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A merican 

.Agriculturist 




Founded 1842 



$1.00 PER YEAR JULY 7, 1923 PUBLISHED WEEKLY 




Write and Tell Us Why This Man Is Using Poor Judgment 



Farmers Must Solve Their Own Problems— By Samuel Gompers 






































































2 


American Agriculturist, July 7,1923 


For More Orderly Marketing 


State Department, WEAF and A.A. Broadcast Daily Market Reports 


l S announced last week, American Agla¬ 
ya culturist, cooperating with the New 
/—% York State Department of Farms 
jL JLand Markets and with WEAF broad¬ 
casting station, is now furnishing a radio 
market service every Tuesday, Wednesday, 
Thursday and Friday morning. These mar¬ 
ket reports are broadcast at 10:50 A. M. 
Eastern Standard time. Reports are 
gathered by experts out of the market and 
represent the exact status of the market 
right up to the time of broadcasting. 

We are enthusiastic about this service and 


reports will be given slowly so that you will 
have no difficulty in setting them down. On 
this report, somewhere, there is at least one 
product in which you are interested. For 
instance, there are few farmers, or farmers’ 
wives, that are not interested in New York 
City poultry and egg prices. 

Last minute quotations will be given every 
day on these products. If the market is firm 
and a particular product in high demand, you 
will know it and can get your product in im¬ 
mediately. If, on the other hand, there is an 
over-supply or glut, you can save yourself 


products on that market to the best ad¬ 
vantage. 

Tell us in a letter how to improve this 
service. Tune in on WEAF 10:50 Eastern 
Standard time (Wave length 492 meters). 


Remember the Date 

T HE National Dairy Exposition at Syra¬ 
cuse, New York, October 5-13, will pre¬ 
sent a picture of dairying from the produc¬ 
tion, manufacturing, marketing and finan- 


Radio Market Service 

T HE following market report is furnished by the New York State 
Department of Farms and Markets cooperating with American 
Agriculturist. This report is broadcast every Tuesday, Wednesday, 
Thursday and Friday at 10:50 A. M., Eastern Standard time, through 
radio station WEAF of the American Telephone and Telegraph Com¬ 
pany, on wave length of 492 meters. Prices represent sales by original 
receivers in the wholesale produce markets in New York City. Fruit 
and vegetable prices represent sales up to 7 A. M. Eastern Standard 
time. Prices on other commodities represent sales up to 10 A. M. 
Blanks for filling in the pi’ices will be furnished free of charge upon 
application to American Agriculturist, 461 Fourth Avenue, New 
York City. 

APPLES: CELERY: 

Receipts. Receipts. 

Market. Market.. 

Per bushel basket. Per bunch (1 doz. stalks) . . . 

... Per crate ( ). 

LETTUCE: 

Receipts. 

Mai'ket. 


Per crate 


CHERRIES: 
Receipts . 
Market . . 


Hudson River: 

Red sweet: per qt. . 

Per 4-qt. basket. . 
White sweet: per qt 
Per 4-qt. basket. . 
Black sweet: per qt. 

Per 4-qt. basket. . 
Red sour: per qt. . . 
Per 4-qt. basket. . 

PEACHES: 

Receipts. 

Mai'ket. 

Per bushel basket. . . . 


ONIONS: 

Receipts. 

Mai'ket .... .. 

Per bushel basket, Red 

White. 

Yellow. 

Per 100-lb bag. Red. . 

White. 

Yellow. 

PEAS: 

Receipts. 

Mai’ket. 

Per bushel bag...... 

Per bushel basket. . 


POTATOES: 

Receipts. 

Market. 

Long Island, 

Per 3-bushel bbl 


HAY: 

Receipts. 

Market. 

Per ton, U. S. timothy, 

No. 1. 

No. 2. 

No. 3. 

No. 4. 

Sample. 


LIVE POULTRY: 

'Receipts. 

Market. 

Per lb., 

Fowls, colored. . 

Leghorn . . 
Broilers, colored 
Leghorn . 
Roosters. 


COUNTRY DRESSED CALVES: 

Receipts. 

Market. 

Per lb., white meated calves, 

Fancy . 

Common to prime . ... 


EGGS: 

Receipts (previous day) ... cases 

Market. 

Per dozen, 

Nearby Hennery White (in 
other than new cases) 

Extra fancy. 

Extra firsts.. 

Nearby Gathered Whites, 

Firsts to extra firsts. 

Lower grades.. 

Nearby Hennery Browns, 

Extra fancy. 

Pacific Coast Whites, 

Extra fancy. 


BUTTER: 

Receipts (previous da 3 ^.tubs 

Market. 

Per pound, Creamery Salted, 

Higher score. 

92 score . 

Seconds . 


CHEESE: 

Receipts. '. .lb. 

Market... 

Per lb., 

Whole Milk Flats, colored or 
white, 

Average run. 


A Reproduction of Each Side of the Market Report Form, Issued by American Agriculturist 


are having much to say about it because we 
know that if you make the most of it, it will 
save you money in marketing your farm 
products this year. 

There is printed on this page a reduced 
copy of the forms from which the reports 
are'made. We will be-glad to furnish upon 
application to American Agriculturist, 461 
Fourth Avenue, these blank forms free of 
charge. 

If you keep them near your receiving 
set with a pencil handy, you can fill in the 
blanks with that day’s prices as they come 
out of the air. Only the prices of those 
products that are in season will be broadcast 
so there will be some items on your blank 
each day which will not be filled in. The 


tremendous loss by holding it a few days or 
sending it to some other market. We ex¬ 
pect to quote Newark and Philadelphia prices 
a little later. 

Will you not cooperate with us in helping 
to make this service reach as many people as 
possible? Perhaps some arrangements can 
be made with some local farm organization, 
storekeeper, milk station, or weekly news¬ 
paper to post these reports so that every¬ 
body can find them each day. Here is an 
opportunity to help yourself and help your 
neighbors market their farm products. Farm 
people know how to grow stuff, but we have 
not learned as yet how to sell it well. Here 
is a chance to study the greatest market in 
the world and to learn how to put your 


cial standpoints, greater in scope, more in¬ 
teresting in appeal, and more educational in 
its influence than has ever before been at¬ 
tempted in an exposition of this character. 
Every dairy interest will be represented— 
the amateur and professional dairyman, the 
. creamery man, the cheese manufacturer, the 
ice cream manufacturer, the banker and 
financier, the community builder, and thQ, 
student of dairying from whatsoever angle 
will find something of value and of interest 
to him at this great show. 


P>e sore to vote on the Prohibition issue, 
. see page 5. Sign your name and address. 
Only initials will be used on letters published. 






















































































































American Agriculturist 

THE FARM PAPER THAT PRINTS THE FARM NEWS 
“Agriculture is the Most Healthful, Most Useful and Most Noble Employment of Man”— Washington 

Reg. U. S. Pat. Off. Established 1842 

Volume 112 ' For the Week Ending July 7, 1923 Number 1 

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Farmers Must SolveTheir Own Problems 

Legislative Cure-alls Will Not Bring Prosperity 


I F the farming interests of America can 
devise no sounder methods of maintain¬ 
ing their proper place in the economic 
scheme of things than a resort to legis¬ 
lative cure-alls they are inevitably doomed 
to disappointment. 

I see no reason why farmers need to ex¬ 
pect hope from anything that does not also 
offer hope for labor; and labor long since 
abandoned any dream of salvation through 
politicians. 

This conference, called by those whose 
present trend of thought at least is toward 
political remedies, must turn its 
feet toward paths that lead into 
the economic structure itself if 
it wishes to work real benefit 
and point to lasting and sound 
methods. 

I have heard much about the 
alleged disproportionate income 
of industrial wage earners and 
farmers. Some have pointed out 
that one of the things greatly to 
be desired is an increased market 
for wheat. They propose to pat¬ 
tern after industry and teach the 
people to eat more wheat. Let 
me remind you in passing that 
you will not induce people to eat" 
more wheat if you threaten the 
income out of which they buy 
wheat. 

Farmers complain of the state 
of their market to-day. I join 
with you in lamenting the in¬ 
adequate income of the farmer, 
but I venture to assert that 
the income of the farmers can 
never be greater if industrial wages are 
either to stand still or go down. The product 
of the farm is largely bought by the popu¬ 
lations of the cities and the populations of 
the cities are composed mostly of wage 
earners. 

There is throughout America to-day a 
comparative state of prosperity because 
there is a comparatively high average buy¬ 
ing power among the workers. Wages are 
not what we would like them to be in a great 
many cases, but at least they are not the 
wages of poverty. They are wages that per¬ 
mit workers to buy and to exercise some 
choice in the range and quality of their 
buying. 

The state of the farmer may be described 
as an economic maladjustment; and that be¬ 
ing the case, it can be righted. It seems 
easy to rush to the law-makers, and ask for 
law. Let me assure you, out of a long and 
active experience, that there is no great 
magic in a law. You will not stop the eco¬ 
nomic machine and reverse its operation by 
the enactment of a law. About the best that 
a law can do is to go along with a ripening 
public sentiment or a rip_..ing economic de¬ 
velopment. 

There are many law-makers, some farmers 
and some wage earners who forget that we 
are living in an industrial civilization. The 


By SAMUEL GOMPERS 

economic forces of our time ride on, develop¬ 
ing and changing in accord with the progress 
of human needs, invention, and the supplies 
of raw materials. The dominant character 
of a civilization is and must be reflected in 
its customs, its laws and its manner of life. 
Study history to find out about that. 

Law-makers a decade ago were furiously 
engaged in trying to “bust the trusts.” Politi¬ 
cal campaigns were fought on that issue. 
The graveyards of the decade are not filled 


with the remains of busted trusts, but they 
are well populated with the skeletons of for¬ 
gotten laws and law-makers. The trusts are 
greater than ever. It has been possible to 
curb some of their practices and to prevent 
some practices, but the essential structure 
has stood because it was economically right 
and moreover economically inevitable. 

I point to these things to help make clear 
my thought. The road to right practices, 
right developments, right compensations for 
various kinds of useful service is not through 
Congress or State Legislatures. These may 
lend a helping hand and they may clear the 
road; but they cannot build the body of our 
effort nor shape our course. 

Let us look at the specific economic condi¬ 
tion affecting the farm community. 

In the last ten years there has been no 
increase in the farm population of our coun¬ 
try. Despite this, the farms raise crops to 
feed an addition of 14 millions in our popula¬ 
tion and enough to increase annual farm ex¬ 
ports from seven and one-half million tons 
a year to seventeen and one-half million tons 
a year. 

The per capita volume production of our 
farms has increased amazingly. The in¬ 
dustrial production has likewise increased, 
but the industrial workers have found a way 
to command for themselves a standard of 


living that has progressed somewhat in ac¬ 
cord with and in relation to the increase in 
volume production. 

Europe talks about its proletariat, and 
it has a proletariat. Europe talks about 
its peasantry, and it has a peasantry. The 
United States has neither of these, for 
two reasons. It has neither the economic 
conditions nor the state of mind that pro¬ 
duces a proletariat and a peasantry as 
those classifications are understood in Eu¬ 
rope. Even if we had ever had a pro¬ 
letariat and a peasantry, which we did not, 
mass production would have put 
an end to both. Because Ameri¬ 
can cities have no proletariat, 
American industrial wage earn¬ 
ers are free in mind and in fact 
to proceed to work out their sal¬ 
vation through organization and 
cooperation within their indus¬ 
tries. Our minds are not frozen 
by any ingrained sense of be¬ 
longing to a given status. We 
are free to accept whatever facts 
we find and to use them as seems 
best. That applies with equal 
force to our farms. And let me 
add that the farmers of our coun¬ 
try will, if they know their his¬ 
tory, proceed to find remedy and 
improvement through organiza¬ 
tion within their industry. There 
are all manner and varieties of 
evangelists shouting from the 
house tops, demanding miraculous 
works from politicians, and the 
poor politicians are being driven 
to desperation. I am perfectly 
willing that they should be driven to despera¬ 
tion; and there are a lot of political crooks 
and charlatans whom I would joyfully see 
driven clear out of the game; but all of that 
brings home precious little bacon, either to 
farmer or wage earner. 

If the wage earners of our country had 
not the sense and the courage to organize, 
nobody would have much sympathy for them 
and nobody would take their complaints very 
seriously. Gentlemen, the temptation to say, 
“go thou and do likewise,” is almost be¬ 
yond my power to resist. 

I should like to give you another reason 
for resorting to your own power, your own 
capacity, your own intelligence. You will 
not admit that you have not the intelligence, 
for almost anyone of you within hearing of 
my voice could tell what is wrong and how 
to fix it. I think most Americans do that 
with great facility. You know what is wrong 
and you know what ought to be done, but 
when it comes to doing it you are not in po¬ 
sition to act as a unit, to pool your thought 
and your power for a single purpose. You 
are disorganized. 

The best knowledge of an industry or an 
occupation is to be found within that in¬ 
dustry and that occupation. Farmers know 
more about farm problems than anyone else 
{Continued on page 10) 


Whether You Agree With Him or Not 

W HETHER you agree with all that labor organizations have 
done or not, you will find little to disagree with in Samuel 
Gompers’ article on this page. This speech was delivered at Chicago 
on June 20 at the conference on the wheat situation, which was try¬ 
ing to devise ways and means of giving the wheat growers more 
money for their product. 

“Sam” Gompers was the first president of the American Federation 
of Labor since its start in 1886, and with the exception of one year, 
has been its president ever since. This is a remarkable record in 
leadership particularly of any great new organization that has had 
the bitter ups and downs that labor has been through. Through all 
that time, Gompers has been opposed to, and has fought down radical¬ 
ism. He has retained his leadership through stormy and critical 
periods mainly because he used his great ability towards constructive 
ends. 

Nearly all farmers will agree Mr. Gompers is right when he says 
that farmers cannot hope to get help from politicians, but should 
resort “to your own power, your own capacity and your own 
intelligence.”—The Editors. 



















4 


American Agriculturist, July 7,1923 


A 

Editorial Page of the American Agriculturist 


American 

Agriculturist 

Founded 1842 


Henry Morgenthau, Jr .Publisher 

E. R. Eastman .Editor 

Fred W. Ohm .Associate Editor 

Gabrielle Elliot .... Household Editor 
I BlRGE Kinne ..... Advertising Manager 
H. L. VONDERLIETH . . . Circulation Manager 

CONTRIBUTING STAFF 

H. E. Cook, Jared Van Wagenen, Jr., H. H. Jones, 
Paul Work, G. T. Hughes, H. E. Babcock 


OUR ADVERTISEMENTS GUARANTEED 

The American Agriculturist accepts only advertis¬ 
ing ■which it believes to be thoroughly honest. 

We positively guarantee to our readers fair and 
honest treatment in dealing with our advertisers. 

We guarantee to refund the price of goods pur¬ 
chased by our subscribers from any advertiser who 
fails to make good when the article purchased is 
■‘‘ound not to be as advertised. 

To benefit by this guarantee subscribers must say: 
“I saw your ad in the American Agriculturist” when 
ordering fro 'in our advertisers. 

Published Weekly by 
AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST, INC. 

Address all correspondence for editorial, advertising, or 
subscription departments to 

461 Fourth Ave., New York, N. Y. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter, December 15. 1922, at the 
Post Office at New York, N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

Subscription price, payable in advance, $1 a year. 

Canadian and foreign, $2 a year. 


VOL. 112 July 7. 1923 No. 1 


Look Out For San Jose Scale 

I F you look closety you will be very likely 
to see some San Jose Scale in your orchard 
This scale is dangerous. It was once bad 
throughout the East, but was pretty well 
cleaned out by the efficient spraying cam¬ 
paign aimed against it. Because of the lack 
of recent attention, it is now on the increase 
again. Look for it carefully and have it in 
mind to spray to control it during the next 
dormant season. 

By the way, do you know about the splen¬ 
did spray service which existed in ten coun¬ 
ties in New York State during the past sea¬ 
son? In each of these counties an expert 
k is employed with laboratory facilities. Con- 
„ stant use is made of the telephone to get the 
spraying at the right time, and numerous 
field demonstrations are held. If your county 
wishes to line up with those who already 
have this service for the coming year, you 
should get in your application immediately 
in order that the proper arrangements may 
be made and qualified men secured. Write 
the New York State College of Agriculture 
for further details. 


Cool the Milk 

M OST dairymen have learned that it is 
easier to cool milk below the require¬ 
ments than it is to quarrel with the dealer’s 
representative at the local station. If he 
obeys orders, there is but one thing for him 
to do and that is return the milk if it is not 
down to the required temperature. 

The critical time of the whole year in 
the care of milk is now at hand. During 
July and August, and. usually extending into 
the fall, there are hundreds of thousands 
of dollars lost because milk has not been 
properly cooled. If you have plenty of ice, 
now is the time when you will appreciate 
it and will realize that it is practically im¬ 
possible to dairy it under modern regula¬ 
tions without it. This is particularly so if 
you have a large body of milk. 

If your ice is limited, or you have none 
at all, or the volume of your milk is small, 
you may be able to worry along through 


the hot spell by taking extra precautions. 
Nearly everyone knows that frequently 
stirring the milk helps to cool it rapidly. 
If the can is put into the water and the milk 
poured into it as it is milked, without wait¬ 
ing to fill the can, the milk will be much more 
likely to keep longer. 

If only well water is used, it should be 
changed more than once on hot nights. If 
spring water is relied upon, it shohuld be 
arranged so that there will be a constant 
flow of water through the tank. Blankets 
soaked in ice cold water and placed on the 
cans before starting to the station will help 
to keep the temperature down. 


Alfalfa in the Orchard 

ILL alfalfa retard the growth of a 
young apple orchard? The experience 
on American Agriculturists’ farm indicates 
that it will. 

All but about twenty acres of the. hundred 
odd acres in our young orchards are under 
cultivation. There has never been any doubt 
in our minds that the only way to get an 
apple tree to make its best and most rapid 
growth is by constant cultivation, but we are 
such great believers in what alfalfa will do 
for the soil that with a twenty-acre orchard 
we made exception to our cultivating practice 
and sowed it to alfalfa. The result for two 
years has been a splendid growth of alfalfa, 
but a slowing up in the growth of the apple 
trees, as compared with the same age trees 
in the cultivated orchards. 

Is it possible that the alfalfa aids trees to 
get enough nitrogen, but not enough of the 
other plant food elements? If this is the 
case, then would applications of acid phos¬ 
phate with some potash applied close to the 
trees help them? Or must we plow under 
this splendid alfalfa sod? Does the alfalfa 
hurt the trees by taking moisture away from 
them ? 

The whole question of what is best, the sod 
mulch or frequent cultivation Tor young and 
old orchards, has never been really settled. 
If you have had some experience with either 
method, or if you have any observations on 
any part of the problem of bringing fruit 
trees to their maturity as quickly and with 
as little expense as possible, let us hear from 
you that we may pass on your experience to 
others. 

The Cost of Going It Alone 

AT the recent annual meeting of the 
A Dairymen’s League Cooperative Associa¬ 
tion, President Slocum said in his report: 
“Cost of production plus a reasonable profit 
is now within the realm of possibility, and I 
ask this question, ‘Why are we not getting 
it, why was the price of milk reduced last 
month and this, why were four millions of 
dollars taken from the incomes of the dairy¬ 
men in this territory in just two months?’ 
Why? Because some farmers still believe in 
going it alone or in competing groups. 

“By such a state of affairs, no relief can 
ever come. I am speaking now to all dairy¬ 
men, both organized and unorganized. We 
are standing in our own light. Our petty 
difficulties should be cast aside and we should 
all get together. In comparison to the big- 
broad viewpoint a farmer must take in solv¬ 
ing this gigantic marketing problem* the dif¬ 
ference of opinion existing between us as in¬ 
dividuals or as groups are mere details easy 
of solution.” 

President Slocum’s words hit the nail 
squarely upon its head. This is the day of 
cooperation and organization. There are 
three great units in our industrial system 
to-day, labor, capital and that combination 
of both of these, known as agriculture. Capi¬ 
tal is well organized; so is labor. While the 
farmers have made wonderful progress in 
organization, the last few years, there are 


still thousands of them unorganized. This is 
true of the milk business in this section. 
There are still many dairymen not in any or¬ 
ganization, and the organizations themselves 
are not cooperating. 

Two things, therefore, are needed before 
cost of production plus a reasonable profit 
can be hoped for. First, dairymen must join 
some good milk producers’ organization, and 
then these organizations themselves must 
work together in some kind of a federation. 


The Gasoline Age ! 

OT so many years ago we had a horse 
on the home farm that was afraid of 
automobiles. Not more than one car a week 
passed, but that was one too many. In spite 
of the strongest hamL on the rein, the 
moment the car came in sight Old Prince 
would turn squarely around, overturning the 
wagon, or else make an attempt to drape 
himself and his unfortunate driver over the 
top cross-piece of the nearest telephone pole. 
The word “detour” was not so common as 
it is to-day, but it was Prince’s middle name. 
The slightest sign of an approaching car was 
the signal to his driver to get him hastily 
through the roadside fence for a long side 
trip through the meadow or pasture lot. 

Yesterday we drove a hundred miles along 
a main highway and we could not help think¬ 
ing what a whale of a time Old Prince and 
especially his driver would have if they could 
have been along. There were at least four 
thousand automobiles on the road. What a 
change in transportation methods in a short 
ten years! 

This has indeed been well called the “gaso¬ 
line age,” and one of the good things about 
it, is that there is just as large a proportion 
of country as city folks who own and drive 
automobiles. The moderately pricted cars 
have brought out-door life, fresh air and re¬ 
creation to millions of people. 

The constant wonder is, where does all 
the money come from to buy so many car's, 
and the gasoline to run them. Of course, 
not all of them are paid for, but probably 
most of them are, and anyway, some one has 
to put up money for those that are not. 
Watch almost any main highway in America 
on a Sunday or a holiday, count the thousands 
of cars that pass and you will agree that the 
majority of common folks of this country, 
the great rank and file, have had more money 
to spend in the last decade than ever before 
in American history, and this is as it should 
be, providing that at least a small sum is 
constantly saved for the times that may not 
be so good. 


Quotations Worth While 

A friend! What is a friend? My friend 
is he who laughs with me, who weeps with 
me: one who encourages, praises, rebukes; 
who eats terrapin and turkey or bread and 
salt with me: who comes to me at the 
wedding feast, or stands with me beside the 
coffin: who listens to my hopes, my fears, my 
aims, my despair: who rejoices in my suc¬ 
cesses : who does not despise me in my mis¬ 
fortunes.— Chicago Tribune. 

* * * 

The fact is, ’squire, the moment a man 
takes to a pipe he becomes a philosopher. 
It’s the poor man’s friend; it calms the mind, 
soothes the temper and makes a man patient 
under difficulties. It has made more good 
men, good husbands, kind masters, in¬ 
dulgent fathers, than any other blessed thing 
on this universal earth.— Sam Slick, the 
Clockmaker. 

* * * 

The most completely lost of all days is 
the one on which we have not laughed. — . 
Anonymous. 

* * * 

“Success comes in cans—failure in cant's.” 






































American Agriculturist, July 7,1923 


5 


Are Farm People For Prohibition? 

Emphatic Letters on Both Sides of the Question—Be Sure To Vote 

Editor’s Note.—L etters are coming thick and By a. A. READERS people were blinded to allow the enactment of 

fast in response to our editorial “Do Farm People * ’ which Volstead is guilty. 

lof Y e ou a wiM r noticf Are we dealing with whiskey in a more in- So far so good. The law suppressing saloons 
that the letters represent both sides of the argu- telligent manner to-day? would have done well enough and would prob- 

ment, and you will also note that they are direct The days of prohibition are surely num- ably be found good yet by the majority. But 
from the shoulder. Let them come, and if ( you bered if some men continue to own barrels the lawmakers, whipped in line by some urn 

don’t ha ve time to write, you at least can vote “yes” 0 f liquor and the great majority of our popu- seen power and unknown but guessed at 

youi^fricnds ancTsee that^farm ^pink)? ^counted lation continue to find it impossible to ob- made it a crime to make, to barter, to sell or 

on this great problem. tain small quantities for their own many give away alcohol or anything containing al- 

uses. cohol, not only attacking personal liberty but 

I READ the letter in your issue of June I for one think it should be our own affairs compelling the farming communities to allow 

16 heading your article “Are Farm what we eat and drink in a free country and to go to waste a large quantity of material 

People for Prohibition?” If they are not be blessed with such a fine country that which collected and turned to industrial al- 

not they certainly ought to be, and so its citizens must consider a fine every day of cohol would prove a boon to the whole 

should every other organization in the United their lives. country. 

States. If taxes and other expenses must be Would it not be as near right to prohibit Kindly stop thinking of alcohol as a bever- 

kept "down by allowing intoxicating liquors certain kinds of food because we have a age and turn your thoughts to the useful- 

back then let them soar. few gluttons, as to prohibit certain kinds of ness of the liquid. In this time of coal dis- 

< The writer of the letter does not allow drink because we have a few drunkards? tress, alcohol would keep us warm by its 

his or her name published and I can’t say When a large percentage of the population genial flame in the stove, would cook our 
I blame him, I wouldn’t either ‘ meals, could run the engine or 

if I held such views. Says ____—- the automobile, but perhaps gaso- 

he is a strict abstainer, but “I am Prohibition Yes? No? !j ne and f kei ' ose l ie migkt hav * t( J 

from Missouri” and don’t believe rroniDition — 1 es. iMO. drop a few cents a gallon. Coal 

anyone who is a “strict ab- tao you wan t prohibition? The most discussed and most important would not be so much a necessity 

Stainer” has any such views •*-' problem in America to-day is the Eighteenth Amendment. Do aild With a distillery in a COlin- 

There certainly is"no curse about the American people want prohibition? The wets emphatically say try neighborhood, farmers could 

m-nhihitinn nnd if this fair coun- “ n0 ’” and the drys ar ?. e 3 e ? more emphaticaily for it. Both sides take their all cu p f ru its, corn, 

piomoition ana II tnis iail C l claim a majority. Which is right? What do farm people think r>ntntnp<? P f P P f P oc t} 1PV tnkp 

try of ours isn t to be a second about it? potatoes, etc., etc., as tney take 

Russia it is time we get together A majority of farmers think sanely and straight, and their opinions, gram to the mill or the milk to 

„ tir ] atamn intnviVfltinp-drinks therefore, on any problem, if they will express them, goes far in the creamery, thereby receiving 

pntiuplv determining the outcome. Farm people are busy and are slow to freightage Oil fuel and turning 

Ulinery. . express their opinions in writing; therefore, things get by that are • . i nrndnpts fhp trpmpndous 

I suppose the writer is one of against their interests. 10 hy-proaucts tne uemencious 

those people who sit up and howl American Agriculturist is taking a vote of its 120,000 farm amount ot waste on the iarm 

ohrmt nrnhibition taking a man’s families on prohibition. It is a vital issue before the American brought about by the Volstead 

£ 1 1 Vn'm people. Whether you are for it or against it, be sure to vote on the A c t 

personal llbeity away liom , blank lines below. Cut it out and mail it to American Agriculturist, " G* , ^ i • u + Prr nr tn 

but if he IS an abstainer, why 461 Fourth Avenue, New York City. Your name will be kept con- II aiCOnOl IS SUCn a teilOl 10 

should he care whether people fidential, unless you wish it signed. Get other voting members of mankind why has the Lreator 

‘ire allowed to make booze or your family and your neighbors to send in their vote. made it SO plentiful? 

‘ f T , lrri fnv prohibition and Just answer the following questions either here or on another piece Let the prohibitionists turn 

™ws so sTrik every bootlegger * »■*" — — “ in ' their eyes to the results of their 

and still owner in the United l. Are you for the Eighteenth Amendment as it now stands, with work; a large majority of our 

States goes behind the bars and strict enforcement of all prohibition laws? Answer yes or no. citizens maae outlaws, but not 

utive thprp TT^p vrmr own nleas- . caught, secret drunkenness caused 

ure ’ about ‘ publishing thus and 2. Are you for light wines and beers?. by homebrews of thousands of 

sio-h mv name if you like._D. B., if y° u want to give us your reasons for your answer, use another various recipes, ot compounds far 

Chemung ^Co. N" Y. * * sheet of paper. more injurious than ever beer or 

3 Name .’.. wine properly made and aged 

does the tail wag the dog? could be, thousands debilitated by 

TN your June -16, 1923 issue of 4 ‘ Address . vile drugs bought in the secret 

1 American Agriculturist, you -- ■■■■■■ —T . rT— -- ■ - ; markets of outlawry, thousands 

ask that farmers write you short . . engaged in smuggling prohibited 

letters giving their views on prohibition. It of any community are compelled to submit liquids, looting of government warehouses, 

would be hard indeed for me, a born farmer, to a famine in some line of goods they con- big expenses trying to enforce in time of 

to give my views in a short letter. I can give sider necessary, it surely is a case of the tail peace a measure thought good in war time, 

you a plain answer however in the com- wagging the dog.—E. A. G., Wayne Co., N. Y. And the result is nil, as any one desiring it 

monly accepted terras of the day by saying, bettfs drink- ?? n p I 0Cure A th T e £ av ° red , dl : inks „ if he has 

though the whole world may be dry, 1 am milk is a beiter drink the pl - lce .— a. L. 1., Bucks Co., Pa. 

WP f TUST a line to let you know that I am one 

Did not Christ turn water into wine at a J in favor of prohibition, the 18th amend- 80 PER CENT E0R ’ N0T 70 A AINST 

notable wedding that all might make merry? ment, and its most vigorous enforcement. TTAVING just read an article written by 

1 know our laws are not. perfect, as one whom Why should any farmer wish to bear the 11 one of your readers in regard to the pop- 
I had befriended swore to a big untruth, and burden of the pauperism, imbecility and ular sentiment among the farm organizations 

a number of others to make the first one good, crime caused by booze. Milk is a better as to the repeal of the Volstead Act, I de- 

and defrauded me out of several thousand and safer drink for the workingman than cidecl to give my views on this matter, 

dollars a few years ago. beer. . The writer stated he believes seventy per 

There seems to be no remedy in law for If the idle rich will have the stuff, let him cent of our farm organizations favor repeal, 
some of the most outrageous wicked and in- pay bootleg prices and run the risk of that this law was as unwelcomed as a rattle- 

human acts of our fellow men on which the “Crossing the Bar.” There should be “no snake in bed. He later states he is a total ab- 

law places its stamo of approval. sadness of farewell” when he departs. To stainer. He may be, but those who generally 

It is the abuse of alcoholic liquors, not their compare prohibition with a rattlesnake seems experience snakes in bed are the ones who 

use that causes trouble. I for one cannot agree too funny. I always have supposed that it imbibe excessively. He may be a total ab- 

that this question is settled as it should be was the light wine and beer that acted like stainer as he states, as far as drink goes, 

at this year of the twentieth century when that.—0. L. S., Washington Co., N. Y. and truly he is as far as sensible thinking 

linnnv io La'nHlprl onpvilv and at the hi eh and sane reasoning goes, 

prices that prevail In our cities. As to quality alcohol more than a beverage The law was never enacted to aid the ab- 

0 f liquor drank to-day we need only consult "YrOUR item “Are Farm People for Prohib- stainer, but to remove the curse ot drink 
our daily papers. * X ition?” in June 16 number has interested from those who do, and the children growing 

Contrast this with the condition of affairs me to the extent of sending you my ideas on up, and not permit such an outrage to go on 

that existed within the memory of many the subject. legalized by our Government. Intoxicating 

men now living when good whiskey was sold War time conditions and pre-war habits drink in any form never did any of us 
at our general stores & at about 20 cents per pre-disposed the people to favor prohibition. any good. 

ft . a p on- Excitement was in the air and the alcohol On the contrary it has done much to 

~ In 1794 George Washington called out fif- drinking habit made it rather a necessity to make fools,_ paupers, murderers and what 

teen thousand of the militia in Pennsylvania stop gatherings in saloons and all other not, out of what would have been with- 

to compel the payment of a tax on whiskey. causes of excitement and the eyes of the (Continued on page 10) 


I 
























6 


American Agriculturist, July 7,1923 



Our earnings in 
hauling your products 


T HE Government does not guarantee us any 
income. 

The rates fixed by the Interstate Commerce 
Commission are intended to be such as will enable 
the railroads as a whole to earn at least 5/4% on 
the value of their properties. Out of this net in¬ 
come they must meet interest on debt, pay divi¬ 
dends to the stockholders and build up a surplus 
as required by prudent business management. 

The railroads earned 3.31% in 1921, and 4.14% 
in 1922. This year they hope to do better. They 
must do better if necessary new capital is to be 
attracted to railroad development. 

It was only during the period of Government 
operation thatrailroad net income was guaranteed. 
That income was based on pre-war earnings, and 
averaged 5%3% on the value of railroad property. 

If any railroad fails to earn 5M% on its invest¬ 
ment, the Government doesn’t make up the 
difference; and the law provides that anything 
earned above 6% must be equally divided with 
the Government. 

As stated by the Interstate Commerce Com¬ 
mission in a recent decision, the rate provision 
of the Transportation Act “carries with it no 
guarantee”, but “it is, instead, a limitation”. 


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I 


Do Cows Need Exercise? 

The Possible Danger of Continuous Stabling 


dairymen are installing some system 
whereby the cows have access to water 
at all times. This is sound dairy prac¬ 
tice and a good investment. Nobody 
questions the fact that it is better for 
a cow to have water always before her 
so that she may drink at will, rather 

than be obliged 
to try to drink 
enough at one 
time to last her 
for twelve or 
even twenty four 
hours. But out 
of these systems 
of stabling water¬ 
ing devices there 
is very apt to 
grow up the cus¬ 
tom of continuous 
stabling, the cows 
never being re¬ 
leased from the 
stanchions for 
months at a 
stretch. Our 
father s — o r 
grandfathers at 
any rate—never had any doubts about 
the necessity of exercise for cows. 
Rather they went to the opposite ex¬ 
treme. They thought of the barn as a 
sort of night-time jail or lockup for 
cows, but as a rule they spent the day¬ 
light hours in the barnyard around the 
strawstack. Now I believe we have 
wasted a good deal of sympathy over 
these cows. Let us remember that the 
cow was native to a region where the 
climate was fairly severe, but perhaps 
less so than in the Northeastern States. 
We spend a good deal of time and 
money in providing warm stables, but 
in my own 
thought it is in 
order to keep our 
water pipes from 
bursting rather 
than from any 
fear that a well 
fed, healthy cow 
is really uncom¬ 
fortable at a tem¬ 
perature a few 
degrees below 
freezing. 

I remember 
reading a report 
concerning a Hol¬ 
stein cow in Mich¬ 
igan that made 
a rather remark¬ 
able 30-day record in a stall with only 
a single thickness of boards between 
her and zero temperatures outside, 
and where much of the time it was 
below freezing, but of course she was 
dry, well bedded and abundantly fed. 

From personal experience I feel sure 
that once we have water buckets in¬ 
stalled, there is a constant temptation 
to pass on to continuous stabling and 
I do not believe that there is any 
authoritative teaching as to either the 
wisdom or the folly of this plan. 

Now to begin with, it is possible to 
say a good deal in favor of the practice. 
For one thing it is a labor-saving 
method. To let a cow loose and turn 
her out and then get her back into 
her stall again is a considerable item 
in her daily care. 

Then there is another item perhaps 
rarely considered. Cows exercising in 
an open barnyard are certain to leave 
there a very considerable proportion 
of their manure — a much larger pro¬ 
portion than would be indicated merely 
by the time spent outside. In those 
days when a good horse represented 
the fastest method of cross country 
locomotion, Henry Ward Beecher is 
said to have loved the fast stepping 
ponies, his argument being that “time 
lost on the road is gone forever.” Well, 
I judge that manure deposited in the 
barnyard has as a rule gone beyond the 
ken of the dairyman for all time. I 
am going to hazard the guess that two 
hours a day spent outside would re¬ 
sult in the loss of say 20 per cent of 
the manure — a loss worth thinking 
about. Perhaps most people will smile 
at this for being as the Scotch say 
“near,” but I am not ashamed of the 
argument. 

There is yet a third item. The cow 


is a creature of routine 
and probably, I say 
probably,” but am open to conviction, 
will give more milk standing in a stall 
by the month than she will if given the 
freedom of the yard for part of the 
day. So much in favor of continuous 
stabling. The foregoing statements it 
seems to me are of the type that do 
not admit of much debate or questioning. 

Now when we come to the other side 
of the question we have no well-proven 
ground to stand on. We do a good deal 
of continuous stabling on Hillside 
Farm, but I admit that I am not in my 
own mind well satisfied that it is the 
proper thing to do. I am afraid it is 
mainly a concession to convenience. 
Dairying is a long time business and we 
must look beyond this month or this 
year. We cannot be sure what will be 
the ultimate effect upon the health and 
vigor of the herd. 

Now I am not worrying over T B, 
despite the fact that we once lost 38 
head in one test. No amount of close 
confinement can give a cow T B unless 
the germ is somehow introduced and if 
we are so unfortunate as to get a bad 
spreader, no amount of. outdoor air or 
exercise will insure against future dis¬ 
aster. In any case, in the long run 
T B is much less serious and much 
easier to control than abortion and 
barrenness. 

Now the business of dairying is mak¬ 
ing progress. We are on the whole very 
much better dairymen than our grand¬ 
fathers were. We have better cows to 
begin with and we feed more wisely 
and liberally. The average milk produc¬ 
tion of the cows of the country attests 
these facts. On the other hand I am 
very much afraid that we do have 
more trouble—especially along the line 

of abortion and 
failure to breed 
than was the case 
a generation or 
two ago. In part 
this may be a mis¬ 
taken idea, result¬ 
ing from the 
tendency to mag¬ 
nify present ills 
and to forget old 
time disasters. 

Part of it may 
result from the 

fact that we have 
far more traffic in 
cattle and. hence 
a wider dissemi¬ 
nation of infec¬ 

tious diseases. Some of it may result 
from feeding so liberal that it becomes 
crowding or forcing, but may it not 
also be true that we need at least a 
partial return to methods now con¬ 
sidered as primitive and outgrown? 

You see I am not dogmatic or cocksure. 
I am only putting into words some 
of the doubts and questions that are 
running in my head. Is it sound to 
put a cow in stanchion from November 
until May and never let her loose? 

In any case the dairy cow is about 
the only animal which we treat that 
way. , I think the most important as¬ 
pect of the case is the effect upon 
reproduction. I begin to believe that 
the calves of some of the cdfcvs have 
less pep and vigor when dropped than 
we would like to see. 

In fowls, every egg is the physiologi¬ 
cal equivalent of a birth and poultry- 
men are agreed that there can be no 
satisfactory egg production unless the 
flock is kept active — we might almost 
say “made” to exercise. To keep a 
brood sow idle in a close pen is simply 
to invite disaster at farrowing time. 
The lustiest colt is dropped by the mare 
that has pulled the plow and harrow all 
spring. We go to a good deal of 
trouble and inconvenience to give the 
dairy bull exercise, and without it 
his usefulness often ceases in what is 
practically early life. Even the pros¬ 
pective human mother is exhorted to 
keep active either by doing the family 
washing or playing golf, the prescrip¬ 
tion varying according to her “social 
position,” but we seem to be in danger 
of forgetting all these lessons when it 
comes to the matrons of the dairy herd. 

Physiologically at least the weight 
of evidence is against continuous 
stabling. 


E 


VERY year an in- By J. VAN WAGENEN, JR. 

creasing number of 



J. VAN WAGENEN, JR. 


ROOM FOR ARGUMENT 

AS Mr. Van Wagenen points out in 
■**-his article on this page, there is 
chance for a good deal of disagreement 
and argument on the particular ques¬ 
tion he raises in the care of dairy cows. 
Comparatively little has been written 
or said about this important subject 
and, therefore, we will he glad to have 
your opinion in a short letter written 
from your actual observations and ex¬ 
perience.—The Editors. 































































\ 


American Agriculturist, July 7 ID.'3 


Apple Growing Advancing 

Interesting Facts Revealed in Pennsylvania Survey 


A PPLE growing to-day is a distinctly 
.business proposition. Only those 
men who are qualified to underake it 
in a business-like way can expect to 
succeed. This statement is borne out 
by the fact that while during recent 
years, there has been a rather general 
decrease in the total number of apple 
trees, that decrease has occurred largely 
in the old farm orchards rather than 
in commercial plantings. Thus in the 
report just published of the survey of 
the Pennsylvania apple industry, made 
jointly by the Pennsylvania State Col¬ 
lege and the State Department of Agri¬ 
culture, it is shown that while during 
the last 20 years, there has been a de¬ 


sandstones which form the ridges over¬ 
looking the valleys. 

Trees in the northern section of the 
State have been planted usually 40 
feet apart. In the southern districts, 
the spacing has been from 30 to 33 feet. 
This has been found to be too close, 
however, and the newer plantings are 
being spaced more widely—from 35 to 
40 feet apart. 

Fillers have become popular. Peaches 
have been used, but since the two fruits 
require somewhat different care, many 
growers use early apples instead. 

Probably three-quarters of the or¬ 
chards surveyed are plowed before blos¬ 
soming time. The largest group of 


TABLE 1.—FERTILIZER TREATMENT AND RESULTS 


Treatment 


Sod with Fertilizer. 

Sod without Fertilizer. 

Cultivation with Fertilizer. . . 
Cultivation without Fertilizer 


Condition of Trees 

Per Cent of Total 

Total 

Good 

Medium 

Poor 

48 

42 

10 

100 

20 

27 

53 

100 

71 

27 

2 

100 

19 

43 

38 

100 


crease of about 4,750,000 apple trees in 
that State, the commercial apple indus¬ 
try is advancing in almost promising- 
manner. 

This is but one of the interesting 
facts revealed by the survey, which is 
of wide interest and value because of 
the importance of Pennsylvania among 
apple-growing States. For example: 

About one-third of the growers in¬ 
cluded in the survey had spent, from 
seven to eight years as hired men, 
tenants, etc., before buying their farms. 

There were more growers between 
the ages of 40 and 50 than in any 10- 
year age period. The next largest 
group was between 50 and 60 years old. 
There were as many fruit farm owners 
over 60 years of age as there were be¬ 
tween 30 and 40. 

A surprisingly large percentage of 
growers started without previous train¬ 
ing. Among the most successful were 
found doctors, engineers, teachers and 
business men. 

All but 33 of the growers questioned 
were Pennsylvania born. 

The estimated costs of growing, pick¬ 
ing and packing a barrel of apples 


growers cultivate four times. Nearly 
as many cultivate from five to seven 
times. Cultivating is over and the 
cover crop seeded in by the third week 
in July. 

Clover, either alone or with the other 
legumes is the most common cover crop 
of the non-leguminous crops, rye is 
found most often. 

Where the season is long enough, the 
usual rotation is corn, wheat and hay 
for the main crop, with small acreages 
of oats and potatoes. Where the season 
is shorter, part of the wheat usually is 
replaced with oats and the potato acre¬ 
age largely increased. 

Apparently because of somewhat dif¬ 
ferent fertilizer practice and more 
favorable climatic and growing condi¬ 
tions, Pennsylvania apples do better in 
sod than do those of New York or 
Ohio. Thus nearly one-third of the 
acerage surveyed had been in sod three 
years or more in the last seven. Prac¬ 
tically all orchards less than 10 years 
old, however, are cultivated. 

Two-thirds of the sod orchards and a 
large majority of the cultivated or¬ 
chards were fertilized. Over half of 


TABLE 2, 


-PROPORTION OF GOOD, MEDIUM AND POOR APPLE TREES 
IN FERTILIZED AND UNFERTILIZED ORCHARDS 


ranged from 88 cents to $1.95 before 
the war and from $1.06 to $3.79 in 
1919 and 1920. 

The proportion of the farm in or¬ 
chard ranged from 20 to 42 per cent. 

The percentage of the total farm in¬ 
come derived from fruit varied from 
28 to 97. 

The six most profitable varieties as 
indicated by the combined total of first 
and second choices were as follows: 

Stayman. 255 

York. 250 

Baldwin. 156 

Northern Spy. 69 

Grimes. 41 

Ben Davis. 40 

The six least profitable varieties 

were: 

Ben Davis. 77 

York. 15 

Smith Cider. 15 

Baldwin. 10 

R. I. Greening. 10 

Northern Spy. 8 

Twenty-six per cent of the growers 

questioned were planning new plant¬ 

ings totaling 3,126 acres. 

110 of them expected to plant Stayman 
57 “ “ “ York 

26 “ “ “ Grimes 

19 “ “ “ Rome 

18 “ “ “ Jonathan 

The favorite soils among the growers 
are those derived from the shales and 


Fertilization a Big Factpr 

Thus no matter which cultural sys¬ 
tem is followed, apparently, but five 
per cent of fertilized trees may be 
counted poor, -while about half of the 
unfertilized trees are in poor condi¬ 
tion. 

Diseases and insects have nearly 
ruined all but the well-cared for or¬ 
chards. 

The tractor is replacing the horse 
to only a slight extent, one horse^ less, 
on the average, being found on farms 
of the same size without a tractor. 
On a farm of say 200 acres, the num- 
(Continued on poge 15) 


Conditions of Trees 

Per 

Cent 

Fertilized 

Unfertilized 

Good . . .. 

62 

20 

Medium . 

33 

31 

Poor ..... 

5 

49 






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the unfertilized sod orchards were re¬ 
ported in poor condition. Most of the 
orchards were manured, the frequent 
interval being three years and the com¬ 
mon application, 5 to 10 tons per acre. 
Most growers used commercial fertil¬ 
izer applied every year, the one nearly 
standard mixture being nitrate of soda 
and acid phosphate, used at the rate 
of from 1,015 pounds per tree. Bone 
meal and sulphate of ammonia are also 
used. A majority of the growers apply 
fertilizer prior to May. 

The effect of fertilizer treatments 
may be shown in accompanying Table, 
No. 1. 

Summing up the proportions of good, 
medium and poor trees under both cul- ! 
tivated systems, when fertilized and 
when unfertilized are summarized in 
Table No. 2. 



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8 


American Agriculturist, July 7,1923 



More and Cheaper 
Silage—Less Labor 

T HE “powerful compression” Automatic- 
feed of the 1923 Papec takes the place of an 
extra man at the feeding table. It handles 
heavy com and crooked stalks. It will cut your 
silo-filling cost and enable you to fill with a 
smaller crew. 


No more heaving and pushing —no more 
"riding the bundles” with the Papec—use your 
extra man to throw bundles from the wagon— 
you won’t need him at the feed table. 





THROWS 
AND BLOWS > 


You can buy this im¬ 
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dealer to quote 
you on the size 
you need. 

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Our 1923 catalog fully describes and 

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. Tells how the Papec will pay for 
itself in from one to two seasons. Labor- 
saving features on smallest size cutter 
same as on the big cutters. Write for cat¬ 
alog today. A postal now may be the 
means of saving you hundreds of dollars. 

PAPEC MACHINE COMPANY 
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Dealers To Give Prompt Service 



Ensilage Cutter 

h SAVES ONE MAN d { 


GLOBE Silo 

The Result of 50 Years’ 
Experience 

M ORE silage can be 
stored in a GLOBE Silo 
with its exclusive GLOBE 
extension roof than in any 
other silo of the same di¬ 
mensions. Adjustable door¬ 
frame and patent locking 
doors prevent any spoil¬ 
age or waste. Unique door 
fastener on each door be¬ 
comes a rung in the lad¬ 
der. Hoops, adjusted from 
the ladder easily correct 
any shrinking or swell¬ 
ing. Built of carefully 
inspected Canadian spruce 
and Oregon fir. All metal 
parts are made of highest- 
grade steel and malleable 
iron. Constructed to give perfect service. 

Prices : $3.00 per ton capacity up, ac¬ 
cording to size. Write for catalog and 
agency information to-day. 

GLOBE SILO CO., Box 105, Unadilla, N. Y. 


“The Brasher” 

Grain Threshers 

For the Individual or Group of Farmers 

The only Small Thresher equipped 
with Wind Straw Stacker, 

Silo Fillers, Plows, etc. 

Send for Catalogue 

P. E. KENNEHAN’S SON & CO. 

BRASHER FALLS, N. Y. 



PATENTS 


Write today for free in¬ 
struction book and 
Record of Invention 
blank. Send sketch or model for personal opinion. 
CLARENCE A. O’BRIEN, Registered Patent Law¬ 
yer, 904 Southern Building, Washington, D. C. 


League Price For July $2.33 

County News From Among New York Farmers 


T HE Dairymen’s League Cooperative 
Association, Inc., announces that the 
following prices have been voted for 
the month of July, quotations being 
given for milk produced in the basic 
zone of 201-210 mile zone from New 
York City for 3 per cent milk. 

Class 1—for milk that goes into fluid 
consumption, $2.33, which is the same 
price as for June. 

Class 2—for milk which goes into 
the manufacture of cream and ice 
cream, $2.05, which is the same as the 
June price. However, in this class 
there are slight increases in' the skim 
milk differentials. 

Class 3-—for milk used chiefly in the 
manufacture of evaporated, condensed, 
and powdered milk and hard cheeses, a 
differential of 85 cents per hundred has 
been voted above the price of milk 
going into the manufacture of butter. 
This is 20 cents above the differential 
that was voted for June milk, which was 
65 cents, as announced in American 
Agriculturist of June 2. 

Class 4a—milk going into the manu¬ 
facture of butter, the price will be de¬ 
termined by the average price of New 
York market quotations on this com- 
. modify. However, there are differen¬ 
tials for the skim milk, the by-product 
in the manufacture of butter, which 
varies as in the case of Class 2 and 
these will also be proportionately in¬ 
creased. 

Class 4b—for milk going into the 
manufacture of cheese, will be deter¬ 
mined by the quotations of that com¬ 
modity on the New York market. 

The fact that the League is selling 
the farmers’ skim milk to better ad¬ 
vantage, should reflect favorably. By 
disposing of skim milk, a by-product, to 
better advantage, brings up prices 
realized by farmers selling into lower 
classes, with consequent more just re¬ 
compense to those producers. 


COUNTY NEWS FROM AMONG 
NEWS YORK FARMERS 

Oneida Co.—Rain is needed badly at 
time of writing, June 21. Pastures are 
holding up well. Many farmers fed 
their hay up pretty late. The big hay 
crop of last season seemed to melt away 
rapidly during Spring feeding. Seed 
potatoes were in big demand this Spring 
and hard to find. About the usual 
acreage of potatoes was planted. Plant¬ 
ing of corn for ensilage is just being 
completed on many farms. Oats are 
making a good growth. Meadows that 
have been well cared for, are looking 
fairly well. Hired help is very scarce 
and wages are high, $60 to $75 per 
month. Eggs 30 cents per dozen, pork 
12 to 12j4 cents per lb. As dairymen 
have all the cows they can handle, there 
is little sale for dairy cows. Late 
apples bloomed fairly well.—E. N. A. 

Nassau Co. — The extremely hot dry 
spell of the last week of June, was 
broken by several thundershowers. 
Considerable damage was done by the 
lightning and wind. Old barns were 
demolished in several instances. Crops 
in some parts of the county suffered 
from the effects of the win'd but the 
rain brought the much needed relief. 
Had the drought and heat continued 
for many days, there is no doubt that 
the potato crop would have been seri¬ 
ously affected. 

In Western New York 

Steuben Co. — At this writing, June 
20th, the drought is getting to be seri¬ 
ous. Barley and oats have held their 
color but unless rain comes soon they 
will go back. Corn is extremely poor 
as are the meadows. During the Spring 
the weather was very cold and dry and 
now it is hot and dry. Strawberries 
that at first bid fair for a large crop 
are drying up without attaining any 
size. Milch cows are selling for $50 to 
$75, dairy butter is scarce. Most all 
milk goes to milk plants. Spring pigs 
are worth $5 each at 4 weeks of age. 
Old potatoes about all cleaned up. — C. 
H. E. 

Steuben Co.—The hay crop promises 
to be light. The weather has been too 
dry and frosty for grass to make much 
of a growth. Corn is starting out 


fairly well but all crops need rain. 
About the usual acreage of potatoes 
was planted this Spring. Up to the 
middle of June, apples had not com¬ 
pleted their bloom, at which, time about 
75 per cent of the fruit had blossomed. 
The setting of fruit is below the prom¬ 
ise of blossoming time. Early straw¬ 
berries were considerably damaged by 
frost.—H. I. D. 

Chautauqua Co. — The ground is very 
dry. Crops are in great need of rain. 
The hay crop will be light. Many 
farmers have established roadside 
markets this year where autoists can 
stop and purchase eggs, milk, home¬ 
made ice cream, doughnuts and fruit, 
etc. Strawberries are selling from 25 
to 30 cents a quart. The crop is quite 
scarce this year. Butter 45 cents, eggs 
30 cents, potatoes 75 cents a bushel, 
poultry 25 cents a pound.— Mrs. C. 
L. B. 

Wyoming Co.—More beans have been 
planted in this vicinity this Spring 
than in some years. A number of 
farmers have had to make the second 
planting as they did not come up good 
the first time. Hired help is scarce 
and wages are high. Many farmers 
who have always kept one or two men 
are going without any help at all. An 
improved road is being put up between 
Dale and the Attica town line. Eggs 
25 cents, butter 36 to 37 cents.—J. H. E. 

Ontario Co.—We are having a hot, 
dry spell and a good rain would do a 
great deal of good. Wheat and grass 
are looking well, but corn and potatoes 
are backward. Young alfalfa is look¬ 
ing good but timothy and old meadows 
are scant. Hay will be a light crop. 
Every one is hoping that we will have 
rain soon. — H. D. S. 

In the Hudson Valley 

Ulster Co. — The Farm and Home 
Bureaus are going to hold the annual 
picnic on August 18, at Camp Wallkill, 
on the New Palz-Kingston state road. 
The committee in charge of the event 
consists of E. W. Hathaway, G. F. Rice, 
Mrs. Elmer Smith, Mrs. W. A. Warren, 
R. J. Harder, Millard Davis, Luther 
Duisberre. The committee is reported 
to be planning several new features for 
the pfcnic this year. One of them will 
be the installation of an amplifier by 
W. A. Warren of Hurly, in order that 
every one present will be able to hear 
what is being said by the speakers. 

Rennselaer Co. — Sheep breeders of 
Rennselaer and Washington Counties 
shipped four carloads of wool to Boston 
totaling 45,000 pounds. Prices ranged 
from 41 to 53 cents. The milk station 
of H. P. Hood & Son are now handling 
on the average of 800 cans per day. 
Recently this company purchased 600 
new 40-quart cans to be distributed 
among patrons of the plant, at a very 
reasonable price. Farmers are now 
mowing hay, which is fairly heavy and 
promises to make a good crop. — C. H. Y. 

Dutchess Co. — An anti-daylight sav¬ 
ing society has been formed and already 
2,000 signatures have been collected. 
Prices of farm produce are generally 
pretty good. Farmers will start to dig 
their new potatoes about July 10. The 
old potatoes are bringing $1.75 a bushel, 
eggs 38 cents. Hired help is getting 
$3 a day and scarce at that. Weather 
is very dry. Grass looks good, but we 
need rain. — H. H. 


1923 NOT UNUSUAL FOR LATE 
FROSTS 

Extremely late season this year has 
brought forth many comments relative 
to the seasonal variations. Some ob¬ 
servers claim that the Spring of 1923 
was the most backward on record. The 
fact that this is not so is brought out 
by J. F. Rose of South Byron, N. Y., 
who has kept a record of blossoming 
time of his Dutchess pear orchard for 
45 years. 

The trees blossomed May 24 this 
year. In 1917 the date was May 26. 
In 1882 and 1907 they also blossomed 
on May 26. Last year the blossoming 
date was May 10. In three years of 
the record the orchard was in full blos¬ 
som in April, the years being 1879, 
1910 and 1921. 


Why Harder Silos 
don 9 1 tip over 

T HE Harder patented Spline Dowel 
and square tongue and grooved 
staves produce a rigid structure that 
is secure amid the storms. 

A leaky silo is worse than none at all. 
Be sure to get the air-tight kind, 
the kind that never lean or shear. 
The name is “Harder,” remember 
that. 


SILO BOOK FREE 



SEND for our free 
book, “Saving with 
Silos.” It contains 
in a nutshell the 
whole story of Silos 
and ensilage. 

HARDER MANU¬ 
FACTURING CORP. 
Box F Cobleskill, 
New York 


HARDER SILO 


MILK CANS 



20-30-40 qt. 
sizes 

We sell only 
makes of high 
quality — yet 
our prices are 
reasonable. 

Progressive 
dairymen have 
bought sup¬ 
plies and 
equipment 
from us since 
1889. 


J. S. BIESECKER 

Creamery, Dairy and Dairy 
Barn Equipment 

59 Murray St. New York City 


Demand Increases Daily for 


STRUVEN’S 

v 



Send for FREE FOLDER! 

Every user of STRUVEN'S FISH MEAL 
knows its benefits for health and growth of 
poultry, hogs and stock. Made from fresh, 
whole fish, finely ground, supplying the needed 
proteins and minerals. 

Fish meal is the ideal feed supplenffent—clean 
and nourishing. 

Write for Free Folder and Samples 

CHARLES M. STRUVEN & CO. 

114-C S. Frederick St., BALTIMORE, MD. 


m 


m 


STAY 


Built in every detail for 
long life and tight-fitting 
stability. Heavy, sound 
staves, creosoted; over¬ 
sized threads on heavy steel 
hoops. Close-fitting, safe¬ 
like doors. Handsome red- 
cedar roof. Write for book¬ 
let and special proposition 
for early buyers. 

CREAMERY PACKAGE MFG. CO. 
350 West St., Rutland, Vt. 


I 



HAY 

PRESS 


. *40 styles and sizes 
for every purposa. 
Catalog free. 

COLLINS PLOW COMPANY 
Hamoahiro St.. Quincy ” 


ssB 

I 

































































































































American Agriculturist, July 7,1923 

Fatter pigs £ 
fatter profits 

H OGS need animal food to build 
flesh and bone. Dold-Quality 
Digester Tankage is 60% animal 
protein. Mix with grain or feed 
separately in hoppers or slops. 
Gives better results than grain 

alone; saves one-third cost. Tankage-fed 
hogs show more pounds when marketed—and 
more profit per pound. Experience proves it. 

Write for FREE booklet on DOLD- 
QUALITY Poultry and stock foods 

JACOB DOLD PACKING CO. 
Dept. AA BUFFALO, N.Y. 


CsS/z&rf DIGESTER 
TANKAGE 



$120 
A DAY 


Don’t pay buyers 
at terminal 25c to 
60c a bag to grade 
your potatoes. 
That’s what it 
costs you. For 
buyers pay that 
much less for un¬ 
graded spuds— 
then do their 
own grading. 

Do the work yourself and earn that 
extra money. 

Boggs No. 3 Hand Potato Grader will 
grade as high as 480 bags in 8 hours. That 
means $120 or more a day it earns for you. 

In addition, it does the manual labor of 
from 3 to 6 men. So it saves you money 
on labor. 

Write today for interesting booklet. 


BOGGS MFG. 
CORP’N. 

20 MAIN ST. 
ATLANTA. N. Y. 

Factories 
ATLANTA. N. Y. 
DETROIT, MINN. 



Jersey Crops Below Normal 

County Notes — Pennsylvania Farm News 



PAINT Gallon 


ORDER DIRECT FROM FACTORY 

We will send you as many gallons as you 
want of good quality red or brown 

BARN PAINT 

upon receipt of remittance. We are paint special¬ 
ists and can supply you with paint for any pur¬ 
pose. Tell us your wants and let us quote you low 
prices. We can save you money by shipping direct 
from our factory. Satisfaction Guaranteed. On 
orders for thirty gallons or over we will prepay the 
freight within a radius of three hundred miles. 

AMALGAMATED PAINT CO. 
Factory. 374 WAYNE ST., JERSEY CITY, N. J. 


A CCORDING to the New Jersey crop 
. report of June, of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, in 
cooperation with the New Jersey De¬ 
partment of Agriculture, farm crops in 
general will be below normal this year. 
The condition of the wheat crop on 
June 1 indicated that it will run about 
83 per cent normal with an estimated 
production of 1,290,000 bushels as com¬ 
pared with 1,515,000 bushels, the aver¬ 
age production of the past 10 years. 

The area of oats seeded this spring 
is estimated to be 95 per cent of last 
year’s acreage, while the condition of 
rye was 91 per cent normal. Corn is 
approximately 100 per cent, with an es¬ 
timated acreage of 236,000 acres, com¬ 
pared with 264,000 acres, the average 
area planted in the last 10 years. 

Early estimates of the acreage of po¬ 
tatoes planted this season is 84 per cent 
of last year. On June 1, the condition 
of this crop was estimated at 89 per 
cent of normal as compared with 90 
per cent last year. Early estimates of 
the sweet potato plantings indicate that 
the acreage this year is. about 98 per 
cent of last year’s. 

On June 1 the condition of hay was 
estimated at 72 per cent normal, indicat¬ 
ing a producetion of 349,000 tons com¬ 
pared to 485,000 tons and 487,000 tons, 
the average production for the past 10 
years. It is estimated that slightly 
more clover will be cut this year than 
last year, although the condition of the 
crop was considerably below the aver¬ 
age of the past several years. There 
will be more alfalfa cut this year, it is 
believed, although the crop is only 88 
per cent normal as compared with 91 
per cent last year. The acreage of 
timothy for harvest this year is esti¬ 
mated slightly above last year’s acreage, 
although the condition of the crop on 
June 1 was 72 per cent normal. The 
pastui’es are considerably below last 
year and the. past 10 year average. 

It is estimated that the apple crop 
will be of about 78 per cent of a nor¬ 
mal crop, indicating a production of 
slightly over 2,000,000 bushels. The 
commercial crop is estimated at 468,- 
000 barrels, compared with 522,000 bar¬ 
rels last year; 501,000 barrels, the aver¬ 
age production for the last 3 years. 
The condition of the peach crop was 
somewhat better, being estimated at 
84 per cent. Pears are slightly better 
than apples, although not quite as good 
as peaches, being estimated at about a 
80 per cent normal crop. 


•AW 75 Cords 
a day, EASY 

-with the wonderful OTTAWA Log Saw. 

Saw more than 10 men—Save your back I Write for 
special offer, easy terms and new Free Book. Sena 

postcard-today. 

OTTAWA 
k MFG. CO.. 

[ 801-R Wood St. 
Ottawa, Kan8. 
Room 801-R 
Magee Bldg. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Send for FREE Book! 


Make water-soaked hillside and rolling 
land yield 100%I The free Martin Book 
tells how thousands of 
farmers are adding 
immensely to crops at 
smallest cost. 




DITCHES 


TERRACES 


' Days 1 
Trial 

Cuts ditches, open or tile drainage and irriga- 
. 1 tion. Horse or tractor. All-Pteel adjustable, 

reversible. Money in ditching business! Write today. 

OWENSBORb DITCHER & GRADER CO., Inc. 
.OX 352 OWEMSBORO. KENTUCKY 


HEAVES 


Is your own horse afflicted? 

Use 2 large cans. Cost $2.50. 
Money back if not satisfactory 

ONE can at $1.25 often sufficient. In powder form. 

- NEWTON’S 

• A veterinary's compound for 
Horses, Cattle and Hogs. 
Heaves, Coughs, Distemper, 
Indigestion. Worm expeller. 
- - - Conditioner. At dealers’ or 

30 yews? 8 Q 16 by parcel post. 

THE NEWTON REMEDY CO.. Toledo. Ohio 



£ AAA AAA CABBAGE, CAULIFLOWER, 
J.UUUjUUU BRUSSELS SPROUTS, CELERY PLANTS 

CABBAGE (All Varieties).$1.75 per 1000; 5000, $ 8.00 

CAULIFLOWER (Snowball).. .$4.50 per 1000; 5000, $20.00 

BRUSSELS SPROUTS.$2.50 per 1000; 6000, $12.00 

CELERY (All Varieties)..$3.00 per 1000; 6000, $12.00 

Cash with ord it. Send for List of all Plants 
PAUL F. ROCHELLE, Drawer 269, MORRISTOWN, NEW JERSEY 


NEW JERSEY COUNTY NOTES 

Hunterdon Co.—The drouth during 
the latter part of June has developed 
most seriously. During the whole 
month of June we have had only one 
shower. Wheat, rye and grass are suf¬ 
fering with dry weather. The pasture 
on the upland farms are dry. Some 
farmers have been cutting their wheat 
and what grass they have to feed their 
cows, and now some are cutting off their 
oats to feed to cows. Hay time is here 
and some farmers have none to cut. It 
will take two acres to make a load. 
Corn is looking bad. It got a poor 
start on account of the cold late spring. 
Some fields were planted over. Pota¬ 
toes are looking good. Apples are a 
failure in this part of the State. All 
garden truck is suffering from hot 
winds and drouth.—J. R. E. 

Cumberland Co.—We are having very 
dry weather with intense heat. . This 
combination has played havoc with all 
crops. Hay will only be a quarter crop. 
Grain will be poor. Premature ripen¬ 
ing will cause shriveled grain. Pastures 
are drying up, and feeding of cattle 
has consequently become a necessity. 
Wheat $1.15, corn, 90c; oats, 6c; hay, 
$20; early potatoes, $1 a bushel; eggs, 
28c; milk wholesale, 6c per quart; live 
poultry, 20 to 40c.;—A. P. S. 


Meadows and pastures are looking fine. 
Raspberries and strawberries and black¬ 
berries promise an excellent crop. 
Sweet cherries will be a failure, while 
sour cherries will yield about a half 
crop. Some varieties of apples will 
make a full crop, while others will be 
an entire failure. Peach crop will be 
about 75 per cent normal, plums 25, 
pears 25. The corn crop planted is 
about 125 per cent normal and is mak¬ 
ing good growth. The labor question 
is serious in this section. The more 
foreigners we get the worse it becomes. 

It takes two good bosses to get one 
day’s work from one of them. Coal 
mines are not running very short, only 
about 10 per cent.—E. Warm an. 

Dauphin Co.—Some splendid fields of 
alfalfa and sweet clover are being har¬ 
vested. Wheat has improved wonder¬ 
fully and may give a good crop. Roads 
are looking very nice. Corn has been 
damaged considerably by cut worms. 
Timothy fields are short, some of them 
being all weeds. Potatoes look good, 
acreage has been reduced, bugs are 
very plentiful. Fruit will yield a fair 
crop. Wheat $1.20, corn 90c, oats 55c, 
potatoes $1.20, milk $2.55 per hundred, 
eggs 28 to 30c, strawberries 15 to 25c, 
cherries 10 to 20c. Days are warm and 
nights are cool.— I. F. Alleman. 

Cumberland Co.—The long dry spell 
that we have been experiencing was 
broken by heavy rains and thunder 
showers accompanied by hail. Many 
buildings in this section were struck by 
lightning and crops damaged. Tele¬ 
phone and electric service was very 
much handicapped. Crops will be about 
a month late this year owing to the cool, 
late Spring. The hay crop, especially 
clover, will be short. Farmers are now 
making the first cutting of alfalfa. 
Corn did not come up very well. Very 
little Stock changing hands, _ except 
calves. Some sheep shearing is being 
done. The farmers are undecided 
whether to sell or not. Potato bugs 
have made their appearance in large 
numbers. Wheat $1.25, corn 70c, po¬ 
tatoes 60c and eggs 22c—J. B. Kelly. 

Crawford Co.—The weather is cold 
and nothing is growing very well. 
Everything seems late. Meadows and 
wheat are below normal. Pastures 
are poor for this time of the year. Light 
frosts were experienced during early 
June. Butter, 45c; eggs, 20 to 25c; 
cream, 36c. The dirt road's are in good 
condition. Road construction work is 
going on in a number of places in the 
county. Farmer help is scarce. There 
is little or no building being done.—J. 
T. S. 


Easier thani 
Whitewash 





It takes less than five minutes to mix 
the Carbola powder with water and 
have it ready to use as a white paint 
and powerful disinfectant. No wait¬ 
ing or straining ;no clogging of sprayer. 
Does not spoil. Does not peel or flake. 
Disinfectant is right in the paint 
powder—one operation instead of 
two. Gives better results, costs less. 
Used for years by leading farms. 

Your hardware, paint, seed or drug dealer has 
Carbola, or can get it. If not, order direct Satis¬ 
faction, or money back. lO lbs (10 gals.) $1.25 and 
Dostage- 20 lbs. (20 gals.) $2.60 delivered; 60 lbs. (60 
gals*VoOdelivered; 200 lbs. (200 gal3.) $18.00 deliv¬ 
ered; trial package and booklet 30c. 

Add 26 % for Texas and Rocky Mt. States 

CARBOLA CHEMICAL CO., Inc. 


291 ElyAve., Long Island City, N. Y. 




FARM WAGONS 

High or low wheels— 
steel or wood—wide 
or narrow tires. 
Wagon parts of all 
kinds. Wheels to fit 
any running gear. 
_ _ Catalog illustrated in colors ti oa 

Electric Wheel Co., 2 Elm St., Quincy, Ill. 


PENNSYLVANIA COUNTY NOTES 

Fayette Co.—We have had some very 
dry weather up until about a week ago, 
when a rainy spell set in. The winter 
wheat is looking fine and will un¬ 
doubtedly make a good crop. The 
prospects for a good oats crop is good. 


CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA 
NOTES 

J. N. GLOVER 

Cultivation of corn is taking more of 
the farmers’ time now-a-days. The crop 
is growing rapidly, but could stand a 
great deal more rain and warmer 
nights. The timothy crop will un¬ 
doubtedly be short this year. Clover is 
shorter on the stalk than usual. Wheat 
has improved much since it has headed 
out. Oats is short and up to the mid¬ 
dle of June has made very little growth. 
Pastures are fair. 

Early cherries promise a good crop 
this year. Some varieties of apples 
will yield well, while others are going 
to be scarce. Plums will make a good 
crop, while potatoes will yield only fair. 

Wheat has dropped to $1.20 a bushel, 
while corn went up slightly to 90c, oats 
55c. Old hay is selling slowly at $16 
per ton for the best. Wheat straw $11 
per ton. 

Fresh cows have been generally _ m 
good demand and good ones are selling 
up to $150 or better. Except for the 
prices received by Dairymen’s League 
for milk, farmers would be more dis¬ 
couraged over the price situation, than 
they are, although many are planning to 
hold a sale next spring and quit farm¬ 
ing. 

We think a good deal of the Ameri¬ 
can Agriculturist, and would not care 
to be without it.—Mrs. E. F. Gardener, 
Moscow, Pa. 


ROSS 

Ensilage Cutters 

QEFORE you decide on any 
Ensilage Cutter—at any price 
—mail the coupon, or a post card, 

for full information regarding the Ross. 
This sturdy, low-speed, smooth- 
running machine has led the field for 
years—and it is better this year than 
ever before! 

BETTER SILAGE 

Less Power Needed — 
and Built for Heavy Duty. 

The Rosa stands right up to the work. 
No matter how heavy the corn, it runs 
smoothly, steadily, cutting every piece 
slick and clean — saving all the rich 
juices. No mashing. No chewing. No 
shredding. The Ross is a real cutter! 

Write at once for catalog— prices—full inform¬ 
ation. Find out about the Ross boiler plate steel 
blower and cutting apparatus—ball-bearing end- 
thrust— positive knife adiustment. Get all the 
facts—and then decide. 

E. W. ROSS '“'iJg'sST* CO. 

Successors to The E. W- Ross Co. 

Dept. 220 Springfield, Ohio 


E. W. Ross Co. 

Dipt. 220 Springilsd, Ohio 


Send full information regarding Ross Ensilage 
Cutters. 


I 
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1 
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| Address 

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Name_ 
































































































10 


American Agriculturist, July 7,1923 


THIS IS YOUR MARKET PLACE 


< 


Classified Advertising Rates 


A D y? RTISEMENTS are iHSerted in this department at the rate of 5 cents a word 
l The minimum charge per insertion is $1 per week. 

Count as one word each initial, abbreviation and whole number, including name 
and address. Thus: “J. B. Jones, 44 E. Main St., Mount Morris, N. Y.” counts -is 
eleven words. 

Place your wants by following the style of the advertisements on this page. 

Our Advertisements Guaranteed 

T HE American Agriculturist accepts only advertising which it believes to be 
thoroughly honest. 

We positively guarantee to our readers fair and honest treatment in dealing with 
our advertisers. & 

We guarantee to refund the price of goods purchased bv our subscribers from any 
advertiser who fails to malae good when the article purchased is found not. to be 
as advertised. 

To benefit by this guarantee subscribers must say : ‘T saw your ad in the Ameri¬ 
can Agriculturist” when ordering from our advertisers. 

The More You Tell, The Quicker You Sell 

E VERY week the American Agriculturist reaches over 120,000 farmers In New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and adjacent States. Advertising orders must 
reach our office at 461 Fourth Avenue, New York Citv not later than the second 
Monday previous to date of issue. Cancellation orders must reach us on the same 
schedule. Because of the low rate to subscribers and their friends, cash or money 
order must accompany your order. 

ALL GOOD THINGS COME TO HIM WHO WAITS —- BUT 
THE CHAP WHO DOESN’T ADVERTISE WAITS LONGEST 


EGGS AND POULTRY 


SWINE 


SO MANY ELEMENTS entor into the ship¬ 
ping of day-old chicks and eggs by our ad¬ 
vertisers, and the hatching of same- by our 
subscribers that the publishers of this paper 
cannot guarantee the safe arrival of day-old 
chicks, or that eggs shipped shall reach the 
buyer unbroken, nor can they guarantee the 
hatching of eggs. We shall continue to exer¬ 
cise the greatest care in allowing poultry and 
egg advertisers to use this paper, but our re¬ 
sponsibility must end with that. 

BARRED PLYMOUTH ROCK PULLETS 
and Cockerels. Ringlet and Park strains, 
March 10 and 25 hatch ; now ready at $1.25 
in lots of 25 or over. Smaller lots at $1.50 
f. o. b. Marathon, N. Y. M. C. BEECHER, 
Marathon, N. Y. 


BABY CHICKS — White Leghorns 9c., Barred 
Rocks 11c., R. I. Reds 12c., and mixed chicks 
8c. each. Satisfaction and live arrival guar¬ 
anteed. Circular free. TURKEY RIDGE 
HATCHERY, Millerstown, Pa. 


COCKERELS, SHEPPARDS, ANCONAS— 
April hatched, for breeders next season ; fine 
birds, $1.50, during June. DARK POULTRY 
YARDS, Malone, N. Y. 


FOR SALE — 17 Black Jersey Giants, eleven 
months old, weight 414 or 5 pounds. Make me 
an offer for the lot. MRS. FLORA COLLINS, 
Greensboro Bend, Vt. 


PULLETS 8 TO 12 WEEKS — Hens, Leg¬ 
horns, Rocks, Reds, Anconas, Minorcas, farm- 
raised. FRANK’S POULTRY FARM, Box A, 
Tiffin. Ohio. 


200 PULLETS — Single Comb White Leg¬ 
horns. Ferris, 265-300-egg strain. 12 weeks 
old. Now, only $1 each. ALFRED CHALLY, 
.Herscher, Ill. 


SEEDS AND NURSERY STOCKS 


CABBAGE, CELERY — Ready for field, 
$1.25 per 1,000 ; beet, onion, lettuce, strong 
plants, $1 per 1,000 ; tomato, all kinds, $2 per 
1,000 ; cauliflower, peppers, egg plants, $3 per 
1,000. Send for list. J. C. SCHMIDT, Bristol, 
Pa. 


DOGS AND PET STOCK 


REGISTERED DUROC WEANED PIGS— 
$10, either sex, including papers, crating, de¬ 
livering. Quick-growing husky rascals. CIIAS. 
MEAltSON, Weedsport, N. Y. 


O. I. C. PEDIGREED PIGS—$8, $15 pair, 
bred sows. Laying Leghorns. Pedigreed Col¬ 
lies. EL BRITTON FARM, R. 1, Hudson, N. Y. 


JUST A FEW MORE—O. I. C. Service Boars, 
sired by a grandson of C. C. Callaway Edd. 
GEO. N. RUPRACHT, Mallory, N. Y. 


REAL ESTATE 


FARM WANTED -— Wanted to hear from 
owner of farm or good land for sale, for fall 
delivery. L. JONES, Box 200, Olney, Ill. 


AGENTS WANTED 


AGENTS WANTED—Agents make a dol¬ 
lar an hour. Sell Mendets, a patent patch 
for instant mending leaks in all utensils. 
Sample package free. COLLETTE MFG. CO. 
Dept. 210, Amsterdam, N. Y. 


HELP WANTED 


ALL men, women, boys, girls, 17 to 60, will¬ 
ing to accept Government positions, $117-$190, 
traveling or stationary, vrite MR. OZMENT, 
258 St. Louis, Mo., immediately. 


MISCELLANEOUS 


EAT APPLE PIE ALL SUMMER—Wayne 
County Evaporated Apples. Best in the world. 
Stock for 12 pies, $1.00 postpaid. Good till 
used. ALVAI-I II. PULVER, Sodus, N. Y. 


LATEST STYLE SANITARY MILK TICK¬ 
ETS save money and time. Free delivery. 
Send for samples. TRAVERS BROTHERS, 
Dept. A, Gardner, Mass. 


TWENTY TONS HARDWOOD ASHES de¬ 
livered your railway station, $400. GEORGE 
STEVENS, Peterborough, Ontario. 


FARM DOG—English Shepherds ; pups and 
drivers. Natural instinct to handle cattle. 
Credit given if requested. Nine litters ready 
now. W. W. NORTON, Ogdensburg, N. Y. 

COCKER SPANIEL PUPPIES — Champion 
stock ; Blacks and Reds, with pedigrees ; at 
low prices. LAKE-MOUNT KENNEL, Stuart* 
Hubbell, Odessa, N. Y. 


LOOK ! — Rub your eyes and read again ! 
English and Welsh Shepherd Pups at reduced 
price for short time. GEO. BOORMAN, 
Marathon, N. Y. 


FLEMISH GIANT RABBITS—The big kind, 
young and mature stock, fully pedigreed and 
healthy. Write wants. T. A. WILSON, 
Marion, N. Y. 


COLLIE PUPPIES- — All ages, bred bitches. 
PAINE'S KENNELS, South Royalton, Vt. 


CATTLE 


HOLSTEIN BULLS FOR SALE — Sired by 
Brookside Waldorf Victoria Duke, from tested 
and untested dam. Federal Accredited Herd. 
Priced reasonably. For quick sale, address 
JACOB M. BRULACKER, Route 4, Myerstown, 
Pa. 


WANTED — 75 pure-bred or grade Guernsey 
or Ayrshire cows (TB tested) to freshen in 
September. October or November T V 
PROSKINE, Roxbury, N. Y. 

CHOICE MAY ROSE Guernseys for sale. 
Males and females, all ages, accredited herd. 
Will sell reasonable for quick sale. JOHN K. 
CORBETT, Lancaster, Pa. 


REGISTERED AYRSMIRES—We have priced 
for immediate sale, six well-bred 2-year old 
heifers. ARDEN HILL FARMS, Alfred Sta¬ 
tion, N. Y. 


SHEEP 


FOR SALE — Hampshire and Dorset sheep, 
rams and ewes ; also Shetland ponies. L. G 
TUCKER, Scio, N. Y. 


BABY CHICKS 


World’s Largest Breeders of 

JERSEY BLACK GIANTS 

EXCLUSIVELY 

Weeks of July 2nd, 9th, 16th Delivery 

CHICKS 

$25.00 per 100 $13.00 per 50 $7.00 per 25 

Our Terms are Cash with Order, it is 
impossible to ship chicks C. O. D. Send 
check or money-order at once, so you 
will get your chicks at this time. 

Safe Delivery Guaranteed 

PEDRICK POULTRY FARMS, Flemington, N. J. 


CHICKS for June and July Delivery 

Our 19th Season produeirg good strong 
chicks from heavy-laying strains. S. C, 
White and Brown Leghorns, $9.50 per 100: 
Buff and Black Leghorns, F10 per 100: Barred 
and White Bocks, $12 per 100: Anconas, Black 
M inorcas, $11.50 per 100; \\ hite Wyandottes, 
B. 0. Beds, $13 per 100. Mixed, $8.50 per 100. 
Order direct from this ad. We guarantee 95:* live de¬ 
livery. Catalogue free. 

20th CENTURY HATCHERY 
Box R _ New Washington, Ohio 

fj k ny C Htt tched by the best b^Btem of 

DaiD I vfllvl\u Incubation, from higrb class 
■ ■ ■ ■ ■■■■■ bred-to-lav stock, karreldand 

Baft Kooks, Reds, Anconas, Black Minorcas, 12c. each; White, 
Brown, Buff Leghorns, 10c. each; broilers, 7c. each. Pekin 
Ducklings, 30c. each. ^ 

•Safe delivery guaranteed by prepaid parcel post 

NUNDA POULTRY FARM NUNDA, N. Y. 

I APPp QTOrif Poultry, Turkeys,Geese,Ducks,Guineas, 
LnlVUL J1ULIY bantams, Collies, Pigeons, Chicks, Stock, 
Lggs, low; catalog. PIO.XKEK FAKJI8, Telford, Penns) bauia. 



Farmers Must Solve Their Own Problems 


(Continued 

knows about those problems. Why do 
farmers think they must run to legis¬ 
lators to find about the things about 
which they themselves are the best ex¬ 
perts? 

I have said, and I should like to re¬ 
peat here, that political government 
has definite limitations in the ordering 
of affairs and it can go beyond these 
limitations only at the peril of the 
people and their social and economic or¬ 
ganization. Political government, for 
example, is simply not competent to 
conduct industry, to work out the sal¬ 
vation of industry, or to teach industry 
in which paths to walk. There is a 
great gulf fixed between politics and 
industry. Industry must work out its 
own salva.ion, build up its own great 
governing forces, apply democratic 
principles to fit its own structure and 
meet the needs of humanity out of its 
own intelligence. There is no other 
force that has the qualifications to take 
this job away from industry, and as 
long as organization persists and grows 
within industry and the intelligence 
that is in industry devises methods of 
functioning - , no other force can ever 
grow up that will possess the qualifica¬ 
tions. 

Our social order has got to develop 
according to the character of those 
things that provide its^ life. In pastoral 
days and social order took its form 
from the pastoral life of the people. In 
our time it must do likewise, and in 
spite of all the efforts of dreamers to 
the contrary, it does do likewise. 

Is it not logical to apply the same 
thought to the rural life of the coun¬ 
try? Rural and urban life are largely 
interdependent upon the same major 
trends and developments. 

Individual farmers have fought many 
manifest evils. They continue to fight. 
They have developed some organized 
strength with which they can fight 
more effectively. In some cases farm¬ 
ers have found a way to decrease 
abuses, hut in every case where prog¬ 
ress has been made, organization has 
been the bedrock of their strength and 
their progress. I can prescribe nothing- 
short of more and more organization. 
Wherever there is organization there is 
a center — a clearing house—for the 
gathering and disseminating of infor¬ 
mation of economic experience, of the 
manifestations within your occupation. 
The records so accumulated will serve 
to disclose the wisdom or unwisdom of 
contemplated policies and undertakings. 
Something like scientific procedure then 
becomes possible. The recorded experi¬ 
ence of mankind is the only thing that 
enables us to avoid mistakes that were 
made a century ago. If it were not for 
recorded experience—experience re¬ 
corded in written records and in mem¬ 
ory for transmission from day to day 
and from generation to generation — 
we should have each day to learn again 
how to start fire with a whirling stick. 
Recorded experience in given occupa¬ 
tions is no less vital than in our social 
structure as a whole, no less important 
in guiding us aright from day to day 
than in guiding us from century to 
century. Organization is a means of 
bringing- to a central point for common 
use the experiences of all. 

Council Table the Goal 

There is no force in our social organ¬ 
ization that will not come to the coun¬ 
cil table with the farmers when the 
farmers find the way to bring their 
strength together at that table. And, 
let me point out, the council table is 
the goal. The battlefield is not the goal, 
much as some may like to make it ap¬ 
pear so. The council table means con¬ 
ference, negotiations and agreement. 
Agreement at the council table is native 
to our soil. It is fundamentally our 
way. It is the foundation and the 
touchstone of democracy. Every agree¬ 
ment between organized groups regis¬ 
ters progress and achievement—some¬ 
thing- positive. Reason finds its place 
at the council table where equals come 
together. We are but in the beginning 
of a great unfolding of democracy. We 
have but taken the first steps, great 
and wonderful and gratifying as they 
have been. Civilizations g"row slowly 
and we shall not end all evil in our 
time. If we can be conscious of progress 
we have reason to feel that all is not 
ill that is among us. But on this point 
put much emphasis: Progress is not 


from page 3) 

gained by fiat, nor is it ordered into 
being by virtue merely of law. More 
frequently law registers what is either 
accomplished or recognized. It follows 
more often than it leads. Put your faith 
in your own works and see that your 
works are thorough, diligent and based 
always upon the needs of your own 
occupation and guided by your own 
knowledge of that occupation. 


Are Farm People For 
Prohibition ? 

(Continued from page 5) 

out it, sane, well-to-do, peace abiding- 
citizens. 

Wohld the Volstead Act if carried 
out make matters worse? Is it right 
or wrong? Should we farmers, who 
are eighty per cent for, instead of 
seventy per cent against this act, let 
those who do oppose, try to make the 
general public believe that the farmers 
favor doing away with the Volstead 
Act and allow wide open legalized 
liquor traffic again. 

Prohibition must stay put, our chil¬ 
dren must not be menaced with this 
curse. Don’t let us let our habits run 
away with us. Come out for square, for 
the right, and wipe this slavery, which 
is blackest of all, from our beloved 
country. 

Let us make known where we stand 
without selfishness thinking of the good 
to all concerned and then aid in every 
way those who are trying to make our 
country a fit place for all to live in.—E. 
A. H., Broome Co., N. Y. 

Speaks for a Maryland Community 

O N the Editorial page of the June 
16th American Agriculturist, is a 
letter from a “supposed-to-be” farmer, 
on prohibition; also your request for 
“those who are for it—stand up and 
be counted.” A woman is given credit, 
justly or not, for having a “sixth 
sense.” To me, the “farmer’s” letter 
was at once stamped “falsfe,” “whis¬ 
key,” and “money talking.” 

As far as I can learn our community 
as a whole are in favor of prohibition 
with but one or two exceptions. You 
would receive many more than your re¬ 
quested ten thousand letters but for 
one thing, this is such a busy time, we 
hardly have time to bring the mail in 
from the mail-box, let alone read it. It 
just happened to be raining to-day so 
I took time to glance over the paper. 

This is Maryland and reported to be 
“wet’ but get the hearts of the people, 
especially the women, and you will find 
with few exceptions that even the 
“wet” places do not want re-peal but 
enforcement of the 18th Amendment. 
Hope you receive more letters than you 
can read. We enjoy the paper very 
much.—E. V. H., Wicomico Co., Md. 

18th Amendment Should be Amended 

I N response to your request for short 
letters in regard to the stand of 
larmers on the Prohibition Law, I am 
•moved to say I am in accord with your 
correspondent who thinks the so-called 
unanimity of farm sentiment for the 
present dry law is a myth. Though 
practically a total abstainer myself I 
regard the prohibition of such drinks u 
as beer, nothing short of a crime against ' 
many hundreds of thousands of law- 
abiding citizens. I believe that 75 per 
cent of the farmers of my acquaintance 
are against the present stringent law. 
It is a breeder of lawlessness and revo-J 
lution and should be supplanted by a 
much more liberal interpretation of the 
18th Amendment.—H. L. U., Dutchess 
Co., N. Y. 

“Never Heard a Parmer Speak for 
Prohibition” 

A RE farm people for prohibition? 

I should say No. I never heard a 
farmer speak for prohibition. Of my 
nearest twelve neighbors, there is only 
one who would vote for prohibition, and 
I am not sure that he would. He always 
takes a drink when I offer him one.— 
E. B. 

Is Education a Factor? 

BELIEVE that over ninety-five per 
cent of the farmers with a high-school, 
or more advanced education are for 
prohibition first, last and all the time. 

God Save the State. —I. M. J., Alle¬ 
gany Co., N. Y. 





























































































American Agriculturist, July 7,1923 


11 


\ 




x » 

The Brown Mouse — By Herbert Quick 


AND Jim felt something new, too. He had felt it growing in him ever since 
xahe began his school work, and knew not the cause of it. The cause, however, 
would not have been a mystery to a wise old yogi who might discover the same 
sort of change in one of his young novices. Jim Irwin has been a sort of ascetic 
since his boyhood. He had mortified the flesh by hard labor in the fields, and by 
flagellations of the brain to drive off sleep while he pored over his books in the 
attic. He had looked long on such women as Helen of Troy, Cleopatra, Evange¬ 
line Agnes Wickfield and Fair Rosamond; but on women in the flesh he had 
gazed as upon trees walking. The aforesaid spiritual director, had this young 
ascetic been under one, would have foreseen the effects on the psychology of a 
stout fellow of twenty-eight of freedom from the toil of the fields, and associa¬ 
tion with a group of young human beings of both sexes. 

He would, no doubt, have considered carefully his patient’s symptoms. These 
were very largely the mental experiences which most boys pass through in their 
early twenties, save, perhaps that, as in a belated season, the transition from 
winter to spring was more sudden, and the contrast more violent. Jim was now 
thrown every day into contact with his fellows. He was becoming more of a 
boy, with the boys, and still more was he developing into a man with the women. 


The budding womanhood of Calista 
Simms and other school girls thrilled 
him as Helen of Troy or Juliet had 
never done. This will not seem very 
strange to the experienced reader, but 
it astonished the unsophisticated young 
schoolmaster. The floating hair, the 
rosebud mouth, the starry eye—all 
these disturbed the hitherto sedate 
mind. And now, as he gazed at Jennie, 
he was suddenly aware of the fact that, 
after all, whenever; these thoughts and 
dreams took on individuality, they were 
only persistent and intensified contin¬ 
uations of his old dreams of her. He 
was quite sure, now, that he had never 
forgotten for a moment, that Jennie 
was the only girl in the world for 
him. 

N OW, however, he arose as from 
some inner compulsion, and went to 
her side. Still scanning him by means 
of her back hair, Jennie knew that in 
another moment Jim would lay his hand 
on her shoulder, or otherwise advance 
to personal nearness, as he had done 
the night of his ill-starred speech at 
the schoolhouse—and she rose in self- 
dcf gusg. 

Self-defense, however, did not seem 
to require that he be kept at too 
great a distance; so she maneuvered 
him to the sofa, and seated him be¬ 
side her. Now was the time to line 
him up. 

“It seems good to have you with us 
to-day,” said she. “We’re such old, 
old friends.” 

“Yes,” repeated Jim, “old friends. 
.... We are, aren’t we, Jennie?” 

“And I feel sure,” Jennie went on, 
“that this marks a new era in our 
friendship.” 

“Why?” asked Jim, after consider¬ 
ing the matter. 

“Oh! everything is different, now— 
and getting more different all the time. 
My new work, and your new work, you 
know.” 

“I should like to think,” said Jim, 
“that we are beginning over again.” 

“Oh, we are, we are, indeed! I am 
quite sure of it.” 

“And yet,” said Jim, “there is no 
such thing as a new beginning. Every¬ 
thing joins itself to something which 
went before. There isn’t any seam.” 
“No?” said Jennie interrogatively. _ 
“Our regard for each other,” Jennie 
noted most pointedly his word “regard” 
—“must be the continuation .of the 
old regard.” 

“I hardly know what you mean,” 
said Jennie. 

J IM reached over and possessed him¬ 
self of her hand. She pulled it from 
him gently, but he paid no attention to 
the little muscular protest, and ex¬ 
amined the hand critically. On the 
back of the middle finger he pointed 
out a scar—a very tiny scar. 

“Do you remember how you got 
that?” he asked. 

Because Jim clung to the hand, their 
heads were very close together as she 
joined in the examination. 

“Why, I don’t believe I do,” said she. 
“I dto,” he replied. “We—you and I 
and Mary Forsythe—were playing 
numble-peg, and you put your hand on 
the grass just as I threw the knife—it 
cut you, and left that scar.” 

“I remember, now!” said she. “How 
such things come back over the mem¬ 
ory. And did it leave a scar when I 
pushed you toward the hed-hot stove in 
the schoolhouse one blizzardy day, like 
this, and you peeled the skin off your 
wrist where it struck the stove?” 


“Look at it,” said he, baring his long 
and bony wrist. “Right there!”_ 

And they were off on the trail that 
leads back to childhood. They had 
talked long, and intimately, when the 
shadows of the early evening crept into 
the corners of the room. They had re¬ 
lived a dozen moving incidents by flood 
and field. Jennie recalled the time 
when the tornado narrowly missed the 
schoolhouse, and frightened everybody 
in school nearly to death. 

“Everybody but you, Jim,” Jennie 
remembered. “You looked out of the 
window and told the teacher that the 
twister was going north of us, and 
would kill somebody else.” 

“Did I?” asked Jim. 

“Yes,” said Jennie, “and when the 
teacher asked us to kneel and thank 
God, you said, ‘Why should we thank 
God that somebody else is bloWed 
away?’ She was greatly shocked.” 

“I don’t see to this day,” Jim as¬ 
serted, “what answer there was to my 
question.” 

In the gathering darkness Jim again 
took Jennie’s hand, but this time she 
deprived him of it. 

H E was trembling like a leaf. Let it 
be remembered in his favor that this 
was the only girl’s hand he had ever 
held. 

“You can’t find any more scars on 
it,” she said soberly. 

“Let me see how much it has changed 
since I struck the knife in it,” begged 
Jim. 

Jennie held it up for inspection. 

“It’s longer, and slenderer, and 
whiter, and even more beautiful,” said 
he, “than the little hand I cut; but it 
was then the most beautiful hand in 
the world to me—and still is.” 

“I must light the lamps,” said 
the county superintendent-elect, rather 
flustered,.it must be confessed. “Mama! 
Where are all the matches?” 

Mrs. Woodruff and Mrs. Irwin came 
in, and the lamplight reminded Jim’s 
mother that the cow was still to milk, 
and that the chickens might need at¬ 
tention. The Woodruff sleigh came to 
the door to carry them home; but Jim 
desired to breast the storm. He felt 
that he needed the conflict. Mrs. Irwin 
scolded him for his foolishness, but he 
strode off into the whirling drift, 
throwing back a good-by for general 
consumption, and a pathetic smile to 
Jennie. 

“He’s as odd as Dick’s hatband,” said 
Mrs. Woodruff, “tramping off in a 
storm like this.” 

“Did you line him up?”' asked the 
colonel of Jennie. 

The young lady started and blushed. 
She had forgotten all about the poli¬ 
tics of the situation. 

“I—I’m afraid I didn’t, papa,” she 
confessed. 

“Those brown mice of Professor 
Darbishire’s,” said the colonel, “were 
the devil and all to control.” 

J ENNIE was thinking of this as she 
dropped asleep. 

“Hard to control!” she thought. “I 
wonder. I wonder, after all, if Jim is 
not capable of being easily lined up— 
“Why, I don’t believe I do,” said she. 
And Jim? He found himself hard to 
control that night. So much so that it 
was after midnight before he had fin¬ 
ished work on a plan for a cooperative 
creamery. 

“The boys can be given work in help¬ 
ing to operate it,” he wrote on a tablet, 
“which, in connection with the labor 
performed by the teacher, will greatly 


reduce the expense of operation. A 
skilled buttermaker, with slender white 
hands”—but he erased this last clause 
and retired. 


CHAPTER XII 

FACING TRIAL 

A DISTINCT sensation ran through 
the Woodruff school, but the 
schoolmaster and a group of five big- 
boys and three girls engaged in a very 
unclasslike conference in the back of 
the room were all unconscious of it. 
The geography classes had recited, and 
the language work was on. Those too 
small for these studies were playing a 
game under the leadership of Jinnie 
Simms, who had been promoted to the 
position of weed-seed monitor. 

Each child had been encouraged to 
bring some sort of weed from the win¬ 
ter fields—preferably one the seed of 
which still clung to the dried recep¬ 
tacles—but anyhow, a weed. Some pu¬ 
pils had brought merely empty tas¬ 
sels, some bare stalks, and some seeds 
which they had winnowed from the 
grain in Their father’s bins; and with 
them they played forfeits. They counted 
out by the “arey, Ira, ickery an’ ” 
method, and somebody was “It.” Then, 
in order, they presented to him a seed, 
stalk or head of a weed, and if the 
one who was It could tell the name of 
the weed, the child who brought the 
specimen became It, and the name was 
written on slates or tablets, and the 
new It told where the weed or seed was 
collected. If any pupil brought, in a 
specimen the name of which he himself 
could not correctly give, he paid a for¬ 
feit. If a specimen brought in was not 
found in the school cabinet—which was 
coming to contain a considerable collec¬ 
tion—it was placed there, and the task 
allotted to the best penman in the 
school to write its proper label. .All 
this caused excitement, and not a little 
buzz—but it ceased when the county 
superintendent entered the room. 

For it was after the first of Janu¬ 
ary, and Jennie was visiting the Wood¬ 
ruff school. 

The group in the back of the room 
went on with its conference, oblivious 
of the entrance of Superintendent Jen¬ 
nie. Their work was rather absorbing, 
being no more nor less than the com¬ 
pilation of the figures of a cow census 
of the district. 

“Altogether,” said Mary Talcott, 
“we have in the district one hundred 
and fifty-three cows.” 

“I don’t make it that,” said Raymond 
Simms. “I don’t get but a hundred 
and thirty-eight.” 

“rpHE trouble is,” said Newton Bron- 
J-son, “that Mary’s counting in the 
Bailey herd of Shorthorns.” 

“Well, they’re cows, ain’t they?” in¬ 
terrogated Mary. 

“Not for this census,” said Ray¬ 
mond. 

“Why not?” asked Mary. “They’re 
the prettiest cows in the neighbor¬ 
hood.” 

“Scotch Shorthorns,” said Newton, 
“and run with their calves.” 

“Leave them out,” said Jim, “and 
to-morrow, I want each one to tell in 
the language class, in three hundred 
words or less, whether there are 
enough cows in the district to justify 
a cooperative creamery, and give the 
reason. You’ll find articles in the farm 
papers if you look through the card 
index. Now, how about the census 
in the adjoining districts?” 

“There are more than two hundred 
within four miles on the roads leading 
west,” said a boy. 

“My father and I counted up about 
a hundred beyond us,” said Mary. 
“But I couldn’t get the exact number.” 

“Why” said Raymond, “we could find 
six hundred dairy cows in this neigh¬ 
borhood, within an hour’s drive.” 

“Six hundred!” scoffed Newton. 
“You’re crazy! In an hour’s drive?” 

“I mean an hour’s drive each way,” 
said Raymond. 

“I believe we could,” said Jim. “And 
after we find how far we will have to 
go to get enough cows, if half of them 
patronized the creamery, we’ll work 
over the savings the business would 
make. Who’s in possession of that 


correspondence with the Wisconsin 
creameries?” 

“I have itj” said Raymond. “I’m 
hectographing a lot of ar.ifhmetic prob¬ 
lems from it.” 1 

“How do you do, Mr. Irwin!” It 
was the superintendent who spoke. 

Jim’s brain whirled little prismatic 
clouds before his vision, as he rose and 
shook Jennie’s extended hand. . 

“Let me give you a chair,” said hjf 

“Oh no, thank you!” she returnee 
“I’ll just make myself at home. I 
know my way about in this school- 
house, you know!” 

She smiled at the children and 
went about looking at their work— 
which was not noticeably disturbed, by 
reason of the fact that visitors were 
much more frequent now than ever 
before, and were no rarity. Certainly, 
Jennie Woodruff was no novelty, since 
they had known her all their lives. 
Most of the embarrassment was Jim’s. 
He rose to the occasion, however, 
went through the routine of the closing 
day, and dismissed the flock, not omit¬ 
ting making an engagement with a 
group of boys for that evening to come 
back and work on the formalin treat¬ 
ment for smut in seed grains, and the 
blue-vitriol treatment for seed potatoes. 

“We hadn’t time for these things,” 
said he to the county superintendent, 
“in the regular class work—and it’s 
getting time to take them up if we 
are to clean out the smut in next 
year’s crop.” 


T HEY repeated Whittier’s Com Song 
in concert, and school was out. 

Alone with her in the old school- 
house, Jim confronted Jennie in the 
flesh. She felt a sense of his agitation, 
but if she had known the power of it, 
she would have been astonished. Since 
that Christmas afternoon when she 
had undertaken to follow Mr. Peter¬ 
son’s advice and line Yim Irwin up, 
Jim had gone through an inward trans¬ 
formation. He was in love with her. 
He knew how insane it was, yet, he 
had made up his mind that he would 
marry Jennie Woodruff. 

He saw her through clouds of rose 
and pink; but she looked at him as at 
a foolish man who was chasing rain¬ 
bows at her expense, and deeply vex¬ 
ing her. She was in a cold official 
frame of mind. 

“Jim,” said she, “do you know that 
you are facing trouble?” 

“Trouble,” said Jim, “is the natural 
condition of a man in my state of mind. 





WHAT HAS GONE BEFORE 

TX THEN Jennie Woodruff asked 
VV Jim Irwin and his mother 
to dinner, she meant to play 
politics to the extent of persuad¬ 
ing him to give up his new 
fangled way of teaching school 
and conform to traditional meth¬ 
ods. But Jim was a “Brown 
Mouse,” whose theories meant 
much to him. Col. Woodruff, 
Jennie’s father, thought the 
former farm-hand had something 
to him and watched him carefully 
through the dinner at which Jim 
held forth on his ideas of a school 
program related to life. 


But it is going to be a delicious sort of 
tribulation.” 

“I don’t know what you mean,” she 
replied in perfect honesty. 

“Then I don’t know what you mean,” 
replied Jim. 

“Jim,” she said pleadingly, “I want 
you to give up this sort of teaching. 
Can’t you see it’s all wrong?” 

“No,” answered Jim, in much the 
manner of a man who has been stabbed 
by his sweetheart. “I can’t see that 
it’s wrong. It’s the only sort I can do. 
What do you see wrong in it?” 

“Oh, I can see some very wonderful 
things in it,” said Jennie, “but it can’t 
be done in the Woodruff District. It 
may be correct in theory, but it won’t 
work in practice.” 

“It works,” said Jim. “Anything 
that’s correct in theory will work. If 
the theory seems correct, and yet won’t 
work, it’s because something is wrong 
(Continued on page 15) 


.91 







12 


W / 


American Agriculturist, July 7,1923 


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The Romance of the Commonplace 

1 houghts on the Lovers of Yesterday — Hints for Housekeepers To-day 


W HAT has become of the lovers we 
knew, ten, five, even two years 

ago? 

All old commonplace married folks, 
you say, Romance all gone—the ecstacy 
i of love all forgotten. 

Not mine the g'enius to portray such 
fi©4’y youth as one meets in some of 
the “best sellers” of the past decade, but 
mine eyes behold, day by day, the living 
proof that when the day of rose clad 
Maid and summer Youth are by, love 
still lingers. 

Sometimes I am really sorry for the 
view of love one gets in the usual 
love story—the passing madness, for 
it is portrayed as just that. And 
the ridiculous things the hero and 
heroine do! Then, some one says, “Oh 
there is no real love—not like that de¬ 
scribed in a story.” Thank fortune 
there isn’t! For if there was it cer¬ 
tainly would give way, before the wear 
and tear of everyday life. 

The Adventure of the Commonplace 

Now, I can see, in many a Susan, 

, bargaining at the grocery counter, not 
one bereft of the joys of love just be¬ 
cause courtship is over, but one still 
held in the thrall of life’s great ad¬ 
venture. One so up-lifted by her joy, 
that she can bear her share of the 
burden of “commonplace” yet bear it 
proudly, like a queen, because it is the 
tribute Love demands of her. And the 
woman pushing the baby carriage—Do 
you think the father of the baby sighs 
for the sweetheart of other days? No, 
for you know that when he first heard 
the child’s cry, and knew that she who 
had brought it through the gates that 
open on the Valley of the Shadow, was 
still left—in that solemn hour she be¬ 
came something more than Sweetheart. 
She was Wife, and Mother—common¬ 
place, but dear. 

And then there is Kate, bending 
over the steaming washtub, with roses 
in her cheeks, brought there by the 
heat, no doubt. To Tim, her heated 
face has a beauty greater than when 
shrouded in her wedding veil. Those 
moist drops on her brow have a deeper 
meaning than the orange blossoms, for 
those marked her venture on an un¬ 
known sea, but these speak loudly of 
endurance, a love that stands life’s 
hardest test. 

Down the Street They Go— 

These are the sweethearts of yester¬ 
day, sweethearts of to-day, too. As for 
John, and Howard, and Will—all along 
the little back streets, and up flights of 
stairs, and out in • the country, are 
these commonplace folks, and Annie is 
waiting supper for John, knowing he 
comes home tired. It is their hour 
together, and when he comes, there are 
baby arms that will clasp him around 
the neck, unashamed of neighbor’s eyes, 
but within the door, the look in his eyes 
is for Annie. Then they sit together, 
and watch the other commonplace folks 
go along—the carpenter, all sweaty, 
and we know there is the home light 
shining in his face, then the plasterer, 
all white with lime, the coal wagon 
driver, all black and grimy, and we 
know the home love is glowing’ in their 
hearts. Old commonplace married 

folks? Oh well- 

The Lovers want by just now. She 
was hanging on his arm. He was 
smoking a cigarette. Her short skirt 
displayed a liberal length of onion-skin 
hose. I sighed, but 1 know they will 
learn better after awhile. —Lillian 
Davidson. 


EVER USEFUL VINEGAR 

“Oh, don’t throw .away the vinegar,” 
exclaimed an experienced housekeeper 
as her young friend removed the last 
pickle from the jar. 

“But the vinegar isn’t strong enough 
to be used again,” the younger one ob¬ 
jected. 

“No, but _ turn it into the roaster 
where you just oooked the meat with 
the onion dressing and set the roaster 
where the vinegar will simmer gently 
for a few minutes. There will not be 
left the slightest trace of onion when 
the roaster has been washed.” 

“Oh, that is worth knowing. We do 
like onion flavor in many dishes, but 


OUR PATTERN SERVICE 



No. 1800. the one-piece cover-all apron 
illustrated in the upper corner, may be slipped 
over a good frock and will save it from soiling. 
The comfortable neck opening allows the apron 
to slip on so easily that the hair is not mussed, 
and the big pocket is a useful addition. 

Do you remember the suggestion made last 
December, that we plan our gifts for an 
“apron Christmas?’’ Everybody likes a pretty 
apron and it would not be a bad idea to cut 
out several now from the same or different 
materials and finish them now for next holiday 
time. • 

No. 1800 takes in the 36-inch size only, 
3% yards of 32-inch material. Patterns come 
in sizes 36, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46 and 4S inches 
bust measure. Price 12c. 

No. 1614, the little girl’s dress, is so sim¬ 
ple that even an inexperienced young mother 
can easily make it. The Bertha collar may be 
embroidered, or be made of a pretty thin 
organdie or batiste. Or it may bo'left off alto¬ 
gether. The skirt is gathered on to a yoke, a 
very becoming effect for a plump youngster. 

No. 1614 comes in sizes 1, 2, 3, and 4 
years. Size 4 requires I % yards of 36-inch 
material with % yard contrasting. Price 12c. 
Embroidery transfer patterns No. 626, in 
blue only, is 12c. extra'. 

No. 1798 is a romper play suit and the 
small boy who is hard on his clothes (and 
what boy isn’t?) will revel in it. So will his 
mother, who lias to wash and iron and mend, 
if necessary. Made of sturdy galatea, there 
should be little need for mending. 

No. 1798 comes ip sizes 2, 4 and 6 years, 
and for the 4-year size requires 2 yards of 36- 
inch material. Price 12e. 

No. 1788, the dress for trips to town, 
for church, or social, shows a new use of the 
popular neckerchief idea. Made of silk, with 
Paisley, batik or figured crepe de chine trim- 
ing, it would be very smart indeed. Or you 
could use a simple, pretty cotton and trim it 
with flowered voile, cretonne, or, if the mate¬ 
rial is figured, with voile in a plain color. 

No. 1788 cuts in sizes 16 years. 36, 38, 
40 and 4 2 inches bust measure. Size 36 re¬ 
quires 3 % yards 36-inch materia!, with % 
yard contrasting. Price 12c. 

To Order: Write name, address and 
pattern numbers clearly. Enclose 
proper remittance and send to Fashion 
Department, American Agriculturist, 
461 Fourth Ave., N. Y. C. And— 

Be sure to add 10c. That will bring 
you the summer catalogue, full of sen¬ 
sible, pretty dress suggestions, designs 
suitable for every day and dress-up, 
for camping, staying at home and visit¬ 
ing. Remember, just 10c. 


we never like it ‘secondhand’ in the next 
food cooked in the same dish.” 

