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Full text of "A letter to Robert Hibbert, jun. esq., in reply to his pamphlet, entitled, "Facts verified upon oath, in contradiction of the report of the Rev. Thomas Cooper, concerning the general condition of the slaves in Jamaica," &c. &c; to which are added, a letter from Mrs. Cooper to R. Hibbert, jun. esq., and an appendix containing an exposure of the falsehoods and calumnies of that gentleman's affidavit-men"

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A LETTER 

TO 

ROBERT HIBBERT, J UN. ESQ., 

m 
REPLY TO HIS PAMPHLET^ 

BNTITLBDa 

FACTS VERIFISD UPON OATH, Ot CONtKiOICnON OF fPB RBtOVt OF 
THB RBV. THOMAS COOPBR, CONCEBH||ia THB OBNBHAI^OVDmON 
OFltiBSLAVBSDf IAlfAIGA,''4iU*e.| 

V 

A LETTER 

FROM 

MRS. COOPER TO R. HIBBERT, JUN. ESa, 

COMTAIlflNO 

AN EXPOSURE OF THB FALSEHOODS AND CALUMNIES OF 
THAT GENTLEMAN'S AFFIDAVIT. MEN. 






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Bt THOMAS COOPER. 



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1824. 

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ADVERTISEMENT. 

, - * 

I canno^permit the following pages to go before the public, 
without expressing the regret I feel, that the brief account 
which I have felt it my duty to give of what I saw of the evils 
of the Slave- dy stem in Jamaica, should have involved me in a 
personal contest with Mn Hibbert, Things of this kind are 
always unpleasant, and especially when they are carried on 
through the medium of the press; . Mr. Hibbert might have 
scrutinized my. report without endeavouring to destroy its 
credit, by wounding my reputation. The object of, slU fair 
and profitable controversy, is to ascertain, by a charitable and 
dispassionate examination of the evidence on both sides of a 
disputed question, where the truth lies; and ^ long as the 
parties confine themselves to facts and argument, they may 
expect, a patient hearing bom the candid and impartial. I 
wish Mr. Hibbert and his friends had reflected a little on this 
before they commenced their attack on me. The controversy 
\ii4iich Mn George Hibbert provoked and carried on with me 
in the newspapers, was, ope should have thought, sufficiently 
personal and unceremonious, without returning to the charge 
supported by persons sworn on the ^^ fwh/ evangelists of Al- 
mighty Crod.'* This, however, has been done; and I have 
no alternative left but to appeal to the public, which I now do, 
under the hope that those who have read the attack, will do 
me the' justice to peruse the reply. I have endeavoured to 
compress my remarks as miuch as . possible-* yet they have 
extended considerably beyond the bounds within which I 

^ originally hoped to confine them. 

^ It will be seen that I have spoken of several individuals 

SK in very plain language ; but this my opjponent compelled me 
to do. He put things in such a train, that it became neces- 
sary for me, in self-defence, to explain the reasons which 
>^ induced me not to acknowledge Mr. Vaughan and Mr. Oates 
as persons ** seriously concerned about religion." These 



IV 

gentlemen will doubtless be offended, but they have them* 
selves and their friends to blame. I assure the reader, that 
I much regret the unpleasant necessity imder ^which I have 
been laid. I feared, from the confident and feverish spirit 
manifested in Mr. George Hibbert's letters, what would be 
the result of his dragging individuals before the public, for 
the purpose of examining their moral and reli^ous preten- 
sions. I kept back till the last moment, from an idea that 
my accusers might see the propiety of quietly withdrawing 
frY)m this part of their ground. But as they determined other- 
wise, it was not for me to allow them to quit the field with 
the advantage which they have sought to gain over me. 

The remarks which I have contrasted with the affidavits of 
Mr. Hibbert's^ witnesses, I could, with a veiy safe conscience, 
have supported cm oath; but I am quite persuaded^ that if I 
cannot be believed on my word^ in a case like the present, I 
should gain nothing by going before a magistrate. At any 
rate, I have the approbation of my own mind in what I have 
done, notwithstanding the rough treatmei^t I have met with. 
Besides, I am not the only sufferer : scarcely an individual 
has dared to utter a syllable agsdnst the justice, or even 
policy, of colonial bondage, who has not been met with affi- 
davits and a torrent of abuse. This is surely an indication 
that the West Indians have a bad cause to defend, though 
they would fein have the public believe that not only truth and 
justice, but <^ven reason and revelation are all on their side. 
If this were rea^y the case, or they in thdr hearts believed it 
to be so, would they not court, rather than strive to put 
down, inquiry ? Would th^y, in the room of temperate and 
candid discussion, substitute gross personalities, affidavits, 
and threats of rebellion against the government ? ' 

T. C. 

Shelton, near Newcastle^under^lAfme^ 
Sepsis, 1824. 



r 






A XETTJEii 

ROBERT HIBBERT, JUN- ESQ., 

* d ■ 



* •• 



TO ROBERT HtBBERT^ J UN. )iSQ. - . 

_ • * 

'■• Sir, ■• *• . . . ■ 

Y6t7R Pamphlet^ ^entitled *^ Facts-vmfied upon Oaih," &c, 
in contaradictioii to .what I have reported and publiflhed con>-^ 
ceriiihg the present collision of the Negro and othei* Slaved 
in Jamaica, especially those on your ^wn estate of Georgia^ 
demands a reply from me, i • , '- . 

The pubHc Jhave-been already -apprized, in -my Second 
Letter to Mh George Hibbert, that 1 obtained yonr. full per- 
mission before I sent a word of m^yolfefisiife' narrative tcy 
press ; and the following paragraph -fipom your ietter to me, 
dated East Hide, Feb. 26, 1822,.moref than ten mohths^ aftpf 
I had qiutted your ^ estate, will enable the reader to judge-of 
the-' fe'eliiigs -under which you gave youc sanctioQ : ' < ■ < 
* ^< I shall>^' you ,tell me, ^* ;prbcure the Mmithhf ReposUofjf 
for Miuchy to see- what you: say of your Jamaica labours ;. and 
aS'y0ur'R9p(^ will be that of an honest man, desuou^.of 
tellhig -the- sober truth without embellishment or for vain 
glory, I much rejoice that you have ^commenced' such afi un->' 
dertakmg.'f Now,, after this, I felt myself at full liberty to 
proceed with my design without reserve ; -not doubting that 
aa you. professed to approve • so heartily of my wi^he^ you 
would, if. you. saw any thing objectionable in ivhat I might 
advance,, point it out to me,^ ixot/indeed,^by the help- of per-^ 
^Qus : f^i swam on the holy evangelists qf^bmghty Qody'' but 

B 



with tiie hand of friendship. Every circumstance of t|ie case 
forbade me to entertain the id^ that you would Wait to aee 
the effect producedon the pubKc mind, and then come out 
with a desperate attadc on niy n^otives and character; and 
that too 6upp<»rted by the oathsi of your overseer^ surgeoHy smd 
attorrmf. Had my report been a studied apology foe the 
slave system ; had I expatiated on the transcendent advan- 
tages of slavery over liberty^ and the happy state of the Ne*> 
groes on the plantations^ compared with that of our English 
peasantry, I jnqm plwly s^ thujk I ahoidd have continued to 
enjoy your approbation and that of your friends. J^ut then, 
Sir, I ahoid4 hav9 jhad the pang9 of a gsfji^ ooMcien^ ; h 
ih9idd have bee& oomp^ttedi t^x^B^ n^y#c£rii» dM^fight of 

a contemfN^le bjivpoifle^ 94d iiio fieel tM 1 1^ 
^aim io tb^ high titi^ ii^^^ m k^ns^it aiiB^''-*^In.pBge 5 of 
yoor prefiwe, you expresi yourself ^* wsfnf tiiat I sbooUl 
ba¥0 onwpltt^ mys^ intp t}it Jiands of persona whose 

^mV^.ym stntf^ ^^ % Mtli^^ jfistnimentwlly ^aapfe. wjithwt 

«9iiifM^^i#iiir tb^ ^fitei^v: JMi ^ joii b^ce d(^ ma 

wi^fmM }oiiot^^ tf wX]^9fP<^ <^ fvvim ^R^baliflievw« 
I h^6 Mte4 fm ii)df|»^4wt jwt> !M)4 «? <»Mr baii. pQpaelf 
is^ in any diqfree^ irefsppn^iUe for tbQ xwrse | bay# jfma^A^ 
Tbe CkimnMttee of th^ ixmdm Anti^^yairy Sodetgr A^ i^ is 
tni^ iaba Qoi«e pains to oinsidlilae. the Jffw statMMenil/lritikdi 
my report co^ataina, find i^ii^ng Ab they hsu^mf firM pet^ 
mdfdoou But does it Ui^eii^ follow, as you would iomU 
' nuates that I am a imc^ toid in tbeur handa ?: I bad your 
fidl p6Qiii$aipn toi writa fo th^ pnUie ey^ wd yet no cma 
eveir inia^Md that I was a tool in your bands^of in. thoaa of 
your iiartyr The information i^dndb AetConnmttee dmved 
froad nie> tbey mi^ have proc^sed fimst otber-amuross^ even 
from writers on your, own dide ; so that if yda ancee^d in in- 
vaUdatisg n\y t^itimooy i>y aspersing my chaiacter, you will 



8 

not, in pobt of fiiety injidre the Negro caiifle ; your triumph 
^^Vk be simply orer an unimportant individual^ 

Your admisaidn^ that you paid but littie attention to my 
Letters ia the Montkhf lUpomioryf surprised me ; for I sub- 
mit^ on the dechuration quoted above from your privato letter^ 
that I had every ground to expect that yon would read them 
as they came out; and as I heard firom you of no objection to 
them, I -oonchided^ srtrong as they are m m«iy places^ that 
you had none to mid^e. But I perceive from your reference 
to my evidence in the tract called ^^ Nypv Sloven/,^ that 
my great m& eansiAa Jn'aijr aot^ applying to you before I 
ventured to cmrtzftote oaaiilter fbr a few pages of that ob- 
nosdonsr work. I; however^ £d not see the necessity (tf this. 
You lad already profiassed to '^ rcgoioe much'' in the {hrospect 
of my report being laU before the public f and I concluded 
that it could not s^nifyiNane iota in what publicaticoi it ap- 
peared«. It vras scmt to you as sooa asrit'iiBas^rinted^ yet 
you never condescended to favour me wjMkfbwt opinion till 
more than two years after the date of my first letter in the 
Rqpository^ when your three hinnble servants come forward 
with their oaihs. 

You have^ doubtless^ received from Jamaica accounts oi 
my character and jnx>eee£ng8 during my xesidence there ; 
and when we considier the length to which things have been 
eaerie^ it seems desirable to have nothing kept back. I 
should like^ therefore, to see in prutt every letter in your 
possesiftion, which in any way respects me. I first thought 
Of restricting this request to documents received previously 
to the publication of ^ Negro Simmy/* but I now think it 
better to soMdt those also which may since have readied 
you. Judging from what is already before the public, I may 
safely condude that you hi^ve been most abundantly supplied 
with materials of no very flUtering descriptira. Yet I feel 
e.6rtam> that you never received a word to my discredit till 

b2 



after my unvarnished report made its appearance ; and I am 
perfectly sure, that it was in no one's power, without a vio- 
lation of truth, to say a syllable of which I need be in the 
least degree ashamed, Mr, Oates, who has in the most so- 
lemn manner taken oaths to blast my character, niust have 
often mentioned me in letters to you. If he knew any thing 
mateitially wrong in my conduct, it was his duty, as your 
attorney, to have informed you, and if he has ever spoken 
well of me, justice requires that you should grant me the 
benefit of his testimony, . 

; To my representation, " that slaves have nothing to gain, 
and nothing to lose ; that they have no character at stake ; 
that a good name is of no avail to them ; that their worth is 
estimated by the strength of their bodies; and that the 
gitetest villain may be the most valuable slave,'' &c. &c., 
you' reply, that *' every, one who has even a slight acquaint- 
ance vtdth the colonies, sees at once that these assertions are 
untrue ;" and then you cite the case of a Negro driver, on an 
estate called Poms, who was valued at upwards of <£350 
sterling merely on accoimtof his excellent character, and the 
influence he might thereby have on the rest of the slaves. 
And do you really think, Sir, to destroy the credit of my 
stateinent, that a good name is of no avail to the slave Mm- 
self, by shewing that it may have the e£fect of enfiancing his 
value to another; that is, of raisiiig his price as a species of 
goods, a mere marketable commodity? I have admitted, in 
the letter from which your quotation is taken, " that a re- 
gular line of orderly conduct may save him' jfrom the lash," 
and even afiford him some hope of being elevated to the dis- 
tinguished office (>f a driver. But what else can it do for 
him ? YoU say, make him sell at an advanced pnce. That, 
I tejoin, is' to increase the difficulty in the way of his freedom. 
A discontented, dishonest, lazy, runaway felto^ would, if 
valued by impartial persons^ be, as you reason, rated very 



Ipyr, perhaps not above j^60^ and consequently he f would 
obtam the predous boon of liberty for at least <£300 less 
than the almost worn-out^ iui well-disposed, drirer on Portis 
estate* 

. When I speak, of the moral qualities of a slave not availing 

■ . 

him any thing, I alvirays mean as a rational being, a member 
of society, a felloMrrSubject ; and not as a mere instrument of 
labour to another, or a thing to be bought and sold. Your 
reasoning upon the case in question, is precisely that which 
would be used by a slave-dealer, A slave who wished to ob 
tain his freedom, would, in certain supposable circumstances, 
if he acted on principles of sound policy, guard particu- 
liarly against pleasing his master. His true plan would be, 
to enter on a course of vexatious proceeding, and thereby 
render his discharge from the estate a thing to be desired. 
Fidelity, industry, obedience, skill, and affection, might not 
only cause the master to rise in his demands, but even to 
refuse to sell on any terms. A well-disposed slave is a slave 
Btiil, and not.in possession of a single legal privilege not en- 
joyed by the greatest villain on the estate. The only earthly 
reward enjoyed by the good old man on Poms, consisted in 
the honour of driving his fellow-creatures, of both sexes, to 
their daily task by the cart-whip. But, after all, the value 
or market-price of a slave must be regulated by his talent 
and disposition to go throiigh his master's work. A Negro 
may underst^d and perform, with sufficient satis&ction, 
the routine labour of an estate, and yet be, in a moral re- 
spect, a very bad man : he may have half a dozen mistresses, 
be destitute of every prindple of religion y addict himself to 
swearing, lying, cimning, cruelty, and revenge. If he be 
athletic, acquainted with his work, and willing to perform it, 
he vrill fetch a high price, and probably obtain promotion to 
a driver's whip on the estate. General Hibbert, for instance, 
a Negro on Georgia estate, though a man of infamous char 



)tkdter^ vtas n driver. He was tynuaBical, revengefid, unleerf' 
tog, dishonest) CE^HdouS, and deceitful; yet he had the 
talent of making the gang go through their work i he was 
strongs vigilant^ and resolute* 

fik another part of your prefieuse (p. 10) you speak of my 
having ^^ vented a sweeping calumny against the religipas 
feelings of all the whites in Jamaica;'' whidi^ io say the least^ 
is putting a most unfair construction on my language. My 
statement is> '^That I do not recollect to, have seen a sinj^e 
white 73!2ii^ there who shewed any serious concern about reli- 
^on, excepting some missionaries/'* Now you suppress the 
exception which I appended to this never-to-be-forgiven de-» 
daration, and then make the charge extend to all the whites^ 
of both sex^s^ lliroughout the island* But all that I ever 
meant) and all that my language will properly admit o4 is> 
that I have no remembrance of ever seeing a white man in 
Jamaica, ^^ excepting soine missionaries,^' who^ as far as I 
could judge, shewed any ieriaus cpncem Bjfoat religion. But 
to make sure of confuting me here^ you, and your rdative 
Mr. George ESbbert^ bring to my ^recollection the acquaint* 
ance I had with Mr. Oatea and Mr. S* Vmghan^ I am sorry 
tiKtt you have done this, not that you will thereby gain yoiir 
point, but because you have rendered it necessary for me, in 
sdf-defence, to speak of these individuals in a^ manner that is 
very painfiil to my feelings. I hope, however, that the blame 
will not be thrown on me ; for I should never publicly have 
uttered a syllable to their discredit, had I not been thus eom- 
pelled. I have refused to adnoit that Mr, Oo/ef and Mr. 
Vaughom are men seriously ooiDcemed about religion, and 
you hate in consequence declared that I have uttered '^ what 
I know to be a gross and groundless cidunmy.'' Now> Sir, 
I app^ to the public, whether men who. live in the every- 
day practice of fornication, have any just claim to be con- 
sidered as persons ^'smou^l^ concerned about religion." I 



ibew Stat UMey^t^^ ivSlmgly Mbuft t&e Aottttr 

to/thecatoOdwiMparfiA. When I knew Mr. Oitfct acAd Mr. 
&. Pk^g/m^'^kef urere both open wd inrowed Fobnicatoes. 
Thejr Ibepft thdr mistreiiKi wttlwnt any dlaguiad or shame. 
: Another thing which iinpnaea^mc^ ipi^ lliat you should have 
guoen your countenance to, the cry of l^eresy, wfaidi has heen 
teel up to detoaet ftom the credit of tkf tepotU Mr. Oearge 
lEBBfar^ led due way } lifr«jMUSmm fcOow^df and you^ Sir^ 
haiee 1^ thoi^ht it beneath yon to asi^t in tfaili ficiM wai^ 
tee. .Had you engaged; me on the ailppoiAton that my 
6)nniona were r^q^edlyoidMidDac, your |Mreaent, objections 
would have been Mti but you Imew Aom thet>e§uining- Ihat 

the miniBtet of au nvni#«i^y Umtarian Congiegali0n« As to 
Ihe opiniiMia advanced IniBiy letter to Mr, Fmgkan^ you opnMt 
^ amoce thait they a|ia fenexally held by modem Engttsh 
Itaiteians. ~ And wash veaaonable^ Sir^ was it possible^ ihat 
yon ^xrold expect me to come Ibrth^ a solitary exception^ and 
preadi to your Kegroes the doctrine ci eveiiaating misety? 
To thn dbctnne you must allad^ wlien you rdfer to ^Uhe 
geMralJMrftf€kriManM oi toftOme pm i ^fMn is" I admit 
that the hypothesis of the final restoration of all mankmd to 
purity and happinesB^Ja not a necessapf part of Unitariami^ 
though I never loaew « Unitarian who maintained the 0|^-^ 
site system, in reply to your asaertkm^ that my opinions 
^ tend to oonceal or to qualify Aose terrors, so intdliglble to 
the meanest understanding/' wUch you say> '' the Bible holds 
out to tibstinate offenders,*' I have to observe, that, without 
advocatiog or even bringing icxrward the final restoration 
scheme, or combating that generaUy held by Christians on this 
sul^ect, I had recourse to the Scriptures themselves, ^d 
addressed my hearers in sudi language as the Mo\dng:*^ 
" We mkisi oil appmr brfore the judgmmU-seai ef Ckrisi, ihat 



ilfilikai M Jmth doM^ itiether U begf)od(mbadJ*:2:Cars^¥^ 
IffL ^But ttftw thy haarAnesi and inyifenUeritkmi^itreaaasesi 
upvAmto V thyself, wralh . jogainst the . day rcf wtaihy.and\ re^ 
vehx&ook of thei righteous, jiuigment of Qod;. who^ wiilrendeit 
iozeomf. man: acpordingi to his ' diseds: -^ To them who- by patient 
contintumce inwdl-doing.seek far. ghryi.honour^aafidimmsirr. 
tolity y eternal .Itfe: BtBtitmtoi them that are c<mtentidus,'-and^ 
do\npt]oh&f the truthy, hut obey ^.unrighteousness; indigni^iokr 
andittyrathj; tribulatUmand; anguishf.tqiani ^erysoul of mmt:^ 
ihat:doeth: etHf-^butiglosry, honour,' and pmoejy' to every num-' 
that*wdrJeeth\'gOQd. Mor there is; no respect lof. persons' with ^ 

Clod'' jBo»i«:ii. .SfttUL ... - 

^ JBXitj Sir, before. I quit this', part of; the; Bulgec^ I nmst . be^' 
somewhat :more pardcular^.and b^ tiie.Teadec to m the 
/v^exrj^ extraoTdjQ^ cirimmstaisce of iyQuroBending to: Jamaica ^ 
iojf.theloath'of your ovense^ to, "verify the.&ctf ' of myhring : 
asitJnitaiian,: when.': you; were : previon^ly . bo ; well ,acquaitited > 
with the ;circumstam:e. / ItJiasflong beenra.matter 'of. grief; 
with many/ that oa/A-to/:m^;flhould\be 30 common in ourxiay; 
yet* you are>':con{es8edly getting men to. swear witibout'aiiy 
lieoiei^sity, as far AS ascertaining :tlie tru&is concerned.' Ymi^ 
hojw^y'er^i.saw the : advantage: which m^ht be taken of/liie 
unpM(^\:dar:.t;aBt of ;my creed; rand^ therefore, .the ^solemn ^pro- - 
damation of its; heretical nature; became, ..as you thought, a - 
piece x)f .well-timed andjuecessary policy. You are,' however; 
Sir, jboolate ip <tbe.day*^ You cannot serve evenso jtist atid 
humane^ cause, as that of iV^^o Slavery , in this way;: for; 
to use the words of an eloquent living .writer, /* The. c^ of 
heresy has become in this happy, country iceble and almost 
hairmless. . JFbrmer/y in Britain, and thfdu^hout Christen- 
dom, thesound was full of terror.; This ivar- whoop was no 
sooner .heard than, destruction foUowed. By means of it; 
hopejst ^bigots >slew their thcMisands, and unpiincipled, hypo- 



I 

MMril r>p«Mecntl«r^^ ^dlr; teil» - of ^fitoud^s. Under ' its 
fifloeiice.'tbe fottregwMrofr. t&e Ih(q[uirilioii overshi^wedt'tU^ 
efoiU^ /anxiaSad dborkened the ooe'^ and crusades convdlsed 
^ted raii^aged aad depojnilatedvkitigdoms. Its breath caused 
the) fires : to fhhzeiardund the o^utyrs' stake; and its voice, 
was.' never: heard'. tBsacGoiiipanieS by' the yells of fsuiatic rage 
attdthe-idiriekft c&rwoe.^^^ (See Aspland's Sermon on ^Tbe 
Apostle Paul's €k)idre8ldoa'of-H^r^y/ ^^^ '■' 

* The truth or falsehood of my religious opluions ha^ certunly nothing 
to^'^^ith th^ Slave* question ; and had it' not been for the attempt of Mr* 
Hibbertand hfs friends to ntise a prejudice against me on the ground of 
my creed, I .should never have, mentioned it in connexion with any thing 
tLat r might 4eem' it. right to publish respecting the condition of the 
I^egroeis in Jamaica. . Mr, George Hibhert- lias already informed the 
public, that Mr. ffm, Frend, of Bridge-Street, Blackfriars, was the person 
appointed to correspond with me, on the subject of my mission ; and 
tM feUbwtrig extracts £^m lab letters' will shew, tliat he 'wais acquunted 
with my cte^, did that'in avoiding all controversial divinity aitiongst the 
N^l^roeff; I lusted iirstriet canf6rraity'^fith his? advice.' 

ff In considerfaigthiB question, you will bear iff mind, thatin'the manage- 
ment of this office; eviery thing, almost, will bereft to 'your discretion, and 
whatever instructions may, from peculiar drbumstances, be necessary, will 
be' under niy inspection.' In short, you willgo oiit as a New-Testament 
mtissionairy; giving no other account of yourself to' any one, and keeping 
oat of sight all names of sects,- sudi as Unitarian, Trinitarian,' Calvinistic, 
aiid' the: like.' Youwili have to converse with die old, and instruct the 
young, all at your own times, consistent with the order of 'the plantation, 
where you will be treated vrith ev^ degree of respect. 
''Rock, Oct:l4, 18 W." 

