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Thia On 





Late Oeneral Editor cf 



Aluen's Synonyms and Antonyms 

Copyright, 193 1, by Harper & Brothers 

Copyright in Great Briuin 

The property right of Harper & Brothers in this work is acknowledged 
in the United States of America and in the countries subscribing to 
and adhering to the Berne Convention creating an Interna- 
tional Union for the protection of Literary and Artistic 
works, as Revised, and the property right in this work is 
reserved underall Conventionsand Treaties! n force. 

All rights reserved, including the right oftrandation into the Scandinaman 
languages and into other languages 

Printed io tbe United States of America 

To My Friend 


In appreciation of the watchful care which re« 
stored me to health, in the year 1914, mak- 
ing possible the carrying on and com- 
pletion of the work, on this book. 


affected. — ^When a person deliberately uses a diction which is not natural 
and is not chosen simply in order best to convey his meaning, his use 
of words is affected. This is ordinarily due to prudery, excessive niceness 
or fastidiousness, undue desire for show, or a desire to support some 
pretense, as of sympathy, refinement, etc. There are in English 
various words which are typically so used in some senses, and they 
are followed in this book by the word '* affected,'' as where delectation is 
used for delight, peregrinaior for pilgrim, canfect for make, emporium 
for markei, limb for leg, avaunt for away, etc. 
Common forms of affectation are the excessive use of euphemisms 
(see EUPHEMISTIC, below) and intensives. 

archaic. — ^Words that belong to the past but have now fallen into disuse 
in ordinary language, but are for some reason retained in particular 
uses, as in poetry or for their flavor of archaism, are followed by the 
term archaic. Archaic uses may survive with particular individuals, 
as when the word positive is pronounced with the i before the v long 
(as in pine), or the word oblige is pronounced with the i sounded as ee. 
Among the very many words archaically used in English are: ghastful 
for aiarming, anhungered for hungry, bestow for apply, host for army, 
facete for facetious, hostel for inn, inform for deformed, etc. 

A word may become obsolete or archaic in general use, but be 
retained in professional use or in some stock phrase, as !e< in ** without 
let or hindrance^' hearse or herse for bier in certain ecclesiastical usage. 
Archaic uses often shade almost insensibly into those that are poetic, 
learned, or rare. 

bookish. — Some words are literary in that they are little used out of 
books, but still lack any special literary associations aside from the 
fact that they are rather more formal than ordinary words or that they 
''smell of the shop." Terms decidedly of this character are often 
termed bookish (and are so marked in this book), as horrific for horrible 
or frightful, Hntinndbulum for bell, verve for ardor, horrific for fearful. 
The use of such words often smacks of preciosity or stiltedness. Of 
course here, as in all matters of usage, there is no definite line of dis- 
tinction setting off bookish words as a group from those usually felt 
to be literary, learned, technical, or pedantic. Cf. tech., below. 

coUoq. — ^Those words are designated as colloq. (that is, colloquial) which 
are usually and properly common in ordinary speech or conversation, 



NOTES or Bxn.AirATioir 

but lack the dignity of association which is neceesary to make tbem 
appropriate for formal or elevated discourse. 

The use of these words in ordinary conversation is not suggestive 
of vulgarity, but when used in formal or elevated discourse they lend 
an air of flippancy or illiteracy that is offensive to good taste. Words 
which have not become recognized as in good usage even to the extent 
of being colloquial are designated as slang (which see, below). The 
appropriate use of colloquial words lends a charm and easiness to 
informal conversation without which it is likely to appear affected, 
stilted, or pedantic. 

A few examples of colloquialisms are: milksop for coward, fill for 
depart, cabby for cab driver, sin'np for liberty, ado for fuss. 
contextual. — As used in this book the word contextual is used for brevity 
in place of "a conUxtwd sense or usage." Very many words depend 
more or less upon their context or the circumstances of their use for a 
part of the sense or meaning which they are intended to convey. Thus, 
when the question is asked, "Have you done your arithmetic?", we 
must know the facts with reference to which the question was asked 
in order to know what done implies, as learned, memorized, or worked 
the examples of. This dependence of a word upon its context or the 
circumstances of its use exists, to a greater or less degree, in all cases 
where a word of more general meaning is used in place of a word of a 
narrower, or specific, meaning. Thus, whenever we use (fo in this way, 
we must in each case look beyond the word itself to know the particular 
implication which it is intended to have. 

An almost imlimited nim:kber of contextual synonyms might in this 
way be given in any dictionary of synonyms, as for example animal 
under horse, cow, child, man, woman, insect, etc.; emotion under passion, 
frenzy, love, hatred, joy, happiness, etc.; move under rush, go, dart, run, 
walk, creep, glide, etc, 

I have attempted to avoid uselessly cluttering the pages of the book 
with an excess of such synonyms, but have added general words as 
synonyms where it was felt that they would be of service to the user 
of the book. 

Examples of the use of contextual occur on most of the pages, as after 
ecclesiastic under monk, girl under hussy, product under offspring, mark 
under brand, etc. 
euphemistic.^^ne often has occasion to express what is in itself un- 
pleasant or is conventionally tabooed in direct expression, by using 
terms that have less offensive suggestions than would be involved in 
those precisely or bluntly indicating one's meaning. 

The use of euphemisms is a notable feature of primitive races or 
customs, as where the Greeks designated the avenging Errinnyes by 
the name Eumenides (a name which arose as a euphemism, and literally 
means, "the gracious ones"), or where we use tntericoted for drunk or 



howeh or intestines for giUa (a word once in polite usage and still proper 
in some connections). Other words wholly or often used euphemistic- 
ally are infidelity for aduUery, intimacy for iUicU amours departure 
for deaihf innocent for simpleton. So any word of pleasant connotation 
may be used in place of a word of unpleasant suggestion whenever the 
intended sense will be conveyed. 

fig. — ^When the use of a word in the sense for which it is given involves a 
consciousness that it is more or less transferred or figurative in use, 
the word is followed hyfi^g. (torfi^guraiive). This has resulted in many 
words being marked J^. which are not figurative in any sense that 
would imply that their use belongs to what is rhetorically called 
figurative, flowery, or ornate discourse; but merely that the sense 
though establish^ in English usage is not one in which the con- 
sciousness of transferred or figurative use is yet entirely forgotten, 
and without the J^. there might be a momentary difficulty in sensing 
the connection. This is the case with blaspheme for abuse, whip for 
abusSf or cosmic for consistent, voice for speaker, day for time. 

Proper names conventionally used as synonyms are also designated 
as fi^., where the consciousness of the figure still exists, as where 
Boanerges is used for speaker, Castalia or Hippocrene for spring, CycUh 
pean for massive. 

formal. — I have designated by formal those words which are charac- 
teristic of formal or precise discourse, as where insular is used for 
island (as an adjective), protasis for beginning, chamber for bedroom. 
Here again it is difficult to draw the line between those sufficiently 
formal to be so designated and those which are not, and I have omitted 
the designation when there seemed to be any question about its 

intensive. — ^When the intensive force of a word is a noticeable element of 
its meaning the designation intensive is added after the word. In 
many cases a prefix is added to a word so as to form a new word, but 
in an intensified degree. The commonest prefixes so used are be- and 
en- or em-, as in bedeck, becloud, bespatter, embolden, empoison, enchain; 
but en- and em- are now little used in new combinations, and be- usually 
has a suggestion of excess, often with a note of contempt or disgust, 
as in bedeck, begem, becalm, bespaUer, bedraggle. The intensive force 
is plainly felt in some of the older words, now obsolete or archaic, as 
in beshrew (thee), bethink (thee), and in many modern forms, such as 
bedew, enfeeble, empoison, enchase, encamalize, etc. In many cases 
the intensive force of the prefix em- or en- is lost and the compound 
word has become the ordinary term, as embitter (rather than bitter), 
encircle (rather than circle), emboss (rather than boss). The em- 
phatic form is in some cases so far restricted to poetic use as to justify 
the denomination poetic. 

learned. — Many words are common enough in learned discourse, written 



or Bpoken, but are nevertheless quite out of place in ordinary general 
literature or conversation. Technical terms (here marked as tech.) 
are essentially of the learned class; but many other words which 
cannot properly be classed as technical and yet are not generally 
known to those of ordinary education, are in this work followed by 
the word "learned." It would be ridiculous to designate as fcam«d all 
words not understood or which are not at all, or but imperfectly, 
understood by those with only a grammar-school or even a high- 
school education, for of these words, many will be more or less familiar 
to one person and strange to another, who in turn may know well 
words unfamiliar or unknown to the first. Words of this class are 
lugubrious, dolorous, matutinal, venial, fallacious, inimical, and these 
are left unmarked, though at times it is difficult to draw the line 
between them and those marked affected, learned, or literary. 

Those words designated as learned, therefore, are only those about 
which there seems to be no question and concerning the nature of 
which a warning should be given to the user of this dictionary. Among 
them are: indite for compose, mordacious for biting, decollate for behead, 
autochthonmis for native. Learned words are often, like technical 
terms, more exact in their meanings than more common words. 

literaiy. — Many words are chiefly restricted in use to hterary expression 
notable for its elevation in form or taste or to formal addresses couched 
in such language, and these are designated as literary. Such words 
carry a suggestion of studied elegance of expression or of learning that 
would lend to their use in colloquial or technical discom-se an appear- 
ance of pedantry, stiltedness, or affectation. 

Many or most of these words have once belonged to ordinary dic- 
tion, but have by a long restricted use been set aside for this more 
studied or elegant discourse,as burgeonioT bud,distrait for ahsent-^ninded. 
The setting apart of words in this way is a process continually going 
on in English. Further common examples of "literary" words are 
froward for perverse, fruition for enjoyment, imbrue for slain, impugn for 
attack, Thespian for dramatic, array for dress, decease for die, fuliginous 
for smaky, infelicitous for unhappy. Cf. formal, above. 

obs. — -The abbreviation obs. (for obsolete) is put after such words as have 
fallen into disuse but have seemed notable enough to warrant their 
inclusion among the synonyms. Smce Chaucer's time many thousands 
of English words have become obsolete, and the presence of even a 
large part of them would mar a book of English synonyms of to-<iay. 
The art of printing has now, as it were, stereotyped our English vocabu- 
lary, BO that in these days words comparatively seldom become ob- 
solete. Indeed, there is at present rather a tendency, consciously or 
unconsciously, to retain or revive words already partly or wholly 
fallen into disuse, as is seen in the lai^e number of words marked 






Therefore, where there has seemed to be some literary or other 
sufficient reason for including in the book an obsolete word, I have not 
hesitated to do so, as in case of pleat for braid, pleasant for buffoon^ 
wick for viUage. 

obsolescent — ^Where a word has begun to fall into disuse, but still has 
use enough so that it would be inappropriate to designate it as rare 
or obsolete, I have added the designation obsolescent. As already said, 
words do not now so often become obsolete, the influence of the printing- 
press being to keep in use the vocabulary which we already have. 
Words that are simply falling into disuse and so are obsolescent (as 
incommodious for inconvenierU, quiz for hoax) are to be distinguished 
from archaic words which are consciously retained in use or revived for 
the sake of the flavor of archaism associated with them. Cf . archaic, 

rare. — ^The term rare after a word denotes that the word is rarely used 
in general literature. Rare words consist mostly of those which now 
and then appear in literature but have never become common. Thus, 
fledgy for feathery, affright for fear, desipient for foolish were first used 
many years ago, but they have never become established in general 
use. Some words now rare were once common; where the fact of their 
former frequent occurrence is of notable interest these are usually 
designated as now rare. Rare words ordinarily are of a more or less 
learned or pedantic character, and hence their use is often affected to 
produce a humorous or ironical effect. 

ifaetoiicaL — ^The word rhetorical is used to designate words which are 
characteristically used in language that is artificially or extravagantly 
elegant, or that specially seeks to convey an extreme or exaggerated 
effect, as where mighty is used for big, or mellijluous for melodious, or 
wroth for angry. 

slang. — ^When a word as a whole, or in the given sense, has a certain 
arbitrary use, but is considered as generally below the level of educated 
speech, it is designated as slang. 

Slang generally consists of new words or new uses of old words; 
but this is not necessarily so. Mere newness does not make a word 
or sense slang, for many of the new words and senses of words in all 
departments of life, especially in the arts and sciences, are not slang 
in this sense, though they might come under the very broad sense 
of slang as equivalent to jargon, or technical terminology (cf. tech., 
below). Generally speaking, the use of slang is not only inconsistent 
with a refined or elegant diction, but also with that seriousness and 
dignity which is felt to be essential to the general course of conduct and 

Occasionally, terms which arise as slang, such as hoax, jitney, and 
&u«, are accepted into good usage, but the great bulk of slang words 
(such as newlywed for benedict, dope for medicine, claret for blood, 



buster for blust^er or a big thing) remain slang as long bb they 
are used. 

spec. — The word specif (abbreviated in the text to spec.) denotes that 
a word is a synonym of the title word only in having a specific, or 
particular and restricted, sense which is included among those for 
which the title word may be used. Specific senses are at the opposite 
extreme from words which have such a general meaning that they are 
denominated contextual {which see, above). 

It is noteworthy that the more exact a person becomes in his designa- 
tion or description, the more specific are the words which he uses. 
Such words when correctly used conduce to accuracy, but they corre- 
spondingly narrow, often belittle, the meaning. 

The designation spec, therefore, often serves as a useful or needed 
warning that a word given as a synonym is so much restricted in its 
meaning that it is not to be used as a general equivalent of the other; 
in many other cases this is obvious without the spec, which is then given 
merely for the sake of uniformity. For examples consult entries on 
almost any page at random, as depart, horse, perceive, shrine, child, 

tech. — The abbreviation tech. (for technical) is added after words such 
as pomiform for apple-shaped, ramus for branch, squama for scale, 
sternum for breastbotie, which are chiefly found in, and characteristic of, 
technical usage. Many, perhaps moat, of such words are occasionally 
to be found outside of technical literature, but their use then nearly 
always gives an impression of learning or pedantry. Many technical 
terms are the mere jargon, or slang (in the broad sense), of a trade 
or profession, and such terms are not ordinarily included in thia 

It is to be noted that technical, as well as learned, terms are ordinarily 
more specific and exact in meaning than popular words, and are also 
barren of much or all of the connotations which lend to the commoner 
words their richness of meaning. 

£^ Various characterizations of words other than those given above are 
used in this book, such as British, U.S., hist, (for historical), antiq. (for 
antiquarian or antiquities), stilted, etc. Such designations have mean- 
ings readily inferred from their ordinary significations, and there is 
nothing in their relation to general usage or to each other to call for 
explanation of them here. Thus, the designation British is equivalent 
to "only or distinctively in British usage"; U. S., to "only or 
distinctively in use in the United States"; hist., to "used in historical 
reference or discourse"; anliq., to "used by antiquarians or in 
reference to antiquities"; stilted, to "characteristically used in stilted 


a. Mljective. 

adj adjeetive. 

•dv adverb. 

Af., Afr Africa. 

Am. America. 

anat. anaUuny. 

antiq anti9uitiee. 

arch architecture. 

arohaol archaolocy. 

astroL astrology. 

astron astronomy. 

Bib BibUoal. 

bioL biology. 

bot. botany. 

Brit. British. 

Can. Canada. 

of confer (L.« oomimre). 

ehem chemisUy. 

ooUoq colloquial. 

eonj conjunction. 

dial dialect, dialectaL 

dim. diminutive. 

eecl ecclesiastical. 

econ. economics. 

elec electrical. 

Engl English. 

esp especially. 

etc et cetera (L., and so forth). 

ethnol ethnology. 

ezelam exclamation. 

f em. feminine. 

fig figurative, figuratively. 

Oer •••••••.• German. 

her heraldry. 

hist historidd, history. 

infin infinitive. 

interj interjection. 

math mathematics. 

med medidne. 

metal metallurgy. 

metaph metaphysics. 

meteorol meteorology. 

min mineralogy. 

mythol mythology. 

n noun. 

New Eng New Eni^and. 

obs obsolete. 

obsolesc obsolescent. 

p participle. 

philos philosophy. 

physiol physiology. 

^ pliual. 

Port Portugese. 

p.p participle past. 

p. pr participle present. 

prep preposition. 

pron pronoun. 

Kyohol psyoholcMiy. 

C. Ch Roman Catholic Church. 

Scot Scottish, Scotland. 

sing singular. 

So South. 

Sp Spanish. 

spec specific. 

tech technical. 

theol theology. 

U. 8 UnitedStates. 

v verb. 

var variant (spelling). 

V. i verb intransitive. 

V. t verb transitive. 

soOl Bodlogy. 


Every cross reference from a word is to some other synonymous word, 
under which it is given either merely as a synonym or by way of a recip- 
rocal reference at the end. This latter is often done where there are 
two groups of synonyms of overlapping signification. 

The matter in smaller type at the foot of the page consists entirely 
of cross references, the words in the italic type in each case having, under 
the main vocabulary entrance, a list of synonyms including the word 
referred from. Thus, "obloquy: abicsey discredit^* means: "see in the 
main Vocabulary the words abuse and discredit^ where the word obloquy 
will be found as one of the several synonyms of the other words/' 


Under many of the vocabulary entries the synonyms are divided 
into numbered groups, so as to keep together the synonyms for any one 
sense, because the synonyms of a word in one sense usually differ in 
whole or in part from the synonyms of the word in a different sense. 
Where the distinction between the senses is not obvious, I have intro- 
duced a brief hint or definition so as to make this plain, as under abridge 
merU, arrangement, ask, v. t., assembly , hose, n., heak. Frequently the 
difference in meaning between the senses is made clear or more obvious by 
the following antonyms, as under absolute j ask, v. t., branch, body, benefit. 

• • • 


- » * * • ^ 

* • • % » 

•■  - • « . 

- » V U 








abftndoiit V. t leave, quit, desert, remit, 
renounce, forsake, desolate {rare), forgo 
{rare or archaic), drop, discard, surrender; 
gpec. evacuate, forswear, maroon, consign, 
bolt; see relinquish, fobgo» abdicate, 


Antonyms: see keep, continuBi accom- 

absmdomed, a. 1. corrupt, reprobate, un- 
principled, depraved, hardened, irreclaim- 
able, mcorrigible, irreformable, irredeem- 
able, lost; spec, shameless; see dissipated. 
Antonyms: see conscientious. 
S. forlorn, lorn {literary), destitute {rare), 
castaway, outcast, derdict, deserted, de- 
sert {archaic), 
S. See uninhabited. 

abMe, V. t 1. With "himself** "ihemr 
selves," etc., a< direct: degrade, lower, de- 
base, demean {not in good usage), sink 
{rare), stoop {rare)^ bemean. 
1. humble, humiliate, reduce, disgrace, 
prostrate, lower, mortify {rare or spec.); 
spec, depose, disrate, dusrank, dis^ude, 
discrown, uncrown, disbench, disbishop, 
disbar, dispurple, unchurch, discepter. 
AnUmyms: see advance, elevate, dig- 

abasement, n. Spec, degradation, debas- 
ing, humiliation, disgrace, etc. 

abash, v. t. disconcert, confound, confuse, 
discountenance, dash, embarrass, awe; 
9pec. shame, overawe; see intimidate. 
Antonyms: see cheer, encourage. 

abashed, a. disconcerted, confounded, 
confused, ashamed, etc. 

abate, v. t. & i. 1. destroy, abolish, reduce. 
Antonyms: see build, preserve. 

S. reduce, decrease, curtail, diminish, r&- 
mit, lower, depress, lessen, abridge, slack- 
en, mitigate, relax, slack; «pec. qualify, 
intermit, drop, fall {v. i.), sink, subside 
(v. i.), flatten, wane (t^. i.), allay. 
Antonyms: see increase, intensitt. 

abbreviate, v. t. 1. See shorten. 
S. Referring to words: shorten, clip, re- 
duce, contract, prune. 

abdicate, 9. t. abandon, relinquish, re- 
sign, demit; — aSl four contextual. 

abdomen, n. belly {now becoming tndgar, 
exc. cui referring to animals), paunch {dys^ 
logistic, exc. of an animal), pod {mdgar), 
corporation {chiefly spec.; coUoq. or vuU' 
gar), guts {pi.; cant or vulgar); spec. 

abdominal, a. ventral, visceral, hemal 
{tech.), alvine {rare); s^. cceliac, uterine, 
abdominous {rare), big-bellied. 

abduot, V. t. transport {contextual), kid- 
nap, rape {esj). in p. p. & p. a. "rapt": 
archaic), ravish (literary; often with 
"atiwy"), spirit {chiefly with "away*'); 
spec, crimp, shanghai. 

abhor, t;. t. dislike {contextual), detest, 
hate, contemn, despise, abominate, 
loathe, nauseate {rare). 
Antonyms: see uke, love, admire. 

abhorrence, n. dislike {contextual), de- 
testation, despisal, hate, abomination, 
hatred, antipathy, nausea, disgust, loath- 
ing, aversion, horror. 
Antonyms: see ueing, love, admira- 

ability, n. 1. Referring to the ability to 
do a particular thing: competency, capac- 
ity, power, efficiency, sumciency. 

Crou nftrtnctt: lee Note. 
•baft: haekward. 
atettofr: 9lauahUrhou$€, 
r: convent. 

abdnoe: xoiihdraw. 
aberrant: abnormal, wandtrinot 
•bet: aid, incUo. 

abide: atay, dxoM, tarry, 

<»ntx«, oiickt inhero. 
abide, V. tj mdurot await. 
abiding: Uulingt eonoiant, 

See Notet of Bsplaaatleii* 

Antonymt: see inabiutt. 
t. /n a general seme: capability (often 
in pi., twin "of great eapabiiilies"), power, 
caliber, strength, energy; spec. Biuge, 
parts (pi.; orcAatc or iil^ary) , maeteniness. 

AnUmj/ms: see inabujt*. 
•. Referring to a concrefe ^utdiiy: talent, 
facility, hang (eoUoq.), gift, art, trick, 
knack; spec, himd; see skill, endow- 

AntonjfTrut: see disabiut?. 
abfaot, a. servile, slavish, sneaking, grov- 
eling, wormy (A?), cringing, liangdog 
(eoSoq.), reptile (rare), underfoot (rare); 
gee OBBEQDioce. 

Antonffms: see AsamasG, asscbed, IU- 

•bjiue, V. I. 1. recall (amtextual), far- 
Bwear, unswear (rare). 

Antonyms: tee maintain, btatk. 
»ble, a. I. qualified, competent, capft- 
ble, effective (chiefly spec.), Hufficient. 

Antonyms: see incapable. 
S. clever, gifted, talented; spec, accom- 
plished, notable (archaic or rare). 
t. powerful, competent, strong, mighty 
(rA«fa>ricai), masterly; see skilful, 

Aiiionyms: see weak. 
abnormal, a. exceptional (amlextiuil), 
irregular, erratic, anomalous, anomalistic 
(rare or tech.), aberrant, eccentric, heter- 
oclite (rare or gram.), anormul (rare); 
apee. amorphous, bastard, unnatural; 

Antonyms: see normal, ordinaet. 
Kbodo, n. I. residence, habitation (for- 
mai or stilled), inhabitance (ojti.), hat>- 
itanoe (obs.), dwelling, house, quartets 
Ipl.; ehiffty spw.), seat (archaic or poetic), 
nome, domicile (chiefly legal), tenement 

fchiejlj/ spec.), place (contexttuU), rest 
rare), hole (in contempt), habitat (chiefly 
bot. and toSl.), fireside (fig.), neat (fig.), 
harbor (archdie or liierary), cunabula (lit' 
erary); spec, place, camp (temporary), 
!iomest«aa, headiguarters, residency, hos- 
tel, hospice, hoepitium. haU, court, palace, 
bibemaoulum or (rare) hibemacte, man- 
sion, college, curatage, vicarage, novitiate, 
Magdalen or Magdalene, legation, hos- 
telry, wigwam, hentage, hermitary (rore), 
ooUectorate, burrow, barracks (pI-L' see 


X. See STAT. 
•boUih, B. I. 1. annul, cancel, nullify, 
_...■'. T Scot.), quash, disannul (em- 
phaiiefoT "annul"), rescina, remove, abro- 
gate; spec, (chiefly in reference to laws) 
antiquate, overrule, overturn; see re- 
voke. INTALmATB. 

Antonyms: see establish, confirm, 

9. overthrow, overturn, subvert, eradi- 
cate, remove, extirpate, suppress, exter- 
minate, extinguish, destroy; apec. reform; 


Antonyms.- see establibh. concludk. 
abomltiAble, a, 1, odious, detestaUe, ex- 
ecrable, hateful, damnable, accursed, 
heathenish (eoUoq.), nefarious, impious, 
hideous, horrible, horrid (now rare or liter- 
ary), horrific (rare), nefandoua (rare), 
nefand (ois.), nameless, unutterable, un- 

Antonyint: see estimable, ATTHACXrvB. 
S. disgusting, foul, loathsome, loathful, 
loathly (fiffror^). loathy (arcAaic), beastly, 
vile, nefandous (archaic), revolting, shodk- 
ioB, putid (rare), nameless. 

Antonyms: see fleabant, attractive. 

abomlusto, v. L abhor, detest, dislike 
(contextual), execrate, hate. 
Antonyms: see love, like, admibb. 

•bort, V. I. bear (contextual), cast (referring 
to beasts only), slink (chiefly dial., referring 
to beasts only). 

ibortlon, n. 1. miscarriage, cast (refer- 
ring to beasts only), slink or slinking (refer- 
ring to beasts only). 

9. misconception, freak, monstrosity, 
come- to-naught (rare). 

•bound, f. i. t. exuberate (rare); spec, 

9. overflow, flow, swim, teem; spec, lux- 
uriate, revel; see swarm. 
iboundlni. a. replete, plenteous (arcAo- 
ic), flowing, full, fertile, fruitful, rife (rare), 
flush, teeming, swimming, fat, ridi; see 

Antonym*: see infrequent, deficient, 

about, ads. & prep. I. around, round, 

circa {Lolin). 

1. nearly, approximately, proidniately, 

almost, nigh, well-nigh, circa (Latin). 

1. round, circuitously; spec, alternately, 


t. helter-skelter, zigxag. 

t. concerning, anent (Scot.), touching. 

of, regarding, on, after, respecting, quoM 

(Loiin), re (Latin). 
about, a. As used predieaiivcly after "is," 

"iBos," etc.: 1. Aloot, etimng, going, 

moving, doing (coUog.). 

i. near, ready, nigh (orcAaic). 
abova. adti. & prep. i. over, upon, on. 

1. adv. See aloft. 

I. beyond, exceeding, surpassing, over; 

spec, super- (o prefix), hyper- (a prefix). 
Antonyms; see below. 


t^ Bee MatM ot Eiplaaatloa. 

aferftde, r>. t. rub (eontezttiol), wear; spec. 

fret, srind, grate; see bcbape. 
*br»*lon, n. rubbing or rub [amtexiual), 

nearing or wear; spec, fret, graze; see 

kbrulTg, a. abtadent, Bcrapy; apee. fret- 
ting, graty (,eoUoq.). 

»bMalT«, n. abradent, abrader (rare); 
«pee. carborundum, emery, sand, pumice, 
shagreen, putty, bort, rouge. 
AJiionyTru: see LUBaicUTT. 

■biBsat. a. beside, alilce (eontextuaJ), 
alongside; spec, aligned, parallel, even. 

Kbttdf*. V. t. 1. abbreviate, compress, 
brief, reduce, contract (daefiy apee.), con- 
dense, compact, epitomise, sum (chUfiy 
wUh up"); *pee. razee, abstract, dock; 

we BCIflIAiUZ£. 

AtUonj/ms: see enlarqe, extend. 

•bild(iiient,n. 1. Referring to the ad: ixm- 
deasation, epitomization, compression, 
reduction, abbreviation, contraction; 
«pec. elision; «ee stmuARizATioN. 

AtUonyms: see UNLABOBiiENT, EXTEN' 

S. Referring to Wie resriU: spec, condensa- 
tion, epitome, abstract, summary, sum, 
compendium, compend (rore), brief, brevi- 
ary or breviale {obs. or rare), digeat, precis 
(tecA.; French), comprisal (rare), synopsis, 
bulletin; see suhm&bt. 

abrupt, a. 1. steep, sudden, sharp, quick, 

Antonyms; see OBAnnAL. 
a. offhand, sudden, hasty, unpremedi- 
tated, precipitate, touWe-suite (.French), 
outK)f-hand, jerky. 
Ajilonyms: gee deuberate. 

■baaoos, n. t. awayness (rare); Spec, non- 
attendance, nonappearance, cut (eoUog.). 


1. deficiency, privation {logic; a loose 
uee), want; spec, destitution. 
absant, a. 1. away, abroad {chiefiy tpee.), 
elsewhere, otherwhere (rore); eoec. flown, 
distant, ROne, exiled, banished, oversea, 
Antonyms: see present. 
t. defident, missing, wanting, privative 
itefie: a loose use); apee. indigent (rare), 
withdrawn, gone. 

S. far-away, dreamy, abstracted, ab- 
sorbed, distant, inattentive, vacant, pre- 
occupied, distrait {literary; ckieiy as 
Frtneh tnasc.), lost, abaent-minded, rapt 
(rhetorical or literary); spec, musing, 

AnUmyms: see attentivb. 
absent- mind eduet*, n. abstraction, ab- 
sence, absorption, preoccupation, va- 
cancy, inattention. 

Antonyms: see attention. 
■biolnte, a. 1, pure, perfect, consum- 
mate, complete, total, entire, round, 
blank, unqualified, dead, dear, positive, 
utter, downright, sheer, thorough, thor- 
oughgoing, stark, essential, mere {rare), 
regular (cotto^.), teetotal (oMoq.), unal- 
loyed, flat (chtefly eolloq.); see THOKoroH. 

Antonyms: see PartiaI, Wpbsfect. 
a. unrestricted, unqualified, unbounded, 
independent, arbitrary, unreserved, un- 
controlled, full, plenary, plenipotentiary 
(chiefiy spec.), plenipotent, plenary; spee. 
calegorematic; see atttocratic. 

Ajitonyms: see restril-ted. 
•. unreserved, unequivocal, unqualified, 
positive, independent, unconditional, un- 
conditioned, peremptory. 

Antonyms: see conditjonal. 

t. See ACTCAL, BELK-EXI stent. 

right, plumb (chiefly U. S.; slang), plui 
{chiefiy U. S.; slang), roundly, teetotally 
{eotloq,), thoroughly, outright, altogether; 
spec. out. 

mbsolutlon, n. 1. forgiveness, freeing, 
juatifioation (chiefly ecd.), clearance, 
shrift (eccl.), assoilment (rare), discharge 
Antonyms: see bbtaijation, punish- 

«. See ACQinTPAL. 
abiolva, V. (. free, forgive, clear, asaoil 

ibaorb, v. t. I. drink (chiefly used with 
"in" or "up"), imbibe, sop, occlude 
(lecA,), soak, suck {chiefly vrith up"), re- 

S. Referring to ideas, etc.: incorporate, 
imbibe, drink (fig,), take (oontextual); 
spec, merge. 

1. occupy, engross, preoccupy, immerse, 
aink, merge, bury, enwrap Qtierary), de- 
vour, hold (eontextual), keep (coni^wil), 

absorbed, c 

imbromd : ieidf-sprtad, at 
abtotata: oMuA, r> 


ipongy, apongous (rare), Borbent (rar. 

ttirety (rare or Jig.), sorfaefocient (rare). 
abiotblnf, a. engroHBmg;. 
•taiorptlon, n. I. imbibilion, occlusion 

(iecA.); spec, resorption (rare), reabsorp- 

tion, Boatcing, tic. 
Aiilonyma: *ee beflbctiok, baoiation, 

S. incorporation, imbibition (rare); spec. 

S. engagement, engrossment, preoccupa- 
tion, prepoHBesdon. 
Kbatain. i>. t. forbear, refrain, withhold, 

stay, desist, patience (rare). 
Anlonyma: see inddloe. 
•batilner, n. teetotaler, hydropot (rare), 

rechabito (fig.); spec, teetotum (Aumor- 

k1»temlou«, a. ascetic, austere, sober, 

frugal, abstiaeut, temperate, abstaining; 

»pte. teetotal, temperance (eoUng.). 
Antonyms: see sEiir-GRATiFitNO, dbinx- 


ftbitloanoa, n. abstaining, abstention, 
withholdment (rare), nephelism (rare), 
t^nperance, refrainment (rare), forbear- 
ance (rare), 

■bitraot, a. 1. ideal, metaphysical, trans- 
cendental, imaginary (rare), visionary 
(rare); see academic. 

n. abridgment, conspectus, sy- 
'llabus {chiefly law and spec?); 
tet, brirf, note, headnote; see 

Antonyms: see enlabgehent, extgn- 


Mbitrkot, u. (. 1. withdraw, deduct, elimi- 
nate, remove, subtract, aeparale (coJi- 
texttiai); spec, embezzle, steal (figvTaiive 

I. See BBuovE, euuUARizE, AsamoB. 
AntonjfTns: see ma. 

■bitraotlon, n. withdrawal, deduction, etc. 

•bitruM, a. profound, recondite, abstract, 
deep, high, dark, acroamatic (rare), diffi- 
cult {contexluoi), esoteric (jig.), subtle; 
spec, far-fetched. 
ATdrmyms: see evident, cleab. 

kbinrd, a. irrational, prepoateroua, un- 
reasonable, false (contextual), fallacious, 
sophistic, illogical, incongruous, incoher- 
ent, incredible, nonsensical: spec, silly, 
ludicrous, ridiculous, paraaoxical, seu- 
Antonyms: see LOaiCAI., beasonablb, 

bband*ooe, 1 

I. plenty, plenitude (lit- 

tude, affluence, fuUnesa, repletion, free> 1 
nesB, luxuriance, opulence, wealth, ricb- 1 
ness, prodigality, generosity, foison | 
(archaic), cheap (arcAaic), routh (Scot,;) 1 
spec, flood, exuberance, euper-abundanoe, 1 
flow, heaviness, lavishness. 
Anionymg: see DEnaENCJ, jnvbb- 


abundant, a. abounding, copious, gener- 
ous, luxuriant, plentiful, plenteous (rare 
or liieraTu), opulent, ample, liberal, pro- 
fuse, rich, flush {chiefiy spec.), plenty 
(chiefly coUoq.), fat (rare), free, effuse 
(rare), bounteous, bountiful, affluent 1 
(rare or lUerarif). numerous (rare); spec ] 
generous, lavish, flowing, exuberant, 
prodigal, thick, superabundant, profli- 
gate, rife, teeming, heavy, unstinted, 
Antonyms: see deficient, iNFREgUENT, 


abundantlr. ada, abovmdinglv, copiously, 
generously, galore (chiefly coUoq.), etc. 

abui«, n. 1. misuse, misusage, ill-use, mi»- 
employment (rare or spec.), abusing, mis- 
haodhng, outrage, despite (archaic), per- 
version; see ILI^^TBEATUENT, 

I. reviling, revilement, vihfi cation, vitu- 
peration, malediction, insultatioa (rare), 
blasphemy (flg.), scurrihtv, libel, oppro- 
brium, obloquy, contumely, ratmg, rib- 
aldry, tongue-lashing; spec. Billingsgat«, j 
blackguardism; see detauation, dibpa»- | 

ArUanyras: see praise, euloot, fiat- 

abnie, v. I. 1. misuse, misemploy (rare or 
spec), mishandle, pervert, outrage; spec. 
haze; see ill-tbeat. 
Antonyms: see chebish. 
S. revile, berate (obs. or rare in Eng- 
land), vilify, vituperate, scuiriliEe, blas- 
pheme (/iff.), slang (coitog,), whip (fig.), 
nay, lash, conviciate (obs. or rare), mis- 
call (rare or dial.), bullyrag (eoUoq.), flyte 
(archaic or literary), tongue-lash; spec, 
blackguard, curse; see inbui/i, dispaa- 


Anlonyma: see pka 

abnatva, a. vilificatory, vituperative, in- 
solent, blasphemous (fig.), despiteful (IH- 
erary), insiilting, scurrilous, opprobrious, 
scandalous, scurrile (arehaie), outrageous, 
foul-mouthed (conteitual), dyslogistic (iit- 
eror^ or learned; used of names, sejises, 
etc.), contumelious, Thersitical C^.). rib- 
ald, ribaldroua (archaic); spec, disparag- 
ing, sarcastic, Fescennine (fig.); see db- J 

I Bbiulng^ n,.' abwi 

fS" Bee HDtM SI BipteoatloD. 


AnUmyms: see FBAismo, laudatory, 


abut, V. i, join, butt (of seams, etc.); see 


abyss* n. deep (poetic or rhetorical) ^ gulf, 
abysm, swallow (rare), profound, pro- 
fundity, chasm, pit, sink (chiefly spec.), 
Antonyms: see height. 

Miademio, a. 1. collegiate, scholarly, scho- 
lastic, derkly (archaic). 
S. conventional, formal, cut-and-dried 
(colloq.), budge (archaic). 
t. theoretical, speculative; see abstract. 

aooede» v. i. a^'ee. assent, consent, ac- 
quiesce (tffith **in**), concede, yield, sub- 
scribe, accord (tnth **tnth"). 
Antonyms: see disagree. 

Acoemt* t^. t. accentuate, stress, emphasize, 
ictus (tech.); spec, circumflect (rare). 
Antonyms: see slur. 

aceemt, n. 1. stress, emphasis, accentua- 
tion, ictus (tech.); spec, circumflex, prime, 
1. See emphasis, modulation, tone. 

aecept, v, t. 1. See receive, honor, be- 

1. recognize, embrace, adopt, take, re- 
ceive (referring to laws, etc.). 
Antonyms: see reject, decline. 

»coeptable» a. pleasant, welcome, allow- 
able, agreeable, gratifving, grateful, com- 
fortable, gracious (archaic) ^ canny (Scot.); 
spec, answerable, popular, liked, refresh- 

Antonyms: see unacceptable. 

»€>oeptaiioe» n. recognition, embracement, 
reception (referring to latos, etc.), etc.; tak- 
ing; spec, vogue. 
Antonyms: see declination, refusal, 

Mtoepted, a. approved; spec, popular, con- 
ventional, orthodox. 

•ocessible* a. approachable, come-at-able 
(colloq.), get-at-able (colloq.); spec, open, 
patent (rare), ready, compassable, con- 
venient, available. 
Antonyms: see inaccessible. 

aooession, n. 1. See coming, addition. 
1. agreement, accordance, assent, assen- 
tation (literary), consent, acquiescence, 
concession, subscription, acceptance (vrith 
"of"), sufifrage (chiefly spec). 
Antonyms: see disagreement. 

aooessory* a. 1. contributing, contribu- 
tory, auxiliary^ supplementary! supple- 
mental, adjective, extra, additional, ad- 
junct, suppletory (learned), suppletive 

(rare)^ accessary (the less usual form); 
spec, incident (law), appurtenant. 
S. adventitious, adscititious (rare), ap- 
pendant, dependent, supervenient, ac- 
companying, bye (rare or spec), collat- 
eral, accessary (the less usual form). 

Antonyms: see necessary. 
S. abetting, privy, conniving, connivent, 
confederate, participant, assistant, acces- 
sary (the less visual form). 
accessory, n. 1. adjunct, dependant, ad- 
jective, belonging, accompaniment^ ap- 
purtenance, appurtenant, concomitant, 
mcident (law), accessary (the less usuoX 
form); spec, property; «ee accident. 
S. privy; spec, assistant, participant, 
conniver; see accomplice. 
seeident, n. 1. See chance, misfor- 
tune, quality, accessory. 
S. accessory, nonessential, external, in- 
cident, collateral, unessential. 

Antonyms: see essential. 
accidental, a. 1. fortuitous, accessory, 
nonessential, contingent, casual, subsidi- 
ary, external, incident, collateral; spec, 

Antonyms: see consequential, inten- 

S. accessory, incidental, external, adven- 
titious, nonessential, unessential, collat- 
eral, subsidiary. 

Antonyms: see necessary, fundamen- 
tal, inherent. 


acclimatise, t;. t, acclimate, season, nat- 

accompanimeiit, n. attendance, escort, 
convoy (chiefly spec), etc. 

accompany, v. t. attend, escort, company 
(archaic), convoy (chiefly spec), follow; 
svec. cavalier, esquire (rare), companion, 
Antonyms: see abandon. 

accompansrims, a. attendant, accessory, 
concomitant, comitant (rare). 

accomplice, n. Spec, abettor, acces- 
sory; «ee ASSOCIATE. 

accomplish, v. t. complete, fulfill, per- 
form, effect, achieve, do, attain, execute, 
compass, effectuate, work, manage, con- 
trive, dispateh, consummate, negotiate 
(spec or colloq.), win, expedite (literary); 
see FINISH. 

accomplished, a. 1. completed, com- 
plete, fulfilled, performed, done, con- 
summate, etc. 
Antonyms: see crude. 
S. Referring to a person, his learning, etc,: 

Cross references: see Note. 

kte: quicken f fuuten. 
tuate: aecerUt emphante. 


eoolAlm: praiatt ahouL 
aoollTlty: dope. 

aooommodate: adapts con' 
form, arranoe, furnish^ obliget 

eocommodatliif; oblioino. 

tS' See Notes of Ezplsnation. 


finuhed, proficient, cultivated, polished 
(ckujly spec.), beseen (archaic, as in "mdl 
beseen ); spec, leai-ned, vereed, read, ex- 
ATUonyma: see boorish, ansTic. 

KooompIlBlmieiit, n. 1. fulfillment, doiog, 
completion, execution, conaummution, 
perf oiTuance, work, achievement, manage- 
ment, deed, feat (rejerriiw to an act), 
negotiation {spec, or coUoq.); spec., dis- 
patch, triumph. 

1. (uauiMy in pi.) refiaement, embellish- 
ment, acquirement, attainment, acquisi- 
tion; spec, graces (pf.), proSciency, polish 
[used in a generic sense; aa, "a man tvilh' 
oui polish"). 

aocordlnBlyi adv. agreeably, oorrespond- 
ingly, conformably, consiBtently, so, there- 

a«conohear, n. obstetrician [chiefly spec), 
man-midwife. "Accouckmir" is French, 

aooonotaense, n. midwife, obstetrician 
(chiefly spec,), howdie (Scot,). "Accou- 
cheuse is French. 

kooonnt, n. 1. See coupdtation, con- 


1^ reckoning, tally, score (eliiefiy spec.). 
S. statement, report, description, narra- 
tion, Dairative, relation, recounting, re- 
countal (rare), rehearsal, recital, recita- 
tion, detailment, record, history (chiefly 
Spec.), Btory, tale, rede (ardiaic or poelic); 
»pte. chronicle, travels (p2.), Bununary, 
detail; «ce anecdote, narrative. 
4. score, tick (coUoq.), battels (pi.; Unio. 
of Oxford), shot (archaic), reckoning. 
account, v. i. Spec, report, return; see 


kcoountaUe, a. responsible, answerable, 
liable, amenable; spec, good, solid. 
Atdtmyms: see UN account ASLE. 

aooountant, n. clerk (conteiiual), book- 
keeper; spec, actuary (life ineiirance)^ au- 
ditor, cashier, teller, controller, sirkar 

■oooateimQiita, n. pi. equipment, gear 
(ardtaic); spec, harness, clothing, dress, 
trappings (pJ.). 

ftoeredlted, a. credentialed, authorized, 
sanctioned, acknowledged. 

aooretloo, n. 1. See growth, AoniTiON, 

t. concretion, adhesion. 

enure, redound (said of oe?iefit«, advan- 
tages, etc.); spec, veat, mature, attach, fall 
jadefiy with "due"). 

aoomed, a. due, owing; spec, overdue, 
matured, vested. 

kocnimulata, v. t. A i. cumulate, mass, 
amass, gather {asp. with "together"), pita J 
(chiefly wUh "up"), heap (chiefly vnth 
"up' ), agglomerate, aggregate, collect, ' 
congest, roll (chiefly wU/i"up"), acervato 
(rare), coacervate (rare); spec, scrape 
(wik "up"), gamer, store, 
^nionj/ms.' see acATTER. 

aoDomalatlan, n. amassment, cumula- 
tion, agglomeration, conglomeration, con- 
glomerate, aggregation, neap, ^gregate, 
coUectioUj gathering, acervation (rare), 
coacervatjon (rare); spec, congeries, hud- 
dle, drift, litter; see store, stock. 

oooniaoy, n. exactness, precision, pro- 
priety, fidelity, justness, truth, etc. \ 

aoouxate, a. e.\act, precise, correct, just, | 
faithful, true, close, critical, strict, nice, 
proper, exquisite; see true. 
Antonyms: see inaccithatb. inkkact. 

Kccuried, a. anathematized, cursed (often 
a vulgar oath), execrated, devoted, 
damned (chiefly a indgar oath), doomed 
(archaic), blasted (chiefly a vuigar oaih). 
Antonyms: see blessed. 

accusation, n. indictment, charge, inw 
peachment, arraignment, denunciation, 
taxing, delation (chiefly by an informer), 
imp^h (rare); spec, complaint, attack, 
crimination, recrimination. 
Antonyms: see acquittal, 

accuse, v. t. charge, indict, impeach, ar- i 
raign, denounce, task, tax, attaint (or- I 
chaie), delate (now bookish or tech.); spec. [ 
article, recriminate, criminate, incrimi- 
nate, countercharge, report, attack. 
Antonyms: see AcqniT. 

aocuscr, n. Spec, plaintiff, prosecutor, 
complainant, libellant, informer, inform- ' 
ant, delator. 

acoustom, v. I. habituate, use, familiarise ! 
(rare), addict, wont, inure, hackney (used 
Tirith "in"; chiefly in a bad sense); spec 
train, naturaliEe; 
ATilonyms: see d 

Bcouitomed, a. 1. wont, wonted; spec . 
natural; see addicted, 


aoknowledEe, v. t. 1. allow, grant, admit, 
agnize (archaic), avouch (rare), avoWi i 
confess, recognize, yield, concede, testify I 
(chiefly Bibliad); see answer. 
Antfmyms: see contradict, deny. 
J^ own, confess, recognize, admit, avow 
(obs. or rare); spec, father, mother. 


t. profess, declare^ avow. 

4. Meaning "to receipt for^\' receipt, 
i. See NOTICE. 

aoknowledcment, n. 1. confession, rec- 
ognition, admission, allowance, grant, con- 
cession, etc. 
Antonyms: see denial. 

5. profession, declaration, avowal. 
aoqnalntaiice* n. Spec, friend, intimate, 

associate, fanuliar. 
Antonyms: see stbangeb. 
aoqnalntedy a. 1. Referring to things: see 


S. Referring to persons: spec, familiar 
{which see). "Acquainted" implies no 
more than mere personal intercourse and 
has no general synonym. Cf. know, v. t. 

aoqnired, a. Svec, learned, adopted, cul- 
tivated, affected. 
Antonyms: see innate. 

acquisition* n. 1. Referring to the act or 
action: gain, acquirement, acquist (lit- 
erary); spec, purchase, usucaption, con- 
quest; «ee getting. 
Antonyms: see loss. 

S. Referring to the thing: acquirement 
{chiefly spec.), acquest (literary); svec. 
spoils (p2.), purchase, trade, bargain, buy 
{coUoq.); see gain, accomplishment. 

acquisitive, a. qusestuary (rare); spec. 

acquit, V. 1. 1. See discharge, pat. behave. 

t. exculpate, exonerate, clear, discharge, 

absolve, purge, assoil (obs.), quit (obs. or 


Antonyms: see convict, accuse, blame. 

acquittal, n. 1. See acqufttance. 
t. exculpation, acquittance (rare), clear- 
ance, clearing, discharge, purgation (rare), 
absolution (now rare or literary); spec. 
compurgation, acquitment (rare). 
Antonyms: see accusation, conviction. 

acquittance, n. 1. See discharge, pay- 
ment, acquittal. 

S. Referring to the docum,ent: release, ac- 
quittal (rare, exc. legal); spec, discharge. 

acrid, a. 1. pungent, biting, acid, corrosive, 
virulent, snarp, caustic, rou^h (contextual), 
mordicant (rare), acrimonious (archaic), 
vitriolic (spec, or fig.), hot (coUoq.). 
Antonyms: see bland. 
S. See acrimonious. 

acridity, n. 1. pungency, roughness (corir 
textual), bitingness, acidity, corrosiveness, 
virulence, causticity. 
S. See acrimont. 

acrimonious, a. 1. See acrid. 
a. tart, corrosive, acid, bitter, acrid, 
sharp, cutting, caustic, pungent, virulent. 

rancorous, atrabilious (rare), vitriolic, 
sour, biting; see sarcastic. 
Antonyms: see smooth, agreeable, 


acrimony, n. acidity, heat, acridity, viru- 
lence, pungency, rancor, etc.; spec, sar- 
casm, asperity. 

acrobat, n. Spec, tumbler, vaulter, equil- 
ibrist, rope-walker, contortionist, funam- 

across, vrep. on, over, athwart, over- 
thwart (rare), thwart (archaic or poetic), 
cross (now chiefly dial, or poetic). 

act, n. 1. Referring to an act considered 
as a whole without involving the idea of the 
time occupied or of its going on: deed, per- 
formance, action; see action, 1, deed. 
Antonyms: see negligence. 
S. Referring to the proceeding or course of 
acting: see action. 

S. action, move, step, turn, deal, move- 
ment (rare), play, proceeding. 

act, V. i. 1. perform, work, operate, func- 
tion, functionate, go, serve, make ; spec, do, 
energize, preside, officiate ; see work, tell. 
a. &f erring to the theater, shows, etc.: per- 
form, play; spec, theatrize (rare), theatri- 
calize (rare), mum, mime, mince, gafif 
(slang, Eng.). 
S. move, proceed, deal, stir. 

4. See behave, dissemble. 

act, V. 1. 1. perform, take (a part), represent, 
impersonate, enact (rare or rhetorical), play, 
assume, support, sustain, render, do (as 
a part, an a^, etc.); spec, counterfeit, 
theatricalize (rare); see personate. 
a. /See pretend. 

actinjs, n. performance, representation, 
rendition (l^. S.), enaction (rare); spec. 
histrionism, dramaturgy, mummery, per- 
sonation, etc. 

action, n. 1. act (rare), doing (chiefly in 
pi.), acting, performance, movement, 
working, operation; spec, effect, motion, 
play ((^ the feelings, passions, etc.), opcr- 
ance (rare), touch, process, procedure, 
business (theatrical), function, reaction, 
response, conation. // considered as a 
whole without reference to the element of 
time these terms are sometime used as 
synonyms of "act." See act, 1. 
Antonyms: see inactivity, rest. 
a. measure, step, course, procedure, pro- 
vision, proceedmg, d-marche (French); 
spec, counterstep, precaution; see stroke. 

5. See behavior, transaction, activ- 
ity, BUSTLE. 

4. influence, operation, working, touch; 
see agency. 

Cross rrferences: 
hetght, top. 
•oqvAlnt: inform. 


aoqulMoe: accede. 

aoqulre: get, gain, receive, learn. 

aoqulrement: acquisition, ao- 

eompHehment, getting, 
across: croaswiee. 
aot: iDork, teU. 

}^ See Notes of E^l«i»ftttQii« 


S. proceeding (legal), suit, cose, cause, 
procusa; sj)ec.pliia(/iij(!.(»riScoi.),remanel, 
mterpleaaer, replevin, assumpait, treapass, 
libel, counterclaim, prosecution, efc. 
aotlTe. a. t. acting, operative, operant 
(.rare); spec, exertive, conative. 
Antonj/Tns: see inactivb. 
9. energetic, vigoroua, assiduoua, busy, 
induatnous, huHtling (afUoq., U. S.), vi- 
vacious (dtiefiy spee.), animated, bustling 
(eMoq., U. 5.), rustling {coUoq., U. S.), 
brisk, humming (dang), deedfut (rare), 
pragmatic (rare), deedy (ditd.), deliver 
(orcAotc); s-pec. strong, sedulous, light, 
rapid; see nimble, livbi^t, EBsTUias. 
ArUanym^: nee BLnaoisH, idle, indo- 


mctlvltr, n. >. energy (ckiefiy tech.), vigor, 
vivacity (chiejly spec.), briakness, actual- 
ity (ofts., arc, metaphyaiea), hustle ((/, S.; 
dimg or coUoq.), rustle (U. S.; slan^ or 
eolloq.)i operation (rare), operancy (rare); 
gpec. mmbleness. 
AtUonj/ms: gee indolencb. 


I. coil (literary), bustle, hustle (U. S.; 
slanj or aJioq.), rustle (U. S.; dang or 
eoUoq.), stir, action, turmoil, movement; 


Antonyms: see calm, peace. 
KotoTi n. 1. Spec, agent, doer, performer. 

Antonyms: see subject. 
%. player, performer, peraoaator, Thes- 
pian (liierary), actress (Jem.), histrion 
(rare), impersonator (chiefly spec.), dram- 
atis personte (Latin; pi.); spec, tragedian, 
tragedienne (fern.; FrewA), comedian, 
comedienne (Jem.; cant), panlomimist, 
farceur (FrencA), caricaturist, burlesquer, 
star, diva (fem.), ingtnue ((em.; French), 
Pierrot (masc; French), Pierrette (fern.; 
French), punchinello (Italian), buffo 
(Italian), comique (Frertck), pantomime 
(kisl.), mummer, mime, protagonist, tri- 
tagoniat. Cf. puppet. 
kotuki, a. real, true, very, factual, posi- 
tive, concrete, veritable, absolute, indeed 
(pottpositive), tangible, practical, sub- 
stantial, Buhatantive, effective (ag opposed 
to "potential"); spec, sober, right, hypo- 
static, hypoatatical. 

AJtlonyms: see tikreai.. visroNABT, 

kotiuaity, n. 1. reality, realism, roalnesa, 
verity, truth, trueness, substantiality, 
flooth (archaic), substano*, tangibility, ef- 
fect (chiefly in "in effect"), fact. 

i. Ina amerete sente: positive, eternities 
(pi.), reality, truth, venty, etc. 
Antonyms: see illusion, 

totualla*, 0. i. realize, substantialize, v^ 
ify (rare), Bubstantiale, reify (rar 
hypostatiie (tech.), eventuate (rare); , 

sotnatlri adv. really, truly, veritably, ver- 
ily, indeed. 
aatuate, u. t. excite, impel, move, activate 

•dapl, V. (. prepare (coTiiexlual), accom- 
modate, fit, conform, suit; spec, coordi- 
nate, match, square, arrange, adjust, 
shape, frame, turn, contemper (archaic), 
attemiier, harmonize, naturalize, prepare, 
assimilate; seeQvmnrv. 

adaptable, a. pliable, pliant, tractable, 
accommodative, conformable, applicable, 
adaptive, flexible; spec, convement, ver- 
satile, facultative (biol.). 
Antonyms: see intractable, obstinate. 

adaptation, n. preparation (conlextual), 
arrangement, accommodation, qualifica- 
tion, design, etc. 

add, V. I. I. join, unite, put (vrith "vrith," 
"on," "to"), adjoin (rare), superadd; smc 
tack, tag (unth "on"), adject (rare), affix, 
attacli, postfix, interline, interpolate, eit- 
graft (with "on ), annex, append, subjoin; 

see ATTACH. 

Antonyms: see abstract, DEnuCT. 
a. compute (amlexlual), sum (chiefly 
spec.), total, foot (with "up"), cast (tech.); 
spec, superadd. 

addict, V. t. apply, devote, dve: see applt. 

addicted, a. accustomed (contextual), 
given, devoted. 

addiction, n. application, devotion. 

addition, n. I. adjection (rare), joining, 
uniting; spec, attachment, annexation, 
sub junction, interlineation, superaddi- 
tion, etc. 

>. computation (eonlexlual) , summation 
(chiefly spec.), totaling, footing (with 
Antonyms: see deddctiok. 
S. increase; spec, raise, enlaivonent, 
adjunct, accretion, accession, afiix, ao- 
cesa, increment, appendage, appendix, 
annex, annexation, attachinent, sub- 
script, codicil, interlineation, interpola- 
Ijon, contribution, supplement, equation, 
rider, tag, imitation, extension, prolonga- 
tion, continuation; 




additional, a. extra, further, 



more, else (postpositive), remanent (rare), 
8upervenient(rare); spec, other, ulterior, 
supplementary; see accessory, spare. 

mddress, v, t, 1. See direct, applt. 
S. accost (in speech; archaic), speak, 
bespeak (archaic); spec, apostrophize, pe- 
tition, salute, memorialize, whisper (ar- 
chaic), pray, stump (coUoq.); see greet. 

mddress, n. 1. speech, talk (a word sugges- 
twe of informality or brevity), parley (rare), 
compellation (archaic); spec, invocation, 
valedictory, salutatory, appeal, petition, 
memorial, prayer, lecture, lecturette, 
(rare), harangue, eulogy, oration, argu- 
ment, sermon, salutation, apostrophe; 
see greeting, sermon. 


mdduce* v, t. instance, cite, bring (a charge, 
argument, etc,); see present. 

mdeinacy, n. sufficiency. 

adequate, a. equal (toith *W*), commen- 
surate (with "to*' or "wUK*), commensur- 
able (wUh "wUh''), sufficient (wUh "to'' or 
"for"), satisfactory (chiefly spec.), enough, 
enow (archaic), ample, competent, due, 
good, copious; spec, proportionate. 
Antonyms: see inadequate, deficient. 

adherent, n, follower, satellite (literary), 
dangler; spec, hobbler (ohs, or hist.), re- 
tainer, sectary, supporter; see disciple, 


adjaoency, n. 1. adjoining, contiguity, 
contiguousness, juxtaposition; spec, abut- 


adjacent, a. contiguous, conterminous, 
bordering, adjoining, touching; spec, 
abutting; see near. 

Antonyms: see apart, distant, sepa- 

adjoin* V, t, 1. touch, abut (chiefly spec.); 
spec, border, neighbor, side (rare). 
S. See ADD. 

adjourn, v. i. rise. 

adjourn, v. t, 1. suspend, continue (chiefly 
Scot.); spec, prorogue. Cf, dissolve. 

S. See DEFER. 

adjudge* v, t, judge (rare), award, as- 
sign, give. 

adjunct, a, added, annexed, connected, 
auxiliary; see accessory. 

adjuration, n. conjuration, obtestation, 
appeal (contexttud) . 

adjust, V, t, 1. See arrange, adapt, 


S. arrange, dispose, regulate, fix, trim, 

set, coapt (rare)^ rig (chiefly spec.); spec. 
register, orient, orientate, size, shape, 
level, collimate, square, justify, true, 
modulate (the voice, tones, light, etc.), comb, 
couch (a lance, etc.), tune, readjust, har« 
monize, rectify, systematize, gait, coordi- 

Antonyms: see disarrange. 
adjustment, n, arrangement, disposition, 

trim, etc.; spec, compromise. Cf, adjust. 
administer, v. t. 1. Qve^ dispense, dispen- 

sate (rare); spec, exhibit, distribute. 

a. In law: settle, dispose (rare); spec. 



admirable, a. good, estimable; spec, ador- 

Antonyms: see contemptible. 
admiration, n. 1. wonder (archaic or liter- 

a. approval, approbation (with "o/"), es- 
teem (with "for"), pleasure (vrith "in"). 
reverence (loith "for"), adoration (wUn 


Antonyms: see abhorrence, condem- 

admire, v, t, 1. wonder (archaic or literary). 
a. approve, approbate, esteem, love (col- 
loo.); spec, idolize, latrize (rare), revere, 
adore, idolatrize. 

Antonyms: see condemn, abhor, abom- 

admission, n. 1. admittance, reception, 
receipt (rare), adhibition (rare). 
Antonyms: see expulsion. 
a. institution, investiture (tech.), initia- 
tion, inauguration, in vesture (rare), ves- 
ture (rare); spec, collation, incardination. 
S. See entrance, acknowledgment. 

admit, v, t. 1. receive, adhibit (rare), in- 
tromit (rare), 

a. install, induct, invest, vest, institute, 
inaugurate, initiate, enter; spec, matricu- 
late, incardinate. 
Antonyms: see expel. 
S. See acknowledge. 

admixture, n, 1. See mixture. 
a. mixture, infusion, leaven, tincture, 
tinge, cast, alloy, spice, sprinkling, season- 
ing, soupgon (French), flavor; see dash. 

admonitory, a. monitery, commonitory 
(rare); see warning, reproving. 

adopt, V. t. 1. arrogate (Roman law), affili- 
ate (rare or fig.); spec, father, mother, 

Cross rtfertnces: see Note. 
adept, a.: skUftd, tactfuL 
adept, n.: nuuter. 
adhere: - atiek. 
adliasiTe: sticky. 
adieu: good-by. 

adjoin: touch, border. 
adJotninK: adjacent. 
adjadloate, v. t.: decree. 
adjadloata, v. i.: judge. 
adjudication: awards decree, 

adjunct: addition, accessory. 
adjure: bid, ask. 
admeasure: apportion. 
admonish : team, advise, reprove. 
ado: trouble. 
adolescence: youth. 

%Sr See Notes of Explanation. 

S. embrace, espouse, father (fig-), take 
(o pemon'ir kijU or part); tpee. borrow, 
follow; nee choose, copy. 
Antonyms; aee reject. 

KdopUoD, n. 1. arrogatlon {Roman law), 
affiliation (rare or fig.), tic. 
t. embrace (rare), embracement,eapo< 

kdult, n. Spec, major, Neator [^.). 
AtUonyma: nee inpant. 

ftdultarkte, v. I. falsify {amtejijuil), aophis- 
ticate, blend, dose {rare or tech.), debase, 
doctor (roUoq.), cook (coUo^,); spec, vitiate 
(with "toilk ), weaken, Simpson (ulang), 
dash, interpolate, sand, load, fill, dilate, 
thin, drug, lace. 
AnlonffJits; eee pnRiFT. 

kdnlteratsd, a. imjiure, sophisticated, etc. 

ftdnlterer, n. fornicator (fee/i.). 

adultarr> n. fornication (.tech.), infidelity 
(o euphemism). 

adTADoe, V. i. I. progress, proceed, make, 
press, push, march, head (against force), 
mcede {rare); spec, inch, creep, drive, 

S. rise, appreciate ((/. S.; not in good 
uso^e), enhance; spec. boom. 

AtUonyma: see fall, dbpheciatb. 
 See pBoattEBB. 
advanoe, i>. i. 1. forward, fitrtbcr, promote, 
push, shove (coUoq. or slang), speed. 

Antonyms: «ee ab abb, retire. 
I. raise, prefer, adduce, suggest, present, 
venture, propound; see propose, ofiteii. 

Anlonjpns: see sttpprebb, rbphrss. 
S. raise, appreciate ({/. S.; not in good 
vaage), enhance, boost (sZan?); spec. 
boom, bull. 

Anionyms: see defheclate. 
4t. furnish {beforehand); spec, imprest. 
' ~''i, elevate, exalt, promote, aggran- 
_ ... . jre), prefer (rnr ' ' ' 

make, digiufy, ennoble. 

Antonyms: see abase. 
advanoa, n. 1. forwarding, furtherance, 
promotion, preference: see aid. 
I. progression, advancement (rare), 
march, procession (rare), progress, ac- 
cess (rore), push, headway, profeotion 
(o6a. or osiroi.). 

Antonyms: see REncssioN, retreat. 
S. Spec, imprest. 

4. Hug^tion, preferment, preference, 
ventunng; see " - - 

B. rise, appreciation (V. S.; nM . . 
usage), raise, boost (collog. or slang), i 
lianccmeut; spec, boom, spurt. 

AnUmyma: xee pall, depreciation. 
adTanoed, a. 1. ripe (as "a ripe age"). 

adTBDctnci a. rising; spec, booming. 

advantagA, n. 1. superiority, prcoedence, 
better {used idiomtUicaUy), odds {pi. and 
sing,), forehand, prize (rora), leverage 
{rare), purchase {mech. or fig.); spec 

Antonyms: see DtsADVAKTAaB. 
t. See aooD, benefit. 
advantageoua, a. superior, favorable, 
profitable, gainful, good, clever {cjiUoq.), 
e.<pedient, exiiediential (rare), behovaul 
(archaic), right {corUextual), wise {am- 
texlual), advisable; see beneficial. 

Anlon}/ins: see DiaADVAXTAOBODS, ITN' 

adveotucei, n. Spec, free lance, condot- 
tiere {Italian), landloper or landlouper 

advertisB, V. I. 1. notify, notice, amiounce, 

Erociaim, publish; spec, avow, blaze, 
lazon, noise, trumpet; see proclaim. 
Atdonyms: see HmE. 
t. Spec, circularize, bill, placard, post, 
poster, cry, quack, push. 
advertize ment, n. S-pee, notice, bill, 
placard, iioster. 
advloe, n. 1. counsel, rede (arcAaic), opin- 
ion, recommendation, advisement {ar- 
chaic), admonition; spec, misadvice, mia- 
counsel, dehortation; see exhortation. 

advise, v. t. I. counsel, rede (archaic or 
poetic), recommend, monish (rare), ad- 
monish (literary), ^ide {amlcxtual); spec. 
disadvise, misadvise, miscounset, d^ort 
(rare), exhort. 
3. See INFORM. 

adTlser, n. t. counselor, guide (contextual), 
admoniaher; tpee. referendary, compra- 
dor (OrietUaD, assessor. 


advocacy, n. support; seenEPEKSS. 
advooate, v, t. support, favor, plead; see 

advocate, n. 1. supporter, favorer, plead- 
er; spec, intercessor, interpleader, patron 
(flomon anliq.). 
Antonyms: see opponent. 
I. See LAWTER, Cheist. 

nailc, fine 


admit: •kill/ul. readu. 
adaUta: /lailtr. 

adnne; fffipottd, oppa^mo, 

md>«t: lurn (menially), nflr. 
■4<r*rtcil«: r^mnct. 

isr Bee NoUi of EipUnmllao. 


aSrate, v, t afiiify; spec ventilate, inflate. 
ftSronaut, n. a&roetat^ navigator (context- 

aSronautiosy n. aSrostatics, aSrostation, 

navigation (contextual); spec, ia&xxlonet- 

SBstl&etio, a. tasteful, tasty (coUoq, and inr 

degant); «ee elegant. 
affable, a. sociable, conversable, debonair 

(Uierary), talkable (rare): spec, accost- 

f^le (rare), approachable, 8oftH^)oken, 

communicative, free, imreserved. 
Antonyms: see arbogant, ill-tem- 


affair, n. business (chiefly contemptuous), 
proceeding, go (coUoq, or vulgar), circum- 
stance, matter (often in pi.), thing (often 
in pi.), concern; spec, finances (pi.), 
fight, battle, duel; see transactign, con- 
cern, THING. 

affect, V. t. touch, reach, take (with 
"disease," "blow," "fancy," etc., as the sub- 
ject), seize (urt^ "idea" or the like as the 
seMect), hit (coUoq.); spec, possess, at- 
tadk, infect, sinite, hurt, trouble, move, 
^p, concern, int^'est, pierce, perturb, 
impress, penetrate, strike, nip (rare); see 


afleotation, n. artificiality, frill (slang), 
mannerism; spec, modishness, profes- 
sion, conventionality, mincingness, etc. 


affected, a. 1. touched, reached, etc.; spec. 
infected, tainted, attacked, seized, dis- 
temper^, concerned, diseased, etc. 

Antonyms: see unaffected, intact. 
S. See pretended. 

S. artificial, nonnatural, unnatural (rare), 
mannered (rare); svec. modish, sta^ 
(coUoq ), conventional, missish, namby- 
pamby, Eot-up (coHog.)^ smirking, minc- 
mg, minikin (rare), mmmg-piming (rare), 
mealy; see pretentious. 

Antonyms: see artless, sincere, nat- 

affecting, a. moving, touching, impres- 
sive; spec, piercing, pathetic, pathetical 
(rare), heart-rending, nerve-racking, piti- 
able, tender, feeling, pungent. 

affection, n. 1. See feeling, AiLBfENT, 


S. resard, fondness, liking, bosom (fig')f 
attadament (contextual), charity (Chris- 
Han religion; archaic), storge (tech.; rare); 

spec, dotage, idolization, latrization (rare), 
familism; see love. 
Antonyms: see dislike, hatred, ab- 

S. In a medical sense: spec, infection, con- 

affectionate, a. fond (often spec.), loving, 
warm, tender, soft (often spec., and then 
coUoq. or contemptumis); spec, doting, 
spoony (coUoq. or slang), fatherly, moth- 
erly, sisterly, orotherly. 
Antonyms: see indifferent, apa- 
thetic, COLD, disagreeable, hatefxtl, 


affiliate, v. 1. 1. See join. 
a. filiate: spec, father, mother (vnth "on" 
or "upon"), 

afiLrmatiTe, a. predicative, declarative, 
declaratery; spec, insistent, insistive 

afflict, V. t. Spec, strike, beset, smite, 
ply; spec, persecute; see trouble, op- 

affliction, n. Spec, trial, disability, dis- 
ease, misfortune, visitation. 

afford, V. t. 1. In the sense of "to have re- 
sources or means that are adequate": carry, 
manage, bear, go (coUoq.), rive; — not good 
synonyms, but the nearest there are. 
a. See FURNISH, yield. 

afloat, a. 1. floating. 
Antonyms: see aground. 
a. overflowed, submerged, flooded, 
swamped, swimming; spec, anchorless, 
S. launched, started, afoot, astir, going.. 

4. adrift. 

aforesaid, a. forenamed, forementioned, 
said, mentioned, beforesaid, named, 
abovesaid, above-mentioned, afore-men- 
tioned (rare or archaic). "Aforesaid" is 
now chiefly formal or legal. 

afraid, a. 1. apprehensive (rare), afeard 
(archaic)^ fearful (obsolete), alarm^, af- 
frighted, terrified, frightsome (rare), tim- 
orous (rare), funky (slang); spec, panic, 
aghast, scary (coUoq.). 
Antonyms: see bold, reckless. 


after, prep. 1. past, beyond, by. 
Antonyms: see before. 
a. following. 

5. In the sense of "according to": to, by. 

4. ^ee ABOUT, FOR. 

aftermath, n. aftergrowth, rowen (chiefly 

Cross references: see Note. 
atmotpherict airy, lofty, 
airlfonn: gaaeotu. 

V. t.: betroth, 
n.: betrothoL 
afflne: r dative. 

aflSnlty; rekUiorit liking, at- 

affirm: ewear, state. 
affirmable: predicable. 
afflrmanoe: statement. 
affix, V. *,.: add, attach. 
affix, n.: addition, prefix, suffix. 
affllotlTe: troublesome. 

affiaenoe: abundance, toealth, 
affiuent, a.: abundant, rich. 
affiaent, n..* tributary. 
affront: insult, offend. 
afoot: preparing, aftoaL 
afresh: again. 
aft: astern. 
aftOT, a.: hind, aubaequerU, 

K^* See Notas of Explanation, 


dial. & U. S.), eddish, rowet {dial.); tyte. 

tog, aftercrop, 

Kltetplece, n. postlude {rnuHc). 
aftertBBte, n. tang. 
alterir>rda, adv. subsequently, thereupon 

(Jormal), thereon (formal), thereafter 

(formal), so, eft (o6s. m- archaic), eftaoon 

oreftBoona (archaic), later, then, 
ArUonyms: see befobe, now, 
•gala, adu. afresh, anew, anon {ehiefiy liir 

erary), freshly, newly; ipec. encore. 
kK*i n. 1. ol<niesB, sncientness, ancientry 

(lilerary), anility {hoakiek), eaducity 


te) ; spec, date, 


alneas (rare] 

a. period, leon (often lech.), oon, lifetime 
{jjfl.), years (pi); spec. Olam (Hebrew 
chronology), kalpa (Hindu coamoUigy). 
AnUmymi: see moment. 
•K'ncy, n. 1. action (contexlual), operation 
(amiext-ual), mediation, intermediation, 
ministry (rare or spec), instrumentality; 
spec, hand, working, procurement, pro- 
S. Spec, medium, vehicle, contagion; see 

t. Spec, factorship, commission, proxy, 
mediumahip, factorage, delegacy. 
Bgent, n. I. actor (rare), doer, operator 
(contextual), worker (contextual); spec. 
reagent, medium, mediary. 
Antonyms: see subieut. 
S. attorney (chiefly lech, or spec.), servant 
(law), representative, hand (fig.); spec. 
factor, agency, steward, instriunent, in- 
strumentality, broker, emissary, almoner, 
dummy, intermediary, go-between, en- 
voy, lobbyist, minister, prosy, commis- 
sary, procurator, consignee, syndic, ne- 
gotiant, coagent, comprador {Oriental); 


Antonyms: see principal. 
S. See uEiiNs. 
accrmvate, v. I. I. intensify, heighten, 
worsen, exacerbate. 


>IKi«C*tB, n. amount, total, footing, foot, 
sum; spec, summation. 

atKieiatve, a. olTensive, attacking, push- 
ful (eoUoq.); spec, invaatve, ii 

■igtuCi a. senescent (tech.), old( 
spec. conseneaceDt {t 

Idening (ra 

stltate, V. t. 1. In a physical sense: di^ 
turb, affect (eoniextiial), disquiet, per- 
turb, trouble, excite, convulse, toss, 
shake, exercise, discompose, turmoil 
(rare), tempest (rare), commove . .. 
mote (rare); spec, semove (rare), flurry, 
betosa (intensive), heave. 

Antonyms: see calm, pacify. 
IL disturb, trouble, disquiet, perturb, 
convulse, demoralize, BoUcit (a Latinivn; 
rare), commove or commote (rare), tem- 
pest (rare), turmoil (rare); spec, flutter, 
fret, ruffle, ripple, undulate, curl, buEB, 
flurry, heave, chum; see bhake. 

Antonyms: see sti£l, deaden, 
S. See DiBCUSB. 
mEltated, a. 1. In a physical sense: dis- 
turbed, shaken, trouoloua, troubled, un- 
quiet; spec. ebuUient, boiling, ripply, fret^ 
njl, riiffllcd; see rouoh. 

Anionyma: see calm, aTAONAMT, quiet. 
S. disturbed, distraught (emphatic; chief- 
ly literary), uneasy, tumultuary (emphal- 
ic)j tumultuous (emphatic), shaken, uo- 

Antonyms: see calu, peaceful, qmET. 

asltatinc, a. disturbing, disquieting, per- 
turbing, affecting, etc Cf. aqitatb. 
Antonyms: sec calmative. 

acltatton, n. I. Referring lo the aeUon on 
the mind: disturbance, commotion, de- 
moralization, perturbation, excitement, 
perturboncy (rare); spec, incendiarism, 
upheaval, demagogisai, ebullition. 
1. Referring to the state of mijid: turmoil, 
tumult, discomposure, unquiet, unquiet- 
ness; spec, heat, trepidation, tremble, 
twitter (dial. Eng., or colloq., U. S.), twit- 
teration (slang), ferment, perturbation, 
perturbancy (rare). The words under 
sense 1 may also be used in this connection. 
Antonyms: see calm. 
S. Referring lo the physical action: di»- 
turbancej commotion, troubling, toss, 
tossing, jactation (chiefly med,), pertur- 
bation (rare); spec, upheaval, convulsion, 
undulation; see shaking, flurry, ruf- 
fle, uproar, FRET, ROILING, EXCrTEMBNT, 

4. Referring to the physicai condition or 
manifestation: spec, flurry, ruffle, tumult, 
curl, fret, ebullience, ebuUition, flutter, 
whitecap, cat's-paw; see rifplg, shake. 
Most of the words wider S may also be used 
in this sense. 
Antonyms: see calm. 
i. See DiscuaaioN, disturbancb. 

acitator, n. Spec, demagogue, 

aK»i adv. back, i ' 

fs Ifot«i ot EqrlanatloD, 


V. i. 1. accord (with *^to" or **vnth'*), 
harmonize, consist (with **with**)t answer 
{wUh "to"), correspond {with "with" or 
"to"), suitj match, cohere, comport, con- 
sort, coincide, iump, tally, hitch (coUoq.), 
chime, concord (rare), jibe (U. S.; col- 
ioq.)j gee (coUoq.), conform {with "wUh" 

or "ton- 
Antonyms: see disagree, conflict, dif- 


S. accord, harmonize, concur, consent 
(archaic), cotton (coUoq. or Eng.), assort 

Antonyms: see object, qttarrel. 
S. covenant, stipulate, meet, engage, 
close, arrange; see promise, contract. 

4. See ACCEDE. 

agreeable, a. 1. suitable, accordant, ac- 
cordable, concordant, harmonious, con- 
sonant, fit, answerable, congruous, con- 
sentaneous (archaic); see consistent, 


Antonyms: see inconsistent, unsuit- 

t. pleasant, suave, nice (a term lacking in 
dignity), lovely (coUoo. or emphatic), gra- 
cious, lief (archaic), likable, genial, con- 

Antonyms: see disagreeable, ill-tem- 

acreeably, adv. 1. well. 


acreed, a. concerted, stipulated, con- 
tracted, covenanted, consented, arranged. 

apreelni^, a. 1. accordant (obs. or rare), 
agreeable (obs. or rare), congruent, con- 
sentient, consentive (rare), consensual, 
consentaneous, concentual (fig.). "Agree- 
ing" is not mtich used as an adjective; the 
other terms are rare or literary. 
Antonyms: see dissentient, discor- 

5. Referring to sound: assonant, conso- 

agreement, n. 1. accord, accordance, con- 
cord, consistence, consistency, coinci- 
dence, harmony, chime, correspondence, 
concert (literary), concinnity (literary), 
consonance, unison, match, consort 
(rare), conformity, concentus (rare), line, 
keeping, consonancy, congruence, con- 
gnuty, coherence, conformation; see con- 

Antonyms: see inconsistency, dis- 
agreement, CONFLICT, difference. 

a. Referring to the mind: concert, meet- 
ing (in "meeting of the minds"; legal), con- 
currence, consension (rare), consensus, 
consentience (rare), unanimity, under- 
standing, concentus (bookish), consent, 
(archaic) y concent C^.), rapport (French). 
Antonyms: see objection, disagree- 


S. Referring to the resvU of the act: en- 
gagement, transaction, pact, covenant 
(chiefly spec.)^ convention, paction (chiefly 
spec), compact, arrangement, league 
(chiefly spec), bargain, deal, cheap (ar'^ 
chaic); spec, interim, concordat, cartel or 
(German) Kartel, sponsion, affiance; see 
promise, contract. 
4. Of sounds: assonance, consonance. 
6; See accession. 

agricultural, a. rural, prsedial (literary 
or tech.), geor^ic (literary), georgical (lit- 
erary), geofomc (rare). 

agriculture, n. husbandry, fanning, geo- 
fonics (rare; usuaUy pedantic) ^ agronomy 

agriculturist, n. husbandman, farmer 
(the usual word), agronomist (tech.). 

aground, a. grounded, aland (archaic); 
spec, ashore, stranded, struck. 
Antonyms: see afloat. 

ahead, ado. before, on, forward, forth, 
forthright (archaic). 
Antonyms: see backward. 

aid, V. t. 1. help, assist, bestead (literary), 
comfort (obs. or legal); spec, avail, abet 
(in wrongdoing) t relieve, sustain, uphold, 
patronize (rare or spec.), succor^ befriend, 
favor, serve, subserve, coassist (rare), 
strengthen, speed (archaic), hand; see 

Antonyms: see hinder, defeat, oppose. 
a. further, promote, advance, strengthen, 
support, second, foster, nourish, favor, 
facilitate, bolster (with "up"), boost (col- 
log. or slang; U. S.); spec, prosper, sub- 
sidize, encourage, patronize. 
Antonyms: see hinder, defeat, blight, 


aid, n. 1. cooperation (stilted or spec), as- 
sistance, help, aidance (rare), comfort 
(obs. or legal); spec, abettal or abetment 
(in wrongdoing), sustenance (rare or liter- 
ary), support, succor, stren^henine, ser- 
vice, boot (archaic), suppeditation (rare), 
sustainment (rare), relief; see support. 
Antonyms: see hindrance, defeat, op- 

a. furtherance, fosterage, nourishment, 
advancement, support, favor, sustain- 
ment (rare), promotion, boost (coUoq, or 

Cross referenus: see Note. 
1. 1: pain. 

aconiia, v. i.: suffer, atruggle. 
mgonjz pain, ecstasy. 

acrartan: rural. 
ahead: forward. 

XS' See NotM of Explanation. 

sbnjr; V. S.), rountenance, conduce- 
ment (rare); spec, patronage. 

DEFEAT, """ 
1. See AIDEIt. 

»ldBr, n. 1. helper, associate, aasiHtant. 
coadjutor (rare or epcc), coadjutaat 
{rare), helpmate or {the original, but now 
the leas iisual, form) helpmeet; spec, co- 
worker, oodperator, ally, henchman, tool, 
etoal, decoy, acolyte, second, etc. 
1. promoter, furtnerer, favorer, elc. Cf. 

mil, V. I. I. Referring to the body: alTect, 
trouble, distress, 
a. Referring to the mivA: see TnoTTBLE. 

slllns. a. invalid, indisposed, unwell, ill 
(chiefly prediaUife), Bick (chiefly U. S. or 
lilerary); spec, sickneas, sickly, sickish, 
aicklied (rare), bad (conleitual), poorly, 
peaked, unhealthy, morbid, puling (cn^ 
Jog.), pathological (tech.), pathologic 
(rare), down (colioa.), ucsouud, complain- 
ing, infirm, cacocnynuc (obs.), maladivc 
(rare), valetudinarian (rare), valetudi- 
nary (rare), invalidish (rare); see di»- 

AtUonyrrts: see well, 

aJlm«iit, n. disorder, ail (rare), complaint, 
indisposition, trouble, atfcctioo, ill (chiefly 
in jA.), iUneaB, Hicknesa, infirmity, weak- 
ness; spec, decline; see disease. 

^m, 0. t. I. direct, train, level, point, pre- 
sent; spec, fire, shoot, sight. 
I. Referring to a misHle: direct, drive, 
peg (eoUoq.j; spec, shoot, throw. 

aim, V. i. I. point, drive;— o^ also used Jig. 
>. See INTEND. 

■im, n. 1. object, mark, target, shot, visic 
(Scot.); spec, butt, bull's-eye, white. 


t. See 
aimed, a. directed (conlezfunl), pointed; 

spec, direct, point-blank, straight. 
Antonyms: see aiulgss. 
KlmlasB, a. 1. chance, random, blind, 

bUndfold {fig.), undirected; spec, horum- 

AnlonyTne: see aui&d. 

alT, n. 1. atmosphere, heaven, aerosphere 
(rare); epec. miasma, 
t. Spec, manner, action, bearing, atti- 
tude, way, domineer (coUoq.), bridle, 

1. Chiefly in pi.: affectation (amiexlual). 

frill (chiefly in pi.; coUoq., V. S.); tpee. 
show, manneriem, style; eee pbet&nbh. 
4. See WIND, Mei,ODr. 
alrr, a. 1. See atmobpheiuc, gasboos, v 


2. light, thin, delicate, tenuous, atrial, 
ethereal, etherial, aSriform (rore), celes- 
tial (Jig.). 

Anlonyns: see clumst, heavy. 
t. See EXPOSED. 

alar, a. Referring to the wings: alate, 
wingUke, wing-shaped, winged, alated. 

alarm, n. t. See fear, 
9. signal (contexlual), alarum; spec, toe* 

alarming, a. frightful, scary (coUog.), ter- 
rific (noio rare, exc. as an expletive), dread- 
ful, dread (rather lUerary or format), tei^ 
rifying, terrible, startling, ghaatfiil (ar- 
chaic); see BOIUUBLE. 
Anlonyme: see REASsmiiNO. 

alarmist, n. scaremonger, pessimist, dis- 
qitictist (rare); spec. lerTonst. 

alas, interj. alack, ohoae {Scot. A Irish), 
ah, woe. 
Antonyms: see EnaoD. 

aioaiiaUo, a. spirituous, hard, ardent, 
strong (contexlual). 

alert, a. I. See nimble. 
2. Referring to menial miality; active, 

?uick, Uve (chiefiy U. S.), lively, nimble 
-are or amteriuoi), awake; see ready. 

alertaeai, n. I. ninableneas (rf. niublb). 
X. activity, Uveliness. quickness, nimble- 
ness (rare or contextual); spec, watchful- 

alienate, v. t. 1. See transfek. 

). separate, estrange, wean, disunite, dis- 

affect; spec, disacquaint. 
allxht, V. i. 1. descend, light, perch, settle, 

drop, pitch, fall, land; spec, ground; see 

Antonyms: see rise. 


1. Spec, detrain. 
alien, V. 1. range, line {mtk "up"); spec. 

collimate (fee A.). 
alike, a. 1. same, like, identical, selfsame 

[emphatic), twin {of tun); spec, eonsub- 

stantial, duplicate; see eqdai.. 
Antonyms: see different, distinct. 

alikenesi, n, I. sameness, likeness, identi- 


mil* a. whole, any (in aentencea of universal 
exclusion, as in "there is no hope of any 
relief" I cannot give you any encourage- 
menf*), every {distributive) y each (implying 
separation in consideration or treatment); 
— not truly synonyms of "all" nor of each 
other, but often anidogous in use. 
Antonyms: see few, many. 

all* n. whole, entirety, everything, every- 
body; — specific or partial synonyms ohty. 
Antonyms: see part, none. 

alley, n. Spec, frescaae (rare), mall, lane, 
aisle (an inaccurate use), byway. 

alley, n. taw. 

all-l&«alinc, a. panaoean (learned). 

allied, a. 1. See united, related. 
S. In scientific usage: kindred, related, 
congeneric, cognate, akin. 
Antonyms: see unrelated. 

allowance, n. 1. See permission, ac- 

S. Spec, fee, aid, share, subvention, com- 
mission, pension, livery (historical), viati- 
cum, pin money, quarterage, pittance; see 


S. Ration (chiefly mil. or formal), feed 
(coUoq.); spec, dietary. 

4. In sports: odds (pi. & sing.), law (tech.); 
spec, bisque. 

alloy, n. 1. See mixture, admixture. 

5. garble (rare); spec, amalgam, spelter 
(rare), brass, bronze, latten, temper, 
pinchoeck, billon. 

alloy, V. t. 1. adulterate, mix, temper; 
spec, amalgamate. 
Ardonyms: see purify. 


alluvtuni, n. deposit (contextual), wash 

(contextual); spec, geest, drift, gravel, 

sand, waste, till, delte., warp. 
ally, n. 1. associate, confederate. 
Antonyms: see enemy, opponent. 

S. In scientific classification: conquer. 
alms, n. dole, charity; spec, pittance, 

maimdy (Eng.). 

aloft, adv. 1. above (contextual), on high; 
spec, heaven-high, overhead, 
a. See UP. 

alone, a. soUtary, only (rare), single 
(now rare), sole (archaic), isolated, sep- 
arate, lone (poetic or archaic), lonely (env" 
phatic), lonesome (rare), solus (masc.; 
Latin), sola (fern.; Latin); spec, unac- 
companied, unattended, forsaken, de- 
serted, abandoned, detached, compan- 
ionless, desolate. 

alone, adv. 1. solitary, only (rare), separ 
rately, solely, singularly (rare). 
a. See ONLY, merely. 

aloof, a. apart, distant, off, away. 

aloud, adv. 1. out, audibly. 
Antonyms: see silently. 

alphabet, n. Christeross-row (hist, or or-' 
ciiaic), letters (pi.); spec, ogham or ogam, 
glossic, glossotype, palseotype, futhorc. 

also, adv. besides, moreover, more, like- 
wise, too, further or (less usiud) farther, 
yet, similarlv, withal (archaic), forby (ar- 
chaic), furthermore or (less usual) far- 
thermore, therewithal (archaic), eke (ar- 
chaic), thereto (archaic). 

altar, n. shrine, sanctuary; spec, super- 
altar^ chantry, marae, thymele, Com- 
mumon table. Lord's table. Holy table, 
table (for short). 

alter, v. t. modify, change; spec, interpo- 
late; see FALSIFY, CHANGE. 

Antonyms: see continue, maintain, fix. 
alternate, v. t. interchange, vary, rotate; 

see reciprocate. 
alternation, n. interchange, interchange- 

ableness, variation, rotation; see recipro- 
alternative, n. choice, side, horn (of a 

dilemma; rhetoric and logic), disjunction 

although, conj. notwithstanding, though, 

howbeit, albeit, maugre (archaic), despite 

(literary or learned). 
always, adv. 1. ever (archaic or literary). 

Cross rrferences; see Note. 
ailment, n.; food. 
ailment, «. t: feed. 
alimentary: nutntunu. 
alimentation: nutrition, feed- 

in{f. l$ensitive. 

alive: living, lively, swarming, 
allay: appetxse, abate, mUigate, 

moderate, calm. 
aUecation: statement 
aUece: *tate. 
allecianoe: eonatancy. 
allecorioal: metaphorical. 
aU-embraoinc: comprehenaive. 
alleviate: mitigate. 
alleviation: mitigation. 
aUevlatiTe: mitigatory. 
alllanoe: union, confederacy, 

rdation, amour. 

allied: united, related. 

aUooate: place, apportion, ar- 

aUoeatlon: placing, apportion' 
ment, arrangement. 

aUot: apportion, appropriate. 

allotment: apportionment, ap^ 
propriation, sfuire. 

allow: acknowledge, concede, ap^ 
portion, permit, grant. 

allowable: accepUMe, permis- 

aU-powerful: omnipotent. 

aUnde: refer. 

allure: attract. 

aUurement: attraction. 

aUurlnc: attractive. 

aUnslon: reference. 

aUuilTe: referential. 

ally, V. t.: unite, league. 
almlKbty: omnipotent. 
almost: about. 
almshouse: poorJumse. 
alone* adv.: lengthvnse^ far- 

along* prep.: by. 
alongside: abreast. 
aloof: apart. 
already: before. 
alterable: changeable. 
alterative: changing. 
altercate: dismde. 
altercation: dispute. 
alternately: about. 
altitude: fieigfU. 
altogether: absolutely. 
amalgam: aUoy, mixture. 
amalgamate: aUoy, mix. 

K^* See Notes of Explanation. 

perpetually, eternally, evermore {archaic 
or literary), everlastingly, forever. 
Anionymt: ace never. 


kanuemU. n, scrivener, scribe, writer ;- 

Spec, dilettante, C 

(A). , . , 

ftmatanrtali, a. nonprofessional; 
Corinthian ifig-). 
Antonyira: tee pROfEsaiONAi„ 

ftmrntoxy, a. erotic, amorous, lovesome 
(archaic); spec, gailant {rare), tender, 
languorous, languishing, Anacreontic 
(rare), Sapphic (rare), Billy {rareorcoUoq.), 
spoony {cotloq. or slang); spec, tcysome, 
erotomaniac, nymphomaniac. 
AtUonyms: see sian-hatino, woiiIAN- 

Kmbirnoui, a. uncertain, doubtful, equivo- 
cal, dilogical (rare), double, questionable, 
mistakable; spec, loft-handea, oracular. 
Anlonjfms: see definite, UNQtriiiBTiOK' 

•mbltion, n. 1. See nssniB. 
t. energy, activity, push {cotloq.), emula- 
tion, aspiration. 

ambitions, a. I. ,See nESiROua. 
1. energetic, active, pushing (coUoq.), 
pushful (coiii>g.); spec. Icarian {^.). 
Antonyms: see lazt, unambitiods. 
1. Referring to a person, his imagination, 
etc.: spec, bold, audacious, aspiring, 
1. Referring to what shows ambHion: spec. 

bold,audacious; see PRETENTIOUS, 8H 

Antonyms: see simflb. 

amble, n. Spec, jog-trot, dog-trot, n 

ambuBli, n. trap (contextual), ambuscade, 

ambushineat, blind, buahment {obs.). 
ambush, V. I. trap {contextual), waylay, 

ambuscade, forelay {obs. or dial.), wait 

Ambush, V. t. wait {archaic), lurk (rar«). 
•mend, d. I. t, improve, reform, meud 

(rare or dioi.), rectify (rare); seecoBEEcr, 

amidst, prep. I. Referring to pogilion in 

or near the middle: amid(i»oe(ieor/ormai). 

mid or often {as an aphetie form) 'mid 

{poetic), midst or often {as an aphetie 

form), 'midit {arcliaie). 

2. See AMONQ. 
ammunltfon, n. supplies (p2.; corOextiuil), 

munition {often in pi.); spec, missilea 

{pl.}, archeiy, powder, ahot Xpl.), bullets 

(pi.), shell (pi.), etc. 
amouB, prep, amongst (less tiswU than 

among, esp. in the primary local sense), 

amidst, in. 

amount, n. 1. See HDU, AOaRBOATB, 

S. deal, lot (eolbq.); spec, quantity, 
amount, ti. i. tot^, 
amouT, n. I. Ste love. 

s. love affair, lovea {pt.), intrigue (con- 
Icxtual), gallantry, alliance (ctnifexfuol), 
amourette {dim.); spec, intimacy {eupke- 
miatic); see COCBT9H1P. 
amputate, c (. sever {contextual); spec. 

amulet, n, periapt (rare), charm, talis- 
man; spec, phylactery. 

amuilUK. a. diverting, light, funny, odd 
{coUoq.), good, delicious; s 
Antonyms: see Ddli., i 

analosons, a. parallel, correlative, corre- 
sponding, sinular, cognate, eqmvaleot, 
Antonyms: aee opposite, cONTRASTirja. 

analoEue, n. parallel, correlative, corre- 
late (rare), porallehsm, equivalent. 
AntonyTiis: aee opposite, contrast. 

aualoEr, n. parity {rather literary or learn- 
ed), correlation, equivalence, parallelism, 
proportion {rare), similarity, corrcspond- 

analysis, n. 1. separation, resolution, dls- 
eectioQ, division, anatomy {fig.), reduc- 
tion; spec, partition, pilpul; see pecom- 


S. In grammar: parsing, construction; 


AnUmyma: see compose. 
S. In grammar: parse, construe; spec, 

anarohioal, a. lawless, imgovemed. 
Antonyms: see law-abiding. 

anarchistio, a. red (co/Zog.), lawless; spec, 
nihilistic, dynamitic. 

anjurchy, n. misrule, lawlessness; spec, 
nihilism, dynamitism. 
Antonyms: see government. 

anatomize, v, t, dissect; spec, hominisect, 

anatomy, n. 1. dissection; sj>ec, homini- 
section, callisection, sentisection, vivisec- 
tion, phytotomy, topography, zootomy. 


ancestor, n. predecessor (contexluaJ), an- 
cestry (a collecLwe), forebear {orig. Scot; 
now literary), stock (a collective) j fore- 
elder (rare), forerunner: spec, root (fig.), 
patriarch, progenitor, forefather, father, 
ancestress, grandam (literary; fig.), pro- 
genitress, progenitrix, foremother (rare). 
Antonyms: see descendant, offspring. 

ancestral, a. forefatherly; spec, patrimon- 
ial, hereditary. 

ancestry, n. Imeage, progeniture. 

anchor, 1. Spec, kedge, bower, sheet 
anchor, killick (chiefly Eng.), grapnel. 
S. See HOLD. 

anchorage, n. riding, berth (contextual); 
spec, harborage, roi^tead, road. 

ancient, a, Jd (contexttud), earlv (corir 
textual), primitive, high, pristine (usually 
in a good sense), vetus (IxUin); spec, pre- 
historic; see antiquated, obsolete. 
Antonyms: see new, modern, recent. 

ancillary, a, auxiliary, subordinate. 

andiron, n, fire-dog or (for short) dog. 

anecdote, n. account (contextiial), inci- 
dent (contextual); spec, haggada. 

ani^el, n. 1. spirit (contextual), celestial 
(conlextual); spec, cherub, seraph, virtue, 
archangel, principality, power, throne, 
dominion, Ariel, Belial, Gabriel. 
S. See minister, demon, genius. 

ancelic, a. 1. celestial (contextual), se- 
raphic (chiefly spec.), cherubic (chiefly 


ancer, n. ill-temper (conlextual), displeas- 
ure (corUextual), choler (literary), ire (lUr 
erary), wrath, indignation, indignance 
(rare), indignancy (rare), spleen, dudgeon 
(archaic), madness (coUoq.), vexation, 
gall, bile, heat, mad (slang; colloq., U. S., 

or died.), dander (coUoq., U. S., or dial.), 
despite (archaic), corruption (coUoq. or 
did.), irritation (contextual); spec. lury, 
frenzy, rsu^, passion, furiousness, exas- 
peration, furiosity (rare). 
Antonyms: see pleasure. 

anther, v. t. exasperate madden, provoke, 
incense, inflame, excite (contextiMl) ; spec. 
chafe, enrage, infuriate, huff (coUoq.). 
Antonyms: see please. 

ancle, n. 1. comer, bend (primarily spec.), 
point; spec, cant, nook, elevation, de- 
pression, shoulder, elbow, knee, crotch, 
cusp, bull's-nose. 


anpry, a. displeased, wrathful, wrathy 
(colloq.) , incensed, irate or ireful (literary), 
wroth (rhetorical), dark (fig.), hot (colloq.), 
heated, black (fig.), mad (colloq.) , riley 
(colloq. , U. S.), huffy (colloq.), exasper- 
ated, wood (archaic); spec, furious, in- 
furiated, infuriate (literary), passionate, 
impassionate (rare), rabid, raging, in- 
dignant, fevered, fiery, high, rough. 
Antonyms: see pleased, apathetic, un- 

ani^ular, a. cornered, sharp, edgy, ab- 
rupt, cranky (esp. dial.; Eng.), angulous 
Antonyms: see straight, curved. 

animal, n. 1. organism (contextual); spec. 
invertebrate, vertebrate, brute, beast, 
zoon (tech.), vermin, creature (in U. S. 
esv. of cattle), fauna (a collective), flesh (a 
collective). "Animal,** except in technical 
usage, is generally distinguished from 
"man** and also is chiefly used of vertex 

a. Spec, beastliness, brutaUty, bestiality, 
brutishness, blood (fig.). 

animal, a. U Spec, bestial, brutal, brut- 
ish, zooid (tech.), zoic (tech.), holozoic 

Antonyms: see spiritual, human, veg- 
etable, mineral. 
a. See SENSUAL, unreasoning. 

animate, v. t. 1. energize, inspire, quicken 
(archaic), vivify, vitalize, emiven (rare), 
actuate (contextual), inform (literary or 
spec), imbue, activate (tech.), spirit 
(rare); spec, pervade, revive, raise, spir- 

Antonyms: see kill, paralyze. 
a. See ENLIVEN, incite, encourage. 

ankle, n. tarsus (tech.). 

anneal, v. t. temper, toughen; spec. bake. 

Cross references: see Note. 
anathema; eurae. 
aaohoret: retigioua, hertnU. 
enrhofflesi; afioai. 
enrtentnesi: age. 
aaent: abend. 

aantguishi pain. 
animadTertion: comment, cen- 

animadTert: comment. 
aaimalise: brutalize. 

animated; living, active. 
animosity: ill-wUl. 
annex: add, attach. 
annexation; addition, attach- 
annexed: adjunct 

XS* See Notes of Explanation. 


■snlhUftte, n. I. abolish leontextual) , de- 
stroy, obliterate, dissolve, nullify (rare), 
efface (conterfuoi), uncreatej blot (con- 
texlimi), unmake (rare), cxtin^ish, an- 
nul (rare), discreate (rare), nolning (rare); 

Antonyms: see crbatb, preserve. 

kimlTAriuy, n. mind day (oba.); spec. 
centenary, centennial, triennial quadren- 
nial, quinquennial, sexl^nnial, septennial, 
octennial, decennial, birthday, birthnight, 
jubilee, year day (obm,). 

Kiinotkte, V. I, gloze, ^osa, commentate 
^Tore); spec, marginahze (rare), margin, 

annotation, n. 1. Referring to the art: 
gloxing, glossing, comioentatian (rare), 
a. Referring to the rtault: comment («m- 
texfuoi), note [amte^ctual), ^oss, scholium 
[tech.), doiej »-pec. margm (rare), mai^ 
ginaUa \jtl.), mterlineary, poatil [hiat.). 

anaotatoT, n. commentator, glossist, glos- 
sator, glosaer, glossographer {rare), Hcho- 
liaat {tech.). 

•nnoBiice, v. t. advertite, intimate, de- 
clare, tell, herald, bruit ((iferory), notify. 

call, denounce, presage, advertize, bill, 
post, cry, bulletin; see PROCI.AIM. 
Antonyms: see bide. 

annouDcement. n. intimation, annunci- 
ation, notification, declaration, notice, 
advertiiement, enunciation (Jortna2):spec, 
indictioD, banns ipl.), bulletin, obituary, 
obit (orcAotc), proclamation. 

annoy, v. t. distress (eonlextual). disturb 
(eonlextual), vex, touch, plague, tor- 
ment, haraBs, irk (archaic), curry Ijig.), 
pester, exuloerate \archaic), fret, molest 
XoTchaic), displeasure (rore); spec, nag, 
rojg (coUog. or slang), ruffle, pinprick, ear- 
wig, bore; tee nuiiTATB, TROtrBLB, tease. 
Antonyms: see please, elate, pac- 

annoyance, n. ). distress (eeritextual), 
disturbance (contextual), harassment, ex- 
ulceration (rare), molestation (archaic); 

I. Referring to what annoys: vexation, 
plague, thorn, torment, pest, pester, nui- 
sance, gall, bore; see IRRITATION, TB 
Antonyms: see comport. 
S. Referring to Oie stale of mind: 
tion, displeasure, disquiet, ruffle; 

annoylnK, a. displeasinE (contextiial), 1 
atious, plaguesome {coUoq.), plaguey (col- 
loq.), thorny, painful, worrisome, irkaomo. 
Antonynia: see calmattvb, flBDATiva, 

amiua], a. yearly. 

annular, a. ring-shaped, round (context- 
Mai), annulatcd, annulate, cricoid (tech.; 
chiefly spec.), 

anoint, i>. (. anele (orc/uiic), oint (ardiaic), 
inunct (chiefly spec.; rare), smear {now 
only coniemptiunis); spec, oil, grease, 
chnsm, balsam, salve. 

anonynioui, a. nameless, unnamed, un- 
known (a loose contextual use). 

anotbei, a. Spec, second, other (arehaie 
or rare), different. 

answer, v. i. U Referring la making de- 
fense against a charge, aa in law: defend, 
plead (law); spec, reply, rejoin, rebut, 
surrejoin, surrebut. 

a. reply, respond, retort, return (context- 
uni}, rejoin, rephcate (rare); spec, sub- 
join, recriminat«. 
1. react, respond; apec. counteract. 


answer, D. (. 1. As in late: defend. 

5. reply, respond, retort, rejoin, say (cott- 
textual), replicate (rare). 

Antonyme: tee question. 
1. acknowledge; spec, receipt. 

4. solve. 

5. See sATisrr, aBTTLB, 

answer, n, 1. As used in law: defense, 
plea; spec, rebutter, reply, rejoinder, 
replication, surrejoinder, surrebutter. 
S. reply, response, retort; spec, coun- 
terblast, countercharge, contrarcmon- ' 
strance, repartee, antiphouy, subjoinder, 
oracle, anthem. 
Antonyms: see question. 
■. acknowledgment; spec receipt. 

4. solution. 

5. reaction, response. 

aneweiint, a. responsive, replying, re- 

sponsory (obs.). 
antedate, f.t. I. precede (in<irn«), predate. 
Antonyms.- see postdate. 

S. mistime (conUxlual), anachronize 

antedUnvlan, a. prediluviaa, antedilu- 

vial, prediluvial. 
anteprandial, a. preprandial; — both rare. 
anteroom, n. vestibule; S7>ec. hall, lobby, 

anthem, 11. respond (rare), responsory; 

spec, offertory. 


antl&olocy, n. posy (rare), florilegium 

anticipate* v. L U preconceive, foresee 
(fig.), precognosce (rare); spec, hope, 
reckon (used with **that** and a dependsnt 
clause) f suspect, forefeel (rare), forebode, 
intuit (rare or tech.); see expect, fore- 

S. forestall, forerun, devance (rare), fore- 
come (rare), prevent (rare). 

anticipation, n. 1. presentiment, fore- 
sight, preconception, preassurance (rare); 
spec. lorefeeling (rare), reckoning, fore- 
boding, hope, prolepsis, intuition; see 

S. forestalment, prevenience (rare), pre- 
vention (rare); spec, prevenance. 

anticipatory, a. 1. anticipant, anticipa- 
tive, precognoscent (rare), presentient 
(rare); spec, proleptic (rare); see expect- 
ant, hopeful. 

S. anticipant, prevenient (learned), pre- 
venting (rare). 

anticlimax, n. bathos (learned), come- 
down (coUoq.). 

antidote, n. remedy (corUextual), alexi- 
pharmic {learned), Theriac (archaic; fig.), 
mithridate (obs. or hist.), coimterpoison, 
obvietam (obs. or hist.); spec, counter- 
charm, countervenom, bezoar (archaic). 
Antonyms: see poison. 

antiquarian, n. antiquarv; spec, archse- 
ologist, archseologer (rare), palseologist. 

antiquarianism, n. Spec. palsBology, 

antiquate, v, t. age, outdate, unmodem- 
ize (rare). 

antiquity, n. 1. age (contextual), old (ar- 
chaic or poetic), oldness, ancientness. 
3. Referring to the people of antiquity: eld 
(archaic or poetic); spec, foreworld (rare). 
Antonyms: see modernness, newness, 
^S. See RELIC. 

antlers, n. pi. head, attire; — both collec- 
tives, and hunting terms. 

anvil, n. stithv (rare); spec, teest. 

anxiety, n. iv&ive!S& (corUextual) , trouble 
(contesiual) , care, disquiet, concern, con- 

cernment, uneasiness, suspense, solici- 
tude; aee APPREHENSION. 

anxious, a. distressed (contextual), trou- 
bled (contextucd), careful (rare), uneasy, 
concerned, soUcitous; see timid, appre- 
Antonyms: see careless, bold, calm, 


anybody, n. any one. 

anyhow, adv. anyways, anyway, anywise. 

anything, n. aught (literary), ought (the 

less usiuil spelling). 
apart, a. 1. separate, aloof, away, aside; 

spec, distant, foreign. 


apart, adv. 1. separately, aside, away, 
aloof, asunder. 
Antonyms: see together, adjacent, 


a. independentlv. 

apathetic, a. dull, phlegmatic, calm (conn 
textual), cold, sluggish, cold-blooded, in- 
ert (literary or learned), impassive, indif- 
ferent, insensible, nerveless, torpid, tor- 
ment (rare); spec, languid, languishing, 
anguorous, listless, lethargic, inexcitable, 
Antonyms: see eager, excited, ardent, 


apathy, n. dullness, sluggishness, inert- 
ness (literary or learned); spec, languor, 
torpor, lethargy, lassitude, calm (context- 
tud), etc. 

apiece, adv. individually, each, severally. 

apostasy, n. 1. recreancy, tergiversation 
(rare), abandonment, perversion, seces- 
sion, lapse, relapse. Cf. backslide. 
Antonyms: see constancy. 
a. See desertion. 

apostate, n. 1. renegade, recreant, turn- 
coat, pervert or (coUoq.) vert, transfuge 
(rare), tergiversator (rare); spec, back- 
a. See deserter. 

apostate, a. recreant. 

apostatize, t;. i. 1. renegade, secede, re- 

Cross rrferences: see Note. 

aatlo, a.: groteaque, frisky, buf- 

aatio, n.; buffoon, caper. 

aattotpant: anticipatory , ex- 

antifebrile: febrifuge. 

antipethy: aversion, <ibhor- 
rence, incompatibiliiy. 

antipodal: opposite. 

aatipodet: underworld. 

aatlpyretto: febrifuge. 

aatiaueted: old, oldrfashioned, 
cbeolete, chronic. 

aatloue: old, old-fashioned. 

aatitnesis: contrast. 

entlthetlo: contrasting. 
antitype: foreshadow. 
antler: horn. 

anyway, anjrways: any?iow. 
apace: rapidly. 
apaohe : desperado . 
apartment: room, suite. 
ape, n.: simian, imitator. 
ape, V. t.: imitate. 
apelike : s imian. 
aperient: cathartic. 
aperture: opening. 
apex: top, cusp, height. 
aphorism: saying. 
apiary: beehive. 
apish: simian, imitative. 

aplomb, a.: vertical. 

aplomb, n.: assurance, verti- 

apocalypse: revelation, dis- 

apooalyptio: revelatory. 

apologetlo: justificatory, ex- 

apologist: justifier, excuser. 

apologue: fable. 

apology: justification, excuse, 

apophthegm: saying. 

apostrophe: address. 

apotheosize: deify. 

appall: frighten, dismay. 

HT See Notes of Explanation. 


lapse, lapse, Fall, vert Icolloq., Eng.); see 



appsDBc*! '•■ adjunct, appurtenance, pro- 
prium (tech.). property Iflonlexbud) ; spec. 
perquisite, prerogative. 

appAiatni, n. 1. rigging, machine, ma- 
chinery, meehaniBm, gear, plant, enginery 
(o/len fig.); spec, tackle. 


mppacent, a. 1. See evident. 
X. seeming, ostensible, ost«nsive (rare), 
eemblable (rare or literary), evident (rare): 
spec, phenomenal, external, sensible; see 

Anionspns: see hidden, 4Ctuai~ 
apparently, adu, seemingly, etc., methinka 
(archaic and usuaUy poetic). Cf. apfab- 

apparltlon, n. 1. 

S. specter, appearance, phantasm, phan- 
tom, tm^(e, sbow, shadow, umbrage (lil- 
erory), idol (lilerary or learned), phaam 
(rare), shape {now rare or coniexliial), 

Ehantaat (rare), phanlasma (rare), eido- 
m (Uamed); spec, double, wnuth, feteh, 
double- ganger, bogy, hoodie (ScoC.), 
epiphany, Christephany, blue-devils (cot- 
log?), illusion; see ohost, skubi-jlUCE. 

appulUooal, a. phantom, phoutasmic 
(rare), phantaamaJ. 

appeal, f. i. 1. turn; gpee. refer; if. ap- 
peal, n., I. 

X. apply, aak, pray, sue, entreat (rare), 
cry Cftfl.), plead, go (conlexlwU; Mp. wUh 
"up ), petition. 

appeal, n. 1. As used in law: counter- 
plea (rare); spec, recusation, plaidoyer, 
a. application, turning, reference, address 
(rare), prayer; apec, memorial. 
t. application, request, asking, call, cry, 
prayer, entreaty, plea, suit; wpec. oath, 


appear, v. i. 1. show (riow coHog.). emerge, 
issue, peer (archaic), spring (chiefly spec.), 
offer, develop, come (canlexlual); spec. 
^ure, rise, sparkle, coappear, compear 
(law), issue, loom, glimpse (archaic). 
AnionffiriK: see disappeab, vanish. 
1. See SEEM. 

appeannoe, n. I. appearing, manifest^' 
lion, show (coUoo.), rise, apparition 
(learned) ; spec, snadow, reapparition, 
avatar, glimpse, outcrop, gleam. 
Antonyms: see disappearance. 

9. Bpedes (tech.), phase, guise, aspect, fig- 
ure, look, favor (archaic), (ace, form, 
shape, surface, shadow, phantasm, ghost, 
complexion, cast, color, show (now rhetor- 
iad or poetic, exe. oe referring to an Ulusory 
or deceiving appearaiux), portraiture 
(rare), visage (rare); spec, perspective, 
smoke, facies (natural hist.); see asfec^f. 
S. phenomenon; spec, meteor (etp. tech.). I 

4. semblance; spec, likeness. 


appeaae, v. t. 1. See batisft, pactft. 

i. slake, quench, assuage, allay, mitigate, 
lay (archaic); see satisfy. 

appeaiement, n. 1. See satistaction 
a. slaking, assuagement, etc. Cf. . 
PEASE, a. 

appeDdage, n. 1. attachment, pendicle 
(chiefly Scot.), codicil (fig. or spec.); spec 
chatelaine, chatelaine (French), fob, pen- 
dant, tang, crook. 

5. See PROCESS. 

appendix, n. attachment, addition, oodi- 

cil (fig. or spec); spec, excursus, 
appetite, n. l. belly {fig.), hunger, desire, 

craving, maw (fig. or spec.); spec, malacia I 

(leek.); see thihst. 
Antonyms: see disodst, surfeit. 

applaud, V. t. Spec, acclaim, clap, cheer, 
encore, chirrup (Eng.; slang), claque 
(card or slang); see praieb. 
Antonyms: see condeuNj censure. 

applaud, EI. t. Spec, acclaim, clap, cheer, 
bti2za, stomp. 

applause, n. 1. See phaibe. 
a. Referring to what is done by way rf 
praise; spec, plaudit (chiefly in pi.), han(>> 
clap, clap, hozanna, huzzas (pi.). 
Antonyms: see CONDEMNATION, censdeb. 

apple, n. pome (poetic). 

apple-ahaped, a. pomiform (tech.). 

Applicable, a. 1. See ADAPTAB1.&. 
a. suitable, usable, adaptable, devotable; 
jpec. appropriate, appropriable. 

applioation, n. 1. apposition, touching. 
a. constancy (contextiuU), assiduity, de- 
votion, appliance, sedulity (rore), seda- 
lousness, iutentness, diligence. Industry, 
Antonyms: see CRANaBABLENESS, indo- 

a. resort, recourse, recurrence. 


t. Spec, poultice, plaster, epitbem, stupe, 

1, ointment, cerate. 


■ppartKln: bdone. rslalf. 

appstlM: reliiA, 
a^prntiwIUM^ palatable. 
VplleDOe: appiicalian, in- I 


•PPljf V, t. 1. put (unih "to" **on" or 
^'upon^y use (vnih ''to,'* ''tm/' or 
''upon*'), lay (unth "to," "on," or "upon"), 
bestow (archaic); spec, misapply, 
t. direct, concentrate, give, devote, ad- 
dress, bend, buckle, put, keep, ply (rare or 
dial.); see addict. 


»PPly» »• **• !• bear (wUh "on" or "upon"), 
hold, subsist. 

t. address (rare), turn, run, resort, go 
(cofUexlual); see appeal. 

appoint, V. t 1. ordain, prescribe, fix, or- 
der, frame, establish, aetemiine, preap- 
point, decree, direct, set, destine, fore- 
ordain^ dispose; spec, redetermine, 
a. designate, assign, constitute, set, fix, 
limit, settle, cast; spec, commission, 
place, name, detail, depute, deputize 
\U. S.), delegate, prick, nominate, des- 
tine, attach, determine, predetermine, 
locate; see apportion, appropriate. 
Antonyms: see forbid. 
S. /See EQUIP. 

appointed, a. "fixed, ordained, determined, 
set, etc, 

appointment, n. 1. ordinance, ordina- 
tion, ordainment, establishment, disposi- 
tion, determination, prescription, decree, 
direction, settlement, foreordination, pre- 

S. desi^ation, constitution, settlement, 
limitation; 8i>ec. commission, deputation, 
indiction, aestination, determination, 
etc.; see apportionment, appropria- 

S. engagement, assignation, tryst (liter' 
ary), meeting, date (coUoq.), 
4. See equip. 

apportion, t;. t. portion (less umial than "ap- 
portion"), assign, appoint, allow, allocate, 
allot, admeasure, measure (archaic or fig.), 
award, mete (rare), give (contextiud), dis- 
tribute, deal (chiefly spec.); spec, award, 
limit (U. S, & Canada), dole, admeasure 

apportionment, n. assignment, appoint- 
ment, allowance, allotment, etc, Cf, ap- 

appreoiatiTe, a, sensible, sensitive. 
Antonyms: see unappreciative. 

apprehension, n. fear (toith "lest" or 
"iha^'), anxiety (vnth "lest"), solicitude 
(with "lest"), scruple (rare). 

apprehensiTe, a. fearful (unth "of," "lest," 
or "that"), anxious (unth "for fear that"), 
solicitous (unth "lest"), afraid (unth 
"that"). "Apprehensive" is used unth 
"of," "lest," or "that." 
Antonyms: see hopeful. 

appreliensiTeness, n. fearfulness, anxi- 
ety, soUcitude, fear. 

approach, v. i. 1. near^ advance (context- 
ual), approximate, mgh (rare), advene 
(rare), accede (rare), appropinquate 
(rare); spec, borrow, verge, oraw, board, 
converge, come. 
Antonyms: see depart. 
a. approximate (as in qvudity, form, etc.), 
near (rare); spec, resemble. 
S. come (contextual); — referring to what 
draws near in time, 

approach, v. t. near, approximate (ar- 
chaic), appropinquate (rare), anear (ar- 
Antonyms: see avoid, leave. 

approach, n. 1. nearing, approximation, 
advance (contextual); spec, convergence. 
Antonyms: see avoidance, divergence. 
a. coming. 
S. In pL: advances (pi.). 

4. access; spec, entrance. 
approachini^, a. 1. nearing, advancing; 

spec, convergent, connivent (tech.), com- 

a. See COMING (in time), 
appropriate, v. 1. 1. take, spheterize (rare); 
spec, misappropriate, condemn, arrogate, 
convert, embezzle, foreclose, secrete, 
pocket, usurp; see convert, steal, con- 
Antonyms: see abandon, relinquish, 


a. assign, appoint, allot, apply, devote, 
dedicate (spec, or archaic), design; spec. 
reserve, misapply, misappropriate. 

5. See ASCRIBE. 
appropriate, a. 1. See peculiar. 

a. becoming, suitable, fit, fitting, meet, 
condign (of punishment), felicitous (o(s 
tion, remark, etc.), convenient (archaic), 
convenable (obs.), feat (archaic), compe- 
tent (archaic), likely, proper, appropriate, 
apposite, pat (chiefly spec), apt, good, 
rignt^ sortable (archaic), idoneous (rare), 
concinnous (rare), con^uous; spec, happy, 
decent, graceful, applicable; see timely. 
i Antonyms: see unsuitable, untimely. 

.^ ' Cross mferenus: aee Note. 
iVPtMlte: aTppropnate^ rdcUive. 
apposltloms application, re- 

mpvniwtdz valuation. 
i4»pndse: value. 
im»pgmiienient; valuation, 
appreciable: perceptibU. 
i4»preoi«te: value, feel, advance. 

appreciation: valuation, feel- 
xng, advance, understanding. 

i4»pr«clatlTe: sensitive. 

apprehend: arrest, capture, 
perceive, understand, expect, 

i4»prehenslble: understand- 
able, perceptible. 

apprehension: arrest, capture. 

intelligence, perception, expector 

turn, fear. \gent. 

apprehenilve: afraid, inteili- 
apprlse: notify, inform. 
approachable: accessible, af- 


approbate: approve, admire. 
approbation: approval, ad* 


la^ See Notes of Kiplanatloa. 

■ppiopri>telr> ado. becomingly, suitAbly, 
eic., apropos. Cf. appbophiatb, a., a. 

approprlateneia, n. becomingness, suit- 
ability, fitness, felicity, eic. 

appropriation, n. takiDg, applicatioa ; 
spec, confiscation, arrogat^on, aUotmunt, 
secretion, etc. Cf. appropriate, v. t. 

approval, n. approbation, aupport, sane- 
Won, imprimatur (spec, or jIjOi indoree- 
ment, countenance, accepttuice; spec. 
vor, fancy, auBpicea, vis^ (FTeneli); 


approve, v. t. approbat« (rare; chiefly 
Eng.), sanction, support, countenance, 
sustain, pass, indorse, second; spte. en- 
courage, preconise (rare), favor, vis6; tee 

Antony nie: 

Approximate, a, rough, round, close, near; 

— referring to approximations, namberB, etc. 
apporteDanoa, n. accessory, beloneiDg, 

appurtenant; epec. paraphernalia {vt^, 

incident (lau:), requisite, property (Ihea- 

ters), -piope (pi.; theaters); 


ftqnillne, a. Referring to the nose: hawk- 
nosed (rare or opprobrious), beaked, 
hooked, Roman. 
Antonynta: see pdo-nosbd, bkub. 

ftrable, a. plowable, tillable. 

arable, n, mfield (Brit.), earthland (rare), 

arMtrary, a. 1. See absolute, capri- 


i. High-handed, willful, high (cottog.). 

arboT, n. bower; spec, pergola, pandal 
( A nglo-Indian ) . 

arboreal, a. arboral, arboreous, arborous, 
dendral (rare). 

aroade, n. passage (contextual),' spee. clois- 
ter, loggia {lUuian). 

aioh, n. cove (the ordiTtarp hollow arch), 
fornix (Latin); apee. ogivo, ekewback, 
conch, concha, vault, invert, concamera- 
tion (rare), span. 

arob, V. t. 1. cove, vault (chiefly spec.), em- 
bow (liierary), concamerate (rare)," spec. 
hog, hump, hunch, 
t. span, overvault (rare), overarch. 

aroher, n. sagittary (rare), bowman, bow- 
yer (rare); spec. Sagittarius. 

archite«t> n. builder (conlexlaal), maker f 
(rare), uuustructor (ooniexlual), mai 
builder {lech.); spec, ecoleaiologist. 

architecture, n, structure, building, con- 
struction; spec, eccleaiology. 

*. eager, impetuous, hot, warm, fierv, 
burning, fierce, fervent, glowing, feverish, 
fervid, perfervid (emphatic for "fervid"; 
rare), zealous, passionate, enthusiastic or 
enthuaiastical (both ardiaic). 

Antonyms: see apathetic, tNDrrrERBNT. 
ardor, n. eagerness, impetuosity, ardency, t 
fervor, fever, feveriahness, heat, glow, ' 
warmth, fire, (ilan (French), fierinesa, vo- ] 
hemenee, zeal, flame, spirit, soul, verva \ 
(lUerary or bookish), fervenliiess, fervid- , 
ity (rare), perfervor (rare), enlliusiasm 
(archaic). ' 

ArUonyms; see apathy, indiffebbncb. 

rea, n, 1. Referring to an extent of land: 

(contextual), size, stretch; spec, sheet, ter- i 
rain, t«rrane; . 

t. extent, expanse, space, room \,now 1 
chiefly spec.). ' 

arena, n. I. Spee. circus, ampfaitheatet, 
cirque, ring, lists (pi.), cockpit 

argument, n. 1. reason (eonlextual); spee. 
silencer, fallacy, sophism, sockdologer 
(slajin, V. S.), settler (coOiq.), diiemina; 

see REASON. 

a. See DiactTssioN, oiaPOTB. 
aricht, odii Spec, rightly, correctly, just- 
ly, properly. 

Antonyms: see die. 
arliinf, n. 1. See RISE 

9. origination, spring, rise, beginnilig, 

birth, etc. Cf. akise, v. i., a. 
arlitoora«r, n. 1. Referring to a form or 

j/rineipU of govemm^: optimacy (rare), 

patriciate (rore). 
AnlonyTTis: see demochact. 

>. See NOBiLriT. 

(. As a collective; quality (chiefly arehaie 

or dial.). 

approximAtali': aboiA. 



t^* See Hotu ol EipUnatloa. 


arlstoerat, n. patrician (learned), op- 

timate (learned); see noble. 
aristocratio, a, 1. See noble. 

a. patrician (rare), [common. 

Antonyms: see democratic, plebeian, 

arm, n. 1. wing (coUoq. or humorous^ exc. 

spec.); spec, brachium, humerus, forearm. 

a. brandi; spec, inlet, estuary, fiord or 

fjord; see branch. 

S. projection; spec, transept, jib, davit, 

fluke, crane; see boom. 

4. See POWER, weapon, sleeve. 

arm, v. t, 1. equip; spec, panoply, heel, 
lead G^)i forearm, 
a. SeeABMOR. 

armed, a. equipped (rare); spec, pano- 
plied, forearmed. 
Antontpns: seejmABMED. 

armhole, n. 1. See armpit. 
a. armseye (tech.), scye (rare). 

armor, n. Spec, panoply, mail, bard. 

armor, v. t. 1. Referring to man or horse: 
arm, mail; spec, panoply, helm (archaic 
or poetic). 

a. Referring to a vessel^ aSroplane, etc.: 
protect (contextual), plate, mail (rare). 

armored, a. mailed, mail-clad; spec, pano- 
plied, loricate, iron-clad. 

armpit, n. armhole, axilla (tech.), 

arma, n. 1. armament, armor (obs. or rare); 
see WEAPON. 

a. In heraldry: coat of arms or (for short) 
coat, bearings (pi,; often in sing^^ blazon, 
ensign, blazonment, blazonry. 

army, n. 1. host (archaic or poetic), array 
(archaic), force, forces (pi.), troops (pi.), 
legion or (pi.) legions (orig. spec.), men- 
of-war (pi.; now rare or hist.), battalion 
(archaic); spec, fyrd (hist,), division, corps, 
a. See multitude, organization. 

arrange, v. t. 1. dispose, distribute, allo- 
cate (learned), lay; spec, adjust, classify, 
range, rank, trim, organize, systematize, 
marshal, collocate, form, array, eroup, 
defilade, brigade, dress, pitch, echelon, 
space, size, compose, recompose, order, 
tidy (coUoq.), drape, seriate (rare); see 


Antonyms: see disarrange, confuse. 
a. In music: spec, orchestrate, score, in- 

5. settle, accommodate, reconcile, com- 
pose, compound^ compromise (obs. or ar- 
chaic); spec, adjust, arbitrate, mediate. 


arrangement, n. 1. disposure, disposition. 

allocation (learned), ordinance (now only 
in literature or art); spec, systematizalion, 
ordination, malarrangement, trim, group- 
age, organization, defilade, categorization, 
chronography, collocation, cc^ification; 


Antonyms: see disorder. 
a. Referring to the resuU: disposure, dis- 
position, form, shape, etc. (with most of the 
term>s under 1., above), lay; spec, make-up, 
orderliness, array, schematism, cosmos. 
S. In music: spec, orchestration, instru- 
mentation, score. 

4. settlement, accommodation, reconcili- 
ation, composite; spec, exchange, stipu- 

5. Referring to the result: settlement; 
svec. mise (Eng.; hist.), bundobust (Anr 
glo-Indian); see agreement. 


arranger, n. Spec, disposer, distributer, 
classifier, marshal, etc. Cf. arrange. 

arrest, v. t. 1. See stop, restrain. 
a. seize, apprehend, bond (slang), nick 
(coUoq. or slang), grab (colloq,), pinch 
(slang), collar (slang). 

arrest, n. 1. See stoppage, restraint, 


a. seizure, apprehension, arrestment 

(chiefly Scot.), arrestation (a Gallicism), 
arrival, n. coming, access (rare), advent, 

subvention (rare; chiefly spec.). 
arrive, v. i. come, attain (with "to"), 

accede (rare), subvene (rare; chiefly spec.), 

reach (with *'to"). *' Arrive'* takes ^*ai*' for 

its preposition. 
arrogance, n. presumption, assumption, 

pride, overweening, haughtiness, etc, Cf. 


arrogant, a, presumptuous, overbearing, 
assuming, assumptive (rare), magisterial 
(bookish or learned), fastuous (rare), high- 
minded, high, overweening, uppish (col- 
loq.), topping; see self-important, im- 
pudent, HAUGHTY, ROUGH. 
Antonyms: see agreeable, affable, 

condescending, OBSEQUIOUS. 

arrow, n. missile (contextual), shaft; spec, 
bolt, flight, sumpit, vire (hist.), quarrel. 

arrow-headed, a, sagittate sagittated; — 
both tech, 

arsenal, n. armory. 

arsis, n. thesis (the original sense of **thesis** 
being the same as the present common 
sense of **arsis," and vice versa). 

Cross references: see Note, 
i: fieet. 

arma, equipmerU. 
axmorial: heraldic 
annory: areenal. 
•roint, inter j.: atoay. 

aromatlo: odorous. 
around: about. 
arouse: wake, rouse, excite, 
arraign: accuse. 
arrant: outrageous, 
r, n..* arranQement, army. 

body, group, clothing. 
array, v. L: arrange, dothe. 
arrear: debt. 
arrive, v. t.: reach. 
arrogate: appropricUe, assume, 

arrowy: rapid. 

t3r See Notes of EzpUnation. 

ftit, n. 1. craft, skill {arciiaic); spec, trade, 
handicraft, cacotechny (rare), diaciplinc, 
a. See skill, ingeniousniiss, LBARwrna, 

S, craft, craftiness, wiliness, deceitful- 
neaa, artfulness, Btrat^gy, cunninij, insidi- 
ouanees (rare), finesse, aesign, artifice, in- 
genuity, policy, slyness, subtlety or subtlo- 
nesa (boA now rare), puwkiaeas (Sail, or 
di/U.), foxiness (chiefly eollog.), Coxery 
(rare); see TRicKiNEas; — moelly taitk iipe- 
eific im]^icalion.s. 
Anbmjpna: spec. artlesatiesB, franknesa 
(see ARTLESS, frank). 

•Ttlult a. 1. See beillpttl, ingexious. 
>. crafty, ely, wily, deceitful, ounninK, 
mercurial (Jig.), caut«Ious (archaic), subtle 
(now rare), subtile (d>sotescerU), stealthy, 
politic, insidious (rare), versute (rare), foxy 
(chiefly coUog.); crooked, fly (slang), nawky 
(Scot, or dial.; chiefly nwmorous); see 
TBICKt; — mostly with specific impiicaiiims. 
Antonyma: see artlkss, tbank. 

tutlole, n, I. piece; spec, contribution, 
critique, review, essay, feuilleton 
(French), appreciation, notice, paper, 
skit, study, sketch, apology. 
S. thing (conlextual), commodity; spec. 
export, import; see qoodb. 

tutlfic*^ n. 1. See art, iNGENionsNESs. 
S. device, trick, subterfuge, shuffle, fi- 
nesse, ingenuity (rare), maneuver, prac- 
tice, design, contrivance, fetch, trickery 
(rare), Btratsgv (rare), stratagem, feint; 
spec, counterplot; see tbick, pretense. 

artlllofli, n. craftsman; spec, artizan, ar- 
tist, DiedaluB (fig.). 

aiUfloiol, a. factitious, made, false, made- 
up, manufactured (spec, or fig.), painted 
(spec, orfi^/.); spec, latwred, unnatural, the- 
atrical, constrained, ciUtivated; see pnB- 


Antonyms: see natcral. 

artUIary, n. ordnance, enginery (archaic); 
spec, archery, broadside, battery, onagers 
(pi.), trebuckets (p(.); aee cannonbt. 

■TtUlsrymsn, n. iFunner; see cannoneer. 

Kttlit, n. artiste (French); spec, dilettante, 
pastelliat, painter, sculptor, etcher, car- 
toonist, coforiat, water-coloriat, landscap- 
ist, impressionist, cubist, futurist, rapm 
(frencn), pianist, violinist, organist, ele. 
""'  n, "nrii,i " e-rr n^ shownby Ihe cart' 

^^^P The term "artist," exe. t 

^^^^ 1^ Cron rtfimai: •« Male. 

I KttmlBMt Joint, pranmint 

L SBoandaniMS aavndancn- 

^^^^ uomduitfa.: riniui. wilrDlJ 

text, refers to one skilled in painlity, sculpt- 
ure, etc. 
artiaU«, n. artful (archaic), da»lal (fig.), 
spec. paiiit«Tly. 

Antonyms: see inaktistic. 

S. simple, innocent, inartificial, naive or 
(less jAucd) naif, natural, guilelcas, ingen- 
uous, straightforward, plain, unsonhisti- 
caled; spec, rural, rude, homely, home- 
Bpun, homebred; see frank. 
Antonyms: see abtfijl, CALcmjiTiNa, 



ity, unsophi 
artificiality (7 

naivety (French). 
tion, ingei 
0, simplei 

etc. Cf. . 

»s, adv. tt eonj. L. like (generc^y canBideredM 

wlgar or slovenly). 

uoend, v. i. I. See risb, cumb, blofb. 

1. Referring to going back in time: mount. 1 
■woend, v. t. climb, mount, riae; spec, re- I 

ascend, clamber, top. 
A ntonyms: see descbnh, 
•so«ndan«y, n. control, ascendance (ra 

aeoent, n. 1. iSpee. rise (which * 

climbing (c/. climb). 

9. alope, rise, gradient (tech.; En,g.); 

aaoetlc, a. austere, abstemious, mortified I 
(rare); " 

Antonyms: see SELF^QRATimNC, OLtrr^ I 

TONOU8, sENBDOOs, convivial. I 

asoetlo, n. Spec, fakir, etyUte, yogi (Hiii- 1 
dv, philos.); see hebmit, 

Aritonyms: see BON-VIVANT, OLVTm^, 

asoeticlBiD, n. austerity, abstemiousneas; 

KBOdbc, V. t. 1. See ATraiBUTB, accredit. 

1. attribute, assign, arrogate (literary), 

aacfiptlau, n. I, See attbibution. 

a. attribution, arrogation (literary), ap* I 

propria tion. 
aaezual, a. neut«r (biol.), aexlesB. 
ABli, a. cinerary (lUerary cr tech.), ashen, 
aih;, a. ashen, cinereous (literary or tedi.), I 

cineraceous (rare), cineritious (Uterary or 4 

tech.), favillous (rore). I 

ulde, n. bye; spec, byplay, by-end, by> I 

matter; see 

uoartalakhtot ditto 
milimmcd: abathoL 
julrn; ath.athj/. 
milior«: aground. 

MMItftlBI iite 

tS" 8« Rotu ot EiptonaHon. 


V. t. 1. With the person as the object: 
request; spec, beg, crave (literary or for- 
mal), pray (archaic, exc, in certain phras- 
es), entr^t, beseech, petition, implore, 
supplicate, dun, importune, move, plead, 
adjure, conjure, obsecrate (rare)y sue, so- 
licit, earwig, knee (rare), coax. 

Antonyms: see forbid, compel. 
a. WiUi the thing asked for as the object: 
request; spec, beg, entreat, implore, sup- 
plicate, demand, petition, clamor, can- 
vass, require, seek \archaic), exact, solicit, 
call, invoke, cry. 

Antonyms: see reject. 
S. See SUMMON, qxtestion, demand, in- 


ask, V. i. 1. Spec, beg, beseech, plead, ap- 
peal, postulate (rare), petition, sue, clam- 
or, importune, ^treat (rare). 

a. 5ee QXTESTION. 

asker, n. S']^. requester, applicant, 
craver, supplicant, entreater, claimant, 
suppliant, orator (law), etc. Cf. ask, v. t. 

askewy a. crooked (corUexttud), distorted, 
awry, atwist (rare), skew, skewed; spec. 

asking, a. 1. interrogative, interrogational, 
interrogatory, implorative, postulatory 

S. Spec, requesting, begging, etc., suppli- 
catory, solicitant (rare), suppUcant. sup- 
pliant, precative, implorative, postulatory 
(rare), precatory (chiefly legal or tech.), 
petitory (rare), petionary (rare). Cf. ask. 

asUng, n. 1. Spec, begging, question, re- 
quest, petition, impetration, imploration 
(rare), application, postulation (rare), 
prayer, canvass, solicitation, importunity, 
dun, entreatment (archaic), entreaty, ob- 
secration, beseechment, obtestation (lit- 
erary or learned), imploring, imploration, 
instancy (rare), soUcitation, suit (literary), 
petition, suppliance, supplication, roga- 
tion, comprecation; see appeal. 
a. Referring to what is asked: see re- 

aspeot, n. U See appearance, sidb, 


a. appearance, light, angle (chiefly col- 
log.), complexion, phase, face, view, look. 

aspiran^ n. aspirer, seeker; spec, candi- 
date, suitor, competitor. 

aspirate, n. spiritus, breathing, aspiration. 

aspirated, a. rough (contexttud), spirated, 
aspirate (rare). 

assail, v.<. 1. iSee ATTACK, 
a. pelt, ply, storm, bestorm (rare); spec. 
din, hoot. 
Antonyms: see defend, shelter. 

assailable, a. pregnable. 

assassin, n. Spec, thuff) sicarian (rare). 

assassinate, v. t. murder (contextual), re- 
move; spec, morganize (U. S.). 

assay, n. trial, test, examination; spec, an- 
alysis, cupel, cupellation, docimasy. 

assembly, n. 1. See gatherinq, com- 

a. Referring to the more formally organized 
gatherings of persons, spec.: synod, salon, 
chapter, plenum, court, moot, conven- 
tion, convocation, congregation, legisla- 
ture, congress, senate, house, diet, cham- 
ber, camera (rare or hist.), cabinet, coun- 
cil, parliament, meeting, chapter, cama- 
rilla (Spanish), comitia (Roman hist.), 
muster; see convention, council, con« 

assess, v. 1. 1. charge, levy, 
a. See TAX, value. 

assessable, a. leviable. 

assimilate, v. t. 1. See conform, liken. 
a. adapt, absorb; spec, digest;— -oZ^ often 
used fig. of ideas. 
Antonyms: see excrete. 

associate, n. companion, fellow, consoci- 
ate (rare); spec, sister, brother, conjunct 
(rare), chum (coUoq.), famiHar, comrade, 
intimate, covey (stang or vulgar), comes 
(astron.), crony, yokefellow, housemate, 
gossip, cummer (Scot.), ally, confederate, 
accomplice, shipmate, clansman, condia- 
ciple (literary), privy, compeer, confrere 
(obs. or rare), confrere (French), classmate, 
messmate, convictor, cohabitant, capitu- 
lary, neighbor, association, partner, co- 
partner, consort, spouse, mate, comate 
(rare), coadjutor; see ally, sister, col- 
league, attendant. 

associate, v. t. 1. join, unite, link, conjoin, 
attach (with "to ), combine, ally (chieflp 
spec.), mingle; spec, pool, syndicate, bn- 
gade, regiment, consort, couple, league, 
a. Referring to mental association: con- 
nect, join, unite, Unk, sort (rare or liters 
ary), consort (rare or literary), couple, 

tsr Cross references: see Note. 

aspiration: aspirate, desire, 

assererate: state. 


assiduous: diligent, constant. 

aspire: desire, rise. 

active, persistent. 

•sleep: deeping, numb. 

asquint, adv.: obliquely. 

assign: appoint, refer, appoT' 

•slope: sloping. 

asquint, a.: squint-eyed. 

tion, appropriate, cuijudge, os- 

asperltf: roughnen, acrimony. 

ass: donkey, blockhead. 

cribe, attribute, transfer. 

mmp%n%i apnnkU, dtsparaoe. 

assault: attack. 

Sipersloii: aprinJdino, diapat' 

assent, v. i.: accede. 

assist: serve. 


assistance: aid, contribution. 

assert: maintain, state. 

assistant, a.: accessory, hdpfvi. 

msphTxiJitlon: tuffooation. 

assets: property. 

assistant, n.: aider. 

tS' See Notes of Ezplanatloa. 


•■saeljtte, v. 1. 1. unite, combine, join, con- 
join, coneociate (rare), mingle: s/kc. mis- 
aort (rore), mingle, mix, neighbor, herd, 

t. companion {ran;), conaort lliierary or 
formal). teUow iron), assort (rare), felTow- 
ship, accompany (rore), train (.slang), oon- 
Bociale (rare), eort (dial, or archaie). for- 
gather; tpec. Bororize (rare), fraternize, 
mingle, mix, neighbor, clique, crony 
(race), herd, haunt {rare, exc. oj ani- 
■mala), miasort (rare), hobnob; see con- 

•iiaaoUtiaii, n. 1. joining, union, connec- 
tion, conjunction (rare), linking, combi- 
nation, alliance (rare, exc. spec.), mingling; 

a. company, companionship, fellowBhip, 
consociation (rare), consort (Ziferary), 
consortion (rare); «pec. comradeahip, 
comradery (rare), camaraderie (French), 
confraternization (rare), fraternization, 

>. body; gpec. company, society, band, 
trooj), crew, gang, dan, concern, conso- 
ciation, pool, trust, combine, hong (CAi- 
nese), noev (Ckijtese), Burachenschoft 
(German), bond (Dutch), league, craft, 
trade, profeaaion, brigade, union, mys- 
tery, college, Atieuicum, guild, board, 
fellowship, academy, order, sodality, 
brotherhood, sisterhood, institute, con- 
gregation, communion, connection, somaj 
(India), fratry (o6s, or hist), choir, chan- 
try, ku-klux, chapter, camorra, organiza- 
tion, corps, bunt, clique, carbonani (pi,; 
Italian); see convent, party, compant, 


ctoJum); spec, reassume, arrogate. 
S. postulate, suppose, fiction (rare), feign, 
presume, preauppiMe, say (used m the im- 
peraHtte), hypothesize, hypothetize (rare), 
posit, pose (rore), beg (chiefly in "to beg 

Antonyms: see oekt. 
•. affect, take (a eharacter), invest (i 
sey mith), endue {liUTary), strike (an < 
lude); spec, reasaume; see act. 

Anlonj/ms: see doff. 
4. take (as in "to lake the shape of). 
i. See 

BBsmiie, u. t. presume, \'enture. 

»iBuin«d, a. supposed, hypothetical, hy- 
pothetic, Buppoaititious, suppositional, 
supposiUve, fictional, fictionary (rare), 
presupposed, presumptive, paper (ail- 

■Mj.); spec, given. 

Assnmliii;, a. presuming, nervy (dang), 
presumptuous, immodest (rare), assump- 
tive, hoity-toity {unaoily implying petu- 
lance or iU-ttmper), superior, forward, 

lofty; we ARROGANT. 

Antonyms: see abject, Uodest, VSFHa- 

assumption, n. 1. taking; spec, reaasump- 

S. supposition, suppoaal (rare), Buppo- 
aure (rare), postulation, presupposition, 
prraupposal (rare), presumption, hy- 
pothesis (tech, or Zeameo). 
Andmjfma: seeDENiAi. 
1. Re/erring to the thin^ asBumed: postu- 
late (logic, etc.), hypothesis (lech, or 
learned), suppose (rare), fiction; spec, 
make-believe, datum, premies, condition, 
principle. The terms under sense a art 
also used concrelelp. 

