 
they actually gave expression to their joy by a discharge 
of artdllerj'. In the end both the fathers whom they 
had discovered declared their priesthood; hut this con- 
fession did not prevent the execution of their companions. 
The religious were burnt, the crew to a man decapitated 
at Nan^aki, and Father Spinola and his companions 
remanded to their dungeon, wliich they never ag^in left 
Bntil they were led to execution. Their martyrdom, 
as already stated, took place on the 10th of Septem- 
ber, On the 12tb, five more rehgious were burnt atthe 
stake ; on the loth their catechiste followed in the same 
path ; and on the 1st of November Father Paul Peter 
Kavarre, with two other missionaries, encountered a 
similar fate. He had been recognised some months be- 
fore by a heathen soldier, who brought him prisoner to 
Sima-bara ; but instead of bein^ consigned to the com- 
fmon gaol, as so many of the rehgious had been, he was 
I'Confided to the care of nine Christians, whose lives 
EVonld have been forfeit in the event of his escape. 
Y Bvery liberty at all consistent with a state of durance 



158 JAPAN, 

s permitted liini ; he was allowed to celebrate Mass 
every day, to commiinicate freely both with heathens 
and Christians, and to preach and administei' the Sacra- 
menta without restriction. The g^yemor, to whose 
hnmnno intertereace he was indebted for such favoura, 

Ls himself very desirous of an interview with the fether, 
and sent him a present of some fruit, accompanied with 
many civil regrets for his detention, as well as with an 
intimation that he wonld willing'ly have overlooked his 
pi'ssence in the country (as he had already done that of 
many otliei-s of iiis bretb^n), had it been possible to do 
so with any chance of safe^ to himself. After these 
prelimiaarieB he sent for Fatfier Paul to his house, 
where, in the com^e of a long and interesting conversa- 
tion, he chacoed to touch upon the much vexed question 
of &ee will, askioc^, as the Japanese heathens were con- 
stantly in the habit of doinff, "Why, if God created all, 
He should permij any to be lost t" The iather answered, 
that " God indeed bad made all men to be happy by 
means of holiness, but He would not compel them ; fn 
then their service would but have been tnat of slaves, 
and Ha would have been deprived of their mora honour- 
able homage as free men. He had o^ven them all ne- 
cessary means for working out their sdvatiou; and even 
by human institutions they would stand condemned if 
they abused such gifts. For, air," he added, more 
directly addressing Sie governor, " do not you yourself 
discriminate between the rebel and the tnie man; and 
while you think it just to punish the former, do you not 
also consider it as only fair to reserve all your rewarda ^ 
and favours for the latter?" The governor acknow-J 
ledged he was right, requested a copy of the apolMylJ 
which the father bad composed on the part of Uie." 
Christians, and then reluctantly bade bim a<Beu, declaiv 
ing his bebef "that there was neither happiness nop 
salvation out of the pale of the Catholic Church." 

Father Paid hoped much irom this interview for the 
conversion of the governor; but he never deceived him- 
self for a moment as to iiie ultimate result of his own 


imprisonment; and by the imtli of voluntary Buifering, 
hy iaBtinjr, hair Bhiil, and disoipliae, he endeavoured to 
6t himseli' foi' thesteadyendtirauceof any torture which 
might be his poi-tion iu the how oi tiial. Uel'ore that 




linger as a captive j hut at length h 
fiouncetl, and lie listened to it with a E 
obsermg, that "he was only too happy in being allowed 
to attest with his bluod the truth ot that faith which foi' 
been preaching to the Ja- 
»d no reason to complain of 
Xoguno, and still less of his kind friend and bene- 

:tor the Governor of Sima-bara." It is said, that the 
could not refrain ironi tears when these words 
reported to him; but he had no power either to 
binder or retard the sentence, and on the liit of Novem- 
ber, after having said his last Muss, weeping all the 
time for veiy joy, Father Paul was led to execution 
barefoot, his huzids tied behind him, and accompanied 
by the destined companions of his martyrdom, namely, 
two Jesuit fathers, and a boy called Clement, who had 
hitherto acted as his catecliist, and who now walked 
before him singing the htanies, with a countenance so 
angelic and sei'ene, that the very heathens mai-vell^d to 
beoold him. Tliey died at the stake with the same 
constancy which both by word and look they had ex- 
hibited from the beginnmg; and in the following year 
Father Angelia, a Jesuit also, with fifty Christians, 
some of whom were clergy, underwent a similar sen- 
tence. He might have escaped if be had chosen to do 
so, for he was absent when they came to seek him at 
bis lodgings ; but understanding that the safety of his 
host was comnromised by his non-appearance, he volun- 
tarily surrenaered to the officei'S of the Xoguno, — a 
measure which imfortunately ensiu'ed his own destruc- 
tion without saving the life of his friend, who w 
demned to suffer at the same time with himself. 

The sentence was carried into execution at Jedo; 

e &ther, with his clerical companions, and Fanimon, a 

Japanese noblemao, who had already lost aU bis fingers 
ana toes and been bi-anded in tbe face for tbe name of 
Jesus, being' conducted to the stake on horseback, while 
the othei' Cliriatiaas walked ; the latt«r were like- 
wise executed iirst, either for the purpose of ag'gT^vat- 
jn^ the suiferings, or of shaking the constancy of the 
pnncipttl victims. If the latter wei* the object, the 
attempt failed most signally ; for when their hour of trial 
came, they stood in the midst of the flames with as 
much composure as if they had been breathing a tem- 
perate atmosphere. The execution of Paranion made a 
deep impression throughout the country, on account both 
of EUB exalted station and of his previous sufllerings in 
the cause of religion. Before they bound liim to the 
Btake, he made a short address to the spectators, op- 
pealing for the truth and earnestness of his convictions 
to his loss of fortune and of courtly favour, his banish- 
meat of fourteen years, and his bodily mutilation. He 
added that he had not embraced toe rehgion which 
had cost him so dear, without having both thoroughly 
sifted its doctrines and convinced himselli by caiwul 
eiamination, of the falsity of those which were taught 
by the bonaes. 

The great majority of the martyrdoms hitherto 
corded had been accomjiliahed by fire ; 
rent mode of torture was to be pressed into the servioai: 
Water was called int* requisition; and Father James 
Caravaii, with several lay Christians, was the leader of 
many heroic confessors who perished from cold. They 
wei* left, in the first instance, for three houi^s in freez- 
ing water, during which time one of them died ; the 
rest being carried back to prison and threatened with 
the martyrdom of fii* in case of perseverance, cried out 
with one voice : " Oh, happy we, to pass through fire 
and water to the place of our repose ! Insl«ad of the 
stake, however, the next day they were again placed 
up to then- necks in water ; while, the better to tempt 
them to apostasy, tents, warm baths, and comibrtain 
clothing were made ready on tbe banks of the pcjj 


r OH. IX.] 

JAPAN. Ifll 

and us near &s poasiLle ta the spot wbere tli<;ir sentence 
was to be carried into execution. As tlie doy advanced, 
the water froze more and more; and heavy drifte of 
Buow beating' continually upon them, added g;i'eatly to 
their agony. Scarcely able to endure it any looker, 
one among' them sobbed heavily for breath ; but Futh^f 
Paul hearing it, cried out, " Have patience, sonj for yet 
a little while, and these torments will be changed into 
everiftsting repose." At the sound of the fathers voice, 
and his cheering words, the poor victim regained his cou- 
rts, and soon afterwards happily expired, at the very 
moment when another, reduced to a similar extremity, 
exclaimed, " Father, my course is nearly iinished." 
"Depart, then," repb'ed the latter; "depart in peace 
to God, and die in His holy gi'sce." Thus one by 
one they perished in this icy erave; and at length the 
father, who through the live-long day had cheered hia 
feUow-martrrs to tlie combat, was left to suffer and to 
die alone. Night had already closed-in heavy and chill 
around him ; and with the exception of his guni'ds and 
some few faithfid Christians, none were there to watch 
him, for the spectators had all retired to their comfort- 
able homes, and it was not until just midnight that, 
ai^r fifteen hours of stem endurance, he bowed himself 
down to the Irozen wave, and placidly espired. Tbia 
martyrdom took place in the yeai- 1024, and shortly "^ 
afterwards four more religions were burnt at Fitco; in 
June of the same year the provincial of the Jesuits, with 
eight of the Society, peiished in a similar manner ; and 
in the following month Lewis Xanch, a Dominican, was 
put to death at Omiira. 

We have mentioned tliese executions of priests with- 
out alluding to the almost weekly msssawes which took 
{ilace among the lay converts, merely to show the viru- 
ence and success with which the missionaries were now 
every whei-e pm^ued; and when it is rememl>ei'ed that 
at the commencement of the pei-secHtion thei'e were, 
indes the Jesuits, but a few secHlsr piiests and aboiit 
t religious of other ordera, in Japan, and that no 





reinforcemetit had Eucr^eeded in reaclung them from 
without, words will not be needed to point out the 
deadly nature of the blow which the Xoguno waa at 
last inflicting on the Church. Having Eaid thus much, 
however, upon the fate of the religious, it would be a 
crying injustice to tlie rest of the Chriatians to pass over 
tMir surferings altogether in silence. 

The Xoguno having once exphciUy declared him- 
self opposed to their religion, the inferior monarchg, as 
a matter of course, vied with each other is their efforts 
to uproot it. It was only on an express condition to 
that effect that Bugendono, the new governor of Nan- 
gasald, had been installed in that office ; and taunted con- 
tinually by liJB rivals for courtly favour with his little 
anecess, he employed himself day and night in the in- 
vention of more ingenious barbarities to effect his pBr^ 
pose. The object being rather to produce apostasy 
than death, every species of torture was made as slow 
as possible in its execution, and was generally eked out 
with intervals of rest and reireshment — a thousand times 
more dangerous to the perseverance of the victim than 
the sharpest continued aeony. Some were placed in 
deep pits, and there nearly buried alive; while execu- 
tioners appointed for the purpose, slowly, and with blunt 
weapons, sawed off sometimes the arms and sometimes 
the head, salt being thrown on the bleeding wound to 
sharpen its ano^iah; physicians were also at hand, 
whose business it was to prolong the hfe of the Biiffei<eF 
for as many days as possible, by carefully ascertaining 
the amount of his physical sti^ngtb, and administering 
cordials when it was beginning to fell. Others were hung 
with their head downwards in a pit, where, with the 
necessaiy precaution of occasional bleeding, they were 
made to exist for a considerable time in all the suffer- 
ings of an apoplexy ; while others again, by means of 
a tunnel forced fer down into their tliroats, were com- 
pelled to swallow enormous quantities of water, wliict 
was afterwards forced out of the body by violent pre» ^ 
sure. Even the Dutch, themselves more than half thi 

_|Qthnrs of these evils, speak with hon-or of the deeds 
iyhich they witnessed at Firando. Tlie nails of the 
pfictims ware violently wrenched off, holes bored into 
their legs and arms, great morsels of flesh torn out of 
their persons by the insertion of hollow reeda which 
were turned round like a screw, burning' brimstone 
and sulphur forced by long' tubes up their noses ; and 
they were, besides, irequently compelled to walk about 
witn executioners holdmg hg'hted torches close to their 
persons. Nor were these cruelties inflicted singly, or 
upon solitary and more aoted delinquents. By tens, 
by fifties, by hundreds at a time, they were assembled 
for their trial ; one torture rapidly succeeding another, 
and each new one being so cunningly contrived, that 
the slightest word of complaint, the most trivial move- 
ment of resistance when pain bad become almost in- 
tolerable, was to be considered as a si^al of apostasy, . 
and was greeted by cries of "He is fallen! he is 
felleu !"— the favourite and most significant words by 
which the heathen e^ipressed at once the fact of a 
Christian's recantation, and their own opinion of the 
weakness through wiiich he bad succumbed. 

Under circumstances such as these, it is not so won- 
derful that many failed, as that hundreds and thousands 
persevered to tne end, winning their crown by a long- 

► Buffering and patience which, even in the primitive 
.CJhurch, were never surpassed. Men ofiered themselves 
irillia^ly to every torture which Eastern ingenuity 
could devise, or reckless disregard of human fife put 
into execution. Women looked calmly on while their 
infants perished, and then followed with gladness and 
joy in tne same path to gloiy. At a city near Omura, 
a "brave Christian plunged his hand into the burning 
coals, and never withdrew it until commanded to do so 
by the tyrant who had taunted and dared him to the 
deed; while at Firando fifty young Christians were 
made to kneel naked upon fiving embers, on the express 
I Buderstandino; that the most involuntary expression of 
ft pain should be considered as apostasy; and ha'ving by 

184 JAPAN. 

their nnfiiiiching fintmeas bafflod the closest scmtinr of 
those who wiitched them, were sent back to die, naif 
roasted as they were, to their several homes. la one 
place fiierhteen infants were put to death in the pre- 
Bence of their parents ; at another, a child only seven 
years old, suspected with the rest of his femily of the 
concealment of a priest, lived for as many days in the 
midst of the torture they inflicted upon him, withont 
once flinching or failing- in his heroic resolution. To 
each fresh invention of their cruelty he only answered, 
probably to avoiit Ijeine; betrayed into imprudent dis- 
closures, " Jesna, Mary ! Jesus. Mary ! How I lonj to 
be in heaven with my God!" Nor could other words be 
extorted from his lips, even when, in their despair of 
succeeding, they cut open the little a-eature's ahouldera, 
and poured hoiUng lead into the woimd; and finally, he 
and his family were burnt alive, without a single one 
among them having been induced by weakness to give 
evidence ng;ainEt the priest. 

Opposed to constancy such as this, every ordinar 
mode of torture must have seemed only nseless ( 
meaning; but at lengthBugendono hit upon another 
one Bo Barbarous in its nature, that no tyrant, however 
cruel or ferocious, who had hitherto ruled in Japan, had 
ever thought of inflicting it on the most guilty of his 

Between Nangasaki and Sima-bara hes a mountain, 
bald, bleak, and treeless, whitening beneath the masses ' 
of cindere with which it is every where covered, and 
with a tltick and stifling smoke, which can be seen at a 
distance of several leagues, for ever rising from its sum- 
mit™ The soil that covers its steep ascent is eveir where 
soft and spongy, often burning and trembling beneath 
the footsteps ; while so strong is the smell of sulphur 
which it continually exhales, that it is said no Ijird can 
live, or will even attempt to fly within breathing dis- 
tance of its tainted atmosphere. Deep and unfaSiom- 
able pools of boiling water he hidden amid the cleltej 
and fissures which split this gloomy mountain into 



r, and^H 



JJPAN. 165 

peaks and pi-ecipices ofvaiious gizes; but one, deeper 
asd more iinfatnomable than ail the rest, instead of 
■water, is filled with a misture of sulphur and other 
volcanic matter, which Eeetbe and hubble and boil 
within its dark abysa, emitting all the while so bomble 
a stench as to have gained it the title of the " Mouth 
of Hell." One drop alone of this fearfiil Huid is suffi- 
cient to produce an ulcer on the human flesh j and 
when Bugendono thought on the tenible natui-e of the 
chastisement he could thus inflict, and upon the feai- 
and Buperstitioa with which the Japanese always re- 
garded the sulphurous waters of Uneen, and the mvs- 
terious cavern in which they were pi'oduced, be telt tnat 
he could not have hit upon a more efficient or inlalbble 
means for the intimidation of the Christians, and the 
eitirpatioa of their creed. At the very time when he 
came to this resolution, there chanced to be dispersed 
throughout Arima a band of iaithM confessoi«, upon 
whom all his previously-invented tortures had been 
tried in vain ; and tor this i-eaaon the governor con- 
sidered they would prove the fittest objects for his new 
eipei-iment. Paul Uciborg was the chief, both for cou- 
rage and virtue, of this troop of victims; and he had 
already witnessed the massacre of every member of his 
family, down even to the youngest of his children, 
who, in company with fifteen other Christians, bad been 
thrown into the sea, after having first suffered eveiy 
possible cruelty that could barbarously be inflicted upon 

" Wbicb shall I begin with?" asked tiie executioner, 
as he approached the two youngest of Paul's children 
for the purpose of choppmg off tlieir fingers. 

" That is your amir, not mine," the old Christian 
answered bluntly, probably to conceal a softer feeling. 
" Cut off wiiicb and as many as yon please." 

" And, oh !" sighed the little Ignatius, as, in the 
very spirit of the brave man bia lather, he watched bia 
brother's fingers falling joint by joint beneath the knifa 
of the executioner J "bow beautiful your hand looksj ' 



188 lAPAK. 

my trother, thus mutilated for the sake of Jesna Christy 
and liow I long for my own turn to come !" 

The child who made this exclamation was but five 
years old ; yet, without shedding a tear, he afterwards 
endured a similarly protracted amputation, and then 
silently and unresistinffly suffered himself to be cast into 
the ocean. The father and about twenty of the re- 
maining' Christians, who were reserved for a different 
fate, were, aft«r the massacre of their comiianioM, 
brought hack to shore ; although so iriffhtfully crip- 
pled, from the mutUationB they had already undei^one, 
that one at least of their number was compelled to b^, 
can-ied to his house in a kind of cofRii on men's shotd*: 
ders. The governor had hoped that their ghastly ap^i 
pearance would terrify others from following their ex- 
ample; hut he soon found that Jesus Christ was more 
easily and more eloquently preached by such wounds 
and such deeds as theirs, than by any words that could 
be uttered ; and in his vexation at the numbers who 
flocked to them for edification and encouragement, hfl] 
condemned them, as we have seen, to the boiling sul-- 
phurs of IJnsen, 

As the httJe company of martyrs approached its 
teixible chasm, one among them, at the bidding of the 
executioner, and in the spirit of an Appobnia, rushed 
forward at once, and flung himself into its depths; but 
Paul, with a more measured courage, commanded the 
others to restrain then" zeal; while to the heathens who 
taunted him with cowardice, he contented himself by, 
saying, " that they were not masters of their own lives, I 
which God having' given, God alone had a right to m 
take away ; and that in reality there was more real 1 
cDurnge in calmly waiting the approach of death, thaa J 
in rushing into Jts arms in such a way as to put an end 1 
to afl its terrors in a moment." Silenced by this an- ' 
swer, so calm and noble in its genuine Christian courage j 
the executioners proceeded to their duties ; and havin|; | 
tied each of the martyrs by ropes, in order to prevent J 
their falling entirely into the enasra, one by one th~ * 


Bin. 1 

JAPAN. 167 

lowered them into its seething' contents. Some were 
destroyed at a single plunge ; others, by being quickly 
withdrawn, were reserved for the torment of a second 
but old Paul, who suffered Inst, and who 
bad excited the hatred of the heathens by the coura^ 
with which it was heheved he had inspu-ed his coni' 
Baniona, they managed, with dexterous cnielty, to let 
.Qown three several times into the abyss before life was 
altogether extinguished; and each time as be rase to 
the surface he was heard to exclaim : " Eternal praise 
be to the ever adorable Sacrament of the Altar !" 

Aft«r this iirst trial of its power, the scalding sul- 
nhurs of TJnsen became a favourite mode of torture for 
file Christiana, Men, women, children, and infants 
Trere sent hither in crowds. Some expired after a 
single plunge; others after two or three successive 
immersions; others, ngain, and the greater number, 
were with a more elaborate cruelty sprinkled with the 
boiling hquor day atlier day, often for a period of thirty 
days together, until their bodies were one mass of sores 
and vermin, and they died from the effects of this uni- 
Tersal ulceration. 

Alas ! what more can they do against you ?" 
asked a compassionate heathen, as he removed the 
mantle which had been cast over one of these victims, 
and discovered the mass of rottenness and corruption 
which lay hidden beneath, 

" You can cut open my hack." answered the stern 
old Christian, " and pour the boiling sulphur into the 
wound ; hundreds of other torments there are also 
which you may inflict upon me, and which I can bear 
with gladness for my God." 

Unhappily, excepting for their own salvation, all 
this suffermg and com'age was of no avail. As fast as 
one tyrant disappeared from the scene, another more 
cruel and ferocious still stepped into his place. The Xo- . 
guno died; and he was sucweded by his son, who took I 
the title of the To-Xoguno, as an intimation that he 
oonsidered himself greater than his father, — an assump- 1 


tion which he probably justified both to himself siti to 
his subjects bv the increased barbarity with which he 
pursued the ChristianSj who fell in greater numbers 
during' his reign than during any which had pre- 
ceded it. 

Bus;endono likewise perished by a painful and un- 
natural death; but mitaug;ht by the terrible namre of 
the chastisement which had fallen upon his predec 
Bor, Unemondo, the new g'ovemor of Nangasaki, ap- m 
peared to haye no dearer wish than to surpass, or, f 
if that were not possible, to equal him in fei'ocity, j 
The end of that great persecutor of the Christians ir 
indeed too remarkable to be passed over in silence; anc 
it hardly seems rash to consider it as a judgment of-1 
Divine Providence, that the immediate instrument cffl 
his own death should have been the very torture whit^ W 
he had himself invented for the Christians. The sul-lf 
phuroiis waters of Unsen were, when reduced t 
moderate degree of heat, occasionallv used for m6di--J 
cinal purposes; and hither, therefore, Biigeadono caused. I 
himself to be carried for the cure of a disease by whicli J 
he was tormented; but unable in the frenzy of his fever* 
to calculate the proper temperature at which theyl 
should be used, be compelled his attendants to put« 
him in immediately after they had been brought fresh' J 
Irom the chasm, and his body was in an instant so com- i 
pletely pai'-boiled, that the flesh literally fell fixim the 
oones before he could be taken out. His death, striking 
as was the coincidence by which it had been accompa- 
nied, appears to have made no impression upon those 
who were fast following in his footsteps. With fire and 
sword the To-Xoguno so inexorably pursued his patii, 
that in the third year of his reign (1633), from July 
to October alone, no fewer than sixteen priestfl, be- 
sides several religious, principally Jesuits, fell into the 
bands of the governor of Nangasaki. Among the 
"rictims of this four-months' slaughter, we find the 
names of Father Iscida, a Japanese Jesuit, and of IV . 
ther Juhan Nicaura, the last snrvivor of the ambasso- i 

OH. IX.J JAPAS. 169 

doTB to Rome ; some of bis companions having pre- 
ceded him by martyrdom, wbile others Lad died, it is 
supposed, by a natm'ol death. The history of this no- 
ble Jupiuiese reads almost Uke an epitome of tliat of 
ibe Church which he hod so zealously sei'ved. He had 
seen it almost in its dawn imder the core and teaching' 
of the fii-st successors of St. Francis ; he bad endea- 

vonred to promote its best interests by liis embiissy to 
name ; he bad sfterwards devoted himself to its service 
in the Society of Jesus ; and now, after forty-three years 
of nnmiti gated toil, of prayer and preaching, of wander- 
ing fi-om province to province and from kingdom to 
kino^om, sometimes in his uneensing; search ior souls, 
at others in his efforts to elude his pursuers; worn to a 
very shadow, broken down and crushed aa much by his 
bitter sorrows as by his life-long labours for his perse- 
cuted brethren, — he sealed at last his religious profession 
in his blood, dying Ly the trial of the pit, aftsr four 
nights and days of^heroic endurance of its torture. Se- 
bastian Vieyra was another of the more remarkable vic- 
thns of this blood-stained year. He had been sent to 
Home about ten years before for the purpose of repre- 
senting the disastrous state of the Japanese Church to 
the Pope ; but when at length he knelt at the feet of 
Urban VIII., he was so raov»l at the recollection of the 
deplorable tale which he had to tell, that he bui'st into 
■ irs, and for a considerable time was unable to speak, 
le Holy Father received him with much tenderness 
^snd concern, animated him by his conversations to con- 
Bt&ncy and conrage, and finally dismissed him with 
letters of condolence to his sufiering brethren, as well 
as with a promise of exerting the Papal power to the 
utmost to procure a supply of missionaries for their ex- 
piring Church. This last, however, proved nnlbrtunately 
a nearly impo.'ffiible undertaking. It was easy enough 
to find priests willing to go ; but the question as t-o how 
they were to be introduced into the kingdom was one 
not admitting of so ready a solution. Nor was it until 

170 JAPAN. 

die year 1632 that Viejra himself, with all the adraa- 
tages that bis previous knowledge of the lang;tiage aad 
cUBtoms could g;ive him, succeeded in landing, disguised 
as a common sailor, on the most desolate part of the 
coast. Twelve months afterwards, he and four other 
Jesuits were arrested at Osako, and brought prisoners to 
Jedo. The To-Xoguno did not see him himself, be- 
cause the admission of a condemned prisoner into the 
imperial presence was always considered tantamount to 
granting him pardon ; but as he felt esti'emely curious 
about his journey to Eiu\)pe, be sent confidential per- 
sons day al^r day to question him on the subject. 
Vieyra's answers stimulated bis curiosity, and probably 
caused him to feel an ausiety to preserve his life; for 
every possible means were attempted to procure his 
apostasy ; and one day especially we are told that they 
brought him into a room filled with all kinds of instru* 
ments of torture, bidding him choose between them and 
the i-eligion which the emperor wished him to embrace. 
His hands were unbound, and ink and paper given him 
that be might write his answer, which he did in a few 
spirited words, to the effect, that although he would 
always submit to the temporal authority of the To- 
Xogimo, he could not accept his spiritual supremacy; 
and that threats were useless to frighten, or promises to 
allure liim to any other line of conduct ; since neither 
the one nor the other could have any effect on the soul, 
which was, as it ought to be, the chief, or rather the 
only object of bis soheitude. A little later he wrote 
down a short foi-mula of the Christian religion which 
the emperor had requested him to make, and which, after 
the latter had perused with great attention, he could not 
forbear exclaiming : "This European is a manofwon- 

mind by t 

put every engine 

he impression made upon hia 
paper, that the enemies of Christianity 
' ^ in order to accomphsh tl ' ' 


IX.] JAPAN. 171 

death of a man who seemed Imt too hkelj to lead 
their imperial mast«i' into a path diametrically opposed 
to their private interests and inclinations. \^itii some 
difficulty they succeeded ; and in conformity to his sen- 
tence Vieyra was hung for four daya with his bead 
downwai'ds in tlie pit : out the executioners, at the end 
of that time, finding him still strong and tiill of life, 
placed him over a large fire, which speedily reduced liim 
to ashes. 

His execution took place in 1634; and when, in the 
following year, the Portuguese anchored as usual off 
Nang'aeiild, they found a kind of wooden island, with 
two rows of houses on it, floating before the town, and 
comiected with it by means of a hridge. It was caOed 
the " Island of Desima," and bad been constructed 
during their absence at the instigation of the Dutch, 
for the express purpose of preventing the posaibihty of 
their settmg foot upon the land. Here they were to 
reside during their stay in Japan, and to transact the 
exchange of their merchandise; while the same edict 
which sentenced them to this ignominious treatment, 
hTcewise prohibited their displaying any crucilix or re- 
ligious image by which Chi-istianity might be recalled 
to the minds of the people. The utter banishment in- 
cluded in this sentence put a final blow to the hopes of 
the Christians, by depriving them of every chance of 
fiitm'e pastors ; and thus, exposed at once to all the tor- 
tures that the murderous pohcy of their enemies could 
devise, and deprived at the same time of the support 
and consolation which only religion had power to bestow, 
^ it is not wonderful that at last they \-ielded to despair, 
I -and openly revolted against their rulers. With the as- 
P Biatance of Duteh artillery, this ill-digested movement 
^ was speedily put down ; and the result proved as ihtal 
to the Portuguese as to the native Christians them- 
selves; for the former having heen unjustly accused by 
their rivals of having privat^y instigated the people to 
■^belhon, they were banished in a fit of imperial mdig- 
Bttation. not only out of Japan, but even out of the I^ 


of Desimii, in which they h&d hitherto been pennitted 
to reside. 

