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ANNALS 



ROGER DE 




COMPRISING 

THE HISTOHY OF ENGLAND 

AND OF 

OTHER COUNTRIES OF EUROPE 

FROM A.D. 732 TO A.D. 1201. 
TRANSLATED FROM THE LATIN WITH NOTES AND ILLUSTRATIONS 

By HENEY T. EILEY, Esq., B.A. 
baehistee-at- la w. 

IN TWO VOLUMES. 
YOL. II. 

A.D. 1181 TO A.D. 1201. 

LONDON: 

H. G. BOHN, YOEK STEEET, COYEls^T GAEDEN. 

MDCCCLni. 






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THE ANNALS 



OF 



ROGEE DE HOVEDEN. 



THE SECOIS'D PAET— COTsTTmUED. Si 




In the year of grace 1181, being the twenty-^enl 
reign of king Henry, son of the empress Matim^j'^fef^sSTd king 
was at Le Mans, on the day of the JN'ativity of our Lord. After 
this festival, he enacted throughout all his territories, beyond 
sea, that every man who had a hundred pounds of money An- 
jouin, in chattel property, should keep a horse and a complete 
set of military accoutrements ; that every man who had chattel 
property to the amount of forty, thirty, or twenty-five pounds 
Anjouin, at the least should have a hauberk, an iron head-piece, 
a lance and a sword ; while all other persons were to have a 
gambeson,^ an iron head-piece, a lance and a sword, or a bow 
and arrows ; and he forbade any person to sell or pledge his 
arms ; but on his death he was to leave the same to his next 
heir. When Philip, king of France, and Philip, earl of Flan- 
ders, came to hear of this, they ordered that their men should 
arm themselves in a similar manner. 

In the same year, after the Purification of Saint Mary, Lau- 
rence, archbishop of Dublin, came into ]N"ormandy, bringing 
T\dth him the son of Eoderic, king of Connaught, and delivered 
him to the king of England as a hostage for the performance of 
the treaty made between him and the king of Connaught, as to the 
payment of tribute by Ireland ; shortly after which the said 
archbishop of Dublin died at Auc, in Normandy, and was buried 
there. After his decease, the king of England sent to Ireland 

' The gambeson, or wambais, or subarmale, was made of quilted stuff, 
and fonned the body armour of the burgesses. q J\ 

VOL. II. ^ P 60 



2 ANNALS OF ROGER DE HOYEDEN. A. D. 1181. 

Geoffrey do Haye, his own secretar^^ and the secretary of 
Alexis, the legate in Ireland, to take possession of the arch- 
bishopric of Dublin, and also sent with them John, the constable i 
of Chester, and Richard of the Peak, to take charge of the city 
of Dublin, of which Hugh de Lacy had had the keeping. 
For our lord the king was unwilling that he should any longer 
have charge of it, because he had, without his permission, mar- 
ried the daughter of the king of Connaught, according to the 
usage of that country. 

In the same year, our lord the pope most strictly commanded 
Eichard, the archbishop of Canterbury, all pretexts and excuses 
laid aside, under pain of ecclesiastical censure, to compel Geof- 
frey, the bishop elect of the church of Lincoln, and son^ of our 
lord the king of England, either to renounce his election, or 
without delay to take priest's orders, and assume the dignity of 
the pontifical office. On this, Geof&'ey being placed in a di- 
lemma, sensible of his own insufficiency, and considering that 
he was not competent to perform the duties of so arduous an 
office, preferred to renounce the episcopal office, rather than 
undertake to bear a burden which he could not support. Ac- 
cordingly, he wrote to Eichard, the archbishop of Canterbury, 
to the following effect. 

The Letter of Geoffrey, bishop of Lincoln elect, 07i his resignation I 

of that bishopric. 

' ' To the venerable father and lord Eichard, by the grace of God, 
archbishop of Canterbury, and legate of the Apostolic See, Geof- 
frey, son and chancellor of our lord the king of England, health i 
and all due and duteous respect. It has pleased his Apostolic 
Majesty to instruct your holiness to call upon me within a cer- 
tain time to take priest's orders and to assume the dignity of the 
pontifical office. Now upon considering how many bishops of 
more mature years, and more advanced in wisdom, are still 
hardly of an age to prove themselves equal to the requirements 
of such a weighty office, and are scarcely able to fulfil the duties 
of their pontificate without danger to souls, I have been alarmed 
at myself, who am so much younger, assuming a burden, which 
those more advanced in years are unable to bear, not doing so 
from any levity of feeling, but from a feeling of respect for my 
vows. Having therefore had an interview hereon, with our 
lord the king, my father, and my lords and brothers the king 
^ Illegitimate sou. He was afterwards archbishop of York. 



A.o. 1181. LETTER OF POPE ALEXANDER. 3 

and the earls of Poitou and Brittany, and Henry, bishop of 
Eayeux, Froger, bishop of Seez, Eeginald, bishop of Bath, 
Sigfred, bishop of Chichester, who were present, I have come 
to a different determination as to my mode of life and profession, 
wishing for a time to serve in a military capacity under the 
orders of the king, my father, and to refrain from interfering 
in episcopal matters. Accordingly, most holy father, I do 
spontaneously, freely, and entirely, resign into your hands all 
rights consequent upon my election, as also the see of Lincoln ; 
requesting of you as being my metropolitan, and for this pur- 
pose especially delegated by the Apostolic See, absolution both 
from the said election and from holding the said bishopric. 
Farewell." 

In like manner, the said bishop elect of Lincoln wrote to 
the canons of the church of Lincoln, asking of them absolu- 
tion both from the said election and from holding the said 
bishopric. After this, our lord, the king, by whose advice his 
son Geoffrey had resigned his election into the hands of the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, gave him his chancellorship and a yearly 
revenue of five hundred marks in England, and the same in 
Normandy. 

In this year, Saladin, the king of Babylon, seeing that Bald- 
win, king of Jerusalem, being smitten with leprosy, had not 
strength to resist him, raising a great force, came into the land 
of Jerusalem, and laid it waste, and there was no person to make 
any resistance to him. In the same year, the king of England 
was at Chinon during the festival of Easter ; and after Easter 
returned into iS^ormandy, and held a conference with Philip, king 
of France, at Ye Saint Eemy, on the fifth day before the calends 
of May, being the second day of the week ; at which the Tem- 
plars and Hospitallers of Jerusalem presented to the before - 
named kings letters from Alexander, the Supreme Pontiff, to 
the following effect : 

The Letter of pope Alexander on the necessity of giving aid to the 

land of Jerusalem. 

'' Alexander, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to 
his dearly beloved sons, those noble men, the dukes and princes, 
earls, barons, and all the faithful servants of God, to whom 
these letters shall come, health and the Apostolic benediction. 
The sinister rumours which, according to the universal report 
of those passing this way, have reached us from the land of 

B 2 



4 AKNAT^ OP ROGER DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1181. 

Jerusalem, have afflicted our heart and those of all our brethren 
with excessive grief ; inasmuch as any one who has the name 
of Christian can hardly even hear, without tears and sighs, the 
recitals that are given as to the wretched state of that country. 
Eor it is (and with grief we own it) trodden down under the 
inroads of the infidels, and so utterly bereft of the prowess of men 
of might, and the prudent counsel of men of probity, that un- 
less the people receive from the Christian kings and princes of 
the earth speedy and powerful succour, we fear, which may 
God forbid, the speedy desolation thereof, thus working to 
the disgrace of the Lord, and to the contempt of the Christian 
faith. For there is no king to rule that land, inasmuch as Bald- 
win, who now holds the helm of state, has been (as we believe 
you are aware) so grievously scourged under the righteous 
judgments of God, that he is hardly able to endure the inces- 
sant torments of his body. Indeed, the heavy losses and the 
shocking misfortunes, both in men and property, which that 
land (for which our fathers and ancestors shed their blood in the 
battles which they formerly waged with the heathens) has, in 
consequence of its sins so requiring it, endured, we can neither 
without great sorrowing at heart call to our recollection, nor 
can any who are zealous for the law of the Lord, endure with 
feelings of patience calamities of the faithful so mighty ; and 
the more especially so, as this most abominable nation of the 
pagans, in consequence of the losses and dangers which they 
have inflicted upon the nation of the Christians, ai'e said to be 
inspired with such audacity as impudently to boast that they 
will, which God forbid, gain possession of that land. There- 
fore let the zeal of the Lord move you, and let not the Christian 
religion sleep in its sorrow over such mighty evils as are threat- 
ening that land ; but, on the contrary, manfully defend all those 
places which our Saviour and Eedeemer has sanctified by His 
bodily presence, and despise the nations which reject the Lord, 
and strive to sweep away the Christian name from off the earth. 
For indeed, there is no Christian who is not moved at the mis- 
fortunes of the before-named land, and who does not prepare for 
the purpose of defending it from the attacks of the infidels, 
while they are striving to possess it, and, which God forbid, 
to profane it by their abominations. Therefore, those among 
you who are valiant and fit for waging war, ought, as a matter of 
duty, to undertake a work as pious as it is necessary and the la- 
bours of this pilgrimage, clothed no less with the shield of faith 



A. D. 1181. LETTEK OF VOTE ALEXANDER. 5 

and the breastplate of justice than with worldly arms, and 
to defend those places in which the Redeemer of mankind has 
been willing to die for us and has undergone a temporal death, 
with powerful might, so that in our times Christianity may 
suffer no detriment in those parts. For inasmuch as Christ for 
our salvation endured many insults, and, last of all, suspension 
on the cross, that He might make an offering of us to God, 
mortified in the flesh and justified in the spirit, it is most 
conducive to the salvation of the faithful that on His behalf 
we should expose our bodies to perils and to labours, that so 
we may not seem to be forgetful of the price of His blood 
which He shed for us. Give heed therefore, my beloved sons 
in Christ, and consider how disgraceful it would be, and how 
deserving of the grief of all Christians, if at last the enemies 
of the cross of Christ should prevail against the dwellers in 
that land ; and that they will prevail we have no small dread, 
unless assistance is brought in all haste from the difierent parts 
of Christendom to those who dwell there. Therefore, take 
precaution and exert all your endeavours that Christianity 
may not succumb to heathenism, inasmuch as it is better to 
meet an impending evil before it comes, than to seek a remedy 
after the cause has been injured. To those also, who in behalf 
of Christ shall undertake the labours of this expedition, we 
do, by the Apostolic authority, grant and confirm that re- 
mission of sins, which the fathers, our predecessors, Urban 
and Eugenius, the Eoman Pontifi's, gave by their enactments. 
The wives also, and children of such persons, and their goods 
and possessions, we do decree to be under the protection of 
Saint Peter and of ourselves, as also of the archbishops and 
bishops and other prelates of the Church ; strictly forbidding, 
that after the assumption of the cross, any claim shall be 
entertained with reference to the things of which they are in 
peaceable possession, until such time as they shall return, or 
certain information shall have been brought of their death. Let 
it also be lawful for them, after their relations, or even their 
superior lords, to whom the fee belongs, have shown them- 
selves unwilling or unable to lend them money thereon, to 
pledge their lands or other possessions to churches or to eccle- 
Biastics or others of the faithful, freely and without any challenge 
thereof, in order to defi-ay the expenses of the said expedition. 
Moreover, such men, accustomed to arms and fitted for the de- 
fence of that land; as shall, in the fervour of their devotion, 



6 AJfNALS OF EOGER DE HOYEDEI^^. a.D. 118L 

repair to those holy places, and serve there for a period of two 
years against the Saracens, in defence of the Christian name, 
trusting in the merits of Jesus Christ and in the authority 
of the Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul, we do give them 
absolution for all those sins of which with a contrite and hum- 
ble heart they shall make confession, unless they shall happen to 
have taken property that belongs to another, or to have extorted 
usiu'ious interest, or to have committed thefts ; for all which 
offences due reparation ought to be made. But if those w^ho 
are guilty thereof have not the means of making such repara- 
tion, nevertheless they shall obtain pardon for their offences, 
as we have already mentioned. And those who shall have re- 
mained there but one year, as we have previously mentioned, 
shall obtain an indulgence for one half the penance enjoined 
them and remission of their sins. And, further, to all, who, by 
reason of urgent necessity, are washful to visit the sepulchre of 
our Lord, whether they die on the road, or whether they arrive 
at that place, we do enjoin that the labour of the said journey 
shall be in place of penance, and obedience, and for the remission 
of all their sins, that so by the bounty of God, they may arrive 
from the turmoils of this life at that state of blessedness, 
* Which eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath en- 
tered into the heart of man,' ^^ and which the Lord hath promised 
to those who love Him. Given at Tusculanum, on the seven- 
teenth day before the calends of Pebruary." 

The said pope also wrote to the archbishops, bishops, and 
other prelates of churches with reference to the same subject, 
to the following effect : — 

Another Letter of pope Alexander on the same subject, 

'* Alexander the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to 
his venerable brethren the archbishops and bishops, and to his 
dearly beloved sons the abbats and other prelates of churches 
to whom these letters shall come, health and the ApostoKc 
benediction. Inasmuch as the eastern lands, by reason of 
the attacks and assaults of the infidels, have been deprived of 
the prowess of men of valour and the counsel of men of pro- 
bity, and are stricken with exceeding dismay, the archbishops, 
bishops, and other chief men of the land, have thought proper 
to send to your parts our deaiiy beloved sons, the knights of the 
Temple, the bearers of these presents, religious men, and who 

1^ 1 Cor. ii. 9. 



A.D. 1181. LETTEK OE POPE ALEXANDER. 7 

fear God, in order to implore your aid ; wherefore we, whom 
the calamities of that land afflict with intense sorrow, after the 
example of our fathers and predecessors, being anxious for the 
preservation thereof, do by this healthful warning exhort the 
Christian kings and princes of the world to the defence of 
those places in which the feet of the Lord have stood ; and for 
that purpose, we do proclaim to all sinners, who, in the cause 
of Christ, shall undertake the labour of aiding Jerusalem, and 
shall with faithful duteousness make it their care to fight against 
the Saracens, that remission and forgiveness of sins, which 
the fathers, our predecessors. Urban and Eugenius, the Roman 
Pontiffs, gave by their enactments. We do therefore advise 
and strictly enjoin the whole of you, to receive with kindly 
feelings the brethren who have been sent for this purpose, and 
after learning thi'ough them the state of the countries of the 
east, and the necessities thereof, to labour by frequent and 
anxious exhortations to induce the princes, earls, and others 
of the faithful in Christ in your respective dioceses, to repair 
with all haste to these lands, for the delivery of which their 
fathers and ancestors have shed their own blood, and to fight with 
might and valour against the enemies of the cross of Christ. 
The letters which for this purpose we send, addressed to all 
generally, you will cause to be publicly read in all churches and 
will explain the tenor thereof, and will announce the remission 
of sins which we grant to those who shall engage in a work so 
pious and so necessary, and so advise all persons to do that 
which we suggest. And may, through your anxiety and your 
exhortations, that land speedily be sensible of the aid and suc- 
cour of the faithful, and may you yourselves in return for it, 
gain from Almighty God an everlasting reward. Given at 
Tusculanum,^^ on the sixteenth day of January.'^ 

On hearing of this, Philip, king of France, and Henry, king 
of England, greatly lamenting the adversities and the de- 
solation of the land of Jerusalem, promised that they would, 
with the aid of the Lord, give speedy succour thereto ; upon 
which, the interview was brought to a close. 

In the meantime, William, king of Scotland, by the com- 
mand of our lord the king of England, came into JNormandy, 
and by his counsel and advice the said king of Scotland gave 
liberty to return to Matthew, bishop of Aberdeen, and John, 
bishop of Saint Andrew's, whom he had banished from Scot- 

*^ The modern Frascati. 



8 ANNALS OF ROGEB DE HOTEDEW. A.D. 11 Si. 

land. An agreement was entered into between them, in 
presence of the king of England, to the following effect :— 
That Matthew, bishop of Aberdeen, should freely and without 
any opposition, under the safe conduct of the king of Scotland, 
return to his own see, and if anything should have been taken 
from him, the same should be restored ; and John, who had 
been consecrated bishop of Saint Andrew's, in order to regain 
the favour of his lord the king of Scotland, agreed that he 
would give up to him the said bishopric, if he should be allowed 
to choose whatever bishopric he might please in the kingdom 
of Scotland, and if in addition thereto, the king of Scotland 
should give him his chancellorship and all the revenues which 
he had held before his consecration, together with forty marks 
of yearly revenue from the church of Saint Andrew's. Upon 
this the king of Scotland sent his envoys to pope Alexander, to 
request that for the sake of peace, he would allow this change 
of episcopal sees to take place ; this, however, our lord, the 
pope, would not allow. 

After these transactions, the king of England gave to John 
Eitz-Luke, his clerk, the bishopric of Exeter, and to Ralph de 
Warnville, who was his chancellor and treasurer of the church of 
York, the bishopric of Lisieux, which Arnulph, bishop of Lisieux, 
had vacated in consequence of the dislike which the king had 
taken to him ; for when he found that he could at no price 
obtain the royal favour, he preferred resigning the bishopric, 
to enduring the king's hatred any longer. Accordingly, after 
getting in his gold and silver fi'om every quarter, of which he 
was said to have a large quantity, and having received from 
the king of England a large sum of money for vacating his 
bishopric, he went to Paris, and remained at the chm*ch of 
Saint Victor there until the day of his death. After this, 
while the king of England was making a stay at Barbeflet,^^ 
with the intention of passing over to England, a dispute arose 
between Philip, king of Erance, and Philip, earl of Elanders, 
concerning the count of Claremont, whom the earl of Flanders 
greatly disliked. The king of England, therefore, at the request 
of the king of Erance, attended a conference between them at 
Gisors, and made peace between the king of Erance and the 
earl of Elanders. After this, the king of England came to 
Cherbourg, and, passing over to England, landed at Ports- 
mouth, on the seventh day before the calends of August, being 

^■^ Harlleur. 



A.n. 1181. ASSIZE AS TO KEEPING ARMS. 9 

the Lord's day, with "William, king of the Scots, who accom- 
panied him. 

Shortly after this, the king of England made the follow- 
ing assize as to keeping arms throughout England : 

^' Whoever has a single laiight's fee must keep a cuirass, a 
helmet, a shield, and a lance, and every knight must keep as 
many cuirasses, helmets, shields, and lances as he has knights' 
fees in his demesne. Every free layman, who shall have in 
chattels or in rental to the amount of sixteen marks, must have 
a hauberk, an iron head-piece, and a lance ; and all burgesses, 
and all companies of freemen must keep a gambeson, an iron 
head-piece, and a lance; and every person may make oath 
that before the feast of Saint Hilary he will provide such arms, 
and will do fealty to our lord the king, namely, Henry, the son 
of the empress Matilda, and will hold the said arms at his ser- 
vice in obedience to his command, and in fealty to his lord the 
king and to his realm. And no person, after he shall have 
provided the said arms, is to sell the same, or to make a pledge 
thereof, or to lend them, or in any way to part with them ; nor 
is the lord in any way to take them from his homager, either 
by way of fine, gift, or pledge, or in any other way whatso- 
ever. And if any person having the said arms shall die, his 
arms shall remain with his heir ; and if his heir be not of 
such an age that he can use arms, if required, then the person 
who shall have the guardianship of him, shall in like manner 
have the guardianship of such arms, and shall find a man to 
use the said arms in the service of our lord the king, if 
needs be, until the heir shall be of such an age as to be able to 
bear arms, and then he is to have them. And further, what- 
ever bui'gess shall have more arms than according to this assize 
he ought to have, he is to sell the same, or give them away, or 
part with them to some person who shall wield them in Eng- 
land in the service of our lord the king. And no one of them 
is to retain more arms than in conformity with this assize he 
ought to have. Also, no Jew is to keep in his possession a 
cuirass or hauberk ; but he is to sell the same or give them 
away, or in some other manner dispose thereof, but so that they 
continue to be used in the service of our lord the king of Eng- 
land. Also, no person is to carry arms out of England except 
with the leave of our lord the king, and no one is to sell arms 
to any person for him to carry them out of England, and no 
merchant or other person is to carry them out of England. Also, 



10 ANNALS OF ROGEE DE HOYEDEX. A.D. 1181 

the justices are to cause oath to be made by lawful knights, or 
by other free and lawful men of hundreds, visnets,^^ and burghs, 
as may seem most expedient to them, that those who have the 
value in chattels to the amount above stated, shall provide, as 
they ought, a cuirass, helmet, lance, and shield, according to 
what has been mentioned above ; and that for the said purpose 
they will name all those of their hundreds, visnets, and boroughs, 
who have sixteen marks' value either in chattels or yearly ren- 
tal ; and after that, the justices are to cause all of them to be 
registered, both jurors and the others, both who they are 
and what chattels or rental they have, and what arms each 
ought to provide, according to the value of the chattels or 
rental ; and after that, in their presence and in the hearing of 
them all, they are to cause this assize to be read as to keeping 
arms, and to cause them to make oath that they will provide 
such arms according to the aforesaid value of the chattels or 
rental, and will hold the same at the service of our lord the 
king in conformity with the aforesaid assize, in obedience to 
the command of and in fealty to their lord, king Henry, son of 
the empress Matilda, and to his realm. And if it shall so 
happen that any one of those persons who ought to provide 
such arms shall not be in the county at the time when the jus- 
tices shall be in that county, then the justices are to appoint a 
time for him to appear before them in another county. And 
if the said persons shall not come to them in any county 
through which they shall pass, and shall not be in those dis- 
tricts, then they are to name a time at Westminster, on the 
octave of Saint Michael, that each may then be there for the 
purpose of making oath, as he loves himself and all that belongs 
to him ; and orders are to be given to him before the feast of 
Saint Hilary before-named, to provide arms according as he 
is bound to provide the same. And further, the justices are 
to cause proclamation to be made throughout all counties 
through which they shall pass, that those persons who shall 
not provide the said arms as herein commanded, the king will 
lay hands on their bodies, and will on no account take from 
them their lands or chattels. Also, no person is to be sworn 
as of the free and lawful men who has not sixteen marks or 
ten marks in chattels. Also, the justices are to give orders 
throughout all the counties through which they shall pass, that 

*8 *' Neighbourhoods ;" from the Norman ''vesine;" probably, small 
communities not unlike the " frith-borgs" of tlie Anglo-Saxons. 



A.D. 1181. THE KING OF SCOTLAND EXCOMMUNICATED. 11 

no person, as he loves him-self and all that belongs to him, 
shall buy or sell any ship for the purpose of transport from 
England ; and that no person shall carry timber, or cause it to 
be carried, out of England. The king has also ordered that 
no person shall be admitted to the oath of arms unless he is a 
free man.'' 

In the same year, Henry, king of England, son of the em- 
press Matilda, gave to John Cumin, his clerk, the archbishopric 
of Dublin, in Ireland, at Evesham, on the eighth day before 
the ides of September. In the same year William, arch- 
bishop of Eheims, came to England on a pilgrimage to the 
Martyr Saint Thomas of Canterbury. In the same year Dufe- 
nald, the son of William, the son of Dunecan, who had often 
laid claim to the kingdom of Scotland, entered Scotland with a 
large army, and laid waste the parts near the sea-coast. In this 
year also, John, bishop of Saint Andrew's, pronounced sentence 
of excommunication against Eichard de Morville, the constable, 
and Eichard de Prebend^, and others of the household of the king 
of Scotland, who had caused a breach of the peace between 
himself and the king. In addition to this, Eoger, archbishop 
of York, the legate in Scotland, and Hugh, bishop of Durham, 
by the authority of our lord the pope, commanded the prior of 
Saint Andrew's and the ecclesiastical personages throughout 
the bishopric of Saint Andrew's, to go to John, their bishop, and 
pay him the respect of their duteous submission, declaring that 
if they refused, they would pronounce upon them, as being 
contumacious and rebellious, sentence of suspension. On this, 
some of the ecclesiastics of the bishopric of Saint Andrew's, 
through fear of suspension, came to the before-named bishop 
John ; on which William, the king of Scotland, expelled them 
from his kingdom, with their sons and kinsmen, and even those 
who, hanging at their mother's breasts, were yet crying in the 
cradle. Eoger, archbishop of York, and Hugh, bishop of 
Durham, seeing the shocking proscription of these persons, 
acted in obedience to the mandate of our lord the pope ; for 
Eoger, archbishop of York, excommunicated William, king of 
Scotland, and both he and Hugh, bishop of Durham, pronounced 
sentence of interdict on aU the territories of the king of Scot- 
land, ordering the bishops, abbats, priors, and other ecclesi- 
astical persons strictly and inviolably to observe the said sen- 
tence of interdict, and carefully to avoid the king himself as an 
excommunicated person. 



12 AITNALS OF EOQER D£ HOYEDEN. A.D. 1181. 

In the same year died pope Alexander the Third, in the 
twenty-second year of his papacy, and on the twelfth day before 
the calends of October, being succeeded in the papacy by Imbald, 
cardinal bishop of Ostia, who took the name of pope Lucins the 
Third. In the same year, Eoger, archbishop of York, being 
attacked with a severe illness, on perceiving the last day of his 
life at hand, called together the abbats, priors, and other ecclesi- 
astical persons of his diocese, and with becoming considerateness 
distributed his property for the use of the poor, and among other 
wondrous deeds of his power, ^^ to perpetuate his praises, he sent 
to William, archbishop of Rheims, and the other bishops of the 
kingdom of France, more than five hundred pounds of silver 
to be distributed among the* poor. In like manner he left a 
similar sum to the archbishop of Rouen and the other bishops of 
I*^ormandy ; and the same to the archbishop of Canterbury and 
the other bishops of England. Having thus made distribution 
of all his property, he removed from Cowda, where he was taken 
ill, to York, the metropolitan see of his archiepiscopate, where 
on the tenth day before the calends of December, being Satur- 
day, at twilight, he departed this life, full of days, after having 
happily ruled his archbishopric twenty-seven years and six 
weeks. His body was buried by Hugh, bishop of Durham, 
in the choir of the canons secular of the metropolitan church' 
at York ; William, the king of Scotland, still remaining under 
the sentence of excommunication which the before-named arch- 
bishop of York had pronounced against him. 

Upon hearing of the death of the archbishop of York, Wil- 
liam, king of Scotland, was greatly delighted ; and holding a 
council with the bishops, earls, and elders of his territories, sent 
Jocelyn, bishop of Glasgow, and Arnulph, abbat of Melrose, 
and other wise and discreet ecclesiastics of his kingdom to 
Rome, to Lucius, the Supreme Pontiff, in order that he might 
be absolved from the said sentence of excommunication, and 
that his lands might be released from the interdict, and in 
order that, if in any way it could be brought about, John, 
bishop of Saint Andrew's, might be deposed. 

When word was brought to the king of England that the be- 
fore-named archbishop had gone the way of all flesh, he sent his 
servants throughout all the archbishopric of York, giving orders 
that all of which the said archbishop in his illness had made 
distribution should be confiscated ; which was accordingly 
^* Charity rather, one would think. 



A.D. 1182. THE BISHOP OF DUTIHAM DISPLEASES THE EING. 13 

done. For the entire devise, which in his illness he had made, 
was, by the king's command, rendered null and void ; as our 
lord the king asserted that the before-named archbishop of 
York had pronounced an opinion in his lifetime that it was not 
lawful for any ecclesiastical person to make a devise except at a 
I time before he was taken ill. 

In the same year, count Stephen, the uncle of Philip, king of 
France, seized the lands of a certain person his neighbour, 
and withheld them by force, and did homage for them to 
Philip, earl of Flanders ; on doing which, the king of France 
laid hands on them, and the earl of Flanders claimed restitu- 
tution thereof to be made to himself and earl Theobald ; and 
the king of France, refusing to accede thereto, the earl of 
Flanders entered the territories of the king of France with a 
hostile hand, and ravaged them. In the same year, Hugh, 
earl of Chester, departed this life, and was succeeded in the 
earldom by his son Eanulph. 

After the death of Eoger, archbishop of York, our lord the 
king gave orders to his justices in England to make diligent 
inquisition as to the monies left by the before-named arch- 
bishop, and wherever such were discovered, in his name, to 
make demand thereof. In consequence of this, the said 
justices demanded of Hugh, bishop of Durham, three hundred 
marks of silver, which the said bishop had received out of 
the monies of the archbishop, for the purpose of distribution 
among the poor; on which he made answer to them: — ''I 
distributed the three hundred marks of silver which you de- 
mand of me, during the lifetime of the archbishop who 
gave them to me, among the lepers, the blind, the lame, the 
dumb, and the rest of the necessitous, and in the repair of 
churches and bridges, for the salvation of his soul, according 
as he himself had ordered ; therefore let him who wants them 
collect them, for by me they will never be collected.'* Accord- 
ingly, an answer of this nature exasperated the feelings of our 
lord the king beyond measure, so much so, that he ordered 
the castle of Durham to be seized in his name, in order that 
the bishop might be harassed by every kind of persecution. 

In the year of grace 1 1 82, being the twenty-eighth year of 
the reign of king Hemy, son of the empress Matilda, the said 
king was at Winchester, in England, on the day of the Nativity 
of our Lord, which took place on the sixth day of the week. 
In the same year died the count of Zelders, who had married 



14 ANNALS OF KOGER DE HOTEDEN. A.D. 1182. 

the eldest daughter of Matthew, earl of Boulogne ; also the 
countess of Flanders, daughter of Ralph de Peronne, and 
wife of Philip, earl of Planders. In the same year, Hemy, 
king of England, the father, crossed over from England to 
Normandy, in consequence of the annoyances and vexations 
which his son king Henry was causing him. Eor, having gone 
with his wife to Philip, king of Erance, he was devising all 
the evils he possibly could to the detriment of the king, his 
father, contrary to good faith and the oaths of fealty which 
he had often taken to him ; demanding of him, in conformity 
with the advice of Philip, king of Erance, his mfe's brother, the 
whole of Xormandy, or else some other part of his territories, in 
which he and his wife might take up their abode, and from 
which he might pay his knights and servants for their services. 
However, the Divine grace inspiring him so to do, he returned 
to his father, and swore that for the future he would not op- 
pose his -wishes or designs, or demand anything more of him 
than a hundred pounds of money Anjouin per day for his ex- 
penses, and ten pounds per day of the same money for his 
wife's expenses; in addition to which the king, the father, 
agreed with the king, his son, that in the same year he would 
give him the services of a hundred of his knights. 

After this, the king, the father, held a conference, at which 
were present the king of Erance and the earl of Elanders ; 
on which occasion an arrangement was made between them 
to the following effect ; that the lands of which the earl of 
Elanders demanded restitution to be made to himself, should be 
restored to the knight who had lost them, and that the earl of 
Elanders should make good for the king of Erance the injuries 
that he and his people had done in Erance, vnth reference to 
the destruction by fire, and the booty that had been carried off. In 
addition to this, the said earl quitted claim to the king of Erance 
of the services of the count of Claremont, and delivered up to 
the king of Erance the city of Amiens with its appurtenances, 
and all the lands extending thence to the waters of the Lys 
after his own decease, together with his niece, the daughter of 
the earl of Hainault ; and the said earl made confession that 
lawfully Peronne with its appurtenances was only in pledge 
to himself, and agi*eed that the king of Erance should have pos- 
session thereof for sixty thousand pounds of silver. At the same 
conference, the said earl of Elanders delivered into the possession 
of the long of England, the father, the agreement entered into 



i 



k.D. 1182. LETTER OP POPE LUCIUS. 15 

in writing by the king his son, and released him and his brothers 
from all covenants made between them in the time of the war. 
In the same year, pope Lucius the Third ordained John 
Cumin priest, on the third day before the ides of March, at 
Veletri ; and afterwards consecrated him archbishop of Dublin 
at the same place, on the sixth day before the calends of April, 
being Palm Sunday. In the same year, at the urgent request of 
the envoys of the king of Scotland, namely, Jocelyn, bishop of 
Glasgow, Arnold, abbat of Melrose, Osbert, abbat of Kelso, ^^ 
and Walter, prior of Saint Columba of the Isle, pope 
Lucius the Third absolved William king of Scotland from 
the sentence of excommunication, and his kingdom from the 
interdict, at the palace of the Lateran, at Home, in pre- 
sence of his cardinals, namely, Peter de Pavia, bishop of 
Tusculanum, the bishop of Praeneste, Albert, his chancellor, 
Jacinto, Hugesun, Peter de Bova, master Yivianus, Reiner 
the Great, Chinchechapel, Reiner the Little, Hardesrun, Har- 
dewin, and Matthew of Anjou. After having so done, he 
delivered letters of absolution to the before-mentioned envoys 
of the king of Scotland, to the following effect : — 

The letter of pope Lucius on the absolution of William^ Icing of 

Scotland. 

" Lucius, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to his 

venerable brethren the bishops, and the abbats, clergy, and people 

hroughout Scotland, health and the Apostolic benediction.. 

nasmuch as the Apostle has directed that deference shall be 

Daid to kings as being of exalted station, it is worthy and 

onsistent with reason that we should pay them the highest 

lonor as our most dearly beloved sons, and, in performance 

)f our duty to Saint Peter and the holy Church of Rome, give 

dl attention to their just desires. And whereas we have 

leard that because our dearly beloved son in Christ, AYilliam, 

he illustrious king of the Scots, was inexorably opposed to the 

lection and consecration of our venerable brother bishop 

ohn, by virtue of letters of pope Alexander, our predecessor, of 

oly memory, Roger, archbishop of York, of happy memory, 

nd the before-named bishop pronounced sentence of excom- 

aunication against him and his realm, and certain persons in 

is kingdom. And whereas our venerable brother Jocelyn, 

21 Called *' Kelron" in the text. The ahbat is called " Kalkoeiisis'* 
hortly after. 



16 Al^^NALS OP ROGER DE HOTEDEN. A.D. 1182 

bishop of Glasgow, and our dearly beloved sons, Arnold, abbat 
of Melrose, Osbert, abbat. of Kelso, and Walter, prior of 
Saint Columba of the Isle, after coming for the said pur- 
pose to the Apostolic See, have, by their declarations, made 
proof and shewn before us and our brethren that the sentence 
of excommunication pronounced by the said archbishop upon 
the king, and that of interdict upon his kingdom, and the sen- 
tence of excommunication pronounced by the said bishop upon 
certain persons of his kingdom, ought reasonably and upon 
numerous grounds to be set aside. Wherefore, paying due 
deference to the before-named king as our most dearly beloved 
son in Christ, we have, by the common consent of our brethren 
and with the Apostolic authority, remitted all the sentence which 
was pronounced by the before-named bishop^ for the cause 
before-mentioned, against him or his people, or his kingdom, 
and have enacted that he and his people shall not be held to 
be excommunicated, nor his kingdom to be under interdict, in 
consequence of our sentence above- written. Wherefore, we do 
by our precept, by these Apostolic writings, command the whole 
of you that you will in no way hesitate to treat vrith him as a 
Catholic king and as holding communion with the Apostolic See, 
but wiU rather in all things pay him the honor that is his due. 
For the more assured we feel of the sincerity of his duteousness 
to the churches and ecclesiastical persons of his realm, the more 
abundantly do we Avish him to be honored in all things in 
which, with due respect to God, we can be honored. Given at 
Yelletii, this sixteenth day before the calends of April." 

In the same year, the king of England sent his envoys, 
namely, William de Mandeville, earl of Aumarle, and some other 
persons of his household, to Frederic, the emperor of the Ro- 
mans, in order that, if possible, they might avert his anger and 
displeasure from Henry, duke of Saxony. Although this could 
not be fully brought about, the emperor granted to all 
who had chosen to depart with him, leave to return to their 
country. In addition to this, the said emperor granted to 
Matilda, duchess of Saxony, in consideration of the love he 
bore to the king of England, her father, permission to remain 
at perfect liberty and under his protection, and to enjoy all 
her dowry freely and quietly ; and the emperor further agreed 
that, if she should prefer to go into exile with her lord, he 

22 Rather " bishops," although the bishop elect alone was now sur- 
viving. It is singular that the bishop of Durham is not mentioned. 



A.D. 1182. THE BISHOP OF ST ANDIlEW's APPEALS TO THE POPE. 17 

would place keepers for the purpose of protecting her dowry. 
The time therefore drawing nigh at which the before-named 
duke was to withdraw from his country and kindred, he and 
his wife, with their sons and daughters, and his counts ^nd 
barons, and the richest men of his territories, departed from 
their country and kindred, and came to !N^ormandy, to Henry, 
king of England, the father of the before-named duchess, who 
joyfully received them. Shortly after, the before-named duke 
gave to his counts and barons, and the richer men of his territo- 
ries, permission to return home, and the king of England, the 
father of the duchess, bestowed on them many presents and then 
dismissed them. The duke himself set out on a pilgrimage to 
Saint Jago,^^ and the duchess his wife being pregnant, re- 
mained with the king, her father, at Argenton in !N^ormandy, 
where she was shortly after delivered of a son. 

In the same year, the Welch slew Eanulph Poer, the king's 
sheriff of Gloucestershire. In this year also, Roland, the 
bishop-elect of Dol and subdeacon of the Eoman Church, came 
into England on behalf of pope Lucius, for the purpose of 
making peace between the king of Scotland and John, bishop 
of Saint Andrew's ; and proceeded to the court of the king of 
the Scots, together with Silvanus, the abbat of Eievaulx, his 
colleague, where, after having for a long time negotiated upon 
making peace between them, at their request the follow- 
ing terms were made between the king and the before-named 
bishop : — Hugh was to abjure the bishopric of Saint Andrew's, 
and bishop John was to release the said bishopric from all 
claims whatever on his part and, instead thereof, he was to 
have the bishopric of Dunkeld, and all the yearly revenues 
which he had had before his election, as also the chancellorship 
to the king, and forty marks of yearly revenue arising from the 
bishopric of Saint Andrew's, during his life. Hugh, however, 
when called upon by his lord the king of Scotland to abjure the 
bishopric of Saint Andrew's, made answer that he would rather 
receive judgment thereon at the lloman court, than in this way 
abjure a bishopric to which he had been consecrated : and im- 
mediately charged the letters which bishop John had obtained 
against him from the Eoman Pontiff with being forged, and ap- 
pealed to the Eoman Pontiff: upon which the before-named 
Eoland and the abbat Silvanus, being unable to proceed as they 
ought, wrote to the Supreme Pontiff to the following effect :— 

2-* Of Compostella. 

VOL. n. c 



18 ANXALS OF ROGER DE HOTEDEN". A.D. 1182. 

TJie Letter of Roland, hisliop-elect of Bol, and Silvanus, ahhat 
of Rievaulxj to pope Lucius, 

t^ To the reverend father and lord, Lucius, by tlie grace of 
God, supreme and universal Pontiff, Eoland, by the like grace, 
bishop-elect of Dol, servant of his Holiness, the foster-child of 
the Apostolic See, and the least of the sub-deacons, and Sil- 
vanus, appointed abbat of Eievaulx, the respect of duteous 
obedience. After we had presented to bishop Hugh the letters 
which that bishop charges with being forged, and those in 
which the case is stated at length, and proposed, on receiving 
leave of our lord the king of the Scots, to return home with all 
haste, our lord the king entreated me, the bishop-elect of Dol, 
with earnestness and anxiety, to pass by the way of the lord 
bishop John, and, as a mark of his favour, to make him an 
offer on his behalf of the bishopric of Dunkeld, with the 
yearly revenues which he had before received in the bishopric 
of Saint Andrew's, together with an increase of forty marks to 
be received yearly, as also the office of chancellor to the king ; 
and he further added that he would restore to him and his 
every thing he had taken away, with the exception only of 
what he knew to have already come to his hands, and would 
restore them to the fulness of his favour, in the same manner 
as had been previously offered him. He also desired that the 
said bishop John would burn all documents that had been ob- 
tained upon the matter of Saint Andrew's from your prede- 
cessor Alexander, of pious memory. He also gave his sanction 
that bishop Hugh should be transferred to the bishopric of 
Glasgow, if bishop John should refuse to consent on other 
terms, and if that could not be brought about, still he would 
agree to what he had offered. On making offer of all these 
things in presence of Hugh, the lord bishop of Durham, to 
our lord John, he courteously acceded thereto on these terms : 
namely, that he would never allow bishop Hugh to remain in 
the enjo}Tnent of the bishopric of Saint Andrew's. He was 
also willing that the documents before-mentioned should be 
put aside in some place, so that he could never make use of 
them against the king's wishes. Upon this, we returned to the 
king's presence, while bishop John waited for us near Rokel- 
burg ; ^'* on which the king informed us that it would give him 
great pleasure if bishop Hugh could remain in the bishopric 

^ Roxburgh. 



A.D. 1182. DEATH OF XnE BISHOP OF KOCHESTEE. 19 

of Saint Andrew's, and requested me to use my best endea- 
vours to prevail upon bishop John to admit of this; and when 
I made answer to him that I would never again make any 
request of him upon that point, because I had not been able to 
make any impression upon him on the subject, his answer was, 
* I am full)' persuaded that since the lord John has returned to 
reconciliation and favour mth me, he will, on consideration of 
my favour, and at the urgency of my entreaties, admit of this, 
and I would gladly confer with him thereon ;' and the king 
requested me to ad\dse him to come and have a conference with 
him. The king's clerks being accordingly sent to bishop John, 
he made answer that he would not come, because he had heard 
from certain advisers of our lord the king, that the king was 
always endeavouring, in every possible way, to gain his point 
that Hugh should remain in the bishopric of Saint Andrew's, 
and asserted that, if he should be inclined to come, they were 
not able to give him a safe conduct. When this answer was re- 
turned him, our lord the king sent a bishop, and some abbats, 
earls, and barons to the said bishop, requesting that he would 
come to him for the purpose of an interview, and ordered them 
to guarantee to the said bishop entire security. These, on their 
return, stated that the lord John, inasmuch as he had a pre- 
sentiment that his lord the king wished bishop Hugh to re- 
main in the bishopric of Saint Andrew's, made answer that 
he would never come to the king unless they should first make 
oath that their lord the king would observe everything that 
through me he had offered to him ; this, however, they were 
im willing to do, upon which, the lord John returned home. 
We, however, have appointed a stated time, on the calends of 
October, for the before-named bishops, John and Hugh, to come 
to you, and to submit to your judgment. Farewell." 

In the same year died Walter, bishop of Eochester, and was 
succeeded in the bishopric by Waleran, archdeacon of Eayeux. 
In this year, while Walter, a servant of Eustace, the lord 
abbat of Elaye, was one night asleep, he heard a voice from 
heaven, saying to him a first, second, and third time, '^ Go and 
say to Henrj', king of England, *In the name of Christ, annihi- 
late and destroy,' and say to him that so he must do, and, if he 
does not do so, both his sons and himself shall die." On this 
the before-named Walter made answer and said, '^ Who am I, 
that I should carry thy commands ^nto the king ? " To which 
he received for answer, '^Go to Eotrod, the archbishop of Eouen, 

c2 



20 AXN.iLS OF EOGEK DE HOTEDEN. A.D. 1133. 

and to his chaplain, and to Eustace, the abbat of Tlaye, and they 
shall remove the thorns and briars from out of thy path, and, 
unless thou shalt make haste, thou shalt die." After the third 
warning, therefore, the said Walter came to the before-named 
archbishop of Eouen, and to his chaplain, and to abbat Eustace ; 
and whereas, the archbishop and his chaplain, being worn out 
with sickness and old age, could not attend to the matter, 
they deputed the abbat of Elaye to acX in their behalves ; on 
which, he with his servant went to the king, and the servant 
related to the king his vision and the accompanying threats ; 
but the king, not being able to understand any part thereof, 
and there being no one to interpret the vision to him, paid no 
attention whatever to it ; and, shortly after, his son king Henry 
died, and then his son Geoffrey, earl of Brittany. About the 
time at which this vision took place many of the Manichaean 
heretics -^ were burned in many places throughout the king- 
dom of France, a thing that the king would in nowise allow 
in his territories, although there were great numbers of them. 

In the year of grace 1183, being the twenty-ninth year of 
the reign of king Henry, son of the empress Matilda, the said 
king of England was at Caen, in Normandy, on the day 
of the Nativity of our Lord; the [young] king also, and 
Eichard and Geoffrey, his sons, and Henry, duke of Saxony, 
and his wife, together with their sons and daughters, and a 
large retinue, together with Eichard, archbishop of Canterbur}^ 
and John Cumin, archbishop of Dublin, and many bishops, earls, 
and barons were there with him. After the Nativity of our 
Lord, the king ordered the king, his son, to receive homage 
from Eichard, earl of Poitou, and from Geoffrey, earl of Erit- 
tany, his brothers ; on which, in obedience to his father, he 
received the homage of his brother Geoffrey, and was willing 
to receive it from his brother Eichard, but Eichard refused to 
do homage to him ; and afterwards, when Eichard offered to 
do homage to him, the king, the son, refused to receive it. 
Eichard, feeling greatly indignant at this, withdrew from the 
court of the king, his father, and going to Poitou, his own 
territor}^ built there some new castles and fortified the old 
ones. 

At the request of such of the earls and barons of Poitou as 

•^ " Publicani." Under this nam^ the Albigenses, who were said to be 
Maaichaeaiis, are alluded to. 



A.D. 1183. THE KINa QUARKEL3 WITH HIS SONS. 21 

adhered to him, and who inflicted many losses on earl Eichard, 
the king, his brother, pursued him. Geoffrey, earl of Erittany, 
also came to Poitou, with a large force, to assist the king, his 
brother. On Richard perceiving that he could not make head 
against his brothers, he sent for assistance to the king, his 
father, who, raising a great army, came in all haste, and laid 
siege to the castle of Limoges, which had been a short time 
before surrendered to the king, his son. 

The cause of the dissensions between the Icing and his sons. 

In order, however, that the cause may be known of these 
shocking dissensions that took place between the father and his 
sons, it ought to be stated that, on the holy day of the Circum- 
cision of our Lord, king Henry, son of our lord the king of 
England, of his own accord, and no one forcing him thereto, 
touching the Holy Gospels, and in presence of a large body of 
the clergy and laity, made oath that he would from that day 
forward all the days of his life maintain his fealty un- 
blemished to Henry, king of England, as being his father and 
his liege lord, and would show him all due honor and obe- 
dience. And because, as he asserted, the king wished to 
retain no rancour and malice in his mind, by reason of which 
"His father might possiblj'^be afterwards offended, he declared to 
•lim that he had entered into a compact with the barons of Aqui- 
;;aine against his brother Eichard, being influenced by the fact 
hat his said brother had fortified the castle of Clairvaulx, 
^vhich was part of his own inheritance after his father's death, 
contrary to his own wishes. Wherefore he earnestly entreated 
his father to take the said castle from Eichard, and keep it in 
his own charge. 

Eichard, being admonished by our lord the king relative 
thereto, at first refused to do so, but afterwards freely delivered 
it to be disposed of at his father's pleasure. Accordingly, 
the three sons of our lord the king, namely, the [young] king, 
Eichard, and Geofirey, came to Anjou, wdththe king, their father, 
for the purpose of entering into a final treatj^ of peace between 
them ; and each of the three made oath that they w^ould observe 
their fealty at all times towards the king, their father, against 
all men, and would pay him all honor and lasting obedience. 
They also made oath, in accordance with the directions of their 
father, that they would observe lasting peace between themselves. 
On a given day, therefore, for ratifying the peace made between 



22 ANNALS OF ROGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1183. 

them, at a place called Mirabel, under the direction of their 
father, because the barons of Aquitaine, to whom the king, 
the son, had engaged himself by oath, were not present, the 
king, the father, sent his son Geoffrey to them that they might 
come to the said conference for the establishment of peace and 
reconciliation, and in the meantime cease from all hostilities. 

But the said Geoffrey, utterly forgetful of God and of re- 
spect for his father, and unmindful of his commands, did not 
bring peace, but the sword, and, slighting his oath, his homage, 
and the fealty which he had so often sworn to his father, 
entered into a compact with the enemies of his father, for 
the purpose of harassing him, and induced a sacrilegious race, 
and one detested by the Church of Eome,"^^ to ravage the ter- 
ritories of his father. The king, the son, on hearing of this, 
entreated his father to establish peace between his brother 
Richard and the barons of Aquitaine. In answer to the 
entreaties of his son, our lord the king promised that he would 
preserve peace, and that, for this purpose, in the manner that 
had been agreed upon in the preceding summer, reparation 
should be made for all excesses committed by either party, or 
else, if that should not please the barons, he would judge them 
in confonnity with the opinions pronounced by his com'^. 
This offer was quite to the satisfaction of the king, the son ; 
on condition, however, that the castle of Clairvaulx should 
remain safe in the hands of the king, his father. 

Upon this, the king, the son, having gained of his father all 
that he had requested, with his father's permission set out for 
Limoges, for the purpose of inviting both his brother Geoffrey 
and the barons of Aquitaine to come to terms, and in the 
meantime sent his wife to France, to her brother, the king of 
that country, for the purpose of being in safety. The king, 
the father, also, at the request and by the advice of the king, 
the son, came with a few followers by another road to Limoges, 
in safety from his sons and in safety from his subjects; but when 
he had come to this territor}^ that was his own, his owm subjects 
received him most shamefully, for they aimed their arrows 
against him, so much so that they even wantonly pierced his 
coat armour, wounded one of his knights before his eyes, and 
violently prevented the king from entering either the city or 

-^ The hireling Brahanters mentioned below. Tliey formed part of the 
*• ruptuarii," or " Routiers," the employment of whom was forbidden by 
the Chuich of Rome. 



A. D. 1183. PERFIDIOUS CONDUCT OF THE YOUNG KING. 23 

the castle ; in consequence of which, he and his son Eichard 
were obliged to depart. 

After this, our lord the king effected an entrance into the cit}' 
of Limoges ; but when he was departing therefrom, for the pur- 
pose of conversing with his sons in a fatherly manner, in pre - 
sence of his sons, the garrison of the castle before-mentioned 
aimed their deadly arrows; in consequence of which, they 
wounded the horse which bore the king, the father, in the head, 
and if the horse had not lifted its head just at the approach of 
the arrow, it would have pierced the king's breast to a consi- 
derable depth. This his sons Henry and Geoffrey thinking 
lightly of, took no pains to punish the offender ; and, notwith- 
standing, returned to the deadly foes of their lord and father. 
Shortly after, the king, the son, came to his father, and pro- 
mised him, that, if the barons of Aquitaine would not come to 
his feet to sue for peace, he would utterly abandon them, 
^ and return to obedience to him under all circumstances. On 
j this, the king the father, being moved at the entreaties of his 
son, again made promise of the peace which he had previously 
^ promised to the barons. Wherefore, the king the son, as he 
'^said, went to his brother Geoffrey and the barons of Aqui- 
I taine, and, returning from them to his father, asserted that 
^ they were utterly disobedient and rebellious, for which rea- 
son, he had returned to his duty and obedience to his father's 
J will. This, however, as appeared in the sequel, was done 
fraudulently, in order that in the meantime the perfidious 
race of the Erabanters, and Geoffrey, that son of perdition, 
might with lawless violence the more easily ravage his fa- 
ther's territories, and nefariously lay them waste, carrying off 
the ornaments of the churches, burning towns and villages to 
the ground, emptying the fields and the sheepfolds by their 
ravages, so as to cause utter destruction in every quarter; 
sparing neither age, nor sex, nor rank, nor the religious pro- 
fession ; on the contrary, as it appeared, aiming at the perpe- 
tration of homicide, sacrilege, and rapine alone. 

Shortly after these things had taken place, the king, the 
son, on hearing what had been done by his brother Geoffrey, 
told his father, that whatever he had done in this matter 
had been done by the counsel of his brother Geoffrey, and 
giving his arms and his horse in his father's charge, remained 
with him some days. But after he had eaten at the same 
table with his father, and had dipped his hands into the same 



24 ANNALS OF EOGER DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 11S3, 

dish, he withdrew from him, and again leagued himself hy 
oath with his father's enemies, and then returning to his father, 
declared that he could in no way see how he was to inflict upon 
the men of the castle the punishment they had deserved ; after 
which, leaving his father, he set out for Dorat. 

Eut his father, thinking him peaceably inclined, recalled 
him ; on which, returning and entering the castle, and not being 
able to bring the wickedness which he contemplated to the 
wished-for result, he swore by the body of Saint Martial, that 
he would assume the cross. His father, however, thinking 
that he had done this more through indignation than religious 
feeling, in an afiectionate manner used all his endeavours to re- 
call him from this rash vow, asking of him on his knees, and 
weeping, whether that vow had proceeded from rancour, in- 
dignation, poverty, or religious feelings. To this the son 
made answer, with all kinds of oaths, that he had made the 
vow solely for the remission of the sins which he had been 
guilty of towards his father ; and added, when he saw his 
father opposing it and shedding tears, that he would slay 
himself with his own hands, unless his father should cease to 
dissuade him from his purpose of assuming the cross, inas- 
much as the body of the Lord which he had that day beheld, 
consecrated before his eyes, testified that he ought a long time 
before that to have assumed the cross, but it had not till 
then been disclosed to him ; hoping and trusting that he 
should be in the more full enjoyment of his father's favour, 
as he was umvilling to go on the ^pilgrimage without his 
favour. On this, his father learning his holy and fixed 
determination, replied ; ^^ The will of God and your own 
be done. I will be your supporter and assistant in acquiring 
the earldom, and will provide you, by the help of God, with 
such plentiful supplies, that no one, of whom I have heard 
going to the land of Jerusalem, could at any time have done his 
service to God on a more bounteous scale." 

On this, the king the son returned many thanks to his 
father, and entreated him to deal mercifully with the men in 
the castle and the barons of Aquitaine ; to which his father, in 
tears, made answer, and promised that he would act in every 
one of those matters quite according to his pleasure. The king 
the son, again returning thanks, sent for the men of the castle, 
and, though against his father's will, threw himself with the 
burgesses at his father's feet, and asked for peace in their 



A.D. 1183. TKEACHEROUS COl^DUCT OF GEOFFREY. 25 

behalves, which request was granted, hostages however being 
required to ensure the peace being kept. The king the father 
sent some of his followers to receive the hostages, but they 
were nearly slain by those who were to give them. This was 
in nowise punished by the king the son, but, disregarding his 
oath to assume the cross, he became, together with them, the 
enemy and persecutor of his own father. 

Shortly after, the king the son, pretending that he wished 
for peace, requested his father to send to him Maurice de Crouy 
with a truce, and some other barons ; and while some of their 
followers were conversing with him, they were slain in the 
presence of the king the son, by the enemies of our lord the 
king. Some days after this, Geoffrey, that son of iniquity, 
with evil intent, entreated that he would send to him Oliver 
Pitz-Emest and Jerome de Mustervol with a truce ; on which, 
one of them, Jerome namely, was pierced with a sword through 
his head-piece, his coat-armour, and his shirt, not without a 
considerable loss of blood ; while Oliver, the other, was thrown 
from a bridge into the water, in the presence of Geoffrey him- 
self, who took no pains to punish this misdeed. After this, 
the same son, being again desirous to hold a conference with his 
father, came in perfect security to his father, and, deceitfully 
treating about making peace, requested of his father leave to 
enter the castle in order that he might prevail upon the king 
Lis brother, and the other enemies of our lord the king, to 
comply with the wishes of the king. Permission was ac- 
cordingly given him, on which he entered the castle, spoiled 
the shrine of Saint Martial, and carried off the other vessels 
of that monastery, both gold and silv er, and then, returning 
with the booty, requested his father to prolong the truce till 
the next day. The truce was accordingly granted him, and, 
passing over the bridge, he the same day renounced the truce 
with his father as being at an end, and out of the proceeds of 
the sacrilege and robbery, of which he had been guilty towards 
Saint Martial, paid their wages to his Erabanters. The 
amount of this theft was, according to the estimate made by 
worthy men, fifty-two marks of gold and twenty-seven marks 
of silver. 

^ In the meantime, Richard, archbishop of Canterbury, Henry, 
bishop of Bayeux, John, bishop of Evreux, Ealph, bishop of 
Lisieux, Froger, bishop of Seez, and Waleran, bishop of Eo- 



26 ANNALS OF KOGEE DE HOTEDEN. a.D. 1183. 

Chester, together with the abbats and clergy of IN'omiandy, 
and a great number of people, came to Caen, and there, in the 
monastery of Saint Stephen, solemnly, in the universal hear- 
ing of all the people, pronounced sentence of excommunica- 
tion against all who should prevent peace and reconciliation 
being made between our lord the king and his sons, the person 
of the king, the son, alone excepted. 

Money now failing him, the king, the son, proceeded to 
Saint Mary de Roche Andemar, stripped the tomb of Saint 
Andcmar, and carried away the treasures of the church. In 
the coiu'se of a few days after this, the king, the son, seeing 
that he could not do any material injury to the king, his 
father, in consequence of indignation and rancour of mind, 
was attacked by a severe malady at a village called Martel, 
not far from the city of Limoges. He was first attacked with 
a fever, and then by a flux of the bowels, which reduced him to 
the point of death. On seeing that his death was impending, 
he sent for our lord the king, his father, who refused to come 
to him, as he dreaded his treachery. The king, the son, 
having, therefore, summoned the bishops and religious men 
who were there, into his presence, having first secretly, and 
afterwards before them all, made confession of his sins, re- 
ceived absolution and remission of his sins, and gave to Wil- 
liam Marshal, ofie of his household, his cross to bear to Jeru- 
salem [in his stead]. After this, laying aside his fine gar- 
ments, he placed upon him haircloth, and fastening a cord 
around his neck, said to the bishops and other religious men 
who stood around him : '^Bj this cord do I deliver myself, an 
unworthy, culpable, and guilty sinner, unto you, the ministers 
of God, beseeching that our Lord Jesus Christ, who remitted 
his sins to the thief when confessing upon the cross, will, 
through your prayers and His ineffable mercy, have compassion 
upon my most wretched soul." To which all made answer, 
*' Amen." He then said to them : ^^ Drag me out of this bed 
by this cord, and place me on that bed strewed with ashes/' 
which he had caused to be prepared for himself; on which 
they did as he commanded them, and placed under his head 
and feet two large square stones ; and, all things being thus 
duly performed, he commanded his body to be taken to Eouen, 
in Is'ormandy, and there buried. After saying this, being 
fortified with the viaticum of the holy body and blood of 



A.D. 1133. DEATH a:n^d buhtal of the king, the son. 27 

our Lord, in the fear of the Lord, he breathed forth his 
spirit. 

When news was brought of his death to our lord the king, 
his father, bursting into tears, he threw himself upon the ground, 
and greatly bewailed his son. how dreadful a thing it is 
for sons to persecute a father ! for it is not the sword of the 
man who fights, not the hand of the foeman that avenges the 
injury of the father ; but it is fever that deals its retribution, 
flux of the bowels, with ulceration of the intestines, that ex- 
ercises vengeance. The son laid prostrate, all return to the 
father. All are overjoyed, all rejoice, the father alone bewails 
his son. Why, glorious father, dost thou bewail him? He was no 
son of thine, who could commit such violence upon thy fatherly 
affection. This defence of thee has wrought security for 
fathers, and has checked the audacity of parricides. For it 
was his due to perish by a severe retribution, who wished to 
introduce parricide into the world ; because the Judge of all 
minds, in the same way that He avenges the tribulations of the 
righteous, so does he sometimes punish the persecutions of the 
wicked. 

The king's servants, after having extracted the brain and 
the entrails, and buried them at Martel, sprinkled the body 
of the dead king with large quantities of salt, and then 
wrapped it in bulls' hides and lead, that they might take it to 
Eouen for burial there, and accordingly set out on their way 
with the royal body ; but when they had come to the city 
of Le Mans, and had passed the night in the church of Saint 
Julian the Confessor and Pontiff, singing hymns and psalms 
in its vicinity, and wished in the morning to depart thence 
with the body, the bishop of the city and the clergy, together 
with the common people, would not allow them to carry it 
away, but buried it in an honorable manner in the church of 
Saint Julian. 

On this being told to the people of Eouen, they were indig- 
nant thereat, and resolutely demanded his body, swearing that 
they would take it by force, unless it was instantly given up 
to them ; upon which the king, the father, ordered that the 
body should be given up to the people of Eouen, as the king, 
his son, had, while living, commanded ; which was accord- 
ingly done ; and they dug up the king's body from the spot 



28 AJNTfALS OF EOGER DE HOTEDEN. A.D. 1183. 

where it had been buried, and, caiTying it to Kouen, buried it 
in the church there of Saint Mary. 

The king, the father, after the death of the king, his son, 
eveiy day made more violent assaults upon the castle of Li- 
moges, to which he had laid siege, and at length both the 
castle and the city of Limoges were surrendered to him, be- 
sides all the castles of his enemies in that neighbourhood ; 
some of which he retained in his own hands, and some he 
levelled with the ground, not leaving one stone upon another. 
After the death of the king, the son, Philip, king of the Franks, 
demanded of our lord the king of England, the dowry which 
his son, the king, had given to his sister, and the whole of the 
land of the Yexin, together with the castles and fortresses which 
Louis, king of France, his father, had given them on their mar- 
riage. ^Tiereupon, a conference being held between them, be^ 
tween Gisors and Trie, an arrangement was made in the follow- 
ing manner : — That Mai'garet, the sister of the king of France, 
who had been the wife of the king, the son, should receive, for 
quitting claim of all the above demands, one thousand seven 
hundred and fifty pounds of money Anjouin, each year at Paris 
from our lord the king of England and his heirs, so long as 
she should live. 

In the same year our lord the king gave the bishopric of 
Lincoln to Walter de Coutances, his clerk, whom Eichard, 
archbishop of Canterbury, consecrated at Anjou, and sent to 
England to his see, which had now been vacant for a period of 
eighteen years, namely, from the time of Robert de Chennay, 
bishop of Lincoln, until now. Geoffrey, earl of Brittany, the 
king's son, now returned to his father and made peace with 
him and with his brother, Richard, earl of Poitou. 

In the same year, John and Hugh, the bishops, of whom we 
have previously made mention, came to Velletri to have an 
audience of Pope Lucius, and each of them stated, in pre- 
sence of our lord the pope and of all his cardinals, the 
claims that he asserted upon the bishopric of Saint Andrew's. 
After hearing them, our lord, the pope, by the common ad- 
vice of his brethren, took the bishopric from them both, and 
they freely and absolutely resigned the said bishopric of Saint 
Andrew's into the hands of the Supreme Pontiff, and then with- 
drew from the court, awaiting the mercy of the Supreme Pon- 
tiff; and a few days after, by the advice of all his cardinals. 



A.D. 1183. DISSENSION BETWEEN THE EOMANS AND THE TOrE. 29 

the Supreme Pontiff gave to bishop Hugh the bishopric of Saint 
Andi'ew's, and confirmed him in possession thereof ; and granted 
to bishop John the bishopric of Dunkeld, together with all the 
things before mentioned that had been offered him on part of 
the king of Scotland, and confirmed him therein. On this, 
Hugh returned home and received the bishopric of Saint An- 
drew's. Eishop John also received the bishopric of Dunkeld ; 
but as the king of Scotland declined to restore to him what he 
had taken away, he again put forward his claims against 
bishop Hugh as to the bishopric of Saint Andrew's, as stated in 
the sequel. 

In the same year, our lord the king commanded Eichard, his 
son and heir, to receive the homage of his brother John for 
Poitou, but he declined receiving it. In the same year a 
grievous dissension arose between the Eomans and pope Lucius, 
relative to certain customs which his predecessors had been in 
the habit of following, but which the pope above-named swore 
he Avould never comply with. At this the Eomans were indig- 
nant, and were frequently guilty of ravages and incendiarism 
in the territories of our lord the pope ; on w^hich, the pope flying 
from place to place, took refuge in his castles and fortified cities. 
To defend him there came Christian, archbishop of Mentz, chan- 
cellor of the lord Frederick, emperor of the Eomans, having 
levied a large army for that purpose. The Eomans, being unable 
to oppose him, returned to Eome, on which the before-named 
chancellor, pursuing them, laid waste every thing that belonged 
to the Eomans, and followed them even to the very gates of 
the city of Eome, setting fire to all the suburbs thereof. 

On this, the Eomans, seeing that they were devoted to ruin, 
devised how they might slay the before-named chancellor by 
stratagem ; and, as all other modes were wanting to them, they 
determined to take him off by means of poison, and did so. 
For when the said chancellor and his army were at a distance 
of nearly ten miles from the city, the Eomans sent envoys, clad 
in the garb of poor men, to learn the state of the court, who, 
after learning all particulars relating thereto, discovered, 
among other matters, one thing which they made choice of in 
order to effect his destruction. For there was near that spot a 
spring of water exceedingly limpid, the water of which, mixed 
with wine, the chancellor and his army were in the habit of 
diinking. Accordingly, these wicked traitors went to the spring, 



30 ANKALS OF ROGER DE HOTEDEN. A.D. 1183. 

and drugged it thoroughly with poison, so that the water 
flowing therefrom was corrupted. Consequently, on the chan- 
cellor drinking thereof, he died b)^ a speedy death. There 
also died after him more than a thousand men who had drank 
of the said spring. When the death of the chancellor became 
publicly known, his army was dispersed and put to flight, on 
which the Romans rose in rebellion with still greater acrimony 
against our lord the pope. 

In the same year, Philip, earl of Flanders, married the 
sister of Sancho, king of Portugal. In this year, also, our lord 
the king of England gave the archbishopric of Rouen to Walter 
de Coutances, bishop of Lincoln, and Lucius, our lord the 
pope, sent him the pall. The said pope, not being able suc- 
cessfully to oppose the Romans, sent his ambassadors to the 
kings and chief men of the various countries, both secular and 
ecclesiastical, to gain assistance in the defence of Saint Peter 
against the Romans : upon which his envoys came to Henry, 
king of England, to ask him, and the clergy of England, to afford 
him assistance. Accordingly, the king consulted his bishops and 
the clergy of England, as to the prayer of the Supreme Pontiff ; 
on which the bishops and clergy advised him, according to his 
own inclination and honor, to give assistance to our lord the 
pope, both on his own behalf as well as on theirs ; inasmuch 
as it would be more endurable to them^ and would please them 
better, that their lord the king should, if he so pleased, receive 
from them a recompense for such assistance, than if he should 
allow the nuncios of our lord the pope to come to England to 
receive assistance from themselves ; as, if any other step than 
tlie one named were taken, it might possibly be turned into a 
precedent, to the detiiment of the kingdom. The king acquiesced 
in their advice, and gave considerable assistance to the pope, in 
gold and silver. 

Accordingly, by means of this money, and other sums of 
money lent to him by other princes from all quarters, our lord 
the pope made peace with the Romans, which was necessary 
for him and the Church of Rome. 

In the same year, died Rotrod, ai'chbishop of Rouen, and 
was succeeded by ^'" Walter, bishop of Lincoln. In this year 
also died Richard Pecche, bishop of Chester, who was suc- 

*" This has been mentioned already. 



A.D. 1184. DEATH OF THE ARCHBISHOP OF CAXTERBTJRT. 31 

ceeded by Gerard Lapucelle.^^ In the same year, Gilbert, sur- 
named Assaili, grand master of the house of the Hospital 
at Jerusalem, came into Normandy to king Henry, and was 
honorably entertained by him. Having obtained the king's per- 
mission to cross over to England, he came to Dieppe, and, be- 
fore the feast of Saint Michael, embarked on board of a ship 
which had been lying for nearly a year upon the sands of the 
sea-shore, shattered and dried up, and had lately been a little 
repaired and refitted, and launched again, together with many 
other persons, clergy as well as laity, who had become tired 
with waiting : but shortly after, when the vessel had got out 
of harbour iuto the open sea, the seams opening, it went 
down into the deep, just like a stone ; on which Gilbert, and all 
the rest who were on board of it, with the exception of eight 
only, who escaped by means of a boat, were drowned, on the 
thirteenth day before the calends of October. In the same 
year, Henry, king of England, a conference being held on 
the day of Saint J^icholas, between him and Philip, king of 
France, between Gisors and Trie, did homage to Philip, king 
of France, for all his lands beyond sea, whereas before this 
he had never been mlling to do homage to him. 

In the year of grace 1184, being the thirtieth year of the 
reign of Henry, king of England, son of the empress Matilda, 
the said king was at Le Mans on the day of the I^ativity of our 
Lord, which took place on the Lord's day. In the same year, 
Richard, archbishop of Canterbury, departed this life on the 
fourteenth day before the calends of March ; to whom, before 
he was taken ill, the Lord appeared in a vision, saying, ^^Thou 
hast wasted the property of my church, and I will root thee from 
out of the earth." Eeing greatly terrified at this vision, he 
immediately fell ill, and died on the eighth day after. In 
the same year, the king of England, having made peace be- 
tween Philip, king of France, and Philip, earl of Flanders, 
with reference to the disputes that existed between them con- 
cerning the land of Yermandois, passed through the middle of 
Flanders, and crossed over from Witsand to Dover, in Eng- 
land, where he landed on the fourth day before the ides of 
June ; his daughter, the duchess of Saxony, crossing over 
with him. 

^ Roger of Wendover says, that he died within ten weeks of his con- 
secration. 



32 Al^NALS OF KOGER BE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1184. 

In the same year, and tlie same week in which the king 
landed in England, a spring of running water, near the church 
of Saint Winin, in the western parts of the territories of 
the king of Scotland, below Tjmingham, and not far from the 
castle of Irwine,"^ flowed with blood, without intermission, 
for eight days and as many nights. In the same year, the 
king's daughter, the duchess of Saxony, was delivered of a 
son at Winchester. In this year also, Theobald, count of Blois, 
uncle to Philip, king of France, came into England on a pilgrim- 
age to Saint Thomas, at Canterbury. In this year also, Heniy, 
duke of Saxony, the king's son-in-law, came to England. In 
the same year died Simon, earl of Huntingdon, on whose de- 
cease the king gave the said earldom to William, king of the 
Scots ; immediately on which, in presence of the king, he con- 
ferred the earldom on his brother David. 

In the same year, Gilbert de Plumpton, a knight of noble 
birth, being led in chains to Worcester, and accused of rape 
before our lord, the king of England, by Eanulph de Glan- 
ville, justiciary of England, who wished to condemn him, he 
was by an unjust judgment condemned to be hanged on a 
gibbet ; and when he was led forth to the gibbet, there met 
him a multitude of men and women, crying aloud and saying, 
that a righteous and innocent man ought not thus to suffer. 
Upon this, Baldwin, the bishop of Worcester, a religious man and 
one who feared God, hearing the shouts of the people, and learn- 
ing the injustice that was being perpetrated against this wretched 
man, ran after him ; but the ministers of wickedness, hastening 
to perpetrate their crime, fastening a rope round his neck had 
suspended him aloft, when lo ! the bishop of Worcester came 
up in all haste, and said to the executioners ; ^^ In behalf of 
Almighty God, and under pain of excommunication, I forbid 
you to put that man to death this day, for it is the Lord's day, 
and the feast of Saint Mary Magdalen." At these words 
the executioners stood astounded, hesitating what to do, for 
they feared the king's justice, and dreaded sentence of excom- 
munication. However, the Divine power prevailed, and from 
respect for the solemnity of the day, they loosed the rope and let 
him come to the ground, to be kept until the next morning ; 
when he was to undergo the same punishment. That same 
night, our lord the king, being moved with pity, and influenced 

^ Irving, 



A.D. 1184. ELECTION OF AN AECHBISHOP OE CANTEEBTJKY. 33 

by the counsels of his followers, commanded that he should re- 
main as he was, until he should give further orders what was 
to be done with him; for he was aware that Eanulph de 
Glanville had thus acted towards him from feelings of dislike, 
and wished to put him to death on account of his wife, the 
daughter of Eoger Gulewast, whom the said Eanulph wished 
to give in marriage, together with her inheritance, to his friend 
Eeiner, the sheriif of York. Accordingly, the knight, being 
rescued from death, was kept in prison by Eanulph de Glan- 
ville, until the king's death. 

After this, our lord the king came to Eeading, and holding 
a council there as to choosing a pastor for the Church of Can- 
terbury, a strife and contention arose between the monks of 
Canterbury and the bishops of England. For the monks 
claimed to have the first voice in the election, and produced a 
charter of our lord the king, by which he had granted and 
confirmed to them freedom of election. The bishops, on the 
other hand, used their best endeavours to prove that that charter 
ought not to be observed, both because it was made contrary 
to law, and tended to the injury of the Church of England, as 
also, because the election of their own metropolitan belonged to 
themselves. In consequence of this dispute, no terms could be 
come to between them on the present occasion. 

By command of our lord the king, the bishops of England 
and the monks of Canterbury met at London, in the king's 
presence, for the election of an archbishop of Canterbury ; and, 
the contention still continuing, Gilbert, bishop of London, 
who, according to the ancient right of his see, had the first 
voice in the election, made choice of Baldwin, the bishop of 
Worcester, as archbishop of Canterbury, on the fourth day be- 
fore the nones of December ; upon which all the bishops gave 
their assent to that choice ; the monks of the Church of Can- 
terbury, being the only persons who made any opposition, de- 
parted for the purpose of appealing to our lord the pope, and 
the bishops of England presented to the king the person whom 
they had elected. On their presentation and election, our lord 
the king received him with the kiss of peace and love ; which 
example was followed by Eichard, Geoffrey, and John, the 
king's sons. 

After this, our lord the king came to Canterbury, for the 
purpose of putting an end to the angry feelings of the monks, 

VOL. II. J) 



34 ANNALS OF KOGER DK HOVEDEN. A.D. 1184. 

and, holding a conference with them, prevailed upon them to 
elect as their archbishop the before-named Ealdwin, which 
they accordingly did ; for Alan, the prior of the church of the 
Holy Trinity at Canterbury, came to London with the less in- 
firm part of his chapter, and with letters of confirmation. On 
their meeting together in the Chapter house of the monks of 
Westminster, they elected for themselves and the Church of 
Canterbury, the before-named Baldwin as archbishop ; and then, 
that they might not appear to have assented to the election of 
the bishops, sang their own ^' Te Deum LaudamuSy'^ and led 
him to the altar, and, receiving him with the kiss of peace, 
presented him to the king, who again received him with the 
kiss of peace and love ; as did Eichard, earl of Poitou, his son. 
After this, the king confirmed the treaty and final reconciliation 
by writing, and ratified the same, after its confirmation, by 
oath on pait of his sons Eichard, Geoffrey, and John, in presence 
of queen Eleanor their mother, Henry, duke of Saxony, and 
many others. 

In the same year, the archbishop of Cologne came to Eng- 
land on a pilgrimage to Saint Thomas of Canterbury, on which 
the king of England met him ^vith congratulations, and prevailed 
ujjon him to lay aside his anger and displeasure towards Henry, 
duke of Saxony, and receive him into the favour which he 
had formerly enjoyed when honored with his esteem. The 
before-named archbishop of Cologne also, at the entreaty of the 
king of England, agreed that the daughter of Erederic, emperor 
of the Eomans, should be given in marriage to Eichard, earl of 
Poitou, the king's son : for he knew that this was the especial 
wish and desire of the emperor. After this, the before-named 
archbishop, and Philip, earl of Elanders, who had come with 
him over to England, returned to Elanders, and, having levied 
a great army, invaded the territories of the earl of Hainault, 
and ravaged them, in revenge for the injuries which he had 
infiicted on the earl of Elanders. 

In the same year, died the empress of the Eomans, the wife 
of the emperor Erederic. In this year also, died Gilbert de 
Yer, abbat of Selby, and Gerard,^ surnamed La Pucelle, 
bishop of Chester. In the same year also, died AYaleran, bishop 
of Eochester, Clement, abbat of Saint Mary's at York, Simon, 
earl of Huntingdon, Jocclyn, bishop of Salisbury, Bartholomew, 

2^ See the note at page 31. 



A.D. 1184. THE KING MAKCHES TOWAKDS WALES. 35 

bishop of Exeter, and the earl of Warwick. In this year 
also, died the daughter of Frederic, emperor of the Eomans, 
who, as above stated, was to have been married to Richard, 
earl of Poitou. In this year also, the church of Saint Julian, 
at the city of Le Mans, was destroyed by fire. The abbey of 
Glastonbury was also burnt in this year. 

In the same year, our lord the king of England, being 
anxious to make peace between the duke of Saxony and the 
emperor Frederic, by the advice of the archbishop of Cologne, 
sent his envoys, Hugh de Nunant, archdeacon of Lisieux, and 
some others of his clerks, and of the members of his household, 
to Lucius, the Supreme Pontiff, in order that through his aid the 
before-named emperor might receive the duke of Saxony into 
favour. Accordingly, the king's envoys, coming to the court of 
our lord the pope, found him at Yerona in Italy ; and while they 
were staying there with him, Frederic, emperor of the Eomans, 
came thither for the purpose of holding a conference with 
the pope ; at w^hose urgent request the before-named em- 
peror gave the duke of Saxony permission to return to his 
country, and released him from all the oaths which he had 
taken as to remaining in exile ; our lord the pope also absolved 
him from the oath which he had taken to the emperor. 

In the same year, Thomas Fitz-Bernard departed this life, 
who, after the decease of Alan de l^eville, had been appointed 
by our lord the king chief justiciary of all the forests in 
England ; upon whose decease our lord the king divided his 
forests in England into different parts, and over each part ap- 
pointed four justices, namely, two clerks and two knights ; 
also two yeomen of his household to be guardians of vert and 
venison, over all the other foresters, both those of the king as 
well as of the knights and barons ; and he sent them to hold 
pleas of forestal matters, in conformity with the Assize of the 
Forests previously mentioned. 

In the same year, our lord the king came to "Worcester, for 
the purpose of marching thence with a large army into Wales, 
to wage war against the Welch, who had ravaged his territories 
and slain his subjects. Eees,^^ the son of Griffin, however, dread- 
ing his attack, having obtained a safe-conduct from the king, 
came to Worcester, and there swore fealty to the king of Eng- 
land, and that he would give his son and nephews as hostages 

^^ Rice, or Rhys ap Griffyd. 



36 ANNALS OF KOGEK DE HOVELEN. A.D. 1184. 

to the king ; but, on his attempting to bring them, they refused 
to accompany him. 

In the same year, our lord the king gave to "William, the 
prior of the church of Saint Augustin, at Bristol, the bishopric 
of Bangor. In the same year, the priest Swerre, who w&s 
also called Birkebain, slew Magnus, king of Norway. 

In this year also, the astrologers both of Spain and Sicily, as 
also the diviners throughout almost the whole world, both Greek 
and Latin, wrote and set forth nearly one and the same opinion 
as to the conjunction of the planets. On this occasion, a certain 
astrologer, Corumphira by name, wrote to the following effect : 

Auguries from the Conjunction of the Planets. 

