Skip to main content

Full text of "A manual of the domestic practice of medicine"

See other formats


Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



MANUAL 



OF THE 



DOMESTIC PMCIICE OF MEDICINE 



BT 



¥, B. KESTEVEN, 

PELLOW 0¥ THB I.OVAL COLLKOB OF SUROkOKS OF KNOLANO, 

STC. Bra BTO. 




LONDONt 



LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS. 



1856. 




/;^7. yL.yz. 



1>RINTED BY WtLSON AND OOILVY, SKtNNBlt tTRBBT, LONDON. 



MANUAL 



OF THE 



DOMESTIC PBACIICE OF MEDICINE. 



BT 



¥. B. KESTEVEN, 

PELLOW or THB I OVAL COLLKOB OF 8UROLOXS OF KNOLANO, 

BTC. BTC. ETC 




LONDON! 



LONGMIAK, BROWIT, GEEEN, AND LONGMANS. 



1856. 



/^7. X^.JZ, 



PEEFACE. 



Some explanation may seem called for from the author of a new treatise 
upon Domestic Medicine, so many haying already been brought under 
the notice of the public. Without presuming to offer any opinion 
upon the productions of his predecessors, the author considers that 
this work has features of its own sufficiently peculiar to justify its 
publication. 

The present locomotive age finds civilised and educated man rapidly 
spreading over regions hitherto occupied by uncivilised races. In the 
migrations of families and people^ — ^in this running to and fro on the 
face of the earth, which stamps the present age as the birthday of new 
empires and states-^individuals are daily carried beyond the reach of 
scientific professors of medicine, but not beyond the reach of the ills 
that fiesh is heir to. On the ocean, in the desert, on the mountain, in 
the valley, disease will follow, and will pursue its course, often leading 
to the grave. The sick will call for aid; accidents and physical 
emergencies will occur. The pastor, the missionary, the captain of a 
ship, the head of a family, may each find himself appealed to for that 
help which he would only too readily render could he do so with 
reasonable prospect of success. 

Even in places where medical assistance may be obtainable within 
moderate time, accidents or emergencies will arise, not permitting, 
without jeopardy of life, the lapse of even a few moments of time, — 
cases in which non-interference may be culpable, and in which prompt 
and judicious action may prepare the way for, and go &r to tot^<3x^ 
the measures to he adopted by the profesaionfii a\\/^u&»xi^K 



\ 



[ 



viii PEEPACE. 



The science of Medicine can, it is fully admitted, be compreliended 
by those alone with whom it forms the primary— the almost exclusiye — 
object of stady. Even to these a long life is insufiicient for the 
apprehension of all its phenomena and laws. So numerous and so 
varied are the features of disease, so changing and so obscure are 
many among its causes, that what may be true of the nature and 
treatment of a malady to-day, may be to a great extent untrue a few 
years hence. The most accurate observation, and an undivided atten- 
tion, therefore, are demanded of those who would acquire a knowledge 
of the seienee of medicine. 

It is with a desire to afford simple practical guidance, under any of 
the preceding circumstances, that the present work has been drawn up. 
The author does not pretend to teach the science of medicine to those 
who have neither the opportunity nor the aptitude for its study : he 
professes only to supply his readers with a succinct and clear summary 
of the symptoms, causes, and treatment of aU those diseases, aoddents, 
and other occasions for medical assistance, which may be encountered 
under any of the conditions above mentioned. He has designedly avoided 
entering upon theoretical explanations of the nature of diseases, or of 
the modes of action of remedies, under the conviction that such topics 
more frequently perplex than enlighten the non-professional reader. 

When, as has been assumed with r^ard to the readers of the present 
work, the treatment of disease must be undertaken by those who have 
not been prepared for so responsible a task by appropriate education, 
the safety of the instruction given is the point of paramount importance 
therein. Under this impression, the employment of those medioines 
only has been recommended which can be safely entrusted to the hands 
of any intelligent or discreet person. An abundant armoury of power^ 
weapons for combating disease remains after the exclusion of those 
partaking of the characters of deadly poisons. In order, moreover, to 
afford security in the administration of medicines, the author has stated 
the doses of these, under six periods of age, in extended tables, which 
have at least the character of novelty and facility of reference. The 



PREFACE. ix 



exercise of judgment and attention will enable the reader to select the 
medicines, or combinations thereof, that shall be suitable to indiyidual 
cases. 

Guided by the same principle^ the recommendation of bloodletting 
has been avoided, being an operation which is less frequently called 
for by disease in the present day than formerly, and which conse- 
quently is the less safe in non-professional hands, even were they 
skilful enough to perform the operation without risk of injury, which 
is rarely the case. 

As large classes of disease present many features in common, each 
individual malady preserving at the same time its appropriate symptoms, 
the author has, wherever it has appeared to be requisite, pointed out 
these as their distinctive symptoms. This part of the study of diseases 
forms what is technically denominated their diagnosis. The detection 
of points of difference, and their separation from, those merely of resem- 
blance, presents one of the greatest difficulties in the practice of medicine. 
It is, moreover, to the forgetfulness of this important feature that is 
owing much of the erroneous reasoning that has found its way into the 
practice of medicine. 

The importance of collateral aid, in the treatment of disease, to 
be derived from diet, r^;imen, &c. has not been overlooked. These 
subjects have received consideration both generally, as hygienic 
measures, and particularly, as curative means for the removal of special 
diseases. 

It may not be deemed superfluous to state explicitiy, that it is not 
the intention of this manual to supersede the office of the professional 
attendant; this could only be a self-evident and useless imposition. 
Common sense and the instinct of self-preservation will urge the 
sufferer to seek for aid where skill and science inspire confidence, and 
afford the only rational groimd of hope for a speedy and permanent 
restoration to health. Skill and science, however, are not at the 
command of all with whom the practice of medicine may become an 
unavoidable and urgent obligation. Based as it must be upon the 



PREFACE. 



science of medicine, medical or surgical practice must nevertheless often 
be entrusted to unscientific hands. 

The scope and intentions, then, of this manual, as they have been 
now stated, obviously preclude any claim to originality ^ther than that 
of the careful companson of the author's experience with the recorded 
observations and opinions of the best medical writers. No higher cha- 
racter is assumed, with regard to the present work, than that of judicious 
compilation, or selection of materials from the rich stores of medical 
science and literature. The author takes this occasion to acknowledge 
that he has not failed to avail himself of every source of information 
within his reach. He has not, however, felt called upon to make exact 
quotations, lest, whilst addressing himself to non-professional readers, 
he should, by an array of footruotes and references, have incurred the 
charge of a parade of erudition. It may suffice that he here make known 
his obligations to the works of Copland, Latham, Abercrombie, Pereira, 
Taylor, Bees, Thomson, West, Druitt, South, Wilson, Fuller, and 
others. Having, he may be allowed to state, brought to his task 
many years' exp^ienee, a not inconsiderable acquaintance with medical 
literature, some industry, and an earnest desire to make this manual a 
%afe and u^efviL guide, he would indulge tiie hope that it may prove, in 
both these senses, practically valuable to tiiose to whom it is addressed, 
and, consequentiy, no unnecessary addition to ike catalogue of books 
already published upon similar subjects. 

The author feels bound to make honourable mention of Mr. W. F. 
Dunne, on the plan of whose elaborate manuscript the typographical 
arrangement has been founded. This manuscript was purchased by the 
publishers, and placed in the hands of the author, who, having entirely 
rewritten the work, takes on himself the entire responsibility of its 
contents. 



UffebHouiOWAT: J\r<wMt3«r 185S. 



/ 



CONTENTS. 



\ 



1 



CONTENTS. 



FAOB 
PbEFAOE TU 



SECTION I. 

ALPHABETICAL ABBAlTOEHBirT OF DI8BASB8 ; THBIB 8TMPT0MS, CAUSES, 

AKD TBBATMEKT. 

Introductory Obserrations upon Symptoms of Disease 8 

Symptoms, Table of 6 

Alphabetical Arrangement of Diseases ; their Symptoms, Causes, Treatment 18 



SECTION n. 

MI D W I F EB Y; IK0L1TDIVO FBEOVAITOY AHD ITS HANAGElOEirT, ICISOAXBIAaE, 
LABOUB, ASD DI8BA8BS OF LTIKO-nr WOHEIT. 

Pregnancy, Management of 186 

Disorders attending, and their Treatment 136 

Beckoning of the Dato of Labour 137 

Miscarriage , 181 

labour 140 

Management of the New-bom Infant > 149 



PAGE 

Childbed Fevers 152 

Puerperal Conyulsions 154 

Puerperal Mania, or Insanity 155 

White Leg 156 



SECTION III. 

AOOIDEyTS. 

Shock or Concussion 159 

Alphabetical List of Accidents ; their Symptoms and Treatment 160 



SECTION rv. 

FoisoKnra. 

General Observations on Poisoning 181 

Symptoms and Treatment of Poisons 182 



SECTION V. 
UEDionms Aim fbxbobiptions. 

Preliminary Observations upon the Uses and Poses of Medicines 187 

Circumstances "which Modify the Effects of Medicines 178 

Classification of Medicines and Prescriptions : — 

Alteratives, mildly acting upon the Secretions 189 

Antacids, correcting Acidity 189 

Antispasmodic 190 

Aperients and Purgatives 190 

Astringent ^ 190 




CONTENTS. 



FAOI 

daasificatiou of Medicines and Prescriptions (continued) : — 

Caustic 191 

Diaphoretic or Sudorific, promoting Perspiration 191 

Diuretics, promoting the Secretion of Urine 191 

Emetics 191 

Expectorant 191 

Healing and Absorbent 192 

Narcotic and Sedatiye 192 

Befngerant, or Cooling 192 

Stimulants 192 

Stomachic and Cordial 193 

Tonic 193 

Table of Medical Weights and Measures mentioned in this work 194 

Alphabetical List of Medicines ; showing their Operation, the Diseases in 

which given, their Doses according to Age, with Remarks 

on their Administration, &c 195 

Table of Ninetj-fiye Prescriptions ; giring the Quantities according to Age 

under six different headings, with Bemarks on their Mode 

of Administration and Application 254 

List of Articles for a Medicine-Chest 283 



• 



SECTION VI. 

HYOIBKB. 



Introductory Obserrations ,, 287 

Sleep 287 

Cleanliness 288 

Bathing 289 

Cold Baths 289 

Tepid Baths 290 

Warm Baths 290 

Vapour Baths 291 



xvi CONTENTS. 



PAOB 

Diet 4 292 

Digestibility of certain Articles of Food 296 

Alooholio Stimulants 297 

Dietary for the Sick 299 

Meals for the Healthy 300 

Change of Climate 301 

Disinfection 301 

Ventilation 302 

Vaccination 303 



SECTION vn. 

StTESIxa, Ain> THE MANAGEMENT 07 THE 8I0E-B00M. 

Qualifications of a Nurse 309 

Sick-room, Ventilation and Temperature of. 310 

Light 311 

Furniture, &o 311 

CleanlinesB 311 

Feeding 311 

Leeching 312 

Blistering 312 

Lotions 318 

Fomentation 313 

Warm Bathing 313 

Poultices 314 

Hints on the Management of Conyalescence 814 



Lin>EX » 819 



SECTION I. 



ALPHABETICAL ARRANGEMENT 



OF 



DISEASES; 



THEIB 



SYMPTOMS, CAUSES, AND TREATMENT. 



B 



INTRODUCTORY OBSERVATIONS 



TIPON 



SYMPTOMS. 



contents of the following pages 
perhaps be rendered some- 
b more available by a few 
rvations upon the meaning or 
e of the most prominent symp- 
\ of disease in general. 
Tien called upon to ascertain 
nature of an illness, the first 
» that will occur, will be to 
)e aU those appearances which 
may learn by our own eyes, 
ance will teU of changes in the 
dognomy ; — whether the coun- 
ace be pale, or flushed, or 
i — ^whether the whole frame or 
thereof be wasted or enlarged — 
flier any eruption be apparent 
he surface — ^whether the free 
of the limbs be retained, or 
or impaired. 

aving observed the existence 
, change under either one or 
r of these points, we have 
jthing to start from, and, as one 
leads to another, we are soon 
ght to the seat of disease, 
lus, if the position of the body 
poslxate, with little or no power 
oving the limbs, or of chang- 
the posture, a state of extreme 
lity is inferred. If there be also 
isky hue of the countenance. 



and a dark far on the Hps and 
teeth, the attention is called to the 
possible existence of some low or 
typhoid fever. Eeference to the 
section on these fevers will assist 
the reader to form his conclusion. 

If it be impossible for the patient 
to retain the recumbent posture, or, 
if without impdrment of muscular 
power, a position to one side is 
observed, some disease of the res- 
piratory organs may be inferred. 
The rapidity of breathing, the 
presence of cough, the state of 
the pulse, and duskiness of the 
countenance; will further point in 
the direction in which the disease 
is to be found. 

Impairment of the powers of 
locomotion should direct attention 
to the state of the brain or spinal 
cord. If there be headache, giddi- 
ness, intolerance of sound or light, 
we may suspect some affection of 
the brain. Or these may be but part 
of the symptoms of that general 
constitutional disturbance which is 
known BB fever. 

In children the countenance is 
an important index of the nature 
of a malady. The pain or uneasi- 
ness, which they have not words 



OBSEKVATIONS UPOIT SYMPTOMS. 



to express, may often be suspected 
by watching their faces, either 
sleeping or waldng. Knitting of 
the brows, or frowning, should not 
be disregarded, as its continuance 
sometimes indicates a morbid con- 
dition of the brain or nervous 
centres. 

Prominence of the eyeballs, and 
puffiness of the eyelids, frequently 
attend disease of the heart, and 
dropsy. A dark ring around the 
eyelids is often an accompaniment 
of constipation, or of menstrual irre- 
gularity. 

In serious or acute disease the 
expression of anxiety, or difficulty 
of breathing, is often very strongly 
marked, and attended by duski- 
ness or flushing, redness or dis- 
coloration of the countenance. 

In feverish complaints the sur- 
face of the body is hot and dry. 
In jaundice it is of a yellow colour. 
In purpura, and in eruptive fever, 
the characters of the spots should 
be carefully noted. 

Pain is the symptom generally 
regarded and looked for as the 
most important indication of dis- 
ease. In investigating its existence 
and charaxiter some caution is re- 
quired. Under the head of Hysteria 
it is stilted that this symptom is 
more than any other liable to mis- 
interpretation. It is often found 
to be excited by pressure anywhere 
or everywhere on the persons of 
hysterical females. It must there- 
fore be borne in mind that the pre- 
sence of an acute disease in such 
cases is not to be inferred unless 
other characteristic signs be present. 

Pain is generally most acute ^!n 
the inflammation of certain parts ; 



as in pleurisy, or peritonitis. It 
is of a heavy dull aching character 
in rheumatic aflections, and in in- 
flammation of some internal organs. 
It is cutting and stabbing in cancer. 

Pain from acute disease of the 
bowels or organs in the abdomen, 
depresses the nervous or vital 
power more rapidly than when 
arising from disease of other organs. 

A distinction generally holds 
between pain caused by spasms or 
cramp, and that resulting from 
inflammation. Spasm, or cramp, 
is usually relieved by pressure — 
while in inflammation the pain is 
augmented by pressure. 

The existence of cough, or diffi- 
culty of breathing, should be care- 
fully noted. The character of 
expectoration, if any, should also 
be observed, with reference to the 
state of the chest. 

The condition of the circulatioil 
requires especial attention. The 
pulse at the wrist is the usual 
point at which we judge of its 
force, frequency, and regularity. 
Practice alone can give perfect 
acquaintance with variations in 
the force of the pulse ; no merely 
verbal description can teach these. 
There will, however, be little diffi- 
culty in distinguishing between a 
strong, full pulse, and a feeble beat 
of the artery under the finger. 
Seventy-two beats in a minute are 
about the average for healthy 
adults; but this may vary within 
the range of eighty and sixty, 
without involving the presence of 
disease. A frequency, near or over 
a hundred beats in a minute, or less 
than fiftv, is not often met with in 
health, and may, therefore, safely 



TABLE OF SYMPTOMS AND DISEASES. 



be regarded as an indication of 
disease. Irregularity of the pulsap 
tions is very commonly met with 
in nervous or debilitated indivi- 
duals ; therefore its occurrence alone 
need not excite alarm or anxiety. 

However rapid, and strong, or 
sharp, may be tiie beats of the pulse, 
in an acute and serious disease, ii 
the number be steadily maintained, 
although for several days, it may 
be looked upon as a favourable sign. 
Slight fluctuations need not pro- 
duce much misgiving ; but a pulse 
now beating many times above a 
hundred in a minute, then a few 
hours afterwards several beats below 
that number, shows a feebleness or 



flagging of the nervous energies — 
an unfavourable indication of the 
restorative powers of the constitu- 
tion. 

Not further to anticipate the 
detail of symptoms given in the 
body of this work, we may here 
tabulate a few of the most promi- 
nent symptoms of disease ; so that 
by reference to a symptom the 
reader may, if at a loss, be guided 
to the disease in which the symp- 
tom occurs. By means of a com- 
parison of the symptoms mentioned 
imder each head in the body of the 
work with those placed in this 
table, the reader will be enabled to 
discover the disease in question. 



TABLE 

or 

SYMPTOMS AND DISEASES. 



Symptoms. 



Headache 



Diseases. 



Bilious disorders 

Indigestion. 

Hysteria. 

Debility. 

Bheumatism. 

Congestion of brain. 

Epilepsy. 

Apoplexy. 

Paralysis. 

Hydrocephalus. 

Disease of the ear. 

Fevers. 

Catarrh. 

Influenza. 

Measles. 

Small-pox. 

Scarlatina. 



6 TABLE OF SYMPTOMS AKD DISEASES. 


Symptoms. 


Diseases. 


Drowsiness and Giddiness . . 


Congestion of brain. 

Lethargy. 

Epilepsy. 

Paralysis. 

Bilious disorders. 

Indigestion. 

Fevers. 

Debility. 


Delirium or Incoherence • . . 


Fevers. 

Inflammation of brain. 

Erysipelas. 

Delirium tremens. 

Inflammation of internal ear. 

Small-pox. 


Sleeplessness 


Indigestion. 

Delirium tremens. 

Fevers. 

Hypochondriasis. 

Hysteria. 

Gout. 

Eheumatism. 

Asthma. 

Inflammation of lungs. 


Eyes, bloodshot and watery . . . 

— intolerant of light .... 

— squinting 

— smarting 


Catarrh. 

Fevers. 

Inflammation of brain. 

Measles. 

Ophthalmia. 

Strumous ophthalmia. 
Inflammation of brain. 
Fevers. 

Congestion of brain. 
Irritation of brain. 
Inflammation of brain. 
Apoplexy. 
Parsdysis. 

Ophthalmia. 



TABLE OF SYMPTOMS AOT) DISEASES. 



SympteiBB. 



IB, contracted pupil 1 
dilated pupil . j * 



- sallowness 

- yellow 

- prominent 

Et, noises in . 



Congestion of brain. 
Apoplexy. 
"Water on brain. 
Amaurosis. 

Bilious disorders. 
Fever. 

Jaundice. 

Disease of heart. 
Dropsy. 



Accumulation of wax in the ears. 

Fever. 

Brain, inflammation of. 

Hypochondriasis. 

Nervousness. 

Congestion of brain. 



7GTJE, furred .... 4 . 



— black 

— scarlet 

— flabby and notched at edges 

— sores on 

lOAT, sore 

— BwoUen externally . . . 



Disorders of stemach. 

Disorders of Hver. 

Indigestion. 

Eruptive fevers. 

Cat^h. 

Influenza. 

Fevers. 

Typhus fever. 
YeUow fever. 

Scarlet fever. 

Debility. 

Thrush. 
Small-pox. 



Quinsy. 

Belaxed throat. 
Scarlatina. 

Mumps. 

Goitre. 

Quinsy. 



TABLE OE SYMPTOMS AND DISEASES. 


Symptoms. 


Diseases. 


:ess ....... 


Croupy cough. 

Croup. 

Catarrh. 




Hysteria. 




Catarrh. 




Apoplexy. 
Congestion oi brain. 




Hypochondriasis. 
Palpitation. 
Angina pectoris. 
Acute inflammations. 




Fevers. 




Dropsy of chest. 


6XC1 V0GI . . .- . 


Fevers. 




Delirium. 




Tnfl'ammation of brain. 




Apoplexy. 
Paralysis. 
Epilepsy. 
Hysteria. 


bloated and purple . 


, Apoplexy. 
Inflammation of lungs. 
Diseases of heart. 




Epileptic fits. 


flushed .... 


Fever. 




Delirium tremens. 




Inflammation. 


pale 


Faintness. 




Hysterical fit. 

Paralysis. 

HsBmorrhage. 

Angina pectoris. 

Apoplexy in feeble constitution. 


foaming at 


Epilepsy. 


bleeding fix>m r . . . 


Scurvy. 
Purpura. 


clenched 


Tetanus: 



TABLE OF SYMPTOMS AND DISEASES. 9 


Symptmiis. MsMWCS. 


BATHiNOy painful or hurried . . 


Inflammation of lungs. 

Pleurisy. 

Angina. 

Consumption. 

Asthma. 

Dropsies. 

Hooping-cough. 

Child-crowing. 

Croup. 

Fevers. 


76H AKD EXPXCIOBATIOK, Uoody. 

• 

— — firothy, Ac 


Inflammation of lungs. 
Consumption. 

Influenza. 

Catarrh. 

Asthma. 

Bronchitis. 

Fevers. 

Croup. 

Measles. 


LPTTATIOK OF THE iiSABT . . . 


Indigestion. 
Nervousness. 
Hysteria. 
Disease of heart. 


rnWT . . r r . , , t , 


Fevers. 
Inflammation. 




TBTITEy loss of ..... . 

— depraved 


Fevers. 

Bilious disorder. 
Debility. 
Indigestion. 

Chlorosis. 

Pregnancy. 

Worms. 


:ccup 


Indigestion. 

Hysteria. 

Debility. 





10 TABLE OE SYMPTOMS AND DISEASES. 


Syniiitoins. 


Btseases. 


Nausea akd Yomitino .... 


Eevers. 

Womb, diseases of. 

Indigestion. 

Hysteria. 

Hernia. 

Colic. 

Inflammation. 

Diarrhoea. 

Cholera. 

Gravel. 

Eruptive fevers. 


Stomach^ pain in 


Indigestion. 

Spasms. 

Small-pox. 

Inflammation. 

Colic. 

Diarrhoea. 


ElATULENCB A2JD GBIPINa . . . 


Dyspepsia. 

Costiveness. 

Hysteria. 

Colic. 

Dysentery. 

Spasms. 


A.Bi)OMEN, diHtension of ... . 
— tenderness on pressure . 

• 


Dropsy. 

Flatulence. 

Constipation. 

Bowels, inflammation of. 

Liver, inflammation of. 

Kidneys, inflammation of. 

Womb, inflammation of. 

Bladder, inflammation of. 

Urine, retention of. 


Bowels, confined 


Bilious disorders. 

Gout. 

Colic. 

PUes. 

Inflammation of bowels. 

Hypochondriasis. 

Hysteria. 

Chlorosis. 



TABLE OF SYMPTOMS AND DISEASES. 11 


Symptoms. 


Blteases. 


Ueene, abundant and pale . . . 

— abundant and high-coloured. 

— high-coloured, with sedi- 

ment, and scanty . . . 

— bloody 


Hysteria. 
Nervousness. 

Diabetes. 

Dyspepsia. 

Bilious disorders. 

Jaundice. 

Fevers. 

Inflammations. 

Eheumatism. 

Gout. 

Scarlatina. 

Dropsies. 

Disorders of kidneys. 

Gravel, &c. 

Kidneys, inflammation of. 

Scarlatina. 

Dropsy. 


Skin, sweating 

— chilliness of 

— hot and dry 


Angina pectoris. 

Hectic fever. 

Debility. 

Consumption. 

Eheumatism. 

Eruptive fevers. 

Purpura. 

Fever. 

Catarrh. 

Debility. 

Fevers and inflammation. 


1 

Pulse, rapid, fall, and sharp . . 
— rapid and small .... 


Inflammations. 
Fevers. 
Eheumatism. 
Gout. 

Debility. 

Typhus. 

Collapse. 

Hysteria. 

Debility. 

Nervousness. 



12 TABLE OF SYMPTOMS Al^D DISEASES. 


Symptoms. 


Diseases. 


SfliVEitmG 


Catarrh. 
Influenza. 
Fevers. 
Inflammations. 


•> 
liiMBS; pains in . • . . * 

— cramps in ... . ... 

— loss of power in . . . .. 

— swelling of ..... . 

— twitching of .... * 


Influenza. 

Eheumatism. 

Gout. 

Fever. 

White leg. 

Testicle, inflammation of. 

Gravel. 

Diarrhoea. 

Cholera. 

Convuluons. 

Hysteria. 

Teething. 

Debility. 

Typhus. 

Apoplexy. 

Paralysis. 

Lead poisoning. 

Fits. 

Fainting. 

Catalepsy. 

Tet/anus. 

Dropsy. 
White leg. 
Bheumatism. 
Gout. 

Fever. 

Delirium tremens. 
Saint Vitus's dance. 
Hysteria. 





ALPHABETICAL ARRANGEMENT 



OF 



DISEASES. 



ABSCESS. 



ABSCESS. watiT, or gin and water, will some- 
Symptoms times disperse an abscess. If this 
Abscesses are of two kinds- ^^ "^^ occnr, a poultice of bread- 
acute and chronic. j^Pf 5- o'^^ meal-or folds of 

1. ^««<«.-Heat, redness, throb- ^* ^F'^J'' TT ""t \'a "^ 
bing pain, circumscribed spelling. '^^''S^ ^'*^ oU-silk-should be 

feverishness. As the matter or »«« *^S,, ' i- ii v 

forms, it comes towards the surface, ^^^F'^ applications may be 

wher^ the skin becoming thin «<"'t?"^ ^ t^« «»>8c^ bursts; 

the abscess is said to pokt. At ?!' ^. ^« "Ya ^T ^ ^^ 

this spot, if gentie pressure be '* P°^*» ^^^ ^"^^ "»* «ive way so 

made, flu^hiation, or the sensation that the abscess spreads, or if the 

of a fluid beneath the finger, wiU <^^^i^^^^^ T^^"^^ ^J^7f^' 

^ £ IX ^ a puncture must be made into it, at 

2. Chronic—The same symp- jte thinnest point by a diarp, clean 

4-r.^« «n ;« 4\.^ oo,.f« •fir.,.^, iv„/ 1, „o lancct, 80 as to let out the matter, 
toms as m tne acute lorm, but less x ii. /» i i. ^i. x 

;« „«^<.^*4^ ««;i oi^«r^^ ;^ ^>*^««^c.« ^^ tne scrofulous abscesses that 

in seventy, and slower in progress ; « . ,.,, , , 'x • i» 

the swelUng generally more dit ^<'™,f ""^^Ji \rf% ^* Jf ^t 

fused ; the fevir hectic. quently preferable tiiat they be Idl 

In either case, when matter, or ^ ^'^^> ^ ,*^« ,f" \ ^"^^ 

pus, is formed, or, as it is tech- generally smaUer than when they 

iically termed, when "suppuration are opened by a puncture, 

takes place," a shiyering fit often . After an abscess is open, it must 

occurs be left to discharge itself; pressure 

Causes should not be used in order to 

,*,... evacuate its contents. 

Inflammation ; local injuries ; rphe feverish symptoms attending 

scrofulous, or debihtated habit of acute abscess require mild saline 

"^y* medicines (see Prescriptions Nos. 1, 

Treatment. 2, or 3) and a light diet. After it 

1. Acute. — ^The constant appli- has burst, or been opened^ a ftiller 

cation of cloths dipped in cold diet should be allowed. 



14 



ACNE— AGUE. 



2. Chronic ahscesa may some- 
times be dispersed by the applica- 
tion of tincture of iodine over the 
surface. If this do not succeed, 
poultices, or wet lint and oil-silk, 
should be applied. Tonic medicines 
(see Prescriptions Nos. 30 and 31), 
and a full or stimulating diet, are 
required; including meat, wine, 
beer, &c. 



ACNE. Boty-drop ; Carbuncle Face ; 
Stone Poek; Whelk, 

Symptoms. 

There are two common forms of 
this disease ; the one more frequently 
seen in youth, the other after forty 
years of age. 

1. The former consists in an 
eruption of pimples on the face, 
forehead, shoulders, and chest. At 
first these are dark specks of the 
size of pin points, and hard ; they 
gradually enlarge and become more 
inflamed ; matter forms ; they 
burst ; a thin scab then forms, and 
falls off by the end of seven or eight 
days. 

2. In the latter form, that of more 
advanced life, the pimples are 
seen upon the nose, which they 
enlarge, and render of a fiery red 
colour. The duration of this erup- 
tion is often for years. 

Causes. 

The immediate are, derange- 
ment of the stomach and bowels ; 
indiscretion in diet; irritating 
cosmetics. The remote causes are, 
hereditary predisposition ; sanguine 
temperament ; age ; disorder of the 
female system ; irregular habits. 



Treatment. 

There is little to be done by 
local applications in this disease. 
The attention is to be directed to 
the removal of the disorders of the 
digestive or other organs to which 
it may be supposed referable. 

For local applicaUons, see Pre- 
scriptions Nos. 49, 50, 51, 86, 88, 
63. 

For internal medicines, see Pre- 
scriptions Nos. 8, 11, 14, 25, 35, 
40, 42, 69. 

In the first form of this disease 
the progress of the eruption may 
frequently be stayed by squeezing 
the pimples when they first appear. 
By pressure, the secretion of the 
pore of the skin will be forced out 
in the shape of a maggot or worm, 
for which this secretion has often 
been mistaken. 



AGUE. Intermittent Fever, 

Symptoms. 

Slight feverishness, thirst, lassi- 
tude, &c., occurring for an uncertain 
period. These are followed by the 
fully developed paroxysm, which 
consists of three stages — ^the cold, 
the hot, and the sweating. 

1. The cold stage begins with 
chilliness, paleness of countenance, 
feeling of debility, headache, pain 
in the back and limbs, roughness 
of the skin, known as "goose- 
skin,'* sickness, loss of appetite, 
smallness and weakness of pulse, 
cold shivering, with chattering of 
teeth. 

2. Hot stage. — ^Affcer a variable 
period, from half an hour to three 
or four hours, the coldness and 



r 



AGUE. 



15 



shivering «:e succeeded by heat 
and flushing of the countenance, a 
severe headache, a fiill, strong 
pulse, high-coloured scanty urine, 
intense thirst, &c. 

3. Sweating stage. — After from 
two to eight hours, perspiration 
breaks out upon the forehead and 
face, extending over the whoje body 
till it becomes profuse. The symp- 
toms then subside, and leave only 
a sense of esJiaustion. The patient 
is comparatively weU until another 
paroxysm occurs. 

The period at which this return 
takes place divides agues into 
several forms or types, viz.— 

Quotidian, the fever returning 
every twenty-four hours. 

Tertian, the fever returning every 
forty-eight hours. 

Quartan, the fever returning every 
seventy-two hours. 

The first is the commonest type. 
Irregularity, or intermingling of 
these types, is occasionally met 
with, in which the duration, cha- 
racter, and times of the several 
stages are modified and obscured. 

Either of these periodical types 
may also be modified or complicated 
by a predominantiy morbid condi- 
tion of particular organs, or by the 
condition of the whole constitution 
of the patient. These varieties 
can only be detected by an expe- 
rienced observer. 

The period between the paroxysms 
is termed the intermission. 

Distinctive characters.*— Ague is 
distinguished from remittent fever 
by the complete intermission be- 
tween the attacks, and by its dis- 
tinct cold and sweating stages. 



Hectic fever is distinguished 
from ague by its being attended 
with a permanentiy accelerated 
pulse, and by the clearness and 
flushing of the complexion; whereas 
in ague the skin is usually muddy 
or discoloured, and the countenance 
saUow. 

Consequences and terminations of 
ague. — These are often serious as re- 
gards the general health and vigour, 
which are not unfrequently seriously 
impaired. The degree of injury 
will depend upon the intensity and 
duration of the causes, the conti- 
nuance of the disease, and the 
treatment. 

One general consequence of ague 
is a tendency to congestion of 
various internal organs. The organ 
which is most conmionly found to 
suffer is the spleen, which, becom- 
ing enlarged, is popularly known 
as the ^^ Ague Cake.^^ This may 
be felt below the ribs on the lelt 
side. 

The effects of these internal con- 
gestions are inflammation of, and 
structural changes in, the several 
organs; dropsy, dysentery, diarr- 
hoea, &c. 

Ague has a special tendency to 
return. 

Causes. 

1. Exciting. -^ Local conditions 
of climate, marsh poison, marsh 
miasm, or malaria, arising from 
vegetable decomposition with mois- 
ture and a suitable degree of tem- 
perature. 

2. Remote or predisposing. — 
Whatever depresses the mental and 
physical powers. 



16 



ANASAKCA— ANGINA PECTORIS. 



Treatment. 

• 

1. During the paroxysm, — During 
the cold stage apply external 
warmth, Buch as hot blankets, 
vapour-bath, bags of hot salt, bran, 
&c. At the same time warm beve- 
rages are supplied. A muHtard 
emetic will often cut short the fit. 
These means will promote the 
sweating stage, and so accelerate 
the intermission. 

If bilious or stomachic derange- 
ment exist, a warm purgative 
draught (see Prescription No. 28) 
should be administered after the 
action of the emetic has subsided. 

2. The alleviation, however, of 
the symptoms during the paroxysm 
docs not cure the disease. This is 
to be done by means employed 
during the remtseian. Of these 
none is so important as removal to 
a pure a*r. This will greatly assist 
the operation of medicine. 

Two or three grains of sulphate 
of quinine in solution (see Pre- 
scription No. 34), taken every six 
hours for several days, will usually 
be found sufficient. It may be 
found requisite to persevere with its 
use for a few weeks. 

An occasional purge of castor 
oil, or senna and Epsom salts, is to 
be given to obviate costiveness. 



ANASARCA. (See Dropsy.) 



ANGINA PECTORIS. Suffocative 
Breatt^Pang ; Spasms of the Heart. 

Symptoms. 

Sudden, agonizing pain, darting 



from the left side of liie chest up 
the left shoulder, and down the 
arm, most frequently to the fingers' 
ends, but often not beyond the 
middle of the arm, or dlbow. It 
is accompanied with intense palpita- 
tion of the heart, anxiety, difficulty 
of breathing, faintness, and a feel- 
ing of approaching dissolution. 

The attack may occur either 
while making some unusual mental 
or bodily exertion, or taking exer- 
cise — as walking, riding, &c. — ^but 
it as frequently comes on during 
sleep, soon after midnight. 

The duration of the attack varies 
from a few minutes to one or more 
hours. 

Palpitation of the heart, or irre- 
gularity of the pulse, is often 
connected with this. 

Distinctive symptoms. — The at- 
tack might be mistaken for one of 
asthma ; but the cough, wheezing, 
&c., of the latter, are absent from 
the former affection. 

Causes. 

1. Predisposing. — It occurs most 
frequently in men beyond fifty 
years of age, with a gouty or rheu- 
matic condition of body or indolent 
and sedentary habits. Anxiety, and 
depressing passions. 

2. Exciting. — Over exertion, 
sudden change of posture, change 
of temperature. 

Treatment. 

Instant relief is required during 
the paroxysm : the first stimulant 
that comes to hand may be admi- 
nistered. A dose of strong spirits 
and water ; or, what is preferable, 
a teaspoonftil of sal volatile, or ether 



APHO]^IA— APHTHA— APOPLEXY. 



17 



in water, and repeated at intervals 
if the fainting continue. Friction 
and mustard plasters applied to the 
chest, soles of the feet, and calves 
of the legs. The horizontal posture 
if there be faintness. 

Forty, fifty, or sixty drops of 
laudanum may also be given i£ the 
pain be very severe. 

When this affection has once 
occurred, it would be well that the 
patient should always be provided 
with medicine for a paroxysm ; e, g. 

Sulphuric Ether j 

Spirits of Ammonia ; 

Sal Volatile ; of each half an ounce. 

Tincture of Opium 2 drachms. 

Of which a teaspoonfiil should be 
taken in water, and repeated at 
the end of an hour if relief be 
not experienced. 

The extent of the dose, and its 
repetition, must depend upon the 
intensity of the pain. 

In the intervals the treatment 
consists in the avoidance of exciting 
causes, the correction of disorders 
of the digestive organs, and the 
administration of mineral tonics ; 
e, g. sulphate of zinc; carbonate 
of iron ; tincture of muriate of 
iron, or steel wine. (See also 
Prescriptions ]N'os. 8, 11, 14, 30, 
32, 37, 39, 40, 41, 46.) 



APHONIA. Lo88 of Voice. 

Symptoms. 

Without loss of power in the 
organs of speech, the articulation 
becomes so feeble and difficult as 
^ to be inaudible, or only in a whisper. 
Sometimes with, sometimes without 
pain, about the organs of voice. 



Causes. 

Common cold, or catarrh, inflam- 
mation of the larynx, long-continued 
talking, paralysis, hysteria. 

Treatment. 

When from catarrh, inhalation 
of the vapour of ammonia; e, g, 
a teaspoonful of spirits of sal vola- 
tile in a pint of boiling water. 
The vapour being breathed, warm 
moist cloths, or bran poultices, 
may be applied round the throat. 
At the same time other remedies 
for catarrh are employed. 

For treatment of inflammation 
of larynx — see Larynx. 

When it proceeds from paralytic 
debility, or from hysteria, it must 
be treated as for those affections. 



APHTHJE. {^eeThrvsh) 



'APOPLEXY. 

Symptoms. 

1. Premonitory, — Drowsiness, 
disturbed sleep, heavy breathing, 
headache, fulness of the veins of 
head and face, bleeding from the 
nose, unusual irritability of temper, 
giddiness, sense of weight and 
fulness in the head, loss of recol- 
lection, incoherent talking, indis- 
tinct articulation, impairment of 
vision, numbness and tingling of 
the extremities, slight or partial 
paralytic attacks. 

2. Of the attach — There are three 
principal forms of apoplexy : — 

\8t form, — The patient suddenly 
falls deprived of sense or motion, 



18 



APOPLEXY. 



as if in a deep sleep ; the face is 
flushed, breathing stertorous or 
snoring, pulse full and slow. In 
some cases convulsions are seen ; 
in others, contractions of the mus- 
cles of one side, with relaxation of 
those of the other. 

This condition may continue 
from a few minutes to several 
days. Eecovery may be complete, 
or paralysis may be left behind. 

2nd form. — Sudden pain in the 
head, sickness and faintness, vomit- 
ing, paleness of face, coldness of 
surface, feebleness of pulse. Some- 
times slight convulsions. 

The patient, in some cases, does 
not fall, but the attack of pain in 
the head is accompanied with tran- 
sient loss of memory. In either 
case the first effects of the attack 
may pass off, and the patient will 
complain only of headache. After 
an interval, varying from a few 
minutes to several days, the brain 
again becomes oppressed; the pa- 
tient sinks into a state of coma, 
from which he never raUies. Pa- 
ralysis may occur, but in the 
greater number of cases is absent. 

Srd form. — The patient is sud- 
denly deprived of speech, and of 
the power of one side of the body, 
without stupor; or if a slight 
degree of stupor occur with the 
first attack it soon disappears. He 
is sensible of his situation, and 
endeavours to express his feelings 
by signs. 

There is great variation in the 
farther progress of this form. In 
some it gradually passes into more 
complete and fatal apoplexy; in 
others, recovery is speedy and 
entire ; or it maybe gradual, during 



several weeks or months ; or para- 
lysis, more or less in extent, may 
endure for life, ending in apoplexy 
or exhaustion. 

The most marked forms of 
apoplexy are thus fully described ; 
but it must not be supposed that it 
is intended hereby that all cases 
may be clearly separated one from 
another, in the manner described. 
The several forms may run into one 
another. ^Nevertheless, it is prac- 
tically useful to recognise these 
varieties. 

Distinctive symptonu. — Apoplexy 
may be mistaken for a state of dead- 
drunkenness, for poisoning by nar- 
cotics, for asphyxia or suspended 
animation by hanging, or inhalation 
of noxious gases, for concussion of 
the brain, and for the deep sleep 
which follows epileptic convul- 
sions. 

The state of apoplexy differs but 
little essentially from either of 
these conditions, either of which 
may, indeed, pass into apoplexy. 
The history of the patient, if any 
can be obtained, will help to the 
formation of a correct opinion. 
The presence of paralysis, as ascer- 
tained by the movement and attitude 
of the patient, pinching, tickling 
the soles of the feet, &c., will 
decide whether the case is one of 
apoplexy. This will be further 
confirmed if stertor, or deep snoring, 
be present. 

If the case be one of drunken- 
ness, there will usually be some 
smell of the liquor either in the 
vomited matters, or in the breath. 

In concussion of the brain the 
appearance is that of more extreme 
depression and nervous shock. 



APOPLEXY. 



19 



Causes. 

1. Predisposing. — Neither age, 
sex, temperament, nor habit of 
body, can be said to be specially 
prone to, or exempt from apoplexy. 

Habitual indulgence of the appe- 
tites, and gratification of the pas- 
sions ; luxurious habits ; seden- 
tary and laborious employments; 
insufficient diet; intemperate and 
luxurious living; the suppression 
of accustomed discharges; sudden 
changes, or extremes' of tempera- 
ture ; the habit of sleeping after a 
full meal ; lying too long in bed ; 
diseases of the heart, liver, and 
kidneys : — aU these give a predis- 
position to apoplexy. 

2. The exciting causes are — 
sudden mental emotion ; excesses in 
diet ; violent muscular efforts ; the 
sun*8 rays {cotip de soUil) ; too hot 
baths ; extreme cold ; sudden sup- 
pression of gout, or rheumatism; 
in short, anything that may inor- 
dinately increase the heart's action, 
and augment the force of circula- 
tion in the brain of a person pre- 
disposed to the disease; or, that 
may interrupt the flow of blood 
from the brain and produce conges- 
tion or over-fulness of its vessels. 

Treatment. 

From the description above 
given of the various forms which 
apoplexy may present, and from the 
fact that it may occur in very oppo- 
site conditions and habits of body, 
it is evident that one uniform rule 
cannot be given for its treatment,— 
and that the indiscriminate em- 
ployment of blood-letting must 
be attended with very injurious 
consequences. 



A non-professionul person had 
much better never attempt blood- 
letting from the arm. 

The patient should be placed in 
a reclimng or sitting posture, the 
head and shoulders slightly raised. 
Cold water should be poured over 
the head. Mustard plasters should 
be applied to the soles of the feet 
and calves of the legs. If the 
patient be of a full habit, a dozen 
leeches may be applied behind the 
ears and on the temples. One drop 
of croton oil should be placed on 
the tongue and allowed to bo swal- 
lowed, and repeated every two or 
three hours, until the bowels are 
freely purged. If this be not at 
hand, a clyster, composed of a pint 
of warm gruel, with two ounces of 
castor oil — or of warm soap and 
water, and an ounce of spirits of 
turpentine — should bo speedily 
thrown up. 

In persons of pale face, and spare 
habit, a small quantity of stimu- 
lant, such as wine or brandy, or a 
teaspoonful of sal volatile in water, 
maybe given every twenty minutes 
or half an hour. 

The feebleness or strength of the 
pulse, together with the general 
symptoms above mentioned, must 
determine the extent to which the 
purgation, or stimulation, is to be 
carried. A strong, fuU, and slow 
pulse permits leeching, purging, 
&c. A feeble, intermittent, or 
irregular pulse indicates that sti- 
mulants are required. 

Equally important, or more so, 
with knowing how to treat an 
attack of apoplexy, is to know how 
to ward it off. For this purpose 
refer to the predisposing ot cxr^^^x^V 



20 



APOPLEXY- ASTHMA. 



caiises, and, as for as may be, avoid 
these. If threatening of apoplexy 
be felt, shun excessive indulgence 
of the appetites, passions, and emo- 
tions of all kinds. Live upon the 
plainest nutritious food. Use mo- 
derate exercise. Abstain from im- 
moderate bodily or mental efforts. 
Endeavour to practise a regular 
action of the bowels and an uniform 
warmth of the surface of the body. 

Treatment of the results of an 
apoplectic attack, — ^After some hours 
have elapsed, if the means above 
indicated have been attended with 
success, consciousness will have 
gradually returned. The power of 
swallowing and of speaking will 
have been restored. The greatest 
care is required to avoid exciting 
the circulation. 

In the full, or plethoric patient, 
the action of purgatives may be 
slightly kept up for several days. 
A blister plaster may be applied on 
the nape of the neck. The diet must 
be light, consisting of weak broths, 
arrow-root, sago, &c. 

In the patient of feeble and spare 
habit, purgatives are to be with- 
held, and small quantities of am- 
monia, or ether, given occasionally 
(or see Prescription l^o. 52 or 53). 

In either case there is a fear of 
inflammatory action being set up 
in the brain after the attack. This 
will probably commence in from 
eight-and-forty hours, to four or 
five days. It will be indicated by 
increased heat of the head and 
surface of the body, headache, dis- 
turbed sleep, starting of the muscles 
of the face, or limbs, increased fre- 
quency of pulse, sickness, thirst, &c. 

It is to be combated by the 



application, to the head, of cloths 
wetted with cold water, and the 
administration of calomel in doses 
of two or three grains every six or 
eight hours. 

Eor other remote consequences of 
apoplexy, see Pa/ralym, 



ASTHMA. 

Symptoms. 

Difficulty of breathing, occurring 
in paroxysms, most frequently in 
the evening or about midnight, 
attended with a wheezing noise, 
great anxiety, and spasmodic impe- 
diment to the free admission of air 
into the lungs. 

The countenance, at first pale, 
becomes flushed; the eyes promi- 
nent; the pulse weak, irregular, and 
frequent. There is often a feeling 
of impending suffocation. 

The attack may pass off entirely 
after some hours ; or the difficully 
of breathing may continue in a less 
degree for several days, attended 
with a distressing dry cough. 

The paroxysm is prone to 
return, at uncertain intervals. 
Each paroxysm generally subsides 
with cough and expectoration of 
tough mucus ; the cough becom- 
ing freer as the paroxysm subsides. 

Distinctive symptoms, — Spasmo- 
dic affections of the larynx, acute 
bronchitis, angina pectoris, and 
dropsy of the chest, may give rise 
to symptoms which might be mis- 
taken for those of asthma, more 
especially in those attacks which 
have a spasmodic character. 



ASTHMA. 



21 



Spasmodic affections of the larynx 
are attended with a peculiarly 
harsh noise, very different from 
the wheezing of asthma. The 
dread of suffocation is also more 
urgent than in asthma. 

In acute bronchitis there is inflam- 
matory fever, with ftiUer pulse ; 
expectoration from the commence- 
ment of the attack ; and the diffi- 
culty of breathing is less urgent 
and more constant. 

In angina pectoris the character 
of the pain, and its seat in the 
region of the heart, with the 
general circumstances of the attack, 
distinguish it from asthma. 

Dropsy of the chest may gene- 
rally be distinguished by its being 
the consequence of long-standing 
disease, and by its being accom- 
panied by dropsy of other parts. 

Causes. 

The predisposing causes are, mal- 
formation of the chest; long-con- 
tinued disease of the heart or lungs ; 
gout, dyspepsia, or whatever lowers 
the nervous energies. 

The exciting are, violent mental 
emotions ; sudden exposure to cold ; 
over-exertion of the organ of voice ; 
the inhalation of irritating or dusty 
particles, as in various arts. 

Treatment. 

The indications of treatment are, 
1, to shorten or relieve the fit; 2, 
to prevent its return. 

1. Jhiring the paroxysm, — Apply 
warm and stimulating substances 
to the sur&ce of the chest ; e. g. 
mustard plasters, or turpentine 
stupes, «. e, flannels wrung out of 
boiling water, and then sprinkled 



over with spirits of turpentine. 
At the same time the feet should 
be placed in hot water with mus- 
tard. 

An emetic of ipecacuan should be 
given ; e. g, from 20 to 30 grains oi 
the powder in warm water, and 
vomiting promoted by draughts of 
warm water. When its action has 
subsided, the following mixture 
sliould be taken at regular intervals 
of three or four hours : — 

Tincture of Opium 1 dr. 

Sulphuric Ether 2 drs. 

Spirits of Camphor ^ dr. 

Tincture of Asafoetida ... 2 dra. 
Water 6 oz. 

Two tablespoonfuls for a dose. 

Or the pills (see Prescription No. 54). 
One to be taken every three hours. 
Or, in cases where the catarrhal 
symptoms are prominent, and where, 
with severe spasm, there is consider- 
able expectoration of phlegm (see 
Prescription No. 55). 

The age, strength, &c. of the 
patient must be particularly borne 
in mind in the selection of reme- 
dies for asthma. In the aged, or 
feeble, ammonia, ether, &c. should 
be administered. Although in the 
yoimger and fuller-habited patients 
stimidants and antispasmodics are 
to be given, they should be used 
more sparingly. 

For other remedies of these 
classes from which to select accord- 
ing to the indications of each case, 
see List of Medicines, their Uses, ^c. 

Much benefit is often derived 
from inhaling the vapours of cam- 
phor, ether, balsam of tolu, with 
the vapour of water, during the 
paroxysm. 



22 



ATKOPHY— BALDNESS. 



The smoking of Stramonium 
(thorn-apple) either alone, or with 
tobacco, or of tobacco itself, often 
affords great relief. In slight attacks 
this will often cut them short. 

2. Treatment during the interval, 
— The indications after the parox- 
ysm has subsided, are to remove or 
control those morbid states which 
have given a predisposition, and to 
avoid all exciting causes. 

The condition of the digestive 
organs demands close attention, to 
obviate costiveness, flatulency, &c. 

The action of sudden cold upon 
the respiratory surfaces should be 
guarded against by the use of respi- 
rators. 

Expectorant medicines ( see 
Table of Medicines) should be 
taken to relieve the mucous mem- 
brane of the air-passages. For the 
same purpose some irritating lini- 
ment, or a blistering plaster, should 
be laid on the chest. 

Tonic medicines are of great 
service in diminishing the liability 
to returns of the attack. 

Strict attention to diet and regi- 
men is required. Cold bathing, or 
sponging, and actively rubbing the 
surface of the body. Regular 
exercise in a climate that shall suit 
the patient* s susceptibility to atmos- 
pheric changes. 



ATROPHY. JTaiting. 

Symptoms. 

Rapid or gradual reduction of the 
size of the whole body, or of parts 
thereof, with loss of colour, and 
other physical characteristics. 



Causes. 

Deflcient nutrition ; paralysis ; 
insuficient or unwholesome food; 
a perversion of the processes of 
growth, marked by a deposition of 
fat instead of the healthy tissues. 

Treatment. 

Close observation often shows 
that serious disorders of some prin- 
cipal organ exists ; it is therefore 
requisite to direct our treatment 
to these. It also often occurs, more 
particularly so in children, that 
wasting takes place without de- 
rangement of any other process 
than that of nulxition. In these 
cases a teaspoonfiil of cod liver 
oil, two or three times a day, will 
often be followed by very decided 
and permanent beneflt. 



BALDNESS. Alopecia, 

Causes. 

Age; debility after fever and 
other illnesses; diseases of the 
skin; mercurial affection ; syphilis; 
late hours, and other excesses. 

Treatment. 

Stimulate circulation in scalp by 
washing- with cold water, and 
friction with rough towel, or brush- 
ing with hard hair-brush. Apply 
either of the following stimu- 
lants : — 

Powdered Cantharides ... 1 dr. 
Purified Lard, or Scented 

Pomatum 1^ oz. 

To be rubbed on twice a day. 
Or, the following liniment : — 



BARBIERS BERIBERI BILIARY DERANGEMENTS. 23 


Oil of Almonds ; 

Solution of Ammonia, of each 1 oz. 

Spirits of Rosemary ; 

Honey Water, of each 3 oz. 

Or, 

Tincture of Cantharidei ... 1 oz. 
Spirit of Rosemary 6 oz. 

Mix for a lotion. 

Periodically shaving the head is 
often serviceable. 

Tonic medicines and a gene- 
rous diet will be advisable if the 
baldness be traceable to a feeble 
state of health. 


of the lower extremities, general 
dropsy. The disease often comes 
on suddenly. Its progress is slow 
and protracted. 

Causes. 

This disease is peculiar to India. 
It prevails most in Ceylon, the 
Malabar coast, and Madras. 

The more immediate causes are, 
impure and moist air; insufficient 
food ; prolonged excessive exertions, 
in maknous atmosphere. 

Treatment. 

Aperients, diuretics, tonics, and 
stimulants, combined with full and 
nutritious diet. 

• 


BABBIEBS. 

Symptoms. 

Trembling of the limbs ; a prick- 
ing tingling pain and numbness of 
the lower extremities, followed by 
paralysis, both of sensation and 
movement of the extremities; in- 
articulation ; exhaustion ; sinking 
of the vital powers. 

Causes. 

This is a form of paralysis 
peculiar to Ceylon and India. Its 
remote causes are exposure to cold 
and damp ; intoxication ; suddenly 
suppressed perspiration; long fast- 
ing ; and other depressing influences. 

Treatment. 

Change of climate ; tonics, &c. 


BILIART DERANGEMENTS. 

Bilious Disorders; Bilious Attacks; 
Siek Headache ; Bowel Complaint ; 
Bilious Diarrhoea; Functional Dc 
rangements of the Liver, (See also 
Jaundice and Diarrhcea) 

Symptoms. 

1. Those of diminished secretion of 
hile. — Irregular or costive state of 
the bowels, the evacuations being 
insufficiently coloured with bile; 
flatulency; and various dyspeptic 
symptoms ; fiirred tongue ; nausea ; 
pain imder right shoulder-blade; 
headache, &c. ; dark specks float- 
ing before the eyes; sallow or muddy 
complexion; lowness of spirits; 
piles. 

2. Of excessive secretion, — Copious 
fluid evacuations, highly coloured 
with bile, often preceded by griping 
and by nausea, sometimes attended 
with vomiting ; pulse accelerated. 1^ 


BERTBERI. 

Symptoms. 

Oppressed breathing, paralytic 
weakness, numbness and stiffness 



24 



BLADDER, INFLAMMATION OF. 



Causes. 

Residence in liot climates; ex- 
posure to extremes or vicissitudes 
of weather; the use of full rich 
diet; spirituous and fermented li- 
quors in excess ; misuse of mercu- 
rial medicines; neglect of the 
intestinal evacuations; neglect of the 
cutaneous functions ; indolence and 
sedentary occupations ; mental emo- 
tions ; depressing passions ; disease 
of other organs, as long-continued 
dyspepsia, fiarrhoea, or dysentery. 

Treatment. 

In the first of the two forms 
above named, a moderate dose of a 
mercurial medicine, e. g, five grains 
of blue pill, followed by a warm 
aperient (see Prescription No. 28) 
will probably suffice to relieve the 
present symptoms. The treatment 
subsequently will consist in such 
diet, regimen, &c. as shall prevent 
the operation of the causes. 

Extract or decoction of Taraxacum, 
or Dandelion, which is a valuable 
remedy for disorders of the liver. 

Infants and yoimg children are 
liable to indisposition from dimi- 
nished secretion of bile. The 
stomach becomes disordered, sick- 
ness occurs, the bowels sluggish 
or irregular, and the evacuations 
pale or white. The child is fretful 
and weak. Sometimes profuse ac- 
tion of the bowels attends this con- 
dition of the liver. 

Two or three grains of grey 
powder, or mercury with chalk, 
followed, after a few hours, by rhu- 
barb or castor oil, will generally 
suffice to remedy this disorder (or 
see Prescriptions Nos. 16, 17). 

It may, however, be requisite to 



repeat the grey powder every 
second or third night for a few 
turns. It is not advisable to con- 
tinue the purgative after each dose. 

The diet at the same time should 
be nutritious, but plain, e, g. beef- 
tea, or for elder children meat, 
with light farinaceous puddings, 
milk, &c. 

For the treatment of the second 
sort of biliary disorder, see JHar- 

It may be well here to warn 
our readers against the common 
error of attributing all disorder of 
the bowels, and many other general 
ailments, to derangement of the 
liver ; as well as against the conse- 
quent too frequent use of mercurial 
purgatives, which often lays the 
foundation for serious disease. 



BLADDER, INFLAMMATION OF. 

Symptonts. 

1. Acute. — ^Burning pain and 
tenderness at the lower part of the 
stomach and body, in the loins and 
down the thighs ; frequent occasion 
to void urine, which is passed with 
difficulty and great pain, in small 
quantities; confined bowels ; rest- 
lessness; hot skin; rapid pulse; 
fever. The urine high-coloured, 
and thick with mucus. 

2. Chronic, — The above symp- 
toms continuing in slighter decrees, 
and with less severity. The urine 
becomes thicker, until it is suffi- 
ciently viscid to adhere to the sides 
of the utensil, and exhales a 
strongly ammoniacal odour. 

Diatinguiahed frx)m spasmodic at- 



BLEBS— BLEEDING. 



25 



tack of gravel by the presence of 
fever in inflammation^ and the more 
sudden character of the seizure 
in paroxysms of graveL 

Causes. 

Injuries from bruises ; violent ex- 
ertion ; exposure to cold ; prolonged 
retention of urine ; diseases of the 
urinary passage ; gout ; suppressed 
discharges and eruptions. 

Treatment. 

1. Of dtctde inflammation. — Leech- 
ing and warm fomentations to the 
lower part of the abdomen; hot 
hip-ba^s ; calomel and opium (see 
Prescriptions Nos. 18 and 19); 
alkaline saline aperients (see Pre- 
scription No. 56) ; warm clysters ; 
warm unirritating beverages. Diet 
Ught. 

2. For chronic inflammation of 
the bladder, — The mixture (Pre- 
scription No. 66) twice or three 
times a day. Dover's powder at 
bed-time to allay pain. Tonic 
medicines (see Prescriptions Nos. 
32, 37, 39, 41). If the disease 
have continued for a long time, 
the urine becomes thick, ropy, and 
has an ammoniacal odour. In this 
state the decoctions of Buchu, or 
TJva-ursi, or Pareira brava, are 
serviceable (see Li^t of Medicines) ; 
change of air, sea-bathing, &c., 
with a nutritious unstimulating 
diet. 



BLEBS. Blains, 

Symptoms. 

An eruption of large vesicles, or 
bladders, on the skin, containing 



either a watery, or a matter-like 
fluid. Being very thin, these vesi- 
cles break, leaving numerous tender 
raw surfaces, which become covered 
with yellowish, or brownish scabs, 
or form ulcers. 

Causes. 

Disorders of the digestive organs, 
general constitutional debility. 

Treatment. 

LoealUf. — B^gs dipped in cold 
water; starch powder; magnesia; 
spermaceti or zinc ointment. The 
vesicles should be punctured, and 
the fluid let out; the skin of the 
vesicle gently pressed down on the 
surface beneath. This will prevent 
excoriation from the discharge of 
the acrid fluid. 

Treat the constitutional disorder 
with its appropriate means. 



BLEEDING FROM THE NOSE. 
Treatment. 

Cold water to the face and head^ 
If the bleeding be very proftise. 
and not checked by the application 
of cold, and if it occur in a strong 
person of full habit, a few doses of 
ipecacuanha powder, half a grain 
each, at intervals of a quarter of 
an hour, will generally check the 
flow of blood. 

If it occur in a person of debili- 
tated or feeble frame, and is not 
checked by cold applications, give 
from ten to twenty drops of 
muriated tincture of steel, in a 
wine-glass of water, every hour, 
for tlu*ee or four doses, unless it 
have checked the blee^g sooner. 



26 



BLEEDIKG— BLmDKESS. 



In patients of this clasS; a glass of 
port wine will often stop the 
discharge. 

Tonics {e, g. Prescriptions Nos. 
37, 39, 40, 46) should be taken 
afterwards by the latter class of 
patients ; purgatives, and low diet, 
by the former. 



BLEEDING FBOM WOUNDED 

ABTEKCES. (See Section on Ac- 
cidents^ 



BLEEDING FROM VEINS. (See 

Ditto,) 



BLEEDING FROM UTERUS. (See 

Menstruation and Hamorrhage^ under 
the head of Midwifery,) 



BLEEDING FROM URINARY 
ORGANS. 

Symptoms. 

Yoiding of urine containing 
blood, either liquid and diffused 
in the fluid, or thick and semi- 
fluid, or floating therein in the 
form of small clots, varying in 
colour from light brown to black. 
Shivering, pain in the loins or 
region of the bladder, lassitude, 
&c. If the blood be equally 
diffused in the urine, and contain 
small worm-like shreds, its source 
is probably the kidneys. If the 
blood come away towards the end 



of the urinary discharge, the first 
portion having come away clear, 
the bladder may be regarded as the 
source of the haemorrhage. If the 
blood pass drop by drop without the 
urine, it comes from the urethra, 
the passage in front of the bladder. 

Causes. 

External injuries, as blows on the 
loins ; falls ; prolonged violent horse 
exercise; gravel in the kidneys; 
inflammation or congestion of the 
kidneys, as in ague, typhus, and 
other fevers ; congestions produced 
by vijolent poisons, as cantharides ; 
debility of the bladder. 

Treatment. 

1. If the bleeding proceed from 
inflammation or congestion of 
the kidneys, resulting either from 
disease or violence, leeches should 
be applied to the loins, hot baths, 
opiates (see Prescriptions Nos. 18 
or 20) ; and purgatives (Prescrip- 
tion No. 3). If the bleeding be 
believed to proceed from gravel in 
the kidneys, the same treatment, 
with the addition of alkalies (see 
Prescriptions Nos. 27, 28), will be 
serviceable. If from debility, 
mineral acids, tincture of steel, or 
turpentine, may bo given (see 
Prescriptions Nos. 10, 40, 41, 
42, 45). 



BLINDNESS. Jmaurosis ; Gutta 

Serena ; Suffusion ; Drop Serene qf 
Milton, 

Symptoms. 

In ascertaining these, it is neces- 
sary that each eye be examined 



BLESTDNESS— BLOOD, VOMITING AND PURGING OF. 27 



separately, and that whilst one is 
being examined the other should 
be carefully excluded from the 
light. 

The pupil is dilated, giving a 
staring look; the eye-ball either os- 
cillates, or has unusual fixity and 
prominence. The action of the 
pupil, when tried by alight brought 
to bear upon it, is sluggish, or 
unequal, so it will have an irregular 
form . The irregularity in the shape 
of the pupil is most frequently 
seen towards the inner and upper 
side of the eye. 

Impairment of vision; black 
specks before the sight ; flashes of 
light; pain in the forehead and 
eyebrows. The failure of sight 
may, for some time, be partial, so 
that only portions of objects are 
seen. It may, at first, be noticed 
only at certain times of the day, or 
in the evening. These varieties 
are known as night-blindness, or 
day-blindness. 

As the disease progresses, the 
impairment of vision becomes con- 
stant, and total blindness ensues. 

The distinguishing symptoms are 
those that separate amaurosis from 
cataract, and other diseases of the 
fluids of the eye. 

In cataract the dimness of vision 
is slower in its course, and has 
more the character of a mist, or 
veil, than has that of amaurosis. 

In amaurosis depending upon 
insensibility of the retina, the 
patient sees best at noon-day; the 
reverse takes place in cataract, 
which consists of opaqueness of 
the structures placed before the 
retina. 

The fact of the existence of 



amaurosis, should be left to the 
determination of a medical man. 

Causes. 

Disease, or disorder of the brain, 
optic nerve^ or retina. These may 
be permanent, depending upon 
change in the structure of the 
parts ; or it may be connected with 
a merely temporary morbid condi- 
tion ; e, g, congestion, or poisonous 
substances circulating in the blood. 

Blows (X other injuries of the 
globe of the eye, protracted over- 
use of the organ with a strong 
light, upon minute objects, or 
during the hours that should be 
given to sleep, are among the 
exciting causes. 

Treatment. 

Attention to those conditions 
which may have given rise to it. 
If believed to be of a temporary 
character, active purgatives must 
be given, combined with mustard 
cataplasms to the nape of the neck, 
hot mustard baths to the feet and 
legs, &c. Where the affection 
comes on suddenly, if medical advice 
cannot be speedily obtained, these 
means should be employed without 
loss of time, pending the arrival of 
the medical attendant. 



BLOOD, VOMITING AND PURG- 
ING* Melena; Black Malady, 

Symptoms. 

Vomiting of, — Sickness, and vo- 
miting of dark coloured or black 
blood, sometimes pure, and some- 
times mixed with a watery or 



\ 



28 



BLOOD, VOMITING AND PURGING OF. 



ropy fluid, or other contents of 
the stomach. The vomiting of 
blood is usually preceded by 
nausea, and a feeling of oppression 
or tightness, or heat, at the pit of 
the stomach. Sometimes it is 
attended by faintness. There is 
no cough, and the blood differs 
from the florid frothy blood of 
expectoration; the tongue furred; 
the pulse quickened. 

Purging of. — Most frequently 
when blood is vomited, it is also 
voided by the bowels in the form 
of dark, thick, or pitchy fluid. 
The discharge of blood is fre- 
quently preceded by severe griping 
pain in the intestines, at a variable 
time before. 

Distinctive symptoms, — Blood is 
frequently passed at stool of a florid 
red colour, proceeding from piles ; 
this is to be distinguished from that 
which is poured out in the course 
of the intestines higher up, and 
which is of a black colour. The 
existence of piles is to be known 
by their own symptoms. (See 
Piles). 

Sometimes, when bile is thick, 
and of a dark colour, it discolours 
the motions, and might be mis- 
taken for altered blood, but the 
difference will be detected by close 
examination. 

Causes. 

Obstruction of the circulation 
through the liver, or other organs in 
the abdomen ; an inflammatory con- 
dition of the stomach ; suppression 
of natural discharges, especially in 
females ; blows, or other injuries of 
the abdomen ; intemperance ; men- 
tal emotions ; fevers ; scurvy. 



Treatntent. 

When the bleeding does not 
originate in a blow, or other injury, 
purgatives should be freely admi- 
nistered, in order to relieve 
the fulness of the organs, upon 
which the haemorrhage may de- 
pend. 

rive grains of calomel should 
be given, and followed every two 
or three hours by senna draughts 
(see Prescription No. 26). At the 
same time, clysters of senna mix- 
ture will increase the action of the 
bowels, and remove the blood that 
may have been effused. 

If the bleeding continue, it will 
be in a slighter degree, and may 
then be treated with astringents, 
as dilute sulphuric acid with Epsom 
salts, or acetate of lead (see Pre- 
scription No. 21). 

The diet should be simple and 
nutritious, and taken cold. Cold 
fluids will assist to check the hae- 
morrhage. 

If the bleeding proceed from 
the bowels alone, aperients should 
also be given, but of a milder 
character (see Prescriptions Nos. 
13, 28, 39). 

If the bleeding continue, the 
astringents (see Prescriptions Nos. 
10, 21, 32, 37, 40, 41, 45, and 
46,) may any of them be used. 

If the loss of blood have caused 
debility, wine may be required. 
Strict rest, and quiet both of body 
and mind, should be observed. 

The afrer-treatment should be 
directed to the prevention or re- 
moval of those conditions which 
cause the discharge. 

The proper remedies for the sup- 
pression of periodical discharges 



BLOOD, EXPECTORATION OF. 



29 



must be employed (see Menstrua- 
tion ^ suppressed). 

If there be reason to believe the 
discharge to have been caused by 
disorder oi congestion of the liver, 
a mild mercurial and aperient 
should be taken frequently. 



BLOOD, EXPECTORATION OP. 

spitting of Blood; Coughing of 
Blood ; Hamoptytis ; Pulmonary 
HdBmorrhage. 

Symptoms. 

A short, dry cough, attended 
with sensation of tickling in the 
throat, more or less of shortness of 
breath, pain or oppression at the 
chest; chilliness, flushing; blood 
hawked or coughed up, either in 
considerable quantity, or in the 
expectorated mucus, which it 
streaks, or entirely discolours. If 
in a considerable quantity, a sense 
of suffocation may be experienced, 
or vomiting may be excited. The 
appearance of blood in this manner 
excites alarm, and produces accele- 
ration of the pulse. The colour of 
the blood is generally florid ; or, 
from admixture with air, it may be 
frt)thy. 

These symptoms may recur. 
The intervals are imcertain. Some- 
times the first attack is so profuse 
as to prove fetal. 

Causes. 

Consumptive disease in the 
lungs ; inflammation of the lungs ; 
deformities of the chest; disease of 
the heart; certain trades ; external 
injury to the bones of the chest ; 



over-exertion in lifting weights, &c.; 
tight lacing ; suppression of accus- 
tomed discharges; violent mental 
emotions ; sudden surprise ; severe 
fits of coughing or sneezing. 

Distinctive symptoms, — It may 
be difficult to say with certainty 
whether blood have come from, the 
lungs, stomach, or the nose. In 
the latter case the fluid is ejected 
from the nostrils as well as from the 
throat : it has not a frothy character. 
If ejected from the stomach, it is 
usually dark coloured, not frothy, 
and is attended by sickness and 
vomiting. 

Treatment. 

The strictest rest, silence, and 
freedom from mental agitation, are 
of the first importance. The patient 
should be placed in a half-sitting 
posture. Cool air must be freely 
admitted; all superfluous bed- 
hangings, or overcrowding of the 
apartment, must be avoided. From 
six to twenty-four leeches should 
be applied on the chest below the 
collar bone. After their removal, 
cloths dipped in cold water, or 
spirit and water, should be applied 
to the chest. Every fluid that is 
taken should be swallowed quite 
cold. 

Give acetate of lead, twelve grains, 
made into a small mass with bread 
crumb, and divided into six pills, 
of which one may be taken every 
three, four, or six hours, according 
to the urgency of the symptoms. 

A useful beverage for these cases 
may be made from alum, sugar, gum, 
and rose-water (see Prescription). 

Saline aperients (see Prescriptions 
Kos. 1, 3, 4, 37, 39, 40, 42), and 



30 



BOILS— BONES— BOWELS, CONSTIPATION OF. 



diuretics, should be used in the 
after-treatment, with a view to the 
prevention of a return of the 
haomorrhage. 

The removal of what blood may 
be left in the air-tubes is to be 
effected by tonics, such as sulphate 
of zinc, or iron ; and by counter- 
irritation, such as stimulating lini- 
ments (see Prescriptions), or re- 
peated mustard plasters. 

It will be important to avoid 
stimulants while the bleeding con- 
tinues, and for some time afterwards. 
If, however, there be faintness or 
great weakness induced, wine may 
be given to meet this emergency. 



BOILS. 

Symptoms. 

Circumscribed inflammation of 
the true skin, forming small ab- 
scesses. "When these break, a corej 
or portion of dead tissue, is dis- 
charged, after an uncertain interval, 
depending upon the size of the 
boil, and the constitutional strength 
of the patient. 

Boils are prone to occur several 
at a time, or in succession. 

Causes. 

These are not very obvious, as 
boils occur in all kinds of habits. 
They more frequently, however, 
attend a debilitated state of the 
system. 

Treatment. 

Warm fomentation ; poultices ; 
alterative aperients ; full, nutritious 
diet. 



BONES, BROKEN. (See AcddenU,) 



BONES, DISLOCATED. (See Aeci^ 
dents.) 



BOWELS, CONSTIPATION OP. 

Cosiiveness, 

Symptoms. 

The contents of the bowels are 
retained much longer, without 
injury to the health, by some 
persons, than by the generality of 
people. The bowels should, ordi- 
narily, be evacuated once in twenty- 
four hours. A more prolonged 
retention of their contents, their 
slow, imperfect, or difficult eva- 
cuation, constitutes costiveness. 
The symptoms (or rather the 
consequences) of costiveness, are 
flatulency, griping, furred tongue, 
headache, &c., and many disorders 
of the digestive organs. 

Causes. 

Peculiarity of constitution ; indi- 
gestible food; stimulating beverages; 
too long indulgence in sleep in 
warm, soft beds ; sedentary occupa- 
tions; profuse perspiration; advanced 
age ; pregnancy ; want of secretions 
of the mucous membrane of the 
bowels, loss of power in the mus- 
cular flbres of the intestines; 
inflammation of the bowels ; neglect 
of the calls of nature. 

Treatment. 

Aperients ; clysters ; diet ; and 
regimen to avoid the causes. (See 
Prescriptions ^N'os. 1, 2, 11, 12, 13, 
14.) 



BOWELS,. INFLAMMATION OF. 



31 



BOWELS, RELAXED. (See Dior- 

rhcea ; Dysentery,) 



BOWELS, INFLAMMATION OF, 

and Inflammation of the Feritoneum* 

Symptonuu 

Pain; extreme tenderness on 
pressure of the abdomen and in 
the course of the intestines ; disten- 
sion and sense of heat in the 
abdomen ; the knees drawn up, and 
bent on the body; vomiting of 
bilious matter ; skin harsh and dry ; 
pulse quick and hard ; urine scanty 
and high coloured, thirst, loss of 
appetite; tongue white and clammy, 
or dark brown and furred in its 
centre, but red at its point and 
edges ; general debility and prostra- 
tion of strength. At first the 
bowels may be obstinately costive ; 
they afterwards become relaxed, 
the evacuations being pale, yeasty, 
slimy, bloody, or offensive, dark and 
lumpy. There is frequent straining 
at stool without free action of the 
bowels. 

Distinctive characters, — From 
colic, by the presence of fever, state 
of the pulse, and the pain of the 
abdomen being increased by pres- 
sure : whereas pressure relieves the 
pain of colic. 

Causes. 

Predisposing. — Sudden changes 
of weather; damp and unhealthy 
situations ; marshy districts in hot 
climates; debility. 

Mcciting. — ^Errors of diet as to 
quality and quantity; suppression of 
perspiration by exposure to cold or 
damp ; intemperance ; inattention 



to the condition of the bowels ; the 
injudicious use of strong purgative 
medicines. Many poisons act fatally 
by producing inflammation of the 
bowels ; as do also extensive bums 
and scalds. 

Treatment. 

From eight to twenty leeches, 
according to the age of the patient 
and the severity of the attack, 
should be applied over the painful 
part. The bleeding may be encou- 
raged by warm fomentations, or 
large warm bread-and-water, or 
bran-poultice. 

Calomel and opium (see Pre- 
scription Ko. 18) to be given every 
two, four, or six hours. If the 
attack be not very severe, or if the 
patient be young or delicate, 
Dover's powder and grey pow- 
der will be preferable. If the 
symptoms do not yield to this 
treatment, a hot bath should be 
taken, turpentine fomentations em- 
ployed, or a blister plaster be 
applied. At the same time, the 
action of the medicines may be 
assisted by castor-oil, or clysters. 
The costiveness, in the early state, 
is owing to a spasm of the bowels. 
When the calomel and opium cause 
this to be relaxed, the bowels will 
act freely of themselves. Sickness 
may be relieved by effervescing 
draughts (se.e Prescription No. 2). 
The tenderness and pain which 
remain after the severity and 
danger have subsided, may be re- 
moved by repeated blistering; 
dressing with mercurial ointment, 
and the internal use of small doses 
of opium. 

In children under ten years of 
age, small doses of grey powder. 



32 



BRAIK, CONCUSSIOJST OF. 



and Dover's powders, with warm 
bath, hot fomentations, mustard 
plasters. Leeches must be spar- 
ingly applied to children, and great 
care is to be taken that they 
do not bleed too much. 

^N'.B. — Dover's powder, or other 
opiates, must be cautiously given 
to young children. They should 
not be given at all to infants by 
non-professional persons. 

"When the symptoms have existed 
for more than two or three weeks, 
and do not then subside, the disease 
passes into a chronic state. The 
same remedies are applicable, but 
must be given in smaller doses and 
at longer intervals, and combined 
with mild tonics, as infusions of 
gentian or columbo ; blisters being 
frequently repeated. 

The diet in either the acute or 
chronic form should be of the most 
unirritating character. In the 
chronic state, a more nourishing 
diet than in the acute is required. 

Chronic inflammation of the 
bowels is sometimes attended with 
ulceration, which generally proves 
fatal by perforating the intestines 
and permitting the escape of their 
contents into the cavity of the 
abdomen. Ulceration is scarcely 
distinguishable from chronic inflam- 
mation. The same treatment will 
be advisable. 



BRAIN, CONCUSSION OF. 

Symptoms. 

Unconsciousness, either transient 
and momentary, or persistent, with 
loss of power of motion; impair- 



ment of the breathing ; the pupils 
contracted or dilated, but insensible 
to light ; the pulse small and feeble ; 
face pale ; vomiting. 

In children convulsions usually 
occur. 

The duration of the symptoms 
varies with the intensity or severity 
of the cause. 

Cause. 

Blows, or falls upon the head. 
The same effects have been known 
to follow a fall upon the buttocks, 
or lower end of the spinal column ; 
the brain being shaken by eontre- 
coup or recoil. 

Treatment. 