No aubsequent repreaentations or entreaties, either 
of the Poitug^ese merchants or of their Viceroy in the 
Indies, could induce tha To-Xogimo to rescind this re- 
solution; from that hour every attempt at negotiation 
was Bteadiiy resisted ; and so strictly did he adhere to 
the very letter of his edict, that wnen a solemn em- 
bassy was sent by the government of Portug^ to treat 
■with him on the suliiect., the universal law of nations 
was disregftrded, and both the arabaBBodors themselves, 
and the crew of tlie vessel which had brought them over, 
were condemned without mercy and executed on the spot. 
Fourteen only of the latter were reserved to tell the 
tale of the martyrdom of their companions; formaityrs 
they were, since they were offered their lives on condition 
of apostasy ; and when the little party of the survivors 
were sent back to India, they were put in charg;e of a 
chest into which the Japanese had collected all the bones 
of then' slaughtered compatriots, while upon the hd they 
had printed an inscription to the effect, "That so long 
as the Bun shone upon the earth, no Christian shouta 
be permitted to land in Japan ; and that if King Philip 
(of Spain) himself, or the very God of the Christians, 
or even their own Great Xaca, the chiefest and hig'hest 
of their especial idols, were to disobey this order, they 
should be made to pay for their presumption with their 

Unfortunately, neither the banishment of the Portu- 
guese nor the murder of their amhassadoi's was suf- 
ncient to allay the jealous suspicions of the emperor; 
and it was prooabjy somewhere about this time that the 
ceremony of the Jesumi was instituted. The uKnie is, 
apparenfly, a coiTuption of "Jesus and Mary," the in- 
variable rallying cry of the Japanese converts ; and 
the ceremony itself consisted simply in trampling under 
foot a cTuciSz, or imae« of the Madonna, which was 
carried from house to nonse by officers appointed for 
the purpose. Such an act was considei'ed equiva- 


CH, IX.] JAPAN. 173 

I lent to a. formnl recantation; for tlie heathens ctm- 
\ eluded — and who sLall miirvel at tbeir conclusion? — 
[ that tiiey who were wiliing to dishonour the effigy, 
could have no real feeling of honour for the original, 
and therefore that they could not be Christians, that ia 
to Bay, they could not ba beUeTfira in the Divinity of 
Christ, if tliey found in this faith no motive for rever- 
ence to His image or to the image of His Mother, 
Death was to be the portion of those who should refiise 
thus to trample on tlie likeness of their Saviour ; and 
death was accordingly inflicted upon vast rmiltitudes of 
Christians who remained true to their creed. The time 
had, in fact, arrived, when the light of faith, so rapidly 
enkindled by the jirayers and preachings of St, Francis, 
was to be as rapioly extinguished in the blood and teara 
of his spiritual children; and sad and distressing to all 
the better feelings of the heart as are the scenes Uirough 
which we have been compelled to wade in pursuing the 
downward course of the Church he founded, still is 
there one high thought, one dominant fact presiding 
over all to encourage and console, Tliat tliought is of 
the grace of God, and that fact the wondei-ful power 
which the grace of God so exercises over human nature, 
.RB out of its weakness to bring forth sti-ength, and out 
of its bitterest passions sweetness, and out of the same 
matei-ials that went to the formation of a Nero or a 
Teigo-Sama creates an Agnes or a Francis Xavier, For 
never, perhaps, in the long history of the world, had 
the miraculous workings of Divine grace been more 
triumphantly vindicated, than in this outbreak of the 
Gosp^ through the heathen realm of Japan. Beneath 
itfl sweet and saving influence men Imrn to a tradition 
of lies, and nurtured in the indulgence of the worst 
passions of their nature, — proud, effeminate, luxuj'ious, 
and revengefid, — suddeah^ oecame chaste, humble, mor- 
tified, and forgiving. The rich, who had been in- 
tolerant of poverty, as if it had been the badge s 
banner of a felon's fate, now grew to be loving a 


174 JAPAK. 

reverent to the poor, as the representatives of Jesus npon 
earth. Haughty nohles, who had looked upon suicide as 
hut a dignified escape from the hands of the eieciitianer, 
now patiently awaited their death, as it pleased tfaeir 
tormentoi's to dole it out to them by inches ; and oomtly 
philosophers, who had hitherto ignored eternity, because 
they dared not look on the retribution which it threat- 
ened to their crimes, were now ready and willina; to 
suffer every torture that could be inflicted upon tfiem 
for the sake of the sure hope of heaven that waa 
laid up in their hearts. Nor was it men alone who 
thus proved themselvea brave in the hour of trial: 
women were every where found to equal, sometimes 
even to surpass them in stoical endurance ; and little 
children became as strong men in the heroic resolution 
with which they accepted sufferings at the hands of 
their ruthless persecutors. 

Many, indeed, among the people fell off, as might 
have been expected; but Goo was glorified in thou- 
sands, who at the stake or upon the cross, heneath the 
Bword of the headsman or in the sulphurous waters 
of TJnaen, proved themselves worthy disciples of a cru- 
cified Saviour ; while among the clergy, whether native 
or foreign, only two or three failed in the hour of trial. 
The rest, aa they were taken, laid down their hves, one 
by one in succession; concealing themselves, as they 
were in duty hound, os long as they could, for the 
sake of thetf flocks, but going calmly and gladly to 
the scaffold the instant that Providence seemed plainly 
to lead them to its foot. 

To sav nothing of the secular clei^y, and of the re- 
ligious 01 different orders, who fell nearly every man 
at his post, it is calculated that no fewer than four 
hundred members of the Society of Jesus pei'iahed in 
the course of those thirty years of persecution in Japan; 
and of this vast number of victims one, and one alone, 
proved unfaithful to his trust; while even his place was 
instantaneously filled by another, who, burning y ''^ 



'Seal for the glory of God, mid suffering mortal anguish 
for the ahame and scandal wtiich aticb an apostasy had 
hrouB'ht on the Church, the priesthood, and the Society 
of which he was a member, actually came irom the far 
west for the express purpose of taKinp;' the post which 
the renegade had abandoned, and of olotting out the 
stain of the perjury in his own blood. Mastrilli was 
the name of this neroic religiaus, and his wish was 
speedily fulfilled ; for he and his companion, a man as 
brave and self-devoted as himself, perished by the 
Bword, after having been tempted in vain to apostasy 
by the trial of the pit. Possibly their prayers it was, 
and the merit of their martyrdom, wbich finally won 
for their apostate brother the gift of hia conversion; and 
which moved him, after many years of struga;le with 
himself, ta defiver himself up to the authorities of Nan- 
gasaki, with the declaration tliat he was a Christian, and 
ready and willing to sign and seal that declaration with 
his blood. He was instantly committed to the trial of 
the pit, and perished at the age of ninety, after four 
days' patient endurance of the self-same torture which, 
his younger and more vigorous years, he bad 


unable to support for about the same number of hours. ^H 

Full nineteen years elapsed between the failure of his ^^t 

first trial and the triumpliant conclusion of his last ; and ^^t 

I during that space of time each succeeding attempt of ^^M 

BuFOpean missionaries on Japan is but the history of a ^H 

martyrdom and a gisve. ^H 

In 1643, Father Rubino, a Jesuit, with four com- ^H 

panions, succeeded in landing at Satzuma; but they had ^H 

not been two days in the country before they were ^H 

arrested — made to suffer, first the torment of water {as ^H 

it has been already described) every day for sevCTal ^H 
months, then that of fire, which, by means of lighted / 

torches, was applied all over their persons, the wounds 
being systematically healed for the purpose of renewing 
the application ; and at the close of nearly a year of 

unceasing suffering and unwearied patience, they were . 

condemned, as a last resource, to tW ttui oi \afc "^V I 

176 JAPAN. 

So vivid was tLe joy with which they all listeneiv 
this sentence, that, fancying its purport had been ir 

understood, the gBvemor caused it to be read a 

again; but they, perceiving his mistake, assured hiin 
they were already well aware of its contents, and that 
the gladness he nad seen on their faces was hut the 
natuml expression of the feelings with which they con- 
templated their approachiiig union with their God, 
They all remained firm to the end ; one of them living 
for no less than nine days in the nearly imendurable 
torture to which they haa been condemned ; and their 
death was soon followed by that of Father Marqnez, 
another Jesuit, with four companions, also of the Society, 
who were arrested almost as soon as they had set foot 
upon the shore. They were brought b^ their captors 
to Jedo, where they were eonfivnted with some of the 
Dutch dealers, who had been sent for from Hangasaki 
lo identily them as priests, and to whom we are in- 
debted for om' account of their trial and martyrdom. 
" The Jesuits," says Haren, " were seated on mise- 
rable mats; their faces pale and emaciated, eyes dim 
and sunk deeply in their heads, hands blackened and 
purpled, and bodies ail bruised by the horrible tortures 
to which they had been already subjected. They an- 
swered with great courage and frankness to the ques- 
tions proposed by their judges, and their limbs being 
sawn off, one by one, by order of the To-Xoguno, snoli 
of them as did not sink at once under the torture were 
carried hack to prison, where they speedily expired." 

The martyraom of John Baptist Sidotti is the laet 
which we find on record in the annals of Japan. He 
seems to have been attracted to tliia pei'iloua mission 
from his earliest youth ; and after emplo}'ina: himself 
fop many years iu the study of the Japanese language, 
he obtained a mission from the Pope to go and pi-eacb in 
that kingdom. Two more yeai-s were spent at Manilla 
in order to perfect his knowledge of the language; a nd 
his design becoming pubhc, eveiy facUity was affon' 
him £or carrying it into exetaitioa, — a shi^ being e 




CH. tX.J JAPAN. 177 

fitted out for his use by the governor of the Philip- 
piniB, He was already wittm landing-distance of 
Japan, when a fishiiig-b(»t hove in Bight, and a native 
idolater, vho had accompanied them on their vojage 
was sent to try and hrihe ita crew into silcnee. Ht 
does not appear to have been auecesafiil, for when he 
returned to the ship he did all he could to dissuade 9i- 
dotti from his enterpiTse; but after long and earnest 
prayer, the latter told the captain that this was the 
moment for which he had so ardently sighed; and that 
being in sight of Japan, nothing should prevent him 
from attempting to land,~6ince he did not rely for 
Buoceas upon his own strength, but rather upon the 
grace and goodness of God, and upon the prayers of 
those who had already shed their blood on its sod. 

Finding it impossible to dissuade him, the captain 
proceeded to make arrangements for landing him at 
night ; and in the mean time Sidotti employed himself 
in writing letters and ia making a short exhortation to 
the crew, in the course of which he aaked their pardon 
for any scandal he might have given, and for any defi- 
ciency in the religious instruction they had received at 
his hands. It coiud have been but humihty alone which 
had prompted thi^ request ; for his life on board, as well 
as everywhere else, had been most saintly, and the chief 
portion of his time had been employed both earnestly and 
efficaciously in leading the crew to virtue. His last act 
on board was to kiss, in unfeigned lowliness of spirit, the 
feet of all ; and towards midmght he and the captain de- 
scended into the boat which was to convey them to land. 
During their short transit Sidotti was deeply absorbed in 
prayer ; hut as they touched the shore, he threw himself 
on his knees and devoutly kissed the ground, thanking 
God for having brought him at length to this land, the 
object of all his wishes and his prayers. The captain 
accompanied him a little way in shore ; and when it was 
necessary t4i separate, he forced a few pieces of gotdnpon 
bis acceptence, in hopes of its enabling him to propitiate 
the Japanese, and then affectionately took his leave. 


178 JAPAH. 

He had not done so a minute tooaoon forlusoTn u&itji 
for hisbofit liad scarcely reached the ship before Sidotti 
was a pmoner and on Lis way to Nan^asaki. There, like 
his predecessors, he was conmuted with the Dutch, who 
descrihe him as a. tall pale man, with black hair, and 
about forty years of age. He wore a Japanese robe, 
and a chain, Irom whence a crucifix depended, was 
hflugiiig' from his neck; hia Rosary was in his hands, 
which were manacled at the wrist, and he carried a 
couple of books under hia arm. As he understood 
Japanese, there was no need of an interpreter ; and hia 
answers were perfectly frank and open as to the nature 
of his intentions in coming' to Japan. After many ques- 
tions upon this subject, they asked him if he were aware 
of thelawsag^inet the landingof theSpaniardsondPoF' , 
tug^se, to which he also replied in the affirmative ; 
lidded, that they did not apply to him, as he wi 
Italian. At this juncture of tae ooaversatioQ, ohse 
Home of the spectators busy with the hag which 
tained the vessels for the celebration of Mass, he inter- 
rupted himself to beg that no irreverence might he 
offered to them — a request that was instantly, and in a 
very decorous mannei', complied with. He was after- 
wards sent to Jedo, where he ling'ered in captivity for 
a considerable cumlier of years ; but as he contrived to 
convert nearly every one who approDched him, he was 
at last immuj'ed in a cavity frvm four to five feet in. 
depth, bis food being supplied hini through an opening 
at the top ; and after lingering on for some time in 
inconceivable agony, be expired at last from the effects 
of this protracted torture. 

From the hour of hia death no Christian missionary 
has ever set liis foot in the kingdom of Japan. The 
Dutch alone have permission to approach its shores; 
but, by a singular reti'ibution; they have tbemselveB 
been banished to that Isle of Desima which their in- 
trigues bad caused to be erected tor their rivals ; and 
their trade, which, even in the lace of Portuguese com- 
petitiouj had enabled them to send seven or eight ships 



to the Japanese mai-ket, has gradually dwindled into 
such totttl inai^mficance, that in Bell's System of Oeo- 
gi-i^hy W8 find it stated tliat two at the outs' 
suffice for its demands. Gominerce waa then, 
now, theu' only object; and in pursuance of its sordi 
gains they bare been content to leave Japan to it 
idol-worsbip, witbont thoug'ht or effort to win it to 
the knowledge of the Irring God. This was their 
compact with its imperial niler; and this comrwct 
they both then and since have rigidly observed. TJot 
only did they leave the heathen to be heathen still j but 
in the very hottest of the persecution they either aided 
(as we have already seen) tne emperor in nis murderooft. 
aesieiis against the ChristianB, or sat still in supremo- 
indiSerence, suffering him without remonstrance to 
root out the Christian roligion by the extermination 
of his. people,— banishing, burning, drowning, and be- 
heading, and cBJiying his jealous hatred into the very 
realms of death itself j by digging up the bones of the 
martyred dead, and scattering them abroad on the 
wafers of the ocean. 

With all his efforts, however, and those of bis suc- 
cessors, it is very doubtfid whether Christianity is even 
at this instant entirely extinct in Japan. It hod spread 
too widely, and been too deeply rooted in the hearts of 
the people, to be entirely forgotten in the course of a 
few generations ; and accordingly, even so late as the 
eig;hteenth century, a Jemiit missionai-y in China tells us 
ol certain holy pictures, painteii upon porcelain, which 
the Chinese had been then recently in the habit ofmanu- 
fecturbg for the markets of Japan. And later still, an 
author of the present day assm-es us that the Japanese i 
possess a knowledge of the ten commandmCDts which, ' 
whatever may be their own theory on the subject, they 
evidently must have derived from the Christian tradi- 
tion ; while the Chinese, whose opinion — as their nearest 
neighbours, and the most closely associated with them 
both by commerce and by customs — is worthy at least 
of considerable attention, were not very many years ai 


180 JAFAIT. 

imureesed witli the idea tliat Cliristiaiiityj insteBd of 
bemg defiiDct, was merely dormant amcmg the people. 
Nor even now at the eleventh hour ja the Catholic 
Church unmindful of this once fair and flouriahiag 
portion of her heavenly inheritance; but from the east 
and &oni the west, from China and from India, and 
from the distant shores of France — always the great 
dep6t of missionary workmen — zealous and devoted men 
are ever on the watch for a favom'able moment to fol- 
low in the footsteps of St. Francis Xavier, and to raise 
again the cry of salvation by which he once gathered 
its mnltitudea around the hannor of the cross. So strict, 
however, is the blockade, and so severe are the regula- 
tions by which every avenue of the country is closed, 
that all attempts have hitherto proved in vain ; and in 
the mean time terror and tyranny have efiectually re- 
pressed every outward demonstration of Christiani^. 
Heathenism in its lowest form hroods dai'kly over the 
benighted land j and the ceremony of the " Jeaumi," 
I'Snewed year after year at Nangasalp, if it bear witness, 
by the suspicion it mdicates, to an element of true re* 
ligion still existing in tfae nation, gives also, alas ! a 
melancholy testimony to the fact, that not one is left 
with enough of Christianity or enough of courage to 
confess to the existence of the hving God, there on 
the very spot where thousands laid down their hves 
for Him, in the days when tJie Church which His Son 
had commissioned to teach all nations shed the hght of 
faith over the realms of Japan. 





!haract6r of the Spanish coIonisU. The Bjstem of ineoT, 
enda. Pint misBionuy sfibrts. ArnTsl of tha Jesuit i 
ttiBis. Their labours and successes among the Indiana 


The Jesuite oppose the BnalBvlng of the natives. Appeal to the 
long. MaaifBsto of the Fathers. Rapacity of the colonists, 
Tbe first " redactioDB," sad the first martjrs. Renewed 
oonteDtions. Seooad appecj to the home govonunent, 
which supports the Jesuits. Expulsion of the Fathers tnra 
Aasoniption IS . 


Paragnaj'. Cbaraoter ojid baUts of the natlres. Tha work of 
eonTarsion end dvUisation. Doscriplion of a reduotioc Its 
intenial goverament. OccupsUons of the miasionnrisa. 
ttegulations as to property and oommeroe .... 


Oharoh, schools, workshops, iw. Feast of Corpus Chrirti. Di. 
Terwoos, Re%ious and moral habits of the people. Their 
seal for the aonvoraian of their brethren. ArdTal of fresh 
mtsBiamuics. Raviiges of Che small-pox . . . . ' 


8L PauTg, Lswleuneaa of its inlinhitaDM. Tholr treacheiy 
and oruelty to tbe Indinns. Attack on tho redoB 
Fint migrationB. Conruga and detsnninstioii of tbe mis- 
siotiariei. Crimes of the "Mamelukefl." The Fatheri re- 
aolve to evBcuste the reductdoag Gli ] 


DisaatsTB and HufTerUigB af tho emigranta. SparuardH can^ua 
to molest the oli3 rednctions. Flight of the inhsihitBinta. 
fianewed atfaoks of tbe MamelukeB. The Indiima, allowed 
the use of fire-arma, dofsat the loaraiidors. New sottle- 
meats. Intrepidit; of the miHaoDari«s. Bemardin da Car- 
deoas, lUshop of ABanrapQon. UJs ohargee ti^;aiiiat the 
Jeniits. The fahle of the goM-mines. Insmreodon ef the 
colonista quelled by the ChrbUan natives . . . . ' 


Hortynloma of FF. Ortiz and Solinas. Bucoess of F. de AieS. 
Martjrdoraa of FF. CaTsllero, da Aro6, Blende, Syl*a, 
M»oo, and thirty neophytea. Antequera usurpa the govem- 
uiant ', perBacutoa tbe Jestotn. Hia ropentanca and death. 
Rebali a saeond time defeated by the Chriatian Indiana. 
ReneiTBl of charges sgaiust the miaiionBriea. Martyrdom 
of F. Idmrdi. Treaty of eiohango botwaon Spajn and Por- 
tugal ; forced anugratjon of the natives. Persecution and 
deportation of the Jeauits. Present alate of Paraguay. 
BeTiew oftbs labouiaof the Sodety in tbatoouDtry . 

Obanutar of tbe Spanish coldiiiKtB. Tbe systamof 
encomiendti. First misaioimry eObrta. ArrivoJ 
oftba Jesuit Fathani, Their Uboiirs and sue- 
ig the Indiani. 

r"OWEVER dark the record of 
Spanish crime in the settle- 
_ ments of South Ainerica,how- 
ir fi'ig;htfiil the cruelties and 
oppressive the tyranny exercised upon tbe 
unhappy natives, no one can reaa the history of those 
times with an unprejudiced mind, and stili consider the 
g:overmnent of the mother-country as being; entirely or 
even greatly responsible for them. From Charles V, 
of Austria to Philip V, of the Boiu-bon dynasty, the 
Spanish monarchs, in fact, invariably took the part of 
the oppressed against the oppressor ; and all their 
general regTilationa, as well as ail their especial du'ec- 
tious to their vice-regal representatives in the colonies, 
ided alike to the restriction of the power of the con- 
luering' Spaniard, and to the amelioration of the con- 
[ition of the conquered native. That such humane 
endeavours should have proved a failure might have 
been a cause for fronder had it occoti!b4 \ti 

mes ^ 

day, when facilities for comTnunicatian liave so great ^ 
lessened tlie diHiuultv' of legislating for a distant people^ 
but that Biich should have bE«n Uie case in those times 
appears the almost inevitable conseouence of the dis- 
tance of the cDimtries to govern and to be governed, 
the dangers and delay attendant on the communication 
between them, the total ignorance of the jieople for 
whom they were thus called upon to legialaf*, but, 
more than all the rest, the vicious character of those to 
whom the Spanish monarch was perforce compelled to 
delegate his power. 

For it hapiwned then, as it veiy possibly might have 
happened even now, that while the good, the just, and 
the ttoble-minded remained quietly at home, the idle, 
the imprincipleil, and the desperate, those, in a word, 
who had lost their fortunes by extmvagMice, or their 
characters by excess, sought to rejiair the one or to 
redeem the other by a greedy seai'ch after gold or a 
reckless ptu^iit of adventure in the new world. Mea 
such as these would under any circumstaaces hm 
thought but lightly of infiinging the law ; niany 
them, in fact, had often done so even in their natii 
land. What wonder, then, that with broad seas 
tween tliem and the legal punishment of their misdi 
intrenched moreover amia the rocks and lastnesses 
the untrodden regions they had made their 
should have defied with impunity every effi 
trol their actions ; or that the history of the Sj 
colonies should in consequence have become one li 
scene unrolled of rapine, murder, and reheUion 
governors not only defeated in their attempts at 
stoiing order, but deposed, murdered, or sent h( 
blackened by calumny, to die in a dungeon ; of bad" 
men gaining the upper hand by means which the good 
were too scnipulous to employ ; and of barbarities exer- 
cised on the unhappy natives, beneath which, if they at 
times revolted, they much oftener pined and droo] ' 
and faded away, until the red Indian had well-nigh 
appeared from the land wbicUtis tj-thfera had 


^Mht peace, and wliiub for untold centnrieR they had called 

^Biteir own. 

B^ The I'atnl policy of distributing the Indiiins enco- 
mienda amon^ the Spaniards no doubt tended greatly 
to inerensG tlie sufferings of that unhappy pace, by 
giving something of the foi'ce of law to an appmpria- 
tioD of native laoour which would othei'wise have ueen 
stigmatised as an act of private injustice. By the 
regulations of this system, a certain number of Indians 
were, for a given tenn of yeara, parcelled out to in- 
dividuals, who for two months in eveiy year had a 
light to their personal service, besides exacting an 
imnual tribute from them ; and in return, the master, 
ur " commander," aa he was most usually called, was 
hound to see to the cemfort and instruction, both reh^- 
ous and seciilar, of the natives coniided to his caro. As 
originaUy designed hy the ci'own, thetie conditions wen; 
by no means unmerciful ; and had they been carried 
out by the colonists in a eimilar spirit, would undoubt- 
edlj^ liftve led to a much more rapid civilising and 
Christianising of the Indian jopuJation than could 
otherwise have been accomplisheo. It may, and in- 
deed it must, be ol^ected to the system, that the labour 
being comjnilsory, their state was in feet nothing short 
of slaveiy. But, on the one hand, we must remember 
that it was designed for men who, without this restric- 
tion as to time, would in all probability have attempted 
and ejected a lite~Iong servitude of the native ; and on 
the other, it is sure^ an open question whether in 
reality it may not Jiave been a more humane and equi- 
table mode of dealing with the Indian than that of 
di-iving b'm by main force Irom bis possessions, or 
cheating his childish simplicity into the exchange of 
the broad lands that God and nature hod bestowed 
upon him for beads, and gewgaws, and trumpery trin- 
kets, — to sav nothing of the deliberate dulling of in- 
tellect and shortening of life by the fetal gift of brandy 
{the fire-water of the savage), in order to blind bim 


he was contracting ; aU which havfi been the notorious 
practices of other nations, and nioi'e modem and (so to 
speak, by courtesy) more hberal times. 

Whether, however, the means adopted were judici- 
ous or the contrary, most certainly the object of the 
Spanish government was chiefly directed to the tem- 
poral and etemaJ welfare of the people so suddenly and 
uneiipectedly confided ta its cai'e ; but, unhappUy, it 
never was in a condition to command that rigid adher- 
ence to its regulations which was absolutely necessary 
to insure success. Gruel and rapacious, and divested 
of all save the externals of religion, the Spaniarda 
thought of nothing higher than the rapid acquisition of 
wealm hy every means vrithin their power. In such 
hands as theirs the system of assignment I'apidly de- 
generated into a positive slavery; and the natives either 
died by hundreds beneath the imposition of unaocua- 
tomed burdens, or, scandalised by the vices and revolted 
by the cruelty of their owners, confounded at length 
the religion which their masters professed with the vices 
which they practised, and resolutely adhered to that 
idolatry which had become to them the badge of free- 
dom, while Christianity was identified in their eyes with 
a state of servitude. In vain Charles V. and his suc- 
cessor Philip endeavoured to regulate and prevent 
these disorders ; in vain an officer was appointed whose 
especial charge it was to investigate the treatment of 
the Indians, and to deprive of authority and office all 
who abused or trespassed on their wewoiess ; the dis- 
tance of the mother-countiy proved an insuperable bar 
to any real or permanent redress, and sixty years had 
rolled away since the first possession of the land, and 
nothing effectual had yet been done to advance the 
cause of civilisation, or to establish the empire of Jesus 
Christ Upton the old idolatiies of its heathen occupants. 

It was not that the Catholic Church was idle or in- 
different; the historian of Peru and Mexico, uncatholic 
and anticatholic as he is, has yet most truly said, " 
effort to Christianise the he&then is an honourable c] 


^1 racteristic of the Spanish conquests. The Puritan, with ^H 

^B equal rehgious zeal, did comparatiTely little fur the ^H 

^F coDversiou of the heathen, cooteot, na it would deem, ^H 

with having secured to himself the ineBtimable piivilege ^H 

of worshipping God in his own w»y. Other adven- ^H 

turera who have occupied the new world have often had ^H 

too httle regard for relifpon themselves to be very soli- ^| 



igard for relifpon themselves to be very soli- 
citona about spreading it among the savages. But the 
Spanish missionary from first to last has shown a keen 
interest in the spiritual prospects and welfare of the na- 
tives. Under his auspices churches on a mag^nificent 
scale have been erected, schools for elementary inatruo- 
tion founded, and every rational means taken to spread 
the knowledge of religious truth ; while he has carried 
his solitary mission into remote and almost inaccessible 
regions, or gathered liis Indian disciples into communi- 
ties hke the good Las Casas in Cumana, or the Jesuits 
in California or Paraguay. At all times the courageous 
ecclesiastic has been r^dy to lift his voice against the 
cruelty of the conqueror, and the no less wasting cu- 
pidity of the colonists ; and when his remonstrances, as 
was too often the case, have proved unavailing, he has 
still followed, to bind up the iDroken beai-t, to teach the 
poor Indian resignation under his lot, and to light up 
his dark intellect with the revelations of a holier and 
happier eiistenoe." 

All this, and a great deal more besides, did the 
Spanish missionaries m hehall' of the poor Indians ; but 
how were they to succeed in their appointed mission 
where every thing tended to neutralise their efforts ? 
How were tbey to convince the savage of the paramount ■ 
importance of religion, when he saw among his rulei-s I 
no anxiety except for gold? How were they to press ' 
upon liim the necessity of patience, purity, meekness, 
and humOity, when pride, rapacity, cnieltv, and revenge, 
wei-e the chief characteristics displnyed for tlieir imita- 
tion? Or how were they to teil of the glory of a soul 
absolved fi'om sin, while i\iQ body ot the hapless listener 
was wasting and withering away in chains provided h^ j 




the profeflsors of the doctrine which they pi'eaclied ? It 
wns, in fact, a hopeless task, m long at least as they 
oould neither promise indemnity to the Christian convert, 
nor even prevent the very tact of conversion being made 
a pretext tor enforcing the odious slavery of the encatni- 
enda; and, forced unfoi'tiuiately by their position to me- 
diate continually between the opposing pai'ties, to preach 
patience on the one hand, and tuvbearance on the other, 
they gradually but sm«!y lost tLe coniidenoe of both ; 
tbe Indian dreading them as being of the nation of the 
oppressor, while tbe Spanini-d hated them as the defend- 
ers of tbe oppressed. Where the Spanisb foot had never 
trod, or tbe Spanish tongue never had been beard, there 
the missionaiy had it fairer cliance : crowds would 
fearlessly gather round liim, and won by the beauty of 
the doctrine he preached, would gladly and eagerly 
i^eceive baptism at bis hand. But the Chiiatian priest 
was too otten, even in his owii despite, made tbe pioneer 
of the Spanisb soldier ; as sure as his ti^ck was on the 
mountain, so sure was the searcher of ^old to be in hie 
footsteps ; and peace and order vanbbed as he came. 
The Indian was consigned to the slavery of tbe mines ; 
bia wife and children, yet moi'e umnercitiiUy, sold to 
the highest bidder in tbe market; and the unhappy 
missionary, balked of the fruit of all his luboiU's, was 
tain to seek out a more distant people, or to remain and 
break his heart, and wear out bis whole eiiist^nce, in 
stemming the tide of vice, which gave the poor savage 
but too ^ausible an eicuse for returning or cleaving to 
the supei'stition of bis fathers. 

It was plain that in a contest such as this no isolated 
efForta of zeal would avail to victoiy. A body of men 
was needed, who would not only scatter seed, but watch 
its growth ; in other words,who would gather the neo- 
phytes into congregations, and alike defend them irom 
Spanisb tyranny and keep them aloof from Spanish 
crime. The secular cterey and Franciscan friai-s were 
far too few in number fully to cai-ry out a work like 
tbis} and at length Fiancia Victor, the Dominican 



Bishop of St. Miuhael's, finding liiuiseli' almost without 
pi-iest. or religious whom iie cuulil send upon the mission, 
addressed himself to the Society of Jesus for their aid. 
They Lad not, however, waited for this summons to 
visit South America, having; been seat to Lima soma 
time before by the burning zeal of Dorgia, the third, 
and after the saintly founder of the Society, the greatest 
of its generals. In that city they had built a church 
and college; and while Father Portilla stirred the 

ses of the people hj bis mighty eloquence, Father 
Lewis Lopez devoted himself to the instruction of the 
negroes ; and the rest went forth among the natives, 
att«nded the hospitals, and made themselves all things 
to all men that they mi^^ht win all to Cb-ist. 