4. affectation, investiture, enduement 
(liUrary), striking, etc. 
E. presumption, superiority, loftiness, 
nerve (slang), cneek (nUnig), forwardness; 


aiBumptlve, a. 1. See 

1. suppository, postulative, presuppoai- 

•ssurmnoe, n. 1. warrant, certification; 

>. confidence (eontextval), self-assurance, 
sufficiency, aelf-confidence, self-reliance, 
self-possession, aplomb (French), self- 
trust, self-security (rare), self-sufficiency, 
plerophory (rare); spec, cverconfideuce, 
overtrust (rare), bimiptiousneaa, cool- 
ness, cocksm^neas, nerve (slang), cheek 
(slang); see boldness, presdmption, IM- 
Antonyms: see timidity, docbt, dis- ' 



Bssuie, v. t. 1, warrant, tell (conUxtuat), 
certify, resolve (a reflexive); spec, re 

9. See INSURE. 
usareil, a. confident (contexiual), self-as- ) 
Bured, self-confident, self-reliant, immod- 
est (rare), self-aasertive, self-posaeesed; ' 
spec, bumptious, cool, overconfident, . 
flush (rare), Icarian (flg.), independent^ 
crank (dial.), nervy (slajig), cheeky (slonff), ' 
presumptuous : see bold, impudent, bbu>> 


Antonyms: see abject, nouBTFUL, tdi- 


I kMuac*: milinalt, apfta—.ta 

r See Hotel ol Expluutifm. 


assurins, a. Spec, reassuring, comfort- 
able, encouraging, emboldening. 
Antonyms: see depressing, horrible. 

astern, adv. 1. aft, abaft (as in *'the gale 
was abafV), 


astir, a. active, moving; spec, agog; see 


astray, a. 1. lost, wandering. 
9. abroad, out, wide, off (coUoq,). 

astringent, a. constrictive, styptic; spec, 
puckery, haemostatic, rou^, bmding (coir 

astrologer, n. Chaldean 0^.), astrologian 
(rare), cock (fig.; poetic). 

astronomy, n. Spec, astrology, astrom- 
ancy, meteoroscopy, uranology, uranog- 
raphy, astrophysics, astrochemistry, as- 

asylum, n. U See refuge. 
S. home (contextual), college (chiefly 
Eng.); spec, madhouse, sanitarium, beth- 
lehem (rare), bedlam (archaic). 

at, prep, 1. Referring to place: in, to 
(U,S. or dial, Eng,). 
S. Referring to time: in, to, by. 

atheistic, a, godless. 

athlete, n. Spec, boxer, fighter, pancra- 
tiast, acrobat. 
Antonyms: see weakling. 

athletic, a, 1. palsestral (rare); spec. 
agonistic, gymnastic, acrobatic. 

athletics, n. Spec, gymnastics, agonis- 
tics, acrobatism. 

atmospheric a, airy, aerial, elemental 
(referring to almospheric forces), meteoric 

atomise, v, t. comminute, spray, reduce 
(contextiud); spec, nebulize. 

atomiser, n. sprayer; spec, odorator, 

atone, v, i, pay (with **for^*). 

attach, V, t. 1. take, seize, nail (chs. or 
slang); spec, garnishee, 
a. join (contextual), add (corUextual), 
unite (contextiud) t connect, fasten, fix, af- 
fix, annex, tie (chiefly spec,), wed (Jig.), bind 
(chiefly spec,), confix (rare); spec, append, 
chain, tag, tack, tie, tail, hook, ninge, screw, 
pin, engraft, subjoin, barnacle (rare). 
Antonyms: see separate, detach, 
s. see join, add, associate, appoint, 

attachable, a. Spec, fastenable, annex- 
able, connectable, appendable, etc. Cf. 


attachment, n. 1. joining (contextual), 
union (contextiud), connection, annexa- 
tion, affixture (rare); spec, confixation 
(rare), subjimction (rare), appending, 

% Spec, fixture, affix, annex, postfix, ap- 
penoicle, appendix, insertion, fixtures 
Xpl,; chiefly U, S,); see appendage. 
S. See joining, addition, affection, 


attack, V. i. 1. assault, assail, engage, en- 
counter, attempt (arcfuiic), aggress (rare; 
V, i, only), tackle (coUoq.), storm (diiefly 
spec.); spec, charge, ply, beset (literary), 
strike, bait, torpedo, mob, grenade, rush, 
flank, surprise, fusillade, storm, raid. 
Antonyms: see defend, protect, shel- 

S. In a nonphysical sense: assail, impugn 
(literary); see dispute, oppose, accuse. 
Antonyms: see defend. 
S. See CENSURE, affect, begin. 

attack, n. 1. assault, assailment, aggres- 
sion, encounter, set, onset, offense, oppug- 
nation (rare); spec, charge, onslaught, 
stroke, musketade, battery, camisade or 
camisado (archaic or mil,), descent, bom- 
bardment, connonade, raid, sally, sur- 
prise, escalade, surprisal, shock, storm. 
Antonyms: see protection, defense. 
S. In a nonphysiccd sense: assault, im- 
pugent (rare), crusade; see accusation. 
S. access (tech, or literary), onset, seizure; 
spec, epidemic; see fit. 

4. See beginning. 

attempt, v. t. try, essay, assav (archaic), 
offer, make, undertake, endeavor (ar- 
chaic), enterprise (archaic); spec, venture. 

attempt, n. trial, try (colloq!), endeavor, 
venture, slap (coUoq. or slang), offer (rare), 
whack (slang), shy (slang), essay (archaic 
or literary), set, assay (archaic), under- 

attend, v, t, 1. tend (now rare, arcfuiic, or 
U. S,, exc, spec.), serve, mind, nurse, 
keep; spec, guard, stroke, watch, feed, 
valet, midwife, wash. 
Antonyms: see disregard, ignore. 

5. In the sense of ^'to be present at'\' spec, 
frequent, haunt. 

S. See accompany, serve, follow. 

Cross references: see Note. 
astonlali: surpriae. 
aatoond: «iirpn«e. 
astraddle: bestridinO' 
astrlot: eonatriet. 
astrlda: beatriding. 
astrlnce: constrict 
astute: dUcemtng, threwd, 

asunder: apart. 
athwart: acroaa. 
atmosphere: air. 
atomy: partide, pygmy, 
atomy : skeleton. 
atonio: weak, unaccented. 
atrabilious: acrimonums. 
atrocious: wicked, crttet, out" 

atrocity: wickedness, cruelty, 
outrage, monstrosity. 

attach, V. i.: stick, belong, accrue. 

attain, v. t.: reach, get, accom- 

attain, v. i.: reach, arrive, come. 

attainment: accomplishment. 

attaint, r. t.: contaminate, aidly, 

attaint, n.: contamination. 

t^* See Notes of Explanation. 

ftttand, V. i. t. See usTEH. BERVI:. 

%, wait, hang {with "upon' ); epee. dangle. 

S. In the sense of "to give atienlioii": tend, 

look (loifft "after"); spec, minister (uau- 

ally vHlh "to"), care {chiefly mlh "for"), 

attandaiice. n. 1. tendance, attention, 
minding, keeping. 

%, waiting (with "upon"), hanging (with 
"upon,"), tendance (rare); spec. Bcrvice. 


Kttendant, a. 1. miiUBterial, attending; 
spec, serving. 


attendant, n. compaoioa. associate; spec. 
shadow, satellite (chief!)/ derogtUary), peo- 
ple (pi.), barnacle Cffff.), famulua {Lalin), 
chamberlain, escort, acolyte, page, but- 
tons (coUoq.), peon (iTidia), orderly, 
fcmine de chambre (French), courtier, 
courier, outrider, sergeant , henehmaD, 
gillie (Scot.), valet, minder, keeper, body- 
guard, caddie, cad (Eng.); see handuaid, 

attention, n. t. consideration, observ- 
ance, regard, heed, respect, notice, ad- 
vertence, thought, intentncfla, concentra- 
tion, ear (as in "to gwe ear," "to have the 
ear of"), observancy {archaic); see appli- 

Antonyms: see disrgoasd, inattgin- 

1. See civiLiTT, SERVICE. 
attentive, a. I. considerate, observant, 
heedful, studious, advertent (rare), re- 
R.irdful, atteot (arehaie), awake (with 
"to"), watchful, intent (wUh "on"), in- 
• sntive {archaic), bent (rare, exc. in "bent 
'It"), thoughtful, concentrated, mindful, 
:arefut, regardant (rare); spec, searching, 
resolved, atudioua (tirith "of"). 
AnUmyms: see absent, djaitehtivb. 

t. See POLITE. 
attentlveiieas, n. 1. consideration, regard, 
heed, intentness, e(c. Cf. attentive. 

». See POUTBNBSS, civilitt. 
attenuate, i>. t. 1. exlemiat« (rare), spin 
(with "out"); spec, draw, finedraw, rope. 


attenuated, a. thin; spec, drawn-out, 
spun-out, finespun, subtle; see blender. 

atteDuaUon, n. 1. extenuation {rare); 
spec, drawing, finedrawing. 
S. Spec, thinning (tee thin, v.), thinness 
(see THIN, a.), subtlety; see blemce&nkbs, 


attie, n. earret, loft, cockloft (archaic; of- 
ten spec^, Boler (oba. or rare), sky parlor 
{humorous or eoUaq.). 

attitude, n. 1. Referring to the body or 
bodily appearance; see posture, air. 
1. Referring to the mind: posture, posi- 
tion, set; spec, feeling, twist, prejudice. 

attorney, n. 1. See aoent. 
t. In the sejtse of "attorney at latv": spec. 
solicitor, curator, procurator, proctor, 
barrister, counselor, advocate. 

attract, v. t. 1. See DRAW, catch. 
1. draw, magnetize (fig.), take, pull; spec. 
drag, allure, entice, seduce {esp. to evU), 
solicit, invite, tempt, attempt (arcAaic), 
lure, bait, trap, bonnet, decoy {often jig.), 
button (slang), charm. 
Antonyms: see repel, disotibt. 

attraotlon, n. 1. iSpec. affinity, gravita- 
tion, gravity; see drawing. 
a. Referring to the act or action or qiudUy; 
draw (rare), magnetism (jig.), pulT; spec, 
affinity, allurement, appeal, seduction 
(esp. Co evU), charm, enticement, inveigle- 
ment, temptation, solicitation, glamour. 
t. Referring to the thing that attracts: Cyno- 
sure (chiefly literary or learnt), bait, do- 
coy, magnet, lure, charm. Moat of the 
terms under S are similarly used. 

attraotlve, a. 1. See drawing. 
9. drawing, alluring, seductive (esp. to 
einl), catchy (coSoq.), seducing (esp. to 
evil), magnetic, allective (rare); spec, en- 
ticing, decoying, prepossessing, tempting, 
taking, catchy, pleasing, psychagogic 
(rare), winning, winsome, temptatlous 
(rare), charming, meretricious; seePLBAS- 

Anlonyms: see 


attrlltutable, a. referable, refcrrible, as- 
cribable, imputable, due, chargeable, ow- 
ing; spec, traceable. 

attrittnte, n. t. 1. refer, ascribe, assign, im- 
pute, lay, attach, accredit, count, give, 
place, put; spec, mother, father. 
Antonyms: see refuse. 
i. See ASCRIBE. 

attribution, n. reference, ascription, a»- 
flignment, ete. Cf. attribute, i'. 

auction, a. sale {contextual); spec, subhas- 
tation, cant {chiefly Irish), survey (rfiai. 

andibie, a. sensible {eontesAuaT), auricular 
(rore), bearable (rare). 

attHt: Uitifv. aiMtntie 
Attlo, a..- daieic. rtflne. 

I atttn, >. (..- clothe. 
mtttre, ti.,' clothing. 
atUtudtnlaa: poit. 

atatid. ^^^1 


audienoe* n. 1. Referring to the act, factf 
or action: hearing, ear; spec, durbar 
(East India), court. 

S. Referring to those that hear: auditory 
(rare); spec, congregation, theater, 
diurch, gallery gods {pi.; coUoq.), gallery, 
orchestra, pit; see hearer. 

auditoriuiii, n. auditory (rare); spec, pit, 
parterre, parquet, cockpit, orchestra. 

auricular, a. aural, heard (rare), auditory 
(referring to the function of the ear), otic 

auspidoua, a. 1. See ominous, prosper- 
S. favorable, propitious, promising 

})romiseful, prosperous, white (literary), 
ucky, fortunate, bright, hopeful, rosy, 
flattering, Favonian (rare), felicitous 
(chiefly spec.); spec, brilliant, fair. 
Antonyms: see inauspicious, ill- 

austere, a. strict (contextyxiL) , severe, rig- 
id, stem, hard, difficult (rare), rigorous, 
Catonian (rare), astringent (rare); spec. 
rugged; see ascetic, abstemious. 
ArUonyms: see gentle, self-gratify- 

austerity, n. strictness, severity, rigidity, 
rigor, rigorism, etc. Cf. austere. 

authenticate, v. t. 1. Spec, canonize, 
a. attest, certify, seal (chiefly spec.), 
avouch; spec, coattest, consign (rare), 
countersign, certificate, test, validate. 

author, n. 1. originator, creator, creatress 
or creatrix (fern.), breeder (chiefly spec, or 
fig.), doer, maker; spec, constructor, de- 
viser, producer, inventor, begetter, father, 
mother; see creator. 

ArUonyms: see creature. 
S. authoress (fem.). composer; spec. 
writer, scribe, poet, literatist (rare), quill- 
driver (contempttums), penner, penman, 
scribbler, inditer, contributor, coauthor, 
pastoralist, magazinist, magaziner, leg- 
endary, mythologist, penny-a-liner, libret- 
tist, Gohard (hist.), Utterateur, pam- 
phleteer (chiefly derogatory), paragraphist, 
paragrapher, compiler, essayist, encyclo- 
pedist, bluestocking (coUoq.), penwoman, 
pot-boiler (coUoq.), hack, prosaist, paro- 
dist, ecloguist, proser, romancer, lexi- 
co^pher, textualist, critic, reviewer, 
editor. "Author" is now generally used 
instead of '^authoress." 

authoritative, a. 1. potestative (rare), 
magisterial (rare), magistral (rare); spec. 

official, standard, valid, canonical, ortho- 
dox, cathedral. 

S. commanding, imperative, dictatorial, 
imperial (rare or allusive), jussive (rare), 
peremptory, lordly, imperious; spec, mas- 
terful; see DOMINEERING. 

Antonyms: see submissive, obedient. 
authority, n. 1. power, command, domin- 
ion, jurisdiction (chiefly spec.), authoriza- 
tion, warrant (chiefly spec.), competency, 
faculty (chiefly eccl.); spec, supremacy, 
canonicity, canonicalness, agency> pleni- 
potence, validity. 


S. precedent; spec, decision, dictum, tes- 

authorization, n. permission, license, 
sanction, warrant, etc. 

authorize, v. t. permit, hcense, sanction, 
warrant, empower, enable; spec, commis- 
sion, legalize, legitimate, fiat (rare), fac- 
ulty (chiefly ecd.). 
Antonyms: see forbid. 

authorship, n. composition (which see); 
spec, pencraft (rare). 

autocracy, n. monarchv, despotism, abso- 
lutism, tyranny (chiefly wUh reference to 
ancierit rulers); spec, czarism, tsarism, 
kaiserism, Csesarism. 

autocrat, n. monarch, despot (after ann 
dent Greek usage), tyrant (chiefly wUh ref- 
erence to ancient rulers), dictator (chiefly 
hist, and spec); spec, czar or tsar (hist.), 
czarina or tsarina (hist.). Kaiser (hist.), 
emperor, Caesar (hist.). 

autocratic, a. 1. arbitrary, despotic (after 
ancient Greek u^age), absolute, tyrannous 
or tyrant (chiefly in reference to anderU 
Antonyms: see democratic, yielding. 
S. See arbitrary. 

autograph, n. Spec, holograph, sign- 
manual; see SIGNATURE. 

autographic, a. 1. autograph, manual 
(signature); spec, holographic, holograph. 
S. self-recording, ipsographic (rare). 

automatic, a. 1. self-acting, self-regulat- 
ing, self -moving; spec, mechanical, spon- 
taneous; see AUTOMOBILE, a. 

automobile, a. automatic (contextual), 
self-moving, locomobile, locomotive 
(chiefly spec), automotive. 

automobile, n. locomobile, locomotive 
(chiefly spec), machine (coUoq.), motor 
(coUoq.); spec, autocar, motor-car, elec- 

Cross references: see Note. 
aadltory: aurictUar. 
aadltory: audience^ audiiorium. 
ancht: anything^ cipher. 
aocment: increiise. 
ancmentation: incretue. 
aucvr, n.; diviner. 

mugux, V. t.: predict^ ngnify. 
sugary: divination, sign. 
sugttSt: imperial, imposing. 
surs: emanation, exhalation, 
sureste: golden, gilded. 
sureols: crown, halo. 

suspioate: begin. 

aiisploe: divinaiion, sign {in 

pi.), patronage. 
suthentio: reliable, genuifie> 
suthorised: <iccr edited. 
automaton: machine. 
autonomous: edf -governing. 

fS^ See Notes of Explanation. 

trie, steamer, runabout, limousine, t«ur- 
ing car, roaiislor, towncar, coupe, coupe- 
let, Bcdan, coiiverlible, truck, torpedo, 
tTMtflr, motoroyi-le, motocycle, cycle car. 

•ntamn, n. harvest (,obs. or dvU.), fall 
(chiefiy U. S.). 

anslUarT, n. secondary, subsidiary, suc- 
centuriate (rare), parergal (rare); seeAo- 


avBlUble, a. Spec, ready, handy, 
venient, present, free, disposable, 

KTalanchs, n, slide, lauwine (rare); spec. 

landslide (cfaefly U. S.), landslip (chiefiy 

Eng.), snowslide, snowslip, glissade, 

I boulement {French). 
mvenser, n. Spec, revenger, Ate, Eu- 

menides {^.), Erinnyes (pi.), Alecto, 

i (pi.). I 
I, Tisiphar 


kTersse, n. mean, normal, niu, rule. 

kverage, v. i. run, go; spec, equate. 

sTaraloii, n. disliKe, repugnance, repul- 
sion, antipathy, dyspathy (rare); spec. 
nausea, horror (imth "of"), loathing, Rus- 
sophobia, negrophobia, anthrophobia, 
' ' ia, Anglopliobia, C 


Anltmifm*: tee liking, love, 

kvert, B. I. turn (chiefly with "from" or 
"away"), divert, forfeod (archaic), prci- 
vent (rare); tpec. parry. 
Anbmifmg: see incur. 

KTlKry, n. Spec, cage, birdhouse, dovecote. 

avlKtlau, n. aeronautics, flying; ajiec. glid- 
ing, soaring, climbing, aSroplaning, hy- 
droplaning, planing (coltpg.), volplauin^. 

«Tlator, n. aeronaut, airman, flyer, air- 
woman, aviatreBB or aviatrix, birdmaD 
(colloq.), birdwoman (colioq.); spec, pilot, 

gider, observer, spotter (miiilary catU), 
imber, scout. 
«Told, V. t. 1. ahun, elude, evade, escape, 
balk, beware, miaa (eonteitwU), clear, flee, 
dodce, blink, run (contextual), help (with 
a ciau«e introduced by "biit"), blench 
(rore), evite (rare), eschew (rare or oba., 
exc. tpec.); spec, boycott, double, slip. 
Anlonyms: see face, mbi 


KTolduiee, n. elusion, evasion, eaohewal, 
shunning, eschewmeot (rare), escape 
(rareorobs., exc. spec), evitatiou (rare). 

await, II, t. tarry, wait, expect (obs.), abid^ 
bide; spec, watch. 

awaka, a. 1. waking; spec, open-eyed. 
Antonyms: see OKCONSCioua. 
J. See coNsciouB, aij;rt, attentt 

■wake, V. i. waken, awaken, rouse, 

Bwaid, n. 1. See decision. 
•■ assignment, adjudication, adjudge- 

awaie, a. 1. cognizant, conscious, sensible, 
ware (archaic), intelligent (noTn rare). 

d or formal, 
A "<,/■% acau 

"uiilh"), informed (mth "of ), acquainted 
(■with "liiiih"); spec, familial (with teith"). 
"Aware" is uied wiih "of" 
Bwarenasi, n. iSpec. cognisance, acquaint- 

away, a. & ode. 1, See apart, absent. 

S. off, hence. 
away, iJiierj. b^one, aroint (obs. or ar- 
chaic), hence, off (chiefly with "with"), 
avaunt (a word denoting aeersion; now 
literary or affected), go; spec, scat, shoo, 

■we, n. abashment, fear, reverence, dread. 
Aiitonymt: see contempt. 

awful, a. fearful, dread, awesome, dreadful. 

awkward, a. 1. ungainly, uncouth, clown- 
ish, gauche (French), wooden, rustic, 

Antonyms: tee am 
a. tactless, clumsy, 
(rare), boorish. 



tS" Bee Hotas ot Eiplaaation. 

I. See B 
awkwardneii, n. maladresse (Frei- . 
gaucherie (French), rusticity, gawkine 
(coUoq.), ineptitude, ineptness, inj ' 
(rare), inaptitude (rare), ungainlini 

couthness, ciownishness; see CLtntsiKEse. 
izlal, a. pivotal. 

axiomatto, a. self -evident, apodeictio 
(learned), necessary; spec, gnomic, gnom- 

axii, n. Spec, apindli 


azle» n. axis (rare), shaft; spec, axletree, 
arbor, spindle; see pivot. 

-sliaped, a. dolabriform (tech.), securi- 
form (rare), 

ure, a. blue (contextiud), cerulean (liters 
ary)f celestic (literary or tech.)f cerule (pa^ 
etic), cerulescent (rare), skyey (coUoq. or 
undignified; rare). 

babble, v, i. 1. Referring to inarticulaie or 
meaningless sounds^ as of a baby, idiot, etc.; 
chatter, clatter, cackle, prate, blather or 
blither (dial.), prattle, patter (coUoq^.), 
gabble (coUoq.; chiefly derogatory), chip- 
per (rare), claver (Scot.), deblaterate 
{rare and humorous or contemptuous), 
dack (chiefly derogatory), twaddle (rare), 
gibber (chiefly spec.), jargon, jargonize 
Xrare); spec, orivel, rave. 
9. See CHATTER (referring to senseless or 
trivial talk), murmttr (as brooks, leaves, 

etc.), TATTLE. 

bmbble, v. t. 1. chatter, clatter, prattle, 
prate, blather or blither (dial.), gabble 
XcoUoq.; chiefly derogatory). 


babble, n. 1. chatter, clatter, prattle, prat- 
ing (rare), blatter or blether or blather 
(dial.), bibble-babble, babblement, blat- 
eration or deblateration (rare and hu- 
morous or contemptuous) y patter, gabble 
(coUoq.; chiefly derogatory), i argon, prat- 
tlement (rare), cackle, clack, claver 
(Scot.), clatter, clitter-clatter (rare), prit- 
tle-prattle; spec, drivel. 


babyish, a. infantine, infantile, childish, 

dolly or dollish. 
Bacobanal, n. 1. Bacchant (masc. or 

fern.), Bacchante (fem.). Bacchanalian, 

Bacchffi (pi.; fem.); spec. Thyiad (fem.), 

maenad (Jem.). 

9. See REVELER. 

ba<»cliio, a. 1. Bacchanalian, Dionysiac, 
Dionysian, Dionysic. 


back, n. posterior, back side (now used only 
of the buttocks when used as one word), 
rear, arrear (archaic), backing, dorsum 
(tech.); spec, behind (vulgar), breech, butt, 
cascabel, gorge, rearward (of an army; ar- 
chaic); see BUTTOCKS, REVERSE. 

Antonyms: see front. 
backbone, n. U spine, spinal column, 
rachis (tech.), spina (Latin; tech.), chine 
(tech. or archaic), ridgebone (rare). 


background, n. Tear, distance; spec. 
groundwork, setting, distemper. 
Antonyms: see foreground. 

baoksUde, v. i. sUde (contextual; rare), 
lapse, fall, revert, weaken, tergiversate 
(rare); spec, refall (rare); see apostatize, 


backward, adv. back, arear, hindward, 
rearward, astern (naul. or fig.), abaft (now 
only naut.), baft (archaic; now only naul.). 

Antonyms: see forward. 
backward, a. 1. rearward, hindward, 
back, reverse. 

Antonyms: see forward, ahead. 
S. retrogressive, retrograde, regressive, 
recessive; see degenerative, rever- 

Antonyms: see prooressivb, precocious. 
S. retrospective. 
bad, a. 1. In the very general sense of **not 
good": poor, wretched, execrable (a hy- 
perbolism), sad (often jocular), miserable, 
horrid (coUoq.; a weak hyperbole). 

Antonyms: see good, excellent, fair, 

s. see wicked, harmful, unpleasant, 
unsuitable, faulty, imperfect, infe- 
RIOR, INVALID (pron. In-v&rid), ailing, 


badge, n. mark (contextual), emblem, to- 
ken, symbol, sign, ensign (chiefly spec.), 
insignia (pi.; chiefly spec.); spec, marker, 
recognizance (archaic), colors (pi.), re- 
galia (pi.), mon (Japanese), crest, favor, 
laticlave, decoration, cockade, chevron, 
brassard, weeper, angusticlave, rosette, 
cordon, ribbon, button, medal, collar, etc. 

bag, n. container (card; contextual), pouch, 
case, poke (dial, or tech., exc. in **pig in a 
poke"), receptacle (contextual), pocket 
(obs. or spec.); spec, capsule, mail, packet, 
satchel, sabretache, sachet, sack, sac, 
sacklet, reticule, scrip (archaic), purse, 
ditty-bag, gunny, bunt, cod, knapsack, 
portmanteau, haversack, dilly-bag (orig. 
S. See SAC. 

bag, V. t. pouch, sack. 

bag, V. i. pouch, pocket (rare), belly, bulge 
(contextual), swell (contextual), 

baggage, n. 1. encumbrances (pi.), lug- 
gage (chiefly British), viaticals (pi.; rare; 
chiefly mU!), impedimenta (pi.; chiefly 
mil.), truck (coUoq.), traps (pi.; coUoq.), 
plunder (slang or cant), thmgs (pi.; coUoq.; 
contextual), trap (coUoq.), dunnage (sailor^ s 


Cross references: see Note. 

bma: bleat. 

bachelor: celibate. 
back, v.t.: support, mount, drive. 
backbite: censure, defame. 
backing: hack, support. 

badger: harass, tease. 
badinage: pleasantry. 
baffle: defeat. 
baggy: bao-shapedt flaccid. 

%^ See Notes of Explanation. 

bsR-Bhaped, a. ba^gy, pouchy; lech, sac- 
cate, utricular, utnculale, utriculose. 

ballifl, n. I. Spet. bailie (Scol.), pursui- 
vaat {Btig.), catchpoll (literary: archaic). 
beagle (fig.), bumbailiff {eorUemptiuma), 
coaa table, Eranger (Big.), hundreder 

bftket f. {. cook (canUxtiad; dmjly spec); 
spec, bum, roast, Sre, kiln. 

bkke, n. cook (eonlextwd; cktefiy epec.); 
spec, roast, bum. 

balanoe, n. 1. scales (pi.). 
S. iMise, equilibrium, libration (rare), 
equipoise, equilibrity (rare), equiponder- 
anoe (learned), equiponderancy (rare); 
spec, isostaay, Btability, 0/ten uaedfig. of 
other than phyticai forct 
%. See coDNTERpoiaa, 


4. Referring to character: poiae, 
ure, equipoise, evenness; see bai 

balanoe, v. t. 1. poise, equilibrate (tech. or 
learned), equitibrize (rare); $pec. equate, 
trim (ruut.). Often used fig. of Ihirigs or 
forces other than ■phyaiad ones. 
Antonyms: see ovERTmiN, upset. 


5. Of accounts: equate (rare), square. 
liBlknoB, V. i. poise, equilibrate (rare), 

librate {said of a bird). 
balanoad, a. 1. equilibrious, poised; spec. 


S. Referring lo aaMmtts, total, etc.: 

bald, a. U bare (cordextual), hairless, 

peeled (oft*, or rare), denilous (rcre), pelon 

(as a dog; French); glabrous (tech.); spec. 

beardless, whiskerless. 
Anionyms: see BAffiT, BEaRdbd. 

1. See BARE, ME} 

balk, V. i. refuse (rare), jib; spec. shy. 
balky, a. restiff (obs. or rare), restive. 
ball, n. 1. globe, sphere, orb (chiefly liter- 

ary and stiee.), round (chiefly contextual): 
cc. sloDule, pellet, Bphericle (rare), 
lierule, puck, gutty (slang), grub, bowl. 

t, bullet, croquette, bottom (obs.), cop, 
marble, jinglet, pii^kin (eoUoy.), carthkin, 
lerella, mound, pompoa; «ee dbop. 
a. Spec, masqueraae, fandango (now 
rare, exc. as to foreign eounlries), masque, 

ball, V. I. globe (a reflexive), orb (a refles^ 
ine), conglobe, conglobate, englobe, en- 
sphere; spec, clew;— aii literary or r" " 
ere. "baU." 

ball.v.i. orb (rare). 

ballad, n. song, singsong (chiefly spec.); 
spec, cantilena (ItaOan), derry (rare). 

band, n. I. Chiefly in plural: bond; spec. 
shackle, chain, fetter, trammel, bilbo, 
manacle, gyve, handcuff, cuffs (eollog.; pi.), 
binding;— iiW implying restraint of per- 
sonal luterty. 

1. bond, tie, bind, shackle (rare or obs.), 
binder, binding, vinculum (tech.); spec. 
bandage, couple, strap, chain, rope, bil- 
let, cl^p, ligature, ligament, hoop, fillet, 
Sirdle, girth, tourniquet, belt, loop, bal- 
ric, handsaw, bandoleer, thong, rcgula, 
sliver, reElet. tendon, cominissure, breech- 
ing, holdback, collar, collet, ferrule, head- 
band, fanon, fascia, parrel or porrai, 
becket, cincture, cuS, curb, garter, gar- 
land, noseband, cavesson, waistband; see 


8. stripe, strip, bar, belt, zone, arc, line; 
spec, fascia, vitta, friesc, orie; see btreak. 
4. association, organization; jipec. bri- 
gade (of vmrkers), cohort, union, chorus 
(»/ singers), chouan (Frendi). 
t. Spec, brass, woodwind, striogs (pi.), 
orchestra, Kapelle (Ger.). 
band, v. t. streak, stripe, belt, line; see 

Ardaayms: see itniform. 

bandy, v. t. 1. See beat. 
a. toss (words, names, etc.), shuttlecock 
(rare), exchange (conteiiual). 

bank, n. 1. Spec, mound, dike, shelf, ridge, 
terrace, brae (Scot.), embankment, escarp- 
ment, terreplein, escarp, glacis, digue 
(French), remblai (French); see bak. 
9. brim (arcliaic); spec, riverside, levee 
(U. S.), rivage (poetic), ripe (rore); tee 

bank. v. I. 1. Svec. embank, dike, tenaoe, 

escarp, mo una, rampart. 

a. See CABOM. 
bankrupt, v. i. break, smash (slang), bust 

(slang, V. S.). 
banner, n. flag (contextual); spec, penon, 

oriflamme, gonfalon, gonfanon. 
bantam, n. 1. See dwart. 


B. Referring to a adf-im-poriont fdlow: 
cockalDnun.whippersnapper.akipjack (nr- 
ebak), puppy {collog.): spec, braggart, 
jackanapes, upstart. 

bBiit«t, V. t. & i. rally, badinage, joke, 
roaat (eoUoo. or sinng), persiflate (rore), 
joeh (.slang), jig (dud. or elana), chaff 
(colioq.), quii, jolly (.collog.), kid (slang). 

Iwptlia, V. t. christen; tpee. dip (eulUig.; 
crmtextval), immerse (eontrrz/ua/),sprinkli 
icoUoq.; coniexluai), rebaptize. 

bmr, n. I. Spec, rod, stick, rail, bait, cross- 
bar, battea, boom, tongue, came, concelli 
(nj.), crow, fiferail, handspike, alicebar, 
' ill, rove, croesheaa, hound, fid; 

4. bank, barrier, ridge;— (oWMreeconfcxi- 
val); spec, sandbar, shelf, barrage. 

C. prevention, hindrance, impediment, 
check, stop, conclusion (law); spec, tore- 
closure, estoppel. 
bkr, V. I. 1. See stop, prevent. 

5. prevent, hinder, stop, check, preclude; 
tpee. foreclose, exclude, oust, estop. 

liBrbaulam, n. Referring lo words or lan- 
guage: misuse (conlexiaal), solecism, cata- 
chreaia (Uch.); spec, malapropism, Goth- 
icism, Gothiam, vandalism. Gallicism, 
Latinism, Grecisra, etc. 
Antonymt: see cui.ture. 

bkrbarlsa, v. I. savage. 

barbKromii a. 1. Spec. Gothic, vandalic, 
heatheoish, Hunnish. 
t. See ORtTEL, ijNciviLizBn, hbatubnish, 

bmra,a.l. naked, nude, exposed. bald: sp«c. 
stripped, denudate, uncovered, depilated, 
unhaired, barked, skinned, peeled, nap- 
less, threadbare, blank, gaunt, desolate, 
callow, breechlesB, plain, rampick (arcAaic 

Antonyma: see covered, ci>OTHBd, 




Mzis 0. 1. 1. denude, deaudate, divest; spec, 
UDshefithe, bark, skin, shave, disrase (ar- 
cAoic), eicpoae, disclose, uncover, strip, peel, 
AtUonyms: see cover. 
t. See BIP08E, mscwsB. 
']b«rBloot, a. unshod, diecalceate (chiefly 
" ' un», friars, etc.), diaooloed (ecd.). 

bareheaded, a. Spec, uncovered, toil- 
bargain, 1. i. I. Spec, haegic, higgle, 
stickle, treat, negotiaf*, dicker (U.S.), 
chop (063. or rare), chaffer, cheap (arcAaic); 

see BARTBR. 


bark, n. rind (chiefly tech. or literary), skin, 
peel; spec, cortex, liber, cork, tan, dita, 
cambium, hat. 

baik, u, {. skin, peel, denude, debark (rare), 

bark, n. cry (contextuc^, yap (coUoq,), yelp 
(coUog. or spec.), latration {literary); spec. 
bay, quest. 

barii, V. i. speak, cry (eonlexiual), latrate 
(very rare), yap (colloq.), yelp (coUoq. or 
spec.]; spec, guest, bay. 

barkinB, a. latrant (lUerary). 

barraoks, n. pi. lodgings (pi.), qiuutera 
(pi.); spec, bullpen (cant). 

barren, a. 1. sterile, fruitless (rare as refer- 
ring to animals), unproductive, unfruit- 

ual), heartless, naked, neuter, acarpous, 
infructuose (rare), desert, unfructuoua 
(rore), farrow. 

Aidonyms: see fruitpui^ ltdcuriant. 
9. unproductive, dead, jejune (literary), 
otiose (literary), fruitless; 


barricade, n. fence, obstruction, barrier, 
bar; — aU. four contextual. 

barrier, n. obstruction (eoniextwd), fence 
(chiefly spec.), bar (primarily spec.); spec 
hedge, chain, boom, rope, bank, entangle- 
ment, wall, stockade, fencing (coHectijie), 
gate, barrage, barrage (French; mil,), 
traverse (rare); see barricade, 

barter, v. I. i/h i. bargain, exchange, trade, 
swap or swop (adlog., U. S.; or died.), 
truck, chop (rare or obs.). 

baie, a. 1. See low, lowlt, iLLEomuATE, 
INFERIOR (in quality), flebelan. 
). Ignoble, infamous, vile, mean, low, 
cheap, miscreant (literary), turpitudinous 
(ritre), illilieral (literary), vulgar (rare or 
archaic), sordid; spec, abject, groveUnK, 
menial, villain (rare), villein (AmIO, slavisH, 
beggarly, servile, soulless, basebom; tee 

buaqoe: ritravaaant, irreeutar. 
burkffB; bar. obelade. 
buitoada: obtirud. 

CIj:, BASS. 

t. In IM seme <ff "chief ingredient": 

ground, basis, basement {tech.; chiefiy 


t. In botany, toology, eU.: foot, fundus 

((ecft,), bottom; spec, butt; see stalk. 

bfti«, V. I. 1. rest (eoidextiud) , found, 
ground {orig. Bpee.), put (coniexCual), bot- 
tom; spec, build. 

%. In a secondary sense: found, grouod, 
rest, predicate {U. S.). 

baienaia, n. igaommy, meanneBa, infamy, 
turpitude, etc. Cf. babe, a., », 

bktblul. a. shy, retiring, diffident, shrink- 
ing, timid, Btr&ngc, sEamefaced, shtuntv 
fast (archaic), coy, reserved, chary (rare), 
boggle (dial, or coUog.), modest; spec. 
sheepish, blushful. "Coy" (wkichiee) does 
not imply anything as lo the disposition, 
bul re/ers merely to the outward acta. 
Antonyms: we asbured, bold, impudent, 

baahfolnesB, n. shyness, diffidence, coy- 

Antonyms: see assurance, conceit. 
b*>U, n. I. See base, bottom, season. 

•.foundation,^und, groundwork, funda- 
mental, principle, premise comer stone 
(fig.), keystone (fig.). 

bkiket, n. skep (load, Eng.): spec, scuttle, 
seedlip, tap, tapnet, crate, calanthua 
(arclmol.), frail, baaa, bassinet, canister 
(a Latinism or Grceism), pannier, corbeil, 
buck, moll, creel, gabion, nacelle, flasket, 
flat, prickle, pad, corf, canaster, hanaper 
{historical), hamper. 

bkii, a. low, deep, heavy, base (obsoles~ 
cent), basso (Ittdian), grave (rare); spec. 

Antonyms: see shrill. 
>*u, n, base (obeolescent); spec, thorough- 
base, drone, barvtone, bourdon. 

bkitmrd. n. by-blow or bye-blow (arctic), 
love child, wnoreson (late or archaic), il- 
legitimate (formal or legal), misfortune 
iScijt. & dial. Eng.), come-by-chance (eol' 
log.); spec, nephew (euphemiaiic), niece 
(euphetnietic) , 

bftth, n. 1. immersion, dipping; spec, tub- 
pedilavium, doucne (French), dip 

9, suFTusion, circumfusion, embathing I 
(lUerary). ' 

t. wash, lotion; «pee. dip. 
t. lavatory, laver (literary or rhetoric 
spec, tub, demibath, hamroam or hum- 
mum (Turkish), sudatory, sudatorium 
(Latin), therm (archaic), therms (pi.; 
Latin), sit2 bath, vaporarium (Latin), 
caldarium (Latin). 

bathe, P. t. I. immerse, dip, bath (alwtw§ 
literal), embathe (literary); spec, tub, 
embrocate, foment; see wash. 
9, sufTuse, circumfuse, embathe (literary). 
1. bash, beek (Scot.). 

battleship, n. Spec, predreadnought, 
dreadnou^t, superdreadnought, liner. 

bawd, n. pimp, procurer, whoremaster 
(law), pander, procuress, pandereas (rare); 
spec, bawdstrot (obs.), oroker (obs.), ca- 
det, maquereau (French), mackerel (ar^ 

bawdiy, n. 1. pandering, pimping, pro- 
curation, pandensm; spec, proxenetiam. 
S. See OBscB.vixr. 

be, p. i. I. exist, consist (archaic), stand, 
lie, subsist, remain, go (as in "as thing* 
go"); spec, coexist, postexist (rore), pro- 
exist (rare), occur, lurk, rank. 

beadle, n. constable, bluecoat or bluebot- ] 

tie (nickname); spec, bedell or poker 

(Univ. slang, Eng.). 
beak, n. I. Referring to a bird: bill, nib, 

S. Referring lo an insect: snout, rostrum , 

(tech.), nose; spec, proboscis. ' 

■. Referring to a vessel's prom: rostrum, 


4. projection (coniextual) ; spec, noiile, 

nose, horn, umbo (tech.). 

beaiD, n. 1. timber, raft (aTd\aic or spec.), 
balk; s;iec. batten, scantling, truss, tie, 
trcvis (iScoi.), chevron {rore), girder, raft- 
er, joiBt; see POIJ:. 
i. See WIDTH, qunj., rat. 

beanlike, a. fabaceous (tech.). 

bean-ehaped, a. fabiform (tech.). 

bear, v. t. I. See bupfort, keep (in mind), 


« Notee of firplmnatloii. 


{ckUfly of animala, eap, sheep), teem (ohs, 
or archaic), cast (esp, prematurely; chiefly 
of animals); spec, spawn (contemptiums)^ 
diild (obs.), farrow, abort. 
bear, v. i. 1. travail (of women only), teem 
{archaic), labor {of women only; archaic), 
parturiate {rare); spec, litter, vean. ean 
(068.) • cub, pig, pup, farrow, calve, fawn, 
kitten, foal, whelp, twin, spawn {con- 


bear, n. 1. Bruin {used as a proper name); 
spec, grizzly, cub, whelp. 
9. As applied to a person: rudesby {or- 
chaic), crab {rare), cur (contemptuous; 


beard, n. 1. Spec, whiskers {pi.), Charley 
or CharUe {coUoq. or slang), goatee, im- 
perial, Vandyke, Bumsides (pi.), Gallo- 
ways {pi.). 
9. awn, arista {tech.). 

bearded, a. 1. hairy (contextual), whisk- 
ered, barbate {rare). 
Antonyms: see bald. 
S. Spec, awned, barbate, barbed, pogo- 
niate {tech.), glochidiate {tech.). 

beardiesa, a. smooth-iaoed; spec, shaven, 
unfledged (fig.). 

bearing, n. 1. See endurance, position, 


S. base, support, rest: spec, journal, 
plate, step, coak, cock, brass, babbit, 
tread, trunnion, seating, gudgeon, yoke, 
saddle, tassel or torse, templet, hntel, 
headstock, tailstock; see bushing. 
S. In heraldry: charge, devise; spec.weU, 
rest, goutte (French), trestle, trivet, trav- 
erse, trefoil, tressure. weare, gore, wedge, 
ferrule, virule, woolpack, flasque, fusil, 
yard; seeAHua, 

beast, n. 1. See animal. 
%. As a term of contemvtiums opprobrium: 
spec, brute, dog, cur, nog, swme, hound. 

beastlike, a. theriomorphic {rare), bes- 
tial, beastly {rare)^ brutish, brutal (rare), 
theroid {rare), ferine {rare), feral {learned). 

beastly, a. 1. See beastlike. 
S. coarse {corUextual) , abominable (con- 
textual), vile; svec. swinish, hoggish, pig- 
gish boarish, nlthy, gluttonous, greedy; 


Antonyms: see refined, gentlebianlt, 


beat, V. t. 1. pound, clapperclaw (archaic or 
dial.), contund (humorous or affected), be- 
labor (intensive), thump (coUoq.), thwack, 
whack, pommel or pummel, welt (colloq. 

or slang) , fan (slang) , lam (colloq. or vulgar) ; 
spec. mill, bepommel or bepummel (inten^ 
sive), drub, tattoo, whale, hammer, bandv, 
mallet (archaic), malleate (rare), scuteh, 
flail, flog, lap, beetle, drum, fuU, batter; 


Antonyms: see cherish, caress. 
S. Referring to making a foam or the like 
of: whip, null, churn (Jig. or spec.), switeh. 
S. Referring to games, contests, etc.: de- 
feat (esp. in a game); spec, gammon, 
whitewash (colloq.), skunk (vulgar sLana), 
blank, goose-egg (slang), distance, lurch. 

4. See NONPLUS, surpass, DEFEAT. 

beat, n. 1. See blow, pulsation, circuit, 


S. defeat; spec, whitewash (coUoq.), 

skunk (vulgar slang), blank, etc. 

S. In newspaper cant: scoop. 
beatification, n. felicitation (rare), mac- 

arization (rare). 
beatified, a. blessed. 
beatify, v. t. heaven (rare), bless, felicitate 

(rare), imparadise (rare), macarize (rare); 


Antonyms: see curse. 
beatitude, n. blessing; spec, macarism 

Antonyms: see curse. 
beautiful, a. lovely, lovesome (archaic), 
beauteous (literary and chiefly poetic), 
bright, lustrous (fig.), splendent; spec. 
pretty, dainty, sweet. 
Antonyms: see ugly, abominable. 
beautify, v. t. become (contextiud), adorn, 
grace; spec, prettify; see ornament. 
Antonyms: see deface. 
beauty, n. 1. loveliness, lovelihead (rare), 
formosity (archaic), pulchritude (rare), 
lustre; spec, glory, prettiness (beauty 
wUhoui dignity). 
Antonyms: see ugliness, deformity. 
S. belle, fair lady, fair one; spec, bellibone 

Antonyms: see hag. 

because, conj. since, inasmuch as, as, 

forwhy (archaic), long or along (archaic 

or dial.), forasmuch as (archaic or formal). 

becloud, V. t. cloud, darken, obscure; spec. 


become, v. t. 1. befit, fit, suit, beseem. 
Antonyms: see misbecome. 


become, v. i. grow, turn, go, fall, drop, 
wax (archaic or literary), come, get; — 
mostly idiomates. 

becoming, a. 1. befitting, fitting, fit, suit- 
able, worthy, good, well-becommg, seem- 
ly, meet, gaimy (rare), graceful (chiefly 

Cross references: sec Note. 
b— ris h; rauqh. 
beetiflo: glad. 

beau: dandy ^ lover. 
beaTcr: viaor. 
becalm: calm, detain. 

beok: brook. 
beok: how, gesture. 
beokon: gesture. 

K^" See Notes of Explanation. 

tpee.), beseemly (rare), decorous; 



S. beautifying, feat (orcAatc or dial.). 

beoomlngness, n. fitness, suitability, 
comeliness, grace (chiefly spec.); spec, ap- 
propriateness, propriety. 

bed, n. 1. couch, lair (rare, exc. (^ heaxta), 
doss (slang or cant), berth (ehiejiy spec,), 
bunk (eoUog. or upec). roost (slang); gocc, 
litter, crib, cot, cradle, trundle, truckle, 
maUress, pallet, hammock, shakedown. 


bedi V. t. 1. lodge, lair (rare, exc. of beaula), 
bunk (eolUiq. or spec.); spec, cradle, litter. 
a. See REST. 

bedooTCT, n. Spec, quilt, bedquiit, cov- 
erlet, coverlid (rare), counterpane, com- 
forter (coOoq., U. S.). bedspread (U. S.), 
spread (f. S.), comfortable (U. S.), pall 
(oTCliaic), rezai (Angki-lTuiian), palam- 
pore, duvet (French). 

beddlne. n. Spec, bedclothes, litter, lit- 
tering, lairage (rare), brancard. 

badroom, n. bedchamber or chamber 
(formal or pretentioui), bower (archaic), 
cubicle (esp. one of a series in an Eng. 
school dormitory), cubiculum (joeose); spec. 
ruelle (French). 

b«d«tead, B. Spec, cot, charpoy (Anglo- 
Indian), bed (ciMoq. or cant). 

badUcfc, n. tick, case, cover (conlexlual) . 

faeel, n. The animal: bovine, neat (rare); 
tpec. bull, cow, treemartin, ox, steer, 
heifer, muley or muUey, bullock, bossy, 
roan, taurine (rare), bu£Fala, bison, au- 
rochs, caraboo, gayal, gaur, zebu, za- 
mouse. yak, musk-ox, urus, anoa, sapiu- 
tan, Kerry, Durham, Jersey, ele. 

beetaive, n. hive, apiary (lech.), alveary 
(obe., exc. as figuratively ■used of varioue 
old dictionaries), bike (Scot, or dial.); tpee. 

b«eli«eptnc, n. apiculture. 

beetle, n. coleopter (tech.), clock (Eng.); 
spec, scarab, dung beetle, dorbeetle, June 
beetle, etc. 

belool, V. I. I. See deceive. 

balore, adv. I. See forward. 
». earlier, sooner, antecedently, previ- 
ously, already, beforehand, heretofore, 
bitherto, be foretime (archaic), erenow 
{literary or archaic). 
Avlonyma: see afterwards, now. 

before, prep. 1. ere i 
dial.), or {archaic m 
Antimyms: see after. 
S. coram {Latin; for "in presence of'}, 

beEt V. I. I. See ask. 

2. raendicate (rare); spec, quest (R. C. 
Ch.), cadge (dial, or sla/tg). 
Anlonyms: see give, reject. 

ben, u. i. 1. See aek. 
%. mendicate (rare), mump (cant; obs.), 
cadge, cant (literary), quest (R. C. Ch.). 

beget, r. I. parent (rarf), raise (rare), gender 
(archaic), engender (archaic or learned), 
get (now only of animals), ingender (rare), 
father, procreate (rare). 
Antonyms: «ee kill. 

begetter, n. author (in "author of on^s b6- 
"'0")i generator, procreator. 

besettliiK. n. progeniture, procreation, 
generation, getting (archaic), get {chiefly 

becckr, n. pauper {cor^xtval), mendicant 
(learned or tech.; esp. of artain ecctesia»- 
lics), mumper (slang), thigger (Scot.), 
clapperdudgeon(arcAotc), canter(arcAaic),' 
spec, fakir, jockey (historical), bluegown 
(Scot.), gangrcl (archaic), vagabond, gab- 
erlunzie (Scat.), achnorrer (Jewith), dy- 
vour (Scot.; obsolescejit) , dervish, dandy, 
roundsman, beadsman (Eng.). 
Antonyms: see rich febson. 

besclns, n. 1, beggary, mendicity (rare), 
mendicancy, mendication (rare). 

a. See ASKING. 

beBElng, a. 1. See ahking. 
a. mendicant (learned or tech.), canting 
(rare), cadging. 

begin, V. I. commence, start, gin (archaic), 
originnle, initiate, broach (chiefly spec), 
inchoate (learned); spec, attack, institute, 
raiae, introduce, reintroduce, recom- ' 
mence, open, inaugurate, auspicate, 
handsel (Hng.). 
Antomjina: see end, finish, compi-etb. 

begin, V. i. commence, gin (archaic), pro- 
ceed, start, enter, open; spec. exordiH) 

Antonyms: see end. 
beginning, n. 1, commencement, start, 
outs tart, outset, inauguration, opening, 
institution, inchoation (learned), inchoacy 
(rare), inception, incipience, incipiency, 
initiation, initiative, ingress (archmc), on- 
set; spec, gambit, origination, attack. 

Anlonyms: see end, finish, catastro- 


1. The place of beginning: 8;>ec. threshold, 
outset, tee, origin. 

4. Spec, rudiment, forefront, front, em- 
bryo, outstart, outset, prime, proem 
{learned), prelude, incunabula (pL; liter- 
ary), morning (fig,), dawn (fig.), protasis 

Antonyms: see cobipletion, end, out- 

beginning, a. commencing, inauguratory, 
initiative, initiatory, inceptive, initial, in- 
cipient; spec, nascent. The word '^begin- 
ning** is unusual as an adjective. 

iMSuile* V. t. 1. See deceive, cheat, di- 

9. In the sense of "to while away**: 

beluivey V. t. As a reflexive verb: conduct, 
demean (^is is the correct use of ^'demean"), 
bear, comport, deport, carry, quit (ar- 
chaic), acquit (archaic); spec, misbehave, 
misconduct, misdemean. **Behave'* is 
often v^ed as implying good behavior. 

beliavioT, n. conduct, demeanor, bearing, 
comportment, deportment, carriage, ac- 
quittance, manners (pi.), action, sem- 
blance (rare), goings (pi.; coUoq.), conver- 
sation (archaic), havior (archaic), quit- 
tance (archaic). Cf. air. 

belieady v. t. decapitate, head (archaic), 
neck (dial.), decollate (learned); spec. 
guillotine, caboche. 

behold, inierj. ecce (Latin), lo, la (dial.). 

beinc a. existing, existent, extant, beent 
{metaphysics), subsistent, subsisting; 
spec, constituted. *^ Being** is rare as an 
Antonyms: see nonexistent. 

beine»n. existence, entity, subsistence ; spec. 
life, essence, quid (learned), hypaxis (rare; 
tech.), existent (rare), ens, automaton. 
Antonyms: see nonexistence. 

belfry, n. tower (contextual), companile, 
docher (rare). 

belie, V. t. Spec, defame, misrepresent, 

belief, n. 1. Referring to the mental action, 
condition, habit, etc.: credit, faith, accept- 
ance, credence, reception (chiefly Bib.), 
thinking (contextiud), fay (archaic); spec. 
supposition, trust. 

Antonyms: see unbeubf, doubt, skep- 

3. Referring to what is believed as a matter 
of faith: tenet, persuasion, creed; spec. 
supposition, profession, superstition, 
mumpsimus (contemptumts or humorous), 
tradition, misbeUef. 
S. See CONVICTION, opinion, creed. 

believable, a. credible; spec, supposable. 
Antonyms: see unbelievable. 

believe, v. t. 1. trust, credit, swallow 
(chiefly coUoq. or slang), accept, receive 
(chiefly Bib.), accredit (an erroneous use); 
spec, feel, suppose, fancy, misbeUeve, guess. 
Antonyms: see disbelieve, doxtbt. 
S. iSee consider. 

believe, v. i. trust. 
Antonyms: see doubt. 

believer, n. truster, accepter, receiver: 
spec. Christian, faithful (a collective; used 
wUh 'Hhe**). 
Antonyms: see unbeliever, heretic. 

believing, a. credulous (chiefly spec.), cred- 
itive (rare), credent (rare); spec, trustful, 
confiding, fond, easy (colloq.), supersti- 

Antonyms: see unbelieving, doubtful, 

believingness, n. credulousness (chiefly 
spec), creduUty (chiefly sj)ec.), trustfu(> 
ness; spec, fondness, easiness (coUoq.), 

belittle, v. t. 1. overshadow (fig.), minish 
(rare), beggar, minimize; spec, dwarf. 
Antonyms: see exagoerate. 
S. See disparage. 

bell, n. 1. Spec, sanctus bell, grelot, gong, 
dingdon^ (literary or colloq.), jingle, pa- 
vilion, tintinnabulum (bookish or tech.), 
tinkler (slang), tocsin, chimes (pi.). 
S. sound (contextual), stroke; spec, toll, 
knell, jingle. 


bellow, n., t;. t. & v. i. 1. crv (contextual), 

bell (esp. of deer), roar, low (ofkine), blare 


S. See SHOUT. 
bellowing, a. mugient (rare), lowing (of 

kine), roaring. 
bell -shaped, a. campanulate, campanu" 

lar, campanulous, campaniform; — (ulfouf 

tech. or literary. 

Cross references: see Note. 
begone: away. 
berime: tou. 
iMgradge: envy, grrudge. 
b e ^u ltommt: deception, cheat, 

behelf: eide, benefit- 
V. %.: act. 
iMt: biaaing. 

1: hind, remaining, late, 
behind: buUocke. 

behold, r. t.: see. 
beholden: indebted. 
beholder: spectator. 
behoof: benefit. 
behoove, behove, o. t: benefit. 
behoYefttl: beneficial, odoan- 
bejewel: ornament. 
belabor: beat, ply. 
belated: delayed. 
belay: fasten. 
beloh: erupt, eject. 

beldam, beldame: grand- 
mother, hag. 

beleacner: surround. 

belike: probably, per hope. 

bell, V. «.: fiare. 

bell, V. A n.: beUow. 

belle: beauty. 

belles-lettree: literature. 

belliooee: pugnaeioue. 

beUicerent: fighting, vtoHike, 

belly, V. %.: bag. 

XS' See Notee of Explanation. 


aocesaory or (leas usiuii) Bcceasary. 
beloved, n. dear, idol; see love. 
below, adv. li prep. 1. In the tense of "lovKr 

than": beneath, neath or 'neath (poetic). 
Antonunm: tee above. 

 In the aense of "directly heUno": tee 

belt, n. band; spec, girdle, girth, bandoleer. 
bench, n. I. seat (fotifczfuoi), settle; tpec. 

bend. v. t. I. strain (oTchaic, ere. qf the 
bow), draw, stretch (a bow). 
9. crook, fles {ncieniific), ply (rare), turn 
(chiefly iinth "over." "out/^ •'in." etc.); 
Kliec, epring, strain, crank, deform, cir- 
cumflex, denex, buckle, warp, bate, dou- 
ble, geniculate (rare), hook, knee, elbow; 

8. See SUBDUE, arnAiK, TnRN, apply, 


bend, n. 1. flexure (tech.), flection or 
(Brilith or spec.) fiexion (cMefiy referring 
to the act or action; tech.), turn (conUxt- 
lud), crook, bent (rare); spec, warp, 
b'lckte, sag, crank, crankle, book, knee, 
elbow, scarp. 
a. See turn, btoop, droop. 

bending, n. flection, flexure, crooking; spec, 
circumflexion. genuflexion, reclination. 

beaedlot, n. benedick {allnding to Bene- 
dick in Shakeapeare'a "Much Ada about 
Nothing"), neogamist (rare), newlywed 
Anianymt: tee celibatb. 

benefkotlon, n. 1. Ijenefit (rare), benefi- 
cence, kindness, favor. 
Anlonymt: tee INJURT. 
*. See GIFT. 

beaeikotor, n. bcnefiter (rare); spec. 
patron, Mtecenas (jig.; lilerary), giver. 
Anionyms; see sponobr. 

benellee, n. Eccl.: Uving; spec, parsonage, 
sinecure, vicarage, rectory, mensal, pre- 
bend, provostry, commandery, curacy. 

beneSoent, a. I. Referring to persons; 
benefic (rare), beneficial (obs.); tee kind, 


Antonyms: see evil-doing. 

t. Referring to things: see BEtranaAL. 
beneflolal, n. advanta^oua, helpful, good, 
beneficent, behooveful or behoveful (ar- 
chaic), gainful (rare); spec, serviceable, 
bonitarian or bonitary; see curative, 


AntonyTns: see injurious, barmful, 

beneScUry, n. Spec, usufructuary, pre- m 
bendary, prebend (rare), chargeant (ran I 
or Sail.), chfti^ee (rare), donee, grante*^ I 
impropriator, impropriatrix. incumbent. 

benefit, n. I. avail (only in of avati" and 

. behalf of"), behoof (now chiefly legal 
or literary), good. 

i. ^ood, gain, profit, advantage, service, 
avail, boot (orcAoic, exc. in "to boot"), 
benefaction, commodity (orcAaie), better- 
ment (rare), behoof (tioui chiefly legal or 
literary); spec, bespeak (actor's canf), 
Anlonyjns: tee mjUHT, baru. 

benefit, ». t. advantage, profit, help, serve, 
avail, behoove, behove, good (obt.), boot 
(archaic or literary), skill (arehaic; used 
only impersonally tmth "it" at ths tiJ)jeei), 
Aritonyms: see injure, 

benefit, v. i. profit, gain; — v/ilh the imper- 

benevolent, a. 1. charitable (referring esp, 
to almsgiving), caritatLve (rare); tpee. 
philanthropic or philanthropical. 
Antonyms: tee ualevolent. 

bont, a. 1. flexed (tech.), crooked, uneven 

(conlezt-uat); tpee. inSexed, reflexed, in- 
fractous, geniculato; *ee ctirvbd. 
Antonymt: see btraigbt. 


bequeath, v. I. 1, bequeathe (a variant), 
will, give (eonlexluai), leave, dt^vise (usu- 
ally of real estate). "" "" " " 



bequest, n. l.wilhng (rare). devise, devisal. 
9. devise, gift (conte^ual); tpec. legacy, 
fidcicommissum. The same diitinetion 
holds betioeen "bequest" and "devise" as 
AoWs between "bequeath" and "devite." 

bereave, B. t. depri\'e; spec, orphan, widow 
{chiefly in p. p. or fig.). 



barlh: aHcAorope, bed, pon'Iion. 


b«it»a: blt,.ins. 


bunean: a&uii. 

tauHm, .. 1.; bccm.. 

bemlre: mmUu. 

iMDnmb: ™itmb.' dill. ' ituvtfv. 

b«nlrt: ««AJi, 

""'5*. A'li^.'S^iti^S^ 

bmamb^d, a.: numb, mun- 

bnhnw: »rK. 

beneatbi bdov-, u^er. 

nWt, daU, 

bHlde, pr^.! by. 

banta: tcoU. 

bMtd.. „.: abtmut. 

b«m: l«Ji«, .d«. 

b«ld«: aJ.o. 

10 Notei of Biptuutlan. 


V. t, 1. invest, encompass, set 
iddefly with "oirf"; obs.), beset (rare), 
siege (rare), gird (Jilerary); spec, block- 

S. see A88AIL. 

liMt, n. choice, flower, cream, prime. 

pi<^; spec, 61ite (French). 
bestow, V, t. 1. See place, deal. 

S. confer (as attention, pains), show (toith 

"to"), send (u^i^A "to"), pay, give (cori- 

lezfuoj), spend. 

Antonyms: see take. 

t. confer; spec, lavish, heap, place (an 

order, etc,). Cf, give. 
besteldine, a, astraddle, astride, a-cock- 

hoiae (rare or spec.), 
b«tray, v, t. 1. blow (sUma; rare), bewray 

(archaic) t sell (now usually understood as 

spec,); spec, knife (slang or cant, U, S.). 

1. See DISCLOSE, tattle, seduce. 
iMtrayal* n. 1. betrayment (rare), prodi- 

tion (rare). 

1. See DISCLOSURE, seduction. 
betrayer, n. Simon (who betrayed the Tro- 

'ans; fig.), Judas (who betrayed Jesus; 

fig.); <ee TRAITOR. 
betroth, V. t. contract (corUextuaJ), affiance 

(Jormal), espouse (literary or archaic), affy 

(o&«.), en^ge, bind (contextual), promise 

(contextuM); spec, handfast (hist.). 
botrotluil, n. contract (contextiud), af- 
fiance (formal), espousal (literary or ar- 
chaic), engagement, promise (contextiud); 

spec, hanoiast (hist.), subarrhation (hist.). 
betrothed, a. engaged, affianced (formal). 
betrothed, n. fiane.'e (fern.; French), fi- 

ancS (masc; French), affianced (rare or 

formal), intended. 
better, a. 1. superior, gooder (illiterate), 

preferable; spec, choicer, safer, wiser, etc. 
Antonyms: see worse. 

bettemess, n. superiority, meliority (rare), 

betty, n. molly, peggy, moppet, cotquean 

{archaic), moUycot {aial. Eng.), henhussy. 
between, prep, atween (archaic), betwixt 

(archaic and chiefly poetic), atwixt (ar" 

chaic); spec, midway (rare, exc. as adv.). 
Antonyms: see about, adv. & prep. 
beTerage, n. drink, potion (chiefly med.), 

potation (rhetorical), drinkable (coUoq.; 

chiefly in pi.). 

bewildered, a. confused, dazed (qf. con- 
fuse, daze). 

bewitch, t;. t. 1. witch, charm, enchant, 
spellbind, spell, glamour (rare), trance 
(rare), ensorceli (rare); spec, voodoo, 
sirenize (rare), overlook. 
Antonyms: see disenchant. 
8. See captivate. 

bewitched, a. charmed, enchanted, spell- 
bound, etc. Cf. BEWITCH. 

bewitchery, n. 1. In a sense implying a 
spell cast over one: witchery^ oewitch- 
ment, enchantment, captivation (rare), 
spell, charm, glamour, fascination (cbs, 
or hist.); spec, sorcery. 
S. See BEWITCHMENT (referring to the 
power or faculty), magic (referring to the 
art or practice), captivation. 

bewitching, a. 1. witching, enchanting, 
Sircean (fig.). 
8. See captivating. 

bewitchment, n. 1. See bewitchert, 

S. Referring to the power or faculty: be- 
witchery (rare), witchery, enchantment, 
fascination (obs. or hist.), charm, glamour. 

beyond, prep. Spec, yond (obs. or dial.), 
past, excee(ung, farther, without, outside, 
above, after. 

biannual, a. semiannual, biyearly (rare), 

bid, V. t. 1. See offer, invite. 
S. tell, direct, instruct, enjoin, command, 
order, call (now chiefly spec.), charge; 
spec, adjure, conjure, enjoin. 
Antonyms: see forbid. 

bidding* n. direction, instruction, injunc- 
tion, enjoinment (rare), order, dictate, 
charge, command, commandment (rare 
of the ad), behest .(literary), mandate, 
biddance (rare), prescription, jussion 
(rare), imperation (rare), wora (conteoct- 
ual), ordinance (rare or spec.), mandatum, 
mandment (law), voice, best (archaic); 
spec, imperative, decree, warrant, fiat, 
commission, countermand, precept, writ. 
Antonyms: see forbiddance. 

bier, n. feretory (rare), hearse or (now rare) 
herse (archaic or eccL); spec, catafalque. 

bis, a. 1. bulky, voluminous, bumper (crop, 
etc.; coUoq.), hulking or bulky (coUoq^, 
whacking (coUoq.), large, decuman (very 
large; literary), magnitudinous (rare), 
mighty (rhetorical), gross, mickle (oT' 

Crou r^erenus: see Note. 

lat: Uaeken. [tify. 

intoxicate, tlupefy, »iul' 
r: «pa(. 
engage, order, indi- 
cate, addresa. 
bMVflnkle: tpot. [ual. 

" ~ : animal, beaetlike, aena- 
rquae, excite, 

bestride: mount, atraddle, ride. 
bet: wager. 
betide: happen, befall. 
betimes: early, immediately. 
betoken: aignify, indicate. 
better, v. t.: improve, aurpaaa. 
bery: flock, company. 
bewail: mourn. 
beware: avoid. 
bewilder: confuae, atupefy. 
besel: edge. 

bias, n.: alant, tenency, preju' 

dice, partiality, inclination. 
bias, V. t.: prejudice, incline 
biased: partial, prejudiced. 
bibulous: drinking, abaorbeni. 
bicker: quarrel, diapute, murmur. 
bid: offer, invitation. 
biddable: obedient. 
bidding, a.: commanding. 
bide: await, withatand, endure. 
bifurcate: forked. 

t^' See Notes of EzpUnatloni 




ehaic), tall (.darm, U. S.). great; spec. 
stout, thick; see UABSirm, utsas, IM- 
Anionj/ma: see small, slender. 


blK tUnK ("/ <"^y kind), bouncer (cot- 
log.), whopper (colloq.), strapper (coUog.), 
swinger (colloq.). 
ArUonj/mi: lee particle. 

bUl, V. t. Spec, invoice. 

billow, n. wave (eonlexiuoD, undulation 
{learned or Uch.; confexiW), swell, aurge. 

billow, c. t. wave {cotdextjud), Bwetl, uniiu- 
\a\jz {etmtextual). 

billowy, a. wavy {amlezluat), undulating 
{leartied or lech.; cotiUxtual), rolling, 
e urging, swelling. 

bin, n. box (aintexlual); spec, pocket, 
kench ([/. iS.), bunker, hold, crib, hutch. 

bind, u. t. t. hold (amlextval), truss, con- 
fine {amiextual); gpee. tie, vinculate 
(rare), wattle, bend, lash (ehiejiy naut.), 
ligature, ligate, enchain, fillet, ferrule, 
terrel, pinion, trusa, garter, fetter, enfet- 
ter (rare), frap, taaciate (rare), braid, 
band, chain, enchain (rare or lUerary), 
bond, cord, rope, wire, reeve, sheaf, 
thong, withe, hoop, gyve, pin, bandage, 
lace, enlace (rare), entangle, interlace 
(.dtiefiyfin-), muzzle, swathe. 
ATUonyma: see loose. 
1. stick, iam, jamb (rare); spec, squeeze. 
I. Spec, braid, tape. 

4. obligate, hold, obliae {chiefly law), en- 
gage, restrict {chiefly law), aatrict (rare); 
spec, bond, mortgaee, pledge, sacrament, 
indenture, pin {with "to"), indebt (rore), 
swear, hypothecat*. 

Anionyms: see free. 

5. See ATTACH, bobder, r&btrain, fast- 

bind, V. i. stick, jam, jamb (rare), hold 
(ecmUscluai); spec, squeeze. 

blndlnt, a. I. See astringent. 
1. obligatory, obligative (rare), obliging 
(rare), imperative, imperious (rare); spec. 
mandatory, incumbent. 
Antoni/mt: see invalid. 

binding, n. 1. holding, confining, confine- 
ment, tying, religation (rare), ligation 
(rore or lec^ned); spec, bandaging, liga- 
ture, deligation (rare). 
9. See BAND. 

t. obligation, conimittal, obligement 
(rare), engagement. "Binding" ia rtire. 

bird, n. fowl (rare, eie. spec, or as a Colr 
leclive); spec, fledgling or fledgeling, 
squeaker, cnirper. dicky (ealloq.), dicky- 
u.-j _ dickcy-bird {colloq.), cockyolly 

biidhouie, n. aviary; epee. columbarium, 
columbary, dovecote. 

birdlike, a. volucrine (rors), avian (tech.); 
epec. ornithomorphic (rare), ornithoid 

bixth, n. 1. nativity (iiferorjf or eed.), nas- 
cency (rare or Jig.), nataUty (rore); spec. 
cast, helerogenesis, litter. 
Antonyms: see death. 


birthmark, n. nievus (chiefly spec.; tech.); 
spec, strawberry, tumor, mole. 

bluult, n. Spec, cracker (U. S.), hard- 
tack, ship biscuit, cracknel, rusk, pretiel 
{U. S.). '^ 

bisMit, V. I. halve, hemiaect (rare), middle 

biahop, n. prelate, pontifex (rare), pontiff 
(historical or spec.), primate, preaiil (rare); 
spec, metropolitjui, patriarcn, pope, ex- 
arch, diocesan, archbishop, chorepisco- 
Sjus {hist.), Buffraaan, episcopacy (o col- 
sclive; mth "the"). 

blshoprio, n. I. See diocese. 
t. biahophood, bishopry, lawn (fig.), 
primacy, prelateship, prelacy, prelnturc, 
episcopacy, episcopate; guec. exarchate. 

bitch, n. dog (conleiliuu), slut, lady 
(can; or euphemistic); spec, brach, 

bita, V, I, t. fang (rare); spec, nibble, nip, 
gnaw, gnash, scrunch, champ, chop, sav- 
age, anap, tooth (rare), woriy. Moat of 
these synonyms are aiso used absolutely or 


bite, n. Spec, nibble, crunch, scrunch, 

nip, champ, anap, gnash. 
bltlnci a. 1. mordant (rare), mordacious 


*. See ACHiD, STiMULATtNa, j 

t3r Cnsi HftriHca: ih Ndit. 

blCWl(: jwr.onae". 

blUat, n.: letter, poaUian. 

bit: mnraol. jmrtidt. M 

e NotM Of EipUnkUon. 


a. 1. dark, jet, pitchy, jetty, piceous 
(rare), coaly, nigrous (rare), Cimmerian 
(fig.; Uterary), sooty, atramentous (rare), 
swart (chiefly spec.), inky, sable, atra- 
mentaoeous (UUrary). 
Antonyms: see white. 


blauskbrnU, n. pill (slang), pip (coUoq, or 

blacken, v, t. 1. black, nigrify (rare); spec. 
Boot, ink, besoot (intensive), besmutch 
(intensive), besmut (intensive), cork, be- 
grime (intensive), charcoal, blackwash, 
Antonyms: see whiten. 


UjMikeiiedy a. blacked; spec, inked, 
corked, smutty, etc. 

bladder, n. Spec, vesica, vesicle, cyst, 
sac, gall, sound. 

Uaddery* a. bladderform (rare); also, (aU 
Uxh. or learned), vesiculose, vesiculous, 
cystic, vesicular, vesiculiform. 

bladev n. 1. fiat; spec, spoon, vane, wash, 
limb, web, languet, spear, brand (poetic 
or archaic), snare, colter or coulter. 
9. See cutter, feather. 
S. spark, bawcock (arc/uzic), blood, dash- 
er (coUoq.), galliard (archaic); spec. 
Johimy (coUoq.), rake, jeunesse dor6e 
(French), buck, roysterer. 

blamable, a. culpable (with "of"), fault- 
ful (rare), blameworthy, delinquent, 
faultv, censurable; spec, vituperable 
(rare); see guilty, sinful, reprehen- 


Antonyms: see blameless, sinless, in- 

blame, n. 1. fault, culpabiUty, blame- 
worthiness, censurableness; see guilt, 


S. censure, reflection, criticism, dispraise, 

mispraise (rare); see reproof, censure. 
blame, v. t. censure, criticize, inculpate 

(rare), dispraise (rare), mispraise (rare); 

see reprove, censure. 

Antonyms: see acqiht, excuse. 
blameless, a. faultless, unblamable (rare), 

innocent, incensurable (rare), irreproach- 

able, irreprovable (rare), inculpable (rare), 
irreprehensible (rare), unimpeachable; 
see SINLESS, innocent, guiltless. 
Antonyms: see blamable, sinfxtl, guil- 

blaming, n. censure, criticism, inculpation; 


bland, a. U smooth, inirritant (rare), vel- 
vety, velvet. 
Antonyms: see acrid, corrosive, habsh, 


S. See smooth, plausible. 
blank, a. 1. See absolute, empty, 


S. thoughtless, vacuous, vacant, inex- 
pressive, unexpressive, dull, expression- 
Antonyms: see expressive, thought- 
ful, PLEASED, etc. 

blanket, n. cover, wrap, whittle (obs. or 
dial.); spec, mackinaw, shroud. 

blaze, n. 1. See flame, flash, out- 

2* Referring to a marking on an animal: 
spec, spot (contextual), star, snip, cloud. 

blazon, v. t. 1. In heraldry: emblazon. 
S. See describe, depict, show. 

blazonry, n. 1. See arms, show, depic- 
tion, display. 
S. blazoning, emblazonry, blazonment. 

bleach, t;. t. whiten (contextual), blanch, 
decolorize (chiefly tech.). 

blear, a. !• Referring to the person: blear- 
eyed, blearea, bleary, dim-eyed, dim- 
sighted, sand-bUnd (archaic). 
Antonyms: see bright-eyed. 
S. Referring to the eyes: bleary, bleared, 
cloudy, blurred, dimmed, lackluster, dull. 

blear, v. t. & i. dull, blur, cloud, dim. 

bleat, t;. i. & n. cry (contextual), baa, blat, 

bleed, v. t. 1. blood (archaic); spec, phle- 
botomize, venesect, cup, leech, deplete. 

bleed, t;. i. Svec. shed, flow, ooze, drop. 

bleeding, n. bloodletting; spec, phlebot- 
omy, venesection. 

blend, v. t. mix (contextual), mingle (con- 
textual); spec, fuse, amalgamate, interfuse, 
intergrade, gradate; see adulterate. 
Antonyms: see separate. 

Cross references: see Note. 

fanUutiCt odd, un- 
famUiar, extravagant. 
bleb: UUtU. 
Uab, blebber: tattler, 
n.: rascal. 
V. t.: abuse. 
I: vncked, mar 
blaekl^c: cheat. 
bleokmell: extortion. 
Mameworthy: blamable. 

a whiten, bleach, pale. 



blandish: cajole. 
blank, 9. ^; defeat. 
blare: trumpet, sound. 
blaspheme: curse, abuse. 
blasphemous: impious, 

reverent, abusive. 
blast, n.: tvind, charge, 

blast, 9. t.: blow, blight, ruin. 
blasted: accursed. 
blat, 9. t.; bleat, chatter. 
but, 9. t.: blurt, tattle. 
blatant: boisterous, clamorous 
blate: bleat, chatter. 

blase, 9. i.: flame, shine. 
blase, 9. (.; advertise. 
blaring: flaming, flashing. 
blason: arms, description, de^ 

bleak: exposed, cold, gloomy. 
blear, n.; blur. 
bleary: blear. 
bleb: vesicle, Imbble. 
blemish, o (.; damage, impair, 

blenilsh, n.: fault, impairmerU. 
blench: shirk. 
blend, «. t.: unite, harmonise. 

XS' See Notes of Explanation. 


blendlns, a. confluent (kt 
bleas, II. t, 1. See 


9. In the tense of "to uwoke the divine good 
wQl or protedimt upon": sain (archaU). 

Anttmipnt: see ccbsb. 
Iilaiaed, a. 1. blest (a variant). 

AtUonyina: tee 

bl««*lnc, n. 1. benediction, beni«)n {ar- 
chaic or poetic), benedicita {Latin); spec, 
grace {al table). 
ATttonyjita: see cnBsmo. 
t. See GOOD, 

bUclit, v. t. blast, nip, strike; spec, blow, 
infect, wither, rust, mildew, aear, brand, 
bum, bunt, choke. 
AtiUmyme: aee Am, cherish, strenoth- 


bliBhted, a. blasted, nipped, stricken; 
spec, rusty, blown, etc. 

blind, a. I. aighUess, visionlcaa, dark, un- 
seeing, unperceiving, rayleas; spec, eye- 
less {often fig.), moon-eyed, moon-blind, 
blintUold, blindfolded, etockblind, stone- 

I. unperceiving, undisceming, uncompre- 
bending, unseeing, blindfold (fig.), dark, 
senseless, insapient (rare), bemghted {lit- 
erary); see niBREQARnFTJL. 

Antonyms: see discerning, pbophktic. 
S. closed (of the end), oecal {lech.) 
4. Referritig to walls etc., that hm-e no 
opening through: blank. 


bllnd, V. t. I. blear, darken, purblind, 
quench {the eye; literary); apfc. equitit, 
blink, exoculale {rare), excecat* (rare), 
gouge, seel, hoodwink; see dazzle. 
9. (brken {the mind), benight, hoodwink 
(fig.), deaden. 

bllndlr, adv. Spec, darkly, unseeingly, 
gropingly, unperoeivingly, etc. 

bUndneii, n. Spec, sightlessness, dark- 
ness, senselessness, beoightedness {liter- 
ary), etc. 
Antonyms: see bight, inbioht. 

bllBtflr, n. vesication (tech.), vesicle {lech, 
or learned); spec, blain (rare), bullatioa. 

bloat, V. t. inflate, swell, puff {chiefly with 
"up"), distend. 

Antonyma: see contract, deflate, 

bloak, n. 1. masH {eontextwd) ; spec, clog 
{chiefiy Scot.), clump, scotch, brick, bri- 
quette, briquet, square, die, cube, pad, 

loaf, mold, nub, set, stock (rare), dado; 

a. Referring to buHdinga: insula {Roman 
anftV), island (rare),' sjiec. square. I 

1. See BLOCKiNO, pattern, blockhead, , 


block, f. t. 1. obstruct, jam {rare), jamb, 
choke, blockade {Jig. or spec); spec, ram, 


blockhead, n. simpleton, dunce, stupid, 
ass {conlemptxu}us), dolt, dullard, block, 
stick {coUoq.), chump {coUoq. or slang), 
numskull, stock {rare), dunderhead, 
blunderbuss, blunderhead, clod, clodpate, 
clodpoU, cod's-head {slang), buixard 
(rare), chucklchead {ckiefiy dial.), coot 
{Scot.), pigsconce {ctrntcmpluous; rare), 
oxhead {aiUaq.), log^rhead, lunkhead 
{slang, U, S ), woodenhead [colloq.), 
hardhead {eollog.), booby {coUoq,), doddy- 
poll {obs. or rare), cuddy {chiefly Scot.), 
idiot {slang or amiemptuoua), dummy 
(coUog), driveler {eontemptuotia), idiot 
{contemjAuotis) , imbecile {cantemplTious), 
mome (archaic), foozle {coUoq.), sapheaa 

S slang, conlemjauowi), jolthead (rare), 
otterel {fig.), wiseacre {ironical or sar- 

Antonyms: see bchoi-ab, wisbacrb. 
blocking, n. obstruction, block, jamming, 

choking, choke, blockade {fig. or spec). 
Uond, blonde, a. fair, light; tjiec. albino. 

Antonyms: see brunet. 
blood, n. 1. daret {slang), drops (pi.; by ^ 
lipsis); spec, gore, cruor, grume, ichor 
(Oreefc myth.). 


blood, V. t. 1. See aLGGD. 

>. bloody, engore (rare), bebleed (or- 
chaic; intensive), 
bloodlesi, a. I. anfemic {chiefly tned.), ex- 
sanguine (rare), exsangmous (rcre), e^- 

bloodihed, n. bloodletting; spec, slaugh- 

bloodstaot, a. red (confezfuoO; spec, in- 

bloodthirsty, a. cannibal, bloody, tiger- 
ish, sanguinary {bookish), sanguineous 
Antonyms: see gentle. 

bloody, a. 1. red {contextual), sanguinary 
{unusual in the literal jiense), sanguineous 

r^tmai: kc Now. 


(rare), hsBinatic (tech,), sanguine (poetic 
cr rhelorioal), ensanguined (liierary); 
9pec crimson (contextual), purple (con- 
textual), gory, sanguinolent (chiefly med.), 



Uooin* n. !• See floweb (referring to a 
mngle bloseom), flush, efflobescencEi 


S. R^erring to the state: flower, blossom, 
anthcsis (tech.), efflorescence (tech.), flo- 
resoenoe (tech, or learned), blowth (rare), 
S. Flower B collectively: efflorescence 
(fecA.), bloomage (rari), blossom (rare), 

Uoteh, n. 1. spot, area (learned; context- 
ual), patch; epec, stigma. 
S. See TEsicLE. 

blouse* n. Spec, smock, smock frock, 
camorra (Italian), camise, garibaldi, 

M0W9 n. 1. stroke, impact, clip (coUoq!), 
buffet (chiefly spec,), coup (French), snute 
(chiefly rhetcrrical); spec, smite, bang, bat, 
beat, bounce, ding (dial.), tnump (coU 
Joq.), douse (rare), crack, clout (dial, or 
vulgar), clour (Soot, or dial, Eng.), douser 
(dial, or dang), punch, plug (slang), 
smash (cqlloq.), d&d (chiefly dial. & Scot.), 
push (chiefly dial.), lick (slang or wlgar), 
welt (coUoq. or slang), whack (coUoq.), 
thwack, slam, crack, wipe {slang), drub, 
dump, dash, dab, dazzler (slang), double- 
thonger (coUoq.), cut, clash, clap, bang, 
floorer (slang or cant), dunt {chiefly Scot^, 
stinger (coUoq.), swipe {colloq.), counter, 
sidewinder (U. S.), kick, bastinado, 
punch, left-hander, right-hander, slash, 
rap, wallop (slang), plunk {slang), sock- 
doioger (slang, U.S.), slug (coUoq.), whop 
(colloq.) , whang (dial, or colloq.), tunk 
(coUoq. or died.), bump, stamp, facer 
(coUiq.), smack (colloq.), thumper (rare), 
fisticuffs (pi.); see cuff, slap. 
Antonyms: see caress. 


blow, V. i. 1. Spec, bluster, flaw, whiff, 
whiffle, fan, breeze {rare), storm, puff, 
fuff (rare or Scot.), blast (rare or obs.). 


S. pant, puff, fuff {rare or Scot.). 
4* Spec, toot, tootle. 

blow, V, t. 1. wind (pron. wind); spec, 
blast, puff, bugle, toot, tootle; see 



blow, n. 1. blowing, bluster; spec, perfla- 
tion (rare or tech,), whiff, puff. 
8. See WIND. 

blunder, v, i, 1. err, slip, bungle, boggle 
(coUoq.), foozle (dang or often cant and 
spec.); spec, solecize, muff. 
8. stumble, slip, flounder. 

blunder, n, 1. error (contextual), slip, 
bun^e, boggle (colloq,); spec, mun, bull, 
8. stumble, slip, flounder. 

blunt, a, 1. dull; spec, pointless, round, 
turned, dullish. 

Antonyms: see sharp, pointed. 
8. See DULL (mentally), insensible. 
8. bluff, burly (orcAoic), abrupt, plump, 
direct, outspoken, plainnspoken, flat, 
brusque, round, crisp; see rough. 
Antonyms: see gentle, smooth, smooth- 

blunt, t;. t. 1. dull; spec, unedge (rare), 
turn, round, rebate (rare). 
Antonyms: see sharpen. 
8. See DULL (mentally), 

blur, n. 1. See smear, stain, sullt. 
8. Referring to vision: blear (rare), cloud, 
dimness, indistinctness. 

blurt, t;. t. utter (contextual), plump, blat 
{coUoq.)^ bolt (rare), 

blush, t;. i, redden, rouge (rare), ruddy 
(rare), flush. 
Antonyms: see pale. 

blushing, a. rubescent (learned), erubes- 
cent {rare), flushed, ruddy, rosy. 
Antonyms: see pale. 

bluster, v, i. 1. See blow. 
8. bounce (rare), hector, roister, swagger, 
bully, ruffle, gasconade (liierary), vapor 
{liierary), swell, bravado; see rage. 
Antonyms: see cringe, coax. 

bluster, n. 1. See blow, wind. 
8. bravado, swagger; spec, jingo, jingo- 
ism, chauvinism (teamed), vaporing or 
vapor (literary), 

blusterer, n. swaggerer, bully, bouncer (col- 
loq.), roister or {now more rmud) roisterer, 
buster (slang), swasher, swash (rare), etc. 

board, v. t. 1. approach (a ship). 
8. enter (a train). 
8. entrain (mU aboard a train). 

board, n. Spec. deal, plank, panel, slab, 
clapboard, gangboara. 

boarding house, pension (French; chiefly 
referring to a boarding house in continental 

Cross references: see Note. 
bloom: flower, thrive, flush. 
bloomy: flowery, thriving. 
blossom, n.: flower, bloom. 
blossom, V. %.: flower. 
Mot, n.: spot, stain, sully. 
blot, t. t.: spot, cancel, suUy, 
stain, hide, dry. 

blotch: spot, stain. 

blowy: windy. 

blowzy: red, slovenly. 

blubber: cry. 

blues tooklnf, n.; pedant, pre- 

blues tocklnf, a.: precious, pe- 

bluff, r. t.: deceive. 
bluff, n.; pretense. 
blunder, v. t.: botch, misman- 
blur: smear, suUy, blear, 
blurred: Uear. 
board, n.; tack. 
boarish: swinish, beastly, cruel. 

t^ See Notes of Ezplanation. 

brag, vaunt, vapor (literary), 
e), blow {dial, or colloii.). 

cackle {cant or slang), bluster, flourish, 
Bwaah, gasconade (Ulerary), crack (,ar- 
chaic); spec, rodomontade HUerary). 

bosBter, n. bragger, brag, braggart. IcK- 
iphanes (rore; lUeranj), braggaoocio, 
vaunter, vaporer (literary), bouncer, 
cracker, fanfaron (French), mouther (con- 
temptuoua), gaeconader (rare), Gascon 
(literary), swaahbuckler, hector, kiUoow 
(obB. or di<d.), puff (archaic), puokfist 
(contemptuous}, Rodomont (literary; Jig.), 
Thraso (liieraTy; fig.); spec. Scaramouch 
(literary; Jig.), Tartarin (literary; Jig.). 

boutfol, a. bragging, braggart, vaunts 
ing, leKiphanic (rare; literary), bouncing 
(rare), tongue-valiant (rare), rodomon- 
tade (rare), Thraaonicnl (literary; Jig.), 
Thrasonio (lilerary; Jig.), mouthy (col- 
loq.}, flaunty (rare), self-glorioua (rore), 
vaunty (Scot.), windy (couog. or slavig). 

Antonyms: see modest. 
bomitiDKi "■ bragging, braggery (rare), 
braggadocio, braggartiem, cockahoop, 
(rare) , vaunting , vaporing (literary) , vaun t- 
ery (rare), vaporosity (rare), jactitation 
(rare), vainalory, fanfaronade (literary), 
rodomontade (literary), gaacoaade (liler- 
ary), gloriation (rare), blow (coUoq.); see 

boat, n. 1. vessel (amtextual) , bark (po- 
etic); spec, sandal, Bampan^ shallop, 
skimming dish (coUoq.), skin, randan, 
umiak or oomiak, aharpy, rocker (chiejly 

. .!, cutter, drover, curracb (Scot. 
Irieh), dahabeeyab, canoe, gondola, gig, 
pair-oar, cot (Irish), catque (French). 
barge, coracle, bateau (chiejly Canada and 
Louisiarui), scout, Bucentaur, yawl. 
1. sauce boat, gravy boat. 

bomtiii»ii,n. boataman. boater; spec, row- 
er, sculler, barcarole (Italian), waterman, 
wherry man, dandi (Anglo-Indian), keel- 
man (dial. Eng. & Scot.), lighterman, 
gondolier, hoveler (Eng.). 

boat- shaped, a. navicular (literary or 
tech.), naviform (rare), cymbiform (tech.), 
scaphoid (tech.). 

bodllyi a. physical (andeztwd), somatic 
(tech.), corporeal, corporal, carnal, flesh- 
ly, earthly; spec, unapiritual, personal. 

Antonyms: see ethbrial, sPramiAi*^ 

bodily, adv. 1. c 

s. en maBse (French), bodaciously (diaL,M 
Southern. U. S.). I 

body. n. 1. corpus (now hTimorous or grv-9 
lesgue), form, case (rare), clod (fig.), bulk I 
(amtemptuous; chiejly spec.). 
Antonyms: see mind, som^ orobt. 
S. carcass (now contemptuous when used 
of a human corpse), form (contextual), ca^ 
daver (chiefiy spec, and tedi.), lich (ar- 
chaic), corpse (a human body), corse 
(chiejly poetic or archaic), carrion (obs. or 
'as (pi.; euphemistic); spec. 
carnage (a colleetuie with 

SOOT:, GH08T. 

, (tech.), corporation (Au- 
slanp), tone or torso (sculp- 


ture); spec, waist, bust, 
4. Spec, (in the sense of "the Tnain part") 
nave, aisle, cell or cella, hull, centrum, 
enceinte (French), buck (dial., exc, U. S., 
in "buckhoard"), purview, nacelle, limou- 

Aritonyms: see border, bdqb, brancb, 

e. mass, form, figure, consiatence (rore); 

spec, bulk, hulk, corpuscle, corpuscule, 

aggregation, mobile (rare), atom, atomy, 

pvgmy, mite, particle, piece, fragment, 


s. corps, force, troop (chiejly spec), ax- 

""" ipec.); sjMC. detach- 

ittee, regiment, bat- 

i, force, person, 
:ngth, quantity, 


bogy, n. boaey, demon (contextual), spec- 
ter, hobgoblin, scarecrow (Jig.), buga- 
boo, boraard or boggart (rare), gobim. 

boll, V. t. seethe (arehaie or literary or 
a cookery term), scald; spec, wallop (rftdl. 
or tech.), crce (dial.), parboil, deooot , 
(tech.), coddle, slew, poacn, elixate (tech.). 
Antonyms: see freeze. 
faoU, V. i. I. bubble, seethe (arehaie or lilei^ J 
ary or a cookery term), ebuUiate (rare). 

Antonyms: i 
S. See RAOE. 

bobble: jieiile, 
bodfl; /orgbodt. tivnifi/. 
botflac, a.: tianifianl, 
body(iurd: acori. refin: 

tW See Mote* vt Eipluutlon. 


boil, n. seethe (rare); spec, wallop {died, or 

boiled, a. sodden (now rare). 

boiler, n. Spec, caldron, copper. 

boilins, n. agitation (contexiiud), bub- 
bling, ebullition (learned or tech.), ebul- 
lience (rare), coction (literary or affected), 
gurgitation (rare); spec, elixation (rare), 

boisterous, n. noisy (contextiuil) , riotous, 
roaring, robustious (rare), rumbustious 
(coUoq^, clamorous, wild (contextiLol), up- 
roarious, rampant, rampageous, tumult- 
uous, noisy, turbulent, vociferous, bla- 
tant; see ROUQH, CLAMOROUS. 

Antonyms: see calm, motionless, si- 

bold, a. 1. assured (formal or literary), 
stout, stout-hearted, aaring, forward, au- 
dacious, fearless^ dreadless (rare), intrep- 
id (formal), confident, imdaunted. daunt- 
less, hardy, unapprehensive (rare), nervy 
(coUoq. or slang), dour (Scot.), unf earful 
(rare), free, cool, impavid (rare); see 


Antonyms: see timid, afraid, fear- 

boldness, n. stoutness, nerve (coUog.), 
hardihood, audacity, daring, intrepidity, 
assurance, face, etc. 

Antonyms: sec timidity, fear, anxiety, 

bombast, n. boasting, extravagance, rant, 
stuff (contextiud) , turgescence (rare), tur- 
gidity or turgidiiess (formal or literary), 
tumidity (rare), rodomontade (literary), 
mouthing (contemptuous), tympany 
(rare), loftiness (contextual), mamiloquy 
(rare), sonorousness (contextual, mag- 
niloquence (less common than '^grandih- 
quence*'), grandiosity, erandiloauence, 
grandiloquism (rare), innation, heroics 
Xl)l.; sarcastic), fustian (contem^iums) , 
highfalutin or highfaluting (colloq), flatu- 
lence (rare), swellingness (rare). swoUen- 
ness (rare), bombastry, lexipnanticism 
(rare), pomposity, gas (slang), Johnson- 
ese (fig.); spec, spread-eagleism (U. S.), 
euphuism, rant. 

bombastic, a. boastful, sounding, stilted, 
tumid (literary or formal), turgid (literary 
or formal), grandiloquent, grandiloouous 
(rare), turgent (rare), pompous, pletnoric 

(literary), flatulent (rare), puffed, mag- 
niloquent (less usual than "grandito- 
quenV), mouthing (contemptuous), oro- 
tund (coniemptuous; learned), grandiose, 
grand (contextual), lofty, mouthy (con- 
temptuous), inflated, fustian (contemptu- 
ous), magnisonant (rare), lexiphanic 
(rare), hyperboUcal, heroic, extravagant, 
high-flown (esp. of language), highfalutin 
or highfaluting (coUoq.), high-soundine, 
magmfic (chiefly derisive), tail (coUoq!), 
toplofty (colloq., U. S.), Herodian (ng.; 
rare), Johnsonese or Johnsonian (fig-)) 
Ossianic C/Zflf.), sonorous (contextuM), 
swollen, pyrotechnic (learned), sounding. 
Antonyms: see modest. 
bond, n. 1. union (contexttud); spec, coup- 
ler, coupling, couple, link, bonder, tie; 


S. nexus (learned or tech.), tie, link, 
cord, union, attachment, yoke, connec- 


bondage, n. serfdom, serfage or serfhood; 
spec, helotry or helotism (Greek hist.), 
peonage (Spanish American); see slav- 
Antonyms: see freedom. 

bondman, n. bondsman (masc), bond- 
maid (fern.), bondwoman (fern.), serf; 
spec. vHlein (hist.), carl (chs. or hist.), 
vassal, helot (Greek hist.), peon (Spanish 
American); see slave. 
Antonyms: see freeman. 

bonnet, n. cap; spec, tam-o'-shanter, 
toque, sunbonnet, poke bonnet, poke. 

bonus, n. gift; spec, premium, honorari- 
um; see TIP. 

bon Tivant. bonne vivante (French; f em.), 
high liver; spec, epicure. 
Antonyms: see ascetic. 

bony, a. osteoid (rare), ossean (rare), os- 
seous (tech.). 

book, n. 1. volume, tome (literary or tech.); 
spec, booklet, packet, incunable (rare), 
incunabulum (rare), chapbook, folio, 
quarto, octavo, duodecimo, sixteenmo, 
twelvemo, etc., legend (ohs. or eccl.), mis- 
cellanv. brochure, livret (dim.; French), 
pamphlet, journal, blotter, ledger, codex, 
treatise, nandbook compendium, canto. 
«. [Cap.] Bible;— twed wUh *'the'\ 
S. set (contextuid), packet. 

bookworm, n. student (contextual), dig, 
sap, grind, bucker; — the last four slang or 

' Cross references: see Note. 
bolster, n.; cushion, support. 
bolster, 0. t.: cushion. 
bolt,n.: arrow, lightning, pintVcU, 
bolt, 0. %.: rush, run. 
bolt, V. (.; atoiillow, desert. 

bolt, r. t.: sift. 
bomb: shell. 

bombard: cannonade, pelt. 
bombardier: gunner. 
bonbon: sweetmeat. 
bond, a.: servUe. 

bonfire: fire. 

bon mot: vntticism. 

bonny: good-tooking, cheerful. 

booby: Mockhead. 

book, 0. t.: list. 

bookls3&: learned, pedantic. 

Xar See Notes of Explanation. 


boom, n. arm, beam (eaiUextiuU), apar; 
«p«e. jib, crane; «ee bfab. 

boor, n. I. See BOBTIC. 
t. vulgarian (rare), lout, clowa, clod- 
hopper ((xniempluou»; eoUoq.), lubher, 
churl, carl {archaic or S/xit.), carter (Jig.), 
loon, barbariau (Uierary), clout {arehaic), 
lobby {chiefiy dud.), cnuH (o6g. or rare); 
spec. Grobian iftg.; lUerary). 
AnUmyme: see oentij;man. 

booilali, a. t. See rcstic. 
t. vulgar, ill-marmcrcd, clovniish, loutish, 
clodhoppuia [conlempluoue; colloq.), in- 
urban (rare), cloddish, uplandish (rare), 
churlish, ill-bred, low-bred, barbarian 
(lilerary), coarse, woolen (rare), illiberal 

' rory), lubberly, 




border, n. I. bound, bordure (archaic), 
verge, threshold (spec. or^Oiehirt, fringe, 
hem; »-pec. ciirb. 

Anlotiyms: aee iNTERtOR, BODY, 
t. edge; a-pec. hem, edging, forel, sel- 
vedge, dado, orphrey, orfray, pui^e, 

1. frontier, coaat {archaic), borderland, 
march {hi»i. in pi. atui with "the"; or 
archaic), rand (o&s., dial., or spec.); spec. 
outflkirt (rare), outakirta (pi-), wayside; 

AnUmyms: see interior, inland. 
border, P. t. I. skirt, verge (rare), rim, 
fringe, line {coiUextual), bound, neighbor. 
1. Mge; spec, purl, cottse, purfle, bind, 

border, v. i. adjoin (contextual), neighbor, 
bound, touch (eonlexiual); see abut, 

bore, V. t. 1. pierce (contextual), eat (con- 
textual); tpec. gimlet, drill, 
t. See w-EABT. 

bore, n. wave {contextual), eager {a lesa 

borrow, i>. t. I. get (contextual). 
Antonyms: see lend. 
t. See ADOPT. 

boih, inter], fudge. 

boiom, n. breast, bust {cap. of a tootnan), 7 
boBom, a. gremial (luno orUy in "gremiat 1 
pHV). ' 

botob, V. 1. bungle, blunder, muddle, 
clamper {chiefly Sail.); spec, cobble, tin- 
ker, butcher (dang), murdbT (slang); see 

botohy, a. bungling. 

bottle, n. container (cant); spec, vinai- 
grette, vial or (mare often tech.) phial, , 
spht, siphon, boltheod, demijohn, dead- I 
man {slang or coUoq.), matra-sa, marine 
(slaiig), magnum, Jeroboam (literary and 
humorous), carafe or carafl, carboy, cruet, 
cruse (orcAate), coatrel, goatskin, tickler 
{coUog.), flagon, flask, flacon, gourd, cor- 
net, canteen. 

bottle -BbBped, a. utrifonn (rare). 

bottom, n. I. foot, base, basis (orcAatc), , 
doup {Sa?t.), root, sole; spec, keel, culet, i 
cullet, bilge, heel, sump. 
Antonjfms: see top, peak. 
S. bed ((^ a body of mater); spec, coulee 
{U. S.), cnannel, basin. 
S. intervale, interval, haugh {Scot, or 
dial.); spec, swale (dtal.). 


bottomleis, a. baseless, fathomless, 

plumbless (rare). 
boudob, n. cabinet (archaic), bower (liter- , 

bouKbt, a. bouEhten (chiefly eoUoq., V. S., 

or poetic), purcnaacd. 
bounoer, n. whaler, whacker, whopper, 

whapper, bumper, buster, smasher, sock- 

dologer (U.S.);— -ail slang or calloq. 
Antonyma; see dwarf. 
bouod, a. I. fastened, confined, tied. 

S. obliged, obhgated; spec, committed, 

liege, indentured. 

■. See CBBTAiN. 
bound, V. i. I. See imcF. 

). bounce, rebound, dap (rare), resile 

(rare); spec, ricochet. 
bound, n. I. iSee boundabt, bokdeb. 

■. /n the pi. (bounds): territory, area, 

place, compass, limit, range, reach, pale 

(chiefly spec,), confine (chiefly in pi.; obs. 

t^ Cms nftHKca  irt Nolc 

booth: Oatl. 

boib' thvlitL 

boom, .. <^r huR.. raoi-nd. 

bootle**: Hwl™. 

bottii bu-ha. 

bootri plunder, priu. 

boiom. .. I.; tmbract. 


bBO>e. ...: corow,. ti<r^. 

boom, n.! Itun, r-oonana. ad- 

booi*. I. i.: drink, eorsue. 

bOM. .. L: direct. 

teS::: !S;a„.,..^. 

ban, n..- .iKd. 

bore, >. 1..- aniwv, Urt. 

boM, ., (,: <™l«M. rtd. 

bOOM. «.,■ ™™«, lisBor. 

boi*. n..- luU. tube. salOtr. 

boUT: «"dA»J. 

booia, .. i..- Jrini. bofou,. 

borl^ BOfUiffn. 

booit. n..- m. f~"*. <id»n". 

bottaw: Iro-Mi.laa. 

booit, >. t! lijt. pu,h. rout, 

boionchi' Stm'' 


boot. •. t; iA«. 

boml: iBiwrBtit 

boot, n..- bflx/U, mwdv. 

boot, •. r..' btniAt. 

boih: nm>H7u>. 

bouD». V. .-..■ iwund. 


or rare); spec, perambulation, division, 
purlieu; see sphebe, scope. 

bound, V, t, 1. limit, confine, demarcate 
(literary or tech,), circumscribe, delimit 
(chiefly literary), terminate; see confine. 
1. See border. 

boundary, n. !• bounder (archaic), bound- 
ure (obs, or rare); spec, demarcation, 
monument, landmark, term, Hermes, 
Herma, herm, cairn, line. 
S. limit, bound (chiefly in pi.), outline, pre- 
cinct, confine, verge, buttal (oba. or tech.), 
butt (obe, or rare), bourne (literary), mete 
(chiefly in pi. and legal), mere (archaic), 
mardi (historical or arckaic), mark (his- 
torical or archaic), rubicon (fig.), term 
(rare), periphery, circuit, circumference, 
compass, line (contextual), dool (Scot. & 
dial. Eng.), boimder (archaic); see border. 

boundary, a. limitary, terminal ixare), 
limital (rare), boimding, border. 

boundless, a. 1. imlimited, infinite, term- 
less, limitless, incomprehensible (rare), 
immeasurable, unbounded, illimitable; 
tpee. shoreless. 

Antonyms: see ldoted, narrow. 
S. See endless, inexhaustible. 

bouquet, n. 1. nosegay, boughpot (ar^ 
chaic); spec, posy (archaic or coUoq.), but- 
tonhole (coUoq.; Eng.), boutonnidre 
(French), buttonhole (coUoq.). 
S. See SMELL. 

bow (j)ron. bo), n. 1. See curve. 
S. Fiddlestick (now familiar or contemptur 

bow, V. i. 1. (pron. bou) See curve, stoop, 


S. (pron. bou) iSpec. incline, curtsy, curt- 
sey, bob, beck (chiefly Scot.), nod, duck, 
scrape, cap, salaam, dip (colloq.), kotow, 
stoop, knee, genuflect (rare), cong4 
(French), congee, lout (archaic or dial.); — 
referring to a gesture of courtesy, respect, or 
S. (pron. bo) bend, curve. 

bow (jpron. bou), v. t. incline, bend; spec. 
prostrate, nod. stoop. 

bow (pron. bou), v. t. 1. See stoop, over- 
come, SUBDUE. 

S. Spec, incline, bend, stoop, lout (ar- 
chaic or dial.; rare); — referring to a ges- 
ture of courtesy, respect, or deference. 

bow, n. 1. (pron. bou) Spec, obeisance, 
curtsy, curtsey, bob, reverence, leg (or- 
chaic or jocular), beck (chiefly Scot.), nod, 
nid-nod (voUoq.), scrape, salaam, pros- 
tration, obedience (archaic or dial.), con^ 
(French), consee, duck, inclination, dip. 
S. (pron. bou) prow, stem, head, prore 
(poetic), entrance (tech.), forepart; «pec. 
foreship (rare), beakh^td (rare), fore- 
foot, forepeak, forehold, foresheets (pi.), 
hawse, luff, forecastle, gripe. 

bowl, n. 1. Spec, mazer (oos. or historical), 
crater (Greek antiq.). takza, jorum, Jero- 
boam (humorous), bowie (Scot.), cogie 
(Scot.), cap (Scot.), porringer, brimmer. 

bowl, V. i. 1. iSee roll. 
S. glide, tool, roll; — referring to a manner 
of progress, as of a carriage. 

bow-legged, a. bandy-legged. 

bowl- shaped, a. crateriform (tech.). 

bowstring, n. string, cord, nerve (poetic). 

box, V. i. fight (corUextual) , spar. 

box, n. 1. case, container (com.), recepta- 
cle: spec, canister, chest, cabinet, casket, 
cassette (French), cassolette, canteen, cof- 
fin, pyx, cofferdam, caisson, carton, car- 
toucne, buist (obs. or Scot.), caddy, 
drawer, kist (Scot. & dial. Eng.), shrine 
(archaic), trunk, case. 
S. Referring to the theater box: compart- 
ment (corUextual); spec, loge (French). 


brace, n. bracer (rare), support (context" 
ual), strengthener (contextual); spec. 
clasp, buckle, band, clamp, stay, strut, 
bolt, rope, chain, bracket, truss, girder, 
tie, rod, rider, rib, crib, prop, shore, but- 
tress, reinforce, reinforcement. 

brace, v. t. 1. support, strengthen, stiffen; 
svec. gird, prop, strut, tie, truss, buttress, 
cnain, bracket, rib, stay, reinforce, bone, 
shore, etc. 


bracket, n. 1. brace (contextual); spec. 

corbel, console, shoulder, cheek, modil- 

Uon, gusset, cantilever. 

t. See SHELF. 
braid, n. plait, pleat (obs.), brede (archaic), 

plaiting (a collective); spec, soutache 

(French), galloon, cue, leghorn (a coUeO" 

tive), Venetians (pi.), lace. 

Cross referenus: see Note. 
bound, a.: going. 
bounteous: generotu, abun' 

bonnttful: generous, cibundant. 
bounty: generosity, gift, re- 

tocard, subsidy. 
bonm: goal. 
bonme; goal. 

n.: carouse, liqwtr. 
V. %.: drink, carouse. 

bout: round, course, contest, 

bOTine: beef. \sion, interior. 
bowel: intestine; %n pi.; eompaS' 
bower: bedroom, boudoir, arbor. 
bowery: shady. 
bowl, r. t.: roll, serve. 
bowlder: rock. 
box: slap. 
bo3cer: fighter. 
boy: child, youth, servant. 
boycott, V. t.: avoid. 

boyoott, n.: conspiracy. 
boyish: childish. 
brmoinf: stimulating. 
braoklsb: salt. 
braf , n.: bocuter. 
brag, V. %.: boast. 
brafcmdooio: bocuting, boasitr. 
braf fart, n.: bocuter. 
braf fart, a.: boastful. 
brarfer: boaster. 
braffinf, a.: boastful. 
braffinf, n.; boasHng. 

XS' See Notes of Explanation. 


t>T«ld, V. t. 1. intertwine {canlextitai) , plat, 
plait, pleat (obs.), brede (oba. or archaic). 
a. Smbind, 

bTftla, n. 1. headpiece {fiO-)- encephalon 
(tech.); spec, cerebrum, cerebelluin, hind- 
brain, little brain. 
I. In pi.: see vow. 

brake, n. check {rare), atop; spec, clog, 
convoy, block, chock, cow, drag, skid. 

brakeman, n. brakesman, guard (Eng.). 
" BTokeiiian" is the usual form. 

branoli, n. 1. ehoot, ofFsboot, stick (con- 
textiial), ramus (tecA.), rame (rare); spec, 
limb, bough, twig, sprav, sprig, spire, 
start, caulome, bush, phyUoclade {tech.), 
ofTset, sucker, ramuiue, ramulet, fork, 
rootlet; see shoot. 
AnUmi/mi: «ee trunk. 
9. division {context^ial) , ramification, di- 
varication (ieorneii), ambranchment 
{rare), fork, aiim, offshoot, offset, throw- 
oB {rare): spec. st«m, loop, spur, bifurca- 
tion, billahong {Australia), anabranch 
{Australia); smarm. 
Antonj/nu: see body. 
>. Referring to a horn: fork; spec, snag, 
tine, prong, speller, tray, broach, start, 
bez-antler, pricker. 

4. memhsT {coTilextiuU) ; sjiec. lodge, tent, 
court, filiation, chapter, post, corps, 

br»ncb. a. rameous (rare), ramal (tech.). 

branch, v. t. & i. t. divide, ramify, divari- 
cate (leartied), offset, oiitbrancb {poeHe), 
digit-ate (rare); spec, dichotomize, bush. 
a. See DIVEKQE. 

brancblDE, □. arborescent, ramifying; 

spec, dichotomous, Hpraving:JteeBRANCHT. 
brancli]', a. ramose (tech.), ramous (tech.), 

branching; spec, ramulose, ramelloso. 

a {learned), 


a. character {eonlexlual), stii 
print, stamp; spec, crop, I 

*. mark, chop (in China), cac 
(French); spec, label, stamp, tally. 
4. Referring to goods: quality, make, 
class, grade, cho]^ (in China), stamp, 
brand, v. I. 1. HtigmatiKe {learned or liUr- 
ary), print, stamp, mark (conlexCual); 
•-■— '" -■ : of "brand"), 

SJKC. bum (the , 
pitch, tiver (dial. . 


. ... mark; spec, label, taDy. 
bTBve, a. 1. bold, courageous, stalwart, 
daring, game (slang or cotloq.), ^amy (col- 
log, or dang), dauntless, spirited, lion- 
hcart«d (rhetorical), valiant, valorous, gal- 
lant, doughty {literary), dour (Scot.). 
stout, resolute, preux (Frenth), galllarQ 
(archaic), prow (arcAatc), yeomWy (lit- 
ermy); spec, manful, intrepid, manly, 
chivalrous, womanly. 
Antonyms: ace cowabm-t, UNCnrvAI/- 


brmvBrr, n. boldness, courage, daring, V>li^ 

or. spirit, e/c.; i;f. brave. 

Atilonyms: see cowardice. 
bravo, inter j. exccUentl good! finel 
brawling, n. 1. See uurmdrino. 

t. disputation, quarreling; ef. qoarrel. 
bray, n. ■£ v. i. cry (contextual), hee-baw 

(onomatopoetic; coUog.). 
braie, v. t. 1. brass, brazen. 

S. See at 

..brass; «jwc. brassy, bi 

issy, braaai^^^^l 
f iLne ' — r.hixlttr ^^^ 

braien, v. t. cheek (slang), face; — chiefiff' 

brazier, n, firepan; specbrasero (Spanish), 
hearth, niangal (rare), scaldino {Italian), 
breaob, n. I. See m 

9. opening, break, rent, rupture, disrup- 
tion, ruption (rare or spec); spec, chasm, 
fret, split, gap. 

 Refaring to personal relations: division, 
rupture, ruption. split, break, schism. 

breach, v. t. break, rupture, disrupt; spec, 

bread, n. tommy (slang, Eng.), bread- 
stuff; spec, biscuit, eulogia (hist.), pone 
{Southern U. S.), manchet (archaic), muf- 
fin, roll, rusk, pumpernickel, toast, simncl 
(chiefly historical), showbread, brewis 
{dial.), bun, crug (slang, Eng.), host, 

break, v. I. 1. Spec, disrupt {rare or fig.), 
rupture, snap, rive, burst, smash, rend, 
fragmentize (rare), stave, chip, braj 
brake, erase, fritter, crash {rare), cnunt 
comminute, crack, crumple, fracture, 
fault, tear, cabbie, buck, rag, splinter, 
nick, demolish; — "~ — 

Ltarak*: fm. thicint, brmKviBod. 
bramble: brier. 
bruubiT: bricrii. 
brandllb: meatpiT. 

,: bvUyidtB-ptrado.-u, 

biewl: fiant. quarrel, mi 
brewn; JUnh. itreti^h. 



AnUmyms: 9ee join, unttb, ceicent, 






break* v,uU part (corUexiual); spec, dis- 
rupt (rare or fig.), crash (rare), burst, 
crack, splinter, rend, outburst {rare); see 


S. Beferrina to a wave: comb, ¥rash, 

crest, topple {coUoq.). 

S. Referring to a fish: rise, leap, prime (rare) . 

4. Referring to the voice: chiaiige, mature. 


break, n. 1. breach; spec, disruption (rare 
or fig.), break-up, rupture, crush, crash, 
smash, snap, burst, debacle, rent, abra- 
sion, diip; see burst. 

5. incontinuity (rare); spec, opening, gap, 
rent, nick, chfusm, hiatus, blank, interval, 
lacuna, void, intermission, aperture, rift, 
figure, drop, crack; see scrape. 

S. Referring to the xixwes: spec. ¥rash, 
combmg, breaking. 

4. See interruption, breach, start, 

CHANGE, transition, RISE. 

breakable, a. frangible (learned or book- 
ish); see BRITTLE. 

breaker, n. 1. Spec, crusher, smasher, 
brayer, cracker, etc. 

5. wave (carUextual)f comber, white horse, 
surge (a collective). 

breakfast, n. dejeuner (French), dejune 
(Scot.; archaic). 

breaking, n. 1. breakage; spec, disruption 
(rare or fig.), rupture (rare), ruption 
(rare), fracture (chiefly spec.), fraction, 
infraction (rare), fragmentation (rare), 
crumblement (rare), irruption (learned or 
bookish), inbreak (rare), incrash (rare), 
rending, inburst (rare). 

breakwater, n. Spec, mole^ framework, 
groyne, jetty, pier (coUoq., U. S.). 

breast, n. 1. mamma (of a female; tech.), 
iTrtftTnTnilln. (of a male; tech.), bubby (dial, 
or vulgar). 

S. See BOSOM, courage. 
S. brisket. 

breastbone, n. sternum (tech.), 

breastplate, n. pectoral (rare), poitrel 
(archaic), plastron (hist.); spec, cuirass. 

breast- shaped, a. mammillary, mammi- 
form; spec, mastoid; — aU three tech, 

breath, n. 1. air (contextual). 
S. respiration, spiration (rare); spec. 
snore, pant, puff, yawn, wheeze; see in- 
halation, EXHALATION, SIGH. 


breathe, v. i, 1. respire; spec, pant, puff, 
pump, snore, wheese; see inhale, ex- 
hale, SIGH. 
S. See STOP. 

breathe, v, t. U respire; 9ee inhale, ex- 


breathing, n. 1. respiration, spiration 
(rare); spec, eupnoea, dyspnoea, apnoea; 



breathless, a. 1. blown, pumped (dang or 
coUoq.), exhausted (oontexiued), all in 
(slang, 1/ S.). 

8. iSee LIFELESS. 

bred, a. reared, raised (now chiefly U, S., 
and considered improper or coUoq. as ap- 
plied to persons); spec, educated. 

breeches, n. pi. U knickerbockers (U, S.), 
breeks (Scot.), small clothes, smalls (cti- 
loq.), hose (oos, or hist.; chiefly spec.); 
spec, buckskins, galUgaskins, corduroys; 
— all pi, 


breeohless, a. trouserless, sansculottic 
(hist.), unbreeched, pantless (mdgar), 

breed, v. 1. 1. Referring to thefemcUe: grow, 
create, produce, cherish, form, develop; 
spec, hatch. 

S. Spec, inbreed. cross, interbreed, inter- 
cross, crossbreea, fancy. 
S. produce, grow, engender, brew, gen- 
erate (rare); — as in **to breed trouble. 
Antonyms: see extingxtish. 

4. raise (slock, etc.), 

5. iSee CAUSE, REAR. 

breed, v, i. 1. In the sense of **to bear 
young": generate (rare), reproduce, 

Z, In the sense of "to be bom**: originate 

breed, n. stock, brood (chiefly coniemptur 
ous as used of men); see family, race. 

breeding, n. 1. stirpiculture (rare), 
8. nurture, education (rare); spec, gen- 
tility, gentil6sse (archaic); see POLrrs- 


breeding place. 1. Spec, loonery. hen- 
nery, hawkery, gullery, heronry, natoh- 
ery, beavery. hoggery, piggery, rookery. 
8. rig.: hotoed. 

brevity, n. 1. See shortness. 

5. Referring to time: briefness, shortness, 
littleness, momentariness, swiftness, tran- 
siency, transience. 

Antonyme: see length. 

Cross references: see Note. 
breakaire: breaking. 
bveakdown: coUapae. 

break-up: decompotilicn. 

breast, v. t.: opvose. 
brsathlncy a.: living. 

breeder: author. 
breese: vnndt ditiurbanee. 
breesy: vnruiy, lively. 
breve: tummary. 

}Sr See Notes of Biplanatioiu 


I, fie/tSTinj to gpeeeh or tarUing: Bhort- 
nesH, curtness, breviioqueoce {affecUd or 
kwnorous), brachylogy (rare), pauciloquy 
(rare); see concibenebs. 
Antonyms: see pHoLncnr. 

bribe, V. t. corrupt (conUxtual), hire (eon- 
lextwil), buy, suborn {lech,); spec, oil 
(slang), anoint (rare; in "to anoint the 
hand"), palm (slang), Bubsidiue, tip, 
grease (slang), square (coUoq.), 

brtbe, n. douceur (French), gratification 
(euphemiilic); epec. sop, graft, grease, 
baksheesh, tip. 

brthery, n. corruption (contextual), subor- 
nation (tech.): spec. Bubsidizing, 

brtc-k-biao, n. knicknacks QA.); spec, 

briok, n. Spec, clinker, clink, grizzle, 
lump, cutcha (Anglo-Indian), quart, 
beaoer, binder, briquette or briquet. 

bclokr. a. lateritious (rejerring esp. to color; 

brtds, n. wife, Beatrice (Jig.). 

btldeEroom, n. husband, groom, bene- 
dict, Benedick. 

biidciman, n. beat man, groomBman. 

brldte, n. 1. span; spec, drawbridae, via- 
duct, bateau, bridge, bascule Dridge, 
Bifrost (mythal.). 


brldBB, V. t. & i. span, overbridge (rare). 
brldsehetid, n. tete-du-pont (French). 
bridle, n. 1. headgear; <pe<7. snaffle, branks 
(used in punishing a scold; pi.). 

%. See B£STRAINT. 

bridle, V. t. bristle. 

briei, a. 1. See short. 
a. R^ening to time: short {note obs. or 
archaic, ere. in certain phrases), transient, 
little, shortr-lived, swift, momentary; see 



t. Referring to speech: breviloquent 
(rare), curt, curtal (nrcAotc); see concise. 
Antonyms: see pboux, 
brier, n. briar (a variant), bramble; spec. 

blackberry, raspberry, loganberry. 
brier, n, oriar (q variant), heath, brier- 
briery, o. briary (a variant), brambly. 
bricbt, a. 1. Spec, brilliant, effulgent, re- 
fulgent, glaring, lucid (rare), splendid, 
splendent, resplendent, radiant (rare), 
gay, virid, aplendorous, splendrous, gor- 
geous, strong (conlextuai), garish, bright- 

some, li^t, lightsome, transplendent 
(rare), Orient or Oriental (esp. of gems, 
etc.); see lcbthoos, LDiUNotre, bhinino, 


Antonyms: see dark, diu. 
9. Referring to eolore: spec, flaming, 
flamboyant, fresh, lively, flashy, gay; se« 
BHOWY. Most of the terms git/en under 
sense 1 are also lued as synonymt in refer- 

Antonyms: see DULL. 
I. Referring to a career, course of amdud, 
etc.: spec, brilliant, daKiling, illustrious, 
meteoric, purple (literary), di^tinguiahed, 

Antonyms: see obbcitrb. 


brigbten, u. 1. 1, illuminate, beshino (rare), 
illume (literary or fig.), enlighten (chiefly 
poetic or rhetorical), embrighten (rore), 
irradiate (literary). 

a. Referring to colors: raise. Uvea (colloj.), 

bright-eyed, a. shjning-eyed, cleai^^yed. 
Antonyms: see blear, dim-eted. 

briBbtneiB, n. I. Spec, brilliance, efful- 
gence, refulgence, glare, lucidity (rare), 
splendor or splendour, splendidness, re- 
splendence, sptendrouanesa (rare), gai- 
ety, strength (contextual), splendence 
(rare), gorgeousneaa, glister (chiefly liter- 
ary), sparkle, tranaplendency (rare), Ori- 
ency (esp. of gems), glitter; see lostbb, 


Antonyms: see dabxnkss, diunoss, Ob- 

S. Referring to colors: spec, flamboyance, 
freshness, flash inesa, gay n ess, gaiety, 
ahowiness. Most of the terms under sense 
1 are also used of colors. 

Anton]pns: jiee dullness. 
1. Referring to a career, performance, etc.: 
spec, brilhance, illustriouBnesB, MAt 
(French), distinction, fame. 

Antonyms: see OBBCDiurr. 


brindled, a. narty-cotored, brinded, brin- 
dle; spec, tabby. 

brine, "■ '' ■- fetch, conduct (a LaHnism), 
deduce (rare), have (archaic); spec, hmd, 
retrieve, draw, get, reduce (rare). 
Antonyms: see send, rbuove. 
3. Referring to price, amount, etc.: hUih, 
command, realize, encash (rare); spec, net. 


I bridal: m. 

^^^ bridle, >. t 

', urii, obtlract, 

brief, D. (.; abridpe. 

brlfed*, ii":-- waani 
bfflcmDd; deapvrado. 


brlmma: bvmptr. 

t?- See RolM ot 


S. reduce, throw, work; spec, reason (esp. 
vrith **into" **out of" etc.), conjure, pray, 
laugh, ridicule, lull, etc. 

4. reflect (cw censure, doubt, etc.), throw, 


brisk, a. 1. See active, rapid, strong, 


8. smart, perky. 

briskety n. breast. 

bristle, n. Spec, (tech.) seta, setula, set- 
ule, vibrissa. 

bristle, V. i. 1. Referring to hair or bristles: 
erect {learned or tech,), stand, stare 
8. See bridle. 

bristling, a. horrid (chiefly poetic), shag- 
gy, rough, horrent (chiefly poetic). 

bristly, a. setaceous, strigose, strigate, 
setulose, hispicL setose, scrubby (rare or 
spec.), horrent (chiefly poetic), hairy (con^ 
texl\tat);^aU exc. ''brisUy," ''scnMy,'' 
hairy, and **horrent," chiefly tech. 
Antonyms: see smooth. 

brittle, a. weak (contexttia£), breakable 
(contextiud), fragile, frail (contextiud), 
brickie (dial.), oruckle (dial.), braeii 
(chiefly U. S. and spec.); spec, delicate 
(contextual)* short, crisp, shattery (rare), 
shivery, cola-short, hot-snort ; seecRUMSLT. 
Antonyms: see strong, flexible, un- 

broad, a. 1. See wide, spacious, roomt, 
evident, comprehensive, xtnre- 
btrained, general, liberal. 

5. full (daylight). 

S. pronounced (brogue, accent, etc.), Doric 
(spec, or fig.; of a dialect, etc.). 

broadside, adv. flatways, flatwise, side- 
wise, sideways. 

brogue, n. 1. shoe, brogan. 


broU, V. t. 1. cook (contextual), grill, car- 
bonado (obs. or literary); spec, frizzle, 
devil, spitchcock. 
8. See HEAT. 

broken, a. 1. Spec, disrupt (rare or fi>g.), 
burst, fractured, shattered, gapped, rup- 
tured, torn, rent. 
Antonyms: see intact, whole. 
8. Referring to one*s health: shaken; spec. 
S. See intermittent, rough, violated. 

broker, a. 1. See pawnbroker, go-be- 

8. agent, middleman; spec jobber. 
brokerage, n. brokage (obs., rare, or spec.); 

spec, pawnbrokerage, agency (contextual), 
brooch, n. dasp, ouch, fibula (antiq.), 
brood, n. 1. hatch; spec, clutch, covev, 

cletch or clatch (dial.), nide (chiefly Eng^, 


brook, n. stream, rivulet, rindle (rare or 
dial.), rill, beck (Eng.; literary or dial.), 
bum (dial, or Scot.), runnel, runlet, run, 
streamlet, bumie (Scot.), bourn or bourne 
(chiefly local Eng. or literary) A>uin (dial, 
and Scot.); spec, gill (dial,, Brtg.), nllet. 

broom, n. brush (contextual), besom (now 
chiefly dial, or literary); spec, wisp, pope V 
head, brush, whisk, whisker, wing. 

brooci- shaped, a. scopiform, fasdoular; 
— both chiefly tech, 

broth^ n. broo or bree (Scot.), liquor; spec, 
brewis (dial,), cullis (now rare), ksie; see 


brothel, n. bagnio (literary), bordel (obs, 
or archaic), bawdyhouse. house of ill re- 
pute (the usual legal term). 

brother, n, 1. Spec, cadet (younger 


brotherly, a. 1. fraternal. 


brown, a. Spec, lurid, foxy, hazel, cheli- 
donian, bay, bayard (archaic), brownish, 
browny, brunneous (rare), ferruginous, 
auburn, adust (rare), bronze, mahogany, 
maroon, russet, snuff-colored, smoky, rus- 
setish, russety, tan, sorrel, puce, tawny, 
fallow, tabac, musteline, fawn. 

brown, n. Spec, bistre, mummy, feuille- 
morte (French), 6cru (French). 

brown, v. t. embrown (emphaUc); spec, tan, 
russet, scorch, toast. 

bruise, v. t. 1, injure (contextual), contuse 
(tech. or literary), batter, contimd (rare), 
pound (rare); spec, suggilate (obs, or rare). 
8. See INDENT^ crush. 

bruise, n. 1. injurv (contextual), contusion 
(tech. or literary), batter (rare), pound 
(rare); spec, suggilation (rare or tech.), 
ecchymosis, mouse (slang), 


bruising, a. contusive (bookish or tech.). 

brunet, a. dark, brunette (less usual than 
*^brunet"; chiefly fern.); spec, (tech.) mel- 
anochroid, melanous, melanistic. 
Antonyms: see blond. 

brunet, n. brunette (fem.); spec, (tech.) 
melanochroi (pi.), melanoi (pi.). 

' Cross referenus: sec Note. 

briny: mU. 
British: English. 
broaeh, n.: apit, horn. 
broAoh, 0. {.; transfix, open, be- 
ffin, tpill, introduce, draw, ream. 
brosdoast: eccUtered. 

broaden: unden, generalize, 

liberalize, enlarge. 
brokace: brokerage. 
brood, v.: incubcUe, consider. 
brook: endure. 
brotherhood: association, fror 

ternity, fellowship. 

browbeat: bully. 
brownie: fairy. 
browse, n.; fodder. 
browie, «. t.: graze. 
bruit: report. 
bnunmacem: gaudy. 
brant: shock. 

K3^ See Notes of ICiplanatlon. 

brush, n. 1. Spec, pen, pencil, rigger, aable, 
pope's-head, fitch, card, air Drueb. 
t. See BROOM, TCFT, tail. 

brusb, I), t. I. Spec, whiak; see bweef. 
S. See GRAZE. 

bruBhllke, a. scopifonn (tech.), muBcori- 
form (lech.), bruahy (_rare). 

brushwood, ri. 1. scrub, brush, bush: spec. 
chaparral (U. S.), frith {Eng.), brake, 
UDderbtiiEh, rice {Eng.). 
%, brush; — referring to small brandies cul 

brutalize, v. t. Chieflj/ Jig. in sense: ani- 
maliic (rare), imbrute Uiterary), brutify, 
beatiahze; spec, dehumsnisee (Tare), difi- 
humaniie (rare), sensualize, harden. 
Anionjftits: see sefihg, sfiriixtalize. 

bubble, n. 1. globule (conleitual), bell 
(chiefiij Seat, or tech.), blob (dial, or col- 
log.), blobber (obs. or diid.); spec, bullule, 
bead, bleb, bladder, 
f. RefeTTiiig to the sound: gurgje. 
«, See SHOW, PAUulcr, rmrhe. 

bubble, f. t. I. bell (dial., Scot., or tech.Y 
efferveaoe (lilerary or l^h.; often spec.), 
intumeace (lech.; o/len spec.), rise (am- 
lexlnal), ebullot* or ebullial« (rare); spec. 
bead, sparkle, gurgle, yaw; see boUj. 
8, gurgle. 

bubbling, a. effervescent (literary or lech.; 
often spec.), effervescive (literary or tech.; 
often spec.), ebuJLent (tech.; often spec.), 
intiunescent (tech.; often spec.), fretting 
(rare); spec, sparkling; see boilujo. 

babbling, n, effervescence or (rare) effer- 
vescency {literary or tech.; often spec.), in- 
tumescence (tech.; often spec?), ebul- 
lience (rare), ebullition (literary or tech.), 
fret (rare). 

bubbly, a. bubbliah ; spec, bladdery, bleb- 
by, beady. 

bucket, n. Spec, tub, scoop, kibble, Qoat, 
piston, pail, blackjack. 

bucUe, n. 1. clasp, fibula (antiq.); spec. 

bud, n. I. sprout, shoot, gemma (tech.), 
burgeon (poetic), tendron (rare); spec. 
button, gcmmule, gemina, knop (archaic), 
eye, bulbil, bulbet, cabbage, chit. 

s. Kemma (biol.); spec, (iodl.) medus^l 

meduaoid, hydra. 1 

bud, V. i. 1. sprout germinate, burgeon il 

(lUerary); spec, button. 

t. geminate (biol.). 

I. disbud; spec. chit. 
buS, n. orange, yellow; spec. Isabella, j 

buSer, n, bumper; spec, fender, dolly, 

buSer, V, I. cushion. 
buBet, n. 1. cupboard, sideboard. 


boSooa, n. clown (ddefly spec.), merntoj 
andrew, fool, Jadc-pudaing (archaic), | 
pleasant (obs), grotesque (rare), antio^ I 
pickle-herring (rare), merryman (rare), 1 
droU, harlequin, lany (orig. spec.; rare or 1 
literary); /ipec. punch, punchinello, Scara- I 
mouch, pantaloon, jester, jackpuddinft .1 
pierrot. Harlequin, mimic, mummer, I 
mime, mimer, archimime, Goliard ()ii»- I 
torical), grarioao (Spanish). I 

buSoon, V. i. droll {literary or rare), harle* | 
quinade (rare), merry-andrew or merry- 
andrewjze (rare). ^ 

buOoonery, n. farce, clownery (chiefij/ I 
spec), foolery, harleqiunade, droller 
(lilerary or rare), merry-andrewism (rare) 
buffooniam, imnyiam {orig. spec.; rare). 
spec, mimicry, mummery. Harlequinade. I 
Antonyms: see dignitt. 

boOtKiiilsh, a. clownish, buffoon, antic. 
Antonyms: see dionitied. 

buEbear, n. bug (obs, or archaic), bugaboo, 
scarecrow (fig. or spec.), boggard or bog- 
gart (rare); spec, fetish, mumbo-jumbo; 

buggy, a. Spec, c 

buUd, V. 1. 1. erect, raise, rear, edify (rare), 
fabricate (rare or spec.), construct, big or I 
bigg (Scot.); spec, mason, subslruct, [ 
superstruct, reconstruct. 
Antonyms: see asate, destbot. 


boUd, n. 1. See STRUcrcitE. 

S. Referring to a person: physique, set, . 

set-up (coUoq.). 
builder, n. architect (chiefly spec.), erect- 1 

or; spec, jerry-builder, carpenter, mason. , 
buUdiat, n. 1. Referring to the operation! I 
fabric (now ecel.), edification ] 

t^- Cross n/ircncci: b« Noie. 

brnta, ti..- animal, biatl. fiend. 

bnokat, >. 1 : ride. 

Iinuh,n.; amtiii,AiiKL 

badge. >, >..- moH. vuU. 

bTDtlih: animal, bauUiki. un- 

budg^ fl,.- ait. Pflantic. 

bniiby: rBtfli. 

buflj )»1M. 


bnll>t,>.(„- triki.figla. 

bratal: ' aniW. crwl. nmgh, 



buofc. .. .-,,■ Jump. 

bngeboo: hwbuar. 

inmntMa. smmal, rouo*, un- 

buck. .<. 1.; unh6ra. 

bugte: horn. 

bndMt. t. (..■ dnno, di-mc*, driw. 

bnOO, >. <.; rilv. 

« Itotet ol Etplenatlon. 


(txare), architecture, ooDstniction, fabri- 
cation (rare or spec.). 
t. Referring to what is buiU: edifice (usur 
ally spec.) f erection {formal), fabric, struc- 
ture, construction; spec, substructure, 
8up>CTstructure, superstruction (rare), li- 
brary, h^, rotunda, palace, chamber, 
camera, store, mansion, coe (local; min- 
ing) pavilion, cottage, hovel, factory, 
garage, shelter, court, etc.; see hottse. 
^^BuHding"* is commonly tised only of an 
indosed structtare, 

built, a. built-up, framed; spec, fabricated. 

bulb, n. 1. bud (contextual); spec, bulbil, 
chive, dove, 
t. Spec, tuber, conn. 

bulb- shaped, a. bulbiform, bulbous, bulb- 

bulginc-eyed, a. goggle-eyed. 

bulk, n. stall. 

bulk, n. 1. See size, quantitt, body. 
t. generality, body, mass, heft (coUoq., 
U. S.), most (with "f/i«"), staple, gross 
(obs. or archaic); spec, majority, many. 
Antonyms: see minority. 

bulk, V. i. 1. swell, expand, loom; see 


t. See WEIGH. 
bull, n. bovine (contextual); spec, michy 

(dangy Australia), bullock. 
bullflcbter, n. toreador (Spanish; esv. a 

mourUed bullfighter); spec, banderiliero 

(Spanish), picador. 
bull*8-eye, n. aim (contextual), center; 

spec, prick (obs.), blank, white, carton 

bull- shaped, a. tauriform (tech. or 

bully, n. !• intimidator, bounce (rare; 

coUoq.), bouncer (rare; colloq.), hector, 

hectorer, brave (archaic), tiger (slang), 

bulldozer (colloq.) . 
Antonyms: see fawner. 

S. See blusterer. 
bully, t;. t. intimidate, overbear, bounce 

(rare; colloq.) y hector, huff, browbeat, 

overbear, bulldoze, bullyrag; spec, bluff, 

outbully, haze (U. S.). 

Antonyms: see coax, cajole. 
bully, V. i, 1. intimidate, hector, bounce 

(coUoq.), huff (colloq.)y domineer (con- 

textiud)y bulldoze. 

Antonyms: see eamaE, coax. 
t. See bluster. 
bulwark, n. i. wall (contextual); spec 
rampart, parapet, breakwater. 

t. See SHELTER. 

bumper, n. 1. brimmer; spec, cupful, 
glassful, bowlful. 


bunch, n. 1. See protuberance. 
t. duster, bob (dial, or spec.); spec, bun- 
dle, fasdcie, fasdculus, hand (of bananas), 
wisp, whisk; see tuft. 


bunchy, a. 1. bundled, fasdculate (tech.), 
fasdculated (tech.), dustery. 
Antonyms: see scattered. 
t. See protuberant. 

buncombe, n. i. makebdieve (contextual), 
daptrap (contemptuous), talk (coUoq.). 

bundle, n. 1. package, pack, packet, par- 
ed, truss (rare or spec.); spec, roll, fadge 
or fodge (tech. or dial.), fardd (archaic), 
brail, faggot, dossier (French), dufter 
(Anglo-Indian), fascine, sheaf, swag (Aus- 
tralia), book, peter (thieves* cant), bolt, 
bavin (obs. or dial., Eng.), bottle (now 
local Eng.), hand, bung (Eng.); see bunch. 


bundle, V. t. U pack, packet, truss (ar- 
chaic or spec.), parcel; spec, fa^ot, 
hamper (rare), crate, cask, sack, pug, oag, 
t. See hasten. 

bungle, V. t. A i. blunder (rare), boggle 
(coUoq.), butcher (ooiUoq.), tinker, foozle 
(dang or often cant and spec.); spec, muff; 
see BOTCH. 

bunt, n. Referring to part of a flag or sail: 
bag, belly, swdl. 

buoy, n. float (contextual); spec, dan, 
dolphin, mm, buoy, nut buoy, can buoy, 
spar buoy, bell buoy, etc. 

buoyant, a. 1. floaty (colloq.) . 
S. Referring to the mind: resilient, dastic, 
corky (coUoq.); see hopeful. 
Antonyms: see hopeless, depressed. 

burden, n. !• burthen (now chiefly ar- 
chaic), load, weight, incubus (literary; 
chiefly spec.), cumber (literary), incum- 
brance or encumbrance, incumbency 
(rare; literary), tax (esp. excessiue); spec, 
surcharge; see load. 

Cross references: see Note. 
bulge, V. t.: protuberate, bag. 
bulge, n.: protuberance. 
bulging: protuberant. 
bulkhemd: partition^ waU. 
bulky: bio. 
bun, n.: blunder. 
bun, V. (.: raise. 
buUdoie: intimidate, bully. 
bullet: ball, missile. 
bulletin: statement, publication. 
buUyzag: bully, tease. 

bulwark: protect. 
bununer: loafer. 
bump, V. t.: knock. 
bump, n.: j^otuberanc^. 
bumper: big. 
bumpkin, n.: rtietic. 
bumptious: »elf-assertive. 
bumpy: protuberant. 
bunch, V. t.: gather. 
bunch, v.t.; protuberate^ gather. 
bunco, V. t.: cheat. 
bundle, V. %.: hasten. 

bung: stopper, vent. 
bungle, n.: blunder. 
bungling: botchy^ awkward. 
bunk, n.: bed. 
bunk, V. i.: lodge. 
bunker: 6m, haxard. 
bunko, V. (..* cheat. 
bunt, n.: blight. 
bunt, V. dt n.: pueh^ butt. 
buoy: flo<U. 
bur: hull. 
burden, n.: refrain. 

f^ See Notes of Krylanatton. 


*. In 

cWse, weight, incumbency. 

(rare); si)ec, responsibility, tax. 

•. Referring to what is ineiUaUy burden- 

tmne: incubus, weigbt, load, cumber (lil- 

erary), cmnbnmce (rare). 

bnTden, v. t. I. load, weight, cumber, en- 
cumber, charge {now chiefly Jig. or naul.), 
]ade (.archaic), tax (,esp. to inuden opprci- 
Kfelg), saddle (orig. spec.); ' 

BURDEN ; — all Tised also fig. 
Antcnyma: see LiaHTEN, 
S. See OPPREBB, c 

bardeniome, a. I- heavy, ( 
or learned), oppressive, weighty, i 
some; — all used also fig. 
a. See c 


1. cheat (of drawers); spec, tallboy, low- 

buTKber, n. citizen, freei 

buicla'i ft- houBebreaker, cracksman 
(dang); spec, robber. 

baxKlMile, f. (. burgle (Ai 

biu(l>ry, n. housebreaking, effraction 
(rare),- spec, robbery. 

bniial, n. 1. interment, inhumation, en- 
tombment (ori^. spec,), deposition (chie/ly 
eccf.), sepulture (formal or literary), sepe- 
lition (rare), tumulation (rare); spec, vi- 
viaepultuTC (rare). 
Antonyms: see DtsiNTERMENT. 


burial, a. 1. mortuary, sepulchral, eepul- 
tural (rare), tombic (i 
X. See 

burleique, a. Spec. Hudibrastic (fig,;lHer- 
ary), burlesque-heroic, mock-heroic, buf- 
fo, macaronic, parodic (rare); see COMIC. 

barlviquoi n. 1. Referring to a literary 
composition: parody, travesty; tpec. 
caricature, paratragiediai mock-heroic, 
ejttravaganza, burlctta. 

biiTlasQu«, V. t. parody, travesty; spec. 
caricature, buffoon, buffoonizB. 

bnm, V. t, 1. consume (by fire), combust 
(obi. or jocular), oxidize {chem. or context- 
■aal); spec, carbonize, char, scorch, i 
deflagrate, cremate, cinder (rare), ii 
crate, kiln, incense, coal (rare), parch, 
brand, singe, conflagrate (rare), chork 
(rare), coke, broil, flame; see roast. 
S, To injure by heat: spec, blister, sear, 
acald, cauterise. 
a. bake. 

ilezlaal). t 
(chern. or contextual}; spec, flame, flash, I 
glow, deflagrate, flicker, smoke, smother, I 
rage (contextual), conflc^irate (rare), flar^ I 
fizzle, smolde 

t. SeeDESiRL, 

burolDKi a. 1. ardent (lit^ary), live, lir- I 
ing; spec, glowing, aflame (predieativeif 1 
flaming, conflugrant {tiierary or leamedi, | 
flamed (rare), red, raging (contexfutUjf T 

Antonyms: see 
t. See ABDENT. 

■. consuming, comburent (ra 

burnliiK. n. consumption (with "of'.'; 
textual), combustion, Are; spec. flaimnK,,! 
flashing, ustion (rare), eremaeausis (rar^. I 

taumt, a. Spec, charred, incinerated, lot- \ 
rid, parched, etc., samel oi 

burr,n.ring(conJeih«jJ);*pec.rove, washer. ' 

bnnaw, i'. i. <Ug, work; spee. earui, mole, 
gopher, mine. 

buTrow, n. 1. cuniculus (tech.), excavation 
{contezluai); epec. mine, earth, wormcast. 
J. See LAIR. 

burst, I'. (. break, bust (dial, or vxilgar), di»» j 
nipt (bookish or literary; chiefly fis.), rend,  
rupture; spec, shatter; see explode. 1 

burst, V. i. 1. break, bust (dial, or miigar), , 
disrupt (bookish or literary; chiefly fig.), 
rend, rupture; spec, inburst; see BXP1.0DB. 
X, break, outburst, outbreak; spec, gush, 
outblase (often fig.), effervesce, sally, flash, 
explode, Qutflame: see staht. 

bur it, n. 1. break, rupture, disruption 
(bookish or literary; chiefly fig,), bust (dial, 
or vulgar); spec, eruption; see EXfLOSloN. 
t. breaking, outburat, outbreak; spec, ex- 
plosion, implosion, outblaxe, gush, sally, 
flash, effervescence, spurt. . 

buTBtiuK, «. disruptive, rending; spec I 
eruptive, erumpent (rare); see explosivb. 

buiy, V. t. 1. inter, inhume, inhumate, aep- 
ulcber (rare or spec.), ensepulcher (rore), 
sepulture (Jomtal or lileraru); spec, en- 
tomb, inearth (chiefly poelie), earth (po- 
etic or rbelorical), urn, inurn, tumulate 
(rare), tomb (rare), grave (archaic), mold 
(rare), immure, hearse. 
Antonyms: see disinter. 
1. Spec, cache, 
). See COVER, scbmeroe, iokorb, 


burr, n. Spec, camp (dial,), pie, pit, 

clamp, cache. 
busb, n. 1. shrub, Bcrog {chiefly Scot.), lod 

(archaic or dial.), •x>p(avd,); spec, bushlet. 

burlml pl&ce; gran 




bnshinCf n. bearing (corUexhud), coak, 
bush, bouche, thimble. 

bushlike, a. dumose (rare), dumetose 

bushy, a. brushy, dumose (rare), dume- 
tose (rare), scroggy (chiefly Scot.), bosky, 
busky, thick (corUexttud) ; spec, snrubby, 
t. See ROUGH. 

business, n. 1. See task, work, relation, 


t. occupation, employment, vocation, 
avocation (camman in good writers in this 
sense^ hiU as so used caxnded by many as 
unfortunalely destroying the useful distinc- 
tion bettoeen ** vocation'* and **avocation'*), 
pursuit, calling, profession (chiefly spec.), 
mystery (archaic), trade (chiefly spec.), 
faculty (archaic or hist.), shop (chiefly in 
**to talk shop"; coUoq.), craft (chiefly spec.) 
Anlonyms: see diversion. 

business, a. oommercia], industrial. 

buskin, n. 1. shoe (contextual), half-boot 
(contextual), cothurnus. 

t. 5eC TRAGEDY. 

bustle, V. i. 1. fluster, flutter, flurry, hustle 
(coUoq.), rustle (coUoq., U. S.), clutter, stir. 
Antonyms: see glide, sit, idle, dawdle. 
t. See rustle. 
bustle, n. action (contextv/d), fluster, 
flurry, flutter, stir, to-do, commotion, 
fuss, tumult, rustle (colloq., U. S.), hus- 
tle (coUoq.). 
Antonyms: see leisure, deliberation, 


bustlinc* a. rushing, hurried, tumultuous, 
humming, rustling (colloq., U. S.). 
Antonyms: see leisurely, idle, de- 

busybody, n. meddler, quidnunc (literary; 
contemptuous), pry (rare), Paul Ry (fi^g.), 
numquid (rare), pragmatist (rare), prag- 
matic (rare); spec, snoop; see gossip. 

but, prep., adv., & conj. 1. See except. 
S. however, howbeit (archaic), yet, still, 
moreover, nevertheless, natheless or nath- 
less (archaic), howsomever (dial, or vul- 
gar), howsoever (archaic), notwithstand- 
ing (emphatic). 

butcher, v. t. 1. slaughter. 
S. See murder, spoil, bungle, mangle. 

butcherly, a. 1. camificial (learned or af- 

S. See cruel. 

butt, n. 1. See stock, aim, object. 
t. laughing-stock, byword, make-game 
(rare), target, sport, mockery, mock, 
laughter (rare), joke. 
S. push, bunt, thrust, buck (colloq, or 

butterless, a. dry (toast). 

buttery, a. butterish (rare), butyraoeous 
(tech.), butyrous (rare and tech.). 

buttocks, n. rump (esv. of animals), pos- 
teriors (pi.), butt (couoq. cmd vulgar, exc. 
spec.), behind (coUoq. or vulgar), funda- 
ment (chiefly tech.), nates (pi.; tech.), 
breech, bottom (colloq), seat, tail (dial, or 
vulgar), stem (colloq?), doup (Scot.), po- 
dex (tech.), back (contaOual); spec. 
cushions (pi.). 

buttony, a. knoblike, bossy, buttonlike, 
umbonal (tech.), umbonate (tech.), um- 
bonic (rare). 

buttress, n. support (contextual), brace 
(contextual); svec. flying-buttress, aro- 
boutant (French), coimterpart. 

buttress, V. t. support, prop, brace; — all 
three conlextiud. 

buy, v. t. purchase, chap (dial.), coff (ar^ 
chaic, Scot.), take (conUxtual; chiefly 
spec.); spec, preempt, ransom, repurchase, 
redeem, rebuy, discount; see bribe. 
Antonyms: see sell, hire, grant. 

buy, n. purchase, cheap (chs.), bargain 
(now spec.). 

buying, n. purchase, emption (chiefly law); 
spec, preemption, redemption, coemption. 
Antonyms: see bale. 

by, prep. & adv. 1. near, beside, besides 
(less usual than "ftesick"), to. 
t. along, over, through, per (LaHn); spec. 