'^ In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost. Amen. Almighty God hath known and the 
science of numbers hath disclosed, that the planets, both supe- 
rior as well as inferior, wiU come in conjunction in Libra, that 
is to say in September, in the year from the Incarnation of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, the eternal and true God, one thousand one 
hundred and eighty-six; and in the year of the Arabians five 
hundred and eighty- two. ^^ During the year this conjunction 
will be preceded by a partial eclipse of the sun, which will be 
of a fiery colour ; this, taking place on the first hour of the 
twenty-first day of the month of April, will be preceded by 
a total eclipse of the moon, in the said month of April ; that 
is to say, on the fifth day thereof, and at the first hour of 
the night that shall precede Wednesday ; this, if God shall so 
wiU, nay rather because He does so will, shall so will, hath so 
willed, and will not cease so to will. Therefore, in the year 
before-named, the planets being, by the will of God, in Libra, 
that is to say, in an aerial and windy sign, the Dragon also 
contributing as a cause thereto, a wondrous earthquake will 
take place, and especially in those regions in which such 
things have been in the habit of taking place, and will 
destroy certain places that have been subject to earthquakes 
and liable to the mischances of utter ruin. For in the parts 
of the East there shall arise a mighty wind, and with its 
strong blasts it shall blacken the air and shall corrupt it with its 

32 If he alludes to the Hegira, he is wrong here ; a.d. 1186 would be 
the 564th year of the Hegira. 



A.D. 1184. ASTllOLOGICAI PEEDICTTOKS. 37 

poisonous stench. In consequence, a mortality and sickness 
will attack great numbers, and loud peals will be heard, and 
voices in the air that shall terrify the hearts of those who hear 
them, and the wind shall raise aloft the sands and the dust 
from the face of the earth, and shall utterly overwhelm the 
cities situate on the plain, and especially those in the sandy 
regions, those in the fifth climate, to wit ; as Mecca, Barsara, 
Baldac,^^ and Eabylon ; nor shall any land be left otherwise than 
covered with the sand and dust, and be utterly ruined thereby ; 
so much so, that the regions of Egypt and Ethiopia shall 
become almost uninhabitable. And from the West this cala- 
mity will extend to all parts of the East. In the regions of 
the West also shall arise dissensions ; and seditions of the 
people shall take place, and there shall be one of them who 
sh^ levy armies innumerable, and shall wage war on the 
shore of the waters, on which a slaughter so vast will take 
place that the flow of the blood so shed will equal the surging 
waves. Let each person feel assured that the conjunction about 
to take place, whatever others may say, signifies to me, if God so 
wills, the mutation of kingdoms, the superiority of the Franks, 
the destruction of the Saracenic race, with the superior blessed- 
ness of the religion of Christ, and its especial exaltation, toge- 
ther with longer life to those who shall be born hereafter." 

In like manner, William the Astrologer, clerk to John, the 
constable of Chester, wrote concerning the before-mentioned 
conjunctions of the planets to the following eflect : — 

^^ In the year from the Incarnation of our Lord one thousand 
one hundred and eighty-six, in the month of August, on the 
completion of the thirtieth day thereof, and in the following 
night, at the ninth hour, in the twenty-ninth degree of Virgo, 
which is called the degree of periods and the period of woes, 
Leo being in the ascendant, this conjunction, which is called 
a minor conjunction, is most portentous. Evil is predominant 
in this figure. This is followed by a conjunction of Mars and 
Saturn, in the fourth degree of Libra, on the seventh day of 
September, at the fourth hour, being the first day of the week ; 
the Sun being the lord of the hour, and Sagittarius the horos- 
cope. This conjunction is called a mid- conjunction. In this 
conjunction good fortune is predominant ; and in this inclination 

23 Probably Bassora and Bagdad. 



38 AXXALS OF ROGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1184. 

evil is mitigated. Then follows a conjunction of Jupiter and 
Saturn, which is st^'led a major conjunction, in the eighth de- 
gree of Libra, on the tenth day of October, being the sixth day 
of the week, at the ninth hour. Mercury is then the lord of 
the hour, Capricorn the horoscope ; Mars being in conjunction 
in the fourteenth degree with the Tail of the Dragon. This con- 
junction portends wondrous events; thunder and lightning, with 
fiery flashes running to and fro in the air. But not regarding 
the conjunction of these, be it our part to record by figure what 
other persons have couched under an enigmatical fonn, as to 
the conjunction of all the planets in Libra, which will have an 
effect in our day before unknown, and not to be known in times 
to come. This conjunction will take place on the sixteenth 
day of September, being the third day of the week, at the 
first hour ; Mars being the lord of the hour, and the Sun in 
the East, and the planets in their several places, as follows : 
Libra being the horoscope,^^* and beginning in the first degree 
[of longitude] ; the Sun being in the thii'tieth degree of Yirgo ; 
Jupiter in two degrees three minutes ; Yenus in three degrees 
fort\^ - nine minutes ; Saturn in eight degrees six minutes ; 
Mercury in four degrees ten minutes ; Mars in nine degrees 
eighteen minutes ; the Tail [of the Dragon] in eighteen degrees 
twenty- three minutes ; the Part of Warfare in fifteen degrees ; 
the Moon in seventeen degrees eight minutes ; the Part of For- 
tune in nineteen degrees. The second [horoscope] is Libra, 
beginning at its twenty-fifth degree. The third is Scorpio, be- 
ginning at its twenty-fourth degree. The fourth is Capricorn, 
beginning at its first degree. The fifth is Aquarius, beginning 
at its fifth degree. The sixth is Pisces, beginning at its seventh 
degree. The seventh is Aries, beginning at its first degree. 
Now, as Saturn is most elevated in orbit, let us first treat of 
him. He signifies the Pagans, and all who are opposed to the 
laws of Christianity. Now, inasmuch as in the figure of the 
sphere Saturn is in the mid-heaven governing the [airy] tri- 
plicit}^, from the triplicity of the figure the Saracen magi- 
cians ^^ are auguring victory on their side, especially as the Sun 

^* Also called " the house " by more recent astrologers. 

^ It is possible that this may be the meaning of the mystic letters 
which here occur; Tr. G. F. S. M. standing for '* Triplicitate figure 
gentis Saracenae magi." If not, those who are skilled in judicial astrology 
may, possibly, be able to give a better translation. 



A.D. 1184. ASTROLOGICAL PKEDICTTONS. 39 

at his setting is seeking the superior conjunction of the planets. 
However, from an estimate of the figure we form a very dif- 
ferent opinion. For the Sun signifies the potentates of Chris- 
tendom, and in this figure is seeking conjunction with Jupiter ; 
but Jupiter, being powerless, seeks conjunction with Yenus, 
and she with Saturn. Mercury then, by retrograding, cut- 
ting it off,^^ would naturally appear by his retrograde motion 
to indicate the elevation of their religion and the depression of 
our own. But as Mercury imparts this same disposition to 
Jupiter, and Jupiter imparts it to none,^^ this marks the lasting 
nature of our faith, ^ow since the Sun is of the greatest influ- 
ence in this figure, a man, a Christian, is arising among us, one 
of great fame, whose name w^ill be exalted until the end of the 
world. ^^ But because this conjunction takes place in a change- 
able sign, the career of this person will be closed before Saturn 
shall have passed through this sign; and inasmuch as Jupiter 
denotes power of prophecy, he will at last be enumerated among 
the prophets. In this figure. Mars being separated from Saturn, 
transfers the properties of Saturn to the Tail [of the Dragon] ; 
which not retaining this position, as though by a retrograde 
movement, carries back again towards Mars what has been so 
entrusted to it. But, inasmuch as Mars is being scorched by the 
orb of the Sun, being thus impeded and embarrassed between 
two evils, Saturn and the Tail [of the Dragon], he becomes in- 
fected with their nature, and signifies by his propei'ties, sorrows, 
contentions, alarms, catastrophes, murders, and spoliation of 
property. The Tail also signifies separations, losses, dangers, 
and diminution of possessions ; and because Mars forms an evil 
conjunction with the Tail [of the Dragon] in the ascendant, 
I do therefore contradict the judgment pronounced by Albu- 
masar upon this figure in his Hundred Discourses.^^ Turn your 
eyes from the figure in which Mars is at the greatest angle 
when Scorpio is in the ascendant, or when he is with the 
Tail 'y*^ and as it is evident to every astrologer that Saturn 
has an, influence over this climate, the Moon participating with 
him, I am of opinion that he cannot be considered as exempt 

35 Conjunction with Saturn. 3> Being powerless, as stated above. 

3« In the text it is " usque ad finem arin." It is possible that the last 
word may have some cabalistic meaning. It hardly seems to belong to 
the European families of words. It is also very possible that it 
a misprint for ''aevi/' "of time." .y'^Xil'L 

39 Centiloquio.'* ^ Of the Drago 



40 A2?^XALS OF EOGER DE HOTEDEJf. A.D. 1184. 

jGrom the evil before-mentioned. Wherefore, the only remedy 
remaining is, for princes to be on their guard, to serve God 
and eschew the devil, that so the Lord may avert their immi- 
nent punishments. Amen.'' 

Again, with reference to the before-mentioned conjunction 
of the planets, the following was wTitten : — 

^* To all literate men, and especially to scholars, to whose 
presence this present page shall come, Anselm, the humble 
brother in the Lord, of the monastery- at Worcester, greeting. 
Marvellous is God in His Saints and in His works, who never 
ceases to work miracles in behalf of His people. And, inasmuch 
as no man places a light imder a bushel, but upon a candlestick, 
that it may give light to all, a miracle, wondi'ous beyond mea- 
sure, took place in our house on the day before the calends of 
November ; which, in order that it might come to the knowledge 
of those not present, by writing at least, I have committed to 
writing. Be it known then unto your discreetness, that one of 
our lay brothers, tailing into a trance, lay nine days and nine 
nights like one dead before a certain altar, prostrate there in the 
form of a cross ;'*^ and as he was a religious man, and a brother 
of a holy mode of life, no one of us dared to remove Jum 
thence. On the tenth day, at the third hour, in a low voice, 
and with a wailing tone, still in a wondrous lament, he 
chaimted the following lines ten times or even more, in the 
same order in which they are here written : 

42U i rpj^g £v^]2 of mankind and the sudden ruin of fhis world, 
a pernicious fatality is hurrying on. Children of tender age 
one universal slaughter overwhelms ; by the same death young 
and old must die. The water shall be tainted hj the cor- 
ruption of the substance of the air, and with deadly dew 
shall the whole ground be drenched. Hence shall a dread- 
ful mortality arise, and universal carnage. A universal cause 
is there of death, a universal cause of woe. For as soon 
as the Sim shiill touch the back of the Lion slain by Her- 
cules, a two-fold heat shall parch the entrails diied-up. Then, 
though there shall be a thousand like Lachesis, and even 
hands as many to each, still, at the same instant will Atropos 
cut all their threads. For with the sword of death will the 
just vengeance of God visit the sins of the people. Ah wretched 

^^ ^Yith his arms extended. ^' This pretended prophecy is couched 

in sixty-six hexameters and pentameters, of no merit whatever. 



A.D. 1184. PROPHECIES BY 1 MONK. 41 

me ! alas ! what will be my lot ? Eehoid ! the sword is gleam- 
ing, which will the whole world destroy. Behold the hand of 
the Lord ! Ah wretched me ! whither shall I fly ? Behold the 
wi'ath of the Lord ! shall I take to flight, or here conceal my- 
self ? Whither shall I fly from God, for God is everywhere ? 
If the Divine will cannot be moved by prayer, then the seed 
with the chaff will the wrath of God beat do^Ti. That all 
things must return unto their ancient Chaos, the opinions of 
the philosophers prove. Still, thus it cannot be, as it is clear 
that whatever has been, and most things that now are, must 
remain as they are.'*^ l!^ow, above the stars am I borne, and 
though my eyes are closed, lifted up to the stars, either house 
of the Sun do I behold. There is night without the stars and 
Moon, and day without the Sun : but though so it is, why 
so it is I cannot tell. The stars of Mercury, of Yenus, and 
of Jove, now lie concealed. They exist not, or if they do 
exist, they have forsaken the sky. Through the whole Zodiac 
they roam at large, both Mars and the noxious star of the 
scythe-bearing old man who wields the scythe.'*^ Mars smites 
with his sword, Saturn smites with his hurtful scythe ;'*^ he 
strives to inflict ruin on the interests of men. Hence am I 
now borne to the dubious realms of the Stygian tyrant, in which 
there is, and will be, everlasting gloom. Amid gloom so great, 
neither Sun, nor Moon, nor fire, in this place of wretchedness 
are able to direct the eyes. Here is toil, and grief, and anxiety 
inextricable : here for the wretched guilty are grievous punish- 
ments prepared. Here resounds everlastingly the direful dirge, 
woe ! woe ! The gloom how great ! woe, woe is me ! woe ! 
woe ! ^ Cerberus is raging before the gates, and is ya^Tiing 
with his three throats ; three dreadful sounds from his mouth 
at the same instant does he send. Three Furies guard the 
portals, Alecto, Megaera, and Tisiphone, on whose features horror 
is impressed. Horrid is their aspect, and foul the breath of 

■^^ These lines are in their present state incapable of being reduced to 
sense — perhaps, indeed, it was never intended they should have any. They 
are as follows •, — 

*' Sic tamen esse nequit, quia constat quasque fuisse, 
Pluraque quae veluti sunt modo, semper erunt." 
*^ Saturn. *5 "Palce;" more properly '' sickle." 

^ This pentameter is worth preserving as a curiosity : 

" Quantse sunt tenebrae ! vae mihi, vas mihi, vse V* 



42 AlfXALS OF ROGER DE HOVEDEX. A.D. 1184. 

their mouths, and their hoarse voices sound like thunder in 
their throats. In all there is an innate propensit}' to wick- 
edness in their minds ; in all there is a disposition prone to 
every crime. In the midst of the water stands Tantalus, 
thirsting with it up to his throat ; while, that he may not 
drink thereof, it ever retreats from his mouth. Here is mighty 
Sisyphus rolling the stone that rolls everlastingly back ; so 
that his is a labour without an end. Continually does the de- 
vouring vulture gnaw at the liver of Tityus ; which, that it 
may be for ever perishing, is ever on the point of perishing. 
Some dreadful famine, some severe drought attacks, and labour 
without cessation fatigues. Some are frozen by cold, others 
are scorched bv the heat of fiames ; each as he has deserved 
is here visited with a punishment his own. An entrance is open 
to all, an exit to none ; all does that place devour, and to the 
Fmies consign. Tisiphone, in conjunction with those di'eadful 
sisters, awards the pimishments which they have been found 
to deserve to endure. Xow to the o-uiltv do I leave Stvx, now 
I/ethe, now Acheron ; once again with much ado do I retrace 
my steps to those above.' 

^' When he had recited this last line, at length returning 
to himself, and aroused, as it were, from sleep, he raised 
liis head, and said to one of the brethren, who, for the pur- 
pose of seeing the mii'acle, had come with the rest, eye- 
ing him most intently : ^ AVonder not at my features, for die 
thou shalt. A grievous and sudden end shall overtake thee.' 
After this, tui-ning his eyes upon the assemblage of the bre- 
thren, not less elegantly than if he had been gifted from his 
infancy with the eloquence of TiiQy" did he foretell in the 
Latin tongue certain events which were then to come to pass. 
And, as these things afterwards did come to pass, just as he had 
foretold, being filled ourselves with the greatest astonishment, 
in order that others, as well as oui^selves, may admire the lines 
which this lay brother composed, who was never in any de- 
gree acquainted ^^dth letters, we have determined, on accoimt 
of the stories there interwoven, to send them from school to 
school, in order that, by their judgment, this assertion of ours 
may be thoroughly sifted. Some indeed there are, who, in 
consequence of the fables inserted, despise the rest ; while some 

*7 At all events, he may be safely pronounced Tully*s equal in demerit 
as a poet. 



A.D. 1184. PROPHECY OF PHARAMELLA. 43 

endeavour to prove (since in many things it has fallen out as 
he predicted) that under a kind of veil, these fables bear the 
impress of truth; and, as in no respect it fell out otherwise 
than he had predicted, the very same day, gnashing his teeth, 
that same brother whose death he had predicted, ended his life 
in the greatest agony. Upon this, the brother who had pro- 
nounced those prophetic lines, bursting into tears in the pre- 
sence of all, was not ashamed to confess, in the contrition of 
his heart, whatever during his life he had been guilty of ; and, 
as befitted a religious man, received the communion with the 
greatest devoutness ; after receiving which, he immediately 
breathed forth his spirit, saying, ' Lord, into thy hands I com- 
mend my spirit.' " 

Now when the public had heard of these things, and others 
of a similar nature, they were greatly alarmed, and the nearer 
that pestilential season, which the before-named astrologers 
had predicted, drew nigh, the more did exceeding terror 
come upon all, both clergy and laity, rich and poor, and drove 
great numbers of them to a state of desperation. A certain 
writing however, which Pharamella, the son of Abdallah of 
Cordova, sent to John, bishop of Toledo, gave them some com- 
fort ; it was to the following effect : 

^' Pharamella, son of Abdallah of Cordova, an Arabian by 
parentage, and brought up in the palace of the great king 
Evenjacob, who is called ^ El Emir Amimoli,' to John, bishop 
of Toledo, bishop of those persons who are called Christians, 
health, beyond all those who call upon God. They who fear 
God, the Creator of all things, shall be exalted, and they also 
who adore Him with pure hands and with a heart entirely 
cleansed. We have seen some men of your persuasion, dissimilar 
to ourselves in dress and in language, who were merchants, and 
had very good woollen cloths of various colours on sale. They 
stated that they had come from a far distant land, which is called 
the ' land of the Elders/ that is to say, the kingdom of the 
Franks. Among other matters, we learned from them through 
an interpreter, Ferdinand by name, a fellow-citizen of yours, 
and at present a captive with us, that certain false astrologers 
of the west, who were ignorant of the virtues of the heavenly 
bodies'*^ and the effects produced by the five wandering ones,^® 
and the two lights'*^ which move of themselves in epicycles 
and eccentric circuits, through their houses and dignities, have 

*^ He probably alludes to the name of the planets. ^9 The sun and moon. 



44 AliTNALS OF EOGER DE flOVEDEN. A.D. 1184. 

alarmed the hearts of you believers in Christ, and not only 
of such as are simple-minded, but even of those among you who 
are believed to be wise. Eor they say that in the year which 
is the five hundred and seventy-second of the AUigera,"*^ and 
the one thousand one hundred and eighty- sixth from the In- 
carnation of your Lord Christ, in the month which you call 
September, there is to be a very mighty wind, such as is not 
often experienced, which shall destroy cities and towns, and 
overthrow everything it meets on the earth in its course. 
This wind shall come, they say, from the West, and shall 
extend even unto the East ; and after the wind a most dreadful 
stench, that shall destroy human beings. Of this circum- 
stance they allege no further cause than that the planets will 
come in conjunction in Libra, which is an aerial sign, and 
therefore a cause of windy weather. Now, it may at once be 
answered these persons, by even our children, that not only is 
Libra an aerial sign, but so also are Gemini and Aquarius aerial 
signs ; in both of which, many planets have come in conjunc- 
tion, and still no danger of winds or of pestilential exhalations 
orof mortality has ensued. Eut while Saturn and Mars are two 
unfortunate stars, Jupiter and Yenus are fortunate ones and . 
propitious ; wherefore, if they shall happen to be in the same 
sign with the others, without any setting or attractions,^^ or 
shall keep themselves duly balanced, their beneficent eff*ect 
will temper the evil effects of the former ones. But on the day 
of the month in which they say that this will^ take place, 
Mars will not be in Libra, but in the thirteenth degree of 
Yirgo ; while Yenus in Scorpio, which is the house of Mars, 
will entirely do away with all the evil influence of Mars, both 
as regards his house in which she is reigning, as also in conse- 
quence of the respect due to her sex, by means of which she 
attracts Mars to feelings of courtesy towards her. Jupiter also, 
will assuage the disastrous influence of Saturn, Mercury being 
nearer to Jupiter than Saturn. Such persons ought also to re- 
collect, that inasmuch as Saturn performs his revolution once 
in thirty years, he remains two years and a half in each of the 
signs ; ^^ whereas Mars accomplishes his course through each 

^9 Clearly meaning the Hegira. See the note to page 36. so it may 
appear doubtful, except to those versed in astrological lore, what is meant 
by '* Si in eodera signo fuerint cum eis sine respectu, aut applicatione." 

^^ In each revolution. 



A.D. 1185. DEATH OF GILBERT. 45 

of the signs in little less than a year and a half. Since then, 
it is a matter of necessity, that in every thirty years Saturn 
must always make a stay of about two years and a half in 
Libra ; by the same necessity^^ it comes to pass, that before 
Saturn goes out of Libra, Mars must be in the same sign of 
Libra together with Saturn. If then. Mars and Saturn have 
already hitherto been every thirty years once together in Libra, 
and are so to be in future, either these pestilential winds have 
happened before, or will happen from their evil influence when 
in a windy sign, or the converse. Eut that they have happened 
at any previous time, we neither read in the writings of the 
masters, nor have we witnessed the fact in our own times. Con- 
sequently, we ought to feel assured that they will not happen, 
since upon similar combinations it has never fallen out that 
any thing of a like nature has happened. Therefore, let your 
astrologers peruse the tables of the Inner Persians, and of the 
Arabians, Hermes, Astalius, and Abidemonus, as well as of Albu- 
masar, of more modern date ; and let them compute proportion- 
ally the influences of the stars, their settings, attractions, sepa- 
rations, equalities, and other matters which it were tedious 
to recount to those even who have time to listen thereto ; 
and when they have found that from a like conjunction of 
the stars that is false which they are dreaming of, either 
let them relinquish opinions based upon such idle stories, or 
else be converted to the religion of Ishmael which we pro- 
fess. However, according to the judgment of Messehella and 
Alkandus, unless God shall ordain it otherwise, there will be a 
scanty vintage, crops of wheat of moderate average, much 
slaughter by the sword, and many shipwrecks." 

In the year of grace 1185, being the thirty-first year of the 
reign of king Henry, son of the empress Matilda, that king 
was at Windsor in England, on the day of the l^ativity of our 
I^ord. In the same year, on the day of the Circumcision of 
^ our Lord, died Gilbert, the son of Fergus, who had taken his 
brother Uchtred, the father of the noble man Eoland, and had 
caused him to be deprived of his eyes, tongue, and virility, by 
his own son Dunecan ; and who had also given up his son the 
before-named Dunecan, to the king of England as a hostage to 
ensure the preservation of the peace. After his death, Eoland, 

^2 This is the first attempt at reasoning, which has been met with in 
all this astrological parade. 



46 ANNALS OF KOGER DE HOVEBEN. A.D. 1185. 

the son of Uclitred, invaded all the lands of the before-named 
Gilbert, and gained possession of them. 

In the same year, Baldwin the Leper, king of Jerusalem, 
and the Templars and Hospitallers, sent to the king of England, 
the son of the empress Matilda, Heraclius, the Patriarch of the 
Holy City of Jerusalem, and the grand Masters of the Hospital 
and Temple, together with the royal standard, and the keys 
of the Sepulchre of our Lord, of the Tower of David, and of 
the city of Jerusalem, asking of him speedy succour, as being 
the heir and lord of the land of Jerusalem.^^ Eor it ought to 
be known, that Fulk, the brother of Geoffrey, earl of Anjou, 
the father of the said Henry, was king of Jerusalem, as we have 
previously mentioned. Wherefore, when the before-named Patri- 
arch and Master of the Hospital came to England, the king of 
England met them at the town of Eeading, and received them 
wdth great joyousness ; on which, immediately falling at the 
king's feet, with great weeping and sobbing, they uttered the 
words of salutation on behalf of the king, and principal men, 
and the w^hole of the people of the land of Jerusalem, and, ex- 
plaining the cause of their coming, delivered to him the royal 
standard, and the keys of the Sepulchre of our Lord, and those 
of the Tower of David and of the city of Jerusalem, in behalf 
of the king and the principal men of the city of Jerusalem, 
besides letters from pope Lucius, to the following effect : — 

The Letter of pope Lucius on giving aid to the land of Jerusalem. 

^' Lucius, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to 
Henry, the illustrious king of the English, health and the 
Apostolic benediction. Inasmuch as all your predecessors have 
been especially distinguished above all the other princes of the 
earth for glory in arms and nobleness of spirit, and the people 
of the faithfiil have been taught to look upon them in their 
adversity as their defender ; deservedly is application made to 
you, the heir not only of your father's kingdom but of liis vir- 
tues, a certain degree of security being assured therefrom, at a 

^^ The true version of the story is, that Baldwin the Leper had recently 
died, and his son Baldwin, a cluld five years of age, had ascended the 
throne. Of course these political envoys would not let him stand in the 
way of their gaining their ohject by flattering Henry's ambition. Indeed, 
Roger of Wendover distinctly says, that they were despatched for the pur- 
pose of offering Henry the throne of Jerusalem. 



A.D. 1185. LETTEK OF POPE LITCITJS. 47 

time when peril or even extermination is dreaded as impending 
over the Christian people ; that by the arm of your royal mighti- 
ness, protection may be granted to the members of Him who 
has in His mercy allowed you to reach such a height of glory 
and pre-eminence, and has rendered you an invincible wall of 
defence against those who wished to impugn His name. In the 
first place, be it known to your serene highness how that the 
land of Jerusalem has been here buffeted by frequent and vex- 
atious disputes on these matters, the special inheritance of 
Him who was crucified, and ihe place in which the mysteries 
were foretold of our salvation, and brought to a completion by 
the carrying out of that event, and of which He who compre- 
hended all things in His death, by a peculiar privilege made it 
the scene ; and how being now trampled under foot, and hemmed 
in by the pressure of a perfidious and most abominable race, it 
stands nodding to its downfall ; and how, which God forbid, 
the Christian religion must thereby sustain irreparable loss. 
For Saladin, the most inhuman persecutor of that holy and 
fearful name, has now risen to such a pitch in the spirit of his 
fury, and is to such a degree putting forth all the might of his 
wickedness for the destruction of the people of the faithful, that, 
unless the vehement onset of his wickedness is checked as 
though by barriers placed in his path, he may entertain an as- 
sured hope and belief that Jordan will flow before his face, and 
that the land that was consecrated by the shedding of the vivi- 
^ fying blood, will be polluted by the contact of his most abo- 
minable superstitions, and the country which your glorious 
and noble predecessors, amid many labours and perils, rescued 
from the dominion of the unbelieving heathens, will once more 
be subjected to the accursed dominion of this most nefarious 
t}Tant. In consequence, therefore, of the urgency of the 
necessity, and of the sorrows thus imminent, we have deemed 
it advisable, by these Apostolic letters, to entreat your mighti- 
ness, or rather with a palpitating heart to call upon you with 
the loudest voice, showing regard for the honor of Him who 
has set you upon high, and, in comparison with the name of 
the mighty ones who are on earth, has bestowed upon you a 
glorious name, in the earnestness of your pious zeal, to give 
your attention to the desolate state of the before-named land, 
and, to the end that, in those parts, the confusion of Him may 
be put an end to, who, in your behalf, submitted to be held in 



48 a:n^nals of rogee de hovedex. a.d. 1185. 

derision in that self-same land, to aiford efficacious aid. Where- 
fore, follomng in the footsteps of your predecessors, by the aid 
of the Lord, let that land be preserved in the worship of the 
great God by means of your diligence, which they rescued from 
the jaws of the prince of darkness. In such straits of oppression 
it befits your highness to labour with the more earnest zeal, in- 
asmuch as you are aware that the land is deprived of the pro- 
tection of a king, and the powerful men have thought proper to 
centre all their hopes of defending it in the protection of your 
mightiness. And this your serene highness may be the better 
enabled to understand, from the fact that they have despatched 
to your excellency the chief men of that land and the mighty 
defenders thereof, namely, our venerable brother Heraclius, the 
Patriarch, and our dearly beloved son, the Master of the Hos- 
pital, that from their dignified presence you may be enabled 
to take under consideration the present state of afiairs, and to see 
how great and extreme is the necessity, on account of which 
they have so long endured to be without protection ; to the end 
that in person they might the more easily incline your devoted- 
ness to comply with their desires. Receive, therefore, the per- 
sons before-named with all kindness, as though sent to you by 
the Lord Himself, treat them in all things with that brotherly 
love which is their due, and show yourself ready to acquiesce 
in their requests, according as, having regard to their weight 
and their probity, you shall think them deserving of your 
grace and favour. And further, let your prudence call to mind, 
and with anxious meditation thereon ponder over those pro- 
mises by which you have so often bound your highness as to 
undertaking the protection of the land so often named ; and 
show yourself in this respect so wary and so zealous, that, at the 
terrible day of judgment your conscience may not accuse you, 
and the question put to you by that searching Judge who is 
not to be deceived, may not lead to your condemnation." 

After hearing these requests, our lord the king made an- 
swer that, God willing, all things would yet be well, and ap- 
pointed a time for his answer, namely, the first Sunday in Lent, 
at London. Accordingly, on this day,°* our lord the king, the 
Patriarch, the bishops, abbats, earls, and barons of the kingdom 
of England, William, king of Scotland, and his brother David, 
together with the earls and barons of his kingdom, met at 
^* This couacil was held at Clerkenwell, 



A.D. 1185. A MIRACULOUS EVEXT. 49 

London, and after a conference had been held thereon with due 
deliberation, it pleased all that our lord the king should consult 
thereupon Philip, king of France, his liege lord ; upon which 
the council breaking up, our lord the king gave to all his subjects, 
both clergy and laity, permission to assume the cross. Ac- 
cordingly, Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, Ranulph, jus- 
ticiary of England, Walter, archbishop of Eouen, and Hugh, 
1 ishop of Durham, together with many others of the bishops 
Irom both sides of the sea, and nearly all the earls, barons, and 
knights of England, E'ormandy, Aquitaine, Erittany, Anjou, 
Maine, and Touraine, assumed the cross ; at the period of the 
assumption of which a certain miraculous event took place. 

For on a certain day, a woman who had secretly become 
pregnant, finding that the time of her labour was approach- 
ing, fled from the house of her father, in consequence of he? 
wish to avoid being detected in her transgression ; when be- 
hold! a mighty tempest of wind and rain overtook her in 
lier flight, as she was wandering alone in the fields and beg- 
ging the Lord for His assistance and a place of refuge. Upon 
finding 'that her prayers were not instantly listened to by the 
Lord, she fell into a fit of desperation, saying, ^^ If thou, God, 
dost despise my prayers, then may the Devil succour me ;" 
immediately upon which the Devil made his appearance to her 
under the form of a j^oung man, barefoot and girt up as though 
for a journey, and said to the woman, ^* Follow me.'' As they 
passed along the road they met with a sheepfold in a field, on 
which the Devil ran before and got ready a fire in the sheep- 
fold, and a seat made of fresh straw, upon which the woman 
followed him, and, entering the place, warmed herself before 
the fire. While so doing, she said, " I am thirsty, and am 
quite famished with hunger ;'' to v/hich the Devil made answer, 
*' Wait a little, and I mil bring you bread and drink." While 
he was gone [to fetch this], two men, who happened to be 
passing along the road, seeing a fire in the sheepfold, won- 
dered what it could be, and coming nearer, entered the sheep- 
fold ; where, finding the pregnant woman lying down near the 
fire, they asked her who it was that had made the fire for her, 
to which she made answer, *^ The Devil.'' On this they en- 
quired of her where he was, when she replied, " I was 
hungry and thirsty, and he has gone to find me some vic- 
tuals and drink." On hearing this, they said to her, ^^Have 

VOL. II. E 



50 ANlfALS OF EOGER DE HOVEDEN. a.D. 1185. 

faith in the Lord Jesus Christ and in the glorious Virgin Mary, 
His mother, and they shall deliver you :&*om the hand of the 
enemy ; and be sure to enquire of him what shall come to 
pass ;'' after saying which, they went to a village that was near 
at hand, and related to the clergy and the people what they 
had seen and heard upon the road. 

In the meantime, the Devil returned, and bringing with 
him bread and water, refreshed the woman ; after which, stoop- 
ing down, she gave birth to a male child, which the Devil 
taking up, performed the duties of midwife, and was warm- 
ing it before the fire, when, lo ! the priest of the village 
before-mentioned came to the sheepfold, armed with the Catho- 
lic faith, the cross, and holy water, and attended by the clergy 
and a great number of people. Finding that she was delivered, 
he was sprinlding the child, which the Devil was holding in 
his arms, with holy water, in the name of the holy and un- 
divided Trinity, when the Devil, being utterly unable to en- 
dure it, took to flight, and, carrying the child away with 
him, appeared to them no more. On this, the woman, returning 
to herself, exclaimed, ^^Now do I know of a truth that the 
Lord hath delivered me from the hands of the enemy ;'' and 
she then related to them that she had been informed by the 
Devil, that, since the time when Jesus Christ prevailed over 
hell, there had not been so great sorrow or lamentation in hell 
as there was now, in consequence of the assumption of the 
cross : but, said she, his sorrow will be turned into joy, because 
BO great will be the iniquities and offences of the Crusaders, 
that the Lord will blot them out of the Book of Life, and 
many of them, forsaking the religion of the cross, will become 
persecutors of the cross and of the name of Christ — a thing 
that afterwards proved to be the case. 

Our lord the king next came to Windsor, and there, on the 
Lord's day on which is sung^^ ^'Lcetarey Jermalem,^^ [*' Eejoice, 
Jerusalem,' '] which this year fell on the day before the 
calends of April, he dubbed his son John a knight, and imme- 
diately after sent him to Ireland, appointing him king thereof. 
In the meantime, a mighty earthquake was heard *° throughout 
nearly the whole of England., such as had not been heard in that 

^ The commencement of the introit on the Fourth Sunday in Lent. 
^ The word is " auditus ;" at the present day we speak oi fee Hug an 
earthquake, and, in general, uot of hearing one. 



A.D. 1185. PRrN^CE JOHN COMES TO IRELAND. 51 

land since the begiiming of the world ; for rocks were split 
asunder, houses of stone feU down, and the metropolitan 
church of Lincoln was rent from top to bottom. This earth- 
quake took place on the day after Palm Sunday, that is to say, 
on the seventeenth day before the calends of May; and on the 
day after the said earthquake our lord the king of England, 
Heraclius, the Patriarch, and Hugh, bishop of Durham, with 
many of the principal men of England, crossed over between 
Dover and Witsand. After his arrival in ]S"ormandy, our lord the 
king of England raised a considerable army, and then sent 
word to his son Eichard, earl of Poitou, who had fortified 
Poitou against him, and had taken prisoner his brother Geof- 
frey, earl of Brittany, that unless he delivered up to his mother 
Eleanor the whole of Poitou freely and quietly, he would visit 
him with a rod of iron, and war against him with all the 
power of his might. Upon receiving this command, the said 
Eichard, ceasing all hostilities, delivered up Poitou to his 
mother, and, returning to his father, remained with him like 
an obedient son. 

In the meantime, on the calends of May, being the day of 
the Apostles, Saint PhiKp and Saint James, about mid-day, a 
total eclipse of the sun was seen, which was followed by 
thunder and lightning, and a mighty tempest ; from the effects 
of which men and animals perished, and many houses, being 
set on fire thereby, were burned to the ground. After this, 
Philip, king of France, and Henry, king of England, holding 
a conference as to giving aid to the land of Jerusalem, pro- 
mised that they would afford it ample assistance both in men and 
money : but, for all this the before-named Patriarch cared 
but little, as he had been in hopes that he should be enabled to 
bring back with him, for the defence of the land of Jeru- 
salem, the before-named king of England, or one of his sons, 
or else some other person high in authority ; but, being unable 
to effect this, he retired from the court in sorrow and confusion 
on his return to his country. 

In the same year, Walter, the archbishop elect of Eouen, 
received the pall from pope Lucius, and immediately conse- 
crated Gilbert de Glanville, who had been presented with the 
bishopric of Eochester by the king of England. In this year 
also, John, the king's son, coming iiito Ireland, was honorably 
received by John, the archbishop of Dublin, and the other 

£2 



52 ANNALS OF EOGEK DE nOVEDEN. A.D. 1185. 

subjects of his father, who had preceded him ; however, as ho 
thought fit to shut up everythicg in his own purse,^^ and 
was unwilling to pay their wages to his soldiers, he lost the 
greater part of his army in several conflicts with the Irish, 
and being at last reduced to want [of troops], after appointing 
justices and distributing his knights in various places for the 
defence of the countrv^, he returned to England. 

In the month of December, in this year, pope Lucius de- 
parted this life ; and was succeeded in the papacy by pope 
Urban the Third ; who immediately thereupon, in order that 
notice thereof might be universally given, wrote to the prelates 
of the Holy Church to the following effect : 

The Letter of pope Urlan on his Election. 

*' Urban, the bishop, servant of the servants o«P God, to his 
venerable brethren the archbishops and bishops, and to his 
dearly beloved sons the abbats, priors, and other prelates of 
churches, to whom these letters shall come, healtii and the 
Apostolic benediction. The exalted counsels of heaven, re- 
taining in their dispensations a constant supervision thereof^ 
have founded the Holy Church of Eome, to the governance 
whereof, insufficient as we are, we have been chosen, upon a 
rock which is based upon the solidity of the faith ; bestowing 
upon her that foundation in the sti'ength of the Apostolic con- 
fession, that so neither the outbreaks of the storm, nor the 
winds of the tempest can prevail against her. "Wherefore it is 
that the universal Mother Church, ever retaining wit hher the 
Saviour, even unto the end of the world, has so, as expressed in 
the Song of Solomon/^ '^ embraced him whom she loved," that, 
by reason of no change of events or of times, can she be separated 
from the singleness of her faith, or the fixedness of her affection. 
For although, by reason of the repeated changes of her pastors 
as they depart, she has frequently fallen into various perils, or 
in consequence of the attacks of the wickedness of this world 
has endured persecutions and labours innumerable, still, never 
has the Divine favour forsaken her, any further than that she 
might perfect her strength in some temptation, and thence ob- 
tain the joyous fulfilment of her hope, on receiving thereby a 
strengthening of her faith. The Lord thus dealing towards her, 
within these few days as a mark of His goodness, although no 
slight grief and sorrow affected her for the death of the pious 

^* He more than once alludes to the avarice of John. ^' Probably 
in allusion to ch. vii, 10. 



\ 



A.D. 1185. THE LETTEE OF POPE TJPvBAN. 53 

father Lucius, Divine Providence has preserved her in the unity 
of the spirit and in the bond of peace, so that after the sorrow 
of the evening joy came in the morning, and she, like a most 
beauteous dove, rejoicing amid her sighs, retained her beauty 
without a ruffle even or a spot upon her whiteness. Now, after 
the decease of the father of pious memory, our predecessor, 
Lucius, our lord the pope, when his most venerable body had 
been honorably entombed, there was held by the brethren a con- 
ference as to the election of a successor, at which there was such 
imity among all, and such concord of each with the other, 
that He may be supposed to have wrought upon them, in whose 
hands are the hearts of all men, and through whom the diversity 
of minds is reconciled. Eut, while in the church of God, there 
were many venerable and prudent men, of whom it is our belief 
that their votes might have more prudently and more worthily 
have made choice, inefficient as we are, they turned their eyes 
upon us ; and it was done accordingly as it pleased the Lord, 
in that they made choice of us as their father and shepherd, 
who have neither strength nor merits to suffice to the elevation 
of a dignity so great. However, although we were fully con- 
scious to ourselves of our own infirmities, so as to believe that 
we might, not without good reason, have offered resistance to 
their proposals ; still, to the end that through delay in the 
transaction or pertinacity in making resistance, no danger might 
ensue to the Church, although unwillingly, we consented to 
undertake the labour of the burden entrusted to us ; hoping that 
our steps would be guided by Him who bestowed on Saint Peter, 
when sailing on the waves, faith even to that degree that he 
went down into the sea, and went forth to meet Him in the 
midst thereof, that doubting he might not perish. I^ow there- 
fore, being placed in such a position and office, as to require 
to be aided therein by the sufirages of all the faithful, to you 
do we resort, as especial sons of the Eoman Church, with 
full confidence and security, and, prefacing with the salutation 
of the Apostolic benediction, we do by these familiar letters 
admonish you, and do earnestly request and exhort you in the 
Lord, that, attending the death of our before-named father and 
lord Lucius, with the devout suffrages of your prayers, you wiU 
especially pay to ourselves that fidelity and duty which is owed 
to us, in virtue of your respect for Saint Peter and Saint Paul 
the Apostles and the Apostolic See, by all of you in common, 
that by so doing, you may be enabled both to obtain your 



54 ANNALS OF KOGEK DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1185. 

reward of God, and always be enabled to find more abundant 
grace in my eyes, and prove yourselves deserving before the 
whole Church. Given at Verona, on the second day before the 
ides of January." 

In the same year, Henry, king of England, sent envoys to pope 
Urban, and obtained many things of him, which pope Lucius had 
stoutly refused ; one of which was that such one of his sons as 
he should think fit should be crowned king of Ireland. This 
was acceded to by our lord the pope, who confirmed the same by 
his bull, and, as a proof of his assent and confirmation thereof, 
sent him a crown made of peacock's feathers, embroidered with 
gold. In this year, shortly before the feast of Saint Peter ad 
Vincula, the before-named Patriarch, having returned to Jeru- 
salem, and brought with him no aid for the defence of that land, 
great fear came upon the inhabitants of the land of Jerusalem. 
Consequently, a certain brother of the Temple, an Englishman 
by birth, whose name was Eobert de Saint Alban, having for- 
saken the Christian faith, went to Saladin, king of Babylon, 
and promised him that he would deliver up to him the city of 
Jerusalem ; and, on his giving him security for the same, Sala- 
din gave him his niece in marriage, and a considerable body 
of troops, and put him in command of his army, making him 
general thereof. Upon this, he immediately went forth with 
his army to the plains of Saint George, and there divided 
it into three detachments, two of which he sent into the parts 
adjacent to lay them waste ; on which they ravaged the whole 
country, from Montreal to Neapolis, while Jericho, and the city 
of Sebaste, with some other cities, were destroyed. 

But the before-named Eobert, with the third part of his 
army, marched against the city of Jerusalem ; on which the 
few inhabitants who were in the city, trusting in the Lord, 
went forth by the postern gates, and, carrying before them the 
wood of the Cross of our Lord as a standard, by the might of 
the Lord smote the army in which was the before -named 
Eobert; on which, taking to flight, he turned his back on the 
smiters, while the men of Jerusalem followed him and his army, 
and slew many of them with the edge of the sword : Eobert, 
however, though with considerable difficulty, made his escape. 

After this, on Saladin purposing a fresh attack upon the 
land of Jerusalem, the Templars and Hospitallers and other 
chief men of that land, gave him sixty thousand besants 
for a truce until the octave of the ensuing Easter, In tlie 



A.D. 1186. EI^G HEI^EY AT CAELISLE. 55 

meantime, William de Marchis, earl of Joppa, having died, 
William the Leper, the king of Jerusalem, abdicated the throne 
of the kingdom, and, naming the boy Baldwin, son of the 
before-named William and Sibylla, who was his sister, his 
heir, caused him to be crowned king in the Holy City of 
Jerusalem ; shortly after which he died, on which the boy 
Baldwin reigned in his stead for nearly two years, and his 
mother Sibylla married Guide de Lusignan, and by him had 
two daughters. 

In the year of grace 1186, being the thirty-second year of 
the reign of king Henry, son of the empress Matilda, the said 
king was at Damfront, in l^ormandy, on the day of the ]N'ati- 
vitv of our Lord ; after which festival a conference was held 
between him and Philip, king of France, at Gisors, where he 
made oath that he would give Alice, the sister of the king 
of France, in marriage to his son Eichard, earl of Poitou. The 
king of Prance also promised to the before-named Richard, 
together Avith his said sister, Gisors, and all that his father 
Louis had promised, together with his daughter Margaret, to 
Henry, the son, the king of England ; and he further made 
oath that he would never after that advance any claim against 
them in respect thereof. 

After having held this conference, the king of England 
crossed over to England, and gave to Hugh, prior of the house 
of Wicham, which is of the Carthusian order, and in the bishop- 
ric of Bath, the bishopric of Lincoln ; whom Baldwin, the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, shortly after consecrated. After this, 
the king proceeded with a large army to Carlisle, intending to go 
still further to wage war against Poland, the son of Ucthred, son 
of Fergus, for the injuries and spoliations which he had been 
guilty of towards Dunecan, the son of Gilbert, son of Fergus ; 
but the said Roland came thither to the king and made peace 
with him. The king also, while there, caused Paulinus of Leeds 
to be elected to the bishopric of Carlisle ; which, however, the 
said Paulinus declined. On this, in order that Paulinus might 
be willing to accept of that bishopric, the king offered him to 
emich it with revenues to the amount of three hundred marks 
yearly, arising from the church of Bamborough, the church of 
Scai'borough, the chapeby of Tickhill, and two of the king's 
manors near Carlisle. 

In the same year, Philip, king of the Franks, gave to Bela, 



56 ANNAXS or EOGER DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1186. 

king of Hungary, his sister Margaret in marriage, who had 
been the wife of Henry, the son of the king of England. In 
the same year, Geoffrey, earl of Brittany, son of Henry, king of 
England, died at Paris from bruises which he had received 
from the hoofs of horses at a tournament, and was buried in 
the cathedral church of that city. In this year also some of 
the Irish cut off the head of Hugh de Lacy in Ireland. In 
the same year, our lord the king of England gave Ermengard, 
his kinswoman, daughter of Eichard, viscount de Beaumont, in 
marriage to William, king of Scotland ; and caused them to 
be married in his chapel at Woodstock by Baldwin, archbishop 
of Canterbury, where he held in their honor great nuptial 
festivities at his palace for a period of four days. Our lord the 
king also there presented the king of Scotland with the castle 
of Edinburgh ; which the said king immediately gave to the 
before-named Ermengard his wife as a marriage portion, and 
by way of increasing the same he gave her one hundred pounds 
of yearly revenue, and forty knights^ fees. 

In the same year, while the king of England was staying at 
Carlisle, Robert Buteville, dean of the church of York, de- 
parted this life, and was succeeded in the deanery by Hubert 
Eitz -Walter, clerk to Eanulph de Glanville, at the king^s 
presentation. In the same year, our lord the king of Eng- 
land gave to William de I^orthale the bishopric of Worcester, 
and to John, subdean of Salisbury, the bishopric of Exeter ; 
who were accordingly consecrated by Baldwin, the archbishop 
of Canterbury. 

In the same year, after pope Urban, upon the complaint ot 
John, the bishop of Dunkeld, had heard the dispute that existed 
between him and Hugh, the bishop of Saint Andrew's, he wrote 
to the king of Scotland to the following effect : — 

The Letter of pope Urban to TFilh'am, Icing of Scotland, 

*' Urban, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to 
William, the illustrious king of the Scots, health and the 
Apostolic benediction. Inasmuch as, by the duties enjoined 
upon us by God in virtue of our office, we are bound to give 
our earnest attention to all the churches, both those near to 
us, as also those at a great distance, and, if we know of any un- 
reasonable attempts made by them or by their ministers, to 
recall them to a more suitable line of conduct, the princes of 



A.O. 118G. LETTEE OF POPE UEBAN. 57 

this world ought not to feel themselves aggrieved in consequence 
thereof, if sometimes we think proper to extend our hands for the 
correction of those things which they have done amiss ; inasmuch 
as they themselves also, in conformity with the power that has 
heen entrusted to t};em, ought to aid us herein, and, when it 
is necessary and the obstinacy of any stands in need thereof 
stoutly to resist the contumacy prompted by a spirit of wicked- 
ness. Your royal excellency is not unaware what a grie- 
vous dissension has arisen between our venerable brethren, 
John, bishop of Dunkeld, and Hugh, bishop of Saint Andrew's ; 
and although either party has undergone great labours, and 
submitted to great expenses, and, in the time of pope Lucius 
of blessed memory, our predecessor, held a long discussion 
thereon at the Apostolic See, they still were unable to bring 
the matter in dispute to a conclusion. And whereas lately 
the said bishops came to our presence, and discussed the said 
matters at length, in our hearing, upon which, by the advice ol 
our brethren, we gave to the before-named bishop of Dunkeld 
power to act in the bishopric of Saint Andrew^ s, in opposition 
to the said bishop Hugh, and the said bishop of Saint .Andrew's 
was sufficiently instructed in our presence, to return to his own 
place within a period named, upon the understanding that 
if he should not do so within the said time, our venerable 
brother Jocelyn, bishop of Glasgow, and our dearly beloved 
sons, the abbats of Mebose, IS'ewbottle, and Dunfermline, 
should from thenceforth suspend him from the episcopal 
duties, and if he should after that prove contumacious, should 
place him under the ban of excommunication, and not revoke 
their sentence until such time as he should have come into our 
presence. Por it is our wish, that this matter should no longer 
remain in a state of suspense, in order that thereby the said church 
of Saint Andrew's may incur no grave detriment to its interests, 
but rather that, the truth being known, vdth the aid of the Lord, 
by our means it may be brought to a suitable conclusion. We 
have also ordered the before-named bishop of Glasgow and his 
colleagues, relying upon our authority, to extend their protection 
to our dearly-beloved sons, Aiulph, dean of Lothian, Odo, the 
seneschal, Roger de Feric, and other clerks, Mends of the be- 
forenamed bishop of Dunkeld, from all molestation whatsoever, 
and not to allow their possessions or other goods, or the reve- 



58 ANXALS OF EOGEK DE HOYEDEN. a.D. 1186. 

niies of the said bishop to be seized upon by any person. 
And if any one shall presume to disregard this prohibition 
hereon, they are, by means of canonical censure, to restrain them 
in such course, no appeal to the contrary withstanding. To 
the end, therefore, that what we have ordered may without any 
difficulty whatever be complied with, we do advise your royal 
excellency, and exhort you in the Lord, and, for the remission of 
your sins, enjoin you, out of your love of justice, and your 
reverence for Saint Peter and for ourselves, to allow pro- 
ceedings to be taken in this matter in conformity with the 
tenor of our mandates, and with your royal protection to de- 
fend the before-named dean and seneschal, and Eobert de 
Fedic, and the rest of the kinsmen and friends of the before- 
named bishop of Dunkeld, as also the bishopric, and the rest 
of his revenues, and neither in any way to aggrieve them nor 
suffer them to be aggrieved by others ; that so this dispute may 
without any hindrance be brought to a conclusion, and your 
royal mightiness may for this work of justice gain a never- 
failing reward from God, and a good name among men. You 
are to know also, that we have enjoined the before-named 
bishops, in virtue of their obedience to us, not to receive any- 
thing from the churches or clergy subject to them in re- 
spect of the expenses which, in the transaction of the matters 
before-named, they are liable to incur, but to make it their 
care to supply the necessary expenses from their own re- 
venues alone. For we are unwilling that by their deeds the 
churches, or any persons in your kingdom, should incur any 
detriment whatever. We also wish it not to escape your 
royal excellency, that the before-named bishop of Dunkeld 
has so honorably conducted his cause, and has paid such 
deference to your kingly dignity, that he has made no propo- 
sition whatever, which might by any possibility redound to the 
derogation of your royal name, or, by reason of which, your 
serene highness ought to feel angered against him. Where- 
fore, if anything to the contrary shall be suggested to your 
highness by his opponents, you must not lend your royal ear to 
the words of such persons. Given at Verona, on the second 
day before the calends of August.'* 



A. D. 1186. LETTEK OF POPE UEBAN. 59 



Hie Letter of tlie same Pope to JohUy lisJiop of Glasgow, and the 
ahhats, his colleagues, on the same subject. 

^^TJrban, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to his 
venerable brother, Jocelyn, bishop of Glasgow, and his dearly- 
beloved sons, the abbats of Melrose, I^ew bottle, and Dunferm- 
line, health and the Apostolic benediction. Inasmuch as, by 
the duties enjoined upon us by God in virtue of our office, we 
are bound to give our earnest attention to all the churches, 
both those near to us as also those at a great distance, and if 
we know of any unreasonable attempts made by them, or by 
their ministers, to recall them to a more suitable line of con- 
duct ; the princes of this world ought not to feel angered in 
consequence thereof. Your discreetness is not unaware what a 
grievous dissension has arisen between our venerable brethren, 
John, bishop of Dunkeld, and Hugh, bishop of Saint Andrew^ s; 
and although either party has undergone great labours and 
submitted to great expenses, and, in the time of pope Lucius, 
of blessed memory, our predecessor, held a long discussion 
thereon at the Apostolic See, they still were unable to bring 
the matter in dispute to a conclusion. And whereas lately 
the said bishops came to our presence and discussed the srid 
matters at length in our hearing, upon which, by the advice of 
our brethren, we gave to the before-named bishop of Dunkeld 
power to act in the bishopric of Saint Andrew's, in oppo- 
sition to the said bishop Hugh, and the said bishop of Saint 
Andrew's was sufficiently instructed in our presence to re- 
turn to his own place within a period named. And to the end 
that our most dearly beloved son in Christ, the illustrious king 
of the Scots, may not by his power impede the prosecution of 
this business, we have warned him by our letters that he is to 
allow proceedings to be taken in this business according to the 
tenor of our mandate, and to defend with his royal protection 
our dearly beloved sons, Aiulph, dean of Lothian, Odo, the sene- 
schal, and Eobert de Fedic, and the other kinsmen of the above- 
named bishop of Dunkeld, and neither to aggrieve them, in any 
way himself, nor suffer them to be aggrieved by others. 
To the end, therefore, that the business before-named may no 
longer remain in suspense, and the church of Saint Andrew's 



60 ANXALS OF ROGEB DE HOYEDEX. A.D. 1186. 

thereby incur detriment to its own interests, we do, by these 
Apostolic writings, enjoin your discreetness, and do, in yirtue 
of your obedience, order you, reducing to writing whatever 
you shall know of yourselves or through other persons on the 
subject of this business, to make it your care to inform us of the 
same, sending it to us under the protection of your seals, in 
order that we, being instructed by your intimations thereon, 
using the advice of our brethren, may proceed in the business 
in such manner as it is our duty to do. And if any per- 
sons shall with rash daring lay hands upon the before-named 
dean, Odo, the seneschal, Robert de Fedic, or any other friends 
of the bishop of Dunkeld, and their possessions or other pro- 
perty, or the bishopric and other revenues of the said bishop, 
then, fully relying on our authorization, you are, by canonical 
censure, to restrain them, without any obstacle thereto by way 
of appeal. Also, you will, on our behalf, forbid the said 
bishops, as we have also done orally, to receive anything what- 
ever from the churches or clergy subject to them, in respect of 
the expenses which they are liable to incur in the prosecution 
of the before-named business ; as they are to supply the ne- 
cessary expenses from their own revenues alone. For we are 
unwilling that, by their deeds, they should cause detriment to 
the Church, or to any other person of your kingdom. \Miere- 
fore, by our authorization, you are strictly to warn the before- 
named bishop of Saint Andrew's, that, having received suffi- 
cient notice, he is to repair to our presence, within a time 
appointed by us for both parties. Aiid if he shall not come, 
then you are, all appeal set aside, immediately to suspend him 
jfrom his episcopal duties. And if even then he shall not 
show obedience thereto, you are to place him under the ban of ex- 
communication, and not to relax your sentence, until such time 
as he shall have presented himself before us. Also, you are to 
intimate to his royal excellency that the before-named bishop 
of Dunkeld has so honorably conducted his cause, and has paid 
such deference to his kingly dignity, that he has made no pro- 
position whatever which may by any possibility redound to 
the derogation of his royal name, or by reason of which he 
ought to feel angered against him. Wherefore, make it your 
care, by unceasing exhortations, to persuade him, that if any 
thing should be suggested by his opponents to the contrary, 



A.D. 1186. HOSTILITIES OF THE KINGS OF ENGLAND AND FHANCE. 61 

he is not to lend his royal ear to their words. Given at Verona, 
on the second day before the calends of August." 

On the authority therefore of this letter, Jocelyn, bishop of 
Glasgow, and his colleagues, when the time drew nigh which 
had been appointed by the Supreme Pontiff for the hearing 
of the before-named bishops of Dunkeld and Saint Andrew^s, 
summoned the before-named bishops a first, second, and third 
time to set out upon their journey : on which the bishop of 
Dunkeld came, but the bishop of Saint Andrew's, staying 
beyond the time, delayed coming, whereupon the above-named 
iudges delegate suspended him from the episcopal duties, and 
then, in consequence of his contumacy, according to the tenor 
3f the Apostolic mandate, excommunicated him. 

In the same year, Philip, king of France, demanded ©f 
Henry, king of England, the charge of the daughter of Geof6:eyjs 
3arl of Brittany, whom at his death he left his heir ; a thing 
which the king of England would on no account comply with, 
but sent to him Walter, archbishop of Rouen, William de Mau- 
de ville, earl of Aumarle, and Eanulph de Glanville, the justi- 
ciary of England, at whose instance the king of Prance made a 
truce, and promised to keep the peace until the feast of Saint 
Hilary then next ensuing. In the same year, Richard de Yals, a 
knight of the king of Prance, fortified a castle in his vill of Yals^ 
between Gisors and Trie ; on seeing which, Henry de Yere, con- 
stable of Gisors, under the before-named William, earl of Aumarle, 
took it amiss, and, wishing to impede the work if he possibly 
could, came thither with his people ; on which the men of the 
before-named Richard de Yals went out to meet him, and an 
engagement taking place, Rader, the son of Richard de Yals, was 
slain, and after many men of the said Richard had been wounded, 
they took to flight. The said Henry de Yere, however, not daring 
to return to Gisors, went to Richard, earl of Poitou. On this 
becoming known to the king of Prance, he ordered that aU 
who belonged to the territories of the king of England, both 
clergy and laymen, who should be found in his dominions, 
should be taken in custody, together with all their chattels. 
On the other hand, the bailiffs of the king of England, in the 
parts beyond sea, did the like as to the subjects of the king of 
Prance and their chattels, which were found in their respective 
bailiwicks. But shortly after, at the suggestion of his fol- 
lowers, the king- of Prance gave orders that the subjects of 



62 AKNALS OF BOGEK DE HOVEDEX. A.D. 1186. 

the king of England should be liberated, and that their chattels 
should be restored to them ; on which the bailiffs of the king of 
England did the same as to the subjects of the king of France 
and their chattels. 

In the same year, Constance, the countess of Brittany, 
daughter of earl Conan, whom Geoffrey, earl of Brittany, her 
husband, had left pregnant at the time of his decease, was 
delivered of her eldest son on the holy night of Easter, and 
his name was called Arthur. In the same year, Bald^vdn, the 
boy-king of Jerusalem, son of "VYilKam le Marchis, departed 
this life, and was succeeded in the kingdom by his mother 
Sibylla, by hereditary right ; but before she was crowned, a 
divorce was effected between her and Guido de Lusignan, her 
husband, by the Patriarch Heraclius and the Templars and 
Hospitallers, who wished her to marry Walran, earl of Tripolis, 
or some nobleman of the principal people of the land of Jeru- 
salem ; she, however, by a wonderfal piece of cunning, deceived 
them, saying : ^* If a divorce takes place between me and my 
husband, I wish you to make me sure, by your promises and 
oaths, that whomsoever I shall make choice of you will choose 
for your head and lord.*' 

Accordingly, after they had so done, they led her into the 
Temple, and the before-named Patriarch crowned her ; shortly 
after which, when all were offering up their prayers that God 
the Lord Almighty would provide a fitting king for that land, 
the before-named queen took the royal crown in her hands, 
and placed it on the head of Guido de Lusignan her husband, 
saying, '* I make choice of thee as king, and as my lord, and 
as lord of the land of Jerusalem, for those whom God hath 
joined together, let not man put asunder." 

At these words all stood in amazement, but on account of 
the oath which they had made, no one dared oppose her, 
and the Patriarch, approaching, anointed him king; and then. 
Divine service having been celebrated, the Templars escorted 
the king and queen to their abode, and provided for them a 
sumptuous entertainment. The earl of Tripolis, however, vexed 
and sorrowful that the queen had rejected him, went to Saladin, 
king of Babylon, and, entering into an alliance with him, 
devised many evils for the destruction of the king and queen. 
Saladin, however, requested that the truce before-mentioned, 
which he had made until the ensuing Easter, should be pro- 



A.D. 1187. PEACE IS MADE BETWEEN PHILIP AND HENEY. 63 

longed for the three years next ensuing ; to which proposition 
king Guido, by the advice of tho Templars, assented, although 
it was evident to him that there would shortly come a vast 
number of pilgrims, both from England and other kingdoms, 
in consequence of the preaching of the Patriarch. Accordingly, 
after Easter, there came to Jerusalem an immense multitude 
of men-at-arms and other pilgrims ; but as the truce had been 
prolonged, very few of them chose to remain. However, Roger 
de Mowbray and Hugh de Eeauchamp remained there in the 
service of God. 

In the year of grace 1187, being the thirty-third year of the 
reign of king Henry, son of the empress Matilda, that king 
was at Guillbrd, in England, on the day of the IS'ativity of 
our Lord. In the same year, after the IN'ativity of our Lord, 
pope Urban sent to England Octavianus, a cardinal- subdeacon 
of the Holy Church of Rome, and with him Hugh de ^N'lmant, 
to whom he gave the legateship to Ireland, for the purpose of 
there crowning John, the king's son ; but our lord the king put 
off that coronation, and took the before-named legates with him 
to Normandy, to a conference to be held between himself and 
Philip, king of Erance. Accordingly, the king of England 
crossed over and landed at Witsand, in Elanders, and with him 
the legates before-named, and shortly after, a conference was 
held between him and the king of Erance at Ye Saint Remy, 
but they could come to no agreement, in consequence of the ex- 
orbitant demands made by the king of Erance, and parted 
without any hopes of peace and reconciliation. 

In the same year, after Pentecost, Philip, king of Erance, 
levjing a large army, besieged Richard and John, the sons of 
the king of England, in Chateau Raoul ; hearing of which, the 
king of England came thither with a great army to succour 
his sons so besieged. On this, the king of Erance met him 
with his army, and drew up his troops in battle array ; but, by 
the mercy of God and the injunction of Urban the Supreme Pon- 
tiff, and by the advice of the archbishops, bishops, and other 
influential men of both kingdoms, they agreed to a truce for 
two years, and that the king of Erance should hold Yssoudon 
and tlrse de Eretteval till the end of the truce ; and upon these 
terms they desisted from hostilities and returned home. 

Alter peace was thus made, Richard, earl of Poitou, remained 
with the king of Erance, tliough much against the will of 



64 ANNALS OF EOGEH DE HOTEDEN. A.D. 1187. 

his father, and the king of France held him in such high 
esteem, that every day they ate at the same table and from 
the same dish, and at night had not separate chambers. In 
consequence of this strong attachment which seemed to have 
arisen between them, the king of England was stnick with 
great astonishment, and wondered what it could mean, and, 
taking precautions for the future, frequently sent messengers 
into France for the purpose of recalling his son Richard ; who, 
pretending that he was peaceably inclined and ready to come 
to his father, made his way to Chinon, and, in spite of the 
person who had the custody thereof, carried off the greater 
part of his father's treasures, and fortified his castles in Poitou 
with the same, refusing to go to his father. 

This is supposed to have taken place through the Providence 
of God, in order that his father might not be deceived by the 
pretended affection of his son, nor be ia too great haste tc 
promote him to the helm of state, in the same way that he 
had promoted the other one,^^' who, as already mentioned, had 
caused him endless troubles by his unrighteous and vexatious 
conduct. At length, however, through the mercy of God, it 
came to pass that Eichard, earl of Poitou, neglecting the counsels 
of the wicked, returned to his father, and once more did homage 
to him in presence of a great number of people, both clergy 
and laity, and swore fealty to him upon the Holy Evangelists 
against all men, and promised that he would not forsake his 
counsels. These matters being concluded, the king of England 
set out for Brittany, and took the castle of Montrelais by siege, 
of which Hervey de Lyons and his brother Guimar had taken 
possession after the death of Geoffrey, earl of Brittany. 

In the same year, Donald, the son of "William, son of Dune- 1 
can, an enemy of William, king of Scotland, and whom the| 
Scotch called Mac William, was slain in Moray. In the same 
year, Isabella, the queen of France, and daughter of the earl of 
Hainault, was delivered of her fijst-born son on the third day 
before the nones of September, being the fifth day of the 
week, who was named Louis. In the same year, Saladin, 
king of Babylon, with an immense multitude of his Turks, 
on pretext of the disunion which existed between the king 
and the earl of Tripolis, entered the land of Jerusalem ; on 
which the brethren of the Temple and of the Hospital weiii( 

^ His eldest son, Ilenn\ 



A.D. 1187. DEFEAT OF THE CHEISTIANS. 65 

forth against him with a great multitude of people, and on an 
engagement taking place between them, the army of the Pagans 
prevailed against the Christians, on which the latter betook 
themselves to flight, and many of them were slain and many 
taken prisoners. On the same day also, being the calends of 
May, sixty brethren of the Temple, and the Grand Master of 
the Hospital, together with sixty brethren of his house, were 
slain. 

Saladin, on gaining this great victory, attacked and took a 
considerable number of the castles, cities, and fortresses of the 
Christians ; after which, returning to his own country, he 
levied a great army, and, by the advice, it is said, of the earl 
of Tripolis, who was an enemy to the king, entered the ter- 
ritory of Jerusalem, on the Friday after the feast of the Apostles 
Saint Peter and Saint Paul, with eight hundred thousand men 
or more ; on which ho took Tiberias, with the exception of 
the keep of the castle, to which place the lady of the castle 
had retreated, together with a few knights. On king Guido 
being informed of this, by the advice of the earl of Tripolis, 
who had lately, with fraudulent intent, entered into a treaty 
of peace, the king proceeded one day's march towards Tiberias, 
when the earl of Tripolis, who was the leader and guide in 
the march, halted the whole army on an elevated and craggy 
spot. Being there threatened with an attack of the enemy on 
every side, the king, urged by necessity, and compelled by the 
advice of his barons, thought proper to engage, and, at their 
entreaty, gave the honor of striking the first blow to the Master 
and knights of the Temple. 

Upon this, the brotherhood of the Temple, rushing upon 
the foe with the bravery of lions, put some to the sword, and 
forced others to take to flight. The rest, however, neglecting 
the king's commands, did not join the battle, or give them 
any succour whatever ; in consequence of which, the knights 
of the Temple were hemmed in and slaughtered. After this, 
the troops of Saladin surrounded the army of the Christians, 
worn out with the fatigues of the march, exhausted by the 
intense heat of the climate, and utterly destitute of water, and, 
in a great measure, of food as well. At this conjunction, six 
of the king's knights, namely, Baldwin de Fortune, Eaymond 
Buck, and Laodicius de Tiberias, with three companions, being 
seized with a diabolical spirit, fled to Saladin, and spontaneously 
became Saracens, informing him of eyery particular as to thq 

YOL. II. F 



66 ANNALS OF ROGER BE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1187. 

present state, intentions, and resources of the Christians. On 
this, Saladin, who before was in anxious doubt as to the result 
of the warfare, took courage, and with trumpets sounding, 
made an attack with an inhnite multitude of warriors on the 
Christians, who, in consequence of the rocky and inaccessible 
nature of the spot, were unable to fight ; and so, assailing them 
with every possible method of attack, he utterly routed the 
Christians. At last, Thekedin, the nephew of Saladin, took 
Guido, king of Jerusalem, while flying, and the wood of the 
Gross of our Lord, after slaving Eufinus, bishop of Acre, who 
was cari-^-ing it. And this was done through the righteous 
judgment of God ; for, contrary to the usage of his predeces- 
sors, haying greater faith in worldly arms than in heavenly 
ones, he went forth to battle equipped in a coat of mail, and 
shortly after he perished, being pierced by an arrow. IS^early 
all the others, being utterly routed, were taken prisoners and 
either slain or loaded with chains, the Persians, oh, great dis- 
grace I remaining masters of the camp. 

The earl of Tripolis alone, who was the designer of this 
treachery, escaped ^dth his men unhurt. Immediately after 
the battle, Sidadin ordered the knights of the Temple and of 
the Hospital to be separated from the rest, and to be decapi- 
tated in his presence, he himself with his own hand slaying 
"Raymond de Castiglione, their chief. After this he took the 
city of Acre and the places adjacent, with nearly all the forti- 
fied spots in those parts. 

In the meantime, Conrad le Marchis, brother of the above- 
mentioned William, earl of Joppa, having been guilty of mur- 
der in the city of Constantinople, took to flight, deserting his 
wife, the niece of Isaac, emperor of Constantinople ; and on i 
the very same day on which Saladin gained this victory over| 
the Christians, Conrad came to Tyre and found it deserted, 
for nearly all the citizens of the place were slain in the before- 1 
mentioned battle. On Saladin coming thither, expecting to have 
free ingress, Conrad ofl'ered a stout resistance, and refused him 
permission to enter ; on which, Saladin, seeing that he could| 
effect nothing by staying there, took his departure, and cap- 
tured the city of BejTout, and both the cities which ai'e called 
Gibelet, with Sidon, and the city of Caesarea, as also Joppa, 
Saint George, Saint Abraham, Eethlehem, the New Castle of 
Caiaphas, Saphet, Jaunay, Mount Tabor, Faba, and Cafl'ar- 
mundel, the Cave of the Temple, Calenzun, Marie of the 



A. D. 1187. DEATH OF POPE URBAN. 67 

Temple, the Castle on the Plain, Eamah, Bethurun of the 
Knights, Castle Amald, Castle Eourgoing, Tarentum, Blanche- 
warde, Galatia, Gasseres, Darun,^^ Eouge Cisteme, the Castle 
of Saint Peter, Saint Lazarus of Bethany, Saint Mary of Mount 
Sion, and the City of Jerusalem. 

On this, the queen, the wife of Guide, betook herself, with 
her two daughters and her household, to the city of Ascalon, 
and fortified it with provisions and soldiers ; these, however,, 
in the second year after, she surrendered to Saladin for the 
ransom of her husband Guide, and thus liberated him. from 
the custody of Saladin. All those, however, who had fled to 
Acre, and a multitude of Christians who had taken to flight, 
betook themselves to Tyre, and made Conrad their ruler and 
protector ; Antioch also, and Margat, with nearly all the lands of 
the prince thereof, stoutly fortified themselves against Saladin., 

While the earl of Tripolis was endeavouring to wean his 
nation from the worship of God, and to betray his country to 
Saladin, he was found dead in his bed just as though fast asleep ; 
on which his wife, with all her people, surrendered herself 
and the city of Tripolis to Raymond, prince of Antioch, and 
he appointed his son Jocelyn lord thereof. 

JN^ow when pope Urban heard that in his time the king af 
Jerusalem had been taken prisoner, as also the Cross of our Lord^ 
and the Holy City of Jerusalem, he was greatly afflicted, and 
fell ill, and died on the thirteenth day before the calends of 
November, at Perrara ; being succeeded in the papacy by Albert 
his chancellor, who w^as called pope Gregory the Eighth. On 
this, the cardinals, with the sanction of our lord the pope, 
strictly pledged themselves to each other, disregarding all 
wealth and luxuries, to preach the cross of Christ, and that 
not in word only but by deed and example, and to be the first, 
assuming the cross, to go begging for succours, and to precede 
the rest to the land of Jerusalem. They also, with the con- 
sent of our lord the pope, established a most strict truce between 
all the princes of Christendom, to last for a period of seven 
years ; on the understanding that whoever in the meantime 
should commence war against a Christian, should be subject 
to the curse of God, and of our lord the pope, and the excom- 
munication of all the prelates of the Universal Church. They 
also solemnly promised each other, that from thenceforth they 
would receive presents from no one who had a cause to try 
^^ A great portion of these names are most probablv incorrect. 

r 2 



68 AXXALS OF EOGEE DE HOTEDEN. A.D. 1187. 

in the court, but would only receive as much as should be given, 
or sent to supply their necessities and for their sustenance ; 
as also that they would not mount a horse so long as the land 
on which the feet of the Lord had stood should remain under 
the feet of the enemy. 

It is also worthv of observation, and to be ascribed to the 
Divine Providence, that at the time when the city of Jerusalem 
and Antioch had been rescued from the poAver of the Pagans, 
on the expedition headed by Audemar, bishop of Puy, and many 
other bishops and religious men, as also Hugh, brother of Philip, 
king of France, Godfrey, duke of Lorraine, Stephen, count of 
Chartres, Pwobert, duke of !N'ormandy, brother of William the 
Second, the king of England, then reigning, (which Eobert 
conquered in battle, Colbrand, the chief of the knighthood of 
the Pagans), Eobert, earl of Planders, Eustace, earl of Bou- 
logne, and Baldwin, the two brothers of duke Godfrey, Eay- 
mond, earl of Saint Gilles, Boamund, son of Eobert Guiscard, 
and many other noblemen, the pope who was then living was 
named Urban, the Patriarch of Jerusalem was called Heraclius, 
and the emperor of Eome was called Frederic ; and so now, 
when the land of Jerusalem was taken from the hands of the 
Christians by the people of Saladin, the pope was called Urban, 
the patriarch of Jerusalem Heraclius, and the Eoman emperor 
Frederic. It also deserves to be known, that between the time 
when Jerusalem was rescued from the hands of the Pagans by 
the warriors before-named, and the time when king Guido was 
deprived of it, a space of eighty-seven years intervened. 

Tlie Letter of Terricius, Master of the Temple , on the capture o^ 

the land of Jerusalem, 

'' The brother Terricius, so called Grand Master of the mos 
impoverished house of the Temple, and of all the brethren him 
self the most impoverished, and that brotherhood all but anni 
hilated, to all commanders and brethren of the Temple to who 
these presents shall come, greeting, and may they lift up thei 
sighs to Him at whom the sun and moon are astounded. With 
how many and how great calamities, our sins so requiring it 
the anger of God has lately permitted us to be scourged, we an 
unable, sad fate ! either in writing or in the language of tear^ 
to express.. For the Turks, assembling together an immense 
multitude of their nations, began with bitter hostility to invad( 
the territories of us Christians ; and accordingly, uniting thf 



A.D. 11S7. LETTER OF THE GRAND MASTER TERRICIUS. 69 

forces of our nation against them, we ventured, before the oc- 
tave of the Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul, to attack 
them ; and for that purpose ventured to direct our march to- 
wards Tiberias, which, leaving their camp unprotected, they 
had taken by storm. After repulsing us among some most 
dangerous rocks, they attacked us with such vehemence, that 
after they had captured the Holy Cross and our king, and 
a whole multitude of us had been slain, and after two hundred 
and thirty of our brethren, as we verily believe, had been 
taken by them and beheaded, (besides those sixty who had 
been slain on the first of May), with great difficulty, the lord 
the earl of Tripolis, the lord Reginald of Sidon, the lord Bal- 
lovius, and ourselves, were enabled to make our escape from 
that dreadfal field. After this, the Pagans, revelling in the 
blood of us Christians, did not delay to press on with all their 
hosts towards the city of Tyre ; and, taking it by storm, spread 
themselves over nearly the whole of the land, Jerusalem, Tyre, 
Ascalon, and Berytus being alone now left to us and to Chris- 
tendom. These cities also, as nearly all the citizens have been 
slain, we shall not be at all able to retain in our hands, unless 
we speedily receive the Divine assistance, and aid from your- 
selves. Por at the present moment they are besieging Tyre with 
all their might, and cease not to assault it either night or day, 
while so vast are their numbers, that they have covered the whole 
face of the land from Tyre, as far as Jerusalem and Gaza, just 
like swarms of ants. Deign, therefore, with all possible speed, 
to bring succour to ourselves and to Christianity, all but ruined 
in the East, that so through the aid of God and the exalted 
mel'lts of your brotherhood, supported by your assistance, we 
may be enabled to save the remainder of those cities. Farewell." 

In the same battle in which Guide, king of Jerusalem, was 
made prisoner, Roger de Mowbray was also taken ; whom in 
the following year the brethren of the Hospital and the Temple 
ransomed from the hands of the Pagans ; shortly after which he 
died. In the same battle also, Hugh de Beauchamp was slain. 

In the same year, the king of England gave Constance, 
countess of Brittany, the mother of Arthur, in marriage to 
Ranulph, earl of Chester. In this year also, Baldwin, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, erected new buildings and a church^'* 
near the walls of the city of Canterbury, and assigned thereto 
prebends in the churches of the monks at Canterbury ; but 
*^* Akington, or Hackington, in the suburbs of Canterbury. 



70 ANNALS OF EOGEK DE HOTEDEN. A.D. 1187. 

the said monks complaining in consequence thereof, pope Urban 
forbade that this should be done, and thus the persons who 
had built the place expended their labour in vain. However, 
the said archbishop transferred this building to Lamhe,^^^ which 
is on the other side of the Thames, opposite to Westminster. 
In the same year, Richard, earl of Poitou, assumed the cross 
of the pilgrimage to Jerusalem. 

The Letter of pope Gregory tlie Mghth to all the faithful in 

Christ. 

'^ Gregory'', the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to all 
the faithful in Christ, to whom these presents shall come, 
health and the Apostolic benediction. On hearing of the 
severity of the tremendous judgment which the hand of God 
has inflicted upon the land of Jerusalem, both we and our 
brethren have been put to confusion with terror so extreme, and 
afflicted with sorrows so great, that it did not readily suggest itself 
to us what we were to do, or what indeed we ought to do. We 
only called to mind the words of the Psalmist, where he laments 
and says, ^^ ' God, the heathen are come into thine inheritance : 
thy holy temple have they defiled, they have laid Jerusalem 
in heaps. ^® The dead bodies of thy servants have they given 
to be meat unto the fowls of the heaven, the flesh of thy saints 
unto the beasts of the earth.' For, taking advantage of the 
dissensions, which, through the wickedness of men, at the sug- 
gestion of the Devil, had arisen throughout the earth, Saladin 
came with a multitude of troops to those parts, and, being met 
by the king, the bishops. Templars, Hospitallers, earls, and 
barons, with the people of the land, together with the Closs 
of our Lord (through which, by the remembrance of Christ 
and faith in Him who hung therefrom and redeemed man- 
kind, there used formerly to be assured protection, and a de- 
fence now vainly regretted against the assaults of the Pagans) 
part of our people were there slain, the Cross of our Lord 
was captured, the bishops slaughtered, the king made prisoner, 
and nearly all either slaughtered with the sword or taken by 
the hands of the enemy, so much so, that it is said that but very 
few escaped. The Templars also, and Hospitallers, were be- 
headed in his presence. How, after they had vanquished our 
army, they subsequently attacked and gained possession of all 

^* Lambeth. ^ Psalm Ixxix. 1,2. ^^ These words in our 

version appear in the text as *' in pomorum custodiam." 