In slight cases it will suffice to 
apply warmth to the surface, and 
to administer some moderate stimu- 
lus, as warm wine and water, or a 
few drops of ether, or salvolatile in 
water, at intervals, until the pale- 
ness of the face, feebleness of pulse, 
and coldness of surface, passes off. 
Reaction will then be set up, 
and will be attended with re-estab- 
lished health ; or, may be followed 
by inflammation of the brain. For 
this last reason it is most desirable 
to be carefiil not to give stimulants 
too freely. 

As the case is, however, at first 
one of extreme depression, all mea- 
sures of depletion are to be carefully 
abstained from. It is possible to 
do more ultimate injury to a serious 
case by such measures, than by the 
administration of a little more 
stimulant than absolutely required. 
As recovery takes place, aperients 
may be given to relieve any ten- 
dency to congestion of the brain. 



BKAIN, CONGESTION AND INFLAMMATION OF. 83 



The diet must be very light and 
simple. 

If the injury should lead to in- 
flammation of the brain, active 
treatment will be required (see 
Brain, Inflammation of). 



BRAIN, CONGESTION OF. 

Symptoms. 

Headache; giddiness; noises in 
the ears ; drowsiness ; brilliancy or 
wateriness of the eyes ; redness of 
the countenance; beating of the 
vessels about the head and neck ; 
loss of recollection ; cramps, twitch- 
ing of the limbs. The pulse full 
and strong. These may pass on to 
loss of sense and motion, often of 
an apoplectic character ; or, it may 
become inflammation of the brain. 

Causes. 

The same as in apoplexy and 
inflammation of the brain. Extreme 
heat, intemperance, &c. 

Treatment. 

Apply leeches to the temples or 
behind the ears. From one or two 
(in the cases of children) up to 
twenty or thirty for grown-up 
persons, according to the severity 
of the symptoms. Cold water 
should be poured on the head. The 
position of the patient should be 
sitting or semi-erect. 

Active purgatives should be 
quickly administered. Calomel (five 
or ten grains for an adult) followed 
by senna, castor oil, &c. Purgative 
and stimulant clysters should at 
the same time be used. (See Clys- 
ters,) 



BRAIN, DROPST OF. (See Bram, 
Inflammation of.) 



BRAIN, INFLAMMATION OF. 

Acute Water on the Brain; Acute 
Hydroeephalue. 

Symptoms. 

Intense pain in the head, heat of 
scalp; intolerance of light and 
sound; hot skin; furred tongue; 
thirst; sickness; vomiting ; watch- 
^Iness; and delirium ; flushed coun- 
tenance ; bloodshot or dull eyes ; 
bowels costive ; urine scanty ; quick 
sharp pulse ; spasmodic twitchings 
of the limbs, or convulsions, passing 
into deep comatose sleep, with loss 
of muscidar power. 

In Children. — The child has pro- 
bably been fretful for a few days 
before. It may have complained of 
sudden pain in the head, or, if not 
able to speak, may frequently put 
its hands to its head ; the eyebrows 
are knitted; it may be giddy; 
there may be lameness or feeble- 
ness in walking. The appetite 
uncertain. The stomach begins 
to reject food, and vomiting 
soon forms one of the most obsti- 
nate symptoms. The bowels are 
disordered. The child is drowsy, 
but sleeps ill, grinds its teeth in 
sleep, sleeps with its eyes open, 
starts, or wakes up in alarm. 

These premonitory signs may 
continue for four or five days, when 
the indications of fully-developed 
inflammation, as described above, 
will be observed. There is, more- 
over, in children suftering under 



34 



BRAIN, INFLAMMATION OF. 



the affection of the brain, a sharp 
short peculiar plaintive cry. The 
symptoms will usually be ob- 
served to be worse at night. The 
duration of the disease may be 
several weeks. If, as the disease 
progresses, the inflammation ex- 
tends from the brain down the 
spinal cord, the body of the child 
becomes stiffly bowed backwards. 
It usually terminates by convulsions, 
perhaps of one side only of the body, 
and coma caused by effusion of 
serum on the surface of the brain : 
hence its name, acute ** Water on 
tJie Brainy 

It is to be distinguished from Irri- 
tation of the Brain (which see). 

Causes. 

Teething; scroftdous constitution; 
over-exertion of the mind ; passions; 
excessive sensual indulgence; in- 
temperance ; suppression of habitual 
discharges ; blows ; falls ; other in- 
juries of the head ; rudely rocking, 
or whirling, or tossing children; 
the action of the sun*s rays ; disease 
of the bones of the skull, or of the 
internal ear. 

Treatment. 

As soon as it is clearly ascertained 
that the case is one of inflammation 
of the brain, active measures must 
be adopted. For the case of an 
adult, from one to two dozen leeches 
must be applied behind the ears, or 
upon the temples. For a child 
under two years of age two or 
three, for above two years from 
three to ten, leeches. If the scalp be 
hot, cold water or pounded ice in a 
bladder must be laid upon the head, 
which must be somewhat raised. 
When the temperature of the sur- 



fiEice falls, the cold applications must 
be discontinued, lest they cause too 
great a degree of depression. 

Ten grains of calomel should be 
given, and followed in two or three 
hours by a senna purge. After the 
action of the bowels, calomel in 
doses of two grains should be given 
every four or six hours. The ra- 
pidify of the pulse and heat of skin 
may be met by a saline mixture ; 
e, g. (see Prescription No. 4). 

The calomel must be stopped as 
soon as the gums become inflamed, 
or the breath acquires the pecidiar 
odour of salivation. 

If these means do not suffice to 
check the progress of the malady, 
a blister plaster may be applied on 
the back of the neck, and left for 
from eight to twelve hours in 
the case of an adult, and two or 
three hours in the case of a child. 
If coma, or a state of insensibility, 
should supervene, clysters of tur- 
pentine should be administered 
(see Prescriptions). 

When this disease occurs in 
infants or children the same line of 
treatment must be adopted, but the 
doses very much reduced (see 
Table of Medicines), If the at- 
tack be connected with the process 
of teething, the gums mu^t be 
freely lanced. (For directions, see 
Teething). 

In children calomel frequently 
produces profuse irritable purging 
of green stools. These must not 
be allowed to continue more than 
two or three days. The calomel 
should then be changed for Grrey 
powder alone, or with James's 
powder in small doses. 

The diet and regimen during the 



BKAIN, IKKITATION OF. 



35 



activity of this disease must be 
rigidly low : as the symptoms sub- 
side it must be very cautiously and 
carefully augmented. 

Inflammation of the brain cannot 
be suffered, even under the most 
favourable result, vrithout the func- 
tions of the nervous system being in 
various ways impaired. The effects 
thus left behind are to be got rid of 
only by tlie most careful avoidance 
of all predisposing causes, by the 
use of tonic alteratives, by change 
of air and scene, &c. 

N.B. — ^We have in inflammation 
of the brain one of the most dan- 
gerous maladies to which man is 
liable ; one in which the shades of 
severity or intensity are endless; 
one, therefore, which requires varied 
£idaptation of treatment. Conse- 
quently it is impossible to give to 
non-professional readers more than 
the above general outline of the 
disease and its treatment. 



BRAIN, CHRONIC INFLAMMA- 
TION OF. Chronic Hydrocephalus ; 
Water on the Brain ; Dropsy of the 
Brain. 

Symptoms. 

This disease is usually congenital, 
f . e. dates from birth. The infant 
has convulsions which may occur 
daily, or may be slight, amounting 
only to squinting or rolling about 
the eyes. The size and dispropor- 
tion of the head soon attract notice. 
The forehead is prominent, the eyes 
sunken, owing to the distension and 
separation of the bones of the head, 
from the accumulation of fluid. 



The head droops or rolls on one 
side. While the size of the head 
continues to increase, the growth of 
the body is imperfect, its general 
nutrition impaired. The functions 
of the liver are torpid ; the bowels 
are disordered. The child has a 
peculiar plaintive cry. Its temper 
is irritable. The intellect may either 
be dull or unusually active. 

The malady usually terminates 
by convulsions if the patient does 
not fall a victim to other diseases, to 
which its feeble and unhealthy con- 
dition renders it especially liable. 

Causes. 

Scrofulous constitution ; the con- 
sequences of acute inflammation. 

Treatment. 

The case is almost always hope- 
less. The only means that can be 
recommended are the strictest at- 
tention to diet and general health. 
The administration of iodide of 
iron, or iodide of potass ; or mild 
mercurials. Pressure and tapping 
have been successfully used in some 
rare cases, but these are not means 
available to non-professional per- 
sons. 



BRAIN, IRRITATION OF. 

Symptoms. 

Morbidly increased sensitiveness ; 
irritability ; fretfulness ; wakeful- 
ness ; an absence of sleep often for 
days and nights together, beyond 
snatches of a few minutes ; grinding 
the teeth; there is shrieking and 
crying very much like what is met 
with in inflammation of the brain ; 



36 



BREAST, INFLAMMATION OF. 



but the head is not hot, and there is 
an absence of fever ; the child will 
throw himself backward, bowing his 
back by jerks ; or the body will be- 
come rigid for a time ; the thumb 
will be bent on the palm of the 
hand, and the toes and foot curved 
downwards. 

Causes. 

Dentition ; over-feeding ; indi- 
gestible substances in the stomach 
and bowels. The same predisposi- 
tions that give rise to inflammation 
of the brain. 

Treatment. 

The gums should be lanced. 
Aperients of rhubarb and soda, or 
magnesia (see Prescription No. 16 
or 17); mild mercurial alteratives, 
e, g. Grey powder. Simple but nu- 
tritious diet, such as beef- tea, milk, 
arrow-root, tapioca, &c. 

Where there is little room to 
doubt that the malady has been ex- 
cited by over-feeding, or indigestible 
food, an emetic given at the onset 
will often greatly help to cut short 
the attack. 

This affection may pass into in- 
flammation of the brain. 



BREAST, INFLAMMATION OF. 

Milk Abiceat. 

Symptoms. 

Sharp, shooting pain, and hard- 
ness of the breast, with redness of 
the skin as the inflammation ex- 
tends and approaches the surface. 
Feverishness. When matter has 
formed and comes to the surface 



the pain is less acute, but still se- 
vere and throbbing ; shivering takes 
place, the skin becomes discoloured 
at one or more points, then gives 
way, and the matter is discharged 
often in great quantities. 

Such are the symptoms in the 
commonest form of inflamed breast, 
occurring to women who are suck- 
ling or weaning. Inflammation of 
the breast does, however, sometimes 
occur in young girls, especially 
about the period of puberty. The 
pain is considerable, but it seldom 
proceeds to the formation of abscess. 
Even the breasts of newly-born 
infants are apt to become inflamed ; 
but this inflammation rapidly sub- 
sides. 

Causes. 

Cold ; bruises ; weaning ; irre- 
gularity or want of care in nursing, 
by which the breasts are permitted 
to become loaded and over-distended 
with milk. 

Treatment. 

Rags wetted with cold water may 
be laid on the breast, which should 
be supported by a handkerchief 
passed under it. The Mness of the 
breast is relieved by suckling, or the 
breast-pump or drawing-glass. A 
large wide-mouthed bottle first filled 
with warm water, then emptied, 
and its mouth applied to the nipple 
and breast, will, as it cools, exert a 
suction power which will relieve 
the breast by drawing the milk. 
In addition to this, the rubbing the 
surface of the breast gently with 
camphor liniment three or four times 
a day will often disperse the hard- 
ness. 

If the preceding means fail to 



BREAST, HARDENING OF— BRONCHITIS. 



37 



check the inflammation, ten or 
twelve leeches should be applied, 
and warmth and moisture, by 
means of lint covered with oil- silk, 
or by poultices, and further treat- 
ment adopted as recommended in 
Abscess. 

For the milder cases of inflam- 
mation of the breast in infants and 
young girls, the mere application 
of warmth and moisture, with some 
mild aperients, will suffice. 



BREAST, INDURATION OR 

HARDENING OF. Irntable 
Breast, 

Bymptoins. 

A portion of the substance of the 
breast become hard and tender to 
the touch ; sometimes attended with 
redness of the skin over the tumour 
or lump it forms. Often met with 
in young girls about the period of 
puberty. 

Causes. 

Weaning ; sympathetic irritation 
of the breast from the derangement 
of the uterine functions ; blows. 

Treatment. 

Warm fomentations ; mild sti- 
mulating liniments; mercurial oint- 
ment. Internal medicines for the 
general health. 



BBEAST-PANG. (See Angina Fee 
torts,) 



BRONCHITIS. Inflammation of the 
Chest ; Catarrhal Cough. 

Symptoms. 

Usually . commences with the 
symptoms of a common cold, such 
as running at the nose and eyes, 
hoarseness, tickling in the throat, 
soreness or pain of the chest, 
oppression in breathing, and pains in 
the limbs and body. The cough is 
accompanied by expectoration of 
watery, transparent, and pale 
phlegm. At first the expectoration 
is scanty ; it becomes more abun- 
dant, thick, and opaque, varying 
as the disease advances or continues 
long. There are more or less fever 
and constitutional disturbance, heat 
of skin, quickness of pulse, loss of 
appetite, furred tongue, costiveness 
of the bowels, scantiness of urine. 

Causes. 

Atmospheric changes ; or irritat- 
ing substances taken into the lungs 
in breathing. 

Treatment. 

. Bronchitis presents different de- 
grees of severity, and its treatment 
must be modified accordingly. 

1 . Slight or catarrhaL — The 
symptoms being little more than 
those of common cold, and the 
cough but trifling, will call for 
only simple diaphoretics (medicines 
to promote perspiration), followed 
by mild aperients if the bowels be 
costive. (See Catarrh,) 

2. Acute bronchitis. — The symp- 
toms are severe from the first, and 
rapid in their course. Mustard 
poultices, or turpentine stupes, 
should be freely applied over dif- 



38 



BRONCHITIS. 



ferent parts of the ' chest. An 
emetic of ipecacuanha should be 
given (see Prescription No. 7). 
The emetic may be repeated at 
the end of twenty-four hours if the 
symptoms have not decreased in 
severity. When the action of the 
emetic has subsided, the mixture 
should be given according to Pre- 
scription 'No. 4 ; or, 

Calomel, 

James's Powder. Of each two 
grams every six hours. 

In persons of full habit, leeches 
should be applied on the front of 
the chest : — from one dozen to 
three dozen, according to the seve- 
rity of the symptoms. 

Purgatives are of great service in 
this form of the disease. 

The patient should be kept in 
bed, and the temperature of his 
chamber be carefully equalised. 
The diet should be of the lightest 
character. 

3. Subacute. — The symptoms 
are milder than in the acute 
form, and slower in their progress, 
but more severe than in the cata- 
rrhal form. For the remedies appli- 
cable to this variety, see Prescrip- 
tions Nos. 4, 55y 27. Mustard 
plasters to the chest. 

4. Chronic, — The symptoms mild, 
bub slow in their progress, often 
lasting several months. This form 
is known as the common " winter 
cough." 

In this form, stimulant, expecto- 
rant (see Prescriptions Nos. 5, 30, 
36, 54, 67), and tonic medicines 
are required. Turpentine stupes 
and mustard plasters. Diet liberal ; 
e. g, meat, wine, malt liquors, &c. 



The use of a respirator, or resi- 
dence in a mild climate during the 
winter months, is a valuable means 
of warding off attacks of the dis- 
ease. 

The symptoms of bronchitis in 
children are not so active or so 
rapid as in adults. They are at 
first those of common "cold," 
which, instead of subsiding, become 
more marked and severe. Fever- 
ishness increases, as do also the 
violence of the cough and frequency 
of breathing. 

Sometimes, however, the course 
of the symptoms is very rapid in 
children, and in the course of a few 
hours the child will be in danger 
of suffocation from the quantity of 
phlegm, which the cough, however 
violent, does not remove as fast as 
it is accumulated. 

In this last form leeches must be 
applied to the chest. Under one 
year of age, two; if above one 
year, three or four to as many 
as six, up to the age of ten years. 
An emetic of ipecacuanha, two to 
four grains every ten minutes until 
vomiting takes place (see Pre- 
scription No. 58). A blistering 
plaster should be applied for two 
hours, and then poultice of bread 
and water. 

In the milder form of bronchitis 
in children, leeching will not be 
called for. Mustard plasters, tur- 
pentine stupes, or large bran poul- 
tices, may be applied over the 
chest. Warm bath morning and 
evening. Repeated small doses of 
ipecacuanha, nitre, and calomel 
should be given every three or four 
hours (see Prescriptions Nos. 58, 
59). 



BRONCHOCELE BUNIONS— CANCEP. 39 


BBONGHOGELE. Goitre; Derby- 
shire Neck, 

Symptoms. 

Enlargement of a gland in the 
front of the neck, progressing very 
slowly, often for years. 

Causes. 

Constitutional tendency, depend- 
ing upon local physical conditions, 
as in the Alps and other moun- 
tainous districts ; or irregularity of 
menstruation in females. 

Treatment. 

Tincture of iodine ten drops, in 
a wine-glass of cold water, two or 
three times a day. The dose may 
be increased gradually. 

Tincture of iodine to be painted 
on the neck, or iodide of pota™ssium 
and iodine ointment to be applied 
night and morning (see Prescrip- 
tion No. 60). 

The constitutional derangement 
must be attended to at the same 
time. 


Causes. 

Pressure of shoes, causing in- 
flammation of a small sac containing 
fluid, placed on the surface of the 
ball of the toe. Displacement of 
the bones of the joint is often a 
cause of bunion. 

Treatment. 

If begun early, two or three 
leeches ; warm fomentations ; poul- 
tices. Have boots made so as to 
remove pressure. Apply soft per- 
forated plaster made of thick buck- 
leather, or German tinder, spread 
with adhesive plaster. 


BURNS AND SCALDS. (See Acci- 
dents.) 

CANCER. 

Symptoms. 

A hard, pale tu m our. In its first 
stage attended with little or no 
pain, insensible to the touch, unequal 
or irregular on its surface. In its 
second stage it ulcerates and becomes 
the open cancerous sore, discharging 
a thin acrid fluid, attended with 
severe pain, of an acute, cutting, 
or stabbing character. The ulcera- 
tion spreads to the surrounding 
skin, and the adjoining glands are 
irritated: the blood becomes vitiated: 
the powers of life sink. 

The most frequent external seat 
of cancer is the breasts of females, 
on the skin generally ; internally, 
the womb or the stomach. Other 
parts may be its seat. Cancer 


BBOW AGUE. (See Neuralgia.) 


BRUISES. (See Accidents) 


BUNIONS. 

Symptoms. 

Chronic enlargement of the joint 
of the great toe, occasionally at- 
tended with pain, heat, and swel- 
ling of the skm. 



40 



CANCER-CANKEK. 



seldom occurs xmder thirty years of 
age. 

Dtstinctive charaetera, — Other 
tumours, not of a malignant or 
flEital kind, may be mistaken for 
cancer. Thus it very often occurs 
that a portion of the female breast 
becomes hardened after nursing, or 
in young girls (see Breasty Sard- 
ening of). This tumour is not so hard 
or insensible to the touch as cancer 
in its first stage. It will remain 
in its form of tumour many months, 
but never proceeds to idceration, 
and generally disappears if preg- 
nancy occur. Simple hardening 
of any part or organ is usually 
preceded by inflammation, and 
disappears on amendment of the 
general health. 

Canses. 

Hereditary tendency ; anxiety 
and distress of mind; depressing 
passions ; bad and insufficient food ; 
external injury, as blows, &c. 

Treatment. 

In its earliest stages much good 
may be done by medicines selected 
for the debilitated state of health. 
All means of cheering the spirits. 
External application of opiates and 
other sedatives will be serviceable. 
Avoid everything that may irritate 
or accelerate ulceration. I^arcotics 
and sedatives to be taken, also, to 
relieve pain. Poultices of hemlock 
(see List of Medicines) ; lotions of 
chlorine (see Prescriptions Nos. 
61, 62). 

The existence of internal can- 
cer (of the womb, stomach, &c.) 
not being ordinarily determinable 
by non-professional persons, it will 
not be useful to speak of its treat- 



ment beyond recommending narco- 
tics and sedatives for the alleviation 
of pain. 

N.B. It is of the highest im- 
portance to have recourse early to 
medical opinion in cases of cancer 
or suspected cancer ; and, moreover, 
to be especially cautious against 
the employment of quack remedies, 
which often aggravate the disease, 
or afford a Uttle temporary relief, 
often at the cost of shortening life. 
Far less risk is incurred by doing 
nothing at all. 



GANEEB. Sating Tetter; Noli-me- 
tang ere ; Lupus, 

Symptoms* 

An eruption most commonly seen 
on the face or forehead, consisting 
of raised inflamed spots, either 
singly or in clusters, smooth, red, 
and shining, from which the skin 
exfoliates or falls off. In this state 
they may remain for months, 
spreading over the entire face. In 
one form of the disease a brown 
scab formsjwhich, on being scratched 
off, allows the discharge of a thin 
acrid fluid, which is seen to proceed 
from ulceration of the skin. This 
ulceration often spreads and destroys 
the skin, eating away perhaps a 
great portion of the nose or fips ; 
and when it heals leaving white 
scars. 

Causes. 

Scrofulous, syphilitic, or other 
disorders of the constitution. 

Treatment. 

The internal administration of 



CAKBUNCLE— CATALEPSY. 



41 



alterative doses of mercmy, e, g, 
blue pill three grams once or twice 
a week; iodine, or mineral acids 
(see Prescriptions Nos. 31, 45, 68), 
or cod-liver oil. The external ap- 
plication of creosote or iodine, or of 
nitric acid diluted with eight parts 
of water (see Prescription No. 63). 
The ulcerating or eating form re- 
quires the application of caustic 
potash or nitrate of silver. 



GABBX7NGLE. 

Symptoms* 

Carhuncle is a very large painful 
boil. The swelling gives way after 
a few days at several small points 
of ulceration ; as these spread they 
form one large irregular opening, 
through which the core, or setfast, 
or slough, is discharged, as it gra- 
dually becomes cast off firom below. 
It is usually situated on the back, 
arms, or th^hs. 

Causes. 

In the majority of cases^ debility. 

Treatment* 

Warm fomentation, and poultices. 
When open, apply warm yeast; 
when the core is discharged, simple 
water dressing. The core should 
be set fiee as early as possible by a 
cross-like incision •( + ) extending 
entirely across the swelling in 
each direction, and going right down 
to the core. 

In debilitated states, bark and 
ammonia (see Prescription No. 30) 
must be freely given ; with a free 
allowance of meat, wine, porter, 
&o. 



GATALEPST. Trance; Ecstaty. 

Symptomff. 

Sudden deprivation of sense, in- 
telligence, and voluntary motion, 
the patient remaining in the same 
position, during the paroxysm, as at 
the moment of attack, or as placed 
in during its continuance ; the 
pulse and respiration little affected, 
or so feeble as scarcely to be de- 
tectable. The eyes fixed, open or 
shut; pupils contracting on the 
application of a strong light. The 
evacuations are either suspended 
during the fit, or passed involim- 
tarily. Eestoration generally occurs 
suddenly ; with headache, sense of 
fatigue, &c. No recollection of 
what has occurred in the fit. The 
suspended train of ideas resumed 
at the moment of recovery. Ter- 
minates in health ; sometimes, how- 
ever, in insanity. Preceded by 
mental excitement of a religious or 
other character, it constitutes ^<?«^<wy. 

Causes. 

1. Uxciting, — Depressing pas- 
sions ; prolonged or violent mental 
impression ; anxiety ; unrequited 
affection ; religious contemplation. 

2. Predisposing. — Hysterical or 
melancholic temperament; female 
sex ; age — the attacks being rarely 
met with before puberty. 

Treatment. 

Sprinkling or dashing with cold 
water ; stimulants, such as ether or 
sal-volatQe; friction and coimter- 
irritation to spine or extremities; 
stimulating clysters (see Prescrip- 
tion No. 65). After the fit, tonics 
should be taken for some time (see 
Prescriptions Nos. 30, 34, 37, 43). 



42 



CATARiCT-^ATARRH— CHAPPED HANDS. 



CATARACT. 

Symptoms. 

Yision obscured as by a mist or 
veil, when the disease is in its 
early stages ; at last sight is quite 
lost. As the disease advances, a 
dead-white, bluish- white, or amber- 
coloured opaque body is seen behind 
the pupil. 

For its distinctive characters, see 
Amaurosis, 

Cause. 

The transparent lens situated 
behind the pupil of the eye becomes 
opaque, and intercepts the rays of 
light which should pass to the back 
of the eye. Thus it is that in twi- 
light, or by a faint light, vision is 
somewhat improved, the rays being 
permitted to pass by the sides of the 
lens. The conditions that give rise 
to cataract are not very clearly 
made out. It sometimes follows on 
wounds or other injuries. Cataract 
is seldom met with until after forty 
years of age ; except where it has 
existed from birth, i, e, " congenital 
cataracV* 

Treatment. 

No medical means are of any use. 
An operation must be performed by 
a surgeon well skilled in performing 
operations wpon the eye. 



CATARRH. Cold in the Head or Chest, 

Symptoms. 

Feverishness, chilliness, pain and 
heaviness about the forehead, eyes, 
&c. Sneezing ; running at the eyes ; 



dryness and soreness, or sense of 
heat, in the lining of the nostrils 
and throat ; tightness of the chest ; 
cough; pains in the limbs. The 
heat and dryness of the nostrils and 
throat passing /off, a profuse secre- 
tion takes place, causing "running 
at the nose'' and copious thin ex- 
pectoration with the cough. 

Causes. 

Transitions of atmospheric tem- 
perature ; checked perspiration. 

Treatment. 

Promote free perspiration by hot 
water to the feet ; warm bed ; warm 
beverages, as white- wine whey, tea, 
gruel, &c. (Prescription No. 55), 
followed by purgative draught No. 
28; or Dover's powder 10 grains; 
or James's powder 5 grains. Mus- 
tard plaster to the chest ; confine- 
ment to house, or to the room. 



CHAFFED HANDS. 

Treatment. 

Thoroughly dry the hands after 
washing. Protect from cold. Apply 
fresh cold cream, or 1 oz. honey 
with 1 drm. of borax : or, the fol- 
lowing lotion : — 

Borax i dr. 

Glycerine J oz. 

Water | pint. 



CHEST, INFLAMMATION OF. 

(See Pleurisy and Bronchitis, or 
ImngSy Inflammalion of.) 



CHICKEN-POCK— CHILD-CROWINO . 



CHICEEH-POCK. Varieella i llalrr. 
poei ; StBine-poek ; Uiva. 

Eruption of pmail reddish pimplea 
L the back, chest, ahouldera, ueck, 
and face. These pimpIcB on the 
Becond day become vesiclea, t. e. oa 
the top of each a minute bladder 
forme, containing a faintly yel- 
lowish, clear fluid. On the third 
day, or it may be the fourth, the 
fluid hoe become opaque, and the 
Tesiclea are then conaidered mature, 
or at their height. After tliis a 
thia cmst or scab forms, and falls 
off by the fifth or sixth day without 
leaving any mark. There is ao 
fever in the greater number of 
cases. Sometimes the pimples arc 
very numerous, longer in their 
course, attended with some fevorish- 
ness; and when they have died 
away, leave a few scars behind. 

Bittin^itked tcoxa small- pox by 
the rapidity of its course, the 
globular form of its vesicles, and 
the absence of fever. The vesicles 
of small-pox have a depression on 
the middle of their surface, and 
they take eight days to reach their 
height. It is difficult, however, in 
some cases to distinguish between 
severe chicken.pock and mild small- 
pox as modified by vaccination. 



CHILD-CROWINO. Cromug htpira- 
tioH ; L irff/i"""* ; Fieudo-Croap ; 
Thymic Jithata : Millar'l JiUma. 



This disease is entirely free from 
danger. It requires no iiirtber 
treatment than a light diet, and 
Bometimea a mild aperient. 



A crowing noise with inspiration, 
attended often with a sudden pa- 
roxysm of difficulty of breathing, 
amounting sometimes to absolute 
suffocation. The attack often comes 
on in crying, ceases suddenly, and is 
liable to recur at uncertain inter- 
vals. The attack may prove fatal. 

It is generally attended with more 
or IcM convulsive movements of 
the muscles of the extremities, the 
thumb being bent upon the palms of 
the hands, and the toes bent down. 

JDisfinctive tymptomf. — This dis- 
ease is of a convulsive character, 
and not attended with cough and 
other catarrhal symptoms, as in 
croup. Croup is not excited by 
anger or mental irritation, as is the 
crowing inspiration. The latt«r 
also entirely and suddenly subsides 
until the next attack, — croup does 
not go off suddenly in this manner. 
The noise made in breathing of 
croup ia a hoarse, rough, whistling, 
rather than crowing sound, and 
occurs both in inspiration and ex- 
piration ; in child-crowing it occniB 
only during inspiration. 

In children of delicato constitu- 
tion, teething predisposes to attacks 
of cliild- crowing, as do also insuffi- 
cient or improper food, impure air, 
and all other debilitating agente. A 
fit may be excited by anger, or 
crying ; or by disorder of the sto- 
mach or bowels. 



44 



CHILBLAIB8— CHLOROSIS. 



If connected with teething, the 
gome ahould be freely lanced 
(see Teething). Cold water should 
be eprinkled or dashed in the face. 
If the feet and hands be much con- 
Tulsed, the child should be placed 
in a hot bath. During the recur- 
rence of the paroxysms, one or two 
drops of chloric ether may be given 
every four hours. At the same 
time the mixture (see Prescription 
No. 16) ahould be given, with or 
without the rhubarb, according te the 
state of the bowels ; or, if costive, 
the powder ordered in Prescription 
No. 79. In the interralB, tonics 
(Prescriptions No. 80 or 81), with 
pure bracing air, out-door exercise, 
carefid feeding, &c. 



CHILBL&mS. 



Extreme cold, too quickly fol- 
lowed by warmth. Thus they are 
produced by holding the feet near 
the fire when cold. They are also 
more frequently met with, when a 
diaw sets in after a hard frost. 



If not broken, friction with spirits 
of tt»p^itiBe,'Or a stimulating lini- 
ment ■ (see ' Prescription No. 61). 
Soaking the feet in hot water with 
mustard mixed in it. If " broken," 
an open sore is formed, which is to 
be treated by bread poultice or 
water dressing for a day or two, 
and then apply Tomer's cerate, or 
oxide of zino ointment, spread 
npoD lint or linen. 



CHLOBOSIS. Gria, Sichutt m ft- 



Languor, debility, dlainclination 
to boi^y or mental exercise ; loss 
of appetite, or craving for unwhole- 
some articles of food ; costivenesa ; 
the monthly functions irregular; 
tongue white and pasty, breath 
oficnalve ; sleep disturbed ; head- 
ache ; pain in the side ; shortuen 
of breath and palpitetion of 
heart on making any exertion. The 
pulse quick and small. The coun- 
tenance at first pale, becoming of 
yellowish-green tint. If the diMase 
continues, this complexion of t^ 
countenance extends to the whole 
body. The eyelids become puf^ ; 
the feet cold, and the ankLu 
swollen. The spirits become nd 
and depressed. The general healft 
gives way, and various hystaiiMl 
sjrmptoms appear. 



Predi^Mainff. — Impure a 
wholesome diet ; sedentary oi 
tions ; over- work at an early a.^ 
inattention to the condition of ti 
bowels ; abuse of spirituous liqm 
in early life ; indolence ; indul 

ExcittTig.- 
viciouB habits ; solitary vioes ; 
gratified desires ; unrequited love/ 
grief; &c. * 

TreUment. 

The condition of the evacnationi 
from the bowels should be atten- 
tively regarded. If the motions 
costive and dark-colonred, aoti 
purgatives should be given (i 



CHOKING— CHOLERA, ENGLISH. 



45 



Prescriptions Nos. 13 and 14, or 26). 
If the light colour of the stools indi- 
cate an absence of bile, the pills 
(Prescription No. 11 or 12) may 
be given. After this point has 
been attended to, the general health 
and irregularity of menstruation 
will be improved by either of the 
tonics (see Prescriptions Nos. 
8, 32, 39, 41, 44). The operation 
of these medicines will be aided by 
the shower-bath, hip-bath, or cold 
sponging, followed by friction of 
Ihe sor&ce of the body by means 
of a rough towel. 

A diet of meat, beer, wine, &c., 
with change of scene, and exercise 
in the open air, will greatly contri- 
bute to the restoration of health. 



CHOKING. (See Accidentt,) 



CHOLERA, ENGLISH-BILIOUS. 

Bowel Complaint, 

Symptoms. 

Pain and griping in the bowels ; 
copious and frequent purging of 
bilious motions. Vomiting of bile. 
Cramps of the legs and thighs. 
Headache, thirst, furred tongue. 
Urine scanty and high-coloured. 
The pulse, at first fall and frequent, 
becomes smaller and weaker as the 
disease advances; the skin also 
becomes cold and clammy, and even 
bluish in extreme cases. 

Causes. 

Disorder of the liver; exposure 
to great heat of sun; changes of 
temperature ; cold and moisture to 



the feet ; cold drinks, or ices taken 
when the body is heated; unripe 
and indigestible fruits; intemper- 
ance. Climate (bilious cholera 
prevails extensively in southern 
climates, in situations subject to 
emanations from putrid or decaying 
vegetable matters. It also occurs 
epidemically in colder countries 
during the autumn months after 
rainy springs or summers). 
Treatment. 

In a mild or slight attack, take 
weak broths, &c.: abstain from usual 
full diet. Best, and allow the 
action of the bowels to carry off the 
disordered bile that is the cause of 
the attack. 

In the severer form of attack, 
which is attended with much pain, 
cramps, &c., warm fomentations 
should be applied to the surface of 
the abdomen, or a mustard plaster 
on the pit of the stomach, to allay 
sickness. Friction or hot bottles to 
the extremities. Opium, to relieve 
the pain and cramps, is best given 
in the form of a pill, as less Ukely 
to be rejected by the stomach than 
laudanum ; a grain taken at once, 
followed by a half-grain pill, to be 
repeated every one, two, or three 
hours, according to the severity of 
the symptoms, or according as they 
give way or not. (It is to be borne 
in mind that these doses of opium 
are prescribed for adults — ^not for 
children : for these, see DiarrJicea 
in Children, and Table of Medicines,) 

The purging may be checked at 
the same time that the spasms are 
allayed by the mixture (Prescription 
No. 82, or No. 70 with or without 
the addition of a few drops of lau- 
danum). 



46 CHOLEKA, SPASMODIC, ASIATIC, MALIGNANT. 



CHOLERA, SPASMODIC, ASIA- 
TIC, OR MALIGNANT. 

Symptoms. 

Ist stage, — Premonitory loose- 
ness of the bowels, lasting for 
several days, or a few hours, gene- 
rally with little or no pain. 

2nd stage, — Suddenly the patient 
has a sinking feeling, or faintness, 
sickness, and a profuse watery 
purge. This is rapidly followed by 
vomiting, and purging of thin 
motions resembling rice-water, or 
thin gruel ; often with a peculiarly 
offensive odour. Severe cramps 
attack the muscles of the abdomen, 
thighs, legs, hands and arms. 
The tongue is cold ; there is great 
thirst. The urine is suppressed. 
The surface of the body is cold, 
and bathed in clammy sweat, and 
acquires a bluish tint. The pulse 
small, rapid, and soon impercep- 
tible. The voice has a peculiar 
whispering character. 

Canses. 

The immediate cause of cholera — 
the material poison, or something, 
whatever it may be, that gives rise 
to these formidable symptoms — 
has not yet been discovered. The 
means by which it is spread are, 
however, better understood than 
they were. 

The latest observations resolve 
these into atmospheric influence, or 
the epidemic constitution of the 
atmosphere ; and a material sub- 
stance undergoing increase or de- 
velopment within the human body, 
propagated by contagion, under 
certain favourable conditions of 



warmth, foul air, dampness, want 
of cleanliness, &c. 

Dr. Snow's theory, which is 
supported by a vast array of facts, 
accounts for the spread of cholera 
through the agency of water which 
has by various means become 
contaminated. The poison having 
been in this way swallowed, acts 
directly upon the internal surface 
of the intestines, becomes there 
multiplied and reproduced, passes 
out by the matters vomited or 
purged, further to contaminate 
drinking water or to be conveyed 
to others through want of care and 
cleanliness, and so propagate the 
disease. This theory explains most 
of the facts connected with the 
spread of cholera which are left 
unexplained by other theories. 

Cholera, however, is known to 
spread from town to town in a dis- 
proportionate rate as regards sex, 
and under certain atmospheric con- 
ditions which Dr. Snow's theory 
has not at present explained. 

Among the predisposing causes 
of Asiatic cholera are to be enume- 
rated : — Impure air, indiscretion in 
diet, bad food, intemperance, want 
of cleanliness, insufficient clothing, 
purgative medicines, excessive fa- 
tigue, fear, previous disease, preg- 
nancy. 

Treatment. 

\st stage. — ^For the diarrhoea 
which generally precedes cholera, 
give the chalk or creosote mixture 
(see Prescriptions Nos. 70 and 82) ; 
or if the purging be watery, like 
thin gruel or rice-water, the follow- 
ing draught, recommended and tried 
with success by Dr. Fuller, of St. 
George's Hospital : — 



CHOLERA— CHOREA. 



47 



Dilute Salphuric Acid... idr. 

Tincture of Opium 20 drops. 

Water, a wine-glassful. 

This dose may be repeated every 
two hours (omitting the opium) 
until six or eight doses are 
given. 

Perfect stillness in a reclining 
posture must be observed, and heat 
applied to the surface of the body 
and limbs, by means of hot bottles, 
heated bricks, bags of hot salt or 
Band, &c. Mustard plaster may be ap- 
pliedto the pit of the stomach, or the 
abdomen may be covered with hot 
flannels sprinkled with spirits of 
turpentine. Cold water may be 
freely given to drink. 

If the above-named medicines do 
not give relief, or the case passes 
into collapse, give — 

Calomel 1 gr. 

Opium i gr. 

Every twenty minutes. 

The severe pain of the cramps 
may be relieved by doses of twenty 
or thirty drops of ether, or from 
three to five drops of chloric 
ether every half-hour. 

During the state of collapse, the 
same treatment should be persevered 
with, except that stimulants should 
be given more frequently, diminish- 
ing the opium. 

The consecutive fever which oftea 
follows the subsidence of the cholera 
symptoms, is of the typhoid charac- 
ter, and should be treated accord- 
ing to the directions for typhoid 
fever (see Typhvs), It must be 
borne in mind, however, that the 
object here is to restore the urinary 
secretion : diuretics must therefore 
not be forgotten (see Prescrip- 
tion No. 72). 



CHOREA. St. ntut't Dance. 
Symptoms. 

After some time of indefinite ill 
health, such as derangements of the 
stomach and bowels, diminished 
activity, fretfulness, &c., irregular 
movements of the voluntary mus- 
cles are observed. Twitchings, ^c. 
of the muscles of the face are pro- 
bably first noticed. The ordinary 
movements of the arms and legs 
become interfered with by involun- 
tary jerking of the muscles, so that 
the patient has a jumping, starting, 
or palsied walk. Speech and arti- 
culation become difficult, the mouth 
distorted, the eyes roll about, and 
as the disease becomes confirmed 
the movements of the limbs are con- 
vulsive and grotesque. The bowels 
are generally costive. 

Causes. 

Predisposing. — ^It is much more 
frequently seen in girls than boys. 
Its most common period of life 
from seven to fifteen years ; but it 
may occur later. Nervous tempe- 
rament. Hereditary predisposition. 
Anything that causes general de- 
bility or depression of the vital 
powers, as excessive or premature 
exertion of the intellect, affections, 
or passions. Derangements of the 
digestive organs ; insufficient diet ; 
impure air. 

Exciting.— Fright ', irritation of 
worms; irritation of cutting the 
permanent teeth ; rheuimatic fever ; 
the influence of imagination ; con- 
cealed mental emotions; vicious 
habits; costiveness; irregular or 
retarded menstruation. 



CLEEGYMAN'8 SORE-THROAT— COLD— COLIC. 

bility; Btnunous constitution ; abuse 
PurgativeB (see PrescriptioiiB of tobacco-Bmokiug. 
Noa. 16, 16, 23, 26), to be selected 
accordiug to the agcaud condition of 
the health which may be regarded 
as the predispoMng caasea. Tonics 
are usrful in all cases, as the dis- 
mtiaUy one of debility 
diminished nervous enei^ (see 
PrescriptionB Sob. 32, 84, 37, 38, 
"I, 40, 46, 80, 81, 82). 

Cold bathing; shower-bath; nu- 
tritious diet ; change of air. 



Application of a solution of ni- 
trate of silver, in the strength of a 
drachm to an ounce of water. 
Tonics, &o., change of air, cessation 
from use of the voice. 



CLEBGTHAH'S SOSE-THBOAT. 

The earliest indications are not 
different from those of ordinary 
sore-throat, with some little irrita- 
tion about the organs of voice. 
Then follow hoarseness, gradually 
increasing, and constant ; difficulty 
in speaking or reading aloud; pain 
and soreness about the larynx. 
The voice may even be totally 
extinguished ; or if by great effort 
the patient essays to speak aloud, 
the vocal resonance is uneven, 
harsh, and discordant. A thick 
tenacious phlegm is hawked up, 
but there is no cough. On look- 
ing into the throat, the back part 
has a raw granular look, or is 
studded with reddish raised s^iecks. 
The surface will be seen strei^ed or 
coated with thick yellowish mucna 
or phlegm. 

Long-oontinned employment of 
the voice, as required by the pro- 
fession of clergymen, barristers, 
members of parliament, &c. De- 



COLD- (See Catairli.) 



COLD IN THE HEAD. C-i'^'^' 
(See CatarrA.) 



COLIC. Flaiitlmt CotU; Painlerl^ Colte; 
DimntJure Calic i Iliac Pattion, or 
Ileat. 

Symptoois. 

These several varieties of colic 
have much the same symptoms; 
bnt the variety depends upon the 
cause, and therefore influences the 
treatment. Severe griping and 
twisting pains in the bowels ; flatu- 
lency; vomiting; costiveness. The 
pains are intermittent, sometimes 
going off entirely, and are relieved 
by steady firm pressure. 

The tongue may or may not be 
furred . The pulse is not usually ac- 
celerated at &^t, or unless the attack 
be severe. 

In some severe cases the action 
of the bowels becomes reversed, 
vomiting of feces takes place. 
This form is called Ileus, or Jliae 
Pattion. 

DittiwstiM tymptonu. — Colic may 
be mistaken for inflammation, and 



mee vertd. In inflammation of the 
bowels, pressure aggmvateB pain 
rather than telierea it; the pain 
cornea on gradually, and is more 
constant ; the pulse is aharp and 
frequent ; there is more or less 
fever. Costireness from spasm 
of the bowels is often one of the 
first signs of inflammation of the 
bowel — and colic may also lead to 
inflammation. Severtheleas, the 
treatment for coKc may safely be 
adopted when the symptoms indi- 
cate it. Hernia, or rupture in a 
state of " strangulation," may be 
overlooked, and taken to be colic 
(see Ruptare). 



Severe spasm of the muscular 
fibres of the bowels, induced by ex- 
posure to cold; costiveuess; indi- 
gestible food ; acid and imperfectly 
fermented beverages, — as wines, 
spirits, cyder, &c. ; injudicious use 
of purgative medicines ; poisonous 
fimgi, fish, &o. ; metallic poisons, 
as lead; irritation of teething, in 
children. In the Jliae Passion, or 
the slercoraceoua colic, the move- 
ments of the intestines being re- 
versed, a lower portion thereof 
sometimes slips into that above it, 
and causes what is called " stran- 
golation," a physical obstruction 
to the passage of the contents of the 
bowel. In children, however, this 
not infrequently happens, and rights 
itself, or exists without producing 
symptoms. 



1. In common eoliejrom cold or eot- 
tivenets. — Fomentations ofhot water, 
with tnrpentioe; or mustard plasters 
to the abdomen. If these and the 



medicines do not quickly give relief 
a hot bath at 90° raised gradually 
to 110° should be used. For an 
adult, take of caster oil one ounce, 
laudanum twenty to forty drops, 
according to the age and severity 
of the pain. If need be, repeat 
every two hours, for three times. 
Assist the action of these by 
clysters of turpentine and castor 
oil (see Ch/sters, Prescriptiou 
65), adding, if the pain continue 
severe, thirty or forty drops of lau- 
danum to each. 

2. If the colic be traceable to 
sour beverages, unripe fruit, poi- 
Bonous fish or fungi, or other indi- 
geatible food, let an emetic of 
mustard or ipecacuanha (see Pre- 
scription No. 7) be taken immedi- 
ately ; at the same time fomenta- 
tions or hot bath ; then follow up by 
castor oil, as above ordered. 

3. In painiere' coUc, or that 
from lead poisoning, give at once 
thirty or forty drops of laudanum, 
hot bath, &c., then a mixture of 
Epsom salts and alum, and opium 
(see Prescription No, 83). 

4. In the colic of inf^ts and 
children, give warm cordial mag- 
nesian or antacid mixtures (see 
Prescriptions Nos. 16 and 17), 

N,B. Be very carefiil in giving 
opium to young children. 

Alteratives and tonics (see Pre- 
scriptions Nos. 8, 30, 39, and List 
of Medicines) are reqiiired after the 
attack, in order to prevent a 
relapse. 

A more important means of pre- 
vention is the avoidance of the 
causes. Painters, or persons usii^ 
white lead or other metallic pre- 
parations, cannot be too particular 



50 



COMA— COI^GESTIO]^— COI^SUMPTION. 



in washing their hands before eating, 
and in observing personal cleanli- 



ness. 



COMA. Lethargy. 

Symptoms. 

Unnatural and irresistible sleep, 
with general torpitude of the mus- 
cles, and suspension of mental 
powers. Pull, slow, often irregular 
pulse; the breathing slow; the 
pupils sluggish to the action of 
light; the countenance heavy, and 
without expression. 

These symptoms may pass off 
entirely, or terminate in death, 
apoplexy, paralysis, convulsions, 
or inflammation of the brain. 

Causes. 

This affection is in the majority of 
cases but one of the symptoms occur- 
ring in the course of diseases of the 
brain. It may, however, be caused 
primarily by intense cold (as tra- 
vellers in the arctic regions have 
sometimes found to their peril), by 
narcotic poisons, intemperance, ex- 
cessive fatigue, depressing passions, 
injuries to the brain. 

Treatment. 

1. When lethargy comes on in- 
dependently of other diseases, a 
few leeches to the temple, or behind 
the back, a blister plaster to the 
nape of the neck ; a purgative (see 
Prescription No. 12) 5 clysters of 
turpentine(see Prescription !N'o. 65). 

2. "When it occurs in the course 
of other diseases it is to be treated 
with respect to those. 



CONCUSSION. (See Accidents, or 
Brain, Concussion 0/.) 



CONGESTION. 

The state of excessive fulness of 
the blood-vessels of an organ. The 
symptoms to which it gives rise 
may be found under the name of 
each organ : e. g. see Brain, Con- 
gestion of; Liver , Congestion of, &c. 



CONSTIPATION. (See Bowels, Con- 
stipation of.) 



CONSUMPTION. 

Symptoms. 

1. Those indicating the approach 
of the disease. — General debility, 
languor, susceptibility to colds, 
indigestion, irregularity of the 
bowels, loss of flesh, short dry 
cough. In females, menstruation 
becomes irregular. 

2. Of the disease established. — 
The preceding symptoms fluctuating 
for a longer or shorter time, some- 
times almost entirely disappearing 
under favourable weather or great 
care ; sometimes aggravated by ex- 
posure to cold, changes of tempera- 
ture, extra exertion or fatigue. 
The loss of flesh becomes more 
evident; cough more troublesome, 
and is attended with expectoration 
of thick phlegm, sometimes with 
blood. The tone of the voice 



CONSUMPTION— CONYULSIOI^S. 



51 



alters, respiration is quickened, 
profuse night sweats, diarrhoea. 
Under all these symptoms the 
patient gradually sinks, or may be 
carried off by sudden heBmorrhage 
froni the lungs. 

Causes. 

The deposit of a substance called 
"tubercle" in the lungs. The 
conditions which induce this are 
hereditary tendency, the age of 
puberty, and all those circumstances 
which produce general debility. 
Among these are matrimonii 
alliance between consumptive indi- 
viduals, mismanagement during 
infancy, excessive fatigue, dissipa- 
tion and irregular living, prolonged 
mental efforts, anxiety; deficient 
food, clothing, and light; impure 
air; inhalation of irritating particles, 
as in various trades ; any drain on 
the constitution, such as excessive 
menstruation or too long nursing. 

Treatment. 

If possible, avoid all the above- 
mentioned depressing agencies. 
Seek a genial climate ; wear a 
respirator, such as will permit of 
following healthy out-door occu- 
pation ; take regular and moderate 
exercise; protect against exposure to 
extreme changes of temperature, as 
from heated rooms to cold, damp air, 
with insufficient clothing, thin shoes, 
&c. Shun tight-lacing, which will 
prevent the free expansion of the 
lungs. 

Although consumption is not 
proved to be contagious, it is desi- 
rable that where a suspicion of 
constitutional tendency to the dis- 
ease exists, the person should avoid 



breathing the impure air expired 
by a consumptive patient, as it 
is unwholesome under any circum- 
stances. 

When the disease is established, 
the diet must be nutritious, con- 
sisting chiefly of milk and farina- 
ceous substances, and meat. Where 
the loss of flesh and the debility 
are great and rapid, a fuller quan- 
tity of meat must be taken, with 
porter, wine, &c. The medicinal 
measures will be confined to reliev- 
ing symptoms as they occur. Tonics, 
such as citrate of iron and quinine, 
together with cod-liver oil; or 
mineral acids, the muriatic, sul- 
phuric, nitric. The cough may be 
quieted by any simple mixture 
(see Prescriptions Nos. 57, 58, 55). 
Diarrhoea must also be checked by 
its appropriate remedies (see 
Prescription No. 70). Profuse 
sweating is often arrested by oxide 
of zinc (see Prescription !N'o. 84). 

Change of climate, to be of any 
service, must be adopted in the 
outset of the disease. 



CONTUSION. Bruise, (See Jccideufs.) 



CONVULSIONS. Fits, 

Symptoms. 

Sudden paroxysms of violent 
involuntary contractions of the 
muscles of a part of, or of the 
whole body and limbs. The con- 
traction may last for some time 
without relaxation, or it may alter- 



52 



CONVULSIONS— CORNS— COUGH. 



nate with relaxations at irregular 
intervals. 

Causes. 

Convulsions are, in fact, but 
symptoms of other diseases ; e, g, 
epilepsy, apoplexy, congestion, and 
other affections of the brain; 
violent mental emotion; hysteria; 
over-feeding, and the irritation 
of teething, in children ; falls on 
the head; cold; intoxication; 
exhaustion from child-birth (puer- 
peral convulsions). 

Treatment. 

1 . During the fit — Throw cold 
water on the face. Give stimulants, 
if swallowing be possible. Apply 
mustard poultices to the soles of 
the feet and calves of the legs. 

In hysterical convulsions, and 
those from intoxication, the dash 
with cold water should be employed 
very freely. 

In infantile convulsions the child 
should be placed in hot water up 
to the waist or arm-pits, at the 
same time that cold water is 
sprinkled on the face, or poured 
over the head, or applied with a 
sponge. The gums should be lanced 
if teething be a cause (see 
Teething), 

If the countenance be full and 
bloated, indicating great degree of 
congestion of the brain, a few 
leeches may be applied to the head 
in addition to the preceding mea- 
sures. 

In pmrperal convulsions, large 
bleedings have been much practised, 
but it is found that the majority 
of such cases are more speedily 
cured by an opposite, or stimulating 
plan of treatment (see Labour), 



2. Aft^ the fit the object is to 
prevent the recurrence. This is to 
be done by carefully investigating 
the cause, and treating accordingly 
(see Child'hirth, Teething, Sgsteria, 
&c. &c.) 

If over-feeding or indigestible 
food be the exciting cause in the 
case of an infant or child, an 
emetic should be given, and after- 
wards an aperient. 



GjOBNS. 

A com is a thickening of the 
skin caused by pressure or friction. 
They are of two kinds — ^hard and 
soft. Soft coniB are those which 
form between the toes, and are 
kept soft by perspiration. 

Treatment. 

Soak the feet in warm water, 
careftilly picking off the thickened 
skin, or paring it with a knife, 
taking care not to wound the tender 
skin beneath, then apply nitrate of 
silver. The root or core may be 
carefully dug out with a pointed 
instrument. After this, a thick 
plaster, with a hole in tiie centre, 
will relieve the pressure of the boot 
or shoe. 

For soft corns, daily washing. 
Pare lightiy, and gentiy touch with 
nitrate of silver. 



COUGH 

Is generally a symptom of ca- 
tarrh, or some disease of the chest 
(see Catarrh, Bronchitis, Croup, 



COUGH— CROUP. 



53 



&c.) Besides these, there are 
farms of cough which are frequently 
regarded and treated as distinct 
maladies. 

Causes. 

Nervousness ; hysteria ; derange- 
ment of the stomach and liver ; ihe 
irritation of worms; relaxation of 
the uvula. 

Treatment. 

For cough from common cold 
(see Prescriptions Nos. 55, 57, 73). 
Cough proceeding from nervousness 
or hysteria (see Prescriptions Nos. 
54, 52, 36, 30). Coughs arising 
from derangement of stomach, 
liver, and worms (see Prescriptions 
Nos. 24, 16, 15, 14). 

For relaxation of the uvula, 
apply solution of nitrate of silver 
on a camel'hair brush or sponge to 
the uvula, or use an astringent 
gargle (see Prescriptions STos. 
77 and 78). 



COUGH, CBOUPY. (See Croup; aUo 
Zaryjur and Trachea, Inflammation of,) 



COW-POX. (See Faccination,mSeotion 
on Hygiene,) 



CRAMP. (SeeSpoim,) 



CROUP. 

Symptomt. 

This disease generally commences 
with catarrh and hoarseness. Or 



perhaps without any such pre- 
monitory symptoms the patient is 
attacked (most frtK^uently in the 
night) with difficulty of breathing, 
each respiration being attcndol 
with a peculiar shrill sound, some- 
what resembling the passage of 
wind through a horn or metallic 
tube. There is a short dry cough, 
which has a peculiar barking sound, 
and is sometimes attended with 
expectoration of tube-like fragments 
of membrane. The voice is hoarse 
and grating ; the patient is feverish 
and restless; the countenance dis- 
tressed; the pulse rapid. If not 
arrested, suffocation ensues. 

Distinctive symptoms, — From 
Child-croioing (see that word). 

Caoses. 

Constitutional predisposition, and 
the age of infancy; exposure to 
cold, or to a keen easterly wind. 
Croupy cough neglected may termi- 
nate in croup. 

Treatment. 

Put the patient in a hot bath. 
Give an emetic; e,g, fifteen or 
twenty drops of ipecacuanha wine 
in a little warm water every five 
minutes, until vomiting is produced. 

While the patient is in the bath, 
apply a mustmrd plaster to the fix)nt 
of the neck and upper part of chest. 

These means, if promptly em- 
ployed, will generally arrest the 
most dangerous symptoms; but if 
time has been lost, or the disease 
does not yield, two or three leeches 
must be applied, care being taken 
that they bite over the bone of the 
upper part of the chest, as pressure 
to stop their bleeding cannot be used 



54 DANDi:.TJFF DEAFJSTESS. 


on the neck. A blister plaster 
should afterwards be applied on this 
)art for not more than two or three 
hours if the patient be a child. 

The next danger is to be appre- 
hended from the spread of inflam- 
mation to the air-tubes in the 
lungs; therefore small doses of 
calomel (or see Prescription !N"o. 
85), must be administered. The 
aperient (see Prescription No. 16) 
must be given if the bowels do not 
act freely. 

It is of ^eat importance to keep 
the temperature of the patient* s 
room uniformly warm (viz. from 
60° to 70°). If it can be managed 
that the steam of boiling water 
shall be constantly supplied to 
the atmosphere of the room, it 
will greatly assist the treatment. 
A common kettle, with a long pipe 
fixed to the spout, will answer for 
this purpose. 

A light farinaceous diet must be 
enjoined. 


Treatment. 

Frequent washing ; rubbing with 
white of egQ, or with pomatum at 
bed-time, and carefriUy washing 
with sonae mild soap the next morn- 
ing. 

Medicine is not required unless 
there be any disorder of the stomach 
or bowels. 

Attention to diet is necessary. 


DEAFNESS. (See also Ear, Inflamma- 
tion of ^c.) 

Causes. 

Obstruction of the outer passage 
of the ear by hardened wax; in- 
flammation of the passage, " gather- 
ings;" disorder of the nerve of 
the ear; diseases of the internal 
structure of the ear ; affections of 
the brain ; debility following fevers. 

Treatment. 

If from cold and hardened wax, 
syringing once or twice a day with 
wai'm soap and water. 

If from gatherings or inflamma- 
tion, a warm bread-and-water poul- 
tice, in muslin ; and the passage to 
be syringed with warm water, two 
or three times a day. 

If neither cold nor inflammation 
have produced the deafiiess, it may 
be inferred that one of the last 
causes is in operation. 

For these, apply counter-irritation 
behind the ears ; such as blisters, 
repeated mustard plasters, or sti- 
mulating liniments (see Prescrip- 
tions Nos. 75, 76). It is important 
that medicine should be given for 
the general health. 


CUTS. (See Table of Accidents, in 
Appendix^ 

DANDRUFF. Scurf, 

Symptoms. 

The production of numerous 
white scales on the skin, which 
accumulate and cause heat and ini- 
tation ; most frequently met with 
on the scalp. 

Causes. 

Delicacy of skin ; constitutional 
debility. 



DEBILITY— DELIKTUM TKEMENS. 



55 



DEBILITT. 

Symptonui. 

Languor; general weakness and 
inactivity ; pcdeness of countenance ; 
tongue moist, broad, tremulous, and 
marked at the edges with indenta- 
tions by the teeth; weakness of 
voice, and loss of muscular power ; 
coldness of the skin ; want of appe- 
tite; slu^shness of bowels; loss 
of flesh ; rapid, feeble pulse. Where 
the debility becomes extreme, the 
mental powers are impaired, and me- 
mory fails. 

Causes. 

Severe or acute illnesses ; disor- 
ders of the digestive organs; he- 
morrhages ; excessive or prolonged 
bodily or mental exertion ; intem- 
perance ; sexual excesses ; &c. 

Treatment. 

Full diet ; exercise in open air ; 
tonics, such as quinine, gentian, 
steel, &c. (see Prescriptions Nos. 
8, 30, 32, 33, 34, 37, 38, 39, &c.) 



DELIBIUM TREMENS. 

Symptoms. 

Nervousness ; restlessness and 
sleeplessness ; trembling of the hands 
and limbs ; loss of appetite ; cold- 
ness of limbs ; feebleness of pulse ; 
excessive perspiration; the tongue 
fiirred, moist, and tremulous ; dis- 
tressing dreams; excitability of 
temper; delusions of a horrible 
nature ; suspiciousness. The patient 
becomes more and more excited and 
maniacal, and unless restrained will 
do violence to himself or others. 



Causes. 

Intemperance in alcoholic drinks, 
and opium-eating, are the predis- 
posing causes. 

In persons thus predisposed, an 
attack may be excited by any cir- 
cumstance which depresses the vital 
powers, such as sudden deprivation 
of the accustomed stimulus ; loss of 
blood ; severe illnesses ; the shock 
of any severe injury or accident. 

Treatment. 

Opium must be freely given in 
doses depending on the severity of 
the attack, the age and strength of 
the patient, and the duration of the 
habits of intoxication. As this is a 
dangerousmedicine, yet is absolutely 
necessary, we will state the greatest 
quantity wHch may be safely given 
by a non-professional person in an 
extreme case. To a strong-built 
man about forty years of age, with 
all the symptoms fully developed, 
give half a drachm of laudanum in 
half a pint of porter, or in a glass of 
spirits. Half these quantities may 
be repeated every two hours, for 
twelve hours, imless sleep is pro- 
duced in the meantime. If there 
should be much heat about the head, 
or general feverishness, as does but 
rarely occur, a quarter of a grain of 
tartar emetic may be added to each 
dose of laudanum. 

"When sleep has been obtained, 
purgatives of calomel with anti- 
spasmodics should be given (see 
Prescriptions Nos. 12, 15, 52, 53). 
Sickness or nausea may be relieved 
by a drop of creasote in a littie 
spirit and water. 

The after-treatment must consist 
in tonics (see Prescriptions Kos. 30, 



56 



DIABETES. 



33, 34, 42, 43), and the gradual 
diminution or abstraction of stimu- 
lants. 

The diet during the attack should 
be light, but nutritious; such as 
strong beef-tea, broths, &c., with 
the addition of the accustomed 
stimulus in smaller quantities. 



DENTITION. {^Qf^ Teething.) 



DIABETES. 

Symptoms. 

The discharge of very large quan- 
tities of urine, of a pale straw or 
greenish colour, containing sugar, 
having a peculiar odour, like milk 
or violets. This morbid condition 
comes on insidiously, and is probably 
not noticed until it has existed some 
time. It is attended by constitu- 
tional symptoms, which also are at 
first slight and indefinite, but after 
a while become distinct and urgent. 
These are-debiUty; dryness of 
mouth and throat ; loss of flesh ; 
great thirst ; a dry red tongue ; in- 
creased appetite ; costiveness ; pains 
in the loins and pit of the stomach ; 
chilliness. As the disease advances 
all these symptoms become greatly 
aggravated ; the spirits become de- 
pressed, or the mind anxious, list- 
less, weak, or peevish; the legs 
swell, and the patient sinks. 

Diabetes always shows a grave 
disorder of the kidneys and diges- 
tive organs. It was formerly re- 
garded as invariably fatal. As, 
however, the condition of the urine 



in disease is now more accurately 
investigated, the presence of sugar 
in the urine is found frequently 
to be a temporary occurrence. 
Diabetes is also now more readily 
detected in its early stages. In 
order to attain this object, so im- 
portant to efficient treatment, we 
give the following tests :— 

1. Pour a few drops of the sus- 
pected urine on a white plate, placed 
near a fire, or on the hob ; while 
warm, drop a few drops of strong 
sulphuric acid^and continue the heat. 
If the urine contain sugar, the spot 
where the acid comes in contact 
with the urine wiU first become deep 
brown, and then black, by the 
charring of the sugar. ^ If no sugar 
be present, the urine is changed to 
a pale orange colour. 

2. Place a small quantity of the 
urine in a test-tube, or watch-glass ; 
add half its quantity of strong solu- 
tion of potash; heat the mixture 
carefully over the flame of a spirit- 
lamp ; and the pale mixture will be- 
come of a deep brown colour. 

3. Add a little yeast to the urine, 
and expose it to a temperature of 
about 80° ; the mixture will soon 
become turbid, and ferment, pro- 
ducing a frothy scum havinga vinous 
odour. 

4. Allow the urine slowly to 
evaporate for some time by a gentle 
heat, and a treacly liquid, or syrnp, 
will be formed. 

There are other more exact tests 
than these, but they are more com- 
plicated and difficult to perform. 

Causes. 

These are not clearly made out. 
They are, however, usually referred 



DIABETES— DIARRHCEA. 



67 



to chronic disorders of the digestive 
oi^ans, kidneys, or lungs. 

TrefttuMiit. 

An essential part of the treat- 
ment consists in a rigid attention to 
diet. Eor this purpose we give a 
list of articles to be taken, and those 
to be avoided. 

1. Articles to he taken, — Mutton 
or beef two or three times a day. 
Ham or bacon occasionally, poultry, 
game, fish, shell-fish, cheese, eggs, 
sausages, brawn. Of vegetables : 
cabbfi^e, greens, spinach, water- 
cress. Condiments such as pickle, 
salt, mustard, pepper, &c. A very 
small proportion of farinaceous 
matters ; such as brown bread, rice, 
&c. Beverages: water, beef-tea, 
broths, milk in moderation, sherry, 
brandy and water, tea, coffee, or 
cocoa free firom sugar. 

2. Articles to he avoided, — ^All 
sweet and starchy vegetables and 
fruits ; especially apples, pears, and 
potatoes. Arrow-root, stt^ar in any 
shape, pastry, biscuits, cakes, &c. 
Ifalt liquors and sweet wines. 

The medicines found mostlyuseful 
are : opium, in doses of from a 
quarter to one grain three times a 
day, according to the duration of 
the disease ; mineral acids, tonics, 
&c. (see Prescriptions 40, 41, 45). 



DIABBHCEA. Bowel Complaint, 

Symptoms. 

Frequent loose evacuations from 
the bowels, sometimes with con- 
siderable pain before and at the time 
of the action of the bowels ; some- 



times with nausea, vomiting, and 
cramps. 

Causes. 

The irritation of improper articles 
of food ; excessive or vitiated bile ; 
exposure to cold ; extreme heat and 
vicissitudes of weather ; morbid se- 
cretions from the bowels themselves; 
abuse of purgatives. In infants : — 
dentition, weaning, hand-nursing, 
cholera-poison; chronic disease in 
general. 

Treatment. 

Where the diarrhoea has been ex- 
cited by improper articles of food, 
or by bilious derangement or morbid 
secretions, it will generally subside 
of itself in a few hours after the 
offending material has been carried 
off. If, however, the symptoms 
show no disposition to subside, a 
few doses of calomel and opium, 
followed by a warm aperient, should 
be taken (see Prescriptions Nos. 27, 
28, 29): if the purging continue, 
give an astringent mixture (see 
Prescriptions Nos. 70 or 82). 
Opiates, if much pain. The diarrhoea 
caused by cold, or atmospheric 
influences, or from abuse of purga- 
tives, should at once be checked by 
opium or some warm astringent (see 
I^escriptions Nos. 70 or 82). 

In infants during teething the 
gums should be lanced, alteratives 
and aromatic antacids be given 
(see Prescriptions ITos. 16 and 17). 

Eor the treatment of choleraic 
diarrhoea, see Cholera. 

External warmth, mustard plas- 
ters, will be usefrd to relieve pain 
in all varieties. The diet must be 
nutritious and unirritating; e, g. 



58 



DEOPSY— DYSENTEEY. 



meat, bread, beef-tea, rice, arrow- 
root, brandy and water. 

The treatment of diarrboea from 
chronic disease, e. g, in the course of 
consumption, should be treated ac- 
cording to the directions given under 
the name of each disease. 

If the diarrhcea has been of long 
standing, i, e, chronic, tonics will 
be found useful, if creasote fail 
(see Prescriptions Nos. 30, 32, 37, 
45, 46). 



DROPSY. 

Symptoms. 

EjQFosion of the watery part of 
the blood into the natural cavities 
of the body, or beneath the skin 
either of a limited portion or of 
the entire surface of the body. 

Causes. 

Pre-existing disease of inter- 
nal organs; suppression of per- 
spiration from exposure to cold; 
debility from loss of blood, or from 
long-standing disease, such as con- 
sumption, fevers, &c. Acute or 
chronic inflammation of the mem- 
branes lining the principal cavities ; 
congestion of the kidneys after or 
during scarlatina. 

Treatment. 

1. General OT infla/mmatory dropsy, 
or anasarca. — This proceeds either 
from debility or from inflammation ; 
in the former case it is to be 
treated by tonics, diuretics, and 
purgatives (see Prescriptions Nos. 
8, 31, 34, 36, 39, 42, 44, 9, 12, 
&c.) The inflammatory or febrile 
dropsy of the surface of the body. 



which suddenly follows on scarla- 
tina or from exposure to cold, is to 
be treated by hot baths, diapho- 
retics and purgatives (see KiAney, 
Diseases of — see also TahU of Medi- 
cines'), 

2. Dropsy of the head. — (See 
Brain, Chronic Inflammation of.) 

3. Dropsy of the chest. — Gene- 
rally comes on after long-standing 
disease of the heart or lungs ; from 
pleurisy; or during an attack of 
inflammatory dropsy. It is attended 
with great distress in the breath- 
ing ; inability to lie down ; extreme 
anxiety and pallor of countenance, 
and cold clammy sweat. 

It is to be treated with reference 
to the nature of the disease from 
which it proceeds. 

4. Dropsy of the abdomen proceeds 
from diseases of the liver, spleen, 
heart, &c., and the treatment must 
depend on the nature of these. 

5. Dropsy of the scrotum is a 
disease usually somewhat slow in 
its course. The only treatment that 
is of avaQ is removal of the fluid 
by tapping. This operation should 
not be attempted by any non-pro- 
fessional person. As, however, the 
affection itself is unattended with 
danger, its inconvenience can be 
endured until an opportunity offers 
of consulting a surgeon. 



DYSENTERY. Bloody Flux. 

Symptoms. 

Shivering; heat; thirst; flatu- 
lence; frequent inclination to ac- 
tion of the bowels, attended with 
straining, and preceded by griping; 



DYSENTERY. 



59 



loss of appetite ; nausea; vomitiDg; 
rapid pulse ; uiine scanty and high 
coloui^. The evacuations, at first 
of a costive character, become 
scanty, relaxed, mixed with mucus, 
matter, and blood. If the disease 
becomes chronic, emaciation and 
debility follow, with fever of a low 
or typhoid character. 

It is distinguished from diarrhcea 
by the scantiness of the evacuations, 
the violence of the straining, and 
the presence of fever. 

I)ysenteryis sometimes infectious, 
diarrhoea is not. 

Diarrhcea is apt to become dysen- 
tery. 

Causes. 

1. Predisposing, — Cold and va- 
riable weather after prolonged hot 
and moist seasons ; debilitated habit 
of body ; deficient and unwholesome 
food ; impure air, and fatigue. 

2. Exciting, — Exposure to cold ; 
damp clothes ; sour or imripe fruit ; 
tainted food; intemperance; and 
contagion. 

Treatment. 

The following indications should 
be held iu view, bearing in mind 
that the remedies must be employed 
with due regard to the individual 
condition of the patient, and the 
acute or chronic character of the 
disease. 

1. Remove from sphere of action 
of the predisposing causes,- by re- 
moval to pure air and a healthy 
situation, and by relinquishment 
of bad habits of living, &c. 

2. Subdue inflammatory symp- 
toms ; — ^if the pulse be ftdl, by 
leeching, hot bath, fomentations, 
with or without turpentine, or 



blisters without leeching if the 
patient be debilitated ; this indica- 
tion is further to be followed by — 

3. Promoting the action of the 
skin and kidney by use of Dover's 
powder, and salines (see Prescrip- 
tions Nos. 4 and 5). In addition 
to the Dover's powder, small doses 
of mercury (see Prescription No. 
20), clysters of two or three ounces 
of cold starch or gruel, with fifteen 
or twenty drops of laudanum, will 
relieve the pain of the straining. 

4. Remove by gentle means the 
collection of morbid secretions in 
the bowels. K at first there have 
not been frequent action of the 
bowels, and the abdomen feels ftdl, 
as from loaded bowels, — and if the 
tongue be much furred, — ^it will be 
well to give a dose of castor oil to 
begin with. This should be re- 
peated, or a dose of rhubarb and 
magnesia given, every two or 
three days, to keep the bowels clear 
from irritating or acrid secretions, 
which further aggravate the symp- 
toms. 

5. Support the vital powers, and 
improve the general state of the 
health, by means of tonics (see 
Prescriptions N^os. 30, 33, 34, 36, 
37, 43) with a light nutritious diet 
of milk, eggs, beef-tea, &c. ; wine 
if the pulse be feeble. 

Dysentery in England is a much 
milder and more tractable disease 
thaninhotcliraates, especiallyamong 
Europeans. In persons of colour it 
is also generally disposed to assume 
a low or typhoid character, and calls 
for tonics with opiates, and care- 
ful abstinence from depletion. 

In these, as in chronic dysentery, 
metallic salts, as sugar of lead. 



60 EARACHE— EAE, NOISES IN ; INFLAMMATION OF. 



sulphate of copper, &c. (see Pt*- 
acriptiona Nob. 21, 37, 40, 41, 46), 
are of great eetvico, combined -with 
the general treatment above meu- 
tioned. 



STSPEPSIA. (See £.%«tfi(»<.) 



■ymptoBiH. 

Severe pain attacking one or both 
ears ; geneiallT coming on suddenly, 
irith or without inflammatory 
swelling of the ear-paasage; often 
suddenly Bubrading. 

Inflammation of the outer pas- 
eage ; foreign bodies, as iuBects, &o., 
in the ear; irritation in teething, or 
from an inflamed tooth ; neuralgia 
or nerve-ache of the nerves of the 
face or head ; inflammation in the 
bonea of the skull ; rheumatiam. 
TreMmeut. 

Syringing; warm fomentations or 
potdtices i a few dropa of laudanum 
on cotton wool inserted into the 
outer paaaage ; coiuif«r-irritation by 
must^ plaster; or the liniment, 
Prescription No. 75 or 76, behind 
the ears ; attention to the generaJ 
health. 



EAB, NOISES IN. 



A sense of sounds of sharp shrill 
ringing, or whizzing, roaring, buz- 



zing, or throbbing characters, in 
one or both ears, without an out- 
ward or distant cause. 

ObstructJon to the free circulation 
of air in the paasages of the ear ; 
irregular circulation of the blood, or 
congestion of the vessels of the 
brain near the internal ear, proceed- 
ing from indigestion, hysteria, 
catarrh, the pressure of swollen 
glands in the neck; a hardened 
state of the wax of the ear. 
TreMMeM. 

Warm fomentations, or syringing 
with warm water ; blisters or mus- 
tard plasters behind the ears ; re- 
medies suited to the deranged stete 
of the digestive oi^ans, or of ttie 
general health. 



EAB, IHFLAHUATION OF. 
Bjtnptmaui. 

Dull beavy pain in the ear, 
gradually increasing in severity ; 
augmented by pressure,or by moving 
the jaw ; hearing impaired or con- 
fused ; headache ; fever. Dischai^ 
of a thin or mattery fluid from the 
passage. 

When the inSammatioQ is con- 
fined to the inner ear, the pain and 
headache are more intense, there are 
noises in the ear, the fever and other 
constitutional symptoms are much 
more severe; delirium sometimes 
occurs, the &ce becomes anxious, 
the skin hot, the pulse fuller and 
more rapid. After lasting a vari- 
able period, from two to forty days, 
these symptoms subside, or termi- 



ECZEMA. 



61 



nate by a discharge of matter from 
the outer passage^ or by the internal 
passage into the throat ; or by an 
external abscess behind the ear ; or 
by still more serious disease of the 
bones of the skull, leading to fatal 
disease of the brain. 

Causes. 

Scrofulous constitution ; denti- 
tion; exposure to cold; eruptiye 
fevers ; falls on the head. 

Treatment. 

Leeching behind the ear; calomel 
and opium (see Prescription "No. 1 8) ; 
warm poultices and fomentations; 
blister plasters, &c. 

If the disease has passed into a 
chronic state, as evidenced by the 
persistence of discharge from the ear, 
with most of the other symptoms 
in less degrees of severity, blisters 
should be applied behind the ears, 
astringent injections (see Prescrip- 
tion No. 86), tonics, and other 
general means of improving the 
health. 



ECZEMA. Humid Tetter; Scall ; 
Oroeers' and Bakert^ Itch, 

Symptom. 

An eruption of minute vesicles, 
or watery pimples, in great num- 
bers, close together, upon a surface 
of irregular form and of consider- 
able extent. Sometimes the vesicles 
are so closely collected as to form 
one large inflamed surface. The 
vesicles (fay up and form thin crusts 
and scales, or they burst and a thin 
watery fluid exudes. The eruption 
may be situated upon limited por- 



tions of the body, or in many places 
at the same time. 

The disease may be acute or 
chronic. 

Camses. 

Constitutional disturbance; local 
irritants, as sugar, flour, soda, soap, 
&c. among grocers, laundresses, &c. ; 
affections of the digestive organs; 
dentition. 

Treatment. 

According to the severity of the 
case, the constitutional affection 
must be more or less actively treated. 
Without this, local or external ap- 
plications will be of but little use. 

In the acute form the simple warm 
water dressing of lint and oil silk, or 
local warm bath. Lotions of Gou- 
lard water (see Prescription No. 47), 
or solution of nitrate of silver of the 
strength of about four grains te the 
ounce of water. The itehing may 
be relieved by the addition of 
laudanum te the lotion (see Pre- 
scription N'o. 87). 

Chronic eczema, like most chronic 
skin diseases, is a very obstinate 
malady, and will require variation 
in treatment. Any one or more of 
the following will be found useful 
in some cases, but not in others ; 
therefore, if after a few days' trial 
benefit is not received, a change 
should be made: — Corrosive sub- 
limate lotion consisting of from \ 
to 1 grain to the ounce of water; 
calamine ointment (Tumer'scerate) ; 
white precipitate ointment ; red pre- 
cipitate ointment; calomel and opium 
ointment (see Prescription No. 
89); tar ointment; sulphur oint- 
ment; mercurial ointment ; creasote 
lotion (see Prescription No. 63); 



62 



EPILEPSY— EEYSIPELAS. 



alkaline lotions (see Prescriptions 
Nos. 49, 50, and 5 1 ). Common chim- 
ney soot sprinkled over the inflamed 
surface is a dirty remedy, but one 
that has been recommended ; it has, 
at all events, the merit of being 
always at hand. 