Gladly these apostolic men accepted the invitation 
oftlie Bishop to enlarge the theatre of their labours; 
the success of their missions more than realised Ids ex- 
pectations; the Bishop of Tucuman sought them likewise 
for his diocese; and in 1586 they wei-e received, with 
almost regal honours, in the city of Santiago. The 
governor himsellj with all his officei'S, and the chief 
nobility of the city, came out to meet them ; they were 
conducted through streets adorned with triumphal 
arches and sti'ewn with flowers; ci'owds assembleit to 
greet them as they passed ; and weeping for joy, the 
Bishop himself embraced and blessed tbem, and led them 
to his cathedral, where a Ih Devni was intoned jn 
thanksgiving for their arrival. Well might the old 
man weep for joy; five secidar and a few regular clergy 
being the utmost he had hitherto been able to comnLind 
for the instruction of the vast and reckless population 
over which he ruled ; while he himself was aU but sink- 
ing beneath the responsibiiities of hie position, and bis 
anxious endeavours to fulfil them in liis own pei'son. 
Although the Jesuits felt themselves more especial^, 
called to the conversion of the heathen, they saw thi 
all their efiorta in that direction would be in vain, if thi 
poor natives were stUI to be corrupted hv the esampla 
of those atjove them in station and intelligence; tiiej 


therefore commenced tlieir labours by & raissicm a 
the Spaniarda, It succeeded almost beyoiid their hopes; 
for a time at least the latter were won to holier hves j 
and the Indians, seeing the good effect which had been 
produced by the preaching of the Fathers upon their 
rulers, wiUing^iy submitted in their turn, and nocked in 
crowds to hear them. Two of the missionaries had by 
this time qualified themselves to address them in a lan- 
guage they understood ; and after havin? preached ibr 
some days to the Indians of the town, they went forth 
to those who were scattered through the district, when 
upwards of seven thousand neophytes, fervent and well- 
instructed, soon rewarded their zeal. They were placed 
under the care of a secular priest, and then one of the 
Jesuits returned to Santia^, while others proceeded by 
invitation of the Bialiop to Cordova, and Father Monri *" 
and a lay brother preached with great success to t 
nation of the Omaguacas. They were a fierce and i| 
domitable people, who had twice destroyed the tow 
of Jujuy, and proved themselves on many other occa- 
sions tjie dangerous and untiring foes of the young colo- 
nies of Spain. But when, after infinite trouble, Father 
Monroy had succeeded in inducing them to enter into a 
treaty of peace with the latter, he had the vexation of 
finding hia esertions made worse tLan useless by the 
folly of the Spaniards, who enticed two of their caciques 
into the town, and immediately threw them into prison. 
They were released at last on the earnest expostulations 
of Monroy; but he could not prevent the natural dis- 
trust which took possession of the Indians, and feeling 
indeed too certain that it would b« impossible to keep 
them in the pi-actice of the precepts of Christianity, 
when Christians, alas ! were tnemselyes ever ready to 
corrupt them by example, or to irritate them by cruelty, 
he led the whole tribe to a spot nearer Tuciiman, where 
be delivered them to the care of a secular priest, while 
he himself returned to the mission. 

The Jesuits were received at Assumption, the chief 
city of Paraguay, with as miioh joy and gratitude i 


had greeted them at Santiago ; and tbere Father Sa- 
lonio coiuineitced a misBion, while Fild and Ortega 
embarked upon the Paraguay for the country of the 
Guaranis. I^eee people were not perhaps ahsoluts 
idoktera, since Charlevoix assures us that they acknow- 
ledged hut one God; however, their notions on the 
Buhject were extremely vague and uncertiUB, and they 
neither offered aaorifiee — ^ " - '•■ ' ■ 


province of Guayra, which is fertile though uidie&tthy, 
and abounds in serpents, vipers, and other formidable 

form of worship. They dwelt, for the most part, in the 

__ listing reptiles. The Fathers penetrated ii 
its most hidden depths and wildest fastnesses, and then 
weEt back to Assumption to tell their Superior that 
they had seen two hundred thousand human beings, 
who, with a little care and trouble, might speedily be 
gathered into the fold of Christ. They found the 
plague raging in the capital on their return ; but this 
circumstance only gave iVesh impetus to the zeal of the 
Jesuits, who, not content with their labours for the 
Spaniards, went fearlessly among the Indians, and had 
the happiueES of bringing himdreds of dying creatures 
to the l^owledge of Uie true God in the veir hour of 
their entrance upon eternity. Gratefid for the charity 
with which at every risk to themselves the Jesuits had 
lavished assistance upon them in theii' utmost need, the 
Spaniards now showered unasked-for favours upon them, 
besides building a house and church for the society 
lioth at Villa Hica and Assumption. So great was 
the enthusiasm at the latter place, that the inhabitants 
of the colony all vied with each other in lending » 
helping hand; women of the highest rank brought tneir 
riches and their jewels, the poor bestowed their labour 
without payment, and when the Fathers besought them 
to moderate their zeal, they only answered, that as they 
were workjng for Jesus Christ, they could not be afraid 
of doing too much, 
k In iact, they bad ample cause for gratitude to the 
Fathers. It was not alone the spiiitiiaj assistance 


which they were ever ready t-o offer to all aliTte, whether 
among: the rich or poor, but the Spaniafds soon dis- 
covered that the Jesuits were their hest defrnce against 
the resentment of the natives, when their own cruel 
treatment had lashed them into rehelhon. Thus when 
a troop of Spaniards had suffered themselves, while 
marching against a party of revolted Indians, to he 
decoyed into a deep defile where they were completely 
at the mercy of their foes who were in ]M)s«ession of 
the heights, Father Barsena, who had been journeying 
under their escort, came at once and effectually to the 
rescue. Alone and unaided he sought the encampment 
of the savages, climbed the rocky ascent from whence 
they wei^e preparing to rush down upon his countrymen, 
and spoke to tliem with so miich foi-ce and eloquence, 
that he induced them to suffer the Spaniards to pass 
without ftnther molestation. This success appears to 
have given a new direction to his zeal; for separating- 
himself from his counti^inen, he remained tor some time 
preaching to tliese people, who, fiei'ce by nature, and 
douhly fierce by their hahits of intoxication, yet listened 
to him with respect, and thus received the first germs 
of I'eligion whicu with time were to develop into peiv 
fection. Prom their tribe he passed on to the nation 
of the Lulles, and from thence to the Red River, where 
being joined hv other missionaries, he was recalled in 
consequence of his great age and infirmities to Cuzco, 
in Peru. The last of the Jncas lay dying in that city 
— dying, it may he, less of actual disease than of hia 
crown da3poi!e<^ his kinplom taken, his people rained, 
and his couutrj' ensJaveJ. Such a eouversion would be 
a fitting crown and conclusion to an apostlcship of life- 
long labour in the land ; so the aged Father thought ; 
ana his zeal kindling, he sought out the dethroned 
and dying monarch, spoke to him of the Christian's 
God and the Christian's hope of heaven with all the 
fervour and unction of a saint in his novitiate, heawl 

him, at length, ahjure the idolatry of his 1 

ponred the waters of baptism on his brow, received h 





parting breatb, and hnvin^ tin 
crown in place of the tempot 
hite nation had deprived uim, went home him- 
self to die. 

A little while previous to these events. Father Ro- 
mero Imd heen appointed pi'ovinoial ; and after ppeaoliin^ 
for some time in and about the city of Asgumption, and 
from thence to Cordova and Santa F£, he advanced, in 
company of a Spanish g'entleman named Jean de Abra, 
into the country of the Diaguites ; ,i people who adored 
the sun, offering in its honour feathera which they had 
previously consecrated, according to their fashion, by 
dipping them in blood. The Father was received witn 
much cordiality until a certain day, when he was inter- 
rupted in his preaching hy a band of host.ile savages, 
painted and adorned after the manner they adopt whea 
alwut to enter on the trial and torture of a captive. In 
all prohability they hoped to inspire terror ; hut they had 
miBtaken their man. Father Romero merely iuterrupfM 
his discourse for a moment, to command the new comers 
to bow down in adoration of the living God, ' 
their Creator, had a right to exact such homaj^ 
them. His intrepidity probably saved his life; and 
instead of the attack, which had evidently been medi- 
tated, the Indian chief merely declared, in a tone of 
haughty deiiance, that the white men might, if they 
pleased, degrade themselves in snch manner; hut that 
neither he nor his people would stoop to such dishonour, 
and would still continuo to worship according; to the 
traditions of their fethers. 

Aftor this protest against the Christian's creed the 
savages withdrew, leaving Romero and his companion 
in hourly expectation of a rising, to which they would 
infellibly have fallen victims; hut aftei' a night passed 
in prayer and preparation, to their great astonishment, 
the angry chief made his appearance to apologise for 
his conduct of the evening bemre, and to promise in his 
own name and that of his nation greater docility Ibi- 
future. In fact, that very day upwai-ds of a thousand 

9 from 

12 PA HAG U AT. 

Indians accepted Christianity ; Eind all was proceeding 
well, when the avarice of the colonists onoe more nearly 
ruined tlie mission of the Fathei-s ; for, hearing' that the 
tribe had soUcited baptism, and ianc^ing that, becansa 
they were willing to embrace Christianity, they werdd 
likewise willing to become their elaves, they attemptat' 
to distribute some of them encojmenda ; and the In- 
dians, indignant and surprised, at once revolted, deckr- 
ing that Goristianity was a snare and a pretence ; and 
that the Spaniards merely sent their priests before them 
to reconnoitre, in order that they tbemBclvea might ul- 
timately step in and possess themselves of the land. 
"But it never shall be so!" they cried: "rather than 
submit to slavery and the white num's prison, we will 
&11 upon these black-robes and tear them to pieces as 
traitors and seducers." And so indeed they would have 
done, had not an old savage, who had attached himself to 
the Fathers, succeeded at last in calming the tumult; and 
the first effervescence of popular feeling over, Romero 
Lad no difficulty in making them comjirehend the dis- 
interestedness of his own mtentions towards them, and 
his fi'eedom from every thing; like collusion with the colo- 
nists. He concluded by giving them a solemn promise 
that tbe religion which ne preached should never bfl: 
made a pretext for depriving them of hberty — a promiM-' 
afterwai'da nobly to be redeemed by the Society to whiclk' 
he belong'ed ; but at what cost to its members and itB< 
own reputation this history will sufficiently make manl- 

■nsa ^ 

ring of the nalJvas. Appoal to the 
ithors. Bapooity of tha coloolsti. 
id tbs first msrtyn). Ranawsd can- 

The favour which the Spaniards had hitherto dieplnyed 
towards the Jesuits was chiefly owing to the marvellous 
influence every where eierted by these apostolic men 
over savages who had hitherto resisted hoth force and 
persuasion. It was a favour selfisldy bestowed for the 
sake of the benefit which they Loped it would confer on 
themselves, and just as selfishly withdrawn the moment 
they found that the benefit they sou}!;ht would be abso- 
Intely and unconditionaUy denied them by the Fathers. 
Up to the moment of the settlement of the latter at 
Assumption, the colonists had reckoned with confidence 
upon tneir assistanee ; first for taming the natives, and 
then for drawinff them into the slavery of the eneo- 
mienda. But they httle knew the men with whom 
they had to deal, or the spirit that guided the Chris- 
tian missionary. Themselves for the most part soldiers 
of fortime, they could not forgive the holdness which 
stepped between them and their prey ; and blinded by 
avarice and intoxicated with success, they could as little 
perceive the wisdom of a coui'se which, if followed out 
according to the suggestions of the Jesuits, would have 

S'ven to Sjiain s new race of subjects, and to her co- 
Qies servants instead of slaves — friends instead of 
enemies, more terrible in their desultoiy wnrfai-e than 
whole aimaments of civilised foes. For although, in- 
deed, the savage could never hope finally to win the 
day against the might and power of Spain, he yet eould. 



and often did, destroy hundi'eds in Lis unfoi'sseen attacks, 
and his blows uohuppily tell fidl as much upon defouce- 
lesa women and childi'en as upon tlie mailed and armed 
aggressors. It is lameatable to be compelled to acknuw- 
leogB that a handful of men, for the most part unedu- 
cated and of ill repute both in their old ooiintry and 
their new one, as the colonists too often were, Bliouki 
yet, by the peculiai'it.ies of their jposition, have been able 
to embarrass at least, if not to mistrate, all the desi^s 
of a meiMiluI g;oFerament, and all the eflbi'ts of the Ca- 
tholic clei^, who alone were either willing or able b 
carry them into eiecution. Here, however, as e 
vrhere, the spU-it of the Church, which pleaded for ti 
liberty of the ludian, found itself in dii-ect antag^ 
to the spirit of the world, which advocated his si 
and here, as elsewbere, the Church has been blamed fi 
what the world has done, and the Jesuits, who a 
only on her inspiration, have been accused, in the 
mation of their Indian congi'egations, of the pride anf 
avarice of which the world, represented by the Spanish 
colonists, was actually guilty in opposing their foun- 

Peace, even in outward seeming, coidd not, of coup 
be expected long to subsist between parties so diamet 
cally opposed to each otlier; the one being ever dets 
mined to oppress, and the other to oppose oppressiol 
Father ToiTez gave the first offence at Cordova by n ' 
fiisiug to treat the Indians employed in bnihling t 
church as slaves, and insisting on paying them at t 
same rate and in the same way as European workmen j* 
and not long afterwards Father Lorenijana, in the city 
of Assumption, was guilty of a yet graver and more 
unpardonable misdemeanor in the eyes of the Spaniards. 
The Indians of the neighbourmg country had revolted; 
and the officer sent to suppress the insurrection, instead 
of seai-ehing out the real offendets, fell upon a party of 
defenceless natives who had taken no share whatever in 
the rtfiing, and, loading them with chains, drove them liksj 
wSd beasts into the capital, where they were sold pub> 

, eil. II.] SEARCH FOR SOULS. lu 

hclj as slaves. It was sot in the nature of an lionsst 
. or ti'ue-heiu'ted man to witness such a scene imuiovei!. 
From tlie slave-market, wLera Le bad seen tlie crea- 
tuTBs for whom Jesus Christ had ehed Uis blood put 
up like cattle to auction, Father Loren^na came burn- 
ing with iudi^ation to the church, and mounting; the 
pulpit (he baa already bied the effect of private espos- 
tulation in vain), denounced tLe injustice, tuid threatened 
the vengeance of heaven upon tbe oftendeis. They 
beard him without reply; the boldness of the act for a 
moment silenced all opposition, and even eUcited the 
applause of tbe people: but when tbe first enthusiasm 
md passed away, tbey began to look upon it with other 
eyes ; and to feel that, bo long as the Jesuits were there 
to oppmse them, they would nevei' he able to put iu 
execution their fcroui-ite and short-sighted schemes for 
the acquisition of wealth, by enslaving the Indian nations 
in the ndlest and most unequivocal sense of the word. 

Little cared these ti-ue sons of Loyola, however, ibr 
tbe persecution which tbey had thus excited. They 
Might, indeed, and must nnve felt most keenly tbe 
difficulties thrown so recklessly in the way of the con- 
version of tbe natives; but for themselves, they had 
done their duty, and could with confidence leave the 
residt to Providence. Tbe citizens of Cordova rose 
against them in a body, and di-iven lii-Bt from that citv, 
and then trom Santiago, they retii'ed to St. Michael's 
without other regret tlian such as was necessarily oc- 
casioned by the interruption of their mission. At the 
latter town tbey were received with kindness, and per- 
mitted to found a college and preach to the neighbour- 
ing nations; but even there tbey could not entirely 
check the rapacity of the Spaniards, and they bad too 
often the misery of seeing the poor Indians carried off, 
while tliey were in the verv act of preachmg to them, 
to be sold in tbe slave-marliet. Such a state of things 
was not to be quietly endured by really Cbistian ni 
" ' much less oy really Christian priests. They 
id to the home government ; the King of S^aia 

joke m 


Bwei'ed by a letter which did equal honour 
and his heart. In it he declared, " that the only jtAs 
he intended tortile natives was the yoke of Jesus Christ; 
for he wished to have subjects and not slaves j to rescue 
the Indians from the slavery of their own passions, not 
to subject them to those of other men ; and therefore, 
except in the event of agg^^ssion on their parts, he 
positively forbade any save the missionaries from at- 
tempting' to reduce them, since they alone could do so 
in the name of Jesus Christ, and in the spirit of the 
ChriBtian rehgioa." 

TJiwii the receipt of this letter, both the governor 
and the Bishop of Paraguay resolved to put every 
future attempt at the convei'sion of the Indian tribes 
entirely into the hands of the Jesuits, who had all along 
proved themselves such fearless and zealous advocates 
of the cause of freedom. Joseph Cataldino and Simon 
Maceta were the Fathers named for this expedition ; but, 
true Ui the principles adopted by their order, they would 
not leave the city of Assumption without pubfiety de- 
claring their determination to oppose henceforth, in the 
king's name, and at any cost to themselves, every at- 
tempt upon the liberty of their converts, "We will 
make them men and Christians," thoy said, " but never 
slaves. They are not a conquered people, and therefore 
vou have not even a conqueror's claim upon them. It 
IS permitted neither to you to deprive them of their 
freedom, nor to us to be accessoi-y to the fact. The 
law of God and the law of nations alike forbid it, and 
therefore we wiU not do it ; but what we can and ought 
to do, that we promise we will do. We will show them 
the beauty of peace and order j we will teach them 
that the abuse of hberty is the worst of slaveries ; we 
will make them comprehend the advantages of living 
beneath a well-ordered government, and we hope to see 
the day when these poor savages will learn to bless the 
hour in which they adopted the religion of Jesus Christ, 
and became the servants and subjects of a Christian 



^K Just and noble as were these sentiments, they found 
^Kio echo in the bosoms of the men to vhom they were 
^rBddresaed ; and then the Jesuits went yet furtlier. Thuy 
|)reased upon their conaidemtion the alower bnt much, 
more certwn advantages to be derived fi-om the system 
they wished to pursue. They asked what had become 
of tlie thousands of Indians who had disappeared since 
the discovery of Paraguay; and while they proved that 
the fearful mortality which hod swept them from the 
^e of the earth could be attributed only to the in- 
human manner in which they had been oveitasked and 
overburdened, they touched on the impi-obability of tha 
conquerors being able to keep the land in cultivation, if 
the conquered wei-e no longer in existence to till the 

But it was all in vain. They were speaking to men 
hardened by avarice, and, by the very pursuit to which 
they bad devoted themselves, narrow-minded and ahort- 
sigLted even as respected their own interests j and feel- 
ings that all theu' arguments were thrown away, the 
Fathers at length resolved upon prosecuting theu' mis- 
sion elsewhere, and by assembling the Indians in distant 
villages to gnide them to civilised life and to God, fer 
ikim the interference and bad example of their countrr- 
men. They left Assumption for the pwpose ; bnt the 
report of liieir undertaking went every where before 
them, and by the time they reached Villa Bica the fer- 
ment was at its height. Not a man in aR that city 
could be found to guide them on their way ; and a 
I cacique of the tribe they were going to visit having 
^L Qome into the city for the purpose ol doing so, he was 
^B thrown into piiaoa, whence he was not liberated until 
B threat as well as remonstrance had been employed, 
" Then, and not until then, the Fathers proceeded on 
their way. Sailing down the Paranaiiane (or "river of 
misfortune," as it is called in the Indian language), they 
reached at length the spot where the Fii'apa discharge 
I itself into its cedar-shadowed watei-s. and there they 
" ind two hundred Guaranis Christians, titiils of w& 



former mission of Fathers Ortega and Fild. 
ing; a little further up its banks, they came 
wards of twenty other villages, some already Chriatiau- 
ised, and others well disjiosed to receive the fiiith. To 
them the Fathers represented the advantages of dwelling 
in community, as well for the greater fecilities thus 
acquired for instmction, as for the better protection of 
their liberty against both colonists and heatnen natives ; 
and they had actually agreed upon joining the above- 
mentioned Giiaranis, in order to form one settlement 
with them, when it was discovei'ed that a Spaniard who 
liad followed the Jesuits by way of aiding :n their 
liibours had secretly decamped, caiTving with him for 
the slave-trade many women and children belonging to 
the tribe. It is easy to imagine the indignation of the 
})oor Indians ; for they natui-ally concluded that the Je~ 
suit Fathers were implicated in the transaction, and the 
latter had much dilHculty in vindicating themselves 
from 80 injmious a suspicion. Indeed, it is most won- 
derfiil how they ever acquii'ed the confidence of the 
Indians, identihed m they were both by blood and 
language with men who had no god but gold, no law 
but their own interests, no merey in war, no tratli or 
even justice when at peace. God alone could vindicate 
His Gburch amid such deeds of treachery ; and that Hb 
did so is most certain ; tor the poor natives learned at 
length to discriminate between the Spaniards and their 
pastors, and, while they loathed and feared the one, to 
trust entirely and to love the others. The storm which 
the wickedness of the nmaway Spaniard bad raised 
died gradually away, and with an admirable faith in the 
fair dealing of the Fatbera, the Indians allowed them- 
selves to he conducted to the spot where the other 
Guaranis were already assembled. It was the first of 
those Christian congregations which, under the name 
of ' reducciones,' or 'reductions,' gave so many true- 
hearted children to the Catholic Church, and so many 
iaithfiil vassals to the crown of Spain ; it was called 
'Loreto/ — fitting name for an establishment destined 


to be the nursing-cradle of the &itb of Clirtst in a l&nd ^H 

where aa yet no knee Lad ever bowed to do LoTDi^e to ^H 

TTia name. ^^| 

The fame of this young' citj, and of the wisdom 
and mercy with which it was g'ovemed, soon Kpreud 
abroad among the tribes ; and Indian after Indiuu flocked 

into it for protection, until it gi'ew so much loo small ^^ 

tor its population, that the prieiits were compelled to ^H 

found consecutively three additional settlements for the ^H 

disposal of the swplus. Encourag-ed by this success, ^H 

I they threw themselves into their work with I'edouhled ^H 
«nergy, straining: every nerve to gather the heathen ^H 
-yet more and more entirely into their new foundations. ^H 
Ttiey searched the land nooi north to south ; in the ^H 
day-time fainting beneath the ardours of a tropical sun, ^^^ 
and nt night tormented almost to madness by the mos- ^H 
nnitoes, and crowds of nameless sting'iDg insects which ^H 
Wat warm and humid atmosjibeJ'e brin^ forth. Now ^H 
they wandered singly, or in pairs, over wilds and deserts, 
where they wei'e liaule to become the prey of ferocious 
cannibals or ravenous wUd beasts. Anon amidst forests 
swarming with poisonous reptile bfe, and whei'e vege- 
tation grew so rank, that, hatchet in hand, they haa to ^H 
cut their way through the dense and tangled masses ^H 
which every where obsboicted their steps, and veiled ^H 
the very light of heaven above their heads — in a coun- ^H 
try too where earthquakes are of every-day occurrence, ^H 
and hurricanes bo terrible, that the mightiest monarch ^H 
of the forest falls prostrnte beneath their iury; where ^H 
the lightning blinds by a vividness, and the thunder ^H 
rolls with a continuity of sound, of which we, the chil- ^H 
dren of a more temperate climate, can foi'm but a faint ^H 
conception { and where, in the rainy season, such floods ^H 
pour down from the skies, and the rivers rise so sud- ^H 
denly, that travellers in those days were often up to ^H 
the waist in wBt«r, or compelled to take refuge in some ^H 
lof^ tree, or to sleep on the mud which the retu'mg ^H 
■^^e left bare. ^H 
^h More than once the Fathers naiTowly esc^^eA.'w^cCKi ^H 


their lives from these terrihle inundations. Upon one 
occasion, we are told that Father Ortega, after wading 
for some time up to his middle in water, was compelled, 
with his companions, to seek safety in a tree. For 
three nights and days thu tide continued rising; and 
they sutfared first from hmiger, and then fi-om weak- 
ness and exhaustion, whilti taunder and hglitning, and 
an impetuous wind, which never ceased, added new 
and appalling terrors to the natural hon'ors of their 
position. The mild beasts of the forest, too, came flock- 
mg round their place of refiige ; serpents of all kinds, 
rattle-snakes, and vipers, were floating on the waters; 
and one enormous reptile actually coiled itself round a 
branch close to the one to which Father Ortega was 
clin^g. For a little while he watched his fearful 
neighbour, enpeeting every moment to be devoured; 
however, the hough most lortunately broke beneath its 
weight, and it floated away in a different direction. 
But his own personal perils were not hia woi'St amietr; 
for, in the hurry of their fii-st alarm, the Indians who 
accompaaied him had unhappily chosen a tree much 
too low for safety; and their despairing cries, as fivm 
time to time they were forced to retreat from the rising 
flood higher and higher still among its branches, came 
faintly to his eai^a across the ragmg waters, and pierced 
his heart with sorrow. So it went on until midnight 
of the third day ; and then one of the Indians, swua- 
ming to the foot of the tree, besought him to come to 
the assistance of his countiymea, most of whom were 
dying. The Father prepared to do so; but he first 
bound his poor catechist, who had no longer strength 
to bold on by himself, to the strongest bough that he 
could discover; and then throwing himself into the 
waters, struck out for the tree where his poor com- 
panions were expiring. They were almost at their last 
gasp by the time that he aiTived, and only clmging to 
the branches by a last long effort of desperate exer- 
tion ; iuippily he was able to climb into the tree ; and 
in that strange and pei-ilous position, with the wild 



winds raging round bim, and the stormy waters sure- 

ing; at m feet, he received their confession of faitn, 

fmd baptised them one bj one; and one hy one, with 

exception, they di'opped into the flood, and 

1 no more. HaTing' thus done his duty, as 

a Catholic priest can do it, lie i-etiimed to his 

catechist ; and the waters soon afterwards rataiing', they 

were able to pursue their way. But Oi-tega bore with 

him a trophy of that glorious day in a wound, which, 

as it never nealed, became a source of sutfering and 

merit for him to the last day of his life. 

Even perils such as these were, after all, far less ter- 
rible and revolting to human nature than those which 
awaited the Fathers who undertook to preach to the 
cannibal Indiana. The four i-edncfiona ah-eady founded 
had, hy the peace and comftit which I'eigned among 
them, Decome objects of desire to all the other tribes, 
and one of these apphed to the governor for pastura to 
form them into a congreffation. They were notoriona 
cannibals, and even the Bishop hesitated to send among 
them any of the few missionaries whom he could com- 
mand, and whom he felt he should thus he devoting to 
almost certain death, without any adequate success to 
compensate for their loss. In this dilemma the governor 
sought out Father Torrez, and told him that he had 
no longer any hope save in the zeal of his rehgious. 
He was answered on the instant. Torrez assembled 
all the Fathers in the college, and communicated to 
them in a few woi'ds the fears and misgivings of the 
Bishop; then fixing his eyes on Lorenijana, the rector, 
he added, " My Father, as the Lord once said to Isaias, 
'whom shall I send, and who will go?'" Instantly, 
flinging himself at the feet of his provincial, the rector 
answered in the words of the same prophet, " Here I 
am ; send me." Father Torrez raised and embraced 
the grey-hau-ed man, already grown old in the labours 
of the mission; the whole city was in admiration of his 
courage ; and accompanied by a young piiest of the 
^Bociety, who was only too happy at bemg ^tmitteti^ 



join him, Father Lorengana set out 

Thej built themselves a hut and a chapel, the wall(t| 
of mud, the roots constructed of leaves and branches; 
and there they took up their abode in the very midst of 
the " tolderias," or wigTvama, of the cannilMJs whom 
they were sent to convert. A year passed slowly on, 
and save certain schemes for the massacre of the mie- 
sionaries, whicii happily were discovered in time to be 
prevented, nothing of any consequence occurred. Then 
the convei'ston of two chiefs created a sensation among' 
the people ; a woman, vrith her daughter, sought bap- ' 
tism ; but iier husband, i^inst whose express probiln- 
tion she had acted, sought out a heathen tribe, and in~ 
duced them to attack one of the Christian nations, de- 
claring that nothing less than the blfwd of the last 
Christian Indian, served in the skull of the last of the 
Christian priests, could satiate liia revengfi. Happily 
his ferocious wish was never to be gratified; the Coris- 
tians were successful in the struggle that ensued, and 
numbers of his own tribe becoming converts, Loren^ana 
removed tiieni for safety higher up the country, where 
a church was built ana a new reduction formed u 
the name and patronage of St. Ignatius, 

It was tiie lilth in order of foundation ; and t 
Loren9ana was engaged in its comjJetioQ, Fatlier 000* 
zales, after working wondent among the Indians reside! 
on the hanks of the Poran^, undertook to ascend t' 
TIruguay from its mouth to its source. This river, ol 
thousand miles, rises as a tiny rivulet amon^ the Sieira 
do Mar, the mountain Pea-mnge of the kinnfloin of Bra- 
ail; and under the name of Pellotas, nins tor a consider- 
able distance westward, between banks of massive and 
high-pointed i-ocks. It afterwards assimies the name a 
the iJniguay ; and as it proceeds, innumerable smallei* 
Btreams swell its waters, until it becomes a great s * 
mighty river, navigable for large vessels even up to i 
Halto-grande, or gi-eat fell, wliich lies half-way oetwei. 
the Yoioui and the Negro, the krgeat and mos 


ICH. 11. 
important of ita tiibulary streams. Upon tLeae lonely 
WDters Gunzaliis embarked with a few Indian compa- 
niona to act as g'ltides ; and altbnue;]i lie did not iiilly 
accomplish all tliat he had undertaken, aevertheless, as 
it so fi'equently has hpppened to othera of his hrethran, 
he laid open a vast eitent of unknown countiy to the 
fiiture investigation of the colonists. The pi-ovince called 

ITap^, situat^ between Brazil and the Urug'uay, was 
the chief scene of his labours. The Indians of this dis- 
trict, who were a branch of the Guaranis and spoke 
their language, were natunilly of a mild and gentle dis- 
position; but dwelling in a mountainous country, they 
possessed all the love of Ireedom inlieteut in moun- 
taineer. This at first made them nnwilliug to listen 
to Gonzales ; but be had no sooner succeeded in eon- 
vincing' them that their freedom would be safe in his 
hands, than every repugnance at once vanished, and 
they flocked in crowds to hear him. Of all the nations 
of South America, tbey proved, in fact, the most docile 
m their reception of the Gospel, and the most faithful in 
their adherence to it. Their reductions became so nu- 
merous on the banks of the Uruguay, that they have 
given their name to all the othei' Cbi'istian establish- 
ments in that province; and thus Father Gonzales, 
with the loss (as it happened) of no other lives than 
his own and those of his two compaiuons, lirst explored 
this vast eitent of country, and then reduced it to the 
dominion of the Spanish crown. 