A,D. 1187. LETTER OF POPE GEEGORY. 71 

quarters, so that only a few places are said to be remaining 
which have not fallen into their hands, we do not think requires 
to be set forth in our letters. However, although we may 
now say with the Prophet, ^ Oh that my head were waters, and 
mine eyes a fountain of tears, that I might weep night and 
day for the slain of my people ;'^^ still, we ought not to be so ut- 
terly cast down as to tall into distrustfulness, and to believe that 
God is so angered with His people, that what in His wrath He 
has allowed to be done through the multitude of our sins in 
common, He will not speedily, when appeased by our repent- 
ance, in His compassion alleviate, and will, after our tears and 
lamentation, cause gladness and rejoicing. Whatever person 
then, amid such vast grounds for lamentation, does not, if not in 
body, still in heart, condole with us, is not only forgetful of 
the Christian faith, which teaches us to grieve with all who 
grieve, but even of his own self and of our common humanity, 
as every person of ordinary discretion is able well to esti- 
mate both the very magnitude of the danger, the fierceness of 
the barbarians who thirst for Christian blood, and exert the 
whole of their might in profaning the holy places, and using 
their endeavours to sweep away the name of God from off the 
earth, points on which we will not enlarge. And whereas 
the Prophets first laboured with all their zeal, and after them 
the Apostles and their followers, that the worship of God might 
exist in that land, and flow thence unto all regions of the 
world, aye, and even more than that, God (who was willing to 
become flesh, by whom all things were made, and who in his in- 
effable wisdom and his incomprehensible mercy was willing thus 
to work out OUT salvation, through the infirmity of the flesh, 
through hunger, fasting, thirst, the cross, and His death and 
resurrection, according to the words, * Of himself he wrought 
out our salvation in the midst of the earth :') also deigned here 
to xmdergo labours as well, neither tongue can tell, nor sense can 
imagine what grief it causes to us and to all Christian people 
to think what this land has now endured, and what under its 
former people it is read of as having suffered. Still, we ought 
not to believe that it is through the injustice of the judge who 
smites, but rather through the iniquity of the sinful people that 
these things have come to pass ; since we read that when the 
people turned unto the Lord, one thousand pursued, and twelve 
thousand fled; nay more, that, while the people slept, the army 

6" Jer. ix. 1. 



72 ANIMALS OF EOGER LE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1187. 

of Sennacherib was cut oiF by the hand of the angel of the Lord. 
Still, however, that land devoured its inhabitants, and was never 
able to remain in a state of quietude, or to retain its people, as 
being transgressors of the laws of God ; thus giving a lesson and 
an example to those who are aiming at gaining a heavenly Jeru- 
salem, that they cannot possibly attain the same but by the 
exercise of good works and through many temptations. These 
events, in fact, might have been already apprehended when 
Arroaise and other lands passed into the hands of the Pagans, 
and proper prudence woidd only have been used if the people 
who survived had returned to repentance, and by their con- 
version appeased God, whom by their transgressions they had 
offended. Kor yet did His wrath come suddenly upon them, 
but He delayed His vengeance and gave time for repentance. 
At last, however, He who loses not justice in mercy, has exer- 
cised His vengeance in the punishment of the transgressors, and 
in thus giving a warning to those who wished to be saved. 
[Moreover, we, who amid such great sorrow for that land, ought 
to give our attention not only to the sins of the inhabitants 
thereof, but also to our own and to those of the whole people, and 
to be in dread lest what still remains to us of that land may be 
lost, and their might may rage to the detriment of other nations 
as well, as we hear in all parts of dissensions and offences be- 
tween kings and princes, cities and cities, may well mourn 
vdth the Prophet and say : ' There is no truth nor know- 
ledge of God in the land. Ey l}^ng, and killing, and 

committing adultery, they break out, and blood toucheth 
blood.' ^^ Wherefore this is imperative upon all, and is to be 
thought upon and to be done ; making atonement for our 
sins by a voluntary chastisement, we ought, through repent- 
ance and works of piety, to turn to the Lord our God, and first 
to amend in ourselves those matters in which we have done a j 
amiss, and then to stand prepared for the fierceness and malice i| 
of our enemies, and those attacks which they do not fear to?; 
make upon God, inasmuch as we ought on no account to 
hesitate to act in the cause of God. Think, therefore, my 
sons, how you have come into this world, and how you are to 
depart therefrom, how transitory are all things, and how tran- 
sitory are you yourselves as well ; and with thanksgiving receive, 
so far as in you lies, this opportunity for repenting and doing 
good, and both offer your possessions, and offer yourselves 

C8 Hos. iv. 1, 2. 



A.D. 1187. LETTER OF POPE GREGORY. 73 

as well, because you are not of yourselves, nor have you any- 
thing of vourselves, who are not able to make so much as a 
single fly upon the earth. And we do not say, '• leave behind 
you,' but rather * present beforehand' to the garner of heaven 
what you possess, and lay it up with Him, with whom * neither 
rust nor moth destroy, nor thieves break through and steal,' 
laboui'ing for the recovery of that land in which for our salva- 
tion the Truth of the earth was born, and did not disdain for 
us to bear the cross. And devote not your thoughts to lucre 
or to temporal glory, but to the will of God, who in His 
own case has taught you to lay down your lives for your bre- 
thren, and give unto Him your riches, which, whether wil- 
lingly or unwillingly, you know not to what heirs you are at 
last to leave. Por indeed it is no new thing that that land 
is chastised, nor in fact is it unusual that scourgings and chas- 
tisements should accompany mercifulness. God indeed by His 
will alone can save it ; but still, we have no right to ask him 
why He has acted thus : for perhaps He has wished to make trial, 
and to place this before the notice, of others, if any there are 
who are of good understanding or who seek for God, and who will 
with joy embrace the opportunity offered them for repentance, 
and, laying down their lives for their brethren, will compress 
and include the deeds of a long life in a small compass. Con- 
sider how the Maccabees, influenced with zeal for the Divine 
law, submitted to every extremity of peril for the purpose of 
liberating their brethren, and showed how that, for the safety 
of their brethren not only their substance but also their lives 
were to be laid down, exhorting one another, and saying, 

* Arm yourselves, and be valiant men For it is better to 

die in battle than to behold the calamities of our people and 
of our sanctuary. '^^ And yet these were under the control of 
the law only, whereas you, through the Incarnation of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, being led by the light of truth, and being in- 
structed by many examples of the Saints, ought to act without 
any hesitation, and not to fear to give your earthly things, few 
in number, and destined to last for a short time only ; you to 
whom those good things have been promised and reserved, which 

* Neither eye hath seen nor ear heard, neither have entered 
into the heart of man;''^ and as to which the Apostle says, 

* The sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be com- 
pared with the glory which shall be revealed in us.' '^ Where- 

«& 1 Mace. iii. 58, 59. ?o 1 Cor. ii. 9. ^^ Rosu. viii. 18. 



74 Al^NALS OF KOGEE DE HOTEDEN. A.D. 118/. 

fore, to those who with a contrite heart and humble spii'it 
shall undertake the labour of this expedition, and shall die in re- 
pentance for their sins and in the true faith, we do promise ple- 
nary indulgence for their offences, and eternal life. And whether 
they shall survive or whether die, they are to know that they 
will have, by the mercy of Almighty God and of the authority 
of the Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul, and of our- 
selves, remission of penance imposed for all sins of which they 
shall have made due confession. The property also of such 
persons, from the time that they shall have assumed the cross, 
together with their families, are to be under the protection of 
the Holy Church of Eome, and of the archbishops, bishops, 
and other prelates of the Chui'ch of God, and no person is to make 
any claim against the property of which, on assuming the cross, 
they were in quiet possession, until it is known for certain as to 
their return or death, but their property is to remain in the 
meantime untouched, and in their quiet possession ; they are 
also not to pay interest to any person, if they have so bound 
themselves ; nor yet are they to go in costly apparel, or with 
dogs or hawks, which seem rather to minister to ostentation 
and luxuiy than to our necessities ; but they ought to be seen 
with plain apparel and equipments, by which they may appear 
rather to be acting in penitence than affecting an empty pomp. 
Given at Ferrara, on the fourth day before the calends of No- 
vember, in the sixth year of the indiction.'' 

The Letter of pope Gregory the Eighth to all the faithful, upon 

the same subject. 

^* Gregory, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to all 
the faithful in Christ, to whom these presents shall come, 
health and the Apostolic benediction. Never is the wrath of 
the Supreme Judge more successfully appeased, than when, at 
His command, carnal desires are extinguished within us. 
Wherefore, inasmuch as we do not doubt that the disasters 
of the land of Jerusalem, which have lately happened through 
the irruption of the Saracens, have been expressly caused by 
the sins of the inhabitants of the land and of the whole people of 
Christendom, we, by the common consent of our brethren, and 
with the approval of many of the bishops, have enacted that 
all persons shall, for the next five years, on every sixth day 
of the week, at *the very least, fast upon Lenten fare, and that, 
wherever mass is performed, it shall be chaunted at the ninth 



A.D. 1187. EFFORTS FOE THE RESCUE OF JEEtrSALEM. 75 

hour : and this we order to be observed from the Advent of our 
Lord until the Nativity of our Lord. Also, on the fourth day 
of ^Jhe week, and on Saturdays, all persons without distinction, 
who are in good health are, to abstain from eating flesh. We 
and our brethren do also forbid to ourselves and to our house- 
holds the use of flesh on the second day of the week as well, 
unless it shall so happen that illness or some great calamity or 
other evident cause shall seem to prevent the same ; trusting 
that by so doing God will pardon us and leave His blessing 
behind Him.'^ This therefore we do enact to be observed, 
and whosoever shall be guilty of transgressing the same, is 
to be considered as a breaker of the fast in Lent. Given at 
Ferrara, on the fourth day before the calends of JN^ovember." 

Upon this, the princes of the earth, hearing the mandates 
and exhortations of the Supreme Pontiff, exerted themselves 
with all their might for the liberation of the land of Jerusalem ; 
and accordingly, Prederic, the emperor of the E^omans, and 
the archbishops, bishops, dukes, earls, and barons of his em- 
pire, assumed the sign of the cross. In like manner, after 
their example, great numbers of the chief men of all the 
nations of Christendom prepared to succour the land of Jeru- 
salem. 

There was a certain clerk named master Berther, a native of 
Orleans, who aroused the spirits of many to assume the cross 
by repeating the following lines :^^ ** In the strains of Jere- 
miah the ways of Sion mourn indeed, that no longer is there 
one upon the solemn day to visit the Holy Sepulchre, or to 
recall the fulfilment of that prophecy ; the prophecy in which 
the poet writes that from Sion the law shall go forth. Never 
shall the law perish there or have an avenger, ^^ where Christ 
drank of the cup of passion. The wood of the cross, the banner 

^ Sic in original. Probably the real presence in the Eucharist is re- 
ferred to. 

"^ This Leonine dirge begins as follows : — 

" Juxta threnos Jeremiae 
Vere Sion lugent viae ; 
Quod solemni non sit die 
Qui sepulchrum visitet, 
Vel oasuin resuscitet 
Hujus prophetiae." 
The enthusiasm of the composer seems to have considered a meaning 
as comparatively unnecessary in his lines. 

'* The meaning of these lines is involved in obscurity. 



76 ANNALS OF EOGER DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1187. 

of the chieftain, the army follows, which has never given way, 
but has gone before in the strength of the Holy Spirit. To bear 
the burden of T}Te it is now the duty of valiant men to try their 
strength, and daily to contend ; spontaneously to be graced 
with the glories of the warfare. Eut as to the persons who are 
about to engage in this conflict, there is need of hardy cham- 
pions, not effeminate epicures. For it is not those who pamper 
their flesh with many luxmies who purchase God with their 
prayers. The wood of the cross, &c. \^as before.y^ Fresh 
Philistines once more, the cross captured of Him who was con- 
demned, have taken the ark of God, the ark of the ^N'ew Tes- 
tament, the substance of the ancient t^'pe, in succession the 
type of the substance. But as it is clear that these are the 
forerunners of Antichrist, to whom Christ would have resist- 
ance made, what answer at the coming of Christ is he to 
make who shall not have resisted them ? The wood of the 
cross, &c. The despiser of the cross is trampling on the cross, 
whence overwhelmed the faith sends forth groans. A\lio for 
vengeance does not shout aloud ? At the same value which 
each man sets upon the faith let him ransom the cross, if by 
the cross any one has been ransomed. Those who have but 
little silver, if found to be faithful, with pure faith let them 
be content. Sufficient provision for the journey is the body 
of the Lord for him who defends the cross. The wood of the 
cross, &c. Christ, on delivering himself to the torturer, has made 
a loan to the sinner ; if then, sinner, thou wilt not die for Him 
who died for thee, thou dost but poorly pay the debt to thy 
Creator. AVell may he be indignant to whom thou dost refuse 
to bend, while, tortured in the wine-press of the cross as i 
victim for thee, to thee he extends his arms, and thou wilt not 
receive his embrace. The wood of the cross, &c. When thou 
hast listened to what is my request, take up thy cross and 
make thy vow and say, ^ To Him do I commend myself, whc 
gave His body and His life, as a victim to die for me.' The 
wood of the cross, &c.'' 

A Letter of the same pope to the prelates of churches. 

*' Gregory, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to al 

prelates of churches to whom these presents shall come, healtl 

and the Apostolic benediction. Inasmuch as it is especially thj 

duty of bishops to aid the afflicted and distressed, and God 

''^ This is the refrain of the composition. 



A.D. 1187. THE KING OF PORTUGAL EESISTS THE POPE^S LEGATE. 77 

albeit our merits are but deficient, has willed tliat we should be 
one of them, we are bound and are willing to use all due care, 
that no person through fortuitous circumstances, in conse- 
quence of a visit to the Church of Rome, should be deprived 
of the due results of the labour which he has expended in coming 
to us. Wherefore, it has come to pass, that we, wishing to 
have due regard for the expense which many have incurred, and 
to alleviate their labours, have, in conformity with the custom- 
ary clemency of the Apostolic See, thought fit to enact that 
the letters of our predecessor pope Urban, sent at any time pre- 
vious to three months before his decease, for the purpose of 
pronouncing judgment and putting an end to litigation, (sup- 
posing always that they do not contain anything to the mani- 
fest prejudice of any person, or any breach of equity), shall have 
the same effect in the time of our administration, which they 
would have had if he had been still living. Wherefore, waiving 
all exceptions as to the death of him who so directs, do what 
he has directed to be done, and let no one for an excuse of 
this sort, be compelled to have recourse to us in his disappoint- 
ment, after having placed fiill confidence in obtaining justice by 
these means. Given at Eerrara, on the sixth day before the 
calends of September." 

In the same year died pope Gregory the Eighth, in the 
month of December, after having held the papacy hardly two 
months, and was buried at Pisa. He was succeeded by Pau- 
linus, bishop of Palestrina, who was called pope Clement the 
Third. In the same year, nearly the whole of the city of Chi- 
chester was burnt, together with the cathedral of the see, and 
the houses of the bishop and canons. 

In the same year, Saladin laid siege to Jerusalem, and 
offered the people of that city a truce till the middle of the 
month of May, if they would permit him to plant his standard 
in the Tower of David, and remain there eight days. This 
being accordingly done, many of the Christians who had before 
stoutly resisted the Saracens, surrendered their castles and 
houses to Saladin. In the same year died Gilbert, bishop of 
London. 

In the same year, cardinal Jacinto, at this time legate of the 
whole of Spain, degraded many abbats, either because they de- 
served it, or prompted by his own determination. But on his 
attempting to degrade the bishop of Coimbra, Alphonso, king of 
Portugal, would not allow that bishop to be degraded, but im- 



78 ANNALS OF SOGER DE HOVEDEX. A.D. 1188. 

mediately ordered the before-named cardinal to leave his king- 
dom, or else he would cut off his foot. On hearing this, the 
legate departed on his return to Eome, and the bishop of Coim- 
bra remained in peace in his see. 

It is also worthy to be known, that the before-named Al- 
phonso, king of Portugal, took from the Pagans by force, and 
with mighty prowess, six cities, namely, Lisbon, Coimbra, the 
city of Perenza, and a most excellent castle, which is called 
Santa Herena,'^ ^\dth many other castles besides. But while 
he was besieging the city of Silves, and had gained possession 
of it as far as the fortresses of the city, the Pagans who were 
in the fortresses made an arrangement with him, that if they 
should not have succours within six days, they would surren- 
der the forts to him. In the meantime, on the third day, 
having given liis army leave to make a sally into the adjacent 
parts of the province, while he was asleep in his tent as being 
in perfect security, Perdinand, king of Saint Jago, (who had mar- 
ried the daughter of the said king of Portugal) came in one 
direction with a large army, while the Saracens came in the 
other. At the approach of these, the king of Portugal, awaking 
from his sleep, fled on a swift horse, but, when going through 
the gate of the city, broke his thigh against the bar of the 
gate, and then, having passed right through the enemy, who 
pursued him twenty-live miles, and could not overtake him, 
he and his horse fell into a deep pit. Some shepherds, seeing 
this, dragged him out, and gave him up to king Ferdinand, 
to whom he gave for his ransom twenty-five towns which, 
he had taken from him, besides fifteen sumpter horses laden 
with gold, and twenty chargers ; to other persons, also, who 
gave assistance to that king, that he might be the more speedily 
liberated, he made numerous presents. 

In the 3'ear of grace 1188, being the thirty-fourth year of 
the reign of king Hemy, son of the empress Matilda, the said 
king was at Caen in ]S"ormandy, on the day of the ]S"ativity 
of our Lord ; going from which place, he went to Harfleur, 
with the intention of crossing over to England. On hearing of 
this, Philip, king of Prance, levied a great army, shamelessly 
boasting that he would lay waste Normandy and the other 
lands of the king of England beyond sea, unless he should 
surrender to him Gisors with its appurtenances, or make his 
son Richard, earl of Poitou, marry his sister Alice. 

"'^ Now Santarem. 



A.D. 1138. SUBSIDY FOR THE LAND OF JEEXJSALEIM. 79 

The king of England, on hearing of this, returned into JN'or- 
mandy, and a conference being held between him and the king 
of France, between Gisors and Trie, on the twelfth day be- 
fore the calends of February, being the day of Saint Agnes the 
Virgin and Mart^rr, they met there, together with the arch- 
bishops, bishops, earls and barons of their kingdoms. At this 
interview, the archbishop of Trie was present, who, filled with 
the spirit of wisdom and of understanding, in a wonderful man- 
ner preached the word of God before the kings and princes, and 
turned their hearts to assuming the cross ; and those who before 
were enemies, at his preaching, with the aid of God, were made 
friends on that same day, and from his hands received the cross ; 
while at the same hour there appeared the sign of the cross 
above them in the heavens .; on beholding which miracle multi- 
tudes of persons rushed in whole troops to assume the cross. 

The kings before-named, on assuming the cross, for the pur- 
pose of recognizing their various nations, adopted distin- 
guishing signs for themselves and their people. For the king 
of France and his people wore red crosses ; the king of England 
with his people white crosses ; while Philip, earl of Flanders, 
with his people, wore green crosses. After this, they departed, 
each to his own country, for the purpose of providing all neces- 
saries for themselves and the expedition. Accordingly, Henry 
king of England, after he had thus assumed the cross, came to 
Le Mans, where, on his arrival, he gave orders that every one 
should give a tenth part of his revenues in the present year, 
and of his chattels, by way of alms, as a subsidy to the land 
of Jerusalem, the following articles being excepted therefrom : 
the arms, horses, and garments of men-at-arms, and the horses, 
books, clothes, vestments, and all kinds of sacred vessels be- 
longing to the clergy, as also all precious stones belonging to 
either the clergy or laity ; excommunication having been first 
pronounced by the archbishops, bishops, and rural deans, "^ in 
each parish against every one who should not lawfully pay 
his before-mentioned tithe in the presence and at the assessment 
of those whose duty it was to be present thereat. 

Further, the said money was to be collected in each parish 
in the presence of the priest of the parish, the rural dean, one 
Templar, one Hospitaller, one member of the household of our 

7^ It is not improbable that at this period these were the persons called 
*' Archipresbyteri." At an earlier time, they were the bishop's deputiesi 
in the performance of the cathedral duties. 



80 ANNALS OF ROGER DE HOYEDEN. A. D. 1188. 

lord the king, a clerk of the king, and a yeoman of the baron's 
household, his clerk, and the clerk of the bishop ; and if any 
one should give less, according to their conscientious assessment, 
than he ought, four or six lawful men of the parish were to 
be chosen, who, on oath, were to state the amount that he 
ought to have stated, on which he would be bound to add the 
amount by which it was deficient. Clerks, however, and knights 
who should assume the cross, were not to pay any such tithes ; 
but the revenues from their demesnes, and whatever their vas- 
sals should owe as their due, were to be collected by the above- 
named persons, and to be remitted to them untouched. 

The bishops, also, were by their letters in each parish of 
their respective dioceses, to cause notice to be given on the 
day of the IS'ativity, of Saint Stephen, and of Saint John, that 
each person was to collect the before- mentioned tithe due from 
him by the day of the Purification of the Yirgin Mary, and, on 
the day after the same, was lawfully to pay it to those present of 
the persons named, at such place as should be appointed. 

In addition to this, it was decreed by our lord the pope, 
that whatever clerk or layman should assume the cross, he 
should, on the authority of God and of the holy Apostles, 
Saint Peter and Saint Paul, be free and absolved from all sins 
as to which he should have repented and made confession. It 
was also enacted by the kings, archbishops, bishops, and other 
princes of the land, that all those persons, both clerks and lay- p| 
men, who should not go on this expedition, should pay tithes of 
their revenues and moveables for the present year, and of all 
their chattels, both in gold and silver, and of all other things, 
with the exception of the garments, books, and vestments of 
the clerks and priests, and with the exception of the horses, 
arms, and clothing of men at arms, pertaining to the use ot 
their own persons. It was also enacted that all clerks, knights, 
and yeomen who should undertake the said expedition, should 
have the tenths of their lands and of their vassals, and should 
pay nothing for themselves. Eurgesses, however, and viUeins, 
who, without the permission of their superior lords, should 
assume the cross, were still to pay tithes. | 

It was also enacted that no one should swear profanely, and 

that no one should play at games of chance or at dice ; and no 

one was after the ensuing Easter to wear beaver, or gris,'^ 

or sable, or scarlet; and all were to be content with two 

'9 Grey fur i the word is used by Chaucer, 



A.D. 1188. OKDINANCES AS TO ASSUMING THE CEOSS. 81 

dishes.^" Xo one was to take any woman with him on the 
pilgrimage, unless, perhaps, some laundress to accompany him 
on foot, about whom no suspicion could be entertained ; and 
no person was to have his clothes in rags or torn. It was also 
enacted that whatever clerk or layman should, before assuming 
the cross, have mortgaged his revenues, he was to have the in- 
come of the present year in full, and after the expiration of 
the year the creditor was again to have the revenues thereof, 
upon the understanding, however, that the revenues which he 
should then receive should be reckoned towards payment of the 
debt, and that the debt, from the period of the debtor assuming 
the cross, should not bear interest, so long as the debtor should 
be absent on the pilgrimage. 

It was also enacted that all clerks and laymen who should 
set out on the said pilgrimage, should be at liberty legally 
to mortgage their incomes, whether ecclesiastical, or lay, or 
otherwise, from the Easter, when they should set out, for a 
period of three years, upon the understanding that the cre- 
ditors should, in whatever case they should be due to the 
creditors, take in full, for three years from the Easter before- 
mentioned, all the profits of the revenues which they should so 
hold in mortgage. It was also enacted that whoever should 
die on the pilgrimage, should leave his money which he must 
have taken with him on the pilgrimage, to be divided for the 
maintenance of his servants, for the assistance of the land of 
Jerusalem, and for the sustenance of the poor, according to the 
judgment of certain discreet men, who were to be appointed 
for the performance of that duty. 

All the above-mentioned statutes were framed and enacted 
at Le Mans, by Henry, king of England, in presence of his 
son Eichard, earl of Poitou, William, archbishop of Tours, 
Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, Walter, archbishop of 
Eouen, and in presence of John, bishop of Evreux, Ealph, 
bishop of Anjou, E., bishop of Le Mans, and M., bishop of 
JN'antes, as also in presence of Hugh de JSTunant, bishop of 
Chester elect, Lisardus, bishop of Seez elect, and in presence 
of the barons of Anjou, Maine, and Touraine. 

^ These matters being accordingly arranged beforehand, the 
king of England appointed servants of his, clerks and laymen, 
to collect the before-mentioned tithes throughout all his terri- 

^ " Exempto," " except," follows this word : the passage appears toba 
mutilated. 

VOL. II. a 



82 AXNALS OF EOGER DE HOVEDEX. a.D. 1188. 

tones beyond sea, and shortly after crossed over and landed in 
England, at Winchelsea, on Saturday, the third day before the 
calends of February. In the meantime, Baldwin, archbishop 
of Canterbury, w^io had come to England before the king, 
consecrated Hugh de Kunant bishop of Coventry. 

Immediately upon his landing in England, our lord the 
king held a great council of bishops, abbats, earls, and barons, 
and many others, both clergy and laity, at Gaintington, where, 
in the hearing of the people, he caused all the above-mentioned 
ordinances to be proclaimed, which he had enacted on the sub- 
j ect of assuming the cross. After they had been proclaimed, Bald- 
win, archbishop of Canterbury, and Gilbert, bishop of Rochester, 
his deput}^ delivered wonderful sermons on the same day before 
the king and his chief men, on the subject of the Word of the 
Lord and the mysteries of salvation gained by the cross. 

After this, our lord the king sent his servants, the clerks 
and laymen, throughout all the counties of England, to collect 
the tithes according to his order made as above-mentioned 
in his territories bevond sea. But in each of the cities 
throughout England he caused all the richest men to be se- 
lected, namely, in London two hundred, in York one hun- 
dred, and in other cities according to their quantity and num- 
bers, and made them all appear before him on days and places 
named ; on which he received from them the tenths of their 
property, according to an estimate made by trustworthy men 
who were acquainted with their incomes and possessions ; and 
if he found any inclined to be contumaciOius, he immediately 
caused them to be imprisoned and kept in irons until they had 
paid the last farthing. He did the same with the Jews in his 
territories, and received from them an immense sum of money. 

After this, he sent Hugh, bishop of Durham, and others of 
the clergy and laity, to William, king of the Scots, to collect 
the tithes in his kingdom ; on hearing which the king of Scot- 
land met them between Werk and Brigham, in Lothian, and 
would not allow them to enter his kingdom to collect the 
tithes, but offered to give to his liege lord the king of England 
five thousand marks of silver instead of the above-named tithes, 
and on condition that he might have his castles back again ; 
but to this the king of England would not agree. 

Philip, king of the Eranks, also caused the tenths of the in- 
comes and property of his subjects to be collected throughout 
all his territories. In the same year, Richard, earl of Poitou, 



A.D. 1188. THE E.VllL OF POITOU INVADES FEATs'CE. 83 

Raymond, count of Saint Gilles, Aimar, count of Angouleme, 
Geoffrey de Eancon, Geoffrey de Lezivant,^^ and nearly all 
the more powerful men in Poitou, engaged in war, all against 
tbxC before-named Eickard, and he against ^1; he, however, 
was victorious. Among other persons whom he took prisoners 
in the territory of the count of Saint Gilles, he captured Peter 
Seillun, by whose advice the before-named count of Saint Gilles 
lad taken some traders of the territory of the earl of Poitou, and 
lad done many injuries to him and his lands. Accordingly, earl 
Eichard placed this Peter in close confinement and in most rigor- 
ous custody. The count of Saint Gilles being able on no terms 
to ransom him, he set spies throughout his cities and castles, to 
arrest any persons they could find belonging to the household of 
the king of England, or of earl Eichard his son ; and it so hap- 
3ened that, a few days after, as Eobert Poer and his brother 
Ralph, two knights of the household and retinue of our lord the 
dng, were passing through the territories of the count of Saint 
Gilles, from Saint Jago,^^ which they had been visiting on a pil- 
grimage, the men of the count of Saint Gilles laid hands on 
them, and carried them in chains to the count ; on which, 
the count said to them, ^^ Unless Eichard, the earl of Poitou, 
delivers up to me my servant Peter, and sets him at liberty, 
you shall not escape from my hands." On hearing this, earl 
Eichard made answer, that he would neither make entreaties 
or give money for their ransom, inasmuch as the respect due to 
their character as pilgrims, ought to suffice for their libera- 
tion. 

Upon this, the king of Prance ordered them to be set at 
liberty, not for his love or respect for the king of England, or 
for his son Eichard, but out of respect and esteem for Saint 
James the Apostle. However, earl Eichard entered the terri- 
tories of the count of Saint Gilles with a great army, laid it 
waste with fire and sword, and besieged and took his castles in 
the neighbourhood of Toulouse. Upon this, the king of the 
Franks, hearing the lamentations of the people of Toulouse, 
sent his envoys to England to the king of England, to en- 
quire if the mischief which was being done by his son 
Eichard was being done by his direction, and to demand 
reparation for the same. To this the king of England made 
answer, that his son Eichard had done none of these things by 

^^ Roger of Wendover calls him " de Liziniac." 
^- Saint Jago of Compostella, in Spain. 

o 2 



84 ANS'ALS OF ROGEE DE HOYEDEI?'. A.D. 1188. 

his ^v^sh or advice, and that the said Eichard had sent word to 
him, by John, archbishop of Dublin, that he had done nothing 
in respect thereof, but by the advice of the king of France. 

In the same year, the Patriarcli of the city of Antioch wrote 
to the king of England to the following effect : — 

The Letter of the Patriarch of Antioch to Henry y hing of 

England. 

'^ By the grace of the Holy God, and of the Apostolic See, the 
Patriarch of Antioch, to Henry, by the same grace, the most 
illustrious king of the English, his beloved lord and friend — 
may he govern in Him, through whom kings govern. With 
tears and with sighs by these presents we announce to your ex- 
cellency, the dire and inexpressible grief which we feel for the 
unexpected and terrible disaster that has lately befallen us, or, 
indeed, all Christendom we may rather say. Let all the world 
listen, with yourself, to this our grief, that it may know whence 
proceed our tears and our lamentations, or what is their end. 
On the fourth day of the month of July, in the year of the 
Word made incarnate one thousand one hundred and eighty- 
seven, Saladin, having gathered together a multitude of our 
foreign foes, engaged with those of the Christians who were in 
the land of Jerusalem, and, having routed their forces, triumphed 
over them to his heart's content ; the vivifying Cross being 
exposed to the ridicule of the Turks ; the king being taken 
prisoner, and the Master of the Temple, as also prince Ray- 
mond, being slain by this accursed Saladin with his own hands; 
while bishops. Templars, and Hospitallers, in all a multitude 
of nearly twelve hundred, and thirty thousand foot were 
slaughtered in the defence of the Holy Cross, besides a con- 
siderable number who were afterwards slain, or made pri- 
soners in the cities which he took. After this, being quite 
satiated with the blood of the Christians, he took Tiberias and 
fortified it; and then, he had laid siege to the noble city of | 
Acre, to Caiphas, Caesarea, Joppa, jS'azareth, Sebaste, JS'eapolis, 
Lydda, Eamatha, Assur, Hebron, Bethlehem, and, last of all, 
the Holy City of Jerusalem, and the Sepulchre of our Lord, 
vowing that he would cut it into pieces and throw its frag- 
ments into the deep. As for the rest, fearful anxiety possesses 
us every day and every hour, amid our doubts whether these 
various places may not be subjugated to his dominion, and 
their inhabitants slain or made captive, especially as it is well 



A.D. 1188. LETTEll OF KING HENRY. 85 

known that they are deprived of provisions, horses, muni- 
tions of war, and defenders. By reason of this mighty 
anger and indignation of God poured forth upon us from above, 
with tears we eat our bread, and are alarmed with dreadful 
apprehensions, lest the Sepulchre of our Lord may be delivered 
to strange nations, and lest we few, who still remain in this 
Christian land, may, if succours are tardy in their arrival, and 
our enemies press on, have to bow our necks to the swords of 
the smiters. Xow as, in prudence, counsel, and riches, you 
surpass the other kings of the West, your aid we have al-jvays 
looked for; and we therefore pray that you will hasten to bring 
your powerful succour to the Holy Land. If you delay so to do, 
then the Sepulchre of the Lord, with the noble city of Antioch, 
and the territory adjacent thereto, will exist as an everlasting 
reproach to foreign nations. Ee mindful of your glories and of 
your name, that so, God, who has raised you to a throne, may 
through you be exalted ; and if you are ready to give your assist- 
ance to so worthy an object, either coming yourself to us, or send- 
ing to us the wished- for succours, then to you, after God, vnll be 
imputed the liberation of the Holy Land. We ourselves, with 
all possible contrition, and smiting our guilty breast, cry unto 
God that He will give to you both the will and the ability of 
thus acting to the praise and glory of His name ; wherefore, at 
this, the last gasp of life, in your clemency lend your aid to the 
Holy Land and to ourselves. Otherwise, we who, subjected to 
various perils, have been afflicted with a lingering illness, shall 
have nothing to expect but immediate death for ourselves, and 
that after the blood of the Christians has been poured forth, 
the Sepulchre of our Lord, with the noble city of Antioch, 
and the country thereto adjacent, will, to the eternal disgrace of 
foreign nations, be captured. We do further entreat, that you 
will receive our recommendations of our dearly beloved brethren, 
the bishops of Gabalus and Yalenia, whom on this matter we 
have despatched to you. Farewell.'* 

The Letter of Henry, king of England, to the Patriarchs of Je- 
rusalem and Antioch, and Raymond, prince of Antioch, 

'* To the venerable fathers in Christ, and his friends, A. and 
E., the Patriarchs of Antioch and Jerusalem, and to Eaymond, 
prince of Antioch, and to all the Christian people of the Church 
in the East, Henry, by the same grace, king of England, duke 
of I^ormandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, health and 
consolation in Christ. Inasmuch as, our sins so requiring it. 



86 ANNALS OF ROGER DE HOYEDEN. a.D. 1188. 

the Lord has in our times ^dsited our iniquities with the rod of 
His vengeance, and has, by the Kyine judgment, permitted the 
land which was redeemed with His own blood to be polluted by 
the hands of the unbelievers ; it is therefore becoming, that we, 
and all who belong to the Christian religion, and are professors oi 
that name, should attend with pious zeal to the desolate state of 
the said land, and make it our endeavour with all our might to 
impart thereto our aid and counsel. Wherefore, as A., by the 
grace of God, the venerable bishop of Yalenia, has, with a profu- 
sion ^of tears and deep sighs, disclosed unto us the griefs and 
calamities with which the Eastern Church is afflicted, the greater 
the danger we behold impending, the more strenuous and im- 
mediate is the assistance which we are prompted by compassion 
to give. Having, therefore, faith and confidence in Him, who 
never forsakes those who put their trust in Him, act manfully, 
and let your hearts be strengthened in the Lord; for we believe 
that now is the prophecy of Isaiah fulfilled ; ^ ^ Jerusalem, lift up 
thine eyes round about and see ; all they gather themselves to- 
gether, they come to thee ; Then thou shalt see, and flow 

together, and thine heart shall fear, and be enlarged ; because 
the abundance of the sea shall be converted unto thee, the 
forces of the Gentiles shall come unto thee."^ For now, the 
Lord, who looks down upon the sons of men, that He may see 
if man is of good understanding or seeks God, has so aroused 
the feelings of the Christians, which were before asleep, to His 
own service, that every one who is of the Lord's side, has now 
girded his sword to his thigh, and each one reckons himself as 
blessed and faithful, who leaves his father and his mother and all 
things besides, that he may be able to avenge the injuries done to 
Christ, and to the Holy Land. Wherefore, be ye firm, and you 
shall speedily see the assistance of the Lord which is now prepar- 
ing for you. For sooner than you could believe, such vast mul- 
titudes of the faithful will by land and sea come to your rescue, as 
' Eye hath not seen nor ear heard, nor hath it entered into the 
heart of man to conceive ;' and whom the Lord has prepared 
lor the deliverance of your land. Among other princes as well, 
I and my son, rejecting the pomps of this world, and setting 
at nought all its pleasures, and all things that belong to this 
world being laid aside, will shortly, by the assistance of the 
Lord, visit you in our own persons. Earewell." 

In the same year, Philip, king of Erance, levying a large 

^ Is. Ix 4, 5. 



.^.D. 11S8. H06T1L1TIE>S OF THE Kll^G OF FEANCE. 87 

army, entered Eerry, and took Chateau Eaonl, which the 
burgesses surrendered to hiin ; and, proceeding thence, nearly 
the whole of Eerry was delivered up to him, with the excep- 
tion of Luches, and the other castles, demesnes of the king 
of England. Buchard of Yendome also surrendered to the 
king of Trance, with his lands and castles, and became his 
adherent. On the king of England making enquiry why this 
was done, he was told that the king of Erance was acting thus 
in revenge for the injuries that Hi chard, earl of Poitou, had 
done to himself and the count of Saint Gilles. Having, there- 
fore, held counsel with his trusty advisers, the king of Eng- 
land sent Ealdwin, archbishop of Canterbury, and Hugh, 
bishop of Lincoln, to the king of Erance ; that they might, 
at least, by words and exhortations, assuage the anger and in- 
dignation which, in his mind, he had conceived against him. 

These prelates being unable to succeed in their object, 
the king of England crossed over from England to JS^or- 
mandy, and landed at Harfleur on the fifth day before the ides 
of July; and going thence to Alen^on, levied a great army 
in Normandy and the rest of his territories. Man}' of the 
Welch also accompanied him to JN^ormandy as mercenaries. 
In the meantime, Ei chard, earl of Poitou, having raised a 
[considerable force, marched into Eerry ; on hearing of w^hose 
[approach, the king of Erance gave Chateau Eaoul into the 
■charge of "William des Earres, and he himself returned into 
I Erance. On this, earl Eichard ravaged the lands of the earls 
land barons who had given in their adhesion to the king of 
lErance, and took many of them prisoners. The king of Erance, 
Ihowever, in consequence of the arrival of the king of Eng- 
lland, did not dare to move out of Erance, but directed his 
lai'my to lay waste the territories of the king of England. 
I On this, Philip, bishop of Eeauvais, entered Xormandy with 
Ian army, and ravaged with fire Elangeville, a town belonging 
■to the earl of Auch, and Aumarle, a castle of William, earl of 
■Mandeville, together with the adjoining provinces. The king 
■of Erance also burned the town of Trou, and the whole of the 
ifortress there, but could not gain possession thereof; how- 
lever, he took forty of the knights of the king of England. On 
■the other hand, Eichard, earl of Poitou, took an extremely 
■well fortified place, which is called Les Eoches, beyond Trou, 
■towards Yendome, and captured in that place twenty-five 
Bknights and sixty yeomen. 



88 ANNALS OF KOGEH DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1188. 

On this, Henry, king of England, sent Walter, arch bishop 
of Rouen, John, bishop of Evreux, and William Marshal to 
the king of France, to demand reparation for the injuries which 
he and his people had done him ; and if he should refuse to re- 
store what he had taken away, he defied him. To this the king 
of France made answer that he would not desist from his pur- 
pose until the whole of Berry, and the \V'hole of the Korman 
vexin should have been subjected to himself and to his kingdom. 
Having, therefore, now got an excuse, by reason of the injuries 
done to him by the king of France, Henry, king of England, 
levying a large army, entered the lands of the king of France, 
on the Tuesday after the beheading of Saint John the Baptist, 
and, burning many villages, rode the same day to the town 
of Mante, where the king of France was said to be. Here 
"William des Barres and Drago de Merlou, accompanied by a few 
French knights, met Richard, earl of Poitou, and William, 
earl of Mandeville, and some others of the household of the 
king of England ; upon which, William des Barres was taken 
prisoner by earl R^ichard, and given in charge to his men ; but 
while the people of the king of England were intent on other 
matters, the said William des Barres made his escape upon his 
page's horse. 

On the Wednesday following, the king of England made 
a halt at Ivery, on which earl Richard set out for Berry, pro- 
mising the king his father that he would serve him well and 
faithfully. On the Thursday after, being the feast of Saint 
Gilles, the Welch troopers of the king of England entered the 
territorios of the king of France, and burned Daneville, the castle 
of Simxn Daneth, together with many villages, and carried off j 
considerable booty, after slaying many men. The same day, 
earl William de Mandeville burned the town of Saint Clair, 
which belongs to the demesnes of the king of France, and laid 
waste a very fine shrubbery which the king himself had planted. 

On the same day, the king of England, having with a few 
knights entered the territories of the king of France, that he 
might ascertain the weak points of those parts, there came to 
him envoys from the king of France to sue for peace, and 
offer him the lands which he had taken from him in Berry. 
Upon this, a conference was held between them at Gisors, 
where they were unable to come to terms as to making 
peace ; the king of France, aroused to anger and indignation 
thereat, cut down a very fine elm situate between Gisors 



A.D. 1188. TEANSACTIOIS'S IN NOEMANDT. 89 

and Trie, wnere conferences had been usually lield between 
the kings of France and the dukes of Normandy, vowing that 
thenceforth there should be no more conferences held there. 
The earl of Planders, however, and earl Theobald; and other 
earls and barons of the kingdom of France, laid down their 
arms, saying that they would never bear arms against Chris- 
tians until they should have returned from their pilgrimage to 
Jerusalem. 

Upon this, the king of France, being deprived of the aid of 
his allies, requested an interview with the king of England ; 
which being acceded to, it was accordingly held at ChatiUon, on 
the morrow of the day of Saint Faith, where terms of peace 
were to have been agreed to between them, as follows ; the 
king of France was to restore to the king of England what- 
ever he had seized in his territories after the truce was broken, 
and earl Eichard was to restore to the count of Saint Gilles 
whatever he had taken from him by force of arms. The king 
of France also, prompted hj his faithlessness, demanded of the 
king of England the castle of Pascy in pledge ; and, because the 
king of England refused to assent thereto, they separated 
mutually dissatisfied ; and the king of France, leaving the place, 
took the castle of Palud ; then passing through Chateau 
Eaoul, he led thence a Eout of Brabanters as far as Eourges, 
promising them ample pay; but on arriving at Eourges they 
were seized, and the king took from them their horses, arms, 
and the whole of their money, and turned them adrift un- 
armed and stripped. 

Earl Eichard, however, made an oifer to the king of France 
to come to his court and to take his trial as to the matters 
that had taken place between him and the count of Saint Gilles ; 
that so at least peace might be made between the king of 
France and the king of England, his father ; a thing which 
greatly displeased the king, his father. 

After this conference, l^evolun Fitz TJrse de Fretteval 
swore fealty to the king of England, and faithful service against 
all men ; on which the king of England secured to him by 
charter the honors of Lavardin and Faye ; he also gave to the 
king of England his son as a hostage, and many of 
his relations. 




90 AXXALS OF EOGEE DE HOYEDm. A.D. 1188. 

Tlie Letter of TerriciuSy Master of the Temple^ to Henry, Icing 

of England. 

" To his most dearly beloved lord, Henry, by the grace of 
God, the illustrious king of the English, duke of JS'ormandy 
and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, the brother Terricius, formerly 
Grand ]^Iaster of the house of the Temple at Jerusalem, health 
in Him who gives health unto kings. Be it known to you that 
Jerusalem, with the Tower of David, has been surrendered to 
Saladin. The Syrians, also, have possession of the Sepulchre 
until the fourth day after the feast of Saint Michael, and 
Saladin himself has given permission to ten of the brethren of 
the Hospital to remain in the Hospital for one year to attend the 
sick. The brethren of the Hospital of Eellivier are still making 
a stout resistance to the Saracens, and have already taken two 
caravans of the Saracens ; bj' the capture of one of Avhich they 
have manfully recovered all the arms, utensils, and provisions 
that were in the castle of Faba, which had been destroyed by 
the Saracens. The following places also still show resistance to 
Saladin, Cragus of Montreal, Montreal, Saphet of the Temple, 
Cragus of the Hospital, Margat, Castel Elanco, the terri- 
tory of Tripolis and the territory of Antioch. On the cap- 
ture of Jerusalem, Saladin ordered the Cross to be taken 
down from the Temple of our Lord, and had it carried about 
the city for two days in public view, and beaten with sticks. 
After this he ordered the Temple of our J^ord to be washed 
inside and out with rose-water, from top to bottom, and his 
laws to be promulgated with regard to it in four different 
places amid wondrous acclamations.^^ From the feast of Saint 
Martin until the Circumcision of our Lord he besieged Tyre, 
while thirteen stone engines day and night were incessantly 
hurling stones against it. At the Yigil of Saint Sylvester, our 
lord the Marquis Conrad arranged his knights and foot-soldiers 
along the city walls, and, having armed seventeen galleys and 
ten smaller vessels, with the assistance of the house of the 
Hospital and of the brethren of the Temple, fought against the 
galleys of Saladin, and, routing them, took eleven, and captured 
the high admiral of Alexandria together with eight other 
admirals, slaying vast numbers of the Saracens. The rest of 
the galleys of Saladin, escaping from the hands of the Chris- 
tians, fled to the army of the Saracens ; on which, by his com- 

^* lie perliaps alludes to the opinions expressed by Mahomet in the 
Koran, as to the sanctity of the Temple. 



D. 1188. LETTEE OF POPE CLEMENT. 91 

aand being drawn on shore, Saladin with his own hand had 
hem reduced to ashes and embers ; and, mo7ed with exces- 
sive grief, after cutting oif the ears and tail of his horse, rode 
ipon it in the sight of all through the whole army. Farewell." 
In the same year, John, bishop of Dunkeld, after the Purifi- 
ation of the Virgin Mary, returned from the court of our lord 
he pope, Hugh, bishop of Saint Andrew*s, having been de- 
)osed, bringing with him letters from our lord the pope to the 
olio wing effect : — 

TJie Letter of pope Clement to the hisliops of Glasgow and 

Aherdeen. 

*' Clement, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to 
lis venerable brethren Jocelyn, bishop of Glasgow, Mat- 
hew, bishop of Aberdeen, and to his dearly beloved sons 
Iverard, abbat of Melrose, and Bertram, prior of Coldingham, 
lealth and the Apostolic benediction. Lest what has been 
lone might cause scruples by reason of distrust, it is proper that 
:he same should be committed to writing, and be introduced 
3y a public and truthful intimation to the notice of those whom 
t may seem to interest. JSTow we bear in mind that pope 
[Frban, of blessed memory, our predecessor, enjoined Hugh, 
brmerly styled bishop of Saint Andrew's, to appear in his 
presence on a certain day, to make answer in the Apostolic 
30urt, respecting the dispute which existed between him and 
)ur venerable brother, bishop John, under penalty of excom- 
nunication if he should neglect so to do. But, inasmuch as 
ae was conscious of his deeds, and dreaded the result of the 
investigation, he contumaciously refused to appear ; wherefore, 
for this and for many other things which, according to fre- 
quent reports, had created scandal to the Church of God, with 
the advice and consent of our brethren, we have adjudged 
him, on the authority of the Apostolic See, to be for ever re- 
moved from the bishopric of Saint Andrew's, and suspended 
from the episcopal office until such time as the Apostolic See 
shall think fit to determine otherwise respecting him, absolving 
those subject to him from the fealty which they have been 
bound to pay to him ; and further, inasmuch as the rules of the 
holy canons forbid that churches should be deprived too long 
of the pastoral control, we do command your discretion, by 
these Apostolic writings, diligently on our behalf to advise 
our dearly-beloved sons, the chapter of Saint Andrew's, to 
choose for themselves such a bishop and pastor, as may be 



92 ANNALS OF EOGER DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1188. 

able worthily to enjoy the dignities of the episcopal office ; 
and more especially, you are to labour to induce them, as 
far as in you lies, to make choice, without any scruple or 
difficulty, of the before-named bishop John, a man of good cha- 
racter, and for his virtues acceptable to us and our brethren, 
for the governance and prelacy of that church. And if all of 
you shall not be able to take part in the performance hereof, 
then, any two of you may carry out the same. Given at 
Pisa, on the seventeenth day before the calends of February, in 
the sixth year of the indiction." 

The Letter of the same pope to William, king of the Scots. 

^' Clement, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to 
"William, the illustrious king of the Scots, health and the 
Apostolic benediction. We are of opinion that it must shock 
the eyes of the majesty of God in no small degree if we leave 
without due correction those excesses of prelates which, with 
a safe conscience, we may not, through carelessness, neglect. 
Wherefore, inasmuch as pope Urban, of blessed memory, our 
predecessor, commanded Hugh, formerly styled bishop of Saint 
Andrew^s, under pain of excommunication, to appear in his 
presence on a certain day, to make answer in the Apostolic 
court respecting the dispute which existed between him and our 
venerable brother bishop John ; but he, being conscious of his 
own deeds, and not without reason dreading the result of 
the investigation, through contumacy, neglected to come, for 
this and for many other things, which, according to frequent 
reports, have caused scandal to the Church of God, with the 
advice and consent of our brethren, we have adjudged him, on 
the authority of the Apostolic See, to be for ever removed 
from the bishopric of Saint Andrew^ s, and suspended from the 
episcopal office until such time as the Apostolic See shall think 
fit to determine otherwise respecting him, absolving those 
subject to him from the fealty which they have been bound to 
pay him. For although, so far as with God's assistance we may, 
we firmly purpose to consult your honor and your interest j 
and, in the case of the before-named Hugh, the Eoman court, 
not without the censure of many, has hitherto paid deference 
to your royal highness, still, inasmuch as the reports about 
him have, on undoubted authority, reached our ears, we have 
been unable, under any pretext, by closing our eyes thereto, any 
longer to forbear noticing his errors ; for which reason we do 



A.D. 1188. LETTER OF THE POPE TO THE KING OF EIs^GLAND. 93 

not think that anything has been done in his respect as to which 
your royal feelings ought on any account to be incensed. 
Therefore we ask your duteousness with prayers and affec- 
tionate entreaties, that you will receive, on our recommendation, 
the above-named bishop John, (whom we and our brethren 
love with sincerity of heart for his virtues,) with the bowels 
of brotherly love, as you respect the Apostolic See and our- 
selves ; and that laying aside the offence which, if any, in 
your indignation you have conceived against him, you will 
treat him in all respects with your royal clemency and kindness. 
And further, it is our belief that from his diligence and probity 
much benefit will accrue, by the aid of God, to yourself and 
your kingdom ; and it will always be a subject of gratification 
to us, if our prayers shall with the royal ears have the desired 
effect. Given at Pisa, on the seventeenth day before the 
calends of February, in the sixth year of the indiction." 

The Letter of the same pope to Henry, Icing of England. 

* ^ Clement, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to Henry, 
the illustrious king of the English, health and the Apostolic be- 
nediction. When your royal excellency, authority, and power 
has received prayers preferred by the Apostolic See, to which 
it is expedient effect should be given both for preserving the 
churches ia their present state, and for ensuring the salvation 
of many, it is the duty of your royal highness diligently to listen 
thereto ; and the more strenuously and zealously to use all en- 
deavours to give effect to the same, the more certain it is that 
duteous attention thereto, and the diligent execution thereof, 
equally concerns your kingly glory and your salvation. Hence 
it is that we have thought fit that our Apostolic letters and 
prayers should be addressed to your serene highness in behalf 
jf our venerable brother John, bishop of Saint Andrew's, with 
!ull confidence, therein entreating and advising, and for the 
remission of the sins of all, enjoining, your exalted royal high- 
ness with all the affection we possibly can, that, in considera- 
tion of your veneration for Saint Peter and ourselves, as also in 
consideration of the persecutions which there is no doubt he 
has endured, you will earnestly advise William, the illustrious 
king of the Scots, our most dearly-beloved son in Christ, and 
induce him, and if necessary compel him with that royal autho- 
rity in which you are his superior, and which has been con- 
seded by him to your royal highness, to cease, by setting 



94 ' ATiTXALS OF ROGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1188. 

aside every pretext for the same, all the rancour of his indigna- 
tion which, through the malice of certain whisperers, he has 
entertained, against the said bishop, thus shewing due regard for 
his own royal dignitj^ and the healthful works of piety ; and, 
for the future to allow him quietly and without challenge to 
hold the diocese of Saint Andrew's, which, by the common 
counsel and consent of his brethren, the Supreme Pontiff has 
confirmed unto him for ever ; and this the more especially, 
as he is ready to prove himself obedient and faithful in all 
respects to his royal majesty so far as shall be consistent with 
reason. Given at Pisa, on the seventeenth day before the 
calends of February, in the sixth year of the indiction. 

The Letter of pope Clement in hehalf of John, hishop of Saint 

Andrew's. 

*^ Clement, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to all 
the clergy of the see of Saint Andrew's, health and the Apos- 
tolic benediction. Although in doubtful matters some per- 
sons may be able to show their subtlety or artfulness, still, 
when all scruples and grounds for doubt are removed, and by 
manifest signs the tracks of truth are disclosed, all devious 
paths ought to be entirely forgotten, and the traces of the right 
path to be both sought for and observed ; lest, which God for- 
bid, acting otherwise, and persisting in their own contumacy, 
after the scourges of this world, and its condign punishments, 
they may be inwardly destroyed by the everlasting punishments 
of eternal death. Wishing, therefore, in our paternal anxiety 
to provide for your salvation, your interests, and your quietude, 
we do, by these Apostolic writings, command and order, and 
in virtue of your obedience, enjoin the whole of you, within 
fifteen days after the receipt hereof, humbly and duteously to 
receive as your father and pastor our venerable brother John, 
your bishop, who has been canonically elected to the pontifical 
office, and, all pretexts whatsoever laid aside, not to hesitate 
henceforth to pay due reverence and obedience to his whole- 
some advice and commands ; being hereby informed that if, after 
Hugh, the man who was formerly styled the bishop, was re- 
moved from the dignity of your bishopric by the Church of Rome, 
or after his decease,^ the above-named John, your bishop, still 
surviving, you shall have by chance made choice of any other 
bishop, we do, by the Apostolic authority, pronounce that elec- 
^"^ In case that may have happened before the letter reaches the clergy. 



V.D. 1188. LETTER OF POPE CLEMEI^T. 95 

ion to be null and void. But if, wliich may God forbid, you have 
3resumed, by the persuasion of the enemy of mankind, to be 
juiity of any conspiracy against the said bishop John, then 
)oth yourselves, as also the whole see, "we are determined to 
;ubject to sentence of interdict until such time as, acknow- 
edging your transgressions, you shall have returned to obedience 
the commands of the said bishop John. Given at Pisa, on the 
seventeenth day before the calends of February, in the sixth 
rear of the indie tion." 

Another Letter of the same pope on the same subject, 

** Clement, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to his 

'enerable brethren, Jocelyn, bishop of Glasgow, Matthew, 

)ishop of Aberdeen, and Eichard, bishop of Moray, and his 

I'.early-beloved sons Ernulph, abbat of Melrose, Hugh, abbat 

f Newbottle, and the abbats of HoljTood, Stirling, and Scone, 

lealth and the Apostolic benediction. Although it is our belief 

hat,even without our advice, it is incumbent upon you to give 

our serious and diligent attention, in conformity with the duties 

f your office, to those things which concern a good life and 

onduce to the salvation of souls, still, we have thought fit, 

y these Apostolic letters, to exhort your diligence to manifest 

reater anxiety in these respects ; to the end that the more 

rvently you devote yourselves to those works so worthy of 

praise, the more healthful it may be for you in these re- 

:)ects to apply yourself with all diligence to com.ply with the 

vhonations of the Apostolic See. And whereas it is clear 

at some prelates of churches must, together with those who 

ive been offended, submit to the heat of persecution, and be 

eak with those who are weak, in obedience tothe rule laid down 

: the Apostle ^^ — how great the persecutions which the church of 

lint Andrew's has lately sustained, how great the calamities 

id oppressions it has endured ! how much, also, has it been dis- 

rbed and shaken of late under the shadow of the indignation 

his royal highness ! and, above all, how many and how great 

e dangers wliich our brother John, the bishop of Saint Andrew's, 

s endured ! how many the perils to which he has been exposed, 

d what have been his labours in preserving the liberties of the 

urch entrusted to his care, and confirmed to him. by ourselves 

dour two predecessors ! but inasmuch as ail this is well known 

you, it seems needless to reiterate the same to your heariug, 

86 Alluding to the words in 1 Cor. ix. 21, 22. 



96 ANNALS OF EOGEK DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1188. 

Eut inasmuch as it is universally agreed upon as being most ex- 
pedient, it befits us to give all due attention both to the king's 
salvation, to the reformation of the state of the before-named 
church, and to the preservation of peace for the bishop himself, we 
deem it proper that we should employ your circumspection to 
aid us therein; therefore we do, by these Apostolic writings, com- 
mand and enjoin your discretion, that, on receiving these our 
letters, meeting together, as befits prudent and discreet men, 
you will repair to the presence of our most dearly-beloved son in 
Christ, William, the illustrious king of Scotland, and diligently 
advise, and urgently press him to put an end to the ran- 
cour of his indignation against the before-named bishop, and 
herein not to despise the Church of Eome, which has now for a 
long time deferred to the wishes of his serene highness, but 
without delay wholesomely to obey and humbly to assent to the 
advice of it and of yourselves, in such manner as befits 
his royal glory and his salvation, and to allow the before- 
named bishop to hold in peace the above-mentioned diocese 
of Saint Andrew's ; inasmuch as he is bound by the duties 
of the kingly dignity not to disperse the churches with their 
shepherds, but rather to cherish them ; not to despise them, 
but to love them ; not to persecute them, but to defend them. 
But if, which God forbid, he shall, to the peril of his own 
salvation, think proper to resist this Apostolic advice, then, by 
the Apostolic authority, you are to inform him, that, within 
twenty days, without any obstacle arising from appeal, sentence 
of interdict will be pronounced by you against the kingdom of his 
highness, and against his own person, as also all the abettors of 
his majesty. Those also who have remained obedient to Hugh, 
and have given him encouragement in his obstinacy, after the 
Apostolic See had removed him for ever from the diocese of 
Saint Andrew's, and had pronounced sentence of excommunica- 
tion against him, you are to smite with a like sentence, and, 
publicly pronouncing them to be excommunicated, are to cause 
them to be strictly avoided by others, until they shall have 
returned to obedience to the Church, and sought the benefit 
of absolution from the said bishop : and further, you are, in con- 
formity with the usage of the Church, to make purification and 
sanctification of the altars and chalices, with which the said Hugh 
has, since he has been placed under sentence of excommuni- 
cation, celebrated Divine service. You are also in like manner 
to repair to the church of Saint Andi'ew's,*and, convoking the 



A.D. 1188. TESTILENCE AT KOME. 97 

brethren to enter the chapter-house, and make diligent enquiry 
as to the order and state of the church ; and if you shall find 
anything in the said church changed by the before-named 
Hugh, or enacted by him, you are, of our authority, to place 
it again in its proper state ; and if anything therein shall stand 
in need of correction, you are zealously to endeavour to change 
the same for the better. But if, and may it not be so, you 
shall find any of the canons reluctant to receive their before- 
named pastor humbly and devoutly, and contumaciously inclined, 
you are most earnestly to advise them to shew due respect and 
obedience to him, their father, and to cease to persist in their 
malignant and damnable purpose. And if they shall continue 
to be contumacious, you are to suspend them both from their 
duties and their benefices, and to check them by the ban of 
excommunication, under which you are to hold them, until 
they shall have listened to the mandates and advice of the 
Church. And if all of you shall not be able to take part in 
the performance hereof, then let the rest carry out the same. 
Given at Pisa, on the seventeenth day before the calends of 
February, in the sixth year of the indiction.^' 

On hearing these things, the king of Scotland, being pre- 
vailed upon by the counsels and entreaties of his people, re- 
ceived the before-named bishop John into his favour, and 
allowed him peaceably to hold the bishopric of 'Dimkeld, and all 
the revenues which he had held before his consecration, on 
condition, however, that the said John should give wp all claim 
to the bishopric of Saint Andrew's. Accordingly, the bishop, 
though protected in the assertion of his claim by the before- 
mentioned letters of our lord the pope, obeyed the king's will in 
all respects, and released the bishopric of Saint Andrew's from, 
all claims of his, throwing himself upon the mercy of God and of 
the king, well knowing that ** Better is a dry morsel and quiet- 
ness therewith, than a house full of sacrifices with strife." ^^ 

Hugh, however, who was formerly styled bishop of Saint 
Andrew's, on being degraded and excommimicated, proceeded to 
Rome. Here, having given security to abide by the decision 
of the Church, he was, in his clemency, absolved by our lord 
the pope, but only survived a few days. For, in the month of 
August, there was such a great pestilence at Eome and in its 
territories, that many of the cardinals and most wealthy men in 
the city died, with a countless multitude of the lower classes : 

^ Prov. xvii. 1. 

VOL. n. H 



98 ANNALS OF ROGER DE HOTEDEN. A.D. 1188. 

on which occasion this Hugh, with nearly the whole of his house- 
hold, and Henry, the bishop elect of Dol, with his household, 
died there. On this, the king of Scotland gave the bishopric of 
Saint Andrew's to Eoger, son of the earl of Leicester, h:.s 
chancellor, John, bishop of Dunkeld, being present, and making 
no objection thereto. The king of Scotland also gave his 
chancellorship to Hugh de Eoxburgh, his clerk. 

In the same year, on the twelfth day before the calends of 
October, being the third day of the week, and the vigil of Saint 
Matthew the Apostle and Evangelist, nearly the whole of the 
town of Beverley, with the noble church of Saint John the 
Archbishop, was burnt. In the same year, master John Gil- 
bert, of Sempringham,^^ first founder and pastor of the order 
which is called the order of Sempringham, departed this life, 
and was buried in his church at Sempringham, among thenims. 

In the same year, Gilbert de Ogleston, a brother of the 
Temple, who had been elected and appointed by our lord the 
king of England, together with some others, clerks and laymen, 
to collect the tenths, was detected in the mal-appropriation 
thereof; but as the king could not, by the ordinary mode of 
trial, pass sentence upon him, he handed him over to the 
Master of the Temple, at London, in order that he might be 
dealt with according to the statutes of his order. On this 
the master of the Temple placed him in irons, and inflicted 
on him various punishments ; but as to what those various 
punishments were, it is for you to enquire, who feel an interest 
in the concerns of that order. 

In the same year, a thing took place at Dunstable, in Eng- 
land, very wonderful to be mentioned and glorious to be seen, 
on the vigil of Saint Lawrence the Martyr, being the second 
day of the week ; for, about the ninth hour of the day, the 
heavens opened, and, in the sight of many, both clergy and 
laity > a cross appeared, very long and of wonderful magnitude, 
and it appeared as though Jesus Christ was fastened thereto 
with nails, and crowned with thorns ; His hands also were 
stretched out on the cross, and the wounds of His hands, and 
feet, and sides were bloody, and His blood was flowing down, 
but did not fall upon the earth. This appearance lasted from 
the ninth hour of the day till twilight. 

88 In Lincolnshire — called " Semplingbam" in the text. This order 
was, from its founder, called " the Giibertines.** Both men and women 
lived in their houses, but separated by high walls. 



A.D. 1188. KEPORT OF THE ENVOYS OF THE KING OF FRANCE. 99 

In the same year, the king of England and the king of 
France held a conference, between Bonimolt and Sulenne, on 
the fourteenth day before the calends of September, being the 
sixth day of the week. At this conference the king of 
France offered to restore to the king of England w^hatever he 
had taken from him in war, upon the following conditions : 
That he should give his sister Alice in marriage to his son 
Eichard, and should allow homage and fealty to be done to the 
said Richard, his heir, by the people of his territories. .But the 
king of England, not forgetful of the injuries which the king, 
his son, had done to him in return for a similar promotion, 
made answer that he would on no account do so. At this, 
earl Richard being greatly indignant, without the advice and 
wish of his father, did homage to the king of Prance for all 
the possessions of his father beyond sea, and, swearing fealty 
to him against all men, became his adherent : on which, the 
king of France gave to him Chateau Raoul, and Yssoudun, 
with the whole honor thereof, in return for his homage and 
fealty. However, the before-named kings made a truce be- 
tween them until the feast of Saint Hilary ; but Henry, the 
cardinal-bishop of Albano, whom our lord the pope had sent 
to put an end to the dispute between the before-named kings, 
excommunicated earl Richard, because he had broken the 
peace, and then, returning to Flanders, he died at Arras. 

In the same year, the envoys of the king of France, whom 
he had sent to Isaac, the emperor of Constantinople, on their 
return home, reported that the sultan of Iconium had given his 
daughter in marriage to the son of Saladin, and that Saladin had 
given his daughter to the son of the sultan; and that Daniel, a 
prophet of Constantinople, had prophesied that in the same 
year in which the Annunciation of our Lord should be on 
Easter day,^^ the Franks should recover the Land of Promise, 
and should stall their horses in the palm groves of Baldack,^* 
and should pitch their tents beyond the trees of the desert, and 
that the tares should be separated from the wheat. They also 
reported that in the palace of the emperor of Constantinople 
more honor was paid to the envoys of Saladin than to any other 
persons of the very highest dignity; and that, with the consent 
of the emperor of Constantinople, Saladin had sent his idol 
to Constantinople, in order that it might there be publicly 
worshipped; but, by the grace of God, before it arrived 

8^ The latter being a moveable feast. 

8» Probably meaning either Baalbec or Bagdad. 



100 ANNALS OF EOGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1188. 

there the Venetians captured it at sea; on which, together 
with the ship, it was taken to Tyre. They also reported that 
a certain old man, a Greek by birth, from Astralix, had informed 
them that the prophecy was about to be fulfilled which 
was written on the Golden Gate, which had not been opened 
for two hundred years past; which was this, '^ When the 
Yellow-haired King of the West shall come, then shall I open 
of my own accord, and then shall the Latins reign, and 
hold rule in the city of Constantinople.'* They also stated 
that the emperor had promised Saladin a hundred galleys, 
and that Saladin had promised him the whole of the land of 
promise, if he should impede the passage of the Franks ; and 
that, in consequence of this, the emperor had forbidden any one 
throughout all his territories to assume the cross ; and if by 
chance any one in his territories did assume the cross, he was 
immediately arrested and thrown into prison. There was 
also a prophecy and astrological prediction among the Greeks 
and Turks, that within the next three years one third of the 
Turks should perish by the sword, another third should fly 
beyond the trees of the desert, ^° and the remaining third be 
baptized. 

In the same year, a certain monk, of the Cistercian order, a 
religious man and one who feared God, beheld a vision of this 
nature relative to Henry, king of England. There appeared 
to him in his sleep a man of w^onderful magnitude and noble 
features, and clothed in white garments, who said to him, 
'^Observe and read these things about the king: *I have set 
my seal upon him ; the womb of his wife shall swell against him, 
and in torments he shall suffer torments, and among the veiled 
women he shall be as one wearing the veil.' '' 

In the same year, Frederic, emperor of the Eomans, having 
assumed the cross at the hands of Henry, the cardinal-bishop 
of Albano, as befitted a prudent and circumspect man, made 
all necessary provisions for himself and his journey; for, in 
the first place, he reconciled himself to God and the Holy 
Church, and then wrote to Saladin to the following effect : — 

The Letter of Frederic^ emperor of the JRomans, to Saladiriy ruler 

of the Saracens, 

*' Frederic, by the grace of God, emperor of the Romans, 
ever august, and the mighty triumpher over the enemies of the 

w « Arborem siccam ;'* perhaps in allusion to the oases of Baalbec or 
Palmyra, on the north-eastern side of Syria. 



1^ 



'* ^^^XV?L*'^>|£>^ 



A.B. 1188. LETTER OF FEED ERIC TO SALADIN, 101 

empire, to Saladin, ruler over the Saracens ; may lie take warning 
from Pharaoh, and flee from Jerusalem. The letters which your 
devoted services addressed to us a long time since, on matters 
of importance to yourself, and which would have benefitted 
you, if reliance could have been placed on your words, we re- 
ceived, as became the mightiness of our majesty, and deemed 
it proper to communicate, through the medium of our letters, 
with your mightiness. But now, inasmuch as you have pro- 
faned the Holy Land, over which we, by the authority of the 
Eternal King, bear rule, solicitude for our imperial office 
admonishes us to proceed with due rigour against audacity so 
rash, so criminal, and so presumptuous. Wherefore, unless before 
all things you restore the land of Judsea, Samaria, and Pales- 
tine, which you have seized, with the addition thereto of due 
satisfaction to be adjudged for excesses so nefarious according 
to the Holy Constitutions, that we may not appear to wage an 
unlawful war against you, we give you the space of the revo- 
lution of one year from the beginning of the calends of JS^ovem- 
ber, in the year of the Incarnation of our Lord one thousand 
one hundred and eighty-eight, after which time you must make 
trial of the fortune of war on the plains of Tanis,^^ by virtue 
of the vivifying Cross and in the name of the true Joseph. For 
we can scarcely believe that you are ignorant of what, being 
testified by the writings of the ancients and the histories of 
antiquity, we are to presume is to be the course of events in 
our time. Do you pretend not to know that both the ^thio- 
pias, Mauritania, Persia, SjTia,^^ Parthia, where our^^ dictator 
Marcus Crassus met with a premature death, Judaea, mari- 
time Samaria, Arabia, Chaldaea, Egypt itself as well, where, 
shameful to repeat! a Roman citizen, Antony, a man en- 
dowed with distinguished virtues, passing the limits of pro- 
priety and temperance, and, acting otherwise than as became 
a soldier sent from the mistress of the world, became enslaved 
by his sensual passion for Cleopatra — do you pretend not to 
know that all these and Armenia and innumerable other lands 

^ Roger of Wendover says, " the field of Zoan," which, if correct, may 
possibly allude to Psalm Ixxviii. 12. It is more probable, however, that 
he alludes to the city of Tanais, or Tanis, in Saladin's kingdom of Egypt, 
which was situate at the Tanaitic mouth of the Nile, and was rebuilt by 
the Caliphs of the line of the Ommiades. 

^^ More probably " Scythia," with Roger of Wendover 

^* He speaks in his capacity of emperor of Rome. 



102 ANNALS OF ROGEB DE HOTEDEN. A.D. 1188. 

became subject to our sway ? Too well is this known to the kings 
in whose blood the Roman sword has been so often drenched; 
you too, God willing, shall learn by experience what our con- 
quering eagles, what the troops of the various nations can effect. 
You shall now become acquainted with the rage of Germany, 
who even in peace brandishes her arms — the untamed head of 
the Rhine^^ — the youths who know not how to flee — the tall Ba- 
varian — the cunning Swede — wary Trance — cautious England 
— Albania^^ — Cambria — Saxony, that sports with the sword — 
Thuringia — Westphalia — active Brabant — Lorraine, unused to 
peace — restless Burgundy — the nimble inhabitants of the Alps 
-^Frisonia, darting on with javelin and thong — Bohemia, ^^ de- 
lighted at bra\dng death — Polonia, fiercer than her own wild 
beasts— Austria — Styria^^: — Rutonia — the parts of lUyria — 
Lombardy — Tuscany — the March of Ancona^^ — the pirate of 
Yenice — the sailor of Pisa; and lastly also, you shall learn 
how effectually our own right hand, which you suppose to be 
enfeebled by old age, has learned to brandish the sword on 
that day full of reverence and gladness which has been ap- 
pointed for the triumph of the cause of Christ." 

In the same year, on the feast of Saint Thomas the Apostle, 
before the Nativity of our Lord, William, bishop of Win- 
chester, departed this life. In the same year also, Frederic, 
emperor of the Romans, having given his kingdom of Ger- 
many to his son Henry, leaving his city, which is called Raines- 
burg, being unwilling to trust himself to the winds and waves, 
determined to proceed by land ; and when he arrived at Con- 
stantinople, the emperor Isaac received him very courteously, 
and supplied him and his people with all necessaries. 

After this, with a strong hand and outstretched arm, he 
passed through the territory of the sultan of Iconium, and when 
he had come into Armenia, the territory of Rupin de La- 
montaigne, at a river which bears the name of Salef, when half of 
his army had forded the stream, he, while accompanying the rest, 

''•^ *' Regni," " of the kingdom," in the text, is clearly erroneous. 

^ Probably Scotland. ^^ In this and the next instance we have 

adopted the words of Roger of Wendover, instead of those in our author, 
which are '• Reemia," and " Boemia." It seems impossible to say what 
country is meant by *' Reemia;*' but it is most probably a misprint, 

*^ Incorrectly in the text, '* Frisia." 

^■^ This absolutely stands in the text as •' Araonitana Narcia," instead 
of '* Anconitana Marcia ! ! " t 



A.D. 1188. PRA.YERS FOK THE LAND OF JERUSALEM. 103 

fell from his horse into the river, and was the only person 
drowned. Accordingly, they drew him on shore, and there 
disemhowelled him ; after which, his entrails, brains, and flesh, 
which had been boiled in water, and thus separated from the 
bones, were buried in the city of Antioch. His bones being 
wrapped in clean linen, Conrad, duke of Suabia, his son, carried 
them with him to the city of Tyre,^^ where he buried them. 

In the same year, it was enacted by our lord the pope and 
the cardinals that prayers should be put up to the Lord by 
the Church Universal, without intermission, for the peace and 
deliverance of the land of Jerusalem and of the Christian captives 
who were confined in chains by the Saracens. Mass was 
performed each day in the church of Saint Paul in the follow- 
ing form : when the priest had said ^' Pax Domini sit semper 
vobiscum" [the peace of the Lord be with you always], and the 
choir had made answer **Et cum spirituo tuo" [and with thy 
spirit\ before the ** Agnus Dei" [the Larrib of God~\ w^as be- 
gun, the priest or praecentor commenced with this antiphone, 
**Tuaest potentia, tuum regnum. Domine, tu es super omnes 
gentes. Da pacem, Domine, in diebus nostris" [ Thine is the power y 
thine is the kingdom. Lord ! thou art above all nations. Grant 
peace, Lord, iii our days.] On the Lord^s day, this was ac- 
companied with the following Psalm, beginning ^' Quare fre- 
mueunt gentes'' [ Why do the heathen rage?] ;^^ on Monday, with 
this Psalm, ^^ Deus, in nomine tuo, salvum me fac" [Save me, 
God, by thy name] ;^ on Tuesday, with this Psalm, *' Deus repu- 
listi nos et destruxisti?" [ God, Why hast thou cast us out?] ^ on 
Wednesday, with this Psalm, ^ * TJt quid Deus, repulisti in finem ? ' ' 
[ God, why hast thou cast us off for ever ?^ on Thursday, with 
this Psalm, ** Deus, venerunt gentes in heereditatem tuam" [0 
God, the heatheyi are come into thine inheritance] ;* on Friday, with 
this Psalm, ^^ Deus quis similis erit tibi" [God, who shall be like 
unto Thee ?]^ and on Saturday, with this Psalm, ** Deus, ulti- 
onum Dominus" [0 Lord God, to whom vengeance belongeth].^ 
After having repeated these Psalms and the antiphone before- 
mentioned, the '^ Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie elei- 
8on''^was to follow, and then the ^^Paternoster" and the 
prayer ^* Et ne nos;" ^ [after which the following sentences were 

^^ Menzel, Hist. Germ, says Antioch. 

^^ Psalm ii. ^ Psalm liv. - Psalm Ix . ^ Psalm Ixxiv. 

"* Psalm Ixxix. ^ Psalm Ixxxii. This Psalm begins differently in our 
version. ^ Psalm civ. ' " Lord have mercy upon us. Christ have 

mercy upon us. Lord have mercy upon us.' * " And lead us not." 



104 ANNALS OF KOGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. IIS-S. 

to be repeated] *' Lord, shew unto us thy mercy. Let thy 
mercy, Lord, be shewn upon us. Lord, deal not with us 
after our sins. Hem ember not our former iniquities. Assist 
us, Lord of our salvation. Save thy people, Lord. Ee 
thou to them, Lord, a tower of strength. Let not their 
enemies prevail against them. Let there be peace through 
thy might, Lord. Lord God of might, correct us. Lord, 
hear our prayer. The Lord be with you.'' '* Let us pray." 
** Almighty and everlasting God, in whose hands are the power 
and rule of all kingdoms, in thy mercy look upon the Christian 
armies, that the heathen who put trust in their own valour 
may be vanquished by the might of thy right hand." 

In the same year, Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, by 
means of the influence of the king, seized into his own hands 
the priory of the Holy Trinity at Canterbury ; and having ex- 
pelled the monks who held offices therein from their said offices, 
placed his own servants in their room, and refused sustenance to 
the monks. In this year also, Honorius, prior of the church of 
Canterbuiy, having gone to Home to preclude the restitution of 
his house, departed this life atEome, together with all the monks 
whom he had taken with him. In the same year, Hugh, bishop 
of Durham, having assumed the cross, gave the priory in charge 
to the prior and convent of Durham, for which they were bound 
to pay two hundred marks or more, and which he for the profits 
thereof had retained in his hands for a period of two years. 

In the same j^ear, our lord the pope, hearing of the death 
of Henry, the cardinal-bishop of Albano, whom he had sent for 
the purpose of settling the dispute between the king of France 
and the king of England, sent cardinal John of Anagni for 
the same purpose. In the same year, William, king of the Scots, 
sent envoys to Clement, the Supreme Pontiff, and obtained 
from him letters of protection to the following effect : — 

The Letter of pope Clement to Wtlltam, king of the Scots, as to 
the exemption of the churches of his kingdom, 

*' Clement, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to 
his dearly-beloved son in Christ, William, the illustrious king 
of the Scots, health and the Apostolic benediction. Whereas 
all persons subject to the yoke of Christ ought to find favour 
and protection at the Apostolic See, it is most especially proper 
that those should be supported with our defence and protection 
whose fidelity and dutifulness have been exj^erienced on the 



A.D. 1188. LETTER OF POPE CLi:MEyT. 105 

most occasions, to the end that a stronger inducement may 
be held out to obtain the favours consequent upon such a 
choice, and duteous affection and reverence to the same may- 
be more generally extended, from the fact of its being known 
that they will certainly obtain the pledges of its benevolence 
and favour. Wherefore, most dearly-beloved son in Christ, 
considering the reverence and dutifulness which for a long 
period we know you to have felt towards the Church of Eome, 
by the pages of this present writing we have thought proper 
to enact that the Church of Scotland, as an especial daughter 
thereof, shall be subject to the Apostolic See, with no inter- 
mediate party thereto ; ^ in which Church the following are 
recognized as episcopal sees ; namely, the churches of Saint 
Andrew's, Glasgow, Dunkeld, Dumblane, Brechin, Aberdeen, 
Moray, Eoss, and Caithness. And it is to be lawful for no 
one but the Roman Pontiff or his legate a latere to pronounce 
against the kingdom of Scotland any sentence of interdict or 
excommunication; and if such shall be pronounced, we do 
hereby decree that the same shall not be valid ; we do also 
declare that it shall not be lawful for any person in future who 
is not a subject of the king of Scotland, or one whom the 
Apostolic See shall have especially appointed from its body for 
that purpose, to hold courts in the said kingdom for the settle- 
ment of disputes therein. We do moreover forbid that any dis- 
putes which may exist in the said kingdom as to its possessions, 
shall be brought for judgment before judges out of that king- 
dom, except in cases of appeal to the Eoman Church. And 
further, if any written enactments shall appear to have been 
obtained in contravention of the liberties hereby granted by 
enactment, or if in future, no mention being therein made of 
this concession, any such shall happen to be granted, nothing 
to the prejudice of yourself or of your kingdom is thereby to 
arise with reference to the concession of the above-mentioned 
prerogative ; but we do enact that the liberties and immunities 
that have in their indulgence been granted to you or to the said 
kingdom or to the churches therein existing by our predecessors 
the Eoman Pontiffs, and hitherto observed, shall be hereby 
ratified, and shall at all future times remain untouched. Let no 
man therefore deem it lawful to infringe upon the tenor of this 
our constitution and prohibition, or in any way to contravene 
the same. And^ if any person shall presume to attempt so to 
5 Without any archbishop holding intermediate authority. 