EPILEPST. Tailing Sickness. 

Symptoms. 

Sudden loss of consciousness and 
sensation, with spasmodic contrac- 
tion of the voluntary muscles, 
quickly passing into convulsive dis- 
tortions, ushered in by a loud shriek 
or cry ; frothing at the mouth, fol- 
lowed by more or less deep sleep ; 
recurring in paroxysms at uncertain 
or more or less regular intervals; 
frequently occurring in the night 
during sleep ; often preceded by 
certain premonitory symptoms, such 
as giddiness, drowsiness, confusion 
of ideas, tingling of the surface, or 
a peculiar sensation as if a vapour 
were passing up the surface of the 
body from the extremities to the 
head. 

These symptoms, constituting an 
epileptic fit, may vary very much in 
severity and in duration. Some- 
times slight paralysis is left after 
the attacks. Prequent recurrence of 
the fits impairs the mental powers, 
and associates epilepsy with insanity 
or imbecility. 

Distinguished from hysterical fits 
by the absence of laughing, cry- 
ing, &c. 

Causes. 

Disorders of the brain or nervous 
system ; hereditary predisposition ; 



peculiarity of constitution; intem- 
perance; over-exertion of the mind; 
over-indulgence of the passions; 
fright ; irritation of the bowels from 
worms, &c. ; irritation of teething ; 
narcotic poisons ; suppression of 
eruptive fevers ; loss of blood ; abuse 
of the sexual functions. 

Treatment. 

Here much is to be done, in the 
way of prevention, by invigorating 
the system, removing the causes as 
far as possible, and avoiding all 
circumstances which may excite an 
attack. The various mineral and 
vegetable tonics have all been tried, 
and sometimes found successful. 
Tincture of valerian, and the several 
anti-spasmodics, have been recom- 
mended (see Prescriptions Nos. 32, 
37, 39, 41, 44, 46, 52, 53). 

During the fit but little can be 
done beyond protecting the patient 
from injuring himself. The serious 
bites of the tongue which often 
occur during the fit may be pre- 
vented by a piece of india-rubber, 
gutta-percha, or wood, placed be- 
tween the teeth. The patient should 
be ]aid down with the head and 
shoulders raised, cold water poured 
upon the head ; neckcloth, &c., 
loosened. Cramming the mouth 
with salt has been said to cut short 
the fit. 



EEYSIPELAS. St, Anthony's Fire, 

Symptoms. 

Kedness, heat, and swelling of 
the skin of any part of the body, 
spreading superficially, attended 
with feverish constitutional dis- 



EEYSIPELAS. 63 



turbance. The swelling is slight, active, an aperient should be given 

the colour shining red, disappearing (see Prescriptions No. 27 or 28). 

on slight pressure, leaving for a few This should be followed by one 

seconds a white spot or impression ounce of port wine in hot water with 

of the finger. This inflammation lemon, as negus, repeated every 

of the skin is attended with heat, four hours ; two grains of sulphate 

pricking, or burning, and a sense of of quinine in solution, or, thirty 

weight and tension. After an un- drops of muriated tincture of steel 

certain time blisters frequently form, in water, being given every six or 

containing a clear yellow fluid. The eight hours. The inflamed surface 

inflammation is prone to spread to should be painted over with a 

adjoining parts as it declines in its saturated solution of nitrate of sil- 

preceding seat. When it is situated ver. The spreading of erysipelas 

on the head and face it is attended may sometimes be arrested by apply- 

with danger, as it is then apt to ing a narrow strip of blistering 

give rise to inflammatory disorder plaster along its margin ; or, by 

of the brain. carefully marking the skin with a 

There is generally thirst, loss of moistened stick of nitrate of silver, 

appetite, rapid, and, most frequently, at about a quarter of an inch from 

a feeble pulse. the edge of the inflamed surface. 

Causes. ^^ mild cases, sprinkling the surface 

Erysipelas is a disease of debiUty. ^th Aour wiU be found serviceable. 
Certoi conditions of the atmo- The tome treatment here recom- 
8pliere,and the impioreairof crowded ^eiided is such as is generally re- 
hospitals, strongly predispose to it, Jl"""^^ ?f erysipelas at the present 
asio also habits of intemperance *™f = it must not however, be for- 
or any other causes that de/ress the gotten that this, the prevalent cha- 
vital energies, under which circum- ^"^^V"^ the disease, may at another 
stances the sUghtest wound or time be such as to require an oppo- 
Bcratch will occasion the occurrence ^^ ,f^^ ''^ treatment ; the type 
of the disease. Exposure to cold °l ^ diseases, but more especidly 
wiU excite it, without the aid of any «f erysipelas being greatly under 
wound or external injury. Indis- epidemic influences, which vary 

cretion in diet, or partaking of ^/°^ *P! ^ *^™«V ^l ""^f^ 

unwholesome food, wiU excite it, f erysipelas, now referred to, will 

where the predisposition is strong, be characterised by a higher degree 

Erysipelas becomes an infectious °"?J%' t stronger pulse, and fuUer 

disease in places where pure air, ^^'?* f ^J- .,^hey ^ill ^e most 

ventilation, and cleanliness are not f^^^^'^ T* ?* "" T^ ^^^ots 

sfaictly observed. It also occasion- rbe tieatment in such cases will 

ally prevails in an epidemic form. T "^'J^^'^^l^. *H ^"'^ !^T^ 

^ ^ above mentioned, the admimstration 

Treatment. of saline purgatives, tfttar emetic, 

If the tongue be furred, thirst &c., instead of port wine, quinine, 

urgent, and the feverish symptoms or iron. 



64 



EYE, INFLAMMATION OE. 



EXCORIATION. (Bee Abrasion.) 



ETE, INFLAMMATION OF. 

OphiAalmiM, 

Symptoms. 

1. Of mild or catarrhal inflam- 
mation. — Kedness of the surface of 
the eye, fpom fulness of the vessels 
of the outer coat, commonly called 
''bloodshot;" pain and smarting, 
as if &om particles of dust or sand 
in the eye; swelling of the mem- 
brane on the surface of the eye and 
inside of the lids. This form some- 
times terminates by the formation 
of vesicles on the eye. 

2. Of severe inflammation {puru- 
lent ophthalmia). — ^The above symp- 
toms much aggravated, and attended 
with a profuse discharge of pus or 
matter from the surface of the eyes. 
Of this there are two forms, — one 
belonging to infants, the other to 
adults. 

3. Of Borofulous inflammation. — 
In addition to the above symptoms, 
there is intense intolerance of light ; 
the patients (generally children) 
hide their faces, and keep their eyes 
shut, to avoid the pain that light 
causes. There is generally a pro- 
ftise flow of tears. This form is 
very prone to cause ulceration of 
the cornea (the transparent mem- 
brane on the front of the eye), by 
which opaque spots are formed and 
sight impaired. 

4. Of rheumatic inflammation. — 
The eye is 4ess bloodshot, but the 
pain is greater, situated in the ball 
of the eye itself, and the bones 



around the eye ; there is intolerance 
of light, and the symptoms are more 
distinctly remittent. 

5. Of inflammation of ihs cornea. — 
The tiinsparent membrane at the 
front of the eye, through which the 
light passes, loses its transparency ; 
specks form on its surface ; a pink 
ring of inflammation forms around 
its edge ; at last the specks are seen 
to have become small ulcers, which, 
perforating the membrane, let out 
the fluid from behind its inner 
surface. 

6. Of inflammation of the iris, or 
membrane which surrounds the pupil. 
-This part loses ite ordinary aspect, 
and becomes dull; its freedom of 
movement is impaired; its border 
becomes irregular ; the sight is 
dim ; there is pain, and other signs 
of inflammation, as mentioned 
above. 

7. Of inflammation of the internal 
parts and whole ghhe of the eye, — 
Severe pain, deeply seated ; sense 
of distension of the globe of the 
eye ; loss of sight ; swelling of the 
eye ; high fever. 

€«iise8. 

Exposure to cold ; various occu- 
pations ; foreign bodies in the eyes ; 
blows and other injuries ; over-use 
of the eyes; constitutional disorders; 
contagion, &c. 

Treatment. 

In all the varieties the general 
principles of treatment are the same. 
The extent to which they are to be 
applied is to be measured by the 
severity and acuteness of the symp- 
toms. Leeches to the temples ; 
blisters behind the ears ; purgatives 



FAINTING— FEVER, SIMPLE OE CONTINUED. 



65 



and salines (see Prescriptions Nos. 
1, 3, 4) ; warm fomentations, or 
cold lotions, as either may be more 
agreeable. Opiates {e, g, Dover's 
powder or laudanum), to relieve 
pain. Low diet. 

In inflammation of the entire 
structure of the globe, the greater 
severity of the affection requires 
fi-ee and repeated leeching, the ad- 
ministration of calomel (see Pre- 
scriptions No. 18 or 19), blisters, 
&c. 

In scrofulous inflammation, active 
general treatment is not required. 
The application of the stick of nitrate 
of silver, once briskly smeared upon 
the outside of the upper lid, will 
often relieve the extreme intoler- 
ance of light. In this form a tonic 
plan of treatment is earlier required 
than in most others (see Prescrip- 
tions Nos. 8, 16, 22, 80, 81). 

As the active symptoms in either 
form subside, the diet should be 
improved, tonics should be given, 
and astringent lotions made use of 
(see Prescriptions No. 86 or 87). 
Continued counter - irritation will 
be found beneficial when the in- 
flammation has passed into the 
chronic state. 



PAINTING. Swooning. 

Symptoms. 

Temporary depression of the 
animal and vital actions, with pale- 
ness, cold perspiration, pulse feeble 
or absent from the wrist, respiration 
and sensation suspended for a short 
time. 

Swooning is prolonged fainting. 



€aases. 

Strong impressions, moral or 
physical, made upon the nervous 
system; exhaustion consequent upon 
over-exertion ; fasting ; debility ; 
loss of blood ; affections of the heart ; 
sudden chauge of posture in delicate 
states of health, or in disease, e, g. 
cholera, &c. Sudden loss of large 
quantities of fluid, &c. — as in the 
operation of tapping, and after deli- 
very in child-birth. 

Treatment. 

Let the patient be laid on the 
back, and the head low ; plenty 
of fresh air ; sprinkle the face with 
cold water ; give stimulants, as 
brandy and water, or sal-volatile 
from \ drachm to 1 drachm in water, 
carefully, as the patient will not be 
able to swallow freely. 



FEVER, SIMPLE OB CON- 
TINUED. 

Symptoms. 

Lassitude ; pain in the back and 
limbs ; feebleness of bodily and 
meutal powers ; disinclination to 
exertion; thirst; loss of appetite; 
nausea; disordered bowels; urine 
scanty and high coloured; shiver- 
ing, alternating with heat of sur- 
face ; rapid pulse. 

Causes. 

Simple fever may originate of 
itself from the agency of various 
external influences, — as cold and 
damp weather, impure atmosphere, 
insufficient or improper diet ; or it 
may be what is called symptomatic, 



66 



PEVER, GASTRIC OR BILIOUS ; HECTIC. 



f. e, consequent upon inflammation 
or derangement of some organ or 
part of the body; or it may be 
attendantupon a specific eruption, — 
as small-pox; scarlatina, &c. 

Treatment. 

In simple fever, if the symptoms 
be active, an emetic (see Prescrip- 
tion !N"o. 7) should be given, fol- 
lowed by an aperient (see Pre- 
scriptions Nos. 1, 12, 27, or 28). 
Local pains may be relieved by 
mustard plasters. Salines, altera- 
tives, or diaphoretics at short in- 
tervals (see Prescriptions ITos. 4, 
20, 22 ; and TMe of Medicines). 
Sponge the surface with tepid or 
cold water. After the subsidence 
of the active symptoms, the debility 
which remains will be benefitted 
by quinine (see Prescription No. 30 
or 34). The diet, at first of the 
mildest and blandest kind, will 
afterwards require to be raised to 
the administration of strong beef- 
tea, meat, wine, &c., according to 
the degree of debility that ensues. 

Continued fever wiU generally 
run its course, which, however, is 
not definite, and either terminates 
in health or becomes typhoid. 

The fever attending inflammation 
of special organs does not call for 
separate treatment, but is involved 
in the measures employed for sub- 
duing those diseases. 



FEVER, GASTRIC OR BILIOUS, 

Is simple fever in which symp- 
toms of derangement of the stomach 
or liver predominate. It is gene- 



rally of a low character, lasting 
several weeks, and is very prone to 
become typhoid. 

Treatment. 

Salines (see Prescription l^o. 4) ; 
gentle aperients and alteratives (see 
Prescription No. 15 or 23) ; mus- 
tard plasters to the pit of the sto- 
mach. Diet of a light nutritious 
character, — such as beef-tea, arrow- 
root, milk, &c. 



FEVER, HECTIC. Bedine. 

SymptoniA. 

Emaciation ; increased frequency 
of the pulse; quickness of breathing ; 
heat of skin ; thirst; occasional 
flush on the cheek ; slight shiver- 
ings, followed by profase perspira- 
tion ; bowels irregular ; urine high- 
coloured, and depositing a brick- 
dust-looking sediment. The symp- 
toms are aggravated towards even- 
ing. The flush on the cheek 
becomes more constant as disease 
advances ; the tongue becomes dry 
and red, and thrush appears upon 
its surface; the bowels become re- 
laxed ; wasting sweats take place 
at night, or on falling asleep during 
the day-time ; the ankles and feet 
swell; and if the progress of the 
disease be not checked, the patient 
sinks from sheer debility. 

€aii8e8. 

Generally some evident or con- 
cealed chronic disease, — such as 
slow inflammation, ulceration, ab- 
scess, &c. of internal organs ; disease 
of bones; excessive sensual indul- 



FEVER, BEMITTENT OR ENDEMIC. 



67 



gences; extensiye or frequent loss 
of blood ; mental impressions ; dis- 
appointed affection ; harass and 
over-fatigae of body or mind. 

Treatment. 

Our means must be directed to 
the removal of any evident cause. 
If, however, the cause be some 
obscure or concealed malady, we 
should follow the principle of sup- 
porting the powers of the system 
by tonic medicines and a nutritious 
diet, with exercise in the fresh air, 
bathing, &c. Profiise perspiration 
may be checked by oxide of zinc 
(see Prescription No. 21 or 84). 
For diarrhoea, chalk mixture or 
creasote (see Prescription No. 70 or 
82). 



FEVER, INTERMITTENT. (See 
Jgue.) 



FEVER, REMITTENT OR EN- 
DEMIC. 

Symptoms. 

These resemble those of continued 
fever, but are more severe, and are 
preceded for several days by febrile 
premonitory symptoms. The fully- 
developed febnle symptoms continue 
from ten to eighteen hours, when 
perspiration breaks out, and the 
symptoms abate. This is a remu- 
sion, not an intermission,— eniHielj 
free from the symptoms untU the 
next paroxysm, as in ague. The 
remission generally takes place in 
the morning. These alternations are 



repeated for many days in succession, 
until they either subside with 
proftise perspiration, or gradually 
decline. 

In warm and malarious climates 
this fever assumes a more inflam- 
matory character, and attacks un- 
seasoned Europeans. The symptoms 
are all aggravated ; the impression 
made upon the system is much 
stronger; the derangement of the 
liver and stomach much severer; 
the disease, in these cases, ap- 
proaching to the characters of 
yellow fever. 

Causes. 

They are the same as operate in 
the production of ague and of con- 
tinued fever : in its essential cha- 
racters it partakes of both these 
forms of fever. Local malarious 
agencies in warm climates are its 
most frequent cause ; hence its 
name, endemic. 

Treatment. 

The same as in agues, or continued 
fevers, with the exception that the 
local inflammations, generally being 
of an acute character, require 
leeching and a more free use of 
calomel and purgatives. 

It must, however, be borne in 
mind that this, like all fevers, is 
much disposed to take on a low or 
typhoid character, as indicated by 
feebleness of pulse, increased de- 
bility and prostration, tremors of 
the Hmbs, dryness of the tongue, 
muttering delirium, &c. In these 
cases stimulants, bark, wine, beef- 
tea, &c. will be required. 

Quinine has been found by ex- 
perience, in hot climates, to be as 
valuable a remedy in remittent as 



68 



FEVER, INFANTILE REMITTENT. 



in intermittent fever or ague. It 
may be taken in doses of from two 
to five grains two or three times a 
day. 



FEVER, INFANTILE REMIT- 
TENT. Worm Fever; Gastric 
"Fever, 

Symptoms. 

Shivering ; heat of skin ; rapid 
pulse and breathing ; thirst; furred 
tongue ; headache ; intolerance of 
light ; tenderness over the stomach ; 
nausea ; vomiting ; disturbed sleep ; 
starting or moaning in sleep. 
Several or all of these symptoms 
constitute a paroxysm of tiie fever, 
occurring, mostly, during the night, 
and nearly disappearing towards 
morning. The child, however, 
continues ill : it is restless and 
fretful ; has a short dry cough ; is 
thirsty ; has a fiirred tongue, capri- 
cious appetite, disordered bowels, 
scanty and high-coloured urine. 
These symptoms may aU be much 
less severe. There may be, day 
after day, simply increasing debi- 
lity, with an indefinite feverish 
condition night after night, until 
the little patient sinks into a state 
of low fever ; or the symptoms may 
be gradually replaced by signs of 
returning health. The duration of 
the disease may be six or eight 
weeks. 

The symptoms vary almost in- 
finitely in their characters and 
degrees of severity, so that scarcely 
any two cases will be alike. Con- 
vulsions occur in some cases, and, 
as they show a state of congestion 
or irritation of the nervous centres, 



are indications of greater danger. 
Inflammation of the bowels or lungs 
may be set up in the course of the 
disease. 

Causes* 

The period of teething predis- 
poses : it may follow on other 
illnesses, or may be excited by cold, 
bad or excessive feeding. It has 
been attributed to the presence of 
worms in the intestines, — Whence one 
of its names, — but without sufficient 
reason. It sometimes prevails epi- 
demically. 

Treatment. 

The principal object in the treat- 
ment of this fever is to regulate the 
diet very strictly, giving only the 
lightest food during the severity of 
the fever ; such as arrow-root, sago, 
milk and water. As the symptoms 
amend, the diet may be increased by 
the use of beef-tea and other animal 
broths ; small quantities of wine 
and water, if the pulse be feeble. 
Perfect quietness, rest, and con- 
finement to bed, are necessary during 
the earlier and more acute period. 
A warm bath every, or every other 
night. Pure and fresh air should 
be freely admitted to the room, 
taking care that the patient be not 
chilled by too great a draught of 
air. 

As for medicines, all that are 
required are such as promote the 
action of the skin and kidneys (see 
Prescription No. 85, omitting the 
calomel). A few doses of Grey 
powder and rhubarb (see Prescrip- 
tion No. 79), to correct the state of 
the secretions of the bowels. If 
there be diarrhoea, a grain or two 
of Dover's powder. Cough may bo 



FEVER, TYPHUS AND TYPHOID. 



69 



relieved by Prescription No. 58. 
Quinine or mineral acids should be 
given as soon as signs of amend- 
ment appear. 

This fever often continues for 
several weeks; and being one of 
slow progress, improvement must 
be patiently waited for. 



FEVER, TTPHUS ft TYPHOID. 

Low Fever ; Spotted Fever ; Camp 
Fever; Hotpital Fever. 

Bymptoms. 

The disease begins with an at- 
tack of shivering, and pain in the 
back, limbs, &c. ; the febrile symp- 
toms are, however, very distinctly 
marked by evidence of constitu- 
tional debiHty, as shown in extreme 
lassitude and prostration of power. 
The pulse is rapid, but feeble ; 
the tongue, furred, soon becomes 
dry and brown, and tremulous when 
put out ; the bowels may be either 
costive or relaxed ; the urine scanty, 
and having a peculiar mouse-like 
odour ; the skin, hot and dry, may 
present on the body and arms an 
eruption, moi-e or leis distinct, very 
much resembling that of measles. 
In many cases there are also minute 
specks, technically known as Pete- 
ehuB, resembling the bites of fleas. 
Spots resembling small bruises are 
also often met with on the skin of 
patients in typhus. The period at 
which the measle-like eruption 
appears varies much, as does also 
the time of its disappearance, which 
is, however, generally about the 
end of from three to five days. 



This eruption may be distinguished 
from the petechial Bpots before 
mentioned, by their disappearing on 
pressure and readily reappearing. 

When the fever is ftdly esta- 
blished, the brain generally becomes 
affected. There are tremblings or 
twitchings of the limbs, sleepless- 
ness or distressing dreams, delirium, 
and in fatal cases coma. 

The stress of the fever may fall 
upon the lungs : there will then be 
cough, quickness of breath, aud 
perhaps pain ; but the latter may 
be entirely absent. 

These symptoms either gradually 
diminish in severity, until they 
subside ; or occasionally they subside 
by a critical perspiration, expecto- 
ration, or other discharge ; or they 
terminate by coma or exhaustion. 

Causes. 

Infection originates typhus. Ty- 
phoid fever frequently supervenes 
in the course of other fevers, in- 
flammatory diseases, and during the 
surgical treatment of serious acci- 
dents, as gunshot wounds, fractures, 
&c. The over-crowding of patients 
in the wards of hospitals generates 
an atmosphere by means of which 
typhus infection spreads to persons 
imaffected with fever, or in health 
previously. 

Treatment. 

In the outset, the same as other 
fever; but afterwards it consists 
mainly in supporting the vital 
powers by nourishment, in the shape 
of strong beef- tea, soups, &c., and 
by wine as frequently as the patient 
will bear it. This must be esti- 
mated by the effect upon the pulse. 
If, after the administration of a 



70 



FEVEE, TYPHUS AND TYPHOID; YELLOW. 



table-spoonful of port wine, the 
pulse be greatly accelerated, and 
the face become flushed, it must not 
be given again until the pulse has 
fallen in frequency. If, however, 
after a dose of wine, the pulse be- 
come less frequent, and gain in 
strength, it is safe to continue its 
administration at repjular intervals. 
This is required in almost every case. 

The medical treatment may be 
limited to a few doses of saline 
mixture (see Prescription "No, 
5), and two or three grains of 
Grey powder (mercury and chalk) 
at night. Symptoms of morbid 
action in the brain, if at the outset 
of the fever, may be mitigated by 
two, three, or four leeches, and by 
the application of cold water, or 
ice, to the head. 

Cough, or other indication of 
affection of the chest, calls for the 
application of mustard plasters. For 
diarrhoea, give chalk mixture, or 
three or four grains of Dover's 
powder. 

Extreme sleeplessness may be 
allayed by a few drops (from ten to 
twenty) of laudanum ; but this 
must be given with the greatest 
caution, as the brain in such cases 
is readily oppressed by opium. 
Quinine, in doses of half a grain, 
is useful only in the later stages of 
this fever. From ten to twenty 
drops of spirits of turpentine, given 
twice or thrice in the twenty-four 
hours, is a useful stimulus. 

It must be borne in mind that 
medicines can be of little avail in 
typhus and typhoid fever unless 
the vital powers be sustained by 
cautious feeding and careful vigilant 
nursing. 



FEVER, YELLOW. Yellow Ty^hm ; 
Yellow Fever; Vomito Negro; Mai 
de Siam ; Black Vomit ; Bulam Fever. 

Symptoms. 

These present several varieties 
or degrees of severity; their general 
characters being those of continued, 
or of typhoid fever ; the special 
character of yellow fever being given 
by an alteration in the constitution 
of the blood, more particularly ma- 
nifested in disorders of the liver, 
stomach, and intestines. This fever 
has also the peculiarity frequently 
observed in infectious diseases, — ^that 
one attack protects the constitution, 
to a certidn extent, from another 
attack. 

Children are frequently the sub- 
jects of a milder form of this disease, 
which scarcely differs from an acute 
attack of continued fever, ending in 
perspiration after about thirty-six 
hours. 

More commonly a severer attack 
of shivering suddenly occurs, at- 
tended with headache, pains in the 
back and limbs, flushed face, 
bloodshot eyes, hot skin, tongue 
furred, nausea and vomiting, pain 
in the stomach, restlessness, drow- 
siness, bowels costive, urine scanty 
and high coloured. 

These symptoms may pass off on 
the second or third day, leaving 
only debility. Or the patient may 
be seized with sickness, and vomit- 
ing of the contents of the stomach, 
and afterwards of a dark-coloured 
fluid, becoming darker until it re- 
sembles pitch. The occurrence of 
black- vomit is generally, but not 
always, fatal. The countenance be- 



FEVER, YELLOW. 71 



comes depressed ; the skin assumes 2d, lasting from two to tliree days, 

a yellow tint, which spreads over the stage of excitement, in which 

the whole body. The vomiting con- all the febrile symptoms become 

tinues, and occurs more frequently, augmented ; 3d, that of depression, 

attended with a peculiar hollow and in which the worst symptoms appear, 

loud noise. The patient retains his continuing from a few hours to se- 

sensibility, is restless, desponding, veral days, 

and gradually sinks. Cau§e8. 

In the third form the preceding j Predisposinff. --pei^ns of adult 

symptoms appear with aggrayation, ^^ ^^^^ frequently attacked 

sooner than in the second vanety. ^an children or aged people. Males 

The black vomiting occurs earlier. ^^ ^^^^ ^-^^ females to this 

Yiolentdebnumearly occurs Bleed- i^e^tion ; as axe also individuals of 

ing takes pkce from the mouth eyes, ^ ^^^^^ j^^^j^ and sanguine tem- 

cars, and other outlets of the body. ^^^^^^ Irregularity of Hving ; 

There is little unne passed. The ^j^cesses of any description; fatigue; 

tongue IS moist Mid raw-looking. ^^^^^ emotions, or any other de- 

The yeUowTiess of the skin speedily j^^^ influences, render persons 

appeare. The attack is so rapid ^^^e liable to contract the disease ; 

that the patient may be earned oflf ^ ^^^^ ^^^ stagnant states of 

on the second or third day. the atmosphere, hot seasons. 

In another form the disease is ^ Exdting. — K specific infec- 

equaUy severe and fatal, but is ^^^^ • ^^ J^ ^^^ ^^ b^^g^ ^^ 

slower m Its progress, each symptom ^^^ ^j^^ ^^^ suddenly breaking 

endimng a longer tone. The tern- ^^^ ^^ spreading with frightful 

perature of the surface of the body .^. ^^^^ ^^^ above-named 

18 less, and sooner fails below the uj5.avo{irable conditions exist, in 

natural standard. The pulse is more ^^ ^s and other places, the me- 

feeble and sooner sinks. The disease aium of import thither being clearly 

has altogether, m this form, a ty- traceable. It is this feature that, 

phoid charaeter. as much as any others, distinguishes 

In aU these modifications, the yellow fever from bilious remittent 

great danger is from depression of ^^^^^ originating from endemic or 

the vital energies change m the ^^^ ^^^^ j^ ^^.^ however, 

condition of the blood, and the ex- ^proved whether an endemic fever 

tent and frequency of black vomit. ^J , over- crowding, want of 

A high degree of febrile or nervous ^gj^'tUafeon, and a high temperature, 

excitement does not indicate so great ^^^^^ converted into the infectious 

danger as does this state of depres- „^^ ^^^^^ 

sion. In the majority ot cases, '^ 

distinct stages or periods in the pro- Treatment. 

gross of the disease will be obser- The first and most important 

vable: 1st, lasting a few hours; the measure is to place the patient in 

invasion characterised by shivering, pure air, and to prevent, by all 

headache, pains in the limbs, &c. ; means of ventilation and cleanli- 



72 



FEVER, YELLOW— FLATULENCY. 



ness, the contamioation of the atmo- 
sphere. 

In the first stage, and in milder 
forms, tepid baths, or sponging 
the body with cold water: ape- 
rients should be given, followed 
by simple fevc r mixture (see Pre- 
scriptions). The same remedies 
should be continued in the second 
stage, somewhat more actively. 
Small quantities of warm brandy- 
and- water may be given at intervals. 
The closest watching is required to 
observe the first approach of the 
state of depression or debility 
which quickly follows. Thirst 
should be allayed by acidulated 
drinks, or soda water, or cham- 
pagne. Before the signs of depres- 
sion appear, quinine should be 
given in doses of two or three 
grains every four or six hours. 
When the vomiting becomes dark, 
or if bleeding takes place from any 
part of the body, from half a 
drachm to a drachm of spirits of 
turpentine, witli one or two drops 
of creasote every six or eight hours ; 
turpentine fomentations to the ab- 
domen and thighs ; clysters of tur- 
pentine. At the same time wine 
or brandy should be freely adminis- 
tered. 

The frequency and activity with 
which remedies are employed must 
be regulated by the rapidity and 
intensity of the attack. 

It must be borne in mind that 
in a disease like the present, the 
great danger of which consists 
in the depression of all the vital 
powers that is induced, bleeding, or 
calomel beyond one or two doses 
to act as purgatives, are remedies 
which should not be used, as they 



are calculated to accelerate the 
very condition which it is most 
desirable to avert by the admini**- 
tration of tonics and stimulants. 
Of the latter, the most generally 
accessible, and at the same time 
most serviceable, is the spirit of 
turpentine, successfully employed 
by Dr. Copland many years ago. 
This medicine may be given in the 
second stage as a purgative, and in 
the third stage in small and re- 
peated doses as a stimulant (see 
Tahle of Medicines). Combined 
with creasote, it will tend to check 
the vomiting. 

The use of tonics must be con- 
tinued some time after recovery, in 
order to ensure and maintain con- 
valescence. 



PITS. (See Convulsions,) 



FLATULENCY. 

Syiiiptoni§. 

Distension of the stomach or in- 
testines by accumulation of gases 
in the stomach or intestines ; pro- 
ducing griping pains, palpitation, 
eructations, &c. &c. 

Causes. 

Decomposition of articles of food; 
imperfect mastication ; indigestion ; 
neglect of the action of the bowels ; 
hysterical constitution; inflamma- 
tion of the bowels ; the last stages 
of some fevers. 

Treatment. 

Carminatives, e. g. essence of 



GOUT. 



73 



peppermint or ginger, tonics and 
mild aperients, regulation of the 
diet and habits of living. 

In infants, flatulency may be 
remedied by magnesia in dill- water 
(or Prescription Fo. 16); the 
diet being strictly watched, or 
varied if the symptoms continue. 



FRACTURES. (See Table of Acci- 
dents,) 



GANGRENE. (See Mortification,) 



GOUT. 

Symptoms. 

With or without the occurrence, 
for an uncertain period, of pre- 
monitory symptoms, consisting in 
derangements of the digestive 
organs, disturbed sleep, feverish- 
ness, &c. ; a fit of gout most fre- 
quently comes on during the hours 
of night ; very severe throbbing 
pain is felt in the ball of the great 
toe, with tenderness, heat of the 
part, stiffness, and a sense of dis- 
tension and weight; the joint is 
swollen, red, and shining. These 
symptoms go on augmenting, the 
pains extend to the foot and leg, 
the fever becomes more severe. 
Towards morning the symptoms 
generally subside somewhat, with 
the breaking out of perspiration; 
they will remain in this miti- 
gated degree during the day, and 
will return in all their intensity 



during the following night; and 
thus the "fit** may continue for 
several days, when it will subside 
and return at intervals, — very much 
dependent upon the manner in 
which the patient conducts him- 
self in the meantime. 

The paroxysms are attended 
with the general signs of disordered 
digestive organs. 

Other joints besides the feet may 
be attacked, and these in rapid 
succession, the disease shifting from 
one to another. 

The disease, unless counteracted 
by careful dieting and treatment, 
and a rational mode of life during 
the interval, will become fixed as 
a chronic disease, and lead to im- 
pairment of the functions of the 
most important organs of life, as 
well as impeding the free use of 
the limbs, from debility, concre- 
tions of chalk-stones, &c. Not 
only do the symptoms of gout show 
themselves in the joints, or by 
disorders of the digestive organs, 
but they are often manifested 
in vital organs, as tlie heart and 
brain. Severe palpitation and 
pain in the region of the heart, 
with extreme distress and anxiety 
in the respiratory organs, are ex- 
perienced. Severe and agonising 
cramps of the stomach and limbs 
are apt to occur. Various nervous 
affections, if not even paralysis and 
apoplexy, frequently supervene 
during or subsequently to an attack 
of gout. These last attacks are 
usually termed irregular or retro- 
cedent gout. 

The distinctive symptoms of 
gout will serve to distinguish it from 
rheumatism, the disease with which 



!^ 



74 



GOUT. 



it may be confounded in a first 
attack. In the chronic state it 
becomes so closely allied as to be 
sometimes scarcely distinguishable. 
There is, in fact, a form of malady 
known as rheumatic gout which is 
essentially a combination of the 
conditions of both. 

Acute rheumatism is seldom 
confined to one joint, gout is so ; 
rheumatism generally attacks the 
larger joints, gout the smaller ; the 
pain of gout is of a more acute 
and cutting character, than that at- 
tending rheumatism. Gout is an 
hereditary disease, rheumatism is 
not thus transmitted; the history 
of the attack, the habits of life, &c. 
of the gouty patient, will also assist 
in the distinction. Eheumatism 
most frequently occurs after exposure 
to cold; gout after an excess in 
diet. 

Gaiwes. 

1. Predisposing. — ^Hereditary in- 
fluences ; the adult age ; the male 
sex ; habits of life as to indolence, 
self-indulgence, and gluttony. 

2. Exciting. — Excess, or indis- 
cretion in diet ; neglected bowels ; 
exposure to cold; over- exertion, 
mental or bodily. 

Treatment. 

1 . Of the premonitory symptoms. — 
Give a dose of calomel or blue pill, 
and a warm aperient draught (see 
Prescription No. 27 or 28). Warm 
bath ; low diet. 

2. Of the attach, — li the swell- 
ing, heat, and redness be severe, a 
few leeches may be applied to the 
inflamed part : genersJly, warm fo- 
mentations or poultices, moistened 
with laudanum, will give relief 



without leeching. Purgatives should 
be given early: e. g. calomel 5 
grains, followed by a senna or 
rhubarb draught (see Prescription 
No. 26 or 28). When the bowels 
have been freely cleared out, give 
10 or 15 drops of colchicum wine 
three times a day. If there be 
much fever, four grains of James's 
powder should also be given. 
Pain may be relieved by doses of 
Dover's powder at bed-time. The 
warm bath, daily, will be found of 
great service. Warm foot-baths, 
with mustard diffused through the 
water, and the feet afterwards en- 
veloped in wool, will promote 
perspiration, and moderate the 
inflammation. 

As the severity of the attack 
subsides, quinine may be given, or 
tonics with alkalies (see Prescrip- 
tions Nos. 30, 35, 43). 

During the paroxysm the diet 
should be light and simple. In 
increasing the diet after the attack 
has passed off, all stimulating drinks 
and rich food should be avoided. 

3. The prevention of the return 
of gout is to be effected by careful 
dieting, by rigid temperance, by 
exercise in the open air, and by 
attention to the state of the diges- 
tive organs. 

Irregular or misplaced gout, 
producing severe cramp of the 
stomach, palpitation of the heart, 
and affections of the brain, re- 
quires as quickly as possible that 
the disease be re-excited in the 
extremities. Hot foot-baths, mus- 
tard plasters, stimulants given 
internally, e. g, ammonia, or ether, 
antispasmodics and opiates (see 
Prescriptions Nos. 52 and 53) ; an 



GRAVEL. 



75 



active purge should also be given, 
or a stimulating clyster of soap and 
turpentine (see Prescription No. 
65). If the stomach be the seat of 
the attack, a mustard plaster should 
be applied over its region, or rags 
soaked in spirits of turpentine, in 
order to redden the surface. 

Mineral waters, change of air 
and scene, are important means of 
preventing returns of the attacks, 
if they be conjoined with judicious 
habits of Hfe. 



GOWN. (See Lichen.) 



GRAIZE. (See Abrasion,) 



GRAVEL. 

Symiitoms and Caiwes. 

The urine, after standing some 
time, deposits a sandy or muddy 
sediment of pink, red, or white 
tints. The white gravel is not 
commonly met with, and is asso- 
ciated with conditions of debility or 
long-standing disease. Pink gravel 
is met with in hectic fever and 
chronic disorders of the digestive 
organs. Hed gravel is very common 
in inflammatory complaints, in rheu- 
matism, in common cold, and in 
slighter disorders of the digestive 
organs. 

A "fit" or paroxysm of gravel 
consists in the occurrence of severe 
or agonising pain in the loins and 
abdomen, passing down the inside 



of the thighs and into the testicles. 
The pain may subside for a short 
time, but will perhaps return with 
all its severity in a few hours. 
After several paroxysms, the attack 
entirely passes off. The urine may 
be entirely suspended for some 
time, and subsequently be voided in 
large quantities. It is necessary 
that the urine should be closely 
watched for several days after the 
attack has passed off, as a particle 
of gravel, varying in size, may be 
passed therein. This concretion of 
gravel formed in the kidney has 
been the cause of the pain, by 
having been deteiined in the tube 
leading from the kidney to the 
bladder. 

Treatmeiit. 

As gravel is but a symptom or 
effect of some other disorder, it is 
obvious that these must be attended 
to in order to remove the sediment 
from the urine. If, however, the 
original cause be not very plain, it 
may be said generally, that for red 
gravel alkalies should be given (see 
Prescriptions ITos. 35 and 43) ; for 
white gravel, mineral acids or other 
tonics (see Prescriptions Nos. 45, 
40, 41.) The "fit of gravel" re- 
quires a hot bath, and doses of 
opium, ether, &c., to relieve pain 
(see Prescriptions l^os. 52, 53.) 



GREEN SICKNESS. (See Chlorosis.) 



GUMS, LANCING. (See Teething.) 



76 



HEADACHE. 



HJEMORRHAGE. (Bee BUedingi.) 



HEADACHE 

Is usually a symptom of some dis- 
order of the brain, nervous system, 
or digestive organs. It presents 
great varieties of character, depend- 
ing upon its 

Causes. 

1. Seadache from congestion, or 
over- fulness of the vessels of the 
brain, occurs from those causes 
which impede or increase the circu- 
lation through the brain, — as tight 
neckcloths, stooping, the use of nar- 
cotics, intemperance, prolonged or 
excessive mental exertion, fevers, 
irregular or suppressed menstrua- 
tion, exposure to the sun, &c. The 
pain is of a deep-seated heavy cha- 
racter, throbbing, with noises in the 
ears, giddiness, frilness of the eyes. 

2. NervotLs headache arises from 
any moral or physical agency by 
which the vital powers are de- 
pressed. The pain often comes on 
suddenly, and is very acute and 
darting, attended with giddiness 
and nervous agitation ; the head 
cool, and face pallid. The pulse is 
feeble. There is no febrile dis- 
turbance. This form is very gene- 
rally worse in the morning than in 
the evening. It often assumes an 
intermittent type. Hysterical per- 
sons are liable to this form of 
headache. 

3. The hilioua or sick headache is 
attended with nausea or vomiting, 
heartburn, and other evident signs 



of disordered stomach or liver. The 
pain is very acute or heavy, often 
confined to one side of the head, or 
moving from one part to another. 
This variety is caused by errors of 
diet, by intemperance, by excessive 
mental exertion, and moral excite- 
ments ; by derangements of the 
stomach, costiveness, &c. This 
form of headache is frequently asso- 
ciated with hypochondriasis. 

4. Hheumatic headache accom- 
panies catarrh, and may generally 
be found to be external, as indi- 
cated by its being increased by 
movement, by the character of the 
pain, by the tenderness of the sur- 
face, by the presence of symptoms 
of rheumatism in other parts of the 
body, and by its having been 
caused by cold. 

5. Seadachea from organic affec- 
tions of the hrain. — These are re- 
ferred to in their own places. They 
may be distinguished from either 
of the precedSng by their being 
more constant and prolonged, by 
the frequent occurrence of retching, 
or by the presence of convulsive or 
paralytic affections. 

Treatment. 

1. For n&rvous headache. — A 
mild warm aperient (see Prescrip- 
tions Nos. 15, 27, 28). Stimu- 
lants; tonics; antispasmodics (see 
Prescriptions Nos. 30, 43. 52, 53). 

2. For congestive headache. — Pur- 
gatives, leeching, hot foot-baths. 
If the patient be feeble, — stimu- 
lants, tonics, shower-bath, &c.,will 
be required. 

3. For hilious, or sick headache, 
emetics, purgatives, &c. 

4. Rheumatic headache will be 



HEART, DISEASES OE— HICCUP. 



77 



relieved by external warmth, by 
colchicum and alkalies (see Pre- 
scription !N"o. 36). 



HEABT,OBGANIG DISEASES OF. 

The entire range of organic 
diseases of the heart, including 
inflammation, enlargement, fatty 
degeneration, &c., can only be 
correctly ascertained by those who 
are acquainted with the use of the 
stethoscope. Eor non-professional 
persons, therefore, it is useless to 
enter upon their detailed descrip- 
tion. 



HEART, FUNCTIONAL DIS- 
EASES OF. Palpitation. 

Symptoms, 

Increased frequency and impulse 
of the heart, with irregular and 
tumultuous action, with little pain ; 
shortness of breath, and feeling of 
faintness. 

Cau§e§. 

Debility ; dyspepsia ; gout ; de- 
pressing or over-exciting mental 
emotions and passions ; hysteria ; 
pregnancy; costiveness, &c. 

The functional or temporary 
nature of palpitation of the heart 
may be gathered from their sudden 
commencement, and the co-existence 
of one or other of the above- 
mentioned derangements of the 
organs or system. If the symp- 
toms proceed from organic disease 
they are more gradual in their 
appearance, and are generally more 



or less constant ; whereas func- 
tional palpitation is absent for 
uncertain and often long intervals, 
until excited by a repetition of the 
same causes. 

Treatment. 

An attack of palpitation may be 
relieved by the medicines (Prescrip- 
tions Nos. 52 or 53). But its 
prevention* is to be effected by the 
treatment of its cause, and by the 
use of steel, zinc, and other tonics 
(see List of Medicines). 



HEART-BURN. (See Indigestion.) 



HERNIA. (See Rupture.) 



HERPES. {See Tetter.) 



HICCUP. Hiccough; Hocket. 

Causes. 

Irritation of the stomach by in- 
digestible or unmasticated food; 
hysterical laughing ; irritating 
matters in the intestines ; diseases 
of the organs in the abdomen; 
pregnancy. 

Treatment. 

A draught of cold water; ether 
(see Prescriptions Nos. 52 and 53) ; 
antispasmodics, — as camphor, am- 
monia ; mustard plasters, or blisters 
on the pit of the stomach. 



78 



HIP-DISEASE— HOOPING-COUGH. 



HIP-DISEASE. 

Symptoms. 

Occasional pain and stifi&iess in 
the hip-joint, with slight lameness 
in walking : at the same time, or 
earlier, pain in the knee is com- 
plained of. When the limbs are 
examined, one is founc^to be elon- 
gated and emaciated; the convexity 
of the hip is flattened, so that the 
fiirrow between it and the thigh is 
less distinct and more oblique in 
its direction; in standing, the toe 
is turned out. The pain in the 
hip-joint becomes aggravated by- 
sudden pressure, or jerks on the 
sole of the foot; the pain is in- 
creased during the night, and in 
damp weather. This state of 
things may continue for many 
months. The symptoms may gradu- 
ally disappear, or become worse. 
In the latter case the limb becomes 
shortened ; movement still more 
painfiil, or impossible ; the foot is 
permanently turned outwards or 
inwards. About this stage of the 
malady abscesses form either on 
the outside of the thigh, or in the 
groin or hip. In some few for- 
tunate instances the abscesses 
disappear. Most frequently they 
go on increasing until they are 
opened or burst. The patient then 
wastes, and probably dies in hectic 
fever ; or it may be that he recovers, 
although with a stiff joint and 
wasted limb. 

Causes. 

Scrofulous constitution ; the 
period of childhood, the disease 
being more frequently seen in chil- 

ifc 



dren than adults; blows, or other 
injuries to the joint. 

Treatment. 

Perfect rest in the recumbent 
posture, the limb being kept as 
nearly as possible in its proper 
position by a long straight board or 
splint, extending from the arm- 
pit to the foot, fastened by a broad 
bandage passed around the body 
and limb at one or two points. 
Absolute rest must be maintained 
steadily for months. The posture 
may be relieved by the patient 
being carefully turned over into the 
prone position. Couches are made 
having a double-inclined plane, on 
which the legs and thighs are 
maintained in a bent position. 
The straight posture is, however, 
that which is most frequently 
adopted. 

Blisters, repeated and kept open, 
should be applied, in order to 
check inflammatory action 5 cod- 
liver oil, steel, or other tonics, 
should be given (see List of Medi- 
cines), 



HOOPING-COUGH. CHn-cough, rink- 
eotigh, 

Symptoms. 

Usually those of a common cold 
and cough for the first few days, 
varying from two or three to twelve 
or fourteen. Gradually the ca- 
tarrhal symptoms subside, the cough 
occurs in fits or paroxysms, and is 
attended with a prolonged inspira- 
tion towards the end. This soon 



HOOPING-COUGH. 



79 



becomes converted into a distinct 
sound, which almost articulates the 
word ** whoop, ^^ The cough has 
now become spasmodic, and will 
occur in rapid successions of expi- 
rations, with apparent threatening 
of suffocation ; the face becomes 
red, turgid, and blue, from the 
obstruction to the passage of blood 
through the lungs. The fit may 
last for several minutes, and fre- 
quently terminates with vomiting, 
either of the accumulated phlegm, 
or of food. 

The fits of coughing return 
at uncertain intervals : when the 
disease is at its height, they will 
occur as often as every five minutes. 
After the cough has attained to its 
height, which it does in about ten 
days, it gradually declines in seve- 
rity, although it may last for 
several weeks or'months. 

The cough may be complicated 
and aggravated by the addition of 
bronchitis, inflammation of the 
lungs, congestion of the brain, 
convulsions, infantile gastric fever, 
&c. 

Causes. 

Epidemic constitution of the at- 
mosphere ; and infection. 

Treatment. 

Until the catarrhal symptoms 
have given way to the undoubted 
hooping-cough, the treatment must 
be the same as for catarrh. Sub- 
sequently the disease becomes spas- 
modic, and requires generally an 
opposite plan. 

The following, known as Beattie's 
mixture, is perhaps the most use- 
ful for ordinary uncomplicated 



hooping-cough, for a child of two 
years of age, and upwards : — 

Tincture of Canthaiides 1 dr. 

Paregoric l^dr. 

Goinpoim<1 Tincture of Bark Sdrs. 
Syrup of Tolu 2 oz. 

A teaspoonful to be given three 
times a day. 

The chest may be freely rubbed 
with spirits of turpentine, or cam- 
phor liniment, twice a day. 

If the cough be complicated by 
catarrh, bronchitis, fever, &c., the 
remedies proper to those affections 
must be employed. The most im- 
portant point in the treatment of 
hooping-cough is the protection of 
the patient from changes of tem- 
perature, as these excite paroxysms 
of coughing. With this view the 
child should, if practicable, be 
kept in the same room, day and 
night, for from four to six weeks. 
After this period, if the weather be 
mild, the child may be allowed the 
range of other rooms, and after a 
few days may be taken out in the 
open air. After two months, entire 
change of air will frequently cut 
short and completely cure what 
may remain of the cough. 

It is generally believed that after 
six weeks infection ceases. 

The remedies that have been 
recommended in hooping - cough 
are innumerable : among tiiese the 
best are alum, ether, and oxide of 
zinc. 

The medicine above prescribed is 
that from which the author has de- 
rived the greatest satisfaction. It 
may be well to add that costiveness 
or disorders of the bowels must be 
removed by their appropriate re- 
medies. 



80 



HYPOCHONDRIASIS— HYSTERIA. 



HTDBOCEPHALUS. (See Brain, 
Inflammation of, or Dropty of.) 



HYPOCHONDRIASIS. Vapour, ; 
Nervoiuneu ; Low Spirits, 

Symptoms. 

This disorder begins with, or re- 
sults from, chronic indigestion, and 
is attended by languor, flatulency, 
loss of appetite, sleeplessness, de- 
pression of spirits, fear, imaginary 
diseases, distressing dread of im- 
pending dissolution ; the mind be- 
comes weakened. 

€aii8es. 

Disorders of the liver, stomach, 
&c. ; over-exertion of the mind ; 
depressing passions ; excessive use 
of mercurial medicines ; vicious 
habits, and excess in sensual in- 
dulgences. 

Treatment. 

Remove the causes by attention 
to the state of the digestive organs, 
by change of scene, and by relaxa- 
tion from business and anxious 
care ; use shower-bath, sea-bathing ; 
take mineral waters, alteratives, 
stomachic aperients and tonics. 



HYSTERIA. 

Symptoms. 

These are almost as various and 
numerous as there are diseases which 
flesh is heir to. The disease itself 
being a peculiar morbid condition 



of the female nervous system, fre- 
quently imitates every other dis- 
ease. Like other mimics, however, 
it is apt to exaggerate or overact 
its part : thus pain, which is one of 
the most common symptoms, is 
always too intense and acute for the 
complaint it simulates, and will be 
found not to be limited to the 
region or organ supposed to be 
aflfected, but is equally readily 
elicited by pressure upon other parts 
of the surface of the body. The 
imitation is difficult to detect in 
most cases, as it may coexist with 
other more real and more serious 
disease. The following characters 
may assist in detecting the exis- 
tence of hysteria: — Occurrence of 
the symptoms by paroxysms, at- 
tended with pain in one spot on 
the left side, just below the ribs ; 
palpitation of the heart ; difficulty 
of breathing ; flatulency ; peculiar 
choking sensation, as of a ball in 
the throat; and the discharge of 
large quantities of limpid urine. 
Hysterical patients are generally 
very elaborate and exact in their 
description of their various pains 
and sensations. 

These general signs of hysteria 
often precede an attack of convul- 
sions or hysterical fit (see Convul- 
8tons)f in which the patient throws 
herself about in a violent manner, 
laughing, crying, screaming, &o. 

Coma or stupor sometimes sud- 
denly comes on in hysterical fe- 
males, but readily yields to treat- 
ment, or passes into the hysterical 
fit. The breasts, and the large 
joints, are liable to hysterical pains ; 
the voice, also, is often impaired or 
lost in hysteria. 



HYSTERIA— INDIGESTION. 



81 



Causes. 

Conetitatioiial peculiarity; irre- 
gular menstruation ; general debi- 
lity ; luxurious living ; over-excite- 
ment of the imagination and emo- 
tions ; injudicious physical and 
moral training ; solitary vices ; 
sexusd excitement ; disappointed 
affections; chagrin attending celi- 
bacy ; sedentary occupations j pre- 
vious illness. 

Treatment. 

Attention to the general health. 
Medicines should consist chiefly of 
stimulant antispasmodics, as tinc- 
ture of assafoetida, tincture of vale- 
rian, and purgatives ; diet and 
regimen adapted to promote bodily 
h^th. Hysterical coma or stupor 
requires the cold douche, and the 
administration of stimulant clysters 
of turpentine, with the addition of 
tincture of assafoetida. The assu- 
rance that the diseases simulated 
by hysteria are unreal, or free from 
danger, will often cure them. Hys- 
terical patients are specially open 
to mental influences: hence they 
form the readiest dupes of all kinds 
of quackery. 



INDIGESTION. Dyspepsia; Heart- 
bmm. 

Symptoms. 

Yarious kinds of pain in the 
stomach, extending through to the 
back and shoulders, occurring soon 
after taking food ; distension from 
flatulence ; heartburn ; eructation 
of acid or acrid matters ; nausea, 
and sometimes vomiting soon after 



eating ; pale or furred tongue ; 
irregularity of the bowels. Head- 
ache, palpitation, disturbed sleep, 
depression of spirits, and other 
sympathetic affections. 

Causes. 

Predisposing, — Sedentary occu- 
pation ; intense study ; luxurious 
modes of living ; want of exercise, 
<Src. 

Excitants, — Overloading the sto- 
mach ; abuse of narcotics, as to- 
bacco, opium, &c. ; imperfect masti- 
cation of the food ; too free use of 
mercurial purgatives; indigestible 
or too highly seasoned articles of 
food ; intemperance ; violent men- 
tal emotions, &c. 

Treatment. 

In a disease the symptoms and 
causes of which are so numerous and 
varied as are those of indigestion, 
it is useless to give more than gene- 
ral directions for its management. 

1. Endeavour to ascertain, and 
then, if possible, avoid the causes. 

2. Relieve present urgent symp- 
toms,— such as acidity, heartburn, 
flatulence, pain, &c. This may be 
done by half a drachm of carbonate 
of soda or magnesia in a wine-glass 
of water. Pain may sometimes be 
relieved by a tumbler of hot water, 
or by a teaspoonful of sal-volatile 
in a wine-glass of water; or, if the 
pain continue very severely after 
the use of the above-named reme- 
dies, from ten to twenty drops of 
laudanum may be taken in a wine- 
glass of water. 

3. To prevent a return of the 
disorder, adhere for some time to a 
light diet, especially avoiding all 



82 



INFLAMMATION. 



things found by experience to dis- 
agree. After the urgent symptoms 
have subsided, tonic medicines 
should be taken (see Prescriptions 
Nos. 30, 34, 35, 39, 43, 45) an 
hour after each principal meal. At 
the same time the bowels must be 
kept open by mild purgatives. 



INFLAMBiATION. 

Symptoms. 

First, in the part affected — red- 
ness, pain, heat, swelling, and im- 
pairment of functions ; secondly, in 
the constitution at large — fever. 

In the part affected (when 
visible) : — RednesSy owing to an 
increased quantity of blood : the 
redness may vary, according to the 
degree of activity, from bright scar- 
let to dark purple : in common in- 
flammation the redness is sometimes 
diffused, and gradually lost in the 
surrounding structures, while at 
other times it is abruptly circum- 
scribed. Painy varying with the 
seat of the inflammation : thus it is 
tingling in the skin ; throbbing in 
the tissue beneath the skin ; sharp 
and cutting in pleurisy ; sore, dull, 
and oppressing in inflammation of 
the chest, stomach, or kidneys : 
pain is more severe generally in 
proportion to the unyielding cha- 
racter of the part, — ^as in bone or 
ligament. Heat, most remarkable 
in parts the more distant from the 
heart, — as in the extremities. 
Swelling is most marked in the 
loosest structures, — as in the lips, 
cheeks, &c. Functions are im- 



paired, as shown by increased sen- 
sibility and tenderness, and by the 
alteration or arrest of secretions. 

These symptoms may be either 
acute, i. e. active and rapid in their 
course; or chronic, t. e. passive and 
slow in progress. Inflammation 
is also much modified by the con- 
dition of the constitutional powers : 
thus it may be attended with signs 
of debility, constituting what is 
termed low inflammation ; or it 
may be attended with signs of in- 
creased force in the circidation, in- 
dicating an opposite condition of the 
system. 

There are certain terminations, 
or effects, of inflammation, which 
are denominated — 1. resolution, or 
recovery, the inflanunation entirely 
subsiding without leaving any alter- 
ation in the part affected ; 2. sup- 
puration, or the formation of pus 
or "matter;*' 3. ulceration; 4. mor- 
tijication. The characters of these 
several terminations will be found 
under their separate names. 

Causes. 

1. Predisposing, — Constitutional 
peculiarity ; excessive use of in- 
toxicating drinks ; luxurious living; 
sedentary habits ; hot climates. 

2. Exciting, — "Wounds, bruises, 
and other injuries ; extreme heat 
or cold ; vicissitudes of weather ; 
animal, vegetable, or chemical poi- 
sons. 

Treatment. 

1. Acute, — Leeching; warm 
baths ; purgatives ; tartar emetic ; 
calomel; opium (see Prescriptions 
]S"os. 1, 3, 4, 18, 19). For an 
external inflammation, cloths dipped 
in cold water, or an evaporating or 



INFLUENZA ITCH. 88 


opiate lotion (see Frescriptioii 87), 
should be constantly applied. 

In the case of internal inflamma- 
tions, after the above remedies have 
been applied, blisters, or other means 
of counter-irritation, may be ap- 
plied, if the symptoms do not en- 
tirely subside. 

The diet in acute inflammation is 
generally required to be low. 

2. Chronic, — The above reme- 
dies, less actively employed. Leech- 
ing is seldom necessary. Iodine 
and the milder preparations of mer- 
cury are useful. Either chronic or 
acute inflammation, occurring in 
debilitated states of the system, 
require, in addition to the use 
of some of the above remedies, the 
administration of ammonia, bark, 
wine, or even brandy. 

The above forms an outline 
sketch of the general principles of 
the treatment of inflammation : the 
extent and manner of their applica- 
tion in the inflammation of special 
organs will be found under their 
several names. 

INFLUENZA. 

Symptoms. 

Chilliness; shivering ; headache ; 
sneezing ; hoarseness ; cough ; pains 
in the back and limbs ; gener^ de- 
pression ; feverishness ; loss of ap- 
petite ; nausea ; farred tongue ; 
disordered bowels ; dry skin ; quick 
and feeble pulse. Influenza thus 
presents all the features of a severe 
cold, but is, in addition, marked 
by prostration of strength and dis- 
tinct fever, and has much longer 


duration. Influenza is generally 
epidemic over large districts, 
whereas cold or catarrh is more 
dependent on individual circum- 
stances. 

Influenza is not unfrequently at- 
tended with severe inflammation of 
internal organs. 

Causes. 

Epidemic atmospheric influences. 

Treatment. 

Hot bath ; diaphoretics (see Pre- 
scriptions Nos. 4, 5, b5)\ purga- 
tives, if bowels are confined (see 
Prescriptions Nos. 1, 2, 28), will 
generally suffice in the milder cases. 
In severer, or where the signs of 
debility and prostration are evident, 
stimulants, such as ammonia and 
bark (see Prescriptions Nos. 30, 36, 
42), wine, or brandy, every four or 
six hours. Mustard plasters, or 
turpentine fomentations, should be 
applied to the chest to relieve pain, 
cough, &c. 

As influenza is generally marked 
by debility, the diet must be nourish- 
in 5, and in many instances full and 
stimulating ; e, g, wine or brandy 
and water every two or three hours. 


INTOXICATION. (See Table of 
Accidents^ 


ITCH. Scalies. 

Symptoms* 

An eruption of small watery pim- 
ples, generally appearing first on the 
hands, between the fingers, on the 



84 



ITCH— JAUNDICE. 



wrists, and at the bends of the 
joints ; attended with constant itch- 
ing, especially when warm in bed, 
after violent exercise, or any other 
cause which heats the skin. If the 
disease be neglected, or cleanliness 
not observed, the pimples will spread 
find become pustules (containing 
matter) ; scabs will be formed, and 
even ulceration may take place. 

Causes. 

Contagion. The eruption itself 
is caused by the burrowing of an 
insect underneath the skin. The 
propagation of this disease is much 
favoured by dirt. 

Treatment. 

Sulphur ointment (see Prescrip- 
tion No. 90) kept constantly applied, 
the skin being first thoroughly 
washed with strong soap. Diet light 
but nutritious, avoiding stimulants. 



JAUNDICE. 

Symptoms. 

Yellowness of the eyes and skin ; 
derangement of the stomach and 
bowels ; motions white or clay- 
coloured; urine of a deep saffron 
colour; lassitude; languor; low- 
ness of spirits ; loss of appetite. 
The duration of these symptoms 
varies from a few days to many 
'.nonths. They either subside in 
health, or pass into some other 
malady, — as dropsy, coma, &c. 

Causes. 

Obstruction to the passage of bile 
into the intestines from disorders of 



the liver, of some of which, indeed, 
it is but a symptom. 

Infants are very liable to jaundice 
a few days after their birth, owing 
to changes which take place in the 
organs in the abdomen, and in the 
circulation in the liver. 

Constipation often produces ex- 
treme sallowness of the complexion, 
closely approaching the tinge of 
jaundice. 

Treatment. 

If it proceed from excessive 
secretion of bile, as is most fre- 
quently the case in warm climates, 
and in the remittent fevers of those 
climates, purgatives, and medicines 
should be given, to promote per- 
spiration and the flow of urine 
(see Prescriptions Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 
10, 14, 25, 55, 71, 72). 

If there be great tenderness and 
pain below the right ribs, indicative 
of congestion or inflammatory action 
in the liver, leeches must be applied 
there; and mild mercurials, e, g. 
Grey powder, or small doses of 
calomel, with saline aperients, given 
(see Prescriptions No. 1 or 2). If 
these do not relieve pain, &c. 
entirely, a blister plaster should 
be applied, or turpentine fomenta- 
tions used. Low diet must be 
given. 

In the habitual drunkard jaun- 
dice occurs as a result of permanent 
change in the structure of the liver. 
In this case more is to be done by 
careftil dieting and by temperance 
than by medicines, which need not 
exceed simple purgatives and 
diuretics. Calomel in these cases 
can do no good, and may do much 
harm in non-professional hands. 



KIDNEYS, INFLAMMATION OF. 80 



Pam may be relieved by blister- 
ing. KIDNEYS, INFLAMMATION OF. 

The passing of gall-stones into 
the bowels is often attended with ^ . . ^W^""- 
jaundice. There is intensely ^^^^ ^ *^® l^ms, aggravated by 

agonising pain, and spasms in the pressure, by sneezing or coughing, 

region of the liver. From twenty ^^ ^7 ^ sudden movement ; pam 

to forty drops of opium should be extending through the abdomen, 

given, with the antispasmodics (see ^^ attended with numbness down 

Prescriptions Nos. 52 and 53) ; hot ^^^ ^"^^^^ ^^ *^® *^g^s ^^^ ^S" 

bath ; fomentations ; leeches if the ^^^^^' ^"°® frequently voided, 

pain continue. w^!^^ great pain, high-colourei, san- 
guineous, or dark brown. Shiver- 

— ing ; nausea ; vomiting ; boweb 

confined ; fttjquent and sharp pulse ; 

KIDNEYS, CHRONIC DISEASE skin hot «md dry ; fever, varying in 

np n-ET-PMvnATTnM nv seventy according to the acuteness 

»»,.»»,« of the attack. The disease will 
Bright i JJueate ; Renal Droptii. , i j i> • . 

^ '^ present several degrees of seventy 

Symptoma. down to the chronic state ; its dura- 

Puffiness of the eyelids or face, tion, from a few days to many 

swelling of the hands and feet, ™°?„ ,?• . „ ^. , . , 

extending to the whole surface of ^ ^ ^}^ inflammation be not sub- 

the body; dropsy in the internal ^''''^' the consfatuents of the imne 

cavities. The liine, when boiled become ab«)rbed into the circulating 

in a spoon over a flame, froths up, ^^'>.'^' ?^^ *^« P^^ient becomes 

and becomes thick or muddy, ia P0i«>f4 ^^^^^^7- The extreniihes 

consequence of the coagulation of lose their wannth, the pulse fails, 

albumen contained in it t^« muscular power sinks, delinum 

comes on, and the patient dies m 

Causes. lethargy, or convulsions. 
Suppressed perspiration ; abuse 
of alcoholic liquors; exposure to ^. , « auses. 
qqI^^ Disorders of the digestive organs ; 

Treatment. gouty or rheumatic disposition ; 

-D, i. J J' !.• / blows; iniuries on the loins: too 

Purgatives and diuretics (see i 4. ^a.- j* • • 

PrescriDtions Nos 71 and 72V long retention of unne ; improper 

iT^scnpUons JNos 71 and 72), use of irritating diuretics; gravel, 

diaphoretics, .. ^. James s powder ^^ ,,^,,,tions ii the kidneys ; sup! 

or Dover 8 powder; wann baths; pressed perspiration; coldVeru?- 

subsequently, tomes (see Prescnp- f- j? ^ ^ » r 

tions Nos. 32, 34, 35, 39). This ^^® ^®'^®"* 
is a most serious disease, and in Treatment. 

most cases fatal. Medical opinion Leeches appliedfreelyto the loins, 

should therefore be sought, if possi- followed by warm fomentations or 

ble by any means. poultices ; calomel and opium (see 



86 KKEE, HOUSEMAID'S— LARYNX, INFLAMMATION OF. 



Prescription No. 18 or 19); tartar 
emetic (see Prescription No. 3); 
purgatives (see Prescription No. 1). 



KNEE, HOUSEMAID'S. 

Symptoms* 

A painful swelling on the bone 
on the front of the Imee ; increased 
by pressure, kneeling, or walking. 
A slight degree of feverishness. 
Distinguished from inflammation of 
the knee-joint, by the swelling 
being confined to the front of the 
knee. 

Cause. 

Ejieeling on, or pressing the 
knee against, hard substances. 

Treatment. 

Entire rest; leeching; fomenta- 
tions and purgative medicines. 
If these means do not remove the 
swelling, a blister must be applied ; 
or the swelling may be painted 
with tincture of iodine twice daily. 



KNEE, INFLAMMATION OF. 

White Swelling. 

Symptoms. 

Pain in the joint, increased by 
pressure, or any movement of 
the limb ; swelling of the joint, 
more distinctly perceptible above 
than below the knee, more espe- 
cially so on the inner side of the 
limb. 

It may be distinguished from 
hoicsematd^s knee by the swelling 
not being on the front of the joint. 



and by the greater degree of pain 
on movement of the joint : — ^from 
rheumatism, by the latter generally 
affecting more joints than one, and 
by the swelling being more diffused 
in rheumatism. 

Causes. 

Constitutional disorders predis- 
pose to it, and it may be excited 
by a violent blow or wound, or 
by exposure to cold. 

Treatment. 

Perfect rest; the limb being 
kept in a straight position ; leeches 
should be freely applied to the 
joint, and followed by warm fomen- 
tations or poulticing. Purgatives, 
and calomel and opium (see Pre- 
scription No. 18). 

The preceding refers to the acute 
form of the disease. When the dis- 
ease has lasted some months it has 
become chronic, and then consti- 
tutes what is known as white swell- 
ing. This requires the same 
absolute rest, with the application 
of blisters, or frequent painting 
with tincture of iodine. 

Internal remedies consist chiefly 
of iodide of potassium, muriated 
tincture of iron, or iodide of iron 
(see Prescriptions Nos. 31, 32, 35, 
39). The strictest attention to the 
general health is required. 



LARYNX, INFLAMMATION OF. 

Laryngeal Angina ; Laryngitis. 

Symptoms. 

1. Acute. — A dull pain, or sore- 
ness, is felt in the upper part of the 
throat, with tenderness on pres- 



LARYNX, lOT'LAMMATION OF— LEPROSY. 



87 



sure upon "Adam's apple," or the 
prominent portion o£ the larynx, 
to be felt on the front of the throat. 
The voice is hoarse, harsh, or sharp, 
with frequent short harsh cough, un- 
attended by expectoration. There 
is difficulty in swallowing, especially 
of liquids. Fever, hot skin, rapid 
pulse, great thirst, &c. 

As tibe disease advances rapidly, 
the voice soon becomes a mere 
whisper, or is entirely inaudible; 
the cough becomes more harsh and 
distressing, being attended with 
spasm and augmented difficulty of 
breathing, threatening suffocation. 
If relief be not obtained speedily, 
the patient will die from the im- 
pediment to respiration. 

2. Chronic. — ^This usually begins 
with the symptoms of a cold, 
attended with hoarseness, and a dry 
cough ; the voice being altered in 
its ordinary tone, may become 
whispering. There is seldom the 
difficulty in swaUowing that is ex- 
perienced in the acute form. 

Causes. 

Exposure to cold and wet ; swal- 
lowing too hot or irritating liquids ; 
extension of inflammation from the 
throat or chest. The chronic form 
is usually connected with constitu- 
tional disease, such as consumption 
or syphilis. 

Treatment. 

"Not a moment is to be lost in 
the treatment of this (happily not 
common) dangerous malady. The 
acute form must be immediately 
treated by leeching the throat (from 
twenty to forty, in a strong adult), 
and the administration of an emetic 
(see Prescription ]S"o. 6), followed 



by the use of repeated doses of 
tartar emetic and calomel (see Pre- 
scription No. 19, omitting ihe 
opium). A hot bath should be 
used as soon as possible. 

In the case of children under 
seven or eight years of age, from 
two to six leeches should be applied 
on the bone of the chest, so that 
pressure can be made to stop the 
bleeding. Calomel must be given 
with ipecacuanha (see Table of 
Medicines), Hot bath should also 
be used. 

After the first and most urgent 
symptoms have subsided, a blister 
plaster should be applied on the 
throat, and smaller doses of calomel 
and tartar emetic continued at 
intervals, gradually lengthening 
until the symptoms have ceased, or 
the mouth has become affected by 
the mercury. 

Chronic laryngitis is to be treated 
by the external use of tincture of 
iodine, tartar emetic ointment, or 
other counter-irritants ; and by the 
internal administration of iodide of 
potassium or iron, or other tonics, 
according to the condition with 
which it may be associated. 



LEPROSY. Lepra; FisA-skiti; Dry 
Tetter; Bandruf, 

Symptoms. 

An eruption, on various parts of 
the body, of raised circular patches 
covered with white scales of the 
cuticle or outer skin. These 
patches are surrounded by a reddish 
ring. The patches are generally of 
a ring-like form, the centre being 



88 



LEPROSY— LICHEN. 



apparently healthy skin. The 
patches begin in the form of small 
smooth spots, and often enlarge to 
the size of a half-crown. When 
the scales are rubbed off they 
leave a dull red surface, on which 
the scales are speedily reproduced. 
There are several varieties of 
leprosy, in which the above cha- 
racters are modified. 

Causes. 

Constitutional debility; heredi- 
tary predisposition ; exposure to 
cold ; dej6.ciency of food ; intem- 
perance ; disorders of the digestive 
organs ; venereal disease. 

Treatment. 

Internal remedies for the general 
debility, e, g. sarsaparilla, iodide 
of potassium, solution of potash, 
&c. (see Prescriptions Nos. 31, 35). 

External remedies : AlkaUne lo- 
tions (see Prescriptions Nos. 49, 
50, 51) ; sea-bathing ; creasote 
lotions (see Prescription No. 63); zinc 
ointment; white precipitate oint- 
ment, &c. 



LETHARGY. (See Ci?»ia.) 



LEUCORRHCEA. (See Whites) 



bases^ seldom containing fluid of any 
kind; their colour often differing 
but little from the surrounding 
skin. It is frequently attended with 
intense itching and tingling. The 
pimples are sometimes so minute 
that they give the skin a feeling 
merely of roughness. 

There may be considerable fever. 
" Prickly heat" is an eruption of a 
salutary character, to which Euro- 
peans are subject on first arriving 
in tropical climates. 

Causes. 

Irritation of the stomach or 
bowels, or of teething; want of 
cleanliness ; delicacy of skin ; hot 
climates ; hot or stimulating 
drinks. 

Treatment. 

The red gum of new-bom infants 
rarely requires medicine. Other 
forms of tills class of eruption in 
children require gum-lancing, alte- 
ratives and aperients. The tingling 
of the eruption may be allayed by 
application of vinegar and water, 
Goulard lotion, &c. Where the 
patient appears debilitated, apply 
externally a solution of nitrate of 
silver (five grains to the ounce), or 
creasote (see Prescription No. 63). 
Zinc ointment, glycerine, starch 
powder, warm gruel, are milder 
external remedies. 



^CHEN. ^d Gum; Goum ; Tooth 
Bash; Prickly Heat, 

Symptoms. 

Numerous small elevations of the 
skin, or pimples, with inflamed 



LIVER, DISORDERS OF. (See 
Biliary Derangements) 



LOCK-JAW. (^Tetanus) 



LUNGS, L^FLAMMATION OF. 



89 



LUMBAGO- (See Rheumatism) 



LUNGS, INFLAMMATION OF. 

Pneumonia, 

Symptoms. 

Pain and sense of tightness in 
the chest ; oppressed rapid breath- 
ing ; inability to take a deep 
breath; the patient preferring to 
lie on the affected side. Cough 
at first attended with scanty ex- 
pectoration, tinged of an iron-rust 
colour, or mixed with blood, — after- 
wards becoming more frequent, and 
the expectoration more copious. 
There is a high degree of fever ; 
a pungent heat of the skin ; rapid 
sharp, sometimes feeble, pulse; a 
furred tongue ; costive bowels ; 
scanty and high-coloured urine. 
In some cases there is a great degree 
of prostration. 

Inflammation of the lungs is 
very frequently conjoined with 
pleurisy, in which case the pain in 
respiration is still more sharp and 
cutting. Pleurisy, when alone, 
may be distinguished from pneu- 
monia by the pain being more acute, 
and by the absence of cough and 
expectoration. 

In bronchitis the cough is more 
frequent, and the expectoration is 
freer ; is not rust-coloured or tinged 
with blood ; the fever is less severe, 
and there is not the pungent heat 
of skin observed in pneumonia. 

Causes. 

Consumptive tendency, debility, 
fevers, are among the circumstances 



which predispose to pneumonia : 
it may be excited by exposure to 
cold, by the inhalation of acrid 
vapours or irritating particles; it 
may follow on hooping-cough, bron- 
chitis, or pleurisy. 

Treatment. 

In the active form, met with in 
otherwise strong and healthy indi- 
viduals, from half a dozen to two 
dozen leeches should be applied, 
according to the age and strength ; 
calomel; opium, and tartar emetic 
(see Prescription No. 19). After 
the leeching, apply a blister plaster 
between the shoulders, or. to that 
part of the chest where the pain is 
most severe. If the symptoms begin 
to yield, the action of the skin 
must be kept up by James's powder, 
and other diaphoretics (see Prescrip- 
tion No. 4), warm bath, &c. The 
free action of the bowels should be 
promoted by purgatives. The diet 
should be very sparing. 

In debilitated constitutions the 
leeching should be omitted, and blis- 
tering should be employed ; calomel 
and opium should be cautiously 
given at rather long intervals ; and 
it may at the same time be neces- 
sary to support the vital power by 
wine, strong beef-tea, &c. every 
six or eight hours. 

It will be requisite to have re- 
course to a tonic and stimulant 
treatment in cases of pneumonia 
that have been origin aUy of the 
most active character, but in which 
the disease has passed into the state 
of suppuration, as indicated by the 
subsidence of the acute symptoms, 
and by profuse thick yellow ex- 
pectoration. 



90 



MEASLES. 



InfLammation of the lungs some- 
times (happily very rarely) passes 
into mortr&cation or gangrene. This 
may be known by the extremely 
offensive odour of the breath and 
matter expectorated, as well as by 
the supervention of the signs of 
debility and prostration. In this 
case ammonia, bark, wine, brandy, 
&c., may be freely given, but the 
case is almost hopeless. 



MEASLES. 

Symptoms^ 

Redness and watering of the 
eyes ; sneezing, and running at the 
nose ; and a feverish state, lasting 
for about four days, followed by 
the appearance on the forehead and 
neck of a crimson or red rash, con- 
sisting of numerous points or 
pimples, occurring in patches, ex- 
tending by the fifth day all over 
the body. This rash remains for 
four days, and then declines with 
the fever. It is generally attended 
by a loose frequent cough. 

As the disease declines, the rash 
disappears in the same order as 
it appeared. On the sixth day it 
begins to fade from the face, on 
the seventh day from the body and 
limbs, on the eighth day from 
the hands. A yellowish disco- 
louration of the skin remains for a 
few days, and disappears gradually. 

This is the ordinary regular 
form of measles, but many varia- 
tions are met with. 

Measles are often complicated 
with, or followed by, inflammation 
of the lungs, bowels, eyes, mouth, 
glands, &c. 



€ause. 

Contagion, or infection. The 
period which elapses between the 
receipt of infection, and the appear- 
ance of the symptoms, varies from 
seven to fourteen days. 

Treatment. 

In the milder cases no medicines 
are required beyond a slight ape- 
rient if the bowels be confined. 
The patient should be kept in 
bed in a well ventilated chamber, 
at a moderate temperature, and 
protected from draughts of cold air, 
so that the rash shall not be sup- 
pressed. Too high a temperature 
of the room, or too much clothing, 
only serve to increase the fever. 
The diet «hould be light and fari- 
naceous. 

If the fever and cough be con- 
siderable, give Prescriptions No. 
59 or 85 ; or, for an adult, No. 
4 or 55. 

If the cough and general symp- 
toms be stiU more severe, and indi- 
cate inflammatory action within the 
chest, apply mustard plasters, tur- 
pentine fomentation, &c., and refer 
to treatment of Bronchitis. 

If th««kin tingle much, or be 
hot and dry, it may be sponged over 
with warm vinegar and water. 

If the eyes be much inflamed, 
lotions of sulphate of zinc should 
be used, and the room be kept 
darkened. 

If in the course of the disease the 
eruption should disappear, and the 
surface E^pear dusky or purplish, 
the patient should be put into a hot 
bath, with some mustard mixed in 
the water; and a teaspoonful of 
wine, or doses of sal-volatile, given. 