“It works just as well in removing 
any objectionable odor such as burned 
food or a moldy taint. 

“To remove labels from any sur¬ 
face wet liberally with warm vinegar; 
this thins the glue or paste so that the 


label is readily removed. A little vine¬ 
gar added to the dried-up contents of 
a mucilage bottle will make it again 
usable. 

“A cloth saturated in vinegar and 
wrapped round a burn will usually otfer 
immediate relief. 

“Tin utensils that have become 
darkened and discolored are greatly 
improved by being boiled in a solution 
of vinegar and salt. 

“A good homemade silver cleaner 
costs but little. Have the tinsmith cut 
a disk of sheet-zinc five or six inches in 
diameter. Place this disk in the bot¬ 
tom of an enameled-ware pan and on 
it lay the silver. To a gallon of hot 
water add about V cup each of salt 
and vinegar and pour over the silver 
so as to entirely cover it. In a few 
minutes remove the silver, rinse in hot 
water and polish vigorously with a 
flannel cloth. 

“A little vinegar added to tough meat 
tends to soften the fiber and make it 
more tender. 

“Before papering walls that have 
been patched with new lime or that 
have been white-washed, brush with 
vinegar and the paper will stick and 
will not discolor.”— Alice Margaret 
Ashton. 


GETTING RID OF ANTS 

A subscriber suggests the following 
method of exterminating ants. Pur¬ 
chase five cents worth of tartar emetic 
at the drug store, divide this in two 
parts; place in two dishes in cupboard, 
put a teaspoonful of sugar in each dish 
and cover with water. The ants will 
eat and then leave.—F. W., N. Y. 

R. Heart, Phoenix, N. Y., writes that 
the following* method has been found 
successful in killing ants: 

Purchase one pint bisulphate of car¬ 
bon. In the _ spring, as soon as the 
ground is soft, dig holes with a stick 
about a foot apart all around the house. 


A TIP FROM THE “MERE 
MAN” 

'TYEiE “mere man” has had a 
good deal to say about house¬ 
keeping- recently. He happened 
to drop in to the household de¬ 
partment the other day, and be¬ 
ing- in a genial mood, contributed 
a new “recipe.” Said he: 

I m sure it will interest your 
leaders to know that gelatine, 
colored with red ink and mixed 
timothy hay seed, makes 
delicious raspberry jam.” 

We pass it on for what it’s 
worth. 


cover quickly, so that the fumes will 
penetrate under the surface dirt. Thh 
not only kills ants, but also the eggs' 
Be sure the circle around the house is 
completed even if it means crawling 
under the porch to complete it 
Another subscriber writes that she 
has used peppermint herb, and also 
tansy, which she puts around the place 
which the insects infest. 


ibe dwarf nasturtium is one of t 
most popular farm flowers. The see 
cost so little and grow so well that 
is easy to get a fine bed of them ar 

Jv. * 6 ' •ii T ^ ey are Forney little frien 
that will greet us every morning, 
matter how many we cut. They k<“ 
on blooming until frost, if kept fix 
forming seeds. They are fragrai 
and the colors range from very lie 
yellow to dark mahogany color, with 
preponderance of lighter shades. 

1 he dwarf varieties make fine edgin 
tor large beds or hardy borders T 
climbing varieties are ‘larger growii 
and will spread over a square yard 
more of space, according to the richne 
ot the soil and the amount of moistu 
they get. They are not really climbei 
but trailers, as ordinarily grown, thou- 
they will climb if in very rich soil ai 
having plenty of water. The flowe 
are larger than those of the dwarf, b 
not so freely produced.— Rachael Ra 































































































American Agriculturist, July 7,192 


Picnic Time is Here! 

New Sandwich and Salad Ideas For Hot Weather 


I N our community, we have sensibly 
stopped taking cake, meat, spreads, 
salad and hot dishes to picnics and 
socials, and confine themselves to one 
article of food. Each family takes 
enough bread and butter for its own 
use and that, with one extra dish, suf¬ 
fices. Formerly we took home about 
half of the food mussy and stale, but 
the war taught us that it is wicked 
to waste anything. 

We have now gone a step farther 
and specialize in the things we take. 
For example, my contribution is always 
a big meat loaf. I get seventy cents 
worth of round steak and have the 
butcher grind it. To that I add two 
large pork chops ground, a cup of 
rolled cracker crumbs, three well 
beaten eggs, seasoning and enough 
sweet milk to hold it all firmly to¬ 
gether. This I roast in the oven, tak¬ 
ing it hot to the social or picnic when 
possible. Now it is easy to see that 
for one dollar, or thereabouts, I could 
never prepare cake, salad, meat, eggs, 
baked beans and all the other things 
1 used to stew around getting ready. 

Just sit down to calculate some day 
and see how fair and sensible is the 
plan. A big frosted cake costs about 
one dollar, a nice dish of salad with 
cream in the mayonnaise, nut meats, 
fish, celery, olives or whatever the in¬ 
gredients are, can hardly be made for 
less than that amount, and a big pan 
of baked beans with nice bacon, and 
tomato sauce is not a cheap dish. One 
big dish to each family is a fair pro- 
portion and all the ladies play fair. 
Two dozen deviled eggs may seem 
small in comparison with a cake, but 
when eggs are selling at forty cents 
per dozen and one remembers that it 
takes cream and salad dressing to mix 
with the yolk, the cost soon matches 
the butter and eggs and flour that 
went into the cake. 

Less Woi’k and More Pleasure 

Another fine thing about our plan. is 
that the elderly ladies, the women with 
little children and the overworked 
hc^isekeepers with many cares, have a 
chance to enjoy themselves with even 
less worry and work. One elderly 
woman buys the coffee, another pro¬ 
vides the sugar and cream, another 
the bananas or other fruit, and so on 
through the list of things that require 
little or no preparation. One woman 
brings the spreads and another the 
pickles; one always brings noodles 
cooked with shredded chicken, keep¬ 
ing them hot in a big crock, one pro¬ 
vides the hamburger to be fried for 
sandwiches, which are the choice of the 
children. 

This may sound stingy and calculat¬ 
ing, but it is a great saving of woman 
power, particularly in warm weather. 
We have better times than we did the 
old way and even if we know about 
what will be served it is always good 
and hot (when hot things are required) 
and the plates are not filled so full 
that as much is wasted as is eaten. 
Nobody wishes to go back to the old 
plan and that is pretty good proof 
that it works. —Hilda Richmond. 


SUMMER SALADS AND SAND¬ 
WICH FILLINGS 

If you wish a somewhat unusual and 
delicious salad, take a package of pre¬ 
pared lemon gelatin, add to this one 
pint of boiling water, dissolve all the 
gelatin mixture and allow, to become 
cool. Just before the gelatin begins to 
set, stir in one cupful of finely 
shredded cabbage, and one half cup¬ 
ful of shredded pineapple, also a table- 
spocnful of chopped or finely cut. sweet 
pimento. Turn the mixture into in¬ 
dividual moulds and allow to harden. 
Or it may be put into a single dish and 
served by the spoonful. Put a mould or 
a tablespoonful or hardened prepared 
gelatin on a lettuce leaf, garnish with 
mayonnaise and serve cold. 

Another appetizing salad may be 
made from equal parts of finely 
chopped cooked beets and crisp cabbage. 
Blend thoroughly and moisten with any 
preferred salad dressing. To each pint 
of the salad turn in one half teaspoon¬ 
ful of grated horseradish. Toss with 


a fork until well mixed. Pack into a 
bowl and allow to stand a couple of 
hours in a cool place before serving. 

Delicious sandwiches may be made by 
taking one part of chopped green to¬ 
mato or India relish to five parts of 
cottage cheese. Blend, season to taste 
with melted butter or a little mayon¬ 
naise. Spread between slices of but¬ 
tered white bread. 

Olive butter may be procurred by 
the glass. To each hard-boiled chopped 
egg, allow three teaspoonfuls of olive 
butter. Season with a little salt, pep¬ 
per and a teaspoonful of melted butter. 
Use as a sandwich filling.— EMMA 
Gary Wallace. 


A NEW BREAD-BOX 

0 you like pretty containers for 
your kitchen supplies? When I 
was married I wanted a whole row of 
them, but the cost was so. appalling 
that I wrapped my bread in a cloth 
and kept my flour in its dusty sack 
for months, until I paid a visit to a 
friend in a nearby town. 

She had a lovely blue and white 
kitchen, but what caught my eye was a 
shelf a foot from the floor filled with 
odd-sized beautifully painted cans. 
First, was a tall flour can, next a 
square box, evidently for cake, next a 
squatty bread-box, and then some tall 
boxes that proved to be cooky cans. 

They were shiny white, and each had 
a little conventional design in blue on 
the cover, and a border of blue at the 
bottom of the can. 

“Where did you ever get those lovely 
things?” I asked her. “They look like 
a million dollars.” 

“And cost ten cents,” piy hostess 
laughed. 

“Ten cents!” 

“Don't you recognize them? Sec, 
this one used to be a big peanut butter 
can, and this was a ci’acker box, and 
this is a can that marshmallows come 
in. These tall ones I've bought coffee 
in all my life. I painted them with 
some enamel that was left from finish¬ 
ing the woodwork in our house. I get 
the cans from my grocer; he is glad 
to get rid of them. The ten cents went 
for a little tube of blue oil paint.” 

The Store-Keeper Helps Out 

It sounded simple, and I stopped at 
our general store on the trip home. Our 
merchant was glad to give me a 50- 
pound lard pail, and a big marshmal¬ 
low can, both of them emptied that 
day. He promised that I should have 
some coffee cans, too, when they were 
empty. White enamel would never do 
in my rather colorless kitchen, but out 
in the workshop I found some black 
auto enamel that had been left when 
my husband refinished the Ford. 

The next day I started the job. First 
of course, the cans had to be thoroughly 
washed and scalded. It took lots of 
soap and hot water, but it was finally 
done, and both cans were set over the 
stove to dry quickly and completely. 

I put the covers on tight and then 
painted all of the surface except the 
bottom, I was careful to put the enamel 
on thick enough to cover the letters al¬ 
ready on the can. Painting was a 
very short job, but the cans had to 
stand over night to dry thoroughly. 

In the morning I cut out a spray of 
pink apple blossoms from some curtain 
cretonne and I glued a spray on the 
cover of each can. Then I gave the 
entire can a good coat of spar varnish 1 
also left over from our spring painting. 
This protected the cretonne and gave 
a washable surface. 

It takes imagination more than money 
to make a home, doesn’t it?—V era 
Meacham. 


Perhaps some other mother finds the 
children’s beds well jumbled when she 
goes to make them, no matter how well 
the bedding was tucked in. 

I have solved the problem, in a meas¬ 
ure at least, by placing an extra sheet 
crosswise, over the under sheet, and 
tucking ends well under mattress. This 
seems to stay in place no matter how 
much the youngsters move around and 
the extra washing is hardly noticeable. 
—Patsy’s Wife. 




Economy 


TESS than a cent a serving 
is the usual cost of Post 


Toasties — crispy, golden-brown 
flakes of toasted corn. That is 
economy! 

There’s no extra cost for the su¬ 
perior quality. Ready to eat with 
cream or milk, energizing, and with 
a crispness and flavor that says to 
every appetite, “Here’s happiness. 




* 


Be sure you get Post Toasties 
—distinctive in quality—worth ask¬ 
ing for by name. 


Fostlbasties 

-improved com flakes 


Made by Postum Cereal Co., Inc., Battle Creek, Mich. 



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American Agriculturist, July 7,1923 



Reviewing the Latest Eastern Markets and Prices 


LONG ISLAND DUCK GROWERS IN 
FIGHT 


HERSCHEL H. JONES 



T HE Long Island Duck Growers’ Co¬ 
operative Association which has done 
so much to stabilize the marketing of 
cks and put the Long Island duck 
dustry on a sound basis, is having its 
roubles with unfair and unscrupulous 
competition. The organization has 
since it inception been fighting to elimi¬ 
nate some of the sharp practices and 
unsound methods prevailing in the West 
Washington live poultry market. To 
accomplish this it finally became neces¬ 
sary for it to refuse to distribute its 
ducks through certain firms. These 
firms are now seeking to break the 
Association by underselling and reck¬ 
less competition. They are reported 
to have been buying quantities of ducks 
at 25 cents per pound and selling them 
at 23 cents. The worst part of it is 
that members of the Association itself 
have aided and abetted them by violat¬ 
ing their agreements with the Associa¬ 
tion to sell through it only and selling 
to the' very men who are trying to 
break the growers’ Association. 

The bulk of the live ducks which 
come from the Association are handled 
through three firms. The Association 
places a value on the ducks which seems 
justified by existing conditions of 
supply and demand and their prices 
have been satisfactory to most of the 
buyers. In fact, buyers generally are 
very much in sympathy with the grow¬ 
ers’ Association because of the way it 
has regulated and stabilized the market. 
One of the practices which the buyers 
are in accord with the Association in 
trying to eliminate is that of forcing 
buyers to take a quantity of fowls or 
chickens along with ducks, making a 
sort of combination sale as the grocers 
did with sugar and things that they 
wanted to get rid of during the war. 

The competition of the firms that are 
fighting the Association has created a 
range of prices instead of a firm quo¬ 
tation and has made it difficult to de¬ 
termine what the market really is in 
cases where buyers have standing 
orders or contracts to take so many 
ducks at the current market quotation. 

The Association has during the last 
week been selling its live ducks at 25 
cents, whereas the independent compet¬ 
itors have sold at 23 cents. Dressed 
Long Island ducks, dry picked, are also 
selling at 25 cents per pound. 


POTATO PROSPECTS 

In Southern New Jersey there is this 
year a small increase in the number of 
acres planted in potatoes over 1922. 

Except for lack of rain growing con¬ 
ditions have been generally favorable 
and there is about 85 per cent of a 
stand. Due to unseasonably cold 

weather at planting time the bulk of 
the crop will be later than usual. 

These conditions hold for Monmouth 
County, Freehold section, where the 

rainfall has been exceedingly light. 

Some growers believe that the yield 
will be reduced to about 60 per cent of 
normal and even less if the drought 
continues. At this time the vines should 
be filling the rows, but with few excep¬ 
tions there is over 18 inches space and 
some wilt due to the very hot weather. 

The Long Island potato fields seem 
to have'been better favored with rain 
and if the growers have no bad luck' 
for the next few weeks, there will be a 
good crop of both Irish Cobblers and 
Green Mountains. Some growers be¬ 
lieve that potatoes from the far East¬ 
ern end of the Island will appear in the 
New York City market in baskets about 
the last week in July. It will be a week 
or two later before shipments will be 
made in carlots. 


IN THE TRUCKERS’ MARKETS 

The Wallabout, Gansevoort and Har¬ 
lem farmers’ markets in New York were 
fairly well supplied last week with 
fresh green vegetables from Long 
Island and other nearby sections. The 
prices showed some slight advance 
toward the end of the week and demand 
was fairly active. The following prices 
represent sales made by farmers to 
jobbers and retailers on June 28: 
ASPARAGUS—per dozen bunches, 
white and green, prime, best $2.50 @ 
$2.75, fancy $3 @$3.25, culls $1 @$1.25; 


BEETS—per bunch, best 6 @ 7c; ordi¬ 
nary 5c; CAULIFLOWER—per slat 
barrel, best $3 @ $3.50, fancy $3.75 @ 
$4, No. 2’s $1.25 @$1.50; CARROTS— 
per bunch best 5 @ 6c, fancy, few sales 
large stock 7c, ordinary 4c; CABBAGE 
—per head white best 8c, fancy, few 
sales 10c, ordinary 6 @ 7c, per slat 
barrel $1.75 @ $2; ONIONS—per bunch 
best 4 @ 4%c, fancy, few sales 5c, 
ordinary 3 @3%c; RADISHES, per 
bunch, red and white tip best 3 @ 4c, 
white radishes 2 @ 4c, black radishes 
4@6c; RHUBARB — per bunch 1% @ 
2c, few sales 2% @ 2%c; RO MAINE— 
per crate (32 qts) best $1 @ $1.25, 
ordinary 75c, per slat barrel best $2 @ 
$2.25, fancy $2.50, ordinary $1.25 @ 
$1.75; SPINACH—per crate (32 qts) 
Savoy best $1.50 @ $1.75, fancy $2, 
New Zealand, 75c @ $1; STRING 
BEANS—per bushel bag, green best 
$2.25 @ $2.50. 


are liberal. The following are quota¬ 
tions on Hudson Valley berries June 
28, 1923: 


CHERRIES, 

Black, sweet, qt. 

Red, sweet. 

White, sweet, qt. 
Red, sour, qt. . . . 
GOOSEBERRIES, 

qt. 

RASPBERRIES, 

pint. 

CURRANTS 

Red, qt.. 


Best 

Fancy 

Ordinary 

■ 20@22 

23@25 

IS 

.16(5)18 

20 

15 

13 @15 


10@12 

15@16 

12 @18 

12 @14 

18 

20 

15@16 

10@12 

14@l5 

8@9 

15@16 

17 @18 

12% @14 


UP STATE GREEN PEAS MOVING 

The first shipment of green peas 
from Western New York were received 
in the New York market last week and 
sold from $3 to $3.25 per bu. basket. 
Madison County supplies are light but 
steadily increasing. A few small sales 


BUTTER SUPPLIES HEAVIER 

Supplies of butter received in the 
New York market last week were much 
heavier than previously and the offer¬ 
ings were in excess of the trade demand. 
Considerable quantities are being put 
into cold storage by the owner^, and 
large chain stores and jobbers are 
putting away a considerable supply for 
their fall and winter needs. The buy¬ 
ing for speculative purposes is not very 
active but is still a factor in determin¬ 
ing the market. Wholesale quotations 
on creamery high score were 39 @ 39 %c 
June 28, compared with 391/2 @ 40c a 
week previous. It is very interesting to 
note that the price of 39 @ 39Vac of 
June 28 is exactly the same as the quo¬ 


Quotations From Eastern Markets 


The following are the prices at which farm products of special interest to 
eastern farmers sold on June 28: 


Eggs, Nearbys (cents per dozen) 

New Jersey hennery whites uncandled, extras. 

Other hennery whites, extras. 

Extra firsts. 

Firsts . 

Gathered, whites, first to extra firsts. 

Lower grades. 

Hennery browns, extras. 

Gathered browns and mixed colors, extras.... 
Pullets No. 1. 


New York 
41 @42 
38 @39 

32 @35 
28@31 
28 @33 
24 @27 

33 @ 35 
28 @32 
24 @28 


Buffalo 


Phila. 


27 @28 


27% 

24% 


25 @26 


Butter (cents per pound) 

Creamery (salted) high score. 

Extra (92 score). 

State dairy (salted), finest. . . 
Good to prime. 


38% @39% 
38% 
38 

36% @37% 


42 @43 
40 @41 
38 @39 
32@37 


40 


Hay and Straw, Large Bales (per ton) 

Timothy No. 2. 

Timothy No. 3. 

Timothy Sample. 

Fancy light clover mixed. 

Alfalfa, second cutting. 

Oat straw No. 1. 


U. S. Grades 
$22 @24 
19@21 
12 @ 16 
21 

29 @30 
10 @12 


Old Grade Standards 
19 @ 20 $22@23 


19 @20 
21 @ 22 


Live Poultry, Express Lots (cents per lb.) 

Fowls, colored fancy, heavy. 

Fowls, leghorns and poor. 

Broilers, colored fancy. 

Broilers, leghorn. 


22@23 
18 @ 21 
45 @50 
30 @40 


24 @25 
21 @23 
45 
35 


24 @25 


53 @ 55 
30 @32 


Live Stock (cents per pound) 

Calves, good to medium. 

Bulls, common to good. 

Lambs, common to good. 

Sheep, common to good ewes. 

Hogs, Yorkers . .. 


9% @10% 
4 @4% 
'10 @ 14 
2% @4% 
8 @ 8 % 


8 @15 
. 8 % 


of fancy peas were made at $4 per bu. 
basket,, and ordinary sold at $2.50 to 
$2.75 on June 28. Long Island peas 
were quoted by the State Department 
of Farms and Markets at $1.50 to $3.50 
per bu. basket. 

Wayne County lettuce also made its 
first appearance in the market last 
week. Shipments were of very poor 
quality and were in light demand at 
50 to 75c per crate. Supplies of lettuce 
from Orange County, Long Island, and 
other nearby sections were liberal and 
generally of inferior quality. A few 
sales of fancy Orange County lettuce 
went as high as $1.50 @ $1.75, and poor 
as low as 50c. 


tation for creamery high score on the 
same date last year. 

Creamery extras (92 score) quoted 
at 38 %c on June 29 were 38 @ 38 %c on 
the same date in 1922. 


OSWEGO STRAWBERRIES COMING 

First shipments of strawberries from 
Oswego County and Western New York 
arrived in the New York market last 
week to supplement the liberal supplies 
from the Hudson River Valley. The 
bulk of the berries were of inferior 
quality. 

Monroe County berries sold at 15 to 
20c per qt., best Oswego County 25 @ 
30c, Long Island 10 @ 35c, and Hudson 
Valley at various prices ranging from 
10 to 25c, with a few small sales of 
fancy upper River berries at 28 to 30c. 
The total strawberry shipments this 
season to date from New York State 
sections are about half of what they 
were up to the same time last year. 

Currants, gooseberries, raspberries 
and cherries are now arriving from 
Hudson River Valley sections and the 
supplies of cherries from New Jersey 


CHEESE MARKET WEAK 

The market on average run fresh 
State whole milk cheese showed some 
weakness last week. It is reported that 
high prices are still being .paid up¬ 
state, and one sale in the New York 
market was reported as high as 26 V 2 C 
per lb. Straight cars of fancy State 
flats were offered in New York last 
week at 25c, however, an average run 
could be easily bought at 24. The offi¬ 
cial trade quotation on State whole milk 
flats, fresh, average run was 24c. On 
the same date last year State fresh 
average run was quoted at 18% to 
19 %c. Receipts of cheese at New York 
last week were 100,000 lbs. in excess of 
the previous week. 


FANCY EGGS HIGHER 

With decreasing proportion of really 
fancy quality eggs in the New York 
wholesale market last week, prices ad¬ 
vanced and the market became increas¬ 
ingly firm. New Jersey hennery whites, 
closely selected, extras, were quoted at 
41 to 42c per dozen at end of last week. 
The prospect is for advancing prices 
on the highest qualities from now on. 
Only eggs that are exceptionally fresh, 
of large size, light yolks, and either 
chalk white or brown shells come in 
this fancy class. Producers are often 
tempted in a rising market, as we shall 


probably have in the next two months, 
to hold eggs in anticipation of higher 
prices. It is a blind policy, for held eggs 
deteriorate so rapidly in the summer, 
that by the time they reach the market 
their quality is so far down that they 
are thrown into competition with west¬ 
ern gathered eggs and storage eggs, of 
which there is usually an abundant 
supply.. 

Receipts of nearby eggs are falling 
off. There are still some accumulations 
of ordinary quality nearby whites in 
hands of dealers, which can only be 
moved at low prices. Average nearby 
extras during the week sold at 35 to 
38c, with sales mostly at 36c or above at 
end of week. The bulk of the nearby 
eggs, however, sold within a range of 
25@32c, with a large proportion at 
around 28c. 


ACTIVE DEMAND FOR BROILERS 

In spite of a liberal supply of express 
shipments of broilers last week, the 
market was firm, due to very active de¬ 
mand. Prices averaged higher than 
last week by about 2 c per lb. The usual 
pre-holiday demand before July 4th will 
probably continue Monday of this week, 
but if heavy receipts come in late, 
prices are likely to fall off. 

Express broilers, colored, sold June 28 
at 50c per lb., compared with 42@48c on 
the same date last year. White leg¬ 
horn broilers, large, sold at 40 to 42c, 
average 36@38c, compared with a gen¬ 
eral range at same time last year of 
35@40c. Fancy selected nearby broilers, 
however, sold easily last week at 52c. 

Express fowls sold better toward the 
end of last week, most of the white 
leghorns at 22 c, and colored stock at 
23 @ 24. 


LIVE CALVES SLIGHTLY HIGHER 

Although there was some fluctuation 
in supplies and prices on live veal calves 
at New York last week, prices were 
slightly higher toward the end of week, 
than previous week. Most veals ranged 
from $8 to $12.50 per cwt, with $12 as 
the top late in the week. Following 
were prices on calves June 28, per cwt: 
prime, $11 @$ 12 ; good to medium 
$9.50 @ $10.50; common $8 @ $9; culls 
$6 @ $7; buttermilks $5 @ $5.50. 

Country dressed veals arrived mostly 
in bad condition and many were con¬ 
demned by Health Department. Choice 
dressed veals were scarce and sold at 
15 to 16c per lb. 


HAY MARKET WEAK 

With liberal receipts of poor quality 
hay, the New York market became 
very weak last week. Trading was ex¬ 
tremely quiet. Boat shipments added 
to supplies by rail. Large bales sold 
much more readily than small. U. S. 
Timothy No. 1 of which there was prac¬ 
tically none on the market was quoted 
at $25 per ton. Rye straw was over- 
plentiful and hard to sell at $22 per ton. 


SHIP YOUR EGGS 

WHITE AND BROWN 

To R. BRENNER & SONS 

Bonded Commission Merchants 

358 Greenwich St., New York City 


Farmers Supplied with 

STEEL WIRE BALE TIES 

FOR HAY AND STRAW BALING, ETC. 
Quality Guaranteed 

H. P. & H. F. WILSON CO. 

520 Washington St. NEW YORK 


100-Acre Farm With 


9 Cattle, 12 acres oats; 5 a. wheat; a. potatoes; 15 a. hay; 
4 a. corn; y 2 a. berries. Big garden, team, hogs, sheep, 
poultry, full implements, tools, etc.; near village, city 
markets; 70 acres dark loamy tillage, 100 sugar maples, 
40 apples, peaches, etc.; good 2-story 8-room house, run¬ 
ning water, large barn. Owner must sell, reduced price 
$4100 takes all, part cash. Details page 110 Illus. Catalog 
Bargains—many States. Copy free. STROUT FARM 
AGENCY, 150R Nassau St., New York City. 


NATURAL LEAF TOBACCO 


lbs., $1.25; 10 lbs., $2.00. 
Pay when received , pipe and recipe free 

FARMERS CO-OPERATIVE TOBACCO UNION, PADUCAH, KV. 


$2 per THOUSAND. CELERY PLANTS. 

VARIETIES: Golden Self Blanching, Easy Blanching, 
Giant Pascal, White Plume, Winter Queen, Golden 
Heart. Ready now. $2 per 1000, and 75c per 100. 

WARREN SHINN, WOODBURY, N. J. 


( 

























































































American Agriculturist, July 7,1923 



Give a thought 
to eldvertising 

H AVE you seen our “Hired 
Man” anywhere? 

He’s traveling all over the 
State, visiting retail dealers 
wherever he goes. 

A fine fellow is our “Hired 
Man.” You want to get ac¬ 
quainted with him at your 
first opportunity. For in a 
way he’s your hired man, too. 
Anyway he’s working for you 
at the same time he’s working 
for us. You’ll recognize him 
easily when .you meet. He’s 
a neat two-page booklet—just 
the size of the American Ag¬ 
riculturist, only not so fat. 
Every now and then we send 
him to nearly every store¬ 
keeper and retail dealer in 
the State. 

The “Hired Man”—that’s 
the name of this booklet, has 
quite an interesting job—a 
nice friendly job. He tells 
everyone he meets why it’s a 
good idea to sell the products 
that are advertised in the 
American Agriculturist. And 
he has a mighty good reason 
for doing so. 

In the first place, he knows 
that every reader of the Amer¬ 
ican Agriculturist—and that’s 
nearly every wide-awake 
farmer in the State—has ab¬ 
solute confidence in the Amer¬ 
ican Agriculturist, what it 
stands for and those products 
it advertises. For of course 
they know that the American 
Agriculturist stands in back 
of each and every advertise¬ 
ment it carries. No cheats in 
its pages. So naturally Amer¬ 
ican Agriculturist readers buy 
the things they see advertised 
in their favorite magazine. 
Every storekeeper and retailer 
is quick to see how he will 
benefit by stocking these 
products—they’re what his 
customers will want. It’s in 
this way that the “Hired Man” 
works for us and for our ad¬ 
vertisers. 

A pretty good and useful job 
that the “Hired Man” has, 
don’t you think? He’s just one 
of the many branches of ad¬ 
vertising. It certainly is sur¬ 
prising the number of different 
things that enter into the ad¬ 
vertising business. And the 
number grows every day. 

So now when you think of 
advertising, thinkof the “Hired 
Man,” and next chance you 
get, meet him at your favorite 
store — just ask the storekeeper 
to let you see him for a minute. 

yldvertising SKCanager 


Long News Made Short 


Port Authority Opposes Central Railroad Merger 


F OR several years a government or¬ 
ganization known as “The Port of 
New York Authority” has been work¬ 
ing on plans to provide better terminal 
facilities in the great metropolitan dis¬ 
trict, and thereby greatly lessen the 
cost of getting farmers’ products to 
city consumers. The New York Cen¬ 
tral Railroad has announced a plan for 
merging with the Central Railroad of 
New Jersey, as one way of lessening 
transportation costs to the cities. But 
the Port Authority objects to this 
merger and a fight is on between New 
York Central and the* Port Authority, 
before the Interstate Commerce Com¬ 
mission to prevent the merging of the 
two railroads. 

The Port Authority claims that the 
Central’s plans will not solve the prob¬ 
lem, but will complicate or prevent the 
Port Authority’s plans for better ter¬ 
minals. 

In the extended trip which President 
Harding is taking through the West, 
he has had much to say about the farm¬ 
ing situation. In one of his speeches 
in particular, he called attention .to the 
large number of acts which the recent 
Congress passed to help the farmer with 
his credit and marketing troubles. In 
an editorial commenting upon the Pres¬ 
ident’s remarks, a New York City news¬ 
paper said: “Agriculture bore the brunt 
of the sharp economic readjustment 
which followed peace. It suffered un¬ 
deservedly, yet perhaps more or less 
unavoidably. But it has won the re¬ 
spect and the good will of the whole 
country by the manliness with which 
it met misfortune. A new day for the 
farmer is coming and the best thing 
about it is, that it is coming through 
the cooperation of all the other elements 
in the community which now see that 
a prosperous, modernized agricultural 
industry is of advantage to all, contrib¬ 
uting to great national efficiency and 
prosperity.” 

:!= * * 

Mr. Bernard M. Baruch has caused 
considerable newspaper comment lately 
by his recent suggestion that the grain 
farmers should meet their marketing 
problems, by purchasing a going con¬ 
cern like the Armour Grain Company 
of Chicago. 

“Think what this would do,” said 
Mr. Baruch. “The farmer would have 
a practical organization under his own 
control with practical men doing what 
needs to be done.” 

:jc :|i 

The Governors of all the States in 
the Union have been invited to attend 
the World’s Dairy Congress which opens 
at Washington, D. C., on October 2, 
adjourns to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 
for October 4, and then goes to Syra¬ 
cuse, New York, from October 5 to 10, 
to combine with the National Dairy 
Show for the greatest meeting of the 
dairy interests that the world has ever 
seen. A large num er of official dele¬ 
gates, representing every part of the 
dairy industry, is expected to attend the 
Show from every State. 

* * * 

A book entitled “Cooperative Market¬ 
ing,” written by Herman Steen and 
published by Doubleday, Page and Com¬ 
pany of New York City, is just off the 
press. This book is the first in a series 
put out and recommended by the Amer¬ 
ican Farm Bureau Federation. 

It gives a rather complete summary 
and history of the different cooperative 
movements that have developed in re¬ 
cent years in this country. There is a 
chapter on cooperative tobacco market¬ 
ing entitled “From Night-riding to 
Cooperation.” Several chapters deal 
with the wonderful cooperative move¬ 
ments of the Pacific Coast; another en¬ 
titled “Everybody’s Apples Are Best” 
gives a particularly interesting history 
of the apple marketing movement and 
its difficulties. The chapter entitled 
the “Milky Way” will be of special 
interest to dairymen. 

The book is well and interestingly 
written, and is worth reading by every 
farmer. 

* % * 


Washington Street, Chicago. The book¬ 
let contains complete drawings, pic¬ 
tures and instructions for building 
many different conveniences needed on 
the farm and in the home. It will be 
furnished free upon application. 


Apple Growing Advancing 


(Continued from page 7) 

ber of work horses ranged from three 
to six. 

The largest group of farms, (they 
averaged 96 acres each) employed one 
hired man. This allotted 48 acres to 
each unit of labor, counting the owner 
as a laborer, and figuring on the total 
acreage rather than the crop acreage. 

The following table shows the 
amount of hired help employed on 
farms on varying sizes: 


Size of Farm 

96 Acres. 

132 “ . 

177 “ . 

186 “ . 


No. of Acreage Per 
Helpers Worker 

1 48 

2 44 

3 44 

4 37 


The same general decrease in num¬ 
ber of acres handled per unit of 
workers was revealed in a study of the 
extra labor employed at harvest. 

On 142 farms, coming under the sur¬ 
vey, the wife helped with some of the 
farm work, and on 67 farms, the 
daughters also helped. 


The Brown Mouse 

(Continued from page 11) 

in an unsuspected way with the 
theory,” 

“The school board are against it.” 

“The school board elected me after 
listening to an explanation of my 
theories as to the new sort of rural 
school in which I believe. I assume 
that they commissioned me to carry out 
my ideas.” 

“Oh, Jim!” cried Jennie. That’s 
sophistry! They all voted for you so 
you wouldn’t be without support. Each 
wanted you-to have just one vote. No¬ 
body wanted you elected. They were 
all surprised. You know that!” 

_ “They stood by and saw the contract 
signed,” said Jim, “and—yes, Jennie, I 
am dealing in sophistry! I got the 
school by a sort of shell-game, which 
the board worked on themselves. But 
that doesn’t prove that the district is 
against me. I believe the people are 
for me, now, Jennie. I really do!” 

“As an officer,” she said rather 
grandly, “my' relations with the dis¬ 
trict are with the school board on the 
one hand, and with your competency as 
a teacher on the other.” 

“Has it come to that?” asked Jim. 
“Well, I have rather expected it.” 

His tone was weary. The Lincolnian 
droop in his great, sad, mournful 
mouth accentuated the resemblance to 
the martyr president. Possibly his feel¬ 
ings were not entirely different from 
those experienced by Lincoln at some 
crisis of doubt, misunderstanding and 
depression. 

‘‘If you can’t change your methods,” 
said Jennie, “I suggest that you re¬ 
sign.” 

“Do you think,” said Jim, “that 
changing my methods would appease 
the men who feel that they are made 
laughing-stocks by having elected me?” 

Jennie was silent; for she knew that 
the school board meant to pursue their 
Policy of getting rid of the accidental 
incumbent regardless of his methods. 

“They would never call off their 
dogs,” said Jim. 

“But your methods would make a 
great difference with my decision,” said 
Jennie. 

“Are you to be called upon to de¬ 
side?” asked Jim. 

. “A formal complaint against you for 
mcompetency,” she replied, “has been 
lodged in my office, signed by the three 
directors. I shall be obliged to take 
notice of it.” 

(Continued next week) 



Hardiness 


Every man wh® milks cows for a living 
knows that Hardiness is a necessary char¬ 
acteristic of a &ood dairy cow. 


HARDINESS IN HOLSTEINS MEANSi 


The ability to do well for the getter* 
al farmer, as well as for the com¬ 
mercial dairyman. 

The ability to readily adapt them¬ 
selves to any climate and to profit¬ 
ably turn available farm feed into 
milk and butter-fat. 

Let Us Tell You About Holsteins. 

EXTENSION SERVICE. 

The Holstein-Friesian Association of America 
230 East Ohio Street, Chicago, 111. 




CATTLE BREEDERS 


HOLSTEINS and GUERNSEYS 

Fresh cows and springers. 100 head of the finest 
.quality to select from. Address 

A. F. SAUNDERS, CORTLAND. N. Y. 


HOLSTEINS 

Two ear loads high-class grade springers. The 
kind that please. One car load registered females. 
Well bred, strictly high-class. Several registered 
service bulls. J. A. LEACH. CORTLAND, N. Y. 


HIGH-GRADE HOLSTEIN COWS 

fresh and close by large and heavy producers. 
Pure bred registered Holsteins all ages ; your 
inquiry will receive our best attention. 

Browncroft Farm McGRAW New York 


HIGH GRADE HOLSTEIN HEIFER CALVES $15 

each; registered bull and heifer calves, $25 up; registered 
bulls ready for service, and cows. Address 

SPOT FARM, TULLY, N. Y. 



HO 


SWINE BREEDERS 


PIGS FOR SALE 

Chester and Yorkshire cross, Berkshire and Yorkshire 
cross, 6 to 7 weeks old, $6.00 each. 8 to 9 weeks old, 
$6.50 each. 

15 Duroc and Berkshire cross. Fine feeders, 8 to 10 
weeks old, $7.00 each. 

Pure-Bred Yorkshires, 6 to 8 weeks old, $8.00 each. All 
pigs bred from Big Type stock; each feeders; fast growers 
and O. K. in every way. Shipped C. O. D. on approval. 

K. H. SPOONER, WALTHAM, MASS. 

PIGS FOR SALE 


Yorkshire and Chester White Cross, and Chester and 
Berkshire Cross, all large, growthy pigs: 6 to 7 weeks old, 
$5.75 each; 7 to 8 weeks old, $6 each; 8 to 9 weeks old, 
$6.50 each. 15 Pure Bred Yorkshire Sows, 7 to 8 weeks, $7 
each; 20 Pure Chester White Pigs, 6to7 weeks old, $7 each, 
and 10 Berkshire and Duroc Cross, 8 to 9 weeks old, $6.50 
each. These are all good pigs, bred from the best of stock. 
IWH, ship any part of the above lots to you on approval, 

WALTER LUX, 383 Salem St., Woburn, Mass. Tel. 86 


Big Type Poland China Pigs 

Gilts and Boars for sale. Sires: Ford’s Liberator and 
Ford’s Big Tim. Moderate prices. 

STEPHEN H. FORD, 402 Stewart Building, Baltimore, Md. 


Reg. Chester Whites 

Some nice fall boars; also some choice sows bred for 
July farrow, also some gilts; prices reasonable con¬ 
sidering breeding. Write for particulars. 

KAI.PH B. SMITH West Ossipee? N. H. 


BIG TYPE BERKSHIRES 

Swine Show' 1922. PIGS $10 to $15 each. 

YORK SPRINGS BERKSHIRE ASSN., YORK SPRINGS, PA. 


headed by 
, National 


LARGE BERKSHIRES AT HIGHWOOD 

Grand champion breeding. Largest herd in America. Free booklet. 

HARPENDING Box 10 DUNDEE. N.y! 


REGISTERED 0.1. C. 


AND CHESTER WHITE PIGS 
K. I’.ROGERS, VTAYYIM.E, \. T. 


BABY CHICKS 



600 White Leghorn Breeders, one year old, 
SI.00 each. 10 Weeks’ Old Pullets, Aug. 10th 
delivery.Sl.OOeach and up. Thousands ready. 

HUMMER’S POULTRY FARM 

FRENCHTOWN, N. J„ R. 1 


BABY CHICKS Ha u ed Rocks - $n.oo : white 

U 7 and Brown Leghorns, $9.00 

per hundred; mixed, Si.00. 100 f. delivery guaranteed. 


P< 

Not a new beginner. 

J. W. KIRK, Box 51. 


McALISTERVILLE, PA. 


DAY-OLD CHICKS 

Buff Leghorns, 13c each. Black Minorcas, 
arrival guaranteed. ECLIPSE FARMS, 


White and Brown 
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JULY 14, 1923 


PUBLISHED WEEKLY 


While Dad Thinks They Are Hoeing ’Taters 




AMERICAN 


A griculturist 


Founded 1842 


“Going To Law” 


























American Agriculturist, July 14,1923 



V ii 


The Farmer’s Greatest Problem 

He Knows How to Raise Food But His Difficulty Is to Sell It—A Radio Message 

fa 


HE first need of man is food. The 
production of foodstuffs on the farm 
intimately concerns the life of every 
man and woman in the city who con- 
umes food, but does not produce it. A gen¬ 
eral strike in the steel industry, or the cloth¬ 
ing industry, or the coal industry, may result 
in severe discomfort for certain classes of 
the populatioin. But failure of all the crops 
in one year—as a result of a general strike 
on the part of all the farmers, for instance— 
would result in starvation for a large por¬ 
tion of the population. Until science learns 
how to convert earth into apples and the 
grasses of the field into meat, man will be 
dependent on agriculture, and animal hus¬ 
bandry for his food. 

i My own work at the side of my father in 
behalf of a purer milk supply for the city 
babies has impressed me with the dependency 
of the city-dweller on farming, and dairy¬ 
ing. For that reason I made a 
request unusual for a city man, — ■ 11 

when I was elected to the State 
Senate three years ago. It was 
that I be appointed a member of 
-the Committee on Agriculture. 

And when reelected last year, I 
Asked for and received the ap¬ 
pointment as chairman of that 
committee. Three, years of study 
of agricultural problems, follow¬ 
ing on eighteen years of practical 
work with the milk question, has 
convinced me that the terrors of 
crop failure which threatened the 
farmer twenty-five years ago 
have largely been overcome. Agri¬ 
cultural research has made it pos¬ 
sible for almost any farmer with 
average mental and physical 
equipment to grow a crop, which 
should give him a fair annual re- 
turn for his labor and his capital 
invested. But larger crops on the farm have 
not resulted in increased prosperity for the 
farmer. The average farmer’s reward for 
his long hours of work and his risk was in 
1919, a banner year, $1,456. It was only 
$465 in 1920. It was $1,211 in 1922. Why 
does the farmer still struggle along earning 
a bare livelihood with crops that should net 
him a greatly increased income? Because 
improvements in marketing methods have 
not kept pace with improved farming meth¬ 
ods. Scientific agriculture has solved the 
problem of an adequate production of food¬ 
stuffs. It is time more consideration were 
given to the farmer’s greatest problem to-day 
—the problem of marketing. I regard a 
solution of the difficulties of distribution of 
foodstuffs from farm to city as the greatest 
service that could be done to civilized man 
to-day next to a solution of international 
problems that would bring about world 
peace. 

The farmer in New York receives $3 a 
barrel for his apples; the housewife pays 3c 
and 5c apiece, which is equivalent to $15 to 


By NATHAN STRAUS, JR. 

Chairman of the Agricultural Committee, New 
York State Senate 

at Cornell University, the Dairymen’s 
League, etc. It was also endorsed by many 
representative consumer organizations in the 
city. The resolution unanimously passed the 
State Senate, but it failed of passage in the 
Assembly. 

Every farmer should know the simple 
facts on which our committee would have 
based its study. Every farmer, every city- 
dweller, should ponder these facts in an 
effort to contribute toward a solution. 

1. New York State is first among the 
States of the Union in its production of 
apples, second in its production of milk and 
milk products, fourth in its production of 
potatoes. 

2. Apples sell in the markets of New York 


Market Information Fundamental 

Y OU will like this sensible talk by Mr. Straus. The talk was 
broadcast from station WEAF on Wednesday evening, July 


11, at 6:50 P. M., eastern standard time. At this time every 
Wednesday evening tune on WEAF, wave length 492 meters, to 
hear the best farm speakers that can be obtained in the United 
States, on the American Agriculturist farm radio program. 

Every one is now agreed that the big need of agriculture is to 
sell farm products for better prices. As Mr. Straus so well sug¬ 
gests, this will have to be done mainly through the energy of farm¬ 
ers themselves. 

The first step in doing this is to get correct information about 
the markets. Because this information is fundamental, American 
Agriculturist is making a constant and special effort through ar¬ 
ticles, through our weekly market page, and through our radio 
market service to give our folks this information in the latest and 
most accurate form.—The Editors. 


farmers’ marketing problems by encourag¬ 
ing cooperative marketing and by the ex¬ 
tension of State assistance, New York, one 
of the greatest agricultural States in the 
Union, is doing practically nothing to reduce 
the spread between prices on the farm and 
food prices in the city. 

The same energy that solved the problems 
of the production of foodstuffs will solye the 
problems of marketing. The city-dweller 
with his need of cheap foodstuffs in the 
city has as much interest in the solution of 
these problems as has the man on the farm. 
State aid must be extended for a study of 
marketing conditions, for legislation to pro¬ 
mote cooperative marketing, and indeed f 01 - 
public markets in the cities with adequate 
warehousing and cold-storage facilities. 
Lasting gratitude is due men like Dean Mann 
of Cornell, Judge John D. Miller of the Dairy¬ 
men’s League, H. E. Babcock of the New 
York State Cooperative Council, 
- " " Aaron Sapiro, organizer of suc¬ 
cessful farmers’ cooperatives, and 
Senator Royal S. Copeland, for 
for their work toward solving 
the marketing question. But 
back of the efforts of such men, 
back of State aid, the mainspring 
and the driving force of the move¬ 
ment to bring the producer on the 
farm and the housewife in the 
city in closer touch must be the 
energy of the farmers themselves. 
The solution of their marketing 
problems can come only from 
their united effort, backed up by 
their will to do it. 


City at 5c apiece and more every fall, while 
tons of apples are rotting on the ground 
within a twelve-hour rail journey of the 
city because it does not pay the grower to 
pick, pack and ship them to the city. Last 
year, as a result of competitive dumping by 
farmers, the price for potatoes was brought 
down so low that it is estimated that 70,000,- 
000 bushels were never dug. 

3. The people of New York State have 
spent over $150,000,000.00 on a barge canal. 
This canal runs from the apple-producing 
and milk-producing centers in the west of 
the State to New York City. It is the con¬ 
necting link between the Middle West, the 
greatest zone of agricultural production in 
the world, and the Atlantic seaboard, the 
greatest zone of consumption and export in 
the world. 

4. New York State, after building the canal, 
is making no substantial effort to utilize it 
for the transportation of foodstuffs. There 
are to-day less than 300 modern serviceable 
boats on this canal. Although the 1923 Leg¬ 
islature has been generous in appropriations 

$25 a barrel. The dairy farmer receives 4c to assist agriculture, the State to-day spends 


to 5c a quart for milk; the housewife pays 
14c to 18c a quart. This spread between 
producer and consumer must be reduced if 
improved farming conditions are to be re¬ 
flected in increased prosperity for the 
farmer. 

In an effort to contribute toward solving 
this problem I introduced at the last session of 
the Legislature a resolution for a committee 
to study means of carrying the milk, eggs, 
apples and other farm produce of this State 
to the city markets by a more direct and 
economical marketing method. The com¬ 
mittee was endorsed by the New York State 
Grange, the New York State Farm Bureau 
Federation, the State College of Agriculture 


less than 4 per cent of its annual appropria¬ 
tions for the benefit of agriculture, while 
other successful farming States such as 
Iowa, Montana, Kansas, Oregon and Minne¬ 
sota, spend from 8 Y 2 per cent to 18 per cent 
to help agriculture. 

5. Nowhere else in the United States does 
invested money produce so little or labor 
bring so small a reward as on the farm. 
Half the farmers of the country made less 
than $1,000.00 in 1922. 

6. The actual loss in farm population 
caused by migration from the farms to the 
cities is at the rate of over half a million 
persons per year. 

7. While some other States are solving the 


“Tune In ” 

You do not have to have a 
radio to get the benefit of the 
great marketing service which is being fur¬ 
nished daily by American Agriculturist, the 
New York State Department of Farms and 
Markets and the WEAF broadcasting sta¬ 
tion. In nearly every community there is 
now at least one radio receiving set. If you 
want the money these reports will save you, 
you will find some way to cooperate with 
your neighbor who has a radio to receive 
these reports. 

A little community marketing club might 
be formed, or some local farm organization 
already formed might be used to subscribe a 
small sum to pay the lady of the house who 
has the radio to telephone the market reports 
to each member of the club as soon as they 
are received every morning. Or perhaps 
arrangements can be made to have them 
posted in some conspicuous place like the 
local grocery store or the weekly newspaper 
office, or at the station where the milk is de¬ 
livered. Best of all, an inexpensive radio set 
might be built at home to get the reports 
direct. 

These reports are last minute prices and 
information selected from New York City, 
the greatest market in the world, by the ex¬ 
perts in the New York State Department of 
Farms and Markets. They are broadcast at 
10:50-A. M., eastern standard time, from 
WEAF, wave length 492 meters, every Tues¬ 
day, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday. 
Blanks for taking down these reports as 
they come over the radio will be furnished 
free of charge upon application to Amer¬ 
ican Agriculturist, 461 4th Avenue, New 
York City. “Tune in.” 


The American Agriculturist is the best 
magaziine for general information that I 
ever read.—Arthur A. Glunt, Lilly, Pa. 












r 


American Agriculturist 



THE FARM PAPER THAT PRINTS THE FARM NEWS 


“Agriculture is the Most Healthful, Most Useful and Most Noble Employment of Man”— Washington 


Ree. U. S. Pat. Off. 


Established 1842 


i^j 


Volume 112 


For the Week Ending July 14, 1923 


Number 2 


u 


99 


Going To Law 

Humorous, But 'Worthwhile Advice Written Long Ago, Still Good To-day 


H appening into the office of a 
county judge recently to have sotne 
documents made out for the trans¬ 
fer of a piece of property, we over¬ 
heard part of the details of a case something 
like this: Two men, whom we recognized as 
poor day laborers, were having papers drawn 
up for carrying a suit to a higher court, 
where the expenses, which were to be se¬ 
cured in advance, would amount * ■ 

to about a hundred dollars. As 
near as we could learn, one of 
the parties had agreed to pur¬ 
chase a cow of the other, for 
thirty dollars, but before her. 
actual transfer she died. Each 
man had already expended about 
fifty dollars, in court and coun¬ 
sel fees, expenses of witnesses, 
etc., and now they were prepar¬ 
ing to continue the contest, at an 
expense equivalent to what they 
could earn in six months’ labor. 

This incident forcibly reminded 
us of a plaster cast we saw of¬ 
fered a few years since by one 
of the peripatetic venders of this 
kind of wares. Two sturdy yeo¬ 
men were represented as con- 


persons, and yield to their decision, would 
not quite satisfy the dignity, nay, the bellig¬ 
erent propensity of the parties. How few 
men, comparatively, there are, who have 
lived forty years without having “been in 
court” one or more times. And how few. are 
the instances where even the victorious 
party has not lost more than has been 
gained—in time, worry of mind, expenses— 


Human Nature Again 


T HE article and picture on this page were taken from an issue of 
American Agriculturist published in 1859—sixty-four years ago, 
and two years before the beginning of the great Civil War. The pic¬ 
ture is an exact reproduction of the old wood cut, but we have en¬ 
larged somewhat the size of the type in the article. The hand which 
wrote the article, probably that of the editor, has been dust these 
many years, but his humorous words of advice about “Going to Law” 
apply equally well to-day. 

The picture and article on road mending which we recently copied 
from an issue of American Agriculturist more than a half century 
old, aroused so much interest and comment that we are here passing 
on another one to you. Those who read these articles and laughed 
at the pictures when they were first printed, have ceased to worry 
about road mending, taking the law to their neighbor, or making 
a living. But -although the times have changed, we still struggle 
with the same problems, because the “human nature” with which 
the fathers contended is still rampant in the sons, constantly inter¬ 
fering with human progress and happiness.—The Editors. 


tending for the possession of a cow. A legal 
counsellor had been employed by one of the 
parties, who, dressed in the wig of olden 
style, was seated upon a pile of law-books, 
quietly drawing the milk (his fees) while the 
contest went on. The accompanying engrav¬ 
ing is an accurate sketch of the piece re¬ 
ferred to. The only fault we would find 
with the picture, is that the counsel of the 
other party should be shown 
upon the other side of the 
animal, drawing an equitable 
share of the milk—the two 
legal gentlemen on friendly 
terms of course. (We throw 
out this hint for the benefit 
of manufacturers of plaster 
casts, marble, terra-cotta, • 
etc. Any one carrying out 
the idea may send us the 
first perfect specimen with 
a bill therefore.) 

This picture admirably 
portrays the character of 
three-fourths of all the law¬ 
suits carried on in the coun¬ 
try. So long as the cow gives 
milk, it will be required for 
“expenses,” and when this 
fails, the worthless carcass 
of the animal may perhaps 
be obtained by the litigant 
who has the most physical 
endurance, each of them 
having in the meantime 


to say nothing of the trouble entailed upon 
others who have been drawn into the Conflict 
as witinesses, interested spectators, jurymen, 
etc. We have a vivid recollection of being 
called from pressing business to go fifteen 
miles to attend “county court,” and of wait¬ 
ing four whole days to give evidence as a 
witness, in a case of which we personally 
knew nothing; and to cap the climax, the 


which could bring the most persons on the 
stand as witnesses, and so with more than 
twenty other persons we danced attendance. 
The whole amount at issue was less than our 
individual loss of time in one of the days 
spent at court. We received in return one 
shilling (12 Yz cents!) in advance. (All the 
further satisfaction we shall ever get, will 
be the pleasure of sending a copy of the 
above picture to the party by 

-- - whom we were summoned “to 

be, and appear, etc.” We wish he 
could have had it long ago—-be¬ 
fore the occurrence alluded to.) 

We suggest that this picture 
be cut out and framed, and hung 
up in every household, and that 
whenever a disposition is felt to 
go into law with a neighbor the 
lesson it teaches, be first care¬ 
fully pondered. 

There is no doubt that most 
persons who would first sit down 
and count the cost of a suit at 
law, would be deterred from en¬ 
tering into litigation, but for a 
feeling of false dignity. “I would 
expend the last cent before I 
would allow him to trample on 
is the common expression. A 



if any of our readers are now, or hereafter, tempted to indulge in ‘law 
first give this picture a careful study. . . ” 


sacrificed the entire use of the cow, and, be¬ 
sides, time and strength enough to have ac¬ 
quired half a dozen better animals. 

With most men, the first impulse, on hay¬ 
ing a slight difference with a neighbor, is, 
to “go to, law about it.” To submit the case 
quietly to the arbitration of disinterested 


case was “adjourned over” three months, 
when two days more were consumed in 
waiting. Our protestations that we knew 
nothing of importance, and that all we did 
know was hearsay, amounted to nothing 
with those in eager fray. The idea seemed 
to be that that side would be the strongest 


my rights,’ 
story current in our boyhood will illustrate 
this. Two Dutchmen came into court about 
a dog that had been killed, and the following 
scene occurred: 

Judge (to the defendant)—“Did you kill 
the plaintiff’s dog?” 

Defendant —“To pe shure I kilt his tok, 
but he must prove it.” 

Judge (to plaintiff) — 
“How much was your dog 
worth?” 

Plaintiff —“To pe shure te 
tok was wort notting, but 
since he’esh been so mean 
ash to kilt him I shall com¬ 
pel him to pay te full value.” 

We recently heard of a 
case at the South, worth re¬ 
lating in illustration. A whip 
was borrowed, and on being 
returned, the lender de¬ 
clared that seven inches had 
been worn off from the end 
of the lash. High words en¬ 
sued, leading to a quarrel, 
which was carried into court, 
and from one court to 
another, with the usual de¬ 
lays, until the aggregate 
costs to the parties actually 
amounted to seven thousand 
dollars—a thousand dollars 
an inch for the worn lash, 
without reckoning time, 
the bad feelings engendered, 
instance a long legal contest 


let them 


trouble, and 
In another 

ensued, the original cause of which was a 
slight trespass by a calf. The case ended by 
a compromise, each party paying his own 
costs; the total amount of these had run 

(<Continued on page 25) 









































Editorial Page of the American 


American 

Agriculturist 

Founded 1842 


E. 

2 

y 


Henry Morgenthau, Jr .Publisher 

E. R. Eastman .Editor 

Fred W. Ohm .Associate Editor 

abrielle Elliot .... Household Editor 

6irge Kinne .Advertising Manager 

. L. VONDERLIETH . . . Circulation Manager 

contributing staff 
H. E. Cook, Jared Van Wagenen, Jr., H. H. Jones, 
Paul Work, G. T. Hughes, H. E. Babcock 


OUR ADVERTISEMENTS GUARANTEED 

The American Agriculturist accepts only advertis¬ 
ing which it believes to be thoroughly honest. 

We positively guarantee to our readers fair and 
honest treatment in dealing with our advertisers. 

We guarantee to refund the price of goods pur¬ 
chased by our subscribers from any advertiser who 
fails to make good when the article purchased is 
found not to be as advertised. 

To benefit by this guarantee subscribers must say: 
‘I saw your ad in the American Agriculturist” when 
ordering from our advertisers. 


Published Weekly by 

AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST, INC. 

Address all correspondence for editorial, advertising, or 
subscription departments to 

461 Fourth Ave., New York, N. Y. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter, December 15, 1922, at the 
Post Office at New Y ork, N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 

Subscription price, payable in advance, $1 a year. 
Canadian and foreign, $2 a year. 


VOL. 112 July 14, 1923 No. 2 


Conditions in 1859 

D O not miss that fine old humorous article 
copied on the feature page of this issue 
from American Agriculturist, published in 
1859. We are not sure who wrote it, probably 
it was the editor, but he certainly could handle 
English. Note the word “peripatetic” in the 
second paragraph. It is big enough to choke 
a cow. How many of you know what it 
^neans? Do you think a larger proportion 
of American Agriculturist readers knew the 
meaning of this and other unusual words in 
1859, than our readers do to-day? Inci¬ 
dentally, “peripatetic” means walking. 

Speaking of cows, note that the price of 
cows was about thirty dollars. The pay for 
a day's attendance at court was one shilling. 
These prices went up for a time, following 
the Civil War, and then they came down 
again and stayed down for many years. 
These prices will not seem strange to most of 
you because it is but a few years since one 
could buy a whole dairy for twenty-five or 
thirty dollars a cow, and when the pay for a 
good strong boy to hoe potatoes for a straight 
ten hours was but fifty cents a day. 


Varying Butterfat Tests 

O NE of the greatest causes of trouble be¬ 
tween dairymen and milk dealers is over 
the butterfat test. Farmers cannot under¬ 
stand why the same herd Laving the same 
feed will vary sometimes from two to five 
points from the test of the previous month. 
Without question there has been and is some 
dishonest testing, but it is also true that there 
is less of it than most farmers believe. 

A majority of the dealers doing business 
at the same stand and with the same patrons 
year after year, know that honesty is the 
best policy and try to give a square test. 
With the small minority of buyers who juggle 
the test, the remedy lies in having the State 
Colleges of the State Agricultural Depart¬ 
ments check the samples. Or best of all, 
buy a tester yourself or join a cow testing 
association. Those in the cow testing associa¬ 
tions have the least trouble with their but¬ 
terfat test. One reason is that the dealer 


knows that the farmer knows what his test 
is every day and therefore he cannot cheat 
on the test and get away with it. Another 
reason why dairymen who test have less 
trouble with the dealers, is that the farmer 
finds out, for reasons sometimes hard to ex¬ 
plain, that the test of the individual cow and 
of the whole dairy does vary considerably 
from day to day and from month to month. 

For instance, there is a record of a dairy 
where a heavy thunder shower at one even¬ 
ing’s milking, greatly reduced the butterfat 
test. There is reported by the Ohio State 
College another case where a cow was milked 
half by a machine milker and half by hand. 
The amount of milk greatly decreased, while 
the test rose from 3.2 per cent butterfat to 
4.2 per cent. In another case, some unknown 
cause made a cow decrease her flow to half 
of its usual amount and her test decreased 
also to one-half her average test. At the 
evening milking, both flow and butterfat test 
came up to normal again. 

Those who are doing constant testing 
either themselves or through cow testing as¬ 
sociations, know that these unreasonable 
variations in the butterfat tests do occur, and 
they are not quite so quick to accuse the 
dealer of dishonesty. When they do accuse 
him, they have the evidence to back them 
up. There are many reasons why the owner¬ 
ship and use of a Babcock tester or a mem¬ 
bership in a cow testing association is one 
of the best investments a dairyman can make. 


Reading in the Old Days 

A FRIEND from down Maine way, talk¬ 
ing to us a while ago about what farm 
people read, said that back on the home farm 
fifty years ago his father took only two 
papers; one of them was a religious weeicly 
and the other was the American Agricul¬ 
turist. “But,” he continued, “how those two 
papers were read. Every word of every ar¬ 
ticle and every advertisement from the be¬ 
ginning to the end of the paper was carefully 
read, often out loud, and the pictures were 
studied _ and discussed. Many times when 
the articles had a special appeal they were 
laid aside for reference and for further 
reading.” 

Abraham Lincoln is perhaps typical of the 
people in the old days who had few books, 
but those books were classics and folks read 
them so thoroughly that they became well 
educated. In our own boyhood days in a 
country neighborhood, we remember several 
men of the older generation who were not 
only well informed as to current affairs, but 
who could also discuss intelligently many of 
the Old classics even to the extent of quoting 
them extensively from memory. Unhappy 
was the man who attempted to argue with 
one of these old boys in history, literature, 
religion or politics, who did not have his own 
facts at his tongue’s end. In spite of the 
fact that we of this generation have one 
hundred times as much reading no\v as our 
grandfathers had, ‘we doubt if we are on the 
average any better informed. Is it because 
we have so much that we read little of it 
well or are we better informed on a much 
wider range of subjects? 


He Broke Even 

O NE of the things that is doing a lot for 
our country boys and girls is the junior 
project work. It is surprising what a dif¬ 
ferent feeling toward the farm work it gives 
boys and girls to own an animal or animals, 
or a crop, and to be personally responsible 
for their success. This is what the junior 
project work does. The boys and girls learn 
in school how to raise the animal or the 
crop in a scientific way and they set their 
theories immediately into practice on the 
home farm. They are obliged to keep a very 
careful record of all their work and all their 


American Agriculturist, July 14,1923 

# 

Agriculturist 

expenses so that they know at the end of the 
season whether or not their project paid. 

The story is told of a boy who lived in the 
State of Maine who took considerable in¬ 
terest and pleasure in raising a pig as his 
project for the season. In writing up his 
report to his instructor, he said that if he 
were obliged to figure in all of the time he 
spent with the pig, his ledger would show 
that he lost $1.57 on the project. But if he 
took into consideration that he had the com¬ 
pany of the pig, why he broke about even. 


Which Are Your “Boarder” Crops? 

I N a trip through several agricultural coun¬ 
ties, we had occasion to ask farmers to 
give us cost figures on certain crops. With one 
or two exceptions, these farmers did not 
know and, as a matter of fact, very few 
farmers do know anything definite about the 
cost of growing and keeping animals or farm 
crops. About all that most of them are sure 
of is that the profits on the business as a 
whole are generally few and far between. 

Cost accounts might show that what profits 
there are, come from comparatively few 
crops. or animals, and that these few are 
carrying a number of other dead-heads; but 
without definite figures, such as are kept in 
all other business, few of us really know 
which parts of the business are profitable 
and which unprofitable. 

A recent letter from a farmer expresses 
this situation so well that we think it worth 
repeating here. He says: “I believe that no 
greater service could be rendered the Ameri¬ 
can farmers than that some power or influ¬ 
ence could induce them to keep a simple ac¬ 
count of their main enterprises, taking 
chiefly account of their cash cost and the 
amount of labor put into them during the 
year as compared with the other enterprises 
they are carrying on. For I believe that they 
would soon discover that if they cut out just 
about 50 per cent of their enterprises and 
devoted but a little more attention and 
thoroughness to the remaining ones there 
would be less complaining of the 14 and 16 
hour day with no vacation for relaxation or 
recreation. I believe that at the end of the 
year they would find that with less work and 
less worry they had made more money, and 
also had had time to produce a greater propor¬ 
tion of a better living from their own farm. 
I believe that if the farmers could be in¬ 
duced to keep some such check every time 
they plunged into a new enterprise that they 
would soon quit plunging into unfamiliar 
farm practices and would be more inclined to 
take a little time off occasionally and learn 
to live. 

“This problem is the same as that of the 
boarder cow. The few enterprises that make 
a profit on the farm must carry the farm and 
help support others that have never paid a 
profit and yet have robbed the farmer of his 
time and energy. I believe this problem is 
of equal importance with the problem of 
stronger -cooperation. If the two can be de¬ 
veloped side by side the position of the Amer¬ 
ican farmer is secure and his future pros¬ 
pects not unattractive. The falsity of di¬ 
versity in an age of specialization persists in 
keeping many farmers largely engaged in 
unprofitable activities.” 

There are probably two main reasons why 
farmers do not keep books. One of them is 
that it is very difficult to keep accurate cost 
accounts on the many different varieties of 
farm business; and the other is, that farmers 
are so tired and sleepy when they come in 
from a day’s work they are in no shape 
mentally to wrestle with bookkeeping. But 
we maintain that the job should never be 
done in the evening, and that it is important 
enough to take time during the day to do it 
—so important in fact that the time used 
would prove to be the most profitable of any 
work done in the whole farm operation. 

































American Agriculturist, July 14,1923 


21 


h 


A July Story 


U NCLE Sam Farmer and Young 
Sam were riding up the long dug 
road saying nothing, but each 
keeping up a dickens of a-think- 
ing. Relations were somewhat strained. 
The argument was ages old. Conserva¬ 
tive and stubborn ideas of the older gen¬ 
eration were again in conflict with the 
progressive but none-the-less stubborn 
beliefs of the younger. Such conflicts 
of emphatic opinion have been waged 
since Adam quarreled with his sons 
over the number and kind of goats that 
should be kept on the first farm; and 
such debates will still be warmly ar¬ 
gued as long as the old and young work 
together, for to most of those beyond 
the half century 


By E. R. EASTMAN 


the clearing where, stretched away in 
front of them, was a beautiful sight 
not often seen by farmers of this gen¬ 
eration. Forty or fifty acres of newly 
cleared land were covered with clover 
in bloom, standing, in places where it 
had not lodged, at least three feet high. 
How it would change the status of farm¬ 
ing on these old eastern hill lands if it 
were' possible to get stands of clover, 
which the pioneers obtained with little 
effort on the newly cleared fallows! An 
occasional good farmer demonstrates 
that clover can still be grown on the 
eastern hills, by applying large quanti¬ 


laughter followed by a song that went 
something like this: 


Oh, when I die don’t bury me at all, 

Just pickle my bones in alcohol; 

Put a bottle of booze at my head and feet, 
And then I know I’ll surely keep. 


mark, youngsters 
in their twenties 
are mere children 
intolerant of wis¬ 
dom, which comes 
with the experi¬ 
ence of years, 
and filled with 
fool ideas which 
are both imprac¬ 
tical and impos¬ 
ts lV»lp 

With the big 
haying ahead on 
the home farm, 
Sam had taken a 
lot of clover to 
cut on shares for 
neighbor Barrett. 
It was three miles 
up amountain 
dug road and 
back through a 
piece of timber. 
The land was 
new and covered 
with cobblestones 
and stumps, 


Sam stood listening for a minute with 
a funny expression, showing under the 
broad, brim of his old straw hat, and then 
down across the lot he went, and en¬ 
tered the shed where he found his hired 
help having a glorious time, but some¬ 
what the worse for wear from too close 
association with a keg of hard cider, 
which they had somehow managed to 
bring in through the woods. 

As the 



“For We’ve Had Some Pleasant Days, Working the Fields 


Together” 


SO 


that all the mowing and raking had to 
be done by hand. 

Now Young Sam knew that clover 
hay was good for cows, but the trouble 
was he also knew that the kind of cows 
that Old Sam kept were not good for 
the clover hay. If the hay could only 
be sold and a little actual cash realized 
from it, Young Sam would not have ob¬ 
jected to doing a double haying. But 
he was tired and sick of the everlasting 
treadmill of working for nothing per 
hour for the privilege of being “chief 
cook and bottle washer” for a lot of 
worthless cows. For years now he had 
urged Old Sam to get rid of the board¬ 
ers and put in pure breds, or at least 
good grades; but the old man thought 
it just another fool idea of the younger 
generation and nothing was done. Mean¬ 
while, they continued to work early 
and late to get stuff enough to feed 
them. 

Then, to cap the climax, Sam went 
out and took this clover to cut. That 
was the last straw. The quarrel this 
time had been long and bitter and had 
ended in a statement from Young Sam, 
that when haying was done he was go¬ 
ing to leave the farm. 

So now they were on the way after 
their first load up the mountain road 
to the clover lot where for two days 
some hired day help had supposedly 


been busy cutting the clover with 


scythes. After coming out of the old 
wood road they stopped at the edge of 


ties of lime and acid phosphate, but it 
is an expensive process, and for the 
most part the devil’s paint brush and the 
daisies hold sway. 

As father and son stood at the edge 
of the clearing looking across the great 
clover field, breathing the soft summer 
breeze heavily laden with its scent, and 
listening to the hum of a million bees at 
work on the blossoms, they began to lose 
their grouch. There is something about 
association with the power and lavish¬ 
ness of nature’s summertime that 
cleanses men’s spirits and sweetens 
their souls in spite of themselves. 

Down in one corner of the lot was 
an acre or so of the clover which the 
men had already cut. It lay so thick in 
the swaths that any raking was neither 
necessary nor possible, for it could be 
pitched handily directly from the mown 
swaths to the wagon. Where some of 
the clover had been cut, three hand 
scythes hung on a stump, but the men 
that Sam had hired to wield them were 
not in sight. 

“The boys must have gone down to the 
spring to get a drink. I don’t see them,” 
said Sam. 

“Seems to me,” said Young Sam, 
“that goin’ to get a drink has taken con¬ 
siderable of their time in the last two 
days, for there is mighty little clover 
to show for three men’s work.” 

Just then, up across the field, from an 
old shelter shed on the edge of the 
woods, came the sound of boisterous 


men 
looked up and saw 
Sam standing in 
the doorway, the 
hilarity came to a 
sudden end. Sam 
was usually soft 
spoken and slow 
to anger, but there 
had been much of 
late to try his 
patience, a n d he 
had reached his 
limit. He took one 
look at the scenes 
of festivity and 
then, grabbing the 
handle of a broken 
rake, he went into 
action. Young Sam 
heard a noise like 
a six-gun battery 
opening a battle, 
and, then he saw 
Old Sam’s erst¬ 
while hired help 
break forth from 
the door of the 
shanty and point 


a wild but somewhat crooked course for 
the shelter of the nearby woods. Close 
behind them followed the old man, every 
once in a while coming near enough to 
the unfortunate man in the rear to ac¬ 
celerate his speed by a vigorous applica¬ 
tion of the rake handle. 

Then, with head erect, shoulders back, 
and old knees stepping high, Sam came 
back across the lot to the wagon and 
without a word proceeded to put on a 
load of clover which Young Sam loaded. 
When it was finished, they carefully 
bound it with a binding pole and started 
down through the woods toward home. 
The road was narrow and on each side 
it was swampy. They had not gone far 
when Young Sam drove a little too close 
to the edge so that the wheels went off 
on one side and sank to the axle, while 
the load slowly, but none-the-less surely, 
rolled majestically over, pitching both 
men into the bordering briars and 
bushes. 

Father and son sorted themselves out 
of the brush and immediately began to 
glare at each other while each tried to 
get his breath, and think of something 
strong enough to say that would relieve 
his feelings and cover the situation. 
Finally, the little fine lines about the old 
man’s eyes began to crinkle into a smile. 

“Samuel,” he said, “don’t say a word. 
I been a-thinkin’ since yesterday when 
you told me you were going to leave me, 
after you had stayed here for years 
{Continued on page 22) 












1 
























22 


American Agriculturist, July 14,1923 




I!•<!!• •!•••!!• kill#111 #111 •!#!#111 #111 II• III#III•|||#in % 


Own This Modern 
Light-Draft Spreader 


IF THE MAN without a spreader knew how he 
could increase the crop returns from every ton of 
manure by using a McCormick-Deering Manure 
Spreader, he would change his method mighty 
soon- It isn’t a matter of what the other fellow is 
doing—it is a plain dollars and cents proposition. 
If you waste your time at uneven spreading you 
lose profits that should belong to you. 

The McCormick-Deering spreader performs two 
important operations. First, it shreds the manure- 
tears it to pieces as it passes through the two steel 
beaters and the spiral wide-spread device; second, 
it spreads evenly and uniformly, in any quantity 
desired. 

Among the features of the McCormick-Deering spreader 
are: An Auto-steer which permits the spreader to be 
turned in close quarters, and which eliminates neck weight; 
adjustment for six feed speeds; and the all-steel frame 
with all appliances bolted to it direct. 

Ask the McCormick-Deering Dealer to 
point out these features. 

International Harvester company 


f €06 So. Michigan Ave. 


OF AMERICA 

(INCORPORATED) 


Chicago. Iwu. 


McCormick - Deering 

Manure Spreaders 

Built in Two Popular Sizes 



• lUtnitmimtmtiHtHitmtmtiioiHiHitHemamenianieiiiiHitnitiifHitnitHli iH»nf m# 


Long-Time Farm Loans 

This Bank has loaned to the farmers in New England, 
New York and New Jersey over $25,000,000 and has re¬ 
turned to them over $137,000 in dividends. 

If you operate your own farm or intend to purchase a farm, we are 
prepared to make a long-time, easy-payment loan. Interest at 5 
Payments semi-annually. Loans run for 33 years but can be paid at 
borrowers’ option any time after 5 years. Local representative in 
every district. 

Look aheadl If you will need a loan this season write now for information. 

The FEDERAL LAND BANK of SPRINGFIELD, MASS. 

Serving New England, New York and New Jersey 





You have never before been able 4 

to buy the famoua Peerless Fence at such low 
pricM — our new plan of sellinir direct from factory means 

40 Per Cent LOWER PRICES 

ED ETC New 104 page CATALOG—send for it today 
■ —aee enormous saving on Fencing—Steel Posts 

—Barb Wire—Psint and Roofing. Satisfaction guaranteed. 

PEERLESS WIRE fi FENCE CO., Dept.3004 CLEVELAND, OHIO 


Green Mountain 



5 , 000,000 


CABBAGE, CAULIFLOWER, 
BRUSSELS SPROUTS, CELERY PUNTS 

CABBAGE (All Varieties).$1.75 per 1000; 5000, $ 8.00 

CAULIFLOWER (Snowball)...$4.50 per 1000; 5000, $20.00 

BRUSSELS SPROUTS.$2 50 per 1000; 6000, $12.00 

CELERY (All Varieties).$3.00 per 1000; 6000, $12.00 

Cash with order. Send for List of all Plants 
PAUL F. ROCHELLF, Drawer 269, MORRISTOWN, NEW JERSEY 


The Keyport Section 


A Noted Vegetable Garden District of New Jersey 


C ENTERING about 
Keyport, and extend¬ 
ing for some ten miles between South 
Amboy and Matawan on the north and 
Middletown on the south, is a busy gar¬ 
den district. Methods are not espe¬ 
cially intensive, and crops are grown 
in fairly large fields. The leading prod¬ 
ucts are aspara¬ 
gus — chiefly 
white or blanched 
“grass” — toma¬ 
toes, peppers, egg¬ 
plants, sweet 
corn, and musk- 
melons. Grapes, 
small fruits, and 
tree fruits are 
also generally 
grown. Fifteen 
years ago most 
of the growers 
drove to the boat 
at Keyport and 

loaded their prod¬ 
uce to reach mar¬ 
ket around mid¬ 

night. Now there is no regular serv¬ 
ice, and the five-ton truck has elimi¬ 
nated two handlings and two carriers, 
for it takes the load from farm to com¬ 
mission house or market without 
change. These huge seagoing trucks 
make an impressive sight as they 

charge up the Jersey highways in the 
late afternoon or early evening with 
their load of food for the millions of 
the metropolis. Yes, they are seagoing 
craft, for they cross the bay from 

Staten Island to Manhattan. The 


Root crops planted 
late will yield a prod¬ 
uct of higher quality for storage than 
when the plants have borne the brunt 
of the hot dry season. The beets and 
carrots so matured are of finer texture 
and more delicate flavor, as well as 
fresher and more attractive in appear¬ 
ance. 

Families in the great cities lack stor¬ 
age space for vegetables, but an in¬ 
creasing proportion of homes in cities 
and towns from half a million down 
have good cellars. Gardeners might 
well cultivate the sale of roots and 
cabbage in fifty- and hundred-pound 
lots, offering suggestions for successful 
keeping. 

It is difficult to correctly time the 
planting of late crops, and dry weather 
renders germination uncertain. The 
probability oi securing a prompt and 
even stand is greatly Increased through 
special care in sowing. The drills may 
be made rather deep, and yet covering 
may be light enough to permit a ready 
come-up. The contact between seed 
and soil is improved by firmly compact¬ 
ing the soil over the seeds. Of course 
irrigation is of inestimable value in 
this connection. 

The Wage Problem 

Gardeners have complained bitterly 
of labor conditions this season, and not 
without reason, Nassau County grow¬ 
ers are paying as high as $6 a day for 
men and $3.50 for women. Fortunate¬ 
ly, market prices during the early sum¬ 
mer have been fairly good. Otherwise 


By PAUL WORK 




Intercropping with Tomatoes to Pay for a Year’s Growth of a New 

Jersey Fruit Planting 


charge by truck is a trifle lower than 
freight alone. Some of the machines 
are owned by New York wholesalers 
and some by trucking concerns. 

J. C. Hendrickson is one of the lead¬ 
ing growers of the Keyport section. 
He has fourteen acres of asparagus, 
which is ridged high during the cut¬ 
ting season and is cut white. Much of 
the product is “sold where grown at the 
Old Cherry Tree,” for Mr. Hendrickson 
is located on one of the great seashore 
highways and has a well-developed 
roadside market. He sells a wide vari¬ 
ety of goods, both purchased and 
grown. When asked whether the two 
classes of merchandise mix well, he 
said: “We can sell anything that is 
good.” Perhaps this is the key to the 
argument as to whether a stand should 
sell nothing but the product of the 
home farm. 

Mr. Hendrickson has extensive or¬ 
chards, and is increasing his plantings. 
Vegetables are grown between the rows 
while the trees are on their way to 
maturity. 

Late Crops 

A growing interest is being shown 
by vegetable men in late fall markets. 
Prices are usually better than in mid¬ 
season, and harvests thus timed serve 
to lengthen the season of income and 
of the profitable use of labor. An up¬ 
state gardener is setting tomatoes as 
late as the last of June. He does not 
expect all to be ripe before frost, but 
when a severe night threatens he will 
gather the green fruits in quantity and 
allow them to ripen under the protec¬ 
tion of his barn roof. 


it is hard to see how any but the most 
efficient operators can make ends meet. 

For four years the Troy Market Gar¬ 
deners’ Association has operated a mar¬ 
ket of its own at Watervliet because 
the city authorities of Troy would not 
afford a satisfactory public market. 
The gardeners have put up a game 
fight in face of serious odds, and now 
they win. The present city adminis¬ 
tration, after friendly conference, has 
arranged to care for the needs of the 
growers in a manner agreeable to all, 
and the Association officially came back 
on June 7 from its sojourn beyond the, 
river. They still hold the Watervliet 
property that they bought four years, 
ago. _____ 


A July Story 

(Continued from page 21) 

when the other boys had gone away, 
that maybe your pa is a darned old 
fool; maybe he don’t keep up with the 
times very good; but we’ve had pleas¬ 
ant days working the fields together, 
and I want them to continue. Just for¬ 
get this little unpleasantness, and we’ll 
tell neighbor Barrett his clover can rot 
for all of us. And maybe, too, you are 
right about this cow business. Any¬ 
way, if you will only stay on with me 
for a spell longer you can house-clean 
and renovate the darned old dairy all 
you want to.” 


We have enjoyed your paper very 
much, and think it more than worth 
the price.—Mrs. S. Balogh, Willoughby, 
Ohio. 



A 









































































American Agriculturist, July 14,1923 


23 


Save the Potato Crop 

Spraying or Dusting as Necessary as Cultivating 


I T is not a question 
of “shall I dust” or 
“shall I spray my potatoes”; but it is 
a question of fighting bugs and plant 
disease or taking a chance on losing 
the whole crop. I have known farmers 
who have, in the past, hit it “lucky” 
by making a guess at the beginning of 
the season that there would be few if 
any bugs and no blight. However, for 
every one who has made that guess and 
gotten away with it, there are hun¬ 
dreds who have been caught and lost 
the better part of their crop. 

Whether we use liquid spray or dust, 
to fight bugs is mighty good as insur¬ 
ance, and most successful growers con¬ 
sider it that way these days, especially 
in times like the present when a short 
crop is in prospect. Of course it costs 
money, but year in and year out, the 
costs of buying poisons and fungicides 
is more than counterbalanced by in¬ 
creased returns. Fundamentally, the 
same fungicides and insecticides are 
used in dusting as in spraying. The 
copper lime dust is identical to Bor¬ 
deaux and water is merely a carrier of 
arsenate of lead powder. 

Bordeaux is made by mixing copper 
sulphate or bluestone and burnt lime. 
For the grower who has only a small 
patch, the most favorable method is to 
dissolve five pounds of copper sulphate 
in five gallons of water. Lime is also 
diluted at the same rate, five pounds 
in five gallons of water. But these 


By F. W. OHM 


tions spray. Their 
claim is that they tried 
it once and the “danged stuff wouldn’t 
work.” Of course it wouldn’t work 
when new foliage was coming on all the 
while and no spray was applied to pro¬ 
tect it from diseases. Spray should be 
applied every ten days at least, and it 
should be applied in such a manner 
that the entire leaf surface, on top and 
underneath, is covered with a thin film 
of mixture. That is why a “three noz¬ 
zle to a row” machine is best. It is pot 
possible to cover the plant properly by 
merely squirting or sprinkling the ma¬ 
terial on the plant, although recom¬ 
mendations are published to the effect 
that in the absence of a spray outfit, it 
is ppssible to use a whisk broom to 
very good affect. Good spraying de¬ 
mands lots of pressure, enough to 
create a fog, rather than a spray— 
the higher the pressure, the better the 
fog and the better distribution of 
liquid. 

Dusting Methods Much Improved 

There is nothing new in the practice 
of dusting except that the methods of 
application have been developed to a 
higher degree. Dusting apparatus is 
being perfected every year and the me¬ 
chanical condition of dust is likewise 
being improved. The big talking point 
in favor of the duster is that it elimi¬ 
nates the handling of so much water 
and is consequently much more rapid. 



The “three nozzle to a row” arrangement makes it possible to hit 
every part of the potato vine with the spray material 


concentrated solutions are not mixed 
directly. Each is poured into a fifty- 
gallon barrel which contains forty gal¬ 
lons of clear water. This makes fifty 
gallons of spray material known as a 
5-5-50. In order to fight bugs, two 
pounds of arsenate of lead powder are 
added to this fifty gallons of Bordeaux. 

Down on Long Island, where it is 
common for a grower to have seventy- 
five or one hundred acres of potatoes, 
a great deal of spray material is used 
and consequently much larger batches 
must be mixed. It is common for big- 
growers to have a platform built high 
enough to back the spray rig under. 
On the platform are two barrels, one 
containing the copper sulphate solu¬ 
tion and the other containing the lime 
solution. Between the two there is a 
large reservoir of water. When the 
spray tank is to be filled, it is backed 
under this reservoir and the water is 
piped directly into the spray tank and 
the copper and lime solutions are added 
in the proportions just mentioned. 
Sometimes the field that is being 
sprayed is considerable distance from 
the house. In order to eliminate loss 
of time, the barrels of chemicals and 
the water reservoir are loaded on to a 
wagon kept in the field. A one-horse 
water cart keeps the reservoir filled. 

There are two factors that practical¬ 
ly measure the success or failure of 
liquid spray materials to fully control 
plant insects and disease. They are 
regularity of application and pressure. 
I know of some potato growers who 
start cussing as soon as anyone men- 


Men using dusters claim they can cover 
a field many times quicker than they 
can with liquid spray apparatus. This 
is obvious, for they do not have to 
stop to fill up with water after every 
few bouts” of the field. It is possible 
to carry enough dust material on the 
rig to treat an entire field without 
making a single stop. 

I was talking to a big potato grower 
from the eastern end of Long Island 
leeently about dusting and spraying. 
He spoke very highly of dusting as far 
as results were concerned. However, 
he is well equipped with modern spray- 
mg apparatus and has his spray ma- 
teiial or stock solution barrels so con¬ 
veniently arranged that it would not 
pay him to junk this equipment to 
buy a duster. I called his attention to 
the potato-’growing fields of such New 
York counties as Franklin, Clinton, 
Steuben and the southern ends of Liv¬ 
ingston and Ontario, where very often 
potato growers have to climb steep hill¬ 
sides to get up to their fields, much 
in contrast to the level stretches of 
Long Island. The man from Suffolk 
County said: “If I were growing po¬ 
tatoes in that section I doult if I would 
even try to use a sprayer. It must bi 
terrible work for those fellows to try 
to get water u P> on top of the hills 
and it must be time-consuming. That 
is where the duster serves a real pur- 
pose. No doubt, they will come in a 
whole lot faster as soon as the price 
ot dust comes down to a more rea¬ 
sonable figure, which is another one of 
(Continued on page 30) 



AFTERGLOW of ROUGHWOOD, 84605. World’s Champion 
Junior 3-year old Guernsey, Class E, with 878.16 lbs. fat from 16,815.7 
lbs. milk. Owned and bred by Mr. E. B. Dane, Chestnut Hill, Mass. 
FED ON BUFFALO DURING THE RECORD MAKING YEAR. 

Buffalo Scores 
Another World’s Record 

This is getting to be a common occurrence 
when great purebreds, such as “Afterglow,” 
are fed on this feed. 

A still commoner occurrence is the increase 
in milk production made by grade cows as soon 
as Buffalo Corn Gluten Feed is added to the 
ration. 

With your herd on pasture, feed Buffalo 
this way: 3 parts Buffalo, 2 parts hominy, 2 
parts bran. Then watch for the extra milk. 

Ifs no idle saying that Buffalo is 
IN 

EVERY LIVE DEALER’S 
STOCK 
AND 

EVERY GOOD 
DAIRY RATION 




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MAXIMUM 3j? : 

C °B* GUITEK fEED 

.'■rMibinm. 


Corn Products 
Refining Company 

Chicago 


New YorK 


23% Protein Also Mfrs. ofn 



40% Protein 


UNADILLA SILOS 


Easy to Erect 

The cost of any silo should include 
the cost of erection. No extra, ex¬ 
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up a Unadilla. Any handy man with 
boy or woman helper 
can erect it. 

A few simple parts fit 
\\\\\\% perfectly and go togeth¬ 
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alone will save many 
dollars and much time 
in your silo purchase. 
Every day other con¬ 
venient features will 
justify your choice of it. 
Send for big 
new catalog 

Unadilla Silo Co. 

HSU.. _ Box B 

Unadilla, N. Y. 



Save half to three-quarters the cost cf 
a new roof by applying Consolidated 
Asbestos Coating over old shingles, 
metal, ready roofing, paper, etc. 
Easily applied with brush. 

Consolidated Asbestos Coating 

forms a hard, tough, one-piece roof, immune 
to heat and cold. Fire-resistant and weather¬ 
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asphalt. 

SPFCIAT To introduce this wonderful coat- 
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UrrfcK gallons $15, and include a$l brush 
free for cash with order. Money back if not 
entirely satisfied. Booklet “J” on request. 

Consolidated Asbestos Corp., Dept J 

100 Fifth Avenue, NEW YORK. N. Y. 


FARMS—SUNNY SOUTHERN JERSEY 

Many bargains. Catalog Just Out. Copy Free. Stocked and 
equipped. Some require only f600 cash. Income producing h jmes. 

Vineland Farm Agency, 519-A.O. Landis Ave., Vineland, N. J. 


LEAF TOBACCO, 5 


Five pounds chewing $1.75; tt 
$3.00; twenty, $5.25; five pom 
smoking $1.25; ten, $2.00; twen 
$3.50. Pipe ami Recipe Free. Send no money, pay when recelv< 

UNITED TOBACCO GROWERS MAYFIELD, K 


CABBAGE WORMS Destroyed by 
Dating with HAMMOND’S SLUG SHOT 

so USED FOR 35 YEARS. SOLD BY ALL SEED DEALERS. 
For pamphlets worth having, Write B. HAMMOND, BeaCOQ, NewYork 
























































24 


American Agriculturist, July 14,1923 






Boys and Girls Prominent at College Field Days 


skillful; to train the health so as to 
resist disease, to be 100 per cent effi¬ 
cient and enjoy life; and finally, to 
train the heart to be true and kind 
and sympathetic.” 

In addition to the large attendance 
of boys and girls, many adults were 
present, including nearly all of the 
county farm bureau agents and the 
farm bureau executive committees. 
Visits were made to the State experi¬ 
ment station at Geneva and to the 
great farms belonging to the State Col¬ 
lege of Agriculture. 


NON-POOLERS ANNOUNCE JULY 
PRICES 

At a meeting of the Executive Com¬ 
mittee of the Non-Pooling Dairymen’s 
Cooperative Association and a com¬ 
mittee of the New York Milk Confer¬ 
ence Board, held June 26, the price 
negotiated for non-pool milk for the 
month of July was as follows: Class 
No. 1, $2.30; class No. 2, $2.00; flat 
price, $2.20; class 3A the differential 
was increased from 55c to 80c; class 
3B the differential was increased from 
40c to 65c; class 4A the differential 
was increased from 20c to 25c. In 
Grade A the 20c differential was in¬ 
creased to 30c, the 25c differential in¬ 
creased to 40c, and the 15c differential 
increased to 25c. The principal in¬ 
crease is in the increase of the flat 
price from $2.11 to $2.20. Most of the 
non-pool milk is sold on the flat price 
basis. All prices are for 3 per cent 
milk in 201-210 mile zone with the ad¬ 
dition of 4c per point of butter fat con¬ 
tent above 3 per cent, and the addition 
or deduction on account of the freight 
differential. 


NEW YORK COUNTY NOTES 

Montgomery Co.—On July 3, the 
date of writing, a large amount of 
buckwheat is being sown in this local¬ 
ity. Farmers are using the crop ■ with 
other small grains for feed. Milk is 
bringing a fair price, but hay sells at 
from $9 to $12 per ton. The new crop 
of hay will not yield as heavily as was 
expected early in the season. The stand 
is good, but short. Some farmers are 
cutting alfalfa and June clover. En¬ 
silage corn is making slow growth 
owing to cool nights. The acreage of 
potatoes is not large, but the fields 
look to be in good shape. Eggs are 
selling at 25c a dozen, veal 9c, live 
weight. Not many broilers on the 
market here, only about 40 per cent. 
Farm help is so scarce here that many 
acres lie fallow and many meadows 
will be left unharvested. Many good 
farms are for sale, but buyers are few 
and far between. Town highways are 
being well repaired as there is plenty 
of help for that work at a good daily 
wage. The plum crop will be small in 
this locality owing to the heavy rains 
at blossoming time.—G. P. Van V. 

Ontario Co.—We have had some 
very hot weather during the latter part 
of June; in fact, during the last week 
the temperature was above 90 in the 
shade. We have been in need of rain 
all along, but lately we have had some 
good showers. It has been too hot 
and dry to set cabbage. Some growers 
are complaining about the lack of 
plants due to maggot injury and poor 
seed. Greening apples have not set 
very heavily in comparison to the 
amount of bloom. Corn is making good 
growth. Some farmers are harvesting 
alfalfa, which is not very heavy.— 
E. T. B. 

Warren Co.—All crops are very late 
and are not looking especially good. 
The hay crop will be light. Recent 
l’ains have improved the outlook to 
some extent. Old meadows will be 
very light and in some places will not 
more than pay the high prices of labor 
to cut them. The price of farm help 
is out of reach of most people. Farm¬ 
ers are doing what they can without 
hiring help. Prices for produce are 
lower than a year ago. Old potatoes 
are scarce and nearly all gone. The 
new crop is not ready yet. Farm Bu¬ 
reau meetings are being held every 
month. Interest is good—R. T. A. 


T HE outstanding event of the Sum¬ 
mer field days held at the New 
York State College of Agriculture, 
June 27th to 29th, was the large at¬ 
tendance of boys and girls who are 
interested in junior project work. Over 
500 boys and girls were present from 
sixteen counties. They were welcomed 
to the College by Dean A. R. Mann 
and by Livingston Farrand, president 
of Cornell University. 

The first day was spent in visiting 
various points of interest about the 
campus and university buildings. On 
Thursday and Friday the boys at¬ 
tended demonstrations on judging 
dairy cattle, gardening, rope-splicing, 
sheep and hogs, poultry and potatoes. 
The girls spent the two days attend¬ 
ing demonstrations by teams from 
some of the counties and by the ex¬ 
tension workers of the Home Economics 
Department. 

In talking to the boys and girls, 
Dean Mann said: “The great purpose 
of junior extension work is not that 
a boy may learn to raise a quarter 
acre of potatoes or a girl learn to can 
tomatoes. Those are not the import¬ 
ant things we have in mind. They 
are the means we use to accomplish 
the important things. The reason we 
do this work is to train the head, the 
hands, the heart and health as repre¬ 
sented by your emblem; to train the 
head to think and plan and reason;* 
to train the hands to be useful and 


A Fair Question and 
a Reasonable Answer 


Sooner or later: you will use a 

De Laval 

Milker and Cream Separator 


Proof Against 
Weather, 
Fire, Water, 
Lightning 

We can furnish for immediate de¬ 
livery any style of the Peneo roof¬ 
ing or siding, painted or galvanized. 
Furnished in CORRUGATED, V- 
Crimp Standing Seam, Loxon Tile, 
etc., for roofing. Brick, Clapboard, 
Stone Face, Beaded, etc., for siding. 
There is a special Penco metal ceil¬ 
ing for every purpose. 

Send for catalogue for Metal Lath, 
Corner Bead, Culverts, Bridge 
Arches, Cutters, Leaders, 
Ventilators, Skylights. 


PENN METAL COMPANY 
110 First St., JERSEY CITY, N. J. 

also 

25th & Wharton Sts., PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Write your nearest office 


The question is sometimes asked 
us, although less frequently as more 
and more De Laval Milkers are put in 
use and the wisdom of the De Laval 
method is demonstrated, why we make 
only single unit milkers. 

The De Laval Milker Unit is de¬ 
signed to milk one cow at a time. Of 
course as many units as 
desired can be used in 
an installation, and all 
of the units, no matter 
how many are used, 
work with exactly the 
same uniform and 
pleasing action. This 
method has proved to 
be the most practical as 
well as the fastest. 

With a double unit it 
is necessary to arrange 
the cows so that those which require 
about the same length of time to be 
milked are placed side by side, and it 
is practically impossible to do this 
unless the cows are constantly re¬ 
arranged, which causes confusion 
and delay. Thus with a double unit, if 
the cows do not milk out in exactly 
the same time, part of the outfit is 
idle or is left on the cow too long. 


Numerous tests have shown that 
two single units milk about one-third 
faster than one double unit, and one 
man can handle two single units faster 
than one double unit. In actual prac¬ 
tice many De Laval operators are 
handling three units alone, and each 
unit will milk about ten average cows 
or more an hour. 

Another advantage of 
the single unit, which 
is very important espe¬ 
cially in purebred test 
work and for which 
many De Lavals are 
now used, is that it is 
possible to weigh each 
cow’s milk when indi¬ 
vidual cow records are 
desired. 

Of course this is only 
one of many features which is making 
the De Laval Milker so popular with 
dairymen everywhere. On more than 
12,000 farms the De Laval Milker is 
saving time and labor, increasing the 
production of milk, producing cleaner ' 
milk, and making dairying more 
pleasant and profitable. If you are 
milking ten or more cows by hand, 
you are paying for a De Laval. 


Easy Terms 

You can get a De Laval 
Milker for 10% down 
and the rest in 15 
monthly payments of 
6%. Use a De Laval 
while it pays for itself. 


The De Laval Separator Co. 

NEW YORK CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO 

165 Broadway 29 E. Madison St. 61 Beale St. 


New York Farm News 




fokfactory 


Other sizes equally low priced. 
Over 5,000 dealers carry these 
engines in stock and will save 
you money on freight. 

FAIRBANKS, MORSE & CO. 

Manufacturers Chicago 

Eastern Branches 
New York Baltimore Boston 



Get Jim Brown’s new 

FACTOBY PRICES 



Write quick for my bis: 
new book of money-sav¬ 
ing factory prices on high _ 
est quality Fence, Gates, 
Steel Posts.Painte, Roofing, 
FREIGHT PREPAID 
Don't pay a penny more than Jim 
Brown’s factory prices. Highest [ 
,aality, backed by guarantee. Write 
for 104-page money-saving bargain book. I 
^Brswn Fence & Wire Co., Dept3Q02, Cleveland, 0. 


r Saved — 
$56.00 on rayl 

forder. I paid you \ 
37c per rod, and l 
fence here no bet- I 
ter is 93 3-4 eta.” 
—Charles Rowe. 
Stella, Mo. 


FAILURE 


TO BREED, ABORTION, ETC., 

in All Animals Guaranteed 
Cured. Causes and treatment 
explained in our Free Booklet, Remedy $2 Bot. 

The Breed-0 Remedy Co., P.0. Box240-A, Bristol, Conn. 


PATENTS 


Write today for free i: 
struction book an 
Record of Inventic 
blank. Send sketch or model for personal opinio 
CLARENCE A. O’BRIEN, Registered Patent Lai 
yer , 904 Southern Building, Washington, D. C. 


CORN 


HARVESTER cuts ancl p^ eson har- 

„ , - ...nvester or windrows. 

f Man and horse cuts and shocks equalCorn 
Binder. Sold in every state. Only $25 with 
fodder tying attachment. Testimonials and catalog FREE showing 

picture of Harvester. PROCESS MFG. CO., Salina, Kan. 


When writing to advertisers please 
mention American Agriculturist. 












































































American Agriculturist, July 14,1923 


25 


New Jersey Horticulturists 
to Hold Summer Meeting 
in Glassboro 

F RUIT and vegetable growers from 
all parts of the State will assemble 
for the summer meeting of the State 
Horticultural Society on the campus 
of the new State Normal School in 
Glassboro on Wednesday, July 25. 

Representatives of the staff of the 
State Experiment Station at New 
Brunswick have been conducting im¬ 
portant spraying experiments in the 
orchards of the Repp Company. The 
lessons from these experiments will be 
demonstrated during the tour of sev¬ 
eral large orchards near Glassboro. 
The run will be made by automobiles 
leaving the Normal School at 10 
o’clock, standard time. 

After lunch in the beautiful oak 
grove adjacent to the Normal School, 
the members and visitors will assemble 
for a meeting. They will be addressed 
by Mayor Frank Stanger and Mr. 
Charles F.-Repp, of Glasboro, Senator 
Emmor Robberts, President of the Hor¬ 
ticultural Society, Dr. J. J. Savitz, Prin¬ 
cipal of the New Jersey Normal School, 
and Mr. L. A. Cooley, Secretary of the 
New Jersey State Federation of County 
Boards of Agriculture. Professor M. 
A. Blake, Horticulturist at the State 
Experiment Station, Professor A. J, 
Farley, Pomologist, Dr. T. J. Headlee, 
State Entomologist, and Dr. W. H. 
Martin, Plant Pathologist, will lead dis¬ 
cussions on the best practices in orchard 
and field work. 

Last year the summer meeting was 
held at Minch Bros, farms near Bridge- 
ton. There was an attendance of 
nearly 1,000 persons. The meeting this 
year is expected to be even larger. It 
will be held in the Normal School build¬ 
ing in the event of rain. 


SHEEP BREEDERS ESTABLISH 
SCHOLARSHIP AT PENN 
STATE 

A special scholarship is to be estab¬ 
lished at the Pennsylvania State College 
as the result of a $5,000 fund provided 
by the Pennsylvania State More Sheep 
More Wool Association. It is to be 
known as the “Arthur C. Bigelow Mem¬ 
orial Scholarship” in honor of the late 
organizer of the association, a former 
prominent textile manufacturer of 
Philadelphia. The interest from the 
fund will be awarded each year to a 
student in the State College animal 
husbandi'y course who is specializing 
in sheep studies and who is deserving 
of the award by reason of his scholastic 
standing. _ 

“Going To Law” 

(Continued from page 19) 

up to nearly eleven thousand dollars! 
How many such cases—not quite so 
striking perhaps—have come under the 
notice of most persons. How many 
estates have been wasted, and heirs 
beggared, by an unwillingness to make 
slight concessions. 

But the pecuniary loss, serious as 
it often may be, is not the worst fea¬ 
ture in the business. The hatred en¬ 
gendered, and bad passions nourished, 
react sadly upon the parties engaged. 
The disposition is soured, peace ban¬ 
ished, and constant vexations and ap¬ 
prehension embitter life. Said one 
who had finally obtained his suit, in¬ 
volving a large amount, and one which 
he could ill afford to lose: “Had I 
foreseen the anxiety and vexation I 
have suffered from this business, I 
would have given a receipt in full for 
the amount, rather than have com¬ 
menced.” i Many others will bear the 
same testimony. There are cases where 
it is positive duty to invoke the aid of 
law to secure or preserve rights, but 
reason, not passion, should preside 
when such interests are involved. 

We repeat, then, if any of our read¬ 
ers are now, or hereafter, tempted to 
indulge in “law,” let them first give 
this picture a careful study, and then 
inquire if it will not be better to lose 
the milk at once, than to hold the cow 
with might and main, for an indefinite 
period, and in the end find all the labor 
lost. 


Wishing you success in your good 
work.—Phil R. Goodives, Ritchey, Ill. 



PUBLIC FORMULA FEEDS 


r T" , HE Cooperative G. L. F. Exchange is securely established. 

It has wiped out the operating deficit which existed on 
January 1, 1923, and during the first six months of the current 
year has increased its gross business by a million dollars over 
the same period last year. 

The service the G. L. F. renders you in the future will depend 
primarily on the volume of purchases it makes for you. Volume 
voluntarily placed means savings in overhead and sales cost. 
Orders secured without the expense of direct solicitation mean 
lower prices to you and your neighbors. 

The G. L. F. Feed Pool which opens this month affords you the 
opportunity to buy your winter feed at summer prices. It also 
furnishes you the added guarantee of securing the best dairy 
feed available at the lowest possible price per hundred pounds 
of digestible nutrients. 

Thoughtful deliberation will convince you of the wisdom of 
using the G. L. F. to buy your feed for you. Remember, orders 
voluntarily placed make the pool price lower. 






President 

Cooperative G. L. F. Exchange. Inc. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 




AUCTION SALE 

Buy At Your Own Price 

GASOLINE ENGINES 
FARM TRUCKS 
SAWING OUTFITS 
TRACTORS and.ATTACHMENTS 
SAW BENCHES 
MOWING MACHINES, Etc. 

Owing to the ever-increasing demand for 
DO-IT-ALL TRACTORS, we intend 
giving up the retail store. We have, a 
large stock and sooner than put it in the 
warehouse we are going to sacrifice. Here 
is an opportunity for the farmer to supply 
himself with his needs for years to come, 
at his own prices. The Auction Sale will 
be held at No. 33 Park Place, Thursday, 
July 26th. If you desire further information 
write to DO-IT-ALL Tractors Corp., 
No. 33 Park Place, New York City. 


LOOK AT THE EXPIRATION DATE 
ON YOUR ADDRESS LABEL 

If your subscription has expired, you can show your appreciation of our courtesy in con¬ 
tinuing to send you the American Agriculturist, by favoring us with your renewal at once. 

There is no question as to your needing every coming issue of American Agriculturist, 
because some of the future numbers will contain facts that you would not willingly up 33 
for any amount. The worst kind of economy in the world is to save $1 by not subscribing 
for American Agriculturist and thereby losing $10 or $100 or even $1,000 by not having 
the information that will be given in the next 52 issues of American Agriculturist. 

If you were a doctor, you would find the best medical journal indispensable. If you are 
a real farmer who is out for 100% success and not merely a bare living, you owe it to 
yourself and family to read every coming issue of the American Agriculturist so that you 
can keep abreast of the times. 

SPECIAL BARGAINS! 

Fifty-two issues of American Agriculturist for only $1 is a bargain, but we offer you even 
still greater value for your money if you accept one of the following special long-term 


2 

3 

5 


years 

years 

years 


for 

for 

for 


American 

American 

American 


Agriculturist 

Agriculturist 

Agriculturist 


only $1.50 
only 2.00 
only 3.00 


It has probably been merely an oversight if you are in arrears in your subscription. 
Before you forget it, mail your renewal for one of the above bargains and show your heart 
is still with us in our fight for your success and happiness. 

_MAIL THIS COUPON TODAY- 

AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST, 461 Fourth Ave„ New York City. 

I appreciate your sending me American Agriculturist after my subscription expired. 
Here is my check (or money-order) for renewal for.years more. 


Name... 
Address. 











































26 


American Agriculturist, July 14,1923 


Join the thousands 
of progressive farmers 

who are cutting the high costs of their farm imple¬ 
ments by buying them where selling costs have been 
cut to the bone and marketing economy is a fact 

under the 

MO LINE Plan 

It eliminates all the wastes of the old system of distri¬ 
bution and shares the savings with you. 

The Moline Dealer will gladly help you save money. 

If there is no Moline man near you, write us today for 
the facts you ought to know. 

The farmer must pay less for what he 
buys—and get more for what he sells 

MOLINE PLOW COMPANY, Inc. 

RE-ORGANIZED * POWERFULLY CAPITALIZED 
Makers of High-Qrade Implements for 60 Years 

MOLINE, ILLINOIS 

Writ e today for full information 

Moline Plow Company, Inc., Moline, Illinois. A A 

Send me your Booklet telling how I can buy high-grade implements under 7-14 
the Moline Plan and save money. 


My name. 


My city 


SR. R. No-, 


State. 


Opportunity tells 
from CANADA 



Visit Canada this summer— see 
for yourself the opportunities 
which Canada offers to both 
labor and capital—rich, fertile, 
virgin prairie land, near rail¬ 
ways and towns, at $15 to $20 
an acre—long terms if desired. 
Wheat crops last year the big¬ 
gest in history; dairying and 
hogs pay well; mixed farming 
rapidly increasing. 

Homeseekers’ Rates on 
Canadian Railroads 

If you wish to look over the 
country with a view to taking 
up land get an order from the 
nearest Canadian Government 
Agent for special rates on 
Canadian railroads. Make this 
your summer outing—Canada 
welcomes tourists—no pass¬ 
ports required—have a great 
trip and see with your own 
eyes the opportunities that 
await you. 

For full information, with free 
booklets and maps, write 

0. G. RUTLEDGE 

Desk 56 

301 E. Genesee Street 
SYRACUSE, N. Y. 
Authorized Canadian Gov’t Act. 



k BIGGEST 
VBARGAIN 


eepai_ „ 

tried, tested, nigh quality 
r separator. Famous for c 1 o a e 
^kimming. modern Improvements. 
r economical operation, at a price that 
makes the Galloway the world's great¬ 
est bargain. Cream Check 
Payment Plan makes it easy to 
own a Galloway. Write today. 
WILLIAM GALLOWAY CO. 
Dept. 343, Waterloo, Iowa 



DOG 
'BOOK, 

32 page book—how to keep your 
dog well — how to care for him 
When sick. Result of 85 years’ experi¬ 
ence with every known dog disease. 
Mailed FREE. Write today. Dept. 307. 

H. CLAY GLOVER, V. S. 

LW?st 24th St. New York 


UFAF TORAfTO Chewing, 5lbs.,$1.75; 10 
LLCirtr 1UDHIA.U i bs g 3 .oo. Smokine, 5 

* lbs., $1.25; 10 lbs., $2.00. 
vhen received , pipe and recipe free. 

[RATIVE TOBACCO ONION, "'ADUCAH, KY. 


A JOB THAT WILL 
PAY YOU WELL 

If you want to make a good salary 
and expenses, tell us what experience 
you have had in selling to farmers. 

We have vacancies for a few more 
hustling salesmen who like to work for 
good pay. 

Write us for particulars. Mention 
the counties you prefer in case your 
own county is already taken. 

Don’t apply unless you are an enthu¬ 
siastic believer in the great value of 
A. A. to every farm family in the east. 

AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

461 Fourth Avenue New York City 


CLASSIFIED APS 

MISCELLANEOUS 

ALL-WOOL HAND AND MACHINE Knitting 
Yarns for sale. We are also doing custom- 
work at the same old prices. Write for sam¬ 
ples and particulars. H. A. BARTLETT, 
Harmony, Maine. 


KODAK FINISHING—-Trial offer. Any size 
film developed for 5 cents. Prints, 3 cents 
each. Over-night service. Expert work. 
YOUNG PHOTO SERVICE, 40 R Bertha St., 
Albany, N. Y. 