The above paragraph is extracted from the first letter written to me on 
the subject of my mission to Jamdca. 

" With resist to'theVord Unitarianism, I should wish it never to be men- 
tioned.' It is not' Necessary that the Blacks should enter into our European 
discussions. They are to be taught Christianity as it is clearly and plainly 
revealed in the Scriptures ; and as neither the word Unitarian nor the 
word Trinitarian'OccurB'in the Scripture, thef may well be omitted. : Tlu 



10 

ai0^ 9» Mr, Gocipfr and Mr. M mmtd^ ifmid Ikm ImnnIA 
lUioiigbft, {neieot the mostfimmmMB iy i inn < n <toi 1/ iM§M 
ftoiidHgr/' Mjr wisk and cmdtsraory and I Mbfo lii«M'«f 
Mr, Jfyimtky, have been to lepitacal tidaga* m tkriir tM6 
lig^. The atatemral ]i>^ that vyour estate hap' Mi 1mm 
^l^led out for the harshneaa or iphiimanity af ita trnaftiiMt^ 
tai that it la such an estate lii wnild be aa likdy aa any 
x>ther to have been selected, m order to convey the most &- 
Tourable representation of Negro bondage/** And were I 
4^ed on to do thia^ I know of no estate that I should maht 

wiH be no restramt upoa yomr opidoii8> nor will any be laid upon jon, 
for w6 have no doubt of your cBscredon. — ^I may observe to yon, that tli^ 
Piant^ers in general are dreadfiilly a&i^d of Methodlsnu 

''iamvery|rlad that there isalaw of the Idand iq^^^Htjk iUkd 
Baptism, and I should not trouble oiyself with what Mr^'Oatitcer: the 
Negroes might think leqidnte aa tb thn oljeet The rector of Loeea mjXL 
he ghid to have his doUars, aad yoor answer it, like that uf FmiI, I was 
not sent to baptise but to evangelic And you mil be careful to instruct 
your people not to lay any stress upon thb rit^ but upon^e due obseiw 
va&ce of the precepts of the gospel, and the spirit with which Ouistiaaity 
is to be embraced. As you inculcate true notions of Ood, the fear of 
Obeah virill vanish. You 1^ forgive me for repeating what I have #0 4;/l;m 
mentioned, that you have nothmg to do but to teach what is expressly 
maintained in the Scriptures, and, therefore, you are not to indulge aay 
one in disputes about Trmiiy, God the Son, God the Holp Ghoet; saswer- 
ing such questions shortly, that no such terms are to be found in Scripture, 
and, therefore, they do not enter into the concern in which you are engaged. 
*' Rock, 1th March, \^\%r 

That Mr. Frend i^ a Unitariao, is a miitter of public notoriety, and I 
have every reason to believe that Mr. Hibbert is of the same way of 
thinkhig) at least Mr. Frend assured me he was. 

• See p. 18 of my *' Facts," or, 64 of •* Negro Sfevery," second edition. 



It 

^Mot^dimff^Miikee. Itoldyoii^ AtfiftstHye^tbftt slairery 
^Mi 60^12^ w» miicb llie same timig as ob the other estates^ 
tod this Jias erer bJMn the tenor of my langui^e, ifhtAjever 
ixmstrUction you jiaay chooseto .put i^on it. You wiU 
xemember how i|id|igDaiitly Mr.. €hmrge WIAett expressed 
•himscSf^ in his Mdonjruwos letter in the limes Newspapor^ 
en account^ my not expaGaling, as he thought, maSuatoidj 
on your ^^ efficient cartf* of your Negroes; and he tmlitS' on 
the fact of ypur .curtailing your produce from 40&tx:P300 
hogsheads, as ^^ proving*' such ^'efficient care" ^^ beyond all 
question ;'^ and adds, '' I cannot^ tber^finre, allow you M the 
credit which you get from the pamphleteer (the Editor of 
Negro Skveiy) fiMr your candour, knowing as I do, that you 
could have reported many other instances of Mr. Hibbert's 
regard for his Negroes besides that important one which you 
have considered it right to mention/' Thus assailed, it be- 
came necessary for me to speak of you in future ^ amaster 
paHundarhf anxious to render your slaves as happy as they 
can be in a state of complete servitudc-^Mn Oa/tes and 
othars have oftai expressed fears to' me, lefityour unednanon 
kindness to youj^ gang should excite the jealousy and dis- 
contait of the slaves on other properties : in a word, I can 
most safely, affiui% that as fur as I have been able to ascertain^ 
your character, as a slave->master, standi pre-eminent in Ja- 
maica. Your Negroes, too, always spoke of you to me as the 
best of masters; and I may add, as a remark of some impor- 
tance here, that your supplies jEbr the white people were very 
liberal, it being your desire that there should be no want of 
comfort on the estate. Now, Sir, I would ask what ncm-re-* 
sident Planter can expect to seeure the good treatment of his 
slaves if you could not? If your efforts So completely failed 
of success, what can we expect from tiiose of the mass of the 
Planters, wJui are not disposed to make any extra exertions ? 
The West Indians have always been ready enough, when 



!2 

tiiieir 'systeinbas been attacked^ fo allege the genetbsli^ ot the 
makers as proving the happiness of the servants; but we 
now* are called on to.believe ^^ that atll this is^ in fact^ so tnuch 
fallacy ; that' the efforts ot. the best of masters may be em- 
ployed in vain; and that an.t)verseer may render them com- 
j)letely non-^deuL" Thus in yonr anxiety to shield your 
i^ystcan on the one side^ you only expose it to a thrust on 
iJie bther*. 

* f Xifvceply to your statement that I knew that measures ** had 
been applied, calculated to prevent a recurrence of any such 
abuises,^' (alluding to the abuses mentioned in my report,) I 
have to observe, that the only measure with which I am ac- 
quainted, is the removal of the overseer; and of the ineffidency 
of this, as a cure for the evils of slavery, every day furnished 
me with ample testimony. Ahd Here I cannot help remarking, 
that you have fedled to produce one species of proof of the 
ameliorated condition of your slaves,' which I am persuaded 
yoii "would have given, had it been in yoUr' power; I mean, 
you would have stated that there has been a natural inorease 
in their number during the time of your present overseer; 
or, at least, that there is not now that rapid decrease which 
was taking place during my residence on Greorgia. Your total 
silence on this point, and on some others which I shall have 
occasion to mention, offers to my mind strong presumptive 
evidence, that but little, if any amelioration has been effected^ 
After the example of Mr. Geofge Hibbert^ you wish to make 
it appear, that I neglected my duty in not procuring the 
dismissal of Mr. Adam Arldnstally your late overseer. Have 
you really, Sir, completely forgotten what passed between us 
at the meeting we had at Mr. JVewii'^, a few days before I 
sailed for Jamaica? I, however, distinctly remember, tiiat, 
among other things, you advised me not to interfere, either 
directly or indirectly, with the civil affairs of the estate; but 
by all means to cultivate a firiendship with the white people. 



13 

Aud yoxt even added, ia order, as I thought,, to convince me 
that it would not only be improper,.but perfectly .useless. fo^ 
me to interfere with the proceedings of your white servants^ 
that if you shoidd.learn any thing through me respecting the 
management of the estate, of an objectionable nature, you 
should take no notice of it. This view of the subject met 
my own feieUngs^ and, I; think, every impartial person will see 
that there would haVe. been the greatest danger and impro- 
priety in mf acting the part of a spy over those whose friend- 
ship it.wii3 clearly my interest and my duty to secure. Besides, 
whatever instances of. severity occurred towands the Negroes,' 
the attorney had every opportunity of being a^squidnted with' 
them; he learned them from Hie, Negroes. themselves — and 
many, very roanyi instances, many more than J hiave yetmr-: 
rated, were told him in the heiucing.of JVfrs.Xooperand myself. 
According to your present representation, dreadfril, indeed; 
muat have been the condition of the slaves on G&yrgia, and 
that too, in i^pite, not only of your, own constant and best en-: 
deavours; but also those of your successive attorneys, till the 
auspicious era of Mr. M^Kenzie's taking the command of 
your gang. But are. you certain. Sir, that this man is all 
that you could wish or expect?. I presume that till Mr. 
ArkhistaU, your former overseer, was dischatged,.you thought 
well of him. . Indeed you gave him, to my knowledge^ amplet 
proofs of your fdendly feeUngs. He w'as overseer of the 
estate at the tune. you purchased it.,. And I. heard your re- 
lation, Mr. Nembhard (an old. Planter) deplare, that so high 
was his opinion of the management of Mr. ArkinstaU, that 
he deemed it of very, great importance that he should be 
continued in his situation. Several, other Planters of .emi- 
nence, it appears, thought the same, viz. the late: Mr. Green, 
who was attorney for many estates; also the; late. Mr. Gun^ 
ningham,.and his son, the. present Hon. Jas. Cunningham, 
who gave Mr. Axkinstall the charge of azr estate soon after he 



14 

)m was ffiflmissdd tiom your property. Even Mr. Gates ^em^ 
ployed bim fbr xieariy t&ree years, althoiq;fa he has naw taken 
his oath, that when he. assumed the management of the estate, 
as your attomfey, it appeared to be conducted under a mtuli 
loore rigid system of discipline ^ as to the Negroes" than any 
property, with only one exception, that had ccMoie under his 
notice. The fact appears to be, that Mr* Arkiiistall was 
a first-rate Planter, a man determined, aocordii^ to tlie 
Janudea maxim, ^^to keep the Negroes in order; judgt^ 
thai he might then leave the estate to take care of itsel£*- 
That he was a strict disciplinarian, is fiolly admitted $ bift U 
he were the execrable tyrant which you now represent him, 
iirfaat must we think of those gentlanen wha suceesmnsi]^ 
supported him for so maaf yesei&oa Geoi^? At any rate^ 
Sir, gem must faaye been deoiemd. For tibA woes and vicee^ 
-gUiiob I <saw amoQgst yaw daises, are to-be iaoputed, as you 
iwlliifi present agents so> ardently iemm tiiey slu^d be, 
not to the' sUve system, bat to Mr. v^itiijpi^^;^ your whole 
race of attorneys, induing', Mr» Oatef, must have studiously 
kept you in the dark with respect to the real character of the 
person under whom they had placed your helpless Negroes. 
If you reply that they discharged him as socmi as they became 
acquainted with his imposition, I ask, does it require four- 
teen or fifteen years, and the skill of three or four different 
attorneys, to find out the Jbrue character of an overseer^ and 
the mannerin which he manages 1^ slaves? If so, you cannot 
yet know any thing of Mr. JkPKenzie^ I do not say that Mr.. 
JkPKenzie is more tyranically disposed than overseers in 
general are, or in feet, must be ; but what security have you 
in his case any more than you had in that of Mr. Arkinstall, * 
that he will not abuse the tremendous authority vested in 
him? For with all his pretended superior skill, he is very 
far ftouL having cast aaide the whip ! I saw him flog many 
Negroes, ami amcrngst the rest a woman who had been guilty 



^ tbe following offeaiee; «lb ife^d b^n Hecuslcmecl io vm^ 
iathfi gtmti^g, bttt.wbtt tibe new overseer ciiite t» thu 
i0tM4 >^ ^^ ber own accord^ went and joined the «eoond 
gaag^ vteffe tbe work wm aupposed to be somewfaitib lighter^ 
the WM lolorned of her bxHt, but did not ui8l»ptly antoodi^ 
Mi.a^etdCftey Mr. M'Kenzie ordered the driveir ta give hes 
thoat. tvenltjr-'fiTe Jaahta. X ton of epinion^ speaking mn a 
VJupJMi that the circninBtanfiRH of thec^ae rendered the poor^ 
iabnumt neoeaaary : it ia the system here, as in alinotfe every 
inataiiee, that I would Uaane^ The overaeer must be obeyed^ 
wd the alave^ whether mal^ or female^ who sitenqila to decide 
what wodt he or she wiU do, iaatrikaog at the very mpla ttf 
phuitatioii diacipline* The wowan in qnestaoB waa,! sfaoold 
tbiiik^betweeQifMkjtaiiJ fifty: ysm ahe received heir 

fWirtaienfeia the %Biial iodiitfenlJaBd dJagasisDg 8tyle.~ie 
w^ na you knew, Sir> cnatMtaacyr&r davaa . wtio have beepi 
piuiiahed, to iMii^^aift to the attorn^. Bwll can aaaate yon^ 
Mf. M'|£eMi6 .t*Ul ma, that if Mr. Oatea wiAei Mm. to 
wluutfffi ii^uii caiuE%:- lie^ inuat Btl:hia ftee ftgaJnitr such a 
iiysteftifi aad aead the inmphaniBity^lpgjk lolhe estate witihout 
afttemiting 16 ]DMri%ate their rsfiif^^gEhia prind^ he con«» 
tendte^ jgwaa abariiolely narwssBtiftha> Mr.Oatea sbonld act 
l^pe(D^a('laaati^2^atbiie» I mestkniLthia to shew you that 
ydec pieiipit mhnagera, witl^dL tileir idle and^widcad pa»ada 
about alavca faeii^ better off than tin. peaaaatry of thia 
country^ ^xe, in thdr aober kmbenta, ob%td to mamtain the 
asoal odfeaa an4 despotie pnnt^i^ea. I^oaewhobrii^Uieiih* 
selyaa ia laaantaim ac deapoti8% most be ixmtent taenqplay 
deqieAhs anaipvea. 

i YiWlliBilWBerive, Sr/lhat t have ^vettj^ m the App&hiik, 
likeitateatiMtoTttte^ ttmim U^W i/b. Oates andMn 
jtf^JKiM^/ f0«r> tm prkMi^iritoesaee : |||^ave acoon^piiiietf 
Ifam by au^ i#i|!Murk»aa appeilied lo nmtjfiHif^y teavuig tiie 
feadirjto^ d€««Bnim mmtiA ai^e the tnitli M^ % 4biky 



■ •,'^« 



16 

however^ certain^ that I am in the rigbt; I meai^ that ni^r 
teport^ which has excited so much' cf^yonr indignation and 
that of your friends, is a true report; and^ thei^fore^ t shall 
abide by it to the end of my days, not/vidthstauding the |)athg 
which have been and may b^ brought ^foi^waiid to {mt tM 
down* That your party should e>camine my evidence,^ with 
a vie\7 to destroy it,, is, perhaps, notlung more, than whatl 
might have, jexpected, .though .the course. 3;x)U yoarself have 
^Ittrsued will always appear to me in a ^v^ry ei^traorditiar^' 
light. . After tbe.most. attentive' examination of all the cir*- 
camstaoces of the case, I am obliged to adhere to the opinion' 
that your objectiitos ought, ia the first instance, to JhaVe 
been private, and if yoa had .felled to obtain satisfaction in 
that! way,, an^app^al, to-the-pu^licmight have been expected/ 
Xbese. who. have, paid attention -to', ^the subject of Negrq 
Slavery, 'must flbeialready aware haw easy it is to obtain ^tks^ 
from the. West Indies. Men who live in the habitual and daily^ 
disoegfibrd of the obligations of cbic^^Uty and i^'religion,' cannot 
be under ihe influence of:the fearof God,: hence itm^stbe 
morel easy fortthi^n io: appeal to heaven, in :conBi?mation p£ 
a..nusn^pr^entationx)r' even a'.felsehdod, than it is for. the: 
upright ta make. a. serious 'declaration of a contested- iact;>' 
for ;the ;anxieties: whi<;h the. latter feel: lest, : in any.^tjiingy 
^jey 9hould f' err: from the truth,'- are .utteriyunkhojrn to the; 
foi^ej?, their commences :being. rendered tgrpid thioiigb ini-' 
quity. What I have written I submit to. the cfu^iid and im-; 
parti^> by.whom I hope I shall be. believed, though ibave not 
gone before a magistrate to. makei oath to. every, statenient. . i 
In selecting your witnesses, it is somewhat remariiable that 
you should have made choice of. Mr^'Jf^lMpH«a>,iulthe: room 
of Mr. Arkinstall. The fonnert 1iqp^s» <»>mpaititively, little^ 
of me, wheres^. the l^itter redid^d "^itlv me.qn your. ^^t^te^. for. 
nes^lythree yea^B, dwfiog tb*. whole of wMcb: timft we wetft 
in constant jm^eyfioyrse. I shquld: have th^Ugh^^. Ihat Qut..^^ 



17 

two witneases, the one who imew me best was the more 
pi*oper to select. Mr. AikinstaJI, besides^ was acquainted 
with nearly all the cases in my report to which ybuhave ob- 
jected; and he would be at least as likely io speaik'th^ tmith 
as MrV M^Kerizie 5 he must be likewise much less liable to 
undue influence. Mr. Oates is your attorney^ Mr. M'Kenzie 
your' overseer, and Mr. Skirving your surgeon; and sill three 
most deeply interested in the support of slavery in general^ 
but especially interested to shew that,' on your pr6p<sf(y, it is 
notnecessarily an odious thing.'. ' 

I have not republi«hed Mr, Skirving's affidavit, becaKise I 
did not think it necessary. If those of Mr. Oafes imd Mr; 
M'Kensde are answered, hia wiU not, I presume, be insisted 
on; he has sworn to much that he knew to be-fidise and 
grossly exaggerated. But if it be thought necessary,* I shall 
hereafter have no objection to ex^amine his statements. 

I make no apofogy for publishing your private letters ; the 
mode of attack adopted by you in confutation of my stiate- 
ments I conisider as fully justifying this measure. 

Several points on which I have not touched; you will find 
sufficiently examined in Mrs. C!oop6r's letter. ' ^ i- ^ 

I am, Sir, yours, &c. 

THOMAS COOPER. 

Shelton, near Newcastle-under-Lyme, ^ug* 6, 1824. 



to. robert hibbert, jun. esq. 

Sir, ' 

If I was somewhat surprised at the bitter persecution 
raised by the West Indians against Mr. Cooper, and the per- 
severing malignity with which they have aimed, and are still 
aiming, thrust after thrust at his character, mudi more wap^ 

c ' ■ ' 



18 

■ 

I asioniBhed that his having incidentally mentioned my naihe 
in connexion with some of the drcumstances which he has 
narrated^ should have provoked them, with so much malice, 
and so much cowardice, to hurl their poisoned javelins against 
my reputation ; and if sudi were my feelings in perusing the 
venal slander of the colonial papers, what was my amaze- 
ment at seeing you descend to the publication of a series of 
statements as replete with misrepresentatioti and fedsehood 
as any that ever issued from the press : though, till the pub- 
lication of " Negro Slavery,** I had read nothing from you 
but expressions of esteem, and never before that period had 
the. slightest ground to doubt of your most unqualified appro- 
bation botii of Mr, Cooper and of myself ! 

I wish, most sincerely do I wish, that I could, in every 
point, consider you as under the influence of a total delu- 
sion ; but when in the postscript to your pre&ce I observe 
the manner in which you speak of the Jamaica libels on 
myself and Mr. Cooper } wben I see that, instead of a manly 
and candid avowal of your knowledge of their utter fidser 
hood, there is merd^ that unhandsome and reluctant resig- 
nation of them to which the oaths of your agents have com- 
pelled you; when I see this, I cannot help suspecting that 
your connexion with the tottering system of tyranny, has in 
this instance corrupted your better feelings, and prevented 
you from rendering to ud that complete justice to which joa 
were called by the dictates of generosity, of honour, and, let 
me add, of sound policy. — Of sound policy, for you are 
anxious to impress the public with the idea that your white 
people in the West-Indies are respectable men : but what an 
infamous part must they have acted if these libels be true, 
and especially Mr. Oates, who was fidly acquainted with the 
transactions of our house, and under whose eye we more 
Immediately lived during the whde period of our residence 
in Jamaica ! But he, according to these libels, saw us living 



19 

in the commission of almost erery greater crime, and yet 
continued to support, encourage, and protect us *, and this 
too, liiough he was folly informed of your intentions, and 
knew tiiat Mr. Cooper was sent to teach morality and reli- 
gion to your people ! Surely the least that an upright man 
could have done^ wlien placed in such circumstances, in 
justice to you, in justice to your Negroes, and in justice to 
that reKgion for which you tell us he is so mudi concerned, 
would have been to have reported us to you, and to have ob- 
tained our instant dismission from your estate : and I must 
be permitted to remark, that had Mr. Oates been perfectly 
just, holding as he did in his own hands the contradictory 
proofs \)f some of these calumnies, and knowing the fallacy 
of all the rest, he would have declared their fidsehood to the 
world. But the publication of your pamphlet calls upon me 
to make a narration, that will unveil him to the public eye, 
and in my opinion account for many of the difficulties with 
which we had to encounter while resident on your estate, 

I proceed to an exposure of tiie calumnies and falsehoods 
of Mr. M^Eensde* respecting Sartzh Brissett, who was sent to 
me immediately after the birth of my first child, and for a 
long time was a very good ^1 ; at length she became cor- 
rupted by the white men at Geor^a, and became less valu- 
able in her situation. She was always employed by me as a 
nurse-maid, and it was never any part of her duty to clean 
the house; indeed, my constant instructions to her were^ 
that she should refirain fix)m every kind of dirty work, and 
confine her attention to the child, which, however, the other 
servants sometimes persuaded hor to neglect^ in order that 
she might assist them ; but as they had no need of her aid^ 
I always protested a^nst her being thus employed. When 
she was about four months gone, she informed me that she 

* See his affidavit, ffif/Va. 
c2 



20 

was pregnant by a white man on the estate, and at the sfone 
time communicated the disgusting, and, to me, afflicting in- 
telligence, that another girl in the house, a Quadroon, about 
sixteen years of age, was pregnant by Mr. Oates, and this 
Quadroon and the other servants confirmed the statement, 
and added, that Mr. Oates had lived with her in a state of 
illicit intercourse ever Since we had been in Jamtdca. This' 
shocking discovery took place at a time when Mr. Cooper 
was froiii home. About an hour afterwards, Mr. Oates en- 
tered the house, and I felt myself called upon imniediately to 
notice a circumstance, so disgraceful to him, so insulting to 
myself, and so calculated to counteract the effect of those 
lessons which Mr. Cooper had been labouring to instil into 
the minds of your people. And I now call upon you. Sir, I 
call upon Mr. Oates to publish that letter, which I then'ad-^ 
dressed to him 3 ^Aa^ will give decisive and infallible evidence^ 
on at least one part of your accusation, and convince' the 
world that our language respecting the vices of the. conunu- 
'nity with which we were then living, was as strong, nay, 
stronger, in Jamaica, than it has ever been in this country. 
Painful, indeed, is it to me. Sir, to be obliged thus publidy 
to make such a statement as this, but your strenuous efforts 
to blast my good name, leave me no alternative : I must 
exhibit in their true light the men on whom you rely for Hie 
accomplishment of your purpose. You bring forward the 
oath of Mr. Oates, and, to strengthen its effect, you ** most 
solemnly declare," that ** no one that knows him will ques- 
tion his having a serious concern about religion.*' To this 
your asseveration, I oppose the denunciations of the apostle, 
" Fornicators and adulterers God will judge ;" (Heb. xiiL 4 j) 
and, " They that do such things, shall not inherit the king- 
dom of God 5'' Gal. V. 19, 21. 