MEIS^STRUATION, SUSPENDED, ABSENT, SUPPEESSED. 91 



Caution is to be observed not to give 
too much stimulant, which might 
give rise to inflammation of an in> 
temal oi^an. 



MENSTRUATION. 

Symptoms* 

About the age of fourteen or 
fifteen, the femd^e system becomes 
fully developed, and the mental 
endowments show greater activity. 
The breasts grow larger, the hips ex- 
pand. Preceding the appearance of 
the sanguineous discharge, there 
are often indications of general in- 
disposition ; such as fatigue on 
slight exertion, headache, flushing 
of the face, feverishness, derange- 
ments of the stomach, pains in the 
back, hips, and thighs, a dark ring 
round the eyes, a feeling of the 
hysterical ball in the throat. Eor 
some weeks previously a discharge 
of whites is occasionally noticed. 

"When the regular discharge oc- 
curs, these symptoma are all re- 
lieved, and disappear imtil the next 
monthly or shorter period comes 
round, when they may again occur 
in their full severity, or slighter in 
degree;— or, they may be totally 
wanting, and the functicm be per- 
manently established. 

Treatment* 

The management of a girl at this 
time requires care and judgment. 
All undue mental excitement, or 
bodily fatigue, should be avoided. 
Exposure to cold should be guarded 
against. Strong purgative or other 
powerful medicines should not be 



given. The symptoms above men- 
tioned should be treated by mild 
aperients (see Prescriptions Nos. 1, 
14, 15,26, 2S ; md Table of Medi- 
cines), light tonics, nutritious and 
unstimulating diet : prolonged sleep 
in warm feather beds should be 
prohibited. Regular moderate daily 
exercise should be taken. Use of 
warm hip-baths to be suspended 
during the actual presence of the 
discharge. 

Girls approaching the age of 
puberty should always be informed 
of the fact by their mothers or 
female friends, as the alarm which 
would be caused by the sudden 
and unlooked-for occurrence of men- 
struation might be followed by 
serious injury to the health. 



MENSTRUATION, SUSPENDED, 
ABSENT, OR SUPPRESSED. 

Symptoms* 

The signs of approaching men- 
struation occurring frequently, with- 
out the natural relief by the esta- 
blishment of the periodicsl discharge. 
The whole frame may exhibit signs 
of retarded development and dis- 
ordered health. 

The discharge having occurred, 
may be suspended and be absent 
for many months. 

The health fails, the counte- 
nance begins to be pale, all the 
signs of debility are evident, — the 
bowels disordered, headache, fever- 
ishness, &c. ; and the condition 
known as " green sickness" often 
follows (see Chlorosis). In this 
state vomiting or spitting of blood 



92 



MENSTRUATION, PAINFUL OR DIPPICULT. 



sometimes takes place. The long 
continuance of this derangement 
may lead to serious internal disease, 
e. g, epilepsy, hysteria, consump- 
tion, a^ections of the hrain, unless 
relieved hy some vicarious dis- 
charge, as diarrhoea, vomiting of 
blood, &c. 

Besides thosemore numerous cases 
in which, as above described, a 
feeble condition is present, there are 
instances in which absence or sup- 
pression of menslruation exists with 
fulness of habit and apparently 
greater strength. 

Menstruation is suspended when 
pregnancy occurs: the symptoms 
are then very different. 

Causes. 

Indolence ; luxurious living ; 
sleeping in over-crowded rooms ; 
excessive mental or bodily labour 
at the age of puberty, with insuffi- 
cient exercise in the open air, as 
milliners* rooms and factories ; ex- 
posure to cold while menstruating. 

Treatment. 

Purgatives and tonics (see Pre- 
scriptions Nos. 8, 13, 32, 37, 44). 
Light nutritious diet; exercise; 
hip-baths; avoidance of the most 
obvious causes. In females of ftill 
habit, more active purgatives and 
lower diet are required. 

If the suppression have lasted a 
long time, the occurrences above 
referred to— such as vomiting of 
blood, hysteria, &c. &c. — may 
happen. In treating these, the 
suppression of the menses must be 
kept in view, as it renders the symp- 
toms less serious. Haemorrhage 
of this character should not be 



suddenly checked, but should be 
moderated by the use of purgatives 
and all those means that are calcu- 
lated to restore menstruation. 



MENSTRUATION, PAINFUL OR 
DIFFICULT. 

Symptoms. 

About the approach of the men- 
strual period there is a sense of 
weight at the lower part of the 
body, and severe neuralgic pains 
are felt in the abdomen, breasts, 
or back, with headache. When the 
discharge appears it is scanty, and 
does not at first bring relief, but, 
on the contrary, the pain is often 
augmented, becoming agonising, so 
that the sufferer lies on the bed or 
ground, and shrieks with pain. 
After a few hours, or a day or two 
at most, the pain subsides, and the 
discharge flows more freely, fre- 
quently accompanied with shreds 
of lymph. The expulsion of these 
is often attended with forcing pains, 
like those of labour. The skin is 
hot, the pulse rapid, and sometimes 
full and strong. 

Causes. 

The hysterical temperament ; in- 
flammatory habit ; exposure to cold. 

Treatment. 

In the feeble, nervous, and hys- 
terical patient, warm hip-baths, 
opiates, or henbane, or antispas- 
modics (see Prescriptions Nos. 52 
and 63) ; aperients, with light diet. 
Hot spirits-and- water, as commonly 
given at these times, are highly 
objectionable, since they very often 



MENSTRXIATIOlf, EXCESSIVE; CESSATION OF. 98 



aggravate the malady, although 
they may render the patient less 
sensible of the pain ; besides that, 
their repeated use on these occa- 
sions sometimes lays the foundation 
of habits of intemperance. 

In full habits of body, purgatives 
should be fireely given. In some 
cases great refief is experienced 
from a quarter of a grain of ipeca- 
cuanha powder taken every half- 
hour in a wine-glass of warm water. 

Eor a few days before the period, 
a lower diet should be observed, 
and a gentle aperient taken. In 
the intervals, cold shower-baths, 
tonics, and other means to improve 
the general health. 



MENSTRUATION, EXCESSIVE. 

Symptoms. 

The periods returning at short 
intervals, and the discharge too 
profiise, and lasting too long. The 
usual duration of the period is four 
or five days ; the quantity of blood 
lost is, on an average, about five 
ounces. Much more than this is 
excessive. The blood is some- 
times discharged in gushes, and 
mixed with clots, so that if it occur 
in married women it is not always 
easy to distinguish it from early 
miscarriage. In the intervals a dis- 
charge of whites is constant. The 
patient becomes debilitated and 
pale, suffering from headache, fsiint- 
ness, feebleness of pulse, palpitation, 
ringing in the ears, disorders of the 
stomach and bowels, nervous affec- 
tions, swelling of the feet and legs ; 
pain, and sense of weight or bear- 



ing down, in the region of the 
womb. 

Canses. 

Ha3morrhagic tendency ; the 
period of the cessation of menstrua- 
tion ; debilitated constitution ; ex- 
cessive sexual intercourse; irritating 
violent purgatives ; unusual bodily 
exertions ; mental or moral excite- 
ment ; indolent and luxurious habits 
of life. 

Treatment. 

Absolute rest ; lying on a mat- 
tress, or cool couch ; taking all 
food and beverages cold ; application 
of cloths dipped in cold water to 
the lower part of the body ; saline 
aperients, with mineral acids (see 
Prescriptions Nos. 39, 40, 42, 45). 
If these do not suJ0S.ce to moderate 
the discharge, acetate of lead or 
sulphate of zinc should be given 
(see Prescription No. 21 or 46). 

In the intervals, steel and other 
tonics and aperients, together with 
a liberal diet, should be taken. 



MENSTRUATION, CESSATION 
OP. 

Symptoms. 

At, or about, the age of forty-five 
years, the function of menstruation 
and the period of child-bearing ter- 
minate. In most women the 
cessation is preceded by some 
irregularity in its recurrence, and 
by no other derangement of the 
health. In some, however, this 
irregularity is accompanied by head- 
ache, gidcdness, palpitation of the 
heart, pains in the uterine region, 



94 



MEH"STK1JATI0N--MESENTERIC DISEASE. 



and disorders of other internal I the patient from dwelling upon ber 
oi^ans. The appetite becomes ca- bodily ailments, should be had 
pricious, the strength fails, the I course to, if practicable, 
spirits flag, and the general health 
often appears to be seriously giving 
way. It may be that these symp- 
toms will, as they most frequently 
do, gradually disappear, or they 
may be the precursors of perma- 
nent indisposition. 



As the disordeiB attending the 
change that the female system 
undei^oea at this period are very 
varied, and often indefinite, generd 
rules onl^ can here be laid down, 
the application of which to indi- 
vidual cases is not very difficult. 

It is, in the first place, essential 
to ensure free action of the bowels, 
for which purpose some mild pur- 
gative should frequently be taken. 
Symptoms of congestion of the 
brain — such as severe heavy pain in 
the head, giddiness, &o. — may call 
for the application of from three to 
six leeches. It must be borne in 
mind, at the same time, that 
headache and giddiness may attend 
a debilitated state of health. If, 
tiien, the pulse be feeble, the 
countenance pale, and there be 
fatness, palpitation, &c., it will 
be well to abstain from leeching, 
or too frequent purging, and to 
administer saline tonics, stimulants 
&G. (see Prescriptions). In the 
latter cases the diet should be fuller 
than in the former, in which it 
should be diminished relatively to 
the ordinary habits. Change of air, 
change of scene, and all such occu- 
pation of the mind as shall invi- 
gorate the bodily health and divert 



MESENTERIC DISEASE. Taie,^ 

Maratmsii Is/anlile Atrophy; Nt' 
lenlerie Bseline ; Meimleric Fecer. 



Languor ; debility ; disorders of 
the stomach and bowels ; offensive 
stools ; flatulence ; loss of flesh ; 
shrunk features ; hectic fever ; 
diarrhcea; feeble pulse j furred or 
red tongue ; capricions appetite ; 
offensive breath. The most marked 
symptom with all these is the dis- 
proportionate largeness of the abdo- 
men, which contrasts strikingly 
nith the otherwise emaciated body 
and limbs. 

As the disease advances, tiie 
features become wrinkled, aa in 
old age ; the bowels still more 
disordered ; the stools white, or 
deprived of bile. The dispropor- 
tion between the belly and the 
limbs becomes still greater ; the 
fr^me becomes exhausted ; delirium 
and convulsions may close the 
scene. The duration is very un- 
certain. 

Scrofulous predisposition ; the 
age of infancy or childhood; in- 
sufficient diet ; unwholesome air ; 
fevers ; improper use of purgative 
medicines. 



In this essentially chronic disease 
much ia to be done by attention to 
dieting, and care to support the 



MOLES— MORTIFICATION. 



powers of the system by pure air 
and good nutritioos food, avoiding 
juicy fruits and watery vegetables. 
The medieineB which will be found 
uaeful are mild alkaline aperients 
{see PreacriptionH No. 15 or 16), to 
remove bad secretions from the 
alimentary canal. Tonics, such as 
steel, gentian, quinine, iodide of 
iron, cod-liver oil, &c. (see TabU of 
Medieinet; orZ*reBcnptbnBNoB. 31, 
82, 34, 35, 37, 38, 39, 42, 43). 
Flatulence and pains in the abdo- 
men may be relieved by frictions 
with stimulating liniment. 

The surface of the body should 
be covered with flannel ; daily 
bathing in fresh or sea-water, fol- 
lowed by brisk rubbing with a 
rough towel. 



HOLES. JKroM ; Motken' Markt. 
Deacrlptlen. 

These may be a mere speck or 
patch, or they may cover a consi- 
derable sur&ce, without extending 
deeply into the skin. Another 
form consists of a soft raised swel- 
ling of a dull or bright red colour : 
this variety extends more deeply 
inte the skm, and occupies a smaller 
extent of surface. By pressure of 
the finger it becomes pale, but 
rapidly resumes its colour when the 
pressure is removed. These tumours 
sometimes enlarge very rapidly. 
Many of these marks and tumours 
disappear of themselves. This is 
particularly the case with the slight 
marks seen on children's faces at 
birth. Those small dark hairy 
spots which are seen on the surface 
of the body, and which are more 



commonly known as moles, rarely 
undergo any change of form 

character. 

Enlai^ement of the vessels of the 
skin. To what exciting causes they 
are owing cannot be stated ; they 
have popularly been attributed to 
the influence of mental emotions 
of the mother during pregnancy. 
There is, however, no ground for 
this opinion. 



The only form which admits of 
surgical treatment is the soft raised 
tumour ; and as this sometimes, 
like the other varieties, disappears 
of itself, it is only when it is clearly 
seen to be increasing in size tiiat 
interference is called for. If it 
occur in a child not previously vac- 
cinated, the operation may be per- 
formed upon the mole, and the 
inflammation which follows will 
probably obliterate its structure. 
Another means is the application 
of caustic potash, or strong nitric 
acid; great care being taken that 
these substances do not spread to 
the surrounding skin, which may 
be protected by a piece of sticking 
plaster having a hole cut to the 
shape and size of the mole, Tartar 
emetic ointment rubbed on daily 
will also excite sufficient inflamma- 
tion to destroy its structure. 



MORTIFICATION. Qongre,,,: 

Sioughing; FroiC-bilt. 



Death of any part or organ, in- 
dicated — Ist, by change of colour 



96 MORTIFICATIOI^. 



fromtherednessof inflammation, or arteries of persons advanced in 
the natural hue, to livid, violet, years; from external injuries, as 
purple, and black ; 2nd, by falling bruises, spent balls, powerful che- 
of the temperature of the part ; mical agents ; extremes of heat or 
3rd, by the subsidence of pain in the cold; some poisonous substances, 
part itself, while it is augmented in as spurred rye (ergot), or the poison 
the surrounding structures ; lastly, of venomous reptiles ; impure air, 
the part loses its consistence, be- as in over-crowded hospitals, pro- 
comes soft, and blisters form con- ducing ** hospital gangrene." 

taining fluid of a dark colour and -, ^ ^ 

fv • ji Treatment. 

offensive odour. . . • . i 

These are the principal characters , Support the constitutional powers 

of mortification of external parts. f>y «)^^^? ^"^4 ,^^?^^^' ^^^®' 

When it takes place in internal ^^^^^7^ tincture of bark, ammonia, 

organs, its existence can only be or ether (see Prescription 30 or 53), 

inferred from the rapid and total S^^ ^P^^^^ enough to aUay pam. 

cessation of the signs of inflamma- ^he extent to which stimulants 

tion, with symptoms of increasing ^^ ^^ ^® f^l®^ °\ay be guided by 

prostration or sinking ; viz. feeble ^^® ^tate of the pulse, the strength 

pulse, cold skin, delirium, stupor. ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ *^ ^^ brought up to. 

When external mortification is a?}^ mamtamed as nearly as pos- 

complete, a line of demarcation will sible at, the natural standard, 
be established between it and the External applications are required 

sound parts in those cases where ^^^ restore and maintain the tone of 

there is sufficient constitutional surrounding p^ts ; to procure se- 

vigour to cast off the dead por- paration of dead parts; andtopre- 

tion. Ulceration wiU take place on ^^^^^ surroundmg parts from being 

the surface, and the mortified portion contaminated by the results oi 

wiU be graduaUy, as it were, am- decomposition in the mortified por- 

putated. In this manner a whole ^^?,* , . v .. • j v 

limb may be cast off, or an exten- These objects may be attained by 

sive portion of skin ; or, by dividing ^^^ free use of rags dipped m solu- 

large vessels, it may cause fatal ^^^^ ®^ chloride ot soda or lime ; 

hsemorrhage. ^^ creasote and water ; or turpen- 
tine and water (see Table of Medi- 

Causes. cines). 

Intense inflammation in debili- The air should at the same time 

tated or unhealthy constitutions ; ^^ as frequently as possible purified 

depression of vital energy, as in ^y ventilation, the use of chlorine, 

scurvy, typhus fevers, &c. ; ob- ^^• 

struction to the circulation in a 

part or organ, as in rupture or 

inflammation of the large vessels MOTHERS' MARKS. (See Moles.) 
ot a limb, or under certain 
hanges which take place in the 



MOUTH, INFLAMMATION OP— NERVOUSNESS. 



97 



MOUTH, INFLAMMATION OF. 

Symptoms. 

The gnins and insides of the 
cheeks, and the tongue, red, dry, 
heated, and swollen ; numerous su- 
perficial, or deeper, sores, covered 
either with whitish memhrane-like 
suhstance, or with a yellow coating. 
The hreath is offensive ; movement 
of the tongue or mouth attended 
with more or less pain, and often 
hleeding. 

Canses. 

Impure air; improper diet; dis- 
orders of the digestive organs. 

Treatment. 

Locally, apply horax and honey ; 
or diluted muriatic acid (see Table of 
Medicines) with equal parts of honey 
and water ; or powdered alum ; or 
powdered gum. Internally, mild 
alteratives and alkalies (see Pre- 
scription No. 16 or 23). After a 
time, tonics, e. g, sulphate of zinc 
(see Prescription 80 or 81). This 
is often a trouhlesome chronic affec- 
tion to which children are prone. 
Pure air, and simple nutritious diet, 
are of tiie ffrst importance in the 
treatment. 



MUMPS. 



Symptoms. 



Painftil swelling of the glands 
below the ears and under the lower 
jaw. Sometimes on one side only, 
but usually on both sides. The 
swelling extends to the cheeks. 



causing complete alteration of the 
features, and disfiguration of the 
countenance. The swelling con- 
tinues imtil the fourth or fifth 
day, when it declines. There is 
sometimes considerable difficulty in 
swallowing, in consequence of the 
pain occasioned by every movement 
of the jaws. There is often a high 
degree of febrile disturbance. As 
the disease declines, it sometimes 
happens that pain and swelling occur 
in t^e breasts of females and in the 
testicles of males. 



Cause. 



Infection. 



Treatment. 



Light diet ; salines and mild 
aperients; warm fomentations to 
the swellings. In the majority of 
cases no medicine at all is required. 



NERVOUSNESS. 

Symptoms. 

Susceptibility to external in- 
fluences; irritability of temper; 
dread of imaginary evils, allied to 
hypochondriasis ; exaggeration of 
sHght pains ; disturbed sleep. 

Causes. 

General debility; hysterical con- 
stitution; mental anxiety; insuffi- 
cient air and exercise. 

Treatment. 

Tonics ; liberal diet ; exercise in 
pure air ; mental occupation, and 
rational recreation. 



98 



NETTLE-EASH— NEURALGIA. 



NETTLE-RASH. 

Symptoms. 

Whitish or reddish elevations 
upon the skin, having the appear- 
ance of wheals, as if produced by 
the lash of a whip or cane ; tingling, 
itching, and burning sensation, 
like that which is caused by the 
sting of a nettle; more or less 
feverishness. The eruption appears 
suddenly, anddisappears as suddenly, 
without any definite order or dura- 
tion, except that it is prone to re- 
turn at about the same hour daily. 

Causes. 

Disorders of the stomach and 
bowels ; teething ; mental excite- 
ment; exposure to cold. Certain ar- 
ticles in food will in peculiar consti- 
tutions produce nettle-rash : among 
these are shell-fish, and some fruits 
and vegetables. General debility. 

Treatment. 

Aperients with quinine (see 
Prescription No, 8) ; light and 
cooling diet; sponging with tepid 
water, or vinegar and water. If 
it have been caused by articles of 
food, an emetic should be taken, 
and afterwards purgatives. 
' Where it occurs in debilitated 
states, or has become chronic, tonics 
must be given, together with a full 
diet (see Prescriptions Nos. 30, 33, 
34, 39, &c.) 



NEURALGIA. Nerve-ache; Tic Don- 
loureua ; Brow Ague, 

Symptoms. 

Paroxysms of pain of a plunging, 



darting, agonising character, occur- 
ring in various parts of the body. 
Its most common seat is the head 
or face, but it may occur in the 
limbs or various parts of the trunk 
of the body; in females, we very 
frequently meet with neuralgic pain 
in the left side ; we meet also with 
neuralgia of the nerves of the teeth, 
or toothache independently of in- 
flammation of the tooth; but the 
most severe of all forms of this 
affection is tic douIou7^eux, or brow 
offtie. 

The neuralgic character of the 
attack may be known by the extreme 
severity of the pain, its occurrence 
at uncertain intervals, or its recur- 
rence periodically ; and by the ab- 
sence of fever, or other indications 
of inflammation. 

Causes. 

Nervous, hysterical, hypochon- 
driacal, rheumatic, or gouty pre- 
disposition; debility; mental anxi- 
ety ; dyspepsia j malaria ; exposure 
to cold and damp ; local injuries. 

Treatment. 

Of the milder forms, mustard 
plasters, tincture of iodine, applied 
externally on the part siffected. In- 
ternally, purgatives; narcotics, as 
opium ; antispasmodics, as cam- 
phor, valerian, assafoetida, tobacco 
(smoked). 

In the more severe form of tic, 
a blister plaster may be applied 
over the part affected ; or fomenta- 
tions of hot water, with laudanum ; 
tincture of aconite may be applied 
externally ; at the same time opium 
may be given internally, according 
to the severity and obstinacy of 



OBESITY— PARALYSIS. 



99 



the attack, in doses of twenty to 
thirty drops of laudanum ; or one 
grain of opium repeated every hour 
for two or three doses. After the 
subsidence of the attack medicines 
must be given to improve the state 
of the general health, having in 
view the cause upon which it is 
supposed to depend (see Prescrip- 
tions Ifos. 30, 32, 34, 36, 37, 39, 
40, 42, 44). 



OBESITY. Corpulence; Morbid Fatness. 

Symptoms. 

Excessive general or partial ac- 
cumulation of fat, most frequently 
accompanied by a feeble state of 
health. 

Canses. 

Hereditary predisposition; men- 
tal and bodily indolence ; luxurious 
living ; sedentary occupations ; too 
much sleep; indulgence in malt 
liquors. 

Treatment. 

Avoidance, as much as possible, of 
the above causes; active exertion, 
both bodily and mental ; abstinence 
from malt liquors. 

Fifteen or twenty drops of solu- 
tion of potash taken three times a 
day in a wineglass of water for 
several weeks, wiU sometimes dimi- 
nish obesity. Fat should be avoided 
in articles of diet. 



PALPITATION. (See Heart, Func- 
tional Disorders of.) 



PALSY. (See Paralysis.) 



PABALYSIS. Falsy, 

Symptoms. 

Loss or diminution of the power 
of motion, or of sensation in one or 
more parts of the body. Paralysis 
varies in extent : e. g, it is divided 
into — 

Hemiplegia, when one side, or a 
vertical half of the body, is para- 
lysed. 

Paraplegiay when the lower half 
of the body is affected. 

Localf when only a small part of 
the fi^me is paralysed. 

The symptoms of paralysis may 
be found in loss of either of the five 
senses, as well as loss of sensation 
on the entire surface of the body, or 
of the power of motion. Either of 
these endowments may be completely 
or incompletely paralysed. When 
the muscles of the face are paralysed, 
the features are much distorted by 
being drawn to the sound side, owing 
to lie preponderating force of its 
muscles. Thus one eye may remain 
partially closed, the cheeks motion- 
less, and puffing out with each act 
of breathing ; speech indistinct, 
mastication incomplete, the food 
lodging between the cheek and the 
teeth ; the tongue, when protruded, 
directed to the sound side. 

Palsy of a limb is known by its 
dragging or awkward movements. 
In some instances, as in children, 
the palsy may be limited to one set of 
muscles, — those, for instance, which 



100 



PAEALYSIS— PILES. 



bend a limb, — ^while those which ex- 
tend or stretch it out may be sound : 
this being the state at birth, is the 
cause of some forms of lameness 
known as club-foot. 

Involuntary evacuation of the 
contents of the bowels or bladder 
results from paralysis of the muscles 
controlling these outlets. 

The occurrence of palsy is often 
sudden, but more frequently it is 
preceded by numbness, tingling, &c., 
in the limb or part, its action being 
gradually impaired. Its duration 
is uncertain, sometimes passing off 
speedUy, in other instances remain- 
ing many years, as in shaking palsy, 
which is an imperfect form of the 
disease, somewhat resembling St. 
Vitus's dance. 

Causes. 

Palsy follows attacks of apoplexy ; 
it is also caused by tumours of the 
brain ; by injuries to the head ; by 
concussion of the brain, or spine, 
produced by falls j by disease of the 
spinal cord ; by hysteria, in which 
case it is generally only temporary ; 
bymineral poisons, as lead, mercury, 
&c. ; by the suppression of natural 
discharges, or the sudden transfer- 
ence of other diseases, as gout ; the 
action of extreme cold ; intemper- 
ance; mental emotions. 

Treatment. 

In its early stages, if the attack 
be sudden, and there be a full pulse 
and a robust habit of body, leech- 
ing the temples, active purging, 
&c., may be had recourse to, toge- 
ther with low diet, followed by the 
continued use of five-grain doses of 
blue pill twice a day, taking care to 



watch that salivation does not take 
place : this may be known by ,the 
gums becoming inflamed at their 
edges, by the teeth aching, and by 
an increased flow of saliva. If the 
patient be of a spare or enfeebled 
habit of body, external irritants, 
such as blisters, croton oil, or tartar 
emetic ointment, should be applied 
to the nape of the neck, or along 
the course of the spine, until an 
eruption appears on the skin. Pric- 
tion of the paralysed part is also of 
service. Internally, Prescriptions 
Nos. 31, 37, 39, should be given, 
taking care that the bowels are not 
confined. Cod-liver oil, if there be 
wasting of a limb or part of the 
body. 

The same plan should be followed 
when the approach of the paralysis 
is very gradual, or when it has 
lasted a long time. Electricity and 
galvanism are sometimes useful in 
chronic paralysis. Diet liberal. 

In clSldren, small doses of iodd e 
of potassium may be given ; cl d 
sea-bathing and friction of the limbs 
being employed. 



PERITONEUM, INFLAMMA- 
TION OF. (See Bowels^ Inflamma- 
tion of; also Childbed Fevers ») 



PILES. Hamorrhoids, 

Symptoms. 

Painful swellings in the funda- 
ment, attended with heat, tension, 
and other uneasy sensations. Some- 
times attended with discharge of 



PILES— PLAGUE. 



101 



blood when at stool. Irritability of 
the bladder. Pain on walking or 
sitting. 

Distinctive symptoms. — Piles may 
be mistaken for haemorrhage from 
the bowels, higher up in their 
conrse, and of a different character 
(see Bowels y Bleeding from). The 
error may be corrected by observ- 
ing the character and condition of 
the blood. If it be fluid, and of a 
bright or florid colour, and be 
immixed with the contents of the 
bowels, it may be inferred that it 
has flowed from piles ; if, however, 
it be clotted, and of black colour, 
mixed with the motions, it has 
proceeded from a source beyond the 
seatof piles, — the vessels just within 
the antis. Piles may be entirely 
within the bowel, or they may be 
protruded, and remain externally. 

Causes. 

Sedentary occupation ; luxurious 
modes of Uving; constipation, or 
whatever else causes obstruction to 
the circulation in the liver ; irrita- 
tion of the lower bowels by frequent 
use of strong purgative medicines ; 
the state of pregnancy. 

Treatment. 

To relieve severity of the pain, 
use fomentation, warm or cold, as 
may be the more agreeable ; or in- 
jection of water ; or apply three or 
four leeches. Some mfld, unirritat- 
ing ointment, as spermaceti or fresh 
lard, will prevent pain and irrita- 
tion of pressure in walking and 
sitting. 

The causes must be removed by 
attention to diet, and by keeping 
the bowels relaxed, so that the 



vessels at the lower end of the 
intestines shall not become loaded. 
Confection of senna, castor oil, and 
alteratives. Taking care that the 
bowels act the last thing at night, 
instead of in the morning, will often 
be found useful. 

If the piles be of long standing, 
external, small, and grape-like, a 
ligature may be tightly tied around 
their necks, and they will then, in 
the course of a day or two, drop off 
strangulated and sloughed. This, 
however, should not be attempted 
if medical advice be within reach, 
or is likely to be so within a 
reasonable time. 



PLAGUE. 



Symptoms* 



Pever, with delirium; convul- 
sive startings of the limbs ; depres- 
sion; drowsiness; noises in the 
ears ; dry tongue ; faintness ; pulse 
rapid, feeble, or irregular ; thirst ; 
pain in the stomach; nausea or 
vomiting; offensive stools; sudden 
prostration; skin hot; countenance 
pale ; surface of the body presenting 
dark purple or livid spots; glan- 
dular swellings and carbuncles 
forming in different parts, and 
under the arm-pits or in the 
groins, occurring on the second or 
third day; hiccup, cold clammy 
sweat, and other signs of sinking, 
rapidly appear. 

If the disease be prolonged to 
the sixth day, it frequently ends in 
recovery, by the critical breaking 
out of a warm perspiration. 



102 



PLEURISY— PTJRPUEA. 



Causes. 

Local and atmospheric sources 
of infection and contagion. 

Treatment. 

Free access of fresh air ; clean- 
liness ; emetics, diaphoretics, sti- 
mulants, tonics; fomentations and 
poultices to the boils, &c. Diet 
nourishing and stimulating. 



PLEURIST. Inflammation in the Chest; 
Inflammatory Stitch in the Side. 

Symptoms* 

Acute cutting pain on one or 
both sides of the chest, increased 
by breathing deeply, by coughing, 
or by sneezing. Attended by 
shivering and fever, rapid and 
sharp pulse, a short dry cough, and 
quickened breathing. These symp- 
toms may subside imder treatment ; 
or, continuing with more or less 
severity, breathing may become 
more and more hurried and op- 
pressed, until it is impossible to 
lie down, except on the inflamed 
side of the chest. The latter signs 
will indicate that fluid has been 
effused between the sides of the 
chest and the lungs. 

These symptoms vary very 
greatly as to severity and dura- 
tion. 

Causes. 

Consumptive tendency ; cold ; 
inflammation of the limgs; local 
injuries, such as fractures of the 
ribs. 

Treatment. 

From five to twenty or thirty 



leeches, according to age and 
strength ; after they have left off 
bleeding, a large blister to be ap- 
plied over the most painful part. In 
debilitated states, the blister should 
be applied without the leeching. 
Calomel and opium, or saline mix- 
ture with tartar emetic (see Pre- 
scriptions; also LungSf Inflamma- 
tion of.) 

Pleurisy, when it has become 
chronic, or has produced effusion, 
should be treated with external 
irritants, and the internal use of 
iodine, &c. 



PRICKLY HEAT. (See Lichen,) 



PURPURA The Purples. 

Symptoms. 

Patches, or spots, of various sizes, 
resembling bruises; their colour 
varying from red to purple, Hvid, 
brown, greenish -yellow, and yel- 
low. 

There may be little or no consti- 
tutional disturbance or local irrita- 
tion ; or the spots may be tingling, 
like nettle-rash; or it may be 
attended with a disposition to bleed- 
ing from the nose, &c. ; or, lastly, 
there may be fever more or less 
active. In some cases purpura has 
terminated fatally, by effusion of 
blood within the head. 

Causes. 

Debility; early age; constitu- 
tional disorders, e. g. smaU-pox, 
fevers, &c. 



EHEUMATI8M. 



103 



Treatment. 

Tonics, e. g, mineral acids, com- 
bined with purgatives (see Pre- 
scriptions 1^08. 32, 33, 34, 37, 39, 
40, 41, 44, 45); the doses being 
proportioned to the age of the 
patient. A liberal diet. 



QUINSY. (See Sore-throat) 



RAINBOW RINGWORM. (See 

Tetter.) 



RED GUM. (See Uchen,) 



RHEUMATISM, ACUTE, CHRO- 
NIC, AND NEURALGIC. 

Symptoms. 

1. Acute. — Begins with a smart 
attack of fever ; a quick full pulse ; 
foul tongue ; high-coloured, turbid 
urine ; profuse sour-smelling perspi- 
ration; wandering pains in the 
limbs. These pains increase in 
severity, and in the course of a few 
hours fix upon one or more of the 
large joints, which become hot, 
red, and swollen, exquisitely sensi- 
tive to movement, or on the slightest 
pressure, — so much so that the lar 
of a person waUdng across the 
room or approaching the patient's 
bed will cause him to shriek with 
pain. The affected joints become 
swollen, hot, and red. This in- 



flammation shifts, often rapidly, 
from one joint to another ; thus, if 
the shoulders should be inflamed 
to-day, the wrists, the knees, or the 
ankles, may be inflamed to-morrow ; 
or the shifting of inflammation from 
any of these joints may be equally 
uncertain, and the parts previously 
affected may be entirely free from 
all pain. 

At the same time the heart may 
become inflamed ; in most instances, 
however, it escapes. The symp- 
toms indicating that it is affected 
are pain in its region, palpitation, 
cough, anxiety. 

2. Chronic, — The pain is less 
severe, and is more frequently 
seated in the muscles, or their ten- 
dons, than in the joints; the 
affected parts are stiff and painful, 
the pain aggravated by movement 
or pressure. Of this character is 
that known as " lumbago,*' or 
rheumatism of the back ; rheu- 
matism of the scalp, ribs, &c. The 
profuse sweating, rapid pulse, &c. 
of the acute form are absent in the 
chronic form. 

3. Neuralgic, — ^The pain is very 
acute, but not attended with fever, 
It usually follows the course of the 
nerves. Hence one form which is 
known as sciatica: another ap- 
proaches in character to tic dou- 
loureux. 

Causes. 

The primary cause is a morbid 
condition of the blood, arising out 
of any circumstances which impair 
the general health. The exciting 
cause may be over-fatigue, anxiety, 
grief, &c. ; exposure to cold, sup- 
pression of perspiration, &c. 



104 



KHEUMATI8M— BINGWOEM. 



Treatment. 

1. Acute, — ^Absolute rest in a 
warm (not over- heated) room. The 
joints should be wrapped in cotton- 
wool. 

The mixture (see Prescription 
No. 48), followed by 5 grs. blue 
pill, and an aperient (see Prescrip- 
tions Nos. 1, 26, or 28). If the 
bowels act too freely, or the pain be 
not relieved, from 5 to 10 grains of 
Dover's powder may be taken at 
night. Low diet is to be strictly 
enjoined. 

The treatment here recommended 
is that which has been introduced 
by Dr. Puller, of St. George's Hos- 
pital, and which has been found 
the most efficacious. 

If there be symptoms referable to 
the heart, twelve leeches should be 
applied over its region ; and in addi- 
tion to the above mixture, calomel 
and opium (medical advice in this 
case is indispensable). 

2. Chronic. — ^Take the powder 
(see Prescription l^o, 47), with 
from 5 to 10 grains of Dover's 
powder, every night. Warm bath 
every other day. Or the Prescrip- 
tion No. 36. A low diet is not re- 
quired in the chronic form. 

3. Neuralgic, — Same treatment 
as chronic rheumatism, except that 
sedatives and purgatives may be 
more freely taken. 



RICKETS. Softening of the Bones, 

Symptoms. 

These are first shown by an in- 
disposition or inability for exertion ; 



impaired or capricious appetite; 
irregular or disordered bowek ; soft 
flabby flesh ; proftise perspiration ; 
loss of flesh. After these symp- 
toms have lasted for several months, 
a disproportion becomes apparent 
between the size of the head and of 
the body: the abdomen becomes 
enlarged; the bones of the arms 
and legs are observed to be bent, 
and their extremities enlarged, 
swollen, or knobby. This state may 
remain for years, and never get 
worse; or the softening and de- 
formity of the bones increases so 
much that it is not possible for 
the suflferer to sit erect, and the 
organs within the body become so 
encroached upon and interfered 
with, that they can no longer per- 
form their functions. 

Causes. 

External debilitating agencies 
affecting the parents. Want of 
earthy matters in the bones. 

Treatment. 

A healthy wet-nurse ; pure fresh 
air; attention to the state of the 
bowels, &c. Sea-bathing ; sponging 
and friction of the body and Hmbs ; 
mineral acids and other tonics inter- 
nally. Good nutritious diet ; earthy 
matters, as lime-water and magnesia, 
to be given as often as possible in 
the food. 



RINGWORM AND SCALLED 
HEAD. 

Symptoms. 

Itching and redness of the skin 
of the head or face, with minute 



MNGWOEM— ROSE EA8H. 



105 



pimples, occurring in circular or 
irregular-Bliaped patches of yarious 
sizes. The pimples form small dry- 
scales, and spread in different direc- 
tions, causing the hair to fall off, 
and leaving bald places on the 
scalp. 

In the eruption known as Bcalled 
head the pimples change to pustules, 
which, bursting, form a thick offen- 
siye crust. This disease offcen ex- 
tends over the whole scalp, and 
appears also on the face. 

Cmucs. 

Contagion is the most common 
cause; but it may originate in 
children from impaired health, or 
improper feeding. 

Treatment. 

The milder form of ringworm 
may generally be checked in the 
onset by smearing the patches over 
with a moistened stick of nitrate of 
silver. A black surface is soon 
formed, which will fall off in a day 
or two. 

If the first stage have been al- 
lowed to pass, it will require the 
application of citrine ointment or 
creasote twice daily. 

ScaUed head should be poulticed 
whenever the scabs accumulate ; and 
zinc, or white precipitate ointment, 
freely applied, so as to form a con- 
stant covering. If these fail, citrine 
ointment or creasote may be applied. 
The surface should be washed with 
soap and water every morning, so 
as to ensure the complete removal 
of discharge, &c. 

Alteratives, aperients, and tonics 
(see Prescriptions Nos. 16, 23, 80) 
should be taken at the same time. 



The diet should be careftilly regu- 
lated, so that it shall be light and 
nutritious. Indigestible substances 
should be cautiously guarded 
against. 



ROSE EABH. B4)teola;FakeMea9lei. 

Symptoms. 

Patches of redness, small in size 
and irregular in form, distributed 
over more or less of the surface of 
the body ; and more or less redness 
of the throat. There is slight 
tingling of the skin. The redness 
disappears by degrees, sometimes 
leaving marks like bruises. 

There is usually some fever: 
this varies in amount and severity. 
A rash of this kind also sometimes 
occurs in the course of continued 
fevers. 

This rash may be distinguished 
from measles by the absence of 
catarrhal symptoms, by the irre- 
gularity of its form, by the less 
amount of fever, and by its not 
being infectious. 

Canses. 

Thin, delicate skin ; weakly con- 
stitution; teething; irritation in 
stomach or bowels ; exposure to 
cold, or drinking cold water when 
surface of body is heated ; over- 
loading stomach with indigestible 
substances; &o. 

Treatment. 

Mild aperients. Sponging the 
surface with warm water. 



106 



ETJPTTJRE. 



RUPTURE. Hernia. 

Symptoms. 

A soft swelling at the lower 
part of the abdomen, on one or both 
sides, or upper part of the thighs, 
in the groin : the tumour increases 
in size when the patient stands up ; 
or, when the hand is laid upon the 
swelling, it is found to increase 
during cough. 

If flie protrusion consist of intes- 
tine, the movement and sound of 
flatulency may often be perceived in 
it, especially as it passes back into 
the abdomen when pressed in the 
right direction, if the rupture be of 
a reducible kind. Sometimes, when 
the rupture has been long or fre- 
quently protruded, it wiU, after 
some time, not return, but remain 
permanently in the scrotum, oi* 
forming a tumour. It is then 
called an trreducihle hernia. 

It frequently suddenly happens 
that a rupture which has hitherto 
been reducible cannot be returned 
by the means that have usually been 
successftd to that end. It is then 
called a strangulated rupture. The 
symptoms of strangulation, or con- 
striction, are — ^pain in the abdomen, 
distension, frequent desire to go to 
stool, without evacuation of the 
bowels. Vomiting follows, at first 
of the contents of the stomach, 
but, soon after, having the odour 
and other characters of the con- 
tents of the intestines. The tumour 
becomes tender to the touch, the 
pulse small and rapid, the coun- 
tenance anxious, the patient rest- 
less. If relief be not obtained, all 
these symptoms go on getting 



worse; the pulse sinks, the skin 
becomes cold, and the patient, after 
expressing a sense of entire relief 
from pain, dies with mortification 
of the strangulated portion of intes- 
tine. 

The rapidity with which these 
symptoms will run through their 
course varies greatly with the 
strength of the patient and the date 
of the rupture. Surgical aid should 
be immediately sought, even from a 
great distance. 

Causes. 

Violent exertion, such as lifting 
heavyweights; straining hard, &c. 
Rupture sometimes exists at birth. 

Treatment. 

The tumour should be taken be- 
tween the fingers of the right hand, 
and steadily pressed upwards to- 
wards the abdomen, the patient 
lying upon his back with his 
shoiflders raised. 

If this have failed, and, from ob- 
stinate costiveness and pain, there 
be fear of strangulation, this opera- 
tion should be performed in a warm 
bath, the patient's shoulders being 
raised, and the thighs as far as pos- 
sible being bent upon the abdomen. 
The repetition of purgatives, or 
violence in the attempt to pass the 
bowel back, must be avoided. If 
the attempt do not succeed, it may 
be aided by the application to the 
swelling of pounded ice contained 
in a bladder. 

Failing these means, surgical aid 
cannot be too quickly obtained. 

In the majority of instances, f 
happily, the bowel readily returns 
by using the above means. To pre- 



SCALL SCAELATINA. 107 


vent the risk of stra-ngulation a truss 
should always be worn. It should 
be taken off and put on while the 
patient is in a lying posture, in 
order to prevent its pressing upon 
the contents of the rupture. The 
steady and careful use of a truss 
will entirely cure congenital hernia, 
or that which occurs at birth. 

Trusses are to be obtained of sur- 
gical instrument makers. 


tives and aperients occasionally, ac- 
cording to the state of the bowels. 

No local applications will be of 
any service, when the scalp is the 
seat of the affection, unless the head 
be regularly washed every day with 
some mild soap and water. 


SCALLEDHEAD. {^^oe Mngworm.) 


SCABIES. (See lich.) 


SCARLATINA. Scarlet Fever, 

Symptoms. 

After the existence of febrile 
symptoms and general indisposition 
for a period varying from one or 
two to four days, the skin becomes 
hot, and an eruption appears, con- 
sisting of mkiute scarlet points col- 
lected in patches, or forming a dif- 
fused colour,, like that of a boiled 
lobster, over the greater part of the 
body. This rash lasts about five to 
seven days, and then disappears, 
leaving the skin harsh and dry, or 
scui'fy, or peeling off in thin scales. 
While the rash is out it causes 
itching or tingling of the skin. The 
tongue presents a characteristic ap- 
pearance : it is white or furred, but 
with this are seen the minute pa- 
pillsB of the surface prominent, and 
of a scarlet colour, giving the like- 
ness of a raspberry. Or l£e fur may 
be wanting, and the tongue be en- 
tirely scarlet, but presenting the 
same enlarged papillaj. The throat 
likewise is reddened, the tonsils en- 
larged, scarlet and ulcerated ; swal- 
lowing is painful. 

While the eruption is out, if the 


SCALL. Crusted Tetter ; Milk-crust, 

Symptoms. 

Eruption of small flattened pus- 
tules in clusters, or scattered closely 
over a space. The pustule in two 
or three days bursts, and discharges 
a thick yellow matter, forming a 
thick crust. It appears on different 
parts of the body. In children at 
the breast it is prone to occur on 
the head and face, where they cause 
much itching, and lead the child 
to scratch them. Thus the skin 
often bleeds, and thereby scars are 
sometimes permanently left. 

Causes. 

Constitutional disorders; denti- 
tion ; excess in diet ; insufficient or 
bad food; local irritation by dry 
powders, as dust, lime, &c. 

Treatment. 

Fomentations ; water-dressing ; 
zinc ointment; white precipitate 
ointment ; creasote lotion ; altera- 



108 



SCARLATINA. 



disease be of an active or severe 
cliaractery the countenance is ex- 
pressive of anxiety; the eyes are 
brilliant ; there may be delirium ; 
the patient is restless and sleepless ; 
there is great thirst; nausea or 
vomiting; rapid pulse; quickened 
breathing; costive bowels; scanty 
high-coloured urine. 

These symptoms subside as the 
skin becomes paler and begins to 
scale off, and the ulcers of the ton- 
sils heal. 

All these symptoms, which be- 
long to the common form of scarla- 
tina with sore- throat, may be much 
varied. Thus there may be all the 
symptoms except the rash on the 
skin, or the latter may be present 
and the others wanting. These and 
other variations are often met with 
where there are several members of 
one family in which the disease has 
appeared. 

Cases also occur in which, the 
rash not appearing, fatal congestion 
of the brain has taken place, and the 
patient has been rapidly carried off. 

The type, or character, of the 
fever is also liable to differences in 
degrees of danger. In some the 
fever is mild, and the whole disease 
a slight affair ; in others the fever 
runs high, the ulceration of the throat 
is severe, and the disease prone to 
become typhoid. In some, again, the 
affection has a malignant character 
from the onset ; the eruption brown 
or dusky ; the nervous system seems 
as if poisoned ; the pulse small and 
rapid, the face bloated, the tongue 
brown, the eyes red, and heavy-look- 
ing; convulsive twitchings of the 
Hmbs, convulsions, coma, &c. In 
some cases, rapid and extensive 



mortification or sloughing of the 
throat takes place. 

There is one result or consequence 
of scarlatina which should be closely 
watched. From the fifth to the 
twentieth day after the disappear- 
ance of the rash, dropsy of the sur- 
face is liable to occur from slight 
exposure to cold ; or it may even 
occur without this exciting cause 
(see Dropsy). It is not in the 
severest cases alone that this oc- 
curs, — ^it is quite as frequently met 
with in those cases in which the 
rash has been indistinct. 

Besides this, there are several 
other consequences of scarlatina ; 
e. g, inflammation and ulceration of 
the passage of the ear ; swellings of 
the glands of the neck ; diarrhoea ; 
chronic cough ; hectic fever. 

Distinctive eharacters, — Scarlatina 
and measles are sometimes con- 
founded together. The following 
may assist to distinguish them : — 



Scarlatina, 

Precursory symp- 
tomSj one day. 

No cough, ^xpecto- 
ratioji, or other 
signs of -catarrh. 



Eruption ,on^. second 

day of fever. 
Colour of eruption 

bright scarlet, in 

large patehes, or 

diffused. 
Peeling or scaling 

off of skin. 
Odour like old 

cheese. 
Dropsy following. 



Measles, 

Precursory symp- 
toms, three days. 

Running at the nose 
and eyes, sneezing, 
cough, and other 
symptoms of ca- 
tarrh. 

Eruption on fourth 
day of fever. 

Eruption in cres- 
centic patches, 
colour darker red. 

Slight casting ofif of 

skin. 
Odour sweetish till 

decline, then sour. 
Not followed by 

general dropsy. 



Both these diseases are frequently 



SCARLATINA. 



109 



epidemio at the same time, and 
their characters are then sometimes 
so intermingled as to be scarcely 
distinguishable. 

Causes. 

Infection. The period which 
elapses from the moment of infec- 
tion to the appearance of illness 
varies from a few hours to twelve 
days. The infection of scarlatina 
appears to be of an obstinately ad- 
herent character ; it is impossible to 
say at what period it may have 
entirely disappeared from, garments, 
clothes, or buildings. A tempera- 
ture above 200° destroys it. 

Treatment. 

The object to be held in view is 
to endeavour to assist the constitu- 
tion in throwing off the poison which 
gives rise to the disease, or to support 
the system while that is effected. 
This may be done, in the mUder cases, 
by medicines to act upon the skin, 
kidneys, and bowels (see Prescrip- 
tion No. 5) ; by the use of aperients 
if the bowels be costive (see Pre- 
scriptions Nos. 1 and 2), and by 
frequently sponging the surface of 
the body with tepid vinegar and 
water. The room should be freely 
ventilated, taking precaution that 
the temperature of the surfewje of 
the patient's body be not suddenly 
lowered, as the eruption would 
thereby be checked. The thermo- 
meter should stand at about 60° in 
the chamber. The diet should be 
light. Acidulated beverages aud 
simple fluids may be freely allowed. 
As the fever declines, mUd tonics, 
e. ff. citrate of iron, or quinine, may 
be given. Beef-tea, wine, &c. 



carefully allowed. A gargle will 
relieve the sore-throat (see Prescrip- 
tion No. 77 or 78), or it may have 
a solution of nitrate of silver (15 grs. 
to the oz. of water) applied to it 
with a brush. 

In the more severe and active 
inflammatory form, in which the 
throat is ulcerated^ it may be 
touched with a stronger solution 
of nitrate of silver (one drachm to 
the ounoe of water) two or three 
times a day. From one to six or 
eight leeches, according to age, &c. 
should also be applied to the throat 
externally, and a poultice of bran or 
bread-crumb be afterwards applied. 
Tincture of iodine may afterwards 
be freely painted on the outside of 
the throat two or three times a day. 
When the throat sloughs, and the 
febrile symptoms are less active, 
or have declined, a more liberal 
diet should be allowed. Strong 
beef- tea, &c., and wine, should be 
given. Tonics, such as mineral 
acids, should be given (see Prescrip- 
tions Nos. 30, 32, 45). Purgatives 
should be used if the bowels are 
confined (see Prescriptions Nos. 
1, 8, 15). 

In the malignant, or worst forms, 
bark and ammonia (see Prescription 
No. 30), with wine or brandy every 
two, three, or four hours, according 
to ihe degree of depression or debi- 
lity, must be given at the commence- 
ment. The skin should be sponged 
with warm vinegar. If the erup- 
tion do not appear freely, or be of 
a dark or dull colour, the patient 
should be placed in a hot bath in 
which mustard has been diffused. 
The principle to be borne in mind 
in such severe cases is to support 



110 



SCEOPULA— SCITEYY. 



the constitutional powers, and 
thereby enable the system to throw 
off the poison by the skin, kidneys, 
&c. 



SCIATICA. (See Eheumaiism) 



SCROFULA. Strumous Habit of Body ; 
King* 8 EvU, 

Symptoms* 

A debilitated state of constitu- 
tion, with a disposition to swellings 
and abscesses of the glands; a 
fla^l^y* pal6> or dull aspect of the 
countenance and skin; eyes light- 
coloured, eyelashes long ; nose 
wide ; upper lip thick and project- 
ing. Proneness to disorders of the 
stomach and bowels. "With the 
bodily debility there is often pre- 
cocity of mind. 

Causes. 

Hereditary and constitutional 
predisposition ; induced or excited 
by all those external agencies 
which tend to depress or restrain 
the vital energies, — e, g. want of 
light, pure air, good food, warm 
clothing, &c. Frequent inter- 
marriages among individuals of 
scrofulous families, or among too 
near relations. 

Treatment. 

Scrofula being rather a constitu- 
tional weakness than a disease, is 
to be treated by all such rules of 
diet, exercise, &c., as are condu- 
cive to health. The particular 



diseases that may occur in scrofu- 
lous persons are to be found under 
their several names. At the same 
time, it may here be stated that the 
medicines which are best suited to 
scrofulous patients are iodine, and 
its combinations with iron or potash, 
mineral acids, cod-liver oil. 



SCURVY. Scorbutus, 

Symptoms. 

General debility, lassitude, low- 
ness of spirits ; the gums become 
swollen, spongy, or purple, and 
bleed on slight friction. The odour 
of the breath is offensive. The 
patient suffers from pains in the 
limbs, stiffiuess of the joints, and is 
averse to any exertion. The skin 
is dry and ha^h, shining, and dis- 
coloured with streaks of blue, green- 
ish, black, or livid hues, resembling 
those of bruises. These patches 
are first observed, and are most 
numerous^ on the thighs and legs ; 
they soon appear on the arms, body, 
and scalp, but rarely on the face, 
which assumes a dingy, bloated 
hue. The ankles and legs swell. 
The disease persisting, all these 
symptoms become more distinct 
and severe ; haemorrhage from the 
nostrils, mouth, bowels, &c., is 
added ; swellings occur in differ- 
ent parts, and ulcers form on the 
legs, discharging a thin foetid fluid. 
The bowels are generally more or 
less disordered from the beginning, 
and after a while become affected 
with the disorder known as " scor- 
butic dysentery." The pulse is 
feeble, often rapid. The tongue is 



SCURVY— SMALL-POX. 



Ill 



flabby, and marked with furrows 
by the teeth. The appetite is not 
impaired until the latter stages of 
the disease. 



Cauges. 

Deficiency of succulent vegetables 
and fiiiits. Unwholesome provi- 
sions and water; exposure to cold 
and moisture; previous diseases, 
e. g. fevers. 

Treatment. 

1. Preventive, — Supply fresh 
{Uiidulated fruits, as limes, lemons, 
shaddocks, oranges, pomegranates, 
tamarinds, &c. ; fresh vegetables; 
fresh meat. Among antiscorbu- 
tics, are also the following: — 
Tops of firs and mountain pines; 
tar- water; molasses; wort, or in- 
fusion of malt; various fermented 
liquors and wines ; vinegar ; mine- 
ral acids ; cocoa, tea, &c. 

2. Curative. — ^When the disease 
has appeared, the free use of the 
above-named articles may be re- 
garded in the light of medicines, 
at the same time that tonics are 
taken ; mild aperients if the 
bowels be costive. Diarrhoea may 
be checked by chalk mixture (see 
Prescription No. 70); dysentery, 
by Dover's powder (see Dysentery). 
When the debility assumes the 
form of low fever, quinine, bark, 
and ammonia are to be given (see 
Prescriptions No. 30, &c.) 



SHINGLES. (See7V«^.) 



SKIN, INFLAMMATIONS OF. 

The symptoms of inflammatory 
diseases of the skin vary very greatly, 
and must be sought lor under the 
names of the eruptions in several 
parts of this work ; e, g, JEhrysipehSy 
Shingles, JEczetna, &c. &c. There 
are, however, certain characters of 
these diseases which should here be 
pointed out. 

Inflammation of the skin has a 
great tendency to spread, as seen in 
erysipelas, &c. 

If the inflammation be extensive, 
it has a tendency to produce affec- 
tions of important internal organs : 
e. g. the brain, in erysipelas ; the 
bowels or lungs, in bums and 
scalds. 

Inflammation of the skin has 
also a tendency to suppuration ; 
thus, in erysipelas, it frequently 
happens that matter spreads and 
forms abscesses, implicating a con- 
siderable extent of surface beneath 
the skin. 

The treatment of these complica- 
tions must be according to the 
directions given under their respec- 
tive headings. 



SMALL-POX. Variola. 

Symptoms. 

These vary with the character of 
the eruption and the severity of 
the fever, and are given at consi- 
derable length in order to prevent 
the not imcommon error of con- 
founding this with other eruptive 



112 



SMALL-POX. 



fevers. Small -pox is divided 
into^ 

Distinct, or " discrete." 

Semi-confluent. 

Confluent. 

Either of which may be — 

Benignant or mild. 

Modifled. 

Malignant. 

Benignant, or Mild. — ^The at- 
tack itself is divided into four 
periods ; viz. those of — 

1. Incubation. 

2. Invasion. 

3. Eruption. 

4. Decline. 

1 . Incicbation, — This is the period 
that elapses between the moment 
of infection and that of the appear- 
ance of indisposition. It usually 
occupies twelve days. This period 
generally passes without any signs ; 
fiiere may, however, be languor, 
lassitude, headache, and general 
malaise. 

2. The staff e of Invasion, or the 
development of decided indisposi- 
tion. — This occurs on the twelfth 
day usually, but it may be earlier. 
Fever, shivering, heat of skin, 
rapid pulse, pains in the loins and 
limbs, pain most severe at the pit 
of the stomach, headache, vomiting, 
cramps, or even convulsions : — some 
or all of these symptoms may be 
present. The more severe these 
premonitory symptoms, the more 
severe, generally, the subsequent 
disease. They are slight in the 
distinct or milder and modified 
forms of smaU-pox; in the con- 
fluent, or in the malignant forms. 



the symptoms attendant on the 
invasion are usually very severe. 

3. Staff e of Eruption, — ^About 
forty-eight hours, it may be a little 
later, from the commencement of 
the preceding stage, the eruption 
makes its appearance, to the great 
relief of all tiie symptoms. Fever, 
however, continues throughout the 
eruptive stage ; the pulse becomes 
increased in frequency ; a peculiar 
faint odour is perceptible in adults. 
Minute pointed red pimples, hard 
to the touch, and raised above the 
surface of the skin, show them- 
selves successively on the face, 
forehead, neck and wrists, breast, 
limbs, and body. They appear last 
on the legs and feet. Twenty-four 
hours elapse before the eruption 
has fully appeared. 

In the discrete, or benignant 
form, the spots are fewer, and have 
clear spaces of skin between them. 
In the confluent they are thickly 
clustered together over a large 
extent of surface. In the semi- 
confluent they may in some places 
be clustered together in small 
patches, whUo over other parts of 
the surface they are distinct. The 
skin is hot and shining. On the 
second day of the eruption the 
pimples are red and inflamed 
around their bases. The pimples 
go on enlarging, and contain a 
thin clear fluid ; by the fourth or 
fifth day their conical tops become 
flattened, and the vesicles present 
a depression in the centre. By 
the sixth day the vesicles contain 
an opaque or milky fluid. By 
this time the face has become 
swollen, and the features often so 
disfigured as to be scarcely recog- 



SMALL-POX. 



113 



nisable. The eyelids are closed by 
tlie sweUing. The eruption may 
appear in the nostrils, mouth, 
tongue, and throat, extending to 
the organs of the voice, which is 
then rendered hoarse and weak, 
and is attended with a troublesome 
cough, and frequently with profuse 
salivation. After tiie sixth day 
the vesicles begin to contain yellow 
matter, and by the eighth day are 
mature or complete. 

The patient, in the confluent 
form, is often in great peril of life 
during this stage of the disease. 

4. Period of Decline, including 
the drying up of the eruption. — 
From the eighth to the eleventh 
day the contents of the vesicle 
undergo condensation, and form a 
scab. This is attended by the 
secondary fever, sometimes with 
delirium. The eleventh day is a 
point of considerable importance to 
have passed over safely, especially 
in the confluent form. 

After this the scabs begin 
to fall off. The swelling of the 
skin subsides, the sites of the 
pustules either leave a temporary 
brown discoloration, or a perma- 
nent scar or pit. 

The drying up of the eruption 
takes place earlier on the face than 
elsewhere ; indeed, it wiU be found 
that the eruption goes through all 
its stages so much earlier on the 
face, ti^at while crusts are there 
present the vesicles may be imma- 
ture on the legs. 

In the confluent form the scabs 
are so numerous, and so closely 
crowded, that an entire mask often 
covers the face. 

The period that elapses before 



aU the scabs have fallen off is 
extremely various, depending upon 
their number, and the consequent 
severity of the disease : it may be 
as long as three or four weeks 
from their flrst appearance. 

The above constitutes the ordinary 
course of small-pox, either distinct, 
semi-confluent, or confluent, oc- 
curring in persons not previously 
vaccinated. 

We have now to state the cha- 
racters of the disease as modified 
by vaccination, and in its more 
severe or malignant forms. 

Modified. — Yaccination exerts 
so great an influence over small- 
pox, that even where it does not 
entirely protect from the dis- 
ease, it disarms it of its severity 
and danger in a very large majority 
of cases. If good deeply-marked 
scars of previous vaccination are 
apparent, the small-pox will some- 
times be arrested in its earliest 
stages of pimples, and the forma- 
tion of vesicles be arrested; or, what 
is much more commonly the case, 
the vesicles go through an irregular 
course, the fever is less severe, and 
the scabs smaller, sooner falling 
off, and leaving slighter traces than 
in natural small-pox which has 
not been preceded by vaccination. 
So great is the modifying influence 
of vaccination, that we would 
strongly urge upon all persons not 
having good scars of previous vac- 
cination, that they ^ould be re- 
vaccinated. 

Many persons, moreover, who 
have had small-pox severely after 
vaccination, have owed their lives 
to the modifying influence of vac- 



oination. la modifiod Bmall-poz, 
the greater advance of the dUeaae 
on the face, chest, &c., as compared 
with itfl progress od the lower ex- 
tremities, is very well marked. 

For further remarks oa the ad- 
vantages of vaocination, see 
sectioQ oa Sygiiw. 

K1LIQNA.HT Small-pox. — In this 
fbrm the ByroptomB from the first 
exhibit great depression of the vital 
energies; the pulse is feeble and 
rapid J there is much delirium, 
with low muttering, trembling, and 
twitching of the limbs. When the 
eruptioa appears, it has a dark, 
dusky, or purple hue. Spots of 
effused blood also appear with 
them on different parts of the body, 
and the patient rarely survives the 
second stage. 

CoHPLTCATioirs OF Small-pox. — 
The danger in smaU-pox is greater 
in proportion to the number of 
pTiatules, or, in other words, to 
the extent of akin the functions 
of which are interrupted. The 
consequence thereof is congestion of 
intemat organs, as the brain, or 
lungs, or bowels, &c., givingriseto 
bronchitis, diarrhcea, &c. &c. Thus, 
a pregnant woman is almost sure te 
miscarry, or give birth prematurely 
to aa infent which is most fre- 
quently dead, and which may or may 
not have received the disease . 
Pregnancy is a very unlavourable 
circumstance, since, if the small- 
poz be severe, it will determine the 
delivery or abortion, and the pro- 
cess in either case increases the 
mother's risks. The puerperal or 
lying-in coaditioa increases the 
danger of small-pox. 



It has already been stated, Uiat 
the eruption appearing ia the mouth 
uiay extead te the organs of voice 
and to the wind-pipe, and produce 
disease in those parts, which adds 
very considerably to thedai^r, and 
may remain in a chronic form after 
the smait-pox has disappeared. 

The most frequeat complicatioa 
is inflammation of the eyes, or of 
the glands ; or the formation of 
abscesses in various parts of the 



Infection aad iaoculation. When 
taken in the former way, it is called 
" natural," in contradistinction from 
the latter. Inoculation of small- 
is now an iafruction of th( 
laws of England, justly punishable 
by a penalty of fifly pounds, or 
imprisonment. Fersoos labouring 
under inoculated smaU-pox may 
infect others, form so oiany foci of 
contagion, and thus perpetuate this 
dreadful scourge. The milder ofiFec- 
tion of vaccination afibrds similar 
protection, and has the great advan- 
tage of not spreading by contagion. 
Since vaccinatioa has been intro- 
duced by Jenner, there is, therefore, 
Qo longer any pretext or justifica- 
tion for the dangerous practice of 
inoculation. 

It has not beeu determined how 

ig the infection of small-pox will 
preserve its virulence, or to what 
distance it may extend from the 
patient. It is generally believed 
iJiat infection may be removedfrom 
garments, bedding, &c., by exposing 
i,hem to a temperature equal to 
that of boiling water. 

Age must be regarded as a pre- 



SMALL-POX. 



115 



disposing cause of small-pox. The 
statistics of the Small-pox Hospital^ 
pubHshed by Mr. Marson, the resi- 
dent-surgeon of that institution, 
show natural small-pox to be most 
fatal in infancy and advanced life ; 
the least so from 10 to 15 years of 
age ; under 5 years of age the 
mortality is 50 per cent., after the 
age of 20 it rises suddenly, and 
increases gradually; the mortality 
at 30 exceeds that of infancy, 
and after 60 there is hardly any 
escape. 

Treatment. 

Small-pox is a definite eruptive 
fever, for arresting the course of 
which no medicinal means have yet 
been discovered, if even it could safely 
be done. In the milder forms no 
inedicine is required. The symp- 
toms of the period of invasion wUl 
require a mild aperient. Strong 
purgatives do harm, by determining 
morbid action to the intestines, and 
interfering with the state of the skin. 
In the secondary fever a simple 
saline mixture (see Prescription 
N"o. 4, omitting the tartar emetic) 
will be sufficient. If the fever be 
severe, and there be symptoms of 
congestion of the brain, such as 
intense headache, &c. from four to 
six leeches may be applied in the 
cases of adults only. But care 
should be taken not to assume that 
congestion or inflammation of the 
brain exists because the patient is 
delirious, — mere febrile excitement 
will produce delirium. Sleepless- 
ness proceeding from irritation of 
the skin may be relieved by a dose 
of Dover's powder. The most im- 
portant measures are the securing 



a well- ventilated chamber; ob- 
serving a light diet, chiefly bread 
and milk ; lying on a mattress ; 
and sponging the surface with 
warm or tepid water. When the 
eruption is very full, comfort is 
derived from dredging the surface 
with flour. More harm is likely 
to be done by meddlesome phy- 
sicking than by entirely withholding 
medicines. 

As the eruption declines, the diet 
may be increased by beef-tea, &c. ; 
and when the scabs have begun to 
fall, meat diet. 

In the malignant form of the 
disease, wine, ammonia, and other 
stimulants, are required soon after 
the eruption appears. 

If the eyes be inflamed, and vesi- 
cles form upon the surface, a rag 
dipped in cold water should be kept 
constantly applied. 

Various means have been recom- 
mended for the purpose of prevent- 
ing the disfigurement of the scars 
and pits on the face. This is a 
matter of great importance to fe- 
males. Unfortunately, however, 
these vaunted means have been 
found wanting. Their enumeration 
is therefore unnecessary. One of 
the most useftd is to open the 
vesicle directly it has formed^ he- 
fore it has advanced to the forma- 
tion of matter, and insert a fine- 
pointed stick of nitrate of sUver into 
the vesicle. As the vesicles are 
numerous, and are rapidly developed 
from the pimple, it will require 
vigilance and patience to touch 
them all at the right moment. If, 
however, this be done, very few 
pits wUl be lefb. 

The removal of the scabs may be 



116 



SORE-THROAT— SPASM. 



facilitated by smearing them with 
the best olive oil. 

A most important object is the 
prevention of the disease. This is 
to be effected only by vaccination 
(see Sygiine). 



SOBE-THBOAT. Inflammation of the 
Tonsils ; Relaxed Sore-tkroat ; Qaiu' 
*y; V/cerated Sore'throat ; Putrid 
Sore-throat; ^c. 

Symptoms. 

In quinsy, in addition to the pain 
and ^ difficulty in swallowing, on 
looking into the throat the tonsils 
or glands on each side will be seen 
considerably swollen ; on the out- 
side of the throat, at the angles of 
the jaws, a fulness may also be felt, 
with tenderness on pressure. The 
voice is altered and thickened. As 
the disease advances the voice be- 
comes more stifled, swallowing is 
almost impossible, breathing is im- 
peded, and at last suffocation seems 
to be threatened. At length, after 
these symptoms have existed for 
several hours, or in some cases for 
a day or two, relief is obtained by 
the bursting of the tonsils, in one 
or both of which the inflammation 
has gone on to form an abscess. 

In ulcerated sore -throat the ton- 
sils may be somewhat swollen, but 
not to the extent of quinsy : their 
surfaces will present patches of 
yellow lymph on a sore-looking 
surface with ragged edges. The 
difficulty of swaUowing is not so 
great, nor is the breathing im- 
peded. 

In relaxed sore-throat there is 



the difficulty of swallowing, but in 
less degree ; there is less pain ; and 
on examining the throat the uvula 
which hangs in the middle will be 
seen enlarged, pale, and flabby, and 
perhaps looking like a bladder. The 
surface of the throat generally is 
pale and flabby-looking. 

Putrid sore-throat consists of 
mortification or sloughing of the 
surface, and is most frequently met 
with in scarlatina (which see) . ' 

Causes. 

Cold, previous illness, debility. 

Trestment. 

For quinsy in the active form, 
and in persons of fiill habit of body, 
an emetic shoxdd be taken (see 
Prescription No. 7). From ten to 
twenty leeches should be applied in 
the cases of adults, — ^it is safer not 
to apply leeches to the throats of 
children,— and afterwards a blister 
plaster. Purgative saline medicine 
(see Prescriptions Nos. 1, 2, 3, 
or 4). 

In the other forms, the local ap- 
plication of a strong solution of 
nitrate of silver (30 to 60 grains to 
the ounce of water) and the in- 
ternal use of tonics (see Prescrip- 
tion No. 30). 



SPASM. Cramp. 

Symptoms. 

Painful contraction of muscular 
parts, not necessarily attended by 
unconsciousness, as in the convul- 
sive movements of epilepsy. Either 
voluntary or involuntary muscles 



SPINAL CURVATUEE— STONE IN THE BLADDER. 117 



may be affected. Spasm occurs in 
the muscular fibres of the intestines, 
in the tubes leading from the gall- 
bladder, and in other internal parts, 
giving rise to severe and often 
agonising pain (see Gravel and 
Bilious Disorders). Cramps of the 
voluntary muscles may be excited by 
spasm of the intestinsd canal. There 
is little difference between the words 
cramp and spasm, except that the 
latter expresses a shorter duration 
than the former. 

Causes. 

Any depressing agency; female 
sex; mental emotion; painful im- 
pressions; irritation of the intes- 
tines, &c. 

Treatment. 

^eQ List of Antispasmodics. Give 
also some antacid aperients (see 
Prescriptions No. 16, 16, and 17). 
(See also Convulsions,) 



SPINAL CUBVATUBE. 

Symptoms. 

This deformity first appears in a 
projection, or ** growing out,** as it 
is generally expressed, of one 
shoidder, while tiie entire side is 
more rounded and raised than the 
other. The hip of the opposite side 
projects. One leg appears shorter 
than the other, and the patient limps. 
If the first indications be neglected, 
or do not yield to treatment, all 
these conditions become greatly 
aggravated, the distortion becomes 
considerable, the Amotions of in- 
ternal organs are interfered with, 
and the general health fails. 



Causes. 

In many cases, perhaps the ma- 
jority, this deformity begins in a 
habit of lolling on one side. It 
frequently proceeds from want of 
vigour in the muscular system; 
from over-exertion, or too pro- 
longed study. 

Treatment. 

Medicinal treatment is directed to 
giving tone to the muscular system, 
and invigorating the health. Either 
steel, quinine, or cod-liver oil, may 
be given. Aperients if the bowels 
are confined. In the early stages 
other measures must consist of 
shower-bath, with friction by means 
of a rough towel; sleeping on a 
mattress ; exercise in the open air, 
short of fatigue ; lying on tiLe back 
after exercise. Gymnastic exercises 
that shall bring into full use the 
weak side. Sea-bathing. 

If these means, steadily persevered 
in for some months, fail to do good, 
mechanical contrivances must be 
had recourse to, under medical 
advice. 



SPLEEN, ENLARGEMENT OF. 

(See Ague,) 



STOMACH, DISORDERS OF. (See 

IncUgeiiion,) 



STONE IN THE BLADDER. 

Symptoms. 

These are usually slow in their 
approach and indefinite in character. 



118 



STONE 11^ THE BLADDER— STEAI^GURY. 



Suspicion of the existence of a stone 
in the bladder should be excited by- 
increased frequency of occasion to 
pass water, which is voided with 
difficulty, and in a broken stream ; 
or the stream being entirely checked, 
flows again with a change of pos^ 
ture. Stone in the bladder is also 
attended with pain in the course of 
the urethra, extending deep in the 
body to the neck of the bladder. 
One of the most common signs of 
stone occurring in children is, that 
to relieve this pain in the organ, 
they acquire a habit of pulling the 
foreskin, which thereby becomes 
elongated. 

"When stone has been present in 
the bladder for some months or 
years, it gives rise to chronic inflam- 
mation of the bladder. 

These are the general symptoms 
of stone in the bladder : alone, how- 
ever, they are not conclusive, — they 
must be confirmed by the surgical 
operation of sounding, which con- 
sists of the introduction of a solid 
steel rod into the bladder, so that the 
stone shall be detected by the 
surgeon's touch and hearing. The 
operation must be performed by a 
surgeon. 

Causes. 

Concretion of earthy matter upon 
small fragments of gravel or other 
substances in the bladder. This 
complaint occurs in morbid condi- 
tions of the constitution, following 
gout, indigestion, &c. It fre- 
quently, however, takes place in 
children in whom these causes 
csuinot have operated : it is, there- 
fore, not always clear to what cause 
it can be attributed. 



Treatment. 

The only complete cure for stone 
is to be sought in the removal of 
the concretion from the bladder. 
This can only be eflfected by a 
surgeon. If symptoms of chronic 
inflammation of the bladder be pre- 
sent, relief may be obtained by the 
means recommended for that dis- 
ease. Irritability of the bladder, 
denoted by frequent urgency to pass 
water, may be allayed by doses of 
solution of potash and tincture of 
henbane (see Table of Medicines) . 
Carefiil dieting should be observed, 
in order to avoid the causes of indi- 
gestion^ &c. 



STRANGUBT. Itetenfion of Urine. 

Symptoms. 

Difficulty in voiding urine, ac- 
companying frequent eflfbrts to do 
so. The urine passes only a few 
drops at a time, with violent effort. 
The bladder becoming fuller and 
fuller, may be felt as a tumour at 
the lower part of the abdomen. 
Pressure over the bladder causes 
great suffering. If not relieved, 
the patient becomes delirious and 
comatose, or rupture of the bladder 
may take place, and the patient die 
in the greatest agony from the in- 
flammation caused by the effused 
urine in the abdomen. 

Causes. 

Irritation from the application of 
blisters ; obstruction to the passage 
of urine from stone in the bladder, 
or stricture of the passage ; en- 
largement of portions of the bladder 



STRANGUEY— STRICTUEE. 



119 



in old age; inflammatioii of the 
bladder. 



pressed against the upper surface 
of the urinary pai^sflga, will afer 



Treatment. 

In the slighter form — ^that caused 
by irritation of a blister — a few 
teiughts of warm water, a few 
drops of laudanum, or a few hours' 
patience, will be sufficient. 

In the severer forms — those caused 
by stone or stricture— there is more 
danger. The patient, if an adult, 
should be placed in a hot bath; 
thirty or forty drops of laudanum 
should be given. If these means 
do not give relief, after having 
been employed for several hours, 
an instrument termed a catheter 
should be passed through the 
urethra until it reaches the bladder, 
when immediate relief will follow. 
This may be done with advantage 
while the patient is in the hot 
bath. One form of retention, or 
strangury, is commonly met with 
in old men, in whom a portion 
of the bladder undergoes enlarge- 
ment. 

This operation should, if it be by 
any means possible, be confided to 
the skill of a medical man. If this 
cannot be, the non-medical operator 
may, perhaps, be guided by ftie fol- 
lowing brief directions : — 

A catheter should be selected 
having a calibre of about a com- 
mon writing quiU. It should be 
carefully inserted into the orifice 
of the penis, which for that pur- 
pose should be drawn forward be- 
tween the fore and second fingers of 
the left hand. The curvature of 
the catheter should be steadily 
kept looking upwards. The point 
of the instrument being gently 



a while slip into the bladder with 
a distinct sudden giving way of 
resistance. Yiolence is to be care- 
fully avoided, or the instrument 
will pierce the surrounding struc- 
tures, and thereby cause fatal mis- 
chief without present relief. 

Many old men require the pas- 
sage of a catheter twice a day. 
They easily learn to perform the 
operation for themselves. 

If the retention proceed from 
inflammation of the bladder, it will 
generally yield to the treatment for 
that disease. 



STRICTURE. 

SymptoniB. 

Frequent occasion to pass water ; 
dribbling of a few drops after- 
wards; slight pain beneath the 
root of the penis; the stream 
of water smaller than usual, forked, 
twisted, or scattered, and requiring 
efforts to void it. Occasioned spas- 
modic attacks of difficulty in pass- 
ing water; disturbed sleep; dis- 
ordered health; depression of spirits, 
&c. 

Causes. 

Disorders of the urinary and 
digestive organs ; intemperance, &c. 

Treatment. 

A bougie (an instrument made 
for this special purpose) should be 
passed down the passage of the 
penis until it comes to the stricture, 
which will prevent its passage. 
A smaller bougie should be tried 



120 



TEETHING. 



until one is found which, after 
gentle pressure, will pass through 
the obstruction. The instrument 
should be passed every three or 
four days, a larger being gradually 
employed. 

This is as much of treatment as 
is safe in the hands of a non-pro- 
fessional person, but if careMLy 
practised it may be of great service. 



ST. VITUS'S DANCE. {Siee Chorea.) 



SUPPURATION. {SeeMscesi.) 



SYPHILIS. {See FenereallHseiue.) 



TEETHING. JOentUUm. 

The period at which teething be- 
gins varies very much ; its average 
commencement is from the fifth to 
the seventh month. The two 
centre teeth of the lower jaw 
appear first, then the two upper 
-central teeth; these are followed 
by two more in the front of the 
lower jaw, and these by the teeth 
on each side of those already appa- 
rent in the upper jaw. These are 
succeeded, with more or less regu- 
larity, by others, to the number 
altogether of twenty for the first 
set ; viz. in each hd[f of each jaw, 
two front, one eye-tooth, and two 
grinders. The process is usually 



complete by the time the child is 
two years old, or soon after. 

The second set of teeth do not 
begin to appear until about the age 
of seven years. It is, however, 
during the first dentition that in- 
disposition is most frequently met 
witii ; and it is to that period that 
the present remarks refer. 

Bymptoms. 