EAT APPLE PIE ALL SUMMER—Wayne 
County Evaporated Apples. Best in the world. 
Stock for 12 pies, $1.00 postpaid. Good till 
used. ALVAH H. PULVER, Sodus, N. Y. 


LATEST STYLE SANITARY MILK TICK¬ 
ETS save money and time. Free delivery. 
Send for samples. TRAVERS BROTHERS, 
Dept. A, Gardner, Mass. 


INFALLIBLE Indian-Chinese Hunting, Trap¬ 
ping and Fishing Guide sent for 25 cents. 
Enclose stamped envelope. PROF. CRUSE, 
1503 Crawford St., Houston, Texas. 


TWENTY TONS HARDWOOD ASHES de¬ 
livered your railway station, $400. GEORGE 
STEVENS, Peterborough, Ontario. 


EXTENSION LADDERS-,—27c foot; three- 
leg fruit ladders, 30c foot. Freight paid. A. 
I FERRIS, Tnt er i a ken, N., Y. 

i 


THIS IS YOUR MARKET PLACE 


Classified Advertising Rates 


A DVERTISEMENTS are inserted in this department at the rate of 5 cents a word. 
l The minimum charge per insertion is $1 per week. , 

Count as one word each initial, abbreviation and whole number, including name 
and address. Thus : “J. B. Jones, 44 E. Main St., Mount Morris, N. Y.” counts as 
eleven words. 

Place your wants by following the style of the advertisements on this page. 

Our Advertisements Guaranteed 

T HE American Agriculturist accepts only advertising which it believes to be 
thoroughly honest. 

We positively guarantee to our readers fair and honest treatment in dealing with 
our advertisers. 

We guarantee to refund the price of goods purchased by our subscribers from any 
advertiser who fails to make good when the article purchased is found not to be 
as advertised. 

To benefit by this guarantee subscribers must say: “I saw your ad in the Ameri¬ 
can Agriculturist” when ordering from our advertisers. 

The More You Tell, The Quicker You Sell 

E VERY week the American Agriculturist reaches over 120,000 farmers in New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and adjacent States. Advertising orders must 
reach our office at 461 Fourth Avenue, New York City not later than the second 
Monday previous to date of issue. Cancellation orders must reach us on the same 
schedule. Because of the low rate to subscribers and their friends, cash or money 
order must accompany your order. 

ALL GOOD THINGS COME TO HIM WHO WAITS — BUT 
THE CHAP WHO DOESN’T ADVERTISE WAITS LONGEST 


EGGS AND POULTRY 


SO MANY ELEMENTS enter into the ship¬ 
ping of day-old chicks and eggs by our ad¬ 
vertisers, and the hatching of same by our 
subscribers that the publishers of this paper 
cannot guarantee the safe arrival of day-old 
chicks, or that eggs shipped shall reach the 
buyer unbroken, nor can they guarantee the 
hatching of eggs. We shall continue to exer¬ 
cise the greatest care in allowing poultry and 
egg advertisers to use this paper, but our re¬ 
sponsibility must end with that. 


CHICKS — S. C. Buff White and Brown Leg¬ 
horns, $9—100 ; Barred Rocks, $10 — 100 ; W. 
Rocks, $12 — 100 ; Reds, $11 — 100 ; Mixed 
light breeds, $8 — 100; Mixed heavy breeds, 
$9—100. All Number One- chicks. Circular 
free. JACOB NIEMOND, Box A, McAlister- 
ville, Pa. 

MARCH AND APRIL Hatched Pullets from 
two hundred-egg record stock “Leghorns,” 
“Anconas,” “Barred Rocks,” “Rhode Island 
Reds,” from $1.25 up. Free circular. GLEN 
ROCK NURSERY AND STOCK FARM, Ridge¬ 
wood, N. J. 

BABY CHICKS—White Leghorns 9c., Barred 
Rocks 11c., R. I. Reds 12c., and mixed chicks 
8c. each. Satisfaction and live arrival guar¬ 
anteed. Circular free. TURKEY RIDGE 
HATCHERY, Millerstown, Pa. 

BARRON WHITE LEGHORNS — 303-egg 
strain; chix, $8 per 100. Immediate de¬ 
livery pullets, hens. Not a hatchery. MAPLE 
ACRES FARM, Tiffin, Ohio. 

PULLETS 8 TO 12 WEEKS — Hens, Leg¬ 
horns, Rocks, Reds, Anconas, Minorcas, farm- 
raised. FRANK’S POULTRY FARM, Box A, 
Tiffin, Ohio. 

_ _ 1 _ 

CHICKS—White Leghorn “Barron” strain, 
$8—100; Reds, $10. EMPIRE HATCHERY, 
Seward, N. Y. 


POULTRY SUPPLIES 

EGG-CASE HEADQUARTERS—Fillers, Ex¬ 
celsior Cushions, Poultry Shipping Crates. 
Highest quality, lowest prices. Correspond¬ 
ence solicited. STANDARD EGG CASE COM- 
Pany, 60A West 114th Street, New York. 

DOGS AND PET STOCK 


SEEDS AND NURSERY STOCKS 

CELERY AND CABBAGE PLANTS—Strong 
plants ready for field, of all leading varieties, 
$1.25 per 1,000. Parcel post, 5 cents per 100 
extra. Cauliflower plants, early Snowball— 
strong, $3 per 1,000. Send for list. J. C. 
SCHMIDT, Bristol, Pa. 

MILLIONS OF CELERY AND CABBAGE 
Plants, $2.50 per 1,000. Over 5,000 at $2 per 
1,000. Special prices on large orders. Early 
Snowball Cauliflower plants, $3.50 per 1,000 
straight. WELLS M. DODDS, North Rose, 


CELERY PLANTS—Now ready for imme¬ 
diate shipment, 35 cents per 100; $1.50 per 
500 ; $2.50 per 1,000 prepaid. Check or P. O. 
order. Satisfaction, or money refunded. E. M. 
FETTER, R. D. 1, Lewisburg, Pa. 


CATTLE 


HOLSTEIN BULLS FOR SALE — Sired by 
Brookside Waldorf Victoria Duke, from tested 
and untested dam. Federal Accredited Herd. 
Priced reasonably. For quick sale, address 
JACOB M. BRULACKER, Route 4, Myerstown, 
Pa. 


REGISTERED AYRSHIRES—We have priced 
for immediate sale, six well-bred 2-year old 
heifers. ARDEN HILL FARMS, Alfred Sta¬ 
tion, N. Y. 

FARM AND CROPS Registered Milking 
Shorthorns. A money maker. A few young 
things ready now. WM. E. SUTTON, Wind¬ 
ham, N. Y. 


SWINE 


REGISTERED DUROC WEANED PIGS_ 

$10, either sex, including papers, crating, de¬ 
livering. Quick-growing husky rascals. CHAS, 
MEARSON, Weedsport, N. Y. 


JUST A FEW MORE — O. I. c. Service Boars, 
sired by a grandson of C. C. Callaway Edd. 
GEO. N. RUPRACHT, Mallory, N. Y. 


O. I. C. PIGS—Weighing 60 pounds, both 
sexes, beauties. Registered free. H. C. 
BEARDSLEY, Montour Falls, N. Y. 


REAL ESTATE 


FOX HOUNDS, trained dogs and six-months 
old pups ; also one brood bitch bred to whelp 
in August; disposing of entire stock. Walker- 
Red Bone cross ; no better dogs in land with¬ 
out any exception, guaranteed to make good 
if handled as I advise. ORSON RISLEY, 
Morrisville, N. Y. 


FOR SALE—Fox Hound pups; black, tan 
and white; 3 months old; $5, $10, and $15 
each. These pups should make extra good 
hunters. R. W. SCHALLENBERG, Western- 
ville, N. Y. 


FARM DOG—English Shepherds ; pups and 
drivers. Natural instinct to handle cattle. 
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SHEEP 


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American Agriculturist, July 14,1923 


27 


The Brown Mouse — By Herbert Quick 


tt 


- (For a synopsis of preceding issues, see page 28) 

A ND do you think,” queried Jim, “that my abandonment of the things in 
.which I believe in the face of this attack would prove to your mind that I 
am competent? Or would it show me incompetent?” 

Again Jennie was silent. 

“I guess,” said Jim, “that we’ll have to stand or fall on things as they are.” 
“Do you refuse to resign?” asked Jennie 

“Sometimes I think it’s not worth while to try any longer,” said Jim. 
“And yet, I believe that in my way I’m working on the question which must 
be solved if this nation is '‘to stand—the question of making the farm and farm 
life what they should be and may well be. I’ll have to think about it. Sup¬ 
pose I refuse to resign?” 

Jennie had drawn on her gloves, and stood ready for departure. 

“Unless you resign before the twenty-fifth,” said she, ’“I shall hear the peti¬ 
tion for your removal on that date. You will be allowed to be present and 
answer the charges against you. The charges are incompetency. I bid you 
good evening!” 


“Incompetency!” The disgraceful 
word, representing everything he had 
always despised, rang through Jim’s 
mind as he walked home. He could 
think of nothing else as he sat at the 
simple supper which he could scarcely 
taste. Well, had he not always been 
incompetent, except in the use of his 
muscles? Were not all his dreams as 
foreign to life and common sense as 
the Milky Way from the earth? What 
reason was there for thinking that this 
crusade of his for better schools had 
any sounder foundation than his dream 
of being president, or a poet or novel¬ 
ist or philosopher? He was just a hay¬ 
seed, a rube, a misfit, as odd as Dick’s 
hatband, an off ox. He was incompe¬ 
tent. He picked up a pen, and began 
writing. He wrote, “To the Honorable 
the Board of Education of the Inde¬ 
pendent District of-” And he 

heard a tap at the door. His mother 


admitted Colonel Woodruff. 

“Hello, Jim,” said he. 

“Good evening. Colonel,” said Jim. 
“Take a chair, won’t you?” 

“No,” replied the colonel. “I thought 
I’d see if you and the boys at the 
schoolhouse can’t tell me something 
about the smut in my wheat. I heard 
you were going to work on that to¬ 
night.” 

“I had forgotten!” said Jim. 

“I wondered if you hadn’t,” said the 
colonel, “and so I came by for you. I 
was waiting up the road. Come on, 
and ride up with me.” 


be with them at the finish; and, by 
thunder! while they’re getting a full 
meal, we’ll get at least a lunch. See?” 

“But Jennie says,” began Jim. 

“T)on’t tell me what she says,” said 
the colonel. “She’s acting according to 
her judgment, and her lights and other 
organs of perception, and I don’t think 
it fittin’ that her father should try to 
influence her official conduct. But you 
go on and review them common 
branches, and keep your nerve. I 
haven’t felt so much like a scrap since 
the day we stormed Lookout Mountain. 
I kinder like being a wild-eyed re¬ 
former, Jim.” 


CHAPTER XIII 


FAME OR NOTORIETY 


T HE office of county superintendent 
v 


T HE colonel had always been friendly, 
but there was a new note in his man¬ 
ner to-night. If he had been talking 
to the president of the state university, 
his tone could not have been more 
courteous. He worked with the class on 
the problem of smut. He offered to aid 
the boys in every possible way in their 
campaign against scab in potatoes. He 
suggested some tests which would show 
the real value of the treatment. The 
boys were in a glow of pride at this 
cooperation with Colonel Woodruff. 
This was real work! Jim and the colo¬ 
nel went away together. It had been a 
great evening. 

“Jim,” said the colonel, “can these 
kids spell?” 

“I think,” said Jim, “that they can 
outspell any school about here.” 

“How about arithmetic and the other 
branches? Have you sort of kept them 
up to the course of study?” 

“I have carried them in a course par¬ 
allel to the text-books,” said Jim, “and 
covering the same ground. But it has 
been vocational work, you know—re¬ 
lated to life.” 

“Well,” said the colonel, “if I were 
you, I’d put them over a rapid review 
of the text-books for a few days—say 
between now and the twenty-fifth.” 
“What for?” 

“Oh, nothing-just to please me. 

. . . And say, Jim, I glanced over a 
communication you have started to the 
more or less Honorable Board of Edu¬ 
cation.” 

“Yes?” 

“Well, don’t finish it. . . . And say, 
Jim, I think I’ll give myself the luxury 
of being a wild-eyed reformer for 
once.” 

“Yes,” said Jim, dazed. 

“And if you think, Jim, that you’ve 
got no friends, just remember that I’m 
for you.” 

“Thank you, Colonel.” 

“And we’ll show them they’re in a 
horse race.” 

“I don’t see. . . ” said Jim. 

“You’re not supposed to see,” said 
the colonel, “but you can bet that we’ll 


nine fifty-nine Raymond Simms opened 
the office door and there filed in enough 
children, large and small, some of them 
accompanied by their parents, and all 
belonging to the Woodruff school, to 
fill completely the corners and angles 
of the room. In addition there re¬ 
mained an overflow meeting in the hall, 
under the command of that distin¬ 
guished military gentleman, Colonel 
Albert Woodruff. 

“Say Bill, come here!” said the col¬ 
onel, crooking his finger‘at the deputy 
sheriff. 

“What you got here, Al!” said Bill, 
coming up the stairs, puffing. “Ain’t 
it a little early for Sunday-school 
picnics?” 

“This is a school fight in our dis¬ 
trict,” said the colonel. “It’s Jennie’s 
baptism of fire, I reckon . . . and say, 
you’re not using the court room, are 
you?” 

“Nope,” said Bill. 


“YI JELL, why not just slip around, 

VV t " ■•. 


acted upon 


was, as a matter of .course, the least 
desirable room of the court-house. It 
opened off the central hall at the upper 
end of the stairway which led to the 
court room, and when court was in 
session, served as a jury room. At 
such times the county superintendent’s 
desk was removed to the hall, where it 
stood in a confusing but very demo¬ 
cratic publicity. Superintendent 
Jennie might have anticipated the time 
when offenders passing from the county 
jail in the basement to arraignment 
at the bar of justice might be able to 
peek over her shoulders and criticize 
her method of treating examination 
papers. On the twenty-fifth of Feb¬ 
ruary, however, this experience lurked 
unsuspected in her official future. 

Poor Jennie! She anticipated noth¬ 
ing more • than the appearance of 
Messrs. Bronson, Peterson and Bonner 
in her office to confront Jim Irwin. At 
nine forty-five Cornelius Bonner, and 
his wife entered the office, and took 
twenty-five per cent of the chairs 
therein. At nine fifty Jim Irwin 
came in, haggard, weather-beaten and 
seedy as ever, and looked as if he had 
neither eaten nor slept since his sweet¬ 
heart stabbed him. At nine fifty-five 
Haakon Peterson and Ezra Bronson 
came in, accompanied by Wilbur 
Smythe, attorney-at-law, who carried 
under his arm a code of Iowa, a com¬ 
pilation of the school laws of the State, 
and Throop on Public Officers. At 
nine fifty-six, therefore, the crowd in 
Jennie’s office exceeded its seating 
capacity, and Jennie was in a flutter 
as the realization dawned upon her 
that this promised to be a more public 
affair than she had anticipated. At 


then,” said the colonel, “and tell 
Jennie she’d better adjourn to the big 
room.” 

Which suggestion was 
instanter by Deputy Bill. 

“But I can’t, I can’t,” said Jennie. 
“I don’t want all this publicity, and I 
don’t want to go into the court room.” 

“I hardly see,” said Deputy Bill, 
“how you can avoid it. These people 
seem to have business with you, and 
they can’t get into your office.” 

“But they have no business with me,” 
said Jennie. “It’s mere curiosity.” 

Whereupon Wilbur Smythe,_ who 
could see no particular point in re¬ 
stricted publicity, said, “Madame 
County Superintendent, this hearing 
certainly is public or quasi-public. 
Your office is a public one, and the 
right to attend this hearing surely is 
one belonging to every citizen and tax¬ 
payer of the county, and if the tax¬ 
payer, qua taxpayer, then certainly a 
fortiori to the members of the Wood¬ 
ruff school and residents of that dis¬ 
tricts” 

Jennie quailed. “All right, all 
right!” said she. “But, shall I have 
to sit on the bench!” 

“You will find it by far the most 
convenient place,” said Deputy Bill. 

Was this the life to which public 
office had brought her? Was it for 
this that she had bartered her inde¬ 
pendence—for this and the musty 
office, the stupid examination papers, 
and the interminable visiting of schools, 
knowing that such supervision as she 
could give was practically worthless? 
Here was she, called upon to pass on 
the competency of the man who had 
always been her superior in everything 
that constitutes mental ability. And 
that crowd! To Jennie it was appalling. 
The school board under the lead of 
Wilbur Smythe took seats inside the 
railing which on court days divided 
the audience from the lawyers and liti¬ 
gants. Jim Irwin, who had never 
been in a court room before, herded 
with the crowd, but to Jennie, seated 
on the bench, he, like other persons in 
the auditorium, was a mere blurry out¬ 
line with a knob of a head on its top. 

She couldn’t call the gathering to 
order. She had no idea as to the proper 



procedure. She sat there while the 
people gathered, stood about whisper¬ 
ing and talking under their breaths, 
and finally became silent, all their eyes 
fixed on her. 

“May it please the court,” said 
Wilbur Smythe, standing before the 
bar. “Or, Madame County Superin¬ 
tendent, I should say . . .” 

A titter ran through the room, and 
a flush of temper tinted Jennie’s face. 
They were laughing at her! She 
wouldn’t be a spectacle any. longer! 
So she rose, and handed down her 
first and last decision from the bench. 

“Mr. Smythe,” said she, “I feel very 
ill at ease up here, and I’m going to 
get down among the people. It’s the 
only way I have of getting the truth.” 

She descended from the bench, shook 
hands with everybody near her, and 
sat down by the attorney’s table. 

“Now, said she, “this is no formal 
proceeding and we will dispense with 
red tape. Where’s Mr. Irwin? Please 
come in here, Jim. Now, I know thei'e’s 
some feeling in these things—there 
always seems to be; but I have none. 
So I’ll just hear why Mr. Bronson, Mr. 
Peterson and Mr. Bonner think that 
Mr. James E. Irwin isn’t competent 
to hold a certificate.” 

Jennie was able to smile at them 
now, and everybody felt more at ease, 
save Jim Irwin, the members of the 
board and Wilbur Smythe. That in¬ 
dividual arose, and talked down at 
Jennie. 

“I appear for the proponents here,” 
said he, “and I desire to suggest cer¬ 
tain principles of procedure which I 
take it, belong indisputably to the 
conduct of this hearing.” 

“Have you a lawyer?” asked the 
county superintendent of the respon¬ 
dent. 

“A what?” exclaimed Jim. “Nobody 
here has a lawyer!” 

“Well, what do you call Wilbur 
Smythe?” queried Newton Bronson 
from the midst of the crowd. 

“He ain’t lawyer enough to hurt!” 
said the thing which the dramatists 
call A Voice. 


The Woodruff District School in Session 


T HERE was a little tempest of laugh¬ 
ter at Wilbur Smythe’s expense, 
which was quelled by Jennie’s rapping 
on the table. 

“I have no way of retaining a 
lawyer,” said Jim, on whom the truth 
had gradually dawned. “If a lawyer 
is necessary, I am without protection— 
but it never occurred to me . . .” 

“There is nothing in the school laws, 
as I remember them,” said Jennie, 
“giving the parties any right to be rep¬ 
resented by counsel. If there is, Mr. 
Smythe will please set me right.” 

She paused for Mr. Smythe’s reply. 
“There is nothing which expressly 
gives that privilege,” said'Mr. Smythe, 
“but the right to the benefit of skilled 
advisers is a universal one. And in 
opening this case for my clients, I de¬ 
sire to call your honor’s attention—” 
“You may advise your clients all 
you please,” said Jennie, “but I’m not 
going to waste time in listening to 
speeches, or having a lot of lawyers ex¬ 
amine witnesses.” 

“I protest,” said Mr. Smythe. 

“Well, you may file your protest in 
writing,” said Jennie. “I’m going to 
talk this matter over with these old 
friends and neighbors of mine. I don’t 
want you dipping into it, I say!” 

Jennie’s voice was rising toward the 
scream-line, and Mr. Smythe recog- 
nized’the hand of fate. One may argue 
with a cantankerous judge, but the 
woman, who like necessity, knows no 
law, and who is smothering in a flood 
of perplexities, is beyond reason. More¬ 
over, Jennie dimly saw that what she 
was doing had the approval of the 
crowd, and it solved the problem of 
procedure. 

There was a little wrangling, and a 
little protest from Con Bonner, but 
Jennie ruled with a rod of iron, and 
adhered to her ruling. When the hear¬ 
ing was resumed after the noon recess, 
the crowd was larger than ever, but the 
proceedings consisted mainly in a con¬ 
ference of the principals grouped about 
Jennie at the big lawyers’ table. The 
only new thing was the presence of a 
couple of newspaper men, who had 
(Continued on page 28) 









28 


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American Agriculturist, July 14,1923 

This Is Open Season For Flies 

Swat Them Early and Late — Midsummer Pattern Suggestions 


N othing is so discouraging, we ad¬ 
mit, as the everlasting task of 
keeping down the fly-supply. 

Yet nothing is so essential if health 
is a consideration. No agency in the 
world seems better equipped than the 
common—all too common—housefly for 
transmitting disease. 

The fly collects parasites on its body 
by visiting infected materials, and 
transports them to man and his food. 
The fly’s mouth is spongy, its feet are 
provided with sticky pads and its body 
is covered with hair. It is ideally built 
in the first place as a carrier of disease, 
and its habits further make it a direct 
menace to human life. 

The indifference which permits flies 
to _ breed and then is content with 
lazily shooing them from sugar bowl, 
butter or milk, only to have them return 
or light on other food, is inexcusable. 

Each farm, as a rule, raises its own 
supply of flies. Horse manure is the 
first choice for a breeding place, though 
any sort of decayed matter is popular 
with this filth-fed insect. Few breed 
in outside closets, but the adult flies 
visit such places to feed and from them 
go to kitchen or milk pail. 

The necessity of treating manure to 
destroy fly eggs and maggots seems 
obvious. Its neglect is inexcusable, 
when you consider that one pound of 
commercial powdered borax does the 
job for every sixteen bushels or twenty 
cubic feet of fresh stable manure. Add 
a little water to spread the borax. 
Plenty of lime should be used in out¬ 
houses, which should also be guarded 
to prevent the entrance of flies. 

In spite of precautions, flies will 
breed, and homes and food must be pro¬ 
tected. Economy in screens is inviting 
trouble. _ Sticky paper, flytraps, swat¬ 
ters, poison bait and recent spraying 
devices 'more expensive but most 
efficacious of all methods of killing 
flies) are all available. Milk, milk- 
pails and fruits at canning time should 
all have special care. 

Because of the places where the fly 
collects the filth on feet and body, 
and its fondness for walking over 
food immediately thereafter, the most 
common diseases brought by this pest 
are those of intestinal character. 
Typhoid has repeatedly been traced to 
flies and flies alone. Infants and chil¬ 
dren are especially subject to the hot- 
weather germ borne diseases, and to 
permit flies around a baby or a baby’s 
food is almost criminal carelessness. 

Swat the fly this summer. See that 
there are no inviting breeding places 
where the pest in immature stages 
may start next spring’s crop. When 
spring comes, go after the early comers 
with a vengeance, for the destruction 
of one fly then equals the slaughter 
of hundreds later. At midsummer they 
are at their height in number and 
hunger, so untiring vigilance is the 
only method of control. 


TO HIDE AN UGLY STUMP 

Perhaps there is some unsightly 
stump or rubbish pile in your immedi¬ 
ate surroundings that you’d like to 
cover up, yet you’ve hesitated to bother 
starting vines around it. 

This spring, prepare the soil around 
the “eye-sore” and plant a few hills of 
ordinary field pumpkins! 

When the vines start, train them to 
cover the object desired, and the re¬ 
sult will be a joy to the eye all sum¬ 
mer and until late autumn; first the 
green of the vines with their big leaves, 
then the handsome yellow blossoms, 
and, lastly, the yellowed leaves and 
the ripe pumpkins with promise of an 
“endless” round of pies. 

It is a small task, but one that will 
pay well for the doing. —Mabelle 
Robert. 


WHEN COOKING FRUITS 

If fruits are wanted rich and lus¬ 
cious, they should be given long, slow 
cooking. 

Add the sugar as desired, when you 
add the water. Let come to a boil 
slowly. _ Put on plenty of water, cover 
the fruit thoroughly, as much will evap¬ 
orate in the cooking; and let them cook 
down as thick as desired. 

i i 


_ Even “common” apple sauce is a fine 
dish if treated in this way. Prove it 
by dividing your apples, season pre¬ 
cisely alike, cook one dish up quickly 
and remove from the stove as soon as 
done; then cook the other one for sev¬ 
eral hours, and note the difference. 

Pears and peaches respond equally 
well to this long cooking, but it colors 
them dark. To keep fruits white, or 
clear, cook them very briskly and re¬ 
move from the fire as soon as done.— 
C. A. B. _ 

The Brown Mouse 

(Continued from page 27) 

queried Chicago papers on the story, 
and been given orders for a certain 
number of words on the case of the 
farm-hand schoolmaster on trial before 


JUST TO REMIND YOU 

TNELTJENCED by members of 
the school board, who are in¬ 
furiated by Jim Irwin’s calm way 
of going ahead in his plan for a 
class-room program related to life 
against their protests, Jennie 
Woodruff, the school superinten¬ 
dent tries to induce him to give 
up his “notions.” 

But Jim, former field-hand, is 
a “Brown Mouse”—a man of 
vision and ideas. Jennie’s father, 
the Colonel, has been watching 
him all along and intends to back 
the friendless teacher, when the 
show-down comes. 


his old sweetheart for certain weird 
things he had done in the home school 
in which they had once been classmates. 
By the time at which gathering 


darkness made it necessary for the 
bailiff to light the lamps, the parties 
had agreed on the facts. Jim admitted 
most of the allegations. He had prac¬ 
tically ignored the text-books. He had 
burned the district fuel and worn out 
the district furniture early and late, 
and on Saturdays. He had introduced 
domestic economy and manual training, 
to some extent, by sending the boys to 
the workshops and the girls to the 
kitchens and sewing-rooms of the farm¬ 
ers who allowed those privileges. He 
had induced the boys to test the cows 
of the district for butter-fat yield. 
He was studying the matter of a co¬ 
operative creamery. He hoped to have 
a blacksmith shop on the schoolhouse 
grounds sometime, where the boys 
could learn metal working by impairing 
the farm machinery, and shoeing the 
farm horses. He hoped to see a build¬ 
ing sometime, with an auditorium where 
the people would meet often for moving 
picture shows, lectures and the like. 
He hoped to open to the boys and girls 
the wonders of the universe which are 
touched by the work on the farm. He 
hoped to make good and contented 
farmers of them, able to get the most 
out of the soil, to sell what they pro¬ 
duced to the best advantage, and at the 
same time to keep up the fertility of 
the soil itself. And he hoped to teach 
the girls in such a way that they would 
be good and contented farmers’ wives. 
He even had in mind as a part of the 
schoolhouse the Woodruff District 
would one day build, an apartment in 
which the mothers of the neighborhood 
would leave their babies when they 
went to town, so that the girls could 
lefirn the care of infants. 

“An’ I say,” interposed Con Bonne*’, 
“that we can rest our case right here. 
If that ain’t the limit, I don’t know 
what is!” 

(.Continuednext week) 


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pleated ■ skirt, No. 1794 
solves the problem. It com¬ 
bines a deep circular collar 
and the popular jauquette 
effect. 

No. 1794 pomes in sizes 
16 years, 36, 38, 40 and 42 
inches bust measure. Size 
36 requires 1% yards of 36- 
inch material with 7*4 
yards of binding. Price, 
12c. 


H ERE is the warm 
weather frock for either 
a young girl or her older 
sister. Y’ou could add the 
embroidery as a smart last 
touch, but the dress is com¬ 
plete without it. A mono¬ 
gram is seen on dozens of 
summer frocks and gives an 
odd, individual effect. 

No. 1689 cuts in 14 and 
16 year sizes and 36, 38, 40 
and 42 inches bust measure. 
The ladies’ size requires 
2% yards 32 or 44-inch ma¬ 
terial, with 2% yards of 
binding. Price, 12c. 
stamps. Transfer 632, 
12c additional. 




A ONE - PIECE porch or 
bungalow apron is our 
next hot weather suggestion. 
You will notice the laundry 
saving device in the detach¬ 
able bib section, which can 
be washed and ironed sep¬ 
arately. This also makes 
the apron appear almost a 
dress when the sash is tied. 

No. 1787 is cut in sizes 
34, 36, 38, 40 and 42 inches. 
Size 36 requires 3% yards 
of 36-inch material, with 
4% yards of edging or rick- 
rack braid. Price, 12c, 
stamps. 


To Order: Write name, address, pattern numbers and sizes clearly; 
enclose 12c for each pattern, and send your order to Fashion Department. 
The Summer catalogue, a guide book to the fashions, is only 10c extra, 
and we suggest that you order your copy to-day. 




































































































































American Agriculturist, July 14,1923 


29 


Seven Simple Lace Edgings 


A PRETTY lace edging always gives 
an attractive finish to a table set 
or, in fact, to almost any piece of table 
or room linen, scarfs, or baby clothes. 

Seven simple edgings ‘are shown in 
the picture, and they are all illustrated 
in a book entitled “Crochetcraft.” We 
are giving the directions for all the 
different edgings, but shall be glad to 
send the book to any reader for 75c, 
postpaid. 

Edging No. 1 

Little Fan—38 yds. C to 1 yd. lace. 
First row: Ch 11, 1 tr in 8th st 
from needle, ch 2, 1 tr in 1st ch made 
(2 sp), ch 5, turn. 

Second row: Skip 2 ch, tr in tr 
(1 sp), 7 tr over 7 ch, ch 3, turn. 

Third row: Skip 1st tr, 1 s st in 
next tr, ch 3, skip 1 tr, s st in next tr, 
ch 3, skip 1 tr, tr in next tr, ch 2, tr in 
3rd of 5 ch, ch 5, turn. 

Fourth row: Skip 2 ch, tr in tr, 
ch 7, turn. 

Fifth row: Tr in tr, ch 2, tr in 3rd 
of 5 ch, ch 5, turn. Repeat from 2nd 
row for length ending with 4th row. 

Edging No. 2 

Horn of Plenty—54 yds. C to 1 yd. 
lace. 

First row: Ch 10, tr in 7th ch from 
needle, ch 2, tr in 1st ch made, ch 3, 
turn. 

Second row: Over the 2 ch make 1 
tr, ch 2, 1 tr, then tr over tr, ch 1, tr 
in 3rd of 7 ch, ch 4, turn. 

Third row: Tr over each of 2 tr and 
1 over ch, ch 2, tr over ch and each of 
2 tr, ch 6, turn. 

Fourth row: S st in 4th from 

needle, *tr in tr, ch 3, s st in top of 


®il» 



tr,. repeat from *in next tr, repeat 
twice over the ch and once in each 
of next 2 tr, tr in next tr, ch 1, tr in 
3rd of 4 ch, ch 4, turn. 

Fifth row: Tr over tr, ch 2, skip 
picot, tr in next st, ch 3, turn. Repeat 
for length, ending with 4th row. 

Edging No. 3 

Bell Edge—54 yds. C to 1 yd. lace. 

First row: Ch 7, tr in 1st ch made 
(in repeating, the tr is made over tr 
to form 1 sp), ch 5, over the tr work 

1 group (thread over twice, 1 d tr, 
leaving 2 loops on needle, 3 more d tr, 
leaving additional loop after every st, 
then remove the 5 loops two at a time), 
ch 2, 1 tr tr (thread over 3 times) in 
base of 1st tr (in repeating the de¬ 
sign make 1 tr in previous ch 5 in¬ 
stead of the tr tr), ch 7, turn. 

Second row: Picot (s st in 5th form 
needle), ch 2, skip group, tr in 5 ch, ch 
5, tr in tr at base of group, ch 2, skip 

2 ch, tr in next ch, ch 5, turn. Repeat 
these two rows. 

Edging No. 4 

Cluny Shell—57 yds. C to 1 yd. lace. 

Ch. 9. 

First row: Skip 7 ch, tr in each of 
next 2, ch 7, turn. 

. Second, third and fourth rows: Tr 
m each of 2 tr, ch 7, turn. 

Fifth: Tr in each of 2 tr, and 10 tr 
over 7 ch, s st in 1st ch 7, ch 6, turn. 

Sixth row: S st in 4th st from 


needle, *tr in next tr, ch 3, s st in top 
of tr (picot) repeat from *9 times, tr 
in each of 2 tr, ch 7, turn. 

Seventh, eighth and ninth rows: 
Like second. 

Tenth row: Like fifth. 

Eleventh row: Like sixth, except 
that instead of 6 ch you make 4 ch, 1 
s st in second picot of sixth row, ch 1, 
1 s st in 3rd of 4 ch, and then on like 
sixth row. 

Repeat for length desired. 

Edging No. 5 

Narrow Filet—31 yds C to 1 yd lace. 


Ch 7. 

1st row: 1 sp (tr in 1st ch made), 
ch 5, turn. 

2nd row: 1 blk (tr in 4th and 5th 
from needle and over tr, the 3 ch 
counting as 1 tr), ch 2 tr in 3rd ch 
below (1 sp), ch 5, turn. 

Third row: 2 sp, ch 5, turn. 

Fourth row: 1 blk (as in 2nd row), 
2 sp, ch 5, turn. 

Fifth row: Like 3rd row. Ch 3, 
turn. 

Sixth row: 1 blk over sp, 1 sp, ch 5, 
turn. 

Repeat from first row. 

Edging No. 6 

Saw Tooth—31 yds. C to 1 yd. lace. 

Ch. 7. 


First row: Tr in 1st ch made to 
form 1 space, ch 5, turn. 

- Second row: 4 tr over 2 ch, ch 3, 
turn. 

Third rowr 1 s st in 2nd tr, ch 3, 
1 tr in 4th tr, ch 2, 1 tr in 3rd of 5 
ch, ch 5, turn. 

Repeat second and third rows. 

Edging No. 7 

Wheel—39 yds. C to 1 yd. lace. 

Ch 11. 

First row: Tr in 8th from needle, 
ch 2, sk 2, tr in next, ch 7, turn. 

Second row: Picot (s st in 5th from 
needle). Ch 2, tr over tr and in each 
of next 3 st (4 in all, making 1 blk) 
ch 2, sk 2, tr in next st, ch 5, turn. 

Repeat these two rows. 



"—and the extra egg money more 
than paid for our plant”— writes a 

pleased farmer who lighted his henhouses last winter 
with Union Carbide Gas from his Colt "Gas Well” 


Poultry experts unite in 
insisting on plenty of sun¬ 
light in the henhouses. 
They attribute to sunlight 
the tonic effect of main¬ 
taining the birds in maxi¬ 
mum production condi¬ 
tion, and the power to dis¬ 
pel the majority of poultry 
diseases. Exhaustive tests 
prove Union Carbide Gas¬ 
light to be .the nearest ap¬ 
proach to sunlight. This 
light in the henhouses will 
provide your laying birds 
with the nearest natural 
illuminant for increasing 
production and the other 
valuable effects of sun¬ 
light. 


Poultry research discovers the hen 
of tropical origin, of long sunlit 
days and short nights. Experiments 
have demonstrated the hen’s diges¬ 
tive organism to be fashioned on 
the 14-hour plan—and 9 hours of 
winter daylight positively won’t 
do, if you expect an egg a day and a 
contented healthy bird. Nature 
simply pulls a strike on you. 

The farm hen has demonstrated be¬ 
yond all question the fact that she is a 
dependable profit payer through the 
winter months (the period of high egg 
prices), when Union Carbide Gas from 
the Colt “ Gas Well ” lights the henhouses to make the necessary 
12-to-14-hour working day. The extra hours of light will enable your 
hens to exercise and take in the food reserve needed for more eggs. 

A Colt "Gas Well” on your farm 

The Colt “Gas Well” is installed in the ground—in the yard. 
From it comes Union Carbide Gas, made automatically as needed. 
It will light your house and barn. It will cook your meals. It 
relieves the drudgery of washday, and keeps the iron hot. Be¬ 
sides converting the henhouse into a source of profit, the Colt “ Gas 
Well” has become a necessity for the farm home. 

Colt “Gas Well” users are increasing in vast numbers. Get your 
Colt Lighting-and-Cooking Plant now—be ready when the time 
comes for increasing egg production with artificial sunlight—Union 
Carbide Gaslight. 

J. B. COLT COMPANY 

30 East 42d Street, New York 
599 Eighth Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Oldest and Largest Manufacturers of Carbide 
Lighting-and-Cooking Plants in the World 


We make it so easy 
—take a year to pay 



Send your coupon now. Get 
full information and booklet 


Union Carbide in genera¬ 
tor sizes is sold direct to 
consumer at factory prices 
through 150 Union Car¬ 
bide Warehouses. There is 
one near you. 
































































































































































































































so 


American Agriculturist, July 14,1923 


Reviewing the Latest Eastern Markets and Prices 


WHERE NEW YORK GETS ITS 
BUTTER 


HERSCHEL H. JONES 


I T may be surprising to many New 
York State dairymen to learn that in 
the month of June, 1923, New York 
City received butter in the following 
quantities from the following principal 
States in order of importance: 


Minnesota 
Iowa . . . 
Illinois . . 
Nebraska 
Wisconsin 
Michigan 
Indiana . . 
New York 


11,344,206 

6,540,802 

3,605,662 

2,080,168 

1,535,920 

1,132,934 

1,104,151 

837.132 


The total receipts at New York in 
the month of June were 31,164,885 
pounds, of which New York State sup¬ 
plied only one-five hundredth part. 

In the receipts of cheese, however, 
New York State took a more promi¬ 
nent position, being second only to Wis¬ 
consin. Out of total receipts at New 
York in the month of June of 5,207,483 
pounds of cheese, 2,246,812 pounds 
came from ' Wisconsin and 1,630,547 
pounds from New York State. 


BUTTER MARKET ACTIVE 


There was a large volume of buying 
of butter last week in the New York 
wholesale market. In addition to local 
demand for consumption and storage 
there was considerable business for 
out-of-town shipment. Creamery ex¬ 
tras (92 score) sold principally at 38c 
per lb., which was only %c lower than 
a week previous. 

There were 2,567 casks of Danish 
butter received, which sold at 39 to 
39 %c, duty paid. 

Receipts of butter are running lower 
than at this time last year, but the 
total receipts at New York since Jan¬ 
uary 1, 1923, are larger by 20,000 tubs 
than in the same period last year, and 
the quantity of butter on hand in cold 
storage at New York at the present 
time is about 2,000,000 lbs. in excess 
of last year. The total quantity on 
hand in the four largest markets of the 
country, however, is 3,000,000 below 
last year at the same time. 

New York State whole milk Ameri¬ 
can cheese flats are still held firmly 
and the market is steady with very 
little trading at prices above a range 
of 24 @ 25c. Wisconsin cheese markets 
are a little weaker. Prices are not 
much lower than previously. 


FANCY EGGS IN LIGHT SUPPLY 

Nearby hennery white eggs were in 
lighter supply last week and the mar¬ 
ket was quite firm on the best qualities. 
Prices advanced gradually and on July 
5 selected New Jersey hennery white 
extras were quoted at 44c per dozen, 
and other nearby selected white extras 
at 41 @ 42c. All except seriously de¬ 
fective eggs moved more easily at ad¬ 
vancing prices and the prospect is for 
a continued good market on all really 
fancy fresh eggs. 

The present wholesale prices are 
practically at the same level as last 
year at this time. In July, 1922, hen¬ 
nery white extras graded to uniform¬ 
ity went up to 49c top price by the end 
of the month and average extras up to 
40 @ 42c. From July 1 right on up 
to the second week in November the 
market for fancy nearby henneries ad¬ 
vanced steadily, the top price for 
graded extras reaching 94c on Novem¬ 
ber 8. Whether this steady advance 
will be repeated this year or not is 
uncertain, but there will undoubtedly 
be a real scarcity of the fanciest eggs 
in the next few months and the poul- 
trymen who can get eggs of fancy 
quality to market will be well re¬ 
warded. 

The bulk of sales of good quality 
nearby eggs last week probably were 
within a range of 28 @ 34c, with bet¬ 
ter quality selling at 35 to 39c. 

The best scientific knowledge on egg 
production in the country and the best 
trained minds in the egg industry are 
centered on the production of quality 
eggs for the New York market. The 
standards of quality established by this 
competition are not easy to attain. 


DARK YOLKS CAUSE KICKS 

No one thing causes more complaints 
among buyers against the majority of 
average nearby eggs than dark yolks. 


The discriminating trade in New York 
that is willing to pay high prices for 
quality, demands a light yolk egg, and 
it is not at all uncommon for them to 
be willing to pay as much as 4c more 
per dozen for eggs that have light 
yolks, like the Pacific Coast eggs, com¬ 
pared with eggs of the same quality 
otherwise but with dark yolks. How¬ 
ever undesirable it may be from the 
standpoint of giving the hen a well- 
rounded diet, it is essential from a mar¬ 
keting standpoint for the nearby pro¬ 
ducer of fancy eggs to feed his hens in 
such a way as to get light yolks, if he 
wants to get top prices. 

FOWLS SELL WELL 

For the first time in some weeks, 
there was an active demand and strong 
market for fowls last week. The usual 
Fourth of July demand for broilers 
was sufficient to move the very liberal 
supplies that came in, but prices were 


white and green, prime, best $3.75 @ 
4, fancy $4.25 @ 4.50, fair stock $2.50 
@3, culls $1.25 @1.75; BEANS— 
green per bu. bag, “Round” $2.75 @ 

3.25, flat $2.50 @ 3, wax $2.75 @ 3.25, 
fancy $3.50 @4; BEETS—per bunch, 
best, 5 @ 6c, ordinary anl small 4 @ 
4%c; CAULIFLOWER—per slat bbl., 
best $4 @ 4.50, fair stock $3.25 @ 3.75, 
No. 2’s $1.50 @2.50; CARROTS—per 
bunch best 3 @ 4c, small 2 @2%c; 
CABBAGE—per head “white” 8 @ 
10c, fancy large 12c, per slat bbl $2 
@ 2.25; KALE—per slat bbl. $1 @ 

1.25, few sales $1.50; LETTUCE—per 
crate (32 qt.) 50 @ 75c, fancy few 
small sales $1; ONIONS—per bunch 
best 3% @ 4c, fancy, young, few sales 
4%, ordinary 3c; PEAS—per bag 
(bu.) best $1.25 @ 1.50, poor 75c @ 
$1; RADISHES—per bunch, red and 
white tip best 3 @ 3%c, ordinary 2%c, 
black 4 @ 5c, white 2 @ 3c; RO- 
MAINE—per crate (32 qts.) 50 @ 


Quotations From Eastern Markets 

The following are the prices at which farm products of special interest to 
eastern farmers sold on July 5: 


Eggs, Nearbys (cents per dozen) 

New Jersey hennery whites uncandled, extras... 

Other hennery whites, extras. 

Extra firsts. 

Firsts. 

Gathered, whites, first to extra firsts. 

Lower grades. 

Hennery browns, extras.i. 

Gathered browns and mixed colors, extras. . 

Pullets No. 1. 

Butter (cents per pound) 

Creamery (salted) high score. 

Extra (92 score). 

State dairy (salted), finest.. 

Good to prime.. 

Hay and Straw, Large Bales (per ton) 

Timothy No. 2. 

Timothy No. 3.. 

Timothy Sample. 

Fancy light clover mixed. 

Alfalfa, second cutting. 

Oat straw No. 1. 


New York 

Buffalo 

Phila. 

44 



41@42 

36 @38 



29@30 

28 

32 @35 
32@37 


25 



29@31 

33@36 

28 @ 32 



27 @28 


28 @30 

38% @39 

41@42 

38% 

38 

39 @40 

37@37% 

37 @39 


35% @36% 

30@36 

. 

U. S. Grades 

Old Grade 

Standards 

$21@23 

$19@20 

$22@23 

18@ 19 
12@15 

25 


19@20 


21 @ 23 

27@29 




10 @12 


Live Poultry, Express Lots (cents per lb.) 

Fowls, colored fancy, heavy. 

Fowls, leghorns and poor... 

Broilers, colored fancy. 

Broilers, leghorn. 

Live Stock (cents per pound) 

Calves, good to medium. 

Bulls, common to good. 

Lambs, common to good. 

Sheep, common to good ewes. 

Hogs, Yorkers. 


26 23@24 

24@26 21@22 

42@45 45 

35@37 32 


11% @12% 12% @13 
4@4% 4@5% 

10@14 14 @16 % 

2% @4% 5@7 

8@8 !4 8@8% 


26@27 

21@22 

53@55 


rather in buyers’ favor. Some broilers 
had to be carried over the Fourth of 
July, but were sold later. The best 
Boston broilers on July 5 brought 45c 
and the best white leghorn 38c, while 
most of the stock sold at lower prices. 
On July 5 average leghorn broilers 
were quoted ~at 35 to 37c and small, 
30 @ 33c. 

Express shipments of live fowl sold 
chiefly at 26c per lb. for either white 
leghorn or colored; some of the poorer 
white leghorns sold at 24 to 25c. 

GOOD PRICES FOR POTATOES 

A short supply of new potatoes 
caused prices for Eastern Shore Vir¬ 
ginia potatoes to go up to $7 per bbl. 
last week. The first new potatoes from 
Long Island and from New Jersey 
reached the market last week, which is 
unusually early. The new Long Island 
cobblers were in good condition and 
sold at $6.50 per bbl., but the _N. J. 
potatoes were small and less desirable. 

DULL MARKET FOR PEAS 

Very heavy receipts of green peas at 
New York last week caused a decline 
in prices and a dull market. Thirty- 
three carloads arrived from State sec¬ 
tions on Friday alone. Early in the 
week the best peas brought a top price 
of $2.50, but the range later was from 
$1 @ 2.25 per bu. basket, depending on 
quality, mostly around $1.50. 

JERSEY SWEET CORN “IN” 

In the farmers’ public markets at 
New York last week, New Jersey sweet 
corn made its first appearance and sold 
at 3 @ 4c per ear. Long Island and 
New Jersey cabbage sold readily. The 
following prices represent sales by 
farmers to jobbers and retailers on 
July 5: 

ASPARAGUS—Ter dozen bunches, 


75c, per slat bbl. $1 @ 1.50; SPINACH 
-—per 32-qt. crate Savoy $1.75 @ 2, 
New Zealand 75c @ $1. 

PLENTY OF CHERRIES 

Shipments of cherries, particularly 
white sweets, were so heavy that the 
market became weaker last week. Late 
deliveries kept many shipments from 
reaching the best early morning mar¬ 
ket and necessitated carrying them 
over. The crop of white sweets has 
been especially large in Columbia 
County this year. The sour varieties 
will form a larger portion of the ship¬ 
ments from now on and there is also 
a large crop of them. 

The following wholesale prices rep¬ 
resent the market on July 5: CHER¬ 
RIES—per qt., red sour, Montmorency 
10 @ 15c; black sour, 20c; in 4-qt. 
baskets, sweet varieties, 50c @ $1.25; 
GOOSEBERRIES—per qt., large 18 @ 
20c, medium 13 @ 15c, kmall 10 @ 11c; 
RASPBERRIES—per qt., red best, 
mostly 10 @ 12c, fancy 14 @ 16c, ordi¬ 
nary 5 @ 8c; CURRANTS—red, per 
qt., mostly 12 @ 14c, few small sales 
fancy 15 @ 16c; ordinary 10 @ 11c. 

GOOD HAY IN DEMAND 

Receipts of hay fell off last week and 
the market was firmer on top grades. 
Poor hay was dragging. Most of hay 
received was No. 3 or No. 4. Fairly 
large supplies reported in transit, which 
might cause decline later. No. 1 
Timothy was quoted July 5 at $26 per 
ton. 

CASH GRAIN QUOTATIONS 

Cash grain quotations July 6 were 
as follows: 

New York—Corn, No. 2 yellow 
$1.06%; No. 2 mixed $1; No. 2 white 
$1.00%; oats, No. 2 white 53c; No. 3 


white 51% @ 53c; ordinary white 
clipped 51% @ 52 %c. 

Chicago—Corn, No. 2 white 82% @ 
82%c; No. 2 yellow 83% @ 84c; oats, 
No. 2 white 42 @ 43%c; No. 3 white 
40% @ 43c; barley 60 @ 69c. 

HONEY PRODUCTION LIGHT 

Beekeepers generally all over the 
country report, according to the United 
States Department of Agriculture, a 
poor season for honey production. The 
West and Southwestern report very 
poor prospects and very light old crop 
honey on hand. Vermont is about the 
only State that reports an excellent 
outlook. In New York and Pennsyl¬ 
vania, the hot weather has dried up 
the nectar in clover blossoms. 

A few sales are reported in the 
Northern States of white clover at 12c 
lb., in 60 lb. cans or 14c wholesale in 
small pails. The New York City 
market is very dull, and demand is light 
with very little trading. 


The United States Department of 
Agriculture has just established official 
standards for wool grading. There are 
seven grades, as follows: Fine, % 
blood, % blood, % blood, low % blood, 
common and braid. The properties 
considered, after several years’ investi¬ 
gation and study of the standards, 
are first, diameter of fiber; second, 
length of fiber; third, spinning quality 
of fiber, fourth shrinkage of wool, the 
fineness of fiber being regarded as basic. 


Save the Potato Crop 

(Continued from page 23) 

the reasons why Long Islanders are 
not taking to dust more rapidly.” 

That man just about spoke a volume 
in those few words. I have been in 
the southwestern corner of Livingston 
County and seen potatoes growing on 
hilltops that tax a man’s climbing 
ability, let alone a team of horses. To 
get a tank of liquid spray up there 
is next to impossible and to go back 
and forth for each refilling is quite 
impracticable. 

I have in mind two growers in par¬ 
ticular, George Mehlenbacher and his 
neighbor, Gibson, of Wayland, N. Y., 
v/ho bought a duster in partnership 
and solved the problem of hauling 
spray materials up steep hillsides. One 
trip up the hill carried enough dust 
for the whole field. Another advantage 
they found in their duster was that 
they could easily cover a field in the 
morning before the dew is off the 
plants and before hay was dry enough 
to be hauled into the barn. Of course, 
these men had an acreage that war¬ 
ranted the purchase of a duster, but 
where acreage was low more men can 
get into the ring. 

But whether you dust or spray, the 
main thing is to get on the poison and 
the fungicides to check plant losses. 
One of the best potato growers that 
I know, G. T. Powell, of Glen Head, 
Long Island, has been conducting 
spraying tests for several years and 
his tests bear out the statement that 
the cost of spray and its application 
is more than paid for by the increase 
in returns. He has been demonstrating 
not only that it is possible to control 
disease, but that it is a paying propo¬ 
sition. 


SHIP YOUR EGGS 

WHITE AND BROWN 


To R. BRENNER & SONS 


Bonded Commission Merchants 

358 Greenwich St., New York City 

Farmers Supplied with 

STEEL WIRE BALE TIES 

FOR HAY AND STRAW BALING, ETC. 
Quality Guaranteed 

H. P. & H. F. WILSON CO. 

520 Washington St. NEW YORK 


Natural LeafTebacca st '° 


Extra fin® 
smoking 5 lbs $1,35; 10, 
$3.00; 20, $3.60. PIPE 
FREE; Hand-Picked Chewing. 5 lbs. $1,50; 10, $2.50. 

TOBACCO GROWERS’ UNION, Murray, Kv. 















































































American Agriculturist, J uly 14,1923 


31 


muss 

over 


MINERAL.,. 
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Sold on 
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$1 Package sufficient 

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CO. 451 Fourth Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa 




will reduce, inflamed, swollen 
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antiseptic and germicide. Plea3ant 
to use ; does not blister or re¬ 
move the hair, and you can 
work the horse. $2.60 per bottle 
delivered. 

Book 7 R Free 

W. F. Young, Inc., 579 Lyman St., Springfield, Mass. 


CATTLE BREEDERS 

SOPHIE TORMENTOR 

JERSEY BULL 

Sired by grandson of Sophie 19th of Hood Farm. Dam 
in 305 days made 391 pounds of butterfat, for Class AAA 
in Register of Merit. She won Grand Championship 
over all breeds at Lynn Fair. Bull is 11 months old, 
solid color, husky and handsome. Price S100.00. Herd 
Accredited. Put him in your pasture. 

WOOD FARM HATHORNE, MASS. 


HOLSTEIN BULLS FOR SALE 

Sons of 

DUTCHLAND COLANTHA SIR INKA 

FISHKILL FARMS, Hopewell Junction, N. Y. 
HENRY MORGENTHAU, Jr., Owner 

HOLSTEINS AND GUERNSEYS 

Fresh cows and springers, 100 head of the finest 
quality to select from. Address 

A. F. SAUNDERS, CORTLAND, N. Y. 


HOLSTEINS 

Two car loads high-class grade springers. The 
kind that please. One car load registered females. 
Well bred, strictly high-class. Several registered 
service bulls. J. A. LEACH, CORTLAND, N. Y. 


HIGH-GRADE HOLSTEIN COWS 

fresh and close by large and heavy producers. 
Pure bred registered Rolsteins all ages ; your 
inquiry will receive our best attention. 
Browncroft Farm McGRAW , New York 


HIGH GRADE HOLSTEIN HEIFER CALVES $15 

each; registered bull and heifer calves, $25 up; registered 
bulls ready for service, and cows. Address 

SPOT FARM, -TULLY, N. Y. 


HOI STFIN RITT I B °r n Dec. 7th, 1921. Sired by a 
IIULO I Lilt DULL 33-pound Son of King of the 
Pontiacs, Dam is 24.95-pound daughter Changeling But¬ 
ter Boy. He is nicely marked, splendid individual, well 
grown and ready for service. Priced to sell. 

FRED. A. BLEWER 
Owego, N. Y. 


FOR Q AT F F ran klin County (Vt.) Jerseys. 

1 UAY Llrt l.i, Grade and registered, all ages, 
both sexes. Send for booklet. 

R. L. CHAFFEE, Secretary ENOSBURG FALLS, VERMONT 



SWINE BREEDERS 


PIGS FOR SALE 

Yorkshire and Chester White Cross, and Chester and 
Berkshire Cross, all large, growthy pigs: 6 to 7 weeks old, 
$5.75 each; 7 to 8 weeks old, $6 each; 8 to 9 weeks old, 
$6.50 each. 15 Pure Bred Yorkshire Sows, 7 to 8 weeks, $7 
each; 20 Pure Chester White Pigs, 6 to 7 weeks old, $7 each, 
and 10 Berkshire and Duroc Cross, 8 to 9 weeks old, S6.50 
each. These are all good pigs, bred from the best of stock. 
I will ship any part of the above lots to you ou approval, 
C. O. D. 

WALTER LUX, 388 Salem St., Woburn, Mass. Tel. 86 


Big Type Poland China Pigs 

Gilts and Boars for sale. Sires: Ford’s Liberator and 
Ford’s Big Tim. Moderate prices. 

STEPHEN H. FORD, 402 Stewart Building, Baltimore, Md. 


Reg. Chester Whites 

Some nice fall boars : also some choice sows bred for 
July farrow, also some gilts ; prices reasonable con¬ 
sidering breeding. Write for particulars. 

RALPH B. SMITH WeBt Ossipee, N. H. 


BIG TYPE BERKSHIRES SSJg&£SSSJXSSi 

Swine Show 1922. PIGS $10 to $15 each. 

YORK SPRINGS BERKSHIRE ASSN., YORK SPRINGS, ?< 


LARGE BERKSHIRES AT HIGHWOO 

Grand champion breeding. Largest herd in America. Free bookl 

HARPENDING Box 10 DUNDEE, N 

1 nn Grad© Chester White and Duroc Dir' i 
A KJyJ 10 weeks old. Well-grown and thrifty, * *v»i 
S6.60 eaoh, OAKS DAIRY FARM, ;WYAL USING, P 


Putting Up Summer Butter Puts 3 H-P Engine on 

To Keep It For Winter Use , Pasteurize the Cream Your Place For Only $ 18= 


S WEET cream, pasteurization, and 
proper packing are essential to the 
successful making and storing of sum¬ 
mer butter for use the rest of the year. 

The cream must be perfectly sweet. 
The buttermilk from cream in the 
proper condition for making stor¬ 
age butter is as sweet as fresh skim 
milk. If the cream is allowed to sour, 
a strong and perhaps a fishy flavor may 
develop in the butter. 

Sweet cream must be pasteurized for 
two reasons: 

First, the butter will keep much bet¬ 
ter if most of the bacteria in the cream 
are killed by heating; second, sweet 
cream is difficult to chum if its sticky 
quality, or viscosity, is not broken by 
pasteurization. 

Earthenware jars are the best 
containers in which to store butter, 
but wooden tubs may be used. The 
container must be scalded thoroughly 
and cooled immediately before butter 
is packed in it. The surface of the 
butter, after it is packed in the con¬ 
tainer, should be covered with a white 
cloth that has been made practically 
sterile, or free from bacteria, by boil¬ 
ing in clean water for a few minutes. 
The diameter of the cloth should be 
about two inches greater than the di¬ 
ameter of the jar. The cloth should be 
covered with a layer of salt about one- 
sixteenth of an inch deep, to keep the 
surface of the butter from spoiling. 
The cloth is merely to aid in lifting the 
salt from the butter when a portion of 
it is taken out for use. 

Care of Utensils 

The condition of a workman’s tools 
has a definite relation to the quality of 
his work. In the same way there is a 
direct relation between the care of the 
dairy utensils and the quality of the 
butter made. All dippers, strainers, 
pails, cans and tinware should be not 
only_ carefully washed’ but thoroughly 
scalded with boiling water. This pro¬ 
cess will kill most of the bacteria and 
will also dry the utensils and thus pre¬ 
vent rusting. Ladles, the butter bowl or 
board, the butter printer, and all 
wooden utensils not only should be 
thoroughly washed and scalded after 
being Used, but should be soaked in 
boiling water before being used, in 
order to prevent the butter from stick¬ 
ing tc them. The churn must be kept 
sweet; this cannot be emphasized too 
strongly. Under normal conditions 
thorough scalding after each churning 
is sufficient to keep it in good condi¬ 
tion. In case the churn has a musty 
odor, it should be filled with a saturated 
solution of lime water. This may be 
made by slaking burned lime, adding 
water, stirring the mixture thoroughly 
and allowing it to stand a few hours. 
After the lime has settled, the clear 
lime water may be dipped off and put 
into the churn. Several new supplies 
of lime water may be made by adding 
more water to the lime, stirring the 
mixture thoroughly, and allowing it to 
settle as in the first case. The lime 
water should be placed in the churn as 
soon as it has been scalded after us¬ 
ing, and allowed to remain until the 
churn is used again. 

Gravity Separation Not Efficient 

The gravity method of separation is 
not so efficient as centrifugal separa¬ 
tion, for two reasons: First, more fat 
is lost in the skim milk; second, the 
cream is thinner, and consequently it 
is often difficult to churn. Where no 
separator is available the following 
method may be employed: When mak¬ 
ing butter on a fairly large scale, two 
or more 40-quart milk cans should be 
used as containers. Immediately after 
the milk is drawn it should be placed 
in these cans in the cooling tank and 
stirred until it is 50 degrees or less in 
temperature. After the milk has stood 
for approximately 48 hours, the cream 
should be carefully skimmed off with a 
shallow dipper. If the milk stands for 
a shorter period, a high percentage of 
fat will be lost in the skim milk. ’ 

Low temperatures must be maintained 
throughout the holding period in order' 
to keep the cream sweet. About 10 
or 12 pounds of cream for churning 
should be skimmed from the 40-quart 
can of milk; then about a gallon of 


milk should be skimmed into another 
pail. This latter skimming will con¬ 
tain about the same percentage of fat 
as whole milk, and may be used as 
such in the home. When this method 
is followed, the skim milk will contain 
less fat than if one skimming is made, 
the cream will be richer in fat and will 
therefore churn more readily. In some 
cases shotgun cans may be used to 
better advantage than 40-quart milk 
cans. 

How to Pasteurize the Cream 

Cream may be pasteurized on the 
farm in the following way: Place a 
wash boiler partly filled with water on 
the stove. _ Set the shotgun cans or the 
pail containing cream in the water and 
allow it to remain over the heat until 
the temperature of the cream reaches 
145 degrees. Stir the cream gantly, 
not vigorously, so that it will heat uni¬ 
formly. Move the boiler to the back 
of the stove, and hold the cream at the 
temperature of 145 degrees or a few 
degrees higher for 20 or 30 minutes. 
If the temperature of the cream reaches 
160 degrees, the flavor of the buttter 
will not be injured. 

Cool the cream to 50 degrees or lower, 
and hold it at this temperature for at 
least 3 hours. Usually in creameries, 
it is held at this temperature overnight. 
Stir the cream gently so that it will 
cool more rapidly. 

If the butter is packed solidly in a 
stone jar, it should be covered with a 
white cloth and a layer of salt. If 
printed butter is packed for storage, 
the wrappers should be held in place by 
white cord passed around each print, 
both lengthwise and crosswise. The 
prints should be packed in a stone jar 
that has been scalded carefully and 
cooled, and a large plate should be 
placed on the butter and weighted down 
with bricks or stones that have been 
cleaned thoroughly and scalded. 

Finally the butter should be covered 
with a saturated solution of brine made 
by adding salt to water in the propor¬ 
tion of one pound of salt to four pounds 
of water. A 10-gallon jar will hold 
50 pounds of butter in prints with about 
an inch of brine over the top surface. 
An extra supply of brine should be kepi 
on hand in fruit jars or other sealed 
containers, and added to the butter jar 
as. the prints are removed or as the 
brine in it evaporates. 

Butter must be held at moderately 
low temperatures. The cellar is the 
best place for storing butter on the 
farm, but the jar must be covered 
properly so that the butter cannot ab¬ 
sorb odors of fruits and vegetables 
stored near it. 


FARMERS’ BULLETINS FOR THIS 
TIME OF YEAR 

Recent bulletins of interest to farm¬ 
ers which may be obtained free of 
charge by writing the Division of Pub¬ 
lications, United States Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C., are as 
follows: Farmers’ Bulletin 707, The 
Commercial Grading, Packing and 
Shipping of Cantaloupes; 766, The 
Common Cabbage Worm; 842, Methods 
of Protection Against Lightning; 850, 
How to Make Cottage Cheese on the 
Farm; 871, Fresh Fruits and Vegeta¬ 
bles as Conservers of Other Staple 
Foods; 900, Homemade Fruit Butters; 
943, Haymaking; 959, The Spotted 
Garden Slug; 984, Farm and Home 
Drying of Fruits and Vegetables; 1007, 
The Control of the Onion Thrips; 1112, 
Culling for Eggs and Market; 1115, 
Selection and Preparation of Fowls for 
Exhibition; 1145, Handling and Trans¬ 
portation of Cantaloupes; 1211, Home 
Canning Fruits and Vegetables; 1225, 
The Potato Leafhopper and Its Con¬ 
trol; 1246, The Peach Borer—How to 
Prevent or Lessen Its Ravages; 1258, 
Webworms Injurious to Cereal and 
Forage Crops and Their Control; 1266, 
Preparation of Peaches , for Market; 
1290, The Bulk Handling of Grain • 
1310, The Corn Earworm. 


Ed. H. Witte, Famous Engine Manufact¬ 
urer, Makes Startling Offer On 
New Witte Throttling- 
- Governor Engine. 


Farmers, now more than ever, appreciate 
the need of power on the farm and know they 
can make $500 to $1,000 additional profit a 
year with an all-purpose engine. 

Ed. H. Witte, nationally-known engine 
manufacturer, has announced a new 3-horse 
power engine which burns either kerosene, 
gasoline, distillate or gas with a special 
regulator which enables it to operate all 
the way from two to four and one-half 
horse-power. 



This new WITTE ENGINE has revolution¬ 
ized power on the farm as it handles prac¬ 
tically every job with ease at a fraction of 
the cost of hired help. Easily moved from 
one job to another, it is trouble-proof and so 
'simple that a boy can operate it. 

To introduce this wonderful new engine' to 
a million new users Mr. Witte has arranged 
to put it on any place for a 90-day guaran¬ 
teed test. Since it costs only $18.55 to take 
advantage of this sensational offer Mr. Witte 
confidently expects every progressive power- 
user to soon be using a WITTE. Every 
reader of this paper who is interested in 
making bigger profits and doing all jobs by 
engine power should write today to Mr. 
E. H. Witte, 1803 Oakland Ave., Kansas 
City, Mo., or 1803 Empire Bldg., Pittsburgh, 
Pa., for full details of this remarkable offer. 
You are under no obligations by writing. 



tf* A A Buys the New Butterfly Jr. No . V/j 1 

Light running, easy cleaning,^ 
t close 8kimmiDg, durable. f 

MEW bUTTERFLY „ 

lifetime against defects in material and worE 
manship. Made also in four larger sizes up to 
IJrt. 8 shown here; sold on 

30 DAYS’ FREE TRIAL 

•njf on a plan whereby they earn their own cost I 
and more by what they save. Postal brings Free 5 
Catalog Folder. Buy from the manufacturer | 
and save money. ( 1) ■ 

4UJ9AUGH-DOVERCO* 2172 HUratMU Bl. Chicago 


BABY CHICKS 


Chicks 


BABY CHICKS 
S. C. Rhode Island Reds, 12c each 
Barred Plymouth Rocks, 11c each 
S. C. White Leghorns, . 9c each 
„ Mixed or Off Color, . . 7c each 

These chicks are all hatched from free range stock. 
Safe delivery and satisfaction guaranteed. Descriptive 
booklet free. 

W. A. LAUVER, McALISTERVILLE, PA. 


CHICKS for July Delivery 

Our 19th Season producing good strong 
chicks from heavy-laying strains. S. C, 
White and Brown Leghorns, $9.50 per 100; 
Buff and Black Leghorns, $10 per 100; Barred 
and White Rocks. $12 per 100; Anconas, Black 
Minorcas, S11.50 per 100; White Wyandottes, 
R. C. Reds, $13 per 100. Mixed, $8.50 per 100. 
direct from this ad. We guarantee 95 % live de- 
Catalogue free. 



Order 

livery. 

Box R 


20th CENTURY 


HATCHERY 

New Washington, 


Ohio 


BABY CHICKS 


Hatched by the best system of 
Incubation, from high class 
bred-to-lay stock. Barred and 
Buff Rocks, Reds, Anconas, Black Minorcas, 12c. each; White, 
Brown, Buff Leghorns, 10c. each; broilers, 7c. each. Pekin 
Ducklings, 30c. each. 

Safe delivery guaranteed by prepaid parcel post 

NUNDA POULTRY FARM NUNDA, N. Y. 

600 White Leghorn Breeders, one year old, 
$1.00 each. 10 Weeks’ Old Pullets, Aug. 10th 
delivery, $1.00 eacn and up. Thousands ready. 

HUMMER’S POULTRY FARM 

FRENCHTOWN, N. J., R. 1 

RARY barred Rocks, Sll.QO ; White 

and Brown Leghorns, $9.00 

S er hundred; mixed, S7.00. 100 fS delivery guaranteed, 
lot a new beginner. 

J. W. KIRK, Box 5 1, McALISTERVILLE, PA. 

f UIY Bar - Rocks, 11c; Reds, 12c; Wh. Leghorns, 9c; Mixed, 
UIHA ic. lOO^arrival guaranteed. Order from adv or circu¬ 
lar free. twin HATCHERY, McALISTERVILLE, PA. 



HILLPOT puirifC 
QUALITY Lsiiiur\a 

Post Prepaid. Safe delivery guaranteed 
anywhere east of Mississippi River. 


REDUCED PRICES-PROMPT DELIVERIES 

100 50 25 Barred Rocks $13.00 $7.00 $3.75 

White Leghorns $10.00 $5.50 $3.00 R. [. Reds 15.00 7.75 4.00 

Black Leghorns 10.00 5.50 3.00 White Rocks 15.00 7.75 4 00 

Brown Leghorns 13.00 7.00 3.75 White Wyandottes 18.00 9.25 4.75 

W. F. HILLPOT Box 20, Frenchtown, N. 





































































A FREE TRIP to New York City 

FOR EVERY BOY AND GIRL 


between the ages of 12 and 21 who sells $50.00 worth of subscriptions for American 
Agriculturist between now and August 22, 1923. This offer is open only to boys 
and girls living in one of the Middle Atlantic States or the New England States. 


What the Trip Will 
Include 

All contestants qualifying for the 
trip will have all their traveling 
expenses paid to and from New 
York and also all expenses for 
the two days they are our guests 
in New York City, August 29 
and 30. 

During the two days’ stay in New 
York City the program will include 
a trip to one of the leading theatres, 
a visit to the Museum of Natural His¬ 
tory, the Bronx Zoological Gardens, 
a Sight Seeing Bus Trip around New 
York, a visit to the New Markets and 
Water Front, the Woolworth Build¬ 
ing, a trip on board an ocean going 
liner and as many other extra trips we 
can find time for in the two days. 


Letter From One of The Boys Who Visited 
New York At Our Expense Last Fall 

"I wish to thank you for the good time 
you gave me while I was your guest in New 
York on the free trip which I won getting 
subscriptions for the American Agriculturist. 

“The first day we were in New York, 
we went to the Bronx Park. While there, 
we saw all kinds of wild animals you could 
think of. 

“In the afternoon we went to the New 
Markets and Water Front, where we saw all 
kinds of live stock and fowl. At the Water 
Front we saw an ocean liner leaving for 
South America, also battle ships and many 
ocean-going liners. Then we went to the top 
of the Woolworth Building, which is 60 
stories, and 792 feet high—the tallest build¬ 
ing in the world. While up in the top we 
could see the Brooklyn and Queensboro 
Bridges, Manhattan Bridge; also lower Man¬ 
hattan and a fine view of New York. 

“From here we went to the Aquarium, the 
home of all kinds of fish, seal and walrus. 
We had a fine view of the Statue of Liberty. 
From here we went over to the Custom 
House and New York Stock Exchange and 
Wall Street. We saw a number of large 
buildings, such as the Bankers’ Trust Com¬ 
pany Building—-which is 39 stories, and 540 
feet high—Merchants’ National Bank, New 
York Clearing House and many other large 
buildings, such as the Singer Building—which 
is 49 stories, and 724 feet high—the Flatiron 
Building, Metropolitan Tower, Pennsylvania 
Railroad Station, New York Public Library, 
and the New York Post Office. 

“That night we went to the Hippodrome, 
which is the largest theatre in the world. 

“The next day we went to the A. A. Build¬ 
ing, where we saw how the A. A. was printed. 
We then went on a sight-seeing bus trip 
around New York. In the afternoon we went 
on another bus to Riverside Drive. We saw 
the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Monument and 
Grant’s Tomb, with a fine view of the Hud¬ 
son River and The Palisades. We traveled 
on surface, subway, and elevated trains. We 
also visited the Museum of Natural History. 

“All in all it was a wonderful trip.” 

(Signed) Frederick James Hathaway 
(Age 14) 

Schuylerville, New York 


You Are Sure of Being 
Rewarded 

If for any reason you should discon¬ 
tinue getting subscriptions before 
reaching a total of $50.00, we will pay 
you a cash commission of half the 
amount you have sent us for subscrip¬ 
tions, provided you have sold at least 
$10.00 worth of subscriptions. 

Boys and Girls! 
Register Now 

Don’t take any chances of missing this 
wonderful trip. Fill out the coupon 
below immediately so that we can 
register you as one of the contestants 
and send you necessary supplies free of 
all expense. But don’t wait for any 
supplies. Start getting subscriptions 
now—this very day. 


New York City is the greatest city 
in the world and every young Amer¬ 


ican should take pride in visiting this wonderland. 
You may not want to live in New York, but you have 
only half lived until you have visited it and seen its 
many tremendous buildings, beautiful parks, museums, 
famous subways, etc. 


Remember the trip is not at all com¬ 
petitive, so that if you sell 50 subscriptions for Amer¬ 
ican Agriculturist between now and August 22nd, 1923, 
you will win one of the free trips to New York 
City, no matter how many others qualify for the same 
great treat. 


Mail This Coupon At Once HOW TO GET THE FREE TRIP 


Manager Free Trip Bureau 
American Agriculturist 

461 Fourth Ave., New York City 

Please count me in on the free trip to New York City. 
Send me necessary sample copies and other supplies together 
with instructions. I will do my best to sell at least $50 
worth of new or renewal subscriptions for American Agricul¬ 
turist before August 22. In case I fail to get $50 worth of 
subscriptions it is understood that you will pay me a cash 
commission amounting to half of the money I receive for 
American Agriculturist subscriptions, provided I send at 
least $10 worth of subscriptions. 

Name.'.. 

Address... 


All that is necessary to get all your expenses paid on this 
trip to New York. City is for you to sell $50.00 worth of 
subscriptions for American Agriculturist. Send your or¬ 
ders in each week. No orders will count if mailed later 
than August 22nd. 

In order to reach your goal of $50.00 worth of sales quickly, you 
may sell five years for $3.00 or three years for $2.00. Of course, you 
may also sell one year for $1.00. It is clearly to. your advantage to 
get the long-term subscriptions because you require much less of 
them. For instance, 25 three-year subscriptions at $2.00 each will 
be easier to secure for most contestants than 50 one-year subscrip¬ 
tions at $1.00. The big point to remember is that your total sub¬ 
scription sales must amount to $50.00 in order to entitle you to the 
free trip. Renewals count the same as new subscriptions. 


f, 

























AMERICAN 

.A griculturist 

I Founded 1842 

, ? >3 t i . v £ sm & -v''W^T,7f #*»msu-<4 bwp?^k?wwmp*wb^ 

$1.00 PER YEAR JULY 21, 1923 PUBLISHED WEEKLY 



jWSawWXWWOWttSSSSSMSSSSWWiWWWNWWMiMMMWW^^ 


ISAAC PHILLIPS ROBERTS 


“The Wisest Farmer I Ever Knew” 














































r • 

O'* 




American Agriculturist, July 21,1923 


a 


Wisest 




7/7 Commemoration of Isaac Phillips Roberts’ Ninetieth Birthday 


Editors Note. —Probably no farm paper has ever 
carried in one issue the writings of so many great 
men as are found on these pages. The idea of a 
memorial number to Professor Roberts should be 
Credited to Jared Van Wagenen, Jr., who was one 
of his students. 


By MEN WHO KNEW HIM 


“One of Roberts’ Boys” 

Ey Jared Van Wagenen, Jr. 

Farmer, Lecturer, Writer 

TSAAC PHILLIPS ROBERTS—Farm Boy 
X —District School Teacher—Country Car¬ 
penter—Farmer—Teacher of Agriculture— 
Director of the Agricultural Ex¬ 
periment Station at Cornell— m 

Dean of the New York State Col¬ 
lege of Agriculture—Representa¬ 
tive Extraordinary of the Ameri¬ 
can Farmer. 

The simple, inspiring story of 
Professor Roberts’ life has al¬ 
ready been put into permanent 
form. After he became what men 
call old, he wrote his own life 
“The Autobiography of a Farm 
Boy.” It is a book of singular in¬ 
timacy and charm. In it he 
traces in outline his own career 
from his birth in that pioneer 
home in the Finger Lake Coun¬ 
try—through the struggles and 
vicissitudes of his early life, on 
through the years of recognition 
and triumph, not forgetting his 
serene sunset as the evening 
draws on and he peacefully 
awaits the close of “a long day 
and a good day” in his California 
home. 

I have no wish to quote at 
length from this story as he has 
written it. It is not only a record 
of what he did—it is also an illu¬ 
minating treatise on what were 


men. Such was the good seed from which 
he sprang. His forebears were at least rich 
in health and character and ideals, and they 
were fortunate in pitching their tent in a 
fat land. 

His story is full of illustrations of the 
rudeness, the simplicity of the life and yet 
of the almost prodigal abundance of simple 


foodstuffs in that time, for the rich earth 


fairly teemed with abundance when once the 


He Prepared For Change 


things,” said the Buddhist philosopher, “which exist in time 


must perish. Even unto a grain of sesamun seed, there is no 
such thing as a compound which is permanent. All are transient, 
for in nature there is no uniform and constant principle.” 

Most men living entirely for the present fail to realize that there 
is nothing permanent but change, and that the present all too soon 
will become a part of the past. The world, therefore, always owes 
a debt to that small number of men in every generation who make 
possible future progress by looking beyond the present to prepare 
their fellows to meet the needs and the demands of that New Day 
that time and change will surely bring. 

Such a man was Isaac Phillips Roberts, whose ninetieth birthday 
it is cur pleasure to commemorate with this issue of American Agri¬ 
culturist. Frofessor Roberts was one of the few men of his day v/ho 
realized that great and important changes were bound to come in 
American Agriculture. He knew that the rich soils of America 
would not last; he knew that time would bring new weeds, new 
insects, new plant and animal diseases, and new economic problems 
with which the future farmer would have to contend. He knew, in 
short, that changing conditions would surely change the status of 
agriculture requiring training, skill and education in the sen which 
the earlier times had not demanded in the father. So, knowing these 
things, this great man, after farming it for many years, took his 
practical knowledge and his wonderful personality into the early 
struggling Agricultural College, and against tremendous odds of 
small equipment and large prejudices, he began to prepare men to meet 
successfully that New Day in farming which he knew was coming. 

How well Isaac Roberts succeeded in the task he set himself is 
better told than we can tell it by the great and famous men who 
honor him by their words on these pages.—The Editors. 


the pioneer conditions in Western New York 
almost a century ago. It is filled also with 
that rare whimsical humor and that matured 
wisdom and that genial philosophy which 
made him beloved of all that great company 
of “boys” who came under his influence. As 
I bead it to-night, a generation is rolled back 
dnd again I am a happy student boy and I 
s6e him come into the little, old, primitive 
lecture room on the south side of the north 
corridor of Morrill Hall, and once more I 
listen to his musings and his teachings for 
an hour as of old, for he writes even as he 
talked. 

Then just the briefest outline of his career. 
He begins his autobiography with one of his 
own characteristic sen¬ 
tences. He was born 
on July 24, 1833 “at 
daybreak of a fine har¬ 
vest morning,” with 
other light touches in 
similar vein. The place 
was East Varick, in the 
County of Seneca, on 
the west shore of 
Cayuga Lake. 

He came of good 
stock. His grandfather 
hid migrated hither 
from New Jersey some 
t >v e n t y-one years ' 
earlier. He describes ■ 
this worthy man as 
combining the three¬ 
fold dignities of “a 
■poet, a speaker and a 
farmer,” a man prom¬ 
inent in the church, the 
school and the counsels 
of the pioneer neigh¬ 
borhood, a godly man 
withal, >and a leader of 


ax of the pioneer had let the sunlight in on 
the ancient forest floor. 

In his boyhood he wrought at the Her- 
culian labors of the pioneers varied by the 
teaching of school in winter. When he was 
twenty-one—a man grown—the spirit of his 
adventurous, westward-looking grandfather 
stirred within him and he went West to La 
Porte, Indiana. There he was by turns 
school-teacher, carpenter and farmer. Also 
lie found opportunity to marry a daughter 
of the land—a union that was greatly blessed 
through many years, for children were born 
unto them and they two were lovers always. 
When he was about twenty-nine, again the 
Western lure—the urge of the pioneer— 


came to him, and in a prairie schooner to¬ 
gether with his young wife and a sixteen- 
month old baby he made the long trek to 
Mount Pleasant, Iowa, crossing the Missis¬ 
sippi River on the ice. It was a journey of 
several weeks and it is characteristic of the 
habit of thought of the man, that while most 
of the emigrants pressed forward seven days 
a week, he rested his folk and horses on the 
Sabbath, and that very soon after arrival at 
Mount Pleasant he found himself Superin¬ 
tendent of the first Sunday School. Here in 
his new home, according to what 
had become almost his custom, 
he carpentered and taught school 
and farmed, but always the call 
of the farm was loudest. Un¬ 
consciously he was fitting him¬ 
self for greater things. 

He was thirty-six years old be¬ 
fore the call came. He tells how 
one day in 1869 he was giving the 
finishing touches to the cupola 
of his fine “New Barn,” which 
was “so important to him that 
he felt it ought to be spelled with 
capital letters” when a red¬ 
headed man appeared at the top 
of the ladder and a voice said: 
“Young Man—Come down—I 
have better work for you.” It 
was an invitation from one of 
the trustees to become Farm 
Superintendent of the Iowa Agri¬ 
cultural College. At first he an¬ 
swered after the fashion of 
Nehemiah on the walls of Jerusa¬ 
lem “I am doing a great work and 
I cannot come down.” With re¬ 
luctance he allowed his name to 
be presented, but declined to fur¬ 
nish any letter of reference. He 
was first made Farm 
but less than a year late, 


Superin- 


fus 


se n 






The New York State College of Agriculture, sTowing the building named, in honor of 
fessor Roberts. It is in the center of the group on the right 


tendent, out less tnan a year 
elected Professor of Agriculture 
taught farm boy. 

Three years later the newly esta W^he d 
and almost still-born College of Agriculture 
at Cornell came to a crisis. Professor 
McCandlass—a young Irishman, especially 
imported to fill that position, had proved a 
most dismal failure, and some one suggested 
the name of the rising young teacher of 
Iowa. In answer to an invitation he nry-fi 
to come back to New York and on f 

Day of 1873 he began a return j( t 
brought him back to the beauti 
the side of which he was born an 
many wanderings, and within thir 

_ his birthplace^he did 

his great monumental 
enduring work—a work 
that filled thirty full, 
fruitful years. 

Others better quali¬ 
fied than I have writ¬ 
ten of this man and of 
the way in wfyich he 
has set his mark on our 
agricultural life. \ I 
count myself fcrtunatjte 
in that I may toast oS 
having been one 
“Roberts’ Boys,” J 
knew him not as x col¬ 
league as did Profe:Oi\s 
Wing and Stone, I 
knew him as a disde 
—a very reverent a 
devout disciple-—knox 
a Master. I came u 
der him when he waJ 
in the full mat' irity o' 
his rich prime. College 
years are golde 
—there are non e 


J ro- 



n yens \ 

XI 

























American Agriculturist* July 21,1023 


35 




like them. He took us up to the mountain top 
and 'caused us to see the glories of the world 
of agriculture and the wonders of it. I con¬ 
fess that to some extent the vision has faded, 
that I have accomplished very few of the 
things to which I went forth with high re¬ 
solves thirty-two years ago, but till I pass 
• I shall hold dear the 
name and memory of 
•thatkindly friend and 
wise farmer and rich 
philosopher. 

I yield to no one in 
my love and admira¬ 
tion for our wonder¬ 
ful College of Agri¬ 
culture, seated 
proudly on her Hill 
by the noble Lake. 

She has a great 
Faculty of high 
minded, ' intensely 
trained teachers, but 
I am sure that not 
one of them will take 
it amiss when I say 
that- on no man has 
..Roberts’ mantle fal¬ 
len and that he left 
no successor. He 
was unique—a man 
called of God for his 
time. 

He was in no sense 
a learned man 
judged purely by the 
standards of lifeless 
books. Ind v eed he 
never came to handle 
easily and accurately 
the severe technical 
vocabulary of sci¬ 
ence. But to have been one of the little group 
of boys who followed him over the farms and 
through the woods and fields was a wonder¬ 
ful privilege, for his laboratory was under 
bending skies and not within brick walls. 

Many men have lovingly sought for a 
phrase which should set down and embody 
the spirit or the genius of this great Teacher 
of Boys. I, too, have thought upon it and 
I crave leave to borrow a phrase that came 
from the pen of another Disciple—Dean 
Bailey when he wrote “He was the wisest 
farmer I ever knew.” 


Let His Own Works Praise Him 

By A. It. Mann 

Dean of the New York State College of Agriculture, 
Cornell University 

I T may be commonplace to remark that the 
present generation is the heir of all the 
generations which have gone before. The 
present achievements of men rest on the 
foundations laid in the past. The sounder 
and the more enduring the foundations, the 
more substantial and permanent the super¬ 
structure is likely to be. 

The College of Agriculture in New York 
State has a very rich inheritance from 
Roberts, Bailey, and others, and its present 
character and ideals have their roots deep 
in the past. 

Isaac Phillips Roberts was a practical 
idealist of the best sort. His ideals were 
clear and tangible and composed of solid 
•stuff, free from vagaries and fancies.. His 
sturdy, practical sense controlled his ideals 
and kept them within the area of accomplish¬ 
ment. He believed that the activities of the 
farm and the problems of agriculture had 
an educational content worthy of a place in 
the highest institutions of learning. Be¬ 
fore the sciences had been greatly employed 
in interpreting the operations of Nature or 
in re easing her secrets, he undertook to or- 
gani; ? ap institution whose primary pur¬ 
pose should be the application of scientific 
im fb >ds and knowledge to the problems of 
fag*'vulture, confident that in such applica¬ 
tion lay the way to a fuller mastery of the 
land and the crops and the animals, and to an 


Professor Roberts in his eighty-seventh year 


advancing country life. He recogrfized more 
clearly than was the custom of teachers of ‘ 
his .time the educational values to be found 
in a careful study of the common, workaday 
things of the. farm.. He accepted no’sub¬ 
stitute -for agriculture. He kept always be¬ 
fore his students the necessity for actual, 

farm experience as a 
highly essential part 
of an agricultural 
education. “The way 
to learn one part of 
agriculture, and a 
most important part, 
is to do agriculture,” 
he declared. “If 
students object to 
the toil of learning 
the fundamentals— 
without remunera¬ 
tion—then turn them 
out to grass and let 
them graze within 
the pasture of any 
other college which 
will adopt a mav¬ 
erick.” He would 
bind together, in a 
working team, sci¬ 
ence and practice. 
It was a sound basis 
for the institution he 
would build and the 
service he would 
render. 

By his clear vision 
of an educational 
program arising out 
of, yet saturated 
with, practical ex¬ 
perience ; his recog¬ 
nition of the neces¬ 
sity for scientific experiment and investi¬ 
gation; his ability to choose and inspire 
teachers; his unwavering courage in the 
face of all the difficulties and oppositions 
which could confront a new educational ven¬ 
ture in a field too generally regarded as a 
mere manual occupation not requiring nor 
to be greatly aided by much learning; his 
insistence on the job, whatever it was, be¬ 
ing well done; his forceful character; his 
realization of the human factor in agri¬ 
culture, and the importance of a good farm 
home; and his 
sturdy morality 
and sensible phi¬ 
losophy, which 
pervaded and en¬ 
riched everything 
he did—Roberts 

gave to the State 
and to the Nation 
a service and a 
program of guid¬ 
ance which have 
been far-reaching 
in their effects. 

He blazed trails 
and opened high¬ 
ways for agricul¬ 
tural progress. 

The present 
staff and student 
body at the Col¬ 
lege do not forget 
Director Roberts. 

His life, work, 
and example pro¬ 
vide the text for 
many a 1 e s s o n. 

His part in the development, not only of our 
own College, but also of agricultural educa¬ 
tion in America, was too important to be 
•overlooked by those who have entered into 
his labors. Not only the people at the Col¬ 
lege, but also the farmers of the State and 
the Nation, are his permanent debtors. 

When Director Roberts retired from the 
headship of the College of Agriculture, in 
1903,. after thirty years of devoted service, 
he went ta join his three children in Cali¬ 
fornia. He settled first in Palo Alto, 


where he built a home. He has since occa¬ 
sionally lectured at the farm school at Davis 
and at the school at San Luis Obispo, and 
has frequently been a guest of honor at 
• farmers- meetings throughout the State. In 
his ninetieth year he is still able-bodied. 
While failing sight has made it necessary 
for him to give up reading and writing, he 
still retains his interest in the large national 
problems of agriculture and in the daily ex¬ 
periences of the farmer. He may now be ad¬ 
dressed by his many old friends who may 
desire to gladden his ninetieth birthday an¬ 
niversary, at Dwight Way End, Berkeley, 
California. * * * . * 

The Art of Tickling the Soil 

By H. H. Wing' ' " ; 

Head of the Department of Animal Husbandry, New York 
State College of Agriculture 

I T was my privilege to know and to be in¬ 
timately associated with Professor Roberts 
for more than fifteen years, and it is with 
pleasure that I accept your invitation to con¬ 
tribute to your celebration of his ninetieth 
birthday, and if what I have to say should 
be too reminiscent and intimately personal, 
I trust I may be pardoned, for others will 
pay tribute to his more distinguished public 
services. 

My intimate acquaintance with Professor 
Roberts began in the fall of 1880 when the 
eight of us seniors assembled in the little 
lecture room in Morrill Hall to begin the 
course in “Practical Agriculture,” five lec¬ 
tures a week and two afternoon practices. 
In these days of classes running into the 
hundreds with large lecture halls and elabo¬ 
rate equipment, when the students appear 
only as the lecture hour approaches and go 
out with a rush at the first stroke of the bell, 
it seems strange to speak of any intimate 
relation between professor and student h and 
as a matter of fact such intimacy is largely 
impossible much as it may be desired by 
both parties. We who are old-fashioned, and 
perhaps too ; prone to look back upon the good 
old ‘ days, believe that this intimate ac¬ 
quaintance went far to make up for the lack 
of modern equipment and conveniences. 

The little group of eight students and the 
professor was much like a family. The 
students knew one another and were not 
slow to rub up against each other’s individual 


no 


The ‘‘Old South Barn,” 

College, 


longer standing, the first barn owned by the 
designed by Professor Roberts 


eccentricities and opinions. They knew the 
professor and what would be required of 
them and best of all the professor knew the 
students and how to encourage the diffident 
and repress the too exuberant as when on 
one of the afternoon farm walks the “leg 
puller” of the class approaching the profes¬ 
sor inquired solicitously as to the prospects 
of fruit in the college orchards. With the 
quizzical twinkle all will remember the re¬ 
ply came quickly. “Mr. Blank, is it possible 
(Continued on page 38) 



















American Agriculturist, July 21,1923 


Editorial Page of the American 


American 

Agriculturist 

Founded 1842 


Henry Morgenthau, Jr .Publisher 

E. R. Eastman .Editor 

Fred W. Ohm .Associate Editor 

Gabrielle Elliot .... Household Editor 

Birge Kinne .Advertising Manager 

H. L. Vonderlieth . . . Circulation Manager 

CONTRIBUTING STAFF 

H. E. Cook, Jared Van Wagenen, Jr.«, H. H. Jones, 
Paul Work, G. T. Hughes, H. E. Babcock 


OUR ADVERTISEMENTS GUARANTEED 

The American Agriculturist accepts only advertis¬ 
ing which it believes to be thoroughly honest. 

We positively guarantee to our readers fair and 
honest treatment in dealing with our advertisers. 

We guarantee to refund the price of goods pur¬ 
chased by our subscribers from any advertiser who 
fails to make good when the article purchased is 
found not to be as advertised. 

To benefit by this guarantee subscribers must say: 
‘I saw your ad in the American Agriculturist” when 
ordering from our advertisers. 


Published Weekly by 

AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST, INC. 

Address all correspondence for editorial, advertising, or 
subscription departments to 

461 Fourth Ave., New York, N. Y. 

_ Entered as Second-Class Matter, December 15, 1922, at the 
Post Office at New York, N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1S79. 

Subscription price, payable in advance, $1 a year. 
Canadian and foreign, $2 a year. 


VOL. 112 July 21, 1923 No. 3 


Are You Opposed to Prohibition? 

W E state without danger of contradic¬ 
tion that the most important issue 
before the American people to-day is pro¬ 
hibition. The votes and letters which Amer¬ 
ican Agriculturist is receiving, indicate so 
far that the majority of farm people are for 
prohibition and a strict enforcement of the 
Eighteenth Amendment. But the response 
so far shows that there are a surprisingly 
large number of farmers who are voting 
against prohibition. Moreover, some folks, 
not farmers are saying that many farmers 
talk prohibition and have hard cider in their 
cellars, thereby failing to practice what they 
preach. 

The cities of the United States are mostly 
wet. Organizations and thousands of in¬ 
dividuals are working to amend or destroy 
the Eighteenth Amendment. They certainly 
will succeed unless the farm people, who are 
the largest single class in favor of prohibi¬ 
tion, take interest enough to stand up and 
be counted. 

... American Agriculturist, therefore, is urg¬ 
ing you to send in your vote. A ballot is 
given on page 37. It contains only two 
questions. All you have to do is answer 
yes or no to both of them. Your name will 
be held entirely confidential if you so wish 
it. We are also asking the Grange and other 
local farm organizations to bring this matter 
up, vote on it, and send us the vote. Are you 
not interested enough in this tremendously 
important problem to vote yourself and also 
to get action from your neighbors and your 
local farm organization? 


Use Our Market Service 

W E hope that all of our people are paying 
special attention to the Market Page in 
ev'pry issue of American Agriculturist. We 
hope also that some thought is being given 
toward making arrangements for getting the 
radio market reports. We are putting these 
out four, days a week in cooperation with 
the New York State Department of Farms 
and Markets and the American Telephone 


and Telegraph Company’s broadcasting sta¬ 
tion, WEAF. 

Herschel Jones, our market expert, who 
writes the Market Page, has had long years 
of intimate experience with the markets of 
New York City. Reading this Market Page 
each week will give yo ( u information as to 
prices and the trend of the markets, which 
will save you much rftoney in the sale of 
your eggs, other poultry products, and other 
farm products which you have for sale from 
time to time. 

We cannot help but feel that this page is 
the best market service that can be obtained 
from any source. We know also that our 
radio market reports furnished through 
WEAF are very worthy of any efforts you 
can make to receive them. If you do not have 
a radio yourself, there is almost certain to be 
one in your neighborhood so that it would be 
possible for you to make arrangements to 
have the prices you are interested in tele¬ 
phoned to you by your neighbor who has a 
radio. 


The Deserted Village 

O NE Sunday afternoon a few weeks ago, 
we followed an old hill road leading back 
for miles from the main highway into the 
hill lands of a southern tier New York 
county. Fifty years ago farming and its 
allied industries flourished in those hills; 
to-day the woodchuck, the crow, and a few 
families of Polish people make only a pre¬ 
carious living there. Once there were sev¬ 
eral hamlets thriving with stores, churches, 
blacksmiths’ shops and butter factories, liv¬ 
ing on the trade and patronage from the 
surrounding farms. But now the lonesome 
and vacant buildings in many of these ham¬ 
lets remind one of Goldsmith’s “Deserted 
Village.” 

Sweet Auburn! loveliest village of the plain, 

Where health and plenty cheer’d the laboring swain, 
••••••* 

How often have I loiter’d o’er thy green, 

Where humble happiness endear’d each scene! 

How often have I paus’d on every charm, 

The shelter’d cot, the cultivated farm, 

The never-failing brook, the busy mill, 

The decent church that topt the neighboring hill, 
••••••• 

These were thy charms, but all these charms are fled. 

No more thy glassy brook reflects the day, 

But chok’d with sedges works its weedy way; 

Along thy glades, a solitary guest, 

A hollow-sounding bittern guards its nest; 

Amidst thy desert-walks the lapwing -flies, 

And tires their echoes with unvaried cries. 

Sunk are thy bowers in shapeless ruin all, 

And the long grass o’ertops the mouldering well. 

Within a few miles of where we stood, 
much of it within our sight, there lay prob¬ 
ably a hundred thousand acres occasionally 
dotted by the good crops and buildings of 
some remarkably able farmer, but for the 
most part covered and dominated by the 
daisies and the devil’s paint brush. 

The valley land's of the East are in general 
still excellent; so good, in fact, that riding 
along the main roads and seeing the fine 
crops and buildings that border these roads, 
makes one forget that the hills are not so 
good. There are sections of the East where 
the hill lands are nearly, if not quite, as 
good as those that border the creeks and 
rivers in the valleys. But speaking in gen¬ 
eral, the acid, and often swampy, soils of 
our eastern hills are worn out. American 
farm families have reached a point where 
it is impossible to maintain a decent standard 
of living on them, and one wonders what 
is to be their future. Some of. these lands 
are now being worked by Polish and other 
families of foreign blood, excellent people, 
able because of a large amount of help at 
home and a lower standard of living, to sub¬ 
sist for a time on a meager income. But 
even these people are beginning to leave, 
realizing the foolishness of working so hard 


Agriculturist 

for so little, when high wages can be ob¬ 
tained in the cities. 

Professor C. E. Ladd, of the New York 
State College of Agriculture, with some as¬ 
sociates, is making a study of the eastern 
hill lands. No definite conclusions have been 
reached. Perhaps there are none, but it has 
been suggested that the present situation can¬ 
not continue and that one of two things must 
happen. The first is that some of this land 
probably should never have been cleared in 
the first place, and that it never can be 
farmed profitably; therefore, the only solu¬ 
tion is to let it grow back into woods. The 
second remedy suggested is that the better 
parts of these worn-out hill soils can be re¬ 
claimed by the use of lime, drainage, acid 
phosphate and the production of clover. 
Some farmers are already doing this, but 
the difficulty with this plan is that the prices 
of farm products will not justify the heavy 
expense needed to reclaim this land. 

Perhaps, though, the time will come when 
the farmer, through the large demand for 
his products in the city, and through coop¬ 
eration, will obtain his proper share of the 
prices which come from this demand; and 
then the old hill lands will blossom forth 
again into fields of clover, renewed pros¬ 
perity, and a happy farm people. 


A Word For the Lightning Rod 

T HERE is quite a jump both in time and 
accomplishment from Franklin’s discov¬ 
ery that lightning is electricity, to the ex¬ 
periment which was conducted the other day 
by a scientist in the employ of the General 
Electric Company, in which he actually pro¬ 
duced lightning. 

.A room was especially prepared and a 
miniature village was set up in the room, 
well protected by lightning rods. When all 
was ready, the scientist pulled levers and 
made actual bolts of lightning crash across 
the room at the will of the operator, smash¬ 
ing into the buildings in the village. But 
the buildings were uninjured because they 
were well protected by the lightning rods. 

The lightning rod business has had rather 
a stormy career with farmerfe. When first 
invented, they were readily accepted and put 
up on farm buildings. Then a time followed 
when a good deal of crookedness and trickery 
were used by the agents in charging more 
than the lightning rods were worth or in 
selling worthless ones. There was so much 
of this crookedness that in time farmers 
came to look with doubt upon the whole 
business and to chase the lightning rod 
agents off the place with the dog. The re¬ 
sult was that for years few protectors were 
sold. 

This was unfortunate because the lightning 
rod in itself, if made properly, put up right 
and well grounded, is almost certain protec¬ 
tion against damage of buildings by lightning 
and the resulting fires. Of late years, farm 
people have come to realize this and more 
and more are equipping their buildings with 
this adequate protection against one of 
nature’s forces, which causes tremendous 
damage and loss to farm buildings every 
year. 


Quotations Worth While 

I do not care so much, where, as with 
whom, I live. If the right folks are with me 
I can manage to get a good deal of happiness 
in the city or in the country. Affter all a 
palace without affection is a poor hovel, and 
the meanest, but with love in it, is 2 . palace 
for the soul— Robert G. Ingersoll/ 

* * * ( 

Here’s to the woman who has a smile for 
every joy, a tear for every sorrow, a con¬ 
solation for every grief, an excuse for every 
fault, a prayer for every misfortune, an en¬ 
couragement for every hope.— Sainte Foix. ^ 

' 1 





















American Agriculturist, July 21,1923 


37 


Greatest Opportunity Lies in the East 

A Radio Talk Broadcast From WEAF on June 18 at 6.50 p.m. y Standard Time 


M UCH has been written and spoken 
within the past few years in re¬ 
gard to the disparaging circum¬ 
stances under which our farmers 
And themselves operating to-day. In some 
few' instances, the picture may have been 
overdrawn, but in the greater number the 
true facts were adhered to and the speakers 
have been actuated by sincere motives in try¬ 
ing to find a solution to a very discouraging 
situation, which had its birth in the post¬ 
war period and which seems to have ac¬ 
cepted the farmer as a bosom companion. 

Out of the maze of remedies and panaceas 
which have been offered there are bound to 
arise two or three general ideas of sound 
character which can be broadly applied to 
restore agriculture to its proper balance 
among the industries. 

It is certain that these remedies, to be as¬ 
sured of lasting success, will have to be 
predicated upon the operation of natural 
laws. Artificial schemes of adjustment, at 
the most, can only supply temporary relief 
and may in the end serve only to further 
disrupt the natural order of things and post¬ 
pone complete restoration. 

Our National Government has tried to 
bring some measure of relief to the farmer 
through legislation designed to increase his 
credit facilities. State governments have 
also legislated in his behalf, and the farmer 
himself has taken another hold and is at¬ 
tempting to better his position through coop¬ 
eration and joint marketing of farm produce. 

All of these agencies, and more, are hav¬ 
ing a good effect upon the situation and 
eventually, if they are based on sound eco¬ 
nomic principles, the operation of these in¬ 
fluences in our farm life will gradually 
bring the farmer into his own 
once more. 

In Pennsylvania, the last ses¬ 
sion of the General Assembly 
authorized the appointment of a 
Farm Commission to make a 
study of all phases of the Com¬ 
monwealths’ agricultural activ¬ 
ity, with a view to offering rec¬ 
ommendations for such legisla¬ 
tion as will most quickly allevi¬ 
ate the present depression. The 
farm labor scarcity, high wages 
required to get labor in competi¬ 
tion with nearby industries, the 
abandonment of large acreages 
and entire farms, the cheap 
price of farm products, heavy 
taxes on farm lands,, and other 
factors that hurt the farmer’s 
business and throw farming out 
of plumb with the other in¬ 
terests of the State, will be 
the subject of inquiry of this 
Commission. 

Other States also are becom¬ 
ing more interested in the farm¬ 
er’s business and are doing what 
they think will have the great¬ 
est stabilizing influence upon 
this basic industry arid assure 
the farmer of a reasonable 
profit on his products. 

While all these agencies are 
at work in behalf of the farmer, 
it might be well to look ahead 
■and take a glimpse at future 
prospects in our eastern agri¬ 
culture. Farmers in the East do 
not feel so keenly the slump in 
agricultural values as do those 
in the western country where 
an excessive inflation has in¬ 
creased the oppressiveness of a 
decrease in farm product prices. 


By FRANK P. WILLITS 

Secretary of the Pennsylvania State Department 
of Agriculture 

In the latter part of the nineteenth century, 
land values in the eastern section of the coun¬ 
try were almost twice as great, and in some 
cases even more, than the land values of our 
heavy producing middle western States. In 
1920, the tables were reversed, and in spite 
of the fact that there has been heavy de¬ 
flation since, in 1923, these same middle 
western States are still burdened with land 
valuations that are considerably higher, and 
in some cases, more than twice as high as 
those prevailing in Pennsylvania, New York 
and other eastern States. 

Farm land values in the East have risen, 
to be sure, and they have fallen since 1920, 
but the rise and fall has been normal and 
reasonably to be expected. Unlike the west¬ 
ern farmer, we are not faced with the added 
discouragements of heavy deflation, and we 
are not unduly burdened with an abnormally 
expanded land valuation, which takes a 
heavier toll from the farmer’s income. This 
augurs well for the future opportunities that 
exist in eastern farming. 

The East is further favored in its near¬ 
ness to the large consuming markets—mar¬ 
kets which offer a convenient outlet for the 
greater part of our farm produce and which 
will absorb all farm products that measure 
up to requirements. The comparatively 
short haul to these thickly-populated centers, 
and the quick transportation facilities avail¬ 
able, gives the East an advantage over those 
States which once offered considerable com¬ 
petition because of cheap land valuations. 

The reversal in the value of land in the 


respective sections of the country will also 
have a marked influence on our vacant farm 
situation in the East. With a gradual eco¬ 
nomic readjustment of the entire agricul¬ 
tural situation, many of these farms will, 
again be brought into our farming opera¬ 
tions and productivity increased. 

There are many difficulties in the way of 
the eastern farmer, which are much the same 
for him as for the farm producer in any 
other section of the country. But as soon as 
an adjustment has been made and the farmer 
has been assured of an adequate return on 
his investment, when agriculture returns to 
a normal position among the industries, the 
opportunities of eastern farming, with mar¬ 
kets close to the producing centers and with 
everything in his favor with respect to trans¬ 
portation requirements, should be well con¬ 
sidered by the farmer. 

First and foremost, the farmer is inter¬ 
ested in his financial income. Farming is 
not a matter of sentiment with him. It is. 
a business which requires all of his atten¬ 
tion, day in and day out. As a business it 
should be the object of as much study and 
foresighted planning as is the store, the 
factory or the mill. Keeping accurate ac¬ 
count of farm operations is no longer con¬ 
sidered as a fad of the few. It is essentially 
a part and parcel of present-day farming; 
just as much as the automobile has become 
an indispensable unit in the commercial ac¬ 
tivity of the day. 

This explains why cooperative marketing 
is gaining in prominence among producers,' 
particularly in the distribution of specific 
farm commodities. It represents the applica¬ 
tion of business practice to the sale of a 
product, a study of the market for that prod¬ 
uct and the shortest way to that 
market. The old hit-or-miss 
methods of disposing of farm 
produce, dumping on the market 
as soon as harvested, with no 
thought of meeting market de¬ 
mand as to grade and with no 
knowledge of the market con¬ 
ditions, must be relegated to the 
past to keep company with the 
ox-team, the tallow dip, the flail 
and all other symbols of the old 
order. 

Times and methods have 
changed and will continue to 
change. If our farmers in the 
East expect to take fullest ad¬ 
vantage of the opportunities 
presented to them, they must 
keep abreast of the times. He 
must see that his product is 
graded and standardized to -con¬ 
form to the demand of the buy¬ 
ing public. He will do well to 
find out in what way he ban 
cater to the peculiar demands of 
the market nearest his farm, for 
that means less transportation. 
He must arrange in some way, 
perhaps through cooperation 
with his neighbors, to send his 
product by the most direct route 
to the consumer, thus reducing 
the spread between the price he 
receives and the price paid by 
the consumer. Further, he 
should study his business with 
an eye to cutting down burden¬ 
some overhead and removing the 
causes of waste, energy and ex¬ 
pense. Thus, he can do his part 
in bringing farming back to its 
true position, and he will pre¬ 
pare himself for the opportuni¬ 
ties that are his for the asking. 


PROHIBITION BALLOT 

OF THE 

AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 


Are You for the Strict Enforcement of the j 1 YES 
18th Amendment as It Now Stands ? NO 


Are You for a Modification of the 18th | j yes 

Amendment to Permit Light Wines_ 

and Beer ? I—i 

Designate your opinion by placing an X in the square opposite 'ies or 
No on each question. Sign your name and address. Your name will be 
kept strictly confidential. ( 


Name, 


Address, 


Why You Should Vote 

Do the American people want prohibition? The Wets emphatically say 
“No” and the Drys are even more emphatically for it. Both sides claim 
a majority. Which is right? What do farm people think about it? The 
opinions of farmers on any problem, if they will express them, go far in 
determining the outcome of a controversy. 

American Agriculturist is taking a vote of farm families on the ques¬ 
tion of prohibition. It is a vital issue and whether you are for it or 
against it, be sure to vote in the spaces above. Mail this ballot to the 
American Agriculturist, 461 Fourth Avenue, New \ork City. 

Get your friends to vote—Mere ballots furnished on application 



















38 


American Agriculturist, July 21,1923 


OOOOQ 



0000 ° 



Pittsburgh 


Harrisburg 


Diagram showing how the voice currents 
weaken in the long distance transmission 
suid are restored by “repeaters /' 


Mastering Nature’s Forces 

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“The Wisest Farmer I Ever Knew” 


(Continued from page 35) 


that you have lived on this hill for 
four years and don’t know whether 
there are any good apples in the col¬ 
lege orchards?” 

“Practical Agriculture” in those 
days included almost everything con¬ 
nected with the farm and farm life, 
and then some, and Professor Roberts 
did not hesitate to go further afield 
if it seemed necessary or desirable by 
digressing to point a moral or adorn 
a tale. As for instance, when em¬ 
phasizing the necessity for the use 
£xT Soun< * P rac tical judgment he said, 
Now boys, I hope you will all get 
married as soon as possible after you 
graduate, but when you go to pick 
out a girl, don’t let your affections get 
too much the better of your judgment 
and above all don’t take one with 
too thin lips, she is apt to have an 
uncertain temper.” 

The modern bespectacled Ph.D. pro¬ 
fessor^ with his highly specialized, 
scientifically classified and carefully 
outlined course in Agronomy, Thremma¬ 
tology, Ecology or what not would look 
with consternation if not contempt 
upon the subject matter of that course 
m Practical Agriculture and its ar¬ 
rangement, and I would not for an in¬ 
stant give the impression that the 
teaching of agriculture has not been 
vastly improved in the last forty years 
But there went out from Professor 
Roberts’ teaching in the “early eigh¬ 
ties a score or more of young men who 
have been more or less successful in 
many branches of agriculture and farm 
life, and. who count not the least of 
what their college training gave them, 
the hours spent in that little room in 
Morrill Hall and in the barns and fields 
of the “old” college farm with Profes¬ 
sor Roberts. 