106 ANNALS OF BOGER DE HOTEDEN. A.l). 1189. 

do, let him know tliat he will thereby incur the indignation 
of Almighty God and of the Apostles Saint Peter and Saint 
Paul. Given at the Lateran, on the third day before the 
ides of March, in the first year of our pontificate.'^ 

In the year of grace 1 1 89, being the thirty-fifth and last jear 
of the reign of king Henry, son of the empress Matilda, the said 
Henry was at Saumur, in Anjou, on the day of the Nativity of 
our Lord, which fell on the Lord's day, and there he kept 
that festival ; although many of his earls and barons, deserting 
him, had gone over to the king of Prance and earl Pichard 
against him. After the feast of Saint Hilary, the truce being 
broken, which existed between the before-named kings, the 
king of Prance, and earl Eichard and the Bretons, (with whom 
the said king of Prance and earl Eichard had entered into 
covenants, and had given sureties that if they should make 
peace with the king of England, they would not omit to include 
them in that peace,) made a hostile incursion into the territo- 
ries of the king of England, and ravaged them in every direction. 

On this, the cardinal John of Anagni came to the before- 
named kings in behalf of our lord the pope, and sometimes 
with kind words, sometimes with threats, exhorted them to 
make peace. Moved by his urgent entreaties, the said kings, 
by the inspiration of the Divine grace, gave security that they 
would abide by the decision of himself, and of the archbishops 
of Eheims, Bourges, Eouen, and Canterbury, and named as the 
day for a conference to be held near La Pert^ Bernard, the oc- 
tave of Pentecost ; on which the before-named cardinal, and the 
four archbishops above-mentioned, pronounced sentence of ex- 
communication against all, both clergy and laity, who should 
stand in the way of peace being made between the said kings, 
the persons of the kings alone excepted. 

On the day of the conference, the king of Prance, and the 
king of England, earl Eichard, the cardinal John of Anagni, 
and the four archbishops before- mentioned, who had been 
chosen for the purpose, and the earls and barons of fiie two 
kingdoms, met for a conference near La Pert(^ Bernard. At 
this conference, the king of Prance demanded of the king of 
England, his sister Alice to be given in marriage to Eichard, 
earl of Poitou, and that fealty for his dominions should be 
sworn to the said Eichard, and that his brother John, assuming 
the cross, should set out for Jerusalem. To this the king of 
England made answer that he would never consent to such a 



A.D. 1189. DEFEAT OF THE KLN^G OF ENGLAIs^D. 107 

proposal, and oifered the king of Prance, if he should think 
fit to assent thereto, to give the said Alice in marriage to his 
son John, with all the matters previously mentioned more at 
large, more fully and more completely than the king de- 
manded. The king of France would not agree to this ; on 
which, putting an end to the conference, they separated, mutu- 
ally displeased. However, the cardinal John of Anagni declared 
that if the king of France did not come to a complete arrange- 
ment witli the king of England, he would place the whole of 
his territory under interdict; to which the king of France 
made answer, that he should not dread his sentence and that 
he cared nothing for it, as it was supported upon no grounds 
of justice. For, he said, it was not the duty of the Church 
of Eome to punish the kingdom of France by its sentence or 
in any other manner, if the king of France should think fit 
to punish any vassals of his who had shewn themselves un- 
deserving, and rebellious against his sway, for the purpose of 
avenging the insult to his crown ; he also added, that the be- 
fore-named cardinal had already smelt the sterling coin of the 
king of England. Then closing the interview, the king of 
France departed thence, and took La Fert^ Bernard, and then 
Montfort, and next Malestroit, Beaumont, and Balim. 

After this he came to Le Mans, on the Lord's day, pretend- 
ing that he was going to set out for Tours on the ensuing 
Monday ; but when the king of England and his people seemed 
to have made themselves at ease as to the further progress of 
the king of France, he drew out his forces in battle array, for 
the purpose of making an assault upon the city. This being 
perceived by Stephen de Tours, the seneschal of Anjou, he set 
fire to the suburbs. The fire, however, rapidly gaining strength 
and volume, running along the walls, communicated with the 
city ; seeing which, the Franks approached a bridge of stone, 
where Geoffirey de Burillun and many with him of the party 
of the king of England met them with the intention of pulling 
down the bridge ; on which, a desperate conflict took place, 
and a great part of the armies were slain on both sides, and in 
the conflict, the before named Geoffrey was taken prisoner, and 
wounded in the thigh ; many others also of the king of Eng- 
land's army were taken, while the rest immediately took to 
flight, with the intention of betaking themselves to the city, 
but the Franks entered it with them. 



108 AI^ALS OF EOGER DE HOYEDEK. A.D. 1189. 

The king of England seeing this, and being in a state of 
desperation, contrary to his promise when he came, took to 
flight with seven hundred of his knights. For he had pro- 
mised the inhabitants of that city that he would not forsake 
them, giving it as his reason, that his father rested there, as 
also, the circumstance that he himself was born there, and 
loved that city more than all others. The king of France pur- 
sued liim for three miles ; and if the stream which the Franks 
forded had not been very wide and deep, they would have 
pursued them as they fled with such swiftness, that they 
would have been all taken prisoners. In this flight, many 
of the "Welch were slain. The king of England, however, with 
a few of his men, got to Chinon and there took refuge within 
the fort. The rest of the household of the king of England 
who were surviving, took refuge within the tower of Le Mans ; 
immediately on which, the king of France laid siege to the 
town, and, partly through his miners, partly the assaults of 
his engines, the tower was surrendered to him within three 
days, together with thirty knights and sixty men at arms. 

Marching thence, he took Mont Double by surrender of the 
castle and its lord. For the viscount of this castle had been 
the means, indeed, the especial cause, of this catastrophe ; for, 
lying in ambush, he had, armed, fallen upon Geoflrey, the earl 
of Yendome, who was unarmed, and had wounded him so seri- 
ously, that at first his life was despaired of, though by the grace 
of God he afterwards entirely recovered from the efl'ects thereof. 
The king of France was the more vexed at his acting thus, be- 
cause the before-named viscount had strictly bound himself to 
the king of France, by a promise that he would injure none of 
his people either in going or returning, or annoy him while 
engaged in the siege of Le Mans. The king departing thence, 
the castle of Trou was surrendered to him, together with Roche, 
I'Eveque, Montoire, Chateau Carcere, Chateau Loire, Chateau 
Chaumont, Chateau d' Amboise, and Chateau de Roche Charbon. 

At length, on the sixth day of the week after the festival of 
the I^ativity of Saint John, on the day after the feast of Saint 
Peter and Saint Paul the Apostles, the king of France came to 
Tours. On the Lord's day next after this, Philip, earl of 
Flanders, William, archbishop of Rheims, and Hugh, duke of 
Burgundy, came to the king of England, who was then at 
Saumur, for the purpose of making peace between him and the 



A. D. 1189. PEACE BETWEEN ENGLAND AND FKANCE. 109 

king of France. The king of Erance had, however, sent him 
word before they set out, that from Chateau Saint Martin, 
whither he had betaken himself by fording the Loire, he 
should make an attack upon the city. Accordingly, on the 
ensuing Monday, at about the third hour, applying their 
scaling ladders to the walls on the side of the Loire, which on 
account of the small quantity of the water, was much contracted 
and reduced, the city was taken by storm, and in it eighty 
knights and a hundred men at arms. 

To their great disgrace, on the one side, the Poitevins were 
planning treachery against their liege lord the king of England, 
and on the other the Bretons, w^ho had joined the king of 
France, and had obtained from him letters patent, to the 
effect that he would never make peace with the king of Eng- 
land unless the Bretons were included in the treaty. Ac- 
cordingly, the king of England, being reduced to straits, made 
peace with Philip, king of Prance, on the foUow^ing terms : — 

Conditions of peace made hetween Henry, king of England and, 

Philijj, king of France. 

*' Upon this, the before-named king of France and king of 
England, and liichard, earl of Poitou, with their archbishops, 
bishops, earls, and barons, about the time of the feast of the 
Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul, held a conference between 
Tours and Arasie, where the king of England wholly placed 
himself under the control and at the will of the king of France. 
The king of England then did homage to the king of France, 
although ^^ at the beginning of the war he had renounced the 
lordship of the king of France, and the king of France had 
quitted all claim of his homage. It was then provided by the 
king of France that Alice, his sister, whom the king of Eng- 
land had in his charge, should be given up and placed in the 
charge of one of five persons, of whom earl liichard should make 
choice. It was next provided by the king of France that se- 
curity should be given by the oath of certain men of that land 
that his said sister should be delivered up to earl Eichard on 
his return from Jerusalem, and that earl Eichard should receive 
the oath of fealty from his father's subjects on both sides the 
sea, and that none of the barons or knights who had in that 
war withdrawn from the king of England and come over to earl 
Eichard should again return to the king of England, except 
^^ Meaning that it was done previous to the war breaking out. 



110 ANNALS OF KOGER DE HOVEDEN. a.d. 1189. 

in the last month before his setting out for Jerusalem ; the 
time of which setting out was to be Mid-Lent, at which pe- 
riod the said kings and earl Eichard were to be at Yezelay. 
That all the burgesses of the vills^ demesne of the king of 
England, should be unmolested throughout all the lands of 
the king of France, and should enjoy their own customary 
laws and not be impleaded in any matter, uqIcss they should 
be guilty of felony. The king of England was to pay to 
the king of Erance twenty thousand marks of silver ; and all 
the barons of the king of England were to make oath that if 
the king of England should refuse to observe the said cove- 
nants, they would hold with the king of Erance and earl Rich- 
ard, and would aid them to the best of their ability against 
the king of England. The king of Erance and earl Richard 
were to hold in their hands the city of Le Mans, the city of 
Tours, Chateau Loire, and the castle of Trou ; or else, if the king 
of England should prefer it, the king of Erance and earl Richard 
would hold the castle of Gisors, the castle of Pasci, and the 
castle of JS^ovacourt, until such time as all the matters should 
be completed as arranged above by the king of Erance. 

While the before -named kings were conferring in person 
hereon, the Lord thundered over them, and a thunderbolt fell 
between the two, but did them no injury ; they were, however, 
greatly alarmed, and separated accordingly, while all who were 
with them were astonished that the thunder had^ been heard 
so suddenly, seeing that no lowering clouds had preceded it. 
After a short time the kings again met together for a confer- 
ence, on which a second time thunder was heard, still louder 
and more terrible than before, the sky retaining its original 
sereneness; in consequence of which, the king of England, 
being greatly alarmed, would have fallen to the ground from 
the horse on which he was mounted, if he had not been sup- 
ported by the hands of those who were standing around him. 
Erom that time he entirely placed himself at the will of the 
king of France, and concluded peace on the terms above- 
written, requesting that the names of all those who, desert- 
ing him, had gone over to the king of France and earl Richard, 
should be committed to writing and given to him. This being 
accordingly done, he found the name of his son John written 
at the beginning of the list. 

Surprised at this beyond measure, he came to Chinon, and. 



A.V. 1189. ACCESSION OF BICHARD TO THE THRONE. Ill 

touched with grief at heart, cursed the day on which he was 
born, and pronounced upon his sons the curse of God and of 
himself, which he would never withdraw, although bishops and 
other religious men frequently admonished him so to do. Being 
sick even unto death, he ordered himself to be carried into 
the church, before the altar, and there devoutly received the 
communion of the body and blood of Christ ; and after con- 
fessing his sins, and being absolved by the bishop and clergy, 
he departed this life in the thirty-fifth year of his reign, on the 
octave of the Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul, being the 
fifth day of the week ; after a reign of thirty- four years, seven 
months, and four days. 

After his death, having plundered him of all his riches, all 
forsook him ; so true it is that just as flies seek honey, wolves 
the carcase, and ants corn, this crew followed not the man, but 
his spoils. At last however, his servants returned, and buried 
him with royal pomp. On the day after his death, when he 
was being carried out for burial in the Church of the IN^uns at 
Fontevraud, earl Richard, his son and heir, came to meet him, 
and, smitten with compunction, wept bitterly; immediately 
on which the blood flowed in streams from the nostrils of the 
body at the approach of his son. His son, however, proceeded 
with the body of his father to the abbey of Fontevraud, and 
there buried him. in the choir of the Nuns, and thus it was that 
he was ^' among the veiled women as one wearing the veil."^" 

EICHARD THE FIEST. 

The king being thus buried, earl Eichard, his son, imme- 
diately laid hands on Stephen de Tours, the seneschal of 
Anjou, and, throwing him into prison, loaded him with heavy 
fetters and iron manacles, and demanded of him the cas- 
tles and treasures of the king, his father, which he had in 
his possession; and, after the same had been delivered up, earl 
Eichard'^ took ransom from him to the uttermost farthing. 
Just the time at which the before-named king of England died, 
Matilda, duchess of Saxony, his daughter, died. 

After this, the said earl Eichard came to Eouen, and was 
girded with the sword of the dukedom of JS'ormandy by Walter, 
the archbishop of Eouen, in presence of the bishops, earls, and 

^^ Alluding to the prophecy of the Cistercian monk, mentioned before 
in p. 100. 

^** So called, as not yet being crowned king of England. 



112 AXFALS OF ROGER DE HOVEDEX. A.D. 1189. 

barons of ^N^orinandy, on Saint Margaret's day, being the fifth 
day of the week, and the thirteenth day before the calends of 
August. Having then received the oaths of fealty from the 
clergy and the people of the dukedom of JSTormandy, he gave 
to Geoffrey, son of Hotrod, earl of Per die, his niece, Matilda, 
daughter of the duke of Saxony, in marriage. 

On the third day after this, that is to say, on the feast of 
Saint Mary Magdalen, Philip, king of France, and Eichard, 
duke of jN^ormandy, met to hold a conference between Chau- 
mont and Trie. Here the king of Prance urgently requested 
that the duke of [N'ormandy would restore to him Gisors, and 
many other places, which it would be tedious individually to 
mention. But Eichard, seeing that if he did so, it would re- 
dound to his everlasting loss and disgrace, added to the before- 
mentioned twenty thousand marks of silver, which the king, 
his feather, had covenanted that he would pay to the king of 
France, another four thousand marks of silver, and by these 
obtained his favour and regard ; and the king of France restored 
to him everything that he had taken in war from the king, his 
father, both castles as well as cities, and other fortified places, 
and vills and farms as well. 

In the meantime, queen Eleanor, the mother of the before- 
named duke, moved her royal court from city to city, and from 
castle to castle, just as she thought proper ; and sending mes- 
sengers throughout all the counties of England, ordered that 
all captives should be liberated from prison and confinement, 
for the good of the soul of Henry, her lord ; inasmuch as, in 
her own person, she had learnt hj experience ^* that confinement 
is distasteful to mankind, and that it is a most delightful re- 
freshm.ent to the spirits to be liberated therefrom. She, more- 
over, gave directions, in obedience to the orders of her son, 
the duke, that all who had been taken in custody for fore- 
stal oifences should be acquitted thereof and released, and 
that all persons who had been outlawed for forestal ofi'ences . 
should return in peace, acquitted of all previous offences 
against the forest laws; and further, that all persons who 
had been taken and detained by the will of the king, or of 
his justice, and who had not been detained according to the 
common law of the county or hundred, or on appeal, sliould be 
acquitted ; and that those who were detained by the common 
law, if they could find sureties that they would make due re- 

^'* She had been kept sixteen years in close confinement by her hus- 
band, king Henry. 



A.D. 1189. ' EDICTS OF QUEEN ELEANOR. 113 

dress at law, in case any person should think proper to make 
any charge against them, should be set at liberty; if, also, 
they should make oath that they would make due redress, 
if any person should think proper to make any charge against 
them, even then they were to be set at liberty just as much. 
Those, also, who, on appeal, had been detained in custody upon 
any criminal matter, if they could find sureties that they 
would make due reparation and in full, were to be set at 
liberty. Those, also, who were outlawed at common law, with- 
out appeal, by the justices, were to return in peace, on condi- 
tion that they should find sureties that they would make duo 
reparation at law, if any person should think proper to allege 
anything against them ; and if they had been convicted ^^ 
upon appeal made, if they could make peace with their ad- 
versaries, they were to return in peace. All those persons, 
also, who were detained upon the appeaP^ of those who knew 
that they were evildoers, were to be set at liberty, free and 
unmolested. Those evildoers who, for their evidence, had 
been pardoned life and limb, were to abjure the territory of 
their lord, Eichard, and to depart therefrom ; while those evil- 
doers who, without any pardon of life or limb, had accused 
others of their own free-will, were to be detained in prison, 
until their cases should have received due consideration. 

It was further ordered, that every free man throughout the 
whole kingdom should make oath that he would preserve his 
fealty to his lord Eichard, king of England, son of our lord 
king Henry and queen Eleanor, his wife, with life and limb, 
and worldly honors, as being his liege lord, against all men 
and women whatsoever, who might live and die, and that 
they would be obedient to him, and would give him aid in all 
things for the maintenance of his peace and of justice. 

In addition to this, the said duke of IsTormandy restored to 
Eobert; earl of Leicester, all his lands, which his father had 
taken from him, and restored all persons to their former 
rights, whom his father had deprived of their possessions. All 
those persons, however, clergy as well as laity, who, leaving his 
father, had adhered to himself, he held in abhorrence, and 
banished from his acquaintanceship; while those who had 

16 The word ♦* appellatio," " appeal,'^ is used in these several instances 
in its sense of an accusation made of the commission of a heinous crime, 
by one subject against the other. In this sense it is derived from the 
Trench verb ** appeller," "to summon," or " challenge." 
VOL. II. I 



114 ANNALS OF E06EK DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1189. 

faitlifuUy served his father, he retained with him, and enriched 
with numerous benefits. 

After this, the said duke passed over to England from Har- 
fleur on the ides of August, being the Lord's day before the 
Assumption of Saint Mary, the Mother of God, while Walter, 
archbishop of Eouen, Henry, bishop of Bayeux, and John, 
bishop of Evreux, who had preceded him to England, were tliere 
awaiting his arrival. There came also from Normandy, Bald- 
win, archbishop of Canterbury, Gilbert, bishop of Eochester, 
Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, and Hugh, bishop of Chester, on 
which the duke and his brother John crossed over : at the 
arrival of whom, their kingdoms rejoiced, because they trusted 
that through them they might be brought to a better state. 
And although some, though but very few, were hurt at the 
death of the king, still it was some consolation that, as the 
poet says, ^* "Wonders I sing, the sun has set, no night ensued;*' ^^ 
for truly no night did ensue after the setting of the sun. Eor 
a ray of the sun,^^ occupying the throne of the sun, spreads its 
own lustre more brilliantly, and to a greater distance than its 
own original sun. For when the sun has set below the earth 
from his throne, his ray, still remaining, and subject to neither 
eclipse or setting, being suddenly cut off from the body of the 
sun, and wholly reflected back upon itself, as though a sun it- 
self, it becomes much greater and much more brilliant than the 
sun, of which it was a ray, by reason of no clouds intervening 
and no impediment obstructing its course. But, in order that 
no difficulties may harass the mind of the reader, the mean- 
ing of this may be mo?:e fully ascertained on reading the fol- 
lowing pentameter: 

** Sol pater, et radius filius ejus erat.'^^^ 

And thus, the son becoming greater and greater, enlarged the 
good works of his father, while the bad ones he cut short. 

^" Mira canam, sol occubuit, nox nulla secuta est. ^^ The mean- 

ing of this passage is very obscure, indeed it seems solely framed as a 
quaint conceit, for the purpose of punning upon the words *' sol," "solum," 
and the like. It is as follows, " Nam radius soils solium soils seriens, 
sol& suo jubar lucidius ac latius spargit. Cum enim sol a suo sollo m 
golum deciderit, stans tamen ejus radius, occasum vel eclipsim nesciens 
de corpore solari repente divisus, et in se solide reverberatus sol, sole^ 
cujus fuit radius, nulla nubium interpolatione vel injuria impediente 
multo major, et lucidior est effectus." He seems obscurely to allude to 
the superior prosperity of Richard over his father, in consequence of having 
no domestic grievances through undutiful children, who had brought clouds 
over his sunshine. ^^ " The father was the sun, his son his ray." 



A.D. 1189. PEOMOTIONS BY THE DIJKE OF NOEMANDT. 115 

For those whom the father disinherited, the son restored to 
their former rights ; those whom the father had banished, the 
son recalled ; those whom the father kept confined in irons, 
the son allowed to depart unhurt ; those upon whom the father, 
in the cause of justice, inflicted punishment, the son, in the 
cause of humanity, forgave. 

Accordingly, as already stated, Eichard, tlie said duke of 
I^ormandy, son of Henry, king of England, lately deceased, 
came over to England ; on which he gave to his brother John 
the earldom of Mortaigne, and the earldoms of Cornwall, 
Dorset, Somerset, IS'ottingham, Derby, Lancaster, and the 
castles of Marlborough and of Luggershall, with the forests 
and all their appurtenances; the honor also of Wallingford, 
the honor of Tickhill, and the honor of Haye ; he also gave him 
the earldom of Gloucester, together with the daughter of the 
late earl, and caused her to be immediately married to him, 
Ealdwin, archbishop of Canterbury, forbidding it, because they 
were related by blood in the fourth degree. He also gave to 
him the Peak and Bolsover ; but the duke retained some castles 
of the before-named counties and honors in his own hands. 

In addition to this, the said duke gave to Andrew de 
Chauvigny the daughter of Eaoul de Dol, with the honor 
of Chateau Eaoul, in Eerry, (she having been the wife of Bald- 
win, earl of Eivers), and had them immediately married at 
Salisburj^, in presence of queen Eleanor ; he also gave to 
William Marshal the daughter of Eichard, earl of Striguil,-^ 
with the earldom of Striguil; and to Gilbert, son of Eoger 
Eitz-Eainfray, he gave the daughter of William de Lancaster. 
To Geoffrey, his own bastard brother, who had been formerly 
bishop-elect of Lincoln, he gave the archbishopric of York ; 
the canons having, with the king's consent, elected him to 
the archbishopric of York. And although Master Bar- 
tholomew, acting as the deputy of Hurbert Eitz- Walter, the 
dean of that church, both before the election and after it, ap- 
pealed to the presence of the Supreme Pontiif, because 
Hugh, bishop of Durham, and an especial son of that church, 
and Hubert Eitz-Walter, dean of the said church, to which 
parties belonged the first votes in the election, were absent, 
still, the said canons were determined not to abandon their 
purpose, but elected the person above-named, and under their 
seals confirmed the said election. 

20 Strongbow, earl of Pembroke. 

i2 



116 ANNALS OF HOGEE DE HOYEDEN. A. D. 1189. 

However, on the bishop of Durham and Hubert Fitz-Walter 
making complaint as to this illegal conduct on the part of the 
canons, the duke gave orders that all things relative to the 
church of York should be in the same state as they were on 
the day on which his father had been living and dead ; and 
accordingly the ecclesiastical rights of the archbishopric re- 
turned into the hands of Hubert Fitz-Walter and his deputies 
as before, while the secular benefices of the said archbishop 
returned into the charge of the servants of the duke. 

In the same year, Geoffrey, bishop of Ely, departed this 
life at Winchester, on the twelfth day before the calends 
of September, and being carried to Ely was buried there ; 
on which duke Eichard took possession of all his treasures. 
The said duke also sent his bishops, earls, and barons to all 
the treasuiies of the king, his father, and caused all the trea- 
sures found, consisting of gold and silver, to be counted and 
weighed ; the number and weight of which it would be tedious 
to mention, inasmuch as this amount of treasure far exceeded 
in tale and weight one hundred thousand marks. After 
this, he sent his servants and bailiffs throughout all the sea- 
ports of England, Normandy, Poitou, and others of his lands, 
and caused the largest and best of all the ships to be selected 
for himself, which were able to carry large freights, and then 
distributed some of them among those of his friends who had 
assumed the cross for the purpose of setting out for Jerusalem, 
while the others were reserved for his own use. 

The duke then came to London, the archbishops, bishops, 
earls, and barous^ and a vast multitude of knights, coming 
thither to meet him ; by whose consent and advice he was 
consecrated and crowned king of England, at Westminster, 
in London, on the third day before the nones of September, 
being the Lord's Day and the feast of the ordination of Saint 
Gregory, the pope (the same being also an Egyptian day"'), 
by Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, who was assisted at 
the coronation by Walter, archbishop of Eouen, John, arch- 
bishop of Dublin, 'Eormalis, archbishop of Treves, Hugh, 
bishop of Durham, Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, Hugh, bishop of 
Chester, William, bishop of Hereford, William, bishop of 

21 ^Egyptian days were unlucky days, of which there were said to be 
two in each month. It is supposed that they were so called from an 
Egyptian superstition, that it was not lucky to bleed or begin any new 
work on those days. 



A.D. 1189. THE COEONATION OY KING KICHAED. 117 

Worcester, John, bishop of Exeter, Eeginald, bishop of Bath, 
John, bishop of ]!^orwich, Sefrid, bishop of Chichester, Gilbert, 
bishop of Eochester, Peter, bishop of Baint David's, the bishop 
of Saint Asaph, the bishop of Eangor, Albinus, bishop of 
Ferns, and Concord, bishop of Aghadoe, while nearly all the 
abbats, priors, earls, and barons of England were present. 

The Order of the Coronation of Richard, King of England. 

First came the bishops, abbats, and large numbers of the 
clergy, wearing silken hoods, preceded by the cross, taper-bearers, 
censers, and holy water, as far as the door of the king's inner 
chamber ; where they received the before-named duke, and es- 
corted him to the church of Westminster, as far as the high altar, 
in solemn procession, with chaunts of praise, while all the way 
along which they went, from the door of the king's chamber to the 
altar, was covered with woollen cloth. The order of the procession 
was as follows : First came the clergy in their robes, carrying 
holy water, and the cross, tapers, and censers. Next came 
the priors, then the abbats, and then the bishops, in the midst 
of whom walked four barons, bearing four candlesticks of 
gold ; after whom came Godfrey de Lucy, bearing the king's cap 
[of maintenance], and John Marshal by him, carrying two 
great and massive spurs of gold. After these came William 
Marshal, earl of Striguil, bearing the royal sceptre of gold, 
on the top of which was a cross of gold, and by him William 
Fitz-Patrick, earl of Salisbury, bearing a rod of gold, having 
on its top a dove of gold. After them came David, earl 
of Huntingdon, brother of the king of Scotland, Jolm, 
earl of Mortaigne, the duke's brother, and Eobert, earl of 
Leicester, carrying three golden swords from the king's 
treasurv, the scabbards of which were worked all over with 
gold ; the earl of Mortaigne vralking in the middle. ISText 
came six earls and six barons, carrying on their shoulders a 
very large chequer, upon which were placed the royal arms 
and robes ; and after them William de Mandeville, earl of 
Aumarle, carrying a great and massive crown of gold, deco- 
rated on every side with precious stones. Next came Eichard, 
duke of Normandy, Hugh, bishop of Durham, walking at his 
right hand, and Eeginald, bishop of Bath, at his left, and 
four barons holding over them a canopy of silk on four lofty 
■Bpears. Then followed a great number of earls, barons, 



118 ANNALS OF EOGEB DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1189. 

knights, and others, both clergy and laity, as far as the porch of 
the church, and dressed in their robes, entered with the duke, 
and proceeded as far as the choir. 

When the duke had come to the altar, in presence of the 
archbishops, bishops, clergy, and people, kneeling before the 
altar, with the holy Evangelists placed before him, and many 
relics of the saints, according to custom, he swore that ho 
would all the days of his life observe peace, honor, and reverence 
towards God, the Holy Church, and its ordinances. He also 
swore that he would exercise true justice and equity towards 
the people committed to his charge. He also swore that he 
would abrogate bad laws and unjust customs, if any such had 
been introduced into his kingdom, and would enact good laws, 
and observe the same w^ithout fraud or evil intent. After this 
they took off all his clothes from the waist upwards, except 
his shirt and breeches ; his shirt having been previously separated 
over the shoulders ; after which they shod him with sandals em- 
broidered with gold. Then Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, 
pouring holy oil upon his head, anointed him king in three places, 
on his head, breast, and arms, which signifies glory, valour, and 
knowledge, with suitable prayers for the occasion ; after which 
the said archbishop placed a consecrated linen cloth on his 
head, and upon that the cap which Geoffrey de Lucy had 
carried. They then clothed him in the royal robes, first a tunic, 
and then a dalmatic ; after which the said archbishop delivered 
to him the sword of rule, with which to crush evil-doers 
against the Church: this done, two earls placed the spurs 
upon his feet, which John Marshal had carried. After this, 
being robed in a mantle, he was led to the altar, where the 
said archbishop forbade him, in the name of Almighty God, to 
presume to take upon him this dignity, unless he had the full 
intention inviolably to observe the oaths and vows before- 
mentioned which he had made ; to which he made answer that, 
i^sdth God^s assistance, he would without reservation observe 
them all. After this, he himself took the crown from the altar 
and gave it to the archbishop ; on which, the archbishop de- 
livered it to him, and placed it upon his head, it being 
supported by two earls in consequence of its extreme weight. 
After this, the archbishop delivered to him the sceptre to hold 
in his right hand, while he held the rod of royalty in his left ; 
and, having been thus crowned, the king was led back to his 
seat by the before-named bishops of Durham and Bath, pre- 



A.D. 1189. PEKSECUTION OF THE JEWS. 119 

ceded by the taper-bearers and the three swords before-men- 
tioned. After this, the mass of our Lord was commenced, and, 
when they came to the offertorj^, the before-named bishops led 
him to the altar, where he offered one mark of the purest gold, 
such being the proper offering for the king at each coronation ; 
after which, the bishops before-named led him back to his seat. 
The mass having been concluded, and all things solemnly per- 
formed, the two bishops before-named, one on the right hand 
the other on the left, led him back from the church to his 
chamber, crowned, and carrying a sceptre in his right hand and 
the rod of royalty in his left, the procession going in the same 
order as before. Then the procession returned to the choir, 
and our lord the king put off his royal crown and robes of 
royalty, and put on a crown and robes that were lighter ; and, 
thus crowned, went to dine ; on which the archbishops and 
bishops took their seats with him at the table, each according 
to his rank and dignity. The earls and barons also served in 
the king's palace, according to their several dignities ; while 
the citizens of London served in the cellars, and the citizens 
of Winchester in the kitchen. 

While the king was seated at table, the chief men of 
the Jews came to offer presents to him, but as they had 
been forbidden the day before to come to the king's court on 
the day of the coronation, the common people, with scprnful 
eye and insatiable heart, rushed upon the Jews and stripped 
them, and then scourging them, cast them forth out of the 
king's hall. Among these was Benedict, a Jew^ of York, who, 
after having been so maltreated and wounded by the Christians 
that his life was despaired of, was baptized by William, prior 
of the church of Saint Mary at York, in the church of the 
Innocents, and was named William, and thus escaped the peril 
of death and the hands of the persecutors. 

The citizens of London, on hearing of this, attacked the 
Jews in the city and burned their houses ; but by the kindness 
of their Christian friends, some few made their escape. On 
the day after the coronation, the king sent his servants, and 
caused those offenders to be arrested who had set fire to the 
city; not for the sake of the Jews, but on account of the houses 
and property of the Christians which they had burnt and 
plundered, and he ordered some of them to be hanged. 

On the same day, the king ordered the before-named William, 
who from a Jew had become a Christian, to be presented to 



120 AN^NALS OF ROGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1189. 

him, on which he said to him, ^* What person are you?'' to 
which he made answer, ^* I am Benedict of York, one of your 
Jews." On this the king turned to the archbishop of Canter- 
bury, and the others who had told him that the said Benedict 
had become a Christian, and said to them, **Did you not tell 
me that he is a Christian?" to which they made answer, 
'* Yes, my lord." Whereupon he said to them, ^* What are we 
to do with him ?" to which the archbishop of Canterbury, less 
circumspectly than he might, in the spirit of his anger, made 
answer, *^ If he does not choose to be a Christian, let him be a 
man of the Devil ;" whereas he ought to have made answer, 
" We demand that he shall be brought to a Christian trial, as 
he has become a Christian, and now contradicts that fact." 
But, inasmuch as there was no person to oifer any opposition 
thereto, the before-named William relapsed into the Jewish 
errors, and after a short time died at ^Northampton ; on which 
he was refused both the usual sepulture of the Jews, as also 
that of the Christians, both because he had been a Christian, 
and because he had, ^4ike a dog, returned to his vomit." ^- 

On the second day after his coronation, Eichard, king of 
England, received the oaths of homage and fealty from the 
bishops, abbats, earls, and barons of England. After this was 
done, the king put up for sale every thing he had, castles, 
vills, and estates. Accordingly, Hugh, bishop of Durham, 
bought of the king his good manor of Sedbergh,^^ with the 
Wapentake and knight's fees thereof, for six hundred marks of 
silver, by way of a pure and perpetual alms ; and the said pur- 
chase was confirmed by charter to the following effect : 

The Charter of Icing Richard, confirming the sale of the Manor of 
Sedbergh to Hugh, bishop of Durham, 

Bichard, by the grace of God, king of England, duke of 
Normandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, to the arch- 
bishops, bishops, [earls], barons, sheriffs, and all his bailiffs 
and servants throughout all England, greeting. Know ye that 
we have given and granted, and by this present charter do 
confirm to God, and to Saint Cuthbert and the church of 
Durham, and to Hu^ii, bishop of Durham, our dearly beloved 
cousin, and to his successors, as a pure and perpetual alms for 
the soul of our father, as also of our predecessors and successors, 
and for the salvation of ourselves and of our heirs, and for the 

22 Prov. xxvi. 11 ; 2 St. Pet. ii. 22. ^ Roger of Wendover says 

it was '* .Segesfield ;" meaning probably Sedgefield, in Durham. 



A.D. 1189. A rfaAKTEK OF Kl^a EICHARD. 121 

establishment and increase of our kingdom, our manor of 
Sedbergh, together with the Wapentake to the said manor be- 
longing, and all other things thereto appurtenant, both men, 
and lands, so^ti and unsown, ways, paths, meadows, pastures, 
ponds, mills, waters, piscaries, as also the services of Peter 
Carou, and his heirs, for one knight's fee, held at Seton and 
Oviton ; the services of Thomas de Amudeville, and his heirs, 
for one knight's fee, at Cotton and Treyford ; and the services 
of Godfrey Baarde, and his heirs, for two halves of one knight's 
fee, at Middleton and Hartburn, which lands they held of us 
between the Tyne and the Tees, together with all other things 
to the aforesaid fees pertaining, in exchange for the services of 
three knight's fees, which Philip de Kimber has held of the said 
bishop in Lincolnshire, and two knights' fees which Gerard de 
Camville has also there held of the said bishop, and one knight's 
fee which Baldwin Wake and Eoger Pitz-Oseville also held 
there of the same bishop. Therefore we do will and command 
that the before-named Hugh, bishop of Durham, and his succes- 
sors, shall have, hold, and enjoy, freely, quietly, and with all 
due honor, the said two knights' fees and the said two halves of 
one knight's fee, together with the before-mentioned manor of 
Sedberg-h and the Wapentake as hereinbefore named, with all 
things thereto pertaining in wood and plain, with soc, and sac, 
and tol, and them, and infangtheof, and with all other liberties 
and free customs, and with the pleas belonging to the crown, 
in such manner as we hold the same in our own hands, and in 
such manner as the said bishop has and holds the other lands 
and knights' fees in his bishopric, and so that the said bishop, 
as also his successors, may dispose of the men and lands to the 
same manor pertaining according to his own pleasure and free 
will, in such manner as he does with respect to his other men 
and lands in the said bishopric. Witnesses hereto : Baldwin, 
archbishop of Canterbury, Walter, archbishop of Eouen, John, 
archbishop of Dublin, Eeginald, bishop of Bath, Hugh, bishop 
of Lincoln, John, bishop of Norwich, Hugh, bishop of Coventry, 
Sefrid, bishop of Chichester, Gilbert, bishop of Eochester, John, 
bishop of Exeter, the lord John, brother of our lord the king, 
William de Mandeville, earl of Essex, Eobert, earl of Leicester, 
Hamelin,earlof Warenne, Waleran, earl of Warwick, William, 
earl of Arundel, Eichard, earl of Clare, William, earl of Salis- 
bury, Eoger Bigot, William Marshal, lord of Striguil. Given in 
the first year of our reign, on the eighteenth day of September, 



122 ANNALS OF KOGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1189. 

at Eatingert, by the hand of William de Longchamp, our 
chancellor." 

Also the said bishop gave to the before-named king 

marks of silver for receiving the earldom of Northumberland 
for life, together with its castles and other appurtenances. 

After this, the king proceeded to an abbey called Pipe well, ^* 
where he was met by the following persons : Baldwin, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, Walter, archbishop of Eouen, John, 
archbishop of Dublin, Formalis, archbishop of Treves, Hugh, 
bishop of Durham, Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, Hugh, bishop of 
Chester, John, bishop of IS'orwich, John, bishop of Evreux, 
John, bishop of Exeter, William, bishop of Hereford, William, 
bishop of Worcester, Eeginald, bishop of Bath, Gilbert, bishop 
of Eochester, Sefrid, bishop of Chichester, Henry, bishop of 
Bayeux, Peter, bishop of Saint David's, in Wales, Albinus, 
bishop of Ferns, Concord, bishop of Aghadoe, together with 
nearly all the abbats and priors of England. Here the king gave 
to Godfrey de Lucy the bishopric of Winchester ; to Eichard, 
archdeacon of Ely, his treasurer, the bishopric of Lincoln ; and 
to Hubert Eitz- Walter, dean of York, the bishopric of Salis- 
bury; the abbey of Selesby^^ to Eoger, prior of that abbey; 
the abbey of Glastonbury to Henry de Soilly, prior of Ber- 
mondsey ; and to Geoffrey, his brother, the former bishop- elect 
of Lincoln, the archbishopric of York. To Henry, the brother 
of William Marshal, he gave the deanery of York, and to 
Bucard de Pudsey, nephew of Hugh, bishop of Durham, the 
treasurership of the church of York. To William de Chuneli 
he gave the archdeaconry of Eichmond, and to William de 
Saint Mary L'Eglise, the prebendal stall which had belonged to 
Herbert Eitz- Walter in the church of York, with the deanery 
of Saint Martin, at London. 

When Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, saw that the 
archbishopric of York had been given to the said Geoffrey, 
he claimed the consecrating of him, and forbade that he 
should receive consecration, or priest's orders, at the hands 
of any one but himself, and appealed in the matter to our 
lord the pope, producing before the king and all the bishops 
and clergy, and people, the charter of king William the Bas- 
tard, in which was stated the dispute which formerly took 
place between the churches of Canterbury and York, with re- 
spect to the primacy of England and certain other dignities. 
2^ In Northamptonshire. 26 Selby, in Yorkshire. 



A.D. 1189. PEEPAIUTIONS FOR THE CRUSADE. 123 

In this charter also it was stated that Thomas, at that time 
archbishop of York, had received priest's orders and episcopal 
consecration at the hands of Lanfranc, at that time archbishop 
of Canterbury and primate of all England, and paid to him 
canonical obedience, and came to his synods with the bishop 
of the church of Lindisfame and his other suffragan bishops, 
and showed him all respect as being his primate. This charter 
also attested that all the above things had taken place before 
king William, at the general council held at London, in ac- 
cordance with the final sentence pronounced thereon by pope 
Alexander the Second. 

On the following day, John, bishop elect of Whitherne, was 
consecrated bishop by John, archbishop of Dublin, at Pipewell, 
it being the Lord's Day, and the fifteenth day before the 
calends of October. At the same council also, our lord the 
king appointed Hugh, bishop of Durham, and William, earl of 
Aumarle, chief justiciaries of England, and associated with 
them in the government of the kingdom William Marshal, 
Geoffrey Fitz-Peter, William Eruyere, Eobert de Whitfield, 
and Eoger Eitz-Rainfray. 

Geoflfrey, the archbishop elect of York, immediately made 
complaint against Henry, the brother of William Marshal, 
Bucard, the nephew of Hugh, bishop of Durham, William de 
Saint Mary L'Eglise, and Eoger, abbat elect of the abbey of 
Saint German, at Selby, on whom the king had conferred the 
honors above-mentioned, and swore that these presentations of 
the king should not hold good, unless with his consent and will. 
In consequence of this, the king deprived him of the see of 
York, and a great dissension arose between them, so much so, 
that the king went so far even as to deprive him of all his pos- 
sessions on either side of the sea. However, shortly after, the 
said archbishop elect of York received priest's orders from John, 
bishop of Whitherne, his suffragan, on the fourth day before 
the calends of September, at Swale.^^ 

In the meantime, Eichard, king of England, sending his 
envoys to pope Clement, obtained from him letters patent, that 
such persons as he should think fit to excuse and leave in charge 
of his dominions, should be exempt from assuming the cross, 
and proceeding to Jerusalem ; by which means he obtaiiied an 
immense sum of money. 

27 In the text " Suuelle/' 



124 AN^NALS OF HOGEE DE HOYEDEIS'. A.D. 1189. 

Henry, the brother of "William Marshal, to whom the king 
had given the deanery of York, came to Eurton, in Lindsey, and 
there received orders as subdeacon and deacon on the same 
day, from Concord, bishop of Aghadoe. Eut when the said 
Henry came to York with the king's letters, in order to 
receive his deanery, he found no one to instal him as dean : 
as the clergy of the see of York asserted that no person but 
the archbishop ought to instal him as dean. However, Ha mo, 
the praecentor of York, installed him in the prebendal stall 
which the king had conferred on him : but when Eucard 
de Pudsey, the archdeacon of Durham, to whom the king had 
given the treasurership of the church of York, came with 
the king's letters dii^ected to Hamo the praecentor, requesting 
him to instal the said Eucard, he was unwilling to obey the 
king's commands. Eor he asserted that Eoger, the archbishop 
of York, had given to him the said treasurership, and that king 
Henry had confirmed it to him ; and he appealed thereon to 
the Apostolic See ; and thus, both missing the objects of their 
desire, took their departure. 

In the same year, Formator,"^ archbishop of Treves, departed 
this life at ITorthampton, in England. In this year, also, in 
the month of September, the men of London, and many others 
who had taken ship on their way to Jerusalem, laid siege, in 
Spain, to a certain city of the Saracens, which is called Silvia, 
and took it ; and, after clearing it of the abominations of the 
Saracens, they ordained that the Christian law should be there 
observed for ever, and built a church in honor of God and Saint 
Mary, the Mother of God, and caused it to be dedicated by the 
neighbouring bishops, and had a certain clerk of Flanders, whoj 
had come with them, consecrated bishop of the said city, and; 
then delivered it up to Sancho, king of Portugal. 

In the same year, Godfrey de Lucy, bishop of "Winchester, 
purchased of Richard, king of England, two excellent manors, 
namely, Wargrave and Menes, which formerly belonged to 
the bishop of Winchester, as was generally said ; and Samson, 
abbat of Saint Edmund's, bought of him the manor which is 
called Mildenhall, for a thousand marks, and which, of ancient 
right, was said to belong to the abbey of Saint Edmund's. All 
the rest as well, whoever chose, bought of the king their own 
rights and those of others ; by which the king acquired a very 
large sum of money. 

23 Properly " Formalist' ^9 More commonly " Silves " 



jA.D. 1189. GENERAL COUNCIL AT LONDON. 125 

j Geoffrey, the archbishop elect, coming to York, was received 
with a solemn procession by the clergy and people. There 
came also to York, Henry, the brother of William Marshal, 
to whom the king had given the deanery of York, and Bucard, 
the nephew of Hugh, bishop of Durham, to whom the king 
had given the treasurership of York ; but the archbishop of 
York refused to receive or instal them, declaring that he would 
not do so until such time as his election had been confirmed 
by the Supreme Pontiff. 

In the same year, in the month of October, Henry, duke of 
Saxony, the son-in-law of Henry, king of England, returned to 
Saxony, his own country, and, having levied a large army, at- 
tacked those to whom the emperor had given his territories, 
and defeated them, taking more than thirty castles. In the 
same year, in the month of JS^ovember, William de Mandeville, 
earl of Aumarle, died at Rouen, in JS'ormandy, and Hugh de 
Pudsey, count de Bar sur Seine, nephew of Hugh, bishop of 
Durham, died at Aclea, and was buried in the place at Durham 
which is called the Galilee,^^ 

In the same month, Rotrod, count de Perche, and other en- 
voys of Philip, king of France, came into England, to Eichard, 
king of England, to say that, at a general council held at Paris, 
the king of France, touching the Holy Evangelists, had made 
oath, as had all the chief men of his kingdom who had as- 
sumed the cross, that, God willing, they would, without fail, 
be at Yezelay, at the close of Easter, for the purpose of setting 
out for Jerusalem ; and, in testimony of the said oath, the king 
of France sent to the king of England his letters, requesting 
of him that he and his earls and barons would in like manner 
give him assurance that, at the same period, they would be at 
Vezelay. 

Accordingly, Eichard, king of England, and his earls and 
barons who had assumed the cross, met at a general council at 
London ; and, touching the Holy Evangelists, made oath that, 
with the help of God, they would, without fail, be at Yezelay 
at the close of Easter, prepared to set out thence for Jerusalem; 
upon which the before-named count de Perche, and the other 
envoys of the king of France, made oath, at the council, upon 
the soul of the king of France, in presence of the king of Eng- 
land, to the same efiect, and William Marshal and some others 

-^ A portion of the cathedral, at the east end of it, overlooking the 
banks of the Wear. 



126 ANNALS OF EOGEE DE HOYPDEN. A.D. 1189. 

made oath at the same council to the like effect, upon the sou] 
of the king of England, in presence of the envoys of the king 
of France ; and the king of England sent to the king of France 
his agreement binding himself so to do. 

In the same year, Sibylla, queen of Jerusalem, gave Ascalon 
to Saladin, as the ransom of her husband, Guido de Lusignan ; 
on which Saladin set him at liberty, and gave him leave to 
depart, with a safe conduct as far as the city of Tyre ; on his 
arrival at which pJace, the marquis Conrad would not allow 
him to enter. Consequently, the king, having no place where 
to lay his head, remained outside of the city of Tyre in his 
tents ; on which, there flocked to him the Templars and Hos- 
pitallers, and all the Christians, who, through fear of the 
pagans, had been dispersed in that neighbourhood, and gave in 
their adhesion to him as their lord and king. 

Upon this, king Guido, by the advice of Heraclius, the Pa- 
triarch of Jerusalem, and of those who were with him, set 
out on his way to the city of Acre, to which he laid siege, at 
a spot which is called [Mount] Turon, in the month of August, 
on the octave of the Assumption of Saint Mary, that is to 
say, on the eleventh day before the calends of September ; but, 
as the king had but a small army, the pagans, who were in 
the city of Acre, did not shut the gates of the city either 
by day or night, but went to and fro, with their camels, 
carrying provisions and other things that were necessary to 
them. 

On the third day after, there landed at Acre, Eobert, count de 
Drues, and his brother Philip, bishop of Beauvais, count Erard 
de Breines, and Jacques d' Avenues, with the landgrave of Ger- 
many, and many other Christian pilgrims, at whose arrival the 
king, and all who were with him, greatly rejoiced with exceed- 
ing gladness. Accordingly, Saladin, after levying a large 
army, approached the army of the Christians, and fought a 
battle with them, on the fourth day of the week, being the 
day after the feast of Saint Michael, on the plain between 
Acre and Casale TEveque, in which battle Saladin was de- 
feated and put to flight, so that he left all his tents in the 
hands of the Christians, and lost one half of his best troops ; 
the Christians also lost a great part of theirs. 

After a time, in consequence of their sinfulness, Saladin 
again got the better of the Christians, who were repulsed and 
diiven to their camp, and Gerard de Bedford, the Grand Master 



4.D. 1189. THE MANNER OF THE SIEGE OF ACEE. 127 

of the Temple, and the Marshal of the Temple, with eighteen of 

e brethren, who had behaved most valiantly, were slain ; the 
hristians also lost many other soldiers, and among them forty 

ights and one hundred Turcopoles.^^ Saladin, however, lost 
Slirsalim, his eldest son, and his nephew Tekehedin, Migemal, 
pis seneschal, and a hundred of the choicest of his troops, be- 
teides many others, whose numbers were not ascertained. On 
the fourth day of the week, Saladin again approached with his 
army ; but when the Christians showed a readiness to engage 
with him,, he hastily retreated, and, on the third day after, 
shifted his camp, and hastened to a place which has the name 
Df Saftan, while his army occupied the whole space that lies 
between Casale I'Eveque and JDocus ; as, from the time that 
Saladin was born, he had never levied such a mighty army 
as this. For, throughout the whole of his territories, there 
was not a person fitted for war who was not included in this 
irmy. Nor do I believe that any person could ever have set 
yes upon so large and so valiant a band of Christians as he 
Qiight have seen on this occasion. In addition to this, after the 
battle was over, there arrived five hundred most valiant Chris- 
ian knights and ten thousand men, brave warriors, well pro- 
dded with all kinds of arms. In the same year, also, there 
:;ame to those shores ships and busses, ^^ more than five hundred 
m number, besides numerous galleys and cutters, which imme- 
liately returned to Apulia, that they might bring further 
supplies of men and provisions. The ships, however, of the 
jrermans and of the Danes remained at Acre, for the purpose 
Df fufel : as the Christians there had no fuel with which to 
30ok their food, except such as the ships had brought, and the 
ships themselves. 

It deserves to be described how the city of Acre was be- 
sieged ; — Guide, king of Jerusalem, with the queen, his wife, 
md his two daughters, was lodged at Turon, looking towards 
:he sea, and near the summit of the mountain, Heraclius, 
he Patriarch, and Geofirey, the king's brother, being with 
lim. The whole sea-line, which extends to Caiaphas, was 

^' Sons of Christian mothers by Saracenic fathers. 

32 « Burciae," or " bussae," *' busses," were a kind of large merchant 
ihips, rounded fore and aft, and with capacious hulls. Spelman thinks 
hat they took their name from the EngUsh word *' buss," signify- 
ng ** a box." It has been, however, suggested that they were so called 
rom their resemblance to a wine-cask, which the Greeks of the middle 
iges called /SsV^ioi/. 



128 AKNALS OP EOGEE DE HOVEDEN^. a.D. 1189. 

occupied by the camp of the Pisans, so much so, that no one 
could escape from the city on that side. On the other side of 
[Mount] Turon, where Maconiatum is situate (called Lama- 
humheria by the Saracens), the lord landgrave and the said 
Jacques de Avenues, and all the Germans and the Genevese, 
had pitched their tents. Beyond these, the Temple with its 
brotherhood took up its quarters at the spot where were the 
gardens and the Tanks of the Latins. The Hospital, with 
its brethren and people, pitched its camp on the spot where 
were the gardens and land of the said Hospital. In the other 
^ direction, the whole space, as far as the sea, was occupied by 
the marquis Conrad, and many of the people from beyond 
the Alps, quite as far as Mount Musard. Count Eobert de 
IJrues,^^ the bishop of Beauvais, and the count Erard de Breines, 
as also the Pranks and Campanians, together with the king's 
people, took up their quarters towards Mount Turon, and 
near the town; the archbishop of Pisa, the archbishop of 
Is^azareth, the archbishop of Besan9on, the archbishop of Arles- 
le-blanc, and the archbishop of Montreal being with them. 

The Christians next made a large trench from sea to sea,^* 
where the foss of the Temple was already in existence, lying 
between them and the army of the pagans. They also made 
another trench between themselves and Acre, so that they were 
in no fear of assault from the persons in Acre, and none of 
the pagans could go forth from Acre without falling into their 
hands. The engines also and stone batteries of the Christians 
were masked behind them, so that no one could do them any 
injury from the opposite side ; but the Christians there ^were 
exposed to the winds and rain, having neither houses nor 
cabins in which to shelter themselves ; nor indeed, if they had 
sworn so to do, could they have retreated, but there they must 
live or die. In this way, as previously mentioned, was siege 
on all sides laid to Acre ; so strictly that no person whatever 
could possibly escape therefrom, while day after day they made 
assaults against it. 

On the other hand, on one side of the Christians was Acre, 
full of pagan warriors, and on the other was Saladin with his 
mighty army. And, with all truth do I assert it, never were 
the Christians in a similar position, or one full of such anxious 

^^ Such is the inaccuracy of the text, that it is doubtful whether this 
name is Drues or Arves ; as the same person is first called by one name 
and then bv the other. ** Across the Peninsula. 



A.D. 1189. A CHUBCH FOUNDED AT LAMBETH. 129 

expectation, as no provisions could be brought them but by sea. 
In the meanwhile, prayers were put up for them without 
ceasing by the Church to the Lord. 

In the same year, in the month of October, Baldwin, 
archbishop of Canterbury, consecrated Godfrey, bishop of Win- 
chester, William, bishop of Ely, Hubert, bishop of Salisbury, 
and Eichard, bishop of London. In the same month Eees, the 
son of Griffin,^' king of South Wales, came into England as far 
as Oxford, under the safe conduct of John, earl of Mortaigne, 
the king's brother ; but because the king of England declined 
to come to meet him, he was greatly indignant, and returned 
to his country without an interview with the king. 

In the same year, in the month of November, cardinal John 
of Anagni, who had been sent as legate a latere by our lord 
the pope to put an end to the disputes which existed be- 
tween Baldwin, ai-chbishop of Canterbury, and the monks 
of the Holy Trinity at Canterbury, landed at Dover, in Eng- 
land ; on which he was forbidden to proceed any further with- 
out the king's command, and, accordingly, he remained there 
till our lord the king sent for him. In the meantime, our lord 
the king went to Canterbury, and made peace and a final recon- 
ciliation between Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, and the 
monks, on the following terms : Eoger le !N'orreys, whom the be- 
fore-named archbishop, against the wishes of the monks, had 
made prior of the church of Canterbury, was to be deprived of 
the office, and the church,^^ which the said bishop had built in the 
suburbs against the wish of the monks, was to be pulled down, 
while the monks were to pay canonical obedience and make pro- 
fession thereof to the said archbishop, in the same manner in 
which they had been accustomed to do to his predecessors. Thus 
were matters arranged ; and, at the prayer of the archbishop of 
Canterbury, our lord the king gave to the before-named prior, 
after his deposition, the abbacy of Evesham, and he was ele- 
vated to the rank of abbat thereof. The archbishop also placed 
a prior over the church of Canterbury with the king's assent, 
and with the sanction of the chapter. The monks of Canterbury, 
however, after the death of that archbishop, deposed him. In the 
meantime, the archbishop built a churx^h at Lamhe,^"^ opposite 
to Westminster, and the prebends which he had given to the 

35 Rice ap Griffydd. 36 Akington or Hackington church, pre- 

viously mentioned. See p. 69. ^^ Lambeth. 

VOL. II. K 



38 



130 ANNALS OF EOGEE DE EOVEDEN. A.D. 1180. 

chm'cli built by him in the suburbs of the city of Canterbury, 
he gave to this new church which he had built at Lambeth. 

At this treaty of peace and final reconciliation there were pre- 
sent Richard, king of England, and queen Eleanor, his mother, 
"Walter, archbishop of Eouen, John, archbishop of Dublin, 
Hugh, bishop of Durham, John, bishop of Norwich, Hubert, 
bishop of Salisbury, Godfrey, bishop of Winchester, Gilbert, 
bishop of Rochester, Reginald, bishop of Bath, Hugh, bishop 
of Coventry, Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, William, bishop of 
Worcester, the abbat of Saint Augustin's at Canterbury, Bene- 
dict, abbat of Burgh, Sampson, abbat of Saint Edmund's, the 
abbat of Battle, the abbat of Westminster, Guarine, abbat of 
Saint Alban's, and many other priors and abbats, all of whom 
set their seals to the writing in which was set forth the said 
agreement. 

After this, the king sent for cardinal John of Anagni, who 
came to Canterbury, and was received with a solemn proces- 
sion, but was greatly offended that in his absence a reconcili- 
ation had been effected between the archbishop of Canterbury 
and his monks. 

In the same year, in the month of November, Geoffrey, the 
archbishop elect of York, together with the barons of York- 
shire, and the sheriff of York, by command of oui* lord the king, 
went as far as the river Tweed, and there received William, 
king of the Scots, and paid him all due honor, and gave him a 
safe conduct to the king of England. Accordingly, William, 
king of the Scots, came to the king of England at Canterbury 
in the month of December, and did homage to him for his 
dignities in England, in the same manner that his brother 
Malcolm had held them. Richard, king of England, also 
restored to him the castle of Roxburgh and the castle of Ber- 
wick, freely and quietly to be held by him ; and he acquitted and 
released him and all his heirs from all homage and allegiance, 
for the kingdom of Scotland, to him and the kings of England, 
for ever. For this gift of his castles and for quitting claim 
to all fealty and allegiance for the kingdom of Scotland, and 
for the charter of Richard, king of England, signifying the 
same, William, king of the Scots, gave to Richard, king of 
England, ten thousand marks sterling. The charter, executed 
by the king of England, was to the following effect : — 

^ This is the proper reading, and not John, as it stands in the text. 



A.D. 1189. CHAETEH OF THE KIKG OF ENGLAND. 131 

The Charter of the Icing of England as to the liberties granted hy 
him to William, king of Scotland, 

"Eichard, by the grace of God, king of England, duke of 
Kormandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, to the arch- 
bishops, bishops, abbats, earls, barons, justices, and sheriffs, 
and all his servants and faithful people throughout the whole 
of England, greeting. Know ye that we have restored to our 
most dearly-beloved cousin William, by the same grace king 
of the Scots, his castles of Roxburgh and Berwick, to be held 
by him and his heirs for ever as his own of hereditary right. 
We have also acquitted and released him of and from all cove- 
nants and agreements which Henry, king of England, our father, 
of happy memory, extorted from him by new charters, and in 
consequence of his capture ; upon condition, however, that he 
shall in all things do unto us as fully as Malcolm, king of the 
Scots, his brother, did as of right unto our predecessors, and of 
right was bound to do. We likewise will do for him whatever of 
right our predecessors did and were bound to do for the said 
Malcolm, both in his coming with a safe-conduct to our court, 
and in his returning from our court, and while he is staying 
at our court, and in making all due provision for him, and ac- 
cording to him all liberties, dignities, and honors due to him as 
of right, according as the same shall be ascertained by four of 
our nobles who shall be selected by the said king William, and 
four of his nobles who shall be selected by us. And if any one 
of our subjects shall, since the time when the said king Wil- 
liam was taken prisoner by our father, have seized upon any 
of the borders or marches of the kingdom of Scotland, without 
the same being legally adjudicated to him ; then we do will 
that the same shall be restored to him in full, and shall be 
placed in the same state in which they were before he was 
so taken prisoner. Moreover, as to his lands which he may 
hold in England, whether in demesne or whether in fee, that 
is to say in the county of Huntingdon, and in all other coun- 
ties, he and his heirs shall hold the said counties as fully and 
freely for ever as the said Malcolm held or ought to have held 
the same, unless the said Malcolm or his heirs shall have since 
enfeoffed any one of the same ; on the further condition also that 
if any one shall be hereafter enfeoffed of the same, the services 
of the said fees shall belong to him or his heirs. And if our 
said father shall have given anything to William, king of the 
Scots, we do will that the same shall be hereby ratified and con- 



132 ANN^ALS OF HOGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1189, 

firmed. We have aJso restored to him all allegiances of his 
subjects and all charters which the king our father obtained 
of him by reason of his capture. And if any other charters 
shall chance, through forgetfulness, to have been retained by 
us or shall hereafter be found, we do hereby order that the 
same shall be utterly void and of no effect. He has also be- 
come our liegeman as to all the lands for which his prede- 
cessors were liegemen to our predecessors, and has sworn fealty 
to ourselves and to our heirs. The following being witnesses 
hereto: — Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbuiy, "Walter, arch- 
bishop of Eouen, Hugh, bishop of Durham, John, bishop of 
Norwich, Hubert, bishop of Salisbury, Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, 
Godfrey, bishop of Winchester, Gilbert, bishop of Eochester, 
Eeginald, bishop of Bath, Hugh, bishop of Coventry, William, 
bishop of Worcester, Eleanor, the king^s mother, John, earl of 
Mortaigne, the king's brother, and many others. '* 

On the same day, there came thither, namely, to Canter- 
bury, Hugh, bishop of Durham, and Hubert, bishop of Salis- 
bury, to appeal to the presence of our lord the pope, against 
Geoffrey, the archbishop elect of York, before the said cardinal 
and the above-named archbishops and bishops, wishing to 
prove that his election ought not to hold good, because they 
themselves to whom the first votes in the election belonged were 
not present at his said election. Bucard also, the treasurer of 
the church of York, and Henry, the dean of the said church, 
appealed against the said archbishop elect of York to the pre- 
sence of our lord the pope, affirming that he w as ^ not canoni- 
cally elected, and was a murderer, bom in adultery, and the 
son of a harlot. But although all these allegations were made 
against him, the before-named cardinal John of Anagni, the 
legate of the Apostolic See, confirmed his election. 

After this, llichard, king of England, gave to his brother 
John, earl of Mortaigne, by way of augmentation, the earldoms 
of Cornwall, Devon, ^^ Dorset, and Somerset. The king of 
England also gave to his mother, queen Eleanor, the whole of 
the dower which queen Matilda, the wife of king Henry the 
Elder,'*° had enjoyed, the whole of the dower which Alice, the 
wife of king Stephen, enjoyed, and the whole of the dower 
which Henry, king of England, son of the empress Matilda, 
had given to her. 

^ These have been previously mentioned as given to hira, except that 
of the county of Devon. See p. 115 of tMs Volume. ^^ Henry the First. 



A. D. 1189. KING KTCHARD SAILS FOR CALAIS. 133 

King Eichard departed from the city of Canterbury, on the 
fifth day of December, for Dover, in order to cross over ; for 
there many ships had assembled by his command from different 
parts of England. On the day after his arrival at Dover, Roger, 
the abbat elect of Saint German's, at Selby, received his bene- 
diction at Dover, on Saint Nicholas' day, from Hugh, bishop of 
Durham, by the king's command, notwithstanding the prohi- 
bition of Geojffrey, archbishop elect of York. 

On this, Geoffrey, the archbishop elect of York, becoming 
sensible that without the intervention of money he would in 
nowise be able to gain his brother's favour, promised him three 
thousand pounds sterling, for the purpose of so ingratiating him- 
self : on which, the king restored to him the archbishopric of 
York, and confirmed the same to him by his charter, and restored 
to him all the lay fees which king Henry, his father, had given 
him, on either side of the sea ; namely, in England, the vill 
of Wycombe, with its appurtenances, the county of Giffard, 
in Normandy, and in Anjou, the honor of Blauge, with its 
appurtenances. The said king also released to God and Saint 
Peter of York, and to the said Geoffrey, archbishop elect of 
York, and to all that were able to succeed him in the arch- 
bishopric of York, all his lands and those of his canons in 
York and Nottingham for ever, both from forestal regard,*^ 
and all other demands and impositions of forest and foresters, 
and gave them fi:ee power, and by his charter confirmed the 
same, to take venison throughout all their prebends in York- 
shire and Nottinghamshire. 

In addition to this, Hugh, bishop of Durham, Hubert, bishop 
of Salisbury, Henrj^, dean of the church of York, and Bucard, 
treasurer of the same church,by the king's command, withdrew 
the appeals which they had made against the said archbishop 
elect of York ; and the said archbishop elect, at the king's 
request, confirmed to the said Henry, the deanery of York, 
and to Eucard, the treasurership ; and to Hugh, bishop of 
Durham, he confirmed all the privileges and covenants which 
had been made between the said bishop and Eoger, archbishop 
of York, and promised, by the seal of his consecration, that he 
would confirm the same. 

After these matters were arranged, Eichard, king of Eng- 

*^ A fee to the court of regard, which was holden for each forest every 
three years, for the purpose of expeditation, or cutting off three claws of 
the fore-feet of dogSj to prevent them from killing the deer. 



134 ANNALS OF EOGEE DE HOTEDEN. A.D. 1189. 

land, on the eleventh day of December, being the second day 
of the week, crossed over from Dover to Calais, in Flanders, 
whither Philip, earl of Flanders, came to meet him, and, re- 
ceiving him with congratulations, escorted him with a safe 
conduct to ITormandy. There also crossed over with the king, 
the cardinal John of Anagni, Walter, archbishop of Eouea, 
Henry, bishop of Eayeux, and John, bishop of Evreux, Hugh, 
bishop of Durham, and William, bishop of Ely, remained in 
England as chief justiciaries ; with whom, before his de- 
parture, the king had associated Hugh BardoJph, William 
Marshal, Geoffrey Eitz-Peter, and William Eruyere. The 
king also delivered to William, bishop of Ely, his chancellor, 
one of his seals, by virtue of which he ordered his commands 
to be carried out in his kingdom ; he also gave into his charge 
the Tower of London. He also gave into the charge of Hugh, 
bishop of Durham, the castle of Windsor, with the forests and 
the earldom of the county. 

Immediately after the king had passed over, a dispute arose 
between the before-named bishops of Durham and Ely, which 
of them was to occupy the highest place ; for the thing that 
pleased the one, displeased the other. So true it is that ^* All 
authority is impatient of a partner ; ^* and, not to go further 

for an illustration, ^* The first walls were steeped in a brother's 
blood.'' ^2 

In the month of ITovember, in the same year, without issue, 
died William, king of Sicily, the dukedom of Apulia, and the 
principality of Capua, at Palermo, in Sicily. This William, 
king of Sicily, a long time before his death, had given Con- 
stance, the daughter of Eoger, the former king of Sicily, his 
aunt, in marriage to Henry, king of Germany, and afterwards 
emperor of the Romans, and had made her his heir to succeed 
him on the throne of Sicily, if he should die without issue ; 
and this he caused to be confirmed by the oaths of the prin- 
cipal men of the kingdom. However, on the death of king 
William, Tancred, count de la Liche, his cousin, usurped the 
kingdom of Sicily, contrary to the oath of fealty which he had 
taken to the before-named Constance. On this, Henry, em- 
peror of the Eomans, sent a large army into Apulia, under the 
command of the archbishop of Mentz and Henry Teste ; who, 
after burning many cities, and overthrowing many towns, 

*' " Fraterno primi maduerunt sanguine muri ;" alluding to the death of 
Remus at the hands of his brother Romulus, or of Celer, his lieutenant, on 
the walls of infant Rome. 



A.D.I 190. PEACE BETWEEN ENGLAND AND FEANCE. 135 

returned home without effecting their purpose. On their 
withdrawal, Kichard, count de Cirne, brother of the queen of 
Sicily, the wife of king Tancred, made war upon count Eoger 
de Andria, on the ground that he had given aid to the king 
of Germany against king Tancred, and took him prisoner, and 
delivered him to king Tancred. Moreover, Joanna, the sister 
of Richard, king of England, who had been the wife of Wil- 
liam, king of Sicily, lately deceased, remained in the custody 
of king Tancred. 

In the year of grace 1190, king Eichard was at Burun, in 
I^ormandy, on the day of the Nativity of our Lord, which took 
place on the second day of the week, and kept that festival 
there with the chief men of the territory ; for this Nativity of our 
Lord was the first since the coronation of the said king. After 
the Nativity, the said Eichard, king of England, and Philip, 
king of France, held a conference at Y^ Saint Eemy, where 
they agreed to a lasting peace between them and their re- 
spective kingdoms, and, committing the treaty to writing, 
ratified it by their oaths and seals, on the feast of Saint Hilary. 
The archbishops and bishops also of both kingdoms agreed to the 
same on their word of truth ; while the earls and barons of 
those kingdoms made oath and swore that they would faith- 
fully observe the said treaty of peace and keep the same un- 
broken. The tenor of this treaty was to the effect that each 
of them would maintain the honor of the other, and would 
keep faith with him for life, limb, and worldly honor, and 
that neither of them would forsake the other in the time of 
need ; but that the king of France would aid the king of Eng- 
land in defending his territories as he himself would defend his 
own city of Paris, if it were besieged, and that Eichard, king 
of England, would aid the king of France in defending his ter- 
ritories as he himself would defend his own city of Eouen, if it 
were besieged. The earls and barons also of both kingdoms 
made oath that they would not depart from their fealty to the 
said kings or wage any war in their territories, so long as they 
should be on their pilgrimage. The archbishops also and 
bishops strictly promised, on their word of truth, that they would 
pronounce sentence of excommunication against such as should 
be guilty of a breach of the said treaty of peace and compact. 

The said kings also made oath that if either of them should 
die on the pilgrimage to J erusalem, the one who should survive 
should have the treasures and forces of him who had died, 



133 AliNALS OF EOGEK DE HOVEDEN. A.D 1190. 

to employ the same in the service of God. And because they 
could not be in readiness at Easter, the time previously ap- 
pointed, they postponed setting out for Jerusalem till the feast 
of the Nativity of Saint John the Baptist, determining that 
then vrithout fail they would be at Yezelay. 

In the same year, on the vigil of the Epiphany of our Lord, 
a great dissension arose between Geoffrey, archbishop elect of 
York, and Henry, the dean of that church, and Bucard, the 
treasurer. Eor the said archbishop elect having expressed 
a desire to be present at vespers in the metropolitan church 
on such a solemn occasion, the said Henry and Bucard would 
not wait for him, but began vespers ; consequently, when 
the said archbishop elect came into the choir, together with 
Hamo, the prsecentor, and some other canons of the church, 
he was greatly indignant thereat, and immediately ordered 
silence, the praecentor ordering to the like effect ; while, on 
the other hand, the dean and treasurer gave orders that they 
should sing on ; however, in consequence of the orders of the 
archbishop elect and praecentor, all kept silence; on which 
the archbishop elect was beginning vespers again, when the 
treasurer ordered the tapers to be extinguished. These being 
put out and the vespers brought to a close, the archbishop 
elect complained before God, the clergy, and the people, of the 
injury which the dean and treasurer had done him, and sus- 
pended them and the church from the celebration of Divine 
service, until such time as they should have given him satisfac- 
tion for the same. 

On the following day, when all the people of the city re- 
sorted after their usual custom to the metropolitan church, that 
there, on account of the solemnity of the day, they might more 
becomingly hear Divine service, both the archbishop elect and 
the said dean and treasurer ought to have been in the choir, 
together with the canons of the said church, to make peace and 
reconciliation between themselves; however, the dean and 
treasurer refused to make any satisfaction to their archbishop 
elect for such and so great a transgression, but spoke contemptu- 
ously of him ; in consequence of which the populace were en- 
raged against them, and were desirous to make an attack on 
them, but the archbishop elect would not allow them. On this, 
in great alarm, they fled from before the face of the people, 
and one of them took refuge at the tomb of Saint William, 
and the other betook himself to the house of the dean ; while 



A.D. 1190. PERSECUTION OP THE JEWS AT YOKE:. 137 

the archbisliop elect pronounced them excommunicated. In 
consequence of this, Divine service ceased from that day in the 
metropolitan church. 

In the same year, after the Purification of Saint Mary, queen 
Eleanor, the mother of king Eichard, Alice, the sister of Philip, 
king of Trance, Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, John, 
bishop of Norwich, Hugh, bishop of Durham, Godfrey, bishop* 
of Winchester, Eeginald, bishop of Bath, William, bishop of 
Ely, Hubert, bishop of Salisbury, Hugh, bishop of Chester, 
Geoffrey, archbishop elect of York, and John, earl of Mortaigne, 
the king's brother, by order of our lord the king crossed over 
from England to JS^ormandy ; and after holding a council with 
them, our lord the king appointed William, bishop of Ely, his 
chancellor, chief justiciary of England ; while he made Hugh, 
bishop of Durham, justiciary from the river Humber to the 
territory of the king of Scotland. He also compelled Geoffrey, 
archbishop elect of York, and John, earl of Mortaigne, his bro- 
thers, to make oath, touching the Holy Evangelists, that they 
would not enter England for the next three years, except with 
his permission. However, he immediately released his brother 
John from the oath which he had made, and gave him per- 
mission to return to England, after swearing that he would 
faithfully serve him. 

The king also sent to England William, bishop of Ely, his 
chancellor, to make the preparations necessary for him and his 
expedition ; and, as he wished to exalt him above all other per- 
sons in his dominions, both clergy as well as laity, he sent envoys 
to pope Clement, and- prevailed upon him to entrust to the be- 
fore-named chancellor the legateship of the whole of England 
and Scotland. On the chancellor arriving in England, he caused 
the Tower of London to be surrounded with a moat of very 
great depth, hoping that so the river Thames might pass around 
it. After this, the chancellor received, for the necessities of 
our lord the king, from each city of England two palfreys and 
two sumpter horses by way of aid ; from each abbey throughout 
England one palfrey and one sumpter horse ; and from each of 
the king's manors one palfrey and one sumpter horse 

In the same month of March, on the seventeenth'*^ day be- 
fore the calends of April, being the sixth day before Palm 
Sunday, the Jews of the city of York, in number five hundred 
men, besides women and children, shut themselves up in the 
^ A various reading has " the eighteenth." 



138 ANNALS OF EOGEE DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1190, 

tower of York, with the consent and sanction of the keeper of 
the tower, and of the sheriff, in consequence of their dread of 
the Christians ; but when the said sheriff and the constable 
sought to regain possession of it, the Jews refused to deliver it 
up. In consequence of this, the people of the city, and the 
strangers who had come within the jurisdiction thereof, at the 
exhortation of the sheriff and the constable, with one consent 
made an attack upon the Jews. 

After they had made assaults upon the tower, day and night, 
the Jews offered the people a large sum of money to allow them 
to depart with their lives ; but this the others refused to re- 
ceive. Upon this, one skilled in their laws arose and said : 
" Men of Israel, listen to my advice. It is better that we 
should kill one another, than fall into the hands of the enemies 
of our law." Accordingly, all the Jews, both men as well as 
^vomen, gave their assent to his advice, and each master of a 
family, beginning with the chief persons of his household, with 
a sharp knife first cut the throats of his wife and sons and 
daughters, and then of all his servants, and lastly his own. 
Some of them also tkj-ew their slain over the walls among the 
people ; while others shut up their slain in the king's house 
and burned them, as well as the king's houses. Those who 
had slain the others were afterwards killed by the people. In 
the meantime, some of the Christians set fire to the Jews' 
houses, and plundered them ; and thus all the Jews in the city 
of York were destroyed, and all acknowledgments of debts due 
to them were burnt. 

In the same year died Isabella, queen of France, and 
daughter of the earl of Hainault, before her husband Philip, 
king of France, had set out for Jerusalem. In the same year, 
the Annunciation of our Lord fell on Easter day, a thing that 
had not happened for a long time previously. In the mean- 
time, the king's envoys, whom he had sent to Eome to obtain 
the legateship of England and Scotland for William, his chan- 
cellor, returned to him with letters of our lord the pope relative 
thereto. Accordingly, on the strength of his legateship, the 
said bishop of Ely, legate of the Apostolic See, chancellor of 
our lord the king, and justiciary of all England, oppressed the 
clergy and the people, confounding right and wrong ; nor was 
there a person in the kingdom who dared to offer resistance to 
his authority, even in word. 

After Easter, the said chancellor of the king came to York 



A.D. 1190. ATTEMPT TO SEIZE THE BISHOP OF DUKHAM:. 139 

•with a great army, for the purpose of seizing those evil-doers 
who had destroyed the Jews of that city ; and, on learning 
that this had been done by command of the sheriff and tho 
keeper of the tower, he deprived them both of their offices ; 
while he exacted of the citizens of the city a hundred hostages, 
as security for their good faith and keeping the peace of the 
king and the kingdom, and that they would take their trial in 
the court of our lord the king for the death of the Jews. After 
this, the said chancellor placed in charge of Osbert de Long- 
champ, his brother, the jurisdiction of the county of York, 
and ordered the castle, in the old castelry which William Eufus 
had erected there, to be fortified. The knights, also, of that 
county who would not come to make redress, he ordered to be 
arrested. 

The said chancellor, by virtue of his legateship, next sus- 
pended the canons, vicars, and clerks of the church of Saint 
Peter at York, because they had refused to receive him in solemn 
procession ; and laid the church itself under an interdict until 
the canons, vicars, and clerks of the church of Saint Peter should 
come and throw themselves at his feet; he also caused the 
bells of that church to be laid upon the ground. 

In the meantime, Eichard, king of England, gave to Hugh, 
bishop of Durham, leave to return to his country : who, on 
meeting the chancellor at the city of Ely,'*'* presented to him 
the king's letters, in which the king had appointed him justici- 
ary from the river Humber to the territories of the king of Scot- 
land ; on which the chancellor made answer, that he would with 
pleasure execute the king's commands, and took him with him 
as far as Suwelle,'*^ where he seized him, and kept him in cus- 
tody until he had surrendered to him the castle of Windsor 
and others which the king had delivered into his charge. In 
addition to this, the bishop of Durham delivered to the chan- 
cellor, Henry de Pudsey, his son, and Gilbert de la Ley, as 
pledges that he would keep faith to the king and his king- 
dom ; on which, the bishop of Durham, being liberated from 
the custody of the chancellor, came to a vill of his, which 
bears the name of Hoveden.'*^ While the bishop was staying 
at this place for some days, there came to Hoveden Osbert de 
Longchamp, brother of the chancellor, and WiUiam de Stute- 
ville, with a considerable body of armed people, intending, by 

^ Erroneously called ** Blie" in the text. *^ Southwell. 

^ Howden, in Yorkshire, the native place of our author. 



140 AI^NALS OF nOGER DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1190. 

command of the chancellor, to seize the bishop ; however, the 
bishop gave them security that he would not depart thence, 
except with the permission of the king or of the chancellor. 
Accordingly, the bishop of Durham sent messengers to the king 
of England, to inform him of everything that had happened to 
him through the chancellor. 

In the meantime, the king of England marched into Gas- 
cony, and laid siege to the castle of William de Chisi, and 
took it ; on which he hanged William, the owner of the castle, 
because he had plundered pilgrims from Saint Jago,'*'^ and other 
persons, as they passed through his lands. After this, the 
king of England proceeded to Chinon, in Anjou, where he 
appointed Gerard, archbishop of Auxienne, Bernard, bishop of 
Bayonne, Eobert de Sabul, Eichard de Camville, and William 
de Fortz de Oleron, chiefs and constables of the whole of his 
fleet which was about to proceed to the land of Syria, and gave 
them ordinances to the following effect : *^ 

The Charter of Richa/rd^ Icing of England^ containing ordinances 
for those who were about to proceed by sea, 

*' Eichard, by the grace of God, king of England, duke of 
Normandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, to all his sub- 
jects about to proceed by sea to Jerusalem, greeting. Eiiow 
ye, that we, with the common consent of fit and proper men, 
have made the enactments under- written. Whoever shall slay 
a man on ship-board, he shall be bound to the dead man and 
thrown into the sea. If he shall slay him on land, he shall be 
bound to the dead man and buried in the earth. If any one 
shall be convicted, by means of lawful witnesses, of having 
drawn out a knife with which to strike another, or shall 
strike another so as to draw blood, he shall lose his hand. 
If, also, he shall give a blow with his hand, without shedding 
blood, he shall be plunged in the sea three times. If any man 
shall utter disgraceful language or abuse, or shall curse his com- 
panion, he shall pay him an ounce of silver for every time he has 
so abused him. A robber who shall be convicted of theft, shall 

^"^ Saint Jago de Compostella. 