Recalled by bis superiors, be was obliged for a time 
to leave the new reductions to the care of bis two com- 
panions ; and when be returned in the following year, 
it was only {in the strictest sense of the word) to give 
his life for the flock which had been intrusted to his care. 
H^ The reductions wej-e attacked by a party of pagans; 
^B and as neither he nor the other Jesuits wlio were with 
^H him would consent to abandon their gpiritual children, 
^H they were killed in the m0Se which ensued. Another 
^M Father was soon afterwards sent to supply their place, 
^B t^d he also was stoned to death fay the same iKoisi^', 


but tliia time the murder was avenged ; for tlie Chi 
tian inhabitants of the other redootiona being; joined Ii 
a troop of Spanish horse, together they attacked ai 
defeated their savage foes, recovered the bodies of t1 
martyred Fathers, brought them in triumph to the c 
of Assumption, and there interred them with every n 
of honour and respect. 

It is not surprising that the wondei-W facility wife 
which their reductions had hitherto been formed should 
long ere this have suggested to the Jesuit Fathers the 
idea of a Christian repubhc, where, far from the dwell- 
ings and evil doings of the colonists, the spirit of the 
primitive Chureh might be revived among the fresh 
young nations of the newty-discovered world. Reason 
enough they had, too, for wishing to remove the work 
in which they were engaged out of the reach of Euro- 
pean interterence, long esperience having taught them 
that it was absolutely impossible ever thoroughly to 
convert the natives while m the immediate prosimity 
of their Spanish masters; their illegal and tyrannical 
claims on the services of even the most independent of 
the tribes, their cruelty to all, their crimes, by which 
they gave the lie direct to the religion they professed, — 
any of these singly and alone would have been sufficient 
reason for making the contemplated separation; but 
all together they rendered it indispensable to success. 
Formal application had already been made to Philip 
III. of Spain ; and following the example of his pred»- 
cessors, who had each east the weight of his auUiority 
on the side of libei-ty and reUgion, he answered the pe- 
monstronce with a rescript, by which the Jesuits were 
authorised not only to preserve their converted Indians 
from the yoke of the encomienda, but also to with^ 
draw them entirely into congregations 
them effectually from all contact with the settler 
The mere rumour of this permission was quite sufficien 
to rouse the indignation of the SpaniaiJa ; hut, sect 
in their good intentions, the Jrauits remained firm, a 
to every menace and accuaaliottOTily answered, Lhat w 


tlie Indians already in the possesion of the colonists 
they would not interfere ; for they were painfijlly con- 
vinced that their labours, at least for the present, would 
be thrown away on men whom evil example had cor- 
rupted and cruelty made desperate ; and that their en- 
deavours would be heat bestowed on those who had 
eithfip never yet been in subjection to the Spaniards, or 
had flung: it ofT altogether. But, reasonable as their 
answer was, it could not satisiy the suspicions of the 
avaricious settlers ; and to such a height did their discon- 
tent arrive, that at last Francis Altaro was sent as visitor 
from Spain to arbitrate between the contendmg parties. 
He approached the city of Assumption by water; 
and as his oark elided through tJie devious windings of 
the broad and silvery Paraguay, he was met liy a troop 
of Christian Indians. Their vessel was adorned with 
green houghs and flowers, and they came pei'haps in 
the hope of winning his sympathy and protection for 
tlieir people. The young Indian who commanded the 
party paid his com[uiments with grave self-possession 
and respect, and invited the visitor, who was accom- 
mnied both by the Governor of Paraguay and by the 
Provincial of the Jesuits, to finish the journey in Lis 
boat. This they accordingly did; and on reaching the 
shore, they were met by the fether of the young Indian 
chief, who was himself one of the caciques of the nation, 
and who brought his youngest son, a boy of about 
two years old, to be baptised by Father Torrez. The 
Spanish visitor kindly accepted the office of godfather 
on the occasion, a much easier one than that which had 
brought him to the citv ; for the practice of the encomi- 
enda had worked itself into such a system of abso- 
lute slaveiy, that not even the authority of the king, 
nor the representations of the bishop, nor the efforts of 
the governor and magistrates, had hitherto been able to 
repress it. Neveilheless Alfaro did his duty ; and after 
a long and patient investigation of the circumstances of 
I the case, published a decree by which the enslaving of 
■tihe Indians was peremptorily forbidden ; but the otj^cs- 
■rition to this decision was of so violeTrt ani ut w> '&i«aSi- 


ening a nature, tbat, for a time at least, be was obliged 
to modify it, by permitting tlie enforced labour of the 
Indians tor the space of one mouth, on condition oftlieir 
receiving' p'ouer and equitable wages during the rest of 
the year. Very unwilling was be to make even thiB 
concession ; and he took care to adbere to the terms 
of tlie royal rescript, by excepting from its operations 
all sucli Guarani and Guaycuru Indians as End beea 
already converted, or Bliould hereafter be converted by 
the Jesuits. He also wished to assign to the lattw tlie 
same salary as was usually given to the secular priestfi ; 
but Father Torrez, considering it too much for relig^ua, 
reliised to accept of moi-e than a fom'th part of the sum. 
This disinterestedness won him a short-lived popularly 
among his countrymen ; but it pissed away as suddenly 
as it had appealed ; and Alfaro had scarcely turned his 
back upon tbe city ere its inhabitants rose and espeUed 
the Jesuits, as the aiithors, or at least the originators, of 
the decree which bad galled them to the (^uick. 

Not long al'terwarik, however, one of the citisens, 
touched with remorse, waited on tlie governor, and in 
presence of all bis slaves, whom he had commanded to 
accompany him, promised not only to adhere faithfidly 
to the conditions prescribed by the decree, but for the 
future to treat the Indians rn.tner as bis children tlian 
as bis slaves or servants. So noble a recantation of 
error natmiilly produced a reaction in public opinion; 
the Jesuits were recalled to Santiago and Cordova as 
well as to Assumption, and, for a time at least, tbe poor 
natives received a more Chi'istian ti'eatJnent at the 
hands of their Spanish masters. It was, indeed, but a 
passing gleam of sunshine in the midst of gathering 
clouds; but, such as it was, the natives felt that th^ 
owed it entirely to the firmness with which tbe Jesuita 
had advocated their cause; and little wonder was it 
that tliose who were already Christians should cling 
with even greater love and confidence than before to 
their holy protectors, or that tliose who yet wande 
ufli«cJaimea and unconvei-ted should earnestly i 
them to come and settle lunonft ftiem. 



Fusgu&f. Ctaomaier aad hubits of the natives. Thfl work ef uon- 
TBTBion and oivilisaiion. Deeoription of arwiuotign. its inMrnal 

10 property and aammerco. 

1 Paraguay, or the " crowned river," wLich is flie 
dSgnificutioii oi the word in some of the Indian dinlecti, 
Ittsea in 13^° south latitude; passing through the rich 
Brazilian territories of north Grozzo and Cuyaha, it 
Beeives the Pilcomaya and the Vermejo on its way, 
Patera the province to which it gives its designation for 

I'a distance of sii hundred miles, and then 
and identity near the city of Corrientes, i 
the Parana. 

Very fair and fertile is the land which lies between 
these Bisler rivers. The wide savannahs, sheltered by 
trees and watered by innumerable rivulets, ara of as 
deep and emerald a green as the pasture-lands of Eng- 
land; hilis and p;ently swelling eminences, bright in 
every variety of tint that forest-tree and flnwei-ing shrub 
can give them, now slope gently down into smiling 
valleys, or gird anon the stiQ deep lakes that so of^ 
come like a beautiful surprise upon the traveUer, and 
shroud them from all save the blue of heaven which 
lies mirrored in their bosom, The palm-tree, with all 
its eastern associations of grandeur and of beauty, lifte 
its stately head upmn the sultry plains; thern too the 
orange yields its twofold gift of fruit and flower, and 
the fig-tree unfolds its darit-green leaf, and offers the 
thirsty waylkrer its delicious fruit, withimt price or 
trouble ; while the hills are every where clothed with 

nfiie noblest and most useful trees tbit SwjsXy k.i»«t\«s. 

can boast. Tlie alg^arroba, equal in appearance and 
value to the DHtisb oak, aud toe lapaciio, said to be 
more durable tban eitber ; tbe virand-ts;-irac, as beau- 
tiiul as rosewood ; the yerba-tree, the tatayiba, or 
wild mulberry ; tlie polo de vivora, which in its rind 
and juice presents an infallible cure for tbe most deadly 
BBipent's bite ; tbe cebU and cumpac, excellent for the 
purpose of tanning ; tbe aromatic cinuamoD ; and 
then, for underwood, the wbite flowering acacia ; the 
paradise-tree like mountain asb, witb its blossom of 
exceeding fi'agrance, and its dusters of rich amber 
berries ; the jncense-tree, yielding the odour of the nas- 
tilla, the palo santo with its sweet-scented g^um, — these 
and a thousand others make thickets of bloom and 
sweetness under the more iordly forest-tre«s, and the 
passion-flower twines it« wreaths from bougb to bougb, 
and many-coloured parasites deck the highest trees 
witb flower and foliage not their own, and the delicate 
air-plant, hanging from solitary rock or thunder-riTen 
stump, floats along the breeze and fills it with tbe 
odour of its pendent blossoms. Creatures beautiful or 
dangerous, or both together, stalk through these gor- 
geous woods ; squirrels leap and monkeys chatter 
among the twisted branches ; the puma, vulgarly called 
the lion, and the ounce, or tiger of South America, 
crouch in its lonely jungles; and every form of reptile 
life is there, in its moist marshy places, from tbe dradly 
rattlesnake and boa constrictor to the cobra or cule- 
hraa de bejuco, which looks so like tbe tree from whence 
it takes its name, that the unwary traveller, mistaJring 
it for & withered branch, has all hut grasped it in 
his hand ere he discovers hia feariiil error. But the 
woods of South America are all astir with animal hfe ; 
and it would take pages only to name the insects, birds, 
and reptiles that towards evening fill the air witb a 
murmur of harsh sounds, untQ it almost seems as if 
every leaf were a living tiling, and had lifted up its 
voice to swell the discord. Azaro describes no few^J 
than four hundred new a^dea of the feathei'ed tribj 


inhabiting Paraguay : the eajfle and the vulture haunt 
its cMa ; swous, blnck and white, aud red tiamiugoes, 
bathe themselves in its limpid waters ; and every variety 
of the parrot tribe, from the cockatoo to the paroquet, 
with fire-flies and bright-winged humming-bircis, glance 
like living gems among the dark foliage of its forests. 

It was m the yet untrodden and uncultivated places 
of this fair land that the Jesuits for the most part 
settled their reductions ; and in the year 1629 they 
had already succeeded in founding about twenty-one; 
some in the province of Guaym, or on the banks of the 
Pai-onti, and others again on the river Uruguay ; when 
the appearance of a new enemy in Guayra threatened 
to undo all that bad been already done, and to drive 
back the converted Indian to his eoverte, with a yet 
fiercer hatred for hia European oppressors burning in 
bis bosom than had ever been there lieibre. 

Instead, however, of proceeding at once to this dis- 
astrous era in theii' history, it will perhaps be interesting 
to the reader to give a succinct account of the mode in 
which the Jesuits commenced these foundations, and of 
the laws and regulations by which they afterwards 
moulded them into civilised societies. It has been 
already said, that from first to last the obstacles they 
had to contend with were innumerable ; and if the most 
iasumiountable arose from the bad conduct and rapacity 
of the Spaniards, t!»re was much also in the habits anil 
character of the Indians themselves to add difficulty to 
the undertaking. Unused to any authority save the 
loose rule of an elected chief, whose power could always 
be eluded by removing from the tribe ; accustomed to 
roam without restraint the woods and iastnessea of their 
mighty land, its deserts at once thetr cradle, their 
dwelhn^-place, and their grave, — it was equally difficult 
to convmce them of the advantages of a settled mode 
of life, OF to accustom them to the habits of industry 
mitailed by its adoption. Their religion was of the 
vaguest kmd ; but for the most part they believed in a 
supreme Deity and in the after-existence of the soul ; a 


fact sufficiently proveJ by the cftpe witli which they 
left bows and ai'i-ows and pfOTisions in tlie grave, in 
order tlmt its occupant miglit be able to supply his own 
wants in the world to which he had deparleil. Their 
priests were called " maponos," and wei'e usually em- 
ployed also Bs physicians; but, as a g'enei'al rule, they 
haa no external form of worship; and while some among 
them adored the devils or idols which they called 
monaciuas, and others worshipped the sun and moon, 
all were Enperstitious, consuItin)i; the songs of birds and 
the cries of certain animals as augiiries to ^ide their 
conduct. It has been sometimes said, that the American 
sarag^e held an indistinct tradition of the redemption, 
believing in the incamatioa of one who should till the 
world with miracles, tuiA afterwards ascend into heart 
but how far this idea, if they had it, is to be traced 
their intercoui'so with the Spaniards, it is impoesil 
now to ascertam. 

They lived chiefiy upon fish, roots, honey, 
whatever animals they could snare with the lasso, or 
shoot with bow and arrows. Hunting' was, therefore, 
one of their chief occupations ; while war, as a necessair 
coasequonce of their being divided into innumerable 
small tribes, might be as coiTectly desiOTiated their 
principal amusement; and the prisonei-s taken on these 
occasions being for the most part killed and eaten, the' 
united the natural recklessness of the savage for hi 
life with the tierce thirst for human blood which beloi 
exclusively to the cannibal. The European, thei 
who went unprotected among them was continually H 
peri! of that fate, the most revolting of any to the mind 
of man; but not for a moment did this consideratioii 
retard the footsteps of the missionary, or shackle the 
freedom of bis actions for the conversion of souls. 
With his Breviary for his only treasure, and a staff, 
headed by a cross, for his only weapon, sometiuies with 
a few converted Indians as interpretei's and guides, aC 
others with only a lay brother or a second Jesuit '" 
bear bim company, be set foitk iiL^aa his mission. 


I OH, m.j pinsT Fi 

^Cood was roots and fi'uits, or a tew haiiclt<ils of maize, 
■whieti be cniTied about his person j his bed the ground, 
Or H slendei' mat to prot«it him from tlie bites of the 
re[itiles, with which those wUd places abound ; and be 
had to cUmb up steep and rocky mountains, to wade 
throug'h fens and pathless morasses, to pass as best iie 
miplit over lakes and rapid rivers, or to cut his way 
throug'h miles of dense primeval forest, before be could 
reach the savages whom he wished to convert and save. 
As he drew near their haunts, various and ingenious, 
and ti^inff alike to mind and body, were the expedients 
by whicli he endeavoured to assemble them around him. 
Sometimes taking; advantage of their known love fur 
music, he would go singing throug^h the woods ; and 
when they were drawn to him by the sounds, the pious 
canticle would be eschang^ed for an exhoitation, tn 
which he set foi-th bis motives for coming among them, 
and briefly but clearly exjilained the prmcipal articles 
of the Christian creed. More ii'equently, however, the 
Jesuits drove herds of cattle, sheep, or goats, sometimes 
across two or three hundred leagues of countiy; and 
this ptan had a double advantage in it ; for it not only 
enabled them to lure the Indians to them by the pro- 
spect of plenty, but also to stock the Eettlement and to 
support them in it until they could be persuaded to 
labour for themselves. " Give us to eat, they would 
often cry, " and we will stay with you as Ions' as you 
like." And in order to bo able to do so, and thus to 
convince thera of the advantage of living in community, 
the Jesuits found it necessary both to supply them with 
food in the first instance, and by hard and downright 
personal labour to pi'ovide for tneir wants during the 
course of the next year. 

Many of these religious men had been bom to wealth 

and station in the hixurious cities of their native land, 

or they had been educated in the haunts of science, and 

Tiadwon applause in the chairs of universities; bntuow, 

^L putting aside all love of learning and all thought of 

^K 'oomfort, they hesitated not to make tU^.toaat^ea wteov 

poor and unlettered, for the sake of Jesits Christ and 
tieir love of aoula ; and so they set to work in earnest, 
cleared the forest, ploug:hed the land, sowed barley, 
maize, beans, pulse, hewed down mighty trees, and 
broug'ht them for building purposes to the settlement — 
in one word, became herdsmen, masons, carpenters, 
labonrera, hewers of wood and drawers of water, while 
the Indian with folded arms looked gravely on, and the 
Spaniards openly mocked the iblly of an ondertakiug 
wliicli, because they would not nobly share it, they 
Btapidly chose to pronounce impossible. But time 
went on, and proved the right. Example was nowerfiil 
where precept must have tailed ; and when after har- 
vest-time tlie aaviige tasted the fruits of a toil which he 
had witnessed, but had wisely not been compelled to 
share, he began really to comprehend something of the 
advantages which mi^'bt accrue to himself Irom a settled 
scheme of life and labour. From that moment the 
work of civilisation had commenced ; and won first to 
order and then to God, tlie Indians soon took their 
natural places in the colony as its workmen and me- 
chanics, while their venerable teachers were enabled to 
return once more to their own vocation,— the salvation 
of souls. The first care both of pastor and of people 
was the church, which in the beginning was built of 
wood, but in better times of stone ; and though at first 
they were content to make it simply decent, they were 
at a later period enabled by the talenta of their neo- 
phytes to render it magnificent — at least in the eyes 
of those for whom it was intended. After a time, in- 
deed, the natives became themselves the best artificers; 
and among the statues and pictures, often royal gifts, 
which were sent from Europe, the work of the poor 
Indian held no unhonoured place in the church of bis 
own reduction. 

The form of the village whicli in time grew up 
around this sacred budding was always the same, the 
church and college of the missionaries forming one side 
of a hi-ge square, and the otlieT three being composed 


W Bf Indian huta with con-idors built in fi'oat to protect 
V 'Siem from the wind and rain. From every comer of 
I iliis square, streets, straight and uniform in appearance, 
diverged in rig'bt angles j workshops, storehouses, and 
granaries, beins added as their need was felt. The 
burying- ground, enclosed by a wall, and planted with 
palm, cypress, and various kinds of flowering shrubs, 
was always situated near the church ; and a broad walk, 
marked out by oranges and citrons, with a large cross at 
either end, and one in the centre at which funeral pro-- 
cessions usually halted for the singing of psalms, led to 
a chapel, where Mass whs said every Monday for the 
repose of the dead. Thus constituted, the vQlage was 
surrounded by the chacai'as or plantations of the Indian, 
while in and every where about the settlement were 
scattered httle chapels, for the purposes oi processions, 
connected with the chm'ch and with each other by broad 
avenues of pine-trees, palm, and orange. 

When once the mission was thus ii»mded and set 
a-going, two Jesuits were appointed to minister to ite 
necessities; the one being always in the capacity of a 
parish-priest, and the other acting merely as his assist- 
ant. Each of them was chosen in the first instance by 
his own superior, who presented three names to the 
ffoveraor, the latter having- the power to select between 
fliem, subject, however, to the acceptation of the Bishop; 
but, generally speaking, both these functionaries waived 
their legal rights in favour of the provincial, who might 
be supposed best to imderatand the qualifications of 
his suifjects for the particular missions upon which fae 
was (ibont to send them. Nor was the priest thus 
chosen absolute even in the fastnesses which he was 
given to rule ; for he was subject to the superior of 
the missions, whose duty it was to visit them continu- 
ally, and who in turn was placed under the authority of 
the provincial. 

Both the Jesuit Fathers and their neophytes like- 
wise acknowledged, with the rest of the faithful, the 
jurisdiction of the Bishop in whose diocestt their reduo- 


tion hapiiened to be placed. This prelate Tieited tbern 
occasionally foi- tbe purjiose of (idministcring Confirm- 
fttiOD, and would mure Irequently have done so had 
it not been for the expense und dMculty atteadant oa 
such JDUiiieys ; having often to travel for the pnniose 
upwaiils of BIZ hundred uiiles throug'h a desert where 
not a tIIIb^ or dwelling-house was to be seen, where 
too he bad to carry his provisions with bim, and to elude 
the attacks both of cannibals and of wild-beasts. The 
neophytes, indeed, did all they could to lighten the dif- 
ficulties of bis visitation ; tbej of^n sent an escort to 
meet bim and guide him tbrougli the most unfrequented 
passes; and besides furnishing liim with provisions, thev 
nave been even known to lay down roads in order to 
facilitate his approach. It was high festival-time all 
during his stay among them ; nor were the Jesuit Fa- 
thers less rejoiced upon the occasion, it having fre- 
quently happened that they themselves requested and 
alinoet insisted upon bis presence, as the only means of 
clearing tliemselves from the imjust suspicions which, 
as years went on, spread so far and sank so deeply ae 
to be often found even in the highest places of govern- 
ment, whether ecclesiastical or lay. With whatever feel- 
ings, however, the Bishop himself may have occasion- 
ally entered the reductions, he never left them without 
sentiments of tlie highest admiration, and even tears of 
joy and gratitude to Almighty God, wlio had made use 
of the Fatiiers of the Society of Jesus to change the 
poor wanderers in woods and devourers of their own 
kind into practical Christians and good and useful ser- 
vants of the state. Nothing, in fact, more moderate or 
judicious could have been devised than the systems by 
which these results had been brought about, nothing 
more calculated to promote tbe true interests of the 
mother-country by the peaceful and permanent coltivB 
tion of the new, and nothing certainly more likely to 
CTBure the true liberty and converaion of the Indian mm- 
self, who, but just reclaimed from his native forest, would 
Aave been unable to reap the full benefit of the civili- 


, III.) 



Wtion to which he had been introduced without the 
alow and certain guidance of a Fatbef's band. 

It has ol^n bees asserted, indeed it is almost always 
presupposed by authors inimical to the Socioty, that 
tha Jeeuits i-uled their neophytes without any relerence 
to the imperial power of Spain; yet ao far was this 
from being the case, that the Indians to a man acknow- 
ledged the Spanish monarch as their sovereign, and 
paid a settled tribute like any other subjects. 1 he sum 
was indeed saiaU, and payable only by those who had 
reached their twentieth and had not attained their fif- 
tieth year ; but the triUing natui'e of the ti-ibute is not 
to be ascribed to any want of loyalty on the part of 
■those who paid it, but rather to the clemency of the 
' kings of Spain, who in this and all theii' other transactions 
with the reductions invariably showed a generous and 
truly royal wish to facUitate the conversion of the na- 
tives by relieving them as much as possible of the burden 
.pf dependence. It was for this intention likewise, and 
«t the especial petition of the Jesuit Fathers, that he 
fionatituteli the Indians under their obai'ge his own im- 
-nediate vassals, by which means he ii-eed them irom 
the cruel and ruinous slavery of the eneoinienda, no 
Spaniard having a right ro exact personal service from 
Wy one holding land directly under the authority of 
the crown. Gladly also, when that system had been 
£>und a failure, would Ite have extended the some im- 
munity to the other Indians of the country; but the evil 
WEts too widely spread and too deeply rooted to admit 
-of a remedy so simple. It had been ti-ied and had tailed 
already in the hands of more than one visitor despatched 
by the court of S))ain, and experience proved that the 
Jesuits were right from the vei'y outset; and that it was 
only where the Indian convert could be kept completely 
from all contact with the colonist, that he had the 
sUghtest chance of escaping the yoke of slavery. 

If, however, the king; reaped but little material 
wealth from the actual tnbute of the Indians, he found 
his account in other ways, and by less oppressive 


86 PABAQtlAT. 

They always held themselves in readiness to do bim 
service ; and whether for puhljc works or for war, the 
governor was at any time able to levy from them bodies 
of five or six thousand men, who during the whole period 
of their engagement were elotbed and supported by 
their own miuctionSj without costing the government 
a single piastre. 

The civil government of the reductions was carried 
on by native officials ; the cacique, corregidor, and al- 
caldes being always chosen from the Indians, who were 
found to eiibmit much more readily to a power which 
had thus the appearance, at least, of having originated 
among thems^ves, although, of course, its acts and 
decisions were guided and overruled, nnd especially in 
the beginning, by the Fathers of the mission. Of 
these last one always remained in the village for the 
care and instruction of the resident nebphytes ; wbOe 
the other made excursions into the country, to super- 
intend the Indians who were at work upon the plan- 
tations, and to instruct such as were hindered by this 
occupation from being present at the public catecfiising. 
Attendance upon the sick was also one of the most 
unceasing and arduous of the duties of both priests ; for 
newly reclaimed as the Indians were, and unaccustomed 
to the habits of civilised life, they were not only more 
than usually predisposed to contract disease, but eveiy 
disease told with more than usual certainty upon their 
enfeebled constitutions ; — once, in fact, that it took pos- 
session of their Iromes, they seemed to have no power 
to resist it. Even in healthy or comparatively healthy 
times, there were always from two to three hundred sick 
in any reductions which contained eight thousand souls ; 
but if fever or small-pos (the fatal gift of Europe) once 
set in among them, every home became fiHed with sick 
and dying ; hundreds were swept away in the course of 
a few hours, and there have even been not unfrequent 
instincea of the total depopulation of the district. On 
nch occasions every work of spiritual or coi'poral mercy 
■Jl, as a matter of courw, into the hands of the priest 




Day bj^ day, and one by one, be visited his patienta, 
each bein^ as anxiously cared tor and as tenderly con- 
soled as if there were not hundreds of unfortunates 
around him who were all ta be the recipients of the 
same special and ungrudging kindness. It was, more- 
over, a necessary duty of the priest to see that the 
dwellings of the sick were kept with due regard to 
cleanliness ; their food and medicme were prenared at 
his own bouse, ottea even administered with his own 
hands ; in short, he hod to wntch over the sick, to pre- 
pare the dying for their approaching end, and not un&e- 
quently to dig their graves. Compassion for the sick was 
not a spontaneous vutue among the Indians ; they bad 
too great a dread of disease to show much tenderness to 
'the sufferer, and where there was any likelihood of 
infection, especially where t!iei-e was even a suspicion 
of small-pos, they almost invariably fled the spot ; mo- 
thers deserting their very children rather than run the 
risk of this loathsome malady. Both upon the civilised 
Indian, therefore, and his wdder brethren of the woods 
the fearless selt-sacritice of the Jesuits worked with 
wondeiful efTect; and in spite of their terrors, the yet 
unconverted savages would crowd round and about a 
pestilence-stricken village, watohing the deeds of a 
charity such as bad never been seen in their land be- 
ibre, and which often won them to the faith when 
prayers, instructions, and exhortations bad failed of 
imy effect. The other occupations of the inissionaries 
consisted chiefly in pertbrmiiig the public congrega- 
tional services, saying Mass, catechising, leading the 
rosary and night-prayers, giving insti'uctiona in the 
several schools for boys and girls, superintendmg the 
adults in the workshops and plantations ; aU wliich, 
with close and frequent attendance in the confessional, 
not only filled up eveiy hour of the day, hut often 
trenched deeply on those of the night. 

Community of goods bad been established as a first 
peat principle in the scheme of the reductions, lioth 
pecanse it brought these Christian societies into a, clo^t 


conformity with the piimitive Cbnrcb, and also becauM 
it acted as a aiilutary check upon the natural indolence 
of the Indiati, who, if left to his own resoui-ees, would 
soon have been reduced to beggary ; whereas by be- 
ing made answerable to the commonwealth for the 
result of his laljoura, that body took care, for its own 
sake, that he should contribute his quota to the general 

However, the Fathers did not allow this rule to be 
carried so lar as to deprive their neophytes of that 
spur to industry which undoubtedly exists only in the 
possession of private property. To every Indian, there- 
fore, was assigned a piece of ground for his own especial 
cultivation ; and as ne held it rent-free and with the 
sole condition of his yearly tribute to the king, he was 
rich just in proportion to the diligence with which he 
tilled it. At the commencement of the 'sowing season 
he i«ceived a certain allowance of seed, with the obli- 
gation of returning exactly the same quantity after 
Uie time of harvest : a pair of oxen was likewise lent 
him under a similar stipulation of returning them ; this 
precaution being rendered absolutely necessary by the 
fact, that had the natives considered them as tbeir own 
they would infallibly have killed and eaten tliem in 
any accidental distress that might have occurred. So 
great, indeed, was their natural dislike of labour, and 
theii' propensity to supply their wants by the readiest 
expedient which presented itself at the moment, that it 
was found necessary in the beginning to appoint over- 
seers chosen from the most trustworthy and consci- 
entious of the Indians themselves, not only to over- 
look the labour of the others, but also to see that the 
cattle lent them were neither injured by over-work and 
want of care, nor, as has been already said, killed to 
supply the exigences of a day. As a further tirecnution 
against poverty or waste, a large portion of the best 
and most fruitful land that could be foimd in the reduc- _ 
tion was set aside to be worked, under the direction d 
Stead J natives, by flie cHi4i«Bot\\wjU.U.^, who, ^ 


BO fertile and productive a soil, could easily supply by 
numlwrs what thay might want in streng;lh. 