One trait in Professor Roberts has 
always been particularly pleasing to 
me - Those .who have read his books 
and heard him in the classroom and on 
the. lecture platform, know that in the 
mam his language was straightfor- 
ward, simple and direct, but occasion- 
ally he liked to let his fancy run free 
and his language assume a more flow¬ 
ery form. My note book records in one 
of the very first lectures that “Culti¬ 
vation is the art of using the plow and 
harrow to so tickle the minute particles 
of soil, that the myriad mouths that 
have stored up the fertility of ages are 
set wide agape while the tiny rootlets 
filch from their stony teeth the golden 
setting.” 

While we honor Professor Roberts as 
a pioneer in agricultural education, a 
leader in agricultural progress and as 
a successful practical farmer; it is as' 
a man that we of the early eighties 
now render our chief homage to him 
on the accomplishment of ninety years 
of well spent life. A man of deeply 
religious nature, inflexible moral stand¬ 
ards,. hard working and thrifty in 
practical affairs, with a cheerful opti¬ 
mism, ever ready to help others; we 
recognize in him the ideal type of 
American citizenship and trust that he 
may long enjoy Shakespeare’s ideal, 

“My age is as a lusty winter 
Frosty but kindly.” 

As my own personal tribute there is 
no man except my own father for whom 
I have a more sincere affection than for 
Isaac Phillips Roberts. 


A Gatherer of Friends 

By W. H. Jordan 

Formerly Director of the New York State 
Experimental Station, Geneva, N. Y. 

I T is eminently fitting that those of 
us who had personal contact with 
Professor I. P. Roberts in his days of 
activity should place on record an ap¬ 
preciation of the man and the great 
service, he rendered to agriculture. 

His influence as a man was notable. 
He had a sound philosophy of life, 
gained through a keen insight into men 
and affairs. We spoke of him as a 
philosopher. He was intensely human 
in his attitude toward young men and 
his counsel to them helped to direct 
their lives to the highest purposes. 

His influence upon the agriculture 
of New York was uplifting. As one 
of the pioneers in agricultural edu¬ 
cation in the United States he labored 
under great difficulties, but he did much 


to make the rural people understand 
what were, their needs in education, 
and both in public sentiment and in 
his work at Cornell as a teacher he 
laid foundations upon which other men 
have built. 

The young men who knew him as a 
teacher have not ceased to regard him 
with affection and the strong friend¬ 
ships which he garnered unto himself 
from among his associates in the agri¬ 
cultural field and from all who knew 
him intimately, have been abiding. 

* * * * 

An Everlasting Influence 

By J. L. Hills 

Dean of the College of Agriculture, University 
of Vermont 

D EAN ROBERTS, dean of deans 
in agriculture, by virtue of your 
green old age and of the firm founda¬ 
tions you laid during the days of your 
strength^—we, who are of the genera¬ 
tion which has succeeded yours, who 
have tried to walk in your footsteps 
and to follow the path you blazoned, 
salute you on the attainment of your 
ninetieth birthday. Your contribution 
to the training of the American coun¬ 
try lad, to the creation of one of the 
strongest land-grant colleges in the 
country, to the upbuilding of American 
agriculture, has been notable. It will 
not live 90 nor 90 times 90 years, 
but from everlasting to everlasting in- 
its fructifying influence. 

We trust that you may be spared 
in health and vigor for years to 
come, and we rejoice in the realization 
of the fact, that though in the fulness 
of time your mortal body will return 
to the earth as it was, your soul will 
go marching on, 

* * * * 

Agricultural Teaching in the 
Old Days 

By W. A. Henry 

Formerly Dean of the College of Agriculture, 
University of Wisconsin 

M EASURED by results Cornell Un¬ 
iversity is the world’s greatest 
pioneer in modern education. That 
great statesman and educator, Andrew 
D. White, its first president, brought up 
a classical culturist in the strictest 
sense, was big enough and broad 
enough to see the sciences were about 
to revolutionize the world’s educa¬ 
tional activities. Instead of fighting 
the movement as so many other edu¬ 
cators did, he accepted the situation 
and gave science its proper place in 
the new institution of which he was 
president, and so Cornell University be¬ 
gan its existence under unusually aus¬ 
picious conditions. 

In his efforts to get the best. Doctor 
White reached across the Atlantic and 
secured Doctor James Law, head of the 
Veterinary Department, a most worthy 
satisfactory selection as all old agri¬ 
cultural students will agree. His choice 
of a foreigner as Professor of Agri¬ 
culture was unsatisfactory and Vice 
President Russell, acting as President, 
began a search for another to teach 
agriculture and operate the college 
farm. Professor W. A. Anthony of the 
P,y. slcs department told President 
White that he knew of a man at the 
Iowa Agricultural College, from which 
he, Anthony, had come, that could at 
least keep the University farm fields 
fairly free from weeds, and so I. P. 
Roberts became Professor of Agricul¬ 
ture at Cornell University and there¬ 
after weeds were less in evidence. 

I was a student at Cornell during the 
dark days, 1876-1880, which followed 
its brilliant beginning under the mas¬ 
terful management of President White, 
undoubtedly the ablest, broadest-minded 
educator America has so far produced. 
The pinch of poverty was evident on 
every hand while I was a student, but 
the trustees and president never 
flinched or deviated from their high 
purpose. Dark Days? You may get 
some conception of the situation when 
you learn that more than once some 
of the trustees gave their individual 
checks toward meeting the winter’s 
fuel bill. 

In those days there were practically 
no text , books on agriculture, and the 
instructor was compelled to carry oh 
as best he could. And here was where 
























American Agriculturist, July 21,1923 


39 


I. P. Roberts ha 1 the advantage over | 
most instructors laboring under such 
conditions. He was of an intensely 
practical nature and had real farm 
experience instead of book instruction 
only. Pioneering has many advantages 
a.nd Professor Roberts was a pioneer all 
his life, greatly to the benefit of his 
students. 

This really great teacher had a hold 
on his pupils because he loved his voca¬ 
tion and, besides this, took a deep 
interest in each individual he was in¬ 
structing—proud of those with strong 
minds and surprisingly lenient with 
the weaklings; and so he brought out 
the best that was in each and every 
member of his classes. 

There is a something that is never 
found in books that comes to the stu¬ 
dent facing a truly great teacher; 
something dearer and better than 
words can express and we who for 
many days had Professor Roberts for 
an instructor know what that some¬ 
thing is—and we are the richer for it. 

* * * * 

“A Prophet Among Farmers” 

By E. Davenport 

Dean and Professor Emeritus, College of Agri¬ 
culture, University of Illinois 

P ROFESSOR ROBERTS of Cornell! 

A king among men, a prophet among 
farmers, a pioneer among those who 
seek of science, to inspire the service 
of agriculture to all the people and to 
better the conditions of the millions 
who live by the land. His work is a 
blessing and his life a benediction. 

* * * * 

A Layer of Foundations 

By L. H. Bailey 

Formerly Dean of the New York State College 
of Agriculture, Cornell University 

I AM glad you are to remember I. P. 

Roberts’ anniversary with a special 
number of the American Agriculturist. 
He richly deserves such remembrance 
and recognition. It is-also good for the 
younger workers to be brought into 
knowledge of one who stood so near 
the beginnings of modern agricultural 
education and to be made aware of the 
accomplishments of those days. Those 
days may seem to us to be the remote 
times of small things, but the successes 
were as big in their time as are the 
larger accomplishments in our time. 

Foundations are laid slowly, and 
piece by piece. On a good foundation, 
any extent of superstructure can be 
builded, but on poor and false founda¬ 
tions nothing permanent can be erected. 
The great developments of the present 
day are the consequences of painstak¬ 
ing, honest, prophetic work in years 
long past. 

Professor Roberts not only did good 
work and saw clearly, but he held on. 
Nothing would make him let go. Again 
and again he would say that the time 
must come when agriculture would 
take its proper place in the institutions 
of the land and all his life he planned 
buildings and laboratories that it was 
never his privilege to see. In his ac¬ 
tive day, he was a wise personal 
teacher, an ideal guide to students who 
studied in the great laboratory of the 
open fields. He was a philosopher of 
the farm country. As a teacher,. he 
covered the subject with keen discrimi¬ 
nation, wisdom of a resourceful life, 
and a ready wit. He was also a suc¬ 
cessful practical farmer. At Cornell, 
the loyalty to him is touching, even 
among those who were never his stu¬ 
dents. His active work was wider than 
the State in which he was born and to 
which he gave the fullest of his life. 

It is a blessing to all of us that he 
has accomplished ninety years. We re¬ 
joice to think of him as one of us; 
and we like to tell him how much we 
remember and appreciate him. 

* * * * 

“A Straight Jumper” 

By J. L. Stone 

Professor Emeritus, New York State 
College of Agriculture 

I N his book, “The Autobiography of 
a Farm Boy” Professor Roberts 
states that when he arrived at Cornell 
University cn February 1, 1874, he 
found awaiting him a few students in 
agriculture whom he refers to as “a 
pocket edition of a class.” The writer 
of these lines, then a senior in the 
{Continued on page 42) 





PUBLIC FORMULA FEEDS 




T he cooperative g. l. f. exchange is running its 

feed pool to buy your winter feed requirements for you at 
the prices which prevail between now and ecrly fall. Feed 
prices are usually at their lowest point during this period. 

Voluntarily placing your orders with your G. L. F. agent means 
savings in overhead and sales cost. In addition, if you and 
your neighbors buy in large quantities, you will get the benefit 
of a large volume purchase and of lower manufacturing costs. 
All of these factors will reduce the pool price. 

The formulas for G. L. F. Rations are public. The rations are 
manufactured under G. L. F. supervision. They are made for 
farmers by a farmers’ organization. They are not manufactured 
to get rid of by-products or to make profits. Per hundred 
pounds of digestible nutrients your G. L. F. Rations are and 
undoubtedly will continue to be the cheapest on the market. 

Thoughtful deliberation will convince you of the wisdom of 
using the G. L. F. to buy your feed for you. Remember, orders 
voluntarily placed in the G. L. F. feed pool will make your 
winter feed bill lower. 




General Manager 

Cooperative G. L. F. Exchange. Inc. 
Buffalo. N. Y. 


AUCTION SALE 

Buy At Your Own Price 

GASOLINE ENGINES 
FARM TRUCKS 
SAWING OUTFITS 
TRACTORS and ATTACHMENTS 
SAW BENCHES 
MOWING MACHINES, Etc. 

Owing to the ever-increasing demand for 
DO-IT-ALL TRACTORS, we intend 
giving up the retail store. We have a 
large stock and sooner than put it in the 
warehouse we are going to sacrifice. Here 
is an opportunity Or the farmer to supply 
himself with his needs for years to come, 
at his own prices. The Auction Sale will 
be held at No. 33 Park Place, Thursday, 
July 26th. If you desire further information 
write to DO-IT-ALL Tractors Corp., 
No. 33 Park Place, New York City. 


LOOK AT THE EXPIRATION DATE 
ON YOUR ADDRESS LABEL 

If vour subscription has expired, you can show your appreciation of our courtesy in con¬ 
tinuing to send yo P u the American Agriculturist, by favoring us with Y°ur renewal at once. 

There is no question as to your needing every coming issue of American Agriculturist 
because some of the future numbers will contain facts that you would not willingly m 
for anv amount The worst kind of economy in the world is to save $1 by not subscribing 
for AmerSaS Agriculturist and thereby losing $10 or $100 or even $1,000 by not having 
the information that will be given in the next 52 issues of American Agriculturist. 

If you were a doctor, you would find the best medical journal indispensable. If J ou a P; 
a rent farmer who is out for 100% success and not merely a bare living, you owe it to 
yourself and family to read every coming issue of the American Agriculturist so that you 
can keep abreast of the times. 

SPECIAL BARGAINS! 

Fiftv-two issues of American Agriculturist for only $1 is a bargain but we offer you even 
still greater valut for your money if you accept one of the following special long-term 

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It has nrobably been merely an oversight if you are in arrears in your subscription. 

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I appreciate your sending me American Agriculturist after my subscription expired. 

Here is my check (or money-order) for renewal for.years more. 

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Address... 








































40 


American Agriculturist, July 21,1923 


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CORN 


Among the Farmers 

New York Fruit Prospects Less Favorable 


C ONTRARY to early reports and in¬ 
dications, the apple crop in Western 
New York is not going to be as heavy 
as was first expected. Early in the 
season Baldwins promised a heavy crop, 
but indications are now that it will be 
no more than fair and some growers 
are of the opinion that the crop is go¬ 
ing to be light. The bloom was heavy 
and apples set well, but since these 
early reports were received there has 
been a steady decrease in the prospects. 
Even at this date it is too early to re¬ 
port on the June drop. If this is right 
there will be only a fair crop of apples. 
However, if it is in any proportion to 
the drop since apples set, indications 
are that there is going to be a short 
crop for harvest next fall. 

According to a report of the New 
York State Horticultural Society which 
has just conducted a survey of the fruit 
situation among 253 members, the apple 
crop throughout the State is about the- 
same as it was last year at this time, 
but only two-thirds as high as it was at 
this time in 1920. The report states 
however, that “as conditions last year 
improved more than they usually do 
after the first of July, the crop is not 
expected to be as large as that of last 
year unless weather conditions from 
now on are unusually favorable. Com¬ 
pared with conditions a year ago, the 
reports indicate two-thirds as many fall 
apples, nearly twice as many Baldwins, 
three-fourths as many Greenings and 
slightly more of McIntosh and Northern 
Spy. There are considerable differences 
this year in the reports for individual 
orchards, but prospects for apples are 
rather more uniform over the State 
than they have been for several years.” 

Aside from apples, the fruit prospects 
are not nearly as good as they were at 
this time last year. The reports indi¬ 
cate between one-half and two-thirds as 
many pears, Bartlets being particularly 
light; a little more than two-thirds as 
many peaches; a little more than three- 
fourths as many plums and quinces and 
seventh-eighths as many cherries and 
grapes. 


NEW YORK COUNTY NOTES 

Orange Co.—Haying is now in full 
blast. The crop is looking fine. Pota¬ 
toes are not as good as usual, un¬ 
doubtedly due to the fact that they 
were injured by the severe drought 
and heat during the latter part of 
June. Cherries and currants are 
making the largest crop in years. 
They are of excellent quality. Prices 
vary from 12 to 25c a quart. The 
right kind of farm people want pro¬ 
hibition and the strict enforcement of 
the Eighteenth Amendment. We need 
a sober nation to keep us from being 
killed by drunken automobile drivers. 
Eggs have been bringing 26c a dozen 
on the average at village stores from 
March 1 to July 4, the lowest price 
in years.— Mrs. W. V. S. 


Steuben County Farm Bureau and 
chairman of the picnic committee, an¬ 
nounced the date of the annual picnic 
as August 11. The Soldier’s Home will 
be the meeting place the same as of 
last year. One of the special features 
will be the country-wide quoit-pitch¬ 
ing tournament of which D. D. Cottrell 
of North Cohocton is in charge. Mr. 
Cottrell himself is an expert at the 
game and offers professional services 
in the coaching of community teams 
previous to the contest. The usual 
sports such as a ball game, races and 
stunt contests will be included in the 
program. The committee promises a 
bigger and better picnic than ever 
before. 

Monroe Co.< —Farmers have been 
setting out cabbage lately. It looks 
as though the cabbage will be much less 
than planned on account of the cab¬ 
bage maggot and unfavorable weather 
conditions. Apples have not set in 
anywhere the proportion they blos¬ 
somed. Greenings will undoubtedly be 
very light. Baldwins will make a fair 
showing, potatoes are coming up and 
looking fairly good. Late potatoes are 
just beginning to show up nicely. More 
beans are being raised in this section 
this year than in the last few years. 
This year beans were one of our main 
crops _ in this section, but on account 
of prices, farmers have not put in so 
many of late. During the last week in 
June one of the most violent rain, wind 
and hail storms in recent years swept 
over this part of Monroe County creat¬ 
ing heavy damage. The storm was 
more like a cyclone, causing partic¬ 
ularly heavy losses to fruit growers. 
Hundreds of trees were up-rooted. 
Grain fields leveled and severe damage 
was done to potatoes, beans and cabbage 
by hail. The wind was so severe that 
many buildings were blown off the 
foundations. In many instances the 
farmers will have to replant their 
crops. 

Chautauqua Co. —Farmers have been 
busy sowing buckwheat and cultivat¬ 
ing corn. Many have started haying. 
The acreage of buckwheat will not be 
as large as some years owing to the 
dry, hard condition of the ground. We 
have had two or three good rains, but 
we need more. What help farmers are 
fortunate enough to hire, ask 50c an 
hour and board during haying time. As 
everyone seems to have gone to the 
city to work many farmers have de¬ 
cided to do most of their haying alone. 
—P. S. S. 

Ontario Co. —We are having a fine 
growing season, all crops look well. 
We have had almost too much rain to 
make hay, with the result that some of 
the hay brought into the barns is badly 
colored. Help is out of the question. 
Farmers are trading help and are 
getting along the best they can.— 
H. D. S. 


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Supersedes firing and 
cautery. $1.50 per 
bottle at your drug¬ 
gists or direct upon 
receipt of price. Good 
for humans, too. The 
Lawrence-Williams 
Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 


WATCH YOUR 
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H P Jb \t C C h your own horse afflicted? 

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Money taels if not satisfactory 
ONE ean at $1.25 often sufficient. In powder form. 

NEWTON’S 

A veterinary’s compound for 
Horses, Cattle and Hogs. 
Heaves, Coughs, Distemper, 
Indigestion. Worm expeller. 
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by parcel post. 

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50-Acre Farm Near 3 Towns 

8 Cattle, 3 Horses, A acre potatoes, 26 acres hay, l l / 2 acres 
corn, acre garden, acre fruit, brood sow, 9 pigs, poultry, 
cream separator, full implements, tools; many conven¬ 
iences; 45 acres tillable, valuable woodland; 60 fruit trees; 
good house, 50-ft. barn. To settle affairs now $3800 gets 
all, part cash. Page 93 Ulus. Catalog Bargains—many 
States. Copy free. STRODT FARM AGENCY, 150R 
Nassau St., New York City. 




Free Catalog 


in colors explains 
how you can save 
money on Farm Truck or Road 
Wagons, also steel or wood wheels to fit 
any running 
gear. Send for 
it today. 

Electric Wheel Co. 

2 Elm St., Quincy, m. 


Oswego Co.—Canneries have started 
putting up peas. The indications are 
that the crop will be heavier this 
year than usual, although the yield 
will be about average. Later varie¬ 
ties look particularly good. The 
greater part of the acreage is in the 
townships of Scriba, Oswego and 
Hannibal. Oswego strawberries started 
moving to New York City for the 
first time last week. The berry acre¬ 
age in Oswego this year is the largest 
in several years. Due to the late sea¬ 
son the shipments have started much 
later than usual. 

In Western New York 

Steuben Co.—Around Avoca there 
has been little or no rain since June 
14, and the weather has been ex¬ 
tremely hot and dry, consequently if 
rain does not come soon, farmers are 
going to suffer heavy losses. Con¬ 
trary. to the general practice, potato 
plantings were heavier in June than 
in May. With the hot and dry 
weather some anticipation is felt for 
the potato crop. Pastures are drying 
up and indications are that the hay 
crop will be less than half last year’s. 
Help is extremely scarce. Work on the 
State Roads has attracted men from 
the farms in many cases. 

Seymour Bridge, president of the 


NEW YORK HAY AND CABBAGE 
PROSPECTS 

H. H. LYON 


PA 1 LIN 15 


struction book and 
Record of Invention 
blank. Send sketch or model for personal opinion. 
CLARENCE A. O’BRIEN, Registered Patent Law¬ 
yer, 904 Southern Building, Washington, D. C. 


I have seen a good crop of hay har¬ 
vested when the prospect for a crop on 
June 10 was very poor. On a trip 
close to a 100 miles on June 10, I did 
not find promises for a hay crop at all 
flattering. Just now I was reading an 
article, “A Plea for Courage.” It re¬ 
lated to railroads but its plea did not 
appeal to me as does the farmers’ cour¬ 
age in such times as we have now. It 
is true that for two days or so rains 
have fallen, but considerably more will 
be needed if we are to get the amount 
of moisture necessary to give us an 
average hay crop. 

There is a much better feeling than 
was the case a week ago. Certainly 
there is a possibility for fodder to keep 
the cows next winter, yet the prospect 
is none too bright. The dry weather 
for two weeks or so made corn planting 
for this season almost a thing of the 
past and some of the farmers even went 
beyond their calculations, plowing up 
discouraging looking meadows and 
drilling in corn. This corn for fodder 
is really good stuff. It makes better 
feed for cattle, even this late planting, 

(Continued on page 42) 


LEAF TOBACCO, 


Five pounds chewing $1,75; ten, 
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smoking $1.25; ten, $2.00; twenty, 
$3.50. Pipe and Recipe Free. Send no money, pay when received. 

UNITED TOBACCO GROWERS MAYFIELD, KY. 


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The Breed-0 Remedy Co., P.0. Box 240-A, Bristol, Conn. 


PATENTS 


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Promptness assured. 

WATSON E. COLEMAN, Patent Lawyer, 624 F Street, 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 


NATURAL LEAF TOBACCO SrStf'fcSS.I 

lbs., $1.25; 10 lbs., $2.00. 
Pay when received , pipe and recipe free. 

FARMERS CO-OPERATIVE TOBACCO UNION, PADUCAH, KY. 


If You Say: 

I saw your ad in the American Agricul¬ 
turist when ordering from our advertisers, 
you will benefit by our guarantee to refund the 
price of goods purchased by any subscriber 
from any advertiser who fails to make good if 
the article purchased is found npt to be as 
advertised. 

No trouble, that. And you insure yourself 
from trouble. 



































































































































American Agriculturist, July 21,1923 


41 


June Milk Pool Price $2.00 

Farm News From New Jersey and Pennsylvania 


T HE Dairymen’s League Cooperative 
Association announces that the 
gross pool price for the month of June 
is $2.00, which is 10 cents more than 
the gross pool price for May. From 
the gross pool price, the Association 
has deducted 10 cents, which is bor¬ 
rowed on Certificates of Indebtedness, 
and 8% cents, which is to defray ex¬ 
penses of administration, advertising, 
etc. This leaves a net cash price to 
farmers of $1.81%. 

It is most significant that the June 
price is above the May price. Ordi¬ 
narily June prices are lower, due to 
the heavy surplus resulting from flush 
of production. 

Better prices for by-products, such 
as skim milk, taking care of the sur¬ 
plus, increased business due to adver¬ 
tising, are all tending to increase the 
efficiency of the organization. 


NEW JERSEY COUNTY NOTES 

Salem Co.—We have had a great deal 
of dry, hot weather. The drought has 
cut short the hay crop. If we are 
lucky, we may cut a second cutting 
that will help fill the mows, so that we 
may have a little to sell, which we 
usually do, profitably. The drouth cut 
short the pea crop, but growers will 
come out fairly well as prices are 
unusually good. The strawberry crop 
was cut something terrible. Some who 
expected reasonably good results did 
not pick a quart of berries Those who 
were lucky enough to have berries had 
a terrible time getting pickers. We al¬ 
ways used to get for pickers Italian 
families from the city, but this season 
they were not to be had at any price. 
The industries in the cities are so ac¬ 
tive that all the available help is used 
to better advantage, therefore they were 
scarcer and more independent than 
ever. Those we did get we had to pay 
their transportation both ways as well 
as a big bonus for the agent who pro¬ 
cured them. After paying for picking 
and transportation, which by the way is 
just about double what it was a few 
years ago, we just about break even. 
Some farmers were not as fortunate. 
We have been having difficulty in 
setting out tomatoes, cabbage, peppers 
and sweets as the ground is terribly 
dry. Corn is looking fair, while early 
potatoes are quite the contrary. Grapes 
and fruit trees look fairly good. The 
crop however, will not be abundant. 
Rhubarb and asparagus paid very well. 
The latter cut quite late and brought 
good prices. The bottom has fallen out 
of the egg market and hens do not seem 
to be laying well either. Farmers 
throughout this section planned to plant 
about as many late potatoes as usual, 
although general conditions are not 
known. Still the farmer keeps on 
planting and sowing and more than 
likely will probably have difficulty in 
getting prices to dig up the potatoes.— 
S. B. 

Hunterdon Co.—Wheat harvest was 
in full swing during the first week in 
July. The drought still continues and 
has been very hard on the farmers. 
The hay crop is very scant, not being 
over twenty per cent of a crop. The 
oats crop will be short. Some farmers 
are cutting it to feed to cows. Corn 
is looking good. Early potatoes will be 
a failure. Prices are holding up very 
well. Cherries find ready sale at $2 
a basket. Potatoes are selling at $2.50 
a bushel at retail. Eggs 25c a dozen, 
butter 60c, corn $1 a bushel, wheat 
$1.25, oats 50c, hay $20. However there 
is no hay in this part of the State for 
sale. The market for cows is very 
dull. Farmers are exchanging help as 
there is no help to get on the farm. 
Many farms are lying idle.—J. R. F. 


CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA NOTES 

Making hay is in full swing and the 
weather has been favorable for the 
job. The crop is short, but hay is fine 
in quality. Pastures are short. Corn 
is being cultivated for the last time. 
It has grown well during the dry 
weather. Potatoes are suffering on ac¬ 
count of drought. Wheat is coloring 
rapidly and will be ready to harvest by 
the last of this month. Oats are very 


short in the stalk and need rain to make 
a good crop. 

Cherries are a good crop. Peaches 
and plums will be fair, but apples will 
make only a half crop. Strawberries 
were a short crop due to dry weather. 

Owing to scarcity of help, many 
tenants on large farms are either buy¬ 
ing small farms or are going to quit 
in spring. Maine Turner bought Peter 
Stohl’s farm of 40 acres in Buffalo 
township for $3,500. Harry Klinger 
bought Seth Zimmerman’s 40-acre farm 
near Miffiinburg for $10,000. Emma 
C. Beifer sold her farm of 167 acres 
in Buffalo township to James H. Straub 
for $14,500. George Boyer, the tenant, 
will have sale in the spring and move 
to Vicksburg. The White Deer Water 
Company bought Jacob Bowersox’s 62- 
acre farm for $3,000. At a recent pub¬ 
lic sale, Henry Frock’s farm of 40 acres 
near Vicksburg was bid to $8,500, but 
not sold, as he wants $8,800 for it in¬ 
cluding part of the corn crop for the 
silo.—J. N. Glover. 

Tioga Co.—The dry spell of late June 
was broken by nice showers that did 
a world of good. The farmers are well 
along with haying, which will be a short 
crop on account of the dry weather. 
Oats look fairly good. Corn is l’ather 
late, but is growing nicely now. Pas¬ 
tures look like August on account of 
the dry weather. The apple and pear 
crop will be rather short this year. 
Strawberries brought 25c a quart.— 
Mrs. W. C. G. 


LONG NEWS IN SHORT 
PARAGRAPHS 

The Carded Wool Manufacturers’ As¬ 
sociation of Boston, Mass., is sending 
a statement to the wool growers of 
the country attempting to prove that 
a law which would compel manu¬ 
facturer's who label the amount of 
wool in garments would result in in¬ 
jury to all concerned. They say that 
such a law would be impossible to en¬ 
force and that any increased demand 
for wool resulting therefrom would 
benefit only the importers of wool and 
not the domestic producers. 

It is possible that the manufacturers 
are right and that the law would be 
difficult to enforce, but their point 
seems to be very poorly taken, that in¬ 
creased demand would not affect the 
price of domestic producers. Increased 
demand always helps prices. 

Sheep in the United States have for 
several years produced about 110,000,- 
000 pounds of wool (scoured weight). 
This is about one-third of the amount 
of wool consumed for clothing by the 
American people. Domestic require¬ 
ments are increasing with the growth 
of population while the number of sheep 
remains about stationary. This would 
indicate that the farmer who likes and 
understands sheep, and has a farm 
adapted to them, can be fairly certain 
of making a success with sheep during 
the next decade. 

* * * 

Wheat went down to a dollar in the 
Chicago market on July 9. On this day 
also the first carload of new wheat ar¬ 
rived. Before the war, dollar wheat 
would have seemed a wonderful price 
to the growers. To-day it is far below 
the cost of production and the world’s 
surplus bids fair to keep it there. It 
would seem that diversified farming is 
the only answer to the American wheat 
farmers’ problem. 

* * * 

For some time there has been a great 
migration of colored farm hands from 
the farms of the South to the cities in 
the North. This has gone so far that 
in some sections where the negroes once 
greatly predominated in number, there 
are now more whites than negroes left. 
In Georgia alone, during the past year, 
32,000 colored farm hands migrated. 
* * * 

The seventeen-year locust has 
appeared in several sections this sum¬ 
mer. The appearance of this insect 
always causes interest and comment 
chiefly because the same brood comes 
back only once in seventeen years. 
However, because there are several 
different broods, wf see them fairly 
frequently. 


A 
for 


Cutter 
Money 




Y OUR dollars buy more when invested in the 1923 
Papec. It has positive-action Self-feed that saves 
a man at the feeding table. Also other important 
improvements. Retains the simple sturdy Papec con¬ 
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in a specially equipped factory enables us to offer 

The 1923 






Ensilage Cutter 

At a Price in line with Farm Products 

There hasn’t been such an opportunity in years to 
get the best Cutter to be had at a bed-rock price. 
With presenthigh-priced materials and labor, these 
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SAVES 
ONE 
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SDCDNY 

PEC. U-S. PAT. OFF. 

GASOLINE and MOTOR OIL 

Uniform Quality 
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jVJ^Y PROPERTY” will be sent free to 
every owner or manager of a farm who 
writes for it. It makes it easy for you to 
list in logical order all the things of value 
you own—your home and furniture, your 
barn and its contents, your produce, machin¬ 
ery, and personal property 

.v By sending you this booklet the Hartford 
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42 


American Agriculturist, July 21,1923 


“The Wisest Farmer I Ever Knew” 

(Continued from page 39) 


THIS IS YOUR MARKET PLACE 


Classified Advertising Rates 

A DVERTISEMENTS are inserted in this department at the rate of 5 cents a word. 
. The minimum charge per insertion is $1 per week. 

Count as one word each initial, abbreviation and whole number, including name 
and address. Thus: “J. B. Jones, 44 E. Main St., Mount Morris, N. Y.” counts as 
eleven words. 

Place your wants by following the style of the advertisements on this page. 

Our Advertisements Guaranteed 

T HE American Agriculturist accepts only advertising which it believes to be 
thoroughly honest. 

We positively guarantee to our readers fair and honest treatment in dealing with 
cur advertisers. 

We guarantee to refund the price of goods purchased by our subscribers from any 
advertiser who fails to make good when the article purchased is found not to be 
as advertised. 

To benefit by this guarantee subscribers must say : “I saw your ad in the Ameri¬ 
can Agriculturist” when ordering fr«m our advertisers. 

The More You Tell, The Quicker You Sell 

E VERY week the American Agriculturist reaches over 120,000 farmers In New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and adjacent States. Advertising orders must 
reach our office at 461 Fourth Avenue, New York City not later than the second 
Monday previous to date of issue. Cancellation orders must reach us on the same 
schedule. Because of the low rate to subscribers and their friends, cash or money 
Order must accompany your order. 

ALL GOOD THINGS COME TO HIM WHO WAITS — BUT 
THE CHAP WHO DOESN’T ADVERTISE WAITS LONGEST 


EGGS AND POULTRY 


SO MANY ELEMENTS enter into the ship¬ 
ping of day-old chicks and eggs by our ad¬ 
vertisers, and the hatching of same by our 
subscribers that the publishers of this paper 
cannot guarantee the safe arrival of day-old 
chicks, or that eggs shipped shall reach the 
buyer unbroken, nor can they guarantee the 
hatching of eggs. We shall continue to exer¬ 
cise the greatest care in allowing poultry and 
egg advertisers to use this paper, but our re¬ 
sponsibility must end with that. 


CHICKS—S. C. Buff White and Brown Leg¬ 
horns, $9—100 ; Barred Rocks, $10—100 ; W. 
Rocks, $12—100; Reds, $11—100 ; Mixed 
light breeds, $8—100 ; Mixed heavy breeds, 
$9—100. All Number One chicks. Circular 
free. JACOB NIEMOND, Box A, McAlister- 
ville, Pa. 


MARCH AND APRIL Hatched Pullets from 
two hundred-egg record stock “Leghorns,” 
“Anconas,” “Barred Rocks,” “Rhode Island 
Reds,” from $1.25 up. Free circular. GLEN 
ROCK NURSERY AND STOCK FARM, Ridge¬ 
wood, N. J. 


THIRTY-FIVE One- and Two-Year Old White 
Leghorn Hens—12 Anconas, A-l stock, $1.25 
each. One 500-chick new coal-burning hover, 
$12; SUNNY VIEW FARM, Troupsburg, N. Y. 


BARRON WHITE LEGHORNS — 303-egg 
strain ; chix, $8 per 100. Immediate de¬ 
livery pullets, hens. Not a hatchery. MAPLE 
ACRES FARM, Tiffin, Ohio. 


S. C. ANCONA COCK BIRD—Price $7.50. 
Wonderful shape ; used as breeder. F. DEIFER, 
419 Oak Street, Allentown, Pa. 


CHICKS—White Leghorn “Barron” strain, 
$8—100 ; Reds, $10. EMPIRE HATCHERY, 
Seward, N. Y. 


SEEDS AND NURSERY STOCXS 


CELERY AND CABBAGE PLANTS—Strong 
plants ready for field, of all leading varieties, 
$1.25 per t,000. Parcel post, 5 cents per 100 
extra. Cauliflower plants, early Snowball— 
strong, $3 per 1.000. Send for list. J. C. 
SCHMIDT, Bristol, Pa. 


MILLIONS OF CELERY AND CABBAGE 
Plants, $2.50 per 1,000. Over 5,000 at $2 per 
1,000. Special prices on large orders. Early 
Snowball Cauliflower plants, $3.50 per 1,000 
straight. WELLS M. DODDS, North Rose, 
N. Y. 


PLiN^—Celery, $2.50 per 1,000; $11.25 
per 5,000 ; Cabbage, $2.50 per 1,000 ; $10 per 
5,000. Strong selected plants. WM. P. 
YEAGLE, Bristol, Pa. 


THREE FOXGLOVE ROOTS—1 Spirae and 
3 Ferns for $1.00 postpaid. All hardy. E. 
RANKIN, 11th Street, Astoria, Ore. 


DOGS AND PET STOCK 


FARM DOG—English Shepherds ; pups and 
drivers. Natural instinct to handle cattle. 
Credit given if requested. Nine litters ready 
now. W. W. NORTON, Ogdensburg, N. Y. 

LOOK 1 — Rub your eyes and read again ! 
English and Welsh Shepherd Pups at reduced 
price for short time. GEO. BOORMAN, 
Marathop, N. Y. 

HOUNDS— y 4 English Bloodhound, y 4 Wil¬ 
liams Foxhound, y 2 Coon and Skunk-hunting 
Shepherd, six months old, farm-raised; $8— 
$15, 22 inches high. HENRY LIPP, Long 
E^dv, N. Y. 

FLEMISH GIANT RABBITS—The big kind, 
young and mature stock, fully pedigreed and 
l ealthy. Write wants. T. A. WIL90N, 
Marion, N. Y. 


COLLIE PUPPIES—All ages, bred bitches. 
PAINE’S KENNELS, South Royalton, Vt. 


AGENTS WANTED 


AGENTS WANTED—Agents make a dol¬ 
lar an hour. Sell Mendets, a patent parch 
lor instant mending leaks in all utensils. 
Sample package free. COLLETTE MFG. .00. 
Dept. 210, Amsterdam, N. Y. 


REAL ESTATE * 


MODERN POULTRY AND DAIRY FARM — 
70 acres, 45 tillable, nearly all level, located in 
beautiful Berkshire hills, % mile to village, 
large lawns, great maple shade trees, modern 11- 
room house, electric lights, bath, hot and cold 
running water, steam heat. Main barn electric 
lighted — running water, silo. Hay barn, 
granary, garage, ice-house, corn house, poultry 
houses for 1,500 fowls ; 1,200-egg Candee in¬ 
cubator, Candee brooders for 1,000 chicks; 6 
large colony houses. All kinds fruit and ber¬ 
ries, 2 cows, young horse, 350 chickens, equip¬ 
ment and quantity of furniture included. Must 
be sold at once. Price, $13,000 ; terms. Fur¬ 
ther particulars, E. BRIZZIE, Chatham, N. Y. 


FOR SALE—131-acre New York dairy farm, 
high cultivation ; near churches, stores, school ; 
good buildings, silo, outbuildings, running 
water in house, barn, milkhouse ; Federal-tested 
dairy, or without. BOX 306, American Agri¬ 
culturist, 461 Fourth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 


SWINE 


PIGS FOR SALE—365 Chester and York¬ 
shire cross and Berkshire and Chester cross, 
8 weeks old, $5 each. Ready for shipment by 
July 1st. Bred from large type of sows and 
boars. Pigs that are worthwhile feeding. Also 
60 of a very select lot of Chester and York¬ 
shire cross, 10 weeks old; these are little 
beauties, at $6 each. Will ship any num¬ 
ber of either lot C. O. D. for your approval. 
A.BERJONA FARM, Box 83, Woburn, Mass. 


PIGS FOR SALE — 75 Chester and York¬ 
shire cross and Berkshire and Chester cross, 
barrows, boars and sows. This is an extra 
fine lot of pigs, bred from large stock ; pigs, 
7 to 8 weeks old, $5 each ; and 9 weeks old, 
$6.50 each. Also a very select lot of fierk- 
shire and Yorkshire cross, 10 weeks old, at 
$7 each. Will ship any amount of the above 
lots C. O. D. on approval. A. M. LUX, 206 
Washington Street, Woburn, Mass. 


REGISTERED DUROC WEANED PIGS— 
$10, either sex, including papers, crating, de¬ 
livering. Quick-growing husky rascals. CHAS. 
MEARSON, Weedsport, N. Y. 


PEDIGREED O. I. C. PIGS — $15 pair. 
Registered-bred sows cheap. Collie pups. EL 
BRITON FARM, Route 1. Hudson, N. Y. 


CATTLE 


WANTED — Registered Holstein heifer under 
2 years, from record dam; also from TB 
tested herd. Send description to FLOYD A. 
MOOTZ, North Branch, N. Y. 


REGISTERED AYRSHIRES—We have priced 
for immediate sale, six well-bred 2-vear old 
heifers. ARDEN HILL FARMS, Alfred Sta¬ 
tion, N. Y. 


BEES 


WILLOWDELL 3-BAND Italian Queens, by 
return mail. They get results; one, $1.15; 
6 for $6 ; 12 for $10. H. S. OSTRANDER, 
Mellenville, N. Y. 


HONEY—New Crop Clover, 5 lbs. $1.10; 10 
lbs. $2. Buckwheat, $1 and $1.75. M. E. 
BALLARD, Roxbury, N. Y. 


FEMALE HELP WANTED 


HOUSEKEEPER—A refined, companionable 
girl or middle-aged woman fond of children, 
for general housework in family of three; 
good home and pleasant surroundings, in town 
within commuting distance of New York. 
MRS. E. F. SPITZ, 56 Park Ave., Suffern, N. Y. 


WANTED WOMEN, GIRLS—Learn gown¬ 
making at home ; $35.00 week. Sample lessons 
free. FRANKLIN INSTITUTE, Dept. A542, 
Rochester, N. Y. 


HELP WANTED 


ALL men. women, boys, girls. 17 to 60. will¬ 
ing to accept Government positions. $117-$1P0 
traveling or stationary, write MR. GZMENT. 
258 St. Louis, Mo., immediately. 


course in agriculture was a member 
of that class. So far as he knows he 
is the only survivor of the class'. That 
class was in operation from early in 
February to near the end of June— 
somewhat less than five months. Brief 
as was our relationship as teacher and 
pupil I still look upon that experience 
as the most vital event of my college 
course and one of the most important 
in my life. 

My memory does not retain very 
much regarding the details of the in¬ 
struction received from Professor 
Roberts during those last five months 
of my college course, nor am I able to 
satisfactorily explain the benefits that 
I feel sure I received from his in¬ 
struction. I was a real farm boy, in¬ 
structed somewhat in sciences having 
a bearing on agriculture; he was a 
real “dirt farmer,” but he was much 
more than that. He was a philosopher 
whose mind grasped the agricultural 
significance of the teachings of science 
the most readily and rapidly of any 
man I ever knew. In a small class 
there is opportunity for close personal 
contacts—many questions and answers. 
One of the first and strongest im¬ 
pressions that Professor Roberts made 
upon me in those early days was, that 
he “jumped at his conclusions.” He 
did not seem to pause to consider the 
questions put to him. I soon came to 
realize, however, that though he might 
jump at conclusions he was a remark¬ 
ably straight jumper. He could size 
up a new proposition and fix on the 
significant features of it almost in¬ 
stantly. Considering that he had not 
been favored with extended school op¬ 
portunities, he had a wonderful fund 
of practical knowledge and a store of 
scientific facts which must have been 
acquired from his general readings. 
His native common sense enabled him 
to use this knowledge most efficiently. 

Much of the information I had ac¬ 
quired during my college course was 
held as a lot of unrelated facts, and 
their bearing on practical agriculture 
was not clearly discerned. While I 
did not understand it at the time, it 
now seems to me that Professor 
Roberts’ way of looking at things 
seems to have enabled me to connect 
up the facts and discover their prac¬ 
tical bearings as I had not been able 
to do. It was not the new information 
acquired during those four or five 
months that made my contact with 
Professor Roberts so vital to me as 
much as the insight that he gave me 
as to how to use the information I 
had already acquired. I believe it is 
this quality of Professor Roberts’ teach¬ 
ing that accounts for much of his 
unusual success as an instructor of 
students. 

It is generally stated that the Short 
Course in Agriculture at Cornell be- 


SITUATIONS WANTED 


WANTED—Place to work on small farm by 
the month. W. B. GROVER, Conewango 
Valley, N. Y. 


MISCELLANEOUS 


ESTEEMED PATRON—It will pay you to 
send 50 cents and get the household necessity, 
a waterproof folding shopping bag, size 12 by 
18 inches. Money refunded if not proven sat¬ 
isfactory. Agents wanted. Address, O. F. 
ECKELS, P. O. Box 323, New Haven, Conn. 


ALL-WOOL HAND AND MACHINE Knitting 
Yarns for sale. We are also doing custom- 
work at the same old prices. Write for sam¬ 
ples and particulars. H. A. BARTLETT, 
Harmony, Maine. 


KODAK FINISHING—Trial offer. Any size 
film developed for 5 cents. Prints, 3 cents 
each. Over-night service. Expert work 
YOUNG PHOTO SERVICE, 40 R Bertha St., 
Albany, N. Y. 


EAT APPLE PIE ALL SUMMER—Wayne 
County Evaporated Apples. Best in the world. 
Stock for 12 pies, $1.00 postpaid. Good till 
used. ALVAH H. PULVER, Sodus, N. Y. 


LATEST STYLE SANITARY MILK TICK¬ 
ETS save money and tim». Free delivery. 
Send for samples. TRAVERS BROTHERS, 
Dept. A, Gardner, Mass, 


TWENTY TONS HARDWOOD ASHES de¬ 
livered your railway station, $400. GEORGE 
STEVENS, Peterborough, Ontario. 


EXTENSION LADDERS—27c foot; three- 
leg fruit ladders, 30c foot. Freight paid. A. 
L.' FERRIS, Interlaken, N. Y. 


FERRETS—Prices free. Book on Ferrets, 
10 cents. Muzzles, 25 cents. BERT EWELL, 
Wellington, Ohio. ' 


gan in 1893-94, but I am of the opinion 
it began in February, 1874, with the 
work of Professor Roberts. 

During the twenty-three years that 
I was farming in Pennsylvania he 
visited me at the farm four or five 
times and I found those visits ex¬ 
ceedingly helpful. It was at his in¬ 
vitation that I came to Cornell in 1897 
to take part in the extension work that 
was then being inaugurated on a more 
extended scale. For six years, 1897- 
1903, I was closely associated vith 
him in the extension work, of which 
he was director. My duties as an ex¬ 
tension worker brought me into close 
touch with many farmers throughout 
the State. In his autobiography Pro¬ 
fessor Roberts speaks of the attitude 
of the farmers of the State towards 
the college and experiment station and 
towards himself. It ranged all the 
way from mildly favorable to indiffer¬ 
ence and active hostility. When I be¬ 
gan my work among New York farm¬ 
ers, I found that most of the hostility 
to the agricultural work of Cornell had 
disappeared and many were enthusias¬ 
tically favorable. I found more op¬ 
portunities to defend the experiment 
station at Geneva against criticism 
than I did Cornell. I am sure that 
Professor Roberts’ touch with the 
farmers during previous years had 
been most effective in removing mis¬ 
understanding between farmers and 
the agricultural institutions and with¬ 
out doubt he did more to “bridge the 
chasm” between the farmers and the 
scientific men than any other person. 

The significance and appraisal of 
his work at Cornell for the agriculture 
of the State and the nation I will leave 
for other and abler hands, but during 
all the years I have been permitted 1 1 
associate with him I have found him 
a helpful advisor, a sympathizing 
friend in sorrow and an understand¬ 
ing and appreciative administrator. 


New York Hay and Cabbage Prospects 

(Continued from page 40) 

than we can get out of timothy hay 
that gets nearly ripe before it is cut. 
Our farmers are dreadfully short of 
help, but they are wonderfully resource¬ 
ful and I’ll risk them in this or any 
emergency rather than the financier I 
was just reading about who would scrap 
the Interstate Commerce Commission. 

Cabbage Acreage Will be Lower 

At a local vegetable growers’ meeting 
just held one thing was apparent. These 
men are going to grow less cabbage 
this year than has been the custom. 
The State report indicates a reduction 
in the crop of five per cent from last 
year. In this group the indicated re¬ 
duction was very much more. I am 
not sure how it may be throughout the 
State when the acreage is finally de¬ 
termined, but I look for a much smaller 
acreage than the early reports indicated. 
The reason for the reduction is largely 
lack of help, but the reported large 
acreage and the low prices of last year 
are important factors. These men even 
indicate that they will not in the 
future grow cabbage as they once did. 
One can readily discount this state¬ 
ment, but it indicates the present feel¬ 
ing. 

Cabbage has been nearly our only 
cash crop for a while, although pota¬ 
toes are grown to some extent. Pota¬ 
toes have not been raised as much for 
a few years and the plantings wid be 
light this year. Low prices are like 1 v 
to destroy almost any industry if ern- 
tinued, especially when labor is hard to 
get. Even the dairy cows are some¬ 
what fewer in number, but cows are 
being kept more nearly up to the aver¬ 
age. Cows seem to be somewhat in de¬ 
mand. A given amount of work on the 
dairy herd seems to return better re¬ 
sults than almost anything else. We 
all know that milk is much too low, 
but dairymen are pinching along and 
getting something out of it in one way 
or another. The dairy is the standbv I 
am not looking for cabbage to be dis¬ 
carded, but here there will be less of it 
until prices or labor, or both are bette’” 
adjusted. It rather locks to me that if 
the work can be done, one may as well 
grow as many this year as can be fed 
to the cows. There may be a chance 
to sell some. 



















































































American Agriculturist, July 21,1923 


43 


The Brown Mouse — By Herbert Quick 


“TT7ELL,” said Jennie, “do you desire to rest your case’ right here?” 

VV Mr. Bonner made no reply to this, and Jennie turned to Jim. 

“Now, Mr. Irwin,” said she, “while you have been following out these very in¬ 
teresting and original methods, what have you done in the way of teaching the 
things called for by the course of study?” 

“What is the course of study?” queried Jim. “Is it anything more than an out¬ 
line of the mental march the pupils are ordered to make? Take reading: why 
does it give the children any greater mastery of the printed page to read about 
Casabianca on the burning deck, than about the cause of the firing of corn by hot 
weather? And how can they be given better command of language than by writ¬ 
ing about things they have found out in relation to some of the sciences which 
are laid under contribution by farming? Everything they do runs into num¬ 
bers, and we do more arithmetic than the course requires. There isn’t any branch 
of study—not even poetry and art and music—that isn’t touched by life. If there 
is, we haven’t time for it in the fommon schools. We work out from life to every¬ 
thing in the course of study.” 

“Do you mean to assert,” queried Jennie, “that while you have been doing all 
this extra work you haven’t neglected anything?” 

“I mean,” said Jim, “that I’m willing to stand or fall on an examination 
of these children' in the very text-books we are accused of neglecting.” 


' Jennie looked steadily at Jim for a 
full minute, and at the clock. It was 
nearly time for adjournment. 

“How many pupils of the Woodruff 
school are here?” she asked. 

A mass of the audience, in the midst 
of which sat Jennie’s father, rose. 

“Why,” said Jennie, “I should say we 
had a quorum, anyhow! How many 
will come back to-morrow morning at 
nine o’clock, and bring your school¬ 
books? Please lift hands.” 

Nearly every hand went up. 

“And, Mr. Irwin,” she went on, “will 
you have the school records, so we may 
be able to ascertain the proper standing 
of these pupils?” 

“I will,” said Jim. 

“Then,” said Jennie, “we’ll adjourn 
until nine o’clock. We’ll have school 
here to-morrow. And, Mr. Irwin, 
please remember that you state that 
you’ll stand or fall on the mastery by 
these pupils of the text-books they are 
supposed to have neglected.” 

“Not. the mastery of the text,” said 
Jim. “But their ability to do the work 
the text is supposed to fit them for.” 

“Well,” said Jennie, “I don’t know 
but that’s fair.” 

“But,” said Mrs. Haakon Peterson, 
“we don’t want our children brought up 
to be yust farmers. Suppose we move 
to town—where does the culture come 
in?” 

% 'Jfi ^ . 

The Chicago papers had a news item 
which covered the result of the exam¬ 
inations; but the great sensation of the 
Woodruff District lay in the Sunday 
feature carried by one of them. 

I T had a picture of Jim Irwin, and 
one of Jennie Woodruff—the latter 
authentic, and the former gleaned from 
the morgue, and apparently the portrait 
of a lumber-jack. There was also a 
very free treatment by the cartoonist of 
Mr. Simms carrying a rifle with the in¬ 
tention of shooting up the school board 
in case the decision went against the 
schoolmaster. 

“When it became known,” said the 
news story, “that the schoolmaster had 
bet his job on the proficiency of his 
school in studies alleged to have been 
studiously neglected, the excitement 
rose to fever heat. Local sports bet 
freely on the result, the odds being eight 
to five on General Proficiency against 
the field. The field was Jim Irwin and 
his school. And the way those rural kids 
rose in their might and ate up the text¬ 
books was simply scandalous. There 
was a good deal of nervousness on the 
part of some of the small starters, and 
some bursts of tears at excusable fail¬ 
ures. But when the fight was over, and 
the dead and wounded cared for, the 
school board and the county superin¬ 
tendent were forced to admit that they 
wished the average school could do as 
well under a similar test. 

“The local Mr. Dooley is Cornelius 
Bonner, a member of the ‘board.’ When 
asked for a statement of his views after 
the county superintendent had decided 
that her old sweetheart was to be al¬ 
lowed the priceless boon of earning 
forty dollars a month during the re¬ 
mainder of his contract, Mr. Bonner 
said, ‘Aside from being licked, we’re 
all right. But we’ll get this guy yet, 
-don’t fergit that!’ ” 

“ ‘The examinations tind to show,’ 
said Mr. Bonner, when asked for his 
opinion'on the result, ‘that in or-r-rder 
to' larn anything you shud shtudy some¬ 
thin’ ilse. Btit we’ll git this guy yit!’ ” 


“Jim,” said Colonel Woodruff, as they 
rode home together, “the next heat is 
the election. We’ve got to control that 
board next year—and we’ve got to do 
it by electing one out of three.” 

“Is that a possibility?” asked Jim. 
“Aren’t we sure to be defeated at last? 
Shouldn’t I quit at the end of my con¬ 
tract? Is it worth the fight?” 

“It’s not only possible,” replied the 
colonel, “but probable. As for being 
worth while—why, this thing is too big 
to drop. I’m just beginning to under¬ 
stand what you’re driving at. And I 
like being a wild-eyed reformer more 
and more.” 

CHAPTER XIV 

THE COLONEL TAKES THE FIELD 

E VERY Iowa County has its Farm¬ 
ers’ Institute. The Woodruff Dis¬ 
trict was interested in the Institute be¬ 
cause of the fact that a rural-school 
exhibit was one of its features that 
year, and that Colonel Woodruff had 
secured an urgent invitation to the 
school to take part in it. 

“We’ve got something new out in 
our district school,” said hfe to the presi¬ 
dent of the institute. 

“So I hear,” said the president— 
“mostly a fight, isn’t it?” 

“Something more,” said the colonel. 
“If you’ll persuade our school to make 
an exhibit of real rural work in a real 
rural school, I’ll promise you something 
worth seeing and discussing.” 

Such exhibits are now so common 
that it is not worth while to describe 
it; but then, the sight of a class of 
children testing and weighing milk, 
examining grains for viability and foul 
seeds, planning crop rotations, judg¬ 
ing grains and live stock was so new 
in that county as to be the real sen¬ 
sation of the institute. 

Two persons were a good deal em¬ 
barrassed by the success of the exhibit. 
One was the county superintendent, 
who was constantly in receipt of un¬ 
deserved compliments upon her wisdom 
in fostering “really practical work in 
the schools.” The other was Jim Irwin, 


who was becoming famous, and who 
felt he had done nothing to deserve 
fame. Professor Withers, an extension 
lecturer from Ames, took Jim to din¬ 
ner at the best hotel in the town, for 
the purpose of talking over with him 
the needs of the rural schools. Jim 
was in agony. The colored waiter 
fussed about trying to keep Jim in the 
beaten track of hotel manners, and 
juggled back into place the silverware 
misappropriated to alien and unusual 
uses. But, when the meal had pro¬ 
gressed to the stage of conversation, 
the waiter noticed that gradually the 
uncouth farmer became master of the 
situation, and the well-groomed college 
professor the interested listener. 

“You’ve got to come down to our 
farmers’ week next year, and tell us 
about these things,” said he to Jim. 
“Can’t you?” 

Jim’s brain reeled. He go to a 
gathering of real educators and tell his 
crude notions! How could he get the 
money for his expenses? But he had 
that gameness which goes with supreme 
confidence in the thing dealt with. 

“I’ll come,” said he. 

“Thank you,” said the Ames man. 
“There’s a small honorarium attached, 
you know.” 

J IM was staggered. What was an 
honorarium? He tried to remember 
what an honorarium is, and could get 
no further than the thought that it is 
in some way connected with the Latin 
root of “honor.” Was he obliged to 
pay an honorarium for the chance to 
speak before the college gathering? 
Well, he’d save money and pay it. 

“I—I’ll try to take care of the honor¬ 
arium,” said he. “I’ll come.” 

The professor laughed. It was the 
first joke the gangling innovator had 
perpetrated. 

“It won’t bother you to take care of 
it,” said he, “but if you’re not too ex¬ 
travagant it will pay you your expenses 
and give you a few dollars over.” 

Jim breathed more freely. 

“All right,” he exclaimed. “I’ll be 
glad to come!” 

“Let’s consider that settled,” said the 
professor. “And now I must be going 
back to the opera-house. My talk on 
soil sickness comes next. I tell you, 
the winter wheat crop has been—” 

But Jim was not able to think much 
of the winter wheat problem as they 
went back to the auditorium. He was 
worth putting on the program at a 
State meeting! He was actually worth 
paying for his thoughts. 

Calista Simms thought she saw some¬ 
thing shining and saint-like about the 
homely face of her teacher as he came 
to her post in the room in which the 
school exhibit was held. Calista was 
in charge of the little children whose 
work was to be demonstrated that day, 
and was in a state of exaltation to 
which her starved being had hitherto 
been a stranger. She yearned over the 


children in her care, and would have 
been glad to die for them—and besides 
was not Newton Bronson in charge of 
the corn exhibit, and a member of the 
corn-judging team? To the eyes, of the 
town girls who passed about among 
the exhibits, she was poorly dressed; 
but if they could have seen the clothes 
she had worn on that evening when 
Jim Irwin first called at their cabin 
and failed to give a whoop from the 
big road, they could perhaps have un¬ 
derstood the sense of wellbeing and 
happiness in Calista’s soul at the feel¬ 
ing of her whole clean underclothes, her 
neat, if cheap, dress, and the “bought- 
en” cloak she wore—and any of them, 
even without knowledge of this, might 
have understood Calista’s joy at the 
knowledge that Newton Bronson’s eyes 
were on her from his station by the 
big pillar, no matter how many town 
girls filed by. 

“Hello, Calista!” said Jim. “How 
are you enjoying it?” 

“Oh!” said Calista, and drew a long, 
long breath. “Ah’m enjoying myse’f 
right much, Mr. Jim.” 

“Any of the home folks coming in 
to see?” 

“Yes, seh,” answered Calista. “All 
the school board have stopped «by this 
morning.” 

Jim looked about him. He wished 
he could see and shake hands with his 
enemies, Bronson, Peterson and Bon¬ 
ner: and if he could tell them of his 
success with Professor Withers of the 
State Agricultural College, perhaps 
they would feel differently toward him. 
There they were now, over in a corner, 
with their heads together. He went 


WHAT HAS HAPPENED 

IM IRWIN is on trial! He 
has endeavored to introduce 
new methods into the District 
School and the school board has 
impeached him for incompetency. 

Worse yet, his old sweetheart 
Jennie Woodruff, now County 
Superintendent, is presiding at 
the .trial. Col. Woodruff, her 
father, is in the audience, but no 
one suspects him of having ad¬ 
ministered encouragement to the 
perplexed young teacher, nor of 
rounding up the eager young¬ 
sters who come to court to be ex¬ 
amined in the studies Jim is ac¬ 
cused of neglecting. 

The case against Jim has been 
presented. 


toward them, his face still beaming 
with that radiance which had shone so 
plainly to the eyes of Calista Simms, 
but they saw in it only a grin of exul¬ 
tation over his defeat of them at the 
hearing before Jennie Woodruff. When 
Jim had drawn so close as almost to 
call for the extended hand, he felt the 
repulsion of their attitudes and sheered 
off on some pretended errand to a dark 
corner across the room. 

They resumed their talk. 

“I’m a Dimocrat,” said Con Bonner, 
“and you fellers is Republicans, but 
when it comes to electing my successor, 
I think we shouldn’t divide on party 
lines.” 

“The fight about the teacher,” said 
Haakon Peterson, “is a t’ing of the 
past. All our candidates got odder 
yobs now.” 

“Yes,” said Ezra Bronson. “Prue 
Foster wouldn’t take our school now 
if she could get it.” 

“And as I was sayin’,” went on 
Bonner, “I want to get this guy, Jim 
Irwin. An’ bein’ the cause of his gittin’ 
the school, I’d like to be on the board 
to kick him off; but if you fellers would 
like to have some one else, I won’t run, 
and if the right feller is named, I’ll 
line up what friends I got for him.” 

“You got no friend can git as many 
wotes as you can,” said Peterson. “I 
tank you better run.” 

“What say, Ez?” asked Bonner. 

“Suits me all right,” said Bronson. 

“All right,” returned Bonner,. “I’ll 
take the office again. Let’s not start 
too soon, but say we begin about a 
week from Sunday to .line up our 
{Continued on page 45) 

• :•] pm 












44 


American Agriculturist, July 21,1923 


Eat What You Can, 

The Important Steps of This Important 


and What You Can’t—Can 

Summer Occupation, with Tables for Different Foods 


M ORE cans adorn the shelves of care¬ 
ful housekeepers each summer than 
did the last. We are learning that 
practically every edible fruit, vegetable 
and meat may not only be put up but, 
if properly handled, will keep its flavor 
and food value unspoiled by the process. 


One vessel for unpeeled fruit (or 
vegetables before stringing, etc.) 

One vessel in which to drop fruit 
after peeling or for washiag vegetables 
and later for cold water. 

One pitcher from which the syrup 
or brine may easily be poured into jars. 


' TABLE OF CONDENSED INFORMATION ON CANNING FRUITS 


FRUIT 

Method of 
Preparation 

No. Minutes 
to Blanch 

Kind 

of 

Syrup 

No. min. 
process 

REMARKS 

pts. 

qts. 

Apples. 

wash, peel, core, slice 

1 to 2 

light 

15 

20 

If fruits are desired 
for pie filling they 
should be cooked 15 
to 20 minutes, poured 
into sterilized jars 
while very hot. syrup 
added, and sealed im¬ 
mediately. 

Apricots.- .... 

wash, peel, seed, slice 

15 sec. 

medium 

15 

20 

’'■‘•Blackberries. 

stem, wash 


light 

10 

15 

"'"'•Blueberries. . 

wash, stem 


light 

10 

15 

Cherries..... 

stem, wash, pit 

15 sec. 

medium 

20 

30 

Crabapples.. . 

wash, peel, core, slice 

1 to 2 

light 

10 

20 

Currants. . . . 

stem, wash 


medium 

10 

15 

•— Dewberries. . 

stem, wash 


medium 

10 

15 

-—- Elderberries. 

wash, stem 


light 

15 

20 


wash 

5 to 10 in 
soda 

medium or 
heavy 

30 

40 

% cup soda to 1 gallon 
water. 


—— Gooseberries. 

wash, stem 


medium 

10 

15 


Grapes. 

stem, wa«h 


medium 

10 

15 


— Loganberries. 

stem, wash 

15 sec. 

medium 

10 

15 


Mulberries. . 

wash, stem 


light 

15 

20 


Peaches. 

wash, peel, pit, slice 

15 to 30 sec. 

medium 

20 

25 

May be lye-peeled. 

Pears. 

wash, peel, core, slice 

15 to 30 sec. 

light or med. 

20 

30 


Pineapple. . . . 

wash, peel* slice 

10 

medium 

20 

30 

» 

Plumst. 

stem, wash, prick 

15 sec. 

light, or med. 

10 

15 


Quince. 

wash, core 

1 to 2 

medium 

15 

20 


. -Raspberries. . 

wash, stem 

15 sec. 

light or med. 

10 

15 


Strawberries. 

stem, wash 

15 sec. 

med. or heavy 

15 

25 



It has been estimated that 1,250 jars 
or 1,050 quarts of food will give^ a 
year’s supply for a family of five. Not 
all of us need depend so largely on 
canned foods, yet the woman who this 
year increases her store of preserved 
sweets, greens, relishes, semicoarse veg¬ 
etables and meats will be able to give 
her family the varied meals which sup¬ 
ply the many different food elements 
needed for health, and will also save 
herself trouble and money during the 
months when fresh supplies are not so 
plentiful. 

The science of home canning has been 
made very exact indeed and with the 
proper equipment and scrupulous at¬ 
tention to details, any woman can put 
her year’s supply in her home kitchen. 
The following list of" steps and tables 
give the essentials of the work in brief: 

1. Carefully wash all jars, covers, 
rubbers, canner and other equipment. 

2. Place jars and covers in canner, 
cover them with cold or tepid water.. 

3. Place canner over fire and sterilize 
j^rs at least ten minutes, after the 
water has reached boiling point. 

4. Place a second vessel of water over 
the fire, to be heated for blanching of 
vegetables. 

5. Sort, grade and wash products to 
be canned, being careful to discard any 
that are over-ripe or -decayed. 

6. Prepare in pieces of a desirable 
and convenient size for canning. 

7. Blanch in boiling water according 1 
to tables. 

J Cold dip vegetables, but not fruits. 
Green vegetables should be blanched in 
live steam. 

8. Pack into sterilized jars. 

9. Add syrup to fruits, and salt and 
water to vegetables. 

10. Dip rubber ring into hot soda 
water, using one teaspoon soda to one 
cup boiling water, then place it on the 
jar. 

11. Place cover in position and par¬ 
tially close—if screw top, screw cover 
half way on; if glass top, bring wire 
bail into position across top with a 
distinct click, but do not press clamp 
d:wn at side until the fruit or veget¬ 
able has been processed. 

12. Process in canner according to 
time given in tables. 

13. Remove jars from canner and 
press down clamp as each jar is taken 
cut. 

14. Invert jar to cool, and test joint 
for perfect seal. 

15. Store in cool place away from 
strong sunlight. 

A suggested equipment for efficient 
canning of fruit would be: 

One vessel, with false bottom to be 
used for canner. 

One vessel for blanching. 


One small vessel for soda water when 
cleansing rubber. 

One sharp paring knife. 

One tablespoon for use in packing. 

One cloth or wire basket, for blanch¬ 
ing. 

Cloths, or lifters, for handling jars. 

In preparing sugar syrup for fruits, 
follow this table: 

Light syrup, 2 cups sugar to one gal¬ 
lon water; medium s'yrup, 6 cups sugar 
to one gallon water; heavy syrup, 12 
cups sugar to one gallon water. 

Syrup should be boiled for 10 to 20 
minutes and strained through a cloth 
to remove impurities. 

To prepare brine for vegetables, dis¬ 
solve 5 tablespoons of salt in one gallon 
of warm water. If brine has any im¬ 
purities or sediment it should be 
strained. Dry salt is often added at 
the top of the jar, and then water is 
poured over till the jar is completely 
filled, using a level teaspoon of salt to 
to the quart. This is perhaps the easier 
method, but does not distribute the salt 
quite so evenly. 

A pressure cooker comes to be al¬ 
most an essential to the woman who 
does much home canning. Directions 
come with every commercial cooker, 
but in the main, follow the same prin¬ 
ciples. A pressure cooker is especially 
useful, for meats and some vegetables; 
it saves a great deal of time in pro¬ 
cessing and the outfits are now very 
compact and comparatively inexpensive. 

Never economize on rubbers, jars or 
other accessories. Every jar should be 
tested before using as should the rub¬ 
bers. 

Test Every Jar 

A Mason jar may be tested by plac¬ 
ing the lid on it without a rubber and 
attempting to insert the thumb nail be¬ 
tween the lid and the jar. If this can 
be done the jar is defective. Another 
test is to adjust the rubber and the 
lid and to pull out the rubber in one 
place. If the rubb&r stays out, the 
jar is good; if it springs back the jar 
is defective. 

The testing of any type of iar may 
be accomplished by partly filling the 
jar with boiling water, adjusting the 
cover and the rubber and sealing, and 
inverting the jar. If it leaks, it should 
be examined to determine whether the 
leakage is due to an imperfect jar, a 
poor rubber, or to improper adjustment 
of the wire clamp, in case a wire clamp 
is used. If any defect noticed cannot 
be remedied the jar should be reserved 
for pickles or some food that does not 
require' sealing. 

The Department of Agriculture, the 
Home Economics school at Ithaca, the 
Hazel-Atlas Glass Company of Wheel¬ 


ing, W. Va., and other commercial 
firms, have all issued valuable booklets 
on home canning, most of which are 
sent free on request. 


WHEN YOU COOK COOKIES 

OOKIES hold their place in the 
hearts of small boys, whatever other 
styles may change. Indeed, growing 
up rarely makes one forget this typ¬ 
ically American delicacy, and the good 
housewife is always on the lookout for 
new variations of the cookie recipe. 

. Mrs. Franklin Flower of Troy, N. Y., 
contributes two oatmeal cookie recipes, 
while Mrs. George Gray of East Spring- 
field, N. Y., sends us the other recipes 
which give a wide variety of flavors. 

Plain Oatmeal Cookies 

Cream together 2 eggs, 1 tablespoon 
butter, and IV 2 cups sugar. Add 1 cup 
milk, stir in 2 cups flour and 3 tea¬ 
spoons baking powder. Add 1 cup 
raisins, 1 teaspoon cinnamon, a little 
nutmeg and vanilla if desired. Stir, 
then add 2 cups rolled oats. Drop 
with teaspoon and bake. 

Molasses Oatmeal Cookies 

One egg, 1 tablespoon shortening, V 2 
cup brown sugar, 1 cup molasses, 1 tea¬ 
spoon each of salt, cinnamon, cloves 
and ginger; 1 cup of raisins. Add 2 
•teaspoons soda stirred into % cup boil¬ 
ing water. Add 2V 2 cups flour and 
about iy 2 cups rolled oats or enough to 
drop nicely. 

Chocolate Cookies 

One cup brown sugar, y 2 cup (scant) 
melted butter, 1 beaten egg, V 2 cup of 
sweet milk in which is dissolved X A tea¬ 
spoon soda, 1 V 2 cups flour, y 2 cup cocoa, 


1 teaspoon baking powder in flour, y 2 
cup nuts. Drop by teaspoon. Bake 
and ice with confectioners’ sugar. . , 

Peanut Butter Cookies 

One-half cup peanut butter blended 
with x / 2 cup (scant) melted shortening, 
X A cup sour milk, 1 cup sugar, 1 scant 
teaspoon soda, 3 cups flour. Roll thin 
and bake in rather hot oven. 

Ginger Snaps 

One coffee cup New Orleans molasses, 

1 cup butter, 1 cup sugar. Bring to a 
boil, ’fhen immediately add 1 teaspoon 
soda and 1 tablespoon ginger. Flour to 
roll thin. Bake quickly. 

Prime Sugar Cookies 

Four fresh eggs thoroughly beaten, 

2 cups sugar, 1 cup butter. Cream the 
three ingredients until very light and 
smooth. Flavor to taste. Use flour in 
proportion of 2 heaping teaspoons, of 
baking powder to 4 cups of flour many 
times sifted. About 6 cups will be 
needed. These cookies will not stick. 

Molasses Drops 

One cup molasses, x / 2 cup shortening, 
y 2 cup sugar, 2 eggs, y 2 cup boiling 
water, 2 teaspoons soda, salt, 1 tea¬ 
spoon ginger and cinnamon, 3% large 
cups of flour. 

Filled Cookies 

One cup sugar, y 2 cup melted butter, 
1 well beaten egg, pinch of salt, y 2 cup 
milk, 2 teaspoons cream of tartar, 1 
teaspoon soda, 2 y 2 cups flour. Roll thin 
and on one cookie put spoon of filling 
and another cookie on top, pressing 
down edges. Bake to a golden brown. 
For filling use 1 cup sugar, x / 2 cup cold 
water and 1 heaping teaspoon of flour 
cooked until thick and cooled. 



TABLE OF CONDENSED INFORMATION ON CANNING VEGETABLES 


NUMBER OP MINUTES TO PROCESS 


VEGETABLE 

Method 

of 

Preparation 

No. of Min. 
to 

Blanch 

Hot Water Method 

Steam Press. Me’d 

Kind 

of 

Liquor 

Process 

pts. 

Process 

qts. 

In 

Warm 

Cli’ate 

Proc’s 
pts. or 
qts. 

Lbs. 

Press 

Artichoke Hearts 

wash, remove 
leaves 

5 

brine 

1 hr. 

iy 2 hr= 

Int. 

30 

15 

Asparagus.. 

wash, cut in 
even lengths, 
pack tips up 

3 to 4 

brine 

2 hrs. 

3 hr*. 

Int. 

40 

15 

Beans, String. . . 

wash, string, 
cut 

3 to 8 

brine 

2 hrs. 

3 hrs. 

Int. 

40 

15 

Beans. Lima.... 

hull, wash 

2 to 5 

salt, sugar 
and water 

3 hrs. 

4 hrs. 

Int. 

60 

15 

Beets. .. 

wash 

Cook % uont 
peel, pack 

hot water 

1 hr. 

2 hrs. 


30 

10 

Brussel Sprouts. . 

wash 

5 to 8 

brine 

1 1/2 11. S. 

2 hrs. 

Lit. 

40 

15 

Cabbage. 

wash, cut 

5 to 8 

brine 

IV;. 11. S. 

2 hrs. 

Int. 

40 

15 

Carrots. 

wash 

Cook % aj m 
scrape 

brine 

I 1 /* hrs. 

2 hrs. 

Int. 

40 

15 

Cauliflower. 

wash, divide 
let stand 20 
min. in sal! 
water 

o 

o 

brine 

1 hr. 

114 hrs 


20 

10 

Celery. 

wash, cut t 
’length of jai 

5 to 10 

brine 

1*4 hrs. 

2 hrs. 

Int. 

40 

15 

Chard stalks. . • • 

vvash, cut of 
; paves 

5 to 10 

brine 

1 14 hrs. 

2 hrs. 

Int. 

40 

15 

Corn oh Cob.... 

tusk, silk 
blanch, cut off 
cob 

1 to 3 on cob 

salt, sugai 
and water 

3 hrs. 

4 hrs. 

Int. 

80 

15 

Corn on Cob. 

i u s k , silk, 
blanch 

1 to 3 on ccb 

brine 

3 hrs. 

4 hrs. 

Int. 

80 

15 

Egg Plant. 

> e e 1 . s-tice 
drop in salt 
water 

3 

brine 

1 hr. 

1 % hrr 

Int. 

30 

15 

Greens, any kind. 

wash wen 
partially cool 

5 to 15 

brine 

1 hr. 

2 hrs. 

Int. 

40 

15 

Mushrooms. 

prepare as for 
cooking 

5 

brine 

li/> hrs. 

3 hrs. 

int. 

40 

10 

Okra. 

wash, cut 
stems 

6 to 8 

brine 

3"hrs. 

4 hrs. 

Int. 

60 

15 

Peas... . . 

shell, wash 

3 to 8 

salt, sugai 
and water 

3 hrs. 

4 hrs. 

Int. 

60 

15 

Pork and Beans. 

wash, salt and 
cook 

Cook done 


iy 2 hrs. 

2 hrs. 

Int. 

40 

15’ 

Pumpkin. 

peel, cut in 
small pieces 

3 

water 

2 hrs. 

3 hrs. 

Int. 

40 

15 

KuiaDugas. 

wash, peel 
and slice 

5 

brine 

I 1 /. hrs. 

2 hrs. 

Int. 

40 

15 

Rhubarb. 

wash, cut 


cold \va.r. 

10 min. 

15 min 




Sauerkraut. 

>ee recipe 



30 min. 

40 min 


Id 

10 

Soup Mixture'. . . 

prepare each 
separate 

i 

3 to 5 salt 

iy> hrs. 

2 hrs. 

Int. 

40 

15 

Squash. 

wash, cut 

Cook until 
tender 

pack hot 

2 hrs. 

3 hrs. 

Int. 

40 

15 

Succotash . 

prepare sop- 
arate vegeta¬ 
bles 

3 to 5 . . 

brine 

3 hrs. 

4 hrs. 

Int. 

60 

15 

Sweet Potatoes. . 

wash,boil,peel 

Cook % q„-!.e| hvy. s> 3 hrs. 

4 hrs. 

Int, 

60 

15 

Tomatoes. 

scald, peel 

1 to 2 ’salt 

20 min. 

30 min. 



V 

\ egetabia Mixt.. 

prepare sep¬ 
arate vegeta¬ 
bles 

3 to 5 

brine : 

2 hrs. 

3 hrs. 

Int. 

60' 

15 












































































































































































































































































































































American Agriculturist, Ju’.y 21,1923 


45 


Patterns for Home Sewing 

And Interesting Figures From the Patent Office 


W OMEN have invented everything 
from an egg beater to a rotary 
plowshare, says the U. S. Department 
of Labor, and the idea that the femi¬ 
nine sex is disqualified for mechanical 
ingenuity is entirely disproved by the 
patent records. 

Nearly 1,400 different items are in¬ 
cluded on the list of workable inven¬ 
tions thus listed. The greater number 
are household appliances, and include a 
washing machine, a carpet beater, a 
mattress turner, and a mousetrap. A 
cow-tail holder is one which many 
women have considered inventing and 
so is a cover for pie pans which pre¬ 
vents overflow. But others are in the 
fields office equipment, road building, 
railway operation, musical instruments, 
toys and machinery. 

Wasn’t it the ex-Kaiser who definitely 
settled woman’s interest to include only 
“children, kitchen and church?” Too 
bad William can’t read the United 
States patent office records. 


The Brown Mouse 

(Continued from page 43) 

friends, to go to the school election and 
vote kind of unanimous-like?” 

“Suits me,” said Bronson. 

“Wery well,” said Peterson. 

“I don’t like the way Colonel Wood¬ 
ruff acts,” said Bonner. “He rounded 


career he’s had would mix up in school 
district politics.” 

“Well,” said Bonner, “he seems to 
take a lot of interest in this exhibition 
here. That decision of Jennie’s might 
have been because she’s stuck on Jim 
Irwin, or because she takes a lot of 
notice of what her father says.” 

“Or she might have thought the de¬ 
cision was right,” said Bronson. “Some 
people do, you know.” 

“Right!” scoffed Bonner. “In a 
pig’s wrist! I tell you that decision 
was crooked.” 

“Veil,” said Haakon Peterson, “talk 
of crookedness wit’ Yennie Woodruff 
don’t get wery fur wit’ me.” 

“Oh, I don’t mean anything bad, 
Haakon,” replied Bonner, “but it 
wasn’t an all-right decision. I think 
she’s stuck on the guy.” 

The caucus broke up after making 
sure that the three members of the 
school board would be as one man in 
maintaining a hostile front to Jim 
Irwin. It looked rather like a foregone 
conclusion, in a little district wherein 
there were scarcely twenty-five votes. 
Who wanted to be school director? It 
was a post of no profit, little honor and 
much vexation. In the Woodruff Dis¬ 
trict, the incumbents saw no candidate 
in view who could be expected to stand 
up against Con Bonner. Jim’s hold 
upon his work seemed fairly secure for 
the term of his contract, since Jennie 
had decided that he was competent. He 


CLOTHES DESIGNS EOR TWO GENERATIONS 



T HE diagram tells the story! Front of 
skirt, \taist, sleeves, back. Could any¬ 
thing be simpler? No. 1799 is as cool 
and debonair a little dress as you could 
wish and yet a twelve-year-old could 
make it. 

No. 1790 comes in sizes 16 years, 
36, 38, 40 and 42 inches bust measure. 
For size 36 you will need 2% yards of 
36-inch material with 2 % yards of bind¬ 
ing- Price 12c, stamps. 


A CUTE bloomer dress which any little 
girl would be proud to wear (and in 
"'hich she would look so pretty that her 
mother would be proud too), is No. 
1678. The bloomers are separate, so 
the dress may be made with or without 
them. 



No. 1678 comes in sizes 2, 4, 6, 8 
and 10 years. Size 8 requires 3 1 /, yards 
of 36-inch material With 2 yards of bind¬ 
ing. Prjcc 12c, stamps. 


A PEARL-BUTTONED linen suit with 
a frilled waist and straight trousers 
makes any little boy look “dressed up,” 
yet No. 1123 is very easy for the young 
mother to make. The sleeves are cut 
in one with the waist and the ruffles may 
be omitted. 

No. 1123 comes in sizes 2, 4, and 6 
years. Size 4 requires 2% yards 32- 
inch material with 2H yards of ruffling. 

Price 12c. 


A NOTHER diagram dress is No. 1682 
and one with a stylish draped affect 
which looks very dressy. It’s pretty for 
the porch on summer evenings and not 
hard to iron, if it gets wrinkled, the 
next day. 

No. 1682 comes in three sizes, small 
for 14 and 16 years, medium for 36 and 
38 inches bust measure, and large for 40 
and 42. Size 36 requires 3% yards of 
36-inch material with 5*4 yards of bind¬ 
ing. Price 12c, stamps. 



To Order: Write name, address, pattern numbers and sizes clearly; 
enclose 12c in stamps for each pattern, and send your order to Fashion 
Department. The Summer catalogue, a guide book to the fashions, is only 
10c extra, and we suggest that you order your copy to-day. 


up that gang of kids that shot us 
all to pieces at that hearing, didn’t 
he?” 

“I tank not,” replied Peterson. “I 
tank he was yust interested in how 
Yennie manage ! it.” 

“Looked mighty like he was manag¬ 
in’ the demonstration,” said Bonner. 
“What d’ye think, Ez?” 

1 “Too small a matter for the colonel 
to monkey wi:h,” said Bronson. “I 
reckon he was just interested in 
Jennie’s dilemmer. It ain’t reasonable 
that Colonel Woodruff after the p’litical 


could not expect to be retained by the 
men who had so bitterly attacked him. 
Perhaps the publicity of his Ames ad¬ 
dress would get him another place with 
a sufficient stipend so that he could 
support his mother without the aid of 
the little garden, the cows and the 
fowls—and perhaps he would ask 
Colonel Woodruff to take him back as 
a farm-hand. These thoughts thronged 
his mind as he stood apart and §lone 
after his rebuff by the members of the 
school board. 

(Continued next week) 



joyous call 
to appetite 


P OST TOASTIES are ready—ready 
now! Toasted, golden-brown flakes 
of goodness, crisp in the cream, full of 
energy-giving nourishment—not a mo¬ 
ment’s delay for preparation. 

With the first, delicious taste youll 
know why Pest Toasties are everywhere 
famous as the best of all com flakes. 

Order Post Toasties by name from 
your grocer and be sure you get the 
yellow and red package. A serving 
usually costs less than a cent. 

FostToasties 

Improved Com Flakes 

Made by Postum Cereal Company, Inc. 
Battle Creek, Mich. 



The 

“Pride” 

Send for 
Catalog 40 


A Modern Bathroom, $60 

Just <*iie of our wonderful bargain? Set com¬ 
prise? a 4, 4}/j or 5 foot iron enameled roll rim 
bath tu , one 19 inch roll rim enameled flat- 
back lavatorj’, and a syphon action, wash 
down water closet with porcelain tank and 
oak post binge seat; all china index faucets, 
nickel-plated traps,and all nickel-plated lieu vy 

fitting, j, M. SE IDE N BE EG CO., I lie. 

254 W. 34 St. liv.alu ,i mi, .v«, N.Y. C. 


BERRY AND FLOWER PLANTS 

STR AWRPRRY Tlants for August and fall planting. 

lvlvl Pot-grown and runner plants that 
will bear fruit next summer. Raspberry, Blackberry. 
Gooseberry. Currant, Grape, Asparagus, Rhubarb plants; 
Delphinium Hollyhock, Columbine, Gaillardia, Poppy, 
Phlox and other Hardv Perennial flower plants; Rose.-, 
Shrubs; for fall planning. Catalogue Free. . ' 

HARRY D. SQUIRES, HAMPTON BAYS, N. Y. 


Park Blbenue ll^otel 

4th AVENUE AT 33rd ST., NEW YORK 
——— : — Subway, Entrance at Door — __ 

AN hotel where old fashioned courtesy 
still prevails. One of the best known 
hote’s in the metropolis. Convenient in 
shopping, theatres. Less than 50c. taxi 
fare (one or more persons) from either 
railway terminal. Surface cars pass door. 

PRICE FOR ROOKS 

50 S n le rooms - - $2.25 per dav 

’0.0 b n rle rooms - . . 2.50 per day 

250 D.uble rooms - $4 per day and upw rd 

S ng e rooms, with bath. 4 per day and upward 
i oubie room., with bath, 5 per day and upward 

POPULAR PRICED CAFETERIA AND REGULAR 
RESTAURANT 


Duriuc the Winter Season the balconies sur- 
roui ding the Sunken Palm Garden are enclosed 
in glass. GEORGE C. BROWN 



SECURED. Send sketch or 
model of your invention 
for examination. - Write for 
FREE book and. advice. 

JACOBI &. JACOBI, 378 Ouray Bldg., Washington, D, C. 



































































































































































































46 


American Agriculturist, July 21,1223 


Reviewing the Latest Eastern Markets and Prices 

*. % , ( 1 ■ . i . 


CROP ESTIMATES REVISED 

HERSCHEL H. JONES 

T HE revised estimates of 1922 crop 
peaches, apples, pears and potatoes 
are just at hand from the United 
States Department of Agriculture. The 
commercial production of peaches and 
pears is reported lower than last year, 
and of apples, higher by about 3,000,- 
000 barrels. Potatoes are estimated 
far below the final revised estimates 
for last year’s crop. 

The year’s peach crop is figured at 
48,358,000 bushels for the entire coun¬ 
try, compared with a total 1922 crop 
of 56,705,000 bushels. The production 
in New York State is estimated at 2,- 
271,000 bushels, compared with 3,400,- 
000 bushels last year; in New Jersey, 
2,456,000 bushels, compared with 2,000,- 
000 last year, and in Pennsylvania 
1,783,000, compared with 1,560,000 last 
year. 

In view of the lighter production 
in New York State and less prospect 
of car shortage, the situation looks 
more hopeful for Western New York 
peach growers than last year. 

The increase in apple production 
over last year is chiefly in Western 
States, but the Federal estimates indi¬ 
cate larger crops also in Pennsylvania, 
Virginia, West Virginia, Michigan, 
Maine, Massachusetts, New Hamp¬ 
shire, Vermont, Maryland, Delaware, 
Connecticut, and Rhode Island. Pri¬ 
vate estimates have previously placed 
the production in nearly all of these 
States at much below last year. The 
July 1 Federal estimate for New York 
State is 5,647,000 barrels, which is 
nearly 100,000 barrels above the July 
1 estimate of 1922, but 400,000 barrels 
lower than the final revised 1922 fig¬ 
ures. This is also rather contrary to 
private estimates. The Maine crop is 
now reported at nearly three times last 
year’s. It is well to remember that 
at best crop estimates are based upon 
opinions collected over a wide area 
which may or may not prove accurate. 
Indications certainly are for a larger 
production of apples than was pre¬ 
viously expected, but there is no 
ground as yet for concern over depres¬ 
sion of the market in the fall and 
winter. 

The indications are that the pear 
crop in New York will be little more 
than half last year, according to the 
Federal report. California, which is 
the largest pear State in the country, 
promises to be over half a million short 
of last year, while Washington is 
somewhat ahead of 1922. Both New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania report out¬ 
look for slightly larger production. 
The total commercial pear crop for en¬ 
tire country is estimated at 15,224,000 
bushels, which is very little less than 
July 1, 1922, estimate, but over 3,000,- 
000 below the final 1922 figures. 

POTATOES EASIER, 

. On the New York market, prices 
have been good. Barrels of the best 
brands have sold for $7.25. Just now 
there is a little easier feeling and the 
sellers find it hard to get $7. Some un¬ 
branded stock is selling for as low as 
$5.50. per bbl. 

Long Islands are now arriving from 
far out toward Orient. Formerly, most 
have been shipped by boat, but this 
season it looks very much as if the auto 
trucks would get all of the business. 
There is a small fleet under contract 
with the growers to deliver to the New 
York markets regularly. Because by 
trucks potatoes arrive several hours 
earlier than they would by boat, the 
growers are pleased with the new 
transportation. Truckmen from that 
section are charging from 65 to 75c 
per barrel. 

The Long Islands are selling for 
from $6 to 6.50 bbl. The quality is 
good. 

VEGETABLE SUPPLY LIBERAL - 

. Lettuce, green peas, romaine and 
celery are the pincipal vegetables’ being 
shipped in quantities to New York 
from up-State sections at present. Re¬ 
ceipts of peas and lettuce were espe¬ 
cially liberal and the market held 
steady only for fancy stock. Much of 
the lettuce was burned and not well- 
headed- Late deliveries of express 
shipments of peas caused losses to 


many shippers because the best prices 
are paid in the early market. There 
seems to be a tendency to let peas ma¬ 
ture too much before picking, which 
means lower prices. 

Wholesale prices, representing prices 
paid to farmers or shippers, minus 
transportation costs and commission, 
on July 12 were: LETTUCE—West¬ 
ern New York, best, 75c @ $1 per 
crate; few as high as $1.25; Fulton 
and Oswego, best, $1 @ 1.25; Orange 
County, best, 75 @ 90c; few sales, $1. 
PEAS—Madison County, per bushel 
basket, best, $1.75 @ 2; fancy, $2.25 @ 
2.50; ordinary, $1.25. ROMAINE— 
market dull, per crate or hamper, best, 
50 @ 75c. 

SMALL FRUITS AND BERRIES 

Red ^our cherries from Hudson River 
sections were in liberal supply last 
week and showed very irregular qual¬ 
ity and condition. Red currants and 
gooseberries were in light supply, but 
the demand for them was not very ac¬ 
tive. Raspberries of fancy quality, in 
good condition, were in demand, but 


the bulk of the supply was in poor con¬ 
dition and sold unsatisfactorily. Straw¬ 
berries were plentiful, coming chiefly 
from Oswego County. The bulk of 
them were small and of ordinary 
quality. 

The following were wholesale prices 
on small fruits in the New York mar¬ 
ket July 12: 

CHERRIES—per qt., black sweet, 
18 @ 25c; red sweet, 10 @ 15c; white 
sweet, 8 @ 12c; red sour, 8 @ 14c; 
black sour, 15 @ 18c. CURRANTS— 
per qt., red, 10 @ 12c; fancy large, 13 
@ 15c. GOOSEBERRIES—per qt., 
best large, 17 @ 18c; extra large, 20c; 
medium, 15 @ 16c. RASPBERRIES— 
per pt., red, best, 12 @ 14c; few fancy, 
15 @ 16c; fair, 9 @ 11c. BLACK 
CAPS—per pt., best, 10 @ 11c; fancy, 
12 @ 12 %c; poor and ordinary, 6 @ 8c. 
STRAWBERRIES—per qt., best, 25 @ 
30c; fancy large, 32 @ 35c; ordinary, 
18 @ 22c. 

SHORTAGE OF STORAGE BUTTER 

Cold storage stocks of butter in the 
entire country were on July 1, about 
5,000,000 lbs. short of last year, ac¬ 
cording to the preliminary report of 
holdings by the United States Depart¬ 
ment of Agriculture. This shortage 
may have been reduced considerably by 
this time as there is heavy buying for 
storage purposes, but it indicates that 
the market for butter will continue 
very active. In order to make up the 
deficit, production must keep up at a 
liberal rate during July as it did dur¬ 
ing July last year. A quantity of for¬ 
eign butter principally Danish, is due 
here before August 1, but the Danish 
markets are higher, which will tend to 


check American buying in Europe. Re¬ 
ports indicate some shortage in pro¬ 
duction, but generally favorable con¬ 
ditions at the present time. 

The New York market was very 
firm last week and available stocks 
were promptly cleaned out. Creamery 
extras, 92 score, were quoted on July 
12 at 39 to 3914 c per lb. and scores 
higher than extras at 3914 to 4014 c. 

CHEESE CONTINUES FIRM 

The cheese market continues firm 
with a wholesale price of American 
cheese, State whole milk flats, fresh, 
average run 24 @ 2414c, per lb., and 
fancy fresh 25 @ 2514c. The Wiscon¬ 
sin market is reported firm. Most of 
the business in New York State flats 
has been at 25c for fancy qualities 
with some special marks higher. 

STORAGE EGGS MOVING 

As a result of the decrease in sup¬ 
plies of fancy fresh eggs, high grade 
cold storage eggs are already moving 
out of the warehouses and are tend¬ 
ing to reduce the demand for fresh 


arrivals of ordinary quality. Carload 
lots of graded western extra firsts sold 
last week at 28 to 29c per dozen. 
Nearby white eggs sold fairly well last 
week, but the scarcity of extra fancy 
qualities was somewhat relieved. New 
Jersey hennery whites closely selected 
extras were quoted on July 12 at 43 to 
45c. Average qualities of nearby white 
eggs sold chiefly within a range of 35 
@ 40c, per dozen. 

Cold storage stocks of eggs in the 
four large markets are about 300,000 
cases short of last year, although 
stocks in cold storage at New York are 
about 30,000 cases more than 1922. 

BROILER MARKET WEAKER 

The market for broilers weakened a 
little last week. Prices at end of week 
were lower than a week previous. The 
demand for fowls is more active and 
prices firm for any good stock. Only 
a few white leghorn broilers of extra 
large size brought higher than 38c per 
lb. last week, small sizes sold at 33 to 
34c and average 35 @ 37c on July 12. 
Colored broilers sold at 39 to 43c on 
that date although the price early in 
the week was as high as 45c. Ex¬ 
press shipments of colored fowls sold 
on July 12 at 28 to 29c and of leghorn 
and poor colored fowls 25 @ 28c. Leg¬ 
horn fowls early in the week brought 
27 @ 28c. 

DRESSED CALF RECEIPTS LIGHT 

Receipts of country dressed calves 
were light last week ’ and the market 
for them firm. Fancy handy weight 
dressed veals brought up to 24c per 
lb., and possibly higher and prime 20 
@ 21c. Small veals cleaned up at 


steady prices, chiefly in range of 15 @ 
20c. Early last week two carloads of 
Canadian dressed calves arrived and 
sold at 15 to 20c depending on quality. 

Live calves were in only moderate re¬ 
ceipt and the market for them fairly 
steady. Chojce lambs were also steady 
and in limited supply, the medium 
grades moved more slowly. Prime 
lambs were quoted July 12 at $16.50 to 
17 per cwt. and prime, live calves at 
$14.75 to' 15. 

HAY CROP LIGHT 

Unofficial reports from all over the 
country indicate a light commercial 
production of hay this year. New 
York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey 
crops will be short because of lack 
of moisture. Ohio and Indiana are 
reported light. The prospect is for a 
favorable market for good quality hay. 

A quantity of poor hay and trash 
has accumulated at the New York 
market and is hard to move. The sup¬ 
ply of really good hay is moderate, 
however, and the market firm. United 
States Grade Timothy No. 1 sold as 
high as $28 per ton last week. United 
States Sample Timothy which grade 
includes the ordinary, common stuff, 
was quoted at $13 to 18. 

WHEAT MARKET TUMBLES 

Wheat prices reached the lowest 
level .last week in a nine year period. 
Wheat in the Chicago market went 
down on July 11 to 98 %c per bu. for 
September delivery. Unless there is 
considerable recovery from the pres¬ 
ent tendency to low prices there will 
be great losses among the wheat farm¬ 
ers of the West. This situation is 
due to a considerable extent to a de¬ 
creased demand in Europe for Ameri¬ 
can foodstuffs and a decline in the 
European . purchasing power. Eco¬ 
nomists are advising farmers to cut 
their acreage of winter wheat next 
fall. 

CASH GRAIN QUOTATIONS 

Cash grain quotations July 13 were 
as follows: 

New Yokk —Corn, No. 2 yellow, $1.07 ; No. 2 
mixed, $1.00; No. 2 white, $1.07%. Oats, No. 
2 white, 52c; No. 3 white, 51c; ordinary 
white clipped, 51@52c. 

Chicago —Corn, No. 2 white, 88%-; No. 2 
yellow, 89@9Qc. Oats, No. 2 white,-40% @ 
42%; No. 3 white, 38%@40c. Barley, 64@ 
68c. Rye, 65c. 


Will Buy White Eggs 

THE YEAR AROUND 

NO COMMISSION 

Fresh, Clean, Unassorted White 
Eggs Wanted 

SHIP TO 

CENTRAL NYACK POULTRY FARM 
' NYACK, N. Y. 

References Upon Application 


SHIP YOUR EGGS 

WHITE AND BROWN 

To R. BRENNER & SONS 

Bonded Commission Merchants 

358 Greenwich St., New York City 


Farmers Supplied with 

STEEL WIRE BALE TIES 

FOR HAY AND STRAW BALING, ETC. 
Quality Guaranteed 

H. P. & H. F. WILSON CO. 

520 Washington St. NEW YORK 


BABY CHICKS 

JERSEY BLACK GIANTS 

Weeks of July 23, 30, August 6, 13, Delivery 
( $22.00 per 100 

CHICKS $11.50 per 50 

‘ $6.00 per 25 

Ten weeks’ old Pullets and Cockerels, $2.50 each. 

One year old Hens and Cockerels, $6.00 each; six 
Hens and Cockerel for $30.00. 

We guarantee safe delivery 1200 miles. Check or 
money order must be sent with order, cannot ship O.O.D. 

PEDRICK POULTRY FARMS, Flemingtoo, N. J. 


Quotations From Eastern Markets 

The following are the prices at which farm products of special interest to 
eastern farmers sold on July 12: 


Eggs, Nearbys (cents per dozen) 

New Jersey hennery whites uncandled, extras.., 

Other hennery whites, extras. . 

Extra firsts.. 

Firsts.. 

Gathered, whites, first to extra firsts.. 

Lower grades. 

Hennery browns, extras. 

Gathered browns and mixed colors, extras. 

Pullets No. 1. ..'... 


Butter (cents per pound) 

Creamery (salted) high score. 

Extra (92 score). 

State dairy (salted), finest.. 
Good to prime. 


Hay and Straw, Large Bales (per ton) 

Timothy No. 2... 

Timothy No. 3. 

Timothy Sample. 

Fancy light clover mixed. 

Alfalfa, second cutting...... 

Oat straw No. 1. 


Live Poultry, Express Lots (cents per lb.) 

Fowls, colored fancy, heavy. 

Fowls, leghorns and poor.. 

Broilers, colored fancy. 

Broilers, leghorn. 

Live Stock (cents per pound) 


Calves, good to medium. 

Bulls, common to good. 

Lambs, common to good. 

Sheep, common to good ewes. 
Hogs, Yorkers. 


New York 
43 @45 
42 @43 - 
37 @39 
33@36 
33@38 

26 @32 
34@38 
29 @33 

27 @32 


39% @40% 
39 @39% 
38 @38% 
36% @37% 

U. S. Grades 
$25@26 
22@24 
13@18 
25 

28 @30 
10@12 


28@29 
25 @28 
39@43 
35@40 


12@13% 
4% @6% 
12@15 
3% @4 
8 % @ 8 % 


Buffalo 


Phila. 


33@35 29 @29% 

. 26% 


30@31 


42 @43 
40@41 
38@39 
31@37 


Old Grade Standards 
$18@19 $22@23 

. 19@20 

!!!!!!!! ” ’ 2 i "@22 


40 


25@26 
22 @24 
48 
40 


13 @13% 
5% @5% 
16 
4@7 

8 % @ 8 % 


27@28 

23@27 

50@53 





















































































Amsiican Agriculturist, July 21,1923 


47 



Give a thought 
to &idvertising 


N ot so very long ago a 
man got up and talked 
about something he didn’t 
know much about. He 
claimed that advertising made 
goods cost more for the 


consumer. 


In a recent issue of Collier’s 
Magazine another man, who 
knows advertising from A to 
Z, wrote an article that con¬ 
clusively showed how adver¬ 
tising, instead of increasing 
the cost of articles, actually 
decreased it by simplifying 
distribution. 

One advertisement, costing 
say $200.00, can place as 
much of a certain product in 
stores ready for sale, as five 
salesmen, working a month 
can do. And the five sales¬ 
men would cost about 
$1,000.00 for the same work. 
Yet either salesman or adver¬ 
tising must be used in dis¬ 
tributing a product. The two 
work best together. Adver¬ 
tising should be used as ed¬ 
ucational matter, to tell deal¬ 
ers and consumers about the 
product so that when the 
salesman arrives on the scene 
he won’t have to waste a lot 
of time explaining all about 
the product to each dealer. 

The same is true of con¬ 
sumer advertising. For if a 
buyer knows all about a cer¬ 
tain product from advertising 
he won’t have to take up a 
lot of his and a dealer’s time 
learning about it. 

Advertising is also assur¬ 
ance of getting your money’s 
worth. It has been proved 
that it does not pay to adver¬ 
tise inferior goods. Advertis¬ 
ing show up their weak spots. 
Therefore when you buy an 
advertised product you can be 
practically certain that it is a 
good one. 

It may be true that a supe¬ 
rior product will be found out 
i* time and tr.e world go to 
the door of the factory to get 
it. But it takes time and it 
costs the world more to go to 
the factory door than pay the 
little additional cost of adver¬ 
tising. 

Advertising teaches what a 
product is, how much it costs, 
what it will do and where you 
can get it. That’s worth a lot 
in itself. And by doing these 
things it brings the product to 
you cheaper than any other 
method. 


Indeed it does pay to buy 
advertised goods. Then you 
are sure of getting a good 
product and gettingitcheaper. 

Jldver Using ^Manager 


Farmers Meet Railroaders 

Discuss Transportation as It Affects Agriculture 


CATTLE BREEDERS 


SOPHIE TORMENTOR 

JERSEY BULL 


S TATING that the purpose of the 
gathering was to discuss mutual 
problems and bring about better un¬ 
derstanding between the railroads and 
the farmers, E. V. Titus, president of 
the Nassau County Farm Bureau, 
started an important conference of 
about fifty farmers and railroad lead¬ 
ers at Syracuse on Tuesday, July 10. 
Leading officers representing the Erie, 
the Delaware, Lackawanna and West¬ 
ern, the New York Central, the Dela¬ 
ware and Hudson, the New York, On¬ 
tario and Western, the Long Island, 
the Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh, 
and the Lehigh Valley railroad met 
with many individual farmers from 
several of the New York State coun¬ 
ties, together with leaders of most of 
New York’s agricultural organizations. 

Robert Binkerd, vice chairman of the 
Committee on Public Relations of East¬ 
ern Railroads outlined the railroad pro¬ 
gram of 1923. Mr. Binkerd said that 
since Federal control ceased on Feb¬ 
ruary 28, 1920, the railroads had re¬ 
duced operating expenses approxi¬ 
mately a billion dollars a year; that 
out of this reduction over half a bil¬ 
lion dollars had been turned back to 
the public in reduced rates; that about 
one-third of the reduction had come 
from decreased wages and the balance 
from increased efficiency and economy 
in operation. He said that the income 
on investment had increased from prac¬ 
tically nothing in 1920 to about a 4 
per cent return in 1922. 

“The railroad’s policy,” said Mr. 
Binkerd, “calls for heavier loading and 
faster moving of freight cars, reduc¬ 
tion of cars and locomotives awaiting 
repairs of carriers, to insure to the 
highest degree practicable the country’s 
est degree practicable the country’s 
transportation requirements.” 

The railroad program provides that 
by October 1, 1923, when the peak of 
traffic ordinarily begins, they will have 
their cars and locomotives back in the 
best condition that they have been since 
before the war; that by September 1, 
the coal needed for railway operation 
will be stored; that a practical effort 
will be made to bring the average load 
of all cars up to thirty tons; that 
every possible means will be used to 
increase the average daily movement 
of freight cars up to thirty miles for 
the entire country. 

Mr. Binkerd also said that carrying 
out this program and simplifying the 
transportation problem will depend 
upon close cooperation with the shippers. 

N. R. Peet, general manager of the 
Western New York Fruit Growers’ As¬ 
sociation, said among other things that 
the railroads can best meet the needs 
of agriculture by an equitable distribu¬ 
tion of cars, by increasing icing facili¬ 
ties, and by frost protection in ship¬ 
ment. 

A. L. Bibbins, seed expert of the G. 
L. F. Exchange, asked that the ship¬ 
ments of seeds by the railroads be given 
priority. He made the comment that 
last year’s service in the shipment of 
seeds by the roads had been done with 
practically no loss. 

K. C. Livermore, president of the 
Empire State Potato Growers’ Associa¬ 
tion, summed up many points of in¬ 
terest common to both the railroads and 
the farmers. Looking to the needs of 
the future, Mr. Livermore said: “In 
1913, our population was 96,000,000; in 
1923, it was 110,000,000; and in 1933, 
it will be 125,000,000. This will de¬ 
mand more food, a problem for the 
railroads as well as for the farmers.” 


NEW PRACTICES BROUGHT OUT 
AT CORNELL POULTRY JUDG¬ 
ING SCHOOL 

The sixth annual Production Poultry 
Judging and Breeding school, at the 
New York State College of Agricul¬ 
ture, Cornell University, closed July 
7, after setting a new high mark for 
attendance enthusiasm and progress. 

One of the high points of the week 
was reached in the lecture by Professor 
E. C. Foreman of the Michigan Agri¬ 
cultural College on the “Head, Temper- 
ment and Appetite of a Fowl as In¬ 
dications of Production.” Professor 
Foreman indicated that he believed the 


head of a bird howed more closely than 
any other part of the body the capacity 
,for production and that we would place 
more emphasis on head type in the 
future. 

Professor Foreman pointed out that 
in order to gauge closely the produc¬ 
tion of a bird without the expensive 
and tedious work of trapnesting it, is 
necessary to know three facts about 
the bird; first, the intensity or rhythm 
of production; second, the endurance or 
persistence of that production, being 
the number of months over which the 
bird will lay per year, and third, the 
time lost by broodiness. 

The frequency and length of broody 
periods have already been proved to 
be closely related to the shape of the 
eye-ring, and the intensity and per¬ 
sistency of production, Professor Fore¬ 
man believes, can also be quite closely 
gauged from the head type if the ob¬ 
server be trained, aside from the or¬ 
dinary methods of judging these. 

Types of Heads 

The following types of heads were 
listed by Professor Foreman as being 
most important and common, beside a 
few minor types: 

1. The Crow Head—Overlong from 
front of eye to base of beak, and shal¬ 
low over eye to top of head. May be 
due to inbreeding, poor feeding and 
rearing or sickness as well as natural 
low production. Characterized by slow 
feathering, late maturity, and low 
winter and annual egg production. 

2. The Overly Refined.— Usually 
marked by bright eye and intelligent 
appearance, but lack ruggedness. May 
develop considerable intensity, but loses 
weight under high production, and lacks 
persistence. The type also has a 
marked tendency to broodinets. 

3. The Refined Type — The head 
should not cut off in front too abruptly 
but should have a fair amount of length 
and a slight ledge over the eye, but 
not too much. The face should be well 
filled, not hollow or wrinkled, and the 
eye should be bulging. This head de¬ 
notes high intensity, persistency and 
little broodiness. Refinement, intelli¬ 
gence, vigor and stamina are all shown. 

4. Lacking in Character—An ex¬ 
pressionless face. Never more than 
mediocre producers. 

5. Beefy Type—Fat face of typically 
meaty appearance with a placid ex¬ 
pression. A typical low producer 
and tending to extreme breodiness. 

“A hen having true laying temper- 
ment” said Professor Foreman, “car¬ 
ries its head projecting well forward 
of its body.” 

The fine collection of photographs 
and records shown by Professor Fore¬ 
man proved that there was ample 
foundation for his unusual emphasis 
of head points in judging production, 
and a need of research along this line. 

A particularly practical and timely 
lecture was given by Professor Philips 
of Purdue University on “Some Dis¬ 
turbing Factors in the Selection of 
Fowls for Egg Production.” He em¬ 
phasized the fact that it was absolutely 
necessary in culling birds for egg pro¬ 
duction to know the environmental 
conditions of the flock to be culled. 
“Judge according to the flock you are 
working with” said Professor Philips. 
He stressed the point that feeding is 
of great importance as effecting both 
molt and pigmentation in the fowl and 
that such feeds as alfalfa, clover, or 
yellow corn mix up the judging for pig¬ 
ment unless the culler is aware of 
their use, since they tend to maintain 
a relatively high color under all de¬ 
grees of production. Many culling 
demonstrations, the speaker stated, 
should be feeding demonstrations, since 
a vast number of birds in our farm 
flecks never have a chance to show how 
they could produce. Professor Philips 
described a large number of conditions 
and factors, beside egg production, 
which effect the pigmentation of the 
hen, as well as effecting other charac¬ 
ters used in selection. 


Sirerl by grandson of Sophie 19th of Hood Farm. Dam 
in 805 days made 391 pounds of butterfat, for Class AAA 
m Register of Meiit. She won Grand Championship 
over all breeds at j ynn Fair. Hull is 11 months old, 
solid color, lunky and handsome. Price $100.00. Herd 
Accredited. Put him in \ our pasture. 

WOOD FARM HATHORNE, MASS 


125—PIGS FOR SALE-125 

Yorkshire and Chester White Cross, and Chester and 
Berkshire Cross. All large growthv pigs, 6 to 7 weeksold, 
$5.00 each; 7 to 8 weeks old, $5.50 each; 8 to 9 weeks old, 
$6.CO each. 15 pure-bred Berkshire pigs, barrows or so"s, 
$0.50 each, 7 weeks old; and 20 Chester White, 7 weeks old, 
$6.50each: boars of the above breeds $8.00 each. All good 
clean stock, bred from the best of stock that roonev can 
buy. 1 will ship any part of the above lots C. O. D. to 
you on approval. 

WALTER LUX, 388 Salem St., WOBURN, MASS. 

HOLSTEIN BULLS FOR SALE 

Sons of 

DUTCHLAND COLANTHA SIRINKA 

FISHKILL FARMS, Hopewell Junction, N. Y. 