From this necessary digression, I return to Sarah Brissett. 
She soon informed me, that she was no longer able to nurse 



21 

the m&nt^ which slept much, and was much in my arms 5 
and when Mr. M*Kenzie came next to Tomspring, (the name 
of the house in which we resided,) I accordingly requested 
him to provide me with another nurse-maid : he replied, that 
there was no situation so fit for Sarah Brissett as that she 
now filled, and requested me to persuade her, that her pre- 
sent employment was more easy than any other that he 
could find for her. I complied with his wishes; but failing 
in iny object, I wrote a note, which Sarah Brissett todk to 
the. overseer, simply stating the circumstance, and request- 
ing another girl to be sent— and another was sent in her 
stead. — About three months after, Sarah Brissett was pre- 
maturely delivered of a dead child, on which occasion Mr. 
MfKenzie remarked, that had she remained with me, the 
child would probably have been saved to the estate. The 
midwife also 'expressed the same opinion. — Mr. M'Kenzie 
swears, that when she left me she was eight months gone* 
JEvery syllable that Mr. M^Kenzie swears to concerning my 
wish to have her punished, her scouring the house, my 
taking offence, and my complaining of his too great indjid 
gence, is utterly false.— But the next Sunday her father 
came to me, and expressed great regret at her having left 
our service, and said, if I would but have asked the overseer 
to give her a good flogging, or even have consented to his 
(the father's) doing it himself, Sarah would have remained 
with me and behaved as she ought. I told him, that if the 
servants who were .with me would not do their w6rk without 
flogging, they must be dismissed, as such a course I had not 
been accustomed to, and could not take. 
. And now, Sir, having sufficiently exposed the slanders 
sworn to by your Overseer in the case of Sarah Brissett, I 
shall illustrate the manner in which Mr. Cooper and I spoke 
of slavery while in Jamaica, both to persons in general, and 
in particular to your tvhite people, who often strove to inir 



22 

press our mbids with a favourable idea of the condition of 
the slaves^ especially of that of the slaves on Georgia^ When 
their extravagant assertions respecting the privileges and 
conditioii of the great mass of the slave population were 
shewn to be groundless^ their usual course was to select the 
drivers, two or three others of the head people on the estate^ 
and the mistresses oi the white men, and to describe their 
dress, their habitations, their dances, and the state of indo* 
lence in which some of the latter were kept, and then to 
expatiate on the wonderful advantages enjoyed by the Ne- 
groes: but Mr. Oates sometimes added the picture of eam^ 
distressed Europeans, to whose Mrretched abodes he had 
been taken during his last visit to England ; and would then 
declare, that the Negroes were as well off as the Englidi 
poor, ^^ excepting their state of slavery ;'* to which my reply 
used to be — " Mr. Oates, in excepting liberty , you have ex- 
cepted all that life is worth living for." 

A short time before our departure from the island, after I 
liad been considering what report I ought to make to my 
friends in England, respecting the people I was about to 
leave, Mr. Oates observed in conversation, that he had had 
^o many complainants, (I believe from the estate of Wel- 
come,) that he had threatened pimishment to the next comer. 
I remarked, that the slaves were certainly much dissatisfied, 
and added, " I have been thinking, Mr. Oates, that I have 
never, since my residence in Jamaica, seen a contented 
Negro : have you ?" His reply was, ** No, never !'^ — ^Your 
agents represent me as styling the slaves a happy peasantry, 
and preferring their condition to that of the poor of England. 
Sir, I never was such a traitor to freedom, and such a ca- 
lumniator of my country; apd the term peasantry was asso- 
ciated in my mind with too much that is enlightened, good, 
and happy, to permit me ever to apply it to that unfortunate 
and degraded race, which I saw whipped on to their labour 



28 

ia the qimepfields of tlie West Indies. And I well remember 
that I more thaa once objected to tfaek being described as a 
civilized people^ and asked, but asked in Taoi^ where were 
the arts, t^ laws, the manners, and the institutions that 
characterize a civilized population. As to the manners of 
the whitesy Mr. Oates cannot have forgotten, that I was ac- 
customed to use. the strongest language in expressing my 
abhorrence of them, and to declare, when speaking of theu 
corruption, that I would not traki up my two children in 
Jamaica, even if Georgia could be given to Thomas^ and 

Dzmde^*^ to iS'amtie/, as the reward* 

And now. Sir, I must be permitted to express my surprise 
that you should venture to sp/sak so positively of the charac- 
ters of your white people in the West Indies, when your 
knowledge of them is so very slight. Of Mr. Skirving you 
know nothing, but from the report of those who have the 
deepest interest in making a false impression on your mind. 
Of Mr. M^Kenzie your knowledge is equally imperfect. 
After the statements that have been made respecting your 
former overseer, a^d the condusion that they must force 
upon you, namely, either that for a long course of years you 
erred in forming your own judgment concerning hmi, or that 
you were deceived by the misrepresentations of others, or 
that you ar^ even now not in the possession of the truth : 
after this, it might have been supposed that you would have 
been more cautious in your assertions respecting one who is, 
at least, equally imknpwn; indeed, I suspect. much more 
so ; for almost all with whom you are connected, have, the 
strongest motives for practising deception on you and on 
the world, with regard to Mr. M^Kenzie ;. whereas it does- 
not appear that they had any for deceiving you with respect 
to Mr. Arkinstall. Neither can I conceive that it is consii- 

. * Aq estate contiguous to Georgia. 



-1 



24 

. ■ • - • • 

tent with' a scmimlona J>oi|Pttr t6 represent your knowledge 
of Mr. Oates as ea very intiniate and infallible. Yotnr oppor- 
tunities of personal observation have been extremely scanty, 
for he left jSngland at quite an early period of life, consi- 
derably before he had attained his twentieth year. He is 
now thirty- two, and during all this time, he has spent but 
four, or at the "most, five months, in England, of which but 
a small portion was passed in your society. 

I cannot forbear obi^erving, that though you appear not to 
be conscious of it, your mind must be under the same im- 
pression as our own with respect to the awfiil degradation of 
,the Negro slave, and the infinite inferiority of his condition 
to that of the English peasant. Were it not so, could you 
have feared to have had the knowledge of reading given to 
your Negroes ? Instead of acquiescing in the conjecture of 
Mr. Cooper, as to the result of such an enlightening of their 
imderstanding, would you not rather have replied, "Your 
fears are groundless 3 go on to teach my people ; I am per- 
suaded that the more capable they -are of comparing and 
appreciating their lot, the greater will be their satisfaction 
and their happiness" ? Is there a single labourer in England 
to whom you would fear to impart the art of reading ? Yet 
where can we find an English peasant whose torpified intel- 
lects, whose destitution of almost every religious idea, whose 
corrupt and scanty jargon, and whose Obeah superstitions, 
^s6 importunately call for the assistance of such an art as 
this ? And why is it denied to the Negro, but because the 
demon of slavery, with his scourge and his manacles, his 
apparatus of oppression, and his train of legal and illegal 
wrongs, is still to continue to crush the sable population of 
our islands of the West ? For, should the Negro read the 
Bible, he would feel himself a new creature, and, starting up 
as a man, he would exclaim, " Behold^ the hire of the la- 
bourers who have reaped down your fields, which is of you 



25 

kepi back by fraud, crieth: the cries of them which have reaped 
are entered into the ears of the Lord of sabaothr' AnA, cast- 
ing aside the foul and tattered garments^ in which I have so 
often seen him go to perform his Sunday's labomr^ he would 
demand, as an equal member of the great family of man^ to 
be admitted, on that day, to the temple— there to pay^ like 
the English peasant, an enlightened worship' to thi^ib Great 
Being who has granted him the blessing of life, and cheeked 
him with the hope of immortality. 

ANN COOPER. 

Slwltoai, near Niswcastle^under^Lyme, Aug. VJ^ 1824. . 



Naples, 7th March, 182D. 
Dear Sir, 

Your letter of 7th December last was forwarded to me 
here, whence I depart in a few days, and expect to be in 
England in June. 

I cannot but wish to hear from you respecting your success 
at Georgia: at the same time knowing the jealousy which 
often subsists on Plantations, I did not wish to subject you to 
the smallest suspicion of being a spy for me, and therefore I 
desired you to make your communications to me only through 
Mr. Frend. Your prudence, however, has no doubt by this 
time rendered this caution unnecessary, and therefore I shall 
be glad to hear from you as often as you feel yourself disposed 
to write to me. * 

. I am much obliged by your candid opinion as to the pro-^ 
priety of teaching the Slaves to read. I always considered 
that measure as of very doubtful policy; but as I did not wish 
to check your zeal to do good, I thought that I could not do 
better than leave the consideration of that matter, as well 
as any other of your plans of improvement, to the sound dis- 



36 

cretion of Mr. Oates, whom I know to be hei^rty in Ijbe ^aiue 
of the religious instruction of the Negroes; but vihof^ long 
experience in Jamaica would render him fiilly sensible of the 
dangers to be apprehended from many plana which might 
seem to eftrangers unexceptionjable. As you yourself^ there?^ 
fore^ are of opinion that an ability to read would render the 
Slaves difiooQtented with their situatipo, I have tQ request of 
you. to ^continue your labours in that way^ and to cm^fine 
yourself to the sole object of inculcating in the minds of the 
Negroes that religious instruction which teaches them^ imder 
the severest penalties, their duties to their Maker and to 
mankind. It is this moral feeling which makes the people of 
England superior to all other nations that I have seen: and 
1 do fiot see why Slaves may not be brought to partake of the 
hopes and fears in a life to come, according as they behave 
themselves in this world. I am sure that an ability to read is 
not necessary to this end; as very many English who do not 
know a letter of the alphabet, have as just a sense of right 
and wrong, as the wisest amongst us. I very much approve 
of your mode of lecturing in the Boiling-House ; but I think 
besides these regular lectures, you might occasionally con^ 
verse with the Slaves in the Negro-Houses, or where and 
whenever you found them disposed to listen to you, and in 
such conversations endeavour to impress the morals of Chris- 
tianity, particularly to do to others as they would be done by, 
and to love one another. 

It is in vain to attempt, and therefore I would not attempt, 
to put down Fornication; but you might try what you could 
say ag£Unst Adultery. Where much is wrong, it is well only 
to attack the greater sins ; for. by attempting too much, you 
may fail of the good which you could otherwise do. 

You must have frequent opportunities of questioning the 
Slaves on points of moral duty ; many that would not come 
to a regular lectiure, or even to hear you at all, might still be 



27 

brou^t to a proper feeling- by a iew appropriate words from 
you^ in the hour of their joy, and still more in the time of 
sorrow: and do insist on' making them imderstand, Hiat 
though prayer is good, yet it is what they do, that will be 
rememberi^d in the last day. For they will be much more 
ready to comply with forms, than to perform the duties. 

I beg pardon for saying so much on a subject vAdchis so 
familiar to you, and on which you have thought so much; 
but as you ask my opnion, it is as well to give it to you, and 
I shall be glad to hear &om you how far it oonibrms with your 
own, and what success attends your labours. 

I am glad to hear that you are on friendly terms with Mr. 
Rose, the minister. It is creditable to you both. I did not 
isuppose that Mrs. Cooper wbuld see many white females, 
but to have seen only one, and that only once, is surprising^ 
Had I had my own way, she would have had my Mrs. Hib<p 
bert's company at this present time, and as long as the ship 
Ann continued in Jamaica. Mrs. Cooper's literary turn and 
her family will give her, I trust, su£Bicient amusement; and 
I hope and believe that, as far as depends on me, things are 
made comfortablS to you at Tomspring. Having left England 
in October, I can give yo.u no information of our mutual 
friend, Mr. Frend. Perhaps it will not be amiss to shew this 
letter to Mr. Oates, who will be good enough to pay you the 
postage of such of your letters as come from and to me. 

Mrs. Hibbert joins me in respects to Mrs. Cooper, and I 
remain. 

Dear Sir, 

Yours sincerely, 

ROBERT HIBBERT, Jun. 



' The Rev* Thas. Cooper, Hanover, Jamaica, 



■28 

East Jffide, 1st Ncveniber, 1S20. 
Dbar Sir, 

I am favoured with your letter of 29th August, for which 
accept my thanks, and for the zeal which jrou manifesto in 
your spiritual undertaking. I am not quite sure^ howes^er, 
from.the tenor of your letter, whether it is your wisb to re- 
main in the Island or to return to this country. As far as I 
am concerned, I have only on thia subject to say, that sis long 
as you find yourself useful, I shall be glad of your continuance 
on my property, and that I am convinced, that you yourself 
would not wish to remain there, when you £Dimd yourself 
no longer useful. I leave the matter, therefore, entirely to 
your discretion. 

I quite agree with you in thinking that an ability to read 
is conducive to the propagation of Christianity: but as I said 
in a former letter, I cannot believe it a sine qud mm; for many 
' thousands in this country unable to read, are good Christians 
in every sense of the word. Indeed, we are expressly told 
in the Testament, as one of the merits of Christianity,, that 
the poor shall have the gospel preached unto them: con- 
sequently the podr could understand the gospel when preach- 
I ed; yet no one will maintain that all the poor could read in 
/ the time of the apostles. Now I feel myself under no moral 
' or divine obligation to teach my Negroes to read; and as 
' you admit that much mischief may ensue through reading, 
from insubordination, I am decidedly averse to it. I am 
happy to find that my suggestions in my last letter, of giving 
in a quiet and private way frequent conversations on the 
moral duties of the gospel, meet your approbation, and that 
in fact you had adopted, previously, that mode of proceeding. 
If we could but thoroughly persuade B,few that it would be for 
their advantage here and in the world to come, to behave cor- 
rectly, their example could not fail in time of having effect 
through the whole estate, and of rendering the whole more 



29 

civilized; although the advantageous change might not be 
immediately apparent. 

I shall send your letter to ^me to jour mutual frend, Mr. 
Frend, whom I have not seen for some time, not having had 
occasion to go to London since I passed through it in my 
way from the Continent, 

I am glad to hear that you, and your fiamily enjoy good 
health at TomSpring; and that things are, made coniifortable 
to you there. 

At the suggestion of Mr. Oates, I shall send you by one of 
the first ships froni Madeira, a hogshead of Madeira wi^e. 

Mrs. Hibbert joins me in respectful compliments to your 
Lady. 

I remain with respect and esteem. 

Dear Sir, 

Your most obediqnjt Servant, 

ROBERT HIBBERT, JUn. 

Rev. Thomas Cooper, Hanover, Javmica. 



APPENDIX I. 



Affidayits. 

(1.) George Hibbert Oates, 
of Hanover, in the island of 
Jamaica^ Esquire, being sworn 
on therHoIy Evangelists, ssdth. 
That he hath pernsed a pam- 
phlet, entitled " Negro Slavery^ 
or a View of some of the more 
prominent Features of that 
State of Society, as it exists in 
the United States of America, 
and in the Colonies of the 
West-Indies, espedally in Ja- 
maica ^'* and more particularly 
such part of it as relates to the 
evidence of Thomas Cooper, or, 
as he is therein called, the Re- 
verend Thomas Cooper. That 
deponent assumed the fiianage- 
ment of Georgia estate, alluded 
to in such evidence, m Octo- 
ber, one thousand, eight hun- 
dred, and seventeen, about two 
or three months prior to Mr. 
Cooper's arrival,— 

(2.) And he found the whole 
system of i^antation manage- 
ment, and the treatment of the 
Negroes on the estate, almost 
entirely different to that which 
he had been accustomed to in 



Remarks. 

(1.) Mr. O^tes was employed 
on Georgia estate in the man- 
ner here described. 



(2.) The overseer or ma- 
nager of the estate at this time 
was Mr. Adam Arkinstall, a 
gentleman who had acted in 
that capacity for at least twelve 
or thirteen years ^ and Mr. 



31 



Afpidatits. 

that part of the island wkeire 
he had previously resided^ ike 
estate appearing generally to 
be conducted under a much more 
rigid St/stem of discipline, as to 
the Negroes, than any property 
which had come under his no^ 
tice, with only one ejtception, 
that of an estate called Great 
y alley, both of which estates, 
deponent understood, had a great 
many years ago belonged to the 
same proprietor, and were notcn 
rious for being conducted under 
more harsh and rigorous ma^ 
nagement than any m the island. 



RbmarKs. 

Gates continued him in his si- 
tuation for nearly^ if not alto- 
gether> three years longer.* 
Now, if Mr. Oates thought the 
system of management cruel 
and unjust to the slaves, why 
did he not take prompt and 
effectual measures to produce 
a reformation } He could hav« 
discharged Mr. Arkinstall, and 
this he most certainly ought' to 
have done, if it be true that 
he conducted the estate in the 
manner stated and sworn to by 
Mr. Oates. But instead of dis- 
missing him as he ought to have 
done, he allowed him to tyran- 
nize, for three successive years, 
in the most open and wanton 
manner) according to his own 
account, over Mr. Hibbert's 
Negroes ; and even to render 
the estate, with one exception, 
a scene of barbarity unequalled 
by any thing which Mr. Oates 
had ever seen in the island, f 
Now, does it not follow from 
this, either that Mr. Oates is 
a person capable of tolerating 
the most odious and oppressive 



• Before he became over seer> Mr. Arkmstall lived four or five years 
on Geor^a, as a book-keeper. 

t Mr. Oates had resided on the south side of the island eight or ten 
years, and had seen much of the management of slaves. He was several 
years a book-keeper, and the rest of the tune an overseer. I have very 
often heard him dihrte on the superior advantages, all things considered, 
ei^oyed by Ac Gcoigia slaves, *o aiiy on the neighbouring estates. 



32 



Affidavits. 



Remarks. 

proceedings on estates for which 
he is concerned^ or that he has 
shamefully misrepresented Mr. 
Arkinstall ? The late proprie- 
tor of Georgia and Great Val- 
ley estates was Richard Bris- 
sett, Esq., a gentleman of sin- 
gular manners, but, *^ if his 
numerous surviving slaves," 
with whom Mrs. Cooper and I 
conversed, are to be believed, 
*' he was an uncommonly ex- 
cellent master." But suppose 
they deceived us, and that Mr. 
Gates is right in his represai- 
tation, that Georgia and (heat 
f^alley were, during Mr. Bris- 
sett*s proprietorship, justly no- 
torious ^^ for being conducted 
under more harsh and rigorous 
management than any in the 
island;* what an awful mass 
of crime and human misery 
must the slave system have oc- 
casioned on these two nnfortn- 
nate properties ! ! Let eyery 
traveller who visits Jamaica 
remember, that Georgia and 
Great VaUey are to be noted 
as the accursed spots on which 
the fell demon of slavery reign- 
ed for a series of years, with a 
harshness and rigonr unknown 
in other places ! ! ! 

It is, however, singular that 
Mr. Brissett should manifest 
such pre-eminent cruelty to- 
wards these two estates; for 



33 



Atfidayits. 



(3.) That he was perfectly 
aik^are of the iotentions of the 
pi^esent proprietor of Georgia 
estate, in. sending Mr. Cooper 
to reside on it, and he was pre- 
pared, both from inclination, 
and in, compliance ' with, Mri 
Hibbert*8. wishes, to have pro- 
moted, in every respect in his 
power, the. object of Mr. Coo- 
per's residence there j and the 
white people employed upon 
the estate were also aware 
thereof, and received orders ia 
no manner to. interfere witK 
Mr. Cooper in the discharge of 
his dnties.on the estate. 

(4.) That the pamphlet con- 
tains the following statement, 
viz. '^One great obstacle to, 
bis. soiQcess, as a religious in-, 
structpr, which Mr. Cooper had. 
to encoupter at the very outset^ 



Rbmaiiks. 

he was at the same tinie pro-* 
prietor of four others, one in 
Hanover, and three in.Trelaw- 
ney, besides a pen. ' But. we 
must yield to. necessity : Mr. 
Gates has' iakeo^ his oath that 
the capricious BHssett is re- 
ported thus to- have distin- 
guished Georgia and Great 
FaUey!* 

(3.) Mr. Gates, without 
doubt, , understood Mr. Hib- 
bert*s object in sending me out 
to his estate, but he has no. 
right. to lay claim to any degree 
o{ zfial in favour of my end^-^ 
vours. If I admit that he. did. 
not oppose me, I give, him, all 
the praise to which he is ea- 
titled. . He candidly confessed,, 
both. to Mrs. Cooper, ^nd my-- 
self, that he,neyer expected, my 
undertaking to succeed* , 



(4.) What the practice with 
respect to.. Sunday work in 
crop-time on Georgia estate 
m^y now be> I. pretend opt. to 
say : my evidence refer&to the 
period, of my residence there; 



^ See some remarks on the management of Georgia, in my Letter to 
Mr. Hibbert, pp. 11-«15. 



34 



ArriDATivs. 

of kis mdertaking, was this, 
that the alates had no Urns to 
attend upon him." And audi 
alleged fact is atteapted to he 
explained by fefere&ee to the 
evkleaoe of Mr* Cooper, as 
uk^ymg, " that fae covld fmd 
no time for the veligiotis in-' 
stmetioi W the slates, which 
was compatible with the ordef 
and management of the estate j" 
bttt HI irespe^t to iineh expla- 
nation^ and the laeft therdby 
se«g9il to be (BStaUlilied, this 
deponent iBulh, That the pta6« 
M<^ on Qeorgia ^tate in crop- 
tine, is to pnt thus sagar mill 
about, or to commence the ma-* 
n^actnring of- cAfgaf, early oti 
Motiday mdming, and not on 
Sunday evening ; but formerly 
it wais not unusual to ooni'^ 
m^fibise dn ^ Sunday erening, 
not from any disposition on the 
part of the attorney or overseer 
to disregard the law in such 
respect, or to obtain more la- 
bour from the Negroes, but 
really and truly from a desire 
on the part «jp tlie "Negroes 
thenhrifes-to ewmetibn the 
mmk^i ite^crop 5 and it bafih 
Mtw^B, aittOB.he went there, 
been the practke mt the estite 
for the N«g»es la hreitk 4jff 
work at dusk on Saturday even^ 
ing^ or very shortly ^^fiter, imd 
not for tkem to work tUl nud" 



Then, both Mrs. Cooper and 
I very often saw the slaves 
go on a Sunday evening to 
" take spell 3'* and we were 
repeatedly told by the white 
people as well as the slaves, 
•that such was the constant rule. 
In a letter addressed to me, by 
Mr. George Hibbert, in the 
Morning Chronicle of Jan. 23, 
1824, the following passage 
occars 1 '' Mr. Hibbert acknow- 
ledges that npon inqoiry, ha 
fimfo that his water-mill wa$ 
ooomdonaUy** (/say invariably) 
^' put about upon . a Sunday 
evening, and when he heard ^ 
the praotice, he immoiBately 
ordered it to be disoontinued.** 
Now, I sntoiit, that it would 
have b«en candid in Mr. Ro-» 
bert Hibbert to have made the 
same acknowledgment here, it 
being the manifest object of 
Mr. Osaots to turn to my pre- 
judice a rooofnt Mgulatioa, aad 
that too oomsioned by the pub- 
lication of my evidetooo. 

I have very frequently heard 
Mr. Oatei li^te, that he has 
known the Negroes of t^ir 
own 4iccord commence the woilc 
of crop on a^ ISunday evening, 
but he always nssigned as the 
reason, their intense desire to 
get through this laborious sea- 
son witb ftH ipwmiki^ «peed^— 
Now> bowev^i^ wkat .he aweanl 



86 



mig^Ai, JUfcqit ahami tmehe tf 
J^l^t0mf> wka #r9 meumnf to 

iM& j iffgff. And k k MiAt^ 
noM iibtNi^Aoiil iheuitmi, thtu 
ik9NefmnomMtgwrpropenw$ 
mn hpU€9 HOiifi^d and pieai§d 
in 'ertgh'ikne, ikon nt nmf oikep 
p0rhd ^f ikB jw«r, aad thid( 
leii of liie latMurjreqnlred fnm 
tlMBia In i>3m «iittittg of cmim 

aid «ltfeNlfoCtlll4l% of BllgMFi 

tlMui of «ay other kfxMir ott «ff 
estalo^ dPoir-«ltid%eiiig, ittftrtti 

sctfob of good liimoiir^ ldli>^ 
liljr^ attd plnty. . 