This plantation the Indiana called tvpambae, oi' ' the 
poBsesgiiin of God,' because its produce was always stored 
up in the public Gjanaries, Irom whence it was attenrards 
distributed by tlie Jesuits themselves to the sick, the 
orphan, and new comers, to those who from one cause 
or anotlier had failed in llieii' own harvest, and to those 
who by the nature of their tj^e were incapacitated 
from attending to tillage themselves. Out of this tiuid 
were likewise ]>aid the expenses of those who were ne- 
oessarily absent, either on the nfiitirs of the colony or 
by requisition of the king'; for, besides the lareie bodies 
oi'men frequently levied for the servic* of the latter, 
hundreds of Indiana were compelled to reside tor montha 
at a time in the Spanish towns, in order to barter their 
'Bative productions forthe merchandise ofSpain. With- 
.out such an exchange the royal tribute could hnrdly 
ksve been paid, nor eould the cultivation of land have 
,j»oceeded to any very satisfactory extent ; for Paraguay 
iflontained no mines; and iron, the most essential of 
all, being imported entirely from Spain, was, after every 
effort to supply the deficiency, so scarce and so dear as 
considerably to retard all tiUt^, and to hinder the in- 
troduction of many manufactures in which the Indians 
would otherwise probably have excelled. In exchange 
for these articles, and others almost as desirable and 
usefiil, the natives brought Paraguay-herb, — a leaf em- 
ployed for the purposes of tea, ana to this day, under 
the name of mat6, an article of incessant consumption 
in South America,— tobacco, honey, fruits, hides, furs, 
cotton, sarsaparilla, bark, and rhuliarb; the medicinal 

Jaalities of the two latter, which are indigenous in 
'araguay, having been early discovered and made 
Imown by the Jesuits. Rafts constructed tor the pur- 
pose bore these and other productions of their provmce 
down their mighty rivers to Buenos Ayres, Santa F^, 
lUid other Spanish towns, where factories had been es- 
tablished by the different reductions. The Indians em- 


ployed upon this service were absent for montLs 
out of tbe sums thus raised they purchased every 
needed by their reduction, having first, as a in»t 
course, paid the yearly tribute, which was always de- 
livered at the capital of the province and into tlie hands 
of an ofBcer appointed for the purpose. Of this tribute, 
however, the king could in ideality be said to receive 
only a portion ; since out of it he not only paid the 
salaries of such missionaries as he sent to America, but 
likewise set aside a sum for the purchase of dru^ 
for the reductions, for the wine and oil (both brought 
from Europe, and expensive) which were needed in the 
church, as aiso far a bell, and all the sacred vessels 
required for the altar, which he invariably presented to 
each new reduction. 

The mercantile arrangBments of every settlement 
were neceBsarily in the hands of the Indians themsolves ; 
therefore, after reading, writing, and the industrial arts, 
tho cliildren were always earehilly tau[i;bt accounts, and, 
instructed in the value of money, besides receiving; '~ 
insight into the nature and amount '" '' ' 


In the beginning of their missions the Jwuits found 
the dialects of South America as numerous as its tribes; 
but they wisely resolved upon employing only one lan- 
guage as a mode of communication throughout their 
reductions, and having jixed on the Guarani for the 

Eurpose, it was taught in all their schools, and has thus 
ecome the languM;^ of the country, where it is uni- 
versally spoken to the present day. In addition to this, 
the children were taught to read and understand Spanish, 
though not to speak it, the missionaries fearing it would 
promote that facility of intercourse between the old 
race and the new winch they had found by past esperi- 
ence to be so latal to the latter. For the same reason 
also they always chose out wild and unaccustomed 
places for their intended mission; and in order yet 
more entirely to enforce the separation of the nation^ 
tbey obtained a rescript fitim the Spanish monarch ' 



whicli all Europeans were forbidden to Tisit the reduc- 
tions without an order fitim the goTemor or the bishop, 
or to remain for more than three days. Of course both 
these lunctionaries wei'e themselves exempted limin the 
effects of tliis regulation, which, therefore, could have 
had DO tendency (whatever has heen pi'etended) to leave 
the Jesuits with absolute authority over the reductionB. 
It simply effected what they intended, which was, to 
restrict the intercourse of the eolonists generally with 
their converts ; but with all their care and caution, they 
could not always prevent the latter from being mEl- 
treated or misled oy the foiinerj nor could they en- 
tirely obviate the scandal, or the yet wowe connision 
between vice and virtiie, which residence in the Spanish 
towns sometimes occasioaed in the minds of the poor 


Indians. "How can 3 

1 tell I 

" some of them o 

exclaimed to their roissionftry on their return from 
Buenos Ayres, "that modesty or charity are offended 
by such and such an action, when we have seen white 
men do it over and over again without compunction f" 
" Alas, my children," the poor Father could only an- 
swer, " I can hut tell you tnat we preach to the white 
men the selfiiarae doctjme that we preach to you. It 
comes fi-om God, and is therefore as unalterable as 
Himself; and if the Spaniards observe it not, they 
must give account at the tribunal of the Sovereign 
Judge, who will severely punish their neglect. Be you, 
however, faithful thereto, and you will be wiser than 
the Spaniards, inasmuch as you will secure to youp- 
oelves the reward promised to such as, knowing the 
holy law of God, have the grace and happiness to keep 

ChiiRib, Achoolfl, workahopa, &c. FeAsb of Corpus Christi. 
vvraiona. Rcligians hdi! moral habita of the people. Ttuiv M 
for the conversion oflbdr bretbren. Am»Bl af&Hh u" 
ari™. itaTQ^nH ol 

When & Btr&oger, witli letters authonBing his i 
mode bis appearance in any of the reductions, he n 
received in tlie eliurch by the superior of the mission, the 
bell was rung, and the children and such as were within 
practicable distance being assembled, a Te Deum, was 
intoned in thanksgivinp;' for bis safe nrrival — no un- 
meaning ceremony, where the journey bad necessarily 
been performed amid every danger that wood and wild 
could present. This done, tlie traTeller was conducted 
to his lodgings; and if these were aasigned to him in 
the bouse of the superior, he was waited upon, with 
equal modesty and attention, hy youths who w ' ' ' 
educated for the priesthood, and in this, as in 
else in that grave abode, would lind the regularity a 
recollection of monastic Kfe. 

The morning after his arrival, a bell would summed 
bim to church; and if he st^od for a moment at the gate 
of the sacred building to watch the people assembung 
in the great square, he would see the men range them- 
selves on one side, in their poncios and Spanish waiat~ 
coats, all of wliite on working-davs, but of various 
colours oa occasions of festivity, anil the women on the 
other, in the long flowing garment called a tipoi, fas- 
tened by a girdle round the waist and made ol wool or 
cotton, according to the season, but always of the same 
anowy hue; while, suspended from a band drawn tightly 

md the forehead, he would perceive many a litttt 



Gaxt quietly reposing on ita mother's shoulders ; and in 
all this crowd of men and women he might wateL and 
watoh, and still detect, nothing, in woi'il, or look, or 
gesture, inconsistent with the sacn'dnesa of the service 
at which thej were about lo assist. When Mass was 
over, [wrhaps one of the Jesuit Fathers would conijijct 
him to the chooaraa, or plantations, where the men were 
engsfi^d at work, and thence to the schools, in which 
the g^ls were hein^ tnugrht to spin and sew, the boys 
initiated in various trades, and all instructed in reading', 
writing', and aiithmetic; and when he had looked Emd 
wondered at these yonnff savages, so patiently submit- 
ting to the iiDwonted ^scipline uf school, and endea- 
vouring to mastflf the tasks which had been set them, 
then possibly he would be led into the interior of the 
coIlege,and madeftumliarwitliallitsmysteries. Usu^y 
it was a long low building, overlooking a garden in tn« 
rear, and eontaining, not only the store-rooms and gra- 
naries belonging to the reduction, but also the work- 
r shop, where the various mechanics were employed at 
I their trades. There, as he wandered Irom room to 
room, he would find tailors, weavers, joiners, shoe- 
makers, and carpenters, all cheerfully engaged in their 
several avoeationsj and if his visit happened to be paid 
upon a Monday, he would witness the distribation of 
cotton among the women and girls, for the purpose of 
spinning; whereas if, on the contrary, it chanced to lie 
I a Saturday, he would see the same cotton brought back 
spun and ready for the loom of the weaver. Books, 
too, he would find in plenty ; and not merely snch as the 
Fathers might be supposed to have provided for their 
own use, but such as were suited to the capacity of tlieir 
neophytes, and which were amply supiJiea by means of 
& circulating hbrary established m one of the most cen- 
tral reductioBB, whence volumes were forwarded to the 
rest; medicines being distribated in a similar manner by 
means of a medical establishment in the same reduction. 
It is easy to suppose that our stranger would have 
been tempted also to visit the Indiana in their own 

44 PARAOtlAT. 

abodes; and in those huts, built ofmud, and roofed with 
reeds and branches, he would have found it no hard 
task to make himself acnuointed with all the simple 
arrangements of their daily lite; the hammock, care- 
fully folded and put away in the day-time, its owner 
being then content to sit cross-legged upon the floor; 
the hollowed stone for pounding maize and mani6c, and 
all the still less artistic contrivances for culinary pur- 

Dtiring; these and similar iovestigulions, the day 
would wear almost imperceptibly away; and with the 
setting of the sun he would hear tbe sound of a bell 
oncfl more, and once more see the children trooping to 
the chnrch for a second catechism, a first having ab'widy 
been ^ven in the momin?. The adults would then 
come m for rosary and ni^t-nrayers, and such of the 
children as had been employea m tlie tupambae would 
be assembled in the great square, to receive a certain 
allowance, probably an extra one, of provisions, which 
they were permitted to carry home W their families. 
Should Saturday and Sunday form any pait of the 
stranger's visit, he would be astonished, perhaps, as well 
as edified, at seeing these poor savages, who so lately 
had known nothing of the law of conscience, and who 
in ail they snid or did had been guided by their animal 
propensities alone, now crowding to the confessional 
with every mark of fervour and contrition; but when, 
on tbe following day, he watched tbem approacliing 
the sacred banquet of tbe Eucharist, for which many 
had prepared themselves by days of deep recollection 
and devotion, and oftentimes by acts of heroic volun- 
tary mortification, the results of which were visible in 
tbe very expression of their countenances, he might ba 
tempted to exclaim, in gratitude and delight, "I ooor i 
fess to Thee, TalJier, Lord of heaven and earth, fa 
cause Tbon hast bidden these things from tbe wise 

fiTident, and hast revealed them to little ones. 1 
'ather, for so it hath seemed good in Thy sight." 
Did the stranger's visit take place on tbe ere 4 


some g7«at festiTid, he would obMrre how, by a judi- 
cious mingfling of amusement with the routine of tlieii- 
daily lives, the Fathei'S contrived to reconcile their neo- 
phytes to a scheme of labour which otherwise would 
have been all but unendurable to the indolence of their 
nature. If the feast happened to be that of the titu- 
lar saint of tlte reduction, the inhabitants of two or 
three of the nearest settlements would come with their 
pastor, coiTegidoi-8, and caciques at their head, to cele- 
brate it with their fiiends; the prieets also trom these 
reductions would share the labours of the confessional 
with the pastors of the particular mission, that any who 
had a difficulty in goin^ to their own superiors might 
have the opportunity of confession — a wise reji^ulation, 
which the Jesuila ware always careful to canr out yet 

L more entirely, by sending supemumeraiy clergymen 

^ft through all their reductions on l^e occasion of a jubi- 

^p lee, or great indulgence. 

^ If, however, the festival were that of Corpus Christi, 

each reduction would celebrate it at home, and it would 
be proclaimed at noon of the preceding day by blast of 
trumpet and beat of drum; bonfires ana rockets, of 
which the Indians were passionately fond, would illumi- 
nate the village in the evening, and bands of children 
might be seen dancing gaily to the sound of musical in- 
struments, whichweremade by the neophytes themselves, 
and on which many of them played with great taste and 
feeling. In the midst of these anticipatory rejoicings, the 
preparations for the morning's festival would still be going 
steadily on, many of the Indiana, in fact, having occupied 
themselves with them for weeks. Some, with their 
Afs and arrows, had killed tigers and other heautifiil but 
midable animals, whose rich and robe-like skins were 
seeded to lay as carpets of tapestry before the altars; 
I others, with tho lasso, had succeeded in secui'ing their 
li yrey ^ve, and with these, carefiilly chained and guarded, 
I ]t was the delight of the Indians to grace their proces- 
E dons — much, perhaps, in, the spirit in which conquerors 
I of old caused tneirwar-captives to follow their triumphal 


ciU". Altare, on wliich the Blessed Sacrament wag 
I'epose, triump)ial arcLes, beneHth which It was to ptiss, 
hod been erected at intervals along' the broad avenues 
of the reduction ; and both had been adorned with all 
that nature lavishes of beautifiil and sweet in those 
southern climates. There were garlands of the gi'acB- 
iiil passion-dower, and boughs of silvery acacia; wreaths 
of violets and magnificent wliite lilies mingling' 'with 
the golden fi-uit of the orange-ti'aa and tlie lime. Pine- 
apples every where scattered their delicious odour, and 
bunches of tamarinds and du8(«ra of ripe hananaa dis- 
played their deeper hues among the purple fruitage of 
the vine, as it trailed its graceml foliage over tlie trel- 
iis-work of the arches. Perhaps a gnadle, bright-eyed 
and gentle, might he discovered feeding amid all this 
wealth of beauty; or a young smootii tiger might 
startle the visitor with its fiery glances ; ov, from the 
perch to which they were fastened by a long- Btrkig, 
some of the rarest and most beautiful of the feathered 
tribe might describe airy circles above his head. The 
eagle, with its eye of ligfht, and its oream- coloured 
rival, the king of the vultures, would certainly be there; 
and the pato real, with its rich and varied [ilumage, 
and clusters of humming-birds and paroquets, flashing 
back the sun-rays from their ruffled wings in tints 
brighter than the brightest jewels the mine can boast; 
and when the blue night of the south had closed over 
all, myriads of luminous insects, fire-flies, like wander- 
ing; stars or sparks of wing^ed fire, would sweep along 
the summer air, and settling ever and anon, on flower 
and fruit and thick- wreathed foliage, make them glitter 
as if powdered with dust of diamonds. 

The streets through which the procession was to 
pass would also be carpeted with flowers and herbs of 
sweetest odour. The houses on either side, like arch 
and altar, would be decked with garlands, or hung with 
tapestry, wrought in that beautifiil feather-woi'k then 
deemed no mean present even for the Ivng of Spain, so 
noh and various were the colours, and so stJ'ange and 




wonderful the skill with which they were Wended to- 
gether: nnd eacli neophyte would oe careful also to 
Elace befoi'e his door uaskets containing' maize, roots, 
erbs, grain, every thing:, in Ane, which was to i>ti sown 
orplantedin the course of the ensuing^yeor, that the Lord 
Himself mi^ht blesB them as He passed along. Within 
the church there would be the smoking of perfumes, and 
the sprinkling of sweet waters, flowers seattei'cd on the 
pavement, and lights innumerable burning on the nltar. 
At the conclusion of High Mass a. volley of musketry 
would announce the setting forth of the procession, and 
the Blessed Sacrament would be home through tlie 
streets beneath a canopy, upheld by the chief Indians 
of the reduction, while the others Ibliowed in regular 
order, company after company, but all, men, women, 
and children, lifting up their voices (and the Indians 
ever sin^ most sweetly) in hymns of joy,and welcome 
to the hving Jesus. 

When Uie religious services of the day had been 
woimd up with Vespers, the Indians would assemble in 
the great souore, where sports of various kinds soon 
engrossed all their attention. Shooting at a mark, 
trials of skill with the sling and lasso, were always of 
the number ; but the " sortija," or riding at a ring, was 
the favom-it« amusement, as it ai^ed no small share 
of address and courage in those who were succesafuL 
The prepai'ations for tliis sport were very simple, con- 
Bisting merely in a sort ot door-way made just wide 
enough for the passage of a man and hoi'se, with a ring 
suspended by means of a long cord from the upper 
portion of the frame. At tliis the horseman rode riill 
speed through the door; and to him who caii'ied off the 
nag at the point of his wooden dagger was adjudged 
the prize. It would seem as if the memory of the old 
festivities in the redactions still lingei-ed among the 
people ; for to this day the Indians of Paraguay delight 
m acting mysteries such as once wei-e jjopular among 
r own countrymen, and continue, in lact, to form 
i of the chief religious amusements of the Germau 


A stage ia erected in the open air ; trees, or 
the branches of ti-ees, are mode to constitute the scenery; 
and here the Indians, both men and women, perform 
various passag;es in the life of Christ, and with a si 
propriety too (aa we are told by an eye-witness) v. 
could hardly have been looked for among actors j 
untaught. In aU ■-■'■-■ - -1 

troduced by the J 
neophytes with Scripture story j but whether this were 
the case or sot, one thing at least is certain, that at 
the close of aucb a festival as has been described, the 
stranger would have retired without detecting one in- 
toxicated person, or having heard one angry word ; and 
must fain have acknowledged, that after a day of excite- 
ment such as might have set all the hot Indian blood 
boiling in their veins, he had seen those poor neophytes 
retire in peace and prayer to tbdr homes, leaving no 
scandal ot word or deed to mar the innocent recollections 
of the day. 

Nor is this a fancy picture, or one descriptive n; 
of some particular period in the history of the redd 
tions. Bishop after Bishop came, visitor after v' " 
was sent irom Assumption or from Spain ; and in 
single instance did they leave the scene of thi 

Suiries without bearing ample testimony both to the w 
om and disinterestedness of the rulers, and to the [Uf 
and innocence of those who were subject to their govet 
ment. Great care and diligence of eoiu-se were needt 
and especially in the beginning, to prevent any relap 
into habits in which these poor savages had indnlgi 
without remorse or check dming the greater portion o 
their lives; anditwas, moreover, needfiil that such vigil- 
ance should be eserted in a way sufficiently judicious 
to prevent its becoming either irksome or irritating to 
those who were its objects. Innumerable, consequently, 
but still as wise as they were innumerable, were the 
precautions adopted by the Jesuits. The Indians gene- 
rally married at an early age ; an arrangement for whi ' 
the Fathers have been sometimes blamed by those v ' 




did not consider tlie weighty reasons that induced them 
to authorise this cust^im. One tamily alone was allowed 
under every roof; the sese9 were also always kept 
separate at church, proper persona, called eelators, be* 
ing appointed to watch over their conduct there; and 
at night sentinels patrolled the village, who were not 
only intended to give warning of the approach of ene- 
mies or wild'beasts, but whose AirCher and lar more 
important duty it was to arouse the pastor should any 
scandal or disorder occur during their watch. The 
regidoT, however, was always considered the chief 
guardian of the morals of the reduction; and if any 
offence causing public scandal waa committed dui-ing 
the week, it waa his oflSce to declare it in church on the 
following Sunday, and to inilict the merited chastise- 
" " It on the offender. 

But these, after all, were merely external restraint*, 
jmd would, as the Jesuits wei-e well aware, have proved 
totally insufficient for the end in view, if left without 
the support of religious principle. It waa necessary that 
they should love virtue and hate Tice for the sake of 
God, and because He has commanded the one and for- 
bidden the other. To effect this great object, they ao- 
costoraed their neophytes to the practice of frequent 
confession, and aucceected in inspinng them with such 
reverence for the Blessed Sacrament, and auch an ex- 
alted idea of the purity required for communion, that 
the preparation these poor Indians made waa often al- 
most as heroic and sublime as any thing we read of in 
the hves of the saints. Their spirituS Fathers like- 
^wise taught them to sanctify their work by the sing- 
l^lng of pious canticles ; and hy these and other similar 
jneana effectually impressed them with so deep a 
sense of the continual presence of God, and so hvely a 
consciousness of His love for them, that they were 
ever found quite as imwilling to otfend Him in the 
lonely desert as in the midst of the crowded city. 
When business, therefore, took them from their homes, 
neither example nor persuasion could induce them to 


awear, or drink, or do any thing' else which they knew 
to be dbplensiit? to Grod ; and instances are on record 
of their reproaching; Spaniards witb their violations of 
the Divine law, saying that " nothing* guod came from 
Bpain excetiting; wine, and even that by their wickedness 
they turned into poison." Cruelty and revengB, the nor- 
mal vices of the savage, were naturally the most difficult 
to be uproot«d; but even here bo marvellous was the 
BUcoesB of the Jesuits, that, gunerally spe^ng (for it 
is true there were exceptjons), hereditary feuds and en- 
mities entirely oeaaed ; the Christian Indian learnt to 
look upon every neophyte as a hrother, whatever the 
tribe to which ne might belong, and as such was ever 
ready to assist him ; so that if the harvest iailed in one 
of the reductions, the rest would vie witb each other in 
making up the deficiency. 

Yet this charity, great as it was, was surpassed by 
tliatwhich they exhibited towards their pagan brethren. 
They would suomit to any amount of trouble or ill-usage 
for the sake of converting even one. If a wild Indian 
was induced to visit the reduction, thg^ would receive 
him with every demonstration of joy. The more savage 
he was, the more prepossessed against them, the more 
cordially did they welcome him, the more tenderly did 
they treat him, IJecause they felt that the greater was 
the hardness of his heart, the greater was the manifts- 
tation of love requii'ed to win it. They would lodge, 
clothe, feed him, give him the best of oU they bad, 
spend hours in teaching and instructing him ; and the 
(w.y of his conversion, if he was converted, was always 
one of unaffected rejoicing to the whole reduction. Tie 
cannibal Indians were frequently in the habit of selling 
such of the children of their conquei'ed foes as they did 
not devour, and these the Christians eagerly purchased ; 
maize, com, maniac, cloth, all being hberally offered in 
exchange. If boys, these rescued Tittle ones were con- 
fided to the care of the cacique, or chief of the reduc- 
tion, to be brought up as Christians; if gn-ls, they were 
given to the most exemplary and well-instructed of 





for a BJmiiar pui-poae ; and when they were old 
to support theiuaelves, they each receival a 
bouse and plot of gjound, and were admitted to every 
other privilege enjoyed by the original mhabitents of 
the Bettiement. Anothei" of the favourite duties of the 
neophytes waa to accompany their pastor in his search 
ibrBouls; and in this they were oiten of the greatest 
uae, because the wild Indians were far less suspiciouB 
vi their missionEiry visitant when he thus came to them 
ia eompany with some of their own nation. 

But it, as it often happened, no Jesuit could be 
spared to accompany them, they would take this office 
on themselves ; and as soon as the great rains were 
over, a troop of neophytes, with their cacicjue at their 
head, would prepare to leave the reduction, in order to 
Announce the Goalie) to their heathen brethren. First, 
however, they conieased and communicat«d ; then, after 
obtaining; the advice and last blessing of their pastor, 
they set out upon their pious errand, taking; with them 
a sufficient store of provisions to prevent their being; a 
burden to the object of their charitable interest. 

They went in the spirit and desire of martyrdom, a 
fiite which in fact they often encountered, either through 
the hardships of the journey or at the bands of their 
own countrymen ; hut wherever a friendly tribe received 
them, there they gave inll scope to tlieir loving; zeal. 
With touching earnestness they would explain over and 
over again the object of the Jesuits in coming among 
their people, assuring each and all (in order that there 
might be no misapprehension on the subject) that it was 
not to enslave the Indian, hut to render him happy in 
this life and eternally happy in the nest ; and then they 
would speak of God with such burning eloquence and 
overflowing fervour, that they oiten i-etui-ned to their 
reduction followed by bundreos of poor heathens, who, 
tlianks to the charity which had thus sought them out 
'in the desert, soon became as devout and well-instructed 
iChriatians as those who had brought them to the settle- 

" Sometimes it happened Siat the number thus 

collected wBs fer too great to admit of their being re- 
ceired as permanent dwellers in the reduction; and in 
this case their instructors would gladly iiirnish all that 
was needed tor the fotinding' of a new one ; not only 
supplying corn, cattle, and clothing from their own 
stores, but giving what to an Indian was much more 
difficult to bestow, their personal wad active co-opera- 
tion in the labour. 

The neophvtea who, whether from disposition or 
other ctrcuinstancea, were unequal to such rough 
apoatleship, gladly made themselves useM in a differ- 
ent way; for example, in teaching their language to 
the newly-arrived missionaries, resolutely overcoming 
their natural indolence and dislike to trouble in order 
to accomplish their task with greater speed and effici- 
ency ; and one instance in particular is recorded of a 
cacique who literally spent his days in translating 
certain hooks which he thought would enable the 
Jesuits to enter more readily and prosperously on "' 
career of Christian conquest. 

Burning with such zeal as this for the conTeraoa 
their nation, it was only natural they should hail ta 
accession to the number of the missionaries with grati- 
tude and delight. Some of the neophytes were gene- 
rally sent to conduct the new-comei-s to their destina- - 
tion; on such occasions they always intoned the 2i 
Dewm. for their safe arrival, and with such an unaffected 
expession of real feeling, that Father Cajctan Cattaneo, 
fresh as he was from the eiercises of a reliffious house, 
tells us he could not behold them sink upon their knees 
at the Terse Te ergo qwcfirwm/us without being touched 
to the very heart. This occun'ed in a court of the 
Jesiiits' College at Buenos Ayres, whither they had 
been sent to meet him; and severely was their devotion 
tested, and triumphantly did it stand the test, in the 
course of the journey homewards. Their route lay Up 
the river, and at fii-st all things went smoothly; safely 
but slowly, on account of the innumerable sandbanks 
snd rocks that lurk beneath those waters, they coasted 


along the Plata and the Urupiay, makiD^ sail only in 
the uay-time, and at nig'lit-ftill tying their balsas* to 
a tree wlyle they landed to cook then: supper ; never 
tailing^) however, first to arrangie an oratory of green 
boug'hs, wliere they sung the litany of our Lady and 
the Ave Maris Stella, and recited the rosar}' and night- 
prayers. In the same rustic chapel prayei'S were said 
the next morning before starting; and so they went on 
from day to day, until, on approaching the reduction of 
8t. Micliaers, the small-pox broke out suddenly among 
them. One died ; a Spaniard charitjibly took charge 
of two others, and conveyed them to his plantation, a 
little discaoue up the country ; but as it was hy no 
means certain that the infection was stayed, a messen- 
ger was despatched to the next reduction with a re- 
aueat for a fresh supjjy of yrovisimiB, in ease they 
bould be compelled, as they feared, to encamp in the 
wilderness. Then they went on with all the speed 
they could, travelling all day long, and sometimes more 
than half the night ; hut the disease had taken steady 
bold, and it was in vain to endeavour to outstrip it. 
Four natives were attacked at once; they were imme- 
diately parted from the others and put into a separate 
canoe, and those who managed it made to follow in the 
rear ; but the precaution was of no avail. Again four- 
teen were stricken; — ^with such a number of sick it 
was impossible to proceed. Yet the alternative was 
sufficiently appalling. A hundred leagues lay slill be- 
tween them and the next reduction, and thei-e was no 
hope of provisiona nearer; for the wild Indians fied in 
dismay the moment they were aware of the danger. 
Moreover, only one of the priests understood the Indian 
language, the other religious being all young mission- 
aries from Spain ; and it became a question of gi'ave 
import whether he should proceed with those who wei-e 
Btill well enough to travel, or whether he should stay 
with such as were to be left behind. If be went fiir- 
rward, the poor sufferers would die unaided ; and yet, if 
• Vraaels fbnood by lathing two opon boats togathor. 


lie remained, the otliers, some of whom donbtlefS' 

without religious aasistence, fa this dilemma^ ten 
Indians voiuntarily ofi'ered themselvea to attend upoif 
their dying brethren. Their services were pladly ac- 
oepted ; Father Ximenes hdted with them for a. time, 
aominietered the Sacraments both to attendants and to 
patients, prepared the lattCT for their approaching end, 
comforted, instructed, and consoled the whole party, 
and then set oS to join the squaditin in advance. Hai>- 

ey the brave Indians whom he had left behind, nobly 
iing death in the cause of charity, were enabled ~ 
save naif the number of those whose chargfl they 

undertaken. These, when convalescent, they placed 

board a couple of canoes ; and having buried their deadf. 
crept slowly up tlie river in order to overtake the main 
boay of the travellers. In the end they succeeded ; al- 
thoug^h no sooner was this great duty accomplished and 
their charge surrendered, than they feU sick themselvM^ 
and all save one perished of the ybtj disease from whj' * 
they had rescued tlieir brethren; as if God, in His It 
ing approbation of their conduct, could wait no loi 
but must iieeds call them to Himself, in order at 
to reward them for a charity which till then 
most unprecedented among their people. 

Ail this time the small-pos had never ceased 
ravages even for a day ; and thus, burving their dt 
as t&y passed along, the strong and tne sick went 
toeether until they arrived at a pass of the Urupi 
called the " Itu." Here they gave up this vain 6ig&' 
from death, A hundred and seventy were stricken with 
the disease togetlier; and nothing remained but t« land 
in earnest, to separate the sick from the hale, to build 
Btraw-huts for the shelter of the sufferers, and to dear 
patch another messenger in the direction of Yapeju 
the purpose of hastening the supplies which were 
pected from that reduction. They arrived only just : 
time to prevent starvation, and two months more 
spent perforce iu the desert, during which the Ii 

|cH. : 



died by dozens, but always in sentiments of fervmir and 
devotion eoually surprising and consoling to the Fathers 
who flt.tended "them. At the end of that period the 
malady abated ; and the Father Superior, wiiom they 
had at len^h succeeded in acquainting' with their situ- 
ation, came to their assistance. In a very short time 
he had arrangEd and provided all things for their prompt 

Ideparture ; the convalescent he made to travel slowly, 

^^ order that their cmarantine might be completed he- 
■e reaching the reduction; but those who had escaped 
nfection were of course glad to proceed as rapidly aa 
Biey could. The new missionaries were of the hitter 
Bumber; and they had soon the hatipiness of arriving; at 

iTapeju, where they were receivea with rejoicing pro- 
ortioned to the dangers and soi-rows amidst wnioh 
I journey had been accomplished. In thnt single 

■ voyage from Bnenos Ayres to the reductions upwards of 

Fa hundred Indians had perished ; and it may give soma 
notion of their zeal to say, that out of all that number 
there was not one who did not expire rejoicmg in the 
thought, that he died in the act of introducing fresh 
missionaries into the coimtry for the conversion and 
civilisation of his heathen bretlu'en. 