Cutting the first teeth is very 
commonly attended with derange- 
ment of the infant's health. The 
child ^'dribbles;" its mouth is 
hot; it eagerly bites anything it 
can lay hold of; it frequently 
suddenly cries out, as if in pain ; 
its gums are swoUen and tender ; 
it is restless, cross; its sleep dis- 
turbed ; it starts, as if in fright. 
Eever occurs, witti thirst, dryness 
of the mouth, sickness, disordered 
bowels, &c. 

Teetiiiing is a frequent exciting 
cause of serious diseases of the 
head, chest, skin, &c., in children 
thereto predisposed : — ^for which, 
see the several disorders under their 
respective headings. 

" Dribbling" often occurs at the 
age of two or three months, when 
the teeth are beginning to expand 
the jaw, and before they reach the 
gums. 

Treatment. 

Divide the gum freely, parallel 
with the front edge of the jaw, and 
down to the bone or tooth. Care 
must be taken not to cut behind 
the edge of the jaw, lest the in- 
cision interfere with the young 
teeth of the second set, which are 
developed behind and below the 



TESTACLE— TETAmJS. 121 


first. The operation is simple and 
easy, only requiring a sharp knife, 
or properly-shaped gum -lancet, 
and the securing steadiness of the 
child's he^id, by placing it upon the 
operator's knees ; the nurse should 
hold the infant' s hands. W hen this 
has been performed, mild aperient, 
such as castor oil or magnesia, with 
a warm bath, will usually suffice to 
remove the remaining symptoms. 

The gum-lancing may, however, 
require repetition. There need be 
no fear of so doing, as the gum 
does not harden in the scar, as 
popularly believed: the rising of 
the liberated tooth would prevent 
this, even if it were a probable 
change, which it is not. 


assist in removing what remains of 
the inflammation. If the pain 
prevent sleep, eight or ten grains of 
Dover's powder should be taken at 
bed-time. The diet must be low. 

If, afterwards, the disease lingers 
in a chronic form, iodide of potAS- 
sium may be taken internally (see 
Prescription No. 31), and applied 
externally also (see Prescription 
No. 60). 


TETANUS AND LOCK-JAW. 

Symptoms. 

Violent painM spasms of the mus- 
cles of the body, limbs, or throat and 
jaws ; producing a state of rigidity 
which resists every attempt to bend 
the joints. This rigidity is con- 
tinuous, and without intervals of 
relaxation. The mind is unim- 
paired, and the sensibility of the 
surface remains in its natural state, 
or may even be exalted, so that to 
touch any part shall j>roduce great 
aggravation of the painful muscular 
action. Sometimes those muscles 
only which hold the body upright 
are affected, and the body is then 
bent backwards ; in other instances 
the body is bowed firmly forwards. 
The trunk is so rigid that it may 
be raised onto the feet without the 
joints yielding. 

In children, lock-jaw sometimes 
occurs without spasm of other mus- 
cles. 

The disease generally begins with 
severe spasms about the chest and 
neck, recurring at short intervals. 

Causes. 

Wounds, scratches, and other 


T£STICLE,INFLAMMATiONOF. 

Symptomfl. 

The testicle becomes painfiA and 
enlarged ; the pain extends up into 
the body and loins; sickness 
occurs ; rapid pulse ; furred tongue ; 
thirst ; and o&er febrile symptoms. 

Causes. 

Injury, as blows or kicks ; 
gonorrhoea ; extension of inflamma- 
tion from other parts of the 
urinary organs. 

Treatment. 

Eest in the recumbent posture ; 
from twelve to twenty leeches, 
followed by poultices ; saline ape- 
rients, with tartar emetic (see I^e- 
scription No. 3). 

After the swelling and fever 
have a little subsided, the applica- 
tion of mercurial ointment will 



122 



TETANrS— TETTEES. 



injuries. A hot climate predis- 
poses; but it is also met with 
frequently in temperate climates. 
It is very rarely indeed known to 
occur without some wound or 
injury : sometimes, especially with 
children, however, it originates from 
irritating matters in the intestines, 
or from some morbid condition of 
the nervous system. 

Treatment. 

Strong purgatives, such as tur- 
pentine and castor-oU (see Pre- 
scription 1^0. 9), or croton oil ; and 
one or two grains of opium, repeated 
at regular intervals of from four to 
six hours. Large quantities of 
opium are sometimes borne without 
harm in this disease. But, as the 
malady is one of a very dangerous 
character, medical advice should be 
sought at any inconvenience. 

Lock-jaw, in infants, is to be 
treated by antacid aperients (see 
Prescription No. 16), and small 
doses of Dover's powder (see Table 
of Medicines). It must be remem- 
bered that infants are very suscep- 
tible of the effects of opium. 

Mechanical means must be em- 
ployed to force open the jaw for the 
passage of food, &c. 



TETTER. Herpes; ShingUe ; Main- 
bow Mnffworm, 

Sympti»i|is* 

Eruption of small-globular ve- 
sicles upon irregular-shaped in- 
flamed patches of skin. It is not 
contagious. Is rarely attended with 
fever or constitutional disturbance. 



rarely lasts more than two or 
three weeks, as each vesicle runs 
its course in from three to ten 
days, and either dries up, or forms 
a scab, which speedily falls off. 

The characters, seats, and forms 
which these groups assume, have 
given rise to several varieties. 
Thus, shingles is that variety in 
which the eruption appears upon 
the body and spreads in the form of 
a zone, extending to the limbs. 
In this form there is some fever, 
and burning tingling sensation in 
the skin. 

The common breaking out upon 
the lip which follows a cold is 
tetter. 

Rainbow ringworm is a curious 
form of this disease, in which the 
vesicles may be as large as beans ; 
they are usually grouped in clusters 
of several smedler and one larger 
vesicle, and are surrounded by four 
or five rings of different shades of 
red, pink, and yellow skin. 

Causes. 

Derangement of the digestive 
organs; exposure to cold; local 
irritants; depressing mental emo- 
tions. 

Treatment. 

Grentle aperients, or other means 
directed to the particular derange- 
ment of the digestive organs. 
Warm fomentation to the eruption ; 
some mild ointment, e, g, sperma- 
ceti or zinc ointment, when the 
part is exposed to friction. Oint- 
ment or lotion of Goulard's extract 
is also a soothing application (see 
Prescriptions iN'os. 74 and 92). 

This eruption being frequently 
an effort of the system to cast off 



THRUSH— ULCERATION. 



123 



some morbid influence, the treat- | 
ment must be simply palliative, 
and the diet light and simple, or 
full, according to the strength of 
the patient. 



THRUSH. 

Symptoms. 

Small white spots, seen upon the 
tongue, and inside of the lips and 
cheeks, which are swollen ; the mouth 
is hot; breath disagreeable; suck- 
ling painful. The child is fretful, 
restless, and cries when put to the 
breast. The seat and private parts 
become inflamed and excoriated by 
the acrid nature of the discharges 
^m the bowels and bladder. 

Causes. 

Debility ; indigestion ; acidity 
from improper food ; b^ air ; want 
of cleanliness; age of infiEUicy. 

There is a popular notion that 
thrush appearing in persons ad- 
vanced in life, suflering under ill- 
ness, is always a fatal sign. This is 
an error, as it is simply an indica- 
tion of debility which may occur at 
any age. 

Treatment. 

Cream, or white ofegg, or borax 
and honey, or powdered<alum, may 
be smeared on the spots. 

Alkaline medicines internally (see 
Prescriptions Nos. 16 and. 23). A 
wet-nurse should be procured, in 
extreme cases, for ' infants under 
ten months. In elder children 
change of diet must be made with 
caution. 

The excoriations of tKe 15wer 
parts should be treated by finely 



dusted filler's earth, or thin starch 
and water; zino powder or zinc 
ointment. 



TIC DOULOUREUX, {^ee Neuralgia.) 



TOOTHACHE. 

Apply creasote, or oil of cloves, 
or laudanum, on cotton wool. One 
or two^eeches applied to the gum 
will frequently prove serviceable. 
A dose of piffgative medicine will 
also- sometimes relieve the pain. 
(See also Neuralgia.) 



TOOTH RASH. {Be^ Lichen.) 



TYPHUS. (JSoQ Fever.) 



ULCERATION. 

Symptoms. 

A sore, presenting red points of 
new substance, or " granidations," 
which bleed readily when touched, 
andrdisdiarging matter. The edges 
are smooth, and covered with a 
bluish semi-transparent skin, which 
is gradually lost in the granulations. 
These are the characters of what 
is usually termed a ** healthy" ulcer, 
disposed ta heal readily. 

Ulceration has several varieties. 
Tlius> the- ulcer may be " inflamed" 
or ''^irritabley*' or sluggish" or 
.« indolent*" In the two former 
the surroimding skin is red, the 



124 



ULCEEATION. 



edges are irregalar, inclined to 
spread, and the surface unequal, 
the discharge irritating, and some- 
times mixed with blood. The 
"indolent" ulcer has a pale flabby 
appearance, and will remain in much 
the same state for a long time. 
Scrofulous ulcers are of this cha- 
racter. 

A Slough is a portion of dead 
structure which Hes on the sur- 
face of an ulcer, and has to be cast 
off by it. 

A Fistula, or sinus, is an ulcer 
haying a long narrow opening, 
ihrough which the discharge has 
to pass. The deep narrow entarance 
to an abscess is also afotula. 

Ulcers may occur anywhere on 
the surfeice of the body, er of in- 
ternal organs. Their most common 
seat, when on the skin, is upon the 
lower extremities. 

Causes. 

Local injuries ; caustic substances, 
inflammation; impaired health ; ob- 
structed circulation, as where the 
veins of a limb are varicose. 

Treatments 

In the treatment of all forms of 
ulceration, position is of great im- 
portance. The limb should be 
raised from the ground so as to 
£tvour the return ef blood by the 
veins. 

For the healthy ulcer, simple 
water dressing of lint or rag dipped in 
cold water, and frequently changed ; 
or spermaceti ointment. K the 
ulcer be very extensive, a scab may 
be formed upon its surface by 
sprinkling it with powdered chalk. 
i In most instances the surface will 
I heal and dry up beneath this scab. 



Inflamed ulcers require purga- 
tives and warm water dressing, 
or poultices, or rags dipped in 
Gt>ulard water. Opium internally 
will relieve pain. In irritable and 
painful ulcers the local application 
of decoction of hemlock, or of rags 
moistened with laudanum and 
water ; or of solution of nitrate of 
silver (from 1 to 5 grains to the 
ounce of water) ; or lotions of sul- 
phate of zinc, or of creasote (see 
Prescription No. 63). 

In the indolent and fistulous 
ulcer these same stimulant appli- 
cations may also be applied. Tonics 
and liberal diet should be taken in 
the latter cases. 

As it IS frequently impossible that 
strict rest, and the required posture, 
can be observed, if the ulcer be on 
the leg the circulation in the limb 
may be favoured and supported by 
bandaging the leg careftiUy with 
a calico bandage from the toes to 
the k^ee ; or by surrounding the 
limb to the same extent with strips 
of adhe&ave plaster, leaving the 
space of the ulcer uncovered, in 
order that ointments or other ap- 
plications may be changed as often 
as needed* 



URINE, DISORDERS OF. (See 
Gravely Strangury, Diabetes, &o.) 



UVULA, RELAXED. (SeeSore-throat.) 



VACCINATION. (See Section on 



YENEKEAL DISEASE. 125 



with alight redness and swelling, 

YEMEBEAL DISEASE. spreading circularly. It may or 

Under this name are included ^^'V"* ^ '^^^^ at first with a 

the effects of morbid poisons gene- ^-o™wn scab. At the next 

rated, and usually co^unicated, stage it forms a nused ulcer, tiurow- 

by promiscuous seiual intercourse. "« out large granulations. It heals 

It embraces two distinct forms of apjeiy gradually and slowly. 

di8ease,-viz. Syphilis and Gono- ,^- ^»« ^f^ ^<f «"». i^egular 

rrA«»,— each of which presents two «^»P?' '^^ *"• ^dermm^ edga, 

classes of symptoms,— flie primary, Uf''^ ™^SSf' *"* * P~^ ^ 

and the «««)«Ly. The primary dischwge. The suiroundmg skrn 

symptoms are the early miufesfaC- " P"^*^ "^^ S?;?"®". aometimes of 

tioni of the disease in the parts to a_V^dred. This sore often spreads 

which the poison has been directly e^ively by undermining the 

applied. The secondary are the "°^' ,^ . • . 

symptoms, or results, of subsequent ^ f. Chancres are sometimes at- 

^ne^ disorder of the constitution ^}^ \ * ^Jf't ^""^ ""^J"^ 

caused by the poison. inflammation, which causes portions 

•' *^ of the surroTinamg substance to 

slough, and give off a brown offen- 

1. SYPHILIS. sive discharge. This kind of in- 

a. Pedcabt Syphilis. flammation sometimes eats away 

large portions of the adjommg 
Symptoms. structures. 
From the third to the tenth day The syphilitic ulcer is to be dis- 
afker infection, a pimple appears on tinguished by the preceding cha- 
the inner surface of the foreskin, racters from common excoriation 
or on the surface of the glans, or attributable to want of cleanliness, 
in the passage of the urethra, in the These are simply abrasions super- 
male, or on the inner surface of the ficial in extent, having profuse 
female organs : in two or three days thick discharge, occurring soon after 
this sore has become an ulcer or connection, and readily healing 
chancre. with cleaidiness, or by the applica- 
The syphilitic sore is not always tion of any mild astnngent lotion, 
alike in character. Thus — such as sulphate of zinc. 

1. It may be hard and raised. The sexual organs may also be 
having cleanly cut edges, the surface the seat of tetter, which occurs in 
of the ulcer covered with a greyish clusters of vesicles, with itching ; 
pulp, while externally the colour is when the vesicles break, slight 
reddish-brown. If taken between ulcers form, not having the charac- 
the finger and thumb, the chancre ters of chancre, but heal with the 
may be felt as hard as a piece of use of any mild ointment, 
gristie. 

2. The pimple, after bursting. Treatment, 

forms a foul yellowish sore, attended If the chancre be small, and 



126 



YENEEEAL DISEASE. 



i 



noticed in its earliest stages, t. e, 
within twenty-four or thirty-six 
hours, it may be destroyed at once 
by being touched with a stick of 
nitrate of silver. The penis should 
be afterwards wrapped in rag dipped 
in warm water, and, if possible, 
rest and low diet observed. A 
mild aperient may also be taken. 
If, however, the chancre have 
gone beyond its first stage, — *. e, 
forming the well-defined hard lump; 
or if the penis be swollen and in- 
flamed, it is too late for this attempt 
to arrest the disease. Black wash 
(see Prescription No. 93) must then 
be applied two or three times a 
day on lint. Or if there be much 
inflammation and swelling, the penis 
may also be wrapped in a poultice, 
or the dressing of lint dipped in warm 
water, and covered with oil-silk. 

If the patient be feverish, and 
the parts much inflamed, saline 
aperients (see Prescriptions Nos. 
3 and 4), and low diet, with rest, 
should be enjoined. If, however, 
the patient be otherwise in ordinary 
health, the use of mercury will ex- 
pedite a cure. Eive grains of blue 
pill should be given night and 
morning ; and if, after five or six 
days, the gums be not at aU affected, 
the dose may be doubled at night. 
At the same time a portion of mer- 
curial ointment, of about the size of 
a hazel-nut, should be rubbed in 
the groin every morning. (If not 
done by the patient himself, the 
person applying it should protect 
the hand by using a pig's bladder 
for the purpose). If the mercury 
produce griping, or purging, or sore- 
throat, or severe salivation, or irri- 
tation of the skin, it should be 



suspended for a while. For sali- 
vation, the best remedy is a gargle 
of brandy and water with a tea- 
spoonful of solution of chloride of 
lune. When the mercury begins to 
take effect, the sore will show signs 
of healing, which, in the majority 
of cases, will then be completed 
in a few days. The administration 
of the mercury should then be 
suspended. 

The inflammatory or sloughing 
chancres forbid the use of mercury ; 
they should be treated by warm 
fomentation : opium may be given 
to allay pain. 

A vast number of cases will, how- 
ever, get perfectly well without the 
use of mercury. Some surgeons 
have entirely disused it. It may 
therefore be more safely omitted 
where there is constitutional deli- 
cacy of any kind. The treatment 
will then resolve itself into clean- 
liness, local application of black 
wash, light nourishing diet, tem- 
perance, and the internal use of 
tonics, such as bark, cod-liver oil, 
iodide of potassium, &c. 

Inflammation and swelling of the 
penis, and inflammation of the 
glands in the groin — ^bubo — are 
frequently the immediate effects 
of a chancre. The former should 
be treated by fomentation or poul- 
tices, or by mild astringent lotions 
injected between the foreskin and 
the glans or nut. The latter — ^bubo, 
or inflammation of the glands at the 
groin— requires low diet, rest, 
leeches, and fomentations. If, how- 
ever, these means do not check the 
inflammation, matter forms. This 
may sometimes be absorbed under 
the application of tincture of iodine. 



VENEREAL DISEASE. 



127 



Or, failing this, matter collects and 
forms an abscess, which will burst. 
Its opening may be hastened by the 
gentle application to the skin over it 
of a stick of caustic potash; this 
will cause sloughing of the skin, 
and suffer the abscess sooner to 
burst. 

The treatment of this disease is 
the same for females as for males. 



h. SECOKTbAET Syphilis. 

Symptoms. 

A few weeks or months after the 
occurrence of a chancre, the patient 
having in the meanwhile com- 
plained of general malaise and 
indisposition, certain constitutional 
effects of syphilis are manifested 
upon the skin, the eye, the throat, 
and the bones. 

The ertcpttons on the akin vary 
from slight discolouration to obsti- 
nate ulceration. These eruptions 
may be pimples, vesicles, pustules, 
or scales : they have, however, all 
these features : — they are all obstinate 
in character, and have an orange or 
copper-coloured tint either sur- 
rounding them, or in the traces 
they leave upon the skin. 

Syphilitic sore-throat occurs 
usually at the same time with 
these eruptions, and presents a 
more or less deeply ulcerated cha- 
racter, of a dull red colour, ragged 
edges, and is covered with a white 
or yellowish secretion. 

Ulceration of the hones occurs also 
with or after the preceding, with 
sense of heat and dryness in the 
nostrils, with snuffling voice. A 
foetid discharge, and odious de- 



formity, follow. Other bones also 
become the seat of syphilitic dis- 
ease: thus the shin-bone, or the 
skull, become tender and painful, 
especially towards evening or night. 
Swellings, termed nodes, take place 
on the surfaces of these bones ; these 
may remain long as hard indolent 
swellings, or they may give rise to 
further disease of the bone, ca^s. 

While these constitutional dis- 
eases are present the patient exhibits 
their debilitating influences in the 
falling off of the hair, rheumatic 
pains in the joints, and a general 
faded unhealthy aspect. 

Treatment. 

If, attending any of the above 
symptoms, there be a feverish con- 
dition, a saline antimonial mixture 
may be taken (see Prescription No. 
4). "Warm baths will also be 
useful under these circumstances. 
Generally, however, tonics are re- 
quired. One of the best is a mix- 
ture of bark and iodide of potassium ; 
or mineral acids (see Prescription 
No. 31 or 45). 

Eor ulcers on the skin, or in the 
throat, the application of weak so- 
lutions of nitrate of silver (10 
grains to the ounce of water). The 
pain attending inflammation or 
caries in the bones may be relieved 
by opium. Offensive discharges 
should be treated by application, 
or injections containing diluted 
solutions of chloride of lime (see 
Prescription No. 62). 

If syphilitic symptoms appear in 
a newly bom infant, the mother 
or nurse should be put under treat- 
ment for secondary syphilis, e. g. 
iodide of potassium, &c. 



128 



VENEBEAL DISEASE. 



2. GONOREHGEA. 

Symptemt. 

In the first place the patient 
notices a little itching at the orifice 
of the nrethra, or of the sexual 
organs of a female, with a thin 
white discharge. After a few days 
the discharge becomes thick and 
mattery, greenish or tinged with 
blood. The penis swells ; the nut 
becomes of a cherry-red colour, is 
intensely tender, and often exco- 
riated. The stream of urine is 
small and forked, and voided with 
much straining, and very acute pain 
and scalding. In males, painfiil 
erection, called a chordee, takes 
place during sleep, or in warm 
rooms. Frequent desire to pass 
water, which is often tinged with 
blood, with deep-seated pain in the 
crutch, shivering, &c., often accom- 
pany this, the height of the disease. 

At this stage, besides the above, 
the glands of the groin frequently 
inflame, forming " sympathetic 
bubo,*' which, however, has not 
a tendency to form an abscess, as 
in the case of syphilis. 

The foreskin becomes inflamed 
sometimes. When this causes the 
end of the glans to be completely 
concealed, the swelling is termed 
phimom ; when the foreskin is re- 
tracted behind the nut, at the same 
time that it is inflamed, it is called 
pa/raphimosis. 

Among the effects or complica- 
tions of gonorrhoea, are inflamma- 
tion of the testicle (see Testicle, 
Inflammation of) ; rheumatism 
(hence this variety is called go- 
norrhoeal rheumatism) ; and lasdy. 




a chronic discharge, which, lasting 
a long time, is called ^^. 

Caases. 

Although generally occasioned 
by impure connection, it may be 
excited by other circumstances ; e. g, 
immoderate and protracted sexual 
indulgence ; gout, rheumatism, 
gravel, some kinds of irritating 
substances, as guaiacum and cayenne 
pepper ; sexual intercourse with a 
woman during the period of men- 
struation, or who is suffering under 
any other kind of discharge. 

Treatment. 

In males, if the case be taken 
in its very earliest stage, within 
thirty-six hours, before acute symp- 
toms have come on, the duease 
may be cut short by an injection 
of two grains of nitrate of silver 
in an ounce of water, repeated every 
four hours, if required, for twelve 
times. When the discharge be- 
comes thin and bloody, the injec- 
tion should be discontinued. An 
injection of sulphate of zinc, of the 
same strength, may then be used; 
rest, abstinence from stimulants, 
and mild aperients, should be taken. 
The penis should be wrapped in a 
rag dipped in water. The injection 
requires to be thrown up the entire 
length of the canal by a glass 
syringe introduced at least an inch 
down the urethra, which should be 
compressed so as to retain the in- 
jection for a minute or two after 
the removal of the instrument. 

If the first, or incipient, stage be 
passed, and the acute stage have 
arrived unchecked, the patient, if 
possible, should confine himself to 
the house. Walking or horse exer- 



VENEREAL DISEASE— WHITES. 



129 



cise is to be avoided. The penis 
should be wrapped in rags dipped 
in cold water, and supported by a 
suspensory bandage, or handkerchief 
passed up between the thighs. Low 
diet should be strictly adhered to, 
avoiding all stimulants. Saline 
aperients should be taken (see Pre- 
scriptions Nos. 1 and 4). Pain 
and scalding, or chordee, may be 
relieved by a dose of laudanum, 
or of Dover's powder, at bed-time. 

When the feverish symptoms 
have subsided, cubebs or copaiba 
may be taken. If these should dis- 
agree with the stomach, as some- 
times occurs, they will produce a 
kind of nettle-rash, and their use 
should then be suspended for a time. 

When the scalding sensation in 
passing urine has decreased, and 
the febrile symptoms have subsided, 
injections may also be used (see 
Prescription No. 86). 

Chronic discharge, or gleet, is to 
be treated by the internal use of 
muriated tincture of steel, and by 
astringent injections. (See Pre- 
scription.) 

The treatment of gonorrhoea in 
the female is to be conducted upon 
the same plan as in the male. It 
may be observed that it is usually 
milder, or a less inconvenience to 
the female. Syringes are to be 
purchased especially adapted to the 
female conformation. 



VOICE, LOSS OF. (See Aphonia.) 



WARTS. 

Causes. 

These are often not to be dis- 



covered. Sometimes they can be 
traced to local irritation; such as 
want of cleanliness, contact of 
foreign substances, &c. They grow 
without any of these causes. It is 
a popular error to suppose that 
they can be propagated by their 
blood. 

Treatment. 

Cut off the top, and touch daily 
with nitric acid, or strong acetic 
acid, or nitrate of silver, removing 
&om time to time the hardened 
crust by means of a knife. 



WHITES. LeucorrhoBa; Fluor AlbuM ; 
Weaknett, 

Symptoms. 

Discharge of a white, or yellow, 
or green-coloured matter from the 
female sexual organs. When yellow 
or green-coloured, it is often at- 
tended with itching and irritation, 
and sometimes offensive odour ; pain 
in the back and hips. This com- 
plaint is mostly a symptom of 
debility. It is often erroneously 
looked upon as the cause, instead 
of the result of constitutional de- 
rangements. 

Causes. 

Profuse menstruation ; miscar- 
riages; inflammation and other 
diseases of the internal parts ; over- 
exertion ; luxurious living, &c. 

Treatment. 

When it is associated with debi- 
lity, astringent injections may be 
used (see Prescription No. 86 or 
74), and steel or other tonics 
taken internally, with a full diet, 
including bitter ale, wine, &c. 



130 



WHITES— WORMS. 



If it occur in a full habit, and is 
supposed to proceed torn an in> 
flammatory condition of internal 
parts, saline aperients should be 
given, and warm hip bath used every 
night ; a low diet should be observed 
under these conditions. 

By CEireful attention to the general 
health these discharges will gene- 
rally subside. Great and irreparable 
harm, both moral and physical, 
may be done by the use of in- 
struments for the application of 
caustic substances to the womb 
itself. This line of practice is some- 
what fashionable, but has more of 
fassiness than science, — and fre- 
quently, less of regard for the best 
interests of the patient than for the 
sordid interests of the manipulator. 



WHITE SWELLING. (See Knee, 
Inflammation of,) 



WHITLOW. 

Symptoms. 

Painfiil swelling at the root of, 
or under, the nails ; quickly forming 
a small abscess. The toughness of 
the nail, by compressing the matter, 
causes great increase of pain. 

Causes. 

Bruises ; pricks ; constitutional 
disorder,- &c. 

Treatment. 

Warm poultices. As soon as matter 
forms and points (see Abscess), it 
should be let out by means of a 
puncture with sharp knife or lancet. 
The poultice should be continued 



afterwards. The hand should be 
kept raised in a sling. 



WOBMS. 

Symptoms. 

The presence of worms in the 
intestines is not a disease of itself, as 
commonly supposed, but is simply 
a result or symptom of derangement 
of the bowels or of their contents. 
The so-called symptoms of worms 
are common to most disorders of 
the bowels, and are very indefinite. 
Among them are itching at the ftm- 
dament, pain in the stomach, capri- 
cious appetite, picking the nose, 
&c. The only proof of their pre- 
sence is seeing them. 

There are several kinds; viz. 1. 
The thread- worm, occurring in great 
numbers, and resembling small frag- 
ments of white thread. 2. The 
common round worm, resembling 
in some degree an earth-worm. 
3. The tape- worm ; white, flat, 
jointed, often extending to many 
feet in length. 

Caases. 

Indigestion, and disorder of the 
bowels; indigestible food ; cold and 
damp situations. 

Treatment. 

Purgatives (see Prescription No. 
24) for the smaller varieties. 

The irritation caused by thread- 
worm may be removed by clysters 
of decoction of aloes (see Prescrip- 
tion No. 67). 

Tape-worm requires the internal 
use of turpentine (see Prescriptions 
Nos. 9 and 10). 

Care and attention as to diet are 
necessary to ensure a cure. 



SECTION II. 



MIDWIFERY; 



INCLTTDINO 

PEEaNANCY AND ITS MANAGEMENT, 

MISCARKIAGE, 

LABOUR, 

DISEASES OF LYINO-IN WOMEN, 

AND THB 

MANAaEMENT OF INFANTS. 



MIDWIFEKY. 



PREGNANCY AND ITS MANAGEMENT. 



PREGNANGT. 

1 . Suspension of menstruation. — 
THs is ordinarily the first sign that 
conception has occurred. It does 
not, however, tell when that event 
took place, nearer than at some 
point of the interval between the 
cessation of menstruation and the 
time when that function should 
have recurred as usual. If, there- 
fore, in a healthy woman who has 
always been regular, and is not 
nursing, and to whom conception is 
possible, if a monthly period pass 
over without the appearance of 
menstruation, conception may be 
regarded as probable. 

There are, however, some varia- 
tions from this the ordinary course 
of events : — 

a. It may occur that a young 
girl who has never menstruated at 
aU, may become pregnant. Although 
such prematurity is not frequently 
met with, yet instances of the kind 
are on record. 

h, A nursing mother who does 
not menstruate may conceive, al- 
though it is not usual either for 



menstruation or for conception to 
take place during suckling. This 
fact has an important bearing upon 
the injudicious practice of prolonged 
suckling. Many women will con- 
tinue to nurse their children to an 
age when they are no longer infants. 
Jdthough they, perhaps, do not 
menstruate, yet they can conceive. 
They have, therefore, not protected 
themselves, as they suppose, from 
an increase of family, but they have 
laid up in store for themselves a 
long list of ailments, arising out of 
the debility induced by prolonged 
nursing. 

€. It not very unfrequently hap- 
pens that a woman menstruates 
once, twice, or even three times 
after conception. The discharge is, 
however, generally less in quantity, 
or shorter in duration, than usual, 
but cannot be distinguished other- 
wise from the ordinary monthly in- 
disposition, and often causes error 
in calculating the expected time of 
deUvery. 

d. Rarely, but occasionally, it 
happens that a woman who consi- 
ders herself past child-bearing, sup- 
posing that she has ceased to 
menstrucite, finds herself pregnant. 



134 



PREGNANCY. 



These cases excite surprise,-- -often 
very great inconvenience; and so, 
from being a good deal talked about, 
such instances are set down as hap- 
pening more frequently than exact 
statistics would be found to confirm. 

Under the head of Suppressed 
MenstrtMtton, in another part of 
this work, it will be seen that that 
fonction may be suspended by other 
causes than pregnancy. Those, 
however, are morbid conditions : 
the suspension with which we have 
here to do, occurs in a healthy 
woman. 

2. Morning sickness. — This sign 
of pregnancy begins with some 
women immediately upon concep- 
tion. Generally, however, it does 
not appear untU four, five, or six 
weeks afterwards. With some it 
is very slight, amountiag to little 
more than nausea, on rising in the 
morning. Others suffer severely, — 
so much so, that they cannot raise 
themselves in bed without vomiting 
taking place. The sickness in some 
instances contiuues all day, the 
stomach for several days rejecting 
everything that is taken, until 
the sufferer is worn down and 
completely exhausted. The sick- 
ness caused by pregnancy is some- 
times " evening" instead of " morn- 
ing sickness." This departure from 
the rule is not common. The great 
majority of women suffer very little 
after the vomiting has occurred. 
They reject a meal, and shortly 
after are in health and spirits to 
en j oy another. Usually the sickness 
disappears about the middle of preg- 
nancy. 

Treatment. — "Morning sickness" 
may often be diminished by care. 



If, instead of rising quickly to the 
sittiQg posture, i£e female rise 
slowly into a half-sitting posture 
on one side, and then take a small 
quantity of coffee, and a small piece 
of dry toast or biscuit, and after- 
wards lie down again for half an 
hour, fasting for two hours after- 
wards, the sickness will frequently, 
by these means, not amount to more 
than nausea. This precaution is 
not called for in most cases, as the 
sickness commonly comes on at, or 
soon after, breakfast. 

3. JSnlarffement of the hreasts, and 
discolouration of the nipples. — Soon 
after the second month of preg- 
nancy the breasts enlarge and be- 
come firmer, the nipples more pro- 
minent, the glands around the 
nipple more distinct, -and the skin, 
to the extent of an inch or more 
aroimd the nipple, becomes dark- 
ened, until it is of a deep brown 
colour. The depth of tint depends 
somewhat upon the complexion of 
the person; being slighter in fair 
than in dark complexions. These 
changes of colour may, however, be 
produced by other causes, and may 
also be absent where pregnancy 
exists. 

4. Towards the end of the period 
of pregnancy, milk may he drawn 
from the breast : this sign may assist 
to dispel any doubt 

5. Quickening. — ^About the middle 
of pregnancy, often as early as three 
months, the mother feels a sensation 
within the abdomen, not easily de- 
scribed, but which is generally in 
first pregnancies graphically and 
truthfully described as something 
that has never been felt before, and 
cannot, therefore, be compared to 



PREGNANCY. 



135 



anything. It frequently occurs 
suddenly, and induces faintness or 
an hysterical attack. As pregnancy 
advances, this peculiar fluttering 
sensation becomes changed to more 
distinct, and even painful move- 
ments. 

Flatulency and spasms may give 
rise to sensations which are some- 
times mistaken for quickening, even 
by those who have before been preg- 
nant. 

6. Enlargement of the abdomen. — 
Not very perceptible until the period 
of quickening, from which date it 
gradually increases. This is not a 
sign to be relied upon alone : its 
importance is derived from the con- 
firmatory presence of other signs. 
Flatulency, attendant upon derange- 
ment of menstruation, may cause it, 
and has led to many an imfoundcd 
and injurious suspicion. 

Hanasement. 

This, in most women, consists 
merely in a little more than 
usual care of the health, avoiding 
violent exertions, or great men- 
tal excitement ; attention to the 
condition of the bowels ; regular 
exercise in the open air, bathing, 
sponging, &c. should be continued, 
if the previous custom. The mode 
of living should not differ from that 
which tends to preserve health at 
any other time. It is a great mis- 
take to suppose that a woman, when 
pregnant, requires a large additional 
supply of food. The over-feeding 
that is sanctioned under this notion 
is the abundant source of indiges- 
tion, and many other ailments that 
are suffered during pregnancy. 
True as is this statement, with re- 



gard to over-feeding, it has far 
greater force when applied to the 
frequent use of stimulants so con- 
stantly and so wrongly re- 
commended to pregnant women. 
Brandy and water, wine, sal- 
volatile, are, in the estimation of 
some persons, sovereign remedies 
for a host of evils. The excuse for 
their being taken is often but a tem- 
porary inconvenience. This incon- 
venience perhaps might have been 
avoided by care or self-denial, while 
the evil that ensues is not only 
present, but future. The supposed 
necessity for stimulants engenders 
the habit of taking them. When 
the time of suckling comes, the 
mother is often persuaded that they 
are still more requisite : large quan- 
tities are taken: present injury is 
done to the infant, and irreparable 
mischief to the mother, by the 
foundation being laid for the vice 
of intoxication. 

"Longings" generally proceed 
from a morbid condition of the 
nervous system, or are probably but 
indulgence in whims and fancies. 
A strong-minded woman will resist 
these. A weaker mind must be 
restrained by others, as it is very 
seldom that the things longed for 
are beneficial to the health. Even 
if harmless, their gratification only 
engenders or fosters others. 

Tight lacing, sufficiently inju- 
rious at any time, is tenfold more so 
during the condition of pregnancy. 
The free expansion of the womb 
and enlargement of the abdomen 
are thereby hindered, besides that 
the development of the breasts and 
nipples is also interfered with. 
Many modes of preparing the nipples 



136 



PREGNANCY. 



for suckling are suggested, but be- 
yond washing them gently with 
alum and water for a few weeks 
before confinement, nothing of the 
sort should be practised. Miscar- 
riage may be induced by too active 
meddling with the nipples. 

IMsorders attendlnir Presnaney. 

Indigestion, heartburn, and flatu- 
lency, costiveness, or other de- 
rangements of the bowels, also 
harass many females during the 
period of pregnancy. 

Half a teaspoonfiil of carbonate 
of magnesia, with or without half 
that quantity of carbonate of soda, 
will generally allay this sickness, 
heartburn, &c. Or, if these do not 
avail, a teaspoonfiil of Prescription 
No. 43, in water, will probably effect 
some relief. Or other tonics may be 
tried. Antacid aperients (see Pre- 
scription No. 15) may be taken. 
Much CEire is to be taken that the 
stomach is not overloaded. 

Costiveness produces headache, 
&c., and should be avoided by the 
occasional use of castor oil, or con- 
fection of senna, or pills (see Pre- 
scription No. 11), or the antacid 
aperient (see Prescription No. 15), 
or a clyster of warm water or gruel 
every second or third morning. 

Palpitation and Fainting are often 
distressing affections, and cause 
alarm, although unattended with 
danger under these circumstances. 
They may be relieved by a few 
doses of the medicine (Prescription 
No. 52 or 53). It is especially 
requisite to attend to the state of 
the stomach and bowels during the 
intervals of the attacks, — avoiding 
QM|>fatigue, over-heated rooms, or 



mental excitement. Tonics (see 
Prescription No. 32, 37, 39, or 82) 
may also be given. 

Piles are the result, partly, of 
pressure of the enlarged womb 
upon the veins of the lower bowels ; 
but they are as often caused by 
costiveness. Por their relief, treat 
the confined state of the bowels; 
apply warm fomentations, and some 
simple ointment. If these means 
do not afford relief, three or four 
leeches should be applied. Piles 
should never be tied or removed 
by surgical operations during preg- 
nancy. 

Varicose or enlarged veins, which 
arc apt to appear on the legs, are the 
cause of much pain and impediment 
to locomotion, more particularly 
during the latter weeks of preg- 
nancy. They are not so often 
met with in &rst as in subsequent 
pregnancies. An elastic stocking 
affords considerable relief; but it 
is still more important that the 
patient should as much as possible 
keep in the recumbent posture. 

The ankles and legs frequently 
swell very much towards the end 
of pregnancy. This symptom re- 
quires the legs to be kept up in the 
horizontal posture. 

Neuralgic pains, — such as tooth- 
ache; faceache; shooting pains in 
the breasts, in the side, &c. ; cramps 
in the legs, and in the womb, — are 
among the disorders to which preg- 
nant women are liable. These may 
be relieved by antacid aperients (see 
Prescription No. 15), and antispas- 
modics (see Prescriptions Nos. 52 
and 53). 

Irritability of the bladder, and 
irritation of the external organs. 



PREGNANCY. 



137 



are often the source of great dis- 
comfort and distress. The former 
may be relieved by mild aperients, 
and by twenty or thirty grains of 
carbonate of soda, with twenty or 
thirty drops of tincture of henbane. 
The latter by warm fomentations, 
or by either of the lotions (Pre- 
scriptions Nos. 74, 87) ; or if these 
do not give relief, by the poultice 
(Prescription No. 61), or the lotion 
(Prescription No. 63). 

Whites are a common occurrence, 
sometimes lasting all through the 
pregnancy. For these the patient 
should, with a proper female syringe, 
inject either of the lotions (Pre- 
scriptions No. 74 or 86) ; take also 
the tonics (Prescriptions No. 32, 
34, 37, 39, 40, or 45). 

Despondency and lotvness of spirits 
are very commonly met with to- 
wards the latter end of pregnancy. 
They will in general vanish as soon 
as the labour is ended, if not as 
soon as it has set in. 

Reekonlnir of tbe Date of liaboar. 

The date of conception being im- 
certain, having, as already stated, 
in married women, the range of one 
monthly interval, the date of labour 
cannot be more exactly ascertained. 
The usual and most convenient 
method of reckoning is to take the 
last date of menstruation as the 
starting point, and allow a few 
days' latitude beyond that. For 
ordinary purposes, nine calendar 
months, or ten lunar months, are 
counted from this date. There is, 
however, a variation of one week 
between these : thus, nine calendar 
months contain 273 to 275 days; ten 



lunar months, 280 days. Pregnancy 
has been known to last 300 days ; 
it more frequently terminates within 
the period of 280 days, or 40 weeks. 
To facilitate the process of reckon- 
ing, tables have been contrived con- 
taining the date of every day in 
the year, its corresponding probable 
dates of quickening, and of labour. 
The following short table, which the 
author has found very useful, copied 
from Mr.Haden's " Medical Visiting 
List for 1855," will suffice to assist 
the cedculation; intervening dates 
can easily be supplied : — 



Nine Calendar 
Months. 


Ten Lunar 
Months. 


From 


To 


Days 

273 
273 
275 
275 
276 
273 
274 
273 
273 
273 
273 
274 


To 


Days 


Jan. 1 


Sept. 30 


Oct. 7 


280 


Feb. 1 


Oct. 81 


Nov. 7 


280 


Mar. 1 


Nov. 80 


Dec. 5 


280 


April 1 


Dec. 81 


Jan. 5 


280 


Mayl 


Jan. 81 


Feb. 4. 


280 


June 1 


Feb. 28 


Mar. 7 


280 


Julyl 


Mar. 31 


April 6 


280 


Aug. 1 


April 80 


May 7 


280 


Sept. 1 


May 81 


June 7 


280 


Oct. 1 


June 30 


July 7 


280 


Nov. 1 


July 81 


Aug. 7 


280 


Deo. 1 


Aug. 31 


Sept. 6 


280 



This Table may be thus illus- 
trated: — ^A woman has ceased to 
menstruate on the 1st of July — ^her 



138 



MISCAEEIAGE. 



confinement may be expected at 
soonest about the 31st of March 
{the end of nine calendar months) ; 
or at latest about the 6th of April 
{the end of ten lunar months). An- 
other has ceased to menstruate on 
the 20th of January — her confine- 
ment may be expected twenty days 
after the 30th of September {the 
end of nine calendar months) at 
soonest ; or twenty days after the 



7th of October {the end of ten lunar 
months) at latest. 

Eor reasons above stated, tbe 
expression bere used, '* at latest/' 
must be taken with some latitude. 
If the date of the last menstruation 
be wanting, the next nearest point 
for calculation is the period of 
quickening. This, however, as 
already mentioned, is liable to great 
variation. 



MISCARRIAGE. 



MISCARRIAGE. Mortion. 

Pregnancy being established, may 
be terminated at any time during 
the usual period. If the expulsion 
of the contents of the womb take 
place before six months are past, it 
is termed a miscarriage or abortion ; 
if after that time, and before the 
full period, the occurrence is merely 
termed a premature delivery, as it 
is possible that the child may live, 
allJiough bom even before seven 
months have expired. 

Miscarriage is more likely to take 
place about the monthly epochs than 
at any other periods of pregnancy : 
this is particularly the case at the 
first or second return of the time at 
which menstruation should have 
recurred. 

fltymptoms. 

Pains in the lower part of the 
abdomen, in the loins, and hips. 
These are premonitory or threaten- 
ing symptoms. They may pass off 

such, or they may be followed by 



I^B 



a discharge of blood, either in con- 
siderable 0^ very large quantities, 
or sometimes not exceeding the 
flow in ordinary menstruation. 
From the latter it may be dis- 
tinguished by the character of the 
pain, which is expulsive and bearing 
down, and by the colour of the dis- 
chsirge, which is bright. 

The absolute occurrence of abor- 
tion can only be determined by the 
discovery of the conception (the 
ovum) : it is, therefore, a point of 
importance, where miscarriage is 
suspected, not to throw away the dis- 
charge without careful examination. 

At the earliest stages of its exis- 
tence, the ovum is a small colour- 
less bladder, about the size of a 
hazel-nut or walnut, containing a 
transparent fluid, in which the 
minute rudimentary form of the 
human being is seen floating. At 
later periods the ovum, being larger, 
is not so easily overlooked, unless it 
has been ruptured ; but even then 
the partially developed child will 
be discoverable. 



MISCABRIAGE. 



139 



Falls ; blows ; shocts ; mentel 
emotion ; immoderate exercise ; 
OTer-exertion or excessive fatigue 
of any kind; violent purgatives 
and medicines given to produce this 
effect, which often, by their severe 
action, cause infiammatioa of the 
bowels, and the death ot the mother. 
Habit : — i. e. wheu once a woman 
has miscarried, she is prone to do bo 
agfun at the same period of preg- 
nancy. 



Attention to the general health, 
and the observance of all means 
for strengthening the systMo, will 
tend to prevent this accident. 
Particular care to be taken as the 
period approaches at which this oc- 
currence may be anticipated. At 
this time it ia advisable that the pa- 
tient should sleep alone, and upon a 
mattreBS. Gentle exercise ; rest aa 
a sofa aa much as possible, lliese 
precautions aboiild be carried over 
the next monthly period, after 
which miscarriage will be less 
probable. 

Por the symptoms of threatened 
miscarriage, the patient should go 
to bed (if on a mattress so much the 
better), the room should be freely 
ventilated and kept cool, the diet 
should be light and unstimulating. 
From fifteen to twenty drops of 
laudanum, according to the severity 



of the pain, may be given, and 
repeated, if required, in three or 
four hours. A dose of oaator-oil, or 
Epsom salts, should be taken in six 
or eight hours afterwards. 

If these precautions have not 
been taken, or have not availed, the . 
patient shoiild be laid on a bed, 
lightly covered, the room kept cool, 
and the hemoirbage checked by the 
application of napkins dipped in 
cold water to the lower part of the 
body, andto the external organs. The 
profuse discharge which takes place 
may sometimes be checked by 
injecting cold water into the pas- 
sage ; or by plugging it witi a 
cambric handkerchief, or piece of 
sponge dipped in cold water. One 
pill (aeePreBcriptionNo.21) should 
be given every four hours. If the 
ovum have been expelled, the dis- 
charge will soon cease. This &ct 
should be ascertained by carefully 
examining all dots in a basin of 
water. 

After miscarriage has happened, 
the patient should be as strictly 
careml as after labour. The lai^e 
quantity of blood that ia often lost 
on these oocasioaa leaves a woman 
extremely enfeebled. The womb is 
still enlarged and heavy. Best in 
bed is essentially necessary for a 
week or a fortnight. A light nu- 
tritious diet, with tonic medicines. 
(See Prescriptions Nos. 8, 32, 34, 



140 



LABOUE. 



LABOUR. 



LABOUB. 

Sympt«HAS and Manairement. 

We very emphatieally premise that 
we give the following instrtietions, 
relative to the eond/uct of labour, for 
the benefit of those only who from 
dreumstanees have no choiee hut to 
take upon themselves the functions of 
an accoucheur. 

For some days, or perhaps only 
a few hours, before the conclusion 
of pregnancy, the enlarged abdo- 
men subsides. Relief is thereby 
afforded to the oppression and dis- 
comfort often experienced in the 
chest, but as the womb presses 
more upon the bowels and bladder 
these become irritable, and there 
is frequent occasion to void the 
urine, which is passed in only small 
quantities. 

What are termed " false pains" 
frequently occur at this time. They 
are generally felt in the stomach, 
passing to the loins and hips ; they 
are often bearing down, like true 
labour pains, and like these also 
they recur at intervals, but not with 
the same regularity. They are 
frequently attended mth ^ping 
and disordered bowels. Fifteen 
drops of laudanum will relieve them. 
If attended with disorder of the 
bowels take the draught (see Pre- 
scription No. 28), or a dose of the 
mixture (Prescription N'o. 15). 



matters which deserve attention, 
in the preparation of the lying-in 
chamber. 

The bed should be prepared, or 
" guarded," by covering the right 
hand side of it with a skin of lea- 
ther, or piece of waterproof fabric, 
laying over these three or four folds 
of sheet, so that discharges may be 
soaked up thereby. 

The patient should change her 
dress so that she have on only her 
under garments and night-gown, 
over which, so long as she may be 
able to move about her room, she 
should wear a loose dressing-gown. 
The under garments should be so 
arranged as to be easily slipped 
down after the labour has ended. 

The monthly-nurse and one fe- 
male friend should bo the only 
persons in the room besides the 
patient and the attendant. 

The room should be well ven- 
tilated and kept at a moderate tem- 
perature. 

If the bowels be costive the 
patient should take a dose of castor 
oil, or have a clyster of warm 
gruel, as soon as labour begins. 
The last stage of the labour is 
often shortened thereby. 

The diet, until labour is finished, 
should be light, imstimulating, and 
nourishing, varying but little from 
the ordinary habit. 

The conversation should be cheer- 
ful — as little as possible having 
reference to labours, and suspended 



LABOUR. 



141 



or moderated during the pains, 
as it is often very irritating to 
women at those moments, when 
the object should be to soothe and 
gain time. 

A skein of strong brown thread, 
and a lai^e pair of scissors, should 
be in readiness. 

A plentiful supply of linen, warm 
and cold water, a small bath, &c. 
&c. should also be provided. 

We repeat, that in all that here 
follows it is absolutely assumed that 
medical aid is not obtainable, and 
for that reason alone are the in- 
structions here given. 

When labour begins there is often 
a slight amount of coloured dis- 
chsirge ; this is called the " shew ;" 
but very frequently it is not per- 
ceived until later. 

The ordinary natural process of 
childbirth may be divided into two 
stages : the first consisting in the 
process of the opening of the womb 
itself, and the expulsion of the 
child's head into the lower part of 
the mother's body or pelvis : the 
second being occupied by the ex- 
pulsion of the child from the 
mother's body ; and the subsequent 
expulsion of the after- birth. 

Thef/rst stage is marked by the 
character of the pains, and the con- 
dition of the mouth or orifice of the 
womb. The pains are generally 
felt most severely in the stomach, 
and are usually described as "grind- 
ing pains." They sire at first slight, 
and at intervals of a quarter or half 
an hour; becoming more frequent 
and more severe. They are occa- 
sionally attended with shivering, 
vomiting, and cramps. These symp- 
toms need excite no alarm. Sick- 



ness seems even to be of some 
service in relaxing the parts. 

After the first stage has con- 
tinued a short time it is advisable 
to ascertain, by examination, how 
the labour is progressing, and 
whether the child is rightly placed, 
or, in technical language, *'the 
nature of the presentation." This 
proceeding is in lying-in phraseology 
termed " taking a pain." 

The patient lying on her left side, 
on the right side of the bed, with 
her knees bent and the thighs raised 
towsirds her abdomen, a sheet or 
blanket having been thrown over 
the patient, the forefinger of the 
right hand is to be smeared with 
pomatum or lard, and passed into 
the vagina, or front passage, and 
pressed upwards and backwards 
until it comes in contact with a firm 
resisting body. If the child's head 
be pressing the womb down, a 
smooth globular surface will be felt 
under the finger ; by pressing this 
still backwards and upwards, the 
mouth of the won\b will be felt. It 
forms a round orifice, with tense 
thin edges, during the time that a 
pain is on, but as that passes away, 
the edges become soft, and permit 
the end of the finger to pass beyond. 
Care is to be taken in making this 
examination that too much pressure 
be not made upon the " membranes" 
or bag of " waters" which fill up 
the orifice or mouth of the womb, 
and are protruded, more or less, by 
the contraction of the womb, while 
the pain lasts. It is important to 
retain this bag entire as long as 
possible, because, being protruded 
by each pain, it acts as a wedge, and 
dilates the passage, thereby pre- 



142 



LABOUR. 



paring a way for tlie head of the 
infant. It very frequently happens 
that this membrane, or bag, is rap- 
tured by the first few pains, and 
the child's head may then be felt. 
A gush of waters flows at the time. 

It will not be very easy for a 
non-professional person to make 
out the mouth of the womb until 
after several trieils. This, however, 
need not give too much anxiety, 
since it may safely be inferred that 
the presentation is natural, or that 
the head presents, if a large, firm, 
globular tumour be found pressing 
down into the upper part of the 
vagina, or passage. 

The examination must not be 
repeated frequently while the pains 
are merely "grinding;'* that is to 
say, during the first stage. No 
benefit accrues to the patient 
thereby; on the contrary, harm, — 
for the passage gets heated, and 
the secretions which would natu- 
rally moisten its surface and faci- 
litate the next stage are suppressed. 

The duration of this first stage is 
matter of uncertainty. In a first 
labour it is sometimes many hours, — 
depending a good deal upon the age 
and general health of the patient. 
In a young healthy woman, who 
has taken rational care of herself 
during her pregnancy, it will be 
shorter than in a woman getting 
on towards forty years of age, or 
who has hitherto neglected the dic- 
tates of prudence and common sense. 

One thing, however, is certain, 
that too much interference at this 
time will protract the labour. The 
patient must be warned not to bear 
down, or strain. She mav be al- 
lowed to sit up, or walk about her 



chamber, and* must be amused or 
occupied as best she can under the 
circumstances. She may take light 
nourishment, but must not be pfied 
with stimtdants. The room must 
be kept cool, and free from gossiping 
intrud^:^. 

Second stage. — The pains become 
longer, more severe, and are at- 
tended with a bearing-down sensa- 
tion, which compels the patient also 
to strain. Thu change in the 
labour is attended with a distinct' 
change in the character of the pa- 
tient's groans (if she make any 
noise at all). The sound is a com- 
bination of straining and groaning ; 
hesird a few times it will readily be 
recognised. 

The patient must now be kept 
on the bed — an examination being 
made more frequently than in 
the first stage. The child's head 
will be felt coming down into the 
passage. If the waters have been 
discharged, the scalp will be felt 
wrinkled, and the bones overlapping 
each other. As the head descends 
the expulsive pains become stronger. 
During this stage the patient may 
be allowed to pull at a towel fixed 
to the foot of the bed, on the 
right hand side, her feet pressing 
against the foot-board. Between 
each pain the head will recede a 
little. As the head continues to be 
pressed forward during each pain the 
external parts become greatly dis- 
tended, and a desire is felt to eva- 
cuate the contents of the boweL 
The patient, however, must on no 
account be permitted to leave the 
bed at this tune. 

When the head of the child 
begins to pass the outlet the right 



LABOTJE. 



143 



hand of the attendant is to be spread 
out, and, protected by a napkin, is 
to cover and gently but firmly sup- 
port the fimdament to prevent its 
being torn as the child's head passes 
out into the world. There will 
probably now be a suspension of 
the pains for a short interval ; the 
hand must nevertheless be main- 
tained in its position, to protect the 
external parts of the mother as the 
shoulders of the child are expelled by 
the following pains. Often enough, 
head, shoulders, and hips, are all 
driven through by one pain. 

Entire relief from suffering fol- 
lows, and is nearly always ex- 
pressed in the strongest and most 
emphatic language. 

The ** waters" have usually been 
partly discharged at an earlier stage 
of the labour ; the remainder now 
frequently follow in a gush, after 
the birth of the chHd. It sometimes 
occurs that the membranes do not 
give way until the head is passing, 
or has actually passed. 

Immediately after the child is 
bom, and separated as below di- 
rected, the hand of the attendant 
should be placed on the lower part 
of the mothers abdomen, where 
the womb wiU be felt as a hard 
tumor, about the size of a child's 
head. If, however, it should re- 
main as large as it was before, there 
is another child to be bom. If this 
be not the case, the left hand shotdd 
be kept upon the tumour, the fingers 
of the right hand occasionally fol- 
lowing the navel-string into the 
passage, to ascertain if the afterbirth 
be within reach. This must be done 
without violent dragging at the cord. 
In about ton minutes, or less, the 



afterbirth will be forced down by 
the contractions of the womb, and 
when it has reached the outlet it 
may be removed by the hand of the 
attendant. The afterbirth having 
been expelled, a soft warm napkin 
is to be applied to the external 
parts of the mother. During the 
next hour, the hand of the at- 
tendant should be frequently placed 
upon the abdomen, in order to as- 
certain that the womb retains its 
hard form, and has not relaxed and 
become large and soft, in which 
case flooding is to be apprehended, 
The state of the napkin must also 
be occasionally noticed, in order to 
satisfy the mind on that point. 

Should the patient feel faint, in 
consequence of the profuseness of 
the discharge, the pillows should be 
removed from under the head, which 
should be allowed to bo the lowest 
point of her body; firm pressure 
must be made upon the womb, and 
cold wet napkins applied to the ex- 
ternal organs. (For the treatment 
of haemorrhage after labour, see 
further on.) 

Generally, however, nothing of 
this kind is required. Perfect still' 
nes8 is to be enforced for three or 
four hours. It is important that 
the patient should not be allowed 
suddenly to assume an upright or 
sitting posture. A little tea or 
gruel may be administered. At 
the end of a couple of hours a broad 
bandage may be fixed around the 
body, not tightly, but merely just 
so as to give a sense of some sup- 
port. The soiled garments, &c. are 
to be removed, dry warm napkins 
applied, and the patient gently 
moved up in the bed, then left to 



144 



LABOUR. 



deep, if she can. Light nourisli- 
ment, as gruel, sago, tea, &c. may be 
given from time to time. 

If there be severe after-pains or 
nervous excitement, preventing 
sleep, twenty to thirty drops of 
laudanum, or ten grains of Dover's 
powder, may be administered. 

A few hours after delivery the 
bladder should be emptied. For 
this purpose, however, the patient 
should deviate as little as possible 
from the horizontal posture. If the 
labour have been long and tedious, 
there may at first be some difficulty 
in passing water: this shotdd be 
relieved by the application of warm 
fomentation to tiie lower part of 
the abdomen. 

The discharge which, after deli- 
very, continues to flow of a red 
colour, after a few days changes to 
greenish or yellow, and is known as 
the *' green waters." It has usually 
ceased by the end of about fourteen 
or twenty days. If this discharge 
should suddenly cease at an early 
period, some fever or inflammation 
may be feared. Daily washing the 
external parts with warm water 
should be practised. The patient 
should not be moved from the re- 
cumbent posture while this is being 
performed. 

If the discharge shouldbe profuse, 
the patient wiU become debilitated 
thereby. In this case she should 
take tonic and astringent medi- 
cines. (See Prescriptions I^os. 32, 
34, 39, or 40.) 

miBcnlt liftbours and Gross-births. 

The process of child-birth some- 
times deviates from what has been 



described as ordinary or natural 
labour in the preceding observa- 
tions. 

I. Tediotts Laboxte. — The ave- 
rage duration of natural labour is 
under twenty-four hours. In first 
labours, and in women between 
thirty and forty years of age, the 
process sometimes occupies two 
or three times that period. These 
are called tedious or lingering 
labours. 

The causes are — feeble contrac- 
tions of the womb ; rigidity or 
hardness of the mouth of the womb 
and other parts ; premature rupture 
of the waters ; excessive quantity 
of waters. In the first case, where 
the feebleness of the contractions of 
the womb is the cause of the pro- 
traction of the labour, a purgative 
dose or a clyster should be given, 
and every means taken to divert the 
attention of the patient. If the 
age of the patient indicate rigidity 
of the organs, as is usually the case 
with women in their first labours 
towards forty years of age, then 
aperients should also be given. 
Half-grain doses of ipecacuanha 
powder may be given every half 
hour until nausea or vomiting 
occurs. 

Patience is the great requisite in 
the conduct of tedious labour. 
ITon-interference is the safest rule, 
especially for the non-professional 
attendant. 

An unusually large size of the ab- 
domen, and feebleness of pains, may 
justify the premature rupture of 
the membranes; a large gush of 
waters is then often rapidly followed 
by delivery. 



LABOUR. 



145 



A caution is again given, that in 
no case hut that of the most urgent 
need should any non-professional 
person venture upon the etmduct of 
a difficult midwifery case. There 
may, however, be circumstances 
under which it shall not only be 
justifiable, but incumbent, as a duty, 
upon any person endowed with pre- 
sence of mind, coolness, control of 
the feelings, and some common 
sense, to endeavour to save the life 
of one and probably of two fellow- 
creatures. It is hoped that the 
instructions now to be laid down 
may enable such a person to act 
safely and successfully. 

II. A Peeteenattjral Labottr, 
OR Ceoss-birth, maybe apprehended 
if, after the pains have continued 
for some time, the mouth of the 
womb be opened, and the waters 
discharged, but the child be out of 
reach, or the globular tumour be 
wanting, the membranes hanging 
down in the vagina. 

These circumstances may lead to 
the suspicion that the case is a 
cross-birth ; but of that, as well as 
of its character, we can only deter- 
mine by an examination of the part 
presenting. 

1. The buttocks, — It is generally 
some hours before these come within 
reach. They may then be mistaken 
for the head. They are to be dis- 
tinguished, however, by their softer 
feel, by the discharge of the dark- 
green contents of the infant' s bowels, 
and by the presence of the scrotum 
and penis in a male child, or by the 
fissure between the buttocks. 

When the presentation is so low 
down that the finger can be passed 



over the bent thigh into the infant's 
groin, the labour may be assisted 
by gentle force being used to draw 
the body down, during a pain 
only. 

When the greater part of the body 
is delivered, the finger of the left 
hand should be passed up the front 
of the body, and the fore-finger in- 
serted into the child's mouth, so as 
to give it the earliest possible 
chance of breathing ; otherwise the 
child may be still-bom, from the 
navel-strmg being compressed by 
the head as it passes through the 
pelvis. This is the risk to which 
buttock or breach presentation ex- 
poses a child : it does not involve 
danger to the mother. 

The front of the body of the 
child should be directed towards 
the mother* s back as it passes out. 
If a reverse position exist, the body 
should be turned round, during a 
pain, the hips and sides being taken 
between the hands, covered with a 
napkin. 

The infant's arms are to be 
brought down successively by the 
side of its body, before the head is 
expelled. 

No violence should be used to 
drag the child from the mother : 
gentle help may be afforded during 
the pains. 

As the head passes out, the left 
hand must protect the fundament 
and external parts of the mother. 

2. Foot presentation, — When the 
feet and legs pass down first, the 
case comes to be in every respect 
the same as the latter stages of a 
breech presentation. 

3. Arm, hand, and shoulder. — 
These are extremely diflS-Cult Iq 



\ 



146 



LABOUR. 



detect and to manage. After the 
labour pains have lasted for several 
hours, the membranes or bag of 
waters having burst, no globular 
tumour can be felt. On reaching 
with the forefinger as high as pos- 
sible, it may be found that the 
mouth of the womb is considerably 
open, and the finger reaches a flat 
or cylindrical surface ; or the hand 
and fingers can be felt hanging in 
the vagina. Under these circum- 
stances no child could be expelled 
by natural efforts. There is only 
one course to be adopted here : it is 
to perform the operation of tv/rning. 
This operation requires much care 
and self-possession in its perform- 
ance, as the consciousness of having 
so much dependent upon presence 
of mind and present action requires 
some nerve. The position has its 
peculiar novelty also, and is on the 
whole very impressive. It is one 
that should not he attempted hy a 
non-professional person, unless it is 
quite clear thM there is no alterna- 
tive hut to act or lea/ve the sufferer 
to die. This must be explained to 
the patient, who should be cheered 
with prospect of a happy termina- 
tion to her sufferings. Having 
been determined upon, it is not to 
be rashly or hurriedly performed : 
there need be no haste about it. 
Deliberation and coolness, and 
taking time to make weU sure of 
each successive step taken, is essen- 
tial to success. The following in- 
structions must be observed : — 

First, — ^Ascertain that the mouth 
of the womb is open to more than the 
size of a five-shilling piece. 

Secondly, — Bring the patient's 
hips near to the edge of the bed. 



Thirdly, — Let the operator be 
seated by the bedside, his right arm 
bare, the hach of his right hand 
smeared with lard or oil. 

Fourthly, — Slowly introduce one 
finger after the other into the 
vagina, until they are arranged in 
a conical shape. The hand should 
then be gently, with a rotatory 
motion, pressed onwards into the 
vagina. This is attended with 
pain. The hand should then rest 
some few minutes in the vagina 
until the painful feeling of disten- 
sion has somewhat subsided. 

Fifthly, — Pass the fingers up to 
the mouth of the womb. If this be 
sufficiently open to admit the hand, 
gradually introduce it. If it be not 
sufficiently open, the mouth of the 
womb must be very gradually 
dilated by the fingers, — all efforts at 
dilatation being suspended during a 
pain, but not withdrawing the 
hand altogether firom the mouth of 
the womb. 

Sixthly, — When the hand has 
passed the mouth of the womb, it 
may be forced through the bag of 
waters; but these have generally 
escaped already. The water, if not 
previously discharged, will then 
rush down the side of the arm, and 
some will escape. The arm will, 
however, serve as a plug to detain 
the greater quantity. 

Seventhly, — Pass the hand along 
the front of the womb and search 
for the feet, and grasp both if pos- 
sible,^-or one, if not both. Bring 
down the feet and legs into the 
vagina gradually — waiting for a 
pain, during which the drawing 
down of the child is to be sus- 
pended. 



LABOTJE. 



147 



Eighthly, — The case is now to 
be treated as a Breech Presenta- 
tion. 

In this operation great Caution is 
required — 1. That the hand be 
kept in contact with the child's 
body, so as to avoid as much as 
possible the risk of bruising the 
inner surface of the womb ; 2. Not 
to attempt to push back any part of 
the child into the womb. 

It may be observed, that although 
this operation may appear formid- 
able when described thus at length, 
it is not beyond the power of a 
person of nerve and a clear head, to 
be the means, only on an extraor- 
dinary emergency^ of saving one or 
two lives. There is no alternative to 
the woman hut delivery or death from 
exhaustion. The successful atterrvpt 
may he a life-long source of satisfac- 
tion. 

4. Twin and Multiple cases, — If, 
after the birth of one child, the 
abdomen retain its original size; 
and if, upon examination of the 
mouth of the womb, the finger de- 
tect another presenting part, it is 
clear that one or more children yet 
remain to be delivered. 

In many instances, where the 
pelvis is capacious, and the woman 
have borne other children, the 
second child is expelled without 
interference. In the greater num- 
ber of cases, however, where the 
first child has been borne with a 
head presentation, the second is a 
breech or cross birth. In this case 
turning must be had recourse to, if 
the child does not come down after 
two or three hours at farthest. 

5. Flooding. — It sometimes hap- 
pens that as soon as labour pains 



commence, a [flow of blood takes 
place, and continues or augments 
with each pain. Or the same may 
take place firom a shock, accident, 
or violent mental emotion at any 
time towards the end of pregnancy. 
The bleeding in these cases takes 
place in consequence of a separation 
of the afterbirth from the inner 
surface of the womb. 

Cases also occur in which the 
bleeding comes directly from the 
afterbirth being placed over the 
mouth of the womb, and by conse- 
quence being inevitably torn when 
the womb begins to open. The 
hsemorrhage in these cases is very 
proftise and alarming. It is a for- 
tunate occurrence for the mother if 
the labour pains come on rapidly : 
the head presenting, and being 
pressed down upon the afterbirth, 
may stop the bleeding. 

In other instances, the flow of 
blood does not relax, and the 
woman's life soon appears to be in 
jeopardy. Here, as speedily as 
possible after the mouth of the 
uterus is open to the extent of a 
five- shilling piece, the hand of the 
attendant should be passed into 
the vagina, forced through the 
membranes, or through the after- 
birth, if that substance be felt ob- 
structing the mouth of the womb, 
and the operation of turning per- 
formed without loss of time. (See 
directions in Arm and Shoulder 
Presentation.) 

Where, however, the flooding is 
not so alarmingly profuse, it may 
be checked by applications of cold 
wet napkins, injection of cold 
water, and stuffing the vagina with 
sponge previously compressed into 



\ 



148 



H^MOEEHAGE AFTEE DELIYEEY. 



a conical shape, and greased on its 
surface, that it may the more easily 
pass. These means may check the 
flooding until the child is propelled 
downwards. If the bag of waters 
have not burst, it may be ruptured 
before the vagina is plugged. A 
bandage should be tightly applied 
round the abdomen. 

Haemorrhage not unfrequently 
occurs after lie sixth month, with- 
out any signs of labour, although 
occasioned by partial detachment of 
the afterbirth from its connection 
with the womb. In these cases 
the treatment must be rigidlycarried 
out, as directed for Miscarriage, 
with the exception of plugging the 
vagina, which is not advisable, 
since bleeding may continue al- 
though it may not then escape and 
show itself externally. If the 
bleeding is not checked, the finger 
should be passed into the mouth of 
the womb, and the bag of waters be 
ruptured. Labour will soon follow, 
and the haemorrhage be thereby 
stopped. 

The hand should never he intro- 
duced into the womb if it can hy any 
means he avoided. The womh is very 
susceptihle of inflammatory action, 
and when so diseased is not easily 
treated, A woman must not, how- 
ever, he allowed to die from flooding, 
far fear of this risk. 

Samorrhage after delivery, — ^At- 
tentive watching is demanded for 
at least two hours after labour, in 
order to be certain the discharge of 
blood is not too profiise. 

It happens frequently, that after 
all due attention has been paid to 
the patient, when the uterus has 



been firmly contracted, when no 
faintness has been noticed, and every 
thing seems to be going on well, 
suddenly the patient's countenance 
becomes blanched, she feels sick, 
complains of indistinctness of vision, 
yawns, and throws her arms about. 
Such symptoms direct immediate 
attention to the extent of the dis- 
chsirge, which will be found flowing 
from the passage in a full stream : 
if not quickly stanched, the patient 
may pass into a fatal swoon. The 
pillows must immediately be taken 
from beneath the head; the doors 
and windows opened, so as to admit 
plenty of fresh air, unless the wea- 
ther be intensely cold ; cold water 
is to be dashed on the lower part 
of the abdomen, and ice-cold wet 
napkins to be applied to the ex- 
ternal parts, while pressure is made 
upon the womb. If an enema 
syringe be at hand, a stream of cold 
water should be pumped into the 
vagina. The pulse will be scarcely 
perceptible. A dessertspoonful of 
brandy or half a teaspoonful of sal- 
volatile in water should be given 
every quarter of an hour. If these 
do not rally the pulse, larger 
quantities of brandy may be admi- 
nistered. Pressure should all the 
while be kept up over the womb, 
by the hand placed on the out- 
side of the lower part of the 
abdomen. By the above means it 
will probably again contract, where- 
by the flooding will be checked. 
The same treatment must, never- 
theless, be continued for some time, 
as that organ will be disposed to 
relax again as soon as the pressure 
and cold applications are discon- 
tinued. 



MANAGEMENT OF THE INFANT. 



149 



Manaffement of the Intent. 

Wlien the child's head is expelled, 
care is to be taken that it has 
breathing room, and that the bed- 
clothes, &c. do not prevent access 
of air to its mouth. When the 
body has been expelled it should 
be turned on its back. The in- 
fant will generally begin to cry 
immediately: should this not occur, 
a few slaps should be inflicted on 
the &xie, chest, &c. with a towel 
dipped in cold water. This will in 
most instances suffice to cause the 
child to draw in a short inspiration : 
it will then cry, and respiration 
will be fully established. 

As soon as this takes place, the 
nayel-string is to be tied and 
divided. This is a very simple 
operation, and only requires atten- 
tion to the following directions : — 

Take four or five threads of 
strong brown thread; of these make 
two strings, each about fifteen or 
sixteen inches long, tying a knot at 
each end. The navel-string being 
then taken hold of, is to be tightly 
tied round with one of these liga- 
tures, at about an inch and a half 
or two inches froia the child's 
abdomen. The other ligature is 
next to be tied about two inches 
nearer to the mother. The navel- 
string is then to be cut through 
with a sharp pair of scissors, be- 
tween these two ligatures. If it 
should bleed afterwards, another 
ligature should be tied. 

Should the child not breathe 
after the above-mentioned measures 
have been adopted, it should be 
placed in a warm bath, while at- 
tempts are made to inflate its 



lungs by breathing into its mouth, 
holding the nostrils to prevent the 
escape of the breath that way. 
Gentle pressure should also be made 
upon die upper part of the wind- 
pipe (Adam's apple), to prevent the 
air entering the stomach instead of 
the lungs. The sides of the chest 
should &en be gently depressed, so 
as to empty tiie lungs. These 
operations may be alternately re- 
peated as long as the slightest 
pulsation can be felt in the region 
of the heart. 

The child having been separated 
from its mother, is to be wrapped 
in a warm flannel. It should then 
be well washed with warm water 
and soap, near, not close to, a 
fire. The child's body is often 
covered with a white unctuous 
substance, which is sometimes 
difficult to remove. If the first 
soap and water washing do not 
remove this, the surface should be 
smeared with oil or lard before the 
second washing : this will soften 
the white substance, and render it 
more easily removable by soap and 
water. 

When the child has been wiped 
dry, the remainder of the cord, or 
navel-string, is to be enclosed in 
two or three folds of soft rag, and 
laid upwards on the abdomen. A 
band of soft flannel should then be 
passed twice round the body, not 
tightly. This belt should be worn 
for several months, as it affords 
support. 

Swelling or puffiness of the 
scalp is generally noticed after hard 
labours. This may be left to itself, 
and will disappear in a few days. 

After the washing and dressing 



150 



MANAGEMENT OF THE INEANT. 



is complete, the child should be 
placed in bed with its mother, 
and its mouth put to the nipple. 
There may or may not be milk at 
first, bat the child's suction ac- 
celerates the secretion, and stimu- 
lates the womb to contract, thereby 
diminishing the risk of hsemor- 
rhage. 

The wsirmth of the mother will 
be of service to the infant. Newly- 
born children do not maintain their 
own warmth. "When thoroughly 
warm, the infant may be placed 
upon a pillow in a cot or bassinette. 
If no milk appear in the mother's 
breast after twelve hours, nothing 
shoTild be given to the infant but 
warm milk and water ; this should 
be repeated every two hours imtil 
the mother can afford a supply. 

Castor oil, butter and sugar, &c. 
are often forced down the throats 
of infants, for no good reason what- 
ever. The first milk that is se- 
creted by the mother has all the ape- 
rient properties that can ordinarily 
be needed for the removal of the 
dark secretion contained in the 
bowels of the child at birth. There 
is certainly no occasion to physic 
a child directly it comes amongst 
us. If the contents of the bowels 
should not be evacuated for a couple 
of days, a teaspoonfal of castor oil 
may be given. Accurate examina- 
tion should first be made, in order 
to ascertain that no malformation 
exists to prevent the passage of the 
motions. 

The urine sometimes is suppressed 
for several days after birth : nothing 
more than warm baths, or fomenta- 
tions, need be employed in these 
cases, as, if no physical obstacle 



exist, the secretion will certainly be 
established at last. 

The breasts of newly-born infants 
frequently contain a secretion of a 
watery or milk-like character. This 
is erroneously regarded as true milk 
by many persons. Nurses are dis- 
posed too often " to get it away," as 
they express it. No interference is 
required; but much harm may 
be done thereby. If the breasts 
shoTild swell or inflame, warm fo- 
mentation will be sufficient treat- 
ment. 

The jaundice that appears in in- 
fants a few hours or days old does 
not call for medicine. It is the 
result of natural changes taking 
place in the circulation of the liver, 
and will naturally disappear. 

Children are frequently " to7igus» 
tied;^* that is, the cord which is 
below the tongue prevents its tip 
being bent upwards freely, so as to 
embrace the nipple in sucking. In 
this case it should be cut. This 
operation should be performed with 
a pair of sharp round-ended scis- 
sors. Care must be taken that 
these be directed downwards in 
making the incision, which need 
only divide the edge of the cord-like 
membrane. If the incision be made 
upwards, towards the under surface 
of the tongue, an £u:tery may be 
wounded. 

As this operation is not generally 
urgent, it may probably be post- 
poned until surgical aid can be ob- 
tained. 

Treatment after liabonr. 

Much harm is done to the 
mother's health, and often the con- 



TREATMENT AFTER LABOUR. 



151 



stitution is irreparably injured, by 
prematurely getting up after a con- 
finement. According to the indi- 
vidual strength of the patient, and 
the state of the weather, the 
patient may be allowed to leave 
her bod after from five to seven 
days. She should, however, strictly 
observe a recumbent posture upon 
a couch for another week, at least, 
before she ventures to sit up or 
walk. Those whose circumstances 
in life compel them sooner " to be 
about," pay a heavy penalty for 
so doing. Palling of the womb is 
a consequence under which the life 
of women of the poorer classes is 
often rendered one of suffering and 
misery. 

The lying-in chamber should be 
light and well ventilated. Dark- 
ness and closeness of the room, 
as too frequently met with, are 
highly prejudicial to the health 
and strength of both mother and 
infant. Dread of the ill effects 
of a draught of cold air leads to the 
smothering of the infant and parent 
among curtains, feather beds, and 
fires, untn both are rendered ten- 
fold more susceptible of the slightest 
change of temperature. 

The diet of a recently delivered 
woman should be light but nou- 
rishing during the first two or three 
days. After the bowels have been 
freely emptied on the third day by 
a mild aperient, an increase of diet 
may be allowed. The patient may 
then resume her usual diet. Little 
or no good is done by starving women 
for so many days, as is usual. By 
" usual diet" is meant most strictly 
the avoidance of anyexcessin the use 
of stimulants. If the patient have 



been accustomed to take malt 
liquors in moderation, the same 
may be permitted. A pint of 
mild beer daily is sufficient for any 
nursing mother. No greater mis- 
take as to the pi-esent, or more 
ruinous error, can be committed, than 
that of assuming it to be necessary, 
to enable a mother to perform the 
office of nursing, that she should 
drink strong beer ad libitum. The 
milk that is secreted under such 
circumstances is not cither so good 
in quality or so friU in quantity as 
when only small quantities, or none 
at all, of malt liquors are taken. 
The two, three, andfour-pints-a-day 
system excites a feverish condition 
of the constitution, and damages the 
characters of the secretions. It is 
not always easy for a woman sud- 
denly to discontinue such a mode of 
dieting when she weans her child. 
The habit in many cases is fixed for 
life. This is the source of many of 
those melancholy instances of inve- 
terate love of intoxicating beverages 
which are occasionally met with 
among females of all ranks of 
society. 