• ^ 






;' .. ;» .-' 

t 

..\ < i 

,1. . . 



. "t 



f5.) TMotGMigUk Citato 
tlt« .WegNee aro^ imA atways* 
iMM^MoiH ikm lit Ihkmn^ tli» 



to «p tbh sulijoci/gotf on the 
hypolhosis that tftiejr woM iB« 
fiucnetd l»y tko iiMr« /mw of 
^' tho woifc of er«p.^ The de- 
Hgbta of cfOpj erery one hai 
wCiij^Qi -sovMiefi saflwieBtiy lowi 
in tl4^' oomilrjr j> but I can 
noi^ tmSy aMert, tet as Ihr 
aS' I co«M learn daring ray 
abode on Georgia, its eoaelii* 
sion was idways most eagerly 
desired. The case, indeed, 
speaks for itself: the impartial 
have only to bear in mind that 
during this season, which lasts 
fonr or five months, the slaves 
have the most dreadfal en- 
croachments made on their rest, 
tgsd that, as a general role, 
they have no day allowed them, 
excepting Sunday, for their own 
use ; whereas, out of crop, they 
get their regular rest every 
night, and are allowed about 
twenty-six week days to be 
employed in cultivating thdr 
own grounds. What I have 
sud on the subject of the Ne- 
groes' working late on a Sa- 
turday night, I learned on the 
spot ) and it is, in fact, not 
denied, with respect to a cer- 
tun portion of them, by lir. 
Gates. 

(5.) If there be any inac- 
curacy in thig representation, 
Mr. Gates, Mr.'M'Kenzie, Mr. 



x>2 



36 



Affidavits. 

property^ divided iiUo four 
^Us,rmd not into two, 08 
Hated by Mr. Cooper, and each 
Negro keeps q^lienfy ei^r koun 
in eachaltemate mght, making 
tie night labour of each Negro 
in a week, amount to eighteen 
hours, and not to three nights 
in the juieek, as stated. in the 
pamphieLr 



RElffARKB.'. 

Skicviog, and the nnmeixiiis 
other toAtr^ people with whom, 
I conversed on the subject of 
iught-wx>rk, ^osslyv : deceived 
me } for they all invariably re- 
ported the matter? exactly, as. I 
have done. I fre^ently . ar<* 
gued thet case with them, And 
yet no one evar attempted .to 
correct the. error>. which^ the 
oatha of Mr» Oates -and Mr; 
M^Kenziearenowtooiigbt for- 
ward to prove. Mr. Gates 
swears, " That on Georgia es- 
tate, the N^;roes are. and al- 
ways havebeen, since he 
the property, divided inlo^ 
spells, and not into two, as 
stated by" me ; and *' that each 
Negro keeps spell only six 
hours in each alternate night/* 
thns redacing the night labour 
to eighteen hours in the week. 
I wish 1 could refer to the re- 
cords of the plantation, daring 
my stay on Georgia, in order 
to elucidate this point ; for cer- 
tainly, unless a studied system 
of falsehood was practised upon 
me, the slaves employed in the 
mght time were not divided 
into four spells when I.waa on 
the estate. I was assured^ at 
least a hundred times, by the 
Negroes themselves, and the 
diffiBient ^hiie peoples on Ifae 
estate^i as well as by nuwy <tf> 
the. neifi^urs^engaged in Hmt 



37 



AFniuTiTk. 



,. 1/ 



phmting bnstne^s, that the 
liight-wo^k was done by Mo 
g^gB or ^spelh, aiid ' I never 
heard fotor mentioned till I read 
Mr/ Oate8*« assertion. I have 
Qften seek! the lists of the two 
gangs on Georgia hnng np in 
the boiltng-rhonse : I have ex- 
amined them with a book' 
keeper^^ who assured .ilie * that 
they contained all the Nq;roes 
who were expected to '! take 
spell, which I oonld , not donbt 
from i the nnmber of . names the 
lists, contained. One spell was 
called Johm Crow Spell, and 
the other QuaHiy Spell. In 
addition to this, I have, times 
without number, heard both 
Negroes and book-keepers com- 
plain bitterly of being kept up 
at their spell the whole of eyery 
other night.* 



' * Mr. Hibbert quotes the following passage from my tract entitled 
** Facts;'' &c., p. 34 :— '' If all thmgs are fairly considered, it will appear 
that the time wluch the slaves are employed for him'* (their master) 
" will amount to at least six days In the week, the year round; after 
which, they have to procure, by their own laboui;, the snbstantials of life, 
with « the exception of their weekly allowance of herrings and salt fiskat 
ChristmaiiB." Tins he contrasts mth what Mr. M*Kenzie swears about 
ihe time allowed to the Negroes for thehr< own purposes in theconrse of 
the year, expecting the readw to conclude, tiiat I have here been guilty 
of a great'cxaggeration. But it will b&seen that, tiie skves do actually 
iirork for thdr masters at the nX&iof eiiPiwhole dape.tniheweeh theyesr 
round, if we take into account the -night-work. For both Mr. Gates, and 
Mr.M'Kenme make oath, that, during crop, the night labonr^of each 
N^b amounts to ei|[hteen honrs ih a week, and Mr. Hibbert remarks, in 
« a- note, (page ^ of "FsctsonOath,") that the crop lasts four or five 



3«» 



(6.) That it k »«t Inft^ gi 
9iMei in tbe pMipbk^ Itat 
the perdue «m]^loyed in «urry» 
ibg canttfii from the fieU 16 Ibe 
floiU bavQ no regnbtr titte 6f 
i€»^ cUqr Or night | bnfe, on ite 
•Ontrary> it it nooManry only 
to employe few muloB to tkrrf 
onboB to the mill dhiriig tin 
aarfy piurt of tho night, when 
tiw cukO piece InppeliB to b^ 
at an anustlal distanoe fixMn 
the troirkt, which ocoars but 
feldomy and the personi 6o eoK 
ployed hare just ae anoh tliae 
for reftt Mi any other Kegroee 
0* the property. 



RsMAHita. 

(6.) It is admitted on all 
hands^ that the mill is at work 
all night, as well as all day, 
and that it must be regularly 
supplied with canes. Mr. 
Roughley, (p. 83,) in his Ja- 
mmca Planter's Guide, states 
it to be one of the duties of 
the cattle men to carry ** canes 
from the field to the mill for 
its constant supply m crop^time** 
I have often heard Mr. Oates 
and others, planters, speak of 
the situation of these men, and 
they always described it as 
bdng peculiarly hard. The re- 
presentation which I have giyen 
of their case, is nothing more 
nor lesft than what I received 
from Mr. Arkinstall when he 
was overseer of Georgia 3 and 
he added, that he had found the 
boys asleep on the mules' backs 
in the cattle pen, through mere 
iatigue. I well remember -al^o, 
thai, on one occasion, whei^ 
Mr. Oates served out clothing 
to the Nefroes at Georgiai ha 



moMa. Now, allow fhM ^ m^ bC||iat oil the 1st of January, and 
lasttf dU the 20th of Mby, And it wiH Mlow^ that Ibr twenty weeks tlit 
Negroes reidgn to their master iMfl oridy sis diqri ia the wesfcj, hut .thai 
they also give htin in iidditiiii eightsen hours of Isbonr taken from their 
six nights \ tiwt is^ twenty times d|^te^ hidlirs, a period eqiuvalent to 
thirty whole dayi of twelve hours tedi; end neither Mr. tfibbert nor his 
igcnto pretesd that a greater number of wesk^ys than thirty is aliowfd 
tiiem for their own purposes during the whole year. So that even em 
thehr own qeestioiisble statement it is proved^ that the slaves isre em*" 
ployed te thdr masters for at least six days in the week tkeyeeir remnd. , 



» 



AjpniMLvivs. 



(7.) Tba% dnriiig tfae rest-* 
denoe of Mr. Cooper on Geor«* 
gia estate, the Negroes were 
aOowed every other Thnniiay 
ftftemooA, (except when aoltt«' 
ally enpAojred in manufiictiuriiig 
BQgar,) for the purpose of at- 
tending him, and on such days 
aU the Negroes bro)te off work 
at shell blow^ which is at one 
o'clock at noon, and they were 
^xpecte^ to attend hioot, biit^ in 
(act, very few of them ever did 
attend. That, exdnsive of snoh 
Thursday afterao^, the Ne* 
groes immediately after crop- 
time, which uBOidly was about 
the month of May, v/et^ allow- 
ed one whole week-day in every 
alternate week, making np to 
them in the course of the year, 
jTroip tw^ty-eight to thirty 
whole wecik-days, ^xcl^siv^ c^ 
thfl^Tliursday afternoon allowed 



i 



RihiAAiee. 

gave seme of the cattle men an 
extra quantity, stating, as a 
reason, that they were exposed 
to all weathers, and filled the 
most trying situations on the 
estate* I have seen these men 
carrying canes on a Sunday 
afternoon. They must have a 
good stock of canes in the mill 
yard before they can with safety 
venture to take a whole night's 
regular rest. The very nature 
of their situation implies this. 

(7.) I always admitted that 
the slaves were allowed an 
afternoon in « fortnight, ont of 
crop, for the sole purpose of 
attending on me $ but it is not 
trae, that on those occasions 
they left the field at one o*dock. 
''It was understood between 
the overseer and myself, that 
with a view to put the estate 
to as little inconvenience as 
possible, the shell should not 
bl<^w till nearly two." (See 
iky letter in tb^ Mon. Bepos* 
lor May 1829.) Of this ar- 
rangement I ini^med Mr. Oatea 
several times. Neither is it 
true that aii the Negroes broke 
off work on those occasions ; 
^f it was no uncommon thing 
for a whole gang to be detained 
in the field with a view to com- 
plete S4Mnf ^ece^ work, which 
the overseer was an^iUing to 



40. 



r« 



Ahfibavits. Remahxs. 

fof their attendance on Mr. i have neglected. This I aUo 
Co9per. .1 frequently mentioned to Mr. 

Oates; and at the same time 
explained to him^ that a num- 
ber of individuals, such as 
watchmen and mule boys, were 
always kept from my lectures, 
on the ground that the neces- 
sities of the estate demanded 
their attention. The assertion 
that " very few of them ever 
did attend,*' is, in plain lan- 
guage, a positive falsehood, in 
proof of which I shall introduce 
i|i a note an extract from my 
diary«* 

• "•/«/y 13, 1820. 

Prepared an address to deliver to the Negrdes in the atomoob.- Hie 
subject was. On Acquaintance with God, founded on Job zxH. 21 : 
': Acquaint thyself now with him and be a^ peace: thereby good^haU come 
unto thee.' I went down to the estate about half^past one o'clock,, and 
found the drivers at the overseer's door, receiving, or rather waiting for, 
orders to go to work in the afternoon, I, however, went immediately to 
the overseer, and told him that I was come, expecting to preach to the 
people. He replied, that he had forgotten it ; but I added, thbt we had 
lost several days already this year, and tliat he informed me last week all 
arrangements would be made for my preaching to the Negroes as on to- 
day. He admitted what I said, and gave the drivers orders, to attend me 
in the afternoon, inthe' room of gobgsto work. About four o'clock I 
went to the boiling-liouse" (the place appointed for preaching) ^' to meet 
my sable^ audience, accompanied by Mjr.Iiyon, Mr. Fra8er,'Mate overseer 
on Springfield estate, ''and by Mr. Smith," overseer of Mesopotamia. 
'Mn a few minutes after we arrived at the place of worship, the Negroes 
came flocking in, and I had a congregation of at least two hundred people. 
Considering the short notice which the Negroes had received, the manner 
in which they had cleaned and dressed themselves was highly gratifying 
and satisfactory. I commenced the service by a short prayer, and then 
read the ld9th Psalm,* and part of the 5th chapter of Matthew : then de- 
livered the address, ^and concluded by a short prayer. During the whole 
time, the Negroes behaved themselves with great decorum, excepting, I 



41 



AFFIDAyit^S. 



(S.) That, exclusive of the 
days allowed to the Negroes on 
Georgia estate, Mr. Cooper had 
fnimb^less opportunitiefs of im- 
parting religious 7nstr action to 
the slaves, inasmach as daring 
his residence there, there wals 
always a considerable n amber 
of elderly people .not called 
upon to do any work,- or, if any, 
to do only such light work oc- 
casionally as they were fitted - 



Rbmaeks. . 

-I' do not' believe that tb6 
Negroea ever had thirty week- 
days :for their own ruse dating 
my residence on Georgia:— 
twenty-e^ht'is the utmost* 

' • • • . 

(8.) I was always ready and 
willing to impart religious in- 
struction to every description of 
Mr. Hibbert*s Negroes, Which 
they all, as well as every t^iU^ 
person on the estate, knewiper- 
fectly well. I attended tbehr 
fanerals, visited many indivi- 
duals in their huts, conversed 
with others by tite way side, 

and PAID PARTICULAR ATTEN- 
TION TO THRIR CHUJUIEN. * 



tkoaj^ht 1 saw^twoor tfared of 'ihem' asleep. The afternoon was very 
hot. This bthe first timel have had an opportunity of preaching to, or 
of assembling the Negroes, since just before GhTistmas. I was to have 
seen them imme^ately after crop, but the late heavy sickness of 4he over- 
seer,** (Mr. Arkinstall,) " and one ^ two 'Other : circumstances, pre- 
vented it." . 

' The above, with the exceptionof two or three *explafiatory words, is 
given Verbadm^ and the readerwiU bear ia myid, that it was originally 
written without the slightest view to publication, and at a time when . I 
could have had no view to the present controversy with JVIr. X)ates and 
Mr. Hibbert. 

* From the manner in which Mr. Gates introduces the chiUtrea in the 
above paragraph, it is saanifestly his dedgn to impress the reader with 
the idea^ that I totally neglected their instruction. I cannot allow this 
most base insinuation to pass* without a more direct exposure. Mr. Gates 
well knows; that, so far from the insinuation being founded in.fiuit, I took 
very great pains with the education of the children; and that every word 
that I have contrasted mth his account is strictly trqe. What, then, are 
we to say to the conduct of Mr. Gates in this instance? Did he come 
forward with his oath, without examining the pacticulars to whiph.he was 
employed to swear, and thereby shew himself capable of actmg a mean. 



40. 



<« 



fof their attendance on Mn | have neglected. This I aUo 
Co9per. .1 frequently mentioned to Mr. 

Oatesj and at the same time 
explained to bim^ that a num- 
ber of individuals, such as 
watchmen and mule boys, were 
always kept from my lectures, 
on the ground that the neces- 
sities of the estate demanded 
their attention. The assertion 
that " very few of them ever 
did attend,*' is, in plain lan- 
guage, a positive falsehood, in 
proof of which I shall introduce 
i|i a note an extract from my 
diary.* 

• ";/«/y 13, 1820. 

Prepared an address to deliver to the Negroes in the aftemooki* Hie 
subject was. On Acquaintance with God, founded on Job zxH. 21 : 
': Acquaint ihifseffnow wiih him and he at peace: thereby good -shall come 
unto thee,* I went down to the estate atbout half-past one o'clock,, and 
found the drivers at the overseer's door, receiving, or rather, waiting for, 
orders to go to work in the afternoon. I, however, went immediately to 
the overseer, and told him that I was come, expecting to preach to the 
people. He replied, that he had forgotten it ; but I added, thbt we had 
lost several days already this year, and that he informed me last week all 
arrangements would be made for my preaching to the Negroes as on to- 
day. He admitted what I said, and gave the drivers orders, to attend me 
in the afternoon, in the' room of gobgito work. About four o'clock I 
went to the boiling-house" (the place appointed for preaching) ''to meet 
my sable' audience, accompanied by Mj*. Jjyon, Mr. Eraser," late overseer 
on Springfield estate, ''and by Mr. Smith," overseer of Mesopotamia. 
'.'In a few minutes after we arrived at the place of worship, the Negroes 
came flocking in, and I had a congregation of at least two hundred people. 
Considering the short notice which the Negroes had received, the manner 
in which they had cleaned and dressed themselves was highly gratifying 
and satisfactory. I commenced the service by a short prayer, and then 
read the ld9th Psalm,* and part of the 5th chapter of Matthew : then de- 
livered the address, ^and concluded by a short prayer. During the whole 
time, the Negroes behaved themselves with great decorum, excepting, I 



it 



AFFlbATltli. 



(S.) That, exdusive of the 
days allowed to the Negroes on 
Georgia estate, Mr. Cooper had 
frtimberless dpportunitiefs of im- 
parting religious Instroctidn to 
the slaves, inasmach as daring 
his residence there, there wais 
always a considerable n amber 
of elderly people .not called 
upon to do any work,- or, if any, 
to do only such light wprk oc- 
casionally as they were fitted- 



Rbmaeks. . 

-r do not' believe that tht 
Negroes ever had thirty week- 
days :for their own ruse dating 
my residence on Georgia t — 
twenty-e^ht'is the utmost* 

(8.) I was always ready and. 
willing to impart religious in- 
struction to every description of 
Mr. Hibbert*8 Negroes, Which 
they all, as well as every white 
person oh the estate, knewjper- 
fectly well. I attended tbehr 
fanerals, visited many indivi- 
duals in their huts, conversed 
with others by the way side, 

and PAID PARTICULAR ATTEN- 
TION TO THRIR CHIXJ>REN. * 



tkoiij^ht 1 saw two or tfared of ^kem' asleep. The afternoon was very 
hot. This b the first time I have had an opportunity of preaching to, or 
of assembling the Negroes, 'since just before Christmas* I was to have 
seen' them -imme^ately after crop, but the late heavy sickness of the over- 
seer,** (Mr. Arkinstall,) " and one ^ two 'Other circumstances, pre- 
ventedit." 

' The above, with the exceptionof two or three ^explanatory words, is 
given verbatim'^ and the reader-will bear in nwd, that it was originally 
written without the slightest view to publication, and at a time when J 
could have had no view to the present controversy with .Mr. X)ates and 
Mr. Hibbert. 

* From the manner in which Mr. Oates introduces the childr^i in the 
above paragraph, it is-saanifestly ius design to impress the reader with 
the idea^ that I totally neglected their instruction. I cannot allow this 
most base insinuation to pass* without a more direct exposure. Mr. Oates 
wieli knows; that, so far from the insinuation bemg founded in^fiuit, I took 
very great pains with the education of the children; and that every word 
that I have contrasted mth his account is strictly trqe. What, then, are 
we to say to the conduct of Mr. Gates in this instance? Did he come 
forward with his oath, without examining the particulars to whiph he was 
employed to swear, and thereby shew himself capable of acting a mean. 



4B 



Affidavits. 
fofi besides inymfidi^ coBval^s- 

CentS> A)ID CBlLBUmH OATAMht, 

dr <]iBCKiviiro iNftvifiroTioN ^ 
and among snch elderly people 
were ee^reral poMetotag consi- 
deriible influence^ and whose 
ejtample wotild have had great 



.RmABKS. 

" I formed them into a class, 
had them to my honse every 
day in the week, and, with the 
assistance of Mrs. Cooper, suc- 
ceeded in teaching a few of 
them to read. At one period 
we kul at many as tweaty 



compliant, and dishonoutable part; or, did he really reflect on the insi- 
nuation in queatiptt, and while his conscience was Idling him tliat il was 
not only iinsiipported by the least patticle of evidence, but in direct oppo« 
ution to what he knew to be the trut|i, yet resolve to ^ve*it his deliberate 
sanction, by swearing to it oA the " Holy Evan^eliit$ of Almighty God** ? 
Mr. Hibbert may repeat, and if he chooses, on oath, that ** Mi*. OaCes is 
a gentleman totally incapable dther of falsehood or misrepresentation,*' 
and that he is a persdti *' seriously concerned about religion;** but to me, 
at least, the contrary is a matter of absolute eerttdnty. He may, how- 
ever, very safely afflrin that Mr» Oiites is '^seriously conoran^** about 
the support of Negro Slavery ! 

Here I would oondude, but Mr* Hibbert is so deeply qomtnitted in 
this business, thai I find it qmte ioipossible to excuse him : he has p«b-r 
fished the daring aflidavits of his three accommodating witnesses, without 
a 8h)gle qaalifying note or remark s he therefore wishes them to he un- 
derstood in their obvious and literal sense. Now he knows that the insi- 
nuation about the children is perfectly groundless. He knows that I 
^kttended tothism in the manner I have stated, and thsit I should have 
continued to instract; them in reading, had he not himself requested me 
to lay aside my lAboafs in thai way. See his letter addressed to me firom 
Naples, pp. dS-427- ^ ^ 

The following quotation from p. 6 of my ** Facts,** Mr.. Hibbert Jiis 
fglMA m contrast with What Mn Oiftes states in paragraph 8, ej^iecting 
the reader to regafd it as contatniiig a gross exaggeration : ^^Mr. Cooper, 
dtning the flt«t five or six months of his rendence on Georgia estate, 
could find no time for the reOgious histroelion of the slaves, which was 
compatible with its order and management.'* I refuse to quaSfy or with- 
draw tiie least parole of this statement. I arrived in the country on 
Christmas^ay 1817^ and it was not tiU the 30th of July followiii^; that 
any tiine was allowed the Negroes to attend ime. The eircumstanee of 
their coming to me a few times on a Sunday, was acknowledged fMa the 

oTSt. 



4S 



dfied with thdr £imi)ie8 and 

SOADexiODB. 



(9«) ThAl the Negroes on 
Georgia estate cultivate the 
greitnds aboat their houses^ but 
tibe soil not be»ig to prodae^ 
tive aa the regular provision 



nnddr oiir care, :biit .iUi^ nirai* 
ber wis soon dilniaiBhed in 
consequeno^ of fon^ or five of 
Utett iaUifig iU )virith an infec* 
tidns disease J and \RPe were 
never able tb get a soffioient 
supply of recntita to repain the 
breach* The few scholars we 
had, made/ on the whole> a 
satis£Ewtoiy projgress. Before 
they left iis, eight of ^m, in* 
chiding two brawn girls, could 
read the Scriptures with consi-» 
deraUeease: they went through 
three i>f the Gospels, beeodes 
reading various eittrocts from 
the Old Testament and the 
Acts, of the Apostles." [See 
my, letter in the Mon. A^s^ 
for August 1822.] 

Robert Hibbert, the head 
driver, and fiis sister, Mary 
Riley, midwife, were certainly 
two of the most respectable 
slaves on the estate : they were 
likewise possessed of the great- 
est influence : with these we 
had much intercourse, and they 
were frequently at our house, 
as well as many other of the 
slaves who possessed influence 
on the estate. 

(9.) The Negroes plant 
orange-trees about their houses, 
and a few of them may culti- 
vate some trifling quantity of 
provisions 3 but to say that 



44 



AFFIDAVITS. 

gronnds, which . are only abont 
two miles from ' their ' houses, 
they depend more, from chmce, 
on the latter foir then: snpply 
of provisions, and they consid^ 
it no hardship to have to go so 
trifling a distance for themj 
and a great many d the Ne- 
groes have got iarge ntppUea 
of hoga, goat»9 and: pouUtp, 
upon the estate, which Mr. 
Cooper was periiectlyitware of; 
and he 'Was also:a<rare that the 
occasions of the Negroes to .at- 
tend the. Sunday miurket were 
actnally triflingyif any such did 
exist, but 'that, -in fact,, their 
real motives in:attendidg such 
markets . are pleasure, . 'and a 
desire to meet .their* acquaint- 
ance. • 



Rbmaaks. 

they go to their distant grounds 
from choice rather than neces- 
sity, is a gross misrepresenta- 
tion. I have conversed with 
them on this point, and they 
always assured me, that it was 
absolutely necessary for them 
to have grounds in the moun- 
tsdns* I certainly never mea- 
sured the exact distance which 
these grounds may be from the 
Negro village, though I have 
many times been over the road ; 
but what I have said about the 
distance is what I believe to 
be the truth, and what I have 
often heard Mr. Gates, the 
overseer, and the other wMie 
people on the estate, frequently 
affirm • 

When Mr. Oates took his 
oath that "« great many of 
the Negroes have got large sup^ 
plies of hogs, goats, and poultry, 
upon the estate,** he most cer- 
tainly swore to what was not 
true, at least, in my time. I 
believe there were four or five 
goats kept at the Negro village, 
and there certainly was a flock 
of fifteen or sixteen in the pas- 
tures about our house ; but 
they, in part, belonged to slaves 
on other estates; and three or 
four of them > to my little boy. 
Now let the reader judgCi: after 
taking from this flock wJbat did 
not belong to Mr* Hibbert's 



4g 



Affiqat»!s. 



v-t 



\ J 



RfiHARKS. > 

slaves, of wham there were 
nearly four hundred upon the 
estate, whether "a great many'* 
of them could be possessed " of 
large euppHes ofgoais** !!! 