S. See AT, AFTER. 

4. beside (in comparison). 

5. per (Latin), with, of, forby (archaic); 
spec, thereby, therewith, thereof, hereby, 
herewith, etc. 

by- bidder, n. straw bidder, Peter Funk 
(U. S.). 

bye, n. 1. See aside. 
S. In games: spec, run, goal, hole. 

bystander, n. Spec, spectator, witness. 

byway, n. sideway (rare); spec, bypath, 
byroad, sidepath, lane. 

byword, n. 1. See saying, talk, nick- 
S. proverb (word of reproach). 

Cross references: aee Note. 
busklned: tragic. 
bosky: bushy. ^dlesome. 

bosy, a.: active, occupied, med- 
busy, V. t.: occupy. 
batcher, n.: slaughterer. 
butohery: slaughter t slaughter' 

butlery: pantry. 
butt: cask. 

battery: pantry. [dant. 

buttons: servant, page, atten- 
buyable: purchasable. 
bazom: plump. 
boss, 0. %.: hum, ring. 
buss, n.; hum, humming. 

boBsard: hawk. 
bygone: past. 
byname: name. 
bypath: bytoay. 
byplay: aside. 
by-product: product. 
byroad: byway. 
by-talk: gossip. 

17* See Notes of Eiplanatlon. 


oabiaet, n. I. room; spec, boudoir, 
a, caae, alip (obs.); spec, ^tag^re {Ft 
vancueno (SpanUh); see chest. 

oaoha, c. (. bury, hide, etore. 
CAOkle, V. i. !• Spec, clack, check, gabble, 
gaggle, keckle. 


(ia«itpboaoua,a. ill-6ounding; spec, haiah, 
rauooua. "CacophoTunis" is rare, learned, 
or -pedantic. 

CMd, n. 1. see attxhdamt. 
1. In the aenae of "a vulgar fellow": cock- 
tail (slang, Eng.), anob {chiefly Erwlish). 

Mdet, n. BOD {eoni^xlwal), chcv^er (hist.); 
spec, duniwaesal (Scot.). 

oBiurk, n. In rhetoric: break, pause, 
lengthening; spec, comma. 

c»te, n. aviary {eonlextual); spec. mew. 

uJoIb, v. t. flatter, palaver {rare; chiefly 
wUh "eKer"), wheedle, tweedle (rare), camy 
or camey {dial, or colloq. Eng.), jolly (col- 
log.), cog (obs. or archaic), inveigle, 
Antonymn: see bdij,y, intimiiiate, 


OKlole, II. I. flatter, palaver, camy or 
Carney {dial, or eolhq. Eng,). 

oftjolery, n. flattery, cajolement (rare), 
wheedling, blandishment, palaver, jolly- 
ing {coUoq.). 
Antonyms: see coMPtiLBiON. 

oBke, n. mass (conlexl-ual); spec, brick, 
block, fioe {of ice). 

OAke, V. i. bake, harden; spec, plaster, 
crust, encrust. 

oalntnltoiiB, n. distressing, troublesome, 
miserable, unhappy, disastrous, catas- 
trophic, sad. 

cftbunlty, n. 1. trouble, distress, mis- 
fortune, misery, unhappiness, afiiictian. 
Antonyms: see happiness, pleasubb. 
■. Referring to an instance of what is 
cdlaniitoue: trouble, misfortune, misery, 
distress, disaster, catastrophe, blow, 
scourge, curse; spec, fatahty, 
ATiloTtytna: gee oood. 

BalonlatliiEi a. calculative, scheming, 
politic, designing. 
Antonyms: see artless. 

calouIouB, a. gritty, stony. , 

caloulDH, n. concretion; spec, oystolith, 

dacryolith, gravel, sand, gastrolitb, 

crab s-eye, stone, bezoar. 
calendar, n. 1. almanac, rubric (rare), 

calends (pi.; rare); spec, clog {hist.), fasti 

{pl.), menology, kalcndar {eccl. oar). 

i. list; epec.aocket. 
caiendat, v. I. press (contextual); spec. | 

call, n. Referring to part of the leg;— 
syns. The adjective is sural (tedi.). 

calf, n. I. bovine (cotdcxtiial), offspring I 
(contextval); spec, maverick (U. S.), dogie T 
(Western U. S.), slink. The adjective for I 
calf is vittine (tech.). 

I. diameter, bore. 

;, Q0AUTY. 

re, graduate; spec. ] 

). i 

1. See' ABU 
calibrate, v 

call, V. t. I. See N, 


9. In a legal sense: summon (as frw 
lower court), evoke (rore), evocate (rore). I 

call, V. i. cry (contextual); spet. coo, hoot, I 
shout, yell, toot, neigh, whisper, speak, 
cooee or cooey {A-ustraiia). 

call, n. 1. Spec, tally-ho, fanfare, ho, re- I 
cheat (orcAoie), coo, coop, coooo or cooey I 
{Australia), cluck, whistle, roll coll, note, T 
yell, shout, whisper, tnimpet, taps, r»> | 
veille. etc.; see hail, crt. 
1. Spec, summons, convocation, appeal, 
demand, duty, need, invitation, visit. 
■. 5pcc. buzzer, bell, horn, annunciator. 

oallouB, a. 1. hard, hardened, indurated; 
— oil three conJeiiuoi. 
I. See 

oaiioDS, V. t. harden, indurate. I 

calm, a. I. In a physical aente.' undiB- ] 
turbed, tranquil, reposeful, smooth, so- 
reno, imperturbed (rare), unperturbed 
(rore), halcyon {days, etc.; poetic or eie- 
valed), still, quiet, placid, peaceful, pa- 
cific (rare, exc. in Pacific Ocean"), un- 
rufSed, calmy {archaic and poetic), un- 
Antonj/ms: see boisterous, rouoh, 


I. In a mental sense: undisturbed, un- 

oaUICTaphri handwrUinff. 
enUow: fialhirUti, ineipuri- I 


ruffled, quiet, tranquil, phlegmatic, sober, 
cool, philosophical, compo^d. reposeful, 
pacific (rare), placid, impassive, unpas- 
sionate, equanimous (rare)^ marble (fig.), 
marbly (fig,), imperturbable, imperturbed, 
imperturbed, sedate, serene, recollected 
(rare), untroubled, douce (Scot), repose- 
ful, canny (Scot.); see self-controlled, 


Antonyms: see uneasy, agitated, ex- 

calm, n. 1. In a physical sense: tranquillity, 
quiet, quietness, rest, smoothness, repose, 
serenity, serene (rare), serenitude (rare), 
calmness, stillness, placidity, peace, 
peacefulness; spec, doldrums (pL). 
Antonyms: see activity, outcry, noise, 


S. In a mental sense: composure, repose, 
equanimity (formal), temper (chiefly in 
"to lose one^s temper,^* *^to keep one*s 
temper," or the like), tranquillity, quiet, 
calmness, composure, serenity, serenitude 
(rare), serene (rare), impassiveness, so- 
briety, sedateness, soberness, placidity, 
reposedness (rare), poise, quietude (rare), 
quietism (rare), imperturbation (rare); 
spec, countenance, indisturbance (rare); 


Antonyms: see activity, agitation, 


calm, V, t. 1. See still. 
2. smooth, settle, still, soothe, sedate 
(rare), quiet, tranquilize, compose, pacify, 
(rare), nush, serene (rare), allay, ease 
(mentally), salve (the conscience); spec, dis- 
fever (rare), becalm, lull, lullaby; see cool. 
Antonyms: see rouse, annoy, agitate, 


calmative, a, calming, quieting, soothing, 

tranquilizing, etc., quietive (rare); spec. 

dulcet, balmy, lulling. "Calmative** is less 

usual and more formal than "calming," 

Antonyms: see annoying, agitating, 


calming, n. subsidence. 

camp, n. encampment, cantonment (mil,), 

leaguer (rare or hist.); spec, bivouac, 

roundabout (rare)^ douar or dowar 

(Oriental), laager (So. Africa), 
camp, V. i. encamp; spec, bivouac, tent, 

laager (So. Africa), maroon (So, U, S,), 

outepan (So. Africa), 

Antonyms: see decamp. 

camp, a. castrensian (rare), 

campaicn* v. i. Spec, crusade, electioneer. 

can, n. Spec, cup, tin (Eng.), glass. 

cancel, v, t. 1. deface (contextiud), damask 
(obs, or tech,, Eng.); spec, obliterate, 
blot, cross, overscore (rare); see delete. 


cancellate, a. reticular, reticulate, reticu- 
lated, cancellous; — all tech, or learned. 

candidacy, n. candidateshlo, candidature. 

candidate, n. Spec, (ecd,), confirmand, 
probationer, licentiate, competent. 

candidate, v. i, sit; spec, run. 

candle, n. Spec, taper (obsolesc), planet 
(cant), paschal, bougie (French), cierge 
(French), dip, pastil. 

candlestick, n. ceroferary (rare), candel- 
abrum (antiq, or ecd.), chandelier (chiefly 
spec); spec, sconce, tricerion, dicerion, 
paschal, torchdre (French), standard, 

canine, a. doggy (rare; a weak term), 
canicular (rare or phrasal); spec, houndy, 
currish, houndish, doggish. 

canine, n. 1. See dog. 
t. tooth (contextual), cuspid, laniary (rare), 

cannibal, n, man-eater, anthropophagite 
(rare), anthropophagist (rare), anthro- 
pophagi (pi,); spec, ogre, ogress. 

cannibal, a, anthropophagous (leamed), 
anthropophagic (rare), anthropophagian 
(rare; humorously stiUed)^ hominivorous 
(rare); spec, ogreish, ogrish, Thyestean, 
(fig,), necrophagous. 

cannonade, v, t, cannon (rare); spec, 
bomb, bombard, shell. 

cannonadlnCf n, caxmonry: spec, bom- 
barding, drumfire. 

cannoneer, n. artilleryman, gunner; spec. 
mitrailleur (French), 

cannonry, n. 1. See cai^nonading. 
2, artillery, guns (pi.), cannon (a coUeo 

canonize, v, L saint, besaint (caniemptu" 

canopy, n. cover (contextiud); spec, tester, 
tilt, parasol, dome, heaven, hood, maj- 
esty (hist.), pavilion, cope, ciel (French), 
howdah, coverture (rare), 

cant, n. 1. pretense, hypocrisy; spec, and 
contemptuous snivel, wmne. 
S. iSee JARGON. 

cant, V, i. Spec, snivel, whine; — both con- 

tsr Cross references: see Note. 
oalumniate: defame. 
olnmny; defamation. 
campaign, n.; movement. 
campanular; hdl-shaped 
canal: channd. 
canard: report. 
candcnt: glowing. 

candid: frank. 
canker, v. (..* corrupt. 
cankerous: tdcerotUt conaum* 

cannon, v. i.: carom, cannonade. 
canny: ahrewd, calm. 
canon: valley. 
canon: nde^ standard. 

canonical: orthodox. 
cant, V. X.: «ntoeI, whine. 
cant, n..* elope, bevd, indina' 

cant, V. t.: incline, 
cant, V. i.: elope. 
cantankerous: tU-tempered, 


IT* See Notes of Explanation. 


okntBTi n. tittup (chiejiy dial, or humor- 

oux); He OAiT. 
omntflr, f. t. go (eonteilual), drive (con- 

Uxtual), tittup {chiefiy dial, or humorous). 
o*it**8, n. I. fabric {cmUextuaL), cloth {cmt- 

lextual); spec, scrim, tarpauUn, poldavy, 



«ftnT«a», V. t. 1. See examine, discuss, 

B. solicit, campoi^, electioneer. 

o»iiT*a», f. i. solicit. 

cap, n. 1. hat (contextual); apee. glengarry, 
tool's-cap, chaco, coif, busby, caul (hist.), 
coxcomb, biretta or beret or berret, big- 
gin (Scot.), calotte, calimc (Tvrkiah), tam- 
o'-flhanter, tuque, fez, pileus {antiq.), 
torbooah, kepi, mortarboard, zucchetto 
(Itidian), Phiygian ca.p<.lkecapofliberly). 
». See TOP, 

Mpkbic, a, 1. See ABLX. 
I. susceptible, adinittiDg. 

oapBolty, n. 1. iSee abiutt, QUAUncA- 

9. Referring to capacity to bear or hold: 
content, burden (naul.), retention (rare). 

oaparlson, f. 1. trap, accouter (c^mtexlual). 

oapatiaoned, a. barbed or borded (aaid of 

oape, n. Sp«c. pelerine, bertha, Vandyke, 
t^ma, tippet, cajm (lUdian), fichu 

oaper, n. 1. jump (contexltud), leap (con- 
lexliiol), prance, skip, gambol, capriccio 
(/foiian), caracole, gambade or gambado, 

a. pWi jump, antic, jape, prank, dido 
(slang or couog., U. S.), conceit, trick. 

oapcT. V. i. t. jump (coiUextuai) , leap (con- 
textual), gambol, frisk, prance (collog.), 
gambado {literary), prank (rare), skip, 
^t (rare), caracol; aee prouc. 
t. See PRANCE. 

tmpltal, a. 1. metropolitan. 


I. Referring to leUera: great (chiefly spec.); 

ompitkl. n. 1. metro]x>lis, seat. 

3. Spec, stock, principal. 
oapltol, n. atatehouse (U.S.). 
oaprloe, n. 1. whim, freak, notion, conceit, 

fantasy, phantasy, fancy, humor, quip, 

?uirk, vagary, crotchet, fantosticaUty 
■are),whinMiicality (rare) jwhimsy, crank, , 

kink, frisk 

turn, maggot (nc 

Anlontpns: see opinion, conviction. 
3. See CAPRI ciousNEBS. 

oaprlolona, o. whimsical, freakish, freaky, 
humorsome, fanciful, fantastical, fickle, 
crotchety, variable, arbitrary, changeable, 
erratic, fantastic, fantast«d (rare), whim- 
sy (rare), whimmy (eoUoq.), vagarious [ 
{rare), wayward, notional, puckish (Jig. or 
»pec.), moony (co\loq.). 
Antonyms: see constant. 

oaprlolona u««B, n. caprice, fantasticality, 
fantasy, phantasy, fantasticalness, whim- I 
sicality, whimsicalness, humor, i ' 

Afilonyms: see constanct. 

oaptaln, n. I. See chiep, coumakdi 
3. In naulical usage: master, commander 
{often spec.}, skipper (chie^y spec.); spec. 
nakhoda {East Indian), reis or rais (Aro' I 
bic), ressaldor (India), rittmaster (ro 
patron (rare), patroon (rore), serang 
{Anglo-Indian), coaster. 

oaptloua, a. 1. catchy (calloq.), entan- 
gling, sophistic, fallacious. 


captivate, v. t. captive (archaic), enthrall, 


coUoq.), infatuate; spec, sirenize; see 
Antonyms: see repel. 

OAptiTatfld, a. infatuated, fascinated, 
charmed, etc., captive. 

oaptlvatlnE, a. pleasant (contextual), in- 
fatuating, enchanting, charming, b^ 
witching, witching. 
Antonyms: «ee repellent. 

oftptiTitlon, n . 1. captivity (rare or drcfioic), 
enthrallment, enslavement, fascination, 
charm, glamour, enchantment, witchery, 
bewitchment, bewitching, servitude. 
3. See SLAVERY. 

oapture, v. t. 1. seiie (contextual), take, 

EBt {chiefly coUoq. or amiextuai), appre- 
end (fearrKd), captivate (archaie), cap- 
tive (archaic), catch; spec, grab (coUoq.), 
arrest, collar (colloq.), prize, reduce (o 
^ace), recapture, retake, in captivate 
(rare), jump (checkers), castle (chess), bag 

Antonyms: see niEE. 
3. take (as a fort); spec, rush, force. 

Antonyms: see stritRENDER. 

H w/fff-ai: ■« N 

ISF See NotM Dt 

oKptun. n. 1. seizure, taking, catehing, 
apprehension ileamed); spec, arrest, re- 
duction, prize. 
Antonymx: tee fbebinq. 
X Ina concrete sense: prize, bag. 

«»tiuflr, n. captor, taker, spprehender 



S. Referring to railroad cors: spec, car- 
riage, puUman, trolley, tram (Stiff.), 
Iramcar (Er\g.), smoker ([/. S.), empty, 
gondola, box, van (fififf.), sleeper, 
coach, flat, goods wagon (Ertg.), caboose, 

1. Referring lo a bailoon: spec, nacelle, 
basket, gondola. 
4. In an elevaior: trpec. cage. 
M«*Tkn, n. 1. company {conUxliial) , caSla 
•r kafila {Orienlal). 

Spec, coaly, charry, 

oarbonla*. v, t, bum (contextu/d); spec, 

char, coke. 
oard, B. 1. Spec, ticket, carte-de-visite 

(French), carte, rose. 

1. Referring lo ptamrtg cat 

(eoliog. or cant), Devil's picture books 

(ois. or rare; pL); tpec. court card, '' 

card, tarot (French). 
OBre, n. 1. cark (archaic), solicitude, uju- 

cem, concernment, oaretulnesB, reck (po- 

dte), distress; "" 


I. charge, guardianahip, ward {literary or 

anal), oustodj;, keep, keeping, safe- 
ping, protection, trust (rare), guard- 
ship (rare); spec, commendam; see ovbr- 


S. heed, thought, heedfulness, vigilance, 
attention, caution, gingerhness, concern, 
consideration, precaution, guardedness, 
wariness, regard, reck (poetic), particu- 
larity, nicanesfl, notice, pains (pf.), pains- 

AnUmyms: see CARELBflSNiiaB, neoli- 


t. Referring to Ihol which causes care: 
reaponaibility, anxiety, ooncem; see 


•MS. V. i. 1. In the sense of "lo concern 
oneself": cark (archaic), reck (poelic). 
I. heed, notice, consider, think (con- 
textual); see ATTEHD. 

oaratal, a. t. carking (archaic), solicitoiis, 
solidtudinoua (rare), concerned; spec. 

meticulous; see anxiodb, troubled. 
"Careful" is Tiiovi archaicin this sense. 
a. heedful, attentive, considerate, oon- 
acientious, regardful, mindful, respective 

(rare), thou^tful, close (chiefly spec.), 
nice, diligent, painstaking, painful, curi- 
ous (archaic), near (chiefly spec.), search* 
ine, particular, precise. 

Anlonijms: see neolbctfui., cnobserv- 

■. cautious, precautious (rare), cautelous 
(archaic), prudent, circumspect, eingerly, 
leery (slang), vigilant, watchful, waiy, 
chary (chiefly spec.), giuarded, safe, ahy, 
guardful (rare), canny (Seal.; archaic), 
circumspective (rare); spec, noncommit- 

DBreleii, a. 1. unanxiouSj unconcerned, 
untroubled, unapprehensive, easy, free, 
blithe or bhthesome (nearly equal lo "hap- 
py" in sense: lilerary), easy (rare), secure 
(lUerary), cavalier, supine (chiefly spec.), 
inconsiderate, incurious (archaic), worri- 
leas (rare), pooo-curante (Italian), in- 
(Frejtck), nonchalant; see IM- 

Antonmns: see anxious. 
9. heedless, inattentive, inconsiderate, 

lectful, negligent, uncareful (rare), i 

leas, incogitant (rare), unheedtul, i 
waiy, slovenly, unguarded, cursory, c. 
ual, unheedy (rare), incurious (archaic), 
unobservant, inobservant, incautious, un- 
careful (rare), unattentive (rorc); -spec. 
offhand, rash, slack; see kbcrlebh. 
Antonyms: see watchful, cahepul, 


oaTelesmeia, n. unconcern, ease, security, 
nonchalance, etc. Cf. carelesb. 

AnlonyTna: see CARE, consideration. 
taiBHE, V. t. fondle, cherish (archaic), daut 
(Scot.), coddle (chiefly udlh a suggestion of 
excess), coax (archaic), pet; spec, touch, 
stroke, lap, pat, kiss, bill, hug, dandle, 
dander (dial. Bng.), cuddle, overfondle; 

Antonyms: see beat, abuse, iij,-trij;at. 
oaraii, n. fondle (rare); spec, touch, 
stroke, pat, kiss, hug, dandle. 
Antonyms: see blow. 
careiilnc, n. fondling, dalliance (lUeriOT/), 
cherishment (rare), cherishing (rare). 


,n {ckUJ{y 

oarleatare, n. I. See BTntLBSfltJE. 
9. misrepreaent&tioB {conlexttud), mis- 
description (chiefiy spec.), burlesque, trav- 
esty, pariidy; spec, cartoon. 

eaxnlfal, n. merrymakiiig, festival, revel- 
ry; s-pec. Mardigraa. 

oKralTorouB, a. flesh-eating, earcopha^ous 
(Tare), lodphagoua (rare); spec, equivor- 
ous (rare), ichthyophagous, omophagous, 
necrophagous, predaceoua, cannibal. 

carol, n. song, lay; ap«e. noel. 

carom, n. shot {enntexlwd), cc 
Eng.), carainbole {rare). 

carom, v, t. rebound, can 
£np.); epec. dance. 

carom, v. t. Spec. bank. 

oaronae, n. carousal, orgy, debauch, rack- 
et (sianff), jamboree (.slang, U. S.), spree 
(coUoq.), bat (slang), bout, bust or buster 
(slang), rouse (archaic), fuddle (slang or 
eoltog.), rantan (dang; rare), wassail (ar- 
chaic), toot ($lang, t/.S.), bouse or boose or 
(colloq.), booze, druiik (slang) , soak (dang) , 
tear (slang, U. S.), satumalia (pi.; some- 
limes u»ed as a sing.), bacchanolia (pi.). 

carouse, v. i, rant (rare), debauch, bum 
(vulgar dang), drink (amiexlual), spree 
(eoUoq.), bouse (rare), or boose or (coUoq.) 

caTTlBKc, n. 1. See TRA^sFORUTiaN, be- 


3. bearing, mien, air, jioise, port, port^ 
ance (archaic), behavior, conduct, de- 
meanor, presence, front, gest (archaic), 
personage; spec, gait, walk, run, Step, 
tournvire (French), elevation, lift. 

carriage house, remise (rare), hangar 
(French; chiefly spec.), coach house, 

catrlon, n. flesh (conlextuat); aee oftal. 

oBTry, y. (, 1. See transpokt, extend, pro- 
have, CONDUCT, AF- 

I. Referring to news, messages, informa- 
tion, etc.: communicate, transmit, bear, 
take, bring, convey. 

I. hold (as the liead, oneself, etc.), bear 
(oneself); spec, port (mii.), 
t. keep (as in stock), hold, have, 
carry, v. i. Referring to o gwi, etc.: reach, 

carry, n. Spec, portage. 
oartllagluouB. a. gristly, chondric (rare). 
oarve, v. i. 1. See cut, chisel, engrave, 

t. Referring Us carving at the laMe: out; 
spec, (all obs. or rare) mince, Uft, fluBh, 
{^play, disfigure, unjoint. 
sase, n. I. Spec, (in grammar) genitive, 
accusative, nominative, dative, ablative, 
objective, vocative. 
S. See exauple, state, fatibnt, I 

1. receptacle (contextual), holder 
(contextiiai), container (contextual; cani), 
casing; spec, box, chest, cabinet, drawer, 
bag, valise, sheath, scabbard, cartouche, 
canister, shell, cellaret, burse, chasse 
(French), shrine, pj^x, fitui (French), quiv- 
er, holster, housemfe, hackle, hul«n, cof- 
fer, crate, cartridge, portfoho; see cab- 
inet, CASKET. 

S. covering, cover; spec, sheath, skin, hull, 
cocoon, shell, carpet, etc. 

oaie, D. t. cover (anUexlual), incase; apee. 
bag, sheathe, crate; see bos. 

cash, n. money; spec, coin, chink (slang), 
brass (slang), silver, gold, rowdy (slang), 
dust (slang), paper. 

cash, o. t. encash (rwt); spec, realize. 

caak, n. receptacle (conlexlMoi) , barrel, 
container (eojilexlual; cant), stand (chiefly 
obs. and spec.); spec, cade, caroteel, butt, 
keg, tierce, hogshead, firkin, castrel, 
puncheon, pipe, tun, kilderkin. 

casket, n. receptacle (conlextual), box 
(contexlval), case, pyx or pj;xis {rare or 
c;>ce.),' «pec reliquary, reliquaire (FrcmrA), 

oast, V. t. 1, See tbrow, project, vomit, 


3. ruTi, found; spec, recast. 
oaitcllan, n, governor (contextual), keeper 

(contextual), chastelatn. 
caster, n. 1. roller (conlextualf, trundle, 

truckle (rare), wheel (contextual). 

«. See BOTTLE. 

oMtinr. n. founding, cast; spec run, 

castrate, v. t. geld (cki^y lech, r^errvug 
to the male); spec, cut, spay (the female), 
emasculate (chiefly fig.), evirate (refaring 
to the male; rare), steer (omofecoZ/; rare), 
unman (o man), capon or caponize (a 
cock), eunuchize (rare), twitch (q heosi). 



oarlomtnr*, b. l.: burlesque. 
oailiu: ridai. 
Dsrlouil deetnnpoMd. 

botiity. wiridli/i Bvngiud- 

13" See Motes ot ExplanatloD. 


casualty, n. 1. See chance. 
S. In pi.; mil.: losses. 

cat, n. feline (tech. or learned), Baudrons 
(Scottish; a proper namCy like ** Reynard" 
for the fox), puss (chiefly a caU name), 
pussy {chiefly a pet name), miauler {fandr 
fid), grimalkin {chiefly spec.), gib (jamtlr 
iar; chiefly spec.); spec, mouser, rumpy 
{coUoq.), tortoiseshell, tomcat {m^jle), 
tommy {male; coUoq.), tabby, kit, kitten, 
bobcat, kitty (a pet name), kitling {dial.), 
catling, maltese, Angora. 

oatalocne, n. list; spec, didascaly, index, 
sanctilogy, beadroU. 

oatalocne, v, L Spec, list, index. 

catastrophe, n. 1. cataclysm, convulsion; 
spec, debacle, d^b^cle {French), upheaval, 

S. ending, d^noiiment {French). 
Antonyms: 866 beginninq. 


catastrophic, a. !• oonvulsionarv, cata- 
clysmal, cataclysmic, paroxysmal (rare). 


catch, V. t. i. take, seize, nab {slang or coU 
loq.); spec, nick {slang), entoil {archaic), 
land, net, mesh, dredge, lime, gill, ginnle, 
hook, illagueate {rare), grin {archaic), 
noose, guddle, entangle, enmesh, snap, 
snare or {emvhatic) ensnare, trawl, trap 
or {emphatic) entrap, drag; see seize, 


Antonyms: see free, throw. 
9. attract {the attention, fancy, etc.), en- 
gage, take, arrest, smite {rhetorical.), hit 
{colloq.); see captivate. 
S. Referring to a cold, disease, etc,: con- 
tract, take, get. 

4. Referring to chastisement, reproof, etc,: 
receive, get. 

5. get {as a (rain), make, nick {dang, 

6. trip {in a fatdt), nick {slang., Eng.), 


catch, V. i. 1. seize, hold; spec, hitch. 


catch, n. 1. seize, seizure, hold; spec grasp, 
grab, snatch, etc. 
Antonyms: see miss. 
S. Spec, trigger, trap, detent, dick, dog, 
latch, barb, nbuckle, snap, fence, pallet, 

t. Thin^ or amount caught: svee. take, net, 
fare, trip, trap, draft, haul, snot, field, fly. 
4. See ROUND. 

oatchins, a, inoculable, contagious, com- 
municable, taking {chiefly U, S.), infec- 
tious; spec, pestilential, pestiferous, 

cathartic a, laxative, physic, purgative, 
purging, aperient, evacuatory, eccoproc- 
tic {mud; rare)^ eccritic {rare), deobstru- 
ent {tech.), alviducous {rare), deoppilent 
{rare or obs.), lapactic {rare). 
Antonyms: «ee constipating. 

cathartic n. laxative, physic, purgative, 
purge, aperient, dejector {rare), eccoproc- 
tic {rare), evacuant. 

cathedra, n. seat, chair, throne, see {ar- 

cathedral^ n. duomo {Italian); spec, sec- 

catholic a. !• See general, liberal. 
% [cap.] Short for "Roman Catholic'': 
Roman, Romish {chiefly in derogation). 
Popish {used only in derogation), 

Oatholicizc V. t. Romanize. 

cattle a. 1. In a general sense: see stock. 
S. Referring to bovines: beeves {pi.), neat 
{ardtnic; a collective); spec, {pi.) red-polls, 
shorthorns, Lancashires, Jerseys, Hol- 
steins, etc, 

cattle raising: boviculture {affected), 

causablc a. inducible, producible 

causal, a, U Spec, creational. 

causative a. inductive, inducive (rare), 
productive, causal {rare), creative {chiefly 
spec.), generative. 

cause V. t. produce, effect, effectuate 
(rare), gar {Scot.), make, have, do {obs.), 
germinate (fig. or svec.), keep {rare; equiv. 
to "keep up"), incnoate {rare)^ provoke, 
originate, let {archaic or phrasal), create, 
generate, occasion, bre^, bring, raise, 
work; spec, necessitate, bear, will, induce, 
superinduce; see excite, form. 
Antonyms: see prevent. 

cause, n. 1. principle {tech. or literary), 
origin, producer (rare), wherefore {cd- 
loqT), inducement, occasion; see motive, 


Antonyms: see RESUi;r. 


caustic a. 1. Duming, escharotic {tech.); 
spec, catheretic. 

S. In mathematics: spec, catacaustic, dia- 


caustic n, 1. escharotic {tech.), cauter, 
cautery; spec, catheretic, moxa. 
S. Spec, catacaustic, diacaustic. 

Cross r^erences: see Note. 
oasnistry: prevarication. 
oataolysm: catastrophe, up' 
cstapUsm: poultice. 

cataract: waterfaU, deLvge. 
catchy: attrad,ive, deceptive, 
catechise, v. t.: teach, queetion. 
catecorical: doffmatic. 
cater: provide. 

oanseleM: groundleee. 
oaution, n..* vKUning, care. 
caution, V. L: toam. 
cautionary: toaming. 
oaatlout: cantful. 

IT* See Motes of Explanation. 

oaraJry, n. soldiery (contertiuii), hnrac; 
spec, uhlan; in the Briliiih Army: Yeo- 
manry, Life Guards, Horse Guard.'!, 
Dragoon Guards, Dragoona, Hussars, 

caTalryman, n. soldier (coTilextuat) , horse- 
man, troop, plunger {mti. dang); spec. 
horse guHixl, heavy, roughrider, rciUr 
{ki»t.), dragoon, ailladar (Anglo-Indian), 
cuirassier, hussar, matrass (hitt., U. S.), 

M*a, n, recess, cavern, den {ehiejiy spec,); 

spec, grotto, grot {poetic), nyrophieuin, 

Lupercai (rare; anlig,). 
e»T«- dweller, n. caveman, troglodyte 

Okve- dwelling, a. cavemicolous (rare), 

troglcMiyte (tech.), speluncous (rore). 
MTll, n. criticism (conlextwd), carping; 

spec, wrangle. 
osTll, tJ, t, except (conlext-ual), cajp, nibble, 

haggle {chiefly spec), higgle (chiefly upec.), 

Btickle; upee. quarrel, wrangle. 
oBiTlUnt, a. critical (conl.extiuU)j captious, 

hairsplitting, carping, exceptive (rare), 

exceptious (rore); spec, hypercritical. 
earity, n. hole, hollow; epee. hold (af a 

ship), sinus (tech.), ventnculus, vacuole, 

bug, well, diverticulum (tech.), pocket, 

foasa or fosse, pit, depression, fossette, 

druse, lacuna (tech.), crypt, cistern, 

atrium, cup; see 

oetllDK. n. ceil (rare and poelic), roof, 
plafond (^rcTicA); sjkc. cupola. 

celebrate, f. t. 1. See observb, psaibb. 
S. proclaim, extol, emblazon, emblaze 
(rare), commemorate, sing, sound, re- 
sound, laud, trumpet, royaJjze (rare), re- 
nown (rare); spec, historicize, fame (rore), 
sonnet (rare), hymn, concelebrate (rare), 
tune, lionize, rune or rhyme, berime or 
berhyme (emphatxe; often amtemptuout). 
Aidonyma: see dbfbbciatb, 

nelebrate, v. i. jubilate, jubilize (rare); 
spec, triumph. 

oelebraHon, n. I. 5ee ohbbbvance, 

S. Spec, festivity, festival, triumph, ova- 
tion, Euoemia (Oxford Vnia.), anniver- 
sary, biennial, triennial, etc., birthday. 
cmlebilty, n, 1. " - 

light, luminary, lion, 1 
ess, celibate (archaic); 

». noUbIc, nami 

celibacy, n. singli 

spec, virginity. 
celibate, a. single, unmarried; ipec. virgin. 
celibate, n. Spec, bachelor, maid or 

maiden (obs. or legal, exe. as of iBomen), 

spinster, oid maid (fern,; coUog. or con- 


oeU, n. 1. Spec, utricle, vacuole, theca, 
spore, amisba, corpuscle, plaatid, locule, 
loculus, loculainent, locellus, eye, cellule, 
hienmtid, hsmad, macrocyte. 
9. room (eanlexliml); spec, serdab, vault, 
reclusory (rare), concameration (rare), 
box (stan^). 

celled, a, eeUat«, cellated, cellulate; — aU I 
these tech. 

oeU'llke, a. cytoid (tech.). 

cellular, a. Spec, loculose (tech.), locula- ] 
men lose (lecn,; rare), loculamentous [ 
(tech.; rare), favose (tech.). comby (ra 
honey-combed, faveolate (tech.). 

cement, n. Spec, glue, lute, lime, putty, 
tar, mortar, paste, solder. "Cement" is 
chiefly spec. 

cement, i>. i. con(;lutinate (rare), plus 
{primarily spec.), stick; spec, solder, hme, 
paste, ferruininale (orcAaic), mortar, be- | 
late (rare), lute, putty, grout, plaster. 
AnlonyT/is: see break. 

cemetery, n. burial place, graveyard, gol- I 
gotha (literari/), necropolis (rhetorical); 
spec, polyandrium, catacomb, churchyard 
(archjiic or hist.). 

censer, n. thurible, incensory; spec, casso- 
lette, incense boat, navicula, net (French). 

oeniorlona, a. critical (contexltiot), culpa- 
tory (rnre), condemnatory, reprobative, 
disapprobatory (rare), renrehensive, rep- 
rehensing (rare), reprehensory (rare); 
»pec. vitriolic, cynic; see FAHivrFinuiNO. 
Aritonyms: see approving, praibino. 

oeninre, n. 1. blame, condemnation, 
reproach (rore), reprehension, reprobation 
(rare), objurgation (rare), reproof, hit 
(coUoq.), knock (slang), criticism, stric- 
ture, nip, animadversion (literary); spec. 
attack, diatribe, backbite, dydogy (a 
nonce word); see blame, blaming, rb- 


S. Referring to direct criticism of a person: 


oensnre, v. 1. 1. condemn, reproach, repre- 
hend, reprobate, reprove (rare), hit (col- 
loq.), knock (slang), tax (rare), fault 
(rare), scarify (fig.), perstringe (rare), 
criticize; spec, backbite, attack; see 


Antonyms: see applaud, approve, 


t. Referring to direct censure of a person: 


census, n. lustrum (Roman antiq.; rare), 
cent, n. copper (coUoq,), penny (a loose 

oentenary, a. secular; spec, centennial, 

center, n. 1. In a physical sense: middle, 

omphalos (rare; fCg. or spec.), hub (fig.), 

navel (fia.); spec, nucleus, pivot, radiant. 

metropous, coom (Scot.) bull's-eye. 
Antonyms: see circumference, edge, 


9. In a nonphysiecd sense: focus, hub, 
heart, core, navel, pivot, hinge, kernel, 

center, v. t. 1. centralize, concenter (rare 
or spec); spec, focus, 
t. See UNITE. 

central, a, middle; spec, focal, nuclear, 

century, n. 1. centennium (rare), cen- 
tenary (rare). 


ceramics, n. pottery. 

cereal, n. 1. Referring to the plant: grain, 
com (chiefly spec., the particular sense 
varying with the locality); spec, oat, pea, 
S. See GRAIN. 

cerebrate, v. i. mentalize (rare), 

cerebration, n. mentalism, mentation. 

ceremony, n. 1. Referring to the action or 
procedure: performance, observance, rite, 
function (chiefly spec), office, practise; 
spec, sacrament, mummery (contemptu- 
ous), ordinance (eccL), tenebrse (pi!). 
9. Referring to the form: see form. 

certain, a. 1. See fixed, definite, un- 

2. /n a sense implying unfailing correct- 
ness: sure, assured (rare), infallible. 
Antonyms: see uncertain, doubtful, 


S. With *W and the infinitive: sure, 
bound, destined. 

certainty, n. 1. Spec, fixity, definiteness, 
unquestionableness, etc, 
S. In a sense implying unfailing correct- 
ness: sureness, assurance (rare), surety, 
certitude; spec, infallibility. 
Antonyrns: see uncertainty, doubt. 
S. Meaning a thing that is unquestionable 
or inevitable: surety, cinch (slang), **Sure 
thing" is chiefly slang. 
Antonyms: see chance. 

certificate, n. Spec, policy, scrip, deben- 

chafed, a. rubbed, galled, fretted, eaten, 
foxed (dial.), worn. 

chaffy, a. paleaceous, paleate; — both tech. 

chain, n. 1. catena (rare or tech.); spec. 
painter, fob. 


chair, n. Spec, tumbrel, rocker, roimd- 
about (U. S.), throne, Cromwell chair, 
curule chair, faldstool, exedra; see 

chairman, n. president, presider; svec. 
toastmaster, moderator, speaker, proloc- 
utor, croupier. 

chalky, a, cretaceous (literary or tech.), 
cretous (rare), 

challence, v, t, 1. dare, defy, stump 
(coUoq.. U. S.), deraign (hist, or obs.), 
brave (rare), 

ohallence, n. 1. dare, defv (coUoq,), de- 
fiance, stump (coUoq., U, S.). 

chamber, n. 1. See room, bedroom, com- 
partment, ASSEMBLY. 
9. Referring to a room for official business 
or public assembly: camera (rare, tech., or 
spec); spec bourse, exchange, curia, hall. 
S. cavity, camera (rare or tech.); spec. 
coffer, cofferdam, kistvaen, casemate, lock, 
vault, cist, cell; see grave. 

chambered, a. concamerated, camerate; 
svec septate, locular; — aU tech,, exc. 

chambermaid, n. femme de chambre 

ohampasne, n. simkin (Analo-Indian). 

champion, n. 1. protector, defender; spec. 
knight, knight-errant, paladin 0^^.). 


chance, n. 1. Referring to a way of happen- 
ing of events or to a fortuitous state of af- 

ly Cross references: see Note. 

oesilon: tranafer, relinquish' 

ohallenge, v. i.: object. 

eeremonUd, a,: formal. 


ehtLWemgingi defiant. 

oeremonlal, n,: form. 

ohafe, V. t.: rub. 

ehampalcn: plain, country. 

oeremonious: formal. 

ohafe, V. i.: rub, fret. 

ohampion, v. t.: protect, eup- 

oertify: (usure, authenticate. 

ohafl, n.; jdeasantry, refuse. 


oertltnde: eonfidencet certainty. 

ohaS, V. t: banter. 

oemlemn: azure. 

chain, V. i.: bind, fasten. 


oetuitlon: «top, intermiaeion. 

ohalloe: cup. 

t^' See Notes of EiplanAtloii. 


fairs: outcome, fortune, cost iohsolesctrU) , 
hazard (rare), casualty (obsoleseetU), per- 
adventure {tileraryj, venture {ea-chaie)i 
apee. toss-up (aiUoq.), gamble. 

Antonyms: see certainty, nbcbsbitt. 
a. Rejerring to a portteufor hap-penin^: 
occurreucc, accident, casualty, contin- 
gency, contingence, fortuity, fortune, 
hap (rare), peradvcnture {lilerary); spec, 
draw, chance-medley; see mibportune. 

AiUimyma: see necessity. 
1. Referring to chance generieally, a sense 
o/len personifM: accident, hazard, hap- 
hazard, contingency (rare), contingence 
(rare), hap; spec, luck; see fortune. 

Artlonifms: see necebbity. 

cbMiee, a. accidental, coDtingent, casual, 
chanceable (archaic), chanceful (archaic), 
stray (fg.), bUnd, blindfold (Jig.), hap- 
hazard, crrabund (rare), harum-Hcarmn 
(coiloq.); see pitrposeless, aimless. 
Antonyms: see cONSEguEMTiAL, jnten- 

oIu»ioel,n. sanctuary, bema (ecd.;antiq.). 

cbandaller, n. 1. candlestick. 
1. pendant (contextual); apte. gaselier, 
electrolier, corona, pendant (rare), crown. 

a. variation, alteration, traosition, 
tation. variance, turning, turn (chiefly 
coUoq.), transmutatinn, passage, passine, 
pass, movement (chiefly spec.), ehiit 
{chiefly spec.), go (coUoo. or slang), revo- 
lution (rare), novation (rare); spec, start, 
bob, break, graduation, risk, vicissitude; 

Antonj/ms: see constanct, 

•■ Referring to garmentt: shift (now U. S. 
or dial. Eng.). 

obanie, v. t. I. exchange (often spec.), 
commute; spec, shift (one's garmenla); see 


 alter, vary, qualify, variate (rore), 
modify, transform, mutate (chiefly spec.), 
convert, turn; n^iec. provect, transmute, 
moderate, diminish, increase, intensify, 
qualify, transform, shade, convert. 

Atdonyms: see nx. 
«haiiKe, V. i. alter, vary, variate (rare), 
shift (chiefly spec), pass, resolve (lHwary 
or spec.), go (coUoq. or spec), mutate 
(chiefly spec), turn (chiefly spec); spec. 
shape (as in "things are shaping his way;" 
coUoq.), glide, sink, jump, break, range, 
graduate, grade. 

Anion^fma: see contintte. 

I. 1. movable, variable, mo I 

) (rare or spec), mutable; i 

Antonyms; see 
). Alterable, varying, variant, variable, 
mutable, modifiable, inconstant, fickle 
(flg.); spec, changeful, vicissitudinouB, 
vicissitudinary, chatoyant, shot. 

Antonyms: see constant, fixed. 
t. fickle, inconstant, variable, light- 
headed or light, moody (obsolescent), hare- 
brained, flinty, mutable, shifty (diiefiy 
spec), skittish (Jig.), volatile ({iterarv)t 
feathery (fig.; rare), versatile (rare), mer- 
curial (lilerary), unstable, changeful. 

Antonyms: see constant, o^ptinatb, 

ataanseableiiesB, n. 1. movablenesa, vori- 


i, etc 

3. alterablenesB, variableness, incon- 
stance, etc. 
Antonyms: see application. 

chanEelinci »' <- Proteus (fig.); spec. 
waverer, turncoat; renegade. 
S. oof. 
«. See roioT. 

cbanEinB, a. 1. changeful, fluxile (rare), 
various (rare or archaic), mobile, dynanuo 
or dynamical (tech.). 
S. alterative, modifying, modificatory. 

ctaannel, n. 1. conduit, canal, course, duct, 
carrier (coitlext-ual); spec, trough (nou 
I/. 5.), gutter, groove, furrow, cloaca, csi- 
oriduct (rare), sewer, main, rabbet, artery, 
aorta, vein, runway, airway, ceaspipe, 
pipe, lateral, aqueduct, drain, fiute, shoot, 
mtake, leader, caiialiculus, couUsse 
(Frejich), cullis, flume, riffle, wadi, ditch, 
dike, downcomer, dale, himen, meatus, 
launder, main, neck, katabothron (rare), 
marigot (French), lead, run, runnel, 
runner, sulcation (rare), donga (So. 
Af.), gullet (local Eng.), gully, funnel, cul- 
vert, sluice, raceway or race (chiefly V. S.) 

runway (rare), ditch (contemptuous); spec 1 

tideway, gut, sound, strait, swash, race- ' 

way or race (chiefly U. S-), neck, lead, 


1. Referring to a long depression: spee. j 

furrow, groove, sulcation (rare), trough, | 

fluting, dig, scratch, score, gouge, cut, 

Aniimyint: see ridge. 
«h*iitiel, V. t. 5iwr. gutter, canal (rare), , 

gully, ravine, cnamfer, ditch, canalise, 

sweal (obe. or Scot.). 
ohBDneled, a. Spec guttered, gutterjr, 1 



I ehsilf eTol . rJianaeabte^cbaTioino^ | 
tS' See Hattt ol ExpIaaatloD. 


Chant, n. Spec, hymn, song, canticle, 
requiem {chiefly poetic), intonation. 

ohaos, n. 1. abyss, void; spec, Ginnimga- 


ohapel, n. Spec, galilee, vestry, cubiculum, 
crypt, chantry, oratory, pool, Bethesda. 

ohap^ron, n. gouvemante (French); spec, 

ohaperon, v. t. matronize (rare), 

chapter, n. 1. division (contextiujl) ; spec. 
sura (in the Koran) , capitular. 


char, V, t, bum, scorch, carbonize (tech,), 

char, n. bum, scorch, scar; spec, charcoal, 

character, n. 1. See figure, mark, na- 

t. symbol, emblem (fig. or contextual), 
figure (spec, or contextual); spec, letter, 
type, hieroglyph, hieroglyphic, polyphone, 
ideograph, pictograph, descender, hook. 
S. personage, eccentric, crank (coUoq.), 
original, erratic (rare), vagarian (rare), 
case (coUoq. or slang, U, S.), oddity 
(coUoq.), ^^Charader is somewhat collo- 
quial in this sense. 

characteristic, n. feature, trait, peculi- 
arity, physiognomic (rare); spec, diagnos- 
tic (esp. med?); see quality, distinction. 

charge, n. 1. See price, expense, tax, 


5. habihty, burden, encumbrance, tax 
(orig. spec.), expense; spec, assessment, 
rate; see mortgage. 

t. rate, tax (coUoq. or slang, U, S.); spec. 
average, demurrage, tariff, terminals 
(pi.), dockage, storage, etc.; see price. 

4. debit (tech.), chalk (spec, or fi^.), score 
(spec), due. 

6. Referring to iirearms, a furnace, etc.: 
load; spec, round, blast, feed (fig.), 

charge, v. t. 1. See fill, bid, assess, ac- 
cuse, ATTACK, prepare, LOAD. 

8. burden, commission, intrust, tax, en- 
charge (rare). 

5. Referring to a person: tax (coUoq., 

4. Referring to the amount: debit (tech.). 

score (rare); spec, peg, size (Eng. uni- 

5. Referring to what is charged with a 
liability: burden, incumber; see mort- 

charitable, /I. 1. See benevolent. 
t. eleemosynary (literary, tech,, or euphe- 

S. liberal, considerate; spec, fair-minded, 

charity, n. 1. See love, kindness, benev- 
olence, ALMS. 

t. Spec, foundation, bequest, hospital, 
college (chiefly Eng.). 

charm, n. 1. See bewitchery, bewitch- 

9. Spec, tahsman. fetish or fetich, medi- 
cine (anthropology), saphie (North Africa), 
obi or obeah (negro), greegree (Africa), 
Antonyms: see hoodoo. 

charmer, n. 1. See magician. 
S. Referring to a charming person, esp. a 
woman: witch (colloq.). 

chase, n. 1. In the generic sense: pursuit, 
hunting, course, himt, cynegetics (rare); 
spec, venery. 
S. See hunt, game, pursuit. 

chase, v. i. pursue; spec, run; — with 

chaste, a. 1. pure, dean, white (fig.), in- 
nocent, honest (rare or archaic), virtuous. 
Antonyms: see unchaste, lewd, im- 
RUPT, lascivious, LICENTIOUS. 

chastity, n. 1. purity, pureness, innocence, 
honor, virtue, virtuousness. 
9. See PURITY. 

chattel, n. chose (tech.), movable, thines 
(pi.; chiefly spec.); spec, distress (sing^; 
see GOODS. 

chatter, n. 1. babble (rare), jargon, jangle, 
patter (colloq.), gabble (contemptuous), 
clatter (contemptuous), patter (coUoq.), 
twaddle or twattle (now dial, or coUoq.), 
claver (contemptiums, Scot.), dack (con- 
temptuous), ms^ (colloq.), cackle (con- 
temptuous or spec.), gibber, gibberish, 
jaboer, jibber (rare), prattle, prate (rare), 
prating, prittle-prattle (rare); spec. talk. 
9. See babble, rattle. 

Cross references: see Note. 
ohant, V. t.: sing, intone. 
ohantioleer: cock. 
ehmotio: formlesa, confused. 
ehmpz person. 
€»hapf alien: depressed. 
cshaplet: croum. 
chapped: cracked. 
cshaps: jaw, chops. 
oharce, v. %.: rush. 

ohargC; dipiomaiic agent. 

oharceable: attributable. 

oharcer: plaUer, horse. 

charlatan: q^ack. 

charm, v. t.: bewitch^ captivate^ 

charminc! captivating, pleas- 
ant, attractive. 

chamd house: ossuary. 

chart, n.; table. 

ehart,«. <.: iabviaU. 
charter, n.: deed, privilege. 
charter, v. t.: hire. 
chary: careful, prudent. 
chaae, v. t.: hunt, piirme. 
chaem: abyss, deft, break, void. 
chasten: purify, punishtre^ain. 
chaetlte: punish. 
chat, V. i.: converse. 
chat, n.: conversation. 

X3S^ See Notes of Krylanation* 

clwtt«r, V. i. 1. babble, jargon, jargonize 
(rare), jabble (rare), patter (ctiloq.), gab- 
ble (contempfuous), prattle, jabber, prate, 
blat or blate {vulgar or eorUemptuoue); 
ipee. talk. 

%. See RATTLE. 

ohattflT, V. t. 1. patter, prate, rattle (fii).). 
t. See RATTLB. 
«h«Bp, a. 1. incxpenaive; apet. easy (cot- 

Antonjpni: see COBTLT, 

1. vulgar, meretricious; spec, popular; 


cheat, V. t. sharp, ebark (rare), swindle. 

oboat, V. t. I. defraud, swindle, beguile, 
cosen (noio lilerary), victimiie {context- 
uol), bilk {coUoq.), gouge {colloq.), fob or 
fub (rore), daddle (coUog.), Emb (063.; 
stan0), bucket (slang), rogue {rare), 
ehave, rook {coUoq. or tlang), gudgeon 
(coHog.), mump {coUoq.; obs.), lurch (or- 
rftaic), ramp {slang), Jew (toed opproftrv- 
ouaij/ft^non-Jeuis; wilpar), ooien (Tanolti- 
erarj/), cony-catch (o&a.); *pec. cog, fleece, 
thimblerig, bunco, chouse {coUoq. or slang). 
1. See DECEIVE. 

cheat, n. 1. swindle, beguilcmect {esT>. the 
aetion), do {slang), cross {cant or elajig), 

t. defrauder, swindler, sharper, sharker 
(rore), cozener {now lilerary), trickafcr, 
sharp, Jew (used opprobriously by some 
non-Jews; mdgar), blackleg (eoEIog.), 
crook {calloq.), cony-catcher (06s.), sxude 
{tlang), Greek {chiefiy apec), hawk (Jig.), 
bilk {rare; calloq. or BUing), kite (rare), 
shaver (rare), rascal, lurch (rare), rogue, 
rook {fig.); spec, blackleg (coUog.), chouse 
{coHoq. or slang) . 


oheatlnK. n. defrauding, swindlery (rare). 
oheok, V. I. 1. See btop, restraih, re- 
ject, BAR, STtfHT, 

S. mark; spec, tick, prick, tally. 

S. repulse, squelch, rebuff; spec. snub. 

4. countercheck; spec, block, scotch, cog, 
snub, brake, drag, anchor, dam!>, rein. 

5. withhold, forbear, spare, refrain (rare); 
spec, cease. 

ohsok, n. 1. See btop, btoppaoe, repreb- 


t. Referring to that which checks: counter- 
check; spec, drag, drogue, block, enub, 
chock, clog, stop, stopper, damp, damper, 
blanket, rein, bridle, inhibition, brakt^, 
let {esp. in "wiOumt lei or hindrance"). 

). repulse, rebuff, setback {U. S.), bode I 

set, thwart (rore); spec. snub. 

4. mark; spec, tick, prick, tally, c 

t. Referring to that by which a thing ia 

coniroUed, measured, etc.: spec, standard, 


oheokered, a. cheeky, chequ^ or chequS 

oheek, n. 1. jowl (rare or dial.); spec. ^Ub j 
{pi.; slang). 
). See [MPUDKNCB. 

oheer, v. I. I. encourage, inspirit, cherish t 
{rare), comfort, strengthen, solace, con- I 
sole, hearten, enliven, brighten, encheer | 
(rare), recreate {rare), rehearten (rore), 
liven {coUoq.), warm; spec, chirrup. ' 

Ajitonsfma: see abash, dibcouraojb, 

1. Sec APPLAOO. 

oheei, V. i, shout {contextual), jolly {Eng.); 
tpuc. bttrrab, hurray, hurra, nuzia. I 

otaBW, R. 1. encouragement, comfort, sol- j 
ace, consolation, consolement {rart), (~ 
Uvenment, recreation (rare). 1 

2. shout (contextual), jolly {Eng.); spec. 
tiger, hu22a, hurrah, hurray, hurra. 

cheerful, a. I. light, light-hearted, bright, 
chipper {stajig or coUoq., U. S.), chirrupy 
{aUhq.), lively, merry, jocund (literary), 
debonair (iiteror^), Ughfsome, chirpy {ail- 
log.), hilarious, jolly, gladsome, heartsome 
{chiefly Scd(.), caoty {dial,), sunny, sun- 
shiny (coUofj,), buxom {archaic), hiSty 
{archaic), nant {rare), cheery, genial, 
blithe, blithesome, bonny (06s. or rare), 
brisk {ehiejly dial.); spec, smiling. 

Antonyms: see depressed, bijllen, 


ohecTtulneai, n. geniality, hilarity, sun- 
shine, gladsomeness, etc. 
Antonyms: see depression, dibcour- 


cheerlne. a. cheerful, ^nial, enlivening, 
inspiriting, strengthening, consolatory, 

?laaBome, Istificant (rare), heartaome 
chiefly Scot.), chirping (rore), cheery, 
blithesome, comfortable, cordial (rare), 
solaceful (rare). 

oheerinsi n. solacement, enlivenment, 

heartening, etc. 
oheeTlesi, a. dull, dismal, gloomy, dreary, 

dark, joyless. 
«bccTi«aaiie>i, n. dullness, diHmalpeea, 

cheesy, a. caseous (chiefly tech.). 
otaemlcal, a. Spec, alchemicai, analytical, J 


nfiH. I crh«ctkEiimt«: 

oheflry: cheerfut, cfiBeht 


«h»mlM, n. shift, Hmock, slip; spec. 

oliBiiali, v. (. I. protect, foater, nurae, cod- 
dle, boBom (rare), brood; spec, ensbrine, 

Antonyms: see abitsb, beat, bligrt, 



obaat. n. 1. case, box, coffer (chiefly spec.), 
hutch (archaic or spec.); spec, met or cyat 
(anlig.), clotheHpresa, cabinet, commode, 
chiffonier, coffin, locker, tallboy, highboy, 
wangun (co7i(), bureau; «« trunk. 
a. thorax ((ecft.); spec, breaat. 

eheBtnut, a. castaneoiu (tech.). 

eheTTon. n. 1. Spec, zigzag, duicette. 
a. iSee BADGE. 

dhew, i;. I. it i. 1. masticate tSormai), chaw 

Svno wigar or imptffing vtdgarity), man- 
ucate (rare); spec, crunch, crump, 
munch, mumble, champ, ruminate, gnaw, 
t. 5eeREND. 

nhewinc, a. ma.<iticatory, manducatory 
(rare);— both Jormal. 

chlMia*, V. i. pettifog {in law). 

ohloanaiT, n. deceit (conlextiiaX), trickery, 
sophistry, chicane; spec, prevarication, 
pettifogging, pettifoggery . 

Dhlok, n. offspring (conlezfuol), aquab 
(chiefly spec.); see cbicken. 

chlokan, n. fowl (amlexIwU), poult (rare), 
biddy (coUoq.); spec, broiler, fry, peeper, 

eIilok«ti-bTeaated, a. gibboua (rare or 
tech.), pigeon-breasted. 

ehlef, a. 1. first, arch (chiefly lilerary or 
■used in combination), principal, foremost, 
master, head, high (amtextaal), preemi- 
nent, top, supercminent (rare), premier, 
a. In importance, interest, etc.: main, 
principal, first, capital (literary or for- 
mal), premier, cardinal, pivotal, great 
(luea viUh "the"), central, top, primary, 
■upreme, prime, grand, leading, palmary 
(rare), palmariaa (rare). 
Antonyms: see inferior, becondart, 

t. In proportion: prevailing, main. 
DlilBt, n. 1. head; spec, chieftain, head- 
man, headsman (rare), primate (rare), 
cob (dial.), cock (coUoq.), ruler, leader, 
dux (chiefly Scot, or spec.), captain, capi- 
tano (Italian), cacique (West Indies). 
Gondottiere (Ittdian), clicker, cid, general 

imU. or ecd.), foreman, elder, goodman 
Scot, or ardiaie). protopooe (eecl.), jarl, 
caboceer (Africa), hierarcn (eccl.), pro- 

vincial (ecd.), ringleader, rcis or rai^ 
(Arabia), aheik (Ar<Aia), sagamore, 
sachem, raja or ruah, principal, prince, 
cardinal (R. C. Ch.). primate (ecci.), 
poligar, prytania (fig.), president, pre- 
mier, phylarch, matriarch (chiefly jocu- 
lar), mahk (Hindu), abuna (eecl.), metran 
(eeci.), lumberdar (India), judge (Bib.), 


AntonyTns: see sUBOBurNATB. 
). principal, don (lilerary or cant). 
1. In heraldry: spec, aoustenu (Frertch). 

oblt&y, adv. principally, mainly, 
mostly, capitally, cardioaliv, etc. 

chicltaaoy, n. chief ship, headship, su- 
premacy, masterdom. 

child, n. I. See offspring. 
a. offspring (eorUexlual), kid (slang or col- 
fog.), bairn (Scot.), cub (jocose or contempt- 
uous), whelp (contempt-amis), papoose 
(Amsr. Ind.), dandiprat (iAs.,iwenile, or 
archaic), dab (contemptuoua), joey (Aus- 
tralia; coUoq.), imp (chiefly spec), mop- 
St (archaic; a term of CTidearment) , bud 
term of endearment), brat (contemptu- 
ous). Innocent (as being pure), cherub (pi. 
cherubs; spec, or sarcastic), lambkin (a 
term of endearment); spec, boy, Kirl, 
changeung, nestling (fis-), elf, tot, elfin 
(literary; rare), chit (coUoq.), trot (coUoq.), 
urchin; gee son, dauqkter. 
Antonyms: see parent, pati 

ohlldblrth, n. parturition (tech.), partUTJ- 
ence (tech.; rare), travail (archaic), labor, 
pains (pi.), puerpery (rare); spec, deliv- 
ery, eutocia, dystocia. 

childhood, n. infancy (chiefly Ugal. exc. 
spec), youth, puerility (rare); apec. minor- 
ity, pupilage, nonage. 
Antonyms: see age, mattjbitt. 

Qhlldlah, a. childlike, childly (rare), ju- 
venile, puerile (usually in a bad sense), 
youthful, brattiah (contemptuous), kiddiw 
(slang or coUoq.)/ spec, boyish, boylike, girl- 
ish, girl-like, girly (coUoq.): see babtibs. 
These terms when applied to older persons 
are used as eguwofcrU to: "foolish, weak, 
silly, trifling, trustirtg, unsuspecting," etc. 
"Childish" is seldom used except of older 
persons, and usually in a derogatory sense: 
childlike" usually implies approval. 
Antonyms: see manlt, womanly, wom- 

oblldten, n. pi. 1. offspring (contextual). 

a. childhood (rorel; spec, infantry (joeur 

tar), infancv; see touth. 
chilly, a. cold, cool, chili. 

Craii r</irnK«: >™ Now. I ohaTBlln : A 
.art.Mld. I Ehlda: >foM.f< 

Might, I chill, H..* tol.i. dtprtarian. 

ohlU, t'.'l.: c>U, reaUait. /not. 

r^S.a NatM at EipUutloE 

oliline, f. i. & I. 1. ring [archaic or apec.), 
play (contextuari. 


ohlmney, n. 1. Spec, flue, Bhoat, Btack, 


I. See CLEFT. 
ohtronv]' carnei. fireside, inglenook (lil- 

otain, n, mentum (tecA.); spec. jowl. 
oUu, n. earthenware (rare), chinaware, 

porcelaino; apec. crackle, belleek, ma- 

Chlnese, a. Celeatial (himoroua), Sioic 
(rare), Siniean or Sinaic (rare); spec. 
Serian or Seric. 

chip, n. Spec. Sake, spall, turoings (pi.), 
cutting (pi.), poringa (pi.), flint; see 

ohUp, n. tt tt, i. cry (conlexlual), twitter, 
cheep, cherup, chipper, peep, pipe, pip, 
chirk (dial, or U. S.), chirrup or chirup; 
apee. pule. 

cblrpinE. «■ cheepy. 

chisel, V. I. cut (contextual), carve (con- 
textual); spec boast (masonry), gouge. 

ohlBfll- shaped, a. scalpriform (tech.). 

choloe, n. 1. Referring to the ad: prefer- 
ence, preferment (rare)j selection, elec- 
tion {ckiefiy spec), option, choose (rare; 
kuvwTous or iiiilerale), optation (rare), 
pick, delectus (rare, exc. apee.); apec. co- 
optation, coOption. 

Anlonyme: see rejection. 
t> Referring to the thing chosen: prefer- 
ence, selection, option, pick, favorite; 
apee. cull (cant), delectus; see 

■. Power of chooaing: option, pick; apec. 

ehaioe, a. 1. select, picked, recherchf 
(French), exqui-iite. 

choke, f. t. & i. 1. sulTocate (conlexlual), 
strangle, strangulate {chiefly med.), throt^ 
tie; spec, bowstring, garrotte, grin (ar- 
ehaie), gag, 
1. See 


 repress (eontexluaD, check, swallow, 
gulp (used chieflywilh "dmim"). "Choke 
M used chiefly vnth "down." 

choose, V. I. select, elect, take, opt (rare), ] 
pick, optate (rore), list (ortly as a v. i.; 1 
archaic); spec. co5pt (learned or tech.), 1 
cooptate, cull, draw, prefer, prick, garble; I 

Anionyms: see EEject. ] 

ohoosliiE, a. optative, selective; apee. ea- i 
lectio, elective. I 

chop, n. 1. See ti.v/, j 

S. In pi. (c/iops): chaps (pi.; a variarU), 1 
choke (dial.); spec, flews (pi.). I 

chop, V. i. <t i. cut (coniestual), hew, hack; I 
apec. mince, hackle, lop, haggle. I 

chop, n. 1. cut (contextual), slice (eon- I 
textual), hew, hack; spec. lop. J 

I. babble, lop, overfall, rip; spec, tiderip, J 
ripple. j 

ohopplnci a. wavy (contextual), roudl I 
{conleilu^), bobbUng, cockling, bobbl^ 
loppy; spec, ripply. 

ohoseo, 0. select, elect (chiefly spec.), 
picked, predilective (rare); apec. conscript, 
preferential, predestined, preferred. 

ohosen, n. Spec, elect, (5tite (French). 

Christ, n. Saver (rare). Savior or Saviour, J 
Jesus, Redeemer, Messiah, Messias, Im- I 
manuel. Mediator, Intercessor, Advocate, ] 
Judge, Word, Son, Son of Man, Son of 
God, Lamb, Lamb of God; — mostly used 
with "the" or "<mr." 

ohrlBten, v. I. t. See baptize, name. 
i. Inlhesenseof'louseforthefiralHme": 
auspicate (learned or literary), handsel; 
spec, wet (slang), blood. "Chriaten" it \ 

ChrlBtendom, n. The Church, Christian- 
ity, Zion (fig.). 

Christian, n. Nasarene (used cap. by Jetoa 
and Mohammedans), saint (Bi6.), aiaour 
(used by Turks), gentile (used in India); 
spec, professor (chiefly Scot, tt U. S.), 
novice, probationer, Gnostic, Baptist, ' 
Methodist, etc. 
Antonyms: see heathen, hehetic. 

ChrlstniKs, n. Yuletide (literary or load). 
Yule (lileraTy or local). 

ohronlo, a. inveterate, confirmed, sealed, 
settled, rooted, continuing {contextvai); 
spec, inborn, inbred. 

ohTonoIcclcal, a. dutul (rare), temporal 

dUtchat: am<irrmtian. 
chlTmlroiu; knightljf. 0' 

ohoprBUali: dBpresml. 

Chrlstlmnitr: ChrUlmdom 

obionlole, t. 
obubb]': plu 

chnckla: biorkhead. 

« NotM ot EipImiiBlloIl. 


ohuTch, n. 1. temple, house, house of God, 
Lord's house, fane {archaic or poetic) ^ 
ecclesia (hisL)y kirk (Scot. & north oJEng.; 
chiefly spec.); spec. Ebenezer, cathedral, 
chapel, Caaba, Kaaba, Bethel, meeting- 
house, basilica, synagogue, tabernacle, 
duomo (Italian), mosque, kiack, minster, 
mensal (hist.), martyry, conventicle, 
samaj (India), delubrum, dom (German). 


ohute, n. shoot, hopper; spec, sUde. 

oisar, n. weed (slang). 

oimeter- shaped, a. acinaciform (rare). 

cinder, n. Spec, coal, breeze; see slaq. 

cinder, v. t. Spec, scorify. 

oindery, a. coaly; spec, slaggy. 

cipher, n. 1. nought, naught (a less usual 

form), 0, nothing, zero, aught (rare and 

a mistake for ^ ^naught'*), ought (a mistake 

for "nought"). 

S. cryptogram, cryptology. 


cipher, V. t. 1. encipher (mxrre formal than 

circle, n. 1. disk, radius, round, rondelle 
(rare or tech. and spec.), rondure or roun- 
dure (rare), rondel (archaic), orb (rhet. and 
chiefly spec.), roundel (chiefly svec.) ; spec, 
carton, discus, roundle (tech.), roundlet 
(dim.), circlet (dim.). 
2. ring, round, roundabout (rare), gyra- 
tion (tech.), gyre (chiefly poetic), orb (rare 
or obs.), roundel (chiefly dial,), O (fig.); 
spec, cycle, corona, halo, hoop, meridian, 
epicycle, ecUptic, cordon, equator, colure, 
horizon, circlet, roundle, roundlet, spiral; 
see RING. 
S. See ciRCXHT, set. 

circle, V. i. wheel, ring, gyrate; see re- 
volve, CIRCUIT. 

circuit, n. 1. See circumference, boun- 

2. course, round, circling, circle, turn, 
revolution (rare), ambit, compass, orbit, 
tour, circuition (rare), troll (archaic), cir- 
culation (rare), perambulation (liierary 
and fig.), circumambience (nxmce use); 
spec, lap, journey (contextual), trip, bout; 


S. Referring to the way: course, round, 
compass, ambit, circmtion (rare); spec. 
eyre (oibs. or hist.), tour, turn, giro 
(Italian), iter (tech.), beat, aetour, round- 
about, lap, ring, cycle; see winding. 

circuit, V, t. round, circle, encircle, girdir 
ifiq.), surround (rare); spec, circumam^ 
bulate (rare), circumnavigate, perambu^ 
late, tour. 

circuit, V. i. course, round, circulate, cir* 
cle; spec, tour, aetour; see revolver 

circular, a, 1. round, rounded, orbicular 
(elevated or tech.), orbed (literary), or by 
(rare), rotund (rare or tech.), orbiculate 
(rare), encircular (rare); spec, discoid, 
rotate (rare), disciform, discoidal (rare), 

2. round, ringy (rare), ringlike, orby 
(rare), compass (rare or tech.); spec, ro- 
tary, gyrant, gyrate, orbital, roundabout. 
S. Of a letter; esp. ecd.: cycUc, encychcal. 

circularly, adv, roundabout, roundwise, 
round, roundly (rare), 

circulate, v, i. 1. See circuit, revolve. 
2. Referring to money, goods, etc.: pass, go, 
run, move. 

S. Referring to rumors, etc,: run, go; spec, 
evulgate (rare). 

circulate, v. t. 1. See diffuse, report. 
2. Referring to money, etc,: pass. 

circulating, a. current (referring to 

circulatory, a, circulative, diffusive. 

circumference, n. periphery (learned or 
tech.), circuit, compass, round, perimeter 
(geom.), perimetry (rare); spec, girth, girt, 
perambulation (literary and fig,); see 


Antonyms: see center, middle. 

circumlocution, n. periphrasis (learned), 
periphrase (rare), roundabout (rare), in- 
direction, ambage (rare), circuition (rare), 
circumambages (pi.; rare), circumbendi- 
bus (jocular). 

circumlocutory, a. periphrastic, round- 
about, indirect, amoagious (rare), cir- 

circumscribe, v. t. 1. inclose, surround; 
spec, bound. 
2. See BOUND, restrict, describe. 

circumstance, n. 1. See occurrence, 


2. fact, matter; see particular. 
circumstanced, a. conditioned, j&xed (coir 

loq.), situated. 
circumstantial, a. minute, detailed, full, 

detaily (coUoq.; rare); spec, fussy; see 

Antonyms: see general, indefinite. 

Cross references: sec Note. 
churchman: ecclesiastic, miniMter. 
churlish: rustic, boorish, surly, 

rough, ill-tempered, stingy. 
dnoh: girth, hold. 
drolc* 0. t.: circuit. 
drolet: circle, ring, crown. 
drcHnf; circuU. 

droaltous: devious, indirect, 

olrcuitoasly: about. 
droulartse: advertize. 
circumjacent: surrounding. 
circumfuslon: pouring. 
clrcumnaTlfatc: circuit. 
clrcumtcriptiTc: restrictive. 

drcnmspcct: prudent, careful. 
circumstantiate: endmest 

circumvent: surround, omt- 

circumvention: overreaching. 
circumvolution: rotation, rev» 

olution, coil, unnding. 


13^ See Notes of Eiplanation. 

clrcas, n. hippD<lrome {rhelmiad; eiften 
used as a name for u circus building). 
olstern, n. reservoir, tank; — both contexl- 

•ItUjf, e. (, metropolitanisB (rore). "Citifj/" 
is ckiefly used in the p. p, "cit^Ud." 

olUBen, n. cit (cnntemptwiwi) ; spec, bur- 
1, burgher, comburgesii, clerucb, eph- 
eoe, cosmopolite, conuDimer, freeman, 
civiliftn, deniten; see townsman. 
AnUmymn: see fobbioneh. 

dty, n. town, burg (coUoq., U. S.); spec. 
metropolis, metropolitan. 

rUlaii, n, mohair (,BoldieTs' slang); spec. 
gownsman, scorpion (dang). 

olvUlty, n. 1. See poutbnebb. 
1. ii^emrH7lolheaef.- attention, courtesy, 
devoir (literary or learned); spec, bow, 
greetinj;, attentivenesa. 

idTillBmtloi), R. civility (archaic); spec. 
reclamation (the act only), enlightenment, 
cultivation, kultur (Oer.); see refine- 

olTUlaa, V. t. Spec, reclaim, debarbaize, 
enlighten, cultivate ichiefiy in p. a. "cuZ- 
twoteii"); seeRBFjNK. 

ol*lUB«d, a. civil (archaic); spec, enlight- 

Antonyma: see tiNciviuzBO. 
claim, V. t. I. demand, challenge (obso- 
lescent), vindioata {rare); spec, counter- 

9. See DEM. 

claim, n. demand, pretense, pretension; 
spec, plea, counterclaim, condiction (Ro- 
man Jato), location ([/. S.), revendication, 

). demand, lien; s^kc. hold. 
Antonyms: see dibci.aUiIEB. 
I. See RIGHT. 

claimant, n. demandant (now rare); spec. 
pleader, pretender. 

olalrvo ranee, n. second sight, clear eight 

dairvarant, a. clear-sigbted (rare). 

olalrvoyant. n. seer. 

olaniaraua, n. noisy (contejAual), vocifer- 
ous, clamant (literary or teamed), obstrep- 
erous, uproarious, blatant, vociferant, 
Btrepitous (rare); see boibteroos. 
^nfon^s; see calm, biient. 

elamp, n. clam, cramp, grip, vise (chiefly 

•t.); spec, crampiron, horse, dog, yoke, 

(Greek antiq.), i 

1. See BET. 
clans, "■ t' clam; see rikq. 
clans, n. I. clangor, clam; see b; 

1. See TniBSE. 
clap, V. i. t. strike, slap, bang, clack, slam, I 

slat, cUck. 

otap, n. 1. stroke (conleiiual), blow, elap, I 

slam, bang, clack, slat. I 

(. noise (conlextuai); spec, slam, bang, 1 
clack, explosion, peal. 

olappet, n. l. Spec, tongue, clack, bona 1 
(pt.). ' 

». See T 

olapplnt, a, claekety, clickety, slapping, 
slumming, elatting, ele. 

daap. V. I. 1. seise, embrace, enclasp (rare 
or emphatic), infold or enfold, clip; spec. 
twine, clutch, interlock, entwine, fold, i"- 
arm, hug, hook, clutcQ, twine; see B: 

AnU>nyms: see fbeb. 
1. fasten; spec, buckle, brace, hook, i 
fibulate (rare). 
■. See HOLD, 
olaap, n. 1. seizure; spec, embrace, fold, I 

hug, clutch: see EMBRACE. I 

a. fastening, catch; spec, morse, oucb | 
(archaic), fibula, buckle, fermail, hasp. 
1. See HOLD. 
class, 1. I. division (eonlextiud), category I 
(tech. or leartied), predicament (spec, or I 
learned), denomination, division, sort, 
species, group, order, rank, range {ra 

1. Spec, form, division, seminar, Phila- I 
thea, Baraca, classis. 

clMs, f. t. place (contextwd), rank, rate, • 

number, assort (rare), reckon; posthabic I 

olaialo, a. Attic (literary or learned). 

out: i: 

I Wr, ralOe. 

^^^H Clam: dampr 

dlauorona: i 

olmptrap: trwieery, non» 
datinoatlon: fttaring. 
flmilMlmo: pn-lsRain. 
olailL. I. I.,- CdUufi, foTUIid, 


classical, a. Spec, humanistic, canonical 
or canonici correct. 

dassiflcation, n. assortment. 

dassilled, a. assorted. 
Antonyms: see confused. 

classify, V. t. group, categorize (tech.), as- 
sort, sort (literary), order; spec, grade, 
distribute, arrange, tribe (rare), impost 
(U. S. customs), graduate, match, size, 
pigeonhole, range, brack (local), garble 
(rare, exc. of coins, nuis, etc.). 
Antonyms: see confuse, mix. 

clatter, n. &. v. i. 1. Spec, clack, clitter, 
clutter, hurtle; see rattle, babble. 

clause, n. 1. article, particle (rare); sfec. 
paragraph, covenant, proviso, condition, 
stipiuation, reddendo (Scots law), redden- 
S. See PART. 

claw, n. griff (rare), ungula (tech.), talon 
(chiefly spec.), hook (.slang); spec, sinele 
(archaic), clutch (chiefly in pi.), chela, 
pounce, pincers (pi.), manus, nipper; see 


claw, V. t. scratch, dig (coUoq. or spec), 
clapperclaw (archaic or dial.). 

clay, n. argil (tech.), cloam (dial. Eng.); 
spec, clunch, kaoUn, metal, cledge (local 
Eng.), wacke, slip, till, bole, gault (dial. 

clayey, a. argillaceous (tech.). 

dean, a. 1. unsoiled, pure (literary or fig.), 
imsullied (literary); spec, immaculate, un- 
stained, incontaminate (rare), undefiled, 
unsmirched, dirtless, spotless, dustless, 
white, unblemished. 
Antonyms: see dirty, filthy, soiled, 
FOUL, smeary, etc. 


dean, adv. 1. So as to he clean: cleanly. 
2. Spec, absolutely, completely^ skillfully. 

dean, v. t. 1. cleanse, mundify (rare), 
clenge (Scot. & dial.), defecate (rare; 
chiefly spec), purge (chiefly spec); spec. 
purify, wash, deterge, scald, dust, mop, 
rinse, bream, careen, dress, comb, gill, 
dredge, pick, grave, scavenge, pure (cant), 
swingle, scour, blow, scrub, elutriate, 
wipe, defecate, willow, clarify, ripple; see 


Antonyms: see dirty, soil, smear, foul. 
2. jSee CLEAR. 

cleaning, a. cleansing, mundatoiy (rare), 
purgative; spec, purificatory, wash, wash- 
mg, detersive^ depurative, detergent, 
scouring, purging. 

cleaning, n. cleansing; spec, purge, purga- 
tion, scouring. 

cleanly, a. clean, neat. 

dear, a, 1. transparent, limpid (chiefly 
spec), lucid, pellucid, liquid, p^uoent 
(rare), crystal, crystalline; spec, un- 
clouded, serene; see transparent. 

Antonyms: see turbid, dreqqy. 
2. Referring to weather: fair, bright, fine, 
serene (rare or literary); spec, sunny, sun- 
shiny, perfect, unclouded, cloudless. 

Antonyms: see foul, cloudy, rainy, 


S. Referring to tones: liquid, pure; spec. 
mellinuous or mellifluent (rhetorical), crys- 
tal, musical^ singing, euphonious, fluty, 
silvery, ringmg, snarp. 
Antonyms: see hoarse, dull. 

4. Referring to weights or amounts: net, 
neat (rare). 

5. Referring to the skin, etc.: spec, brieht, 
fresh, healtliy, transparent, peachy, &r, 

Antonyins: see sallow. 

6. InteUigible (contextual), plain, lucid, 
pellucid (literary), luminous (rhetorical), 
luculent (rare), perspicuous, sharp-cut, 
unambiguous, naKed (rare); spec, vivid, 

Antonyms: see unintelligible, ob- 

SMOOTH (in sound), absolute, unob- 
structed, FREE, pure. 
clear, t'. t. 1. clarify, fine, refine; spec, set- 
tle, defecate, render. 
Antonyms: see muddy. 

2. See FREE, disentangle, ACQUIT, AB- 

S. make, net, clean up (coUoq.), profit, 
realize, get (contextual). 
Antonyms: see lose. 

4. free, rid, sweep, scour. 

5. free (from obstructions, rubbish, weeds, 
or what not), sweep (spec, or Jig.), scour 
(spec, or Jig.), clean; spec, open, room 
(rare), drive, serene (rare), deobstruct 
(rare), deoppilate (rare), blow, uncloud, 

Antonyms: see obstruct. 

6. Spec, (referring to land) deforest, stub, 
grub, denshire (Eng.), burnbeat (Eng.), 
assart (Eng.). 

7. See evacuate. 

dear, v. i. Referring to the face, the sky, 
etc: uncloud (rare), brighten; spec 
Antonyms: see cloud. 

clearance, n. 1. freeing, riddance, clearing. 
2. See ACQUITTAL, absolution, license, 


clearing, n. 1. clear (chiefly in "in the 
dear"), open (chiefly in *'in the open"), 

ISr Cross references: see Note. | oleanness: purity. 

I deanse: dean, purxfj/. 

13^ See Notes of Explanation. 


opening, dearanca (lUerary); spec, osaart, 
9. See iCQtriiTAL. 

>. clearance; spec, clarification, riddance, 
evacuation, scouring, deforcstotion, efc. 

elMuneiii n. 1. Spec, clarity, Umpidncss, 

I, serene (rare), serenity [liierary or rare); 
gpec. cloudlessnesB. 

olesTable, a. fissile (ekkfiy tech.); spec. 
Bcissile, flaggy, laminable, flaky, platy. 

«leBTai:e> n. I. nssility, cleavableaess ; epec. 
laminableness, tamiuatioQ, delamination. 
S. See flPUTTiNO. 

tdeave, v. I. & i. divide, split, shear, dis- 
sever (Tare); spec, plow, delaminate, lam- 
inate, fissure, rift, flake, rive, furrow; see 

cleft, a. split; spec, riven, reft, rent, multi- 
fid, fissuTed, cracked, fractured, broken, 
cut, rimose. 

cleft, n. split, gap; spec, fissure, rift, reft 
(rare), scissure (rore), interstice, chasm, 
crack, crevice, chinmey, chink, clot 
(Seat.), rent, flaw, slit, dike iloeal, Eng.), 
fault; set crevasse. 

olenoh, v. I. 1. See clinch, seize, qrasp, 


9. grip; spec, close ((Ae fist), clutch (llie 

fist), set (We Uelk). 

olanohed, a. closed; spec, clubbed, set. 
clerioaUBm, n. sacerdotalism, ministeri- 

clMlokUtjr. n. dericate (rare), clergy (obs., 
exc. m "benejil of dcrgy"), clergy manahip, 
derkhood (arelMic); spec, priesthood, 
chaplainship, chaplaincy. 

elerk, n. 1. See uinister, balcshan. 
I. Spec, recorder, r^atrar, scribe, scriv- 
ener, protonotary, conicopoly (Anglo- 
Indian); eee accountant, secretary. 

olerer, a. 1. smart {now chiefly U. S,), cute 
(.eoUoq.), good, pretty (archaie or colioq.), 
Bolert (oSb.); »ee abi 


Antonyms: see dull, btupii 

1. See OBLiaiNO. 
oUok, n. noise, tick, tap; spec, clap, snap. 
oUok, D. 1. 1£ t. sound, tick, tap; spec, dap, 

oUentele, n. 1. dependants {pi.}, clientry 

(a collective). 

%. constituency (coUoq.), following, clien- 

try (rare), dientelage (rare), dientage; 

kranta or kranz {South Africa). 
oUmate, n. clime {lil&ary and ehieflff 

Qilmtu, n. 1. In rhetoric: graduation (con- 


». See heiobt, CROWN, 
ollmb, V. i. u ascend, Hcale, mount; spec. 

clamber, ramp (of vinet, etc.; dial, or 

rare), swarm (eollog.), run (of plants; oon- 

textual), scramble, scrabble. 

a. See ASCEND, 
ollmb, V. t. ascend, scale, mount; spec. 

clamber, swarm {coUoq.), shin (coUoq.), 

escalade, scramble. 
ollmb, n. ascent, mount; spec, clamber. 
ollmblne, a. scansorial (tech.). 
ollnoh, V. t. 1. fast«n (contextuaTl, dencb, 

turn (conlextjial), dink {dial. Eng. a 

Scot); spec, rivet. 

a. See seize, grasp, strenothen. 
clip, V. t. 1. cut (contextual), snip, shear, 

retrench (rare), curtail (rare); spec. 

prune, dock, pare, beahear (rore), shear, 

poll, nip; seeTBiii. 

clip, n. 1. cut (contextual), snip, shear; 

spec, nip; see troi. 


clOKk, n. t. robe (contextual), pall (or- 
chaic); spec, mantle, mant^u (kitt.), 
inantua(Ais(.),8urcoat (hief,), cope, mant- 
let (kisl.), domino, mask, burnouse, car- 
dinal, capa (Spanish), capote, capuchin, 
chlamys, cardinal, prince, manto (lUdian 
or Spanish), manta (Spanish), cowl, In- 
vemeas, Joseph (hist.), jelob (Jl/oroccanJ, 
poncho {Spanish), pluvial (hist, or eccl.), 
pallium, paletnt, palla {Roman antig.), 
talma, scapular or scapulary, roquelauro 
(hist.), sagum, poncho, 
t. See PRETEXT. 

cloak, V. t. 1. dothe {conlextuat), mantle. 
*. See HIDE. 

«Iqb> "' 1- check, weight, drag, trammel; 
spec, log, block. 


dOKKy, a. heavy, trammeling. 

otsBTB, t. i.: fficJ 


^ Beo MotM ol Eiplanatlou. 

oUpplBf; quotatiefi. 




olose, a. 1. See closed, nabkow, accu- 

». oppressive, stale, heavy, stuffy, fusty, 
stifling; spec, musty, sultry, sweltry. 

Antonyms: see fresh. 
S. tight, snug. 
olose, V. t. 1. shut, stop, estop (archaic), 
cork (spec, or fig.); spec, button, lock, oc- 
clude, seal, douse, lute, stopper, plug. 

Antonyms: see open, unfold. 
2. See INCLOSE, shut, obstruct, end, 


olose, V. i. 1. embrace, clinch, grapple, grip. 

2. See AGREE. 

dose, n. inclosure; spec, precinct, curtilage. 
closed, a. close; spec, shut; see clenched, 


Antonyms: see open. 

closet, n. 1. room (contextual) , cabinet, 

2. Svec. recess, cupboard, cabinet, buffet, 
warorobe, garderobe (hist.), cuddy, 

closure, n. 1. closing, shut (rare); spec. 
blockade, occlusion. 

2. Referring to debate: cloture, cl6ture 
(French), stoppage (rare). 

dot, n. mass, lump, dout, clump; spec. 
gout (now chiefly in aUusion to Shake- 
speare^ s iLse), gob (now vulgar), thrombus, 
crassamentum, grume, coagulum. 

doth, n. 1. fabric (contextual); spec, mun- 
go, shoddy, dab (chiefly dial.), pall (ar- 
chaic), corporal, corporas. 
2. With ^^the": see ministry. 
S. In pi. '^clothes**: see clothing. 

dothe, V. t. 1. dress, apparel (rather formal 
or rhetorical), attire (dignified), tire (obs. 
or archaic), array (dignified), costume, 
robe (chiefly spec.), accouter (obs. or spec.), 
habilitate (rare), vest (chiefly fig.), garb 
(chiefly spec), beclothe (rare), invest 
(literary), deck, endue (literary), dizen or 
bedizen (now usually contemptuous; chiefly 
spec.), vesture (rare), encase or incase 
(chiefly humorous), rig (coUoq. or sUmg), 
Jight (archaic or dial.; used esp. in ro- 
mances), bcdight (archaic and poetic), en- 
robe (literary), garment (rare), guise (ar- 
chaic), tog (chiefly with *^out"; slang); 
spec, jacket, deck, beclout (rare), breech, 
cassock, fur, gown, coat, scarf, shroud 
(fig.), uniform, frock, tartan, enclothe, 
empurple (rare), crape, coif, swathe, re- 
clothe, reinvest (rare); see cloak. 
Antonyms: see strip, undress. 
2. See invest, disguise. 

dothed, a, dad (now chiefly literary), en- 
clad (rare), vested (heraldry or fig.). 
Antonyms: see naked, bare. 

dothier, n. costumer, outfitter (chiefly 
cant); spec, hosier, haberdasher, furnisher, 
hatter, etc. 

dotliins, n. 1. Referring to the act: invest- 
ment (chiefly literary), investiture (literary 
or tech.). 
2. dress, clothes (pi.), garments (pZ.), ap- 

Earel (dignified), habiliment (chiefly in pi.; 
amed or literary), array (dignified), at- 
tire (rather formal; often spec!), garb, rai- 
ment (rhetorical or poetic), costume, robes 
(pi.; fonruil or spec.), vesture (literary or 
fig.), vestments (pi.; chiefly tech.), daes 
(Scot.), investiture (literary), investment 
(literary) J costumery (rare), garmenture 
(rare), rigging (colloq.), wear (coUoq.), 
toggery (Sari{7), togs (jd.; slang), duds 
(pL; slang), gear (orclfiaic or literary), 
things (p/.; coUoq.), nulls (pi.; fig.); 
spec, robmg, gala (obs., exc. with *Hn**), 
rags (P^')j tatters (pi.), coating, livery, 
duck, buff (mil.), overwear (rare, U. S!), 
overdothes (pi.), underclothes (pZ.), 
slops (pi.; colloq.), wardrobe, washmg; 

cloud, n. 1. meteor (tech.), nebula (rare or 
spec.), thickness (rare, exc. of the state of 
fact); spec, cirrus, cumulus, stratus, nim- 
bus, cirro-cumulus, rack, colt's-tail, film, 
messenger, woolpack, mist, fog, fogginess, 
scud, haze, hazmess, mare's-tail, whiff, 
goat's-hair; see fog. 
2. thickening (contextual); spec, nebula, 
smoke, fog, nubecula, puff, scud, mist, 
fog, film, steam; see blur, haze. 

S. See MULTITUDE, imperfection, FAULT, 

doud, V, t. 1. overdoud, overcast, over- 
shadow, bedoud (an intensive), adum- 
brate (rare), obnubilate (rare), obnebu- 
late (rare); spec, shade, shadow, bc^og, 
fog, mist. 
Antonyms: see clear. 
2. Referring to the brow: darken, shade. 


doud, V. i. 1. thicken. 
Antonyms: see clear. 

2. See SULLY. 
doud- bringing, a. nubiferous (rare), 
doudbur8t,n. rainfall (contextual), dduge. 
clouded, a. 1. See cloudy. 

2. cloudy; spec. moir6 (French), watered, 



doudins, n. 1. obnubilation (rare); spec. 
moir6 (French), water. 

2. iSee 0BSCX7RATI0N. 

Cross references: see Note. 
ololiter: convent, arcade. 

olosiiic: doaure. 
olot, V. t.: cooffulate. 

clothe, V. i.: drees. 
clothes: dothing. 

See Notes of EiphuiatlOD. 


Dioudy, a. 1. nubjlous (learned or tech.), 
clouded, nebulous ichieflij spec.), thick; 
spec, overcast, foggy, misty, fogged, dull, 
black, filmy, hazy, blurred, overcast, 
murky, lowering or louering, lowery or 
loury, lurid, aubnuvolar Crare); see foooy. 
ArU/mj/m«: eee clear. 
I. Spec, muddy, nebulous, araoky, foggy, 
miaty, steamy; ste hazt, tttrbid. 



t. Meaning a 
slouch (slang • 

dang), hobnail ijw.j, luooer ipnmoruv 
tuait.), chuckle (dang), duffer (alattf)), 
muff (dcmg), lout (cMoq.), bumpkin, 
booby (colioq.), nincompoop (slang), 
Kawky (eoUo?.), gawk {aMoq.), calf (oj- 
wq.), hawbuck (Sang, Eng.). 
Aidonyms: see expert. 
olub, n. 1. stick (contextual), cudgel, 
truncheon (archaic, exc. epec.), bat, 
bludgeon, bourdon (archaic); spec, waddy, 
mace, mere or men, nuUa-nulla, leeangle, 
keerie, batjsn, baboon (archaic), knob- 
kenie, lathee (Anglo-Indian), knobstick, 
billy, ahillalah, staff, hickory, crab or 

t. In games: spec, hockey, hurley, driver, 
niblick, hraaay, cleefc, midiron, loftie, 
maahie, putter, iron, ahinnyj hurl (rare). 
S. /n cards: spec, ba&to. 
4. association (coTJextuai); spec, combina- 
tion, Turnverein (German), Siingerbund 
(Oerman), tabape (French), Rota (Eng. 
hist.), helfflry (ancient Greek hist.); tee 

olub, V. t. strike (amteiiiuil). beat (con- 
textual), cudgel, truncheon (rare), blud- 
geon; spec, bastinado, paddte. 

dnbloot, n. 1. Referring to the fool: splay- 
foot, poltfoot (archaic). 
X. Referring to the deformity: talipes 
(tech.), clubfootednesB, splayfoot, polt- 
foot (archie); spec, varus, 

olub-shsped, a. clavate, claviform; — hoth 

oln«k, n. & u. call (amtextuai), cry (con- 
lextuid); spec, chuck. 

clump, n. I. See lAniP. 
t. group, cluster, bunch; spec, thicket, 
grove, plump (archaic), tuft, etc. 

otumpr, a. I. clustery. 

t. See LUMPT. 

duins}', a. 1. Rearing to a person: awk- 
ward, unhandy, ungraceful, heavy, lum- 
berly, lumbering, lumbersome, lumbroua 
(rare), graceleas (rore), wooden, left- 
halldl^d, lubberly (naut. or Jig.), lubber- 
like (naul. or fig.), bDoby^ bixibyiBh. in- 
elegant; spec, elephaotme, unskillful, 
draggy, inapt, lumpish, bungling. 

Antonyms: see bkiujul, ohaceitji- 
S. Referring to a tiling: spec, unwieldy, 
cumbrous, heavy, unhwidy, bungling, 
botched, rough, crude, lumberly, lumber- 
lug, lumbersome. 
A'ttoityme: see airt, 

oinstaieil, a. Spec, conglomerate, glomer- 
ate (tech.). 

dutch, n. 1. nest; spec. aitUng. 
a. See BROOD. 

dutch, I 

a. See SI , 
dutch, n. I. Referring to the act: hold (at, 
textvol), grip, grasp, clench, clasp; ate 


AjUonipns: ace release. 
t. Referring to tlie thing Diat holds: hold 
(eontextuai), grip; spec. grab, grabber, 
claw, claaper, grasper, grapple, clamp, 
crampon, grappter, comenJong (cant), 

Sapnel, lewis, lewisson, gland, fist 
'tieflj/ jocular) , finger, nipper, nip, grip- 

per, gripe, dog, clip, pincers, forceps, chuck. 
AtUonipna: see release. 

■. See SEIZURE (in pi.), qrasp, contsol. | 
ooaoh, n. 1. vehicle (amtextuai), rattler . 

(siang); spec, rattletrap (slang), tally-ho, ' 

drag, four-in-hand. 

I. teacher (conlexlaal), crammer (obtU 

or slang), grinder (cant or ^ng), coacher ' 

(cant), tutor. "Coach" is cant. 
oomeh, v. t. teach (contexluaC), cram (cant 

or slang), tutor. "Coach" is cant. 
ooaKuikts, V. i. & t. thicken (contextual), 

clot, run (dial.; tiaed as a v. i. mtly), set, 

curdle, clod lo6s. or rare), cruddle (adefiy i 

ditd.), clabber (U. S.); spec, solidify, lop- 

pcr, caseate; see jellt. 
Anionj/ms: see LiguErr. 
oaacuiated, a. clotted, loppered, curdled, 
coacolmoi n. mass, coagulation, ourd 

(chiefly sjiec); see clot. 
coBi, n. i. Referring to the mAstance: spec, 

charcoal, cannd coal, anthracite, cinder 


slacki lignite, jet, cobbles (pi.; Eng.), duff, 
dross, culm, coke, carbocoal. 

1. Referring to a lump or piece of coal: gleed 
{archaic; chiefly spec.); spec, ember, cinder. 

ooATse, a. 1. large (conUxlual), crass 
{chiefly literary) , gross {literary or tech), 
heavy {chi^y spec.), thick; spec, rank, 
reedv, gruff {teck, or Scot.), homespun, 

Antonyms: see delicate, small, blen- 

S. low, vulgar, conamon, unrefined, crude, 
gross, unideal {rare), crass {literary), in- 
eiea^t, unpoli^ed, rough, plebeian {spec. 
orUterary), woolen (rare), indelicate: spec, 
rude, ribald, earthy (rare)f rustic, down- 
ish, brutal, brutish, swinish, scurrilous; 
see BOOHiSH, beastly, lewd, indecent. 
Antonyms: see refined, spiritual, in- 
tellectual, CHASTE. 
S. See ROUGH. 

(hoarsen, v. t. 1. enlarge (contextual), thick- 
en {contextual). 


ooat, n. 1. Spec, jacket, sack, jemmy 
{Eng.; rare), overcoat, greatcoat {chiefly 
Eng.), jacket, paletot (French), oiler 
(U. S.; coUoa.), cutaway, cassock, secret 
(antiq.), frock, habergeon, buff, tunic. 
S. cover, coating; spec, set, scumble, 
wash, intonaco (Italian), glaze, priming, 
fur, buff; see smear, crust. 
S. pelage (tech or learned), pilage (rare), 
fell (rare or literary); spec, fleece. 

4. See ARMS, SKIN. 

ooat, V. t. 1. See clothe. 

2. cover, overlay; spec, lute, fur, gum, 
bark, prime, plaster, render, roughcast, 
wash, silver, glaze, film; see crust, smear. 

ooax, V. t. at i. Spec, persuade, entice, 
cajole, urge, honey (rare or obs.). There 
is no general synonym of ^'coax.*' 
Antonyms: see bluster, bully, coi^ipel, 


coazine, a. Spec, bland, gentle, winning, 
ooaxine, n. sua.sion (rare). 

Antonyms: see compulsion. 
cobbler, n. repairer (contextiud) ; spec, (re- 

ferring to shoes) dobberer (dial. Eng.), 
sutor (learned), douter. 

oob weblike, a. arachnoid (tech.); spec. 
cortinate (tech.). 

oook, n. 1. chantideer (voetic and usually 
used as a moper name), rooster (chiefly 
U. S. and dial. Eng.); spec, capon, cocka- 
lorum (dim.; colloq.), cockerd, singer, 
2. spout; spec, faucet, tap, valve, plug. 


cockade, n. device; spec, black cockade 
(Hanover), white cockade (Stiuxrt), ro- 
sette, knot. 

cocoon, n. case (contextual), covering (con- 
textual) ; spec. pod. 

code, n. 1. codex (rare); spec, system, for- 
mulary, law, rule, rdigion. 

codify, V. t. systematize, digest. 

coexistent, a. contemporaneous, concomi- 

coextensive, a. equal, coequal; spec, co- 
terminous; see CONTEMPORANEOUS. 

cofferdam, n. chamber (contextual), box, 
batardeau (French), coffer, caisson. 

coffin, n. box (conteoctual) , casket (U. S.), 
hearse (archaic), cist (archasol.), kist 
(Scot.); spec, sarcophagus, shell. 

cogency, n. strength, power, force, wdght, 

cogent, a. strong, powerful, good, fordble, 
forceful, constraining, robustious (rare), 
pregnant (archaic or literary), weighty, 
trenchant (literary or rhetorical); spec, con- 
vincing, urgent. 
Antonyms: see unconvincing. 

cogwheel, n. wheel, gearwhed, gear; spec, 
lantern, wormwhed. 

cohabit, V. i. Spec, chum (coUoq,), ^^Co" 
habit" is chiefly spec. 

coheir, n. heir^ coparcener, parcener. 

cohere, v.i. 1. stick, adhere, consist (archaic) . 

S. See AGREE. 

coherent, a. 1. sticking, adherent, con- 
sistent (rare). 


cohesion, n. sticking, adherence, adhesion, 
coherence, cohesiveness, consistence (rare). 

lar Cross references: see Note. 
coast, n.; shore. 
coast, V. i : saU, dide, glide. 
coast, V. L: sail. 
coastal: littoral. 
coating : coat, crust. 
ooat of arms: arms. 
cobble, n.; stone. 
cobble, V. t.: pave. 
cobble, V. t.: repair. 
cobweb: network, filament. 
cock, n.; turn, inclination. 
cock, V. t.: turn, incline. 
cockcrow: daybreak. 
cocker: indulge. 
cockerel: cock. 

cock-eye: cross-eye. 

cockscomb: crest, dandy. 

cocksure: confident. 

cocky: sdf-imnortant. 

coddle: parboU, caress, cherish, 

codez: code, manuscript, book. 

codger: fellow. 

coenobite: religious. 

coequal: equal, coordinate, co- 

coerce: compel. 

coercible: compellable. 

coercive: compulsory. 

coeval; contemporaneous. 

coffer: chesty cofferdam, treasury. 

cogitable: thinkable. 

cogitate, V. %.: think, consider. 

cogitate, V. L: consider ^ devise. 

cogitative: thinking- 

cognate: r dated, analogous. 

cognition: knowing, knowl- 
edge, inttUigence. 

cognisable: knowable,jur%8diC' 

cognisance, n..* perception, 
au>areness, intdligence, notice, 
jurisdiction, badge. 

cognisant: aware, conecioua. 

cognomen: name. 

cohesive: sticky. 

cohort: division, band. 

f^ See Notes of Explanation* 




ooU, n 1. Meaning a "series of rings": 
spec inductoriiun, honk. 
). wind, turn, ring, convolution, round, 
curl, fold, loop, circumvolution, volut« 
{chiefly spec.), volume (rare), twine, twist, 
Lap; epee. bight, faka, bolater, baluster, 
roU; see si-mAL. 

«oiI, V, I. & i. wiod, loop, upcoil (rare). 
Wist, fo'.d, lap, convolute (rare or kani&l) , 
curl, twine, clue (used wilh "up"; Tare); 
vpec. roll, apire, BpiraJ (rare), wreath, en- 
roll (rare), belay, fake. 
Antonyms: see unwind, 

ooln, n, I. Referring to money: piece, 
ehinker {slang) ; spec, copper (oMoq.), 
dump, doit, cart wheel (aiano), coach 
wheel (slang, Bng^, mite, nickd {cxMoq., 
U. S.), dime, shilling, etc. 
S. Referring to coins coUectvody: money, 
specie; spec. Bilver, brass (dial, or coUog.), 
cnink (slang), ^Id, tin (slang), change. 

ttolm, V. t. 1. mint, strike, stamp, money 

(rare); spec, contomiate, •^—^■^ 

a. See INVENT, 

ooluolde, i;. i. 1. concur. 
9. See AOKEE. 

oolnotdenoe, Tl 

tanoe, concourse (obs. or rare), conjunc- 
tion, juncture, conjuncture (rare), syn- 
drome (rare or obs.). 


ootniddent, a. concurrent, concomitant. 

coiner, n. minter, moneyer (hiil.); spec. 

Doia-ihaped, a. nummular, nununulated, 
nummiform; — all tech. or learned, 

cold. a. 1. chill; spec, cool, coolish^ crisp, 
heatlesB (rare), chiUy, coldish, frigid, icy, 
troien, glacial (rare), frosty, rimy, chilling, 
freezing, frore (now poetic only), gelid (lil- 
erary), arctic, polar, bleak, nipping, 
aharp, raw, wintry. 
Atdonyins: see hot, warm, heated, 
i. Of a erealitre or permm: spec, chilly, 
chill, chilled, frozen, frostbitteo. 
t. unfeeling, frigid; spec, unemotional, 
unsympathetic, neartleaa, unreaponsive, 
indifferent, unimpaaaioned, stony; see 

apathetic, BBPBLI,ENT, CHtTEL. 

Antonyms: ace atpectionate, compas- 

oold, n. 1. cbill. coldness; spec, cool, coulth 
(rare or dial.), frost, chilUncss, gelidity 
(rore or lilerary), frigidity, icincBS, coof- 
nesa, golidncss (rare), frore (tiow only po- 
etic), sharpness. 
Antonyms: see HEAT, warmth. 

<H>Uc n. bellyache (now ckiejiy vulgar), 
gripes (pi.) muUigruba (pi.; joeuior), tor- 
mina (tech.). 

ooUapie. n. 1. Spec, cave-in (coUog.), 
breakdown, downfall. 


cHilIai, n. I. neckband, neckpiece; spec 
carcanet, bertha, brecham (Scot.), collar. I 
ctte, fall, ruff, gorget, tucker, Vandyke, 1 
dicky (New Eiig.), torque or tore, fraise, 
piccadill (obs.). 

t. Sec BING. 

coiiArboDe, n. clavicle (tech.), iugulum. I 

(leek, and rare). 
ooUared, a. torquale, i 
collation, n. 1. See coi , 

S. Spec, harmony, diatessaron. 
coUesgiie, n. associate (contexlii ., 

fr^e (French); spec, duumvir, triumvir, 

ooUeot, !>. t. 1. See 

S. gather, aggregate, concentrate, eon- 
center (rare); spec, scramble (esp. vrith 
"up," "together, etc.), constellate (rare), 
congest, dredge, rake (ean. with "together," 
"up," ejc.), muster, bundle, compile, skim, 
scrape (esp. with "up," "together," etc.), 
round (with "up"), collate, re-collect; see 


Antonyms: see bbpahatb, bcatter, dib- 

ooUeot, u. t. 1. See gather. 
1. gather, mass; spec, concentrate, con- 
glomerate, cluster, concenter, congest, 

tion, concentration, compiktit.-., 

tion, collation, philately, combination; 

Antonyma: see scattering, distribu- 


I. nkthering, a^egation, Ofs^egate. as- 
semblage; spccruump, cluster, parcel, a^ 
sortment, lot, budget, mass, conseriea, 
cothivies (litcTary), bejip, pack (aerogit- 
lory), museum, number, con^omerat^ 
conglomeration, conglutination (rare), 
combination (lUerary), codex (Latin), 
code, chapter, crowd, drove, huddle, 
jumble, bimch, concentration, body, cor- 



pus, round-up (U.S.A Australia) ^ sylloge 
(rare), cumulation, harvest, file, list, con- 
fluency, chrestomathy, quest, compila- 
tion, dutter, concresence; see accumula- 


(»olle€tive, a. 1. aggregate, collected; spec. 
concentrative, congregative. 
Antonyms: see individual, separate, 



(»ollector, n. Referring to a collector of 
taxes: tax-gatherer, toll-gatherer (rare or 
obs.), pubUcan (chiefly Scriptural), toller 
(obs. or rare), exacter (archaic), tollman 
(rare); spec, scavenger (hist.), gabeller 
(hist.), exciseman, procurator, proctor. 

collide, V. i. 1. strike (usually with *^ to- 
gether'*), meet (contextual), clash, hurtle, 
mtershock (rare), interfere, knock, shock, 
smash, impinge; spec, cannon, crash. 
S. See conflict. 

collision, n. 1. striking, impact (chiefly 
tech.), impingement, meeting (contextual), 
clash, hurtle, concussion, shock, smash 
(coUoq.); svec. smash-up (coUoq.), crash, 
jostle, dash. 

colloquial, a. conversational; spec, in- 
Antonyms: see literary, pedantic, 


colloquial, n. conversationalism; spec, in- 
formality, familiarism. 

colonial, a. provincial (obs. or hist.). 

colonist, n. settler, planter (hist.), trans- 
migration (rare); spec, emigrant, immi- 
grant, pilgrim. 

colonization, n. settling, settlement, 
plantation (rare). 

colonize, t;. t. 1. settle, found, people, 

5. Referring to the sending of people to 

colonize: transport (chiefly spec!), settle; 
spec, exile, bamsh. 

colonnade, n. portico (chiefly spec.); spec. 
gallery, choultry (Anglo-Indian), peri- 
style, amphiprostyle, prostyle, octastyle, 
enneastyle, aecastyle, dodecastyle, aroeo- 
style, proaulion (archoeoL). 

colony, n. settlement, plantation (rare). 

color, n. 1. hue (poetic or rhetorical), tinc- 
ture (chiefly spec); spec, discoloration, 
lear, dye, undertone, yellow, blue, orange, 
green, violet, purple, indigo, lavender, 
pink, mauve, magenta, cerise, scarlet, 

crimson, taupe, azure, vermilion, olive, 
brown, gray, dun, etc.; see tint. 


color, V. t. 1. encolor (rare), hue (poetic or 
rhetorical), paint (spec, or fig.), dye (diiefly 
spec.), stain (chiefly spec.), tone (chiefly 
spec.); spec, discolor, tinge, tinct, tint, 
bloom, complexion (rare), sip, distemper, 
wash, crayon. 


coloration, n. colorature; spec, pigmenta- 
tion, tonality, chromatism (tech.), 

color-blindness, n. daltonism. 

colored, a. 1. hued (j)oetic or rhetorical), 
painted (orig. spec.), tinted, etc. 
S. Spec, black, red, brown, negro, mulatto. 

coloring, a. tingent (rare); spec, tinctorial, 
dyeing, painting, staining. 

colorless, a. achromatic (tech.), white, 
hueless (rare), tintless (chiefly spec.); spec, 

colt, n. offspring (contextual), horse (conr 
textured), foal, youngster (cant), patro 
(Sp.); spec, filly (female). 

column, n. pillar; spec, atlantes (pZ.), at- 
las (sing.), cippus, telamon, caryatid; see 


comb, n. 1. Svec. card, ripple, ^bauchoir 

(French), heckle, hackle, hatchel, gill 


S. See CREST. 
combative, a. contentious, pugnacious, 

miUtant, belligerent; see quarrelsome. 
Antonyms: see peaceful, pacific 
combination, n. 1. See union, mixture, 


S. In commerce, politics, etc.^ referring to 
the action: union; spec, syndication, pool- 
ing, coalition, fusion, merger. 
S. aggregate, union; spec, (card games) 
tenace, pair, full house, run, flush, etc.; 
see COMPOSITE, series, group. 
4. association (which see), ring, set, union, 
company, party; spec, conjunction, com- 
bine (colloqi., U. S!), syndicate, cartel or 
(German) itartel, camarilla, Camorra, 
cabinet, trust, ring (chiefly U. S.), cabal, 
faction, clique, coalition, consolidation, 
fusion, merger, duumvirate, triumvirate, 
junto, junta (rare), cave (slang). 

combinatory, a, combinational, ooaduna- 
tive (rare). 

combine, v. t. & i, 1. See unite, mix, 


Cross references: sec Note. 
oollMStlTlsm: aocialim, 
colleen: girl. 
oollei^iate: academic 
oolllmate: aliffn. 
ooUooate: place. 
colloid: gdatinaua. 

oolloqay: conversation. 
ooUade: conspire. 
ooUasive: conspiratory, 
colossal: gioarUic 
colossus: giarU. 
coma: stupor ^ deep, 
comatose: stupefied. 

comb, 9. %,: break. 
combat, n.: fight, oofUesf, con- 
combat, 9..* fiightt contend. 
combatant, a.: fighting. 
combatant, n..* fighter. 
comber: breaker. 

tW See Notes of Explanation. 


X. In commerce, polities, etc.: unite; spec. 
syndicate, conBOlidate, merge, pool, fuse. 
combustible, a. Spec, burnable, tindery, 
Antonyms: see iNCOMBDHTiBtji. 

, V. i. 1. approach, hither (rare), al- 
r archaic), advene (lilerary); 
spec, immigrate. 
Anitmjfms: see depart. 


S> fall ; — as a disease, calamity, etc, 
«omIart, n. t. See aid, cheek. 
>. comfortableness, ease, self-ease (rare), 
luxury; spec, peace, eatisfyingnesa (rare), 
reatfulneas, cozinesa, content, enjoyment; 




1. Of things that give .. 

(rare), luxury; spec, solace, rest, satisfac- 
tion, relief, convenience. 
Antonyms: see trouble, annoyance. 
oamlort, ». (. 1. See cheer. 
S. ease, recomfort (archaic); spec, rest, 
satisfy, quiet; see reueve. 
Antonyma: see kaaasb, dibcouport, 

oomfortable, a. 1. cheering, pleasant, 

I. easy, easeful, well, luxurious; spec. 
coKy, satisfactory, satisfying, assuring, 
roomy, snug, convenient, restful. 
Antonyms: see tTNCOMPOiiTABLE, dib- 

, 1. 1. »Mc.cheerer,BOlaoer,Bider, 
helper; spec. Holy Spirit. Cf. aid, cheer. 

oomlo, a. comical; spec, burlesque, far- 
cical; see p~ " 

t. Coming in space: nearing; 

1. Coming 

DomlnEi n. _. 

t. As to time: approach, appropinquatioD 

(fig.; afchaic), ajivent; spec, advance. 

t. As to apace: accession (iu>w rare); see 

t. Referring to the faealty: control, au- 
thori tati veneas. 

oommandn, n. controller (rar«), chief, 
leader, captain {chiefly spec); spec, com- 
mandant, chiliarch, centurion, tagus, 
here toga, hetman, drungar, hipparch, 
killadar, lochage or lochagus, sirdar, pro- 
consul, decurion, enomotarch. commen- 
dodor, sbogun, tajdurch, commodore. 

aoiniiian<Iei>ln>oIilel. n. generalissimo 
(rare or spec), generaliaaima (/em.); spec. 

cammaindlmc, a. bidding (rare), magia- 
l«rial (bookish or kamed), imperative, 
mandative, niandatory, jussive (rare), 
peremptory, preceptive. 

commemoTstlTe. a. memorial, recorda- 
tive (rare), memorative (rare), celebrative 

commeiual, n. iSpec. companion, (conlczf- 
val). messmate, guest, inquiline (tech.; 
rare), trenchmate. "Commensal" is rare. 

oomment, v. i. <& t. remark, observe, com- 
mentate (rare), animadvert {literary; 
chiefly spec.), descant (literary), opine 
(atuleid or humorous); spec, discourse, 
touch, gloaa (rare), interpose, interject. 

oomment, n. remark, observation, reflec- 
tion, note, animadversion (rare or literary; 
chiefly spec), commentary (chieflj/ spec.), 
descant {^lilerary), discourse; spec, scholi- 
asm, whisper, nothing, interjection, gos- 
sip, exegesis, gloss; see annotation, 

oommeccial, a. mercantile, mercurial (lit- 
erary), mercatorial (rare); spec, shoppy, 

oomnieiaial traveler, drummer, barman, 
traveler (contextual), rider (obs.). 

oommlnate, v, I. reduce, fritter (rare), 
fine (rare); spec, grind, grate, bray, tritu- 
rate, pulverize, crush, crumb, crumble, 
harrow, buck (mining), mince, haah. 
Antonyms: see xjnitb. 

oommiadaii, n. 1. warrant, certificate 
(conieituai); spec, brevet. 
9. See aobncy. 

S. authorization (contextTiol): spec, errand, 
mission, message, duty, charge; «ee order. 
4. allowance, pay, fee; spec, dastoori or 
dustoori {East India), rake-off (slan^). 

oombatUon: iu™ 

oonMdyi drama 
oonulr: eMd-t«*fn 
oanu-oatm diiim 



oommliiBt*: IhreaUn. 



fS' See Kotw or Eipluutiou. 


S. In a bad or evil sense: doing (often with 
**of'), perpetration, commitment (rare), 
conmiittal (obs.). 
oommit, V. t, 1. deliver, consign, intrust or 
entrust, trust, confide, commend, recom- 
mend, refer (rare); spec, resign, transfer, 
recommit, leave. 
Antonyms: see withdraw. 


S. consign (as to memory , loriting, etc.), 

4. send, consign, remit (rare), remand; 
spec, condemn, relegate; see condemn, 


Antonyms: see free. 

5. /n a bad or euU sense: do, perpetrate; 
spec, sin (a sin), cut (as in *'to cut up 

oommitment, n. 1. delivery, consign- 
ment, consignation, committal, intrust- 
ment, confiding, commendation; spec. 
resignation, transfer. 
2. See reference, delegation, bind- 
ing, SENDING, imprisonment. 

S. warrant (for imprisonment), mittimus, 
condemnation, relegation. 

4. Referring to the document: warrant, 

5. consignment (as to memory, wrUing, 
etc.), reouction, committal. 

commodity, n. thing (contextual); spec. 
ware, drug (as in "a drug on the market"). 

common, a. 1. general, universal, mutual 
(properly only of ttoo); spec, commutual, 
reciprocal, jomt, collective. 
2. popular, exoteric (learned), vulgar (ob- 
solescent); see public. 
Antonyms: see individual. 
S. usual, ordinary, standard, regular, pre- 
vailing, vulvar (obsolescent); spec, fre- 
quent, familiar; see habitual. 
Antonyms: see unusual, extraordi- 
nary, unfamiliar, especial, extreme. 

4. inferior, ordinary, trivial (rare or ar- 
chaic), vulgar; spec, popular, low, base, 
unrefined, commonplace, illiterate; see 
plebeian, coarse. 

Antonyms: see aristocratic, exclu- 

5. In grammar: epicene (a loose and im- 
proper use). 

commonplace, n. 1. banality, triviality 
(now rare), prosaism, twaddle, prosai- 
cism, prose, cabbage (fig. or slang); spec. 
platitude (rare or spec?), fadaise (French), 
Antonyms: see oddity. 

2. topic; «pee. qaotation; see bating. 

commonplace, a. everyday, common, or- 
dinary, hackneyed, thr^tdbare, stale, 
tame, trite, trivial (now rare), banal, ple- 
beian (literary), Philistine (literary), prose, 
prosy, prosaic; spec, exoteric, platitudi- 
nous, pedestrian, dull, monotonous, sober. 
Antonyms: see odd, unusual^ originai.. 

commonplace, v. i. platitudimze (rare or 
learned), twaddle. 

common- sense, n. imderstanding (con- 
textual), mother wit, sense, horse sense 
(coUoq.), Kumption (coUoq., U. S.), spvey 
or savy (dang). 
Antonyms: see nonsensb. 

commotion, n. 1. See agitatign. 
2. disturbance (contextual), stir, breeze 
(coUoq.), fuss, ferment, wdter, turmoil, 
hurly-burly (now undignified), disorder, 
pother, ado, tempest (fig.); see bustle. 
Antonyms: see calm. 
S. Spec, sea (as in *'there was a sea on"), 
rip, bobble, chop. 

communicable, a. 1. impartible, convey- 
able; spec, teachable, transferable; see 


communicant, n. Eccl.: communicator, 
communionist, communer (esp. U, S.), 
partaker; spec, kneeler. 

communicate, t;. t. 1. impart, convey, 
give, carry, confide j spec, deliver, tele- 
phone, tell, say, write, narrate, express, 
send, telegrapn, cable, signal, wigwag, 
heUograph, sing, break, shout, transmit, 
etc.; see carry. 

2. In reference to disease, emotions, etc.: 
impart, convey, give, transmit. 
S. Ecd.: house! (hist.). 

communicate, v. i. 1. Ecd.: partake, com- 
mune (esp. U. S.), receive. 
2. Referring to persons: converse (runo 
chiefly spec.), intercommunicate, inter- 
commune (rare); spec, intermessa^ (rore), 
correspond, deal, cable, talk, write, etc.; 


S. Referring to places joined by 'passage- 
ways, etc.: connect, intercommunicate. 
communication, n. 1. impartation, im- 
partment (rare), conveyance, giving; spec, 
transmittal, transmission, sending, tell- 
ing^ saying, writing, narration. 
2. intelligence (rare); spec, message, tele- 
gram, cable (colloq.), wire (colloq.), cable- 
gram, confidence, secret, news, informa- 
tion; see LETTER, MESSAGE. 

fS^ Cross references: see Note. 

oommittal: commitment, refer- 
ence, delegation, binding, com- 

oommlttee: trustee, body. 

oommiz: mix. 

oommodlous: roomy, convenient. 
oommodlty: convenience, thing, 

oommonalty: people. 

oommonwealth: community, 

commiinitlUm; socialism. 
oommiine, n.; people. 
oommune, v. %.: converse. 

IS' See Notes of EipUuiation. 



i. Referring to the relation of jilacee joined 
by jxMiogeviaj/s, etc.: connection, inter- 
coRuniini ca tiou. 

I. Referring to diseatea, ideas, etc.: an- 
partation, giving, conveyiuice, tranamia- 
aion ; spec, infection, contagion. 

cotmnunloatlTe, a. communicutory, com- 
municable, tranamittive (rare); spec. 
Antonyms; see reticent. 

CO min union, n. I. See coUMUNm, 87M- 


>. Eed.: liturgy, oelebration, con«lebra- 
tioo, Eucharist, Sacrament, Lord'a Sup- 
per, Eulogia (hist.), Masa. 

Dommanity, n. 1. communion, solidarity 
{literary); spec, sharing, partnerahip, 

1. group, body, society, conmion wealth; 
spec. biKly pohtic {tech.), state, ucighbur- 
hood, preceptory, phaiaJiatery. 

oompBAt, a. 1. See coufosed, concise. 
a. dense, consistent, solid, close, crass 
{obsolescent), maaaive {diiefiy spec, and 
tech.), gross {literaryand fig); spec, heavy, 
rf, woofy (rare), packed, snug, tight, 


Antonyms: see fori 
S. Referring to things or their arrange- 
Tnent, as rooms, a house, etc.: close, tight, 
snug, neat; spec, packed. 

oompuctiieii, n. I. density, body, con- 
Bief«nce, consistency, denseness {rate), 
solidity, closeness, conaolidatioa, thick- 
ness, compactedneaa, heavineaa, couja- 
cency {Tare), enugness, etc. 
t. neatness. 

oompaiilon, n. associate {contextual) , 
abadow {Jig. of spec.), company; xpee. 
match, compeer {rare), commensal, es- 
cort, chaperon, accomplice, symbiont, 
attendant, mate; see bpddse, comrade. 

oompanlonnble, a. livable, boon (rare or 
archaic); spec, clubable; see sociabi^, 


oompsnloiuhip, n. association, fellow- 
ship, intercourse, company, mateship 
(rare), society; Bpec. symbiosis. 

oompanlonwaiy, n. staira, pasaageway; — 
both conieitiial. 

company, n. 1. See 


a. assembly, association, party {coUoq. or 
spec.), crowd {coUaq., U. S. and Bnlish 
colmiu) , boodle {contemptvous), aack {aA- 
U>g.), lot {contemptuous), consort {nba. or 
archaic), fellowship {archaic or rare, exc. 

epcc), number (conieifuoi), rout (i 
diiefiy poetic); spec, bevy, flock, covey, 
kennel, gang, set, mob, herd, brood, ci 
horde, troop, troupe, platoon, aquad, ., 
hort, gaggle {deriiive), circle, suiU, con- 
course, vexitlum, turma, t^m, Iianse, 
watch, table, caravan, faction, taxis, vex- 
illation (rare), mess, cavalcade, ctaqt 
command, posae. 

oomparatlve, a. relative (contextual), col- 
lative {tech.); spec, contrastive. 

oompar*, v, t. 1. collate, parallel, balance, 
poralieliKe (rare), counterpoise, paragon 
{archaic or poetic), measure, confront, 
confer {obs., exe. as imperalitie, and usu- 
ally in oMr, "cf."); spec, equal (i ' 
equate (rare); see contrast, uken. 
2. In grammar: inBect. 

compare,!'. t.matob; spec. vie. 

Gomparlaon, n. 1. See likening. 
9. collation, confrontation, parallelism, 
dissimile (rare), simile, contraat, equating, 
balance, compare {wUh "past" or "m- 

t. parable (orcAaic), simihtude, porabole 
(ran.'), balance, simile, paroUcliiation 
(rare); spec, diaaimile. 

oompartment, n. division, chamber, par- 
tition; spec, pane, pigeonhole, cell, coupfi 
{French), locker, coffer, bay, severy, en> 
bayment (rare), well; see panel. 

oompass, n. 1. See sorNDAHY, ciSCOM- 
ferencb, area, bound, circuit. 
S. sweep, scope; see reach. 
t. extent, range; itimuaic: range, soope, 
sweep, gamut, register {of the voice), 

1. Naut,: needle {fi^.), pyxis {rare), box 
{fig.; collog,); spec, dial. 

compasBlon, n. I. sympathy, kindness, 
bowela (pi.; obsolescent or liierary), com- 
miseration, pity, rue (arehaic), ruth {liter- 
ary or archaic), heart, tenderness, pite- 
ousness (archaic), pitifulneaa, mercy. 

Antonyms: see criieltt, Ualevolence, 

I. 5ees-_ 

compasHionatv, a. sympathetic, kind. 
tender, pitiful, commiserative, ruthful 
{archaic), piteous (orcAatc), compassive 

Antonyms: see CNFEELiNa, cncompas- 


oompaaalonate, v. I. pity, commiserate, 
bcpity {intensiv!). 
Antonyms: see congratulate. 

XS" Sob Notss nl EipUaatlon. 

I, t, 1. force, oblige, ncceaaitate, 

t ooeice, make {wilk the infin.initluml "to"). 
coact irare), coarct (rare), drive, cnfc 
(oTChaie or literary). conatraJn, impd, 
move, ear (Seof.), aistresa (rare), com- 
pulse (eisoUtcerU): spec, conjure, concuea 
lelaefiy Scot.), druia, distrain, hunger 
{rare), reduce. 
Anlonymt: see coax, cajole, ask. 


DDinpetlable, a. enforceable, coercible, 
Artloni/ms: see UNTiBLDiNa. 

eompelled, a. forcai, obUged, constrained, 
beholden {archaic), vain (mwi literary). 

oompesiate, v. l. 1. offset, count^irbal- 
ance, balance, redress {rare), counter- 
poise, countervail; spec, recoup, redeem. 
1. pay {amte2:lual), requite, repay, rec- 
ompense, guerdon (poetic or rhetorical), 
reward, remunerate; spec, restitute (rare), 
indemnity, recoup; see RBTRiflirrB. 

oompeiuktloD, n. I. offset, setr-oS, bal- 
ance, counterbalance, countervaiUng, 
oaunterpoise; spec, recoupment, redemp- 
ArUonyms: see loss. 

t. pay (contextual), payment {contexturl), 
recompenae, repayment, requital; spee. 
amends, indemnity, indemnincation, sat- 
isfaction, reward, reparation, justice, 
solatium, honoranum, recoupment, res- 
titution; see RETBiBunoN. 

oompenaatoTy, a. Jtaying (crmtexlual) , 
compensative, reparative, amendatory, 
indemnifies tory, etc. 

cwinpete, f. i. contend, strive; spec. race. 

oompetttlon, n. contest, contention, ri- 
vaJahip, riv^ry, rivahsm (rare), rivality 
(rare), concurrence (note iised as French); 
spee, trial, handicap; see race, ebiuiiA- 

Antonyms: see coBperation. 
competitor, n. contestant, rival, antag- 
onist, concurrent (now chiefly used aa 
French); spec, field (compeOloTs collec- 
tuiely: jig. or spec); spee. entrant; see 

oompUatliin, n. composition (contextual), 

recueil {French); spec, customary or cus- 

tumal, anthology. 
oomplle, V. t. compose, quilt (rare; Jiff.). 
oomplaln, v. i. murmur, grunt, grumble, 

gruntlo {rare), grutch (archaic), lament, 

repine {chiefly spec), plain (archaic); 

tpec. moan, groan^ growl, grouse (collog.), 

scold, mutter, whine. 
Antonyms: see rejoice. 

oomplalnlng, n. faultfinding, complain- 

tive (rare), murmuring; spec, grumbling, 

growling, grousing (toUog.). 
oamplalnlnB, a. 1. See AILINO. 

S. grumbly (coBoq.), querimonious {liter- 

ary); spec, querulous, peevish. 
oomplalnt, n. 1. See aiuuent. 

9. murmuring, grumbling, < 

lament, lamentation, plaint {littrary), 

?;uerimony (rare), plain (archaic), repimng 
chiefly spec); s-pec. growl, grunt, whine. 
S. accusation, charge, plaint (tiUrary or 
la-w); spec, information, grievance. 
oomplslssnt, a. complacent (<A»(Ae»c), 
agreeable (conlexlaal) , pliant, soft, 
smooth, yielding, supple, facile {lileraTy), 
subservient, buxom (archaic), easy^ weak, 
doughfaced {coUoq.), courtly, yielding; 
spec, gracious, condescending, exorable, 
submissive; see obuginq, obedient. 
Autonyms; see perverse, obstinate, 


oainpIenient,n. 1. See couPLETiON, CROWN. 
S. total, tale; spec. ca<lre (French; mii.). 

complete, a. 1. full, entire, perfect, inte- 
grate (rore), integral (rore), round 
(chiefly spec); spec, intact, self-contained, 
dead, orbed (rare), orbicular; see whole, 


Antonyms: see incomplete, 


oompiete, v, t. I. consummate, totalize, 
complement (rare), round (used chiefly 
with "out"), integrate: spec, mature, 
crown, cap, perfect, perfectionate (rare). 
ATUonyjiis: see begin. 

spee. mature, npe. 

eompletelr, adv. 1. fully, entirely, rip 
(archaic or dial.), quite; spec integral 
perfectly, consummately, roundly, cap 
pie (French), out, altogether. 



eompletlon, n. 1. consummation, perfec- 
tion, complement (rore), integration; 
spec, maturement (rare). 
Antonyms: see beginninq. 
». Referring to the stale: consummation, 
eJc. (aa in sense I, above), full, integrity; 
spec, infinity, maturity. 
1. Referring to the eompleiing thing: com- 
plement, completory (rare); spec, cope- 
stone, coronation (rare or literary), crown, 
finish, correlate. 

t^ Cnai n/trtnoi: •« Note. 
oompw,n.: tqml. 

1 ooraiMt*: ro-r 


u. l^aUfi. 

e NotM of EiplanatlDi] 



a. completory (rare), perfec- 
nmative, complemeDtury. 

oomplBx, a. 1. See composite. 
S. complicated, oompUcate, intricate, 
perpleted, involute (rare), involved; spec, 
entangled, knotty, mazy, ineirtricabie. de- 
oomplex, dtedal, DiedaliaD, Gordian, 
Anlimyms: see 

oomplax. n. 1. See coupostTG. 
S. complexUH (rare), complication, corn- 
pages (rare), complexity, complexus; spec, 
network, web, tangle, snarl, in tangle- 
ment, node, maee, lAyrinth. 

oomplexloii, n. 1. Of the skin: hue (now 
almoBt equiu. to "color"), color, blee 


oomplexloiied, a. complected {diaX. or col- 
log., U. S.), hued. 

Dompleztty, n. 1. complexnesB (rare), per- 
plexity, complicatedness, complication, 
complicaoy, complicity (rare), involution, 

9. See 

oompllknt, a. conformable, compilable 
(noto rare), gpee. resigned; see complai- 


ATilonyma: )iee disobedient. 
oompUcAte, v. t. perplex, intrical* (rore), 
involve, complex, compound; apec. em- 
barrass, entangle, Jnlertangle {rare), inter- 
lace, decompound. 
Antonyms: see siuplift. 
eompllcltr. n. association, privity, guilt. 

AnUm^fmB: see innocence. 
oompUment, n. I. praise (amiexluat), 
honor (amtextutd); apee. encomium, eu- 
logy, tribute, panegyric, flattery, com- 
mendation, ovation. 

a. In pi.: see rebpbct, 

oompllment, v. t. I. praise (contextual), 
honor (contextti^); spec, commend, con- 
gratulate, eulogize, flatter, favor. 

Antonjprit: see nisPARAaE, censure, 
reprove, condemn. 
a. See present, bestow. 

comply, V. I. conform {used unih "to"), 
yield; see obey. 

oomponent, a. constituent, constitutive, 
compositional (rare), ingredient, integral 
(chiefly spec,), integrant (chiefly spec); 
spec, partial, elemental. 

oompoaent, n. port, constituent, ingre- 
dient, principle, element, material; spec. 

Qompose, V, t. 1. make (ctm/extuo/), consti- 
tute, form, compound, compact, build 
{chiefly spec); spec, synthesiie, construct, 
weave, fabricate, mix. 
Antonyna: see analyze, DisiNTEaRATE. 
i. produce, make, do, indite (teamed), 
frame, build, gignale (rare ajtd jocutar), 
prroare; spec, write, draw, redact, twist, 
address, compile, recompose, collate, con- 
flate (rare), aonneiiKC (rare), dash (used 
wilh "og"), scribble, hexiunetrize, score, 
precompose, fable; see coupile, exteu- 


 In printing: set. 

■. calm (contexlwU), collect, recover, rec- 
ollect (pron. rek-o-lekt'), recall. 

oompaie, it. i. Spec write, sonnetiie, son- 
net, sonneteer, pmnphletize, elegize, epi- 
taph, epigrammatist, epilogizo or epilo- 
guize (rare), prose, poetiie. 

oomposed, a. 1. constituted, formed, com- 
pact or compacted (arcAatc), compagi- 
nated (rare). 

a. calm (amtextual), collected, self-pos- 
seased, cool; see pbacbfui,. 
Antonyms: see excited, UTJBAflT, 

oompoier, n. 1. maker, doer, poet {rare or 
archaic), constructor, constructer (rare), 
frumer, former, builder. 
9. author {which lee); spec, melodist, 
raelodramatist, symphomst, hymniat, 
hymnodiat, harmonist. 
t. In music: author. 

compoitte, a. compound, complex (nr- 
chaic), concrete (liierary or spec.), decom- 
posite (lech.), complicate (archaic); spec. 
decompoimd, colonial, poly zoic, polyge- 
nous, conflate {lilerary criticism). 
AnUmT/ms: see simple. 

oompoilte, n. compound, composition. 

tion (rare or spec.), combination, compost 
(literary); spec, breccia, conglomerate, 
compoaitum, motley, conserve. 
compOHltion, n. 1. preparation (context- 
ual), constitution, make-up, making, 
formation, confection (rare), compaction 
(rare), synthesis (kamed), framing, com- 
pounding, building; spec, dispensation; 


Atihnyma: see a 
I. Referring to the ditliruAive character: 
constitution, make, make-up. 

»- Cron TcfcrtK 

I mmpllintlcni; etrmvUixt^. 

« HotM ol ExplBnatloB. 


4. production, authorship, writing, indit- 
ing or inditement (learned); spec, in- 
vention, imagination, conflation; see 


5. In music: spec, instrumentation, hym- 
nology, hymnody, songcraft. 

6. Referring to literary productions: pro- 
duction, preparation, piece, opus; spec. 
work, opuscule, screed, brochure, paper, 
discourse, disouisition^ effusion, disserta- 
tion, tract, oisputation, essay, thesis, 
theme, treatise, tractate, study, fiction, 
poem, novel, sequence, prose, exercise, 
elucubration (rare)^ lucubration (often hvr 
morous)j conflation (archaic), pastoral, 
scribble, thing (contemptuous), morceau 
(French) f Balaam, extravaganza, niminy- 
piminy, dithyramb, descant, diatribe. 

7. Referring to musical productions: pro- 
duction, opus; spec, compilation, drama, 
oratorio, concertino, concerto, aria, fugue, 
study, sonata, sonatina, nocturne, inter- 
mezzo, madrigal, duet, quartet, sextet, 
morceau (French) ^ melologue (rare), med- 
ley, melopoeia. 

8. In art: spec, relief, relievo, alto-re- 
lievo, basso-relievo, statue, painting, 
etching, etc. 

9. typesetting, typography. 
compositive, a. constitutive, synthetical; 

spec, retextive (logic; rare). 
Antonyms: see analytical. 

compositor, n. composer, typesetter; spec. 
typothetffi (pi.), 

composure, n. caJm (contextual), collec- 
tion, recollection, self-possession; see 


compotation, n. drinking (contextual), 
symposium; spec, carouse. 

comprehensive, a, 1. See inclusive, un- 

S. lar^e, wide, extensive, broad, general, 
sweeping, expansive; spec, all-embracing. 
Antonyms: see narrow. 

compromise, n. 1. arrangement (context- 
ual)y composition. 
S. See arrangement, concession. 

compromise, v. t. 1. arrange (contextual) ^ 


S. prejudice, commit. 
comptroller, n. controller; spec, steward, 

compulsion, n. forcing, obligation, neces- 

sitation, coercion, coaction (rare), coarc- 
tation (rare), constraint, impulsion (rare), 
force (chiefly spec.), r^uction, enJforce- 
ment; spec, necessity, concession (chiefly 
Scot.), distraint. 

Antonyms: see coaxing, cajolert. 
compulsory, a. 1. comp>ellent (rare), ob- 
ligatory, necessitative, coercive, impera- 
tive, coercionary (rare), coactive (rare), 
constraining^ impelling, moving, imperi- 
ous; spec, violent. 

8. forced, enforced, obligatory. 
Antonyms: see optional. 

computable, a. calculable, coimtable, 
numerable, reckonable, etc. 

computation, n. 1. calculation, reckon- 
ing, accoimt (now only in a few phrases, as 
^^money of account"), computus (hist.); 
spec, estimation, counting, recoimt, tell- 
ing (archaic), numbering, numeration, 
enumeration, denumeration (rare), divi- 
sion, multiplication, subtraction, calcu- 
lus, indigitation (rare), supputation 
(rare), ciphering, rhabdology, day tale or 
daytal or datal (local Eng.), expansion, 
capitation, logistics; see addition. 
S. Referring to the result arrived at: result, 
account, calculation, reckoning; spec. 
score, sum, quotient, multiple, estimate. 

computative, a. calculative; spec, enu- 
merative, numerative. 

compute, V, t. & i. calculate, reckon: spec, 
count, recount, figure, tell (archaic), nu- 
merate, enumerate, cast, number, con- 
numerate (rare), divide, multiply, sub- 
tract, cipher (coUoq., U. S,), estimate, 
tally; see add. 

comrade, n. associate, companion, fellow, 
f rater (Latin); spec, contubemal, mess- 
mate, roommate, crony (intimate), coach- 
fellow, playmate, playfellow, chum (coir 
log.); see intimate. 

concede, v. 1. 1. See acknowledge, grant, 


S. allow, grant, yield. 
conceit, n. 1. conception. 

9. judgment, opinion. 

S. conceitedness, self-esteem, self-com- 
placency, self-conceit, self-exaltation, in- 
flation, self-pleasing (rare\ self-glorifi- 
cation, self-sufficiencv, sufficiency, self- 
satisfaction, self - acuniration, megalo- 
mania, egotism, vanity, egoism (rare), 
overweening, overweemngness, outrecui- 

Cross references: see Note. 

compost: fertilizer. 

compote: preserve. 

eompound, n.: indoaure. 

oompound, a.: compoaite. 

compound, n.; compoaite, de- 

compound, v. t.: compoae, 
complicate, arrange, pay. 

comprehend: under atand, in- 
dude, imply. [able. 

comprehensible: underatand- 

comprehenslon; underatand- 
ing, intelligence, induaion. 

compress, v. t.: aqueeze, con- 
dense, crowd, cona<Hidate, con- 
atrid, abridge. 

comprise: indude. 

compunction: regret. 
compunctious: regretful. 
concatenmte: conned. 
concatenation: connection^ 

concave: hollow, hole. 
conceal: hide. 
concealed: hidden, aecret. 
concealnient: hiding, aeerecy. 

tS' See Notes of Eiq^lanation. 



4. See IMAaiNATlON. 

E. notion, caprice, quip, quirk, fancy, de- 
vice (archaic), crochet, maggot, crank, 
trick; see caprice. 

Donoalted, a. aelf-complacent, Belf-eatis- 
fied, self-pleaaed, self-conceited, egotia- 
ticaJ (rare), egotistic, vain, overweening, 
priggish, self-opinionated, Belf-opiuioned, 
self^ufficient, inflated, blown (liicrary), 
conceity (eoliiiq., chiefly Sa>l,). 
ATUonyms: see bashfoi., mooebT. 

oonoelve, v. t. I. forn) (in the VMrmb). 
t. form (iKifteniind), frame, ideate (rore), 
brain (rare). 
t. See 

1, UNBER- 

oono«ptu«a, a. concept! ve, concipient 
oonoert, n. 1. See codPERATiON, coNSPnt- 


S. entertainment, consort (o&«. or hisl.); 
tpec. aubade {Freneli.), madrigal, serenade, 
oonceialoii, n. 1. Sea accession, 


S. allowance, ^nting, grant, yielding; 
epec. compromise. 
oouolUkte, V. f. t,vin.lJtB)OT,aj>eTsim,elc.), 
 I person; ealloq.); epec. curry 

oonoiacaflBi, a. brevity, ehortnesa (eon- 
Uxlual), concision (rare), syntomy (rare), 
Hhortoess (eonUilual), terseness, conuna- 
tism (kamed), succinctnesa, compactness; 
epec. laconjsm, eU. 

oouciuds, V. l. t. See end, infer, decide. 
S. effect, make, drive, close; epec. com- 
.Autonyms.- see abousr, prevent. 

conclmlon, n. 1. See end, event, infeb- 

conG«iitrBt«, V. t. 1. concenter (rare), 
strengthen; spec, reconcentrate; see dis- 
till, INTEN80T,CONDENaB,i7NiTE, poena. 
AvionyTTis: see bepasate, scatter, dis- 
perse, DIPFUBE. 

1. ReJeTTing to Ihe mind, attention, 
etc.: focus (jig.), consolidate (j5p.), 
lect; spec, rally, localize; ^ee appl' 

concentrated, a. Spec, condensed, 
(.of a person), fixed, intensified, etc. 
Antonyms.- see diptuse. 

conoeptlan,T(. 1. conceiving; spec. 
fetation or superfoetation, 
a. Spec, embryo, fetus or fcetus. 

a, reconcile (as Cheoriea, differences). 
•. See PACIFY, 
oonoise, a. brief (contexlvai), terse, ci 
denecd, short (conUxUud), pithy, com- 
pact, sententious, compressed, succinct, 
Bummar}'; spec, laconic, holophrastic, 
curt, epigrammatic, compendious. 

Ariionyms: see PROUX, WORDY, VBK- 

3. effecting, making, closing, effectuation. 

Goncoot, V, t. devise (contextual), prepare, 
invent, brew, plan; jee plan. 

oonoootlon, tl. I. devising, preparation 
(conlexiiia[), planning, invention, brewing. 
t. device, preparation, invention; spec. 
lie, mixture, dose, scheme, plot. 

oonoomitant, a, accompanying, concur- 
rent; ajiec. simultaneous, coincident, coex- 
istent, accessory; see contemporaneods. 

oonooiuie, n. I. As to persons or animaie: 
confluence, conflux, ooneurrence, con- 
gress (rare); gee gathbring. 


Doncrete, a. 1. See composite, ACTUAL, 

1. In reference to numbers; material (theol. 
and phihs.), denominate (rare). 
ooncrete, n. I. composite, compound, cod- 

i. Spec, conglomerate, beton, tabby, 
ferroconcrete, asphalt. 
oonoietlon, n. 1. See BOUDinCATION, 

t, Tlie thine formed: collection (context- 
ual), concrement (rare), concrescence 
(rare), concrete (obsolesc); spec, calculus, 
knot, congelation, accretion, crystallisa- 
tion, geode, dacryolite, dacryolitfi. 
oonoubinBEe. n. cohabitation; spec, 
helajrism, belairism. 


tW See NstM ot Eipluutlon. 

I mBd*iiin« c. t. I. disapprove (ccntextual), 
diHoommend (rare), reprubatc, disallow 
{archaic), disfavor, reprehend, diacouute- 
nance, deDounce, deprecate; iipfc. anath- 
emaliie, damn {archaic; very strong, or 
vidgar), hoot, hiaa; 

9. sentence, doom, judge {aba.), adjudge; 

spec, damn (archaic), lag (can!). 