HENRY MORCENTHAU. Jr., Owner 



H0LSTEINS and GUERNSEYS 


Fresh cows and springers, 100 head of the finest 
quality to select from. Address 

A. F. SAUNDERS, CORTLAND. N. Y. 


HOLSTEINS 

Two car loads high-class grade springers. The 
kind that please. One car load registered females. 
Well bred, strictly high-class. Several registered 
service bulls. J. A. LEACH. CORTLAND. N. Y. 

HIGH-GRADE HOLSTEIN COWS 

fresh and close by large and heavy producers. 
Pure bred registered Holsteins all ages ; your 
inquiry will receive our best attention. 
Browncroft Farm McSRAW New York 

HIGH GRADE HOLSTEIN HEIFER CALVES $15 

each; registered hull and heifer calves, $25 up; registered 
bulls ready for service, and cons. Address 

_SPOT FARM, TULLY, N. Y. 

plYD CATE Franklin County (Vt.) Jersey*. 
A V/i\ D.rVLi.Ij Grade and registered, all apes, 
both sexes. Send for booklet. 

R. L. CHAFFEE, Secretary ENOSBURG FALLS, VERMONT 


SWINE BREEDERS 


Big Type Poland China Pigs 

Gilts and B' a i- s for sale. Sires; Ford’s Liberator and 
Ford’s Big r Jim. Moderate prices. 


STEPHEN H. FORD, 402Slewart Building, Baltimore, Md. 
LARGE BERKSHiRES AT HIGHWOOD 

Grand champion breeding;. Largest herd in America. Free booklet. 

HARPENDING Box 10 DUNDEE, N.Y. 

Ritr Tvne Pnlanth Boars - So " s and Pigs 
D1 & 1 jP c r omnas for sa i e: K00d onas . low 

prices. Write me. G. S. HALL. FARMDALE, OHIO. 


100 Grade Chester White and Dmoc ’ 


10 weeks old. Well-grown and thrifty, PIGS 
$6.50 each. OAKS DAIRY FARM, WYALUSING. PA. 


GOATS 


'I’O get the best choice, buy Milk Goat Bucks Now. 
A Buy Bred Does in October. Buy Kids and 
Yearlings Now. 

S. J. SHARPLES, R. D. 5, NORRISTOWN. PA. 


BABY CHICKS 


CHICKS for July Delivery 

Our 19th Season producing good strong 
chicks from heavy-laying strains. S, C, 
White and Brown Leghorns, $9.50 per 100; 
Buff and Black Leghorns. $10 per 100: Barred 
and White Bocks. $12 per 100: Anconas, Black 
Minorca:-., $11.50 per 100: White W.vandottes, 
K. C. Beds, $13 per 100. Mixed, $8.50 per 100. 
Order direct from this ad. We guarantee 95^ live de¬ 
livery. Catalogue free. 



20th CENTURY 


Box R 


HATCHERY 

New Washington, 


Ohio 


BABY CHICKS 


Hatched by the best system of 
Incubation, from high class 
■* — ■■ 1 i ■ i i. bred-to-lay stock. Barred and 

Buff Rocks, Red?', Anconas, Black Minorca*, 12c. each; White, 
Brown, Buff Leghorns, 10c. each; broilers, 7c. each. Peki.n 
Ducklings, 30c. each. 

^afe delivery guaranteed by prepaid parcel post 

NUNDA POULTRY FARM NUNDA, N. Y. 

STRICKLER’S AUGUST CHICKS 

BIG HATCH AUGUST 8th AND 15th 

Pure-bred sturdy, vigorous chicks sent by special deliv¬ 
ery parcel post prepaid, 100rS safe and live delivery- 
guaranteed. 

White Rocks, Barred Bocks, R. I. Reds. $11 per 100: $53 
per 500. Large type English S. C. White Leghorns. 
$9 per 100; $13 per 500. 

LEONARD F. STRICKLER SHERIDAN, PA. 

600 White Leghorn Breeders, one year old, 
$1.(0 each. 10 Weeks’ Old Pullets, Aug. 10th 
del ivery, $1.00 each and up. Thousands ready. 

HUMMER'S POULTRY FARM 

FRENCHTOWN, N. J.. R. 1 

LOOK ! Blue Andalusians £“ek/oidf * r y 

blood; $2 each. AUGUSTUS RAYNOR,-Hamp ton Bays,' N. Y. 

pLIJY Bar. Rocks, 11c; Reds, 12c; Wh. Leghorns, 9c; Mixed, 
villA 7c. lOOf, arrival guaranteed. Order from adv or circu- 
lar free. TWIN HATCHERY, MeAMSTKRVlLLE, PA. 

I ADfV CTnf'lf fine Poultry, Turkeys,Geese,Ducks,Guineas, 
LnlVUL OlUtlV Bantams, Collies, Pigeons, Chicks, Stock, 
Eggs, low: catalog. PIONEER KAlUIS, Telford, Pennsylvania. 



HILLPOT 

QUALITY 



Post Prepaid. Safe delivery guaranteed 
anywhere east of Mississippi River, 


REDUCED PRICES-PROMPT DELIVERIES 

100 50 25 Barred Rocks $13.00 $7.00 $3.75 

Whi’e Leghorns $10.00 $5.50 $3.00 R. I. Reds 15.00 7.75 4.00 

Black Leghorns 10 00 i50 3.00 White Rocks 15.00 7.75 4.00 

Brown Leghorns 13.00 7.00 3.75 White Wyandoiles 18.00 9.25 4.75 

W. F. HILLPOT Box 29, Frenchtown, N. J. 








































































1000 


TRAVEL ACCIDENT 

INSURANCE 



For One Year For Only 50c 


W ITH the development of the automobile industry, 
traffic congestion has become a menace to both 
life and limb. Every time one takes a trip by 
steam or electric train, or goes out for a pleasure spin in 
auto or buggy, traffic danger awaits him. No one can 
pick up a daily newspaper without reading the accounts 
of death and disaster which constantly follow travel 
activity and travel congestion. As an illustration of this 
we have but to cite you the fact that during the 18 
months while the United States was in the World War 
48,000 of our boys were killed in battle. 

During the same period 91,000 people in this country 
were killed in traffic accidents, while serious injuries re¬ 
sulting from the same source destroyed the earning power 
of hundreds of thousands more for considerable periods 
of time. 

Your Turn May Be Next 

This awful toll of death and injury carries with it 
untold suffering on the part of the dependents. In fact, 
the suffering of dependents is the worst feature of these 
appalling disasters. 

How To Get This Insurance 

All you have to do is to cut out and fill in carefully 
the coupon on this page and mail to us with $2.50 which 
will extend your subscription for American Agricul¬ 
turist 3 years, and entitle you to the $1000.00 Travel 
Accident Policy for one year. You will be protected 
for one year from the day your remittance is received 
at our office. The policy will be issued and mailed to 
you within a few days after your order is received. 

Mail This Coupon at Once 

J21 | 

To American Agriculturist, 

461 Fourth Ave., New York City. 

Gentlemen:—Please enter my subscription for Ameri¬ 
can Agriculturist three years and send me a $1000 Travel 
Accident Policy good for one year. Enclosed find $2.50 
in full payment for both the policy and subscription. 


Signed. P. O, 

R. F. D. No. State 


W E have made arrangements with the North Amer¬ 
ican Insurance Company of Chicago, by which we 
give you for only 50c a $1000.00 Travel Accident 
Insurance Policy, good for one year, provided you send 
us at the same time your subscription for American 
Agriculturist at the bargain rate of 3.years for $2.00. 

In other words, you get a $1000.00 Travel Accident 
Insurance Policy for one year with a three-year sub¬ 
scription to American Agriculturist, all for only $2.50. 


Here Is How Our $1000.00 Reader Travel 
Service Accident Insurance Will 
Protect You 

PART 1 

If the Insured shall, by the wrecking or disablement of any rail¬ 
road passenger car or passenger steamship or steamboat, in or on 
which such Insured is travelling as a fare-paying passenger; or, by 
the wrecking or disablement of any public omnibus, street railway car, 
taxicab, or automobile stage, which is being driven or operated, at the 
time of such wrecking or disablement by a licensed driver plying for 
public hire, and in which such Insured is travelling as a fare-paying 
passenger; or, by the wrecking or disablement of any private horse- 
drawn vehicle, Qr motor-driven car in which Insured is riding or driv¬ 
ing, or, by being accidentally thrown from such vehicle or car, suffer 
any of the specific losses set forth below in this part 1, the Company 
will pay the sum set opposite such loss: 


FOR LOSS OF— 

Life.One Thousand Dollars ($1000.00) 

Both Hands.One Thousand Dollars ($1000.00) 

Both Feet.One Thousand Dollars ($1000.00) 

Sight of Both Eyes.One Thousand Dollars ($1000.00) 

One Hand and One Foot.One Thousand Dollars ($1000.00) 

One Hand and Sight of One Eye . . . .One Thousand Dollars ($1000.00) 
One Foot and Sight of One Eye . . . .One Thousand Dollars ($1000.00) 

Either Hand.Five Hundred Dollars ($500.00) 

Either Foot.Five Hundred Dollars ($500.00) 

Sight of Either Eye.Five Hundred Dollars ($500.00) 

PART 2 

OR LOSS OF— 

Life.Two Hundred Fifty Dollars ($250.00) 


provided the bodily injury effected as stated herein shall be the sole 
cause of death of the Insured and such injury occurs: 

By being struck or knocked down or run over while 
walking or standing on a public highway by a vehicle pro¬ 
pelled by steam, cable, electricity, naphtha, gasoline, horse, 
compressed air or liquid power, excluding injuries sustained 
while on a railroad right of way in violation of any statute 
or of any regulation of the railroad company. 

Indemnity for loss of life as above set forth shall be payable to 
the Estate of the Insured. 

PART 3 

If the Insured sustains injuries in any manner specified in part 1 
which shall not prove fatal or cause loss as aforesaid but shall imme¬ 
diately, continuously, and wholly disable and prevent the Insured 
from performing each and every duty pertaining to any and every kind 
of business, labor or occupation during the time of such disablement 
but not exceeding three consecutive months, the Company will pay in¬ 
demnity at the rate of Ten Dollars ($10.00) per week. 

The above indemnities will be paid, subject to the provisions and 
conditions of the policy. A complete numbered registered Policy will 
be mailed each person insured. Be sure to read it'before filing it away. 

This travel accident insurance will protect every registered paid- 
in-advance subscriber of American Agriculturist, who pays $2.00 for a 
three-year subscription, plus a delivery cost of 50 cents paid with this 
application. 


. Age. 

(You must be over 16 and under 70) 




conditions of the policy. A complete numbered registered Policy will 
be mailed each person insured. Be sure to read it'before filing it away. 

This travel accident insurance will protect every registered paid- 
in-advance subscriber of American Agriculturist, who pays $2.00 for a 
three-year subscription, plus a delivery cost of 50 cents paid with this 
application. 


1 ___ 

$1000 Travel Accident Policy and a Three-Year Subscription for American Agriculturist, for only $2.50 










































AMERICAN 

A griculturi st 

Founded 184-2 

$1.00 PER YEAR JULY 28, 1923 PUBLISHED WEEKLY 









> 

. : 


K#: 

: 




WHO SAID OATS?" 


The Spirit of Neighborliness 





















American Agriculturist, July 28,1923 

No Longer A Haphazard Business 

Skill and Training Needed in Modern Agriculture—A Radio Talk 


O NCE upon a time, and it is not many 
| years ago—if Dame Fortune failed 
' to smile upon a man in a trade or 
a profession, he still found comfort 
in the thought that if “worse comes to worse 
we can go farming and at least make a liv¬ 
ing.” And as a matter of fact this was pret¬ 
ty near the truth—when all other efforts 
failed, the farm was a haven where a man 
could at least eke out a living. It was hard 
toil and a living was scant but it was a living 
hevertheless. 

Strange to say, there are folks, more com¬ 
monly of the big cities, who say to-day that 
farming is the only life—that it is a life 
of ease, free from cares and worry—in 
which it is merely necessary to wait for 
• crops to grow, to harvest all the good things. 
Some folks get the idea 
that farmers are rolling 
in wealth, basing their 
contention on the fact 
that prices of foodstuffs 
at the corner grocer are 
so high. 

It is not many days 
since I had this impressed 
rather forcibly on my 
mind. I chanced to be in 
a vegetable store and a 
rather portly gentleman 
was purchasing potatoes 
and vegetables. When 
paying for his produce, 
he turned to me and re¬ 
marked, “How fortunate 
the farmers are, they 
simply have to dig their 
potatoes and sell what 
they do not need for 
these prices.” He had 
paid 50 cents for 10 
pounds of potatoes, at the 
rate of $9 per barrel. I 
told him approximately 
how much the farmer had 
received for those potatoes which by the 
way, was a great deal less than $9 a barrel. 

And I didn’t stop there, but mentioned 
some of the factors that the farmer, who 
grew those potatoes, had to figure on. There 
was cost of preparing the seed bed, cost of 
seed, cutting and planting it, cost of fertil¬ 
izer, cost of cultivation and spraying, cost 
of digging and hauling to market, cost of 
land and interest on the investment. And 
on top of that, there was the gamble with 
the season, with drought, with plant dis¬ 
eases, insects and a flooded or glutted mar¬ 
ket. The price the farmer received, hardly 
paid for the risk. The yentleman nodded his 
head once or twice and departed. He had 
evidently never thought of those factors. 

And yet to-day there are hundreds of 
“back to the landers” who believe that all 
there is to poultry farming is to throw some 
corn to the hens, wait till they lay their eggs 
and collect and sell them for 50 or 60 cents 
a dozen. Speaking of poultry keeping as a 
farm venture, reminds me of the experience 
of a city man who had the “back to the land” 
fever. I shall pass the story on as it was 
told me by a friend of the victim. 

This prospective farmer had read a few 
books on poultry. It all looked so simple and 
the returns seemed so alluring that he de¬ 
cided that there he would make his fortune. 
He fell prey to a real estate shark out on 
Long Island who sold him a small farm for 
something like $8,500. I know the section 
well in which he bought and agriculturally 
the land is almost worthless. He paid be¬ 
tween $500 and $1,000 an acre, a real estate 
valuation. This man knows nothing of the 
practical feeding problems poultrymen have 
to meet. He knows nothing of the problems 


By FRED W. OHM 

encountered in raising young stock. He is 
absolutely “green.” Added to this, he has 
to pay outlandish prices for feeds which his 
own land is too poor to raise. He has some¬ 
thing to learn. 

The biggest thing that he will learn, how¬ 
ever, the thing that all “back to the landers” 
soon learn, is that no longer is farming a 
business for the man who has failed at every¬ 
thing else—a sort of haven of refuge. On 
tlie contrary, men who have been success¬ 
ful in business in the city and have tried the 
farming game, find that with all their busi¬ 
ness experience they cannot make farming 
pay. These “back to the landers” will learn 
that a successful farmer must be a skilled 


man. He must know something of the trades 
for he is called upon to do much of his own 
work about the place. He must be some¬ 
thing of a carpenter to repair his buildings 
and a mechanic to fix his own machinery. 
He cannot wait for or stand the expense of 
high priced artisans. The farmer must be 
a scientist to identify plant and animal dis¬ 
ease and be able to determine how to fight 
each, after its own manner. The farmer 
must have unbounded faith that the season . 
will deal kindly with his crops and that his 
herds will not fall before an epidemic of 
some new disease. 

Years ago, farmers little knew of the 
Colorado potato beetle, the common potato 
bug, which to-day calls for the expenditure 
of thousands of dollars of farmers’ money 
for poison sprays. Years ago farmers knew 
nothing of the San Jose scale. To-day they 
must be able to indentify it and know how 
to compound the various spray mixtures to 
combat this great scourge of the fruit indus¬ 
try. Years ago farmers did not know of 
bovine tuberculosis and did not have the 
worries of other animal diseases such as the 
foot and mouth disease which can quickly 
wipe out their valuable herds. 

To-day the farmer must be a thoroughly 
skilled and educated business man. Years 
ago farmers could act independently in their 
business transactions. To-day they cannot 
and market their products scientifically. This 
is evident by the coming into being of the 
Dairymen’s League, the poultry cooperatives 
of New Jersey and the Petaluma Valley and 
the great cooperatives of the California cit¬ 
rus fruit growers. They have been forced 
to organize their own sales agencies in order 
to get their product to the consumer at prices 


the consumers can pay, still leaving them 
enough to let the farmers know they are 
working for something besides the fun of it. 
Even to-day the price received by dairymeh 
for milk does not pay the cost of production 
plus a reasonable profit. 

And what is the agency that is helping the 
farmer—educating the farmer, if you please, 
—to meet these new problems. It is the 
State Colleges of Agriculture as well as the 
secondary agricultural schools. Obviously 
the. man on the land has not the time, and 
incidentally very often not the money, to go 
to college to learn those things he must know 
to meet all his problems. For him the col¬ 
leges of agriculture have established their 
extension or field forces to serve each agri¬ 
cultural county. It has a representative in 

each of these counties 
known as the county agri¬ 
cultural agent who has at 
his call a large staff of ex¬ 
perts and specialists in 
every line of agricultural 
endeavor. He prepares 
field tests in cooperation 
with farmers to demon¬ 
strate improved methods 
of cropping. He arranges 
for meetings where farm¬ 
ers may congregate and 
discuss their problems 
with specialists in farm 
crops and animal hus¬ 
bandry. 

It is for the next gen¬ 
eration of farmers, the 
farm boys and girls that 
the colleges are directly 
functioning. But the 
work among the young¬ 
sters goes back even far¬ 
ther than that. It starts 
among the boys and girls 
in the little country school- 
house in the form of 
Junior Projects w T hich are better known as 
calf clubs, poultry clubs, potato, corn and 
pig clubs. It is the junior extension pro¬ 
gram of the college. The youngsters w’ho 
are members of these clubs have their pro¬ 
jects on the home farm—be it a patch of 
potatoes or corn, a calf, a pig or a flock of 
chickens. They are told of modern methods 
o'f better seed, of pure-bred cattle versus 
scrubs. In short they are told of the most 
modern ideas found practical by farmers. 
A county club agent who is a member of 
the college extension service, aided by a local 
adult leader, supervise these clubs and en¬ 
courage and help the boys and girls. 

The greatest good these youngsters get 
is not the income from a few bushels of 
potatoes. What they really get is the reali¬ 
zation of what it means to take hold of 
a job and finish it, in short—achievement. 
Furthermore, they learn to realize the value 
of ownership which ultimately means thrift. 
Incidently by using better methods, they be¬ 
come more interested in the teachings of the 
college of agriculture and there is created 
the desire to continue their education. 

Education means a greater opportunity 
for success in farming. In a survey conducted 
by Dr. C. E. Ladd of the New^ York State Col¬ 
lege of Agriculture, it was found that as a 
man’s education increased so did his earn¬ 
ing capacity increase—the graduate of the 
college of agriculture doubling the income of 
the man who only had a high school educa¬ 
tion. 

American Agriculturist is firmly back of 
the colleges and the schools of agriculture. 
As an endorsement of their very great work 
it has established three scholarships known 
(Continued on page 58) 



To produce pork economically to-day, farmers must study such factors as feeding', breeding 
and selection of type. The ability to raise stock, such as this New York pig club boy boasts 
of, does not come from books alone. Dad’s experience was the background, elaborated by 
the most recent recommendations of the College of Agriculture. 









American Agriculturist 

THE FARM PAPER THAT PRINTS THE FARM NEWS 
“Agriculture is the Most Healthful, Most Useful and Most Noble Employment of Man ”—Washington 

Reg. U. S. Pat. Off. Established 1842 

4 

Volume 112 For the Week Ending July 28, 1923 Number 4 


The Spirit of Neighborliness 

Has It Gone the Way of the Country Church and Doctor? 


AFTER reading—and rereading—with 

/\ the deepest interest and apprecia- 
A - % tion the articles on the “Country 
-<L A Churches and Their Pastors” and 
“The Country Doctor,” I am inviting myself 
“to speak out in meetin’ ” and inquire: 
“Where have the old-fashioned country 
neighbors gone?” I should more correctly 
ask where has the spirit of neighborliness 
gone, which was possessed in such brimming 
measure by those people of one, two and 
three generations ago! 

Most of those good souls have long since 
gone to their reward; which, if 
it is measured by their neighbor¬ 
ly kindness here, will be a won¬ 
drous one. 

When someone was sick in our 
community (and ours was but an 
example, I am sure, of all such 
little rural communities) there 
was somebody at the house with 
the family continually until the 
danger was past. 

The washing was quietly car¬ 
ried off to a neighboring home 
and the clean clothes brought 
back ironed and ready for use. 

Another neighbor kept a goodly 
array of eatables on hand. Truly 
there seemed to be no limit to 
the thoughtfulness of neighbors 
at a time like that. 

I recall the time when Jim 
Bird came home from .“down 
East” sick with typhoid fever. 

He was one of a large family 
and they all caught the disease 
except two. 

There was sickness in that 
home for several months and in all that time 
the family was never alone, one or more of 
the neighbors being present day and night. 
Finally, Jim’s mother and a sister died, with¬ 
in a few hours of each . other. Still the 
neighbors came, helped in every way. 

Occasionally there were most amusing in¬ 
cidents. For example, when Sam Jones was 
dying, one of the neighbor women and her 
two nephews were to stay up and care for 
him one night. Instead of also remaining 
up, for he knew his father could not live 
until morning, John Jones and his wife, 

Em, retired, telling Mrs. T- to “call 

them when everything was all over.” Mrs. 

T-s’ nephews, lads of perhaps fifteen 

years, while realizing the situation, saw 
mostly the amusing side of it, and especial¬ 
ly were amused and disgusted by John’s 
callousness. 

The house was an old log affair, poorly 
cared for, and had other tenants than the 
Jones family, as was evidenced by the sight 
of a number of bed bugs that appeared on 
the ceiling of the room where the sick man 
lay. Noticing these, one of the lads re¬ 
marked: “Say, Aunt Jane, it’s question 
Whether the bed bugs or the angels will get 
poor Sam first, isn’t it?” 

The poor old man died that night, cheered 
by the presence of the “neighbors,” when 


By AN A. A. READER 

his own son had left him to face death,, 
alone or not, it didn’t matter. 

And after everything was all over, Mrs. 

T-, “called John” as he had requested 

her. 

Most people now, unless those of an older 
generation, have no time to be neighborly, 
in sickness or in health. Some of them, to be 
sure, will run in at a neighbor’s at any hour 
of the day and will sit in at a card game if 
they can’t go elsewhere in the evening, but 


if you are sick and need help, then they are 
busy! 

I heard of an especially good illustration 
of my argument last winter. Two families 
living within a half-minute’s walk of each 
other were apparently the best of neighbors 
for as long as they had known each other. 
One entire family was taken down with the 
“flu” and not a soul from the other family 
entered the house thus stricken, for more 
than a fortnight, and then only for a call 
out of curiosity. Finally one out of the first 
family was called beyond. Then, the other 
family and all the rest of the neighbors 
couldn’t do enough to help! And they all 
said, “Why we didn’t dream he was so sick,” 
“we thought he was gaining,” and so, ad 
infinitum. 

They were so afraid of the "flu,” and also 
worried for fear they would lose time from 
their own work that they could not possibly 
have called on their neighbors, though they 
knew well that the family was all in various 
stages of sickness. 

In those olden times, many generous cus¬ 
toms prevailed among the farmers. 

At husking time, after a man got a “grist” 
ground, he shared the fresh corn-meal 
with his neighbors, giving each enough for 
several “Johnny-cakes.” Likewise with the 
man who first got his buckwheat ground 


each fall. All the rest of the neighbors got 
a share. 

Most always the men in a locality took 
turns butchering—one would butcher each 
week after cold weather started in, until all 
were done. After each butchering, a nice 
cut of fresh meat was given to each nearby 
family, thus giving everyone fresh meat over 
a long period. 

At sugaring time, the people who had no 
sugar bush were generously remembered by 
those who had. 

It was the same the year around. What¬ 
ever one had was shared, if there 
was enough, so sharing was pos¬ 
sible, with those less fortunate. 
Now any one has to hint shame¬ 
lessly for even an invitation to 
one of those good old-fashioned 
“sugar licks!” 

I personally knew of one case 
where people had a lovely bed of 
tame strawberries almost under 
the nose of their nearest neigh¬ 
bor, and the latter had a member 
of his family dying by inches 
with tuberculosis. Did Number 
One offer Number Two any ber¬ 
ries for the invalid? Why, there 
might not have been enough for 
them to can all they wanted if 
they had! But they’d pick quarts 
of them every morning in plain 
view of her bedroom window! 
Number Two being poor, the in¬ 
valid had to go without any ber¬ 
ries. Think of the treat it would 
have been for her if she could 
have had a few. 

I’ll admit that there are a few 
of those old-fashioned neighbors who still 
are among us, but they are few, far between 
and greatly unappreciated. 

It sounds like old “fogeyism,” truly, for 
anyone in this enlightened age to say it, 
but I agree with those who believe that 
the old times were the good times, with the 
emphasis on the good! There are so many 
wonders and strangely interesting happen¬ 
ings in this old world to-day that it seems 
to me we are losing sight of the simpler 
things, and faith in the love that passeth 
all understanding. 

In spite of the vaunted Christianity of 
those people who “rise up and testify,” rant 
and rave of their religion and their goodness, 
but if an erring or unfortunate brother or 
sister needs their charity (in the shape of 
kindly words, deeds or help in any form,) 
they too are afraid of soiling their own gar¬ 
ments by helping a fallen or needy one. Most 
of the older neighbors did not stop to figure 
out, “Am I my brother’s keeper.” Each did 
his best for all. 

Some may say that if one is neighborly, 
one will have good neighbors, but that does 
not always follow. It is hard to do one’s 
darndest for the neighbors and then get no 
thanks and no help in return. It gets 
monotonous finally—makes a fellow lone¬ 
some, too.—R. M. M. 


A Queer Lot! 

T HE writer of the very interesting article on this page is another 
.one who believes that the “good old times” were best. In send¬ 
ing it in, the writer said, “American Agriculturist has had interesting 
articles about the disappearing rural church and country doctor. Here 
is one about the going of the old-fashioned country neighborliness.” 
Is the writer right? 

It is strange how few there are that try to defend the present day 
as compared with the past. Probably the chief reason is that human 
memory has a habit of forgetting or softening the troubles of the 
past and emphasizing the pleasant times. But times are made mostly 
by people and people don’t change much through the years. Folks 
of to-day are on the whole fully as good as they were in olden times 
and if we believe in progress at all, probably they are a little better. 
When we of this generation get old we will tell the young folks of 
1950 about the good old times back in the 1920’s. Aren’t we humans 
a queer lot?—The Editors. 

















52 

Editorial Pag 

American 
Agriculturist 

Founded 1842 


Henry Morgenthau, Jr .Publisher 

E. R. Eastman .Editor 

Fred W. Ohm .Associate Editor 

Gabrielle Elliot .... Household Editor 

'Birge Kinne .Advertising Manager 

H. L. Vonderlieth . . . Circulation Manager 

CONTRIBUTING staff 

H. E. Cook, Jared Van Wagenen, Jr., IT H. Jones, 
Paul Work, G. T. Hughes, H. E. Babcock 


OUR ADVERTISEMENTS GUARANTEED 

The American Agriculturist accepts only advertis¬ 
ing which it believes to be thoroughly honest. 

We positively guarantee to our readers fair and 
honest treatment in dealing with our advertisers. 

We guarantee to refund the price of goods pur¬ 
chased by our subscribers from any advertiser who 
fails to make good when the article purchased is 
found not to be as advertised. 

To benefit by this guarantee subscribers must say: 
“I saw your ad in the American Agriculturist” when 
ordering from our advertisers. 


Published Weekly by 

AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST, INC. 

Address all correspondence for editorial, advertising, or 
subscription departments to 

461 Fourth Ave., New York, N. Y. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter, December 15, 1922, at the 
Post Office at New York, N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 


Subscription price, payable in advance, $1-a year. 
Canadian and foreign, $2 a year. 


VOL. 112 July 28, 1923 No. 4 


Are Farm People For Prohibition? 

E are surprised and gratified by the 
tremendous amount of interest farm 
people are showing in American Agricul¬ 
turists’ prohibition poll. Votes are coming 
in by the hundred. Ballots have been sent 
to several of the different farm organizations 
and will be sent on application free of charge 
to anybody who wishes to see that their 
neighbors are recorded on this important 
problem. We are getting hundreds of let¬ 
ters with the ballots, a few of the more in¬ 
teresting of which are printed on the‘op¬ 
posite page. Tabulations showing the re¬ 
sults will be started in an early issue. Al¬ 
though the majority are for prohibition and 
the strict enforcement of the Eighteenth 
Amendment, a surprisingly large number of 
farm people are recording themselves 
against it. 

Interest throughout the East is being 
aroused by this vote. It is an opportunity 
for the farm people to go on record on what 
is without doubt the most important prob¬ 
lem before the American people to-day. Fill 
in the ballot and get your neighbors to. 


Johnson Not Representative 

HE election of Magnus Johnson, the can¬ 
didate of the Farmer-Labor Party for 
the United States Senate from Minnesota has 
attracted much comment and interest. He de¬ 
feated his chief opponent, J. A. 0. Preus, 
the Republican nominee, by a very heavy 
majority. Many leading newspapers view 
Johnson’s victor over the Republican candi¬ 
date as an indication of what will happen to 
the Republican party in the next national 
election. Others say that the Minnesota 
senatorial election indicates only a protest of 
farmers against dollar wheat and the many 
other troubles with which western farmers 
have been contending for some time. 

American Agriculturist is, of course, in 
favor of a strong representation of farmers 
in . every Legislature and in Congress. But 
while Mr. Johnson is a farmer, he is by no 
means a representative one. Pie is a radical 


e of .the American 

of the extreme type, advocating such policies 
as full sympathy with Soviet Russia and 
government ownership. He belongs to that 
class who evidently believe that all farmers’ 
trouble can be be corrected by legislation. 
Samuel Gompers pointed out the foolishness 
of this in a recent article in the American 
Agriculturist when he said, “Farmers can¬ 
not hope to get help from politicians, but 
should resort to their own power, their own 
capacity and their own intelligence.” Those 
who voted for Mr. Johnson will look in vain 
for the increased prices of their farm pro¬ 
ducts which they hope will come through his 
election to the Senate. 

While there are some radical farmers, es¬ 
pecially in our northwest, the great majority 
are the most stable class of people in Amer¬ 
ica, and it is to be regretted that a man of 
Johnson’s type is in a place to give the world 
a wrong impression of th£ real farmer. 


What Was Wrong With the Picture? 

N the cover of the July 7 issue of Amer¬ 
ican Agriculturist there was a fine farm 
picture showing a man cutting clover with 
a mowing machine. We asked our people 
to write in and tell us why this man was 
. apparently using poor judgment. There have 
been several answers, out of which the 
following were right: H. E. Ankeney, Charl¬ 
ton, Md.; Clayton Young, Camillus, N. Y.; 
Miss Ardis E. Hawkins, Lake Ronkonkoma, 
N. Y.; Emma Czirr, Oswego, N. Y.; and 
Miss Helena Schneikle, Oswego, N. Y. 

These people said that the man was ap¬ 
parently cutting heavy clover just before a 
big rain, which was poor judgment. In our 
opinion this was the correct answer. 

One other said that the man was showing 
poor judgment because he did not have fly- 
nets on his horses. Fly-nets are, of course, 
an aid, but comparatively few farmers are 
using them. Another answer said that the 
man was apparently driving his machine 
right through the uncut clover and was 
thereby showing poor judgment. This an¬ 
swer was also correct, because if one looked 
closely at the picture, the mower did appear 
to be right in the clover. 

It is interesting to note that three of those 
who guessed right are women. Sometimes 
some of us are apt to forget that some of 
the best judgment that goes into directing 
the farm business comes from the women. 


More Encouraging 

T HE July crop estimate of the United 
States Department of Agriculture pre¬ 
dicts a billion dollar increase in the value of 
farm crops which farmers will sell this sea¬ 
son. This is in spite of a 3% decrease in 
crop acreage farmed. Of course, much may 
happen between now and the harvest of 
many of the crops, but a prediction based 
upon the department’s accurate surveys will 
not likely be far out of the way. 

A billion more, dollars in the pockets of- the 
American farmers, while not bringing all of 
his crops up to their costs of production, will 
do much to increase the general prosperity, 
and to put more hope and encouragement in 
the farmer’s heart than he has had in several 
years. It really begins to look as if the tide 
of the har'd times for farmers had begun to 
set the other way. 


Did You Get Yours? 

NE of our subscribers writes as follows: 
“Last year we waited over fifteen 
months before the state paid the indemnities 
on our cattle which they had condemned for 
tuberculosis. This year we waited a little 
over two months. It was a pleasant sur¬ 
prise.” 

American Agriculturist helped to bring 


American Agriculturist, July 28,1923 

Agriculturist 

about this very decided and necessary im¬ 
provement in the payment of State in¬ 
demnities for slaughtered tubercular cattle. 
Owing to our insistence and to that of farm 
organizations and cattle breeders, the Legis¬ 
lature in its last session passed adequate ap¬ 
propriations so that dairymen need not wait 
such a disgracefully long time for their in¬ 
demnities as they have in former years. 


What Over-Production Does 

I N a daily paper which we have before us 
there is a table showipg business condi¬ 
tions with several different commodities, 
none of them agricultural. The report-reads 
something like this: “Cotton—demand light, 
prices lower, sharp curtailment in produc¬ 
tion.” All but one of the commodities read 
about the same way. Each show that the 
moment the demand lets up, production is 
stopped or curtailed. 

The same paper reports wheat below a 
dollar a bushel on the Chicago market. The 
reason for it is too much wheat, but there 
will be little or no curtailment by the wheat 
farmers of future production. 

The same daily also shows hogs selling 
for more than a dollar a hundred less than 
it cost to produce them. The reason is too 
many hogs. Months ago, American Agricul¬ 
turist warned farmers to go slow in hog 
production, predicting a big slump due to 
over-production. . Fortunately for eastern 
farmers the low prices of wheat and hogs 
is not so serious as in the West, but all of us 
East or West,, are just the same in our blind 
disregard of market demands. 

• When will we farmers learn the lesson that 
every other business constantly practices, 
that to avoid constant and disastrous loss 
we must in some way regulate production 
to suit the demand? 


We Rise to State an Objection 

INCE the candidacy and election of Mag¬ 
nus Johnson, a farmer of Minnesota, to 
the United States Senate, the newspapers 
have contained many references again to 
the “dirt farmer.” A “dirt farmer” is sup¬ 
posed to be one who actually works with his 
own hands on his farm as contrasted with 
the man who owns a farm but never does 
any work there himself. The term “dirt 
farmer” is supposed to be complimentary, 
but we vigorously object to its use as ap¬ 
plied to farm people. Webster’s dictionary 
gives as synonyms of “dirt,” “foul, filthy, 
nasty, squalid”—a nice lot of adjectives in¬ 
deed to apply to the man who actually works 
on the land! 

The next time you hear some speaker try 
to compliment you by calling you a “dirt 
farmer,” -we advise you to educate him then 
and there, with a brick or an ancient egg, 
to the fact that real farmers work in the soil, 
one of the cleanest and most purifying of 
Nature’s' agencies. 


Quotations Worth While 

Let us hope that one day all mankind will 
be happy and wise; and though this day 
never should dawn, to have hoped for it 
cannot be wrong. And in any event, it is 
helpful to speak of happiness to those who 
are sad, that thus at least they may learn 
what it is that happiness means.—M aurice 
Maeterlinck. 

* * * 

The secret of managing a man is to let 
him have his way in little things. He will 
change his life when he won’t change his 
boot-maker.—J ohn Oliver Hobbs. 

5jC 5|« 

To our shame a woman is never so much 
attached to us as when we suffer.—H onore 
De Balzac. 
































American Agriculturist, July 28,1923 


53 


Whether You Are Wet or Dry 

You Will Find Consolation On This Page—Be Sure To Vote 


y ET or dry? 

^ / First the votes incline the bal- 

%/ li/ ance one way and then the other. 

▼ ▼ But every letter is so emphatic 

that we find our readers are not luke-warm, 
whichever side they favor. 

Here, for instance, is a wet who regretful¬ 
ly, but decidedly, differs with our editorial 
position: 

“For upwards of half a century I have 
read the American Agriculturist; first as a 
monthly under the late Orange Judd. Dur¬ 
ing all this time I have seen in your columns 
much to praise and very little to differ with. 
But even the best of friends may, as the 
years roll by, find themselves on contrary 
sides of some grave question. 

“In a late issue of American Agriculturist 
I read a letter scoring the prohibition law 
and your comments on the question. I am 
heartily in favor of your correspondents’ 
views and consequently opposed to your 
stand. Since reaching years of maturity I 
have known that the saloon was wrong and 
should go, and would have welcomed a law 
properly regulating the sale of intoxicating 
drinks. But the Volstead Act and the Mul- 
lin-Gage law were conceived by fanatics and 
passed, not as an honest expression of opin¬ 
ion,, but through fear which a fanatical 
minority was able to impress upon a supine 
and vote-craving Congress and State Legis¬ 
lature. The spectacle presented by our 
Government since the Supreme Court ruling 
on the Volstead Act must be a cause of sor¬ 
row and shame to all loyal citizens. 

“The abuses of this fanatical law have 
made us a nation of lawbreakers. I believe 
you to be all wrong in your idea of the per¬ 
centage of farmers in favor of the Volstead 
Act and the Mullin-Gage lav/. 

Your correspondent speaks of 
about 70 per cent, against; my 
opinion would be a much higher 
percentage against. I have had 
much to do with farmers in my 
native State, New York, and 
also in other States, and my 
home is in a section that will 
compare favorably to any, for 
intelligent and law-abiding,, 
farmers, and yet I do not know 
of one who favors the Volstead 
Act. They are not saying much 
—perhaps not one will write 
you his views on the question.. 

It is the “reformers” who desire 
to make the whole world as holy 
(?) as themselves, who are in 
evidence first, last and always.” 

—W. L. R., .New York. 

Another friend sets forth his 
views concisely: “It seems to 
me a waste of time to argue the 
question of prohibition. Of 
course we are for it. All sen¬ 
sible people are. How any per¬ 
son with reasoning powers, can 
say or think our country wor.se 
off since prohibition, is beyond 
me! The merchants and bank¬ 
ers in our country are pretty 
good witnesses that trade never 
has been as good as since the 
country is dry. Money spent for 
whiskey cannot buy shoes, 
clothes or groceries—or swell 
anyone’s bank account but the 
saloon-keeper’s. T h o se who 
want whiskey so much ought to 
be allowed to have enough of 
the poison stuff to rid the coun¬ 
try of them! Prohibition? Yes 
—and always.”—H. R., New 
York. 


By A. A. READERS 

A little humor is injected into the situa¬ 
tion by Mr. W. R. H. of New York: “Some 
of the ideas of the ‘wets’ would make one 
smile were it not for the fact that they make 
you mad first, and we find it hard to smile 
and be mad all at the same time. 

“I suggest that the wets get some kind 
friend to start up a real nice saloon right 
near their own front door, the nearer the 
better. Surely they will like to have it there; 
the noise is so entertaining and soothing in 
the early morning hours—in fact it usually 
operates almost the full twenty-four hours 
daily, Sunday included. A saloon right 
nearby is easy to get to quickly and it is very 
much easier to get home again without hav¬ 
ing to call up the police for support and help. 

An Influence on Property Valuation 

“Then again, it adds so much to the value 
of your real estate to have an up-to-date 
saloon adjoining the property. We notice 
that nearly all wets believe in and vote for 
the old license system. This, of course, is 
the correct way of giving the saloon-keeper 
the privilege of selling the goods and obey¬ 
ing the law at the same time, and so if Mr. 
Wet’s son, or daughter either, goes over to 
the saloon next door the first night, and gets 
gloriously drunk, it is only what might log¬ 
ically be expected to happen, and Mr. Wet 
has no kick coming, for didn’t he vote to 
give the privilege of selling? If his own 
children patronize a business of his own 
making, he ought to be satisfied, and re¬ 
frain from kicking anyone unless it be him¬ 
self. 

“To my notion at least, most ‘wets,’ like a 


PROHIBITION BALLOT 


OF THE 


AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 


Are You for the Strict Enforcement of the 
18th Amendment as It Now Stands ? 

Are You for a Modification of the 18th 
Amendment to Permit Light Wines 
and Beer ? 


□ 


Designate your opinion by placing an X in the square opposite Yes or 
No on each question. Sign your name and address. Your name will be 
kept strictly confidential. 


Name, 


Address, 


say 

Both sides claim 
The 


Why You Should Vote 

Do the American people want prohibition? The Wets emphatically 
“No” and the Drys are even more emphatically for it. 
a majority. Which is right? What do farm people think about it? 
opinions of farmers on any problem, if they will express them, go far in 
determining the outcome of a controversy. 

American Agriculturist is taking a vote of farm families on the ques¬ 
tion of prohibition. It is a vital issue and whether you are for it or 
against it, be sure to vote in the spaces above. Mail this ballet to the 
American Agriculturist, 461 Fourth Avenue, New York City. 

Get your friends to vote—Mere ballots furnished on application 


little of the ‘old stuff’ themselves occasion¬ 
ally. They also like that the saloon shall be 
near the other fellow’s front door rather 
than their own, and worst of all, they are 
quite willing to have the goods sold to some 
one else’s children, but they want their own 
family to be kept clean and straight. How 
to be ‘wet’ and not be decidedly selfish at 
the same time is a thing I have yet to learn. 

“Isn’t it nice to be able to walk the streets 
of even old New York City without seeing 
and smelling a saloon on three of every 
four corners ? Times and laws are far from 
perfect and the millenium is not here yet 
but it’s on the way and will arrive in due 
time.” 

It is not often that a woman comes out 
so strongly for a return to the old days as 
does Mrs. A. J. 0. of New Jersey. “Here 
are my views on prohibition. I never in¬ 
tended to vote because I think a woman has 
all she can do to attend to her home, but 
I am going to vote this year for the man 
who will bring back beer. We work hard 
and how often we longed for a glass of beer, 
the kind we used to get, and if I could get 
to Albany, I would pat Governor Smith on 
the back. Everybody I have spoken to say 
they don’t know how it was put over on the 
people. Let those who don’t want a glass 
of beer prohibit themselves. Is this a free 
country ?” 

Another opponent of prohibition is W. H. 
H. of Virginia. “I noticed on the Editorial 
Page of June 16th issue, your letter, also 
your question, ‘Are Farm People for Prohi¬ 
bition?’ My answer is emphatically ‘no’ for 
the State of Virginia or at least for this sec¬ 
tion, and I firmly believe it is true for the 
entire State. While a good many farmers 
voted for prohibition (simply 
because they were under the 
impression that they were do¬ 
ing what was best for the peo¬ 
ple and State at large), yet, if 
they had to vote on it again, <±9 
farmers out of 50 would vote 
against it. 

“Now, Mr. Editor, I cannot 
.agree with you when you state 
‘there has been a good deal of 
loose talking and joking about 
bootlegging, but when all is 
done and said, there has been 
less crime, less men in jail for 
drunkenness, less discord and 
unhappiness in thousands of 
American families, and more 
money to spend for the benefit 
of all of the family since the 
Eighteenth Amendment, than 
ever before.’ 

“If your statement is true in 
New York City and State, it 
surely is not the case in the Old 
Dominion and the largest por¬ 
tion of the other States, if news¬ 
papers are to be believed, as 
most of them state that more 
meanness is carried on from 
making liquor than ever known 
before. 

“If it hadn’t been for the 
‘stills and bootlegging’ business, 
prohibition would no doubt 
have been the best thing ever 
happened for the entire coun¬ 
try; now, it ruins and demoral¬ 
izes people. I know this is true 
in Virginia, as at least one-half 
of the people have a small still, 
making what they call liquor 
for their own use and some of 
their friends, or a large one, 
(Continued on page 58) 


YES 


NO 


YES 


NO 





















American Agriculturist, July 28,1923 


54 








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READ this question on. the editorial 
page of your July 7 issue and will 
attempt to answer it. First, I might 
state that I favor the sod mulch plan, 
first, last and all the time. I do not 
say that it is a practical method for 
all locations or for all men, even if 
those men were 
blessed with an 
ideal location for 
a sod mulch or¬ 
chard. 

There is ap¬ 
proximately one 
thousand acres of 
orchard being 
grown in sod in 
my immediate vi¬ 
cinity. About ____ 

two-thirds of this ——— - 
acreage is seeded 

to alfalfa, the rest to various other 
grasses. Some of the orchards have a 
very heavy stand of alfalfa, while 
others have a light stand. The trees 
growing in the alfalfa sod are from 
one to twenty-two years of age and the 
land has not been ploughed or re¬ 
seeded since the trees were planted ex¬ 
cept in a few instances where previous 
seeding of other grasses was not 
satisfactory. 

I do not think that alfalfa retards 
the growth of an apple tree; in fact, 

I know under conditions here that it 
promotes the 
growth to a very 
marked degree, al¬ 
though there might 
be instances where 
the alfalfa would 
retard the tree for 
a short period of its 
life, but later this 
would be more than 
made up by the in¬ 
creased available 
supply of nitrogen 
and humus. 

To be more ex¬ 
plicit, a young or¬ 
chard just planted 
in a heavy stand of 
alfalfa m a y not 
show as much 
growth for two or 
three years as a cor¬ 
responding area un¬ 
der cultivation, but 
as soon as the tyee 
attains a roothold 
the effect of the 
large supply of ni¬ 
trogen and humus 
from the rotted 
mulch will become 
apparent in the in¬ 
creased vigor of the tree. There are 
various reasons for this retarding ac¬ 
tion, all of which, to the writer’s notion, 
may be overcome by judicious manage¬ 
ment. To begin with, it is not desir¬ 
able to have a heavy stand of alfalfa, 
especially if the seeding closely sur¬ 
rounds the apple tree. A lighter stand 
gives the desired results for most loca¬ 
tions, and the light stand does not take 
up as much moisture from the soil and 
it does not bother so much in the 
regular operation of the orchard, such 
as mowing, spraying, thinning, and 
picking. 

Another matter which has a bearing 


Advocates Sod Mulch 


/ T'HE Hitchings Orchards are noted 
among fruit men throughout the 
East for their success with the sod 
mulch. You will be interested in this 
article, telling how alfalfa is used as 
the mulch.—The Editors. 


By H. R. HITCHINGS . 

on the judicious management of the or¬ 
chard is the time of cutting. For the 
best results, to the writer’s notion, the 
alfalfa should always be cut early 
(10th to 15th of June in Central New 

York) and for 
————i the first six or 

seven years raked 
and placed as a 
mulch around 
the trees. The 
second cutting 
should be cut and 
left in the swath. 

Placing the 
mulch around the 

__ tree will tend to 

— . smother out the 

alfalfa i m m e - 
diately above the young roots and 
this will enable the tree to start off at 
an early age in a very thrifty condi¬ 
tion. Four or five years of mulching 
will about finish the alfalfa under the 
branches, thus aiding in the mowing 
and the gathering of the apples. The 
alfalfa, used as a mulch, deteriorates 
very rapidly, and the extra nitrogen 
and humus become available in a short 
time. This takes the place of cultivation 
or a nitrogeneous fertilizer and allows 
the grower to bring up an orchard 
much cheaper than by other means. 


A view of one of the Hitchings Orchards—ten years old—consisting of 
Wealthy and Northern Spy varieties. This orchard has a sod mulch of 
a light stand of alfalfa. A Wealthy in the left of center of the picture 

is bending with the heavy load 


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For pamphlets worth having, Write B. HAMMOND, Be&COD, NewYork 


If the alfalfa hay is removed from 
the orchard, or if the hay is allowed to 
stand uncut over a dry period, it will, 
no doubt, work a hardship on the trees, 
although there is a block of eight-year- 
old McIntosh trees on an adjoining 
farm that has had all of the hay re¬ 
moved since the trees were planted that 
are in a very thrifty condition and are 
fruiting well. This orchard is planted 
on an exceptionally deep rich soil and 
the trees are thriving without the 
added impetus of the alfalfa mulch. 
For ordinary conditions the writer cer¬ 
tainly would not advise removing the 
hay, but, if one is contemplating inter¬ 
cropping, it would be better to grow 
alfalfa in the orchard and remove pos¬ 
sibly part of the crop for monetary re¬ 
turn. The orchard will receive some 
benefit from the nitrogen in the alfalfa, 
even if a large percentage of the hay 
is removed and the soil will be left in 
a better condition than as if under cul¬ 
tivation, as most anyone will agree who 
has ploughed up old alfalfa sod, and 
planted this area to field crops. The 
soil is looser and more friable and the 
crops seem to respond better. 

If any hay is to be removed, take 
the first cutting, and take it early, leav¬ 
ing enough to cover the ground around 
the trees for a mulch. 

To sum up in answering your ques¬ 
tion, “Does the alfalfa hurt the tree 
by taking away moisture?” I would 
say yes, if a heavy stand is allowed to 
remain immediately surrounding the 
tree through periods of drought. If 
this is cut and a mulch placed around 
the tree early in the season, I would 


say no, the alfalfa cannot harm the 
tree. 

I do not think you will find it neces¬ 
sary to use commercial fertilizer if the 
aforementioned method of cutting the 
hay and mulching is followed. Of 
course, I am speaking of conditions in 
Central New York where there is a 
limestone soil and alfalfa thrives. 
There are some seedings in this vicin¬ 
ity twenty years old that have quite 
a stand of alfalfa. We have not seen 
the necessity of applying fertilizer on 
our orchards seeded to alfalfa. Per¬ 
sonally, I believe that our orchards 
seeded to alfalfa are larger, more 
thrifty, and much more fruitful than 
they would have been under cultiva¬ 
tion ; and, the. cost of growing them up 
to bearing age is a small percentage 
of what it would have been under cul¬ 
tivation. Our Northern Spys start bear¬ 
ing commercial crops from eight . to 
twelve years of age in the alfalfa sod, 
other varieties accordingly. 

There are some drawbacks, however. 
Alfalfa forces wood growth similar to 
cultivation or the heavy application of 
nitrogeneous fertilizer, and it is some¬ 
times difficult to secure the proper re¬ 
lationship between sufficient stand of 
alfalfa and proper forcing of the tree 
to secure the largest quantity of well- 
colored fruit. There is ample opportu¬ 
nity for experimentation along this 
line. I have heard 
it said that alfalfa 
in the orchard in¬ 
creases the suscepti¬ 
bility of the tree to 
scab, but to date 
there has not been 
any special trouble 
encountered in con¬ 
trolling scab on the 
alfalfa-seeded or¬ 
chards. 

Alfalfa retards the 
ripening of the fruit 
—this being, at 
times, a distinct ad- 
vantage as the 
length of the pick¬ 
ing season may be 
prolonged. The ap¬ 
ples do not color as 
well if the stand of 
alfalfa is too heavy 
and the soil rich. 
As the trees attain 
age the stand of al¬ 
falfa usually be¬ 
comes lighter and 
the color of the ap¬ 
ples improves. In 
fact, much the same 
result is obtained by 
the use of the alfalfa-seeded sod 
mulch plan as by cultivation and 
there are many items beside the cost in 
its favor. The grower can handle a much 
larger orchard with the same amount 
of help, a very important item taken 
alone. The orchard can be planted on 
hillsides where cultivation would be im¬ 
practical. Having a larger area situ¬ 
ated over various locations as regards 
aspect and slope of the land insures 
a better chance of bringing through an 
annual crop. 


This is an eight-year-old McIntosh in 
an orchard having a heavy stand of 
alfalfa, which has been cut and prac¬ 
tically all removed since the trees 
were set. It has a fair set of fruit 
this year. 


Alfalfa As A Sod Mulch in the Orchard 


And Its Effect Upon the Development of Young Apple Trees 


































































American Agriculturist, July 28,1923 


55 


Long News in Short 
Paragraphs 

T HE apple crop in the country as a 
whole promises to be very fair. In 
New York State, unfortunately, the 
crop will be light. Hay is pretty nearly 
up to average in New York State, but 
far below the average in other hay- 
producing sections. Pastures are short 
everywhere, which means that farmers 
will have to begin to feed grain early. 
Dry weather is causing much damage. 
* * 

It is reported that wheat is fairly 
good in New York, and fair in Penn¬ 
sylvania. In New Jersey it is poor. 
Dairying is reported good in New York, 
Pennsylvania and New Jersey, with 
very good prices. Poultry is doing well 
in the above States, and potatoes in¬ 
dicate now that the crop will be at least 
average. 

* * * 

Alexander Legg, president of the In¬ 
ternational Harvester Company, in re¬ 
ferring to the small returns which 
farmers receive for their products, 
said: “If it is true that no nation can 
endure half slave and half free, then it 
must be equally true that no nation can 
long endure where nearly one-third of 
its toilers, the hardest working third, 
is miserably underpaid.” 

* * * 

“In the Boston ‘Traveler,’ ” says the 
National Dairy Council, “of recent is¬ 
sue a whole page was devoted to tell¬ 
ing the secret of health and happiness 
of the most beautiful girl in America. 
Here is the secret: Eat three meals 
a day, drink a quart of pnilk a day, 
ten hours of sleep, plenty of fresh air 
and sunshine, and regular exercise to 
develop the w’eak parts of the body.” 

* * * 

General Manager W. E. Skinner of 
the National Dairy Exposition, to be 
held at Syracuse, N. Y., October 3 to 
13, announces that the Exposition feels 
so keenly, the increased value of the 
club department that they have added 
to the expenses prize money until it 
now amounts to $5,500 and that there 
is close to $1,000 of cattle club money 
offered in addition. The executive com¬ 
mittee in charge of the department is 
W. J. Wright, State club leader, New 
York, chairman; W. H. Palmer, State 
club leader, Ohio; E. J. Jenkins, State 
club leader, Maryland; A. L. Baker, 
State club leader, Pennsylvania, and 
W. E. Skinner. 

* * * 

Mr. Charles J. Brand, formerly chief 
of the Bureau of Markets of the United 
States Department of Agriculture, has 
just returned from an extended trip in 
Europe. He has considerable' to say 
about the great cost of Europe’s 
“Drink Bill.” 

“I was told,” said Mr. Brand, “by 
men who had given consideration to this 
subject in England, that their best sta¬ 
tistics indicated that in England and 
in Wales, two gallons of beer were 
drunk for every gallon of milk. 

“European observations,” concluded 
Mr. Brand, “forced the conclusion that 
ignoring social degradation, crime, in¬ 
creased disease, insanity, and mortality, 
and looking only at the economic waste 
avoided, that the United States by 
sticking to prohibition, even though it 
may not be thoroughly enforced, will 
out-distance the nations of the world 
in the sharp economic competition of 
the next twenty-five years.” 

* * * 

European countries report that Euro¬ 
pean crops are in general in good con¬ 
dition. 

* * * 

The National Dairy Show headquar¬ 
ters, Grand Opera House Building, 
Syracuse, N. Y., have just issued their 
catalogue announcing the dairy cattle 
prize list for the coming show. If in¬ 
terested, write for the catalogue. 

* * * 

Jonah was certainly in the land of 
plenty when he was in the whale. The 
Department of Commerce reports that 
whale steaks are one of the greatest 
delicacies known and that canned 
Northern Pacific whale steaks are mak¬ 
ing a hit wherever introduced. 

* * * 

More and more farmers are finding 
it necessary to make constant study of 
market information. To aid them, 
American Agriculturist, cooperating 


\ 




Aaggie, a grade Holstein owned by S. W. Barber, Scottsburg, N. Y-, 
freshened February 19, 1922, and produced 25,298.3 pounds of milk 
containing 141 1.7 pounds of butter in 365 days carrying a calf 256 
days of this period. Her highest single day’s production was 98.6 
pounds of milk. This photograph was taken a short time after fin¬ 
ishing her year’s work and shows the splendid condition she was in. 

25,298 pounds of milk in one year 
with G. L. F. Milk Maker 

G. L. F. Milk Maker was the sole grain ration of Aaggie through¬ 
out the whole test period and the even consistency of her per¬ 
formance was due to the high quality of Milk Maker. 

Mr* Barber’s entire herd has been fed G. L. F. Rations with 
gratifying results. He says: “1 consider G. L. F. Rations ideal 
for large, long time, efficient, profitable production. G. L. F. 
Rations have kept my herd at a high point of production 
throughout the year and at the same time the cows have gained 

in flesh and are in the best of health and condition.” 

/ 

For prices 

See your Local G. L. F. Agent 
or write 

FEED DEPARTMENT 

COOPERATIVE G. L. F. EXCHANGE 

BUFFALO, NEW YORK 






with the New York State Department 
of Farms and Markets and with sta¬ 
tion WEAF, broadcasts market reports 
every Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday 
and Friday at 10:50 A. M., eastern 
standard time. “Tune in” and pass the 
information on to your neighbor. 

Silver' Fox farming is getting to be 
an industry of considerable size, ac¬ 
cording to United States Department of 
Agriculture Bulletin, Number 1151, en¬ 
titled “Silver Fox Farming.” About 
five hundred farmers are engaged in 
the business in this country. In 1922 
there were between twelve and fifteen 
thousand foxes in captivity, represent¬ 
ing an investment of eight million 
dollars. 

❖ Jk * 

T. E. Milliman, manager of the Mem¬ 
bership Service Department of the 
Dairymeors Leagu'e Cooperative As¬ 
sociation, announces that during the 
fiscal year ending March 31, 1923, $67,- 
313.53 were accumulated to be paid 
back to local branches for local ex¬ 
penses. This money has now been dis¬ 
tributed to the locals. It amounted to 
about $1.40 a member. 

* * * 

A readable, valuable and interesting 
bulletin entitled “Sewage Disposal for 
Rural Homes” has just been issued by 


the New York State College of Agri¬ 
culture, ' written by H. W. Riley and 
J. C. McCurdy. If you wish it, write 
for Extension Bulletin No. 48. 

* * ;k 

Some one has said that it is unneces¬ 
sary to register the farm vote on pro¬ 
hibition. This is not so, for millions of 
city people think that a majority of 
farmers are against prohibition. Send 
in your vote to American Agriculturist. 
Stand up and be counted! 

* * * 

Farmers’ Bulletin, Number 1316, en¬ 
titled “Marketing the Early Potato 
Crop,” will be of value to all those who 
have early potatoes to put on the mar¬ 
ket. It can be had free of charge upon 
application to the United States De¬ 
partment of Agriculture. 

5k * 5k 

The July estimate of the United 
States Department of Agriculture gives 
some indication of crop prospects this 
year. The department predicts a bil¬ 
lion dollar increase in value in spite 
of a 3 per cent decrease in acreage. 

* * * 

Plans for the National Dairy Show 
and the World’s Dairy Congress to 
be held in Syracuse October 5-13, are 
progressing rapidly. Already thou¬ 
sands of farmers are making plans to 
attend. 


Opportunity Calls 
from CANADA 



Visit Canada this summer— see 
for yourself the opportunities 
which Canada offers to both 
labor and capital—rich, fertile, 
virgin prairie land, near rail¬ 
ways and towns, at $15 to $20 
an acre—long terms if desired. 
Wheat crops last year the big¬ 
gest in history; dairying and 
hogs pay well; mixed farming 
rapidly increasing. 

Homeseekers’ Rates on 
Canadian Railroads 

If you wish to look over the 
country with a view to taking 
up land get an order from the 
nearest Canadian Government 
Agent for special rates on 
Canadian railroads. Make this 
your summer outing—Canada 
welcomes tourists—no pass¬ 
ports required — have a great 
trip and see with your own 
eyes the opportunities that 
await you. 

For full information, with free 
booklets and maps, write 

0. G. RUTLEDGE 

Desk 56 

301 E. Genesee Street 
SYRACUSE, N. Y. 
Authorized Canadian Gov’t Aft. 


N 


































56 


American Agriculturist, July 28,1923 



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24 


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explained in our Free Booklet, Remedy $2 Bot. 

The Breed-0 Remedy Co., P.0. Box240-A, Bristol, Conn. 

Natural Leaf Tobacco smoking 5 lbs. $1.25; 10, 

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TOBACCO GROWERS’ UNION, Murray. Ky. 

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Among the Farmers of New York 

Northeastern State Farm Bureaus to Meet at Albany 


P RESIDENT O. E. BRADFUTE of 
the American Farm Bureau Federa¬ 
tion will be the chief speaker at the 
big Northeastern Conference of Farm 
Bureau Federations in Albany on Au¬ 
gust 2 and 3. Mr. Bradfute welcomed 
the invitation from the New York 
State Federation as an opportunity to 
“mingle with the farmers of the East.” 
This will be Mr. Bradfute’s first visit 
to the assembled Eastern federations 
since his election. His subject will be 
“The American Farm Bureau Federa¬ 
tion in the East.” 

On Thursday, August 2, at 10:30 
a. m., farmers’ time, President Enos 
Lee will open the conference in Chan¬ 
cellor’s Hall, Educational Building, Al¬ 
bany. Two days of crowded sessions 
have been planned by Secretary Under¬ 
wood, who has charge of the program, 
as New York is.host this year. 

Hon. William J. Hackett, Mayor of 
Albany, will welcome the delegates who 
will come, it is expected, from Maine, 
New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachu¬ 
setts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New 
Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Mary¬ 
land, and New York. Each State will 
be heard from at the conference on 
Thursday. Connecticut will be repre¬ 
sented by Walter C. Wood; Delaware 
by John Ponder; Maine by Julian 
Emery; Maryland by E. P. Cahill; 
Massachusetts by H. Russell; New 
Hampshire by G. M. Putnam; New 
Jersey by H. E. Taylor; Pennsylvania 
by J. C. Brubaker; Rhode Island by C. 
N. Potter; Vermont by E. D. Corn¬ 
wall; New York by President Lee. 

Federation Directors Preside 

Each of the three Eastern directors 
of the American Farm Bureau Federa¬ 
tion will preside at a session of the 
conference. Frank App of New Jersey 
will take the chair Thursday after¬ 
noon. On Friday morning, Frank 
Smith of New York will preside; in the 
afternoon he will be succeeded by G. M. 
Putnam, director from New Hampshire. 

{ A discussion of cooperative buying 
of farm supplies will occupy Thursday 
afternoon. The speakers will be H. E. 
Babcock, general manager of the G. L. 
F. Exchange and chairman of the 
New York Cooperative Council, who 
will talk on “Cooperative Buying and 
Its Relation to Our Economic Situ¬ 
ation,” and H. W. Selby, manager of 
the Eastern States Exchange. 

On Thursday evening, at 6:30, the 
delegates will attend a banquet at the 
Ten Eyck' Hotel. Peter Ten Eyck of 
Albany will be toastmaster. O. E. 
Bradfute will be one of the speakers 
of the evening, and Mrs. A. E. Brigden, ‘ 
president of the Home Bureau Federa¬ 
tion, will tell the delegates about home 
bureau, purposes and accomplishments. 

President Bradfute’s address is 
scheduled for Friday morning. Follow¬ 
ing him, and answering his talk, “The 
American Farm Bureau Federation in 
the East,” Walter C. Wood and H. E. 
Taylor will discuss “The Eastern Con-' 
ception of the Farm Bureau.” 

W. E. Skinner, manager of the Na¬ 
tional Dairy Show, will tell the dele¬ 
gates his plans for the World’s Dairy 
Congress and National Dairy Show and 
ask their cooperation and support in 
exhibits and in attendance. He will 
speak Friday afternoon. 


HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY WILL 
HOLD ANNUAL MEETING 
AUGUST 1 

The New York State Horticultural 
Society will hold its annual summer 
meeting on Wednesday, August 1, at 
the New York State Experiment Sta¬ 
tion at Geneva. The farm bureau or¬ 
ganizations in the counties are cooper¬ 
ating with tlje Horticultural Society 
in the preparation of the program of 


the forenoon and the inspection tours 
and recreation in the afternoon. 

The New York State Vegetable 
Growers’ Association has accepted an 
invitation to join this gathering. The 
Society cordially invites all farmers 
and their families, whether member 
of these organizations or not, to at¬ 
tend the meeting. Secretary McPher¬ 
son announces that basket lunches may 
be brought or a light lunch may be 
purchased on the grounds. 

The morning program starts at 
10:30 and will be held in Jordan Hall. 
Dr. JR. W.. Thatcher, Director of the 
Station, will make the welcoming ad¬ 
dress. Responses will be made by 
Charles S. Wilson of Hall, president 
of the Society, and R. W. McClure .of 
Syracuse, president of the State Vege¬ 
table Growers’ Association. The main 
speakers on the program are Dean A. 


Good Advice For Everybody 

qpHE following statement, recently 
issued by G. F. Warren, farm eco¬ 
nomist of the New York State Col¬ 
lege of Agriculture, is such sound 
common sense that if it were read 
and followed, it would save much 
bitter suffering in the future. 

“Money prices and wages are nor¬ 
mally kept in approximate adjust¬ 
ment by constant changes in each. 
There is never a time when all things 
are in adjustment, but by constant 
fluctuations about a more or less 
stable base line things are kept within 
a certain range of normal. 

“The war threw things so far out 
of adjustment that it will he a long 
time before the fluctuations will set¬ 
tle down to the usual range. Violent 
mal-adjustments must be expected to 
continue for some years. Two or 
three times in the next ten years we 
may expect periods of severe busi¬ 
ness depression. It would not he sur¬ 
prising if one of these would be a 
very trying time. 

“In order to be prepared to meet 
these situations, farmers should be 
cautious about having large sums of 
money due at any one time. If farm 
prices rise enough to make it possible, 
debts should be paid. Those who 
have large mortgages coming due in 
the next ten years, would do well to 
consider converting them to the Land 
Bank form before interest rates rise. 
The ten-year tendency of interest 
rates may be downward, but the 
tendency for the next year or two 
promises to he upward. 

“Those who are working for wages 
will probably never again have a 
better time for saving money. Some 
are using this opportunity to go 
heavily in debt. The wiser course 
is to save the money now and buy 
the desired thing in the future, when 
all or most of the purchase price has 
been saved.” 


R. Mann of the State College of Agri¬ 
culture; the Hon. Peter G. Ten Eyck, 
member of the United States Congres¬ 
sional Commission of Agriculture, and 
T. E. Cross of Lagrangeville, who will 
speak on the plans of the New York 
Apple Show. 

The afternoon will be devoted to a 
tour of inspection of the grounds of 
the Station and various demonstration 
plats. There will be also a ball game 
between the Horticultural Society and 
farm bureau members, a tug-of-war 
between counties, barnyard golf and 
races. 

The eastern summer meeting of the 
Horticultural Society will be held at 
the home of W. H. Hart of Arlington, 
N. Y., on August 4. This will be a 
basket picnic. 



HEALTHFUL HOME HEATING 

With The Wonderful NEW IDEA Pipeless furnace 


Keeps every room delightfully comfortable in the coldest weather. Burns little 
coal or wood. Is thoroughly durable and reliable. Installed in one day. No pipes 
in the cellar, will not spoil fruit and vegetables. 

Send for copy of “Warmth and Comfort.’’ 

UTICA HEATER COMPANY, 220 Whitesboro St., UTICA, N. Y. 


NEW CHAMPION H0LSTEINS IN 

new York 

Two Holsteins have surpassed former 
records of production for their age and 
length of test and are declared new 
champion butterfat producers for the 
State by the- Advanced Registry. 

Stewartford Pontiac ? Sadie Vale, 


owned by J. H. Stewart, Pittsford, N. 
Y., takes first place for production in 
seven days as a junior two year old cow. 
She produced 427.4 lbs. milk and 
23.336 lbs. butterfat, equal to 29.16 lbs. 
of butter. 

For production in 365 days at the age 
of two years and ten months Neva 
Pontiac Fairmont Lyons, owned by G. N. 
Smith, Watertown, New York, produced 
25,554.2 lbs. milk and 828.70 lbs butter¬ 
fat equal to 1,035.87 lbs. of butter. 


NEW YORK COUNTY NEWS 

Oswego Co.—The labor shortage has 
presented a serious problem in Oswego 
County. According to A. L. Sheppard, 
manager of the Farm Bureau, the per¬ 
centage of vacant farms this year is 
greater than ever before. This is due 
primarily to the shortage of labor and 
high wages. Many farmers have quit 
operations altogether and are accept¬ 
ing jobs in the trades that offer more 
money. Another development due to 
these conditions is that many farmers 
are working their farms on shares in 
order that they may be able to work 
the ground and get aid in planting and 
harvesting the crops. Some farmers 
are doing this for the first time in 
their life. 

Indications point to a bumper crop 
of lettuce from this county. The crop 
is in an excellent condition and the 
area under * cultivation is larger than 
ever. While the condition of all muck 
crops is reported as satisfactory, there 
will not be as many onions and celery 
harvested in this county as in former 
years. 

Dutchess Co.—The weather is very 
dry. Farmers are in the midst of hay¬ 
ing. They are obliged to pay $5 a day 
for help. With the daylight saving 
time in vogue in this section, it cer¬ 
tainly is working a hardship on the 
farmer. Some farmers are selling their 
hay on shares rather than pay the 
price of help. A large number of city 
boarders are around this section now. 
—Mrs. H. J. H. 

In Western New York 

Monroe Co.—It is not often that one 
hears of a horse being stung to death. 
However, this recently occurred just 
outside of Rochester. A team, belong¬ 
ing to Chester Potter of Rochester, was 
hauling a load through an apple or¬ 
chard. One of the horses reached up 
to snatch a mouthful of leaves from a 
tree. In so doing it dislodged a swarm 
of bees which settled on the limbs. The 
bees immediately attacked the animals, 
causing them to run away, but they 
could not escape the bees. The driver, 
Lee Walters, who was also attacked 
and severely stung, guided the team to 
the barn, where both horses were 
treated. However, one horse died with¬ 
in a few hours. 

Market garden thieves have started 
their depredations in this section. One 
market gardener particularly, Patrick 
Corbett of Brighton, has had so much 
trouble with thieves stealing his as¬ 
paragus that he applied to the sheriff’s 
office for assistance. _ Deputy Sheriff E. 
J. Perkins was assigned to the case. 
Toward midnight two individuals ap¬ 
peared, armed with shotguns. However, 
they put down their weapons and be¬ 
gan to help themselves to vegetables 
when they were covered by the deputy 
with his gun. Both were Italians of 
East Rochester. They were fined $50 
each. 

Steuben Co.—Work of opening up 
an old ditch through the Arkport area 
will be started at once, • according to 
reports recently circulated. This will 
restore some 700 acres of valuable 
muck land. Reports said that the ditch 
will be extended to drain an additional 
300 acres. Plans for the work have 
been completed by A. J. Morrison of 
Rochester, who is division engineer in 
the State Department of Public Works. 
The Erie railroad has donated the use 
of a ditcher and crew to operate it. 
It is estimated the improvement will 
cost about $80,000. 


If it is farm news, you will see it 
in the American Agriculturist. 




































































American Agriculturist, July 28,1923 


57 


Jersey Cooperatives Discuss Marketing 

Pennsylvania Passes Skimmed Milk Law — Delaware News 


S TANDARDIZATION of farm prod¬ 
ucts was declared by the several 
speakers at a conference on cooperation 
and marketing held in Trenton during 
the week of July 9, to be the only 
sound basis for any cooperative mar¬ 
keting movement among farmers. The 
conference was held under the auspices 
of the Bureau of Markets of the New 
Jersey State Department of Agricul¬ 
ture to discuss cooperative marketing. 

Practically every speaker voiced the 
same opinion, namely: that supply and 
demand alone controls the price of food 
products and that no attempt of grow¬ 
ers to arbitrarily fix prices would suc¬ 
ceed. The meeting was attended by 
members of the cooperative societies 
already organized in New Jersey, 
county agricultural agents and agricul¬ 
tural officials who are investigating 
and studying the cooperative problems 
as they apply to New Jersey. 

Among those present were Dr. H. C. 
Taylor, chief of the Bureau of Agri¬ 
cultural Economics of the United 
States Department of Agriculture; 
Walter Peteet, Director of the Co¬ 
operative Marketing, American Farm 
Bureau Federation; and Dr. Frank 
App, who represents New Jersey on 
the Executive Committee of the Ameri¬ 
can Farm Bureau Federation. 

In discussing the subject Mr. Peteet 
said: “If farmers should attempt to 
fix the prices of potatoes higher than 
the market and general conditions 
would justify, they would have an un¬ 
sold surplus on their hands. If they 
succeeded in getting prices out of the 
ordinary they would invite enormous 
overproduction the next year. Farmers 
must seek to maintain a price lever that 
will mean the largest possible consump¬ 
tion of their products. A cooperative 
that takes a true view of the interest 
of the farm industry is concerned in 
the maintenance of price levels that 
will insure consumption of the entire 
crop.” 


NEW JERSEY NEEDS MORE RAIN 

Several light showers on the 3rd and 
4th of July partially relieved the 
drought that has been the most severe 
in spring and early summer in the 
remembrance of the present generation, 
writes G. E. Schwartz of Somerset 
County, N. J. According to Mr. 
Schwartz, the oats and hay crops are 
not more than 50 per cent normal. 
Wheat is about an average yield and 
corn is very promising. Cherries pro¬ 
duced a very light yield, but were of 
a high quality. Sweet cherries sold 
readily at $2.50 to $3.00 a half bushel 
barrel. Apples suffered a great deal, 
especially where growing in sod, and 
some localities report there is no fruit 
left. 

Since the rain, however, the weather 
has turned very dry again and in mid- 
July, New Jersey is again in need of 
generous rain. Potatoes are very poor, 
of which there are not many planted. 
Berries are scarce and high priced. 
There is a fair prospect for a good 
peach crop, but both fruit and trees 
are suffering from lack of rain. 


five pounds net weight. Each can shall 
have marked, printed or labeled there¬ 
on the words, “Concentrated Skimmed 
Milk, Unsweetened,” or “Concentrated 
Skimmed Milk, Sweetened,” as the case 
may be, and shall be further labeled 
as being unfit for infants. 

Wholesalers and retailers have been 
given almost three months in which to 
comply with the new regulations, after 
which time violations will be vigorous¬ 
ly prosecuted by the food officials of 
the Department of Agriculture. Di¬ 
rector Foust, in commenting on the 
measure, said that it is a most whole¬ 
some bit of legislation and necessary 
in the prevention of fraud and decep¬ 
tion in the sale of vital foodstuffs. 

The Department of Agriculture 
hopes that prompt steps will be taken 
by the trade to remove the banned ar¬ 
ticle from the market and in the fu¬ 
ture to have all canned condensed 
skimmed milks conform with the regu¬ 
lations in force by virtue of the Smith 
Act. Failure to observe the provisions 
of the law will only result in trouble 
to the trade and make it necessary to 
resort to the courts. 


SKIMMED MILK LAW PASSED 
IN PENNSYLVANIA 

The Smith Condensed Skimmed Milk 
Law, approved by Governor Pinchot as 
Act No. 361 of the 1923 General As¬ 
sembly, goes into full force and effect 
ninety days after the date of approval, 
or on September 27, 1923. 

Secretary Frank P. Willits of the 
Pennsylvania Department of Agricul¬ 
ture, has issued instructions to the di¬ 
rector of the Bureau of Foods, James 
Foust, to give adequate notice to the 
trade that after September 27 all 
canned condensed skimmed milk as de¬ 
fined in the Smith Law must be sold 
in accord with the new requirements. 

The recently approved act, which is 
a supplement to the Jones Filled Milk 
Law, states that no condensed, con¬ 
centrated or evaporated skimmed milk 
in hermetically sealed cans or recep¬ 
tacles may be sold or offered for sale 
in the State of Pennsylvania unless 
such receptacles contain not less than 


EASTERN PENNSYLVANIA NOTES 

OLIVER D. SCHOCK 

Lancaster County farmers who are 
thrashing their wheat report that the 
yield will exceed early predictions. 
The quality is superior. None but 
red varieties have been sown, long- 
berry red predominating. Large ship¬ 
ments will be made for seeding pur¬ 
poses at a considerable advance over 
average local prices. Many farms 
average from thirty-five to forty 
bushels of wheat per acre. Ordinary 
soil yields from twenty-two to thirty 
bushels per acre this season. 

The tobacco fields of Lancaster and 
York Counties present a most promis¬ 
ing appearance, and thus far no hail¬ 
storms have injured the crop. Large 
growers, almost without exception, 
carry hailstorm insurance and thus feel 
more certain of realizing some reward 
for the losses that storms occasionally 
incur. The acreage exceeds that of the 
previous year. 

Some Franklin County orchardists 
will harvest a reduced crop of peaches, 
as a result of a recent hailstorm which 
passed over that section of the State. 
Neighboring counties were more for¬ 
tunate, as they escaped the visitation 
of such storms. 

The crop of small fruits, although 
large, proved quite profitable this 
year, selling at prices exceeding those 
prevailing during the World War. 
Cherries were exceedingly plentiful and 
of special quality. The sweet, or eat¬ 
ing, varieties sold in market houses at 
25 to 30c per quart, while sour cherries 
ranged from 10 to 20c a quart. Hun¬ 
dreds of bushels of black and red 
(sweet) cherries of common kinds were 
permitted to rot on the trees. 

Eastern Pennsylvania’s crop of hay 
was reduced to a minimum yield by a 
long-continued drought. Some dairy¬ 
men will reduce the size of their herds 
as a consequence, asserting that the 
high price of hay and commercial cat¬ 
tle feeding stuffs will not permit any 
margin of profit at the present prices 
of milk. 

The early-planted crop of potatoes 
throughout Eastern Pennsylvania has 
proved disappointingly small, due to 
the unfavorable climatic conditions. 
The late varieties promise a higher 
yield, due to more frequent showers. 
There has not been a general rain since 
last spring. 


plant has been leased by the Allen 
Package Company, which will receive a 
small commission for operating the in¬ 
dustry, in addition to sharing in the 
profits derived from the season’s pack. 

Robert B. Elliott, prohibition direc¬ 
tor of the State of Delaware, is gen¬ 
eral manager of the Allen Package 
Company; William F. Allen, president, 
and William T. Lank, secretary and 
treasurer. Mr. Lank, who has had 
twenty years’ experience in operating 
canneries, will be in charge of the can¬ 
ning plant. 

William F. Allen, the president, 
stated that tfrey had contracts now for 
about 400 acres, which would be as 
much as they could handle at the fac¬ 
tory this season. The innovation will 
be watched with much interest and, if 
successful, no doubt other communities 
will take up the plan. 

In addition, Greenabaum Brothers 
will operate their plant in West Sea- 
ford this season on an extensive scale. 
They have one of the largest tomato 
canneries in - the East with an enor¬ 
mous capacity. This firm has already 
contracted for more than 500 acres of 
tomatoes in this section and the local¬ 
ity around Bethel and Portsville. The 
tomatoes grown at the two latter places 
will be brought' to Seaford on scows. 
This firm is still making contracts with 
farmers to grow tomatoes for them at 
25c a basket. Indications are that the 
coming season will be one of the 
busiest in the tomato-packing industry 
ever known in Southern Delaware, and 
indications are now that we are going 
to have a bumper crop as some early 
tomatoes are coming in the market.— 
K. P. Thompson. 


GLOBE SILOS 

Give Lasting Satisfaction 

The GLOBE Silo with its 
exclusive extension roof 
enables more silage to be 
stored than in any other 
similar sized silo. Adjust¬ 
able door frame provides 
against swelling or shrink¬ 
ing. Patent fastener on each 
door becomes the rung of a 
convenient ladder. Adjusta¬ 
ble hoops together with ad¬ 
justable door frame make 
the GLOBE Silo absolutely 
air-tight—there is no waste 
or spoilage. 

Only carefully selected 
Oregon fir and Canadian 
spruce are used in Globe 
Silos. All metal parts are 
made from finest steel and 
malleable iron. Globe Silos give perfect satisfaction 
for a generation or more. They are the result of 50 
years' practical experience. 

Prices: $3.00 per ton capacity and up, according 
to size 

Send for our catalog. Also ask for agency 
proposition. 

GLOBE SILO COMPANY, Box 105, Unadilla. N. Y. 





DOWN 

ONE YEAR 
TO PAY 


A 4 Bay* the New Butterfly Jr. N o. 2H 

> 44 Light running, easy cleaning 
'r * * close akimming, durable. 

NEW UOTTERFLY guaranteed a ^ 
lifetime against defects in material and work? 
manehip. Made also in four larger sizee up to 
No. 8 shown here; sold on 

30 DAYS’ FREE TRIAL 

and on a plan whereby they earn their.own coa« 
and more by what they save. Postal brings Free 
Catalog Folder. Buy from the manufacturer 
and save money. _ **'. —— 

ALBAUSH.DOVER CO, 2172 ManhallBI. CMoafa 



We feel lost When we do not get the 
American Agriculturist. There _ is al¬ 
ways so many valuable items in it, also 
we liked the “Valley of the Giants.”— 
Henry F. Stock, Jordon, N. Y. 


toW. 

Sold Direct/™ Farforg^^ 

„ Dut! New 104 page catalog. Send 

for it today—aee the big saving our low, di¬ 
rect from factory prices give you on Fence, 
Farm Gates, Steel Posts, Roofing and Paint. 

PEERLESS WIRE & FENCE CO. , 
Oapt. 3001. CLEVELAND, OHIO 1 


PATENTS 


Write today for free in¬ 
struction book and 
Record of Invention 
blank. Send sketch or model for personal opinion, 
CLARENCE A. O’BRIEN, Registered Patent Law< 
yer, 904 Southern Building, Washington, D. C. 


DELAWARE FARMERS OPERATE 
CANNERY COOPERATIVELY 

An innovation in the canning indus¬ 
try will be introduced in Seaford dur¬ 
ing the coming tomato season, farmers 
having entered into an agreement with 
the Allen Package Company of Sea- 
ford, Del., to operate the canning plant 
of Colonel Edgar C. Ross on a co¬ 
operative plan. The Ross plant would 
have probably remained idle this sea¬ 
son had not the farmers and the Allen 
Package Company got together. The 


Join the thousands 
of progressive farmers 

who are cutting the high costs of their farm imple¬ 
ments by buying them where selling costs have been 
cut to the bone and marketing economy is a fact 

under the 

MOLINE Zk 

It eliminates all the wastes of the old system of distri¬ 
bution and shares the savings with you. 

The Moline Dealer will gladly help you save money. 

If there is no Moline man near you, write us today for 
the facts you ought to know. 

The farmer must pay less for what he 
buys—and get more for what he sells 

MOLINE PLOW COMPANY, Inc. 

RE-ORGANIZED - POWERFULLY CAPITALIZED 
Makers of High'Qrade Implements for 60 Years 

MOLINE, ILLINOIS 

Write today for full information 

Moline Plow Company, Inc., Moline, Illinois. a .a. 

Send me your Booklet telling how I can buy high'grade implements under 7 - 28 
the Moline Plan and save money. 


My name. 


My city. 


R. R. No.„- 


. State- 



























































58 


American Agriculturist, July 28,1923 


THIS IS YOUR MARKET PLACE 

Classified Advertising Rates ' 

A DVERTISEMENTS are inserted in this department at the rate of 5 cents a word. 
l file minimum charge per insertion is $1 per week. 

Count as one word each initial, abbreviation and whole number, including name 

addres s- Thus: J. B. Jones, 44 E. Main St., Mount Morris, N. Y.” counts as 
eleven words. 

Place your wants by following the style of the advertisements on this page. 

Our Advertisements Guaranteed 

T HE American Agriculturist accepts only advertising which it believes to be 
thoroughly honest. 

We positively guarantee to our readers fair and honest treatment in dealing with 
our advertisers. 

We guarantee to refund the price of goods purchased by our subscribers from any 
advertiser who fails to make good when the article purchased is found not to be 
as advertised. ' 

To benefit by this guarantee subscribers must say: “I saw your ad in the Ameri¬ 
can Agriculturist” when ordering from our advertisers. 


The More You Tell, The Quicker You Sell 

E VERY week the American Agriculturist reaches over 120,(500 farmers in New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and adjacent States. Advertising orders must 
reach our office at '461 Fourth Avenue, New York City not later than the second 
Monday previous to date of issue. Cancellation orders tnust reach us on the same 
schedule. Because of the low rate to subscribers and their friends, cash or monev 
order must accompany your order. 


ALL GOOD THINGS COME TO HIM WHO WAITS — BUT 
THE CHAP WHO DOESN’T ADVERTISE WAITS LONGEST 


EGGS AND POULTRY 


REAL ESTATE 


SO MANY ELEMENTS enter into the ship¬ 
ping of day-old chicks and eggs by our ad¬ 
vertisers, and the hatching of same by our 
subscribers that the publishers of this paper 
cannot guarantee the safe arrival of day-old 
chicks, or that eggs shipped shall reach the 
buyer unbroken, nor can they guarantee the 
hatching of eggs. We shall continue to exer¬ 
cise the greatest care in allowing poultry and 
egg advertisers to use this paper, but our re¬ 
sponsibility must end with that. 


CHICKS—S. C. Buff White and Brown Leg¬ 
horns, $9—100 ; Barred Rocks, $10—100 ; W. 
Rocks, $12—100 ; Reds, $11—100 ; Mixed 
light breeds, $8-—100; Mixed heavy breeds, 
$9—100. All Number One chicks. Circular 
free. JACOB NIEMOND, Box A, McAlister- 
ville, Pa. 


MARYLAND COLONIAL WATER-FRONT 
ESTATE—112 acres ; 10 acres beautiful shaded 
lawn, boxwood hedges and walks; 12-room 
colonial mansion, modern conveniences, neces¬ 
sary outbuildings ; oysters, fish, crabs and wild 
ducks; excellent bathing; one of Maryland’s 
finest estates. FRANK THOMPSON. Cam¬ 
bridge, Maryland. 


FOR SALE—131-acre New York dairy farm, 
high cultivation ; near churches, stores, school ; 
good buildings, silo, outbuildings, running 
water in house, barn, milkhouse ; Federal-tosted 
dairy, or without. BOX 306, American Agri¬ 
culturist, 461 Fourth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 


SEEDS AND NURSERY STOCKS 


MARCH AND APRIL Hatched Pullets from 
two hundred-egg record stock “Leghorns,” 
“Anconas,” “Barred Rocks,” “Rhode Island 
Reds,” from $1.25 up. Free circular. GLEN 
ROCK NURSERY AND STOCK FARM, Ridge¬ 
wood, N. J. 


THREE HUNDRED Large Yearling White 
Leghorn hens sired by males from 288-egg 
dams, $2 each. HOWARD VAN SYCKLE, 
Lebanon, N. J. 


PULLETS, ALL AGES — White, Brown and 
Buff Leghorns, Anconas, Minorcas ; also year¬ 
ling hens. FRANK’S POULTRY FARM, Box 
A, Tiffin, Ohio. 


CHICKS—White Leghorn “Barron” strain, 
$8—100 ; Reds, $10. EMPIRE HATCHERY, 
Seward, N. Y. 


POULTRY SUPPLIES 


EGG-CASE HEADQUARTERS—Fillers, Ex¬ 
celsior Cushions, Poultry Shipping Crates. 
Highest quality, lowest prices. Correspond¬ 
ence solicited. STANDARD EGG CASE COM- 
Pany, 60A West 114th Street, New York. 


DOGS AND PET STOCK 


LOOK ! — Rub your eyes and read again ! 
English and Welsh Shepherd Pups at reduced 
price for short time. GEO. BOORMAN, 
Marathon, N. Y. 


COLLIE PUPPIES—All ages, bred bitches. 
PAINE'S KENNELS, South Royalton, Vt. 


SWINE 


LARGE BERKSHIRES — All ages, herd 
headed by Real Type 10th, first prize junior 
yearling boar at Chicago International. C. A. 
ELDREDGE, Marion, N. Y. 


PEDIGREED O. I. C. PIGS — $15 pair. 
Bred sows. Leghorn pullets. Laying hens. 
Collie pups. EL BRITON FARM, R. 1, Hudson, 
N. Y. 


O. I. C. PIGS—Weighing 60 pounds, both 
sexes, beauties. Registered free. H. C. 
BEARDSLEY, Montour Falls, N. Y. 


BEES 


WILLOWDELL 3-BAND Italian Queens, by- 
return mail. They get results ; one, $1.15 ; 
6 for $6 ; 12 for $10. H. S. OSTRANDER, 
Mell^nville, N. Y. 


FEMALE HELP WANTED 


WANTED WOMEN, GIRLS — Learn gown¬ 
making at home ; $35.00 week. Sample lessons 
free. FRANKLIN INSTITUTE, Dept. A542, 
Rochester, N. Y. 


HELP WANTED 


ALL men, women, boys, girls, 17 to 60, will¬ 
ing to accept Government positions, $117-$190, 
traveling or stationary, write MR. OZMENT, 
258 St. Louis, Mo., immediately. 


CELERY AND CABBAGE PLANTS—Strong 
plants ready for field, of all leading varieties, 
$1.25 per 1,000. Parcel post, 5 cents per 100 
extra. Cauliflower plants, early Snowball— 
strong, $3 per 1,000. Send for list. J. C. 
SCHMIDT, Bristol, Pa. 


THE WHITE SUGAR STRAWBERRY is de¬ 
licious, large and productive; the only white 
strawberry. Should be in every garden. Set 
plants now. Twelve for one dollar postpaid. 
Interesting circular free. A. B. KATKAMIER, 
Macedon, N. Y. 


PLANTS — Celery, $2.50 per 1,000 ; $11.25 
per 5,000 ; Cabbage, $2.50 per 1,000 ; $10 per 
5,000. Strong selected plants. WM. P. 
YEAGLE, Bristol, Pa. 


WOMEN’S WANTS 


PATCHWORK — Send fifteen cents for house¬ 
hold package, bright new calicoes and percales. 
Your money’s worth every time. PATCH- 
WORK COMPANY, Meriden, Conn. 


MISCELLANEOUS 


ALL-WOOL HAND AND MACHINE Knitting 
Yarns for sale. We are also doing custom- 
work at the same old prices. Write for sam¬ 
ples and particulars. H. A. BARTLETT, 
Harmony, Maine. 


KODAK FINISHING—Trial offer. Any size 
film developed for 5 cents. Prints, 3 cents 
each. Over-night service. Expert work. 
YOUNG PHOTO SERVICE, 40 R Bertha St., 
Albany, N. Y. 


EAT APPLE PIE ALL . SUMMER—Wayne 
County Evaporated Apples. Best in the world. 
Stock for 12 pies, $1.00 postpaid. Good till 
used. ALVAH H. PULVER, Sodus, N. Y. 


LATEST STYLE SANITARY MILK TICK¬ 
ETS save money and time. Free delivery. 
Send for samples. TRAVERS BROTHERS, 
Dept. A, Gardner, Mass. 


FOR SALE — Centour garden tractor, plow, 
disk, cultivator, $225 complete ; excellent con¬ 
dition. RAY HOLLIS, Brighton Station, N. Y. 
Phone Webster 147F-3. 


EXTENSION LADDERS—27c foot; three- 
leg fruit ladders, 30c foot. Freight paid. A. 
L. FERRIS, Interlaken, N. Y. 


FERRETS—Prices free. Book on Ferrets, 
10 cents. Muzzles, 25 cents. BERT EWELL, 
Wellington, Ohio. 

' - 


If You Say: 

“I saw your ad in the American Agricul¬ 
turist” when ordering from our advertisers^ 
you will benefit by oi r guarantee to refund the 
price of goods purchased by any subscriber 
from any advertiser who fails to make good if 
the article purchased is found not to be as 
advertised. 

No trouble, that. And you insure yourself 
from trouble. 


Whether You Are Wet or Dry 

(Continued from page 53) 


bootlegging to keep from doing hard, 
manual labor. I know this is true 
of the low-class white people and 
colored race, as you cannot get one 
to work on the farm at any price. They 
say they can make from twenty to 
forty times as much (and make it far 
easier) in a single night in the woods 
and oftentimes in the broad daylight. 

“Through this section of the country, 
there has been more meanness and kill¬ 
ing and all kinds of accidents since 
prohibition went into effect than ever 
before. Two-thirds of the automobile 
and truck accidents are due to the 
drivers being under the influence of 
liquor. It is hauled right by our farm 
night and day to the nearby cities, 
towns and villages by automobile and 
truck loads. We have county court 
every week, and nine cases out of 
every ten to be tried are liquor cases. 
They often cannot get through with 
the cases for the week. Who can truth¬ 
fully say that prohibition is a benefit 
to the country?” 

Mr. C. B. of Pennsylvania sets forth 
his pro-prohibition views clearly: 
“Your editorial opinion of prohibition, 
I think, is much nearer the truth as 
to farm sentiment than that of your 
correspondent. There are, of course, 
some who are sincerely opposed to pro¬ 
hibition, but I have not seen any re¬ 
version of sentiment in that direction. 
There are some who fear that there is 
more chance, of their youth getting 
caught with poison booze" than of them 
becoming- law-abiding citizens anj] 
while this may be true in particular 
cases, it is certainly not true of farm 
boys and girls generally. 

Too Soon for Best Results 

“But ‘knock-out drops,’ wood alco¬ 
hol and fusel oil are not new adul¬ 
terants; the criminally inclined have 
been using thfem for years. Neither are 
moonshiners nor bootleggers new. Pro¬ 
hibition has not had a chance to show 
its full benefits, because too many folks 
have been waiting for it to enforce it¬ 
self, and as soon as this element re¬ 
cognize their mistake, there will be more 
insistent demand for thorough enforce¬ 
ment, which is needed. The partial re¬ 
sults have more than justified the wis¬ 
dom of the policy and farmers generally 
are b ight enough to see it, too.” 

Many correspondents write that they 
speak for a family or a group of friends. 
Among them is Mr. F. M. J. of New 
York. “A week or two ago you re¬ 
quested the farmers’ views on prohibi¬ 
tion. Speaking for this family; we are 
dry, very dry, whether light wines and 
beer or ‘40-rod whiskey.’ If any reason is 
required, I must confess that I know 
very little about wines, but have seen 
considerable beer and whiskey con¬ 
sumed and have never seen a single 
case where I honestly thought alcoholic 
drinks, whether light or strong, were 
of the slightest benefit when used as 
a beverage, and I have seen many cases 
where it was an undeniable damage, 
not only to the drinker and his (or her) 
family, but often to many others. 

“The only real argument in defense 
of booze is that of personal liberty. 
Ordinarily the more personal liberty we 
have, the better, and it should never 
be needlessly encroached upon, but 
when personal liberty degenerates into 
the indulgence of an appetite which 
does no one any actual good and often 
damages many (innocent as well as 
guilty), then that personal liberty be¬ 
comes a public nuisance and should be 
firmly and sternly treated as such.” 

“Whiskey is all right in its place, but 
its place is off the face of the earth,” 
says C. E. B. of New York, but P. N. 
of New York writes: “After making 
a careful study I find that 95 per cent, 
of farmers in my neighbborhood are 
against prohibition as it is to-day. The 
rich have a little yet and the poor have 
a little ‘still.’ ” 

“There are ten voters on our farm, 
all of whom are very anxious for law 
enforcement,” writes R. D. T. of New 
York. “I am very glad your paper 
is on the right side.” 

The result of a Grange vote is men¬ 
tioned by J. E. T. who says: “During 
the last year or two that we licensed 
public poisoning our Grange, Covert, 
Seneca Co., N. Y. voted several times 
on prohibition and every time unanim¬ 
ously for prohibition, so'you are safe in 


saying that 95 per cent of the farmers 
of America are opposed to establishing 
the reign of hell on earth for revenue.” 

An official vote is also given by the 
letter of F. J. Riley, Secretary of the 
New York State Grange who writes: 
“In answer to whether farmers want 
the Eighteenth Amendment or not 
and want it enforced, I am speaking 
for 99 per cent of 140,500 mem¬ 
bers of the New York State Grange, 
when I say emphatically, they do. The 
Grange has always stood for prohibi¬ 
tion, not only in this State, but in 
every State in the Union where there 
is a Grange. We have laws against all 
sorts of crime, but still we have crimes 
committed. Is the way to lessen the 
crimes, to repeal the laws?—No! Then 
why repeal the Mullin-Gage Law?” 

More pros and cons next time! 
Meanwhile, register your vote and 
those of your friends, if you have not 
already done so. 


No Longer a Haphazard 
Business 

(Continued from page 50) 

as the American Agriculturist Calf 
Club Scholarship, to which only boys 
in calf clubs are eligible. One of these 
scholarships is in the winter course of 
each of the State colleges of agricul¬ 
ture of New York, New Jersey, and 
Pennsylvania. The scholarship in each 
State is awarded to the boy most pro¬ 
ficient in calf club work in the State, 
who has raised the best calf, kept the 
best record of his work and submitted 
the best story of his project. The 
scholarship pays all the winner’s ex¬ 
penses while he is taking the course 
at the college. 

In a recent address, Alfred Vivan, 
Dean of the College of Agriculture of 
the Ohio State University, said: “The 
great need in American agriculture is 
to encourage the right kind of boys 
and girls to remain on the farm. The 
serious problem is not the number of 
boys and girls who go to the city, but 
the kind of boys and girls who remain 
on the farm. If we are to interest the 
right type of boys and girls in farm 
life, we must be able to promise them 
five things, all of which are possible 
in the farming cotnmunity, namely: 
the comforts and convenience of the 
city home, schools as adequate as those 
of the city, an attractive social life, a 
satisfying religious life, and an income 
equal to that which they could earn 
in the city.” 

When one reflects that the net profit 
realized by clubwork in the United 
States last year was $1,500,000, that 
club members are thrifty and have 
bank accounts, it is not hard to under¬ 
stand why the efforts of the colleges 
and schools of agriculture is directed 
to the boys and girls—the future 
American farmers, trained to meet the 
multiple problems of that industry, the 
feeding of the multitudes. 


LIVE STOCK SALES DATES 

August 21-22—Belvidere Farm Jersey 
Sale, Belvidere, N. Y. 

August 25—Chenango County, N. Y., 
Guernsey Breeders’ Picnic and 
Field Day. 

ugust 25—Western New York Guern¬ 
sey Breeders’ Field Day, West- # 
wood Farm, Springville, N. Y. 

August 30—Susquehanna Co., Pa. Hol¬ 
stein Breeders’ Second Annual 
Sale, Montrose, Pa. 

September 1—B. S. Bradford Holstein 
Dispersal Sale, Troy, Pa. 

September 1—Merridale Farms Jersey 
Sale, Meredith, N. Y. 

September 21—Eastern Aberdeen-An¬ 
gus Breeders’ Sale, Spring T 
field, Mass., F. W. Burnham, 
Secretary, Greenfield, Mass. 

September 26-27—Northern New York 
Holstein Breeders’ Sale, Water- 
town, N. Y. 

October 3-4—National Dairy Show 
Sale, Syracuse, N. Y. 

October 5-10—World’s Dairy Congress, 
State Fair Grounds, Syracuse, 
N. Y. 

October 6-10—National Dairy Show, 
State Fair Grounds, Syracuse, 















































































American Agriculturist, July 28,1923 


59 


The Brown Mouse — By Herbert Quick 


«<T DON’T see,” said a voice over against the cooking exhibit, “what there is in 

A this to set people talking? Buttonholes! Cookies! Humph!” 

It was Mrs. Bonner who had clearly come to scoff. With her was Mrs. Bron¬ 
son, who was torn between conflicting influences. Her husband had indicated 
to Bonner and Peterson that while he was still loyal to the school board, and 
hence perforce opposed to Jim Irwin, his adhesion to the institutions of the 
Woodruff District was not quite of the thick-and-thin type. For he had sug¬ 
gested that Jennie might have been sincere in her .decision, and that some people 
agreed with her: so Mrs. Bronson, while consorting with the censorious Mrs. 
Bonner evinced restiveness when the school and its work was condemned. Was 
not her Newton in charge of a part of this show? Was he not an open and 
defiant champion of Jim Irwin, and a constant and enthusiastic attendant upon, 
not only his classes, but a variety of evening and Saturday affairs at which 
the children studied arithmetic, grammar, geography, writing and spelling, by 
working on cows, pigs, chickens, grains, grasses, soils and weeds? And had not 
Newton become a better boy—a wonderfully better boy? Mrs. Bronson’s heart 
was filled with resentment that she also could not be enrolled among Jim Irwin’s 
supporters. And when Mrs. Bonner sneered at the buttonholes and cookies,. 
Mrs. Bronson, knowing how the little fingers had puzzled themselves over the one, 
and young faces had become floury- and red over the other, flared up a little. 


“And I don’t see,” said she, “any¬ 
thing to laugh at when the young girls 
do the best they can to make themselves 
capable housekeepers. I’d like to help 
them.” 

She turned to Mrs. Bonner as if to 
add “If this be treason, make the most 
of it!” but that lady was a good dip¬ 
lomat. 

“And quite right, too,” said she, “in 
the proper place, and at the proper time. 
The little things ought to be helped by 
every real woman—of course!” 

“Of course,” repeated Mrs. Bronson. 

“At home, now, and by their moth¬ 
ers,” added Mrs. Bonner. 

“Well,” said Mrs. Bronson, “take 
them Simms girls, now. They have to 
have help outside their home if they are 
ever going to be like other folks.” 

“Yes,” agreed Mrs. Bonner, “and a lot 
more help than a farm-hand can give 
’em in school. Pretty poor trash, they, 
and I shouldn’t wonder if there was a 
lot we don’t know about why they come 
north.’ 

“As for that,” replied Mrs. Bronson, 
“I don’t know as it’s any of my busi¬ 
ness so long as they behave them¬ 
selves.” 

A GAIN Mrs. Bonner felt the situ¬ 
ation getting out of hand, and 
again she returned to the task of keep¬ 
ing Mrs. Bronson in alignment. 

“Ain’t it some of our business?” she 
queried. “By the way Newtie keeps his 
eye on that Simms girl, I shouldn’t won¬ 
der if it might turn out your business.” 

“Pshaw!” scoffed Mrs. Bronson. 
“Puppy love!” 

“You can’t tell how far it’ll go,” per¬ 
sisted Mrs. Bonner. “I tell you these 
schools are getting to be nothing more 
than sparkin’ bees, from the county 
superintendent down.” 

“Well, maybe,” said Mrs. Bronson, 
“but I don’t see sparkin’ in everything 
boys and girls do as quick as some.” 

“I wonder,” said Mrs. Bonner, “if 
Colonel Woodruff would be as friendly 
to Jim Irwin if he knew that everybody 
says Jennie decided he was to keep his 
certif’kit because she wants him to get 
along in the world, so he can marry 
her?” 

“I don’t know as she is so very 
friendly to him,” replied Mrs. Bron¬ 
son; “and Jim and Jennie are both of 
age, you know.” 

“Yes, but how about our schools 
bein’ ruined by a love affair?” interro¬ 
gated Mrs. Bonner, as they moved 
away.' “Ain’t that your business and 
mine?” 

Instead of desiring further knowl¬ 
edge of what they were discussing, Jim 
felt a dreadful disgust at the whole 
thing. Disgust at being the subject of 
gossip, at the horrible falsity of the 
picture he had been able to paint to the 
people of his objects and his ambitions, 
and especially at the desecration of 
Jennie by such misconstruction of her 
attitude toward him officially and per¬ 
sonally. Jennie was vexed at him, and 
wanted him to resign from his position. 
He firmly believed that she was sur¬ 
prised at finding herself convinced that 
he was entitled to a decision in the 
matter of his competency as a teacher. 
’ She was against him, he believed, and 
as for her being in love with him—to 
hear these women discuss it was intol¬ 
erable. 

He felt his face redden as at the 
hearing of some horrible indecency, 
and while he was raging inwardly, 
he heard other voices. Professor 


Withers, County Superintendent Jennie 
and Colonel Woodruff were making an 
inspection of rural-school exhibit. 

“I hear he has been having some 
trouble with his school board,” the pro¬ 
fessor was saying. 

“Yes,” said Jennie, “he has.” 

“Wasn’t there an effort made to re¬ 
move him from his position?” asked the 
professor. , 

“Proceedings before me to revoke his 
certificate,” replied Jennie. 

“On what grounds?” 

“Incompetency,” answered Jennie. “I 
found that his pupils were really doing 
very well in the regular course of 
study—which he seems to be neglect¬ 
ing.” 

“I’m glad you supported him,” said 
the professor. “I’m glad to find you 
helping him.” 

“Really,” protested Jennie, “I don’t 
think myself—” 

“What do you think of his notions?” 
asked the colonel. 

“Very advanced,” replied Professor 
Withers. “Where did he imbibe them 
all?” 

“He’s a Brown Mouse,” said the 
colonel. 

“I beg your pardon!” said the puz¬ 
zled professor. 

“One of papa’s jokes,” said Jennie. 
“He means a phenomenon in heredity— 
perhaps a genius, you know.” 

“Ah, I. see,” replied the professor, “a 
Mendelian segregation, you mean?” 

“Certainly,” said the colonel. “The 
sort of mind that imbibes things from 
itself.” 

“Well, he’s rather wonderful,” de¬ 
clared the professor. “I have invited 
him to make an address at Ames next 
winter during farmers’ week.” 

“He?” 

J ENNIE’S tone showed her astonish¬ 
ment. Jim the underling. Jim the 
thorn in the county superintendent’s 
side! 

“Oh, you musn’t judge him by his 
looks,” said the professor. “I really do 
hope he’ll take some advice on the mat¬ 
ter of clothes—but I have no doubt he 
will.” 

“He hasn’t any other,” said the 
colonel. 

“Well, it won’t signify, if he has the 
truth to tell us,” said the professor. 
“Has he?” asked Jennie. 

“Miss Woodruff,” replied the profes¬ 
sor earnestly, “he has something that 
looks toward truth, and something that 
we need. Just how far he will go, just 
what he will amount to, it is impossible 
to say. You won’t make any mistake 
if you make the most of Mr. Irwin.” 

Jim slipped out of a side door and 
fled. As in the case of the conversa¬ 
tion between Mrs. Bronson and Mrs. 
Bonner, he was unable to discern the 
favorable auspices in adverse things. 
He had not sensed Mrs. Bronson’s half- 
concealed friendliness for him, though 
it was disagreeably plain to Mrs. 
Bonner. And now he neglected the 
colonel’s evident support of him, and 
Professor Withers’ praise, in Jennie’s 
manifest surprise that old Jim had a 
place on a college program, and the 
professor’s criticism of his dress and 
general appearance. 

It was unjust! What chance had he 
been given to discover what it was 
fashionable to wear, even if he had had 
the money to buy such clothes? He 
would never go near Ames! He would 
stay in the Woodruff District where 
the people knew him, and some of them 


liked him. He would finish his school 
year, and go back to work on the farm. 

He started home, on foot as he had 
come. A mile or so out he was over¬ 
taken by the colonel, driving briskly 
along with room in his buggy for Jim. 

“Climb in, Jim!” said he. “Dan and 
Dolly didn’t like to see you walk.” 
“They’re looking fine,” said Jim. 
There is a good deal to say whenever 
two horse lovers get together. But when 
Jim had alighted at his own door, the 
colonel spoke of what had been in his 
mind all the time. 

“I saw Bonner and Haakon and Ez 
doing some caucusing to-day,” said he. 
“They expect to elect Bonner to the 
board again.” 

“If the people want him—” began 
Jim. 

“The people,” said the colonel, “must 
have a choice offered to ’em, or how 
can you or any man tell what they 
want? How can they tell themselves?” 

J IM was silent. Here was a matter 
on which he really had no ideas ex¬ 
cept the broad and general one that 
truth is mighty and shall prevail—but 
that the speed of its forward march is 
problematical. 

“I think,” said the colonel, “that it’s 
up to us to see that the people have a 
chance' to decide. It’s really Bonner 
against Jim Irwin.” 

“That’s rather startling,” said Jim, 
“but I suppose it’s true. And much 
chance Jim Irwin has!” 

“I calculate,” rejoined the colonel, 
“that what you need is a champion.” 
“To do what?” 

“To take that office away from Bon- 
nGr.* } 

“Who can do that?*’ 

“Well, I’m free to say I don’t know 
that any one can, but I’m willing to 
try. I think that I shall pass the word 
around that I’d like to serve my country 
on the school board.” 

Jim’s face lighted up—and then 
darkened. • 

“Even then they’d be two to one, 
Colonel.” 

“Maybe,” replied the colonel, “and 
maybe not. That would have to be fig¬ 
ured on. A cracked log splits easy.” 

“Anyhow,” Jim went on, “what’s the 
use? I shan’t be disturbed this year— 
and after that—what’s the use?” 

“Why Jim,” said the colonel, “you 
aren’t getting short of breath are you? 
I thought you good for the mile, and 
you aren’t turning out a quarter horse, 
are you? I don’t know what all it is 
you want to do, but I don’t believe you 
can do it in nine months, can you?” 
“Not in nine years!” replied Jim. 
“Well then, let’s plan for ten years,” 
said the colonel. “I ain’t going to be¬ 
come a reformer at my time of life as a 
temporary job. Will you stick if we 
can swing the thing for you?” 