The Negroes on Georgia, 
were, when I was there, ex- 
tremely badly off for fowls and 
hogs. A few that resided near 
our house, and a few in the 
idllage, possessed a little pro-> 
perty in this way) but there 
is no foundation for the oath 
that '' a great many of them'* 
had/Mu^ supplies of fowls 
and hogs;- 

I repeat^ that '^ for the Ne- 
groes, whether as venders of 
the fnut or vegetablie?^ or poul- 
try, br. other artides of food 
they may have to dispose of, 
or as purdiasers of the little 
necessaries or comforts they 
may wish to buy in return,' 
Sunday is the only market- 
day.'* If they happen to meet 
their acquaintance at the mar- 
ket, they are, no doubt, pleas- 
ed ) but the idea that pleasure 
is the principal object which 
the slaves have in view in at- 
tending the markets, is, though 
sworn to, too ridiculous to re- 
quire an answer. When the 
slave-holders are called upon to 
abolish the Sunday markets, 
they say it is impossible ; and 
yet!WiB;have itn6lK on the oath 



4B 



ArriojmtB. 



I 



J' 



(lb.) That'b other patts of 
the Ifiiliind, wberp plergyiQeQ 
antf missionaries jbave' been 
more zealoQS or mpjce success- 
ful tWn Mr. Cooper was^ tbe 
N^oe9 bavejpfen^nilly become 
less desirous of siiejadiDg^ and 
do le89 Attend th^ Snittday mar- 
kets than ionnerly. 



.»' 



■ 



I 



of one of tbeir own party, that 

they are in fsict mere places 

of pleasure for the Negroes to 

meet their acquaintance. What! 

can they not clear their streets 

on a 3unday of the idle, prevent 

the market-place from becoming 

on that day a mere place of 

rendezvous to pleasure takers } 

Kingston market must be a 

fevourite place for pleasure — 

for thousands and thousands of 

Negroes assemble there every 

Sunday.* 

(10.) When in Jamaica, I 
often inquired of Mr. Oates^ 
whether he knew of any in- 
stances of success amongst the 
clergy or missionaries, wha en- 
deavoured to convert the Ne- 
groes, andhe uniformly declared 
that he did not 3 and at the 
same time poured the utmost 
contempt on the accounts which 
the missionaries occasionally 
publish; One day as we were 
riding together near Great Val- 
ley works, he gave it as his 
opinion, and tha.t without my 
asking him, that as long as 
the Negroes remain in a state 
of slavery, they ought not to 
be taught Christianity: he said 
he would be careful to see that 
they had all that the law allow- 
ed them, but as to reli|^ona 



^ EAMnh says tm 4pus|nd. Vol. XL p. 162, note. 



47 



Affji>avit8. 



(no That the iveek-dftys 
allowed to ifae Negroes during 
ibtyesT, upon 'Georgia estate, 
afe amply sufident for ^ cnl** 
fixation *of tkeir grontds, wtth" 

Sumhiy ; niA it ^s * pait of tfae 



improfemeat^ it was iaeompa'^ 
tible with their state as slaves ; 
and he would leave that matter 
tUl they shonld become Dree; 
He never expected ay orwn 
mission to succeed : and gave 
it as hb opinion,, that the Ne* 
groes would not atteodme, with 
any degree of regnlarity, even 
if time were allowed them for 
Idle purpose. I bdieve he 
was surprised and disappointed 
that they attended so Weii as 
they did. ^ The experiment,'^ 
he afirmed, ^ had been tried 
on tbeSovth sideof the Islafid^ 
by a olergyoran of die Chpreh 
of England, bat wil^nrnt pfo^ 
ducing the Retired eifoct } :the 
Negroes withdrawing theii* at- 
tendance after the few first 
meetings, althongh the honars 
<of instraction were take^ from 
those of labour.^ ^e my 
letter in the Monthly ItepcH 
sitory. May 10, 1621.] Mr. 
Oatesfs^net mentioned In the 
Blottthly Repository; bat he is 
the person to whote I theve 
auadea* 

<11.) " Sunday,'* says Mr. 
Stewart, tp. 151, of Ks 'View 
of Jamaica,^ "is not a day tf 
TOSt ttftrnTBaUPunon to thephnt^ 
iaAon slave; he wtrsr weaa on 
TBATiMnrDH STi^BiB.** Agsdn, 

• • • " 

(p. 844,) •♦to t«b iWBOSTltt^ 



48 



Afvidavitb. 

duty of the overseer^ in a well- 
regulated plantation, t6 see 
that the provision grounds are 
well attended to, and to render 
occasionally such assistance to 
the Negroes as may be- neces- 
sary for. keeping their grounds 
in order. , And de{k>nent doth 
not bdieve, that in any» one 
instance^ during -Mr. Cooper's 
residence on! Georgia estate^ 
were th^ Negroes prevented 
fiN)ULattendlng for the purpose 
of religions instruction on any 
one Sunday; or any one Thurs- 
day: afternoon, allowed for such 
purpose, either from &tigne pro- 
duced by plantation work out of 
eroprtime, or by any necessity 
for att09ding either to the culr 
tivalion of ihmr grounds, or 
the Sunday miMrkQt. That it 
13^ statcsdiin^ the. pamphlet, that 
"during; those months, of the 
yearwhich remained after crop- 
time, the Sunday was applied 
to. the secular objects mention* 
edin the pamphlet 5 but chiefly 
and, above all, Sunday being 
the day especially appropriated 
for the cultivation of their 
provision grounds^ which were 
the .allotted, source of subsis- 
tence for themselves and their 
iamilies, it was felt impossible 
to require that a portion of it 
should be given to attendapce 
on religions instruction^ at least 



Remarks. 

ous it is a day of labour, 
and to the idle, of sport and 
recreation.** According to Mr. 
Oates, the Negroes are not un- 
der the least necessity of devo- 
ting the smallest part of the 
Sunday to secular purposes : 
they go to market out of mere 
pleasure ; and they have ample 
time in the week to attend their 
grounds. Now, this he knows 
to be a gross and cruel misre- 
presentation, and in direct op- 
position to what he declared to 
me numbers of times^ when we 
used to meet. His constant 
assertion was, that the Sunday 
was the Negroes' day, and that 
they wanted it for their own 
purposes ; and that I must not, 
for no reasonable person could* 
as a general rule, expect them 
to devote any part of it to mei 
He would then say that they 
had their provision grounds, 
the market, and their house- 
hold affairs to attend to 5 and 
I am certain that he has now 
altered his tone, merely to serve 
a present purpose. I was quite 
as anxious in one part of the 
year as in another, to h^ve 
the Negroes on a Sunday ; but. 
was always assured. that every 
Sunday in , the year^ was of. ne-; 
cessity emplpyed, in some, vifay 
or. otl^er, , about thejr secular, 
concerns, I am well aware. tha|^ 



49 



Affidavits. 

unless an equivalent portion of 
time had been given tbem du- 
ring the week for cultivating 
their grounds j*' all of which 
is a wilful misrepresentation^ 
for the season of the year for 
planting' and attending to the 
cultivation of the provision 
grounds, is between the finishing 
of the crop and the fail of the 
year; and at all other times 
the labour of the Negro at his 
grounds is confined to the dig- 
ging of his provisions^ or the 
mere cutting of his vegetables 
and fruit for the week's subsis- 
tence^ and perhaps a little weed^^ 
ing with the hoe ; and out of 
GFop^ the Sunday is not the day 
necessary for the cultivation of 
his grounds; but the week- 
days allowed him> are given 
especially^ and are amply suf- 
fident^ for the purpose 5 and 
it is entirely optional with the 
N^o how he will spend the 
Sunday. 



Rbmabks. 

the Negroes are very busy in 
their grounds immediately after 
crop; and I am also aware that 
I repeatedly spoke to Mr. Gates 
about their attending me on 
a Sunday, at that particular 
season^ on the ground that they 
had the Saturday to themselves 
for some weeks ; but he inva- 
riably answered, that it was 
really impossible, because' it 
was so important for them to 
be in their grounds. " If they 
lose any of this precious sea- 
son/* he used to say, "they 
will suffer for it the whole year." 
It is doubtless the duty of the 
overseer to see that the slaves 
. keep their grounds in order ; 
and hence it is no uncommon 
thing for him to go to them on 
a Sunday morning, and see" that 
the people are there, and that 
all things are in order. A book- . 
keeper^ I believe, is invariably 
sent on the day in question, 
and I have often known him 
accompanied by a driver. Now 
Mr. Oates evidently wishes it 
to be believed, that the overseer 
does this part of his duty in 
the week time, and that he 
would not interfere if the slaves 
were never to go near their 
grounds on a Sunday. When 
I speak of their being at the 
provision grounds on a Sunday, 
both in and out of crop, I pre* 



60 



AFFIDAVITS. 



Remakks. 

tend not to say what land of 
work they are employed at; 
whether sowing, planting, hoe- 
ing, weeding, cleaning new land 
or gathering in their crops^ &c. 
&& It is quite sufficient for 
my argument, that they are 
there 3 or that a due regard 
to their daily subsistence and 
comfort^ renders it necessary 
that they should be employed 
at some kind of work on the 
Sunday* In order to proye 
that I am guilty of a wilful 
misrepresentation in the point 
adduced by Mr. Oates, be must 
demonstrate that the Negroes 
are not at ail employed in the 
cultivation of their grounds on 
a Sunday out of crop, and that 
I ^as aware of the foct. On 
his own shewing, this is the 
season "for planting' and o/- 
tending' to the cultivation of tie 
provision grounds/* &c. &C.3 
and my representation is^ that 
they employ themselves on a 
Sunday in planting, &c. &c. 
At any rate, I am certain that 
in what I have written or re- 
ported, there is not a particle 
of " wilful misrepresentation j" 
and that Mr. Oates is guilty 
of the grossest departure from 
truth, when he swears to the 
contrary. If Mr. Oates's state- 
ment on oath was true^ what 
possible reason can he give^ 



51 



Affidavits. 



Remarks; 



. why he, the supreme director of 
all matters on Georgia Estate, 
should not have allotted the 
Sunday as the day of public 
worship and instruction for 
the slaves*, which was clearly 
the most obvious and natural 
arrangement 3 but should have 
fixed Thursday afternoon in pre- 
ference ? He has not expluned 
this fact, nor can he explain it 5 
and it is sufficient to b^ast all his 
evidence. It cannot be alleged, 
that/ should have objected to 
this' appropriation of Sunday.* 

• It is certainly somewhat singular that Mr. R. Hibbert, and Mr. Gates 
on oath, should labour to prove, that the slaves in Jamaica do not employ 
Sunday in cultivating their grounds, or in carrying heavy loads to market. 
What says Dr. Williamson on this point? *' The Sabbath, at present, is 
a day of labour, marketing, and exchange." — ^Vol. I. p. 331. Again, Vol. 
II. p. 285, he asserts that '/the white inhabitants, who treat the Sabbath 
with a violation of its most sacred duties, make it by the established cus- 
toms of the Island, a day of marketing, labour, dancing, and excesses of 
every kind."' And although Dr. Williamson conceives that Sunday is the 
only day on which instruction can be conveniently given to the slaves, yet 
he tells us, that ''on that day the Negroes are engaged in marketing and 
labour."— /i5fW. WTiy are there no affidavits to refute Dr. WdUamson's 
statements ? Are they less conclusive than mine ? 

There seems among many West Indians a disposition to tlunk more 
favourably of the Wesleian Methodist Missionaries, than of some others. 
Now what is their testimony on this subject, as it is to be found in Mr. 
Watson's able Defence of the Methodist Missions, pp. 59 and 60? It is 
as follows : 

'' Mr. Fishy who spent many years in Jamaica (as a Missionary) says, 
' Sunday is chiefly spent by the field Negroes in working their own grounds, 
which is the source ftom whence they derive their food, or in bringing 
what little spare produce they may have to' market ; for the Sunday is the 
grand public market-day throughout the West Indies.* " 

" Mr. Gilgrass (another Missionary), >vho also speaks of Jamaica, states, 
'The Sabbaths are spent generally as follows: After breakfast, a driver, 

E 2 



60 



AFFIDAVITS. 



Remarks. 

tend not to say what land of 
work they are employed at; 
whether sowings plantings hoe- 
ing^ weeding, cleaning new land 
or gathering in their crops, &c. 
&& It is quite sufficient for 
my argument, that they are 
there ; or that a due regard 
to their daily subsistence and 
comfort^ renders it necessary 
that they should be employed 
at some kind of work on the 
Sunday. In order to prove 
that I am guilty of a wilful 
misrepresentation in th)s point 
adduced by Mr. Oates/he must 
demonstrate that the Negroes 
are not at all employed in the 
cultivation of their grounds od. 
a Sunday out of crop, and that 
I ^as aware of the £Elct. On 
his own shewing, this is the 
season ''for planting and at^ 
tending to the cultivation of the 
provision grounds,** &c« &c.$ 
and my representation is, that 
they employ themselves on a 
Sunday in planting, &c. &c. 
At any rate, I am certain that 
in what I have written or re- 
ported, there is not a particle 
of " wilful misrepresentation •" 
and that Mr. Oates is guilty 
of the grossest departure from 
truth, when he swears to the 
contrary. If Mr. Oates's state- 
ment on oath was true^ what 
possible reason can he give. 



51 



Affidavits. 



Remarks; 



. why he, the supreme director of 
all matters on Georgia Estate, 
should not have allotted the 
Sunday as the day of public 
worship and instruction for 
the slaves> which was clearly 
the most obvious and natural 
arrangement 5 but should have 
fixed Thursday afternoon in pre- 
ference ? He has not explsuned 
this fact, nor can he explain it ; 
and it is sufficient to b^ast all his 
evidence. It cannot be alleged, 
that / should have objected to 
this' appropriation of Sunday.* 

• It is certainly somewhat smgular that Mr. R. Hibbert, and Mr. Gates 
on oaih, should labour to prove, that the slaves in Jamaica do not employ 
Sunday in cultivating their grounds, or in carrying heavy loads to market. 
What says Dr. Williamson on this point? *' The Sabbath, at present, is 
a day of labour, marketing, and exchange." — ^Vol. I. p. 331. Again, Vol. 
II. p. 285, he asserts that " the white inhabitants, who treat the Sabbath 
with a violation of its most sacred duties, make it by the established cus- 
toms of the Island, a day of marketing, labour, dancing, and excesses of 
every kind." ' And although Dr. Williamson conceives that Sunday is the 
only day on which instruction can be conveniently given to the slaves, yet 
he tells us, that " on that day the Negroes are engaged in marketing and 
labour."— /i5fW. WTiy are there no affidavits to refute Dr. Williamson's 
statements ? Are they less conclusive than mjne ? 

There seems among many West Indians a disposition to tlunk more 
favourably of the Wesleian Methodist Missionaries, than of some others. 
Now what is their testimony on this subject, as it is to be found in Mr. 
Watson's able Defence of the Methodist Missions, pp. 59 and 60? It is 
as follows : 

" Mr. Fish, who spent many years in Jamaica (as a Missionary) says, 
' Sunday is chiefly spent by the field Negroes in working their own grounds, 
which is the source from whence they derive their food, or in bringing 
what little spare produce they may have to' market ; for the Sunday is the 
grand public market-day throughout the West Indies.' " 

" Mr. Gilgrass (another Missionary), who also speaks of Jamaica, states, 
'The. Sabbaths are spent generally as follows: After breakfast, a driver, 

E 2 



52 



. (12.) And so far from there 
eyer having been any obstacle 
to the Negroes attending Mr. 
Cooper on a Sanday^ he never^ 
q3 far as deponent believes^ 
after the first two or three Sun- 
days of his residence on Georgia 
estate^ held any meeting for the 
purpose Cfjx a Sunday. That 
deponent always attributed the 
little impression which Mr. 
Cooper made on the minds of 
the Georgia Negroes^ to his 
expecting more effect from 
pablic^ preaching and set dis- 
courses^ than private instruc- 
tion by occasional conversa- 
tion; anid in £act^ he seemed 
to be averse to employ any 
otiher meiMAs of imparting in- 
sfroction^than by long sermons, 
delivered at such periods only 
as were most suitable to his 
own convenience) a mode 
Whkh^ of all others^ appeared 
the least adapted to produce 
the result expected or wished 
for by Mr. Hibbert. 



Remarks. 

(12.) That I had not a re- 
gular congregation amongst the 
slaves^ was not my own fault, 
which Mr. Oates knows per- 
fectly well^though he is now pre- 
pared to swear to the contrary* 
I did all in my power to induce 
them to attend me. I always held . 
myself in readiness to instruct 
them, and most earnestly in- 
vited them to come to my house 
on a Sunday^ a week-evening, 
or at any time when they might 
; feel it in their power to do so. I 
assured them that I was willing 
tCr instruct them individually or 
in classes, just as they could 
make it convenient to come. 
On a Sunday morning, both 
Mrs. Cooper and I have very 
frequently stood at our door, 
while they were proceeding to 
their grounds, hoping that a few 
might give us a call. As to 
consulting my own convenience, 
I can truly say I never did so 
in a single instance ; but as- 
sured both Negroes and white 
people, that I wished them to 
consider me as being completely 

with an overseer, accompanies the slaves to the Negro-grounds, given to 
them in lieu of allowance from their masters. Here they spend the 
blessed Sabbath, toiling hard all day. This is their rest.' On the Sabbath 
also they 'carry their provisions to sell. In Jamaica some of them travel 
mih. heavy loads upon their heads fourteen, fifteen, or twenty miles. To 
accomplish this journey in time to pick grass on the Sabbath night, they 
travelled all the preceding Saturday night. If not in time to pick the 
grass, no allowance was made, but many stripes were lead On them.' " 



53 



Remarks. 

at their call^ with respect to all 
matters of religion. . Often have 
I expressed myself in this way. 
even to Mr. Oates^ who now 
complidns of my sermons being 
long 3 but he never heard me 
preach in his life on those set 
occasions to which he alludes. 
He might have said^ I invited 
him to attend on a Thursday, 
that he might judge for himself 
with respect to my plans ; but 
he never came near us at such 
religious meetings; and though 
he virtually swears that my ser- 
mons were long, and therefore 
unedifying, he never heard one 
of them. He may swear that 
he has heard other people say 
this^ that^ and a thousand things 
besides; but when he makes 
oath to a particular fact^ on the 
ground that his knowledge of it 
is derived from his own personal 
observation^ while he can only 
appeal to hear-say; he shews 
his want of principle^ and lays 
himself open to the charge of 
swearing falsely. My sermons 
were, as nearly as I can recol- 
lect, between half and three- 
iquarters of an hour long. Now 
if Mr. Gates heard of this, 
and thought it a circumstance 
injurious to the spiritual im* 
provement of the Negroes, why 
did he not inform me of it at 
the time } And if he heard oi 



Remaaks. 

anything else which he thought 
defective in my plans, why di^ 
he not point it out to me ? I 
should have paid every respect 
to his advice. He, however, 
never said a word to me upon 
any such subjects ; though he 
would now have it believed^ 
that he saw so clearly the de- 
fectiveness of my plans as to 
be able, with a safe conscience^ 
to pronounce them on oath to be 
** of all others the least adapted 
to produce the result expected 
or wished for by Mr. Hibbert/* 
It was his duty, as Mr. Hib- 
bert's attorney, to be open and 
candid with me, aS'to the man- 
ner in which I discharged the 
duties of my office. He, how- 
ever, fails to utter a jsi^gle 
syllable of complaint to me 
during my residence on the 
estate, but waits till I Mve left 
*it two years; and then goeik 
before a magistrate and m^dfies 
oath, that sermons which lie 
never heard, were long tnd 
uninstructive, and ill suited to 
the occasion^ and that my plans 
were, ''of all others, the least 
adapted to'* answer the intend- 
ed end. If he has sworn to the 
truth, he can have no regard 
for the moral and religions wel- 
fare of the Negroes; for on 
the supposition that he had, 
he would, for their sakiss, ha.ve 



54 



Affidavits. 



(13.) That this deponent, as 
the attorney of the proprietor 
of Georgia estate, was, during 
Mr, Coop€i*s residence there, 
m the habit of frequently visit- 
ing the estate, and occasionally 
of residing there, and of attend- 
ing to all representations and 
complaints made to him by the 
Negroes, and of redressing any 
grievances which were brought 
to his notice. And Mr, Cooper 
was perfectly well acquainted 
with Ms disposition in such re- 
pect ; but that in regard to all 



Kemarks. 

made some effort to produce 
an alteration in pfens which he 
now represents^ in so solemn a 
manner^ as being of all others 
the least calculated for their 
benefit. Bat it will perhaps 
be said, that he wrote to Mr. 
Hibbert on the subject. If so, 
he must have deceived him ; for 
I never received any opinions 
from Mr. Hibbert respecting my 
plans but those of approbation. 
(See his private letters to me 
in the present publication.) 
If, however, he did write to 
Mr. Hibbert, to the efifect of 
his present affidavit, (and if 
that affidavit is true, it was his 
duty to have so written at the 
time,) let his letters be pro- 
duced. But I well know no 
such letters were ever written. 

(13.) When the Negroes 
complained to Mr. Gates of ill 
treatment, I am disposed to 
believe that he gave them all 
the redress that prudence would 
allow i though it was never in 
his power to give that redress 
which would have been sought 
and obtained in a free country. 
Many a time have' I been pre- 
sent when a poor creature has 
preferred, a complaint which 
would have led to the most 
serious investigation, had it 
occurred in any part of this 



55 



Affidavits. 

the instances of cruel or harsh 
treatment, whether general or 
particular, stated in the pam- 
phlet, upon the evidence of Mr, 
Cooper, though he was in fre- 
quent communication with Mr. 
Cooper, no one of such instances 
was ever, to the best of his re- 
collection, brought to his know- 
ledge. or notice by Mr, Cooper; 
and he most positively denies 
that Mr. Cooper ever mentioned 
the circumstance of the\ pun- 
ishment, of a runaway Negro 
having been inflicted in. the man- 
ner stated in the pamphlet, and 
that maggots had bred in the 
lacerated flesh, or that he ever 
heard of such circumstance ; but 
compldints of severity having 
been brought to him against 
the overseer, he was in conse- 
quence tliereof discharged from 
the estate, of which circumstance 
Mr, Copper was well aware. 