^ These are a small portion of what are known as the " Oleron Laws/' 
from having been made by king Richard when his fleet was lying at 
Oleron, an island at the mouth of the river Charente. They form the 
basis of a large part of the sea-laws in use at the present day. 



A.D. 1190. LAMENT ON THE EXPEDITION TO JEKITSALEM. 141 

have his head cropped after the manner of a champion, ^° and 
boiling pitch shall be poured thereon, and then the feathers 
of a cushion shall be shaken ^^ out upon him, so that he 
may be known, and at the first land at which the ships 
shall touch, he shall be set on shore. "Witness myself, at 
Chinon." 

The king also gave orders, in another writ of his, that all 
liis subjects who were about to proceed to sea should pay obe- 
dience to the orders and commands of the before-named justices 
of his fleet. After this, the king proceeded to Tours, and 
there ^^ received the scrip and staff of his pilgrimage from the 
hands of "William, archbishop of Tours; but it so happened 
that, while the king was leaning on the staif, it broke asunder. 

After this, the said king, and Philip, king of France, met 
atYezelay, where rests the body of Saint Mary Magdalen. 
Here they stayed two days, and left the place on the octave 
of the Nativity of Saint John the Baptist. When they had 
arrived at the city of Lyons on the Rhone, after they with the 
greater part of their households had passed over the bridge 
across that river, the bridge, being thronged with men and 
women, broke down, not without doing injury to great numbers. 
Here also the two kings separated, in consequence of the mul- 
titude of men who followed them, as one place was not suf- 
ficient to hold them. Accordingly, the king of France, with his 
troops, went on to Genoa, while the king of England pro- 
ceeded with his to Marseilles. 

A Lament on the ^Expedition to Jerusalem,^^ 

'* Most grievous are the days which have come upon us, and 
worthy to be graced with no white stone. For the woes have 
ministered to our grief which Holy Jerusalem is known to 

50 Champions, before commencing the combat, had the hair cut close, 
probably for the purpose of oflfering no unfair advantage to the antago- 
gonist, by reason of the length of the hair and the facilities thereby 
offered for pulling them to the ground. 

51 This is a very early instance of the practice of tarring and feathering. 

52 Roger of Wendover says that he received it at Vezelay. 

5^ This lament consists of thirty-two monkish lines, in rhymes of four. 
The first four will serve as a specimen : — 

" Graves nobis admodum dies effiuxere 
Qui lapillis candidis digni non fuere. 
Nam luctus materiam mala praebuere, 
Quae sanctam Jerusalem constat sustinere." 
It is not improbable that this was a song generally sung by the Crusadert. 



142 ANNALS OP EOGEK DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1190. 

endure. For who can do other than grieve for the slaughter 
of so many of the Saints, so many sacred houses of the Lord 
profaned, princes led captive, dwellings destroyed, and nohles 
hurled at the feet of slaves ? And yet these things shall not 
escape the eyes of Him who beholds them. The Lord, looking 
on, has beheld the woes of our race, has heard the groans of 
this innocent people, and has descended to crush the head of the 
serpent. For the God of the Hebrews has aroused the Christian 
princes and their knights to avenge the blood of his Saints, and 
to succour the sons of the slain. The illustrious king of Eng- 
land and the king of the Franks are onward marching with many 
thousand men-at-arms. 'Tis a glorious sight to behold the band 
of senators with the arms of justice and with the worshippers 
of God.^^ ^Tis more pleasing still to hear of Frederic, lord of 
the empire of Home, joining them in war against the enemies 
of the Cross, that he may restore his country to its ancient 
glory. The Cross going before, they march on towards the 
East, and all the West they lead on with them. An army 
they lead that differs in language, rites, manners, and customs, 
but fervent in the faith. That they may return victorious, 
let us offer up our prayers to God ; that so, entering Jerusalem, 
tliey may root out from the midst of the earth the Canaanite, 
and expel the Jebusite, and so bear away the palm of Christian 
prowess." 

While Eichard, king of England, was staying at Marseilles, 
there came to him the messengers of Hugh, bishop of Durham ; 
and, on hearing from him the injuries which the before-named 
chancellor had inflicted on him, the king ordered the earldom 
of ^Northumberland and the manor of Sedbergh to be delivered 
to the bishop of Durham : relative to which, the king gave him 
his charter to the following effect : — 

^''Another Charter of Richard, Icing of Engla7id, as to the con- 
veyance of Sedbergh to Hugh, the lord hishop of Durham, 

'^Richard, by the grace of God, king of England, duke of 
!N"ormandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, to the arch- 
bishops, bishops, abbats, earls, barons, sheriffs, and all his 
servants and faithful people throughout the whole of England, 
greeting. Ejqow ye that we have given to God, and to Saint 
Cuthbert and the church of Dui^ham, and to Hugh, the bishop, 

** " Deorum," *' of the Gods," seems to be used instead of " Dei," as 
suiting the rhyme. It may possibly allude to the Trinity. ^^ See p. 120. 



A.D. 1190. JOURNAL OF KING KICHAED. 143 

and his successors, for ever, the manor of Sedbergh, together 
with the Wapentake and knights* fees which we formerly gave 
him, and by our charter confirmed, by way of a pure and per- 
petual alms, for six hundred marks, w hich he paid us. Where- 
fore we do will and command that he shall freely, quietly, and 
honorably enter upon and enjoy the said manor, together with 
the said Wapentake and knights' fees, and all other its appur- 
tenances, as a pure and perpetual alms, in such manner as is 
set forth in our charters, which the said bishop now holds. We 
do also will and grant, so far as relates to ourselves, that, if any 
person shall use against him force or molestation in respect 
hereof, contrary to the tenor of our charters and confirmations, 
he shall incur the anger and curse of God and ourselves. Witness 
myself, at Marseilles.'' 

When the king of England had waited eight days at Mar- 
seilles, in hope and expectation from day to day of the arrival of 
his fleet, finding himself deceived in his wishes, he hired ten 
large busses and twenty well-armed galleys, and embarked on 
board them with his household in sorrow and dejection, on 
account of the delay of his fleet. Accordingly, on the seventh 
day of August the king of England set sail from Marseilles, 
in the galley Pombone, and passed by the island of Saint 
Stephen and Aquila and Mont Noir, the island of Saint Hono- 
ratus, the city of Nice, and the city of Yintimiglia. It deserves 
to be known that between the city of Mce and that of Yinti- 
miglia is the division of the territories of the king of Arragon 
and of Italy. 

After this, the king of England passed Santa Maria de Funz, 
and Noli. On the thirteenth day of August the king of Eng- 
land passed a castle which is called Swene,^^ and on the same 
day arrived at Geneva, where he had an interview with the 
king of France, who was lying ill at a house near the church 
of Saint Laurence. On the fourteenth day of August the king 
of England arrived at Portofino, it being the vigil of the 
Assumption of Saint Mary, and there he stayed five days. 
While he was there the king of France sent to ask him for 
the loan of five galleys, on which the king of England ofi'ered 
him three, which the king of France refused. On the nine- 
teenth day of August he left Portofino, and came to Porto 
Yenere, and on the day after arrived at the port of Pisa. Here 
he was met by Walter, archbishop of Eouen, John, the bishop 
of Evreux, then lying ill in the city of Pisa. 
^^ Probably the present Savona. 



144 ANIMALS OF EOGEE DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1190. 

On the twenty-first day of the month of August the king 
of England passed by the island of Gorgona, and on the 
tAventy- second day of the month of August the king came to 
Porto Baratto. On the twenty-third day of August, being 
the vigil of Saint Bartholomew the Apostle, the king proceeded 
two leagues by land, and a few knights with him, on hired 
horses, and came to a port, near a castle, called Piombino, to 
meet his galleys ; and here the king embarked on board the 
galley of Pulk Eustac, in which he had not previously sailed. 
Being gratified with a favourable wind, he next passed an island 
which is caUed Perraria, and another called Argentaria, as also 
an island called Genit ; after which he arrived at a port called 
Talemunde. 

On the twenty-fourth day of August the king came to a 
port which is called Portocarrero, which lies midway between 
Marseilles and Messina. On the same day the sails were split 
of the galley on board of which the king was, on which he 
again embarked on board the galley Pombone, and then passed 
the city of Corneto, the city of Civita Yecchia,^^ and the place 
which is called the Paro di Eoma; after which he entered 
the Tiber. At the entrance of this river there is a fine tower, 
but deserted, and there are also very considerable remains of 
ancient walls. Here Octavianus, cardinal-bishop of Ostia, came 
to meet him; to whom the king uttered many reproaches, 
charging the Eomans with simony, because they had agreed 
to take seven hundred marks for the consecration of the bishop 
of Le Mans, and fifteen hundred marks for the legateship of 
the bishop of Ely, and a large sum of money that the arch- 
bishop of Bordeaux might not be degraded, who was criminally 
accused by his clergy. 

On the twenty-sixth day of August the king passed by a 
certain forest which is called Silvadena, in which there is a 
marble road, made like a pavement, which extends through the 
middle of the wood twenty-four miles, the wood abounding with 
deer, roebuck, and fawns. On the same day the king passed 
by a castle which is called Nettuno. Here is a quay which 
was formerly covered with copper ; here also was the entrance 
to a subterraneous passage, through which money brought from 
all quarters was conveyed to Eome. After this, the king 
passed by a castle which is called Estura. On the twenty- 

^ This place can be but faintly recognised under the name given in the 
text, <' Senes la Veile." 



A.D. 1190. THE BISHOP OF NOKWICH RETURNS HOME. 145 

seventh day of August tlie king passed by a rock projecting 
into the sea, which is called the Capo di Cercel/^ and an 
island called Parmerola, and another island called Ponza, and 
another called Palmera. On the top of the mountain called 
Capo di Cercel, is a castle in which robbers and pirates often 
take refuge. 

The king next came to a city called Terracina, in which was 
formerly a pier covered with copper. He next came to Garilla, 
and then to a castle which bears the name of Capo del Espu- 
run.^^ Here is the division of the territories of the Romans 
and of those of the king of Sicily, in that portion thereof which 
is called the principality of Capua. After this, the king passed 
an island which is called Pantea, and is distant from the city 
of Gaeta forty miles. Pantea was the native place of Pilate, 
and in it there was formerly a pier covered with copper. The 
king next passed an island called Istellemania, which is always 
smoking. This island is said to have been set on fire from the 
island called Volcano, the fire from it flying and burning up, as 
they say, both sea and fish. Kot far distant from this island is 
the island of Girun, where there is a good castle and harbour. 

The king next passed an island called Baterun, and the 
port of Baise, where are the baths of Yirgil ; it is ten miles 
distant from Kaples. He then passed Capua and Capo di 
Maverba, which lies midway between Naples and Salerno. 
On the twenty-eighth day of August the king arrived at 
l^aples, and proceeded to the abbey of Saint Januarius, to 
see the sons of IS^aimundus, who lie in the crypt^^ there, skin 
and bone. Here he made a stay till the !N^ativity of Saint 
Mary the Virgin, the Mother of God, and on the same day, 
hiring horses, he proceeded to Salerno, where he stayed a con- 
siderable time. t 

In the meantime, Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, Hu- 
bert, bishop of Salisbury, and Ranulph de Glanville, who had 
come with the king of England as far as Marseilles, there em- 
barked on board ship ; and the Lord gave them a prosperous 
voyage, so that in a short time, without any accident, he led 
them over a vast tract of sea to the siege of Acre. John, 
bishop of JS'orwich, however, went to the pope, and, receiving 
J&*om him permission to return, gave up the cross, and returned 

^ The place now called ** Circello," or ** the Tower of Circe." 
^" Now called Sperlonga. ^^ These mummies being preserved 

by the antiseptic properties of the crypt. 

VOL. II. L 



146 ANNALS OF ROGER DE HOVEDEN. A. D. 1190. 

home absolved therefrom. After this became known to our 
lord the king, he exacted from him, by the hands of the Tem- 
plars and Hospitallers, a thousand marks for excusing him. 

In the meantime, the fleet of the king of England, which 
was commanded by the archbishop of Auxienne, the bishop of 
Eayonne, Robert de Sabul, Eichard de Camville, and William 
de Forts, set out immediately after Easter on its way for Jeru- 
salem from the various ports of England, Normandy, Brittany, 
and Poitou. One part of this fleet assembled at the port of 
Dartmouth, and, after staying there some days, the said ships, 
ten in number, set sail for Lisbon, and after passing a certain 
headland which projects into the sea, called Godestert,^^ passed 
Erittany, having Saint Matthew of Einisterre, or de Fin 
Posterne, on the left hand side of the fleet, and the Great 
Sea along which is the route to Ireland on the right, and left 
Poitou, Gascony, and Biscay on the left hand side of the fleet. 
When they had now passed through the British Sea and the 
Sea of Poitou, and had come into the Spanish Sea, on the 
holy Day of the Ascension of our Lord, at the third hour of 
the day, a mighty and dreadful tempest overtook them, and 
in the twinkling of an eye they were separated from each 
other. While the storm was raging, and all in their affliction 
were calling upon the Lord, the blessed Thomas, the archbishop 
of Canterbury and Martyr, appeared at three different times 
to three different persons, who were on board a London ship, 
in which was William Eitz-Osbert, and Geoffrey, the gold- 
smith, saying to them, " Be not afraid, for I, Thomas, the 
archbishop of Canterbury, and the blessed Edmund the Mar- 
tyr, and the blessed Nicholas, the Confessor, have been ap- 
pointed by the Lord guardians of this fleet of the king of 
England ; and if the men of this fleet will guard themselves 
against sin, and repent of their former offences, the Lord wiU. 
grant them a prosperous voyage, and will direct their foot- 
steps in His paths." After having thrice repeated these words, 
the blessed Thomas vanished from before their eyes, and im- 
mediately the tempest ceased, and there was a great calm on 
the sea. M 

And now the London ship, in which the blessed Martyr 
Thomas had appeared, had passed by the port of Lisbon 
and Cape Saint Vincent, and had neared the city of Silva,^" 
which in those days was the most remote of all the cities of 

59 Probably ** Good start ;" meaning what we now call ** Start Point." 
«o Now called '' Silver." 



A.D. 1190. THE ENGLISH IN PORTUGAL. 147 

Christendom, and the Christian faith was as yet but in its 
infancy there, as it was only the year before that it had been 
wrested from the hands of the pagans, and had become Christian, 
as akeady mentioned. The people, therefore, on board the ship, 
being ignorant where they were, putting out a boat pulled for 
land, and learned, by certain indications, that the land was in- 
habited by Christians, and that there was no further [inland] 
any safe road for them without a good and suflScient escort. Ac- 
cordingly they approached the city ; and on learning the cause 
of their arrival, the bishop of the city of Silva, and the clergy 
and people, received them with congratulations, giving thanks 
to God for their arrival ; for there were in the ship a hundred 
young men of prowess and well armed. 

In the meantime Botac El Emir Amimoli, emperor of Africa 
and of Saracenic Spain, levying a large army, marched into 
the territories of Sancho, king of Portugal, to take ven- 
geance for the emperor of Africa, his father, who had died six 
years before while besieging Santa Erena, a castle of king 
Alphonso, father of the said Sancho, king of Portugal. On 
this, the citizens of Silva, being alarmed, refused to allow these 
young men of London to leave them, but broke up their ship, 
and with the timbers of it made bulwarks for the city, pro- 
mising and giving them all kinds of security that the king of 
Portugal would pay them well for the delay thus occasioned 
them, and the injury received in consequence of the loss cf 
their ship ; which was accordingly done. 

The other nine ships of the fleet of the king of England 
which had been out in the same storm, made land in different 
parts of Spain ; after which, by the guidance of God, sailing 
up the river Tagus, they at last arrived at the city of Lisbon. 
In this city of Lisbon rests the body of Saint Yincent the 
Martyr. Before they had arrived there, the before-named em- 
peror of Africa, on the day of the Nativity of Saint John the 
Baptist, forded the river Tagus, and all his army with him, 
and laid siege to a castle of Sancho, king of Portugal, which 
is called Torresnovas. On this, the king of Portugal sent 
envoys to the strangers who had come in the ships to the. city 
of Lisbon, and asked succours of them against the Saracens. 

Accordingly, five hundred men, well armed, and selected from 
all the ships that had arrived, as being the bravest and most 
courageous, preferred to die in war for the name of Jesus 
Christ, rather than behold the misfortunes of their race and its 

l2 



148 ANNALS or EOGER DE H07EDEN. A.D. 1190. 

extermination ; and, leaving their ships and companions, pro- 
ceeded up the river Tagus to Santa Erena, which is distant from 
the city of Lisbon two days' march, where they found Sancho, 
king of Portugal, utterly destitute both of resources and coun- 
sel ; for he had but few soldiers, and nearly aU of those with- 
out arms, and the emperor had already taken the castle of the 
king which he had besieged, and had laid siege to another 
castle, which is called Thomar, and is a castle of the Templars. 
On hearing of the arrival of the foreigners, the emperor was 
greatly alarmed, and, sending ambassadors to the king of Por- 
tugal, demanded of him Silva, on obtaining which, he would 
depart with his army, and restore to him the castle which he 
had taken, and would keep peace with him for seven years ; 
but when the king of Portugal refused to do this, he sent him 
word thalj on the following day he would come to lay siege to 
Santa Erena. 

On this, the king of Portugal, taking counsel with the 
strangers who had come in the ships, placed his men in the 
towers, and at the strongest bastions of the walls; while 
the foreigners who had come in the ships chose for their 
position the weaker parts of the city, employing their own 
courage as their walls. On the following day, when all were 
prepared for the attack, and there was every moment a mur- 
muring at the gates, to the effect that he would be there that 
instant and without delay, a messenger came on a sudden, 
and thus said : " The emperor has been dead these three days, 
and his army is taking to flight !'' and, while he was still 
speaking, there came two, and then three, and then still more, 
all of whom spoke to the like effect. 

Accordingly, the king and all the people believed them, and 
the city was filled with gladness and exultation ; and, on the 
next day, the king gave to the men who had come from the ship 
leave to return to them, promising that he would handsomely 
reward them for their labours. However, before they had 
arrived at their ships, Robert de Sabul and Eichard de Cam- 
ville came to Lisbon with sixtj^'-three great store-ships of 
the king of England; (a store-ship is the same as a trans- 
port-ship).®^ Some, however, of the men who had come under 
the command of Eobert de Sabul and Eichard de Camville 
were evil-doers and vicious persons ; for, on disembarking from 
the ships, they made their way into the city of Lisbon, and as 
they went through the streets and lanes, talked to the people 

^1 '* Storium" — " iiavigium." 



A.D. 1190. THE ENGLISH FLEET LEA YES LISBON. 149 

of the city giving themselves airs, and then committed violence 
upon the wives and daughters of the citizens. They also drove 
away the pagans and Jews, servants of the king, who dwelt 
in the city, and plundered their property and possessions, and 
burned their houses ; and they then stripped their vineyards, 
not leaving them so much as a grape or a cluster. 

When this became known to the king of Portugal, the lord 
of the city of Lisbon, he came with all haste with a powerful 
hand ; but on finding there Robert de Sabul and Eichard de 
Camville, with the fleet of the king of England, he manifested 
towards them a cheerful countenance and a peaceful disposi- 
tion, bearing with patience the injuries done to himself and his 
people. On the day after the king's arrival, the commanders 
-of the fleet exacted an oath from all the men of the fleet that 
they would faithfully keep and inviolably observe the before- 
mentioned statutes enacted by the king of England. 

However, in the course of three days, a quarrel ensued be- 
tween the people of Lisbon and some of those who had come 
in the ships, in consequence of which, many persons were slain 
on both sides in a skirmish that ensued, and the noise of the 
people came to the king's ears. On this, the gates of the city 
were immediately closed, and all who had gone from the ships 
into the city, for the purpose of obtaining provisions and drink, 
were taken and thrown into prison, in number seven hundred 
men. Before they were released from the custody of the king, 
the king of Portugal made peace with Robert de Sabul and 
Richard de Camville on such terms as he pleased, that is to say, 
to the following effect : that past injuries should be mutually 
overlooked, and that they should strictly keep the peace to- 
wards the pilgrims throughout all his territories ; and it was 
further agreed that the arms and all other things which had 
been lost in the affray should be given up on either side. 

This having been done, Robert de Sabul and Richard de 
Camville left the city of Lisbon with the fleet of the king of 
England, on the vigil of Saint James the Apostle, being the 
fourth day of the week, and, on the same day, came to the inlet 
where the Tagus falls into the sea. On the same day also, 
William de Ports de Oleron arrived there with thirty great 
ships of the fleet of the king of England ; in consequence 
of which, there were together at the same place one hundred 
store-ships of the king of England, and six great ships laden 
with warriors, provisions, and arms. On the day Aer the 



150 ANNALS OP KOGEE DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1190. 

feast of Saint James the Apostle, being the sixth day of the 
week, Robert de Sabul, Richard de Camville, and William de 
Forts de Oleron left the port of Lisbon with the fleet of the 
^ king of England, and passed by a great mountain which pro- 
jects into the sea, and is called Espichel, as also the port of 
Dalchatht,^^ and Palmella, and Sinnes, formerly a sandy tract 
of land extending into the sea ; they then passed the port of 
Deordunite, and then a great and lofty mountain which ex- 
tends into the sea, and is called Cape Saint Yincent ; on which 
the body of Saint Yincent lay many ages entombed, until it was 
transferred to the city of Lisbon. 

After this, they passed the port of Silva, which at that 
time was the most remote city of the Christians in those parts 
of Spain. They next passed a city of the pagans, which is 
called Santa Maria de Hayrun; and it is worthy of remark why 
this city is called Santa Maria de Hayrun. Hayrun is the 
name of the place in which the city was founded, while the 
Christians who built it gave it the other name, and, in memory 
of Mary, the blessed Mother of God, they placed a stone image 
of her on the walls. After this, when the pagans prevailed 
over the Christians, they gained possession of this place, and, 
on finding the image standing upon the walls, they cut off its 
head, feet, and arms, in contempt of the faith of Christ au.d 
of Saint Mary, and threw it at a distance into the sea. On 
this being done, the sea and land became unproductive, and 
famine prevailed in that land to such a degree, that nearly every 
thing, men and animals, died of hunger ; upon which, all the 
elders of the people, and the youths, from the highest to the 
lowest, weeping day and night, and doing penance in sackcloth 
and ashes, recalled to mind the image whose head, hands, and 
feet they had cutoff, and said: ^^We have sinned, we have 
acted unrighteously, we have done iniquitously, inasmuch as 
we have cut off that head, and those hands and feet. For 
what evil had they done ? Let us, therefore, seek them, and 
let us put them in their places, that thus, at least, God may 
turn away His wrath from us, and from this city." Thus saying, 
they threw their nets into the sea, where they had thrown the 
head, and hands, and feet of the image, and, drawing them upon 
land in their nets, they placed the head on the neck, the hands 

**2 It is hardly necessary to say, that many of the places here mentioned 
cannot be recognized, as being no longer in existence, even if the names 
were correctly given in the text, which is far from being the case. 



A.D. 1190. THE FLEET ENTERS THE STEAITS OF AFEICA. 151 

on the arms, and the legs on the thighs, and soldered thein with 
gold and silver of the finest and purest quality ; after which, 
they placed the image in an honored locality, and it is held in 
great veneration even to the present day. Immediately upon 
this, the famine ceased, and the earth yielded her increase. 

After this, they passed the castle which is called Merell, and 
then the port of Hodiene ; they next passed the port of Calice,^^ 
and then a mountain, which is called Montaluc. They then 
passed a sandy piece of land projecting into the sea, which is 
called Cape Almilan, and then a castle and port, the name of 
which is Saltis ; after which, they arrived before the Port of 
Seville, the name of which is Windelkebir ; between SeviUe 
and the Port there is a castle midway, which is called Captal. 

They now came to the Straits of Africa, and passed through 
these Straits on the first day of August, being the feast of 
Saint Peter ad Vincula, and the fifth day of the week. Here 
the Mediterranean Sea begins, which Sea is so called, because 
it is surrounded by land on every side, with the exception of 
one inlet and one outlet ; the one of which is called the Straits 
of Africa, and the other the Arm of Saint George, ^^ at the city 
of Constantinople. It is also worthy of remark, that, from 
the entrance to the Straits of Africa, as far nearly as Ascalon, 
on the right-hand side of the ship [as it sails], lie the territories 
of the pagans ; and on the opposite side, from the entrance of the 
Straits of Africa as far as the great mountain which is called 
Muncian,^'* is Saracenic Spain, which you leave behind to the 
left of the ship. It is also worthy of observation, that, accord- 
ing to calculations made by mariners, the entry to the Straits 
of Africa, from one shore to the other, is not more than six 
miles in width, on each side of which there is a large moun- 
tain, the one in Spain, called Calpe, the other in Africa, oppo- 
site to it, called Atlas. At the entrance of these Straits there 
are several cities in Africa near the sea-shore, the names of 
which are Bethe, Dudenardi, Esparto, Thange, Cacummin, 
Muee, Botoos, and Scep,^^ which is the most noble of all the 
cities of Africa. In Spain, on the opposite side, are several 
cities and castles, the names of which are Beche, Dudemarbait, 
Leziratarif, Gezehakazera,^^ the island of Jubaltaria,®^ Mertell, 

^2 Now Cadiz. e^ The Bosphorus, or Straits of Constantinople, 

were so called from the church of Saint George, which was built on the 
shore in the suburbs of Constantinople. ^^ Probably Montserrat. 

** Perhaps Ceuta. 66 gy ^j^js ^^^ the preceding name, Algeziras 

and Tarifa are probably meant, ^7 Gibraltar. 



152 ANNALS OF ROGER DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1190. 

and Swail, a castle of the Moors. At the foot of the mountain 
of Jubaltaria are two iSne cities, one of which is called Alentia, 
and the other Jubalar. 

IsText to these comes the city of Magga f and after the fleet 
of the king of England had passed the above-named cities of 
Spain, it next passed the city of Salamame,^^ and then Yilages, 
a large city enclosed with a wall, in the circuit of which there 
are one hundred and sixty towers of stone. It next passed a 
great and lofty mountain, which is called the Cape of Melich, 
and then a castle called Munaca.^^ It next passed a noble city 
which is called Almeria, where the valuable and fine silk is 
manufactured, which is called silk of Almeria ; and then a 
great and lofty mountain that extends into the sea, and is called 
Cape Almeria. It then passed Carthagena, a fine city, situate 
on the sea- shore ; next after which came Penisecle, a fine and 
handsome castle. The fleet then passed a sandy piece of land 
projecting into the sea, called Alascerat ; '^ after which ijame a 
piece of land projecting into the sea, which is called Cape Mar- 
tin. It next came before a large city which is called Denia, 
and then before the port of Valentia. It deserves to be known 
that Yalentia is a fine city, distant seven miles from the en- 
trance to its harbour. It then passed the castle of Eaiane, and 
then the castle of Peniscola on the sea-shore, whichis the last 
castle belonging to the pagans in Spain on this side of the sea. 

They then passed a great and lofty mountain projecting into 
the sea, which is called Muncian ; this mountain divides the 
territories of the pagans from those of the Christians, and here 
begins the territory of the king of Arragon. Kear this moun- 
tain, among the mountains, and at a distance from the sea, 
is situate a fine city, the name of which is Cervera ; and at 
the foot of the same mountain, on the sea- shore, stands a castle, 
which is called Amposta, in the territory of the kingdom of 
Arragon, and occupied by the Hospitallers. Here also is a 
great river of fresh water, which has the name of Ebro, and a 
noble city called Tortosa ; which stands upon that river, and is 
distant from the entrance to the harbour thirty miles. 

After this, they passed a populous city on the sea-shore, called 
Taragutia,^^ the see of an archbishop, and near it a great 
mountain extending into the sea, called Cape Salut, beneath 
which mountain lies a good harbour. They next came before a 

^7 Probably Malaga. ^^ Perhaps the place now called Salobrena. 

/ ^ Now Alrnumecar. *^° Probably Alicant. ''^ Tarragoaa. 



A.D. 1190. THE FLEET AEHIVES AT MARSEILLES. 153 

great episcopal city, situate on the sea- shore, the name of which 
is Barcelona. They then passed a castle situate on the sea- 
shore, called San Felice, where there is a good harbour. 
They next passed the territory of count Ponce, opposite a 
fine city, the name of which is Ampurias, where there is a good 
harbour. They then passed a great mountain projecting into 
the sea, which is called Cape Castiglione, where there is a 
good harbour, called Port Castiglione, and as you go up the 
river, there is a castle called Castiglione. They next passed a 
harbour, fine and large, the name of which is Cadakis, and 
then a great mountain extending into the sea, which is called 
Cape de Creus, at the foot of Avhich there is a good harbour. 
They then passed a fine castle situate on the sea-shore, which 
is called Ccckeliure,'^ where there is a good harbour called 
Port Yendres. 

They next passed some sand-banks extending into the sea, 
called Cape Leucare, which make a conspicuous landmark, on 
which, near the sea-shore, is a fine episcopal city, the name of 
which is I^arbonne, and a monastery, called Saint Mary de Mer. 
They thenpassed a projection of the land into the sea, which 
is called Brescou ; after which they came to the territory of the 
count de Agde, passing a fine city situate on the sea- shore, 
the name of which is Agde. They then passed near Yilieneuve, 
the episcopal see of Magalona, near which is the port of Mont- 
pellier, the name of which is Lates. They next passed an 
island called Odur, which lies at the mouth of the Rhone, going 
up which river you come to a fine archiepiscopal city, which 
is called Arles-le-Blanc ; and still higher up the same river, 
you come near to Saint Gilles, and still higher again, you 
come to the fine city which is caUed Lyons sur Rhone. 

They then came to Marseilles, which is twenty miles dis- 
tant from the mouth of the Rhone, and is a city subject to the 
king of Arragon. Here were the relics of Saint Lazarus, the 
brother of Saint Mary Magdalene and of Martha, who held 
the bishopric of this place, after Jesus had raised him from 
the dead. In this city there is a fine harbour, able to contain 
many ships of a large size, almost shut in by high hills, 
and on one side of it rises the episcopal city ; opposite to 
which, on the other side of the harbour, is the abbey of Saint 
Yictor, in which a hundred black monks serve God ""^ 

■'2 Now Collioure. 




154 AN^NALS OF EOGEE DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1190. 

as they say, are the hundred and forty bodies of the Innocents 
who were slain for Christ, as also the relics of Saint Victor and 
his companions, the rods with which our Lord was scourged, 
the jaw-bone of Saint Lazarus, and one of the ribs of Saint 
Laurence the Martyr. Between Marseilles and this abbey, 
not far from the high road, is a monastery, in which is kept 
the arm of Saint Margaret the Yirgin ; and near the abbey 
of Saint Victor are two lofty hills, one of which is called Mount 
Koland, and the other Mount Hospinel. 

It is worthy of remark, that from Marseilles to Acre is 
only fifteen days' and nights' sail, ^^ with a fair wind ; but in 
such case you must go straight through the main sea, so that 
after the hills of Marseilles are lost out of sight, land will not be 
seen either on the right hand or on the left, if you keep straight 
onward in your course, until the land of Syria is seen ; and 
if on the right side of the ship any land should chance to be 
seen, it is the territory of the pagans, while if land should be 
seen on the left side of the ship, it is the territory of the Chris- 
tians. It is also as well to be known, that there are many 
islands belonging to the Saracens between the Straits of 
Africa and Marseilles, one of which is called Majorc,-^ and 
another Eniuce,'^ both of which are tributary to the king of 
Arragon, the island of Majorc papng him a yearly tribute of 
three hundred silken cloths of Almeria, while the island of 
Eniuce pays him a yearly tribute of two hundred silken cloths 
of like quality. 

Tlie Divismi of the Kingdoms on the sea-coast. 

In the first place, it ought to be known that the whole land 
extending along the sea-shore from England to Spain, namely, 
!N^ormandy, Brittany, and Poitou, belongs to the dominions of 
the king of England ; and this extends as far as the port which 
is called Huartz,^^ which divides the territories of the count 
of Bayonne from those of the king of JS'avarre. The territories 
of the king of J^'avarre begin at the port of Huartz, and extend 
to the river which is called Castre, and which divides the ter- 
ritories of the king of IsTavarre from those of the king of Castille. 
The territories of the king of Castille begin from the river 
Castre, and extend as far as the mountains of Sora, which 

73 « Scinglaturae ad bonura ventum :" qy. whether this word may not 
be a misprint for some such word as ** schiplaturae." 

"''^ Majorca. ''^ Probably Iviza. '^'^ Qy. Ustaritz. 



A.D. 1190. THE TEimiTOlUES ON THE SEA-COAST. 155 

divide the territories of the king of Castille from those of the 
king of Saint Jago. The territories of the king of Saint Jago 
begin from the mountains of Sora and extend to the river 
Mina/^ which divides the territories of the king of Saint Jago 
from those of the king of Portugal ; while the territories of the 
king of Portugal begin at the river Mina, and extend beyond 
the citv of Silva. 

After you come to the city of Silva, the land of the pagans 
begins, along the sea-coast of Spain, and subject to the domi- 
nion of the emperor of Africa, which extends as far as the great 
mountain knoAvn by the name of Muncian. In Saracenic 
Spain there are four powerful kings : one of whom is called the 
king of Cordres, or Corduba,''^^ respecting which Lucan says,^^ 
'* Corduba was my birth-place, Nero caused my death ; the 
wars I sang which the father ^^ * and the son-in-law rivals, did 
wage." A second is called the king of Gant;^^^ while the 
third is styled the king of Murcia, and the fourth is the king 
of Yalentia, whose territories extend as far as the mountain 
called Muncian. This mountain divides the land of the Pagans 
from the land of the Christians, that is to say, from the ter- 
ritories of the king of Arragon; and the territories of the king 
of Arragon begin at this mountain called Muncian, and extend 
beyond the city of Mce. 

At the city of IS'ice begin the territories of the emperor of 
the Romans, in which there is a fine city called Yintimiglia ; 
from this the territory of the emperor extends along the sea- 
phore as far as Gaeta, in Apulia, the territory of the king of 
Sicily. This land is also called the principality of Capua. It 
ilso deserves to be mentioned that midway between Marseilles 
md Sicily there are two large islands ; Sardena^^ is the name of 
:he larger one, while the other is called Corzege.^^ There are 
ilso many islands round Sicily, some of which are burning 
slands.®^ In this sea, in the neighbourhood of Sardena and 
Horzege, are fish, resembling cuttle-fish, which, coming forth 
rom the sea, fly in the air, and when they have flown about 
:he distance of a furlong ®^ they descend again to the sea ; 
here are also many falcons there flying after these fish, and pur- 

78 Minho. 79 Cordova. 

80 " Corduba me genuit ; rapuit Nero, praelia dixi, 
Quae gessere pares, hinc socer, inde gener." 
The name of Lucan is omitted by an oversight in the note to p. vi of the 
Preface to Vol. I. ^^* Caesar and Pompey. si Probably Jaeu. 

"♦^ Sardinia. ^ Corsica. ^^ The Lipari islands.' 

** A " stadium," in the text, which is rather more. 



156 AT^NALS OF EOGER DE HOYEDEN. 1190. 

suing them, in order to feed upon them. A person who 
has seen this has borne witness to the same, and his testi- 
mony is true,^ for he himself was sitting at table in a ship 
high out of the water, when one of these flying fi.sh fell on 
the table before him. It is also worthy of remark that one 
of the islands in the vicinity of Sicily, which is larger than 
the rest, is called Mount Gebel,^^ and used to burn with such 
an intense heat that it dried up a great part of the sea in 
its vicinity and burned the fish ; but it has now for some time 
ceased to bum, through the merits and prayers of Saint Agatha 
the Virgin and Martyr. For one day, when the fire was 
coming forth from the crater of Mount Gebel more furiously 
than usual, and had approached the city of Cattanna, where 
rests the holy body of Saint Agatha, a multitude of the pagans, 
flying to her sepulchre, carried her veil before them facing the 
fire ; on which the fiames returned to the sea, and, parching 
it, dried it up for nearly a mile, and scorched the fish, many 
of which were half burnt, and there are to this day many 
fish there of the same kind, which are called the fish of 
Saint Agatha. If any of these fish happen to be taken by a 
fisherman, they are immediately let go, out of respect to Saint 
Agatha, and to the praise and glory of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
who is always wonderful and glorious in His saints. 

Accordingly, Eobert de Sabul, Eichard de Camville, and 
William de Fortz de Oleron, passing with the fleet of Eichard, 
king of England, between Africa and Spain, after many tem- 
pests which they sufl'ered on the voj^age, amved at Marseilles on 
the octave of the Assumption of Saint Mary, being the fourth 
day of the week. Not finding their master the king there, 
they made a stay of eight days, for some necessary repairs to 
the fleet ; after which they set out in pursuit of the king, and 
on the feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, being the 
sixth day of the week, arrived at Messina, in Sicily. 11 

On the Lord's day following, Philip, king of France, arrived 
there, it being the sixteenth day before the calends of Octo- 
ber ; on which, Margarete, the admiral, Jordan de Pin, and 
the other governors of the city, received him with all due 
honor, and assigned him the palace of Tancred, king of Sicily, 
for his abode. I^ow when king Eichard heard that his fleet 
had arrived at Messina, he left Salerno on the thirteenth 

^"5 He no doubt alludes to what we call flying-fish. 
8' He probably means Stroiuboli. 



A.D. 1190. PROGEESS OF KTtTG EICHAED. 157 

day of September ; and, passing an archiepiscopal city called 
Amalfi, and another archiepiscopal city caUed Cosenza, arrived 
on the eighteenth day of September at a city and castle called 
Escala. Near this castle is a small island, where are said to 
have been the schools of Lucan, and there is still a fine cham- 
ber beneath the ground, in which Lucan used to study. 

The night following the king slept in a village, the name of 
which is Lacerart, in the priorate of Monte Cassio. On the 
nineteenth day of September the king passed through the 
priorate which is called Saint Michael de Josaphat, to another 
priory of the same order, which is called Santa Maria de 
Fosses, where there is a castle called Saint Luke. On 
the twentieth day of September the king, passing by a castle 
which is called Lamante, came to a town called Saint Euphe- 
mia. On the twenty-first day of September the king came 
to Melida, and was there honorably received and entertained 
at the abbey of the Holy Trinity. Here there is a tower 
of wood close by the abbey, by means of which Eobert Guiscard 
attacked and took the castle and town of Melida. 

On the twenty-second day of September, the king of Eng- 
land, departing from Melida with a single knight, passed through 
a certain small town, and, after he had passed through, turned 
towards a certain house in which he heard a hawk, and, enter- 
ing the house,^^ took hold of it. On his refusing to give it up, 
numbers of peasants came running from every quarter, and 
made an attack on him with sticks and stones. One of them 
then drew his knife against the king, upon which the latter 
giving him a blow with the flat of his sword, it snapped asunder, 
whereupon he pelted the others with stones, and with difficulty 
making his escape out of their hands, came to a priory called 
Le Baniare ; but, making no stay there, he crossed the great 
river ^^ which is called Le Earo de Meschines, and passed the 
night in a tent near a stone tower which lies at the entrance 
of the Earo, on the Sicilian side. At the entrance of the Earo, 
near Labinaria, lies that peril of the sea which is called Scylla, 
and at the outlet of the same river is another peril of the sea 
which is called Charybdis. 

On the twenty-third day of September, Eichard, king of 
England, arrived at Messina, in Sicily, with many busses and 
galleys, in such state and with such a noise of trumpets and 
clurions, that alarm seized those who were in the city. The king 

^^ For a churl to keep a hawk was contrary to the rules of chivalry. 
^ He means the Straits of Messina. 



158 ANKALS OF EOGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1190. 

of France and his people, and all the chief men of the city of 
Messina, together with the clergy and people, stood on the shore, 
admiring what they saw and heard respecting the king of 
England and his might. On his landing, he immediately 
held an interview with Philip, the king of France ; after 
which conference, the king of France, on the same day, im- 
mediately, embarked on board of his ships, intending to pro- 
ceed, towards the land of Jerusalem ; but after he had got 
out of harbour, on the same day, the wind shifted, and with 
sorrow and reluctance he returned to Messina. 

The king of England, however, proceeded to the house of Re- 
ginald de Muhec, where a lodging was prepared for him, in the 
suburbs of the city, among the vineyards. On the twenty- 
fourth and twenty-fifth days of September the king of England 
went to the lodging of the king of France, to hold a conference 
with him, and the king of France visited the king of England. 
In the meantime, Richard, king of England, sent his envoys 
to Tancred, king of Sicily, and delivered from his custody his 
sister, Joanna, the former queen of Sicily. On the twenty- 
eighth day of September the king of England went to meet his 
sister Joanna, who the same day arrived at Messina, from 
Palermo, with some gallies sent by king Tancred. 

On the twenty-ninth day of September, that is to say, on 
the day of Saint Michael, the king of France went to the 
lodgings of the sister of the king of England, and saw her and 
offered her his congratulations. On the thirtieth day of Septem- 
ber the king of England crossed the river del Faro, and took 
a place which is extremely well fortified, called, Le Baniare, 
and on the first day of October brought his sister Joanna to 
that place, and, leaving her there with some knights and 
a considerable number of men-at-arms, returned to Messina. 
On the second day of October the king of England took posses- 
sion of a monastery of the Griffons, a very well fortified place, 
lying in the middle of the river del Faro, between Messina and 
Calabria. Having expelled the monks and their servants, he 
placed in it the provisions which had come from England and his 
other territories, and garrisoned it with some knights and others. 

When the citizens of Messina saw that the king of England 
had placed knights and men-at-arms with his sister in the castle 
of Le Baniare, and had taken possession of the monastery of thd 
Griffons, 'they had suspicion of him, believing that he would 
seize the whole of the island, if he could: consequently 
they were disposed to be easily excited against him. Ac- 



L.D. 1190. PKOGEJESS OF KING EICHARD. 159 

iordingly, on the third day of October, a disagreement arose 
)etween the army of the king of England and the citizens 
if Messina, and to such a pitch did the exasperation on both 
ides increase, that the citizens shut the gates of the city, and, 
)utting on their arms, mounted the walls. On the king's 
roops perceiving this, they made a vigorous attack on the city 
;ates ; but our lord the king rode to and fro through the army 
m a steed of the greatest swiftness, beating back with a staff 
uch of his men as he could reach, trying to restrain them 
rom making the attack. However, he was unable so to do ; 
jid at last returned to his lodging, where, putting on his 
xmour, he went out again to put an end to the affray 
f he possibly could. He then embarked in a boat and re- 
)aired to the palace of king Tancred, to consult with the 
Ling of France on the affair that had taken place. In the 
aeantime, however, through the mediation of the elders of the 
itj^, the discord was allayed ; and arms being laid down on 
K)th sides, each party returned home. 

On the ninth day of October there came to the king of 
England, Richard, archbishop of Messina, William, archbishop 
f Montreal, William, archbishop of Eisa, Margarite, the ad- 
airal, Jordan de Pin, and many others of the household of 
he king of Sicily, who brought with them Philip, king of 
France, Reginald, bishop of Chartres, Manasseh, bishop of Lan- 
jres, Hugh, duke of Burgundy, Peter, count de IN^evers, and 
jeoffrey, count de Perche, and, of the household of the king of 
ilngland, Walter, archbishop of Rouen, and Gerard, archbishop 
if Auxienne, together with many others, in whom they placed 
onfidence, for the purpose of making peace between them and 
he king of England. 

Now when the terms of peace had been for some time under 
lonsideration, and they had nearly come to a conclusion thereon, 
he citizens of Messina, collecting in great multitudes, pro- 
leeded to the mountains, and waited in readiness, treacher- 
lusly to fall upon the king of England; while others made 
m attack on the lodging of Hugh Le Brun. On this, their 
houts, which were far from subdued, came to the ears of the 
dng of England, who immediately leaving the conference 
vith the king of Prance and the other persons above-named, 
)rdered all his men to put on their armour, and he, with a 
few followers, climbed a steep hill, which no one could have 
iupposed he could possibly have done, and having, with 



160 ANls^ALS OF BOGEK DE HOYEDEN". A.D. 1190. 

great difficulty, reached the top of the hill, there took to flight 
"^ith all possible speed and re-entered the city, the king pur- 
suing them with the edge of the sword. 

• On this, the knights and men-at-arms of the king of Eng- 
land bravely attacked the citizens at the gates and walls of| 
the city, and, suffering many hard blows from stones, at 
one moment effected an entrance into the city gates, while at 
another they were driven out. Here there were slain five 
knights of the king of England's people, and twenty men-at- 
arms, while the king of France was looking on, and giving 
them no assistance, although they were of one brotherhood with 
him in the pilgrimage. As for the king of Erance, he and his 
people entered the city, and made their way through them 
in perfect safety. 

However, the men of the king of England at last exercised 
their strength with such effect, that by main force they burst 
open the city gates and mounted the walls in all directions, and so 
having entered the city, they took possession thereof, and imme- 
diately hoisted the banners of the king of England on the for- 
tifications around the walls. At this the king of Erance 
was greatly indignant, and demanded that the banners of the 
king of England should be lowered, and his own set up ; 
this, however, the king of England would not permit, but 
still, that the wishes of the king of Erance might be satisfied, 
he lowered his own banners and gave the city into the charg 
of the knights Hospitallers, and the Templars, until every- 
thing should have been complied with that he. demanded oi 
Tancred king of Sicily. 

Respecting the agreement made hetween Philip , Icing of FrancBy 
and Richard, king of England, at Messina, 

On the eighth day of October, the king of Erance and the king* 
of England, before their earls and barons, and the clergy and 
people, made oath upon the relics of the Saints, that the oneSf 
would defend the other in that pilgrimage, both in going and 
returning, with good faith, and the earls and barons swore thai 
they would strictly and inviolably observe the same. After this, 
by the advice and consent of the whole of the army of the pil- 
grims, the said kings enacted that all pilgrims who should die 
on their journey on the said pilgrimage, might at their pleasure 
dispose of all their armour, horses, and apparel which they shouk 



A.D. 1190. OliDINANCES TO BE OBSESTED ON PILGBIIMAGE. 161 

make use of, and of a moiety of tlieir possessions which, 
they might chance to have with them on the journey, at 
their own option, provided only they should send nothing back 
to their own country; while clerks might give such orders as 
to their chapels and all utensils belonging to such chapels; and 
all their books, as thej^ should think fit. The other moiety 
was to be at the discretion of Walter, archbishop of Kouen, 
Manser, bishop of Langres, the Master of the house of tho 
knights Templars, the Master of the Hospital, Hugh, duke 
of Burgundy, Eaoul de Coucy, Drogo de Merlou, Eobert de 
Sabul, Andrew de Chauvigny, and Gilbert de Wascuil ; who 
were to employ the said money towards the relief of the land 
of Jerusalem, as they should think necessary. This also the 
kings in their own persons swore strictly and faithfully to ob- 
serve throughout the whole expedition, on both sides of the 
sea, with regard to all the pilgrims of both kingdoms, both 
those who should come, as well as those who had come al- 
ready. The archbishops and bishops promised on their word 
of truth to observe the same. The Masters of the Temple 
and the Hospital agreed that the same should be observed on 
behalf of their respective orders, while the earls and barons in 
their own persons swore that the same should be observed. 

Further, no man in all the army was to play at any kind of 
game for money, with the exception of knights and the clergy, 
who, in one day and night, were not to lose more than twenty 
shillings ; and if any knight or clerk should lose more than 
twenty shillings in any natural day, as often as such persons 
should exceed twenty shillings they were to pay one hundred 
shillings to the before-named archbishop, bishop, earls and 
barons, who were to add the before-mentioned sums of money 
to the said sums. The kings, however, were to play at their 
good pleasure ; and in the lodgings of the tw.o kings their 
men-at-arms might play as far as the sum of twenty shillings, 
with the permission of the kings. Also, in presence of arch- 
bishops, bishops, earls and barons, with their sanction men-at- 
arms might play as far as the sum of twenty shillings. But if 
any men-at-arms or mariners, or others of the lower orders, 
should be found playing of themselves, men-at-arms were to 
be whipped naked three days through the army, unless they 
should be prepared to ransom themselves at the arbitration of 
the persons before -named ; and the same as to other servants 
of a like degree. But if mariners should so play, they were 

VOL. II. M 



162 ANNALS OF ROGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1190. 

to be plunged the first thing in the morning into the sea, on 
three successive clays, after the usage of sailors, once each day, 
unless they should be able to ransom themselves at the arbitra- 
tion of the persons before mentioned. 

Further, if any pilgrim, while on his journey, should borrow 
anything of another person, he was to pay back what he had 
borrowed ; but as to Avhat he had borrowed before setting out, 
he was not to be bound to make repayment during the pil- 
grimage. 

Further, if any mariner hired for wages, or any men-at- 
arms or any other person whatever, clerks and knights ex- 
cepted, should leave his master while on the said pilgrimage, 
no one else was to receive him, unless the same should be done 
by the consent of his master. And if any one, against the 
will of his former master, should receive him, he was to be 
punished at the discretion of the persons before-mentioned. 
And if any person should rashly attempt anything in contra- 
vention of the statutes thus solemnly enacted, he was to know 
that he thereby rendered himself subject to the excommuni- 
cation of the archbishops and bishops of the whole army ; and 
all transgressors were to be punished as before mentioned, at 
the discretion of the parties before-named, according to the 
nature of each case. 

It was also enacted by the said kings, that the merchant in each 
article of merchandize was to be the seller thereof, and that 
no one in the army was to be allowed to buy bread to sell the 
same again ; nor yet flour, unless some stranger should have 
brought the same, and a person should have made bread thereof; 
nor yet fine corn, unless in like manner he should have made I 
bread thereof, or should keep it by him to carry beyond sea. 
All dough was entirely forbidden to be purchased ; and all these 
things were forbidden to be bought within a town and within 
a league from a town. 

But if any person should buy fine com, and make bread of 
the same, he was bound to make profit of but one farthing in 
the measure, ^^ besides the bran. 

As to other dealers, in whatever commodity they should deal, 
they were bound in every ten pence to make but one penny profit. 

No person was to ring any money of our lord the king upon 
which the impression should be visible, unless it should be 
broken within the rim. 

^^ The " salina," or " sayraa,'' was a measure, the capacities of which 
are not known. 



^.B. 1190. KING TANCEED's answer TO UNG EICHAED. 163 

Xo person was to buy any dead flesh to sell the same again, 
nor yet any Imng beast, unless he should kill it within the camp. 

ISiO person was to seU his mne at too dear a rate after pro- 
clamation^^ once made. 

Ko person was to make bread for sale except at one penny the 
loaf, and all dealers were to understand that bread-corn was 
alone to be used within a league of the town. 

Of the money of England one penny was to be given in aU 
dealings for four pence of money Anjouin. 

It ought also to be known, that all the above enactments 
were made and ordained by the advice and consent of the king 
of France, the king of England, and the king of Sicily. 

On the third day after the capture of the city of Messina, 
the chief men of that city and of the whole province gave 
hostages to the king of England as pledges that they would 
keep the peace towards him and his people, and freely de- 
Liver into his hand the city of Messina, unless Tancred, king 
of Sicily, their master, should publicly make peace with him, 
as to all the points on which he demanded satisfaction. For 
le had demanded of king Tancred Mount Saint Angelo, with 
:he whole earldom and its other appurtenances, on behalf of 
lis sister Joanna, which William, the former king of Sicily, 
ler husband, had assigned her for her dower, as also a gilded 
3hair for the said Joanna, according to the custom of the 
queens of that kingdom ; and for his own use a gilded table 
twelve feet in length, and a foot and a half in breadth : also, 
X large tent of silk, of such size that two hundred knights 
[night sit at table beneath it, and two gilded tressels to sup- 
port the said gilded table, besides four - and - twenty cups, 
md as many dishes, of si].ver, and sixty thousand measures ^^ 
)f corn, as many of barley, and as many of wine, and a hun- 
ired armed galleys, with all their equipments, and victuals 
:br the galley-men for two years. AU these things the king 
)f England demanded for his own use, as being the heir of 
dug Henry, for whom the above-named king of Sicily had 
)rovided all the things above mentioned, and had bequeathed 
:he same to him on his last illness. 

Tancred, king of Sicily, made answer to him to the follow- 
ng effect : ''I gave to your sister Joanna ten hundred thou- 
sand pieces of money, arising from lands, in satisfaction of 

90 This " coticlaraatio" was probably a proclamation made for regula- 
ion of the prices. ^^ Salonae. 

m2 



164 ANNALS OF EOGEK DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1190. 

her dower, before she left me, and as to the rest of your 
demands, I will do whatever I shall feel myself bound to do, 
in conformity with the customs of this kingdom." Accord- 
ingly, by the advice of prudent councillors, the king of Sicily 
gave to the king of England twenty thousand ounces of gold, 
in satisfaction of the dower of his sister, and another twenty 
thousand ounces of gold, by way of compromise for all the 
other particulars before mentioned, which he had demanded 
of right as the bequest of William, king of Sicily, deceased, 
and agreed that a marriage should be had between Arthur, 
duke of Brittany, his nephew, and a daughter of king Tan- 
cred. These concessions being made on either side, Eichard, 
king of England, wrote to Tancred, king of Sicily, to the 
following eifect : — 

TJie treaty of peace made letween Richard, Icing of Englandy and 

Tancred^ king of Sicily, 

'^ To Tancred, by the grace of God the illustrious king of 
Sicily, and of the dukedom of Apulia and the principality of 
Capua, Eichard, by the same grace, king of England, duke of 
.'N'ormandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, health in Him 
who bestows health upon kings. Whereas, while on our 
pilgrimage, the liOrd inspiring us thereto, we were passing 
through your lands for the purpose of aiding the land of Je- 
rusalem, which, its sins so demanding, the incursions of the 
pagans have in a great measure overrun, and the sword of the 
enemies of Christ laid waste, we were compelled to make some 
stay at your city of Messina, the inclemency of the winds, and 
of the sea, and of the season, preventing us from setting sail, 
on which, a dissension chancing to arise between our people 
and the citizens of the said city, great loss resulted to both 
parties both in property and men : in consequence whereof, 
it seemed probable to many that our brotherly love and affec- 
tion might receive some check : we have therefore taken due 
care to observe the purpose and intention of our pilgrim- 
age, and have resolved that both by ourselves, and by our 
dearly-beloved and faithful friends, as also by your venerable 
archbishops, to wit, llichard, archbishop of Messina, William, 
archbishop of Montreal, William, archbishop of Eisa, and 
Eichard, son of the venerable man Walter, your chancel- 
lor, and other excellent men delegated on your behalf, the 
bonds of inviolate peace should be drawn still closer between 



A. D. 11 90. TREATY BETWEEI?^ THE EINGS OF Els^GLAND AND SICILY. 165 

lis ; the tenor of which should be preserved to last to future 
ages by being reduced to writing. Therefore, we have pro- 
mised to you, and to your realm, and to all lands under your 
dominion, that we will, both by land and sea, both of our- 
selves and of our people, observe a lasting peace, all questions 
whatsoever being set at rest, which, by our envoys to you, we 
had raised, both as to the dower of the queen, our sister, as 
also other matters ; this, also, being added thereto, that, so 
long as we shall stay in your kingdom, we will be everywhere 
in readiness for the defence of your territories, and give you 
our assistance, whoever may wish to invade the same, or wage 
war against you. To the tenor and form of this treaty of 
peace, which it is our wish and our purpose, with unbroken 
faitb, to observe towards you and your people, we have, by 
Walter, archbishop of Eouen, Gerard, archbishop of Auxienne, 
John, bishop of Evreux, Bernard; bishop of Bayonne, Jordan de 
Humez, our constable, William de Courcy, Eichard de Camville, 
Gerard Talbot, Eobert de Sabul, Guide de Croum, Guarine Fitz- 
gerald, Bertram de Yerdun, "William Chamberlain de Tanker- 
ville, Robert de x^Tewburgh, Hugh Bardolph, Wigain de Cher- 
bourg, Gilbert de Wascuill, Hugh le Bruin, John de Piller, 
Amauri de Montfort, Andrew de Chauvigny, William de Eorts 
:le Oleron, Geoffrey de Eancune, Amauri Torel, and many others 
3f our household, made oath, upon our soul, in presence of the 
oofore-named archbishops appointed by you for the said purpose, 
:ind others of your illustrious men, to confirm and ratify the same, 
according to the tenor of the articles therein contained. And 
further, to the end that this peace and brotherly love may be 
mit together by bonds as multiplied as stringent, the before- 
lamed principal, men of your court treating thereon on your 
oehalf, and the J^ord so disposing, we have agreed that a max- 
iage shall be contracted, in the name of Christ, between 
Arthiu-, the excellent duke of Brittany, our nephew, and, if 
ive shall chance to die without issue, our heir, and your 
laughter ; so that when she shall, by the will of God, have ar- 
ived at marriageable years, and you shall have sent her to such 
jlace as shall have been agreed upon by either side, our said 
lephew shall, within fifteen days from the time of his meeting 
ler, be espoused to her as his lawful wife ; or if it shall please 
rour highness that she shall be married before she arrives at 
narriageable years, our said nephew shall so do according to 
four pleasure therein, if the Supreme Pontiff shall grant a 



166 ANNALS OF EOGER DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1190. 

dispensation for the same. And as it is our wish that such a 
dower shall be assigned to her as shall befit an illustrious lady 
and the daughter of a mighty king, we do engage, on behalf 
of our said nephew, that such a dower shall be provided for her 
out of the dukedom of our said nephew, and the same we have 
caused to be sworn at the present time by our faithful servants 
before named, and do engage that the same shall be given by 
our said nephew ; and we admit that we have received for the 
use of our nephew, from your mightiness, a sum for the said mar- 
riage, that is to say, twenty thousand ounces of gold ; this also 
being a part of the agreement, that if, which may heaven pre- 
vent, either shall die in the meantime, or if, through the fault 
of our nephew, or of ourselves, or of his people, the said mar- 
riage shall not take place, then, in such case, we or our heirs 
wdll, without any demur thereto, repay to you or to your heirs 
the above-mentioned sum of money in full. Moreover, as to the 
said matters, that is to say, the treaty of peace which we have 
ratified and confirmed with you, and as to repayment of the 
said sums of money, in case from the before-named causes 
intervening the said marriage shall not take place, we do give 
our lord the pope and the Church of Rome as our sureties ; to 
the end that if, which may God forbid, the said peace should 
chance to be violated on our part, the Church of Eome shall 
have power, by stringent measures, to coerce both ourselves 
and our territories. In like manner, also, he shall have full 
power to compel ourselves and our nephew to contract the said 
marriage, or in case, by reason of the causes before-mentioned, 
the said marriage should not take place, to compel us, or our 
heirs, or territories, to repay the said sum of money. That 
this, also, we will do, the Eoman church being our surety, we 
have bound ourselves by the oaths of the persons above named, 
according to the tenor of the words contained in the instru- 
ment which we have sent to you, sealed with our seal. More- 
over, if, in case of our dying without heirs [our issue], he shall 
succeed to our throne by hereditary right, then we do assign to 
her from our kingdom the following dower, that is to say, the 
ancient and customary dower of the queens of England." 

The form of the treaty made upon oath letween Richa/rd, Icing 
of England, and Tanered, Icing of Sicily, 

"I, N., do swear upon these Holy Gospels of God, that my 
lord Eichard, king of England, shall from this hour forwarci 



A.D. 1190. LETTEE OF KIXG RICHAPwD TO POrE CLEMENT. 167 

preserve with the lord Tancred, king of Sicily the dukedom 
of Apulia and the principality of Capua, and his realm, and 
all the lands under his dominion, lasting peace, both himself and 
his, by land and by sea ; and that, so long as my said lord shall 
be in the kingdom of king Tancred, he shaU give him his assist- 
ance in defending his territories wheresover he shall happen to 
be in the territories of the lord Tancred, king of Sicily, and what 
person soever may attempt to invade, or make war, against 
the same ; and that my lord shall, with his own hand, swear 
to observe this same treaty of peace, if the lord, king Tan- 
cred, shall, in like manner, with his hand, swear to observe the 
said treaty of peace. And if, at any time, which may heaven 
prevent, my lord shall attempt to break the said peace, I will 
place myself in the custody of the said lord, the king Tancred, 
wheresoever he shall think fit ; and all these things my lord 
Richard, king of England, and I myself, will observe in good 
faith, and without fraud and evil intent ; so help us God, and 
these Holy Gospels of God, and the relics of the Saints. Amen.*' 
It is also worthy to be remarked, that the archbishops, 
bishops, and other subjects of king Tancred swore to the same 
effect, upon his soul, that he and his people would keep the peace 
towards Richard, king of England, and his people, by sea and 
by land, so long as they should be in his territories ; and if the 
said Tancred, king of Sicily, and his people, should not keep 
the peace, then the said archbishops, and others, who had 
taken that oath on behalf of king Tancred, would place them- 
selves in the custody of the king of England wheresoever he 
should think fit. It is also to be observed, that king Tancred 
gave to Richard, king of England, another twenty thousand 
ounces of gold in satisfaction of all questions which he had 
raised, both as to the dower of his sister, the queen, as also 
concerning all his other demands ; and, to the end that king 
Tancred might be made more secure as to all the covenants 
above mentioned, Richard, king of England, wrote to the Su- 
preme Pontiff to the following effect : — 

The Letter of Richard, king of England ^ to pope Clement, relative 
to the peace made between him and king Tancred. 

'^Tohis most reverend lord and most holy father Clement, 
by the grace of God, Supreme Pontiff of the Holy Apostolic 
See, Richard, by the same grace, king of England, duke 
of I^ormandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, health and 



168 ANNALS OF ROGER DS HOTEDEN. A.D. 1190. 

Bincere dutifulness in the Lord. The actions of princes are 
blessed with more prosperous results when they receive strength 
and favour from the Apostolic See, and are directed by com- 
munication w^ith the Church of Rome. Wherefore, we have 
deemed it proper to transmit to the knowledge of your Holi- 
ness the matters which have been lately arranged between our- 
selves and the lord Tancred, the illustrious king of Sicily, by 
public treaty, which indeed was suggested by necessity. We 
have then established with him brotherly love and lasting con- 
cord, and the same, by the oaths of our nobles, archbishops, 
bishops, and very many illustrious men, we have promised that 
we will with inviolate fidelity observe towards him and his peo- 
ple, and all the territories of his dominions. And for the further 
purpose of binding this treaty of peace and friendship with a 
still more stringent tie, we have thought proper to make a con- 
tract of marriage between Arthur, the excellent duke of Brit- 
tany, our most dearly-beloved nephew, and heir, if we shall 
chance to die without issue, and, with the will of God, his illus- 
trious daughter ; and, by the bounty of the Lord, the same shall 
be brought to a due consummation when the illustrious damsel 
shall have arrived at marriagable years, or when it shall have 
pleased the said lord, the king Tancred, for her, before she has 
arrived at marriageable years, to be given in marriage to our 
nephew, if the Holy Church of Eome shall, in like manner, 
think fit to grant a dispensation for the same. And, further, 
the sum of money which for the said marriage we have re- 
ceived for the use of our nephew from the said lord, the king 
Tancred, namely, twenty thousand ounces of gold, in case, 
which heaven forbid, by reason of the death of either, or 
through the fault of ourselves, or of our nephew, or of his 
people, the said marriage shall not take place, we, or our heirs, 
ai'e bound on our part by oaths made to that eifect to repay in 
full to the lord the king Tancred, or his heirs. To the end, 
therefore, that the terms of the said treaty of peace so con- 
cluded, and full acquiescence in the marriage thus contem- 
plated, may, with all due integrity, be secured on the part of 
ourselves and our nephew, in such manner as we have upon 
oath promised to the lord the king Tancred, we do earnestly 
entreat your Holiness, and the Holy Church of Rome, that the 
Holy See will undertake to be surety on our behalf towards 
the lord the king Tancred and his heirs, for our constant ob- 
servance of the peace thus established between us, and for the 



A.D. 1190. SCTLLA AND CHAEYBBIS. 169 

due fulfillment of the said contract of marriage ; or, in case, 
from the reasons before mentioned, the said marriage should 
not take place, for the repayment of the said sum of money. 
And that, with due confidence the Church of Eome may un- 
dertake conjointly with you to share the burden of the said 
surety, we do upon the testimony of these present letters grant 
to yourselves, and to the Holy Church of Eome, free power 
with all stringency to coerce ourselves and our heirs and ter- 
ritory, if either we shall contravene the terms of the said treaty 
of peace, or if, the marriage, from the causes before mentioned, 
not taking place, we, or our heirs, shall refuse repayment of 
the said sum of money. Your Holiness well knows how to show 
due regard to the honor of us both ; and that, if through the 
mediation of the Church of Eome, the advantages of peace 
and of the intended marriage shall be duly served, numerous 
benefits will at a future day ensue therefrom. Witness our- 
selves, on this eleventh day of I^ovember, at Messina.'' 

However, before this treaty of peace was fully concluded 
and ratified between the king of England and the king of 
Sicily, Margarite, the admiral, and Jordan de Pini, members 
of the household of the king of Sicily, to whom he had given 
charge of the city of Messina, left it by night, taking with 
them their families and the substance which they possessed in 
gold and silver. The king of England, however, on their de- 
parture, seized their houses, and galleys, and other possessions, 
into his own hands. 

After this, the king of England caused a wide and deep 
trench to be cut through the middle of the island on which is 
the monastery of the Grifibns, in the middle of the river del 
Faro, where his treasures and provisions were stored : which 
trench ran right across the width of the whole island, from 
one shore to the other, and terminated in Charybdis. 

It is worthy of remark, that in this river, caUed the Earo di 
M'essina, are those two most noted perils of the sea, Scylla 
and Charybdis, the one of which, namely, Scylla, is at the 
entrance of the Earo, near the priory of Le Baniare, and the 
other, namely, Charybdis, is near the outlet of the Earo ; for 
the purpose of knowing which, a tower of stone was erected in 
the above-named island near the trench made by the king of 
England. It is also to be observed, that Scylla is always vomit- 
ing forth and casting its waves on high, and consequently it is 
necessary that those who pass should keep themselves at a 



170 ANNALS OF EOGEE DE HOVEDEN. a.d. 1190. 

considerable distance, for fear lest they should be overwhelmed 
by the fury of the tide. On the other hand, Charybdis is 
unceasingly drawing towards it and sucking in the waves ; 
wherefore, those who pass by, ought to take care that they are 
not sucked in by it. Still, some incautious persons, while 
trying to avoid Scylla, fall into Charybdis. 

The king of England, while the final completion of the 
treaty of peace between him and king Tancred was being 
delayed, built a strong castle for himself on the brow of a lofty 
hill outside of the walls of the city of Messina, which they 
called Mate Griffon. The Griffons, before the arrival of the 
king of England, were more powerful than any of the inhabit- 
ants of those parts, and held in extreme hatred all the people 
who lived beyond the mountains, so much so, that they thought 
but very little of kilKng them, and there was no one to help 
them. Eut from the time that the king of England came 
there, their mischievous exploits were brought to a termina- 
tion, and, their power being crushed, they became more con- 
temptible than any other of the inhabitants of that land ; 
for, hoping that they could do to the king of England as 
they had been able to do to others in days of yore, they fell 
into the pit which they themselves had dug, and became out- 
casts in the land. 

On the other hand, the English nation was held in the 
highest esteem in the kingdom of Sicily. Thus was fulfilled 
the prophecy which was found inscribed in ancient characters 
on tables of stone near a vill of the king of England, the name 
of which is Here ; which Henry, king of England, gave to 
William Eitz-Stephen, and where the said "William built a 
new house, on a pinnacle of which was placed the figure of a 
stag ; which is supposed to have been done in order that the 
prophecy might be fiilfilled, which said — ; 

*^ Wil)an ti)u ^tcl)t^ in ^ere i)evt grtret ; 

Cijau ^ulm iEugles; in ti)xtt be ptfeteU. 

Ci^at i^an £(al into ^rlanlJ altolate l»aie, 

C{)at otfter into JBuille miXi prutit be igeue, 

Cl)e tl)vitJtJe into ^ivljaj^en i)ei*K alle Wittkt vtivtt^tztn. 

After this, the king of England, in his love for God and for 

^'^ Verbatim as in the original. These lines are evidently corrupt. They 
seem to refer to the erection of the figure of the hart, the expedition to 
Ireland, and the feats of king Richard in Apulia and Sicily. The release 
of the right to wreck is perhaps alluded to in the last. 



A.D. 1190. FAMINE AMONG THOSE WHO BESIEGED ACEE. 171 

the salvation of his soul, abandoned all claims whatsoever on his 
part for ever to wreck throughout the whole of his territories, 
and enacted that every shipwrecked person who should reach 
shore alive should freely and quietly have all his property. 
And if a person should die on board ship, then his sons or 
daughters, or brothers or sisters, were to have his property, 
according to the degree in which they should be able to prove 
themselves his nearest heirs. Eut if the person so dying 
should have neither sons nor daughters, nor brothers nor sis- 
ters, then the king was to have his chattels. This release of 
right to wreck, Richard, king of England, made and confirmed 
by his charter in the second year of his reign, at Messina, in 
the month of October, in the presence of Walter, archbishop 
of Eouen, Gerard, archbishop of Auxienne, John, bishop of 
Evreux, Bernard, bishop of Bayonne, and many others of the 
clergy and laity of the household of the king of England, and 
the charter was delivered by the hand of Master Roger Mai- 
chien, the king's vice-chancellor. 

In the same year, more than a hundred thousand pagans who 
were in the kingdom of Sicily, and servants of king William, 
after his death indignantly refused to serve under king Tan- 
cred, both because Henry, king of the Germans, had laid claim 
to the throne of Sicily, as also because Richard, king of Eng- 
land, entering the kingdom of Sicily, had taken possession of 
a great part thereof. They consequently retired to the moun- 
tainous parts with their wives, sons, daughters, and cattle, 
and there lived, attacking the Christians, and doing them con- 
siderable injury. 

However, when they heard that a treaty of peace and a 
final reconciliation had been made between the king of England 
and king Tancred, they returned into the service of king Tan- 
cred, and after giving him hostages as sureties that they would 
keep the peace, came back to their homes, and cultivated the 
land as they had cultivated it in the time of king William, 
and so became the servants of king Tancred. 

In the same year, after his father, Frederic, emperor of the 
Romans, had lost his life by drowning, Conrad, duke of Suabia, 
was made king of the Germans and Alemannians, and the 
other nations subject to his father, and repaired to the siege 
of Acre with a great army ; immediately on which a great 
famine arose among those besieging Acre, and increased to 
such a degree, that a loaf of bread which used to be sold before 



172 ANNALS OF ROGER DE nOYEDEN. A.D. 1100. 

their arrival for one penny, was soon after sold at the price of 
sixty^^ shillings. Upon this, great numbers of the army died 
of famine, as one horse-load of corn was being sold for sixty- 
four marks, English money ; and in consequence, the principal 
men present at the siege were obliged to feed on horse-flesh, 
eating it as a delicacy. 

'Now when the famine had increased to an extraordinary 
degree of severity, the clamour of the people reached Hubert 
Fitz- Walter, bishop of EoueUj^'^and the other bishops in the ex- 
pedition, on which they made a collection of money to relieve 
the necessities of the poor, and the Lord gave such increase to 
the sums so collected, that they sufficed for the sustenance of 
all who were in want, until such time as God, the giver of all 
good things, looking from on high, sent them an abundance of 
corn, wine, and oil ; for the third day after the collection was 
distributed among the poor, there came to Acre ships laden 
with corn, wine, and oil, and made so plentiful a market, 
and on such moderate terms, that a measure of wheat which 
before was sold for two hundred besants, was shortly after to 
be had for six. 

In the same year, on the day of Saint James the Apostle, 
ten thousand youths of prowess and well armed, came forth 
from among the troops besieging the city of Acre, in spite of 
the prohibition of the king, the Patriarch, and the leader of 
the army, with the intention of engaging with Saladin and 
his army; but Saladin, on seeing them, retreated with his 
army, leaving behind his tents and provisions. On this, the 
young men entered the tents of the pagans, and ate and drank 
of what they found therein ; after which they carried away 
with them whatever they could find of value, and loaded 
themselves therewith ; but, when they were returning towards 
the force besieging Acre, Saladin and his army fell upon them 
and put them to the edge of the sword, and they were nearly 
all slain by the pagans ; a few of them, however, leaving their 
loads behind, escaped by the aid of Ealph de Hautereve, arch- 
deacon of Colchester. 

In the same year, Sibylla, queen of Jerusalem, wife of 
Guido of Lusignan, and his two daughters, departed this 
life at the siege of Acre ; upon whose death, Conrad, Marquis of 
Montferrat, lord of Tyre, seeing that there was no nearer heir 
to the throne of Jerusalem than Milicent, the wife of Amfrid 

*3 Another reading says " forty." 
•* Clearly a mistake for ** Salisbury." 



A.D. 1190. THE KING OF ENGLANd's FLEET EEPAIEED. 173 

de Tours, sister of the said Sibylla, held a conference with the 
Patriarch Heraclius before mentioned, and the mother of the 
lady before named, and all the chief men of the army of the 
Christians, and demanded that the sister of the deceased queen 
should be given him to wife, promising that for the future he 
w^ould faithfully and zealously promote the interests of the 
army of the Christians, and would from that time forward 
hold no communication whatever with Saladin. On this, the 
mother of the lady, the Patriarch, and a considerable number 
of the chief men of the army, yielded assent to his requests, 
and, effecting a divorce between the said lady and Amfrid de 
Tours, her husband, gave her in marriage to Conrad ; who 
immediately laid claim to the kingdom of Jerusalem against 
Guide, in right of his wife ; upon which Guide offered to abide 
by the lawful decision of the court of the kings of Prance and 
England, who were shortly about to arrive ; but Conrad, being 
unwilling to wait so long a time, usurped all power in the 
kingdom, and banished king Guide. 

In the same year, while Philip, king of the Pranks, and 
Eichard, king of the English, were staying at Messina, in 
Sicily, in the month of December, on the fourteenth day before 
the calends of January, being the fourth day of the week, 
loud thunder was heard at Messina, and many and terrible 
flashes of lightning w^ere seen ; a thunderbolt also fell in one 
of the galleys of the king of England and sank it, striking 
the walls of the city of Messina, of which it levelled a 
great part. The knights also and men-at-arms of the king of 
England, who were keeping guard in the monastery of the Grif- 
fons, in which were the treasures of the king of England, 
asserted as a truth that they saw a ball of fire on a pinnacle of 
that monastery, not burning but sending forth a light, which re- 
mained there as long as the tempest raged, and after that ceased 
the ball of fire disappeared. On their expressing surprise at 
this, and making careful enquiries what it could possibly mean, 
the Griffons there serving God made answer with one accord, 
that this always happened whenever a storm arose. 

The king of England in the meantime, while he was staying 
at Messina, caused all the ships of his fleet to be hauled ashore 
and repaired, as many of them had become damaged in con- 
sequence of being eaten away by worms. Por in the river 
Del Paro there are certain thin worms, which in the language 
of the people are called **Bcom,'' whose food is every kind 



174 ANIMALS OF KOGEE DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1190; 

of wood. Whenever these have once adhered to any kind 
of wood, they never leave go thereof, except through main 
force, until they have pierced right through ; they make narrow 
straight holes when they have effected an entrance, and then 
from gnawing away the wood they become so increased in size 
and bulk, that in coming forth they make wider holes. In the 
mean time, Eichard, king of England, caused stone engines and 
other engines of war to be prepared, for the purpose of taking 
the same to the land of Jerusalem. 

In the same year, William, bishop of Ely, legate of th& 
Apostolic See, chancellor of our lord the king and justiciary; 
of all England, oppressed the people entrusted to his charge 
with heavy exactions. Eor in the first place he despised all 
his fellows whom the king had associated with him in the 
government of his kingdom, and disregarded their advice. In- 
deed, he considered no one of his associates in the kingdom his 
equal, not even John, earl of Mortaigne, the king's brother. Ac- 
cordingly, he laid claim to the castles, estates, abbeys, churches, 
and all the rights of the king as his own. On the authority 
also of his legateship, he came to take up his lodging at 
bishoprics, abbeys, and priories, and other houses of the reli- 
gious orders, with such a vast array of men, horses, hounds, 
and hawks, that a house where he took up his abode for only a 
single night, was hardly able within the three following years 
to recover its former state. From the clerks and laity he also 
took away their churches, farms, lands, and other possessions, 
which he either divided among his nephews, clerks, and ser- 
vants, or else, to the loss of the owners, retained possession of 
them himself, or squandered them away to supply his extraor- 
dinary expenses. 

Did not this wretched man consider that he should one day 
have to die ? Did he not think that the Lord would demand of 
each an account of his stewardship, or honorable conduct in his 
government ? But well is it said as to such men as this : 
*' 1^0 thing is more unendurable than a man of low station when 
he is exalted on high. On every side he strikes, while on every 
side he fears ; against all does he rage, that they may have an 
idea of his power ; nor is there any beast more foul than the 
rage of a slave let loose against the backs of the free."^^ 

5* '* Asperius humili nihil est cum surgit in altum, 

Cuncta ferit, dum cuncta timet, desajvit in omnes, 

Ut seposse putent ; nee bellua tetrior ulla, , 

Quam servi rabies in libera terga furentis." 



A.D. 1190. KESTORATION j«^DE TO THE DUKE OF SAXOI^Y. 175 

In the same year, on the third day after the feast of Saint 
Michael, about four thousand armed Saracens came forth from 
the city of Acre, and burned four of the stockades with Greek 
tire ; but they were manfully repulsed by the soldiers of the 
u-my, and lost twenty Turks who were slain, and many 
sv^ounded. After this, at the feast of Saint Martin, the Sara- 
3ens again sallied forth from the city of Acre, and made an 
ittack upon the Christians, who manfully withstood them. 
Baldwin de Carun, Walter de Oyri, and Baldwin de Dargus, 
raliantly withstood their attack, until count Henry and Geof- 
rey de Lusignan had come up with the Templars, and com- 
)elled the pagans to give way with such a mighty charge, 
hat they lost in their flight forty Turks who were slain, and 
nany wounded. 

After this, between the feast of Saint Andrew and the Ka- 
ivity of our Lord, the whole army of the Christians was in 
rms, for the purpose of making an assault upon the city of 
^cre, and the Germans and English drew their scaling-ladders 
the trenches, that they might place them against the walls ; 
n which the pagans went out of the city by the postern gates^ 
nd took their scaling-ladders firom the Germans, and drove 
le English away from the trenches, and then fastened ropes 
the scaling-ladder of the English, with the intention of 
rawing it into the city ; but Ealph de Tilly, Humphrey de 
"eilly, Eobert de Lanlande, and Eoger de Glanville, mounted 
he scaling-ladder of the English, and four times extinguished 
he Greek fire that was thrown down ; and Ralph de Tilly 
oming nearer than the others, cut asunder the ropes with his 
word, and so rescued the scaling-ladder from the hands of 
he pagans. Shortly after, between the feast of Saint Andrew 
nd the Nativity of our Lord, the famine already mentioned 
egan in the army of the Christians, and continued ' until the 
'urification of Saint Mary. 