The preceding sketch was necessary, in order to 
afibrd the reader some insight into the principles on 
which the reductions were founded, and the regula- 
tions by which they were afterwards permanently esta- 
blished. We will now return to their general history, 
and describe the formidable foe by whom for a lonpf 
time not only their pence and prosperity were disturbed, 

L l»ut their very existence as a self-governing institution 

I was tbreatened. 

Is one of the proTinces of Bi'azil, ami twelve leao^ues 
fiMHn the seaport town of San Vincente, once stooa the 
city of Piratinin^, or St. Paul, the CHpiuU of the 
district to which it gave its name. Built upon a nearly 
Loflccessihle rock, hemmed in on one aide by mountains 
almost as precipitous as the height from whence it 
looked frowning; down upon the plains beneath, and on 
the other by the deep and impenetrable forest of " Per- 
nabaoaba," its inLabitants could issue forth at any mo- 
ment to levy suppUes upon the adjoining country, or 
stand at bay behind the impregnable walls of their 
rock-built fortress. With such taciUties both for of- 
fence and defence, it was doubly unfortunate that they 
should have been the yery worst of the worst colonists 
who had yet visited the new world. At first, between 
free men and slaves, they barely mustered four hun- 
dred inhabitants; hut the unchecked license in which 
they lived soon drew numbers witliin their walls, which 
became an asylum for the refuse of all cations — Portu- 
guese, Spaniards, Englishmen, Dutchmen, the last al- 
ways prejwn derating, — all, in fine, who had left Europe 
to escape the punisliment due to their crimes, or t« fol- 
low the lawless desires of their own hearts, flocked to 
St. Paul's; and when their numbers grew from hun- 
dreds into thousands, the citizens flung off the yokS) 
and even the sembWce of ih& ^"oke, of lawful authority, 


CH, v.] THE MAMELUKES OF ST. Paul's. 67 

and declared themselres independeat of the Purtugnese 
crown. Nor had that kingfaom the power to dispute 
the claim ; for with their iinscalahle rock, aud their 
abundant supply of arms and ajnmunitioD, as well as 
the power wtucli they possessed of manul^Cuiing the 
latter whenever it was ueeded, they could easily have 
bidden defiunce to a fai' lai^er force than any whicfa 
the nominal monarch of their half-wild territory could 
have broug-ht to bear ^^inst them. 

Hence it shortly came to pass that they lived as if 
tbey were no longi^r uccountahte either to God or to 
man. They scorned the peocefii] arts, as ttiey were 
scorned of dd hy the wai-like Spartans. Such lands as 
they possessed were cultivated by slaves, and for the 
rest they trusted to war and pillage ; the slave-trade, in 
all its naked and appallinp- reality, being their principal 
resource. The slave-market of Janeiro was stocked Dy 
these marauders. Fi'om their city of refiige, where 
they dwelt oa high with the eagles, they would rush 
down suddenly upon the plains, surround the tolde- 
rias, or cluster of wigwams, which constituted the 
village of the Indians, carry off the able-bodied men 
for slaves, apportion out the young girls and women 
among themselves, and put the rest withottt pity to the 
HwonT Even the other colonists of America were noc 
safe from these attacks ; whenever and wherever they 
could be assailed with impunity, tbey met with quite 
^te little mei'cy at their hands as the Indians themselves. 
■The ferae of the Paidistas for cruelty and wickedness 
' soon spread far and wide, until, instead of the name 
which tbey had taken from their adopted ci^, they 
came to be designated as the " Mamelukes,' a title 
significant both to Spaniard and to Portuguese uf all the 
horrors of sacrilege, robbery, and murder, which every 
where marked the ti-ack of these dreaded friiebocters. 

The Paulistas had thus become the scourge of the 
land; and all, Spaniards, Portuguese, and Indians 

I alike, had learned to ti-emble at their name, when the 
Jesuits appeared iu the adjoining province, and by 





oonunendng their mieRioa both in Spsnish Amerioft 
and in Brazil itself deprived them of the great source 

of their liches — the unrestricted power of catering for 
the Blave-trade. For wherever the Jesuit came, he 
brought with him the g^rme of civihgatioD and of order. 
If the wild Indians gathered round him, they were 
safe, aa far as the law of nations could make them so ; 
they wei-e men, and had the rights of men, and coidd 
neither be bought nor sold at the will of the European. 
This the rescript of the Spanish monarch bad decbred, 
and this the Jesuite every where enforced in a way thut 
tew others in their position would have ventiu^d to 
adopt. If their neophj'tes were stolen from them, they 
followed them to the veiy camp of the marauder, to 
b^ or buy tbem irom the ruthless enslaver; or they 
appealed trom tribunal *o tribunal, from America to 
Europe, from the viceroy in Peru to the monoi'cb at 
Madrid, and Irom the monarch at Madiid to the judg- 
ment of the world. They left the extortioner no peace, 
for they every where published the wrongs of the red 
man and the injustice of the white ; and if every man's 
hand was at length raised to strike them, if every man's 
voice uttered evil things against them, if they were 
finally driven from their reductious upon charges which 
all the world proclaimed, but which nobody could prove, 
it is yet impossible to study dispassionately the lustory 
of the times in which they lived, and of the men amidst 
whom they dwelt, and not to feel that, Irom first to 
last, the real quairel of the American setllera with the 
Jesuit Fathers was, that they set themselves against 
the illegal slavery of the natives. 

The inhabitants of St. Paul were not the men to 
beai' reproach and opposition tamely. In the end they 
expelled the Jesuits from their city; but at first they 
seem rather to have resorted to stratagem than to have 
appealed to the strong argument of war. Probably, 
with all their recklessness, they Lad some hesitation at 
the commencement in carrying bloodshed and havoo . 
into settlements protected alike by the united fiags ofJ 


Portugal and Spuin, and bj the sanction of tbe Churcli 

to which, in name at lemt, naanj of them belonged. 
Tbe device which thev hit upon was as ingenious aa it 
was cruel; for it enafaled them not only to decoy the 
Indians into their net, but to persuade tliem tliot thev 
owed their det«nt)on (o the mttchinationa of the Jesuit 
Fathei's— the real and only protectors of their treedom. 
Sometimes they woidd wnnder in little groups through 
the country, planting' crosses, making presents to the 
savages, convei'sing with them in the Guaruni language, 
whion was tlie most generally understood by both par- 
ties; and when they had persuaded them to settle with 
them in some quiet spot, they led their victims into the 
vicinity of St. Paul's, when fetters and fire-arms did 
the rest; or the captain of the Mameluke pai'ty, leaving 
his men ci-ouching among tbe tall thistles and under- 
wood of the plain, would issue forth alone, clad in the 
garb of tiie Jesuits — the " black-robes," as the Indians 
coiled them — and drawing tbem towards him by the 
magic of the came of Chiist, he would speak kindly 
and gently to them ; until a sufficient number having 
been collected, the preconcerted signal was given, ana, 
his men rushing in, the poor natives were surrounded 
and carried off lettered for the market before they had 
even dreamed of a defence. Some of the victims thus 
ensnared generally nmde, or perhaps were permitted to 
make, their escape; and these, returning to their brethren 
in the reduction, would tell how the mae black-robe had 
spoken peace with his lips when there was war in his 
heart, and how he had filled their ears with caressing 
words of love and kindness only that he might lure 
them with greater certainly to their doom ; and with 
darkening brow and wrathfid spirit his savage audience 
would sit and listen, until they rose in their Irenzy to 
massacre their spiritual lathers ; or else, — and it seema 
almost too sad a tale to tell it, — they fled in sorrow 
and dismay, to seek, amidst wood and wild and in 
ceaseless roving, that safety for themselves and for 
their children which they felt they never could look 


for among Chi-isrion men, since the ti 

robe, ia hia garb of peace, had proved as cmel ai 

soldier in bis coat of mail. 

The Buapicion t!iu8 created was the greatest difficuHjr ■! 
with which the Jesuit had to contend; but he con- 
tended perseveringly and suocBSsfiiUy. At whatever 
risk or danger to himself, he left no means unemployed 
to disabuse the poor Indiana of their felse impressions. 
If they Bought to kill him, he bowed cheerfully to the 
stroke; if they were taken captive, he moved heaven 
and eaJth to procure their freedom ; if they fled from 
him in hatred and dismay, he pwBued them with a love 
which in the end was sui'e to overcome all fear, and to 
restore to him the confidence and veneration of his 
flock. Alas ! it too often happened, that when he had 
thus, with infinite pain and JaLoiu' to himself, persuaded 
his scared children to retimi, tTembling but reassured, 
to the life of industiy which had been so craelly inter- 
rupted, the Mamelukes, emboldened by impunity, came 
down upon them in undisguised and open warfare, to 
rob, to bum, to murder, and make captive, sendin_g the 
Indian once more waihjig to the woods, and dashing all 
the hopes of the missionaiy to the ground at the very 
moment when they seemed certain of fiilfilment. These 
dealers in flesh and blood were not long content with 
the scanty supptv of slaves which their stratagems could 
procure them, tu^ soon brought fire and sword to aid 
them in theii' traffic ; while the Spaniards, glad at any 
price to have the storm averted from themselves, shame- 
fully stood aloof, and waited the issue of the unequal 
contest. So completely, indeed, were they blinded by 
their prejudices, so entirely, even in those early days, 
had they learned to regard the Jesuits witli suspicion, 
and to consider tlie missions a check upon their avarice, 
— that they could not, or at least they would not see 
the real value of these settlements, which, interposing 
directly between them and their foe, might, if properly 
BUpporl«d, have been made on almost insuperable barr^ 
rier to bis fuitliei iijl^aitces. The Indians, therelbn|J 



defend themEelTe?, ani] that too without 
the ordinary weapons which necessity demanded ; 
with its usual narrow-minded misgivings, the colonial 
government had forbidden the use of fire-arms in the 
reductions ; and it was not until years of expostulation 
had been wasted, and thousands nad perished through 
the vain delay, that this cruel edict was linally re- 

Under such circumstances, the young colonies m 
Brazil were easily desti'oyed; and the reductions of 
Guayra were the npit to be attackeil. In the universal 
consternation which prevailed, at fij'st no defence was 
attempted or even thought of, and redaction afi«r 
reduction went down before the invader. At length, 
ladpn with captives, the Mamelukes appeared before 
Incarnation; but at the first note of danger, Montoyo, 
who was then provincial, rushed to the spot, arrested 
the flying Indians, exhorted them to turn and rescue 
their captive brethren; and while hastily arming them 
,ibr the fight, despatched Mendoza, the Jesuit Father 
^Of the reduction, to try and negotiate with the foe. 
A shower of aiTows and a volley of musketry greeted 
his approach to the hostile camp. The Father was 
wounded, and a neophyte killed at his side ; but still 
undaunted, he sought out the Tobher-chiel^in, tohl him 
to his face, and in the midst of his Mamelukes, that 
he was outlawed alike of God and man, and then, as- 
sembling the Indian captives, he cut their bonds, and 
actually carried them off in the face of the whole 
army; the very boldness of the act, and perhaps some 
lingering respect for the character of tlie priesthood, 
preventing the troops from attempting to oppose him. 
An interview between the provincial himselt and the 
ATameluke captain followed, and the latter was uld- 
itely induced to withdraw his troops ; but it was 
ly For a time. In tlie course of that very year the 
■governor of Paraguay passed through the reductions 
at a moment when nine hundred Mamelukes and two 
,tiiousand wild Indians, their allies, were known to be 


assembled at St. Paul's, and only wmtine- bw iv/puCaSi' • 
to rush down upon the missions. Yet the profineial, 
who had ttared so much already, in vain implored him 
to send troops to tbeir assistance With rair words, 
and unmeaning; congratulations upon the vast amomit 
of good which he acknowledged had been effected, 
he passed on from the threatenwi proi-ince to the cit^ 
of Assumption ; and tbe Jesuits were left to defend their 
neophytes if they could, or to perish with them if 
they railed. 

"The day of strife was hastened by an accident. A 
poor prisoner had contrived to escape from St. PauPs; 
and having sought protection at St. Anthony's, Fathffl 
Mole, the ^mstor of tnat mission, refused to give him np. 
In reveng;e the Mamelukes tell upon his congi'egation, 
killed numbers at the very foot of the aJtar, to which 
they had fled for refiige, and caiTied off hundreds into 
captivity. A few of the wretched inhabitants succeeded 
in escaping; to Incarnation ; others, sullen and despair- 
ing, witlidrew into the woods; and there, seized with 
the old maddening suspicion of the ti'eachery of the 
Jesuits, they rushed out to seek Father Mola, with the 
intention of puttinf- him to death. They finind 1 ' 
sitting among the ruins of the reduction, and plun^ 
in the deepest grief; yet he had to aj^e long i 
seriously with these unnappy creatines before k " " 
convince them of the injustice of their suspicions, 
this was once effected, they became amenable to n 
and prevailing upon them to abandon their deaola 
home, be led them first to St. Michael's, and afterwaj 
inrther still to the colony of the Incarnation. 
Mansilla, of the former redaction, followed him b 
after with such of his neophytes as be could persn 
to move. Many, however, refused to accompany him, l_ 
returned thei'efore as soon as be had left the fugitives m 
safety ; and as the Mamelukes were then approachingr, 
he at length induced them to retire and seek safety m 
the woods. Hardly had they made their escape, whai,.g 
their village was sacked and burned by the toe ; Jt/S^ 

H CH. 

^1 |Kiinfu] to relate, the indignation of tlie poor bewildered 

^■Weatures fell on the very man to whom they owed their 

V deliTerance, and Father Mansilla narrowly escn])nt their 

Tengeance with hia life. The accusation which had 

'" " " ' ' t against Father Mola was renewed in re- 



gard to this ^ood religions ; the Mamelukes, to further 
Wieir own netarioua designs, took care to prnpagate it 
in erery direction ; and as these were all young colonies, 
and neither sufficiently grounded in the faith nor suf- 
ficiently convinced of the real motives of the Fathers 
to be invulnerable to suspicion, it had its full effect. 
upon the inhabitants of St. Michael's. With some 
difficulty Munsilla succeeded in removing theli' mis- 
•givings, and the Mamelukes passed on from the de- 
struction of their reduction to that of Jesu-Marta. 
From the latter place they carried off a crowd of cap- 
tives. The Fathers resolved upon a rescue ; but the 
enemy being' iar too numerous to be attacked by any 
body of Indians they could at the moment have raised 
against them, they determined, instead of fighting, to 
follow the Mamelukes into Brazil, and to remonstrate 
with the captain-general of that province respecting 
their conduct. 

The lugitives were soon overtaken; but at the sight 
of his poor neophytes drooping alike with sorrow and 
fatigue, one of the Fathers could contain himself no 
longer, and i-ushing, in spite of the muskets that were 
pointed at him, and the insidta and blows that were 
showered upon him, into the midst of the captives, he 
embraced them one by one, loudly demanding in pathetic 
accents either that tney should oe restored to ireedom, 
or that be should himself be permitted to share their 
ebains. Some of the Mamelukes reviled, some threat- 
eoed, many scoffed at him as a madman ; and one idone 
m all that number was moved by pity to give up to 
ilim such of the captives as had fallen to his share, under 
momise, of course, of a fiiture ransom. This success did 
ont encomuge the Father to greater efforts ; and see- 
the caoique Gaiayvara among the jo'isoners, lie put 

fl4 . PI RAG tl AY. 

the chain that bound him round his own neek, dedariafl* 

he would not take it thence unti) he bad obtiiined his 
freBdoii). Ttie Munielukes grew angry, and in the dis- 
cuasiun that ensued he was more tlian once on the point 
of having his brains blown out ; hut his detenniuatioa 
and his utter indifference to danger won the day, and 
the cacique and a certain number of the other Indians 
were at last surrendered. Guiajram was astonished, 
as well he mis^ht be ; he had Ions' been wavering be- 
tween his idol-worship and the Christian creed, and 
during all that period of irresolution had behaved with 
the utmoet barbarity to this very Father. But now, 
OS he telt the chains fall Irom his hnihs, he threw him- 
self in a veiT passion of gratitude at his henelactor's 
feet ; and when he was afterwards sent home under 
the security of an escort, he could only satisfy hia 
deep consciouanesa of the debt he owed him by gt>ing 
from reduction to reduction, every wliere prodaiminff 
the charity of the Father, and eioueroting his brethi 
of the Society from all suspicion of collusion i 
their foes. 

In the meantime the Mamelukes, finding their oi 
tivea disappearing through the intervention of this e 
Father, resolved U> rid themselves of his presence, i 
decamped one day vrithout him. He fell hack i 
Father Mansilla, who had been left a little in the r 
and after a abort consultation, they resolved s 
follow in the distance, Tliere was no room for b 
tation about a path, the route lay c 
marked out by the dead and dying; and on 1 
went, their footsteps every where arrested by the a 
the helpless, and the weak, whom the Mamelukes 1 
dragged as iar aa they could, and when they c 
drag them no further, had left to perish in those di 
m\aB. The Fathers did all that wFts in their powerfl 
each unhappy group : they baptised the catechume 
confessed the neophytes, consoled all with the hope 
a future life; hut they coiJd not remain with any, I 
their mission called them onward still. On to f 


who, pei'chance at no great distance, lay dying the same 
miseralile deatli; on to those who, yet more mihappy, 
should live to reach the city of the captives, where chama 
and cruelty would destroy the hody, and des|)air or liad 
example too probahly l<ill the soulj ou eveuforlher still, 
from St. Paul's itself to the Blave-market of St. Paul's 
— the city of Janeii-o — -tJiere to lay before the g^jvemor 
the outrag'es aiid wrongs that had heen heaped U[ion 
their people. They reached it at length, exhausted by 
fatif^e and sorrow: yet oven there they mig;ht not 
luiger i for the governor was at All Saints , and to him 
tlie authorities of the port referred them. He may 
have had the wish — it is not very clear that He bad the 
power — to aid them ; though he received them kindK, 
and appointed a commissary to repair with them to St. 
Paul's to assist in obtaining; the liberation of the In- 
dians. A commissary, wifliout troops to enforce his 
orders, was little hetter than a mockery at 8t. Paul's, 
The inhahitante refiised him admittance; the Jeauita 
ff bo accompanied him were cast into prison : nor was 
without earnest eipostulation on the part of their 
irineial that their deliverance was effected; yet when 
ftt last they returned to their reduction, it was only to 
find their neophytes — those for whose sake and for 
the sake of whose kindred they had endured all this 
toil and grief— possessed with the same injurious sus- 
picions against them as had before prevailed in the 
other reductions ; and it required all the eloquence of 
their past labours, and all the indignant remonstrances 
of Guiayvara, to restore to them the confidence of their 

It would be but a sad and weary repetition, to tell 
of all the reductions that one after another fell a prey 
to the Mameluke invaders. The wretehed inhahitante 
were driven from place to place; and e;(cept to ne- 
itiate their liberation, or to rescue them by force 
)m the foe, their pastors never left them ; followmg 
Still to heal the wounded heart, and to hind up the 
brokeu reed, and to keep alive the light of faith, 

_ The 




whiofa, amid cmelties sncli aa tliese, might we]l Le 
supposed to burn dimmer in tlieir bosoms. In Dtit> 
other instance tbe poor Tictima rose ngaiust their spi- 
ritual lather; but he succeeded in escaping^ into the 
woods, where some of his hrethren Lad taken refuge 
with the remnimt of their neophytes. He found both 
pastors and people overwhelmed with affliction : and in 
oil that multitude there was not one who had nut to 
mourn the loss of a wife or husbuad, sister, son, or 
daughter — either carried off in chaius, or murdered in 
oohl blood before their eyes. Nevertheless, they built 
themselves huts, and sowed what grain they cMiuld col- 
lect; for thev thought that at least in that vast solitude 
thej might iiope to remain at peace ; but tbe com had 
scarcely sprouted, when the Mamelukes were once more 
upon their ti-ack, and once more they were compelled 
to fly. These disastere, and many others as bad or 
worse, at length convinced tbe Fathers that the work 
of civilisation which they had undertaken was simply 
impracticable so long as they remained in "— —-;-■*—*■ 
of St. Paul's. Their neophytes might, 
often did, defend themselves effectually for a time ; '. 
it was not possible that a professedly rural popolal 
should be ultimately successful against men who were 
for ever in the saddle, whose only occupation was fight- 
ing, and who gained their liveldiood by the spoils of 
war. Sometimes the Mamelukes marched upon the 
reductions in open guise of battle ; at others they broke 
suddenly out of ambush, or obtained admittance under 
false colours and on feigned pi-etences. Not a day or 
an hour in which they might not be concealed within a 
few mmutes' march of the mission. ITiey came down 
hke a wbirlwmd on the labourers in the sowing or the 
harvest time; or they surprised them in tbe festive 
meeting, or biu^t upon them in the hour of prayer. 
No Inchan could feel certain that be should reap what 
he had sown, or inhabit tbe house which he had built } 
nor cotdd be reckon, either for himself or for his wife 
or childi*en, upou one horn* of freedom beyond the onjj 




Miiuli he was BctuBlly enjoying' ; and, lest the picturB 
]^Bt has been dmwa i>e considered an exaggeration, it 
pay he as well to add, that in the official account of the 
"tale of the province, called especially De JHiiuiione», it 
( expressly declared by CommiBsiouer Albear, that in 
Ipe year (1630) no fewer than sixty thousand Iniiians, 
" 1 those for the most part torn fitim the reductions, 
re publicly sold in the Blave-market of Janeiro. 
It was plain, that with such an enemy in the vici- 
fcity and pePi>etuolly on the alert, the ludians never 
Peoiild remain in peace; and al'ter much mature consi- 
deration, the Jesiiit Fathers finally resolved to trans- 
plant their people to a safer distance. One or two of 
the younger reductions were first removed : The inha- 
, bitants were recent converts, and much opfHised to the 
Bieaaure, some even absolutely refiised to stir ; but they 
paid dearly for their obstinacy, hy suhseqneatly felling' 
' ■ ■' hands of the Mamehikea. In fact, it became 

„_J more apparent from day to day that the 

whole line of missions as oi-iginally laid down must ho 

entirely and irrevocably abandoned. An army of Ma- 

I melukes waa preasmg on to Villa Rica ; another swarm 

H^ these banditti had appeared on the southern coast of 

^■ffintzil, threatening; ruin to the Spanish settlements in 

^^^t quarter, as soon as it had overleaped the barrier of 

V^vie missions ; and after one more futile effoit to obtain 

~ assistance from the eommandajit of Villa Rica, who, 

indeed, by this time had quite enout^h to do on his own 

account in keeping the enemy in check, the provincial 

finally resolved upon evacuating' the reductions of Our 

Lady of Loreto and St. le^natins, which, having been 

hithertfl unmolested, had heen the chief reiiige of the 

Indians irom tlie ruined missions. 

Both these colonies were situate on the Pimpn; and 
I they were the last to be abandoned, so tbcy had 
I the first to be established in the province of 
yra. Both, therefore, by this time vied with the 
ish towns m the size and beauty of their pubhc 
ings and the order and cultivation of the sur- 

rounding chacaias; wliile in both the inhitbitants had 
Itecome thorono:hly Chmtianised, most of tbem havine 
Iwen bora in tTie bosom of the Cliurcb, and all weD 
funded both in faith and practice. Of their fideliyr 
to tfaeir religion they were now to give a sij^al proof; 
for, in truth, it was no light sacrifice they were called 
npon to make. To leave the settlements when they were 
only just beginning to taste the fruits of their industry; 
to b^ia again that life of tod and privation which had 
already cost them so dear; to go forth once more into 
the wilderness, and cultivate anew its arid wastes, and 
that too with only a hwe possibility of reaching their 
destination alive, and a certain prospect of danger and 
misery to be encountpred in the attempt, — all this 
would, have been a trial to the faith of any people ; but 
to the Indians, so indolent by nature, so deficient in 
foresight, and so prone to look no fliither than the 
exigencies of the hour, the Btmggle must have been 
terrible iudedd. Yet, when Father Cataldino assem- 
bled them in the grand square and announced the re- 
solution to which nia superiors bad arrived, instead of 
murmuring and resisting, as the Indians of the younger 
settlements had done, Uiey with one accord consented 
to the measure, as the only means that remained for 

E reserving; their faith and freedom. "To you, our 
lack-robe Fathers," bo they replied by their most an- 
cient chieftain, " to you we are indebted for our know- 
ledge of the worship of the Almighty Father, and all 
the blessings that knowledge has bestowed upon us. 
You have made us Christians, — to you we look that 
wo may ao continue ; and therefore, wherever you, our 
Fathers, go, we, your children, most willingly wilt fol- 
low. What if hunger, and thirst, and weariness befel 
us? you will give us of the Breodof Life, and our hiui- 
ger will be assuaged ; and in the strength of that Sa- 
crament our toils will he foi^otten. And if our loved 
ones fail us, if oiu- aged fathers and mothers, our younj 
wives and tender babes, sink beneath the sorrows ( 
thejoaniey, we shall know that they have but g 


the ^eat Fatlier a little sooner than He would other- 
wise have called them; and we will not weep for them 
in their graves, — we will rather follow them in our 
thoughts to heaven, and rejoice with them in their 

Such, without exaggeration, was the noble spirit in 
which these poor Indians met the proposition to aban- 
don their smiling homes ; and then, with a holy insensi- 
bility, which the resistance offered by their countrymen 
under similar circumstances proved to be not the effect 
of constitutional indifference, but an act of supernatural 
virtue, they returned for the last time to their dwell- 
ings, stripped them of all that could tempt the rapacity 
of the enemy, packed up the ornaments and sacred ves- 
sels of the altar, and followed the Jesuit Fathers, firet 
to the banks of the Paran4, and afterwards, as they 
had promised, wherever they chose to lead them. 


IMnuten nnd lufferinga of the omigraittB. Spaniordi ^ 
moles', tba old reductjoos. Flight of the iahiilntaiilB. 
UUiJcs of the Mamelukes The IpiiUni, allowed the a 
BnnB, [lofeat the muraudeni. Sew sattlemenEit, Intr ep i dity (t 
the miinioanriea. Bornardin de CardsDas, Bishop of A 
(Jon. His cbnrges agaiiutt the Jesuits. The fiibls of th« gi 
iDlaafl, InaurreotioD of the oolouiHtH quelled bj the 

TiiKEATENED OB they Were on the one hand by tlw 
Mamelukes, on the otner by the wild Indians, as cruel 
and as fierce ; menaced even by the jealous avarice of 
the Spaniards, who could not see witnout alarm, as it> ■ 
bore on both their present and future interests, '' 
fatal depopulation of the country which such whd^ 
emigration must produce, — the retreat of so lai^ a h 
of fugitives was certainly a measure beyond all b 
calculation of success, and as such roayoy many h 
been stigmatised at the time as rash and ill-a ' 
It was, however, inevitable ; and, moreover, 
planned with a foresight, und conducted with an t 
a coui'age, and a perseverarice, that, hod its project 
been warrioi-s or statesmen instead of simple minis 
of thu Gospel, would have won them honourable n 
tion in the iiiatoiy of the world. 

Benntilul from its source to its conclusion,— 
fill, but fiill of dangers, is the river to which they weitfij 
about to trust their fortunes. Forests, — the glori 
forests of America,— clothe a great portion of its bai 
presenting to the dazzled eye every tint of colour, fi 
the sober green of the primeval forest to the brij 
1 scarlet, snowy white, and imperial purple 




the brilliant jiarasites that climh the trees and over- 
top them ; the cayman lurks hy the fiedp:_y shores, and 
tigera are eveu found amid the endless wild-tlowei-a and 
"" * J everg^'eena of the thousand clusterings islands 
ing grace and beauty over its waste of watere. 
Iften, too, after the rainy season, when the river rises 
and becomes as tumultuous as u storm-rocked ocean, 
fragments of these islets are detached from the parent 
soil; and being kept together in a solid mass b-y the 
thick interlacing of the rooted shniljs, go wandering 
down the tide like gigtuitie baskets of flowers and foliage 
oommitted to its keeping ; nay, it has sometimes hap- 
ipened that a tiger has been made an unwilling traveller 
on the " camelote," as these floating gardens are called; 
and tradition even records how one of these fierce tenants 
of the woods, after a Journey of uncounted leagues, 
arrived safely at Monte Video, where lie gravely stepped 
on shore to the unspeakable astonishment of the terri- 
fied beholders. Upoa the banks of this foir river, but 
much nearer to its source than to its hinction with the 
PaiTiguay, the Jesuits with their neopiytes encamped; 
and hero they remained for weeks incessantly employed 
in building balsas by means of strong bamboos. Seven 
thousand at last were finished, no smaller number be- 
ing sufficient for their transport ; and in these they em- 
barked their neophytes, men, women, and children, only 
just in time to escape the vengeance of the Mamelukes, 
who were already on their track. Fair winds and 
sunny skies cheered them in their enterprise until they 
reached the Salto-gi-ande, or great catai-act of the Pa- 
l«n&, wliere the river rolls impetuously over eig-ht«en 
leagues of rocky barricade, roaring all the while like 
thunder, dashing its spray to the very clouds, and 
sweeping all before it as it leaps madly down into the 
dark and boiUng abyss below. Here they were com- 
pelled to disembark; and three hundred empty balsas 
were launched upon the I'apids, in hopes that some 
among them, clearing the fall uninjured, might enable 
them to proceed without fui-ther delay upon their voyage. 