I 



Remarks. 

happy Island ;. but nothing 
could be done in Jamaica. The 
complainant had^ perhaps^ been 
neglectful of his work, or late 
in the field in the morning, or 
impertinent to his driver: a 
flogging was the consequence, 
which was nothing more than 
the slave system called for 5 and 
the overseer had only done that 
which any other individual^ 
placed in his circumstances, 
would have done. I have uni- 
formly blamed the system 
rather than overseers and at- 
torneys J and I will defy Mr» 
Gates, or any other person, to 
make it any thing else than a 
system of the most odious ty- 
ranny and shocking injustice. 
The cases of punishment men- 
tioned in Negro Slavery were 
never considered by me in any 
other light than as the natural 
offspring of a state of bondage 
like that which subsists in our 
sugar colonies. And I am cer- 
,tain they are only such as were 
well known to Mr. Oates. I 
have seen many Negroes ex- 
hibit their bleeding persons to 
him, that he might have the 
evidence of his senses that 
they had been severely handled. 
On one occasion, in particular, 
I well remember, he requested 
me to withdraw, stating that 
such sights would, perhaps, be 



56 



Remarks. 

unpleasant to me as a new- 
comer* I, however, stood my 
ground, and saw to my infinite 
pain> the lacerated flesh of the 
poor beings 5 and was after- 
wards surprised to hear Mr. 
Oates say, that the overseer had 
nfit transgressed the prudent 
bounds of plantation discipline. 
I cannot quote his words, bat, 
I assure the reader, I quote his 
ideas. Had I witnessed any 
thing on the estate of peculiar 
enormity, it might have been 
expected that I should commu- 
nicate it to him 5 but I never 
knew any such thing, or any 
that I had an idea of being so. 
The case of the watchman was 
mentioned to Mr. Oates by 
Mrs. Cooper; and I may be 
allowed to add, that she fre- 
quently relieved the poor man 
when he came in her way. — 
When Mr. Oates declares that 
I never mentioned to him the 
case of the runaway in whose 
fle^ maggots had bred, he ut- 
ters what is not true ; for I am 
positive as to this fact, and 
I will endeavour to assist his 
memory, by telling him, that 
he not only said he had no 
doubt of the truth of the report, 
and that he had known such 
things hynself, but added, that 
he hvmaelf had just superin- 
tended tjie punishment of two 



Rs>[AB&8. 

women at Great Valley, and 
deemed it prudent to examine 
their wounds afterwards^ lest 
they should be found to breed 
maggots. I spoke to several 
other persons in Jamaica upon 
the same point, and they all 
confirmed what I had previously 
been told. The Negroes wiU, 
I have been often assured by 
overseers and book-keepers, 
neglect their wounds out of 
mere spite. — About the case of 
the two pregnant women, men- 
tioned in p. 49, <^ ''Negro 
Slavery,** I conversed with Mr. 
Oates, he being present when 
they came to our house to com- 
plain. Mrs. Cooper also was 
at home, and heard their com<« 
plaints.— Mr. Oates may repeat> 
on oath' if he pleases, that. the 
drivers do not possess the power 
of punishing the slaves in the 
gangs, in the manner I have 
reported 5 but he will not con- 
vince me that I did not see 
what I know I did see. Scarcely 
three days passed without my 
seeing the slaves at work be- 
fore the driver, who always had 
his whip, which he did not fail 
to use on *' any who might flag 
at their work, or lag behind in 
the line." (See what is said on 
this subject in contrast with 
Mr. M'Kenzie's evidence, xnfia. 



57 



Atfibavits. 

(14.) That on one occasion 
a complaint was made to him^ 
that « boy named John Harding, 
wlio was waiting upon Mr. and 
Mrs. Cooper/ had received a 
very severe and cruel punish- 
ment from the overseer, (who 
was afterwards discharged as 
before mentioned,) and on in- 
yestigating the matter, he was 
told that it had beion inflicted 
at the particular direction of 
Mr. Cooper 5 and when depo- 
nent complained of it to Mr. 
Cooper, he acknowledged that 
he had given such, directions, 
but attempted to palliate his 
Conduct by saying, that the 
overseer had been more severe 
than he intended. The pun- 
ishment, however, created a 
very extraordinary sensation 
amongst the domestics attend- 
ing on Mr. Cooper, and left 
on the minds of the Negroes 
a very unfavourable impression 
of him. 



RSMARKS. 

(14.) The history of this 
punishment has been already 
before the public, and will be 
found in a note below. What 
degree of blame attaches to me 
the reader must decide.* I ex- 
plained the matter to Mr. Oates, 
before he said a word to me 
respecting it. The surprise of 
the other servants was simply 
to find, that there was a point 
beyond which I found it im- 
possible to. permit them to go. 
They had, till now, supposed 
. that they might do any thing 
with impunity. Mr. Oates has 
often assured me that he finds 
it impossible to manage his ser^- 
vants without the whip) but 
he never complained to me re- 
specting this matter, or hinted 
that he thought me the least to 
blame in what I had done. 



* *' In one of my letters in the Monthly Repositoty,* I promised to furnish 
the public mth an account of a flogging which John Harding, my own 
waiting boy, received at my request : and I now proceed to redeem my 
pledge. 

'' This boy was put into my service the day I arrived in tbe bland ; and at 
first he gave me every satisfaction. His work was light, and I may safely 
say that his situation was not more laborious than that of the majority of 
gentlemen's servants in this country. I taught him to read, and did every 
thipg in my power to make him comfortable, not doubting that mild treat- 
ment would secure, for any length of tim^ his useful services. But I was 

• See Mon. Repos. Vol. XVIII. p. S3S. 



58 



. Remarks. 

(15.) I most certdnly be- 
lieve that Negro Slaves cannot 
be managed without discipline ^ 
and that^ too^ of a kind^ which 
must render the slave system 
detestable in the eyes of every 
lover of hums^nity, justice^ re* 
ligion^ and virtue : hence, I am 
no friend of slavery, but an ad- 
vocate for its utter destruction. 
I may have admitted, that in 
here and there a case, the slaves 
are as well off, with respect to 
a cottage and provisions, as 
some individuals among our 
own peasantry; but the lan- 
guage which Mr. Oates repre- 
sents me to have used on this 
subject, never escaped my lips 3 
and in swearing to this gross 
and most shameful exaggera- 
tion, he has added another to 
his awful list of delinquencies. 



completely mistaken -, for, after the first six months he began to relax in 
his duty, and to indicate an indifference to please me. I reasoned with 
him upon the impropriety of his conduct, and he promised to amend. For 
a short time he was as good as his word, and then became worse than 
ever. Again and again I called him to account, hoping that I might by 
remonstrance restore him to his former state of obedience. I spoke to 
my neighbours upon the subject, and also/ to the attorney and overseer 
of the estate, all of whom seemed to agree, that my measures were not 
sufficiently decisive, and some of them repeatedly recommended me to try 
the whip. This I was extremely reluctant to do, notwithstanding I saw 
that the other servants, as well as Jolin, were determined to have their 
own way, and take every possible advantage of us. At last things got to 
so bad a state that I saw the necessity of effecting some alteration. The 
silver spoons after every meal were thrown down in the yard, instead of 
being put into their places, and the greatest confusion prevailed througj^ 
the establishment. Things were wasted, and want was sometimes felt 



Affidavits. 

(15.) That he had frequent 
conversations with Mr. Cooper, 
respecting the treatment and 
condition of the Negroes on the 
estate, and in the Island gene- 
rally 3 and has often heard him 
declare, that they were a very 
happy peasantry, and much 
better off than the labouring 
classes in Great Britain ^ and 
that their houses were far more 
comfortable than the cottages 
of the British peasantry gene- 
rally j but that he feared from 
his knowledge of the Negro 
character, it was impossible to 
manage any gang of Negroes, 
without a certain degree gf dis- 
cipline. 



59 



Affidavits. 

; (16.) That the statement 
luade by Mr. Cooper, as it ap- 
pears IB the pamphlet, respect- 
ing his telling deponent, '^ that 
if he would not allow him to 



Remarks. 

(16.) "Mrs. Cooper kept a 
small boarding-school, during 
a part of our residence in Ja- 
maica, and the barrel of sugar 
which we were obliged to 



where there ought to have teen plenty. Even the horses came in for an 
ample share of neglect; and in a word, nothing received its proper atten- 
tion. To dwell in tjiis state, was impossible ; especially as it affected the 
dsdly eomfort and happiness of my wife. Threatening had been so often 
tried, that it was found to be productive of mischief rather than good. 
On one or two occasions, I took a stick and tried whether a few stripes 
from that .would not have a beneficial influence on this lad, and put the 
other servants somewhat on their guard. I was, however, deceived, for no 
one paid any serious regard to this, and we began to despair. Many times 
I saw Mrs. C. insulted, and did myself put up with language from the do- 
mestics, which I should not think of submitting to in this country, no, not 
ifor an hour. In this state things remained till March 13, 1820, that is, 
rather more than two years and a quarter after we took up our abode on 
Mr. Hibbert's estate. On the morning of this day, John was so extremely 
outrageous, that I felt myself under the necessity of putting him into the 
overseer's hands, intending that he should confine him for a few hours, 
and then give him ten or twelve lashes. He, however, made both feet 
fast in the stocks, and kept him in that situation from about one o'clock 
in the day till the next morning, when he took the poor boy out and gave 
lum a terrible whipping. I was not present on the occasion, and was 
never able to ascertain what number of stripes he received. ' The overseer 
went far, very far beyond my directions, and John was, in consequence, 
sadly overpunished. This I always maintained upon the estate, as Mr. 
Oates, the attorney, well knows. After this, John conducted himself 
rather better for a short time, but again became refractory. I again re- 
monstrated with him, but to so little effect, that I was obliged to change 
him. He was sent into the field to work with the gang, in which situation 
he remained when I left the island. 

-. ■ *' Such, then, is the history of the flagellation of the only slave who was 
punished by my orders j and could I h^ve told to what lengths the overseer 
would have gone, even this lad, notwithstanding all the trouble he gave 
me for more than two years, would not have received a stripe. The aflfair, 
at the time, gave me the greatest uneasiness ; and in consequence of the 
conduct of the overseer, I should not have been able to resort to him again 
for assistance, in bringing the Idle and disobedient to a sense of their duty, 
liad we remained for years longer on the estate.'' 



6Q 



Affidavits. 

have some sugar on the estate^ 
he must send to London for it^'* 
is entirely a misrepresentation^ 
and appears to be made merely 
to answer his own purpose^ for 
he was most amply supplied 
with every thing the estate 
could furnish^ besides whatever 
quantity of fresh meat he re- 
quired^ withoi^t charge. And 
on- one occassion^ deponent 
sold him three hundred pounds 
of sugar from the estate^ on 
his merely making the request) 
but he always expressed him- 
self dissatisfied that Mr. Hib- 
bert did not allow him wine for 
his table. 



(17.) That with respect to the 
case of " an old African watch- 
man/' mentioned in the pam- 



Reuarks* 

threiaten to send to England 
for, was intended for the use 
of the scholars* Our first en- 
deavour was, to obtain it from 
some neiglibouring planter^ but 
not being successful, we were 
told that we might meet with a 
cheap bargain at Calabash mar- 
ket** (or the market where the 
Negroes sell the stolen sagar)* 
'' Of this advantage, howevier^ 
we positively refused to avail 
ourselves, and persisted in ghf 
determination to send home for 
a supply, which at length in- 
duced Mr. Oates, Mr. Hibbert't 
attorney, to order the overseer 
to let us have what we want^DiL 
Soon after this, a cask was sent 
from the estate, containing 300 
pounds, for which I paid* £lO^ 
10*. currency.'* 

(17.) The name of the poor 
man in question was Bam Bris- 
sett; a person well known to 



* Mr. Oates insinuates that the sugar in question was intended for our 
own private consumption, when he knows well that it was purchased for 
Mrs. Cooper's scholars. The insinuation may be of no consequence in 
itself, but this reli^ous man is on his oath, and cannot withput perjury, 
represent a fact in one light, when he knows that it should be placed in 
another. Even Mr. Hibbert must be certain that the insinuation is utterly 
without foundation. 

Mr. Oates thought it right, that as my salary was small, and it ^vas ne- 
cessary for me to have wine as well as my neighbours, some shotdd be 
provided for me. I never expressed or felt dissatisfaction upon the subject. 
Mr. Oates, however, (I believe from pure ftiendship,) mentioned the cir- 
cumstance to Mr. Hibbert, and an allusion to it will be observed in one 
of Mr. Hibbert's private letters, p. 29* 



61 



Affidavits. 

phletj he certainly did receive a 
severe punishment ; but not as 
£aur as deponentiias any reason 
to believe, beyond the limits 
of tiielaw}* bat the offence 
which was committed by such 
watchman^ was one of a very 
serious nature, aQd whereby the 
provisions for the year of the 
whitie people, and many Ne- 
groes, invalids, and others de-* 
pending on the overseer for as- 
sistance. Were put in jeo^rdy ; 
that the Negro entirely recover- 
ed from the effects of it, and has 
^ed since fron| debility, and no 
other cause whatsoever, to the 
Ibest of deponent's judgment 
a&d belief. 



(18.) That the three men, 
i^Uuded to in the pamphlet, as 
having purchased their freedom, 
were three carpenters on Greor- 
gia estate, who applied to de- 
ponent to grant their freedom ; 
but not being authorized by 
Mr. Hibbert to do so, he could 
only promise to represent the 
matter tQ their master, wluck he 
accordingly did by the earliest 
opportunity, and in due time 



Remarks. 

Mrs. Cooper and myself. His 
wife (more correctly mistress) 
was one bf our servants. Bam, 
as reported in *' Negro. Sla* 
very,^ received a. second flog- 
ging, more severe than the flrst. 
We both saw him after each 
punishment, conversed with 
him, and were much struck 
with his altered appearance: 
Mr. Oates may swear to what he 
pleases 5 but unless our senses 
deceived us, he was never well 
or cheerful after these shocking 
punishments. I am not certain, 
but I believe Mr. Oates never 
saw him after either of his pun- 
ishments. Bam*s offence, to- 
gether with the ground on which 
he pleaded innocence, will be 
found in *' Negro Slavery,** 
p. 50. 

( 1 8.) The object of the para- 
graph in the opposite column, is 
to impress the reader with the 
idea, that the three men there, 
mentioned, obtained their free- 
dom on simply making the re- 
quest 5 that no obstacles what- 
ever were even opposed to 
their wishes 3 and that Mr. 
Oates acted with the greatest 
promptitude and candour in the 
business. Now when Mr. Oates 



• If this be true; the law allows the flesh of the Negroes to be cut up In 

a most dreadful manner. 



62 



AFFIDAVITS. 

received his instructions to raa- 
numize them, or any of his Ne- 
. groes, who possessed the means 
to purchase their freedom ; and 
after receiving this authority, 
no obstacles were ever opposed 
to the wishes of these people, 
nor was it necessary for them 
to make any other application 
to the proprietor, than through 
this deponent. 



Remarks. 

swore to this representation^ 
he knows that he might with 
as safe a conscience have sworn 
that all the rivers in Jamaica 
were, in the month of June, 
frozen to the very bottom. This 
the impartial reader will see 
from the following brief state- 
ment of facts : — ^Many years 
before Mr. Oates had anything 
to do with Georgia estate^ the 
three men in question were 
very desirous of obtaining their 
freedom. They made many 
applications to the different 
attorneys who were previously 
concerned for the estate, always 
offering to come forward and pay 
to their master such sum as they 
might be valued at) but were 
put ofif year after year on some 
pretence or other. As soon as 
Mr. Oates came, their applica- 
tions were renewed with the 
same sort of success. Mrs. 
Cooper and I had many con- 
versations with Mr. Oates and 
the overseer upon the subject j 
and their plea was, that the 
men "were happy, that the 
estate could not spare them, 
and that they would gain noth<- 
ing by being made free. They 
had an aunt, a brown woman, 
possessed of considerable pro- 
perty, residing in the neigh- 
bourhood^ her name was Re- 
becca Bigby, and her heart was 



63 



Affidavits. 



.' 



Remarks. 

quite placed oa obtaining the 
freedom of her nephews. From 
the beginning she ofifered to 
come forward with the full 
amount of the purchjLscrmoney. 
She made applications in per- 
son^ times without number^ to 
the agents who had been ap-. 
pointed for the estate^ but al- 
ways in vain. I have seen her 
go repeatedly to Mr. Oates^ 
and she has had many con- 
versations with me and Mrs. 
Cooper upon the subject, and 
always lamented^ in the deepest 
manner, her disappointment in 
the various efiforts she had made 
in behalf of her relations in 
bonds. Determined, however, 
to persevere to the last, she 
endeavoured so to make her 
will, that there might .be pro- 
perty to free the young men, 
if their master should ever give 
his consent. She was unex- 
pectedly taken ill of a fever,- 
which carried her off. During 
her sickness, her nephews paid 
her all the attention in their 
power} and we were assured 
that her greatest grief arose 
from the reflection, that she, 
after all her labours and offers 
of money, was about to die 
and leave them in a state of 
slavery. The prospect of the 
nephews now became more 
and more gloomy; they saw 



G4 



Affidavits. Remarks. 

that no confidence was to be 
placed in Mr. Hibbert*8 agents ; 
and they had lost their best 
friend 3 they, therefore, deter- 
minded, as a last effort, to ap- 
ply to Mr. Hibbert himself: 
he received their letter, retnm- 
ed it to Mr/ Gates (m Mr. Gates 
'himself informed me), stating, 
that he should not answer it, but 
that he desired to have imme- 
diate measures taken to manu- 
mize the applicants ; and they 
were accordingly manumized on 
the full price of their redemp- 
tion being paid. Thus the 
object was accomplished after 
years of painful anjnet^, and, 
perhaps, unparalleled ejeertions; 
and not as Mr. Oates and Mr. 
Hibbert would have the public 
believe, merely on the request 
being made.* 

• I hope I shall not be considered tedious, if I beg^to detain the reader's 
attention a little longer on this moat important case. 

Mr. Hibbert says that ^'the tendency f meaning on my part) to misre- 
presentation is, in this instance, particularly worthy of remark/' C* Facts 
an Oath,'' p. 31.) My account of the manumission of the above indi. 
viduals^ as gi?en in *^ Negro Slavery,*' p. 62, or in my own tract, entitled 
'' Facts illustrative of the Condition of the Negro Slaves," p. 26, from 
which Mr. Hibbert professes to quote, is this : " Air. Cooper hnew three 
valuable men who wished fo purchase their freedom. They had long 
applied in vain to the agevts of the proprietor resident on the spot. They 
at length, however, obtained their end, by an application to the proprietor 
himself, then in England.** 

Now let it be carefully noted, that Mr. Oates, though bound by his 
own solemn oath to give an impartial account of the case, takes care to 
conceal a number of lughly important circumstances. He says not a word- 
of the long and painfiil efforts made by the men themselves and their 



6» 



Affidavits. 

(19.) That the jiam^Uet 
also states, that ''after, this, 
a fourth made many efforts to 
obtain his freedom by purchase ; 
but they proved nnavailbg, 
and hfe sunk in consequence 
into a state of' despondency, 
and became of comparatively 
litlde value 3" which allegation 
relates to a blacksipith of the 
estate, named Sandy Allen, the 
only, other person- who ever^ 
made any application about free- 
dom 5 and it is utterly false and 
.unfounded, for the mitn in ques- 
tion had not the means ofmdJttng 
any such purcftase, and is now 
healthy, happy, and contented $ 
is most valuable to ^he estate, 
has , a good house, and goodpro^ 
vision grounds, and is altogether 
a dutiful servant, and thoroughly 
jrespectable in his station. 



Remarks. 

(19.) During a considerable 
period after the three men just 
mentioned obtained their free- 
dom, I heard many complaints 
against Sandy Allen, from the 
overseer and other persons on 
the estate, which induced me 
to inquire of Mr. Oates the 
reason that could occasion this 
individual, who had generally 
conducted himself so well, so 
- strangely to alter his conduct 3 
and I received for answer, that 
he had got ideas of freedom into 
his head, since the other men 
were let loose, and that, be- 
cause he could not be indulged, 
he became careless q( his work 
an4 seemed not. to care about 
any thing. I then begged to 
know whether he had the means; 
of purchasing.himself 3 and Mr. 
Oates said he believed so, for 
that he said he could procure 
them . I heard the same state- 



generous aunt,, to obtain their freedom, previously to his taking diargeof 
$he estate: he keeps out of view the repeated applications made to him by 
Rebecca Bigby ; and above all, he not only omits to mention die letter which 
the men sent to Mr. Hibbert, and which led to the accomplishment of their 
object, but takes care so to frame lus affidavit, that the public may believe 
that all which was necessary, and all that was done, was sl single application 
to the proprietor through him* Surely Mr. Gates must be without a con<» 
science, as well as a "serious concern about religion;** for he demon- 
strates himself to be capable of giving any colouring to any fact to suit his 
purpose; and then, that no one may doubt the purity of his' motives, or 
his veracity, he hurries before a magistrate to confirm the whole by swear- 
ing to it, on die *' Holy Evangelists 0/ Almighty God.** 

From the manner in which Mr. Hibbert speaks of the case, I must 
believe that his agents in Jam«ca, for a series of years, kept him in igno- 



Affidavits. Rxmarxs. . 

jneat from severd other Ar- 
sons i and as Aileii is lekitod 
to free people, I saw no cause 
lor doabtADg it. I noticed nty- 
self. the great alteration whkh 
had taken plao6 in his behavi- 
oiir> and Goidd acconnt for it in 
no other way thtta that alleged by 
Mr. Oates and others, viz. that 
it arose from disappointed hopes 
of freedom.* Aboat the same 

ranee of the wishes of the above slaves to pnrvfhase their freedom ; or that 
they so hedged about the Request with difficnities, as to make sure of 
his rating it. I cannot suppose that he would turn a deaf ear -td the 
repeated applications of two or three diffeseat agents, and then yield, 
without hesitation, to the first reqilest macU €9 him by the slaves thnnr 
selves. Whether I have, or have not, eitheir in **Negrt^ Stanert/** or ia 
my own tract,, misrepresented ihe matter in band, I am contented that 
the reader should determine. . In qttodng the accoimt here alluded to^ 
in contrast with Mr. M'Keuzie's affidavit, Mr. Hibbert makes me say» 
that the men had long applied m vain to his '' Agent $*' but I used the 
plural number ** Agents.** It is difficiilt for me to believe that there 
was dedgn in this; though Mr. Hibbei^ pms Ihe word in italics, and, 
Affirefere, he must have marked it vidth'Care. He m^ht not perceive, tiiat 
by leaving out the «, and thereby restricting the application to one agent, 
in the room of eztencUng it to sev^id, he gave qmte a new meaning to 
the passage, and that too a meaning which exactly suits his own side of 
the question. If tite men had neVer attempted to obtain theiir liberty tiji 
Mr. Oates went to be attoiiiey Ibr MV. Ilibbert, it might follow, tlmithey 
did not iq^ly long m vifii ^ but if, as I have represented the matter, on the 
best evidence, thdr widies were expressed most earnestly imd freqiientljr 
to several flints, i^o had charge of the estate in succession, each of them 
holdhig his office a consideinble time, the contrary must be the hitX, I 
hope Mr; Hibbert MdU^ in future, quote my own language, and hot put 
words into lAy motith wldch I never used, in order that he may turn iny 
ireport to his own 



' * It may serve, m some measure, to explain the state of this man's 
mind, to add, that he was m the habit of keephig my horses well shod, oa 
my paying him a dollar a month. This sum. was intended merdy »» aa 
encouragement for him to take pains; for he was always allowed todo 



et 



Afwdavith, 



).) That so &r from ttere 
great difbctdtf g^meraify 
i Way of mintmrissioii^ as 
I in the pamphkt^ it was 
A the knowledge of Mr, 
*r, amongst very many 
instances, that there wa» 
miiy of nmlattoes, consist'* 
' the mother and five chil« 
the eldest of whom wad 
y-*two years of age, and the 
[Oil lonrteen years, who 
at least of the yalue of 
hundred poonds^ currency; 
^ng to a plantation called 
>me> in the neighbourhood 
s^prgia, which family bad 
always> allowed to live 
and were brought up by 



Hemarks. 