In the same year, Henry, king of the Germans, on hearing 
f the death of Erederic, emperor of the Eomans, his father, 
3stored to Henry, duke of Saxony, all that his father had 
iken from him, and, by way of addition thereto, gave him 

n most excellent castles. He also did the like to all others 
^om whom his father had taken anything away, restoring to 
ach person what was his own. All his subjects therefore 

ing now reconciled to him, he sent his envoys to pope Cle- 
lent, and the cardinals and senators of the city, demanding 



176 ANNALS OP EOGEE LE HOYEDEN. A. D. 1190. 

the Eoman empire, and promising that he would in all things 
maintain the laws and dignities of the Romans unhurt. On this, 
pope Clement, having with due deliberation held council with 
the cardinals and senators and Roman people, respecting the 
demand of the king of the Germans, granted the king what 
he asked for, saving always the dignities and customs of the 
Romans, and appointed for him as the time for coming to 
Rome the following Easter ; but before he arrived there, pope 
Clement died. 

In the same year, David, brother of William, king of Scot- 
land, took to wife Matilda, sister of Ranulph, earl of Chester. 
In this year also, a dispute again happened between Geoffrey, 
archbishop elect of York, and Bucard, the treasurer of the 
same church, in consequence of which the archbishop elect 
excommunicated the before mentioned Bucard, who went to 
pope Clement, and was deemed worthy by him to be absolved 
therefrom; while with the Supreme Pontiff he threw such 
difficulties in the way of the business of the archbishop elect 
of York, that the Supreme Pontiff would neither confirm his 
election nor allow him to be consecrated. In addition to this, 
the Supreme Pontiff conferred on Hugh, bishop of Durham, 
the privilege of not making any profession or submission 
throughout his life to Hugh, the archbishop elect of York, 
not even though he should be consecrated to the archbishopric ; 
on the ground that the said bishop of Durham had once 
already made profession to the church of York, and to Saint 
William, at that time archbishop of York, and his Catholic 
successors. 

In the same year, Richard, king of England, the Divine 
grace inspiring him thereto, being sensible of the filthiness of 
his life, after due contrition of heart, having called together 
all the archbishops and bishops who were with him at Messina, 
in the chapel of Reginald de Moyac, fell naked at their feet, 
and did not hesitate to confess to God, in their presence, the 
filthiness of his life. Eor the thorns of lustfulness had de- 
parted from his head, and it was not the hand of man who 
rooted them out, but God, the Father of Mercies, who wisheth 
not for the death of a sinner, but rather that he may turn from his 
wickedness and live, looked upon him mth the eyes of mercy and 
gave him a heart to repent, and called him to repentance, for he 
received the penance imposed by the bishops before named, and 
from that hour forward became a man who feared God, and left 



A.D. 1190. IXTEllPRETATION OF SAINT JOHn's VISION. 177 

what was evil and did what was good. happy the man who 
so falls as to rise with greater strength still ! happy the 
man who after repentance does not relapse into faultiness and 
a course of ruin I 

In the same year, Eichard, king of England, hearing, by 
common report and the relation of many persons, that there was 
a certain religious man in Calabria, of the Cistercian order, 
called Joachim, abbat of Curazzo, who had a spirit of prophecy 
and foretold to the people things to come, sent for him and 
willingly listened to the words of his prophecy, and his wisdom 
and learning. For he was a man learned in the Holy Scrip- 
tures, and interpreted the visions of Saint John the Evan- 
gelist, which Saint John has related in the Eook of Revelation, 
which he wrote with his own hands ; in hearing which, the 
king of England and his people took great delight. 

The following was one of the visions of Saint John the 
Evangelist : *^ The kings are seven in number ; ^ye are fallen, 
ani one is, and the other is not yet come.'' ^"^ And elsewhere in 
the Revelation there is another vision of the same Evangelist. 
^' A woman clothed with the sun,^^ and the moon beneath her 
feet ;" which signifies the Holy Church, the sun of justice. 
Also, ^' the woman was clothed with the sun, and the moon was 
imder her feet, and upon her head was a crown of twelve stars, 
and, being with child, she was in pain to be delivered ; and, 
behold ! a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, 
and seven crowns upon his head : and his tail drew the third 
part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth ; 
and he stood before the woman who was about to be delivered, 
to devour her child as soon as it was born. And the woman 
brought forth a man child, who was to rule all nations with a 
rod of iron, and her child was caught up unto the Lord, and to 
His throne. And the woman fled into the wilderness of Egypt, 
where she had a place prepared of God, that they should feed 
her there a thousand two hundred and threescore days."^' 

!N"ow of this vision the following is the interpretation, ac- 
cording to Joachim, abbat of Curazzo. '' The w^oman clothed 
with the sun, and the moon under her feet," signifies the Holy 
Church, the sun of justice, who is Christ our God, shadowed 
forth and typified under that name; under his feet is the 
world, always to be trodden under foot with its vices and 
lusts. And '' upon her head was a crown of twelve stars." Kow 
95 Rev. xvii. 10. ^6 r^v. xii. 1. " Rev. xu. 1, 6. 

VOL. II. " N 



178 ANNALS OF KOGEIi DE nOYEDEN. A. D. 1190. 

the head of the Church is Christ, His crown is the Catholic 
faith which the twelve Apostles have preached. *^ The woman 
was in pain to he delivered." So the Holy Church, which 
ever rejoices in new offspring, suffers pain from day to day, to 
the end that she may gain souls for God, which the devil 
attempts to snatch away and to drag with himself down to 
hell. ^' And behold ! a great red dragon, having seven heads 
and ten horns." JSTow this dragon signifies the devil, Avho is 
properly said to have seven heads. For all the heads of the 
devil are replete with iniquity, and he uses the figure 7 as 
something finite for what is infinite ; for the heads of the devil 
are infinite in number ; that is to say, those who are perse- 
cutors of the Church, and the wicked. Of these, although 
they are infinite in number, the said Joachim, in his explana- 
tion, made mention of seven principal persons who were per- 
secutors of the Church, whose names were as follow : Herod, 
Nero, Constantius, Mahomet, Melsermut, Saladin, and Anti- 
christ. ^ 

*"' Saint John also says in the Eook of Revelation, ' There are 
seven kings ; five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet 
come : ' which the said Joachim thus explained. The seven 
kings are Herod, Nero, Constantius, Mahomet, Melsermut, 
Saladin, and Antichrist. Of these, ^Ye have perished ; namely, 
Herod, JSTero, Constantius, Mahomet, and Melsermut; one is, 
namely, Saladin, who is now oppressing the Church of God ; 
and, together with it, the Sepulchre of our Lord, and the Holy 
City of Jerusalem and the land on which stood the feet of our 
Lord are kept in his possession ; but he shall shortly lose the 
same. On this, the king of England asked the question, ^^ When 
shall this take place .^" To which Joachim made answer, 
^' When seven years shall have elapsed from the day of the 
capture of Jerusalem." Upon which, the king of England 
remarked, *'Why, then, have we come so much too soon?" 
"When Joachim made answer, ** Your arrival is very neces- 
sary, inasmuch as the Lord will give you the victory over His 
enemies, and will exalt your name beyond all the princes of 
the earth." 

*'The words then follow, "One of them is not yet come," 
which is Antichrist. JSTow as to this Antichrist, Joachim said, 
" He is already born in the city of Eome, and will be elevated 
to the Apostolic See ; and it is respecting this Antichrist that 
the Apostle says, ^ He is exalted, and strives against every 



A.D, 1190. IXTERPllETATION OF SAINT John's VISION. 179 

thing that is called of God/ And then shall the wicked one 
be revealed wliom the Lord Jesus shall slay witli the breath 
of His mouth, and shall destroy by the dazzling brightness of 
his approach/' On this, the king turned to him and said, *' I 
thought that Antichrist was to be born in Antioch, or at 
Eabylon, of the descendants of Dan, and was to reign in the 
Temple of the Lord at Jerusalem, and was to walk in that 
land in which Christ walked, and was to reign therein three 
years and a half, and was to dispute against Elias and Enoch, 
and was to slay them, and was afterwards to die, and after his 
death the Lord was to give sixty days for repentance, during 
which those persons might repent who had wandered away 
from the paths of truthfulness, and had been seduced by the 
preaching of Antichrist and his false prophets.'' 

^^ It then proceeds, ^' And there are ten horns." Now the 
ten honis of the devil are heresies and schisms, which heretics 
and schismatics oppose to the ten precepts of the law and 
the commandments of God. ** And upon his head were seven 
crowns." By the crowns are signified the kings and princes 
of this world, who are to believe in Antichrist. ^'And his 
tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven." This refers 
to the great number of persons who shall believe in him. 
**And did cast them to the earth." By the name of stars he 
calls the lower orders of men who are to believe in Antichrist ; 
and he mentions the third part of the stars of heaven by reason 
of the great multitude of men who shall believe on him. 
** And he did cast them to the earth ;" that is to say, he sent 
all those to the bottomless pit who had perished in believing 
on him. " And he stood before the woman, who was about to 
be delivered, to devour her child as soon as it was born." The 
devil ever lies in wait for the Church, that he may carry off 
her ofi2spring, and, after so carrying it off, devour it. He is 
well said ^*to stand;" inasmuch as he never turns aside for 
evil, but always stands steadfast in wickedness and iniiexible 
in the crafty wiles of his deceit. Or, according to another 
interpretation, his tail will signify the end of this world ; at 
which time certain wicked nations shall arise, which shall be 
called Gog and Magog, and shall destroy the Church of God, 
overthrow the Christian race, and then forthwith shall come 
the day of judgment. 

*' But in the days of this Antichrist there shall be many Chris- 
tians who shall live in the caverns of the earth, and in the 

N 2 



180 ANNALS OF EOOER DE HOTEDEN. A.D. 1190. 

solitary places of tlie rocks, and shall preserve the Christian 
faith in the fear of the Lord, until the consummation of Anti- 
christ ; and this is meant where it is said : *' The woman fled 
into the wilderness of Egypt, where she had a place prepared 
of God, that they should feed her there, a thousand two hun- 
dred and sixty days ; and her man child shall rule all nations 
with a rod of iron." This is especially our Lord Jesus Christ, 
who after His Passion and E-esurrection, has ascended into 
heaven, and sits at the right hand of God the Eather Almighty, 
and shall come to judge the living and the dead, and the world 
by fire ; of whom, if we are followers, and shall continue to 
obey His commands, we shall be caught up into the air to meet 
him, and shall always be with him." 

But although the said abbat of Curazzo gave these opinions 
in relation to Antichrist, still Walter, archbishop of Eouen, 
and the archbishop of Apamia, Gerard, archbishop of Auxienne, 
John, bishop of Evreux, Bernard, bishop of Bayeux, and other 
ecclesiastical men of great learning in the Holy Scriptures, 
endeavoured to prove the contrary ; and although they brought 
forward many arguments on both sides, with strong indications 
of truthfulness, the dispute is still undecided. Eor the an- 
cients, when making mention of Antichrist in their writings, 
have written to the following elfect : 

^' Those persons who wish to know something about Anti- 
christ, ought first to mark why he has been so called. The 
reason is, because he will be the opposite of Christ in all 
things, and will do what is contrary to Christ. Christ came 
in humility, he will come in pride. Christ came to raise the 
humble and to justify sinners; on the other hand. Antichrist 
will cast down the humble, and will magnify sinners, will 
exalt the unrighteous, and will always teach those vices which 
are opposed to virtues, will destroy the law of the Gospel, will 
recall to the world the worship of devils, will seek his own 
glory, and will call himself ^Hhe Almighty God." This Anti- 
christ will therefore have many to serve him in his wicked- 
ness, of whom many have already preceded him in the world ; 
such as Antiochus, J^ero, and Domitian ; in our times too we 
know of many Antichrists, Whatever person, whether lay- 
man, whether monk, or whether canon, lives contrary to the 
laws of righteousness, and impugns the rules of his order, and 
blasphemes that which is good, he is Antichrist and a minister 
of Satan. But now as to the origin of Antichrist." What 



A. D. 1190. DESCRIPTION OF ANTICHEIST. 181 

I am saying, I am not coining out of my own imagination, or 
inventing ; for in reading over books with care, I find all these 
things there written. 

According to what our authors say, Antichrist shall be born 
after the example of the Jews, namely, of the tribe of Dan, 
according to the prophecy that says : ^^ Dan shall be a serpent 
by the way, an adder in the path ;'^^^ for like a serpent shall 
he lie in the way, and be in the path, that he may smite those 
who walk in the path of justice, and may slay them with the 
venom of his malice. He shall also be born from the inter- 
course of a father and mother, just like other men, and not, as 
some say, of a virgin alone. But still, in sin shall he be 
wholly conceived ; in sin shall he be begotten, and in sin shall 
he be born. At the very moment of his conception, the devil 
shall at the same time enter the womb of his mother ; and by 
means of the Devil will he be cherished and protected in the 
womb of his mother, and the power of the Devil will always 
be with her. And just as the Holy Ghost came upon the 
Mother of 'our Lord, and overshadowed her by his efficacy, and 
filled her with his divine power that so she might conceive by 
the Holy Ghost, and that what should be born might be sacred 
and holy ; so also the Devil shall descend upon the mother of 
Antichrist, and shall fill her entirely, surround her entirely, 
hold her entirely, possess her entirely, within and without, to 
the end that, the devil working through man, she may con- 
ceive ; and what shall be born shall be entirely noxious, entirely 
evil, entirely wicked. 

In consequence hereof, this man is also called '^ the son of per- 
dition ;'* because, so far as he possibly can, he shall bring man- 
kind to perdition, and last of all he himself shall come to per- 
dition. Behold ! now you have heard how he shall be born, hear 
also the place where he shall be born. Eor, as our Lord and 
Redeemer in His foresight provided Bethlehem as the place 
where He should deign to assume humanity in our behalves, 
and be bom, so the Devil knows of a fitting place for that 
wicked man who is called Antichrist, from which the root of 
all evils may take its rise, that is to say, the city of Babylon. 
Eor in this city, which was formerly a renowned and glorious 
city of the Gentiles, and the capital of the kingdom of Persia, 
Antichrist will be born, and it is said that he will be nourished 
and brought up in the cities of Bethsaida and Chorazin j to 

9^ Gen. xlix. 17. 



182 ANNALS OP KOGEE DE nOYEDE]!?'. A. D. 1 190, 

which cities our Lord speaks in terms of censure, saying; 
** Woe unto thee, Bethsaida ! woe unto thee, Chorazin!" 

Antichrist will also have magicians, sorcerers, diviners and 
enchanters, who, the Devil so inspiring them, will nurture him 
and educate him in all iniquities and falsehood, and in the 
foul art, and evil spirits shall be his guides, associates, and 
sole companions. Then shall they come to Jerusalem, and all 
Christians whom he shall not be enabled to convert to his own 
ways, he will slay with various torments, and will prepare to 
make his abode in the holy Temple. The Temple also which 
was destroyed, and which Solomon dedicated to God, he shall 
restore to its former state, and shall circumcise himself, and 
shall lyingly assert that he is the son of Almighty God. Kings 
and princes also will he first make converts of, and then 
through them, of other persons ; while he will travel over the 
places where our Lord Christ walked, and will first lay waste 
what the Lord so rendered glorious. Then, throughout the 
whole world will he send forth his messengers and his preachers. 
And his preaching and power shall extend from sea to sea, 
from east to west, from north to south. Many signs therefore 
will he give, great and unheard-of miracles ; he will cause fire 
to come in a dreadful manner from heaven, trees to blossom in 
a moment and then to wither away, the sea to be aroused and 
suddenly to be tranquillized, the natural forms of things to be 
changed into various shapes ; the courses and tides of rivers to 
be changed, the air to be agitated with winds and commotions, 
besides innumerable other things of wondrous nature. The 
dead shall even be raised in the sight of men, so that, if pos- 
sible, even the elect may be led into error. Por when they 
shall behold signs so great and of such a nature, even those 
who are perfect and the elect of God, shall be in doubt, whether 
or not this is Christ, who, according to the Scriptures, was to 
come at the end of the world. 

But he shall cause persecution in every clime against the 
Christians and all the elect ; and shall upraise himself against 
the faithful in three ways ; that is to say, by terror, by gifts, 
and by miracles. To those who believe in him he will give 
abundance of gold and of silver ; those whom he shall not be 
able to corrupt with bribes he will conquer by terror : those 
whom he shall not be able to conquer by terror, he will at- 
tempt to lead astray by signs and miracles ; and those upon 
whom by signs and miracles he can make no effect, he will 



A.U. 1190. OPINIONS OF LEAKNED MEN ON ANTICHEIST. 183 

torment, and, in the sight of all, destroy by a cruel death. 
Then shall there be tribulation, such as has not been upon the 
earth from the time when nations began to be, until that time ; 
then shall those who are in the field flee to the mountains, 
and he who shall be above shall not come down into his house, 
to take anything away therefrom. 

Then shall every faithful Christian who shall be found, 
either deny God, or die by the sword, or by the fire of the 
furnace, or by serpents, or by beasts, or by some other kind 
of torment, if he shall persist in the faith. This terrible and 
fearful tribulation shall continue throughout the whole world 
three years and a half. Then shall the days be shortened on 
account of the elect ; for if the Lord should not shorten the 
days, all flesh would not be saved. 

The time also when Antichrist shall com.e, as well as when 
the day of judgment shall begin to appear, the Apostle Paul 
points out in his Epistle to the Thessalonians, where he says, 
^^We beseech you by the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ ;'' ^^ 
and he reveals in the passage where he says, *^ Except there be 
a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of 
perdition."^ "We know also that after the kingdom of the 
Greeks, as also after the kingdom of the Persians, each of 
which, at its own season, gained great glor}^, and flourished 
amid great power, at length, after other kingdoms as well, the 
kingdom of the Romans began, and that it was more mighty 
than all the former kingdoms, and held all the kingdoms of the 
earth in subjection to it, and all nations and peoples were 
tributary to the Eomans. Hence it is that the Apostle Paul 
says that Antichrist will not come into the world, '^ Except 
there be first a falling away ;'' that is, unless all the kingdoms 
of the world should first revolt from the Roman empire to whom 
they were before subject. This time, however, has not come 
as yet ; for although we see the Roman empire in a great 
measui-e destroyed, still, so long as the kings of the Franks 
hold dominion, who are bound to uphold the empire of Rome, 
the dignity of Rome will not entirely perish, for by its kings 
will it be upheld. 

Some, indeed, of our learned men assert that one of the kings 

of the Franks will hold the Roman empire afresh, and in all its 

integrity, who will exist at a very late period of time; and he 

himself wiU be the greatest and the last of all the kings, and 

S9 2 Thess. ii. 1. 12 Thess. ii. 3. 



184 ANNALS OF ROGER DE HOVEDEN. a.D. 1190. 

after ho shall have happily ruled over his own kingdom, shall 
come at last to Jerusalem, and shall lay down his sceptre and 
his crown on the Mount of Olives. This will be the end of the 
empire of the Eomans, and of the Christians, and immediately, 
according to the words of Saint Paul the Apostle quoted above, 
they say that Antichrist will come, and then will be revealed 
Antichrist, the man of sin, who, though he shall be but a 
man, shall still be the source of all sinfulness and the son of 
perdition, which means the son of the Devil, not, indeed, by 
nature, but by reason of imitation ; for in everything will he 
fulfil the wishes of the Devil ; because the fulness of the dia- 
bolical power, and of the whole of his evil disposition, shall 
corporeally find an abode in him, in whom will be all the trea- 
sures of wickedness and iniquity stored away, and who shall 
strive against Christ, that is to say, shall be opposed to Him, 
and all his members. '^ And he is exalted," meaning that he 
is elated with pride ; '^ above everything that is called God,'* 
which means '^ above all the gods of the Gentiles ;" Hercules, to 
wit, and Apollo, Jupiter, and Mercury ; above all those whom 
the pagans suppose to be divinities Antichrist shall be raised ; 
for he will make himself greater and more powerful than them 
all. And not only above these will he be raised, but above 
everything that is worshipped ; above the Holy Trinity even, 
which alone ought to be worshipped and adored by all crea- 
tures he shall so raise himself, that he shall sit in the Temple 
of the Lord, and show himself as though he were a God. For, 
as we have said above, being born in the city of Babylon, he 
shall come to Jerusalem, and shall circumcise himself, and 
shall say to the Jews, *' I am the Christ who was promised to 
you again and again, who have come for your salvation, to the 
end that I may gather together and defend you who are dis- 
persed." 

Then will all the Jews resort to him, thinking that they are 
receiving God, whereas they will be receiving the Devil. But 
even in the Temple of God shall Antichrist sit, that is to say, 
in the Holy Church, making martyrs of all the Christians ; and 
he shall be exalted and shall be magnified, because in him shall 
be the Devil, the source of all wickedness, who is also king 
over all the sons of vanity. But in order that Antichrist may 
not come suddenly and unexpectedly, and at the same moment 
deceive the whole of mankind with his errors, and so bring 
them to ruin before his rising, two great prophets shall be 



A.D. 1190. WHEllE AXTICHRIST SHALL BE SLAIN". 185 

seut into the Trorld, Enoch and Elias, who, against the attacks 
of Antichrist, shall fortify the faithful of God with Divine 
arms, and shall provide them, and shall strengthen and prepare 
the elect for battle ; and they shall teach and preach for three 
years and a half. The sons also of Israel, such as shall at that 
season be found, these two great prophets and teachers, shall 
turn to the grace of the faith, and on the side of the elect shall 
render them insuperable by the force of a whirlwind of such 
mighty power. Then shall be fulfilled that which the Scrip- 
ture says, *^ Though the number of the children of Israel be as 
the sand of the sea, a remnant shall be saved." ^ After they 
shall have fulfilled the time of their preaching three years and 
a half, then shall the persecution by Antichrist begin to rage, 
and against them the first thing of all shall Antichrist take up 
firms, and shall slay them, as we read in the book of Eevelation ; 
^' And when they shall have finished their testimony, the beast 
that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit shall make war against 
them, and shall overcome them and kill them."^ Then, after 
these two shall have been slain, he shall persecute the rest 
of the faithful, that so he may make them either glorious mar- 
tyrs or apostates, and then shall those who believe in him 
receive the impression of his mark on their foreheads. 

But as we have spoken thus at ]arg§ about his rise, let us 
now say what end he is to have. Now, this Antichrist, the son of 
the Devil, and the most vile contriver of all wickedness, shall, for 
three years and a half, as akeady mentioned, harass the whole 
world with great persecutions, and shall with various punish- 
ments torment all the people of God ; and after he shall have 
slain Elias and Enoch, and shall have crowned the rest with 
martyrdom, who remain in the faith, at last shall come upon 
him the judgment of God, as Saint Paul writes, saying, ^^ Whom 
the Lord Jesus shall consume with the spirit of His mouth ;'' ** 
or else the Lord shall kill him there with the power of his 
command, or Michael, the Archangel, shall slay him with the 
might of the Lord ; for he shall be slain by the might of 
some angel or Archangel. They say also that Antichrist shall 
be slain on a mountain in Eabylon, upon his throne, in that 
place opposite to which the Lord ascended into heaven. But 
you should know that after Antichrist shall have been slain, 
the day of judgment will not come immediately, the Lord will 
not come immediately to judge us ; but, as we understand from 
2 Rom. ix. 27. 3 Rgv. xi. 7. ^ 2 Thess. ii. 8. 



186 A.^'XALS OF IJOGEE DE IIOVEDEN. A.D. 1190. 

the book of Daniel, the Lord will give a day to the elect, that 
they may perform penarxce, because they have been led astray 
by Antichrist. Eut after they shall have duly performed this 
penance, there is no one who knows how long a space of time 
shall intervene before the Lord shall come to judge mankind ; 
but it remains subject to the determination of God at what 
hour God shall judge the world, inasmuch as before the world 
began He pre-ordained that it should be judged. 

John the Apostle and Evangelist, one of virgin purity and 
the chosen of the Lord, and more beloved than the rest, asked 
the Lord as to the end of the world, and the Lord made answer,^ 
** The sun shall be turned to darkness, and the moon to blood, 
and from the trees blood shall drop ; the stones shall send forth 
voices, the people shall be aroused, and Antichrist, that is, the 
Devil, shall reign, and shall work miracles and great signs in 
the people ; no one shall be able to escape from him. He shall 
be born of a woman who is a harlot of the tribe of Han in 
Israel. All those who believe in him he shall mark with his 
mark on the forehead, and no one shall be able to blot out the 
work of his hands. He shall be brought up in Chorazin, and 
shall afterwards dwell in the city of Eethsaida ; and in a few 
days both all those whom he shall kill, as also those who shall 
die under his power 0/ famine and thirst, shall be the elect 
of God ; he will raise the false ones who are dead,*^ he will 
turn back rivers in their course, he will pluck up trees by the 
roots, and will turn the branches to the earth, and their roots 
upwards, and by his diabolical arts make them blossom. 
Many he w^ill lead astray. On the day on which he shall be 
born, all who dwell in the four quarters of the world will 
know that he has been born ; the Scripture bearing witness 
thereto, which says, ^* In every house the carcase of one dead 
man shall be a sign.''^ 

Then in his time shall the father slay the son, and the son 
the father, and the brother the brother, and the faithful shall 
be found wanting in all things. Women shall be menstruous, 
and shall not hide themselves from men ; the churches shall be 
destroyed, the priests shall mourn, no memorials will be preserved 

5 It need hardly be said that this answer, given to Saint John, only ex- 
isted in the author's imagination, or was conveyed in some monkish legend. 
It is probably based on Rev. vi. 12. 

^ This seems to be the meaning of ** suscitabit falsos mortuos." 

' Probably alluding to the words of Gen. xii. 30. 



A.D. 1190. NAMES OF THOSE WHO DIED AT ACEE. 187 

of the places where the bodies of the Saints have rested ; people 
shall adore profane idols, like pagans, and Jews, and Saracens. 
^Nation shall arise against nation, and one kingdom against 
another, and there shall be great earthquakes in divers places, 
and pestilence and famine, and the stars shall fall down upon 
the earth; rivers shall be changed into blood, and all the 
waters which are below the heavens. 

In his reign two prophets, namely, Enoch and Elias, shall 
wage war against him, who are now sorrowing in Paradise 
at the contemplation of death, and Antichrist shall slay them, 
and they shall lie dead in the streets of the city during three 
days and three nights, and on the fourth day they shall rise 
again to life everlasting. At the last. Almighty God, who 
wishes that all should be saved, shall send Michael, the Arch- 
angel, having a sharp two-edged sword in his hands, that is to 
say, the sword of the Holy Spirit, and shall slay him, and shall 
cleave him into two parts from head to foot, that so the world 
may not be destroyed, but may be renewed for the better ; 
three years and six months shall it thus be in the bringing of 
the world to a state of perfection.® 

In the same year, Eichard, king of England, gave to his 
nephew OthOj son of his sister Matilda, formerly duchess of 
Saxony, the earldom of Evreux, and although many would 
have received him and have done to him homage and fealty, 
still many resisted him, declaring that they would not with- 
draw from their fealty to the king, before they had spoken to 
him face to face. In consequence of this, our lord the king 
gave to the said Otho the earldom of Poitou by way of ex- 
change for the earldom of Evreux. 

The names of the nobles who died this year at the siege of Acre, 

Queen Sibylla, the wife of Guide, king of Jerusalem, and her 
two daughters, Heraclius, the Patriarch of Jerusalem, Baldwin, 
archbishop of Canterbury, the archbishop of IN'azareth, the 
archbishop of Besan^on, the archbishop of Arles-le-blanc, the 
archbishop of Montreal, the bishop of Sidon, that is to say, of 
Saeta, the new bishop of Acre, the bishop of Baruth, the bishop 
of Saint George, the bishop of Saint Abraham, the bishop of 

s It is not improbable that this wearisome and nonsensical piece of 
jargon may have formed part of one or more sermons on the subject of 
Antichrist ; and, in the enthusiasm of our chronicler, been deemed worthy 
of a place in his compilation. 



188 ANNALS OF llOGEIl DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1190. 

Tiberias, the abbat of the Temple of our Lord, the abbat of 
Mount Sion, the abbat of Mount Olivet, the abbat of Forde, 
the prior of Saint Sepulchre, Ealph de Hautereve, archdeacon 
of Colchester, Eoger Ic Abbe. Frederic, emperor of the Eo- 
mans, died on the journey to the land of Jerusalem, being 
drowned in the river which is called Salef, and Conrad, his 
son, duke of Suabia, dit^d at the siege of Acre ; Eobcrt, earl of 
Leicester, also died in Eomania, in going to the land of Jeru- 
salem ; the Landgrave of Germany died in Eomania while 
returning home ; John, constable of Chester, also died at Tyre, 
in the land of Jerusalem : Eotrod, count of Perclie, also died 
at the siege of Acre, the count de Puntif, Theobald, earl of 
Blois, and Stephen, count de Sancerre, his brother ; William, 
count de Ferrers, the duke Bertold of Germany, Eoger, earl 
of Apulia, and Jocelyn, earl of Apulia, as also the count de 
Brenes and his brother Andrew, who was slain. Among the 
slain were also Ingelram de Fenes, Louis de Arseles, Hugh de 
Hoiry, Walter de Moy, Guide de Dancy, Odo de Gunesse. The 
butler of Santstlir was taken by the pagans, as also the mar- 
shal of count Henry, Eeginald de Magny being slain. 

In the same year, there died besides the above at the siege of 
Acre, the viscount of Touraine, the lord de Wancy, Gilbert de 
Tileres, Florence de Angest, Jocelyn de Montmorenci, the 
viscount of Chastel Heraud, Anselm of Montreal and all his 
household, the viscount of Chatillon and his mother, John, 
count of Vend6me, JEstellan de Ypres, Geoffrey de la Bruyere, 
Eobert de Boives, Adam, chamberlain of the king of France, 
Adam de Leun, Boves de Juvenny, William de Pinkim, 
Eoger de Polebare, and Eobert, the constable, seneschal of 
earl William de Mandeville. Eanulph de Glanville, justiciary 
of England, also died at the siege of Acre, as also Bernard the 
younger, of Saint Yalery, Eichard Clare, Guide de Chatillon, 
Walter de Kime, son of Philip de Kime, John de Lambume, 
and AValter de Eos, brother of Peter de Eos. 

In the same year, Sancho, king of Portugal, gave his daughter 
Tarsia in marriage to Alphonso, king of Saint Jago, his ne- 
phew ; he had by her three sons, and though pope Celestinus 
used all possible endeavours that they might be separated, he 
still adhered to her in spite of God and the prohibition of our 
lord the pope for a period of five years; accordingly, our lord the 
pope Celestinus placed the said king of Saint Jago under an in- 
terdict, and so he remained for five years. In the meantime, 



A.D. 1190. THE EMPEEOH'S ANSWER TO HIS DAUGHTER. 189 

however, Alphonso, king of Castille, arose against the said 
king of Saint Jago, and compelled him to relinquish his wife, 
the daughter of the king of Portugal, and by the persuasion of 
pope Celestinus, for the sake of peace, gave him his own 
daughter to wife. 

In process of time, the daughter of Boyac El Emir Amimoli, 
emperor of Africa, having heard from common report of the 
prowess of Sancho, king of [N'avarre, brother of Berengaria, 
queen of England, fell in love with him to such a degree, that 
she greatly longed to have him as her husband. When she 
was unable any longer to conceal her designs, she told her 
father, the emperor, that she would hang herself unless Baneho, 
king of !N'avarre, would have her for his wife ; on which her 
father made answer, '^ How can that be effected, seeing that you 
are a pagan ^ and he a Christian ?" To this his daughter made 
answer, ^* Indeed I am quite ready to embrace the Christian 
faith, and to live conformably to their laws, if I only have the 
king of Navarre for my husband, a thing which, my dear father, 
can easily be brought about by you. For all stand in awe of 
you, and extend their arms to you; still, there is need of 
blandishment; away with all fury and intimidation; send 
entreaties and gifts to this man, that by such means you may 
gain him for me. 'Believe me, 'tis a noble thing to gi^e.'^^ 
Send also to his mother and sister, and the rest of his family, 
bounteous presents, in order that they may allow him to assent 
to your proposals. ' The prey that's sought by many hands is 
speedily obtained.' ''^^ 

On this, her father made answer : ** ' While you were guile- 
less, I loved your body and your mind ; now, is your beauty 
blemished by the vices of your disposition.'^'^ What to do I 
know not, for I am in difficulties on every side. For if the 
king of Navarre shall fail to return your passion, then you 
will hang yourself. I wiU therefore attempt to prevail upon 
him by entreaties and various presents, that so I may gain him 
in some way or other as a husband for you. Still, I would much 
rather that you would take a husband of our own nation." The 

9 " Follower of Mahomet," he would be more likely to say. 

10 " Crede mihi res est ingeniosa dare." A singular thing, for a Maho- 
medan lady to quote Ovid. 

11 A quotation from Ovid — 

*' Fit cito per multas praeda petita manus." 

12 From Ovid— 

*' Donee eras simplex, animum cum corpore amavi, 
Nunc mentis vitio lassa figura tua est." 



190 AXNALS OF KOGER DE HOYEDEN. a.d. 1191. 

answer of the damsel to this was-, '' * May I be rather devoured 
by the yawning earth, I pray, or burned by the gleaming 
flames of the hurled thunderbolt,^^ than that I should take 
any man for my husband but the king of JN'avarre.' " 

Accordingly, the emperor of Africa sent envoys to Sancho, 
king of Navarre, by whom he begged that he would come to him, 
for the purpose of marrying his daughter, and he would give 
him as much money as he should desire, besides the whole of 
the land that lies between the extremities of the territory- of 
the king of Portugal and the mountain of Muncian, which 
divides the territories of the Pagans in Spain from those of 
the king of Arragon. But while the king of Navarre was on 
the way to him, Boyac El Emir Amimoli, emperor of Africa, 
died ; so that when the said king of I^avarre arrived in Africa 
he found the emperor dead, and the son of the emperor as yet 
but a little child, and not fit to govern the kingdom ; while 
there were many competitors with him for the empire. 

On the king of JS'avarre coming to him, fully expecting that 
he should receive the damsel before-mentioned as his wife, the 
boy who was to reign said to him, that if he was ready to 
assist him and to serve him in his endeavours to obtain the 
empire, he would give him his sister in accordance with the 
promises of his father ; but if not, he would place him in con- 
finement, from which he should never be released. Seeing 
himself thus placed in a dilemma, he chose to scLve under him 
rather than be placed in confinement ; in conformity with the 
maxim of Saint Augustin ; ** When a person is shut up within 
walls that he may not escape, let him precipitate himself from 
the part where the wall is lowest.'^ Accordingly, the Lord 
granting it, and Sancho, king of ]N'avarre, using his best en- 
deavours, the son of the Emir Amimoli within three years 
subdued all his adversaries, and became emperor. In the mean- 
time, Alphonso, king of Castillo, and the king of Arragon, in- 
vaded the territories of the said king of Navarre, one of them 
on one side, the other on the other ; in consequence of which, 
Alphonso, king of Castillo, took from him twenty-four towns, 
and the king of Arragon eighteen. 

In the year of grace 1191, being the second year of the reign 
of king Eichard, the said king Eichard, and Philip, king of 
the Franks, were together at Messina, in Sicily, on the day of 

u a Devorer ante precor subito telluris hiatu, 
Aut rutilo mibsi fulmiiiis igne cremer." 



A. D. 1191. THE KING ATTACKS WILLIAM DE BAREES. 191 

the Nativity of our Lord, which fell on the third day of 
the week. On the same day, after dinner, the Pisano and 
Genevese seditiously made an attack upon the galleymen of 
Eichard, king of England, and a slaughter took place on both 
sides. The noise of this accordingly reached the ears of the 
king of England, who was still sitting at table in his castle 
of Mate Griffon ; and on this day there were feasting with 
him Reginald, bishop of Chartres, Hugh, duke of Burgundy, 
William count de ]N^evers, William count de Juvigny, Geof- 
frey count of Perche, and many others of the household of the 
king of Prance. The tables being instantly set aside, all these 
persons arose, and went out with the king fully armed, for the 
purpose of putting an end to the fight, which, however, they were 
unable to do ; but, night coming on, the parties were separated 
from each other till the morning. On the following day, when 
the people had assembled in the church of Saint John of the 
Hospital, to hear Divine service there, a certain Pisan, drawing 
his knife, slew one of the galleymen of the king in the church ; 
on which a conflict took place a second time between the 
Pisans and the galleymen, and multitudes were slain on both 
sides. Upon this, the king of Prance and the king of England 
came with a large body of armed men, and made peace be- 
tween them. 

After this, in the month of February, on the day of the 
Purification of Saint Mary ever a Virgin, being Saturday, 
after dinner, Eichard, king of England, and many of his house- 
hold, and some of the people of the household of the king of 
Prance, assembled after their usual manner, outside of the 
waUs of the city of Messina, to view the games of the people ; 
and when they were returning home, as they passed through 
the middle of the city, they met a peasant coming from the 
country with an ass laden with reeds which they caU '^ canes ;'* 
of which the king of England and the others who were with 
him each took one, and engaged with one another. It so 
happened that the king of England and William de Barres, 
one of the bravest knights of the household of the king of 
Prance, engaged with each other, and broke their reeds, 
while the head-piece of the king of the English was broken by 
a blow from William de Barres ; at which the king being en- 
raged, made an attack upon him with such violence that it 
made him and his horse stumble ; but, while the king was 
trving to throw him to the ground, the king's saddle slipped. 



192 ANNALS OF EOGER DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

on which he dismounted in all haste, and another horse was 
brought him, stouter than the first. Mounting it, he again 
made an attack upon William de Earres and tried to throw him 
dowTi, but was not able, as he kept fast hold of the horse's 
neck, on which the king uttered threats against him. 

Upon this, Eobert de Eretetdl, son of Eobert, earl of Leicester, 
whom the king the previous day had girded with the sword of 
his father's earldom, was for laying hands on William de Barres 
that he might help his master, but the king said to him, ** Hold, 
and leave me and him alone." After William and the king 
had contended for a considerable time, both in words and deeds, 
the king said to him, *^ Away with you hence, and take care 
that you never appear in my presence again, for at heart I 
shall for everlasting be the enemy of you and yours." Upon 
this, William de Earres departed from the king's presence grieved 
and in confusion, in consequence of the king's indignation, and 
went to his lord the king of France, to ask his advice and as- 
sistance upon the matter that had thus happened on the road. 

On the next day the king of Prance came to the king of Eng- 
land, on behalf of William de Earres, with humble entreaties on 
his part, asking for peace and mercy on behalf of William de 
Earres, but the king refused to listen to him. On the third 
day after this, William de Earres took his departure from 
the city of Messina ; for his lord, the king of France, was un- 
willing to keep him any longer with him, contrary to the wish 
and prohibition of the king of England. However, after a 
considerable time had intervened, and the time for embark- 
ing was drawing nigh, the king of Erance and all the arch- 
bishops, bishops, earls and barons, and chief men of the 
army, again came to the king of England, and, falling at his 
feet, asked for peace and mercy on his part on behalf of Wil- 
liam de Earres, showing the losses and inconveniences that 
might result in consequence of the absence of a knight of such 
character and prowess; and after great difficulty they ob- 
tained from the king of England that the said William might 
return in peace, and the king of England would do no harm to 
either him or his, or make enquiry about them so long as they 
should be in the service of their lord. 

After this, the king of England made present of many ships 
to the king of Erance and his own people, and distributed 
his treasures with such profuseness among all the knights 
and men-at-arms of his whole army, that it was said by 



\.D. 1191. THE KING OF ENGLAND PROCEEDS TO CATANIA. 193 

many that not one of his predecessors had ever given so much 
in a whole year, as he gave away in that month. And cer- 
tainly we have reason to believe that by this munificence he 
gained the favour of Him who sends his thunders, as it is 
written : ^* God loveth a cheerful giver." ^^ 

. In the same month of February, the king of England sent 
his gaUeys to Naples, to meet queen Eleanor his mother, and 
Berengaria, daughter of Sancho, king of JS^avarre, whom he 
was about to marry, and Philip, earl of Elanders, who was 
coming with them. However, the king's mother and the 
daughter of the king of JN^avarre went on to Brindisi, where 
Margarite, the admiral, and other subjects of king Tancred, 
received them with due honor, and showed them all considera- 
tion and respect. The earl of Flanders, however, came to 
Naples, and finding there the galleys of the king of England, 
embarked in them and came to Messina, and in many matters 
followed the advice and wishes of the king of England ; at 
which the king of France being enraged, prevailed upon the 
earl to leave the king of England and return to him. 

In the mean time, a serious difference happened in England 
between the king's chancellor and John, earl of Mortaigne, the 
king's brother, and the other principal men of the kingdom ; 
which increased to such a pitch that they all wrote to the king 
relative to the state of his kingdom, and the excesses that the 
said chancellor was guilty of toward the people of his king- 
dom. Accordingly, when the king heard of the excesses and 
annoyances that the chancellor was guilty of towards his 
people, he sent to England from Messina, Walter, archbishop 
of Rouen, and William Marshal, earl of Striguil, with com- 
mands to the chancellor that in all business of the kingdom 
he should have the said archbishop of Eouen, and William 
Marshal, Geoffrey FitzPeter, William Bruere, and Hugh Bar- 
iolph, as his associates and witnesses. On their arrival in 
England, these persons did not dare deliver their letters to the 
3hancellor, fearing lest they should rather incur his hatred, 
:han derive honor therefrom. For the chancellor set at nought 
ill the king's commands, and would have no one an equal with 
limself, or any associate in the kingdom. 

On the first day of the month of March, Eichard, king of 
England, left Messina, and proceeded thence to the city of 

atania (where rests the most holy body of Saint Agatha the 

»s 2 Cor. ix. 7. 
VOL. 11. 



194 ANNALS OF EOGEE BE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

Virgin and Martyr), for the purpose of holding a conference 
with Tancred, king of Sicily, who had come thither to meet 
him. Accordingly, king Tancred, on hearing of the approach 
of the king of England, went forth to meet him, and with the 
greatest reverence and the honor due to his royal excellency 
received and introduced him into the city. As they were going 
together towards the tomb of Saint Agatha the Martyr, at the 
entrance of the church, they were met by the clergy and people, 
praising and blessing the Lord who had united them in the 
bonds of such brotherly love. After having offered up his 
prayers at the tomb of Saint Agatha, the king of England 
entered the palace of king Tancred, together with him, and 
stayed there three days and nights. 

On the fourth day the king of Sicily sent to the king of 
England many presents of great value, consisting of gold and 
silver, horses and silken cloths ; but he would receive nothing 
from him except a little ring, which he accepted as a token of 
their mutual esteem. On the other hand, the king of England 
gave to king Tancred that most excellent sword which the 
Britons called '* Caliburn," and which had been the sword of 
Arthur, once the valiant king of England. King Tancred 
also gave to the king of England four large ships, which they 
call ^^ursers,** and fifteen gallies; and when the king of 
England left him, he escorted him back to Tavemi, two long 
days* journe)^ from the city of Catania. 

On the following day, when the king of England was pre- 
paring to take his leave, king Tancred gave him a certain 
document, which the king of France had sent to him by the 
duke of Burgundy, and had therein stated that the king of 
England was a traitor, and had not kept the treaty of peace 
which he had made with him, and that if king Tancred was 
willing to go to war with the Idng of England, or to attack him 
by night, he and his people would give him aid against the 
king of England, for the purpose of destroying his army. 

On this, the king of England made answer, *^ I am not a 
traitor, nor have I been, nor will I be ; the peace which I made 
with you I have in no way broken, nor will I break it so long 
as I live ; and I cannot easily bring myself to believe that the 
king of Erance did send you this about me, as he is my liege 
lord, and my sworn associate in this pilgrimage.'* To this 
king Tancred made answer and said, *^ I give you the letter 
which he himself sent me by the duke of Burgundy; and 



A.D. 1191. AGEEEMENT BETWEEN RICHARD AND PHILIP. 195 

if the duke of Burgundy denies that he brought me that 
letter on behalf of his lord the king of Prance, I am quite 
ready to make proof of the same against him by one of my 
captains.'' Upon this, with the letter so received at the 
hands of king Tancred, the king of England returned to Mes- 
sina. 

On the same day, the king of France came to Tavemi, and 
had an interview with king Tancred, and after remaining with 
him one night, on the next day returned to Messina. The 
king of England, being aroused to anger against the king of 
France, showed him a countenance neither joyous nor be- 
tokening peace, but sought an opportunity of withdrawing 
from him with his people. Consequently, the king of France 
made enquiry why this was done ; on which the king of Eng- 
land, by Philip, earl of Flanders, informed him of every word 
that the king of Sicily had said to him about the king ; and, 
as a proof of the fact, showed the letter already mentioned. 
On this becoming known to the king of France, having a bad 
conscience on the matter, he at first held his peace, not know- 
ing what to say in return. At length, however, having re- 
covered his self-possession, he said : 

" jN^ow do I know of a truth that the king of England is 
seeking pretexts for speaking ill of me, for these words are 
forged and false. Eut he has invented these evil charges 
against me, I suppose, that he may get rid of my sister Alice, 
whom he has sworn that he will marry ; but let him know this 
for certain, if he does put her aside and marry another woman, 
I will be the enemy of him and his so long as I live." On 
hearing this, the king of England made answer, that he would 
on no account whatever take his sister to wife ; inasmuch as 
the king of England, his own father, had been intimate with 
her, and had had a son by her ; and he produced many wit- 
nesses to prove the same, who were ready by all manner of 
proof to establish that fact. 

When this became known to the king of France, through 
the information of many persons, by the counsel of the earl of 
Flanders and others of his faithful advisers, he acquiesced 
therein; and that all disputes between him and the king of 
England, both on this point as well as on all others, might 
be put an end to, he released the king of England from his 
promises and oaths, and all covenants which he had entered 
into with him as to being united in marriage with his sister 

2 



196 ANNALS OF EOGER ^E HOYEDEN. A.D. 119K 

Alice : and, in consideration of this treaty, the king of Eng- 
land promised that he would pay yearly, for the next five 
years, two thousand marks sterling; of which, at the beginning 
of the treaty, he paid to the king of Trance two thousand 
marks. Also, when they should have returned to their own 
territories, the king of England was to deliver to the king of 
France his sister Alice, and Gisors and all the other places that 
the king of Erance had granted him as a marriage portion with 
his sister. Also, by virtue of this treaty, the king of Erance 
gave to the king of England leave to marry whomsoever he 
should choose : and granted to him, and conferred the same by 
his charter, that the dukedom of Erittany should always belong 
to the demesne of the duke of Normandy, and that the duke 
of Erittany should always be a liegeman of the duke of I^ot- 
mandy, and be answerable to him as his liege lord, and the 
duke of Normandy should be answerable to the king of Erance 
both as to the dukedom of Erittany as well as the dukedom of 
Normandy. Accordingly, on that day the king of Erance and 
the king of England were made friends, and confirmed all those 
covenants with good faith, and upon oath, with the testimony 
of their seals. 

In the same month of March, on the third day before the 
calends of April, being Saturday, Philip, king of Erance, left 
the port of Messina with all his fleet ; and on the twenty- 
second day following, that is to say, the Saturday in Easter 
week, he arrived with his army at the siege of Acre. The 
king of England, however, and his army remained at Mes- 
sina after the departure of the king of Erance. On the same 
day also on which the king of Erance left Messina, queen 
Eleanor arrived there, the mother of Eichard, king of England, 
bringing with her Eerengaria, daughter of Sancho, king of 
Navarre, whom the said king of England was to marry : on 
the fourth day after which, the said queen Eleanor again re- 
turned on her way to England, with the intention of passing 
through Eome, to treat of the business of Geofirey, the arch- 
bishop elect of York ; for, through her the king of England 
sent word to the Supreme Pontiff, and humbly entreated him 
to confirm the election of the said Geoffrey and consecrate him 
archbishop of York, or else to allow him to be consecrated by 
some one else. On the departure of queen Eleanor, the daughter 
of the king of Navarre remained in the charge of the king of Eng- 
land, with Joanna^ queen of Sicily, the sister of the said king. 



A.D. 1191. TUSCXJLANUM IS RESTORED TO THE ROMANS. 197 

In the month of April, on the fourth day before the ides of 
the said month, being the fourth day of the week, pope Cle- 
ment the Third departed this life, and was succeeded by Jacinto, ^^ 
cardinal deacon of the church of Saint Mary in Cosmedim ; 
and on the vigil of Easter he was ordained priest, and on 
Easter day, which fell on the eighteenth day before the calends 
of May, was consecrated Pontiff of Eome, by Octavianus, bishop 
of Ostia, being called pope Celestinus the Third. On the day 
after his consecration, our lord the pope went from the Late- 
ran to the church of Saint Peter, where he was met by 
Henry, king of Germany, with his wife Constance, and a 
large body of men-at-arms. The Eomans, however, shut the 
city gates, and guarded them with a strong hand, and in arms, 
and would not allow them to enter. 

Accordingly, our lord the pope, before the door of the church 
of Saint Peter, upon the steps, received the oath of the said 
king of the Germans, that he would faithfully preserve the 
Church of God, and the rights of the Church inviolate, and 
would observe strict justice, and would, if anything should be 
taken thence, replace the patrimony of Saint Peter in its former 
integrity, and would restore to him Tusculanum.^^ Our lord the 
pope then led them into the church, and anointed him emperor, 
and his wife empress. The pope sat in the pontifical chair, 
holding the imperial crown of gold between his feet, and the 
emperor, baring his head, received the crown, and in like man- 
ner the empress received her crown, at the feet of our lord the 
popCo Our lord the pope also suddenly struck the crown of 
the emperor with his foot, and overturned it on the ground, 
signifying thereby that he possessed the power of casting him 
down from his throne if he should show himself unworthy ; 
but the cardinals, immediately picking up the crown, placed it 
on the head of the emperor. 

In order that the reason may be known why our lord the 
pope Celestinus restored to the Eomans their city of Tusculanum, 
we must repeat a few circumstances that had previously tran- 
spired. When the lord Clement, the bishop of Palestrina, was 
elected and consecrated Supreme Pontiff, according to custom, 
at Pisa, where Gregory the Eighth, of pious memory, had de- 
parted from this world unto the Lord, the- said lord Clement, 
without delay, sent his envoys to the citizens of Eome, repre- 

16 The Italian form of the Latin name ** Hyacinthus." 
^' Now Frascati. 



198 Ajs^xals of EOGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

senting that a most strict treaty of peace ought again to be en- 
tered into between them. Eor a dispute had arisen with refer- 
ence to Tusculanum, which is a city that belongs to our lord the 
pope, about ten miles distant from Eome, and which the Eomans 
were attacking incessantly in war, that they might render 
it subject to themselves. By means, also, of these conflicts 
that took place between Rome and Tusculanum, more than five 
thousand Romans had in one day fallen by the sword, and, from, 
the time of pope Alexander to that of the said Clement, these 
disputes had lasted between the Church and the Romans. The 
envoys, on coming to the city, entreated the Romans, like af- 
fectionate sons, to turn their hearts to their spiritual father, 
and most dutifully make it their care to receive him, on his 
return to them, as a kind father, and represented that it was 
befitting that they should be, as it were, but one for the future. 
To this the Romans made answer, to the following effect : 
*^ This, inasmuch as it is holy and becoming, with ardent de- 
sire we greatly wish to be done, without any delay whatever, 
even more than our lord and father does, and like true and 
humble sons ; but still, only on condition that, equally with 
ourselves, he shall wish reparation to be made for our losses, 
and our injuries and affronts to be avenged, which, in conse- 
quence of the war with Tusculanum, we have in the times of 
our fathers endured, and do still endure ; and shall be ready, if 
there shall be necessity for so doing, to send his soldiers at his 
own expense, if peace cannot be made between us on terms 
honorable to this city, for the subjection of Tusculanum ; an 
agreement being entered into in writing for a yearly tribute to 
be paid by Tusculanum to our city. He must also promise that, 
in case there is a refusal on their part to make peace with us on 
the terms before-mentioned, if at any future time he shall be 
able to get Tusculanum into his power, he will be ready to give 
it up to us, for the purpose of our wishes already expressed 
being complied with." 

Accordingly, on these and some other liberties being at 
length conceded by that said pope Clement to the Romans, the 
said Clement came to the city, of which he was a native ; and 
as the lord Clement did not find himself able, in conformity 
with the above-stated request made by the Romans, to render 
Tusculanum subject to them, he made severe attacks upon that 
place, exposing it to the assaults of the Romans. Yet, although 
he enjoyed the papacy for nearly four years, he was unable to 



A.D. 1191. TUSCULANTJM DESTROYED. 199 

bring this war with the Eomans to a conclusion ; although the 
Romans, posting themselves in ambush, took nearly the greater 
portion of the people of Tusculanum prisoners, outside of their 
fortifications, and slew them with various pains and tortures. 
For some of those whom they took prisoners they put to 
death at once, while others, first deprived of their feet, others 
with their eyes put out, and others with their hands cut off 
and hung from their necks, they sent back home : yet all these 
evils they most resolutely affirmed they would endure, in pre- 
ference to being subjected to the severity of the Eomans. 

After the death of Clement, when the lord Jacinto, the car- 
dinal priest of Saint Mary in Cosmedim, afterwards called 
Celestinus, was elected Supreme Pontiff in his stead, and 
Henry, the then king, was hastening to Eome, having been 
invited by pope Clement for that purpose, to receive the crown 
of the empire, the Romans, before the said king had arrived 
at the city, entreated the lord Celestinus, before he anointed 
the said king emperor, to prevail upon him to restore to them 
the city of Tusculanum, which was under his control ; (for its 
people had betaken themselves to him, and had entreated his 
protection, from the time that the above-named Clement had, 
as already mentioned, left them to the mercy of the Romans). 
They asserted to the said pope, with the greatest energy, that 
this was the method by which Tusculanum would fall again 
into their hands, and that he was bound by the compact already 
mentioned so to do ; and this was accordingly conceded to 
them. 

Upon this, envoys from our lord the pope were sent to the 
king, and most strongly urged him that, as the treaty before- 
mentioned had been made relative to Tusculanum between the 
Supreme Pontiff and the Romans, necessity consequently de- 
manded that Tusculanum should be given up to our lord the 
pope. Upon the king finding this to be the case, and per- 
ceiving that, otherwise, great difficulties might easily be thrown 
in the way of his coronation, he freely granted the request 
of our lord the pope as to the delivery up to him of Tuscu- 
lanum ; and, accordingly, the king having been crowned em- 
peror, on the following day Tusculanum was delivered by the 
said emperor to our lord the pope, and, on the third day after, 
was, by the said pope and the citizens of Rome, levelled with 
the ground ; so much so, that not one stone remained standing 
upon another. 



200 ANNALS OF EOGES DE HOVEDEN. X.D. 1191. 

In the meantime, in the month of April, Ei chard, king of 
England, destroyed and levelled with the ground his castle 
called Mate Griffon, before departing from Messina, in confor- 
mity with the promise he had made to king Tancred : and on 
the fourth day of the week, before the Supper of our Lord, he, 
with the whole of his army, and his fleet, sailed, out of the 
harbour of Messina, with a hundred and fifty large ships and 
fifty-three galleys, well armed ; but, on the day of the Pre- 
paration^^ of our Lord, about the ninth hour of the day, a 
dreadful wind arose from the south, and dispersed his fleet. 
The king, with a portion of the fleet, arrived at the island of 
Crete, and afterwards at the island of Rhodes. A large buss, 
however, in which were the queen of Sicily and the daughter 
of the king of Navarre, with many of the king's household, 
and two other busses, while the tempest was raging, reached 
the island of Cyprus, the king being ignorant as to what had 
been the fate of these busses. 

After the tempest had abated, the king sent some galleys in 
search of the busses on board of which was the queen, his 
sister, and the daughter of the king of Navarre, and they found 
them outside of the harbour of Limezun ; but the other two 
busses which had accompanied them, and had arrived before 
the harbour of Limezun, had gone down, having on board many 
knights and men-at-arms of the king's household; among 
whom, sad to tell! Master Roger Malchen, the king's vice- 
chancellor, was drowned ; the king's seal, however, which he 
wore suspended from his neck, was found. Upon this, Isaac, 
emperor of Cyprus, laid hands upon the property of those who 
were wrecked, and took and threw into prison all the persons 
who had escaped from the shipwreck, and seized their money; 
and, in a spirit of more than diabolical cruelty, he would 
not allow the buss on board of which were the queen of 
Sicily and the daughter of the king of Navarre to enter the 
harbour. 

On the king of England being informed of this, he came 
with all haste to their assistance, with a great number of 
galleys and a vast fleet of ships, and found them outside the 
harbour of Limezun, exposed to the winds and waves. Being 
greatly enraged at this, he sent messengers to the emperor of 
Cyprus, a first, second, and third time, begging and asking 
with humble entreaties that, out of regard for the love of God, 
IS .« Parasceues Domini." The day after Good Friday. 



A.D. 1191. THE KING OF FRANCE ATTACKS THE EMPEEOR ISAAC. 201 

and respect for the Cross, the giver of life, he would allow His 
pilgrims, whom he was keeping captive in chains, to depart 
unhurt, and restore to them their property, and give up to him 
the property of such of his subjects as had been drowned, that 
with the same he might perform service to God for their souls : 
to which, however, the emperor haughtily made answer, and 
said that he would neither give up the pilgrims nor the property 
of the drowned. 

The king, upon hearing that this wicked emperor would do 
nothing for him unless forced so to do, commanded the whole 
of his army to take up their arms, and, being fully armed, to 
follow him, saying to them : *' Follow me, that we may avenge 
the injuries which this perfidious emperor has done to God and 
to ourselves, who thus, against the justice and equity of God, 
keeps our pilgrims in chains ; and fear them not, for they are 
without arms, and better prepared for flight than for battle ; 
whereas we are well armed, and to him who wields arms, he 
yields up everything who denies him what is his right. We 
are also bound to fight manfully against him, in order to deliver 
the people of God from perdition, knowing that we must either 
conquer or die. But I have full confidence in God, that He 
will this day grant us the victory over this perfidious emperor 
and his people." 

In the meantime, the emperor with his people had taken up 
their position in every direction on the sea-shore ; but a few 
only of them were armed, and they were nearly all utterly un- 
skilled in the art of warfare ; however, they stood oxi the shore, 
armed with swords, and lances, and staves ; and having in 
front of them logs and beams, and benches and chests, as a 
defence. When the king of England and his people had 
armed themselves, they disembarked from the great ships into 
boats and galleys, and, rowing on, made for shore with exceed- 
ing swiftness ; on which the archers, landing first, made way 
for the others. After landing, the king leading the way, with 
one accord they made an attack upon the emperor and his 
Griffons, ^^ and Uke a shower upon the grass did the arrows 
fall upon those who fought ; but after the combat had lasted a 
considerable time, the emperor and his people took to flight : 
upon which the king of England pursued them with the edge 
of the sword, and, making a great slaughter of them, took pri- 

^^ This seems to have been the name given by the people of the west of 
Europe to the Greeks of Byzantium. 



202 ANNALS OF ROaES DE HOTEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

soners many of those who offered resistance ; and had not the 
night come on, in all probability, on that day the king would 
have taken the emperor prisoner. But, as the king and his 
people were on foot, and did not know the paths across the 
mountains by which the emperor and his men took to flight, 
they returned with a great booty to the city of Limezun, which 
the Griffons had deserted ; and found in it an abundance of 
corn, wine, oil, and flesh meat. 

On the same day, after the victory gained by the king of 
England, his sister, the queen of Sicily, and the daughter of 
the king of Navarre, entered the harbour of Limezun with the 
rest of the king's fleet. The emperor, however, collecting his 
men, who had been dispersed in the valleys among the thickets 
there, on the same night pitched his camp about five miles 
from the army of the king of England, affirming, with an oath, 
that he would the next day give battle to the king. On the 
king being informed of this by means of his spies, long before 
daybreak he had himself and his troops fully armed, and, going 
forth without any noise, came up to the army of the emperor, 
and found his people buried in sleep. 

Upon this, he rushed into their tents with a loud and ter- 
rible shout, on which, aroused from their slumbers, they be- 
came as though dead men, not knowing what to do or whither 
to fly ; for the army of the king of England came upon them 
like ravening wolves, and made immense havoc among them. 
The emperor, however, with a few of his people, made his 
escape in a state of nudity, leaving behind him his treasures, 
horses, arms, and tents of extreme beauty, together with his 
imperial standard, embroidered all over the surface with gold, 
which the king of England immediately determined to present 
as an offering to Saint Edmund, the king and glorious Martyr. 
Accordingly, the king of England, having gained a complete 
victory, returned to Limezun, a mighty triumpher over his 
foes. 

On the third day after this, there came to the king of Eng- 
land, in the isle of Cyprus, Guide, king of Jerusalem, Geoflrey 
of Lusignan,^ his brother, Amfrid de Tours, Raymond, prince 
of Antioch, and Boamund his son, the earl of Tripolis, and 
Leo, the brother of Eupin de la Montaigne, and, offering to the 
king their services, did homage to him, and swore fealty to him 
against all men. On the same day, the emperor of Cyprus, 

20 V. r. Lenizant. 



A.D. 1191. KING KICHAED PTTRSUES THE EMPEROE. 20 



o 



seeing that he was entirely destitute of all valour and effica- 
cious aid on the part of his troops, sent envoys to the king of 
England with suppliant entreaties, and offered him peace on 
the following terms, namely ; that he would give him twenty 
thousand marks of gold in satisfaction of the monies that had 
heen lost^^ in his ships, and would set at liberty those persons 
who had been taken after the shipwreck, together with their 
property, and would himself attend him personally to the land 
of Jerusalem, and remain with him in the service of God and 
of himself, together with one hundred knights, and four hun- 
dred Turcopole horsemen, and five hundred foot soldiers well 
armed ; in addition to which he would give him his daughter, 
who was his sole heir, as a hostage, and deliver up to him his 
castles by way of security, and would swear to observe his 
fealty to him and his for ever, and hold his empire of him. 

These terms being accordingly agreed to on both sides, the 
emperor came to the king of England, and, in presence of the 
king of Jerusalem, and the prince of Antioch, and his other 
barons, did homage to the king, and swore fealty to him. He 
also made oath that he would not leave him until all things 
had been performed that had been so covenanted. Accord- 
ingly, the king assigned tents to the emperor and his people, 
and appointed knights and men-at-arms to keep guard over 
them. On the same day, however, after dinner, the emperor 
repented that he had made such terms with the king of Eng- 
land, and while the knights, whose duty it was to keep guard 
over him, were taking their mid-day nap, by stealth he took 
his departure, and then sent word to the king that, thence- 
forth, he would not be on terms of peace or concord with him ; 
a thing that, as it appeared, greatly pleased the king. 

For he, like a wary and circumspect man, immediately gave 
a part of his army to Guide and the prince of Antioch, and 
the others who had come to him, and commanded them to 
follow the emperor, and take him prisoner if they possibly 
could; while the king himself, dividing his galleys into two 
parts, gave one half of them to Eobert de Turnham, and com- 
manded him to surround the island on one side, and if he 
should find any ships or galleys, to take them ; which was 
accordingly done : while the king, with the remaining portion 

^ The reading is more probably " submersorum," and not " submer- 
sarum ;'' alluding to the money of which the bodies of the drowned had 
been plundered. 



204 ANNALS OF EOGER DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

of his galleys, surrounded the other side ; and he and Eobert 
took all the ships and galleys they could find in the vicinity of 
the island. On this, the garrisons of the cities, and castles, and 
harbours, deserted them in every direction, wherever the king 
and the said Eobert came, and, taking to flight, concealed 
themselves in the mountains. After this was done, the king 
and Robert de Turnham returned to Limezun ; and king Guido, 
and those who were with him, being unable to accomplish 
their object, rejoined the king. In the meantime, the subjects 
of the emperor flocked from all quarters to the king of Eng- 
land, and acknowledged themselves his subjects, and held their 
lands of him. 

One day, when the above-named emperor was sitting at 
dinner, and his nobles with him, one of them said to him, 
'^ My lord, we advise you to make peace with the king of Eng- 
land, that the whole of your nation may not be destroyed ;" 
on which the emperor, being greatly enraged at these words, 
struck at him with a knife w^hich he was holding in his hand, 
and cut off the nose of the person who had given him this 
advice ; whereupon, after dinner, the person who had been 
struck, left him to go to the king of England, and became his 
adherent. 

On the fourth day before the ides of May,^" being the Lord's 
day and the feast of Saint I^ereus, Saint Achilleus, and Saint 
Pancratius the Martyrs, Berengaria, daughter of the king of 
]N"avarre, was married to Richard, king of England, at Lime- 
zun, ^^ in the island of Cyprus, Nicholas, the king's chaplain, 
performing the services of that sacrament ; and on the same 
day the king caused her to be crowned and consecrated queen 
of England by John, bishop of Evreux, he being assisted in 
the performance of the ceremony by the archbishops of Apamea 
and Auxienne, and the bishop of Bayonne. 

After the celebration of the nuptials, the king of England 
moved onward his army, and a fine city was surrendered to 
him, which is called Nichosis ; and when the king had arrived 
with his army before an extremely well fortified castle, which 
is called Cherin, and in which was the emperor's daughter, 
she went out to meet the king, and fell upon the ground be- 
fore his feet, and surrendered to him the castle, imploring 
his mercy ; on which the king took compassion on her, and 

22 The twelfth of May. 23 x^is place is called Limesol at the 

present day. 



A.D. 1191. THE KING CONFIKMS THE LAWS OF THE CYPRIOTES. 205 

sent her to the queen. After the king had moved onward 
in his inarch, the castle was surrendered to him which is 
known bv the name of Baffes, as also the castle called Euffevent, 
the castle called Deudeamur, and the castle called Candare ; 
after which all the cities and fortresses of the empire were 
surrendered to him. The wretched emperor, in the mean- 
time, concealed himself in an extremely well fortified abbey, 
called Cap Saint Andrew ; but, upon the king coming thither 
for the purpose of taking him, the emperor went forth to meet 
him, and throwing himself at his feet, placed himself at his 
mercy for both life and limb, no mention being made of the 
kingdom, as he knew that every thing was now in the hands 
and powder of the king ; but his only request was, that he 
might not^* be placed in fetters and manacles of iron ; on which 
the king listened to his request, and delivered him into the 
charge of Kalph Fitz-Godfrey, his chamberlain, and ordered 
fetters and manacles of silver and gold to be made for him. 
All these things took place in the island of Cj^rus in the 
month of July, on the first day of that month, being Saturday, 
and the vigil of Pentecost. 

All these matters being brought to a conclusion, the king of 
England sent the emperor, with his guards, to the city of 
Tripolis, and gave the island of Cyprus into the charge of 
Richard de Camville and Eobert de Turnham. On the same 
day, that is to say, on the vigil of Pentecost, Philip, earl of 
Flanders, died at the siege of Acre, and the king of France, his 
liege lord, seized all his treasures and property, and kept them 
in his ow^n possession, and from that hour sought an excuse 
for withdrawing from the siege of Acre, and returning to his 
country, that he might subjugate the earldom of Flanders. 
On the same day also, that is to say, on the vigil of Pentecost, 
the queen of England and the queen of Sicily, the sister of the 
king of England, and the daughter of the emperor of Cyprus, 
arrived before Acre with the greater part of the fleet of the 
king of England. 

In the meantime, the king of England received from all the 
inhabitants of the island a moiety of all their goods, and con- 
firmed for them the laws and institutions which they had in 
the time of Manuel, the emperor of Constantinople. After 
this, on the fourth day of the week of Pentecost, the king of 
England left the island of Cyprus with his galleys, and on 
^* " Non" is omitted in the text, evidently by mistake. 



206 ANIMALS OF EOGEE DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

the following day arrived at Tyre, in the land of Sulia. How- 
ever, the garrison of Tyre would not allow him to enter Tyre, 
saying, that the king of France and Conrad, marquis of Tyre, 
had forbidden his entrance into the city ; consequently he was 
obliged for that night to lie in tents outside of the walls of 
TjTe. 

On the following day, being the sixth day of the week of 
Pentecost, when he was on his way towards Acre, he saw at 
sea before him a large buss laden with troops, and decked 
out with the banners of the king of France and his associates ; 
on which he sent two galleys to it and enquired whose ship 
it was, and whence it came. They made answer, that they 
were subjects of the king of France, and had come from An- 
tioch, with the intention of going to the siege of Acre ; on 
which those who had been sent returned with this answer to 
the king of England ; when the king replied, ** If they are 
subjects of the king of France, go and tell them to wait and 
speak to me/' While they were on their road back, the men 
in the buss, being conscience-stricken, as in reality they were 
all pagans, armed themselves, and received the messengers of 
the king in a most hostile manner, discharging arrows against 
them and Greek fire. Upon the king obser'vdng this, he came 
nearer, and said to all who were about him, *^ Give chase 
to them, and overtake them, and if you capture them, all 
their property shall belong to you ; but if they get away, 
you will forfeit my regard for ever." Upon this, they all, 
with one accord, made an attack upon the buss, and pierced 
it on every side with the beaks of their galleys, on which, the 
water effecting an entrance, it went to the bottom. When the 
pagans found that they were beginning to sink, they threw 
their arms into the sea, and breaking the vessels, poured forth 
the Greek fii-e, and leaving the ship, leaped naked into the 
sea ; on which the king's galley-men slew some of them, and 
took many alive ; for there were in this buss one thousand four 
hundred pagans, whom Saladin had chosen from all the pagans, 
for the purpose of sending them to the city of Acre. These 
being thus conquered and slain, the king distributed all their 
property among his galley-men. 

On the following day, which was Saturday, in the week of 
Pentecost, he arrived at the siege of Acre, and distributed 
many of the pagans, whom he had taken in the ship, among 



A.D. 1191. THE TWO KINGS ARE ATTACKED WITH A MALADY. 207 

the king of France and the chief men of the expedition. But 
when the pagans, who were in the city of Acre, heard that 
the pagans in the buss had been most of them drowned, and 
that the king of England, the mighty triumpher over them, 
had come to the siege, having entertained great hopes of them, 
they dreaded him exceedingly, and from day to day sought 
opportunities for surrendering the city to him, on condition 
that they might depart therefrom with safety to life and limb. 
The king of France, however, who on the Saturday in Easter 
week had come to the siege, had before the arrival of the king 
of England erected a stone tower and prepared his stone engines 
and covered ways, and other engines of war, and placed them 
in suitable positions ; but he effected nothing with them, as 
he was awaiting the arrival of the king of England, who imme- 
diately upon his coming erected his own engines of war. 

The Pisans and the Genevese at this period came to him and 
made offer of their services ; on which he retained the Pisans 
and declined the offer of the Genevese, because they had sworn 
fealty to the king of France and the marquis Conrad; the 
Pisans, however, did homage and fealty to the king of Eng- 
land ; on which the king of England, by his charter, confirmed 
their liberties and customs which they had previously enjoyed 
in the land of Jerusalem. On the third day after the arrival 
of the king of England, the king of France dismissed all the 
servants whom he previously had for the purpose of keeping 
guard over his engines of war, on which the king of England 
took into his service those whom the king of France had dis- 
missed ; the consequence of which was, that the pagans in the 
city, finding that the engines of the king of France were left 
without guards, burned them. 

After this, both of the kings were attacked with a malady 
known by the name of " Arnaldia," in which they w^ere nearly 
reduced to the point of death, and lost all their hair. How- 
ever, by the mercy of God, it came to pass that they both re- 
covered from this sickness, and became stronger and more 
hearty than ever in the service of God. On king Guide making 
complaint to them that the marquis Conrad had violently and 
unjustly deprived him of the revenues and rights of his king- 
dom, they placed the revenues arising from articles sold in 
market and the revenues of the port of Acre in the hands of 
the Templars and the Hospitallers, for them to collect and take 



208 AXNALS OF KpGER DE HOYEDEN. a.D. 1191. 

care of, until it had been determined which, of them was of 
right entitled thereto. 

Geoffrey of Lusignan, the brother of king Guide, also ac- 
cused the marquis Conrad of breach of faith, and perjury, and 
treason, against the king, his brother, and against the army of 
the Christians, and gave his pledge that he would make good 
the accusation. Conrad, however, being conscience-stricken, 
declined to take his trial, but made his way through the crowd, 
and left the place, the people crying after him, and saying, 
** He is a traitor who refuses to take his trial.'' However, no 
person laid hands upon him, for fear lest there might chance, 
to be a tumult among the people. On this he went to Tyre, 
and a dissension immediately ensued between the kings on ac- 
count of them, the king of France, as far as he possibly could, 
taking the part of Conrad, and the king of England that of 
king Guide ; in consequence of which, quarrels and strifes often 
arose between the kings. A considerable time after, the king 
of Prance sent for Conrad and made him chief in his house- 
hold and his confidential adviser, and in consequence of his 
advice and counsel, the king of Prance did many things against 
God and the salvation of his soul ; for he even received pre- 
sents from Saladin, and became friendly with him. 

The next thing was, that the king of Prance made demand 
of half of the isle of Cyprus and of all the things that the 
king of England had gained on his way to Acre ; as a counter- 
poise to which, the king of England demanded of the king of 
Prance one half of Planders, one half of all the property of the 
earl of Planders, and of the other vassals of his who had died 
at the siege of Acre, as also one half of Tjre, which Conrad 
had presented to him. But the demands of both were frivo- 
lous and invidious, for the agreement made between them was 
only that they should halve between them all that they should 
acquire in the land of Jerusalem. This same agreement they 
now renewed in the presence of the leaders and the principal 
men of the expedition, and confirmed the same by their charters 
and oaths, appointing the Templars, and the Hospitallers, and 
other prudent men in whom they placed confidence, to receive 
and halve between them all they should take ; after which 
they became reconciled. 

Tn the meantime, Saladin, the leader of the armies of the 
pagans, frequently sent to the king of Prance and the king of 



A.D. 1191. THE CHRISTIA-NS ARE FOREWARNED AT ACRE. 209 

England pears, Damascene plums, and abundance of other 
fruits of his country, besides other little presents, that this way 
at least he might render them disposed to make peace with 
him. For he had often made them offers of peace and concord, 
both in consequence of his apprehensions of the sons of Nou- 
reddin, who had laid claim against him to the whole of the 
territories of their father which Saladin had seized and retained 
in his possession, and had, with the aid of the lord Musse, 
their uncle, lately entered the territory of Saladin, and taken 
possession of it as far as the great river Euphrates ; as also 
because he wished to rescue his people who were being be- 
sieged in the city. However, he would not entirely come to 
terms with the kings, for he wished to retain in his hands the 
city of Jerusalem and the Crag of Montreal, while the kings 
refused to make any agreement with him on those terms. In 
consequence of this, the stone engines of the kings and of the 
other chieftains, never ceased hurling stones against the walls 
of the city and its fortifications, and the miners of the kings 
did not cease day or night undermining the city walls. 

In the month of June, on the Lord's Day, being the vigil 
of the Nativity of Saint John the Baptist, and the twenty- 
seventh day of the moon, at the ninth hour of the day, there 
was an eclipse of the sun, which lasted three hours ; so much 
so, that the sun was obscured, and darkness came over the 
earth, and the stars appeared in the heavens ; when the eclipse 
had passed, the sun was restored to its former brightness. 

In the city of Acre there was a man, a worshipper of God, 
though in secret from fear of the pagans, who frequently sent 
letters to the armies of the Christians, written in Hebrew, 
Greek, and Latin, and by them signified to the Christians all 
the circumstances and intentions of the pagans ; in consequence 
of which, the Christians, being often forewarned, avoided 
the sti-atagems of the pagans. However, it was a cause of 
great vexation to the Christians that they did not know this 
man, nor yet his name, though in all the letters that he sent 
he declared that he was a Christian, and in his writings he 
always commenced with, ^^ In the name of the Father, and of 
the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.'' However, it is a 
thing greatly to be wondered at, that, neither before the taking 
of the city nor yet after it was taken, he thought fit to discover 
himself to the Christians. 

VOL. n. p 



210 A.NNALS OF ROGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 119L 

In the same month of July, the Christians filled up a great 
part of the fosse, that they might plant their ladders against 
the walls. On the pagans seeing this, who were being besieged, 
they offered to surrender to the kings their city, with their arms 
and provisions, on condition of safety to life and limb, and 
leave to depart. However, the kings were not willing to take 
it in this way, but demanded of them the Holy Cross, and the 
whole of the land of Jerusalem, in the same state it was in 
before the capture of king Guide. Saladin, however, would 
not agree to these terms. 

In the same month of June, Eichard de Camville, whom 
the king of England had appointed one of his justiciaries in 
the island of Cyprus, was taken ill, and, without asking leave, 
came to the siege of Acre, where he died. After his decease, 
the Griffons and the Armenians, who had not yet made peace 
with the king, appointed a new emperor to rule over them, a 
monk of the family of the emperor Isaac. But Eobert de Turn- 
ham, the only one of the king's justiciaries remaining in the isle 
of Cyprus after the death of Eichard de Camville, collected a 
large army and engaged with the new emperor, and, defeating 
him and lus people, took him prisoner, and hanged him on a 
gibbet. 

In the same month of June, Ealph Pitz-Godfrey, to whom 
the king had given charge of the emperor of Cyprus, departed 
this life, and was buried at Tripolis ; after whose death, the 
king gave the emperor into the charge of the Hospitallers, 
who took him to the castle of Margant, and there placed him 
in confinement. 

In the same month of June, the miners of the king of Eng- 
land undermined the foundations of the walls of the city of 
Acre, the pagans who were inside being in ignorance thereof ; 
and, placing logs of wood beneath, they set them on fire ; on 
which a great part of the walls fell down. 

In the meantime, the stone engines of the king of Erance, the 
Templars, and the Pisans, had made a great breach in the wall, 
near a tower which is called Maledetta, and the people of the 
king of Erance ran towards the breach, hoping, by force, to 
effect an entrance into the city. However, the pagans met 
them with a strong hand, and drove them back ; and, as the 
way was steep and narrow, many of the people of the king of 
Erance were there slain. The king of England, however, and 
his men were keeping guard in the meantime over the outer 



A.D. 1191. THE KINGS REJECT THE OFFEE OF SUBMISSION. 211 

trenches, which lay between the army of the Christians and 
that of Saladin ; for an agreement had been made between the 
kings that, whenever one of them should be making an assault 
upon the cit}^, the other should in the meantime keep strict 
guard over the outer trenches, in order that the army of Saladin 
might not be able to do any injury to those making the assault, 
by attacking them in the rear. This arrangement was also 
made between the kings, because in every affair in which the 
said kings and their people had united, they were less success- 
ful than they would have been if they had acted separately, 
for the king of France and his men looked contemptuously on 
the king of England and his people, while he and his people 
did the same to the others. 