,“I will,” said Jim, in the manner of 
a person taking the vows in some solemn 
initiation. 

“All right,” said the colonel. “We’ll 
keep quiet and see how many votes we 
can muster up at the election. How 
many can you speak for?” 

Jim gave himself for a few minutes 
to thought. It was a new thing to him, 
this matter of mustering votes—and a 
thing which he had always looked upon 
as rather reprehensible. The citizen 
should go forth with no coercion, no 
persuasion, no suggestion, and vote his 
sentiments. 

“How many can you round up?” per¬ 
sisted the colonel. 

“I think,” said Jim, “that I can speak 
for myself and Old Man Simms!” 

The colonel laughed. 

“Fine politician!” he repeated. “Fine 
politician! Well, Jim, we may get 
beaten in this, but if we are, let’s not 


have them going away saying they’ve 
had no fight. You round up yourself 
and Old Man Simms and I’ll see what 
I can do—I’ll see what I can do!” 

CHAPTER XV 

A MINOR CASTS HALF A VOTE 

M ARCH was scarcely a week old 
before the wild ducks had begun 
to score the sky above Bronson’s Slew 
looking for open water and badly- 
harvested corn-fields. Wild geese, too, 
honked from on high as if in wonder 
that these great prairies on which their' 
forefathers had been wont fearlessly to 
alight had been changed into a disgust¬ 
ing expanse of farms. Colonel Wood¬ 
ruff’s hired man, Pete, had no such 
foolish notions, however. He stopped 
Newton Bronson and Raymond Simms 
as they tramped across the colonel’s 
pasture, gun in hand, trying to make 
themselves believe that the shooting 
was good. 

“This ain’t no country to hunt in,” 
said he. “Did either of you fellows 
ever have any real duck-shooting?” 

“The mountings,” said Raymond, “air 
poor places for ducks.” 

“Not big enough water,” suggested 
Pete. “Some wood-ducks, I suppose?” 

“Along the creeks and rivers, yes, 
seh,” said Raymond, “but nothing to 
depend on.” 

“I used to shoot ducks for the market 
at Spirit Lake,” said Pete. “But that’s 
all over, now. You’ve got to go so fur 
now to get decent shooting where the 
farmers won’t drive you off, that it 
costs nine dollars to send a postcard 
home.” 

“I think we’ll have fine shooting on 
the slew in a few days,” said Newton. 

“Humph!” scoffed Pete. “I give you 
my word, if I hadn’t promised the 
colonel I’d stay with him another year, 
I’d take a side-door Pullman for the 
Sand Hills of Nebraska—if I had a 
gun.” 

“If it wasn’t for a passel of things 
that keep me hyeh,” said Raymond, “I’d 
like to go loo.” 

“The colonel,” said Pete, “needs me. 
He needs me in the election to-morrow. 
What’s the matter of your ol’ man, 
Newt? What for does he vote for that 
Bonner, and throw down an old neigh¬ 
bor?” 

“I can’t do anything with him!” ex¬ 
claimed Newton irritably. “He’s all 
tangled up with Peterson and Bonner.” 

“Well,” said Pete, “if he'd just stay 
at home, it would help some. If he 
votes for Bonner, it’ll be just about a 
stand-off.” 

“He never misses a vote!” said New¬ 
ton despairingly. 

“Can’t you cripple him someway?” 
asked Pete jocularly. “Darned funny 
when a boy o’ your age can’t control 
his father’s vote! So long!” 

“I wish I could vote!” grumbled 
Newton. “I wish I could! We know a 
lot more about the school, and Jim 
Irwin bein’ a good teacher than dad 
does—and we can’t vote. Why can’t 
folks vote when they are interested in 
an election, and know about the issues. 
It’s tyranny that you and I can’t vote.” 

“I reckon,” said Raymond, the con¬ 
servative, “that the old-time people that 
fixed it thataway knowed best.” 

“Rats!” sneered Newton, “Why, 
Calista knows more about the election 
than dad knows.” 

“That don’t seem reasonable,” pro¬ 
tested Raymond. “She’s prejudyced, I 
reckon, in favor of Mr. Jim Irwin.” 

“Well, dad’s prejudiced against him 
—no, he hain’t either. He likes Jim. 
He’s just prejudiced against giving up 
his old notions. No, he hain’t neither— 
(Continued on page 61) 


TO REMIND YOU OF WHAT HAS GONE BEFORE 

J IM IRWIN has been vindicated. His school passed triumphantly in 
the very subjects he had been accused of neglecting for “new-fangled 
notions.” 

But the enmity of the schoolboard, particularly of Irish Con Bonner, 
must still be reckoned with. His enemies as well as his friends turn 
out for the Farmer’s Institute, at which Woodruff District school has 
exhibits and a demonstration of their work. Outsiders begin to be in¬ 
terested and Jim is cheered by an invitation to speak at the Agricultural 
College, when he is again dashed by a snub from his own board. 









60> 


American Agriculturist, July 28,1923 


Making the Desolate Pine Barrens Bloom 

Mrs . Edith Loving Fullerton's Share in the Medford, L. L Agricultural Development 


Y OU remember the kitchen most 
clearly. 

That is, if you are a woman. I don’t 
mean that the rest of the house fails 
to please you, or that you can help 
being impressed by the blooming con¬ 
dition; of the fields and gardens around 
Mrs. Hal. B. Fullerton’s home at' the 
Long Island Demonstration Station at 
Medford. But any woman would covet 
that kitchen, with its windows on three 
sides, its “washing alcove”, its stow¬ 
away places for shining pots and pans 
;which are still within, immediate reach, 
and its delightful air of comfort, cool¬ 
ness and homey-ness. 

Outdoors the sun was beating down 
with an earnest determination to make 
up for lost time earlier in the season, 
but still the kitchen was cool and rest¬ 
ful. And Mrs. Fullerton, proud as she 
is of the station and all it has accom¬ 
plished, confessed to just a little extra 
glow of pride in having achieved that 
kitchen. 

“When plans were drawn for the 
house”, she said, “everything was per¬ 
fect, except for the typical man’s idea 
of a kitchen. I objected. They re¬ 
proached me with the cost of the room 
I wanted. But I pointed out that the 
whole idea of the station and our home 
was to demonstrate what could be done 
with natural resources to give Long 
Island farmers and their wives con¬ 
venient, modern, and profitable farms 
and homes. And, I said, to a woman 
her kitchen was the thing on which her 
comfort largely depended. I wanted 
mine ‘model’ as much as Mr. Fullerton 
wanted his equipment to be the last 
word in efficiency. 

“Oh yes, they changed the plans, as 
you see.” 

More Visitors than Days in the Year 

It’s just as well they did, for Mrs. 
Fullerton not only uses the kitchen to 
•minister to the needs of her family but 
from it she must serve the scores of 
visitors, invited and unexpected, who 
yearly invade the Demonstration Sta¬ 
tion and who usually must be fed. In 
the last dozen years, Mrs. Fullerton 
will tell you with perfect cheerfulness, 
she has given meals to more than 300 
visitors annually. 

“Sometimes they give us notice and 
sometimes they just drop in,” she said. 
“Sometimes a whole trainload comes at 
once and smaller parties are constantly 
showing up by trains or automobiles. 
In the old days, when the station was 
literally out in the wilderness,, with no 
decent roads approaching it and no 
‘flivvers’ to traverse the apologies we 
called roads then, the trains stopped 
obligingly right at our front door. Our 
guests could then walk up the path to 
the house. 

‘‘But now an excellent cinder road 
connects us with the rest of the world 
and with Medford, the nearest railroad 
station.” 

Only a few steps away from the 
attractive modern home over which 
Mrs. Fullerton now presides, is the little 
portable frame house in winch she first 
started housekeeping' in 1906 when the 
Demonstration Station “opened shon.” 
Now it is used by one of the farm help¬ 
ers, but its former mistress cannot pass 
it by without a word of affectionate 
praise. And hard by, too, is a quaint 
little shingle building not unl'ke an 
overgrown doll’s house, in which the 
now married daughters once indus¬ 
triously studied their daily lessons. 

Living Problems in the Pine Barrens 

“We found it had good effect on them 
to have them ‘go to school’ even though 
the school was only a few steps away,” 
said Mrs Fullerton. “When we first 
came here there was no possible school 
for our children so we had to get 
around that difficulty as well as other 
living problems. Later, after the girls 
grew up, we used the little building for 
all sorts of overflow purposes, and dur¬ 
ing the war it was canning headquar¬ 
ters for all of Suffolk County.” 

The presence of numerous food ad¬ 
ministration posters gave the tiny 
rooms a warlike atmosnhere, while the 
signed photogranh of Theodore Roose¬ 
velt, prominentlv displayed over the 
great stone fireplace, made known the 
approval of at least one great Ameri¬ 


can friend of the station and its ruling 
family. The ex-President and fellow 
Long Islander was an enthusiastic 
champion of their effort to demonstrate 
the agricultural possibilities of “the 
Blessed Isle,” according to Mr. Fuller¬ 
ton. 

Not only are all the States repre¬ 
sented by the visitors’ book at the 
station, but the whole enterprise is an 
adventure in internationalism. Visitors 
come from all over the world to see the 
thriving fields and orchards, and in 
these very fields and orchards, plants 
from every country grow amicably to¬ 
gether. As Mrs. Fullerton names them 
rapidly over—Japanese plums and wal¬ 
nuts, bamboo, tea, almonds, Mexican 
Teosinte, melons from France, Chinese 
cabbage, Belgian salads, rubbing 
shoulders with Long Island vegetables 
of innumerable variety—she seems to 
have ample backing for her statement 
that there is no place like Long Island 
for natural growth. “Only the South of 
Japan can equal it,” she says, and one 
cannot blame her for her pride in the 



Mrs. Edith Loring' Fullerton 


conquest of the “scrub oak barrens”— 
her own part in the conquest, of which 
she says little, having been that of a 
valiant warrior against such inanimate 
enemies as stumps and maggots and 
such discouraging foes as local apathy, 
doubt and open distrust. 

Everything at Her Finger Tips 

So much is the station a part of Mrs. 
Fullerton’s life and so greatly does it 
depend for its success upon her energy, 
good humor and shrewd business sense, 
it is almost impossible to think of one 
without the other. She knows every 
detail of the varied work of the place— 
the blasting, planting, spraying, har¬ 
vesting, packing; the farm animals; the 
little dairy building; the farmers’ 
homes and their families; the reports 
and the heavy correspondence. 

At one moment she is finding the 
year’s financial statement to show a 
visiting European scientist, studying 
facts and figures spread out on the liv¬ 
ing room table; at another she is in¬ 
specting a fascinating new engine ready 
for installation. She points out the 
flowers of her trim little garden, tells 
of the Sweepstakes prize with which 
beet culture is being encouraged on. the 
Island, and gives the figures on spring- 
wheat acreage with equal enthusiasm. 
You are not surprised when she admits 
that during a three months’ leave of 
absence for Mr. Fullerton, spent help¬ 
ing devastated France, she ran the 
station as the acting director, taking it 
through the planting season so sucess- 
fully that in spite of a curtailed force 
of workers there was no falling be¬ 
hind in the crops when harvest time 
came. 

Outside her own busy life at the sta¬ 
tion, Mrs. Fullerton finds time to keep 
up her work as secretary of the Suffolk 
County Home Bureau, of which she was 
the first chairman. 

“It is reaching the heart of the home 


better than anything else I know,” she 
declared emphatically. “Nor does any¬ 
thing develop leadership more naturally 
and effectively. I think that perhaps 
the Farm and Home Bureaus are too 
closely related; that for its own good, 
the Home Bureau should stand firmly 
on its own feet. 

“Farming is an ideal profession for 
woman—so are some of the allied pro¬ 
fessions which grow out of it—floristry, 
for instance. Why don’t more girls 
study to be florists? Women are natu¬ 
rally fitted for this trade and I know of 
several who are making a go of it. My 
own daughter studied this subject at 
the Ambler School of Horticulture, but 
matrimony interrupted her professional 
career!” 

It seems incredible, looking at Mrs. 
Fullerton, to think of her not only with 
married daughters but as a grand¬ 
mother! One can be sure, however, that 
any babies so lucky as to choose her a 
grandparent will approve of their 
selection more and more as they grow 
older. For few babies can be blessed 
with a more humorously wise, a more 
youthful or a more companionable 
grandmother to teach tljem the magic 
of growing things and the happiness of 
the woman whose lot is cast in with 
the farm.— Gabrielle Elliot. 


DELICIOUS HOME-MADE ICE 
CREAM 

MRS. R. C. KRAMER 

I CE cream for dinner! These hot 
days whac could be a more delight¬ 
ful treat to the whole family? More¬ 
over, physicians and dietitians agree 
that it is one of the most healthful 
and nourishing of foods. So we, who 
are fortunate enough to live on a farm 
where cream and milk are generally 
plentiful, should have this pleasing 
dessert as often as possible. In our 
home, we make ice cream very often 
in winter as well as summer, and the 
following original recipes are economi¬ 
cal and delicious. 

Vanilla (1 gallon) 

Three cups sugar; 5 heaping table¬ 
spoons flour; 1 quart boiling watet; 
1 quart cream; 114 tablespoons va¬ 
nilla; \ l / 2 quarts milk (about). 

Thoroughly mix flour and sugar. 
Add boiling water, stirring constantly. 
Place on stove and boil about 15 min¬ 
utes, or until mixture looks clear and 
thick. Be sure to stir constantly to 
avoid lumping or scorching. Remove 
from fire, stir, cream into this mix¬ 
ture. Pour into ice cream can, adding 
milk until within 1 inch of top. Stir 
well, flavor with vanilla extract. Set 
aside to cool. Then place in freezer 
bucket, adjust turner, pack in layers 
of finely cracked ice and salt alter¬ 
nately, over which, when full, pour one 
cup of cold water. Freeze as hard as 
possible. Repack, set aside to ripen two 
hours before serving. Good cream can 
be made by substituting whole milk for 
the cream and milk in this recipe. 
Eggs do not improve these recipes. 

Chocolate 

Same as vanilla, only stir four heap¬ 
ing tablespoons of cocoa into flour and 
sugar. Mix thoroughly, add boiling 
water and proceed as with vanilla ice 
cream. 

Peach, Strawberry or Banana 

Same as for vanilla, only omit va¬ 
nilla and one quart of milk, adding in¬ 
stead any crushed sweetened fruit, 
sweetening fruit in the proper propor¬ 
tion of Vi cup of sugar to 1 cup fruit. 

Cherry or Pineapple 

Same as vanilla except for three cups 
of milk substituting that amount of 
preserved fruit. 

Ice Cream Sundaes 

We like plain vanilla ice cream 
served with syrup, as sundaes are 
served at soda fountains. 

Chocolate Syrup 

One cup sugar; 2 tablespoons cocoa; 
J4 teaspoon flour; % cup boiling 
water; 1 teaspoon vanilla. 

Thoroughly mix flour, sugar and 
cocoa. Add boiling water, stirring con¬ 


stantly. Boil until a medium thick 
syrup is formed, which will be in abowt 
five minutes. Set aside to cool and 
add vanilla. Serve over vanilla ice 
cream. If desired, sprinkle chopped 
nuts over top. 

Peaches, strawberries, raspberries, 
blackberries, or bananas may be 
crushed, sweetened in the proportion of 
'one cup of fruit to one-half cup of 
sugar, set aside for an hour or so 
and served over vanilla ice cream. 
Shredded pineapple, raspberries, black¬ 
berries, or cherries (1 cup of fruit to 
% cup of sugar) are also delicious 
with ice cream. 


HOW TO KEEP BUTTER SWEET 

In keeping butter put up in brine I 
always had difficulty to keep it from 
getting that old, stale, strong odor and 
flavor until a year or two ago, when 
I tried an experiment. 

Simply get a thin piece of cloth and 
cut in square shaped sizes large enough 
to hold a pound of butter, then tie up 
closely and drop into the brine jar. 
First be sure to work out all water or 
milk, then let it firm and make into 
as round cakes as possible. Two-pound 
sugar bags are ideal to put it in. I put 
up last fall, just before my cow went 
dry, about 12 or 15 pounds and it kept 
nearly as sweet as when first made, 
and we didn’t use the last until June 
1. When it is packed down solid in a 
stone jar or crock, then covered with 
brine, the brine does not get free ac¬ 
cess to it, which causes it to get that 
old, strong taste; but when put up in 
cloth or small bags the brine gets all 
in between each package, causing it to 
keep sweet. When the jar is full, 
weight with a heavy plate so every 
cake will be well covered with brine. 
Be sure to have the brine strong 
enough to float an egg. — Mrs. W. H. H. 


DO YOU KNOW THAT— 

A simple and handy method of filling 
the salt and the pepper shakers is to 
clip the corner of an ordinary envelope, 
insert the cut corner in the neck of 
shaker and use as a funnel. This beats 
using a spoon. A large corner cut 
from a very heavy catalog envelope will 
make a satisfactory funnel for pouring 
liquids into bottles. 

* * * 

Put some vinegar in a tin can that 
does not leak, put in paint brushes, and 
boil for twenty minutes. No matter 
how old or stiff they may be this will 
make thorn soft and pliable. 

* * * 

If butter sticks to the molds, rub 
a little salt on the inside of the molds, 
after they have been moistened, then 
rinse with cold water. 

❖ * * 

When saving silver that is not in 
use, polish thoroughly, cover thickly 
with vaseline, wrap in tissue paper. 
When wanted, boiling in suds will have 
it ready for use in a few minutes. 

* * * 

When putting in hat lining or up¬ 
holstering furniture, a surgeon’s needle 
is better than an ordinary one. The 
curved end facilitates the work, par¬ 
ticularly on the rounded surfaces. 

* ❖ % 

The old lament of aching feet is 
here! Buy two cheap sponges and in¬ 
sert one in the stockings under the arch 
of the fooL You will be delighted with 
the relief it gives. They can be easily 
washed. 

* * * 

When the meat grinder, egg beater 
or other cooking utensils need oiling, 
I always use glycerine around the bear¬ 
ings and the crevices. It is a harm¬ 
less lubricant and does not later effect 
the food. 

* * * 

The burnt taste can be removed from 
slightly scorched milk by putting the 
pan into cold water.and adding a pincji 
of salt to the milk.—Mrs. M. M. Mit- 
chem. 

❖ * * 

When canning in glass jars, put a 
silver knife or spoon in the jar; the 
metal attracts the heat and thege is 
no danger of breaking. 


I 










I 


American Agriculturist, July 28,1923 61 

Rocking-Chair Shopping Easiest For Farmer Women 

A Stay-at-Home System Described by Mabelle Robert —Other Simplified Home Making Suggestions 


W HEN the family wardrobe needs 
replenishing, I sit down at my desk 
and make a list of what must be had 
and the amount I can spare for it all. 
Then I get out all of my catalogues—I 
usually have about a dozen from the 
larger mail-order houses—also a pencil 
and some cards for taking notes. Those 
cards, by the way are saved from the 
layers of shredded wheat biscuits as 
they are very handy for taking notes. 

On a separate card for each catalogue 
I write headings: page, catalogue 
number, name of the article, price and 
information. Under each heading as I 
look over the catalogues, I mark down 
the data on articles I want. 

When I finish with all the books and 
all the articles desired are looked up, 
by carefully going over the cards and 
comparing prices and values, I decide 
by a, process of elimination where I 
shall send for my goods. It is then a 
simple matter to make out the order by 
referring to the card of the chosen 
catalogue for page, and number of each 
article. When the order is completed I 
go over it very carefully again, to be 
positive that I am not leaving out any 
necessary information as to sizes, colors 
and proper numbers. 

Study Before You Order 

Many people object to mail-order 
buying because they “want to see what 
they y re paying for.” A careful study 
of the descriptions will usually enable 
one to visualize the articles, for the 
companies certainly describe their 
goods as to materials, colors and 
weights, better than the average store 
clerks. 

It will help anyone to read descrip¬ 
tions of various cloths, for instance, 
both from catalogues and magazine ar¬ 
ticles; study not only about the goods 
you know, but about those which are 
merely a name to you. Most companies 
handle the various standard goods, 
known everywhere by the trademark, 
“Fruit of the Loom” cotton, “Meritas” 
oil-cloth; Kleinert’s rubber goods; and 
many others which are all so well ad¬ 
vertised that their names alone guaran¬ 
tee satisfaction. 

There are, also, different standard 
goods made for each mail-order com¬ 
pany, and bearing its trade-mark. 
Those are exactly described as to qual¬ 
ity and are usually as good as the ones 
mentioned above. In the catalogue of 
one of the largest mail-order companies, 
the extreme fairness and clearness of 
the description is noticeable. ' In the 
hosiery “department” for instance, the 
exact percentage of wool is given in 
each style. It is seldom one can learn 
that in a store! A stocking may be 
called part-wool and have but ten per 
cent of wool in it. 

Last Christmas one of my gifts to 
“himself” was a pair of suede leather 
lamb’s wool-lined driving mittens, pur¬ 
chased by mail. About tbe same time 
a friend bought a pair exactly like mine 
in a men’s furnishing store in our near¬ 
est town. But hers cost six dollars and 
fifty cents, while I paid only two-fifty. 

Ever since I began keeping house, my 
shopping has been nearly all done by 
mail; and in all my buying for my hus¬ 
band and myself and two babies, there 
has been just one instance-when I re¬ 
turned goods because not satisfied. 

Think Over Your Needs 

It is always a good plan to decide as 
nearly as possible on quality of articles) 
and price one can pay, before looking 
over the catalogues at all. As a mat¬ 
ter of fact, I work out those things in 
my mind, while I wash dishes or sweep. 
For example, the youngster’s winter 
hose, shirts, and bands. In our cold 
northern winters, wool is necessary to 
keep the little bodies protected, but 
all-wool goods will shrink and is not 
as long-wearing as some with a per¬ 
centage of cotton. Therefore, I decide 
on getting those garments that are a 
third or perhaps one-half cotton. Like¬ 
wise, the cloth for my husband’s winter 
work shirts will be more durable and 
just as warm if reinforced with oot- 
ton. . 

It always pays to buy the better 
qualities, so far as one’s purse allows. 
There .is so much satisfaction in feel¬ 


ing sure that our purchases are really 
good, dependable, and lasting. Buy 
for quality rather than looks, but 
preferably have both. 

In buying wash-goods, it is wiser to 
pay the extra few cents per yard and 
get something that is guaranteed wash¬ 
able and non-fading. Notice too, about 
the width of piece goods. There are 
, several widths of outing, or cotton flan¬ 
nel, for example; the narrowest, about 
twenty-two inches is a good width for 
diapers; the second width, about 
twenty-seven inches, is right for most 
all children’s wear; while the widest, 
about one-yard is best for nightgowns 
and like use. 

Send Money Carefully 

The hints I have given will apply quite 
as well to buying directly from the 
stores irr your nearby towns, but you 
will certainly help avoid dissatisfac¬ 
tion when buying by mail. The Post 
Office money order is about the best 
way of sending pay for goods. It is 
cheaper and handier than registering 
your letter. Cash, stamps, and en¬ 
dorsed checks in an unregistered letter 
go at sender’s risk, and it is an unwise 
way of doing business. 

It seems as if the advantages of mail 
order buying are legion! It means a 
saving of time, money and nerves; it 
offers goods, machinery and everything 
for home and family; It gives a big 
choice of styles and prices for those 


who buy ready-made clothing, and a 
wonderfully alluring assortment of ma¬ 
terials and colors for the home- 
sewers; while the styles give the home- 
seamstress many an idea on the little 
attractive touches for dresses and chil¬ 
dren’s wear. 


FOR YOIJR SUMMER CANNING 

A suggestion for a home-made steam 
cooker comes from Mrs. Leon H. Lewis 
of Prattsburg, N. Y. She writes: 

The peanut butter that grocers sell 
in bulk comes in twenty-five pound tin 
containers, which when cleaned out 
make ideal cookers in which to do your 
coldpack canning. Punch two or three 
tiny holes in the top with a shingle nail, 
so that there will be no danger of a 
steam explosion. If you do not have 
any inexpensive wire can holders, an 
old tin cover can be used as a false bot¬ 
tom. Four quart jars can be processed' 
at once and that usually is as many 
cans as the busy housewife cares to 
prepare at one time. It also has the ad¬ 
ditional advantage over the clothes boil¬ 
er of occupying a very small space on 
the stove. 


HARDY PERENNIAL PINKS 

I have had evidence this summer that 
these old favorites have not been for¬ 
gotten. I mentioned them in a few 
articles and was swamped with in- 


CLOTHES THAT ARE DESIGNED FOR COMFORT 



I NSTEAD of saying “be 
carefulthe mother of 
the youngster who wears 
No. 1815 can say “Go 
as far as you like!’’ A 
romper like this is ideal 
for hard play or the quieter 
amusement on very hot 
days. Put in sleeves if you 
like, but small son or 
daughter will prefer it 
without. 

No. 1815 cuts in sizes 
2, 4 and 6 years. Size 4 
takes 1% yards 36-inch 
material, with 1% yards 
ruffling. Pattern 12c 
(stamps preferred). 



E VERY woman finds a 
middy blouse comforta¬ 
ble and No. 9567 has 
style too. The band at the 
bottom makes it fit well at 
the hips and the smart 
applied yoke gives it a real 
sailor effect. The collar and 
tie are in regulation style 
too. 

No. 9567 cuts in sizes 
34, 36 4 38, 40 and 42-inch 
bust measure. Size 36.takes 
3 Vi yards 36-inch material, 
with 101,4 yards of braid. 
Price 12c. 



U NDERNEATH the 
romper is No. 1619. 

a dainty “undie” for any 
little girl. The youngster 
who is learning to dress 
herself will find this has 
the fewest bothersome but¬ 
tons of any suit she ever 
had, while she will also love 
its comfort and freedom. 

Pattern No. 1619 

cuts in sizes 2, 4, 6 and 8 
years. Size 4 takes 1 yard 
of 36-inch material. Pric 
12c. 




T HE three-tiered skirt is very 
popular this year. No. 1722 
combines it with the long waist¬ 
line and thus achieves a model 
which would be becoming to the 
woman with a full figure. It is 
shown in figured voile, with plain 
for trimming. 

No. 1722 cuts in sizes 36, 38, 
40, 42, 44 and 46 inches bust 
measure, and size 36 requires 4 
yards of 40-inch material with 3/7 
yard contrasting and 3 yards of 
ribbon. Pattern 12c. 


P LEATS are decidedly “it.” Side 
pleats are most becoming to the 
matron, who finds the all-around 
sort trying. No. 1822 very clev¬ 
erly lengthens the pleat panels and 
also shows a neck line and blouse 
fulness which are graceful features. 

No. 1822 comes in sizes 36, 
38, 40, 42, 46 and 48-bust meas¬ 
ure. Size 36 takes 4% yards 40- 
inch material, with a % yard strip 
for vest and 3% yards binding. 
Pattern 12c. 


To Order: Be sure your name, address,-pattern numbers and sizes are 
clearly written. Send order with proper remittance to Pattern Depart¬ 
ment of the American Agriculturist, 461 Fourth Avenue, New York City. 

You want a summer catalogue, don’t you? It is 10c and well worth the 
money. 


quiries. I had neglected to say that 
they were catalogued under the name 
“Dianthus” and readers could not find 
them. Dianthus Plumarius is the old 
clove-scented garden pink, and of re¬ 
cent years these have been improved or 
added to until we can get finer colors 
and have varieties that bloom during 
the summer instead of in the spring 
alone. Then a new type, Dianthus All- 
woodii, blooms from spring until fall. 

All the hardy pinks can be grown from 
seeds and fall is the ideal time to sow 
them. August gives plenty of time for 
them te get strong little plants by 
winter, but they may be sown as late 
as September. A cold frame or protect¬ 
ed bed should be provided and the seeds 
sown in rows four inches apart and 
kept clean. They are left in the seed 
bed until spring when they are set out 
where wanted. Do not hesitate to grow 
them by the hundreds for they can be 
slipped in almost everywhere, and you 
will find very few of your seedlings not 
worthy a place, for, unlike most hardy 
perennials, you don’t have to grow a 
hundred to get one good one.— Lewis 
Cobb. 


The Brown Mouse 

{Continued from page 59) 

I guess he’s only prejudiced against 
seeming to give up his old notions.” 

“Paw says he’ll be on hand prompt,” 
said Raymond. “But he had to be 
p’swaded right much. Paw’s proud—- 
and he cain’t read.” 

“Sometimes I think the more people 
read the less sense they’ve got,” said 
Newton. “I wish I could tie dad up! 
I wish I could get snakebit, and make 
him go for the doctor!” 

The boys crossed the ridge to the 
wooded valley in which nestled the 
Simms cabin. They found Mrs. Simms 
greatly exercised in her mind because 
young McGeehee had been found play¬ 
ing with some blue vitriol used by 
Raymond in his school work on the 
treatment of seed potatoes for scab. 

“His hands was all blue with it,” 
said she. “Do you reckon, Mr. Newton, 
that it’ll pizen him?” 

“Did he swallow any of it?” asked 
Newton. 

“Nah!” said McGeehee scornfully. 

Newton reassured Mrs. Simms, and 
went away pensive. He was in rebel¬ 
lion against the strange ways grown 
men have of discharging tteir duties 
as citizens—perhaps a proof that Jim 
Irwin’s methods had already accomp¬ 
lished much in preparing Newton and 
Raymond for citizenship. At present, 
however, the new wine in the old bot¬ 
tles was causing Newton to forget his 
filial duty, and his respect for his 
father. He wished he could lock him 
up in the barn so he couldn’t go to the 
school election. He wished he could be¬ 
come ill—or poisoned with blue vitriol 
or something—so his father would be 
obliged to go for a doctor. People got 
dreadfully scared about poison—New¬ 
ton mended his pace, and looked hap¬ 
pier. He , looked, in fact, more like a 
person filled with deviltry, than one 
yearning for the right to vote. 

“I’ll fix him!” said he to himself. 

(Continued next week) 


One housewife says a small magnet 
is the handiest thing around the 
kitchen. She uses it to collect spilled 
tacks, and with a piece of string on 
it she recovers many a small metal part 
of stove or aink that would otherwise 
be lost 


Before you decide to paper that 
dingy room, try sweeping down the 
walls with a clean broom, finishing them 
off with a dry cloth. It may save you a 
papering bill. 


Cuticura Soap 

-AND OINTMENT-— 

Clear the Skin 

Soap,Ointment,Talcum, 26 c. e ve ry w here. Fopsamples 
ftddreaa: Cntlcora L»bor»tarl«» ,D«pt. U, Malden, Mait. 





























































































62 


American Agriculturist, July 28,1923 


Reviewing the Latest Eastern Markets and Prices 


FRESH VEGETABLES HIGHER 
THAN LAST YEAR 

HERSCHEL H. JONES 

T HE New York State Department of 
Farms and Markets made a compari¬ 
son of prices at the farmers’ public 
markets on July 19 with the same date 
in 1922, which shows that on nearly all 
green vegetables the farmers are get¬ 
ting higher prices now. Long Island 
tomatoes and white potatoes were al¬ 
most one-half the price realized a year 
ago. 

The first Orange County onions, both 
red and yellow, reached the New York 
market last week and sold at irregular 
prices, due to the small size and poor, 
quality. 

Green corn declined at New York last 
week owing to heavy receipts from 
New Jersey and poor quality, selling 
July 19 mostly at 1% @ 2c per ear, 
with a few sales at 2% @ 3c. 

Other fresh vegetables- from Long 
Island and other nearby sections sold 
' in the farmers’ markets as follows: 

BEANS—Green, per bushel basket 
or bag, $1.50 @ 2; fancy, $2.25 @ 3.50; 
wax, $1.75 @ 2.25. BEETS—per bunch, 
2 @ 3c; per 3 bu. bbl., $2 @ 2.50. 
CAULIFLOWER — per slat barrel, 
best, $4 @4.50; fancy, $5 @6; ordi¬ 
nary, $2 @ 3. CARROTS—per bunch, 
2@3c; cut, per 3 bu. bbl., $2.50 @ 3; 
fancy, $3.25 @ 3.50. CABBAGE—per 
head, white, 6 @ 9c; red, 8 @ 10c; Sa¬ 
voy, '7 @ 10c. CUCUMBERS — hot¬ 
house, per dozen, fancy) $1 @ $1.25; 
choice, 50 @ 75c; out-door, per 3 bu. 
bbl., $6.50 @7; fancy, $7.25 @ 7.50. 
KALE—per slat barrel, 75c @ $1. 
RADISHES—per bunch, red and white 
tip, 3 @ 4c; black, 4 @ 6c; fancy, 7 @ 
8c; white, 3 @ 4c. SPINACH—per 32 
qt. crate, Savoy, 75c @$1; New Zea¬ 
land, 35 @ 50c. 

Up-State green peas found a dull 
market last week and supplies were 
heavy. The quality was much im¬ 
proved. The chief cause for the poor 
market was the laten^s of delivery. The 
express company delivered shipments 
to the market so late they had to be 
held over till next day, and brought 
much lower prices. 

POTATOES MORE PLENTIFUL 

Due to heavier arrivals of potatoes 
from the Eastern Shore, Maryland, 
New Jersey and Long Island, the mar¬ 
ket turned quiet. Prices ranged lower. 
Best brands of Eastern Shore, $4.50 @ 
5 per bbl.; Southern New Jersey cob¬ 
blers, $3.50 @ 4.50 per 150-lb. sack; 
Long Island, $4.75 @ 5.25 bbl. 

Prices have been high enough in the 
New York City and other large mar¬ 
kets to stimulate early digging on the 
part of many growers. As the season 
advances this activity will naturally in¬ 
crease and with the greater number of 
carlot shipments prices in all probabil¬ 
ity will go lower. 

Southern New Jersey is suffering 
from drought. Some shippers of best 
stock cobblers around Salem will not 
be able to begin digging before Au¬ 
gust 1. 

SMALL FRUITS 

Oswego strawberries are about ended 
now. The sweet varieties of cherries 
are practically finished and the sup¬ 
plies are settling into red sours and 
black sours. Demand for these for 
canning purposes was much more ac¬ 
tive last week. Raspberries of good 
quality were in active demand and 
market for them was firm. Goose¬ 
berries were in light supply and found 
a steady market for fancy large stock. 
Supplies of red currants were liberal, 
but demand moderate. The following 
quotations represent wholesale sales of 
berries in the New York market 
July 19: 

BLACKBERRIES—per qt., best, 22 
@23c; fancy, 25c; ordinary, 18 @ 20c. 
BLACK CAPS—per pt., best, mostly 
10 @ 11c; fancy, 12 @ 13c; ordinary, 8 
@ 9c. CHERRIES—per qt., red sour, 
16 @ 18c; black sour, 16 @ 20c; West¬ 
ern New York red sours, 55 @60c per 
4-qt. basket; black sweets, 75 @ 90c per 
4-qt. basket. CURRANTS—red, best, 
. 10 (5) 11c; fancy, large, 12c; small and 
ordinary, 8@9c; black, best, mostly 
25c; fancy large, 27 @ 28c; small and 
ordinary, 20 @ 22c. GOOSEBERRIES 
—per qt., best, large, 17 @ 18c; fancy, 


20c; medium to small, 14 @ 16c. 
RASPBERRIES—per qt., red, best, 15 
@ 16c; fancy, 17 @ 18c; ordinary, 
12 @ 13c. 

LARGER MOVEMENT OF EGGS 

The records of receipts, cold storage 
movement and stocks on hand in the 
wholesale market show a larger trade 
output of eggs since July 1 than last 
year at this time. The leading egg trade 
journal estimated the movement of 
eggs out of wholesale channels the sec¬ 
ond week in July as 132,672 cases, and 
the first week as 139,109, compared 
with an average weekly output in July, 
1922, of 113)000 cases. 

Receipts of eggs at New York are 
now running larger again than last 
year. Very fancy selected hennery 
whites continued last week at a top 
price of 45c per dozen, but the de¬ 
mand was not urgent enough to move 
all of the stock received without price 


concession. General receipts of nearby 
whites contain only a small proportion 
of fancy light yolks and are so irregu¬ 
lar in quality that there was a tendency 
to offer .them in mixed lots at easy 
prices. A large part of the supply 
had no outlet above a range of 30 @ 38c. 
Fine medium quality nearbys moved 
fairly well, however, at around 37 @ 
38c. The white egg market has been 
weakened by recent heavy shipments 
by boat from the Pacific Coast. The 
withdrawal of about 15,000 cases of 
“short held” eggs of good quality from 
cold storage, also hurt the market for 
fresh. 

SLOWER DEMAND FOR FOWLS 

Relative prices of broilers and fowls 
were somewhat reversed last week from 
the week previous. Fowls moved slow¬ 
ly and heavier supplies caused con¬ 
siderable declines. Colored fowls on 
July 19 were quoted at 24c and Leg¬ 
horn and poor, colored, 18 @ 23c, com¬ 
pared with 25 @ 28c for Leghorn and 
poor, colored fowls the week previous. 

Broilers, however, were in lighter 


supply early in the week and met very 
active demand. Toward the end of the 
week, the shipments increased, especial¬ 
ly on white Leghorn broilers, and the 
market tended weaker and lower with 
large colored broilers selling at 39 @ 
40c per lb on July 19; Leghorn, large, 
at 36 @ 37c. Leghorn, average, 32 @ 
35c; small, mixed and Leghorn, 26 @ 
31c. Old roosters were quoted at 15c 
per lb. wholesale; pigeons, per pair, 
30c; rabbits, per lb., 35c. 

DRESSED CALVES WEAK 

Although fresh receipts of country 
dressed calves were light last week, 
the demand continued very slow, and 
prices showed a declining tendency. 
There were offers of Western-dressed 
calves at lower prices than country- 
dressed calves. It did not seem a mat¬ 
ter of price, but merely that the stock 
was not wanted. A few sales of fancy 
veals were reported at 21 @ 22c. There 


was a fair call for cheaper veals 
around 14 @ 16c. 

Toward the latter part of last week 
the market advanced 50c for live calves, 
due to light receipts and a good de¬ 
mand. Prime calves were quoted at 
$13.25 @ 14 per cwt., and fair to good, 
$12.25 @13. 

The tone of the lamb market was 
slow and unsteady. Only prime stock 
reached top quotation of $13.75 @ 14 
per cwt. 

BUTTER SUPPLY MORE LIBERAL 

The more liberal receipts of butter 
last week caused some decline in whole¬ 
sale quotations, but there was an active 
buying for cold storage purposes and 
toward the end of the week the mar¬ 
ket was quite firm on higher grades. 
Creamery, extras, 92 score, were quoted 
July 19 at 38 %c, compared with 39 @ 
39 %c the week previous, and 35% @ 
36c on the corresponding date in 1922. 
Creamery higher score than extra was 
quoted on July 19 at 38% @ 39 %c, 
compared with 36% @ 37c on July 19, 
1922. Stocks of medium and lower 


grades butter are accumulating in the 
wholesale market and these are offered 
liberally at 36c, with sales generally 
somewhat lower. The market on im¬ 
ported butter is very quiet, due to high 
prices in foreign markets. The demand 
for unsalted 'creamery is slow, cream¬ 
ery unsalted extras, 92 score, being 
quoted at 39 @ 40c on July 19. 

CHEESE STORINGS HEAVY 

During the last week there was a 
rapid movement of American cheese 
into cold storage and active trading on 
New York State flats. Up-State prices 
were relatively high and offerings in 
the New York market were conserva¬ 
tive, with most sales at 25 @ 26c per 
lb. Toward the end of the week some 
Wisconsin dealers were offering cheese 
for prompt shipment at a fraction low¬ 
er than earlier prices, and the tone in 
the West seemed somewhat easier. 

New ’York State whole milk flats, 
fresh, average run, were quoted 
throughout the week at 25c per lb. 

The Federal report as to cold stor¬ 
age holdings of cheese in the four 
large markets on July 19 showed a 
surplus of about 3,000,000 pounds above 
the stocks on hand on the same date 
last year. The movement out of stor¬ 
age in New York and Philadelphia was 
somewhat in excess ' of the movement 
into storage, but there was a heavy 
movement into storage at Chicago. 

CASH GRAIN QUOTATIONS 

Cash grain quotations July 20 were 
as follows: 

NEW YORK — Corn, No. 2 yellow, $1.08 ; 
No. 2 mixed, $1.07; No. 2 white, $1.08%. 
Oats, No. 2 white, 53%e; No. 3 white, 
51%@52c; ordinary white clipped, 52% @ 
53%c. 

CHICAGO — Corn, No. 2 white, 87@87%c; 
No. 2 yellow, 88@88%c. Oats, No. 2 white, 
43@44%c; No. 3 white, 40%@42%c! 
Barley, 62 @ 69c. Rye, 63%c@64c. 

STRONG MARKET FOR GOOD HAY 

Due to scarcity of top grades of hay, 
the market was strong for them last 
week, but low grades were hard to sell. 

* On July 19 a car of No. 1 Timothy sold 
at $29 per ton, and No. 2 would bring 
$28, graded according to Federal 
grades. New Jersey rye straw selling 
at $23 per ton. Receipts of poor and 
ordinary quality hay in excess of 
demand. 

The following figures as to this 
year’s hay production have just been 
issued by the New York State Depart¬ 
ment of Farms and Markets: 



1923 

(July Forecast) 

1922 


Tons 

Tons 

New York. 

6,389,000 

6,818,000 

New England.... . 

4,247,000 

4,476,000 

New Jersey..... 

275,000 

485,000 

Pennsylvania.... 

3,205,000 

4,888,000 

Del., Md„ Va. .. . 
Ohio, Ind., Ill., 
Mich.’Wis., Iowa, 
Minnesota. 

1,225,000 

1,994,000 

27,654,000 

37,183,000 

United States.... 

82,797,000 

96,687,000 





Will Buy White Eggs 

THE YEAR AROUND 

NO COMMISSION 

Fresh, Clean, Unassorted White 
Eggs Wanted 

SHIP TO 

CENTRAL NYACK POULTRY FARM 
NYACK, N. Y. 

References Upon Application 


Farmer* Supplied with 

STEEL WIRE BALE TIES 

FOR HAY AND STRAW BALING, ETC. 
Quality Guaranteed 

H. P. & H. F. WILSON CO. 

520 Washington St. * NEW YORK 

SHIP YOUR EGGS 

WHITE AND BROWN 

To R. BRENNER & SONS 

Bonded Commission Merchants 

358 Greenwich St., New York City 


Quotations From Eastern Markets 

The following are the prices at which farm products of special interest to 
eastern farmers sold on July 19: 


Eggs, Nearbys (cents per dozen) 

New Jersey hennery whites uncandled, extras. 

Other hennery whites, extras... 

Extra firsts... 

Firsts . 

Gathered, whites, first to extra firsts,. 

Lower grades.. 

Hennery browns, extras. 

Gathered browns and mixed colors, extras.... 
Pullets No. 1. 


Butter (cents per pound) 

Creamery (salted) high score.. 

Extra (92 score). 

State dairy (salted), finest. 

Good to prime. 

Hay and Straw, Large Bales (per ton) 

Timothy No. 2. 

Timothy No. 3. 

Timothy Sample. 

Fancy light clover mixed. 

Alfalfa, second cutting. 

Oat straw No. 1. 


New York 
40 @45 
40 @43 
34@37 
30 @ 33 
30 @36 
26 @29 
33 @38 
29@32 
26 @32 


38% @39% 
38% 

37% @38 
36@37 

U. S. Grades 


Buffalo 


33 @35 


30@31 


42 @43 
40 @41 
38@39 
31@37 


Phila. 


27% 
25 


1 


40 


Live Poultry, Express Lots (cents per lb.) 

Fowls, colored fancy, heavy. 

Fowls, leghorns and poor. 

Broilers, colored fancy. 

Broilers, leghorn. 

Live Stock (cents per pound) 

Calves, good to medium. 

Bulls, common to good... 

Lambs, common to good. 

Sheep, common to good ewes. .. 

Hogs, Yorkers . .. 


$25 @26 

$18 @19 

22 @ 24 


13 @ 18 


25 


28 @30 


10 @12 


24 

24 @25 

18 @23 

20 @22 

39 @40 

40 

36 @ 37 

ao 

10 @12% 

12 @12% 

4@6% 

5% @6% 

11 @13% 

13% @15% 

3% @5 

7@8 

8% @8% 

8% 


Old Grade Standards 
$23 
19 @20 


22 @23 


28 @29 
23@25 
43 @45 


League Price For August Milk $2.43 

THE Dairymen’s League Cooperative Association, Inc., announces 
that the following prices have been voted for the month of August, 
quotations being given for milk produced in the basic zone of 201-210 
mile zone from New York City for 3 per cent milk: 

Class 1—For milk that goes into fluid consumption, $2.43, which 
is 10 cents better than the price in July. 

Class 2—For milk which goes into the manufacture of cream and 
ice cream, $2.05, which is the same as the July price. 

Class 3—For milk used chiefly in the manufacture of evaporated, 
condensed, and powdered milk and hard cheeses, a differential of 85 
cents per hundred has been voted above the price of milk going into 
the manufacture of butter. This is also the same as July price. 

Classes 4a and 4b are the same as in July, with the exception thgt 
slight changes have been made in the differentials. 
























































































American Agriculturist, July 28,1923 


08 


$1,000.00 

INSURANCE 

FOR 50 CENTS 

As a part of our broad policy of 
seryice to readers, we now offer 
you a $1,000 Travel Accident 
Policy for one year with a three- 
year subscription for American 
t /Agriculturist all for only $2.50— 
just 50 cents more than our 
special price for a three-year 
subscription alone. 

You May Be Hurt or 
Killed In a Train or 
Auto Accident 
Tomorrow 

Don’t make the mistake of 
neglecting your family’s financial 
welfare in case the unexpected 
accident comes to you. Is not 
your own peace of mind worth 
the small amount of our accident 
policy? You need protection. 
Tomorrow may be too late. Order 
one of these policies today. 

This Tells You What 
the Policy Will Pay 

The North American Accident In¬ 
surance Company will pay the follow¬ 
ing amounts, subject to the terms of 
the policy, for death or disability on 
a public carrier, due to its wrecking or 
disablement while the insured is riding 
as a fare-paying passenger, or due to 
the wrecking or disablement of any 
private horse-drawn or motor-driven 
vehicle on which insured may be riding 
or driving, or by being thrown there¬ 
from. 

Life One Thousand Dollars ($1,000.00) 
Both Hands 

One Thousand Dollars ($1,000.00) 
Both Feet 

One Thousand Dollars ($1,000.00) 
Sight of Both Eyes 

One Thousand Dollars ($1,000.00) 
One Hand and One Foot, 

One Thousand Dollars ($1,000.00) 
Either Hand and Sight of One Eye, 

One Thousand Dollars ($1,000.00) 
Either Foot and Sight of One Eye, 

One Thousand Dollars ($1,000.00) 
Either Hand 

Five Hundred Dollars ($500.00) 
Either Foot 

Five Hundred Dollars -($500.00) 
Sight of Either Eye 

Five Hundred Dollars ($500.00) 
Total Disability, 13 weeks or less, 

Ten Dollars ($10.00) per week 

Life, by being struck, knocked down or 
run over by vehicle, while standing or 
walking on public highway 

Two Hundred and Fifty Dollars ($250.00) 


MAIL THIS COUPON AT ONCE 

TO AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST, J30 

461 Fourth Ave., New York City. 

Gentlemen : Please enter my subscription for 
American Agriculturist three years and send 
rae a $1,000.00 Travel Accident Policy, good 
for one year. Enclosed find $2.50 in full pay¬ 
ment for both the policy and subscriptions. 

Signed . 

P.0 . 

R.F.D. No . 

State . 

My age is ... 

(You m; er 16 and under 70) 



Questions About Crops 

Paul Work Answers 'Some Growers Problems 


W ILLIAM REISERT is one of seven 
brothers operating adjoining farms 
at Valley Stream, Nassau County. He 
gardens some forty-two acres, but his 
total acreage of crops is far more than 
this, for most of the land is used twice. 
He plants four acres of New Zealand 
spinach. This plant is not a spinach 
and does not even belong to the same 
botanical family. It does make high- 
quality greens in midsumme., when 
true spinach is out of the running. It 
grows quickly, is thick-leaved and suc¬ 
culent, and it gives a heavy yield. The 
New York market accepts New Zealand 
spinach in quantity during the hot 
months, though it does not find as 
ready sale during the spinach season. 

What Is a Good Stand of Beans? 

M. C. Gillis last year conducted a 
careful experiment at Cornell to de¬ 
termine the best spacing for garden 
beans. Three varieties, Red Valentine, 
a light grower, Stringless Greenpod, 
making a medium sized plant, and Refu¬ 
gee, which spreads wide, were planted 


State College for examination and 
advice, or to me here at Ithaca, N. Y., 
and we will try to find out what we can 
about the difficulty. If I understand 
correctly, your trouble is entirely dif¬ 
ferent from the ordinary blight or leaf 
spot which can be controlled by spray¬ 
ing with Bordeaux or by dusting. I 
shall be glad to hear from you again 
if I can be of further service. 


THE CULTURE OF SCULLIONS 

Kindly give me some advice on planting, 
cultivation, fertilization and harvesting for 
so-called winter onions or scullions? — D. Y. 
G., Pennsylvania. 

I assume that you want bunch onions 
to sell in the spring. For this purpose 
two kinds of onions are commonly used; 
multipliers and Egyptian, or tree onions. 
The former are perhaps more com¬ 
monly used, and they multiply by divi¬ 
sion of the bulb underground. Fart of 
the planting is left after the .market 
crop has been pulled in the spring and 
by fall each set has developed a number 


' - Y' .< *, - . f '' : 

, ' ai 


■ 



How a practical potato grower modified liis power duster. 

concentrates the dust cloud about the plants 


The canvas 


and thinned to stands of two, three and 
six plants per foot. With all varieties 
the close planting was favored. The 
work is being repeated this year, with 
an added stand of 12 per foot. 

We would like to hear from gard¬ 
eners on this subject. Does your ex¬ 
perience check the experiment? Do 
you think the stand of twelve per foot 
will prove too thick? A postal will do. 


“BURN” IN CELERY 

I have been troubled with “burn” in the 
hearts of yellow celery. During last Septem¬ 
ber and October when the plants were about 
mature, the leaves and stalks of the hearts 
turned brown, then black and finally rotted. 
This season fully 90 per cent of the plants 
were affected. Is this due to type or con¬ 
dition of the soil, location, exposure or faulty 
culture? I have been growing Golden Self¬ 
blanching only two years. This year the burn 
was much more serious than last year. Green 
and Easy Blanching rarely show a burned 
stalk. I do not spray either variety and 
have little evidence of blight, unless this is 
a kind of blight. — W. L., Pennsylvania. 

As far as I can learn, not very much 
is known of this particular trouble. In 
the trial gardens at Ithaca we have 
suspected that trouble such as you de¬ 
scribe is worse where the water supply 
is not adequate. We have not been 
troubled with it on varieties other than 
Golden Self blanching. The pathology 
people say that the cause is not very 
definitely established, and they suspect 
that it is somewhat similar to tipburn 
in lettuce which is sometimes occasioned 
by the inability of the outer portion of 
the leaf to get sufficient water. I doubt 
if snraying will help materially. I 
should try giving at least a part of 
your field a heavy application of well 
rotted manure this spring. Leaving a 
bed of ground unmanured, you would 
have a check on this treatment. I 
should watch weather conditions also 
and see if you can note any connection 
between drought and the trouble. If 
you have irrigation equipment, the 
effect of water would also be worth 
studying. 

I would suggest that next season you 
send sample plants either to the Penn 


of small bulbs. These may be taken 
up and replanted for the next season. 
They are very hardy, and will remain 
in the ground year after year, but this 
is hardly good commercial practice. 
Plantings are usually made about six 
weeks before freezing weather, and they 
make a start in the fall, so that they 
can get on very rapidly in the spring. 
Sometimes they are given a little pro¬ 
tection in the form of a mulch of straw 
or strawy manure. 

The Egyptian, or tree, onions are re¬ 
produced by means of small bulbs 
which develop on the top of the plant 
where seed forms in the ordinary 
onions. With these also a part of the 
planting is left after bunching in the 
spring. The bulbs are harvested when 
mature and are set out again in the fall. 

The onion bulb of either kind may be 
planted rather thickly in rows twelve 
or fifteen inches apart. They are 
given ordinary cultivation to’ keep 
weeds down, and are ready for bunch¬ 
ing without very much attention. They 
are ordinarily grown on rich market- 
garden ground which has had an 
abundance of manure year after year, 
and so commercial fertilizer is not 
necessary. When they get large enough 
for bunching they are pulled, the rough 
outer leaves and skin are removed, and 
they are tied four to ten in a bunch, 
according to market custom, and sold. 
If we can help you further, please let 
us know. 


Cereal Pests—Before threshed wheat 
is placed in the bins, sweep them out 
well, removing all of last year’s grain, 
and fumigate the bins with carbon 
bisulphide before putting in the new 
wheat. If this is not done, and the 
wheat begins to heat, fumigate with 
the bisulphide, using one pound to 100 
bushels of grain. 


CATTLE BREEDERS 


PUBLIC SALE 

On Wednesday, August 1st, 1923, at 
the farm of C. W. Sewell, will sell at 
Public Auction. 35 head of Pure Breed 
AyrshireCattleaud four headof horses. 

Keating Summit, Penna. 


HOLSTEIN BULLS FOR SALE 

Sons of 

DUTCHLAND C0LANTHA SIR INKA 

F1SHKILL FARMS, Hopewell Junction, N. Y. 
HENRY MORGENTHAU. Jr.. Owner 


H0LSTEINS and GUERNSEYS 

Fresh cows and springers, 100 head of the finest 
quality to select from. Address 

A. F. SAUNDERS, CORTLAND. N. Y. 

HOLSTEINS 

Two car loads high-class grade springers. The’ 
kind that please. One car load registered females. 
Well bred, strictly high-class. Several registered 
service bulls. J. A. LEACH, CORTLAND, N. Y. 

H0ISTFIN Rill I Born Dec. 7th, 1921. Sired by a 
nULOlEin DULL 33-pound Son of King of the 
rontiacs. Dam is 24.95-pound daughter Changeling But¬ 
ter Boy. He is nicely marked, splendid individual, well 
grown and ready for service. Priced to sell. 

FRED. A. BLEWER 

__ , Owego. N. Y. _ __ 

HIGH-GRADE HOLSTEIN COWS 

fresh and close by large and heavy producers. 
Pure bred registered Holsteins all ages ; your 
inquiry will receive our best attention. 

Browncroft Farm McGRAW New York 

HIGH GRADE HOLSTEIN HEIFER CALVES $1S 

each; registered bull and heifer calves. $25 up; registered 
bulls ready for sendee, and cows. Address 

SPOT FARM. TULLY. N. Y. 


FOR C A I 17 Franklin County (Vt.) Jerseys. 

1 V/IV BALL Grade and registered, all ages. 

both sexes. Send for booklet. 

R. L. CHAFFEE, Secretary ENOSBURG FALLS, VERMONT 


SWINE BREEDERS 


125-PIGS FOR SALE-125 

Yorkshire and Chester White Cross, and Chester and 
Berkshire Cross. All large growthy pigs, 6 to 7 weeksold, 
g? bOeach ; iI to8 weeks old, $5.50 each; 8to 9 weeks old. 
5>b.UUeach. 1) pure-bred Berkshire pigs, barrows or sows, 
fcb.oO each, i weeks old; and 20 Chester White. 7 weeks old, 
8b.ft(l each: hoars of the above breeds $8.00 each. All good 
clean stock, bred from the best of stock that monev can 
buy. i will ship any part of the above lots C. O. b. to 
you on approval. 

WALT ER LUX, 388 Salem St., WOBURN, MASS. 

Big Type Poland China Pigs 

Gilts and Boars for sale. Sires; Ford’s Liberator and 
Ford's Big Tim. Moderate prices. 

STEPHEN H. FORD, 402Slewart Building, Baltimore, Md. 

Big Type Polands 

prices. Write me. G. 


Boars, Sows and Pigs 
for sale; good ones; low 

S. HALL, FARVDALE, OHIO. 


LARGE BERKSHIRES AT H1GHWOOD 

Granc champion breeding. Largest herd in America. Free booklet. 

HARPENDING _ Box 10 DUNDEE, N.Y. 


GOATS 


'I O get the best choice, buy Milk Goat Bucks Now. 
1 Buy Bred Does in October. Buy Kids and 
Yearlings Notv. 

S. J. SHARPLES, R. D. 5, NORRISTOWN, PA. 


BABY CHICXS 


STRICKLER’S QUALITY AUGUST CHICKS 

BIG HATCHES AUGUST 1-8-15-22-29 

Large heavy-type Barron English s. c. White Leghorna of 
superlative quality mated to pedigreed cockerels. Each 
£™ headed by Lady Stores' Pen cockerels (Dams records 
240 to 271 eggs . ach in pullet yearj. Highest quality 
y'«2 rous chicks by special delivery parcel post prepaid. 
100% sa-e and live delivery guaranteed. *9 per 100, *44 
per 5 00. *85 per 1000. Also husky pure-bred Barred Rock, 

R. I. Reds and W hite Rock chicks. *11 per 100, *54 per 500! 

LEONARD F. STRICKLER, SHERIDAN, PA. 



CHICKS for July Delivery 

Our 19th Season producing good strong 
chicks from heavy-laying strains. S. C 
White and Brown Leghorns, $9.50 per 100; 

Black Leghorns, $10 per 100; Barred 
and White Rocks. $12 per 100; Anconas, Black 
M'norcas, $11.50 per 100; White Wyandotte*. 
n a a • . V C - U f/ ls - S1 j Pe r J00. Mixed, $8.50 per 100. 

Order direct from this ad. We guarantee 95 3 live de¬ 
livery. Catalogue free. 

20th CENTURY HATCHERY 
Box R ____ New W ashington. Ohio 

~f baby chicks^ 

S. C. Rhode Island Reds, 12c each 
Barred Plymoulh Rocks, 11c each 
S. C. White Leghorns, . 9c each 
Mixed or Off Color, . . 7c each 

-.These chicks are all hatched from free range stock 
bate delivery and satisfaction guaranteed. Descriptive 
booklet free. 


Chicks 


W. A. LAUVER 


McALISTERVILLE, PA. 



600 White Leghorn Breeders, one year old, 
Sl.OOeach. 10 Weeks’ Old Pullets, Aug. 10th 
delivery, $1.00 each and up. Thousands ready. 

HUMMER’S POULTRY FARM 

FRENCHTOWN, N. J., R. 1 


LARGE STOCK flue Poultry, Turkeys,(Scene, Duck.,Guineas 


Eggs, low: cn tab 


am-. Collies, rieemis’ Chicks, stork’ 

PIOMCKH FARMS, Telfnrd, Penn.jl.iu.ia’ 


HILLPOT 
DUALITY 

Post Prepaid. Safe delivery guaranteed 
anywhere east of Mississippi River. 



REDUCED PRICES—PROMPT DELIVERIES 

„„ 100 50 25 Barred Rocks $13.00 $7.00 $3 75 

While Leghorns $10.00 $5.50 $3.00 R. I. Reds 15.00 7 75 4 00 

Black Leghorns 10 00 5.50 3.00 White Rocks 15.00 7 75 4 00 

Brown Leghorns 13.00 7.00 3.75 White Wyindotles 18.00 9.25 4.75 

W. F. HILLPOT Box 29, Frenchtown. N. J. 




















































































/ 



A FREE TRIP TO 
NEW YORK CITY 

FOR EVERY BOY AND GIRL 


between the ages of 12 and 21 who sells $50.00 worth of subscriptions for American 
Agriculturist between now and August 22, 1923. This offer is open only to boys 
and girls living in one of the Middle Atlantic States or the New England States. 



WHAT THE TRIP WILL 
INCLUDE 


YOU ARE SURE OF 
BEING REWARDED 


All contestants qualifying for the 
trip will have all their traveling 
expenses paid to and from New 
York and also all expenses for 
the two days they are our guests 
in New York City, August 29 
and 30. 

During the two days’ stay in New 
York City the program will include 
a trip to one of the leading theatres, 
a visit to the Museum of Natural His¬ 
tory, the Bronx Zoological Gardens, 
a Sight-Seeing Bus Trip around New 
York, a visit to the New Markets and 
Water Front, the Woolworth Build¬ 
ing, a trip on board an ocean-going 
liner and as many other extra trips we 
can find time for in the two davs. 


Ne w York City is the greatest city 
in the world and every young Amer¬ 
ican should take pride in visiting this wonderland. 
You may not want to live in New York, but you have 
only half lived until you have visited it and seen its 
many tremendous buildings, beautiful parks, museums, 
famous subways, etc. 


The Woolworth Tower, a visit to the 
top of which is included in 
the free trip 


petitive, so that 
ican Agriculturi 
you will win one 
City, no matter 
great treat. 


If for any reason you should discon¬ 
tinue getting subscriptions before 
reaching a total of $50.00, we will pay 
you a cash commission of half the 
amount you have sent us for subscrip¬ 
tions, provided you have sold at least 
$10.00 worth of subscriptions. 

BOYS AND GIRLS! 
REGISTER NOW 

Don’t take any chances of missing this 
wonderful trip. Fill out the coupon 
below immediately so that we can 
register you as one of the contestants 
and send you necessary supplies free of 
all expense. But don’t wait for any 
supplies. Start getting subscriptions 
now—this very day. 

Remember the trip is not at all com- 
if you sell 50 subscriptions for Amer- 
T between now and August 22nd, 1923, 
of the free trips to New York 
how many others qualify for the same 


Mail This Coupon At Once 

Manager Free Trip Bureau 
American Agriculturist 

461 Fourth Ave., New York City 

Please count me in on the free trip to New York City. 
Send me necessary sample copies and other supplies together 
with instructions. I will do my best to sell at least $50 
worth of new or renewal subscriptions for American Agricul¬ 
turist before August 22. In case I fail to get $50 worth of 
subscriptions it is understood that you will pay me a cash 
commission amounting to half of the money I receive for 
American Agriculturist subscriptions, provided I send at 
least $10 worth of subscriptions. 

Name. 

Address. 


HOW TO GET THE FREE TRIP 

All that is necessary to get all your expenses paid on this 
trip to New York City is for you to sell $50.00 worth of 
subscriptions for American Agriculturist. Send your or¬ 
ders in each week. No orders will count if mailed later 
than August 22nd. 

In order to reach your goal of $50.00 worth of sales quickly, you 
may sell five years for $3.00 or three years for $2.00. Of course, you 
may also sell one year for $1.00. It is clearly to your advantage to 
get the long-term subscriptions because you require much less of 
them. For instance, 25 three-year subscriptions at $2.00 each will 
be easier to secure for most contestants than 50 one-year subscrip¬ 
tions at $1.00. The big point to remember is that your total sub¬ 
scription sales must amount to $50.00 in order to entitle you to the 
free trip. Renewals count the same as new subscriptions. 







































A merican 
Agriculturist 


$1.00 PER YEAR 


I 

! 1 

I si 




AUGUST 4, 1923 


PUBLISHED WEEKLY 







n 





Bout Time Pa Bought a Washin’ Machine 


>> 


i 

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66 


American Agriculturist, August 4,1923 


Cooperatives Must Not Fail 

An A. A. Radio Talk Broadcast from WEAF, August 1 , at 6:50 P. M. 


W HEN Editor Ed, as those of us 
who know well the elongated 
farmer chap who weekly gets 
out the American Agriculturist, 
asked me to broadcast for him, he very kind¬ 
ly refrained from naming my subject. I am 
glad of this, for it enables me to take liber¬ 
ties with a great opportunity and to say 
some things which I have been anxious to 
get before both farmer and urban residents 
for a long time. 

First, I want to get over a message to my 
farmer hearers in 
which I believe I will 
have the support of the 
thoughtful business 
man. It is about the 
cooperative a s s o c i a- 
tions which they have 
developed in such large 
numbers during the 
last few years. Farm¬ 
ers, even after they 
have participated i n 
the organization of a 
cooperative and become 
members of it, are apt 
to think of it as some¬ 
thing apart from them¬ 
selves. As a matter of 
fact, cooperative asso¬ 
ciations o r corpora¬ 
tions as I like to think 
of them, belong to the 
farmers and the whole 
responsibility for their 
successful organization 
and operation, goes 
back to the men who 
make up the member¬ 
ship. Through their 
cooperative associa¬ 
tions, farmers have an 
opportunity to prove 
themselves in business, 
or a big chance of fail¬ 
ing so miserably that 
they will become the 
laughing stock of other 
business interests i n 
the country. 

As a matter of busi¬ 
ness or a matter of 
pride, farmers cannot 
afford to fail. Yet from 
my intimate knowledge 
of the operation of co¬ 
operative enterprises I 
want to make this point 
very forcibly: Farmers 
will fail with their co¬ 
operatives unless they 
stop chinking of such 
organizations as the 
Dairymen’s League Co¬ 
operative Association 
and the G. L. F. Ex¬ 
change as “those fel- 
fellows” and instead think of them as my 
organization and my property to be safe¬ 
guarded and used as such. . 

In this same connection I want to point 
out to my hearers who live in cities, and par¬ 
ticularly to those in the small cities and 
towns, which are largely dependent upon 
rural prosperity, that they cannot afford to 
do anything which will result in the failure 
of the great cooperative marketing move¬ 
ment. Thousands of farmers are involved 
in it. 

Let them fail and there will not only 
be a serious economic reaction which will hit 
every citizen, but what is of more vital im¬ 
portance, the spirit of hundreds of good men 
will be broken and their morale weakened. 
This, coming at a time when our nation is 


By H. E. BABCOCK 

Chairman of the New York State 
Cooperative Council 

nervous and worried, would indeed be a seri¬ 
ous blow to the security of the country as 
a whole. 

So much for the responsibility which the 
cooperative marketing movement puts on 
the shoulders of both the farmers who start¬ 
ed it and the other citizens of our country 
who stand to benefit by its success or lose 


through its failure fully as much as the 
farmers. 

The next thought that comes to me also 
relates both to farmers and to city and town 
dwellers, particularly to those business men 
who furnish farmers with their supplies. 
Because of the abundant energy and re¬ 
sourcefulness of the business men of this 
country, as well as the urge of competition, 
there have been developed great merchandis¬ 
ing organizations for the purpose of selling 
to farmers hundreds of items of farm sup¬ 
plies. Many of these farm supplies have no 
place on the farm and are put there only 
through the superior merchandising ability 
of the organizations marketing them. Again, 
a lot of the staple supplies which are sold 
farmers, such as fertilizer, seeds and feeds, 


have not been in the past adapted to their 
uses nor in accordance with the latest find¬ 
ings of the experiment stations. The pur¬ 
chase of useless farm supplies by farmers, 
constitutes a direct economic loss for them 
and the communities in which they live. 

With farming conducted on as close a mar¬ 
gin as it is at the present time, the high 
sales costs which have to go into the mer¬ 
chandising of necessary and useful farm sup¬ 
plies, to meet the. competition of those which 
are unnecessary and useless, constitutes a 

tax of unbelievable 
magnitude, for in the 
last analysis the sales 
cost always adds to the 
price of the commodity. 

Take the case of 
dairy feeds, one of the 
largest items purchased 
by farmers. I per¬ 
sonally recall a night 
when fourteen high 
priced feed salesmen 
sat around the supper 
table in a little country 
hotel. They had all 
called that day, on the 
two or three feed deal¬ 
ers in that town. They 
all drove automobiles; 
they all ate good meals; 
they all slept in good 
rooms; they got good 
salaries. And the farm¬ 
ers in the community 
absorbed the cost. 

They tell me my 
time is getting short 
but before I close I do 
want to speed up 
enough to ask these 
questions. Why should 
farmers continue t o 
throw away their 
m oney through the 
purchase of low anal¬ 
ysis fertilizers; of im¬ 
ported and southern 
grown leguminous 
seeds or seed adulter¬ 
ated with' such stuff 
which will winterkill 
the first winter as sure 
as it goes into the 
ground; of manufac¬ 
tured dairy feeds sold 
primarily to carry off 
some by-products, or of 
feeds high in fibre, or 
of feeds whose digest¬ 
ibility cannot be 
known ? Why should 
they, another year, con¬ 
tinue to support a great 
army of high priced 
skillful salesmen to sell 
them such goods when 
they are short of men to milk cows and pitch 
hay? It is about time that the rural business 
man and the business farmer got their heads 
together and agreed, the one to keep abreast 
of the development of science and handle 
for his farmer patrons only, those supplies . 
which are valuable in farm practice and 
which are needed. 

To my mind, nothing that farmers are do¬ 
ing to-day, is costing them so much as the 
scattering of their buying volume, first 
locally, second in a wholesale way. Many 
local retailers lack sufficient volume of busi¬ 
ness to permit him to perform in an efficient 
manner the services which he renders the 
corpmunity. Manufacturers of feeds and 
fertilizers and distributors of seeds are in 
(Continued on page 74) 






















American Agriculturist 

THE FARM PAPER THAT PRINTS THE FARM NEWS 
“Agriculture is the Most Healthful, Most Useful and Most Noble Employment of Man ”—Washington 

Reg. U. S. Pat. Off. Established 1842 


Volume 112 


For the Week Ending August 4, 1923 


Number 5 



Home of the American Agriculturist, 41 Park Row, in 1860 


H ERE is another picture, reprinted from 
an old American Agriculturist published 
in September, 1860. It shows a part of Park 
‘Row, the busiest section of downtown New 
York in 1860. 

In order to bring out the contrast between 
then and now, we have printed on the op¬ 
posite page a picture of Park Row of 1923. 
You will, we think, be much interested in 


studying the details of this old picture. Note 
the horse-drawn street cars, the one-horse 
two-wheel carts, the silk hats of the gentle¬ 
men and in particular the very voluminous 
skirts of the ladies. 

Of all those adults in the picture, who 
were just as busy then as we are to-day with 
their little comings and goings, probably not 
a one remains. In thinking of this as we 


study the old picture, we were impressed 
with the general uselessness of most of the 
things we now think are so important. Of 
all the work of those you see in the picture, 
not a thing counts to-day, sixty-three years 
later, except the comparatively few acts they 
rendered for the permanent benefit of their 
fellows. So it will be with us and our works. 
—The Editors. 





























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































68 


American Agriculturist, August 4,1923 


Editorial Page of the American 


American 

Agriculturist 

Founded 1842 


Henry Morgenthau, Jr .Publisher 

E. R. Eastman .Editor 

Fred W. Ohm ..... Associate Editor 

Gabrielle Elliot .... Household Editor 

Birge Kinne .Advertising Manager 

H. L. Vonderlieth . . . Circulation Manager 

CONTRIBUTING STAFF 

H. E. Cook, Jared Van Wagenen, Jr., H. H. Jones, 
Paul Work, G. T. Hughes, H. E. Babcock 


OUR ADVERTISEMENTS GUARANTEED 

The American Agriculturist accepts only advertis¬ 
ing which'it believes to be thoroughly honest. 

We positively guarantee to our readers fair and 
honest treatment in dealing with our advertisers. 

We guarantee to refund the price of goods pur¬ 
chased by our subscribers from any advertiser who 
fails to make good when the article purchased is 
found not to be as advertised. 

To benefit by this guarantee subscribers must say: 
‘‘I saw your ad in the American Agriculturist” when 
ordering from our advertisers. 


Published Weekly by 

AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST. INC. 

Address all correspondence for editorial, advertising, or 
subscription departments to 

461 Fourth Ave., New York, N. Y. 


Entered as Second-Class Matter, December 15, 1922, at the 
Post Office at New York, N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 


Subscription price, payable in advance, $1 a year. 
Canadian and foreign, $2 a year. 


VOL. 112 August 4, 1923 No. 5 


The Prohibition Vote 

E are now getting upwards of two 
hundred letters and votes on the prohi¬ 
bition issue every day and the number is on 
the increase. Let them come! Before we 
get through we hope to register enough farm 
votes to definitely tell the general public just 
where the farmer stands on this important 
question. On the opposite page are some 
more letters right straight from the shoul¬ 
der. Be sure to read them, and above all, 
be sure to vote, for this is the most interest¬ 
ing and most important problem in America 
to-day. If you will do your part and register 
your opinion, we will do ours and pass that 
opinion on where it will do the most good. 
If you have time, we are glad to have your 
letters, too. We do not have room to print 
them all, nor time to answer them all per¬ 
sonally, but they are all of them helping us 
in determining farm sentiment. We ask the 
writers to accept this statement of apprecia¬ 
tion in place of a personal letter. 

Quantities of ballots will be furnished 
upon application. Get your Grange, any 
lodge or church or church society, providing 
its members are from country districts, to 
send in their vote. We will soon begin to 
print the results. 


Automobile Pests 

VERY good thing leaves evils in its wake. 
The automobile is no exception. Two 
things in particular that the automobile has 
brought, make constant trouble for farm 
people. One of them is the automobile thieves 
who load their cars full of the farmer’s fruit 
and vegetables; and the other is those who 
have so little regard for the beauties of the 
countryside, that they always leave a nasty 
litter of papers and other rubbish behind 
them. 

It is well for our faith in the natural de¬ 
cency of average folks that there are after all 
only a comparatively few in either of the 
above classes, and in order to be perfectly 
fair, we must admit that not all of either 
the automobile thieves or the litterers are 


from the city. It seems to be a trait of cer¬ 
tain people, whether they live in the city or 
country, to throw off all restraint, courtesy 
and responsibility as soon as they get out of 
their own neighborhood. 

The only cure for such hogs—for that’s 
about all either of the classes are—is rapid 
and effective punishment. No person or per¬ 
sons caught stealing should be let off easily. 
On the other hand, let us not inflict punish¬ 
ment where it is not due. Over half of the 
people who go camping in cars are farmers. 
It is unfortunate for these as well as for de¬ 
cent city people, to have to meet with a gruff 
refusal when they ask for some little cour¬ 
tesy, like stopping for a drink or a place to 
camp, because of the prejudice that has been 
aroused by the comparatively few who should 
never be allowed on the highways. 


When Money Fails 

Though marks are produced by the ton in Berlin, 
On the pavements they uselessly flutter, 

And nobody bothers to g-ather them in, 

For the standard of value is butter! 

The people are losing their rose-ruddy tint 
And fast growing lanker and lanker, 

For from Kiel down to Munich the cow is the mint 
And the neighborhood grocer the banker. 

—Montague, in the New York “Tribune.” 

I F you were ship-wrecked on a desert 
island, all the gold or paper money in the 
world could not save you from starvation. 
Germany’s money at the present time is a 
sad example of what happens when the 
money is not backed by fundamental wealth. 
Farmers are the greatest producers of real 
wealth, but it is only in times of great crises 
that individuals and nations realize the fun¬ 
damental importance and neccessity of food 
production. 

Making people realize this fact has been 
one good result of the World War. Not in 
fifty years have the people of all the world 
talked so much about farm problems as they 
have recently. We no longer read in the city 
papers the would-be funny references to the 
hick farmer, or do we hear so much about the 
great amounts of money that farmers make. 
Everywhere there is more sympathy and 
understanding of the problems of the men 
who produce the food that all must have, in 
order to live. 


Market Service Saves Money 

W E are getting a good many letters from 
farmers about our radio service. We 
are very glad that this is appreciated and 
that it is saving our people a lot of money 
by giving them information that helps them 
to market their crops to better advantage. 
Just to refresh your minds, let us again say 
that we are giving two kinds of radio service. 

Every Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday 
and Friday morning at 10:50 A. M., east¬ 
ern standard time, we furnish in coopera¬ 
tion with the New York State Department 
of Farms and Markets, through broadcast¬ 
ing station WEAF the latest prices on all 
farm products in the New York City market. 
If there is a radio in your neighborhood, be 
sure to make arrangements with the owner 
to get these quotations. Blanks for taking 
them down will be furnished free of charge 
upon application to American Agriculturist, 
461 Fourth Avenue, New York City. 

Then every Wednesday evening, at 6:50 
P. M., eastern standard time, through broad¬ 
casting station WEAF, we are giving short 
talks on farm subjects by some of the great¬ 
est leaders in America. Among those who 
have already spoken on this program are: 
Enos Lee, President of the New York State 
Farm Bureau Federation; John D. Miller, 
President of the National Milk Producers’ 
Association and Vice-President of the Dairy¬ 
men’s League Cooperative Association; Mrs. 
A. E. Brigden, President of the New York 
State Federation of Home Bureaus; Dr. 




Agriculturist 

Royal S. Copeland, New York State Senator; 
H. J. Kenner, President of the Better Busi¬ 
ness Bureau of New York City; Albert Man¬ 
ning, Master of the New York State Grange; 
Alva Agee, Secretary of Agriculture of New 
Jersey; Miss Gabrielle Elliot, Household 
Editor of American Agriculturist; Herschel 
Jones, formerly chief of the New York City 
office of the State Department of Farms and 
Markets; Jared Van Wagenen, Jr., New 
York State Farmers’ Institute Lecturer and 
contributing writer of American Agricul¬ 
turist; Henry Morgenthau, ex-Ambassador 
to Turkey; Nathan Straus, Jr., Chairman of 
the Agricultural Committee of the New York 
State Senate; F. P. Willits, Secretary of 
Agriculture of Pennsylvania; E. R. East¬ 
man, Editor of American Agriculturist; 
Fred W. Ohm, Associate Editor of Amer¬ 
ican Agriculturist. 

Some of those who will speak jn the near 
future are: H. E. Babcock, General Man¬ 
ager of the G. L. F. Exchange; Berne A. 
Pyrke, Commissioner of the Department of 
Farms and Markets; and R. P. Snyder, Di¬ 
rector of the Bureau of Rural Education of 
the State Department of Education. 


More Emphasis on Eastern Products 

A FEW days ago we were visiting with a 
manufacturer in New York City about 
farmers and farming. The city man ex¬ 
pressed the thought that farmers are not 
getting a square deal, and that it was very 
bad business for the country as a whole that 
agriculture was so out of balance with other 
industries. ‘‘However,” the manufacturer 
added, “this does not mean much to New 
York State because there is really so little 
farming here.” He expressed some surprise, 
and we don’t know yet that he really believed 
us, when we told him that New York State 
is first in the Union in the production of 
many farm crops, that it is the second State 
in the production of a still longer list, and 
that in the total value of all farm products 
raised it ran Iowa in 1921 a close race for 
third position. 

It speaks- little for the Eastern farmer’s 
ability to advertise himself and his business 
that this manufacturer’s viewpoint is typical 
of nearly all city men. For all of them, when 
they think of farming, think of the great 
West and have little knowledge of and give 
little credit to the immense amount of farm 
business that is carried on within a few hun¬ 
dred miles of the largest Eastern cities. 

Much progress has been made in the last 
few years in bringing to city people a knowl¬ 
edge of the unfortunate economic situation 
which now exists on farms. It is not so long 
since farmers were called “baby starvers” 
and “profiteers.” That feeling has largely 
passed away, and city folks have been brought 
to understand, at least in part, some of the 
farmers’ financial difficulties. The next step 
is to educate them to the very great impor¬ 
tance of Eastern agriculture; important to 
them because the products of Eastern farms 
are so near them, and important to Eastern 
farmers because such knowledge and better 
understanding would lead to a better market 
for Eastern products. Therefore, we are 
very much in favor of every movement like 
the proposed Fruit Show to be held in New 
York City next fall, which has for its object 
the advertising and the emphasizing of East¬ 
ern-grown farm products. 


The affection of your dog is unfailing and 
unobtrusive. If you are sad, so is he. If 
you are merry, no one is more willing to leap 
and laugh with you than he. To your dog 
you are never old. To your dog you are never 
poor. Whether you live in a palace or a cot¬ 
tage, he does not care, and fall you as low as 
you may, you are his providence and his 
idol still.— Anonymous. 



























American Agriculturist, August 4,1923 


69 


“Greatest Good for the Greatest Number” 

But the Argument Is Over Which Is the Greatest Good—Be Sure To Vote 


A RE farm people for prohibition? I 
believe that the majority of them 
are in favor of prohibition. Prohi- 
bition is beneficial to the best in¬ 
terests of the farming people, as well as to 
other kinds of people. Prohibition may have 
hurt some people in the booze business, but 
there is no lack of demand for the labor 
(skilled or unskilled) of the men who for¬ 
merly were brewing beer or distilling 
stronger drinks. Prohibition is bringing 
about the greatest good for the greatest 
number. 

One writer of Bucks Co., Pa., asks, “if 
alcohol is such a terror to mankind, why has 
the Creator made it so plentiful?” Well, 
the Creator also made the deadly cobras 
plentiful in India and rattlesnakes plentiful 
in North America, and any sane man will 
admit they are a dreadful terror to man¬ 
kind. And yet the said serpents have their 
uses. The venom of both of these snakes is 
used for medical purposes. One school of 
medicine uses rattlesnake venom, highly 
diluted, for combatting certain cancerous 
disease conditions. 

However, mankind produces vast quan¬ 
tities of alcohol, whereas the Creator may be 
said to produce only small quantities of alco¬ 
hol, which, under natural conditions, soon 
becomes dissipated and quickly returns back 
to the elements. So man has gone far be¬ 
yond the Creator in providing an insidious, 
intoxicating and poisonous drug which is 
destructive in more ways than one to the 
life, liberty and general prosperity of man¬ 
kind. 

If the Volstead law is defied and broken by 
many lovers of booze, it is no good reason 
for allowing the law to become weak law 
and a dead letter. There are 
other laws against various 
crimes and minor offenses, yet 
the said laws are often broken 
by the reckless and desperate. 

This is no reason for repealing 
those laws, which are more or 
less protective to the public. 

I am for the Eighteenth 
Amendment as it now stands. 

Strict enforcement of all prohi¬ 
bition laws should be carried 
out. 

I am opposed to light wines 
and beers being put on sale or 
legalized for public distribution. 

Certainly, President Harding 
has taken the right stand when 
he comes out solidly in favor of 
prohibition as specified in the 
Eighteenth Amendment. The 
Volstead law is here to stay quite 
a long term. It all comes out 
to this showdown: the greatest 
good for the greatest number of 
people—children included, of 
course. The people of our coun¬ 
try have enough trouble without 
creating more artificial trouble 
by pouring more or less diluted 
alcohol down their throats. Long 
live prohibition and the backers 
of that great good doctrine! 

C. W. W„ New York. 


By A. A. READERS 

one of your 95% farmers who favors it with 
all my heart. I have lived in various local¬ 
ities for over seventy years and have had an 
opportunity to see the effects of the free use 
of liquor, also to see the effects of prohibi¬ 
tion. I know a good many farmers and 
among them all, I do not know one who is op¬ 
posed to it. The man who wrote the letter 
must be a bachelor. No man who loves his 
family could, for a moment, wish to have 


Song of the Rye 

I WAS made to be eaten, 
And not to be drank, 

To be threshed in a barn, 

Not soaked in a tank, 

I come as a blessing 

When put through a mill; 
As a blight and a curse 

When run through a still. 
Make me up into loaves, 

And your children are fed; 
But if into drink, 

I’ll starve them instead. 

In bread I’m a servant, 

The eater shall rule; 

In drink I am master. 

The drinker a fool. 

—E. W., N. Y. 


free liquor again. New York has made a 
dark stain on her fair name by revoking the 
law as she has. 

I spent the winter after the war, in Eng¬ 
land, near London, when there was such a 
terrible business depression. The only busi¬ 
ness that flourished was the breweries. One 
could but notice, as the bread line was 


SALOONS THRIVE IN SPITE OF 
BREAD LINES 

I N your issue of June 16th, I 
note the letter from a so- 
ealled farmer who is opposed to 
prohibition. 

I would like to know what 
kind of a farming community he 
lives in, if 70% of the farmers 
are against prohibition. I am 


PROHIBITION BALLOT 

OF THE 

AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 


Are You for the Strict Enforcement of the f~~ | YES 
18th Amendment as It Now Stands ? j | no 


Are You for a Modification of the 18th 
Amendment to Permit Light Wines 
and Beer ? 


Designate your opinion by placing an X in the square opposite Yes or 
No on each question. Sign your name and address. Your name will be 
kept strictly confidential. 


Name. 


Address. 


Why You Should Vote 

Do the American people want prohibition? The Wets emphatically say 
“No” and the Drys are even more emphatically for it. Both sides claim 
a majority. Which is right? What do farm people think about it? The 
opinions of farmers on any problem, if they will express them, go far in 
determining the outcome of a controversy. 

American Agriculturist is taking a vote of farm families on the ques¬ 
tion of prohibition. It is a vital issue and whether you are for it or 
against it, be sure to vote in the spaces above. Mail this ballot to the 
American Agriculturist, 461 Fourth Avenue, New York City. 

Get your friends to vote—More ballots furnished on application 


formed each day where thousands and thou¬ 
sands of starving people came for bread, that 
the saloons did a thriving business. There 
was liquor enough drunk every day to have 
more than fed this starving mass of people. 
I said to myself, “I am glad I am an Amer¬ 
ican and live in a country where prohibition 
exists.” You may set me down as one of 
your 95% men. C. R. H., Florida. 

PROHIBITION FOR ALL, OR NONE 

I AM sending you my vote on the prohibi¬ 
tion question, and want to give you my 
opinion of it here. 

In the first place, we have no prohibition, 
and never will have. Prohibition has been 
the most miserable failure of any law that 
we have ever had, and the. sooner we get it 
repealed, the better for the American people. 

I am a man that has always used beer in a 
moderate way, and it never did me any harm, 
and I don’t see why I have to give it up, just 
because some others have used it to excess. 

Why don’t our honorable lawmakers pass 
a law to forbid the sale of automobiles? All 
crooks use them nowadays, and some people 
are very reckless in driving them. Wouldn’t 
it be just as reasonable to stop the sale of 
automobiles, because they are used by crooks 
and reckless drivers, as to stop the sale of 
liquor, just because a few people use it to 
excess ? 

I said in the beginning that we have no 
prohibition, and I will try to explain what I 
mean by that statement. I mean that the 
working class, which produces the living for 
the Idle Rich, are forbidden from using 
liquor, while the Idle Rich have their supply 
in the cellar, and can get more when that 
is gone. I believe that prohibition was only 
passed to keep the working man 
from having it and was never 
intended to apply to the men 
with the “Brass Collars.” 

Before I came on the farm, 
one year ago, I was a detective 
for a well-known detective agen¬ 
cy and on one occasion I was de¬ 
tailed to a millionaire’s residence 
on a case of a private nature. I 
was there for several weeks, and 
learned that he had a large stock 
of wine and whisky in his cellar. 
And, I also learned that he was a 
strong advocate of prohibition. 
Still, he had his supply of liquor, 
but he didn’t think that a work¬ 
ing man was entitled to his liq¬ 
uor. That is the kind of peo¬ 
ple that want prohibition; not 
a man like myself, that likes his 
glass of beer with a lunch on 
a hot day. 

I also knew a woman in this 
same city that was a member 
of the W. C. T. U., and on one 
occasion, when I was shadow¬ 
ing her in an automobile, she 
went to get out of her car at 
home, the chauffeur had to lead 
her to the house. She was “in¬ 
disposed” as the Idle Rich call 
it; but just plain drunk as it is 
called in the working class. 

Now! The Prohibition work¬ 
ers state that the majority of 
the people in the United States 
want prohibition. Then why 
don’t they let it come to a vote of 
the people if they are so sure of 
a victory. I have never had a 
chance to vote on the proposi¬ 
tion myself, and I don’t think 
that any one else has. The 
(Continued on page 79) 


|~| YES 

□ no 
















70 


American Agriculturist, August 4,1923 



FROM A KODAK NEGATIVE MADE ON THE FARM 

Let your KODAK 

keep the story 

Only the farm affords incidents of the 
sort pictured above. Such pictures you’re 
proud of now — you’ll treasure them 
always. 

The Kodak way makes picture-making easy, 
while the autographic attachment, exclusively 
Eastman, enables you to complete the story by 
writing date and title on the film at the time. 


Autographic Kodaks $6.$0 up 
At your dealer s 


Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N.Y. 


A Better Self-feed Than 
Ever—Saves a Mein 

Throw the bundles from the wagon—one, two, even three 
at a time. The 1923 Papec will take care of them. It saves 
a man at the feed table, yet handles more corn than ever. 

The Angle-steel Link Belt gives a positive feed that can 
be depended on, even with heavy com. 

The 1923 


Ensilage Cutter* 

Nowhere else can you find such a wonderful Ensilage Cutter 
value as in the 1923 Papec. Nowhere else can you get tne simple. 



No more heaving and 
pushing — no more ‘rid¬ 
ing the bundles’ with the 
Papec—use your extra 
man to throw bundles 
from the wagon—you 
won’t need him at the 
feed table.” 


P 

la 


uaranteed construction that means freedom from repairs, de- 
ays and pipe clogging on any silo. 

If you need a Cutter, there’s nothing to be gained by delay 
It will pay you to see your dealer at once and reserve a Papec 
at present low prices, to fit your tractor or farm engine.: 
Better do it today. 

Out; 1923 catalog fully explains and illustrates the latest labor- 1 
saving Papec. Write for your copy. 

PAPEC MACHINE COMPANY 

Ill Main St., Shortsville, New York 

36 Distributing Stations Enable Papec 
Dealers To GivegPronipt Service 


; V Of. 


'"V 1 




lA 


PATENTS 


Booklet free. Highest 
references. Best results. 
Promptness assured. 

WATSON E. COLEMAN. Patent Lawyer, 624 F Street, 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 


Natural Leaf Tobacco 


Mild or Strong. Extra fine 
smoking 5 lbs. $1.25; 10, 
$2.00; 20, $3.60. PIPE 
FREE; Hand-Picked Chewing, 5 lbs. $1.50; 10, $2.50. 

TOBACCO GROWERS' UNION, Murray, Ky. 


COM 


HARVESTER cuts and pilesonhar- 

, * - vester or windrows. 

Man and horse cuts and shocks equalCorn 
Binder. Sold in every state. Only $25 with 
fodder tying attachment. Testimonials and catalog FREE showing 
picture of Harvester. PROCESS MFG. CO., Selina, Kan. 



DITCH - DRAIN — TERRACE 

sfTI /*§ h Cut3 V-shnped ditch to 4 feet. 

deans old ditches, builds field 
r terraces. All-steel adjustable* 

reversible. Horse or tractor drawn. 10 DAYS TRIAL- 

OWENSBORO DITCHER & GRADER CO., Inc. 

Box 252 Owensboro, Ky. Send for Free Boole 


With This 
Low- 
Priced 
Tool 


Watch the Potato Crop 

Estimated Yields in July Are Below Demands 


T HE potatoes are 
planted. The acre¬ 
age has been decided by more than 
a .million growers. We will soon begin 
to have monthly estimates made by 
the United States Department of 
Agriculture as to just what that acre¬ 
age is. At the same time we will have 
preliminary estimates as to the prob¬ 
able crop next fall. Just how much 
do these estimates mean to you as a 
potato grower and how can you get 
the most out of these monthly esti¬ 
mates? 

Suppose that the 1923 crop of 
potatoes should be estimated on July 
1 at 400,000,000 bushels. Will this mean 
over-production or under-production, 
and what are the chances that you 
will receive cost of production next 
fall? Before we can even make a guess 
on this question we need to know some¬ 
thing about the average crop of poto- 
toes, how many potatoes we normally 
eat, and what the production has been 
in some years that we remember. 

Where Do Supply and Demand Meet? 

Our average annual crop of potatoes 
in the United States for the past ten 
years has been about 362,000,000 bush¬ 
els.. The smallest crop during this 
time was 265,000,000 bushels in 1916, 
and the largest crop was 451,000,000 


on any one other fea¬ 
ture. For this reason, 
the yield per acre is quite variable from 
year to year. 

New York State ^ordinarily produces 
about 100 bushels of potatoes per acre. 
In 1914, however, the average yield 
was 145 bushels per acre and the very 
next year, 1915, gave an average yield 
of only 62 bushels per acre. We never 
know when such a variation may again 
occur. 

Our potato crop is produced in so 
many states with such a widely dif¬ 
ferent range of conditions that we may 
have a very short crop in one state 
at the time of an over-production in 
the United States as a whole. Maine 
produced only about 60 per cent as 
many potatoes in 1922 as in 1921. Yet 
the United States crop in 1922 exceeds 
1921 by over 20 per cent. 

The Effect of General Price and 
Business Conditions 

The general price level will have a 
considerable effect on potato prices 
next fall. Just now the average whole¬ 
sale price of all commodities in the 
United States is about 60 per cent 
above the average before the war. If 
this general price level should rise 
rapidly as it did during 1919 it will 
have a tendency to carry the price 


By C. E. LADD 


A BASIS FOR JUDGMENT IN REGARD TO THE 1923 POTATO CROP 


Save this and fill in the blank spaces as the monthly estimates are issued by the 
United States Department of Agriculture or by the State Crop Reporting Service. 




1922 

All Figures 
in 

Millions 

1923 Estimates in Millions 

July 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Total acres in United States. . . 

4.3 







Total crop in U. S. (bushels) . . 

451. 

381.7 






Estimated number of million 
bushels needed in 1923 to 
meet demands. 

407. 


— 





New York crop in bushels. 

37.4 

32.3 





Maine crop in bushels. 

21.6 

26.9 



1 



Pennsylvania crop in bushels. . 

28.5 

22.1 






Michigan crop in bushels. 

37.8 

27.6 






Wisconsin crop in bushels. 

40.7 

26.8 






Minnesota crop in bushels. 

43.7 

39.7 






North Dakota crop in bushels. . 

17.8 

11.9 






Colorado crop in bushels. 

18.5 

17.1 






Idaho crop in bushels. 

15.9 

11.5 







In Millions 
of Bughels 


United States crop for 1918. 412 

United States crop for 1919. 323 

United States crop for 1920. 403 

United States crop for 1921. 362 

United States crop for 1922. 451 


bushels in 1922. An over-production 
depresses the price to such an extent 
that production is decreased during the 
succeeding years, though not always on 
the first year following the over-pro¬ 
duction. 

A very small crop results in a high 
price, which increases production in 
succeeding years, though not always 
in the first year following the under¬ 
production. In other words, there is 
a tendency for the supply to just about 
equal the demand over a period of ten 
years or more. The average produc¬ 
tion over these ten years was about 
the number of bushels that society was 
willing and able to buy. It was also 
the amount that producers were willing 
and able to produce at the price. 

But, we have more people in the 
United States to-day than we had dur¬ 
ing the past ten years and this in¬ 
creased population eats more potatoes. 
Statisticians have computed very care¬ 
fully just how many potatoes we will 
need in 1923 to meet the demands of 
consumers. It is estimated that our 
country demands about 407,000,000 
bushels of potatoes in 1923. More 
than this amount means over-produc¬ 
tion and has a tendency to cause lower 
prices. Less than this means under¬ 
production and has a tendency to cause 
higher prices. 

The crop estimates may change 
greatly during the season, as the total 
crop depends more upon weather than 


of potatoes higher than they would nor¬ 
mally go with the same sized crop. 

If this general price level should fall 
as rapidly as it did during 1920, it will 
have a tendency to carry the price of 
potatoes lower than they would nor¬ 
mally go with the same sized crops. 

The United States Bureau of Labor 
and the United States Department of 
Agriculture and many of the State 
Colleges of Agriculture put out publi¬ 
cations giving this average wholesale 
price of all commodities each month. 

At the beginning of this article there 
is an insert giving certain facts about 
past potato crops. I suggest that each 
reader who is interested in potato 
prices, save this insert and fill in in the 
blank spaces the estimated crop as it 
is issued monthly by the Federal Crop 
Estimating Service this summer. This 
will give the most valuable basis for 
judgment in regard to potato crop con¬ 
ditions that you can obtain. 

A very good way to keep in close 
touch with these conditions is to sub¬ 
scribe to “Weather Crops and Markets” 
issued by the Bureau of Agricultural 
Economics, United States Department 
of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. This 
will cost you a small subscription price 
and it is worth the money. 


I always liked the American Agri¬ 
culturist, and it seems to be better than 
ever.—A. J. Norman, Sinclairville, N. Y. 














































































































































American Agriculturist, August 4,1923 


71 


Farmers and Bankers Meet 

Credit Increases Prices—New York Farm News 


B ANKERS need to know more about 
farming and farmers need to know 
more about banking. In recognition of 
this fact the farmers and bankers of 
the Second Federal Reserve District 
got together on July 23 and 24 at the 
New Yoi’k Sfate College of Agriculture 
and freely exchanged opinions, criti¬ 
cisms, and suggestions. 

On the first day D. H. Otis, director 
of the Agricultural Commission of the 
American Bankers’ Association, pre¬ 
sided, while G. F. Warren, Leland 
Spencer, and W. R. Myers, all of the 
Department of Agricultural Economics 
of the New York State College of Agri¬ 
culture, and R. W. Thatcher, director 
of the State experiment stations, 
taught the bankers some agriculture. 

Then came a tour of the agricultural 
college, followed by a banquet in the 
evening at which both bankers and 
farmers were guests of the Ithaca 
bankers. W. A. Boyd of the First Na¬ 
tional bank, Ithaca, presided as toast¬ 
master. M. C. Burritt, director of ex¬ 
tension at the State college, gave an 
account of the work of his institu¬ 
tion. H. E. Babcock, chairman of the 
New York State Cooperative Council, 
discussed the financing of cooperative 
associations. Enos Lee, president of 
the New York State Farm Bureau Fed¬ 
eration, and Albert Manning, master 
of the New York State Grange, made 
suggestions as to better relations be¬ 
tween bankers and farmers. The even¬ 
ing closed with a masterly address by 
R. H. Treman, director of the Federal 
Reserve Bank of New York, in which 
he outlined the organization and opera¬ 
tion of this greatest of financial 
institutions. 

On the second day the bankers had 
their innings. Presiding was W. G. 
Nash, president of the New York State 
Bankers’ Association and vice-president 
of the Irving Bank-Columbia Trust 
of New York. What their institutions 
are doing in a practical way to meet 
the credit needs of farmers was told 
by Henry Burden of the Cazenovia 
National Bank, Cazenovia; P. II. Sal¬ 
mon of the Second National Bank, El¬ 
mira; C. R. Mellen of the Geneva Na¬ 
tional Bank, Geneva; Donald New¬ 
comb, Hilton State Bank, Hilton; 
Heber Wheeler, Ontario County Trust 
Company, Canandaigua; H. B. Ward, 
Leroy National Bank, Leroy; Marc W. 
Cole, Farmers’ Fund, Inc.,' Rochester; 
Otis Thompson, National Bank of Nor¬ 
wich, Norwich; George Wallace, Herki¬ 
mer National Bank, Herkimer. 

Myers Presents Facts 

A program so full of good things is 
difficult to report. Space does not per¬ 
mit even summarizing all the papers 
which were presented, to say noth¬ 
ing* of reporting the extemporaneous 
speeches. One address, therefore, has 
been chosen which is representative of 
the occasion; it is an accurate reflec¬ 
tion of present relations between bank¬ 
ers and farmers. W. I. Myers, who 
gave it, talked from facts drawn from 
a recent first-hand study of farm 
credit conditions in Tioga and Genesee 
Counties, New York. He said that in 
making the study he started with no 
intention of criticizing bankers, farm¬ 
ers, or any one else, but of securing 
a true picture of the situation, a state¬ 
ment of things as they are. 

Farmers Must Use Banks More 

As a result of what he learned Mr. 
Myers declared that the most impor¬ 
tant farm credit problem in New York 
State is to promote the greater use 
of banks by farmers. In a measure, 
he said, this situation is caring for it¬ 
self, as farmers are each year using 
banks more and more, especially the 
more progressive men. “Bank ac¬ 
counts,” said Mr. Myers, “should be 
kept by every farmer; a savings account 
is, of course, desirable when a man 
can have one, but a checking account 
is essential to the businesslike opera¬ 
tion of a farm. Bankers do farmers 
a service as well as themselves when 
they get them to start checking ac¬ 
counts. Figures show that the balance 
in. checking accounts usually grows; 
this makes them good business for the 
banker and means that the farmer is 
getting ahead. 


All present, bankers and farmers 
alike, were impressed when Mr. Myers 
stated that the short-time credit to 
Tioga County farmers came 76 per 
cent in the form of charge accounts; 
16 per cent in notes to others than 
banks; and but 8 per cent from the 
banks themselves. “Much of the store 
credit,” Mr. Myers pointed out, “is 
indirect bank credit, but there is inter¬ 
posed a third party, the dealer, be¬ 
tween the farmer and the banker. This 
makes this type of credit expensive 
and inefficient and not a good thing 
for either dealer, farmer, or banker. 
Part of the high cost of retailing is 
the credit cost.” 

Mr. Meyers recommended that deal¬ 
ers sell on a closer margin for cash, 
and that farmers, to get cheaper credit, 
should borrow direct from the banks. 
Bankers should sponsor both develop¬ 
ments, he declared, because they can 
prosper only when thef community pros¬ 
pers. “A feed dealer’s business is to 
sell feed. The feed store is probably 
a good place to buy feed, but it is 
an inefficient place by all measure¬ 
ments to buy credit. One does not go 
to a hardware store to buy feed, nor 
should one go to a feed store to get 
credit.” 

Summarizing, Mr. Myer said that 
there should be more personal contacts 
between bankers and farmers; that 
country banks should have at least 
one man thoroughly familiar with farm 
conditions; that banks should distin¬ 
guish between individuals and not re¬ 
quire endorsers for men whose credit 
is good and for whom their wives’ sig¬ 
nature is sufficient. Terms of credit 
should correspond with the slow turn¬ 
over of farm business. Farmer repre¬ 
sentatives on the board of directors 
might be advisable. 


COUNTY NOTES FROM AMONG 
THE FARMERS 

Essex Co.—All crops are looking 
fairly well except corn, which looks 
rather sick on account of the late 
spring cold weather. Hay is good and 
being put in the barns in good shape. 
Showers broke the dry spell in the 
middle of July, which helped pas¬ 
tures greatly. June butterfat, 39c per 
pound at the Crown Point Creamery; 
eggs, 35 to 40c; fowls, 25c per pound, 
live weight.—M. E. B. 

Central New York Counties 

Wyoming Co.—Dogs are again mak¬ 
ing trouble for men who keep sheep. 
In several cases a number of sheep 
have been killed and others so badly 
bitten they have died or had to be 
killed. State troopers are trying to 
round up the dogs. About 600 peo¬ 
ple attended the annual G-L-F picnic 
at Silver Lake on June 29. S. J. 
Lowell, master of the National Grange, 
delivered the address of the day.— 
L. F. F. 

Delaware Co.—Hay and oats are 
looking very poor and lack rain. Po¬ 
tatoes are looking fair. There are 
very few bugs for this time of the 
year. Potatoes are very poor on ac¬ 
count of no rain to speak of in most 
parts of the county for three weeks. 
Milk flows below normal, although up 
to June 25 it was fair. 

Broome Co.—Potatoes are not show¬ 
ing up very well. The weather has 
been so hot and dry that old meadows 
and pastures are beginning to show 
the effects of the drought. Hay is fair. 
The oats and corn crops are not show¬ 
ing up so well. Milk flow seems low 
for the flush season. 

Tioga Co.—A trip through the Che¬ 
nango and Chemung Valley shows poor 
hay, oats and corn crop, but potatoes 
are not doing so well either. The hot 
and dry weather is affecting old 
meadows and pastures. For the flush 
season the milk flow seems rather short. 

Chenango Co.—Hay and oats in this 
section are looking the best of most 
of the Central New York districts. 
Potatoes are fair and quite a large 
acreage seems to have been planted. 
Prices on most farm produce are gen¬ 
erally good. Rain is needed here for 
practically everything. 



A mark of good service 

The familiar mark of the New York Central Lines is to be 
seen on 264,000 freight cars carrying the products of Ameri¬ 
can industry. 

Thousands of new cars, fresh from the builders, go into serv¬ 
ice each year bearing this mark. In the past three years 
New York Central orders for new freight cars have totalled 
$93,600,000. For new locomotives $34,000,000 has been 
expended. 

Two years ago, when hundreds of thousands of freight cars 
on American railroads were standing idle for lack of business, 
New York Central, with confidence in the future, placed one 
of the largest orders for cars in railroad history. 

When the tide of business turned, and a car surplus was 
transformed into a car shortage, New York Central had the 
equipment to move the crops, the coal and the products of in¬ 
dustry along its 12,000 miles of lines. 

The mark of the New York Central Lines on a new freight 
car is not only a mark of good transportation service—it is 
evidence of the fact that back of it is a railroad organization 
that is building today for the needs of the country tomorrow. 


NEW YORK CENTRAL LINES 

BOSTON & ALBANY- MICHIGAN CENTRAL-BIG FOUR-PITTSBURGH &LAKE ERIE 
AND THE NEW YORK CENTRAL AND SUBSIDIARY LINES 

Qeneral Offices —466 Lexington Ave., New York 


BEFORE YOU BUY A WINDMILL 

Carefully consider the following facts • a year*s supply of 

The Auto-oiled Aermotor is the Genuiue every Aermotor 
Self-oiling Windmill, with every moving part 
fully and constantly oiled. 

The Auto-oiled Aermotor has behind it 8 years 
of wonderful success. It is not an experiment. 

The double gears run in oil in a tightly enclosed 
gear case. They are always flooded with oil and are protected 
from dust and sleet. Oil an Aermotor once a year and it is 
always oiled. It never makes a squeak. 

You do not have to try an experiment to get a windmill which 
will run a year with one oiling. The Auto-oiled Aermotor is a tried 
and perfected machine. Our large factory and our superior equipment enable us 
to produce economically and accurately. Every purchaser of an Aermotor gets the 
benefit from quantity production. The Auto-oiled Aermotor is so thoroughly oiled 
that it runs in the lightest breeze. It gives more service for the money invested 
than any other piece of machinery on the farm. The Aermotor is made by a responsible company 
which has been specializing in steel windmills for more than 30 years. 

Forfull infor- A fT/R HTHTOR rH Chicago . Dallas Des Moines 

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24 


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Upward CREAM 

SEPARATOR 


On trial. Easy running, easily cleaned. 
Skims warm or cold milk. Different 
from picture which shows larger ca¬ 
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MONTHLY PAYMENTS 

and handsome free catalog. Whether 
dairy is large or small, write today. 

AMERICAN SEPARATOR CO. 

Box 7052 Bainbridge, N. Y. 



If You Say: 

“I saw your ad in the American Agricul¬ 
turist” when ordering from our advertisers, 
you will benefit by our guarantee to refund the 
price of goods purchased by any subscriber 
from any advertiser who fails to make good if 
the article purchased is found not to be as 
advertised. 

No trouble, that. And you insure yourself 
from trouble. 































72 


American Agriculturist, August 4,1923 



20 Extra Quarts of Milk 

GUARANTEED 


Count ’em 



From Every Sack of 

INTERNATIONAL SPECIAL DAIRY FEED 

over the use of any wheat, corn and 
oats feed. Ask your feed dealer for the 
facts and proof or write for them direct. 

International Sugar Feed Company 

Minneapolis, Minnesota 

LIVE AGENTS WANTED 



-$ 500 - 

TRAVEL AND FARM SERVICE 
ACCIDENT INSURANCE POLICY 

_ — as a Gift for only 2 yearly subscriptions for AMERICAN 

Y iitl V AGRICULTURIST at $1.00. Your own renewal may be 
A A\kJ sent as one of the two subscriptions required. 

This policy will give you financial protection for a full year against 
death or injury from accidents under the conditions set forth below. 

THIS TELLS WHAT THE POLICY WILL PAY YOU 

If the Insured shall, by the wrecking or disablement of any railroad pas¬ 
senger car or passenger steamship or steamboat, in which the Insured is 
traveling as a fare-paying passenger; or, by the wrecking or disablement 
of any public omnibus, street railway, taxicab, or automobile stage, which 
is being driven or operated at the time of such wrecking or disablement, by 
licensed driver plying for public hire, and in which the Insured is traveling 
as a fare-paying passenger; or by the wrecking or disablement of a private 
horse-drawn vehicle or motor-driven car in which the Insured is riding or 
driving, or, being accidentally thrown from any such vehicle or car; or, 
if the Insured shall, while actually engaged in farming, by actual contact 
with and while operating a threshing, mowing, reaping, or binding machine, 
harrow, drag, or plow tractor, hay rake, hay loader, cultivator, corn shred¬ 
der, silo filler, pulverizer, corn planter, seeder, roller, hay or straw baler, 
or as a result of handling live stock while on the farm, suffer any of the 
specific losses set forth below in this Part, The North American Accident 
Insurance Company, Chicago, Ill. 