For one breatlless momeDt of suspense tlia li|^ si 
eeemed to play and tumble on the seetliine watere ; ' 
they were suddenly lifted over; and trnea tbe f 
tators looked ag;ain, they beheld tliem dashed in 
ihousaud pieces, and floating' in li'sgnients far awaj on 
the stream below. All hope of continuing' their voyage 
being thus destroyed, the remaining' boats were per- 
force abandoned; and every man took his staff and 
bundle, every woman ber most helpless child; and so, 
with stout yet saddened hearts, they set off for tbe foot 
of the cataract, where all their toil and trouble were to 

For eight whole days they wandered tbn?, feedings 
on roots and berries, and such wild g'ame as their ai'rows 
could bring down, and drinkmg ot the chance torrent 
by tae way, or of dew deep garnered in tbe cool cup- 
like leaves that graw beneath the shadows of the forest. 
No accessible path lay parallel to the river ; nothing 
therefore remained for them but to plunge boldly inland, 
their route taking them sometimes over sands burning 
beneath tbe rays of tbe southern sun, sometimes alamg 
precipices where one false step would have dashed them 
to their doom ; but oftener still through dense and tangled 
forests, where trees, tbe growth of a thousand years, 
were laced and interlaced with creepers which, thick 
and strong as the cables of a man'of-war, yielded no 
passage excepting to tbe hatchet ; and when at last, w 
after the loss of numbers who diedby thewayof fBia* 
and fatigue, the poor wanderei's reached their desti] 
tdon, it was only, as has been said, to begin again t 
work of preparation on which so much time and fc 
had already been espended. With weakened fona 
and diminished hopes they had again to encamp i 
weeks, while they cut down trees, and fashioned tl 
to their purpose, buiying hundreds all the time wl 
starvation and overwork bad hurried to tbe grave, 
dertancfi, however, of difficulties and disasters, the j; 
quired number of balsas was in tbe end completed ; a 
men tJie Fathers arranged the march by djviding t 



Indiana into tlireo lai-ge bodies, of which the first wds 
to penetrate yet fiu'ther inland, the second to cu&st 
along' the river, and the third to float slowly down itd 
vaters. To these last the easiest lot might seem to 
bave heea apportioned ; yet it was not so in (act, as the 
livtir-passaM included many dangers from wliich the 
others would be eiemptfld. The great fall, indeed, had 
been passed ; but, besides sunken rooks and cross cur- 
rent,* occasioned by the islands, thei-e were freqnent 
rapids, smaller than the first, jet perilous withal ; 
and many a boat was sunk, and many a life was lost, 
ere they sacceeded in reacliing' their destination. 
Patience and perseverance, however, had their reward; 
and tiie Jesuits hod at last the satisfaction of seeing 
their scattei'ed neophytes assembled on the banks of the 
Jubabumis, a little stream flowing westwards into the 

They had been watched with jealous eyes, plotted 
against, thwarted as much as it was in the power of tfaeu' 
enemies to thwart them,-~all, indeed, but attacked up- 
on the road ; and if something of honourable p'ide were 
mingled with the first consciousness of success in the 
bosom of Montoya, the projector and chief director of 
the expedition, it was soon overpowered by a feeling of 
sadness when he came to muster the survivors, and 
found that, out of the vast multitudes who had peopled 
the old missions of the Guayra, there were but some 
few poor thousands left to answer to the call. Happily 
they liad been guided by Providence to a fair and fertile 
territory ; although, with all their endeavours, they had 
much privation to endure until the coming of the har- 
vest, — the Jesuits meanwhile doing what they could to- 
wai-ds supplying the wants of their neophytes by devot- 
ing to the purchase of com and cattle the salaries they 
I received as missionaries of Guayra. And now it was 
I that the Spaniards might have learned at last, had they 
I been capable of receiving the lesson, the real value of 
I those reductions which they had so ungenerously re- 
"^""^ ■^o defend; for no sooner was this barrier removed 

than their own immediate possessioBt were oruiMii Ti^ 
the Mamelukes, conjointly with hosts of pa^^an Indians, 
who were only too happy to avenge their own wrongs 
by helping the Christians to destroy one anotlier. Pro- 
vince aft«r province was laid desolate, city after city 
became the scene of their depredations, and both Cividaa 
and Villa Rica were sacked anil destroyed, notwith- 
standing the heroic efforts of the Bishop of Assumption, 
who went out himself to intercede in their behaU'; and 
nevertheless, untaught by aU that hod come and goaa, 
the Spaniards, incredible as it may seem, still continued 
to harass the reductions which remained, by laying claim, 
on all sons of unjust pretences, to tlie personal services 
of the inhabitants. Once, twice, tliey asserted these 
pretensions, the third time they drove the Jesuits from 
their ntissions, and replaced them with secular priests ; 
who, although actuated by the same good-will towards 
the Indian converts, did not possess the same power for 
their protection as the Fathers of the Society, wl 
authority was derived direct from the throne itself. 
The experiment had well-nigh proved fatal to 
reductions. Terrified at the prospect of the slai 
which they felt too surely to be in preparation for th< 
the inhabitants every where fled into the desert ; and 
when at a little later period the roval audience of La 
Plata commanded the restoration ot the Jesuits, it cost 
the Fathers fiir more time and trouble to bu'e Irack the 
frightened and indignant savages to their homes than 
it had taken to assemble them in the beginning. Pre- 
vious, however, to this decision, the Jesuits had ap- 
pealed both to Rome and to Madrid against the assaults 
of the Mamelukes and the iniquities of the slave-trade^ 
Father Tano having been sent to the one court, and 
Montoya [o the other. Both returned with favourable 
answers, the rescript from Spain containing an especial 
clause, by which all Indians converted by the Jesuits, 
whether of the province of Tfl]je or of the Paran4 and 
Uruguay, were declared immediate vassals of the cri 
and as such iuveate^ viik "Can sanie immunity ' 


J ' 


personal service as was already enjoyed by the Guanuii 
Indians. Tlie amount of triuiite to be paid by t: 
ductionswaa settle*) at the same time; althou^n, ii 



sequence of the poverty resulting' from recent disusteni, 
it was not actually levied until tbe year 1649, just nine 
years at^r it had been i«g;ulated by law. The publioa- 
tion of this edict caused immense commotion, and the 
more so because, over and above the especial privi!e)!;es 
conferred upon Indians converted by (be Jesuits, it ab- 
solutely foi'bade and declared unliiwM all bufing and 
sdlling of natives for the futiu'e. The merchants ravMt 
aa;ainst the Jesuits as Che authors of this blow to the 
slave-trade ; while, on their part, liie Fathers declared to 
a man tiiat they would do their duty, and resolutely en- 
force the law by every means in their power. So furi- 
ous was the excitement, that their college at Janeiro 
narrowly escaped being' sacked ; they were violently ex- 
pelled irora that of St. Paul's ; Moutoya found it neces- 
sary to retire for a time to Buenos AjTes; and the 
vicar-g'eneral nearly lost his life in the tumult which 
followed his promulgation of the law. 

In the midst of dl these commotions the Mamelukes 
had not been idle ; and, encouraged by their successful 
destruction of the Spanish towns, they pushed on to 
such of the reductions as had hitherto escaped their 
fury. At that of St. Theresa, after having despatched 
their prisoners to Bi-azil, and done all the mischief in 
their power, they had the audacity to request the Jesuit 
Father of the ruined mission to say Mass for them in 
the church. It was not an opportunity to be neglected; 
lie accordingly consented ; and the instant the Divine 
SacriBce was concluded, he ascended the pulpit, and 
there upbraided them in the strongest terms for their 
unchristian conduct. The barharinns listened to him 
unmoved ; they were too far gone in wickedness to be 
either excited to anger or softened to repentance by a 
recapitulation of their crimes; and the only symptom 
they gave of a better feeling, was the presenting the 
Father who had so earnestly addressed them with the 


Indisn acolyths who hod served )uin at the altar. Tba 
reductions on fLe Umguny were the next to suffer; 

although, being' numei-ous aud loug-estabUsfaed, they 
made a vis'oruus delence. But the strugfgie was too 
unequal. TLe neojibyt«s would not make use of poi- 
Boned arrows, nor could they lessen the number of the 
foe by killing' such captives as they could not prevent 
escaping — a prftcrice constantly and nnscrupulously re- 
sorted to by the Mamelukes. Fire-arms Ukewise, as it 
has been abeudy observed, the Indians were not per- 
mitted to possess ; and thus, forbidden to wage war in 
a Christian manner, and unwilling to do so after the 
lashton of savages, they were necessarily placed at a 
serious disadvantage. Retreat became the only alter- 
native ; and this time the Jesuits secured the safety of 
their colonies by locating them in that pai-t of the 

grovince (entre Hios) which, being sui'rounded by the 
aran& on the one side and by the Uruguay on tho 
othei', possesses a natural barrier against all invasion. 
About the same time also Father Montoya, after in- 
numerable negotiations, succeeded in obtaining an edict 
from Phihp IV. pennitting the use of fire-anus in the 
reductions ; and from that period a feeling of confidence 
both in the government and in themselves seems to 
have grown up among the Indians, and given them new 
vigour in their own defence ; we consequently hear 
less and less of the Mamelukes as our history proceeds!, ■■ 
The neophytes fought bravely, and i-epeatedly repii" 
them; and in one of the last great battles in wfaicli' 
measiu^d their strength with these inveterate ( 
of their race, succeeded in so thoroughly routing^ 
that tJie death of Father Alfaro, who had been shot^ 
cold blood before tlie action by a Mameluke soldi 
was teiTibly avenged. 

Having thus eiven good proof of their valour, 1 
exhibited a discipline and steadiness in war in w'" 
the Spanish mercenary was often deficient, the Inc 
were continually called upon to serve in the ki 
armj -f and in move than wue vehelhon of the provi 




BTjvenior owed ita suppression in a ereat measure 

to tlieir atrengi:b and sumbers. All tliis, liowever, 
-was the work of time ; and wliile the coasolidation 
and defence of the reductioaa already established e;ave 
iidl occupation to not a few of the Jesuit Fathers, 
othere were as actively employed in the formation of 
new Bettlenients. Pathei' Antonio Palermo, in company 
with a party of fervent neophytes, h<td already coasted 
ilJong' toe JPanm^, and returned with a multitude of 
converted Indians, whom he speedily placed in a new 
reduction ; others sought out the poor Indinns who had 
fled to the woods and deserts from tlie fiiry of the 
Mamelukes, and were in dan^^r of relapsing into thoir 
primitive barbarism ; while others, again, at the earnest 
request of the Bishop of Tuouman, endeavoured to oarry 
the Qospel into the wilds of Chaco. The nature of this 
country rendered it particulflrly difEcult of access, its 
vast and trackless plains, which in summer were one 
arid waste, being in winter flooded like a sea. The 
savages themselves were cannibals, and, as a matter of 
eoui'se, the tiret party of Jesuits who venfawed among 
them were put to death, one of their companions having 
first been devoured before their eyes ; but the two who 
followed had better success. These were the Fathers 
Pastor and Cerqueira, and they resolved first to seek 
out the Abipones, who dwelt on the eastern extremity 
of the desert; but falling in with a tribe oftbeMata- 
raaes by the way, they succeeded by kind and gentle 
perseverance in winning theh' confidence, Mor did the 
Abipones themselves prove less accessible to kindness, 
although they were among the fiercest and most in- 
tractable of the American savages, being absolutely in 
a state of primeval wildness 'when Father Pastor thus 
succeeded in penetrating into their haunts. No soonei- 
did they perceive bim coming from alar, than they 
hastened to meet him ; and with skins spotted ana 
painted according to their notions of a wanior, eyes 
■.carting wild and ferocious glances, hair long, matted and 
"■"ihe veiled, and clubs and javelins, which they whirled 

78 PARAQttAT. 

with savage ontcriea round his iiead, they rashed i 
upon the Fether, Bod surroumied him and his cotii- 
panioM on all sides. Had he shown any sign of alarm, 
lie would prohably have heen murdei'ea on the instaat; 
as it was, ne explained to them his errand, at the eamg 
time deolajing his confidence in God and in their good 
Isith as Bimply and as quietly as if they had been but a 
band of children whom he had interrupted in their play. 
The effect was magical. Fear would have provoked 
violence, detiance would have insured it; hut such calm 
and intrepid courage astonished and overawed them, as 
a thing which they had never witnessed befoi-e, and 
which surpassed their comprehension ; and throwing 
down their weapons, they welcomed their visitor with a 
shout of joy. From that moment he was their guide, 
their councillor, and tJieir chosen friend. He instructed 
them in the rudiments of civilisation; he tauffht them 
to abhor their savage banqueting on human nesh; he 
studied the bent of their minds and dispositions, and 
succeeded at last in at least partially reconciling them 
to the settled life of the converted Indians. 

So far every thing had proceeded prosperously ; when, 
unfortunately, the numbers of the Jesuits, at all times 
too small for the work in which they were engaged, 
were still ftirther diminishe<l by on order fi'om the 
Council of the Indies forbidding a^ save Spanish s ub- 
jects to preach in the colom'es of Spain. This resti "^^ 
tion was caused entirely by the inti-igues of those n 
sought by all ways end means to hinder the formatioi 
new reductions, seeing that they invariably becain 
many harbours of refuge fi'om the iniquities of tiieal 
trade. It was subsequently rescinded ; but in the n 
time it opemted with fatal effect alike upon the c 
nista by whom it had been pi'esciibed, and upon ( 
Indians, who were the Immediate sufferers ; for 1 
result was so greatly to reduce the Jesuits in namti 
that, in order to supply the wants of the old reductidj 
it was found necessary to withdraw Father Pastor fr 
those whom after so imicU visk and trouble he i 



just beginninff to civilise. Tliej parted from him witli 
tears, and for days and moatlts looked anxiously for 
his return; but indignant at last at the lon» delay, 
they became the worst enemies the Spanish colouists 
had yet encountered, and taught them by sod eJtperi- 
[mce all ttie inestimable advantages that might have 
wsulted from the establishment of permanent reduc- 
ttonB ia their deserts. Tbey had not yet, however, 
g^ven this terrihle lesson to the Spaniards, when the 
enemies of the Jesuits received an important addition 
to their ranks in the person of Bernardin de Cai'deiias, 
the new Bishop of Assumption, who threw all the 
weight and influence of his position into the scale in 
favour of the slave-ti'ade. He was a inan of liriUinnt 
talents, but in-epressible ambition ; possessed of aveir 
quality calculated to gain popularity with the multi- 
" ide, and never scrupling to prostitute his highest gifts 
their adulation. An infonnality in nis conse- 
^jjration had rendered it in the opinion of many null and 
'oid ; and the question of its validity having been re- 
ferred by himself to one of the colleges of the Jesuits, 
they were conscientiously compelled to declare agdnst 
From that moment he never ceased attempting by 
men violence or secret intrigue to drive them frvm the 
■City, The governor, a weak but conscientious man, in 
train endeavoured to oppose him; nature had especially 
If^ftedhim for the ofBce of a demagogue, and he oecame 
■Ae idol of the colonists. He addressed himself at once 
I darling interest of their naiTow hearts, and 
worked up afresh all the old leaven of jealousy that lay 
fermenting in their bosoms by denouncing the Jesnite 
as the Quixotic apostles of Indian liberty. It was pre- 
cisely their best title to the love and admiration of all 
Kood, men; but it was also, and Don Bernardin knew 
well, that which excited the fear and hatred of every 
lave-holder in the land. One hint was sutficient for 
an audience ; and when he had succeeded in tho- 
ly rousing the pussions of the multitude, ho sud- 
assumed an air of inspired authority, declared 


aloud his hypocritical regreti! for the step he « 
pelled to taku, And then and there excoiumimicated i 
whole body of tlie Jesuits, forbidding^ the ftutUull 
hold further intercourse with them. The govemop ff 
tempted to interfere ; but the citizens to a man s' 
with their Bishop. He hud promised them the sl.^ 
service of the Indians as soon as the Jesuits should 
driven from their reductions ; he had hinted, 
over, at g;old-mines, which, according to bim, lay hidden 
in their missions; and the idea was far too tempting 
to these worshippers of mammon to be easily relin- 
quished. They rose as by one accord in defence of the 
man who had caUed up these golden \-isions before their 
eyes; and it was by force alone that Don Gregorio 
succeeded in the end in expelling; him from the ci 
which he had demoralised by his amhitian and scfl 
dalised by his crimes. 

But the serpent hod left his sting behind hiro. 
had whispered of gold-mines; and gold-mines ofooij 
the colonists ever aftei'wards clamorously afiirmeds 
be actually eEisting among the mountains wha« )P 
Jesuits had &s.ed their abodes. Hencefoitb no s 
was too ridicubus for promulgation, or too estravag, 
for belief; and no witness, however despicable his a 
racter, but was regarded as tnistworthy, so long aa 
gave his testimony in &vour of this imaginary ELM 
rado. One man actually deposed on oath that he Ijf 
met an Indian bearing three large sacks of gi 
Ids shoulders, being a present from the provincial ofi 
Society to the colleges of Cordova and Aasumptii 
The governor treated this base perjurer with the o' 
tempt which he deserved, dismissing him with a Eati 
assurance that he was greatly edified by the diaii 
estedness of the provincial, who out of so large a t 
sure hod reserves nothing for himself; and at the si 
time gently hinting his suspicions, that bad his intbr 
been similarly circumstanced, he would hardly 1 
practised as much self-denial. Notwithstanding i 
summary dismissal of the subject on the part of s 


B;uTenior, tlie rejinvt had spread too far and sunk too 
deep to be thus easily disposed of. It had reached the 
ears of the Council uf the Indies, and had even found 
nn echo ia the bosoms of the cliief ministers of Spain 
itself; it was therefore necessary, if only for ch<i Bake 
of the accused, that it should be sifted to the bottom, 
80 the Society thought and felt ; and they ofiered ac- 
cordingly to evacuate the reductions with all their In- 
ilians, in order to leave them more thoroughly open to 
the investig'ation of their foes. This proposition was 
not accepted in the letter, but an oflicer was appointed 
to visit the reductions in which the gold-mines were 
supposed to he concealed; and althouf^h the man 
who pretended to have seen them, and wto was to he 
brought t« the spot as a witness, eontrived to make his 
escape on the way, the visitor still proceeded, and never 
left tbe scene of his scrutiny until he and his assistants 
had searched both hill and valley in vain for gold. A 
second and a third commission to the same place, to 
otlier places, to every place, in fact, pointed out by 
the mnintainera of the golden theory, were at different 
times appointed, but always with tlie same result; and 
after years thus spent in useless investigations and ha- 
rassing suspicions, some of the most vehement accusers 
of the Jesuits, unwilling to die, as they had lived, in 
the propagation of a lie, deposed upon tbeir death-beds 
to the utter falsity of the accusation, and the sordid 
motives for which it had been invented. The innocence 
of the Jesuits was thus clearly established ; hut the con- 
sequences of the accusation were not so easily to be 
undone. Calumny against any body of men almtffit 
invariably pi'oves an undying thing; and such it nov? 
became to them. A slur had been cast upon their 
labours in behalf of the poor Indians^a slur most 
perseveringly maintained by those who best knew its 
felsehood ; tlie love of riches and the love of power had 
been put forward as their motives for deeds wliich the 
love of God could alone have prompted, and His powpr 
alone have made successful; and from that moment 


they were watclied by the Council of the Indus, i 

by an ever-inci'eaaiiig; party in the court of Siiain, with 
a jealousy whiL-h never rested until it had expelled them 
from their n ' 

The immediate result, however, of the inrpiries was 
to reinstate the Jesuits ic the ^ood opinion both of the 
home govermnent and of the local aiitnorities, andpeuce 
was restored between them and their traducers ; but it 
was only for the moment. By a most ill-timed courtesy, 
Don Bemardin was permitted to n?tum from esile ; aiid 
the governor dying; suddenly, the Bishop, witb bis iisoal 
promptitude, seized upon the gfovemment, and drove the 
Jesuits from the ci^. Against this violence they pro- 
tested, by numing Father Nolasco. Superior of the Order 
of Mercy, as tlieir judge- conservator, to examine into 
the obai'ges preferred against them ; and his sentence 
in their favour baring been contirmed by that of the 
rc^al audience of Charcas, and by the decision likewise 
of the conuniBBarv-generfti, whom the King of Spain 
had deputed to judge between them, they were restored 
by royal command to their college, and Don Bemardin 
deposed from his bishomic by the Pope, who bestowed 
it in 1666 on Don GuWiel de Guiilestoqui. Even sis 
years befoi-e this restoration to their lights, the Fathers 
of the Society had bad an opportunity, and hod not re- 
fiised it, of doing signal service to their enemies. The 
Indians in and about the city of Assumption had nsen 
in a body against their Spnuish tnastfirs, and after mas- 
sacring the principal inhabitants in cold blood, had 
taken possession of the town. Tliere was no time, had 
there been the means, for the raising of troops, and the 
governor was forced to fly; but ma situation was no 
sooner made known in the reductions than a body of 
neophytes were sent to aid him ; witb their assistance 
the insurrection was quelled, the Spaniai-ds delivered 
fi-om their peril, and the governor enabled to i-etum in 
peace to his ruined city. The conduct of the Indians 
on tliis occnsion was, or at any rate ought to hav« 
been, an imanswerahlo argument id favom' of the syB- 


tent which the Jesuits had so earnestly advacatGd. The 
Indians of the encomiendas wera in ujien and successful 
insuirection when the Indians of the reductions Ibught 
in favour of peace and order side by side with men wlio, 
f&r as the poles asunder from them in country, habits, 
and education, yet possessed an overwhehuinu' claim 
upon their eympatliy and co-operation in the Christian 
creed which they professed in common. 

But although the enslaved Indians had been thus 
subdued, those who were yet unreclaimed from pag;an- 
isnt continued to harass the Spaniards in all directions. 
L Force of arms and peaceful ti'eaty were equaJly unavail- 
Bfiig'. If tliey were defeated on the eve, it was only to 
Pdo battle again on the moii'ow ; and if tiiey made peace 
■ when compelled by reverses to simidate friendship, it 
was but to break it the moment tliat the chances of war 
wei-e in their tavowr. The false poHcy of the colonists 
now reacted fetally upon themselves ; for as the Indian 
Lad found neither feith nor honest dealing amongi thein, 
so he would jjive them neither faith nor lionest aealing 
in return. In this dilemma, the governor turned for 
assistance to the Jesuits; two of them mstantly imder- 
took a mission of peace, and "throwing themselves into 
the midst of the savages, pledged their word for the 
presimt arocerity of their eonntrvmen. It was enough : 
the Jesuits, at least, had been always tme to their pro- 
fessions, and the Indians could not refuse to believe tuem 
now. A truce for six years was oifei'ed and accepted, 
and this time the savages kept their woi-d; for they 
had pledged it to men who never had, and, well they 
knew, who never would deceive them. The Spanianfe 

Epofited by this long interval of repose to repair their 
tte disasters; and the Jesuits also put it to use in 
another fasliion, by penetrating deeper into the woods 
and wilds of Paraguay than tbey ever had done before, 
and thus giving wider estensioc to their schemes for 
the conversion and civilisation of the natives. 

Martyrdonn of Fathers Oriii and Solioaa. Sucoew of Fatliar _^ 

MartyrdomBot FathorB Cavalloro, de Arc£, Blende, SyWa.Muo,. 
and thirty DBOphytoa. Antoquaro umirpa the goreraaiont ; per- 
SDoutea the JeaoiU. Hiarepentancoand death. Kebeie a second 
time defeated b; the Chmtmn Indians. Rmewnl nf charges 
against Che miHaionnjiea, Martyrdom of Father LisEU-di. Treaty 
of EichangD betnoon Spain and Portugal ; fbroed emigrnUon of 
the nativea. Feraecution and deportation of the Jeaujta. Preaant 
stats of Paraguay. BeTion of the labours of the Society in thnt 

It will be remembered, tliat after Father Paator's first 
successful attempt witi the fierce savofres of Chaco, he 
had been compelled, by an unfortunate diminution in th6 
number of tlie missionaries, to withdraw from hie n 
reductions; and that the Indians, thus deserted, '. 
become the most deadly enemies with which the Spa 
colonists had yet been called upnn to contend, 
nearly twenty years the province of Tucuman was 
tinuoJly devastated by tueir incui-sions ; and alth 
the Jesuits had tned again and again, they had i 
succeeded, during all that period, in recovering the o| 
tidencfl BO unhappily forfeited. However, in the yi 
1683, with which the present chaptei' opens, two of] 
Fathei's, Btiiz and Soiinas, with a zealous ecdesia^ 
of the name of Ortiz de Zarate, set forth from Jnjuy.l 
tiie puijose of once more resuming the interrupted flr 
sion. In sixteen days they I'eached tlie " Santa," cf^ 
par excellence " theMountain of Ctiaco," which on d 
days commands an unbroken prospect of the ce 
try towards which tbey were directing their steps ; 
wlien they attained the summit, although the sua '8 
bng;ht above tlieiibea^,'4a£^4easQ clouds of mis^n 

I CH. VII.] 

^H~ iag beneath their feet, shut out the landscape entirely 

^■'iromtheii' view. It was a fittiuu; omen for the com- 

^H mencemetit of a nuasion which was to open lieaven to 

^V tbose who uadertook it, hut to leave the people for 

^B whose sake it was undertaken still wrapt in the clouds 

^H of idolatiy and error. They succeeded, indeed, in build- 

^r ing a chapel, and inducing' some of tlie Indians to settle 

peaceably around it; but one morning, at the dawn of 

day, when they were about to oiFer the divine sacrifice, 

a body of aavag'es rushed fi'om the woods with feartul 

» shouts and cries of triumph, killed Fathers Ortiz and 
Solinos by repeated blows of their macanas, or clube, 
and then, cutting off their heads, carried them away ta ' 
make drinking-cups of the skulls. Father Buiz hap- ' 
pened fortunately to he absent, having been eent to Tu- 
cuman for provisions ; but aa he was known to be re- 
turning, a party was sent out to intercept him. By a 
special protection of Providence it missed him ; and 
when he arrived at the reduction, ignorant of all that 
had occurred dnring his absence, he found it lonely and 
deserted ; the inhabitants driven by terror into the woods, 
and the mutilated bodies of the moityrs lying cold and 
bloodv on the altar-steps. 

The news of this catastrophe only fired the Jesuits 
with fresh enthusiasm ; and a college was soon erected 
at Tarija, on the borders of the province of Charcas, to 

I serve as a d£p6t of missionaries destined for the desert. 
Father de Ajxk was appointed to lead them on ; and 
twice he tried, and twice he failed, after having been 
each time cheered on at the outset by some delusive 
prospect of success. The enterprise was then abandoned 
for tJie time, and he tinned his steps towai'ds the nations I 
of the Ghiquitos, or Little Indians ; a name derived, not 
from the shortness of theu- stature, but from the ex- ' 
tremely diminutive appeamnce of their dwellings. Di- 
vided into immmerable small tribes, this people inhabited 
a vast extent of counti'v, which, watered by the riveiB 
Guapay and Pirapiti, is broken by mountains and over- 
shaaowed with forests. They were bravo, active, and 

enei^tic; find hamng up to the period of ¥btber da 

Arch's visit been in u state of perpetual hostility with 
the Spaniards, had formed the subjects of & lucrative 
traffic to the ittlmbitjuits of Santa Oi-uz, where a regnlar 
oomptuij had been organised for buying up all prisoners 
made in war for tlie purposes of the aiave-trade. The 
advent of the Jesuits with their rescript in favour of 
converted Indians would, of course, put a stop to this 
illegnl ti'affic ; and the Santa Crazians thereibre did all 
they could to impede the mission. Their real motive 
they did not, for shame's sake, venture to avow; but 
they hung' about the Father, and overwhelmed him with 
civilities, magnilyin^ all the while the dai^ers he was 
likely to encounter, tiio blind hatred of the Indians, the 
tri^htfiil insalubrity of the climat«, and the contagions 
diseases which even at that moment were raging amon^ 
them. To all this, and much more besides, the Father 
listened with grave politeness ; but when it was his turn 
to answer, the only notice he took of their alarming re- 
presentations was to exhort them earnestly to lessen the 
evils of which they spoke, by aiding him in his mission; 
and when theyrefused, he left them, to proceed npon 
his journey. They liad not certainly exag^rated the 
danger, for the plague was raging in the very first vil- 
lage which he entered ; but it proved a happy circum- 
stance in the end ; ibr while it could not damp his zeal, 
the services it enabled him to render to all without ex- 
ception won him tlie confidence of the survivors. A 
church was btiilt, and a reduction founded ; and another 
tribe having expressed a wish to see him, he sent them 
word to come at once, that he might receive and bless 
them as his children. The invitation was instantly ac- 
cepted ; and the reduction thus formed having lieen 
removed to a more healthy situation on the river St. 
Michael, another was without delay established on that 
of Jacopo. 

During Father do Arch's absence at the latter place, 
the Mamelukes attacked St. Miclinel's, imagining th ' 
from its being so recent a ■ioutABluni, it would pi-ove 




easy aoqiiiBition, But the Cliiquitos were natuniliy a 
far more warlike people than tneir old victima of the 
Gimiitni nation; and they preparad s'allantly for their 
defence. Father de Arce, however, being absent from 
the reduction, they were unwilling to be^ the combat 
without the assurance of his blessing. He returned 
just in time, heai'd the confession of evoty fiphtin^ 
man, gave tliem Communion on the battie-field, and. 
bejbre the sun had fairly risen tliey had attacked and 
entirely defeated the' foe. Their success gave an abso- 
lute and unexpected develogiment to the young mission 
of the Chiquitus ; new settlements were as mpidly and 
solidly founded ; and the rejiublic thus suddenly created 
soon ried with uiat of the Guarani Indians. The JesHits- 
pushed these advantages far beyond the nation with 
which they had commenced; and tribes which the 
Spaniards had never known or had known only by the 
devastations they committed — among others, the Lulles, 
one of the fiercest and bittierto most intractable of all 
— ^were in a vary short time eouvert«d and civihsed. 