S. coDfiign, commit {contextual), devote, 

4. See 

condemnKble, a, 1. disapprovable, dis- 
allowable, damnable {archaic, very ulrrnig, 
orvuigor); wi: biamable, REFBEHsiNsmij:. 
S. coavictable, adjudgeable, 
■. consignable, committable, devotable. 

ooDdenuiaitloa, n. I. disapprobation, dis- 
commendation (rare), reprehension, dis- 
approval, frown, reprobation, deprecia- 
tion, damnation (very tlrong or rndgar); 

AfiUmym^: see 


%. conviction, convictment {rare), sen- 
tence, doom, judgment (rare). 
1. consignment, commitment (context- 
vol), committal, doom (rare). 
oondemnatory, a. I. disapprobatory, 
damnatory, reprobative, reprehensive, 
deprecatory; see censorious. 
ArOonyma: see approving, lathiatory, 


S. consignatory, devotive, doomful. 
eond«niattaii, n. 1. thickening, concen- 
tration, coercion (tech., and chiefly spec); 
ipec. liquefaction (of a gas), distillation, 
inspissation, solidification, 
a. abridgment, abbreviation, compres- 
sion, concentration. 

eondsDse. v. t. A i. I. thicken, concentrate, 
density {rare), coarct (rare); epec. in- 
spissate, liquefy; see distill, ihjlidipt. 
ArUonj/ms: see dilute, evaporate, 

Antonyms: «es develop, E 

«ODd«>c«Dd, V. i. stoop, deign, descend, 

oondesoendfnc, a. gracious (of very ex- 
ailed persons). 
Antonyms: see arhoGaiW. 

condesoenBlon, n, 1. Refetrinu to an 
action or loan act: stoop. 
S. coudcBcendence, gradousness, grace; 
spec, complaisance. 

oondition, n. 1. provision, proviso, pre- 
requisite^ postulate, precondition; spec. 
assumption, contingency, terms (pL), de- 
feasance, stipulation. 
>. .See qoALiFiCATio.-J, state, bamk. 

ae of "to carry on as an enter- 
operate, carry {often with 
%," etc.); spec, purfi, drive. 

<M>ndltlaiud, a. subject, conditioned, pro- 
visional, provisory, pro visionary , pre- 
requisite; spec, contingent, dependent. 
Antonyms: see absolute, coupubtb. 

S. In these 

ooudnotor, 71. 1. See LEADER, OttlDE, E3- 

a. guard (on a train; Eng.); spec, tripper. 
I. transmitter, conveyor; spec, cable, 
lead, bus, buster. 

con«-shaped, a. conical, conic, coniform 

oonfeotlon, v. I. prepare, form, mis. 

oontedcTBor, n. 1. association, league, al- 
liance, compact {the agreemertl omy), 
union, coalition, confederation, federa- 
tion; spec. Bund {German), pentapolia, 
Dreibund (German), ZoUverem (German), 
9, conspiracy. 

confederate, a. leagued, allied, confeder- 
ated, federated, federal. 

9. talk, parley, palaver, powwow {fig. c 
oonlercDoe, n. 1. > 

1. talk, parley, palaver, powwow {fy. or 
oonteie, i>, t. 1. See acknowledge. 
). disclose (conlextiujl), tell, reveal, un- 
bosom, disbosom (rare); spec, unburden. 


Anlonymt: tee hide. sent. 

t. Hhrive, ahrift (rare). 
ocoiflsslon, n. 1. See ACKNOWLEi>auKNT. 

S. ahrift [chiefiy spec.). 

I. Re/erring lo a body oj Mieaere in one 

faith: communion. 
oonleBBlooal. n. stall. 
confidant, n. confidante (Jem.), confidento 

(FTench-.Jem.), confident {French; mow;.), 

intimate, privado (ob«,)- 
oouaHaDoe, n. I. See assurance. 

t, aaam'ance, certitude, selt-confldence, 

positivenesE, cleameBB, cockaurenees, 

surety (rare); spec, insistency, certainty. 

S. communication, privacy, secret. 
oooBdent, a. 1. See assured, sold. 

t. aasuced, sure, certain, positive, clear, 

cocksure, secure {lUerary); spec, insistent. 
Aittonymt: see anxious, timid. 
confldentlBl, a. 1. private, secret, fiducial, 

fiduciary, trust. 


oonflnable, a. restrainable, impriaonable. 

oonflae, v. L I. imprison, prison [poetic 
or rket.), mew {lileraryj, incarcer- 
ate iUarntdi, carcerate (rare), restrain, 
immure; imc. mure (orig. tpec), pew 
(jiff, or spec.), circumscribe (rare), kennel 
[Jig. or apec), embound (rare), restrict, 
pen {fig, or spec.), reatringe (rare), close, 
inclose {obi., exe. tpec.), jail, pinch, 
shop {cant), bail, cauldron (rare), box, 
bouse, closet, chamber (orcfiaic), cabin 
(rare), crib (rare), pound, impound, cub 
(ehiefty dial.), pin, embar (rare), impark 
(rare), shackle, dam, dungeon, jug {along), 
lock {aged chiefly with "up," "tn/o," etc.), 
enduDgeon (rare), bastille or bastile, 
cloister, coop, pentold, gate (£nj- vniii,), 
yard, impale (rare), enchain, incave, en- 
cage, embank, intern, constrain, enjail 
(rora), labyrinth, cage; see detain. 

X. fasten {contexlital), hold, secure, de- 
tsin. restrain; svec. tie, jess, braid, fcroil, 
bind, button, chain, constrict, enchain, 
rope, etc.; see bind. 
AntonyTne: tee loose. 
I. bowid, limit, restrict, circumscribe, 
aatriot (rare), reatringe (rare), pinch 
(rore), narrow, cram; nee 
Many of the words given under i 
be u»ed figuratively in this tense. 
Aonflned, a, 1. incarcerate (archaic), re- 
strained, pent, imprisoned, mewed, etc.; 

Antonyms: see UNUMITED, 

1. bedrid, bedridden. 

oonflnement, n. 1. imprisonmcut, incar- , 
eeration {(earned), carceratlon (rar«), im- 
murement (orig. spec.), prisonment (rare), 
restraint, constraint, durance (chiefly liter- 
ary and in the phrase "in durance vUe"), 
ward {obsolesceni); spec, duress, claustra- 
Uon, captivity, chains, incloeure, limbo, 
prison, detainment (rare), custody. 
AnUynyms: see frbedou. 
i, fastening (jMntextual), holding (am' 
texturU), securing (eonteilual), detention; 
spec, chains, restraint. 
•■ limitatioD, limiting, restriction, dr- 
curnscription, narrowuess {as of oppor- 
tunity), limit, crampedness, crampneas 
(rare); see EEstriction. 
<. childbed. 

confinlnEi a. limitative, limitina;, reatrie- 
tive, circumaoriptive, binding, limitary. 

conflrin, v. I. 1. establish, fi.t, strengthen; 
«pfc. bishop; see strengthen. 
Ajitonyms: sec AfiOUSH, WEAKEN, 
a. ratify, sanction, validate, roborate 
(rare), corroborate (now rare), avouch, 
vouch (rare or tech.), approbate or ap- 
prove (chiefly Scots law); spec, homolo- 
gate (chiefly Scots taw), countersign, in- 
dorse, seal, reconfirm (rare). 
Anlons/me: see invalidate, dispute. 
1. establish, verify, corroborate, accredit, 
support, substantiate, sustain, clinch 


'Dflrmable, a. verifiable; see provable, 

oonacmatloa, n. seal, support, sanction, 

oonflrinatoTr, a. 1. ratificatory, sanction- 
ative. corroborant (rare), roborativa 
(rare), corroborative (obsolescent); spec, 
signatorv, obaignatory (rare). 
B. corroboratory, corroborative, corrobo- 
rant, supportive. 

oonflsoate, v. I. take (amtextuiU), seize, 
appropriate, forfeit (rare or hist.); spec. 
condemn, sequestrate, sequester. 

oooflacrKiit, a. See burninq. 

oonBiot, n. 1. See CONTENTION, fight. 
S. oonfliction (rare), encounter, rea* 
counter (rare), collision, clash; see w- 

Antonjfnis: see I 
oonSlot, c. i. I. See fight. 
1. clash, encounter, rencounter (rare), 
collide; spec, interfere; see disagree. 
AiiVmynxs: sec acbbb, contorm. 


oonflictory, a. conflicting, conflictive 
{rare)f colUsive (rare), clashing^ spec. 
discordant, interfering, disagreeing. 
Antonyms: see agreeing. 
oonfluenoe, n. 1. Meaning "a flomng to- 
gether": junction, conflux, concourse, 
Antonyms: see divergence. 


confluent, a, joining, meeting, commin- 
gling, concurrent. 
Antonyms: see divergent. 

oonform, v, t. adjust, accommodate, 
shape, assimilate, liken (rare); spec. 
serve; see adapt, harmonize. 

conform, v. i. 1. agree {contextual; used 
with *'with"), harmonize, shape; spec, as- 
similate (iLsed with *'to"). 
Antonyms: see conflict. 
S. See COMPLY, correspond. 

conformable, a. Spec, agreeable, adapt- 
able, consistent, correspondent, compliant. 

confront, v. t. See face, oppose, compare. 
*. contrapose (rare), coimterpose {rare). 

confuse, v. t. 1. See abash. 

3. perplex {contextual) ^ confoimd, dis- 
tract, disconcert, flurry, addle, flutter, 
fluster, flustrate, bewilder, flabbergast 
{coUoq.), wilder {rare), muddle, bemud- 
dle {intensive) f fuddle, befuddle {inten- 
sive), mist {fig.), bemist {intensif^e), mess 
{coUoq.), clutter {dial.), muss {coUoq^., 
U. S.). fuss {coUoq., U. S.), dizzy, mix 
{coUoq!), bumbase (rare), maze {rare), en- 
tangle, bemaze {rare), bemuse {rare), 
blank {archaic or rare), dazzle, muddify 
{rare), muddy {fi^.), gravel, bedevil {rare), 
befog, fog {rare), demoralize {coUoa. or 
spec?); spec, rattle, dumfoimd, dum- 
founder; see stupefy, disconcert, dis- 

S. disorder {contextiud), mix. jumble, rav- 
el {rare), embroil, embrangle {rare), en- 
tangle, mingle, muddle, commingle; spec. 
blend, confound, mess, derange; see dis- 

Antonyms: see arrange, classify, dis- 
tinguish, elucidate. 
confused, a. 1. abashed; see abash. 
2. flabbergasted {colloq.), bemazed {in- 
tensive), puzzleheaded, faggy, misty, 
flustery {rare), flustered, turbid, mixea 
{colloq.), distracted, distract {archaic), 
muddy C^.), addle {literary), muddle- 
headed; spec, blank, dim, capernoitit 
{Scot.), thunderstruck, thunderstricken; 
see stupefied. 

Antonyms: see calm, methodical, self- 

». mixed, jumbled, jumbly, topsy-turvy, 
higgledy-piggledy {contemptuous), promis- 
cuous, messy {coUoq.), macaronic {liter' 
ary); spec, chaotic, troublous, indiscrim- 
inate, mussy {U. S.). 
Antonyms: see orderly, classified. 

confusedly, adv. helter-skelter, higgledy- 
piggledy, jumbly, hurry-scurry. 

confusing, a. perplexing, distracting, 
flustering, etc. 

confusion, n. 1. See abashment, dis- 
comfiture, STUPEFACTION. 
S. Referring to the state of mind: perplexity 
{contexttial), distraction, disconcerted- 
ness, flurry, blankness, flutter, fluttera- 
tion, muss {U. S.), fluster, flustration, 
bewilderment, wilderment {rare)^ puzzle, 
muddle, fuddle {chiefly spec), disconcer- 
tion {rare), disconcertment {rare), fluster, 
flusterment {rare), dazzle {rare), dazzle- 
ment {rare), puzzlement {rare), mist, 
muddiness (fig.), muddlement {rare); 
spec, dumfounderment, entangleinent, 
dumfoundedness, demoralization; see 


Antonyms: see calm, self-control. 
S. Referring to the physical condition: dis- 
order {contextvxd), ravelment {rare), jum- 
ble, chaos, muss {U.S.), higgleay-pig- 
gledy {contemptiuyus) f jumblement (rar^, 
babel {rare; fig-), coil {archaic), imbroil- 
ment, imbroguo {chiefly spec), hugger- 
mugger {colloq.), moil {archaic), muddle, 
fuddle, clutter {dial, or colloq.); spec, tan- 
gle, tanglement, entanglement, promis- 

Antonyms: see arrangement, method, 


confute, V. t. confound {archaic), convince 
{archaic), convict {archaic), redargue 
{Scot.), overthrow, overturn, overcome, 
refute; spec, d'sprove, silence. 
Antonyms: see confirm, prove. 

conceal, v. t. & i. solidify {contextual), fix, 
set, freeze {chiefly spec); spec, pectize 
{rare), gelatinize, jelly, coagulate, ice 
(rare); see crystallize. 
Antonyms: see soften, liquify. 

concealed, a. solidified, set, frozen {chiefly 
spec); spec pectous. 

congenital, a. connate {chiefly spec), con- 
nascent {rare), innate {chiefly spec), con- 

congratulate, v. t. felicitate, gratulate 
{archaic), macarize {rare), hug {oneself), 

Cross references: see Note. 
oonfluz: confluence, concourse. 
conform, a.: consistent^ corre- 
oonfrtoe: colleague. 

congener: ally. 
oongenerio: allied. 
congenial: agreeable. 
oongeries: collection, accumvlation. 
congest: accumulate, colled, congest. 

conglomerate, n.: mass, ac- 
cumulation, collection. 

conglomerate, v.: collect. 

conglomeration: <iccumula- 
tion, collection. 

tsr See Notes of Explanation. 



plume (muself), pride (oneself), flatter 
\ontatiS); see compument. 
AnUmymt: see compasbionate. 
congratulatory, a. grBtiilatory (rare). 
oongreiate. a. met (conJexfuii), assembled, 
coDEiesate, u. t. assemble, gather, collect; 
spec, throng, flock, ewarm, crowd, herd 
(ylD. o/r'ien),ahoal; see meet, crowd. 
Avionyms: si 
fioDBTecatton, . .. . 

gathering, collectioni _._ 

a. church; spec, parish (£/. S.), propa- 
ganda (fl. C. Ck.). 

' al, oonlo, a. cone-shaped, coniform 

oonlectnral, a. suppositional, suppositi- 
tiotis (learned) , hypothetical (iem-nerf), 
theoretical {chiefly tech.); see buppobbd. 
Antonifm»: see uNgUEETioNABLB. 

ooulnre, v. i. 1. juggle (rare), charm (rare), 
incant (ois. or rare). 
t. See JT70CLB. 

oonuect, v. t. Spec, concatenate, link, in- 
terlink, interconnect, associate, relate, 
hyphen, hyphenate, hyphcnizc; see join, 

Antonyms: see detach, 
conueet, v. i. Sjtee. lock, interlock, inter- 
digitate (rare), jnterosculate; see com- 


conneotloii,R. 1. Spec, attachment, junc- 
tion, union, concatenation, interoscula- 
tion, linking; , 
Antonyms: si 


(iaiiiiiT*iiiOB, n. winking; <^. collusion, co- 
operation, consent. 

oonntTe, v. i. wink; nearly rdated are: 
collude, cooperate, consent. 

oonnlvent, a. Nearly related are: coUusive, 
cooperative; see accessory. 

connoliscur, n. expert, virtuoso (mase.; 
Italian), virtuoaa ijem.; Italian); spec. 
critic, judge, epicure, lapidary. 

conquer, c i. prevail, overcome, over- 
throw, win; spec, triumph. 

conquerable, a. vincible (rare), vanquish- 
able, overcomoble (rare). 

Antnnyms: see dnconquerablb. 
oonquerinE, a. victorious. 
conqueror, n. defeater, conqueresa (fern.), 
victor, victress (fern.), victrin (fern.; 
Latin), winner, subjugator, subduer, dis- 
comfiter, master; spec, humbler, reducer, 

!e AcquismoN, oveb- 

S. victory, win (collog.), winning, i 
tery ; spec, triumph ; see defeat. 
conaofentioui, a. upright, religious, faith- 
ful, strict, scrupulous, exact, particular; 
spec, careful, honorable, incorru pt ible , j ust. 
Anlonyms: see abandoned, decbitfdl, 

conscious, a, t. sensible, coRnizant, per- 
cipient (lech, or learned), awate {jSfl.), sen- 
tient; see AWARE. 

Antonyms: see unconsciocb, 
t. self-coDscious; spec, guilty. 
Antonyms: see innocent. 


ooniolonsneiB, n. sensibility, sense, mind, 
sentience (rare or literary), perception. 

oonsoriba, c t. enlist (contextual), draft, 

oonBortptlon, n. enlistment (conlextwd), 

drafting, impressment. 
conseorate, v. I. 1. To pronounce words of 

consecration over: bless (archaic), seal 

(rare), sacrament (rare); spec, dedicate, 

taboo, sanctify, devote. 
Antonyms: see corse. 

S. To make eonserrate (in fact): hallow, 

sanctify, sacrament (rare; fig,), bless 


Antonyms: see desecrate. 
oonaeoratlon, n. 1. blessing (archaic), 

sacrin^; spec, sanctification, d<>dJcation, 


S. hallowing, sanctification, devotion. 
oonBeorBtive, a. hoUowing, conaecratcry, 

oonsequenoe, n. 1. See BESULT, INFER- 

»- C™ .^^ma: i« Nole, 

DODjnimta. v. .-■ un,K. 

ooimublkl- main M 

OaOEiaM: mctlinn. tnlrrcoum. 

oonjunot: ioin«t._uniUd. 

.W-J-T-l. _ , , 

ooanuiKalaltyi rtloltsx. 


eoocmlt]': wrfnncni. consisf- 

■WDliufc >p 1 ' out inHll 

bring. 'Sect- 

conjii^:_ '*«'*■ '""f'^-j^ 

OMM : «.n0cn . r 

eon oint! jmi>(, united 

 amilant. Tdaltd- 

riorrlil. Tilatid. 

•onnote: iiuan. 


^r Ses notM Ot EiplBOBtllHl. 


I eoaieqaBntial, a. 1. nseeasary, consn- 
quent, sequeotial; see mrESAiiLG. 

Anbmjfma: see accidental, chancb. 
I. In reftrenee to results: indireot, second- 
ary; spec, eventual (rare). 


coni«rT«UTe, a. 1. preservative. CJ. fre- 


■. unpro^esflive (a derogatory term); spec. 
nuHoneiatic (rare), Tory {Eng.), blue (Enj. 

canserratlTe, n. In politxen: mossback 
(slann; ckiejiy U. S.), hunker (.local, U. S.), 
Tory (Eng.). 

coiulder, v. t. I. deliberate, cogitate, pon- 
der, ponderate (rore), brood, contemplate, 
meditate, ruminate, chew (mltog. or Jig.), 
study, epeculate (o6s. or rare), turn, re- 
volve, roll (rare), forethink (rare), per- 
pend (archaic), treat; spec, weigh, muse, 
design (rare), digest, envisage {lileTary), 
precontrive (rare), premeditate (rare), 
preconsider (rare); see RECoNsroeit, en- 

S. regard, heed, mark, notice, mind, scan; 
spec, entertain, review, consult, esteem. 

regard, believe, view, trow {archaic), 
judge, hold, deem, count, account, reckon, 
take, call, esteem, make; spec, rate, es- 
timate, value, repute, gauge, misesteem; 
eee infer, 
i. respect, regard. 
Antonym*; tee insult, ionorb. 

comlder, i>. i. 1. think, reflect, deUberate, 
meditate, brood, mull (coUoq., U. S.), 
study (coUog.), ponder, pore, coptate 
(teamed), muse (chiefly spec), nimmate, 
S. See CARE. 

oonilderable, a. large, sizable (chiefly 
gpec.), substantial, substantive, good, 
round, important, goodish, goodly, gey 
(Seat.), tolerable, pretty, fair, respectable; 

r. material, noteworthy, conuortable, 
nt (chiefly colioq.), handsome, tidy 

Antmyms; see su all. 
ODiuldaiktlon, n. 1. thinking, thought, 
forethought, deliberation, cogitation 
(learned), pondering, ponderation (rare), 
think (dint, or coUoq.), speculation (rare), 
contemplation, meditation, study, pon- 
derment (rare), reflection, rumination; 

spec, premeditation, preconsideration 
{rare), precogitation (rore), predehbera- 
tion (rare), muse, musing, counsel, view, 
introversion, envisagement (literary); see 


AnUmyms: see THOnoHTLESSNESS. 
9. care, regard, heed, mindfulness, re- 
spect (rare); spec, afterthought, review, 
retrospect, retrospection. 

Aiil'inynia: ace carelessness, diskg- 

1. importance, respect, esteem. 
4. account, opinion, judgment, esteem, 
estimation, reckoning, regard, view; spec, 
misestimation, misestimate. 


oonslBii, V, t. 1. See deliver, comuit. 
1. send, remit, remand, resign; spec, con- 
demn, devote; see abandon. 

oonsiBnatloii, n. 1. See delivery, COU- 

S. sending, const^nm 
remand, resignation; spec, condemnation, 
devotion, abandonment. 
conslEner. n. consignor, dehverer; spec. 
vendor, shipper, freighter, bailor, prin- 

oanBiKnmeiit, n. 1. See deltvebt, COU- 


t. gooda {eorUexljuU), shipment. 
oouHist, V, i. I. subsist, lie. 


consistency, n. agreement (contextual), 
congruence, congruency, congnilty, co- 
herency, coherence, conformability. con- 
formity, correspondence, compatibility, 
harmony, accordancy, consonance, con- 
sonancy; spec, self-consistency, conse- 
quence (logic), reconcilability. 

conHlstent, a. 1. See compact, firu. 
S. agreeable (conlejUwil) , accordant, co- 
herent, consentaneous (rare), congruous, 
congruent, conformable, conform (ar- 
chaic), correspondent, compatible, con- 
sonant, harmonious; spec, self -consistent, 
consequent (logic), symmetrical, recon- 
cilable, cosmic (Jig.), conoordial (rare). 
Antonyms: see inconsistent, abbtibd. 

consolidate, c. t. I. compact, firm, com- 
press, settle, knit, sohdify; see CON- 

oonionant, n. articulation; spec letter, 
sound, explonive, explodent, sonant, surd. 

I^O-ui Ttftttnca: ■» Nou. 
•ODMqnMit: retailing, infe 


oirt/ul. obliaiio. 

\ 'il'ouohijJ: 

oouoUtloD: thttr. 
iH>n»li.n..- trocW, 

tS' S« Mot« ol EipUnatlui. 

vhiBper, breath, subvoco), subtonic. con- 
tinuant, stop, dicck, mute, liauid, semi- 
liquid, cerebral, fricative, trill, sibilant, 
glottal, lingua), labial, dental, labioden- 
tal, interdental, nasal, guttural, palatal, 
velar, alveolar. 

oonipiououB, a, notable (cmilexCunl), 
prominent, ^at (amtextual), signal, 
Btriking, noticeable, marked, staring, 
eminent, glaring (esp. of what U bad); 
spec, notorious, gaud^, rampageoua, 
brilliant, celebrated, distinguianed, re- 
AnlonymB: see obscche, unnotice able. 

oonipliaoy, n, confederacy, concert, com- 
bination, plot {contexlTial), plan {eoniexl- 
ttal), codperation (aml&ctwit), complot 
{liUrary), conspiration (rare), covin (ob- 
solescerU; law), aynomosy {tileraUy, a 
sworn conspiTacy: rare), practice (arcAate) , 
machination (.literary; contextual); sptc. 
intrieue (eonlextual), boycott, colluEion, 

Antonyms: see DtBAOREEMENT, contkn- 

oonapixBtor, n. conspiratrcss (Jem,), con- 
federate, comptotter (rare); spec, colluder, 
Cataline (figo. cabalier, coconspirator, 
intrigant {nmsc; French), intrigante 
(fern.; French). 

ooniplratory, a. collusive, covinous (.chief- 
ly legal). 

oonapire, v. t. combine (ayrUextual), con- 
federate (rare), concert, plot (corUexluai), 
complot (literary), machinate (literary; 
eontexlual) , consult (archaic), practice 
(arcAaic), collogue (dial.); spec, cabal, in- 
trigue, collude, plan (conlexlual) , trinket 
(obs. or rare), cooperate (contextual). 
Antonyms: see disaoree, contend. 

ooDBtanay, n. Spec, faith, faithfulness, 
endurance, truth, devotion, honor, per- 
petuity, continuousness, trtiatiness, con- 
tinuity, uniformity, stabihty, peraistence, 

permanence, eternity, etc. Cf. 

Antonyms: see chan 

^^^ tS-Oiui 

._ . .. ... 1. steadfast, fast, firm, un- 
wavering, continued, stanch, unalterable, 
unswerving, abiding, enduring, fixed, set- 
tled, unmoved, tenacious, diligent, assid- 
uous, aeduloiia, unshaken, steady, staid 
(rare), stable, rooky (rare); spec, persever- 
ing, persistent, pertinacious, Sisyphean 
(fy.); see determined. 

Antonyms: geeCHANQBASi^.cAPMCiona. 
S. true, loyal, leal (iiferaryor Scot.), faith- 
ful, feoi (archaic), tried, devoted, trusty, 



t. In a sense implying absence 0/ change or 
variation: invariable, invariant (rare, exe. 
math.), im changing, fixed, uniform, 
steady, stable, invaried (rare), unvaried, 
unwavering, undeviatlng, regular, per- 
Antonyms: see Cuakoeable, vacillat- 

i. In a sense implying continuation in 
time: continual, continued, persistent, 
sustained, enduring; spec, permanent, 
abiding, perpetual, eternal, unremitting, 
everlasting, regular, endless, momentary 
(rare), momently (rare), hourly. 
Ariiatiyms: see TBANSieNT. 
i. In a sense implying unbroken continu- 
ance: continuous, continual, unbroken, 
regular, even, uniform, uninterrupted, 
steady, sustained, unremitting, unre- 
mitted, imintermitted, incessant, ince»- 
eable (rare), ceaseless, unceasing, con- 
ned ed, perennial, pauaeleas, running, 

Antonyms: see intermittent. 
oonBtantly, adv. steadfastly, firmly, un- 
changingly, uniformly, continually, per- 
petually, always, regularly, evenly, etc, 

eoaBUpate, v. t. bind (eoUoq.), confine 
(rare), astrict (rare), aatringe (rare), 
Arttonyms: see physic. 

oonatlpatod, a. bound (coUoq.), costive 
Antonyms: see loose, 

oonstlpatlUEi a. bindins (coUoq.), caetivB 
Anlonyms: see cathabtic. 

oonstituenoy, n. principal; spec €^60- 

oonstltuent, a. 1. See coupokent, 
S. Spec elective, appointive, electoral. 

Donstltnent, n. 1. See coufohent. 
*, principal; spec, elector, voter. 

oonatltute, 1;. i. form, be, make, spell; 
spec, aggregate (eolloq.), total; — iinlh a 
cognate object, as in "Jifly~two cards con- 
stitute a pack." 

oonatltution, n. 1. See appointment, es- 
tablishment, STRUCTURE, TEXTURE, 


a. nature (eonlextual), make-up, make; 
spec, temperament, physique; see dispo- 

8. decree (contextual), law, edict; spec. 
fundrmental law, organic law. 
DODBtltutlonal, a. I. natural, organic, 
hectic (<iba.); spec, temperamental, dia- 

; fear. I comtltntedi being. 

v Notu Dl Eipluutian. 



S. In law: organic, politic {rare); see law- 

constraint, n. 1. See compulsion, con- 

S. Referring to a compellina force: pres- 
sure, press, force, stress, duress (chiefly 
spec.), distress, pinch, cramp (rare). 
S. restraint, repression, reserve; see em- 
barrassment, stiffness, self-control. 
Antonyms: see ease, familiarity. 

constrict, v, t, squeeze (contextual), com- 
press (contextual), bind, contract, cramp, 
astrict (rare), astringe (rare), constrin^, 
constrain (literary); spec, strangulate, 
choke; see confine, narrow. 
Antonyms: see free, enlarge, distend, 

constriction, n. 1. compression, squeez- 
ing, contraction, constraint (literary), 
narrowing, aatriction (rare), contingency 

Antonyms: see inflation. 
t. contraction, stricture; spec, intake, 
neck, choke; spec, narrowing. 

construct, v. t. 1. In reference to physical 
things: make, build, form, frame, confect 
(rare), configurate (rare), configure (rare), 
compose, join, fabricate; spec, erect, 
draw, forge, contour. 
Antonyms: see destroy, abate, de- 

8. In reference to ideas, plans, etc.: create 
(contextiud), build, fabricate, contrive, 
weave, frame. 
Antonyms: see destroy, abolish. 

construction, n. 1. The act: making, 
building, formation, fabrication, com- 
position; spec, malconstruction, manu- 

S. The thing: form, building, structure, 
fabrication, figure (chiefly spec.), contriv- 
ance, conformation (chiefly spec.), con- 
figuration (chiefly spec), frame; spec. 
formation, drawing, erection. 
S. As to immaterial things or qualities: 
composition, contexture, structure, con- 
formation, configuration; spec, frame-up. 


constructive, a. tectonic (literary), con- 

consult, V. i. talk (contextual), advise, con- 
fer, counsel, commune (ohs. or rare), pow- 
wow (chiefly U. S.), colloque (couoq.), 
confabulate (rare). 

consult, V. 1, 1. advise with, oonfer with;'^ 
no single^word synonyms. 

consultant, n. oonferrer, counselor, ad* 
viser, consulter. 

consultation, n. talk (contextual), con- 
ference, counsel, advice (obs.), colloquy, 
parley (chiefly spec.), pourparler (French), 
powwow (spec, or chiefly U, S.), palaver 
(chiefly spec.); spec, indaba, interview. 

consultative, a. advisory, oonsultory 

consume, v. 1. 1. destroy, eat, canker (fig.); 

see WASTE, burn, decompose, CORRODE. 

Antonyms: see renew. 
2: Meaning *Ho use up": devour, swallow 
(fig.; chiefly with *^up"); svec. absorb, take, 
eat, drink, use (contextual), wear, kill, out- 
wear (rare), dissolve; see expend, erode. 
Antonyms: see renew. 

consumer, n. 1. destroyer. 
8. user (contextual), devourer, cormorant 
(fig.), eater, barathrum (fig.). 

consuming, a, destroying, cankerous 
(fig.); spec, depascent (rare)j erodent. 

consumption, n. 1. destruction; see burn- 

8. Meaning "a using up": use (context- 
ual), devourment; spec, absorption, dis- 
solution, eating, drinking; see expendi- 
ture, WEAR. 

consumptive, n. lunger (slang or coUoq,), 
hectic (rare or tech.), pulmomc (rare), 

contact, n. 1. touch (contextual), touching, 
tangency (tech.), contingence (rare), tac- 
tion (rare), 

8. In elec: meaning "o touching piece**: 
spec, contactor, brush, terminal. 

container, n. Spec, wrapper, package, 
bottle, box, bag, case, cask, empty, bar- 
rel, cash, etc.; see receptacle. 

contaminate, v. t. 1. corrupt (contextual), 
infect, taint, attaint (rare), pollute, soil, 
inquinate (rare), defile, suUy, foul, befoul 
(irUensive), file (dial, or ohs.), vitiate, 
poison, empoison (intensive; literary), en- 
venom (intensive; literary); spec, debauch, 
degrade, deprave, stain, dirty. 
Antonyms: see purify, elevate. 
8. See FOUL, vitiate. 

contaminated, a. corrupt, corrupted, pol- 
luted, pollute (rare), maculate or macu- 
lated (rare), cankered (literary), etc. 

contamination, n. 1. The act: corruption, 
attaint (rare), tainture (rare), infection, 

Cross references: see Note. 
oonstltutiye: component, crea- 
tive, [strict. 
constrain: compel, confine, re- 
constrained: stiff, forced. 
constraining: compulsory. 
oonstringe: constrict. 
construe, v. t: explain, trans- 

late, understand, interpret. 

construe, n.: translation. 

consuetude: custom, hahU. 

consul: magistrcUSt diplomatic 

consummate, a.: absolute, per- 
fect, accomplished, completed, 

consummate, v. t.: complete, 

perfect, accomplish. 
consummation: completion, 

perfection, end, a/;comjdish- 

ment, death, height. 
contagious: catching, infectious. 
contain: include, hold, restrain 


l^^ See Notes of Explanation. 



maculAtion Irare), defilement, iainting, 
atain, soil {rare), filing {dial, or tAsJ), 
sullying, pollution, inquination (rare), 
vitiation, fouling; sjtec. debouchment, 
degradatJon, depravation, etain. 
S. That iohich eorrupls: corruption, taint, 
stain, infection, pollution, poison, foul- 
ness, impurity; spec, depravity, filth, ob- 
scurity, filthinesE, immorality, abomina- 

I. Spec, fouling, vitiation, infection. 

oontamlnative, a. corrttptive, tainting, 
infectious (rare), poisonous, depraving, 
defiling, polluting, mfective, etc, 
Antonyms; see elevating. 

contemn, u. (. 1. Referrijiglolhe menial at- 
tUude: tee despise, abhor. 
S. scorn, flout; see RIDICIJI4E. This sense 
refers lo the act, which may not affree urilh 
the inward or nUrUal atlilude. 
Anlonipns: see honor. 

contemporaneouii a. coexistent [con- 
textual), contemporary, monocbronoua 
(rare); spec, ooetaneous (rare), coeval, 
concomitant, coinstantaneous, coinci- 
dent, simultaneous, coterminous, syn- 
chronous, collatersJ, synchronical (rare), 
aynchronal; see cobsistent. 

oontempoTkavouaneis, n. coexistence 
(contextual), con(«mporarineBS, ele. 

ooDtampt, n. 1. disdain, scorn, despisal, 
contumely (literary), despite (archaic), 
diseateem (rare)^ misprison (literary), mis- 
prise (rare), nusprisal (rore); spec, pity 
(Jig.), superciliousness, despite (literary). 



contemptible, a. despicabli , 
venerable (rare), base, vile, low, abject, 
pitiful, pitiable, sorry, wretched, igno- 
minious, caitiff (lUerary), scald (orcAatc), 
scurvy, dirty (iiuiffar or very contemptu- 

Antonf/ms: see 

oontemptuoua, a. disdainful, ludibrious 
(rar^), scornful, contumelious (liierary), 
despiteful (archaic), pitying (fig.), super- 
cilious, insolent, sneering, cynic, cavalier 
(leoTTied), cavalierly (rare). 
Anlonj/mt: see respbcttui,, polite. 

tiantend, n. i. I. contest (rare), engage, 

fight (Jig.), battle (fig. or spec.), strurele, 
strive, conflict (rare); spec, fight, buffet, 
tussle, combat, vie, rival, cope, wrestle 
(cant), war, spar, scramble, jostle (Jig.), 
tilt; see pioht, qitarbbl, DisptrrB. 
Antonyms: see aobi 

a. compete, contest (rare), rival (arcAotc), 
strive, vie, struggle, rivaliie (rare). 
oonteotlon, n. 1. Referring to the aetion: 

wrestling (coni), : 


Antonyms: see AoaEEMENT, conspibact, 

contentloa*, a. strifeful (rare), gladia- 
torial (fig.). litigious (rare, exc. spec); 
spec, stormy; see qdakrelsome, dispu- 


contents, n. pi. content (obs.), lining C/iff.); 
spec, furniture (rare), filling, subject- 

contest, n. I. contention, struggle, en- 
gagement, encounter, strife, combat (fig. 
or spec), fight (fig. or spec), battle (fig. or 
spec,), concurrence (o Gallicism), ren- 
counter (literary); spec, bout, scrap (col- 
log, or slang), tussle (edlog.), tilt (often 
fig.), set-to (slang), brush, skirmish, 
scrimmage (coUoq), scrummftge (rare; 
eollog.), bully, tenson (French), duel, 
pool, grapple, match, pentathlon, dec- 
athlon, draw, nibt>er, passage, rough- 
and-tumble (colloq.), scuffle, tournament, 
handicap, wrestle; see tight. 
Anlony/ns: see cooperation. 


oonteitant, n. contender; spee. rival, 
tilter, juster; see fighter, disputant. 
contlngenor, n. 1. possibility, cbaQce. 


«ontiiice»t, a. 1. possible. 

oontlnuanoe, n. 1. continuation, dura- 
tion, abidance (rare), currency, course, 
lasting, persistence, endurance, perdura- 
tion (rare), last (rare), run, stay, during 
(rare); spec, pendency, standing. 
ATUonyms: see stop, stoppage. 
I. persistence, persistency, perseverance, 
continuation (rore). 



latut, n. 

aatvi/y. otodden, 

ooatltuJty: adiaceneti. tipan- 
coatlBatit, a.; idf-cimlroOtd. 



continuation, n. 1. continuance, mainte- 
nance, sustenance, support; s'pec. pur- 
suance, perpetuation; see renewal, ex- 
Antonyms: see change, stoppage. 
8. S'pec, supplement, sequel. 


continue, v. i, 1. See extend. 
t. be {contextual) J last, endure, persist, 
remain, subsist, abide, stand, run, rest, 

Eerdure {rare)^ dure {archaic) ^ stay; spec, 
old, drag {esp. with "on," ^^cHongy' etc.), 
linger {esp, with **on^'), stick {coUoq.), 
dwell, keep. Jive, perennate {rare). 

Antonyms: see change, stop. 
S. persevere, persist, proceed, pursue, 
insist {archaic), carry on {chiefly Ena.), 
keep {chiefly spec.); spec, flow, plug 
{couoq. or slang). , 

Antonyms: see stop, hesitate, desist, 


continue, v. i. 1. See extend, prolong, 


8. Spec, perpetuate, spin, perennate 
{rare); see renew. 

Antonyms: see alter. 
S. pursue, carry, run. 

Antonyms: see abandon, intermit, stop. 
continued, a. 1. sustained, protracted, 
continuous, prolonged; spec, sostenuto 


continuing, a. enduring, durable, during 
{rare), lasting, persevering, persistent; 
spec, chronic. 

continuity, 1. See constancy. 
S. Spec, continuum, contiguity, unbro- 

continuous, a. 1. See constant. 
8. unbroken. 

contort, V. t. twist, writhe, wreathe; see 

contraband, a. forbidden. 
Antonyms: see innocent. 

contract, v. i. 1. agree {coniexttud), bar- 
gain, covenant {spec, or rhetorical), stip- 
ulate, engage. 

8. shrink, shrivel {spec, or fi^.); spec. 
pucker, pinch; see narrow. 
Ardonyms: see swell, dilate. 
S. See diminish. 

contract, v. t. 1. stipulate, bargain, prom- 
ise, covenant {spec, or rhetorical); spec. 
undertake, indenture; see betroth. 
8. See INCUR, effect, make, catch, 


S. reduce, diminish, shorten; spec, syn- 
copate, shrink, pucker, pinch; see con- 
strict, NARROW, diminish, ABBREVIATB, 

Antonyms: see stretch, bloat, en- 
contract, n. agreement {coniextiuiL), prom- 
ise {corUextuat), bargain, pact {chiefly 
«pec.), cheap {archaic), covenant, stipuls^ 
tion {chiefly spec.), convention {chiefly 
international law), obligement {duil law); 
spec, imdertaking, condition, suretyship, 
lease, bond, ba%r, exchange, coup or 
cowp {Scot.), option, debenture, inden- 
ture, cowle {Anglo'Indian), trade {U. S.); 


contracted, a. shrunken, diminished; 
spec, shriveled, puckered, pinched, con- 
stricted, corky, clung, cramp. 

contraction, n. 1. agreement, stipulation 
{chiefly spec.), bargaining, covenanting; 
spec, undertaking. 

8. shrink, shrinking, shrinkage, shrivel- 
ing {spec, or fl^.), reduction, diminution, 
abbreviation, abridgment; spec, pucker, 
cramp, pincning, syncope, syncopation, 
systole, narrowing; see constriction. 
Antonyms: see dilation. 


contractor, n. undertaker {chiefly spec.), 
bargainer or bargainor, covenanter or 
covenantor {spec, or rhet.), stipulation 
{chiefly spec.); spec, sweater, padrone 
(Italian) , lumper. 

contradict, v. t. 1. gainsay {literary or 
formed), contravene {rare), deny, belie, 
counter, controvert, dispute, negative, 
traverse {chiefly law), denegate {rare), 
disallow {rare); spec, counterargue (rare), 
contrapose {logic). 
ArUonyms: see acknowledge. 
8. See OPPOSE. 

contradiction, n. 1. gainsay {rare), coun- 
tering, gainsaying {litercary or formal), de- 
nial, controversion, dispute, negation, 
traverse {law), denegation {rare), disal- 
lowance {rare); spec, contraposition, 
8. See OPPOSITION, inconsistency. 

contradictory, a. contradictive, negatory, 
Antonyms: see agreeable. 

contrast, v. t. compare, oppose, antithe- 
size {rare). 

contrast, n. comparison {contexttud), dif- 
ference, opposition, antithesis; spec, foil; 
Antonyms: see analogue, analogy. 

Cray* references: see Note. 

CMmtlnuous: continued, constant. 
oontinaam: continuity. 
oontortionlst: gymnast. 

oontour: outline. 
oontrapoM, v. t.: confront. 
oontrarions: perverse, oppoetng. 
contrary, a.: opposite t oppos- 

ing, contradictory, perverse, in- 
consistent, unfavorable. 

contrary, n.: reverse. 

contrast, v. t.: compare. 

See Notes of Explanation. 


oontrABttiic, a. diSerent, contractive, an- 
tithetic, contraaty (eoUog.), controstCiil. 
AnUmymi: ue analogous. 
oontniTeiiv, r, J. oppose, thwart, counter; 


ooDtrlbute, f. t. 1. give {conXejAual); tpec. 

8. help, aid, assist, subserve (rare), od- 
miniater (Hlerary), miniater (Ulerary), 
conduce, go (an viiomatie uae). 

contribute, v. i. tend, conduce, aerve, re- 
dound, go; tpec. minister. 

oontrlbutlnci a. Spec, contributory, ac- 

(eontextuat); spec. 

Donttlb uHon, 

subscription ; 

. _. , re), help, Bubs 

(rore), administration (lUerary), roinia- 
tration {literary). 

Anionspna: see hindramcb, preven- 

S. help, aid, assistance; spec, instru- 
Anlonyrns: see hindrance. 
4. tiuc, tribute, scot, gavel (obs. or hist,}; 
spec, quarterage, 
s. See ABTicLB. 

contrlbator, n. 1. giver [eoTilexlual); spec. 

1. author (corUextual); spec, correspond- 
ent, editor, 

1. conducer, helper, aider, ministrant 

Doutrlbatory, a. contributing, helpful, 
conducive, oontributary (rare), eontribu- 
tive, HuhBervient, serviceable, instni- 
jntftl, dispositive {literary), miniatnmt 
{literaTy); see accessoet, 
Antonymt: see hinderinq, pi 

oontrlvBnov, n. See vEVtBiHO, 


. thing {conlexiuai), device, contraption 
{coUoq.), fangle (rare), fanglement (rare), 
fake (8lar;£r), fakement {dang), jiggumbob 
{coUoq.; hwnorowi); epec. invention, — 
etniction, machine, gimcraok {co 
wbigmaleerie (iSicnf.). 
oontilTe, V. (. 1. See device, 


9. effect, man^e, do (contexl'tal), 

<raatrlT«t v. i, plan, plot, shift; spec. 

control, V. (. command, dominate, a,._, 
govern, rule, regulate, order, rein (jJff.), 

predominate (rare); spec, ride, . 
carry, hold, grip, gripe, obsess, < 
(Eng.), officer, prevail, master, ~ 
derate; "" 

prevail, reign. 
control, n. 1. contralmect (orcAaic), co 
mand, mastery, mastership, domination, 
power, domimon, paramountcy (literary 
or spec.), regulation, regiment (rare), dis- 
position, disposal, reign {ftg.), govemajioe 
{archaiii], government (chiefly spec.), reina 
(pi.; fig.), sovereignty, prepotence or pre- 
potency (rare), predominatioQ (rare), ' 
curb, reatraint, predominance {rare), 
prevalence (rorc), prepollence or pre- 1 
poUency (rare), preponderance, prepon- 
deruncy, prepondcration (rare); ajM. , 
empire, clutches (pi,; fig.), hand, jussion 
(rare), grip, gripe; see rule, ascendanct, 


COUUAND {the facTilty), selp-contbol. 
Antonyms: see tjncontrol. 
a. See DOMAIN. 
oontrollei, n. 1. control (rare), dominator, 
rector (rare), swayet, governor, ruler, 
manager, regulator; spec, commander, 
arbitrator, master, mistreaa, diaposer, di- 
rector, boss {ehiejly spec.; carU or along), 
regent {rare); see ruler. 


controlltDK, a. commandmg, governing, 
predominant, uppermost, sovereign, mae- 
ter, prepollent (rnre), prepotent (lemtied), 
paramount, dominant, dominative, as- 
cendant, preeminent, preponderant, reg- 
nant (spec, or fig.), regent (rare), gu- 
bemative (rare or Uarneii), regulative, 
governmental; spec, hegemonic (ria-e), 
prevalent; see hdlinq. 

oontroveriial, a. 1. disputatious, eristic 
{lilerary), polemic or polemical {learned 
or (ecft.); see forensic. ' 


oontroversiallst, n. disputant, disputei, 
polemic {learned or tech.), arguer, erifltio I 
(iUeraTy; rare), polemiat (rare), polBmioiat , 


r (contexfuol), i 

oonvalesoe. f. t. tecovt 

cuperate {conlext-ual). 
<t»nTene< v. i. gather, aasemblc, collect, 
congregate (rare), muster (ckiefiy spec.); 

Antonyms: see separate, SCATTER, 

. gather, assemble, collect, 


muster {chiefly spec,); spec, reconvene; 

Antonyms: see separate, scatter, dis- 

oonvenienoe, n. 1. Spec, adaptability, 
accessibility, handiness, availability, ser- 
viceableness; see instrument. 
%• advantage, commodity (archaic), ac- 
commodation; spec, easement, ease, com- 
modiousness (archaic), comfort. 
Antonyms: see inconvenience. 

oonvenient, a, 1. See adaptable, acces- 

2. advantageous, commodious (archaic), 
comfortable, easy. 
Antonyms: see inconvenient. 

convent, n. association (contextual), clois- 
ter (chiefly literary or tech.), monastery 
(chiefly spec), convent (chiefly spec.), 
cenoby (rare); spec, abbey, priory, nun- 
nery, fratry (ohs, or hist.), math (Hindu), 
friary, friars (pi.), commandery. 

convention, n, 1. assembly, gathering, 
congregation, congress (chiefly spec,); see 
meeting, assembly. 
ArUonyms: see scattering. 
S. See CONVOCATION, gathering, agree- 

S. custom, usage, formality, convention- 
alism, conventionality (chiefly spec), con- 
venance (French); see formality; — used 
with "a" or in the pi. 

conventional, a. customary, agreed, stip- 
ulated, accepted, cut-and-oried (coUoq), 
artificial, right, orthodox (chiefly spec), 
correct, positive, approved; spec, stiff, 
contractual, academic; see formal. 
Antonyms: see unconventional, home- 

conventionality, n. 1. conventionalism, 
convention, rightness, correctness, ortho- 
doxy (chiefly spec), positiveness; spec, 
stiffness; see formality. 
S. See convention, custom. 

convert e,t;. t. & i. Spec, center (contextual) , 
ArUonyms: see scatter. 

CK>nversation, n. discourse (literary or 
dial.), confabulation (literary or stilted), 
talk, converse (learned), speech, confab 
(coUoq.), colloquy (esp. spec), tell (dial.), 
collocution (rare), interlocution (rare); 
spec, palaver, chat, chatter, chit-chat, 
gossipmg, eossipry, indignation (rare), 
parley, conference, interlocutory, coze 
(rare), word (with "a*0» episode; see 


conversational, a, confabulatory (literary 
or stilted), confabular (rare), colloquial 
(chiefly spec), interlocutorv (rare); spec. 
chatty, dialogic, cosy (Eng^. 

conversationalist, n. conversationist (less 
common than ^'conversationalist"), talker, 
converser, confabulator (rare); spec, 

converse, v. t. 1. deal (rare or archaic, exc. 
spec), commerce (obsolescent), commune 
(archaic or spec), common (obs.), inter- 
course (rare), traffic; spec associate. 
'^Converse" is now diiefly spec; but is 
broader than '^commune," 
8. speak, discourse (literary or dial,), con- 
fabulate (literary or stilted), talk, confab 
(coUoq.), collogue (coUoq. or humorous), 
colloque (rare); spec chat, gossip, confer, 
coze (literary; rare), dialogue, oialogize 
(rare), parley. 

converser, n. 1. confabulator (rare); spec. 
interlocutor, dialogist, interlocutress 
(Jem.), interlocutrix Ijem,). 


conversion, n. 1. change (contextual), re- 
duction, resolution; 866 TRANSFORMATION. 
8. regeneration; spec proselytization, 
proselyting^ Protestantization. 
S. appropriation (corUe^ual); spec em- 
bezzlement; 866 THEFT. 

convert, v. t, 1. change, turn, regenerate; 
spec disciple (rare or archaic), proselyte, 
proselytize. Protestantize 
S. change, resolve, reduce, turn; see 


ArUonyms: see Tix. 
S. appropriate (corUextual); see steal, 


convert, n. neophyte (chiefly spec), con- 
vertite (archaic; often spec); spec vert 
(coUoq.), catechumen, marrano (hist.), 
proselyte, proselytess (fem.; rare), 

convertible, a, conversible (rare), ex- 
changeable: spec interchangeable, liq- 
uid, equivalent. 
Antonyms: 866 fixed. 

convex, a, protuberant, swelling; spec. 
embowed (literary), gibbous or gibbose, 
Antonyms: see hollow. 

convict, a. condemned; — not a good syn^' 

convict, V. t. 1. condemn (ru>t a good eyn" 
onym), convince (archaic). 
ArUonyms: see absolve, acquit. 
S. convince (of sin, etc.; rare). 

tSr Cross references: see Note. 
oonyenience: oblige. 
oonyentiole: meeting, church. 
oonytntnai: ecclesiaatic, monk, 

oonyersable: sociable. 
oonyersant: aware. 
oonyerse, n.: intercourse, con- 

oonyerse, a. & n.: opposite. 

oonyey: transport, transfer, 
transmit, communicate, carry. 

oonyeyanoe: transportation, 
transfer, transmission, commur- 
nication, vehide. 

t^ See Notes of Explanation. 

oonvlot, n. criminal (.contextaid); spec. 
felon, expiree, emancipist (AuslTolia), 
bushranger, Eterwenter iAtitlralia), log- 
ger (cani), termer (cant), tniaty (con/), 
fifcr (conf). 

oooTlotloii, n. 1. coademnation; — not a 
good synonjfm. 

Antonyms: ece acodittal, 
t. RefBrring to Hie act of convincing: con- 
vincement, eonvictment {rare), satisfac- 

S. Referring la the gtafe or belief: belief 
(eontexlual), convincement (rare), eon- 
victment (rare), satisfaction (rare), per- 
suasion; spec, possession, obsession. 
ATiioTtyTns: see cuASQB/iBhEUEaa, ca- 

oanTlnoB, V. I. assure (contextual), sat- 
isfy, persuade; spec. posEess, obsess. 

convincing, a. satisfactory, satisfying, 
conclusive, persuasive (now archaic or 

ATUonyma: see unconyincinq. 
oonTtviki, a. sociable (conlexlual), com- 
panionable (coTttextaal), festive, gay, 
jolly, jovial, good (eontexlual). 
Antonyms: see apathetic, ascetic. 
oonTooatton. n. 1. gathering, assembling, 
convention, call icotitexlual). calling (used 
esp. wilh "together"), summons. 

ooBToke, V. (. convene, assemble, summon, 
call {esp. with "together"), convocale (ar- 
chaic); spec, resummon, reconvene. 
Antonyme: see dissolvs. 

convolution, n. twist, volume or volute 
(literary or technical): see coil, cdrl. 

cook, V. t. 1. prepare (contextual), do 
(ehiefiy in the p. p.); spec, overdo, boil, fry, 
bake, roast, braise, barbeoue, buccan, grid- 
dle, pan, jug, <K)ddle, devil, friiezle, steam; 


S. See DBVI8B, FAWirr, fake, ruin. 
oook, n, 1. cooky (coUog.). doctor (chiefly 

naxtl.; slang nr cant); spec, magirologist 

(rore), magirist (rare). 

9. Spec, boil, fry, fricassee, broil, etc. 
cookery, n. cuisine (lech, or learned); spec. 

maRirology (rare), magiric (rare), gas- 

oooklnKi n. preparation (corUexttud), coc- 

tion (li^ary or affected), 
oookroom. n. Spec, (naut.) cab, galley, 


Antonyms: see contend. 
cottperation, n. combination, concurrence 
(eo/Uextuai), concert, concourse (rare), co- 
working (rare), coaction (rare), synergy 
(rare); spec, collaboration, conspiracy; see 

oookshop, n. trattoria (Ilaijan). 

cool, V. t. I. chill, colden (rare), rcfrigerata I 

{chiefly spec.), frigorify (rare), infrigidata 1 

(rare); spec, ice, freeze, quench, defers | 

AHtrmyme: see hbat, warm. 
S. calm; spec, treeae, quench, ice {jig.); 
spec, disfever (rare). "Cool" is chiefijf 1 
iiseil with "off" or "doisn." 
1. See DEPRESS. 

cool, V. i. 1. refrigerate, coldeo (rare); spec 
shiver, freeze, defervesce (rare). 

DoollBE. a. refri^rative, refrigeratinE, re- 
frigeratory, refrigerant, frigorific (ehiefly 
lech.); spec, freezing, defervescent (rare). 
Av^yms: see beating. 

codpeiate, v. i. combine, concur, concert, 
cowork (rore), coact (rare); spec, collab- , 
orate, colleague (rore), conspire, concur; 


ooSperatlve, a. co5peraDt {rare), coactive 
(rare), concurrent; spec, coefficient, syna,- 
delphic (rare), conspiratory; see belpfdl, 


coardlnate, a. equal, coequal, collateral 
(rare or spec.). 

cotiTdlnatlve, a. 1. Spec, equalizing, para- 
tactic, organizing. 

copper, a. cupreous (rare), cuprous {chiefly 
tech.); spec, cupric. 

copper -oolored, a. cupreous (tech. or 
learned) . 

coppice, a. underwood, copse, hay (dial. 

copulate, V. i, unite {conteitual), oouplfl 
(chiefly spec). "Copidate" is chiefly lued 

copy, n. 1. reproduction, representation; 

spec, transcript, coiinterscript, duplicate, 
counterpart, facsimile, transfer, offprint, 
rewriting, electrotype, eetype, leplica, 

Antonyms: see omaiNAi.. 


1. mailer; spec, flimsy (slang), 
script, typescript or typescript. 

I eeuTuI 

oonvnlilTC ipamadie. 

DooL a.-' sold, thillv. eaim. ddi 

exoffO^faJed, ttff-cvrUroilrd- 
eooUili: aid. 


ooplouc Ol 

t^ Sec Notei o 


eopy, V. t, 1. reproduce; spec, transcribe, 
t^e, duplicate, electrotype, rewrite, 
transfer, trace, pounce, offprint, etch, 
engross, rewrite; see manifold. 
Antonyms: see originate. 
S. adopt, borrow, follow; spec, echo (fig.); 


copyist, n. 1. reproducer (rare); spec. 
transcriber, writer, scrivener, duplicator, 
typist (chiefly cant), typewriter (now 
being replaced by ^^typisV^), 


cord, n. Spec, braid, funicle, cordon, gimp 
or guimp, twist; see string, rope, band, 

BOND, rib, bowstring. 

cordage, n. cording; spec, roping, rope- 
work, tackle, service, sennit, sinnet. 

cordial, a. 1. See stimulating. 
S. sincere, hearty, heartfelt, heartwhole, 
heartful (rare), warmth, ardent, vigorous, 
Anlonyms: see distant. 


cordiality, n. good will, sincerity, heart- 
iness, heartfumess (rare), empressment 
(French), warmth, ardency, vigor, depth, 
Anlonyms: see distance. 

cordlike, a. restiform (lech, or learned). 

core, n. 1. carpel (tech.).^ 
S. center, interior, inside; spec, draw- 
back, mandrel, mandril. 
S. See pith, substance. 

corky, a. suberic, subereous (rare), su- 
berose; — all three tech. or learned. 

corner, n. 1. Spec, angle, predicament. 
2. angle, coign (chiefly in "coign of 
vantage"), coin (065. or archaic), quoin 
(chiefly spec.), cantle (chiefly spec), nook 
(chiefly spec); spec horn, crook, dog's- 
ear, shot, clew. 

corner stone, coin or (usuaRy) quoin 
(]tx)th obsolescent), headstone (archaic). 

cornerwise, adv. diagonally, cater (dial.); 
spec, bendwise. 

coronet, n. 1. crown; spec tiara. 


S. cushion (0/0 /wrse's/ooO. 
corporal, n. pall (archaic), mortcloth 

corporation, n. 1. association, company, | 

incorporation, society; spec city, bor- 

2. Referring to the abdomen: potbelly 
(vulgar); see abdomen. 

oorpselike, a. cadaverous (lU. or tech.), 
deathlike; spec, ghastly. 

corpulent, a. fat, big-bellied (new chiefly 
vulgar), bellied (vulgar). 

correct, a. 1. right, rightful (rare), regular, 
true^ perfect, strict; spec fauTliess, 
straight 0^.), pure, grainmatical; see 


Antonyms: see incorrect, illogical, 


2. Referring to artistic style, taste, etc: 
pure. Attic; spec, classical, academical, 
laultless, neat. 

correct, v. t. 1. rectify, right, repair, rem- 
edy, righten (rare), amend, mend, emend 
(rare); spec, emendate, castigate (a text), 
reform; see redress. 
Antonyms: see falsify. 
2. See punish, reprove, counteract. 

correction, n. rectification, repair, rem- 
edy, amend, reparation, etc 

corrective, a. 1. correctory (rare), correc- 
tional, amendatory (rare), rectincatory; 
spec, emendatory, reformative. 
2. See punitive. 
S. counteractive, neutralizing. 

correctness, n. 1. rightness^ right, truth, 
strictness, trueness, perfection, rectitude; 
spec, accuracy, propriety, logicality, ex- 
actness, conventionality, faultlessness, 

2. As to artistic taste, style, etc.: purity, 
pureness. purism (rare, exc as concrete); 
spec, faultlessness, sumpsimus (literary). 

correlate, n. correlative; spec, reciprocal, 
complement, counterpart, correspondent. 

correspond, V. i. 1. agree, concur (us^ 
vnth "with"), conform (used esp, with 
"to"), answer (used with "to"), smt (used 
with "with"), square (used with **to"), 
quadrate (rare), tally (used with "with"), 
respond (rare), match (used with "with"); 
spec harmonize, homologize (chiefly 
tech.), correlate; see reciprocate. 
Antonyms: see disagree. 

' Cross references: see Note. 
ooquet, n.; flirt. 
ooquetry: flirtation. 
ooquette: flirt. 
ooquettlsh: flirtatiotu. 
eord, V. t.: string. 
eordlal, n.: stimulant, liqueur. 
cordon: line, guard. 
eork, n.: bark, float, stopper. 
ooric, r. t.: stopple, blacken. 
eork«r: settler. 
oom, n.; grain. 
oom, V. t.: granulate, feed. 

oomeous; homy. 
oom«r, V. t.: perplex, monopo- 

oomerod: angular. 
corollary: inference, result. 
ocnrona: circle, crown, chanddier. 
coronal: croum. 
coronary: croum. 
coronate: crown. 
coronet, v. t.: crown. 
corporal: bodily. 
corporate: united, material. 
corporeal: bodily, material. 

corps: body. 
corpse: body. 
corpus: body. 
corpuscle: partide, eeU. 
correctional: eorreelive. 
corpuscule: partide. 
correlate* v. i.: relate. 
correlate* v. «.; correapond, 

correlation: rdation, analogy^ 

eorrelatlTc: rdated, reciprocal, 


17* See Notes of Explanation. 


I. communicate (covUxlut^, write (wi- 


correspiiiidenoe, n. 1. agreement, con- 
formity, conformableness, accord, re- 
epondence (rare), respondency (rore), 
tally, concurrence; spec, correlation, pro- 
portion, equivalence, parallelism, homol' 
ogy (chiefly tech.), uniformity; see cON- 
3i8TBNcf , HEciFROCirr. 
1. communication {eonlexual}, intercouree 
(ctmteiiuol), communion (rare), rapport 

1. CoUecHvdy: letters (pi.), writing, writ- 
Ligs (pi.). 

obrreapondent, a. agreeable, responsive 
(rare), conformable, conform (oftaoMHCEn!), 
cjncurrent, correaponsive (rare), eorre- 
Bponding;8pec. uniform, proportional, rat- 
aole, correlative, complemental, relative, 
equivalent, homologoua (chiefly tech.); see 


Antonyms: tee INcONGRUOyB, abbubd. 

oortespondent. n. 1. iSpec. correlate, 
hon.ologue {chiefly lech.). 
t. communicator {amlext-ual; rare), 

oonlelble, a. amendable, rectifiable; s}itc. 

corrode, v. t. consume, gnaw, bite, canker 

(rare), mat. cancer. 

(fig-), eat (fsp. viilh "away") ; epee. etch 
oonotlon, n. consumption, gnawmg; spec. 

etching, mat. 
eonoslve, a. 1. corroding, consuming, 

gnawing, eating, mordant; spec, caustic, 

cankerous, burning. 
Antonyms." see bland. 

t. See ACRID, AcnmoNioDS. 
ooRncBte, 0. L furrow, wrinkle; 

Antonyrm: smooth. 
ooiTocated, a. wrinkled, furrowed. 
ooirnpt, a. 1. iSee decouposbd. 

9. corrupted, wicked, demoralized, im- 
moral, impure, dissolute, depraved, vi- 
cious, rotten (rndgar or slrongly denuncia- 
lixe), putrid (a very strong term), rantjpole 
(rare), Neronian (Jig.); see graceless, db- 


Antonyms: see cncorhuptbd, ars(^' 


oorrupti V. t. demoralize, vitiate, deprave, 
defile, conker, degrade, debase, debauch;' 


AjitOTiyjne: see pdrify, reporm. 
ooTTuptlon, n. 1. The act: demoralization, 
vitiation, depravation, debauchery, deg- 

S. The stale or qwUity: wickedness, con- 
tamination, perversion, defilement, poison 
(fig.), immorality, impurity, oorruptnesSj 
rust (fig.), demoralisation, vice, viUation, 
depravity, depravation (rore), depraved- 
nesB (rare), depravement (rare), vicious- 
ness, filth, vitiosity, rottenness, putridity, 
putrefaction (rare), debauchery, degrada- 

Antmtyms: see pdritt. 
oorruptlve, a, demoraliJiing, depravatory, 

vitiatory (rare), perversive, debauching, 
degrading; spec, contaminative. 

A-nionyms: see PURinCiTORT, RBrORHA- 

oocset, n. bodice (obs.), stays (pi.). 

oortloal, o. corticate, oorticose;— -ofl tech. 

oocybBint, n. devotee (amlextiitd), priest 
(conteituiai) , orgiaat. 

coBmetlo. n. iSpec. powder, paint, paste, 
rouae, cream, make-up (a coUeclitie; theat- 
rical eant), whitewash. 

ooimic, a. I. universal; spec, pancosmio 
(rare), extraterrestrial (rare). 

1. See VAST, GRAND. 
ooBt, n. 1. charge (obsolescent), price. 

ooit, [J. i. require; — only approxinu^; there 

are no close aynonytns. 
oostlr, a. 1, expensive, high-priced, high, 

chargeful (obs.), dear, precious (nery 

co»tly); spec valuable. Orient, (Mental, 

noble, golden (fig.), overcostly, overdear, 

diapeDdJDUS (rare). 
Antonyms: see cheap. 

9. Pyrrhic (fig.;"Pyrrhic victory"). 

t. Spec, rich, sumptuous, gorgeous. 
oostume, n. clothing, clothes {}A.), dress, 

garb, outfit (coHoq.), guise, rig (cotloq,), , 

rigout (eoUoq.); apee. bloomers (pi.; fig.), , 

costnmai, n. clothier, outfitter (chiefly J 

can/); spec, haberdasher. 


.■ dnihe. 
sioUorinB, fomfarlobU, 
thdiered; — a tioridnf ofeoty. 

t^" 8h Not** Of XiplaoBtlon. 



i M. cover, sheath, stall; spec, fingerstall, 


mttace, n. house, room (poetic or archaic); 

tpee. bower, chalet, caaino, lodge, cot 

(poetic or literary). 
fiottrnger, n. cotter, cottar, cottier. 
wtnoh, n. 1. See bbd, littbb. 

S. Spec, lounge, dormouse, settle, divan, 

pulvina (French), chaise-longue (French), 

pout (French), via-a-via (FreTtch), daven- 

couob, u. (. t. lower (aa a spear; contexlual); 
spec, level. 

t. See LOWER, REBT, 



oonsh, V. i. & t. Spec, expectorate 
(lech, or learned), hem, hack. 

couch, n. tuaais (med.); spec, hem, hock, 
expectoration {faamed or Uch.). 

covgh, a. Tech.: bechic, tussal, tussicular, 
tussive. "Cough" u the noun used at- 

ooanoll. n. assembly (contextual); spec, 
congreeation, senate, synod, junta (Span- 
iak ana Italian), divan (Oriental), cabmet, 
duma, ministry, diet, convocation, bust- 
ing (hut.), dccurion (Ramon or Italian 
hist.), rada, soviet. 

ooundloi, n. Spec, senator, miniBt«r, 
decurion (Roman and Italian hist,), elder, 
Neator (fig.). 

■oiiiit, n. nobleman; spec, earl (Eng.),h.T).d- 
Briive,eraf(GeT'.), palatine. palgraveCAigf.). 
loiint, V. t. I. compute (contextual), enu- 
merate, tell (chiefly spec), score (fig. or 
I ipec.), notch (spec, or fig.) 


 aotuit, V. i, 1. compute, number; spec. 


eonntet', n. 1. computer. 
>. Spec, chip, dib, fish, dump, lot. 

eonntcr, n. table (rare or eojitexlual) , 
board (rare); epec. bar. 

oonntaraot, v. t. destroy (eonlextval), op- 
poee; spec, nullify, cancel, neutralize, cor- 
rect, frustrate, hinder, impede; see coun- 

eouDtci balance, v. I. compensate {con- 
textual), balance, equate. 

oouiteroharBe, v. i, iSi I. answer, recrimi- 

aauBteTolaim, n. set-off; spec, recoup- 




oounterfelt, v. I, I, imitate, forge; apec. 
personate, copy, fake; ace pretend, act. 


oonaterlelt, ti, imitation, forgery (chiefly 
spec.), sham; spec, duffer (slang), doublet, 
Brummagem, pinchbeck, dummy. 

oo an te f letter, n. imitator (coiUextiud) ; 
spec, forger, coiner, pretender, dissembler, 

countermine, i;. t. A i. counterwork. 

oounterpart. n, 1. copy, duplicate, double. 
a. hkeness, similitude; spec, picture, 
image, like, matcb, parailel, pendant, 

1. Spec, oppcffiite, obverse, correlate, 
twin, tally, reciprocal, complement, sup- 
plement, parallel; see reverse. 
oounteipolse, n. 1. balance, counterbal- 
ance, counterweight, equipoise; spec. 
makeweight, olTset. 


oounterpoise, v. I, 1, counteract, balance, 
counterbalance, equiponderate (lilerary 
and fig.), equilibrate (ckiefiy fig.), equili~ 
brize (rare), equipoise (rare), counteract 
{chiefly in reference to immaterial things); 
spec, offset. 

oountBTilcn, V. t. sign (amtextTiat); spec. 
indorse, attest. 

countersljtD, n. signal, sign; spec, pass- 
word, shibboleth {hist, or fig.), watch- 

oountlnci n, computation (eontexlual), 

oauntless, a. innumerable, 
(rare), myriad (chiefly poetic), infinite 
(archaic or rare), numberless, uncount- 
able, uncounted, unnumbered; cf. IN- 

countrify, v. t, ruralize, rusticate. 
coantry< n. 1. land, resioa. 


S. Spec, countryside, champaign {liter- 
ary), field (archaic), plain, waste, wild, 
heath, fields (pL), forest, meadows (pL), 
valley, mountain, uplands (p£.), lowlands 
{pi.j, etc. 

eountr7 bouse, garden house (Eng,); 
spec, countryseat, seat, villa. 

oountrrman, n. 1. compatriot (learned or 
literary), landsman (rare). 

county, n. shire (nol an exacl synonym, 
though Uie dulrict is usually conlerminous; 
Brit.); spec, landgraviate {Ger.), palati- 

apec. or fin.), shackle (Jiff- <w spec.); apee. 
tlouble; see u:abh. 
Antonyms: see nNconPLB. 


GoupIliiB. n. tie, link, couple, shackle 
(chiefiy Jig. or apee.); spec, turnbuokle, 

ooaraK«> "- boldness, bravcrv, valor, 
spirit, breast (lilerary), pluck, pliickinesa. 
Band {slang, V. S.), grit {ilang, U. S.), 
heart, fortitude, mettle, nerve, spunk 
{coUog.), 8tout--heartedneas, high-nearted- 
nesB lliierary), stoutness, proweas, cour- 
ageousQeas, daring, derriiig-do (pseudo- 
arehaic) , hardihood ; spec, heroiam, 
dauntlesanesa, firmness, resolution, man- 
hood, pot-valianee, Dutch courage. 
Antonyms: see cowardice. 

coiuaceons, a. bold, brave, valorous, val- 
iant, nervy {slang), game (coUog.), high- 
hearted (ii/erary), tortitudinous [rare), ua- 
fearful, undismayed, heart-whole (rare), 
stout, stanch or staunch, stalwart, mettle- 
some, olueky, spiinkv {ailloq.)^ hardy 
(literary), lion-hearted {fig,}, gingeroua 
or gingery (rare); spec, heroic, resolute 
chivalrou8,[firm; see brave. 
Anionyjns: see cowakolt. 

oonrler. n. runner, messenger, express, 
post rider or post {chiefiy hiat. and apee.), 
poster (rare); apee. postman {hist.), esta- 
tette {French), kavaas (Turkey). 

cooTie, n. 1. motion (eonUxtual), currency 
(rare), passage, career (Ulerary); see 

2. way, track, route, line, tnck (fig. or 
spec), path, road; spec, thread, lane, or- 
bit, meander, circuit, circle, ambit, ran- 
dom (rore), traverse, marchj stadium, 
diaulos, w^k, trajectory, traject (rare), 
itinerary, racecourse. 
>. progress, happening, sequence, cur- 
rent, run, tenor; spec, drift, trend, con- 
duct, process, lapse; seettoJniHE. 
4. See action, series, contcnuance, 


B. Referring lo action, tnork, etc.: round, 
bout, turn, run, spell; spec, heat, pull. 
t. curriculum (eAie^y apee.), cur8ua((eeA.}, 
college (rare or local). 

7. set (nf dishes al lahle) , service ((wcAaie),"! 
spec, dessert. ' 

Dourt, R. 1. inclosure; spec, curtilago ' 
(chiefly legal and tech.), peristyle, court- 
yurd, quadrangle, cortile {Itatian), par- 
vis, ^alio (Italian). 

t. tribunal, bench (chiefiy tech.), judica- 
tory (chiefiy Scot), bar (fig!), curia 
(chiefiy spec.}, judicature {rare}, jurisdio- 

tion {fig!); spec, dicastery, ehiremote or 
shiremoot (hisl.), huating (Enq.), 
chequer (Eng.), hallmote (Auf.), 

busting (Eng.), 
,_ , -iUmote {Am(.), rota, 
{Ttirkish), courUmartial, leet, 
Marshalsea (Eng.), sonhedrin, mallum 
{hist.), consistory, brotherhood {Eng.), 
Inquisition, conservancy, presbytery, 
t. attention, addresses (pi.); spec. homa^. 
<■ See HonsB, hbtinue, assbublt. 

oourt, a. curial, atdic {rare or spec.). 
"Court" is Uie noun used altr&mtively. 

ooort, V. t. 1. cultivate, haunt. . 

a. woo, spark {coUoq.}, sue, gallant (rare),. J 
gallantize (rare). 4 

 invit«, solicit; see seek. I 

Antonyrrts: see avoid. ^ 

court, V. i. woo, spark (coUoq.), philander 
{chiefly spec), spoon {slang), bill (chiefly 
in "irUl and coo"), sue. 

oouttljr, a. 1. aulic (rare). 
t. See polite, dignified, EEptNED. 

oourtihlii, n. amour, wooing, courtiOA 
love-making, suit, love (chiefly in "maS 
love"), service (rare or archaic). 

oouitn, n. relative (conCexlual), coz {for 
"cousin"; chiefly iiaed in fond or famUiar 
addrrsa), cousincss f/cm.; rare); spec. 
catercousin, cousin {German). 
cover, II. (. I. encover (rare), overcovar 
(rare); spec, overwhelm, drown (fig.), pro- 
tect, invest, clothe, cloak, overspread, veil, 
envelop, sheathe, roof, deck, skim, jacket, 
shadow, bury, mantle, leather, keckle, 
hoodwink (fig.; rare), case, cap, over- 
build, overlay, pave, bury, cope, crumb, 
cushion, copper, coif, clapboard (U. S.), 
canopy, carpet, drape, tent, lay, mulch, 
shoe, jacket, overcanopy (rare), shingle, 
lag, iufilm (rare), flake, face, front, lori- 
cate (rare), net, muffle, dome, house or 
house!, mat, fledge, gravel, crape, drift, 
cowl, helmet, curtain, armor, lead, lath; 


Antonyms: see bare, uncover, strip. 


ter, incluoe. , 



c*^); fio- <yr spec, coverlet (Jig.)j coverlid 
(fig.), orape, casing, case, coat, vesture, 
curtain, cot, lid, cap, helmet, ferrule, fer- 
rel, jacket, face^ facing, blanket, table- 
cloth, board, blind, boot, tick, bedtick, 
tilt, canopy, shoe, down (rare), dome, 
capping, skin, screen, envelope, house or 
housing, frontal, lorication (rare), robe, 
vesture, tarpaulin, volva, baldachin, 
baldaauin, husk, screen, muffle, mulch, 
panoply, pall, mantle, cloak, film, leather- 
mg, overcast, coating, overlay, veil, 
sheathing, mantling, blanket, shed, shel- 
ter, cot. The word * ^covering' * is generic or 
less individual than ** cover" and often ap- 
plies to an inseparable layer or envelope to 
which cover would seldom apply. 
S. Referring to a book: binding, case, lid 
(chiefly U. S. and dial. Eng.). 
S. blind, cloak; see pretext, disguise. 

covered, a. covert (now rare); spec, cased, 
blanketed, cuculate, hooded, crusted, 
crustate, crustaceous, obtected, etc. 
Antonyms: see bare. 

covering, n. cover, coverture (literary); 
fig. or spec, casing, casement (rare), 
weather-boarding, clapboarding, coat- 
ing, sheathing, tegument, headgear, en- 
velope, crust, panoply; see cot, skin. 
Many words under ^' cover" are used also 
in a generic sense (in which they do not 
take the article "a" or **an") as specific 
synonyms of "covering." 

cow, n. bovine (contextual); spec, heifer, 
humlie or humblie (Scot.), dairy (a collec- 
tive; chiefiy Eng.). 

coward, n. recreant (rare), caitiff (liter- 
ory). nithing or niddering (archaic or 
hist.), wheyface (coUoq. or corUemptuous) , 
Scaramouch (fi^.), milksop (colloq. or 
corUemptuous), hare (fig.), chicken tjig.); 
spec, dastard, craven, poltroon, cur (cor^ 

cowardice, n. recreancy (fare), faint-heart- 
edness; spec, dastardliness, dastardice, 
iobs.), poltroonery. 
Antonyms: see boldness, bravery, 


cowardly, a. recreant (rare), faint-hearted, 
niddering (archaic); spec, dastardly, pusil- 
lanimous, craven, dastard, poltroonish 

(rare), white-livered, unmanly, unwoman- 
ly. Cf. TIMID. 

cowherd, n. herder, neatherd (archaic); 
spec, oxherd, cowboy. 

cowhouse, n. byre (Ervg. or literary), cow- 
shed, shippon or shippen (Scot. & dial. 

coy, a, bashful (contextual), reserved, 
chary; see distant. 

crabbed, a. 1. See ill-tempered, irasci- 
ble, difficult, complex. 
2. irregular, cramped, cramp. 
Antonyms: see smooth. 

crab- shaped, a. cancriform (tech.). 

crack, v. i. 1. snap; spec, pistol (rare), pop, 
explode; «ee crackle. 
2. break (contexttial), fracture (contextual); 
spec, chap, flaw, split, chink, craze, fissure. 

crack, n. 1. break (cordextuaJ) , fracture 
(contextual); spec, crevice, crackle, craze, 
chink, flaw^ star, cleft, spring, brack, 
split, chop, nssure, cranny, rift, rent, chap. 
2. See BLOW, SHOT, moment, expert. 
S. snap; spec, pop, explosion; see 


cracked, a. broken, fractured; spec, 

crazed, crazy, crackled, crannied, starred, 

chapped, split, chappy. 
cracker, n. 1. snapper; spec, popper, fire- 
cracker, cosaque (French), 

2. See BOASTER, biscuit. 

S. poor white, tacky (Southern U, S.), 
crackle, v. i. break (contextual), crack 

(contextual), crepitate (literary or tech,), 

decrepitate (literary or tech.), 
crackle, n. break (contextual), crack (con^ 

textual), crepitation (literary or tech.), 

crackhng, decrepitation (literary or tech,). 
crackling, a. crepitant (tech. or literary), 
crackling, n. 1. See crackle. 

2. Chiefly in pi.: greaves or graves (pi,; 

Eng.), scraps (plX 
cradle, n. 1. bed (contextual), cunabula 

(pi.; rare). 

2. See SOURCE. 
crane, n. 1. derrick; spec, jenny, davit. 

2. See BOOM. 
cranelike, n. gruiform (tech.), 
cranium, n. 1. See skull. 

2. brainpan, pericranium (affected or hur 


Cross references: see Note. 

eorert, a.: covered, secret, shel- 
tered, hidden, secluded. 

0OT«rt, n.; thicket, sfielter, pro- 
tection, feather. 

ooTwrtness: secrecy. 

ooTwrture: covering, hiding, 

caret: desire. 

ooretous: desirous, greedy. 

caretoametB: desire, greed. 

oorey: brood, flock, company, 

covin: deception. 

eorlnoai: deceitful. 

cow, V. t.: intimidate. 

oow, V. i.: shrink. 

cowboy: cowherd. 

oow«r: stoop, cringe. 

cowhide: leather, whip. 

oowl: hood, tub. 

cowork: cooperate. 

oozoomb: cap, dandy, jacka- 

coxswain: steersman. 

cosen: deceive, cheat. 

oozy: sheltering, comforting, 

craft: art, skiU, trade, vessel. 

oraftlneH: art. 

orafttman: artificer. 

crafty: artful. 

orag: clif^. 

oraggy: precipitous. 

cram, v. t.: crowd, ttuff, prets, 

surfeit, teach, study. 
cram, v. %.: gormandite. 
cramp, n. ; damp, retrain, maam, 
cramp, a.: narrow, cntbbea. 
cramp, v. L: conatrici, restrain, 


cnunped: «<«#, crabbed. 
crane, v. t.: etreieh. 


17* See Notes of Explanation. 


urank, n. I. See handle, 

1. erratic (roro), vagarian (coU 

spec, manomamae. "Crank" 

jm colloquial. 
orape, n. cr6pe (French); ipee. mourning 

{whick te€), weeds (slang). 
amb,v.i. 1. break, shatter, smash, shiver. 

eiMh, n. 1. See noisb, 
). collision, shock, smash. 

ermfoa, n. pencil, naate!, chalk. 

oreak, v. i. epee. squeak, grind, scroop, 
grate, rasp, screak, crank (rare), screech, 

ciflBk, n. B^e. squeak, grind, grinding, 
scroop, stridor, creaking, rasp, grating, 
grate (rare), scream, screak, screech. 

craaklns, a. creaky; spec, squeaking, 
strident, slridulouB, scrooping, grinding, 
screaky, squeak v, raspy, raaprng. 

«i«ain, n. I. head (oa ruten on mUk; Brit.), 
cr^e (French), scum (rare); spec, froth. 
i. Spec, emulsion, cr^e (French), cos- 
metic, cordial. 
1. See BEST. 

oreamy, a. creamlike; spec. luscious, soft. 

oreate, v. t. I. make, form, fashion, origi- 
nate, constitute, produce, raise, rear; spec. 
concreatc (rare), co-create (rare), erect, 
procreate; see dbsion, 

Anlonj/nts: %ee annihilate, ncujit, 


cieatlon, ri. 1. formation, production, 
origination, constitutJon, doing (rare), 
facture (rare); spec, erect' 
procreation, concreation; 


1. Unerring to the thing created: creature 
(now lUerary), formation, facture (rare), 
production, origination; «pec. cosmos; 

Ardtmyns: see cbbatoe. 


oivatlTS, a. 1. creant (rare), formative, 
originative, productive, constituent, con- 
stitutive, poetic (rare); spec, plsalic, pro- 
nreative, generative, demiurgic; seecAOS- 
_.. ^^ INVENTIVE. 


nU, n..' baakil. a 

Antonyms; see annihilattve, 


oraatOE, n. author (contextrud), malct 

faeliioner, poet (rare), originator, 

ducer; spec. Demiurge (pAilog.), Bi 

inventor, designer, imagmcr. 
Autonyms; see CBbature, creation. 
creature, n. 1. creation, being, thing (i 

textual); apee. breatlicr {literary), 

creation (collectiiie); see person. 
AnionyTns: see creator, autho 

a. minion; spec, dependent, tool. 
orvdential, n. iSpec. testimonial, introduo- 

tion, passport, certificate, exequatur, 

"Credential' is ■used chiejiy in the pi. 
credible, a. believable, hkely, swaUowable 

(rare; collog.), trustworthy ; spec, probable. 
Anionyma: see incredible. 
oredtt, n. 1. iS;)ee. credibility; seesEUEr, 


S. trust, tick (coUoq.), score (arcAoic or 

dial.); spec, chalk. ' 

Anton^fTTie: see CASH. 

S. Spec, payment, set-off. 
credit, V. t. I. See believe, Ronob. 

9. accredit. 

I. trust. 
creditable, a. honorab!< 
creed, n. belief, symbol (theoL); spec. 

tenet, doctrine, persuasion, credo (ehiefy 

tech.), views (pi.). 
oceep, V. i. 1. crawl; spec, forficulate 

(nonce word), formicate (rare or med.), 

worm, swarm, grovel. 

). Referring to plants: run, trail, advBDce 


t. Meaning "to go steaUhity": st«al. 

4. Referring to ike sensation: crawl; spec, 

formicate (rore), forficulale (nonce id " 

creeper, n. 1. crawler; spec, reptile. 

1. Spec, runner, Hagellum (tech.). 

t. crampon, crampet. 
OTceplDB, a. 1. crawling, reptant (rare), to- 1 

Ct (rare), reptile (chiefly spec.); spec. 
nicant (med.), serpent (rare), 
t- Referring to a platil: running. 
creepy, a. crawlv. 
creuate, a. scalloped, notched, indented;! 
spec, knurled. 

see BBUEf, 
(archaic <V^^H 

leol.); spe&^^H 
-edo (ehiefiif ^^M 

forficulate ^^| 
■e or med.), ^ 

I..- cJeranp 

'ocktd. ricJctffp, d*> fl 

crepitant: rrwIdiHa. 
orapitate: rrarklt. 
orapuMle: liDifioht. 
otapuioular: tMAlxof^t. 

t3f Bee NotH of Eiplaoatlou. 


orescent* n. 1. meniscus {maih.)t lunule 
(tech.), liine {chiefly tech.), half-moon (o 
loose tt8age)f semilune (a loose usage), 
demilune (chiefly spec.), lunette, lunula, 
S. Islam (fig.). 

crescent - shaped, a. convexo-concave 
(contextual; tech.), crescent, crescentic, 
crescentiform (formal) , semilunar (/onwo/). 
semilunary (a loose usage), meniscal 
(rare or tech.), sigmoid (tech.), homed, 
lunulate, moony (rare), lunular, lunar, 
lunary, lunate. 

crest, n. 1. crown; spec, tuft, comb, cop- 
plecrown (obs. or dial.), topknot, horn, 
plumicom (rare), cockscomb. 


S. The top of a wave: spec, comb, curl. 

crested, a. Spec, muffed, tufted, copple- 
crowned (obs. or dial.). 

crevasse, n. cleft (contextual); spec. 
schrund (Ger.), chimney. 

crib, n. See manger, bedstead, frame. 
S. Spec, translation, key, cab, horse, pony, 
trot; — all but "translation** and *^key 

crier, n. Spec, croaker, crower, bellman, 
muezzin, herald, proclaimer. 

crime, n. offense (contexttud), felony, 
arson, robbery, murder, rape, burglarjj, 
theft, manslaughter, perjury, treason, 
embezzlement; see wrong, transgres- 
sion, SIN. 

criminal, a. 1. unlawful, criminous (rare); 
spec, felonious, burglarious, murderous, 

Antonyms: see lawful. 
S. guilty (contexttud), criminous (chiefly 
spec.), crimeful (rare). 
Antonyms: see innocent. 
S. wicked (contextual), wrong, crimeful 
(rare), villainous. 

criminal, n. offender (contextual), male- 
factor (literary); spec, felon, burglar, 
murderer, thief, robber, perjurer, incendi- 
ary, traitor, embezzler, defaulter, gallow- 

crimson, n. red (contexttud), cramoisy (ar- 
chaic); spec, magenta. 

cringe, v. i. cower, stoop, crouch (fig. or 
spec.), spaniel (fig.; rare)^ crinkle (obs. or 

dial.), fawn, truckle; spec, crawl, grovel, 

sneak; see shrink. 

Antonyms: see bluster, bullt, swaggeb. 
cringe, n. crouch, stoop; see shrink. 

Antonyms: see swagger. 
cringing, a. abject, servile, spaniel (fig.), 

fawning; see obsequious. 
cripple, n. lameter or lamiter (Scot.); spec, 

cripple, V. t, disable (contextual), lame; 

spec, paralyze, maim. 
crippled, a. lame, lamish (rare); spec. 

paralyzed, maimed. 
crisis, n. 1. turn, tuming-pointi hinse 

(fig.), climacteric (learned), rub (fig), 

pinch (fig.). 

S. See juncture. 
crisscross, v. t. cross, gridiron. 
critic, n. judge; spec, connoisseur, dia- 

tribist (rare), reviewer, verbalist, verba- 

rian (rare), censurer, zoilist 0^.). 
critical, a. 1. critic (rare); spec, dissective, 

exacting, hypercritical, supercritical; see 


2. Spec, judicious, accurate. 

S. decisive; spec, climacteric, climacter- 

ical, exigent, dangerous, etc, 
criticism, n. 1. jud^ent (contextual), 

critique; spec, dissection, comment, epi- 

crisis (tech.), appreciation, review, re- 

viewal (rare), animadversion, hyper- 
criticism, nip, zoilism (fig.), diatnbe; 


2. critique; spec, dialectic, dialectics. 
criticize, V. t. jud^B, do (contextual); spec. 
dissect, review, nay, hypercriticize; «ee 


croak, v. i, & t. 1. cry (contextual), quark 

2. forbode (contextual), 
12^ "Croak** is not a synonym of "com- 
plain**; "croak** refers to the future; "com- 
plain** to the past or to what is fixed upon, 

croaking, n. 1. crying (contextual), coaxa- 
tion (rare). 
2. foreboding (contextual), 

crook, n. Spec, dish, jar, pot, pitcher, pig 
(Scot.), plate, etc. 

crocket, n. ornament^ crotchet. 

crocodilian, n. reptile (contextual); spec, 
gavial, alligator, crocodile, cayman. 

Croesus, n. Dives (fig.); spec, nabob, mill- 

Cross references: sec Note. 
OTMOent, a.: waxing, crescent- 

erest, v. L: crown., top. 
orest, V. i.: break. 
orestf alien: depreeaed. 
eretaoeous: chalky. 
oreyioe: deft. 

erew: force, company, gang. 
crib: steal, plagiarize. 
criok: spasm. 
crioket: stool. 

orlmlnate: accuse, involve. 

orlmp, V. t.: gash, impress, 

orlmp, n.; flute, wrinkle. 

orlmpy: wrinkly, curly. 

crinkle, v. %.: wrinkle, ripple. 

crinkle, t>. /.; wrinkle, cun. 

crinkle, n.: twist, wrinkle, rip- 

crinkly: ripply, wrinkly. 

crisp, a.: curly, brittle. Hunt, 
sharp, definite, lively, cold, stiff. 

crisp, V. L: curl, ripple, hardent 

crisscross, n.: cross. 
crisscross, v. i.: cross. 
crisscross, adv.: crosswise. 
crisscross, a.: cross. 
criterion: standard. 
critique: criticism. 
crock, n.: soot, smut. 
crockery: earthenware. 
crone: ufoman. 
crony: comrade. 

ISr See Notes of Explanation. 

ioniure. billionaire; — applied to a very rich 
1 (what conelUuies great riches vaTying 
with the time and place)., 'Crcsswi" w Jin. 
oiook, n. I. See cctrvb, bend, sindositt. 
1. hook, cammock (Seal.; chiefly spec.); 

t. evildoer (conUxiiiol) ; spec, malefactor, 
cheat, swindler. 
oiooked, a. I. cranky irare), crank (Scol.); 


«rop, n. 1. craw, ingluvies (tech.); spec, geb- 
bie (Scot.), gorge. 


oiopper, n. fall (contexlual), plumper. 
It. cronier, crook, paatoral. 
. 1. gibbet, crucifix (an erroneous 
"X {tech.); spec, chriatcroaa or 
(archaic), crosslet, rood (ar- 
chaic), tau. 

S. mark (contextwil), signature (conlexir 
ual), christcroBS (\ ' 
S. See 

'.. I. Meaning "to make the 
. , I on or over": sign {archaic), 

Bam (archaic), bless (archaic). 
%. intersect, decussate liiterary or tech.), 
intercross (rare), cut (Jig.; coniexluat), 
transit (rare); spec, crisscross, gridiron. 
•■ traverse, thwart (rare), cut (chiefly 
spec, and vsed with "over"); spec, be- 
stride, overstride, overstep, stride. 
Antonyms: see adjoin, parallel. 

4. traverse, overpass (rare), puss, trans- 
vetse (rare), tranapaas (rare), thwart (ar- 
chaic), overthwart (rare); spec, swim, 
overswim (rare), raft, overetep, repass, 
recross, leap, jump, etc. 
t. interbreed, mix, crossbreed, inter- 
re), hybridize; spec, cross-fertil- 
ize. "Interbreed" and "cross" or "eroBs- 
fcreed" are ojten distinguished. 


;. I. transverse, thwart (archaic or 
re), traverse (rare), overthwart (rare). 

5. See OPPoaiNQ, ill-tempered, recip- 

croBBbreedlmci ". cross, crossing, inter- 
breeding, hybridization; see cross-fer- 

1. cnitched (ecd.). 

eya, n. strabismus (tech.), cock-cye. 

ocoss-fettlUistloii, >i 

logaray (tech.). 
eiogeiag, n. 1. cross, overpassing, travB 

iag, traverse (archaic). 

i. Spec, miscegenation; 

crossroad, n, crossway, i 

course (a eoUedive; literary). 
oroBB- shaped, a. decussate (chiefly 6o(.), 

crucial (cAie^yanai.), cruciform, cruciate, 

cruciferous (hoi.). 
croBBtie, n. tie, sleeper (chiefly British), 
erossway, n. cross; spec, crossing, cro 

walk; see crosbhoad. 
croBswlrei, n, pi. reticule, reticle; — both 

croBswlse, adv. across, traverse (rare),., 

thwartwise (rare or archaic), transvereely,: 

transverse (rare); spec, crisscross, thwartrJ 

ship, askew, awry, sidewise, sideways. 

Antonyms: see Lengthwise. 
orouoh, V. i. bend (contextual), squat«. 

drop; spec, cower, stoop; see CRif 
crouch, n. bend (contextual), squa^. 

droop; gee chinob, stoop. 
crow, n. 1. crake (dial. Eng.); spec, blaok-^ 

neb (Scot.), HCaldcrow (load), chouEti 

(Comigh), jaj; (ConiisA), hoodie or hoo^ 

(Seal.), corbie (Scot.), grayback, gor- 

t. cry (eoni&ctuai), song (eoniextual; liter- 
ary or tech.), cock-a-doodle-doo (eoUoq.), 

«TQw. V. i. 1. cry (contextual), sing (eonUxh. 
ual; literary or tech.), chanticleer {rare). 
a. See EXULT. 

■trow, a. corvine (literary or tech.). 

oiowbsr, n. gravelock (ohs. or dial. Eng,), 
crow; spec, pinch, pinchbar, jemmy, 

crowd, n. 1. gathering, concourse (liter- 
ary), horde, press, drove (disparaging), 
mass, mob (chiefly disparaging), host, 
herd (disparaging), swarm, ruck (dis- 
paraging), rout, pack, cram, jam, crush, 
huddle, throng. 
I. See mcltitude, popttlacb, pbessubb. 

crowd, II. (. 1. See hasten, push. 
1. Rejcrring to persons brought uncomfort- 
together: gather, huddle, over- 


ably dose t< 

B NotM ot EiplanatloD. 


die, cram, overcrowd, tuck, ram, com- 
press; wedge. 

4. Referring to the place in which things or 
persons are brought or placed too close to- 
gether: spec, pack, jam, cram, wedge, over- 
crowd, overcnarge, throng, gorge, congest. 

crowd, V. t. 1. See hasten. 

5. gather, collect, congregate, huddle; 
spec, throng, mob, press, crush, herd, 
serry {literary)^ swarm, cram, wedge, 
huddle, nestle, jug, shoal; see snuqqle. 

Antonyms: see scatter, straggle. 

crowded, a. 1. full, packed, jammed, etc. 
S. thick, serried (literary) , thronged, etc. 
Antonyms: see thin, 

crowding, n. 1. press, throng; spec, hud- 
2. See pressure. 

crowlike, a. corvine, corvoid (chiefly spec.) ; 
—both tech. 

crown, n. 1. chaplet, coronal, corona 
(Latin) f ring (contextual) j crownal (obs. or 
archaic) J circlet, diadem (now chiefly po- 
litical or rhetorical); spec, crownlet, coro- 
net, aureola, aureole, bays (pi. used with 
*Hhe' ), festoon, laurel, wreath. 
2. head-dress; spec, pschent (Egyptian), 
S. top, crest; spec, copplecrown, top- 
knot, cockscomb. 

4. top, climax, complement. 

5. top (contextual) f sinciput, poll, vertex. 


crown, a. coronary. *^ Crown*' is the noun 

used attributively. 
crown, V. t. 1. coronate (rare), diadem 

(rare, exc. in p. p. diademed); spec, coro- 
net, laurel; see wreathe. 

2. top; spec, culminate (rare), cap, head, 

pinnacle (rare), crest. 
crowned, a. incoronate (rare), diademed; 

spec, garlanded, wreathed, laureled, 

crowning, n. coronation (the formal word 

for the ceremony), 

crownlike, a. Spec, garlandish, garlandy. 
crucifixion, n. 1. Spec, Calvary. 


crucify, V, t, 1. execute (contextual) f hang 
2. /See REPRESS. 

crude, a. 1. raw, unfinished, unprepared; 
spec, rough, unwrought, unmanufactured, 
half-baked, unbaked, green, undiluted, 
unfulled, unburnt, unrefined, undressed, 
unmalted, undigested, untamed, rawish, 
imcut, etc. 

2. raw, imfinished, crass, imperfect; spec 
plain, rude, tasteless, rough, gross, axt&sB, 
mcondite (rare), harsh, inartistic, half- 
baked, immature, ineloquent, sketchy, 
rough, bold, bare, etc.; see clumsy. 
Antonyms: see accomplished, nice, 


cruel, a. 1. cold-blooded, cold, unfeeling, 
hard-hearted, hard, harsh, imkind (a 
euphemism), heartless, fell (rhetorical or 
poetic), severe, felon (poetic); spec, dev- 
ilish, atrocious, savage, barbarous. Dra- 
conian, swinish, boarish, brutal, butch- 
erly, brute, inhuman, brutish, sanguinary, 
tigerish, wolfish, fiendish, iron, merciless, 
ruthless, pitiless, ferocious, truculent, in- 
Antonyms: see gentle, compassionate, 


2. Figuratively: spec, severe, sharp, hard, 
unfavorable, etc, 

cruelty, n. cold-bloodedness, coldness, 
harshness, unkindness (euphemistic), fell- 
ness (poetic or rhetorical); spec, deviltry, 
deviliy, atrocity, truculence, barbarity, 
savagery, etc. 
Antonyms: see compassion, gentle- 
ness, MERCT. 

cruise, v, i, ran^; see voyage, sail. 

cruise, V, t, navigate, range. 

cruiser, n. man-of-war; spec, corvette, 
battle cruiser. 

crumbly, a. breakable (contextual), friable, 
crump (Scot, & dial, Eng.), soft (context- 
ual), crummable (rar^; spec, rotten, 
short, brittle, pulverizable (contextual), 
slack, moldery (rare), brashy. 
Antonyms: see strong. 

crunch, v, t, chew (contextual), cranch or 
craunch (obsolescent), grind, crush, press, 

crupper, n. 1. Referring to part of a harness 
or saddle: loop (contextual), dock. 
2. See RUMP. 

crush, V, t, 1. bruise (rare), press (coniexi' 
tud), pash (archaic); spec, mash, smash, 
squash, grind, jam, cranch or craunch 
(obsolescent), crunch, scrunch. 
2. See PRESS, ovbbcome, oppress, 


crush, n. 1. pressure (corUextual), pash (or- 
chaic); spec, mash, grind, cruncn, squash. 

crust, n. 1. coat (contextual), skin (conr 
textual), incrustation, cake, coatins 
(chiefly spec), crustation (rare), rind 

Cross referenus: see Note. 
oruoUd: decisive. 
oruoiflz: ctobb. 
omoUorm: croas^ahaped, 
omet: bottle. 

oruise: sail, voyage. 
orumb, v. L: eommintUe, 
orumble: dinntegrate. 
orump: chew. 
crumple: wrinkle. 

omnohtng; preaaure. 
orusade, n.: wear, tnovemerU. 
crusade, v. i.: war, campaign, 
cruse: bottle, jvg, jar. 
crush lug: preaaure. 

ISr See Notes of Explanation. 

(ehiefiy spec.), encruatment; spec, ahell, 
effioreacence, druse, pie crust, case, sourf 
(rare), sinter, scale. 
1. See SCAB. 
omit, f. I. cake; spec, effloresce, aver- 

omst, P. (. incruHt w encruat, cake, in- 
cruatote (rare); spec, bark, enamel. 

ory, u. i. t. Referring lo neraons: Bjiee. 
shout, exclaim, clamor, call, blare, bray 
iapec. or Aumoroua), chuckle, cluck, coo, 
oroak, crool, croon, croup, crow, chirp, 
chirrup, holla, hollo, holloa, hoop, hoot, 
howl, liilliloo, peep, pule, screak, screech, 
Bhrill, squall, squeak, squeal, whimper, 
yang (rare), whoop, yell, yoop (rare); aee 

Anhm]/7n»: see i^uor, smile. 
% Beferrina lo animala: spec, call, note, 
baa, Day, l>ell, howl, sing, blare, blat, 
bleat, boo, bow-wow, bray, cackle, cauk 
(dial.), caterwaul, caw, cawk, cheep, 
chim, chirp, chirr, clutter, cluck, clock 
(rare), coo, crake, croak, crook {dial.), 
cuckoo, drum, gabble, ^gglc, hee-haw 
IcoUoq.), honk {U. S. & Con.), hoot, juck, 
juke, jug, keckle, low, mew, miaow, 
mewl, miaul, moo, neigh, open, peep, 
pew, potnvck (rore), purr, quack, scape, 
screak, scream, acreech, shriek, shrill, 
squeak, squawk, trumpet, twitter, weet, 
wepe (anoTieeioord), whimper, yelp, yowl; 


%. lament, weep; epec. squall, wall, whim- 
per. Bob, bawl, snivel, blubber. 
AnioKijms: see rejoice, lauqh. 
4. See APPEAL, MotntN. 

ory, V. X. I. utter {amlexiuid); spec, shout, 
exclaim, proclaim. 
a. See HAWK. 

ory, n. I. Referring to peraons: utterance 
(,conlextu(d); spec, shout, exclamation, 
scream, clamor, call, blare, boo, boohoo, 
bray (obs. or humoroua), cackle, chirm, 
chirk, chirrup, chuckle, check, coo, 
croak, crool, croup, crow, gabble, hollo, 
holloa, hoot, hoaanna, bowl, tulliloo, lure, 
peep, quaver, roar, screak, screech, 
ahn^, shrilling, anivel, sob, squall, 
squawk, squeal, wail, whimper, whoop, 
yang (rore), yoop (rare), yell; sec bellow, 


t. Referring to animals: spec, note, call, 
boa, bark, bay, bell, blare, blat, bleat, 
boation (rore), boo, boom, bow-wow, bray, 
buUer (Scot.), bumble (cant, dial.), cackle, 
caterwaul, caw, cawk, cheep, chirm. 

chirp, chirr, clock (rare), chuckle, clucl^ 1 
cou, crake, croak, cronk (dial.), gabble, ^ 
gaggle, gobble, gobblement (rare), growl, 
hee-haw (coitoo.), honk ([/. S. & Can.), 
hoot, howl, jucK or juke, jug, keckle, low, 
mew, mewl, miaow, maul, moo, neigh, 
pheal (rare), purr, ouack, scape, screak, 
scream, screech, snriek, shrill, song, 
squall, squawk, squeak, squeal, trumpet, 
twitter, wail, weet, weke, whimper, 
whoop, yelp, yowl; see cbi 

■. See APPEAL, T 

4. weep (rare); tpee. boohoo, wail, whin>- I 

per, squall, sob, bawl. 

Anlonjfms: see l 

' " o. 1. (TV-S 

opposed to "colhid"), oryatalli-n 

form (tech.): spec, drusiform, glacial. 

1. See CLEAR. 
Dryttal, f. i. Crystallize. 
oryital-caie, I', i. scry, "Cryalal-gaee" 

rare, exc, in the form "crystcurgaring." 
crystal- gaaer, n, seer (ctmfezluai), scrye 
orystBlliie, v. t. solidify {conUxiual), ooi 

geal (cimlextuat) , crystal (rare arid tiUr- | 

ary); spec, candy, shoot. 
oub, n. offspring (eonfextwd), whelp, 
cube, n. 1. soUd (amlexlual) , die {chieflg I 

orcAi(ec(iiroi), hexahedron (jfeom.). f 

5. pToduct(c(m^xfuai), power (coTttexluaJ), I 
ouokold. n. comute (archaic), cornuto (or- I 

ehaic); spec, wittol. I 

ouokold, B. t. born (obe.), comute (or- I 

ouokolded, a. horned, cornuted (arcAatc), 

forked (obs. or archaic). 
oudEel, n. A v. club; spec, bastinado, ] 

crab, bludgeon, baton, batoon (arcAate). 1 
cue, n. I. queue, pigtail or (for short) tail 4 

(edloq. or humorous); spec, braid, plait, I 

S. See FILE. 
onfl, n. blow (conlexluor). 
ouO, i>. t. strike (contextiiai), slap, box, buF- 1 

fet, handicuff (aUhq.). f 

oul-de-wo, n. pocket, impasse (Prmeh), J 

no-thoroughfare. "Cttl-d^sac" ia Frenob. ^ 
oulmlnate, f. t. top (coUog.). 
oult, n. t. cultus; spec, worship. 

I. See DEVOTION, rite, homage 
onltlvate, v. t. 1. farm, till (noio cMeJljf 1 

spec.), work, culture (rare), labor (rare); 

spec, garden, hoe, rake. 

i. R^erring lo working on plants: grow, 

husband (rare); spec, hoe, earth. 


S. See CIVILIZE, refine, pursue, court, 


oultiTation, n. 1. fanning, tillage (now 
chiefly spec,), husbandry, culture, tilth 

S. Referring to work on plants: growth, 

S. See CIVILIZATION, refinement, pur- 

oulture, n. 1. See cultivation. 
S. Spec, education, development, en- 
lightenment, civilization, humanism, hu- 
manity (archaic) f Uterature (rare); see 


Antonyms: see barbarism. 
cuneiform, n. writing (contextual) ^ print 

(contextual); spec, sphenogram. 
ounningy a. 1. See skillful, artful, 


2. interesting (contextual), cute (coUoq.), 

cup, n. 1. Spec, chalice (poetic^ elevated, 
or eccl.), mazer (065. or hist.), goblet (ar- 
chaic, exc. spec), noggin, mug, pannikin, 
porrin^r, jorum (coUoq.), stein (German), 
cannikin, cyathus, tazza (Italian), cylix, 
calix, can, bumper, chark (Russian), 
beaker, rhvton, standard, taster, bucket, 
gourd, goddard (obs. or dial.), 
S. See SHARE. 

cupbearer, n. Ganymede (hist, or fijg.), 
Hebe (hist, or fi^.), 

cupboard, n. closet; spec, buffet, locker, 

oupld, n. love, Eros (Greek), ** Cupid'* is 
the Latin god. 

oup- shaped, a, calciform (rare), poculi- 
form (tech.), cupped, cuppy (rare); spec. 
cupular, cupulate, cotyliform, cotyloid, 
calathiform, cyathiform. 

curable, a healable, remediable, mendable 
(06a. or dial.), recoverable, medicable. 
Antonyms: see incurable. 

curate, n. minister (contextual), rector, 

curative, a. beneficial, restorative, cura- 
tory, healing, remedial, medical (rare), 
consolidant (rare), salutary, sanative 
(rare), sanatative, sanatory; spec, medic- 
able (rare), medicinal, incamative (rare), 
recuperative, recuperatory, vulnerary. 

curb, n. 1. See control, restraint, 


S. inclosure; spec, collar, puteal. 

curd, n. coagulum; spec, clabber, bonny- 

curdle, v, t, & i, coagulate. 
cure, n. 1. ^ee ministrt, bemedt, r& 


2. preservation (rare or ajfected); spec, en- 
sik^, coming, smoking, jerkins, etc. 

cure, V, t, 1. heal, rem^y (rare), recover, 
sanitate (rare), sanitize (rare), restore, 
mend (archaic), leech (archaic); spec, 
cicatrize, incam (rare). 
Antonyms: see disease. 
2. preserve; spec, ripen, ensilate, ensile 
or ensilage, kipper, season, jerk, dry, 
smoke, pickle. 

curiosity, n. 1. curiousness, inquiringness. 
inquisitiveness (chiefly used in a had 
sense); spec, pr^gness, prying, question- 
ing, interrogation. 
Antonyms: see indifference. 
2. article (contextual), curio, brio-&-brao 
(a collective). 

curious, a, 1. See nice, odd, elaborate. 
2. inquiring, inquisitive (chiejly tued in a 
bad sense); spec, seeking, inquisitorial, in- 
quisitional, zeteticj interrogative, prying, 
questioning, scrutinizing, mousing, per- 
contatorial (rore), supercurious. 
Antonyms: see indifferent. 

curl, n^ 1. roll (contextual), convolution 
(tech, or learned), volute (tech, or learned); 
see twist, coil, spiral. 
2. Referring to the hair: buckle (archaic), 
ringlet, feak (rare); spec, cannon, curlicue, 
frizz, frounce, frizzle, kink, lovdock, kin- 
kle, favorite, toupee. 

curl, V. t. 1. roll (contextual); see twist, 
coil, spiral. 

2. Referring to the hair: spee, kink, frizz, 
frounce, frizzle, crinkle, crimp, crisp, 
Phiygianize (nonce word). 
S. Keferrina to the state: buckle; spec, 
crispation (rare), crispature (rare). 
4. See crest. 

curl, V, i, roll (contextual); see wave, bipple. 

curled, a, rolled (contextual), convolute 
(leamisd or tech.)^ volute (learned or tech); 
spec, coiled, cychcal, involute; see curly. 

curly, a. Spec, curled, kinky, frizzly, 
frizzy, crimpy, kinklea, spiry (rare), 
fuzzy, crisp, wreathy. 

curly- haired, a. Referring to a dog: spec, 

Cross references: see Note. 
oaltlTat«d: aHificial, refined. 
ooltUTMl: refined. 
oultus: ctdt. 
oulTwrt: drain. 
oumber, r. t.: hamper, burden. 
oomber, n.; burden. 
oumbersoine: hindering, bur- 

densome, unwieldy. 
oombrous: unwieldy, clumay. 
oamolate: accumulate. 

oumulus: heap, cloud. 
ouneifonn: wedge-shaped. 
cunnlnCf n.: skill, art. 
cupidity: greed. 
cupldous: greedy. 
cupped: cup-shaped. 
cuppy: cup-shaped, pitted. 
cupreous: copper, copper-col- 

cur: dog, coward, tmretch. 
curacy: ministry. 

curator: custodian, 
curatory: eurcUive. 
curb, V. t.: restrain, aubdtte. 
curd: coagulum. 
curdle: coagulate. 
cur^ n.: minister. 
curfew: ringing. 
curio: curiosity. 
curioumets: curiosity. 
curlicue: curl. 
curmudgeon: niggard. 

|^~ See Notes of Explanation. 


ciment, a. 1. iSee prevalent, PASSitni, 

). Befaritig to money, etc.: circulatjve 
(rare), circukting. 

S. accepted, received, abroad, afloat; 
apec Benerid, rife. 

" " ' - ■> expense, etc.: occurrent 

S. atream; spec, tide, race, rip, draught, 
underset, uodertow, roost (local; BriiUli). 

curry, v. t. I. comb {cordextual), curry- 
comb, groom. 

*. Figuralimly: apec. tickle, scrape, beat, 
blight, plague; see thrash. 

curse, V. t. I, moledict {rare), devote, exe- 
crate {learned), auathematize (learned and, 
property, firmal), bless (eix-pkemUtic or 
iron tea/), damn {nowchiejiymedvutgaTly), 
ban (archaic), blank (euoAemuf ic) , ousa 
(vulgar or coUoq,,andeupkemislie; U. S.), 
shrew or beshrew (arcluiic), pest (rare); 
spec, hoodoo. 


onrae, v. i. blaspheme, profane (rare), pest 
(rare), anathemivtiio (learned and, ■prop- 
erty,foniial), execrate (learned), fulminate 
(fiS. or lech.). 

oniM, n. I. malediction, execration (learn- 
ed), imprecation, anatheuia (properly, for- 
nud), ban (archaic), blessing (eupherrmlU: 
or ironieai), malison (archaic); spec, ma- 
ranatha, excommunciation, hoodoo, damn 
; ' T archaic; orig. a vulgar 
ejaeuialiDn) . "Curse" is the vernacular 

S. Spec, trouble, calamity, pest. 
QUTiad, a. I. damnable (tune chiejiy imlgar 
and vro/arie), execrable (now vwkened in 
force), infernal (coUoq. and euphemistic), 
confounded (nota euphemistic); see ac- 

«, See HATEFtn,. 
cnrHtDK. n. malediction, execration. 
Atitonytns: see BLEseiNo, peater, 
curiluc a. Bxecratory, execrative. 
Duraory, a. passing, transient, running; 

spec, haaty, hurried; see CAtu:t£ss, super- 

euTt, a. 1. See short, BRn:F. 

9. brief (contextual), short, snappish, 

snappy; spec, tart, brusque. 
Antonyme: see oraciods. 
eurt»ln, n. screen, ridel or ritldel (arclutic), 

mia: let Halt. ooRTOomh: , 

veil (cftie^y Jt| 

. . J^-)i" spec, drop, purdah (EaA 
India), portiere (Frendi), arras, lambre- 
quin ((/. S.), valance, shade. 

cnitaiii, v. t. screen (conUxtiud), veil 
(chiefly fig.); spec, shade. 

ourtiy, onrtaey, n. civihty (contexiuafl, 

coTTatuTv, n. t. Referring lo the action or 
ad: bend, curve, bending, curving, curva- 
tion; apec. camber (chiefly lech.), round- 
ing, prociirvation, incurvation, recurva- 
tion, recurvature, convexity, convexneas 
(rare), concavity, winding, concavenen-j 
(rare), retroflexion, sheer. 
8. See cnRVB. 

curve, n. t. Referring to the stale o. .... 
form produred: bend, curvature, inflectlral 
(fiferar^), compass (tech.), bent (rare'y^ 
spec, bow, crook, round (archaic), roun 
about, arc, flex, arch, bight, sinus, c 
curvation, recurvation, retroSex, recun 
tiire, sweep, epicycloid, conchoid, cato-  
nary, ourl, sheer, eUlpse, evolute, cycldd, 
eTctradoB (architecture), logistic, polbode, 
ogee, epitrochoid, herpolhode, gadroon, 
twist, incurvatjoa, wind, circle, wave, con- 
vexity, convex (Tare), concavity, concaw I 
(rare), geanticlinal, gcosynclinm, oxboWrV 
coil, sinuosity, turn, spiral. M 

2. See cuRVATnaB. ^ 

•■ Referring to a curved Aing: apse, bend, ' 
bow, cambrel (068. or dial., crwik. 

aurve, v. t. A i. bend, turn, inflect, round, 
crook; spec, bow, embow, twist, arch, arc, 
decurve, camber, incurve, incurvate, n- 
cunre, recurvate, reflect, wind, hook, J 
spire, coil.  

Antonyms: see straighten. I 

oiuTed, a. bent (primarily spec.), bowed, 1 
curvato (rare), crooked, curvilinear; gjiec. ' 
roundish, rounded, spherical, arched, in- 
bent, reflex, incurved, campylotropoua, 
embowed (liUrary), retorted (rare), con- 
cave, convex, bulging, sweepy, arcuato. 
crumpled, camera^, eompaaa, cl___ 
circinal, crescent, falcate, falcatod, n 
date, elUptic, circular, oval, tortile (1 
recurved, recurvate; 

Antonyms: see ANQtJIuUt, f . 

cuTTflt. n. jump (contextual), leap (eo 
ual), courbette (French), vault. 

cuahion, n. I. pillow; »p«c, pad, w . _._, 
bolster, panel, mat. wad, compress, buck* 
ram, pillion, basa, nassock, quilt. 

a. See BUFFER. 

DnBhlon, V. t. 1. Spec, pitd, protect, 1 
ster, cover, scat, wad, quilt. 

iJv. dip. depriw. 
W Bee HotM ttt EiplaiMtion 


2. rest, pillow. 

cushioned, a. Spec, padded, gamboised, 

cushion- shaped, a. pulvinate (tech,). 

cusk, n. torsk. 

cusp, n. point (contextual), apex, peak, 
cuspis (tech.); spec. horn. 

custodian, n. guardian, guardianess (fern,; 
rare)f keeper, custodier {Scots law), custos 
(Latin); svec. conservator, curator, cura- 
trix (fern.), warden, concierge (French), 
janitor, janitress, tutor, sacrist, sacristan. 

custom, n. 1. practice, use (now rare), 
praxis (rare), usage (properly spec.), con- 
suetude, wont (now chiefly literary), fash- 
ion (diiefly spec.), dustoor (East India); 
spec, rite, localism, way, manner, proce- 
dure, prescription, institution; see con- 
vention, HABIT. 

S. patronage, support. 
customary, a. accustomed, wonted, usual, 
consuetudinary (rare), ordinary (context- 
ual), regular; spec, everyday, natural, 
traditioiml, traditionary, nomic, pre- 

Antonyms : see unaccustomed, un- 
conventional, OBSOLETE, OCCASIONAL, 

customer, n. 1. buyer, purchaser, patron. 

customhouse, n. douane (French), do- 
gana (Italian). 

cut, V, t. & i. 1. incise (teamed, except in 
p. a. **incised"), incide (rare), separate 
(contextual); spec, carve, cleave, truncate, 
lance, scarify, bite, dissect, snear, poll, 
shave, skive, scissor, snip, saw, bite, 
scythe, slice, sUt, slash, knife, mince, 
chop, barb, poll, chisel, sculpture, chip, 
mow, reap, gouge, hack, hash, nick, hew, 
facet, saber or sabre, score, scotch, flitch, 
gash, crimp, crease, hog, shred, lop, dock, 
carbonado, roach, clip, crop, trim, cas- 
trate, whittle, pare. 

PART (v. i.). 

S. Referring to the sensibilities: hurt, bite, 
sting, pain, wound. 

4. ignore, rump (rare; slang); see slight. 
out, n. U Referring to an act: cutting 
(rare), incision (learned), incisure (rare); 
spec, gash, nick, discission (rare), bite^ 
crop, scotch, shave, shear, clip, snip, 
carve, slit. 

2. Referring to the place or form made by 
cutting: spec, cutting, gash, slash, nick, in- 
cision (learned), scotch, notch, channel, 
furrow, passage, groove, jad, facet. 
S. Referring to a piece or part cut off or oui: 
spec, cutting, clipping, shaving, peel, 
scrap, mowing, crop, fall, snip, paring, 

4. Referririg to a piece of meat or food cut 
off: spec, joint, sparerib, fliitch, clod, col- 
lop, cnop, sUce, steak, crop, round, snoul- 
der, neck, brisket, rump, etc. 


out, a. Spec, gashy, shorn, tonsured, 
slashed, carv^, carven (rhetorical), 
hacked, cleft, etc, 

cuttable, a, sectile (learned or tech.), sec- 
able (rare); spec, cleavable. 

cutter, n. Spec, cleaver, diamond, 6cra- 
seur (French), colter or coulter, cropper, 
carver, clipper, chopper, microtome, 
mower, hewer, hook, blade, shear, sickle, 
scythe, knife, etc. 

cutting, a. 1. sharp, incisive (learned), in- 
cisory (rare), sectorial (learned); spec, 

2. Referring to lanquage, etc.: sharp, bit- 
ing, stinging, wounding; see acrimonious, 


cutting, n. 1. Referring to the action: cut 
(rare), incision (learned), section (chiefly 
tech.), scission (rare); spec, tonsure, exci- 
sion, concision, shaving, clipping, etc, 
2. See CUT. 

cycle, n. 1. See circle, round. 
2. period; spec, saros, a^. 

5. wheel (colloq.), machme (coUoq.), bike 
(slang); spec, bicycle, tricycle, quad- 
ricycle, tandem, pneumatic, quartet, 
qumtet, quintuplet, hydrocycle, motor- 

cyclic, a, 1. circular; — chiefly of poems, 
periods of time, etc, 


cylinder, n. Spec, rundle, cannon, drum, 

cage, barrel, fly, roll; see roller. 
cylindrical, a. cylindraceous (rare), cylin- 

dric (rare), cylindriform (rare), round 

(contextual; spec), cylindroid. 
cynic, n. 1. See philosopher. 

2. misanthrope, pessimist (contextual), 
cynical, a. 1. See surly. 

2. S^. Diogenic. 

S. misanthropic; spec, sneering, satirical, 


Cross references: sec Note. 
cuipid: canine. 
cuspidate, ouspidated; point* 

ed, ornamented. 
onspidor: spittoon. 
onstody: care, imprisonmerU. 
customable: taxcMe. 

out-and-dried: prearranged, 

cutaneous: akin. 
cute: cunnijig, ekrewd, dever, 
cuticle: skin. 
cutlass: award, 
ontty: ahart. 

cycloid: circular. 
Cyclopean: giganHct maaaive. 
cydorama: ahow. 
cynosure: attratAion, 
cyst: cheat, aac, 
cystic: veaieular, 
osar: monardi. 

1^* See Notes of Explanation. 

d»b, c. t. I. strike (contextiial), tap; »pec. 

peek, slap, pat. 

S. See SPOT. 
dkb, n. I. stroke {contextual), tap; spec. 

peck, slap, pat. 

i; spec. splasR, paddle, patter, plout«r 

(ckiejly Scot.). 

S. potter, trifle, smatter, get. potter. 
dabblvr, n. 1. mudlark (cnUoq.), 

a. dabster, potterer, siiiatl«rer; spec. 

BcioUst (learned). Cf. bunqle. 
ATUonjpns: see expert. 
dB«Br, n. 1. weapon (contextwd), point 

(juno rare), tickler (slang), Skene (archaic 

or hut.), paraionium (Creek ajUiq.), 

Erog (rare); spec, poniard (lilerary), bod- 
in (archaic), atoghan, creese, crease, 
kris, kuttar, misericord, dirk, stiletto, 
stylet, poigDBdo or pomado (aTchaic), 
left-hander, khanjar, dudgeon (archaic), 
i. In ■printing: obeliak ; s'pec. dieaia (double 

daUr, a. diurnal, quotidian (i 
Antiynyms: see noctdrnal 

dainty, a. 1. See palatable, 
PASTiniocs, NICE. 

9. beautiful, pretty, elegant, delicate, neat, 
trim, tricksy (rare), e^quiBit&(ver!/ dainty) , 
Antonyms: see DOLT, CLDMsy, coarse. 
I. nice; spec, squeamish, fosUdioua, eic- 

d^*, n. tribune (contextual), platform (con- 
textual), hautpas (French); spec, estradc 
(rare), half-pace, footpace. 

dim, n. obstruction (amteiinal), barrier 
(cmtexlJuU), weir; spec, barrage. 

dam, D. I. obstruct (context juil), bay; spec. 
pond (Eng.). 

danoe, n. 1. measure (poetic), saltation 
(cap. characterized by Itaping steps; rare); 
spec, valse, courante, courant, country- 
dance, walti, strathspey (Scot.), eun 
dance, BCguiditla (Spanish), tAngo, 
turkey-trot, bunny-hug, onestep, two- 
st«p, Doston, gennan, saraband, saltarello 
(Italian), schottische, shuffle, roundelay, 
round, tarantella, rigadoon, Romaika, roly- 
poly, ridotto (tlalian), juba (U. S.), tam- 

bourio, pas, pasaepied, grandfather, n 
ris, minuet, hay, pavan (hiist.), danse K 
abre {French), danoe ot death, gave ... 
hobble, boedown ((/. S.), brewt-down, 
hornpipe, gallaird (hist.), gallopade, ^op, 
bolero, contre-dance, cotillion or cotillon, 
corroboree, Cracovienne (French), brawl, 
cachuaha, canary, oancan^ caper, cann&- 
gnole, polka, reel, kantikov, quadrilla,] 
fandango (Spanish), cnemise (cant), 

». party (contextual), assembly (txmt 

wu); spec, ball, hop {slang or ooUoq.yfM 
promenade, naiitch (India). 
danoe, c. i. A t. foot (chiefly wiih "t('*j 
rare); spec, step, trip (U), tread (cotwj 
textual), waltz, tripudiate (rare), rigadtnitW 

play, bob, jjggle, jig, jig^, bobble;J 
spec, caper, jump, dandle. 

dancer, n. Terpsichore (jig.), 
(masc,; French), fiaurant* (Jem.; . 

danseuse (/em.; French); spec. Biagpr,M 
kicker, coryphee, matachin. I 

danolng, n. footing (conlexlutd) , oraheatiol 
{the art; rare), Terpsichore {as an art; fig.),. M 

danclnc, a. 1. saJtatorial, saltatory; — bolk I 
». See JK 

danolnc cirL Spec, bayadere (India), J 
geisha (Japanese). L 

dandy, n. 1. fop, coxcomb or (less laual) 1 
cockscomb, esquisite, fopling, popinjftf | 
(archaic), petit-maltre (French!, beau, , 
beau-gargon (French), jackanapes (ar- 
chaic), man milliner (contemptuoiu; ar- 
chaic), jack-anjandy (archaic), prick-me- 
dainty (archaic), buck (ardtaic), mus- 
cadin (French), bawcock (obs.), toff 
(atartg, Eng.), skipjacic (archaic), dudine 
(female dude; coUoa.), swell (eoUoq.), duds 
(one excessively dandified); spec, tnajo 
(Spanish), incroyable (French), hautton 
(French), taahionablea (pi.). 
Antonyms: see sloven, raoaudtpi 

dandy, a. foppish, smart {archai. 
obs.), exquisite, dudish (implying excess), 
coxcombical, jackanapish (rare), buckiu 
(arehaie), dandified, lardy-dardy (slang). 
Antonyms: see shabby, slovenlt. 

daudylim, n. foppery, foppishness, ex> 


I A^m 

quiBitiam (implifing excess), exquisiteness 
fimjJl^npezceMl.inacaromsm (rare), dud- 
ism Ivnplifing excess), ooxcombery, jacks/- 
napery (.rare), j&ck-a-dandyiam (archaic), 
peacockery (diaparoffing or cottlemplxmiis). 
dkngeii n. hazard, riak, peril, ieopardy; 
^ee. venture, rock {something dangerous; 

Antonyms: sse 8AFE1T. 
iceioiis, a. bad (amtexlual), risky, haz- 


tickliA " (coiioj.), nice^ kittle (Scot, or 
lUerary). delicate, eenouB, ugly, nasty, 
adventurous, breakneck, thorny. 
AjUonyms: see bape. 

danBlsi c. t. hang, pendulate (rare); 
spec, awing, jiggle. 

dapple, a. spotted, variegated; spec. 

dappla, V. I. spot, variegate. 

dare, v. t. I. See cuallenqe, tace, deit. 
9. undertake, venture; — nol close ayn~ 

dare-devil, n. devil [coUoq.), madcap. 

dark, a. 1> Spec, olracure, tenebrous (lit- 
erary), gloomy, raylegs, dingy, dim, dim- 
mish, murk (archaic or poetic), murky, 
blind, caliginoua (literary), obfuscous 
(rare). Cimmerian (alhtding to the Cim- 
mmana, fahled to live in perpetual dark- 
ness), dun, dunny, dunnish, cloudj' (oftim 
fig.), umbrageous (literary), fuliginous. 
Booty, grimy, somber, atramentous (liter- 
ary), ewarmy, swart, tawny, drumly 
(ehimy Seol. or literary), gloomy, muddy, 
murfcaome (rore), nigntly, crepuscular 
(often fig.), nonluminescent (formal), non- 
luminouB (fanitid), dead, crepusculine 
(rare), dirty, torchleas, shadowy, unsunned 
(rare), sunless, rayless, cloudy, darkful, 
aarkiah. darksome (vaguer and weaker 
than dark"; chiefly poetic), deadly, 
grimed, umbery (rare), fuscous (ekiefiy 
not. hiM.), duskv, opaque, swarthy, fus- 
ceaoent (rare), black, coaly, carbonaceous 

Srare), dull, ebony, pitchy, inky, inkish 
rare) , liphtloss, nigrescent (rare) , funereal, 
unilluimned ; see DUf, BHADT, BLACK, DULL. 


%. Referring to the understanding: 

■, Referring to ike complexion: swarthy 
tawny, duaky, swart (sfroTifjer fAan (awn^) 
■pec grimy, ebony. 
AntanyTns: see faib, pale. 

dark, n. darkness; spec, obscurity, tene- 
brousneaa (lUerary), tenebrosity (lUerary), 
din^inesa, dimness, murkineas, murk 
(chiefly lUerary), <»liginosity ((iterory), 
dun, timbrageousnesa (literary), ebony, 
swarthinesa, swartness, tawniness, gloom, 
shadow, pitchineaa, inkiness. 
Antonyms: see lioht, moonugbt. 

darken, v. t. 1. dark (archaic or poetic), 
denigrate (rare); spec, darkle, dim, 
black, blacken, shade, muddy, eclipse, 
dun, dull, dislust«r (rore), eboniae, dusVen 
(rare), cloud, fog, dLsillumlnate, encloud 
(iTttensive; rare), gloom, obumbrate (liter- 
ary), obtenebrate (rare), overshaidow, 
shade, murk (rare), obfuscate (rare), ob- 
nubilate (rare), overdoom (rore), over- 
shade (rare), overcloud, overcast, oSuscate 
(rare), blur, becloud (inlenniiie), bedim 
(irUenaive), bedarken (intensive), bescreen 
(intensive), begloom (intensive), sable 
(chiefly poetic), umber (rare), somber. 
Antonyms; tee light, brighten. 
I. Spec. Him (the eyes or sight, or the sight 
of), Mur, purblind, blear, blind, obscure, 
obfuscate (rare), mist. 
). Referring to the understanding: spec. 
dull, beniglit, obscure, mystify. 
Antonyms: see enughtbn. 
' " SULLT. 

darken, v. t, 1. dark (arcAatc or poetic); 
spec, darkle (literary), cloud, dusk ((iier- 
ary), dim, dull, dusken (rare), gloom, 
umber (fig.). 

a. In the senile of "to grow angry looking": 
darkle, cloud. 

darkened, a. Spec, obscured, obfuscate, 
clouded, cloudy, ustulate (rare), infus- 
cate (rare). 

darkenlai, n. obscuration (contextual); 
spec, blackening, clouding, etc. 

darknen, n. I. dark; spec, obscurity, 
dimness, dinginess, dusk, duskiness, 
duskiness, tawniness, gloom, gloominess, 
swartneas, swarthineas, srimineBs, calig- 
inousneas (literary), murkiness, somber- 
nesa, dullness, shadow, shadowiness, 
shadinesa, duakishness, caliginosity (ar- 
chaic), tenebrosity (literary), smokiness, 
umbrageousness (literary), fuliginosity 
(literary), sootiness, muddiness, dimmit 
(dial. Eng,), lightlesaness, murk (chiefly 
Scot), night, opacity, eclipse, dunneas 
(rare), shades (pt.), etc.; see shadino. 

I amtllm; hanginii. 

I dappl«: apoUrd. r 

I dart: chaileiv/e. defi^na. 
dua-darll, a.: rrMtu. 
darlQC' ^'^i bfart, defiant. 

@° See Notea at Explanation 

I. Spec, obscurity, mystery, abstruse- 

nesB, gloom, depresaion, wickcdtii 

norance, blindneas, secrecy. 
dBrlinCii. beloved, favorite, pet {wlikh see). 

Antonyna: oee disliked. 
dkrt, 71, I. Rpcar {chiefly spec), weapon, 

lance, javetin, («pec.), gavelock [obs. or 

hist.), bandenlla, jcrid or jcreed, whisk. 

9, fyferring to the molion: g,xc. jump, 

bolt, flit, shoot, leap, spring, whisk, 

pouDce, flirt. 
dart, V. t. 1. throw^ hurl, dartle; spec. 

shoot, flirt, launch, jaculate (rare). 

t. direct (a look, etc.). 
dtut, s. i. shoot, scoot (colloq.): spec, leap, 

C-np, pounce, spring, rush, dartle, rocket, 
It, flit, flirt, whip, whisk, scoot, rush, 

dsBh, V. t. 1. propel {conlext-uaT), strike, 
beat, knock, pash {now chiefiy dial. Eng.), 
slam; spte. smash (eollaq.), swash, ding, 
slap, crash; see splash, knock. 


dash, V. i. rush, dart; spec, clash, smash, 
AiiUmyms: see laq. 

I. admixture (amlextual), httle (context- 
ual); spec, touch, intimation (eollnq,), 
tinge, spice, sensation [coUoq, or sUatg), 
lace (it/ «piri(*), flavor, relish; see trace, 
data, n, 1. time; spec, epoch, day, age, 
era, teon, moment, canon, misdate, 


date, f. t. time, place (chronologieally): 
spec, misdate. 

dateless, a. undated. 

datum, n. Spec, element, premiss, con- 
dition, material (a collective), 

dauehter, ii, child {conleztual) ; spec, ca- 
dette, daughterkin, daughterling, daugh- 
ter-in-law, stepdaughter, intanta, dau- 

dauntlass, n. brave (cnnlexlual), bold, un- 
affeared (archaic), unaffrighted, unap- 

dawdte, V. i. 1. trifle, potter, idle, diddle. 
Ankmyma: ace bobtlb, 

1. .See DELAY. 

dawn, n, daybreak, break of day, 

dawn, V. t. I. daw (Scot.), morrow (rare), 

break (chiefly with "day" as the subjed). 

S. See ARISE, 
dawnlnc, n. daybreak. 

; spec, sunshine. 

day, n. I. daytim' 
Arilanyms: see 

t. A day of a certain kind: spe-c. Iay-d_, 

(commercial), drip|>er (colloq.), roasta 

(coUoq.), scorcher (colloq,), doomsday. 

■. See DATE. 
darbceak, n. dawn, dawning, 

{chiejlyin "break oj day"), dawing (5co(.M 

daylight, morn (poetic), cockcrow O^.H 

greking (obs. or Scot.), daypeep (poeftcM 

aurora (fig.). 
AnCimymt: see night. 
daydream, n, dreara (contextual), rev- 
erie, conceit, fancy, castle in the air, air 

caatle, chAteau en Espagne (French), pipe 

dream (coUog.). 
Antonyms: see AtTTDALrry. 
dayllsht, n. light (contextual); spec, i 

shine, sunlight, daybreak, 
daie, B, t, coiifuae, confound (areAoieln 

stupefy, bewilder, stun ; spec, dazzle, blind, 
daze, n. confusion, stupor, bewilderment; 

spec, dazzle, dazzlement. 
da»le, f, (, confuse, daxe, blind, bedazzle 

(inlensise), overpower (contextual); apee. 

daiEie, n. 1. dazxlement, daze, confuaioi 

— referring to the state. 

a. brilliancy, brightness; — refening to ti 

e^ed of light or display. 

1. See SHOW, 
dasallUK, a. bright (eorUfxt-ual), blindii . 

overpowering (amlextual); — referring I 

light or display. 
dead, a. 1. See lifeless, absolttte, TIMmI 


>. Referring to a person that hoM (UedsM 
deceased, perished (by privation), defunot'J 
(rure), lalo (a euphemism^ coniienHoital « 
certain eanneetiont), exanimate (ra 
Antonyms: see uviNc. 

Antonifms: see lubtroos, poust 

4. Referring to lining viaiter that has diedif\ 
sjiec. mortified, gangrenous, sphacelat^J 
necrosed, T 

E. Referring to things that have ceased laM 
function, act, etc.: defunct; spec, obsolett^.l 
extinct, extinguished, sleeping, inert, I 
still, stagnant, tusterleas, out (referrinii U M 
fire), flat, useless. I 

dead, n. 1. decedent (U. S.; chiefly laa\M 
deceased (miphemiitic; usually with "th^'h 
defunct (formal; usually vrilh "" 
croaker (dang). "Dead" is chiefl 
collectively vrith "the." 
1. Set 


deaden, v. 1. 1. Spec, dull, benumb, numb, 

S. Referring to sounds or sounding things: 
muffle, damp, bemuffle (intensive), dumb 
(rare)t mute; spec. pug. 
S. Referring to vetocUVf activity, etc.; 
check; spec, smother (a fire), damp (a 
fre), stagnate, repress, choke. 
Antonyms: see agitate. 

deadhouse, n. mortuary; spec, morgue. 

deadlookf n. standstill. 

deadly, a. 1. mortal, fatal, deathly (rare), 
fell (poetic). 

S. implacable, lethal (literary), fatal, kill- 
ing (referring to gait, pace, habits, etc.), 
mortiferous (rare), mortific (rare), death- 
ful (rare), mortifying (rare), funest (rare), 
lethiferous (rare); spec, murderous, bane- 
ful, poisonous, pestilent, pestilential, 
pestiferous, noxious, etc. 


deaf, a. earless (fig.), surd (archaic). 

deafen, v. t. 1. deave (obs. or Scot, and 
dial.), stun (vnth noise). 
9. See DROWN. 

deal, n. 1. See share, amount, quantitt. 
9. lot, heap; — all three coUoq. 

deal, V. t. 1. See apportion. 
9. Referring to a blow, etc.: give, bestow, 
deliver, fetch, lay (used with "on"), plant, 
place, administer, strike. 

deal, t;. i. traffic, converse, practice (rare); 
spec, contend (used with *^with*'). 

dealer, n. monger (chiefly in combination), 
merchant (Scot, or U. S. in sense of re- 
tailer) ^ trader, chapman (archaic); spec. 
copeman (archaic), coper (archaic), cadg- 
er, hawker, badger, huckster, tallvman, 
stallman, jobber, drover (cattle dealer). 

dealing, n. 1. intercourse. 
2. traffic; spec, negotiation, conduct. 
S. giving, bestowal, delivery, placing, 
planting; — referring to a blow, etc. 

dear, a. 1. loved, beloved; spec, cherished, 
precious, favorite, bosom. 


dear, n. darling, deary (amalory, conjwgal, 
or familiar), beloved, mavoumeen (Irish), 
lovey (in affectionate address), honey 
(chiefly Irish, dial. Eng., or negro U. S.), 
pigsney (archaic); spec, pet, favorite, 
moppet (contemptuous as used of a man). 

death, n. 1. decease (legal, slightly euphe- 
mistic, or rhetorical), demise (elevated), 

quietus (rare), dying, departure (euphe- 
mistic), expiration (rare), expiry (literary), 
finish (vulgar or coUoq.), finis (figurative; 
rare), exit (literary or affected), parting 
(euphemistic), endmg (rww coUoa^, end, 
dissolution (literary or rhetorical), mor- 
tahty, consummation (a figurative literary 
use), passing (euphemistic), pass (rare), 
def unction (rare); spec, predecease, eutha- 
nasia or euthan&sy. 
Antonyms: see birth. 
2. Referring to the dying of tissues, etc.: 
spec, mortification, gangrene, necrosis. 
S. Referring to the cause of death: spec. 
quietus, coup de gr&ce (French), finish 
(vulgar or colloq.). 

4. Referring to the state: dormition (fig.), 
sleep (fig.), darkness (fig.), grave (fig.), 
tomb (fig.). 

Antonyms: see life. 

5. See extinction, destruction. 
death bell, passing bell, knell. 
deathlike, a. deathly, deadly, deathy, 

deathful (rare). 

debit, n. entry (contextu/d), charge. 
debit, V. t. enter (contextwal), chturge. 
debris, n. "Debris" is French. 1. See rub- 

2. In geol.: spec, detritus, eluvium. 
debt, n. Spec, due (chiefly in pi.), arrear 

(chiefly in pi.), 
d^but, n. appearance, coming-out. "DS" 

but" is French. 
debutant, n. masc, d^buntante, n. fem. 

come-outer (slang); spec, rose (slang; U. 

S.). ''D6butant"&ad'*ckbutante"areFrench. 
decade, n. decennary. 
decamp, v. i. 1. rise. 
Antonyms: see camp. 

2. See DEPART. 

decay, v. i. 1. See decline, decompose. 
2. Referring to things falling into ruin: 
spec, dilapidate, dismtegrate, ruin, ruin- 
ate, perisn. 

Antonyms: see renew. 
S. Referring to fruits, etc.: rot; spec, rust, 
bhght, blet. 

decay, n. 1. See decline, decomposition. 
2. Referring to becoming or being ruined: 
spec, dilapidation, disintegration, waste, 
ruin, ruination, disrepair, decayedness, 
decrepitude, irrepair (rare), unrepair, 
^boulement (French). 
Antonyms: see renewal. 

fS' Cross references: see Note. 

debark: decorticate. 

debauched: dissipated. 

dealing: intercourse, traffic. 

debase: abctse, degrade, adul- 

debauchery: corruption, dis- 

deen: senior. 

terate, corrupt. 
debase: decline. 


dearth: deficiency. 

debenture: certificate, security. 

deathless: immortal. 

debate, v.: dispute, discuss. 

debilitate: u^eaken, enervate. 

deathly: deathlike. 

debate, n.; dispute, discussion. 

debit: charge. 

debacle: rush, catastrophe, up- 

debauch, v. t.: corrupt. 

debouch: issue. 


debauch, v. i.: dissipate, ca- 

decadence: decline. 

debar: exclude, refuse, prevent. 


decadent: declining. 

debauch, n.; carouse. 

decapitate: behead. 

t^' See Notes of Explanation. 

rust, spur, 

decared, a. 1. dilapidated; tpec. decrepit, 
disjaak^ (Scot.), forworn {archaic), 
tumbledowii, ruinous, ruined. 
9. Set DECoupoeED. 

t. Rtferring to fruit, vegetahhs, etc.: un- 
sound, rotten; gpec. araxy, doted or 
doated, spurred, ergotized, bletted, dod- 
dered, elc. 

deoeitlal, a. deceptive (vihish does Tiot irn- 
ply inteni to deceive, nor necesiarUy any 
ml purpose, tekiU the others do), cunning, 
covinous (archaic), two-faced, indirect, 
underhand, underhanded, deceivable (itr- 
chaic), insincere, circumventive, false; 
«pec. crooked, double-tongued, double- 
heui«d, dodgy (eotloq.), evaaive. hypo- 
critical, fraudulent, fraudful (rare), guilr 
ful, juggling, Jesuitical (opprtArioiUlifuae 
by TU^tkJatholics) , histrionic (learned t 
rare), theatrical, dissembling, intriguing, 
insidious, tricky, trickiah, tncicay, snaky, 
Antonymi: Me conbcientiodh, frank. 

deoelUuInsss, n. cunning, covin (archaic); 
spec, guile, fraud, etc, 

dccelrmble, a. Spec, delusible, gullible, il- 
lusionable (rare), credulous. 

deoet*e, v. I, mislead^ epec. delude, fool, 
befool (intensive), bejape (obs.), begunk 
(Scot.), bamboozle, be^ile, gull, flatter, 
hoax, humbug, hoodwink, buoble (rare), 
circumvent, outwit, trick, bucket (elanj)), 
coien, best, cajole, bilk, do (slang), 
cheat, mock, chisel (slang), chouse 
(slartg), jilt, overreach, defraud, doodle 
(^ng), hallucinate, illude (implying false 
hopes), cog,, blear, bluff, misinform, mock, 
tantjize, jilt (one's expectalions) , hocus- 
poeua (rare), juggle, dupe, fob, flimflam 
(eant), flam (cant), kid (slang), diddle 
(coUoq. or slang). 
Anionsfms: see undecefve. 

dc«M*er, n. misleader; spec, deluder, bam- 
boozler, beguiler, hoaxer, humbug, hum- 
bugger, hood winker, circumventor or 
circumvenler, outwitter, tricker, coiener, 
cheater, cheat, swindler, swindle, de- 
frauder, double-dealer, pretender, Sinon 
(/iff), trickster, charlatan, impostor, im- 
postress, sharper, cogger (obs. or archaic), 
nallucinator, hypoonle, illuder (rare), 
juggler, dodger [often slang), taitour (ar- 
chaic), duper, rogue, knave, dufler, diddler 
(coUoq. or slang). 

dflOBpUon, n. 1. Referring to the action, 

fuel, habit, -practice, etc.: deceit; spfc. 
cheat, dole (rare), misleading, delusion, 

fooling, bamboozle (generic), bamboozle- 
ment, bambosh (slang), beguilement, 
hoax, bumbugnng, humbug, humbuggery, 
humbugism, noodwinking, circumven- 
tion, outwitting, outwittal, tricking, 
trick, hocus-pocus, flimflam (cant), flum- 
mery (empty talk, etc.), illusion, fancy, 
eoiieiiage (archaic), flam (eant or ctdiog.), 
guUery (archaic), duplicity, guile, finesse, 
strata^m, pretense, sham, covin (arehaie), 
hallucination, disguise, diseuigement, de- 
fraudation (rare), defraudment (rare), 
hypocrisy, hypocnsia (rare), do (slany or 
coUoq.), indirectness, insidiousneaa, trick- 
iness, trickiahneaa, hanky-panky (stan^), 
chicanery, pettifogging, quibbling, aoph- 
iatry, subterfuge, dodgery (rare), dupery, 
subreption (rare), guile, double^lealing, 

9. Referring to the thing thai deceives: 
spec, artifice, cheat, fraud, humbug, 
mockery, flam (card), trick, sham. Bell, 
cantel (archaic), dodge, hoax, gag (idang), 
imposture, cog, bosh (slang), juggle, ruse, 
wile, stratagem. Many of the words in 
sense 1 are synonyms also in this seTue. 

deoeptlTs, a. mialeBding, deceitful (whieh 
see); spec, delusive, delusory, catchy (col- 
loq.), tricksy, hallucinative, hallucinatory, 
fairy (o* i^ done bp a fairy), illusory, 
fallacious, false, subjective, disingenuous. 

dedde, v. i. 1. determine, settle, fix, con- 
clude, resolve (rare), decree (archaic); 
spec, misdccide. 