If thirst be caused by suckling, it 
may safely and surely be allayed by 
freely drinking of milk, or milk and 
barley water, &c. ; at the same time 
wholesome nutriment is thereby sup- 
plied for the formation of pure and 
nutritious support to the infant. 

Suckling is occasionally attended 
with trouble, more especially so 
with first children. When the 
secretion of milk begins, the breasts 
may be painfully swollen, and feel 
as if full of hard lumps or knots. 
When the child is put to the breast 
the pain is augmented, but if it 



152 



CHILDBED FEVERS. 



takes a full feed, relief is experi- 
enced. It very often happens that, 
the nipple being small, it is several 
days before the child wiU suck 
freely. The fulness and pain in 
the breasts wiU be relieved by gently 
rubbing them two or three times a 
day with sweet oil ; by drawing off 
a small quantity of the nulk from 
time to time. This is readily 
effected by means of a soda-water 
bottle, or other wide-mouthed bot- 
tle, warmed with hot water, or by 
being held to the ffre, and then 
applied to the nipple, the skin around 
which should be protected by a 
piece of leather or Hnen. A small 
quantity of milk will flow into it 
as the bottle cools. 

If this plan do not succeed, over- 
fulness of the breast may be pre- 
vented by suction of another infant, 
or adult. 

The first or second occasion of 
nursing is often attended with sore 
nipples. This painful affection may 
be prevented or relieved by regu- 



larly washing the nipples with warm 
water immediately after suckling, 
and by the use of Wansborough's 
metallic shields. They are to be 
worn in the intervals of nursing, 
and the nipples washed again before 
the infant is placed to fiie breast. 
A great many means have been re- 
commended for the cure of sore 
nipples. Among these are shields 
and teats of various kinds. It is 
scarcely possible to state which may 
be the best of these. Sometimes 
one will suit, and sometimes another 
kind. The French or cork nipple 
seems to be open to fewest objec- 
tions. 

If the nipples be cracked and 
inflamed, a bread and water poultice 
maybe applied at first: — ^afterwards, 
any astringent application, as pow- 
dered alum, tincture of catechu, &c. 
Whatever is used must be washed 
off before the infant sucks. Time, 
and perseverance in suckling, pro- 
tecting the nipple in the intervals, 
are the most trustworthy remedies. 



DISEASES OF LYING-IN WOMEN. 



CHILDBED FEVEBS. Puerperal 
Inflammations i Inflammation of the 
Peritoneum^ or Lining Membrane of 
the Abdomen ; qf the Feins qf the 
Womb, and parts connected ihere^ 
with; Uterine Phlebitis ; Puet-peral 
Peritonitis, 

Pain and extreme tenderness on 
pressure, with distension, of the 



abdomen; the knees are drawn up; 
pain in the bowels on moving and 
taking a deep breath ; thirst ; loss 
of appetite ; tongue furred. The 
attack generally begins with more 
or less shivering, and fever; the 
discharge becomes suppressed, and 
the secretion of milk diminished. 
The pulse is very rapid and small. 

In some cases there is less tender- 
ness of the abdomen, and the fever 
is of a low, or typhoid character ; 



CHILDBED FEVERS. 



153 



the pulse extremely feeble; the 
tongue haying a thick, dark, or 
black coating. Delirium occurs. 
Diarrhoea still further prostrates 
the patient. 

Sometimes this disease is of a 
lingering character, when abscesses 
form in the joints, limbs, and in- 
ternal organs. 

Neuralgic or hysterical pains 
may at first be mistaken for the 
aboTe; but they are not attended 
with Eddvering, feyer, and suppres- 
sion of the discharge and of the 
milk. 

Cmues. 

The lying-in state predisposes — 
constipation, errors in diet, sudden 
suppression of perspiration, wiU 
excite these inflammations. 

They sometimes assume an epi- 
demic character; that is to say, 
when one case has occurred, others 
often follow. Childbed fever abo 
frequently follows upon very pro- 
tracted or difficult labours. 

Trefttment. 

This will depend upon the 
strength of the patient cmd the 
character of the disease. Ko in- 
variable rule c&a be laid down, as 
the latter point varies greatly in 
different seasons. 

When the pulse is full and 
strong, and the pain very acute, a 
large number of leeches (from 
twenty to forty) should be applied on 
the abdomen : tiieir bleeding may be 
encouraged by warm fomentation, 
or by a large bread and water or 
linseed-meal poultice. One of the 
pills (see Inscription Ko. 19) 
should be taken every three or 



four hours. If the bowels are con- 
fined, the aperient mixture (Pre- 
scription No. 3) should be taken 
also, but discontinued when the 
purgative effect is obtained. 

If the symptoms do not abate 
under this treatment, a large blister 
plaster should be placed on the 
abdomen. The calomel and opium 
should be persevered in until the 
inflammation is checked, or the 
gums are aflected thereby. They 
should in that case, if the disease 
have not subsided, be still given at 
longer intervals. 

In those inflanmiations which 
have the low or typhoid character, 
in which pain is but slight, or per- 
haps absent, and the symptoms 
altogether obscure, a very opposite 
plan of treatment to the above 
is to be adopted. These cases 
often begin with indeflnite symp- 
toms referable to the nervous sys- 
tem ; such as sleeplessness, distress- 
ing dreams, conftision of thought, 
&c. The suppression of the green 
waters with tiiese symptoms should 
excite alarm. In a very few hours 
the pulse falls, and the patient soon 
exhibits all the signs of prostration. 
A soothing, not active, practice is 
called for. Five grains of Dover's 
powder and two of James's powder 
every six or eight hours, with a 
mild aperient dose, and warm 
turpentine fomentations applied to 
the abdomen, are generally the 
best-suited means for these cases. 
Beef- tea should be given fre- 
quentiy. 

In tiie worst or typhoid cases, or 
which have become such in their 
course, the only plan of treatment 
that offers any prospect of cure is 



154 



PUERPEllAL COXYULSIONS. 



to support the constitution by means 
of stimulants, while it rids itself of 
its oppression from the poisoned 
blood. Mercury, opium, &^c. will 
do more harm than good. Wine 
must be given in frequent doses 
to maintain the pulse in its force. 
A tablespoonful may be required 
every few minutes. Brandy may 
even be necessary, so low does the 
heart's action faU in some of these 
cases. Where death seems immi- 
nent from exhaustion, there need 
be little fear of giving too much 
stimulus. By these means, appa- 
rently hopeless cases have occa- 
sionally been saved. The disease 
is one of blood-poisoning: if the 
nervous energies can be supported 
long enough, the poison may be 
cast out of the system by the various 
outlets to the circulation. 

When amendment has taken 
place, and the constitution begins 
to bear a gradual diminution of the 
quantity of stimulants, bark and 
ammonia may be given. The diet 
must be augmented by nutritious 
substances when the stimulants are 
withdrawn. 



PUEBPEBAL eONVULSIONS. 

Symptonu. 

These resemble those of epilepsy, 
under other circumstances. They 
are apt to occur during the latter 
weeks of pregnancy, or during 
labour or the lying-in state, but 
may never again happen to the 
patient in affcer-Ufe. 

In one class of cases the convul- 



sions are preceded by headache, 
giddiness, sense of weight and 
throbbing, and other symptoms of 
congestion in the brain. In another 
class, and that the most numerous, 
they occur in weak, nervous, and 
hysterical females. 

Causes. 

The peculiar condition of the 
constitution in the state of preg- 
nancy, and at the time of labour. 
The fits are sometimes excited by 
indiscretion, by indigestible articles 
of food. If they occur during labour 
they generally subside as soon as 
delivery is completed. 

Treatment. 

Where there are signs of conges- 
tion about the brain, leeches should 
be applied to the head, and strong 
purgatives and clysters administered. 
Ten grains of calomel should be 
given at once ; if this do not purge 
in two or three hours, it should be 
followed by one drop of croton oil, 
placed on the tongue or mixed in a 
little sugar. A turpentine clyster 
should be administered. Mustard 
plasters should be applied to the 
soles of the feet or calves of the 
legs. 

In the other class of cases, such 
as occur in hysterical, nervous, and 
feeble women, with small pulse, 
a different plan of treatment must 
be followed. Leeching must not 
be had recourse to. The face and 
head may be sprinkled or dashed 
freely with cold water. Stimulants, 
such as ether, sal- volatile, or brandy, 
should be given. The turpentine 
clyster will be useful also in these 
cases. 



PUERPERAL MA]!^IA— WHITE LEG. 



155 



PUERPERAL MANIA OB IN- 
SANITY. 

Symptonuu 

Either a few days or hours, it 
may be before, or more commonly 
after childbirth, the mother becomes 
somewhat strange and excited, sus- 
picions of her Mends and attend- 
ants, imagining evils and dangers to 
herself or child; or her affections 
are entirely alienated from her off- 
spring, which, if not carefully 
watched, she might injure. The 
patient's spirits are greatly de- 
pressed ; she win cry often and long ; 
melancholy alternating with ti^e 
state of excitement characterised 
by incoherent volubiHty and irrita- 
bility of temper. The pulse may 
be increased in rapidity ; but this, 
as well as other bodily symptoms, 
may show but little indications of 
disease. 

The symptoms may subside in 
the course of a few days or hours, 
or they may pass into fiirious mania, 
or melancholy. The above consti- 
tutes the faintest outline of this 
affection,which presents many forms 
and de^es of severity. They 
should suffice, however, to put the 
attendants of a lying-in woman 
upon their guard in the event of the 
appearance of such symptoms. 

Cause* 

A peculiar condition of the female 
nervous system, arising out of child- 
birth. 

Treatment. 

Upon the first occurrence of the 
symptoms in a milder degree, a full 
dose of tincture of henbane should 



be given, and repeated at intervals 
of four or six hours, according to 
the effect produced (see Table of 
Medicines). An aperient draught 
should be given if the bowels 
are costive. The greatest care 
and vigilance are required in 
watching that the patient does not 
injure herself or offspring. When 
such symptoms appear, l£e woman 
ought never to be left entirely 
alone. If she be very violent, the 
arms may be pinioned down to the 
sides by a sheet folded broad and 
firmly bound round the body. This 
should not be had recourse to if it 
can safely be avoided ; but where 
there are not sufficient or compe- 
tent attendants, it is the best plan 
to use some restraint of this land. 
By thereby preventing the patient 
from augmenting her excitement, 
she will often become quiet, andfEill 
off into a refreshing doze. 

It is scarcely necessary to observe 
how important it is in such a case 
to spare no effort to obtain medical 
advice. 



ynnTE LEG-. Inflammation of the 
Veine of the Lower Extremity, 

Symiitoms. 

At an uncertain interval after 
delivery, the patient experiences 
shivering, sickness, rapid pulse, 
sense of prostration, thirst, and 
fiirred tongue. Pain is felt in the 
region of the womb, and in the 
course of a day or two extends to the 
groin and upper part of the thigh, 
which are tender when pressed. 



156 



WHITE LEG. 



There will be some slight degree of 
swelling; the tenderness may be 
traced in a narrow line along the 
inner side of the thigh down to the 
back of the knee-joint, and down the 
calf of the leg. The skin of the 
leg and entire limb becomes tense, 
white, {uid shining : hence the name 
of the malady. The impression of 
the finger is retained for some 
seconds after its pressure has been 
removed. Movement of the limb 
becomes pain^. * 

These symptoms vary greatly 
as to degrees of severity, and as 
to duration. In some instances 
they may all have disappeared in 
a few weeks ; in others they may 
last for months. The disease is 
not attended with the danger to 
life that marks inflammation of the 
veins of the womb, but it is fre- 
quently a source of much pain and 
difficulty in walking for several 
months. 

Treatment. 

Two or three dozen leeches should 
be applied to the groin, and the 



bites be afterwards fomented and 
poulticed. Simple saline mixture 
(see Prescription No. 4 ; the tartar 
emetic being omitted if the pulse be 
feeble). Ten grains of Dover's 
powder to be given at bed-time to 
allay pain. The bowels should be 
regulated by four or five grains of 
blue pin and a dose of castor oil, or 
a rhubarb draught. The diet should 
be light and unstimulating. 

As the inflammation extends 
down the limb, the occasional 
application of a few leeches at 
diflerent points will be found 
serviceable. 

The entire Umb should be en- 
veloped in flannel wrung out of 
warm water, and then enclosed 
in waterproof material. The best 
kind is the thin gutta-percha sheet- 
ing. This application to be changed 
as often as required to keep the 
limb warm. 

When all the inflammatory symp- 
toms have subsided, the stiffiiess 
and immobility of the limb may be 
relieved by the use of stimulating 
liniments (see Prescriptions). 



SECTION III. 



ACCIDENTS. 



ACCIDENTS. 



SHOCK OR CONCUSSION. 



Amr serious accident, or severe in- 
jury, causes a shock to the nervous 
system, depressing its energies and 
interfering with the vital functions. 
The patient in that state presents 
a cold pale surface ; his conscious- 
ness is suspended, or partially so ; 
he has a feeble, sighing kind of 
breathing ; and the pulse is small 
and feeble. The condition is similar 
to that of fainting, or collapse. 
There is often sickness ; and in chil- 
dren convulsions frequently occur 
in this state. 

This collapsed state may last only 
a few minutes, or may continue for 
various lengths of time up to a 
couple of days. Eeaction then takes 
place, and in the majority of in- 
stances recovery ensues. If, how- 
ever, serious injury to any vital 
organ have happened, a state of 
morbid excitement may follow. 



Where the injury to vital organs is 
still more serious, no reaction will 
follow, but the patient sooner or 
later sinks. 

When called to a person in a 
state of collapse from the shock 
of an accident, a small quantity of 
stimulant should be given, such as 
a little wine and water, or brandy 
and water, or a few drops of ether 
or sal- volatile in water ; the surface 
of the body should be warmed by 
blankets, hot bottles to the feet, 
legs, &c. The head should be kept 
in a line with the body, which should 
be laid in the recumbent posture. 
Let the patient have plenty of fresh 
air. In all such eases abstain from 
bleeding, 

Por the particular treatment of 
special injuries, see the several 
headings in the present section. 



160 



ABRASION— ARTERIES, BLEEDING FROM. 



TREATMENT OF ACCIDENTS. 



ABRASION. Qraize; Excoriation. 

Symptoms. 

The outermost skin removed by 
violence, as a blow, a fall, or fric- 
tion of clothing. 

Treatment. 

Por a small extent of injury, 
court plaster ; for larger, gold- 
beater's skin or collodion; or col- 
lodion painted over the gold-beater's 
skiu. 

Common adhesive plaster, or 
diachylon, generally irritates an 
abraded surface. 

Any simple unirritating substance 
that win serve to protect the true 
or deep skin while the cuticle or 
outer skin is being formed ; e. g> 
spermaceti ointment, glycerine, &c. 



ANIMATION, SUSPENDED. (See 

Hanging ^ Drouming^ Suffocation, or 
Cold.) 



ARTERIES, BLEEDING FROM. 

This is known by the blood 
flowing by jerks, and by its bright 
scarlet colour ; whereas the blood 
from veins is of a dark purple 
colour, and flows in a continuous 
stream. 



Treatment. 

Pressure of the finger over the 
wound will, if the artery be small, 
stop the bleeding after a short 
time. 

If the bleeding recommences 
when the finger is removed, pres- 
sure may be made by twisting a 
handkerchief twice round the limb, 
over the wound; place a stick 
under the knot and give it several 
turns, so as to make firm pressure, 
thus : — 




The pressure should only be suf- 
ficient to stop the bleeding; beyond 
that it will bruise or injure the 
parts. 

Or, a piece of rag several times 
folded, and tied down with a broad 
piece of tape, or bandage, thus : — 




If the bleeding proceed from a 
wound of an artery in a limb, and 
is not checked by either of the 
above methods, the current of the 



ARTERIES, BLEEDING FROM— BITES. 



161 



blood in the limb may be checked 
by pressure upon the main artery. 
Thus, if it be in the arm, firm pres- 
sure should be made downwards in 
the neck, just above and behind the 
collar-bone. This pressure may 
conveniently be made by means of 
the handle of a door-key wrapped 
in a few folds of linen. 

If the blood flow from a wound 
in the hand, it may be considerably 
checked, or altogether arrested, by 
bending the elbow-joint, and firmly 
pressing the lower against the up- 
per part of the arm, so that the hand 
shall be able to touch the shoulder. 

If the wounded artery be in the 
lower extremity, the flow of blood 
can be controlled by firm pressure 
at the groin, where the large artery 
may be felt pulsating as it passes 
over the bone. 

While the circulation is thus 
controlled, the open mouth of the 
artery, in the wound, should be 
taken hold of by a pair of fine- 
pointed forceps, and a piece of silk, 
or strong thread, should be then 
firmly tied round it near the for- 
ceps. Care must be taken not to 
cut the artery through in tying the 
ligature. One end of the ligature 
should be left hanging out of the 
wound, which should then be 
covered with lint or rag wetted 
with cold water. 

If the artery divided be small, 
and not conveniently accessible for 
either pressure or ligature, a small 
piece of lint soaked in muriated 
tincture of steel, or touching it with 
stick of nitrate of silver, or lint 
moistened with spirits of turpentine, 
wiU frequently arrest hemorrhage. 

If none of these means be at 



hand, a piece of iron wire made 
black-hot, lightly and rapidly ap- 
plied, will stop the bleeding. This 
plan appears formidable, but it is 
very efficacious, and is not so pain- 
ful as might be thought. 

Bleeding fit)m veins is easily 
stopped by pressure. 

At the same time that these 
means are employed, it wiU be 
necessary to keep the patient as 
tranquil as possible, and give light 
unstimulating diet. If fainting 
take place, the patient should be 
laid on the back with the head low, 
and small quantities of wine or 
wine and water very carefully ad- 
ministered. 



BITES OF LEECHES. 

Press steadily for some time with 
the finger upon the orifice, pre- 
viously covered with two or three 
folds of lint or rag. If this do not 
avail, apply a little muriated tinc- 
ture of iron on lint ; or touch the 
orifice with nitrate of silver, or 
with red-hot wire ; or pass a fine 
needle horizontally through the 
bite, and- then twist a piece of fine 
silk several times round the needle, 
enclosing the bite by a figure of 
eight. 



BITES OR STINGS. 1. Of Insects,- 
as Bees, Wasps, ^c. ^'c, ; 2. Of 
Snakes, Dogs, ^c, 

1. Bites of Insects. 
These, Ptrictlyspeaking, are aim.. 



162 



BITES. 



ply poisoned wounds, and not what 
is generally understood by the word 
venomous, or deadly. 

The symptoms produced will vary 
according to individual constitution, 
state of health, &c. Generally 
speaking, they are slight, and con- 
fined to the part. The swelling 
may, however, extend over a whole 
Umb, or even over the whole body, 
and be attended with sickness, 
faintness, &c. 

Treatment. 

If a sting be left in, it must be 
extracted with forceps or tweezers. 
The best local application is harts- 
horn or sal-volatile. If inflamma- 
tion follow, it must be treated with 
cold lotions, or poultices. 

If the effects produced be of the 
more serious character named, 
stimulants must be given freely. 
Brandy in hot water; ether; sal- 
volatile. (See TabU of Doses,) 

A ligature should be tightly tied 
round the limb above the bite or 
wound, while surgical aid is pro- 
cured. At the same time nitrate of 
silver or caustic potash may be 
applied to the wound. 



2. Bites of Snakes, Dogs, &c. 

In the case of a snake-bite of a 
venomous kind, e. g. cobra, the 
effects are so rapidly developed 
that only the use of instantaneous 
and energetic means offers any 
chance of saving life. The adder's 
bite is occasionally followed in a 
short time by serious conse- 
quences. 

These are only to be averted by 



the frequent administration of strong 
stimulants, such as teaspoonful doses 
of sal- volatile in water every five or 
ten minutes, to an adult, and in 
reduced doses if a child. In some 
cases of cobra bites in India life 
has been saved by the adminis- 
tration of a teaspoonful of eau de 
luce (a solution of ammonia with oil 
of amber) every five minutes, while 
the fearful state of depression con- 
tinues. 

The explanation of this mode of 
treatment is simply that the poison 
acting with lightning-like rapidity, 
there is not time to remove it from 
the point at which it has been in- 
serted, before it is traversing the 
whole course of the circulation. 
All that is left to us to do is to up- 
hold the vital energies of the victim 
imtil it shall have lost its force, or 
been expelled from the system. 
How either may happen we know 
not. We may be thankful that 
life can sometimes be saved under 
such imminent danger. 

For dog-bites, apply a ligature 
tightly above the spot until strong 
caustic can be applied, or the part 
be removed by incision. If the 
bite be only superficial, the free ap- 
plication of a stick of lunar caustic 
will suffice. In deeper bites the 
stick of lunar caustic (nitrate of 
silver) or caustic potash may be ap- 
plied as soon as possible, if surgical 
aid cannot be procured to remove 
the part. 

Hydrophobia seldom occurs. Com- 
pared to the number of dog- bites, its 
occurrence is as nothing. This fact, 
however, should not lead to neglect 
of the means above mentioned, but 
should remove those alarming ap- 



BROKEN BONES. 



163 



prehensions which may disorder the 
nervous system and lay the founda- 
tion of serious symptoms. 



BONES, BROKEN. 

When a thigh, or arm, is broken, 
there is little difficulty in finding it 
out. If there have not been a dis- 
tinctly perceptible snap, there will 
be the disfigurement and inability 
to use the Hmb, which will shortly 
lead to the discovery of the nature 
of the accident. If the broken bone 
be moved gently, there will be felt 
and heard a grating or crepitation 
of the ends upon one another. If, 
however, ribs or smaller bones be 
broken, the fracture may not be so 
readily detected. 

In all accidents of this kind, the 
first object is to remove the sufferer 
as quietly and carefully as possible 
to his home, or wherever else may 
be thought desirable. Unless care 
be taken in so doing, a simple frac- 
ture of the bone may be seriously 
complicated, and converted into a 
compound fracture; ». e. rough 
handling may force the broken ends 
of the bone through the muscles and 
skin. 

In order to avoid this, if the 
sufferer has to be moved any dis- 
tance, less or more, he should be 
laid upon a door or shutter, or any 
board large enough to carry him. 
This should be placed on a level 
with the patient, so that it will 
scarcely be required to raise him in 
placing him thereon. A hand con- 
veyance of this kind is preferable to 



a horse carriage, as less jolting is 
occasioned thereby. The limb should 
be placed at the same time as nearly 
as possible in its natural direction, 
in order to prevent the broken ends 
of the bone piercing the skin before 
it is properly set. 

Treatment. 

General rules, — The first point 
is to restore the broken bones as 
nearly as possible to their natural 
position. This must be done by 
drawing the broken bones in oppo- 
site directions, so that the ends may 
slip into contact and resume their 
natural position. 

Certain articles are required in 
order to keep the bones in place. 
These may be procured, generally, 
with a little trouble and contrivance. 
They are : — linen bandage, three or 
four inches wide, and several yards 
in length ; soft pads or cushions of 
various lengths and breadths, made 
from linen stuffed with tow, wool, 
chaff, or feathers ; splints or pieces 
of wood about four or five inches 
broad, a quarter of an inch thick, 
and of lengths varjdng with the 
length of the limb : if these cannot 
be obtained, bundles of straight 
straw or strong reeds folded or 
quilted in cloth will answer the 
same purpose. 

Por the first three or four days 
the broken limb should not be 
tightly bound up in these splints, 
bandages, &c. ; but they should 
only be so applied as to keep the 
bones in place, at the same time 
that the inflammatory swelling 
which ensues may be watched and 
treated with the cold water dress- 
ing. 



164 BROKEN BONES. 

The Bymptoms and treatment of If severe puia and distreaa in 
fractures of particular bonee are as breathing arise — see PUurity. 
follows; — 



Nose. 

TrMUnent. 

Beplace tlte bones as nearly 
possible in their natural positi 
If there be any siuall splinters of 
bone, they should be removed by the 
forceps. 

Cloths dipped in cold water should 
be constantly applied, to reduce the 
swelling and arrest bleeding-. 

Wounds may afterwards 
brought together by sticking 



Eras. 

This accident maybe detected by 
gentle pressure, or by the broad flat 
hand Md over the painful part 
during breathing: pain is occa- 
sioned, and grating of the bones may 
be felt. The detection of the grat- 
ing sound, in the onse of broken 
ribs, often requires some time and 
attention. 

TFcMment. 

A linen roller, six inches broad, 
should be tightly bound several 
times round the chest, so as to 
limit the movement of the ribs in 
breathing. If the edges of the ban- 
dage be stitched in several places, 
it will be less likely to slip. 

Best in bed for a fow days will 
generally be sufficient treatment in 
addition to the above. Fain may 
be allayed by Dover's powder or 
laudanum. 



COLLAB-BOKB. 

Symptom*. 

Fracture of this bone is rendeo^d 
evident by the prominence that may 
be observed at the seat of fracture. 
This will be the more readily de- 
tected when compared with the 
bone of the opposite side. A grating 
feeling, and pain, are also felt when 
the shoulder is moved. 



Fix the shoulders back by a 
bandage crossed behind both. Place 
a roll or pad in the armpit : — a pair 
of man's stockings folded will 
answer the purpose. In the next 




place, pass a few turns of a bandage 
round the arm above the elbow ; 
then carry the remainder of the 



BROKEN BONES. 



bandage several times round the 

chest, eo as to bind the arm to the 
body. This done, raise the elbow 
and arm in a sling made by a hand- 
kerchief, and tie it over the shoulder 
of the sound side. By these means 
the bono -will be restored to its 
natural position, and, by wearing 
the bandages about a month, will 
firmly unite. 



Ash, abote the elbow. 



If the lei^th of the arm be 

diminished, or ita form distorted, 
the bones must first be brought 
into their proper position. One 
person should steady the shoulder, 
another should steadily pull at the 
elbow until the bones can be felt to 
have taken their proper places. A 
towel passed round the elbow will 
form a fixed point in making this 
extension. When the bones are in 
place, four splints the length of the 
arm, lined with four soft pads, 
should be placed around the arm, 
and be made firm either by straps 
or broad pieces of tape. The 
splints must not be tightly fixed 
for the first few days, but should 
be eo loose that the state of the 
swelling may be watched. In the 
event of this, and pain, being con- 
siderable, it will be advisable to 
reduce the excessive infiammation 
by means of cold lotions. 

Before the splints are fixed, the 
arm should be vrell washed with 
soap and water, and powdered with 
starch-powder. The same should 
be done whenever it may be re- 
quiute to move the splints, which 




The patient should be confined to 
the bed for a fortnight at least. 
No movement of the arm should be 
allowed under five weeks, and 
movement should then be very 
gradually and gently resumed. 



When both bones are broken, the 

injury is easily discovered. Some- 
times only one bone is broken ; 
the accident is then not so ap- 
parent, because the other bone acts 
as a sort of splint, and prevents the 
obvious deformity that attends frac- 
tore of both bones. 



The bones, if displaced, should be 



1(56 



BKOKEN BONES. 



restored to their proper position by 
one person fiimly holding the upper 
arm and elbov, while the foiearm 
is put on the stretch from the wriBt 
and hand by another pereon. 

Two large well-padded splints 
should then be laid, the one on the 
front, the other on the back of the 
arm, and then being tied by tapes, 
the entire arm should be sup- 
ported by a sling whilo in the 
upright or sitting posture. 




The splints must be worn for 
about a month. The same precau- 
tion is to be observed not to tighten 
the splints if there be swelling and 



A thin board should be cut into 
the shape of the hand ; this beii^ 
padded, the hand should be laid 
upon i^ and it may be covered by 



anoth^ well-padded splint of a 
shape corresponding to the hand. 
It ^ould be supported in a sling. 



TmoH. 

Fracture of the thigh-bone may 
be detected by the deformity, sua 
by the uselessness of the limb ; oy 
the inability to stand upon i^ or 
raise it frwn the ground. 



The readiest and simplest plan for 
the treatment of this accident by 
non-professional persons is that re- 
commended by ar. South in hie 
"Household Surgery." "The pa- 
tient must be placed on his back 
upon a firm mattress, laid ou a board 
resting ou the bed-frame, which is 
better than on the sacking, as that 
sinks with the weight of the body 
when resting on it for some weds. 
Two thick pads are to be made, of 
sufficient size to cover, the one the 
whole of the inside of the sound 
knee, and the other the inside of the 
ankle of the same limb. Both 
limbs must now be laid close t(%e- 
ther, in the same straight line ae 
the body, resting on the heels, with 
the toee right upward ; and in 
doing this, care must be taken that 
the calves of the legs rest flat on the 
mattress. Thus far done, the body 
must be kept immoveatdc by one 
person, who grasps the hips with 
bis two hands. A second person 
then takes hold of the broken limb 
with both hands, just above the 
ankle, and gently and steadily 
draws it down, without disturbing 
its position ; whilst a third places 



BROKEN BONES. 



167 



the knee-pad between the two 
knees, and the ankle-pad between 
the ankles. The gentle pulling 
being continued, the sound knee is 
brought close to that of the broken 
limb, but a little above it, so that it 
rests against the jutting inside of 
the joint, and then, being kept close 
together, a pad about as broad as 
the hand must be turned round 
both legs, directly below both knees, 
and around this a roller about three 
yards long must be tenderly, care- 
fully, and tightly wound, so as to 
prevent one knee sUpping from the 
other. A strap and buckle will 
serve the same purpose ; or, in want 
of roller and slrap, a handkerchief 
may be passed twice round, and tied, 
care being taken not to make the 
knot opposite the hard parts which 
mark the place of the two leg-bones ; 
for, if put there, it will be likely to 
cause very uneasy pressure. Both 
ankles are next to be tied together 
in like manner, care being taken 
that that of the sound side is above 
that of the broken Hmb. A small 
pad is now to be placed between 
the insides of both feet, to guard 
them against the pressure which is 
made by binding both feet together ; 
and this completes the whole busi- 
ness." 




The usual mode of treatment is 
much mora compHoated, and requires 
a surgical hand. By the above 
simple plan as good cures have been 



effected; it is therefore the best 
adapted for those to whom the pre- 
sent work is addressed. 



Kkee-cap. 

This accident is caused either by 
a fall, or by the violent muscular 
effort made in preventing a fall, or 
a slip in walking. Standing on the 
limb is impossible. If the knee be 
examined, a depression will be felt 
where the prominence of the bone 
should be, above and below which 
may be felt the two broken pieces 
of the bone. 

Treatment. 

The patient must lie on a bed, 
with shoulders and head raised, cmd 
the thigh and leg, being kept in the 
same straight line, are to be elevated 
to the highest position that can be 
borne. The best plan is to pass a 
sling from round the neck to the 
heel. The two pieces of bone will 
be brought as nearly as possible to- 
gether by these means. There is 
generally considerable swelling ; 
this must be treated by cloths 
dipped in cold water. At the end 
of a week tie a couple of handker- 
chiefs, one round the limb above 
the upper fragment, the other below 
the lower, without altering the 
position above directed. The two 
handkerchiefs may then be brought 
closer together by tapes passed 
from one to the other, and as 
they approach each other the two 
pieces of bone will be brought 
nearer. They cannot be brought 
actually into contact, but union will 
take place by a strong new liga- 



168 



BEOKEl^ B0KE8. 



ment passing from one piece of bone 
to the other. 

It is requisite to maintain this 
posture and bandaging for a month. 
After this it will take some time of 
gradual practice in swinging the 
leg backwards and forwards upon 
the edge of a table, before the 
muscles regain their power of sup- 
porting the limb. When the patient 
is able to raise his leg to a line with 
his thigh in this manner, a weight 
of a pound or two should be at- 
tached to the foot, and the same 
practice be continued until he can 
raise the leg easily to the level of 
the thigh. 



Leg, below the knee-joint. 

There are two bones in the leg : 
if both, or the larger bone, be 
broken, the injury is apparent 
enough ; if only one, and that the 
smaller or outer bone, it is not so 
readily discovered. The larger bone 
forms a strong splint, and the pa- 
tient can stand upon it, although 
the other bone be broken and cause 
pain, &c. 

Treatment. 

If only the small bone on the 
outer side of the leg be broken, 
complete rest of the limb for a day 
or two. The leg should then be 
bandaged with egg and flour, as 
directed below. 

If both, or the larger bone be 
broken, lay the leg on its outside upon 
a pillow for four or five days, while 
by cold lotions, &c. the inflamma- 
tion and swelling are i*educed. At 



the end of this time, the bones 
being placed in position, a splint 
may be placed on each side of the 
leg, well padded, and the ankle 
protected from pressure by a hole 
being cut in the lower end of the 
outside splint. Or strips of linen 
smeared with a thickish paste of 
white of egg and flour well mixed, 
or of thick gum and chalk, may be 
laid over the limb in all directions. 
In the course of twelve hours this 
will have dried and hardened into 
a firm case, which wiU so protect 
the limb that, in four or five days, 
the patient may quit the horizontal 
posture, and make some little use 
of the limb. 

This plan, however, can only be 
used where the bone is fractured in 
such a manner that the opposite 
ends of the bone can be brought 
into contact so as to maintain their 
position. If obliquely broken the 
ends will slip off each other ; it is 
then preferable to have recourse to 
splints, as they admit of daily exa- 
mination of the state of the bones 
without disturbing them. 

In placing the leg to set the 
bones and apply splints, or starch 
bandage, &c., observe to keep the 
great toe in a line with the knee- 
cap. 

If neither of the above methods 
can conveniently be put in prac- 
tice, a bundle of reeds or straight 
straws may be made to serve as 
spints. 

A bag of sand forms a very con- 
venient pillow, in which the leg 
may be placed on its back, after it 
is properly put up in either of the 
above ways; it will then receive 
support on all sides. 



BROKEN BONES, WITH WOUNDS. 



169 



Foot. 

Fractures of these bones should 
be treated on a similar plan to that 
of fractures of the bones of the 
hand. A splint made to pass up 
the back of the leg, and having a 
footboard fb^ed thereto nearly at a 
right angle, should be padded with 
soft cushions ; and the bones being 
as nearly as possible adjusted to their 
natural position, the foot should be 
placed upon it, and be maintained 
in its situation by several turns of 
a bandage. The foot should be kept 
raised from the ground for two, 
three, or four weeks, according to 
the extent of the injury. 



BONES, BROKEN, v>Uh Wounds. 
Compound Fractures* 

When, in addition to a bone 
being broken, the soft parts over it 
are torn or otherwise wounded, it 
is termed a compound fracture. Such 
accidents are dangerous in propor- 
tion to the extent to which the parts 
are torn or bruised. If a joint also 
be opened it is a still more serious 
matter. This class of accidents is 
especially one in which effort should 
be made to obtain surgical advice. 
Eailing this, the following direc- 
tions will point out the principles 
of treatment : — 

The edges of the wounds should 
be brought together slightly by 
strips of sticking plaster. If any 
loose pieces of bone should 'be 
visible, and can be detached by a 
pair of forceps, they should first be 



removed. The rest of the limb 
should be kept cool with cloths 
dipped in cold water, to be moist- 
ened as often as they dry. The air 
should be admitted to the limb, and 
the bed-clothes raised so as not to 
press upon the injury ; — both these 
objects may be attained by a band- 
box, or wooden and wire frame, 
arched over the limb, or part. 




A light diet and saline medicines 
(see Prescriptions) should be given. 
Pain should be reUeved by opium at 
night (see Tahle of Medicines), If 
the wound heal in a few days, the 
case is then to be treated as one of 
simple fracture. 

In many cases, however, fever 
occurs in the course of three or four 
days. The treatment in this stage 
must not be lowering: a proftise 
discharge is soon set up, and the 
powers of the constitution must be 
supported by a nutritious diet. Sti- 
mulants may be allowed when the 
patient has previously been accus- 
tomed thereto, or if the powers of 
the system flag and a typhoid state 
is threatened. 

The wound, when extensive, often 
requires several weeks before it is 
filled up by the growth of new flesh. 
During this process of growth the 
wound should be dress^ with the 
water- dressing, i, e, lint soaked in 
warm water, Mid covered with oil 
silk to prevent its evaporation. 
This should be changed as fre- 



170 BEUISES— BUmSTS. 


quently as required to keep the 
wound clean, and to sponge away 
accumulation of discharge. 

In such cases as the above (when 
a surgeon is not within reach), the 
limb should be placed as nearly as 
possible in the position directed for 
a simple fracture ; the splints being 
so arranged as to permit of the 
dressings with the least possible 
disturbance of these. The pads and 
splints should be covered with oil- 
silk or other waterproof material, 
so that they shall not be soaked in 
the discharge. The greatest clean- 
liness is required. 


When the end of a finger or toe 
is crushed, the blood effused under 
the nail sometimes causes great 
pain. By scraping down the nail 
at one paxt witih a knife or piece of 
glass, it may be made so thin that 
it will bulge out : a slight punctore 
will then let out the fluid part of 
the blood, and give speedy relief to 
the pain. 


BURNS AND SCALDS. 

Symptoms. 

Bums, the effects of heated solids, 
destroy more deeply than scalds, the 
effects of heated liquids; the latter, 
however, are usually the more ex- 
tensive. In scalding, blisters are 
usually formed. In burning there 
may be blisters, or the skin may be 
charred and its structure destroyed. 
The latter are, therefore, the more 
severe injuries. The danger is in 
proportion to the extent of the skin 
destroyed, and the nature of the 
part injured. 

Treatment. 

In severe cases, if the bum have 
been occasioned by the clothing 
taking fire, the clothes are to be 
immediately removed, or cut off as 
quickly as possible, taking all pos- 
sible care not to break any blisters. 
Those portions that stick should not 
be disturbed. The rest of the body 
should be kept warm. If there be 
shivering or faintness, warm wine- 
and- water should be given. 

In either severe or slight bums 
or scalds, the most correct principle 
to guide the selection of applica- 


BEUISES. 

Symptoms and Causes. 

Swelling and discolouration of a 
part from violence applied; the 
colour undergoing changes from 
black to green and yellowish- green, 
in proportion as the blood effused 
beneath the skin is absorbed. If a 
great quantity of blood be effused, 
inflammation and abscess may 
follow. 

Treatment. 

Apply warmth and moisture by 
sponging, poultices, or wetted lint 
or flannel; to be continued until 
the swelling subsides. Best of the 
limb or ps^ injured, and an ele- 
vated posture to be maintained. As 
recovery takes place, the limb is to 
be very carefully and gradually 
made use of, especially if a joint 
have been bruised, otherwise serious 
inflammation and permanent dis- 
ease may be excited. 



BURNS— CHOKING. 



171 



tions is to keep up the heat of the 
part at first, and bring it down 
gradually to the ordinary tempera- 
ture. The first and most important 
object is to protect the surface from 
the action of the air. For this pur- 
pose flour, cotton- wool, or wadding, 
are the readiest means. In slight 
cases these alone will be sufficient. 
In severer and more extensive in- 
juries the parts should be covered 
with strips of linen or lint spread 
over with ointment, consisting of 
equal parts of yellow basilicon and 
spirits of turpentine. 

The dressing should be changed 
once in twenty-four hours, or a lini- 
ment, as follows — 

Lime Water Ipart; 

Linseed Oil 2 parts ; 

Well shaken together, and applied 
by lint or linen soiled in it. 

Cold applications are objection- 
able, as the relief they afford is but 
temporary, while the reaction which 
follows their use augments the pain 
and inflammation. 

The water contained in the blis- 
ters is to be carefully retained, as it 
affords protection to the tender skin 
beneath. If the surface around the 
blister should become inflamed, the 
water may be let out of the blister 
by the prick of a needle. The skin 
which forms the blister should be 
carefiilly preserved in contact, as a 
covering to the skin below. 

If the bum have caused destruc- 
tion of the true skin, which remains 
as a dark char or ash, bread poul- 
tices should be applied till the 
slough separates. 

When the inflammation subsides, 
and the surface begins to discharge, 
it should be dressed with Turner's 



cerate twice a day. The surface 
from which the discharge proceeds 
often grows very unequally, and 
forms what is commonly called 
" proud flesh," t. e. exuberant gra- 
nulations. These may be checked 
by gently touching them with a 
stick of lunar caustic. Care is to 
be taken to keep the tender surfaces 
separately dressed, lest parts in 
contact should grow together. 

There is often great depression of 
the nervous system as the conse- 
quence of extensive bum or scald. 
Stimulants are then required, and 
a full, nourishing diet. Severe pain 
may be relieved by opiates, such 
as laudanum or Dover* s powder, at 
bed-time, or at intervals during 
the twenty-four hours (see Table of 
Medictnes), 

During the process of cure the 
large scars oonlract the skin, and, 
unless guarded against by gentle 
movement, or keeping the limbs 
extended, the limbs may become 
deformed and disabled. 



BURNS FROM GHEMIGAL 

CAUSTICS. OU of Vitriol, ^e. 

Wash the parts well with water ; 
then treat as common inflamma- 
tion, with water-dressing, &c. 



CHOKING. Sard Substances in the 
QuUet, 

Symptoms and Causes. 

Quickly and carelessly eating or 
bolting large pieces of food some- 



1 72 CHOKING— DISLOCATIONS. 



times causes the food to lodge in the If a part of the body, as the nose, 
gullet, and produces suffocation by ears, toes, be exposed to severe cold, 
pressing upon the upper part of the they are very prone to become frost- 
windpipe ; or spasm of the gullet bitten ; they turn of a dead white 
may cause choking. Pish bones, colour, then livid and shrunk. If 
fruit stones, pins, &c., frequently not carefully treated, mortification 
lodge in some part of the throat. will follow. 

Treatment. Treatment. 

The fore-finger should be passed Rub the part with snow until 
down the throat to reach the sub- reaction is established ; then with 
stance, and hook it up. If it be cold water. The patient should be 
beyond reach of the fingers, a large very slowly allowed to be exposed 
piece of bread crumb should be to warmth, lest the reaction should 
partly masticated and swallowed, be too great. Stimulants may after- 
washing it down with water. This wards be very gradually given, 
will often dislodge the bone or pin, 

and carry it into the stomach, where 

it may be left to pass through the 

bowels. It is not advisable to give CUTS. (See Wounds.) 

purgatives to expel these or other 

hard substances accidentally swal- 

lowed ; they are more likely to pass 

safely through the intestines if left CUT-THROAT. (See Woumh,) 

to be sheathed by their contents. 

Anything that is not dislodged in 

this manner requires the use of a 

probang, or thin piece of whalebone DISLOCATIONS. 

about two feet long, havino: at one mi. i • ji* x.* /• j* i 

end a piece of sponi;, about the size J^« ^^^^'^^ indications of dislo- 

of a hkwl-nut, firmly tied on. This ^^^^^ f^> deformity or alteration 

is to be greased befo4 use, and then »»i. t^^^ f«™ ?f ^}\ Joi"*. together 




way. This operation, however, "'""•, '■^J:'',T ™*"7 "~^ '"^" 
ought to be entrusted ti the hand^ *'^™«^y ^"-^"fS ^^f? ^ a surgeon, 
oft surgeon if possible. ^ ^^"""^l * dislocation. The more 
° ^ common forms are detectible bv a 
non-professional person. ^ 

COLD. Frost-bite, ^e, DISLOCATION OP THE Jaw. 

Intense cold produces drowsiness. The nature of this accident is 

paleness of surface, feebleness of evident fi:om the wide gaping of the 

pulse, and death. mouth, and impossibility to close it ; 



DISLOCATIONS. 



173 



thu ludicrous character of tbo de- 
formity, and of tlie attempts to 
Bpeak. " 

Trektmcnt. 

Steady the patient's head against 
the bock of a. chair or a wall. 

The operator should wrap a haiid- 
kercliief or napkin round histhumbB. 
Place the thumbs on the jaw as far 
back as poBsiblo in the mouth, be- 
yond the teoth. Then press down- 
warda and backwards, at the same 
time that with the fingers the chin 
should be raised. The bone will 
then slip into its place with a snap. 
Or, a piece of wood or cork, placed 
between the t*eth on each aide, may 
be used as a fiilcrum. 



DlSLOCATIOW OF THE Anxf OE 
ShOULBEK- JOINT. 
Hymptoms. 
The arm is lengthonod, the 
slioulder flattened, and, whu 



pared with the opposite side, a 
preseionwill he found asderthepoint 
of the shoulder. The round end of 
the arm-bone may be felt in 



The patient should lie on his back 
on the floor. The operatflr should 
sit on the floor in the opposite di- 
rection, so that his feet may come 
in contact with the shoulder of the 
patient. Then, taking oft' his boot 
or shoe, let him place his heel in tl 
nmi-pit of tbe dislocated joint; 
on the right side, the heel of his 
right foot, and vice per»&. Then 
let him grasp the patient's wrist 
and steadily pull the arm, while he 
makes pressure with his heel in 
arm-pit. If he can manage to dis- 
tract the patient's attention, the 
reduction of the bone will more 
easily be affected. When the bone 
slips into its place a snap will be 
hcai-d, or a jerk felt, by the ope- 
rator. 




DlSLOCATIOS OF THE HiP. 



Symptoma. 

These vary with the direction in 
which the head of the thigh-bone 



Generally the limb ia short- 
ened and turned inwards ; some- 
times it is lengthened and turned 
outwards. On comparing the two 
sides of the body, the promini 



DISLOCATIONS. 



of lie hip will be found wanting o 
the injoreil side. 



The flimpleHt plan is somewhat 
Bimilar to that recommended for 
dlBlocation of the shoulder-joint. 
The operator should lie down on tho 
ground in a, contrary direction to that 



of the patient, and, talung off his 
boot, let him f lace his foot between 
the patient's thigh, and, grasping 
the ankle-joint, make a steady pull 
upon the limb until the bono slips 
in. If the attention of the patient 
can be distracfod, at the moment, 
the power of the muscles will be 
more readily overcome. 




Should this plan not prove suc- 
cessful, it may bo necessary to apply 
greater force. The top of a round 
towel may be passed round tho 
dislocated joint and between the 
patient's thighs, and fastoaed to 
some firm point behind him, and in 
a line with his body, the patient 
lying on a bed or sofa. By this 
means the body bocomes the fixed 
point. Another towel should then 



DISLOCATIONS, COMPOUND. 

If, in addition to the dislocation, 
the ipouos be broken, or a portion be 
forced through the skia, the dislo- 
cation is compound, and has a very 
serious character. In proportion to 
the extent of surface of the joint, 
and of the injury done to the soft 
parts, is the danger of tbis accident. 



be fixed on the limb ahovo the 
knee, and strong steady traction 
esertod upon the limb. It is very 
important that the force be steadily 
applied. 

The nauseating effect of half a 
grain of ipecacuanha powder, g^ven 
every ten minutes, will assist the 
operator in overcoming the action of 
the muscles, which constitutes the 
obstacle to the reduction of tho limb. 



TrcBtmcDt. 

The bones should be restored as 
nearly as possible to their ordinary 
position, as in the case of simple 
dislocation. If any arteries be 
wounded, cold sponging should be 
used. If this do not stop the 
bleeding, the end of tho artery 
should be taken up by a hook or 
forceps, and tfaun tied with a strong 



DKOWKING— HANGING. 



174 



thread. When the dulocation ha« 

been reduced, the wonnd should be 
dressed with wet lint covered with 
oil silt. If inflammation shonld 
take place wet clothB mixst be kept 
on the adjoining parts. The 
Btrictest rest of the lunb must be 
enjoined. 

These cases necessarily require 
confinement to bed for some time, 
and will call for medical treatment 
according to the degree and charac- 
ter of the febrile symptoms, or de- 
greo of depression, as in compound 
fractures. 



DBOwnnia. 

Place the body in a warm room 
as quickly as possible; apply 
warmth externally, by means of 
blankets, hot bottles, hot bricks. 
Motion, &c. If breathing is sus- 
pended, artificial respiration is to 
be practised ; i. e. a tube is to be 
placed in the month and blown 
through, the nostrils to be closed, 
and the larynx pressed backward to 
prevent the air passing into the 
stomach. If a tube is not at hand, 
the operator's mouth should be 
applied to the mouth of tbe body. 
As soon as the patient is suffi- 
ciently recovered, small quantities 
of stimulants must be given. 



DBUNEEHHESS. 

"Wben a person is what is called 

dead drunk" he is in a stat« 

closely resembling apoplexy. The 



neckcloth should be loosened ; cold 
water dashed upon tbe head, which 
should be raised; an emetic of mus- 
tard should bo given, if it can be got 
down the throat, and the throat 
tickled with a feather lo excite 
vomiting. After this has acted 
freely, a strong purge of calomel and 
Dolocynth, or a drop of croton oil, 
should be given. 



FITS. 

Fainting. — Lay the patient flat 
on the back. Give smml quantities 
of stimulants; bathe the face and 
temples with cold water. 

Apoplectic. — The patient being 
laid down, or having fallen, raise 
the head and shoulders ; the hand* 
kerchief and neck of the shirt should 
bo loosened, and cold water applied 
to tbe face ; mustard plasters to &>& 
feet or calves of tbe legs. 

Epilqitic. — Lay patient down, 
slightly raise the head ; undo ool- 
lats, handkerehieft, &c. Apply cold 
water to head and face. 

Syeterieal. — Lay the patient 
down, and freely dash cold water on 
the face and head. 

For further particulars see the 
several diseases under their respec- 
tive names. 



HAHGIHG. 

Loosen all ligatures ; dash cold 
water on the face ; employ artificial 
respiration, as directed for Drowniiig, 
When tbe patient is somewhat re- 



176 



LIGHTNING— WOUNDS. 



vived it may be necessary to apply 
from four to six leeches to the 
temples. 



LIGHTNING. 

Apply strong stimulants to nos- 
trils; friction of surface of body; 
stimulants internally. 



SPRAINS. 

A sprain, or strain, violently 
stretches or tears the ligaments and 
tendons of a j oint. The pain is very 
severe, and the effects often more 
serious than those of a simple frac- 
ture. The joints are particularly 
susceptible of inflammation under 
injury. 

The limb should be elevated, the 
body recumbent, the strained joint 
wrapped round with thin folds of 
rag wetted with cold water : this 
must be renewed as fast as it dries. 
When the pain and inflammation 
have subsided, the joint may be 
gently rubbed once or twice a day 
with soap liniment. The movements 
of the joint must be very cautiously 
resumed. 



SUFFOCATION. 

Let the fresh air have free access ; 
sprinkle the face with cold water ; 
employ artiflcial respiration, as in 
Drownings give moderate stimu- 
lants as soon as patient can swallow. 



WOUNDS. 



Cuts. 



First stop bleeding, if consider- 
able, by sponging with cold water, 
or placing the limb in a raised. 
posture and employing pressure. 
Then bring the edges of the wound 
close together, by sticking plaster, 
and if the cut be a long one leave 
one or two small spaces by which 
fluids may ooze out, then cover all 
with rag or lint as a bandage. 

Por a slight cut, a piece of gold- 
beater's skin, or a piece of rag 
folded several times over the part 
and left to dry, Tvill answer the 
purpose. 

If the part swell from inflam- 
mation, the strapping should be 
loosened a little. Otherwise the 
dressing need not be disturbed for 
two or three, or more, days. 

Where the wound gapes consider- 
ably a stitch or two of silk passed 
between the opposite edges will 
often prove useftil in keeping the 
parts in their proper position. 

Stab. 

A stab should not be imme- 
diately closed, but be treated with 
cold-water-dressing, &c., to prevent 
inflammation, while blood or other 
fluid has thereby an opportunity 
of escaping by the orifice. When 
this has ceased the wound may be 
treated as a clean cut or bruised 
wound, as the case may be. 

If at the same time that a cut 
is inflicted, the parts be bruised, 
the wound should not be closed at 
once by sticking plaster, but should 



be dressed hj wet lint and oil eilk, or 
bread-aod-water poultice. This 
should be continued until the 
braised or destroyed parte are cast 
off, and the wound filled up by 
granulations of new flesh. If the 
new growth take place too rapidly 
it may be checked by being touch^ 
with nitrate of silver, and dressed 
with zinc ointment, or Turner's 
cerat«, spread upon lint. 

A torn wound should be treated 
e same as a braised wound, the 
torn part being first replaced in its 
position, and held there by a strap 
" plaster. 
Best, low diet, and saline ape- 
rients, will be required if the 
inflammation be attended with 
feverishness. 

CtiT Thxoat. 

In cases of cut-throat, the wound 
should not be closed by plaster lest 
suffocation subsequently occur by 
blood flowing into the windpipe; 
bleeding should first be checked 
by cold sponging, or if this does 
not stop the bleeding, by tying the 
wounded arteries; t. «. me open 
and bleeding ends of the arteries 
should be tal^ hold of by the for- 
ceps, and then firmly tied round 
with a piece of strong thread. The 
posture should be such as to prevrat 
difflcnll; of breathing. 

The wound is afterwards to be 
treated aa any other large or serions 
tronnd. 



The splint«r, &o. should be le- 



SD8. 177 

niiivi^d with a pair of foroeps, if it 
ciin be taken hold of easily. If 
nut within reach, a bread-and- 
wiiter poultice should be applied, 
si II ID Id iiifliimmation take place. 
Tiiu limb should be elevated. If 
matter forms, the "gathering" may 
rc(juire tu bo punctured, and the 
thorn or splinter being discharged 
the inflammatory symptoms will 
subside. 



■WocBDS or r 

If tho Hbdomen be stabbed and 
the bowtls protrude, these must 
bo first examined to see that they 
are not wounded. They should 
then be very gently sponged, and 
pressed back t^ngh the aperture. 

If the bowel be wounded, the 
edges of the wound in the intes- 
tine should be very finely stitched, 
and then the put be carefully 
pressed back again through the 
wound into the abdomen, which is 
to be treated with water dressing, 
as above directed for a stab. 

Severe inflammation in the peri- 
toneum ia ^ure to follow. This is 
to be treatkl as directed (see In- 
flamimtion of th« BoKth). There 
muy be this caution, that no pur- 
gative's should be given, and opium 
may bo rather more freely ad- 
ministered. 



GujJPowoEB WonHns ok Bnsxs, 

Tho wound produced by explosioi 
of gunpowder is a componad of 
bruising and burning. The sur- 
face of the wound should be well 
washed to remove every particle of 



178 



WOUNDS. 



gunpowder, and the wound then 
dressed with water-dressing, as for 
bruised or torn wounds. 

Gunshot Wotjitds 

Are perforated wounds, or are 
partly bruised, and partly torn. 
They do not bleed so much as 
cuts or stabs, because the arteries 
are torn, and sooner contract at their 
wounded ends. The nature and 
extent of the injury inflicted will 
vary with the velocity and direction 
as well as the size and shape of the 
projectile. A gunshot wound is 
generally attended with physical 
depression or nervous shock. Within 
twenty-four hours signs of inflam- 
mation in the wound appear; the 
parts become painful and swollen ; 
and in two or three days suppura- 
tion, or the formation of matter, 
will have taken place. In a few 
days after this, those parts that 
have been in contact with the ball, 
in consequence of their having been 
destroyed by the bruising action of 
the ball, will be cast off: the pe- 
riod at which this is complete will 
vary from five or six days to a fort- 
night, according to the extent of 
surface injured. The discharge of 
matter may continue for many 
months. If the inflammation at- 
tending these stages be excessive, 
or the patient be in a bad state 



of health, or under unfavourable 
conditions as to pure air, &c., or if 
the destruction of bone as well as 
flesh be very great, mortification 
may follow. 

Tretttment. 

Give a small quantity of wine or 
other stimulant to remedy the state 
of depression. Then, if the shot 
have passed completely through a 
part, sponge the surface clean, and 
cover with wet lint, which should 
be kept moistened with cold water, 
but not disturbed, for three or four 
days : after which, treat as for a 
bruised wound. 

If the wound be torn as well as 
bruised, the parts must be well 
washed, and then treated by cold 
water. 

If the shot or other foreign body 
he within reach of the orifice of the 
wound, it should be removed by 
the forceps. It may be necessary to 
enlarge the wound by an incision 
before the substance can be re- 
moved. It is quite obvious that 
this part of the treatment can only 
be confided to the hands of a sur- 
geon. It will be safer for a non- 
professional person to leave the ball 
or foreign body in the wound, than 
to be cutting or groping therein. 
Bullets are often lodged in soft 
parts, and remain there for life 
without harm. 



SECTION IV. 



POISONING. 



POISONING. 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 



Thebe are certain features ob- 
served in cases of poisoning, the 
mention of which may be of use in 
leading to the detection of the acci- 
dent, or in reHeving the mind from 
unfounded alarm. 

1. The symptoms of poisoning 
generally appear suddenly, while 
the individual is in health. When 
a large dose of a poison is taken, 
this is invariably the case. Even 
small doses are frequently so quickly 
followed by their symptoms, that it 
is easy to trace the sequence. If a 
poison be criminally administered, 
the quantity wiU generally be such 
as to cause a speedy appearance of 
the symptoms. The symptoms 
caused by noxious articles of food 
are sometimes very speedily mani- 
fested. Sleep and intoxication re- 
tard the action of poisons : some 
diseases, on the contrary, will ac- 
celerate their operation, while their 
effects may be delayed by others. 
It may be stated as a general rule, 
that in debilitated constitutions the 
influence of poisons is more speedy 
than in the robust and healthy. 



2. The symptoms most frequently 
appear soon after food or medicine 
has been taken, or within an hour 
afterwards. 

3. When several persons partake 
of the same food or medicine, if it 
be mixed with poison, all suffer 
from similar symptoms. Such an 
occurrence should lead to close in- 
quiry and investigation of the arti- 
cles of diet, and vessels employed 
in the culinary processes. 

4. The symptoms of poisoning 
frequently resemble those of disease. 
It is therefore necessary that great 
caution should be observed before 
so grave an imputation as criminal^ 
or careless, poisoning be fixed upon 
any persons. Diseases of the brain 
or of the heart, cholera, inflamma- 
tion of the bowels, ruptures, or 
perforations of internal organs, colic, 
tetanus, apoplexy, &c., might be 
mistaken for poisoning. 

Bearing in mind these circum- 
stances, the following statement of 
the symptoms and treatment of 
poisons may be foimd usefril. 



18?, SYMPTOMS ATO) TKEATMEXT OP POTSOl^S. 


• 

SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT OF POISONS. 


Poison. 


Symptoms* 


Treatment. 


ARSENIC. 

White Arsenic, 
Orpiment, 
Bealgar, or EedAr- 

senie. 

• 

Scheele*s Green, 


Burning pain and thirst ; 
dryness of mouth and 
throat ; burning pain and 
tenderness on pressure of 
stomach ; sickness ; fre- 
quent vomiting ; diarrhoea 
and cramps; pulse small 
and rapid ; great nervous 
depression; convulsions. 


Stomach pump ; or eme- 
tic of half a drachm of 
sulphate of zinc, or pow- 
dered ipecacuanha; or two 
teaspoonfuls of mustard in 
a cup of warm water. 
Dnnk large draughts of 
gum water, or linseed tea, 
or milk, or milk and eggs. 
Afterwards treat for in- 
flammation of stomach and 
bowels. 


ANTIMONY. 

Tartar Emetic, 
Butter of Antimony. 


Same as above ; but de- 
pression greater, and more 
rapid. 


Emetics, if sickness has 
not occurred freely. Give 
freely a drink of decoction 
of tea, of oak bark, or of 
nut-galls, with magneto. 


COPPER.' 

Blue ntriol. 
Mineral Green, 
Verdigris, 


Same as above, but ra- 
ther less acute. Inflam- 
mation of stomach and 
bowels follows. 


Emetic, orstomachpump. 
White of egg, milk, flour 
and water to be drunk 
freely. Subsequent symp- 
toms of inflammation to 
be treated accordingly. 


LEAD. 

Sugar of Lead, 
White Lead, 


Sugar of lead causes the 
same symptoms as above, 
if in a large dose. 

White lead causes colic 
and paralysis (which see). 


Emetic of sulphate of zinc. 
Repeated small doses of 
sulphate of magnesia with 
a few drops of laudanum, 
if griping be severe. 



SYMPTOMS AND TKEATMENT OF POISONS. 183 


Poison. 


Symptoms. 


Treatment. 


MERGURT. 

Corrosive SubUmate. 

Calomel, 

WTUte Precipitate, 


Powerfully irritating and 
acrid efiects, as above (see 
Arsenic) ) with the addi- 
tion of profuse salivation, 
coming on after several 
hours, or days. 


Emetic of sulphate of zinc. 

Draughts of white of egg 
and water, or of flour and 
water, ormilk, orall mixed. 

For the salivation, gar- 
gles of alum. 


ACIDS. 

Sulphuric, 
Nitric, or Aqua 

FoHis. 
Muriatic, or Spirits 

of Salt. 
Oxalic, 
Tartaric, 


Acid burning taste ; vo- 
miting of acid mailers; 
the lips or lining mem- 
brane of the mouth char- 
red or excoriated by the 
acid if undiluted ; vomit- 
ing ; purging ; pain in 
stomach and bowels; de- 
pression of the pulse and 
nervous energies ; convul- 
sions. 


Magnesia in water ad 
libitum ; not carbonates of 
soda or potash, because by 
their eiffervescence they 
cause great distension of 
the bowels. Soap and 
water if the magnesia be 
not at hand^ or lime- 
water. 


PRUSSIG ACID, 
& ESSENTIAL 
OIL OF AL- 
MONDS. 


Paleness; depre-ssion of 
nervous power; giddiness; 
impaired vision ; difficulty 
of breathing; faintness; 
loss of power of motion. 


Stomach pump, or eme- 
tics ; dash cold water con- 
stantly on the head ; give 
a teaspoonftil of sol-volatile 
in a wine-glass of water 
every quarter of an hour, 
until some signs of revival. 


ALKALI KK. 

/ Potash. 
Strong < Soda, 

\ Ammonia, 


Taste nauseous, acrid, and 
burning; vomiting; pain 
in stomach and bowels; 
convulsions. 


Yinegar ad libitum^ with 
or without water, lemon 
juice, olive oil. 


NITRE. 


The symptoms are those 
of acrid poisons, with great 
depression. 


Emetics ; egg and milk ; 
flour and water. 



184 SYMPTOMS AND TREATMENT OF POISONS. 


Poison. 


Symptomii. 


Treatment. 


SALTS of various 
kinds ; such as — 
Iodide of Potassium y 
Muriate of Ammonia, 


The effects will generally 
be the same as other acrid 
subst/ances. 


Emetics ; egg and milk ; 
flour and water. 


ETHER. 
CHLOROFORM. 


These produce intoxica- 
tion ; in the latter the de- 
gree of fatal intoxication 
comes on in a very few 
minutes. 


Suspension of life from 
these two substances re- 
quires the most energetic 
stimulation by fr^sh air, 
friction, ammonia, artiflcial 
respiration (seeiVou^ntn^). 


VEGETABLE 
POISONS. 

Aconite, or Monies 
Bryony. \Hood, 
Colchicum or Mea- 
dow Saffron, 
Daphne Mezereon, 
Eupkorbium, 
Savine, 
Opium, 
Hemlock. 
Henbane. 
Belladonna, 
Buttercups. 
Spurred Rye, 
Gamboge , 
Hellelore, 
Mushroom, ^c, ^c. 


Most vegetable poisons 
have strongly acrid and 
narcotic properties: they 
cause violent vomiting and 
purging ; pain in the sto- 
mach ; feebleness and ra- 
pidity of pulse; drowsi- 
ness ; insensibility ; con- 
vulsions; &c. 


Promote vomiting ; give 
stimulants if the depression 
and insensibility be con- 
siderable. 

Narcotic effects may be 
relieved by strong coffee, 
ether, &c. 

The patient should be 
kept constantly walked 
about, and roused, as long 
as drowsiness continues. 


ANIMAL POI- 
SONS. 

Mussels, ^c. 


Sickness ; thirst ; pain in 
stomach; giddiness; swel- 
ling of the limbs and body 
from extensive nettlerash. 


Emetics ; purgatives ; 
stimulants, such as am- 
monia, ether, &c. 



SECTION V. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF MEDICINES, 



AND 



TABLE OF PRESCRIPTIONS; 

WITH 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE USES AND DOSES OF MEDICINES, 

A CLASSIFICATION OF MEDICINES AND PRESCRIPTIONS, 

A TABLE OF MEDICAL WEIGHTS AND MEASURES, 

AND 

A LIST OF ARTICLES FOR A MEDICINE-CHEST. 



MEDICINES AND PRESCEIPTIONS. 



PEBLIMINAEY OBSEEVATIONS 

UPON THB 

USES AND DOSES OF MEDICINES. 



As stated in the preface, we have 
advised the use of such medicines 
only as may safely be entrusted to 
a prudent person. The following 
table is much fuller than is abso- 
lutely required for an ordiuaiy 
medicine-chest ; but a wider oppor- 
tunity of selection is hereby aflforded. 
In the table of prescriptions it will 
be seen that the proportions of each 
ingredient, as. required for different 
ages, is stated. In this manner, as 
likewise in the list of medicines, it 
is more particularly indicated what 
medicines maybe given to children, 
and what to adults. 

The selection and administration 
of medicines may probably be some- 
what assisted by the following re* 
marks and classified index to medi- 
cines and prescriptions : — 

Clremnstanees wMoli Mocllfy the 
Bffeets of Medicines. 

a. Poem. — ^Medicines act more 
rapidly in solution than in the solid 
state : therefore, those salts which 



are soluble act more powerfully 
than those that are not soluble. 

ft. Combination. — ^The action of 
a medicine may be promoted, or 
moderated, by joining it with other 
medicines having a similar or oppo- 
site effect; by combimng it with 
substances, which shall render the 
stomach more susceptible of its ac- 
tion, or shall protect that organ 
from the too powerful action of the 
medicine. Lastly,, by mixing it 
with substances which shall render 
it more palatable, and therefore less 
likely to be rejected by the stomach. 

y. Dose. — The effects of medi- 
cines will be different according as 
large doses are given at long inter- 
vals, or repeated smaller doses at 
shorter intervals. 

I, InIHVIDT7AL peccliakiti es : — 

1.. Age, — Children and aged per- 
sons, as a general rule, require 
smaller doses than persons in middle 
life; but there are certain excep- 
tions: for instance, adults are sooner 
salivated by mercury than children : 
a dose of calomel, which may be 



188 



USES Am) DOSES OF MEDICINES. 



given with impunity to a young 
child, will sometimes cause profuse 
salivation in a fuU-grown man. 
Children are so susceptible of the 
influence of opium, that it should 
never be gi^en to tiiem without the 
greatest caution. 

2. Sex. — ^Females somewhat re- 
semble children in their suscepti- 
bility to the action of medicines, 
which is more rapidly and power- 
fully manifested upon them, at the 
same time that the effects sooner 
pass off, than in males. Hence 
medicines should be given in smaller 
doses, and at shorter intervals, to 
women than to men. 

It is, moreover, especially to be 
borne in mind, that during the pe- 
riods of menstruation, pregnancy, 
and nursing, greater caution is to 
be observed than at other times in 
the administration of medicines to 
women. For instance, during men- 
struation strong purgatives should 
not be given ; and powerful medi- 
cines of all kinds should be given in 
smaller doses, and at longer inter- 
vals, at this time, lest the function 
be interrupted. During the early 
months of pregnancy strong purga- 
tives are likely to cause miscar- 
riage. Opiates, and all other strong 
medicines that rapidly pass into the 
circulation, should be withheld, or 
very cautiously ^ven, to a woman 
while she is nursing, or their effects 
may be made manifest in her infant. 

3. Habit. — It is sometimes mat- 
ter of surprise that large doses of 
medicines, e, g, opium, do not pro- 
duce the effect anticipated. This 
is found, on close inquiry, to be 
owing to the existence of the habit 
of opium-eating. Where the habit 



of taking considerable quantities of 
alcoholic stimulants has been in- 
dulged in, medicines of a stimulant 
character will produce a slighter 
effect. 

4. Disease, — The influenee of dis- 
ease upon the action of medicines is 
well exhibited in the large doses of 
opium which are borne with impu- 
nity in Tetanus, and in some neu- 
ralgic affections. 

5. Mental influence. — Inasmuch 
as the healthy condition of the body 
is greatly under the control of the 
nervous system, and therefore of the 
mind, so it is obvious that powerful 
mental impressions will, through 
the nervous system, operate upon 
the frame in a morbid state. This 
fact is made familiar to medical 
practitioners by almost daily exam- 
ples. Thus it is that a disease 
which has resisted the skill and 
science of several practitioners, will 
yield at once when the patient 
meets with the person whom he 
(or she) will let cure him. Thus 
it is that bread-pills subdue dis- 
ease ; and thus it is that globules- 
of sugar of milk develope their 
marvellous healing powers. 

6. Personal peculiarity, or, in 
technical language, Idiosyncracy, — 
Some persons have their own spe- 
cial and unusual susceptibility 
towards some medicines and other 
substances : thus, the odour or dust 
of ipecacuanha powder has been 
known to prostrate a man, and 
cause blueness of face, coldness of 
the surface, and all the 83nnptoms 
of a severe attack of spasmodic 
asthma. A similar peculiarity has 
been noticed as regcmls other me- 
dicines. 



CLASSIFICATION OF MEDICINES. 



189 



7. Farttcular organs. — Medicines 
act more speedily when taken into 
the stomach than when applied to 
the skin. Some medicinal sub- 
stances are not absorbed by the 
skin unless its surface has been re- 
moved by blistering. Medicinal 
substances injected into the bowels 
are absorbed, but not so rapidly as 
when taken into the stomach. 

8. Sleep, — The action of many 
medicines, e, g, mild aperients, ap- 
pears to be suspended or restrained 



during sleeping ; their effects being 
manifested shortly after waking. 

9. Rest and posture, — It is owing, 
probably, to the complete rest and 
the recumbent posture observed 
during sleep that the actions of me- 
dicines are influenced thereby. The 
operation of astringent and other 
medicines for diarrhoea is favoured 
by rest and recumbent posture. 
Standing, walking, &c., frequently 
render medicine useless in these 
cases. 



CLASSIFICATION 

OF 

MEDICINES AND PRESCRIPTIONS. 



In the Table of Medicines and 
FrescriptionSy and their Uses, we 
have spoken of their operations as 
being antacid, antispasmodic, &c. 
In order to facilitate the selection 
of medicines according to the effect 
desired to be obtained, we have 
classifled them according to their 
operation, so that by glancing over 



each class, as given below, and then 
referring to the alphabetical list of 
medicines, or the numbers of Hie 
prescriptions, the required medicine 
will readily be found, and informa- 
tion given as to the disease for 
which it is adapted, together with 
its dose according to age. 



ALTERATIVES. JiUdly acting upon 
the Secretions, 

Blue pill. 
Calomel. 

Chlorate of potash. 
Cod-liver oil. 
Elm bark. 
Grey powder. 
Sarsaparilla. 
Taraxacum. 
(See also Prescripticms Nos, 22, 
23, 47, 68.) 



ANTACIDS. Correcting Additg. 

Borax. 

Carbonate of ammonia. 

— potash. 

— soda. 

— magnesia. 
Prepared chalk. 
Solution of potash. 

(See also Prescriptions Nos. 17J 
70.) 



190 



CLASSIFICATIO]!^ OF MEDICINES. 



AN9ISPASM0DIG. 

^ther. 

Aromatic spirits of ammonia. 
Assafoetida. 
Cajeput oil. 
Chloric ether. 
Galbanum. 
Guaiacum. 
Opium. 
Peppermint. 
Stramonium. 
Tincture of musk. 
— valerian. 

It may be observed that narcotics 
and sedatives have also antispas- 
modic properties. 

(See also Prescriptions Nos. 52, 
53, 83.) 



APERIENTS ft PURGATIVES. 

Aloes. 

Broom tops. 

Buckthorn. 

Calomel. 

Castile soap. 

Castor-oil. 

Colchicum. 

Colocynth. 

Cream of tartar. 

Croton oil. 

Cubebs. 

Dandelion. 

Epsom salts. 

Gamboge. 

Glauber*s salt. 

Guaiacum. 

Hellebore. 

Jalap. 

Lobelia. 

Magnesia. 



Manna. 

Mercurial pill. 

Mercury with chalk. 

Phosphate of soda. 

Bhubarb. 

Bochelle salt. 

Scammony. 

Senna. 

Sulphate of potash. 

Tartrate of potash. 

(See also Prescriptions Nos. 1, 2, 
3, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 23, 
24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 39, 44, 45, 
46, 48, 69, 71, 79.) 



ASTRINGENT. 

Acetate of lead. 

Alum. 

Catechu. 

Chalk, prepared. 

Creasote. 

Gallic acid. 

Goulard's extract. 

Iron, muriated tincture of. 

— sulphate of. 
Kino. 
Logwood. 
Muriatic acid. 
Muriate of ammonia. 
Myrrh. 

Nitrate of silver. 
Nitric acid. 
Oak bark. 
Oxide of silver. 
Sulphuric acid. 

TJva ursi, or bear berry. 
Zinc sulphate of. 

— Oxide of. 

(See also Prescriptions Nos. 21, 
70, 82, 83.) 



CLASSIFICATION OF MEDICINES. 191 


CAUSTIC. 

Nitrate of silver. 
Nitric acid. 
Pure potash. 
Sulphate of copper. 
Sulphuric acid. 


Colchicum. 

Copaiba. 

Cream of tartar. 

Cubebs. 

Dandelion. 

Digitalis. 

Elm bark. 

Foxglove. 

Juniper. 

Nitre. 

Potash, solution of. 

SarsapariUa. 

Squills.- 

Turpentine. 

(See also Prescriptions Nos. 25, 
68, 71, 72.) 


DIAPHORETIC, OB SUDOBUIC. 

Promoting Perspiration, 

Acetate of ammonia. 

Antimonial powder. 

Bittersweet, or Dulcamara. 

Cajeput oiL 

Camphor. 

Dover's powder. 

Guaiacum. 

James's powder. 

Juniper. 

Lettuce. 

Sarsaparilla. 

Saffron. 

Sulphur. 

Sweet spirit of nitre. 

Tartar emetic. 

(See also Prescriptions Nos. 48, 
55, 59.) 

DIURETICS. Promoting the Secretion 
of Urine, 

Acetate of ammonia. 

Bear berry. 

Borax. 

Broom tops. 

Buchu. 

Cantharides. * 

Castile soap. 


EM£TIC8. 

Ammonia, carbonate of. 
Antimonial wine. 
Ipecacuanha. 
Mustard. 
Tartar emetic. 

(See also Prescriptions Nos. 6, 7.) 


EXPECTORANT. 

Ammonia, carbonate of. 

Ammoniacum. 

Antimonial wine. 

Friar's Balsam. 

Ipecacuanha. 

Lobelia. 

Squills. 

Tart^ar emetic. 

(See also Prescriptions Nos. 54, 
57, 58, 73.) 



192 



CLASSIPICATIO]!^ OF MEDICINES. 



HEALING AND ABSORBENT. 

Calamine powder. 
Chalk powder. 
Glycerine. 
Lead cerate. 
Mercurial ointment. 
Oxide of zinc. 
Soap cerate. 
Spermaceti cerate. 



NABCOTIG AND SEDATIVE. 

Aconite. 

Belladonna. 

Calomel. 

Camphor. 

Cantharides. 

Chloric ether. 

Colchicum. 

Creasote. 

Dover's powder. 

Foxglove. 

Heodock. 

Henbane. 

Laudanum. 

Leady extract of. 

Lettuce. 

Lobelia. 

Morphia. 

Opium. 

Par^oric. 

Poppies. 

(See also Prescriptions Nos. 18, 
19, 56, 61.) 



BEFBIGERANT, OB COOUNG. 

Acetate of ammonia. 
Citric acid. 
Cream of tartar. 
Goulard's lotion. 
Lead ointment. 
Muriate of ammonia. 
Nitre. 
Tartaric acid. 



i 



STIMULANTS. 

-Sther. 

— chloric. 
Ammonia. 

— spirits of. 
Aniseed. 

Aromatic confection. 
Assafoetida. 

Bichloride of mercury. 
Buchu. 

Burgundy pitch. 
Cajeput oil. 
Camphor. 
Cantharides. 
Capsicum. 
Cardamoms. 
Chloride of lime. 
Cinnamon. 
Citrine ointment. 
Cloves. 
Copaiba. 
Cubebs. 
Dill water. 
Friar's balsam. 
Chdbanum. 
Ginger. 
Guaiacum. 
Iodine. 
Lavender. 



CLASSIFICATION OF MEDICINES. 



193 



Musk. 

Opodeldoc. 

Peppermint. 

Sa&oiK 

Senega. 

Turpentine. 

(See also Prescriptions Nos. 5, 10, 
30, 31, 36, 43, 47, 52, 53, 54, 63, 
75, 76, 78, 82, 88.) 



STOMACHIC AND CORDIAL. 

Aniseed. 

Aromatic confection. 

Cardamoms. 

Cascarilla. 

Compound chalk powder. 

Chamomile. 

Cinnamon. 

Cloves. 

DiU. 

Gentian. 

Peppermint. 

Bhubarb. 

Senna, tincture of. 

(See also Prescriptions Nos. 15, 
17, 29, 30, 33, 35, 43, 44.) 



TONIC. 

Alum. 
Bark. 