—WILL PAY THE SUM SET OPPOSITE SUCH LOSS FOR LOSS OF— 

Life...Five Hundred Dollars ($500.00) 

Both Hands.Five Hundred Dollars ($500.00) 

Both Feet.Five Hundred Dollars ($500.00) 

Sight of Both Eyes... Five Hundred Dollars ($500.00) 

One Hand and One Foot...Five Hundred Dollars ($500.00) 

One Hand and Sight of One Eye.Five Hundred Dollars ($500.00) 

One Foot and Sight of One Eye. ..Five Hundred Dollars ($500.00) 

Either Hand.Two Hundred Fifty Dollars ($250.00) 

Either Foot.Two Hundred Fifty Dollars ($250.00) 

Sight of Either Eye.Two Hundred Fifty Dollars ($250.00) 


Indemnity for loss of life as above set forth shall be payable to the 
Estate of the Insured. 

The above indemnities will be paid, subject to the provisions and 
conditions of the policy. A complete numbered and registered Policy will 
be mailed each person insured. Be sure to read it before filing away. 

SEND ONLY TWO YEARLY SUBSCRIPTIONS 

at $1.00 each or one two-year subscription at $2.00 and you will receive one 
of these valuable $500.00 Travel and Farm Service Accident Policies free, 
postpaid. Be sure to mention your age. Policies will be issued to any man 
or woman over 16 and not over 70. Address 

AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

461 Fourth Avenue New York City 


NAME 


P. O. 


R. F. D__-. 

STATE___ AGE. 


Among the Farmers 

Of New Jersey and Pennsylvania 


N EARLY one thousand persons at¬ 
tended the annual summer meeting 
of the New Jersey State Horticultural 
Society, held on the Campus of the 
State Normal School at Glassboro on 
July 25. 

An auto tour starting from the Nor¬ 
mal School at 10 o’clock visited numer¬ 
ous orchards and vineyards in the vi¬ 
cinity. The members and guests gath¬ 
ered for lunch in the beautiful grove 
of oak trees on the Campus of the 
Normal School, where friendships were 
renewed, and the Japanese beetle and 
the drought were informally discussed. 

Dr. J. J. Davitz welcomed the guests 
to the Normal School and told of how 
they were trying to meet the needs 
of rural education. The pupils sang 
and gave a gymnastic demonstration. 

The meeting, held in the State Nor¬ 
mal School building, was opened with 
prayer by Rev. A. B. Corlin. Mr. 
Charles F. Repp, vice-president of the 
society, welcomed the guests to Glass¬ 
boro, and spoke of the pioneer work 
in cold storage development that had 
been started there. The first commer¬ 
cial cold storage in South Jersey was 
built by John Repp in Glassboro in 
1884, and consisted of a frame build¬ 
ing with a capacity of 4,400 baskets 
with ice stacked around the walls. 

Cooley Addresses the Meeting 

Mr. L. A. Cooley, secretary of the 
State Federation of County Boards of 
Agriculture, stressed the importance of 
legislation for farmer cooperation. He 
said the first cooperative marketing 
association for apples was started in 
Hammonton in 1867, and lasted twenty 
years. Since then the movement has 
grown until the Jersey Fruit Growers’ 
Cooperative Association has come as a 
result of the efforts of the horticultural 
society and the State federation. 

The veto of the new cooperative bill 
in New Jersey, which was in line with 
the Capper-Volstead Bill recently en¬ 
acted by Congress, should not dis¬ 
courage our farmers, but should im¬ 
press on them the importance of cor¬ 
recting the unwarranted assumption 
that the law is aimed to fix high prices 
or to ignore the law of supply and 
demand. 

Professor M. A. Blake, State hor¬ 
ticulturist, said that old varieties of 
fruit are giving place to new and bet¬ 
ter sorts. The small, green, early 
kinds are not as easy to sell now as 
formerly. Inferior apples likewise de¬ 
moralize the market price of apples 
of the better quality. The consumer 
is looking for fruit of a better qual¬ 
ity and the grower must meet this de¬ 
mand with better varieties. 

Professor A. J. Farley, State pomol- 
ogist, who developed the new dry- 
mixed sulphur lime as a substitute for 
self-boiled lime sulphur, said that the 
burning of fruit when dry-mix had 
been used was caused by sun scald 
rather than by the ingredients of the 
spray. In spraying experiments with 
peaches on Seabrook Farm, dusting had 
caused the least burning and a com¬ 
mercial sulphur spray the most burn¬ 
ing. Dusting gave good control of 
insects and fungus troubles on peaches 
and took less labor than spraying. 

Dr. T. J. Headlee, entomologist, re¬ 
ferring to the Japanese beetle, spoke 
optimistically of the results obtained in 
fighting it. Spraying with six pounds 
of lead arsenate to 100 gallons of water 
in combination with the dry-mix lime 
sulphur spray at the time of spraying 
for the second brood coddling moth 
will repel the beetles on apples.—H. H. 
Albertson. 


NEW JERSEY COUNTY NOTES 

Salem Co.—J. L., a farmer of this 
county, risked the cost of seed last 
spring and planted a couple of acres of 
Fordhook limas about a week earlier 
than usual, the third week in April. 
He now has the satisfaction of picking 
beans ahead of the season and getting 
a nice fat price, about $5 per bushel. 
Many farmers, though failing to raise 
a crop of early potatoes on account of 
the drought and heat, are planting 
many late potatoes, consisting of Red 
Skins, Superb, and Second Cobblers. The 


latter crop goes for seed. One of the 
farmers of this county who was so dis¬ 
appointed with prospects of farming 
the past few years, especially with ref¬ 
erence to the prices of farm products, 
such as potatoes, sweets and peppers, 
that he has allowed his nice fields to lie 
fallow, now works at the carpentering 
trade. Hay is scarce. The corn crop 
looks good.—S. B. 

Sussex Co.—The drought has had the 
farmers guessing. It is a problem of 
what we are going to do. The hay crop 
is drying up as well as pastures. Corn 
is feeling the drought. During the mid¬ 
dle of the day the leaves of the corn 
roll up and the crop seems as though 
it is practically dead. Last May farm¬ 
ers were out buying cows. To-day, 
owing to the drought, prices have 
dropped and several farmers are plan¬ 
ning to sell their cows. Two large cow 
sales were held on the first of August. 
Poultry demonstrations are being held 
by the county farm bureau in different 
places of Sussex County. These demon¬ 
strations have been very well attended. 
New potatoes are bringing $3 a bushel, 
eggs 30 cents a dozen. The weather is 
very hot and dry. The thermometer is 
standing at 90 in the shade.—O. Van H. 

Hunterdon Co.—Oats are being har¬ 
vested. The crop in general is very 
poor, very short, and light. Many 
farmers have cut their oats with a 
mower and harvested the crop for hay. 
The hay crop in turn was a decided 
failure. Farms that in the past have 
yielded two tons to the acre now yield 
only a ton on three or four acres. 
Early potatoes are a failure. The 
wheat crop is the best in many years, 
yielding thirty bushels per acre and in 
some cases more. Corn growth looked 
good, but the dry weather is .beginning 
to show its effects. Pastures on the 
upland are all dried up and since 
farmers have no hay to feed, they are 
feeding their oats to the cows. Some 
say that when their oats are gone 
they will begin to cut corn for the 
cows. There are many cows for sale 
but no buyers. There is also little or 
no sale for horses. One horse dealer 
who had two carloads shipped in last 
winter has thirty head now on hand. 
New wheat is starting at $1 a bushel. 
Corn, 85c; oats, 45 to 50c; potatoes, 
$2.30 to 2.50 per bushel; butter, 50c; 
eggs, 28 to 30c. Early apples are very 
poor and the demand is dull. Winter 
apples are almost a failure. The 
drought we are experiencing in this 
part of New Jersey is the worst since 
1876. Thrashers are charging 12c a 
bushel for wheat and rye. The wheat 
crop has cost the farmers this year 
$1.50 a bushel to raise it.—J. R. F. 


CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA NOTES 

J. N. GLOVER 

Haying is a job of the past as far as 
this year is concerned. The quality 
of the hay this year was excellent, but 
the yield was comparatively light. 
New hay sold from $12 to $18 a load 
from the field and was in good de¬ 
mand with very little for sale. Wheat 
is all cut, stored, and in some cases 
thrashed. Yields are reported varying 
from twelve to twenty-five bushels per 
acre. New wheat is selling at 75 cents. 
Oats are being cut and will likely be 
light in weight as the weather has 
been too mild for the crop to fill well. 
Early potatoes are ready for digging; 
however, the crop is pretty light. 
Farmers still are hoping for rain in 
order that the late crop will not be a 
failure. 

Manure is being hauled out into the 
wheat stubble, but it is too dry to do 
good work ploughing. The stand of 
grass in wheat fields is poorest in 
thirty-five years. On account of this 
many farmers have sown clover in the 
hope that rain will come to make a 
stand of hay for next year. We have 
got to have rain soon if we are to get 
anything out of the corn crop. The 
price of beef and hogs, combined with 
dry weather, has caused several farm¬ 
ers to decide to hold a sale in the 
spring; but it is a long road that has 
no turns, and we hope farming may 
be better next year than this. 

















































American Agriculturist, August 4,1923 


73 



? ed 'he first trails,h p,onef « whc 

'° nini ^e stWard ^‘ d ‘dci vi U. 

^:d&4^Mo nfgomery 

tra 'l‘o th em ,b e/njfi° rne b,a2ed J 

Sd !^hy^;i^ohU their 

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-.and"e." F t S r SS P, '° nefrs I 

Will...,. y°ne years / 


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74 


American Agriculturist, August 4,1923 


Fatter pigs £ 
fatter profits 

H OGS need animal food to build 
flesh and bone. Dold-Quality 
Digester Tankage is 60% animal 
protein. Mix with grain or feed 
separately in hoppers or slops. 
Gives better results than grain 

alone; saves one-third cost. Tankage-fed 
hogs show more pounds when marketed—and 
more profit per pound. Experience proves it. 

Write for FREE booklet on DOLD- 
QUALITY Poultry and stock foods 

JACOB DOLD PACKING CO. 
Dept. AA BUFFALO. N.Y. 


DIGESTER 

TANKAGE 




Boggs Grader literally 
manufactures a 25c 
piece every time it 
grades a bag of potatoes. For you can 
get 25c to 50c more per bag for the U. S. 
Government sizes it grades than for un¬ 
graded stock. 

DGIC C* C POTATO 
DUUUJ GRADER 

The Standard Qrader 

also saves money by doing the manual labor of 
from 3 to 5 men. That cuts your salary bills. 

Grades long or round potatoes with less than 
8% variation in size. Can’t bruise them. 

Anyone can operate. Lasts a lifetime. Thou¬ 
sands in use. 

Interesting booklet free on request. 

BOGGS MANUFACTURING CORPN. 

20 Main Street Atlanta, N. Y. 


GET MORE PROFIT BY USING 

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FEEDING 


Positively insures the rapid, healthy 
growth of poultry, hogs and stock, by 
adding the needed proteins and minerals. 

STRUVEN’S FISH MEAL is made 

from fresh, whole fish, finely ground- 
clean and nourishing. Write today for 
FREE FEEDING INSTRUCTIONS— 

it will mean .more profit to you! 

CHARLES M. STRUVEN & CO. 

114-C S. Frederick St., BALTIMORE, MD. 



SELF¬ 

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A recent official test showed that self-fed hogs gain 
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133% greater than hand-fed hogs. 

The LEOLA HOG FEEDER is the best built and 
most efficient Self-feeder made. It works perfectly 
under all conditions and will multiply your profits 
from hogs, paying for itself in a short time. 

Write for description of Feeder and 
so-day Free Trial Plan. Do it today.' 

H. M. STAUFFER & SON, Box E, LEOLA, PA. 


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801 -R Wood Street, 
Mag** Bidg., Pittsburgh, Pa. Ottawa, Kansas.* 



How to Lace a Belt 

The Service of a Lacing Does Not Depend Solely Upon the Size of the Rawhide 


M ANY make a mistake in thinking 
that the heavier a lacing is made 
with rawhide the more durable it will 
be. This leads them to make the lacing 
so thick and clumsy that the belt is 
strained in going around pulleys, caus¬ 
ing the lace to wear out in a short time 
and probably the belt to be torn be¬ 
tween the holes. A good lacing is as 
nearly as possible similar in thickness 
to the rest of the belt, so that it passes 
over the pulleys without shock or jar. 

Preparing the Belt Ends 

For all types of lacings the belt ends 
should be cut off at right angles, 
not by guess, but 
by the aid of a 
square. For the types 
of straight lacing 
this is sufficient, but 
If a hinged lace ( 
is to be put in, 
then the upper and 
lower edges of the 
belt ends should be 
beveled. This will 
prevent the sharp 
edges from cutting 
the lacings. 


By F. G. BEHRENDS 

No. 1 and the other end of the lacing 
down through hole No. 14. 

From hole No. 1 work to the left and 
then back, going through the following 
holes in the order listed: 2-3-4-5-6-7-8- 
9-10-11-12-13 and stop, coming up 
through 14. 

From hole No. 2 work to the right 
through the following holes in the or¬ 
der listed: 14-15-16-17-18-19-20-21-22- 
23-24-25-26, and finish up through hole 
27. The finished lace is shown in 
Fig. 2. 

When starting a single-hinged lace 




flfiiURfe i 

(Ww** 


A 


iffi 






Placing the Holes 

The arrangement 
of the holes will de¬ 
pend upon the type 
of lacing desired, 
the width of the 
belt, and also upon 
the personal prefer¬ 
ence of the individ¬ 
ual doing the work. 

The various types 
of lacings may be 
used on leather, 
rubber or canvas 
belts. As a general 
rule the holes should 
be placed farther 
back from the ends 
on canvas and rubber 
belts than on leather belts. 

Making the Holes 

For leather belts the holes 
are best made with a hol¬ 
low punch, one having an 
oval shape preferred, and if 
used the long diameter of 
the hole should be parallel 
to the sides of the belt. 

The size should be such 
that the lacing will fill the 
holes, but will not pull in 
so tightly as to tear the 
belt. For canvas belts, or 
rubber-covered cotton 
belts, the holes should be 
made with an awl and 
not with a hollow punch, 
as the punch will cut off 
many strands of the cloth 
and thus unnecesarily 
weaken the belt. The tine 
of an old pitchfork will 
make a very good awl for 
this purpose and the oval 
shape will be found con¬ 
venient. When using an 
awl, work it back and 
forth sideways when pass¬ 
ing through the belt, thus making a 
hole by forcing apart the fibers in¬ 
stead of cutting them. 

Types of Rawhide Lacings 

The two most important types of 
lacings are (a) the Double Straight 
Lace and (b) the Single Hinge Lace. 

For leather belts the straight lace 
is generally used unless the belt is 
to be run over very small pulleys 
or to be bent backward over idler 
pulleys, in which cases the hinge lace 
will last much longer than the 
straight. 

For canvas or rubber belting the 
hinge lace is best as it is more flexi¬ 
ble and therefore less liable to pull 
out at the holes than is the straight 
lace. 

How to Make the Lacings 

With this type all lacings on the 
pulley side of the belt must run parallel 
with the sides of the belt. See Fig. 3. 

Holding the pulley side of the belt 
up (refer to the diagram) pass one 
end of the lacing down through hole 


1 


ii 


• 


• 


21 

15 

2? 

19 


• 

• 


25 


21 


16 


20 


• 


• 

14 

26 

18 

22 



• 




24 




W 


ff 


W 


iff 






V 




y 







it should be remembered that the lacing 
is never passed from a hole in one 
belt end to another hole in the same 
belt end. Also, when passing from one 
belt end to the other the lacing is never 
carried straight across, but is always 
passed between the belt ends. 

Start at the middle and, holding the 
pulley side of the belt up, proceed as 
follows: 

Pass one end of the lacing down 
through hole No. 1—pass the other end 
down between the belt ends and up 
through hole No. 14. 

Work first to the left edge with the 
lacing end which was passed down 
through hole No. 1. Pass this lacing 
end through the following holes in the 
order listed, remembering to always 
pass between the belt ends when pass¬ 
ing from one belt end to the other, 
from No. 1-2-3-2-5-4-5-6-7-6. 

Now work to the right edge of the 
belt with the lacing end which passes 
up through hole No. 14, passing 
through the following holes in the fol¬ 
lowing order from No. 14 to No. 1, 
then No. 16-15-16-17-18-17-20-21-20. 


One end now finishes, passing down 
through hole No. 6, and the other end 
passes up through hole No. 20. The 
finished lacing is shown in Fig. 3. 

Securing the # Ends 

The ends may be secured in several 
ways—with some types of lacing the 
free ends are merely tied together. 
Another common way is to punch a 
small hole for the lacing end. The end 
is passed through this hole and drawn 
tight, then this end is passed back 
through this same hole and drawn up 
tight. The doubled lacing, passing 
through the hole, jams and is securely 
held. Any excess 
lacing is cut off. 
Ends finished in this 
manner may be seen 
in Figs. 2 and 3. 

Size of Pulleys 

The use of the 
proper-sized pulleys 
has much to do with 
the efficient opera¬ 
tion of belt-driven 
machinery. How to 
select the proper 
sizes is not as dif¬ 
ficult as some per¬ 
sons think. 

In every case, one 
knows, or can find 
out, two facts about 
one of the pulleys— 
its diameter and its 
speed. One also 
knows at least one 
fact about the other 
pulley—either how 
fast it should run 
or how large it ac¬ 
tually is. An ex¬ 
ample shows how to 
figure the unknown 
quantity better than 
explanation.. 

Take an engine running 
at 600 revolutions a min¬ 
ute. The engine pulley is 
twelve inches in diameter. 
You desire to run a feed 
grinder at 900 revolu¬ 
tions a minute. What size 
pulley should you get? 
You know the engine 
pulley’s speed is 600 revo¬ 
lutions and its diameter 
is 12 inches. You know 
but one thing about the 
grinder pulley, its speed, 
which is 900. How can 
you find the diameter? 

Multiply together the 
two things that you know 
about one pulley and di¬ 
vide by what you know 
about the other pulley. 

In the above example, 
600 multiplied by 12 
makes 7,200. Dividing 
this by 900 gives 8. 
Therefore, an eight-inch 
pulley is needed on the 
feed grinder. 

The result will not al¬ 
ways come out even, and 
as pulleys are sold only 
in certain sizes it is necessary to select 
the next larger or smaller pulley. 
When computing the diameter of a 
driven pulley, select the next size 
smaller. When computing the diameter 
of a driver pulley, select the next size 
larger. 

Cooperatives Must Not Fail 

(Continued from page 66) » 

the same condition; they are all fight¬ 
ing for volume of business, rendering- 
less efficient service because they lack 
it. And the farms are paying the bill. 

Economic necessity demands that 
farmers go back to fundamentals in 
the purchase of farm supplies. If they 
will be guided by the unbiased conclu¬ 
sions drawn from tests at their experi¬ 
ment stations; if they will secure their 
credit from banks instead of from the 
local dealers; if they will combine with 
this efficiency of purchase orderly mar¬ 
keting of farm supplies, then there is 
great hope for American agriculture 
and the welfare of the entire country. 




















































































American Agriculturist, August 4,1923 


75 


Does Contagious Abortion 
Exist ? 

W. B. SUTTON 

S cientists have toia us that it 

does; that it is carried from one 
animal to another in breeding by means 
of a germ or microbe. 

Lately they have concluded that the 
germ or microbe has nothing to do 
with the disease. 

I have no desire to belittle the work 
of the scientists, but would call at¬ 
tention to a few things which they 
seem to have overlooked and which 
seem to me to indicate the cause of 
the disease. , 

Abortion may be caused by anything 
that will produce a weak or flabby con¬ 
dition of the abdomen. 

Intensive milk production is an un¬ 
natural condition, which in its very 
nature will produce such a condition. 

The cow under natural conditions 
gets about three months of lush feed, 
which makes a large flow of milk; then 
the grasses begin to ripen and become 
dry and constipating, with a conse¬ 
quent lessening of the milk flow. The 
dairyman seeks to avoid this by giving 
lush or loosening feeds the year round; 
if the cow will yield milk so long, the 
muscles become weak and abortion is 
the likely result. 

Another favorite practice of dairy¬ 
men is to breed heifers at the age of 
twelve to fifteen months, before they 
have attained anything like a full phy¬ 
sical development, thus putting upon 
the immature animal the further bur¬ 
den of reproduction, which has a further 
tendency toward a weakened condition 
of the muscles of reproduction. Preg¬ 
nant animals should have plenty of 
exercise to assist in strengthening all 
the body muscles; they should also have 
, muscle-building feed in abundance. 

A lawyer friend of mine bought a 
farm to show farmers how to make 
money. He built a large barn with 
water in each stall and stocked it with 
cows from the Hood farm, and when 
cold weather came shut them all up 
without a breath of pure air from out¬ 
side and fed them cut feed steamed 
over night, and they were petted and 
rubbed and curried to excess. Inside 
of two months they all sickened and 
died for lack of proper air, exercise, 
and possibly, food. 

Another friend told me of his experi¬ 
ence with chickens. He built a fine 
hen-parlor, plastering it and making it 
as air-tight as an expert carpenter 
could do it. 

Cold weather was already on when 
it was completed and he put in it two 
hundred fine May-hatched pullets which 
had already made their winter coats. 
The place was equipped with a stove 
and kept as nearly as possible to 70 
degrees. 

The pullets began to moult and all 
sickened and died. All this apropos of 
the fact that you cannot get very far 
away from Nature. 

If one cow became abortive from the 
result of such conditions as I have 
mentioned in the beginning of this ar¬ 
ticle, why might not many others do 
the same if in the same herd and sub¬ 
ject to the same conditions? Is it not 
more reasonable to suppose that it re¬ 
sulted from such conditions than from 
contagion? 

I have never heard of such a disease 
on the great ranges of the West. 


LIVE STOCK SALES DATES 

August 21-22—Belvidere Farm Jersey 
Sale, Belvidere, N. Y. 

August 25—Chenango County, N. Y., 
Guernsey Breeders’ Picnic and 
Field Day. 

August 25—Western New York Guern¬ 
sey Breeders’ Field Day, West- 
wood Farm, Springville, N. Y. 

August 30—Susquehanna Co., Pa. Hol¬ 
stein Breeders’ Second Annual 
Sale, Montrose, Pa. 

September 1—B. S. Bradford Holstein 
Dispersal Sale, Troy, Pa. 

September 1—Merridale Farms Jersey 
Sale, Meredith, N. Y. 

September 21—Eastern Aberdeen-An- 
gus Breeders’ Sale, Spring- 
field, Mass., F. W. Burnham, 
Secretary, Greenfield, Mass. 

September 26-27—Northern New York 
Holstein Breeders’ Sale, Water- 
town, N. Y. 

October 3-4—National Dairy Show 
Sale, Syracuse, N. Y. 

I*] is) 



m** 


. HOW TO BUY FEEDS 




The following is quoted from Page 61 of the L. A. Maynard 
new book “Better Dairy Farming” by Prof. E. S. Savage 

and Prof. L. A. Maynard. 

T HE object in buying feeds is to select 
those which at the least cost will form 
a satisfactory ration with the home-grown 
materials. By a satisfactory ration we mean 
one that will produce the maximum amount 
of milk. It must have adequate protein 
and be highly digestible. It must furnish 
the proper bulk and variety and be palatable. 
If we overlook them in trying to get a cheap 
ration, any money saved may be lost many 
times in lessened production. 



<n 


PROF. E. S. SAVAGE 


‘When a feed is taken into the body, a 
certain part is digested and absorbed while 
the remainder is excreted in the manure. Of 
course, only that part which is digested is of 
use to the animal; thus, in buying feeds we 
want to get the maximum amount of digest¬ 
ible material for our money. In fact, the 
only real way to tell what feeds are cheapest 
is to compare them on the basis of their 
digestible material. To do this we compute 
the total digestible nutrients of each feed ” 


Save Money on Your Feed Bill! 

Feed G. L. F. Rations—High in Digestible Nutrients 

The formulas of G. L. F. Rations are public so you can figure the cost of 
100 lbs. of digestible nutrients in each ration. You have the choice of Milk 
Maker, with 1506 lbs. of protol digestible nutrients, a 24% protein ration— 

Exchange Dairy, with 1452 lbs. of protol digestible nutrients, a 20% 
protein ration, and G. L. F. Sixteen Percent, with 1476 lbs. 
of protol digestible nutrients, a 16% protein ration to 
feed with your roughage. 

G. L. F. Rations, manufactured by your own cooperative 
association, give you the greatest value for your dollar. 

They have great variety, are very palatable and are 
high in digestible nutrients. Feed them and you will 
get more milk cheaper and have a better cow left. 

For prices see your Local G. L. F. Agent or write 

Feed Department 
Cooperative G. L. F. Exchange 
Buffalo, N. Y. 



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THE EDWARDS MFG. CO. 

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Samples & 
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Celery and Snowball Cauliflower Plants 

1,000,000 Celery, 300,000 Snowball Cauliflower. Count and 
safe delivery guaranteed. 

Celery Plants, re-rooted (Fine big roots), Golden Self 
Bleaching, French Seed. Imported by us from the Orig¬ 
inator, White Plume, Easy Bleaching, Giant Pascal, 
Winter Queen, Golden Heart, Winter King, Emperor, 
$3.00 per 1000; 500, $1.75; 300, $1.50; 200, $1.25; 100, $1,00. 

Snowball Cauliflower, $4.00 per 1000; 500, $2.25; 300, 
$1.50; 200, $1.25; 100, $1.00. Dug with forks. Parcels post. 
List free. No business done on Sunday. 

F. W. ROCHELLE & SONS, Chester, New Jersey 


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because some of the future numbers will contain facts that you would not willingly miss 
for any amount. The worst kind of economy in the world is to save $1 by not subscribing 
for American Agriculturist and thereby losing $10 or $100 or even $1,000 by not having 
the information that will be given in the next 52 issues of American Agriculturist. 

If you were a doctor, you would And the best medical journal indispensable. If you are 
a real farmer who is out for 100 % success and not merely a hare living, you owe it to 
yourself and family to read every coming issue of the American Agriculturist so that you 
can keep abreast of the times. 

SPECIAL BARGAINS! 

Fifty-two issues of American Agriculturist for only $1 is a bargain, but we offer you even 
still greater value for your money if you accept one of the following special long-term 

2 years for American Agriculturist only $1.50 

3 years for American Agriculturist only 2.00 

5 years for American Agriculturist only 3.00 

It has probably been merely an oversight if you are in arrears in your subscription 

Before you forget it, mail your renewal for one of the above bargains and show your heart 
is still with us in our fight for your success and happiness. 

_MAIL THIS COUPON TODAY- 

AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST, 461 Fourth Ave., New York City. 

I appreciate your sending me American Agriculturist after my subscription expired. 
Here is my cheek (or money-order) for renewal for.years more. 

Name.. 

Address...-.*. 

















































76 


THIS IS YOUR MARKET PLACE 


Classified .Advertising Rates 


A D Thi R X, I in^ IENT ? are insel : ted in this department at the rate of 5 cents a word. 
l The minimum charge per insertion is $1 per week. 

aS ° n * word * ac £ initiaI > abbreviation and whole number, including name 

eleven words. ' J ° neS ’ 44 E ‘ MaiU St ” Mount Morris, N. Y.» coSnte m 

Place your wants by following the style of the advertisements on this page. 

Our Advertisements Guaranteed 

Xthoroughly 1C honest SriCUltUriSt accepts onIy advertising which it believes to be 

outadvertise guarantee to our waders fair and honest treatment in dealing with 

Pric . e °i g00ds Purchased by our subscribers from any 
as advertised^ f 1 make g00d whea the article Purchased is found not to be 

To benefit by this guarantee subscribers must say: “I saw your ad in the Ameri¬ 
can Agriculturist” when ordering from our advertisers. Amen- 

The More You Tell, The Quicker You Sell 

E VERY week the American Agriculturist reaches over 120,000 farmers In New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and adjacent States. Advertising orders must 
reach our office at 461 Fourth Avenue, New York City not later thin the second 
Mond a y previous to date of issue. Cancellation orders must reach us on the same 

order^^st a^panVyou'rorder t0 SUbsCribers and their fri ^ds, cash or money 

ALL GOOD THINGS COME TO HIM WHO WAITS _ BUT 

THE CHAP WHO DOESN’T ADVERTISE WAITS LONGEST 


EGGS AND POULTRY 


SEEDS AND NURSERY STOCKS 


SO MANY ELEMENTS enter into the ship¬ 
ping of day-old chicks and eggs by our ad¬ 
vertisers, and the hatching of same by our 
subscribers that the publishers of this paper 
cannot guarantee the safe arrival of day-old 
chicks, or that eggs shipped shall reach the 
buyer unbroken, nor can they guarantee the 
hatching of eggs. We shall continue to exer¬ 
cise the greatest care in allowing poultry and 
egg advertisers to use this paper, but our re¬ 
sponsibility must end with that. 


CHICKS—S. C. Buff White and Brown Leg¬ 
horns, $9— 100 ; Barred Rocks, $10—100 ; W. 
Rocks, $12—LOO; Reds, $n_i 0 0; Mixed 
light breeds, $8 — 100 ; Mixed heavy breeds, 
§9— 100. All Number One chicks. Circular 
free. JACOB NIEMOND, Box A, McAlister- 
ville, Pa. 


300 LEGHORN CHICKS for sale this week 
from vigorous, production-bred stock, 250-egg 
strain, large fowls, 95% chalk-white eggs. 
Quick growing hustlers. Lay at 4% months. 
Cut price. 100% live delivery guaranteed, 
prepaid. E. COYLE, Branchport, N. Y. 


THREE HUNDRED Large Yearling White 
Leghorn hens sired by males from 288-egg 
dams, $2 each. HOWARD VAN SYCKLE 
Lebanon, N. J. 


■o BULLETS, ALL AGES—White, Brown and 
Buff Leghorns, Anconas, Minorcas ; also year¬ 
ling hens. FRANK’S POULTRY FARM, Box 
A, Tiffin, Ohio. 


CHICKS—White Leghorn “Barron” strain, 
$8—100 ; Reds, $10. EMPIRE HATCHERY 
Seward, N. Y. 


A,F I r'P VE m R — $ 4 - 50 bus hel; (Unhulled Sweet) 
fa, $7.00; Red Clover, $12.00; Grimm 
Alfalfa, $22.50 ; satisfaction or money back; 
we ship from several warehouses and save you 
freight. NOW is the time to buy your seeds 
for next planting. MEIER SEED CO., Dept. 
AA., Salina, Kansas. 


CELERY AND CABBAGE PLANTS—Strom 
plants ready for field, of all leading varieties 
$1.25 per 1,000. Parcel post, 5 cents per 10( 
extra. Cauliflower plants, early Snowball- 
strong, $3 per 1,000. Send for list J C 
SCHMIDT, Bristol, Pa. 


PLANTS—Celery, $2.50 per 1,000; $11 
per 5,000 ; Cabbage, $2.50 per 1,000 ; $10 
5,000. Strong selected plants. WM 
YEAGLE, Bristol, Pa. 


HELP WANTED 


ALL men, women, boys, girls, 17 to 60, will¬ 
ing to accept Government positions, $117-$190, 
traveling or stationary, write MR. OZMENT 1 ’ 
258 St. Louis, Mo., immediately. 


EXPERT DAIRYMAN—Experienced in cer¬ 
tified milk. Also farm mechanic able drive 
motor truck and tractor. MOHEGAN FARM 
CORP., Mohegan Lake, N. Y. 


MISCELLANEOUS 


ALL-WOOL HAND AND MACHINE Knitting 
Yarns for sale. We are also doing custom- 
work at the same old prices. Write for sam¬ 
ples and particulars. H. A BARTLETT 
Harmony, Maine. ’ 


REAL ESTATE 


FARM AND EQUIPMENT AT AUCTION— 
200-acre farm located near Fort Plain, Mont¬ 
gomery County, New York, overlooking the 
famous Mohawk Valley will be sold at auction 
on Tuesday, August 7, beginning at 10:00 
a. m. Farm and equipment consisting of 30 
head of cattle, 5 horses, $10,000 worth of 
farm machinery, will be sold individually or 
collectively at purchasers’ option. One of the 
finest farms in the State. Roger Babson 
says : “the Mohawk Valley offers the finest 
inducements in the world.” Buildings all 
modern, fine $15,000 L. barn; artesian well 
in milk house. 15-acre wood lot. Machinery 
of all kinds, stationary engine, ton truck, two 
tractors; everything needed on first-class 
farm. Owner has other interests and will 
sacrifice. Take N. Y. C. or West Shore to 
Fort Plain, N. Y., taxi 2y 2 miles to sale. 
Full particulars and terms; address owner. 
A. W. SNELL, 127 South Avenue, Syracuse, 


FARM M ANTED—Wanted to hear from 
owner of farm or good land for sale, for fall 
delivery. L. JONES, Box 387, Olney, Ill. 


SWINE 


LARGE BERKSHIRES — All ages, herd 
headed by Real Type 10th, first prize junior 
yearling boar at Chicago International. C. A. 
ELDREDGE, Marion, N. Y. 


FEMALE HELP WANTED 


WANTED WOMEN, GIRLS — Learn gown¬ 
making at home ; $35.00 week. Sample lessons 
free. FRANKLIN INSTITUTE, Dept. A542 
Rochester, N. Y. 


WOMEN’S WANTS 


SMART “HOMEMAID” VOILE FROCKS 
$1.98. Send measurements, bust, from ne 
to hem in back. BENNETTS “HOMEMAI1 
GARMENTS, Schuylerville, N. Y. 


AGENTS WANTED 


AGENTS WANTED—Agents make a dol¬ 
lar an hour. Sell Mendets, a patent patch 
for instant mending leaks in all utensils. 
Sample package free. COLLETTE MFG. CO. 
Dept. 210, Amsterdam, N. Y. 


FOR SALE—Centour garden 
disk, cultivator, $225 complete ; 
dition. RAY HOLLIS, Brighton 
Phone Webster 147F-3. 


tractor, plow, 
excellent con- 
Station, N. Y. 


EXTENSION LADDERS- 
leg fruit ladders, 30c foot. 
L. FERRIS, Interlaken, N. 


-27c foot; three- 
Freight paid-. A. 
Y. 


FERRETS—Prices free. Book on Ferrets, 
10 cents. Muzzles, 25 cents. BERT EWELL 
Wellington, Ohio. ’ 


Get Double Value 
For Your Money by 

Accepting one of our remarkable money¬ 
saving subscription bargains. These 
attractive offers are open for only a 
limited period, so order at once. Sub¬ 
scriptions may be new, renewal or ex¬ 
tension. 


Pictoi’ial Review 
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Am. Agriculturist 
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>. Only 

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Value for 

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1 Year j 

$1.10 


Mail your order now for one of these bargains. 


AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST j . 9 

461 FOURTH AVE., NEW YORK CITY 


American Agriculturist, August 4,1923 

The Service Bureau 

Don’t Be Fooled By Cling Cutlery 


S CISSORS are useful—but the Cling 
Cutlery Corporation was better at 
selling stock than scissors. 

After several stock-selling drives, 
which have resulted in taking $800,000 
from the public and giving nothing in 
return, the company is now endeavoring 
to raise more money on a glittering 
offer of 8 per cent. 

The history of how the securities 
were marketed is a sad commentary on 
the methods used to unload stock on a 
trustful public. One “reloading” outfit 
after another would take the stock at 
a payment of from $1.66 to $12 a share 
and re-sell it to the public at $10 to $50. 
Meanwhile, more than two years after 
the stock began to be sold, a small 
factory was started to produce scissors. 

The company now has no factory and 
its machinery is in storage. During its 
career, it manufactured approximately 
47,000 pairs of scissors and sold 30,430 
at a gross loss of $15,086.14. The Cling 
Cutlery Corporation with this record, 
claims as assets, $317,080.69, for or¬ 
ganization, development and experience. 
Its current assets are but $23,917.05, 
and it apparently costs more to sell the 
scissors than if none were made. 

The Better Business Bureau sends a 
widespread warning of this concern, 
which now wants $100,000 from the 
public. Keep your money—you can use 
it better than the Cling Cutlery Com¬ 
pany. 


WE HIT THE DOG DAYS 

After exhausting every possible 
method by which we might induce Mr. 
Harry Trask of the Edgewood Farm, 
Plantsville, Conn., to refund $15 to a 
subscriber, we made good our guaran¬ 
tee and sent Mr. F. P. of New York a 
check to cover his loss. 

Mr. P. had answered an advertise¬ 
ment of collie pups, inserted some time 
ago in the American Agriculturist by 
Mr. Trask, who we believed to be re¬ 
sponsible. But he never shipped the 
dog, nor.would he answer repeated let¬ 
ters asking him to return the money. 

Our lawyers could get only a promise 
to pay “some time.” Not satisfied with 
that, we sent our own check to Mr. P. 
Mr. Trask has never answered any let¬ 
ter but the. one our lawyers sent and 
that not with any satisfactory result. 
His advertisement has not appeared in 
the American Agriculturist under its 
new management nor will it in the 
future. 

A Guarantee Disregarded—and 
Another One Kept 

Another unsatisfactory transaction 
on which the American Agriculturist 
made good also, concerned the purchase 
of a dog. Mrs. I. R. of New York sent 
$8 to I. R. Tanger of York Springs, 
Pa. The dog reached Mrs. R., but was 
sick when it came and soon died. She 
notified Mr. Tanger at once of its con¬ 
dition, but he made no reply, although 
in a previous letter he had guaranteed 
;hat the dog, if not satisfactory, would 
be taken back. 

We sent Mrs. R. a check for $9.32, 
which included her expenses in the 
matter. 


PROMPT ACTION ON A REFUND 

“I think your service is v/onderful 
and will never be able to say enough 
for you. Your paper is always looked 
forward to.” 

Mr. H. B. C. of New York had 
ordered a sewing machine from a mail¬ 
order house and upon returning it, 
failed to receive a refund. The Service 
Bureau secured a check for $39.37, in¬ 
cluding express charges, within ten 
days after the matter had been referred 
to them. Mr. C. renewed his own sub¬ 
scription and sent us a new subscriber. 


THE FASHION EDITOR HORNS IN 

“I think there must be some magic 
about your department.” 

We’d like to claim to have second 
sight or mystic powers, but we had to 
assure Mrs. F. S. C., who flattered us 
thus, that it was just hard work and 
stick-at-it-iveness. 

At any rate, she got a long lost $5 
after ktters had availed nothing. Mrs. 


C. bought a purse by mail—she frankly 
said it was “terrible.” Our fashion 
editor, being hurriedly called into con¬ 
sultation, said even ruder things about 
it, and offered to take anybody’s $5 and 
buy a “really decent purse” from any 
smart New York store. 

With this expert testimony to 
strengthen our case, we went after the 
firm which sold the article to Mrs. C., 
and her letter was the result. 

She added a subscription renewal 
and another, to get those 18 rose bushes, 
(see our circulation department’s ad¬ 
vertisement.) 


A BELATED PAYMENT 

“You certainly can make them come 
across!” 

(This seems to be our day for re¬ 
ceiving bouquets! Not from the 18 
rosebushes, either, but the verbal kind). 
A check for $16.96 from a mid-western 
mail-order house, which made good its 
guarantee when we took a hand in a 
four-months old claim, brought this 
enthusiastic comment from Mr. W. S.. 
of New York. 


SPREADING THE GOOD NEWS 

“We praise your company very much 
to our neighbors and friends.” 

That’s the way to talk! We hope the 
neighbors and friends of Mr. D. W. of 
N. Y., to whom we recently sent a $6.10 
check in payment of an account he had 
been trying to settle will refer their 
troubles to us as he did. 

Mr. W’s difficulty was with a firm 
which buys rabbits, and he had not re¬ 
ceived his money in spite of several 
letters. When the American Agricul¬ 
turist took a hand, the check was im¬ 
mediately forthcoming. 


SOME LETTERS DON’T WORK 

It is bad enough to lose money, but 
there is something especially exasper¬ 
ating about writing; letter after letter 
without even receiving an answer. 

At least so Mrs. M. G. D., of Pa., felt 
when a hatchery cashed her check for 
$14, and.then apparently lost all inter¬ 
est in her. She wrote five letters to 
the firm. Then wrote one to the Am¬ 
erican Agriculturist. 

That was the letter which did the 
work. A check came to us by return 
mail; our letter, enclosing the check, 
went to Mrs. D, and she wrote to say 
that if she hadn’t asked the Service 
Bureau to intervene, she would probably 
still be writing the hatchery, with her 
$14 as far away as ever. 


NEARLY FIVE YEARS OLD 

A claim which dated back to 1918 
was recently adjusted in favor of a 
subscriber. His claim was against a 
Massachusetts drug company, and as 
soon as the matter was presented to 
them, the New York representative 
called to go over the matter with us. 

The firm claimed that the subscriber 
had not sent invoices with his ship¬ 
ments, which made it hard to trace old 
orders. However, they immediately 
made out a check for $24.70 in our 
subscriber’s favor, and promised that 
future shipments, properly invoiced, 
would be paid for on a ten day basis! 


EXPENSIVE TURKEYS GO 
ASTRAY 

How would you like to receive a 
check for $203.36? Mr. E. T. Babcock 
of New York State shipped some tur¬ 
keys of that value shortly before 
Thanksgiving last year. They were 
lost in transit. Mr. Babcock held them 
at a higher valuation than the express 
company was willing to accept and the 
case dragged along for some time. 

Finally the Service Bureau suggested 
a compromise. Both sides of the argu¬ 
ment agreed to accept it. As a result 
Mr. Babcock got his check. He offered 
to pay a collection fee, but as usual 
we refused it, for the Service Bureau 
is not a business scheme but a depart¬ 
ment which simply tries to help sub¬ 
scribers out of similar difficulties. 
















































































































American Agriculturist, August 4,1923 


77 



Give a thoiight 
to (Advertising 

B ECAUSE people seem to 
think that an advertising 
man should know everything, 
one of his biggest jobs is to 
ask questions and try to be a 
walking encyclopedia and 
dictionary combined. 

Recently in answer to a re¬ 
quest for information we sent 
out two thousand post cards 
to American Agriculturist 
subscribers from which the 
following is quoted: 

Dear Subscriber— 

As the owner of a beard, you have, 
of course, had some experience with 
shaving soaps. 

The manufacturer of a well-known 
brand of shaving soap has asked us 
for certain information concerning 
the shaving habits of farmers. We 
are going to ask the subscribers of 
the American Agriculturist to 
help us give this manufacturer the 
information he wants. 

Then we listed these five 
questions for which we re¬ 
quested answers. 

1. What brand of shaving soap are 
you using at the present time ? 

2. What form of shaving soap are 
you using at the present time ? 
(Please state whether it is stick, 
cream, powder, cake or mug 
soap.) 

3. What was the name of the last 
brand of shaving soap you were 
using just before you changed to 
the brand you are now using ? 

4. What form of shaving soap were 
you using just before you 
changed to the brand you are 
now using ? 

5. What caused you to change ? 


1. Was recommended 


2. Saw it advertised 


3. Received sample. 


To make it worth the time, 
the manufacturer offers a free 
sample tube of shaving cream 
good for at least six shaves to 
anyone who answers and signs 
his name. Already the replies 
are pouring in. 

How would you answer 
those questions ? Let us know. 
You see we are like all adver¬ 
tising men—always asking 
questions—but the more an 
advertising man knows the 
more he is able to help, not 
only his magazine and the 
advertisers in it, but also its 
subscribers. So we adverti¬ 
sing men don’t mind being 
walking question marks. 

Also we’re always glad to 
hear from you about any ad¬ 
vertising matter. Any question 
that is troubling you, anything 
you would like to know— 
you’ll find the key hanging 
outside the door—and us on 
the job with the information. 

JldverUsing <5%Ccmager 


Weather, Crops and Labor 

Condensed Report of Conditions on New York Farms 


T HE following summary of conditions 
was obtained from accurate informa¬ 
tion furnished from every section of 
New York State. It is a matter of 
great interest and value to every farm¬ 
er. In studying the reports, we were 
especially impressed with what a great 
farm empire New York State is in it¬ 
self. For instance, there has been 
plenty of rain in the big dairy counties 
of the north, making good pastures, 
hay and crop conditions, while in the 
southern and southeastern parts of the 
State, the reverse was true for the most 
of July. Farmers living in the north 
would draw entirely opposite conclu¬ 
sions as to crop prospects as those liv¬ 
ing in the southern and southeastern 
parts of the State. It is only by judg¬ 
ing the conditions of the whole State 
and of the Nation itself that one can 
form an accurate judgment as to the 
size of crops and the markets at har¬ 
vest time. 

The summarized report follows: 

WEATHER CONDITIONS. 

1. Northern New York: Wet with 
cool nights. 

2. Western New York: Fairly dry. 

3. Central _ New York: Dry, with 
cool nights. 

4. Southivestern New York: Dry, 
with cool nights. 

5. Southern and Southeastern _ New 
York: Very dry and cool nights. 

MILK FLOW AS COMPARED WITH 
SAME TIME LAST YEAR. 

Generally higher in northern New 
York, averaging about the same in 
the central and western sections of 
the State and less in the southern 
and southeastern sections. 

Note how milk flow is influenced by 
dry weather. 

CROPS. 

1. Winter Wheat: Good in western 
New York; fair in other sec¬ 
tions where the acreage is 
smaller; wheat harvest is crowd¬ 
ing and interfering with haying. 

2. Oats: Good in northern New 
York on high ground; good in 
western and central New York; 
poor to very poor and short in 
the southern tier counties and 
in the eastern and southeastern 
sections of the State. 

3. Corn: Late and poor in northern 
New Yorkj reported good in 
' western New York; fair to poor 
in most of central New York and 
fair to good in the southern and 
southeastern sections. 

4. Alfalfa: Good to excellent in all 
sections of the State. 

5. Hay: Excellent in northern and 
western New York; good to fair 
in the central part of the State, 
and fair to poor in southwest¬ 
ern, southern and southeastern 
sections. 

6. Late Potatoes: Quite generally 
looking well with good prospects 
in all parts of the State except 
two or three of the counties in 
the southeastern section and on 
Long Island. Long Island pros¬ 
pects are reported poor. 

7. Early Potatoes: Everywhere bad¬ 
ly affected by the dry weather. 

8. Beans: Reported fair in western 
New York. 

9. Cabbage: Western New York re¬ 
ported set too late and a smaller 
acreage than usual. 

10. Buckwheat: Northern New York 
a larger acreage than usual and 
reported a good start. No re¬ 
port on the remainder of the 
State. 

11. Pastures: Excellent to extra good 
in northern New York; good in 
western New York; varying 
from poor to good in central 
New York, and from poor to 
very poor in the southern and 
southeastern sections. Note how 
the report on the pastures varies 
as to the amount of rainfall. 

12. Apples: Generally a light crop in 


western New York and fair to 
poor elsewhere. 

13. Peaches: Reported generally poor 

except in the Hudson River 
Counties. 

14. Pears: Reported good in western 

New York; very light elsewhere. 

15. Plums: Reported a light crop. 

16. Cherries: Good in Genesee and 

Ulster Counties; fair to poor 
elsewhere. 

FARM WAGES. 

1. Month. Man With Board. 

a. Northern New York: Vary¬ 

ing from $35 to $50. 

b. Western New York: $60. 

c. Central New York: Vary¬ 

ing from $50 to $60, with 
one report in Oneida 
County of $87.50; Albany 
County, $50; Montgomery 
County, $75. 

d. Southwestern New York: 

$45. 

e. Southeastern New York: $45 

to $50. 

2. Month Man Without Board But 

With House Privileges, etc. 

a. Northern New York: $60. 

b. Western New York: $75 

to $80. 

c. Central New York: $50 

to $75. 

d. Southeastern New York: 

Varying from $62 to $72. 
There was one report from 
Ulster County of $90. 

3. Wages of Day Man for Harvest. 

a. Northern New York: $5.50 

to $7.00. 

b. Western New York: $5.00 

to $5.50. 

c. Central New York: $2.25 

to $5.50. 

d. Southeastern New York: 

$3.25 to $5.00. 

GENERAL REMARKS 

Although weather has been excellent 
for haying, the work is far behind 
owing to lack of help. 



I F you are going to need an Ensi¬ 
lage Cutter this year, write at once 
for all the facts regarding the Ross 
Line for 1923. Find out why bettef 
silage is positively insured with 

nncc ENSILAGE 
tVViOD CUTTERS 

than you can get with any other outfit. 

Find out about the boiler plate steel blower 
and cutting apparatus, adjustable bearings, 
and the positive knife adjustment. 

Get all the fact* regarding the powerful, 
low-speed, smooth-running Ross. No obli¬ 
gation. Our prices will interest you. 
Write today. 

E. W. ROSS “ 


AND SILO CO. 

Dept. 230 Springfield, Ohio 

Successors to The E. IV. Ross Co., Est. 1850 


GLOBE— 

the perfect 

SILO 

The exclusive GLOBE ex¬ 
tension roof gives the 
'GLOBE Silo greater storage 
capacity per diameter and 
height than any other silo. 
Patent locking doors and 
adjustable door frame as¬ 
sure air-tight connections— 
absolutely prevent spoilage. 
Swelling or shrinking taken 
care of by hoops easily ad¬ 
justed from ladder. Combi¬ 
nation door fasteners and 
ladder rungs give greatest 
convenience and acces¬ 
sibility. 

Only carefully selected Canadian 
spruce and Oregon fir are used. 
Metal parts made of the hlghest-grade malleable iron 
and steel. Ruggedly built to give lasting satisfaction. 
Prices: $3.00 per ton capacity up, according to size. 
Write TO-DAY for catalog and agency proposition. 

GLOBE SILO COMPANY, Box 105, Unadilla, N. Y. 



LONG NEWS IN SHORT 
PARAGRAPHS 

The New York State Department 
of Farms and Markets reports that the 
disease, rabies, is more prevalent in 
the State than it has been before in 
several years. Outbreaks have oc 
curred in Rennselaer, Chenango, and 
Schoharie Counties. Strict quarantines 
have been laid in these counties and 
every precaution taken to prevent the 
spread of the disease. 

* * ■ * 

The seventh annual meeting- of the 
National Milk Producers’ Federation 
will be held in Pittsburgh, Pa., Novem¬ 
ber 8 and 9. The meeting will go to 
Pittsburgh on the invitation of the 
Dairymen’s Cooperative Sales Com¬ 
pany, a cooperative dairymen’s or¬ 
ganization in the territory supplying 
the city of Pittsburgh. Besides the 
regular business session, arrangements 
are being made to secure speakers who 
are internationally known experts on 
cooperative mai'keting. An attendance 
of at least two thousand cooperative 
members and leaders is expected. 

The National Milk Producers’ Fed¬ 
eration represents twenty-six impor¬ 
tant cooperative dairy organizations, 
including a joint membership of about 
250,000 milk farmers, selling annually 
from two hundred and fifty to three 
hundred million dollars’ worth of milk. 
The officers are: John D. Miller, presi¬ 
dent; W. F. Schilling, first vice-presi¬ 
dent; H. W. Ingersoll, second vice- 
president; F. P. Willits, treasurer, and 
Charles W. Holman, secretary. 

* * * 

Dr. Louise Stanley, Dean of the 
School of Home Economics in the Uni¬ 
versity of Missouri, has been selected 
by Secretary H. C. Wallace to head 
the newly-established Bureau of Eco¬ 
nomics in the United States Depart¬ 
ment of Agriculture. Dr. Stanley will 
assume her new duties September 1. 


Does your Silo lean? 

A LEANING silo can’t be air tight. 
That is why the Harder is made rigid 
by means of patent Spline Dowels and 
square tongue and grooved staves. 

Our free book “Saving with Silos” 
should be in the hands of every dairy¬ 
man. Send for it. 

HARDER MFG. CORP. 
Box F Cobleskill, 

N. Y. 



HARDER SILO 



STAY 


m 


Built in every detail for 
long life and tight-fitting 
stability. Heavy, sound 
staves, creosoted; over¬ 
sized threads on heavy steel 
hoops. Close-fitting, safe¬ 
like doors. Handsome red- 
cedar roof. Write for book- 
let and special proposition 
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American Agriculturist, August 4,1923 


The Brown 


Mouse — By Herbert Quick 

% 


<< ‘Y7t7’HAT time’s the election, Ez?” asked Mrs. Bronson at breakfast. 

VV “I’m going at four o’clock,” said Ezra. “And I don’t want to hear 
any more from any one”—looking at Newton—“about the election. Its none of 
the business of the women an’ boys.” 

Newton took this reproof in an unexpectedly submissive spirit. In fact, he 
exhibited his very best side to the family that morning, like one going on a long 
journey, or about to be married off, or engaged in some deep dark plot. 

“I s’pose you’re off trampin’ the slews at the sight of a flock of ducks four 
miles off as usual?” stated Mr, Bronson challengingly. 

“I thought,” said Newton, “that I’d get a lot of raisin bait ready for the 
pocket-gophers in the lower meadow. They’ll be throwing up their mounds 
by the first of April.” 

“Not them,” said Mr. Bronson, somewhat mollified, “not before May. Where’d 
you get the raisin idee?” 

“We learned it in school,” answered Newton. “Jim had me study a bulletin 
on the control and eradication of pocket-gophers. You use raisins with strychnine 
in ’em—and it tells how. 

“Some fool notion, I s’pose,’ said Mr. Bronson, rising. “But go ahead if you’re 
careful about handlin’ the strychnine.” 


Newton spent the time from twelve- 
thirty to half after two in watching 
the clock; and twenty minutes to three 
found him seated in the woodshed with 
a pen-knife in his hand, a small vial 
of strychnine crystals on a stand be¬ 
fore him, a saucer of raisins at his 
right hand, and one exactly like it, 
partially filled with gopher bait—by 
which is meant raisins under the skin 
of each of which a minute crystal of 
strychnine had been inserted on the 
point of the knife. 

At thi'ee-thirty, Newton went into 
the house and lay down on the horse¬ 
hair sofa, saying to his mother that he 
felt kind o’ funny and thought he’d lie 
down a while. 

At three-forty he heard his father’s 
voice in the kitchen and knew that his 
sire was preparing to start for the 
scene of battle. 

A groan issued from Newton’s lips— 
a gruesome groan. But his father’s 
voice from the kitchen door betrayed 
no agitation. 

“What’s the matter?” 

It was Newton’s little sister who 
asked the question, evincing apprecia¬ 
tion of Newton’s efforts. Even though 
regarded as a pure matter of make- 
believe, such sounds were terrible. 

“Oh, sister, sister!” howled Newton, 
“run and tell ’em that brother’s dying!” 

Fanny went rather slowly to the 
kitchen door, and casually remarked 
that Newton was dying on the sofa in 
the sitting-room. 

“You little fraud!” said her father. 

“Why, Fanny!” said her mother— 
and ran into the sitting-room—whence 
in a moment, with a cry that was al¬ 
most a scream, she summoned her hus¬ 
band, who responded at the top of his 
speed. 

N EWTON was groaning and in con¬ 
vulsions. Horrible grimaces con¬ 
torted his face, his jaws were set, his 
arms and legs drawn up, and his mus- 

clGS tGTlSG. 

“What’s the matter?” His father’s 
voice was stern as well as full of 
anxiety. “What’s the matter, boy?” 
“Oh!” cried Newton. “Oh! Oh! Oh!” 
“Newtie, Newtie!” cried his mother, 
“where are you in pain? Tell mother, 
Newtie!” 

“Oh,” groaned Newtie, relaxing, “I 
feel awful!” 

_ “What you been eating?” interrogated 
his father. 

“Nothing,” replied Newton. 

“I saw you eatin’ dinner,” said his 
father. 

Again Newton was convulsed by 
strong spasms, and again his groans 
filled the hearts of his parents with 
terror. 

“That’s all I’ve eaten,” said he, when 
his spasms had passed, “except a few 
raisins. I was putting strychnine in 
’em—” 

“Oh, heavens!” cried his mother. 
“He’s poisoned! Drive for the doctor. 
Ezra! Drive!” 

Mr. Bronson forgot all about the 
election—forgot everything save anti¬ 
dotes and speed. He leaped toward the 
door. As he passed out, he shouted 
“Give him an emetic!” He tore the 
hitching straps from the posts, jumped 
into the buggy and headed for the 
road. Skilfully avoiding an overturn 
as he rounded into the highway, he 
gave the spirited horses their heads, 
and fled toward town. Just at the 
town limits, he met the doctor in 
Sheriff Dilly’s automobile. Mr. Bronson 
signaled them to stop, ignoring the 


fact that they were making similar 
signs to him. 

“We’re just starting for your place,” 
said the doctor. “Your wife got me 
on the phone.” 

“Thank God!” replied Bronson. 
“Don’t fool any time away on me. 
Drive!” 

“Get in here, Ez,” said the sheriff. 
“Doc knows how to drive, and I’ll come 
on. with your team. They need a slow 
drive to cool ’em off.” 

“Why didn’t you phone me?” asked 
the doctor. 

“Never thought of it,” replied Bron¬ 
son. “I hain’t had the phone only a 
few years. Drive faster!” 

“I want to get there, or I would,” 
answered the doctor. “Don’t worry. 
From what your wife told me over 
the phone I don’t believe the boy’s 
eaten any more strychnine than I have 
—and probably not so much.” 

“He was alive, then?” 

“Alive and making an argument 
against taking the emetic,” replied the 
doctor. “But I guess she got it down 
him.” 

“I’d hate to lose that boy, Doc!” 

“I don’t believe there’s any danger. 
It doesn’t sound like a genuine poison¬ 
ing case to me.” 

T HUS reassured, Mr. Bronson was 
calm, even if somewhat tragic in 
calmness, when he entered the death 
chamber with the doctor. Newton was 
sitting up, his eyes wet, and his face 
pale. His mother had won the argu¬ 
ment, and Newton had lost his dinner. 
Haakon Peterson occupied an armchair. 

“What’s all this?” asked the doctor. 
“How you feeling. Newt? Any pain?” 

“I’m all right,” said Newton. “Don’t 
give me any more o’ that nasty stuff!” 

“No,” said the doctor, “but if you 
don’t tell me just what you’ve been eat¬ 
ing, and doing, and pulling off on us, 
I’ll use this”—and the doctor exhibited 
a huge stomach pump. 

“What’ll you do with that?” asked 
Newton faintly. 

“I’ll put this down into your hold, 
and unload you, that’s what Til do.” 

“Is the election over, Mr. Peterson?” 
asked Newton. 

“Yes,” answered Mr. Peterson, “and 
the wotes counted.” 

“Who’s elected?” asked Newton. 
“Colonel Woodruff,” answered Mr. 
Peterson. “The wote was twelve to 
eleven.” 

“Well, dad,” said Newton, “I s’pose 
you’ll be sore, but the only way I could 
see to get in half a vote for Colonel 
Woodruff was to get poisoned and send 
you after the doctor. If you’d gone, 
it would ’a’ been a tie, anyhow, and 
probably you’d ’a’ persuaded somebody 
to change to Bonner. That’s what’s the 
matter with me. I killed your vote. 
Now, you can do whatever you like to 
m §—but I’m sorry I scared mother.” 

Ezra Bronson seized Newton by the 
throat, but his fingers failed to close. 
“Don’t pinch, dad,” said Newton. “I’ve 
been using that neck an’ it’s tired.” 
Mr. Bronson dropped his hands to his 
sides, glared at his son for a moment 
and breathed a sigh of relief. 

“Why, you darned infernal little 
fool,” said he. “I’ve a notion to take 
a hamestrap to you! If I’d been there 
the vote would have been eleven to 
thirteen!” 

“There was plenty wotes there for 
the colonel, if he needed ’em,” said 
Haakon, whose politician’s mind was 
already fully adjusted to the changed 
conditions. “Ay tank the Woodruff 


District will have a junanimous school 
board from dis time on once more. 
Colonel Woodruff is yust the man we 
have needed.” 

“I’m with you there,” said Bronson. 
“And as for you, young man, if one or 
both of them horses is hurt by the run 
I give them, I’ll lick you within an inch 
of your life—Here comes Dilly driving 
’em in now—I guess they’re all right. 
I wouldn’t want to drive a good team 
to death for any young hoodlum like 
him—All right, how much do I owe you. 
Doc?” 

CHAPTER XVI 

THE GLORIOUS FOURTH 

A GOOD deal of water ran under the 
Woodruff District bridges in the 
weeks between the school election and 
the Fourth of July picnic at Eight- 
Mile Grove. They were very important 
weeks to Jim Irwin, though outwardly 
uneventful. 

Spring, for instance, brought a sort 
of spiritual crisis to Jim; for he had to 
face the accusing glance of the fields 
as they were plowed and sown while 
he lived indoors. It seemed that there 
must be something almost wicked in 
his failure to be afield with his team in 
the early spring mornings. 

A moral crisis accompanies the pass¬ 
ing of a man from the struggle with 
the soil to any occupation, the produc¬ 
tiveness of which is not quite so clear. 
It requires a keenly sensitive nature to 
feel conscious of it, but Jim Irwin pos¬ 
sessed such a temperament; and the 
gawky schoolmaster slept uneasily, and 
heard the earliest cock-crow as a 
soldier hears a call to arms to which 
he has made up his mind he will not 
respond. 

I believe that this deep instinct for 
labor in and about the soil is a valid 
one, and that the gathering together 
of people in cities has been at the cost 
of an obscure but actual moral shock. 

I doubt if the people of the cities can 
ever be at rest in a future full of moral 
searchings of conscience until every 
man has traced definitely the connec¬ 
tion of the work he is doing with the 
maintenance of his country’s popula¬ 
tion. Sometimes those vocations whose 
connection can not be so traced will 
be recognized as wicked ones, and 
people engaged in them will feel as did 
Jim—until he worked out the facts in 
the relation of school-teaching to the 
feeding, clothing and sheltering of the 
world. 

These are some of the waters that 
ran under the. bridges before the Fourth 
of July picnic. Few surface indica¬ 
tions there were of any change in the 
little community in this annual gather¬ 
ing of friends and neighbors. Wilbur 
Smythe was in rather finer fettle than 
usual as he paid his fervid tribute to 
the starry flag, and to this very place 
as the most favored spot in the best 
country of the greatest state in the 
most powerful, intellectual, freest and 
most progressive nation in the best 
possible of worlds. Jim Irwin read the 
Declaration rather well, Jennie Wood¬ 
ruff thought, as she sat on the plat¬ 
form between Deacon Avery, the oldest 
settler in the district, and Mrs. Colum¬ 
bus Brown, the sole local representative 
of the Daughters of the American Revo¬ 
lution. Colonel Woodruff presided in 
his Grand Army of the Republic uni¬ 
form. 

T HE fresh northwest breeze made 
free with the oakes, elms, hickories 
and box-elders of Eight-Mile, Grove, 
and the waters of Pickerel Creek glim¬ 
mered a hundred yards away, beyond 
the flitting figures of the boys who 
preferred to shoot off their own fire¬ 
crackers and torpedoes and nigger- 
chasers, rather than to listen to those 
of Wilbur Smythe. Still farther off 
could be heard the voice of a lone lem¬ 
onade vender, guaranteeing “the cold¬ 
est lemonade ever sold.” And under the 
shadiest trees a few incorrible Marthas 
were spreading the snowy tablecloths on 
which would soon be placed the boun¬ 
tiful repasts stored in ponderous wicker 
baskets and hampers. 

They were passing down from the 
platform after the exercises had termi¬ 
nated in a rousing rendition of America, 
■jvhen Jennie Woodruff tapped Jim Ir¬ 


win on the arm. He looked back at 
her with his slow gentle smile. 

“Isn’t your mother here, Jim?” she 
asked. “I’ve been looking all over the 
crowd and can’t see her.” 

“She isn’t here,” answered Jim. “I 
was in hopes that when she broke loose 
and went to your Christmas dinner 
she would stay loose—but she went 
home and settled back into her rut.” 

“Too bad,”, said Jennie. “She’d have 
had a nice time if she had come.” 

“Yes,” said Jim, “I believe she 
would.” 

“I want help,” said Jennie. “Our 
hamper is terribly heavy. Please!” 

It was rather obvious to Mrs. Bon¬ 
ner that Jennie was throwing herself 
at Jim’s head; but that was an article 
of the Bonner family creed since the 
decision which closed the hearing at 
the court-house. He carried the hamper, 
helped Jennie to spread the cloth on 
the grass, went with her to the well 
for water and cracked ice wherewith 
to cool it. In fact, he quite cut Wilbur 
Smythe out when that gentleman made 
ponderous efforts to obtain a share of 
the favor implied in these permissions. 

“Sit down, Jim,” said Mrs. Wood¬ 
ruff, “you’ve earned a bite of what we’ve 
got.” 

“I'm sorry,” said Jim, “but I’ve a 
prior engagement.” 

“Why, Jim!” protested Jennie. 
“I’ve been counting on you. Don’t 
desert me!” 


“T’M awfully sorry, said Jim, “but 
JL I promised. I’ll see you later.” 

One might have thought, judging by 
the colonel’s quizzical smile, that he 
was pleased at Jennie’s loss of her 
former swain. 

“We’ll have to invite Jim longer 
ahead of time,” said he. “He’s getting 
to be in demand.” 

He seemed to be in demand—a fact 
that Jennie confirmed by observation 
as she chatted with Deacon Avery, 
Mrs. Columbus Brown and her hus¬ 
band, and the Orator of the Day, at 
the table set apart for the guests and 
notables. Jim received a dozen invita¬ 
tions as he passed the groups seated 


WHAT HAS HAPPENED 


"MEWTOlf BRONSON is up to 

^ some deviltry. 

Not so long ago, before Jim 
Irwin took charge of the Dis¬ 
trict School, this was not so sur¬ 
prising. But with other pupils, 
Newton has discovered education 
to be a fascinating occupation, 
rather than a bore. His family, 
indeed, cannot help being friend¬ 
ly to reformer Jim, though Mr. 
Bronson stands with the school 
board, who plan to fire Jim as 
soon as possible. 

Newton takes it hard. Colonel 
Woodruff a friend of Jim’s, sud¬ 
denly agrees to run against Bon¬ 
ner,. Jim’s worst enemy. All the 
pupils echo Newton’s wish that 
he could vote and settle what 
promises to be a close election. 


on the grass—one of them from Mrs. 
Cornelius Bonner, who saw no particu¬ 
lar point in advertising disgruntle- 
ment. The children ran to him and 
clung to his hands; young girls gave 
him sisterly smiles and such trifles 
as chicken drumsticks, pieces of cake 
and like tidbits. His passage to the 
numerous groups at a square table un¬ 
der a big burr-oak was quite an ova¬ 
tion—an ovation of the significance of 
which he was himself quite unaware. 
The people were just friendly, that 
was all—to his mind. 

_ But Jennie—the daughter of a poli¬ 
tician and a promising one herself— 
Jennie sensed the fact that Jim Irwin 
had won something from the people of 
the Woodruff District in the way of 
deference. He had begun to put on 
something more significant than clothes, 
something which he had possessed all 
the time, but which became valid only 
as it was publicly apprehended. He 
was clearly the central figure of his 
group, in which she recognized the 
{Continued on page 80) 





American Agriculturist, August 4,1923 


79 


“Greatest Good for the Greatest Number” 


(Continued from page 69) 


amendment was simply put through 
without giving the voters a chance to 
say if they wanted it or not. 

I can buy all the liquor I want now, 
and you can too, but it is not fit to 
drink, and it is ruining the health of 
our people that drink it. One of the 
W. C. T. U.’s reason for wanting pro¬ 
hibition was that the workingman was 
spending his money for whisky and 
neglecting his family. And he is still 
doing it, and now has to pay more for 
his whisky, so his family is worse off 
than before. 

And the bootleggers are getting rich 
while Uncle Sam is losing millions in 
revenue. No! He is not losing it, but 
the farmers and workingmen are pay¬ 
ing it instead of the liquor consumers. 
I have bee i in several large cities since 
prohibition has been in effect, and I 
have seen enough to convince me that 
there is no such thing as prohibition. 

There is no doubt in my mind that 
our honorable lawmakers in Washing¬ 
ton are getting their liquor from 
abroad, and as long as they can get it 
they will not bother their brains about 
changing the Eighteenth Amendment; 
but I want to say to the public at large 
that I am in favor of repealing the 
Volstead Act. If it were possible to 
have prohibition that would prohibit 
all, I would be in favor of it. But I 
am not in favor of showing partiality 
to one class.—H. H. L., Pennsylvania. 

OPINION IS CHANGING 

N regard to prohibition, would state 
it seems to be dying out in this sec¬ 
tion, and many farmers who were in 
favor of it two years ago are very 
much against it now. I find by asking 
neighbors that at the very least 60 per 
cent are for a change to the allowing 
of the sale of light wines and beer, but 
do not want saloons as it was before. 
The prohibitionists look to us now a 
great deal like “dogs in the manger,” 
as they do not want it themselves, but 
want laws that deny others the right 
of having it. How anyone can be a 
strict prohibitionist after reading the 
daily papers and seeing what the re¬ 
sults are of this bootleg poison that is 
being sold all over is more than we 
can understand. Our young people 
think it so smart and strictly modern 
now to sneak a drink whenever they 
can, and what is it they get? Poison. 

Why not have decent wine and good, 
well-made beer?—L. W. P., New York. 

CIDER, DANDELIONS, ELDER¬ 
BERRIES 

AM in favor of light wines and beer 
because I think it would stop much 
of the bootlegging if people could get 
a little beer without having to go in 
the night to get it, and there would not 
be so much whisky sold or drunk as 
there is now. It seems as though there 
is more drinking in this town or town¬ 
ship all over than there used to be when 
we had just local option and before the 
Eighteenth Amendment took effect. 

The agricultural papers say that 
farmers are mostly for prohibition, but 
one-half to three-fourths of them have 
a barrel of cider in the cellar that will 
go 15 to 20 per cent .alcohol; and town 
people scour the country for dandelion 
blossoms and elderberries to make wine. 
E. C. M., New York. 

WHAT LOCAL OPTION DID 

AVE been reading the letters in 
your valuable paper for and 
against prohibition, and find the argu¬ 
ments against it rather ridiculous. To 
be sure, we read in the Bible where 
Christ turned water into wine at the 
wedding feast, but I for one am posi¬ 
tive it was not of such a nature that 
the guests were made helpless, or mis¬ 
took some other man’s wife for his own, 
and she did not know the diffei'ence, or 
went home and beat his wife and chil¬ 
dren, continued his spree for a week, 
lost his job, and the town had to take 
care of his family until his wife was 
discharged from the hospital and could 
take in washing to support the family. 

I know of a man who had never 
bought his wife a Christmas gift but 
once in twenty years, and then he got. 
di’unk and lost it before he reached 
home. After his town went dry, she 
received the belated gift, and his chil¬ 
dren—and, of course, he had many— 
were comfortably clothed, a good home, 


and a real Christmas dinner for the 
first time in their lives. 

Did it pay to vote that town dry? 

We all can think of ways we could 
use it. My home-made lotion for 
chapped hands does not keep well with¬ 
out it. I can get a bit of alcohol with 
carbolic acid in it. But oh, how it 
smells. So I’ve found glycerine, rose¬ 
water, and lemon juice does just as well. 

And I must confess an alcohol rub 
gave one a comfy feeling after a bath, 
but it was not really necessary. Should 
I be ill enough to go to a hospital, I 
could have a rub with it at night. 

If thousands of little children whose 
fathers, and mothers too, sometimes, 
cannot get the wretched stuff, can be 
put to bed with their little tummies 
comfortable with a nourishing supper 
inside, should we mourn an empty alco¬ 
hol bottle? If they want to search the 
Scriptures, the American Bible Society 
has copies always on hand. Read 
Proverbs xx, 1; Numbers vi, 3. E. A. 
G. asks if it would not be as nearly 
right to pi'ohibit some kinds of foods 
because some make gluttons of them¬ 
selves, and speaks of the few drunk¬ 
ards we have. He surely never allowed 
his wife to attend any W. C. T. U. 
meetings, where she heard statistics on 
the subject read. If, as he writes, such 
a large majority of our citizens made 
outlaws, many thousand made drug 
fiends, etc. Will we not still have the 
“Survival of the Fittest,” and their 
children’s children be left with a “Good¬ 
ly Heritage”? Has not a person en¬ 
slaved to drink and drugs already lost 
his “Personal Liberty”?—E. K. W., 
Maryland. 

ENFORCE OR REPEAL IT 

OMPLYING with your request that 
all the readers of your paper give 
their views on the prohibition amend¬ 
ment, I venture just a few thoughts. 

Either enforce the Eighteenth Amend¬ 
ment or repeal it. No nation will long 
continue that does not enforce its laws. 
The best way to get rid of a bad law 
is to strictly enforce it. If the people 
do not want it, it will be repealed. 

Alcohol has ruined the peace and 
happiness of thousands of homes in 
our land. Alcohol has been responsible 
for thousands of financial failures in 
our land. Thousands of women and 
children in our land have suffered and 
are suffering to-day for the necessaries 
of life because the money that should 
clothe and feed them is spent for alco¬ 
hol. Where alcohol has been the means 
of preserving one life, it has been the 
means of destroying a thousand. 

Cut it out! Enforce the Eighteenth 
Amendment.—W. F. E., West Virgina. 

NO EFFECT ON GRAIN PRICES 

HEREWITH give my reasons for 
being in favor of prohibition. About 
the prices of farmers’ grains would be 
better—“I am from Missouri.” Grain 
to-day is bringing just as much as it 
ever did unless war made the differ¬ 
ence. I hear a lot about barley would 
be worth more. Let me say that I can 
see no difference in the price of barley 
now and in days when things were 
supposed to be wet. 

But I can see a difference in some 
families of my friends. This personal- 
liberty stuff is all bosh. There has al¬ 
ways been lawbreaking and there will 
always be more or less until the final 
reckoning. We have a law against 
murder, gambling, and other things, 
but read the result in the daily press. 

As long as prohibition of intoxicat¬ 
ing liquor is a law of the land, let every 
true American stand by law and see 
that it is enforced, whether prohibition, 
murder, slavery, gambling, reckless 
driving of automobiles, of which much is 
traceable to the use of liquor. I might 
say that it makes no difference to me 
whether it is wet or dry, and it doesn’t, 
but I am seeking the welfare of gen¬ 
erations yet unborn who may rise and 
call us blessed.—W. W. H., New York. 

P. S.—I notice one writer says: “If 
alcohol is such a terror to mankind, 
why has the Creator made it so plenti¬ 
ful?” How’s this? If Paris green, 
arsenate of lead, and nicotine sulphate 
is good for mankind, and an all-wise 
Creator has supplied the materials so 
plentifully of which they are made, 
why not all take just a little for our 
stomach’s sake? 






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80 


American Agriculturist,'August 4,1923 


Hints for the Housewife in the Busy Season 

Elizabeth Owen Tells How to Simplify the Work — Midsummer Recipes and Patterns 


I N some communities, the housewife 
must prepare two meals each day 
in the busy seasons, for the extra help 
on the farm. This means long hours 
of hard work over a hot stove. A 
fireless cooker is the best servant a 
woman can have at such a time, but if 
that is out of the question, there are 
still many ways in which she can 
lighten her labor. 

Beginning a week beforehand let us 
do a little unusual shopping. First, 
we’ll buy two slabs of soapstone, which 
are invaluable as fuel and space savers. 
Pieces six by eight inches and about 
an inch and a half thick can be pur¬ 
chased for a few cents. They heat 
through in a few moments and then 
can be placed on the shelf, or back 
of range, leaving the range free for 
other things. Anything placed on them 
will boil steadily for some time, and 
for simmering things they are beyond 
compare. 

Rid the House of Flies 

Flies will get into the house in spite 
of screen doors, and there’s only one 
thing more discouraging than trying 
to eat with flies in the dining-room, 
and that is to cook with flies in the 
kitchen. So next we will buy ten cents’ 
worth of oil of lavender, two pounds 
of rosin, and a pint of castor oil. 
Heat together until the mixture looks 
like molasses, smear while hot with 
paint brush on any kind of paper, and 
place several sheets about the room. 

Having rid the house of flies, use 
a small paint brush dipped in the oil 
of lavender on the outside of the 
screens. We may even sprinkle a few 
drops in each room; the odor is fresh 
and sweet. 

Next on the list are paper napkins 
and towels, which save many a rub 
next wash day; also cup towels, and 
kitchen hand towels. 

Have you a leaky milkpan or dish- 
pan? Then we’ll make it leak worse. 
Make a sort of overgrown colander 
out of it, then take four large spools 
and nail them on for legs. In the 
center nail an old can for the silver¬ 
ware, when washing dishes place in a 
larger pan, fill with those troublesome 
dishes, then scald, and if you must dry 
them, use a paper towel. Dish wash¬ 
ing thus loses many of its terrors. 

To Prepare a Fat Hen 

If you haven’t any roaster, we will 
get an oblong self-basting one, and if 
you are short of canned meats or sau¬ 
sage smother a fat hen, (by the way, 
soda is fine for cleaning chickens; it 
takes out the pinfeathers). Cut up 
the fowl, salt, take half flour and half 
cornmeal, dredge each piece, put two 
tablespoonfuls of shortening in your 
roaster, have it hot, put in the chicken, 
then pepper, put in four slices of 
sugar-cured breakfast bacon, and 
enough water to come around the edge 
of the chicken (don’t entirely cover 
with water), put on lid and set in the 
oven. If you want to roast sweet po¬ 
tatoes in the roaster, peel, cut into 
pieces, put in a little butter, lay in 
potatoes, sprinkle with sugar and salt. 
Put in one-third cup of water, put on 
lid and set in the oven. When almost 
done, take off lid, set in upper oven 
a few minutes to brown a little. 

A Useful Home-Made Casserole 

Have you a casserole? If not, get a 
one or two gallon crock with lid, tem¬ 
per by first soaking in cold water for 
twenty-four hours, then place it in the 
oven and let the water come slowly to 
a boil. To cook roasts ' or chicken, 
place in the bottom a rack made of 
bucket lid or tin pan, punched full of 
nail holes. Place the meat on this 
with a little water underneath. In 
cooking pot roasts, put your roast in a 
spider on top of the stove and brown 
on all sides, to prevent loss of flavor. 
The toughest cuts of mec*t are made 
tender and palatable in the casserole. 

I suppose you will cook a ham for 
a change, and while you are about it, 
you should save some of the stock for 
seasoning- baked or green beans. Both 
are permissible on such a table. It 
would save time and labor if you 
baked your beans the day beforehand. 
You can seal part of them in glass 


jars and if set in a cool place they 
will keep perfectly. 

'New beans, peas or spinach should 
be put on to cook in hot water, just 
enough to’ cover them. Cold water ex¬ 
tracts the flavor during its heating. 
Never use the led while cooking them if 
you want them to preserve their color. 

Your cakes can be baked the day 
before. Just try this icing and see if 
your family even suggests that you 
cook icing again: Heat three table¬ 
spoonfuls of orange juice and one 
tablespoonful of butter, one teaspoon¬ 
ful of lemon, add the grated rind of 


the orange and enough confectioner’s 
sugar for a thick icing. 

Now, if you make up a quart of 
your favorite salad dressing, another 
of pudding sauce, and a jar of new 
beet pickles, you will find your “battle 
half won.”_ 


THE LOGANBERRY BACK IN 
STYLE 

W E have learned to use both the 
“old-fashioned,” popular fruits 
and others which used to go to waste. 
The strawberries and raspberries and 
other midsummer berries are always 
used on the table and put up in large 
quantities, but recently we have come 
to appreciate the loganberry as giving 
both variety and flavor to the menu. 

It may be used as a filling for pie 
and also put up as a preserve. Logan¬ 
berry jelly is also delicious and the 
berries may be used in equal quanti¬ 
ties with strawberries for a combina¬ 
tion jam that has quite an unusual 
flavor. Loganberries also give both 
taste and color to plain junket, tinting 
to a delicate pink, which makes a very 
attractive dish with fresh stewed 
loganberries and whipped cream. 

Some unusual recipes for the logan¬ 
berries are as follows: 

Loganberry Batter Pudding 
Fill a small granite pudding dish 
about half full of fresh loganberries. 


cover with 2 cups sugar. Dot with 
butter. Cover and set in oven while 
preparing the following batter: One 
egg, Vz cup sugar, Vz cup milk, 2 
tablespoonfuls butter or other shorten¬ 
ing, 1 Vz cups flour, 2 y 2 teaspoonfuls 
baking powder. Remove fruit from 
oven, spread this batter over the top 
and bake until a rich brown. 

Jr 

Loganberry Sherbert 

One quart loganberries, 4 cups sug¬ 
ar, 1 pint water, 2 tablespoonfuls gela¬ 
tine and the fruit, which has been 
pressed through a sieve to remove 


seeds. Lastly, add beaten whites of 2 
eggs and freeze. 

Loganberry Tapioca 

Soak 1 cup pearl tapioca in luke¬ 
warm water over night. In the morn¬ 
ing put this in a deep 2Vz or 3 quart 
pudding dish (granite or enamel), add 
a pint of fresh loganberries, with 2 
cups sugar. Fill the pan nearly full 
of warm water, add a tablespoonful of 
butter, and bake until the tapioca is 
clear. It will be well to stir it from 
the bottom once or twice and it may 
be necessary to add a little hot water 
if the oven is very hot. Serve with 
milk or cream. 

Loganberry Ice Cream 

Scald 2 quarts of milk in double 
boiler, then dissolve 2 cups of sugar in 
it. Let cool, add 1 pint of whipped 
cream, and when partly frozen, add 1 
pint of fresh loganberries, crushed 
and sweetened. Serve with chopped 
nut meats. 

Loganberry Dessert 

Make a custard of 1 quart of milk, 
1 cup of sugar, and yolks of 4 eggs; 
flavor with vanilla. Spread bottom of 
pudding dish with slices of stale, plain 
cake. Cover with custard, then a layer 
of loganberries, sprinkled with sugar 
until the dish is full. Cover that with 
meringue made with the whites of 2 


eggs, sweetened, and slightly brown in 
the oven. 

Loganberry Sauce for Cottage and 
Bread Pudding 

Rub together 2 tablespoonfuls of 
butter and the same of flour, add ^2 
cup or more of sugar, and when blend¬ 
ed add 1 cup loganberries mashed, to 
which some sugar has been added, and 
work in smoothly. Then place on stove 
or in a double boiler, and add boiling 
water, boiling until smooth and of the 
desired thickness. 

Loganberry Cake Filling 

Beat Vz cup butter and 1 cup sugar 
to a cream. Add the white of 1 egg 
beaten stiff and 1 cup crushed logan¬ 
berries.—H. A. Lyman. 


SOUTHERN SUMMER SOUP 

One marrow soup bone; salt, pepper, 
and dried celery leaves for seasoning; 

2 quarts of water; several very ripe to¬ 
matoes; 1 cup diced okra; 1 large onion 
chopped fine; 2 potatoes; 2 carrots; a 
few butterbeans; 1 tablespoon of rice 
or barley for thickening. 

Put the bone and other ingredients' 
on in cold water in order to extract the 
juices of the meat, and simmer slowly 
for an hour or more. The potatoes and 
thickening may be added after the soup 
has cooked for some time and danger 
of sticking is avoided.— Hazel H. 
Harris. 


The Brown Mouse 

(Continued from page 78) 

Bronsons, those queer children from 
Tennessee, the Simmses, the Talcotts, 
the Hansens, the Hamms and Colonel 
Woodruff’s hired man, Pete. 

Jim sat down between Bettina Han¬ 
sen, a flaxen-haired young Brunhilde 
of seventeen, and Calista Simms—Jen¬ 
nie saw him do it, while listening to 
Wilbur Smythe’s account of the exact¬ 
ing nature of the big law practice he 
was building up. 

The repast drew to a close; and over 
by the burr-oak the crowd had grown 
to a circle surrounding Jim Irwin. 

“He seems to be making an address,” 
said Wilbur Smythe. 

“Well, Wilbur,” replied the colonel, 
“you had the first shot at us. Sup¬ 
pose we move over and see what’s under 
discussion.” 

As they approached the group, they 
heard Jim Irwin answering something 
which Ezra Bronson had said. 

“You think so, Ezra,” said he, “and 
it seems reasonable that big creameries 
like those at Omaha, Sioux City, Des 
Moines and the other centralizer points 
can make butter cheaper than we would 
do here—but we’ve the figures that 
show that they aren’t economical.” 

“They can’t make good butter, for 
one thing,” said Newton Bronson 
cockily. 

“Why can’t they?” asked Olaf Han¬ 
sen, the father of Bettina. 

“Well,” said Newton, “they have to 
have so much cream that they’ve got 
to ship it so far that it gets rotten 
on the way, and they have to renovate 
it with lime and other ingredients be¬ 
fore they can churn it.” 

“Well,” said Raymond Simms, “I 
reckon they sell their butter fo’ all it’s 
wuth; an’ they cain’t get within from 
foah to seven cents a pound as much 
fo’ it as the farmers’ creameries in 
Wisconsin and Minnesota get fo’ 
theirs.” 

“How do you kids know so darned 
much about it?” queried Pete. 

“Huh!” sniffed Bettina. “We’ve 
been reading and writing letters about 
it, and figuring percentages on it all 
winter. We’ve done arithmetic and 
geography and grammar and I don’t 
know what else on it.” 

“Well, I’m agin’ any schoolin’,” said 
Pete, “that makes kids smarter than 
their parents and their parents’ hired 
men. Gi’ me another swig o’ that lem¬ 
onade, Jim!” 

(Continued next week) 


Dip a new broom in hot water be¬ 
fore using it the first time to toughen 
the splints. This makes it flexible and 
prevents breaking. 


EVERYDAY STYLES FOR EVERYDAY PEOPLE 


A GLANCE at the diagram shows that No. 

1821, a dress for the teen-age girl, is 
cut all in one piece. It is slashed at the 
low waistline and gathered to give becom¬ 
ing fulness to the growing 
figure. 

No. 1821 cuts in sizes 4, 

6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 years. Size 
8 requires 1% yards of 36- or 
42-inch material with 3% 
yards ribbon. Price 12c. 



A RE you a bit stout? Then 
- No. 1662, with the length¬ 
ened back and the allowance 
for fulness over the bust, will appeal to you. 
The reveres and skirt panels are also good 
features. 

No. 1662 cuts in sizes 36, 38, 40, 42, 
44, 46 and 48 inches bust measure. Size 
36 takes 4% yards 44-inch material, % 
yard contrasting and 7 yards binding. 

Price 12c. 



A DISTINCTIVE model for a gingham is 
No. 1826 and the interesting thing 
about this pattern is that the bias bands, 
the main style feature, may be left off if 
you prefer and the dress would 
still be smart. 

No. 1826 cuts in 16 years, 
36, 38, 40, 42 and 44 inches 
bust measure. For size 36 use 
3% yards 36-inch material. 

Pattern 12c. 



/ Q2* ^ 


A 


LITTLE set of underclothes 
that are easy to make is 
No 8905, which includes a 
simple Gertrude petticoat, hanging from 
the shoulders, and a pair of drawers. For 
all ages from babyhood up. 

No. 8905 cuts in sizes %, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 
10 and 12 years. Size 4 requires 1% yards 
36-inch material, with 2 yards of 4-inch 
flouncing and 2% yards of edging. Pat¬ 
tern 12c. 


To Order: See that your name, address, pattern numbers and sizes are 
clearly written and enclose proper remittance (in stamps, preferably) and 
send to Pattern Department of American Agriculturist, 461 Fourth Avenue, 
New York City. 

Add 10c if you want our summer catalogue. 






































































































































American Agriculturist, August 4,1923 


81 


Soap Bubble Stunts For Parties 

Jennie Stewart Tells How the Children May Be Amused 


S TUNTS wth soap bubbles are good 
for a summer party when it is too 
hot to play anything very strenuous. 
With a good suds and some lemonade 
straws you can perform stunts that 
will astonish even the grown-ups and 
before you know it they will all be try¬ 
ing their luck with you. 

For the best results you should make 
up a good suds the day before or at 
least in the morning and set it in a 
cold place till afternoon. Add a few 
drops of glycerine and beat it in well 
before using, as this makes the bubbles 
more brilliant and more lasting. Color 
different glasses of suds with water 
colors or egg dyes. 

One good stunt is to dip the tips of 
the fingers one after the other in suds, 
then, dip the straw and touch it lightly 
to the finger tip and blow. You can 
have a pretty glove on each finger tip. 

You can dip flowers into the suds, 
then dip the straws and touch the edge 
of a flower and blow. The result is 
a bright ball covering the flower 
through which it shows up prettily. 
White flowers should be blown over 
with colored suds, colored flowers with 
clear suds. A little prize might be 
offered for the biggest and prettiest 
effect. 

Provide Plenty of Straws for 
Everybody 

Bowls, glasses and vases may be used 
for this next stunt. Wet the edge of 
the glass with suds, dip the straw and 
touch to the edge of the glass and blow. 
A bubble can be obtained that com¬ 
pletely covers the top of the glass. Dip 
the straw again, very carefully push it 
into the bubble and blow. You may get 
one large or several small bubbles float¬ 
ing around inside the glass. Colored 
balls should be blown inside clear ones 
for this stunt. A prize for the largest 
and prettiest effect might be offered. 

Blowing chains of bubbles is another 
good stunt. Blow one and just before 
it drops blow another, then another, 
each one trying to see who can get the 
longest chain. You might also have a 
try to see who can blow the biggest 
single bubble, the one that lasts longest 
or that goes the highest in the air. 

A very pretty stunt is to touch flow¬ 
ers or leaves on a shrub out in the 
yard with suds put on with a brush, 
then blow bubbles of different colors 
all over the bush. I once saw a few 
yards of hedge fairly abloom with bub¬ 
bles put there by a party of boys. 

You can blow bubbles on the tips of 
each other’s ear lobes like huge pendu¬ 
lous ear ornaments. One boy blew a 
huge ball on the top of another boy’s 
head. He walked about for quite a 
long time before the bubble burst. 


WINTER-BLOOMING GERANIUMS 

I have always had good success with 
geraniums and have seen some very 
fine specimens grown in other windows. 
I have grown nice small plants from 
cuttings rooted in mid-summer or even 
in August, and have taken up large 
plants that were bedded out and by 
cutting 1 them back severely have had 
them blooming freely long before 
spring. Blooms for Christmas have 
not been uncommon. 

To get good results, the old plants 
should be cut back a month before they 
are to be potted up so new growths 
may break and be ready to grow 
promptly. The roots should be reduced 
somewhat with the top as this will 
make a finer root system. Run a sharp 
knife straight down all around the 
plant two or three inches out, first 
cutting a quarter of the way round 
on two sides, and a week or ten days 
later cutting the space between. 

. September is the best month for lift¬ 
ing’ and if potted in a six or seven- 
inch pot for large plants, and smaller 
tor small to medium plants they will 
fill up with roots in a short time. Be 
careful in handling, as the fresh new 
roots formed from the cutting will be 
easily injured. Have the soil wet when 
you lift them. Pot firmly and water 
trom the. bottom, and do not water 
again until they.show they need it, for 
too much watering’ is bad for gerani¬ 
ums. Do not feed until the pots are 


full of roots as it retards root action. 
Sandy soil well filled with black mel¬ 
low woods mould, but not too loose, will 
make good bloomers. 

Small plants from rooted cuttings 
should be grown on as fast as possible 
until they are in four-inch pots and if 
they have made extra strong growth 
they may need five-inch, but they 
should then be made to fill the pot 
with roots as no geranium will bloom 
well in winter if not root bound.— 
Rachael Rae. 


OLD KITCHENS MADE NEW 

If those of us who seem doomed to 
live in unhandy old-fashioned farm¬ 
houses would do a little planning, we 
might improve our homes considerably 
and with little expense. 

Wall board, or beaver board, is a 
great, first aid in remodeling old houses. 
It is inexpensive and easily put up. 

I had always had a longing in my 
heart for a ^mall kitchen, a dining 
room just big enough, and a large liv¬ 
ing room. As newly-weds, the first 
house we moved into consisted of two 
large rooms, 16x18 feet, separated by a 
small hall. Three small bedrooms 
opened off the large rooms. But where 
were my “just right” kitchen and din¬ 
ing room to come in? 

But the wife was not going to be 
cheated in that way. She made a trip 
to the nearest town where wall board 
could be bought. She told the dealer 
all her plans and got his prices. But 
the hardest job was waiting her at 
home, convincing the other half of the 
firm. At last he consented and the 
dealer was called on the phone and told 
to send the material up. The next day 
the wall board and necessary lumber 
arrived at the home freight station. 
Friend husband hauled it home as his 
part of the contract. A neighboring 
carpenter was prevailed upon and 
came in two evenings after supper and 
in less than a week we had a handy 
kitchen 16x7 feet, where I could work 
undisturbed, and a cozy dining’ room 
16xl0>4 feet. I had my heart’s desire, 
and the cost was less than $25.— Mrs. 
Nellie Anderson 


DUST-GATHERERS TO THE DUST 
PILE 

Getting rid of rubbish and useless ar¬ 
ticles do much to improve a house, is 
the cheering thought of Cornell do¬ 
mestic scientists, who say that such a 
cleanup does not require the money 
needed to make alterations or to buy 
new articles. 

A day spent going through the house 
discarding knick-knacks and dust col¬ 
lectors, may make all the difference be¬ 
tween an ordinary house and an ex¬ 
ceptionally attractive one. Looking at 
it from the practical side, everything 
discarded means one less thing to take 
care of. 

On this elimination tour, articles of 
furniture may be found which have 
been laid aside because of some minor 
injury. Simple repairs and perhaps a 
few coats of paint may bring them 
back to a life of usefulness. Many 
women enjoy doing this themselves, or 
the man of the house may lend a hand. 

A demonstration of refinishing fur¬ 
niture may be had through the local 
home demonstration agent, according to 
a statement from Ithaca. 


HOW ABOUT A REST ROOM? 

When the farm woman comes to 
town, is there a place where she has 
a right to go for a rest and refresh¬ 
ment? Communities are beginning to 
realize the need and rest rooms are be¬ 
ing established. 

Often they are started by farm wo¬ 
men’s organizations, co-operating with 
town women’s clubs, chambers of com¬ 
merce, or county agents. The first step 
is to secure a room, near the shopping 
district., railroad station, or parking- 
centre if possible. In some communities 
the women have secured a room, rent 
free, in the courthouse, or town hall. 
Private merchants will often be glad 
to give the use of rooms, since it will 
attract people to their stores. 


The furnishings of the room should 
be simple, comfortable, and durable. A 
well-equipped room contains rocking- 
chairs, straight chairs, a table with 
reading material, oilcloth covered lunch 
tables, a couch, a crib and a screen. A 
gas burner might be provided for heat¬ 
ing water and milk. Pure drinking 
water and sanitary toilet facilities are 
necessary for every rest room. 

' Financing the Rest Room 

There are two expenses to be con¬ 
sidered—the initial cost of furnishing 
and the annual cost of maintenance. 
At first the expense may be borne by 
the organization starting the room. 
When its great service has been ex¬ 
perienced, often town or county funds 
provide for its maintenance. In one 
place, pledge cards were issued to the 
townspeople calling for five cents a 
month. It is possible to raise money by 
the usual manner of fairs and enter¬ 
tainments. However, these make it 
seem more like a charitable undertak¬ 
ing, and it is better for it to be con¬ 
sidered a necessity supported by all. 

A matron, though not necessary, adds 
much to the rest-room’s service. She 
sees that the room is kept clean, she 
may care for a sleeping child and watch 
over packages. If a woman should feel 
ill, it would be a great help to have 
some one to call on. She may take 
charge of towels, soap, and clean pil¬ 
low covers for the couch. In some towns 
the matron manages the Woman’s Ex¬ 
change, the profit paying for the cost 
of the rest room. 


Before heating milk in a saucepan, 
rinse the pan in cold water, and it 
will not scorch so easily. 



The 

“Pride” 

Send for 
Catalog 40 


A Modern Bathroom, $60 

Just oue of our wonderful bargains. Set com¬ 
prises a 4, 4Yi or 6 foot iron enameled roll rim 
bath tui , one 19 inch roll rim enameled flat- 
back lavatory, and a syphon action, wash¬ 
down water closet with porcelain tank aud 
oak post hinge seat; all china index faucets, 
nickel-plated traps,aud all nickel-platedhea vy 

fittings. j.M.SEIDENBERGCO.,Inc. 

254 W. 34 St. Bel. 7th and 8th Aves. N. Y. C. 


High School Course 
in 2 Years 


<You can complete 
this simplified High 
School Course at home 
inside two years. Meets all requirements for en¬ 
trance to college and the leading professions. This 

and tbirty-mx other practical courses are described in our 
Free Bulletin. Send for it TODAY. 

AMERICAN SCHOOL 

Dept, tic 7. Urexel At. k oHlh St. © A.S.1923 CHICAGO 


Fills Every Room with Healthful 
Warm Air. Reliable, durable and 
economical.* Does not heat the 
cellar. Free copy of “Warmth and 
Comfort ’’ sent upon request. 

UTICA HEATER COMPANY 
220 White.boro St., UTICA. N. Y. 

You can be quickly cured, if you 


k 

B Send 10 cents for 288-page book on Stammering and 
H Stuttering. “Its Cause and Cure.’’ It tells how I 
Mf cured myself after stammering 20 yrs. B. N. Boque, 
V oil- Bogue Bldg.. 1147 N. III. St., Indianapolis. 


'STAMMER 



PARKER’S 
HAIR BALSAM 

Removes Dandruff — Stops Hair Falling 

Restores Color and 
Beauty to Gray and Faded Hair 

60c. and $1.00 at druggists 
Hiscox Chem. Works, Patchogue, N.Y. 



1,800 
Bargains 
Like This! 
Sale Closes 
August 31! 


These reduced prices on guaranteed 
hosiery show what big savings you can 
make in this sale. 

These Women’s Stockings are made 
of very fine quality combed cotton yarn. 

An extra thread knit into soles, heels 
and toes adds greatly to their life. Dou¬ 
ble garter tops. Fully seamless. We 
guarantee four pairs will wear you 
four months or we will replace them 
free. Medium weight. Sizes, 8J4» 9, 

934, 10 and 10J4* State size. Ship¬ 
ping weight, four pairs, 12 ounces. 

Order Direct From This 
Advertisement t 


Every depart¬ 
ment in our tre¬ 
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offers exception¬ 
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this big summer 
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your neighbor’s 
copy or 

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Book! 


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82 


American Agriculturist, August 4,1923- 


Reviewing the Latest Eastern Markets and Prices 


SUMMER APPLES PLENTIFUL AT 
NEW YORK 

HERSCHEL H. JONES 

S UPPLIES of summer apples in the 
New York wholesale market are al¬ 
ready becoming fairly heavy in spite 
of the short crop reported in most 
Eastern States. New Jersey has a 
large crop and most of the New York 
receipts are from New Jersey, Mary¬ 
land and Delaware. 

William’s Red, Dutchess, Yellow 
Transparents, Starrs and Astrachans 
are coming from all three of these 
States. Some Wealthys in from Dela¬ 
ware and Maryland. New York State 
sections have not begun to.ship yet. Vir¬ 
ginia is sending some mixed varieties 
and Transparents. 

Such a large proportion of the early 
apples are small, due to drought, that 
there is a wide range in prices from 
the fancy large apples to the poor and 
ordinary. The market is really over¬ 
supplied with poor stuff that is hardly 
worth shipping. For the best interests 
of everybody, much of this stuff should 
have been fed to pigs, or left in the 
orchard. 

No products of farm are more un¬ 
wisely marketed on the whole than 
these early apples. If you were to 
walk through the wholesale market 
most any night at this time of year, 
you could count on the fingers of one 
hand, the shipments of apples that 
show any evidence of modern grading 
and packing. Conspicuous among these 
few would be the shipments of the New 
Jersey Fruit Growers’ Cooperative As¬ 
sociation, which packs and markets for 
its members early apples and peaches 
under the “Jersey Jerry” brand. They 
are putting out in round bottom bushel 
baskets a standardized pack of uni¬ 
form size and quality, that has been 
averaging about 25 to 50c more per bas¬ 
ket than other ungraded apples of the 
same quality. 

While the market is really good now 
only for large size fancy apples, a bet¬ 
ter demand is expected as soon as ber¬ 
ries are out of the way. Berries have 
been so high that pie bakers may 
be forced to turn to apples. Here is 
hoping they use apples that are not as 
sour as some the writer recently at¬ 
tempted to eat in a pie. 

The following wholesale prices rep¬ 
resent sales of early apples from New 
Jersey, July 26, per bushel basket: 
transparent, 50c@$1.75; Starrs, $1@3; 
William’s Red, $1.25@$2.50; Dutchess, 
$1(2)1.25; Mixed varieties, 50c@$2. 

L. I. POTATOES MORE PLENTIFUL 

Long Island potatoes were more 
plentiful in the market last week and 
the quality showed improvement. The 
market for them was good. Cobblers 
from east end of the island brought 
$5 @5.25, per bbl., while those sold in 
farmers’ public markets from nearby 
brought $4.50 @ 5. New Jersey Cob¬ 
blers are not coming in very heavy in 
the wholesale market. They are of ii’- 
regular size and quality, selling at $3 
@ 4 per 150-lb. bag. Up to July 21 
New Jersey has shipped only 37 cars 
as compared with 686 to July 22 last 
year. 

CANADIAN BERRIES ARRIVE 

Strawberries and cherries from Can¬ 
ada appeared in the New York market 
last week. The strawberries sold at 
from 3c to 25c per quart, depending on 
quality. The cherries, Montmorencys, 
were of small size and sold at 40 @ 60c 
per 6-qt. basket. 

Supplies of RASPBERRIES, 
BLACKBERRIES and BLACK CAPS 
from New Jersey and Hudson River 
Valley sections are diminishing rapidly. 
CURRANTS and GOOSEBERRIES 
are nearing the close of their season. 
CHERRIES were in light supply ex¬ 
cept on Tuesday of last week. The 
quality from the Hudson Valley and 
Western New York sections was irregu¬ 
lar and demand moderately active for 
fancy large fruit, with a slightly 
stronger market after the middle of the 
week. 

The following quotations represent 
wholesale sales of small fruits on July 
26: BLACKBERRIES, per qt., best, 
25 @ 27c; fancy, large, 28 @ 32c; 
small, ordinary, 22 @ 23c. BLACK 
CAPS, per pt., best, 12 @ 13c; fancy, 


large, 14 @ 15c; ordinary, 9 @ 11c. 
CHERRIES, Hudson River, per 4-qt. 
basket, black and red sweet, $1 @ 1.35; 
red sour, best, 75c; black sour, best, 
85 @ 90c; Western New York, red and 
black sweets, $1 @ 1.25; red sour, 60 @ 
65c. CURRANTS, per qt., red, best, 
10 @ 11c; small, ordinary, 8 @ 9c; 
black, best, 25c. GOOSEBERRIES, 
per 4-qt. basket, best, 75 @ 85c; fancy, 
90c @$1; medium, 65 @ 70c per qt.; 
best, 17 @ 18c. RASPBERRIES, per 
pt., red, best, 20 @ 22c; fancy, 23 @ 
25c; poor to ordinary, 12% @ 15c. 

VEGETABLES TREND UPWARD 

Prices on GREEN PEAS advanced 
during the last week and the quality 
was somewhat better. On July 27 


creamery extra advanced 2%c per lb. 
over the previous week, then dropped 
back to 41@41%c per lb. Thursday, 
July 26. Reports as to reduced produc¬ 
tion because of drought had much to do 
with the advance. A material improve¬ 
ment in the European financial situa¬ 
tion would have a marked effect on the 
butter market, as the prospect of im¬ 
portations is the only check on the buy¬ 
er’s fear of a shortage. The quality of 
current receipts has been poor, and 
firms that had contracts to fill for 
creamery extras began buying against 
these contracts last week. The demand 
is very strong for creamery extras that 
have been officially inspected. In the 
middle west there has been an increase 
in the demand for sweet cream and for 


From a Man Who “ Tunes In ” 

“ TN regard to your market service by radio, I would say that it 
x is the best money-maker for the farmers that there ever was. 
It is as quick as lightning, and the farmer doesn’t have to ship at 
the wrong time. If the radio service was stopped the rural people 
would loose something great.—So don’t stop it. I have a receiving 
set and I am making arrangements with our local telephone system 
to transmit the market reports over the wire as they come in. I have 
the only one in this community. A few of your blanks would be 
very useful then. I don’t have any suggestions, only that you keep 
it up.”—J. F. O’Harah, Reynoldsville, Jefferson County, Pa. 

These market reports are broadcast every Tuesday, Wednesday, 
Thursday and Friday at 9:50 Standard time, from Station WEAF, 
492 meters. 


State GREEN PEAS sold at $2.50 @ 
3.25 per bushel basket. Small ship¬ 
ments of CAULIFLOWER were re¬ 
ceived last week from the Hudson River 
Valley, and found a steady market for 
the fancy large stock, with a wide 
range in prices of $1.50 @ 7.00 per 
crate, depending on quality. FIRST 
TOMATOES from the Hudson River 
Valley section arrived last week and 
sold at $1.50 @ 1.75 per 12-qt. basket. 
GREEN BEANS were in light supply 
from up-State sections, but plentiful 
from nearby, and demand was limited 
with market dull; prices on July 26, 
per bushel hamper, green, $1 @ 1.50; 
wax, best, $1.50 @ 1.75; fancy, $2; or¬ 
dinary, 75c @ $1.25. LETTUCE sup¬ 
plies from up-State sections were again 
liberal; poor quality stock was neg¬ 
lected, wholesale prices July 26 per 
crate, Big Boston varieties mostly, 50c 
@ 75c; some fancy as high as 90c; 
Orange County Lettuce, 25 @ 65c. 

BUTTER MARKET ADVANCES 

There was a “bull” market for butter 
last week. The wholesale prices for 


milk for condensing. In Wisconsin, both 
the Cheese factories and the Condens¬ 
ing Plants have paid better prices than 
the butter factories. 

The Cheese market was unsettled and 
irregular last week, with a tendency 
toward further weakness on both New 
York State and Wisconsin Cheese. State 
whole milk, flats, fresh, average run, 
American Cheese were quoted at 24%c, 
on July 26th. 

FANCY WHITE EGGS STEADY 

Fancy nearby white eggs moved 
more freely last week and the market 
was steady. The top quotation of 45c 
per doz. for New Jersey, hennery 
whites, closely selected extras, con¬ 
tinued, and premiums above this price 
were paid in some instances. Ordinary 
average qualities of nearby eggs are 
dull, however, and moving slowly. 

The total receipts of all grades of 
eggs fell off a little last week. Short 
held cold storage eggs entered directly 
into competition with fresh receipts, 
causing a surplus of the latter, which 
had to be moved into cold storage. In 


Quotations From Eastern Markets 


The following are the prices at which farm products of special interest to 
eastern farmers sold on July 26: 


Eggs, Nearbys (cents per dozen) New York Buffalo 

New Jersey hennery whites uncandled, extras... 41 @45 . 

Other hennery whites, extras. 38 @43 ' . 

Extra firsts. 34 @37 33 @35 

Firsts. 30 @33 . 

Gathered, whites, first to extra firsts. 30 @36 . 

Lower grades. 26 @29 . 

Hennery browns, extras. 34@38 . 

Gathered browns and mixed colors, extras.. 29 @33 32 @33 

Pullets No. 1.. 26@32 . 

Butter (cents per pound) 

Creamery (salted) high score. 42@42% . 

Extra (92 score).. 41@41% - 42@43 

State dairy (salted), finest... ■ 40@41 40@41 

Good to prime. 38% @39% 32@39 


Phila. 


28 


42 


Hay and Straw, Large Bales (per ton) 

Timothy No. 2. 

Timothy No. 3. 

Timothy Sample. 

Fancy light clover mixed. 

Alfalfa, second cutting. 

Oat straw No. 1. 

Live Poultry, Express Lots (cents per lb.) 

Fowls, colored fancy, heavy. 

Fowls, leghorns and poor. 

Broilers, colored fancy. 

Broilers, leghorn.. 


U. S. Grades 


Old Grade Standards 


$25@27 

21 @23 



12 @17 



~ 25 



28 @30 



10 @12 



26 @27 

23 @25 

28 @29 

20 @25 

20 @22 


36 @37 

26@3S 

38 @40 

30 @32 


21 @23 


Live Stock (per cwt.) 

Calves, good to medium...$12.25 @13.50 $13.50 @14.00 

Bulls, common to good... 4.50 @ 6.25 5.00 @ 5.50 

Lambs, common to good... 11.00 @14.00 14.00 @14.50 

Sheep, common to good ewes. 3.25 @ 5.50 4.00 @ 6.00 

Hogs, Yorkers .. 8.00@ 8.25 8.60@ 8.65 


other words, some of the best storage 
eggs took the place of fresh, thereby 
forcing the fresh into storage, at low 
prices, of course. The total amount 
that went into storage exceeded that 
which came out. The Federal report 
for July 26 shows over 5,000 more 
cases on hand in storage on that date 
than on the same day last year. If 
production conditions have not materi¬ 
ally changed, the market might be ex¬ 
pected to follow about the same trend 
as last year, but it must be remem¬ 
bered that competition of eggs was 
stimulated last year by a publicity 
campaign. 