1. adjudge (tech.), adjudicate, dijudicata 
(rare), decern (Scot.); spec, arbitrate, um- 
pire, pass (upon a question). 

decide, V. I. 1. determine, settle, resolve, 
conclude; spec, predetermine, decern 
(Scots law), adjud^ (rare), adjudicate 
(tech.), judge; arbitrate, award, decree, 
deraign (law, hist., or obs.), dijudicale 
(rare), rule, hold. 
I. To bring a person to a decision: deto 

decided, a, positive, strong, pronounced; 
spec, marked; see AaauRED. 
Antonyms: see nouBTniL, hesttatinq. 

decipher, v. t. I. translate, interpret. 
a. Referring to mental character: ret^, 
trace, make out. 

deolalon, n. I. Referring lo the act i^ the 
mind: determination, settlement, con- 
clusion; spec, resolution, discretion, jud^ 
ment, finding. 

t. Referring to the delivery of a decision or 
to the thing decided upon: adjudgment, ad- 

i'udication, judgment, decemiture (Soolt 
itu); spec, arbitration, award, decree, d&- 


I pTopa; nfuipitu. eimiiiderablM, 
t, modett, 1 dBeem: dtcide. 

Xr Bea HotM at EipUiutlon. 


creement, arr^t (French histX pro- 
nouncement, sentence, edict, dennition, 
decreet (Scots law; coUoq.)^ halacha or 
halakah, decretal; see verdict. 

dedstve, a. 1. determinative, resolutive or 
resolutory (in law spec.), conclusive, ad- 
judicative, decretive, decretory. 
Antonyms: see indecisive. 
S. determinative, definitive, conclusive, 
final, peremptory, determinant; spec. 
critical, crucial, fateful. 

deckf n. Spec, orlop^ texas (Western U.S.), 
hurricane deck, splmter deck, poop deck, 
main deck, quarterdeck. 

declaim, v. i. speak, harangue (chiefly 
spec.), rant (chiefly spec.), spout (con- 
lemjkuous), mouth (ccmtemptiums); spec, 
perorate (literary), 

declamatory, a. Spec, rhetorical, bom- 

declaratory, n. declarative, predicative, 

declare, v, t, 1. Spec, proclaim, acclaim, 
find (law), denounce (as being had). 


declination, n. 1. See deviation, descent. 
S. refusal, declension, nonacceptance, re- 
jection; spec, declinature (Scots law), re- 
pudiation, repulse, detrectation (rare). 
Antonyms: see acceptance. 

declinatory, a. In an active sense: deteri- 
orative, degeneratory, degenerative, deg- 
radationcd, depreciatory, depreciative. 

decline, v. i. 1. See deviate, descend. 
S. deteriorate, decay, impair, worsen 
(rare), fail; spec, ebb, fall (often with 
"away^'), set. weaken, wane, derogate, 
degenerate, aegrade, debase, depreciate, 
fade, flag, retrograde, wither, recede, 
retro^ess (rare), rot, lapse, dwindle, 
diminish; see langxhsh. 
Antonyms: see improve, progress. 
S. See refuse. 

decline, v. t. 1. bend, bow, depress. 
S. refuse, reject; spec, repudiate, repel, 
repulse, renegue (rare). 
Antonyms: see accept, receive. 


decline, n. 1. See descent. 
S. deterioration, decay, impair (archaic), 
impairment, declination (obs.), deca- 
dence, decadency, degeneration, degra- 
dation, debasement, depreciation, dero- 
gation, failure, ebb, depravation, lan- 
guishment, retrograde, retrogression, 
retrogradation, wane, diminution, etc. 
Antonyms: see progress, recovery. 


declining, a. In an active sense: decadent, 
deteriorating, degenerating. 

decllvltoat, a, sloping, steep. "Dedivi- 
Ums*' is used esp. in reference to downtoard 

declivous, a, sloping. "Dedivoua" uevr 
ally means descending, 

decomposable, a. perishable, resoluble, 
corruptible (archaic), resolvable; spec. 
putrescible, putrefiable (rare), 

decompose, v. t, & i, 1. decompound 
(rare), dissolve, resolve, disintegrate 
(chiefly spec.), analyze (esp. spec.); spec. 
electrolyze, thermolyze, hydroiyze. 
Antonyms: see synthesize. 
2. Referring to natural decomposition, cfe- 
stroying physical integrity and soundness: 
consume, decay, rot (often spec.), corrupt 
(archaic or rare), faint: spec, (of loathsome 
and stinking rottenness) putresoe, putrefy. 

decomposed, a, 1. decompounded, dis- 
solved, disintegrated, etc, 
9. decayed, corrupt (archaic or rare), rot- 
ten; spec, putrid, putrescent, carious 
(chiefly tech.), green; see tainted. 
Antonyms: see sweet. 

decomposing, a, 1. decompounding (rare), 
disintegrative, disintegratory, analytic; 
spec, thermolytic, electrolytic, proteolyt- 
ic, hydrolytic. 

2. decaying, rotting, corruptive (archaic 
or rare); spec, putrefactive, putrefacient. 

decomposition, n. 1. decompounding, 
dissolution, resolution, disintegration 
(chiefly spec.), analysis (esp, for study), 
break-up; spec, thermolysis, hydrolysis, 
electrolysis, proteolysis, electrolyzation. 
Antonyrns: see synthesis. 
2. Referring to natural decomposition: de- 
cay, corruption (archaic or rare), rot; spec, 
dry rot, putrefaction, putridity, putres- 
cence, caries, cariositv. 

decoration, n. 1. See obnambntation, 


2. Spec, medal, badge, crest, cockade, 
crown, epaulette, etc, 

decorticate, v. t, excorticate (rare); spec, 
debark, disbark, skin, peel, busk, pill 
(archaic), rind, rend (a tree), 

decorum, n. propriety; spec, modesty. 
Antonyms: see misbehavior. 

decoy, n. 1. trap. 
2. enticement, lure; sj>ec. stool, flare. 

decoy, v, t. attract, entice, lure. 

decree, v, t. decide, command, order, or- 
dain, appoint, rule (chiefly spec.); spec. 
adjudge, adjudicate, enact, decern (now 
chiefly Scot, and tech.). 

decree, n. decision, command, edict, order, 
ordinance (now chiefly spec.), ordination, 
enactment, law (chiefly spec.), dispensa- 
tion (theol.), ordainment (rare), enaction 

ISP" Cross references: see Note. 
deok, 9. 1.: ornament, cover, clothe. 

decorate: ornament, honor, 
decoratlTe: ornamental. 

deoorous: bteoming, proper. 
deooram, «. t.: jtrojprtsty. 

tsr See Notes of Explanation. 

(rare), rule {ehiefiy gpec.); spec, finnan, 
eanction (hitl.), decretal, novel, rescript, 
constitution, assize, pragmatic, pscphiW, 
recess (hist.), hatti, interdict, irade. 

deoreelDKt 1. decisional, enactive, decre- 
tia! (rare), decretive (rare), decretory. 

deoratlve, a. 1. decisive, decreeing, ordina- 


dedioate, i>. C. 1. appropriate (eonleitual), 
give {anitextual), devol«, consecrate, vow, 
hallow (orcAaic); spec, promise, sur- 
9. S-pec. inscribe (as a book); see conse- 

dedicmtloii, n. Spfc. appropriation, de- 
votion, consecration, etc. 

dedloatoTr> a. dcdicative, consecrative, 
consecralory, votary, votive. 

dednot, v. t. abstract, remove, defalcate 
(rare}, subtract (Mp.o/num6era),- spec. re- 
bate, recoup (taw). 
Anlonyma: see add. 

dcdnotton, n. 1. See iKirERENCE. 
S. abstraction, removal, subtraction {esp. 
of numbers); spec, recoupment {law). 
Antonyms: see addition. 
1. Referring to the Ihin^ deducted: defal- 
cation (rare); spec, discount, drawback, 
draft, tare, reprise, rebatement, rebate, 
off-reckoning, offtake, 

dednotlTe, a. inferential, a priori (Loti 

deed, n. 1. action, act, exploit, feat, gest 
(orcAaie or poetic), do {eoUog.}, jest {ar- 
chaic or poetic), fact (obs., archaic, or 
idiomatie), effort; spec, accomplishment, 
derring-do (paewlo-archaic), prowess 
{chiefly in pi; lileraTy). 
t. instrument {conlextwil); spec, release. 

Juitclaim, land-boc {obs.), charter, in- 
eature, infeudation, remise. 
t. See ACTION. 
deed, II. I, convey {eonteatual); spec, quit- 
claim, release, remise. 
deep, a. I. profound {ocry deep); spec. 
depthless, bottomless, abysmal. 
Antonyms: see shallow, suitrACB. 


1. Referring to cutis in which one may be 
invol^: serious, grave, profound, ex- 
treme, great. 

1. Referring to emotions deept;/ fdl: deep- 
felt, deep-seated, profound, intimate, 
heartfelt, cordial {chiefly spec); spec. 
heavy, sound, dead, hearty, thoroug)), 
inveierat«, ingrained. 


Antonym: tee OOHT. 
6. R^erring lo colors: strong, intense, rich. 


B. involved; — referring lo a person in~ 

volved in vice, disgrace, etc. 
deep, n. 1. abyss, pn^ound (poetic), gulf 

(poetic); apee. ocean. 
Antonyms: see shallow. 

S. See DEPTH. 

I. Spec, mystery, incomprehensiblB (used 

mith "the"), rid<fle. 
deepen, f. i. There are no synonyms. 

Anlonyms: see shoal. 
deepen, v. t. strengthen, intensify. 
deeply, ado. Spec, profoundly, atratrusely, 

soundly, mortally, intimately. 
deepset, □. sunkpn. 
deer, n. I. doe (female), buck {male), fawn 

(young): spec, stag, hart, havier, hind 

(/enuile). spire, spay (ntafe),hearst (aAufU- 

ing term), roe, roebuck {masc.), fallow 

deer, elk, reindeer, caribou, russ, moose, 

maral, wapiti, vena da. 

3. Referring to deerJUsh: venison. 

deface, v. t. mar, disfigure, disfeature 
(rare), defeature (archaic), dedecorate 
(rare), disvisage (rare), disfaahion (rare); 
spec, deform, distort, mutilate, maim 
(Jif.), mangle, garble, bemangle (in- 
(ensiue), skew, twist, wrench, blur, 
blotch, haggle, hack, uglify, cancel, foul 
(make uplj^dog'a-ear, acar, soil, tarnisfa, 

Antonyms: see be act ., _. 

defaoement, v. i. disfigurement, deforma- 
tion, deformity, etc. 

delamatlon, n. traduction. vilificBtion, aa- 
peraion, calumny; spec, slander, libel. 

delamatoTr, a. traductory, calumniatory, 
abusive; spec, libellous, scandalous. 

defame, V. t. traduce, vilify, slur, asperse, 
belie, calumniate, vilipend (literary; epec.), 
slander, scandal {archaic), scandalize, 
backbite, libel. 
Antonyms: see pbaise, ennodlb. 

default, n. 1. See fauivt. 
s. omission, failure; spec, neglect, 

defeat, ii. t. t. frustrate, checkmate, balk, 
block, spoil, foil, baffle, thwart, cross, 
circumvent, outwit, contravene, blank, 
stump (cottoq.), state, dish (coUog.), dis- 
appoint; snec. nullify, euchre (eouoq.), 
neutralize, double, puiile, halt, etc. 


decTi^tBte: craclde. 

r See Notw at EipIaoaUoE 


Antonyms: see aid. 

S. overcome, overpower, overthrow, con- 
quer, discomfit, have, beat, thrash (col- 
loq.)j lick (colioq.)t whip (coUoq.), drub 
(colloq.)f master, vanquish, cast (tech.f 
laWfOrobs.), fail, repulse, checkmate, con- 
found (archaic), euchre (spec, or fig.), 
lurch (spec, in games, or fi>g.), ihrow, 
floor (in argument, etc.; coUoq.). over- 
match (rare), bilk (cribbage or fig.); spec. 
counterwork, countermine, counterplot, 
rout, derout (emphatic), outargue, out- 
play, outvote, sack (slang), trim (coUoq.). 
Antonyms: see aid. 

defeat, n. 1. frustration, checkmate, balk, 
fail, bafflement, thwarting, circumven- 
tion, outwittal (hy strategy), contraven- 

Antonyms: see aid. 

S. overthrow, conquest, discomfiture, 
best, thrashing (couoq.), drubbing (col- 
loq.), whipping (coUoq.), licking (coUoq.), 
mastery, vanquishment, overcoming, cast 
(law or obs.), checkmate, contusion 
(rare); spec, rout, derout (emphaiic), 
lurch, reverse. 
Antonyms: see victory, success. 

defeoate, v. i. cack (obs. or dial, Eng.), 
evacuate, foul (rare), dung (ru>w of ani- 
mals only), stool. 

def eotive, a. 1. See deficient. 
S. Spec, deranged, feeble-minded, im- 

defend, v. t. 1. See protect. 
2. maintain, uphold, vindicate (as being 
true or correct), sustain, support, champion 
(the truth, a cause, etc.), espouse (a cause); 
spec, justify, plead, advocate. 
Antonyms: see assail, attack. 
S. oppose (a daim, lawsuit, etc.). 

defense, n. 1. See protection. 
2. maintenance, upholding, vindication 
(as true or correct), support, espous^ (of 
the truth, a cause, etc.); spec, justification 
(of action), advocacy. 
Antonym^: see attack. 
S. Sj)ec. justification, excuse, plea, vin- 
dication, denial, answer. 

defensible, a. 1. fencible (of a fort, etc.), 

9. maintainable, supportable, vindicable 
(as ripht or true), tenable; spec, excusable, 
Antonyms: see indefensible. 

defer, v. t. delay, postpone, procrastinate, 
adjoiu*n (properly, spec), suspend, wait; 
sj)ec. table, stay, perendinate (rare), res- 
pite (rare), reserve, shelve. 

deference, n. Spec, submissiveness, obei- 
sance, regardfulness, complaisance. 

deferential, a. Spec, submissive, obeisant, 
regardful; see complaisant. 

deferment, n. deferral (rare.), delay, post- 
ponement, procrastination, adjournment 
or (rare) adjournal (properly, spec), sus- 
pension, suspense (in law spec.), wait, 
pause, frist (archaic); spec, respite, re- 
prieve, mora, cunctation {literary), breath- 
ing, moratory, moratorium. 

defiance, n. 1. defial, dare (coUoq.), daring, 
daringness (the quality), challenge, bra- 
vado, oravery (obs. or rare), defy (coUo^), 
disregard, despite (literary); spec, diffida- 
tion (chiefly feudalism), opposition, re- 
sistance, rebellion, disobedience. 
2. Referring to the quality: spec, contempt, 
stubbornness, despite (literary), recal- 
citrance, rebelliousness, disobedience, 

defiant, a. daring (now chiefly coUoq.), dis- 
regardful^ challenging: spec, contuma- 
cious, resistant, disobedient, despiteful, re- 
clcitrant, rebellious, insolent, stubborn. 
Antonyms: see submissive, resigned, 


defioienoy, n. 1. defect (chiefly spec.), 
want, lack, deficit, defalcation, shortage, 
wantage (rare), deficience (rare), ab- 
sence, default (archaic or spec.); — refer' 
ring to that which is either not present or 
ru>t available. 

Antonyms: see excess, extra. 
2. insufficiency, inadequacy, failure, 
dearth, scarcity, famine, want, lack, 
penury, poverty, shortness, default (ar^ 
chaic or rare), meagemess; — referring to 
the fact of being deficient. 

Antonyms: see abundance, excess. 


deficient, a. poor, defective, insufficient, 

inadequate, incomplete, imperfect, short, 

scarce, scant, wanting (used with *Hn**), 


Antonyms: see abundant, aboundinq, 


define, v. t, 1. delimit, determine, bound, 
demarcate, limit, delimitate (rare), de- 
mark (rare); — referring to land or used fig, 
2. Referring to words, ideas, etc,: deter- 
mine, formalize^ precise (rare); spec, in- 
dividuate, individualize. 


definite, a. determinate, distinct, certain, 
limited, fixed; spec, clear-cut, snarp-cut, 
clear, downright, sharp, crisp (tones, etc.), 
exphcit, express, formal, vivid, specific, 

Cross referenus: see Note. 
defeoate: dear^ purify, excrete. 
defect: deficiency, imperfection, 

defile, 9. <fe n.; march. 
defile n.: paee, ravine, march. 
defile, V. t.: dirty, foul, con- 
tamincUe, corrupt, 9uUy, violatet 


defilement: dirtying ^ foviina* 
contamination^ corrupHont «om- 
ing, tuUying, tiotoHon. 


}&" See Notes of Explanation. 




definition, n. 1. delimitatioQ, demarcation. 
9. Referring to wordt, ideas, etc.: determi- 
nation, formaUiation; epec. individuation. 


daflate, v. t. exhaust (contextual), empty 
{amtexltud; rare); spec. Batten. 
Antonyms: see INFUTE, biKjat. 

daOowar, c. (. 1. disSower {atrip offiowen). 
i. violate, devirginate {rare). 

deform, v. I. 1. nuBshape, spoil, diaform 
(Tare), disfigure; spec, aprtag, distort, 
strain (tech.), bemonstfir (rare). "De- 
form" as used in physics does not imply 
anything more than change of sluipe oi 
*. See DEFACE. 

dalormed, a. deform (archaic), miafash- 
ioned, nialformed, miBBhapen, inform 
Antonyms: see bhapelt, well-BHaped. 

deformtty, n. I. informity (i 
 shapennesa, malformation, monstrosity 
Ipreal deformity), misflhape {rare), mia- 
%ure (rare), disfigurement; sptic.crookcd- 
nesa, vama, Boiaproportion. 
Antonyms: see beauty, 


deliaad, V. t. cheat, bilk (Jg.), rook (rare), 
gudgeon (rare), swindle; spec, bimco, 
chouse l.a>Uog.) 

Amtiwy, V. t. pay, liquidate, settle, meet, 
satisfy, answer, bear, discharge, dosburae 

deliayai, n, payment, liquidation, bearLDg, 
discharge, etc. 

defy, V. t. dare, cliallenge; spec, beard, dis- 
regard, brave, face, disobey, mock, out^ 

Antonym: see oaBr, 

deceneraiOi'. n. deterioration, debasement, 
degeneration, degenerateness, degrada- 
tion, retrogradfttion; spec, dejiravity. 

decenetate, a. degraded, debased, retro- 
graded; spec, dec^ent. 
Antonyms: see esalted. 

degenerata, v. i, decline, deteriorate, sink, 
degrade, retrograde. 

deienerate. n, retrograde. 

deceneraiUon, n. decline, deterioration, 
retrogradation, retrogression, debase- 
ment; spec, caducity [rare), caseation, 
involution, decadence, perversion. 
Anumy/ns: see reoeneration. 

daKanwfttlve, a. rctrogreasive, declina- 
tory Irare), backward. 

deKradation, n. 1. dishonor, abasement, 1 

debasement, disgrace; — referring to the 


a, abasement, debasement, disgrace, de 

position; spec, disbarment, diarauklng;— 

referring to the ad. 

Antoaymt: tee eijivation. 
S. degeneracy, dq 

t. debasement, lowering, proetitution 
(fig.); spec, perversion, corruption, 
tamination, vitiation. 

ATitonyms: see elevation. 
desiada, v. t. 1. dishonor, reduce, debase, 
disgrade, abase, lower, sink, disrate, 
break, disrank, disgrace, depose; spec. 
unchurch, disennobie, disbar, disbench, 
diaestablish, disorb, immiter, dethrone, 
disenthrone, unprieat, uncowl, uncrown, 
outcast, unking. 

Antonyms: see £l,evate, dignify, eh- 


9. abase, debase, lower, demean (one- 
self; not in good usage), prostitute (jig.); 
spec, pervert, alloy, adulterate, viuate, 
Anlonyma: see elbvatb. 
deEraded, a. abased, deboaed, abject, de- 
praved, low; spec, vile, perverted, corrupt. 
Antonyms: see buivated, E3tAi;rBD. 
deKree, n. 1. See row, shelk, gbadda- 

S. atep, stage, grade, pomt {wkkk one or 
something has reached or arrived at); spec. 
remove (in the line of descent), interval, 
space (music), hne (music). 
t. intensity, pitch, plane, point, measure, 
intension (tiUrary), grade, gradation, 
height, potence (rare); spec, shade. 

dehlaoe, v. i. gape, open, 

dehorn, u. t. poll; spec, hummel or humble 

dehort, v. i. dis.'^uade (obsolesc), diaadviae. 

deify, V. t, 1. apotheoaiie, consecrate (Ro- 
man antiq.), divinify (rare), divinize (rare), 
god (rare), goddiae (rare), shrine (rore); 
spec, co-deify. 
2. worship. 

detty, n. t. god (esp. male), spirit, goddess 
(/em.), Kodlet (dim.), godhead (rare), 
godkin (riim.), godling (dim.), divinity, 
numen (esp. loeai or minor; rare), power. 
Providence (fig.); spec, heaven (o collet 
tive), all-father, manu, monad, momts 
(rare), faun, patron, patroness, oversoul, 
kami, demiurge, lar, fury^ Trimurti, 
Triton, Woden. Pan, ponice, Dagpn, 
Apollo, Mara, Vulcan, Neptune, Mer- 
cury, Venus, Juno, Minerva, Hercules, 
Area, Hephsstua, Poseidon, Hermea, 

r Croji njaim 

>z dtnnH. 

IS" See Notai ot Kiplanatlon. 


Aphrodite, Hera, Athena; see demon, 


Antonyms: see human. 
S. Referring to the state or guality: see 


delay, v, i. linger, loiter (chiefly spec.), 
tarry, stay, dawdle; spec, idle, hang (col- 
loq.)f poke (coUoq.). dilly-dally, dally, lag, 
dnig, stop, dwell, filibuster. 
Antonyms: see hasten, httrrt. 

delay, n. 1. See DEFERBfENT, retarda- 

S. lingering, loitering, tarrying, tarry 
(rare)f stay, linger (rare), moration (rare), 
tarrianoe (literary), lag^g; spec, stop, 
demurrage, respite, reprieve, tnioe. 
Antonyms: see speed. 

delayed, a. belated, lated (poetic). 

delegate, n. agent (contextiial), representa^ 
tive, deputy, commissioner, secondary 

delegate, v. 1. 1. transfer (contextual), com- 
mit, intrust. 

S. depute, commission, appoint, depu- 
tize (U. S.). 

delegation, n. 1. Referring to the thing 
delegated: commitment, intrustment, com- 

9. Referring to the person to whom dele- 
gation is rnade: deputation, commission- 
ing, appointment, deputization (U. S.). 
S. representative. "Delegation** is chiefly 
used as a collective. 

delete, v. t. cancel, erase, dele, elide, re- 
trench (from a book); spec, obliterate, 

deliberate, a. 1. intentional, prepense (lit- 
erary or legal; usuaUy postpositive), pre- 
meditated, advised, considered, set, re- 
solved, studied; spec, aforethought, ma- 
ture, cool, careful, thoughtful. 
Antonyms: see impetuous, abrupt, im- 
pulsive, thoughtless. 
9. unhasty (rare), measured, slow; spec. 
Antonyms: see bustling, hasty. 

deliberation, n. 1. See consideration. 
S. slowness, coolness, deliberateness. 
Antonyms: see impetuosity, bustle, 


delicacy, n. 1. luxury, dainty, tidbit, 
bonne-bouche (French), titbit, regale 

S. frailty, tenderness, softness, slightness. 
S. Spec, nicety, fineness, tenderness, 
weakness, dan^rousness, accuracy, sensi- 
tiveness, discrimination, refinement, sub- 
tlety, exactness, fastidiousness, considera- 
tion, difficulty. 

delicate, a. 1. See palatable, weak, 


S. Spec, nice, fine, tender^ frail, weak, 
dan^rous, accurate, sensitive^ refined, 
subtle, exact, exquisite, fastidious, con- 
siderate, minikin (now contempiuous), 
difficult, discriminating. 
Antonyms: see gross, coarse, rough, 


delight, V. i. Spec, luxuriate, feast, riot, 
roll, revel. 

delineate, v, t. 1. trace^ draw, line, mark, 
figure, describe, inscribe (chiefly spec,), 
pencil (often spec.), touch (lines); spec. 
sketch, plan, foresnortenj map, blazon, 
emblaze, Uneate (rare), tnck, retrace. 


delineation, n. 1. tracing, drawing, lining, 
marking, figuring, inscription (chiefly 
spec.), pencmng (often spec.), touching; 
svec. trace, sketching, planning, fore- 
snortening, blazoning. 
S. Referring to the figure so made: tracing, 
drawing, inscription (chiefly spec.), figure; 
spec, sketchj plan, map^ blazonry, dia- 
gram, elevation, perspective. 


delinquency, n. Spec, fault, misdeed, of- 
fense, transgression. 

delinquent, n. offender, culprit, malefac- 
tor, transgressor. 

delirious, a. 1. deranged, raving, light- 
headed, wandering: spec, frenziea. 
9. excited, frenzi^. 

delirium, n. 1. derangement, raving, de- 
liration (rare), wandering, light-headed- 
ness; spec, frenzy; see delirium tre- 
S. excitement, frenzy. 

delirium tremens, jimiams (slang), blue 
devils (fig.; coUoq,), blues (pi.; coUoq.), 
mania a potu (Latin), horrors (pi.; uied 
wUh 'Hhen, 

deliver, v. t. 1. free; spec, rescue, ransom, 
release; see save. 
Antonyms: see enslave, imprison. 
2. transfer, give, pass (esp. with "over**), 
render; spec, consign, commit, surrender, 
hand, intrust, relmquish, resign, extra- 
dite, impart. 

S. free, disburden, rid; sjiec. accouch. 
4. See EMIT, DEAL (a blow, etc.), eject, 
project, discharge, serve, throw, ut- 

deliverance, n. 1. freeing, delivery (rare); 
spec, rescue, ransom, release. 

Cross references: sec Note. 
d«Jeot: depress. 
d«lamln»te: cleave. 

delate: nccttset narrcUet report. 
dele: delete. 
delectation: pUaaure. 

deliberate: consider. 
delinquent: blamable. 
deliqnesoe: meU, diminish. 

t3^ See Notes of Explanation. 



ddlveiei. n. 1. freer (rare); spec, rescuer, 
ranaomer, releaser, 
9. transferer, deliverer (tech.), transferor, 

£*ver, renderer; spec, committer, siirren- 
mr, etc. 
a. freer (rare), ridder. 
delivery, n. 1. freeing, deliverance. 
■. transfer, ^naference (emphoKinng 
the adiim), transferal (rore), pasaing (esp. 
with "over"), rendering, rendition, tradi- 
tion {lech.), giving; spec, consignation, 
commitment, intrusting, impartment, 
impartation, handing, resignation, eirtra:- 


dall, n. valley {contextuaVi, vale (conlexfuof), 

Delphlo, a. Delphian, Pythian, Pythic. 

deluilon, n. I. derangement, deception. 
An "Ulit&um" or "haUucinatum" is a "de- 
lusion" only if the mind is deceived into a 
falae belief. 
t. misbelief. 

dematoene, n. leader (conlexluai), 

demand, f. t. 1. ask (con/erluof), require, 
requisition (formal); spec, exact, 
Xntonj/nw; see oivk, offer, tbndek. 
S. See CLAIM (as due, etc.), need. 

demand, n. I. requjaition, requirement, 
require (rare); spec, draft, exaction, 

Anioni/ms: see owt, offer, tender. 
S. call, request; spec, market, sale, exi- 


demandable, a. requirable, exigible. 

demerit, n. merit (rare; conlextual), in- 
desert (rare), undesert, fault, desert 
(ehiejly in pi.), ill desert. 

demerit, v. I. underaervc (rarf). 

demlEod, n. semtdeity (rare), aemigod 
(row)/ spec, hero {Greek antio.), herome 
(fern.), Prometheus, Epimetneus, Her- 
cules, Perseus, etc. 

demobilize, f. t, disorganize, scatter, dis- 

demooracy, n. I. Spec, democratism, 
Jacobinism, JefTeisonianism. 
Anionyrna; see 

a. See GOVERNMENT, state. 
demoecat, n. Spec. Jeffeisonian (17, >S.). 
hardaheU (U. S.). Bourbon (U. S.), Jac- 
obin, ultrademocrat. 

demooraUe, a. Spec. JeSersonian^ Jac- 
obinic, Jacobinical, ultradpmocratio. 
Antonyms: see monarchical, abisto- 

demollBh, K. I, t, destroy (eontextut^; 
spec, abate (law), raze, rase (rare), over- 
tnrow, level, pulverize, unbuild (rare), ruin. 
Anionjfms: gee construct. 

demon, n. I. In the general serne, of Greek 
mythology, of a superruitural being be- 
tween god and Tnan: deity {contextiuU}, 
spirit (coTdexiuai), numea (rare), daimon 
(tech. or lilerary), intelligence (lUertiTj/); 
spec, angel, ffiost (obs.), genius, lar, 
sylph, mamto, devil, specter, fiend, dia- 
blotin (Frertch), imp, dev, genie, jinn 
(prop, pi.), jinnee (sinp.), hag iarehaie), 
harpy, demogorgon, Triton, satyr, manes 
ipl.), lares (pi.), penatea (pi), em- 
pusa, incubus, lemur, barghest, ghoul, 
ogre, ogress, deuce, pooka or 

bogey, colt-pixie, fairy, fay (literars), L._ 
king, familiar, kelpie or kelpy (Scoi.), 
jotun, hobgoblin, sprite or (archaie vari- 
ant) sprignt, kobold. Brownie, bode, 
gnome, goblm, troll, Dixie, nix, poker 
(U. S.; collog.), pixy or pixie, puck, red- 
cap. Poltergeist (German), Robin Good- 
fellow. In ordinary English usage "de- 
mon" is an evil spirit. 
3. See DEVIL. 

demonic, a. Spec. Mephistophelean, 
MephiBtophelian, Mephistophclic. ghoul- 
iah, gnomish, elvish, elfin, infernal, elfish. 

demonlze, v, I, diabolify, diabolisc, devil- 
ize ; — all three rare or learned. 

demon oloET, n. diabolify, diabolology, 
devilry, deviltry, diablerie (French); spec 

demons trative, a. I, provinE, probative. 
S. ex|iresaive; spec, cordial^ emotional, 
unreserved; see bptuhive. 
AtUonyms: see impabbive, unemotional. 

demonatraUvenesa, n. expressiveness; 
spec, cordiaUty, empressment (French), 
unreservcdnese, emotionality, emotionaj- 

demorallie, v. t. 1. corrupt. 
a, disconcert, embarrass, agitate, dis- 
comfit, disorganize, confuse. 

denaturallce, ii. t. denature. 

dendTllorm, a. dendroid, arborescent, 
arliorifomi, dendritic; — all lech, or leamtd. 

^^^m dory, dislint 

rs- Croa nfirnas: as Nole. 

demwi: d^™!., a(«M. bihau. 



dnrv, diUinaion. ditilian. 

demlK: transfer, iii. 

io(«r, propw, medsirf. 

^ 8« Mol« or Expluatlan 


deniable, a. contradictable, traversable. 

denial, n. 1. See refusal, contradic- 
tion, TRIAL. 

S. negation, disaffirmation, negative, dis- 
affirmance; spec, forswearing, sublation 
{logic), disallowance, disclaimer {chiefly 
law), disclamation {rare). 
Antonyms: see acknowledgment, as- 

-denomination, n. 1. See naming, name. 
S. class {which see), kind; spec, {in relig- 
ion) body, connection {chiefly spec.), per- 
suasion, sect. 

denominational, a. sectarian, sectarial. 

denote, v. L 1. See signify, indicate, 
express, mean. 

S. mark, stamp, stigmatize (e^. as evU), 
brand {esp. as evil), betoken. 

denounce, v. L 1. See accuse. 
S. condemn, fulminate {violently), vitu- 
perate {abusively). 
Antonyms: see approve. 

denouncer, n. fulminator, inveigher, vi- 

dense, a. 1. See compact {referring to con- 
stitttent particles or parts), thick {referring 
to visibly separate parts or objects), STUPro. 
S. Referring to ignorance, etc.: intense, 
crass {literary), gross, profound; spec. 
impenetrable, utter, absolute. 

density, n. 1. See compactness {referring 
to the constituent particles or parts), 
thickness {referring to visibly separate 
parts or objects), stupidity. 
S. Referring to ignorance, etc.: intensity, 
crassness {literary), profoundness; spec, 
impenetrability, absoluteness. 

dentate, a. toothed, serrate; spec, jagged, 

denticulate, notched. **DentcUe'' is tech, 

denude, v, t, bare; spec, abrade, erode; 


denunciation, n, condemnation {context- 
lud), fulmination {violent), vituperation 
{abusive), diatribe {bitter and violent); 
spec, flyting, invective, philippic. 

deny, v, t. 1. See refuse, contradict, 

ABJURE, disclaim. 

S. negate, disaffirm, negative; spec, for- 
swear {on oath), sublate (a term of logic), 
disallow, disclaim. 
Antonyms: see acknowledge, assume, 


deodorizer, n. deodorant; spec, pastil, 
pastille, fumigator. 

depart, v, i, 1. go {often with "away"), 
leave, remove {formal or affected), move 
{coUoq.), withdraw, part {archaic), recede 
(rare); spec, flee, congee {archaic), fly, ffit. 
S. Rtferring to sudden or secret departure: 

abscond, decamp, skip {slang) , flit {coUoq,), 
slide, cut {slang or coUoq,), mosey {^na, 
U. S.), mizzle {slang), vamose {slang); 
spec, elope. 

ArUonyms: see stay, approach, comb. 
S. See DIE. 

4. differ, deviate, vary. 
departing, a, going, leaving, parting. 

ArUonyfns: see coming. 
department, n. 1. division, subdivision, 
part, province, branch, sphere; — referring 
to a subject or to a complex whole. 
9. district; — referring to a territorial part, 

5. office, bureau. 

departure, n. 1. goin^, leaving, removal 
{formal or affected), withdraw£u {formal), 
parting, decession (rare); spec, ffight, exit, 
exition {rare), ffit {rare), hesira {spec, or 
fig.), cong^ {French; a formed departure). 
Antonyms: see coming. 
2. absconding, decampment. 
S. See death, deviation, variation, di- 
gression, DIFFERENCE. 

depend, v, i, 1. See hang, rely. 
2. hinge, turn, hang, rest; — referring to 
the depending of an undecided matter upon 
something else, 

dependable, a, reliable, trustworthy. 

dependence, n. 1. hanging, suspension. 
2. hinging, turning, hangmg, resting. 


dependency, n. 1. dependence; — esp. in 
sense of state or fact of dependinq, 
2. dependent; spec, subject, colony, prov- 
ArUonyms: cf, sovereignty. 

dependent, a, 1. hanging. 


dependent, n. 1. See dependency. 
2. Spec, client, creature. 

depict, V, t, 1. delineate {esp, in lines), do 
{cordextual; chiefly coUoq,), portray, ren- 
der {esp. in reference to technique), repro- 
duce, figure, depicture {rare), picture, 
represent; spec, draw, table (rare), line 
{chiefly in "line in," "line out," "line off," 
etc.), linearize {rare), hneate {rare), pamt, 
blazon, sketch, emblaze, emblazon, cray- 
on, pencil, symbohze, chalk, limn {literary) . 


depiction, n. 1. delineation {esp, in lines), 
portrayal, rendition, reproduction, repre- 
sentation, depicture {rare), portraiture, 
blazonry, blazon. 


depUate, v, t, unhair, grain {skins). 
deplete, v, t. 1. empty; spec, drain, evacu- 
ate, reduce. 

Cross references: sec Note. 
denominate: name. 
denotation: meaning. 

dtoonement: explanation^ oo- 

dent, n.; indentation. 

dent, V, L: indenL 
dent, n.: noteht tooth, 
dependa b le: rdiabU, 

t^' See Notes of Explanation. 

Antonyms: see FiLt. 
%. See BXUAUST. 

depopulate, v. I. unpeople, depeople {ar- 
chaie}; spec, diaman (rare), desolate. 
Anttmjpnt: me people . 

deport, V. t. I. behave {tmeself). 
I. remove, banish. 

d«pasa.D.t. I. degrade; spec, dethrone, dia- 
enthroDe, disthrone (Tare), diflcrown, un- 
throne (rare), diaeatablBh (o church). 
ArUonynis: see enthronk. 
S. iSeeTBeTiBT. 

dap««lt. v. I. 1. In the sense of "to put for 
aaje keeping, to eommil to another": lodge, 
put, place, depose {archaic); spec, intrust, 
bail, store, leave. 
t. In the sense of "to lay or put down, to 

Antonyms: see 
t. precipitate (,as from a solution). 
depaitt, 71. deposition; spec, precipitate, 
precipitation J settling (chiefly in pi.), silt, 
sublimate, diluvium (peoJ.), loess, tartar, 
sinter, sediment, grounds (pi.), see pbg- 

depoiitaty, n. 1. Spec, bailee, trustee, 
bank, banker. 
1. See DEPoaiTORT. 

depodtlni. n. placing, putting, lodging, 
lodsment; spec. coosigDation, mtrusting, 

deposition, n. I. degradation; spec, de- 
thronement, diacrownment. 
). testimony (contextital): spec, affidavit. 
1. placing, putting, lodgment, reposition 
(rare); spec, discbarge, precipitation, 

4. See DEPOBIT. 
depoiltoiy, n. I. bailee. 

5. depositary, storehouse; spec, ware- 
house, entrepflt (French). 

depraved, a. Spec, corrupt, contami- 
nated, abandoned, degraded, low, per- 
verted, degenerate. 
Antonyms: see elevated. 
depravity, n. iSpec. corruption, contami- 
nation, degradation, perversion, lowness, 
degeneracy, vice. 
Antonyms: see elevation. 
depredate, c. (. 1. depress (tn value, price, 
etc.), lower. 
Antonyms: see AnvANCB. 


depredate, u. t. decline, fall, drop; spec. 
slump (slang or cant), tumble. 

depieciatloni, n. decline, fall, drop; spec. 
slump (slang or canlj, tumble. 
Antonyms: see advance. 

depreeatoT, n. plunderer; spec, thief, rob- 
ber, pirate, brigand, marauder. 

depress, v. I. 1. See LOWES {as to position 

%. dull {in aetivity, as trade), deaden. 
I. dispirit, deject, prostrate, discourage, 
dishearten, sadden, centrist {ardiaic), 
dash, damp, dampen, dismal iee {rare), 
vaporiie (rare), vapor (rare), oppress, 
bow, cool {diiefiy with "ofi" or "dmnn"), 
quail, sink, desolate, frigidize (rare), hip 

weigh {rare), darken; — mostly specific. 
Antonyms: see blatb, cm 

depressed, a. 1. lowered {in space). 
a. dulled (as trade), deadened. 
S. dispirited, dejected, downcast, dia- 
couraged, disheartened, despondent, de- 
spairing, desperate {archaic), prostrate, 
crestfallen, saturnine {literary), discon- 
solate, cheerless, sad, gloomy, melancholy, 
rueful, lugubrious (literary), doleful, dol~ 
orous (note literary), dismal, sorrowful, 
downhearted, dufi, chopfallen, chap-, 
fallen, dolent (archaic), mopish, low, vsr- 
pored (rare), damp (archaic), somber, 
melancholic, melancholioua {rare), hearts 
sick, sick, drooping, darksome (rare), 
glum, heavy, heavy-hearted, half-hearted, 
droopy (rare), hypped, hyppiah, m hippisn 
(cotto?.), forlorn, hopeless, woeful, low- 
spirited, hypochondriac, duraniah, aumpy 
(euUoq.), desolate, wretched, lonely, lone- 
some, dyspeptic (fig.); — rnoally specific:. 
Anlimy/ns: see cugerpul, elated, OI.AD, 


depresilDCi a. dispiriting, dejecting (rare), 
discouraging, disheartening, cheerless, 
sad, saddening, gloomy, melandioly, 
atrabilious (literary), doleful, rueful, 
lugubrious, woeful or woful, dreary (qt^ 
chaic), somber, dismal, dampening, damp- 
ing, dark, grievous, oppreasive, discon- 
solate, dolorous, melancholy, black, 
cloudy, Cimmerian {fig.), chiUing, Iripa 
(rare), heavy, gray, leaden, duaky, dark, 
dull, dolorific (rare), painful. Most qf 
Iftese synonyms are more or less apecifie. 
Anionyms: see cheerikq, assurino. 

depresBlon, n. 1. lowering (in apace). 
». See cAvnr, aouow. 
■. diapiritedness, dejection, dejectedness, 
discouragement, despondency, damp, 
hopelessness, desperation {archaic), cheer- 
lesaness, sadness, gloom, gloominess, mel- 
ancholy, melancholia, atrabiliouaness {lit- 

dcplorabla: < 

dsport: bahaw. 

T. I^Mify. 


erary), dole (archaic) f dolef illness^ dolor 

(literary; chiefly poetic), sorrow, gnef, dis- 
tress, drearinessi (arc/iaic). dismainess, woe, 
woefulness, blue devils (pL; coUoq.), dis- 
|)iritment (rare), disheartenment, desola- 
tion, disconsolation, dullness, despair, 
brokenness, despairinsness (rare), down- 
heartedness, lowness, dumps (pL; now col- 
loq. and usuaUy humor ou^, dumpishness, 
hypochondria, hypos (pL; coUoq.). hyp 
(coUoa.), hyps (pL; coUoq.), mopishness, 
ruefulness, aoldrums (pi.), dismality. hip 
(coUoq.), dreariment (archaic), drearinood 
or drearihead (archaic), chill, heaviness, 
mulligrubs (coUoq.), megrims (pl-), spleen, 
qualm, black dog (coUo^.), chili, darkness, 
Ii^briosity or lugubriousness (literary). 
Most of these synonyms are more or less 

Antonyms: see cheer, elation. 
deprivation, n. deprival (rare), privation 
(rare), dispossession; spec, divestiture, di- 
vestment, bereavement, robbery, deforce- 
ment (archaic; esp. of lands), stripping, 
denudation, abndgment, curtailment, 
docking, dockage, oespoilment, despolia- 
tion, spohation, plunder, pillage, rifling. 

Antonyms: see restoration. 
deprive, v. t. dispossess; spec, divest, be- 
reave, rob, deforce (archaic; esp. of land), 
strip, shear, denude, drain, abridge, cur- 
tail, dock, despoil, spoil, plunder, reave 
(now chiefly in p. p. ''reft'*), pillage, rifle, 
reheve (euphemistic and coUoq. or slang), 
oust (law), shorten (rare), mulct, lose, 

Antonyms: see invest, present. 
depth, n. 1. deepness, bathos (rare), pro- 
fundity, profoundness, drop; — referring to 
depth in space. 

Antonyms: see shallowness, height. 
S. Referring to that which is deep in space: 

Antonyms: see height. 
S. Spec, abstruseness; see discernment, 


4. deep (of winter, etc.), dead (of night, 
winter, etc.). 

5. In reference to emotions or experiences: 
profoundness, profundity, intimacy, in- 
tensity, heaviness, soundness (of sleep), 
cordiality, heartiness, thoroughness, in- 
veteracy, inveterateness; spec, nadir 


Antonyms: see height. 

6. Referring to colors: strength, intensity, 

7. lowness, heaviness; spec, bassness; — 
referring to sound. 

deputy, n. agent (contextual), delegate, 
representative, secondary (rare), locum- 
tenens (Latin), substitute, vice (rare); 

spec, vicegerent, vicar, viceroy, kaimakam, 
heutenant, undershenff, tipstaff (Eng,), 
derange, v. t. 1. See disarrange, dis- 
turb, CONFUSE, disorganize. 

9. Referring to functions, mental processes, 
etc.: upset, disorder, distemper (rare, exc, 
in p. p. ^^distempered'*), unbalance, un- 
settle, disturb, perturb. 
S. Referring to the mind: craze, shatter, 
unsettle, perturbate (rare), unhinge, in- 
sanify (rare), distract (now rare), dement, 
dementate (rare), crack (chiefiy coUoq,), 
bemad (rare), madden (now esp, with an- 
ger), frenzy (now usually with some pas^ 
sion or suffering), mad (rare), loco (couoq,, 
U, S.), 

deranged, a, insane, crazy, demented, de- 
ment (rare), unsound (chiefiy said of the 
mind), daft, nonsane (rare or nonce), dis- 
tempered (literary), lunatic, unbalanced, 
unsettled, mad (implyina fremy or violent 
delusion), brainsick, aisordered; spec. 
maniac, maniacal, morbid, raving, dis- 
traught (literary), distracted, distract (ar- 
chaic), moonstruck, witless (now rare), 
idiotic, flighty, foolish, imbecile, cretinous, 
frantic (now rare), feeble-minded, weak- 
minded, doting or dotard, doughbaked 
(dial, or coUoq.), possessed, locoed (coUoq., 
U, S.), dotty (coUoq, or slang), dotish or 
doatish, fatuous (now rare), mattoid; see 
Antonyms: see sane, rational. 

deranged person. Spec, lunatic, imbe- 
cile, idiot, changehng (archaic), dotard, 
madman, madwoman (rare), madling 
(rare), maniac, monomamac. 

derangement, n. 1. Spec, disarrange- 
ment, disturbance, confusion, disorgani- 
zation, disorder. 

2. Referring tofunctions^ mental processes, 
etc.: upsetting, disordermg (the act), dis- 
order (the reeulting condiHon), distemper 
(rare, exc. med.), imbalancing, disturb- 
ance, perturbation (rare). 
S. Referring to the rnind: alienation 
(tech.), craziness, insanity, katatonia (a 
form of insanity; tech,), insaneness, aber- 
ration, craze (as, "in a a^aze*'), mania, 
madness, dementia, dementedness, dis- 
temperature (rare); spec, rage (poetic), 
distraction, delirium, dehration (now liter' 
ary)^ demonomania, idiocy, idiotism, 
cretinism, idiotcy (not a good word), im- 
becility, tatuity. frenzy, furiosity (chiefly 
Scots law), delusion^ kleptomania, ly- 
canthropy, lypomama or lypothymia, 
paranoia, paraphrosyne or paraphrenitis, 
paraphrenia (rare), perturoancy (rare), 
perturbation (rare), unbalance (rare), 
vesania (rare), crack. 
Antonyms: see sanity. 

tW See Notes of Explanation* 

derallot, n. An abandoned IkiTtg, as a iies- 
sd, tract of Umd, etc.: apee. outcast, dere- 

d«rl*Btlon, n. 1. See tuvEKancE, dehtva- 

2. getting, obtaining, drawing, taking, ex- 
traction ((w of annfort from some faei or 
t, origination, oripn; «pfic. etymology. 

darlTAUve, n. denvate, derivation; spec, 
compound, paronym {rare). 

deilTe, V. t. 1. See infer, trace. 
I. get, obtain, draw, take, extract 
(chiefly spec, or jig.), deduce. 

deilve, V. i. arise, come, originate, spring; 
spec, descend. 

d«i«ead, II. i. I. fall, drop, sink, subside 
{chiefly bookieh), settle; spec, gravitate, 
plunge, precipitate, tumble, aloop, swoop, 
pounce, eouse, alight, demount, dis- 
mount, decline, droop, dip, set (as the 

4. Of duties, rights, etc.: devolve, pass, 
come, go, fall, succeed (rare). 

5, Of family descent: spring, issue (now 
onlylaw), come, arise. 

•. To make an incursion: fall. 

defeendaot, n. dcscendent, offspring, 
progeny, child, issue (chiefly legal), pos- 
terity (ekUfty collective pi.), scion (rare), 
offset (rare), offshoot (rare), posteriors 
(pi.), son (nitUe), daughter (female), etc.; 
spec, epigone (rare). "Descendant" and 
"poslerily" or "poeleriorg" are the only 
words commonly used of those not im7ne- 
diately descended. 
Antonyms: see ancestor. 

deusendent&l, a, empirical, poative, nal^ 
uralistic; — opposed to "tranacendenlal." 

deiQendlnKi a. descendant or deacendent 
(both rare), down (lech, or coUoq.), cadent 
(rare), declivous, falling, aetuing, etc,; 
spec, catadromous, downright. 
ArUonyms: see risinh. 

dasoent, n. 1. deacension (rare), fall, drop, 
sinking, subsidence, settlement (chieny 

r.), down (cftiefly in "ups and downs ), 
nfall, downcome, droop (poetic) ; spec. 
gravitation, plunge, precipitation (lOer- 
arp), tumble, lapse, stoop, swoop, souse, 
alighting, dismount, declination, dip, 
downrush, pounce. 
Artlonyms: see rise. 
1. slope, declivity, decline, dip, pitch, 

ing, succession (rare), 

1. devolution, poi 

4. ancestry, lineage, pedigree, progeni- 
ture, progenitorship (rare), origin, ori^nial 
(rare), extraction, engendnire (archaic); 
spec, paternity, parentage, birth, filiation. 

defloilbable, a. portray able, pain table, 
drawable, definable, figurable, representr 
able, characterizable; — wilk spedflc in- 
Antonyms: see iNDEScamABLE. 

describe, v. t. 1. To tell in word*: picture, 
depict, portray, paint, depaint (emphoHe), 
limn (literary), delineate, draw, figure, 
represent; spec, outline, define, character- 
ize, qualify, sketch, adumbrate (rore), 
blazon, image, empicture (rare), epithet, 
epitomize, gazetteer, detail, miniature, 
misdescribe, portraiture (rare), phrsse, 


desoriptloii, n. 1. Describing in vxtrds: 
picturing, depiction, depicture (rare), por- 
trayal, porl.rayment (rare), painting, lim- 
ning (lilerary), delineation, representa- 
tion; spec, drawing, sketching, sketch, 
outluiing, outline, definition, figuring, 
imaging, characlerization, adumbration 
(rare), blazonry or blazonment, blaion, 
cacotype, collation, signalraent (rare), 
portraiture, portrait, periegeaia (rare), 
presentment, prospectus, bypotypoeis 
(rare), image (rare), iconography. 
9. See KIND. 

desorlptlTs, a. depictive, delineative, de- 
linealory, definitive, figurative, represent- 
ative; spec, adumbrative, graphic, life- 
like, graphical (rare), vivid. 

desecrate, v. i. contaminate, profane, de- 
file, unhallow (rare), pollute, violate. 
Antonyms: see consecrate. 

desecration, n. contamination, defile- 
ment, profanation, sacrilege (rare), viola- 
tion, pollution. 

desert, a. I. abandoned, unfrequented, 


desert, n. solitude, wilderness, waste; spec. 
Sahara (flfi.), karoo. 
desert, v. t. fail; spec, disappoint, jilt, bolt; 


desert, v. i. leave, quit: spec, apostatue, 
renegade, skirt (of a dog deserting from 
the hunting-pack), backslide. 

deserter, n. runaway, runagate (literary or 
archaic), transfuge (rare), transfugilive 
(rare), rat iw ratter (slang); spec. T^creaat, 
Damas (fig.), renegade, turncoat, apos- 
tate, traitor. 

^^_ d«r 


desertion, n. apostasy, recreancy. 

deserre, v, t. merit; spec, earn, demerit. 

deserred, a. condign (archaic, exc. of pun- 
iahmerU), just, rightful, merited, due. 

deseryins, a. worthy, meritorious, good 

destcn, V. t. 1. See intend, plan, devise. 
S. devise, create, plan, project; spec, out- 
line, deUneate, invent, sketch, cartoon, 

destcn, v. i. 1. devise, create, invent, plan; 
— referring to artistic work, 


design, n. 1. See plan, intention, adap- 
tation, ARTIFICE, ART. 
9. device, contrivance, creation; spec, fig- 
ure, model, cartoon, diaper, print, weave, 
pattern, blazonry, bearmg, blazon, colo- 

designated, a. Spec, specified, mentioned, 
named, given, stipulated. 

desirable, a. pleasing, op table (rare), fair; 
spec, covetable, preferaole. 

desire, v. i. wish, want, long, yearn (chiefly 
elevated or poetic), crave, aspire, lust (rare 
or spec.), pleasure (rare), burn, gasp, 
pant, raven (rare), list (literary), thirst, 
itch, reck (rare), rage (intensive), hanker 
(Mefly coUoq.); — mostly spedfixi (of. de- 
sire, n.). 

desire, v. t. wish, want, desiderate, greed 
(rare), hope, crave, covet, ambition (rare). 

desire, n. 1. conation (tech.), wish, want, 
appetite (spec, or fi>g.); spec, longing, 
yearning, appetency, craving, crave (rar^, 
avidity, covetousness, covetise (archaic), 
avarice, cupidity (archaic), concupiscence 
(chiefly spec.), lust (usually for what is 
wrong), aspiration, ambition, eagerness, 
burmng, panting, greed, greediness, ra- 
pacity, rapaciousness, ravenousness, de- 
sideration, desiderium (literary), opta^ 
tion (rare), itching, itch (usually contempt- 
uous), fever, calenture (literary), device 
(obs, or rare, exc. in **left to one's own de- 
vices*'), letch (rare), hunger, hungriness, 
hanker, gluttony (fig.), breathing (used 
with ^* after"), list (rare or archaic); licker- 
ishness or hquorishness, lechery, orexis, 
Antonyms: see aversion. 
S. desideratum; spec, hope, passion, god- 

desirous, a. wishful; spec, wistful, avid, 
avidious (rare), covetous, avaricious, cu- 

pidous (rare), concupiscent, ooncupisci- 
ole, lustful, aspiring, ambitious, eager, 
greedy, eraspins, rapacious, thirsty, 
thirstful, lickerish or uquorish, hungry, 
edacious (literary), voracious, gluttonous, 
desiderative (often tech.). 

desist, V, t, stop, cease, stay; spec, pause, 
Antonyms: see continue. 

deslc, n. Spec, table, faldstool, escritoire, 

desolate, a. 1. See alone, lonely, un- 

S. waste; svec. ruinous, ravaged, desert, 
barren, wila, bleak, inhospitable. 

desolate, v, t, 1. See depopulate, de- 
press, DEVASTATE. 

9. waste, ravage, destitute (rare), devas- 
tate, havoc (rare); spec, ruin, sack, pillage, 

desolation, n. 1. Spec, loneliness, unfre- 
quentedness, uninhabitedness, deserted- 
ness, depression, cheerlessness. 
2. wasteness (rare); spec, devastation, 
ruin, ruinousness, desertion, barrenness, 
ravage, wildness, bleakness, dreariness. 

desperado, n. desperate (obs.); spec, black- 
guard, brave, bravo, apache (French), 
freebooter, ruflBan, brigand, bandit, buc- 
caneer, filibuster, pirate, marauder, rob- 
ber, plunderer, raider, despoiler, looter, 
assassin, mohock, plug-u^ly (slang or 
cant; U, S.), rowdy, highbmder, warrior 
(Amer, Indian), bully, rapparee (hist.), 
berserk, berserker, moonlighter, moss- 
trooper, thug. 

despisal, n. contempt, abhorrence. 

despise, v, t, abhor, disesteem, contemn 
(literary), scorn, oisdain, despite (ar- 
chaic), misprize (rare); spec, spurn, scout, 
ridicule, ignore. 
Antonyms: see honor, esteem. 

despond, v, i, despair (implying vUer loss 
of hope). 
Antonyms: see hope. 

destination, n. 1. appointment, ordain- 
ment, predetermination, ordination 
(chiefly spec.), foreordainment. 
2. See PURPOSE. 

S. goal, bourne (chiefly poetic), terminus 
(chiefly tech.); spec, haven, harbor, port, 

destine, v, t, 1. appoint, predestine, pre- 
destinate, ordain, fate, predetennine, 

Cross references: see Note. 
dMhablUe: undreaa. 
desiooate: dry. 
desicnate: indicate, appoint, 

detisnatlon: indication, ap- 

pointment, name. 
dMlcninc: scheming. 

despair, n.; depression, hope- 

despair, v. i.: despond. 

despairing: depressed, hopeless, 

despatch: var. of dispatch. 

desperate: depressed, hopeless, 
extreme, frantic, heroic, Tech- 
less, great. 

desperation: d«premon, Tiiopa- 

lessness, recklessness. 
despondency: depression, 
despondent: depressed. 
despot: atUocrcU, tyrant. 
despotic: autocratic, tyranni- 

desquamate: scale. 

t:W See Notes of Ezplanatlen. 

foreordain, order, shape, weird (rare); 

spec, foredoom, doom. 

). See AODBBsa. 
dafUnT. n. I. lot, doom, fate, ordinance 

(.arehaie), kiamet {literary), star (rare), 


t. See TATE. 
daiHtute, a. 1. See devoid. 

B. poor ((wntexiuoi),pemiile88, moneyleBH. 
deitroy, P. (. I. See demoush, kill, an- 


B. demolish, tuin, ruinate, unform {rare), 
perish iarchate), eubvert, fordo iarchaic); 
tpec. blot (used uiifA "oul")^ break, shat- 
ter, Hhipwreck, devastate, diamantle, con- 
sume, raze, spoil, efface, cruah {used with 
"out"), erode, diffiolve, desolate, abate, 
kill; — r^erring to tnalerial, or fig. to im- 
Tnaterial, things. 
Antonyms: see build, establish, CON- 

 ruin, Hpoil, demolish, nullify, rend, 
kill, explode, sap (fig.), shatter, murder, 
dissolve, root (u^ up" or "out"), fordo 
{arehaie); — referring lo immaterial things. 

AjU/myms: see constrcct. 
deitroyer, Tt. destructor (rare), ruin, de- 
molisher, raser, etc.; spec, biblioclaat, 
iconoclast, vandal, ete. 
dcitmctlble, a. destroyable, perishable, 
eradt cable. 

AjUonifma: see indesteucttible. 
deitrnotlon, n. Spee. demolition, ruin, 
ruination, death, killinp, spoliation, 
wreck, devastation, aniiihilation, ship- 
wreck, vandalism, dissolution, holocaust, 
erosion, ete. Cf. nEBTRor, 
destructive, a. demolitionary, ruinous, 
subversionary, annihilative, extermina- 
tive, extinctive, ertirpatory, eradicatory, 
consumptive; spec, pestiferous, interne- 
cine, iaterdestructive, fatal, pernicious. 

Anlonym/i: see crbativr. 
detaah, v. t. 1. separate, disconnect (ekUfiy 
spec.), unfix, loose, disunite, disjoin, dis- 
sever; spec, disengage, draft, disjoint, dis- 

Antonyms: see attach, connect, join, 

>. See DETAIL. 

datkohmeat. n. I. separation, disconnec- 
tion (chiefiy s]jec.), unfixing, loosening, 
disuniting, disjoining, disjunction, dis- 
severance; spee. disengagement. 
ArOotij/ms: see connection, joining. 

B, Spee. aloneness, aeparation. 

». See DETAIL. 

detftU, n. 1. item, particular, niinutia J 

(chiefly in pi. "minu/ae"), circumstan 

1. iSpec. circumstantiality, account. 

■. In mil. use: body, party, detachment; 1 

spec, picket, patrol, party. I 

detail, V. t. 1. descnoe, report, mention, I 

explicate (rare). ' 

1. In mU. use: appoint, detach. 
detailed, a, full, circumstantial, partiou- I 

lar, minute, itemiied (chiefly spec.). 
detain, v. t. 1. See withhold. I 

s. hold, stay, keep, delay, retain; spee. i 

confine, check, buttonhole, buttonhold, , 

becalm, embay (liitTary). 
Antonyms: see habtbn, 
detective, n. Spec, spotter (slonf)}, i 

(slang), Pinkerton. 
detention, n. 1. withholding. 

spee. confinement, check, demurra^. 
deteriorate, v. t. decline, worsen, pejorate I 

(rare), disimprove (rare), impair; spec, do- I 

generate, rust, wear. 
Antimyms: see iupbovb. 
determinate, a. 1. See DE 

S. definitive, conclusive. 
determination, n. resolution, constancy, I 

backbone, sturdiness, grit (eoUog.), firm- 1 

ness, Btaroina, pluck (cMoq.). I 

determined, a. resolute, resolved; bent J 

(with "on"), stalwart, p 

spec.; uHth "to"), set. 
detract, v. i. flubtract, derogate; — esp, M I 

as to impair or injure, as reputation, hap- I 

piness, ete. I 

detriment, n. loss, disadvantage, preju- I 

dice, harm, damage, ruins (pi.; arehaie or 

obs.), cost, injury: spec, mischief, hurt, 
detrnnoate, v. I. To cui off; crop, 
deaoe, n. 1. See two. 

devastate, v. t. desolate, destroy, ravage^ j 
waste, harry, havoc (rare), scour; spec 
plunder, sack, strip. I 

devastation, n. desolation, destruction, I 
ravaging, ravage, waste, havoc, ruin, I 
vQstation (rare); spec, plunder, aack, " 

develop, i>. t. 1. See disclose, dmpou>. 
9. unfold, evolve, expand, disenvelope 
(rore); apec. ripen, unravel, elaborate, ex- 
plicate (rare or logic), breed, mature, 

daAltutton: abMtna. po 
dMBatiide: diiuu. 

diteetiss: ditcoKry, pa 

e Not« at Explaaatlon, 

detMti nMor, 

datbronai de^on. 
delont, d«tonr: ciVr 



force, gestate; — r^erring to the comjilelion, 
'perfection, or the likCf of something by 
oringing out its possibilities. 
Antonyms: see condense. 
t. deduce, educe, unfold; — referring to the 
bringing out of something talent, 
4. proouce, form, grow, breed, engender. 
develop, v. i. 1. evolve, unfold, expand, 
grow; spec, boom, flower, segment, pro- 
gress, ripen, mature; see ripen. 


developinent, n. !• disclosure, unfolding, 

2. unfolding, unfoldment {rare), evolve- 
ment, evolution {often spec.), expansion; 
spec, unraveling, elaboration, explication 
{rare or logic), maturing, maturation, ma- 
turement {rare), forcing, gestation, cult- 
ure, upgrowth, uprise {coUoq.), boom, 
histogenesis, descent, progress. 
Antonyms: see condensation. 
t. deduction, educement, eduction, un- 
4. See PRODUCT, formation, growth. 

deviate, v. i. turn, depart, incline, decline, 
vary, sheer {chiefly spec.), swerve, divert 
(archaic), digress {rare in the literal sense), 
exorbitate {archaic), excurse {rare), veer 
{chiefly naut.), slue, slew, wander {chiefly 
fig, or spec), stray {chiefly spec.), deflect 
{rare), diverge; — used liierally arid fig, 

deviation, n. turn, turning, departure, va- 
riation, wandering, straymg, veer {chiefly 
spec.), deflection, declination, divergence, 
sneer {chiefly spec), swerve, sweep, in- 
clination, diversion, di^ession {rare in the 
literal sense), exorbitation {rare); spec, dis- 
orientation, excursion, drift. 

device, n. 1. In an immaterial sense: 
contrivance, arrangement, desi^, plan, 
scheme, invention, project, expedient, con- 
coction, conceit, brew {fig.). 
2. Referring to a material thing: contriv- 
ance, arrangement, design, invention, con- 
traption {coUoq.), fangle (o6s.); fanglement 
{rare); spec crochet, curwhibble {rare), 
tool, instrument, shift, 
t. emblem; spec cockade, pageant {hist), 
cipher {of letters), monogram, legend, 

4. See IDEA, contrivance, trick, ex- 

devil, n. 1. [cap., 'Hhe DevU"] Demon {con- 
textiud), Satan, Deuce {in expletive use). 
Dragon, Old Serpent, Satanas {archaic). 
Old Harry {euphemism), Lucifer {rare), 
Deil {Scot.), Auld Homie {Scot.; coUoq.), 
Old Nick {euphemism), Davy Jones {sail- 
ors* dang). Tempter, Archfiend. Arch- 
enemy, Prince of Darkness, Foul Fiend, 

Enemy, Adversary, Apollyon, Mephis- 
topheles, Mephisto, Lubberfiend, Evil 
One. Also popularly: Old Nick, Old Lim- 
mie. Old Clootie, Old Teaaer, Old One, 
etc., Robin Goodfellow. 
Antonyms: see god. 


devilish^ a. 1. [cap.] Satanic, Satanical, 
Luciferian {rare), 

2. demonic, demoniac, diabolical, fiend- 
ish, Satanic, serpentine {rare), satanical, 
infernal, heUish, inhuman. 
Antonyms: see heavenly, human. 

devilry, n. mischief {contextual), devilment, 
deviltry, diablery, diablerie {rrench). 

devious, a. 1. Departing from the direct 
course: roundabout, circuitous, crooked, 
indirect {chiefiy Jig.), 
Antonyms: see straight. 
2. Following an irregular course: devi- 
ating, deviatory, wandering, straying. 

devise, v. 1. 1. To think up: contrive, invent, 
conceive, concoct, plan, design, imagine 
{obsolesc), brew {fig.), shape, cook {uswaUy 
with ^*up"), cogitate {formal or literary), 
excogitate {rare), cast {obsolesc), plot, 
scheme, project^ formulate, fudge {often 
with '*up ), fabricate, manmacture, frame, 
elaborate; spec, machinate, hatch, spin, 
forge {evil), forecast {obsolesc), 

2. See BEQT7EATH. 

devisins, n. devisement {rare), contriv- 
ance, contrival {rare), premeditation, 
devisal {rare), imagination {obsolesc), con- 
coction, projection, framing, machination. 

devoid, a, destitute, void, forlorn {literary); 
spec bare, free, empty ',--aU used with**ofJ* 

devotee, n. devotionalist, devotionist 
{rare), votary, enthusiast, zealot; spec, ob- 
late, corybant, bacchanal, bacchant, bac- 
chante (fem.); — used of religious devotees 
and Jig, 

devotion, n. 1. See consecration, dedi- 
cation, appropriation, appucation, 
addiction, constancy. 
2. zeal, cult, prayerfulness, exercitation. 
t. worship; spec meditations {pL), vigils 
{pi.). The word * ^devotion" is often used in 
the plural, collectively, 

devour, v. t, 1. eat, raven, wolf {slang), 
gorge, glut, gulp {esp, with "down"), 
scoff {slang), 
2. See CONSUME. 

devour er, n. eater, cormorant C^.), locust 
{Jig.); spec, epicure, gormandizer. 

devourment, n. 1. eating, Ugurition 


devout, a, 1. pious, religious, holy, prayer- 
ful, heavenly-minded. 

td^ Cross references: see Note. 
devolve, r. t.: pcus, descend. 

deTolve, V. t.: transfer. 
devote: consecrate, dedicate,ap- 

propriate, apply, addict, condemn. 
devoted: accursed, addicted, conetant. 

fW See Notes of Explanation. 


Anionymi-. see mnEUGious. 
S. SeesiNCBKB. 
dcTOUtaess, n. piety. 
dew, n. moiature, precipitation; — both am^ 

dewi V. I. wet {.corUextuoTi, moisten {corir- 
textual), bedew (tnCenswe). 

dswy, a. moist (eontezfuoi), roral (rare), 
roficid (rare), 

dlasonal, a. comerwiae, bias. 

dlafoiuair, ocfi;. coinerwise, bias. 

dlaKram, n. delineation, plan, scheme 
(rare), pkt iehiefiy spec.), outline; spec. 
plot, aketoh, section, graph {(ecft.). 

dt^grmm, v. I. dehneate, plan, outline, plot, 
plat ([/. S.); apce. grapK (coUog.). 

dlmleot, n. language {amtexluat), lingo 
(amUmptuous) ; spec, patter, patoia 
IFrench), argot, cant, jargon, idiom, ver- 

dIaioCQfi n. conversation (corUexiwd); 
spec. anip-Bnap, flyte, eollogue. 

diameter, n. width {conlextuaTj; spec. 
thickness, bore, caliber, module. 

diametilc, a. utter (■used before "oppo- 
site"), absolute, exact, precise, etc. 

diarrhea, n. laxity, loosenesa, losk (o&a. or 
vet.), skit (dial.), flux; spec, cholera, chol- 
erine, dysentery, hentery, scour, purge. 

dtotata, V. I. I. See bpeak. 
>. bid, prescribe, order, direct, enjoin; 
spec, impose. 

dlotaUon, n. 1. See ePEAKma. 
■. bidding, injunction, order, prescrip- 
tion, etc. 

diotatorlal, a. commanding, authorita- 
tive, injunctive, magisterial {bookish or 
leanied), directory, dogmatic. 
ArUotiyms: see obedient. 

dtotlon, n. expression, atyle (contextual), 
wording, phraseolo^; a-aec. form, idiom. 

dlctlooary, ti. wordboofc, lexicon {chiefly 
spec.), vocabulary; spec, theeaurus, gradua 
{short far "Gradus ad Parntxssum"), gloft- 
sary, gloss (rare), gazetteer. 

dlotam, n. saying, dictate, say-so {dial, or 
U. S.), say {poetic or obs.). 

die, V. I. 1. expire, perish, decease {lilerary 
or formal), demiae (eleiialed or Tketorical), 
depart {euphemislie), crook {slang), drop 
{chiefly eoUoq.), end (now rare), pass (or- 
chaie, or used with "on" by Ckrislian Sci- 
etUietii), succumb (rhetorical); spec, fall, 
drown, hang, suffocate, suicitle. 
Antonyms: see live, qrow, aEt<rER&TB, 

t. See OAsanEne, stop, vanish, 7ade, 


die, n. I, dice (rare), bones {pi; ccUoq.), 
devil's bones (pi.; coHog. or in obloquy), 
ivories (pi.; slimg); spec, demy, dispatcher 

(sloTig), dispatch (alarig), fulham, doctor 

(old slang), goads (pi.; canl). 

3. stamp; spec, punch, swage, matrix, 


). See PATB. 
diet. n. I. See food. 

1. regimen. 
dffleT, V. i. 1. disagree {used vsUk "wilh"), 

vary (used with from"), diverge (used 

wUn "from."), deviate {tiied with from"), 

depart (uaed toith "from"), diacept (rare), 

djaaeoord (laed imth "with"), ^crepate 

Antonyms: see iOREE. 
S. diasent, disagree, disaccord. 
AtUont/mt: see agree. 


dUTetenoe. n. 1. disagreement, variance, 
variation, dissemblance {archaic), diver- 
^ncc. deviation, departure, het«ro^en&- 
ity, odds, disaccord, distinction, distinct- 
ness, discon^ruity, dissimilarity, distinc- 
tion, dissimilitude (rare), separat«ness, in- 
conformity, unlikeness, contrast, intWval, 
diversity, disparity, dispart, mconsist- 
encc, inconsistency, contradiction, oon- 
tradictorineaa, repugnance, antAgonism, 
inimicaUty (rare), hostility, hostileness, 
adverseness, irreconcilability, irreconcil- 
ableness, incongruity, incongruousneaa, 
incompatibility, incompatibleness, dis- 
cordance, discordancy, dissonance, dis- 
sonance, inharmonioiAsnesa, contrariety, 
contrariness, discrepation (rare), con- 
verseness, opposition, oppoBit«nees, an- 
tithesis, antithetic&lness, disparity, dif- 
ferentia, nuance {French). Most of thete 
words are more or less specific in their imr 
Antonyms: gee agreeuent, resem- 

8. dissension, disaccord, disagreement; 

re. controversy, dispute, altercation, 
3ord, quarrel, bicker, contentioa, 
strife, brabble, feud, fray, jar, jangle, 
wrangle, embroilment, variance. 
Antonyms: see aoreguent. 
diOeient, a. 1. disagreeing, variant, di- 
vergent, deviative, distinct, dissimilar, un- 
like, diverse, divers (orcAotc), contrastivo, 
contfastful (rare), inconsistent, oontrft^ 
dictory, repugnant, antagonistic, tmtap 
onistical, inimical, hostile, adverae, ir- 
reconcilable, heterogeneous, incongruous, 
incompatible, discordant, dissonant, in- 
harmonious, contrary, converse, incon- 
formable, disparate, contradistinct, dis- 
crepant, discriminate (arcAaic), other- 
guess (coUof.), otherwise (used onf;/ predi- 
catively); — referring to things which differ 
from each other in some quaiily or ottrtbutt. 



Most of these words have specific implica- 
Hons, ** Different*' is the most general term. 

Antonyms: see alike, same. 
S. distinct, separate, other (than), non- 
identical, unidentical; spec, various; — not 
implying any difference in kind or char- 
Oder, but merely nonriderUUy, 
Antonyms: see same. 

differentiate, v. t, difference, specialize, 
discriminate, sever; spec, disequalize, de- 
S3monymize, despecificate. 

difficult, a, !• difficile (archaic), hard, 
troublesome, uneath (archaic), nice, 
tough (coUoq.), uneasy (rare), stiff; spec. 
arduous. Herculean, skillful (rare), tick- 
lish, upnill, crabbea, cramp, nice, awk- 
ward, wicked (coUoq.), knotty, spiny, 
thorny, laborious, painful, delicate, ob- 
scure, abstruse, mysterious, exacting, stiff, 
Antonyms: see easy. 


difficulty, n. 1. hardness; spec, arduous- 
ness, laboriousness, niceness, delicacy, 
obscurity, abstruseness, crabbedness. 
Antonyms: see ease. 

2. Spec, crux, exigency, knot, nodus, per- 
plexity, trouble, obstacle, dilenmia, pre- 

t. 5ce OBJECTION. 

4. embarrassment; spec, complication, 
disagreement, imbroglio. 

diffuse, a. !• wide-spread, scattered, per- 
fuse (rare), dispersed, dissipated, dis- 
seminated, dispelled, distributed, dis- 
gregate (rare); spec, interdiffuse, effuse, 
Antonyms: see concentrated. 
9. See PROLIX. 

diffuse, V. t. spread, scatter, strew, dis- 
perse, dissipate, disseminate, dispel, dis- 
tribute, disgregate (rare); spec, suffuse, 
interdiffuse, effuse, circulate. 
Antonyms: see concentrate. 

diffuse, V. t. & i. spread, scatter, strew, 
disperse, dissipate, disseminate, dispel, 
distribute, dispense, dispensate (rare); 
spec, circulate, radiate, disject, dispread 
(archaic), dot, dissolve, shed, evaporate, 
propagate, disgregate (rare). 
Antonyms: see concentrate. 

diffusion, n. spreading, spread, strewing, 
dispersion, oissipation, dissemination, 
dispelling, distribution, dispensation, dis- 
pensing; spec, circulation, osmose, os- 
mosis, effluve (rare), dissolution, cosmo- 
poUtaiiism, propagation, diffluence (rare), 
diaspora (Jewish hist.), centrifugence. 

diffusive, a. spreading, scattering, strew- 
ing, dispersive, dissipative, disseminative, 
dispelling, distributive, distributory, dis- 

pensative, dispensatory; spec, circulatory^ 
circulative. effluent, centrifugal, diffu- 
gient (rare), catalytic, osmotic. 

dis, V, t, 1. delve (archaic or literary, exe, 
fijg.), grave (rare and archaic), excavate; 
spec, costean, grub, dike, ditch, mine, 
spade, root, rootle, spud, rout (chiefly 
dial.), hoe, shovel, mattock, channel, 

9. To dig up: exhume (formal), dishumate 
(literary arid chiefly fig.), dishume (rare), 
disinhume (rare), unbury (rare), im- 
earth, delve (archaic or literary), gnih; 
spec, disentomb, disinter (fformal), mine. 

die, V, i, !• grub. 

9. work (contextual), drudge; spec, study. 
"I%" is coUo^, 

digest, n. abridgment (contextual); spec. 
code, pandect. 

digestible, a, light. 

digestion, n. decoction; spec, bradypepsia 
(now rare), eupepsy (rare), indigestion. 

digestive, a, peptic (rare); spec, brady- 
peptic (rare), eupeptic (rare), 

digging, a. Referring to animals: fossorial, 
fodient (rare), burrowing, effodient (rare). 

digging, n. 1. dig, delving or delve (archaic 
or literary)^ excavation. 
9. excavation (rare), exhumation (/or- 
mal), unearthing; spec, unburial (rare), 

digit, n. Spec, finger, thumb, toe, dew- 

dignified, a, stately, grave, noble, courtly, 
majestic, august, imposing, portly, grand, 
lofty, buskined (fig.; literary). 
Antonyms: see xtndignified, bufpoon- 


dignify, v, t. honor {contextual), elevate, 
lift, exalt; spec, dub, glorify, idealize, 
transform (contextual), canonize, crown, 
Antonyms: see abasb, degradb. 

dignifying, a, honorific (formal or literary; 
contextual), exalting, cQ^nificatory, ele- 
vatory (rare); spec, glorifymg, doxological, 

dignitary, n. dignity; spec, canon, bishop, 
prelate, governor, etc,; — implying high 
rank in office, 

dignity, n, 1. worth, majesty, nobleness, 
highness, nobiUty; spec, greatness, glory, 

Antonyms: see insignificance. 
9. stateliness, augustness, gravity, deoo- 
rum; spec, portliness. 
Anionyms: see buffoonery. 
8. rank, elevation, station, place^ stand- 
ing, eminence, honor; spec, preferment, 
prelacy, papacy, governorship, etc. 


digress, v. i, 1. See deviatb. 

tS^ See Notes of Kiplanatlon. 

1. Re/nring to discourse, tlunighl, etc.: de- 
viate, excuree (rare), divagate (rare), eva- 
gate (rare). 

dlKieaaloD, n. 1. See deviation. 
t. Referring to diicourae, deviation, de- 
parture, divagation, excursion, excursus, 
diBCuraion, ocBasis (rare), evagation (rare); 
epee. ecbole (rare), episode. 

dike, n. 1. See channel, ditch. 
9. bank; apec. estacade, levee. 
ArUonytns: see trencb. 

dlUpldatad, a. decayed, decadent, ruined, 

dUkpldBtton, n. decay, unrepair, ruin, dis- 
integrity (rare). 
ATittmyms: see inteoritt, repair. 

dIl»pldatlTe, a. disintegrative, dtsint^gro- 

dUktOible, a. Ewellable ixare), extensible, 

dilatation, n. expansion, swelling, swell, 
enlai^ment, dilation; spec, dietention, 
ectasia, aneuiiam, diastole, vari.^. 
Antonyme: see contraction. 

dilate, D. i. & t. I. enlarge, expand, am- 
plify, swell; spec, distend, dome, in- 

Anlonifms: see contract. 
S. enlarge (in discourse). 
dUfcent, a. 1. See indubtrious, con- 

a. asfiiduoua, sedulous, atudious; — refer- 
ring to actions. 
dllaent, a. diluting, tliinning; spec, solvent, 
dilute, a. diluted, wishy-washy (colloq,), 
dilate, V. t. thin, weaken, attenuate, re- 
duce; spec, adulterate. 
Anloni/ma: lee condense, thicken. 
dim, a. 1. dark, dusky, faint, dull; spec. 
misty, pale, hazy, foggy, dreamy. 
Anionynt: see bbioht- 
«. See nuLL {mentally). 
dlmeneloii. n. measure, extent, propor- 
tion (eAiefly in pi.), girt. 
diminish, V. t. & i. lessen, belittle, de- 
creaae, minify (rare), minish (rare), re- 
bate (rare), reduce, abate (archaic), 
retrenui; spee. melt, minimiEe, narrow, 
contract, shrink, shrivel, dwindle, lower, 
taper, shorten, cut, abbreviate, abridge, 
curtail, attenuat«, dwarf, deliquesce, 
reef, decline, remit (rare), ease. 
Anionyjns: see incilease, emI/ARGE, 

dlmlntHhlOK. a. diminutive (obs. and rare, 
in this sense), decrescent (liierary), reduc- 
tive; spec, contractive, deliquescent, les- 
sening. decreasing, etc., decreacendo. 

dimlnntlon, n. diminishment, leaseninc, 
decreasing, decrement {literary), retrencS' 
ment, decrescence (liierary), reduction, 
abatement; spec, shrinkage, abbreviation, 
abridgment, curtailment, attenuation, del- 
iquescence, taper, relaxation, remission, 
defalcation (arthaic), rebalement (rare), 
drawback, decline, decrescendo, etc. 
Antonj/TTis: see increase, eni-arqemehi^ 

dtmnei*, n. d&rk, darkness, obecurity, dc. 
AnUmjfins: see briqhtnksb, 

din, n, noise, bruit (archaic), racket, ru- 
mor (archaic); spec, clamor, turmoil, nub- 
bub, tumult, uproar, clang, clash, craah, 
clatter, hullabaloo (colloq.), rumble. 
Antonyms: see silence. 

din, V. t. ring; spec, clamor, clang, clash^ 

dining, n. aristology (art iff dining), deip> 
nosophism (rare). 

dining room. iSpee. ordinary (Eng,), t 
ciinium ( Roman anliq,), 

dinner, a. prandial (affected or jocose), 

dinner, n. Spec, dinnerette. 

dlaosse, n, bishopric, bishopry, episcopa__. 
spec, exarchate, eparchy, metropoutaQ, 

dip, V. 1. 1. immerse, plunge (suddenly), dive 
(rare), immerge (rare), douse (into water), 
implunge (rare); apec. bathe, souse, duck, j 
ingulf or engulf (rare), pickle, baptize. 
». See WET. 
S. To remove by dipping: lade, bale, bail, J 
scoop, ladle; spec, bucket. 
*. hob (as a flag). 

dip, V. i. 1. immerse, plunge, dive; spse.! 
bathe, duck. 
Antonyms: see euergb, 


1. go (into a subject, hook, etc,). 

dip, n. I. plunge, immersion, dive, i 

mergence; spec, douse, bath, intinotion, I 

diplomacy, n. 1. diplomatics (rare),' apae; 1 
kingcraft, intrigue. 
». See TACT. 

dlplomatlo, a. Spec, temporizing, artful, I 
politic; see tacttul, bcheuino. 
Antonyms: ace awkward, 

dlplomatlo agent, diplomatist, diplomat; 
spee. proxenus, chargfi (Fretick), ambas- 
sador, envoy, legate, internuncio, inter- 
nuncLUs. consul, plenipotentiary, minister, 
nuncio, resident. 



dlgiwalTe: diicurii'i 
dlie, ■>. I : ditch, drm 
dllatfWT; tlotn. 

dlUsaDoe: < 
dllDTliim: • 
dlm-ared: I 

dlra; tKrtaitni^ 


direot, a. 1. See straight, immediate. 
S. straightforward, dunstable (obs. or lU- 
erary), downright, upright, flat, plump; 
spec, pointed, frank, honest, sincere, ex- 
press, unequivocal, dead. 
Antonyms: see ambiguous, indirect, 


t. Referring to descent: lineal. 
direct, v. t. 1. address (a letter, remarks, 
etc.), destine {contextual). 
2. aim, point, head, address, turn, bend, 
determine; spec, guide, con {navJt.), in- 
cline, dispose, level, shape, present, mo- 
tion, intend (a Lalinism), dart, guide, 
lead, steer, run, push, etc. 


to a person, to a place in a book, etc.) . 

direotable, a. aimable, tumable, determin- 
able; spec, guidable, leadable, steerable, 

direotion, n. 1. addressing, address. 
2. aim, aimins, pointing, addressing, 
turning, turn, determination; spec, bent, 
leading, guidance, steering, bearing, in- 
dination, intention (rare). 


in **reference to a person, book," etc.). 

4. conduct, control, disposal, disposition; 
spec, command. 

5. way, road (chiefly spec.), course, run, 
bearing, point; spec, quarter, side, sense, 
lead, east, west, north, south, etc., trend. 

directly, adv. 1. Spec, straight, exactly, 
lineally^ immediately, soon. 
2. straightforwardly, downrightly, etc., 
plump, plumplv, flatly, etc. 

dirge, n. monody (Greek literature), coron- 
ach (Scot. & Irish), threnody, reauiem 
(chiefly poetic), elegy; spec, myriologue 
(rare), office (for the dead). 

dirigible, a. directable, navigable. 

dirt, n. 1. Spec, filth, grime, clart (dial.), 
mire, muck, fouling, mud, sludge, dust, 
impurity, etc. 

2. See EARTH. 

t. Spec, meanness, sordidness, obscenity, 

dirt eating, geophagy. 

dirtied, a. denlea, poUuted, pollute, fouled. 

dirtiness, n. Spec, filthiness, filth, foul- 
ness, etc. 
Antonyms: see purity. 

dirty, a. 1. Spec, grimy, filthy, foul, clart 
or clarty (dial.), unclean, uncleanly, im- 
pure (rare), miry, muddy, mucky, nasty, 
vile, soily, cindery, grubby; see filthy, 


Antonyms: see clean, spotless. 
2. See discreditable, mean, indecent, 


dirty, V. t. defile, foul, soil, sully (chiefly 
fig.), filthifv (rare); spec, grime, pollute, 
dust, muddy, mire, colly (archaic or dial.), 
begrime, slobber (chiefly dial.), tar, be- 
Antonyms: see clean, purify. 

dirtying, n. defilement, fouling, soiling, etc. 

dis-. The prefix **dis-" h^ v^svmty a 
stronger force than the prefixes "un-" and 
*Hn-'*; as in ^'unrelated, "disrelated" ; *^unr 
satisfied," ^* dissatisfied" ; "inability," "dis- 
ability," etc. 

disability, n. 1. Referring to the condition: 
inability, incapacity, disablement; spec. 
disquahfication, incompetence, superan- 
nuation, unfitness. 
Antonyms: see ability. 
2. Referring to a defect: incapacity, crip- 
plehood (rare), crippleness (rare), cripple- 
dom (rare), lameness (chiefly spec.); spec. 
palsy, paralysis, impotence, handicap, su- 
Antonyms: see ability. 

disable, v. t. 1. incapacitate, discapadtate 
(rare), disenable; spec, disqualify, unfit. 
Antonyms: see enable. 
2. incapacitate, cripple, becripple (intent 
sive), lame (chiefly spec.); spec, palsy, 
paralyze, dishabilitate (Scots law), dis- 
empower (rare), gravel, silence, founder, 
dry-founder, hamstring, disarm, hock, 

disabled, a. incapacitated, crippled, 
lamed, lame, halt (literary or dignified), 
halting; spec, palsied, superannuate, hoof- 
bound, foundered, groggy (coUoq), hors 
de combat (French), ^ame. 

disadvantage, n. 1. mconvenience, dis- 
commodity, disinterest (rare); spec, hin- 
drance, drawback, check, disservice, 

Antonyms: see advantage, good. 
2. See LOSS. 

disadvantageous, a. inconvenient, awk- 
ward, discommodious; spec, unfavorable, 
Antonyms: see advantageous. 

disafforest, v. t. deforest (law or forestry), 
disforest, diswood (rare), deafforest (rare). 

disagree, v. i. differ (contextv^), dissent, 
clash, conflict; spec, quarrel, dispute. 
Antonyms: see agree, conspire, corre- 

disagreeable, a. unpleasant; spec, nasty 
(coUoq. in U. S.), cantankerous, hateful, 
Antonyms: see agreeable, affectionate. 

disagreeing, a. 1. different, conflictory, in- 
congruent, incongruous, inaccordant, dis- 
cordant, jarring, clashing, contradictory, 

Cross references: see Note. 
diiadTlM: discourage. 

disalleot: alienate, diapUaae. 
disafflrm: deny. 

ditafl&nnanoe: denial. 
disagreeable: unpUatanL 

f^T See Notes of Explanation. 



contrary, repugnant, divided (as peraojia), 
factious, inconsonant, diecrepant. 

W The word "disagreeing" is seldom used 
dliaczeement, n. I. diffei'cnce, disunity, 
diacord, diaunion, clashing. 

ATUonyms: see secession. 
1. confliot, division, incongruence, incon- 
gruouanesa, inaccordance, inaccordancy 
(rare), contrariety, diacord, discordance, 
discordancy, opposition, variance, divi- 
sion, clash, dimculty; see dissension. 

ATitonyrns: see aokeement, conspibact. 


disappear, v. i. 1. vaniBh, evanish {em- 
phatic; lilerary), die {used with "ajBay," 
"ovl," or "down"), evanesce, sink, go; 
rpec. melt, dry, dive, dissolve (often wih 
•'into"), fly (mih "away"). 
Anlonyms: see appeab. 

dlsBppearaiioSi n. 1. vanishment (ra 

(rare), diMolution, evanition (rare). 
A.Jtionyms: see appearance. 

dlsa.ppe*iiiiK, a. vanishing, evanescent, 
etc.; see 

diswhip (i 
unating (Tare). 
Anlonyim: see arm. 
dlsarranKe, ii. I. 1. disorder, disturb, de- 

(fore), topsy- turvyty (rare; humorom), 
miiHa(l/.S.; oftcniiaedwilh"up"),]\imV\Q, 
ruffle, dishevel, rumple, rummage (oflen 
used with "over"), break, unsettle, tumble. 
AntoTtyjus: see abkanqe, adjust, tidy. 

9. See 


dUarc*DE«d, a, topsy-turvy, 
mugger, discomposed, etc. 

dlBbellei, n. diacredit, unbelief; spec in- 
fidelity, agnosticism, heresy. 

dlsbeUeve, v. t. discredit, miacredit (rore); 
spec. doubt, reject. 

diMflniine. a, bright, discriminating, dis- 
criminative, nice, discriminant (rare), 
dear-headed, subtle, acute, sharp, long- 
headed, percipient (rore), clear-sighted. 
long-Bightcd, perspicacious^ deep, saga- 
cioua, Iteen, astute, piercing, judicious 
(qflen spec.), eagle-eyed, Argus-eyed (Jifl.); 
spec, discreet, searching. 

9. discrimination, sagacity, shrewdness, 
acumen, sharpness, brightness, depth, 
perspicacity, msight, perspicaciousnesB 
(rare), astuteness, keenness, longbeaded- 
ness, sharpness, judiciousness (qft«n 
»pet.); spec, discretion, tact, judgment. 

ATtionyms: see stupidity. 
diBaharge, v. I. 1. See unload. 
>- shoot, fire; spec, volley, empty, play;— 
in rr^erence to a bow, ^un, hoae, etc. 

AiUonyms: see load. 
1. project, expel, shoot, fire, throw; spec. 
deliver, play ; — in re/erence to missiles. 

4. dismiss, cashier, discard, remove, sack 
(slang), bounce {alarig, U. S.), dispoet 
(rare), kick (used with "out"; eoliog.), de- 
pose (chiefly spec.); spec, disemploy (rare), 
retire, demit (ardiaic), degrade, oi^lace, 
expel, break (eoUoq.). 

AiUonyma: eee hire, appoint. 
t. See FREE (as f^o"^ obligation, confine 
menl, etc.), ACgoiT, perform, pat, ba'^ 

e. diselectrify (rare). 
dlBoharce, v. i. 1. ,$ee UNLOAD. 
9. RefKjTing to a stream: disembogue^ 
empty, fail. 

5. Referring to a sore, etc.: run, flow; spec 

dlioh*TKe> n. 1> unloading. 
9. shooting, firing, fire; spec, play; — in 
reference to a bow, pun, etc. 
t. projection, expulsion, firing, shooting; 
ivec, plav, delivery, round, rafue 
(French), Durst, salvo, salute, fusillade, 
voll^ ; — in reference to missHeg. 
4. dismissal, remove (rare), cashierroent 
(rare), discardment (rare), bounce (dang, 
U. S.), sack {stang). removal, deposition 
(chiefly spec); spec, disemployment (rare), 
demission (archaic), degradation, dis- 
placement, eTcpuIsion, congf (French), des- 
titution (arcAoic). 


: fromobU- 

galiim, confinement, etc.). 
8. outflow, run-oiT, disemboguement, emp- 
tyina; — referring to fioving waters, tie. 
7. Referringloamrejetc.: How, &UX,' 


spec, profluviu 
ichor, gleet. 

^^_ dlMUtn 

dlBBTOw: disdaiiA 


(Dtai af Eiplanatlon. 


disoiforin, a. circular, discoidal, discoid, 

disciple, n. adherent (contextual) ^ co- 
follower, sectary {rare)y sectator {rare)j 
progeny (coUective pL; fig.); spec, chela 
{Hinduism), evangelist, apostle. 

diBcipIinarian, n. martinet. 

disciplinary, a. Spec, penitentiary. 

discipline, n. 1. ^ee training, art, or- 

2. control (not a good synonym), govern- 
discipline, v. t. 1. tutor. 


disclaim, v, L deny, renounce, repudiate, 
disown, disavow, disacknowledge (rare); 
spec, abjure. 
AnJUmyms: see claim, avow. 

disclaimer, n. denial, abjuration, re- 
nunciation, repudiation, disowning, dis- 
avowal, disclamation (rare), disownment, 
disacknowledgment (rare); spec, abjura- 
Antonyms: see claim. 

disclose, V. t. !• See uncover. 
S. show, reveal, divulge, exhibit, expose, 
uncover, discover (archaic), bare, unveil, 
display, parade, flaunt, manifest, evince 
(by some sign or token), betray, bewray 
(archaic), publish, tell, blab, whisper, de- 
clare, meld (cards), spill, demonstrate, 
uncloak, unburden, unbundle (rare), 
speak, confess, unshroud, unfold, uncur- 
tain, develop, uncase, divulgate (literary), 
unearth, open, discloud, blow (now 
dang), evulgate (rare), communicate; — 
all having more or less specific senses. 
Antonyms: see hide. 

dlsolosins, a. exhibitory, manifestive, ex- 
positive, revelative, revelatory^ evincive. 

disclosure, n. 1. Spec, uncovermg. 
9. show, showing, revelation, reveal 
(rare), revealment, uncovering, discovery 
(archaic), unveiling, baring, unfolding, 
development, exhibition, exposure, ex- 
posal, expos^ (French), display, parade, 
flaunt, flaunting, manifestation, monstra- 
tion, evincement, divulgement, divulga- 
tion (literary), divulgence, betrayal, be- 
wrajral (archaic), apocalypse (rare), pub- 
lication, telling, olabbing, whispering, 
whisper, declaration, etc.; — aU more or 
less specific in meaning. 
Antonyms: see hiding. 

discomfit, V. t. 1. See defeat. 

2. embarrass, disconcert, confound, con- 
fuse, abash, demoralize; spec, squelch 
(coUoq. or slang). 

discomfiture, n. 1. See defeat. 

3. embarrassment, confusion, abash- 

ment, demoralization, disconcertion, dis- 

discomfort, v, t, distress; spec, annoy, 
embarrass, pain, grieve. 
Antonyms: see comfort. 

discomfort, n. uneasiness, distress; spec, 
malaise (French), disease (obs.); see an- 

Antonyms: see comfort, well-being. 

disconcert, v. t. 1. Referring to plans, etc.: 

disarrange, upset, disturb. 

3. Referring to persons: disturb, upset, 

demoralize, unbalance, faze (couoq.); see 


Antonyms: see assure. 
disconcertedness, n. disarrangement, up- 
set (coUoq.), demorahzation, disconcer- 
tion; spec, abashment, confusion, embar- 
rassment, discomfiture. 
Antonyms: see assurance. 
disconnect, v. t. detach, separate, dis- 
unite, disjoin, disjoint, dissociate, un- 
combine (rare); spec, sever, uncouple, dis- 
engage, dislink. 
Antonyms: see connect, join. 
disconsolate, a. 1. Spec, inconsolable, 
comfortless; see hopeless, sad. 


discontent, n. 1. discontentedness^ dis- 
contentment, miscontent (rare), miscon- 
tentment (rare), malcontentment (rare), 
malcontent (rare), dissatisfaction, dissat- 
isfiedness, heartburn (Jig.); see longing. 
Antonyms: see satisfaction. 
3. discontentee (ohs.), malcontent (the 
visual word in this sense). 

discontented, a. discontent, uncontented, 
discontentful (archaic), miscontent (ar- 
chaic), malcontent, dissatisfied; fipec. 
Antonyms: see satisfied. 

discontinuous, a. incontinuous (rare), 
broken, discrete, disjunct (rare), discon- 
nected, interrupted; see intermittent, 
recurrent, inconsequent. 
Antonyms: see continuous. 

disoontinuousness, n. discontinuity, 
brokenness, discreteness, discretion (rare), 
disjunction (rare), disconnectedness, etc, 

discord, n. 1. See disagreement, dis- 
pute, quarrel, dissension, uproar. 
3. Referring to sound: discordance, dis- 
cordancy, dissonance, disharmony, jar 
(rare), cacophony (chiefly music or pedarir 
tic), jangle; spec. wolf. 
Antonyms: see harmony. 

discordance, n. 1. See DISAGREEMENT, 
difference, discord. 
3. harshness, cacophony (chiefly music or 
pedantic), dissonance, oiscordancy. 

fW Cross references: see Note. 
dlsoolor, V. t.: color, stain. 

disoommode: inconvenience. 
disoompose: cLgitaU. 

dlsoontent, v. t: diapletue. 
discontent, a.: dieeontented. 


tS^ See Notes of Rrplanatlon. 

Anionj(m»: eec haruont, mklodt. 
dlMordant, a. 1. See DiBAGREEmo, dif^ 


a. harsh, disaona . 
coDBonant, unsweet (rare), disharmonic 
fehiejly music oi 
pedantic), untunable (rare), rough, jar- 
ring, jaagling, jaagly (rare), rude, ciaah- 


a. SeeBESTRAlN. 

S. discounteuauce, disfavor; spec, diead- 
viee, disaiiode (rare), dehort (rare); — in 
refere/tce to a proposed action. 

Anlonyrm: see pavob. 
dUaouracemeiit, n. 1. depression, dis- 
heartening, disbeartenment, dismay. 

Antonifma: see cheer. 
S. Referring to tluii which discourages: 
damper, deterrent, wet blanket (coUog,). 
S. diBcountenaace, disfavor; spec, disad- 
viaemeut, dissuasion (rare), dishortatioo 

dlBcooTOKlnEt a. 1- See depresbino. 

S. discouDtenaDcing, disfavoring; spec. 

dissuasive (rare), dehortative (rare), de- 

hortatory (rare). 
diiooiiTiB, n. 1. See conversation, 


9. composition, exercitation, dissertation, 
disquisition, preachment, i>eroratioa 
(rare), descant (tUerarji), rhesis (rare), 
lucubration {aflen derogatory); spec, the- 
sis, treatise, homily, euloEy, colloquy, ejt- 
hortation, address, sohloquy, recital, 

dUooiuae, V. i. dissertate {formal), dissert 
(rare), lucubrate (often derogatory); spec. 
speak, write, treat, yam (colloq,), sermon- 
ize; see DiBCUBS. 

dlsoover, v. t. I. ascertain, spot (datig), in- 
vent (rare), detect, discern, find, get; 
tpec. distinguish, calculate, descry, espy, 
spy, sight, hear, feel, sense, learn, strilie, 
determme, unearth, amell, catch, evaluate, 
canvass, sift. 

dliooverHbl*, a. ascertainable, determin- 
able, detectable, discernible, distinguish- 

able, calculatable, reperible (rare), find- 
able, sensible, etc. 

dlsooverr* 'i. 1- ascertainment, invention 
(arcfiaic), defection, discernment; spec. 
distinction, distinguishment, determma- 
tion, finding, calciDation, dtiscrial, es))ial, 
spying, sighting, hearing, feeling, sensing, 
learamg, strike, striking, hittiDg, un- 
earthing, mare's neat (numorotis), find 
S. spec, uncovering. 

disoivdit, n. 1. disrepute, disparagement, 
disesteem^ disrespect, raises teem, dis- 
honor, disgrace, shame, scandal, igno- 
miny, disfavor, infamy, obloquy, con- 
tumely, contempt, attaiJot, opprobriimi, 
reproach, odium. Most of lhe«e sjfnonyma 
haiie specific implications. , 
AiUonyms: jiee honor. 
a. Referrvig to that which bringa dues- 
teem, etc.: di^race, dishonor, blot, 
smirch, sUun, reproach, etc. 
A ntotiifnis: see honor. 

dlBoisdit. V, I, 1. disparage, dishonor, dis- 
grace, shame, scandaiiie, stigmatise, at- 
taint, stain, defame (archaic), impea<^, 
der<^ate (rore or obs.), depreciate, com- 
promise, infamize (rare), blot, mfame 

of these synonyms mie speciju; impliat- 

Antonyms: see confirm, eonob, fiuit- 

dlHOTcdltable, a. disreputable, disrespect- 
able, dishonorable, unworthy, derogatory, 
derogative, disgraceful, degrading, shame- 
ful, mglorious, scandalous, ignoble, di»- 
honest (archaic), ignominious, infamous, 
contumelious, opprobrious, foul, re- 
proachful, odious, un worshipful (rare), 
mdign (rore), dirty. Most of these syno- 
nyms have specific impli/xitions. 
Antonyms: see bonqbablb. 

illsoursiTe, a. 1. iSee wandbbtno. 
3. digressive, rambling, wandering, desul- 
tory, touch-and-go (collog.), cursory, un- 
connected, vague, loose, excursive (rare). 
Atttonyms: see concise. 

disousi, V. t. <t t. debate (to discuss for- 
maily), discourse (v. i., contertual), talk 
(coOoq,), canvass, treat, coniabble (iUHer- 
ale or eotloq.); spec, reason, diolo^te (wUh 



another), argue, sift, ventilate (so as to 
make public), criticize, critique, review, 
dispute, agitate, moot. 

dlsoutsion, n. debate {formal discussion), 
canvass, treatment, parlance (archaic), 
parle (archaic), parley (archaic), d^mel6 
(French); spec, amtation, argument, ven- 
tilation, pilpul, dialogism, excursus, dis- 
putation, review. 

dtoeate, n. 1. ailment, malady, disorder, 
sickness, distemperature (rare), ill (lUer- 
ary), complaint, distemper, misa£fection 
(rare), evil (oos. or archaic, exc. in 
phrases); s^c, pest, infection, contagion, 
dyspasia, intemperies (rare), idiopathy, 
pestilence, plague, cacodthes^ deuterop- 
athy^ decline, epizootic, epizo5ty, en- 
Antonyms: see remedy. 


disease, v. t. disorder, indispose (chiefly in 
p, p., ** indisposed"), distemper, affect; 
spec, infect. 
Antonyms: see cure, disinfect. 

diseased, a. ailing (contextual), ill, sick, 
distempered, sickly, unsound, unwell, 
dyscrasic (rare), affected; spec, sickish. 

disembark, v. t. & i. land, debark. 

disembarrass, v. t. relieve, debarrass 
Antonyms: see embarrass. 

disembodied, a. incorporeal, unbodied 
(rare), disincamate (rare). 
Antonyms: see material. 

disembowel, v. t. eviscerate, embowel 
(literary), disbowel (rare), bowel (rare), 
gut (tech. or wlgar), viscerate (rare), de- 
viscerate (rare), exenterate (rare,^.); 
spec, paunch, gib, draw, gill (rare), 

disenchant, v. t. disencharm (rare), disil- 
lusion, im witch (rare), disentrance. 
Antonyms: see bewitch. 

disentangle, v. t. disengage, untangle, 
ravel, unravel, disen trammel (rare), un- 
twine, elaqueate (rare), clear, disinvolve 
(rare); spec, comb, tease. 
Antonyms: see entangle. 

distavor, n. 1. Spec, dislike, condemna- 
tion, discredit, oispleasure, discourage- 


disguise, V. t. hide, conceal, cover, cloak, 
clothe, mask, veil, dissemble (usually im^ 
plying evil intent), dissimulate (usually 
implying evil intent), veneer (fig.), color, 
shroud, muffle; — implying a hiding or ob- 

scuring by a false or counterfeit appear 
ance, the words mostly hamnq specific imn 
plications suggested by their literal senses, 

disguise, n. concealment, cover, cloak, 
mask (spec, or fig.), veil, dissemblance, 
dissimulation, veneer, color, shroud, muf- 
fler, masquerade (spec, or fig.); — mostly 
having specific implications, 

disguised, a, feigned^ cloaked, masked, 
veiled, hidden, incogmta (fern,), incognito 

disgust, n, !• distaste (contextual), nausea, 
AntoTiyms: see pleasure. 
2. dislike (contextual), aversion (contextr 
vol), abhorrence, repugnance, abomina- 
tion, loathing, displeasure (rare), 
ArUonyms: see appetite. 

disgust, V. 1. 1. displease (contextual), sick- 
en, nauseate, revolt (a contextual sense). 
Antonyms: see please, entice. 
2. ^Sfee REPEL. 

disgusting, a. 1. displeasing (contexttud), 
distasteful (contextuhl), nauseating, nau- 
seous, loathly (literary), loathful (now 
rare), loathsome, sickening, foul, revolt- 
ing, repulsive. 
Antonyms: see pleasant. 
2. abominable, revolting, foul, repulsive, 
shocking, hateful, repugnant, abhorrent, 
Antonyms: see attractive. 

dish, n. vessel (contextual); spec, crock, 
plate, platter, bowl, cup, saucer, tureen, 
pitcher, tray, doubler (large; obs. or dial.), 
plat (French), epergne, bonbonni^re 
(French), skillet, saucepan, spider, cas- 
serole, pan, gravy boat, tumbler, goblet, 
caraffe, etc. 

dishevel, v. t. disorder, touse, tumble, 
tousle, ruffle, muss. 

disheveled, a. disordered, tously, tousled, 
unkempt, tumbled, mussy. 
Antonyms: see dishevel. 

dishonest, a. untrustworthy (contextual), 
crooked, faithless, false; spec, comipt, 
sinister, knavish, fraudulent, deceitful, 
disingenuous, slippery, perfidious, treach- 
Antonyms: see honest, conscientious, 


dishonesty, n. untrustworthiness (conJtexlr 
ual), crookedness, faithlessness, falsity, 
improbity (rare), falsehood; svec, knav- 
ery, knavishness, fraud, fraudulence, per- 
flaiousness, perfidy, treachery, corruption. 
Antonyms: see honesty, virtue. 

' Cross references: see Note. 
disdain, n.; contempt. 
disdain, 0. (.; despise. 
disenthrall: free. 
dlsentbrone: depose. 

disfavor, V. L: dislike^ con- 
demn, discourage. 

disfigure: deface, deform. 

dlstumish: strip, dismantle. 

disgorge: vomit, ejects rdir^ 

dlsgraoe: discredit, abase, de^ 

dlsgraoeful: discreditable. 
dlscrantle: displease. 
dlin, V. t.: serve, ruin, hoUow, 
dishabille: undress. 

%3ff^ See Notes of Ezplanationi 



dlslnelliuttloii, n. indisposition, indls- 
poeedneas; spec, unwillingness, reluctance, 
reluctancy, grudginEaess, aversion, dis- 
like, distaste, disaffection. 
Antonyme: gee inclination. 

diilnleot, V. t. sanitize, eanitB.te, sterilise; 
spec, fumigate, tislerize, asepticize, eteajn, 

Antonyma: ace disease, poison. 

dlBlnccDQout. a. artful, deceitful. 

dlilnheclt, v. t. disown, eKheredat« (rare). 

dtd&heiltanoe, n. disowning, exhereda- 
tion (rare), disherison (lech, or literary), 
disinherison {rare), disownmeat. 

dlsliit«(T>ta, f. t. <£ t. decompose, resolve 
(rare); spec, dissolve, aoalyze, crumble, 
crumb, decay, weather, disgregate, dif- 

Anionyms: see compobb. 
dialBtegiatloii, n. decomposition, reso- 
lutioD (rare), wmlysis, e(c. 
dlilnter, u. t. dig (contextual), dishume, ud- 
bury, exhume, unearth, disinhume; spec. 
disentomb, unchamel (rare). 
Antonyms: see flnRT. 
disinterment, n. digging (corUexlual}, ex- 
humation; spec, disentombment. 
Antonyms: see bukial. 
disjoint, V. i. 1. joint) spec, break. 


disk, n. cirde; avec. saucer, button, squail, 
paten, rounds, roundlet, sabot, flan, 
discus, quoit (.doss antiq.), umbrella 

disk-ihAped, a. placentoid (tech.; rare). 

dislike, n. I. Spec, disfavor, antipathy, 
aversion, distaste, disrelish, disgust, re- 
pugnance, repulsion, displeasure, objec- 
tion, diainclination, dyspathy, mislikmg, 
detestation, abhorrence, abomiaation, un- 
friendliness, ill-will, disaffection, dislove 
(nonce Uiord), hostility, enmity, dispeace 
(rare), animosity, hate, hatrM, malevo- 
lence, malice, spit« {obs. or dial,). The 
wordafrom "dislike" U> "abomination" re- 
fer especially to an emotion or feding 
prompting asoidance and aroused by am- 
Utet wiiA, or experience of, the Meet in 
question; the words from "unfrieiuUiness" 
to "maletiolerKe" refer especia&y to the emo- 
tion, feeling, or altitude aroused by some 
more intimate relation invobdng saf-inter- 
etf. "Didike" is the broadest (emi, apply- 
ing to any degree of emotion. 
Antonyms: see affection, enjoyment, 

favor, loathe, detest, abhor, abominate, 
hate, mislike (lileri^), resent, lump 
(slang or vulgar). See aiSLTKE, n., r^ove. 
Antonyms: see like, enjot. 

disliked, a. Spec, detested, hated, loathed, 
abhorred, despised, oonteinned. 
Antonyms: see beloved. 

dislooate, v. t. 1. displace, disjoint; «pec, 
(referring (o bones) luxate, alip, disarticu- 
late, exarticulate (rare), splay. 


dislooated, a. sbotten. 

diiiodge, tt. t, t. displace, dispel, unlodes 

(rare); spec, unrest (rare), dismount, un- 

Antonyms: see deposit, nx. 
>. remove, expel; spec, uncarap (rare), 

dismantle, v. I. 1, See stiuf. 
I. unfurnish, atrip, disfumiah; spec, un- 
rig, dismast. 
ArUonyms: see bquu>. 
1. destroy (contextual); spec, raze, disem- 

dismay, v. t. 1. discourage (conlextutd), 
appall, daunt. 
Antonyms: see ASSintEI. 
S. Seei 

dismember, v. I. 1. disjoint, dislimb (rare), 
limb (rare), piecemeai (rare); spec, joint. 


dismiss, t>. t. I. To send away: spec, die- 
solve, disperse. 
Antonyms: see recall. 


S. To put away, as out of consideration: 
spec, scout. 

dlamonnt, v. i. alight, descend. 

dlsmonnt,!!. (. 1. iSee disflacb, diblodob. 
S. Spec, unhorse, dishorse. 

dlsobedienoe, n. Donobedience, disobeyal, 
mutiny (chiefly spec.), noncomplisjioe 
noncompliancy. disregard; sjyec. insubor- 
dination, recalcitrance, contumacy, re- 
cusancy, recusance, undutifulness, re- 
bellion, indiscipline, defiance, umulmeas, 
waywardness, irowardness (archaic). 
Antonyms: see obedience. 

diaobedlenti n. nonobedient, mutinous 
(chiefly spec,), noncompliant, diaregard- 
ful; spec, insubordinate, contumacious, 
recalcitrant, recusant, undutiful, rebel- 
lious, ussubmissive (rare), rebel, froward 
(archaic), unruly, wayward, defiant. 
Antonyms: see obedient, complaisant. 

dlilooUiled: oppoted. unwiU- 

dUJolnt: dill, 

tf Bee Notss a 


disobey, v. t 1. Spec, ignore, defy; — in 
reference to persons, 

S. transgress, disregard, ignore; — in refer- 
ence to commands. 
Antonyms: see obey. 

disorder, n. 1. disarrangement, misar- 
rangement, deray (archaic) j misorder 
(rare), disarray; spec, confusion, topsy- 
txnrvy, irregularity, litter. Jumble, mud- 
dle, mess, deordination (rare), entangle- 
ment, tangle, dishevelment, muss (U,S,). 
Antonyms: see arrangement. 


disorderly, a. 1. Spec, irre^lar, im- 
methodi(^, mess^ (coUoq,), untidy, order- 
less, unsystematic, hugger-mugger, cha- 

Antonyms: see orderly. 
S. irregular, lawless; spec, riotous, rough, 
anarchic, turbulent, tumultuous, rowdy, 
rowdyish, topsy-turvy, rough-and-tum- 
ble, mobbish, tumultuous. 

Antonyms: see law-abiding. 
disorsanization, n. disarrangement, dis- 
ruption, disorder, derangement; spec, de- 
moralization, dislocation. 

Antonyms: see organization. 
disorcanize, v. t. disarrange, disorder, de- 
range, upset, disrupt; spec, demoralize, 
dislocate, demobilize. 

Antonyms: see organize. 
disparage, v. t. 1. See discredit. 
2. depreciate, asperse, decry, defame, 
traduce, belie (archaic or rare), calumni- 
ate, scandalize (rare), blackmouth (rare), 
denigrate (literary), blacken, detract 
(rare), mince (rare), diminish (archaic), 
lessen (archaic), disconsider (rare), dis- 
prize (obs. or archaic), derogate (archaic 
or obs.), dehonestate (rare); spec, bedaub, 
belittle, minimize, vilify, underpraise, 
backbite, slur, slander, libel. 

Antonyms: see compliment, praise, 


disparagement, n. 1. See discredit. 
2. depreciation, decrial, defamation, as- 
persion, reflection, traduction, scandali- 
zation, calumny, calumniation, deniza- 
tion (literary), blackening, aetraction, 
diminution (rare), disconsi deration (rare), 
derogation; spec, dehonestation (rare), 
dispraise, blasphemy, vilification, slur- 
ring, backbiting, slander, libel. 

Antonyms: see compliment, praise. 
disparagins, a. depreciatory, deprecia- 
tive, cfliumnious, calumniatory, detrac- 
tive, slighting, derogatory, light, vilifi- 
catory, pejorative (rare or spec,); spec. 
slanderous, libelous. 

Antonyms: see laudatory. 
dispel, V. t. 1. See scatter, dislodge. 
9. dissipate, banish, resolve, scatter, ex- 
pel, remove, disperse; — in reference to 
doubts, fears, etc, 

disperse, v, i. scatter; spec, diffuse, dis- 
solve, d^band. 

Antonyms: see convene, gather. 
displace, v, t. 1. move (contexttud) , re- 
move, translocate (rare), unplace (rare); 
spec, remove, disjoint, spring, start, shift, 
slip, dislodge, unseat, disseat(c^ie^2/^.), 
misplace, disroot, oismount, dislocate, 
disturb^ fault, unship, disorb (rare), dis- 
nest, disniche. 

Antonyms: see fix, replace. 


displacement, n. 1. moving, removal, 
translocation (rare), implacement (rare); 
spec, dis jointure (rare), start, shift, slip, 
dislodgment, unseating, dislocation, dis- 
turbance, leap, fault, unshipment. dis- 
mounting, heterotopy (tech.), parallax. 
Antonyms: see fixation, replacement. 
9. See replacement, discharge. 
t. conduct, administration, direction. 
4. transfer; spec, bestowal, gift, sale. 

displease, v. t. disgruntle (comoo.), dissat- 
isfy, disaffect, discontent, mislike; spec, 
disgust, offend, anger, annoy. 
Antonyms: see please. 

displeasure, n. dissatisfaction, disaffec- 
tion; spec, annoyance, anger, offense, dis- 
Antonyms: see pleasure. 

disport, V. i. play, sport, merrymake (chiefly 
in p. pr.), snrove (rare); spec, rant, frouc. 

dispose, V, t, 1. See arrange, adjxtst, in- 
9. appoint, direct. 

disposed, a. inclined, prone, minded, pro- 
pense (rare), affectioned (archaic), inclin- 
ing, ready, tending; spec, apt, addicted. 
"Disposed" ''apt" ''inclined," and "tend- 
ing" are also used of physical objects. 
Antonyms: see unwilung, opposed, 


disposition, n. 1. See arrangement, ad- 

Cross referenus: sec Note. 

disorder, r. t.: disarrange, con- 
fuse, derange, disorganize, dis- 

disown: disdaim, disinherit. 

disparate: unequal, different. 

dlQMurlty: inequality, differ- 
ence, disproportion. 

dispassionate: impartial, un- 


dispatch, r. (.: send, kiUt ex- 
pedite, accomplish. 

dispatoh, V. %.: fuisten. 

dispatch, n.: sending, kUling, 
expedition, haste, message. 

dispensable: unnecessary. 

dispensate: distribute, admin^ 

dispensation: distribution, dif- 
fiuion. {excuse, 

Aspense: distribute administert 

disperse, v. t.: scatter, diffuse, 
distribute, dispd, 

dispirit: depress. 

display, 1. 1.: unfold, show, dia- 
dose. [disclosure, 

display, n.: unfolding, showt 

See Notes of Explanation. 



BTATE (0/ 


affairs, etc.). 

%. cooatitutioD, temperameot, UMUper, 

buinor, spirit, nature, birtb, imwd, turn, 

vein, frame, etomacn {fin.), conditiona 

{archaic; pi.), cue, grain. 

I. JDclinatiaii, inclmm^, tendency, dia- 

poBednesa (rare), affection (rare), prone- 

nesB, propensity, aptitude, inclining, bent; 

gpec. lancy, notion. 

4. Spec, transfer, bestowal, gift, sale. 

dIapoBieii, V, i. remove, forjudge (archaic 
r law), expropriate {chiefly tpee.); epec. 
lisseize; see eject. 

dlsprool, n. refutation, confutation, con- 
futsment (rare), disprovement (rare), re- 
butter, rebuttal, rebutment (rare), redar- 
gutioii {chiejly Scot, irr lavj). 
Antonyms: see proof. 

dlipiopoTtloiL, n. misproportion, dispar- 
ity, inoommeusurabiiity, incommensu- 
rableness, incomniensurat«ness ; spec, 
Anlonyns: sec pbopoiition. 

dlBptoportionSite, n. uiiproportionat«, 
disparate, incommensurable, incommeDS- 

Antonyjns: see proportionate. 

disprove, v. I. refute, confute, rebut, nega- 
tive, redargue (chiefly Scot, or law), con- 
vict (archaic). 
Anftmi/mB; see prove, confibu, verify. 

dlspntftUtt, a. controvertible, question- 
able, debatable, discussible, disputant; 
spec. Utigable. 
AiUonj/ma: we UNgiTEaTioNABLB. 

dlapntent, n. disputer, contestant (con- 
teMaal), contender (cmUextwd), coutro- 
veraialiat, controverter, eontrovertist; 
spec, debater, jangler, dialogist, dialectic, 
pilpulist, polemic, 

dl*put«ttou>, a. I. Spec, controversial, cap- 
tious, disputative, contradictious, polemic. 
X contentious, discordant, disputative, 
bickering, strileful, jarring, quarrelaome, 
Antonyms: see aqreeino, comfiaisant. 

diapnte, v. I. contradict, controvert, dif- 
fer, disagree; spec, argue, attack, debate, 
impugn, discept (rare), challenge, ques- 
tion, litigate, deraign (hist.; law). 
Antonyms: see cONPmu. 

dlapnta, v. t. 1. controversial] le {rare), dif- 
fer, disagree; sptw. debate, argue. 
a. contend, differ, disagree, altercate; 
spec, quarrel, bicker, brabble (archaic), 
brawl, jangle, wranple, jar, flit« or Byle 
(archaic or dial.), strive, spat (coUoq.). tift. 

diapata, n. 1. controversy, confradiction. 

disccptation (rare); tpee. debate, argu- i 

S. contention, contest, diSerence, dis- 1 
a(p«cment, discord; spec, quarrel, jangle, ' 
dissension, jar, strife, snarl (cofjoo.), 
wrangle, squabble, bicker, brawl, brabble , 
(archaic), spat (a^loq.), tiff, bickerment 
(ro™), impupiation (rare), impugnment 
(rare), polenuc. 
■. Spec, issue. 

dlaquallfloBtlon, n. disablement, disabil- { 
ity; spec, superannuation, minority, sex, 
insanity, elc. 
Antonyms: see qualification. 

dlaquBlltr, V. t. disable; spec. Huperannu- ' 


AnUmytna: see quAurr. 
dltresmrd, v. t. ignore, neglect, overlook 
(rare or spec.), pretermit (rare); spec, dia- I 
semble, disobey, slight, defy. 

AnUmyms: see observe, attend, CON- 

dlBTesBTd, n. ignoration (rare), inatten- 
tion, neglect, dissembling, pretention 
(rare), pretermission (rare) ,-»poc. oblivion, 
disobeoience, slight, defiance, heedless- 
ness, unheeding. 
Antonyms: see observance, attek- 
tion, emphasis, cons mE ration. 

dlsrecardful, a. neglectful, inattentive, , 
disregardant; spec, deaf, blind, careless, | 
heedless, oblivious, disobedient, slighting, 
Antonyms: maattentivb. 

diarapKlr, n. decay, impairment, unrepfur, 
irrepair (rare). 
Antonyms: see repair, 

dlaraapeotiti, 1. 5i;ei)i8CBBDrr,lNcmLnT, 
1. disesteem, misesteem; spec, irrever- 
ence, contempt, disdain, etc.; — referring Ut 
ilie attitude of mind. 
AiUmiyms: see esteem, 

diareapeot, i>, (. disesteem; spec, despise, 
loathe, abhor, abominate. 
Antonyms: see esteem. 

dlBTeapaotful, □, irreepectful (rare); spea. \ 
irreverent, contemptuous, impolite, ' 
Aniimyms: see rehpectfui,, 

diaaaot, v. t. 1. To cut up: spec, anatomiie, 
vivisect, transect (rare). 
t. See ANALTZE, criticize, 

dlsiemble, t>. i. pretend, feign, possum . 
(colloq.; rare), dissimulate, act (cMefly 
spec, or fig.). . j , . 

dlaasinbleii n. deceiver, pretender, feign 
er, dJBsimulatoT, actor, disguiser (imre); 
spec, hypocrite, counterfeiter. 

dlaaemblliiB, a. deceitful, dissimulat- 
ing; spec, hypocritical, canting, ironioal. 

I dlnnpt. 

I brfaeK. d 

XS* See Motu ot Eaplanatlon. 



Antonyms: see frank. 
dittembllns, n. 1. deceit, dissimulation, 
dissemblance, pretense, disguising; spec, 
hypocrisy, irony. 


distension, n. disagreement, discord, 
strife, friction; spec, faction, party. 
Antonyms: see peace. 

dissent, v. i. differ, disagree. 

dissent, n. difference, disagreement; spec. 
nonconformity, recusancy. 

dissenter, n. differer (contextual), dis- 
sentient, dissident, oome-outer (colloq., 
U, S.)\ spec, recusant, nonconformist, 
Raskolnik, sectary, heretic, infidel. 

dissentient, a. aisagreein^ (contextual), 
dissenting, dissentious, macquiescent; 
spec, recusant, factious, dissident, non- 
AnJUmyms: see agreeing. 

dissentious, a. inacquiescent (rare), 
recusant (chiefly eccl.); spec, inflamma- 
tory, incendiary, strifeful. 

dissipate, v. i. 1. See scatter, diffuse. 
2. debauch, riot (rare); spec. Corinthian- 
ize, rake. 

dissipated, a. 1. See scattered, diffuse. 
2. corrupt (coniextual), debauched, dis- 
solute, rakehell (archaic), fast, aban- 
doned; spec. Corinthian, wild, raking, 
rakish, unsteady, licentious, crapulent, 
crapulous, lecherous, profligate. 

dissipater, n. 1. Spec, scatterer, diffuser. 
2. c&ssipator (a variant spelling), de- 
bauchee; spec, rake, ranter (rare), lecher 
(archaic), palHard (archaic), rioter (rare or 
archaic), profligate, rakehell (archaic), 
rakeshame (archaic), rip (colloq. or dial.), 
rou6 (French), rounder (coUoq.), Corin- 

dissipation, n. 1. Spec, scattering, dif- 

2. corruption (contextual), debauchery, 
debauch, debauchment, dissoluteness, 
fastness; spec, prodigalism, raking, rakery 
(rare), riot (rare), riotousness, crapulence, 

t. Referring to an act or occasion: de- 
bauch; spec, spree (coUoq.), bout, bum 
(sLang), orgy, dfrunk (slang). 

dissolve, V. t. 1. See decompose, disin- 

2. Referring to happiness, troubles, doubts, 
etc.: destroy, annihilate (rare), consume, 
diffuse; spec, abrogate, annul, explain, 
t. Referring to a legislature, parliament, 
etc.: dismiss, end (rare); spec, prorogue. 

Antonyms: see convene, convoke. 

4. To cause to become a solution: spec, cut, 
lixiviate, leach. 

dissolve, V. i. U decompose, disintegrate, 

resolve (rare). 

2. See DISAPPEAR, scatter. 
dissuade, v. t. 1. turn, divert. 
Antonyms: see induce. 

2. See DEHORT. 

dissuasion, n. turning, diversion. 
distance, n. 1. remoteness, separation, 
famess; — referring to state, fact, or degree. 
Antonyms: see nearness. 

5. space, remove (rare as referring to 
space), interval, way (used wUh ^*long,** 
"short,'* etc.), interspace, length (spec, or 
idiomatic); s;pec. difference, westing, east- 
ing, elongation, longitude, drift, pitch, 
drop; — referring to interval in space, time, 
degree, etc. 

8. Referring to a distant place: spec, offing; 


4. aloofness, offishness, stiffness, repel- 
lency; spec, reserve, coldness, superiority, 
Antonyms: see cordialitt. 

distant, a. 1. remote, separate, apart 
(postpositive), far-away, far-off, away 
(postpositive); spec, different, ulterior. 
Antonyms: see near, adjacent, imme- 

2. offish, aloof (predicative), repellent, 
farouche (French) ^ strange; spec, bashful, 
reserved, cold, frigid, unneighborly, su- 
perior, condescending. 
Antonyms: see cordial. 

distend, v. t. dilate, swell; spec, plump, 
bloat, fill, inflate. 
Antonyms: see constrict, contract. 

distill, distil, V. t & i. 1. See drop, ex- 

2. evaporate, concentrate, condense ;«p^. 
cohobate (oldchem.). 

distillate, n. /See extract. 

distillation, n. 1. evaporation, distillment 
(rare); spec, cohobation, descent. 


distinct, a, 1. different (corUextual), re- 
mote, several, discrete, discriminate, dis- 
Antonyms: see same, alike. 
2. See DEFINITE, CLEAR (in meaning), evi- 
dent, SEPARATE. 

distinction, n. 1. separation, demarca- 
tion, differentiation, discretion, discern- 
ment, discrimination, distinguishment 
(rare), contradistinction. 

Cross references: see Note. 
dlMemlnate: scatter ^ diffuse. 
dissent: disagree. 
disMrre: injure. 
dissident: dissentient. 

ditsimilsr: different. 
ditsimulftte: disguise^ diS' 

diMlmulfttion: disguise, di9- 


dissipate: scatter, dispd, dif- 

fuse^ vHute. 
dissooiate: separate. 
distasteful: disgustirig, im- 

patatabUt offensive. 

1^* See Notes of Ezplanatton. 


I. dlSerencc, remoteness, discreteaesa, 

severanw, discriniinatioa. 

i. Spec, aeparateaesa, diatinctiveness. 

4. repute, ecaJneDce, raiUc, note {c/mfiy 
vged with "of'i, inarlc {chiefly used viWi 
"of"), eclat {French), BUpctiority, eximi- 
ousness (rare), notability; spec, fame 
(rare), signality. greatness. 

dlatinctive, o. aisUnguishmg, differeatia- 
tive^ diacriimnative ; gpec. diagnosticj dia- 
critic or diacritical. 

dlBtliiBalib, V. t. 1. To mark aa different: 
differentiate, separate, difference, demar- 
cate, mark (often vaed with "off"), differ 
{rare); spec, accentuate. 
Antonyms: set coNruBE. 

5. To perceive or treat as distinct: separate, 
demarcate, differentiate, difference, dis- 
criminate, discern, tell, secern (rare), sin- 
gle, differ (rare), decern (rare), sever, sev- 
eralize (rare); spec, clasaify, discover, con- 

Antonyms: see coNFtjSB. 
>. signalize, signal (rare!), mark, aingu- 

dlatineulihed, a. superior, eminent, con- 
spicuous, not«d, marked, extmious (rare),* 
spec, shining, famous, extraordinary, 
Afitonyms: see obbcurb. 

dlitort. It. t. 1. deform; spec, screw, wring, 
wrench, torment (rare), twist, contort, 
writhe, wrest, warp, deface, knot, gnarl. 
«. See pervert; — referring to meaning. 

dlatortcd. a. deformed, Gordian (fig.), 
knotted, gnarled, contorted, etc. 

distortion, n. 1. deformation; spec, twist, 
contortion, screw, warp, defacement, con- 
tortnoaity (nones word), knot, buclde. 
a. See pbrversion; — referring to tnean- 

dlstress, n. discomfort (coTiiextual) , dolor 
(poetic), unease (archaic), misease (ar- 
cAaic); spec, trouble, calamity, torment, 

Eress, affliction, pain, tribulation, core, 
urt, misery, gnawing, trial, hardship, 
harassment, confusion, privation, ti<«d, 
want, pressure, grief, sorrow, exigei 
anxiety, etc.; hell, slang or very strong. 
Antonyms: see coufort. 

dl*tcasB, V. t. discomfort, trouble; spec. 
press, harrow, straiten, harry, worry, 
ixither, rack, tiarasa, gnpe (rare), lacer- 
ate, tear, hurt, torment, pain, grieve, sad- 
den, pinch, jar (tiow viually considered 
slang or inelegant). 
Antonyms: see comfort, relieve, 

dlitreialnf, a. distressful, uneasy; spec, 
tormentful (rare), dolorific (literary), 

corking (archaic), heavy, calamitous, 
grievous, bitter, harrowing, severe, sorry, 
gnawing, pinching, miserable, trouble- 
some, sad, painful, griping, heartrending. 
Antonyms: see coufortino, coufort- 

dtstrtbota, V. I. 1, dispense, dispensate, 

divide, part (archaic), dispart (rare), dis- 
perse; apec. prorate (c/iie^y [/. S.), spread, 
partition, scatter, parcel, morsel (rare), 
dole, send, apportion, share, mete, allot, 
diffuse, circulate; see spread. 

Antonyms: see colijict, 
a. See txAssiFT, ADMINISTER (oi jusfice). 

dlstribatton, n. 1. dispensation, diviaion, 
partition; spec. dispersiDn, prorating 
(chiefly U.S.), scattering, porcetinK, par- 
cehnent, dole^ apportionment, sharing, 
allotment, diffusion; spe^. spreading. 
Atttonyms: see collection. 
1. Spec, classification, administration (as 
ofjiiMice), spreading. 

diatriot, n. place, region, quarter (chief- 
ly spec): spec, division, subdivision, eeo- 
tion, riding, regency, wardenry, ward, 
neighborhood, province, presidency, pre- 
cinct, prefecture, department, canton 
(rare, eic. of Suril^erland), lathe (K&U, 

dlstruit, D. t. doubt, mistrust, misdoubt, 
suspect; spec, jealouse (oia., iScol., or 

distrust, n. doubt, mistrust, suspicion, 
misdoubt, misgiving; spec, jealousy, 
Antonyms: see trust, assueancb, i 


dlBtruatfnl, a. doubtful, mistrustful, dif- 
fident (ardiaic), strange, dubious, stia- 
picious; spec, shy, jealous. 
Anlonymg: see assured, reliant, DN- 


dlBtnib, K. (. I. Referring to the mind: 
trouble, agitate; spec, annoy, distract, 
fuss (ealloq.), muss (cMoq.; with "up"), 
distress, vex, worry, disconcert, disciDni- 

Anionyn^: see caim, pacitt, 
t. Referring to things: see aoitath. 
t. Spec, move, disarrange, derange, dis' 
order, confuse, unsettle, shake, molest, 
interrupt, remove, convulse. 
dlat(irban<i«, n. 1. Beferring to the mind: 
agitation, inquietude (rare),' spec, tur- 
moil annoyance, vexation, distress, dis- 
traction, worry, disconcertion, discom- 
posure, distemperature, muss, perturb»- 

Antonyms: see calm. 
9. Referring to things: si 

dlatTAOtt diprrl, deranfft. a 

LTV. e4nifution.fretuv, I 

le NotH of Kipl ■nation. 


t. Spec, moving, removal, disarrange- 
ment, derangement, disorder, confusion, 
unsettlement, molestation, interference, 

4. Referring to disturbance among people: 
disorder, d&quiet^ distemperature {rare), 
breeze (coUoq.), mquietation {rare), in- 
quietude {rare), curfuffle {Scot.); spec. 
commotion, tumult, sedition, insurrec- 
tion, kick-up {coUoq.), row {coUoq.), to-do 
(coUoq.), dust {slang or coUoq.), shindy 
(dang), esclandre {French), scene, pother 
(coUoq. or archaic), fracas, uproar, muss 
(coUoq., U. S.), convulsion, bother, fuss 
(coUoq.), botheration {coUoq.), bobery 
(dang), bluster, conflict, fight, hoity- 
toity {rare), rumpus {coUoq.), grithbreach 
{hist.), row-de-do w {rare), ^meute 
(FrcTicA), outbreak, ruption {rare), rout, 
riot, ruffle {rare), dispute, ruction {coir 
loq.), bustle, clutter, stir, anarchy, brawl, 
hubbub, combustion {now literary and 
rare), scrimmage, turn-up {coUoq.; rare). 

disturbing, a. disquieting, disturbant 
{rare); spec, agitative, troublous, uncom- 
fortable, perturbative {rare), perturba- 
tory {rare), etc. 
Antonyms: see calmative. 

disunion, n. 1. division, separation^ sever- 
ance, disjoining, disseverance, dissocia- 
tion, disjoin ture, disjunction; spec, dis- 
connection, detachment. 
Antonyms: see union. 
2. separation; spec, schism. 


disunite, v. t. & i. 1. separate, disjoint; 
spec, dissever, rend, dissociate, disconnect, 
aetach, disjoint. 
Antonyms: see unite. 
2. aUenate, estrange, divide. 

disuse, V. t. abandon, obsolete {rare), dis- 
card; spec, discontinue, neglect, disaccus- 
tom {archaic). 
Antonyms: see use, exercise. 

disuse, n. 1. abandonment, nonuse, non- 
employment, disusage, discarding; spec. 
discontinuance, neglect, nonobservance. 
Antonyms: see use. 

2. desuetude {formal or literary), disu- 
sage, nonuse, inusitation {rare); spec, neg- 
lect, nonobservance. 

ditoh, V. t. trench, channel, dike {now rare); 
spec, moat, drain, vallate {rare). 

ditoh, n. fosse {tech. or literary), trench; 
spec, canal, graff {hist), grip {dial, or hurtl- 
ing), drain, coupure, moat. 

dive, V. i. 1. plunge; spec, sound. 


dive, n. 1. plunge; spec, header {coUoq.). 
2. See RESORT. 

diverge, v. i. Spec, radiate, branch, divari- 
cate, fork. 

diversent, a. Spec, radiant, radial, radia- 
tive {rare), branching, forking, divaricat- 
Antonyms: see parallel, confluent. 

diversified, a. 1. diverse, mam'fold, multi- 
fold, varied, mixed, multi various {rare), 
variate {rare), multifarious, heterogene- 
ous, diversiform, variform {formal or 
learned), various. 
Antonyms: see uniform, 


diversify, v. t. !• variate, vary, varify 


diversion, n. 1. turning; spec, deviation, 
derivation, dissuasion. 
2. amusement, pastime, dispart {ar- 
chaic), entertainment, beguilement, play, 
recreation, derivation {archaic or tech.), 
sport, relaxation; spec, trifling, fun, sol- 
acement or solace. 
Antonyms: see business, work. 
t. Referring to that which amuses; used 
with the article **a" and having a plural: 
amusement, recreation, play, ^ame, en- 
tertainment, sport, . divertissement 
{French), solacement or solace, derivation 
{arc?iaic), distraction {rare); spec, entre- 
mets {French), avocation {rare), 

diversity, n. 1. See difference. 
2. varietv, manifoldness, multifarious- 
ness, multiformity, variation; spec, hete- 
rogeneity, heteromorphism {chiefly 
tech.), multiformity. 
Aniimyms: see uniformity. 

divert, V. t. 1. turn, disorientate {fig, or 
spec.), deviate. 

2. turn {from a purpose, etc.), draw; spec. 

t. distract {contextual), amuse, derive {or- 
chaic), solace, entertain, recreate, be- 
guile, disport; s^pec. tickle. 
Antonyms: see work, tire, weart. 

diverting, a. amusing, entertaining, recre- 
ative, divert! ve, etc. 

divide, V. t, 1. sever {spec, or fig.), disunite, 
separate, carve {spec, or fig.), cleave {sj>ec. 
or fig.), cut {spec, or fig); spec, scind 
{rare), section, sectionize {rare), part^ par- 
cel, bisect, dispart, dissever, subdivide, 
dismember, junk {rare), split, rend, seg- 
ment, halve, quarter, third, disconnect, 
disjoint, class. 
Antonyms: see join, unite. 
2. To mark or partition off {a continwms 
thing) into parts, or to consider as so 
marked off or partitioned: separate, demar- 
cate {rare), partition {spec, or fig.); spec. 

XW Cross references: see Note. | diurnal: daUy. 

I dlnurloate: brandi. 

i:^* See Notes of EzpUn»tlon. 



dlrl<l«. V. i. 1. Beparate, port, sever, cleave 
(spec, or fig.), cut (spec, or fig.); spec, bi- 
Hect, dispart, subdivide, dismember, split, 
halve, quarter. 
Antonyms: see unite. 


dlrtda, n. watershed, water parting, shed; 
spec, coteau (Canada and 11. S.). 

dlTldad, a. parted; spee. biparted {rare), 
bipartite, aigitat«, lobulate, lobuJated, 
lobuloae, lobat«, multipartite, dimilcate. 
Antonyms: aee united. 

dlrtnatlon, n. 1. prediction, divining, 
soothsaying, auspice (chiefiy spec), hario- 
lation (rare), riddling (rare), augury; 
spec, spatulamancy, rhabdomancy, theo- 
mancy, haruspicy or haruspication, or- 
nithomanny, mantolonj; (rore), inantic 
(xare), hieromancy, hieroacopy, gyro- 
mancy, hydromancy. graptomancy. geo- 
mancy, bibUomancy, lithamancy, hariola' 
tioD (rare), spodomancy, halomancy, 

dlrioe, a. 1. auperhumaa, godlike, dcific, 
deiform. godly, spiritual, heavenly, celes- 
tial, ambrosial (spec, or fig.). 
Anlonj/ma: see eaktulv, htiman. 
1. See RGLioions. 
S. fiae, superior, excellent, ambrosial (jfff.). 

diviner, n. 1. predictor, Chaldean (fig.), 
augur, soothsayer; spec, geomancer, dow- 

dlvlilble, a. separable, partible, severable, 
dividual (rare), dividvious (rare), eU.; 
spec, commensurable. 
Antonymn: tee inseparable. 

division, n. 1, Act of diKidtnff or stale or 
fad of being divided: severance, parting, 
separation, cutting (spec, or Jig.), dispart- 
ing; spec, disunitm^, section, splitting, 
split, Bcissure, parti tionment, parcelment, 
(UHseverance (rare), subdivision, rending, 
partition, partage (rare), Bchism, segmen- 
tation, lobation, fracture, breakini;, de- 
duplication, dismemberment, dearticula- 
tjon, diaoonnection, diuresis, digitation, 
bisection, bipartitlon, triacction. 

AnUmj/ma: Me joining, union. 
i. A part formed by (physical) du-uion: 

Rart; «p«c, subdivision, section, parcel, 
'agment, cut, lobe, lobule, cloot (Scot, 
and dial. Eng.), etc. 

I, A marking off or treating as marked off; 
separation, aemarcatioD; spec, partition- 
mcDt, graduation, parcelment, district- 

t. A part marked off or taken as being 
separated: part, section ; spec, subdivision, 
segment, member, movement, column, 
pasBUS, canto, verse, decade, chapter, 
book, compartment, cell, court, category, 
kind, sort, branch, department, canton, 
ordinary, lot, parcel, faction, party, sect, 
district, block, etc. 

t. Mil. aTut naval: spec, battery^ company, 
brigade, battalion, organ! teation, army, 
classis, cohort, decury, maniple, t«rcio, 
t^-tia, class, squadron, fleet, command, 
troop, squaa. 

•- Of territory: spec, province, territory, 
state, government, presidency, consulabe, 
dominion, county, department, ward, dis- 
trict, circar (India), canton, cantonment, 
commune, commot, resiaency. mahal 
(India), eparchy, eysJet (Turkim), vilayet 



B. Thing (hat dtwrfes; partition; spec, line, 
wall, fence, etc. 

dlvoToe, n. divorcement; spec, repudiation, 
separation, di&arreation. 

Anlonyms: see harriaoe. 
dlTOTOe, V. t. unmairy (rare); spec, tepudt- 
at«, separate. 

Antonyms: see marrt. 
dliilneiB, n. giddiness, vertigo (teeh.), 

dliiy, a. I. giddy, giddyish (rare), vertigi- 
nous, vertiginate (rare), 
f. dizzying, giddy. 

diiiy, V. i. BWim. 

do, V. t. Every kind of action may he mewed ' 
as a particidta- form of doing, and the 
senses which the verb "do" may represerU 
are as numerous as the forms of actitrily 
represented by the words whi/A the oerb may 
govern. It is impossible, therefore, to owe 
a compute list of the carvnia verbs which 
may be replaced by "do," The matt tm- 
■portant ones, however, are here listed. Spec. ' 
inflict, administer, render, perform, 
achieve, commit, practice, cook, cele- ' 
brate, cause, compose, transact, conduct, 
conjure, contrive, deceive, settle, con- 
clude, depict, give, miado, miaexecute. 

dlTUIC*: ditetoK. laOlt. 


make, manage, prepare, pickle, proceed, 
render, show, give, serve, solve, use, exert, 
produce, translate, review, dig, act, ruin, 
swindle, visit, finish, slur, slight, spoil, etc. 
See the above words in the tvcaoulary (upper 
or lower). 

do» V. i. 1. See act, fare. 
9. answer, suffice. 

dook, V, t. 1. cut, clip, curtail {rare), bob- 
tail (a horse), truncate. 


dooked, a. curtail (rare), curtailed (rare), 
bobtail; spec, cock-tailed. 

dootor» n. physician, medical (coUoq.), 
doser (contemptvmis), leech (archaic), 
healer (often spec.), curer;«pec. homoeo- 
path, homoeopathist, allopath, allopath- 
ist, osteopath, hydropath, hydropathist, 
surgeon, dentist, chiropodist, alienist, 
ocuust, aurist, veterinarian, doctress 
(now rare). 

dootor» V. t. 1. treat, leech (archaic); spec. 


doctor, V. i. leech (archaic), practice. 

dootrlne, n. tenet, dogma, dogmatism 
(chiefly derogatory); spec, creed, theory, 
opimon, teaching. 

dooument, n. Spec, writing, handwriting 
(archaic), instrument, monument (rare or 
spec.), muniment (law), diploma (histor- 
ical or spec.), record, charter, charta, 
parchment, paper, patent, manuscript, 
Round Robin^ brevet, certificate, pass- 
port, commission, power, pleading, etc. 

dooument, v. t. evidence, prove. 

dodce, V. i. 1. jink (chiefly Scot.); spec. 
duck, flinch, jump, jerk. 
3. evade, shuffle, palter, shift; spec, hedge, 
trim, prevaricate, quibble. 

dodce» n. 1. Spec, duck, jump, jerk, 

3. evasion, deceit, artifice, 
t. device, expedient. 

doer^n. facient (rare); spec, performer, act- 
or, author, committer, perpetrator, mak- 
er, etc. Cff. DO. 

doll, V. t. To lay or put off: cast, douse (col- 
log.); see remove. **Doff'* is literary and 
has a flavor of archaism. 
Antonyms: «eeDON. 

doc* n. 1. canine (chiefly tech.), cur (con- 
temptuous or derogatory), whelp (chiefly 
contemptvmis); spec, pup, puppy, toy, 
tike, terrier trunaletail, turnspit, spaniel, 
springer, setter, dachshund (Ger.), sTkirter, 
shock, rache or ratch (archaic), reporter 

(U. S.), pug, pye-dog or pie-dog (Anglo-^ 
Indian), pariah dog, pointer, poodle, 
mastiff, lurcher, hound (spec., exc. archaic 
or poetic), harrier, hunter, gazehound, 

griffon, ^ara, finder, deerhound, stas- 
ound, dmgo. dhole (India), courser, cm- 
lie, colly, bulldoe, beagle. Saint Bernard, 
basset, brindle, Duckhound, bandog, tie- 
dog (obs. or rare), bitch, brach, brachet, 
slut, lady (euphemistic); — all those from 
"bitch** on being feminine. "Dog** is often 
used specifically of a male dog. 


doc days, canicular days (learned), cani- 
cule (rare). 

docma, n. doctrine, tenet. 

docmatio, a. 1. See didactic, doctrinal. 
3. positive, categorical, pragmatic, prag- 
matical, magisterial (bookish or learned, 
thelical (rare); spec, opinionated, per- 
emptory, dictatorial. 
Antonyms: see doubtful, hesitating. 

doinc* a. In the sense of "going on**: up, 
on; — in predicative use. 

doinc* n. 1. feasance (tech.), facture (book- 
ish), transaction; spec, conduct; see crea- 
tion, MAKING. 