Bismuth nitrate. 
Calumba. 
Cascarilla. 
Chamomile. 
Chlorate of potash. 
Citrate of iron. 
Gentian. 
Hops. 

Iodide of iron. 
Iron, sulphate of. 
— carbonate of. 
Kino. 

Muriatic acid. 
Nitrate of silver. 
Nitric acid. 
Oxide of silver. 
Quassia. 
Quinine. 
Sarsaparilla. 
Zinc, sulphate of. 
Tartrate of iron. 
Sulphuric acid. 

(See also Prescriptions Nos. 30, 
31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 
40, 41, 42, 43, 69, 80, 81, 84). 



194 



MEDICAL WEIGHTS AKD MEASURES. 



MEDICAL WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



Scales and measures should 
always be used in the administra- 
tion of medicines, if they can be 
obtained. The sizes of spoons vary 
so greatly, that imder the same de- 
nomination a double quantity may 
be held by a different spoon. This 
is especially the case with powders, 
the densities of which vary still 
more than the sizes of spoons. 
Drops also have an inhnite variety 
as to their bulk, depending on the 
size of the neck of the bottle, its 
dryness, the density of the liquid, 
&c. Hence, it is evident how un- 
safe it is to trust to dropping, in the 



administration of medicines. In 
the present work, where the dose of 
a medicine is stated in drops, the 
measurement by minims should be 
adopted if possible. The word 
"drops" has been used because it 
too often happens that a minim 
measure is not at hand; for the 
same rcFJSon the measurements of 
teaspoons, &c., are given. We 
would^ however, repeat the caution 
never to trust to such quantities, if 
a properly graduated glass can be 
obtained. 

The following tables will e2q)lain 
the preceding remarks : — 



Table of Medical Weights and Measttees mentioned in this work ; with 
their Equivalents in ordina/ry spoonfuls, the Ahhreviattons made use of 
herein, and the Signs used in medical works. 



Solids . 




1 pound 
1 ounce 
1 drachm 
1 scruple 
1 grain 



(5j-) 

(9j-) 



contains 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 



12 oimces. 

8 drachms. 

3 scruples. 
20 grains. 



Liquids 



^1 pint = (Oj.) . . . ditto 

1 oz. =1 ounce = (Jj.) . . . ditto 
1 drm. = 1 drachm = (3j.) . . . ditto 
1 min. or dr. =1 drop or minim =(TT\j.) 



A moderate sized teaspoon 

ditto dessertspoon 

ditto tablespoon . 

ditto wineglass . 

ditto teacup . . 



should hold about 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 



16 ounces. 

8 drachms. 
60 minims. 



1 drachm. 

2 drachms. 
^ ounce. 
Ij ounce. 
4 ounces. 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



195 



! 



I 

o 

.g 



■$ 



i 



I 



a'* 



O Q 

H S 







o o 



GO 






GO 



o 

S3 
W 

Ph 



2 

'•a 



p 



0=1 



I 



09 



I 



I- 






& 



00 



00 

to 






2S 



o a 






a a 
« > 



00 

f 

o 



a 

o 
'a fs 

St (0 



08 
Ja 00 



25 2 



o oR 

OQOQ 



■% 



§ 

s 



1 

bo 






00 

I 



•a 

o 
H 



bo 
d 00 .3 

.9 g'-S .2 



a So 



"K be 



o 



8 



5?5 



1 



o 

I 



I 

if 

O 



•J 






6 



'00 



196 



LIST OF MEDICIOTIS. 



I 



£ 

.a 



§ 

r 






O 



OD 



OQ 






O 

a 



.9 

g 

J 

O 
EH 



o 



to 



O Q 



9 



00 

o 



OD 



I 



00 



I 






9 



8 
S 



Sj6 

2>^ 



00 



OD 



a 

n3 









CO.- 



•- >» 



•25 








la 









S 

I 

o 



08 O 

OH 



^ 



d 

o a s 

•s 'c ;3 

O V 

H-< 



•I 



d 
o 



1.1 

QQ 



e 
§ 



•§ 



-<1 



O 

p 




09 : 

2 T^ 

*s3 I, 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



197 



t 

a 



I 



S 




I 

2 
9 



8 



a 



o 



2S^ 



eo 



o . 

Fi4 IB 

o 3 






M {3 



II 



ad 

•—•2 






I 

bo 

a 



o 
P 



04 

-5 



it 

w 

.1 

eo 




s. 

o 



o 






^ 



to 



to 



I s5 



•1 

S o 



10 



^1 .9 

llii 

p 6 



o 

1 

I 



•Id 

& 

c 



s 






I 



o 

i 

4 

•a 



o 




4A 00 

<o • *< o d 



I 






5 



198 




LIST OF MEDTCTT^ES. 




























S 














% 






















^ 






Cm 

O 


•sg 


8D 

•a 












• 






.2 


2s^ 


a 












s 






P4 


V3 ^^ 
1^ &{ 


1 


















1 


ll 

s • 
58 














s^ 






.23 
P 


•3-^ 




i 


i, 


& & 


g, 


• 

a 


1 


• 
• 
• 


i 


• 
• 
• 


• • 

a . a 


• 
• 
• 




< 


o 
i-i 


o o 


o 

I-I 


*H 


r-l 




o 




H" r-l 




-2 

2g 


i 


& g, 


i 


• 

S 


• 

S 


• 
• 
• 


i 


i 


• 


• 
• 




2^ 


kO 


Ud kO 


kO 


Ha 


>«« 




kO 


to 


o o 

iH r-l 




ha 


o . 

2g 


• 
• 


• • 

• • 

• • 


• 
• 


« 
• 
• 


• 
• 
• 


1^ 


• 
• 
• 


• 
• 
• 


: 5) : 


• 
• 
• 


a 

1 


to >» 












(NO 






XO 




«j5 

Ol 


• 
• 
• 


• • 

• • 

• • 


• 
• 
• 


• 
• 
• 


• 
• 
• 


• 
• 
• 


• 
• 
• 


• 
• 
• 


: S, I 


• 
• 
• 


1 


Ǥi. 


















^ 




eo«o' 


• 


• • 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


: i : 


• 




-g 


• 
• 


• • 

• • 


• 
• 


• 
« 


• 
• 


• 
• 


• 
• 


• 
• 


• 
• 






















04 




• 
• 


• • 

• • 


• 
• 


• 
• 


• 
• 


« 
• 


• 


• 
• 


: &> : 


• 
• 




P^ 


• 


• • 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• • 

iH 


• 


si 


to 
a 










• 

§ 1 


& 

m 




1 


1 


S'Sf) 












o 


ti 


0} 


'S 


Diteai 
which 


i 


-% ■§ 


■s 


•s 


o 




1 


s 

^ 
^ 


•i<5ja|l 

P4 W M 


1 


• 


o 
► 














1 






I 


P4 


4 4 


4 


• 

o 


• 

o 




1 


60 
1 








1 • 


• • 

• • 

• • 


9 


o 


m 
• 
• 


• 
• 


• 
• 
• 








i 
1 


l"S 


•a -9 

6aSs 


1 

1 


1 


•8 

i 


1 


B 










'^P^ 


0|1| 0|1| 


d 


o 


o 


O 


o 










^ 


p p 


P 


p 


P 


P 









LIST OF MEDICINES. 



199 





,a 




cu 




iH 




s 


• 


g, 


m 


l-H 


& 


^ 


a 


«M 


& 


o 



£ 




■a 

a 
s 






^ 






■a 
< 



OB 

I 

CO 



o 




9t 

< 

o 
•*» 

ba 
a 

•o 
u 
o 
o 

§ 

o 
Q 



09 ID 

Ob 



♦* S 



5 8 



CD 



an 

•9 >* 



eo if 






C 

fi-g 



eo 



i 

"I a-^ 
o o o 



.S3 
C s » 








a 

o 

a. 
O 



ttf) 



go 
tuo o 

-** d 
00 S 



p o t« 
-^ S 
2 P 



o '^ 



P4.2 

P 



g bo 

.a 

o s 



P 



«? S o 

(3 



o 



S 



CD 



P OD O 



3 



^ 



^ 



O 

O 

4 



•pj O 

O M 

|5 



P 



200 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



I 



I 

d 

•s 

•I 



§ 

a 

I' 



d 



§ 



00 



o 

.a 

o 



< 



bo 

a 



8 



9 






O 



&, 



on 



s 



e 

to 



e . 

2>' 



P4 



o 






to >» 



^ 



eo 



I, 



09 >. 






eo 



b 



si 



^ 



09 



b 






^ 



b 



& 



e 

5| 




I tn 

^ S 
S 



•«3 

d 

■I 



a 'd M 



(^ 



.9 

6« 




o 



11 






§4 J s 

d S 

-3m 






•S 



o 

.1 

p 



8 
S 



o 
S 

o 

p 



»4 

o 

« 

o 

Q 



I' 

'd ^ g 

JO»ang 
o o 
dPkPk 




LIST OF MEDICINES. 



201 



M 

u 
at 

a 



I 

r 



^1 

•11 

4"^ 



I 



.s i 



§ 



•cj 

I 

g 



1 

.a 


!• 


s 


2 


6i 


8 

1 


with 
Magn 


3| 


0^ 


give 
r wit 





a® 


1§ 


{j s 


o ^ 


• ^ 


M'O 


(3 


QQ 



I 



9 

•a 



0) 

be 

< 

o 
s 



S 

a 



C^ OB 

2>» 



o . 






eo 



si 






I 



I 



a 



O 



^J 



P4 












o 



i 



kO 



I- 

kO 






i 






IS 
to 

eo 



& g, 



09 



e s 

OB > 



a 






5f 






a 




.§ 






1-s 

§1 

HP 



.2 
6 



I 



S5 



g 
.a 

o 
'2 

•c 

o 

<1 




S 
i 



^ 



4 



a 
8 



I 



J 

O 

Q 




202 



LIST OF MEDICIKES. 



(0 

.^4 



B 



^ o C3 B 

o o opq 



® o 



ft. 
o 



•3 ^ 
fc ** . 

•sis 

§ O g 

O CB 



SS'g 






C3 

.2 

en 



O 4> 

as 






§ 



bo 



I 

o 

OS 





■a 
< 



^1 



C4 

O 

CO 



a 

CO ^ iH 



O o 






e 

CI 









& 



O 
09 



O 
09 



M 

O 



O . 

fx en 

2 « 

to >* 



O 



O 



on 



to OB 

CO >» 



O 



s 



CO en 



II 



a a 

OB > 

5f 




OD 



£« 






-§ 



-§ 



rS 



.s 






a 

o 

'43 

s 




o 






o 



« 
o 




S 



.g 



/ 






o 

I 

J 



■8 

•I 

O 




LIST OF MEDICINES. 



208 



•2 

at 

a 






Q 



s 






& 
m 




& 



? 

o 
o 

s 





■a 



O 



A to 

2>» 



o 






*» IB 












S§ 


• 
• 
• 


• 
• 
• 


• 
• 
• 




• 
« 
• 


"& 













00 ai 






a a 

OB > 

So 



«4 

o 



-3 



O O *^ OD 



I 



e 

PQP 



4 
1 



§ 

I 

o 



E 

at 



•I 



•a 

o 

o 



o 
2 2 » 






r^ 'F^ .4a 

P^ o £ 






o 



I 

QQ 



.9 

o 



PQ 



\ 







204 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



•a 

a 



o ^ 

.T5 '5 tuD 

S «i» o 

S b s 

o o 



^ 



•8 
3 

I 

OQ 



< 



a 
1 



S 



9 

•a 



60 



5, 

o 
eo 



i 



Is 

«i> OB 






& 

S 



CO 
CO 



2 * 



«2 



i 



eo OB 
♦* a) 



& 






Si'Sc 



(5" 



i: 






I 



a 

o 

1 

o 



.a 

OB 

I 



'2 

I 



J 

d 



o 



S 



z_/ 




II 



1 






I V3 




I 






LIST OF MEDICINES. 



205 



a 



& 



4> 



.s 



m 



r^"^ Q 



I 



«;S g 



.a 2 « 

ae o E 



48 

"si 

.S o 



I 

« 

1 

3 
<1 



9> 

bo 

o 

bo 

a 



as 



•3 

■a 



o 

00 






09 



O 
09 



5 8 



8^ 

O S 

2^ 



O 



s 



2« 
10 >» 






m to 

2S 



5r 



a a 

Si 



1 



? " § 

C « E 



.13 ®*i 
► S S 

CD {^ ^^ 

25:2 




a 

o 



O 



.2tJ 



.2-^ 

2 08 



I 



^.9 






on 



S 



O 

9 

o 
PQ 




\ 







I 

I 

% 



I 



•T3 



\ 



X 

'P^ 



206 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



OB 

% 

a 

K 



8 

.§ 






a 



I 

I 



QQ 



,<§ 



•J 

o 

r 

o 



P4 



•a tf 






g 

.1 

gig 



I 



be 

a 

o 
u 

u 

« 

2 



s 
•o 

< 



to O 



& 






M 00 



flD 






(M 



U3 



&> 



CO 



^&> 



••• • 

p> as 
•o >» 

•O BO* 

cog:. 






g> 

04 



b, 



g, 

04 



CO (0 



& 



g, 






& 



lii 





CD 



"t2 i3 * 

SoMoQ 



•11 
6« 



d 




.2 




•^ 




|e 


& 


§8 


8 


H f-^ 


^^i 


WP 


P 




ll 

6g 



e 



o 

-as. 






S 
QQ 



a> 

I 

CO 






o 

► 



.5; 

I 



/ 



s 

at 



/ 



O 
o 



I 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



20*; 



i 
§ 



CD 



••A 



P^ 
« 
^ 



0) 

ec 

< 

O 
•*» 

be 

a 

u 
o 

u 

at 

o 
Q 






So 5d & 

Oq 04 9(1 



o 



5| 

HO* 






So & 

'^ kO 






55- 



09 



& 



o 



&) So 



eo 



09 



5 to 10 
yearn. 


& : 

• • 

f-t 


i 

s 


• 
• 


• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 









b 



g. 

09 



&> 



09 









c e 



9) 

M.2 
© OS 

t a 







15 o 



•S 6C bo S 

rill 



O O 

5-^ 



f 

a 






3 
o 



lo 

Q 





o 



O 



£§ 
o " 



OB 

a 

cs 



a 

o 

2 



o 

o 

I 



o 



a 

QQ 



O ► 

.2 '3 
Pqq 






u 
o 



11- 



208 



LIST OF MEDICIKE8. 



to 

a 



I- 
i 

o 



Xi 

§ 



o 



o 
Q 




9 

•a 



O 



< 



be 

e 

o 



to 
to 



2^. 



« 



2 >• 



5 s 



09 



o . 

p- as 



-I « 
« >. 



2S 



I- 



to > 



« *< 



00 

P 



ttf) 



- rtoo 



QQ 



■s 



o 



•J I 
•IS 








o 

^3 



■% 



I 



o 

p 



n 



0) 

S 

0« 



Li 



O 

I 




1 



\ e' 



e 

ja 

S t^ 
•mi 



\ 



J. a 
4' 



II 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



209 



a 



I 
t 

.9 

I 




O « 

o 



.a 

B 

73 



;o 






•a 



00 

O 
CO 









< 



be 

o 



o 

o 

cs 

OB 



OB 



CO 



CO 



^3 



o . 

i-i (0 



m 

T3 



^ 



«»5 

CO >, 






T3 
HOI 



CO OB 



09 



^3 






CO 



P4 

•T3 



(3 9 

w > 

5^ 



^ 



g 

ft 



?, 



'asp 

§8 



W 



on O 

2 2 fl 
§ § « 



P5 fi 



2 

o 

OQ 



•«3 

03 
O 






1^ 






o 

2 

O 





OS 

S3 
QQ 



O 
^3 



O 



6^ 

4« 



00 

B 

as 





\ 




\ 



o 



08 
03 

S 






210 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



I 

i 



■a 
< 



o s 

2>» 



I 



o . 



o a 



si 






C 

« ^ 



05 CD 



a 

o 

S 



•s §-2 



'W 



^ B 

5 O OS 

• 1-1 •»< 







OaQQQ 



8 



a 
o 

a 

a 



s 

I 



z / 



5 

OS IB 

6^ 



OS o 

1^ 






J 



i 



\ 



o 

a-s 



■i 



LIST or MEDICINES. 211 1 




1 
















s 














^ 


1 




1 










" 


1 




1 
1 












1 


& 


li 


1 
















• s 












i( 




1 


1 










1 
3 




















'■ 


J 


1 

i 










'J 


: 


1 


* 










1 








s 










'i 




4 


1 


















2 










|s 




i 


* 




























If 


1 


4 





















•SJ6 








1 


B 


I 


1 


ill 


^ 


i 


3? 


1 


1 

,3 


1 


}, 


1 


1 


a 





212 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



•2 

s 



& 

d 

u 
o 

■M 

a 
o 



O 
P 



o 

ft 



o 

p 



■ 

I 

|4 



-g 
I 



^ 

-< 



n3 



& 



e 
'•3 

o 



o 

p 



11 



o 



o . 

1-4 09 



1. 

O 



•n « 

2g 
CO >. 



-I 












& 

e^ 



z'5) 



•SI 






« <^ ^ 

S.l o 

QQ 



^ § 



'« 

o 



•i 



iegg 



'S 






§ bo 



S <^ S « 



il"» 



0*B 






J 



OB . o ISi 

»^ tJ *5 2^ 
d OS ^ 'Q 

§ £ § § 
^-:3 g 



i 



P 



18 



a 
S 

o 



6^ 



1-9 




5 



s 
s 



1$ 

a 



/ 



/ 




GQ 

I 



QQ 

> I 




LIST OF MEDICINES. 



218 



a 



.g 



n ^ <n 

g • o 



r- 






i 



0) 

li 



i 

.a 



r 



0> 

e 

bo 

a 

? 
o 
u 
u 



§ 







8 






o . 

ii 



O 



&> 



s 



§, 



s 



g, 



g> 



g. 



to a 

o a 






& 



& 









» Si 

5| 



^1 

<1« 



8 





a 

e 

o 



3-2 



II 

00 






■-SI 



•J 



§1 



Is-? 



ago 



s 



s 



ll^l'^"^ 




T 



fe 2 



8 
I 



•4A 



I- 



9 « s 

S S« 9 



\ 



o 



1^ 

•I 



\\\ 



214 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



a 



u 
O 

o 



I 



§ 



o 



.a 




< 



&> 



r& 



S 

T3 



o . 









^ 
S 






g. 



CO 






m 00 

OS 

** «; 

•05 



2 

C<1 



OD 






& 



& 



& 



««t 



^ 



to > 
be 



So 






o 



■§ 






a 

Q 



tm 

§ 



o 

B 
o 

-a 
o 

Co 






Pi 

^ ■** "♦* 

^ OQ QQ 



■% 



O 



3 

S 






I 



si 



d 

8 



S 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



"5215 



OB 

t 

s 

& 






? 



11 

o 8 
H 



s 



.9 

li 



<S 






to 



rs 









I 

is 

II 

S I 

H ^ 

r 

1^ 






C<1 



58 



5S, 



Ud 



a 



©is 



•g- 



s 






OB 

I 



«l 



ao 
O 

Q 









S 






s 



d a 
•0 > 



^ Q) « 



s 



8 



« s a 
9 -a -2 

ill 





§1:1 




lll-l 



op4n 






1 



Acid, 
Citric 


<! 




il 






s 

I 



I 



i 

.2 

o 

9 



B 



o 

a 
o 

« 



O 

•^ 



\ 



^ O 



\ 



216 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



M 

B 



.a 

(• 

u 

O 



> 



u 
o 

o 



■** ^ 



'8^ 

o ► 

t3 



s 

-I 










9 



00 4S 



2 C 

to 



to 



oo 
91 






&i 



bo 

e 



S 



10 to 20 
yean. 




i 



o . 






en 









a fl 



S 



o 



PL4 



■g" 



ill 26 






O 



? 



^ 

Pk 



o 






5 

I- 
H 

1^ 



3 



3 
IS 



a 



L 











I: 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



217 







I 

00 <^ 

.a s 
a" 



I 



^ 



I 
g 



*S. 



^ 









91 



-§* 



S 






bo 



o 
u 
u 

« 

«; 



to 



^3 






OD 

C<1 









a* 



ta 









CO «• 
2« 



5r 



e a 

Si 
s-i 



1^ 



e 
I 






I 



11 



P^l 



OS 






II" 



lag, 



O 



o 



•3- 






.2-3 
"S 2 

P<1 



o 

3 



I 



rl 

OQ 



s 



i 

o 



o 

en 



I 



\ 



r3 
O 

c 

Q 






218 



LIST OF MEDICriSFES. 



t 

a 

& 



O 

P 



3 



o 

I 



o 
o 

r 



S «8 O 

Sa o 



a 
< 



O 

eo 



4 

< 

o 

bo 

a 

o 



S 






2s 



a 
'5 



s 






to w 




^ >. 



•eg 



.S V 

0-5 



§ 

•mm 

o 



^ 






T § S » 



o 



I 



J o 




•40 ^^ — 



4 



^1 






n 



<4a 



8 

I 



I 

o 

Pi 

I 

I 



<3° 



I 
1 

P 







Q 




220 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



a 
& 



,x3 -a o 



I 



N 9 ^ 

'3 8 ^ -^^ 

us 08 O 



I 



S 








Sa*.S 

'^ n*^ P* 




%; 



9* 

< 



I 

10 






^8 

pH CO 



58 



O 
CO 



5§ 



2^ 



o S 



•o 


>» 


•o 


• 

10 


e 




eo 


>» 



H 

o 









s 






2l 






.Sis 




.a 



eo 



OQ S 

OD 
0) 



^ o s S 






1.9 

go 



a 

o 

1 

o 




•I 



§ 



^•S 



111 

»f^ aS 1-^ 




8 

a 




§ 




^-4 : 



-8°° S 




I 

p 



I 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



221 



•2 

a 



I 



I 



o 
Q 



o 

•a 



»4 

o 

.a 

aa 

r 



^:? 



o 

p 



o 

p 



id 9 9 

& .. S 
SdcoI I 









So So Sb So 



o o 

fH i-H 



o 



o , 
CI 00 
o b 

2 >» 



00 



Sd Si) 






2g 



: i 



Oi 



& 



*0 JB 

o a 

** s 

CO >« 






** s 



& 



W 2 

55 



& 



a d 

a «^ 

5| 



a 
e 

g 



.a 



P4 



so 

0) 



P P 



I 



2 § 
^ o 

OQP 





5-S 




• 

8 o 


^S 


1 


C^SP 


.4 


P2 


TS ^ 


•*» 


oqS 


^ 


"•^ 


s**© 


J» 


^ 


c^S*" 


c?J 



1 

P 



-a 

i 






^R" 



222 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



I 



OB 

s 



< 

e 

a 



0) 



s 



S§ 



CO 



& 



S 









o 






o 



o . 

M so 

♦* 5 






CO. 






£>:, 



M > 

1-8 



.a 

PP 



PPh 



§ 



1-^ 
mP 



e 
.2 

g 

o 



CO • d 



m 




o 

a ^ 
o o 



I 

3 



:a 
•ii 

HOQ 



8 



J^* 



I 





LIST OF MEDICINES. 



228 



•a 



0> 

< 

s 

bo 

a 



9 

3 






o . 



00 









11 >* 






V Si 






'I s s 

•S S S § 



q» 
o 



o 

I 



.2 g 



8 

I 



i 

12; 






I 



8 

I 

H 



r 

g 



^3 
i 



I 
I 






10 



o 



Q 



.as. 



I 



« o 
1^ 






»» a 



• • 



.9 



11 

Q o 



2^^ 






cn 






4a o a IB 

I 



Ill 



II 



I 

1 

M 



224 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



E 



J 



8 



I 



s 






73 



O g 



o e 

-M bo 



5 a 



i 

2 ►• 



o 



a 

r3 



3 

73 



a 



3i 



2i 



CO 






e a 

Si 

SI 



S 

I 

a 



a 

00 

bO 

a 






I 

B 



8 -a 






A p' S 

ca d 

00 C S " 

0« P P s 



■H 



fl ;^ a 8 

O 0) o 5 ^ ■ 



1 




J -3 •« o 
ill* 



It 



tMD.S 






o 

OD »f^ 

<1P 



It 

<jp 



s 





O 



I 



LIST OF MEDICI]SrES. 



225 



a 



M 



&> 



bo 

a 

'•B 
S 



s 



£>sl 






5s 



o 

91 






g. 



i 

CO 









s 



CO >% 



r3 






•a g 



(0 > 






9 S 2 



aii 

en ^ t» 




d 

o 



O 



»4 



rS 3 2 O 

oqPoq 



g 






II ^ 



H 





I- 



8 



^* 




m 



I 



o 

J 



1*3 



224 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



B 
& 






I' 



I- 

8 



I- 

8 

I 

o 



be 

2 

I 

8 







I, & 



5g, 



2 ^ 



o 



r3 



I 



to >• 






2g 






a a 

5f 



OD 

m 

S 



o 



§ 

en 




s 

o 
Q 

OD 



op 
§|.SPp S 



ca 






o 

1 



•«3 . 

I 



S 



• ox 






•S 



U4 



I §.2.2' 






g 



60.2 



•E 

OD 



I 




08 






n 



^1 



s 




iH^M 



I 

If 



I 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



225 



0> 

< 



bo 

a 

••a 

e 
u 
u 

at 

s 

(0 



S 



E)o| 



e 

to 



5§ 



o 

91 



2g 

-7 



i 

00 






S 



CO >» 












d d 

w > 

i-s 






I 



J I 

OD It ^ 

P O. 00 



Q 






d 
o 

2 
o 






■8 



S 



a '^ 

o "** 
'g ^ ^ o 







;§ 


owerfi 
purga 


onio 
tomao 


Ph 


HoQ 



a 




I 



9 

a 



a 
o 



9 O 



226 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



s 



I- 

flS 

s 
o 



.a 
a 






o 

p 










.a'g 

Is 

2 & 

if 



o 



»4 



o 



be 



a' 



8 

u 



a 



s 

•CJ 

< 



o a 

73 






5 a 



O 



2^ 

2>» 



I 



o 






00 

Oi 



o 






S 



eo « 






a 



I 



I 
4 



g 

if 



.S 



g ^1 






o 



OQ 

S 

s 

en 



gl 



OS 




•i| 



o 











S 






P 



1 



bo 



-a 

QQ 

OQ 

1 



d3 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



227 



•2 

s 



.9 



o S 
S ^ 



I" 
o 



a 

•CJ 



£8 



O 



1^ 






g 



9i 

bo 



bo 

a 



« 
00 

O 

Q 



CO 
4-> OB 

2§^ 



O 



i 



o . 

If) >» 



CO >. 



to 0} 



k 1* 



Q 
> 



bo 



oo 

00 

So u 



I 

s S 

S.2 



^ Cd Ie4 Q P^ 



-2 

en 



a 

OQ 




o 

a> 
O 



tUD 



<u 



I 



O 



1-3 



«> 



o 



r^ 






a:§ 



.£3 

Q 






^ 



o 



1 






i 

p 



08 

r 



9) 

I 



u 

-4A 



cij 



o 

I 



5 



\ 



\ 



.a 

CD 

•I 



% 



228 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



a 



■? 



1 

I" 

.a 

Is 
is 



o 

p 







I 



I 



s 









CO >. 



CO. 



Is 



as 

S3 




o 



OD S S 
O •* r 






I 

hi 

o 



o 

a "f I j| 

dgP-5 



ill 



•9-1 
Pqq 



o 



.S 

a 
o 

E 



I'i 

^ I 

O P4 



S 



/ / 



i-8 



en 

-4A 



I 






"S 






11 
flS a 

.s-B 



^ 



a » 



5i 

01 to 






a 

.a 



gilt 



.6: 

08 

'8 

OQ 




LIST OF MEDICINES. 



229 



09 

I 






I 

1 

I . 

-I 

i s 

73 O 



§3 

OB 



1 



I- 



I" 
I 



I 

o 

1 

s 



I 



s 

s 



o >» 



o . 









^1 



OB 



5S, 



kO 



3§ 









kO 






.S8 



8i 



5| 



I 



i 

Q S ^ 



O P en 



r. 



IJ Si |.| 






QQ 





4a 

I 



•J 



•9.1 



I 



Ha 



s 



^ 



I 



s 



1 



d 
.2 

1 



d 9 



\ 



230 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



a 






I 

O fl 



O "5 



I" 

08 

I 



I- 



o 

P 







2§ 



O N 
■** O 



en 
O Oi 



i- 

-♦•r-. 



a 



S 



& 

-< 



bo 

a 

1 



I 



2>» 



5 N 

"** o 



OQ 

to 



Oi 



a 

•73 






o 



Oi 

O 



o " 



eo ^ 



CD 

Oi 



eo gg 

p 



^ >. 






c3 a 







.§ 



S « « 

111! 



^ o 
I « 

POQ 




a 

o 

1 



I 







<S 



•Sp^ 



•i 



8 

1 

is 



z 



/ 




I 

O 
P4 






I'S 






LIST OF MEDICINES. 



231 



a 
& 



a 



o 

I 

0) 

o 



I 



OS "TS 



a s 
S a 
^ -^ 

:? -§ 

O 

I I 
«S _g 

i I 

^ H 

s S rt s^ 

g J* S OS 

4g ^.g * 



o 

p 







• 




















1^ 




^4 


• 


o 


5^ 


• 

J 


OD 

to 






• 
• 


& 


• 
• 


• 


• 

CD 


• 
• 


4 


• 


ft. 


2 >* 




iH 




-4m 


o 




o 


o 


BO 












iH 




09 


iH 


o 


5 to 10 
years. 


• 
• 
• 




• 
• 
• 


• 

a 

04 


• 

QD 


• 
• 
• 


i 

o 


to 


s 




• 
• 
• 


& 


• 
• 


1 


1 


• 
• 


• 


• 
• 


S 


co§i 




-4m 




iH 


eo 








S 


lt03 
years. 


• 
• 
• 




• 
• 
• 


• 

a 


• 

04 


• 
• 
• 


• 
• 
• 


• 
• 
• 




it 


• 
• 
• 


& 


• 
• 
• 


• 


4* 


• 
• 
• 


• 
• 
• 


• 
• 
• 




»- 




H» 




-4m 


iH 









d a 

OD > 

si 



a 







o 






6.g 



o 

73 



I 




g4 o ^ P B 
POOm 



I 



PW 



a 
o 



§ 



o2 

a w 



o 



•I 

o 
H 






S 

a 




o 



o 

I 

a 



\ 




\ 



232 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



I 



I- 





• 


• 






0? 

73 


•s 






eS 


flS 






.§ 


§ 








^ 







•a 



CO 



& 



8§ 



s 

04 






2 

9 



s 



O 9 

2* 



o 



I 






o . 

28 





^ 


• 

oa 

a 

73 


& 




to 


S 


s 




• 


• 


1 




5, 


^ 


g, 




eo 


to 


to 



2§ 



•o 0$ 

o 



'^ ►» 



e 

bO 
04 



^ 



Is 

5r 



OQ 

to 






.a 
u 

5| 



i 



•S 



■Si 

if 2 a ^ 2 a 
Pgq 0|> 







oT 




.^-i 


• 

o 


1 




Debil 
Sorof 


73 





d 



o 

I 



•1 



<«^ 








o 








-s 






^ 


1^ 


1 


p 
1 


•| 


GD 


H 


H 


Ph 



%4 
• © 

c8 ^ 



Si 



/i 



o 

g 

s 



o 
o 

•Ad 

i 

OQ 

f 





«M 


• 


•« 


<M 


o 




o 


o 


1 




1 

k 


^ 


H 


.g 


S 


hs 


^ 


Ph 


Iron, 


1 1 


[i 


ll 



o 
Ph 

"8 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



233 



a 
& 



9 



bo 

< 



bo 





8 



I 



2^ 



O C0 









5r 



fl a 

OR > 



o k 

•a I 
111 

_S O 08 



O 
P 



r 



ll 

ll 

ss 
^§ 



o 



ll 

ll 



5§ 
I" OS 



CD 






S 

o 



o 



04 



o eu 



I 



I 












s 




•S 




n 




C^ 




s 




p 






o 








«4> ' 


o 


g 


Teti 
dial 


^ 

&« 


p »« 


P 


sa 



o 



1 



.9 8 
P W 



o 

73 



i 



•9 3 I s 

PhgqP 




o 

1 

o 



o 

73 



I 

1 1 
AS 



■§ 



■M 




8 

a 
It 



I 
I 

s o 
Ha 



5 



I 

Ha 



V 1^ \ 



tTOQ 
Is 



234 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



I 



J 

I 

I" 



.2 



e 



I • 

•g 00 © o 

I, J 



5 S -^ 



^ 

-< 



00 o 






Q O « 



S 






bo 

a 

o 



OR 

o 
Q 



2g 



CO 






o 



eo >» 



CO 00 






e a 
So 



.9 

OQ 

P 



•a g 






•a 



£20 



o 






d 

o 

O 



J a 

O O 
^ Q 



s 



O 



OQ 






► o 



Oi 

•I 



'3 



•il 

PQQ 



z 



z 






LIST OF MEDICINES. 



235 



§ 



I 



%4 

o 

I 

d o 

ii 



r 

^ 

tS 

S 

d 

J 
^ 






^ 



I- 

s 

J 

I 



o 



o 
P 



4; 

bo 

O 

be 

Q 

i 

o 



0) 



a 



a 



3§ 

iH 5Q 









I 



58 



O 
CI 



IS 



2 a 



I 



S ^ w 
on •*• 



^" OB 

Si 

to >» 



O 



o 



si 

CO >. 



g. 

to 



i 

to 






91 



& 

'* 






& 






« > 



'5) 



0)' 






OD 
P 



I 




4 



a 
► 



I 



4 



a 
o 



O 



a 










I 

1^ 




■§ 



« 



f 



0) 



I 



I 
1"^ 



Ti 

h? 



11 






\ \^ 



\ 



236 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



^ 

Ti 



I 

I 

O 



.2 « fl-g 

fls tfi.M 
S.S § ^ 

<D g S 'I ^ 



u 

OS 



§ 




•CJ 



o -; N -e 
-^ £ o « 



Q 



H. 



'•a 

hi 
o 
u 



00 






s§l 






I 



CO BO 



O 



15 






S! 



OD 
CO 

O 

§ 
•I 

O 







O p4 ID •Id 

-S-"^ * S -. 




►3" 



w « © Qj^ 




§ 

1 

o 





s 









o 


•«a 


:d 


8 


ij 


•g 


'd 


» 


^ 


<1 


<^ 









5 fl 



^ 



I 



/ 



•1 




I 
o 



1 
I 



I 

i 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



237 



09 

t 

a 
Si 



I 



4a 



I- 

I 

o 

s 

a 
O 



o 
P 



■3 

•CJ 

< 



bo 

< 



a 
hi 

8 

OR 

s 

o 



5S, 3S, 

^ O 09 



\o 



Sea 



09 



C 

o 



9 



to 



I. « 



00 



IS 



^09 



^ si 



o 






•3 & 



5^ 



tA 






-2 fe 



fl a 

.a 
o 



;| 



'■A 



49 






i 

es >> p cL 







5o 



ai 



s 



P4 



GQ 



o 



.2 
O 



^P4 







.2 « 

O 

i 



o 

73 



U 



^ 



121 



9 






5 



\ ^" 



0> 



\ ^^ 



\ 



238 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



I 



I 

I 



I 

P 



^H 



i 

.a 

OD 

I" 

1^ 






N 

O 

CD 



I- 

s 



I 

o 

o 



be 



bo 

a 



a 

5 



S> ^1- I 



to 



^S H. 






CI to 



5, 

CO 



i 

to 



& 

&] 



•T3 'd 

si* 



rH to 



ao 

& 



*0 00 



& 



CO j£ 

o a 



& 






& 






I 



be 



bog 



a 






I 



OQ 



8| 



o 












^•M 



S 



i S* 

PP 



s 



/ / 





o 
I 



J 



.1 



S5 



f 

/ 




240 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



at 

I 




Is 

S.tf 






s 






o 



I" 

flS 



§ 
s 



6" 



»4 

o 








•a 



5g. 



& bib 



5 2 






be 

< 



S" 



08 






CI CO 

2^ 






o 

-*3 



CO 



o . 
^ so 






& 



eo 

2 « 



5r 



.sg 

ID ^ 



«1 

•2S es 



.a 

5 O S 2 S 







9 

1 

s 



PP 



Is 

Q 



OQ 

o 



H 



OP 



o 

o 



o 

2 

OS 



6 
B 

00 

en 

1^ 



I. 

bO 



•a 



-*=»^ 



I 



I 



-2 -J 



z 



/ 



c? 



QQ 



•a 
O 






o 
ts 



M 

I 



I" 



o 



Q 



8 



& 



9 

3 



^1 



o >» 



I 



to >» 



•0 >. 









a a 

9 > 

i-s 



-a 

9 



Pk 



I 
I 






^ 



^. 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



241 









(j ,2 P4P4 



Q 



o 
P 



o 

p 



^ 



91 



I 



O 
91 



r§- 



a 



N 

O 



1 

10 



s 






OB 



eo 



OB 



* 



^ 




NaooQ 



o 



o 



.S 



6 

ll 

p «p o i3 

«4 <s 



>§ 



o 



I 



\ 



•i'S 

lii 




242 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



^ 



& 












I 






a 

1 

5 






5S. 



o a 



«2 



CO OB 

n 








a 

o 
•pi* 

s 

o 



43 

1*1 



O 

OS o 



^ 







Ms 

M O 

1° 



I 

4^ 



s 

s 



11 




I 

o 



PQ 






\ 



I 

• ■4 

I 



I 

OQ 



\ 



I 



I 



3*. 






LIST OF MEDICINES. 



243 



a 



1 
I 
I 



1 



JS 
5 8 

1^ 



.9 



r 



s s 



be 

< 



bo 

(3 



8 

ta 



9 



2* 



«2 



■a 

I 

01 



09 






eq 



I 






O 
00 



«5; 



♦* s 



o 



to 






d a 



a 

o 

1 

O 



t 



I 



S 

a 



o 

I 

I 

I 

P4 






•s 



p 



I 

O «a 






^ 



••4 




4 

OQ 




244 



LIST OF MEDicnnss. 



I 



< 
S 

I 



-3 
< 



il 






to ,; 

o a 



CO a 



IS 



fl a 

Si 

5-S 



Q 



8 
i 



1 
I 

I 

9 

U 

.g 






^ 



1 

-3 



GQ 



/ / 



04 



I 



& 



o 



I S> 



lO 



g. 

o 



& 









i 



I 



*4 



I 



ii 






•I* 



4" 



I 



I 



• 
• 

4) 


• 


• 
• 
• 


1 


^ 


if 




\ «^ 


i s 



1 

3 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



245 



s 



•3 
< 



S 

B 

1 

s 

o 
Q 



p 



2>» 



5E, 



o 



si 

to >* 



«2; 






eo 



CO d 

Si 



■gs 



■SS 

,1 

Of 






i 



S O 

6^ 






H 

eg 



• 

4 



I 

1^ 







r 

II 



•I 




8 
§ 






I 



-a 

OS 



-a 



\ 




;246 



LIST OF lOlDICINES. 



I 

a 





< 



8 



I 

e 



^c 


»l 


2s 


O 


2?. 


HM 


o _: 


• 

9 


o 8 




** V 




to >• 


e^ 



CO >» 



I 



CO n» 

si 



I 



15 



a 




I 



I 



■I 
I 

P4 



o o 

1-1 

go 

1"^ 



rS 






«<2 



I 



cS 



a 



OB O 



I 



6 

I 

I 



a 



<! 



/ 



i 
S 



i 



P4 



t 

o 



\ 



•11 



5 



\ ^ 




LIST OF MEDICINES. 



247 



OB 

t 

a 

4) 



O 
'«^ 

bo 

a 

I 



I 



3 
< 



o >* 



5& 56 



la 



2,i 






CO «' 




Under 
1 year. 





s 

•pa 4) 



B 

a CO 

§ s 



a 

o 

o 



o 

i 

O 



-3 

• pH 'CH 

I* 



OS 






a 



o 

0} 



s 






a 



ll 



8 



3 



•1 



I 



O 

60 

P 

m 



"S.g 



:§ 

ll 



9vi \ 



•J 






\ 



248 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



I 



< 

s 
1 



I 

< 



2^ 



to >* 



g 

I 
I 



■§. 

I 

o 5 

^ o 



I 









S8 






M 



« >» 



09 ta 






c a 

So 
53 



I 

& 

o 



I 



/ 



/ 



I 



si 



1^ 



C.2 



ll 



s^'S 



^ 



60 










I 



S 4a 

|.a 



e 

o 



\ ^ 



\ 



^ 



.a 






13 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



249 



< 






s 



9 



Oil 



2>> 



I 















a Q 
— w 

OB oa 

iO s 



1^ 



g 

-a 



P4 



4 



I 






1^ 



•I 






S 



I 



n 
1 



Is. 

or 



I 



1 



ji 



§1 
H 








\ ^ 



sl 



\ 



250 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



I 





< 



o S 









I 



Si" 



H 



« OB 

CO >» 



a 



CO to 







o 






J 


(D 




a 


9< 




o 


o 


'S 


W 


w 


3 


«» 


s^ 


2» 


^ 


^ 


^^ 






<§ 



I 



/ 



7 



J* 



5 



.soS, 



o « 

S S 



s 






3 S* 



II 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



251 






bo 

< 
2 

••3 
8 



S 



I 

< 



^1 



N 

O 



o 



2* 






8 



•«" Oil 






CO >» 



CO o3 

3S 



V 
>. 






IS a 



QQ 




I 

i 



;§ 



a 5 



§ 

1 



§ 

IS 



I 

I 




I 






Q> 5 



0) 

S 

CB 



OS 



■s 



■M 






Is 

la 



\ 






\ 







\^#^ \ 



252 



iierr of mkdicdtes. 



I 



m 

I 



I 



s 



o 

J 



|l 



9 



e 



I 









•"• >• 



IE 









So* 



a 



I 




I 






|S 



S 



OS 



■Is I i 




^1 



i §-9 1 




o S & 
PqdP4 






o 

9 








LIST OF MEDICINES. 



25S 



I 



I- 

i 



s 



I ^ 



^ r^ 






S 



I 
I 

o 
H 



0; 
< 

2 

bo 

S 

o 
u 



8 



a 



M eo 0(1 01 









S. g, ci> & 

eq Oil *~i *"( 



2g 



^2 

09 >. 



& 



• • 



& 



CO« 



^ >» 



& 



I! 



&> 



•pa V 

••2: 

Of 



s 



o 

i s 

P4 O 

^ Q 



3 
•I *S 

!• is 

CO E _d 

(5- 6^ 




a 

I 

O 



i « 



Si 

SI 

ai 
I" 



o 



I 



I 



■3 



0) 

a 



I 



-*3 



I 

n 



I 

I 



I. 

OQ 

\ i 



Is 



256 



TABLE OF PKESCBIFTIOirS. 






, I 
:|. 
H- ) 

! 

■ 

i 

m 



1 

i 

1 

'■'1 

F 



■ r: 

'.■. 



'[" 



P- 






9 

s 



o 



§ 
a 

09 



« 

s 

CO 

2 






4) 

a 
P 



OD 

c 

•E 
o 



,\: ill 



&8 



^ 









o 

t a 






ii -I I 



01 






I 

H I & fe 

•^ ill 

.«» a, 53 ^ 









£ 



■a 
1 






^3 
o 

■a ts •« '73 ««-i 

QQQQ0QHH4 



« 



TABLE OF PBESCEIPTIONS. 



35? 



I 

< 






¥ 



si 



o 



r. 









c 

8 

>* 

Q 



slls 






3'c^« 



5 

60 



• • • • 

• • • • 

• • • • 



2 



C3? 



to 






CO 



i 



I 

a 






s 

Q 






I 




g 






03 d 



9p^ 






3^ 

► o 



a 




5 



s 






S 



254 



TABLE OF PEE8CKIPTI0NS. 



GO 

o 

EH 

Ph 

o 

GO 

P< 



-«1 



0- 



s 

8 

o 



o A o o 3 g o 

HMfH "* "* Jg 8 '^ 



•3 & o ©3 « 
fH ST 



e!io eqo!! 



•§ 



s 



to 



lO 

s 



& 



ti Ebo o I fl 1^1 



I 



8 

I 

a 



/ 




P^Pk»Sfi4 



0!! eq 



I 

01 







\ 



TABLE OF PEESCBIPTI0N8. 



255 




< 



S 



00 o c 






en HDioo ^ -S o '« 



>» 

S 

S 






rH »2 N N -^ 9 g*^ 



O 
bo 



O 
•A 













§ 



to 
o 



eq to '>o g * 






3 



§ 






to 

•I 

•c 




I 



I 



Jig 







I 

l8 



8<j o 

O O .9 

Illll 



I 

I 



S60 


TABLE OF PEESCEIPTIOlf S. 






i 


lu 


m 


Hi 


B 




i 

8 
S 


i^'i 




-S^tl 




1 












1 










T 


s 










1 












5 


































f 


S 










i 












i 
























B 






















i 


















































;M 




1 " 




:^ 




ii 






111 




IH 




12 




:l 




















i 

■1 

1 


^ 


lit 


III 




ll 


ill 

ip 


1^ 


il 

i i 










iSo 




1 


1 


^ 


i 






oi 


9 


rt 


1 - 






91 





TABLE OF PBESCEIPTIONS. 



961 



I 






I 

S 
to 






S 
S 

o 
o 




e 

8 

>» 

o 
2 



"ST 
o 



S § M g § "* C 
CO 



<§! 




. . . s^ 

■^ si- 



0? 



■0 



i 






i 

^3 






m 

O 

n 
P4 







9 



O OS 






I 






\ 



262 



TABLE OF PRESCRIPTIONS. 






OB • 



t3 ^ 



1 

S 



a 



o 

i 



s 



• • • 

• • • 



'O'd S'O 8 3 






09 m 



MffH ffHHN 



iHO iHiH 



8 



a 



I 





t 



ill" 



8 - ^ 




Ct 









•go g-|> 

3 a Era 



^ 



TABLE OF PRE8CBIPTI0NS» 



263 



a 

< 



M 



i a s H* 



N a a 



i 



o 



^ 






o 



3 e^ 



M 



o 



.• r1 B 






& 



8l 







S 



•A 



• • • 

• • • 



I 
I 



s 

to 

B 



to 



g 






• • • 

• • • 



I 






3 



QD 




C9 



248 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



I 



I 

a 

I 



1 



o s 

2^ 






•I 

g 

I 

J 



O 

•I. 

•si 

l| 



I 









2^ 

fH 09 



28 












5g 


















• 

• 

• 




ts 












1 




1^ 





a 
3 



I 



/ 



g'g 



I 

a 
o 



5»^ 



<^ 



I 



6 

GQ 

4 



-a 



o 
»• 



Ph 




J 



3 
4 



_5o 



'«^ 

4 



e 

o 






\ i 



I 

I 



3 



n 



£ 



.13 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



249 



9 
< 



2>» 



eq 



i 



at 

•A >> 



•A « 



si 






e o 

5| 



•B*S< 

^3 to 

on 



J 



I 



;§■'' 



6 
4 



«8 to 



•I 









I 



cture, Cam- 
lor Compound 


s'^ 



•si 

II 



s «^ 




\ 




\ -1.^ 






250 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



I 




< 



Si 



6 

< 

a 
9 



o * 

is 



to 
o 



CO « 






e a 

•pa 4) 



a 

o 



I 



a 


& 




.® 


o 


X 


W 


w 


»S 


^ 


s> 


s> 


<% 


<^ 


^^ 



I 



I 



I 



I 



z / 










Is. 

o o 

.aw 



\ 






d P4 

.a 4 



III 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



251 






IS a 

i5€ 



I 



1 
1 


'a 






fH 




i s 

fH 


• 

8 


10to20 
years. 






10 to 
30 dps. 




s 1 


11 

^" cn 


6 to 10 
years. 






• 
• 
• 




• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 


3 to 5 
years. 






• 
• 
• 




• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• ■ • 


ItoS 
years. 






• 
• 
• 




• • 

• • 

• • 


• • 

: : 


Under 
1 year. 






• 
• 
• 




• • 

• • 


• • 

: : 



111 



a S 

a s 



■B 

00 



:! 



6 6 



a 

o 






^ 



o 

1 1 

QQ 






I 



o 
""IS 

li 



I 



'B i 
Is 



S 

s 



o g 

s 

"8 & 



MS 

1^ 



"S 



944 



\ 




ii 

■■J 



ii 



f 



i' E 

■»•■ 



.1 
I 

II ^1 

ill ' il; 

IT- I 

I 
ll.li ■ 



! I 



i^;ii- 



!l ■ 



M 



I ! 



|!llhi: 



■ I 
I I 



268 



i 
3 






3 



m 

I 

to 

B 



a 



i 



a 
P 



I 






TABLE OF PSESCBIFnONS. 



SS 






§5 



i 



I 



i 



i 



• • • 



1 






I 

•9 2 

ill 






;i 






I 



I 

i 






LIST OF MEDICINES. 



25S 



^ 



§ 



I a 



6 6 

P P 



i 



.w 

9 



i 



•a 

o 



4 



&> 4 &> i. I^^l 



M 00 09 01 




4 & ti, & 

Oq eq rH iH 






& 



ii 



b : 



& 



II 



& 




C 



o 

1^ 



a 

o 

i s 

P4 o 



.S I 









4 



1 






•8 



.s 



s 



\ i 



O S 



s-gi 



I 



©■^•H 



•8 



I 



A 



K 



252 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



8 






if 
I- 






I 



A "> 

5 p* 



3 









be 



I 



CD 

»o o 

CO 



^ I 



09 



2 






O 



I! 







« ll 



^4* 




I 



I 



o S ^ 

•2 "S 3 




o 
•8 



8 

I 



/ 



1^ 



/ ^ 



- OS 




I 



LIST OF MEDICINES. 



258 



■s 

I 



I- 



1 

9 



1 



8 



^ I ^ 






o 



< 

o 

a 



a 



• _• 



& & & & 

01 09 M eti 









• • 



& & & & 

eq 09 v"* ("I 



2«- 



si 



& 



: b : : 



s 



*- S 



& 



b * 



&> 



••5: 



a 

i I 





I 

O 



3 

«« O 

g o 



M 


'S 


ii 


1 


.3 


o 


|°° 


4 



o 

1 



a 
& 



■g 



0) 

s 



I 



I 



•8 



I 



s 

I. 



\ 



\ 



254 



TABLE OF PEESCKIPTIONS. 



S 



GO 



o 

GO 









i 

a 

o 



8 i 8 §1 « 



HMfH "* "* 



^4 



09 « 



§ * • . • 3 

tH ST : 



e^oe^M 



s 

o 
o 



1^ 

to 

s 



i 



& 



1HU3 iHiH^ O 5^ 



S 



P 



^ 



!^ 



°° g fl a 






I 



B 




<D S^O 




\ 



TABLE OF PRE8CRIPTI0HS. 



Sil»l 



^i4. 















.rill 
III* 



I' lie 

^ II" 










I 

I 

i 



in 

m : : 

I III 

4 









O 



S S£cy-g,5 
^ -3333 « 

S oqoqqqMm 

3 



i 



TABLE OF PBESCEIPTIONS. 



S5? 



I 






e 
8 

8 



• it • 

Hneqeqr-i 



s 

to 



o 
o 

I 

a? 



a 



T 



J J as o^ 



IH 0109 09 



r 



o 






I 

a 

J 



a 




5 a 




MOiO 






.2 




a 



.1 

a 



I 

I 

s* 



i 



I 

*3 !d s 



§ 



-I 

l4 : g 
H :W 



\ 



256 



TABLE OF PRESCRIPTIOI^S. 



9 



i 



s 



0,9* 



•s 



i 






3 







H 



o 
o 



3 



04 g4 



O 







ctf 

>» 

Fit 

a 



«0 

a 
o 

T 




I 



L 




\ 



m 





S qqoqqqPm 



i 



TABLE OF PRESCRIPTIONS. 



S5? 



S 

to 



a? 



8-1 8 



OB 

I 



e 
8 

8 



slls 

Hwoq 01 r-l 



a 



y 



s 



*8 .S 






• • • 






I 



i 



I 

a 



f 

P4 




a 



.1 

a 



I 

I 

i 



i 




^ 



&4 Js _c v^ 
GQOOQ 



• S2 fe 



5 5.« 



n: iS •* ««2 
o,S- III 






^ 






s 






H 



S3 © ^ 



^ 



\ 



TABLE OF PEESCRIPTIONS. 






^ta 






a 

si 

lit 



11 

III 

^6 -a 






I 

I* 



|E 



nil 



TABLE OF PEESCRIPTIONS. 



259 



4) 



be 

o 
« 
o 

OS 



G? 






e 
s 

o 



u u 



il 



IJ N 
iH p-l 0<1 0<1 CD 



3| 

M ST 



o 



OS 9 o 

HxHMrHfH CO Jg 5 " 



*6 "TJ 'O 



t4 

s 



o 

US 



ST 



iHiHHNOedpg S d 8 



CS OD 



O 



§ 

M 

O 



s 



I 

a 



Hi 

OOQ 
fH M 09 



I 



O 
04 



•s 



i 



UdfHfflO^ 



•s 



• • • " 

SbSb ob'^ o 

OkO O fH04 



o 
n3 



»0 O U3 fH HM 



S-g-g 






.§ 



-i 






8 «'« 

^|8 



OB 
O 

O 



_8 



.2 



4 
3^ 









ill 



III . 

S fl « S Sj 



•1 

■s 

P4 



.2 



-%* o o S 



.a 



"I 



08 08 

fl P ^ , 



I 
^ 






i Is o 
*** p • ^ 



P4aQR 



2^ 

i 



\ 



260 



i 



i 

3 



I 



8 



TABLE OF FfiESGBIFTIONa 



MM 



4 



¥ 



So So L^ o 



s . 



&)&>& 



MOO 






o 

9 00 



eiio 



o 

73 



i>& 



> CD 



ro 

fH goo 



» • 



it 



a 



09 



o 



u 
o . 

iH Sao 



3 



S 






I 



s 



I 



\ 





s< o 



5 



14 

5 .a 

-If 
g 



^|q,H 



'•a 



I 



qqO 






I 



i 

a 



s 



o 

a 



i 



a 

0Q 



M 

O 



§ 



a 



TABLE OF PBESCEIPTIONS. 



261 



ii 






m • 

00 ;o 



• • * 






V « « 

5)&)S) 

;D0(| Oil 



• • • 

O 00 00 



o 



OO 09 09 



^ 



^4 



& 



>OG!|iH 



.§ 



■Sl-8 



.^-S- 



I 

P4 



'C S a 






I ill .a 



\ 



III 

s a S o 



\ 



TABLE OF PKE8CEIPTI0NS» 



26d 







o' a s « 



N s a 



o 
eo 



o 



8 i ^ :il o- 



i-Hoqao 



M ST 



o 



04 



i 






Hn9)«40l 



O 



-§ 



8S 







• • • 



O 



00 

-J 

I 



a 



• • • 

• • • 



• • • 

• • • 



>* 



• • • 

• • • 



t 



a 






• • * 

• • • 

• • • 



I 

Oi 

I 






*si 



.a 



1^1 



lis 




a 






I' 
it 



I 






i 






a3^ 



TABLE Of PEESCBIPnONS. 



II sis ii 






:_3 o j 

m 



""llir' 



I mill-'' 



TABLE OF PKE8CKIPTI0NS» 



26d 






o S S N 



s 

e 



.• r? «B 

«B 73 ns o 
IN 



O 



a 



M 

3 



.j § a 

CO 'O 






o 



o'3'S & 



101 



,-§ 



8s 



• • • 

• • • 

• • • 




aj 



8 



sis |*s 



t^ 



rS 



B^3 « 



g 



I 

a 






• • 4 

• • • 



I 



P^ 





o 3 o 
P^OP4 



i 




264 



I 

5 






^ 
^ 



9 

a 



8 

J9. 



>* 

3 

0Q 



S 



i 



u 

■8 



I 



TABLE OF PRESCBIPnONS. 



iH Sots « ^ O 






II 

O 



I u 



111 



i 







I 



\* 



iM 



4 






•sr.* 












a 



a 



OQ 



i 



§•1 

on 



I 



TABLE OP PRESCMPTIONS. 



266 



ti 8 8;| ^, 



^S^ 



M 7 



HWHKO 



4 



eq 









•43 



o 



I 

o 



s 

a 



;2llJ 













i 



9 



a 



• • • • 



aaBBBaaiSBSH^aanaBa 



00 

a 
.2 

.2* 







II 






•s i 



I 



I 



£ Si 

J '5 <r 






pqcb 

o o 



11 

1.8. 
63 



^ 
^ 



266 



TABLE OF FRESCBIFTIOKEL 



I 










i 



s 



a 
i 









I 









• 

&8 8 



a ■** fcl 

IJ-! 



• a • 

• • • 



>i; 5 o. 
1^^ 



-J 



^ 




8 -^1 



•S 



09 m 



torO'S 8 2 S 9 t; 



2 • • > 

M • a • 




TABLE OF PEESCEIPTIONS. 



267 



a 

3 



i 






o 
o 



s 

to 



•1 



& 



I 

2 

to 



'O O ©3 S >* * 
rH ^^S 8 2 8 






CDHnHnHn 



J 



sll 



4 



h 






LS.»-»I" 



''8-"a':if 




to 

2 

CO 



I 

CO 

5 



s 



a 






• ■ -I 9 O a 9 ^\ 






• ■ • • 



■I 

g 

to 







i 




^ o 

fill 



qqqqP 



\ 



i^ 
^ 



V 



254 



TABLE OF PRESCEIPTIOI^S. 






o 

GQ 

(^ 






3' 

3 



o 
o 




. t: • • 

o X o o 3 S o 



1 6" 

TS CO 
G9 04 



o 









iH to 



B 



s 

e 



s 

CO 



& 



-S Eoo o g g t^l 
cu ► 



I 



8 



a 

p 



/ 




so 

-1 i fe § & 




\ 






TABLE OF PEESCRIPTI0N8. 



255 



ca 

to 









I 



fH OB 9> C 





MHHOO <« 



e 



e 







He«0 H«"fH "O 5^ 



'O 



I 

o 



a 



d "* 



'C So jb'5 St ► *< 






§ 



a 



•J 

•c 




I 



•I 
I 



5 

O ITS H 

9 8^ 
3%t^ 



i&&^^ 



ma 

B 











I 



i 



\ 



254 



TABLE OF PEESCEIPTIOI^S. 



I 

S 






o 

GQ 






I 





< 



o 



o * o o 3 S ^ 

Cf\ CO 



Q 



Si 

G9 04 



s 



01004 64 j 



O 






s 



3 



a 



too 



B 

|H»0 fH 



I 



S 






M 



o 



*H ST© ?o 



i 



8 

I 





\ 






TABLE OF PEESCEIPTIONS. 



255 



I 

< 



^1 









eq 







I 

s 

e 



■ h . * * i 



^ 




e 






O 



SI 

o 



CO 

6 



^J^ J. © 



-^2 









S 



I 

a 



•J 

•c 

o 

00 



.5 



•5 



s 



•■a 



o g 

■I'll I 

qqE-i|> 






< 




^1 



•as 

< o 

Ill 



eg 






256 



TABLE OF PRESCRIPTIONS. 



a 



i 



s 



<M« 



4 






•s 



01 & 



i 



4 



5 

o 



&DO IB 



8 tL -■•§ 



il C^ 



o 



fH<5 gig 






.9-8 




o 
to 



o 



o 






a 



OD 

o 




z 



1 



• 




\ 







Q4 p* o< p 
^ qqqqqqPm 



i 



TABLE OF PBESCBIFTIONS. 



387 



I 



I sis' 



c 

8 

o 



s-SIs 



S 



o 






8 



^1 8 8 1^1 



• 22 ft 

si* 










to 



i 



i 



a 



0) 

a 

.2 




a 




O 



^(!6S 



\ 



274 



TABLE OF PRE8CEIPTI0NS. 



9 

< 



s.s.a 

04 



o 



.g 

P4 



09 »-• 



t 

s 

o 



o 
m 



I 

09 



CO 

s 






I 



/ 




i 



OD •*» 




■r^. 



14 



§ 



OOQ 



s 



TABLE OF PEESCEIPTIOI^S. 



275 



< 






p,ao 



I, 

s 



I 

2 

e 



e 

8 

e 



i-iei k 

<3 



III §8 



•s 



•I 



Q? 



s 



1 



• • • 

111*8 Si 

01 



'S 




lii'gg 



2 •*•-«• -©I 




I 

Q 



e 






CO 

O 



I 



Si 



i 



•8* 

GQ 08 



5 

a; 






1 Ai 



:s 



■I sg(^ 



QQ 



i 






I 




\ 



\ 



274 



TABLE OF PEESCBIPTIONS. 



9 

•a 

< 



04 



s 1 






t 

S 



o 

i 



to 

a 

09 



CO 

5 



i 



a 



4 

•g 




« 



S 



■ -«? 







s 



TABLE OF PEESCEIPTIONS. 



275 



< 



^■5 

• • Sk OB 



S 

e 









M 







I 



Q? 



e 

8 

e 



I 1 



s 

to 

s 

CO 



i 



e 



§ 

"5. 
f 



l-gl* 






all 






a 



I 




da 4 



inM, 



llll 



i 4 



Ill 



hi 



ii i 



1 






I 




irii 



p 



TABLE OF PBESCEIPTIONS. 277 | 


1 


1 


id 


SB's 


ill 


iiii 


1 

S 
2 

2 






■:!l 




S 


Mi 








1 

2 










1 










1 






■:■: 




.2 




1 
ll 




lis 

1" 

I* 


£ 
■i 
i 

: 

■| 


1 

1 
S 

e 


« 


2 


■1 

"■I 




P 


j 
1 


15 

i 
■i 
1 

1 

i 


i 

i 





.- — -^ — ..—,.- 



268 



TABtE or 1PRESCEIPTI0NS. 



I 



I 

s 



2 

o 



O O S*a8 O ^ • 
03 <C C«^ « 






• 4 



S 



•3 



e 
2 



I 



I 

p 






S 



I 



-laxAabua^ 



•fiUii^^B_J>> 



• • at 






I 

P4 



PM 







P4 

I 

I; 



= -9 'P *" 

Ills 



SS 



i 



I 

^ ^^ 
ll - 



TABLE OF PBE8CEIPTI0N8. 






IP 

1 As 



*l-3|l 






;.ri 



E as 
1 i § 

^3 ll 



280 



TABLE OF PEE8CEIPTI0NS. 



< 



oo 



o 
o 



i 






00 i-H 



lb o 



00^ 



e 
to 



>» 
to 



9 



bb tuD .t ob 

^ 04 04 (M 



■% 






>» 
CO 

o 



tND 5b OD ob 



-§ 



I 



a 
O 



^00 



e s e s 

c ^ o 



»4 

o 



I 

o «> $ 






I 



Z 



2 









(ft 



I 



£ _ 

'd'd d 
2 2^ 

V o q> 
13 "TS -*a 

o oS 



o 

.a 

aa 

s 

.g 

o 

I 
S 



! « 








TABLE OF PRE80EIPTI0NS. 


281 






B 




Js ll i 


f 


: ii 










.HCO ■•-H M 


" 


« «« 




1 




.15 






















1^ 


s 












^ 

8 


1 












3 


2 












1 














5 












SI 
















3 












4 














i 




























3 


























I 














J 




... 




























ii: 
































:i ; 










^ 


■1 

3 I 


■■'3 i 1 


ill 

m 




J 






' 


1 ^ 


P i 


i 

3 


1 ! 

< 


i Jl 


! 
i 






s 


i 


i 


U_\ 



280 



TABLE OF PKE8CEIPTI0NS. 



< 



oo 



o 
o 



i 






00 i-H 



CO 



lb o 



00^ 



e 

s 

to 



to 



(Q 



t s s s 

^ 04 04 (M 



*§ 



CO 

o 



■ • • 

en go • oD 

&>&& lib 
eeo rH o 



-§ 






a 



04 ee H«kO o & d 

c ° o 



g. 12 ij^ £ 



OD 

i 



^ 







10 



1 

^ s 



••a 








TABLE OF PEESCBIPTI0N8. 


381 




= 


14'. 


ii i 


SI 


ii 




^ 


■*r-a 


-B-l rH 


pH« 


-H-^ 


1 


y^ 










2 


































& 


E 










■< 


1 










s 


2 










f 


S 












T 












J 








: 


: : 














1 












T 
























^ 












- 










i 
















































■a 
























3 






















a : 
























































































































s i 
























1^ 


































Ph 


III 

(14 


i5 

i 
1! 


j 


11 


is 


1 


|| 








1° 


} 


f5 




X 


cs 


s 


H 




« 


t> 


o 



282 



TABLE OF PEESCRIPTIONS. 






5 



s 

o 



I 



o 



• 4a 



I 



P4 



^ rb 



• • 

o o 

00 m 



e 
2 

to 



>» 
•o 






S 



a 






s 
i 



.2 





S 



I 
III 



I 



i 



\ 




ARTICLES POR A MEDICINE-CHEST. 



283 



LIST OF ARTICLES FOR A MEDICINE - CHEST. 



Acetate of annnoma, or 

Minderems spirit. 
Acetate of lead. 
AdhesiYe plaster, 
^ther. 
Aloes. 
Alum. 

Antinionial powder. 
Antiinonial wine. 
Aromatic confection. 
Balsam capivi. 
Bark, compound tincture of. 
Basilicon ointment. 
Bicarbonate of soda. 
Blistering plaster. 
Borax. 
Calomel. 

Camphor liniment. 
Camphor, spirits of. 
Carbonate of ammonia. 
Carbonate of iron. 
Castor oil. 

Catechu, tincture of. 
Chalk, prepared. 
Citrate of iron. 
Cod-liver oil. 
Colchicum, wine of. 
Colocynth, extract of. 
Compound rhubarb pills. 
Confection of senna. 



Copperas blue, or sulphate 

of copper. 
Creasote. 

Diluted sulphurio aoid. 
Dover's powder. 
Epsom salts. 

Eorceps of different sizes. 
Glass measures. 
Glauber's salts. 
Grey powder, or mercury 

with chalk. 
Henbane, tincture ot 
Iodide of iron, syrup of. 
Iodide of potassium. 
Iodine, tincture of. 
Ipecacuanha powder. 
Ipecacuanha wine. 
Iron, munated tincture of. 
Jalap. 

James's powder. 
Laudanum, 
lint. 

Lunar caustic. 
Magnesia. 

Mercurial ointment. 
Mortars and Pestles. 
Nitre, powdered. 
Nitre, spirits of. 
Oil silk. 
Opodeldoc. 



\ 



TiBLE OF PEE8CRIPTI0KS. 









ARTICLES POR A MEDICINE-CHEST. 



283 



LIST OF ARTICLES FOR A MEDICINE - CHEST. 



Acetate of ammonia, or 

Minderems spirit. 
Acetate of lead. 
Adhesive plaster, 
-^ther. 
Aloes. 
Alum. 

Antimonial powder. 
Antimonial wine. 
Aromatic confection. 
Balsam capivi. 
Bark, compound tincture of. 
Basilicon ointment. 
Bicarbonate of soda. 
Blistering plaster. 
Borax. 
Calomel. 

Camphor liniment. 
Camphor, spirits of. 
Carbonate of anmionia. 
Carbonate of iron. 
Castor oil. 

Catechu, tincture of. 
Chalk, prepared. 
Citrate of iron. 
Cod-liver oil. 
Colchicum, wine of. 
Colocynth, extract of. 
Compound rhubarb pills. 
Confection of senna. 



Copperas blue, or sulphate 

of copper. 
Creasote. 

Diluted sulphuric aoid. 
Dover's powder. 
Epsom salts. 

Forceps of different sizes. 
Glass measures. 
Glauber's salts. 
Grey powder, or mercury 

with chalk. 
Henbane, tincture ot 
Iodide of iron, syrup of. 
Iodide of potassium. 
Iodine, tincture of. 
Ipecacuanha powder. 
Ipecacuanha wine. 
Iron, munated tincture of. 
Jalap. 

James's powder. 
Laudanum, 
lint. 

Lunar caustic. 
Magnesia. 

Mercurial ointment. 
Mortars and Pestles. 
Nitre, powdered. 
Nitre, spirits of. 
Oil silk. 
Opodeldoc. 




284 



ARTICLES FOR A MEDICDTE-CHEST. 



Oxide of zinc. 

Paregoric 

Peppermint, essence of. 

Quinine, 

Rhubarb powder. 

Scales and weights. 

Scissors. 

Senna leaves. 

Spatulas. 

Syringes, enema. 

Syringes, small pewter or glass. 



Tartar emetic. 

Tartaric acid. 

Tincture of benzoin, or friar's 

balsam. 
Tincture of gentian. 
Tincture of guaiacum. 
Tincture of valerian. 
Tow. 

Turpentine, spirits of. 
Zinc, oxide of. 
Zinc, sulphate of. 



SECTION VI. 



HYGIENE. 



■••■■•MM«B»4M«MaaHaii«*a 




HYGIENE. 



This term is generally applied to 
the consideration or investigation of 
all means of preserving healthy or 
warding off disease. The objects of 
hygiene therefore constitute a wide 
field, sufficient to furnish the mate- 
rial for separate treatises, embracing 
topics and involving proceedings 
that occupy the attention of the 
head of a department of public ser- 
vice with a large subordinate staff 
of agents. In this place we purpose 
to treat very briefly of those hy- 
gienic measures which are more 
immediately within the reach of, 
and more directly concern, those to 
whom the present work is addressed. 
These subjects are sleep, cleanli- 
ness, bathing, diet, change of cli- 
mate, disinfection, ventilation, and 
vaccination. 



S;[iEEP. 

The first few weeks of an in&mt's 
life are well spent in sleeping and 
sucking. After five or six weeks 
it is desirable not to allow beyond a 
couple of hours for sleep in the 
middle of the day, because, if the 
infant sleep the greater part of the 
day, it will not enjoy sound repose 



at night, — in which case not only 
the infant, but also its parents^ 
suffer the penalty. 

A feeble child will require rather 
more sleep than a strong child. In 
any case, it is a point of importance 
that the child should be kept mode- 
rately warm while sleeping,— in the 
early days of life by the warmth of 
the mother' s body. When, at the age 
of two or three weeks, it shall have 
acquired the power of maintaining 
its own warmth, the child may be 
placed in a cot or bassinette. The 
access of air should be freely allowed 
to the face and mouth of the infant, 
instead of smothering it over with 
curtains and coverings of various 
kinds. 

Children require more sleep than 
adults ; it is therefore very desirable 
to keep up the practice of their 
midday sleep until they are between 
two and three years of age. 

The number of hours that must 
be given to sleep will vary greatly, 
even with children of the S6une age. 
Up to ten years of age, fourteen 
hours out of the twenty-four will 
not be too much. This may be gra- 
dually shortened to eight hours at 
the period of puberty. 

Some grown-up peraona Yftw^a^V 
eight \iovxxc^^ ^'^^•^ ^^'ssa^^^^^^ 



278 



TABLE OF PEE8CBIPTI0NS. 



I 

< 






3 

e 






« 



>» 

MS 

5 



3 



I 
I 






ss 



■% 



i 



t9 N • 

o o _o 



^09 






i 



S 9 i< 
o 



E N N • 

Gdo O O 

»OHBIr-l '^ 



i 



t9 N 

O O 



■§ 



00 CO 






£ N N s^ S 
qB<C'q 



S^ 



go • • d a> 'O 



I 

■"I 
g 

I 



2.2 

B 94 

HI 



tf 
N 








TABLE OF PKESCEIPflONS. 



279 






ns T3 TJ o o ^ 9 
O 09 00 HMCO S O 



'S 




.3 • .^ S 




5 



NrHNi-iOOJli 8 "^ 
"^ 1-4 &• 




<a 



• • • • 






e 
5 



OlS S H H ^<c 



« • • 



3 






'I 8 : 1^ 



S*^^ 2 



a-s 



5 



00 09 QO 

Oil 



S m S 



o 



• • • 



g 



I 

a 



* _ m 

f^35*a 

~ ^ Tj O 
fH O O iH 



9 ^ 

ht 



O 
« 00 



i 



1 

o 

I 

GQP-iaQl> 




I 



« 



» 



111 

III 
2 « P fa 



280 



TABLE OF PEE8CRIPTI0NS. 



i 

< 



bDbo 
^ f-i 



o 
o 



i 



s 

\0 CO 



00 •-• 



Cd CO 



00^ 



CO 



E s s s 

CO oq oq oq 



.§ 



§ 

CO 

o 



udSdIa 



u 
00 CO iH O 



O 



§ 






& S tj s 

(M 00 HMkO 



I" 

o co^ 



3 
s 

^ 

.« 



I 



o <e o 






3 













1 

S '73 ►^ 



CD 






.1 



o ^ 

^►3 



TABLE OF PRE8CKIPTI0NS. 



281 





•a 



i 



ro o 

"^rH 00 



I 



S 8 



S8 

iH 09 



I 



8 



e 
s 

o 



00 

O 
bo 



08 

I 



t 



)-o o 

0<|HDICO 



o 
o 

« 

2 

CO 



CO 



§ 



a 



•I |"s 

•^ ii 

'SI'S 






ft? 




« 






L 





ARTICLES FOR A MEDICINE-CHEST. 288 




LIST OF ARTICLES FOR A MEDICINE - CHEST. 




Acetate of ammonia, or 


Copperas blue, or sulphate 




Mindereros spirit. 


of copper. 




Acetate of lead. 


Creasote. 




Adhedve plaster. 


Diluted sulphuric acid. 




iEther. 


Dover's powder. 




Aloes. 


Epsom salts. 




Alum. 


Forceps of different sizes. 




Antimomal powder. 


Glass measures. 




Antimonial wine. 


Olauber's salts. 




Aromatic confection. 


Grey powder, or mercnry 




Balsam capiyi. 


with chalk. 




Barky compound tincture of. 


Henbane, tincture of. 




Basilicon ointment. 


Iodide of iron, sjrrup of. 




Bicarbonate of soda. 


Iodide of potassium. 




Blistering plaster. 


Iodine, tincture of. 




Borax. 


Ipecacuanha powder. 




Calomel. 


Ipecacuanha wiue. 




Camphor liniment. 


Iron, muriated tincture of. 




Camphor, spirits of. 


Jalap. 




Carbonate of ammonia. 


James's powder. 




Carbonate of iron. 


Laudanum. 




Castor oil. 


lint. 




Catechu, tincture of. 


Lunar caustic. 




Chalk, prepared. 


Magnesia. 




Citrate of iron. 


Mercurial ointment. 


fcj Cod-liver oil. 


Mortars and Pesties. 


HL^ Colchicnm^ wiue of. 


Nitre, powdered. 


^Hk Colocynthy extract of. 


Nitre, spirits of. 


^■lOnipoiind rhubarb pillR. 


Oil Bilk. 


■ 


^^^^'•^^on of senna. 


Opodeldoc. 



282 TAIIE or PEEBCBIPTIONS. | 


s 

1 

1 


1 


a 


it 


1 4 ii 


1 

2 


- 




; ■: i; 


8 








1 

2 








1 


- 






1 






: i - 


J 

/ 


i 




i 


1 
1 




1 

1 


li d 

Ii i 


1 
■1 


t 
1 

s 



AETICLES FOE A MEDICINE-CHEST. 288 


LIST OF ARTICLES FOR A MEDICINE - CUEST. 


Acetate of ammonia, or 


Copperas blue, or sulphate 


Mmdereros spirit. 


of copper. 


Acetate of lead. 


Creasote. 


Adhesive plaster. 


Diluted sulphuric add. 


iBther. 


Dover's powder. 


Aloes. 


Epsom salts. 


Alum. 


Forceps of different sizes. 


Antimomal powder. 


Glass measures. 


Antimonial wine. 


Olauber's salts. 


Aromatic confection. 


Grey powder, or mercury 


Balsam capiyi. 


with chalk. 


Barky compound tincture of. 


Henbane, tincture of. 


Basilicon ointment. 


Iodide of iron, syrup of. 


Bicarbonat.e of soda. 


Iodide of potassium. 


Blistering plaster. 


Iodine, tincture of. 


Borax. 


Ipecacuanha powder. 


Calomel. 


Ipecacuanha wine. 


Camphor liniment. 


Iron, muriated tincture of. 


Camphor, spirits of. 


Jalap. 


Carbonate of ammonia. 


James's powder. 


Carbonate of iron. 


Laudanum. 


Castor oil. 


Lint. 


Catechu, tincture of. 


Lunar caustic. 


Chalk, prepared. 


Magnesia. 


Citrate of iron. 


Mercurial ointment. 


Cod-liver oil. 


Mortars and Pesties. 


Colchicum, wine of. 


Nitre, powdered. 


Colocynth, extract of. 


Nitre, spirits of. 


Compound rhubarb pills. 