In the month of July, on the third day of that month, 
being the fourth day of the week, a great part of the walls 
of the city of Acre fell down, near the tower before-men- 
tioned: upon which, Alberic Clement, the marshal of the 
king of France, ran with a large body of armed men towards 
the wall, with the standard of the king of France, the mar- 
quis Conrad running with the rest towards the wall ; on reaching 
which, they planted their ladders for the purpose of scaling. 
The said Alberic then mounted the wall: but the pagans, 
throwing over him an iron hook, dragged him within the 
walls, and slew him, and crushed forty more with stones : on 
which, Conrad with his people retreated, as he and they were 
unwilling to discharge either stones or arrows against the 
enemy, and the pagans against him and his people ; besides 
which, the pagans who had come for the purpose of defending 
the walls, remained, in the same spot waving the banner of 
Conrad himself, which he had given them as a sign of peace, 
in the sight and to the admiration of all. 

On the day after this, the chief men who were in the city, 
namely, Mestoc and Karakois, came to the king of France and 
the king of England, and offered them the city, and the arms, 
and gold, and silver that belonged to themselves and all the 
others who were in the city, in return for leave to depart with 
safety to life and limb. However, the kings declined to accede 
to these terms ; but required, as the price of their ransom, all 
the territory that Saladin and the other pagans had taken from 
the Christians since the time that Louis, king of the Franks, 
was at Jerusalem, as well as the Holy Cross, and the Christians 
whom they kept in captivity. 

p 2 



212 ANNALS OF EOGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D, 1191. 

To this Mestoc and Karakois made answer, " These exor- 
hitant demands we cannot comply with, except with the assent 
and will of our lord Saladin, and our other principal men- 
Eut give us a truce of three days, and allow us to go to our 
principal men, that we may confer with them on the nature of 
5^our demands." Accordingly, giving hostages as a security 
for their return, they went to Saladin, but, on informing him of 
the demands of the Christians, could not prevail upon him to 
give anything for their ransom ; and so, in confusion, they took 
their departure and entered the city. On the following night, 
at about midnight, Saladin made an assault upon the guards 
of the outer trenches, with the intention that while the Chris- 
tians were giving their attention to the defence of the trenches, 
the pagans who were in the city might more easily escape 
by flight. But the kings, forewarned of this by a message 
from the man of God before-mentioned, who was in the city, 
placed guards around the walls, so that there was no safe egress 
for any of the pagans. 

Upon this, a great alarm was raised throughout the army 
of the Christians, who, on being aroused from their sleep, 
quickly snatching up their arms, hastened to the trenches, 
and, making an attack upon the pagans, slew multitudes of 
them, and put the rest t,o ffight. On the fifth day of the month 
of July, being tlie sixth day of the week, a breach in the 
walls was again set fire to, which had been made by the men 
of the king of England ; and, on the following night, the 
bastions fell, with a great part of the walls, leaving a wide gap. 
On the day after this, the king of England and his army, 
having armed, approached with the view of making an as- 
sault on the city ; on which the pagans immediately made a 
signal that they wished to make peace with them : whereupon, 
laying aside their arms, the Christians returned to their camp, 
and Mestoc, Karakois, Hessedin, and Ordich came out of the 
city for the purpose of having an interview with the kings, 
and offered them the city, with all the other articles above- 
mentioned. 

After the kings and they had conferred upon the matter for 
a considerable time, leave was given them to go to Saladin and 
return. Accordingly they went, and prevailed upon Saladin 
to offer to the kings the city of Jerusalem, and the Holy Cross, and 
all the cities and castles which he had taken after the capture 
of king Guido, and to repair and place them in the same state 



A. D. 1191. APPEARANCE OF THE YIEGIN MARY. 213 

in which they then were ; on condition, however, that the said 
kings should either go with him, or send with him six thousand 
knights and twenty thousand foot soldiers, to defend his terri- 
tories against the lord Musse and the sons of J^oureddin, who 
had conquered his uncle Thekedin in battle, and taken posses- 
sion of all his territory, although they had permitted them to 
depart uninjured. However, the kings declined to do this, and 
the pagans before-named entered the city disconsolate and in 
confusion ; their friends, however, deserting Saladin, loaded 
him with censures. 

On the seventh day of the month of July, being the Lord's 
day, the king of France and his army made an assault upon 
the city, near the tower called Maledetta, at the same spot at 
which they had previously so done, but lost forty men, and 
were able to effect nothing whatever. On the eighth day of the 
month of July, Saladin burned Caiaphas, and destroyed the 
vineyards in its vicinity. On the following night, when many 
of the knights and men-at-arms of the Christian army were 
watching before the tower of Maledetta, a light from heaven 
shone around them, in which appeared to them the blessed 
Virgin Mary, the Mother of Christ ; on which, from fear, the 
guards were exceedingly alarmed, and became as though dead 
men. But the blessed Virgin benignantly comforted them, 
saying, '^Be not terrified, for the Lord has sent me hither for 
your safety. As soon as the day shall have dawned, go and 
tell 5'our kings, in the name of Jesus Christ my Son and Lord, 
and in my name, to cease levelling the walls of this city, as, on 
the fourth day from this, the Lord shall deliver it into their 
hands." At the same hour also at which the Mother of Christ 
was speaking to the guards, a great earthquake took place in 
the city, and so terrified the pagans, that they wished rather 
to die than to live. In like manner shall the Lord, when He 
shall come to judgment, appear gentle to the good, and terrible 
to the wicked. After the Virgin Mary had thus spoken, she 
was severed from before their eyes, and with her the light 
departed which had shone around them. 

Accordingly, in the morning the guards related to the kings 
and the chief men of the army the vision which they had seen 
and the words which the Mother of the Lord had spoken unto 
them ; and immediately all the words which she had spoken 
were Spread throughout the army, and there was great rejoicing 
among the people of God. Moreover, on the ninth and tenth 



214 ANN/VLS OF ROGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

days of July, Saladin caused all the vines and fruit-bearing 
trees to be rooted up which were in the vicinity of Acre, and 
all the cities and castles to be destroyed in which he felt no 
confidence as being able to resist the attacks of the Christians. 
On the eleventh day of the month of July, the Pisans and 
the array of the king of England made an assault on the city 
of Acre, and, having mounted the walls, a Pisan, Leonardus 
by name, was slain ; immediately after which the pagans made 
a signal that they would surrender the city, and make peace 
with the kings on their own terms. Accordingly, the chief 
m*en of the pagans above-named came to confer with the kings 
as to making peace, and, immediately after the conference, 
returned to the city. 

On the twelfth day of the month of July, being the sixth day 
of the week, Philip, king of Prance, Eichard, king of England, 
and all the principal men of the Christians, assembled in the 
morning at the tent of the Templars, where they were met by 
the principal men of the pagans besieged in the city ; and, with 
the sanction of the army of the Christians, the said kings made 
peace with the pagans on the following terms — The pagans were 
to surrender to the said kings the city of Acre, with everything 
therein, and to set at liberty five hundred Christian captives who 
were there. They also covenanted with the kings that they 
would deliver up to them the Holy Cross, and one thousand Chris- 
tian captives, and two hundred Christian knights who were in 
captivity, according as the said kings should make choice from 
among all the captives who should be found in the possession of 
Saladin ; and that they would give for the use of the kings two 
hundred thousand besants.^^ They were also to remain as hos- 
tages in the hands of the kings, upon the understanding that, 
if they should not within forty days then next ensuing comply 
with the terms above-mentioned, they should be at the mercy 
of the kings for life and limb. 

These covenants being made, and these terms being agreed 
to by both sides, and confirmed by oath, the kings sent their 
knights and men-at-arms into the city, and selected one hundred 
of the richest and most noble of the pagans, and placed them in a 
tower under a strong guard ; while the rest they caused to be 
guarded in the houses and streets of the city, and supplied 
them with necessaries, making it a rule that all who should 
receive baptism and embrace the Christian faith should be set 
at liberty. Being influenced, accordingly, by their apprehen- 
ds Roger of Wendover says " seven thousand.'* 



A. D. 1191. THE WALLS OP ACEE ARE BEPAIRED. 215 

sion of death, many of the pagans received baptism ; but, as 
soon as they possibly could, they forsook the Christian religion 
and betook themselves to Saladin ; on which the kings gave 
orders that, from that time forward, no one should receive bap- 
tism. On Saladin hearing of the peace which had been made 
with the Christians, he pretended that it had not been made 
with his sanction. On the thirteenth day of the month of July, 
the king of France and the king of England divided between 
themselves the city of Acre, and everything that was in it, both 
the pagans as well as the gold and silver, and all other arti- 
cles of property ; on which Drogo de Merlou and a hundred 
knights were named on behalf of the king of Prance to receive 
his share ; and Hugh de Gurnay and a hundred knights were 
appointed on behalf of the king of England to receive his pro- 
portion. 

On the fourteenth day of the month of July, Saladin with- 
drew himself and his army, and pitched his tents at a place 
called Saphora, and messengers on his part went and returned 
to the kings, with fruits and other presents; by whom Saladin 
made offer to the kings of the whole of the land of Judea, with 
the exception of the Crag of Montreal, which was beyond 
the river Jordan, on condition, however, that they would lend 
him two thousand knights and five thousand men-at-arms, for 
one year, for the purpose of defending his territories against 
the lord Musse and the sons of IN'oureddin. However, the 
kings declined to accept these proposals on his part. 

On the fifteenth day of the month of July, the kings ordered 
their stone engines and other engines of war to be taken down. 
On the sixteenth day of July, messengers came to the kings, 
on behalf of the lord Musse and the sons of JS'oureddin, and 
made the kings many and ample offers for the assistance of 
their subjects against Saladin. * On the same day, Alardus, 
cardinal-bishop of Yerona and legate of the Apostolic See, and 
the archbishops of Tours, Pisa, and Aire, Hubert, bishop of 
Salisbury, John, bishop of Evreux, Bernard, bishop of Bayonne, 
the bishop of Tripolis, Philip of Chartres, and the bishop of 
Beauvais, and other bishops of dioceses, consecrated the princi- 
pal churches of the city of Acre, which the pagans had polluted, 
and built altars to the Lord, and celebrated mass thereon. In 
the meantime the kings and the people gave due attention to 
the repair of the walls. On the seventeenth and eighteenth 
days of the month of July, the Pisans, and ijioney-dealers/® and 

25 Probably the Lombards. 



216 ANNALS OF ROGEE DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

others who followed mercantile pursuits, received dwellings 
within the city, in the open market, which the kings' servants 
allotted to them, on the understanding that they were to pay, 
yearly, the customary and proper rents for the same. 

On the nineteenth day of the month of July, the earls and 
barons, who had been now staying there nearly two years 
besieging Acre, seeing that the kings had put every thing 
that had been taken upon the surrender of the city into their 
own purses, and were willing to give them no share there- 
of, had a meeting beyond the outer trenches, and holding 
a conference there, sent word to the kings that they would no 
longer continue with them, unless they were sharers in the 
gain as they had been in the labour ; on which the kings made 
answer, that they would satisfy their wishes ; but as they 
delayed so doing, many, being compelled by poverty so to do, 
left them. On the twentieth day of the month of July, being 
the feast of Saint Margaret the Virgin, Eichard, king of Eng- 
land, made a proposal to the king of Prance that they should 
both make oath that they would remain with their armies 
three years in the land of Jerusalem, for the purpose of sub- 
jugating the land ; to which the king of France made answer, 
that he would make no oath about the matter. 

On the twenty- first day of the month of July, the king of 
England first entered the city of Acre ; on which he and his wife 
and sister took up their abode in the king's palace, while the 
king of France was lodged in the mansion of the Templars. 
On the twenty- second day of the month of July, being the 
feast of Saint Mary Magdalene, the king of France sent to the 
king of England Eobert, bishop of Beauvais, Hugh, duke of 
Eurgundy, Drogo de Amiens, and William de Merlou, and 
through them asked his sanction to his return to his own coun- 
try ; on which the king of England made this answer to them : 
** It will be a shame and a disgrace for my lord if he goes away 
without having completed the business on which he came 
hither. Eut still, if he finds himself ailing, or in bad health, 
and is afraid lest he should die here, his will be done." On 
the twenty- third day of the month, when it was spread 
through the army that the king of France was about to de- 
part, the principal men of his army came to him, and besought 
him with tears not in this shameless manner to desert the ser- 
vice of God. On the twenty-sixth day of the month of July, 
by the advice of the king of France, Conrad came to the king 



A.D. 1191. PHILIP GIVES HIS MOIETY OF ACRE TO CONRAD. 217 

of England, and falling on the ground at his feet, asked his 
forgiveness, on which the king of England put an end to all 
his anger ^nd displeasure against him On the following 
day, also, the king of Erance came, and all the principal men 
of the army, to hear the matters in dispute between king 
Guide and the marquis Conrad. Accordingly, having taken 
their seats, the marquis Conrad arose, and standing in the 
midst of them, demanded the kingdom of Jerusalem in right of 
his wife ; while Guide of Lusignan, who had been king be- 
fore its capture, and escaped from it when it was taken, and 
had commenced the siege of Acre, demanded restitution thereof 
to be made to him, showing that he had done nothing for which 
he deserved to lose his kingdom. After much bandying of words 
on both sides, they each of them submitted themselves to the 
award of the court of the kings, by whose advice and judg- 
ment peace and final reconciliation were effected between them, 
on the following terms : 

In the first place, they both made oath, that is to say, king 
Guide and the marquis Conrad, that they would abide by the 
judgment of the kings, and faithfully observe the same. On 
which, the said kings and the whole army adjudged to the 
said king Guide, for his life, the kingdom of Jerusalem ; on 
the understanding that if he should take a wife and have sons 
or daughters, they should have no right to claim succession to 
the kingdom as of hereditary right. Eut if the marquis Con- 
rad and his wife, the sister of queen Sibylla, should happen 
to survive him, they should succeed him in the kingdom, and 
their heirs should in succession wield the sceptre and pos- 
sess the same by hereditary right. And, in the meantime, all 
the revenues of the kingdom were to be halved between them, 
the royal dignity excepted, which was to belong to Guide 
alone, so long as he should live. Conrad, also, was to have 
Tyre, Sidon, and Earuth, and to hold the same by hereditary 
right ; while he and his heirs were always to perform the due 
and customary services for the same to the king of Jerusalem. 
Geoffrey of Lusignan, also, the king's brother, was to have the 
earldom, of Joppa and Caesarea, and to hold the same by here- 
ditary'' right ; and he and his heirs were always to perform the 
due and customary services for the same to the king of Jerusalem. 

On the twenty-ninth day of the month of July, Philip, king 
of Erance, gave to Conrad, marquis of Montferrat, the moiety 
of the city of Acre that belonged to himself. On the same 



218 ANNALS OF EOGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

day, the king of France again asked the king of England to 
agree to his return home, but he could on no terms obtain his 
sanction to his withdrawal, unless he should first ^wear upon 
the Holy Evangelists that he woidd well and faithfully protect 
the territories and subjects of the king of England until his 
return, and would inflict no injury or grievance upon them, or 
allow the same to be done by any one else. After this, the king 
of France appointed the duke of Burgundy chief of his army, 
giving up to him a great part of his treasure. Before his de- 
parture, he also gave to Eajonond, prince of Antioch, one hun- 
dred knights and five hundred men-at-arms for the defence of 
his territory against the pagans, and gave to each of the knights 
forty marks of silver as his pay from the feast of Saint Michael 
until Easter, appointing Robert de Quincy their governor and 
captain. The king of England also, on the same day, gave to 
the prince of Antioch ^yq great ships, laden with horses, arms, 
and provisions. On the thirtieth day of the month of July, 
the king of France and the king of England divided among 
themselves all. the pagans who had been captured at Acre. On 
the thirty-first day of the month of July, that is to say, on the 
last day of that month, on the feast of Saint German, the king 
of France departed from Acr6, and, taking with him Eeginald, 
bishop of Chartres, and Peter, count de Nevers, went to Tyre ; 
whither he also took Karakois and all the other pagans be- 
longing to him, and made a stay there of two days. 

On the third day of the month of August, the king of France 
left Tyre, giving into the charge of the marquis Conrad all 
his pagan prisoners. On the same day, the king of England 
caused his ships to be laden, saying that he would go to Ascalon 
to lay siege to it, and ordering all to follow him. On the fifth 
day of the month of August, the king of England sent Hubert 
Fitz-Walter, bishop of Salisbury, to Tyre, for the pagans 
whom the king of France had taken thither, in order that he 
might bring them back; but Conrad refused to let them go. On 
his return, he related to the king the answer he had received from 
Conrad, on which the king was enraged, and swore that he 
would personally go to Tyre for the purpose of bringing them 
away by force, unless Conrad should speedily let them go. On 
this, the duke of Burgundy made answer to the king, saying : 
'' My lord, allow me to go, and I will bring them back ;" and 
accordingly, he went and brought them back. 

For the day that had been named was now approaching upon 



\.D. 1191. THE CAPTTJllED PAGANS ARE BEHEADED. 219 

wrhich the pagans were to perform their stipulation, and to be 
^et at liberty. However, upon that day, the pagans neither 
produced the Holy Cross, nor the Christian captives, nor yet the 
noney which they had promised for the safety of their life and 
imbs : in consequence of which failure, all those pagans were 
sentenced to undergo capital punishment. When this was told 
o Saladin, he sent word to the king of England and the whole 
irmy of the Christians, that if they cut off the heads of his 
pagan subjects, he himself would strike off the heads of all 
he Christians whom he had in his power. 

On the fourteenth day of the month of August, being the 
fourth day of the week, on the vigil of the Assumption of 
Saint Mary, the Mother of God and ever a virgin, the king of 
England went beyond the outer trenches and pitched his tents 
near the army of the pagans, and remained there some days, 
having issued orders that all his army should attend him; 
few, however, did so, in consequence of the deficiency of horses 
and arms. On the same day, Saladin sent to the king of Eng- 
land costly presents, and requested him to put off the day on 
which he had proposed to cut off the heads of the pagans ; but 
the king declined to put off the day any longer, or to accept 
the. presents of Saladin. On Saladin seeing and hearing this, 
he caused the heads of all the Christians, whom he had in 
his hands, to be cut off ; which was accordingly done on the 
eighteenth day of the month of August, being the Lord's day. 
On the same day, the king of England moved his army, and 
drew near to the army of Saladin, and had an engagement 
with him, on which occasion many fell on both sides both 
killed and woujided, among whom, Peter Mignot, one of the 
household of the king of England, was slain. 

The king of England, although he heard of the death of the 
Christians who had been slain, was still unwilling to anticipate 
the time which he had fixed upon for taking off the heads of 
the pagans. However, on the seventeenth day of the month 
of August, being the third day of the week and the thirteenth 
day before the calends of September, the king of England 
caused all the pagans who belonged to him from the capture 
of Acre to be led out before the army of Saladin, and their 
heads to be struck off in the presence of all. The duke of 
Burgundy also caused the heads of the pagans to be cut off 
who had belonged to the king of Erance, both within the city, 
and without, and near the walls of the city. 



220 ANIJALS OP EOGEK DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

Still, the king of England and the duke of Burgundy pre- 
served some of the pagans for their ransom, whose names 
were as follow : Mestoc, Karakois, Hessedin, the son of 
Caulin, Hessedin Jordic, Passelari, Kamardoli, and Kaedin. 
The number of the pagans thus slain was five thousand, all of 
whom the Christians disembowelled, and found much gold and 
silver in their entrails, while they preserved their gall for medi- 
cal purposes. On the twenty-first day of the month of August, 
after the slaughter of the pagans, the king of England delivered 
into the charge of Bertram de Verdun the city of Acre, and the 
queen of England, the queen of Sicily, and the daughter of 
the emperor of Cyprus. On the twenty-second day of the 
month of August, being the fifth day of the week, the king of 
England crossed the river of Acre with his army, and, pitching 
his tents between that river and the sea, on the sea-shore be- 
tween Acre and Ca}q)has, remained there four days. After 
this, he proceeded along the sea-shore towards Joppa, while 
his ships sailed near him on the sea with his provisions and 
engines of war, in order that if he had any necessity for so doing, 
he might be enabled to return to his ships. Saladin and his army 
in the meantime proceeded along the mountain passes, not far 
from the king's army, that he might impede his passage. 

In the month of September, on the third day after the ex- 
altation of the Holy Cross, when the king of England and his 
army had passed the straits of Merle, and the duke of Bur- 
gundy with the Templars and Franks was keeping the rear- 
guard, and the king of England had hoisted his standard in 
the midst of them, and had delivered his dragon^^ to Peter de 
Pratelles to carry, against the claim of Robert Trussebut, who 
had claimed to carry the same according to the right of his 
predecessors, Saladin made a fierce attack upon the duke of 
Burgundy and those who were with him. But no Christian 
was slain on that occasion, Avith the sole exception of Jacques 
de Avenues, who, with a few men withstood Saladin and his 
army ; as the duke of Burgundy took to flight. On this, the 
king of England, hearing the noise in the rear, wheeled about 
and manfully engaged with the army of Saladin, and gained a 
\dctory over him, slaying three thousand of the pagans ; after 
which he remained there three days. The king then wrote to 
his deputies and friends to the following efiect : — 



27 



The royal standard. 



.D. 1191. LETTER OF RICHAED, KING OF ENGLAND. 221 

The Letter of Richardy Icing of England, on the depa/rture oftJie 
king of France from Acre. 

** Richard, by the grace of God, king of England, duke of 
[ormandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, to JN^., his dearly 
eloved and faithful subject, greeting. Know, that after the 
apture of Acre, and after the departure of my lord the king 
f France from us at Acre, who there basely abandoned the 
urpose of his pilgrimage, and broke his vow, against the 
rill of God, to the eternal disgrace of himself and of his 
salm, we took the road to Joppa ; and when we approached 
ear Assur, Saladin met us with a mighty host of his Sara- 
ens, and made an attack upon us. However, by the mercy 
f God, we lost not a man on this day, with the exception 
f one of extreme valour, and much endeared to the whole 
rmy by his merits, namely, Jacques de Avenues, who was 
ver ready and devoted, like a stay and support to the army, 
1 all holiness and in the sincerity of the faith, for many years 
ast, to serve God in the army of the Christians. After this, 
y the will of God, we arrived at Joppa. We fortified that 
ity with trenches and a wall, making it our purpose every- 
where, to the very best of our power, to promote the interests 
f Christianity. Also, on a second day, being the vigil of the 
J^ativity of Saint Mary, Saladin lost an infinite number of his 
Teat men, and taking to flight, as though bereft of the benefit 
f all aid and counsel, laid waste the whole of the land of 
>ulia. Further, on the third day before the rout of Saladin, we 
rere wounded in the left side with a javelin, but by the grace 
f God have now recovered from the effects thereof. Know, 
Iso, that by the grace of God, we hope within twenty days 
fter the iSfativity of our Lord, to recoT'er the Holy City of 
erusalem, and the Sepulchre of our Lord, after effecting 
s^hich we shall return home. Witness ourselves at Joppa, on 
he first day of October." 

Vhe Letter of the king of England to the abhat of Clairvaly on the 

same subject. 

'* Eichard, by the grace of God, king of England, duke of 
Normandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, to the venerable 
aan and his most dearly-beloved friend in Christ, the abbat of 
ylairval, health and a succession of continued prosperity, 
^fter the mournful and universally bewailed loss of the Holy 



222 ANNALS OF ROGER BE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

City of Jerusalem, the City of the living God, in favour of which 
his name was invoked, the earth was alarmed and trembled, 
because the King of heaven had lost His own land, the land 
upon which His feet had stood. But the blessing of God being 
diffused from the Apostolic See throughout the whole earth, 
the friends of the Cross of Christ, as your holiness is not un- 
aware, vying with each other, pressed onwards to assume the 
sign of the Cross on their foreheads and on their shoulders, and 
to avenge the injuries done to that Holy Cross. Among these 
and ourselves was divided the task undertaken by us of thus 
serving the living God, on assuming the sign of the Cross for 
the purpose of defending the scenes of His death which had 
been made holy by His precious blood, and which the enemies 
of the Cross of Christ had hitherto disgracefully profaned ; and 
within a short time after the arrival of my lord the king of the 
Pranks at Acre, there, by the guidance of the Lord, did we 
also arrive ; shortly after which the noble city of Acre was surren- 
dered to my lord the king of the Pranks and ourselves, the lives 
being saved of the Saracens who had been sent for the purpose 
of defending and protecting it, and an agreement being fully con- 
firmed on the part of Saladin that he would give up to us the 
Holy Cross, and one thousand five hundred captives alive, a day 
being appointed for the due performance of the said covenants. 
However, the time having expired, and the stipulation which 
he had agreed to being utterly disregarded, we put to death 
about two thousand six hundred of the Saracens whom we held 
in our hands, as we were bound to do ; retaining, however, a 
few of the more noble ones, in return for whom we trusted to 
recover the Holy Cross and certain of the Christian captives. 
After this, the king of the Franks having returned home, and 
the ruins and breaches in the walls of the city of Acre being 
duly repaired, and the city properly fortified with trenches and 
a wall, we agreed that at Joppa we would promote the interests 
of Christianity and pursue the object of our vow ; and, together 
with ourselves, the duke of Eurgundy with the French placed 
under his command, the count Henry with his men, and many 
other earls and barons, and an innumerable body of people, 
determined to proceed. As between Acre and Joppa there 
was a very considerable distance, and a very long road, we 
at length, after much toil, and a severe loss of men, came down 
to Caesarea. Saladin, also, on the same march lost a great num- 
ber of his men. After the people of God had taken breath for a 



A.D. 1191. LETTEB OF KlCHAIiD TO THE ABBAT OF CLAIEVAL. 223 

time at that place, we pursued our intended route towards 
Joppa. Our vanguard having gone before and pitched their 
tents at Assur, Saladin with a mighty host of Saracens made 
an attack upon our rear-guard ; on which, by the favouring grace 
of the Divine mercy, he was put to flight by only four battdions 
who faced about against him, and for a whole league was 
pursued in his flight by the entire troops of the Christians ; 
in consequence of which, such a slaughter took place of the 
more noble Saracens whom Saladin had with him, namely, in 
the vicinity of Assur, on the vigil of the N'ativity of Saint Mary 
the Virgin, being Saturday, that Saladin had experienced none 
like thereto on any one day in the preceding forty years. AVe, 
however, by the grace of God, lost not one that day, with the ex- 
ception of one very valiant man, Jacques de Avenues, and much 
endeared to the whole army by his merits, who was ever ready 
and devoted, like a stay and support to the army, in all holiness 
and in the sincerity of the faith, for many years past, to serve God 
in the army of the Christians. After this, by the guidance of 
the Lord, we arrived at Joppa, and strengthened that city with 
trenches and a wall, making it our purpose in every quarter to 
promote the interests of Christianity to the utmost possible ex- 
tent. Since the day of the discomfiture of Saladin above-men- 
tioned, he has not dared to engage with the Christians, but, like 
a lion in his den, has been secretly lying in ambush in the more 
elevated places for the purpose of slaying the friends of the 
Cross like sheep destined for slaughter. Accordingly, on hearing 
that we were marching towards Ascalon with hasty steps, he 
overthrew that place and levelled it with the ground, and has 
now deserted and set at nought the whole land of Syria, as 
though, he had been utterly bereft of the benefit of ail counsel 
and assistance ; in consequence of which, we consider it to be a 
ground for sanguine hopes, that in a short time, by the bounty 
of God, the inheritance of the Lord will be entirely regained. 
And as the inheritance of the Lord has already in some mea- 
sure been regained, and we have in the recovery thereof en- 
dured all the heat and burden of the day, and have now ex- 
hausted all our money, and not only our money, but our strength 
and body as well ; we do notify unto your brotherhood that we 
are not able to remain in the country of Syria beyond the 
festival of Easter. The duke of Burgundy, with the Pranks 
placed under his command, coimt Henry, with his men, and the 
othei' earls, bai'ons, and knights, who, in the service of God have 



224 ANNALS OF ROGEE DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

expended their means in behalf of God, will return home, unless 
through the skilful effects produced by your preaching, timely 
provision shall be made for them, in men, by whom the land 
may be peopled and defended, and in money, which they may 
expend more freely in the service of God. Wherefore, falling 
at the feet of your holiness and shedding tears, we do proffer our 
humble entreaties, and do most earnestly beseech you that in 
such manner as becomes your duty and your honor, you will 
make it your endeavour to induce the princes and noblemen 
throughout all Christendom, and the rest of the people of God, 
to give their services to the living God, and to prompt them 
so to do. And therefore, after the said festival of Easter, let 
it be for them to defend and protect the kingdom of the Lord, 
of which we, by the mercy of God, will, by the said time of 
Easter, more fully gain possession. And be it the care of your 
diligence to act with such earnestness in this respect, that no- 
thing may through neglect on your part be lost, of that which 
the common advantage of all Christendom so ardently awaits. 
And for this reason it is that we do at this early period direct 
to your holiness our letters with reference to the interests of 
Christianity ; to the end that we may not be reproached 
with slothfulness and negligence, in case we had in any way 
neglected to forewarn a man of such position and of so holy 
a life on the urgent interests of Christendom. Therefore, in 
such manner as before we had resolved on this expedition, 
you encouraged us and the rest of the people of God to enter 
the service of God, and to restore His inheritance to Him, so 
now as well does the most urgent necessity call upon you, 
with all earnestness to arouse the people of God to act as here- 
inbefore mentioned. Witness ourselves, at Joppa, on the first 
day of October." 

It is also to be observed that, immediately after the rout 
of Saladin, the pagans who were in Ascalon and Joppa 
abandoned those places, not daring to await the arrival of 
the king of England ; accordingly, the king of England found 
them both deserted, and fortified them with castles and trenches. 
Shortly after this, the king of England having gone one day 
to some gardens about a mile from Joppa, to walk there, he 
fell asleep, on which a multitude of pagans surprised him, 
and aroused the king from his slumbers ; immediately on which, 
he mounted his horse, and manfully withstood the Saracens. 
However, William de Pratelles, one of his household, was there 



A.D. 1191. TEEATY BETWEEN THE CnANCELLOR AND THE EARL. 225 

taken prisoner, and Eeginald, his comrade, was slain ; one also 
of the king's chargers was taken there, and its leader slain, 
and the king only escaped through his prowess. When the 
king was mounting his horse, his belt, enriched with gold and 
precious stones, fell off, which was found by William de Corne- 
burg, and afterwards restored to the king. Saphadin, the 
brother of Saladin, also sent back his horse to the king, who 
returned to Joppa. After this, the king fortified the castle of 
Planes, and the castle of Maen, and stayed at Joppa till nearly 
the JS'ativity of our Lord. 

In the meantime, a serious dissension arose in England 
between the king's chancellor and John, eaii of Mortaigne, 
the king's brother, relative to the castle of Lincoln, which the 
chancellor besieged, having expelled Gerard, de Camville from 
the keepership and the office of sheriff of Lincoln ; which former 
office the chancellor gave to William de Stuteville, and made 
him sheriff as well. But while the said chancellor was be- 
sieging the castle of Lincoln, the castle of IsTottingham and 
the castle of Tickhill, which belonged to the king, were sur- 
rendered to earl John, who immediately sent word to the 
chancellor that, unless he quickly gave up the siege, he would 
visit him with a rod of iron. 

Consequently, the chancellor, being alarmed at the com- 
mands of John, earl of Mortaigne, broke up the siege ; and, 
through the mediation of many of the bishops, and other 
faithful servants of our lord the king, they appointed a day 
for an interview, at which an agreement was made between 
them on the following terms : — 

*^ Be it known to all men to whom this present writing shall 
come, that the dispute that has arisen between the earl of 
Mortaigne and our lord the chancellor has been, through the 
mediation of the archbishop of Eouen, and the bishops of 
Durham, London, Winchester, Bath, Rochester, and Coventry, 
and other faithful servants of our lord the king, set at rest ; 
inasmuch as the earl of Mortaigne has restored to our lord the 
king, by the hands of the lord archbishop of Eouen, the 
castles of Tickhill and of Nottingham, to be given into the 
charge of William Marshal and of William de Wendenal ; 
that is to say, the castle of Nottingham to William Marshal, 
and the castle of Tickhill to William de Wendenal ; which 
said castles they shall, having made oath thereto, keep to the 
honor of and in fealty to our Jord the king, until such time as 

TOL. n. Q 



226 ANNALS OF EOGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

he shall return ; and when he shall return, then they shall do 
therewith according to his will and command. And if, which 
God forbid, it shall so happen that our lord the king shall 
depart this life during the pilgrimage, then the said per- 
sons shall, mthout detaining the same or any delay, deliver 
up the before-mentioned castles to the said earl. And if it 
shall so happen that, in the meantime, our lord the chan- 
cellor shall be guilty of any excesses against the said earl, 
and, on being requested to make amends for the same with 
out delay, in conformity with the advice and opinion of the 
said lord archbishop of Eouen and others of the household 
of our lord the king and of his court, shall refuse so to do, 
then they shall restore and give up the said castles to the 
said earl. These other castles also, with the honors thereof 
granted to him by our lord the king, have been delivered into 
the charge of faithful servants of our lord the king ; that is 
to say, the castle of Wallingford has been given up to the lord 
archbishop of Eouen, the castle of Bristol to the lord bishop 
of London, the castle of the Peak to the lord bishop of Coven- 
try, the castle of Bolsover to Eichard of the Peak, and, if the 
said Eichard should decline it, the lord bishop of Coventry is 
to take it, the castle of Eye to Walter Fitz-Eobert, the castle of 
Hereford to earl Eoger Bigot, the castles of Exeter and of Laun- 
ceston to Eichard Eevel ; who have in like manner sworn that, 
as they owe fealty to our lord the king, they will faithfully keep 
the same for his service. And, further, three castles, which 
belong to the crown of our lord the king, have been delivered 
in trust as follows : the castle of Windsor to the earl oi 
Arundel, the castle of Winchester to Gilbert de Lacy, and the 
castle of JSTorthampton to Simon de Pateshull, who have in 
like manner sworn that, as they owe fealty to our lord the 
king, they will faithfully keep the same for his service. It 
has been further agreed, that bishops, abbats, earls, barons, 
vavasors, and freeholders shall not, at the will of justices or 
deputies of our lord the king, be disseised of their lands and 
chattels,^^ but shall be dealt with by judgment of the court of 
our lord the king, according to the lawful customs and assizes 
of the realm, or according to the command of our lord the 
king. And in like manner the lord John shall cause similar 
provisions to be made in his lands. And, if any person 
shall presume to do otherwise, at the prayer of the before- 
28 *' Caballis," in the text, is clearly a mistake for *' catallis.'' 



A. D. 1191. TKEATY BETWEEN THE CHANCELLOE AND THE EARL. 227 

named earl, the same shall be rectified by the lord archbishop 
of Rouen, if he shall be in England, and by the justices of our 
lord the king, and by those who have thus sworn to keep the 
peace; and, in like manner, at their prayer, the said John 
shall cause due reparation to be made. All new castles built 
after the departure beyond sea of our lord the king on his pil- 
grimage, whether begun or whether finished, shall be razed, 
and no other new ones shall be fortified until the return 
of our lord the king, except in manors demesne of our lord 
the king, if need there shall be, or in case such shall be 
done in the service of some person named by the precept of 
our lord the king, conveyed hither by letter or by some trusty 
messenger. Gerard de Camville shall be reinstated in the 
office of sheriff of Lincoln, and on the same day a proper day 
shall be appointed for him to make his appearance in the court 
of our lord the king, there to abide his trial ; and if in the 
judgment of the court of our lord the king proof can be given 
that he ought to lose that office as also the keepership of the 
castle of Lincoln, then he is to lose the same ; but, if not, he 
is to keep it, unless in the meantime an agreement can be come 
to relative thereto on some other terms. And the lord John is 
not to support him against the decision of our lord the king, 
nor is he to harbour such outlaws, or enemies to our lord the 
king, as shall be named to him, nor allow them to be harboured 
on his lands. But if any person shall be accused of any offence 
committed against our lord the king, it shall be lawful for 
the earl to harbour him in his lands so long as he shall offer 
to make due redress in the court of our lord the king. To main- 
tain and observe this treaty of peace in good faith and without 
evil intent, the said earl, and chancellor, and fourteen barons, 
on the two sides, have made oath at the hand of the said lord 
archbishop of Eouen ; namely, on the part of the chancellor, 
the earl of Arundel, the earl of Salisbury, the earl Eoger 
Bigot, the earl of Clare, Walter Fitz-Eobert, William de 
Braove, and Eoger Fitz-Eemfray ; and, on the part of the earl, 
Stephen Eidel, his chancellor, William de Wendenal, Eobert 
de la Mare, Philip de Lurcester, William de Kahannes, Gilbert 
Basset, and William de Montacute . And if within the time of the 
truce anything shall have been taken or intercepted on either 
side, it shall be lawfully returned and made good. And this 
treaty has been made, saving in all things the authority and 
conmiands of our lord the king ; but so that if, before his re- 
ft 2 



228 AN^^ALS OF KOGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

turn, our lord the king shall be unwilling that this treaty shall 
hold good, the before- named castles of Nottingham and Tick- 
hill shall be restored to the lord John, whatever commands 
our lord the king may give relative thereto." 

In the same year, a short time after the above-mentioned 
treaty of peace made between the chancellor and the earl, 
Geoffrey, the archbishop elect of York was consecrated by 
William, archbishop of Tours, by command of Celestinus, 
the Supreme Pontiff ; and, immediately after his consecration, 
being unmindfid of the oath which he had made to the king, his 
brother, to the effect that he would not return to England till 
after the expiration of three years from the time that the king 
left England, he hastened to return to England. However, on 
his arrival at Witsand, in Elanders, for the purpose of crossing 
over to England, he was forbidden on part of the chancellor 
to presume to return to England, contrary to the tenor of the 
oath which he had taken before the king ; but the archbishop 
refused at his command to abandon his purpose; wherefore, 
the chancellor ordered him to be seized, if he should come into 
England. 

Accordingly, the archbishop of York came over to England, 
and landed at Dover, in the month of September, while the 
servants of the chancellor were standing on the shore for the 
purpose of laying hands on him. Eeing, however, forewarned 
of this, before he left the ship he changed his clothes, and 
mounting a horse in whose speed he had confidence, fled to a 
monastery of monks in that town. It was about the sixth 
hour of the day, and the monks had begun mass, and the Epis- 
tle was being read, in which they had just come to the passage 
where the holy Apostle says: ^^ He that troubleth you shall 
bear his judgment, whosoever he be ;" ~^ and again, in the same 
Epistle, ^^ I would they were even cut off which trouble you,'' ^^ 
when the archbishop of York entered the church, putting his 
trust in the Lord ; and he received the same as a pleasing 
omen, referring it to the lasting quiet of his own holy office, 
and the approaching confusion of the chancellor. 

Upon this, the servants of the chancellor whom he had sent 
to apprehend him, besieged the church on all sides, so that he 
could not come forth without falling into their hands ; and one 
day, after the celebration of the mass, while the said arch- 
bishop, clad in his sacerdotal habiliments, was still standing 
. 29 Gal. V. 10. 30 Gal. v. 12. 



AD. 1191. THE CHAKCELLOK PllOCEEDS TO LONDON. 229 

at the altar, these sinister satellites effected an entrance into 
the church, and laid violent hands upon him, and dragged him 
forth from the church. After dragging him out, or rather tear- 
ing him away therefrom, they vilely and ignominiously led 
him through the mud of the streets, and along the lanes, while 
the people stood shouting after them : ^^0 cowards ! why do 
you take him in this manner ? What harm has he done } He 
is an archbishop, the brother of a king, and the son of a king I " 

However, not attending to the words of the people, they took 
him to Dover castle, and delivered him into the custody of 
Matthew de Clare, the constable thereof. When this was told 
to earl John, the brother of the said archbishop, he enquired 
of the chancellor if this had been done by his order, on which 
he admitted that it was, and did not deny it ; whereupon the 
earl gave orders that the archbishop should be set at liberty, 
which was done accordingly. 

On his arrival at London, he made complaint to earl John, 
and the bishops, and other nobles of the kingdom, respecting 
the injuries done to him and his people by the chancellor 
and his men; and the earl gave orders that the chancellor 
should take his trial in the king's court for the injury which he 
had done to his brother the archbishop of York, and to Hugh, 
bishop of Durham. On the chancellor delaying to do this from 
day to day, the earl John, and the archbishop of Eouen, and the 
bishops and principal men of the kingdom, named a peremp- 
tory day for his appearance at Eeading : on which day there 
came thither the earl of Mortaigne, and nearly all the bishops, 
earls, and barons of the kingdom ; but though they waited 
there after the peremptory day, expecting the arrival of the chan- 
cellor, he declined to come, or even to send a message. Upon 
this, earl John, and the bishops who were with him, prepared 
to set out for London, that being there met by a more consider- 
able number of persons, they might enjoy the benefit of the 
advice of the citizens of London, what to do as to their chan- 
cellor, who had created this confusion in the kingdom, and re- 
fused to take his trial. 

On the chancellor hearing this, he left Windsor and has- 
tened to London, and, while on the road, it so happened that 
his household and knights met the knights of earl John, on 
which a sharp engagement took place between them. In this 
affair one of the knights of earl John, by name Eoger de Planis, 
lost his life ; however, the earl prevailed, and the chancellor and 



230 AlfKALS OF EOGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

his men taking to flight, he entered London, and took refuge 
with his people in the Tower of London. Earl John, and nearly 
all the bishops and earls of England, also entered London on 
the same day, namely, the third day after the octave of Saint 
Michael, and, on the following day, the said earl John, the 
king's brother, and the archbishop of Eouen, and all the bishops, 
and the earls, and barons, met the citizens of London in Saint 
Paul's Churchyard, and there made accusation against the said 
chancellor of many offences, and especially the injuries he had 
done to the lord archbishop cf York and the lord bishop of 
Durham. 

The associates also of the said chancellor whom the king had 
associated with him in the government of the kingdom, ac- 
cused him of many offences, saying that, despising their advice, 
he had transacted all the affairs of the kingdom according to im- 
pulse and his own will. The archbishop of Rouen also, and 
William Marshal, earl of Striguil, then for the first time pro- 
duced before the people the sealed letters from our lord the king, 
in which the king had sent orders from Messina that they should 
be associated with him in the government of the kingdom, and 
that, without the advice of them and the other persons so ap- 
pointed, he was not to act in the affairs of the king and the 
kingdom, and that if he should do anything to the detriment 
of the kingdom, or without the consent of the persons before- 
named, he should be deposed, and the archbishop of Eouen 
substituted in his place. 

It seemed good therefore to John, the king's brother, and all 
the bishops, earls, and barons of the kingdom, and to the 
citizens of London, that the chancellor should be deposed, and 
they accordingly deposed him, and substituted in his place the 
archbishop of Eouen, who was willing to do nothing in the 
government of the kingdom except with the will and consent 
of the persons assigned to him as associates therein, and with 
the sanction of the barons of the exchequer. On the same 
day, also, the earl of Mortaigne, the archbishop of Eouen, and 
the other justiciaries of the king, granted to the citizens of 
London the privilege of their commonalty; and, during the same 
year, the earl of Mortaigne, the archbishop of Eouen, and the 
other justiciaries of the king, made oath that they would so- 
lemnly and inviolably observe the said privilege, so long as the 
same should please their lord the king. The citizens of Lon- 
don also made oath that they would faithfully serve their lord 



A.D. 1191. LETTER OF THE BISHOP OF COTENTEY. 231 

king Richard, and his heirs, and would, if he should die with- 
out issue, receive earl John, the brother of king Richard, as 
their king and lord. They also swore fealty to him against 
all men, saving always their fealty to king Richard, his brother. 
Upon this, the chancellor, being deposed, made oath that he 
would suiTender all the castles throughout England, and im- 
mediately surrendered to him the Tower of London ; and he 
delivered it to the archbishop of Rouen, as also Windsor, and 
some other castles, but not all of them. 

On this occasion, Hugh de Nunant, the bishop of Coventry, 
wrote to the following effect : — 

The Letter of Hugh, hishop of Coventry, on the deposition of 
William, hishop of My, the Icing's chancellor. 

*' The things that are committed to writing are beyond 
doubt bequeathed to posterity, to the end that the page that is 
confirmed by the testimony of a few, may either advise for the 
safety, or redound to the benefit of, many: and may what 
is here set down be considered as an illustration of the truth of 
the same. For many things are committed to writing by way 
of caution, that the same may be done ; and many, again, that 
they may not be done ; that so the church of Christ may profit 
on either side, and may both seek what is to be coveted and shun 
what is to be avoided. For this reason it is our wish that the 
fall of the bishop of Ely should, by letters attesting the same, 
be brought to the notice of all ; to the end that in this illustra- 
tion humility may always find that by which to profit, and 
pride that which to hold in dread. For he was a great man 
among all the people of the west, and, as though gifted with 
a twofold right hand, wielded the power of the kingdom and 
the authority of the Apostolic See, and was in possession of 
the king's seal over all lands, so as to be enabled to govern ac- 
cording to his own will, and of his own power to bring all 
things to completion ; even in the same degree of estimation as 
both king and priest together was he held : nor was there any 
person to be found to dare to offer resistance to his will. For 
he said, and the thing was done, he commanded, and all means 
were discovered. In his hands were the ro^^al treasures, the 
whole of the king's riches, and the entire exchequer, so much 
60 that all property whatsoever that swam beneath our skies 
was no longer said to belong to the king, but to him. For 



232 Al^NALS OF ROGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

there was neither that which is hunted for on land, fished for 
in the water, or flying in the air, which was not compelled to 
be at the service of his table, insomuch that he appeared to 
have shared the elements with the Lord ; leaving the heaven of 
heavens alone to the Lord, and reserving the other three to 
advantage by the use or rather abuse and luxurious enjoy- 
ment thereof. All the sons of the nobles acted as his servants, 
with downcast looks, nor dared they to look upwards towards 
the heavens, unless it so happened that they were addressed by 
him ; and if they attended to anything else, they were pricked 
with a goad, which their lord held in his hands, fully mindful 
of his grandfather of pious memory, who being of servile condi- 
tion in the district of Eeauvais, had for his occupation to guide 
the plough and whip up the oxen f^ and who at length, to 
gain his liberty, fled to the IsTorman territory. The grand- 
children and relatives of this man, even any females whatsoever 
who were akin to him, though sprung from a poor cabin, earls, 
and barons, and nobles of the kingdom, longed with the greatest 
avidity to unite with themselves in marriage ; thinking it a 
matter for pride, under any title whatever, to acquire the fa- 
vour of his intimate acquaintanceship ; nor was there a churl 
who longed for a field, a citizen who longed for a farm, a 
knight who longed for an estate, a clerk who longed for a 
benefice, or a monk who longed for an abbey, who was not 
obliged to become subservient to his power and influence. And 
although all England, bending the knee, was ever at liis ser- 
vice, still did he always aspire to the free mode of life of the 
Franks, and removed his knights and yeomen, and all his house- 
hold, to Oxford ; where, slighting the English nation on all oc- 
casions, attended by a troop of Eranks and Flemings, he moved 
pompously along, bearing a sneer in his nostrils, a grin on his fea- 
tures, derision in his eyes, and superciliousness on his brow, by 
way of fit ornament for a priest. For his own aggrandizement 
and for the glorification of his name, he was in the habit of getting 
up verses that he had picked up by begging, and adulatory jin- 
gles, and enticed jesters and singers from the kingdom of France 
by his presents, that they might sing about him in the streets ; 
and but lately it was eveiywhere said that there was not such a 
person in all the w^orld. And really, if it had been the time 
of the Caesars, he would with Liberius^^ have had himself styled 

31 Tiiis is said in a spirit of caustic malevolence. 
^^ A misprint for Tiberius. 



A.D. 1191. LETTEK OF THE BISHOP OF COVENTEY. 233 

the living God. But when the king had given him certain 
earls as his associates, in order that at least the more weighty 
concerns of the realm might be managed by their counsels in 
common, he could not at all endure to have any partner 
therein, as he thought that the greater part of his glory would 
be thrown into the shade, if he should stand in need of the 
advice of any mortal being. Therefore he ruled alone, there- 
fore he reigned alone, and from sea to sea was he dreaded as 
though a God ; and were I to say stiU more, I should not be 
telling a falsehood, because God is long-suffering and merciful ; 
while he, ruling every thing according to his own impulses, 
was neither able to observe justice when acting, nor to endure 
delay in waiting the proper time. Hence it arose that he set 
at nought all the letters and mandates of his lord ; that he might 
not seem to have a superior, nor be supposed to be subject to 
any one, having always made every one act as the servant of 
his own will. Therefore, after England had for a considerable 
time suffered under so heavy a burden and a yoke so insup- 
portable, at length, while groaning at his deeds, she cried 
aloud with all her might. Her cries went up to the Lord, 
and He, rising, looked down on her from on high, who by 
His own might treads under foot the necks of the proud and 
haughty, and exalts the humble by the might of His arm. 
The sun of justice, indeed, may shine upon the good and 
the bad, still the eyes of the overwise it dazzles, and by 
the brilliancy of its light brings forth fruit in the minds of the 
humble. For although this chancellor may perchance have 
read that it is denied us long to dwell on high,^"* and that * He 
who stands must take care lest he fall,' ^^ and that, ' He who 
exalteth himself shall be abased,' ^^ and that before a downfall 
the heart is elated ; still, being forgetful of the lot of mankind, 
which never remains in the same condition, and of the volubility 
of the wheel that elevates the lowly man, and, when elevated, 
is wont to depress him, he was never willing to understand that 
he ought to act virtuously ; but meditating iniquity in his bed, 
where he was sleeping with the ministers of wickedness, and 
with youths in his chamber, he added iniquity to iniquity, so 
as by his pride and his abuses, through the just retribution of 
God, to precipitate himself into the powerful hands of the Lord ; 
so that now there was no longer any room for mercy for him, but 

^"^ Perhaps alluding to Is. xxvi. 5. ^^ Alluding to 1 Cor. x. 12. 

^ St. Luke xiv. 11, and xviii. 14. 



234 ANNALS OF KOGER DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

solely for the exercise of power. Nor indeed was there an op- 
portunity for taking compassion on him or sparing him. For 
it was he himself who dictated the sentence against himself, 
who goaded vengeance on, who aimed at crimes so great, that 
he thereby provoked the anger not only of men, but still more, 
of God. For although the Lord can do all things, still He is 
unable to condemn a man who is innocent, or to save one who 
is guilty, nor would He spare him if the guilty man should 
chance to be obstinate in his guilt. For against an obstinate 
mind and the forehead of a harlot may be brought the hard- 
ness of real adamant, so as to be worn away thereby ; for 
nothing is there so strong but that it must give way before 
what is stronger. As, therefore, a man so powerful could not 
be overcome bv man, the Father of mercies and the God of all 
consolation came to the aid of the people who supplicated 
God, and supplanting the hand of mercy in his case, hurled 
him down from his power, and brought this accuser, or rather 
destroyer, to such a pitch of giddiness of mind, that he was 
unable to recover or arouse himself therefrom ; but He so hard- 
ened his heart, blinded his mind, and infatuated his counsels, 
that he first besieged the archbishop of York in a church, then 
seized him, and after seizing him, violently tore him away ; after 
tearing him away, strongly bound him ; after strongly binding 
him, dragged him along ; and after dragging him along, threw 
him into prison. And although there was a concourse of 
people who exclaimed, ^What has this righteous man and 
friend of God been guilty of, that he should be taken to prison ? 
his innocent blood is condemned without a cause,' still, pity 
could not listen where pride reigned, and God was not heard 
where the tyrant held sway. For the said archbishop was com- 
ing from the country of J^ormandy with his pastoral stajff and 
mitre, and ring, and superhumeral, which in later times has 
been styled the pall. And although he was the son of king 
Henry, of happy memory, and the brother of king Eichard, 
who now reigns, and the brother of John, earl of Mortaigne, 
still, his royal blood could be of no service to him ; and al- 
though he had been recently consecrated, the recent perform- 
ance of that sacrament could not avail him. Consequently, it 
was in public the universal cry of the laity throughout the 
whole island, ' Perish he who hastens on the ruin of all things ! 
that he may not crush all, let him be crushed. If he has 



A.D. 1191. LETTER OF THE BISHOP OF COYENTRY. 235 

done this in a green tree, what will he do in a diy one?^'^*^ 
And behold ! under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, all persons 
meet together from the north, and from the sea, and from all 
parts of the whole island, and flock in crowds, that the arch- 
bishop may be set at liberty. Eut the cords of his sins tight- 
ening apace around the chancellor, and his conscience strongly 
accusing him, clad in a coat of mail, he flies from before the faces 
of men, and hides himself, and shuts himself with his people in 
the Tower of London. As we entered the city at a late hour, 
many of his household in arms attacked us with drawn swords, 
and slew one of our knights, a noble man, and wounded a 
great number. However, in the morning a council was held 
by nearly all the nobles of the kingdom, in presence of the 
lord John, the king^s brother, the archbishops of Eouen and 
York, and the bishops of Durham, London, Winchester, Bath, 
Rochester, Norwich, Lincoln, Hereford, Saint David's, and 
Coventry ; and in the presence of all the people of the city, 
and of the justiciaries of our lord the king, who approved 
thereof, we did, with the assent of all, agree that such a person 
should thenceforth no longer rule in the kingdom of England, 
by whom the Church of England was reduced to a state of igno- 
miny, and the people to want ; for, to omit other matters, he 
and his revellers had so exhausted the whole kingdom, that 
they did not leave a man his belt, a woman her necklace, a 
nobleman his ring, or anything of value even to a Jew. 
He had likewise so utterly emptied the king's treasury, that in 
all the coffers and b^igs therein, nothing but the keys could 
be met with, after the lapse of these last two years. On the 
third day he positively promised, and gave his word by one of 
his followers, in the presence of all, that he would not leave 
the island until certain castles which he kept in his own hands, 
and had given into the charge of some foreigners, unknown 
and obscure persons, and which were then named, should have 
been fully surrendered by him and given into the charge of 
certain persons named ; for the performance of which he gave 
his brothers and his chamberlain as hostages. He then 
hastened to Canterbury, that there, as became him, he might 
assume the cross of pilgrimage, and lay aside the cross of the 
legateship, which for a year and a half since the death of pope 
Clement, he had wielded to the prejudice of the Church of 
Eome, and to the detriment of that of England. For all the 

37 St. Luke xxiii. 31. 



236 AliTNALS OF KOGER DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

churches of England had that cross put to their ransom ; that 
is to say, had compelled them to submit to the extortion of 
fines ; nor was there any one exempt from feeling the blows 
of that cross. And then, besides if by chance it happened that 
he . entered the house of any bishop, you will be able to leam 
from him that his entertainment cost him the price of one or 
two hundred marks. After he had remained in the castle of 
Dover some days, unmindful of his profession and of the obli- 
gation of his promise which he had given, forgetful also of his 
brothers, whom, having given as hostages, he was disgracefully 
exposing to peril of death, he determined to set sail, and as he 
did not care to do this openly, he hit upon a new kind of stra- 
tagem, and pretending to be a woman, a sex which he always 
hated, changed the priest's robe into the harlot's dress. Oh 
shame ! the man became a woman, the chancellor a chancel- 
loress, the priest a harlot, the bishop a buffoon. Accordingly, 
although he was lame, he chose to hasten on foot from the 
heights of the castle down to the sea- shore, clothed in a wo- 
man's green gown of enormous length instead of the priest's 
gown of azure colour f^ having on a cape of the same colour, 
with unsightly long sleeves, instead of a chasuble, a hood on 
his head instead of a mitre, some brown cloth in his left hand, 
as if for sale, instead of a maniple, ^^ and the staff of the huckster 
in his right in place of his pastoral staff. Decked out in such 
guise the bishop came down to the sea- shore, and he who had 
been accustomed much more frequently to wear the knight's 
coat of mail, wondrous thing ! became so effeminate in mind, 
as to make choice of a feminine dress.^^ Having seated himself 
on the shore upon a rock, a fisherman, who immediately took 
him for a common woman, came up to him ; and, having come 
nearly naked from the sea, perhaps wishing to be made warm, 
he ran up to this wretch, and embracing his neck with 
the left arm, with his right began pulling him about, upon 
which he almost immediately discovered'*^ that he was a 

33 " Hyacinthina" in the text. 39 ^he " manipulum," " fanon/' 

or " sudarium," was either a napkin or a short sleeve worn over the left 
wrist by the priesthood when officiating. '^^ " Animum'* is probably 

a mistake for " amictum." *^ This passage has been necessarily 

modified in the Translation ; it stands thus in t'he text — " Cucurrit ad 
moustrum, et manu sinistra collum complectens, dextera partes inferiores 
riraatur. Cumque tunicam subito sublevasset, et niniis inverecunde ad partes 
verecundas manum extendisset andacter, femoralia sensit et virum in 
faemin^ certis indiciis agnovit." The story is not told with all these cir- 



A. D. 1191, LETTER OF THE BISHOP OF CO YENTEY. 237 

man. At this he was greatly surprised, and, starting back, 
in a fit of amazement, shouted out with a loud voice, ' Come 
all of you and see a wonder ; I have found a woman who 
is a man ! ' Immediately on this, his servants and acquaint- 
ances who were standing at a distance came up, and with 
a gentle kind of violence pushed him back and ordered him 
to hold his tongue ; upon which the fisherman held his peace 
and the clamour ceased, and this hermaphrodite sat waiting 
there. In the meantime a woman, who had come from the 
town, seeing the linen cloth, which he or rather she, was 
carrying as though on sale, came and began to ask what was 
the price, and for how much he would let her . have an eU. 
He, however, made no answer, as he was utterly unacquainted 
with the English language ; on which she pressed the more ; 
and shortly after another woman came up, who urgently 
made the same enquiry, and pressed him very hard to let her 
know the price at which he would sell it. As he answered 
nothing at all, but rather laughed in his sleeve, they began to 
talk among themselves, and to enquire what could be the mean- 
ing of it. Then, suspecting some imposture, they laid hands 
upon the hood with which his face was covered, and pulling it 
backward from his nose, beheld the swarthy features of a 
man, lately shaved, on which they began to be extremely as- 
tonished. Then rushing to the dry land,^" they lifted their 
voices to the stars, crying out, ' Come, let us stone this monster, 
who is a disgrace to either sex.' Immediately a crowd of 
men and women were collected together, tearing the hood from 
off his head, and ignominiously dragging him prostrate on the 
ground by his sleeves and cape along the sand and over the 
rocks, not without doing him considerable injury. In the 
meanwhile his servants made an attack two or three times on 
the multitude for the purpose of rescuing him, but were not 
able, as aU the populace were inflicting vengeance upon him 
with insatiate eagerness, reviling him, inflicting blows and spit- 
ting upon him ; and after much other disgraceful treatment, 
they dragged him through the whole of the town, and then, 
dragging him, or rather dragging him to pieces, they shut him 
up in a dark cellar with a guard over him, for a prison. Thus 

cumstances by all the chroniclers, and no doubt the bishop of Coventry 
was wishful that it should lose nothing in his way of telling it. The first 
part of this extract is exceedingly improbable. 

^ '* Terram/' in contradistinction to the sea-shore. 



238 ANNALS OF KOGEK DE HOTEDEN. a.D. 1191. 

was he di-agged who had dragged another, made captive who 
had been the captor, bound who had been the binder, incarce- 
rated who had been the one to incarcerate, that so with the ex- 
tent of the offence the extent of the punishment might seem to 
be commensurate. For he became an object of extreme disgrace 
to his neighbours, of dread to his acquaintances, and was made 
a laughing-stock for all the people. I only wish that he had 
polluted himself alone, the priest, and not the priestly office. 
May, then, the Church of Eome make due provision that such 
great guiltiness may be punished in such a way, that the 
offence of one may not contaminate all, and that the priestly 
authority may not be lessened thereby. And further, may the 
king of England take all precaution to appoint such a person 
over his realm, that by him the royal dignity may be preserved, 
and his authority may suffer no diminution through him ; but 
rather that the clergy and the people may have cause to congra- 
tulate themselves upon his government.'* 

The Letter of Master Peter of Blois on lehalf of JVtllmm, bishop 

of Ely. ^ 

" To his former lord and friend, Hugh, so called, bishop of 
Coventry and Chester, Peter of Blois, archdeacon of Eath, may 
he remember God with fear. The excesses of a traitorous 
faction this day reveal to what lengths malice may proceed, 
what envy may be guilty of. The bishop of Ely, one beloved 
by God and men, a man amiable, wise, generous, kind, and 
meek, bounteous and liberal to the highest degree, had by the 
dispensations of the Divine favour, and in accordance with the 
requirements of his own manners and merits, been honored 
with the administration of the state, and had thus gained the 
supreme authority. With feelings of anger you beheld this, and 
forthwith he became the object of your envy. Accordingly, j^our 
envy conceived vexation and brought forth iniquity ; whereas 
he, walking in the simplicity of his mind, received you into the 
hallowed precincts of his acquaintanceship, and with singleness 
of heart, and into the bonds of friendship and strict alliance. 
His entire spirit reposed upon you, and all your thoughts imto 
him were for evil. * Woe,* says Ecclesiasticus, * to a double 

*5 The Editor of the " Pictorial History of England" remarks, respecting 
this letter, " Peter of Blois took Hugh to account for this satire,which was 
evidently intended to put Longchamp in a more ridiculous and degrading 
light than archbishop Geoffrey had been in at the same place, Dover." 



A.D. 1191. LETTER OF PETER BLOIS TO THE BISHOP OF ELY. 239 

heaxt and to wicked lips, and to the sinner that goeth two 
ways.'^* The face of the hypocrite veiled the wickedness of 
the conscience within with a kind of pretence of friendship, 
and in secret you were inflicting upon an innocent man the 
injuries caused by a seditious and petulant tongue. Solo- 
mon says, * Curse the whisperer and double-tongued : for such 
have destroyed many that were at peace.' *^ All his in- 
ward thoughts did he pour forth into your bosom : you he 
looked upon as a second self, and yet you, to find a pretence for 
causing his fall, thought fit to ply him with the adulation of a 
betrayer. Oh detestable treachery I Judas betrayed with a kiss, 
you with words ; without, you made a show of the regard of an 
attentive friend, and your tongue was planning treachery. As 
you sat, you spoke against your brother, and in the way of the 
son of your mother did you lay a stumbling-block. ' Woe to 
that man by whom the offence cometh.'^^ This guilty conduct, 
indeed, has branded you with the lasting stain of bad opinion, 
and if by the bounty of nature you had received any commend- 
able points, this fault has done away with them for ever. In 
like manner, Joab acted valiantly on many occasions, but his 
treachery to Amasa and Abner, blackened in him all the glories 
of his valorous deeds. Oh lips of detraction ! Oh tongue of abuse 
and treachery ! What, Lord shall be applied to this treacherous 
tongue ? Would that arrows might be applied thereto, that they 
might pierce it through and through, and that desolating coals 
of fire might consume it; would that thou. Seraph, who with the 
live coal from heaven "^"^ didst purge the lips of the prophet, 
wouldst with the flames of hell, in purging his whole face and 
tongue, destroy the same, that so we might be able to sing and 
say, ^ In cleansing him thou hast destroyed him.' Lips conse- 
crated by the Gospel, are never ceasing to babble forth their lying 
words to the winds. That is entirely devoted to vanity which 
was due and owing to truth. But the man of froward tongue 
will not be guided on the earth ; wherefore, *let him that stand- 
eth take care lest he fall,' for before ruin the heart is exalted. 
Db you exult, unhappy man, and make it your boast that you 
have supplanted an innocent man ? Eut know beyond a doubt, 
that he has been thus laid low for both the downfall and the 
uprising of many, for the uprising of himself and of his people, 

^ Ecclus. ii. 12. Our version has it, " Woe be to fearful hearts and 
faint hands." ^^ Ecclus. xxvii. 31. 

*6 St. Matt, xviii. 7. *'' Alluding to Isaiah vi. 6, 7. 



240 ANNALS OF EOGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

and for the downfall of yourself and your accomplices. This 
punishment will fall upon your own head.*' For every deceit 
suffers from its own recoil : from your treachery^^ nought but 
the fruit of sorrow will you gather; and you have commenced the 
web, that you may be wrapped in a double cloak. It is Isaiah 
who says, ^ Ye who begin the web and put your trust in the 
darkness of Egypt, await the day of bitterness.' *^ You pub- 
licly make it your boast and vaunt that it was you who created 
this tumult, that it was you who deceived him when not on 
his guard, jmd that it was you induced the multitude to attack 
with arms an unarmed man, and an innocent man with insidi- 
ousness. Why boast of your malice, you, who are so powerful 
in your iniquity ? Why vaunt of your malice, which in most 
countries, as your infamous character has become circulated, is 
in the mouths of all classes ? Eut about you and persons like 
you it may justly be said, ' They rejoice when they have done 
evil, and they exult at things that bring the greatest disgrace.* 
Besides, it is the remark of the wise man, that he * who rejoiceth 
at the ruin of another, shall be punished ;'^^ and Solomon says, 
^ Eejoice not when thine enemy falleth — lest the Lord see it, 
and He turn his wrath upon thee/^^ Indeed, it was always 
the usual accomplishment, and one peculiar to your family, to 
sow the materials for dissension ; and the pestilent branch has 
contracted its evil qualities from the root of the noxious tree. 
Oh evil generation ! Oh provoking race ! ^ Oh generation of 
vipers, who hath taught you to flee from the wrath to come?'^^ 
Do you think that God will not behold this, and require an 
account thereof ? It was for this same reason that the wicked 
man caused the anger of the Lord, ^ Por he said in his heart, 
he will not require the same.'^^ But, beyond a doubt, the Lord 
wiU require it ; He will also require to know as to whose mis- 
fortunes you are now boasting ; and at a future day, by the 
bounty of the Lord, he shall breathe again. For wisdom will 
not forsake the righteous man when sold, and in time shall he 
gain respect. It rather befitted the gravity of your rank to 
promote peace among the people, to allay sedition, and espe- 

*^ "Faba haec recudetur in caput tuura." It is not improbable that 
the archdeacon was a reader of Terence. 

'*^He puns upon the resemblance between "dolo^and " dolore." 

*^ This passage does not appear in our version. It may perhaps allude to 
chap. xix. 9. ^Alluding probably to Eccl. viii. 7. ^^ Prov. xxiv. 17. 18. 

52 St. Matt. iii. 7. St. Luke iii'. 7. ^-^ Ps x. 13. 



AD. 1191. MESSENGEHS SENT TO POPE CELESTINTJS. 241 

cially in England, which, receiving yon poor enough, amplified 
you Vith mighty honors. Also, when speaking to those who 
were in the Babylonish captivity, he says : * Seek the peace of 
the city, in which the Lord hath caused you to be carried away 
captives, for in the peace thereof shall ye have peace.'^* On 
another occasion I wrote to you, and with salutary warning 
entreated you to abstain from such courses. However, the 
harp of David never fully allayed the madness of Saul ; and 
your hand has been extended to the commission of such deeds 
as these. Therefore, remember, man, if only man you are, re- 
member, I say, your condition ; remember the shortness of 
this life ; remember the strict and dreadful judge ; remember 
the punishment so fearful, so terrible, so interminable, and so 
intolerable, which is reserved for you to everlasting, if you 
desist not from such a course of wickedness." 

In eight days after this, John, earl of Mortaigne, gave orders 
that the chancellor should be liberated from prison, and should 
take his departure. Accordingly, he took his departure, and, 
crossing the sea, landed at Witsand, in Inlanders. But while 
he was on his road, some nobles of that country, whom he had 
injured while in England, laid hands upon him, and kept him 
till he had made satisfaction to them. Proceeding thence, ho 
arrived at Paris, and gave to Mauricius, the bishop, sixty marks 
of silver, upon condition that he should be received there with 
a procession, which was accordingly done. After this, he 
returned into JSTormandy ; but, by the command of the arch- 
bishop of Rouen, he was considered there as an excommuni- 
cated person, and in every place to which he came, throughout 
the whole of the archbishopric of Eouen, an end was put to 
Divine service as long as he was staying there. 

On this, he sent messengers to pope Celestinus, and to his 
lord the king of England, informing them, how John, earl of 
Mortaigne, and his accomplices, had expelled him from the king- 
dom; and, complaining of the injuries done him, he demanded 
restitution of what had been taken from him, at the same time 
making offer, on his part, to obey the law, and further stating, 
that if his acts and expenditure should not prove satisfactory 
to his lord the king, he would in all things give satisfaction 
according to his demands. Upon this, the Supreme Pontiff was 
provoked to anger, and wrote, to the following effect, to all 
the archbishops and bishops of England : — 

'^ Jer. xxxix. 7. 
VOL. II. 31 



242 A]sr]S'ALs of rogek de hovedeis'. a.d. 1191. 

The Letter of pope Celestinus to the prelates of JEnglandy in 
hehalf of Williamy lishop of Ely. 

'' Celestinus the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to 
his venerable brethren the archbishops and bishops throughout 
the kingdom of England appointed, health, and the Apostolic 
benediction. "Whereas our dearly beloved son in Christ, 
Kichard, the illustrious king of the English, having assumed 
the cross, and prepared himself for avenging the injuries done 
to the E,edeemer, has therein, like a prudent man and one who 
seeks the Lord, considered that the cares of governing his 
kingdom ought to be postponed to the performance of his duty, 
and has left the same under the Apostolic protection : it is, 
therefore, our wish and our duty, with the greatest zeal, to 
preserve the integrity and the rights of his realm, and the 
honor of himself, in the same degree that, trusting in our pro- 
tection, he has exposed his person and his property to the 
greatest danger for the upholding of the holy religion, and is 
known, in obedience to the Creator, to have behaved himself 
in a praiseworthy manner, the Lord dealing with him and 
giving good tokens of success, and most zealously, as is mani- 
fest from his exploits. Therefore, inasmuch as we have heard 
that certain attempts have been made upon his kingdom itself, 
as well as against your venerable father, William, bishop of Ely, 
the legate of the Apostolic See, to whom he has committed the 
government of his kingdom, both by John, earl of Mortaigne, 
and certain other persons, which in themselves contain some 
grounds of suspicion, and, if they are true, are known to re- 
dound in no slight degree to contempt of the Apostolic See, 
we have deemed it our duty at this early period to meet 
such presumption, inasmuch as from delay very great injury 
might possibly accrue to the king before - named and the 
land of Jerusalem, and to ourselves and the Eoman Church. 
Wherefore, by these Apostolic writings, we do command the 
whole of you, and in virtue of your obedience enjoin you, that 
if (as has been reported to us) the said earl or any one else has 
dared to lay violent hands on the bishop before-mentioned, or 
to seize him, or to extort from him any oath by means of vio- 
lence, or to keep him in confinement, or in any way to change 
the state of the kingdom from the position in which it was 
placed by his serene highness at his departure, in such case, 
all pretexts and excuses laid aside, you will meet together, 



A.D. 1191. LETTEK OF WILLIAM, BISHOP OF ELY. 243 

and, with candles lighted and bells ringing, all appeals and 
excuses, and all respect for persons on your part utterly laid 
aside, publicly announce as under the ban of excommunication 
the said earl, and all his counsellors, advisers, accomplices, and 
abettors in the said acts of presumptuous daring. You are 
also to cause them, when thus excommunicated, to be strictly 
avoided by all, both in their own lands as also in others which 
they may have invaded, and you are entirely to forbid the cele- 
bration there of divine service, except penance and the baptism 
of children, all obstacle thereto by appeal being entirely re- 
moved ; until such time as, the said legate having been released 
from confinement, as well as from the stringency of his oath, 
and the kingdom having been replaced in the same position in 
which it was left by the said king at his departure, envoys 
shall come to the Apostolic See, with the testimony of letters 
from him and from yourselves as well, for the purpose of ab- 
solution. And know for certain that if, in the execution of 
this our precept, you shall be negligent or remiss, we have 
resolved, with the help of God, to inflict upon you no less a 
punishment than if the said injury had been done to our own 
person, or to one of our brethren. Given at the Lateran, on the 
fourth day before the nones of December, in the first year of 
our Pontificate.' ' 

Upon the authority, therefore, of these letters of the Supreme 
Pontiff, the said bishop of Ely wrote to Hugh, bishop of Lin- 
2oln, to the following effect : 

** William, by the grace of God, bishop of Ely, legate of 
the Apostolic See, and chancellor of our lord the king, to his 
venerable brother and most dearly beloved friend, [Hugh], by 
bhe same grace, bishop of Lincoln, health, and sincere love 
md affection. The more full the confidence that we feel in 
rour affection, the greater the constancy we have found in 
VOUy so much the more confidently do we entrust to your dis- 
creetness, and to that of the Church of God, the interests of 
)ur lord the king, and our own, to be duly watched over ; 
Dutting our trust in God as to you, that your brotherly love 
vill, in your pontifical character, show all due regard to the 
ipostolic precepts and our own. We do, therefore, in virtue 
)f your obedience, enjoin, and, on the strength of the autho- 
ity which has been conferred upon us, command you, that, for 
:he purpose of performing the Apostolical mandate issued to 
dl the archbishops and bishops of England, as also to all other 
rour brethren whatsoever, you will with all speed convene the 



244 a:n^]s-als of eoger le hoyedek. a.d. 1191. 

same, to the end that the iniquity of the laity may no longer 
cast a slur on the CTiurch of God and its priesthood, and lest, 
through any tergiversation or dissimulation, their malice may 
be imputed as a crime to yourselves. But as to the order 
which our lord the pope has given with regard to the person 
of John, earl of Mortaigne, we have modified the same, defer- 
ring the occasion until the Lord's day when ^^JEsto miM^'^'° is 
sung ; to the end that, if in the meantime he shall think fit to 
repent, we may return thanks to God for the same, and in his 
behalf, in the sight of our lord the pope, and of our lord the 
king of England, the champion of Him who was crucified, 
pour forth our affectionate prayers, that he may be deemed 
deserving of pardon for his ofi:ence, and give him our stre- 
nuous aid and all efficacious attention, saving always our 
fealty to our lord the king, and the honor of our priestly 
office. Eut, on the lands of those excommunicated, you are 
to permit the celebration of no Divine service, the baptism of 
children and penance excepted. The names of those who have 
been excommunicated by our lord the pope, and have been 
denounced as such by ourselves, of whose doings the evidence 
is so notorious that it cannot by any equivocation on their part 
be invalidated, are as follows : Walter, archbishop of Eouen, 
Godfrey, bishop of Winchester, Hugh, bishop of Coventry, 
William Marshal, Geoffrey Fitz-Peter, William Bruyere, Hugh 
Bardolph, Richard Malebisse and his brother Hugh, James 
and Simon Fitz- Simon, Simon de Avranches, Eoger Fitz- 
Kemfray, Gilbert and Eainfrid his sons, Gerard Camville, earl 
of Salisbury, John Marshal, earl of Mellent, Gilbert Basset, 
Thomas Basset, Henry de Yere, Jocelyn Fitz-Remfray, Stephen 
Riddel, chancellor of the earl of Mortaigne ; whom, both as 
bishop and as his legate, we do denounce to you as excommuni- 
cated ; as also Master Benedict, who, contrary to the statutes 
of the king and the kingdom, and against our prohibition, has 
dared to employ the seal of our lord the king, together with John, 
archdeacon of Oxford. In addition to this, we do distinctly 
and in especial order you publicly to denounce, as excommuni- 
cated, Hugh, bishop of Coventry, whom we have solemnly 
excommunicated, not only because in word and deed he has 
disowned the bishop, and because he gave his bodily oath at 
the hand of Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury, of pious 
memory, as to not holding courts, but also because he has been 

55 Quinquagcsima Sunday ; when the introit begins ** Esto mihi in 
Deum proiectorem :" *' Be thou, God, a protector to me." 



A.D. 1191. THE BISHOP OF ELY IS DISGEACED. 245 

manifestly a counsellor and adviser to the entire subversion 
of the realm of England, a disturber of the peace, and a public 
advocate against the royal dignity and interests ; and to cause 
him to be strictly avoided by all, that in future a sheep so 
diseased may not be able to blemish and corrupt the flock of 
the Lord. Eut Hugh Eardolph, vrho took no part in our ex- 
pulsion and confinement, we do except from the said sentence 
of excommunication, if, immediately upon being warned, he 
shall surrender the castles of Scarborough, and those throughout 
the whole of Yorkshire and Westmoreland which he holds in 
his hands, to William de Stuteville. You are also to forbid all 
persons in your diocese, under pain of excommunication, to do 
anything in obedience to those who conduct themselves in 
England as though they were justices, or in any way to obey 
a power founded on violence and usurpation. Farewell." 

The said bishop of Ely also wrote to Hugh, bishop of Lin- 
coln, to the following eflect : 

** William, by the grace of God, bishop of Ely, legate of 
the Holy Apostolic See, and chancellor of our lord the king, 
to his venerable brother and friend, by the same grace, bishop 
of Lincoln, greeting. By that authority which has been con- 
ferred upon us, we do command you, and in virtue of your 
obedience enjoin, that you seize and take into your own hands, 
and retain possession of, the archdeaconry and all the revenues 
of John, archdeacon of Oxford, until such time as you shall 
have received commands from the Apostolic See, or from our- 
selves ; inasmuch as with his uncle, the Pilate of Rouen, he is 
disturbing the peace and tranquillity of the kingdom of Eng- 
land, and is seeking to do whatever mischief he possibly can 
to our lord the king and to his realm, as being an enemy of 
the realm and to ourselves. Eor, by the authority of our lord 
the pope, we have placed him under the ban of excommuni- 
cation. Farewell. '^ 

The said bishop of Ely also wrote to a similar effect to some 
others of the bishops of England ; though not one of them per- 
formed the commands of either the Apostolic See or of him- 
self ; as they did not consider him as legate, or as the king's 
chancellor. But the said archbishop of Eouen, and the other 
justices of England, deprived him of his bishopric, and col- 
lected his revenues for the behoof of the king, in return for 
the king's treasures which he had made away with. 

After this, the said justices and all the bishops, earls, and 



246 ANNALS OF EOGER DE HOVEDEN. a.D. 1191. 

barons of England joined in a letter, and wrote word to the 
king how his chancellor had laid waste the kingdom of Eng- 
land and his treasures, and how, by the common consent of 
the kingdom, he had been deposed. On the other hand, the 
chancellor wrote to the king, signifying how that his brother 
John had taken possession of his kingdom, and would place the 
crown on his own head, unless he should make haste and return 
with all speed. 

Of the return of Philip, Tcing of France, from Acre, and of his 

journey. 