Ume^ I was told by Mr. Oates, 
that two br three brown car- 
penleiri on Gre&t Valley estate 
had Applied for th^r freedom, 
irtetlng that they cOuld procure 
the means; the case was con*' 
sidered, and it was resolved to 
put an enormously high price 
on their heads, for the purpose 
of putting the boon beyond their 
reacb^ This wail Mr. Oateit'a 
aeconnt^ 

(20.) The iamUy alluded to 
by Mr. Oates, is that of Goio<» 
nel Kerr, Colonel of the Hano^ 
ver rei^ment of Militia. This 
gentlettiaa was son to the late 
Mr«K^rr,formi0rIy proprietor of 
Welcome estate ; but the estate 
beiajp: involved when Mr. Kerr 
died/: it became necessary to 
sell it4 Novt the Colonel, some 
years ago, I suspect during the 
life of his father, took a brown 
wondan belonging to Welcome, 
to be his mistress, by whom, he 
had the children in question. 
Mr. Oates swears, that tlie Co* 
lonel was allowed to bay Us 
own children, including, their 
mother, for at leairt ^500 less 



)rk, there not being much of it, in his master's time, and with his 
r's materials, excepting naib, which I found. Now he always took 
) please me, and to come for his dollar once a month, till he got 
wd in his project about freedom ; but ftom tids thne he became ex- 
gly negligent, and I often irat the horsm to luiii in fuln. )f he has 
ed his former Uhe of orderly heha?iour, it Is because he s^. it Is 
B iorhim to Mak ai>ont fieedom, addaot because het^efersslofeiy 
idem. r2 . 



0ft 



Affidavits. 

tbeir father^ who resided in the 
neighbourhood of the estate, 
and that the father was allowed 
to fix his own price for them, 
which he did at three hundred 
pounds, and that, for that sum 
alone, although any other pur- 
chaser woiild have readily paidt 
eight hundred pounds for them, 
were they manumized by the 
proprietor. That he hath con- 
fined himself in this affidavit, 
to answering merely such dr- 
cumstances as are related in 
the pamphlet, respecting occur- 
rences and the management of 
Slaves on Georgia estate, so 
far as lie could speak thereto, 
particularly of his own know- 
ledge 5 but so far as his experi- 
ence and knowledge lead him to 
judge, he believes almost every 
circumstance set forth in the 
pamphlet, as the evidence of 
Mr. Cooper, as to the general 
condition and treatment of the 
Negroes, to be grossly over- 
charged and wilfully iQisrepre- 
sented. 
(Signed) GEO. H. GATES. 
Sworn before me this second 
day of March, 1824. 

ALEX. CAMPBELL,* 
Senior Magistrate, Hanover. 



than they were worth; but I 
am much inclined to think that 
if they had been put up to auc- 
tion, they would not bave fetch- 
ed any thing like ai^lOO each. 
The mother was advancing in 
life, and consequently decreas- 
ing in value as a marketable 
commodity. The children were 
quadroons, (though Mr, Gates 
takes his oath they were mulat* 
toes,) and in general too tenderly 
brought up for the whip. One 
of them, rather a clever little 
girl, was sent to sdiool to Mrs. 
Cooper, and I will nndertllke 
to say, that she wasi not worth 
much as a saleable articl«l~ 
After all, it might have t^n- 
Uberal in the proprietor^ Mr. 
Punier, to petmit Colonel Kerr 
to purchase for i^^SOO, from 
the estate of their late grand- 
father, his own children whom' 
he had brou^^t up at his -own' 
expense. —-Mr. Gates swears 
that this '5 was one instance, 
amongst very numy others*' 
within my knowledge of slaves 
obtuning their liberty j but 
really I cannot call to mind 
any other than that of the 
brown men on Geor^a, The 
reader must determine on which 
side the truth lies. 



* This same magistrate assured me that the Pirate Act wa^ made ibr 
England, and not for Jamaica. He has often argued ynxh, me agfthratlD-- 
stnicting the slaves, so as to increase thnr knowledge. He lias, howeter, 
no great otuectioQ to the plan of christening by hundreds at a time. T.C^ 



APPENDIX ir. 



iwi*i 



. , AjfriDAVITS. 

(!.>' Alexander M'Keuzie^ of 
Ha^oyer, in the island of Ja- 
maica^ planter, being sworn on 
tbe holy evangelists of Almigh- 
ty God^ maketh oath, that he 
^raa employed as the overseer 
of Georgia estate, in the parish 
of Hanover, the property of 
Robert Hibbert, £sq., about six 
months prior to the departure 
from this island of Mr. Cooper, 
who had been employed by Mr. 
Hibbert to superintend the re- 
ligious instruction of his slaves 
on the estate, and deponent is 
still the overseer of the estate, 
under George Hibbert Gates, 
Esq., the attorney of Mr/ Hib- 
bert. 

(2.) And on his first going 
there, he was made folly aware 
of Mr» Hibbert*8 wishes and 
intentions in respect to Mr. 
Cooper and the objects of his 
residence on the estate. 



(3.) That he very early dis- 
covered, that the religious tenets 
of Mr. Cooper differed entire- 
ly from has own, he having 



Remarksv 
(1.) Admitted. 



(2.) I conversed freely with 
Mr. M'Kenzie on these points, 
l)ut whether he ever « received,, 
from any other quarter, aAy de- 
tailed and specifio instructions 
respecting them, I am very 
doubtful. 

* 

r 

(3.) As a Unitariim, I believe 
in one God the Father y in the 
divine authority of the Scrip- 
tures 3 in Jesus as the Christ > 



70 



Affidavits. 

been brought up in and profess- 
ing the Preabyterum religion^ 
according to the church of Scot- 
land> and Mr. Cooper being an 
Unitarian,* disbelieving^ and 
preaching to the Negroes against 
the divinity of Jesus Christ. 



(4.) And, therefore, he was 
averse at first to attend Mr. 
Cooper's meetings; but Mr. 
Cooper expressing a great de* 
we that he should be preset, 
and stating thai his attendance 
wmid cause mor0 respect from 



Remarks. 

in his miradcfs; in his resur- 
rect{o»} in the necessity of ho- 
liness of heart and life; in a 
future state, in which every one 
will be rewarded according to 
the deeds done in the body, &c. 
&c Now does Mr. M'KepfBie, 
as a Presbyterian, deny these 
doctrines } If not, what becomes 
of his oath " that my religions 
tenets diffisr en^ely\ from his 
own*'? The assertion that I 
preached to the Negroes agmn»t 
the divinity of Christ, is wholly 
untrue. The dMn^ of hU 
mismn, I constantly preached | 
and though I did not praach 
the deity of his person, I did 
not preach agmnst it, but left 
that matter to be discussed by 
divines in Europe. 

(4.) Mi*. M'Kenzie mooor 
expressed, either diiectly or 
inctirectly, any such aversioa to 
me; on the contrary, he was 
much in the liabit of c6iiipli« 
menting me, through Afes. 
Cooper, for my sinrnces. Hmb 



*- A fact well known to Mr. Hibbert before I went out to Jamaica; 
yet it has been deemed proper to employ Mr. M*Kenzie to make oath to 
It. The motive of this, I need not point out. 

t Let it not be said that tins declaration escaped from Mr. M'Kenne 
in the heat of controversy. He is oh his oath, and his language must be 
taken accorcUng to its literal and obvious meaning. Excuses which might 
be allowed to an opponent in orcBnary circumstances, cannot be admitted 
for a moment, in the case of an individual who solemnly swears to evoy 
statement he makes " on the holy evangelists of Mmighiy God} 



n 



71 



fpenee ut$m^ M^ih^ mmABgt, 



(5,) That in a vfsry diort 
time he discovered tjiat the 
discourse^ of Mr. Cooper were 
^ot at aQ either w&p^ to the 
^ompieheiifsio^ pf the Negroies^ 
pi: in any i^anner oalcn)i^ed to 
IMT^t tiiisir attention ;. and tfaftt 
ihey were inp^^ chiefly in sup-i 
port of his own doctrines at 
b^thj,^ and iHyft all to i^cidcate 



attendapce was perfectly tik 
lontavy } ami 1 naror ocpresaed 
any " gt^t desire that he 
ahonld be'V there ^ though I 
4»as glad to see Unu tMBlong 
that his pteaence wonld, on the 
whole> have a beneficial ten- 
dency. Other white persons 
attended my pseaclung as weU 
a^ Mr. M'Kenzie, without, 
howef er, objecting in a inngie 
instance to my doctrine. 

(5.) I always endeavoured to 
adapt my disooarses to the com^^ 
prehension and eircumstanc^s 
of the Negroes ; and when I did 
not succeed in getting them to 
understand me^ I was sorry. 
My discomrses were never in 
support of my own doctrines of 
faith^ excepting in cases where 
my fsdth was identical wfth that 



* Mr. Ilibbert introduces the following note in this place, taken from 
a snudl tract, recently pubtldhed by me, coi^taining my corresppjQ4enipe 
wdth fa!B relation, Mr. George Hibbert. *' On no occasion, that I am 
m/mfeof^ did I ever bring' int0meta what might be deemed my peculiar 
€pinione.** This is die truth, and nothing but the truth. 

^* Mr. Gix^er does not recdlect to have seen a single white man in 
Jamaica, who diewed any senons concan about religion, excepting some 
mMsienaries.'* Iliese ^orfb ar^ ioiserted by Mr. Hibbert immediately 
opposite to Mr. M^Kenzie's account of his attendance on my meetings. 
Does Mr. H. deraoi the alleged aversion of his overseer to attend the said 
meetings, a proof that he was seriously concerned about religion^ octhe 
** verified facf^ that he attended merdy " in consequence of a great desire" 
to that effect siud to be expressed on my part ? If so, I must support my 
declaration, by Informing the public, that Mr. M'Kenzie was so " seriously 
^ccHlcerood ^bout rei^^n" s41 til;i^ tin^, \a8 to I^eep. without a^y disguise, 
feis b^owi^ m^e^, 9fA to iQ4lrig9 f^ K'^^ ^ como^on swming. 



78 



Affidavits. 

and explain the ^ doctrines of 
tke Christian faith, bat, on the 
cdntmry, rather to unsettle 
such notions of Christianity as 
they . (the Negroes) had pre* 
vjottsly imbibed, and therefore 
hei often advised Mr. Cooper to 
.use only suckpltun language as 
they would be capable of com' 
prehending, and. such as the 
rector of the parish was accuse 
tomed to use, whenever he came 

* 

to baptize the children of the 
estate, his endeavour being ^l- 
ways directed to impress, in the 
simplest terms, the great neces" 
^tiy of bringing up their chil- 
dren to be honoured and respect'* 
edf to obey their master, and to 
be content in the situation in 
which Providence had placed 
them, assuring them that, by so 
doing, they would add to their 
own and their children's happi- 
ness, and encourage their master 
to shew them more and more 
kindness. That he constantly 
used such arguments to Mr. 
Cooper without avail. 



of other Christians. " My plan 
wasto read <a short portion of 
scriptnre, and make snch re- 
inarks-opon it as appeared to 
me to be eaknlated to strike 
the minds and snit the circrnn*^ 
stances of my hearers. And 
they generally listened, with 
apparent attention, during the 
whole of the discourse.'* [See 
Monthly Repository for May 
1 822, page 299.] I often took 
occasion to treat of the resur- 
rection> of the divine authority 
of the Scriptures, the example 
of Christ, a future life of righte- 
ous retribution, &c. &c. • On 
one ^Mscasion, after I had been 
preaching from the words of 
onr Lord, *^ j4 II things whaiso^ 
ever ye woHld that men snould 
do to you, do ye even so to them,** 
Mr. M'Kehzie did remark to me, 
that he was fearful the people 
^d not comprehend allihat was 
sidd) but that he often advised 
me on points of this nature is 
not trae. From the manner in 
which the rector is introduced 
in the passage in italics, the 
reader might almost conclude, 
that the parish of Hanover was 
blessed with a second Latimer ; 
whereas the whole.'account may 
safely be characterized as a piece 
of canting misrepresentation.* 

• Thp rector was a cheerful, hospitable man, but, as Mr. M'Kenrie 
well knows, by no means entitled to that patriarchal character givem 



73 



A^rtDA^nvs. 



(6.) And tbe Negroes tbem- 
selves appeared not at all sa- 
tisfied with, or edified by his 
discourses } and so little did 
he appear to please them, that, , 
oat of ikree hundred and eighty ^ 
feur Negroes o» the estate, never 
more than about fifty at a time 
attended his meetings, and of 
that small number, some were 
asleep, some listlessly going and 

him above. I have no hesitation in saying that Mr. M'Kenzie has acted 
a grossly disingenuous and hypoeritical part in the kind of reference he 
has made to tlus clergyman. 



, i cftbiiot recollect that a ^ingf <^ 
N^o Wto baptized^on Georgia^ 
daring the six months I resideif 
there with Mr. Af'Kenzie. In' 
the days of bis pre^ecesi^r, i 
well remembeir that mi elddriy 
Negro man was baptized «t th» 
chorch, and an elderly woman 
in our house* Both these peOr 
pie were, to my Imowledjge, to-^ 
tally ignorant of the design -of 
baptism, and regarded the ce«»- 
remony merely in the light of 
a charm. After this> on a set 
day, nearly three hundred of 
the estate's gang submitted to 
the same ordinance. This scene 
also took place in our house; 
and I must still mainteun, that 
it was nothing more than '*'' a 
solemn mockery of what the 
people were exhorted to regard 
as a Christian rite.'* 

(6.) This I can truly day is 
the first intimation that I ever 
had of the Negroes being at all 
dissatisfied with my services, if 
we except what is said in that 
atrocious document recently 
republished by me from the 
Jamaica Newspapers. The as- 
sertion, too, that never more 
than about fifty slaves at a time 
attended my preaching is wholly 



74 



AftiuATm, 
wmgt tn2 soiDC^ UUdug milL% 

9»e^ng9 ^Hpeafsd to lie ipMir« 
i^icfemonm, firoip w|iifih. t)i0 

i^or tfUiy^ietJMni of any Idndf 
j|ii4 vrbatever may bave beea 
tllQ q^pe at Mr. Cooper's fif^t 
goipg to t)i9 e^te, tbey iiever 
appear^ to attef^ him with 
^liei9rf«i|k(B88>. pr to eIl^r^ill 
aay ldi|i4 ot porspnal respect 
£i>r bimj Iwt he siocco^y be- 
lieves, that if Mr^ Cooper had 
really sought to acqiure their 
respect and esteem, and had 
used $he plain, nuldf and bene-' 
volent means adopted by th^ 
clergymat^ who attended at 
times to baptize the Negroes, 
they would have been most es* 
sentially benefited in every point 
of view, and the object of Mr. 



antme. Theooogregation never, 
in a single instance, fell so low 
as thb. I always admitted that 
a few absented themselves who 
ought to have been present; 
but the number was never 
greater than might have been 
expected.* From the style in 
which Mr. M'Kenzie introduces 
the *' three hundred and eighty'^ 
/our" slaves, whom he repre- 
sents as constituting the Geor- 
gia gang, during our joint re- 
sidence on that estate, the 
reader would naturally suppose 
that the whole had it in their 
power to attend me. But Mr. 
Hibbert knows well, that a large 
allowance ought to be made for 
invalids, aged persons^ and 
young children ) for the watch- 
men, all of whom were always 
detained at their posts 3 and 



"^ 



* Mr. M'Kenzie often spok^ in the highest terms of the manner in which 
tliue Negroes conducted themselves during divine service $ imd repeatedly 
declared that he never saw more attentive audiences in hk liative country 
of Scotland. If any individual absented himself who ought to have been 
present, it was the duly of Mr. M^K^naje to notice his conduct, but liiis, 
as far I could learn, was never once done, the eHl not being of any ex^ 
tent. I, however, now regret llie injucficioiis lenity wlnck was slrewn, 
and especially that I did not myself p-emonstrate with the oversjeer viftm 
the subject. . .\ 

The insinuaiioii that there were more th^n three hundred idisentees, is 
dishonest aiid shameful in the lughest degree ', and I am perfectly astonished 
that Mr. Hibbert could put it forth without any sort of qualification. He 
must himself see the absurdity of the supposition that the whole estate's 
gang could attend my meetings at the same time, or, that more than thiree 
hundred of them were allowed to play the truant whenever time was set 
apart for the purpose of moral and religious improvement. ' 



75 



Hibbert'ii temme btentbnB 
tow«f d$ ^bem wOidd hive bees 



(7.) That thcmgh aach was 
tbe nature of the discoarsea 
Used by Mr. Cooper at tach 
meetbgs, yet Uie ;Condact of 
Mn Cooper at alllaneral cere- 
monies^ wfaieh deponent inVa« 
riably attended^ was very fpel- 
ing and satisfactory; and in 
the performance of his duty on 
those occasions his discourses 
were aot only delivered in Uie 
oiost becoming manner, bat 
Mrereparticakrly adapted to the 
feelings and understandings of 
the Memoes |>reaent.^ 

^ (8.) That be Wait acquainted 
with Mr. Cooper on his arrival 
in 1^ island, having been intro- 



wBnj Mher iaiUviduals who 
#ere emplDyed, as 1 was inva- 
riably told> aboBt the mceBmrg 
w^ df the estate. I have 
(oeoisionally seen two ar dune 
adeep m th« congregatiiop, but 
M$ evil certainly was not moee 
estensive than it is often fmlml 
to be in aftemvoQ eoiigre|^tiona 
in this country. What Is aaid 
about their taUdng, and ^ Ikt^ 
lessly going and coming/' 6cc. 
is altogether untruoi^ 

(7.) If this be true, can the 
representations of my want of 
judgment and seriousness, on 
all other occasions when I ap- 
peared before the Negroes, in 
my professional charact^, be 
true also ? The contrast is re- 
markable. I can lay my hand 
on my heart and declare, that 
I was as anxious to do my 
duty when I met the Negi'oes 
to preach to them, %k I wM 
when I atten^ted thdr foneralsi 



(8.) During Mr. M'Kenzie's 
residence at Tryall estate, I 
made him two casual calls, on 



* The Jamaica lioyai Ga^tte of July 1823, in an attack on me, repre- 
sents the, Negroes as saying, *^ What sort of a parson is tins ovur ma&ter 
has sent us out? He does not tell us ^at the Mother pardons ha^^dboe, 
and he can neither christen, nor BURT us.'' 



76 



AfTIDAVITS. 

^ttced to him at Tryall estate^ 
-wkere deponent then resided, 
*and where he shewed Mr. Coo«> 
per'eviery kindness and hospi'- 
iality in his power ; and from 
that period a comiderable de« 
groe lol intimacy took . place 
iietween them ; and in like man* 
ner, Mr. Cooper was treated 
with great kindness and atten«- 
tion by all the neighbours, with 
most of whom he was on terms 
of intimacy. 



(9.) T'hai never once did Mr. 
Cooper intimate, or hint to him, 
or to any other individuai, (as 
far as he can ascertain, or be* 
lieves,J his disgust at, or dis- 
approbation of, the customs or 
habits of the inhabitants of the 
island, either with reference to 
the state of morals and religion 
of the whites or blacks^ or to 
the treatment, condition, or si- 
tuation^ of the slaves 3 but so 



RHIfAIIKft.'- 

both which occasions he treated 
me with kindness and atten* 
tion, for which 1 thanked Jiim 
at the time; The neighbours 
also shewed me much Idndness, 
which I always acknowledged, 
and endeavoured to return. 
But I never supposed till now 
that they expected me, as a 
return for their hospitality, to 
praise the slave system, or to 
conceal what I saw of its enor- 
mities. .They ought to be sa- 
tisfied when they see that I 
blame the system rather than 
individuals, excepting 'whett 
. they come forward detei^mined 
to oppose^ at any rate,, not 
only the natural rights of man, 
but <;ommon justice and huma** 
nity. 

(9.) This is deliberately and 
utterly false. "* I have often 
expressed to Mr. M'Kenzie my 
horror at the manner in whidi 
both whites and blacks live in 
Jamaica. He will remember 
my conversing with him Te« 
specting the custom of visiters 
who stay all night on an estate 
requesting the* domestic who 
attends them to bring them a 
girl to be their instrument of 



* The manner in which our female servants were seduced by the white 
men on the estate^ he has often, heard us both lament. See Mrs. Cooper's 
letter, p. 21. 



n 



ArriDATits. 

much did' he 'idwiiys 'ex^mts 
hknself and appear to feel; to 
tbe; contrary of what is now' 
asserted. iiy him, or < stated to: 
be 6o> ia a cettmn pamphlet; 
entitled^ " Negro Sianery, or^ 
a yi&w of some of the more 
promifient - Feaitor^: of tliat 
State of Socie^y^ as it exists is: 
the United Statea of America, 
and in the Coloiues of the We8t> 
Indies, efipecjalljr ift: Jamaica^'* 
that he hatii frequently' heard* 
both Mr« Cooper and his wife: 
dedaiie, and indeed At wad! a: 
constant theme or: subject: of 
discourse of. both, thi^t the Ne^] 
groes in Jamaica^ were a poost 
happy peasantry, and in Cir-. 
cumstances greatly preferable, 
to those, of the poor labooring 
classes in England 5 and he hath, 
frequently heard them both, on 
comparing the condition of the 
Negroes with such classes, in 
England^ observe how bounti-. 
folly the Negroes were 3up«. 
plied, not only, with (he neces-. 
saries and conveniences, but. 
even with many of the luxuries 
of life, and lament,' at thesame 
time, the miserable lot of tnany^ 
of their own countrymen ; and. 



pleasure ; and' that he assured 
me that this was* an extremi^iy 
common thing. * He added^ 
indeed, that IVyall was an etM 
ception, at least while he'Wa^! 
overseer on that estate 3 in con-' 
hrmation bf which he- related- 
the following anecdote. — A cer«' 
tain individual/ known to us' 
both, one night had occasion 
to take up his lodgings at 
Tryall. When he got into his 
room, he called the boy to bring 
him a girl 3 the boy refused, 
on the ground that the over- 
seer would not suffer it 3 the 
gentleman did not quite under- 
stand this, and, therefore, he 
took out his purse to offer a 
reward. The boy still refused, 
and a part of the money fell 
upon the floor. During the 
whole time, Mr. M'Kenzie was 
within hearing, and approved 
of the boy's conduct. 

The report which I have 
given in this country respecting 
the treatment and situation of 
the slaves in Jamiuca, is no- 
thing more than a repetition of 
what I often avowed to 'Mr. 
M'Kenzie; Mr. Oates, Mr.* 
Skirving,.and others. ^ I never^ 



- * Mr. Oates and Mr.' SIrirving both confirmed to me the practice of 
thus sendbg for girls ; and the latter even added, that, when att^rp^ys 
visit estates, they are known t<y eniploy the midwife to procure th^m 
some girl,t or gifts, whom^ she supposes to be- pure. 