3. See ACTION, coBfMissioN, accomplish- 

doincs* n. pi. gear (sing.; archaic or dial.), 
ongoings (pi.); see action. 

doll, a. plaything (contextiud), toy (con- 
textual) , dolly; spec, puppet (archaic), 
baby, betty (girl doU), Denedict (boy doll). 

dollar, n. sinker (slang, U. S.), simoleon 
(slang), plunk (slang. U. S.), wheel 
(slang); spec, rixdollar (hist.), duro (Span" 
ish), peso (Mexican), cob (obs.). 

domain, n. 1. See estate, lordship, 


3. realm, reign (rare), dominion, bourn or 
bourne (rare or poetic), territory, posses- 
sion; spec, kingdom, province, empire, 
empery (poetic or rhetorical), obedience, 
sultanate, khanate, daimiate, lordship, 
signory, aukedom, county, palatinate. 

dome, n. vault; spec, cupola, tholus, can- 
opy, beehive. 

domestic, a. 1. home, homely (rare), 
household, domal (rare), familiar, family; 
spec, menial (servant; now contemptuous). 

3. domesticated; — fond of domestic life. 

t. internal, interior, intestine, inland, na- 
tive, home; spec, home-bred. 
Antonyms: see foreign. 

4. See TAME. 

domestic, n. servant, familiar (rare); spec. 

1^" Cross references: see Note. 
docile: teachable, manageable. 
doKgercl, n.; verse.^-dogg^rtl, 
a.: trivial. [eion. 

doldraxnB: dullnees, depree- 

dole, n.; thare, distribution^ gift, 

dole, V. L: distribtUe, apportion, 

dole, n. : depression, sorrow , grief. 

doleful: depressed, lamentable, 
sorrowful, depressing, gloomy. 

dolor: depression, sorrow, ait' 

dome, V. t.: vault, cover. 

IS' See Notes of Explanation. 



maid. i;irl (coUoq,), cook, chambermaid, 
man, bo;^ (colonial British), familiar, but- 
ler, ecullion (archaic). 

dotii«atto*te, n. I. domeaticixe; «pec. civil- 
iie, naturalize; see tame. 

damlaaer, v, i. tyranDiie, lord. 
Anlonvne: see fiWN. 

domlneeriite, a. tyrannical, masterFul, 
tyrannic (rare); spec, authoritative, bossy 
(coliog.), bullyinf;, high-handed. 
ArUonymaj see OBSBQinona, SERViLt;. 

domlneeTliiE. n, tyranny. 

don, V. I. assume (spec, or affected}. 
Antonyms: see dofp. 

dona, a. Spec, performed, executed, fin- 
ished, etc. Cf. DO, II. [. 

donker, n. 1. asa, jack (male), jackass 
(male), onager {wad), jenny (female), 
burro (Sojiihuxelem U. S.j, cuddy (ekiefiy 
Scot.), dicky or dickey (propertj/ he-ass; 
slang or eolloq.), moke dfUmo), neddy. 
"Ats" is the common word when used of the 
wOd forms. 


door, n. I. barrier; spec, trap, trapdoor, 
hatch, heck (chiefiy Sent.). 

dooTkvaper, n. porter, portresa (fern.), 
janitor, ianitresa (Jem.), janitrix IJem.}, 
doorwara (orc/iotc), ostiary [chiefiy ecd.), 
tiler (Freemasonry), usher (arckaie or 
spec), concierge (in France, etc.). 

doorpost, R. dum (now dial.). 

doorwfti'T 1. passage (eontextuoT) , door, 
portal {a dignified term); spec, postern, 
entrance, exit, batchway, dums (pi.; now 

doie, n. portion : spec, potion, powder, pill. 

dot, n. spot (context-ual), speck; spec. 
point, tittle (rare), peck, speckle, pnok, 

dot, c. I. t. spot (contextual), speck; spec. 
point, speckle, punctuate, spnnkle, stip- 
ple, island. 


dotted, o. spotted; spec, punctate, punc- 
tated, consperse irare), sprinkled, irro- 
rate, speckled, bi punctate. 

dottlDB, n. spottmg; spec, punctuation, 

dot-ahaped, a. punctiform. 

double, a. I. twofold, duplicate, duple 
(roTeoTTnalh.), duplex ((ccA.w rare), dual; 
spec, dualiatic, geminous (rare), geminate, 

Cred. binary, binate, binal (rare), bi- 
ax, biformed, bifront. 


cate. geminate (ra 


doubled, a, duplicated, reduplicate, coa- 

duplicate (rare or (ecA.). 
double- enteodie, n. equivocation; spec. 

pun, dittology. " DottMe - entowire u 

doubllns, n. duplicature (ekUfiy ma(A.), 
gemination (rare), dupUcation, condupti- 
cation {lUerary), duplation (rare), 
doubly, ode. twice, twofold. ' 

doubt, n. 1. uncertainty, question, dubi- 
cty (lUerary), dubiousness, doubttulnesa, 
incertitude, undecidedness; spec, mis- 
doubt, skepticism, incredulity, suspicion, 
disbelief, distrust, perplexity, hesitation, 
indecision, susp^se; — referring to th4 
elate of mind. 
Antonyms: see assdranoe, tkdbt, BB- 

t. See twcEnTAiNTT; — referring to fads, 
euenis, etc. 

doubt, V. i. question, dubitate (liierary or 
affected); spec, misdoubt, hesitate. ' 

Antonyms: see believe, trdst. 

doubt, V, t. question, nuery (rare), dubi- 
tate (literary or affected), misdoubt; spec \ 
sus[>ect, distrust, disbelieve. 
Antonyms: see bei.ibvb, trcst, 

doubtful, a. I. undecided, questioning . 
doubting, undetermined, dubious, dubi- 
tant (rare); spec. skeptical, hesitant, per- 
plexed, distrustful, incredulous; see bb< 
libving;— re/errinfl (o the slate of mind. 
Antonyms: see assured, decided, DOO- 

'.fening to fads, 

ewemls, elc. 
dovecot, dovecote, n. birdhouse (coTttexIr- 

uoJ). columbarium, dovehouse, columba^. 
dovetail, v. f. 1. mortise (contextual), tail, 

cog, cock. 

t. See JOIN. 
dowei, R. 1. portion (of a widow), thirds (a 

loose usage), dowry (rare), share (eon>- 



dower, i'. t. dot (rare), tocher (Scot.), por- 
tion, endow;— re/crrinfl to besloumienl on 

down. adv. downward, downwards, 
Hroundward, earthward, netherwards 
(rare), downwardly; spec, downataire, be- 
low (on shipboard), hellward, floorward. 
Antonyms: see UPWARD, HEAVENWARD, 


down, a. downward, descending; spec. 
sloping, downmost. 

down, n. 1. See plumage. 
9. pubescence, lanugo (tech.), wool, fluff. 

downcast, a. 1. See depressed. 
9. lowered (eyes, glance), dejected (eyes; 
Antonyms: see upturned. 

downs, n. pi. upland, wold (Eng.), feU 
(Eng.)j moor. 

downy, a. 1. feathery (contextual), pubes- 
cent, fluffy, lanuginous (tech.), lanugi- 
nose (tech.); spec, silky, sericeous (tech.), 
thrummy (rare), cottony, pappose (rare), 
9. See SOFT. 

dowry, n. 1. Referring to that of a bride: 
dower, dote (rare), dot, tocher (Scot), 
share (contextual). 
9. See DOWER (of a widow), endowbient. 

dowser, n. diviner (corUextual), hydro- 
scopist, rhabdomancer (rare), rhabdo- 

drab, a. & n. dun, brownish, yellow, yel- 
lowish 'gray. 

drabble, v, i. & t. dra^e. 

draoonian, a. draconic, dracontine (rare), 
harsh, cruel. 

draconic, a. dragonlike, dracontine, dra- 
contian, dragon. 

draft, n. dregs; spec, swill. 

draft, n. 1. See drawing, load, drink- 

9. demand; spec, order, check or (chiefly 
British) cheque, bill (of exchange). 
S. depth (enough to float a vessel). 

4. Mil.: conscription. 

5. In forms *' drafts'* construed as sing.: 
checkers (U. S.). 

draft, V. t. 1. See outline. 

9. MU.: spec, impress, press, conscribe 

(rare), conscript, commandeer (South 

drafted, a. Spec, conscript, impressed, 

dracclo* v. t. & i. 1. drabble, trail, betrail 

(intensive) f bedraggle (intensive), 

9. See straggle. 
dracnet, n. dredge, drag, trammel. 
dracon, n. monster (contextual), drake (ar- 
chaic); spec, serpent, saurian, dragonet. 
drain, v. t. 1. empty (contextual); s'pec. 

emulee (rare), tap, milk (fig.), dike, 

trench, sluice, sewer, ditch. 
ArUonyms: see fill. 

9. See EXHAUST, deprive, drink. 

t. drip, percolate. 

drain, n. 1. ^S^ee drainage. 
9. channel (contextual); spec, ditch, cul- 
vert, leader, fox, sewer, cesspool. 

drainace, n. 1. drain, draining; spec. 

9. Spec, sewage, seepage; — referring to 
matter drained off, 

dram, n. drink (contextual); spec, thimble- 
ful, sip. 

drama, n. 1. composition, play, piece; spec, 
comedy, comedietta, tragedy, farce, bur- 
lesque, travesty, sketch, interlude, mono- 
drama, monologue, melodrama, melo- 
tragedy, pastoral, masque, operetta, 
opera, pantomime, tragicomedy, trilogy, 
proverb, mystery, miracle play or (rare) 

9. dramaturge (literary), dramatics, 
t. the stage, the theater. 

dramatic, a, theatrical, theatric (rare), 
dramaturge (literary), Thespian (liter'- 
ary), scemc, scenical; spec, melodramatic, 
melodramatical, tragic, farcical, Atellan, 
comic, burlesque. 

dramatist, n. playwright, dramaturge 
(rare); dramaturgist; spec, tragedian. 

dramatize, v. t. Spec, melodramatize, 
operatize (rare), burlesque, farcify (rare), 

drape, v. t. 1. cover (contextual); spec. 
hang, tapestry, pall. 


drape, n. 1. See cover, drapert. 
9. adjustment, hang, cast. "Drape" is 

drapery, n. furniture, hangings (p2.); spec. 

draw, V. t. & i. 1. drag, haul (chiefly nauH- 
cat), pull, tug, hale (now superseded in 
ordinary usage by **haul'*); spec, tow, lug, 
attract, trail, snake (coUoq. or slang, (l, 
S.), train (rare), entrain (rare), tear, rush, 
trawl, bunt, bouse or bowse, orail, drag- 
gle, hook, unsheathe, ti^ten, poker, strict 
Antonyms: see push, thrust, drivb. 

9. See ATTRACT, inhale, utter. EXTRACT, 

t. Of water, liquor, etc.: skink (to draw 
liquor; archaic); spec, tap, broach, bucket, 
rack, siphon, exhaust (air from a vessel), 

4. unshot (a gun, etc.; rare). 

5. trace (a line), run; spec, protract, re- 

6. write, compose, formulate, draft. 

tW Cross references: aec Note. 
downcast: throw. 
downoome: descent, fall. 
downright: vertical, abedtUe, 

evident, frank, definite. 
downward: down. 
drabble: draogle. 
drag, V. t.: draw, attrad, dredge. 

search, drawl, introdiAce. 
drag, 9. t.: draw, dday, eon- 

tirnte, drawl. 
drag, n.: coach, brake. 

t3ff' See NotM of Explanation. 

drkwlnc, n, dragging, draft, traction, pull- 
ing, e(c. 

dr>wlDikitU«. drawknife; tpcc. draw- 
shave, shave, jigger. 

drawing -loom, n. Balon {French), saloon 
(i/. S.). 

diKWl, u, (. tt i. drag; — rejemng to speech. 

diaam, n. 1. vision; apee. nightmare, day- 


». See DATE 

dream, a. somnial (rare), soniuiativc 

dreamland, n. Spec, claudland, fairyland, 

dieamllke, a, unreal; tpec. illusive, 

diedte, II. t. drag, 

dreBE7i "■ impure, feculent, dreggiah; 
spec, turbid, foul, polluted. 
ATUonyma: see clear. 

drcKii n. pi. refuse icontexlwil); spec, sedi- 
ment, lees (pi.), grounds (pi.), ttecea (pi.), 
ffficula or fecula, outcas' ' '~ 

„ (pl), - .. 

Bordor (rare), foots (pi.), bottoms (pi.), 
tilts (pi.), taplasb (obn. or dial.). 

ix«aeb, n. I. dose, potion; — referring to 
physic given to an animaL 
S. wetting (contextual); spec, souse, 
douche, sottkina. 

drench, v. I. 1. dose (eoniexttial), physic; — 
referring to an animiii. 
S. wet (contextaal); spec, douche {chiefly 
tech.), douse, souse, soak, bucket. 
Anionyms: see drt. 

dres*, II. I. I. arrange (conteitital) ; tpec. 
line (used with "up"), preen. 
9. prepare (i»nfex(ua2),'4pfc. clean, rough- 
dr^, scappic or scabble, finish, tan, pick, 
drove, baste, machine, burl, scutch, 
hackle, shamoy, batchel, barber, side, 
curry, bard, liquor, comb, manicure, jig, 
S. equip, fuTDtsb; spec, dub, deck, orna- 


dreia, v. i. 1. aLgn (mil,). 
1. prepare (eonteilual); spec., vest {chiefly 
ecd.), clothe, busk (arcAoic or Scot,). 
Antonyms: see dnobbbs, strip. 

dree*, n. 1. See clothing, cohtcme. 
t. Of a woman's or girl's outer clothing: 
pown (chie^y spec): spec, frock, suit, hab- 
it, bloomer, jam (rare). 
t. Of the mode in which one is dressed, or 
the dress and equipment as a whole: attire, 
tire {archaic; rare), toilet, array {literary 

or foT^nal), trim, garD {chiefly literary), 
gear (chiefly archaic), vesture (titerary), 
make-up, bcdizenmcnt, dizenment (rare), 
bravery, trappings, disguise or disguise- 
ment, cloth, motley, dishabille. 

dieii, a, babilimentai (rare), habilimentary 
(rare), habilatory (rare), vestiary (rare). 

dTeialnc gowa. peignoir (French), robede 
chambre (French). 

dieiilac Kootn. tiring-room. 

tlreaimaker, n. modiste (French). 

dreggy, a, 1, fond of dress;— no single-word 
t. showy, ornamental, elaborate. 

dried, a. desiccated (lech, or cant), baked, 
baken (orc'ioic). 

drift, n. 1. See propcxbion, cookse, 

t, movement (contexhiol), driftage. 

t. deviation (distance away due to drift), 

driftway ; spec, leeway. 

4. In geology: deposit, diluvium; spec, 
till, detritus. 

6. In mining, etc.: excavation, pat 
drive; spec, pillory, tunnel, level. . 

drink, V. t. I. consume (conleztuai) , imbibe 
(rare or spec.), discuss (humorous), de- 
molisik {slang), quaff (chiefly literary); 
spec, dispatch, bibble, swizzle (coUoq.)^ 
sip, aipplc, lap, drain, swill (indgar or 
denoting vulgar excess), swig (eoUog. or 
slang), guzzle, suck (mJgar or spec.), tope 
{eoUiiq.), crush (literary), tipple, buiK 
{dang or cant), crack. 
«. To cause to drink: drench (rare), lush 

5. stuutc, toast, wassail {archaic). "Drink 
to" is the usual term, "ibink" aUme being 
rare or colloq. in this sense. 

drink, n.i. imbibe, quaff {literary); spec. 
sip, sipple, lap, guzzle {colloq. or dang), 
bib (archaic), bibulat^ (pedantic), bibble, 
soak (colloq.), refresh, hobnob, swill (vul- 
gar or implying vulgar excess), swissle 
(colloq.), pull (used mith "at," "on," etc.; 
colloq.), tea, fuddle, boose or (slang) 
booze, bouse {rare), tipple, carouse, lush 
(slang), nobble (rare), mp sot, liquor 
(slang), grog, dram, bum (slang, U. S.), 
pot (orcAoicj. 

drink, n. 1. Liquid to be drunk; — disHn' 
guished from meat (solid food). There are 
no amonyms in this sense. 


■. The ad: drinking, draft, quaff (literary 
or humorous); spec, pull {eoUoq), suck 
(coUoq.), sip, swig {colloq.), lap. 

drIbUe: ilrip. AAbrt. 

I dnd|*; tprinkit. I 

I?* 9ee HotM at EipUnatton. 


4. A portion to drink: draft or drau^t, 
potation {literary or humorous), potion 
(chiefly mid. or spec.); spec, dram, nip, 
toothful (coUoq.), suck (coUoq.), split, pot 
(archaic or obs.), grace, cup, libation 
(humorous), peg {Anglo-Indian; slang) ^ 
nightcap, sip, tickler {coUoq.), tiff (o&s. 
or chiefly dial.), caulker {sUmg), drop, 
bumper, rouse {archaic), chasse {French), 
brimmer {coUoq.), bracer {colloq.). 

drinkable, a. potable, potatory {rare). 

drinker, n. imbiber {formal or affected), 
quaffer {literary); spec, drunkard, soaker 
(coUoq.), lapper, tippler, bibber, sipper, 
bouser, boozer, toper, guzzler, tosspot {ar- 
chaic), hobnobber, compotator, wnetter. 

drlnklnc* a. potatory {rare); spec, ebrious 
{rare arid affected), bibulous, groggy. 
Antonyms: see abstemious. 

drlnklnct n. consiunption, draft, potation 
{teamed or rhetorical), sorbition {rare), 
imbibition {rare or affected), bibation 
{rare), bibition {rare), oibulation {rare); 
spec, tippling, compotation, drink, pot 
Cfig.), cups {pi.; fi^.), cupping, rummer. 

drip, V. t. & i. 1. drop, weep {fig.); spec. 
dribble, trickle. 
%• Tobe wet: drop. 

drip, n. 1. drippmg, drop; spec, dribble, 

9. In architecture: larmier, corona; spec. 
label, dripstone. 

t. drippings {pi.), droppings (pL); — that 
which drips. 

drive, V. t. 1. move {contextual), propel, im- 
pel, force, push, thrust, ram; spec, throw, 
actuate, turn, revolve, drift, puff, tide, 
run, hammer, dint, ding {archaic or dial.), 
press, strike, blow, expel, shoot, beat, 
roll, slide, etc.; — in this sense implying 
that the resulting motion of the driven body 
is, as a whole, the direct result of applied 
Antonyms: see draw. 
9. Of any force, impulse, or actuating 
cause, producing action by stimulating or 
bringing into activity some other force: spec. 
compel, impel, incite, chase, run, herd, 
huddle, hustle, smoke, ferret {u^ed with 
*'out"), shame, rush, pelt, dog, hound, 
hunt, kick, hurry, hoot, hunger {rare), 
beat, constrain, urge, frighten, worry, dis- 
pel, dissipate, reverberate (rare), reper- 
cuse, retund {rare), culbut, etc. 
Antonyms: see restrain. 

5. direct, tool {chiefly spec; cant); spec. 
spank, call {Scot.), trot, back, hoy, gallop, 
canter, amble, bucket {coUoq. or cant), 

walk, run, etc. In this sense the word 
^^ drive'* suggests a greater or less degree of 
participation in the management of direc- 
tion; the word **ride'* emphasizes the idea of 
being carried in a vehicle or on an animal, 
and does not necessarily imply any par- 
ticipation in the management or direction. 
So one **drives** one's own carriage, or 
*^ drives" in another's as his guest: but 
a passenger generally "rides" in a public 
conveyance, though he may take the driver's 
place, and then he would drive. "Ride" 
only is used of traveling on the back of an 


5. excavate {horizontally), hole, drift; — 
distinguished from * ' sink.* 
drive, V. i. 1. advance; spec, rush, dash, 
float, drift, rack, scud. 
9. vehiculate {rare), tool {chiefly spec.; 
cant); spec, rattle, bowl {used vnth 
"along"), coach, spank {coUoq.), chari- 
oteer, bucket. 


drive, n. 1. driving; spec, drift, battue. 
3. journey {contextual), excursion {cor^ 
textual), ride, 
t. excavation, drift. 


driver, n. 1. propeller, impeller; spec, car- 
rier, sail. 

3. reinsman {rarc^ U. S.; spec.), Jehu 
{humorous), charioteer, wagoner, wag- 
goner, curricleer {rare or nonce), coach- 
man, cabman, cabby {coUoq.), hackman, 
mahout, carnac {French), driveress {nonce 
word), vetturino {It.), jarvey {sUmg, 
Eng.), dragsman, tripper, teamster, mule- 
teer, drover, cameleer, motorman, chauf- 
feur, chauffeuse {fem.). 

driveway, n. drive; spec, sweep. 

drizzle, n. rain {contextual), spray (conr- 
textual), drow {Scot.). 

droop, V. i. 1. hang, incline; spec, bend, 
dangle, loll, lop, nod, nutate {rare), sink, 
flag, weep, sag, slouch, drop, fall. 


droop, V. t. hang {as the head), incline; spec. 
dangle, bend, loU, nod, sink, slouch, drop. 
Antonyms: see erect. 

droop, n. hang {rare), inclination; spec. 
slouch, sag, pendency, bend. 

drooplnc* a. 1. hanging; spec, nutant 
{rare), nodding, cemuous {chiefly bot.), 
weeping, pendent, sagging. 
3. Svec. declining, languishing, descend- 
ing, depressed. 

Cross references: aee Note. 
drivel, V. t.: slobber ^ utter. 
drlval, V. i.: slobber, babble. 
drlval, n.; slobber, nonsense. 

drlBzle: rain. — drlssly: rainy. 
droll, n.; buffoon, wit. 
droll, a.: latighcMe. 
droll, 9. t.: jest. 

drone, n.; idler, Auggard. 
drone, v. i.: idle. 
drone, n.; hum. 
drone, v.: hum, monotone. 

KS^ See Notes of Explanation. 


Anloni/ms: tee ehect. 
diop, n. t, ball (eontextiuil), globule, gutta 
(tecA.), tear {cbitfiy ipec.), pear) (chiefly 
tpee.); epec. blob, gout (arcftair), bead, 
droplet, devrdrop, raindrop. 

FAiiL, BREAK (in a iurface), 


drop, V. i. 1. Spee. drip, pearl, bead, dis- 
till, bleed (fig.), plump. 


dxop, B. t. t. Spec, drip, distill, ehcd. 
t. To lei, or cause to, fall: spec, fell, plump, 
dump (chiefly U. S.), lower, droop. 


dmp-shsped, a. guttata (tech.), guttifor 

(lech.), pearly, beady. 
dropsioal, a. hydropic, hydroptic (rare 

spec, oedematoua. 

drops]', n- hydrops (lech, or obi.), hydropsy 
(now rare); spe" "^ ^ -"- ^ j ._ 

throsis, tedenm. 

re); spec, hydrothor 

1. refuse (amieitual), recrement 

staaeee), scoria (uswviy dndery or porous 
droM, as cellular lava); epec. scum, cinder, 
clink, sullage. 

droBsr, a. slaggy, s 
my, eindery. 
drOTs, n, 1. herd; spec, string. 

drown, D. t. 1. Set suffocate. 
B. overwhelm, overpower; spec, (of sound) 
deafen, deaden, outcry, outroar. 

drudxe, f. i. work (contextual), fag (ofUn 
spec, in Bng. school cant), grind, slave, 
plod, dig, plow, grub, hack, scrub. 

drudcc n, worker (conteximl); spec, grub, 
hack, gnibstreeter (lilerary), packnorse 
(fig.), devil or deviller (coUoq.), scrub, 
plodder, slave, fag (in an Eng. tchool), 
grind, penny-a-liner. 

drudKsry, n. work (contextual); spec, fag 
(rore), grind, hackwork (chiefly deprecio' 
lory), joumeywork, slaveiy. 

dniKi n. 1. medicine, physic (chiefly spec.), 
medicinal, dope (chiefly spec.; slang); 
spec, elixir. 

drug, V. t. medicate, doae, phvsic (chiefly 
spec.), dope (chiefly spec.; sfanp); spec. 

droKClat, n. apothecary (obsolescent in 
England, and less common than "drug- 
ffisl" in 11. S.), pharmaceutist or pharma- 
cist (tech.), pharmacopolist (Tare). 

dincBtore, n. druggery (rare). 
dium, n. I. tabor (rare or spec.), tambour I 
(chiefly spec.}; spec, tambourine, tomtom. 

■. >Seea 

1. beat, drub, thrum. 
dmm, i>. (. 1. iSee gatheb, expel, compel. 

t. drub, thrum. 
drumbeAt, n. rub-a^ub, tan-ti 

drunkard, n. drinker. Inebriate, lushing i 

ton (slang); spec, bloat (colloq.), dipso- [ 

maniac, sot, bum (slang. U. S.). ' 

drunken, a. inebrious, bouay or boozy; t 
spec, sottish, soaked (cotloq.), oomy 
Antonyms: see sober. 

drr, a. I. waterless, unwet (rare), un- 1 

moistened, arid (chiefly spec.), siccaneouB J 

(rare), moistless <rore), droughty or j 

drouthy (rore, exc. spec.), dryifii: spec, i 
dried, desiccated, corky, dry-shod, drv- 

footed, husky, perched, iuiceless, drinlc- I 

less, sapless, exauccoua (rare; also JJff.), [ 

Anlwiyms: see wct, moibt, soaked. 
B. See souE (iCTTie), PROHiBmoN. 
dry, V. t. exsiccate (tech.; rare), deaiceate 
(lech.), parch, dehydrate (tech.), evaporate 
(rare); spec, buccan, drain, blot, paasulate 
(rare), sear, kiln, stove, sammy. 

Antonyms: see wet, moisten, drench, 


dry, II. i. desiccatfi, dehydrate, exsiccate 
(rcre),- spec, sear (rare). 
Antonyms: see soak. 

dryer, n. desiccative, dcsiccant, siccative, 
exsiccator (rare), dehydrator (tech.), f~ 
siceant (rare). 

drylnc, a. siccative, exsiccant (rare), exmo- 
cative (rare), desiccant (tech.), deaic 
tive; spec, torrefactive (rare). 

diraeai, n. dryth (obs. or dial. Eng.), arid- 
ity (chiefly spec.), drought or drouth (rare, t 

Antonyms: see moisture. 

d-Bluped, a. Spec, deltoid (like Greek A). 

dub, V. t. 1, See kniqht, honor, name. 
». Spee. dress, trim, grease, 

duok, n. 1. dilly (eoUoa. or dial.), quack 
(humoroue); spec, duck ling, flapner, 
drake, pintail, sprigtail, calloo, callow, 
dun diver, garrot, gad wall, Harlequin, 
bardheaa (U. S.), golden-eye, granny, 
waterwitch, merganser, mallard, teal, old* 
wife, old-squaw, shoveler, scaup, eider, 
eider duck, dungbird. 



drowijl 'leepy, Mluooi^h, I 

t^" See NotM of Explaiiatlaii. 



duck, V, i, & 1 1. See dip. 
9. lower {co7Uextaal)f bob {jerkily), bend, 
dodge, bow. 

duot, n. channel {contextual); spec, pipe, 
tube, chimney, funnel, flue. 

duotllet a. 1. malleable, tensile; spec, ex- 
tensible, tractile {rare), tough. 
Antonyms: see refractory, unyield- 
ing, Riom. 


due, a. 1. owckI, owing, mature, dueful 
{archaic), rightful; spec, payable; see 




due, n. 1. droit {law), right; spec, charge, 
fee, toll, tribute, duty, tex; see debt. 
9. desert, merit {chiefly in pi.). 

duel, n. fight {contextual), rencounter {lit- 
erary), monomachy {rare); spec, holmgang 

duet, n. composition {corUextiud), duo 
{Italian), duetto {rare), 

dull, a. 1. See stupid, cheerless, de- 
pressing, BLUNT, DARK. 
9. Referring to capacity of feeling: dim, 
insensitive, unfeeling, inapprehensive, 
gross, Boeotian (Jig.), lat, saturnine {liter- 
ary), obtuse, muzzy {coUoq.), blunt, 
sluggish, inert; spec, numb, languid, 
besotted, cloudy. 
Antonyms: see sensitive. 
t. Referring to mental capacity or condi- 
tion as to interest: spiritless, heavy, dump- 
bh, unanimat<ed, listless, torpid, dead, in- 
animated, lifeless, indifferent; spec, apa- 
thetic, phlegmatic, inapprehensive {rare), 
sleepjr, numb, depressed, dark, lumpish, 
Boeotian {fig.). 

Antonyms: see sharp, shrewd, preco- 
cious, witty. 

4. Referring to sensations, as pain: obtuse 
{rare), heavy. 

5. Referring to what affects the mind or atr- 
tention: vapid, uninteresting, tedious, in- 
sipid, tame, dry, jejune {literary); spec. 
tiresome, insulse {rare), drear {chiefly po- 
etic), drearisome (rare), dreary, humdrum, 
monotonous, routine, commonplace, pro- 
saic, prosy, ponderous, irksome, frigid, flat. 

Antonyms: see amusing, clever, witty. 

6. Referring to colors: sober, obscure, sad, 
plain, colorless, somber, grave, sordid; 
spec, dirty, muady, gray. 

Antonyms: see vivid, bright, glowing. 

7. Referring to a surface: lusterless, lack- 
luster, opaque, matt, dead, rayless {rare), 

Antonyms: see bright, iridescent. ^ 

8. Referring to sounds: flat, dead, muffled, 
shut {rare). 

Antonyms: see clear, shrill. 
•. Referring to a market: flat, inactive, 
slack; spec, unresponsive. 
dull, V. t. 1. See stupefy, depress, dark- 
en, BLUNT. 

9. Referring to mental activity : de&den, oh- 
tund {chiefly med.). hebetate {rare), numb, 
benumb, bedull (intensive), blunt, jade 
{by wearying), retund {rare), dullify {col- 
loq.)t damp or dampen {as the appetite, 
desire, ardor, etc.), blur, besot {wilh dissi- 
pation), torpify {rare); spec, cloud. 

Antonyms: see stimulate. 
t. Referring to a surface: unpolish (rare), 
deaden; spec, tarnish. 
4. Referring to colors: deaden, somber 
{rare), sober. 
dullness, n. 1. Spec, cheerlessness, dark- 
ness, bluntness, stupidity, depression, 
flatness, deadness. 

9. insensitiveness, unfeelingness; spec. 
meropia, numbness, lang[uidness. 
t. spiriUessness, aumpishness, lifeless- 
ness, heaviness, doldrums {pi.; fig.) ^ en- 
nui; spec, apathy, lethargy, sleepmess, 

4. uninterestingness, tediousness, tedium, 
insipidity, frigidity, monotony, etc. 

5. kef erring to colors: sobriety, obscurity, 
plainness, etc. 

Antonyms: see brightness. 

6. Referring to a surface: lusterlessness, 
mattness, opacity, etc, 

duly, adv, rightly, right, deservedly, prop- 
dumb, a, 1. voiceless, mute, inarticulate, 


9. See silent, noiseless. 
dumb, V. t. gag {fig, or in transferred 

senses), disvoice {rare), 
dump^ n. 1. See counter. 

9. dumpling {person of rounded ovUine), 
dump, n. Spec, tip, tipple {local, U. o.). 
dunc-eatinc» a. copropnagous. 
dunceon, n. 1. donjon, keep. 

9. Spec, oubliette {French); see VAUi/r, 

dupe, n. victim {contextiuU), dotterel {fig,), 

pigeon {cant), gull, cully, fool {archaic), 

stale {archaic). 
dupe, V. t. deceive, fool, victimize {coUoq.), 

pigeon {cant), gull; spec, cheat. 
duplicate, n, double; spec, copy, replica, 

duration, n. Spec, continuance, quantity. 

1^" Cross references: see Note. 
donuny, a.: pretend. 
donuny, n.; mute, blockhead, 
aoerU, counterfeit, modd. 


dun, a.; drab. 
dun, 9. t.: ask. 

depreesedt duU, 

duplicate, V. t.: double, copy, 

dnranoe: duration, imprison- 
ment, c^anfinemerU. 


13^ See Notes of Explanation. 


date, term, tenor, longitude irare), time, 
durance (archaic). 

duiluKi a- pending, within, in, through, 
over {a period of time). 

duit, n. dirt (conlexlual), powder, pother 
(rare); spec, smother, coom or coomb 
(Scot, or local Eng.), breeze, cully, alack, 
culm, ashes, pouce, pounce, smoke. 

dut;, n. 1. obligation, ought (rare), devoir 

t. obligation, part, charge, business (»pec. 
<"■ fin-); spec, office, function, task, bur- 
den, trust, oommiBsion. 
ArUonyms: ue FKivlLBat:. 
I. See TAX. 

dwarf, n. diminutive, pygmy or pigmy 
(o/(CTi spec), droich (Scot), hopnD'-my- 
thumb (lUorary); spec, bantam, mid^, 
midget, runt (rantempdious, exc. of ani- 
mals), Lilliputian (spec, or fig.), fingerling 
(rare), dandiprat (archaic), micromorph 
(Uch, and Tare), manikin, Negrito, Ne- 
Antonyms: see giant. 

dw*ri, a. dwarfish or pygmy, pigmy, 
dwarfly (rare), undershapen (rare), mi- 
dersized, runtish (catUemptuous, eze. of 
aniTnals), undergrown, runty (U. S.); 
spec scrubby. 
Antonyms: see Oio ANTIC. 

dwurt, V. t. 1. stunt, bcdwarf (intensive). 


dw«U, V. i. 1, See DELAY, coNnrniE. 
t. abide, reside (formal), domicile (chiefly 
legal), hve, harbor (archjiic), wont (rare), 
inhabit (rare), stay (coUoq.), tenant (rare), 
lodge, home (rare), inhabit (rare), keep 
(rare); spec, houae, cabin, kennel, den, 
tabernacle, tent, room, sojourn, tfury. 
>. harp (in "to harp on"), 

dwsUn, n. inhabitant, abider, liver 
(chiefly U. S.), habitant (rare), residenti- 
ary, resident (chiefly formal or tech.); spec. 
deniien. "Inhabitant" and "resident" are 
the two common tenns. 

dwelllni:, n. abode (chiefly literary), tene- 
ment (chiefly tech.). inhabitation, lodging, 
lodge (chiefly spec.); spec, house, cottage, 
eetabtiahment, tent, tepee, shanty, shack, 
dugout, manse, mansion, caatle, hutch 
(contemptuous), hut, gunyah (Aiistrtdia), 
hermiti^, i^oo (Eihimn), familistery, 
bourock (Scot.), cot, barrack, bothy, 
chalet, cell, den, bungalow, court, dog- 
hole, embaaay, cabin, bower, droaty, 
booth (archaic), tabernacle. 

dy«, n. 1. See color. 

i. pigment (eonlextual); epec. grain, dye- 

djrn, r. t. color (contextual), strain, grain 
(spec, or poetic), imbue (literary); spec. 
tinge, shade, double-dye, ingrain. 

drills, a. moribund {literary or learned), 
fey (archaic), mortal; spec, commorient. 

drspaptlo. a. I. indigestive. 

i. See UUSCtBLE. 

eaxer, a. 1. See bpibited, BTRGNiroua. 
%. desirous, keen, fervent, fervid, hot- 
headed, hot (coliog.), eealous, ardent, 
agog (predicaiioe); spec, vehement, ear- 

Atdonyma: see apathetic. 

vftgle, n. erne (now chiefl yspec.); spec 
ringtail, Bore-cMle, griffin, harpy, eaglet. 

ear, n. head (of various composite fruits, 
as cereals); spec, spike. 

ear, n. 1. listener (slang); — r^erring la the 
external ear: lug (chiefly Scot.), shell 
{chiefly poet.), concha (tech.), conch 
{rare); spec, pnnk-ear, crop-ear. 
>. projection (contextual), lug; spec, loop, 

eKrKohB,n. otalgia (tech.). 

eaidrai>i,R. drum (confeiiuol), tympanum 

eared, a. spiked (like com). 
eexU«r, a. old (contextual), former, previ- 

Antonyms: see later. 
early, adv. betimes, soon; spec, timely, 
early, a. rathe (poetic); spec, timely, au- 
roral, matutinal or mattnal, rareripe, 
ratheripe or rathripe (poetic), precocious. 
ATitonynis: see late, 

I. Spec, crop, dog's-ear, dog- 

. 1. I. payment (contextual), in- 
itallment (contextual), han<isc\;itpec.God.'s 
penny (now ditd.), earnest-money. 
1. Referring to an indication of what is to 
come: pledge, promise, handsel, foretaste. 
•arnei^ a. 1. intent, serious, intense; spec. 
eager, impassioned, animated, cardial. 
Antonyms: "- ~ 


I. SeelMPOR 

earnestnesB. n. earnest (only ii 
nest," "in real earnest," etc.), impress- 
ment (rare), seriousness, intentnesa. 
ATitonyma: see play. 


n. pi. 1. pay (sing.; eontext- 
ual), gettings ipl.; archaic) ^ wages (pi. or 
ting.; chiefly spec.), salary (sing.; chiefly 

9. iSeePBOFiTB. 
emrtli* n. 1. planet (contextual), hall (fig.), 

gobe, terrene (rare), terra (tech.), Tellus 
Ig.; literary), world (chiefly spec.); spec. 
countereartn, Midgard (mythot.). 
9. world (as the home of man and other 
creatures), mold or mould (poetic or obs.). 
S. Referring to the solid substance of the 
earth: ground, dod (literary), glebe (po- 
etic or rhetorical), land, mold or mould 
(poetic or obs.); spec, rock, sand, mud, 
muck, dirt (coUoq.; often derogatory or 
contemptuous), clay, loam, bard pan 
(chiefly U. S.), dust, etc. 

4. Referring to that part of the ground in 
which plants grow: soil, mold or mould 
(poetic or spec.); spec, loam, humus, dirt 
(coUoq.), muck. 

5. Referring to worldly things or state: 
world (used with **the'*). 


earth- bom, a. 1. terrigenous (rare). 


earthen, a. earth; spec, stone, dirt, clay, 
mud, etc.; — the nouns used aUribuiioely. 

earthenware, n. crockery; spec, cloam, 
doom (obs. or dial. Eng.), china, delf or 
delft, pottery, stoneware, crouchware, 
poroelam, Wedgwood ware, pebble or 
pebble ware, majolica, terra-cotta, Bel- 
leek, etc. 

earthly, a. 1. terrestrial, earthy (rare). 
3. unspiritual, nonspiritual: spec, ma- 
terial, worldly, sensual, bodily, temporal. 
Antonyms: see divine, spiritual, ethe- 
t. conceivable, possible. 

earthquake, n. quake, shock, seism (rare); 
spec, microseism. 

earthworm, n. angleworm, dew-worm; 
spec, lobworm. 

earthy, a. 1. earthlike, cloddy (deprecia- 
tory), terrene (rare), glebous (rare); spec. 
muddy, clayey, dusty. 
8. terrestrial, 
t. See material, gross, coarse. 

earwax, n. cerumen (tech.). 

ease, n. 1. comfort. 
3. easiness J spec, carelessness, freedom, 
relief, facihty, leisure, convenience, rest, 
repose, content, imconstraint, uncon- 
Antonyms: see constraint, difficulty. 

ease, v. t. 1. See comfort, mitigate, re- 
lieve, diminish. 
2. facilitate, smooth, favor. 

easily, ado. easy (coUoq. or vulgar); spec, 
conveniently, carelessly, smoothly, ^b, 
readily, gently, etc. 

east, n. 1. dawn (poetic), orient (poetic or 
archaic), rise (fig.). 
Antonyms: see west. 
9. east country, eastland (now poetic); 
spec. Orient. 

eastern, a. eastwardly, eastward, east 
(more coUoq. and usual thar^ **ecuitem**), 
eoan (rare), auroral or aurorean (literary). 
orient or oriental (rare. exc. as capitalizea 
and spec., of the Levant), easterly. 
Antonyms: see western. 

easterner, n. oriental (rare, exc. as capital- 
ized and spec.), ^easterling (archaic, exc 

easy, a. 1. comfortable. 
9. Spec, free, unembarrassed, uncon- 
strained, effortless, tractable, careless, 
smooth, ready, facile, natural, graceful, 
airy, soft, gentle, moderate, inaolent, im- 
ooncemed, easy-going, resttul, compliant, 
complaisant, credulous, loose, wealthy. 
Antonyms: see severe. 
t. facile, light; spec, convenient. 
Antonyms: see difficult. 

easy-going, a. easy, jog-trot, happy-go- 

eat, V. t. 1. consume (contextual), devour, 
discuss (humorous), demolish (slang), 
mandicate (rare); spec, en^rge (rare), 
touch, gormandize, gluttonize, dispatch 
(coUoq.), table (rare), gorge. 
9. See consume, corrode, erode, wear. 

eat, V. i. feed (now chiefly of animals), vic- 
tual (rare); spec, gorge, pick or peck (fi^., 
coUoq.j or slang, exc. of birds), raven, gor- 
mandize, mess, luncn, board, common 
(chiefly in school and college use), dine, 
dinner (rare), sup, supper (rare or coUoq.), 
collation (obs.), breakfast, grub (slang). 

eatable, a. edible, esculent (tech. or litia^ 
ary), ciborious (rare). 
Antonyms: see uneatable. 

eatable, n. edible, esculent (literary or 
tech.), comestible (learned and usually hu- 
morous or a^ected), gustable (rare), 

eater, n. consumer, devourer; spec, epicure, 
gorger, glutton, diner, luncher, gourmet 

eating, a. 1. eadacious (chiefly humorous), 
9. Spec, corfosive, erosive, gnawing. 

eating, n. 1. consumption, devourment, 
manducation (rare), eat (obs,, slang, or 
cant), repast (rare). 
2. gastrology. 

t. Spec, consumption, corrosion, erosion, 
fretting, etc. 

eating house, restaurant; spec. caf4. 

Cross references: see Note. 
ear shot: hearinff. 

•as«ful: comfortable. 
•ai«l: support. 

east, a.: ea^em. 
•aaterly, a.: ea^em. 

tST See NotM of Ezplaaatlon. 
151 . 


ohophouse, coffee hoUBe, caffetcria, eat 
(eoni or ^ng). 

carai, n. jA. overhang. 

•bony, n. 1. Befening to the wood: ebon 
(now poetic). 
t. See DASK. 

•eoentrlo, a. I. Spec, decentered. 
>. Spec, elliptic, parabolic, hyperbolic. 
1. peculiar, queer, odd, oddish, stj-ange, 
bizarre, Bingular, etratiCj cranky, outri 
(Frerich), quaint, outlandish; spec, fantas- 
tic, abnormal, whimsical, etc. 

eccentric, n. crochetcer (rwe), hobbyist, 
monomaniac, crank (coUoij.), curiosity, 
qui* (rare), original; ipec. guy. 

ecoentrloltr, n. peciuiarity, oueemess, 
oddity, oddnesB, strangeness, bizarrcrie 
{French), singularity, erraticness, cranki- 
ness, quaintnesa, outlandishness; spec. 
fantasticalncs, abnormality, whimsical- 

eoolail^BUe, ecclcilaitloal, a. church 
(the aUrilndive use of the TUfun), chuicbly; 
spec, religious. 

cccl«>l«atlfc n. Spec, churchman, con- 
ventual, prior; eee monk, nun, m» 

eoh(^ n. I. reverberation {learned or 
reply, return, repercussion (rare), 
tion {rare or leeh,); spec, re-echo. 


echo, f. I. 1. reverberate, return; spec, re- 


echo, V. i. reverberate, resound, reply, ring, 
redound (rare); apee. re-echo, 

eoonomlcKl, a. economizing, saving, spar- 
ing, thrifty, provident, patsimamoua 
{rare), frugal; »pee. cheap, 
Antonyms." see extravagant, Wastb- 

eoonomlos, n. political economy, chrcma- 
tistics [often spec.), plutonomy {Tare), 
plutology (rare). 

eoonomlst, n. political economist, chrom- 
atist (chiefly spec.; rare); spec, physiocrat, 

economlie, v. t. save, husband, stint, scant, 
spare, scrimp (colloq.), skimp (eollaq.). 
Animyms: see waste. 

aconomlie, v. i. save, stint, scant, spare, 
retrench, scrimp {a)lh<}.), skimp (coUa^.). 

ooonomy. n. economizmg, econonuzation 
(rare), saving, thrift, tlmftincss, saving- 
neas, providence, pftrsimony (rare), spar- 
ing, husbandry, husbanding, skimping 
(coUoq.), scanting {colloq.); apec. retrench- 

Antonyms: tee wabtb, extravagance. 

•Gitaay, n. gladness {contextual), rapture, 
transport, rapt (rare), raptus (rare), 
paroxysm, intoxication, enthusiasm, rav- 
ishment (rare); spec, trance, frenzy, 
agony, madness, nympholepsy. 
Antonyms: see apatht, caui. 

•astatic, a. glad (contcilual), transported, 
ecstasied, rapt, enrapt, enraptured, rap- 
turous, rhapsodical, raptured; epee. en- 
thusiastic {rare). 
Antonyms: see apathetic, calm. 

eddy, n. coimtercnrrent {contextual; rare), 
swirl; spec, whirlpool. 

eddy, V. i. swirl, gurge (rare). 

edE*! n. 1. Referring to a projeeUnif part 
tskere Iwo surfaces meet at an angle: spec. 
featheredge, face, beard, bit, burr, hip, 
groin, arris, bezel, waney, gunwale or 
gunnel, crest, hem, verge. 
9. Referring to the place where a sarfaee 
terminates: verge, margin, hmit {ckiefiy 
in pi.), bound, brim (chiefly spec.), side, 
coast (archaic), bordure {chiefly her.), lip, 
rim, brink, border; spec, skirt (chiefly in 
pi.), hem, outakirt (ehiejlti in pi.), limb, 
exergue, list, selvage or selvedge, footing, 
fringe, listing, edging, leech, dedile edge, 
berm, curb, bezel, bank. 

Antonyms: see body, center. 
■. intensity; spec, sharpness, zest, keen- 
ness, bitterness, sting. 

edK"> II- (■ 1- See sharpen. 
1. border, rim, margin, skirt, marginate 
(rare); spec, frmge, befringe (rare), purl, 

edsed, a. 1. See bharp. 

I. marginate (lech.), listed, margined, 

bordered, elc, 
edflnB, n. edge {coTitextual); spec, skirt 

(rare), welt, welting, trill. 
edict, n. 1. decree (contextual); spec, bull, 

capitulary, constitution. 

edit, D. t. 1. redact (lech, or literary); spec. 
revise, arrange, digest, 
t. conduct (for piMiealion, as a period- 

editlnc, n. redaction; spec, revision, recen- 

editlon, n. redaction; spec, (referring to the 
nunib«r printed al one printing) issue, im- 
pression, impress, printing. 

editor, n, 1. redactor (tech. or literary), re- 
dacl«ur (French), reviser. 
I. conductor {(Mo/o periodical). 

editorlBl, n. leader {chiefly Brilith); spec. 
leaderette (chiefly Briiish). 


•dlbUi talaHt. 

f^ Bm Not«e ot EiplwuiUoo. 


«dii««t«d, a. lettered, Uterato (feanied), 

Antoa\im3: see tjnedttcated. 
•duUitlaii, n. 1. breeding Ihringing up). 

1. training, culture. 

•S*oa, V. t. remove (.conlcxliial), obliterate, 
erase (properlv spec.), expunge, excise 
(propw/y spec.), delete or dele {Itch.), out- 
blot ipoelic), strike (etp. with "out," etc.); 
tpee. Hinlimn (rare), rase (rare), snuff, 
Antonyms: see interpolate. 

•Ileot, n. I. consequence, fruit (fig.); 
spec. Buperconsequenoe, impress, out- 

S. Referring lo tnenloi effect on a person. 
impression, impressure (rare), ensemble 
(French), impress. 


4. In pi.: goods. 

•Sect, V. t. cause, produce, effectuate, 
have; spec, operate, work, force, accom- 
plish, drive, contrive, negotiate, compass, 
conclude, make, contract, execute, per- 
form, conjure, weep, smile, etc. 

•Sective, a. I. causative, active, operative, 
dynamic, dynamicaJ. 
 Aa iniplyiitg power or potency in pro- 
ducing resiMi: efficacious, effectual, effi- 
cient, good (of persona), per&cient (rare), 
prevalent (rare), deedful (rare). 
Antonyms: see barren, ineffectual, 
UNFROn ucnvE . 

t. In refercTtee la affecling a person's 
opinion, feeling, or the like: impressive, 
forceful, efficacious, telling, fetching, 
(coUag.), pointed; spec, cogent, stinging, 
cutting, striking, convincing. 

•SeotlTeneBs, n. causativeness, effectual- 
ity, efficaciousness, efficiency, point, 
forcefulness, cogency, virtue, duty. 

•Semlnaoy, n. womanishness, mvirihty 
(rore), woman (rare, exc. aa equUi, to 
teomanliness), femininity, feminity (rare); 
apec. tenderness, weakness, delica^iy. 

•flemlnat*, a. womanish, ladylike (prop- 
erly spec.), soft, silken (fig.; used <if men), 
unmanly (used of men), tender, weak, 
Antonipns: see manlineiss. 

aOemlnate, n. Sardanapalus (fig.), milk- 
sop, mollycoddle, tenderling (rare); spec. 
betty, molly. 

cSemliuitB, i>. I. soften, emolliate (rare), 

emasculate (a man). 
Antonyms: aex todghen. 
aSete, a. exhausted. 
effloieaoe, v. i. Referring lo a formation on 

mi'ierala, aaU aolidions, etc.: bloom; spec. 

effloiesoenoAt n. bloom, florescence, pul- 

verulence, powder; spec, crust. 
aOort, n. t. exertion, endeavor, strife, 

stretch, strain, stress, push (Jig.; colhq.), 

spurt or spirt, trouble, attempt, try; spec. 

breath, burst, struggle, 

t. See DEED. 

eSoIslon, n. 1. S«e OUTFLOW, TtTTBRANCB, 

t. demonstration (affecting), gush, slop- 
ping over (amiempliunts; cofio^.). 

eRuBlve, a. 1. See luxuriant. 
a. demonstrative (wkich see), gushing, 
Antonyms: see impabbive, unemotional. 

BtK-st>apeil, a. oviform, oval, ovate, ovoid, 
ovoidal (rare), ovicular (rare), ellipaoidai 
{a loose usage); spec, obovate. 

egoism, n. 1. individualism, self-feelinK; 
apec. suicism (rare), selfishness, self-eeek- 
ing, self-apinioaatedneaa, weism (nir«), 
solipsism (philos.); see sblfibkness. 
a. See EQOTiSM. 

cEoiitlo, a. 1. individualistic, setf-r^ard- 
ng, self-cent«red; see sblfibh. 


ecotianii n. conceit, egoism, suicism 

•KotisUe, a. egotistical, conceited (eon- 
texltial), ^otistic, self -obtruding. 

elKbt, n. Referring to a group qf eight 
things: octave (chiefly spec), ogdoad 
(learned), oetonary (chiefly spec.), octad, 
octet or octette (rore). 

alfht- angled, a. octangular (tech.). 

eightfold, a. octuple (Uamed or tech.). 

eightii, n. octave (mus.); spec, suboctave 

elBlit-slded, a. octahedral (tech.), oc- 
tahedric (tecii,), eight-square (chiefly 

elaoulate, v. t. I. See EJECT. 

3. To utter: blurt, bolt: sjiec. exclaim. 
eleot, V. t. 1. emit, expel, ejaculate (chiefly 

physiol.), cast (used with "out"; rare); 

spec, fire, belch, spew, eructate, eruct, 

erupt, ehminate (aba. or humorous), spit, 

apout, squirt, deliver, void, evacuate, diB- 
gorge, regorge; see vomit. 
Anlonyina: »ee inject. 
«. To drU>e from a place or posilion: re- 
movG, oust, expel, dispossess, bounce 
(glang); gpec. disseiie, evict, unnest, un- 
ke:inel, unhouse. 

elaotlon, n. 1. emission, cxpulaion, ^ocu- 
Itttion (chiefly gvec.); epec. delivery, m-ing, 
belching, belch, spewing, eructation, 
eruption, spouting, squirt, squirting, de- 
livery, voiaance, oul^throw (rare), dia- 

ATitoajpna: see injecttion. 
9. ouster, expulsion, disposaeaaioa, dis- 
seizing, eviction, removal. 
S. ejecta {pi.), ejectamcnta (pi.); spec. 
spew, vomit. 

elaborate, a. labored, operose (rare); s-pec. 
studied, perfected, complicated, detailed. 

AalimymB: see siMi 

eUbor«t«, ti. I, work out, develop, labor, 

alaboratenesB, n. elaboration, detail, 
nicety, complication, etc. 

elaboratloa, n. 1. development, painstak- 
ing, perfection, devising. 


elastic, a. 1, resilient (chiefly lech.), 
springy; spec, expansive. 
AnUmjfns: see plastic, inelastic. 
9. See BDOTANT (in mind), 

•late, B. (. excite, enliven, exhilarate, exalt, 
elevate (now rare), flush, animate; spec, 
please, ^adden, puff, inflate. 
Antonyine: gee depress, anijoy. 

elated, a. elale (archaie or poetic), exalted, 
swollen, flushed, exhilarated, animated; 
spec, joyful, glad, inflated, puffed-up. 
Antonyms: see pEPREsaBD. 

elation, n. excitement, enlivenment, ex- 
altation, flush, elevation (tww rare), ani- 
mation; spec, joy, pride. 
Antonyms: see iiGPBEsaiON. 

elbow, n. ancon (tech.), joint {crmiextwil). 

elbow, V. I. push, nudge (gently): spec. 

elbowlike, a. anconal, anconoid; — both 

eleat, v. L choose; spec, return, predesti- 

eieot, a. chosen; spec, predestinated. 

elect, n. Spec. y>redestinale. 

eleoUoD, n. choice; spec, by-election, pre- 

eleotlva, a. t. choosing; spec, constituent. 

I. optional, optative, selective, electoral 

{chiefly spec.). 
elector, n. chooser; spec, constituent, 

electorate, n. constituency. 

electrto, a. 1. Spec, voltaic, faradaie, 

thermoelectric, piezoelectric, etc. 

" " ExciTiNo, ermuLAT- 

eleotrlfled, a. live (Tail, etc.). 
eieotrlty, v. t. I. electrize; epec. galvanize, 


elegance, n. Spec, grace, refinement, 

caur Illness, daintiness, featness (archaic), 
nicety, flnisb, cultism, Gongorism, pu- 
rism, finery. 

elecant, a. "Elegant^' implies good (oafe 
and more or less omateness, grace, dis- 
crimiTtation, or the like, such as is osso- 
daled with the cultured clagaes. Hence, 
jnUh this implicaiion: »pec. esthetic 
(learned or literary), graceful, refined, 
courtly, Cheeterneldian, Ciceronian, 
dainty, shapely, trim, feat (archaic), nice, 
genteel (now chiefly vsed somewhat dis- 
paraoingly), silken or silky, chaste, cul- 
tured, neat, polished, finished, 
AiUonytm; see crude. 

elegiit, n. threnodist, monodist. 

element, n. 1. >See couponent, past. 
9. Formerly: spec, earth, air. fire, water. 
1. Now chem., see tlie list in the diction- 

4. Spec, datum, condition, moment or 
momentum (tech, or lUerary), factor, 
principle, germ, rudiment, fundamental, 
principiura (rare), primary. 
B. In the Christian religion: spec, host, 
bread, wine, eulogia (hist.), Eucharist. 
■lementary, a. 1. component (rare). See 


9. initial, rudimentary, inchoate, indol- 
ent, primary, fundamental, basal or basic, 
Antonyms: see elaborate, 
elephant, n. Spec, foal, tusker, mam- 
moth, mastodon. 
ilevate, v. t. 1. i^ee raise (physically). 

Antonyms: see abase, degrabb. 
■. To raise the mental or moroi character 
of: raise, lift, eTcatt; spec, refine. 

f See ItoMi of EipUnatlnn 


Antonyms: see contaminate, degrade. 
elevated, a. 1. See high, upturned. 
9. Referring to mental or moored charader: 
high, lofty, grand, sublime, soaring, 
empyreal 0^.), grandiose, hi^h-flown, 
buslaned (literary) , noble, magnificent. , 

Antonyms: see vile, degraded, de- 

elevatinc* a. ennobling, inspiring, exalt- 

Antonyms: see contaminative. 
elevation, n. 1. See raising, delinea- 

9. raising^ advancement^ exaltation, ag- 
gpndization; spec, dignification, promo- 
tion, ennoblement. 

ArUohyms: see degradation. 
S. raising (moraUy or inteUectiuiUy), lift- 
ing, exaltation; spec, refinement. 

Antonyms: see degradation. 

4. Referring to state or position or elevated 
rank, as in character: spec, height, dignity, 
eminence, eminency. 

Antonyms: see degradation, deprav- 

5. Referring to an elevated object or place: 
hei^t, emmence {chiefly literary); spec, 
hill, swell (of land), mountain. 

Antonyms: see hollow. 

elevator, n. lift (chiefly Enq. or tech.), 
hoist (chiefly spec.); spec, whim, dumb- 

eleventh* a. undecennary (tech. or learned), 

elf, n. demon (contextiud) , sprite, fairy, imp 
(chiefly spec.), elfin, pygmy, puck, pixy; 
spec, urchin. 

elfish* a, demonic (contextiud), impish 
(chiekp spec.), fairy, elfin, elvish; spec, 
mischievous, weird. 

elioit, V, t. draw (itsed wUh "forth'* or 
"out**), extract, call (used with "out"), 
evoke, fetch (now becoming colloq. or rare), 
educe, expiscate (humorous or Scot,); spec, 
wrest or wring, extort, pump. 

ftlite, n. chosen (pi.), flower (collective 
sing,); see chosen, best. 

elocution, n. utterance; spec, deUvery, 
oratory, eloquence. 

elooutionist, n. Spec, reader, speaker. 

eloquence, n. facundity (rare); spec, ora- 

eloquent, a. facund (rare); spec, Cicero- 
nian, oratorical. 

else, a. other, different, besides or beside 
(predicatively used), more. 
Antonyms: see alike. 

else, adv, differently, otherwise. 

elucidate, v, t, clarify, illucidate (rare), 
illuminate, illustrate; spec, explain, in- 
terpret, demonstrate. 
Antonyms: see confuse. 

elucidative, a. illustrative^ demonstrative, 
clarifying, illucidative. illuminative, il- 
luminatory; spec, explanatory, interpre- 
Antonyms: see confusing. 

elusive, a, 1. evasive; — seeking to eoade^ as 
the grasp, 

8. elusory, lubricous (literary), slippery 
(Jig.) J subtle, shifty, baffling, shy; spec. 
deceptive, equivocatory, illlusory. 

emaciate, v, t, thin, waste, extenuate 
(rare), disflesh (rare). 

emaciation, n. leanness, tabescence (rare). 

emanate, v. t. emit, effuse; spec, exhale, 
evaporate, radiate. 

emanate, v, i. flow, proceed, issue, come; 
spec, exhale, evaporate, radiate. 

emanation, n. 1. emission, effluence, ef- 
fluvium (thing emanated), efflux; spec, 
aura, exhalation, mephitis (noxious), 

9. Referring to impalpable things: evapon^- 
tion, radiation. 

emasculate, v, t. 1. See castrate. 
9. weaken, unman; spec, effeminate, ef- 

embankment, n. 1. embanking. 
3. mound (rare); spec, dike, remblai 
(French), mole, bulwark, bund (Anglo- 

enoibarrass, v. t. 1. discomfort, demoraUze, 
disconcert, discomfit; spec, nonplus, in- 
volve, botner, abash, encumber, trouble, 
harass, annoy, shame, mortify, hampei^, 

Antonyms: see disembarrass. 
3. See complicate. 

enibarrassinc* a. demoralizing, awkward, 
difficult, disconcerting, bothersome, etc. 
Antonyms: see assure. 

embarrassment, n. discomfort, discon- 
certion, disconcertedness (the state), dis- 
comfiture; spec, cumber, confusion, shame, 
difficulty, mortification, constraint, abash- 
ment, mvolvement, pressure, trouble, 
vexation, perplexity, etc. 
Antonyms: see assurance. 

embassy, n. 1. commission, embassade 
(archaic), embassage (archaic), 
3. legation, embassage (archaic), embas- 
sade (archaic). 
t. residence (contextual), legation. 

1^" Cross references: see Note. 
elide: delete. 
•Ucible: qualified. 
eliminate, v. t.: expel t excrete^ 
omit, ignore, suppress, abstract. 
elixir; drug. 

ellipsis: omission. 
eloign: remove. 
elongate, v.: lengthen. 
elongate, a.: lengthened, obUmg. 
elope: depart. 
elude: evade, avoid. 

elusion: evasion, avoidanee. 
eniaolated: thin. 
emanelpate: free. 
embalm: preserve. 
embark, v. t.: ship, invest. 
enibark, v. i.: engage. 

f3^ See Notes of Explanation. 

0, craoeUate 


•iDbail, V. t. bed, impaste (i 

(chiefly tpec.). 

ambelUih, u. I. eniicli; spec, vary, em- 
blazon, emblaze. 

•mbeule, v. t. misappropriate, aiisapply, 
convert, peculate (.chiefly spec,}. "Em- 
healing" is aeeompliihed by fraud or 
breach of trust in relation to property al- 
ready legally in one's possession; "elealing" 
by wroi^iftMy gelling poMeasion of property 
wiih iniention to appropriate il. 
imbsssla, f. i. misappropriate, defalcate, 
peculate (chiefly spec.). 

•mblttar, v. t. I. Referring to the ' 

t. Referring to the mind: envenom, 
poison (literary), rankle (rare), liou] 
acerbate (make more bitter; literary). 
Antonym^: see boeten. 
S. Referring to pertoru: exaaperate, poi- 
son, envenom; tpec. exacerbate (literary). 
Ant'myme: see soften. 

•mbadlment, n. bodiment, inaubatantia- 
tion (rare), image, incorporation; sjyce. 
incarnation, personification, personation 
(rare), impanation, avatar (Iheosopky), 

embodri ". '- incorporate, corporate (rare), 
body, inaubstantiate (rare); spec, incar- 
nate, impersonat«, enfleah (rare), encar- 
nalixe (rare), personify, impanate, pillar. 
Antonyms: see bfirituauze. 

embolden, o. t. hearten, encourage, em- 
brave (rare), nerve, inspirit; spec, reas- 
Aniimyyn»: see discocraob. 

■nibo», V. t, 1. Referring to a surface: or- 
nament (contextual), boss; spec, knot, 
pounce (kitl.). 
Antonyms: see indent. 
X. Referring to pr(f}eeting parts: raise, 
boss; spec. knot. 

embraoe, l>. t. 1. clasp (eoniextual), clutch 
(contextual), clip {archaic or dial.), fathom 
(rare), halse (Scot.), hold (contextual), 
boaom (fig.), fold, infold or enfold (inten- 
sive), entwine (intensiiK), grapple, em- 
bosom (tn^enfftue), hug; spec, cuddle, lock, 
enlock (inlensiiie; rare), nurse. 
S. See iNcmDE, adopt, accept, receive. 

embiAoe, n. 1. clasp (coniextutd), clip (ar- 
chaic), embracement (rore), hold (context- 
ual), fold, hug. 
a. SeeBMB: 


embraitiie, n. 1. Spec, epiay. 
i. opening (conlexluiU), vent (rare); spec. 
porthole (mil.). 

embiolder, f. t. ornament (contextual), 
work ; spec, branch, lace, tambour, couch. 

embroidered, a. ornamented (coiUextual), 
worked ; spec, orphreyed or orf rayed. 

embroidery, n. ornamentation (contexf^ 
ual), work; spec, orphrey or orfray, aan*- 
pler, spatterwork, needlework, insertion, 
orris, phulkari (East Indian). 

embToU, K. (. Set by the ears; — no single- 
joord synonyms. 

einbiro,n. 1. Spec, fetus or foetus, concep- 
tion (fy.), corcTe or corcule (bol.), mole or 

%. See BEGiNNiNO. 
emerce, i>. i. 1. issue; spec, peep, outcrop 
(also fig.), appear. 
Antonyms: see sink, dip. 
a. See ARISE. 
emercenee, n. I. issuance, emergency; 
spec, outcrop, peeping, appearance, emer- 
sion (chiefly astran.). 
Antonyms: see DIP. 

•mettc, a. vomitory, vomitive (rare), eo- 

critic (rare). 
emetic, n. puke (mil now in polite luage), 

vomitory (tech. or rare), vomitive (rare), 

vomit (rare), eccritic (rare); spec, castor 

oil, rhubarb, etc. 
emigrant, n. migrant; spec, colonist, re- 

demptioner (UTS.). 
Antonyms: see imhiorant. 
enUKi'te, V. i. depart (conteiiuai), mi- 

Antnnj/ms: see immigbatb. 
emieiatian, n. departure (contextjiol) , mi- 
gration; spec, exodus. 
emlsetoii, n. t. emitting, discharge; spec, 
projection, radiation, exudation, emana- 
tion, expression, exhalation, delivery. 
Antonyms: see ABaORWiON. 

emit, B. t. 1. discharge, deliver, emanate 
(rare or «pec,); spec, shoot, spirt, dart, 
dartle, squirt (undignified), jet. evolve, ra- 
diate, breathe, exhale, eSuee, oleed (fig.), 
express, shed, gush, vent, puff, throw, 
hurl, foam, outpour. 
ArUonyms: see swallow, abbobb. 


emotloDsl, a, 1. emotive. 

S. sentimental (to excess or affectedly), 
pathematic (rare), feeUng, pathetic (rare), 
affective ; spec, maudlin, mawkish, demon- 

is* BsD MotM of ExpUnatlOB. 


strative, sickly (coHo^.)i sicklied, intense, 
languorous, languishing, unctious (rare), 
unctuous, mushy. 
Antonyms: see apathetic. 

emotionalize, v, t. sentimentaUze: spec. 
gush, languish. 

emperor, n. monarch {contextwal), czar 
(chiefly spec. & hist.)y csesar (chiefly spec, 
& hist.)f kaiser (chiefly spec. & hist.); spec, 
kaiserling (chiefly dim.), imperator (hist,)^ 
Mikado (lit., Son of Heaven). 

emphasis, n. 1. See accent, force. 
9. significance, weight, accentuation, ac- 
cent, stress. 
ArUonyms: see disregard. 

emphasize, v, t, accentuate, stress, mark, 
punctuate; spec, underline, underscore, 
Antonyms: see disregard. 

emphatic, a. forcible, forceful, impres- 
sive, decided, strong, sig^nificant; spec, in- 
tensive, expressive, positive, energetic, im- 
equivocal, distinct. 
Antonyms: see apathetic. 

empire, n. 1. domain (corUextwdl) , domin- 
ion (contextiud) , imperium (formal or 
9. See DOMAIN. 

employee, n. employ6, agent (rare or tech.), 
help (o collective); spec, man, hand, ser- 
vant, clerk. '^Employee" is chiefly U,S. 
Antonyms: see employer. 

employer, n. governor (slang), boss (cant 
or slang), master (chiefly legal). 
Antonyms: see employee. 

emptiness, n. 1. hollowness, voidness, 
vacuity (literary), inanition (chiefly spec), 
vacuousness (rare), inanity (rare), va- 
cancy, vacantness; spec, exhaustion, de- 
pletion, etc. 

Antonyms: see fullness. 
9. See HOLLOWNESS (of a sound) f hunger. 
S. Referring to an empty space: mane (lit- 
erary), void (the usvloI word), vacuity (lil- 
eraryortech.), hollow; spec, vacuum (tech.), 
4. unsubstantiality, vanity, hollowness, 
uselcssness; spec, frivolity, vanity, unsat- 
isfying, unsatisfactoriness, meaningless- 
ness, triviality, unfeelingness, fruitless- 
ness, senselessness, insincerity, inanity, 
stupidity, etc. 

empty, a. 1. hollow, vacant, vacuous 
(rare), inane (rare); spec, blank, clear, im- 

loaded, unfilled, emptied, exhausted, de- 
pleted, distitute, free. 

Antonyms: see full. 

9. See HOLLOW (of a sound), hungry, de- 

S. unsubstantial, vain, useless; spec, void, 
foolish, trivial, unsatisfying, meaningless, 
frivolous, unfeeling, fruitless, senseless, 
insincere, inane, stupid, etc. 

Antonyms: see significant, pithy. 
empty, v. t. 1. void (literary or tech.), de- 
plenish (rare), deplete: spec, buzz (Eng.), 
disglut (rare), drink, clear, draw, exhaust, 
gut (fig.), evacuate, bottom (rare), drain. 

Antonyms: see fill, stuff. 


emulate, v, t, rival. 

emulation, n. rivaliy, vyin^, competition 
(for some specific object), strife. 

emulous, a. ill eantnj/; desirous of equaling 
or excelling; strifeful; — no exact synonyms. 

enable, v. t. empower. 
Antonyms: see disable. 

enact, v, t, 1. decree, make, pass. 
Antonyms: abolish, revoke. 
9. See ACT. 

enamel, n. ornamentation (contextual), 
glaze; spec, cloisonnd (French). 

enamor or enamour, v. t. captivate, smite 
(chiefly in p. p., *' smitten*'). **Enamor** 
takes ''of"; ''captivaU" usually ''vnth." 

enchase, v. t. 1. See set, variegate. 
9. ornament (contextual); spec, chase, en- 
grave, inlay, emboss. 

encircle, v. t. 1. surround, embrace, en- 
compass, environ; spec, span, twine, ring, 
enring (intensive), rim, mfold or enfold, 
orb (elevated), loop, inorb (rare), inarch, 
9. See CIRCUIT. 

encore, v. t. recall, call (chiefly in "call 
before the curtain* '). 

encourage, v. t. 1. animate, strengthen, 
hearten, enhearten (intensive), heart (ar- 
chaic), fortify, chirrup (chiefly spec.), in- 
spirit; spec, reanimate, cheer, abet, em- 
bolden, mcite, urge, stimulate, assure, re- 
assure, comfort. 

Antonyms: see abash, discourage, op- 
press, frighten. 


encroach, v. i. advance, accroach (rcare), 
trench (esp. of immaterial things), in- 

Cross references: see Note. 
emotionleBs: ^^un feeling. 
emphasising: intensive. 
empiric: quack. 
emplacement: platform. 
employ, n.: use, occupation, 

employ, v. t.: occupy. 
employment: uxe, occupation, 

business, service. [embitter. 

empoison: poison, contaminate. 

emporium: market, warehouse, 

empower: enable, authorize. 
empress: monarch. 
empressment: cordiality, de- 

empyreal: heavenly, fiery. 
empyrean: heaven. 
emulge: drain. 
enable: empower. 
encamp: camp. 

encase: tncoae. 
enceinte: preffnant. 
enchain: bind, confine. 
enchant: bewitch, oapft'wils, 
please. [ttvation. 

enchantment: bewitchery, cap- 
encomiast: praiser. 
encomiastic; laudatory. 
encomium: eulogy. 
encompass: eurround, eneircie, 
encore; again. 

t^" See Notes of Explanation. 



fringej vpee. usurp (rare), invade, trc&- 
pass, intrude. 
•noroaobment, n. advaDcemeat, infrin^ 
ment, infraction, trenching, inroad, m- 
vhsion; spec, trespaas, intrusion, purprea- 

enoniiib«r, v. I. I. Implying a hindering by 
eorn^ing thai burdens, drags upon, dogs. 
or the like: cumber, embarrass; spec, bur- 
den, hamper, obstruct, hinder. 
%. lumber, burden;— to vmgh down urith 
whal ia uselee*. 
AnUmymM: see unload. 
%. burden, charge; spec, mortgage. 

•noumbrmnoe, n, 1. cumber (rare), cum- 
brance, cumberment (rorel, embarrasa- 
ment, clog; spec, burden, hindrance, ob- 
struction, tiampcr, baggage. 
S. burden, charge; upec, mortgage, debt. 

BBOrolopedia, enoFolopndix, n, cyclo- 
pedia or cyclopuxiia {Ike lesa usual term), 
thesaurus (now rare). 

cnojitted, a. bagged, capsuled, saccate 

end, n. I, limit, ejttreioity;— in reference to 
space, and now only in "ends of the earth." 
%. Referring to the terminating part of any- 
thing: tip, extremity (the very end), ter- 
mination {learned), terminal {cMefty tech. 
or fpec.), extreme iliierary or formal), 
termuiuB {literary irr formal), desinence 
(chiefly spec.; rare); spec, fag-end, hutt or 
butt-end, stub, remnant, tail, thrum, 
chump, crop {tech.), tag, ravel, fall, foot, 
horn, nead. 

ArUonyriM: see bboinnino. 
 Referring to the end or lerminalion of a 
course, aeries, etc.: conclusion, termina- 
tion, determination (formal), close, clos- 
ure (rorSj exe. apee.), stoppage; spec. 
finish, fims (Lalin), end-all, period (ar- 
chaic), consummation, destruction, an- 
nihilation, dis.solution, finale, {Italian; 
mumoj, final (music), ending. 

Ardanym*: see beoinning. 
4. Referring to a termitwivng eeent, act, 
etc.: d^auinent (French), catastro]}he, 
wind-up (coUoq.), finish-up (rare), finish, 
finale Qtalian), ending. 

Antonyms: see beoinnino. 
■. Spec, (in reference to discourse) exodliim, 
catastrophe, finale, (Italian), ending, pero- 
ration, epilogue, appendix. 

Anbmyms: see bgoinninq. 
t. In reference to lapse of lime: period (ar- 
chaic^, ending, lapse, expiration, expiry, 

Antonyms: see beoinnino. 
7. Referring to the last part of life: evening, 
close, extremity (archaic). 

ATilonyms: see ikfanct. 
8. See DEATH, REaiii;r, obji 

end, >'. t. I. terminate (a more formal teard 1 
than "end"), conclude (formal); spec, fin- J 
ish, stop, close, cease, discontinue, dis- ( 
solve, abolish, aestroy, annihilate. I 

t. To form an end to: terminate, deter- | 
mine (formed); spec, head, toil, fetch up. 
Ardonyma: see bboin. 
>. See EiLL. 

«nd, f. i. 1. terminate (more formal than 
"end"), conclude (format); spec, finish, 
cease, stop, expire, lapse, discontinue, dis- 
solve, determine (formal). 

Antonyms: see beqih, 
9- To cease to exist: spec, go, die, vanish, 
disappear, fall, 

Aritonyms: see begin. 
S. To finish a discourse: close, conclude; 
spec, perorate. 
AjUonynis: see begin. 

endanKei, v. t. imj>eril, jeopard (rare), ad- 
venture (rare), jeopardize, peril (rare), 
risk, hazard, jeopardy (rare),' spec, com- 

endBkr, i>, t. No synonyms. 

endearor, v. i. try (the common word), 
seek, attempt, offer, struggle, strive, es- 
say (learned or archaic), labor; jipec. study. 

andeavor, n. trial, try, attempt, effort, 
struggle, striving essay (archaic or liier- 
ary), exertion, otter. 

andlBB, n. I. See end, death. 
a. In reference to imrds: suffix, postfiic, 
termination, terminant (rare). 

ending, a. terminating, terminative {rare), 
concluding, conclusive (nftsoiesc.}, con- 
elusory, determinating, determinative, 
etc.; spec, finishing, etc. 

endlsss, a. I. Referring to either time cr 
space: never-ending (chiefly of limti), in- 
terminable, termless (chiefly of time), 
boundless, indefinite, indeterminable, 
dateless, mterminate, illimitable, unlim- 
ited, immeasurable, infinite (c^tener of 
space than time), unending (chiefly of 

Antonyms: see bh 

Antonyms: see brief. 


endleit, adv. Spec, interminably, boundr 
lessily, indefinitely, infinitely, evermore, 
coiiBtanlly, etc, 

endow, ri. (. 1, ,Sc(! DOWER (a bride). 

I endii 

: tongthwi 

•Ddmoat: farthat. 
«ndac««; indorse. 

tS'See Notm dI Eipluutloo. 

I' 9. enrich, dow, estate (rare); spec, bene- 
I fice, portion, reinvest, 
t. enrich (used tpith "uritk"), funuBh, gift 
(chiefly in p. p., as an adjeclive). 

•ndowment, n. 1. Aii of endowing: dota- 
tion (teamed). 

S. Referring to property given by way of 
endowiTig: fuDd, property, faimdatioD 
(U. S.); spec, studentship, fellowahip, 
scholarship, professorship, chair (Jig^, 
livinA, etc. 

S. ^t, power, dower, dowry; s]>ec. abil- 
ity; — referring to Tiatural gifts or powers of 
mind or body. 

•ndne, v. I. indue, clothe, invest; spec, re- 
invest, grace; — in reference to permanent 
giflt or powers of mind or body, 

•ndiuKble, a. bearable, tolerable, sup- 
portable, abidable, sustainable, sufTer- 
able; spec, withstandable, we&therable, 
livable, stomachable. 




I. The ael of enduxinQ or lasting: bearing, 
abiding, support, sustenance Qiookish or 
lech.), tolerance (chiefly tech.), standing, 
withstanding, durance (arehaie), sulTer- 

1. Staying power: backbone, bottom, 
■Hud (colioq.); spec, fortitude, constancy, 

4. Tm act of enduring or suffering to be: 
tolerance, toleration, abidance, stomach- 
;neHS (rare); spec, permission, 
. vitality. 

•Ddnmnt, a. tolerant, patient {of euU). 

•ndnie, v. i. 1. See cotrtimiE. 
M. abide, bear, suffer; spec, wear, last. 

•ndiue, V. I. 1. Referring to the capacity or 
power to suffer unharmed or unimpaired: 
tear, abide (literary), support, sustain, 
■ufFer, tolerate, coendure (spec.), stand, 
withstand, bide (archaic), undergo, stay; 
tpee. weather. 

diaie): spec, stomach, swallow, pocket, 
permit, receive. 
■ndwars, endwise, adv. 1. See ufriqht, 


IL diatad (lech.):— -towards the end, 
■n*in>, n. injection (contextual), dyst^r. 
tiwmj, n. opponent, adversary, ant-ago- 
nist ("opponent," "odversaTy," owl "an- 
tagonist not implying Ike illrwHt or via- 
laiolence implied by "enemj/"), unfriend 
(rare), Philistine (fig-), foe (archaic or 
rhetorical, exc. in mS. uae; often a collective 
j» mil, use), toeman (archaic or poetic]. 

hostile (chiefly V. S. and of an American 
Indian),- spec, archenemy, Devil. 

Antonyms: see friend, ALLt. 
eocTKetto, a. active, vigorous, mettlesome, 
mighty; spec, hearty, hard, strenuous, 
treiichiint, forceful, forcible, strong, pow- 
erful, dashing, emphatic, enterprising, 
hve, robust; spec, see enterprisino. 

Antonyms: see APATHETIC. 
encTclie, v. t. potentialize (rare), activate 
(lech.; chiefly chem. and biol.). dynamiac 
(chiefly med?); spec, animate. 

Antonyma: see weaken, enervate. 
eneiKT, n. t, action; — not a good synonym. 
t. activity, go (coUoq.), vigor, mettle, 
spirit, force, might, intensity, dash, life, 
animation. Most of these words have 
epe^'fic implicatioTis or associatioTia sug- 
gested by their general senses. 

Ajitonyms: see weakness, weariness. 
I. power, force, potency, strength; spec. 
impetus, impulse, momentum, vis siva 
(lech, Latin), magnetism, electricity. 

AntonyTns: see inertia. 
4. Only in reference to persons, ideas, etc.: 
spirit, vigor, backbone (coUoq.), life, ani- 
mation, pith, verve, drive, vim (coUoq!), &si 
(coUog.), go (coUog,), go-ahead (colioq.); 
spec, see ENTERPRiaB. 

Antonyms: see weakness. 

I, v.t weaken, devitalize, un- 
laralyze, soften; spec, debilitate, 

cnfeoSment, n. infeudation, infcftmeat 

(Scots law); spec, subinfeudation. 
enforoe, ['. t. 1. See compel, i 

S. In reference to laws, duty, etc.: execute, 

9. elTranchize (rare); spec, naturalisie, en- 
denizen (lileraTy). 
enlace, v. t. I. See plbdoe. 
t, bind, obligate; spec, betroth. 
1. .Spec, bespeak, nire, enlist, book, re- 
tain, brief, fee. 
4. To win over: gain, 
t. To seize and hold, fasten upon: oc- 
cupy, interest; spec. Isite, arrest, catch, 

Antonyms; see slide. 
t. attack, encounter; spec. reSncouoter 


. I. 



B. embark (iiserf vrUh "in"); spec, enlist. 
s. interlock, interact; irpec. gear, pitch. 

.ralil; t'lTPlujit. dt 


anslne, n. 1. .See in8THDMbnt, ueans. 
9. 0/ machines for eonverliiig a force i 
Tnechanical power itlaa tmui beirig the usi/ai 
tente of "engine"): spec. Bteam engine, 
electrical enajne, etc., turbine, jinny, cor- 
Iba, motor, desel. 

t. Of milUary aigwies: spec, matatund, 
arbaJeat, ballista, mangonel, lombard, 

eiiKlDeet, n. machinist (catitexiual); spec, 
driver, hydmulician, mechanician, pi- 

ring to the Church of England), British (i 
f erring to vikat is or belongs to Ureal Britain; 
now csp. used in referring to political or 
imperiid affairs). 

BnsUshman, n. Englander, Engliahcr 
{chiefly Scot.), John Bull (a nickname), 
gringo (Spanish Amer.; amternpiuous); 
spec. Harry, Tommy f.alaj\g), milord. 

•nKr<iT«> w. '. 1- grave (archaic or poetic), 
cut, carve, sculpture, chisel, incise; spec. 
intaglio (rare), etcn, enchase, liBtch, 
crog^iatch, mezzotint; — in refererux to 
forming figures on a surface. 
J. See PRINT. 

cnfraved, a. graven, sculptured, inciaed, 
cut; spec, intagtiatcd. 

enCMver. n. graver (rare, exc, of a tool); 
spec, die cutter, lapicide, etcher, burin 
(a toon. 

•ne»vl&c, a, carving, glyptic (chiefly 
spec.), sculptural. 

enxravliig, n. graving, carving, sculpture 
(rare), chiseling; spec, intaglio, glyptog- 
raphy, fretwork, chalcography, eerog- 
raphy, gypsography, Btylography, petro- 
glyph, heliogravure, photogravure, heliog- 
raphy; — irt reference to the art or process, 
a. graving, carving, sculpture (rare), glyp- 
tic (chiefly spec.); spec, intaglio, fretwork, 
chaleograph, cut (esp. a woodcut), plate 
(one on metal), triptych, diptych, htho- 
glyph, laille-douce (French), meniotint, 
cerograpb, heliograph, phologravure, heU- 
ogravure; — referring to the figure -nrodaced. 

•njoy, V. I. 1. hke, rehah, joy (orwiaic). 
Anianyms: set disukb. 
t. experience, have (some experience). 

•n)«7taent, n. I. relish, gusto, gust, Kest, 
fruition (literary or dignified). 
Antonyms: see disltkb, distress. 
S. pleasure, gratification, luxury. 

flolaree, v. l. I. increase, extend, triden, 
aggrandize (learned), grcaten (arcluiic), 
amplify, largen (rare), magnify (rare); 
spec, augment, broaden, ream, ddate, dia- 
l«nd, drift, thicken, orill, bore (chiefly 
wUh "out"). 
Antonyms: see diminish, , 

2. See'iiAamFY. 
enlarge, v. t. 1. increase, expand, widen; J 

spec, augment, broaden, dilate, distend, r 


enlaicemant. n. 1. increase, estension, j 
widening; spee. broadening, aggrandize- , 
ment (Uamed), amplification, au^enta- i 
tion, distension, dilatation, expansion. 
Antonyms: see abridgement, abstrac 


3. Only of a thing formed by an enlarge- ! 
ment; apec. bulb, knot, ganglion. 

«aiMXfiag, a. Spec, expatiatory, cres- 
cent, expansive. 

enlighten, P. I. 1. See briohten. 
2. lighten (archaic), illume (rare or lilrr- \ 
ary), illuminate (formal), illumine (rare); 
spec, educate, civilize, instruct, inform. 
A ntonyms: 

enllChteDmeDt, n. illumination, light, 
lightening; «pec. culture, civilization, edu- 
cation, learning. 
Antonyms: see IG 

enlist, u. I. Of soldiers, etc.: list, enroll, 
levy, recruit. 

enllvejO, v. t. I. See animate, chebb- 
1. animate, exhilarate, actuate (lew^tied), 
spirit, inspirit, quicken, quick (arctic), 
fee, brisk (chiefly with "up"); apec. spioe, 
brighten, elate, reanimate. 
Antonyms: see calm, depegsb. 

enmity, n. dislike (contextual), ill-will, 
animosity; spec, pique; aee haletolemce, 

Anianyma: see love. 
ennoble, u. t. dignify, exalt, nuse; spee. 
grealen (rore), elevate, glorify, nobilitate 
(rare), baronize. 

Antonyms: see d&orace, depreciate, 
ABUSE, depamg. 
ennnl, n. tedium, boredom, boreiaia , 
(rore); see WEAmNESS. 
j4nto»i^7ns; see vivacitt, oatett. 
enormous, a. 1urg<< (roniezfuaZ), titanic, 

^ t, immense, eolosaal, gi- 
gantic, elephantine, vast, prodigious (Zil- 
erary or eonlemplaouis). 
ArUonymi: see buaix. 
•nilah, f. t. 1. lichen (rare); wpee. million- 
iie, endow. 
Antonyms: see impovehish, plunder. 

nuiohinf, a. locupletive (rare). 

•luhilne, V. t. 1. inshrioe (a DoriarU). con- 
tain (eoiUextual) ; spec, entemple (rare), 
tabernacle, enchase (rare). 
9. See 


%. See BADOB. 
analaTe, v. t. 1. enthrall (ehiefiy fig.), slave 
(rore), thraU (ardiaic), yoke {figuridii/e), 
beslave (emphalic), vaMal (rare); spec. 
Anlonyms: see free, dblivek. 

anilaTed, a, bond. 

enaiavament, n. 1. enthraJlment; spec. 
vassalage, serfage, serfdom. 
Anionffms; see fhbbino. 

•ntkll, n. tail, tailye or tailzie (Scot). 

•ntaHKl*! "■ (. t. In a physicat sense: tan- 
gle, ravel, perplex (rare), involve, em- 
brangle (literary); spec, meah, enlace, in- 
mesh, entrap, mat. 
Antonyms: tec disbntanqi.ii, unravel. 

«ituisled,a. complex, foul {chiefly navi.), 
afoul (predicaiiiie). 

•ntuiclemeiit, n. 1. tangle, maze, em- 
branglement (literary), ravelment (rare), 
involvement, intertanglement (rare), per- 
plexity, cobweb (implying fiiieneaa); spec. 
node, knot. 
•ater, u. i. 1. To go or come in: spec, pierce, 

Antonyms: see issue. 
t. To go (into) a subject-matt^, book, etc.: 
^p, dive. 

1. To become brmed, occupied, etc.: en- 
spec, start, go (used vrilk "into"). 
0. (. t. /n a phytical sense: spec. 
metrate, pierce, trespass, invade, board 
ship or, U, S., a rauroaa train), force. 

citaic); spec. 

1. energy, push (t 
Antonyms: ua laziness. 
enterprislQE, a. energetic, go-ahead (col- 
log.), pushing (coKogJ, pushful (calloq,). 
Anlanyms: see lazt. 
entertain, v. I. t. receive, hoapitize (rare); 
spec, harbor, guest (rare), shelter. 
9. Referring to opinions, etc.; hold, cher- 
ish, bear, have; epec, n 

1. See DIVER 

treat (coUog.), regale (literary); spec. 

fSte, breakfast, dine, dinnei 

supper (rare), 
entertainer, n. Spec, hoapitator (rare), 

harborer (archaic), host, hostess. 
Antonyjns: see sponger. 
entertainment, n. I. reception; spec, hos- 

pitation (rore), harboring. 

S. treat (coUoq.). r^alement; spec, i&te, 
Friday, gaudy (Eng.), refection, lunch, 
t£a, dinner, spread (couog.), banquet, sup- 
j»er, breakfast, beanfeast (Bng.). 

enthrone, H. I. regalise (apec. or fig.), 
throne, seat (contextual). 
Antonyms: see depose. 

enthuse, v. i. rave (colioq.), kindle; spec. 
poetize, warm, fanaticize. "Enthuse ia 
either huTnoroits or vulgar. 

entloa, u. (. attract, tempt, train (rare), al- 
lure, lure; spec, wiie, decoy, i — ■-' 
Antonyms: see repel, i 

enticement, n. attraction, allurement, 
temptation, lure; sjkc. decoy. 

entlolac a. attractive, inviting, alluring, 
tempting, soUciting; epee. decoying. "En- 
tice implies success in allurement; "etUio- 
ing" does not. 
Antonyms: see repellent. 

entirety, n. ontireness, wholeness, in- 
tegrality, integrity. 

entitle, u. t. I. intitule (chiefly tech.), be- 
title (derogatory). 
8. See QiTALirr, name. 

entrails, n. pi. 1. viscera (now rare), insides 
(coUoq. or dial.), guts (now vulgar, or col- 
log, as fy.), intestines, puddings (chiefly 
dial, and Scot.). The siriguiar form, "en- 
IraU," is rare. 

entrain, v. t. board. 


•ntimnee, n. 1. Referring to the aetian: en- 
try, ingress (literary), mgresaion (rare), 
entrte {French), incomine, ingoing, income 
(rare); gpee. iliapse (rare), tr^pass, d^but 
(in loeiety: FrentA) . 
ATilimyms: see issue. 
fl. Referring to the pririlege or right: ad- 
miaaion, access, entree (.French). 
%. Referring to the place or means of enter- 
ing: entry, aperture, ingreas; Bj>ee, door, 
mouth, inlet, doorway, adit, vestibule, 
hallway, lobby, propvlon, propylieum, 
porte-cochfire (FreiicA), postem, gorge 
IfortificaHon), gat«, forogate, stile. 
Antonyms: see exit, 

estry, n. 1. i^ee entrance. 
S. listing; spec, registry, re^stration, 
post, posting, credit. 

enrelapB, n. covering, inclosure (literary 
or elevated); spec, incasement, casement 
(rare), casing (close), mantle, involucre, 
pack, capsule, film, skin, integument, fac- 
ing, mantling, shroud, vesture (rare), 
perianth, miat, veil, konseal, wrap, 

BiiTelopfli II. I. cover, wrap (ckiefly spec.); 
spec, invest, overroU, pack, jacket, en- 
shroud, infold or eiifold, web, shroud, 
mantle, involve, encompass. 

envlou*, a. jealous, grudging. 

enT?, V. t, grudge, begrudge. 

enry, n. grudgingness, grudging, jealousy, 

•phemenl, a. short-lived; spec, fugitive, 
occasional, mushroom, fungous. 
Anlonymt: see eternal, lasting, lono- 

•ple, a, epopcean (rare); spec. Homeric. 

eplo, n. epopee (rare), epopceia (archaic), 
epos; spec. Homeric, Iliad, rhapsody, 

•plonrs, n. epicurean, palatist (rare), op- 
Bopba<ist (rare), delpnosophist (leroTted), 
anatologist (learned), bon vivant (masc; 
French), bonne vivsnte (fern.; French), 
gourmet (French], gourmand. 

•plaoopBoy, n. I. pontificatity (rare), prel- 
acy (hostile term), prelatism {hoslile term). 

«pUo«paI, a, pontifical or pontific (chiefif/ 
hist, or spec.), prelatical or prelntic (chiefly 
a hoKlile lent}. 

«pl«oopallau, n, prelatiat (a hostile term). 

eplaoUtlo, n. Spec, murrain. "Epizodtie^' . 
is used of animal diseases only, oncj corr*- ' 
sponds to "epidemic" as applied to man, 

equal, a. 1. alike (poslposUive), like; spec 
coordinate, level, coequal (rare), com- 
mensurate, coextensive, parallel, corre- 
sponding, equipollent (learned), equiv- 
alent, equiponderant (rare), qmts (used 
jBith "viilh"), even, isopsephic (rare; tick.), 
iBooomio (rare), coeval, ooetaneoue, co- 
eternal, identical, tantamount, equtpo- 
tential, isotropic, isotopic. 
A nlonyms: see unequal. 


equal, n. fellow, match, peer, compeer (HI' 
erary): sjtec. coordinate, parallel, counter- 
vail, equivalent. 

equal, E. I. 1. See equalize. 
a. match, even (rare), fellow (xised vnlh 

allel, number. 

equality, n. parity, equalization, equation 
(tech. or gpfc), egftlity (obs. or frencA), par 
(chiefly in "on a par"), level; spec, match, 
equivalence, p^rdom (rare), equipol- 
lencc, equipoise, tie, coevahty (rare), co- 
equality, owelty (Uao), identity, isopolity, 
isonomy, equilibrium, isotopy, panu- 
lei ism. 
Antonyms: see iNEQUALmf. 

equaliiatlon, n. I, equaling, equatJon. 

equalise, v. t. equal, equate (chiefly math.), 
even; spec, par (rare), coSrdinate. 

equally, aih. alike, evenly, indiSerently 
(chiefly spec.). 

equal-aided, a. Spec, isosceles. 

eqaanlmlty, n. 1. evenness (of temper). 

equeitrlan, a. mounted. 

equine, a. caballine (rare; literary), hippio 
(rare), solidungulate (tech.). 

equine, n, hor^e, solidungulate (leek.), 
soliped (tech.). 






n^iilp, V. t. furnisli, outfit, provide; spec. 
I baraeaa (archaic), accouter, appoint, 


!, n. turnout (cotloq.). 

int, n, I, RKfarring to the action: 

\ lumishing, accoutenag, accoutennent, 
'page, provision, appointment. 
Uffning to thing: furniture, fumish- 
I ings, tftclde (ehiefiy svec.), gear (chiefiy 

re), harness {eap. mil.); »pec. apparatuH, 
nt, accoutennent {often in pi,), dress, 
I fitting (chiefly in pi,), appointment, oul^ 
I fit, rigging, ri^, armament (cAie^ymil.). 
P'«r«it, a, upright, unrccumbent (rare), 
Btroight, vertical, perpendicular. 
AnSmyrru: set dboopinq, stooping. 
•EBOt, i>. (. 1. raise, rear: spec, pitch, prick, 
ruffie, perfect, pedestal. 
Anlimyms: see droop. 


•reot, V. i. rise; see bristle. 
•raotloD, n. I. raising, rearing, ele. 

nod*, V, t, destroy {conUxttud), eat, wear, 
, fret {away); spec, rub {uaed 

•Eoiloii,n destruction (nmtezIuaOi eating, 
COBBumption (rare),- spec, denudation, fret 
(rare), eolation {geol.), waahout, watergaU 
{imiy of the place eroded). 

•IT, e, i. mistake, nod, slip (often used mlk 
"up"), trip; spec, fall, wander, stray, 
stumble, blunder, hallucinate, misbe- 
lieve, sin, bull (urilh "it" as ol^ect). 

business (contextum), commia- 

•rrotievus, a. false, untrue, mistaken 
(used onl]/ of persong), erring (used only of 
persona), errant {rare); spec, fallacious, 
devious, misguided (used only of persons). 

Antonyma: see true. 
mor, n. Spec, erroneousness, obliquity, 
mistake, solecism, bfvue {French), ab- 
flurdity, blunder, wrong, parepochism 
(rare), parachronism, comgenduni, fault, 
erratum, errancy, trip, stumble, slip, fal- 

lacy, flaw, misbelief, metachroniam, mifr 

print, untruth, misstep, 
Anionymt: see troth. 
erupt, V. t. eject, belch; spec, {of imlaanoes) 

vesuviate (rare), 
AtUonyms: see swallow. 
eruption, n. 1. See ejection, outbreak. 

2. Spec, efBorcBcence, raah, erythema, 

brash, blain, exanthema, tetter, vesitle, 

blotch, malanders or tnallenders, eczema, 

hives, heat. 
esoApe, f. i. 1. scape (archaic), evade {now 

rare); spec, fly, slip, riiB, decamp, double. 

). See ISSUE, leak. 
eacapa, n. 1. scape (archaic), escapement 

(rare), scapement (rare); spec, avoidance, 

bolt, evasion (from amfinemenl; rare). 

a. See ISSUE, odtlet, ootflow, leak. 

I. attendant, companion, conductor 
spec, cavalier, burkundaz {Anglo-lndutn), 
psychopomp, sale-conduct, convoy, en- 
voy, gallant, squire, esquire, bodyguard. 

BHCort, V. t. accompany {amtexCual) : spec. 
gallant, squire, conduct; spec, marshal, 
convoy, guard, walk, support, hand. 

esoutoheon, n. achievement, scutcheon; 
spec, shield, hatchment, inescutcheon. 

cspeolal, a, special, particular; seesPBCiAL, 


Antonyms: see coumon. 
flBplanads, n. maidan (Anglo-Indian); 

spec, marina (Italian and Spanish), bund 

{in the far Bast). 
esquire, n. I. armiger, squire. 


eiienoe, n. 1. See be: 

S. (juiddity (learned), isneas (rare), hypos- 
tasis {tech.)i principle, hyparxis (tech.; 
rare), form, inwardness. 
1. With varioTis special implications sug- 
gested by (he original senses: sense, pst, 
core, kernel, marrow, pith, elixir, quintes- 
sence, flower, soul, spirit, life, heart, sub- 

Mienttal, a. Spec, substantial, indispen- 
sable, constituting, constitutional, inward, 

fundameatol, elementary, vital; see nec- 

(■■cntl&l, n. subatantia!, secret, life, vi- 
tafs (pi.). 
Anionynu: see ACCBsaoRT, accident. 

•■tabUBh, V, t. 1. confirm, fix, settle, sta- 
biliTy (rare), atabilitate (rare), stabliah 
(arehaie), stable (rare), secure, set, finn; 
spec, sustain, Instate, domicile or domi- 
ciliate (chiefiy legal), nome. install, pitch, 
root, rear, land idang or coUoq.), ensconce, 
ground, foot (rare), make. 
Antonyrne: see weaken, aboush. 
•• found, institute, constitute, create, 
erect {ekiejiy spec), make (as an order, 
ruie, tic.), raise, plant; spec, ordain (or- 
cAaic), organize, build, appiont, ground. 
Anb>nymB: sue abolisb, 
S, Sec CDNFiau. 

eatabllshmeiit, n. 1. confirmation, fix, 
settlement, fixation, stabliahment (rare), 
securement, firming. 

I. creation, constitution, plantation 
(rare), institution, erection, foundation, 
stabiUment (rare); spec, instatement 
(rare), organization, installment, inalalla- 
tion, upbuilding, omainment. 
t. creation, iiwtitution, concern; spec, or- 
ganization, works (pi.), dwelling, church, 
school, college, plant. 

•atate, n. I. See state, rank, propbiht. 
9. Sjxc. demesne, lordship, revf^raion, 
domain, feu, feud, curtesy, meanalty, 
jointure, lay fee, leasehold, dower, plan- 
tation, hacienda (Spanish), term, free- 

•■teem, v. 1. 1. See consider. 
I. Tea|>ect, prize, regard, favor, admire, 
appreciate; spec, revere, reverence, ven- 
erate, worship. 
Antonyms: see dbbpibe, disrespect. 

I. respect, regard, favor, admiration, es- 
timation; spec, reverence, worship. 

•■tranfe, if. t. t. See 

a. alienate, disunite. 
ATttonyms: see WIN. 
eituMr, n. arm (eontexlual), frith, firth, 

lough (ATtglo-Irish). 
•tohlns, n. 1. See corrosion. 

2. engraving (eonlexlual); spec. 
(Eiig!), aquatint. 
eternal, a. I. perpetual, timeless, endless, 
sempitcmous (rare), sempiternal, ever- 
lasting, eviternal (chiefiy spec.; rare), 
eteme (arehaie or poetic); spec, coetemu. 
AnUmyias: see epheueral, brigp, iew- 



etamoUaa, v. t. perpetuate, immortaliao, 
eternize; spec, monument, monumental- 

stemally, adv. perpetually, evermore (ar- 
chaic), forever, everlastingly, ever (liter- 
ary or archaic). 

eternitr, n. I, perpetuity, etemalneas, 
everlastingnesB, timelessness, endleasnces, 
scmpitermty; spec, coeteraity. 
AnionyTtia: see uoubnt. 

ethereal, a. I. iSee airt, heavenly. 
a. delicate (conlextual) ; spec, hght, tenu- 
ous, fragile, fiimsy, fairy. 
Antonyms: see earthly, BODILY. 

etblos, n. sing. & pi. morals (pi.), morality; 
spec, bedonics, eudemonism. 

etymoIoBri "• derivation, pedigree (Jfe.). 

eucharlit, n. 1. Commumon, Mass, 
Housel (hisl.), Oblation; spec, liturgy, 
S. Mass, Element. 

euhoe, inierj. evoe (Lalin; less correct than 
"eukoe"); spec, eureka, hurra or hurrah, 
bravo. "Eukoe" is Laixn; there is no single- 
tpord English equivalenL 
Antonyms: sec alas. 

enloflat, n. praiser (which eee), encomiast,! 
panegyrist; spec, laureate. 

euioEiie, V. t. approve (eoniextuid), prais^l 
compliment, panegyrize. 

euloKTi "■ culogium, culofpam (rare), ap- 
proval, praise, panegyric, ' — " 

spec, monody (rare). 
Antonyms: see abuse. 

euphemlitlo, a. soft («m(ezfual), euphe- 
moua (ruTe); spec, extenuatory. 

evacuate, u. t. 1. empty, clear; spec, (re- 
ferring to the bowels) purge, scour, emp^. 
Antonyms: see fill, occupy, 
>. See leave. 

>. eject (conlexlval) ; spec. (esp. refernagm 
to excrement) discharge, defecate, void. 

evacuate, f. I. defecaU. 

evacuation, n. I. clearing, discharge; spec J 
{Tcferring to the bowels) passage, motioo, M 
purgation, catharsis, 

8. See LEAVING (cf, LKAVe). 




eittante: alim 
«toh : corrode. 


evade, v. t. avoid, elude; spec, dodge, bilk, 
bluff, funk (slang). 

evaporate, v, i, & L emanate, vaporize, 
volatilize; sj>ec, distill. 
Antonyms: see condense, solidify. 

evasion, n. 1. avoidance, elusion; spec. 
bhufflins, double, doubling, dodge, bluff- 
ing, fuimng {slang), 

9. deceit, subterfuge, shuffle, put-off (coU 
loq.)^ shift; spec, dodge, prevarication, 

evasive, o. deceitful (contexttud), slippery; 
spec, dodgy (coUpq.), tergiversant (rare), 
prevaricative, shifty. 

even, a. 1. Referring to adjoining sur- 
faces: level, equal (archaic), smooth, flat, 
regular; spec, flush. 
Antonyms: see uneven, ibregular. 

8. Referring to the temper, motion, action, 
etc.: uniform, regular, equal, level, smooth; 
spec, equable, easy (coUoq.); see even- 


even, v. t. level, smooth; spec, scabble or 
scapple, grade, float. 

even, adv. just (often iised with "now'*), 

evening* n. eve (poetic or rhetorical), even 
(poetic, dial., or coUoq.). 
Antonyms: see morning. 

evening:* a. vesperal (rare), vespertine (lit- 
erary), vesper tmal (rare). 

evening star. Vesper, Hesper (poetic), 
Hesperus (literary or learned). 
ArUonyms: see morning star.  

event, n. 1. See occurrence. 

9. result, conclusion, issue, end, sequel, 
outcome, hap (esp. archaic); spec, turn-up 
(coUoq.), futurity. 

Antonyms: see beginning. 
even-tempered, a. even (chiefly literary), 

equable, equanimous, equal. 
Antonyms: see irritable. 
eventful, a. 1. chanceful (rare), full (con- 

Antonyms: see uneventful. 

9. See important. 
eventuate, v. i. end, conclude, issue; spec, 

eversion, n. extroversion (tech.), exstrophy 

(tech.; rare). 
every, a. each. 

everyday, a. customary (contextual), ac- 
customed (contextual), workaday; spec. 

commonplace, homely. 

everirwhere, ado. throughout, passim 
ArUonyms: see nowhere. 

evidence, n. att^tation, token, stamp, 
testimony (properly spec,), witness (spec, 
or fig.); spec, demonstration, record, muni- 
ments (pi.), voucher, deposition, proof, 

evidence, v. t. attest, support, tell; spec. 
circumstantiate, certificate, show, prove, 
confess (poetic), document, vouch, testify. 

eyidency, n. apparency, evidence (rare), 
indubitableness, obviousness, palpi^le- 
ness, seemingness, plainness. 

evident, a. 1. apparent, plain, obvious, 
broad, unmistakable, palpable (spiec, or 
fig.), patent, open, naked, conspicuous 
(rare), manifest, distinct, clear, bald, im- 
hidden (rare), downright, overt. 
Antonyms: see abstruse. 


evil, n. 1. See wickedness. 

9. With "a" or ''an": harm, ill, curse, 

blast, bale (now chiefly poetic), cancer 

(fig.), canker C^.), bane, disease, male- 

fice (archaic). 
Antonyms: see good. 
evildoer, n. malfeasant (learned or tech,), 

malefactor (esp. criminally), malef actress 

evildoins, a. malfeasant (learned or tech.), 

malefactory, maleficent. 
Antonyms: see beneficent. 
evocate, v. t, evoke, ehcit; spec, exorcize 

(rare), invoke. 
evoke, v. t. evocate, call; see elicit. 
evolution, n. 1. development (contextual); 

spec, phylogeny, ontogeny, ontogenesis, 

physiogeny, phylogenesis. 

9. See MOVEMENT, FIGURE (dandng), 
evolutionism, n. Spec. Darwinism, Heck- 

elism, Lamarkism. 
ewe, n. sheep (contextual) ; spec, crocodile 

(dial.), crock (chiefly Scot.), 
exact, a. 1. See strict, accurate, defi- 

9. precise, diametric (opposite), absolute, 

direct; spec, express (chiefly with allusion 

to Heb. i. S, as in, *Hhe express image"). 

S. delicate, accurate, precise, nice, fine; 

spec, sensitive, true. 
exact, V, t, 1. See ask, extort. 

9. take (vengeance, etc.), have. 
exacting* a> i* 'S^^ critical, difficuut. 

9. extortionary, extortive, exactive. 

13^ Cross references: see Note. 
evade: escape. 
enuiMoe: disappear. 
•TanMoenoe: disappeararice, 

•▼anesoent: transient. 
•▼angel: gospel. 
eTanish: disappear. 

•▼aporatlve: volatile. 
erentual: firud. 
•▼entuallty: occurrence. 
ever: always, once, eternally. 
•▼erlastinc: endless, etatuUt 


ever more: constarUly, endleady. 
•very thine: aU. 

•▼lot: eject. 
•▼lotion: ejection. 
•▼U, a.: wicked, harmful. Ml" 
jurious, malevolent. 
•▼11-looklnc: ugly. 
•▼Inc^: disdose, show. 
•▼Isoorat^: dieembowd. 
•▼olv^: develop, emiL 


K^" See Not^t of Eji^Unatien. 


•SMitlon, n. 1. Sa deuand. 
S. extortion, squeeze (eolUiq.), requisi- 
tion; ipee. mulct, contribution. 

•Kftotlrt o^- jUBt, even {ckiejiy arehair 
or Bibtieal), precisely, full, fully, quite, 

Etumb or plum; epee. flat, faithfully, 
exaotneiB, n. 1. See btrictkesb, accu- 
racy, DBFlNlTtNBBS. 

%. delicai^, nicety, precision, accuracy; 
Bpee. sensitiveness, trueness. 

•■•((•rata, i>. (. magnify, enhance, stretch 
(ooSo?.); tpee. overspeat (rare), overpic- 
ture (rare), overdraw, overteU (rare), 
overdo, overstate, overcolor, overcharge, 
romance, hyperbolize (r/ietorie). 
Antonyms: see beuttlb. 

•xucermtfld, a. hyperbolical (rAetor-ic), 
outrS (frencft), tail (eoOoq., U. S.), ovcr- 

•asnaratlaii, n. excess, enhsiDcement; 
spec, hyperbole (rhetmic), overstatement. 

•xmlted, a. S-pec. elevated, elated, high, 
lofty, highflown (chiefly disparaging), 
magnificent, magnific, sublime, magntfi- 
cal, proud, lordly ; spec, biiakined. 
Antonyms: see low, DEoaADED, oeaBN- 

•SADilitAtlon, n. ). inspection, scrutiny, 
inreetigation, search, research (esp. spec.), 
exploration, scrutation (rare), scan (Tare), 
perusal (archaic), survey, examen (rare or 
tech.); spec, review, teat, disquisition 
(rare), probation ((/. 5. or obe.), collation, 
overhaiil (rare), consideration (archaic), 
reconnaissance or reconnoissance, perscru- 
tation (rare), assay, post-mortem, prying. 
S. inquiry, interrogation, inquisition; 
epec. catechism, collcctiona (pi.; Eng. 
achoolt)f school (Or/. Vnifersity), tripos, 
respoDsions (pi.), exercise, little go (Eng.), 
great go or greats (Erig ). 

exKinIn*, «. I. <£ i. t. investigate, inspect, 
scrutinize, peruse (archaic), dissect, ex- 
aminate (literary), consider (archaic), 
overlook, search, scan, introspect (pri- 
marily spec.; rare), overhaul, survey; epec. 
coUatfi, mmraaae, explore, reconnoiter, 
ransack, probe (as a wound), canvass, re- 
view, bottom, feci, bolt, sift, snitT, try, 
test, candle, anatomize. 
S. question, interrogate, cross-examine 
(im'^ying repealed and dose questioning), 
quis (f. S.j, catechize; spec, pry (v. i. 
only), sound (in order to gel the vievia of, 
etc.), probe. 

Is, n. 1. One thai serves to itliistrale: 

sample, specimen, piece, instance eo 
representative, illustration, exemplar, 
say, exempli Scution (formal); spec, de 
onstrat*, monument. 
S, One that servea as a modft or pattern: 

fiattem, sample, type, standard, model. 
oregoer (orcAoic); spec, sampler, leaa 
(pron. ied). 

represent, illustrate. 

S. form (contextual); spec, dig, burrow, 
delve (archaic), hole, drive, dnft, groove. 
esosTmUoii, n. cavity (conlexlualj, hole 
(contezlital); spec, burrow, cutting, delve 
(itieror^), pit, den, digging, beardV mine, 
shaft, stope, quarry, tffijt, drive, counter- 
exceed, V 
overgo (rore), 

I. surpass, transcend, excel, overpeer 
(rare), outpeer (rare), cap, ding (archaic 
or dial.); spec, outdo, puss (rare), outgo, 
outreach (rare or iiaut.), break, out- 
Herod, outstrip, outplay. 
•xceed, u. t. Spec, surpass, excel, over- 
flzasUenoe, n. worth, virtue, perfection, ex- 
cellency, fineness, goodness (rare), grace, 
superiority; spec, preeminence, greatness, 

Aniimymi: gee fault. 
•leellent, a. admirable, worthy, splendid 
(oUoq.), tiptop (coUoq.), superexcellent, 
brave, choice, first-rate, transcendent, ex- 
quisite, prime, slorling, superordinarv, 
unexceptionable, divine (fig.), heavenly 
(fig.), crack (slang or coKog.), grand (cc*- 
loq.), ETeat (chiefly U. S, and eoUtig.), ad- 
mirable, golden, jolly (coUoQ.), rum (cant), 
surpassing, extreme. 


exoept, V. I. exclude, omit; «pec. reserve, 
torprize (rore). 
Antonyms: see inclddb. 

fliccpt, preji. unless, saving, save, but, ex- 
cepting, batting (obsolescent or literary). 

sioepUon, n. I. exclusion, omission; spec. 
reservation, limitation, reserve, forprise 
(rare), salve 
t. .See OBJE 

•(••■a, n. I. excessiveneas, immoderation, 
immoderacy (rare), immodcrateness, su- ' 
perabun dance, exuberance, exuberancy. 


t^' Croix referenal: BK Nolt. 

IS* a« Not« Dt Eiptanation. 

■uper6iuty, inordinacy (rare), inordinatc- 
s, extremiam (rare), extremeneBs, tran- 
ce, traascendoncy; spec. Caligii- 
1 (j^-)i extravagance, extravagancy, 

-.remity, extreme, exorbitance, exorbi- 

ucy, fulaomeneas, unrestraint, nimicty, 
_ sdundonoe, exundanca {rare), overabua- 
dance, overmuchneas (rare), Huperflaenoe 
fyirn), violence, uorcaaoDubleDcss. 

Anionyntt: see coNSTauDT. 
a. Unerring to the thing ihal is in eicess, 
orlothe degree oj exceaa: Buperabundaocc. 
redundancy, plethora, overmuch (rare), 
superfluity, BU|ierflux (,Tare), surfeit, sur- 
plus, Burpluaage, overplus; spec, oversup- 
ply, overflow, flood, overstock, glut, 
over, extra, plurality, epact {aatron.), 
overweight, majority. 

Antonj/ras; see deficienct. 
1. Referring to exceei in indigence: im- 
moderation, intemperance {chiefly spec); 
tpec. crapulence (learned). 
■uKiilTa, a. immoderate, inordinate, ex- 
travagant; spec, extreme, exorbitant, 
nimiaua {chiefly Scots law), exuberant, 
Buperabundant, exundant (rare), over- 
Kreat, overlarEe, redundant, overmuch, 
fulsome, deadly {eoUoq.), undue, tran- 
scendent, unreasonable, outrageous, au- 
pemumerary, woundy {cMloq.; archaic), 
overdone, overflowing, auperfluoua, sur- 
plus, spare, dithyrambic {literary), devil- 
lah, fiendish, cruel, etc. 

Antanyma: see 

U. S.), ultra- (in compounds, as in "uUra^ 
amserwUiiie"), conaumedly {literary and 
offeded), over, too, etc. 

•xohanKOi n. 1. change (conleilTiai); spec. 
interchange, conversion, commutation, 
reciprocation, transposal, transposition, 
substitution, barter, cambism, shuffle. 
S. ^emium, agio, batta {Anglo-Indian). 
>. Referring to the business place: apec. 
diange (the farm '"change," as in "on 
'change, is due to an erroneous supposi- 
tion) , bourse, market, rialto (rare) , bazaar, 

•aohSiiiK*. V. I. change {contextual): spec. 
interchange, reciprocate, commute, sub- 
stitute, transpose, tranenift (rare), coun- 
terchange, barter, bandy. 

•zohmncaable, a. changeable (conlexlu^), 
oommutable, interchangeable. 

wcb«, p. (. To cui off: remove (conleil- 
uoi), excide (rare), exscind (chiefly literary 
or fig), exsect {rare); apee. resect, efface. 

». cutting, exscision {chiefly titer- 

■g,), exaection {rare); spec, resec- 

^^^K •udtable. 

brained, hot-headed, inflammable, in- 
flammatory (rore). 
Antonyms: see trNExciTABu:. 

«clt«tloiii n. 1. The act or action: causing, 
arousing, rousing, provocation {eap. spec.), 
excitement (rore); apec. electrification 
{o/lenfig.), incendianam. 
a. See excitement. 

■zoltatl*«, a. excitive, excitory, inflamma- 
tory {asuatlu spec); spe4. incendiary {fig.), 
irritative (chiefly bioQ. 

eidte, f. t, actuate (Itamed), move, cause 
call {used with "up," "into activity," etc.), 
raise, rouse, arouse, waken, awake, 
awaken, stimulate, incite, inflame, sum- 
mon (used wUh "into activily," etc.), in- 
spire, <]uicken, inebriate {flg.)^ stir, be- 
stir, kittle (Scot.), disturb, kmdie, im- 
passion, enchafe (archaic). Are, electrify 
{.often fin.), ferment (fig.), whet, irritate 
{diiefly biol.), impel, prompt, provoke, 
anger, agitate, heat, elate, enlrenzy {rare); 
— noslly idiomatic or specific. 
A/Uonyms: see calu. 

fliolted, a. nervous, ebulhent (rare), 
heated; spec, incensed, intoxicated, fren- 
zied, fevered, feverish, restless, hot, tense, 
delirious, frantic, wild. 
Antonyms: see apathetic, calm, belp- 

exdtement, n. The alale or feelitig: exakit' 
tion, disturbance, tension, activity, bustle 
{callnq,), ferment, fermentation {fig.), 
heydey (litt^ary), iacensement (rare); 
spec, intoxication, inebriation (rare), heat, 
ebullience {learned), ebullition (learned), 
inflammation, overwork, irritation (chief- 
ly biol.), stir, breeie, flurry, flutter, ruffle, 
agitation, elation, erethism, delirium, hus- 
tle, franticncss, electrification {often fig.). 
Anionyms: see apatht, calm, seu- 

exoltini^, a. disturbing, electric (fi^.), stir- 
ring, incentive, pre vocative, excitant 
(rare), etc 
Antonyms: see caluativb, sedativb. 

eiolaltn, v. I. & i. shout, cry, ejaculate, 
vociferate, reclaim (rare), conclamate 
(rare),- apec. wail, howl (chiefly contempfti- 
ous), ululate (rare), exululate (rore), hoot 
{often fig. in contempt), hoop, hoUo, hol- 
low, holla, Hhrill, outshrill {jxietic), whew. 

exolamatlon, n. 1. shout, cry, interjection, 
vociferation; spec, howl (chiefly in eon- 
tempi), ululation, ecphonesis {rketoricai; 
rare), bounce. 

t. A toord eaxlaimed: spec, interjection. 
"" numberless exclamations; a few 

irritable, hot- 

t^" See MolM ot EipUiutlim. 


bravo, marry (areluiic), he, ho, hii;, hey. 
hey-ho, hi, heyday, whoop-la, why, zounds 
(arehaie), yoicka, haw, huh, hoo, evviva 
(Ibdian), evoe (teamed), hoeaiina, alas, 
gramercy, hist, whist, eureka, ugh, Lwa:)g, 
tush, tut, whew. 

•xeUiinBitorr. a. interjectional, iaterjec- 
tionary {rare), interjeototy. 

•sclad*, V. t. 1. debar, bar; spec, prohibit, 
lock (often uaed wifA "out"), out, prevent, 
blackball, ostracize. 

1. See EXPEL. 

excluston, n. 1. debarring, debarrance 
(rare), debarration (rare), barring, debar- 
ment; spec, prohibition, precluaion, pre- 
vention, lock-out, ostracism, disfellow- 
Bhip (rare). 

exdnilTe, a. 1. excluding, sole, exclusory; 
spec, prohibitive, preclusive, preventive. 
Antony nu: see iNCLtrslVE. 
S. Spec, clanniah, cliquish. 
Antonyms: see common. 

ezoaminanlDate, b. t. expel, curse, un- 

•locftniaut, n. dirt (obsolescent), ordure 
(ieomerf), dung (mno cant or iTtelegarU), 
feces or fieces (chiefly tech.), dejection 
(rare), dejecture (rare), rejectamenta (pi.; 
rare), egesta (pi.; tech.), soil (esp. in 
"night soil"), egeation (rore); spec, bxit- 
tons(pi.), tvimet, stool, fraas, cast, crottels 
(pi.), nants (pi.). "Excrement" is learned 

eicrcBceaoe, n. outerowth; spec, append- 
age, burr, knot, wolf, gall, horn, fungus, 
nail, condyloma, wart, caruncle, lump, 

•lereioeiit, a. outgrowing; spec, super- 

ezorste, v. t. eicpel, discharge, pass, egest 
(rare); spec, evacuate, eliminate, defecate. 
Antonyms: see ass lui late. 

•soretioa, n. citpulaion, dbcharge, eges- 
tion (rare); spec, elimination, evacuation, 
dejection, diruesis, perspiration, metasyn- 
criais imed.), saUva, bile, etc. 
Antonyms: see secretion. 

•soretltlaus, a. expulaory, excrementi- 
tious, excreroentitionary; spec, evacuant, 
dejectory, depurative, emunctory. 

eiouTiloD, n. I. The ad or action: expedi- 
tion; spec. BB.lly, trip. 
9. journey, trip; spec, outing, ride, voy- 

age, sail, 


exourslonlit, n. Spec, tripper {eoltoq.)^ 
tourist, voyager, rambler, walker, driver, 
rider, f(c. 

excusable, a. allowable, dispensable (ar- 
chaic), defensible, pardonable, venial, 
Ankmyms: see unpardonable, in 

eiouBstoiy, a. dispensative, dispensatory, 
excusative, apologetic. 

ezonie, n. 1. defense, excusal (rore), par- 
don, remission, remittal (rare); spec, apol- 
o^, condonation, extenuation, justifica- 
tion, indulgence, forgiveness, oispensar 
tion, essoin (taw), amnesty. 
a. Tlie thing offered by vxiy of exewie: pliM, I 
defense; spec, justification, 
ground, apology, color. 
Antonyms: see punishment. 

exouse, v. t. 1. pardon, remit, overlook; 
spec, condone, forgive, extenuate, essoin, 
dispense, justify, furlou^ 
AnlonyTne: Bee punish. 
9. See TREE. 

eieoute, v. I. 1. To carry <fut. as a plan, 
purpose, eommand: perform, do, effectuate, 
effect; spec, enforce, fulfill, wreck (wen- 
geonca) ; see accoupubh, fill. 
3; To go through actions, operations, moiie- 
tnenis, etc., e07isti(uting: do (as a dance, a 
aomersaull), perform; spec. perpetra,te (tu 
a joke; colloq.), play (as a iride), turn (a 
handspring); tee finish. 
t. niflltB (a deed, conveyance, vHU). 

4. i^ee UAKS. 

5. kill (contextual); spec, garrote, ii 
behead, draw, decimate, crucify, 

tine, hang, gibbet, shoot, strangle, f , 

electrocute (a word often condemned a* 
barbarous bui which appears to have estofr- 
tiabed itself). 

execution, n. 1. doing, eftecting, effectuat- 
ing, performance; spec, enforcement, fill- 

B. doing, performance; spec, perpetration 
(eoUog.), playing. 

S. THe manner of executing: spec, pianism 
(cant), mechanism, tedinique, touch, 

4. killing (eontextuoT); spec, auto-da-^6 
(Portuguese), noyade (French), decima- 
tion, guillotjnade, euthanasia, crucifixion, 
hanging, strangling, electrocution (le* 
"electrocute," under execute). 
executioner, n. killer (cnnlexttiol), destlw- 



a Hots* of Exfflanatleu. 


man {rcare or literary); spec, headsman, 
hangman, camifix. lictor (Roman antiq.), 
Jack Ketch {hist.)^ tormentor (a Latin- 
ism) ^ slaughterman (rare). 

•zttcutor, n. doer, accomplisher, perform- 
er, executive (chiefly spec.), 

•zesesis, n. exposition. 

ezeroise, n. 1. The act or action: exertion 
(cap. with conscioiLS effort or force) , exerci- 
tation (learned), use, practice (often spec.)^ 
working, operation; spec, play, plying, 
wielding, breather, breath. 
8. The course of exercise: training, prac- 
tice, drill, drilling, discipline; spec, goose- 
step, school; see training. 
S. The act of showing or of putting into prac- 
tice: use, practice, having, exhibition. 


S. trial, test; spec, composition, examina- 
tion, quodlibet (Latin; hist.)y theme (oh- 
solescent), study, 6tude (French). 
ezerdse, v. t. 1. exert, practice, use, oper- 
ate, work; spec, play, wield, ply, breathe, 
walk, run, trot, course, prosecute. 
Antonyms: see disuse. 
8. train, drill, school, discipline, practice; 
spec, enter (cant), teach, tutor; see train. 
S. use, have, do, practice, show, exhibit, 

4. See AGITATE. 

exhalation, n. 1. aura (learned or tech.), ef- 
flation (rare)y emission, breath (rare), ex- 
halement (rare), emanation^ halitus (rare); 
spec, reek, blast, transpiration, fume, 
miasma, steam, smoke, evaporation. 
Some of these words are used only con- 
cretdy, of the thing exhaled. 
8. breath (contextual), expiration; spec. 
exsufflation, pufif. 
Antonyms: see inhalation. 

exhale, v. t. 1. breathe, emanate, emit; 
spec, transpire, respire, reek, outbreathe, 
fume, furnace, vapor, gasp, steam, smoke, 
evaporate, blow. 

8. breathe (contextual), expire, vent 
(rare); puff; spec, blow, spout. 

exhale, v. i. breathe (contextiud), expire; 
spec, exsufflate, spout, blow, pun. 
Antonyms: see inhale. 

exhaust, v. t. 1. See drain, emptt, draw, 

8. weaken, deplete, overcome, spend, 
overspend (rare), overtire, pump, extener- 
ate (rare; fig.), prostrate, outwear, out- 

weary (rare); spec, impoverish, overcrop^ 
Antonyms: see strengthen, refbesh, 

REST, restore. 

exhaust, n. exhaustion, education (o&do- 

exhausted, a. forspent (archaic), fordone 
(archaic), effete (learned), dead, forworn 
(archaic), outspent (rare), outworn; spec 
breathless, forfoughten (obs. or Scot.), 
Antonyms: see strong, fresh. 

exhaustion, n. 1. Spec, draining, empty- 
ing, emptiness. 

8. weakening, prostration, exhaustedness, 
depletion; spec, inanition, exinanition 
(rare), collapse, impoverishment. 

exhaustive, a. 1. emptying. 
8. Referring to a discussion: complete, 
full, thorough. 

exhort, v. t. advise, urge. 

exhortation, n. advice, urging, protreptic 
(rare), hortation (learned), prone (rare; 
eccL), paraenesis (rare), hortative (rare). 

exhortative, a. exhortatory, cohortative 
(esp. gram.), hortative, hortatory, urgent. 

exisenoy, n. demand, need, necessity, dis- 
tress, difficulty, extremity^ urgency, 
strait, juncture, pressure, pmch; spec. 

exigent, a. demanding, exacting, urgent, 
necessary, distressfiu, pressing; spec. 

exile, n. 1. outcast. 

exit, n. 1. departure; spec, death. 
8. A way out: outlet, egress, escape; spec. 
doorway, gate, window, skylight, etc. 
Antonyms: see entrance. 

exorbitant, a. excessive, Sibylline (fig.); 
spec, greedy. 
Antonyms: see moderate. 

exorcise, v. t. lay, down (coUoq.); spec, ex- 

exorcism, n. laying, downing (coUoq.); 
spec, exsufflation (rare). 

exordium, n. beginning, proem (literary or 
learned), introduction; spec, preface. 

exoteric a. 1. Referring to disciples: un- 
initiated, outer. 

8. Referring to opinions: public. 
S. Referring to an author, eto.: common- 

expand, v. t. & i. 1. See open, develop. 
8. spread, widen, bulk, outspread; spec. 

13^ Cross references: see Note. 
exemplify: example, typify. 
exempt: free. 

exemption: freeing, freedom. 
exert: exercise. 
exertlve: active. 
exfoliate:, scale, shed. 
exhibit, n.; show. 
exhibition: show. 

exhibitory: disclosing. 
exhilarate: t^te, enliven. 
exhort, v. t.: advise, lurge. 
exhort, v. i.: preach. 
exigible: demandable. 
exifuous: slender. 
exile, 9. t.: expel. 
exi micas: dxetinguiahed. 
exist: be. 

existence: being, 
existent: being. 
exodus: emtgrcUion, 
exonerate: acquit. 
exorable: comjAaisani. 
exorbitance, exorbltaaey: 

exorbitant: exeeuiwe. 
e^anded: wide. 

K^" See Notes of Ezplanaticn. /' 



stretch, outspread; *pee. outstretch, 
mudirooin, uofurl, display, dilal«, dis- 
tend, Dpeu. 

Anionvmt: me bbrink, press. 
a. devdop. 
t»pfrn«*, n. expansion iUss usual than 
"expante"), area, stretch, spread; tpet. 
contiguity, oontinuitv, abect, field, sea 
{fif.), outspread (rare). 

titretch, dilation, ^astole, 
1. SeeKXPAl 

•ipaiulTa. a. wide; Kpec. 
elastic, dilatable, extensible. 
Anionyms: aee conntiED. 

•ipatlate, v. i. enlarge, descant, dilat«, 

•xpMit, V. t. contemplate, anticipate, think, 
trust, await, hope, look, calculate [used 
irilh an infinitive daiite or Teilh "thai"; 
chiefly local, U. S.), apprehend. 

Bxpaotanoy, n. I. aoticipatioD, hopeful- 
ness, apprehension. 
I. prospect, abeyance {law). 

eipvotant, a. anticipator, anticipant, 

«xpectatl«ii, n. anticipation, contempla- 
tion, thought, trust, hope. 

axpeotorate, v. i. I. raise; tpec. cough. 
J. See BPIT. 

•xpadlauoy, n. advantage, advisability, 
policy; apec. opportunism. 

««p«dl«at, a. wise {amteiiuid), politic; 
»pec. timeserving, opportunist; see wise. 

•xpedlant, n. device, shift; tpec. kink, 
trick, stopgap, dodge (entXoq.), ruffle, re- 
sort, resource, makcshirt, suDterfugc. 

expedite, I'. E. I. dispatch, bBsten.liuny, 
quicken; spec, facilitate. 
Antonyms: see kinder. 


•xpadltlon, n. 1. haste, dispatch, hast^n- 
ingj hurrying. 

t. journey, campaign, quest {medieval 
rtymanee): spec, crusade, commando 
(South Africa). _ 

expel, v. t. I. eject, extrude; spec, shoot, 
oust, discharge, evaiiorate, excrete, dis- 
lodffe, dispel, egest, eliminate, belch. 
Antoni/ma: see admit, inject. 
a. In rejerenee to putlino a person out of 
tome place: remove, exclude; spec, evict, 
estompede (rare), exsibilate (rare), de- 
force (rare), fire (slan^^ U. S.), bounce 
(alang or cant, U. S.), disseise, bolt, oust. 
Antonyms: vee admit. 
1. Referring to putting ovi if some organi- 
talion or body: exclude, fire (slang, U. S.); 

»pee. outcAst (rare), excommunicate, di» 
parish, unchurch, drum (used tnith "au£', 
ap. mil.), disfellowshtp ([/. <S.), disowa 
(in the Socirtif of Friend*). 
i. banish, exile, exclude, drive (lued wiA 
"out"); spec, deport, expatriate, epatiiaba 
(rare), depatriate (rare or obi.), transport, 
rele^t«, ostracize, denationalice, exo»- 
traciie (rare), ride (chiefly vrith ''from"). 

expend, v. t. consume (contextual, outlay, 
disburse, spend, use, employ. 

expenditure, n. consumption (eontextuai), 
outlay, outgo, disbursement, expense (oiv 
chaicli spec, profusion, cost. 
Antonifinx: tee nicoHE. 

eipenie, n. 1. expenditure, outlay; tpec 
cost, charge, 
1. See CBjutoE. 

experience, p. t. have, know, see, meet, 
encounter, undergo; spec, suffer, en^y, 
share, try, reahie, taste, lead, receive, 
prove (archaic). 

eiperienoe, n. knowledge, acquaintance, 
encounter; spec, sufferance, enjoyment, 
trial, tasl«, adventure, time. 
Antonyms: see inekperibncb. 

experienced, a. Spec, old, practiced, wise^ 
salted (slang or cwog.), veteran, expert. 
Antonyms: see UJEXPEmENCED. 

experimental, a. trial. 

expert, a. adroit; spec, proficient, scientific 

expert, n. crack (coUoa, or slang), adept, 
dabster (eoliog.), dab (coUoq.; ehtefiu 
spec.), proficient, master, sharp (^ng), 
sharper (slang), shark (slaTtg); spec 



Antonyms: see cvowt*, 

expl«t«, V, t. To atone for: redeem, assoil 

(archaie), purge (chiefly law); spec, mend, 
Ar^onyms: see aggravate. 

expiation, n. atonement, redemption, jOBf | 
tion (rare); spec, cross (nf Chritl), eatio- 
f action, satispassion (tlieol.), ransom. 

expiatory, a. piacular (rare), redemptive; 
spec, lustrative, lustral. 

eiptisd, o. run (at lime; often xeith "out"), 
over (coUoq.). 

explain, v. t. expound, solve, elucidate, re- 
solve, explicate (rare), unfold, diasolvo 
(rore); spec, demonstrate, construe, dear, 
interpret, enucleate (learned), innuendo 
(late), untie (fig.), undo (rare), unriddle 
unravel, untanglo, glossate, glos ' " 
describe, develop, detail. 
Antonyms: *" 

trCrtai reft 

expanMI tumpU 


I?' Soc Natal ot Ezplanatloa. 


explainable, a. accountable, interpret- 
able, explicable. 

explainer, n. expounder; spec, hierophant, 

explanation, n. 1. account, interpretation, 
elucidation, exposition, explication, 
6claircissement (French), construction; 
spec, definition, description, d^notbnent 

8. Referring to what explains: expKcation, 
key; spec, comment, commentary, exege- 
sis, secret, innuendo, catastrophe. 

explanatory, a. interpretative, elucidative, 
elucidatory, explanative (rare), expository, 
expositive, expositional, exegetical. 

explicit, a. 1. See definite. 

8. express; spec, written, outspoken, posi- 
tive, plain. 

Antonyms: see implied. 

explode, v. t. 1. See destroy. 
%, burst, detonate; spec, fire, pop, spring, 
deflagrate, crack. 

exploit, V. t. utilize (contexttud) ; spec, milk 
(colhq.), work (coUoq.). 

exploration, n. search, prospecting, pros- 
pect, probe; spec, inquisition. 

explore, v. t. search, plumb (fig.), fathom, 
outsearch (rare); spec, prospect. 

explosion, n. 1. Spec, destruction. 
2. bursting, burst; spec, fulmination, de- 
tonation, lulguration, blast, clap, crack, 
shot, report, pop. 
S. See outbreak. 

explosive, n. Spec, lyddite, cordite, ful- 
minant (rare), dynamogen, rackarock, 
fulminate, dynamite, roburite, gelignite, 
guncotton, herculite, gunpowder, trinito- 
toluol, TNT (abhr.). 

expose, V. t. 1. disclose, unearth (fi^.), flay 
(fig.), decorticate; spec, unmask, bare. 
Antonyms: see hide, seclude. 

9. subject (used with *^to"); spec, venture, 
risk, post, weather, pitch, gibbet (fijg.), 
bare, abandon. 

Antonyms: see protect, shelter. 
exposed, a. 1. bleak, raw, airy, bare, open, 
shelterless, windy. 
Antonyms: see sheltered, unexposed. 
8. With ''to'': liable, subject. 
S. See BARE. 
expostulate, v. t. remonstrate. 
exposure, n. 1. disclosure; spec, show-up 
(coUoq.), unmasking. 

8. Usually with ''to": subjection; spec. 
Antonyms: see protection, shelter. 
S. liability, subjection (u^ed with "to"), 
liableness (rare). 

express, n. 1. See dispatch. 

8. agency (contextual), dispatch. 
express, v, t. 1. squeeze (esp. with "ouf*). 

8. See extort, send, hasten. 

S. represent, symbolize, present, show, 

denote, testify (archaic), oetoken; spec. 


4. Referring to the conveying of an idea by 
words, actions, etc.: spec, state, emit, mam- 
fest, tell, frame, present, have (used with 
"it"), enunciate, language (rare), broach, 
breathe, dictate (obs. or archaic), ex- 
pound, deliver, couch, dash, vent, air, 
word, utter, voice, clothe, cough, hoot, 
communicate, blush, nod, signi^, smile, 
sound, speak, hymn, figure, write, wave, 
pantomime (rare), look, glance, glare, 

Antonyms: see imply. 

5. See BEND. 

expression, n. 1. squeezing (used esp. wOh 

8. representation, symbolization, presen- 
tation, presentment, show, denotation; 
spec, delmeation, token. 

5. Spec, statement, utterance, emission, 
woroing, breath, communication, vent, 
signification, etc. 

4. diction; spec, eloquence, idiom, brev- 
ity, etc. 

6. Referrina to the thina expressed: spec. 
effusion, pnraseology, locution, phrase, 
term, word, look; see saying. 

expressionless, a. unmeaning, null (rare), 
wooden (fig.), vacant, blank; spec, soul- 
less, fishy (Jig.), dull. 

Antonyms: see expressivb. 
expressive, a. demonstrative, eloquent, 
significant, significatory, significative, 
meaning (rare); spec, forceful, wise, em- 
phatic, epigrammatic. 

Antonyms: see bieanxnq, blank, ex- 

expulsion, n. 1. ejection, ejectment (chief- 
ly law); spec, explosion, defenestration, 
elimination, disloagment, discharge. 

Antonyms: see admission, injection. 
8. banishment, exile, exilement, deporta- 
tion, relegation (chiefiy Roman law), 
transportation (chiefly spec.), expatria- 
tion^ ostracism, petalism (ancient hist.), 

Antonyms: see admission. 

5. ejectment, exclusion, eviction, ousting. 
4. excommunication (ecd.) ,exclusion, ex- 
cision (rare). 

6. excretion, discharge, catharsis (tech.); 
spec, diuresis, evacuation. 

f^^ Cross references: see Note. 
•zpletlTe: oath. 
•zplioable: explainable. 
•zplloate: explain. 

exploded: obsolete. 
exploit: deed. 
export: ship. 
exposal: disclosure. 

ezposltion; explaruUion, exe- 
gesis, show, atatemerU. [atary. 
expoidtive: disdonng, explan- 
ezpound: state, express, explain. 

t^ See Notes of EspUnetion. 


npnlilve, a. Spec, expulsory (rare), eject- 
ive, eliminajit, eliminative (pAynoI, and 
ehem.j, explosive, ecbolic {meil.; rare), ex- 
communicative, exoomiDLiiucaU>ry. 

•xporsmte, P. I. emasculate, expurge (rare), 
caslratc; tpec. bowdleriic. 

aatempoi&aeoai, a. 1. extemptorized, 
premeditaled. spoDtaneous, extempore, 
— Eiro vised, improvisatory, miprovisator- 

J (rare), ofTband, impromptu. 

axtampore, adv. impromptu, 

•xtemportse, B. compose {amUxtwd), 

estcmporfiBr, n. improvisator, impro 
viaer, Improvisatore or (the Italian tpelL- 
inf) improwieatore, improvisatrice or (the 
Italian spelling) iroprowisa trice (fern.), 

•stand, V. t. I. Spec, continue, lengthen, 
ebngat«, widen, drag, enlarge, pass 
(diiefiy with "to"), run, etretch, produce 
(ekiefiy with "to"), draw, distend, protend 
(rare), prolong, protract, coexlend, string, 
deploy (mil.), diffuse, carry, wiredraw. 
Antanyms: see abridge. 
>. Spec, reach, protrude, thrust, out- 
stretch (chiefiy ■poeUc), ehoot, portend 
(rare), porrect (rare). 


•Stand, V. i. reach, go, come, continue, 
range, run, proceed; tpec. (physically) 
ride, project, protrude, ramify, cruae. out- 
lie (rare), lie, outreach {poetic), outepan 
(rare), grow, stream, stretch. 
AnIonyTns: tee shobten. 

gpee. ductile, malleable, plastic, pliable, 
•ztenalon, n, 1. Spec, continuation, con- 
tinuance, Icn^henmg, widening, enlarge- 
ment, Btret^^hm^, production, protraction, 
prolongation, distention, coextension, de- 
ployment, diiTusion, deploy. 
Anbmymt: tee 

S. Spec, protrusion, projection, porrec- 
tioD (rare), protension (rare), ramifica- 
tion, wing. 


nttsnilTei o. Spec, wide, widespread, far- 
reaching, nationwide, statewide. 

•stent, n. 1. See vaCiiatiON. 
t. extension, mensure; spec, reach, con- 
tinuance, amplitude, size, expanse, di- 
mension, measurement, proportions, de- 

gree, eompaas, stretch, content «ftA.), 
gauge, length {aiao fig.), field, latitude, 
range, scope, breadth, width, height, di>- 

estennatlTe, a. excusatory, palliator;f; 
«pec. euphemistic. 
estentwUie, n. palliative; epee. euphent- 

I. outer, external, outwatd, J 
outside, extern (rare),- spec, outmost, oub-S 
ermost, superficial, outlying.  

Ardm.ytm: see orreaioa. 1 

I. See FOREIGN. ' 

ecterioT, n. outside^ see surface. 
eitern&liie, v, I, objectify, objectin (rare), 

entify (rare); see visi^auze. 

cstenuUr, a. outwardly, outside, out- 
ward, outwards. 

estinetion, n. destruction (co7dextuc£); 
spec, annihilation, death, suffocation. 

estlncnfali, v. I. destroy (cotOextuai); epee. 
annihilate, quench, choke (often mth 
"nut" or "off"), quell, subdue, douse 
(slan^ or cant), dout (now dial.), remove, 
suppress, slake (rare), stifle, smother, suf- 
focate ; jtee amfF. 
Anlanyms: see kindle, create, b&bkd, J 


extineuiihAd, a. destroyed (conlexttMl); I 
epec, dead, out. 1 

estiip&te, V. I. destroy, abolish, deracinate 

(rare), weed (chiefly used with "out"), up- 
root; spec, annihilate. 
Anlonyms: gee plant. 

estort, n. t. elicit, extract, exact, draw, 
wring, wrest, pinch, screw, shave (coUcq. 
or stanff), force, squeeie. 

cstortion, n. elicilation, exaction; spec. 
tribute, expression, blackmiul, chantage 
(French), fptrrush (hiel.). i 

estoitionate, a. unreasonable (eonlextual), J 
exacting, vampire (Jig.), vampiric (fyf.), I 
blood-sucking (fig.). I 

Antmiyma: see uodbrate. | 

eitoTtloneE, n. exacter, extortionist, 
wringer, wrester, caterpillar C^.), blood- 
sucker (Jiff.), vulture (jig.), flayer (fit.), 
fleecer, gnper (raro), vampire (fyi-)i harpy 
(fig.); spec, striker, shaver (coUog. or 

•strs, a. additional, accessory, spare. 
istra, n. Spec, accessory, et ceteras (pi.; j 

Latin), sundries (pi), additions (pi.), ' 

paraphernalia (pi.), odd. ' 

Antonyms: see dbficiency. 

iitraot, p. i. 1. derive, elicit, draw, remove; ] 

spec, distil, squeeze, extort. 

OKuraU, fiulidi- 


•uliiooiu: dry. 

mlaml*: obtAith. 

tsr 9tK NotM 


Antonyms: see inject. 


extract, n. 1. Spec, essence, decoction, 
mastery (rare), distillate, distillation. 


eztraotlon, n. 1. eli citation, derivation; 
spec, distillation, squeezing, etc. 