Oil silk. 


Confection of senna. 


Opodeldoc. 



\ 



322 



INDEX. 



PAGE 

Dropsy of the abdomen 58 

——chest 68 

scrotum 58 

renal 85 

Drowning 175 

Drowsiness, of what diseases a symp- 
tom 6 

Drunkenness 175 

Drytetter 87 

Dysentery 58 

Dyspepsia 81 

E. 

Ear-ache 60 

Ear, inflammation of 60 

- noises in 7, 60 

Eating tetter 40 

Ecstasy 41 

Eczema 61 

Emetics 191 

Epilepsy 62 

Erysipelas 62 

Ether, poisoning with 184 

Expectorant medicines 191 

Expectoration (a symptom) 9 

ofblood 29 

Eye, inflammation of 64 

Eyes, bloodshot, of what diseases a 

symptom 6 

prominent, of what disease a 

symptom 17 

sallow, of what disease a 

symptom 17 

yellow, of what disease a 

symptom 7 

Eyelids in disease 4 

Euphorbium, poisoning with 184 



/ 



F. 



Fainting 65 



\ 



PAGB 

Falling sickness 62 

False measles 105 

Fatness, morbid 99 

Feeding in illness 311 

Fever, bilious 66 

continued 65 

endemic 67 

gastric 66 

hectic 66 

infantile remittent 68 

intermittent 14, 67 

remittent 67 

scarlet 107 

simple 65 

—— typhus or typhoid 69 

yellow 70 

Finger-bones, broken 166 

Fish-skin 87 

Fits 175 

Flatulence (a symptom) 10 

Flatulency 72 

Flatulent colic ^ 48 

Flooding 148 

Fluor albus 129 

Flux 58 

Fomentation 313 

Foot-bones, broken 169 

Frost-bite 95 

Functional derangements of the liver 23 
Furniture of a sick-room 311 



a. 



Ghtngrene 95 

Gamboge, poisoning with 184 

Giddiness, of what diseases a symp- 
tom 6 

Gleet 129 

Goitre 89 

Gonorrhoea 128 



INDEX. 



323 



FA&E 

Gout 73 

Graize 160 

Gravel 75 

Green sickness 44 

Griping 10 

Grocer's itch ; 61 

Gown 88 

Gum-lancing 120 

Gunpowder, wounds or burns from . 177 

Gunshot wounds 178 



H. 



Habit as influencing doses of medi- 
cine 188 

Hfiemoptysis 29 

Haemorrhoids 100 

Haemorrhage after delivery 148 

from urinary organs . . 26 

uterus.. .93, 138, 148 

pulmonary 29 

Hanging 175 

Hardening of the breast 37 

Headache 76 

bilious 76 

nervous 76 

of what diseases a symp- 
tom 5 

rheumatic 76 

sick 23 

Healing and absorbent medicines . . . 192 

Heart, diseases of 77 

spasm of 16 

Heartburn 81 

Hellebore, poisoning with 184 

Hemlock, poisoning with 184 

Henbane, poisoning with 184 

Hernia 106 

Herpes 122 

Hiccup ; 77 



FAOE 

Hiccup as a symptom 9 

Hip-disease 78 

Hip, dislocated 173 

Hives 43 

Hoarseness, of what disease a symp- 
tom 8 

Hocket 77 

Hooping-cough 78 

Hospital fever 69 

Housemaid's knee 86 

Humid tetter 61 

Hydrocephalus, acute 33 

chionio 36 

Hygiene 287 

Hypochondriasis 80 

Hysteria 80 

Hysterical pain 4 



I. 

Ileus 

Iliac passion 

Incoherence, of what diseases a 

symptom 

Indigestion 

Individual pecuHarity in relation to 

action of medicines 

Infant, management of 

Infantile atrophy 

Inflammation 

of the bladder 

bowels 

knee 

larynx 

testicle 

tonsils 

veins of thigh, 



&c. 



on the chest 



48 
48 

6 
81 

188 

149 

94 

82 

24 

31 

86 

87 

121 

116 

155 
102 



Influence of age upon the effect of 
medicines 



^5SV 



v\ 



824 



INDEX. 



PAQB 

Influence of combination upon the 

effect of medicines 187 

Influenza 83 

Intermission in ague 15 

Intermittent fever 14 

Intolerance of light, of what diseases 

a symptom 6 

Iris, inflammation of 64 

Irritable breast 87 

Irritation of the brain 83, 35 

Itch 83 



J. 



Jaundice 84 

in newborn infants 150 

Jaw, dislocated 172 



/ 



K. 



Kidneys, disease of 85 

inflammation of 85 

King's evU 110 

Kink-cough 78 

Knee, housemaid's 86 

Knee-cap, broken 167 

— inflammation of the j oint 86 

Knitting of the brows 4 



L. 



Labour, symptoms and management 

of 140 

Labours, difficult 144 

Laryngeal angina 87 

Laryngismus 43 

laarpigitis %1 



\ 



PAGl 

Larynx, inflammation of. 87 

Leech-bites 161 

Leeching 812 

Leg-bone, broken 168 

Lepra 87 

Leprosy 87 

Lethargy 50 

LeucorrhoDa 129 

Lichen 88 

Light, intolerance of, of what disease 

a symptom 6 

of sick-room 311 

Lightning stroke 176 

Limbs, cramps in, of what disease a 

symptom 12 

loss of power in (ditto) ... 12 

pains in (ditto) ... 12 

swelling of (ditto) ... 12 

twitching of. (ditto) ... 12 

Liyer, functional derangements of... 23 

Lock-jaw 121 

Lotions, application of 313 

Low fever 69 

spirits 80 

Lungs, inflammation of 89 

Lupus 40 



M. 



MaldeSiam 70 

Mania, puerperal 156 

Marasmus 94 

Meals, in health 800 

Measles 90 

false 106 

Meat 296 

Melsena 27 

Menstruation 91 

cessation of 94 

excessive 98 



INDEX. 



325 



i 



PAGE 

Menstruation, painful or difficult ... 92 

suppressed or absent 91 

Mental influence, as modifying doses 

and effects of medicine 188 

Mesenteric decline 94 

disease 94 

fever 94 

Mezereon, poisoning with 184 

Midwifery 133 

Milk 294 

abscess 36 

crust 107 

Millar's asthma 43 

Miscarriage 188 

Moles 95 

Mumps 97 

Mortification 95 

Mother's marks 95 

Mouth, inflammation of 97 

Muriatic acid, poisoning with 183 

Mushrooms , poisoning with 184 

Mussels , &c., poisoning with 184 



N. 



NflBvus , 95 

Narcotic medicines 192 

Nausea and vomiting (a symptom) . 10 

Navel-string, tying of the 149 

Neck, Derbyshire, or goitre 39 

Nerve-ache 98 

Nervousness 97 

Nettle-rash 98 

Neuralgia 98 

Nitre, poisoning with 183 

Nitric acid, poisoning with 183 

Noli-me-tangere 40 

Nose, bleeding from 25 

broken 164 

Nurse, qualifications of a 309 



O. 

PAGE 

Obesity 99 

Ophthalmia 64 

Opium, poisoning with 184 

Oxalic acid, poisoning with 183 



P. 



Pain 4 

Painter's coUc 48 

Palpitation 9, 77 

Palsy 99 

Paralysis 99 

Peritoneum, inflammation of 31 

Piles 100 

Plague 101 

Pleurisy 102 

Pneumonia 89 

Poisoning 181 

symptoms and treatment 

of 182 

Position and aspect of body in dis- 

ease 3 

Posture, as affecting action of medi- 
cines - 189 

Poultices 314 

Pregnancy, disorders of 186' 

management of. 136 

- signs of 138 

Preliminary observations upon the 

uses and doses of medicines 187 

Prescriptions, table of 254—282 

Prickly heat 88 

Prussic add, poisoning with 183 

Pseudo-croup 48 

Puerperal convulsions 154 

fevet ^^'^ 



!n 



326 



INDEX. 



/ 



FAOB 

Puerperal inflammation of the perito- 
neum 152 

— — ^ veins 

of the uterus 152 

insanity 155 

Puknonary hsemorrhage 29 

Pulse, its characters 4 

rapid (a symptom) 11 

regularity of 5 

Punctured wounds 177 

Pupil, contracted, of what diseases a 

symptom 7 

dilated, of what diseases a 

symptom 7 

Purging of blood 27 

Purples 102 

Purpura 102 

Purulent ophthalmia 64 

Putrid sore-throat 116 



Q. 



Quartan ague 15 

Quinsy 116 

Quotidian ague 15 



E. 



Rainbow ringworm 122 

Beckoning date of labour 137 

Bed gum 88 

Befrigeraut or cooling medicines .. 192 

Begularity of pulse 5 

Relaxed throat 116 

Benal dropsy 85 

Restriction of beverages for children 293 

Retention of urine 118 

Rheimiatio gout 74 

ophthalmia ^ 



PAGl 

Rheumatism 103 

Ribs, broken 164 

Rickets 104 

Ringworm 104 

Roseola 105 

Rose rash 105 

Rosy-drop 14 

Rupture 106 



\ 



S. 



Salts, poisoning with 184 

Savine, poisoning with 184 

Scabies 83 

Scalds 170 

ScaU 61, 107 

Scalledhead 104 

Scarlatina 107 

Scarlet fever 107 

Sciatica 103 

Scorbutus 110 

Scrofula 110 

Scrofulous ophthalmia 64 

ScmTy 110 

Sedative medicines 192 

Sex, as influencing doses of medicine 188 

Shingles 122 

Shivering (a symptom) 12 

Shock 159 

Shoulder, dislocated 173^ 

Sick headache 23' 

Sick-room, ventilation, &c. of 310 | 

Skin 11 i 

inflammation of 1111 

Sleep 287] 

in relation to effect of medi- 
cines 189 j 

Sleeplessness, of what diseases a 

n«^?tom 6! 



INDE?:. 



327 



FA&E 

Sloughing 95 

Small-pox Ill 

Snoring (a symptom) 8 

Sore-throat 116 

clergyman's 48 

Spasm 116 

of the heart 16 



Spasms distinguished from inflam* 

mation 4 

Splinters 177 

Spinal curvature 117 

Spitting of blood 29 

Spotted fever 69 

Sprains 176 

Spurred rye, poisoning \?ith 184 

Squinting, of what diseases a symp- 

torn 6 

Stabs 176 

St. Anthony's fire 62 

Stings 161 

Stitch in the side 102 

Stomach, pain in, of what disease a 

symptom 10 

Stomachic medicines 193 

Stone in the bladder 117 

Stone-pook 14 

Stimulant medicines 192 

Strangury 118 

Stricture 119 

Strumous habit 110 

St. Vitus's dance 47 

Sudorific medicines 191 

Sufibcation 176 

Suffocative breast-pang 16 

Sugar of lead, poisoning with 1 82 

Sulphuric acid, poisoning with 1 83 

Swine-pock 43 

Symptoms, introductory observa- 
tions upon 3 

table of 5 

SyphiUs 125 



T. 

PAGE 

Tabes 94 

Teething 120 

Temperature of a sick-room 310 

Tepid baths 290 

Tertian ague 15 

Testicle, inflammation of 121 

Tetanus 121 

Tetter 122 

Thigh-bone, broken 166 

Thirst, of what disease a symptom ... 9 

Thorns 177 

Throat, sore and swollen, of what 

diseases a symptom 7 

Thrush 123 

Thymic asthma 43 

Tic douloureux 98 

Tongue-tied infiants 150 

Tongue, furred, &c., of what disease 

a symptom 7 

Tonic medicines 193 

Tonsils, inflammation of 116 

Toothache 123 

Tooth-rash 88 

Trance 41 

Types of agues 15 



U. 



Ulcerated throat 116 

Ulceration 123 

Urinary organs, bleeding from 26 

Urine, its various conditions as 

symptoms 11 

retentionof. 118 

Uterine phlebitis ^SfL' 



328 



IKDEX. 



V. 

FAOE 

Vaccination 303 

Vapour-bath 291 

Vapours 80 

Varicella 43 

Variola Ill 

Vegetable acids 294 

poisons 184 

Veins, bleeding from 160 

Venereal diseases 125 

Ventilation 302 

Voice, loss of 17 

Vomiting, of what diseases a symp- 
tom 10 

blood 27 

Vomito negro 70 



W. 



Warm baths 290, 313 



PAGB 

Warts 129 

Wasting 22 

Water 292 

on the brain, acute 33 

pock 43 

Weakness 129 

Weights and measures 194 

Whelk 14 

White leg 155 

precipitate, poisoning with ... 1 83 

——swelling 86 

Whites 129 

Whitlow 130 

Worm fever 68 

Worms 130 

Wounds 176 

gunshot 178 



Y. 



Yellow fever 70 



THE END. 



London : 

Wilson and Ogilvy, 

SMimer Street. 



A CATALOGUE 

NEW WORKS 

IN GENERAL LITERATURE, 



LONOMAN, BROWN, C 
39, 



CLASSIFIED INDEX. 

Agrlenltnre and KnnilAffitin. 

BjjHda.^nV,aollljB.«.^e«. . 



: J 



*''°'^ w'.^:. 



BnikB of General UtlUty. 



BiogTspl^. 

Anfo-i jiuablainplir . 



FiujiMi'i CMiiutT of rub 



Botany and Gudenlng. 






>r Lut, PiuiEMItr Koir. 









Oofiie)'* Hlfllorinl BkoLckn - 









„ LnTiom DD rnD^Surn; ! 



QeogTBphr and Atlases. 



JuTenlla Books. 



Hediclne and Surseiy. 



InLuH'. Hmul Pb^lnlni 



a. LOKOUAN lhd Co.'l CATALOGUE. 









Natnnl HUtorr In Cinem. 






BoUrimu and Hani Wocki. 



JEnVT lyioF'l WOThi . 



S™™R.' ^^a^S^ , 









ISlS'.i 



Poetry «nd the I 






Bk f""!^^^^ll\,j,tgi^,^; 



I'l OK^kptcMl IMcUoBuy . 



WOUek'i FspiUr TiAlM . I M 

Tbe Sdeneei in Oenenl uid 






tMBpiBlFkftMacr ■ 



nUBpi'a FHiUi or Cri.>.)1,<1i 
" Gildt uScoloff '. 
lH-1 Klgctn-IllUUun 



„ 'iBDokofiVHBa 



Veterinarr Medldne, etc 



Yi^BgM and TraTels. 



GiRHUn'i rkiiiniHi 



WcU-i UalM Eiun S?C> 

WoTkB of ZleUm. 



I 



ALPHABETICAL CATALOGUE 



NEW WORKS AND NEW EDITIONS 



ME8SK8. LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, axd LONGMANS, 
PATEBNOSTEB ROW, LONDON. 



Modem Cookery for Frivate 
jUkin. — Select Worki of the 



ArnoUL— Oakfieldt or, TaUow- 






Aiago ir,)— HeteonlogiMl Eb- 



UMra,ur)ajnpmntitiu, 

AiTOWiinitb.— A 6eographioal 

lai iSt^Mc'e' al'tL Cliltt"pV.-f7.°ort' 

Araold.— PoeBM. By Hitthew 
Arnold.— Poems. B; Sbtthev 

'i. BMond Serin, •bum ebc-lbln' 

(bs Tcit ia^lr nW.lil Inm Ibi 



Austtn.— Germany from 17B0 to 
loaniu BttlUie'a Dramatic and 

Baker .—The Bifle aadtbeHanud 
Bsyldon's Art of Vilning Bents 

—J ""kiii.abilTiuu'iIllihiel KbUr- 
I QBltUif rinu, uiLilbel bf 
SfedBiDi s( 7ilul1oui •lit 




Black's Praotlcal TreaUae o 



CLASH IFl ED INDEX. 



Sht£ipHnJl7B«rilar . . - 



[du"HI«?™a"« 



Political Econom; Jt SUtUtlca. Vcterlaarj Mfflti'tii", etc 






rsisa.; ; : ■■ ; 

ToyagM and Travels. 



as.JSi 



wC""^ 



.'• AirKUMNSm* 

PkUllpa>> rndU or Connll, •!(. 
" SildiuSHtofT .' 

Btual^porU. 



i laliii^Hami ■ 

HuSmink'iTwICRUilBUdiBEii 






UnofkLiUl^ek 



Work! of rietion. 



ALPHABETICAL CATALOGUE 

OP 

NEW WORKS AND NEW EDITIONS 

PUBLISHED BT 

Messrs. LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, and LONGMANS, 

FATEBNOSTER BOW, LONDON. 



Modem Cookery for Private 

Familiei, reduced to a System of Kacf Prac- 
tice in a Sevies of carefally tested Receipt^ 
in wliicli tlie principles of Baron Llebig and 
otiier eminent Writers Itave been as macli 
as possible applied and erplained. Bjr Eliba 
Acton. Newly rerised and much enlarged 
Edition: with 8 Plates, comprising 37 Fipires 
and 160 Woodcuts. Pep. 8ro . price It, M. 

Aikin. — Select Works of the 

British Poets, from Ben Jonson to Beattie. 
With Blornmhical and Critical Prefaces by 
Dr. Aikin. New Edition, with Supplement 
by Lvcr Aikin ; consisting of Selections 
from more recent Poets. Sro. price 18s. 

Allen.— The Dead Sea a New 

Route to India: with other Fragments and 
Gleanings in the East. By Captain W. 
Allbn, R.N.y F.R.S., etc. By the Author 
of The Narrative of tk0 Niger B»peditien, 
With Maps, Woodcuts, and^lllustrations in 
tinted lithognqiihy. S rols. post 8vo. 8S«. 

Arago (rJ—Meteorological Es- 
says. By Francis Akaoo. With an Intro- 
duction by Baron Homboldt. TVanslated 
under the superintendence of Lieut.-Col. 
K. Sabinb, R.A. 8vo. 18f. 

•«• The Meteorolotltal B$aaf$ form the 
First Volume of an nniform Copyright Eng- 
lish Edition of Francis Arago's Works, 
translated by Admiral W. H. Smith, Colonel 
Sabine, the ReV. Baden Powell, and Mr. 
Robert Grant, M. A. Vol. II , Popular At' 
froMomir, and Vol. III., Llvet of Dlitln* 
gultked Solentifie Men, are in preparation. 

Arrowsmith.— A Gec^spraphical 

Dictionary of the Hoir Scriptures t Includ* 
ing also Notices of tne Chief Places and 
People mentioned in the Apocrypha. By 
the Her. A. ABROwuffiTH, M.A. 8to. ISs. 

Arnold.— Poems. By Matthew 

Arnold. Second Edition. Fcp. 8vo. is. M. 

Arnold.— Poems. By Matthew 

Arnold. Second Series, about one« third 
new; the rest finally selected from the 
volumes of 1849 and 1853, now withdrawn. 
Fcp. 8to. price 5«. 



Arnold.— Oakfleld) or, fellow- 
ship In the East. By W. D. Arnold, 
Ueutenaut 58th Regiment. Bengal Native 
Infantry. Thb Second Edition, revised. 
S vols, post 9ro. price Sis. 

Amott .— On the smokelessPire- 

place, Chimner Valves, and other means, 
old and new. of obtaining Healthful Warmth 
and Ventilation. By Nril Arnott, M.D., 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 8vo. 8s. 

Austin.— Oermany frtfm 1760 to 

1814; Or, Sketches of German Life from 
the Decay of the Empire to the Expulsion 
of the French. By Bus. AuKUf . Post 8to. 
price 13s. 

Joanna BaUlie's Dramatic and 

Poetical Works, complete in One Volume: 
Comprising the Plays of the Passions, 
MiscellaneoBs Dramas, Metrical Legends, 
Fugitive Pieces, (several now first pub- 
lished) , and Ah alya Baee . Second Edit ion , 
including a new Life of Joanna Baillle ; with 
Portrait and Vignette. Square crown 8vo. 
Sis. cloth, or 42s. bound in morocco. 

Baker.— The Bifle and the Hound 

In Ceylon. By S. W. Bakbr, Esq. With 
several Illustrations printed' in Colours, 
and Engravings on Wood. 8vo. price 14«. 

Bayldon's Art of Valuing Bents 

and Tillages, and Tenant's Right of Enter* 
Ing and Quitting Farms, explained bv 
several Specimens of Valuations; wita 
Remarks on the Cultivation pursued on 
Soils In different Situations. Adapted to 
the Use of Landlords, Laud Agents, Ap> 

Kiisers, Farmers, and Tenants. New 
ition} corrected and revised by John 
DONAUMON. 8vo. 10s. M. 

Berkeley.— Beminiscenees of a 

Huntsman. By the Honourable Qrantlby 
F. Bbrkbut. With four Etchings by 
John Leech. 8vo. price 14f. 

Black's Practical Treatise on 

Brewing, based on Chemical and Econo- 
mical Principles t With FormniK for Public 
Brewers, and InstruetioBS for Private Fami- 
lies. New Edition, with Additions. 8vo. 
price 10s. M. 



NEW WOEKS AND NEW EDITIONS 



Blaine*8 Eneyelopaedia of Bnral 

sports; or, a complete Accoant, HUtorical, 
Prmetlnlf and DeseriptlTe, of Hontine, 
8liootlBg, FUbinv, Racing, and other Field 
Sporta and Athtetic Amnaements of the 
present daj. With upwards of 800 Wood- 
cnu. A New Edition, thoroughlf rerised 
bf HA.Knr Huotsk, tEpBBMBRA.i and Mr. 
A. OwLkBAM t widi uumerooa additional 
lllastrations. 8to. price 60*. 

Blair's Chronological and His- 
torical Tables, from the Creation to the 
present Time: with Additions and Cor- 
rections from the most authentic Writers ; 
including the Computation of St. Paul, as 
connecting the Period from the Ezode to 
the Temple. Under the rerisinn of Sir 
Hbkrt Euis, K.H. New Edition, with 
corrections. Imperial 8to. price 8U. M. 

Bloomfield.— The Greek Testa- 
ment! With copious English Notes. Critical, 
Philological, and Explanatorr. Especially 
formed for the use of advanced Students and 
Candidates for Holy Orders. By the Rct. 
S. T. Bloomvtbui, D.D. F.8.A. New 
Edition. 2 vols . 8to. with Bfap , price £3. 

Dr. Bloomfield's Additional 

Annotations on the above. 8to. price l&s. 

Dr. Bloomfield's College ft School 

Greelc Tesumenti With brief English 
Notes, chiefly Philological and Explana- 
tory. Serenth and cheaper Edition, with 
Map and Index. Fcp. 8vo. price 7$. M. 

Dr. Bloomfield's College and 

School Lexicon to the Greek Testament. 
Fcp. 8ro. price 10«. M. 

Bode.— The Absence of Preci- 

kion in the Formnlarien of the Church of 
EnEland Scriptural and Suitable to a State 
of Probation: Beingthe Bampton Leeturei 
for 1855- By the Rev. J. E. Boon, M.A., 
Rertor of West«rell, and late Student of 
Christ Church, Oxford. 8vo. S». 

Bode.— Ballads from Herodotus : 

With an Introductory Poem. By the Rer. 
J. E. BoDB, MA., Ute Student of Christ 
Church. Second Edition, with four additi- 
onal Pieces. I6mo. price 7<* 

A Treatise on the Steam Engine, 

in its Application to Mines, Mills, Steam 
NaTlgatioii, and Railwajrs. By the Artisan 
Club. Edited by Johk Bourns, C.E. 
New Edition t with 88 Steel Plates, and 
349 Wood Engravings. 4to. price 2J$, 

Bourne. — A Treatise on the 

Screw Propeller : With various Suggestions 
of imprnvemeut. By John Boornx, C.E. 
New edition, thoroughly rerised ; with SO 
large Plates and numerous Woodcuts. 4to. 
price 38t. 



Brande.~A Dletiona^ of Sci- 
ence, Literature, and Art i comprising the 
History, Description and Scientific Prin- 
ciples of every Branch of Human Know- 
ledge ; with the Derivation and Definition 
of all the Terms in general use. Edited 
by W.T. Brands, F.R.S.U. and E.; aasiated 
bV Dr. J. Camrpr. Second Edition, re- 
vised i with WoodcuU. 8vo. price eOs. 

Professor Brande's Lectures on 

Organic Chemistry, as applied to Manu- 
factures, including Dyeing, Bleaeiiing, 
Calico-Printing, Sugar Manufacture, the 
Preservation of Wood, Tanning, etc. deli 
vered before the Members of the Royal 
Institution. Arranged by permission froon 
the Lecturer's Notes by J. SoovrsBir, M.B. 
Fcp. 8vo., with Woodcnu, price 7«. M. 

Br die.— Psychological In- 

aniries, in a Series of Essays intended to 
Ittstrate the influence of the Phvaical Or- 
nuisation on the Mental Facnltiea. Bj 
Bir BsNJAXXN C. Brodib, Bart., U.CJ«., 
V.P.R.S., Conresponding Member of the 
Institute of France, etc. Second Edition. 
Fcp. 8vo. price 6$. 

Autobiography of James Silk 

Buckingham: Including hia Voyages, Tim- 
vels. Adventures, Specolationa, Successes, 
and F^ures, firanldy and faltlifnlly namted ; 
with Characteristic Sketches of Public Men 
with whom he has had personal interconrsc 
during a period of more than Fifty Years. 
Vols. 1. and II. post 8vo. price SU. 

Bull.— The Katemal Manage- 
ment of Children in Health and Disease. 
By T. BvLL, M.D. New Edition, Fcap. 
8vo. price 6i. 

Dr. Bull's Hints to Mothers for 

the Management uf their Health durinu 
the Period of Pregnancy and in the Lying- 
in Room: ViHth an Exposure of Popular 
Errors in connexion with those subjects, 
etc. i and Hints on Nursing. New Edition. 
Fcp. price 6$. 

Bunsen.— Christianity & Man- 
kind t Their Beginnings and Proapects. 
By C.C.J. BuNSBK, D.D., D.C.L.. D.Pb. 
Beiuga NewEdltion, rorreeted, remodelled . 
and extended, of Hippulftm mn4 hit Age. 
7 vols. 8vo. price 6/. 6«. 

S* This Second Edition of the Hipwlu. 
tm* is composed of three distinct works, 
which may be had separately, as follows:— 

1. Hippolytus and his Age ; or, the Be- 

rnnings and Pronects of Christianity, 
vols . 8vo. price i /. lOf . 

S. Outlines of the Philosophy of Unirersai 
History applied to Language and Religion i 
Containing an Account of the Alphabetical 
Conferences. S vols. 8vo. price I/. ISt. 

8. Analecta Ante-NIcana. 8 vols. 8vo. 
price it. St. 



PUBLISHBD BY LONGMAN, BllOWX, AND Co. 



Bnnsen.— Egypt's Place in Uni- 

▼erul History: Ao HUtorlcal InTesUc»tion, 
in FiTe Boolts. Bv C. C. J. Bvmsbk. D.D., 
D.C.L., D.Pli. Tranalated from the Ger- 
man, by C. H. CoTTKBix, Rsq. M .A. Witli 
nnmeroan Illastrations. Vol. I. Sro. S8«. ; 
Vol. II.8vo.80f. 

B a n s e n.— Lyra Oermanica : 

Hrmns for tlie Sundays and chief Festivnls 
of the Christian Year. Translated from the 
German by Catbbkij«bWzkb.wortb. Fcp. 
8vo. 6t. 

*«* This selection of German Hymns has 
been made frum a collection published in 
Germany by the Cheralier Hansen i and it 
forms a companion Toiume to 

Theologia Gennanieat which 

setteth forth many fair lineaments of Divine 
Truth, and saith very lofty and lovely thinn 
tonchini; a Perfect Life. Translated by 
SosAifNA Wink WORTH. With a Prefaee by 
the Rev. CaA.Bi.Es Kikoblbt t and a Letter 
by Chevaliei Bukben. Sefnd Edition. 
Fcp. Svo. St. 

Burton, (B. r.V-Personal Nar- 
rative of a Pilnimage to Bl Medinah and 
Mecnah. By Kicbabd F. BoBTOif* Lieut- 
enant, Bombay Army. In three volumes. 
Vols. I. and 11. EL MISR and BL MRDI* 
NAH, with Map and Illnstratlons. Vols. I. 
and II Svo. 88s. 
••• Vol. in. MBCCAH is In theprett. 

Barton.— The ICstory of Scot- 
land, from the Revolution to the Extinrtion 
of the last Jacobite Insurrection (1689— 
1748.) By Jobn1Iiu.Bortok. 2 vols. Sro. 
price 26«. 

Bishop Butler's General Atlas 

of Modem and Ancient Ge<^raphy ; com* 
prUing Fifty-two full-coloured Haps ; with 
complete Indexes. New Edition, uearly all 
re-eneraved, enlarged, and greatly im- 
proved; with Corrections from the most 
authentic Sources in both the Aucleut and 
Bf odern Maps, many of which are eutircly 
new. Royal 4to. price 34«. half- bonnd. 

fThe Modem Atlas, 28 full- 
coloured Maps. Rl. Svo Ma. 
The Aucienr Atlas 24 fall- 
coloured Maps. Rl. Svo. 12«. 



The Cabinet Lawyers A Popu- 
lar Digest of the Laws of England, Civil 
and Criminal ; with a Dictionary of Law 
Terms, Maxims, Statutes, and Judicial Anti- 
quities ; Correct Tables of Assessed Taxes, 
Stamp Duties, Rxeise Licences, and Post- 
Horse Duties ; Post-Office Regulations, and 
Prison Discipline. I6th Edition, compris- 
ing the Public Acu of the Session 1854. 
Fc^. Svo. price lOt. M. 

CaircU— English Agriculture in 

1850 and I8S1 ; Its Condition and Prospects. 
By Jambs Cairo, Esq., of Baldoon, Airri- 
cnltural Commissioner of The Timet. The 
Second Edition. 8to. price 14f. 

Calvert.-The Wife's Manual) 

or. Prayers, Thoughts, and Songs on Seve- 
ral Occasions of a Matron's life. Orna- 
mented from Designs by the Author in the 
style of $tiee« Klhabetk't Praper Book. 
By the Rev. Wiixlam Calvbbt, Minor 
Canon of St. FauFs. Crown Svo. 10s. 6d. 

Carlisle (Lord).— A Diary in 

Turkish and Greek Waters. By the Right 
Hon . the Earl of CABtasi.B. Fifth Edition. 
Post Svo. \0t.6d, 

Catlow.— Popular Conehology; 

or, the Shell Cabinet arranged according 
to the Modern System t With a detailed ac* 
count of the Animals ; and a complete De-. 
scriptive List of the Families and Genera of 
the Recent and Fossil Shells. By Aoxks 
Catlow. Second Edition, much improved : 
with 403 Woodcuts. Post Svo. price I4«. 

Cecil. — The Stud Parni) or, 

HiuU on Breeding Horses for the Turf, 
the Chase, and the Road. By Gbou.. Fcp. 
Svo. with Frontispiece, price it. 

Cecil.— Becords of the Chase, 

and Memoirs of Celebrated SportRmen ; 
illustrating some of the Usages of Olden 
Times and comparing them with prevailing 
Customs t Tiigether with an lutrod action 
to most of the Fashionable Hunting 
Countries; and Comments By Cbciz.. 
With two Plates by B. Herring. Fcp. 8vo. 
price 7»- M> half-bound. 



^??^??. ?.«*l"'?.i»fl?«5 'L!??: CecU.-SteblePractlce, orHints 



dem and Ancient Geography. New Edition, 
thoroughly revised, urath such Alterations 
lutroducea as continually progressive Dis- 
coveries and the latest rnformation have 
rendered necessary. Post Svo. price 7t.M 

The Cabinet Gazetteer: A Popu- 
lar Exposition of all the Countries of the 
World ; their Government, Population, 
Revenues, Commerce and Industries; 
Agricultural, Manufactured, and Mineral 
Products I Religion, Laws, Manners, and 
Social State. By the Author of The Cabi- 
net Lamp rr. Fcap . Svo. price 10«. M. cloth ; 
or 13s. calf lettered. 



on Training for the Turf, the Chase^ and the 
Road : With Observations on Racing and 
Hunting, Wasting. Race Riding, and Han- 
dicapping. By Cscii. Fcap. Svo. with 
Plate, price ht. half-bound. 

The Census of Great Britain in 

1851 : Cnmpriking an AcLOunt of the Num- 
bers and Distribution of the People ; their 
Ages, Conjugal Condition, Occupations, 
and Birth-places with Returns of the Blind, 
the Deaf-and-Dumb, and the Inmates of 
Public Institutions; and an Analytical ln« 
dex Roval Svo. St. 



V WORKS iHD NEW EDITIONS 



Ohenenl's Ptinclplea of Har- 

S^l.urt. [w»nIl0B, TimtcUi. Cu- 
pA, lljulw, ColainJ Staibil, n*n- 
Hiil»«, Cdin Prtntlni, UHirprai 
MaWi, Hv OolHilH, Uiui, UhUoh 

Ollnfam.— Llteniy BematiiJ ot 



CanTCraaUaii* on Botuiy. New 



ConybeBTC.— EBsays, EcdeBiaa- 



Conybeare uid Howian.— The 



V^'S^^^-z'^ 




Dr. Copland'! 


DlcHonary of 


SH«2 


,r.a.E^o^bi™l!ff" 



Davy (Dr. J.HTbe Angler and 
Delabeehe.— The G-eolosleal Ob- 

Imrlci'am.TotrtoUolunl Slued.™, Nflr 
£d[Ua& i wiih untnu WnodcA*. Bf*, 

Delabeelie.— Report on Uw Geo- 

wlikiirhWinidc.u, udllPlun. '*n. 



IMadpUne. By tbo Anthor of 



SriJ™*' *" '.!">" Eartlake-Kftterlala for a Hia- 

Oreiy^ Enoyclopndia of OWl i^; ^tH^HFA'^i^'^^.'St!"™' 
wSSSjSiV, HdSIiurj''at''J?^n°/ip™ "^^ Ecllpie of Paithi or, a 



The Orioket-nellt or, the Sd- 
Lady Ciut's Imralid'a Book.— 



A Seftnce of The BellpBe of 
The Bngllibmtui'a Greek Ooo- 



l.de>e>0>«k-E>>ril>k ui R^lliI 



LONOifAN, BEOW 



The XngUibman'B Hebrev and 
Bphmien. — A SuiiUwak of 



Epliemcra.— Hie Book ef the 

£UBDmiC«url*l>fthvThHBn,?ribdplH, 
ud PncUn dI ftr-niUV. '" >^>h>' ' 
Uai or tovi ShIbd* TUH^r «nrr fl«OB 
Khirln ik< Kniiln: Iki Kiunl Hlluci 

■ertbnt, ud Ue ht>E wv of ■nlhliiU]' 
Salqipa Fr^ By EFBtmiiiA i V^IU'^ ^ 

W. Ersldne, Esq.— HUtory of 



Traneli.— AnoBls, Aneedota, 
Tiuida.—ChTaiiicIea >nd Oha* 
QllbiTt.— IiOgle for the HilUon i 



Goue.— A NAtnialist'a Sojaam 
Euays on If olltlGtl ud So«lal 

Onmey. ~ Historical Sketches 

finnie?.— St. I<oiili and Henrt 

Girilt. — An EDOTclopKdla of 

Hunilton.— Discns^giuiB Fhl- 

HapB lAnhdeaeon).— The LU^ 
HOirlBon, — The Ught of the 



Harry Hie OTcr. — Practical 
Horry Hieover.— The Stud, for 




MEW WOSKB IND KEW EDIT10H8 



Hftnj ScBTer. — StAble Talk 
BuMll, (Dr.)- Food and lt« 

£nHI AiIlH Vim Oil B mi lieluht. 

OoL Hater's Inatroetloiio to 



Baydn's Book of Dignities i 



HAyden.— nie Idfe of Bn^amln 



Sir John Henoliel.— Outlinea 

■Dil ^oDd Ev^nrlDft. Afa.prlciUt. 

HUl.-Tnvebi in Siberia. By 
Hint! on EtlqqeUe ud the 

dliliiBOt.riL^r'IKuk. rrr.lro.trici 

Lord Holland'* Hnndii. — 

HiHln Df Ike WUt turr Aulpr Ur 
VAiu> LcAB HfVUirp- VoU. I, Hd J[. 



HoUand.— Ohapter* on Kent 

[8n. grin ])■.], bf Ib< HIH AiAsr. a 

Hook.— The Lut Daya of Oar 

Iki nliid^bnu«IPuilsiiWHk.*£ 
_ ■ _ _ -!kmU» !■ Ordlur 






SaxW. J. Hookor'iT^piilar (hdde 
Hocfter.— Hnseam of Eeonomie 

Honie'a Introdnctlou to the 

Aulioj Aa Bn. Si " ■* ' 

HomB's Compeadloiulntrodne- 



ti* 



Horne.-Tho Coumouleant's 

RsBTUhM t CDBpriitai u Blunt 
ud tk^MB tf (ki AdudriunUaa if i 

Bov to Nniae Siok Ohtldreni 
HowiU.-[A. K.] An Art Btn- 



I LOMCMAN, BBOWN, a: 



Hovlet,— The ChUdnti'i Tear. 

SqaaralSBO. price &I. 

Howitt. — Land, Labonr, uid 



HowlU.-rbeBural Life ofXng- 

luid. Bt nrujji HonTT. Nn EdlUaii, 

BHiciiiiiimmli^. 'MHhuiSiii.ni. 
Howltt-Tlslta to Bcmubible 

Hnc— The Chlneie Emplie i a 

Srnatl u Hoc tndOahCa Jwrurt 'traif A 



MiUlIc Willi l>tor>EHi^»wllk(tiL»: 
miiiis ttaH ■DHUaa a(l£iI«nlillB| 

<£ \\m WIUi AM *—■'-— ActTf^. 

Hndson'a Szeciitor'a Snide. 



•«< 9t*. 111. M. tlHki u Ln lias. Fvl 
I. If. M. M W«d. li. tt. elulkt i^Fin 

Humboldt's A«pe«t« of Katon. 



Hiut. — Beaeareliei on LIglit In 



Idle -Hlnta on Shootliisr, Ft«h- 



Hn. Jameion'i Legends of the 



Hn. Jameion'i Legendi of the 






JamsBon.— A CommonpUee Book 
Jaqnemet,— A Compendiom of 
Lord JelfroT'i Oontiibutlona to 



12 



NEW WOBKS AND NEW EDITIONS 

K 



Bishop Jeremy Taylor's Entire 

Worktt WItbUsU/e, tor BUhop Hxbbr. 
Rericed and corrected by the Rer. Chakuis 
Faob Kbuh, Fellov of Oriel Collec e, Ox- 
ford. CoapletelnlOTols.8vo.lOf.64l.eM:h. 

Johns and Nicolas.—The Calen- 
dar of yictorj : Being a Record of Brlttoh 




iected and commenced by tbe late Major 
[oHifi, KM. I completed bj Lieut. P. U. 
Niooi.AS>R.M. Fcp.Sro. price lU.td, 

Johnston.— A New Dictionary of 

Georrapbr, DeacriptWe, Phraieal, Statia- 
tlcal, and Historical t Forming a complete 
General Uaaetteer of tbe World. Br A. 
Kbith JoHiftTOif.F.R.S.E. Seeoud Edition, 
bronght down to May, 1855 ; In 1 vol. of 1360 

faget, comprising about iO,000 Names of 
laces. 8vo. 86«. cloth) or half-bound in 
russla,41«. 

Jones (Owen).— Tlowers and 

their Kindred Thoughts s A Series of 
Stansas. By Mabt Axicb Baoom. With 
beautifal Illustrations of Flowers, designed 
and executed in Illuminated Printing by 
Owen Jones. A'New Edition. Impl. 8ro. 

Kalisch.— Historical and Criti- 
cal Commentary on the Old Testament. By 
Dr. M. Kjxxsoh» M.A. First Portion- 
Exodus : in Hebrew and EngUsh, with 
copious Notes, Critical, Philological, and 
B^isnatory. 8ro. I&«. 

*•* An Edition of the Bsodm, as above 

SinrUke use of English readers), romprising 
e English Translation, and an abridged 
Commentary. 8vo. price 13s. 

Kemble.-The Saxons in Eng- 
land : A History of the English Common- 
wealth till the period of the Norman Con- 
iuest. By Jobk Hxtobbix Kbmbi.b, 
[.A., F.C.P.8., etc. 2 Tols. Sro. price 28«. 

Kemp.— The Fhasis of Matter: 

Being an Outline of the DiscoTeries and 
Application of Modem Chemistry. By T. 
LxNDLBT Kbmp, M.D., Author of The 
Natural HMorf of Creattom, Indleattona 
of In$tinct, etc. With 148 Woodcuts. 
3 vols, crown 8vo. 21s. 

Kesteven.—A Manual of Do- 
mestic Practice of Medicine, etc. By W. 
B. Kbstbvbn, F.R.C.S. Square post 8vo. 

[/« thepreu. 

Kippis's Collection of Hymns 

and Psalms for Public and Private Worship. 
New Edition: including a New Supple- 
ment by the Rev. EDafoiro Kezx, M.A. 
18mo. price 4«. cloth} or 4«. 6tf. roan. 



Kirby ft Spenoe's Introdnction 

to Entomol<vy i or, BlemeaU of the Na- 
tural History of Insects: eomprlaiac bb 
account of noxious and oseful iBscctB, of 
their Metamorphoses ,' Food, StntBgeaa, 
Habitations, Societies, Motions, Noises, 
Hybernation, Instinct, etc. NewEdlCioB. 
S vols. 8vo. with Plates, price 81«. M. 

Laing*s (S.) Observations on the 

Social and Political State of Dennwili aad 
the Duchies of Sleswickand Holstelnia 18S1: 
Being the Third Series of Nate$ af m Trm- 
vtller. 8vo. price 13«. 

Laing's (S J Observations on the 

Social and Political State of the Knn^eaa 
People in 1848 and 1849 1 Bcinsr tke Se- 
cond Series of Nottt ^f e iy«*«ifer. 8vo. 
price I4s. 

••• The JPirsI 8nit$, 1b 16mo. price Ik <A 

L. E. L.— The Foetieal Works 

of Letitta Elisabeth Landon. New BditUm i 
with 3 Vignettes by Richard Doyle. 3 toU. 
I6mo. price 10«. cloth j morocco, 3U. 

Dr. Latham on Diseases of the 

Heart. Lectures on Subjects connected 
with Clinical Medicines Diseases of tke 
Heart. By P. M. Latbam, M.D., Phy^aa 
Extraordinary to the Queen. New MitloB. 
3 vols. l3mo. price 18s. 

Mrs. B. Lee's Elements of Na- 
tural History t or First Principles of Zoo- 
logy t comprising the Principles of CIbbsU 
fication. Interspersed with amusing Bnd 
Instructive Accounts of the most rsmnih 
able Antanals. New Edition, eBlnrfedt 
with Bumcrous additional Weoeents. Fep. 
8vo. price 7«.6if. 

Lindley .— The Theory and Frae- 

ttce of Horticulture t er, an Attempt to 
explain the principal Operations of Gardes- 
Ing upon Physiological Grounds : Being the 
Second Edition of the Thtorf o/HorUtui- 
ture. much enlarged ; with 98 Woodcuts. 
By JoHK JjitntiMT, Ph.D., F.RJS., Vice- 
Secretary of the Horticultural Society i 
Professor of Botany in University College, 
London. 8vo. 8U. 

Dr. John Lindley's Introduction 

to Botany. New Edition, with Corrections 
and copious Additions t Six Plates and 
numerous Woodcuts. 8vo. price 24«. 

Linwood.— Anthologia Ozonlen- 

ris ; sire, Florilegium e lusibus poetids dl« 
versorum Oxonfensiura Onecis et LAtinis 
decerptum. Curante QnUEUCo Idirwooo, 
M.A. 8vo. price 14s. 

Lorimer's (OLetters toaYoong 

Master Mariner on some Subjects connected 
with his Calling. New Edition. Fcp. 8vo. 
price 6«. M. 



T LONOMAM, BKOWK, kNP Co. 



LARONER'S CABINET CYCLOPXDIA 

Hit Al^KtOriilHtWHtakr 

n loan hirschbu i 

IB lAMia HACEIHTCIBH, 






1.Ml'an>liHT^HHil>. iMli.igi.W. M. LuJnar on Hcu . . I' 









lt.I>p?™'i'Huior,o(P*D. "'■ " «. PoiB'.BiiuirJof: 



!!'fS'.™. . 



n. Ri|i|hiiir'' OBH 



16 



NEW W0BK8 AND NEW EDITIONS 



Kftiuider's EOstorieal Treasury) 

ooHiprisinr • General IntroductorxOatUne 
of UBiTerMlHIttOffj, Ancient and Modern) 
•ad A Series of eepamte HUtoriee of ererr 
priadpal Nation. New Rditlou} reriaed 
tkrovnont, and bronf ht down to the Pre> 
sent Tine. Fcp. Sro. 10«. cloth i roan« 
UU.teaU,lS«.M. 

Kamder's Sdentlfie and Lite- 

rarr IVeasarj: A New and Popular En- 
cyeloiMMMa of Science and the Belles* 
Lettres i including all Branches of Science- 
•ad ererj subject connected with Litera- 
ture and Art. New Bditiou. Fcp. Sro. 
nrlce 10s. cloth i bound In roan» Us. ; calf 
lettered, lis. M. 

Mannder'8 Treasury of Natural 

fllatorj i Or, a Popular DlctlonarT of Anl- 
■uited Nature: In which the zoological 
Characteristics that distlnruishthe different 
Classes, Genera, and 8pci9es,are combined 
with a rarietr of interesting Information 
illustnthre of the Animal Kingdom. With 
900 Woodeuu. New Edition i with 900 
Woodcuts. Fcp. 8to. price 10s. cloth; 
roan, lis.; calf, 18s. M. 

Maimder^s Treasury of Know- 
ledge, and Ubrarr of Reference. Comprise 
ing an Knriish Dictlonarr and Grammar, 
an UniversalOssetteer, a Classical Dletion- 
ar7, a Chronoloay, a Law Dlctionarj, a 
Srnopsls of the Peerage, numerous usefkl 
Iwtles, etc. The Twentieth Edition re- 
vised and corrected: With some Addi- 
tions. Fcp 8to. price 10s. cloth j bound In 
roaa,Us.t calf, ISS.M. 

MerlTBle. — A EOstory of the 

Romans under the Empire. By the Rct. 
G8U.BIIAS MuBiiTAUi, B.D., late Fellow of 
St. John's College, Cambridge. Vols. 1. 
to III. 8vo. price 42*. 

Merivale.— The Pall of the Ro- 
man Republic t A Short Hlstorj of the last 
Centnrj of the Commonwealth. BytheRer. 
Cbarms MBBITAX.B, B.D. 12mo. 7'' M* 

KerlTale.—An Account of the 

Life ajsd Letters of Cicero. Translated 
from the German of Abehen ; and Edited bjr 
the Rer. C. MnniTALs, B.O. l2ffio. 9s. 64. 

Kiles.—A Plain Treatise on 

Horse Shoeing* By Wiluam Miles. Rsq., 
Author of The Bone'$ Foot aatf how to 
k»*p it soand. With Plates and Woodcuts. 
Small 4to. fis. 

ICilner.HFhe Crimea, its An- 
cient and Modem HIstorfi the Khans, the 
Sultans, and the Csars : with SItetchet of Its 
Seenerj and Population. B/ the Rev. T. 
Mnxnt, M.A., F.R.G.S., Author of Tkt 
BaUH, iti Gatn^ Skorn, «mf CUU$, Post 
8to. wHh 8 Maps, 10>. M. 

■ -•■'- - 



miner.-The Baltic f Its CkitM, 

Shores, and Cities : With a Notice of the 
White Sea. By the Rer. T. Miuram, lf.A., 
F Jt jO.8. Post 8to. with Map, price lOls. M. 

Milner's History of the Church 

of Christ. With Additlens br the late Rer. 
Isaac Mu^mbk. D.D.« F.h.8. A New 
Edition, rensed, with additional Notes 
by the Rev. T QwLXtnmAM, B.D. 4 vela. 
8f o. price tSs. 

Montgomery. —Memoirs of the 

Life and Writings of James Montgomerj : 
Including Selections from his Correspond- 
ence, Resudns in Prose and Verse, and 
Conversations. By Johx Hoxxaxd and 
Jaxss Evsanr. With Portralu and Vlg- 
nettes. Vols. I. and II. poet 8vo, price Sis. 

%• Vols. III. and IV. are in the press. 



Montgomery.— Original ^ymns 

for Public, Social, and ftivate Devotion. 
By Jambs Mohtoosubt. l8mo. i»,td, 

James Montgomery's Poetical 

Worhss Collective Edition) with the 
Author's AutoUographical Preftices. roas- 
plete in One Volume; with Portndt and 
Vignette. Square crown 8vo. price 10s. M. 
cloth ; morocco, 31s.— Or In 4 vols . fcp. 8vo. 
with Portrait, and seven Plates, price Ids. 

Moore.— Man and his Motives. 

By Qbobob Moobb, M.D., Member of the 
Royal College of Physicians. TAinf and 
cheaper Bditiit, Fcp. Svo. price 6e. 

Moore.— The Power of the Soul 

over the Body, considered In relatioa to 
Health and Morals. By GBOmen Moobb, 
M.D., Member of the Royal Collesre of 
Physicians, etc. ^<A and cheaper fiHlfe«. 
Fcp. 8vo. price 8s. 

Moore.— The TTse of the Body in 

relaMon to the Mind. By Gborob Moobb, 
M.D., Member uf the Royal College of 
Physicians. Tktrd and cheaper Bmtion. 
Fcp. 8vo. price 8s. 

Moore. ~ Health, Disease, and 

Remedy, familiarly and practically con- 
sidered in a few of their Relatione to the 
Blood. By Gbobob Moobb, M.D. Post 
8vo. Jt. 6d, 

Moore.— Memoirs, Jonmal, and 

Correspondence of Thomas Moore. Edited 
bv the Right! Hon. Lobd John Rvssbu., 
M.P. With Portralu and Vignette Hlustrm- 
tlons. Vols. I. to VI. postSvo. Itts. 64. each. 



BBOWN. AMD Co. 



ThomM Hoofc'b Poettckl Work*. 

Hoore. — Sonn, BsUadi, uid 
Hoore'B Irish Helodles nins- 



Koort'i Lalla Bookh; An Orl- 






Unre.— A Oritieftl nsbor of 



lT«ale. — " BlMD tttaa the 
NetlB.— The RiehH Uut bring 
IfeaJe. — The Earthly Sestias 



Hewmau.— DlMoaiHa Rddrawd 

HiwHis, Pr£i<gribi6iu<iiT<ifai.rkuir 

OldMn.—Tbe l4st of tba Old 
OldadxoD.— GlMningB fromFie- 

S'Sotoon. pD.i».o.pri"'l(l..'»'J.' ° 



Osborn. — A NutaUn of the 



18 



NEW WOBKS AND NEW EDITIONS 



Owen.— Xiecttires on the Gom- 

Mratl?* AtuiomT and Phrdology of the 
Invertebnue Aniaals. BjHioHioiDOwBM. 
P.R.S. Hwiteriwa Profeator in the Royal 
Collefc of Surffcons. Second Edition, 
gremaj enlargwi } with tSS Woodcuts. 8to. 
price tl«. 

Professor Owen*s Lectnres on 

the Compvatire Anatomr and Phyiiology 
of the Vertebrate Animali. With numer- 
ous Woodcuts. 7ol. I. 8to. price 14ff. 

The Complete Works of Blaise 

Pascal. Translated from the French, with 
Memoir, Introdnetions to the rarious 
Worhs, Editorial Notes, and Appendices, 
by GxoAOB PxAKcx, Esq . 8 Tols . pest 8r o. 
with Portrait. 3S*.M. 

Dr. Fereira's Lectnres on Po- 
larised Ui^ht, together with a Lecture on 
the Microscope, deUrered before the Phar- 
maceutical Society of Great Britain, and at 
the Medical School of the London Hospital. 
Second Edition, enlarged from Materials 
left by the Author, by the Rer. Badsm 
PowBUi, M.A.« etc Fcp. 8ro. with Wood- 
cuts, 7«. 

Dr. Pereira*s Elements of Ma- 
teria Medica and Therapeutics. Third 
Bdititn, enlsreed and improred from the 
Author's Materials by A.S.TArx«K. H.D., 
and G. O. Rkbs. 1m. D. With numerous 
Woodcut*. Vol. I. Avo. 38«. ; Vol. U. Part 
I.17».i Vol. II. Part 11. 24*. 

Dr. Pereira's Treatise on Food 

and Diet. With Obserratious on the Diete 
ticalRerimen suited for Disordered States 
of the Digestive Organs; and an Account of 
the Dietaries of some of the principal Me- 
tropolitan and other KstRblishments for 
Paupers, Lunatics,Criminals,Children, the 
Sick, etc. 8to. 16s. 

Peschel's Elements of Physics. 

Translated from the German, witb N^otcs, 
by E. Wbst. With Diaiorams and Wood- 
cuts. Srols.fcp. STO.price 3I«. 

P f e 1 ff e r.— A Second Journey 

round the World. By Madame loi Pfeiv- 
FSR. i. Tols. post Sro. {J tut ready. 

PhUllps.— A Guide to Geology. 

By John Phxxxips. M.A. F.R.S. F.G.S., 
DeputT Reader in Ueology iu the UnWerslty 
of (word. Foarth Edition, witb 4 Plates. 
Fcp. 8to. price £«. 

Phillips's Elementary Intro- 

ductinn to Mineralogy. A New Edition, 
with extensive Alterations and Additions, 
br H. J . Bnoou, F.R.S., FXS 8.; and W . 
H. MiLLBK. M.A., F.G.S., Professor of 
Mineralogy in the University of Cambridire. 
With numerous Woodcuu. Post 8vo. 18s. 



Phillips.— Figures andDescrip- 

. tionsof the Palssosoic Fossils of Cornwall, 
Devon, and West Somerset; observed in 
the course of the Ordnance Geolo|rical Sur- 
rey of that District. Br Johk Pbulups, 
M.A. etc. 8vo . with 60 Plates, price »«. 

Piscator.— The Ghoice and Cook- 
ery of Fish: A Practical Treatise. By Pis* 
cATOK. Fcp. 8vo. &S. 6tf. 

Gaptain Portlock's Report on 

the Geology of the County of Londonderrr, 
and of Parts of Tyrone and Fermanagn , 
examined and described under the Autho- 
rity of the Master-General and Board of 
Ordnance. 8vo. with 48 Plates, price 24«. 

Powell*— Essays on the Spirit 

of the inducUve Philosophr, the Uuitr of 
Worlds, and the PhiloRophy of Creatifm. 
By the Rev. Baobn Powbix, M.A., F.R S., 
F.R.A.S., F.G.S., Savilian Professor of Geo- 
metry In the University of Oxford. Crown 
8vo. I'ii.M. 

Pulman*s Vade-Mecum of Fly- 

Flshingfor Trout; being a complete Prac- 
tical Treatise on that Branch or the Art of 
Angling ; with plidn and copious Instruc- 
tions for the Manufacture of Artificial Flies. 
Third Edition, with Woodcuta. Fcp. 8vo. 
price 6s. 

Pyeroft's Course of English 

Reading, adapted to every Taste and Ca- 
pacity ; With Literary Anecdotes. New 



I 



and cheaper Edition. Fcp.8vo. price 6s. 

Baikes.— A Portion of the Jour- 
nal Icept by Thomas Raikps. Ifsq., from 1831 
to '847: CompriRini; Reminiscences of So- 
cial and Political Life in L«>ndon and Paris 
during that period. [In preparation. 

Dr. Beece's Medical Guide ) for 

the use of the Clergr, He»ds of Families, 
Schools, and Junior Medical Practitioners: 
Comprising a complete Modern Dispensa- 
tory, and a Practical Treatise on the distin- 
guishing Symptoms, Causes, Preveittion, 
Cure, and Palliation of the Diseases inrident < 
to the II uman Frame. Seventeenth Edition, 
corrected and enlarged by the Author's 
Son. 8vo. price 12«. 

Bdch's Illustrated Companion 

to the Latin Dictionary and Greek Lexicon : 
Forming a Glossary of all the Words repre- 
senting Visible Objects connected writh the 
Arts, Manufactures, and Every*day Lafe of 
the Ancients. With Woodcut Representa- 
tions of nearly 3,000 Objects from the 
Antique. Post 8vo . price 21s. 

Sir J. Itichardson*s Journal of 

a Boat Voyage through Rupert's Land and 
the Arctic Sea, in Search of the Discovery 
Ships under Command of Sir John Franklin. 
Wiih an Appendix on the Physical <ieo- 
graphyof North America; a Map, Plates, 
and Woodcuts. 2 vols. 8vo. price 3U. %d. 



PUBLISHED BY LONGMAN, BROWN, and Co. 



19 



Horsemanship f or, the Art of 

Riding and Managing a Horve, adapted to 
the Guidance of Ladles and Gentlemen on 
tlte Road and in tlie Field : With Instrac- 
tions for Brealting in Colts and Yoaiig 
Horses. Br Capt&i RicHA.ROsoif, Ute of 
the 4th Light Dragoons. With 5 Une En- 
grarlngs. 8q«ar« crown 8to. pries \4». 

Rickards.— Fopulatioa and 

Capital : Being a Coarse of Lectures de- 
livered before the University of Oxford in 
18S3 and 1864. Bj Qboros K. Rickards, 
M.A., Professor of Political Economy. 
Post 8to. 6$. 

Kiddle's Gomplete Latin-Eng- 

lish and Bngllsh-Latin Dlctionarr, for the 
use of Colleges and Schools. New and 
cheaper Bditlomf revised aRd corrected. 
8vo. 21«. 

R*n.M»*i. /TheKnglish-Latin Dletlonarj, 7«. 
separately ^ThsLatlii.EngUshDIclioBary.lS*. 

Biddle*s Oopioos and Oritieal 

Latin>EngUsh Lexicon, founded on the 
Geiman-Latin Dictionaries of Dr. William 
Frennd. New and th^mptr Edition. Post 
4to. price 8I«. 64, 

Bdddle's Diamond Latin-Eng- 

li*h Dictionary : A Guide to the Meaninit, 

aiality, and right Acoentoation of Latin 
atsical Words. Royal 83mo. price 4t. 

Bivers's B«se- Amateur's Guide) 

coutiduing ample Descriptions of all the 
ftne leading varieties of iloses, regularly 
classed in their respective Families; their 
History and Mode of Culture. Fifth and 
cheaper Edition, much Improred. Fcp. 
8ro. price 8t.6tf. 

Dr. £. Robinson's Chreek and 

English Lexicon of the Greek Testament. 
A New Edition, revised and in great part 
re-written. 8vo. price 18«. 

Mr.Henry Rogers's Essays, se- 
lected from Contributions to the Bdimiur/fh 
Review. Second an4 eAea^«r Edition, with 
Additions. 8 vols. fcp. 8to. 21«. 

Mr. Henry Rogers's Additional 

Essays from the Rdinburgh A««jri», printed 
uniformly with the Firtt EditioM, and 
forming a Third Volume. 8to. lOi. $d. 

Dr. Roget's Thesaurus of Eng- 
lish Words and Phrases classified and ar- 
ranged so as to facilitate the Expression 
of Ideas and assist in Literary Composi- 
tion. Third Edition, revised and improved, 
and printed in a more conreulent form. 
Crown 8vo. lOt. M. 



Rowton's Debater: A Series of 

complete Debates, Outlines of Debates, and 
Questions for Discussion i with ample 
references to the best Sources of I nformation 
on each particular Topic. New Edition. 
Fcp. 8vo. price 6». 

Letters of RachaelLady Rus- 

sell. A New Edition, including several 
unpublished I^etters. With Portraits, Vig- 
nettes, and Facsimile. 2 vols, post 8to 
price 15a. 

The Life of William Lord Rus- 

sell. By the Right Hon. Lord Jobn Rrs- 
SBI.X.. M.P. The Fourth Edition, complete in 
One Volume ; with a Portrait engraved on 
Steel by S. Bellin. Post Svo. price 10s. M. 

St. John (the Eton. F.)— Rambles 

in Search of Sport, in Germany, France, 
Italy, and Russia. Bv the Honourable 
FsRDiXAMD St. John, with Four coloured 
Plates . Post 8vo. price 9$. Hd. 

St. John (H.)— The Indian Ar- 

cliipelago ; Its History and Present State. 
By HoBAOB St. JoBM . 2 vols, post 8vo. 
price Sit. 

The Saints our Example. By 

the Author of Lettert (• tnf Vnhn9wn 
Prienda, etc. Fcp. Svo. price 7<> 

Schmitz.— History of Greece, 

from the Earliest Times to the Taking of 
Corinth by the Romans, B.C. 146, mainly 
bsHed upon Bishop Thirlwall's History of 
Greece. By Dr. Lsonhard ScbmitXi 
:. Ne 



F.R.SJB. 



Dr. 
}ew Edition. 



ISmo. 7<. 641. 



Scrivenor.— History of the Lfon 

Trade, from the Earliekt Records tn the 
Present l^eriud. By IIarrv Scrxtsncr. 
Author of The Railwayi of thb United 
Kingdom. New Edition, rwued and cor- 
rected. Svo. 10«. id. 

Sir Edward Seaward's Narra- 
tive of his Shipwrecic, and ronsequent Dis- 
covery of certain Islands in the Caribbean 
8ea. Third Edition. 3 vols, post 8vo. 21«. 
— An ABRXOoMENTt Ir 16mo. price i$. 6d. 

The Sermon in the Mount. 

Printed by C. Wbittlughnm, uniformlv 
with the Thumb Bible t bound and clasped. 
64mo. price Eighteenpence. 

Self-Denial the Preparation for 

Raster. By the Author of Letter$ to mp 
Unknown Friendi,etc. Fcp. 8vo. 2«. 6tf. 

Sewell.— Amy Herbert. By a 

Lady. Edited by the Rev. W. Sxwbu.. 
B.D. Fellow and Tutor of Kxeter College, 
Oxford. New Edition. Fcp. Svo. price O* 



NEW WOBEB IBB NEW EDITIOHB 

SemlL— The Etrl'i Dtngliter. Short WbUti It> IUm, Pro- 

SewelL-Oertrndei ATale. ^ E^i^^W'i^F'J'' ;'l^'. ^"" 

VS-Vl: ^« fc^' "■°' ''"""'°°- SInoIatr.— The Journey of Lift. 

Sewell.— IdJieton PaMonagei A i^MiJmv'iifr.'"^ kjuio., comntJ 

rJM!rk«°^-V w^V^i- KdiW"; >i^ Slf Boger De Oaveile;- rmn 

SewelL— MarjiretPemiwJ. By -""■■'■ 






1 «!., fc bto. pri» iJ.. Smith's SMTEd Aimals.-Sure«l 

OleveHall. s ton. ftp. sio, le.. K;^'„^^a^Bm^^^M^*a, 

Kmthftrina Alhton. New BdiUon. ^-^"^^^.-^Si.'aiCSaSrT!: 

The Expeiieticc of Ufe. Nev r^^ ^ £'niin£u>rftZ3"k^si 

SeAdlnffi for* Month Prepart- i:re»i.»™.p>i«i»i. 

B'i^A'ckI^ii?'v''c'ii!s^DfSric<'li^i^,"" Sifred Annals i Vol. I. The 

SeBdlnn for ETory Day Id ?'''"r''''',",l''''r°i'a","'fbV'D«'iv'o( 

Sacred Annals i VoL H. The 

The Vamily Shakspeare) in iJ£^(K?'i™'iii,"%2''ih!?(wJi"oi 

fas md aload. Bj T- Bowdub. Etq- 

F^Ektii irirh la w^d°E'pV^"g<°'r™ Siuee's Elements of Electro- 

Sharp's New British Gaeetteer, A Memoir of the Eev. Sydney 

att aiSiwIrlSSZl ^il a^nlmnH br Hn. Aurin. iToU.Im. pric<W>. 

Sdn°[iS°pi£iiiV5°)K'BSlliJ!iiV **' Works of the Hoy. Sydney 

S5'u"TknS.'^!'*ilf"Vr^tM«''oS'r IS"biib hV^^V't t'"c''KdllUn'l .- "' 



PUBLI8HBD BT LONGMAN, BBOWN, and Co. 



21 



The Bev. Sydney Smith's Ele- 
mentary Sketches of Monl Philosophf , 
delirered at the Royal Institution in tlte 
Years 1804. 1806, and 1806. TUrd and 
cheap er Edition. Fcp. 8to . price Jt. 

The Life and Gorrespondence of 

tite late Robert Sonthej. Edited br bis 
Son, the Rer. C.C. Southbt, M.A. Vicar 
of Ardleigh. With Portraits; and Land> 
scape lUasUations. 8 Tois. post Sro. tS*. 

Soathey*s Life of Wesley ; and 

Rise and Progress of Methodism. New 
EdiUon, with Notes and Additions, by the 
late Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Esq., aad the 
late Alexander Knox, Esq Edited by the 
ReT.C.C.8onTHST,M.A. arols.STO.with 
2 Portraits, price 2Sa. 

Southey's Gonunonplace Books. 

Comprising— 1. Choice Passages: withCol* 
lections for the History of Bfanuers and 
Literature in England i 3. Special Collec- 
tions on rarious Historical and Theological 
Subjects t 8. Analytical Readings in various 
branches of Literature: and 4. Original 
Memoranda, Literary and Miscellaneous. 
Edited by the Rev. J. W. Wartsb, B.D. 
4 vols, square crown 8to. price £3 18f. 

Bach Ctmmumptmc* Book, complete in it- 
self, may be had separately as follows i— 



FiasTSxBiBS-CHOICE PASSAGES. 18«. oaks, F.S.A., F.L.S. 8to. 18«.M. 



Stonehenge. ~ The Gieyhoond: 

Being a Treatise on the Art of Breeding, 
Hearing, and Training Greyhounds for Pub- 
lie Running; their Diseases and Treat* 
m«nt t Containing also. Rules for the Ma- 
nagement of Coursing Meetings, and for 
the Decision of Courses. By Ssomsbbnok, 
With Frontispiece and many Woodcuts. 
Square crown 8to. price 21t. 

Stow. --The Training System, 

the Moral Training Scliool, and the Normal 
Seminary for preparing School Trainers and 
Governesses. By David Stow, Esq., 
Honorary Secretary to the Glasgow Normal 
Free Seminary. Tenth Edition; with Plates 
and WoodcttU. Post 8ro. price 6$. 

Dr. Sutherland's Journal of a 

Voyage in Baffin's Bay aiid Barrow's 
SUaits,in the Years IbfiO and 1851, per- 
formed by H. M. Ships Ladp FramhUn 
and Sophimf under the command of Mr. 
William Penny, in search of the Missing 
Crews of H. M. Ships Ereiut and Terror. 
with Charu and Ulustrations. 3 toU. 
post 8to. price S7«. 



Tagart.— Locke's Writings and 




2d Sebixs-SPECIAL COLLECTIONS, 18t. 
8d Sebiu-ANALYTICAL READINGS, 21«. 
4thSxbim-ORIGINALMBMOB^NDA,S1«. 

Robert Sodthey's Poetical 

Works t containing all the Author's last 
Introductions and Notes. Complete in One 
Volume, with Portrait and Vignette. Me- 
dium 8vo. price 21«. cloth; 42«. bound in 
morocco. Or in 10 vols. fcp. Svo.with For 
■ trait and 19 Plates, price 36s. 

Select Works of the British 

Poets; from Chancer to Lovelace, inclu- 
sive. With Biographical SIcetches by the 
late BoBXBT SouTBKy. Medium 8to. 80s. 

Southey's Doctor. Complete 

in One Volume. Edited by the Rev. J. W. 
Wabteb, B.D. With Portrait, \^nette. 
Bust, and coloured Plate. New EldUion. 
Square crown 8vo. price 21«. 

Spencer.— The Principles of 

Pyschologjr. By Hekbert 8pekob&« Au- 
thor of 5ocinl S<ci<ios. 8vo, let. 

Sir James Stephen's Lectures 

on the History of France. Second Edition. 
2 vols . 8vo. price 24*. 

Sir James Stephen's Essays in 

Ecclesiastical Biography; from the Edin* 
I; burgh Review. T^irdEditiou. 2vols. 8vo. 
price 24«. 



Tate.— On the Strength of Ma- 
terials ; containiogvarions original and use- 
ful Formulae, specially applied to Tabular 
Bridges, Wrought Iron and Cast Iron 
Beams, etc. BvTbomas Taw, FJl.A.8. 
Svo.pnce (s.M. 

Tayler.— Christian Aspeots of 

Faith and Duty t Twenty Discourses. By 
John Jjlmms Txyimsl, B.A. Second Edi. 
Horn, Post 8vo. 7«. M. 

Taylor.— Loyola! and Jesuitism 

in its RudlmeoU. By Isaac TA-yi.o». 
Post 8to. with a MedaUloa, price lOt. M. 

Taylor.-WesleyandUethodism. 

By Isaac Tati.or. Post 8vo. with a Por- 
trait, price iOs.fiif. 

Tegoborski.-^Commentaries on 

the Productive Forces of Russia. By L. 
Db Tsoobobskx, Pri^-Councillor and 
Member of the Imperial Couaell of Rvssia. 
VoU I. 8ro. price I4«. 

ThirlwalL— The History of 

Greece. By the Right Rcr. tin Lord 
Bishop of St. Datid^s (the Rcr. Connop " 
Thirlwall). An improveo Library Edition t 
with Maps. 8 vols. 8vo. price jBS. 

Also, an Edition in 8 vols. fcp. 8to. with 
Vignette Titles, price 28s. 



22 NEW WORKS AND NEW EDITIONS 



THE TRAVELLEBS UBBABT, 

In eoaric of PaWcatioii In Volomea price S«. M. each. CompiiAng books of Taloable Infom- 
ndon and a^nowledred merit, in a form adapted for reading wliile Trarellinf, and also 
of a cbaracter that wiU render them worthy of presenration. 

Vot. «. rf. 

I. MAC AULA VS ESSAYS on WARREN HASTINGS and LORD CLIVE S 6 

5. ESSAYS on PITT & CHATHAM, RANKE & GLADSTONE ..8 6 

8. LAINCS RESIDENCE in NORWAY S 6 

4. IDA PPEIFFER*S LADY*S VOYAGE BOUND the WORLD S 6 

i. EOTHEN I or, TRACES of TRAVEL from the EAST S 6 

6. MAC AULA Y'S ESSAYS on ADDISON, WALPOLB, and LORD BACON .... S 6 

7. HUC'S TRAVELS IN TARTARY and THIBET S 6 

8. THOMAS HOLCROPT'S MEMOIRS 3 6 

9. WERNE'S APRICAN WANDERINGS 3 6 

10. Mrs. J ABfESON'S SKETCHES in CANADA 3 6 

11. JERRMANN'S PICTURES from ST. PETERSBURG 3 6 

13. The Rbt. G. R. GLEIG'S LEIPSIC CAMPAIGN S 6 

18. HUGHES'S AUSTRALIAN COLONIES 3 6 

14. SIR EDWARD SEAWARD'S SHIPWRECK 3 6 

15. ALEXANDRE DUMAS' MEMOIRS of a MAITRE-D'ARMES 3 6 

16. OUR COAL-FIELDS and OUR COAL PITS 8 6 

17. M'CULLOCH'S LONDON : and GIRONIERE'S PHILIPPINES 3 6 

18. SIR ROGER DE COVERLEYiand SOUTHEVS LOVE STORY 3 6 

,„ /LORD CARLISLE'S LECTURES AND ADDRESSES t and JEFFREVSl « « 

**• \ ESSAYS on SWIFT and RICHARDSON / ' " 

30. HOPE'S BIBLE in BRITTANY and CHASE in BRITTANY 3 6 

31. THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH; and NATURAL HISTORY of CREATION .... 2 6 

3S. MEMOIR of DUKE of WELLINGTON; and LIFE of MARSHAL TURENNE 3 6 

23. RANKK'S FERDINAND and MAXIMILIAN; and TURKEY and CHRISTENDOM 2 6 

., /BARROW'S CONTINENTAL TOUR ; and FERGUSON'S SWISS BIENl „ ^ 

'*•! and SWISS MOUNTAINS / * <» 

o^ /SOUVESTRE'S ATTIC PHILOSOPHER in PARIS and WORKING! „ ^ 

**• 1 MAN'S CONFESSIONS / * « 

^ /MACAULAY'S ESSAYS on LORD BYRON, and the COMIC DRAMATISTS;! « . 
^■1 and Ms SPEECHES on PARLIAMENTARY REFORM j* » 

„ /SHIRLEY BROOKS'S RUSSIANS of the SOUTH; and Dr-KEMP^SI . ^ 

27-1 INDICATIONS of INSTINCT / « « 

28. LANMAN'S ADVENTURES in the WILDS of NORTH AMERICA 2 6 

29. RUSSIA. By the MARQUIS De CUSTINE ; 3 « 

30. SELECTIONS from the Bet. SYDNEY SMITH'S WRITINGS, Vol. 1 2 6 

„ /BODENSTEDT and WAGNER'S SCHAMYL ; and M'CULLOCH'Sl , « 

31' 1 RUSSIA and TURKEY / 2 6 

32. LAING'S NOTES of a TRAVELLER, First Series 2 6 

38. DURRIEU'S MOROCCO; and an ESSAY on MORMONISM 2 6 

84. RAMBLES In ICELAND. ByPLINYMILES 2 6 

85. SELECTIONS from the Rbv. SYDNEY SMITH'S WRITINGS, Vol. II 2 6 

„ fHAYWARDS ESSAYS on CHESTERFIELD and 8ELWYN; and MISSl „ . 

3«- { FANNY MAYNK'S ARCTIC VOYAGES and DISCOVeIiiES / 2 6 

37. CORNWALL: its MINES, MINERS, and SCENERY 2 6 

88. DANIEL DE FOE and CHARLES CHURCHILL. By JOHN FORSTER,* Esq*. 2 6 

89. GREGOROVIUS'S CORSICA. TransUted by R. MARTINEAU, M.A 3 6 

^ /FRANCIS ARAGO'S AUTOBIOGRAPHY. TransUted by the Rbv. B.POWELLl - 

*'\ PRINTIMG: Its ANTECEDENTS, ORIGIN, and RESULTS. By A. STARK/ ^ 6 

41. MASON'S LIFE with the ZULUS of NATAL, SOUTH AFRICA 2 6 






42. FORESTER'S RAMBLES in NORWAY 2 



6 



T LONQHAN, BBOWN, xHD Co. 



Thornton, (The Ber. W.>— The 



Thomson (The Ber.W. )— An Ont- 

iUh oa p"' iml Appl^l Wc. Br 






Tooke.— History of Prices and 



Townsond.— TheLlTeB of Tmlve 
Townsend.— Modem State Tri- 
TtoUope. — The Warden. By 



Sharon Tonier's Hiitoty ofEng- 

a'o.'prli/wi". 



Bhanm Tonwr*! History of the 



Dr. Torton'sUauakl ofthe Lutd 



Twlnln?. -Types aod PifiuM 



Dr. TTre's Dictionary of Arte, 



Vehse.-Meniolrs of the Court, 
Waterton.— Essays on nRtnrml 



Webster and Farkes's "Bnaj- 



NEW WOKKS txp NEW EDITIONS. 



Weld.— A VmkUmi Tout Is the 

Mm. i«r.W. 
WMt [Dr.l — LMtDTu on Uie 

Uoipllal (di Blrt CUIdre>'i FMililu- 
IMiNM, nf [ltd iDd iDluit^. sn. Itr. 

WhMler (B. H.)— A FopnUr 

Uummr Hi IW Bll>l>. HlHortciUr ud 

WhteUr.-Tbe Lib sad Tr Kvela 

■r KcmtDHa Id (h« TITA Ceumi? brfor* 
ChrUti uLBubDaryBUMrttferUlHimht 
-'"- ^^ If, ■••Den. Hellilon, 



•B^Ktrto^^i 



Wilson,— Btyoto^ Bittannica i 
Tonm.-A Hew EngUah-OreA 



..po.i Tonge'i New Latin endnii 



[J«( r,mig. 

Wheeler. — The Geonapliy of 

H««lDlo.D^LD|>.d.K.|>l£ird.udIlly.. 

Whlteloeke. — Jovnul of tlie 



nb^bcdlnm itlMflm^llS.krUr.C. 

milidi's PojndAr Tables far 



nidi's Popidar Ta 



LadrWilloogltby's IHsry (18SS 

H urn). ^BUd.HUBIBM, UllHUd 

Dlairnbri. NnKdlllmi liTus Itru. 



S'??'' '^°)JlP' V"''"' '"' "^l«"i«'> 



Touatt.— The Hone. By WIl- 

ll<*"'''I^°rH><*>>JCi>'''MIUl>Dl><i3d' 

TonatL— The Dog. By miUam 

Toong.-The Christ of History: 



Zompt'i Larger Qntmmar of 

TrualjkUr. ponnh Edtti», UDnufUf 
{Seplanio', 1859.