Medium qualities of nearby whites, 
lacking light yolks and showing shrink¬ 
age or weak body, moved slowly at ir¬ 
regular prices, ranging from 30 @ 37c, 
with the top figure only for the better 
qualities. 

Egg shippers are having much diffi¬ 
culty in securing good second hand egg 
cases. Most of the firms that make a 
business of collecting and selling used 
cases, have orders for all their supply 
for four to six weeks ahead. It is 
practically impossible to obtain prompt 
shipment of cases. Shippers are ad¬ 
vised to begin scouting for what cases 
they need at least six weeks in ad¬ 
vance, and to secure a reserve of new 
cases to tide them over any shortage. 
A list of addresses of dealers and manu¬ 
facturers of egg packages will be sup¬ 
plied on application to the Market De¬ 
partment of the American Agricul¬ 
turist. 

LARGE BROILERS IN DEMAND 

Too many small Leghorn broilers are 
coming to market before they have 
reached a weight to get best prices. 
Broilers should weigh over 1% lbs for 
New York market, not average that, 
but be that heavy as a minimum. Re¬ 
ceipts of express broilers were liberal 
last week, but well-grown stock was 
in demand. Colored fowls sold well, 
chiefly at 27c per lb. White Leghorn 
fowls were mostly poor, selling at 20 
@ 25c. Broilers sold July 26 as fol¬ 
lows: Colored, 36 @ 37c; Leghorn, 

large, 33c; Leghorn, average, 30 @ 
32c; small mixed and Leghorn, 23 
@ 29c. 


MAPLE SYRUP DULL 

There is very little demand at present 
for maple syrup or sugar. Several 
commission houses in New York have 
shipments on hand, which have an out¬ 
let at this season only through bottling 
concerns. A better market is expected 
in the fall. The wholesale prices quoted 
on commission sales at New York are 
$1.75 @ 1.90 per gal. for syrup and 20 
@ 25c per lb. for sugar in 1-lb cakes. 

Buffalo wholesale market quotations: 
Syrup, $1.50 @ 1.75 gal.; Sugar, light, 
16@18c, dark, 10@13c lb. 



Those 90 extra bushels will stop your loss on the 
wheat crop. Yes, that’s all they cost—positively! 
You owe yourself the chance to let us explain. 
Mail your address today! 

Seed Wheat we are selling now, yielded as high 
as 40 and 42 bushels per acre. Fine, clean, healthy 
seed—no cockle, rye, garlic or other weeds .... 
Write today—look over our new Wheat Book and 
seed samples — both free .... Mention this ad. 
—You can’t continue losing money on your wheat! 
A. H. HOFFMAN, Inc., Landisville, Lane. Co. Pa. 


Farmers Supplied with 

STEEL WIRE BALE TIES 


FOR HAY AND STRAW BALING, ETC. 
Quality Guaranteed 

H. P. & H. F. WILSON CO. 

520 Washington St. NEW YORK 


SHIP YOUR EGGS 

WHITE AND BROWN 

To R. BRENNER & SONS 

Bonded Commission Merchants 


358 Greenwich St., New York City 


FAILURE 


TO BREED, ABORTION, ETC., 

in All Animals Guaranteed 
Cured. Causes and treatment 
explained in our Free Booklet, Remedy $2 Bot. 

The Breed-0 Remedy Co., P.0. Box240-A, Bristol, Conn. 























































































American Agriculturist, August 4,1923 


83 


How Shall We Market the Surplus? 

As Broilers or Roasters?—Summer Handling of the Flock 


W HILE every roaster is capable, in 
its younger days, of being a 
broiler, the most profit on surplus cock¬ 
erels raised each spring lies in the 
ability to distinguish between these two 
classes of birds. Strictly speaking, 
broilers do not necessarily make good 
roasters; by chance a few may turn 
out to be good roasting birds. Leg¬ 
horns and Anconas are excellent broil¬ 
ers up to two pounds, but they are 
absolutely incapable of being anything 
else. On the other hand, a Brahma 
makes an excellent broiler of three 
pounds or over, but the real profit of 
that bird cannot be realized until the 
weight has reached eight or nine 
pounds. 

Here, then, is one sharp line for the 
two classes of birds: light birds or 
breeds should be sold as broilers; very 
heavy birds as roasters. The real dif¬ 
ficulty is, however, to be found among 
the medium-weight birds, of which 
the Rhode Island Reds, Rocks, and 
Wyandottes are typical examples. 
These types contain both roasters and 
broilers, and for the most profit, the 
classes ought to be divided. 

All birds lacking good health or vigor 
ought to be as soon as they are broil¬ 
er size; likewise cull pullets—that is, 
birds not true to breeding or off color. 
With nothing but good, healthy stock 
left the next step is not very difficult. 
A good roaster should have a body 
that is long, deep, and broad; in other 
words, cull as a broiler the bird that 
is short and stocky; his very shortness 
and lack of depth shows that he can¬ 
not grow big; he hasn’t the room to 
expand. A good way to start in is 
to pick out two or three of the best 
birds and take these birds as your 
standard; the birds that come about 
up to them, keep as roasters; make 
broilers of the rest. You will find 
that almost half of your birds will fall 
in one class or the other without much 
difficulty. 

There are some minor points that 
may help you if some birds are about 
on the line. A roaster ought to have 
good quality of flesh and a good yel¬ 
low color to his skin; a blue tinge is 
not popular on the market, although 
as a broiler the bird may get by. A 
fairly small head with wattles and 
comb to match are also attractive to 
commercial buyers. The flesh should 
show a fairly even distribution with a 
Well-developed breast. If the breast 
development is poor at the broiler 
stage, even if the bird is large, put 
it in the broiler class. 

So much for some of the guiding 
principles in dividing these two types 
of birds. From the standpoint of profit 
and loss in the poultry flock all broil¬ 
ers are more expensive than roasters 
because of the labor involved in car¬ 
ing for young chicks. Secondly, the 
mortality or actual loss is heavy with 
the younger birds. The cost of con¬ 
tinuing the broiler to the roasting stage 
is slight; when given free range and 
plenty of water he will almost take 
care of himself. 

While the actual return on these 
two classes of birds cannot be made 
reliable because of the variation of the 
market prices the country over, a quo¬ 
tation from the New York market 
gives some idea of the money involved. 
The prices are for birds sold live- 
weight, and of course the profit would be 
greater in both cases if the birds had 
been sold dressed. Saturday, July 1, 
1922, broilers were quoted at 32 @ 40c. 
Taking the top price throughout for 
the sake of uniformity, a three-pound 
broiler would have brought $1.20. Sat¬ 
urday, November 4, spring chickens 
were quoted at 19 @ 28c. A six 
pound roaster would, therefore, have 
brought $1.68. As a matter of fact, 
the Reds, Rocks, Wyandottes, etc., 
should exceed seven pounds, and prop¬ 
erly fattened should average close to 
eight. The difference then would not 
be less than 48c a bird, and with proper 
management ought to run around 75c 
or better. If the birds are kept on 
a good range, with plenty of water and 
some grain, they will reach a good de¬ 
gree of physical development, and may 
then be fattened for two or three weeks 
in close confinement so that the lack 
of exercise and extra feed will make 


them put on weight. The price re¬ 
ceived will not be a broiler price when 
they are sold, but there will be an 
added income and you will be getting 
the most profit out of all the surplus 
cockerels you raise each spring. The 
surplus males of the poultry yard are 
a necessary nuisance because there is 
no way to avoid their existence, but be¬ 
cause of this very existence they should 



LLUMiil 


THE ROOSTER 

T HE rooster is a lusty bird; 

In all the land his voice is 
heard, 

A proud and haughty bird, by 
heck, 

Who flaps his wings and curves 
his neck. 

From east to west, from perch to 
pole, 

His morning bugle echoes roll, 
Arousing men from snoring deep 
And maidens from their beauty 
sleep. 

He hunts for worms with main 
and might, 

And finding one, with huge 
delight, 

To whet his harem’s appetite, 
He calls his wives with trill and 
hum, 

Then—humor great, but manners 
bum— 

He eats it up before they come. 
Now, whether Red or Plymouth 
Rock, 

x One-half is he of all the flock, 
And chickens mostly favor dad 
In qualities both good and bad. 
But when the hatching season’s 
over, 

We must restrain this gallant 
rover, 

Must shut him up in lonely state 
And keep the layers celibate. 
Their eggs will thus repay our 
toil 

When fertile ones would quickly 
spoil. 

The man who’d be a fresh egg 
booster 

Must segregate that old he- 
rooster. 

—Bob Adams. 


CATTLE BREEDERS 


be made to bring in the best available 
profit, and this can only be done by a 
recognition of the two classes involved. 
Sell broilers, but don’t overlook the 
roasters.— L. H. Hiscock, Onondaga 
County, N. Y. 

FEEDING THE BIRDS IN COOL 
PLACES 

R. I. WEIGLEY 

The very hot days of middle and late 
summer are very hard on laying stock. 
With the best of hot weather care and 
feed, there comes a time during this 
period when the hens will fall off in 
laying, their combs become pale, their 
appetites lack and they sit and mope 
about listlessly. Have you had the 
same experience with your poultry as 
I have had every summer until recent¬ 
ly? I’m sure you all have had. 

I have found a remedy for the hens 
that works to perfection. It is cheap— 
costs nothing, in fact—and can be tried 
by most anybody. This is what I do when 
the enervating days come along: I scat¬ 
ter every day about three sheaves of 
wheat to fifty hens in the coolest place 


I can find. Try it. If you feed oats, 
try feeding it in the straw, too. 

For several years now, I have fed 
all my wheat in the straw during the 
hottest months in this fashion, but I 
did not stop off any part of their lay¬ 
ing ration otherwise. As I said before, 

I scatter my sheaves in the coolest 
place I can find. There is a great, dense 
cherry tree in my orchard run, and 
here I spread my feast. When the 
sparrows become too numerous, I use 
my coolest scratching shed. In the 
shade of this cherry tree, I am very 
positive that it is at least 20 degrees 
cooler than at any other spot on the 
poultry premises. 

I wish you could see my hens dur¬ 
ing August and September. When I 
come with the sheaves, they are always 
ready. How they enjoy picking and 
scratching out the grains! The old¬ 
est, fattest and laziest will join and 
pitch in. I think, and I feel that I’m 
quite correct, that the combs of the 
hens never were redder than now—no, 
not even during spring, nature’s 
resurrection month. That old egg bas¬ 
ket which is used to gather the eggs 
will again almost be filled to the high 
spring water-mark. 

My hens start to lay heavily dur¬ 
ing February so that they naturally 
would slow up toward fall, but since 
I started to feed them grain in the 
straw;, I can keep them at it to about 
Thanksgiving. Of course they moult 
before this, but they keep on laying 
just the same. Eggs are very high 
during the moulting season since this 
is really the time now that the least 
number are laid. Electric lights and 
deeper chicken knowledge has made the 
winter egg the rule rather than the 
exception. 

Unthreshed wheat and oats are just 
as helpful to the growing chickens 
as it is to the laying hens. This meth¬ 
od of precedure is not unduly forcing 
the hens. No medicine or drugs are 
used. The simple truth is that the 
hens’ minds are engaged and taken off 
the bothersome heat and they are en¬ 
ticed to the coolest spot and away from 
moping roosts and lethargic emotions. 
The sight of my hens at work in the 
shade in full dress, or stubbly, or tail¬ 
less, or a combination of all of these 
styles together, is a very pleasant one 
to me. If you are unconvinced, come 
and see them. You are welcome. 

The straw can be used for bedding 
in the barn. 

AVOIDING SOFT-SHELLED EGGS 

ELMER WHITTAKER 

There are several causes for this oc¬ 
currence which causes considerable loss 
in market eggs. 

The first and usual cause of soft- 
shelled eggs is that the bird is too fat. 
The muscular movement of the oviduct 
is hindered by layers of fat, and instead 
of the egg being controlled by firm 
muscles it merely slips through a flabby 
mass. The difficulty will vanish if the 
birds are made to scratch in a clean, 
dry straw litter for all of their grain, 
and the ration fed is not too fattening. 

Another cause is lack of lime in the 
hen’s ration. In this case the shell 
secreting part of the oviduct fails to do 
its work because of the lack of ma¬ 
terial. 

The third reason is the forcing of 
hens for too frequent egg production. 
A second yolk breaks off from the 
ovary, and drops into the funnel of the 
oviduct, and the first one is forced too 
rapidly on its way for it to be com¬ 
pletely formed when laid. 

A fourth reason is from scouring, 
that is, from feeding a too loosening 
ration to your birds. 


PUBLIC SALE 

On Wednesday, August 1st, 1923, at 
the farm of C. W. Sewell, will sell at 
Public Auction, 35 head of Pure Breed 
AyrshireCattleandfourheadof horses. 

Keating Summit, Penna. 


GRADE HOLSTEINS 

150 August and September Cows 

2 CARS FINE READY COWS 

All young, good size, good condition. 

Perfect udders and good producers. 

Shall have October and November Coins in Season 

OSWALD J. WARD & SONS, CANDOR, N. Y 

HOLSTEIN BULLS FOR SALE 

Sons of 

DUTCHLAND COLANTHA SIR INKA 

F1SHK1LL FARMS, Hopewell Junction, N. Y. 
HENRY MORGENTHAU, Jr., Owner 


HOLSTEINS and GUERNSEYS 

Fresh cows and springers, 100 head of the finest 
quality to select from. Address 

A. F. SAUNDERS, CORTLAND, N. Y. 

HOLSTEINS 

Two car loads high-class grade springers. The 
kind that please. One car load registered females. 
Well bred, strictly high-class. Several registered 
service bulls. J. A. LEACH, CORTLAND, N. Y. 

HIGH-GRADE HOLSTEIN COWS 

fresh and close by large and heavy producers. 
Pure bred registered Holsteins all ages ; your 
inquiry will receive our best attention. 
Browncroft Farm McGRAW New York 

HIGH GRADE HOLSTEIN HEIFER CALVES $15 ~~ 

each; registered bull and heifer calves, $25 up; registered 
bulls ready for sendee, and cows. Address 

SPOT FARM, TULLY, N. Y. 

SWINE BREEDERS 

125-PIGS FOR SALE- 125 

Yorkshire and Chester White Cross, and Chester and 
Berkshire Cross. All large growthy pigs, 6 to 7 weeks old, 
$5.00 each; 7 to 8 weeks old, $5.50 each; 8to 9 weeks old, 
$6.00 each. 15 pure-bred Berkshire pigs, barrows or sows, 
$6.50 each, 7 weeks old; and 20 Chester White, 7 weeks old, 
$6.50 each: boars of the above breeds $8,00 each. All good 
clean stock, bred from the best of stock that money can 
buy. I will ship any part of the above lots C. O. JD. to 
you on approval. 

WALTER LUX, 388 Salem St., WOBURN, MASS. 

Big Type Poland China Pigs 

Gilts and Boars for sale. Sires: Ford’s Liberator and 
Ford’s Big Tim. Moderate prices. 

STEPHEN H. FORD, 402 Stewart Building, Baltimore, Md. 

Big Type Polands 72,^ 

prices. Write me. G. S. HALL, FARMDALE. OHIO. 

LARGE BERKSHIRES AT HIGHWOOD 

Grand champion breeding. Largest herd in America. Free booklet. 

HARPENDING Box 10 DUNDEE, N.Y. 


GOATS 


Poultry Culling—The successful 
poultrykeeper is culling his flock every 
few days during the summer and early 
fall. Just as soon as a hen molts she 
should be removed from the flock and 
sold. This cuts down the feed and 
increases the revenues. 


r FO get the best choice, buy Milk Goat Bucks Now. 
A Buy Bred Does in October. Buy Kids and 
Yearlings Now. 

S. J. SHARPLES, R. D. 5, NORRISTOWN, PA. 


SALARY and EXPENSES 

FOR RURAL SALESMEN 

If you have had experience in selling 
gcods or subscriptions to farmers, 
write us at once, giving full informa¬ 
tion about yourself. 

AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 
461 Fourth Avenue New York City 


BABY CHICKS 


STRICKLER’S QUALITY AUGUST CHICKS 

BIG HATCHES AUGUST 1-8-15-22-29 

Large, heavy-type Barron English s. c. Whfte Leghorns of 
superlative quality mated to pedigreed cockerels. Each 
pen headed by Lady Storrs’ Pen cockerels (Dams records 
240 to 271 eggs each in pullet year). Highest quality 
vigorous chicks by special delivery parcel post prepaid, 
100% safe and live delivery guaranteed. $9 per 100, $44 
per 500, $85 per 1000. Also husky pure-bred Barred Rock, 

R. I. Reds and White Rock chicks, $11 per 100, $54 per 500. 

LEONARD F. STRICKLER, SHERIDAN, PA. 


BABY CHICKSS^^ 

Leghorns, $9.00 per hundred; mixed, $8.00. 100f£ delivery 
guaranteed. Not a new beginner. 

J. W. KIRK, Box 51, McALISTERVILLE, PA. 

600 White Leghorn Breeders, one year old, 
$1.00 each. 10 Weeks’ Old Pullets, Aug. 10th 
delivery, $1.00 each and up. Thousands ready. 

HUMMER’S POULTRY FARM 

FRENCHTOWN, N. J. f R. 1 

I ARTF CTOflf flu* Poultry, Turkeys,Geese,Ducks, Guineas, 
LrliVUEi OlUv/IV. Bantams, Collies, Pigeons, Chicks, Stock, 
Eggs, low; catalog. PIONEER E-RMS, Telford, Pennsylvania. 



HILLPOT 

DUALITY 


REDUCED PRICES-PROMPT DELIVERIES 

100 50 25 Barred Rocks $13.00 $7.00 $3.75 

While Leghorns $10.00 $5.50 $3.00 R. 1. Reds 15.00 7.75 4.00 

Post Prenaid Safe deliverv cmaranteeri Black Leghorns 10.00 5.50 3.00 White Rocks 15.00 7.75 4.00 

rost rrepam. oaie^aenvery guaranteed Brown Legil0rns 13 0 o 7.00 3.75 White Wyandottes 18.00 9.25 4.75 

anywhere east ot Mississippi River. w . F . hillpot box 29. Frenchtown, n. j. 


CHICKS 



































































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Shakespeare by Sir Henry Irving, a 
glossary and an index to characters. 




“If we could only bring this book to America!” 


H ERE is an actual photograph of a Glasgow printer’s 
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Just one copy of this wonderful book came into our hands. 
Every one who saw it wanted a copy. It was a miracle of 
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offer them to the first few readers of American Agriculturist 
who send for them. 

Tear off this coupon now, before you forget about it. It 
may be months before we can get another supply, if we 
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The combination of India paper (1312 clearly printed pages 
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by mail direct to you, makes this opportunity unique. But 
you must act quickly. Send no money; this coupon brings 
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I 

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416 West 13th Street, New York City 


Send me for free examination, charges prepaid, one copy of your limited 
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When the book is delivered, I will deposit $1.50 with the postman and 
send you $1.00 each month until the full price of $6.50 has been paid. 

OR 

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Oft did the harvest to their sickle yield. 

Their furrow oft the stubborn glebe has broke ; 
How jocund did they drive their team afield! 

How bowed the woods beneath their sturdy stroke ! 


Let not ambition mock their useful toil, Far from the madding crowd’s ignoble strife. 

Their homely joys, and destiny obscure ; Their sober wishes never learned to stray, 

Nor grandeur hear with a disdainful smile Along the cool sequestered vale of life 

The short and simple annals of the poor. They kept the noiseless tenor of their way. 

—From Gray’s “Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard” 




































86 


American Agriculturist, August 11,1923 


A Square Deal For the Farmer 

There Can Be No Durable Prosperity Without a Prosperous Agriculture 


I T is undeniable that a considerable meas¬ 
ure of prosperity has blessed the United 
States during the past three years. At 
the same time it is indisputable that this 
prosperity has not reached all of the groups 
composing our citizenry. The prosperity has 
been absorbed by certain groups to the ex¬ 
clusion of the others. The largest group 
which has been denied a share is the farmers. 
Spokesmen for the farmers have been long 
insisting upon this fact, but until recently 
the insistence has fallen upon deaf ears. The 
farmer has long borne the reputation of be¬ 
ing a kicker, a reputation perhaps 
not wholly undeserved. Whether 
deserved or not it is having this 
effect, that now the farmer 
has a real and substantial griev¬ 
ance, he has hard work in con¬ 
vincing the general public of the 
fact. If the public were open- 
minded, there would be no diffi¬ 
culty in demonstrating the prop¬ 
osition that not only is the 
farmer not getting a fair share 
of the general prosperity, but 
from an economic standpoint is 
not receiving a fair deal. 

Agriculture Outdistanced 

In the early days of this coun¬ 
try agriculture was not only the 
chief industry, but was relatively 
a lucrative one. With the remark¬ 
able growth of the cities during 
the past fifty years, one would 
naturally think that the oppor¬ 
tunities for making money on the 
farm would increase. For rea¬ 
sons which for lack of time can¬ 
not be discussed in detail now, 
agriculture has not only not held 
its own but has been submerged 
in comparison with industry in 
general. This process had been 
going on for many years prior to 
the Great War, so that at the be¬ 
ginning of that epochal struggle, 
agriculture was out of balance 
with general industry. The war 
with its vast economic disturb¬ 
ances not only did not restore the 
equilibrium between agriculture 
and other industry, but served 
still further to submerge agri¬ 
culture. So that it is not a mere 
figure of speech to say that agri¬ 
culture in its present plight is a 
war victim in no less accurate a 
sense than a khaki clad doughboy 
shredded with machine-gun fire 
on an European battle field. 

It is not sufficient to diagnose 
and proclaim the disease, but 
some effort should be made to 
discover and apply the appropri¬ 
ate remedy. Volunteer doctors 
with widely advertised cure-alls are not lack¬ 
ing, and herein lies the patient’s greatest 
danger. If agriculture experiments with 
some of the remedies now so vigorously 
pressed upon it, its condition already des¬ 
perate may be rendered hopeless. 

Public Treasury Panaceas of no Avail 

If agriculture can realize that legislative 
nostrums and public treasury panaceas will 
not avail, ground will be gained. Remedies 
of this kind at best can only be palliatives, 
and at worst might prove calamitous. The 
situation does not demand palliatives, but a 
careful and thorough probing to determine 
the underlying causes of the disease. The 
difficulties of agriculture are economic not 
political. The economic phases should be ex¬ 
plored conscientiously and painstakingly, 


By BERNE A. PYRKE 

Commissioner of the Department of Farms 
and Markets, State of New York 

free from bias and hysteria. We need fact 
finding bodies in order that sound economic 
conclusions may be drawn. Our national 
policies should be reexamined with the view 
-of determining their effect upon agricultural 
prostration. A dispassionate study of our 
tariff policy should be made to determine its 
agricultural effect. It is not an impossibility 
that the steady submergence of agriculture 


is simply asking for a modest place in the 
sun, and a fair share in the good things of 
life. Anything less is not good for agricul¬ 
ture and by the same token not good for the 
country as a whole. 


This Is the Go=to=Law Cow 

You See How Busy the Lawyer Is. He Is Milking. 


Copyright, 1023, by Star Company. 


THE LAWSUIT 





WHILE YOU GO TO LAW, THE LAWYER GETS THE MlLK. 

This picture, from an old copy of the American AgricuU 
turigt, printed sixty-four years ago, shows what the editor of 
that day thought about going to law. It shows you two men 
fighting each other in the law court about the ownership of a 
cow. One pulls the cow’s tail, the other pulls her horns. THE 
LAWYER SITS QUIETLY MILKING. 

WHEN NEIGHBORS GO TO LAW, THE LAWYER 
DOES THE MILKING. That statement by the agricultural 
editor, so long ago, is one to remember. 

T HE New York “Evening Journal” of July 27 “ran” the above 
picture and editorial written by Arthur Brisbane, whose editorials 
are read by more people than those of any other writer in the world. 
The New York. Sunday “American” of July 29 also carried this same 
picture and editorial by Mr. Brisbane as well as most of the feature 
story, entitled “Going to Law,” which we published in the American 
Agriculturist of July 14. 


during the past several decades is to some 
extent bound up with our national tariff 
policy. No less consideration should be given 
to our national attitude toward immigration. 
No one would contend that our present immi¬ 
gration policy has produced the present agri¬ 
cultural depression, but it is beyond contro¬ 
versy that the drastic restrictions of the 
present law are not calculated to remedy the 
labor stringency, one of the most acute 
troubles now besetting agriculture. 

Entire Country Involved 

The whole country is so involved in the 
welfare of agriculture to aid unstintingly in 
such a survey, because there can be no dur¬ 
able prosperity in America without a pros¬ 
perous and contented agriculture. Agricul¬ 
ture is making no unreasonable demands. It 


Recollections of Roberts’ Time 

T HE writer was greatly interested in the 
special number in commemoration of 
Professor I. P. Roberts’ ninetieth birthday. 
We often heard Professor Roberts in the 
earlier days of the Farmers’ Institutes and 
at the Western New York Horti¬ 
cultural Society meetings. At 
the latter meetings he always 
took along some of his boys and 
they generally gave him a good 
cheer after his off-hand talks. 
One of my own boys was one of 
his pupils and he came home from 
college saying “Professor Roberts 
lays great stress on fitting the 
land properly.” He says: “If 
your land isn’t fit, plow it again, 
plow it three times if necessary!” 
ko we might aptly call him “Plow 
it three times Roberts.” “The 
good old farmers’ institute air 
seems to be gone. I remember an 
institute at Ithaca in the good old 
days in the ’80’s when a large ar¬ 
ray of talent was present. Such 
men as Major E. H. Alvord, H. 
E. Cook, Seth Penner, Mr. Wood¬ 
ward being among them. It was 
at this institute, or about this 
time that a well-known phrase 
was coined. 

Mr. Seth Fenner was at the 
question box and to the question, 
“When is the best time to prune?” 
he answered, “Prune when the 
knife is sharp.” And to the ques¬ 
tion, “What is the best variety of 
apple to plant?” he answered, “I 
would make them 90 per cent 
Baldwins and the other 10 per 
cent would be Baldwins also.” 

Few readers nowadays prob¬ 
ably recognize the name Henry 
E. Alvord, but he was one of the 
bright lights in old institute days. 
It was at the above institute he 
gave a remarkable address. He 
was on the program at the even¬ 
ing session for “The General 
Purpose Cow,” and naturally we 
settled down in our seats expect¬ 
ing a genuine cow talk. If I re¬ 
member rightly he used the word 
cow but once in the whole lecture. 
The lecture in fact was a minute 
description of the battle of Win¬ 
chester. We would occasionally 
look at our program to make sure 
that no mistake in the subject had 
been made and wondered when he would be¬ 
gin talking on the cow. As he drew near 
the end of his description and came to the 
climax of Sheridan’s illustrious ride to save 
the battle, extolling especially on the merits 
of his horse, he exclaimed, “What, think you, 
would have happened at Winchester that day, 
and where would the name of General Sheri¬ 
dan been to-day in history had he rode that 
day a general purpose horse!” That was all 
he needed to say, and the point came home 
to us with full force never to be forgotten — 
W. A. Bassett, Seneca County, N. Y. 


Thrift is such a simple thing—and it 
means so much. It is the foundation of suc¬ 
cess in business, of contentment in the home, 
of standing in society. —Russell Sage. 





























American Agriculturist 

THE FARM PAPER THAT PRINTS THE FARM NEWS 
“Agriculture is the Most Healthful, Most Useful and Most Noble Employment of Man”— Washington 

‘ Reg. U. S. Pat. Off. Established 1842 

Volume 112 For the Week Ending August 11, 1923 Number 6 


Is a Shorter Farm Day Practical? 

Would Shorter Hours Bring Farmers Skilled Workmen’s Pay 


T HERE seems to be plenty of discus¬ 
sion about long hours on the farm, 
both in the farm papers and by word 
of mouth wherever farmers or farm¬ 
ers’ wives congregate. With all the talk, 
some of which hits the nail on the head and 
some of which is so wide of the mark that 
it isn’t even in sight of it, perhaps it would 
be profitable to ask ourselves a few questions 
in regard to it. A few questions often clear 
up the atmosphere remarkably, and I don’t 
know of anything handier in an argument. 
When your opponent begins to shoot ques¬ 
tions that you couldn’t 
answer to save your 
soul, just look wise, 
don’t attempt to an¬ 
swer them, but begin to 
ask a few questions 
yourself. The chances 
are ten to one that 
you’ll find him just as 
ignorant as you are. 

In the first place. 

‘Why do farmers work 
long hours?” Some 
farmers would say that 
it is necessary, in order 
to make a living, but I 
have known folks to 
get cause and effect 
twisted, so perhaps the 
facts of the case are, 
that they can’t make a 
living because they 
work long hours. The 
rate of pay that men 
get seems to vary as the 
amount of time spent in 
work varies. The less 
time spent, the more 
pay, so perhaps if 
farmers could shorten 
their hours, they would 
take themselves out of 
the common labor class, where they seem 
to be placed, and jump up into the skilled 
labor class. 

One of the principal reasons for long 
hours is the desire to get ahead. A young 
farmer said to me “I can see a lot of ways to 
make money, if I could only get time to do 
the work.” Perhaps he didn’t realize that 
it was merely another way of saying that if 
he could do three men’s work, he could get 
fair returns for one man. Every young man 
who starts on a farm wants to get ahead, 
and to him, one of the surest ways of doing 
it is to put in long hours. It does mean that 
he gets ahead faster than his neighbor who 
puts in fewer hours, but counting in all the 
men who are doing the same as he, it means 
that they are competing against each other 
to see who has the most endurance to pro¬ 
duce a surplus which brings down the price 
for everyone. 

Another reason, which applies more to the 
older farmers, is the fact that they are con¬ 
tinually seeing work that needs to be done, 
and because they can’t do it in ten hours, 
they work overtime, not at time and a half, 


By H. L. COSLINE 

but without any pay. One man says that he 
wants to get on a smaller farm where there 
isn’t so much to do, but one of the hardest 
working men I know, has less than two acres 
of ground. The Union man doesn’t worry 
about the work that needs doing, but the 
farmer is working at his own business, so he 
keeps at it as long as daylight lasts and then 
sometimes does the chores by lantern light. 
Some of the men in this class have lost all 
hope of making more than a mere living, but 


still they keep on, “because the work needs 
to be done.” 

Another reason which affects a smaller 
class, is a feeling, that some folks have, that 
it’s a sin to be idle. It doesn’t seem to mat¬ 
ter whether the work they are doing is re¬ 
turning them a profit or not, so long as they 
are busy their conscience is easy. In many 
cases the work they are doing could be done 
in half the time, by spending a little thought 
about it, but they are too busy with physical 
labor to think. This class doesn’t need any 
sympathy because I suppose they are happy. 
The other folks are the ones who need the 
sympathy, because they must compete with 
folks who will work whether they make a 
profit or not. 

Another question that might be asked with 
profit is: “What are the results of long hours 
on the farm?” 

There is a tendency to pay at least a Jiv¬ 
ing wage, regardless of the length of time 
worked. I suppose that when men first be¬ 
gan to hire other men to work for them, they 
first paid them bigger wages if they would 
work longer hours, and then, when there was 


a surplus of workmen, they reduced the pay 
without reducing the hours of work. The 
only difference with the farmer’s condition 
is that he is working for himself and works 
longer hours in order to get more returns 
and then natural laws of supply and demand 
operate and cause a less return than could 
have been obtained with less work. It is a 
well-known fact that farmers frequently are 
paid more money in a year when weather 
conditions cause a short crop. Why not get 
the short crop by putting in fewer hours? 

There are other and more far reaching 

effects than the low re¬ 
turns caused by long 
hours. It finally results 
in less time for recrea¬ 
tion and improvement, 
greater difficulty in 
maintaining the same 
standard of education, 
for farm boys and girls, 
as obtains in cities, and 
the final draining away 
into the cities of the 
most intelligent and 
progressive young 
people. 

There is also a tend¬ 
ency to return a living 
wage to a family re¬ 
gardless of the number 
of people in the family 
who are working. We 
have heard instances in 
so-called sweat shops 
where the whole family 
would earn only a bare 
living by working for 
long hours, but there 
are farms where the 
conditions are nearly 
as bad. It is no doubt 
better for farm boys 
and girls to be busy 
rather than idle, but when the time comes 
that they must leave school at an early age, 
in order to work, the condition is no longer 
a healthy one. 

Farming is a family occupation, but if 
the whole family is to secure only the re¬ 
turns that could be secured by one member 
of the family, it might be a good thing to 
dispense with the help of the wife and 
children. 

The third question is “Can shorter hours 
be made practical on a farm?” The first an¬ 
swer that one usually receives to this ques¬ 
tion is: “Cows must be milked about twelve 
hours apart, so how can you have an eight- 
hour day ?” True, but what is there illogical 
about having two shifts? At this time of 
year there are about sixteen hours of day¬ 
light, two shifts would work fine. 

I can almost hear the farmers laughing 
about this statement as though it were a 
good joke, but one fact is sure and that is 
that so long as farmers are willing to work 
long hours to feed the rest of the popula¬ 
tion with cheap food, you aren’t going 
(Continued on page 94) 



At no time of the year are farmers’ days so long as at harvest 























88 


American Agriculturist, August 11,1923 


Editorial Page of the American Agriculturist 


American 

Agriculturist 


Founded 1842 


Henry Morgenthau, Jr. 
E. R. Eastman 
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Published Weekly by 

AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST, INC. 

Address all correspondence for editorial, advertising, or 
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Entered as Second-Class Matter, December 15, 1922, at the 
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Subscription price, payable in advance, $1 a year. 
Canadian and foreign, $2 a year. 


VOL. 112 


August 11, 1923 


No. 6 


Warren G. Harding 

O N a Thursday night in the City facing the 
Western Seas, the Chief Magistrate of 
a mighty nation grew weary of his great 
job and without warning laid down his 
sceptre. When the sad news 
flashed across the wings of the 
night, more than three thous¬ 
and miles to a little farmhouse 
near the Eastern Seas, an old 
Vermont farmer aroused his 
son and by the light of an oil 
lamp administered to him, as 
the one next in line, the in¬ 
augural oath of the President 
of these United States. 

Thus does a Democracy 
carry on. 

The sense of personal loss 
that the death of President 
Harding brings to every citi¬ 
zen, without regard to political 
faith, is the best measurement 
of his greatness. Warren 
Harding was not a genius, 
neither probably was he a 
great executive, nor even a 
great statesman. Thousands of 
Americans have as much ability 
and are as good as was Mr. 

Harding; but that is the chief 
reason it seems to us why he 
was a much-loved President. 

He was one of us. He was like 
us. He was “just folks.” lie 
was a farm boy who became 
President, thereby demonstrat¬ 
ing again that it is possible for 
any average boy who works 
hard and . who is sincere and 
good, to rise to any position in 
America, even to the greatest 
one of all. Harding was a 
simple, kind and good man— 
and because he was, he was 
great in the best sense of the 
word. 

But we should not forget 


either in our estimate of the man that his 
was a heart-breaking job. Guiding a people 
through a reconstruction period is an even 
greater task than leading them through a 
war. In war there is enthusiasm, exalta¬ 
tion and glory; but for those who try to 
build again what the war has destroyed, 
there is the constant criticism of a world 
unsettled and embittered by a blood conflict. 
Through it all Harding kept the faith and 
died in the harness. He did the best he 
could, and that best was pretty good. So 
to-day he is mourned by a hundred million 
oi his. people who wish for him rest and 
peace in that unknown Democracy beyond 
the Border where he is now a citizen. 

Bad Threshing 

I T is probably safe to say that at least five 
per cent, or one bushel in every twenty, 
of grain is lost to farmers through poor 
threshing. The loss is particularly heavy in 
the dairy counties where grain is not as ex¬ 
tensively grown as in western New York and 
cential Pennsylvania. In the larger grain 
growing sections, there are better threshing 
machines and more efficiency. 

. How discouraging it is to work hard dur¬ 
ing the whole season to grow a crop of grain 
and then have a lot of it wasted through 
inefficient threshing methods. Time and 
again we have personally seen grain separa¬ 
tors in operation where at least one-third of 
the grain was going over the carrier still on 
the straw or else was falling uncleaned into 
the chalf. Of course, there are a lot of 
splendid machines kept in fine order by men 
who know their business; but there is an 
altogether too large number that waste a 
lot of money for farmers. Many times it is 
not the fault of the machine itself, but is 
due to poor feeding of the grain into the 
cylinder, or to poor adjustment of some part 
or parts of the thresher itself. 

Farmers can often save themselves a good 


deal of money at threshing time by insisting 
that the operator of the separator get his 
machine in shape and keep it so. 


When Is a Hen Not a Hen? 

P IGS may be pigs, but any old bird is no 
longer a hen. The account in a recent 
report of the last Cornell Poultry School 
shows the big strides that are being made 
among real poultrymen to get rid of the 
hens that do not pay. For years we have 
heard much, about boarder cows, but little 
has been said until recently, about boarder 
hens. Yet, they are just as much a liability 
m proportion to capital invested, as are the 
poor cows. 

During the recent hard times, the poultry 
business has been one of the few farm en¬ 
terprises that has paid fairly well. It has 
been especially successful where attention 
has been given to a few fundamental rules 
ot breeding good birds and getting rid of 
the poor ones. . Weeding out the farm flock 
is a much easier, simpler and shorter pro¬ 
cess than, doing the same thing with the 
dairy. With a little study and practice any- 
one can learn in a very short time how to' 
select the hens that do not pay, and a ready 
market is easily found for them. It will 
e time . make such selection. 

Why not get in touch with your county 
agent or your College of Agriculture, or with 
some good poultryman, and learn how to 
pick out and get rid of the hens that the 
good ones have to support before they can 
support you? 



The Prohibition Vote 

S TILL the letters and the votes come. 

Even though this is the busiest time of 
tne year for farmers, hundreds of them are 
realizing the importance of registering on 
the question of prohibition, so they are tak¬ 
ing the time to send in their votes, many of 
them giving us well-written ar¬ 
guments pro and con. Ballots 
will be furnished on request. 
It. you have not voted, won’t 
you do so and get your friends 
interested? Take the matter 
up in the Grange and other 
farm meetings, and help us 
make the farm opinion count. 


Quotations Worth While 

By thrift is .meant simply 
that way of living which sys¬ 
tematically transfers a portion 
of one’s income to one’s capi¬ 
tal.—S hailer Mathews. 

* * * * 

The only man who never 
makes a mistake is the man 
who never does anything.— 
Theodore Roosevelt. 

* * * * 

Provision for others is a 
fundamental responsibility of 
human life.— Woodrow Wil¬ 
son. 

* * * * 

The great secret of success 
in life is to be ready when your 
opportunity comes.—D israeli. 

5jc sjc 

If you would be wealthy, 
think of saving as well as of 
getting.— Benjamin Frank¬ 


lin. 


* 


The best way to accumulate 
money is to resolutely save a 
fixed portion of your income, 
no matter how small the 
amount.— Andrew Carnegie. 






















































American Agriculturist, August 11,1923 


89 


Bradfute Addresses Eastern Farmers 


Albany Meeting Brings Together Farm Bureau Men of Northeastern States 



Y idea of the fundamental pur¬ 
pose of cooperation in general 
and of the farm bureau in par- 

_ _ ticular is that you should each 

help everybody else and that everybody else 
should help you.” This was the fundamental 
thought of 0. E. Bradfute, president of the 
American Farm Bureau Federation, speak¬ 
ing at a meeting of the northeast group of 
Farm Bureau Federations held in Albany 
August 2 and 3. One hundred 
and fifty farm men and women 
were present from all of the 
New England States, New 
York, Delaware, Pennsylvania 
and New Jersey. 

Mr. Bradfute said that the 
best definition of the way to 
cooperate is first to so adjust 
yourself that the other fellow 
can work with you. “The atti¬ 
tude,” he said, “that the great 
industries other than agricul¬ 
ture are scheming and work¬ 
ing all of the time against the 
farmers is wrong. The great 
industries work for themselves 
and that is just what we as 
farmers must do. We must 
apply the same business prin¬ 
ciples in modern farming'that 
make other business successful. 

The solution of our problems 
lies within our own power and 
in our ability to stand shoulder 
to shoulder in working them 
out ourselves.” 

In speaking of the work and 
possibilities of the farm bureau 
organization, President Brad¬ 
fute said that in the past farm¬ 
ers have often come to meet¬ 
ings, discussed their problems, 
passed resolutions and gone 
home. “And there the matter 
ended, for there was no way 
of carrying the thought of those 
resolutions on to the nation and 
expressing the problems of 
agriculture to all of the people 
in such a way as to get action. 

It is the first purpose of the 
American Farm Bureau Fed¬ 
eration to bring the nation’s 
attention to the problems of 
agriculture. We believe that 
this has been done recently as 
never before for farmers and 
their representatives are asked, 
and even begged to come and 
sit around the table with busi¬ 
ness men and others and tell 
what agriculture wants.” 

In outlining the problems 
which seemed to Mr. Bradfute 
to be the most difficult ones facing farmers 
to-day, he said that the greatest problem of 
all is organization itself. Agriculture must 
solve its own problems to a very great ex¬ 
tent, and there is no way to do this except 
through cooperation. The growth of organi¬ 
zation, however, “will depend largely upon 
its ability to solve the other problems. There 
should be no organization for organization 
sake.” 

In discussing transportation, Mr. Bradfute 
pointed out that it affects every farmer in 
the United States and that the difficulty of 
getting his products to market and supplies 
back to his own farm was one of the limiting 
factors in his business. He said that finance 
and marketing were tied up together and 
then showed what had been done in the way 
of securing better credit for farmers and 
how necessary this credit was. 

President Bradfute gave considerable time 


to the discussion of the wheat problem, say¬ 
ing that “there was too much excitement 
about wheat, which was resulting in forcing 
it on to the market too fast.” Furthermore, 
farmers producing many other commodities 
are having just as many troubles as the 
wheat farmers. He outlined the plan of the 
Farm Bureau Federation to solve the wheat 
problem by holding back in warehouses and 
granting to farmers warehouse receipts on 


THE THIRTIETH CHIEF EXECUTIVE OF THE UNITED STATES 

Calvin Coolidge and his family—left to right, Calvin, Jr., John C. Coolidge, 
the President’s father, John, and Mrs. Coolidge 


which they could borrow money at the bank. 
He was very emphatic in his statement that 
no price-fixing for wheat or other products 
would ever succeed. 

In discussing marketing, Mr. Bradfute 
said that farmers were good producers, but 
poor salesmen. “What would you say of 
Ford, if he made seven thousand automobiles 
a day, filled his warehouses, and then went 
on filling the streets of Detroit with them, 
without any sales machinery whatever for 
putting them on the market ?” 

The only exception that his audience took 
to President Bradfute’s fine constructive talk 
was to his over-emphasis on the needs and 
importance of Western farming to the ex¬ 
clusion of proper consideration of farm af¬ 
fairs in the East. This lack of consideration 
of the great agricultural empire of Eastern 
United States was decidedly emphasized by 
M. C. Burritt, Director of Extension of the 


New York State College of Agriculture. Mr. 
Burritt struck a responsive chord in his 
audience when he emphatically stated that 
New York and its adjoining States are 
among the greatest States in the production 
of farm products and in the placing of those 
products on the markets through successful 
cooperative organizations. He made it plain 
that the American Farm Bureau and other 
national organizations were not giving our 
Eastern problems enough con¬ 
sideration. 

Mr. Burritt also gave an in¬ 
teresting account of the rise 
and fall of several national 
farm organizations, pointing 
out that no national organiza¬ 
tion could long succeed if it 
were based on economical ap¬ 
peal alone. 

H. E. Babcock, manager of 
the G. L. F. Exchange said 
that cooperative buying of 
farm supplies is one way out 
of our present depression. To 
succeed in such buying, there 
must be “adequate working 
capital, efficient and expert 
management, and large volume 
of business.” No buying or¬ 
ganization should be developed 
unless the farmers are willing 
to meet all of these require¬ 
ments. 

Howard W. Selby, manager 
of the Eastern States Ex¬ 
change, outlined the history 
and work of that New England 
farmers’ buying cooperative 
and showed that that organi¬ 
zation had made steady growth 
during the last five years. 

Mrs. A. E. Brigden, presi¬ 
dent .of the New York State 
Federation of Home Bureaus, 
in a fine talk, said that woman 
wants to feel that she is of 
some real use in the world; 
she wants to be a helper. “How 
can the farm woman best serve 
the agriculture of the United 
States?” was her theme. “No 
matter what we think is the ob¬ 
ject of the work that we are all 
doing, whether it is on the farm 
or in the factory, the real ob¬ 
ject is to make better American 
homes. Home-making is a pro¬ 
fession, and there is too little 
training in our schools and in 
our homes for the girls and the 
young women for this profes¬ 
sion.” 

In speaking of the need of 
children having more milk, 
Mrs. Brigden said: “Too many farmers are 
more interested in keeping the milk can full 
than they are in giving their children 
enough milk. Sometimes they will keep the 
milk out for the young calf, but not for the 
young child.” 

W. E. Skinner, general manager of the 
National Dairy Show and the World’s Dairy 
Congress, to be held October 5 to 13, out¬ 
lined in an interesting talk what a farmer 
might expect to see at the Dairy Show. 

A resolution was passed late in the even¬ 
ing of August 2, extending the congratula¬ 
tions of the farm men and women present 
to President Harding in his apparent re¬ 
covery from his recent illness. But before 
many of those present had retired, the sad 
news came that the President had died. 

In his opening address on August 3rd, 
resident Bradfute delivered a very fine 
to the dead President. 























9a 


American Agriculturist, August 11,1923 









Looking Into the Dark 

Growers Should Know More About Their Markets 


M UCH has been made 
of the phrase 


By PAUL WORK 


‘What Happens in the Dark,” with 
special reference to the long trail which 
produce must follow from farm to table. 
One of the chief reasons why we do 
not know what happens in the dark 
is thi.t we have not looked. Of course, 

that is not the 
only reason, but 
it is a reason 
that is at least 
in some degree 
under our con¬ 
trol. Not all pro¬ 
ducers get to 
New York even 
occasionally, but 
there are hun¬ 
dreds who visit 
the Metropolis 
and come away 
no more market- 
wise than when 
they went. Any- 
PAUL WORK one who sells a 
car load of cab¬ 
bage or potatoes could well afford to 
travel four hundred miles to spend a 
couple of nights on the markets of 
some great city. 

A Matter of Business 

Most of us feel some diffidence about 
exploring places with which we are 
not familiar. Knowing markets is a 
matter of business and we can well 
afford to. calm our qualms and to move 
about with freedom and to ask ques¬ 
tions as the spirit moves. ’Tis true, 
one will meet occasional rebuffs. Just 
pass on and try another. The produce 
trade is full of 
men who are cour¬ 
teous and willing 
to help. It is neces¬ 
sary to remember 
;hat the salesmen 
lave their busy 
lours and if your 
or some other fel- 
ow’s shipment of 
peas or lettuce is 
not sold at once it 
is not likely to be 
sold at all. The 
lest time to see is 
early. The best 
rime to talk is af¬ 
ter the bulk of the 
trade is over. 

There are many 
Ways . to secure 
help i n getting 
acquainted with 
markets. Talk to 
your local produce 
dealer at home be¬ 
fore you start. 

Look up the office 
of the State De- 
partment of 
Farms and Mar¬ 
kets if it is New 
York. Those i n 
charge will gladly 
direct you. I n 
other cities find 
the market master 
or ask on the mar¬ 
ket for an officer of 
the local growers’ 
association. Work 

up a party from a Grange or local club 
to make a market trip and arrange in 
advance for a guide from the city of¬ 
ficials or the State Department. The 
New York State Vegetable Growers’ As¬ 
sociation might well stage a market 
trip to New York, perhaps including a 
tour among the garden sections of 
Long Island with which very few up¬ 
state people are familiar. 

Whatever others may or may not do, 
it is possible for any grower at mod¬ 
erate cost to learn a great deal about 
the channels through which the things 
he sells must pass, and the investment 
of time and money is bound to prove 
profitable in more ways than one. 


Looking down in a corner of G-anse- 
voort market. The rigs belong to 
growers, speculators, grocers and 
hucksters 


night (July 16) in the 
field. The first cutting 
brought six cents per pound and the 
second will command the same. No 
one of the four or five Wakefield 
strains has done as well for either 
earliness or weight. Also one strain 
of Copenhagen is larger and later, not 
necessarily any poorer but certainly 
not suited for first early. 

It would be interesting to both writer 
and reader, to say right here and now 
who produced the good seed of Copen¬ 
hagen. The most of the samples in 
the trial came directly from seed grow¬ 
ers, so that the identity of the stocks is 
fairly definite. There are at least three 
reasons why such findings are not pub¬ 
licly and definitely announced. 

Only to Compare Varieties 

First, this trial like many others, has 
not been thoroughly and carefully 
enough conducted. The purpose was 
merely to gain an idea of varietal 
types, not to make an exhaustive com¬ 
parison of strains. 

Second, growing conditions are im¬ 
portant. One sort that was of the best 
last year, lags this, probably because 
it does not stand drouth as well as 
some others. Other soils and other 
locations might give a very different 
list. 

Third, serious difficulties are in¬ 
volved in announcing the relative 
merit and demerit of commercial 

commodities. It is difficult to be fair 
to all. 

Definite information as to sources of 
some seeds is being circulated. This 
is an experiment worth trying. It re¬ 
mains to be seen 
how far it can 
go. Perhaps much 
can be done in 
this line. In the 
last analysis the 
decision will have 
to remain with the 
seed buyer in the 
light of such help 
as can be given 
him. 

* * * 

Lettuce Competi¬ 
tion 

Competition be¬ 
tween the muck- 
land growers of 
Big Boston lettuce 
and the Rocky 
Mountain growers 
o f Iceberg type 
lettuce, is very 
keen this summer. 
Such varieties as 
Iceberg, and New 
York or Wonder¬ 
ful are being tried 
out in the East. 

Big Boston i s 
spoken of as a but¬ 
ter-heading lettuce 
while the others 
are called crisp¬ 
heading. The lat¬ 
ter makes a larger 
and harder and 
crisper head but 
many think it 
lacks in delicacy. 
If the markets want the Iceberg 
type, however, they will have it and 
there will be another adjustment to be 
made in the business—as usual. 


/ 

* 


Cutting Early Cabbage 

Just to-day I have been taking notes 
on eighteen short rows of early cab¬ 
bage. This was the second cutting. 
Of twenty heads, in one of the rows of 
Copenhagen, but two will spend this 


Greenhouse Bulletins 

James H. Beattie is the author of 
two new Farmers’ Bulletins that deal 
with greenhouse management and 
greenhouse vegetable production. 

The first, No. 1318, is entitled “Green¬ 
house Construction and Heating.” It 
describes types of houses, lays down 
principles of construction, defines terms 
used and fully illustrates plans and 
parts. Much concise information on 
heating is offered. Small houses for 
the beginner are treated as well as 
larger ranges. 

The second bulletin, No. 1320, is 
on “The Production of Cucumbers in 
the Greenhouse.” This is to be fol¬ 
lowed by others on additional glass¬ 
house crops. 


Right There _^ 

is where you win or lose . 

What goes into the feed trough is what makes or breaks 
the profits of dairying. Especially is this so at this time of 
the year when pastures are short and dry. 

Without the right kind of grain ration your cows are go¬ 
ing to lose flesh, consequently their milk flow is going to 
lessen. And once a bad slump in production sets in, your 
herd cannot recover from it in time to produce heavily in the 
fall season of higher milk prices. 

Now, before it’s too late, supplement your tmnning pas¬ 
ture with a good grain ration. Try DIAMOND CORN 
GLUTEN MEAL in this mixture: 

400 lbs. DIAMOND 

300 lbs. Hominy 

100 lbs. Wheat Bran , 

200 lbs. Brewers Grains 

There’s a ration that has saved many a herd from a late- 
summer slump, and saved many a farmer a lot of money-—'' 
another reason why DIAMOND is 


Corn Products Refining Co. 
New York Chicago 


40% Protein 


Also Mfrs. of ( 


23% Protein 


Beautiful Dinner Set Given Away 

This handsome 34 Pc. Floral Decorated Dinner Set is of charming design, beauti¬ 
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many valuable Mason Premiums, given Absolutely Free, such as Dinner Sets, Glass¬ 
ware, Rugs, Linen Sets, Enamelware, Clocks, Lamps, Chairs, Silverware, etc. 

You can furnish your home without cost. Simply take orders from your neighbors, 
while making friendly calls,. for our big line of Mason Products, including Household 
Goods, Groceries, Toilet Articles, Soaps, Home Supplies and Jewelry. You Advance 
No Money. We Trust You. We Pay the Freight. You have nothing to risk. The 
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your spare moments into happiness and profit. 

SPECIAL EXTRA PRESENT 

We give a 5 Piece Full Size Aluminum Set consisting 
of Sauce Pan, Pudding Pan, Fry Pan, Sugar Shaker and 
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THE PERRY G. MASON CO. 

919 CULVERT * 5th ST*. CINCINNATI, OHIO. FOUNDED 1897. 


IN 

EVERY LIVE 
DEALER’S STOCK 
and 

EVERY GOOD 
DAIRY RATION 
































































American Agriculturist, August 11,1923 


91 



used 



years 

giving it 

narderwork 
t han eve r 

Ml 



engine 

1V 2 H.P. *‘Z” (Battery Equipt) $ 54 
\V 2 H.P. “Z” (Magneto Equipt) 74 
3 H.P. “Z” (Battery Equipt) 90 
3 H.P. “Z” (Magneto Equipt) 1X0 
6 H.P. “Z” (Magneto Equipt) 170 
f. o. b. factory 
Add freight to your town 

Says F. N. Blank, Prairie Home, Mo. ... “I 
have used this ‘Z’ Engine six years and now 
am giving it harder work than e' er before.’ 
Says the Shaffer Oil & Refining Co., Omaha, 
Nebr. . . . ‘‘We have about 30 V Engines in 
use, giving excellent service. Most of them 
are three or four years old, but they still re¬ 
quire very little attention.” 

Over 350,000 users have approved the “Z” 
Engine. No matter what your power require¬ 
ments, there is a “Z” Engine to exactly suit 
your needs. Over 5,000 dealers carry these 
engines in stock and will save you money on 
freight. » 

FAIRBANKS, MORSE & CO. 

Manufacturers CHICAGO 



Eastern Branches: New York . Baltimore! Boston 




HAY 

PRESS 


_ *40styles and sizes 
for every purpose.] 
Catalog free. 

COLLINS PLOW COMPANY 
HIS Hampahlr. St.. Quincy. HI. 


NATURAL LEAF TOBACCO grSSTfcSffiA 

— lbs.. $1.25; 10 lbs., $2.00. 
Pau when received , pipe and recipe free 

FARMERS CO-OPERATIVE TO BACCO UNION, _ PADUCAH, KY 

Green Mountain 


Will it YES 

Stand ? WRITE FOR CIRCULAR 

The Creamery Package Mfg.Co. 
West St. Rutland,Vt. 


New York Horticulturists 
Hold Meeting at Geneva 

J. D. LUCKETT 

A BOUT a thousand fruit and vege- 
. table growers and their friends 
met on the grounds of the Experiment 
Station at Geneva, last Wednesday, at 
the summer meeting of the New York 
State Horticultural Society and the 
New York State Vegetable Growers’ 
Association. 

Several prominent speakers ad¬ 
dressed the gathering in the morning. 

In the afternoon tours of inspection of 
the Station spraying and dusting ex¬ 
periments with fruit and vegetables, 
and variety tests of fruit and vege¬ 
tables led by Dr. U. P., Hedrick, P. J. 
Parrott, and F. H. Hall of the Station 
staff proved especially interesting. 
Many of the growers also made a trip 
to the Wilson and Jones orchard at 
Hall, where the Station is conducting 
a big-scale spraying and dusting ex¬ 
periment with apples. 

A tug-of-war between the fruit 
growers and the vegetable growers was 
won by the fruit men, in spite of the 
strenuous efforts of H. S. Duncan of 
the Department of Farms and Mar¬ 
kets, “anchor-man” for the losers. A 
baseball game between the Horticul¬ 
tural Society and the Farm Bureau, 
and horseshoe pitching contests be¬ 
tween county teams completed the day’s 
activities. 

Prominent Speakers Present 

Charles S. Wilson of Hall, president 
of the Horticultural Society, presided 
at the morning session. Dr. R. W. 
Thatcher, director of the Experiment 
Station, welcomed the growers to the 
Station and spoke briefly of the mer¬ 
ger of the Station and the College of 
Agriculture at Ithaca, pointing out the 
advantages of the union. Mr. Wilson 
and R. W. McClure, president of the 
Vegetable Growers’ Association, re¬ 
sponded briefly and pledged the sup¬ 
port of their two organizations to the 
Station and its work. Mr. McClure 
also announced that the vegetable 
growers planned to meet with the Hor¬ 
ticultural Society at the latter’s winter 
meeting in Rochester next January. 

A. R. Mann, Dean of the College of 
Agriculture at Ithaca, spoke at some 
length on the developments leading up 
to, the merger of the College and Sta¬ 
tion, the present relationships of the 
two institutions, and the outlook for 
the future. The program for the de¬ 
velopment of the work at Geneva pre¬ 
sented to the farmers of the State last 
summer and, more recently, to the Leg¬ 
islature by Dr. Thatcher, is to be given 
the full support of the College, said 
Dean Mann. 

“Organize to Cooperate” was the 
theme of an interesting address by 
Hon. Peter G. Ten Eyck, member of 
Congress from the Albany district, and 
a member of the Congressional Joint 
Commission of Agricultural Inquiry. 
Mr. Ten Eyck related some of the find¬ 
ings of this Commission, which devoted 
eighteen months to an investigation of 
the agricultural situation throughout 
the country. It was everywhei’e evi¬ 
dent, said Mr. Ten Eyck, that the 
farmer must organize to bargain col¬ 
lectively in his buying and selling, just 
as big business and labor have organ¬ 
ized, if he is to secure a fair return 
for his labor and for the money in¬ 
vested in his farming enterprise. 

Cross Speaks for Apple Show 

Plans for the New York City apple 
show, to be held in November, were 
outlined by T. E. Cross of Lagrange- 
ville, who said that for the show to be 
a success the individual grower must 
take it upon himself to see that his 
fruit is represented, either by private 
exhibit or through his cooperative. In 
answer to a plea for donations of ap¬ 
ples from growers in order to make 
possible the gift of at least one apple 
to every boy and girl who attends the 
apple show, more than fifty growers 
pledged one or more barrels of fruit. 
Mr. Cross said that the growers in the 
Hudson River Valley were keenly alive 
to the possibilities for putting New 
York apples on the Eastern markets 
through the medium of the apple show. 


HARVESTER ^tsandpileeonLuar: 

_ __ _ _ Man and horse cuts and shock* equalCorn 

— Binder. Sold in every state. On ly $26 with 

fodder tying attachment. Testimonials and catalog: FREE showing 
picture of Harvester. PROCESS MF6. CO., Sallna. Kao. 


CORN 



h Cost of / 
Milking / 


There are from 23 to 25 million dairy 
cows in the United States, which must be 
milked twice a day. Assuming that one 
man can milk ten cows an hour, which is 
fast hand milking, this means that 4,600,000 
hours of human labor are required to milk 
these cows each day. At the extremely low 
rate of 10c an hour it costs approximately 
$460,000 a day just for hand milking—a 
staggering sum. 

But that isn’t all. Good hand milkers 
are scarce and getting scarcer every day. 
Few people like to milk cows. Hand milk¬ 
ing is slow, costly and insanitary. Human 
labor is too valuable for such work. A 
De Laval Milker is faster, cleaner, better 
and cheaper. 


Cosft 
to Farmers 

of the 

United States 
in one day M 


*460,000. 

JuSl for ! 

milking/ 


-at the low rate of 

10 cents an houi> 


There are now over 12,000 De Laval 
Milkers in use in all parts of the country, 
giving unqualified satisfaction and proving 
every day that they can milk at least twice 
as many cows with the same amount of 
help—thus cutting the cost of milking 
squarely in two, or enabling twice as many 
cows to be milked with the same help. 

But saving time and labor is only part 
of the value of a De Laval. Because of 
its gentle and soothing, yet stimulating 
and uniform action, cows almost invariably 
produce more milk when milked the 
De Laval way than by any other method. 
Thousands of users have proved this. Some 
of the best cows in the land have made 
their records with De Laval Milkers and 
some of the best milk is produced with it. 

If you are milking ten or more cows you 
are paying for a De Laval Milker. You 
might as well be getting the benefit from it 
.—you can get one on such easy terms that 
it will pay for itself. 

See your De Laval Agent or write us 
for complete information. 

The De Laval Separator Co. 

NEW YORK CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO 

165 Broadway 29 E. Madison St. 61 Beale St j 


Wishing continued prosperity to the 
American Agriculturist.—Mrs. Harry 
Snyder, Coopersburg, Pa. 




it's Natural 

for a hog to wallow 

j Provide a wallow and add \ 

DR. HESS DIP 

ami DISINFECTANT 

theiiH 

1. Your hogs will be free from 
lice. 

2. They will have clean, healthy 
skins. 

3. Disease germs will be de¬ 
stroyed. 

4 . Foul odors will be kept down. 

If you do not have a wal¬ 
low, use the sprinkling can 
freely. Sprinkle the ani¬ 
mals — the sleeping quar¬ 
ters and pens. 

Sprinkle the cow barns 
to keep them healthful and 
clean-smelling— 

The poultry-house to kill 
the mites and lice. 

Use it about the house— 
in the closets, sinks and 
drains. Excellent for the 
sickroom. 

Standardized Guaranteed 
DR. HESS & CLARK, Ashland, Ohio 


When writing to advertisers please 
mention American Agriculturist. J 


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AMERICAN TRADE SCHOOL 

Dept. I, 867 Genesee St., BUFFALO, N. Y. 

( Licensed, by New York State Board of Education.) 


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At Morrisville, N. Y. 

THREE YEAR COURSE IN AGRICULTURE 
TWO YEAR COURSE IN HOME ECONOMICS 
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old duectfnmTartay 


The whole line of famous Peerless Fence: 
Barb Wire—Stesl Posts—Gate*—Roofing ana 
Paints ars now being sold direct from factory 
at 40% lower prices. Write for free catalog— 
got oar NEW low prices before you buy. ''' 2 

PEERLESS WIRE & FENCE CO. 
Dept. 3002 Cleveland, Ohio 


4. 


V.. 







































































92 


American Agriculturist, August 11,1923 


SO EASY-: 
TO USE 



9xt d 

Disinfects 
Dries ' \ 
| r White' \ 


D\s\nf ecYmg \NV\W e Pa\n\ 


It takes less than five minutes to mix 
the Carbola powder with water and 
have it ready to use as a white paint 
| and powerful disinfectant. No wait¬ 
ing or straining ;no clogging of sprayer. 
Does not spoil. Does not peel or flake. 
Disinfectant is right in the paint 
powder—one operation instead of 
two. Gives better results, costs less. 
Used for years by leading farms. 

Your hardware, paint, seed dr drug dealer has 
Carbola, or can get it. If not, order direct. Satis¬ 
faction, or money back. 10 lbs. (10 gals.) $1.26 and 
postage; 20 lbs. (20 gals.) $2.60 delivered; 60 lbs. (50 
gals.) $5.00delivered; 200 lbs. (200 gals.) $18.00 deliv¬ 
ered; trial package and booklet 80c. 

Add 25# for Texas and Rocky Mt. States 

qq, CARBOLA CHEMICAL CO.. Inc. 

Ely Ave., Long Island City, N. Y. 



Among the Farmers 

New York County News 



{jetBmvifsJYew 

CUT PRICES. 

\V. T. Greathouse writes: 

Fence received yesterday. I 
saved $30.00 in buying from 
y° u -”, Our new cut prices are 
way below others—and 
Brown Pays Freight 
Write for our new 1922 cut price 
iwi i°F~ 8 r\ dollars you save. 
r ioU8tyle8_. Double pralvanized, open 
hearth wire. Roofinjr and paints. 
THE BROWN FENCE A WIRE CO. 

Dept. 3004, Cleveland, Ohio 


M ONROE COUNTY beekeepers will 
sustain a loss of 20% of the nor¬ 
mal yield of honey this season, accord¬ 
ing to F. M. Pillsbury, temporary State 
bee inspector for Monroe, Livingston 
and Wyoming Counties. This follows 
directly upon the heels of statements 
emanating from Oneida County to the 
effect that beekeepers there will lose 40 
per cent of their yield this year. 

Inspector Pillsbury lays the blame 
for the apparent loss at the door of 
severe weather during the spring 
months. He was optimistic regarding 
the quality of the honey crop, however, 
since recent rains and intermittent sun¬ 
shine have aroused the bees from their 
apparent innocuous lethargy. 

The honey industry in the State 
amounts to $1,000,000 annually, with 
125,000 hives producing 3,250,000 
pounds of honey. The oversupply of 
honey last year brought the price of 
it down below the normal level and in 
consequence more was consumed than 
heretofore. “In an impending sugar 
shortage people will see the advisabil¬ 
ity of using more honey,” declared Mr. 
Pillsbury.—A. H. P. 

Good Crop in Finger Lake Section 

In contrast to the reports from 
western New York and the eastern 
Mohawk Valley come reports from the 
Finger Lake section, that the honey 
crop is good. C. E. Howard of Geneva, 
who has in the neighborhood of 1,000 
bee colonies this year, is quoted as say¬ 
ing that so far this year the honey crop 
is a good one, especially in the case of 
clover honey. 

Although the season is only begun, 
Mr. Howard has taken out between ten 
and twelve tons of honey. He operated 
something like twenty apiaries in 
Seneca and Ontario Counties. Mr. 
Howard was one of the organizers of 
the New York State Beekeepers’ As¬ 
sociation and also held official positions 


m that organization. At present he 
is secretary of the Finger Lakes Bee¬ 
keepers’ Association, which embraces 
ten counties of central New York. 


Give your dollars 
bigger buying power 

by looking up the nearest Moline Dealer 
and buying your farm implements 

under the 

MOIiNEfih 

You get the best implements by the shortest and cheap, 
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Look up the nearest Moline Dealer and learn why 
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The farmer must pay less for what he 
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IN WESTERN NEW YORK 

Steuben Co.—We have had fine grow¬ 
ing i weather of late. Occasional 
showers have kept growing crops in 
nice fresh condition. However, we have 
had not enough rain to hinder harvest 
or haying in any way. Potatoes are 
coming on very rapidly, corn is back¬ 
ward, and oats is very short. Spring 
seedings _ are a failure or nearly so. 
Fruit, with the exception of berries, has 
been a failure this year. There has 
never been a time, to our recollection, 
when labor was so scarce or wages as 
high as they are at the present time. 
Farmers, with their wives and children, 
are trying to get their work done. Even 
if they could hire the help, very many 
could not pay the cost of labor — 
C. H. E. 

Genesee Co.—Farmers are very busy 
harvesting; They have secured nearly 
all of their hay and the wheat crop 
is ready to harvest. Crops of all kinds 
are extra large this year. We have 
had splendid weather, quite warm and 
many showers. The crop of beans is 
looking excellent and since the farmers 
planted more beans than usual we are 
looking forward to a big crop. Straw¬ 
berries, cherries, and currants have 
been welcomed by all the people and 
these fruits were extra fine.—J. E. J. 

In the Hudson Valley 

Washington Co.—The long dry spell 
was broken on the 16th. Corn is very 
backward, the acreage of which is nor¬ 
mal. The acreage of late potatoes is 
smaller than usual. Oats are looking 
very poor. Rye is fine, with a small 
acreage. Some new seedings are good, 
while old meadows are all right. Cows 
have been holding up in milk produc¬ 
tion fairly well, but are shrinking bad¬ 
ly now on account of poor pasture and 
flies. New milch cows are scarce and 
bringing good prices. There is no call 
for other stock.—T. P. P. 

Saratoga Co.—The crop of hay now 
being harvested in this vicinity is of 
good quality. The yield is also good. 
The yield of rye is good, oats are fair. 
Corn seems to be very backward; in 
fact, all late crops have been affected 
by the drought. The needed rain came 
m time to help potatoes that are just 
setting. Berries are high in price as 
the hot, dry weather dried them up on 
the vines. The fruit crop is not look¬ 
ing very promising at present. Cows 
have, been doing well, but are now be¬ 
ginning to shrink in their milk supply. 
Butter is 50c a pound, eggs 32c a 
dozen, wholesale. A. A. Barker’s valu- 
able herd of sheep suffered recently 
from the depredation of dogs. Over 
forty head of sheep and lambs were 
killed outright and many more injured 
and mutilated.—E. S. R. 

In Northern New York 

St. Lawrence Co.—Hay is well along. 
The crop is fairly large. Help is scarce 
and farmers are paying big wages, 
some as high as $5 a day. The corn 
crop is quite backward. Strawberries 
are plentiful, no raspberries as yet. 
Currants are plentiful. We are badly 
m need of rain.—H. S. H. 

Franklin Co.—Farmers are busy 
haying. The crop is splendid. Most 
all other crops such as oats, wheat, 
corn, and potatoes are not up to the 
average, although there are some very 
good fields. We had a most destructive 
wind and hailstorm on July 20 which 
blew down barns and silos, unroofed 
many buildings and damaged crops 
considerably. The storm is reported to 
have been most severe in the town of 
Burke, where several thousands of dol¬ 
lars damage was done to farm build- 
ings alone, to say nothing of crops. 
Following are farm prices: Hay, $18 
a ton; oats, 55c a bushel; potatoes, 75c 
a bushel; eggs, 30c a dozen; butter, 

44c a pound. The Franklin County 
farmers’ picnic, is planned for about 
August 15, and is to be held in Burling¬ 
ton.—H. T. J. 5 


/ 

4 


’V> 


Proof Against 
Weather, 
Fire, Water, 
Lightning 


We can furnish for immediate de¬ 
livery any style of the Penco roof¬ 
ing or siding, painted or galvanized. 
Furnished in CORRUGATED, V- 
Crimp Standing Seam, Loxon Tile, 
etc., for roofing. Brick, Clapboard, 
Stone Face, Beaded, etc., for siding. 
There is a special Penco metal ceil¬ 
ing for every purpose. 

Send for catalogue for Metal Lath, 
Corner Bead, Culverts, Bridge 
Arches, Cutters, Leaders, 

V entilators. Skylights. 

PENN METAL COMPANY 
110 First St., JERSEY CITY, N. J. 

also 

25th & Wharton Sts., PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Write your nearest office 


MILK CANS 



20-30-40 qt. 
sizes 

We sell only 
makes of high 
quality — yet 
our prices are 
reasonable. 

Progressive 
dairymen have 
bought sup¬ 
plies and 
equipment 
from us since 
1889. 


J. S. BIESECKER 

Creamery, Dairy and Dairy 
Barn Equipment 

59 Murray St. New York City 


SKINNER HYDRAULIC 

BARREL HEADING PRESS 



'YOUR packing 

1 equipment 
should include 
this well built, 
practical barrel 
press. Operated 
either by motor attached or by 
pulley from line shaft. Entirely self 
contained with pump mounted on 
base casting. Valves which raise 
and lower the hydraulic plunger are 
part of main base casting. Pump 
consumes no power except when 
actually pressing head into barrel. 
Work controlled by double foot 
pedal action. 

Other features of 
the SkinnerBarrel 
Press appeal to 
busy packers. 

Wrile at once for full 
particulars and prices. 

Skinner Machinery Co. 



Fourth Street 


Dunedin, Florida 


Wheat 


/or Seed. 

from crops 
of as high as 
. -42 bu. per acre 

bowing such vigorous, healthy seed will pay you! 
Cleaned right—no cockle, rye, garlic, other weeds. 
Low cost will surprise you. Plain guarantee—let us 
* X P..T~.- Catalog and samples free. Write today. 

A.H. HOFFIWAN.Inc-Landisville, Lanc.Co., Pa. 


TREES AND PLANTS 

Direct from grower at lower prices. Apple and PparH 
Asparagus hedging! 

WESTMINSTER NURSERY, Desk 25, WESTMINSTER, MD. 


When writing to advertisers please 
mention American Agriculturist. 

„ , . ) 















































































































American Agriculturist, August 11,1923 


93 


Eastern Pennsylvania News 


OLIVER D. SCHOCK 


E astern Pennsylvania farm¬ 
ers claim that this season’s crop 
of wheat will not realize the actual cost 
of production. In many localities deal¬ 
ers are paying only 90 cents per bushel. 

The Farmers’ Mutual Fire Insurance 
Companies are levying assessments 
upon policyholders at an average rate 
of $1.50 per $1,000 insurance. Up to 
the present time the fire losses through 
lightning have been smaller than in 
many preceding years. 

The farmers of Lehigh, Berks and 
Schuylkill Counties are becoming ac¬ 
customed to seeing deer associate with 
their cattle in the fields. The deer 
are increasing in number and Schuyl¬ 
kill and Berks Counties will not permit 
them to be shot during the next two 
years to come, the Game Commission 
having just issued this edict. 

Early Irish potatoes in the great po¬ 
tato-growing belt, Berks-Lehigh Coun¬ 
ties, proved a disappointment, the ag¬ 
gregate yield being hardly 50 per cent 
of the normal production. The long- 
continued drought caused the serious 
loss to growers. The late potatoes are 
making a better showing, but the crop 
will be materially reduced as compared 
with 1922. 

Farms in the Blue Mountain section 
are overrun with snakes as a result of 
the long-continued drought, as the rep¬ 
tiles were compelled to visit the valleys 
to obtain water. Austin Berger, a 
farmer near Hamburg, made a timely 
discovery of a rattlesnake in his bed¬ 
room. Several persons were bitten by 
snakes while engaged in farm opera¬ 
tions. There is a demand for a State 
or County bounty for killing rattle¬ 
snakes, the only poisonous kinds in this 
section. 

The tobacco fields of Lancaster and 
York Counties were greatly benefited 
by recent showers. A special effort will 
be made to secure a large and repre¬ 
sentative display of the various kinds 
of tobacco grown in that great tobacco¬ 
growing district at the coming Lancas¬ 
ter Fair. The crop thus far escaped 
damage from hailstorms. 


PENNSYLVANIA COUNTY NOTES 

Cumberland Co.—We are having a 
siege of very dry weather again. The 
cornfields and gardens are suffering. 
We had some very destructive hail¬ 
storms in some sections of the county. 
Practically all harvesting is done, ex¬ 
cept in the case of oats. Hay made a 
short crop with the exception of al¬ 
falfa. Hay is selling from the fields 
at $16 to 20 a ton, baled. Wheat was 
not as heavy as last year, but what has' 
been threshed is turning out fairly well. 
Much threshing is being done from the 
field. There would be a great deal 
more if machines were available. 
Farmers fear the moth, which is very 
bad here. Corn looks well, but needs 
rain. Wheat is 90c a bushel. . Corn is 
the same price as wheat, something 
unusual here, and the farmers are talk¬ 
ing of corn instead of wheat.—J. B. K. 

Snyder Co.—We have been having 
some very good rains during the last 
week. They were certainly badly 
needed. In fact, some crops were part¬ 
ly ruined on account of the extremely 
dry weather. Wheat will only make 
half a crop. Oats are about the same. 
The corn crop looks fairly promising, 
pastures are short, potatoes are small. 
Threshing grain has started. Wheat 
is bringing $1 a bushel; oats, 40c; rye, 
70c; corn, 85c; butter, 38c a pound; 
eggs, 22c; ham, 25c a pound; shoulders, 
15c a pound; bacon, 15c a pound; 3 
per cent milk, $2.71 a hundred; 4 per 
cent milk, $3.11 a hundred. Not much 
sickness.—D. D. S. 

Crawford Co.—We have had cool 
nights for the last week and a half. 
The weather has been very dry. What 
showers we have had have been very 
light ones. Almost all of the wheat 
crop is in the barns and haying is about 
over. Hay did not make much more 
than two-thirds of a crop. New seed- 
ings are mostly all dried up. Oats are 
ripening rapidly and indications are 
that they will make a very poor crop. 
Berries are drying up. The milk flow 
has fallen off about one-half. Butter 
Is 45 to 50e; eggs, 26 to 30c. Fruit 
is falling off the trees.— J. F. S. 



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200 lbs. Distillers Grains 

500 “ Gluten Feed 

260 " Cottonseed Meal 43% 

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Thousands of other dairymen report that 
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Representative sample of G. L. F. Milk Maker and Booklet 
“Feeding Facts’’ sent to you upon request. Postage prepaid. 

Feed Department, Cooperative G. L. F. Exchange, Inc., Buffalo, N. Y. 


Address 



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(Magneto Eauipped) : 

Puts this WITTE 
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For 90 Days’ FREE TRIAL 

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Kerosene, Gasoline, Distillate or Gas. Simple 
and trouble-proof. The low price includes fa¬ 
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at FACTORY PRICE. All sizes-2 to 25 H-P. 

m~a r* jn _Write today for details of 

f\ /*. this free trial remarkable 

M *■*—• *—* offer and wonderful, new, 
illustrated Engine Book. No obligation. Address 
WITTE ENGINE WORKS 
1807 Oakland Avenue, KANSAS CITY, MO. 
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100-Acre Equipped Farm 

500 apple trees, 73 acre crops. Only mile hustling railroad 
town; city markets; money-making farms all around; 
92 acres productive tillage, 15-cow pasture; 500 10-year-old 
apple trees; comfortable 2-story 9-room house, delightful 
view, good 60-foot barn, poultry house, garage. Low price 
$5000 and to settle immediately, team, 6 cows, hogs, 100 
poultry, tools, implements, complete furniture, 2 acres 
potatoes, 12 acres oats, 14 acres wheat, 30 acres corn, 15 
acres hay, fruit included, part cash. Details page 26-S 
Illus. Catalog Bargains—many States. Copy free. STROUT 
FARM AGENCY, 150R Nassau Street, New York City. 


IF YOU SAY: 

“I saw your ad in the American Agriculturist ” 
when ordering from our advertisers, you will benefit 
by our guarantee to refund the price of goods pur¬ 
chased by any subscriber from any advertiser who 
fails to make good if the article purchased Is found 
not to be as advertised. 

No trouble, that. And you insure yourself from trouble. 


LOOK AT THE EXPIRATION DATE 
ON YOUR ADDRESS LABEL 

If your subscription has expired, you can show your appreciation of our courtesy in con¬ 
tinuing to send you the American Agriculturist, by favoring us with your renewal at once. 

There is no question as to your needing every coming issue of American Agriculturist, 
because some of the future numbers will contain facts that you would not willingly miss 
for any amount. The worst kind of economy in the world is to save $1 by not subscribing 
for American Agriculturist and thereby losing $10 or $100 or even $1,000 by not having 
the information that will be given in the next 52 issues of American Agriculturist. 

If you were a doctor, you would find the best medical journal indispensable. If you are 
a real farmer who is out for 100% success and not merely a hare living, you owe it to 
yourself and family to read every coming issue of the American Agriculturist so that you 
can keep abreast of the times. 

SPECIAL BARGAINS! 

Fifty-two issues of American Agriculturist for only $1 is a bargain, but we offer you even 
still greater value for your money if you accept one of the following special long-term 

2 years for American Agriculturist only $1.50 

3 years for American Agriculturist only 2.00 

5 years for American Agriculturist only 3.00 

It has probably been merely an oversight if you are in arrears in your subscription. 

Before you forget it, mail your renewal for one of the above bargains and show your heart 
is still with us in our fight for your success and happiness. 

—-MAIL THIS COUPON TODAY- 

AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST, 461 Fourth Ave., New York City. 

I appreciate your sending me American Agriculturist after my subscription expired. 
Here is my check (or money-order) for renewal for.years more. 


Name... 
Address. 










































94 


American Agriculturist, August 11,1923 


The Service Bureau 

Leave the American Horticultural Company Alone 


■ 


THIS IS YOUR MARKET PLACE 


Classified Advertising Rates 

ADVERTISEMENTS are inserted in this department at the rate of 5 cents a word, 
xi The minimum charge per insertion is $1 per week. 

Count as one word each initial, abbreviation and whole number, including name 
and address. Thus : “J. B. Jones, 44 E. Main St., Mount Morris, N. Y.” counts as 
eleven words. 

Place your wants by following the style of the advertisements on this page. 

Our Advertisements Guaranteed 

T HE American Agriculturist accepts only advertising which it believes to be 
thoroughly honest. 

We positively guarantee to our readers fair and honest treatment in dealing with 
our advertisers. 

We guarantee to refund, the price of goods purchased by our subscribers from any 
advertiser who fails to make good when the article purchased is found not to be 
as advertised. 

To benefit by this guarantee subscribers must say: “I saw your ad in the Ameri¬ 
can Agriculturist” when ordering from our advertisers. 

The More You Tell, The Quicker You Sell 

E VERY week the American Agriculturist reaches over 120,000 farmers in New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and adjacent States. Advertising orders must 
reach our office at 461 Fourth Avenue, New York City not later than the second 
Monday previous to date of issue. Cancellation orders must reach us on the same 
schedule. Because of the low rate to subscribers and their friends, cash or money 
order must accompany your order. 

ALL GOOD THINGS COME TO HIM WHO WAITS — BUT 
THE CHAP WHO DOESN'T ADVERTISE WAITS LONGEST 




EGGS AND POULTRY 

SEEDS AND NURSERY STOCKS 


SO MANY ELEMENTS enter into the ship¬ 
ping of day-old chicks and eggs by our ad¬ 
vertisers, and the hatching of same by our 
subscribers that the publishers of this paper 
cannot guarantee the safe arrival of day-old 
chicks, or that eggs shipped shall reach the 
buyer unbroken, nor ca-n they guarantee the 
hatching of eggs. We shall continue to exer¬ 
cise the greatest care in allowing poultry and 
egg advertisers to use this paper, but our re¬ 
sponsibility must end with that. 


PULLETS, ALL AGES—White, Brown and 
Buff Leghorns, Anconas, Minorcas ; also year¬ 
ling hens. FRANK’S POULTRY FARM, Box 
A, Tiffin, Ohio. 


FOR SALE—30 S. C. White Leghorn Pullets, 
Barron strain; March-hatched; $1.25 each. 

NORMAN FRANK, Ransomville, N. Y. 


CHICKS—White Leghorn “Barron” strain, 
$8—100 ; Reds, $10. EMPIRE HATCHERY, 
Seward, N. Y. 


REAL ESTATE 


FOR SALE—In Oneida County, New York, 
9 miles from Rome, a well-running cheese fac¬ 
tory with house, barn and 3 acres of good, 
level land, little orchard and running water. 
Factory open all the year around. Company 
buys milk, or can be run by own hand. Good 
buildings and on improved road. Neat loca¬ 
tion. Possession given November 1 or October 1. 
Inquire LOUIS WERREN, Lee Center, N. Y. 


FINE STOCK AND GRAIN FARM — 2,107 
acres between Richmond and Washington, 900 
acres rich, level river bottom cultivated ; good 
7-room residence, large barns, six tenant 
houses; 17 million feet original oak and pine 
timber, on high level ground, finest standing 
in Virginia; $62.50 per acre, farm and timber. 
Lafayette MANN, 123 N. 8th Street, Rich¬ 
mond, Va. 


FOR SALE—Farm, two hundred and fourteen 
acres; good buildings, on State road ; five min¬ 
utes’ walk from church ; school, store, railway 
station, milk station, mills. Make ideal sum¬ 
mer home. Particulars inquire, BOX 631, 
Cobleskill, N. Y. 


SWINE 


CHOICE REGISTERED CHESTER White 
Pigs, both sexes; one tried sow; Wildwood 
Prince, Petroleum Blood. J. S. BOYER, Wol¬ 
cott, N. Y. 


O. I. C. PIGS—$7. Bred sows cheap. 10- 
week Barron Leghorn Pullets, $1. Collies. 
EL BRITON FARM, Route 1, Hudson, N. Y. 


DOGS AND PET STOCK 


LAKE SHORE KENNELS, Himrod, N. Y„ 
offers Fox, Coon and Rabbit Hounds, also Water 
Spaniels on approval. You’re the judge. Pup¬ 
pies above breeds. 


FOR SALE —.English Beagle female rabbit 
dog and puppies. Write for prices. H. G. 
OAKLEY, Strattonville, Pa. 


SHEPHERD DOGS — Now working, thirty 
years a breeder. ARTHUR GILSON, Canton, 
N. Y. 


CATTLE 


20 MILKING SHORTHORNS—Ten due to 
freshen about September 1, 1923. TB tested, 
all young and right. O. L. WILKINSON, 
Knoxville, Pa. 


WOMEN’S WANTS 


PATCHWORK — Send fifteen cents for 
household package, bright new calicoes and 
percales. Your money’s worth every time. 
PATCHWORK COMPANY, Meriden, Conn. 


SMART “HOMEMAID” VOILE FROCKS— 
$1.98. Send measurements, bust, from neck 
to hem in back. BENNETTS “HOMEMAID” 
GARMENTS, Schuylerville, N. Y. 


CLOVER—$4.50 bushel; (Unhulled Sweet) 
Alfalfa, $7.00 ; Red Clover, $12.00; Grimm 
Alfalfa, $22.50; satisfaction or money back; 
we ship from several warehouses and save you 
freight. NOW is the time to buy your seeds 
for next planting. MEIER SEED CO., Dept. 
AA., Salina, Kansas. 


CELERY AND CABBAGE PLANTS—Strong 
plants ready for field, of all leading varieties, 
$1.25 per 1,000. Parcel post, 5 cents per 100 
extra. Cauliflower plants, early Snowball— 
strong, $3 per 1,000. Send for list. J. C. 
SCHMIDT, Bristol, Pa. 


STRAWBERRY PLANTS for August and 
Fall planting (Samples), $4 per thousand. 
Special attention given to large orders. Write 
BOX 122, Watts Flats, N. Y. 


PLANTS—Celery, $2.50 per 1,000 ; $11.25 
per 5,000 ; Cabbage, $2.50 per 1,000 ; $10 per 
5,000. Strong selected plants. WM. P. 
YEAGLE, Bristol, Pa. 


HELP WANTED 


ALL men, women, boys, girls, 17 to 60, will¬ 
ing to accept Government positions, $117-$190, 
traveling or stationary, -write MR. OZMKNT, 
258 St. Louis, Mo., immediately. 


EXPERT DAIRYMAN—Experienced in cer¬ 
tified milk. Also farm mechanic able drive 
motor truck and tractor. MOHEGAN FARM 
CORP., Mohegan Lake, N. Y. 


FEMALE HELP WANTED 


GIRLS—WOMEN! — Learn Dress Draping- 
Making. $30 per week. Sample lessons free. 
Write immediately. FRANKLIN INSTITUTE, 
J Dept. B 542, Rochester, N. Y. 


MISCELLANEOUS 


LATEST STYLE SANITARY MILK TICK¬ 
ETS save money and time. Free delivery. 
Send for samples. TRAVERS BROTHERS, 
Dept. A, Gardner, Mass. 


DELCO PLANT — % R. W. with new bat¬ 
teries, $250. y 4 H. D. 32 volt motor, $15. H. 
VAN KUREN, Rummerfield, Pa. 


-FOR SALE—9-18 Case Tractor in good con¬ 
dition ; $200 takes it; f. o. b. C. J. STAFFORD, 
R. 3, Cortland, N. Y. 


FERRETS—Prices free. Book on Ferrets, 
10 cents. Muzzles, 25 cents. BERT EWELL, 
Wellington, Ohio. 


POST YOUR FARM 

and KeepTrespassers Off 

We have printed on 
linen lined board trespass 
notices that comply in all 
respects to the new law 
of New York State. We 
unreservedly advise land 
owners to post their 
farms. We have a large 
supply of these notices 
and will send one dozen 
to any subscriber for 60 
cents. Larger quantities 
at same rate. Address: 

AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

461 4th Ave., New York City 


O NE of the firms with which we had 
the most difficulty last summer was 
the American Horticulture Company, 
doing business at Des Moines, Iowa. 
One by one, complaints came in to us, 
and one by one we tried to get satis¬ 
faction for our subscribers. 

At first the firm answered our letters 
and some of those from customers 
whose orders they had failed to fill; 
then came form post-cards reporting 
“serious financial embarrassment,” then 
form letters from an attorney’s office, 
which did not in any way answer the 
complaint we made. 

Finally, silence and a report that the 
company was out of business. We 
wrote our unfortunate subscribers that 
they were out of pocket, so far as we 
could see, for the sums sent in good 
faith, and that since the firm had left 
no trace, we could not pursue them 
them further. 

Then, lo and behold, one subscriber 
received circulars and encouraging 
letters from this house, apparently able 
to solicit business and to receive letters 
with money in them, even if not to 
answer justifiable complaints against 
their manner of filling—or neglecting 
—orders. 

There is no danger of last year’s 
victims being stung twice, but some 
buyers may have been more fortunate 
last year, while others may be solicited 
for the first time and be tempted to 
order. 

We advise all American Agriculturist 
readers to leave the American Horti¬ 
culture Company strictly alone. 


IT MIGHT BE WORSE NEXT TIME 

It took only one complaint against 
them to place M. Fliegal & Sons, 342 
Greenwich St., New York, on the black 
list. The reason was their indifference 
in trying to straighten the matter out 
and the insolent way in which they re¬ 
fused to aid our investigation. 

Finally we proved, against their con¬ 
tinuous opposition, that our subscriber’s 
shipment had been delivered by the 
American Express Company and signed 
for. Still the firm was defiant, but 
finally were forced to agree to a refund. 

However, although Mr. Fliegal is a 
licensed and bonded merchant, and 
although complaints against him have 
been few, we feel that his attitude 
makes him a dangerous consignee for 
shipments from farmers who cannot be 
on the spot to protect their interests. 
The man who refuses to aid in finding 
the responsibility for a mistake and 
who tells investigators it is “none of 
their business” when it is finally traced 
to him, is not a safe business proposi¬ 
tion. 


THREE MONTHS VS. FIVE DAYS 

Mrs. A. G. of Pa., had been trying 
for three months to get the balance of 
her order from a mail-order house. 
Finally, in despair, she turned the mat¬ 
ter over to us. 

“Only five days after your letter 
reached them, my order came,” wrote 
Miss G. “I thank you for your kind¬ 
ness and appreciate the wonderful work 
you are doing for your subscribers.” 


ANOTHER BOOSTER FOR A. A. 

Turkeys again—five husky specimens 
went astray and the shipper, Mrs. M. 
D. B., of New York, promptly turned 
the matter over to us. 

The express company had to investi¬ 
gate, because the consignee claimed 
never to have received the turkeys. 
The express company accepted respon¬ 
sibility in the end, however, and a check 
for $33.63 went to Mrs. B. “I will 
continue to boost and subscribe for the 
American Agriculturist” she wrote. 


SUSPICIOUS 

Our letter saying that a settlement 
would be made reached our subscriber, 
Mrs. J. N. C., of New York, the same 
day she received a check from the firm 
of which she had complained. 

Mrs. C., had beaded three bags for a 


New York firm. She sent them by 
insured mail and they were lost. But 
the firm said that she had disregarded 
their shipping instructions and there¬ 
fore would have to stand the entire loss. 

That didn’t seem reasonable, and 
evidently the firm knew it was not, for 
as soon as the Service Bureau wrote 
them, they hastily sent Mrs. C. a check 
for the sum agreed upon for her work. 


IN TIME FOR NEXT WINTER 

Another mail-order house investi¬ 
gated a claim which had long hung fire 
when the American Agriculturist Ser¬ 
vice Bureau took a hand. As a result 
our subscriber, Mrs. A. F. R., wrote us 
from West Virginia: 

“At last the refund has come for the 
entire amount due on my coat. I had 
tried to get the money ever since last 
November, but with all my writing I 
secured no results. Thank you very 
much for helping me get it.” 


THEY TOOK THE MACHINE 
BACK 

One of the firms which sells homo¬ 
knitting machines recently agreed, at 
our solicitation, to take back a machine 
purchased by one of our subscribers 
who could not learn to manipulate it. 

We took the matter up with the com¬ 
pany, and although it was several 
weeks before Mrs. A. J. received her 
check — owing to an adjustment which 
had to be made for wool — she got it. 
She wrote “in the nick of time” and 
was very grateful to the Service Bureau 
for its good offices. 

These machines are not always the 
money-makers they seem, nor are all 
purchasers so fortunate as Mrs. J., for 
the firms rarely take one back. 


Is a Shorter Farm Day 
Practical ? 

(Continued from page 87) 

to hear any long and loud objections 
from them. 

My observation has been, however, 
that the objection from farmers is not 
particularly about the long hours, but 
the long hours together with short pay 
makes a combination that is far from 
pleasing. 

There are a few things that can be 
done, but they need concerted action 
to make them effective. Even if the 
cows do have to be milked twelve hours 
apart, it doesn’t prevent one from tak¬ 
ing time at noon to read the daily 
paper, and glance over the farm paper. 
You may feel guilty for a while, when 
you find that it is half-past one or two 
by the time the horses are hitched up 
and in the field, but one can get ac¬ 
customed to almost anything in time. 
This is also a good time to cut both 
production and work by testing the 
cows for tuberculosis, and don’t be in 
too big a hurry to get the herd back 
to the old number. 

It may not shorten the workday, but 
it will cut down the hours per week 
if you will find time to attend the 
Grange picnic or the Farm Bureau field 
day, or even the circus when it comes 
to town. It’s easy to say that there is 
too much work to do, but remember 
that farming is skilled labor, and 
skilled labor shouldn’t work too long 
hours. One trouble will be that if a 
large number of men should cut pro¬ 
duction in this way, others would con¬ 
clude that it would be a fine time to 
cash in, by producing big. Perhaps the 
Farm Bureau can solve the problem by 
some agreement among the members 
as to the hours of work. It surely 
is a problem that needs organization 
for its solution. 

Of course there would be a big howl 
by consumers if any concerted action 
should be taken to bring this about, 
but farmers have no cause to feel they 
have a duty to perform in feeding the 
public without profit. It might be 
doubted when I say that in 1911 a 
prominent magazine had a long article 
on “The High Cost of Living.” But it 
is true, because I read it. 


































































American Agriculturist, August 11,1923 


95 


Mouse — By Herbert Quick 


The Brown 


«v ou see,” said Jim to his audience, meanwhile pouring the lemonade, “the 

X centralizer creamery is uneconomic in several ways. It has to pay excessive 
transportation charges. It has to pay excessive commissions to its cream buyers. 
It has to accept cream without proper inspection, and mixes the good with the 
bad. It makes such long shipments that the cream spoils in transit and lowers 
the quality of the butter. It can’t make the best use of the buttermilk. All these 
losses and leaks the farmers have to stand. I can prove—and so can the six or 
eight pupils in the Woodruff school who have been working on the cream ques¬ 
tion this winter—that we could make at least six cents a pound on our butter if 
we had a cooperative creamery and all sent our cream to it.” 

“Well,” said Ezra Bronson, “let’s start one.” 

“I’ll go in,” said Olaf Hansen. 

“Me, too,” said Con Bonner. 

There was a general chorus of assent. Jim had convinced his audience. 

“He’s got the jury,” said Wilbur Smythe to Colonel Woodruff. 

“Yes,” said the colonel, “and right here is where he runs into danger. Can 
he handle the crowd when it’s with him?” 


“Well,” said Jim, “I think we ought 
to organize one, but I’ve another prop¬ 
osition first. Let’s get together and 
pool our cream. By that, I mean that 
we’ll all sell to the same creamery, 
and get the best we can out of the 
centralizers by the cooperative method. 
We can save two cents a pound in that 
way, and we’ll learn to cooperate. When 
we have found just how well we can 
hang together, we’ll be able to take 
up the cooperative creamery, with less 
danger of falling apart and failing.” 

“Who’ll handle the pool?” inquired 
Mr. Hansen. 

“We’ll handle it in the school,” an¬ 
swered Jim. 

“School’s about done,” objected Mr. 
Bronson. 

“Won’t the cream pool pretty near 
pay the expenses of running the school 
all summer?” asked Bonner. 

“We ought to run the school plant 
all the time,” said Jim. “It’s the only 
way to get full value out of the in¬ 
vestment. And we’ve corn-club work, 
pig-club work, poultry work and 
canning-club work which make it very 
desirable to keep in session with only 
a week’s vacation. If you’ll add the 
cream pool, it will make the school the 
hardest working crowd in the district 
and doing actual farm work, too.” 

“Well,” said Haakon Peterson, who 
had joined the group, “Ay tank we bet¬ 
ter have a meeting of the board and 
discuss it.” 

“Well, darn it,” said Columbus 
Brown, “I want in on this cream pool— 
and I live outside the district!” 

“We’ll let you in, Clumb,” said the 
colonel. 

“Sure!” said Pete. “We hain’t no 
more sense than to let any one in, 
Clumb. We ain’t proud!” 

“Well,” said Clumb, “if this feller 
is goin’ to do school work of this kind, 
I want in the district, too.” 

“'We’ll come to that one of these 
days,” said Jim. “The district is too 
small.” 

Wilbur Smythe’s car stopped at the 
distant gate and honked for him—a 
signal which broke up the party. 
Haakon Peterson passed the word to 
the colonel and Mr. Bronson for a 
board meeting the next evening. The 
picnic broke up. Jim walked across 
the fields to his home. He turned after 
crawling through a wire fence and 
looked longingly at Jennie as she was 
assisted into the car by the frock- 
coated lawyer. 

“You saw what he did?” said the 
colonel, as he and his daughter sat 
on the Woodruff veranda that evening. 
“Who taught him the supreme wisdom 
of holding back his troops when they 
grew too wild for attack?” 

“He may lose them,” said Jennie. 

“Not so,” said the colonel. “A 
Brown Mouse succeeds when he finds 
his environment. And I believe Jim 
has found his.” 

“Well,” said Jennie, “I wish his en¬ 
vironment would find him some clothes. 
It’s a shame the way he has to go 
looking. He’d be nice-appearing if he 
was dressed anyway.” 

“Would he?” queried the colonel. “I 
wonder, now! Well, Jennie, I think 
it’s up to you to act as a committee of 
one on Jim’s apparel.” 


CHAPTER XVII 

A TROUBLE SHOOTER 

A SUT>DEN July storm had drenched 
thA fields and filled the swales 
with^Hter. The cultivators left the 
coh^^Hs until the next day’s sun 


and a night of seepage might once 
more fit the black soil for tillage. 

A lithe young man with climbers on 
his legs walked up a telephone pole 
by the roadside to make some repairs 
to the wires, which had been whipped 
into a “cross” by the wind of the 
storm and the lashing of the limbs of 
the roadside trees. He had tied his 
horse to a post up the road, and was 
running out the trouble on the line, 
which was plentifully in evidence just 
then. The line repairer was cheer¬ 
fully profane, in the manner of his 
sort, glad by reason of the fire of 
summer in his veins, and incensed at 
the forces of nature which had brought 
him out through the mud to the Wood¬ 
ruff District to do these piffling jobs 
that any of the subscribers ought to 
have known how to do themselves, and 
none of which took more than a few 
minutes of his time when he reached 
the seat of the difficulty. 

Jim Irwin, his school out for the 
day, came along the muddy road with 
two of his pupils, a bare-legged little 
boy and a tall girl with flaxen hair— 
Bettina Hansen and her small brother 
Hans, who refused to answer to any 
name other than Hans Nilsen. His 
father’s name was Nils Hansen, and 
Hans a born conservative, being the 
son of Nils, regarded himself as right¬ 
fully a Nilsen, and disliked the “Hans 
Hansen” on the school register. 

H ANS strode through the pool of 
water which the shower had spread 
completely over the low turnpike a few 
rods from the,pole on which the trouble 
shooter was at work, and the elec¬ 
trician ceased his labors and rested 
himself on a cross-arm while he waited 
to see what the flaxen-haired girl would 
do when she came to it. 

Jim and Bettina stopped at the 
water’s edge. “Oh!” cried she, “I can’t 
get through!” The trouble shooter 
thought it best on the whole- to leave 
the matter in the hands of the lank 
schoolmaster. 

“I’ll carry you across,” said Jim, 
“I’m too heavy,” answered Bettina. 
“Nonsense!” said Jim, 

“She’s awful heavy,” piped Hans. 
“Better take off your shoes, anyhow!” 

Jim thought of the welfare of his 
only good trousers, and saw that Hans’ 
suggestion was good; but a mental pic¬ 
ture of himself with shoes in hand and 
bare legs restrained him. He took Bet¬ 
tina in his arms and went slowly 
across, walking rather farther with 
his blushing burden than was strictly 
necessary. Bettina was undoubtedly 
heavy; but she was also wonderfully 
pleasant to feel in arms which had 
never borne such a burden before; and 
her arms about his neck as he slopped 
through the pond were curiously 
thrilling. Her cheek brushed his as he 
set her upon her feet and felt, rather 
than thought, that if there had only 
been a good reason for it, Bettina 
would have willingly been carried much 
farther. 

“How strong you are!” she panted. 
“I’m awful heavy, ain’t I?” 

“Not very,” said Jim, with scholas¬ 
tic accuracy. “You’re just right. I 
—I mean, you’re simply well-nourished 
and wholesomely plump!” 

Bettina blushed still more rosily. 
“You’ve ruined your clothes,” said 
she. “Now you’ll have to come home 
with me and let me—see who’s there!” 

Jim looked up at the trouble shooter, 
and went over to the foot of the pole. 
The man walked down, striking his 
spurs deep into the wood for safety. 
“Hello!” said he. “School out?” 


“For the day,” said Jim. “Any im¬ 
portant work on the telephone line 
now?” 

“Just trouble-shooting,” was the an¬ 
swer. “I have to spend three hours 
hunting these troubles, to one in fix¬ 
ing ’em up.” 

“Do they take much technical skill?” 
asked Jim. 

“Mostly shakin’ out crosses, and 
puttin’ in new carbons in the ar¬ 
resters,” replied the trouble man. 
Any one ought to do any of ’em with 
five minutes’ instruction. But these 
farmers—they’d rather have me drive 
ten miles to take a hair-pin from 
across the binding-posts than to do it 
themselves. That’s the way they are!” 

“Will you be out here to-morrow?” 
queried the teacher. 

“Sure!” 

“I’d like to have you show my class 
in manual training something about the 
telephone,” said Jim. “The reason we 
can’t fix our own troubles, if they are 
as simple as you say, is because we 
don’t know how simple they are.” 

“I’ll tell you what I’ll do. Profes¬ 
sor,” said the trouble man. “I’ll bring 
a phone with me and give ’em a lecture. 
I don’t see how I can employ the com¬ 
pany’s time any better than in beating 
a little telephone sense into the heads 
of the community. Set the time, and 
I’ll be there with bells.” 

B ETTINA and her teacher walked on 
up the shady lane, feeling that they 
had a secret. They were very nearly 
on a parity as to the innocence of soul 
with which they held this secret, ex¬ 
cept that Bettina was much more 
single-minded toward it than Jim. To 
her he had been gradually attaining 
the status of a hero whose clasp of 
her in that iron-armed way was mys¬ 
teriously blissful—and beyond that her 
mind had not gone. To Jim, Bettina 
represented in a very sweet way the 
disturbing influences which had re¬ 
cently risen to the threshold of con¬ 
sciousness in his being, and which 
were concretely but not very hopefully 
embodied in Jennie Woodruff. 

Thus interested n each other, they 
turned the corner which took them out 
of sight of the lineman, and stopped at 
the shady avenue leading up to Nils 
Hansen’s farmstead. Little Hans Nil- 
sen had disappeared by the simple 
method of cutting across lots. Bettina 
lingered, standing close by Jim Irwin. 

“Won’t you come in and let me 
clean the mud off you,” she asked, “and 
give you some dry socks?” 

“Oh, no!” replied Jim. “It’s al¬ 
most as far to your house as it is 
home. Thank you, no.” 

“There’s a splash of mud on your 
face,” said Bettina. “Let me—” And 
with her little handkerchief she be¬ 
gan wiping off the mud. Jim stooped 
to permit the attention, but not much, 
for Bettina was of the mold of women 
of whom warriors are born. Their 
faces approached, and Jim recognized 
a crisis in the fact that Bettina’s 
mouth was presented for a kiss. Jim 
met the occasion like the gentleman he 
was. He did not leave her stung by re¬ 
jection; neither did he obey the impulse 
to respond to the invitation according 
to his man’s instinct; he took the rosy 
face between his palms and kissed her 
forehead—and left her in possession of 
her self-respect. v After that Bettina 
Hansen felt, somehow, that the world 
could not possibly contain another man 
like Jim Irwin—a conviction which she 
still cherishes when that respectful 
caress has been swept into the cloudy 
distance of a woman’s memories. - 
Pete, Colonel Woodruff’s hired man, 
was watering the horses at the trough 
when the trouble shooter reached the 
Woodruff telephone. County Superin¬ 
tendent Jennie was on the bench where 
once she had said “Humph!” to Jim 
Irwin?” 

“Anything wrong with your phone?” 
asked the trouble man of Pete. 

“Nah,” replied Pete. “It was on the 
blink till you done something down the 
road.” 

“Crossed up,” said the lineman. 
“These trees along here are fierce.” 

“I’d cut ’em all if they was mine,” 
said Pete, “but the colonel set ’em out, 
along about sixty-six, and I reckon 
they’ll have to go on a-growin’.” 


“Who’s your school-teacher?” asked 
the telephone man. ‘ 

The county superintendent pricked up 
her ears—being quite properly inter¬ 
ested in matters educational. 

“Feller name of Irwin,” said Pete. 

“Farmer, eh?” said the lineman in¬ 
terrogatively. “Well, he’s the first 
farmer I ever saw that recognized 
there’s education in the telephone busi¬ 
ness. I’m goin’ to teach a class in tele¬ 
phony at the schoolhouse to-morrow.” 

‘‘T^ON’T get swelled up,” said Pete. 

“He has everybody tell them 
young ones about everything—black¬ 
smith, cabinet-maker, pie-founder, 
cookie-cooker, dressmaker—even down 
to telephones.” 

“He must be some feller,” said the 
lineman. “And who’s his star pupil?” 

“Didn’t know he had one,” said Pete. 
“Why?” 

“Girl,” said the trouble shooter. 
“Goes to school from the farm where the 
Western Union brace is used at the 
road.” 

“Nils Hansen’s girl?” asked Pete. 

“Toppy little filly,” said the lineman, 
“with silver mane—looks like she’d 
pull a good load and step some.” 

“M’h’m,” grunted Pete. “Bettina 
Hansen. What about her?” 

Again the county superintendent, 
seated on the bench, pricked up her 
ears. 

“I never wanted to be a school¬ 
teacher as bad,” continued the shooter 
of trouble, “as I did when this farmer 
got to the low place in the road with 
the fair Bettina this afternoon when 
they was cornin’ home from school. The 
water was all over the road—” 

“Then I win a smoke from the road- 
master,” said Pete. “I bet him it would 
overflow.” 

“Well, if I was in the professor’s 
place, I’d be glad to pay the bet,” said 
the wordly lineman. “He carried her 
across the pond, and her a-clingin’ to 
his neck in a way to make your mouth 
water.” 

“I’d rather have a good cigar any 
ol’ time” said Pete. “Nothin’ but a 
yaller-haired kid—an’ a Dane at that. 
1 had a dame once up at Spirit Lake—” 

“Well, I must be drivin’ on,” said the 
lineman. “Got to get up a lecture for 


TO REMIND YOU OF WHAT 
HAS HAPPENED 

AT the Fourth of July picnic, 
County Superintendent Jennie 
Woodruff discovers that Jim Ir¬ 
win is rapidly becoming a power 
in the community. She has had 
to try him for incompetance, but 
the school children, taught by his 
strange new methods, have passed 
their test with flying colors. The 
school has also given an exhibit 
at the county fair which attracted 
much attention to Jim’s unusual 
work. Jennie is just beginning 
to appreciate her old sweetheart, 
but her father, Colonel Woodruff 
has long suspected Jim of being 
a “Brown Mouse.” 


Professor Irwin to-morrow—and maybe 
I’ll be able to meet that yaller-haired 
kid. So long!” 

The county superintendent recognized 
at once the educational importance of 
the matter. She made a run of ten 
miles to hear the trouble shooter’s lec¬ 
ture, and she saw the beginning of an 
arrangement under which the boys of 
the Woodruff school took the contract 
to look aft