9. See DESCENT. 

extraordinary, a. unusual, singular, un- 
common, remarkable, exemplary (ar- 
chaic), portentous (humoroiis), phenom- 
enal, prodigious (humorouSf exc. spec.); 
spec, transcendent, parlous (coUoq. or hw- 
morous)y inconceivable, distinguished, 
amazing, monstrous, marvelous, abnor- 
mal, enormous. 
Antonyms: see common. 

extravagance, n. 1. excess^ profusion, pro- 
fuseness, prodigality, lavisnness, exuber- 
ance; spec, superabundance, enormity, 
monstrosity, wildness, furor, etc. 
Antonyms: see economy. 
9. hyperbolism (rhet.); spec, bombast, 
fantasticaUty, fantasticalness, grotesque- 
ness, grotesquerie, etc. 

extravagant, a. 1. profuse, profusive 
(rare), prodigal, lavisn: spec, wasteful, 
profligate, rampant, wild, rank. 
Antonyms: see economical, stingy. 
9. Spec, bombastic, fantastic, fantastical, 
wild, furious, eccentric, bizarre, grotesque, 
odd, baroque, rococo. 
Antonyms: see matter-ob^pact, mod- 

extravasation, n. stigma. 

extreme, a. 1. remot^t, utmost (becoming 
rare, exc. spec), farthest, uttermost (ar- 
chaic or formal), last, ultra (chiefly tech.), 
Antonyms: see nearest. 
9. See final. 

8. greatest, utmost, uttermost (archaic or 
formal), supreme, outside (coUoq.); spec. 
precious (coUoq.), horrible (coUoq.). 

4. excessive, deep (chiefly spec); spec. 
bad, drastic, intense, desperate (coUog.), 
egregious, impossible, outrageous, im- 
moderate, deadly (coUoq.), eternal (now 
vulgar), heroic, high, radical, unspeakable 
(coUoq.), monstrous (coUoq.), etc. 
extreme, n. 1. See end. 

9. utmost, limit, extremity; spec, excess, 
pink, height. 

extremely, adv. very, so (chiefly coUoq.). 

exudation, n. emission, discharge, sweat 
(chiefly spec), weep (coUoq. or cani), ooze 
(only of what exudes), percolation. 

exnde, v. i. & t emit, transude, discharge, 
sweat (chiefly spec), ooze; s^. weep, per- 
colate, infiltrate, filter, stram, lixiviate. 
Antonyms: see absorb. 

exult, v. i. rejoice, vaunt, insult (archaic), 
crow (colloq^, jubilate, maffick (coUoq.); 
spec, gloat, triumph, glory. 
Antonyms: see mourn. 

exultant, a. rejoicing, jubilant. 

exultation, n. gladness, rejoicing, insulta- 
tion (archaic); spec, gloat, gloating, tri- 
umph, jubilation. 
Antonyms: see mourning. 

exuvium, n. skin, cast, slough. "Exttvium" 
is tech. or learned. 

eye, n. 1. oculus (tech. or spec), orb (poetic 
or rhetorical), optic (chiefly in phirat, and 
coUoq. or slarig), glim (slang), peeper 
(slang), lamps (pi.; slang; formerlv po- 
etic), piercer (slang), goggler (sUmg), or- 
bit (an erroneous use); spec eyelet, oculus, 
cock-eye, wall-eye, stemma, facet. 
9. See VISION, look. 
8. eyehole; spec, collar, eyelet, peephole. 

eye, v. t. Spec, watch, ogle. 

eyeball, n. apple (of the eye). 

eyebrow, n. orow, supercilium (tech.). 

eyeglass, n. Spec, monocle, pince-nez 
(French), nippers (pi.; slang), lorgnette, 
lorgnon (French). 

eyelashes, n. pi. cilia (technical), ey&- 

eyeless, a. exoculated (learned), blind. 

eyelid, n. lid^ palpebra (anat.); spec haw. 

eyesore, n. dissight or desight (rare). 

eyewash, n. coUyrium, eyewater. 

fable, n. 1. apologue. 


fable, v. t. feign, invent; — referring to V)hat 
is told in words. 

fabric, n. 1. building. 
9. cloth, texture (archaic), contexture, 
stuff (chiefly spec), tissue (chiefly spec). 
toile (French) ^ web (chiefly spec), woof 
(rare), matenal, medley; spec, textile 
(chiefly tech.), network, homespun, twill, 
driU. oiagonal, duvetyn, webbmg, etc. 

8. oee texture. 

fabricate, v. t. 1. ^ee construct. 

9. Referring to a made-wj^ tale^ story, etc.: 
devise, compose; sj)ec spm, com, forge. 

fabulous, a. fictitious; spec romantic, 
legendary, feigned. 
Antonyms: see actual. 

t3^ Cross references: see Note. 
extradite: deliver. 
•ztraneoni: foreiffn. 
•xtrloat«: free. [temal. 

•ztrinsio: foreign, accidental, ex- 

•ztrude: expel. 

exuberance: aburidanc€t exeeat. 

exuberant: aburtdarU, txcetnpe, 

exuberate: sound. 

eyeshot: nght. 
eyesfcht: aight. 

fable: ruurrative. 

t^' See Notes of Explanation. 

fme*, n. 1. countenBnce (literary or learned), 
featurea (pi.), visage, favor {archaicj, 
(ront {alar^ or fig.), phyBiopnomy, mai- 
ard [archaic and Jocular) , phii icoUoq. and 
jocular), mug (slang), brow (rare or obt,), 
ipee. grimace, 
«. See 

t, front, forefront (chiefly spec.); apee. ea- 
carpment, breast, diak, pedion, oo' 

Itmcv.t.t. To have the face ttneardu; front, 
confront, envisage (rare); sjia:. respect, 

1. oppoao, front, breast, confront, buck 
(tilang, U. S.), brave, cope (rare); tpec. 
outbraien, nose, beard, boFFct, defy, dare. 

Antonymt: see avoid. 
•■ To ah/ns la the fate of {a person): con- 
front; — often wUk "mth." 
<■ cover; spec, veneer, revet, line, camp- 
shed (.local, Eng.). 


fkoa, u. i, front, head (chiefly spec.), give 

(a OallieUin) ; spec, look (often fig.). 
faoet, n. face (conUxlwd); spec, templet, 

lozenge, table (in gems), cut, culet. 
Ikcetlons, a. humorouB. 
taiie-ta-fkoe,a. Spec. t&te-iA^le (French), 

vis-i-viB (French), respectant (her.). 
tmstag, n. I. cover (cottlexliiai); spec. lining, 

envelope, ahoe, veneer, akin. 

9. frontage, outlook; epec. exposure. 

I. confrontation, confrontment (rare). 
l»«Ui>ii, n. I. combination, division, side; 

spec, clique, seat; see party. 

Umtory, n. workshop, shop, manufactory 
(forrruU), officina (Spanish), works (chiefly 
gpee.), mint (often spec.); tpec. battery, 

Eottery, bloomery, bakery, confectionery, 
riokyard, etc. 

faonltr. n. t. See abilitt, art. 
t. Of the mind't facuUies: power, sense, 
wits (pi.; chiefly spec.); epee. instinct, In- 
tellectuws {pi.; archaic), reason. 
S. department, school (hist.); spec, semi- 
narists ipl.). 

fad, n. custom, craze, rage, hobby, mania, 
monomania, frenzy, dehrament (rare), 
whim-wham (archaic or rare), furor; spec, 
fashion, pursuit, tuUpomania, vinomania, 
crotchet, dipsomania, etc. 

fids, V. i. I. See dbclinb, wither. 
t. vanbh (often uted unlh "away"), faint; 

spec, die (laed mih "otU"), dim, pale, dis- 

solve, disperse. 

Antonyms: see iNTENStrr. 
tall, V. i. 1. lack, collapse, miss, miscarry, 
abort, fizile {chiefly U. IS.); »pec. err, 
flunk (schatd slang, U. S.), default. 

Antonyms: see auccEED. 
). break, bankrupt, default, defalcate 
(rare), Hmaah (slang), swamp (eoUog.). 

Antonyms: see eocCBED. 

iBlluce, n. I. fail (obs., exc. in "mOwid 

 deficiency, default, omission, nonact 
(rare), nonexecution; spec, abortion, col- 
lapse, fizale (coUoq.), miscarriage, flunk 
(U. S,; school slang), lapse, muR, fiasco, 
breakdown, slip, negligence, frost (slang), 
dereliction, delinquency, nonsuccess. 
Antonyms: see bdccbbs. 

falcation (ra .. , . ,.,, 

s. migbl^have-been (coUoq.). 
taint, a. I. ,SeeTiiim, 
1. weak, languid, listless, dolche-fami- 
ente (Italian), sickly, gone (collog,). 
AnUmyme: gee powerful. 
■. See iNi>iSTiN(7r, dim. 

Referring to sounds: soft, small, gentle. 

TO, deliquium (archaic); , 

taint, n 

taint, V. i, I. decline, fade. 

>. swoon, go (contexluai), awelt«r (rare). 
Allonyms: see revtve. 
lalntnesa, n. .Spec, swoon, lassitude. 
talT,a. 1. good-looking. de]d«r (rare); spec. 

beautiful, shapely, dean, clear, glcttsy, 

smooth, sweet. 

1. See DEBlRAfil£, 

■. medium, passable, fairish (rare), so-so 
(colloq.), moderate, indifferent, tolerable, 
respectable, reasonable, decent, ordinary; 

Antonyms: see e 
1. blond, blonde, clear, white (coliog,, 
(/. S.); spec, lily, lilied. 

Arilmyms: gee dark. 
tail, n. Spec, baiaar, exchange, kennia. 


tacot: tniTidU. 


(■nlmUai eopv, dupticati. 

tsr See NotM of BipluatloD 




■SUrl7, adv. fair, well, middling (usually 
n quiU>^!/ing anadjettii>e,a»"good^'). 
ftairrt t- demon (o/(en spec.), spirit {con- 
Uxtual), fay, sprite or lartAaic) Hpright: 
' tptc. Titania, browoy, elf, nix, fairyhood 

(a colkclwe). 
tmbflttuA, n. faerie or fairy {archaic), 
tairydom; apee. dreamland. 
kke, v. t. {aiiaSy (contextuar), sophisticate, 
counterfeit lamtextual); gpec. deacon 

ioanf or coUoq,), doctor (colUig.). duff 
slang or collog.}, nobble (^ng), fudge, 
cook (iUing), edit {eixphemiMic), pack. 
I»k«, n. contrivance, fakement; spec, adul- 
teration, fraud, cheat. 
kkli, n. ascetic {contextiud), derviah. 
taleon, n. hawk (contextual); tvec. tercel- 
gentle (male), merUn, lanner (ejp. /cm.), 
lanneret (fflOHc), tartaret (obn.), sakeret 
(rniue.; orcAaic), eaker (fsp. /em.), shahin 
or ebaheen, sore-falcon. 
Ikll, D. t. I. descend (Jormoi), drop, sink, 
lapse (lUa-ary and rare); jipec. drop, calve 
(aiol. or tech.), cave {used with "in"), pitch, 
drip, slump (dial.), plop, rain, plump, 
squab, cataract, topple, drizzle, droop, 
tumble, slant, distill, lodge, coUapee, shed. 

AnUmyma: see kibb, stand. 
1. See DESCEND (come to a lower level), 


to the coufUenance), 



fall, n. 1. dcHcent, downfall, downcome, 
comedown (coUoq.), labefaction (rare), 
drop (often swc.); spec, shower, downrush. 
downpour, deluge (hyperbolical), cropper 
(eoUog.; chiefly in "to come a cropper"), 
discharRe, cave-in (chiefly callng,), dripple. 
flap (eoUoq.), flop, plop, tumble, spill (col- 
log.), plump (collog.), squash, dogfall, 
crowner, collapse. 

Antonyms: see ribe. 


I. Referring to prices, etc.: decline, drop; 
rpee. slump (coUoq. or cant), tumble. 

Ardoaymg: see advakce. 
Iallm<i7, n, I. error, deception; spec, soph- 
ism, absurdity, sorites, bubble, idol, 
idolum or idohsm. paralogism. 

Anlonyma: see troth. 
I. deceptivenesB (c/. 

faUlble, a. errable (rare), dcccivablc (rare). 

Antonyms: see infallible. 
falling, a. deaccndioK, cadent (archaic); 
spec, precipitant, deciduous, incident, 
dripping, etc. 
Antonyms: see risinu, 
talllnEi n. descent; 8^. dripping, distilla- 
tion, drip-drop, incidence, ptosis (rare), 
tallow, a. imcultivafed, unplowcd, un- 
tilled, lea, ley or lay (Eng.). 
A nUmyms: cultivated (see cultivatb) . 


9. pseudo (chiefly learned or in eomWno- 
lion), spurious, bastard (chiefly in con- 
tempt), counterfeit, BuppositiUous, hol- 
low, bogus, fictitious, fictive (rare); sp«c. 
pretended, forged, made-up, impostrous 
(rare), artificial, factitious. 
Artlonyms: see true, native. 
taliUy, f. 1. alter, sophisticate; spec, fake, 
cook (slang), interpolate (by adding), doc- 

talilty, n. 1. falsehood; spec, absurdity, 
dcceptivenes,"!, etc.; see DisHOWESTr. 

8. spuriousneaa, BUpposltitiousness, hol- 
lownesa, fictitiousness, fictiveneas (rare); 
spec, pretension, artificiality. 

falter, i;. i. 1. stumble, stagger, dodder, 
hobble, totter, hesitate, waver. 

9. Referring to speech: hesitate, halt; spec. 
stammer, stutter, stumble, quaver, waver, 
lisp, hem. 


falter, n. 1. stumble, stagger, dodder, tot- 
ter, hesitation, waver. 
9. balbuties (tech.), halt, hesitation (con- 
lextual); spec, stammer, stutter, stumble, 
quaver, waver, lisp. 

fame, n. 1. See reputation. 
a. honor (contextual), repute or reputa- 
tion (cttnlexluai), renown, illuHtriousnesa, 
luster, illustration (rare), distinction, ku- 
dos {pedantic or humorous; Greek), celeb- 
rity, lionism, honhood or lionahip (fig.), 
note, consideration; epee. glory, eminence, 
greatness, conspicuousnesa, tongue (fig,). 
Antonyms: see obscurity. 

lame, v. t. 1. See report. 
8. eternize (rare), immortalize. The verb 

tamiliar, a. 1. 

1. intimate, homely (archaic), 
(amtextu/jl) ; spec, hobnobby (rare), hajl- 


fdlow (rare), free, overfamiliar, unooa- 
Antonyms: see rmvAMnAAR, foruai.. 
■• Seecowion. 
lKtnUlaritr> 1- l> intimacy, homeliness 
(archaic); epee. freedum, conversation 

lainUy, n. 1. household, brood (amlemplu- 
oiis), cletch or clutch (etmlemvluoua) , 
people (used vrith "my," "hit," etc.), 
stock, house; spec, mine, his. theire, etc. 
(oU thete -uaea being ckiejty ctilUigyial). 
I. lineage (formal), house, race, kin, 
strain, blood (Jig.), breed (ehiefiy con- 
tem^uotu); spec, dynasty. 

lamlly, a. Spec. patronyEaic; see iiOMEs- 

famlah, v. t. A i. starve, pinch, clam (dial). 
ArUonyms: see nourish, feast, feed. 

lamlalmtent, n. starvation, pinch. 
Antonyms: gee ntjtrition. 

Ibidiidb. a. distinguished, celebrated, re- 
nowned, noted, notable, peat (conlext- 
ual), illustrious, bright, brilliant, lustrous, 
famed, Rosclan (fi^.); tpM. /abled, hia- 
toried, storied, heroic, glorious, historical, 
immortal (foreaer). 
Aiitonyma: see obscure. 

fan, n. Spec, punkah or punka (East Irb- 
dies), flabellum, fanner (chiefly Uch.), 
winnower, blower, col mar (hisl.), van, 
thermaatidote (rare or local). 

fan, V. t. 1. clean (conlexiwd), blow, win- 
now (chiefly spec.). 

fanatic, n. enthusiast, bigot, zealot, vi- 
sionary; spec, sectarian. 
fanatlolsni, n. entbusiasm, bigotry, zeal- 

tanolful, a. 1. capricious, fantasied, con- 
ceited (dial, or archaic), maggoty (now con- 
lempluous), chimerirail, fantastic, fan- 
tasque (rare), curious, crotchety. 
Antonyms: see dnimaqi native, matter- 


t. See ODD. 
fancy, n. 1. See iMAOiNATtON (ihe/acuUy). 
9. The llring imagined: imagination, fan- 
tasy, phantasy, notion, idea, thought; 
spec, antic, i^hantasm, hallucination, de- 
lusion, megrim, reverie, vapor, specter, 
vision, belief, chimera or chinucra, day- 


tan-'ibaped. a. flabellal« (lecli.), Sobelli- 

(orm (tech.). 
(antastio, a. t. 

». fanciful, romantic; spec, grotesque, bi- 
Anlonyms: see plain. 

tar, adii. widely, wide, remotely, distantly, 

long, etc. 
Atitonyms: see near. 
faia, V. i. I. See go, occur, lite. 

a, do, come on (coUog.). "Fare" is mora 

fomutl than "do." 
fare,n. 1. See fortune. 

2. food, table, board (becoming archaie). 
farewell, n. goodby, congi (Jormal: 

French), adieu, leave taking, leave (»feorl 

/nr "Uave taking"), parting, valediction 

(prooerly the v>orda said), vmedictorj (the 

Antimyms: see OREETiNa. 

larm, n. grange; spec, plantation, bar- I 
ton (Eng.), estansia (Sp,), location (Ata- ' 
Iriilia), fazenda (Sp.), farmstead, haci- I 
enda (Sp. Amer.), randi (v>eslem U. S. dk J 
Canada), stud, dain, mains (Soil.). 

tar-BlKlited, a. I. hypermetropic (ledi.), 
long-sighted, hyperopic (l«cA.}; spec. pre»- 1 

Antonyms: see kear-biqiited. 
). provident; see saqacious. 
lartber, a. further {chiefly in aeamdari 
jig. senses); spec, beyond, past. 
farthest, a. furthest (chiefly in aeoondarj/ 1 
or fig. sensei) . uttermost, final, extreme, 
cndmost, last. 
Antonyms: see nearest. 
faidnate, v. t. I. bewitch, charm, spell- J 
bind (ehiefiy cant); spec, dare (only in '" 
dare larks"). 
Antonyms: see repel. 


). ahead (referring to time). 
faiten, v. I. I. fix, secure (Jormal), confine; 
spec, catch, tie, lock eird, infix, marl, bolt, 
cnain, belay, pin, lace, strap, cobble, 
cleat, bond, clasp, infibulate (rore), but- J 
ton, batten, tether, paste, cement, atidc, f 


I peg, Hcrew, seal, seize, sjiikc. surcingle, 
\ skewer, toggle, wedge, tack, lash, latch, 
rivet, rope, mortiise, knot, key, fish, dowel, 
I forelock, lulsp, hoop, collar, crank, cotter, 
I cramp, cable, dinker, buclde, stanchion, 
f baiter, gum, bind, dog. 

Anlonyms: see loose, dnpabten. 

KsutenlaKi n- confinement; spec, clinch, 
< clip, breeching, lace, lacing, tie, tether, 
el&sp, tacking, latch, lashing, lock, fast, 
headfaat, holdfaat. 

faatldlons, a. particular, nice, dainty, deli- 
cate, exquisite, fine^ precise; spec, finical, 
finicking, chary, picksome (Eng.), prig- 
^ah, pernickety (eontemptuoua), ovemico, 
starch, niminy-piminy, equeamish, cock- 
ney (.Eng.), misaish, proper (a eupAem- 
ism), prfcieuae (French); see precious. 
ArUoni/ms: see neoliqknt, ghobs. 

tmt, a. 1. greasy, pinguedinous (rare), fatty, 
unctuous or unguinous (.ehiejly spec.), ee- 
baoeous (physioL; often spec), pinguid 
(rare); apec. lardy, oily, tallowy. 
•. corpulent, gross, stocky (eontexlual), 
polysaroous (rare; leek.), fleshy, ventricoae 
(rare), obese (a formal or book word); spec. 
pufTy, paunchy (irielegaiil), pot-bellied 
{vulgar), pursy, portly, pudgy, fubby, 
squab, plump, plumpy. 
Antonjpna: see THIN', laNKT. 


(•t, n. Spec, grease, sebum (lech,), blub- 
ber, tallow, seam (obs. or rare), sperma- 
cetti, Buet, oil, yolk, lumber {esp. ' 

fmt«, n. I. necessity, destiny, die {jig.). 
X. destiny, dispensation, cup QSj.; chiefly 
iSmpiurol), experience, portion (otie's 

r shore; usuoUj/ spec.), doom {spec, or jig.). 

I t. fortune. 

I A. weird (archaic), Moerce (Greek; pi.), 

r Faroe (Latin; pi.); spec. Clotho, Lathesis, 
Atropoa, Norn. 
fatefnl, a. fatal, inevitable, necessary, pre- 
destined, predestinate (arehaic), doomful, 
karmic (spec, or fig.; rare); spec, tragic. 
fmther.n. 1. parent (Mmf«:riuaf), sire (chief- 
ly podic, exc. of beasts, esp. horses), getter 
(«B., etc. q/Aorsea), geni tor (rare), tather- 
ling (nonce word), governor (slarig), dad 
(eialdiih or familiar and undignified), 
daddy (pet form of "dad"), papa (riovi 
chiefly childish or affected), paler (Lalin m 
slang), dada (ckitd's teora); spec, (in a 
loose vse of "father") stepfather, father- 
in-law, foater-father, pater-familias. These 
' "parent," "sire," "getter," 

I: ieadlv. fateful. 
... (..■daiiiH. 

"genitor" and, occasionally, "fa&ei" are 
used only of Ike human parml. 
Anliniyms: see child, mothek. 
father, v. t. 1. b^t, eire. 

I. attribute, impose; sea amUATB. 
fatherhood, n. paternity, progenitorship 

fatlieileii, a. orphan (coMcxiual), un- 
fathered, sirelesa, dadleas (nimee). 

fatheiiy, Q. parentsi (contextual), paternal, 
fatherlike, gubernatorial (slang). 

fathomless, a. 1. immeasurable, measure- 
less, deep, abyssal, abysmHl. 
Antonyms: see shallow. 


fatneii, n. fleshiness, obesity, obeseness, 
corpulence, corpulency, polysarcia (tech.), 
grossness (rare), pinguitude (rare), pin- 
guidity (rare), plumpness; spec, embon- 
point (French). 

fatten, v. i. <t (, fat {esp. used with "up"), 

Sinquefy (rare); spec, saginate (rare), 
rawn (dial.), batten, plump. 
Antonyms: aee waste. 
faaoet, n. cock, tap; spec, spigot, spile, 
faolt, n. 1. Spec, failing, default, obh- 
quity. blemish, peccadillo, defalcation, de- 
hnquency_, vice, cloud (jig.), spot, flaw, 
shortcoming, defect, imperfection, de- 
merit, infirmity, offense. 
Antonyms: see excellence, worth. 


faultflndlne, a. censorious, captious, cyn- 
ical or cynic (now chiefly spec), critical, 

tanltleai, a. 1. ^See correct, blameless. 
1. perfect, irreproachable, immaculate, 

fault;, a. vicious, bad; spec, ill, blame- 
worthy, transgressive, blamable, imper- 
Anfonyms: see good, excellent. 

faTor, n. 1. Spec, esteem, benignity, popu- 
larity; see approval. 

). Spec, benefaction, grace, boon, bene- 
fit, obhgement, kindness, dispensation, 
tkTor, V. I. 1. See approve, oblige. 
1. countenance, patronize; spec, see aid. 

I. See SA- 


I. advantageous; spec, fair, helpful, good, 
Eolden, BaluUtry. 

Anlonifrns: see dnfaVobable. 
t. well-inclined, well-minded, benign, 
triendly, favoring, gracious, propitioiis. 

Anlonyma: see opposed. 
tkTorlte, n. 1. dear, minion (noui crm- 

1. ieec' '' 
tmTorlUtnl, n 
lawn, V. i. crii 
Antonym*: see domineee. 

rlUtni, n. partiality; spec, nepotism. 
1, V. i. cringe, crawl, toady, truckle. 

eUmg): fpec. flunky. 
AnUmyms: «ee bully. 
lawnlni, a. crin^ng, abject, eervile, syco- 
phantic, toadying, truckling, toodyish; 

tmti, n. alarm, dread, phobia (lech, or Tart 
and hunu^oin); spec, consternation, panic, 
funk (slang), miadoubt, misgiving, affright 
(rare), terror, terrification, trepidation, 
B«are, fright, froy (archaic), horror, eeri- 
neas, awe, apprehension, pantophobia, 
mysophobia, agoraphobia, hydrophobia, 
auperstition, reverence. 
Anionjfmg: see boldness, hope. 

fear, v. I. apprehend, dread, redoubt (ob$. 
or rare); spec, misdoubt, revere. 

fear, v. i. Spec, misgive. 

feued, a. dread, redoubted (rhetorical). 

feartni, a, 1. See afraid. 
1. dreadful, fearsome (rare), lerriblc, 
ghaatful (archaic), ghastly (obs), redoubt- 
able (rhetorical); spec, mre, sirful, grim. 

frightful, horrible, appalling, horrendous 
(rare), eerie or eery, appreheasive (rore), 
tremendous (now rare). 
Antonyms: gee bold. 

teait, n. l. See festival. MEAI/. 
S. Spec, banquet, regale (rare), junket 
(often spec; U. 5.1, gaudy {Eng.), ffite 
(French), tuck-out fsfanff}, barhecue, 
brideale or bridale, Gregory (Anglo-Irish). 
wine, potlatch, give-ale (A«t.), mfare (lo- 
cal Enf.), hockey or hookey (di/U. Eng.), 

taast, o. epulary (rare). 

fMtat, u. i. feed (inelegant; cotUextual), epi- 

:, rib, flange, 
■; blade, flat, 

curise (rare); spec. fSte (rare), cosher (Ire- 
land), luxuriate. 
Antonjfms: see fai 

feast, V. t. feed (amtexlitai); tpee. banquet, 
regale, tile, wine. 
Antonyms: see famish. 

leaatday, n. fieftta {Italian). 

teastlns, n. epulation (rare),' spec, ban- 
queting, r^alement (rare). 

teat, n, 1. See accouflishuent, dbed. 
a. atunt (cdtog.); spec, split (symnaslict), 
giant swing, cartwheel. 

feather, n. 1. plume (poetic or rhetorical, 
etc. spec.), pen (obs.); spec, plumule, cov- 
ert, scapular, down (a collective), eider- 
down (a ooUectiiie), beam, quill, filoplume, 
interscapular, remex, primary, principal, 
pinion, streamer, flag. 


1. In mechanics: spec, splint 
key, web, fin, tongue, vane, 
4. Referring to part of an oa, 

leather, v. i. Spec, fledge, 

teathet, i). t. t. unplume (rare or rhetorical), 

plume (rare or rhetorical, exc, spec.); tpec. 

(of an arrow) flight, fledge, wing, fletm. 

t. To remove the feathers from: deplume, 

deplumate;sprc. pinion. 
feathered, a. plumed (chiefly spec), plum- 

0U8(rare); spec. winged, penniferoua (rare), 

feather- tooted, a. Referring to a dog: 

rough-footed, rough-legged. 
featheTleii, a. impennalfl (chiefly spec.); 

spec, unfledged, callow. 
teatherlike, a. penniform, pennate (rare), 

pinnate, plumiform; — all four learned or 

feathery, a. 1. feathered, plumoee (chiefly 

spec.), plumy (chiefly spec.); spec, plum- 
ate, fledgy (rare), downy. 

1. Referring to a dog: curly-haired. 
feature, n. I. lineament, point. 

febrituee, a. antifebrile, antipyretic. 

feoal, Inoal, a. dungy (chiefly spec.), ateiv 
coraceouH (liierory or tech.), excrementi- 
tious (literary or tech.). 

tea, n. 1. benefice, fief, feud, feudatory. 
>. See ESTATE, PAT, tip. 
I. pa3Tnent (corttexlval), allowance (am^ 
textvat); spec, portage, entrance, tuition, 
toll, towage, ferriage, honorarium, costs 
(pi.), premium, procuration, retainer. 

J , I. aliment (.rare); spec, gorge, 

nurture, meal (ran?), grub {slang), mess, 
fodder, forage, auokle, diet, breakfaat, 
dine, dinner {rare), lunch (colloq.), sup- 
per (coUog.), grate, hay (rore), soil, com 
{rare), bait, water, pap. 
Antonyms: nee famish. 
1, Spec, fuel (a stove or fire), fire {an en- 
gine), supply, gratify, nourish. 

(••d, V. i. 1. Inferring to the action as lot- 
ing place: eat. 

9. liefernng to an action as eonlemplaled 
or fuMtual: eat, fare, live {amlextual); 
apee. subsist, board, meal, diet, gorge, 
(fine, breakfast, lunch, etc, "Feed in thia 
seate ie rare or slang. 
Antonyms: see famish. 

fcetflnc. n. feed, cibation (obs. or rare), 
eat {slang). 

I«*l, p. (. 1. See PEBCBIVB. 

t. examine, test, touch; tpec. handle, fum- 
ble, palpate, sound, probe, thumb, finger, 
t. RKperience, entertain, make, taste, 
find, bear; spec, believe, diBcover, 

X. Spec, grope, fumble. 
foalar. n. tactor (lech.): avec. palp, palpus, 

whisker, vibrleaa, tentkclc, antlia, oarbel, 

f««Un|>, n. I. sentience; spec, touch. 

9. experience; g/we. sensation, perception, 

1. The faculty or capaaiy: sensibility, 
emotionality, soul, feelingnesB, blood {fig.; 
human feelinga) ; spec, heart strings (pi.), 
demonstrativenesa, unction, sympathy, 
antipathy, csnesthesis. 
Antonyms: see insbnsibiuty. 
4. emotion, sentiment, affection; spec, fire 
{fig.), hate, hatred, hope, despair, sym- 
pathy, pathos, love, glatmesa, anger, pang, 
pain, sorrow, joy, e(c. 
Antonyms: see inbensibiuti. 
1. See AiTtTUDB. 

faint, n. preteiiBe;8pee. artifice, stratagem, 
expedient, trick. 

fellolty, n. 1. See gi-adness, appropmate- 
NKBB, a< 

fflilns, a. cattish, catty {coUoq.), feUform 

fell, V, t. drop (especially loith a bhv> or 
shot), down, floor, grouod; spec, prostrate, 
throw, grass {chiefly slang), sandbag, cut 

iiwtt "down"), hew {wiUt "down"). 
with "down"), etc. 

B. dog (plaftful, humorous, or conlempfti- 
oiis), customer (coUoq.; usually with 
"queer," "ugly," etc.), cove {slang and mil- 
gar in U. S.), Jack {coTiiempluoua), Gill 
{slang), cull or cutly {slang and eonlempia- 
oui), gaffer (rural Eng.), joker (slang), 
Johnny or Johnnie (contemptuous or famil- 
iar), cuss (in reproack, coTUempl, or humor- 
ously; slang and enlloq., U. S.), cuffin 
(thieves' eant), codger (disrespeelful and 
chin Ay outnar), devil {coUoq. or slang), 
wieht (nouj chiefly jocose), varlet (o Una 

/.'Ilmu; archaic), comtrel (tn conlemvl; ar- 
chaic), knave (a Imo feUaw; archaic), chal 
(Gipsy), wallah (An^lo- Indian), shaver 

 don (Eng. vniversities) , dean {in Ox- 
ford and Camirridge; Briliih), 

(ellawBhlp, n. Spec, brotherhood, com- 
radeship, membership. 

female, n. she (rare, exc, as aitributive) , 
petticoat {eoUoq, or humorous); spec. 
woman, girl, cow, hen, bitch, queen, 
Antonyms: see uald. 

female, a. ahe {chiefly in eomlrination), 
feminine {usually spec.); spec, pistillate. 
Antonym.s: see male, manly. 

feme-BoIe, n. Spec, widow, spinster; — re- 
ferring Co a woman at the time unmarried. 

temlnlnlt7, n. femineity (rare), feminal- 
ity (rare), femality {rare and humorous), 
muliebriety (rare), feminacy (rare), (em- 
inineness, teminility (rare), feminity 
(rare), womanliness {the loord in ordinary 
use and chiefly spec; "femininity" beiTig the 
more formal word and also usually spec.), 
womanishness (usually derogatory). 
Antonyms: see manliness, 

(enoe, n. 1. See paoTECTiON. 
a. In fencing: guard; spec, parry. 
I. inclosure, hay (archaic); spec, barri- 
cade, stockade, paling, palisade, hoarding, 
counter, pate (archaic), barrier, palisatM 
(rore), hedge, ha-ha, weir. 
A. As to stolen goods: repciver, lock (cant). 

fence, v. i. guard (against); spec, parry, 

Ienoe,[>. (. inclosure; jpec. wire, pale (rare), 
palisade, polisado (rare), hedge (often 
unth "in" or "about"), impale {chiefly lit- 
erary), picket. 

lender, n. dulfcr; spec, pudding, pad, hurt- 
cr, Scotchman, shield. 

W Oo« T^fanta: Kt No«. 

ImUbc, a..- .«.««.(, affiaine. 

frfl,a.: Acrc,,cn,d.h„tmf-I.l«i«- 

Irily: rim. 

{3" Soe Notu of Explanation. 


larmant, n. I. sijine (Uck. or Tare): spec. 
enzyme, diastase, pepsin, yc^it, IciLven 
(novi chiefiy Bib.), barm. 

S. See rERMENTATION, " "" 


tBtsa*nt, V. i. I. work, 

a. Spec, tret, aimmer. 
feimentaitlaii, n. 1. ferment, working; 

spec, zymosis (rare). 


tern, n. Sjiee. brake, osmund, bracken, 

hart '8- tongue, maidenhair. 
tein-itaapcd. a. filiciform {tech.), filicoid 

(tech.), fernlike. 
ttray, a. bracky, brackeny. 
faroaltr. n. 1. See VIOLENCE, AKDOB, lU- 


a. unkindncss, ferociousness, truculence, 
savageneas, savagery, doumess (Scot,), 
grimneas (lUeraTy); spec, vandalism, stem- 
neaa, angriness, malignancy, pitileasness, 
murderousness, brutality. 
Antonipni: $ee kipidness, oentlenebb. 

fermle, n. band Icontextual). ring, ehoe, 
collet, virole {rare); spec, thimble, cap. 

femile, v. I. bind, shoe, cap, ring. 

ferry, n. bac (French); g-aec. ghaut or ghat 
(Anghi-Iridian), pont (So. A/rioan). 

ttiiy, B. t, tranaport (conUxlual); spec, row, 
sail, steam, pull. 

lenjrmait, n. wat«nnan (conterfuoi); spec. 

tectUlxe, II. (. I. See FBOcnrr. 
1. enrich, fat (rare tir literary), fatten; 
spec, manure, compost, bone, warp 
(Eng.), guano, salt, phosphate, nitrify. 

fcrtillB«r. n. dressing; spec, compost, 
.ure, dung, phosphate, bone- 
aimer (obs. or rare); spec, rod. 

dust, lis 

pre (contextual), ulcer, pustule, 
ulcerate, rankle (Uterary), sup- 
purate (tech.). 
feitlTml,R. I. carnival (properly spec), feast 
(chiefly gpee.), fiesta (Ilalum); spec, ffile 
(French; on a large scale), ffite champStre 
(French), hightide (archaic or rare). Visi- 
tation, holiday (now usually coiled a "holy 
(^V")! Viuaha,, Candlemas, Christmas, 
Xmas, Corpus Chriati. punm (ficbreui), 
Bairam (Mohammedan), pardon {Roman 
Catholic Church or oha.), Blaster, epiphany, 

^udy day (Eng.), gala day, jubilee, feo- 
tivity. harvest home, kirn (Scot.), hoolea 
nr hooli (East Indian), dusserah (HiTtdu), 
hypapante, enctenia. nanegyria or pano- 

chanalia (pL), Dionysia (pi.). 

feitlve, a. I. convivial, festal, feslivous j 
(rare), feastfui (archaic); tpee. jolly, up> | 
roorious, carnival. 

ATitonyjnx: nee MOtlRNFiDI.. 
3. Asoeingf'mdo/TnerriTneni; seeoAY. 

festivity, n. 1. festiveness, conviviality, 

2. festival, merrymaking; spec. oelebr»- 
tion, rejoicing, revel. 

fetid, a, malodorous, foul, olid (rare), rank, 
nidorous {rare), stinking, graveolent (lUer- 
ary; rhetorical, affected, or euphemiatie); 
spec, gamy, rancid. 
Anlonyme: see fraqbant. 

fetlah, n. fetich (a iiariani), charm; spec, 
juju. medicine, 

(eudktory, n. vassal, beneficiary; spec. 
prince, palatine. 

lever, n. I. heat, fire {fig.), pyrexia (rare); 
spec, feveret, febricula, ague, typhus, ty- 
phoid, dcngiie, hectic, remittent, calen- 
ture, mtermittent, quintan, tertian, quo- 
tidian, quartan. ' 
9. Referring to a feverish slate: febrieity | 
(rare), feverishness, febrility (rare), fien- , 

1. See nesiBEj ahoor. 

fevered, a. excit^; spec, angry. 

feverish, a. I. febrile, feverous (rare), fe- i 
vered, pyretic (rare), pyrectic (rare), py- 
rexial (rare), pyrexic (rare), pyrexical 
(rare), febricitant (rare), febricose (rare); 
npec. febriculuse (rare), inflamed, fiery. 


few, a. sparse, small (with "number"). 
Antonyms: see all, uant, noubbb- \ 

few, n. handful; — a coUectim. 

lewneas, n. paucity {kamed or formal), 
scarcity, sparsity, sparsencss, 

fiber, n. I. filament; spec, staple, fibrile or 
fibrilla, strand, bast, sunn, oakum, istle, 
henequen, hemp, jut«, cotton, pina, rafia, 


^ Croa ntertnm- aet 


tMUl: /< 

li«, Aolutalf.»r. T...- .»«*h- 

Innri mariHv. 


latta, t. ■..- ihncUa, iamptr. 



fettle, 1. 1..* sroorn. 

fatoh, p. 


drow, Ih. 

H. dt^. dicU. 

lead: /«. 


feud: rjuorrnl. 

terued: fmriiK. nciMd. 

tertUs: /ruil/ul. 


Quio«. flmnof e: bMrMsd. 

liTTUt: hM. onirat 

Itta. »..- « 

nl^biinmmt. fiilital. 

S>Mo: hiliT.. 

tartld: i^M, antnl. 


flmt: hiddxng. 

tiTTor: hml, ardor. 

(MIoh: /. 


m,: lU. 


flberlike, a. fibrous, fibriform (rare), fi- 
brine (rare), fibry; spec, fibrilliform 

fiction, n. 1. See imagination (Die action). 
S. Tke thing imagined: imagination, in- 
vention, forgery, figment, fantasy, con- 
coction, fabrication, story, fable, novel, 
allegory, epic, assumption. 
Antonyms: see actuality. 

fictitious, a. Spec, mythical, dummy, in- 
vented, imaginary, assumed, fabled, fabu- 
lous, artificial; spec, paper. 
Antonyms: see actual. 

fiddle, V. i. 1. play ; spec. bow. Curiously, 
though fiddle os a verb has no equivalent ex- 
cept the general term **play,'* the verb ^^ fid- 
dle," as ivell as the noun, is now rather con- 
temptuous or familiar. 


fidset, V i. fidge; spec, fiddle, twiddle. 

field, n. 1. Spec, clearing, glebe (poetic or 
ecd.), paddock (chiefly dial. Eng.; in Aus- 
tralia not spec), croft (British), meadow, 


8. battlefield; spec, plain (chiefly poetic), 
Armageddon (fig.). 

fiend, n. 1. See demon, monster. 
8. demon (of cruelty), shaitan (coUoq.), 
brute, hellhound, cat (esp. of a woman), 
wolf, tiger; see monster. 

fierce, a. 1. See violent, ardent, impetu- 

S. unkind (contextual), ferocious; spec, 
glaring, dragonish, truculent, catawam- 
pous (slang, chiefly U. S.), fell (chiefly po- 
etic), savage, Vandalic (hist.), breme (obs. 
or poetic), dour (Scot.), grim, cruel, stern, 
angry, malignant, pitiless, merciless, mur- 
derous, inhuman, tigerish, wolfish. 
Antonyms: see kind, gentle. 

fiery, a. 1. hot, igneous (literary or tech.), 
red (fi^.), empyreal or empyrean (fi{i.); 
spec, flaming, lurid. 

8. See ardent, impetuous, feverish, 
irritable, angry. 

fight, n. 1. contention (contextual), con- 
test (contextual), encounter, rencounter 
(rare), conflict (formal), combat (prima- 
rily spec), aff'air (contextual); spec. cufT 
(rare), bicker (now chi'fly Scot.), bustle 
(archaic), brawl, battle, aff'ray, fray, 
m614e (French), mellay (archaic), ruffle, 
engagement, action, quarrel, sciamachy, 
digladiation (rare), duomachy (rare), pell- 
mell (rare), duel, brush, theomachy, tour- 

ney, just or joust, tilt, spar, scrap (coUoq,), 
scrimmage, naumachia, skirmish. 
8. See contention, contest. 
8. pugnacity, pluck, game (rare). 

fight, V. i. 1. contend, conflict (rare), com- 
bat, battle, warfare (rare); spec, ruffle 
(archaic), camp (obs. or dial.), war, battle, 
scuffle, box, spar, strike^ tilt, just or joust, 
bicker, brawl, duel, militate, crab, claw, 
scratch, buffet, skirmish, strive, fistify 
(nonce word). 
8. See contend. 

fight, V. t. 1. encounter, combat (now chief- 
ly fid) > engage; spec buffet (chiefly fig.) y 
war {rare), worry. 
8. Cause to fight: pit, match. 
8. See oppose. 

fighter, n. combatant, contestant, cham- 
pion (archaic, rare, or spec), contender 
(contextudl) , combater (rare); spec, bat- 
tler, warrior, militant (rare), duelist, du- 
eler (rare), slasher, tilter, juster, jouster, 
guerilla, gladiator, skirmisher, pugilist, 
boxer, sparrer, cuffer, pancratiast. 
Antonyms: see pacifist. 

fighting, a. Spec combatant, militant, 
belligerent, pugilistic, skirmishing, box- 
ing, etc. 

fighting, n. contention (contextual); spec 
combating, warring, duel (with **the* ), 
duello (Italian), fisticuffs (pi.). 

figlike, a. ficoid (tech.), caricous (rare), 
ficiform (tech.), 

figural, a. Spec, graphic, diagrammatic. 

figurative, n. 1. descriptive; spec sym- 

8. Rhet.: metaphorical, figured (rare or 
spec); spec, allegorical, fabular. 
8. See florid (of speech), ornate (in 

figure, n. 1. character (contextual), num- 
ber, digit; spt;c. cipher, one, two, etc. 


8. Referrina to the thing having aparticur 
lar form: snape; spec ima^e, effigy, de- 
sign, diagram, sculpture, cyhndcr, square, 
hSU, triangle, ellipse, ovoid, oval, parab- 
ola, diamond, parallelogram, rhombus, 
ghost, sector (geom.), carving, casting, 
molding, etc 

4. In dancing: evolution; spec entrechat 
(French), quadrille. 

5. In rhetoric: image, trope, ecbasis (rare); 
spec: metaphor, similitude, simile, ine- 
tonymy, irony, litotes, diasyrm, aporia, 
diaporesis, hendiadys, etc 

fS^ Cross references: sec Note. 
fictile: plastic. 
fiddle, n.: violin. 
fiddle-faddle, n.; trifle, trifling. 
fiddler: violinist. [accuracy. 

fidelity: constancy, tnUhfulneaa, 
fidgety: uneasy. 

fiducial: trustful, confidential. 

fiduciary: confidential. 


flendlih: devUiah, cruel. 

flerlneu: ardor, heat, fever, trcw- 

fig: trifle. 

figment: fiction. 

figure, V. t.: depict, ddineate, de- 
scribe, ornament, compute, aym* 

figure, V. i.: appear, compute, 

figured: ornamented. 

figurehead: dummy. 


tST S6e Notes of Explanation* 



r, hair, threadiet, cobweb, harl. 

Slkmeiitoui, a. filamentary ; apee. thread' 
like, fibrous, stringy, filar, thready, hair- 
like, filirorm (lecli.j, capillary, fibrillose, 
irroua (fccft.). 
Spec, record, lodge, pigeonhole, 
thread, stnng. 

fUibniter, n. obstructionist. 

AliETee. n. wirework. 

fUtiiK. n. abrasion (coTUextwd) : Spec. lima- 
tion (fy.; rare). 

fUlnKd n. pi. limail {tech.). 

fill, V. t. 1. Spec, inject (.ehiejly used with 
"with"), stun, cram, pack, line, congest, 
crowd, crown, overflow, fulfil (archaic), 
infill (rare), brimful, brim, bumper, re- 
plenish, chink (ooUoq., U. S.), saturate, 
suffuse, plug, stop, cnarge. 
Anlonyim: tee deplete, diuin, EMPtt, 


I. trim (a Bail). 

i. Referring to orders, eommissiorts, etc.; 

execute, discharge, do, iierform. 
flUet, n. 1. band (amfextuol),- gpee. (for the 

hair) bandeau, vitta (literary), snood, 

aphenodome, infula (Roman aniig,). 

%, /n arehiteeliffe: apec. orlo, tisma, plat- 
band, stria. 
fiUlnXi n. Spec, packing, replenishment, 

repletiion, filL cbiu^, stuffing. 
flint, n. BKiD (contextual); spec, membrane, 

nebula, scale, veil, pellicle, scum, lamina, 

gauze, cloud. 
flimr. a. Spec, clouded, flimsy, cloudy, 

fine-spun, gauzy, pellicular. 
filter, V. t. £ i. I. strain, filtrate, percolate 

(umally epee.). 

%. Smexodb. 
fllth, n, I. dirt, sordes (leeh.), sordor (rare), 

vilenesa, foulness, obscenity (Hlerary), 

filljiiness, ordure (archaic), nastineas. 

fllthr, a. I. dirty, foul, nasty, sordid (liter- 
ary), obscene (literary), vile; spec, impure, 
mucky, dungy, hoggish. 


flu, n. 1. flipper, pinna (zoiil.); spec. sail. 

1. See FBATHBK (in mechaniea). 
anal, a. end (the noun used attributieely), 

last, terminal, latest, ultimate, " " 

spec, eventual, conclusive, decj 

tremity^ spec. deciBiveness, eventuality, 

pi. circumstances (eonlextual), 
affairs (eonlextual). 

nnaniilat, a. fiscal (cliiefy U. S. ttspec.); 
spec, bursal. 

UnHnclvr, n. Spec, investor, lender, 
bist, capitalist. 

fine, n. punishment (conteitaal), penall^i 
mulct, amercement, asseasment, forfeit 
(often spec.); apec. geld, wite, bloodwil 

an*, u. I. penalize (eontextwil), 
mnlct,BeQaoe (Oxford Univers^}; apee. log. 

fins, a. 1. refined, clear, pure. See pubs. 
M. admirable, brave (liierory), choice, su- 
perior, handsome; spec, gtonous, grand, 
imposing, delicate, nice, subtle, nifty 
(slartg: D. S.), divine, heavenly, superfine 
tan intensive), fancy, splendiferous (cof- 
loq.), bully (alano; U. S., and Bng. orf- 
leges), dandy (slang or collag.). nobby 
icotlog., slang, or cant), finical, surpaas- 
ing, magnificent, superb, transceoaent, 
spanking (eoUog.), nun (cant), crack 
(slang or coUoq.), recherche (Frmeh). Aa 
dang or coUoq. intensives: adorable, tear- 
ing, ripping, splendid, rattjing, stunning, 
elegant, great, boss, smastuDg, tearing^ 
bouncing, etc. 
Antonyms: see dad, infee 




fine, infer/, bravol Manyoflhevordavndtr 

"fine" and "exeelleTU" are more orletavaad 

as interjeelioTis in corresponding senses, 
fineness, a. excellent, delicacy, superiority, 

subtlety, subtility (iioui rare), etc. C/, fine, 
fine one. crack (colloq.), rattler (sUmg), 

screamer (slang), chpper (slang), bouncer 

(coUog,), dandy (coUoq.). 

tS" An almost innximerable nunAer t^ 

words meaning jaimarily something nouy, 

big, or the like, are used as slang or coVo- 

guial leTTHs to express the idea qf aont^Mng 

finery, n. ornament; spec, frippery, gaud- 

ery (rore), gewgawry (rare), Bimcra^ery, 
flncer, n. 1. digit (cliiefly leehX mudhooks , 

(pi.; slang); spec, mimmus, index, poiotec, ' 


S. technique; — inmusic. 

I. See TOiNTEB. 
flnlal, n. !n architecture: ornament (om^ 1 

textual), terminal; spec. crop. 
finlBhif. t. t. See END, DR — " 

fllUsnn: ^amtnlaiK. 

BnM**: orl. arl<llre. 
flngar, *. t.: AapuJla. 
fluer, t- i.: plan. tov. 
Bnlml: faiiidiout. 
flaloklnr: fattidiout^ 
flnls: end. dftdh. 

t^ Sde NotM of 


9. accomplish, crown, complete, con- 
simmiate, fulfill, do, execute, round (esp. 
with "out''). 
Antonyms: see begin. 
flnisli* V. i. 1. conclude, end; — in the sense 
of "to have done" 

S. See END, DIE. 

flnisli* n. 1. See end, death, perfection, 


9. surface {contextual); spec, dress. 

finished, a. 1. done, accomplished, over {in 
prediccUive use; colloq.), complete, round- 
ed, round. 

Antonyms: see incomplete, unfinished. 
9. perfect; spec, fine, elegant. 
Antonyms: see unfinished. 

flnishins, n. Spec, end, conclusion, ter- 
mination, completion, etc. 

finite, a. definable, limited, terminable. 
Antonyms: see infinite. 

flnitenesB, n. limitedness, limitation, fini- 
tude, finity {rare). 

fln-sliaped, a. pinniform {tech.), finny. 

fire, n. 1. Spec, flame, coal, blaze, con- 
flagration, beacon, bale {archaic), bale- 
fire, ingle, bonfire, smudge, needfire, 
spark, smother. 
9. See BUBNiNG, fever, ardor. 

fire, V. t. 1. See ignite, heat, eject, 


9. discharge, explode; spec. play. 

firearm, n. piece, gun {coUoq., exc. as 
spec.), popgun {contemptuous); spec, pis- 
tol, revolver, rifle, mitrailleuse {French) ^ 
Martini, musket, jezail, bulldog, es- 
copette {U. S.), fusil {obs. or hist.), fusee 
(obs. or hist.), ealloper, harquebus, gin- 
gall, jingaU, ctdverin, hackbut, hagbut, 
chassepot (French), carbine, carabine, 
cannon, gun, petronel, saket, falconet. 

fireman, n. Spec, stoker. 

fireplace, n. hearth, fireside, Krate {fig.); 
spec, range, hob, cupola, cockle, tisar. 

firework, n. 1. pyrotechnic; — both usually 
in pi. 

9. Spec, squib, girandola, rocket, pin- 
wheel, petard, bomb, serpent, saucisson 
{French), jack-in-the-box, maroon, flower- 
pot, fizgig, wheel, jet, gerbe. 

firm, a. 1. See fixed, constant, courage- 

9. stable, solid, coherent, consistent, con- 
sistency, steaay, stout, stanch, strong, 
stiff, tight, secure, fast; spec, hard, 
braced, tieci, inflexible, nailed, bolted, etc. 
Antonyms: see shaky, tottering, weak, 


firm, V. t. 1. steady, stabiHze, stabilify 
{rare), solidate {rare); spec, consolidate. 

brace, jack {U, S,), nail, bolt, screw, 
Antonyms: see weaken. 


firm, n. association, concern, house; spec. 

partnership, con>oration, company. 
firmness, n. 1. Spec, fixedness, oourafle. 

9. constancy, unyieldingness, backbone 


8. stability, solidity, steadiness, stout- 
ness, stanchness, strength, stiffness, 
tightness, consistency, security, fastness, 
solidness; spec, coherence. 

Antonyms: see instabiutt. 
first, a. 1. Referring to time or order: earli- 
est, premier {rare), erst {obs,); spec, pri- 
mary, primal, prime^ pristine, eldest, 
aboriginal, maiden, onginal. 

Antonyms: see last, final. 

9. foremost, front, head. 

8. See CHIEF. 

first, adv. firstly {avoided by some), im- 
primis {Latin), erst {archaic and literary); 
spec, formerly. 

first-class, a. exceUent, prime, scrump- 
tious {U. S.; coUoq.), palmary {rare), psd- 
marian {rare). 
Antonyms: see inferior. 

fish, n. fin (jig.); spec, fishlet, fishing, fry 
{collective pi.), 

fish, a, piscine {learned or tech,), ichthyic 

fish, V, I. U Spec, angle, bob, dap, dib, 
dibble, torch, flyfish, troll, gig, guddle 
{Scot.), grig, drive, snrimp, spoon, whiff, 

9. SeesEBK, 

fisher, n. fisherman, piscator {learned, often 
pedantic), piscatorian {rare), piscatorial- 
ist {rare); spec, angler, peterman {local 
Eng.), wormer {couoq.), jacker, dibber, 
drifter, trawler, trapper. 

fishery, a. 1. piscary (tech.). 
9. See fishing. 

fishhook, n. angle {literary or rare); spec. 
sockdolger {slang, U, S.), limerick, car- 
lisle, sproat, kirby, etc. 

fishing, n, piscatory {learned), piscatorial 
{learned), halieutic {rare). 

fishing, n. fishery, piscation {rare), halieu- 
tics {the art; rare). 

flshlike, a. fishy, ichthyomorphic {learned 
or tech.), ichthyoid {learned or tech,), pisd- 
form {learned or tech.). 

flshiine, n. hne {contextiuil) ; spec, drail, 
boulter, bultow, greatline, gimp, spiller, 

fishpond, n. piscina {rare), 

flshway, n. zigzag. 

f3^ Cross references: see Note. 
llniih«r: settler. 
flmuunent: heaven. 

flrit-rat«, a.: fine. 
flioal: financial. 
flMlle: deavabie. 

fliillity: cleavage. 
fliture, n..* cracky cUfi. 
flMure, V. t.: cleave, tplit. 

%3S' See Notes of Explanation. 

flit. n. I. hand (amtartuo/), nieve or 
(arehaie), duke (dang), doddle (dial.). 


Bt, n. I. sit, set {by many eoiuiemned as not 
in good ugage); $pee. bang, drape. 


At, v. {. 1. See BECOME, frbparb, guALirr. 

 adapt; spec, adjust, justify, dovetail, 

fay {U. S. or shipbuilding), juint, concin- 

nate (jare). 
fit, v. i. 1. sit, set (by many condemned as 

not in good usage); spec. hang. 

9. See SUIT. 
fit, n. I. Referring lo a disorder: acceaa 

{leeh. or lUerary), attack, qualm, luaes 

(pi.; archaic), paroxysm; spec, touch, out- 

9. Referring to a nenwus upset: spec, pet, 
heat, taatriims (pi.), freaks (pi.), fury, 
fume, iDassioQ, huff, gulc ({/. S.), spell, 
convulsion, spasm, turu. 

five, n. Of five things grouped: tinth "a" or 
"an": spec, quinary (rare), quintuple 
(rare), quintuplet, quintet, quintette, 
pentad, quincunx, cinque. 

Hf^-mngltA, a. pentangular, i)eQtagODal; 
— both learned or ier:h. 

Svaiold, V, t. quintuple, quintuplicate 

oic V. 1. 1. fasten, immobilize (rare), plant, 
firm; spec, lock, root, bind, stay, cement, 
ship, nail, screw, congeal, freeze, clinch 
("dench" is now rare in this sense), tie, 


t. SecESTA 

1. decide, seal, nettle; spec. app>oint, de- 
fine, harden. 
Anianyjns: tee cbanoe, convert, alter. 
A. Spec, (in figuraliiie or transferred iises) 
set, corroborate, enchain, rivet, nail, con- 
firm, implant, toasilize, grave or engrave, 
impress, imprint, number, concentrate, 
absorb, aettle. harden. 

fix. V. i. set (which set) ; spec, harden. 

lUatlon, n. Spec, conflation, implanta- 
tion, fixture (rare), immobilization, es- 
Antonjpns: see displacement. 

fixed, a. 1. firm, set, secure, fast, immov- 
able (rare), immobile; spec, certain (at in 
"a dag certain"), sessile, irremovable, sta- 
(Jonary, inerratic, etc. Cf. fix, v. t. 


S. constant; spec, intranafonnable, in* 1 
eradicabic, concentrated, unchangeable, 
settled, unchanging, definite, certain, un- 
shakable, upset, steadfast. 

Antonyms: see caAMQEAaLE, convert- I 

fixture, n. attachment, fittings (pi.), 

flaccid, a. limp, baggy, soft (conUxhud). 

Sac, n. layer (contextual), flagstone " 
ging (eoUeeliiie sing.), slab. 

flai, n. I. bunting {colUetive sing.); spec. ' 
streamer, peniion, pendant, pennant, col- 
ors (pi.), nlucpetor, banderole, bandiol, 
burgee, brattach (Gaelic), raven, jack, 
union, (anion, guidon, Dannebrog, tri- 
color (French). 

2. See TAIL. 

flagon, n. stoup, gun (slang. Erig.), 
flacranoy, n. grossness, outrageousneaa, 
etc.; spec, notoriety. 
flagrBnt, a. 1. See plamino. 

3. gross, glaring, grievous (orcftaic), mon- 
strous, outrageous; spec, violent, shame- 
ful, notorious, wioKed, scandalous. 

Antonyms: see excttsable, VNOtpour 

flame, n. 1. blaze, hght, flare, low (chiefly 

Seat.): spec, flake, flamelet. 


flame, v. i. 1. burn (contexlaal), blaze. 

a. SeeuusN (wilhzeall, shine. 
flamlnc a. 1. blazing; spec, flaring. 

S. bright {contextual), flaring, It^bent, 

iiBiiKe, n. flanch (rare), rib, rim; spec. 

feather, collet. 
flank, V. t. 1. border; epee. wing. 


flap, n. 1. Spec, lap, lappet, leaf, lug, lapel, 

fly, tab, tuck, apron. 

S. beat (eonlextiuU), stroke {eontextual), 

flaff (chiefly Scot.); spec, flutter, slat, flop. 
flap, f. t. •£ i, beat (ennteztuol), strike (eott- 

texlual), flaff (chiefly Scot.); spec, flutter, 

Elat, flop, bate, winnow, 
flapper, n. Spec, flytrap, chowry (India), 

whisk, swingle. 
flare, v. t. I. See display. 

). spread; spec. bell. 
Barinc, a. I. See plamino. 

9. spreading; spec, funnel-shaped, 

fundibuliform, bcll-moutbed. 
fluh, V. i. blaze (contextuol), burst (as 

'into flame," etc.), fulgurate (liter- < 

tF Bee Note* of Eiplani 


oary; rearer exe. fig.); spec, gleam, blink, 
fulminate, flicker, bicker, glimpse (ar- 
chaic), glimmer, shimmer, glisten, glance, 
scintillate, sparkle, corruscate, glint, 

flasht n. blaze (contextual); spec, flicker, 
flaught (chiefly Scot.), burst, fid^uration 
(literary; rare, exc. fi^.), gleam, blmk, ful- 
mination, bicker, glimpse, glinmier, 
shimmer, glisten, glance, spark, scintilla- 
tion, corruscation, sparkle, glint, flip 
(rare), twinkle. 

flashlns, n. bright (contextual), blazing 
(contextual), ful^uration (rare or fi^.), 
glbtening, glittering, etc. 

flashy, a. snowy, briUiant, Bowery (fig.), 

flask-shaped, a. lageniform (tech. or rare). 

flat, a. 1. plane (more technical), plain (an 
unusual spelling), level; spec, flattish, 
complanate, homaloid. 
Antonyms: see uneven, hilly. 


flat, ado. 1. See absolutely, exactly. 
2. flatly (rare), flatling (literary); spec. 
horizontally, lengthwise, flatways, flat- 
wise, broadside, etc. 

flat-footed, a. In zool.: plantigrade (tech.). 

flatten, v. t. flat (rare or spec); spec. 
smooth, level, lower, fell, depress, abate 
(of wind), squash, squelch, strike. 

flattened, a. Spec, deplanate (tech.), com- 
pressed, flatted, oblate. 

flatter, v. t. 1. Spec, adulate (learned), 
compliment, gloze (rare), butter (fig.), 
beflatter (intensive), blarney, beslobber 
(intensive), blandish, smooth, soft-soap 
(coUoq.; fig.), slaver (fig.), oil (fig.); see 


Antonyms: see insult, abuse, discredit. 
2. Reflectively: congratulate. 

flatterer, n. adulator (learned), pickthank 
(archaic) proneur (French), flattercap 
(rare or dial.), Damocles (fl^.). 

flattering, a. 1. adulating (learned), but- 
tery (colloq.; fig.), silken (fi^.), silky (fig.), 
sweet, candied (fi^.), fair, pickthank 

Antonyms: see abusive. 
2. See promising, auspicious. 

flattery, n. Spec, adulation (learned), lip- 
salve (fig.), glozo, blandiloquence (rare), 
flamm (cant), daub (dial.), flummery 
C^-), slaver (fig.), taffy (slang, U. S.), 
sugar plum (fig.; an instance of flattery). 

sugar (fi^.), soap (skmg; fig.), soft soap 
(slang; fig.), honey (fig.), soft sawder 
(fig.; slang, U. S.), blarney; see cajolery. 
Antonyms: see insult, abuse. 

flat-topped, a. tabular (formal or learned), 

flatulent, a. windy, gassy, ventose 

flavor, n. 1. See smell, taste. 
2. admixture (contextual); spec, dash, lac- 
ing, lace, seasoning. 

flavor, V. t. taste (for^); spec, spice, be- 
spice (intensive), curry, lace, pepper, salt, 
saffron (rare), lemon, ginger, omon, sea- 
son, dash. 

flavoring, n. Svec. seasoning, relish, zest, 
spice, salt, conoiment, pepper, etc. 

flaw, n. 1. crack; spec, brack, feather, wind 
shake, honeycomb. 
2. See FAULT. 

flea, a. pulicine (learned), 

fleay, a. pulicous, puHcose; — both tech, or 

flee, V. i. depart (contextual); spec, nm, 
slope (slang), skedaddle (colloq.; orig, 
U. S.), fly (now the more common term; 
*^fi€e'' being rhetorical or archaic). 
Antonyms: see stay. 

flee, V. t. avoid (contextual), run (rare), fly. 

fleeoe, n. 1. toison (rare or literary), 
2. See WOOL. 

fleeoe, v. t. cheat, pluck (colloq. or fig.), 
shave (colloq.), plunder, sweat (slang or 
cant); spec, bleed (colloq.; fig.), skin (coU 
loq.;fig), strip, flay (fig). 

fleet, n. Spec, division (contextiud) , ar- 
mada, caravan, convoy, flotilla, marine, 
navy (poetic or rhet., exc. spec), 

flesh, n. 1. muscle, beef (spec or eoUoq,); 
spec, brawn, carrion, game. 

Antonyms: see skin. 

2. Referring to fruit: pulp, meat; spec 


flesh, a. creatic (tech.; rare); spec, fleshy, 

flesh -eating, a. carnivorous. 

flesh- eating, n. Spec hippophagy, hip- 
pophsL^m;— both formal or tech. 

fleshlike, a. Spec, sarcoid (tech.), 

fleshy, a. 1. See fat, bodily. 
2. sarcous (tech.), camose (rare), car- 
nous (rare), carneous (rare), meaty {rare 
or spec). 

8. Referring to roots: camose (rare), pulp- 
ous (rare), pulpy. 

flexibility, n. flexility (rare), pliability. 

t^^ Cross references: aee Note. 

flashy: showy. 

flaunt: disclose, wave. 

flaunty: showy, boastful. 

flaw, V. t. : crack. 

flaw, n.; wind. 

flay, p. /.; skin, criticize. 

fleabitten: spotted. 
fleck, V. ^; spot, streak, speckle, 
freckle, dot. 
fledi^e: feather. 
fleecy: fluffy. 
fleeing: fugitive. 
fleer: smile, jeer. 

fleet, V. i.: glide, hasten, speed, 

fleet, a.: rapid, transitory. 
fleeting: transitory. 
fletoh, V. t.: feather. 
flewi: chop. 
flex, V. t.: bend. 

tW See Notes of Explanation. 




pliantness, pliancy; spec. Buppltu 
litbenesB, limbemess, withiness, willi 
Deas, lisaomencss. 
flexlbla, a. t. flexjls (ckiefiy Ueh.), bend- 
able, pliable, pliant; gpec. supple, tithe, 
limber, withy, willowy, lissom (poetic), 
buxom (archaic and poetic), limp. 
Antonytna : aee s'ii7~ 


flJoker, II. i. I. Seer 
%. flame (amtexliml), flutter, waver, 
glimmer (les^ suggegtwe 0/ dying ovi ihan 
the other wnrds), blink. 

fllokar, n. 1. See yurrTEB, UOTIOK. 

t. flame (amlexival), flutter, waver, wav- 
ering, glimmer, blink. 

flickerlni;, a. flaming (conlexttial), ini^r- 
mittent (eontexlual), flutterinE, wavery 
(rore), wavy, glimmering, 

fllKlit, n. departure (eontextutd), fleeing; 
spec, sauve qui pent (French), stampede, 
rout, scurry, helter-skelter, scamper, de- 
bacle, hegira or hejira, regituge (rare). 

fllcht, n. 1. flying, volalion (rare), fly, vo- 
lition (rare), wing, volatility (the power of 
fiight; rare); spec, soaring, soar, mounting, 
flit, flutter, hover, glide. 
1. Rtjerfing to utterance 0/ wil, venting of 
tears, etc.: spec, sally, burst, strain, 

i. Referring to motion of mietiies, falling 
leaves, etc.: spec, rain, shower, storm, 

_.. ,._ Jianj. 

fllEhty, a. I. volatile, barmy (rare or liter- 
ary), gigeiah (rare), shuttle-witted (or- 
cAaic; jiff,), bird-witted (fig.). 

a. See DBftANOBD. 

fllmsj'i a. unsubstantial, slight, thin (con- 
textual), frail; spec, filmy, eleazy, sleazy, 
paper, papery, gossamer, gossamery. 

Antonyms: see firm, stronq. 
IUpp«r< n. limb (eontextwil), pinna (tech.), 
flapper (rare); spec. wing. 
llipt, ' " 

1. Spec comiet (male or female), co- 
quette (femeue), wanton; spec, philander- 

airtatlon, n. Spec, coquetry, flirtiDg, dal- 

hance, wantonness, philandering, 
SlTtatloui, a. flirtish (rare), flirty (rors); 

spec, coquettish, coquet. 
Bit, V. i. I. hasten, dart. 

9. See DEPART. 

>. fly, flutter, flicker, twinkle, skit, 
float, i>. t, 1. buoy (rare, exc spec.); spec. 

hve, swim, ride, waft, drift (eontextuoT), 

drive, tide. 

a. Referring to objeete poUed in Ike air, in 

water, etc.: buoy, hang; spec, swim, trail, 

stream, watch (of a buoy), fluff, waft, fly. 
.4711071^9.' see sink. 

S. See GLIDE. 
float, V 

Antonyms: t 

t.ln fisking: dobbcr (heal, U. S.); ipee. 
cork, quill, darby, 

t. Of a xoagon unth its display, in a prneet' 
sion: pageant (arcAatc or hist.). 
floatioBi a, t. afloat, natant (tech. or rare), 
superfluitant (rare), supernatant (rare), 

1. unfunded; spec, variable; — referring to 
a debt. eU. 
floooulent, c 

(rare), cottony ' 
(rare), floccose. 


(chiefly spec), flocky 
woolly (primarily Bpec), 


2. Referring to a group of gregarious 
mats: plump (arekaie, or dial. Eng.); 
troop, herd, pack, drove, 

shoal or 

All the terms are secondarily appSal to hit- 
man beings, tdth implications of resped, 
fear, contempt, etc., implied by the luerat 
senses, as "bevy" to maidens and ladies, 
"herd" to a roioie of persons, etc. 
flock. If. i. congregate; spec, school, herd, 

Sock, n. clump (eontextual); spec, lock, 
flake, tuft, dag, floccule, flocculus. 

flock, V. i. gather (contextual); spec. tuft. 

floe. n. Spec, field, sheet, pan, cake, flaJce, 

aoetiac, a. plagoflo (humorous). 

flood, n. 1. Spec, deluge. Niagara (fig.), 
wave, rage, flush, inunc&tion, conflueaoe, 


cataclysm, tide, debacle, torrent, freshet 
or {less usual) fresh, overflow, waterfall, 
cloudburst, countertide, spate (chiefly 
Soot.), downpour, water (contextual), 
bore, eagre. 


flood* a. diluvial or diluvian (chiefly spec.); 

spec, cataclysmic or cataclysmal (tech, or 


floodf ate, n. Spec, stanch, weir, penstock. 
floor, n. 1. bottom (contextual), flooring; 

spec, pavement, parauet, stage, decK, 

contignation (rare or ohs.), 

1. See STORT. 
floor» V. t. 1. cover (contextual), lay; spec. 

deck, plank, pave. 

1. See FELL. 
floorolotb, n. covering (contextual); spec. 

carpet, linoleum, oilcloth, rug, etc. 
florid, a. 1. flowery, ornate, embellished; 

spec, rococo, figurative, figured, luxuriant. 
Antonyms: see prosaic. 


flotation, n. floatage; spec, supematation. 

flounoo, V. i. & n. 1. Spec, flounder, fling, 
throw, whop, flop, struggle, tumble, 
fling, toss, plunge, blunder, slosh, twitch, 
plouter (chiefly Scot.). 

1. See RUSH, JERK. 

flounoo, n. & v. t. furbelow. 

flour, n. powder (contextual), meal (now 
chiefly spec); spec, sujee or suji (East 
India), tapioca, tarina, cones (cant). 

flourisb, V. t. swing (contextual) ^ upsway 
(rare); spec, brandish, wave, whisk, sweep, 
flaunt, shake. 

floturlsb, n. 1. See show. 
1. swing (contextual); spec, shake, bran- 
dish, brandishment, wave, whisk, sweep, 

S. Referrina to writing, etc.: stroke, quirk; 
spec, paraph. 

4. In music: floriation (rare); spec, ca- 
denza, fanfare or fanfarade, tantara, tar- 
antara, blast, tantivy. 

flow, V. i. 1. run; spec, stream, spew, spring, 

Sutter, dribble, pour, purl, gurgle, drain, 
raw, flush, trickle, gush, rush, ripple, 
flood, tide, regorge (rare), reflow (rare), 
outflow, effuse, extravasate, well (used 
with **out'^ or *'up"), inflow (rare), in- 
flood, interflow, bleed, discharge, roll, 
glide, geyser. 

5. See PASS, Qo, glide, issue, emanate, 

ARISE, wave, rise. 

S. abound, run; — as with gold, milk and 
honey, etc. 

flow, n. 1. nm (rare or 8j)ec.); spec, tide, 
stream, dribble, pour, drain, trickle, gush, 
geyser, rush, flowage, determination, cur- 
rent, flash, nood, fluxion (rare, exe. med.), 
flux (rare, exe. med. or fig.), fLuhh. drib- 
bling, streaming, bore, wave, guggle, dis- 
charge, tide, ripple, defluenoe (rare), de- 
fluxion, catarrh. 

S. Spec, passage, glide, issue, emanation, 
blow, abundance, rise. 

flower, n. 1. blossom, bloom, blowth 
(rare), blow (rare); spec, floweret, flos- 
cule, flowerage (coUectwe), floret, inflores- 
cence (collective; tech.), drop. 
1. In pi.: bloom (a coUedive). 
S. Referring to the state: see bloom. 

4. See BEST, ESSENCE, £litb. 

flower, V. i. 1. blossom, bloom, effloresce 
(rare); spec, emblossom, tassel (chiefly 
U. S.). 
1. See DEVELOP. 

flowery, a. 1. bloomy, blossomy, flowerful 
(rare), florulent (chiefly in decorative art); 
spec, floscular (rare), flosculous (rare, 
norigerous (rare), 
1. See FLORID. 

flowing, a. 1. running, current (now rare), 
fluent (rare and pjg.j exe. spec); spec. 
guick (rare), dribblmg, gusning, nux- 
ional. livine (Biblical usage), decursive 
(rare), confluent, decurrent (rare), de- 
fluent (rare), refluent, interfluent (rare), 
influent, profluent (rare), excurrent (chief- 
ly tech.), scaturient (rare), circumfluent 
or circumfluous. 
Antonyms: see stagnant, motionless, 



flue, n. duct (contextual); spec, chimney, 

fluent, a. 1. See flowing. 
1. Referring to speech, expression, etc.: 
ready, facile, flowmg, easy, voluble; spec. 
Antonyms: see dumb. 

fluff, n. down, fuzz, floss; spec, flue, lint. 

fluffy, a. downy, fuzzy; spec, fleecy, cot- 
tony, linty, woolly. 

fluid, a. 1. running, fluent (rare), fluxible 
(archaic); spec, gaseous, liquid. 
ArUonyms: see solid. 

5. See unstable. 

fluid, n. Spec, liquid, gas, aura, humor 

fluidify, V. i. Spec, gasify, liquefy. 
flurry, n. 1. excitement, agitation, bustle, 

fluster, confusion. 

Cross references: sec Note. 
flooded: afloat. 
flossy: ixUcy, downy. 
floorlslilnc: prosperout, luxuri- 
flow, V. t. A n.; throw. 

flown: gone. 

fluctuate: vary, waver, twing. 

flue: fluff. 

fluke: arm, lobe. 

flume: channd. 

flummenr: noruente, porridge. 


IkvaaHL, V. i.: faU. 
flunk, n.: failure. 
flunkey: manservant, footman. 
flnoreeoentt {umtiMtcenf. 
fluny, V. t.: bualle. 

tST See Notes of Ezplan»tlon. 


%. See 

S. redden' (conltaJuoi), mantle ("/ <*« 

clieelc); spec, blush, fluster. 
flnih, V. t. 1. flood; apee. wash. 

S. reddea (contexlaal), inflame. 

■. See EL&TB. 
flnih, n. 1. See flow, flood, THRILL, 


S. redness (conlexlwU), color (cimteTfuaJ), 
rubicundity (rare; rhelorieal or afiiterf), 
glow; spec, blush, bloom, hectic (rare). 
Antontpns: see pallor. 
fluBh, V. I. start (uaed esp. with "up"), rise; 
spec, retrieve. 
flnahcd. a. t. red ieonleiluat}, flush, rubi- 
cund (rare; rhelorieal or stUled), ruddy, 
' wine; tnec. hectic, b' 


flaulo (ludian); spec, diaulos (Greek 
arUig.}, fife, tibia, flautine (Italian), 
poogye (Ilindit nogefiule), piccolo. 
I. channel {amleiiiuU) , groove; spec, gof- 
fer, gauffer, crimp. 

flutia, B. i. plaj[ (coiUextiiai), pipe (con- 
lexlual); spec, tibicinate (rare), fife. 

flutist, n. player (eoiileztua.1), flut«r (rare), 
piper (coiUexlual), flautist: spec, fifer, 

flutter, n. 1. See flap. 
 i^tation, twitter (eolhg. or dial.), flut- 
teration (coUoq, or slang), twitteratlon 
(slang); spec, play, tremmc, confusion. 

flutt«F, 1). i. playi wave. 

fly, B. ». 1, Spec, wing, flit; clip (archaic), 
flitter, soil, flutter, soar, kite, glide, flick- 
er, hover, rode, outfly (poetic), rocket, 
sweep, flush, hang. 
I. See MOVE, GLrnB, float, depaht, 


fly, V. 1. 1. In hunting with a hawk: chase. 
a. See FLEE. 

fly, n. 1. Spec, tsetse, bot, bott, dun, gran- 
nom, dunfly, dtpter (tech.), drake, gnat, 
midge, bluebottle, ichneumon, breeze, 
I. Referring to artificial flies: spec. 
hackle, harl, palmer, butcher, governor, 

Sackle, grannom, Dobson (U. 5.), dun, 
mfly, dropper, heckle, goldfinch, hornet. 
flyer, n. I. volator (rare); spec, bird, bat, 
squirrel, sauropter, saurian. 

|»" Ctoss rtfiraus: nw Noie. Sditretei rm/t 

fliuh, (. I.: ritt. Sutcd: chanrtfti 

flmh, a.: abtmnditiff. abundant. 

a. See 

flylDK. n. 1. 

(rar^), flight. 

flylnci o, volant (ra 

spec, cireumvolant. 
foam, n. froth (less dignified than "foa. 

spec. Bcum, cream, mantle, head, spume, I 

lather, suds (coUoq.; -pi.). 
loftm, c. i. [roth; spec, s 

tie, spume, bead. 
foam, II. I. befoam (an tnterurive), froth; 

spec, scum, mantle, spume (rare). i 

foamy, a. frothy; spec, creamy, spumoua, 

spumy, spuraescent, lathery. 
foouc, V. t. center, concenter, converge, 

concentrate, focalire; — all bid "Joeaiize," . 

Antonyms: see scatter. 
fodder, n. feed, provend (artiiMe); spec. , 

Grovender, chaff, browse, wintfirins, ensi- 
ige, silage, ramoon (East India), hay, 

oats, beans, etc. 
tag, n. I. cloud (eonlexlual), mist (eoniexl- 

ual), brume (rare), nebula (rare); spec. 

haze, smother, 

*. See HAZB. 
toggy, a. 1. cloudy (eonlextuat), thick, 

misty (amlextual), hazy, brumous (liler- I 

01^), nebulous (ra 

tagf, n. fogrom, fogrura, fossil, foozle; — ' 
all coUoq. or slang, and used esp. vktk I 

toll, n. 1. See sheet. 

S. foliation; s^. trefoil, quatrefoil, | 

einquefoil, sexfoit. 

t. In arl, etc.: contrast, set-off; spec 

foist, V. i. I. See intbosucb. 
9. palm. 
fold, n. 1. folding, double, doubling, turn, 

Elication (leeh.), plicature (Irdt.); s 
ip, coil, induplication (rare), folaure 
(rore), ply, plait or pleat, tu»jc, wimple 
{arehaie or Scot.), plica, ruga, folio, anti- 
cline, isocline, syncline, wrap, bosom, 
nook (Scot.), wrinkle. 


fold, V. I. 1. double, turn, pUcate (lech.); 
spec, lap, coil, plait or pleat, tuck, ruckle 1 
(ri^e), mterfold, wrap, infold. 
Anlimj/ins: see unfold. 



i.; Awry. bunlU. 
fliutvyi coTifvred. 

Oy, 1  fliaM. lenois. lafl. 

fob, n..- pocktt, chain. 
C?* Bee Nat« dI ZipUsmt 


folded, a. plicate {tech.); spec, lapped, in- 
duplicate, double, etc. 

follow, V. t. 1. accompany {contextual) f at- 
tend {contextual); spec, heel, dodge, tag 
{coUoq.)y dog, hound, hunt, bedog {inten- 
sive) y trail. 

ArUcmyms: see lead, precede, preface. 
2. trace, run; spec, retrace. 
S. See PURSUE, succeed, adopt, ob- 
serve, COPY. 

follow, V. 1. 1. Spec, heel, tag, attend, hunt. 
2. come {contextual) f attend, succeed, en- 
sue, emanate {rare); spec, result. 

follower, n. 1. sectary or sectator {rare); 
spec, successor, pursuer, heeler. 
Antonyms: see forerunner, predeces- 
2. See adherent. 

following:, a. sequent {chiefly spec.), sub- 
sequent {chiefly spec), secjuacious (rare), 
sequential {rare), succeeding, successive, 
attendant, ensuing, consecutive. 
Antonyms: see preceding, prefatory. 

following:, n. 1. followers {pL): spec. 
clientele, clientelage, clientage, clientry, 

2. Of the act: spec, succession, consecu- 
tion, pursuing. 
Antonyms: see precedence. 

foment, v. t. 1. bathe; spec, embrocate. 
2. See foster, incite. 

fond, a. 1. See foolish, pet. 
2. affectionate; spec, {as implying excess 
or bad judgment) overfond, doting. 
Antonyms: see cold. 

S. partial {used with "to**; coUoq.); spec. 
greedy {used with ''of'). 

fondness, n. 1. afTection. 
2. desire {contextual), appetite, partiality 
{used with '7o" or "for''), taste, gout 
{French), relish. 

font, n. Of type: fount, letter {tech.). 

font, n. 1. Eccl.: laver, delubrum {rare). 
2. See fountain, spring. 

food, n. nourishment, nutriment, nutri- 
tion, nurture {literary or learned), aliment 
{chiefly tech.), nouriture {rare), foodstuff 
(chiefly spec, and commercial), ingesta 
{pL; tech.), meat {archaic, exc. in * meat 
and drink"), victuals {pi.; now chiefly 
tech. or somewhat inelegant), viands {pi.), 
tackle {sIoTig), scran {slang), scraps (pi.), 
creature {literary or dial.), provisions {pi.), 
provant {rare), provand {rare), proviance 
{literary or rare) , pro vend {archav), prov- 
ender (now humorous or referring to food 
for animals), pabulum {referring to food for 

animals or plants, exc. as humorous), prog 
{slang), peck {slang), grub {slang, dud., or 
cant), cram {dud. Eng.), belly timber {aT- 
chaic or died.), belly cheer {archaic), tuck 
{slang), crug {slang, Eng.), tack {chiefly 
in '* hardtack'*); spec, ration, board, fare, 
cates or acates {pi.; archaic) ^ bit {chiefly 
dial.), livery {hist.), diet, dish, dietary, 
slops {pi.; slang or cant), bait, delica- 
tessen {pL), mash, manna, flummery, 
scrapple {U. S.), browse, bite, bread, 
flesh, greens, ete. Cf. feed. 

food, a. cibarious {rare), cibarian (rare). 

fooling:, n. 1. foolery, tomfoolery; spec. 
nonsense, buffoonery. 
2. See deception. 

foolish, a. 1. See unwise. 
2. senseless, silly, empty-headed, fatuous, 
fond {archaic), inane, goosish {rare; col- 
loq.), goosy {rare; coUoqT), desipient {rare), 
brainless, weak, light-minded, empty, 
daft, harebrained; spec, lunatic, soft, 
buffoonish, crazy, idiotic, imbecile, vain, 
Antonyms: see wise. 

S. deranged {contextu^al), sawney (coUoq.); 
see imbecile. 

foolishness, n. 1. See unwisdom. 
2. foolery {chiefly concrete), folly, fond- 
ness {archaic), desipience {rare), silli- 
ness, jackassery {contemptuous), fatuity, 
fatuousness {chiefly the quality); spec. 
lunacy, inanity, vanity, dotage, idiocy 
{colloq.), infatuation, ineptness, madness, 
Antonyms: see wisdom. * 

foot, n. 1. extremity {affected or humorous), 
pedal {humorous or affected), dewbeater 
{slang; chiefly in pi.), paw {esp. spec); 
spec, pad, heel {fig., or the hind foot), nooi, 
barefoot, splayfoot, clubfoot. 
2. See bottom, base, end, infantry, 

S. In prosody: unit; spec, dactyle, tri- 
brach, trochee, iambus, diabrach, pyr- 
rhic, dochmiac, dichoree, diiamb, etc. 

foot, a. pedal {affected or humorous, exc. as 

foot, V. i. Spec, walk, hoof {slang); — used 
wUh 'Ht." 

football, n. 1. pigskin {coUoq.), leather 

2. Of the game: spec, ru^r (slang), rugby, 
soccer {slang), association. 

footlig^hts, n. pi. floats {cant). 

footman, n. servant {contextual), Jeames 

tW Cross references: see Note. 

foliaceous: leafy. 

folJase: leafage. 

foliation: fotl, leafage, leafing. 

folio: word, leaf. 

folk: kindred, people, nation. 
folly: foolishness. 
fondle: caress. 
fondling: pet. 
foods tuff: food. 

fool, n..* simpleton, buffoon, tm- 

fool, V. t.: deceive. 
foolhardy: venturesome. 
foot, V. t.: add. 

t^^ See Notes of Explanation. 


tootpktha n, footway; ipee. sidewalk, berm. 

footprint, n, ste]) nr footstep, vestige (lU- 
erarji); spec, prick, track, Iraco, pug 
{Aiiglo-Indian), seal, pad, ictmite, icb- 
nol'te, ornithiehnite. 

faot-ihap«d, n. pcdifona (lech.'). 

tootsoIdlBT. infantryman, footmSin (rare), 
peon {India), arabby (slang atid opprabri- 
<na), infantry (a eoUediue) ; spec. pellaBt. 

foat*t«p, n, 1. footfull, tread (ehiefiy 
spec.); av^c. clamp, tnunp, pad. 


footstool, n. Spec, ottoman, buffet, has- 

for, prep. att«r. 

foibeaianoe, n. abatention, desiatance; 

forbeulnE, a. Spec, patient, sparing, 
mild; see tolerant. 

forbid, V. t. 1. prohibit, enjoin: spec, inter- 
dict, ban, taboo, proscribe, debar, inhibit, 
disallow, veto, embargo. 
AnlimyTna: see en), ask, APi*otNT, peb-mtt. 

forblddanoe, n. prohibition (Jormal), for- 
biddal; spec, veto, interdiction, ban, in- 
hibition, debarment, proBcription, taboo, 
disallowance, embargo. 
Antonyms; see 

forbidden, a. prohibited (formal); spec. 
interdicted, taboo, prescribed, contra- 
band, unlawful. 

tocblddtoc, a. 1. prohibitory (formal); 
sjKc. interdictory, intflrdictive (rare), in- 
hibitory or inhibitive. 

(oioo, n. 1. energy, power; spec, principle, 
djrname, vehemence, strain, head, might, 
bur {ehUfiy Scot.), cram, dint (in "by 
dint of"), vim {eoMog.), via (Latin), rap- 
ture (rare), wrench, twist, stress, tension, 
compression, shear, brunt; see energt. 
%. Qf lariguase, ideat, etc.: enei^; spec. 
emphasis, pith, nervousness, sway, effi- 
cacy, cogency, snap (coUiiq.), pithines-s. 
>. See VIOLENCE, compulsion, con- 

4. body, corps, array (rkelorical); spec. 
crew, poaae, posse comitatus (Latin), 
army, command, tercio, impi (Kaffir), de- 
tachment, patrol, regiment, squadron, 
battalion, fleet, convoy, etc. 

toToa, V. t. I. effect (rare); spec, squeene, , 

pre«s, elbow, pinch, drive, hurst, bear, 
mch, rush, hustle, repel, inject. 


forced, a. artificial, unspontaneous (rare); 
spec, harsb, strained, constrained, com- 

!, dynamic, vigorous, V\ 

lorciblft, a. 1. energetic; spec, vehement, 

heady; see energetic. 
Antonj/ini: see weak. 


S, efficacious, forceful; spec, (of language, 
ideas, etc.) sinewy, nervous, pithy, ro- 
bustious (rore), important; see cogent. 

ford, n. crossing (eoTUextual), shallow (eon- 
textual), fordage, wade (collog.); apee. 
ghaut or ghat. 

ford, B. I. cross (eontexluai), wade. 

fore, a. anterior, forward; spec, first, front, 
Anlonyina: see hind. 

forebode, v. t. 1. anticipate (amiextaal)l 


torebodlDB, a. anticipative (contextual), i 
forebodeful, presageful, presentieat (rore); ' 
spec, croaking, croaky, etc. CJ. forebode. 

torebodiiiK, n. anticipation (eoniextaal), 
presage, presentiment (dignified), boding, 
premonition, preaeneion (rare), bode (oi^ 
chaic), boderaent (rare); spec, preappre- 
hension (rare), croaking, etc. Cf. FOBS- 

torexTOand, n. front, fore (rare); spec 
Aidnnymn: see BACKOROtiND. 

forehead, n. metopon (tech.), brow, front 
(poetic or rhetorical). 

lorohead, a. metoplc (tech.), frontal. 

loreltn, a. 1. exterior, outride, external, 
peregrine (rare), strange (archaic, exe. 
specl), outlandish (chiefly spec.), outland 
(archaic), alien (chiefly spec.); spec, exotic, 
extraneous, extrinsic, barbaric, barbar^ 
ian, oversea, tramontane (rare), unnadvo 
(rore), metie. 


ArUonyms: see native, domestiCi in- 
1. see xtnnatural, apart, irrelevant, 


forttlcner, n. alien (chiefly 8pec.)f stranger 
(chiefly Bib.), outsider (contextual), out- 
lander (archaic or poetic), extern (rare); 
spec, exotic (rare), ultramontane, bar- 
iMurian, tramontane (rare). 
Antonyms: see native, citizen. 

forttlcnism, n. alienism (chiefly spec.); 
spec, exoticism. Gallicism, Briticism, 
Irishism, etc. 

foreknow, v. t. foresee, precognize (rare). 

foreknowledf e, n. prognostication (Uter- 
ary), prescience (chiefly spec.), presension 
(rare), presensation (rare), precognition 
(learned or literary), prenotion (rare); 
spec, preacquaintance (rare). 
Antonyms: see ignorance. 

forenslo, a. controversial, argumentative, 

forerun, v. t. precede, precourse (rare), 
precurse (rare); spec, anticipate, fore- 
shadow, introduce, prelude. 

forerunner, n. 1. predecessor, precursor; 
spec, apparitor (tech. or hist.)^ pioneer, 
prelude (only fi>g.), harbinger (chiefly lit- 
erary), outrunner, avant courier (French), 
prodromus (rare), herald. 
Antonyms: see follower. 
1. See ancestor. 

forerunning:, a. precursory, precurrent 
(rare), prodromal (rare). 

foresee, v. t. anticipate, previse (rare), 
forelook (rare), preview (rare), prevision 
(rare); spec, prognosticate, forecast. 

foreseeing:, a. prescient (chiefly spec), pre- 
cognizant (rare), previsive (rare). 

foreshadow, v. t. signify, indicate, shadow, 
prefigure, foreshow, adumbrate (learned); 
spec, presage. 

foreshadow, n. antitype. 

foresig^ht, n. anticipation, prescience 
(chiefly spec), preview (rare), prevision 
(rare), onsight (rare), prospection (rare), 
forelook, prospect (learned or literary); 
spec, providence, forecast. 

forest, n. woodland, wildwood (poetic or 
Antonyms: see prairie. 

forester, n. woodman; spec, woodward, 

forestry, n. woodcraft, silviculture; spec. 

foretaste, n. earnest, pregustation (rare), 

antepast (literary), handsel (chiefly Eng.); 

spec, prelibation (chiefly fi^.). 
foretaste, v. t. pregust (rare), anticipate. 
forethought, n. forecase (rare); spec. 

providence, anticipation, premeditation. 
Antonyms: see afterthought. 
forfeit, n. fine (contexttud), forfeiture; spec. 

forfeit, V. t. lose; spec, escheat. 

Antonyms: see gain. 
forfeitable, a. In law: spec, lapsable, 

escheatable, caducary. 
forge, n. furnace, smithy (now chiefly liter- 
ary), smithery (rare), stithy (rare); spec. 

bloomery, hearth. 
forge, V. t. 1. smith (rare), stithy (rare); 

spec, tilt, extund (rare). 


forger, n. 1. worker (contextual), smith; 
spec, blacksmith, whitesmith, goldsmith 
(archaic), silversmith (archaic), tilter, 
Cyclops, Vulcan, Hephsestus, Hephaistos. 


forgery, n. 1. smithing (rare)^ smithery 



forget, V. t. 1. oisremember (chiefly dial.), 
bury (fl>g. or coUoq.), oblivionize (rare), 
unknow (rare); spec, unlearn. 
Antonyms: see remember, recall. 
1. See OMIT. 

forgetful, a. 1. forgetting (rare, etc. spec), 
leaky (contemptiums or undigriijied), 
short (referring to the memory), oblivious, 
Antonyms: see retentive. 


S. Lethean; — causing forgetting. 

forgetfulness, n. forgettine, oblivion, 
Lethe (fig.), forgetness (rart), oblivious- 
ness, obhviscence (rare), forget (rare); 
spec, amnesty, limbo. 

forgiveness, n. remission (rare), pardon 
(spec, or fig.); spec, absolution, amnesty. 

forgiving, a. excusing, remissive (rare), 
Ardonyms: see UNFORGiviNa. 

forgo, V. t. abandon, forbear (by the exer- 
cise of self-restraint); spec, remit. 
Antonyms: see keep. 

forgoing, n. abandonment, forbearance; 
spec, remittal, remission. 

forgotten, a, unremembered, gone, disre- 
membered (chit fly dial.), lost. 
Antonyms: see retribution. 

tsr Cross references: sec Note. 
forMnoat, a.: first, chief. 
foreordain: appoint, destine. 
forepart: front. 
foreshow: foreshadow, signify. 
forestall: anticipate, prevent. 
foretaste: anticipate. 

foretell: predict. 
forethlnk: consider. 
foretoken, n.; sign. 
foretoken, r. t: signify. 
foreTer: eternally, alioaya. Also 

cf. constant. 
forewarn: team. 

foreword: preface. 
forcather*' gcUher, meet, asso- 
force, V. t.: invent, deviae. 
force, V. t..- overreach. 
forfflTe: excuse, absolve. 
forfflTeness: exeiue, abMolution. 

t^^ See Notes of Explanation. 


folk, n. 1. divarication (literary), crotch (a 
Komely word, now ekiefiy U. S. and dial. 
Eng,; chiefly tech. or apee.), crutch (rare); 
spec, tormentor, 

a. See BBANCH. 

fork. V, i. branch (contextual), furcate (lit- 
erary or lech.), divaricate {lileraryoTtech.); 
spec, biturcnte, trifurcote. 

tacked, a. torfcy (rare or spec.), crotched 
(see fork), furcate (liUrary). divaricate 
(litfrary); spec, bifid, biforked, bifurcate, 
trifurcate, htuate. 

torUnc, a. branching; »pee. dichotomous. 

tockliiKi n, branching, furcation (literary), 
divarication (literary or leek.); spec. 
dichotomy, trichotomy, bifurcation. 

lotto, n.  shape (more concrete and a less 
elevated term than "form"), figure, mold 
(orig. spec,); spec, galbe (French), model, 
impresaion, cast, toumure (French, chiefly 
eani), conformation, fashion (a word that 
is beaomiTig archaic in this sense), figura- 
tion, config'iration. outhne, build, format 
(French; tech.), gel-up (colioq.), cut, con- 
tour, eontectionj crystal, eic. 
>. ceremony, nto (chiefly spec), cere- 
monial, observance, formality; spec, con- 
ventionality, office, mystery (chiefly in 
pi.), ordinance, performance (often cnit- 
templuoia), liturgy, sacrament, sacra- 
mental, USB, augury, baptism, etiquette, 
cult, hierurgy, punctilio. 


iDEmt B. I. make, produce, efform (rare), 
shape, fashion (dignified), i:iform, consti- 
tute; spec, coin (often depreciatory), de- 
velop, organize, conceive, create, fabri- 
cate, fovmd, emboss, describe, block, 
model, mold, mingle, mix, arrange, con- 
struct, reconstmct, generate, compose, 
build, turn, cause, contract. 

form, V. i. Spec, develop, make, come, 

formal, a. 1. ceremonial, ritual, ceremoni- 
ous; spec, official, conventional, func- 
tional, perfunctory, pertunctionary (rare). 
Bet, modal, outward, solemn, academic, 
liturgical, Pharisaic or Pharisaical, exter- 

Antonyms: see iNTOEtUAL. 

S. Referring to ■mannert, actions, lan- 
guage, etc.: rigid, ceremonious, stiff, un- 
bending, precise; spec, prim, starch, puno- 
tiUous, Duckram (flg.), stilted, ri^d, af- 
fected, bombaatic, etc. 

Antonyms: sf-e ■pNCBaEMONiODa, collo* I 


lorm&Utr, n. 1. convention, conventional- 
ity, formulism, custom, circumstance, red 
tape (eliiefly spec.), wiggery (flg.; rare). 

punctilio, periunctoriness, 
s. See FOBM. 
iormallEe, v. t. 1. See define. 

■. Spec, conventionalize, ceremonialise. 

formation, n. formature (rare); spec, is- J 
vention, coinage, malformation, produc- 
tion, contrivance, development, composi- 
tion, creation, growth, coagulation (fig.), 
conformation, generation, genrais, r- 
struction, potence, echelon, terrane. 

formatlvo, a. fashioning, informative I 
(rare); spec, creative, morphotic, plastic, J 
shaping, modeling, cosmoplastic. 

locmeT, a. earlier, prior, previous, ci- i 
dcvant (French), sometime (ijidefinite), | 
whilom (archaic or literary), past, bygone, 
heretofore (rare), ouondara (ijtdefiniit; 
literary); spec, preceding, late. 
Anionyms: see subsequent, 

formeilj', a. heretofore, quondam (rare), 
erst (archaic or poetic), erstwhile (archaic), 



formidable, a. fearful, redoubtable (often 
humorously ironical); epee. doughty (or- 
chaic or rhetorical), difficult, dangerous, 
impassable, etc. 

formless, a. inform, chaotii!, shapeless, 
amorphous (ledi. or learned). 

formula, n. 1. form, formulary, rule; spec. 
(eed.) credo, behef, confession. 
I. recipe (used chiefly in medicine or 
cookery) , receipt (■used chiefly in cookery) , 
prescription (med.). 

lormnlate, a. t. state, formularise, formu- 
lize, frame, devise; spec, schematize, draw, 

lormnlatlon, n. statement, devising, for- ^^ 
mulanzation, formulisation. ^^H 

iDrtifloatloii, n. defense, stronghold, fast- ^^H 
ness, bulwark (ftlerar^), fort (ehisfiy ^^M 
spec); spec, fieldwork, citadel, fortlet, ^^H 
hold (archaic), capitol, fortalice, fortress, ^^^ 
rampart, rampire (archaic), redoubt, 
breastwork, redan, earthwork, tower, 
marlello-tower, baatile, sconce, keep, don- 
jon, curtain, surtout, lodgment, lunette, 
tenailie, gabionade, traverse, tambour, 
contravallation, flanker, castle, star, ar- 
cumvallation, tetragon, rath (Irish kitl.), 
mount or mound (hist.), presidio (Spattr' 
ish), burg (Gmiian), Kremlin (Russian), 

ID: Iru/u. 



zareba (in the Sudan), gurry (Anglo- 
Indian), pillbox (slang), post. 

fortify^ V. t. 1. strengtnen; spec, brace 
(oneself or one^s spirits), encourage, 

2. fence (literary or a rchaic)^ fort (rare), 
fortress; spec, rampart, rampu^ (archaic), 
fraise, stockade, wall, mound, battle (oba. 
or poetic), embattle, mure, entrench, 
counterscrap, countermure. 

fortunate, a. 1. See auspicious. 
2. prosperous, chancy (Scot.), happy, 
lucky, Tblessed; spec, successful, timely, 

Antonyms: see unsuccessful, unfor- 
tunate, UNLUCKY. 

fortunatelyv adv. happily, well, etc. 

fortune, n. 1. accident, chance, luck, hap 
(archaic); spec, goodhap (archaic); see 

2. luck, cast (obs. or dial.), lines (pL; ajter 
Ps. xvi. 6)^ fare; spec, prosperity, success, 
felicity, misfortune. 
Antonyms: see misfortune. 
S. See fate, wealth. 
4. competence, sufficiency, pile (coUoq.); 
spec, independence, plum (obsolescent 
slang, Eng.). 

forward, a. 1. onward, advancing, pro- 
gressive, progressing. 
Antonyms: see backward. 
2. See fore, ready, bold. 

forward, adv. onward or onwards (esp. in 
space), on, along, forth, forth ward (ar- 
diaic); spec, before, ahead, frontward, 
frontwards, forthright (archaic), ad- 
vanced, advancing. 
Antonyms: see backward. 

foster, V. t. aid (contextual), promote, 
cherish, nurture (rare, exc. spec.), nurse 
(fig. or spec); spec, foment, cosset, nuz- 
zle (fi^.; rare), mother (fig.), cultivate, 
patronize, cradle, nourish, harbor, en- 
Antonyms: see extinguish. 

fosterage, n. aid (contextual), promotion, 
nurture, nourish, nourishment; spec, fo- 
mentation, cultivation, patronage, en- 

foul, a. 1. dirty (contextual), impure, 
filthy, immund (rare), sordid (wUh filth or 
offensive dirt; a rather literary word), 
tetrous (rare), obscene (archaic or rare); 
spec, rank, festering, squahd, loathful 
(rare), noisome, feculent, loathsome, 
loathly (literary)^ loathy (rare), dreggy, 
polluted, disgustmg, fetid, muddy. 

Antonyms: see clean. 
2. See dirty, abobonable, entangled, 

UNFAIR, discreditable. 

S. Of toeather: spec, unfavorable (context- 

lud), black, dirty, nasty, rough, wet. 
Antonyms: see clear. 
foul, V. t. 1. dirty, defile, contaminate; 

spec, bemire, pollute, sully. 
Antonyms: see clean. 

2. See contaminate. 
fouling:, n. dirtying, defilement, etc. 
foulness, n. 1. dirtiness, impurity, filth; 

spec, feculence, squalor, squalidity (rare), 

squaUdness, loathsomeness, loathfiilness, 

pollution, bilge, putridity, etc. 


foundation, n. 1. base, basis, support, 
groundwork, bottom, suostruction {rare), 
substructure (rare), tablement (rare); 
spec, ground, rest, bed, bedding, ground- 

sel, stereobate, socle, pierre-perdu 
(French), sill, 
fond (French). 

t — — _ — - ^ — — , ^_____, 
(French), sill, grillage, riprap 




S. Spec, college, fellowship, monastery, 
church, etc. 

foundational, a. fundamental, basic, 

founder, n. establisher, author, projector, 
father, patriarch, organizer, foundress 
(fem.), builder; spec, oecist (rare), heresi- 

four, n. 1. quatre (French), tetrad; — re- 
ferring to the number. 

2. Referring to a group: quartet, quar- 
tette, quartetto (Italian; chiefly in music), 
tetrad, quaternion, quarternity (rare); 
spec, quatre (rare), tiddy, quatuor (music; 

four -angeled, a. quadrangular (learned). 

fourfold, a. quadruple, quaduplicate; — 
both learned. 

four-footed, a. quadruped, quadrupedal 
(rare), four-foot (poetic or obs.). 

four-handed, a. quadrumanous, quad- 
rumane, quadrumanal ; -^ a{2 mree tech. 
or learned. 

fourpenoe, n. groat, flag (coUoq, or cant, 

four- sided, a. quadrilateral, tetrahedral; 
— both tech. or learned. 

fourth, n. quarter, quartern (ohs. or rare). 

f ourway, a. quadrivial (of roads; learned 
or rare). 

fowl, n. !• See bird. 
2. gallinacean (tech.), chicken (primarily 
spec.), poultry (a collective); spec, hen, 

Cross references: see Note. 
fortitude: courage. 
fortnightly: biweekly. 
fortress: fortification. 
fortuitous: accidental. 
fortuity: chance. 

forum: court. 

forward, a.: fore, precocioua, as- 
suming, impudent. 
forward, r. t.: advance, send. 
fossil: remains, fon. 
fossilise: petrify. 

fossorlal: dipoing. 
fouled: difiud. 
found, V. U: cast. 
found, V. t.: base, esUMish, colo- 
foandf V. %.: rdy. 

IS* See Notes of Biplaiiatloii* 


biddy (now chiefly collaq. or humoroim), 
cock, capon, chick, pullet, broiler, roaster. 

tax, n. Charley or Charlie (used an a prop. 
name), reynajd (quaei proper name), low- 
rie (jpMst proper name; Scot,); spec, vixen, 
whelp, CUD. 

loshontec. pink (eanJ). 

toxj, a. 1. alopecoid (tech.), vulpine 
(learned or lech.), vulpeculaj- (rare), 
a. SeeABTfOi.. 

fncment, n. 1. part (amlextual), division 
(etmiexlual), fraction (rare); spec, crumb, 
flinders (pi.), frittem (pt.; rare), smitbera 
(pi.; coUoq.), sqiithereenB (pi.; eoUoq.), 
ortfl (pi.), frustum (rare), calf, sliver, 
shiver, splinter, morsel, chip, shard, 
ehred, brickbat, potaherd, crock, sippet, 
■. See PAET. 

teacrant, a. sweet; spec, aromatic, spicy 
(o ttronger term than aromaiic), balmy, 
ambrosial or arabroaian. perfumy (rare). 
ATttonjfnts: ae« fetid, tLL-sHGLLINa, 

Intme, n. I. See btbuctore. 
t. framework; apet. case, curb, yoke, 
griff, gate (rare), tenter, sash, easel, rack, 
cadge or cage, casement, chase, brake, cof- 
fin, nurst, crib. 
■. See DiBPOfiiTtoN. 

tTKme, V. t. 1. See adapt, ikcunx. 
S. construct, enframe (rare), form; spec. 
set, build, erect. 
S. devise, form; see intent, compose. 

point-blaok, unequivocal, outright, Dun- 
stable ifi^.; literary), candid, downright, 
unreserved, open-hearted, c^ve, sincere, 
liberal, open, undisguised, guileless, art- 
lea's, genuine, unartful, free-hcarled. 
AntonyinB: see hypocritical, affected, 


bkntio, a. excited (amtextual), frenzied, 
phrenetic (rore), desperate, transported, 
craiy (spec, or coUoq.), distraught (liler' 
ary), distract or (mare ueuatly) distracted; 
spec, passionate, ecstasied or ecstatic, 
tnad, horn-mad, mfiiriale, delirious, mad' 
ding (poetic), mtenadic, must, daft, giddy. 

(laatloneM, n. excitement, desperateneaa, 

desperation, distractedness, frenzy, furor, 

fury, mania, etc. 
trateralty, n. brotherhood; spec, frii 

society (contextual), club ' 

synomasy (rare), 
fray, if. {. rub, wear, frazzle ( U. S. and dial. . 

Tn0.),' xpee. fret, shred, tatter, Tavel. 
'Fray" is often used teUk "<mi." 
fraafc, n, I. See cafbice. 

B. lusus natune (Latin), abnormality, 

monstrosity (ckiefijj spec.); spec, sport, 

mutation, comic^ty, Judy (fig.), abor- 

freakr, a. 1. See capriciotjb, 
S. abnormal, sportive, monstrous (chiefly 
spec.); spec, abortive, 

freokle, n. spot (contextual), blemish (a 
eonlcxiiud sense), fleck, lentigo (tech.), 
fernticle (obs. or dial). 

lieokle, V. I. spot (contextual), discolor 
(contextual), fleck. 

free, a. 1. independent, frank; spec, eman- 
cipated (rare), emancipate (rare), mano- 
mitted, liberated, unenslaved, libertine 
(obs. or hisL), franlt (obs.), ransomed, siu 
juris (Roman laic), free-bom. 

3. self-governing, autonomous (learntd or 
lech.), independent, 

S. Referring to physical freedom: loose, 
unconfined, unrestricted, bondless, un- 
trammcled, unrestrained, quit, uncon- 
trolled, inadherent, unimpeded, unat- 
tached, uncombined, solute, clear (as a 
rope), unentangled. 
Antonyms: see coNyiNED. 

4. costless, expenseless, gratuitous^ gratis 
(a less dignified term than "graluUous"), 

B. exempt; spec, immune, privileged. 
(. See affable, OEKERons, carelebb, 


fiee, I', I. I. liberate, release, deliver, m^ 
cue, loose (chiefiy spec.); spec, redeeio, 
ransom, manumit, emancipate, disen- 
slave (rare), disenthrall (liierary), enfran- 
chise (tech. or lileraTy), forisfamiliate (Bo- 
man law), unvassal (rare), enlarge (rore or 
law), discharge, parole (fig.), dip, disen- 
twine, disimprison, disincarcerate (rare), 
disimmure (rare), disbody (rare), disem- 
body (rare), relaJi (Scots Into), unbind, 
clear, extricate, unleash, uncloister (i ' 




lTK(iiiaDt*ry: ■'■du 
Iimcrmiio*: ameU. 

le NotH ol Explanatlda. 

aupciai$. ^^H 


unchain, unpen, unfetter, uncage, dis- 
embed, disyoke, eliminate, evolve, oisem- 
barrass, disencumber. 
Antonyms: see pledge, pawn, fasten, 


a. Referring to freeing from what holds 
fast: disengage, liberate, clear; spec, dis- 

S. Rejerring to freeing from evilj oppres- 
sion^ etc.: deliver, relieve (rare, exc. spec.), 
rid (emphatic); spec, disburden, unburden, 
debarrass (rare), disencumber, dispossess, 
emancipate, discharge, clear, disengage, 
Antonyms: see bind, commit, enslave. 

4. exempt; spec, privilege, excuse, im- 
munize, frank (rare). 

tr«ebooter» n. desperado (contextual); 
spec, pirate, berserK, berserker, viking, 

tree- bom, a. ingenuous (chiefly Roman 

treedman, n. libertine (Rom>an hist); 
spec, deditician (Roman hist.). 
Antonyms: see bondsman. 

freedom, n. 1. independence, liberty; spec. 
emancipation, manumission, release, de- 
livery, ransom, rescue, etc. 
ArUonyms: see bondage, slavery. 
1. liberty, unrestraint, play, disenga^ 
ment, enlargement, discharge, disimpris- 
onment, disembodiment, etc. 
Antonyms: sec confinement. 

5. self-government, independence, auton- 
omy (Immed or tech.). 

4. liberty, license, swing (often coUoq.), 
latitude, oreadth; ^pec. ease, discretion. 

5. exemption, impunity; spec, immunity, 


freeholder, n. franklin (ohs. or hist.), 
charterer (hist.); spec, yeoman. 

freeing, n. 1. liberation, emancipation, 
manumission, deUverance, enfranchise- 
ment, release, ransom, disenthrallment, 
Antonyms: see enslavement. 
1. Spec, discharge, disembarrassment, 
exemption, clearing, quittance, disen- 
cumberment, disengagement, delivery, 
releasement (rare), riddance, loosing, 
dispensation, relief, deliverance, enlarge- 
ment, elimination, disembodiment, dis- 
incarceration, disimprisonment, disen- 
gage, immunization, redemption, etc. 
S. exemption ; spec, privileging. 

freely, adv. Spec, gratis. Cf. free, a. 

freeman, n. Spec, noble, ceorl (Eng, 
hist.), burgess, burgher, liveryman, citi- 

free-thinker, n. libertine (disparaging), 
antinomian (learned); spec, skeptic, un- 

free-will-ist, n. libertarian (disparaging), 

freeze, v. t. 1. congeal (contextual), chill 
(contextual), befreeze (inter^sive). 
Antonyms: see boil. 
2. See stick. 

freeze, v. i. 1. cool; spec, regelate. 
ArUonyms: see boil. 
S. See stick. 

freeze, n. congelation, cooling; spec, frost. 

freightage, n. Spec, cartage, wagonage, 
ferriage, etc. 

freighter, n. Spec, loader, forwarder, 
shipper, vessel. 

French, a. Gaulish (poetic or humorous), 
Gallic (somewhat humorous). Galilean 
(learned or hist.). Parleyvoo (humorous); 
spec. Romance, creole, Frenchy, Frenchi- 

Frenchify, v. i. & t. Gallicize. 

Frenchman, n. Parleyvoo (humorous), 
Froggy (slang); spec, creole. 

frenzy, n. excitement (contexttud) , passion, 
transport, ecstasy (chiefly spec.); spec. 
rapture, fury, delirament (rare), heat, 
rage, turiosjty (rare), furor, orgasm 
(rare), furiousness, burn (fig.), chafe 
(archaic), rave (rare)^ oestrus or oestrum, 
must, distraction, delu^um, derangement, 
enthusiasm, fanaticism, fad; see also 


frenzy, v. t. excite, transport, ecstasy 
(chiefly spec.), rap (chiefly spec.); sj>ec. 
ravish, rapture, distract, enrapture, im- 
passion, furify (rare), madden, enrage. 

frequency, n. 1. oftenness (rare), oitness 
(archaic), thickness (in space or time), 
quotiety (rare), howmanyness (rare); 
spec, repetition, habitualness. 
Antonyms: see infrequency. 
S. commonness (cf. common). 

frequent, a. 1. often (archaic or rare), 
thick (in space or time); spec, many, daily, 
hourly, rapid, minutely, momentary. 
Antonyms: see infrequent. 

frequent, v. t. haunt (often spec.); spec. 
infest, affect, visit, use (rare), attend, 
ghost (rare), overrun. 

frequentation, n. haunting, infestation, 
visitation, use (rare, exc. spec), attend- 

frequenter, n. haunter, resorter, habituj 
(French), etc. 

f3^ Cross references: see Note. 
free-handed: generous. 

free-hearted: frank. 
free lanoe: adventurer. 

freight: load. 
freiiBled: frantic. 

tW See Notes of Explanation. 



fresh, a. 1. new, recent; spec, green, warm, 

Antonyms: see ancient. 
S. Referring to meatf vegetables, etc: caller 
(Scot.); spec, green, uncured, unsmoked, 
undried, crisp. 

Antonyms: see withered. 
S. unsalted, sweet; — referring to water, 
food, etc. 

4. Of the air, etc.: spec, pure, sweet, re- 

Antonyms: see close. 

5. Spec, unexhausted, energetic, bloom- 
ing, clear, strong, vivid, brilliant, addi- 
tional, green, dewy, unobliterated, brisk. 

Antonyms: see exhausted, tired, wea- 

freshen, v, L refresh, revive, liven; spec. 
renew, brighten, quicken, brisk or 

freshman, n. novice; spec, plebe (U. S.; 
coUoq.), puny (Eng.), bejan (Scot., but obs. 
at Edinburgh). 

freshness, n. 1. newness, recency; spec. 

2. Spec, brilliance, bloom, dewiness, ver- 
dure, vigor, flush, glow, energy, strength, 
Antonyms: see weariness. 

fret, V, t. 1. erode, gall, chafe; see fray. 
2. See agitate, annoy, irritate. 

fret, V. i. 1. erode, chafe; spec. fray. 
2. chafe, fume, stew (colloq.); spec, worry, 
repine, ferment, boil {colloq. or slang). 
S. roughen, ripple, babble; — referring to 
water, etc. 

fret, n. 1. erosion, chafe; spec, breach. 
2. agitation, chafe, stew (colloq.), fume; 
spec, ferment, fermentation, worry. 

friar, n. 1. ecclesiastic {contextv^l) , frate 
(Italian), shaveling (opprobrious), broth- 
er; spec, mendicant, breviger (hist.), car- 
meUte, Franciscan (Gray Friar), Domin- 
ican (Black Friar), Augustinian, Mini- 
mite (rare)'. Minim, Minor, tertiary, dis- 
calceate, limiter (hist.), cordeUer (Fran- 
ciscan), calender (Mohammedan; a loose 
2. See MONK. 

friary, n. association \contextuaI) , friars 
(pi.), convent. 

friend, n. 1. intimate (contextu^al) , Da- 
mon (fig.), familiar. 
Antonyms: see enemy. 
2. approver (cf. approve). 

friendliness, n. amicability, amity, cor- 

diahty; spec, brotherliness, neighborli- 
ness, kindness, etc. 

Antonyms: see opposition. 
friendly, a. 1. amicable, cordial; spec. 
brotherly, kindly, neighoorly, lovesome 
(archaic), friendlike. 

Antonyms: see unfriendly. 


frig^hten, v. t. fright (rare or poetic), fear 
(archaic), affray (rare), affright (chiefly 
literary), alarm, scare, frav (archaic) ^ 
funk (slang); spec, appall, shoo, terrify, 
terrorize, dismay, gaily (dvat. or whaling) t 
horrify, freeze, cow, daunt, startle, con- 
sternate, intimidate, stampede, drive. 
Antonyms: see encourage, entice. 

frill, n. 1. edging; spec, jabot, purl, nich- 
ing, ruche (French). 


fring^e, n. border, edge, fimbriation (tech.), 
fimbrilla (dim.; tech.); spec, phylactery 
(erroneous), bulUon, macram6, bang, fim- 

fringe, v. t. border, edge, fimbriate (tech.). 

fringed, a. bordered, edged, fimbriate 
(tech.), frin^, jubate (tech.; rare); spec. 
ciUate or ciliated, cirrated. 

frisky, a. lively (contextual), antic; see 


frivolity, n. frivolousness, lightness, einp- 
tiness, foolishness, fribble, levity, flip- 
pancy, trifling, flimsiness, silliness, vola- 
tihty, flightiness, giddiness, frippery, 

frivolous, a. light, empty, foolish, light- 
minded, li^ht-headed, fribble, contemptu- 
ous, trifling, frippery (contemptuous), 
eiddy, flimsy, silly, volatile, flighty, frivol 
(colloq. or slang), fribblish (fare), butter- 
fly (fig.), unideaed (rare), jiggish (rare), 
trumpery; spec, overlight, flippant, hoity- 

frock, n. Spec, gown, dress, overall, coat, 

frog, n. 1. amphibian (contextual; tech.), 
paddock (Scot); spec, frogling, tadpole. 
2. Referring to part of a horse* s foot: 
cushion, frush. 

froglike, a. batrachoid, raniform; — both 

frolic n. play, caper, sport, lark, sky- 
lark (colloq.), prank, trick (colloq.) ; spec. 
romp, rollick, escapade, racket (slang), 
spree (colloq.), hoity-toity (rare), gambol, 
curvet, frisk, merrymaking, cantrip 
(chiefly Scot.). 

tW Cross references: see Note. 

freshet: flood. 

freshly: <igain. 

fret: ornament, variegate. 

fretful: irascible, agitated, gusty. 

friable: crumbly. 

friotlon: rubbing, dissension. 

fright: /ear. 
frightened: afraid. 
frightful: alarming. 
frigid: cold, dull, distant. 
frlgorlflo: cooling. 
frippery: /?ner|/. show. 
frisk: caper, frolic. 


fritter, n.; fragment. 

fritter, v. t.: break, waste, trifle. 

frlTOl, r. t.; trifle. 

friz, frizz: curl. 

frizzle: curl, cook. 

frizzly: curly. 

t^ See Notes of Explanation. 



frolio, V. t. play, prank (rare), sport; spec. 
rollick, caper, romp, lark, skylark (coUoq.), 
freak, frisk, gambol, curvet, wanton, 
spree {coUoq.). 

froliosome, a. playful, frolic, sportful, 
sportive, prankful {rare), prankish (rare); 
spec, frisky, frisk, larkish (coUoq.), larky 
(colloq.)y larking (coUoq.), rompisn, nmip- 
ing, rompy, ^d, skittish, noity-toity, 

txonifVrep. fro (Scot, and dial.); spec, with, 
off, of. 
ArUonipns: see toward. 

front, n. 1. Spec, forehead, face, look. 
1. fore (chiefly tech. or a quasi noun), 
forepart, forefront (emvhatic), foreside 
(obs. or tech.); spec, van, nead, beginning, 
foreground, proscenium (tech., exc. 
learned as fi^. or transferred), heading, 
breast, frontage, belly; see foreground. 
Ardonyms: see back. 

S. Referring to a building: face, fagade, 
frontal, frontispiece (rare). 
Antonyms: see back. 

4. Referring to an army, etc.: van; spec. 


front, V. t. 1. See face, oppose, meet, 


5. lead (go in front), head (by having the 
front place), face. 

frontier, n. border, coast (archaic), 

frontlet, n. band, frontal; spec, cham- 
frain, forestall. 

frost, n. 1. See freeze. 
S. Referring to white frost: hoarfrost, rime 
(literary or tech.), crainreuch (Scot.), hoar 

frosted, a. hoary. 

frown, V. i. scowl, lower or lour, gloom, 
glout (rare), glower, cloud (contextual), 
Anlonyms: see smile. 

frown, n. scowl, lower or lour, gloom 
(chiefly Scot.), flout (rare), glower, cloud 
(contextiud) . 

frowning, a. scowling, lowering or lour- 
ing, lowry or loury, glooming, glowering, 
clouded (contextual), cloudy (contextual). 

fruotlfloatlon, n. fecundation, fertiUza- 
tion, impregnation; spec, masculation, or- 
tho^amy^ heterogamy, autogamy, self- 

fructify, V. t. fecundate, fertilize (chiefly 

spec), impregnate (cause to become preg^ 
nant; chiefly spec); spec fruit. 

fructifying, a. fructincative (rare), fecun- 
datory (rare or tech.), fertihzing, fructifer- 
ous (rare). 

frugal, a. 1. sparing, chary; spec, abstemi- 
ous, economical. 
2. See SCANTY. 

fruit, n. 1. Spec fruitlet, fruitling (rare), 
fruitage (a collective), follicle, drupel, 
drupelet, key, samara, legume, mericarp, 

2. produce (a collective sing.), vegetable 
(with no definite distinction from ** fruit** in 
popular use). 
S. See PRODUCT, effect, outcome, good, 


fruit, V. i. fructify; spec. bear. 

fruit -bearing, a. frugiferous (rare), fruo- 
tuous (chiefly spec). 

fruit -eating, a. frugivorous, fructivorous; 
— both tech. 

fruitful, a. 1. productive, fertile, fecund 
(archaic or rare), prolific, feracious (rare), 
fructuous (chiefly spec); spec, teeming, 
polyphorous (rare), teemful, uberous 
(rare), plenteous (chiefly poetic), good, 
broody or breedy (dial, or coUoq.), exuber- 
ant, eugenesic (rare), fat or latty, rich, 
gleby (rare), proliferous; — m<iny of these 
terms being used, figuratively or by trana^ 
fer, of the mind, imagination, etc. 
Antonyms: see barren, unproducttvb. 
2. See productive. 

fruit grower, horticulturist (contextual); 
spec, orchardist, orchardman. 

fruit growing, horticulture (contextual); 
spec, pomiculture (rare), pomology. 

fruiting, n. fruitage. 

fry, V. t. cook (contextual); spec, saut^ 
frizzle, fricassee. 

fry, n. Spec fricandeau, frizzle, fricassee. 

fuel, n. firing (Eng, or archaic); spec. 
kindling, breeze. 

fugitive, a. 1. fleeing; spec, runaway, hide- 
away (rare), 


fugitive, n. fleer (rare); spec, runaway, 
vagabond, wanderer, refugee, runagate 
(contemptumLs) . 

fulcrum, n. support. 
Antonyms: see lever. 

full, V. t. thicken (contextual); spec. mill. 

I^" Cross referenus: see Note. 

frontage: front. 

frontal: frontlet, front. 

froaty: cold, gray. 

froth, n.; foam, nomense, 

froth, V. t.; foam. 

frothy: foamy. 

frounc«: curl. 

froward: perverse. ]maldy. 

frowsy: slovenly, red, red-faced, 

frosen: congealed, cold. 

fructify: fruit. 
fruitage: fruiting. 
fruition: enjoyment. 
fruitless: barren, ineffectual. 
frustrate: defeat. 
fubby: fat. 
fuddle, V. t.: confuse. 
fuddle, V. i.: drink. 
fuddle, n : confusion, carouse. 
fudge, V. t.: fake. 
fudge, n.: nonsense. 

fudge, interj.: bosh. 
fugacious: transienL 
fuloruin, n.: support. 
fulfill: accomjAish, satisfy ^ obswt 

fulfillment: aceompHshmmUt 

satisfaction, obedienes, psr/orvi- 

fulgent: luminous. 
fulgurate: flash. 
fuliginous: dark, smoky. 


tST See Notes of Eiplanation. 




foil, a. 1. replete (a stronger and more 
farTnal term than "full"), plenitudinary 
(rare), plenitudJnous (rare); sfKC. brim- 
ful, flusn, swollen, chock-full or choke- 
full iaomeiehat coUoq,), crammed, crowded, 
packed, atuSed, overSowiiig, puffy. 
ATitonsfirig: see empty. 
I. satined, sated or satiated; spec. 
gorged {im plying frosa gonnandisiTig), 
craiomed (coIuhj.), stuffed. 
S. loose, flowing; spec, baggy, foldy 
(rare), pouched, pouchy. 

4. Re/erring to the voice: rounded, oro- 
tund (lileraTy), rotund (Jormalortech.). 


full, n. completion, utmost. 
loll-blaadcil, a. 1. plethoric, eauRuine, 

sanguineous, hiematose (rare); — aU four 

informal, learned, or literary use. 

M. Ref erring to breed, etc: pure, true. 
Anlmj/ms: tee btbiud. 
lollei, n. hammer {amtextual), hardy 

loUnest, n. i. repletion, repleteness (less 

vsutd), impletion (rare), plenitude 

(learned or Uterary), plenum (rare); «jmc. 

carcuinetantiaiity, puffin ess, satiety. 
Antonyms: see emptiness, vacanct. 

5. Spec, completeness, absoluteness, 
plumpness, rotundity, abundance, etc. 

folTOUBi a. yellow, fulvic (rare); spec. 

tawny, tan. 
tamlfate, f. I. 1. reek, suffumigate (rare), 

fume; spec, smoke, match, disinfect. 

a. See PEHFUUG. 
fun, n, 1. Spec, humor, wit, drollery, 

waggishness, waggery (rare). 

tiiniitlon, n. I. activity, duty, office, prov- 


1. /nTn<it'i..*8pec.Eine,coBine,8ecant,coBe- 
cant, logarithm, intermediate, faculty, e(c. 

tuaotlon, t>, t, act (contextval), function- 
ate (rare), serve. 

lund, n. accumulation, stock, supply: spec. 
box , reserve, pool , bank , cap! tal . endowment. 

lundknieiitBl, a. basic, basal, underlying, 

S round, bottom, basilar (rare); spec, car- 
inal; see eleuentart, essential. 

Antonyms: i 
fiin«tal, a. I. burial iconlextual), funeral. 
feral (rare), exequial (rare), epjcedial 
(rare), funebrial [rare), sepulchral; apee. 
funerary, elegiac. 


Iuhkui, n. Spec, mushroom, toadstool, 
bunt, fuzzball, bullfiat, puSball, mold, 
rust, smut, agaric, mildew, tuckahoe, 
champignon, truffle, morel, etc. 

tunnel, n. channel, tunnel (rare); ipec. in- 

Innnsl-ahaped, a. choanoid (tech.), in- 
fundibuliform (tech.). 

lunny, a. Spec, humorous, facetious, gro- 
tesque; see COMIC, ucohablb, odd. 

luT, n. skin (contextual), coat (conlextwd); 
spec, flix (rare), flick ((/iai.), calaber, er- 
mine, ermines, erminitea, erminois, budoe, 
miniver, pean, pashm, sable, kolinaky, 
woom (cant), vair, beaver, seal, etc 

tiul, V. I. Navi.: stow, hand. 

lulled, a. in (used predicaiively). 

lurnkoe, n. Spec, cupola, forge, calcar, 
kiln, chaufi'er, reverberatory, revolver, re- 
tort, roaster. 

tnTniah, f . t. I. provide, supply, dight (or- 
eliaic or dia{,);«pec. equip, accommodate, 
endow, store. 

S. supply, produce, give, yield, find, pro- 
vide, afford (o rather bookish term); tpee. 
advance, lend, sell, rent, etc. 

turnlshed, a. equipped, found, beseen (ar- 
chaic), etc. 

fiunishliiEi n. I, Referring to the action: 
provision, supplial, supplianoe (rore), fur- 
niahmcnt (rare); spec, purveyance, equip- 
ment, accommodation, endowment. 
S. Often in pi.: equipment. 
S. provision, supply, yield; spec, product, 
And, advance, loan, etc. 

loinltare, n. furnishing (often in pi.), 
equipment; spec, drapery, coverlet, hang- 
ings, bedding. 

tnnow, n. depression (coniexlwd); Spec 
trench, channel, track, seam, groove, rut 
cut, wrinkle, line, drill, scratch. 

lurrow, V. I. Spec, channel, seam, plow, 
wrinkle, intrench (rare), trench, ditch, 
rut, corrugate, cleave, cut. 

furrowy, a. Spec, guttery, rutty, wrinkly. 

lutther, adv. besides, beside, else; see also. 


IS" BcD HotM ot ExplaiutUoii. 



•. Dine (Latin; pi.), Erinnyes (Greek: 
pi.), Eumenides (Greek, etiphemiatic; pi.); 
spec. Tiaiphone, Megrera, Aleclo. 


B, n. gorae, whin. 
Snilble, a. meltable (rare), fluxible (ar- 
chaic), fuaile {rare). 
AnUmyms: see HBCHACTOitY. 
luM, n. disturbance, ado {chiefiy Ulerary), 
to-do (coUoq.), pucker (coUoq.), fldge {col- 
leq.); spec, commotioo, tumult, stir, 
pother, boK^le. fizz (colloq.), bustle, flus- 
ter, fiddle-^dle. fidfad (rare), fret, worry. 
fuM, w. t. pucker (colloq.; rare), fike (Scot.), 
fidge (colhg.); spec, potter, boggle, fiw 
(eolloq.), bustle, tret, worry. 
I iuttira, o. coming, forward (commercial): 
spec, prospective. 
Antonyms: see past. 
Ivtnr*, n. futurity (dignified), futuri- 
tion (philos.), hy-and-by (chiefly poetic in 
svagestion), to-come (rnre), yet (userf with 
"iie"; rare), to-be (rare); spei 
(often fig.), ulterior, hereafter. 
Antonyms: see pabt, 

,', n. fly (contextual), breeze, gadbee 
(dial, or lilertiTy), dog (Seol. lidvil.Eng.). 
caff. V, I. Spec. Bpear, hook, gambeer. 
lain, n. 1. See AcqmsiTioN, benefit, 

t. addition (conlextual), accretion (con- 
textual); spec, advantaxe, g;raft, plunder, 
booty, clean-up (U. 5.), winning, emolu- 
tnent, getting (pi.; archaic), euperlu- 
cratioD (rare). 
Antonyms: see w>ss. 

cala. V. t. I, get, acquire, reap (jig.), ob- 
tain; spec, procure, earn, gather, Buperlu- 
crate (rare), net, clear, profit. 
Antonymi: see forfeit, 
1. See iNCOK, WIN, bbach. 

(alt, n. 1. step; spec, slouch, swing, clip 
{e^loq.)^ amble, hobble, canter, dog trot, 
Eallop, JOE, jog trot, rack, pace, singlc- 
fix>t (U. S.), lope, trot, run, walk, sham- 

Eait«i, n. le)»iDg (eonlcxtitnl), contina- 

tiona (p2. ; sfang) ; spec, squatterdash, 

spata (j)/.), gambado. 
gallant, n. Spec, blade, escort, cicisbeo (a 

gallant of a married wonian). 
gallaiy, n. I. £pec. corridor, loft, balcony, 

veranda, portico, cantanna, traverse, 

triforium, loggia, dedans (French), drift. 

t. Referring to pari of on audience: spec. 

gods (pi.; canf or »lang). 
callop, V. I. A i. Spec, canter, run. 
xallop, n, gait (eoniextital); spec, tantivy, 

sallows, n. bough (arriiaic), tree (aTchaic), 
gibbet (ofra,), 

callows, a. patibulary (rare). 

■allowsblrd, n. criminal (contextval), 
hempstring, hempseed (nona; Shake- 
speare). "GaUovtmird" is coUoq. 

gamble, v. i. I. play (ainlextual), game, 
gaff (Eng. slang or colonial); spec, dice, 
throw, punt, plunge. 

Eamble, v. t. risk (eontextual), wager. 

lamble, n. chance; spec, wager, risk, 
plunge, pyramid. 

BBnibleT, n. I. player (contextual), sport 
(cant): spec, gamester, gamestrese (fern.), 
dicer, ha harder, plunger, punter. 
9. wagerer (cf. waqeb). 

came, II. quarry. 

lame, n. 1. ,Siee sport. 
9. diversion (contextual): spec, contest, 
agonistics, bowls, ball, quoita, backgam- 
mon, cards, checkers, dominoes, check- 
Btones, chess, cricket, croquet, dibs, tan- 
tan, faro, football, hasani, the graces, 
hockey, hopscotch, jackstrawB, iack- 
stonea, John Bull, kino (U. S.), Krieg- 
epiel, lacrosse, lansquenet, lanterloo (obs.), 
leapfrog, letters, loggats, lotto, mall, ping- 
pong, racing, reversi, tiddly- winks, etc. 

4. Referring to a single contest: spec, pan- 
cratium, Olympic. Marathon. 

5. hunt, chase, gibier (French). 
Antonyms: see HdNTER. 

cab: talk- 

■mbblfl: bahbU, chotttr. ftukt*. 

fmf, n.; deaptiffn. interpolaiion. 

pHto, I, ■„' brrrtefii. Cn/I. od- 
cmhilnl: adriantaovmi, proflt- 

S«lt, >. t.:adjutl. 
calur; tuaemblyr 
((i*: u>ind. fil. 

■mllad: taid. 
tallr: biotr. 
gmloEmi abvndatitiv. 
tuabado: mptr. 


KftmekeepeTi n. ranger (arctic); spec. 
_ _ 1. 1. company, crew. 

(•nsiene, n. death (amtezfuot), nccroblo- 
BJa {(ecA.), mortification, necrosis ((eeft,). 

(ADsreae, v. i. die, mortify, necrose 

(uicTsnoui, a. dead, mortified, necrose 
(lech.), cankerous (rare). 

cap, n. 1. Sfe breach. 
1. opening (_eontextiud), break, vacant^, 
KBpe (rare), space; spec, lacuna, jump, 
hiatus, ohaam, pass, ravine, rictua, yawn. 

(ftp*, V. i. open (contextual), hiate {Tare), 
gaup or gawp {dial.), inhiate (rare); spec. 
yawn, dehisce. 

B>pinc, a. agape, hjant [chiefly kUt.), 

K«rdeii, n. Spec, potagerie (Frejich), her- 

bary, nursery, Lyceum. 
Kardener, n. maUee (ATigla-Indian); spec. 

horiculturiat, florist. 
sardenliiKt a. hortulan (rare), horten^al 

(rorf), hortenaian (rare); spec, topiary. 
t&identac, n. horticulture; spec, floncul' 

ture, olericulture, viniculture. 
Circle. B. t. rinse (contextual), wash, gar- 

garize (rare). 
c*rEle, n. wash (eonUxtval), gargarism 

(Tried.; rare), collutory (tech.). 
(Krmeat, n. 1. confection (a Galliciam), 

tas (derogatory), clotJi (o6s.), vestment 

(TnetoriaU or spec.), wearable (coUoq.); 

spec, shroud (poetic or archaic), aboUa, 

stops (pi.), blouse, cape, cardigan, coat. 

let, cphod, flannels (pi.), frock, fur, gar- 
berdine, gambeson (obs.; hist.), grego, 
^wn, haqueton, jersey, jerkin, iumix^r, 
lupe (Scot.), kaross, kimono, kirtle, kilt, 
kmckerbockeiB (pi.), linens (vl-), linge- 
rie (adlecHoe sing.), mackintosh, maiicUl- 
ion, maniple, manta, mantelet, mantlet, 
mantua, mohair, nightingale, overall, 
pelisse, shirt, singlet, slip, trousers (vl.), 
vest, waist, waistcoat, weed, teddy bear 
(cantorstang), envelope, combination, etc. 
1. In pi.: see clothing. 

K>iTat, n. attic, soler {obs. of rare), sky 
parlor (collog. or h-umormie). 

garrlion, n. post (U. S,). 

K»», n. I. fluid (conteTtual); spec, choke 

damp, flatus, mafette, argon, ojcj'gi 
hydrogen, nitrogen, chlor* 
3. See BOMBAST. 
B«seonB< a. fluid (carUextwU), gassy, g 
form, airy (■now rare or spec.); spec, aeri- 

eash, v.t.&n. cut (conieTtaal). crimp (chic- 
ly spec.), scratch, score, slash, scotdi. 

(uaUne, n. petrol {BrUiak), gas (con^ or 

casp, V. i. breathe (etmtsaiud), catch; spsc. 
chink, pant, labor, choke (contezJuol}. 

taitronomlo, a. esurient (an incorreet use; 
property "peHaining to love of eating or 

Eate> 1. i, opening (con/eiiuol), passageway 
(cotitexlual), portal (elevated term), gate- 
way, port (tiow chiefly Scot.), pvlon 
(archieol.), arch, toran, port6-cocn6re 
(Frendi)^ floodgate, sluice, turnpike, 
wicket, hch-gate. 

S. door (conlexlual). shuttle, portcullis, 
wicket, lattice, hatch. 

satekeeper, n. porter (the more formal 

Kattaer, v. I. 1. assemble, collect, group; 
spec, lump, mass, huddle, herd, rake (tottA 
up"), crowd, congKg&te, relly, arare- 
gate, flocculate (rare), forgather, inga^er, 
cluster, drum, whip, cuD, glean, shock, 
clump, stack, bunch, convene, mobilize. 
Antonynu: see scatter, separate:, di»- 

). In sewing, etc.: spec, shirr, pucker, full. 
 See ACCUMtJiuVTE, win, infer, gain. 
gather, I), i. I. assemble, collect, group, 
congregate, forgather, aggregate; spec 
bunch, convene, huddle. 
Antonyms: see disperse, scatter, 



cather, n. gathering; spec, shirr, pucker. 

(atberlac, n. 1. Tru! act or option: assem- 
bly, assemblage, collection, forgathering, 
grouping; spec, congelation, convention, 
aggregation, mobihzation. clustering, etc. 
a. Those gathered, considered eoUeriviely: 
assemblage, body, collection, group; spec 
crowd, throng, bunch, drum, convention, 
congregation, aggregation, rally, herd, 
flooK, cluster; see abbemblt, convention. 


^tidy, a. showy; spec, tawdry, tinsel, gai" 
ish, flashy, gimcrack, brummagem, cheap. 



gaac«» V. t, U measure. 
S. adjust. 

gauce* n» !• See measure, extent. 
S. Spec, templet, fence, manometer. 

gawk, n. simpleton (contextual) ^ clown, 
gawky, booby, jay (coHoq. or dang); spec. 
calf (coUoa,), sight (coUoq,). 

gay» a. 1. lively^ vivacious, airy, gaysome 
{rare), merry, jolly, jovial {more bookieh 
than **jolly'*), mirtnfm, galliard {archaic); 
svec. wild, riotous, festive, mad, hilarious, 
gleeful, jaunty, sportive, sprightly, con- 
vivial, frolicsome, gamesome, merry- 
making, frivolous, jubilant. 
ArUonj/ms: see sad, sxtllen. 

a. /See BRIGHT. 

gayety, n. 1. liveliness, vivacity, vivacious- 
ness, airiness, joyance, memness, merri- 
ment, mirth, nurthfulness, galliardise {ar- 
chaic); spec, hilarity, hilariousness, jaun- 
tiness, sportiveness, merrymaking, frivol- 
ity, jubilance. 
ArUonums: see ENNxn. 


gaie, V. i. look {contextual); spec, muse, 
{literary), pore, stare, ogle, gape, glower, 
gloat, glare, leer. 

gelatinous, a. colloid (tech.), tremellose 
(tech.); spec, gelatiniform. 

gelding, n. neuter (rare); spec, ridgeling, 

geni,n. jewel, stone: spec, solitaire, scarab, 
hvacinth, diamond, ruby, sardine, sap- 
phire, tiger's-eye, moonstone, bloodstone, 
opal, amethyst, topaz, turquoise, pearl, 
emerald, garnet, carbuncle, etc. 

gemlike, a. geinmy, gemmeous (rare). 

genealogy, n. history (contextiud) , genera- 
tion (rare); spec, pedigree, tree. 

general, a. 1. universal (more emphatic 

than "general'*), catholic (chiefly ecd); 

spec, cosmic, oecumenical, heavenwide, 

nationwide, statewide. 

Antonyms: see particular, minute, 

NARROW, individual, LOCAL. 

%m In a less induswe sense: widespread, 
wide, broad (less emphatic than "xmde**); 
spec, generic, main, impersonal, popular, 
current, indefinite, bird's-eye. 
Ardonyms: see circumstantial, par- 

generalize, v. t, broaden, universalize, 

generate, v. t. 1. beget (chiefly spec.), 
breed (chiefly svec.), create (contextual), 
reproduce (biol!), produce (young), pro- 
create, conceive (in the womb), engender. 

propagate; spec, spawn (contemptuotu). 
Dear, pullulate, inbreed. 
Antonyms: see kill. 
a. See cause. 

generate, v. i. breed, reproduce, grow, pro- 
duce, conceive, propagate (chiefly tech.); 
spec, hatch, segment, increase, proliferate, 
teem, multiply, inbreed. 
Antonyms: see die. 

generation, n. 1. begetting, breeding, pro- 
duction, genesis (rare), reproduction, pro- 
creation, propagation (.chiefly tech.); spec, 
increase, prohferation, isogamy, theogony, 
ontogeny, histogenesis, heterogenesis. 
a. Referring to those living diaring a oer* 
tain period: age, descent. 

generative, a. 1. reproductive, progenitive, 
creative, genial (rare), gemtal (chiefly 
spec.); spec. proU^erous (rare), proliferous, 
conceptive, germmative, gametal. 
a. See PRODUCTIVE, causative. 

generosity, n. 1. ^eatness, large-heart- 

edness, magnanimity (formal), nobility, 

magnanimousness; spec, loftiness, courage. 

Antonyms: meanness (see mean); see 


a. generousness, free-heartedness, liberal- 
ity, handsomeness (rare), bounty, frank- 
ness (obsolesc.), freedom (rare); spec. 
benevolence, royalty, munificence, prodi- 
gaUty, lavishness. 

Antonyms: stinginess (see stingy). 
S. See abundance. 

generous, a, 1. great (contextual), mag- 
nanimous (formal), ingenuous, larae- 
hearted, great-heai^ed, noble; spec, lofty, 
courageous, chivalrous, beneficent. 

Antonyms: see mean. 
a. Referring to the opposite of **sHngy": 
free-hearted, open-hearted, open-handed, 
open (coUoq.), free, liberal, iree-himded, 
frank (obsolescent), handsome, large (oT" 
chaic), bounteous, tx)untiful: spec, munifi- 
cent, lavish, prodigal, benevolent, stintless. 

Antonyms: see stingy, greedy, faut&y, 



genius, n. l/demon (contextual), spirit (conr 
textwal); spec, python (New Testament), 
jinni, jinn (pi.; improperly used as sing.), 
a. angel (chiefly with "good^* or "ftof '), 
spirit (chiefly unih "a good^* or "a bod"). 
S. See CAPACITY, spmrr. 

gentile, n. 1. See heathen. 
a. non-Jew, uncircumscision (with "thi^*^. 

gentle, a. U well-bom, gBDerous (ardiaie), 

I^" Cross references: see Note. 
gmug^f V. t: meantre, adjust. 
gmnnU thin, repeOenL 
gmnxfz filmy. 
gawky : atoktoard. 
Saslncstock: speeiade. 

ffMtf, n.; dret, dothirig, equip- 
ment, apparatue, eoffwhed, 

»: double, 

genie: demtm. 

genre: style. 

genteel: polite, nobU, eUqtmt, 

gMAtfie, a.: heathen, radoL 
gMitle, V. t.: handU. 

See Hotes of Kiplinetlon, 



9. miid (a teeaker word than "geTttle"), 
light, soft, moderate; spec, benign, fiilken, 
Bootbing, kind, leoient, low, compliusaat, 
amiable, etc. 
Anlon^Tns: see 




4. Referring to a dope, dinA, etc.: mod- 
erate, gradual, slight, easy, 

Antonipns: me precipitous. 

centlemBn, n. 1. geat Ittulgar), ariatocTBt, 
caballero (Spanith), duniwasaal (chiefiy 
spec.; Salt.); epee. esquire (Eng.), bidofgo 
iSpaniah), cavalier. 
AnloTiyms: see sooR. 
9. See MAN. 