78 



Affidavits. 

at tb^ last dinner gi?en by Mtt 
Cooper^ just before be left tbe 
island^ he gave a iisrewell toast^ 
in these words^ b$ well as de» 
ponent can * recollect them :*^ 
" Pro8|>erity to the island and 
all its inhabitants j to the pa«>. 
rish <^ Hanover in partionlar. 
O how happy ate all descrip* 
tions of peojpde heie !*' 



(10.) That there were many 
tsrcumstances in the general 
condoct both of Mr.^ Cooper 
and his wife^ not at all calcu- 
lated to inspire the Negroes 
with respect or good-will to- 
wards them personally 3 one of 
which occurred ^bout eight or 



RSHABKS.' 

ascribed^ ^tiiet in that country 
or tfais^ tbe evil to the mere 
tyranny of the planters^ but 
mainly to the system which 
they have the Mffbntme t«>ad« 
minister* 

Neithef Mrs. Cooper nor F 
0wf emtertdaed tt^e ideA Hhai 
tbe Negffoes artf as well off as 
tbe pnalailtry of l&is coiuit^. 
On die ^ontrary^ we efteti aiw 
gued against th^ insalting no^ 
tion when advancdft by others. 
Mr« M'Kc»i4e and a few other* 
iadMdnds iMeaslonany. dined' 
with me; tftid in is po^Me/ 
though i have no necoHectton' 
of i^ that I in^ht give a kre- 
weH IMast before I left the* 
country. But tbe dause in' 
that p^duoed hf Mr. M^en- 
aie^ " O hew happy inre all de^^' 
eer^iiotu of pet^ here /** is 
a tompleie feJMcittien. I never 
did, or coukl^ reekoA Ibe Ja- 
maica people a happy people; 
when I saw tbem sunk in so 
ranch vioe> ^oremee^ and ty- 
ranny* 

(10.) r decline giving any 
re^ to general charges and 
base insinuations^ I desire no^ 
favour from Mr. M'Kenzie, 
or any of his fellow-labowrevs. 
If they will tell the whole 
truth, and nothing but the 
truth, I shall have no occa- 



79 



Affidavits. 

ten days after dq^nent took 
charge of the estate^ as over- 
seer. 

( 1 1 .) A young girl belonging 
to the estate^ named Sarah 
Brissett, who was in the eighth 
month of her pregnancy^* and 
had been employed as one of 
the domestics of Mr. GoepoTi 
was sent by him or Mrs. Coo- 
per^ to deponent^ as overseer^ 
to be panished> and sent to 
work in the field ; the&nltshe 
was charged with^ beings that 
she would not go down on her 
knees> and scour the house > 
and on the girl coining to de« 
ponent^ she was crpng most 
bitterly^ sayings she would do 
any needle-work, or any other 
light work^ but she could not 
scour the house> nor work in 
the field, but that Mrs. Cooper 
said she was able to kneel 
down and scour the house, and 
^hat poor women in England 
were obliged to work hard till 
their delivery 3 but as in the 
course of seventeen years* ex- 
perience as a planter deponent 
had never once seen a person 
in her condition either working 
in the field, or doin^ any drud- 
gery about a house, he ordered 
th(s ^1 to go home to her own 



RCICABKS.' 

sionto reply to thdr psod«c^' 
tkms. 



<} 1.) See this ease fully ex«k 
amined and replied toJa Mrsi 
Cooper's letter to Mr. Hibbert. 



* See Mrs. Cooper's letter, p. \9. 



^•^^^'^^ 



m 



AFFlDAVItS. 

lioate» au<l ' ma^e- herself a^ 
comfortable as she coald; ait 
which conduct on his part Mrs. 
Cooper took great offence^ and 
complained of hils being too in - 
du^eat. : 

(12.) That he sought and 
availed himself of all opportu- 
nities of rendering the situation 
of Mr. and Mrs. Cooper as 
cpmfortable as he could, and of 
shewing them all the attention 
and civility in his power, and 
with that view he was very 
frequently at their rtesidence, 
where many domestics were al- 
lowed to them > and he could 
not help observing, that instead 
of a kind J conciliating manner 
towards them, Mr« and Mrs. 
Cooper were always dissatis- 
fied, and complaining that they 
were behaving ill 5 nor was 
there any kind of forbearance 
in the manner of either Mr. or 
Mrs. Cooper towards the peo- 
ple, but, on the contrary, the 
Negroes were all averse to their 
service, and anxious to quit it, 
greatly preferring any other 
work they could be put to on 
the estate 5 and at their own 
desire deponent did change 
some 5 but the same conduct 
was pursued towards any others 
who were sent, and they again, 
and Mr. and Mrs. Cooper, were 



Remarks.' 






(12.) A tissue of deliberate 
falsehoods and gros9 misrepre-> 
s^ntations.' • * 



61 



AfFIDAVtfS. 

mntaaUy dissatisfied with «ach 
other ; all of wluch could only 
Jbe attributable to the causes 
before-mentioned^ and to the 
feet of Mr. Cooper haying 
omitted or n^lected altogether ' 
to take any pains to gi^e them 
snch ittskuctions as- were rcr 
qnisite to fit them for bee6ming 
useful and respectable doiUes- 
dcs ', and the impression left 
on the mind of the deponent^ 
^rom the general con4oct of 
both Mr* and Mrs. Coc^i*, 
^wus, that he was a very peevish 
man, and she an overbearing 
woman, towards all that they 
thought thdir inferiors, and that 
they were very far from being 
humanely or kindly disposed 
towards the Negroes. 

(13.) That' the example set 
by both Mr. and Mrs. Cooper 
was, at times, little calculated, 
to produce in the minds of the 
Negroes any additional reve- 
rence for the sabbath-day, de- 
ponent having known Mr. Coo- 
per frequently ride into the 
mountains^ on Sunday mornings 
for the purpose of collecting 
some school-debts due to him. 
That the above-mentioned pam- 
phlet, so far as it relates to 
the evidence ,of Mr. Cooper, 
x^ontains very many assertions 
4vhicb Mr^Coc^r himself must 



RfiMARKSi 



(13.) ThisT is also a gross 
-aad wilfut misrepresentation. 
As &r as my own- recollection 
serves, I can most truly affirm^ 
that I never, in a single in- 
stance, went into the moun- 
tains on a Sunday morning for 
the purpose stated and sworn 
to by my opponent. He knows 
that what he says, on this sub- 
ject, amounts to a direct false** 
hood. 

I have frequently examined 
my evidence, as contained in 
the pamphlet sQluded to by Mr. 
M'Kenzie/ with a view to asi- 



63 



Affidavits. 

know to be either false, or mis- 
representations, on his part; 
for instead of the night labour 
of each Negro during crop- 
time, on Georgia estate, being 
equal to three nights in the 
week, it is only equal to eigh- 
teen hours, eacKNegro keeping 
spell only six hours each alter- 
nate night ; and instead of the 
persons employed in carrying 
canes to the mill having no re- 
gular time of rest either night 
or day, it only occurs that they 
have to carry canes for a short 
time after dusk, when the cane 
piece which the Negroes are 
cutting happens to be at an un- 
usual distance from the works 5 
and it is by no means a matter 
of difficulty to accumulate by 
sun-down, at the works, suffi- 
cient canes to last until the 
neitt morning; and thete ^rt 
no grounds whatever foi as- 
serting that they seldom get h 
whole night's rest at one time, 
or for insinuating that th^ car- 
rying of canes is at all a matted 
of hardship, or of severe H^ 
bour; and^ in fhct, crop-time 
to all the Negroes is a most 
joyous period. • 

* 

(14.) That if the Negroes 
had been edified or pleased 
with the instructions of Mr. 
Cooper^ and he attempted to 



certain whether it contains any 
thing which, through inadver- 
tence; gives a ialse colonriiig ' 
to any Oct, or part of the slave 
systeiii, but hlive nev^r been 
able to find that it does. And 
I am perf(^tly sure, that it 
contains no material, and most 
certainly no intentidnai etiror* 
For an answer io the re- 
tiiainder of Mr. M'Kcmle's pa^ 
ragrapb, see page 35* Mr. 
M'Kenzie, it ought to be borne 
in mind, had resided only for 
six months on the estate when 
I left it. • ' . . 



' c 



(14.) That it was ihy most 
earnest desire to have the Ne- 
groes attiend me on a Sondiijr 
for religious inst^ciibn; I Jikvb 



83 



•itistnict them ia cnoprtime* on 
Ahe fiuddny* h& would n<^ have 
tomd the slightesjt obstacle or 
«BffijCulty» arisiDg from thdr 
tefing to. dig iheir provisionp, 
or to dispose of .them at tbeir 
madceta; nor .woidd he. have 
fcottd it V itiicompatible with 
:^fa0 .oi:der and- management of 
ilhe^antation$" hu^y ip ^|Bot^ 
Mr. Coopfr neither he^d meet? 
iT^g^» l^or gave apy instruction 
on Sundays^ in or ont of crop ; 
rCThcursday .i^t^rnoons being 
particul^Fly f^pitppriat^ to that 
purpose ',) bat, on the contrary^ 
he was usually to he niet with 
at Lucea Bay^ or somewhere iu 
the niBighbQurhopd/ taj^ing his 
pleasure on thoi^e dayS} a^dit 
is a notorious £act throughout 
the island^ that where Christian 
mini3ters have been zealously 
^DgAgcd in the conversion and 
instruction of the Negroes^ their 
exertions have been attended 
with great success ^ and such 
Negroes have had generally 
quite as little time to themr 
selves, and perhaps less, for 
religions instruction, than the 
iNegroes on Georgia estate. 



R£MABK8. 

fully stated and explained, pp. 
48, 49, in contrast with Mr. 0.*s 
false swearing on the subject. 
It is unnecessary for me to, en- 
large here; yet I cannot help 
telling Mr. Hibbert, that his 
overseer has in this place, as 
in almost every other, sworn to 
what he knows to be false^ to 
serve the interests of slavery. 
It is admitted by Mr. Gates, 
and even by Mr. M'Kenzie, 
that the slaves have to dig their 
week's provisions on a Snnday. 
Now if we t^ke Mr. Gates's re- 
presentation, that the grounds 
are only two miles distant from 
the Negro village, it will follow 
that the poor beings have at 
least four miles to walk on a 
Snnday, and to take out of the 
earth and carry home on their 
heads, a sufficient quantity of 
provisions for a week's subsis- 
tence ; all which may be done 
without creating 'the slightest 
difficulty or obstacle to the 
religious duties of the day, 
according to the oath of Mr. 
M'Kenzie. If an English la- 
bourer had similar exertions to 
go through on a Snnday, he 
would deem them obstacles to 
the religious observance of the 
day. As the Negro has no day, 
in crop, but Sunday for his own 
use, it should never be forgot- 
ten^ that, besides ^oing to his 



Bi 



Affidavits. 



(15.) That the Negroes on 



Remarks. 

provision garden^ he has a nnni* 
ber of different things to do in 
and about his house^ if he wishes 
to live in any comfort^ or to 
keep himself and his hut in any 
tolerable trim. 

What is said abont my taking 
pleasaie on a Snnday, I'caa 
assure the reader, is nothing 
more than so much falsehood 
and calumny. Mrs. Cooper and 
I occasionally took a ride on a 
Sunday-evening for the sake of 
exercise, but I do not believe 
that I was ever four times at 
Lucea in my life on a Sunday, 
excepting it was to attend 
church. ' 

The statement with respect 
to- the facility with which I 
might have preached to the 
Negroes on Sundays^ carries 
falsehood on the face of it, 
as has been already remark- 
ed above, p. 48. How can 
Mr. Gates and Mr. M'Kenzie 
exculpate themselves for hav- 
ing appropriated, with much 
manifest inconvenience and loss 
of labour, Thursday to instruc- 
tion, if the more proper and 
natural course of instructing 
the slaves on Sundays, could 
have been followed compatibly 
with the order and manage- 
ment of the plantation ? 

(15.) It is possible they 



86- 



AFPlbAtfTS. 

Georgia^ dnring Mr. Cooper's 
residence there, had from twen- 
ty-eight to thirty week days in 
the year, besides Thursday after- 
noons, and such week days were 
even more than amply sufficient 
for the purpose of cultivatiug 
and attending to their grounds^ 
Without the slightest encroach- 
ment on the Sunday out of crop^ 
and the season when such days 
were allowed to them, is the 
proper season for planting all 
their provisions, and not during 
the crop-time ; so that in fact, 
in crop they have scarcely any 
thing more to do than to dig up 
or cut their week's provisions 
on the Sunday. 



_ • 

R^MARI^g. 

might have had twenty-eight 
days allowed them, but cer-' 
tainly never more while I was 
on the estate. I should be sur- 
prised to find Mr. M'Kenzie 
and Mr. Gates mentioning 
thirty days, did I not now see 
that they are capable 'of - any 
exaggeration or misreprentation 
to serve their purpose. Daring 
a part of the time out of crop, 
the Negroes have only one day 
in a fortnight for their own pur- 
poses— ^which day we are to 
believe, is sufficient for. the 
cultivation of their provision 
grounds, carrying hotoe provi- 
sions, and doing every thing 
else which their own comfort 
or that of their families inay 
require, *' without the slightest 
encroachment on the Sunday^' ! 
A minute's reflection is quite 
enough here. But a still more 
complete reply to these false 
representations will be found 
at p. 49.* 



* Twenty-six days for the whole year, which is the number allowed by 
the law, averages to each Negro half a day for each of the fifty-two 
weeks j;^t compose the year. And here we have oath upon oath, for 
Mr. Gates and Mr. M'Kenzie both in effi^ct swear to it, that this half-day 
in the week is " amply sufficient'^ for the cultivation of the Negro's pro- 
vision grounds, from which he and his children derive their support, .with 
the exception of a few herrings, ''without any encroachment on the 
Sunday:" and Mr. Gate^ swears also, '' that it is ^n/tV^/^, optional with 
the Negro how he will spend the Sunday ;" thus making his half-da^r in 
the week completely competent to every purpose — of washing and mend- , 
ing his clothes, cleaning his hut, attending the market, and taking care 



86 



Affidavits. 

(16.) Thai; it certaioly would 
have been unjust to the Ne- 
groes^ if any part of the Sundays 
had been authoritatively taken 
from them^ with a view to en- 
force their attendance on Mr« 



Rj|C|IARK,S. 

(16.) I Tepsat that I W9V 
always willing and ready to pay 
every attenUon to the religiovp 
interests of the Negroes en ^ 
Sunday^ and that I did all ii^ 
my power to get them to attend 



of the *' large supplies of hogs, goats, and poultrp,'* which Mr. Oattt 
makes oath are the property of the slave. For let it be remembered^ Uia^ 
during the five days and a half in the week in which thetman is toiling 
for the master, the wife and children are not at home, engaged in their 
own domestic affairs, as is frequently the case in this country : every one 
capable of useful exertion is abroad, performing the labour of the estate. 
Now, if it be true that this one half^^iay in the week is thus important to 
the slave, of what immense value must be those other eleven hblf-days 
Which are taken from him and appropriated to his owner! And how 
extensive the robbery committed by the latter on the unfortunate victiia 
of servitude 1 For if one half-day be thus adequate to the effecting of 
every thing essential to the support and comfort of one individual^ who 
does not perceive that the return from his labour during the other eleven 
haifrdays in the week, must be equal to all the wants of eleven other 
individuals, and that the produce of his exertions must be sufficient for 
the subsistence of twelve persons, namely, himself and eleven others? 
.And thus allow that, out of the 384 slaves resident on Georgia, even 200 
are capable of labour, and we shall find that the returns from their exer- 
tions must be equal to the support of 2400 people, including themselves; 
and this, too, without reckoning their night work, which, as sworn to by 
Mr. Hibbert*8 agents, is equal to 30 days, or 60 half-days more ; and the 
produce from the labour of 200 people for these 30 days, or 60 half-days, 
«inu8t, according to the statements on oath, be equal to the subsistence 
and comfort of about 240 persons, lyhich, added to the above 2400, 
amount to 2640 ; and thus the estate of Georgia, if there be any truth i^ 
the oaths of Mr. Hibbert's agents, would make from the labour of the 
slaves upon it, a yearly return of .produce equal to the subsistence of 
2640 persons, including themselves. And yet, with this imtnense profit 
from the sinews of their slaves, do the West Indians still go to Parliament 
and petition for relief from their distresses ! Surely, in the next Session, 
the Agent of Jamsdca will come forward with the oath of his relative, 
and with those of his co-swearers, and disembarrass the Government bv 
shewing, on these oaths, the fallacy of 4he allegations, and the extrava- 
gance of the requests of the . West Indians ! 



87 



ArriBAViTB. 

Cooper 3 hut, in fact there ejrist* 
ed no really good reason for 
Mr. Cooper neglecting or omit" 
ting, as he did, to give them an 
opportunity of receiving instruC'^ 
tion on the Sundays, if they 
were inclined to receive it; and 
if he had inspired them with 
any desire to hear him, he wonld 
not have had siince to make so 
unjast and unfounded an excuse 
as is now made by him in this 
respect. 



(17.) That so far from its 
being true, as insinuated in the 
{>amphlet> that Mr. Cooper 
qnitted Jamaica^ because he 
could Hot consent to consume 
fais time among a people to 
whom he could only preach 
twelve times a year, ,he in fact 
was desirous of staying in the 
island, and so expressed himr 
self to deponent, he being well 
contented with his comfortable 
mtuation at th^ estate $ but> as 
he stated himself, he was deter- 
mined to quit the country in 



Rbmakks. 

me on that day. The charge 
brought against me, on this 
head, by Mr. M'Kenzie, is ut- 
terly and completely false. If 
it be true that the Negroes had 
more than ample time to attend 
to their own affairs in the week, 
us, Mr« M'Kenzie wishes the 
world to believe, where would 
have been the injustice of at 
least strongly recommending it 
to them to attend me o^ a 
Sunday? This, however, wa3 
never done by a single white 
person on the esLtate^ but on' 
the contraryi they all represent- 
ed to me, and I believe vety 
justly, that it would have been 
cruel to do any such things it 
being absolately necessary for 
the slaves to go and attend to 
their grounds. 

(J 7.) The motives which in- 
duced mo to leave Jamaica, 
sprang from the conviction 
that my continuance there 
would lead to no beneficial re- 
sults to the Negroes, Had Mr. 
Hibbert consented to their be- 
ing taught to read, in spite of 
slavery, and to proper time 
being allowed them for*religious 
worship and. instructiop, both 
in and out pf . crotp, I should 
most likely have been on fais 
estate to this day. 

The only letter which had 



88 



Affidavits. 

consequence of some letter which 
he had received from England. 



(18.) That under the head 
of* General Treatment/* in the 
pamphlet^ when treating of the 
evidence of Mr. Cooper, it is 
alleged, that a driver on an 
estate has the power of pros- 
trating the Negroes, and inflict- 
ing such a number of lashes as 
he may deem their fault to have 
merited 3 but as far as depo- 
nent*s*own kndwledge and ex- 
perience extend^ such assertion 
IS false and unfounded, and 
such a practice would not be 
tolerated in the island 5 and the 
account given by Mr. Cooper 
of punishments in general is a 
gross misrepresentation ; and if 
the several instances of cruelty 
and harsh treatment towards 
the Negroes, on Georgia estate, 
mentioned in the evidence of 
Mr. Cooper, ever did occur, 
they must have taken place be- 
before this deponent was the 
overseer, and are unknown to 
him 5 and he verily believes, 
that such treatment would not 
be tolerated on any estate in 
the island. 



Remarks/ 

any influence in indncifng me to 
return to this country, was that 
of Mr. Hibberfs, dated East- 
Hide, Nov. 1st, 1820, which 
will be found p. 28. 

« 

(18.) My report adds, that 
the number of lashes which the 
driver may legally inflict, is ten, 
but I verily believe that he 
often goes farther than this. 
He does not always prostrate 
the ofiender, being guided by 
the nature of the crime or his 
caprice, but he certainly does 
so when he thinks he sees cause. 
The gangs under the command 
of Mr. M'Kenzie always work 
before the whip, which the dri- 
ver, in point of fact, uses at his 
own discretion. Of this I have 
very often had ocular demon- 
stration. The question is not 
so much about l^e po^tur^ in 
which the Negroes are placed; 
when they are flogged, as the 
&ct of their being subjected to 
the punishment of the cart-whip^ 
and urged on to the performance 
of their task by that humane 
and rational instrument. Now, 
whatever oaths Mr. M'Kenzie 
may tal^, or however he abd his 
companions may carp at an ex<v 
pression, I re-assert, in the most 
deliberate manner, that during 
the whole of my residence oA 

_ * 

Georgia estate, the slaves wdE<e 



89 



Affidavits. 



(19.) That it is stated in the 
pamphlet, upon the evidenoe 
of Mr. Cooper, that after three 
slaves on the Georgia estate 
had obtained their fireedom by 
purchase from . the proprietor, 
a. fourth made many efforts 
to obtain his freedom by pur- 
chase, bnt they proved unavail* 
ing, and he sank in consequence 
into a state of despondency, • 
and became of comparatively 
little value ; which statement 
is utterly felse, and Mr. Cooper 
in asserting the same, knew 
it to be so; for deponent suth,- 
that some time after he went 
to live as overseer at Georgia, 
the mother of ^andy Allen (the 
Negro alluded to as having ful- 
ed to obtain his freedom) died, 
and deponent and Mr. Cooper 
attended at her funeral, the 
meeting preparat<ury to the oe- 



Rbmarks, 

as completely stimulated at 
their labour by the whip, as 
any team of horses, with per- 
haps one or two exceptions, 
that ever I saw in a stage-coach. 
Every case of punishment 
mentioned in my evidence, in 
the tract called Negro Slavery ^ 
did, to my certmn knowledge, 
take place in the manner there 
described; and I most firmly 
believe that such things happen 
on sugar estates very frequent- 
ly, if not every day. 

(19.) What I have to say 
respecting the wish of Sandy 
AAen to obtain his freedom, 
will be found in my reply to 
what Mr. Gates has advanced 
on this subject. But I must 
here remark, that if Mr. 
M'Kenzie put the question to 
Allen fairly, candidly, and 
without any art/- ** if he wished 
or would like to he free ^* I do 
not believe Mm on Aw oath, that 
Allen answered in the manner 
related in the opposite column. 

I have not the slightest re- 
collection of burying Sandy 
Allen's mother, or of attending 
her funeral ; indeed, I feel per- 
suaded she was ative when I 
left the estate. The funeral 
to which Mr. M'Kenzie alludes, 
was that of a brown man, by 
the name of Davy, some time 
l^ot-hoBse doctor on Georgia 



90 



Affidavits. 

remony being held at Sandy 
Allen's house> where they met 
several well-dressed Negroes of 
the estate^ and found a table 
laid for the funeral dinner, with 
a neat clean cloth^ for upwards 
of a dozen persons^ and there 
Mr. Cooper and deponent par- 
took of an excellent glass of 
wine^ presented to them by 
Sandy Allen himself^ who at 
the same time that he was 
particularly correct in his own 
conduct on the occasion^ was 
known to Mr. Cooper as a most 
valuable tradesman and a con- 
tented^ well-conducted^ and re- 
spected servant ; and respected 
not merely on the estate^ but 
by all the gentlemen in the 
neighbourhood. That knowing 
that Sandy Allen had fornrerly 
expressed a desire to obtain his 
freedom^ but seeing him con- 
tented and in happy circum- 
stances on the estate^ deponent 
once took occasion to ask him 
if he wished or would like to 
be free 3 when he answered this 
deponent, " No, no, I am per- 
fectly contented in my situa- 
tion/* 

ALEXANDER J^'KENZIE. 
Sworn before me, this 2nd 
day of March/ 1 824, 

ALEX. CAMPBELL, 
Senior Magistrate. 



.Remarks. 

estate. This mistake would be 
of no great consequence, were 
it not that Mr. M'Kenzie is on 
his oath, and must, whenever be 
departs from the literal truth 
of any thing he advances^ be 
considered as having perjured 
himself. The funeral of Davy 
was certainly managed, on the 
part of the slaves, with great 
decency and propriety. I was 
much struck with the scene^ 
having never witnessed any 
thing of the kind before on the 
estate, though I had often been 
called to bury the dead.-*Mr. 
M'Kenzie and his fellow-la- 
bourers would be glad to have 
the public believe^ that the fu- 
neral in question may be re- 
garded as a fair specimen of 
Negro funerals in general^ a{id 
as also affording a proof <of 
the comforts and luxuries pos- 
sessed by the greiat mass of the 
slaves. Let no one, however^ 
be so deceived 3 the case of 
Davy must be regarded as in 
exception to the general rule. 

T. C. 



^h* 



^ 



Printefi hy O. Smallfibld, Sacktu^. 



i^h 



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