The Father Cavallero — and his life is but a sample 
of what hundreds of other missionfuies were doing at 
the same.time^-spent his days in passing irom nation 
to nation, every where announcing the Gospel, every 
where, as a necessary conaeqnence, braving the death' 
which finally overtook him ; but every where subduing 
the savM;es among whom he had cast his lot by the 
power of his doctrine and the sweetness of his words. 
Sometimes he was openly menaced with their ven- 
geance ; at others he only narrowly escaped the snares 
laid cunningly for his life; but stdl, unmindlijl of fa- 
tigue or danger, he proceeded boldly and perseveringly 
on his way. Innumerable reductions marked the spots 
where his steps bad been, and his journeyings were one 
lonp triumph of the cross, until be readied the country 
of the Puizocaa, which wna destined to prove his grave. 
An arrow from a hostile sava^ pierced him between 
the shoulders; he still had strength to plant the 01*038 
I he carried in the ground, and there he knelt in prayei 

until he finally expired beneath the repeated blows of 
the macanas. It was the 10th of September 1711. His 
martjrdom was the signal for many others. The Fa- 
thers de Arcfi, Blende, Sylva, and Maco, with tbirty of 
their neophytes, perished beneath the clubs of the 
Payagiifts in a fruitless attempt to navigate the Pani- 
ETiay; while Brother Romero, with twelve other In- 
aians, were murdered by the Zamucos in a sudden fit 
of rage. Hardly had tiey done the deed, when they 
fled to hide themselTes in the mountaius; and there, 
hdieving' themselves safe alike from the vengeance of 
Heaven and the reprouches of the Jesuits, they were 
Htill boasting of their recovered freedom, when Fathers 
de Agoilar and Castanarez, who had followed to appease 
their anger, entei'ed tbetr tolderias. Such untiring' 
charity was not to be resisted, and the savages followed 
them quietly hack to their old reduction of St. Raphael, 
where they commenced again the life of labour and tn- 
atruction which this miu^erous outbreak had so lament- 
ably inteiTupted. 

Neither these nor any other of the massacres which 
from time to time occurred had power to interrupt, 
hardly even to i-etard, the plan of operations which tne 
Josuit Fathers had traced out for themselves. Where 
one man fell, another was always ready to Btep into his 
place ; and while new reductions were continually be- 
mg formed, the old ones were just as constantly ad- 
vancing towards the moral and material prosperity 
contemplated by their founders, — a prosperity not ma- 
terially aifectea even by that rebellion of Ant«qiiera 
which at one time had neai'ly threatened to dissever 
Paraguay from the Spanish dominions. Strictly speak- 
ing, Antequera was not the governor of the province, 
having been sent by the royal audience of Charoas 
merely to settle some disputes which had arisen be- 
tween the actual govei-nor and his subjects ; but the 
charge was too tempting for his ambition, and instead 
of mediating between the contending parties, he seized 
the govemnieiA for AnmseU', ond maintained it ' '' -~ 



of Brmii. The j „ ^ _ 

state vrns eRsily induced to declare in Lis farour; nnd] 
as the Indians of tlie reductions were the only purt ofl 
the population that took no part in the revolt, the Je-1 
suits hy wliora they were directed became the objectal 
of his suspicion. They were expelled in consequenoa ■ 
from theii' colle^ at Assumption, notwithstanding tha 1 
earnest i-emonstrances of Don Joseph Paloz, the newly- 
appointed coadjutor-bishop of the city, who showed 
hunsolf an angel of peace and mercy through all the 
stormy events that darkened hia episcofrate. On his 
part, Antoqnem endeavoured to justify his illegal no- M 
lenco towaras the Fathers by first raking up all the oI(t fl 
exploded accusations against thntn, and then inventiogpfl 
new ones. The story of the gold-mines was, of course, ' 
revived and mode the most of, as best calculated to 
lind favour with the multitude ; and tlieir passions 
were yet further excited by a promise nf the plunder of 
the reductions whenever they should he suhdued, and 
an assignment of the inhabitants to the colonists as 
slaves. But tlie usurper had pledged himself to more 
than he could perform. Ere naif his plans had been 
accomplished, the Coimcil of the Indies put forth all its J 
strength, and the Jesuits were restored by an edict tr 
Assumption ; while Antequera was brought l>ack pri 
soner to Lima, under sentence of death tor his rebd--j 
hon. At that awful hour, with the fear of death before 
hint, the veil fell from liia eyes ; he confessed tha in- 
justice of which he had been guilty, and gave signal 
testimony of hia sincerity by begging t« bo attended ia._ 
prison by some of the very men wnom he had 80 crueiijj 
persecuted. At once responding to his appeal, sever 
of the Fathers hastened to share his confinement; ai 
Antetiuem, selecting one to prepare him for hia doom,' 
besought him not to leave nim even for a moment ; 
moreover, he declared to all who saw him the utter 
falsity of the accusations he had brought against them, 
and prepared a paper to the same effect to be read b" ~ 
fore the execution of his sentence. Yet all this fail 







ihem, J 



reinstate tliem in the ^ood opinion of the Vanf^uy- 
, much more easy is it to sow falsehood broadcast 

thflii aftemards to nproot it ; and their very attendance 
on him in prison, and afterwards on tJie scaSbld, tbowgt 

1 both instances in compliance witb his own eame^ 
»]nest, was construed into an insolent triumph ora 4 

te. Antequera bad been a favourite witii t} ~ 
people, and his death, &r from tranciuilhsin^ thm 
roused the yet smouldering embers of di£cant«it. T" 
city of Assumption revoUed outright; a junta i 
named for its govemraent; riots and eicessea of e»i_ 
description followed, dnrina; which the Jesuits we^ 
once more expelled- and oespairinE^ of effecting snjl 
gnod among' a. people thus sell-abandoned to their pMT 
siona, the Bishop reAised tA lend to their proceedmri 
the sanction of bis presence, and left the city, ^valo, 
a nobleman of hiB;h standing and repute, was 9«nt to 
quell the insurrection ; bnt finding' the citizens in fevoor 
of the junta, he fell back upon the reductions, where 
Beven thousand Indians mustered at bis call ; end thus 
3Hpporf«d, he marched affainst the town. War, with 
all its miseries, ensued; out after montlis of varying 
fortune on either side, the rebels were finally defeatfdi, 
the heathen Indians, who at the first not« of war h~ 
armed against their Spanish masters, were overpow^ 
and peace and order being thus restored to the j 
vince, the Christian Indians marched back to their r 
ductions, there to face a far more feai'ful foe than a 
they had left behind them, in the famine which t 
absence of so many of the working'-members dm 
the sowing-season had necessarily occasioned. 

The very &et of this rebellion having been reprei 
entirely by the Indians of the reductions told with &,ta 
effect upon the popularity of the Jesuits, Men who i 
then- frantic hatred had already driven them fiH)m thaij 
homes by raising a senseless ont^i'y, without show t' 
justice or pretence at a trial, were not hkely to lo* 
them better now that by means of these despised nativei 
whose Jibertj they had ^Teaet^ed wnd whose char 

rciT. vn.] 
they liad fi 
oils designs 
BFinetl nnd 
were, the t 
let a victii 
once escape 
and caluini 



they liftd formed, their own B«litioiis plote and oovet* I 
oils designs had been so shamefiilly defeatod. But, dis* 1 
BFmetl nnd powerless, baffled and disappointed as they I 
were, the colonists of those days wei'e not tlt« luea to I 
let a Tictim ao unscathed merely because it had for 1 
once escaped them. Open violence had failed ; iatii§^ I 
and calumny were left them, and these they tjied with- 1 
out pity or remorse. With characteristic aiutacity tliey I 
changed at once from rebels into loyal sitbjects; and I 
affecting an intense anxiety for the interests of the very I 
crown against which they had so lately been in anns, 1 
they poured in memorial after memorial, first to the 
Council of the Indies, and then more directly to the 
court of Spain, denoimcing the anthority exei-cised by 
the Jesuits in their reductions as derogatory to that of 
the Spanish monarch, and accusing them moreovei' of 
embezzling enormous sums due to the guTemment jrom 
the converted Indians. The Fathers met these accusa- 
tions in the only way in which it was possible to meet 
them, that is to say, by an earnest petition for a legal 
trial ; and in the year 1732 a commission was in con- 
seqnencfl issued, empowering John Vasqiien de Agnero 
to proceed to America for the purpose of investigating 
the latter and more tangible jiortion of the cnarg;e. 
The result of this inquiry, concluded just four years 
after it had been first instituted, provea that, owing to 
the variety of epidemical diseases whicli contmually 
desolated the reductions, there was an inevitable varia- 
tion from year to year in the numbers of the population; 
but that the tribute had always been paid exactly ac- 
cording to the numerical lists sent in by the Jesuits, 
and that, these lists being on examination found to 
have rather exceeded than understated the actual pro- 
portion of inhabitants to each reduction, the Society 
was clearly acquitted of any design of defrauding the 
revenue. Don Vasquez added, that so far from tho 
reductions possessing the enormous wealth whic4i was 
supposed to exist amon^ them, the tribute, if augmented, 
as the colonists were clamorous it should be, would be- 


e SO insupportable a burden to the IndiaiiB, tliat it 

would prubabjy end bj their throwing it off a]toa;ether. 
This decisiou, the result of testimony tnkeo on the spat 
and after repeated conferences with the governor, the 
bishop, and other officials of the province, would have 
satisfied the king, even if he had pi-evioualj entertained 
any doubts, which eertainlj^ he had not ; and he readily 
followed the advice of Don VasqueB with reference ' 
the tribute, which up to the period of the expulsion 
the Jesuits remained at precisely the same ratio 
which it had been lixed in tlie beginning. 

Meanwhile seithei' the vexations attendant on tfaia 
dispute, nor the previous more ojjen persecution, had 
caused the Pathei's to relax in their efforts tor the con- 
version of the heathen. The desert of Chauo was once 
more attempted, and this time at the especial request of 
the viceroy, who found it absolutely impassible to reduce 
the inhabitants without tlteir aid. Lizaidi, Chome, and 
Pons obeyed the call ; but when they found that an army 
was to march into the country with them, they positively 
refused to accompany it. It was not by the sword that 
they had hitherto won the Indians to obedience ; and 
neither by the sword, nor in company with the sword, 
would they now undertake the enterprise. Alone, there- 
fore, and with no other weapons than the Cross and the 
Breviary, they set out upon a mission which had already 
brought death to so many of the Fathers. A reducl ' 
was soon fonned by their united exertions within 
leagues of Tarija, and it promised to become a 
flourishing settlement. But some rumours of the 
tended army had probably ali-eady reached the 
ijistant portion of the desert ; for the Cbuignanes 
Cordilleras, the tribe they were especially in que 
every where fled before them. In vain they exph 
mountains, forded rivers, searched the depths of all 
impeneti-able fbi'ests, not a. savage could they bc 
hear of; and they had come in considemble perpli 
to a halt, when word was brought them that the 
tiiey were seeking were sfiaeB&tD^ in great numl 


rCH. Vlt.] THE FINAL BLOW. 03 ^H 

md in hostile ^isc near t)ie reduction of the Conception. ^H 

Hither Lizardi flew at once for the protection of his ^H 

neophytes; but fiuding' all thinjfs apparantly calm and ^^M 

tranquil on his arrival, he supposed tie bad been mis- ^^M 

infoi'med, and prepared to ofier the Adorable Sacriflce. ^^M 

Scarcely, howevei', had he reached the altar-steps, when, ^^M 

from the woods and mountain-fastnesses where they ^| 



had lain concealed, the Chiri^anes came pouring; into 
tiie villaa^e, put the terriiied neophyt«s to fii^ht, and 
canned the missionary off in triumph. Amid blows 
and insults they diti^g^d him on, until, half-dead already 
with the treatment he had received, they set him on n 
rock aa a target tor their arrows ; and when a day or 
two afterwards the neophytes ventured to return to 
their deserted villoEre, they found the Father c 
spot where his foes uad lett him, his body pierced with 
arrows— his Crucifix at his side, and his Breviary open 
at the olfice tor the dying, as if he had sought to recite 
it over himself during tne long and lingering agony 
that must have ushered in his death. Pons, who had 
accompanied him in his eipedition to the desert, re- 
turned to take chaise of the bereaved reduction, while 
Chomfi was sent forward in search of souls. To make 
amends for this disaster, the fierce tribes of the Zamncos 
were formed into a reduction by the Fathers de Agiiilar 
and Castanarez ; the latter subseqnently preaelied to the 
Borillos, and after them to the tnhe ot the Mataguayos, 
among wiiom he was treacherously massacred on the 
15th of September 1744. 

In the yet more southern parts of America other Fa- 
thers of the Society had succeeded admirably both with , 
the wandeiing tribes of the pampas and the uihabitants 
of the mountain-range which separates Chili from the I 
province of Putagonin, among whom they had begun ] 
to form flourishing reductions, when their labours were ] 
again assailed with injurious suspicions, and the story 
of the gold-mines was once more revived. 

This time the nunonr came from Portugal ; 
reaching the ear of the Ticeroy of Bi-azil, he, in a i 


almost incouoaimUe credulitj', persuaded his _ 
to escluiQ^ a colony it possessed od the east side 
La Plata for the seven reductions founded on the bi 
of the Unig^uay. So convinced, indeed, was he of 
tnitli of the storr, that he even stipulated that 
poor Indians should be removed to nnotlier port of 
province, in order that he might prosecute his sr- 
with 1bs3 interruption ; and the proposition having 
accepted by the Spanish government, the Fathere of the 
Society were themselves intnisted with its execution. 
Bernard Neydorffert was the one to whom it was ii 
especiidlj confided, a man inespressihlj dear to 
neophytes, among whom he had spent the best fil 
and-tliirty years of his missionary life ; yet when 
assembled the caciques of the several 
explained to them the conditions of the treaty, they ,_ 
sisted to a man, declaring that death was preferable to 
such an exile, and that foi'ce alone should drive them 
from the beloved homes and haunts of their childhood. 
To foi'ce accordingly recourse was had; and the Je- 
suits, who sought to pacify the minds of the natives, 
were blamed alike by both parties ; the government 
attributing to their unwillingness the failure of the 
gotiation, while the Indians, on their part, 1 
able to comprehend the position io which the Faf 
were placed, and the motives by which they were t 
ated, openly declared that for once they believed 
Fathers had betrayed them. An army wi 
to enforce the treaty, and the wretched inhabii 
were driven from their reductions at the point 
bayonet ; but when the Poitiignieae came to eiploi 
mountains which they had wi'ested from the hr 
hearted savage, they discovered too late the felli 
their eipectations ; neither silver nor gold could 
find, and they were fain to entreat the Jesuits 
more to collect and appease the natives, without 
aid of whose labours their recent acquisition w( 
Aave become a desert. This the Fathers wore only 
hnppy to attempt; Wt t\ie BRf^'ge'i, after all that ' 

rre- 1 



occurred, were oaturaUy sore aud suspicious ; und tlie 
endeaTour to bring the natives back to their old Lomes 
liad by no means been crowned with entire success, 
wben Cbarlea III, ascended the throne of Spain, and 
breaking the fatal treaty of exchange, to wliich he had 
always been opposed, resumed tbe Uruguay reductions 
as a portion ot his own dominions, in the year 1759, 
Just nine years after the separation. 

But the time was fast approachingwhenthe reduo- 
tions of South America were to eiiat no more escept in 
the histoi'}' of the country wliich had cradled them, and 
of the Society which had given them birth, and whose 
name will through all times be identified with theirs. 
Henceforth, indeed, the Jesuits were to be severed 
finally and for ever &om those missions which they had 
founded with so much pain and toil, and had cemented 
with their blood ; and which, deprived of their vigilant 
and careful guardianship, were Wo soon to lose their 
distinctive character as the home of the civilised Indian, 
and to dwindle, under the ignorance and oppression of 
those by whom the charge had been usurped, into mere 


aggregations of half- Christian half-faeatuen, pai-tially 

i-dclaimed, but wholly helpless and untaught barbarians. 

s true that the Fathers had been pronounced ii 

cent by the king's own appointed judges, — that they 
had been proved innocent oj the bootless search of the 
Portuguese for gold in their reductions, — that they 
had proved chemselves innocent by their calm submis' 
sion to the government at a moment when, by coim- 
tenancing the revolt of their neophytes, they might 
have opixised violence to injustice, and have changed 
intj] Bu&stantial reahty the kingdom they were accused 
of coveting in the new world; — innocent, then, they 
were, if innocence can be estabhsfaed by any amount of 
testimony ; innocent of any designs against the state, 
of any unlawful lust for riches or for power ia the for- 
mation and conduct of tlieir reductions. But the piin- 
ciple with which they had inaugurated theii' work 
the beginning was that which wrought its downfell in. 

D or iB^H 


the end ; fur in advocntiiig the personal freedom td ti 
nattTe as the basis of their system for his regeneiutjon, 
they were deniitndin^ the one sole boon whicn the oolo- 
Tiisia were determined to withhold. It was a principle, 
however, and therefore not to be relinquished, wliatever 
might be the cost to its upholders ; out precisely be- 
cause it was a pi-inciple, and not a mere opmion, it had 
been ever ui^d by the Society, firmly indeed and ear^«^ 
nestly, and with unwearied enerfi[y and persevei 
but without any unseemly ebullition of passion a 
will towards its BuCagnnists; and, content themselTC 
to oppose facts to falsehood, we evei' find its members, 
throughout the turbulent history of those first colooial 
^vernments, and all the temptations presented to ill- 
reguluted ambition, on the side of justice, order, and 
reGgioD. Thus, while the Jesuit dai'ed boldly to rOrK 
prove and withstand the Spaniards in their ill-usage a(l 
the native, he never hesitated to risk his own ^k tM 
avert from them the merited vengeance of the irritatilAl 
savage; and while persecution, calumny, and intng<Mfl 
were still darkening around him, he pursued his mB^j 
sionary career silently, gi-andly, and heroically, MJB 
with the martyr's blood and the martyr's palm repli^H 
to the senseless outcries of his accusers. But neit]|^H 
patient endurance nor active deeds of chai'ity and go^^| 
ness could silence a burst of hatred which woB ^^M 
result of passion and not of reason ; and while Ij^H 
Jesuits were shedding their blood in the new wo^H 
with a prolusion that would Lave been reckless if I^H 
cause had been less noble, every nation in the old i^^| 
ringing with the accusations of their tradncers ; ij^H 
eveiT court in Eiu'ope contained implacable and pow^H 
ful foes, who had deiinit^y vowed their downfall. i^H 
Into the particulars of the cabal by which their i^H 
was accomplished at Madrid we have hei-e no needi^l 
enter, our only object being to treat of the effect of^H 
machinntions upon the reductions. It will be sufBcie^H 
tberefbre, to say, that the mind of the king was gi^H 
dually and systematicttW'g ^oBraaeA ^i^ainst them; tbj^t 




be was taught to distnut their intentions, and, jaUoiu 
as he wiis of his royal preawpative, to tremble at their 
power. According' ta Scboel, Adam, and other Pro- 
testant historians, a letter attacking' his legitimacy, 
and, of course, his right to the crown, purporting to 
be written by the general of the Jesuits, out in re^ty 
forged by their areh-enemy the Duke de Choiseul, set 
the seal upon his resentment, and enabled Aranda, his 
pi-ime-minister and their worst foe, to obtain from him 
that final act by wliich they were banished from his 
dominions. Tlie reductions were of course included in 
this sweeping sentence. The decree was signed on the 
27th of March 1787; and the war-ship, which brought 
directions for its secret and speedy esecution, cast 
anchor in the Plata on the 7th of June 1707. Oq the 
Slst of the nest month, sealed orders to this effect 
were deposited with all the under-govemora of the 
vice-regal province: and on the 29d its provisioiia 
were ftlly and efiectually carried out, the Fathei-a 
being seized, every one at his own reduction, and sent 
off prisonere to Buenos Ayres. The mandate was posi- 
tive, containing neither exception nor discretionary 
power ; and not one was left behind ; — young and old, 
sick and dying, all at one fell swoop being hurried away 
from the land to which they had consecrated their 
labours and their lives, and in which they had humbly 
boped to find a grave, amid the prayers and blessings 
of the savages whom they had reclaimed. Bueoreli, 
tile vicei'oy of Buenos Ayres, was in the province with 
a bodv of chosen troops; but the nrecautiun was not 
needed. The Jesuits had often inaeed, and fearlessly, 
opposed the Spaniards when they oppressed their In- 
dians; but now that the injustice was only against 
tliemi«lveB, not an opposing voice was heard among 
them ; the order for their expulsion was obeyed without 
a mui-mor, and in many places it was no sooner sig- 
nified to the Father of the missioa than he surrendered 
himself on the instant, without even the appearance df 
compulsion being necessary for his removal. Yet it can- 



appeiJtoWSF ~ 

not })e duubtod, that liad they chosen t 
neoj>hyte3, the argnmeat of Ibrce and numbers would 
have been strongly in tlieir favour; and that they did not 
dosDwaH,theretore, their lost and most conclusive &nEwer 
to their accusers, — their last and most effective protest 
against that voice from Europe which declared tliat 
" the aggrandisement of theii- o'.vn society was the sole 
object 01 its members." 

The exiled Patherg were ehipped for Italy, where 
they BubsiBted oa a pittance doled out by the SpanisL 
government; subject, however, to the condition, that 
they should neither speak nor write in defence of their 
society; and to this (jracnical enaction was superadded 
another still more insultiag, namely, that the trans- 
gression of a single member in this particular should 
fie imputed to the entire body, and punished accord- 

They were replaced in most of their deserted mis- 
sions by a mongi'd govei-nment, consisting half of eecle- 
siastioe and hall' of laymen ; but called as they were to 
the task without tact, experience, or knowledge of the 
peculiarities of the people with whom tiiey had to deal, 
the attempt is on all sides acknowledged to h 
a failure. Hardly, indeed, could it have been ol 
for though the Indians had received deep religious ii 
pressions, and had made rapid strides towards the oi' 
and industry of civilised lil'e, yet the lawless habiti 
centuries to a certain extent still hung about tfaM 
and they could not be kept together as a social bd 
without a very nice and judicious adjustment of ■ 
influences that were brought to bear upon them. In if 
adjustment the goveiiuneat of the Jesuits had b 
enunently successjnl as that of their successors U 
confessealy otherwise ; the former possessing in ^ 
inile a imity of purpose which commanded the respa 
of the Indians, while the lattei', being ever and always 
divided against itself, left the unhappy objects of its 
jurisdiction eitlier perplexed as to the authority to bj? 
obeyed, or donWA a.lw)>jei,W ot the necessity of oW^ 


dience. The lay governor was most frequently a tyrant ; 
and whereas the Jesuita had done all on system, every 
thing thereafter was unsettled and nncertain ; infUvidual 
capnce being substituted for a code of regulations which 
hod given consistency to punishment and dignity to 
justice, and fear being every where employed to compel 
submission where before tbdness had been the ouly 
prevailing argument. Such a government, and so di- 
rected, soon told with fatal effect upon the reductions ; 
and although less than a century has elapsed since they 
were first subjected to its influence, it has nearly sac- 
n efiivcing all of mental cultivation and external 

beauty which the Jesuits had effected in their n 
Little but desolation is now to be seen, where once the 
Jesuit's house and the Indian's cottage stood in peace- 
ful prosperity side by side. The public buildings have 
disappeai'ed ; the churches are all in ruins ; the cottages 
have degenerated into native wigwams ; briers and 
weeds every where complete the picture of decay ; the 
population has dwindled from thousands to hundreds, 
and such as still remain have half-resumed the indo- 
lence of the savage, and stand listless, desolate, and 
sad, at the doors of their poverty-stricken dweffings; 
while in reductions which oncn could pay without pe> 
sonal privation, though not without wLolesome labour, 
a yearly tribute to the king, the superior of the mis- 
sions can hardly find wherewithal to keep starvation 
from his people. 

That the condition of the South- American Indian 
at the present day would have been far different to 
what it is, had the Jesuits been suffered to finish the 
work they had begun so well, it will be hardly possible 
to doubt, if we judge by what they did of what they 
would have done; and this seems, after all, the only 
iair and equitable way of trying the question. For 
eighty years they held possession of the land; and in 
those eighty years, out of hundreds of wandering tribes, 
■separated from each other by habits, language, religion, 
' 1 the natural animosity that arms savage againet. 

100 PARA004V. 

L forming; a naHon 
nt, — above all, one in Chris- 
tiao and fi-atemal unity ; impressin°; on all so deep and 
broad a mark of driliBatioii, that the traces are visible 
oven to this hour. The Guarani Indians, whom at bo 
much cost and trouble they brought to habits of indus- 
try and order, still hold together as a Christian people, 
and still constitute the hulk of the workin;^ population ; 
so that whatever of agricultural skill is broug'ht to bear 
upon the land is the result entirely of the old reduc- 
tions. The Guarani language also retains the pre-rani- 
nence which the Jesuits gave it, and is still the onl^ 
organ of communication among the inhabitonta of V' 
ragiiay. Nor is the missionary himself foi^tten, 
thougn two generations have passed away since he 1 
seen in the land. His name is still blest by those who 
hear it, and his return still looked for as an era of good 
fortune in the future of the native Indian. Even many 
of the little religious customs which he taug;ht his neo- 
phytes still dinger among their descendants, " To this 
day," says a recent traveller, " the children in Paraguay 
never retire to rest without kneehng to ask the blessing 
of their parents ; and the parents, in reply to the ques- 
tion of the stranger, will tell him that the good Jesuit 
Fathers instructed them to do so." 

When we consider the men by whom those Fathers 
were replaced, and the sort of government which was 
substituted for their paternal rule, we shall wondei 
rather that so much has been retained than that so 
much has been swept away. It is not in eighty years 
that the most wisely-conceived and most efficiently- 
applied system of cultivation can be indelibly impressed 
upon the character of a nation. A thorough civilisation 
is the growth of centuries ; and although that which has 
been more suddenly developed may seem to flourish for 
a time under the stimulus of authority, it ia almost cer- 
tain eventually to fail. It is fatal to the very body of 
the savage, which perishes beneath its unaccustomed 
" a a moiKitaui-twMtii wi.vjht fade if exposed 


nnadvisedly to the atmosphere of a hot-house. It 
dwarfs the very powers of the inin<l it is intended to 
enlarge, by coming too suddenly upon it liefore it has 
been duly preiiared for its reception; and it either 
ceases entirely the moment the forcing influence has 
been withdrawn, or it merely freezes the auj-face of so- 
ciety into a factitious smoothness, while all the noi-mal 
vices of the barhariaa nm darkly in the tide below. 
SaTage nations are, in fact, as little fitted to receive at 
once the full measure of civilisation, pressed down and 
running over, aa an infant to t&ke upon himself the 
duties of a man ; and if the child requii'es to be in- 
structed day by day in the mysteries of existence, so 
a rude untutored people must needs be led, e^aeration 
afW feneration, into the tuU light of social knowledge 
- which to us, indeed, is a second nature, because it is 
inheritance from our ancestors, but which, we must 

)t forget, those ancestors won step by step, and were 
centuries in acquiring. Both nature and experience, 
then, point to toe principle of gradual initiation as the 
only safe one in the instruction of savage nations ; and 
therefore Raynol himself, the utterer of so many blas- 
phemies agamst the CathoHc religion, has yet not heai- 
.tated to declare, in his PoUticftl and Philosophical SU- 
tory of the Indies, that " when the Jesuits were taken 
from the reductions, their Indians had arrived at the 
highest point of civilisation to whicb it perhaps is pos- 
siUe \o conduct new nations, and to one cei'tainly far 
higher than any other people of the new world had 
hitherto been brought. In them the laws were every 
*here regularly carried out ; mannera were pure ; a 

ippy spirit of'^ fraternity united all hearts ; the useful 
_ 'ta were carried to perfection ; while those which were 
Bierely ornamental were cultivated with some success." 
Most unjustly, then, it follows, have the Jesuits berai 
reproached, as it tbey kept the Indian purposely in the 
tutelage of a child, when in fact they were only fitting 
^■•n in the Ijest and most effective manner for the fuS 

B and benefit of that freedom which, hy their oini 

I hi? 






uripcompled ftnil unselfish efforts, they had „ 

from hiB Ibes, In the beginning:, indeed, all the business 
of the reductions passed of necessity througrh their 
hands ; but the work was (gradually and almost im- 
pei'ceptibly transferred to the children of their early con- 
verts, who, bom in the bosom of a civilised ChriBtMinitT, 
were easily instnicted in many things which their fs- 
tiiers, the painted warriors and hunters just taken from 
the woods, could never have been brought to com- 
prehend. In the latter days of the reductions, all the 
meicantile transactions of the mission — the exchange 
of goods, and arrangement of the tribute, as well as the 
providing for the various necessities of the inhabitants, 
— no light task for any brain — were confided to men 
whose fcrefattiers, only two generations before, had been 
80 ignorant of numbers, that four was the highest figure 
they could count without the assistance of their fingere. 
And be it remembered, that all this was effected amidst 
difficulties more numerous and more perplexing; than 
perhaps any similar enterprise had ever presented; for 
not only had the missionaries to contend with the pre- 
judices of the nations to whom they were sent to prMch, 
out to encounter the unceasing hostihty of the people 
in whose comfmny they came ; and it was amidst evei^i 
oppositdon which the upholders of the slave-trade could 
brmg to beai' against tbem, that they introduced tie 
Indians into the fold of Christ, and to all the Messing* 
and virtues of civihsed society and domestic life. Lone 
ago they had promised the Spaniards to make men and 
CnristianB of the savages and cannibals of whom they 
were seat in search -.—brave promise it was indeed, yet 
not a "ish one; for who snail say that it was not 
ftilfilled to the very letter in the reductions of Paraguay, 
which Voltahe himself pronounced to be the ■' triun^l 
of humanity !" 



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