■entleDesa, n. I. mildness, lightness, soft- 
ness, moderateness, moderation; epec. 
easiaess, benignity, faintness, soothmg- 
ness, kindness, lenience, complaisance, 
amenity, douceur (French), milkiness 


1. Referring lo a slope, dimb, etc.: moder- 
ateness, gradualness, slightness, ea^ness. 
BeDolne, a. I. true, right, real, veritable, 
proper (rare), indeed (predieatwe); spec. 
Simon Pure, honest, true-blue; see au- 
Anlonyms: see ARTinciAL. 


cerin,n. 1. germen (now only Jig.), eiahryo, 
seed {rune chiefly spec,), seminium (rare), 
seminary (rare). 


■. microorKanism, seed (spec, or fig.); 
spec, microbe, bacterium. 
■ermiold*, a. Spec, antiseptic, bact«rl- 

(ermlnatei v. i. grow {amteilual); germ 
(rtoiuyiff,), burgeon, gerniin (arcAaic), ger- 
minate (rare), generate; spec, sprout, 
shoot, pullulate (rare), blade, bud, vege- 
tate, catch, set. 
Antonjpna: see die. 

Cermlnata, c. (. cause (contextual), germ 
(rare); spec, sprout. 

ceitural, a. gesticulative, gesticular, ges- 
ticulatory, pantomimic {chiefly spec,), 
pantomimical (rare). 

tetturs, n, t. motion (eontexUioi), gcst 
(arcAoic); spec, gesticulation, beck, sign, 
fig, wave, puff, signal. 
a. In a generic tense: gesticulation, chir- 


ononw (rore), dumb show, pantomi 
{ehiefiy spec.). 

xeitiire, v, i. motion, gesticulate, panto- 
mime (rare), sign; spec, wave, ramp, 
beckon, signal. 

leiturtnii a. gesticulant (ra 

ge%, V, I. I. obtain, procure, r 
cure, have, acquire; epec. achieve, take. 

learn, attain, forage, i 
catch, capture, e" 
A nionyms: see : 

self), BEGET. 

Esttable, a. obtainable, come-at-able (col- 
iog,), havabie (rn ' 
Anlonffms: see inaccessible. 

Kettlng, n. obtaizmient, obtainal (rare), 
obtention (rare), procurement, Becure- 
inent (rare), procuration; apee. impetra- 
tion, acquirement, ehcitation, derivation, 
etc.; see acquisition. 

ceweaw, 71. trifle, trinket, toy (o6s., eie. 
sjiec.): spec, kickshaw, fcmokknack, gim- 
crack, fizdg, gaud (literary), bauole, 
falderal or folderol, fallal, flapdoodle (am- 
templuoua; eolloq,), (lamfew (rare). 

Kbaitl7. o. 1. See fearful. 
t. pale, deathly, corpselike, ghast (ar* 
chaic or poetic); tpec. cadaverous, lurid. 


a. apparition, larva (oba. or hisl.). larve 
(hist.), spirit, specter, phantom, phantasm 
(poetic or rhetorical), phantaame (rare), 
revenant (rather Itarned or cant), shadow 
(rare), shade (ehiefiy spec.), sprite or (ar- 
ckaic) spright (rare), spook (coUoq,). 
Anlonyms: see body. 

KlioiUy, a, I. See spirituai.. 
3. ghostlike, spectral, spookish (coUoq.), 
phantasmal, phantom, shadowy, ghosty 
(jocular), spooky (coBoq.), 
AnUinyrns: see bodilt. 

lUnt, n. 1. Referring (o giants of litera- 
ture: spec, Goliath, Colossus, Brobding- 
nagian or (incorrectlij) Brolidignagiaji, 
Hercules, ogre, Antffius, Briieus, Brlareus, 
Polyphemus, Cyclops, Titan, Titaness, 
Norn, jinni. 

Antonyms: see dwarf. 
a. Referring lo any very large person: spec. 
giantess, colossus, jumbo (coUoq.), Goliath 
(fia.), polyheme (rare). 
Antonyms: see dwarf. 

clbbet, n. gallows, patible (rare),- spec. 
cross, rood (archaic). 


ilbt dUembttwtl, 
tS' 8cu NotH ot 

f Iddr: ditzy, /riBoIinu. 

cut, n. 1. See arvnia. 
S. preseal, liberality (rare), donation 
{ehiefiy spec,); spec, bonus, premium, 
prize, dole, contribation, mite, favor, tea- 
timaaiat, gratification, o£Fertiig, boon, ab- 
lation, grattiity, bounty, propiae {ar- 
chaic or Scot.), IftfgesB. fairing, benevo- 
lence, cadeau iFrenek), donary Irarc), 
grant, douceur (/Vencft), tip, benefaction, 
cuiOBhaw (Ckineae porta), baiksheeeh, con- 
oeasioD, honorarium, merced {Spanish), 
daab or da^hee (African coast), pittance, 
alms, charity, pQon (aoiUhwe»tem U. S.), 
piloDce (Texas), pUonvillo (Tejoa). lag- 
niappe {New Orleans), donative, legacy, 
bequest, devise, benefit, enam (India), 
batta (Angh-Indian), bribe, handeel, fa- 
vor, mortuary, fchilat or khelat {Eofl 
India), feu, ormolu, conpary (Bomart 
Aut.), nuEzer (Annlo-Iridian). 
Antonyms: see DBUvttfD. 


t\g, n. chaise; spec, whiitky. tilbury. 

KtBaDtla. a. t. immense, colossal, elephan- 
tine, Titanic (spec, or fig.), Herculean 
{spec, or fig.), Cyclopean (sjiec. or jig.), 
Brobdingnagian or {viaimcUy) Brobdig- 
nagian (spec, or fig. andironvnd). 
Antonyms: see dwarf. 


(Ud, V. t. adorn, deaurate (rare), engild 
{lilerary; often fig.); spec, begild, overgild. 

glided, a. aureat« (learned or lilerary), 
inaurate (rare), 

(In, n. liquor (eonleitu/U), ribbon (slang; 
cant), satin (slang), eyewater (slang), 
deadly (staTig), jumper (tianj), iaoky or 
jackey (slang); spec. Schiedam, Hollands, 

Bird, II. (. I. encircle (conlexlucU); spec, girt, 
bind, belt, surcingle. 
I. 5ee MVE 

■Irdls, n. band (contextiud), gici^h, cin- 
gje (lilerary,* chiefly spec.); spec, brail, 
cincture (bookish), belt, cingulum (tech.), 
truss, sash, cummerbund (Anglo-Indian), 
eoarf, cestus (Roman anii?. ),ione (liter- 
ary or Greek anttg.), soster (Oreek anliq.). 

Kltdle, V. t. bind (conteitiud), encircle 
(conlextual), girth, engird (literary), en- 
^rdle (literary), circuit (contextual). 
I. Referring lo a tree: ring, ringbark. 

(lidlad, a. precinct (rare); spec, succinct. 

gld, n. 1. child {contexttud), maid (archaic 
ar■p^ayf^d),\Bas (ehiefiy dial.), Xaesie {chief- 
ly Scot.), maiden (eletir^ed), damsel, 

damoiseile (French), colleen (Anglo- 
Irish), wench (orcAoic or derogatory), 
girly (colloq.), tot (obs. or rare); spec. 
girleen (Anglo-Irish), giglet, dell {archaic 
cant), flapper (sla>ig), laasook (Scot.), 
missy, minx, hussy, Damage, cummer 
(Scot.), gill (rore, etc. in "Jack and OiU"), 
whelp {contemptuous), cub, 
t. See DOUGsric. 

Kliiliood, n. Jaasiehood (ehiefiy Scot.) 
maidenhood, girlishness (rare), moidhood 

BlTUah,a. childish, maidenish, girly (colloq.), 
maidenly (commendatory). 

ElTth, n. 1. band (contexiMal), girdle, belly- 
band (sometimes spec); spec, roller, cincn, 


Sliti n. 1. reason, ground, basis; — referring 
to a legal action. 
%, See ESSENCE. 

Blvabla, a. dative (law), grantable, con- 
ferable, bestowable, etc. 

file, V. t. 1. present, confer, bequeath (or- 
cAoic or spec), grant: spec, donate (chiefiv 
U. S.), contribute, dole, lend, heap (tmm 
"upon"), distribute, begrudge, club, of- 
fer, prciduce, emit, utter, entail, devise, 
entrust, etc. 

Antonyms: see beg, demand. 
■. In variotis secondary sCTues: see Ar> 
FORo, coMMtwiCATE, BBQPrTH ((We 171 re- 

Cive-Kna-tMke, n. giff-gaff {Scot, anddial. 

glTer, n. presenter, donor (tech., spec., or 
formal), donator (rare), conferrer, grant- 
er; spec, contributor. 

ciTltiK, 1. t. gift (chiefly of a single act), 
presentation, conferment, present (rare), 
conferral, largition (rare), bestowal, be- 
Stowment, grant {chiefly spec, or formal), 
donation (chiefly spec.),- spec, disposal, 
disposition, dation, conveyance, dealing, 
colportage, collation. 

DOCTION, etc. 

eUd, a. happy, content, joyful; spec, blithe, 
festal, blessed, blithesome, beatific, bliss- 
ful; see ECSTATIC. 

(ladden, v. t. please (contextual), happify 
(now rore), happy (obs.), content, con- 
tented, rejoice; spec, gratify, beatify, 
blithen, exnilarate, transport; see cheer. 
Antonyms: »ee6ADDEN,0Hn:vE,li 

II aati oatd. 

clad*, n. opening, t&imd (arehaie), lawn 

clkdlAtOT, a. 5pec. retiarius, Hwordsnuui, 

andabate, secutor. 
(IsdnsBs, >t. pleaaure (fotUexttuU), felicity, 

happiness, content, rejoicement (rore), re- 

{'oiciDg; spec, joy, joyance (lilcrar!/), bliss, 
ilitheueM, transport, efc.; see ecstasy, 
KUna«, V, i. 1. etrike (crmlextuid) , slant, 

t^iat {chiejiy Eng.); spec skip, ricocbot, 

^ide, skim. 

I. See FLASH. 

S. look (.conU^ual); spec, flash, run, 

glimpse, blink, peep, peek, 
fluioe, n. I. stroke (contextual), gUnt 

icliiefiy Eng.); spec, glide, skip, afcim, 

ricomet, graze. 


 look (contexlual); spec, flash, blink, 
glimpse, cast, blush (oniu in "at first 
blimh"), ray, beam, coup-d'iEil (French), 
peep, ogle, peek. 

Clftnd, n. kernel (rare or dial.); spec, glan- 
dule, prostrate, sweetbread, thymus, pan- 
creas, liver, parotid. 
- , n. I. Spec, g] 
.._,n, crystal. Pelt _ ... 
in), hcematinon, smalt, 
t. R^erring to a Uiing made of glass: spec. 
bumper, tumbler, goblet, lens, raiiror, 
slide, goggles (pi.), olinkera (pi.; coUoq.), 
telescope, microscope, eyeglass, specta- 
cles (pi.), binocle, binocular, hourglass, 
chromatic, etc. 

Clssihonse, n. Spec, hothouse, green- 
house, coolhouse, conservatory, serre 
(Frertch), stove. 

(Imaiy, a. vitreous (more leeh. than 
"glassy"), vitric {chiefly as opposed to 
"ceramic ), hyaline {chiefiy lech, and 
spec.), hyaloid (rare, exe. anat.); spec. 
hyaleacent, subvitreous. 

(!■■•, n. 1. coat (conlcxliud), coating {eorir- 
textual); spec, glost, varnish, enamel. 
"Olaze" is often in the U. S. specificallij 
used of thin ice or the surface of ice. 

t. See LDBTER. 
Klide, V. i. Spec, lapse [chiefly fa.), glis- 
sade, fleet, illapse (rare), slide, slip, sail, 
fly, float, now, coast, skate, swim, skim. 
AntotipTiia: see bttbtlg, jerk. 

elidinc, a. Spec, tapaing, slipping, slkl^^ 

ing, preterlabent, flowing, tic. T 

Ciobolai, a. globose, globate; spec, pilular, \ 

^obnle, n. sphere, spherule, ^obelet 

(rare): spec, drap, bulb, bead, pill, pellet, 

button, bullet, 
tloom, n. 1. gloomine^, shade, shadow, 

obscurity; see dark, dar 


gloomy, a, 1. dreary, drear (chiefiy lifer- I 
ary), cheerless, doleful; spec, bleak, fune- 1 
real, desolate, morbid. 


See r 


aureole, halo, | 

glory, 71 


B. Spec, gloriole (rare) 

nimbus, vesica. 
(loBK, n. 1. See ldster. 

9. Spec, (in fiauTolive or transferred I 

senses) veneer, whitewash (colloq,), color, 

varnish, veil, smooth. 
KloTa,n. Spec, gauntlet, muSer or mu£Se, 

mousquet^re, mitt, mitten. 
slow, V. i. 1. radiate (eontextuoT), incao- 

deace (tech.); spec. bum. 

3. Referring to colors: spec, blaze, fire, 
bloom, bluih, flush. 

S. Referring to bodily feeling: spec, bum, 
swelter, sizzle (colloq.), toaat, roast (coSoQ.), 
cook (colloq.), bake (eoUoq.), boil (eoUoq.). 

4. Referring to the emotions: spec, bum, 
fire, inflame (rare), oonsu 

slow, n. I. luminosity, 
(tech.); spec, burning. 
1. fie/emViff to cofore; warmth, flush; spec, 
blaze, brilhance, bloom, redness, flumi. 
I. See ARDOR. 

I. Referring to bodily feeling: warmth; 
spec. heat| swelter, toast (coUog.), roast 
(coUog.), sizzle (colloq.). 

Elowlnci a.. I. bright (omtexlual), lumi- 
nous, candent (lech, or learned), excon- 
descent (rare), incandesceot; spec, burn- 

5. Referring to colors: bright (corUextual), 
warm; spec, blazing, rutilant (rare), 
blushing, blooming, red. 


n. bt- 






tlUtan,. >. i.:JliuA, tkiiu 
f tlttar: fiath. 
■Uttartnc: lufrou, a, 

ffloinrT; dicti'tmarv. 

BT* Bea Itota M Eiplanatlan. 


Antonyms: see dull. 


close, V. t. 1. See annotate. 
9. In figurative or transferred senses: spec. 
gloss, veneer, varnish, veil, color, smooth, 
whitewash icoUoq.), 

glutton, n. sensualist {contextual) ^ gor- 
mandizer {nurre emphatic than **glutton*')f 
gourmand (o6s.), hog (scornfully con- 
temptuous) , gorger (rare)j pig (contempt- 
turns; often playful), surfeiter, gorger, 
cormorant (fig.), bellygod (archaic), gas- 
trophile (rare), cranmier (coUoq.), stuff er 
(coUoq.), gastrophilist (rare), gastrophilite 
(rare), ravener (literary), guttler (rare), 
helluo (literary), poke-pudding (Scot.; 
Antonyms: see ascetic. 

gluttonous, a. 1. gourmand, greedy, rav- 
enous (intensive), piggish (contemptu- 
ous; often playful), hog^sh (scornfully 
contemptu/ms), gormandizmg. 
Antonyms: see ABSTEAiious, ascetic. 
8. See desirous. 

gluttony, n. 1. gormandizing (of the act), 
gulosity (rare), belly cheer (archaic), hog- 
gishness (contemptuous), pig^ishness (con- 
temptuous); spec, gastrophiusm (rare). 
8. See desire. 

gnawing, a. 1. rodent (rare, exc. tech.) 
8. See corrosive, distressing. 

go, V. i. 1. move (contextual), gang (chiefly 
literary; Scot.); spec, repair, proceed, pass 
(chiefly used with "on," "along" "dirum," 
"through," etc.), draw (with "on," "along" 
"through," "back," etc.), rampage, me 
(archaic or poetic), staJk, take (used with 
"to") J labor, jaunt, run, rip (coUoq.), fore- 
reach (chiefly naul.), range, carry, roimd, 
idle, joe, egress (rare), extra vagate (rare), 
lollop lcolK)q.), mill, bolt, pat, fare (ar- 
chaic or poetic), determine, gallivant, 
step, happen, hap (rare or archaic), 
stnke, march, bundle (chiefly used with 
**off"), clump, force, advance, retreat, re- 
soirt, depart, flow, speed, return, revert, 
exceed, transgress, dip, boat, ride, falter, 
glide, crawl, ferry, ply, travel, glance, 
walk (see gait, n.), amble, canter, pace, 
gallop, lope, rack, trot, hasten, hop, leap, 
sail, steam, float, fly, swarm (in a multi- 
tude), tiptoe, tumble, etc. 
2. In figurative or transferred senses: see 



goal, n. 1. Spec, mark, bye, post, port, 
home, bourne (chiefly literary), bourn, 
hail (Scot.), meta (Reman antiq.), 


go-as-you-please, n. 1. laisser-aller 

8. /See RACE. 

goat, n. Spec, buck, billy-goat (coUoq^), 
nanny (colloq.), nanny-goat (coUoq.), kid, 
goathng, angora, jaal-goat, ibex, pasan, 
pasang, markhor. 

goatlike, a. caprine (tech. or literary), goat- 
ish, goatly (nonce word), hircine (chiefly 
spec.), hircinous (rare), goaty (chiefly 
spec); spec, capriform. 

go-between, n. agent (contextual); spec. 
broker. Mercury (fig.), dealer, middle- 
man, pander. 
Antonyms: see principal. 

goblin, n. demon (contextual), sprite or 
(archaic) spright (contextu^), bogy, bogle, 
boggle, bogey; spec, kobold, nix, brownie, 

god, n. 1. See deitt. 
8. [cap.] Referring to the Christian god: 
Deity (with "the"), King-of-Kings (with 
Antonyms: see devil. 

godparent, n. sponsor, gossip (obs.); spec. 
godfather, godmother. 

goer, n. Spec, proceeder, farer. traveler, 
speeder (colloq.) , exodist (rare), walker, 
runner, etc. 

goggle-eyed, a. bulging;-eyed. 

goglet, n. guglet, serai (India), surahee 
(India), chatty (India), olla (Spanish 
America), monkey pot. 

going, a. 1. Spec, traveling, proceeding, 
bound, outward-bound. 

8. See AFLOAT. 

going, n. 1. See departure. 
8. Spec, proceeding, traveling, travel, 
troop, tour, exit, troll, progress, march, 
walk, run, etc. 

S. Referring to the condition ofihe ground, 
etc., for aoing: spec, wheeling (coUoq^.), rac- 
ing, walking, running, rowing, skating, etc. 

gold, n. 1. aurum (teSi.; chem,); spec, dust, 
gilding, gilt, or (her.). 

8. ^Pe WEALTH. 

golden, a. 1. aureate (literary), Pactolian 
(fig.); spec, auriferous, prime (number; 

tW Cross references: see Note. 
glose, n.: annotation. 
glum: sullen, depressed. 
glut: surfeit, saliate, oversupvtv, 

glutinous: sticky. 
gnarl: protuberance. 
gnarled: distorted. 
gnash: bite. 

gnaw: bite. 

gnome: demon. 

gnomon: pointer. 

go, r. t.: afford, wager. 

go, n.; energy, turn, success, fad. 

goad, V. t.rprick, incite, urge. 

go-ahead, a.: enterprising. 

go-ahead, n.: energy. 

gobbett: piece. 

gobble, V. t.: swallow. 

gobble, n. dk v. %.: cry. 

goddess: deity. 

godhead: divinity. 

godless: atheistic, irrdigioua. 

godlike: divine. 

godly: divine, rdigious, rights 

goggle, V. t.: turn. 

tj^ See Notes of Ezplanatlon. 



t. yeHow, iimuratfl (rare; ekiefiy zooL), 

golinaH*, 71. aureity {lUerani). 
KoiiB, a. 1. depivrtaa; spec, flown. 
■. See ABSENT, woRNOCT, faint, for- 


Boodi a. buckrSi (southem U. S.; negro 
diaied); svec. goodly, goodiah, Bfttiafac- 
toi7, exoellent, favorable, adnurable, ado 
quate, beneficial, advantageous, agree- 
able, appropriate, conaiderable, compe- 
tent, healthy, sound, real, honorable, 
respooaible, righteous, becoming, kind, 
honest, frank. conTivial, religious, well-be- 
haved, etc. "Good" is used a« a synonym 
qf almost any adjedive denoting a ^uaiily 
that M approved. 
Antonyms: see bad, factuiT. 

Kood, inlerj, bravo. 

Kood, n. 1. Spec, boon, godaend; spec. 
kaloQ {Greek), fruit, benefit, advantage, 
blesiiing, benison {archaic or poelic) , bliss, 
beatitude, felicity. 
Antonyms: see EVIL, DtSiDTANTAGB, CA- 

». In jk.: see aooDB. 

Koodby, irtierj. adieu (archaic, affected, or 
used in pleasantry), farewell (now archaic 
or Theloricat; ehiejly spec), vale (rare,* 
Latin), bye-bye (eoUoq.), so-long (slang). 
Antonyms: see oebeting. 

Kood-for-nottalnc, n. ne'er-do-well, acala- 

CCMMl-loaklnc, a. Spec, comely, fair {chief- 
ly titerary or rhetorical), beautiful, hand- 
aome, pretty, prettyish, minion (rare), 
dainty, goodly, Beeinly (rare or archaic), 
flight^', personable (chiefiy literary), bon- 
ny (Seol., exc as used in Eng. Jar local or 
tyrvnd effect), well-favored (arcJuiic), spe- 
cious (oroAotc), likely (rare), proper (ar- 
cAaifi), shapely, canny (dial.; not Scot.), 
fine, graceful, elegaot, delicate, etc. 
Anionyna: see homely. 

(ood-looklnKneiii n. Spec, comeliness, 
handsooieiiess, beauty, fairness, bouni- 
ness, prettiness, daintiness, goodliness, 
aeemlinesa (archaic), sightliness, peraon- 
ableness, shapeUneas. "Good-loohingness" 

toad luttnre. kindness (conUxtuai); spec. 
amiability, cleverness (U. S., coUoq.), 
bonhomie (French), good humor, good 
temper, grace, complaisance, accommo- 

A nionyms: see ill-tkupbr. 
sood-natursd, a. kind (omfexfuoO; i 
clever, amiable, good-humored, g 
tampered, complaiuint 

A7\J,onyms: see ill-tempered, acrimo-B 

coodntag, n. Spec, satisfactoriness, excel*  
lence, favorableness, sdmirableness, Bd»>B 
quacy, beneficence, advantageousnesa, J 
a^ecableneas, appropriateness, sound* | 
nesB, reality, honorabW " 
ity, righteousness, etc. 

(ood*. n. pi. chattels, commodity (a single 
artide), gear (a coUectiae), effects, things, 
movables {Uaa); spec, traps (colhq.), con- 
traband, invoice, consignment; — the lael 
three coUeciives, 

(ooBe,n, l.hoaker (U. S. & Can.;colioq.or 
slang); gpec. gander, cagmag, goslet 
(U. S.), gosling, wavey, solan, graylag, 
gannet, barnacle, whitehead, brant. 

core, V. t. pierce (contcxtued); spec, tusk, I 
horn, stab, hook. I 

Gordon, n. Spec. Sthcno, Euryale, Me- J 

(ormaDdiie, v. x. stuff, c: , „__ 

Koipel. n. news (contextual), evangel, evanr J 
gely (arekaic); spec. Protevangel, Fn>-« 
tevangelium. f 

EOipei. a. evangelic, evangelical; epee. 1 

(oiflp, n. 1. See godparent. 
1. busybody, gossipcr, tattler, talebearcTfl 
tittle- tattler, quidnunc (liUrary); spocl 
granny (contempl-amis) .  

I. conversation, tittle-tattle^ small tail^l 
talk, by-talk, gup (Anglo-Itidtan), gc~^ — 

(rare or archaic), goasipred (rore), (, ^ 

ing, tales (pi-); spec, chit-chat, claver, 
report or (rare) reportage. 

coBsIp, f. i. converse,, tattle, tittle- 
tattle, chatter, prattle, clatter; spec, oom- 

ly spec.); spec, pumpkin, squash 
crookneck, Hubbard, lufia, melon 

cauty, a. arthritic (lech.), podagral (prop- 
erly spec,). 

(overneaa, n. teacher (contextuai), tutor- 
ess, gouvemante (French); spec, duenna. 

Kovernment, n. 1. control (amtexitiai), 
gubernation (rare), rpgency (rare. exe.  
spec), dominion, ordinance (archaic), rul-il 

(Dodfalloiniilpi camaradtrit, 
■Dod-liamotM: ii< ' * 

Koody, a.,- riahttavt, 
■ma: ko^. Irianalt. 

^t-ap, a.: afferitd. 

tsr Bee ITotM of EipUostlon. 

erBhip (fore); »pee. discipline, self-govern- 
ment, autonomy. 
AnlanyTw: see anarchy. 
■. R^erring to som€ parlieular mode or 
t]/alem of arganUaiion, and goiieming: spec. 
archology (the science; Tare), polities, pol- 
ity [learned or tech.), regimen, economy, 
duarohy or (a bad spelling) dyarchy, diai- 
diy, triarchy, tetrarchy, pentarchv, hept- 
arcny, hecatontarchy, timocracy, dynasty, 
gerontocracy, gynsococracy, gynarchy, gy- 
nocrocy [rare), kingship, regency, protec- 
torate, democracy, hierocracy, hierarchy, 
hagiocracy, theonomy, hetsrocracy, stra- 
tocracy (rare), logocracy, meaocracy, 
hamarchy, cummunaliam, dulocracy, im- 
perialism, Ctesariam, kingdom, fooloc- 
racy (rare), episcopacy, Congregational- 
ism, methodism. 

■. Referring to the governing body: aignory 
{chiefiy spec.); »j^c. administration, du- 
umvirate, triumvirala. 
i. See BTATB. 
t. In grammar: regimen [ledi.), rection 

(OTflmmentKl, a. 1. controlling. 
1. political; «pec. dynastic. 

KO*am«r, n. 1. See cowraoLLER. 
I. ruler; spec, regent, viceregent, prefect 
(.Roman hist.), president (ckiefiyhist.), pro- 
vedi tor ( FenrfioB), reis or rais, satrap, bev, 
dey, emir, killadar, kehaya, monarch, 
mudir, politaroh, sirdar, procoaaul, podeata 
{Italian), resident, eparch, beglerbeg, bur- 
grave, harmost, toparch, castellan. 

EOTernorshlp, n. Spec, regency, vieege- 
rency, prefecture, etc. 

(awn, n. garment (conlexlual) ; spec, dress, 
robe, smock frock, cassock, gaberdine, 
frock, slip, sack (obs.), peignoir, negligee, 
ii^g£ (French), maatua, caftan, nighl^ 
gown, nightdress. 

Bnoe,71. I. See FAVOR, MERCT, VIKTOE, Ai^ 

a. Spec, embellishment, elegance, eaai- 

1. Referring lo saying arace at UAle: spec, 
petition, blessing, thanks. 
paoe, V. I. become, beautify, endow, 

CTftc«(ul.a. I. easy, elegant; spec, [i^phyxi- 
cal actions) gainly (rare), sylphlike, sylph- 
ine, sylphish, lightsome (rare). 
Antonyms: see awkward, CLnuBT. 


KTaoile, a. slender. The use of "slender" as 
implying graeefvlness ia erroneous; it is not 
connected urith the u^ord "grace." 

craolous, a. I. 

2. kindly (contextual) ; spec, affable, good- 
natured, complaisant, condescending. 

Anlonyma: see curt, borly. 
S. Referring to God, Christ, or the Virgin 
Mary: mild (jtrchaic or poetic), benignant, 
cradakl, a. 1. gradational, gradatory 

AnUinj/THs: see abhtipt, sodden. 

a. See SLOW, QENTXil. 

graduate, n. alumnus (masc), alumna 
fjem,); spec, postgraduate. 
graduate, v. t. 1. laureate (hist.). 


gralt, n. I. In hortiaiiture: scion (ieeh.), 
slip, graff (archaic). 

craft, f. t, 1. engraft, ingraft, inoculate, 
graff (archaic), mip (archaic); spec, in- 
arch, bud. 
I. get (cotUexlval). 

Kraii, n. platter, sangrail. 

KrBln, n. 1. fruit (eonlextwU), coryopsis 
(bo/.; tech.), berry (chieily spec,), seed (a 
popular usage; the "seed ' bolanicaUy being 
the part inside of the husk or huU); spec. 

S. As a collective sing.: corn (British), ce- 
real (tech.); spec, grist, sharps (pi.), hards 
(pi), middlmgs (pi.), crackliua (ji.), 
groats (pi.). 

■. Aa the name of a kind of fruil or the 
plant bearing it: cereal (the more tech. 
term), com (Briliih); spec, wheat, corn 
(U, S.), maize (teamed, tech., or 
British), rye, oats (pi.), spelt, millet, 
dhurra, tsamba, cuscus, lentil, ragi, rag- 
gee. "Grain" and "cereal" in the(minary 
narrow wse refer only to grasses or their 
fruits; in an extended sense they include 
others besides grasses, as "peas," "beans," 

A. particle (contextual), kernel (chiefly 
spec), kern (rare). 


■. Referring to a dye: spec, kermes, cochi- 

7. Referring to a small hard particle: spec. 
granule, granulation, sand, granula (rare), 
grain, V, t. 1. See qranui^tb, dye, 

t, roughen (contextual), granulate; epec. 
grkmniarlai), n. grammatist (chiefly dis- 
paraging), granimaticaster (contemptu- 
ous); spec, choriiontes (pi.; Greek antiq.). 

s Nqw. 


•in. c^OuM. 

: fftadnaU, ei 

« HotM ot EipUoatlDa. 

crmdlant: ilopc. 
trolny! cranuiar. 

tnnaxj, n. storehouse (contexdui]), garner, 
grange (archaic}. 

grmni, a. chief, fine; spec, grmidiose, oobie, 
eminent, majestic, cosmic, magnificent, 
magnific, elevated, dignified, impressive, 
courtly, Miltonic, stately, MicheknRel- 
esque, grandisonant (rare), splenaid, 
splendent, large, Iximbaatic, imperial, pa- 
latial, superb. 
Antonyms: see suall, uean, DjaioNiPi- 

(rrandohlld, n. oy <ir oe (Scot.); spec. 
granddaughter, grandson. 

Krandeor, n. Sjitc. dignity, impressiveness, 
glory, magnificence, splendor, majesty, 
QobiUty, grandiosity, greatness, pomp. 

(randlfttber, n. grandparent, belsire (ar- 
chaic), goodsire {Scot, or chs.), grandsire 
(archaic or dial., exc. of animah), grand- 
dad or grandad (chitdish or in faniiliar of- 
jectim), grandpa or grandpapa (familiar). 

ccandm other, n. grandparent, beldam or 
beldame (archaic or literary), grannara 
(obn. or dial.), grandmamma (eolloq.), 
gramiy {familiar, emlearing, or amlemplu- 
oun), grandam or grandame (archaic). 

ETandnass. n. fineness; spec, eminence, 
elevation, dignity, impress ivenesa, «)urt]i- 
ness, grandeur. 

Erant, v. L I. Referring to a request, desire, 
etc.: aye {contextual) ; spec, allow, indulge, 
gratify.satisfy.fulfill, concede, hear,bumor. 

Kraut, n. 1. Spec, indulgence, gratifica- 
tion, fulfillment, satisfaction, concession. 
». See cosceaaioN, gift, qivino, trans- 

■rrantea, n. recipient (contextual); spec. 
licensee, lessee, releasee, beneficiary, de- 
visee, legatee, con cessionn aire (French). 

(rantor, n. giver {contextual); svee. ceder 
(rare), lessor, releasor, devisor, legator. 

Bianuiar, a. grainy, graniform; spec, gran- 
ose (rare), granulosc, saccharoid, succha- 


(ranulate, v. I. 1. comminute (learned or 
tech.), corn (chiefly tech.), grain; spec. 
pearl, grate. 

cutthroat (local, U. 8.), raiain (bot.), 
concord, delaware, niaR&ra, etc. 
trapellke, a. botryoid Qech.), grapy. 

graphic, a. 1. delincative (a bookitk toord); 
spec, drawing, pointing, descriptive, pic- 
torial, etching, picturesque, figural, dia- J 


BTapbft«, n. plumbago (lech.), lead (popif 

crapple, V. t. & i.d n. close (chiefly v. i.), 
Juloh; spec, tackle (U. S.), clinch or ' 
Jench (U. S.), lock, embraoe. 
AiUonyjos: see free, i 

Eraapi I', t. reach (contextual); spec, clutch; 
— (dl used chiefly with "at" or after." 

Erass, n. Spec, cereal, bent, eddish, hay, 
couch, fiorin, fog, dtutvk, drauk, timothy, 
redtop, eto. 

Braiiland, n. green (rare, exc. spec.), swsrd 
(more literary than "grassland"); spec. 
grass-spot, lawn, greensward, paetui«, 
meadow, mead (chiefly poetic or dial.). 

Kraasy, a. grasslike, herby; spec, gramine- 
ous, grammaccoos, gramineal, gramini- 
form, swardy, benty, conchy, foggy. 

crate, v, t. 1. iSee abiuoe. 
9. emit (contextual), utter (contextual); 
spec, grind {used wiih "out"), rasp. 

grate, v. i. 1. See ritb, 
1. Referring to the noise: spec, jar, grind, 
creak, scroop, rasp, screak, scrunch, 
squeak, crank (rare), stridutate, groan. 

crate, n. frame (conlexluai); spec, grating, 
screen, basket. 

srattng, a. 1. rubbing (cf. rub, v. i.). 
I. scrapy; spec. grindinE, rusty, screaky, 
creaky, scrooping, squeaKy, raspy. 

crating, n. I. rubbing (cf. rdb, v. i.). 
i. Spec grind, scroop, screak, creak, 
squeak, scratch, rasp, stridulation. | 

grating, n. 1. frame (conlextuai), grate 
(noui unusuai), grid (chiefly spec.); spec 
grille or grill, crotch (local Eng.), hunlle, 
portcullis, heck (chiefly Scot.), gnxily. 
9. In optica: fitter. 

crave, n. burial place, hearse (terchaie), 
cell (cliiefty poetic), chamber (eonlextuat), 
tomb (often spec.), sepuJcher (more pf»- 
lenlious than "orope" )iSepulture {arehaie); 
spec, charnel-house, Davy Jones's tock^ 
(naut. cant), mausoleum, mastaba (Egypt- 
ology). "Orave" as strictly used ap^tet 
only to an excavated cavity in the gromd. 

gravel, n. I. stone (contextual; acoUectioe^, 
stones (contextual; pi.), chesil (Eng.), gnt 
(now rare), grail (arcAaic or poetic); spec. 
shingle (chiefly Eng.), beach (Eng.), i ' 
luvium, ballast. 


•3, •■ ' -■ 

I sntelUl: Ihankfu!, arnrplable. 

ITbtlfy: pteaar, ifitiddtn, ffrant 

CiBtlfrlac: :Kci!alabU, pjeiuani, 

Cmtla, (Kit.-* fretiii. 

tntl*, i: fr^ 
\ Kntultoai: /ret, frmtid/u., 

tS" See Botu ot EipUastlD 

CTKtnlty: gi/l, 
dignilird. laui 


F paveitone, n. stone, monument, tomb- 
stone; spec, ledger, headstone, footstonc, 
shait, cross, etc. 
KMfi a. 1. grey (var. spelling, by some waed 
uitk di^eretU implicatiaits from "gray"; 
"gray" w chiejly U. S., "grtjf' ehUJty 
Briliah); epec. grayish, pizdy or grisly, 
pUiled, hoar, Eoary, griseous {teamed), 
bla« (o6iS, or Scot, aivi dial. Eng.), ashen, 
ash-colored, pearly, leaden, lead-colored, 
cloudy, clouded, miaty, fo^y, perae {ar- 
etiaic), pearled, leady, frosty, canescect, 
gray-baired, drab. 

Kraiy, v. t. Spec, cloud, pearl, griizle. 
gny-h&lred, a. gray, hoar {lilerary), hoa^ 

headed (literary); spec, silver-haired, 

griixly, grUsled. 
KTue, II. t. & i. 1. rub (contextual); spec. 

shave, brush, ra:ie (Tore), scrape, scratch, 


1. See ABRADE. 

■rase, n. 1. rub (amtextual); spec, shave, 
brush, scrape, scratch, glance. 


■raie. v. i. 1. feed (coTitextu/d) ; spec, pas- 
ture, browse, depasture (tech.). 
S. See TEND. 

(lailnCi n. I. Referring lo tlie act: spec. 
pasture (rare), pasturage, depasturation 
(<eck.), depasture (tech.). 
S. Referring lo vihai is fed on: pasture, 
pasturage, range (U. S.). 

■TaaB«, a. fat; spec, lard, axung, tollon, 
butter, slush, suet, oil, drippings (pi.), 

KTMisc, V. 1. 1. lubricate (literary, exc. spec.); 
spec, butter, oil, dub, lord, anoint, gar- 

S. See BRIBE. 
Kieasyt a. I. fat, unctuous; spec, oily, 
lardy, yolkyCo/iBoofi. 
•. See auooTH, sufpert. 

. SecB 


, CHrBf, FINE, 

1. Bfiferring to degree, intensity, etc.: flpec. 
passing (archaic), pronounced, decided, 
tnightv (rhetoricol or chiefly coUoq.), vast, 
fearful (coUoq.), dense, desperate (coUoq.), 
deuced (elarxg or mllog.), plaguey (sUmg), 
devilish (slang), thundering (alnng or cal- 
Jog.), mortal (cotloq.), magnificent {<As., 
exc. as a titk or slang), terrible (colhq.), 
terrific (coUoq.) dreadful (colloq.), divine 
( eoOoq.), — -'-- 

Antonyms: see buall, unimportant, 

ereatu, n. more, major (not used leilk 

"than"); epec. better. 
Kreatest, a. 1. most, best (in "best part"), 

maximum, maximal. 

Kieatly, a. well, vastly (coUog.), highly, 
hugely, immanely (rare). 

CEeataess, n. I. See size. 
3. Spec, dignity, distinction, fame, much- 
ness, grandeur, generosity, importance, dc. 

preed, n. desire, greediness, cupidity, avid- 
ity; spec. ommvorousnesB, avarice, covet- 
ousnesa, graepingncss, rapacitj;, rapa- 
ciouaneaa, insatiaSleneas, pleonexia (rare), 
hunger (often fig.), thirst (o/ten fig.), ex- 
orbitancy, gluttony. 

creedy, a. desirous, cupidous (rare), covetr 
ous; spec, avid, avaricious, omnivorous, 
insatiable, pleonectic (rare), ravenous, 
rapacious, grasping, gripple (arclutie), 
hungrv, thirstv, exorbitant, gluttonous, 
piggish (coUoq), hoggish (vulgar or tnten- 

Antonyms: see obnebous. 

Gceek, o. Grecian (dtiefiy spec.), Hellenic 
(chiefiy spec), Helleniaji (rare), Helladian 
(rare), Helladic (rare); spec. Greekish, 
Dorian, Doric, Ionian, Ionic, Spartan, 
BiEOtian, Thracian, Romaic, Itahc. 

Greek, n. Grecian (rore), Hellene, Hellenic 
(the language), Greekling (cmilempt-mits). 

Kreen, a. 1. Verdant (cniefly spec.); spec. 
glaucous, porraceoua (rare), citrine or cit- 
trinous, ctcsioua, chlorine or chlorochrous, 
ohvBceous, olive, smaragdine. 


tachio, bice, corbeau (French). 

a. See VERDtTRB. 

greenlsli, a. green, glaucous, virescent (lit- 
erary), viri descent (rore), 

greet, v, I. 1. address (ram/eiiuai), receive; 
spec, accost, salute, hail, welcome. 
». See RECEIVE. 

CieetlnE, n. I. address (amtextwd), re- 
ception; spec, accost, salutation, salute, 
hail, Bve, welcome, colors (pi.); see rb- 

Antonyms: see farewell, goodby. 


BTcyhound, n. grew or grewhound f Scoi.); 
spec, sapling, tumbler. 
EilddleGBlte, n. slapjack (U. S.); spec. 


ITidlron. n. grill, brander (Scot,), brand- 
iron (dial.), orandreth {obs.). 

gritt, n. diacotnfort (contextual), dole 

giU)*«, V. I, diBComfoTt {amtextual), dis- 
treaa (contec/uai), pain (chiefly spec.), hurt 
(chiefly apec.), sadden, Borrow (rore); 
tpee. agonize, torture, torment, aggrieve, 
trouble, oppress, afflict. 
Anlonymg: eee please, gladden. 

grlmaoe, n. face, mow (now rare), mop 
(now rare); spec, mouth, mug (ihcaCrical 

(rimsoe. v, i, mow (now rare), mop (now 
rare); spec, mouth (rarv), mug (theotrieal 

KTtnd, V. I. \. comminute (conlexiual; 
/earned), crush; awe. whet, triturate, mas- 
ticate, crunch, Dray, mull (dial. Eng.), 
pestle (rare), roll, mill. 


Crind, V. t. 1. comminute (contextual: 
learned), crush; gpec. triturate, roll, mill, 


trtt, n. dirt (eonUxlual); spec, sand, gravel, 

■rlt*, n. pi. grain (cont^itwil; a colleetiee), 

groats (pi.); spec, oatmeal (a collective; 

ting.), hominy (a atUective: Hng.). 
Brittyia. dirty («»t(ei(J«iO,calculoua(rare),- 

spec, muddy, sandy, stony, gravelly. 
CToKiii V. i. !• moan. 

t. See BUFFER, 

(roln, n. angle {contextual), edge, rib. 

(room, 1. 1. hostler or ostler [orig. spec.), 
coiatrel (archaic); spec, paltrenier (ar- 
chaic), nagsman (caid), tiger (in littery), 


KEoom, ti. (. 1. tend (contextual), fettle 
(dud.); svee. brush, rub, comb, curry, 

». SeeTiDT. 
crooT*, n. 1, channel (coTttextual); spec. 
furrow, rut, flute, cannelure, channclure, 
canaliculation, sulcus, gutter, chamfer 
(obs. or rare), chase, rebate, rabbet, rifle, 
croze, mortise, vallecula, cut, score, gain, 
glyph, coulisse (French), 
1. See 

gtoove, V. I. channel (contextual); spec, (ur- I 
row, gouge, chase, croze, rebate, throat, 1 
quirk, rine, dado, ditch (rare), excavate, 

grooved, a. channeled (contextuoi); spec. 

Hulcate, gott^red, fossulate, canaliculate, 

contomiate, valleculale, 
KToove-ihspcd. a. sulciform (tech.). 
(iap«, i>. t. feel, search, grabble (chiefly I 

spec), puzzle (only fig.). 
CTOplDKl7t a. blindly. ' 

croiB, a. crass (chiefly spec.); gpec. big, 

bulk^. coarse, dense, fat, fla^ant, dull, 

stupid, brutal, unrefined, whole, vulgar, 

obscene, sensual, earthy. 
Antonyms: see KicB, DELICATE, rbmnbd. 

SToamesa, n. craaaness; spec, size, build- I 
ness, coarseness, fatness, flapanc/, dull- f 
ness, stupidity, brutality, vulgarity, ob- [ 
Bcenity, sensuality. 

(rouad, n. I. See earth, land, base, 

GIST, (in pi.), DREG, (in pt.). 1 

I. As in "on that ground," etc.: basis, 
reason; spec, antecedent. 
KTouDd, V. 1. 1. See base, establish, pell, 

*. Ina nauHad sense: strand (ori^. spec.; 
more dignified than "ground"); spec. 
beach, sand, shore (rare). 

EToandleiB, a. causeless (as having no 
valid cause), uncalled-for, baseless, un- 
founded, ungrounded, reasonless, unsolid 
(rare), gratuitous (chiefly spec.); spec, 
misgrouaded, idle_, unprovoked, unasked, I 
unsought, unsolicited, vmjuetifiable, wf " ' 
ton (uiiUful as well as unjustifiable). 
Antonyms: see reasonable. 

Kioup, n. Spec, assembly, assemblage, 
combination, block, bunch, family, nest, 
knot, body, cluster, flock, flight, plexus, 
division, clump, round, roundlet, bundle, 
claque, flush, shock, shook, stack, dieaf, 
gens, clan, sept, tribe, race, party, clique, 
system, species, genua, variety, horde, or- 
der, class, phylum, kingdom, force, army, 
array, corps, battahon, regiment, com- 
pany, squsjlron, battery, fleet, command, 
glomerule, school, class, etc. "Group" »n 
its original sense was a term of Ike flne arts. 


t^* See Hotu ot E 

d referred to an tKiemhtage of two or more 
rr (Ajecls forming a complete design 
. ,. inadesicn; henceiUaiieBOBrffer- 
TiTtg to any oBsemhiage considered as a unil. 
gionp, a. gentile (as Ihepentile name), gea- 
tilitial (rore), gentilitious (rara); spec. 

croup, c. t. i£ i. assemble; spec, arrange, 
cloamfy, cluater, clump, tuft. 
pove, n. wood (contextual), tope {An{)lo- 
Indian), tuft (literary or rare); tpec. 
pinery, pinetum. 
crow, V. i. 1. live, wax (archaic or literary) , 
form; spec, luxuriate, fungus, fungate, 
Bpindle, shoot, vegetate, develop, 

crow, v. l. proc 
plonte or, U. S. 
wpec.); epee. cuiti 
fMWl, f . t. 1. gnt 
oirD (iScof.)/ s^e 
wn^l. n. 1_ ffTIA' 

:Crow, 11. I. produce, raise (referriTtg to 
plants or, if. S., animals), rear (chiefly 
wpec.); epee. cuitivat«. 
^wk V. i. 1. gnarl (rare), gnar (literary), 
giro (Scot,); spec, grumble, snarl. 

crowl, n. 1. gnarl (rare), gnar (lUtrary), 
gim (Scot.); spec, grumble, snarl. 


crown, a. adult, mature (chiefly spec), 

full-grown; spec. ripe. 
Antonyms: see immatuhe. 
growth, n. 1. development, thrift 

Ihtidthy); spec, germination, increase. Cf. 

_L production, rearing (ckUfly spec.); 
apec. cultivation, culture, etc, Cf. grow, 
t. SomclhiTig that has grown: formation, 
' jntMiuct; spec, sprout, spire, shoot, flush, 
accretion, excrescence, vegetation, sucker, 
fleece (in fig. sense of feaihery part of 
;niase<, etc.), stand (reUUiiie number on a 
given area). Cf.oRow. 
«. See increase:. 
I. adulthood. 

crDdca> f. 1. 1. give, begrudge, grutch (rare 
or archaic). 
t. See BNVT. 

cradc».n' illwill. "Grudge" is now rarely 
■Uted of the general feeling of "ill vrill," but 
niher of a varticidar instance, tcilh syno- 
nyms as foUows: grutch (rare), down (coU 
tog.); spec, spite. 

fnftiaatce, f. (. undertake, insure or en- 
I BUre, assure, piaranty (rare), warrant; 
tpec. secure, vouch. 

ca*T<i<vt«e, V. i. undertake, vouch; tpec. 
agree, contract. 

Kuarantee, n. I. guarantor; spec, suretj', 
voucher, warrantor, insurer, bailor, bad, 
). guaranty; — rderring to &e ad or thing. 

Cii>iaiit7, n. 1. Of the act: guarantee, un- 
dertaking, warranty; spec, security, in- 
surance, assurance, vouch (archaic), 

1. Of the thing: guarantee, warrant; spec. 
security, voucher, agreement, contract, 

Ca»rd, V. I. 1. protect, keep (now chiefly 
spec), ward (archiac); spec, watch, over- 
watch, safeguard, escort, attend, tile 
(Freemasonry), patrol, picket. 
S. watch, check. 

Kuard, V. i. watch, ward (archaic); spec. 
beware, patrol, sentry (rare). 

Euard, n. 1. QT the tui or fact: protection, 
watch, ward (archaic), keep (chiefly 
Bpee.);spec. custody, escort. 
>. Referring to persons: protector, watch, 
keeper (chiefly spec.), safeguarder, guai^ 
dian (more formal than "guard"), warden 
(literary or archaic, exc. spec), warder 
(literary or archaic, exc. spec.) ; spec, picket 
(of one or more), deathwatch, escort, pa- 
trol (chiefly coUedive sing.), watchman, 
safeguarder, safeguard, sentinel, sentry 
(the usual military term), vanguard (col- 
lectiee sing.), wardaman (rare), cordon 
(coUeciive pi,), rearward (coUeditie pi.). 
t. Referring to things: spec, protection, 

?rotector, shooter, pad, ward, teuba 
Japanese), button, cowcatcher, pilot 
(B «.). 

Cnatded, a. Spec, protected, close, cau- 
tious, careful. 

CUiirdlBii, n. 1. protector, guard; «pec. 

2. In latv: spec, curator, conservator, 

cuardtanihfp, n. 1. care, protection; spec. 

). In law: spec, curatorship, tutorship, 
tutelage, tutorage, tutory (rare), ward, 
wardship, matronage. 

cueis, V. t. ■£ t. 1. conjecture, surmise, sus- 
pect (chiefly spec.), jalouse (Scot.), suspi- 
cion (coUoq. for "suspect"); spec, mistrust, 
divine, predict, theorize, imagine, foresee. 
Antonyms: see know. 
9. Seen 

1^ Crojr rrfemces: jee ] 
Cmral: rrwp, mnw. 
BTOvaUnf 1 abjaa. 
crab. f. >..* did. dTMdfii. I 
frab, ■, t,; dia, dear, up 
Cnb, n,.- iana. food. 
ibbrt d> ' 


CmdilnK, n.: rnv. 

(tuR, a,.- rough, nrlu- 
■nuiibl& I. I.: comflain. mut- 
■niniB, n..* blood, rla. 
IS" See Hotn of EipImnBtloB 


crampr, I 

(B«rdbonH: iliAt«r, friiat. 
Kuddla: ealch. 
cudewm; pivoL 
(nudoD: rrumrd. 
CnsrlllB: fishlrr. 

guai*, tt. coniecture, Burmieo, shot (cot- 
loq.), surmisaJ (rare),- spec. miBtrust, sus- 
picion, cast, divination, predictioa, the- 
ory, imagination, Toresigbt. 

(ueiier, n. conjecturer, aunniser; spec. 
ffidipuB ijig.), mistruater, diviner, elc. 

cnait, n. visitor; spec, convivpl {at afea»t; 
ob*.), umbra (Roman hist.), Hhadow (o 
Lalinism), diner, company (a eoUeclive), 

(oldanoB, n. 1. dirortion, conduction, 
duct^ pilotage (chiefiy iptc); spec, steering, 
l^Mling, lead, roarstiaJing, manuduction 
(rare), steerage (nauf. or rare), escort. 

pilds, P. (. I. direct, conduct, pilot (chiefly 
spec.), show; 
cicerone, lead, i 
or fig.), escort, 


(Hide, n. 1. director, directer, conductor, 
Mercury (Jig.), pilot (chiefly sp^.); spec. 
majBhaler, leacier, cicerone, aightsman 
(rare), steersman, ateerer. 
I; Referring to IhiTigs: spec, landmark, 
lodestar, cynosure (literary), key, clew, 
due, thread, directory, index, fence, 
screed, trail, trace, guidebook, bridle. 

snidebook, n. Spec. Baedeker, itinerary, 
roadbook, ruttier (archaic). 
gnldepoat, n. woypoet; ape. fingerpost. 
cniltleii, a. innocent, blameless; see in- 


Antonyms: see blauabij:. 
■nllty, a. blamable, nocent (rare); spec. 
criminal, seU-accusing, conscious. 
Antonyms: see blameless, innocent. 
sultar, n. Spec, vina, sancbo, samisen 

(Japanese), sitar (Anglo-Indian). 
Kullet, n. 1. (Esophagus (lech.). 


EnUr? ". valley (conlcxiual); spec, arroyo 

(hxal, U. S.). 
■amin;, a, g:umlike, gummous (rare), 

gummose (rare); spec, mucilaginous. 
Knn, n. 1. cannon; sjiec. ponipom, big 

Bertha (colloq.). 

S. firearm, shooter (coUo^.), pelter (fiif \ 

morous); spec, musket, nSe, pistol, r^ 

volver, matchlock, Catling. 
Eunboat, n. Spec, tinclad (coUoq:). 
Kunnci, n. I. shooter (cotUextual); ipee, I 

musketeer, carbineer. 

t. artilleryman, artillerist, eannoD___, 

gun (coUog. or ctaU); spec, bombardier, 


1. hunter. I 

(iiTgle, V. i. & n. 1. KUggle; see flow, Boa- 

1. See LAtroH. 

mstr. a. unsteady, fretful, puffy, 
tntter, n. channel (cfmlextual); spec, can- 

nel or kennel {British). 
Kuttural, a. 1. throat (the noun used al- 

Iribiilinely) . 

2. O/stmrnfa.- throat, thick, throaty. 
guzEie, V. I. consume, drink, bum (clang, 

U. S.), iiiEurgitate (rare). 
KTbe. V. i. d: n, shift. 
■ymnailum, n. calisthenium (rare), 

gymkhana (Anglo-Indian or tran^erred), 

palipstra or palestra (chiefly Greek antiq.i. 
Kjva-atax, n. athlete (contextual); spec, 

contortionist, equihbrist, ropewalker, 

KTmnastlo, a. athletic (conlexttiol), gym- 
nic (rare): spec, calisthenic. 

KymnaBtloB, n. athletics (contextuai); spec 

Krp>r< a. Egyptian, Romaniaa (rare), Bo- 
hemian, Romany (cant); spec. Tiigany. 

cyp'T. n. 1. Egyptian, Bohemian, c^rd 
(5co(.), rom (male; caul), Romany, faw 
(dial. Eng.); spec. Tsigany. 
a. Referring to the language: Roman. 

bkblt, n. 1. See dkgbs. 
9. custom, use (chiefly liUrary or poetic 
for "mistom"), wont (chiefly lUerary for 
"custom"), usage, habitude (rare), con- 
suetude (rare), practice, rule; epec. 
cacoethes, knack, trick. 

habitual, a, comroon (fimtextjud), accus- 
tomed, customary, usual, wont«d, cod- 

inil*: dtailfuliitH, dtctjitim 

■nlUtnli dKwitfuI. 

nUMau: nmpi*. 

SnUt: Norn*. 

fulu: cailumt, apftaraiKt. r 

ffnll; inttt. abt/u. 

tun, I. t.t dtcrivt. dupe. 

cottar, r ( 

bsbltudc: habit. 


suetui^^najy (rare); apee. haokncyed, set- 
tled, confinned, inveterate, great. 
Antonyms - we occasional. 

liMik, n. 1. See horse. 
I. author {eoniexival), drudge, penny-a- 
liaer, hodman (lUerary); apec. jobber. 

haCi 1- beldam or beldame (literary or 
rare), witch, harridan (rare). 
Anlonj/mn: see beadtt. 

lull, V. 1. 1. See GREET. 
I. call; spec, hollo. 

bkU, V. i. call; spec, avc, hollo, hello. 

hkll, n, call; spec, hollo, hello, ave. 

Ii«ii, n. filament {conUxtual); spec, bristle, 
hairlct, eyeliiah, kcmp, whisker, villus. 

takir, n. Reftrring to the natural coverirtg or 
mat of hair: apec. friiile, fur, wool, down, 
thatch (fig.; humaroua), carrots (red; hu- 
morous or derisive), crme (rare), benrd, 
mustache, pile, grizzle, mane, pubes- 
cence, wool, pubes. 

balr, a. pilar (rtire), crinal (rare). 

faRlT-dreBBer, n. coiffeur (Frertch; a^ected 
as fashitmahle), friaeur (French; rare); 
apee. barber. 

bailted, a. Spec, (her.) maned, crined. 

halrlnets, n. hireuteneaa, hirsutles (tech.), 
hispidity, crinoaitv (rare), piloaity (rare). 

halilike, a. hairy (rare), filamentous; spec. 
capiltifonn, capiUaceous (rare), thread- 
like, villous. 

lulry, a. Sprc. hairish, hispid (chiefly 
tech.), bristly, hirsute (learned or liierary), 
shaggy, crimte, keropy, comose or comous, 
pilose or (rare) pilous, peh lie (rare), pile- 
ous (rare), rough, t^jmentose, woolly, 
capillate, capillose, villous, turry, pu- 
Antonyms: see bald, bare. 

IiKlberd, halbert, n. bill; spec, epontoon, 
brown bill, lochaber, battle-ax. 

half, n. moiety (legal or formaTl; apee. 
hemisphere, mediety. 

haltbraed, n. Spec, mestizo (masc.), mes- 
tisa (/em.), mulatto, mule, 

iMtU-Bedxad; a. pin-feathered. 

Iialtpenny, n. bawbee (Scot.), make 
(slang), mail (obs. or hist.). 

lull, n. 1. See abode. 
1. building (contextual); spec, dormitory, 
casino, college, burse (Eng.), pantheon, 
prytaneum (Greek antiq.). 
t. room (contextual), hallway; spec, ante- 
room, lobby, divan, atrium (Roman an- 

tiq.), impluvium (Roman antig.), durbar 

(East Iitdia), sala (Spanish). 

4. passage (contextual); spec, corridor, 

ballowed, a, holy, consecrated, blessed. 

Antonyms: see unholy. 
halluolnntloa, n. deception, fancy; spec. 

panes thesia or paresthesia, lobscopy, 

phoephene, photism, afterimage, photo- 
halo, n. 1. circle, burr (chiefly apee.), aura, 

brough (Seal.; chiefly spec.); spec, corona. 

i. See aiORT. 
halter, n. 1. Spec, hackamore (U. S.). 

I. for ftonffinjcrimiTiaJs.' rope, rope's end, 

tether (rare). 
halvo, V. C. divide, dimidiate (rare); spec. 

ham, n. 1. In quadrupeds: hock. 

1. thigh; spec, gammon. 
hammer, n. Sjiec. beetle, maul or mall, 

mallet, tapper, rammer, commander, 

bush-hammer, fuller, woolstock, sledge, 

ekelper, helve, martel, mash, striker, 

plexor, flatte, bucker, gavel, cock. 
hammer, v. t. strike (conlextutd), beat 

(contextual); spec, drive, tilt, ram, draw, 
hammer- Btaaped, a. malleifurm (rare). 
hamper, v. I. hinder, embarrass, trammel 

(primarily spec; a stronger word Uum 

"hamper"), entramrael (inlenaive), fetter, 

cumber or encumber (primarily spec.); 

spec, clog, shackle. 
hamper, n. hindrance, embarrsssroent, 

encumbrance, encumberment (rare), 

hamitrlni:, v. I. hough, hock; spec, spade, 
hand, n. 1. extremity (contextual), i 

(slang), fomble (alang) ; spec, fist, forefoot. 

9. In cards: spec, dummy, flush, straight, 
full house, carte blanche, crib, etc. 

bandbac, n. grip (coUoq.), gripsack (col- 
loq., U. S.): spec, portmant^u (chiefly 
British), Gladstone bag or (for aftor() 
gladstone, satchel, carpetbaa, suitcase, 
carryall (Eng.), scrip, cachet (French). 

handbook, n. manual, vade mecum (Lal- 
iii), enchiridion (/earned); apec. guidebook, 

handbreadtb, n. palm. 


haccla, f . I.; chap. 
haald g, t..- canl, bariisin. 
han&toB*: piltit. 

k. hBlIn, ittUoo: h 

hallowed: holy. 




1. Spte. cade. 

hmndolMp, n. grip, olutch, griup. 

takndfal, n. 1. gripe {local, Eiig.), fistful; 
tpec. wisp. 

handioap, n. 1. S 
a. penalty (caiU). 

lwndlMp,ii.f.p^ialize(canf); spec, weight. 

huidkaTcblcl, n. wiper (rare), wipe 
{siang), Budarium or Budary (primarily 
tpec.; a bookish ward), fogle (slang), rag 
(ami or along); tpec. Barcelona (oba,), 
bandaimB, Madras, foulard, romal (Mex- 
ico and souChxpesUm U. S.), vemicle. 

buidle, n. gtip, stale (dial, or tech.); spec. 
spindle, hajiastaS, crop, snead (chiefiij 
Scot. & dial.), grasp, brake, helm, hait, 
loom, helve, lug, Kilt, snath or snathe, 
bow, bail, tiUer, stalk, ear, pfUm, crutch, 
withe, ehaft, sally, t«te, tale (rare), 
rouDoe, pull, crank. 

hkudls, V. (. 1. touch (contextual), paw 
(ckiefiy spec, or contempluoiis), hand 
(rare), manipulate; spec, feel, fumble, 
finger, thumb, fist, palm, gentle, man- 
haodle, smooth. 
I. haft, hilt, helve. 


bandied, a. ansate (rare). 

bandllac, n. touching (conlextu/fl); spec. 

nmiiipiilation, thumbmg, fingering, con- 

 - :i (rare). 

b^adwriUnc, n. chirography, paw (coUoq. 
or jocular). BcripUon (rare), scripture 
(rore), fist (jocular or cant), script, hand, 
calUgraphy (priiaarily s]irc.): spec, char- 
acter, cacography, graphology, penman- 
ship, courthand. 

faand- written, a. manuscript. 

hBDc, If. I. 1. suspend, depend (rare); spec. 
dangle, drape, droop, awing, sky (carti). 
S. execute (amtexlual), palibiilate (hutitor- 
oiu:nimee);gpec. gibbet, trusa(rare),Huper- 
collat« (rare and ludicrous), noose, halter, 

banc, V. i. I. depend, suspend (rare); spec. 
dan^e, lop, dingle-dangle (intenaioe), 
stream, flow, trail, droop, 
t. die (cantexiual), swing (cnlloq.). 
1. Spec, impend, hover, lean. 


banc, n- 1- Spec, dangle (rare), drape, 
1. See ABIUTT, MT. 

tukneer-oo, n. dependent, parasite, bur or 
burr (fig.): spec, client. 
Atttonyms: see supportek. 

hanstncd. t. dependent; «pec.pendulauH, 
pendulant (rare), deciimbent, flaggy, pen- 
dent or pendantj pensile, peuduhne (rare), 
drooping, danglmg. 
1. supporting, suspensory, suspensorial. 

banElBCi R. !• dependence, dajiglemeiit 
S. execution (coritezfuol); spec. ^bbet. 

8. See DRAPERY. 

hkncmkn, n. Jack Ketch (a popular 
name), ketch (coUoq.). 

bappen, d. i. I, See occttr, chance. 
1. With an indirect object: chance (now 
rare), bechance (rare). Detide (only in 3d 
person, and jnoaliy in "woe betide"), befall 
1. come, fall; spec, strike, stumble; — with 

harass, v. t. distress (contextual), badger; 
spec, dragoon, heckle, curae, beset, worry, 
annoy, gall, harry, haggle, embarrass, u- 
flict, depress, 
Aidonyms: see comport, protect. 

barassed, a. distressed (contextual); spec. 

barbor, n. 1. See refuqe. 
%. port, haven (a word now becoming liter- 
ary); spec, mole, cothon, seaport, portlet. 
bunder (Anglo-Indian). 

hard, a. 1. firm, solid (as opposed lo vihat u 
"fluid," "gaseous," or "liquid"), ri(rid (ai 
opposed to "pliable," soft"), sclerous 
((ecA.), indurated, dure (literary), doiur 
(Scot.), untender (rare);8pec. adamantine 
(chiefly literary or tech.), resistant (rare), 
stony, marble, iron, steely, icy, flinty, 
brazen, brassy (oftenjig.), dintlesB, rocky. 



harden, v. t. tt i. 1. firm (chi^y lech, or 
literary), solidify; spec, steel, Dutch, im- 
marble (rare), stone (rare), enhardeo 
(rare), indurate, crust, braze, callous, 
chill, Harvey, Harveyiie, crisp, congeal, 
freeze, case-harden, vidoaniae. 


: see soften. 
«. wjuftucu, inure, indurate, calloua (rare). 
I. Referring to the JeelinBs, morah, etc.: 
obdurate (rare), obdure (rare), indurate, 
callous {Jig.); spec, senBualize, brutalize, 
MoloohiiB {nonce word), savagize {rare), 
braze OT" bra«en (rare), stiffen, confirm. 
Antonynui: see soften. 

taaxdlness, n. 1. See BOLDNess. 
S. strength, endurance, robustness, stur- 
diness, Htoutoess, vigor, toughness. 

Ii>r(t7, adv. 1. Spec, severely, barsbly {qf. 

1. scarcely, barely, merely, iust. 
luudnega, n. 1. firmness, solidity, indura- 
tionj spec, adamant, etc., sclerosis, scir- 
a. Spec, austerity, cruelty, etc. [cf. aus- 

TEBB, CRPBI., e(C.), 

bHdlr, o. 1. See boij>, couraqeoub. 
%. strong, endurins, robust, robustious, 
sturdy, sl^ut, tougn, rugged. 
Anlonyms: see delicate, weaklt. 

kua> n. Bawd (a dialect proper name, like 
"Reynard" for the fox), cutty {Scot.), puss 
or pUBsy (oB a qitasi proper name), wat 
(now chiefy dial,); spec, leveret, leparine, 

seraglio, serail {rare); spec. 

II dmtd. 

^^_ bud-iwutad 

1 (rotter euphemistic), harlotry (chiefiy 
tilerary; often used as a term qf opprobrium 
for a woman), trull, meretnx (rare), 
whore (now becoming vulgar), limmer 
(Seol.), strumpet; spec, hetajra or hetaira 
(Oreekaniig.), streetwalker, night walker. 

Iwrlot, a. I. meretricious (chieflj/ spec.). 
9. See LEWD. 

harlotry, n. prostitution {esp, for hire), 
atrumpctry; spec, hetxerism, hetairism. 

barm, n. 1, evil, hurt, ill, injury, damage, le- 
sion (liierary, exc. spec, in med,), mischief, 
execution (chiefly in "to do exec\iiion"), 
scathe (archaic; chiefly as a generic sing.), 
grame (archaic); spec, bale (lOerar!/), dese- 
cration, abuse, bane, waaU, breaking, 
beating, misfortune, ruin, etc. 
B. Referring lo the violation of legal rights: 

*. SeeDETRliaEKT. 

IiAriD, V. I, 1. hurt, injure, damage, scathe 
(archaic); spec, abuse, desecrate, break, 
best, wBat«, etc. 
Anlonyms: see benefit. 
t. Referring lo legal harm: see injuee. 

lurinlal, a. 1. evil, ill {now chiefly rhetor- 
ical, exc. as occurring in proverbn or in cer- 

tain phrases), bad (a mild word), hurtful, 
injunous, noisome (chiefly spec), malefi- 
cent (chiefiy literary), malefic {chiefly 
spec.), misi^evouBi spec, damaging, bale- 
ful, mimical, dire, oireful, fell, ^neful 
(poetic or rheloricol), pestiferous, malig- 
nant, sinister, sinistrous (rare), noxious, 
nocent (rore), deleterious, destructive, 
disadvantageous, unfortunate, pernicious, 
Anlonyms: see beneficial, harmi^ss. 
1. See iNJtnuoos (referring lo harm to 
legal riglds). 

hKciolais, a, hiirtless, ill-lees (rare), inno- 
cent, innocuous (now chiefly stilled, exc. 
spec.), innoxious (rare), safe, inoffensive, 
unharmfiil (rare), unhortful (rare); spec, 
woundlesa (rare). 
Antonyms: see h 

■laimonloui. a. 1 

1. harmonial (rare), harmonic (more tech- 
nical than "haTWonvnte"), symphonic or 
symphonious, consonant, spheral (poetic), 
melodious, smooth {contextiud), concin- 
nous (rare)., tunable (rare), tuneful, mu- 
sical, concordant, undiscording (rare); 
spec, sympathetic. 
Antnnyms: see inrabmoniocb, discoko- 

harmonlie, v. i. 1. See aqhee, sxmpa- 

1. tune, chime, blend, chord. 
faaciniialte, v. t. 1. attune, melodize, con- 
cent (jare). 
t. unite, reconcile, conform. 


harmonr< "■ !• See agbeement, con- 


I. smoothness {contextual); spec, melody, 
concert (now rare), tune (as in "in tune"), 
chord, cadence, concord, monochoid 
(rare), concent (archaic), consonance, 
chime, descant (historical), concentus (lit- 
erary) , symphony (iiierary), unison, diapa- 
son, diaphony, organum, faburden (hist.). 
Anlonyms; see dihcobd, dibcordancb. 
). Referring to a literary work showing cotb- 
sistency of parallel passages: spec, dial«a- 

harneas. v. t. hitch (U. S.); spec, saddle, 
inyoke, yoke, span, inspan (South Africa), 

Anlonyms: see unhabness. 
harp, n. Spec, dau^chach (Celtic), ka> 

4 Noil 

turdlhoad: 6dU»ci 

tS" See Mot** or Eipluutlon. 

A6lIo, Oeypeta, Celteoo or Podar^; — 
their number, Kovxver, being vanoaaly 

lurih, a. 1. Sjtte. rough, acid, acrimoni- 
oua, dure {iUerary), beanah, brutal, rude, 
churlish, hard, unkind, unjfenial, aharfi, 
crude, coarBe, brute, brutish, intender 

{Tare), s< 

:, blunt, round, aatrin- 


S. Referring to souTufs; cacophonouH (rare 
or learned), unmelodiousj vpec. metallic, 
brazen, hard, hoarse, strident, iron, sca- 
brous (rare), raucous, unswect (rare), rag- 
ged, discordant, gratmg. 

bantanesB, n. Spec, hardness, cruelty, 

crudity, crudeaess, unkindness, ungen- 

tleness, acidity, sstringency, dissonance, 

raucity (rare), etc. 
hkrreit, n. 1. yield, product, harvestry, 

crop, gather (rare); spec, vintage, rabi 

(A nglo-Indian) , 

t. See PR0DO(7r. 
bftrrsit, V. I. crop (rare), reap (primarily 

spec.); spec, glean, hay, vindcmiate (rare), 

Antortyrns: tue sow. 
harvesteT, n. harveetman, reaper; spec. 

hkireit home, maiden (Scot.), kim 

haTTest qneen. Spec, harvest doll, kim 
baby (Scot.), maiden (Seol.). 

hki'been, n. quondam (obs.). 

hMte. n. quickness, hurry, precipitation 
or precipitancy, precipitance (rare), speed, 
festination (rare), rush (headlong haste; 
often tn a slang way, any haste), press, ex- 
pedition, dispatch, expcditiouaness; spec. 
posthaste (rare as a noun), rashness, bus- 
tle, hustle, impetuosity, hastiness. 
Antortyrns: see deliberation. 

tuittan, V. I. quicken, hurry, dispatch, 
speed, urge, press, hurry-scurry, precip- 
itate, express, festmate (rare); spec, ruan, 
spur, crowd, bundle, hustle. 
Antonyms: see detain, retard. 

hasten, v. i. quicken, go, hurry, press, hie 
(arcKaic or poetic), dispatch, expedite, for- 
ward, haste (literary); spec, scorch, fleet, 
bustle (coUoq.), spurt, rustle (colhq.), fly, 
chp (cdtog.), race, spur, wing, crowd (ar- 
chaic or rare), scurry, run, peg (coUoq.), 

powder (coUoq.), drive, post, hurry- 
Antonyms: see DELAT. 
haitlly, adv. quickly, hurriedly, cxpedi- 

Uoiisly; apec. hotfoot, post (archaic), post- 
haste, rashly, recklessly, helter-skelter, 
hurry-scurry, etc. 
hasty, a. quick, hasteful (rare), hurried, 
precipitate; spec, precipitant (rare), ex- 

[leditjous, rash, brash, running, hot- 
leadcd, rapid, passine, ' 

helter-skelter, pell-Boell. 
Antonyms: see nEUBERATE. 

hat. n. chapeau (French); spec, cap, derby 
{(/. S.), bowler (Eng.), billycock (Eng.), 
dbus, sombrero, sundown ((/. S.), sugar 
loaf, turban, castor, equam {(/. S.), 
wideawake, tiara, tile (slang), petasus, 
kausia, leghorn, dicer (slang), slough 
(slang), shovel, mushroom (slann), felt 
(cotiaq.), garibaldi, miter, turban, mitra, 
busby (Brit.), shako, capehne, copintank 
(obs.), Dolly Varden, caubeen (Irish), 
chapenu-bras (French), kiss-me-quick, 
jerry, Christie (Canada). 

hat, B. t. Spec. cap. 

hatband, n. Spec, veepei (slang or eoUoq.). 

hate, n. This word, as dislingvished from 
''hatred," denotes especially the actual feel- 
ing or emotion; while "haired" denotot es- 
peciallj/ merely the altitude nf mind. The 

word hale" 

s becoming ri 

the beginning of the WoridWar 
has become eommon again. See hatred. 
Antonyms: see compassion. 
hate, K. (. dislike (conteriuofl, abhor, de- 
test, execrate, abominate; spec, loathe, 
hateful, a. 1. dbagrecabls (contextual); 
spec, spiteful, rancorous; see mauivo- 

■. disagreeable (contexlital), offensive, 
cursed, abominable, detestable, odious; 
apec. spiteful, annoying, invidious. 
Antonyms: see kindly, kind, apathetic, 

hatred, n. di^ke, bate, abhorrence, heart- 
burn, detestation, execration; spec, malev- 
olence, malignity, enmity, abomination, 





haaKhtlneii, n. arrogance, morgue 

(French), hauteur (FrenBt, bid nearly An- 
glicized), fKStU; (French; rare), tie. 
hauBhty, a. proud (contexfual), arrogant, 

uiow: plunilar. diilrt 
inyt friundv. dufr-ut 

luitlnMii luHte. 



bkva, V. i. I. possess, hold; spec, own. 
Ajttonj/ms: nee lack. 


hjiwk, n. Jack {male; ekiejiy spec.); spec. 
eyas, brancher, buzzard, kite, windhover, 
falcon, harrier, gerfalcon, haggard, hobby, 
Bore, lanner, intermewer, Btaniel, lanncret, 
kestrel, henbarrier, henbawk, goshawk, 
tercel or tiercel, t«rcelet or tiercelet. Baker, 

hawk, f. t. sell, peddle, cry. 

faawkcr, n. seller, dealer, peddler; spec, 

liBwkliiE, n. falconry (chxefiy spec). 

haaacd, n. Spec, chance, adventure, dan- 
ger, Btake, bunker (^<i!f}. 

lutie, n. 1. Spec, cloud, gauze (rare), fog, 
mist, smoke, lume, miasma, pall, smother. 


has)', a. 1. dim (contextual), thick, misty, 
cloudy, smoky, foggy, fumy; spec, miaa- 

ATiionjfTns: see clear. 


head, n. 1. headpiece {archaic or coUog.), 
nob (aUata), noadle (coHog. or jocular}, 
mazard (archaic and jocular), garret 
(rianu). poll (.obs,, ere. coUo^., dial., or in 
"poll tax." etc.), pate [chiefly depreda- 
tary), pash (oAs.), sconce {archaic and 
jooiior), knob (sfan^), costard {contempt 
r humoroue), coxcomb (Ai 

sinciput {tech.), calvanum {tech.), jowl, 
gorgoneion, skull, face. 

Antonyms: see tail. 
S. Referring to the hair of the head: crop 
(slant); spec, mop, bush, shock. 
«. See 

(. chief; spec, leader, dean, conductor, 
paterfamilias, provost, master, pncpos- 
ItuB, hegumen (ecci.), mother (eccL), su- 
perior (ecd.), cream, face, 
S. Referring lo an infitirescenre: spec, ca- 
pitulum (tech.), spike, glomerule, cabbage. 

headaohe, n. cephalalgia (tech.). 

headband, n. band, vitta {literary); spec. 

taeaddreis, n. headgear, coiffure (F-ertch), 
headtire {archaic); avec. barb, chignon, 
cob, bridle, tower, butterfly, stephane, 
commode, headclotha {pi.), capuchon, 
poios, pouf (French), tontange (French), 
tutulus, hennin {hisl.}. 

headed, a. Referring to plants: spec, cap- 
ital te, capitellate, kerned. 

headlnt, n. 1. See front. 
■. Referring to part or all of a book, morn*- 
script, etc.: spec, title, head, caption 
(chiefly V. S.; rather tech. or learned), 
lemma (learned), capitulary (rare), rubric, 

headland, n. head (mostly in pfoce namet), 
foreland; spec, promontory, cape, cliff, 
bluff, escarpment, nesa {mostly in place 
names), reach (obs. or U. S.), peait (local), 
horn (rare), nook (rare), tongue, spit, 
hook, reef, maze (rare). 

beadle*«, a. acephalous (tech.). 

headloiiE, a. headfirst; spec, pell-mell, 

taeadpleoe, n. hfA'spec. casque {now poetic 
or hist.), crest, helmet, headstall. 

headship, n. primacy (dignified), suprem- 
acy ;Bpec. chieftaincy, captaincy, chiefdom. 

heal, f, I. Spec, incam (rare). 

health, n. soundness, haleness (rare), eu- 
craay (rare), healthfulness (rare), tone 
(chiefly spec), euphoria (rore), sanity (ar- 
chaic, exc. spec.), heal (Scot.); tpee. vigor, 
Antonyms: see unhealth. 

healthful, a. 1. Referring lo things: bene- 
ficial, healthsome (rare), wholesome, 
salutary, salutiferous (rare), salubrious 
(chiefly spec.), healthy (a use aooided by 
some); spie. laudable. 
Antonyms: see unhgai/thful, fatho- 

(. Referring to persona: see sealtht, 
health resort, sanitarium, sanatorium, 
panatarium (on erroneous form). There is 
nn etymological reason for making a dif- 
ference between these terms, yet many do so. 
The distinction, homever, has not become an 
eitablished vsage. and the words are so much 
alike that it is very diSicult to remember 
which in which. 
healthy, a. 1. Referring to persons: sound 
{now used chiefly in the predicate), hale 

t^ Ctoa nftnmii: tx I 
haTea: harber. rejugi. 
liaTenaok; but/. 
hafinc: pomiion. 

har. n-lf^Str. 

i,: endaugtr. ttnturt. 

healable: cvrabli. 

 sane (rare, exc. gpec.), 
 avoukd by many), bj- 

c. well, luaty, hearty. 

Antoi^/nu: tee aiijnu, unhealthy. 
9. See HEALTUPDL (TE/etrinn to things), 

heap, V. I. I. pile, coacervate (rare); spec, 
stack, cap (,dial. Eng.), cWip (tech.), 
dess (Scot,), hill, huddle, mound. 
I. Referring to thai cm loAicft thiTigs are 
heap&i: epee. overfill, pile, cumber. 

baap, n, 1. sccumulaUon {conlexluiU), ca- 
mulua (rare), ooacervation (rare); bjkc. 
huddle, pile, entaasement (rare), unbrog- 
Uo (rare), hill, mound, tumulus, moun- 
tain, ruck, stack, cop (Eng.), barrow, 
cairn, cache, bing, mow. haymow, rick, 
hayrick, cock, haycock, haystack, dump, 
kitchen-midden {archaology), clam. 
S. See DEAL. 

heaped, a. tumulary (rare), cumulate (con- 
lezfuof), massed (contextual). 

hear, v, t. 1. perceive (conlexliuil), listen, 
hark (alleiUuiely; literary), list {archaic), 
drink (used with "in"), catch, hearken 
[poetic); spec, forebear (.rare), mishear, 
overhear, receive. 
S. See niscovEE. qhant, tbt. 

bear, v. i. perceive; spec, listen, hark (chief- 
ly as an imperatitie or interj., or literary or 
poetic), hearken. 

beard, a. auricular {learned). 

hearer, n. auditor, audient (rare), listener; 
spec, pittite. 

hearlnc. n. 1. Referring to ilte foieuUy or 
sense: audition (tech.), car (often spec.; in 
sing. only). 

t. Referring to the opportunity or prwUege 
of being heard: audience. 
S. See TRIAL. 
4. sound, earshot, ear, range {contexlxud) . 

bearee, n. 1- See orave. 
I. Spec, catafalque. 

hearae, f. I. enheATse or inbearse {rare); 
spec, hvay, shroud. 

heart, n. Spec. mind,BOul, reins {pi.; a Bilili- 
ad use), spirit, feeling, coura^, tempera- 
ment, center, essence, breast, meaning. 

heart, a. pectoral {tech. or learned). 

heartburn, n. I. cardialicia {tcd\.). 


heartfnl, a. deep, cordial {nmo rare or 
teamed); spec. dear. 
beartli, n. 1. fireplace, hearthstead (rare); 

heartUr, adv. cordially, sincerely, inly. 

heart-shaped, a. hearted, corddorm, cor- 
date, cardioid; — mosUy lech, or learned. 

heart wood, n. duramen (tech.). 

hearty, a. I. cordial {chiefly spec.), sin- 
cere; spec. deep. 

3. strong, vigorous, robust; see healthy. 
Antonyms: see aiunu. 

beat, n. 1. caloric (archaic or lilerary), 
caloricity {archaic or lilerary), fire (spec, 
or fig.), fieriness (spec, or fig.); spec, hot- 
nes3i fierceness, warmth, warmness, tor- 
ridity, ferventness, fervidity or fervidness 
or (more comnumly) fervor {literary), cal- 

Antonyms: see cold. 

beat, V. t. 1. calorify (rore), calify (rare or 
obs.), fire (spec, or fig.), enchafe (archaic 
and lilerary), hot (coUog, or iUilerale); 
spec, bake, warm, inflame, bum, broil, 
scorch, calcine, decrepitate, incandesce, 
stove, superheat, mull. 
Antonyms: see cool. 


beat, V. i. calorify (rare), warm (ekUjly 

spec); spec, incandesce. 
heated, a. 1. Spec, warm, fiery, broiling, 

aiialing, burning, etc.; see hot. 
Aidonyms: see cold. 

I. See excited, angry. 
heater, n. Spec, calefactory, pome, stove, 

heathen, a. ethnic (lUerary); spec, gentile, 

Eagan, infidel, unchristian, paganish, 
eathenish, barbarous. 
heathen, n. Spec, gentile, pagan, infidel, 
paynim, gentoo. 
Antonyms: see Chhistxan. 
heathendom, n. heathenism, ethnicism 
iUamed), heathenry, infidelity (rare), 
heathenesse (archaic); spec, pagandom, 
paganity (rare), gentiliam. 
heather, n. ling (northern Erig.); gpee. 
brier, briar, white heath, 
heathery, a. heathy, lingv. 
heatlnc, 1- calescent, i^orific, pynwenie 
(rare), calefacient, calefactive or calefac- 
tory (rare), calorifacient, incaleacenoe, — 
aii, exe. "heating," learned or tech. 
Antonyms; see coounq. 
heatlnc, n. calefaction (rhetorical or leek.); 



spec, hcarthston 
9. See fireplac 

E, niROE. 

heaven, n. 1. 

In a physical sense: aky (in 


heutan: cheer, encouraiw. em- 

heutleu: w/tding. emel. eold. 
fasutruidliic: <li>lr«i>n0. 
hurt-alDk: Irpr^-rd. 
beBTtHna: •orrinrful. 

bautitrlae*: frelina. 
heartwIiDli: amiiat. 
ht»tb; moor. Kratlter. {agOata. 


il), cope (_lilerary), welkin (arctic 
ditd.), sphere (poetic}; spec, canopy, 
yrean, ny aline [ poetic), crystalline. 
_. -le/errino to the abode a/ the bles 
spec. Paraoiae {chiefly poetic), Zion IBib- 
tuxU). Canaan {cMefiy devotiotuii); spec. 
Asgard (Saindiruman religion), Elyaium 
(Greek religion). 
ATitonyma: see 

1. See DEnr, h 

iMaveiUliteii, n. heavenhood {rare), celes- 
tiality (rare), cciestitude (humorous). 
liMkTsiily, o. I. oelestiaJ, uranic (rare); 
spec, ethereal, empyreal or empyrean. 
Antonj/ms: see tehrsstbui^ 
9. diviae (conlexturU), celestial, supernal 
(literary), heavealike; 8;pec. ethereal (pa- 
elic), dfysiaa (Greek relit/ion), Paradisia- 
cal, Paradiaiac, Paradisaic, Paradisaical, 
Paradisial, Paradisian, Paradisic (rare), 
Paradisical (rare), Olympian (Greek re- 
ligion), Olympic (rare), angelic. 
Antonyms: see iNFEHNiL, DBvrLlSB, 

bsmTenward, a. 1. up, upwards, aloft, aky- 

AnUmyme: see downwaud, 
). Zionward (rare). 
baavIneBi, n. I. weight, hoft (dial, or coU 
loq,); spec, ponderousneaa, ponderosity. 
S. See DEFRBsaioN, septh, dullness, etc. 

beaTy, a. I. weighty, hefty (dial. Eng. and 
coUaq. or dial. U. S.), sad (dioi., exc. in 
comb, or in spec, utes, as "sadiron"), 
leaden (Jig. and intensive); spec, ponder- 

is, OPPBEsarvE, 


Hebrew, a. Semitic, Jewish, Judaic, He- 
braic, Israeltish, IsraeliUc. 

Hebrew, n. Semite, Jew, Israelite, Israel 
(coUedive pi.). 

b.adK«> "■ *■ hedgerow, hay (archaic); spec. 
bullfinch (£110. )i frith, quickset, 
t. See BARitiBR. 

hedfe, i>. t. evade, dodge, trim; spec tern- 
ponte, straddle (coUoq,). 

b^Cbt, n. 1. elevation, eminence (poelic or 

archaic), highness (rare), celsitude (ra 
chiefly jtg,); spec, altitude, head. 

Ajtlonyms: see abybb, depth. 
I. Referring to dtetancefTom the lop to bo 
lorn: celsitude (humorously affected i 
grandiose), tallness, loftiness; spec, aiti' 
tude, stature. 

Antonyms: see d 
M. Qfa high place: elevation. 
4. Referring to the greatest extent or degree 
of something, as heal, feeHng.etc.: top, apex, 
noon (flg.), culmination, climax, vertex, 
pinnacle, pitch (rare), crown, meridian, 
summit, acme, lenith; spec, heyday, heat, 
stress, flush, ne plus ultra (Latin), sub- 
limity (rare), sum, perfection, a 

AntonyTns: see depth. 
belKbten, n. I. elevate (by raising). 
a. See e -■ 

beir, n. inheritor, heritor (rare), heiress 
(fejn..), inheritress or inheritrix (fem.), 
heritreas or heritrix or heretrix (fem.); 
spec, representative, heir apparent, mas- 
ter (Scot.), coheir, coheiress, coparcenci, 

heiiBhip, n. inheritance, heritancc (rnre); 
spec, coparcenary, coparcenery, copar- 
ceny, parcenary. 

bell, n. I. Referring to the vlace of the de- 
parted souls: spec. Sheol (Hehrew), Hades 
(Greek), shades (Latin), underworld, 
grave (with "the"; fig.), inferno (usually 
taken in sense t, below), Elysium (Greek). 
t. As Ihe place where tlie damned are lor- 
mented: spec, abyss, inferno (note chiefly 
in aUusion to Dante's "Inferno"), Tar- 
tarus (tfreefc), Gehenna (Hebrew), pit (wilh 
"the"; often called "the boll/imless pit"), 
" ' (an erroneous use, chiefly by viay 

AntonyiTiB: see a 

>. .See DL9TREBB. 

belm, n. tiller; — primarily the steering gear 
as a whole. 

helmet, n. headpiece, helm (arcAaie or po- 
etic), casque (now only hist., jtoelie. or 
French); spec, creat, skullcap, sal let, 
salade, burgonet, basinet, morion, 

belmeted, a. 1. galeated (rare). 
1. ZoiiL; spec, galeated. 

helmet-ahaped, a. galeated; spec, casside- 
cassidif orm ; — all three learned or lech. 

halptnl, a. aiding (eonlextual); gpec. 
Bistant, contributory, aidful (rare), fur- 
theraome (chiefly Scot.), beneficial, com- 
fortable, favorable, auxiliary, serviceable ; 
see coOPEHATtvE. 
AntonifmB: see hindebinq, rcinoits. 

belplesa, a. silly (ardmic), unhelpful (rare), 
impotent; spec, defenseless, naked, aban- 
doned, blank, prostrate, resourcelesa, 
AnUmyma: ate inoenious. 

hem, V. t. 1. sew (contextual), hemstitch; 
apec. table (nauf.)- 

1. See 

niglobe (rare). 


Bphere (rare). 
hemp, n. Spec, bhang {India), hashish 

hasbeesh, hards. 
hempen, n. hemp (the noun used attribu- 

lieely), hempy. 
hen, n. bird (conlexiudt), fowl (cimlextunt), 

biddy {coUoq.); spec, sitter, pullet, poii- 

(rore), herefrom (rore) 
ATitonyns: gee here. 


herftldio, a. armonal. 

heraldry, n. Spec, blazonry. 

heibaceous, a. herbous (rare). 

herbage, n. vegetation (ronlexttud), herb 
(rare or poetic), verdure. 

herbarium, n. hortus siccus (LaHn), her- 

herbivorous, a. po§phagous (rare); spec. 
granivorous, gramimvorous. 

herbr, a. herbose; epee. grassy. 

herd, n. 1. Spec, drove, troop, rout (rare), 
pack, game (ofta. or rare); see flock. 
I. See CHOWD. 

herd, v. i. I. associate (eonJexfuoi); »pec. 
pig, crowd. 
9. drove (referring to the adionnf a drover). 

herder, n. herdsman (the usual term for a 
male herder), herd (chiefly in eamposilion); 
gpec. ranchero (U. S.), gooseherd, shep- 
herd, sbepherdess, paaturer (rare), pastor 
(rare), paatoress (rare), pastoral (rore), 
herdess (rare), herdboy, cowboy (f. S. 
and colonial Bng,), goatherd, cowherd, 
hayward, neatherd, vaquero (Western 
U. S.). 

here, adv. 1. hither (literary or a^ected), 
hitherward or hitherwarda (archaic). 
AnUmyms: see hence. 
>. See NOW. 

hereafter, adv. henceforth, henceforward. 

AnUmyms; see now. 
hereditament, n. 1. heritage (cMelly 
spec), patrimony, heritance, Dirthrignt, 
inheritance; spec, heirloom. 

hereditary, a. I. inheritable, heritable, 
trans missible, descendant or descendent, 
descensivG (rare); spec, transmis^ble, pa- 

B. Referring to disease, Iraili, etc.: herit> i 
able, transmissiblo. 
heredity, n. transmisiiion ; s;«c, telegony. 
heieiy, n. unbeUef, heterodoxy, dissenting, 
recusancy; spec. Lollardiam, LoUardry, 
Antonyms: see- OHTHODOXT. 
heretic, 71. unbeliever, heterodox (rare), 
recusant, dissenter; spec. Lollard, infidel. 
ATitonyme: see belie vxR. 
herettoBl, a. unbelieving, heterodox, dis- 
senting (chiefly spec), recusant. 
Aninnyms: see obthodox. 
hermaphrodite, a. bisexual; spec, ^nui- 
drous, androgynic, androgynous. 
hermit, n. rcduse, solitaire (rare), solitary, 
anchoret, anchoress (Jan.), bermitesa 
(fem.); spec, eremite, Guillemen (hilA.), 
ascetic, Hieronymite, marabout. 
hernia, a. rupture (less lech, than hernia), 
ramcx (obs.); spec, epiplocele, exompha- 
los, bubonocele. 
hero, n. I. >VeeDEMiaoD, 
S. heroine (Jem.), protagonist (lUemiry); 
spec, lion, p^adin. 
herrinKiiite, a. harengiform (rare). 
herself, pron. her (now poetic or dial.). 
hesitate, v. i. I. stop, pause, scruple (cUe/- 
ty spec); spec, halt, stand, falter, waver, 
stickle, stick, doubt, crane (eoUoq., Eng.), 
trifle, boggle, demur, shrink, ahilly' 
AnUmyms: see continue. 
3. See FALTER. 
healtstlnE, a. undecided (ctmtexlval), 
doubtful (contextual), indecisive, heaitant, 
hesitative, hesitatoo' (rare); tpec. sus- 
pensive (rare), faltering, scrupling, falter- 

Anlonj/ms: see assdred, doquatic, ceb- 

hedttitlon, n. 1. doubting, doubt, uncer- 
tainty, indecision ; — the four being context- 
ual senses; spec. stop, stick, stickle, hoggie, 
scruple, stand, shrink, falter. 
B. Seer. 


heterogeneous, a. diverse, imhomogene- 
ous {rare) J diversified, miscellaneous, 
mixed; spec, omnigenous, hybrid or {rare) 
hybridous, indiscriminate. 

Antonyms: see homogeneous. ^ 
hezahedral, a. Spec, cubic, cubical, cubi- 
form, cuboid, cuboidal. 
hiatus, n. gap {contextual); spec, lacuna 

{tech.)y blank. 
hiccup, n. hick {rare); spec, {as the name of 
the ailment) hiccups {often construed as a 
sing.), singultus {tech.). 
hidden, a. 1. Referring to physical things: 
hid {chiefly predicative), concealed, cov- 
ered, covert {obsolescent), secreted, secret 
{chiefly archaic or poetic, exc. spec), dern 
{archaic or Scot.); spec, close, cloaked, 
masked, screened, ensconced, planted 
{cant), enshrouded, obscure, obscured, 
occult {rare), latent {rare), latitant {rare), 
recondite {rare), undiscovered, clouded, 
cloudy, suppressed, veiled, blotted, shad- 
owed, shrouded, overlaid, stored, obum- 
brate {tech.), dark, blind, disguised, lurk- 
ing, snug. 

Arvtonyms: see apparent. 
9. Referring to things seen {perceived) by 
the mind: hid {chiefly predicative), inward, 
concealed; spec, covered, screened, 
shrouded, obscured, disguised, mysteri- 
ous, mystic or mystical, oracular, occult, 
esoteric, covert, latent, secret, clandes- 
tine, cryptic, surreptitious, underhand or 
underhanded, sly, bUnd, illegible, unin- 
telligible, insidious, lurking, private, 
fraudulent, unknown, unaclSiowledged, 
unavowed, etc. 

Antonyms: see apparent, clear, un- 

hide, V. t. 1. Referring to physical objects: 
conceal, cover; spec, mask, cloak, bemask 
{rare), stow, screen, bescreen. secrete, 
ensconce, plant, shroud or ensnroud {Wr 
erary), den {chiefly reflexive), obscure, oc- 
cult {rare)y disguise, protect, bury, cloud, 
becloud, earth, suppress, veil, embosom, 
bushel {rare), blot, burrow, shadow, 
eclipse, overlay, store. 

Antonyms: see disclose, expose, in- 
dicate, SHOW. 

8. Referring to things seen by the mind: 
spec, bury, hoard, gloze^ eclipse, sweeten, 
repress, smother, omit, cavern, den, 
earth {poetic, rhetorical, or cant). See also 
definition, 1, above. 

Antonyms: «ee indicate, advertize, an- 
nounce, proclaim, confess, disclose, 


hiding, n. concealment, cover, celation 
{rare; chiefly spec.); spec, disguise, occult- 
ation {rare or chiefly CLstron.), eclipse, cov- 
erture, latitation {rare). 
Antonyms: see disclosure, indication, 


high, a. 1. elevated, lofty {often rhetorical 
or poetic), eminent {poetic or archaic); 
spec, towering, mountained {poetic), 
aerial, soaring. 

AnUmyms: see low. 

8. Referring to distance from top to bottom: 
lofty {often rhetorical or poetic), tall. 

Ardonyms: see low. 

S. Referring to a price: fancy, stiff {slang); 
spec, costly. 

4. Referring to sounds: high-pitched, 
high-toned, acute {chiefly music and pho- 
netics); spec, shrill, sharp, piercing, 
cracked, creaking, intense, forceiul, rank. 

Antonyms: se^ low. 


higher, a. upper, superior, supernal {liter- 
Antonyms: see lower. 

highest, a. 1. Referring to place: upper- 
most, supreme {rare), top, summit. 
Antonyms: see lowest. 
8. Referring to degree, rank, etc.: supreme, 
superlative, utmost, crowning, consum- 
Antonyms: see lowest. 

highest, n. Spec, meridian, maximum, 

highlander, n. Spec, hillsman, mountain- 
eer, tartan. 

high priest, pontiff {literary or rhetor- 
ical); spec, pope {Roman Catholic), proto- 
papas or protopope {Greek Church). 

hill, n. 1. elevation, ascent, rise, rising; spec. 
monadnock {chiefly U.S.). knoll, mllock, 
mound, knob {chiefly U. S.)^ know {Scot.), 
highland, dune, down, hummock, holt, 
monticule, mount {poetic or archaic), 
mountain, butte {western U. S.), drum 
{local or geol.), swell, ridge, kop {South 
Africa), kopje {South Africa), drumlin, 
steep, hilltop, hillside, Alpine, Himalayan. 
Antonyms: see hollow, valley, plain. 

tW Cross references: see Note. 
het«rodozy, a.: heresy. 
heterogeneity: diversity, dif- 

hew: chop, fell. 
heyday: height, prime. 
hibernate: winter. 
hide* n.: skin. 

hidebound: narrow. 
hideous: ugly, horrible, ahom' 

hie: go. 

hieratic: priestly. 
high-flown: bombaftie. 
high-handed: arbitrary, tnll- 

fid, domineering. 

highland: plateau, hUl, mounf 
tain. [wU, refined, 

hlgh-ndnded: arrogant, ejnrit- 

hlgh-prloed: costly. 

high-sounding: pretentious 

high-spirited: avirited. 

high-strung: tptrited. 

fW See Notes of Explanation. 



It, a. rising ((wUezfuoi); sj'ec. knolly, 
lush, hiUocky, mountainous, moim- 
tainy {rare oredloq.). 
Antonj/ms: tee plain. 
hind, a. hinder (in reference to fu»), pos- 
terior, rear, rearward (rare), postjacent 
{rare), posterial (rare); apce. posticous, 
hindiaost, after, behind. 
Antonyms: set fore, 
hlndai, V. 1. 1, delay, retard, impede {prop- 
erlg tpec.); spec, embarrass, restrain, ob- 
stniot, clog, encumber or cumber, diswar- 
a|^, belate, hamper, bar, check, counteract. 

Antonyma: see expedite. 
t. See PREVENT. 
UoderlnCi "■ '- delaying, impedimental, 
impeditive (rare); spec. obstructivL', cum- 
bering, ciimbersome, elc. 
Anlonyms: see heufui, cONTKiBUTOtty, 
t. Smprbventive. 
Uodaimo*!, a. last, back, hindmost. 
bindranoe,n.hinderaDce(rare), hindering, 
let (archaic}, remora (mre), delay, delayal 
(rare), retardation, impediment (properly 

K;.); «pec. embarrassment, obatruction, 
truotive, curabrance, encumberment, 
encumbrance, incumbrance, diacourage- 
ment, cramp, debarrent (rare), clog, draw- 
back, hamper, hampering, counteraction, 
check, difficulty, contrariety, bar,balk, dis- 
advantage, impedance (elec.), shoe, brake. 

ArUonj/ms: see 
Hindu, n. Indian, gentile (rare) or sen too; 
gpec. Mohratta (man), Mahrattt, Hindu- 

Unie, n. 1. joint (amlextutd); spec, butt. 

ne aide only: thigh. 
e nnt proper syito- 
"* IS syitonymmi " 

Upi n. !• ReferHng la i 

"Thigh" and "hip" a 

nj/ma, Imt are often uai . _ 

I, Referring to both sides taken together: 

haunch (chiefly spec), coxa (tech.; rare); 

spec. rump. 
hlpiO. ischiadic, ischial, sciatic, ischiatic; — 

ohtech./'sciatic" being the more uazuU term. 
hlppad, a. hijwhot. 
hlra, 0. t. t. get, engage, employ, buy (Jiff,); 

spec, fee, bribe, ship, job, hack, charter, 

teitse, "Hire" emphiMiies the idea of the 

payment to be made. 
Antonyms: see buy, discharqb. 

I. See LET (a vae of "hire" riol recognised 


1 * ' 

Ura, n. 

wage, . . — . , _..^..._ . 

choic, cue. Scot.), bribe, freight. "Hire" a* 
a noun is now chiefly archaic. 

hired, a. mercenary (noia spec.), paid; 
spec, hackney. 

hireling, n. mercenary (now spee.); spec 

ht«>, V. i. Spec, iuss, Gzile, siffle, hiii (rare), 
sibilate, sisB (dial, and col., U. S.), aixile, 
siiz (chiefly U. S.), goose (theat. cant), spit. 

bit*, n. Spec, fizi, fizzle, siss (dial. Eng. 
andcoUoq., U, S.), sizzle, sibilation. siffle 
(rare), spit. ' 

hladac, a. sibilant, sibiloua (rare). I 

hlatoTlBn, n. historiaster (t>t contempt); I 
spec, memorialist, biographer, logoff ^ 
rapher (Greek anliq.). chronicler, histon- 

hiitoElo, hlitorioBl, a. Spec, authentic. 
"ffistnrie" is chiefly used of what consti- 
tutes history; "historical," of mhal relates 
to history. J 

blitorioUe, c. t. record (contaiaal), hi*- | 
torize (rare), historify (rare); spec, ode- 1 
brate. "Historieize" israre. ' 

hlatory, n. I. See nahhativb. 
1. account (conterfual), record, story; 
spec, memorials, memoirs, historiette, 
anecdote, commentary, chronicle, biog- 
raphy, autobiography, career, genealogy, 
S. hiatonology. 

hiitrtonloi, n. jA. theatricds. 

hoard, V. t. hide (contextual), accumulate 
[contextual) , store, save ; spee, miser 
(rore), treasure (chiefly with "up"). 

hoard, R. accumulation (conlexttud), Btor& 
savings (chiefly spec.); spec, treasure (q/- 

hoard, n. fence : spec, billboard. 

hoarse, a. I. tnroaty, thick, husl^; apee. 
roupy, croaking. 

AjUonyms: see clear. 
a. See harsh. 

boaz, n. deception (eonterfuol), quiz (now 
obsoUscen'.), num (slang or colioq.). hum- 
bug (rore; now chiefly spec.), cod (s&iTijr), 
gammon (sUtng or coltoq.), string (slang), 
sell (coUoq.), trick, take-in; spec, canard. 

see), sell (cnHnq.), gammon (enBaq.), hum 
{«/aiiff or collotf.), string (slang); spec, ri 
josh (slang), jolly, gag (cant or slang), k 


houy; grau. M. frntii. 

lu Note* at Eiplanatlim. 


|i«D4ikB7,n. bandy or b&ndy ball (rarc),Ehin- 
Jay; spec, hurley, polo, 

Itod, B. S/ttc. biMss (a iilaaterET't lerm), 

boo, n. sarcle (a LcUiniam); spec. eculBer, 
Bcuffle, hacker, 

luM, V. t. cultivate {eontextuaTj; spec, weed, 

bolat,n. 1. See raise; — ref erring io Out act. 
S. elevator [which see); spec, crane, gin, 
eheara, derrick, teagle, sling, whip. 

hold, V. t. 1. keep, retain; spec, grasp, 
clasp, gripj pin, gripe, clip (rare or ar- 
chaic), pinion, clutch, emorace, faat«n, 
fix, lock, cramp, catch, eeise, bite, atay. 
S. Referring to a meeting: conduct. 
•. contain, receive; spec, carry, accom- 
EQodat*, stow. 
i. See n 



bold, V. i. Spec, cling, clea 
one's post), adhere (as to c 


clutcn, purchase, embrace, , 

holdfast, control, possession, setzure, 

S. Referring to the thing that luilda: spec. 

Uxk, mortise, clutches (pi.), grip, cinch. 

4. Referring to a thing thai one may hold 
to: holdfast; sjiec. nail, lodgment, foot- 
hold, horn, rootmg. 

bolder, n. 1. holding; spec, handle, chuck, 
portrcrayon, holdfast, container, case, tarf . 
■• See POSSESSOR, owner. 

boldiait, n. hold, holder; gpec. tentacle, 
mioker, disk. 

boldtnt, n. property (conlextual), tene- 
ment, tenantry, tenancy; spec. feu. 

hole, n. Spec, void, cavity, perforation, 
hollow, fenestra {anat.), crat^, slot, cell, 
cranny, chamber^ interstice, eye, pore, 
porosity, depression, eyelet, mesh, bore, 
bye, concave, cave, pit, den, chasm, abyss, 

Sjiilf, leak, vug, box, mortise, sinus [anat.), 
imber inaul.), dcnebole {archaology), 
well, finger, burrow, 
Atiion^ms: see projection. 
'hol*7, a. holy {rare or dial, variant); spec. 
pilty, cuppy, crannied, chinky, porous, 
charoberca, etc. 
holiday, n. 1. See VEsnrAi., 

I. Spec, playday, playtime, vacation. 
hoUday, a. festal, ferial (rare). 

taoUasBB, a. 1. sanctity (learned), sanoti- 
tude (rare), sanctapimity (rare), sinleas- 
ness, perfection, saintlincss, sanctimony, 
hallo vredness, consecration, sanctification. 

Cf. HOLY. 

t. hullowedneas {e^. hali/>we&). 

hollo, V. 1, hollow {rare or obs.), holla (fare 
or obs.), hello {by many considered undig- 
nified; a form which arose about 1880), 
hallo, halloo (esp. used as a haTiHng term 
or of shouting U) eaU attention), naUoa 
{rare); spec, soho, 

boUow, a. I. Spec, cavernous, cavemu- 
lous, cavitary {rare), cellular, porous, con- 
cave, cuppy, holey, empty, dimply. 
Antonyms: see convex, peotuberaht, 


S. Referring la a sound: reverberated, 
empty, sepulchral, deep, muffled. 
Anton^pne: see sOlJi>. 

bollow, n. depression {cantexlual), hole, 
concave, hollowness (rare), incavation 
(rare); spec, dish, sinus, bosom, cove, cup, 
pocket, dimple, sag, dip, cupule, delve 
{lilerary), basin, pan, bowl, sink {U. S.), 
scoop, excavation, punty or ponty, punt, 
kick, arch, trou^, vola, vallev, conch, 
conceptacle, countersink, indentation, 
acrobicule, pit. 
AnlonymB: gee p 

hollow, K, I. excavate, concave; spec, dish, 
gull {lech, or dial.), recess, slot, pit, cham- 
ber, scoop, tunnel, cup, cave (rare), cav- 

Antonyms: see EUBOss, 
hollow -backed, a. Referring to a horse: 
hollowed, a. inoavato {rare), depressed; 
spec, cupped, chambered, etc. 
Anlmiyms: see protdbbbant. 
hoUowneea, n. 1. 0/ the stale: cavity, con- 
cavity, depression, emptiness; spec, cellu- 
losity, porosity, aimkenneas, cuppiness, etc. 


holly, n. hoUin or noUen {archaic or dial.), 
Christmas {^.); spec, yapon, toyon. 

holy, a. 1. sinless; spec, saintly, sainted, 
hallowed, blessed or blest, sanctified 
{rare), consecrated. 
Antonyms: see sinpuu 


holy spirit. Paraclete, Comforter {aUuding 
to John xiv: IB), Third Person {theol.). 
Dove (fig.). 

k hobby: hnTK. fad. 
hobbylih: faddali. 
hobffoblln: baoy. 

bob&Db: drink 

-lolty, n„- fiM^ 
'toUy: friuiliniM. havffntjt, 

■e Note* of EipLuuttlDiu 

holocrmph: aulographie. 
bolaphrBitlo: cimciK. 
boly: hatu- 

homage, n. Spec, oourt, devotion, cult 
(formal or liieraTy). 

home, a. I. Spec, family, domestic, home- 
ward, homing. 


bam«-bted, a. plain, rude; 

homel*!*, a. Spec, outcast, harborleas 

larehaie or lilerary), houseless. 
homelike, a. homish [le»s dignified than 

homelike), homely (archaic), homy or 

homey (coUoq.); apee. intimate, simpit 

plain, unpretending, 
Anlonymi: see conventionai,, stifb', 

homely, a, I. See ikimebtjc, bimplb, 


1. plain, ill-favored; spec, unpretty, 

personable (rare), unlovely, feoturelesa 
(rare), uncomely (rare), coarse, ugly, 
Antonyms: see oooi>-looici!JG. 

homamaide, a. Spec, homespun. 

homlolilal, a. murderous; spec, bloody, 
patricidal, mAtricidal, ele. 

homicide, n. 1. murder (obs. or hist., exc. 
spec.), manslaughter (chiejly spec.); spec. 
matricide, parricide, patricide, regicide, 
sororicide, fratricide, suicide. 
S. manqueller (archaic), manslatighterer 
(ehiefiy spec.), murderer (obs. or kiet., exc. 
spec/}: spec, parricide, pfttricide, matri- 
cide, sororicide, fratricide, suicide, regi- 

homoxeneouB, a. alike (eontexlual; post' 
posilii'e), uniform, like; spec, same, aim- 
Uar, congruous, consubstantial (learned 
or lech,), uaigenous (rare). 
Antonyms: see heterocbneous. 

hooest, a. good, moral; spec, just, right- 
eous, eqnare, sound, direct, frank, up- 
right, conscientious, sincere, genuine, 
pure, virtuous, uncorrupted, incorruptible. 
Antonyms: see dibhonest. 

honesty, n. goodness, probity, morality; 
spec, justness, justice, righteousness, up- 
nghtness, virtue, purity, etc. 
Antonyms: see dibhonestt. 

hotter, n. !• nectar (poetic or fig.). 
S. See SWEETNESS, lovablbness, dear, 

honey, a. melleous (rare), mellugiuous 
(rare), mellic (rore). 

honey -bearlnc, a. melliferous (rare). 

honor, n, 1. See DiQNtrr, fame, con- 


S. ReSerring to what does one credil: 

credit, ornament; sjiec. distinction, crown, 
Antonyms: see discredit. 
■. Referring to what is b^tovicd in ordm to 
honor: spec, ornament, title, distinclJon, 
dignity, decoration, compliment, worship, 

honor, v. I. 1. dignify (eontextwU); spec. 
adore, worship, idohze, idolatrize, grace, 
hallow, credit, decorate, compliment. 
A ntonyms: 

spec, worshipful, admirable, famous, i_ 
teemed, respected, noble, elevat^, repu- 

honotlac, n. dignificatjon (coTifexhuif); 
s^. worship, idolization, hallowing, cred- 
iting, decoration, compliment. 

hood, n. I. The garment far the head and 
neck: spec, capuche, capuchin, calash 
(hint.), coif, cowl, trotcoKy (Scot.). 
2. Any of various contrivances: spec, can- 
opy, cSiimneypot, cahish, blower. 

hooded, a. cucullate (lech.). 

hoodoft, n. 1. curse. 
t. Of what brings bad luck: spec. ceniuB 
(used with "bad"), jinx (slano), Jonah 
(fig.; epilog.). 
Antonyms: see charm. 

hood-ihaped, a, cucullate (techi) 

hoot, n. ungula (leeh.); spec, doot (Scot. 
and dial. Bng.), dewclaw, coffin. 

hook, n. 1. iSpec. uncus (tech.), hamua 
(tech.), uncinus (tech.), gaff, cleek (Scot.), 
buttonhook, fishhook, slingdog, dog, 
agraffe, crotchet, tug, strike, clasp, clamp. 

9. See HEAD1.AND, 

hook, D. t. Spec, strike (to hook a fish). 

hook-beaked, a. uncirostrate, hamiros- 
trute; — both tech. 

hooked, a. 1. See HOOK-aiiAPED. 
I. Prmri-icd vyith a hook or hooks; hamose 
or hamouB (both rare), hamate or (rare) 
hamaled (tech.), hamular (iecft.), hamu- 
late or hamulose (both rare). 

hook-ahaped, a. hooked, hooklike, imd- 
neAe {learned or tech.), unciform (leornedor 
lech.), uncinal (learned or tech.), ancistroid 
(tech.): spec, unciform, 

hoopsktrt, n, skirt (contextual), hoop (col- 
fog.); spec, crinoline, farthingale. 

lI001«: abode, goal. 
homaapniiT homemade, eo 

hom^tl. artitat. 
hoDutlof at*: confirm. 
homolDvlie; corrrtpond. 

boot«d: nfiffulaie. 

tS' See NotM n 

L triist, belief, 

AJih>ny7ns: see fbab', also cf. hopeless, 
~ opei V. t. <£ i. desire icontexlujU), expect, 
uiticipat«i spec, trust. 
ATitoni/mB: gee dbbpond. 
'' hopelnl, a. expectant, antictpati 

ticipalory; spec, eanguine. rosy, roseate, 
tond, BBJiguineoua ' ■' '" ' "' 

Antonyms: eee apphehenbivb, bopkle8s. 
liop«leii, a. 1. depressed (contextual), im- 
hopeful (rare); spec, abject, despondent, 
diaconsolate, despairiag, despairful, des- 
penite, forl< 
■. Referritifi to thinf/s: spec, abandoned, 
desperate, irredeemable, nretrievabte, in- 
hopflleitneai. n. Spec, despondence, de- 
spair, desperation, etc. 
borlson, n, circle (conlexlwii), sky line, 
verge (rare). 
borisontal, a. flat, even (rare, exc. apec.), 

Antont^ms: see v&bticai.. 

bortsantal, n. flat, level. 

burn, n. 1. Spec, antler, Hpflce, branch, 
daA, broach, cornicle. 
•. Re/errina to vHnd inslrumenls; spec. 
saxhorn, si thorn, saxophone, saxtuba, 
bugle, conch, comet, comet-fl-pistons 
(French), krummhorn, etc. 
S. Spec, cornucopia, crest, end, alterna- 
tive, comer, beak. 
4. keratin. 

Itotned,a. I. coniizerous(fecA.), cornuateor 
COmut«d (iiterarj/); «pcc. creseen^shaped, 
t. See cncKOLDBD. 

horolai*, a. Referring lo calUe or sheep, 
tie.; spec, muley, hummel or huinbIe(iScoe.), 
dodded {dial. Eng,), polled, pollard. 

bont-iliaped, a. cornifonn (leaTTieii), 

honiy, a. corneous (tech.); spec, hornish, 
comified, keratose (lech.). 

hocoloflit, n. Spec, clockmaker, horolo- 
ger, watchmaker. 

boioaoupe, n. ascendant, nativity, geni- 
ture (rare). 

hoiosoopUt, n. gcncthliac (rare). 

horilble, a. I. alarming (which see), horri- 
fying, horrific (bookish), horrid (now rare 
in this seme), shocking, hideous (r 

IT rhetorical), 
:8 used of any 
lul (formerly 
p.), dobbin, 

^^» jMnMo! Ac 

honlry: /nVAlen. ibom. 



Spec,), horrendous (rare); spec. Gotgonian 
(fia.), horrisonoua. 
Antonipns: eee ABSnK 
3. In weakened sense: 


hoiBB, n, I. steed (l-Uerary 
spec, pad, prancer (cant or, 
horse, slang), caple or ce 
chiefly poetical; now dial. J _ 

courser (rhelorical) , charger, bidet (tiier- 
ary), hobby {archaic or historical), cock- 
tail or curtal, Bucephalus (fi^.; poetic 
rhetoricai), weed (dang or cant), sere , 
neigher (rare), crock, prad (slang), geegee 
(coUog.), ponv, barb, daisy-cutter (cant), 
cob, stepper (coUoq. or flang), clipper, jade 
(coTttemptuoTis), hack, rip (slang or coiloq.), 
skate (slang), plug (colloq. or slang), pinto 
(Western U. S.), mustajig (U. S.), nag, 
mount, remount, rouncy (orcAotc), runt, 
jennet or genet, roadster, naggy, atallion, 
mare, colt, foal, filly, gelding, pot (cant), 
plater (conl), palfrey, PegasuB, punch, 
kj'ang, Percheron, hunter, thoroughbred, 

Sgster (rare), hackney, chcker, saddler 
aUoo,, U. S.), HamlDlctonian, Waler 
(Anglo-Indian), Galloway, dravhorsp- 
Ilouyhohnm, galloper, dweller, balki , 
filler, rosinante, roarer, whistler, Uiriller, 
wheeler, leader, rogue, Turk, Arab, tar- 

Ean, tit (oh». or rare), trotter, pacer, am- 
ler, runner, rider, roan, chestnut, sorrel, 
gray, bay, black, ginger, grizzle, stalking- 
horse, dim, cayuse, ass. mule, hinny, ze- 
bra. The term "horse" is specifically used 
of an adidi gelded male as distingMished 
from, a "slallton," "mare," or "coU." 
1. As a cnUeclive pt.: cavalry. 
■. Spec, clamp, jack, hobbyhorse, clothes- 
horse, sawhorse. 

horac, V. I. mount; spec, remount. 

horseman, n. rider, pricker (archaic); 
spec, cavalryman, chevalier (hist, or ar- 
chaic), knight (hist.), hussar, gaucho, yeo- 
man (Eng?), dymilance, jockey. 

hotsemaoahlp. n, manage or manage 
(French); spec, equitation. 

horses, n. pt. horseflesh (a eoUectiee). 

hoBpital, n. infirmary {chiefly spec.); spec. 
fermary (o6». or hist.), cockpit, lazaretto or 
lazaret, pesthouse. valetudinarium, sani- 
tarium or sanatorium. 

hQSpitftiit]', n, xenodochy (rare), cordial- 
ity {coniexlwil). 

hart&tlim, n,.^ aJiarvitvm. 
hortmtln, a.: Bxhortatorj/, < 

hoipttablfl, a,.~ arrdial. 

holt; tacnfice, dtment, tnJtr- 

hastaie: pledge. 
hotttl: inn, 
Juwtelrr: tnn. 
luut«u, n..- landlady. 
boltll«,a,.' un/n'cRdlH, appsHd. 

boltlUtr: un/nendHTnai, oppo- 

I^ See NDt» at Eiplui&Uoii. 


but, a. 1. heated (oontextuaD, ardent (tiler- 
ary), torrid, fervid {.literary)- fervent (liter- 
ary); spec, parchina, roafiting, iiieaniiescent 
or candent, 6ery, flaming, boiling, sweltry. 
Antonyms: see coiJ>. 


hothekd. n. madbrain, hotspur. 

lionnd.n. I. doK(cOTifai(uai); spec, beagli, 
dachflhund, talbot, limer (ardtaic), leaeh 
hound, bloodhound, kibble, great Dane. 

hour, n. 1. beil {naul.), ghurry {Anglo- 


X time (amUxtual); spec, prime (ecd.). 

matin («d.), laud {ecd.), complin (eed.), 

veapera (pi.; ecd.). 
honrlri o. I. horal (rare), horary (rare). 


bonae, n. I. building (cotUexluai), dwell- 
ina; (contexluai); spec, court, cottage, cot 
((Aiejly pontic), hovel, bungalow, shack, 
chAteau, hutch, ahanty, hut, dome (po- 
etia or rhelorical), bam (fi^.), barrack, bai^ 
racoon, kennel, shed (poetic), rabbitry, 
cabin, ranch (U. S.), rancho (Spanish), 
box, lodge, gatehouse, humpy (Auslralia), 
crib (Ihiaica' sloTig), cruive (Scot,), croo 
(Scot, and Irish), sty. 


honae, a. domal (rare). 

taoua, V. t. shelter (conlextv/d); spec, booth 
(rore), cofe, barrack, roof (rare), hive, 
hut, temple, palace (rore), impalace (rare), 
kennel, hovel (rare). 

houi«kecp«r,n. iSpee. matron, hoiiBewife. 

houiekesplnEi ». manage (French) or 
menage (chiejiy spec.), houaeholdry (rare); 
spec, housewifery, notability (obsoletcent). 

taousawife, n. wife (archaic); spec, cot- 
quean (a/ a laborer; obs.). 

ululation (leara&i), yowl. 

taoydeu. n. girl (cimtextufd), romp, torn- 
boy (coUoq,), 

hub. n. 1. nave, block. 

t. See CENTER. 

hue. n. cast (obsoUsc), lone (more technical 
than "hue' ), blee (archaic); spec, com- 

faoU, n. I, pericarp (tech.): spec huak, 
^ume, chaff (a coUedife), bran (a cotko- 
tive), shell, pod, rind, bur or burr, skin, 
shuck, bark, shale (archaic or rare), 
flight, palea, lodicule. bract, ncale. calyx, 
legume, silique, peel, capaule, glumdie 
(rare), atone, putamen. 
8. See BODY. 

bull. V. {. strip (contextual); spec, pod, 
shell, husk, ahuck, decorticate, peel. 

bum, n. Spec, croon, bum (ehiefiy dird,), 
bumble, burr, murmur, thrum, Eiombina- 
tion (rare), boom, buzz, whiz, drone, bom- 
bus (med.). 

hum, V. i. I. Spec, croon, bum (chiefly 
diai,), burr, thrum, bombinate (rare), 
b<jmbilate (rare), boom, buzz, whia, 

a. SeeaiNG. 

buman, a. Spec, hominal (not. hist.), 
hominine (rare), humanistic, earth-bom. 
(contextual), mortal, humane. 
Antonyms: see soPERHtruAN iNHmuN, 


human, n. earthling (rare; contextual), 
clod (depreciative); spec. Christian, man, 
woman, child, boy, girl. 
Antonyms: see deity, animal. 

bumbla, o. I. lowly (now somewhat archaie j 
or rhetorical), low (rare, exc. spec); spec 
low-bom, poor, undistinguished, meek, , 
inglorious, unambitioua, unescutcheoned 
(rore), obscure. 
Antonyms: see PROUD, f!AnoHTT| fbe}- 


». See LOWLY. 
bumllitr, 71. abH.>iement, humblenees; 

spec, submissive ncss. 
Antonyms: see pride. 
hnmoz, n. I. Referring In the Jour bodUp 

fluids oj the old phydology: spec, blood, 

phlegm, choler, melancholy. 

s. mood, cue; " 


bcTal: ihid. hovi 
honr, r. ,.:av, 
hOTR, n.: Pxajd. 

«■. of md. 

■?* S« Nolai of Eipluutlon. 

I At 

biiinoiist,». iSpec. joker, jester, wag, wit. 
humpback, n. hunchback. 
humpbAclied, a. humpback, cy photic 
(Uxh.), bow-backed {Tare), hunched, gib- 
boua (chiefly spec.). 

ipsd, a. hunchy libbouB {chiefly 
,); spec, humpbacked. 
Ired, n. century, centred {hist.), cen- 
trev or centret {Wdah; hist.). 
liiiiiBer< n. !■ desire (conttxtual) , appetite, 
hiingriness. emptiness (fig.); spec, vorac- 
ity, polyphagift (meJ.), eaurience {Aumor- 
otuly p^Uxntic), famine, bulimia (med.), 
AntonymJi; see suRmir. 
«, SeeoBEED, 
hunter, u. i. Spec, famish. Starve. 

AnUmifmt: jite surfeit. 
tiuiiciy> n. 1- hungered (orctetc), abuo- 

Sred or anhungerec! (rare; archaic); spec, 
rashed, starved, edacious (now chiefly 
kutnofoxis)^ lickerish, lickerous (obs.), voror- 
oious, esurient (now humorously pidantic), 
Z lyp''*?'*''* (Tned.), greedy, ravenous, 
:«npty. insatiate, nvlil, sharp-set (rare), 
peckisn (coUoj,), dinnerless, suppcrlesa, 
AnUmymt: ate svrfeitbo. 

fannt. V. 1. 1. ^ofie; spec, still-hunt, stalk, 
run, trail, track, trap, hound. 
1. See DRIVE, FOLLOW, seek, sbarcu, 


hunt, V. t. I. Spec, shoot, poach, stalk, 
forage, hawk, jack, trap, snore, kangaroo, 
wolf7 grouse, ferret. 


bnnt, n. 1. Spec, chase, drag, stalk, stiil- 


huDtar, n. huntsman (male; a more formal 
word Ihan "hunler"), huntress (female), 
hunlswoman (female; rare), nimrod (fig.), 
Endymion (Jifl.), jager or jaeger {German 
or Swiss); spec, stalker, shikari (Anglo- 
Indian), gunner, forager, trapper, poach- 
er, boarhiinter, piiplicker, jackar, doer- 
stalker, ferreter. falconer. 

a sense implying the feeling of 
'I, hut not neceuarily TestiUanl speed: 

Antonyms: aeeojMB. 

huntliiKi a. venatorial {.rare), veoatic or 
venatical (rare), venary [rore); spec, oy- 
negetic (rare). 

hunUnf, ti. venerv, venation (literary): 
spec, chase, pigsticking, rabbiting, hawk- 
ing, falconiy, etc. 

S. In I 
drive, whip (fig.). 
Antonyms: see delay, laq. 

huabaiid, n. spouse {formal), goodman 
{Sent, or archaic), man (iScoI, or dial.), 
lord (poetic, jocular, or ironical), hubby 
{familiar and coUoq.); spec, benedict, 
Antonyms: tee wife, celibate. 

tauah, interj. Silence) [more emphatic or 
formal Ihart "husk'"), mum! whistl 

liuiBy, n. woman (contextual), girl (eon- 
teituai), jade (sometimes playful), Ummer 
(Swrf.), minx {often playful). 

but, n. I. house {contextual); sfiec. wicki- 
up, yurt, mitt-mia (Austrabau). hutment. 

hybrid, n. crossbreed (chiefly spec), mon- 
grel (chiefly spec; a disparaging term), 
cross; spec, outcross, lurcher, bigener 
(hot.; rare), mameluco (South America). 
mulatto, quadroon, oclaroon, half-breed, 
halt-blood, halt-caste (East India] mule, 
mestee or muat«e {West Indies), meatizo 
(Spanish America and Philippine /»^ 
anils), quintoon, t«rceroon, mustaSna, 
mustafino {Spanish American), Creole. 

hybrid, a. crossed, cross (rore), mixed- 
breed, crossbred (chiefly spec); spec. 
monttrel, Kraded, half -blood, half-blooded, 
AnUmyTns: see fdll-blooded. 

bygteae, n. soteriology (rare), hygiastica 
(rare), hygienics {rare), hygiology (rare). 

hrmn, n. hyranic (rare); spec, psalm, can- 
ticle, psan, choral, sanctus, tnumph, tro- 
parioD, hymeneal, sequence, prose, hallel, 
recessional, processional, magnificat, laud, 
Exultet, Gloria, prosodion, dithyramb or 
dithyrambic, mantra, Orphic. 

hynmlit, n. composer {contextual), hym- 
nodist; apee. laudist. 

IW Om. uf-'iai.- K Ndic 

hoiky: hoar,t. .fr™,. 

bump, s 1 arc*. 

bulll*, I. t.; haiUn uwrl. 




bypnatlo, a, magnetic {amUxlwd; nhao- 
kioerU), ectenic (rare), mesmeric (oAso- 

hypaotlsmi n. In aUusion to /ormrr prae- 
titioners or obsolete theoriea; magnetism, 
Bnudiam, Mesmerism. 

hypocrisy, n. deceit {conleztuai); spfe. 
disaembling, Tartufferie (Jig.), Tartuf- 
fiam (fig.), cant, Pharisecism {Jig.), Phari- 
saism (fig.), snivel, sanctimony. 
Anlonjfms: see ABTLESSNEaa; also cf. 

faypoorlte, n. deceiver (conioifuon; spec. 
diaaembler, Tartuffe (Jig.), pretender, 
Pecksniff (jig.), Pharisee (jig.). 

taypaorltloal, a. deceitful (con ieifuo/), 
double-faced; spec, dissembling, Tartuf- 
fian (fig.), Tartuffish (A?), Pharisaic 
(Jig.), Pharisaical (fig.), sanctmioniouB. 
Antonyms: sre artless, mANK. 

tayiterlk, n. convulsion (coniexliuil), hys- 
terics (p[,,- coUoq.); spec, tarantism, con- 
niptions (pi.: vulvar, U. S.), vapors 
(jH.), lata, miryachit. 

hraterioBl, a. coavulaive (jomtexlual), hye- 
teric (rare). 

I, pron. ^o {metaphytici). 

toe, n. crystal (now rare); spec floe, gla- 
cier, frazU (Can. and U. S.), icicle. 

ioflbeTK. n. berg; ipee. calf. 

loe-oovflred, a. glaciate. 

Icfl orekin. Spec, hokey-pokey (Bnff.; 
slang or eollog,). 

lofld, a. Spec, frosted, glac£ (French), 
frapp* {French). 

Idea, n. thought, conceit (archaic), con- 
cept, conception, intention (chiefly logic), 
notion (.chiefly spec.), intellection (chiefly 
tech.), impression; sp«c. wrinkle, phi 
torn, design, fancy, memory, feeling, b 
tif (frencA), recept, theory, plan, etc. 

Idemllie, v. I. Spec, exalt, abstract, spirit- 
ualize, disrealize (rare), sublime or sub- 
limate, refine, heighten, perfect. 

Idle, a. indolent) spec, toa&ng, dawdling, 
Antonyms: see bostling. 

Idle, D. i. Spec, laze, laiy (rare), loaf, daw- 

lie, lounge, loll, fllack (eoUog.), daily, 
Irone, trifle, moon, truant, play. 
Anlonyins: sec dustle, work. 
Idleness, n. indolence; spec, loafing, daw- 
dling, etc 
Antonyms: see bostue. 
tdlei, n. Spec, loafer, droner, lounger, daw- 
dler, do-nothing, do-httle, drone, faine- 
ant (French), flineur (French), buckeen 
(Irish), nonworkcr (nonce word). 
Antonyms: see worker. 
idling, n. Spec, lazing, loafing, dalliance. 

Idol, n. 1. image, simulacrum (leomeij), 
gtwl (conlext-ual) ; spec, teraphim (pi.), joss 
(Chinese), Mumbo Jumbo, pagod, Dagon, 

Idolatry, n. worship (contextiud), fornica- 
tion (a Biblical term). 

Wyl, n. eclogue, psfltoral. 

11, amj. gin or gii (Scoi.), provided; spec. 

igni* fatou*. will-o'-the-wisp, jack-o'-lan- 
tern (now rare), jack-o'-the-wisp (,obs.). 

Icnltable, a. Spec, inflammable. 

Ignite, V. I. Spec, fire, kindle, light, in- 
flame (literary or rare), Btrike. 

iKnoramns, n. ignorant (rare), UliteratA, 

Antonyms: see scholar, literate. 
Inotanoe, n. I. unscience (rare or obs.}, 
darkness (fig.), ioBcience (rare), nescience 
(learned or bookish), ignorantness (rore); 
apec. ineducation, illiteracy. iUiterateness, 
illiterature (rare), benightment, rusticity, 
dark, darkness, impresdence, blindneas 



Anlimytns: see foreknowledge. 
Ignorant, □, 1. nescient (learned or book- 
ish), unknowing (rare), inacient (rare); 
spec, unlearned, inerudite, illiterate, un- 
informed, untaught, benighted, borrel or 
borel (archaic), dark lay, grammarless, 
unstudied, unread, unexpert (rore), green; 



tS" Croij refCTi 
hnioelMDdilat dirrri 

tinamlnr: divnSU. 

tS' Sev Hot« t>l EipimiuUoo. 


Irnore, v. t. diareeard: evee. pass, overlook, 
bury, elude, eink, blim>, overjump, skip, 
disimogj lie (rare) , cut {colloqA, over- 
alaugh ((/. S.: rare), disobey, suppreas, 
eliminate, forget. 
Antonyms: gee attend, notice, con- 


111- com posed, a. incondite (learned), 

111- considered, a. unbaked ifig.)^ indi- 
geatpd or ill-digeated (fig.); spec. wild. 

liieclbln, a. undecipherable; ipec. blind, 
Antonyms: ae« leoible. 

lileeltlmate, a. 1. unlawful; spec, unau- 
thorized, irregular, spurious, inranse- 

Antonjpna: see lawtdi*. 
a. bnatard (now becoming a term of re- 
proaeh), natural; spec, basebom, hose 
(arehaic), hedgeixim (archaic), miabe- 

Anlonyms: see legitimatii, 
ill0|4o»i, a. inconsequent, invalid; apee. 
absurd, unreaaonable, incohetent. 
Anfonjfms: see logical. 
Ill -omened, a. ainialer, sioistrous, left- 
handed; tpee, inauHpicious. 
Allonyms: see auspicious. 
tll-ihaped, a. Spec, distorted, misshapen, 
lopsided, ugly, ill-proportioned. 
lU>Bmellln^ a. malodorous {learned or 
bookish), offensive, nosey (coltog.), rank, 
cacodorouB (a rare hybrid; hutiutrous or 
eonlempluous), inodorous (rare), grave- 
olent {literary; Thetarictd, affected, or 
euphemistic); spec, foul, atinkinR, gamy, 
rancid, noisome, fetid, goatish, buckish, 
rotten, etc. 

humor, oroBsness, bk 
or in "to get" or "have t 
cankercdness (rare), bile 
eoUoq.). spleen (^ig.), I 
grouchiness, eroutiness {U. S. 
morosenesa, doggedneaa; aeeANQER. 
Ul.tempeTed, a. Spec, ill-natured, ill-hU' 
mored, crabbed, unlovely, cross, shrewd 
(oha.), ugly ([/. S.), sour, surly, grum, 
grumpy or grumpbh, unamiable. morose. 
malignant, unkindly, sullen, sulky, bear- 
ish, cynical or cynic, churlish, cantanker- 
ous (eoUoq.), dogged (rare), snarly, cur- 
rish or (rare) doggish, snappish, shrewish, 

vinegarish or vinegary, vinaigrous (rare), 
spleeny, splenetic, spleenish, vixenish, 
bilious, crusty, nasty, cranky, frumpy (a 
iriiriai or coUoqaial term), frumpish (rare), 
cankered, dorty (Scot.), grouchy or 
grouty (U. S.; coUoq.), angry, irritable. 

Antonyms: see aftakle, aoreeabu:. 
ill-treat, t>. (. abuse, injure, ill-use, mis- 
treat {chiefly spec), maltreat (chiefly 
spec), misuse; spec, bedevil, spitCj mis- 
handle, mohock (rare or hist.), violate, 
outrage, rape. 

Antonyms: see caabbb, i 

illamlnate, v. t 

1. See-L 

S. ornament (conterlual) , illumine; spec 
miniate, rubricate, emblaze. 
llluilon, n. 1. Referring to the act: see Dfi- 

i. Riferring to the thijig: deception (can- 
lextuai), unreality (emjAuHang the JinretU 
qwdity); spec apparition, dream. 
Antonyms: see Actdality. 

lllnatrate, v. L 1. See example. 
9. picture; spec. Grangerize. 

Illuitratlon, n. 1. Referring to the action: 

9. Referring to the thing: picture, figure; 
sptc. diagram, plate, chart, drawing, 
crayon, iconography, frontispiece, cut, 
cartoon, caricature, lampoon. 

Ill wUL dislike (oojUextiMil); tpec. enmity, 
hostility, mahce, dole (Scot.), grudEO 
(rare), spleen, spite, cankeredness (rare), 
rancor or rancour (rare or literary), malev- 
olence, malignitv, malignancy, venom, 
malignance (rare), animosity. 
ArtSonyms: see affection, love, estegu. 

Image, n. 1. representation (contextual), 
ima^ (learned), figure, copy, simulacre 
or simulacrum (learned or bot^ish; prirna- 
riiyspec.), shape (contextual), efSgy (chiefly 
spec); spec parhelion, doll, dolly, picture, 
icon, shadow, statue, painting, drawing, 
guy, idol, reflectioD, embodiment, coun- 
terpart, magot. 

imaeery, n. Spec, images (pi.), imapna- 
tions (pL), figures (pi.), engraving, stal^ 
uary, paintings (pi.), etc 

imaclnable, a. conceivable; spec, feign- 
able, believable, suppoaable; see think- 

ImagiQBcr, a. unreal {contextual), fancied 


I n 



Ul-ptopertloned: il 

V Kotei oi EipluutlOD. 


(cliufiy tpee.); spec, fancy, invpnted, ideal, 
fictitious, shadowy, fi^eiital {bookish or 
learned), notional, visionary, fanfaatic, 
fontasled or phantaeied, conceivable, al>- 
Btract, poetic. 
Antonyms: gee actcau 
itDftftutton, n. I. Referring to IhefaaiUy 
or action: conception {c-ynlextutil), fancy 
(ekiefiy »pec.), fiction, creation; spec, fan- 
tasy, conceit, description, 
t. In refererux to the thing imagined: see 

ImagjiiHtlTe, a. creative (eorUexlual), fan- 
ciful, fictive, visionary (rare); spec. 
Antonifma: see DHiMAcraATiVE, WITa- 

Imaflne, v. t. devise (oontextual), 
(amtexlual), fancy (ehiejly spec.), think 
(context-ual), create (contextual); spec. 
suppose, feign, fantasy (archaic), picture, 
frame, figure, prefigure, drearo, chimeriie 
(rare), believe, guesa, assume, pretend, 

idiotic, Wf-witted, 
Antonyms: see in 
■. See FOOLISH. 
ImbfloUa, n. Spec, detective, driveler, 
idiot, mooncalf (chiefly dial, or literary), 
nid^t (archaic), fool, half-wit (rare), 

imitate, v. t. copy, reproduce; spec, ape, 
borrow, mimic, counterfeit, mock, emu- 
late, echo, follow, forge, duplicate, pat- 
tern (rore), zany (rare). 
ATiionyms: see invent. 

Imitated, a. Spec, second-hand, bor- 
rowed, counterfeit, mock, mimic, imita- 
tion {the noun used aitributivdy), forged, 
pretended, feigned, false {coniexlual). 
Antonyms: see new, ohioinai.. 

ism or parrotry {fin-), etc. 

Arilonyms: see invention. 
a. In reference to the remit of the action: 
spec, copy, counterfeit, forgery, mockery, 
echo, duphcate, counterpart, pretence, 
reproduction, elc. 

ATitonymB: see invention. 
Imitative, a. Spec, mimic, mimetic, coun- 
terfeit, Brummagem (Eng.), apish, copy- 
ing, sequacious {teamed), echoic, re- 


Imitator, n. copyist, copier; spec, ape, par- 
rot, mimic, echo, counterfeiter. 

Im materia a. 1. incorporeal (chiefly 
spec.)^ unsubstantial or (rare) innubatan- 
liftl, inessential (literary), metaphysical 
{tech.), matlflrless (rare); spec, bodiless or 
(rare) imbodied, incorporate (rare), in- 
concrete, aerie, insensible, unfleahly 
(rare), mental, spiritual, spectral. 
Antonyms: see material. 


immateriality, ti. incorporeal! ty, im- 
materialness (rare), bodilessness, unsub- 
stantiality or (rare) insubstantialitv, in- 
essentiality (rore). mctaphysicalnesB; 
spec, aeriness, mentality, spirituality, etc. 

immature, a. undeveloped; spec, tender, 
unripe, unfledged, impuberal (rare), 
green, callow, beardless, young, 
A nlimyms: see grown . 

Immaturity, n. undevelopedness ; spec. 
impuberty, greenness, unripeness, etc. 

immediate, a. 1. Spec, primary, next, di- 
rect, proximate. 
Antonyms: sec intermediate, distant. 
>. Spec, (referring to such neoTTiess in time 
as is without any interveniTig action or the 
like) instant, instantaneous, prompt. 
"Immediate" and "prompt" are loosely 
used where there is only relative proximity, 
Aftlonyms: see distant. 

lm.medlately, ada. 1. directly, direct {cot- 
loq.), next, proximately, betimes. 
t, instantly, presto (primarily ajuggUr's 
or magician's term; hence chiefly exeiama- 
tory or rhetoTical), instanter (Latin or em- 
phatic), forthwith, straightway (arehaie 
or rhetorical), straight (archaic), sUaightly 
(archaic or obs.), forthright (orcAaie), 
therewith (archaic or formal), eftsooD or 
ottBOons (archaic); spec, now. 

Immeme, a. large (contextual), enonnoug, 
prodigious {lilerary or eontempluous), 
great, tremendous, huge, vast {chiefly 
spec), vasty (rare; now chiefly a literary 
affectation); spec, elephantine, gigantic, 
colossal, huge, titanic, infinite (hyperbol- 
ical), stupendous, mountainous, mon- 
AjUonyms: see minute, bmaUu 

Immenilty, n. 1. largeness (amlextual), 
greatness, immenseaeas (rare), enormous- 
ness, tremendousness, hugeness, enormity 
(rare), prodigiousness, vaatity (rare), 
vaatness;sper. gtganticness, cofossotness, 
titanicneas, infinity, monstrousneas. 
S. Naming a thing of great size: moun- 
tain, enormity, monstrosity; spec, vaatity, 
vaat, gulf, abyss. 




IibMIh: abmrb, ifriiil;. 
Imhrlaatad: axrliipjnn;. 

I Immaeiilatei ttean, /aulttim. 


Immnsloii, n. 

mersion (.chiefly spec. 

rore); tpee. dip, 

bath, swim, baptiam 

lmmlcr»nt, n. 

1 comer, comeling (ar 

si tor, greener {alang) 


Immlmt*. V. i. B 

Dme (wnteituaO. 


Antonyms: see i!:MiGRA'rE. 

Immlnflnt, a. impendent (rare), impend- 
ing (.leaa ttnmg Hum "imminent ), instant 

ImmoTSl, a. wicked {conlextiud), wrong, 
wrongful, vidoua, loose (someivhal euphC' 
mwttc), gay (euphemialic), rotten (inlen- 
inm and vsuaUy vulgar) ; spec, licentious, 
abandoned, disnoneat, indecent, treacher- 
ous, eCc. 

_ . . _. ..f,cte. 

ImmortBl, a. 1. deathless {a homlier word 
than "immoriai"), undying, neverJying, 
imperishable; spec, ent&ess. 
Antonyms: see mortal. 
). See rAMOUs. 

Immoitmllze, f. f. fame; spec, deify. 

liiiinaT*ibie, a. 1. moveleaa iTare), fixed, 
immobile, immotile {Tare), stationary. 
Antonyms: see change able, imuovablb. 
S. See MonoNuias, untieuiino. 

Impuit, R. stroke, blow, impingement 
(tech. or learned); spec, percussion, ap- 
pulse, brunt, bump, touch, slam. Many 
of the words mentioned under "stroke" are 
laed in the closely allied sense nf "impact." 

Impair, v. t. deteriorate, damage, harm, 
injure; spec, mar, spofl, flaw, vitiate, 
touch, Tuin, blemish, shatter (fig.), re- 
duce, dilapidate, deface, crush, break, 
wear, etc. 
Antonyms: see amend, improve. 

Impair, v, i. deteriorate, decline; spec. 
vitiate, shatter, ruin, break, wear, etc.; 
see BP01L. 
Ajdonyms: see improve. 

Impairment, n. deterioration, damage, 
luu^n, iniury; spec, mar, blemish, shatter- 
ing, breEdn, wear, etc. 

Impartial, a. just, fair, equal (literary), 

even (archaic); Spec. daintcresf»j. dis- 
passioQBte, unpaasionate, unbiased, i 
prejudiced, indifferent (rare, exc. led 

Antonyms: fastlal, i 
impartiailtr, n, justice, impartialness 

(rare), fairness, equality (literary), even- 
ness (rare; archaic); spec, diapassion, 
dispassionateness, impasaionat«neas, in- 
difference, indifferency (rare). 
Antonyms: see pabtiality. 

ImpBBBable, a. impermeable (chiefly spec.); 
spec, impervious, imperviable (rare), pass- 
leas (rare), waterproof, airtight, water- 
tight, tight.intranacalent (rare), innaviga^ 
ble (rare), unnavigable, impenetrable. 
Animiyms: see passable. 

Impassive, a. 1. See iNsENstBLO. 
9. inexpressive, immobile, immovable; 
spec, stoical, impassible, undemonatra^ 
tive, unimpressionable, imimpresaible, 
etohd, apathetic, calm. 
Antonyms: see demonbtrattve, effu- 

Impaisloned, a. passionate; impassion- 

ate (rare); spec, frenzied, angry, frantic, 

impel, V. t. 1. move (contextual), impulse 

(rare); spec, drive, send, kick, throw, 

push, etc. 
Antonyms: see bbstraih. 

S. Referring to the mind or inclinations: 

excite, move, permove (ras-e), constrain; 

spec, compel, actuate, urge, drive. 
Antonyms: see restrain, stop. 
impelling, a. 1. impulsive, propulsive,