But now let us return to the king of France, who, in the 
meantime, leaving the object of his pilgrimage unperformed, 
had departed from the land of Jerusalem with fourteen galleys, 
and had passed before the city of Baruth, which was then in 
the hands of the pagans ; but he did not attack them. He next 
passed before the city of Sibelet and before the castles of Bitte- 
rns and of Hesse, and then came to the city of Tripolis, where 
he made a stay of some days. Departing thence, he passed 
before the castle of Arches, the castle of Albe, and Le Culiat, 
a castle of the Hospitallers. He next came to the episcopal 
city of Turcusa. It is worthy of remark, that before Turcusa 
there is an island in the sea, Aredosa by name, for which reason 
Turcusa is called the " Aredosan city." He next came to the 
good harbour of Maureda, departing from which place he passed 
before Margat, a castle of the Hospitallers, where Isaac, em- 
peror of Cyprus, was kept confined in chains. He next came 
to the city of Valentia, then to the city of Sibel, then to the 
city of Melida, and then to the port of Saint Simeon. He 
next arrived before the city of Antioch, departing from which 
he came to the port of Bunel, then to the port of Alexandrietta. 
After this, he entered the land of the Armenians, which is 
called Armenia, and is the territory of Eupin de la Montaigne, 
being held under the prince of Antioch. He next came to a large 
river, the name of which, is Thil, where there is a good city, 
which in like manner is called Thil. He then came to a 
large river called Curk, where there is a fine city deserted, 
also called Curk. He next came to a third large river, which 
is called Salef, where, upon this river, there is a large city, 
which is in like manner called Salef. It was in this river Salef 
that Frederic, emperor of the Romans, was drowned, when he 
was leaving the territories of the sultan of Iconium. 



A.D. 1191. RETURN OF THE KING OF FRANCE FROM ACRE. 247 

It is also worthy to be known, that from this territory came 
those three kings who offered to our Lord Jesus Christ three 
precious gifts, namely, gold, frankincense, and myrrh. Their 
names were as follow : Jesphar, Pabtrar,^^ and Melchior ; ot 
whom one was king of Salef, which is called the ^ Island,^ ano- 
ther the king of Malnustre, and the third was the king of Ter- 
zol, that is to say, Tarsis, as to which it is said in the Psalms, ^^ 
" The kings of Tarshish and of the isles shall bring presents. '' 
It is also worthy to be known, that these three rivers, Salef, 
Curk, and Thil, rise in Turkia, which is the name of the land 
of the Turks, who are subjects of the sultan of Iconium ; 
these divide the land of the Turks from the land of Eupin de 
la Montaigne, and fall into the sea near the gulf of Satalia. 
The river also, which is called Salef, is opposite to the island 
of Cyprus, and is not distant from it more than fifty miles, ac- 
cording to the calculations of mariners, as people can easily 
see from one shore to the other." 

When the king of France had left this river Salef, he passed 
near some very high mountains, which are called Cathimerdes. 
He next passed before a castle, the name of which is Nesse- 
kim, and then came to a fine city called Stamere, in which 
there is a noble abbey of the Griffons. He next passed a de- 
serted castle, which is called the castle of Rote, and then came 
to a river, which is called Scalendros : this river divides the 
territories of the Armenians from those of the emperor of Con- 
stantinople. Here, on one side of this river, in the territory 
of the emperor of Constantinople, is a castle, which is called 
Antiochet,^^ while on the other side of the same river, in 
Armenia, there is a castle, the name of which is Isanci. When 
the king of France arrived at the castle of Antiochet, Constan- 
tine, the lord of the castle, received him with marks of joy, 
and supplied him and his people with all necessaries. The 
king of France made a stay there of eight days, and dubbed the 
eldest son of the said Constantine a knight. It is also worthy 
to be known, that the whole land which extends from the 
river Scalendros towards the north as far as the sea is the ter- 
ritory of the emperor of Constantinople, which is called Ro- 
mania, that is to say, Graecia. 

^^ V. r. Pabtizar, or Paptizar ; evidently a corruption for Balthazar, 
The first name stands for Caspar, or Jasper. ^^ Psalm Ixxii. 10. 

" He must here allude to mountains on either side, 
*^ V. r. Annechet. 



248 ANXALS OF ROGER DE HOVEDEN^. A.D. 1191. 

After taking liis departure thence, he immediately entered 
the gulf of Satalia. It is called a gulf^ when water ex- 
tends inward between two lands, and forms a bay. Satalia 
is a very fine castle, and from it the gulf takes its name. 
Upon this gulf are two castles and cities, both of which are 
called Satalia ; but one of these is deserted, and is called Old 
Satalia, wliile the other is called New Satalia, and was found- 
ed by Manuel, emperor of Constantinople. Crossing the gulf 
of Satalia, the king of Trance passed a mountain, which is 
called Siredune, at the end of the gulf of Satalia. He then 
passed a very high mountain, the name of which is called 
Resut. He next came to a river, which is called "Winke,^^ 
upon which there is a deserted castle, which is in like manner 
called Eesut. This river Winke is also called the Port of the 
Pisans, because the Pisan pirates often frequent the harbour. 
"When the king of Prance came thither, he found there four 
galleys belonging to the pirates, which he took ; but the pirates, 
leaving the galleys, fled to the mountainous parts, and so 
escaped from his hands. 

He next came to the city of Mirrhea, of which Saint Nicho- 
las held the bishopric, and which the Greeks call Stamira ; after 
which he arrived at a good harbour, and one secure from all 
winds and tempests, the name of which is Karkois ; on both 
sides of which harbour there were in ancient times fine and 
populous cities, the names of which were Cake ; there are also 
vast ruins there of walls to the present day, but no one lives 
there, through fear of the pirates. They next passed the Isles 
of Yse, in one of which there is a castle which is called the 
castle of Huge. 

Here formerly dwelt a damsel, whose name was Yse, and 
from whose name these islands were so called. The natives 
tell the story that a certain knight loved this damsel, but she 
declined to assent to his wishes so long as she lived. How- 
ever, on her death, the knight came and lay with her, saying, 
** What I could not do with her when alive, I have done with 
her when dead ;*' on which Satan immediately entered into 
her, and said, *' Behold, thou hast begotten by me a son, and 
when he is bom I will bring him to thee.'* After nine months, 
when the time of travail came, she brought forth a still-bom 
son, and brought him to the knight, and said, ** Eehold thy 

^9 There can be no doubt that most of these names are in a most cor- 
rupt state. 



A. D. 1191. EETURN OF THE KIKG OF FEANCE FEOM ACRE. 249 

first-bom son, whom tliou didst beget ; cut off his head and 
keep it in thy possession. And whensoever thou shalt wish 
to vanquish thine enemy, or to hiy w^aste his lands, let the 
features of the head so cut off be disclosed, and lot them look 
upon thy enemy or his lands, and immediately they shall be 
destroyed ; and when thou slialt wish to cease so to do, let the 
features be covered up again, and tribulation will cease ;'' 
which was accordingly done. Now, a considerable time after 
this, the knight married a wife, who often made enquiry 
of him, by what art or device he thus destroyed his ene- 
mies without arms and without an army ; however, he was 
unwilling to tell her, but rebuked her, and made her hold her 
peace. Eut it so happened, that one day, when the knight was 
away from home, she approached a chest, in which she hoped 
to find this secret of her lord, by means of which he wrought 
such mischiefs, and accordingly found in the chest this abomi- 
nable head ; on which she immediately ran away, and threw 
it into the gulf of Satalia. The mariners have a story that 
whenever this head lies with the face upwards, the gulf is in 
such a state of commotion that no ship can possibly cross it ; 
but when the head lies with the face downwards, then a ship can 
pass over. ^^ Let the Jew Apella believe this, I will not." ^^ 

There is also another wonderful thing that takes place once 
a month in every year. It seems as though a black dragon of 
vast size comes in the clouds of heaven, and plunges his head 
into the gulf of Satalia, and sucks up the water, drawing it 
up with such violence, that if any ship should chance to be 
there, even though it should be laden, it is drawn up and car- 
ried aloft. It is therefore necessary for those who wish to avoid 
this peril, as soon as they have seen the monster, immediately 
to make a great tumult and raise loud cries, beating pieces 
of wood together, in order that on hearing the noise the 
dragon may be driven away from them. We, however, afiirm 
that this is not a dragon, but the heat of the sun, that attracts 
to itself the waters of the sea.^^ 

After the king of France had left the Isles of Yse, he passed 
near a great mountain, on the summit of which is situate the 
city of Patara, upon which Saint Nicholas was born, and 
where he lived for a long time. He next passed near a very 
lofty mountain, Turkia by name, which divides the territory 

^- From Juvenal. ^^ lie evidently alludes to waterspouts, and the 

method of breaking them by means of sound. 



250 ANIfALS OF EOGER DE HOYEDEN. a.D. 1191. 

of the emperor of Constantinople from that of the sultan of 
Iconium. After this begins Eomania, which is also called 
Graecia. The whole of Eomania is land on the continent, and 
under the dominion of the emperor ; in the sea there are also 
many islands, which are called the Isles of Eomania. The 
capital of Eomania is the city of Constantinople. Eomania is 
joined to Sclavonia, Hungaria, Istria, and Aquileia. 

The names of some of the principal islands which are in 
the Grecian sea are as follow : The island of Sicily, which 
belongs to the king of Sicily ; the island of Crete, which is 
large and fertile, and in the middle of which is a large moun- 
tain, called the Mountain of the Camel ; the island of Ehodes ; 
the island of Cyprus ; the island of Eiscopia ; the island of 
Ischia, in which island grows abundance of the substance 
called mastic ; the island of Ysania ; the island of Ynexea ; 
the island of S tuple ; the island of Mil ; the island of Quales ; 
the island of Cuuerfu ; ^^ the * island of Serfent ; the island of 
Sasent; the island called Falede-Campan ; the island of Andros, 
and the island called Tine. Many however, of these, are de- 
serted, through fear of the pirates, and in many of them 
pirates dwell. There are also some other islands, of which we 
have previously made mention, and many besides which are 
not mentioned in this book. 

When the king of France had passed the Cape of Turkia, 
he came to the isle of Ehodes, and remained there some daj^s 
at the city called Ehodes, which was built by Herod, who 
caused the head of Saint John the Eaptist to be cut off, and 
given to the dancing damsel in a charger. Between the isle of 
Ehodes and Eomania there is a broad expanse of sea, twenty 
miles wide, according to the mariners. It is also worth know- 
ing, that when the isle of Ehodes has been reached, one third 
of the voyage has been accomplished between Acre and Erin- 
disi. Eetween Acre and Brindisi the distance is computed at 
one thousand eight hundred miles ; and between Marseilles 
and Sicily it is computed at one thousand six himdred miles ; 
and between Sicily and Acre the distance is computed at one 
thousand six hundred miles. In the middle of the passage 
between Marseilles and Sicily lies the island of Sardinia ; and 
in the middle of the passage betwen Sicily and Acre is the 
island of Crete. It is also worthy to be known, that, if they 
have a fair wind who are desirous to proceed from Marseilles 
^- Here we can recognize a name known to us, Corfu. 



A.D. llOh DESCRIPTION OF THE AECHIPELAGO. 251 

to Acre, they will leave the island of Sardinia, the island of 
Sicily, and the island of Crete at a great distance on the 
left side of the ship ; and, if they keep straight on in their 
course,®^ will not see land until they see the land of Sulia. This 
way also is the shorter and safer one ; but they must take care 
not to steer their course too much to the right hand side of the 
ship, on account of Earbary and many other islands in which 
the pagans live imder the rule of the emperor of Africa. Eut gal- 
leys cannot go hj that route, or even attempt it ; for, if a storm, 
overtakes them, they will quickly founder ; for which reason 
they are obliged always to coast along the shore. The person, 
too, who wishes to pass along the coast of Romania, from the 
Cape of Turkia, will have to pass a very lofty mountain, which 
is called Serfent, near which mountain begins the Arm of 
Saint George, through which you pass to the city of Constan- 
tinople. 

Is^ext, on the coast of Romania, is Maluaise, a large moun- 
tain. Then comes the gulf of Witun, at the head of which 
gulf is a fine and well-fortified castle, which is called Maine. 
At the head of this gulf also is a fine large episcopal city, 
which is called Curun, where grow such large quantities of 
olives, that it is said that in the whole world there is no place 
where there is made such vast quantities of olive oil. At the 
mouth of the said gulf of Witun is the deserted city of 
Muscun, which was destroyed by Eoger, king of Sicily ; and, 
before the entrance of this city are two islands : one of which 
is called Sapientia, and the other the Isle of Vultures. After 
passing this, not more than about twenty miles from the land 
there is a crag of round form, and very dangerous, being nearly 
sunk in the waves, the name of which is Tifiat. Eetween this 
crag and Muscun, the distance is computed to be fifty miles. 
It is necessary for those who pass this way not to take their 
ships out to too great a distance from the shore, until they 
have passed this dangerous spot. 

Eeyond this, about a hundred miles from this perilous 
spot, is an island out at sea called Serfent : this, and two other 
islands, one of which is called Cephalenia, and the other Jagert, 
are islands belonging to Margarite. Next comes port Guiscard. 
It deserves to be known that Eobert Guiscard was born in 
Normandy, and, being made a knight, was long one of the 

^3 He has already said this, in giving an account of the voyage of king 
Richaid. 



252 ANNALS OF BOGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

household of Henry, king of England, son of WiUiam the 
Eastard. Although he was a knight of prowess in arms, he 
was still unable to find any favour with the king, whereby to 
enrich himself. In consequence of this, with his wife and 
children and brother, he left JS^ormandy and went to Home ; 
where, having received from the Supreme Pontiff permission 
and advice to subjugate the barbarous nations, a great multi- 
tude of valiant men resorted to him as his adherents. On 
this, he departed thence, and, entering Apulia, on seeing that 
it was a fine and fertile country, and that its inhabitants were 
unskilled in arms, he often attacked them with a strong and 
armed hand, and conquered them^ and took possession of their 
territory. The whole of Apulia, Calabria, and the principality 
of Capua he also subjugated, and, taking them out of the hands 
of the emperor of the Romans, gave them to his son Tancred. 

He then collected a large fleet, boasting that he would in- 
vade the empire of Constantinople, and subjugate the whole 
thereof. In the meantime, while his fleet was being equipped, 
it happened that he, and Tancred, and Boamund, his sons, on 
the same day, fought with our lord the pope, the emperor of 
the Eomans, and the emperor of Constantinople ; Eobert Guis- 
card himself engaging with the emperor of Constantinople, 
one of his sons with the pope, and the other with the em- 
peror of the Eomans ; and he, and each of his sons, gained 
a victoiy on one and the same day. After this, Eobert Guis- 
card embarked on board of his fleet, and his wife with him, and 
subjugated the island of Cuuerfu, the island of Crete, the Isle 
of Ehodes, and many other islands, which he took from the em- 
peror of Constantinople. He next came to the harbour which 
now, after his name, is called Port Guiscard. While he was 
preparing to proceed thence, and to enter Eomania, the empe- 
ror of Constantinople, being in great dread of his approach, sent 
word to his wife, that, if she would put to death the said 
Eobert Guiscard, and so free his territories firom all dread of him, 
he would marry her, and make her empress of Constantinople. 

On this, the woman agreed to what the emperor requested ; 
and, having gained an opportunity both as to time and place, 
gave her husband, Eobert Guiscard, poison to drink : on which . 
he died, and was buried in the island which to this day is called 
Port Guiscard, and the whole of his army was dispersed. The 
woman fled to the emperor of Constantinople, who imme- 
diately fulfilled all his promises, and married her, and had her 



A.D. 1191. EOGER CROWNED THE FIEST KING OF SICILY. 253 

crowned empress ; and when all tlie proper solemnities had 
been performed, both as to the marriage, the coronation, and 
the nuptial ceremonies, so becomingly, that she said to the 
emperor, ^* My lord, you have now graciously performed all 
the terras of our agreement, '' the emperor caused silence to be 
made, and in the presence of all, showed the agreement which 
he had made with her, and how she had put her husband to 
death, and then requested them to pronounce judgment upon her ; 
on which, they condemned her to death. Accordingly, she was 
removed from the nuptial ceremony to the place of punish- 
ment, and was thrown upon a lighted pile, and reduced to 
ashes. 

Eoger, the brother of the said Guiscard, waged war with 
the people of Sicily, and subjected the whole of that island, 
and became the earl of Sicily. This Sicily is a large island, 
and, before the said Eoger subdued it, was inhabited by pa- 
gans, and under the dominion of the emperor of Africa. But 
Eoger before-mentioned, having expelled the pagans, esta- 
blished the Christian religion, and erected in it two arch- 
bishoprics and six bishoprics. After this, he married a wife, 
by whom he had an only son, whom, after his own name, he 
called Eoger, and made him duke of Apulia, and gave to him 
Calabria and the principality of Capua, after the decease of 
Tancred, the son of Eobert Guiscard, without issue. The said 
Eoger, earl of Sicily, then died ; on which, his son Eoger, 
duke of Apulia, succeeded him in the earldom of Sicily, and 
shortly after, with the consent of his earls and barons, caused 
himself to be crowned king of Sicily; and thus the said 
Eoger was crowned the first king of Sicily. He married a 
wife, and by her had two sons and one daughter; the first of 
whom was called Eoger, and the other AVilliam,^^ while his 
daaghter was called Constance. He gave to his eldest son the 
dukedom of Apulia and the principality of Capua. This son 
married against the will of his father, and by his wife had an 
only son, whom he called Tancred ; after which he died, in the 
lifetime of his father. 

After this, his father died, who was king of Sicily, and was 
succeeded in the kingdom by his son William, who married, 
and by his wife had an only son, whom he called William, 
after his own name. This William, last-mentioned, succeeded 
his father in the kingdom, and gave to Tancred, the son of his 

«4 Y. r. Walter. 



254 ANNALS OF EOGEK DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

uncle, the earldom of Laleche. He also gave Constance, the 
sister of his uncle, in marriage to Henry, king of the Germans, 
son of Frederic, emperor of the Romans. He also caused the 
kingdom of Sicily to be secured to him on oath in succession 
to himself, in case he should die without issue ; shortly after 
which, William, king of Sicily, married Joanna, daughter of 
Henry, king of England, son of the empress Matilda ; he died 
however, without issue. 

On his decease, Tancred, the earl of Laleche above-men- 
tioned, unmindful of the oath which, with the rest, he had taken 
to Henry, king of the Germans, usurped the kingdom of Sicily, 
and was crowned king thereof. On Henry, emperor of the 
Eomans, hearing of this, he levied a large army and entered 
the territory of king Tancred, bringing with him his wife 
Constance, who was heir to the kingdom of Sicily ; and then 
laying siege to Salerno, within fifteen days, that place was sur- 
rendered to him and his wife, whom he left there. Proceeding 
thence he laid siege to I^aples, where having stayed six weeks, 
in that time he lost nearly the whole of his army through pesti- 
lence ; he himself also fell sick and nearly died. When he saw 
that he could not effect his object, he took his departure, and 
went to his city of Milan. On the people of Salerno hearing 
of this, they laid hands on their mistress, the empress Constance, 
and detaining her, delivered her to Tancred, king of Sicily ; on 
which the emperor of Germany, grieving and in confusion at 
the loss of his wife, wrote to pope Celestinus, that by his aid 
he might recover her : and after some time, by the intervention 
of our lord the pope, he was restored to him. 

When Philip, king of Prance, had taken his departure from 
the isle of lihodes, and had come to the coast of Romania, he 
passed a great mountain which has the name of the Cape of 
Melia ; after which he came to the gulf of Witun, and passed 
by the castle of Maine. He next came to a city which is called 
Curun, and then to a deserted city, the name of which is Mun- 
zum, which lies at the end of that gulf. He then passed by 
the island of TrifFat, and then came to the islands, of which the 
one is called Cephalenia and the other Pale de Compar. These 
two islands are called ^^ Port Guiscard. On the opposite 
side, in Romania, there is a town called Saint Salvator, where, 
at nearly all seasons, pirates are lying in wait for passers-by. 

6^ This does not agree with what he has said before as to Cephalenia 
and Port Guiscard. See p. 251. 



A.D. 1191. DESCRTPTIO:^' OF THE COAST OF EOMANIA. 255 

On the king of France departing thence, he came to the island, 
the name of which is Cuuerfu. At the entrance of the isle of 
Cuuerfu, towards the land of Sulia, there are dangerous sands, 
extending through the middle from the island of Cuuerfu to 
the coast of Eomania; the sea being not deeper iipon the 
sands than four ells and a half. The island of Cuuerfu is large 
and fertile, and yields a yearly revenue to the emperor of Con- 
stantinople of fifteen quintals of gold — a quintal being a hun- 
dred pounds. The island of Cuuerfu. is six miles distant from 
Eomania, and in some places the sea is so narrow between 
Cuuerfu and Eomania, that from one shore to the other one 
man may be heard by another. The length of Cuuerfu is fifty 
miles ; and between Cuuerfu and Apulia, the distance is com- 
puted to be one hundred miles. Cuuerfu can easily be seen 
by those in Apulia, but not the converse, because Apulia lies 
low, and Cuuerfu is high land. 

At the extremity of the island of Cuuerfu, in Eomania, 
there is a deserted castle, the name of which is Butentrost, in 
which the traitor Judas was born. After this, when you have 
almost come to the entrance of the straits, there is a deserted 
city at the extremity of the island of Cuuerfu, w^hich is called 
Gaszope, in which there is such a vast quantity of serpents that 
no one dares to land near it on that side. Just opposite to 
it, on the coast of Eomania, is a deserted city, the name of 
which is Santa Carenta, where there is a good harbour, wide 
and deep. At the mouth of this harbour, at the entrance of the 
straits, there is a rock resembling a half-ruined tower, which 
extends almost to the middle of the harbour and lies concealed 
beneath the waves, so that it is necessary for those passing by 
to hug the shore of the island of Cuuerfu. At the extremity of 
the island of Cuuerfu are four islands, the name of one of 
which is Fanum. After this, about forty miles from the island of 
Cuuerfu, there is a lofty mountain on a cape of Eomania, which 
is called Paxo ; from this mountain to Octrente,^^ an archiepis- 
copal city in Apulia, is a distance of fifty miles ; and from this 
mountain to Brindisi, a hundred miles. 

At this mountain, called Paxo, begins the Gulf of Venice, 
which is a hundred and fifty miles in length and a hu-ndred in 
width. Persons passing up this gulf, on their way to Venice, 
will leave behind Eomania, Sclavonia, and Istria. In Apulia, 
on the sea-coast, are the ports known by the following names : 

6^ Otranto. 



256 AIs^XALS OF EOGEE DE HOYEDEN-. A. D. 1191. 

the first port of iVpulia is called Leuke ; next to which is a 
port called Castre, then the port called Octrente, next the 
port called Leliche, and then the harbour called Brandiz, the 
same as Brindisi. After this, you come to the port of Mono- 
pola, and the port of Bar, where Saint Mcolas reposes ; then 
the port of Trani, and next the port of Barlet. You next 
come. to the port of Sipontum, then the port of Bestia, and 
then that of Tremula. This port of Tremula is the last port 
of Apulia. After this comes Ortona, the first port of the ter- 
ritory of Yenice ; then the port of Atri, and then the port of 
Pescara ; after which you come to the ports of Ancona, and of 
Eavenna, and then to Yenice, a splendid city with a fine har- 
bour. 

When the king of France had arrived at Cuuerfu, he sent 
envoys to king Tancred, and asked his permission to pass 
through his territories, which was accordingly granted him. 
He then came to Apulia, where he landed at Octrente, on the 
sixth day before the ides of October, being the fifth day of the 
week. Proceeding thence, he sent his forerunners to Henry, 
emperor of the Eomans, and asked his leave to pass through 
his territories ; which permission was granted him. On his 
arrival at Eome, he said many evil things of the king of Eng- 
land, in presence of our lord the pope and of all the car- 
dinals, asserting that the king of England had forced him to 
leave the land of Jerusalem, and accusing him of treachery. 
However, neither our lord the pope nor the cardinals put any 
faith in his words, knowing that this proceeded rather from 
envy than from any bad conduct on the part of the king of 
England. Our lord the pope, however, received him with all 
honor and attention, and supplied him with all things neces- 
sary for a period of eight days. Moreover, in consideration of 
the love of God and his own aiFection, he devised a new method 
of relief for the pilgrims; for, both the king, and all who 
had come with him, or who came after him, he absolved from 
their vows, and from going on the expedition to Jerusalem, 
and, even though they had not performed their vows, he still 
distributed palms among them, and hung crosses from their 
necks, thus enacting that they were pilgrims. After this, the 
king of Prance prevailed upon the emperor of the Pomans to 
lay hands upon the king of England, in case he should pass 
through his territory. 

The king of Prance, upon arriving at length in his own terri- 



..D. 1191. LETTER OF THE AECHBISHOP OF YORK. 257 

tory, defamed the king of England with his neighbours, mak- 
ing many charges against him. Producing also the charter of 
the king of England which had been executed at Messina, he de- 
manded of William Eitz-Ealph, the seneschal of !N'ormandy, his 
sister Alice, whom the king of England was to have taken to wife; 
the seneschal of JS'ormandy, however, refused to give her up. 

In the same year, Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, while making 
his visitation of the houses of the religious in his diocese, 
came to the abbey of the nuns at Godstow, which lies between 
Oxford and Woodstock. On entering the church to pray, he 
saw a tomb in the middle of the choir, before the altar, covered 
with cloths of silk, and surrounded with lamps and tapers; on 
which he asked whose tomb it was, and was told that this was 
the tomb of Eosamond, who had formerly been the mistress of 
Henry, king of England, son of the empress Matilda, and that 
he, for love of her, had shown many favours to that church. On 
this the bishop made answer: *' Take her away from here, for 
she was a harlot; and bury her outside of the church with the rest, 
that the Christian religion may not grow into contempt, and 
that other women, warned by her example, may abstain from 
illicit and adulterous intercourse;" which was accordingly 
done. 

In the same year, Hugh, bishop of Coventry, expelled the 
monks of Coventry from the cathedral church of his diocese, 
and placed canons secular therein. In the same year also, the 
monks of Canterbury made choice of Reginald, bishop of Bath, 
as their archbishop ; but just then he fell ill and died, fifteen 
days after his election, and was buried at Eath. In the same 
year, Hugh, bishop of Durham, in consequence of the feelings 
of indignation which he entertained towards Geoffrey, arch- 
bishop of York, used every possible endeavour to obtain a 
release from all subjection to him, on which the said Geoffi:ey 
wrote to him to the following effect : — 

The Letter of Geoffrey, archhisliop of Yorh, to Hughy lishop of 

Durham, 

*' Geoffrey, by the grace of God, archbishop of York and 
primate of England, to Hugh, by the same grace, bishop of 
Durham, greeting. While, with all ardour you have been 
hastening onward with impetuous career to reach the highest 
position among the clergy, you have made choice to become the 
master of aU others, and wish to be subject to no one. And 

VOL. II. S 



258 ANNALS OF EOGEE DE nOVEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

indeed in your case we see the words fulfilled, ' I will ascend 
into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God : 
I will be like the most High ;'^^ while you do not keep in 
mind the words, ' God resisteth the proud, but giveth grace to 
the humble ;' '^ and that ^ He that exalte th himself shall be 
abased, and he that humble th himself shall be exalted.' "^^ For 
both ourselves and our church of York you are zealously, in- 
deed with the ardour of an enemy, attacking, contrary to your 
own profession and the obedience due to ourselves and to the 
church of York ; desiring to withdraw and exempt yourself, 
which may God prevent, from our jurisdiction. Wherefore we, 
wishing, as becomes us, to consult the rights of our church and 
our own dignity, do, by the Apostolic authority and our own, 
strictly enjoin you, as being our suffragan, on the Monday 
next ensuing after the feast of Saint Michael, to be present at 
York at the sjmod held there in our mother church, and on no 
pretext whatsoever to delay so to do, for the purpose of shewing 
due reverence to ourselves, and of paying canonical obedience, 
in conformity with the Apostolic mandate oftentimes shewn to 
you by our letters and in our behalf ; as also to make answer 
why for the last two years you have presumed, contrary to the 
ordinances of the law, to deprive our church of York of the 
processions from ancient times its due, and the oblations due on 
the day of Pentecost, from Hovedenshire and Alvertonshire,"" 
and why, not dreading to put your sickle in the harvest of 
another, you have usurped the power to administer in spiritual 
things to our clergy and those of our diocese.'^ 

On hearing this, Hugh, bishop of Durham, would neither come 
to him nor do obedience or make profession thereof to him. For 
he said that he had once already done obedience and made pro- 
fession to the church of York, and to Eoger, archbishop of thai 
see, and that he was not by law bound to repeat it; and, in ordei 
that the said archbishop might not oppress him as to this 
matter, he appealed to the presence of the Supreme Pontiff d 
first, second, and third time, submitting himself and the cause 
of his church to the decision of our lord the pope and of the 
Roman Church. The archbishop, however, not paying any 
regard to the appeal of the bishop of Durham, in the spirit of 
his wrath pronounced sentence of excommunication against 

«9 Is. xiv. 13, 14. 70 James iv. 5. 1 Pet. v. 6. 

71 St. Luke xiv. 11, xviii. 4. ''' The districts of Howden anc 

North Allerton. 



L.D. 1191. LETTER OF POPE CELESTINIJS. 259 

;he bisliop of Durham, reljang on the mandate of oui* lord the 
3ope, in which it was stated, that if the bishop of Durham, 
jhould either be unwilling, or should improperly delay to 
3ay to him due obedience, he was, all appeal removed, to 
compel him by ecclesiastical censure so to do. However, the 
)ishop of Durham, though he saw that sentence of excom- 
nunication was pronounced against him, after appeal made by 
lim to the presence of the Supreme Pontiff, determined not to 
►bserve it, but celebrated Divine service, and caused it to be 
celebrated just as boldly as before. 

On this, the archbishop broke down the altars where the bishop 
if Durham had celebrated divine service, and broke the chalices 
vith which any one had performed service in his presence in 
ds ovm diocese ; he also held as excommunicated his brother 
bhn, earl of Mortaigne, because he had eaten in company 
rith the bishop of Durham after that sentence was pronounced, 
nd refused to hold communication with him till he should 
ome to be absolved, and to make due satisfaction. 

AYhen the bishop of Durham found that most people avoided 
peaking, and eating or drinking with him, he sent mes- 
engers to pope Celestinus, to relate to him, first in private, 
nd afterwards in presence of all the cardinals, how rashly 
he archbishop of York had pronounced sentence of excommu- 
ication against him, paying no regard whatever to his appeal. 
)n learning this, our lord the pope and all the cardinals pro- 
ounced the sentence to be null, and that it should not be 
bserved. Accordingly, our lord the pope wrote to the follow- 
ag effect : — 

%e Letter of pope Celestinus, nullifying the sentence pronounced 
upon the hishop of Durham, 

*' Celestinus, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to 
is venerable brethren the bishops of Lincoln and Eochester, 
nd to his dearly beloved son the abbat of Burgh, health and 
lie Apostolic benediction. Whereas the things which are 
nacted by oui' venerable brethren our fellow bishops, wdth 
rudent circumspection and due precaution, we ought to pre- 
erve inviolate, so in like manner those things which are done 
aconsiderately, it is our bounden duty to correct with a more 
xtended foresight, and to reinstate the same in their proper 
losition. i^ow inasmuch as our venerable brother Geoffrey, arch- 
ishop of York, has pronounced sentence of excommunication 

s2 



260 ANNALS OF EOGEE DE HOVEBEN. A. D. 1191. 

against our Tenerable brother Hugh, bishop of Durham, and 
certain other persons, and, messengers from them having come to 
our presence, a full discussion has been held on both sides in our 
consistory in relation to the said sentence and certain other mat- 
ters ; we, considering that the sentence that has been fulmi- 
nated against him as well as against the other persons, has 
been inconsiderately pronounced, and corroborated by no 
grounds of reasonable cause for the same, have, by the advice of 
our brethren, publicly pronounced that the same shall not hold 
good, nullifying the same, and forbidding that it shall have any 
authority whatever. To the end, therefore, that what we have 
decreed may in your country be publicly promulgated, we do, by 
these Apostolical writings, command you to declare through- 
out your churches, that the said sentence has been nullified by 
the authority of the Apostolic See ; that the faithful may in 
security live in brotherly communion both with the others as 
well as with the bishop so unjustly put under the said ban, and 
may not in any way avoid intercourse with them on account 
thereof. Given at the Lateran.'* 

In addition to this, our lord the pope, by other letters, 
directed the said bishops of Lincoln and Rochester and 
abbat of Burgh, that if they should ascertain that, after appeal 
made to the Eoman Pontiff, the archbishop of York had 
broken the altars and chalices with which the bishop of Dur- 
ham, either himself or by means of another, had celebrated the 
mass, then, by reason thereof the bishop of Durham should not 
be bound to make any submission to the said archbishop of 
York so long as the two should live. When the said arch- 
bishop and bishop had come into the presence of the said 
delegates at ^^Torthampton and a long discussion had taken place 
on both sides in relation to the above matters, at length, by the 
advice and suggestion of the lord bishop of Lincoln, the dis- 
cussion was postponed till the octave of the N^ativity of Saint 
John the Baptist, in order that, mutually anticipating the de- 
cision, they might, by the grace of God, be more easily induced 
to agree to a full reconciliation, all things in the meantime 
in dispute between them remaining in the same state in which 
they then were. It was further resolved, that if a reconcilia- 
tion could not in the meantime be effected, the letters directed 
by our lord the pope to the delegates, should have the same force 
that they would have had, if the said space of time had not in- 
tervened ; for such time aU exceptions on both sides being saved 



A.D. 1191. LETTER OP POPE CELESTTNUS. 261 

and reserved ; it being also arranged that the citation, if it 
should be necessary to be made, should be made at the end of 
the said intervening time, and in like form to that used on the 
day on which it had first been made, that is to say, on the day 
of Saint Calixtus. 

In the same year, Eoger, the constable of Chester, in whose 
hands the chancellor had placed the castles of JSTottingham and 
Tickhill, took two prisoners, Alan de Lee and Peter de Eouen- 
court, of the number of those to whom he had entrusted the 
charge of the said castles, and hanged them both, because they 
had consented to the treachery of Eobert de Crokston and Eudo 
de Diville, who had delivered those castles to John, earl of 
Mortaigne. The earl of Mortaigne, being exasperated at this, 
laid waste the whole of his lands which were in his juris- 
diction. 

In the same year, William, king of the Scots, sent his 
envoys to Celestinus, the Supreme Pontiff, for the purpose of 
confirming the liberties of the churches of his realm, and found 
grace in the eyes of our lord the pope ; upon which our lord 
the pope wrote to him to the following effect : 

** Celestinus, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to 
his most dearlj^ beloved son in Christ, William, the illustrious 
king of the Scots, health, and the Apostolic benediction. 
Whereas all who are subject to the yoke of Christ ought to 
find favour and protection with the Apostolic See ; still those, 
in especial, is it right to strengthen, with every possible en- 
couragement, whose fidelity and dutifalness have been in many 
instances experienced ; to the end that they may be more 
fully induced to gain the favour of His love, and with more 
duteous afiection show Him all reverence, the more they feel 
assured that they shall obtain the pledge of His benevolence 
and favour. Wherefore, most dearly beloved son in Christ, 
holding in mind the feelings of reverence and dutifulness which, 
for a long time past, we have known you to entertain towards 
the Eoman Church, in the page of this present writing we have 
thought fit to enact that the Scottish Church shall be subject to 
the Apostolic See, as an especial daughter thereof, without the 
intervention of any person whatever ; in which the following 
are recognized as the episcopal sees, namely, the churches 
of Saint Andrew's, Glasgow, Dunkeld, Dumblane, Brechin, 
Aberdeen, Moray, Eoss, and Caithness. Also, it is to be lawful 
for no one but the Eoman Pontiff, or his legate ^a later ey' to 



2C2 ANXALS OF EOGER DE HOVEDEIT. A.D. 1191. 

pronounce against the kingdom of Scotland sentence of excom- 
munication or interdict ; and, if such, shall be pronounced, we do 
hereby decree that the same shall be of no effect. We do also 
add that to no one in future, who is not a native of the kingdom 
of Scotland, shall it be permitted to exercise the office of the 
legateship therein, except such person as for that especial pur- 
pose the Apostolic See shall have commissioned from its own 
body. We do also forbid that the disputes which shall have 
arisen as to possessions in that kingdom shall be brought for 
judgment before judges appointed out of that kingdom, except 
in case of appeal to the Church of Rome. And further, if any 
writings shall appear in contravention of this statute of liberties 
which have been already obtained, or if hereafter such shall 
happen to be obtained, mention not being made therein of this 
concession ; in such case nothing shall hence arise to the pre- 
judice of yourself or your kingdom in relation to the concession 
of this prerogative. And further, the liberties and immunities 
granted to you, or to your kingdom, or to the churches estab- 
lished therein by the Pontiffs of Eome, our predecessors, and 
hitherto observed, we do hereby ratify, and do enact that the 
same shall remain, to all future time, inviolate. Let no man, 
therefore, presume to infringe upon the enactments of this page 
of our constitution and prohibition, or in any way to contra- 
vene the same. And if any one shall presume so to do, let 
him know that he will incur the indignation of Almighty God 
and of the holy Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul. Given 
at the Lateran, on the third day before the ides of March, in 
the first year of our pontificate." 

In the same year, after the rebuilding of Cesaraea and Joppa, 
the king of England gave them both to Geoflfrey de Lusignan, 
brother of king Guido. After this, the king of England for- 
tified the castle of Planes, and then the castle of Maen ; and 
on the second day before the Nativity of our Lord, he came 
to Tours des Chanalets, and remained there during the 
Nativity of our Lord ; after which, he wished to proceed 
to lay siege to the city of Jerusalem ; but the duke of Burgundy 
and the Erench refused to follow him : saying, that the king 
of Erance, their lord, forbade them at his departure to stay 
any longer in that land. In consequence of this, the king of 
England was forced to desist from his purpose, as both men 
and money failed him. 

In the same year, Eoyac El Emir Amimoli, the emperor 



A.D. 1191. JURISDICTION OF THE ARCHBISHOP OF TOLEDO. 263 

of Africa, (who in the previous year had entered the territory 
of the king of Portugal with a large army, and had taken a 
castle called Torrenova, and laid siege to a castle called Thomar, 
and abandoned them both to the Christians, through fear of 
the pilgrims who had come in the fleet of the king of Eng- 
land, and who, taking to flight, had pretended that he was 
dead, as already mentioned,") after all the fleet of the king of 
England had passed by, assembled a large army, and again 
entered the territories of the king of Portugal, and took by 
storm the city of Sylves, and Alcaz, and Almada, and Palmella, 
and laid waste the territory of the Christians. The king of 
Portugal, however, was unable to make head against his forces, 
and Boyac El Emir Amimoli gave the before-named cities 
which he had taken, to his brother, the king of Cordres, or 
Corduba. 

It is worthy of remark, that in the territories of the king of 
Kavarre there is only one episcopal city, the name of which is 
Pampeluna ; but there are many castles in this territory ; one 
of which is Tudela, situate on the river Ebro, another is 
called L'Estella, and there are many others besides. In the 
territories of the king of CastiUe there is only one archiepis- 
copal city, the name of which is Tulette,''^^ and which lies on 
the river Tagus, and has the primacy of Spain ; in the 
same state there is also an episcopal city, the bishop of which 
is called the bishop of Muscerause, that is to say, Suriens.^* 
In the same city there is a mountain from which every day 
there are taken more than a hundred camel loads [of earth], 
and yet it never decreases ; for although a cavern of very great 
depth is thereby made, still by the next day it is filled up if 
rain had fallen upon it. The earth that is taken thence is car- 
ried throughout the adjoining provinces, and is sold for the 
purpose of washing the hands and clothes of men, both Chris- 
tians and pagans. 

The archbishop of Toledo has under him eleven suffi-agan 
bishops; namely, the bishop of Muscerause, the bishop of 
Alarchas, which is near Cordres, or Corduba, the bishop of 
Plazencia, the bishop of Trugel,''^ the bishop of Avila, the 
bishop of Segovia, the bishop of Alarghes, the bishop of Si- 
guenza, the bishop of So}Ta, the bishop of Osma, the bishop 
of Palencia, and the bishop of Eursa. In the kingdom also of 

■^2 See p. 148. 73 Toledo. "^^ It does not appear what place is 

meant, but it may possibly be Servienza. The text here is very defective. 
'* Perhaps leruel. 



264 AKNALS OF EOGEK DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1191. 

the king of Castille there are more than two hundred fine 
castles, of which one is called Le Gruin. 

In the territory of the king of Saint Jago there is one arch- 
bishopric, namely, that of Saint Jago ; "'^ which has under 
it eleven suffragans, namely, the bishop of Leon, the bishop of 
Sturghe,''' the bishop of Auzemore,"^^ the bishop of Salamanca, 
the bishop of Citras Eodrike,^^ the bishop of Cooire/^ the 
bishop of Santa Maria de Lugo, the bishop of Saint Salvador de 
Wede, the bishop of Yillamaur, the bishop of Orense, and the 
bishop of Tiue.^^ In the kingdom of the king of Saint Jago 
there are also many castles. 

In the territory of the king of Portugal there is one arch- 
bishopric, at a city called Eraga ; which has seven suffragans, 
namely, the bishop of Portigal,^^ the bishop of Cuvillana, the 
bishop of Lamego, the bishop of Wiscou,^^ the bishop of Cu- 
numbre,®^ the bishop of Evere,^* on the borders of the Saracens, 
and the bishop of Lisbon, on the river Tagus. 

Thence extends the part of Spain, which is called Saracenic, 
under the dominion of the emperor of Africa ; and here begins 
the territory held by the king of Cordres, or Corduba, the 
brother of El Emir Amimoli before-named ; the same place as 
Corduba, the city of which Lucan says, — 

" Corduba me genuit, rapuit Nero, praelia dixi, 
Quae gessere pares, hinc socer, inde gener." ^ 

Here are also the cities of Palmella, Almada, Alchaz, Sylves, 
and Santa Maria de Hairun, the city of Badeluz, upon the 
river Guadiana, Merida, which was formerly an archiepiscopal 
city, Sibylla,^'' which also was formerly an archiepiscopal city, 
and which, with Corduba, is situate on the river Guadalquivir, 
the city of Granada, and the city of Jubellaria.^ 

ISText begins the territory of the king of Gahang, likewise 
in Spain, and under the emperor of the Africans; this king also is 
brother of El Emir Amimoli, and has under his rule the castle 
of Gehem, and the city of Baence, the city of Aubdene, the city 
of Segurra, as also the city of Malaga, where large quantities of 
red morocco leather are made, and the city of Melita, on an 
inlet of the sea; each of which is situate on a river which is 
called Segura. ]N"ext, still in Saracenic Spain, begins the ter- 

■^6 Or Corapostella. 77 Astorga. "^^ Probably Zamora. 

79 Cuidad Rodrigo. ^ Coira. ^i Tuy. ^^ Oporto. 

83 Viseu. ^^ Coimbra. ^5 Evora. 86 This has beea 

previously translated in p. 155. ^" Seville. ^ Gibraltar. 



A. D. 1192. KING PniLIP ARRIVES IN FKANCE. 265 

ritoiy of the king of Murcia, who is a brother of the said El 
Emir Amimoli ; and in whose rule are the city of Murcia, the 
castle of Oriola, the castle of Urgelet, the city of Almeria, the 
city of Carthagena, the castle of Chinchele, and the castle of 
Lapaime de Scumpere. Next, still in Saracenic Spain, begin 
the territories of the king of Valencia, who is brother of the 
said Emir Amimoli, and under whose rule are the castles of 
Oedeeb, and Stuve, the city of Valencia, the city of Eurrianz, 
and Peniscle, and many other fortified places. 

Next begins the territory of the king of Arragon, in Spmn ; 
at the commencement of whose kingdom is the castle of Ampost, 
and next the episcopal city of Tortosa. Then comes Saragossa, 
an episcopal city, then the castle of Caletau, then the castle of 
Doroke, then the castle of Torol, and then Santa Maria Aben- 
razin, a city on the borders of the Christians and the pagans. 
Next comes Tarragona, an archiepiscopal city, then Tarra- 
guna, an episcopal city, then the city of Oske, then the city 
of Jake, and then the city of Ride, upon the river Segre. 
After this comes the city of Wike, then the city of Barcelona, 
then Sain de Urget,^^ then the city of Gironda, then the castle 
of Turezla, the name of which once was Purpallar Eeyond 
Sea. After this come the high mountains called Portas de 
Laduse, then Chastillon, and, after that, the castle d'Em- 
pires. 

Next to this comiCS the land called Eoussillon, in which 
there is a fine city called Alne, and then the city of Nar- 
bonne, after which come the cities of Eediers, and of Agde, and 
then Villeneuve, the bishopric of Magdalena, near to which 
is the port of Montpellier, which is called Lates.^^ There are 
also many other castles and cities in the kingdom of the king 
of Arragon, as already mentioned. 

In the year of grace 1192, being the third year of the reign 
of Richard, king of the English, Philip, king of France, was 
in France safe and sound, at Fontaine Elaud,^^ on the day of the 
Nativity of our Lord, which fell on the fourth day of the week, 
insolently boasting that he would before long lay waste the 
territories of the king of England. On the same day of the 
Nativity of our Lord, John, earl of Mortaigne, brother of 
Richard, king of England, was at Hovedene, together with 
Hugh, bishop of Durham. On the same day of the Nativity 

*^ Seu d'Urgel. ®^ Probably a misprint for Cette. 

^0 Now Fontainebleau. 



266 ANNA.LS OF EOGER DE HOVEDEK. A. D. 1102. 

of our Lord, queen Eleanor, mother of Pu chard, king of Eng- 
land, was at ISTormandy, at Bonville sur Toke. 

On the same day of the Nativity of our Lord, Eichard, king 
of England, was in the land of Sulia, at Tours, of Ascalon, 
intending, after the I^ativity of our Lord, to lay siege to the 
city of Jerusalem ; and, on the day of Saint Hilary, he held 
a conference there with the Templars and Hospitallers and the 
whole army, as to besieging the city of Jerusalem. However, 
they were of opinion that he ought not to move onward, but 
that he should return for the purpose of fortifying Ascalon ; 
on which, he proceeded to Ascalon, and fortified it, and in for- 
tifying it expended a considerable time. 

Fifteen days before Easter, the duke of Burgundy and the 
Pranks left him, saying that they would stay no longer with 
him, unless he would supply them with necessaries ; but the 
king declined to supply them with anything. During Lent, 
the king of England fortified Blanchward, Galatia, and 
Gazere ; and on Easter day he held there a general festival, 
in tents outside of the town. After Easter, he rode through 
the territories of the pagans, and found their corn ripe;^ 
on which, he caused it all to be gathered by the Christians, 
as forming half their supply of corn. He made a stay on the 
plains of Ascalon until Pentecost, and, on the last day of 
Pentecost, rode to Le Darun, a strongly- fortified castle, near 
the great river Euphrates, and in this excursion took prisoners 
twenty-four pagans and one Ren^, who had formerly been a 
Christian, and had denied our Lord Jesus Christ ; on which, 
the king set him up as a mark for arrows, and he was 
pierced to death. On the Monday after the close of Pentecost, 
he laid siege to Le Darun, and on the Eriday following took it 
by storm, and found there nineteen hundred pagans alive, 
whom he at once gave to Henry, count of Champagne. 

In the meantime, after Easter, a great dissension had arisen 
between the Pisans and the Genoese who were before Acre ; 
so much so, that they slew one another ; and the duke of Bur- 
gundy, at the request of the Genoese, sent to Tyre for the 
marquis Conrad, wishing to appoint him king. On this, the 
Pisans sent to the king of England, who at this time was stay- 
ing at Ascalon, and informed him of the intentions of the 
duke of Burgundy. Accordingly, the king came to Acre, and 
demanded of the duke of Burgundy fifteen hundred pounds of 
silver which he had lent him ; on which, the duke, not having 



A.D. 1192. THE SPIES KETTJEN' TO THE EING OF ENGLAIs^D. 267 

wherewithal to pay, delivered to the king Carakois, the Sara- 
cen, in full satisfaction of the debt. 

After this, the king returned to Ascalon ; and, while he was 
staying there, two of the servants of the king of the Accini, 
or Assassins, who had for a long time served at the court of 
the marquis Conrad, and had been members of his household, 
slew the said Conrad, in his city of Tyre ; on which, they 
were immediately arrested by the bystanders. This took 
place on the fifth day before the calends of May. On being 
interrogated, they said that they had done this by command of 
the king of the Accini, their master ; upon which, one of them 
was immediately put to death, while the other was flayed 
alive. The Franks, however, averred that this was entirely done 
by the suggestion of the king of England. After the assassi- 
nation of Conrad, his wife married Henry, count of Champagne, 
the nephew of the king of England and the king of France ; 
immeciiately on which, by the choice of the whole army, the 
said Henry was elected king of the land of Jerusalem. The 
king of England also gave to king Guido the island of Tyre, 
in exchange, to hold the same for life. After the capture of 
Damn, that is to say, on the same Friday on which the king 
of England had taken it, the Franks returned to Ascalon, and 
placed themselves at the mercy of the king of England : on 
which, the king came there to meet them, and afterwards, 
with the consent of the whole army, marched forward to lay 
siege to Jerusalem. 

When they had come as far as Bethonople, the king rode on 
with some of them to view Jerusalem ; and then proceeded 
to the chapel of Saint Elias, which is three leagues distant 
from Jerusalem. Here he found a certain cross of wood, said to 
be made of the wood of that of our Lord, sealed up within the 
walls of a chapel, which was called the Cross of the Syrians ; 
upon which, he carried it away, and returned to his army. In 
the meantime, his spies returned to the king of England, and 
informed him that a caravan of Saladin was coming from Baby- 
lon to Jerusalem, for the purpose of supplying it with provisions 
and arms : the king, accordingly, believed them, and, taking 
with him five thousand picked men, went to meet the caravan, 
which was escorted by eleven thousand pagans. The king met 
them on the vigil of the Nativity of Saint John the Baptist, at 
about the first hour of the day, and, engaging with them, gained 
a victory, and slew nearly the whole of them, taking possession 



268 ANNALS OF ROGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1192. 

of their spoils, with three thousand camels, and four thousand 
horses and mules and she-mules, besides those that were killed. 

After having gained this victory, the l^ing returned to Beth- 
onople, whence he had set out, and gave to the knights of the 
army a portion of the spoils of the slain. After this, holding 
a conference with the duke of Burgundy and the Franks, he 
offered to make oath that he would proceed to Jerusalem and 
lay siege to it, and not depart therefrom as long as he had a single 
horse left to eat, until he had taken the city, and requested 
that the Franks and the whole of the army would take the same 
oath. On this, the duke of Burgimdy and the Franks made 
answer that they would not take the oath, or remain any longer 
in the land, but would depart from it as soon as they could, 
in obedience to the commands given to them by the king of 
France, their master. Accordingly, they left the king upon 
bad terms, and returned to Acre, the king following them. 
On this, Saladin immediately came down from the moun- 
tains, and laid siege to Joppa, which the king of England had 
delivered into the charge of Alberic de Eains ; and, as he 
found himself unable to defend it, he surrendered it to Saladin, 
upon condition that he might depart with safety to life 
and limb. However, after having received from Saladin the 
selected arrow as a sign of the treaty with him, on hearing of 
the approach of the king of England, he returned to Saladin, 
and gave back to him his arrow, and renounced the treaty. 
Upon this, Saladin immediately took him prisoner, and cap- 
tured the whole of the city, with the exception of the fortress 
of the castle; to which a few retired and sent word to the 
king of England to inform him of these recent events : im- 
mediately upon whichj he gave his troops, consisting of horse, 
to Henry, count of Champagne, for the purpose of being led 
thither by land, while he himself, with only seven galleys, 
proceeded by sea. On the third day, being Saturday, he 
arrived at Joppa, on the morning after the feast of Saint Peter 
ad Yincula ; on which, he entered the castle, and had an inter- 
view with his people there, instructing them to follow him. 
After this, he went forth and a few with him, and suddenly 
made an attack upon the army of Saladin, and, shoutiug his 
war-crj^, he valiantly charged them, and drove them out of the 
city, and slew many of them with the edge of the sword, and 
so liberated the city from their hands. 

Three days after this, Saladin sent word to the king that he 



A.D. 1192. THE KING OF ENGLAND LANDS AT GAZEllA. 269 

woiild fight him in a pitched battle ; which message greatly- 
pleased the king. But, just as everything had been ready- 
prepared for the pitched battle, five galleys arrived from Acre 
with soldiers, by way of succour for the king ; upon which, 
Saladin declined to engage with him. 

In the meantime, Hugh, duke of Eurgundy, Ealph de 
Courcy, and the viscount de Pinkenny, died at Acre, on the 
eighth day after their arrival there. Shortly after, Saladin 
sent word to the king of England that he would repay him 
all his expenses which he had been put to in fortifying Ascalon, 
and would make with him and the other Christians who should 
remain in the land of Jerusalem a truce to last for three years, 
from Easter then next ensuing, and would keep the peace 
with them until the said time, if he would reinstate Ascalon 
in the same condition in which he himself had left it. Ac- 
cordingly, the king of England, seeing that both men and 
money and health were failing him, by the ad\dce of the Tem- 
plars and of the whole army, closed with the said offer which 
Saladin had made him : on which, upon oath, they agreed that 
peace should be observed for that period. 

After this, the king of England placing everything in the 
hands of Henry, count of Champagne, hastened to return to his 
kingdom, by reason of the sinister reports which he had heard 
both as to the king of Erance and the expulsion of his chan- 
cellor, as also the earl of Mortaigne, his brother, who had seized 
the castles of the kingdom, and would have taken possession 
of the whole thereof if he could have found the opportunity. 
Accordingly, the king of England came to Caiaphas, where he 
fell sick, and proceeded thence* to Acre. Here, after the feast 
of Saint Michael, being the eighth day before the ides of Oc- 
tober, and the fifth day of the week, he embarked on board of 
a large buss, and, within a month from that day, arrived at the 
island of Cuuerfu, where he went on board a boat, and sailed 
towards three galleys which he saw on the opposite side off the 
coast of Eomania, and hired them to take him as far as E,a- 
gusa, for two hundred marks of silver ; after which, he re- 
turned to his buss, and the said galleys with him; and, having 
made terms with them, he took with him Baldwin, the advocate 
of Bethune, and twenty other companions, and embarked on 
board one of the said galleys ; and on landing at Gazera, near 
Eagusa, declined to tell them that he was king of England, 
but said that they were pilgrims. However, although he had a 



270 ANIMALS OF EOGER DE HOVEDEIS'. A.D. 1192. 

long beard and long hair and garments, and everything else to 
resemble the people of that country, he was unable to remain 
unknown, in consequence of his great expenditure, which was 
quite foreign to the usage of the people of that country. 

Immediately, the people of the province guessing that he 
was the king of England, prepared to capture him and deli- 
ver him to the emperor of the Eomans, who hated him, on 
account of the aid he had given to king Tancred, and for the 
death of his kinsman, the marquis Conrad. Upon the king of 
England being informed of this hj one of his followers, he 
placed his retinue in charge of Baldwin, the Advocate of 
Eethune, and ordered him to remain the next four days at that 
place, making a more lavish expenditure than he himself had 
done ; after which, he himself, with a single attendant, 
having mounted a swift horse, his attendant doing the same, 
set out late at night, and, hastening day and night, arrived 
in the neighbourhood of Vienna ; at a little village, not far 
from which place he and his attendant took up their abode. 
While the king's attendant was gone to buy food, the king, 
being fatigued by the labour of his journey, immediately 
threw himself upon a bed and fell asleep. In the meantime, 
his attendant, while endeavouring to exchange some money, 
was recognized by a servant of the duke of Austria, and taken 
prisoner, and brought before the duke ; and, when he could 
conceal it no longer, disclosed to him the lodging of the king ; 
on which, they came, and, finding him asleep, took him pri- 
soner. As for the Advocate of Bethune, and those who were 
with him, on attempting to leave the town, they were taken 
prisoners, and not allowed to depart. 

In the meantime, the king of France, holding a conference 
with the seneschal and nobles of Kormandy, demanded of them 
his sister, Alice, whom they had in their charge in the castle 
of Kouen : he also demanded the castle of Gisors, the county 
of Auch, and the county of Aumarle, and showed him the 
written agreement made between him and the king of England, 
at Messina. To this, the nobles of Normandy made answer 
that they had received no commands upon the subject from 
their master, and were, therefore, unwilling to comply with 
his demands. 

Upon this, the king of France, levying a large army, was 
desirous to invade Normandy in a hostile manner, but the 
nobles of his kingdom would not agree thereto, saying that our 



A.D. 1192. THE NUNS OF SAINT CLEMENT*S APPEAL TO THE POPE. 271 

lord the pope had exeommunicated all those who should make 
war on the territory of the king of England before his return, 
and that they had sworn to keep the peace towards him and 
his teiTitory until his return. 

During Lent, in the same year, the archbishop of York 
came to London by command of the king's justices; but 
when he came to AYestminsterwith his cross, he was forbidden by 
the bishop of London and the other bishops of England thence- 
forth to presume to carry his cross in the province of Canter- 
buiy . On this, he contumaciously made answer that he w^ould 
not lay it aside for them ; but, listening to the advice of his 
own people, he hid it from before the face of the people, lest a 
tumult might arise among the clergy. The bishop of London, 
however, holding him as an excommunicated person, in con- 
sequence of this transgression, suspended the JS'ew Temple, 
at which place the said archbishop of York had taken up his 
abode, from the performance of Divine service and from the 
ringing of bells, and in consequence, he was obliged to leave 
the city ; but before he left, queen Eleanor, the archbishop oi 
Rouen, himself, and all the nobles of the kingdom, met to- 
gether and swore fealty and faithful service to Eichard, king 
of England, and his heir, against all men. 

During the same Lent, the bishop of El}^ the chancellor, 
returned to England, by command of the earl of Mortaigne, 
md remained some days in the castle at Dover, not daring to 
proceed any further. The earl of Mortaigne, however, in con- 
sideration of five hundred pounds of silver which the chancellor 
iiad promised him for the restoration of his office, tried in every 
way to induce the chief men of the kingdom to receive the 
chancellor in his former position ; but they refused, and sent 
^vord to the chancellor, that if he did not make haste and leave 
bhe kingdom with all speed, they would take him prisoner. On 
learing this, the chancellor, not daring to stay in England against 
:he will of the chief men, crossed over at the Supper of our Lord. 

In the same year, Geoffrey, archbishop of York, gave, and by 
lis charter confirmed, the priory of Saint Clement's, at York, to 
:he abbey of Godstow. But the nuns of Saint Clement's, who 
biad always been free from the very foundation of that church, 
:'efused to pay obedience to the abbey of Godstow, and appealed 
.0 our lord the pope in behalf of the liberties of their church. 

In the meantime, the clerks of the archbishop of Eouen, 



272 A.NNALS OF ROGER DE HOVEDEN". A.D. 1192. 

whom he had sent to Eome to oppose the chancellor, wrote to 
him to the following effect : — 

Tlie Letter sent ly his clerks to Walter ^ arcJibisJiop of Rouen, 

'^To Walter, hy the grace of God archbishop of Eouen, 
their most dear lord and father, his clerks, greeting. We will 
omit the perils and labours which in our journey we have 
oftentimes been obliged to endure, and how, after having 
frequently escaped from dangers by the way, we at length fell 
into the hands of robbers, and, being despoiled of all our pro- 
perty, except a few horses and our letters, arrived destitute 
of all provision whatever in this magnificent city, on the third 
day before the ides of February, the court then staying at the 
church of Saint Peter. Here we found the clerks sent by 
the chancellor, uttering many boasts, and, as it appeared to us, 
exulting in complete success. For the office in full of legate 
having been granted to him, our lord the pope and certain of 
the cardinals had sent letters to the bishop of Ely addressed 
therein as legate, but the principal letters conferring the legate- 
ship under the authority of the bull not having been yet de- 
livered, the deputies before-mentioned were preparing for their 
speedy departure. Moreover, we found the pope fully inclined 
to take the part of the chancellor ; while those who, as his 
familiar friends, are much in the society of our lord the pope, 
and are constantly at his side, were promoting his interests asj 
though they were their own. However, by the grace of God, 
in consequence of our arrival, those letters were detained, some 
persons who zealously attend to our interests, often and re- 
peatedly rem.arking that the presence of your deputies had 
hitherto been much needed. After this, as soon as we had ob-| 
tained permission, having gained an audience, in the presence oi 
our lord the pope and the whole of the cardinals, we presented^ 
the letters sent by you, and by the bishops, prelates, and justi-i 
claries of England, with due care adding thereto all otheri 
things that we believed were consistent with your intentions.! 
After the deputies of the bishop of Ely had made an attemptD 
to raise objections both to our answers and our assertions, ouro 
lord the pope made many remarks militating against your in4 
terests, with indignation and bitterness, inculcating in manyi 
words, and affirming as follows : — We know that the illustri-: 



A.D. 1192. LETTEE TO THE AECHBISHOP OF llOUEN. 2/3 

ous king of the English left the administration of the whole 
of his kingdom to our lord of Ely, and left no one his equal 
or superior. We have seen letters of our lord the king to 
that effect ; those which revoke them or are contrary thereto 
we have not seen, nor do we see, nor yet a signed copy thereof 
with the seals thereto appended and duly authenticated. 
However, many venerable persons have written against the 
lord chancellor ; and in favour of the lord chancellor we have 
received letters from many venerable persons. Eut the letters 
that you bring are from those who have expelled the lord 
chancellor ; and we are not very much surprised if they do 
seem to write in their own favour. We know that our lord 
the king never showed to any mortal so much love, or paid 
such high honor, as he has done to our lord of Ely. He made 
him not only bishop of the venerable and most wealthy see of 
Ely, but his chancellor as well, and, besides, has entrusted 
to his sole charge the whole of the kingdom of England. 
And yet, with all this our lord the king was not content, but 
begged our lord Clement of happy memory, and ourselves as 
well, to bestow the ojfice of legate upon the lord chancellor. 
Consider how affectionately he loved him ; what man is there 
whom he loves as much, or has loved ? At the entreaty of our 
lord the king, and at his urgent request, we have granted the 
legateship for the present to the lord bishop of Ely. That the 
king has withdrawn such great favour thus suddenly from the 
man whom he used to love we can hardly believe, unless we 
see his letter and the royal seal. And what we have granted 
to our lord the king, to wit, the legateship of our lord of Ely, 
we cannot possibly suspend or take away without suffering the 
stigma of falsehood. Moreover, all the bishops of England 
have sent us letters begging us to confirm him in the office of 
legate, and, unanimously supplicating us, have put forward 
many recommendations in favour of the chancellor. And that 
now, the contrary should be asked by them, seems to us to de- 
serve to be imputed to a feeling of levity. Even your own 
master, too, the archbishop of Eouen, sent to us letters, full 
of professions of devotion, in favour of the bishop of Ely ; in- 
asmuch as he could write in his favour as long as he enjoyed 
prosperity. Consequently, it is a hard matter to listen to those 
against him, when oppressed with the calamity of exile, as to 
whom it has been written, * So long as you are fortunate, you 
will reckon many a friend; if the times become cloudy, 

VOL. n. T 



274 AJ^^NALS OF KOGEE DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1192. 

then you will be alone.' ^^ Moreover, when he was exulting 
in his former state of prosperity, and was performing the duties 
of legate among you, what church, what monastery, what bene- 
ficed clergyman, what person of low station or of high, ever sent 
word or complaint to us about the exactions of the lord bishop of 
Ely, or any grievances of the churches ? All applauded him 
when prosperous, all murmur against him when fallen. These 
were friends of fortune, who took their leave together with the 
favour of fortune.'* These and many other objections made by 
our lord the pope could not be otherwise than of great weight 
and moment, as being put forward by one who has no supe- 
rior, a Supreme Pontiff and a judge, and one whose will there is 
no one to resist. Still more, it seemed to some to make very 
greatly against us, that our lord the king of England, upon 
your return, had begged in your behalf that your legateship 
might be transferred to the parts of jNlormandy and other parts 
beyond sea; consequently, at the first blush it seemed likely to no 
one that it was the king's wish that you should hold authority in 
England, and the office of legate in JN^ormandy, inasmuch as for 
one and the same man to hold authority in England and the 
office of legate in I^ormandy, seemed a thing neither easy nor 
convenient. Moreover, the intimation of the royal wish, 
which had been sent in your behalf to the chancellor by the 
king, was said to have been transmitted by the king to the 
seneschal of JN'ormandy, in order that he might in Normandy 
enjoy the benefit of your counsel. Although we made suitable 
answers to these objections and the like, still the favour of our 
lord the pope and his predilections leaned on the other side. 
However, being at length forced to feel some hesitation, both at 
our instance as also at that of some of the cardinals whom we 
had got to favour our views, having called all the cardinals to- 
gether, he required the opinion of each ; and, after our busi- 
ness had been discussed in many deliberations, adjourned from 
time to time for a long period, our lord the pope, sitting in 
judgment, pronounced sentence to the following effect, that is 
to say, to state it shortly and in a condensed form ; he ab- 
solved the chancellor from your denunciation and that of 
our lord the dean of E-ouen, and, conversely, he publicly ad- 
judged to be null and void the sentence which the bishop of 

^^ A quotation from Ovid : — 

" Dum fueris felix, multos numerabis amicos ; 
Tempora si fuerint nubila, solus eris/' 



A.D. 1192. LETTEK TO THE ARCHBISHOP OF ItOUE^J^. 21 1) 

Ely had pronounced under the pretext of certain letters^^ against 
you and the dean and certain others who were obnoxious to 
the chancellor. Moreover, our lord the pope, proceeding in his 
sentence, pronounced the chancellor excused for the injury he 
had done to the archbishop of York without any prescribed 
form [of trial]. He also declined to take away from him. 
either his legateship or the powers attached thereto, as he had 
but lately conferred the same at the urgency of the king^s entrea- 
ties, and at the request of yourself as well as of all the bishops 
of England. However, he pronounced that he should perform 
the duties of the legateship with this exception thereto ap- 
pended, that in the meantime he should not have the power of 
pronouncing sentence of suspension or excommunication against 
you, or against the dean of Houen, or against the bishops of 
England, or the justiciaries and nobles thereof. Of this sen- 
tence we trust that we shall have a more precise version, and 
that we shall be enabled to transmit to you the very words 
themselves in the letters of the pope himself. To the said 
judgment he also added, that, convoking a council of the car- 
dinals, and in^dting ourselves thereto as well as the depu- 
ties of the lord bishop of Ely, he will nominate some venerable 
persons in your parts through whose mediation peace and re- 
conciliation may possibly be effected between you and the 
lord chancellor, at least so far as to assuage the rancorous feel- 
ings that exist between you. From the tenor, however, of the 
deliberation that took place, and from the form of the sentence 
which we have mentioned, we believe that for certain those 
letters will be entirely revoked, which, although they were 
directed to the bishops of the whole of England, still upon the 
pretence thereof the said chancellor pronounced you and 
many others under the ban of excommimication. With refer- 
ence, however, to this denunciation, when, in conformity with 
the request of our lord the dean of Eouen, we laid open his 
complaint in full consistory before all the cardinals and the 
people, on the said letters being read and examined, the pope 
protested with the loudest voice possible, in the presence of 
^^ It is not clear what the meaning of the adjective *' probabilium'" 
here is. It may possibly signify ^' of letters probably written by you ;" 
or it may stand for the Norman legal term *' probalium/' and allude to 
the letters written by the pope to the bishop of Ely, in which case it 
would mean, " under the pretext of the pope's letters made public by 
him." The latter is most probably the meaning, from the reference to 
this letter at the end of the present letter. 

t2 



276 AN^'ALS OF EOGER DE HOTEDEX. a.D. 1J92. 

all, that the said letters had never originated in his conscience, 
while the assemblage of cardinals shouted aloud to the same 
effect as regarded themselves in most emphatical terms ; and 
when the deputies of the bishop of Ely most urgently ex- 
claimed against those statements, he refused to lend an atten- 
tive ear to any of them. Farewell." 

On the following night the deputies of the bishop of Ely 
went to our lord the pope, and censured him, for thus, in the 
presence of all the cardinals, protesting that the confirmation 
of the sentence which the chancellor had pronounced against 
the archbishop of Rouen and his accomplices who had abetted 
him in procuring his overthrow, had not proceeded from his 
conscience ; and entreated him, for the love of God and the 
honor of the Eoman Church, to recall to mind the services that 
the chancellor had dutifully performed for him and the Church 
of Rome, and that, testifying to the truth, he would remove 
this opprobrium from the chancellor and his people, in order 
that their enemies might not exult at their unjust condemna- 
tion. 

Our lord the pope, on being applied to with these exhorta- 
tions and others of a like nature, sitting the next day in judg- 
ment in presence of the cardinals and all the people, confessed 
that those letters which the day before he had on oath dis- 
owned had been written by his command, and sent to England 
to confirm the sentence of excommunication which the chan- 
cellor had pronounced against the archbishop of Rouen and his 
accomplices who had expelled him from the kingdom. 

In addition to this, the clerks of the archbishop of Rouen 
sent word to him that they had conversed four days at Rome 
with Hugh de Gurnay, "William de Pessy, Drogo de Tni- 
bleville, and many others whom the king of England had 
sent to his dominions ; and that fifteen days after, Andrew de 
Chavency came to say that the king was much pleased that 
the chancellor had been deposed, but that he was also much 
displeased that the corporation of London and the whole of 
England had been pledged by oath to earl John. The king 
also requested that our lord the pope would make null and 
void all donations of ecclesiastical revenues which the chancellor 
had made after the king's departure ; but our lord the pope 
was unwilling so absolutely to nullify those donations, though 
he nullified in common all donations of ecclesiastical revenues 
that belonged to the king, by whomsoever they had been made, 



A.o, 1192. 6ASC0NY REDUCED XO SUBJECTION TO KIKG RICUARD. 277 

and on this matter our lord the pope appointed the bishops of 
Lincoln and London judges. On the letters being given to the 
clerks of our lord the archbishop of Eouen, they came to our 
lord the pope, and said to him, alluding to the chancellor, 
'' Behold how he loved him !"^^ 

In the same year, our lord the pope sent two cardinals a.s 
legates a latere, namely, Octavianus, bishop of Ostia, and 
Jordan de Fossa IN^ova, to put an end to the dissensions that 
existed between the chancellor and the archbishop of Eouen. 
On their arrival at Gisors, in JN^ormandy, the gate was shut 
against them, and they could not obtain admittance. When 
they ascertained that this was done by William FitzEalph, 
seneschal of JN'ormandy, they excommunicated him and all 
his accomplices and coadjutors, advisers and abettors in the 
said piece of presumption, and laid the whole of ^^Tormandy 
xmder interdict. On this being told in England, queen 
Eleanor and the archbishop of Eouen sent to them Hugh, 
bishop of Durham, that they might revoke the sentence they 
had pronounced against the seneschal of Normandy and Nor- 
mandy itself. At first the bishop of Durham found them at 
Paris, after which he followed them to Vezelay, but they would 
by no means remit the sentence until they had been received in 
Normandy. However, our lord the pope revoked the interdict 
placed upon Normandy, and caused it to be revoked by tl:e 
legates ; but still they did not enter Normandy. 

In the same year, while the seneschal of Gascony lay ill, the 
count de Perigord and the viscount de Marke and nearly all 
the barons of Gascony, began to ravage the territories of the 
king of England ; and in the meantime, the seneschal could 
neither obtain peace nor truce, although he frequently, and more 
than frequently, requested it. Having at length recovered, he 
attacked the castles and fortresses of the said count, and besieged 
and took them all, fortifying some on behalf of the king, and 
levelling others wath the ground. In like manner, ho took aU the 
castles of the said viscount, and reduced the whole of that 
county to final subjection to the king. Shortly after, the son 
of the king of Navarre came to his assistance with eight hun- 
dred knights ; on which, they together entered the territory of 
the count of Toulouse, and took many castles in the vicinity of 

93 St. John xi. 36. This they spitefully and ironically said, in allusion 
to the impression entertained by the poije relative to the affection of the 
king for the bishop of Ely, 



278 ANNALS OF KOGEK DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1192. 

Toulouse, and, after taking them, fortified them in the king's 
behalf, and levelled many other fortresses with the ground, 
after which they proceeded as far as the gates of Toulouse, and 
passed the night almost under its very walls. 

In the same year, many pilgrims who had come away with 
the king of England from the land of Sulia, returned before the 
jS'ativity of our Lord to England, hoping there to find the king ; 
and, on being asked about the king, where he was, they made 
answer, ^^ We know not, but his ship on board of which he 
embarked, we saw nearing the shore at Brindisi, in Apulia." In 
the meantime, Leopold, duke of Austria, who had taken the 
king of England, delivered him into the hands of Henry, em- 
peror of the Eomans ; in consequence of which, the said emperor 
wrote to Philip, king of the Eranks, to the following effect : 

The Letter of Henry, emperor of the Romans, to Philip, Icing of 
France, in reference to the confinement of Richard^ king of 
England, 

" Henry, by the grace of God, emperor of the Eomans and 
ever august, to his beloved and especial friend Philip, the illus- 
trious king of the Eranks, health and sincere love and affection. 
Inasmuch as our imperial highness does not doubt that your 
royal mightiness will be delighted at all things in which the 
omnipotence of the Creator has honored and exalted ourselves 
and the Eoman empire, we have thought proper to inform 
your nobleness by means of these presents, that while the 
enemy of our empire and the disturber of your kingdom, 
Ei chard, king of England, was crossing the sea for the pur- 
pose of returning to his dominions, it so happened that the 
winds brought him, the ship being wrecked on board of w^hich 
he was, to the region of Istria, at a place which lies between 
Aquileia and Yenice, where, by the sanction of God, the king, 
having suffered shipwreck, escaped, together with a few others. 
A faithful subject of ours, the count Maynard of Gortze, and the 
people of that district, hearing that he was in their territory, 
and calling to mind the treason and treachery and accumulated 
mischief he had been guilty of in the Land of Promise, pursued 
him with the intention of making him prisoner. However, the 
king taking to flight, they captured eight knights of his retinue. 
Shortly after, the king proceeded to a borough in the arch- 
bishopric of Saltzburg, which is called Erisi, where Erederie 
de Botesowe took six of his knights, the king hastening on by 



A.D. 1102. LETTEll OJF THE AECHBISHOP OF EOUEN-. 279 

riiglit, ^idth only three attendants, in the direction of Austria. 
The roads, however, being watched, and guards being set on 
every side, our dearly-beloved cousin Leopold, duke of Austria, 
captured the king so often mentioned, in an humble house in 
a village in the vicinity of Yienna. Inasmuch as he is now 
in our power, and has always done his utmost for your 
annovance and disturbance, what we have above stated we 
liave thought proper to notify to your nobleness, knowing that 
the same is well pleasing to your kindly affection for us, and 
^vill afford most abundant joy to your own feelings. Given at 
Creutz,^^ on the fifth day before the calends of January." 

On these rumours being spread through England as to the 
3apture of the king of England, Walter, archbishop of Eouen 
^vrote to Hugh, bishop of Durham, to the following effect: — 

TJie Letter of the archhishop of Rouen to the hishop of Durham y 
relative to the captivity of Richard, king of England. 

'* To his venerable brother in Christ and his most dearly- 
beloved friend Hugh, by the grace of God, bishop of Durham, 
Walter, by the same grace, archbishop of Eouen, health in all that 
Ls truly healthful. Various rumours having been spread abroad 
relative to the arrival of the king, at length, as the truth could 
ao longer be concealed, everything relative thereto has become 
known to us. Eut, whether in adversity or in prosperity, it be- 
hoves us to display equanimity, as we cannot avert the wiU of 
God ; and inasmuch as His judgments are secret, we commend 
the fortuitous results of things to His mercy and providence. 
With grief of mind are we compelled to confess that it has befallen 
the lord our king otherwise than would have been expedient 
for his realm and all his faithful subjects ; and if we look more 
fully into his meritorious deeds, this misfortune is in no way the 
due of his actions. For he, who, for the sake of God exhausted 
ill his patrimony, and indifferently entrusted the blood of him- 
self and of his subjects to the fortune of war, deserved in all 
his wanderings to have received the protection of God. Eut 
ills adversity, which is so opposed to our good wishes, is a test 
)f his virtues, and not a mark of censure. And why are we 
obliged to say more than we could have wished ? We have 
:hought proper to transmit to you a copy of a letter of the em- 

9* This place in Sclavonia may possibly be meant by " Rithiencie," as 
I misprint for *' Riscensis." 



280 ANNALS OF llOGEK DE HOVEBEN. A.D. 1192. 

peror of Germany which he has sent to the king of the Franks^ 
relative to the capture of our lord the king of England, folded 
within this present page. Now, there is need not of your tears 
but of your promptness, as we must not meet the attacks of 
fortune with lamentations, but, concealing our sorrow, must 
endeavour to make trial of our prowess ; perhaps * Weeping 
may endure for a night, but joy will come to us in the morn- 
ing/ ^^ And inasmuch as, next to the mercy of God, the great- 
est portion of our hope is reposed in your bosom, with a breast 
bedewed with tears, and with our entire heart, we do suppliantly, 
devotedly, and as being most dear to you, entreat you that in 
this trouble which, thus momentous beyond all conception, has 
befallen our lord the king, you will with all your energies act 
the part of diligence and of circumspection, and that, through no 
consideration of difficulty, no prospect of adversity, no pretext, 
no consideration of temporal benefits or of your own welfare, you 
will refuse to us and to our lord, or rather to yourself, your 
counsel, which with all our bowels we are longing to receive. 
And whereas the mind is more fully opened to one present 
than to a person when absent, and in the presence of persons 
counsel under present difficulties will shine forth with greater 
effulgence, and the Lord will bestow on the same a more 
healthful effect, we do consequently beg of you, tearfully and 
with all the affection before expressed, all excuse as to difficul- 
ties laid aside, to meet us and other faithful servants of our 
lord the king at Oxford, on the Lord's day before ' Lmtare 
Jerusalem ' ^^ is sung. Eor the present matter requires that j 
degree of prompt attention, that all excuses whatsoever should I 
be laid aside ; and it is our belief that the love which is due to \ 
our lord the king, should, in the case of which we speak, be 
fully made proof of. You must also know that the lord bishop 
of Bath has already had several interviews with our lord the 
enjperor, on the subject of setting our king at liberty ; for he is 
using every labour and exertion to show him all due obe- 
dience, and to pay that homage which is due from his respect for 
the crown, acceptable to the king's honor, and as advantageous 
under present circumstances, as it has also been on other occa- 
sions ; this we have learned from those persons who were pre- 
sent at the interview which the lord bishop of Bath had with 

^5 Psalm XXX. 5. 

9^ The introit for the fourth Sunday in Lent, which begins " Rejoice, 
Jerusalem, and meet together, all you who love her.'' 



A.D. 1192. CONDUCT OF THE KING DUltING CONFINEILENT. 281 

our lord the prince respecting the liberation of our master. 
And whereas, under all circumstances, the Divine aid of God 
ought to be implored, we beg that throughout the whole of 
your diocese you will cause prayers to be put up for him to the 
Most High. ^ The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man 
availeth much,'^^ and the importunate woman in the Gospel 
was deemed deserving to be heard, and, as it is there said, 
Christ raised her son, because for him many tears were shed. 
Fai-eweU.'^ 

Accordingly, upon hearing of the confinement of the king, 
Walter, archbishop of Eouen, and the other justiciaries of our 
lord the king, sent the abbat of Boxley and the abbat of Pont 
Kobert to Germany, to seek the king of England. After 
having passed through the whole of Germany, and not find- 
ing the king, they entered Bavaria, and met the king at a 
town, the name of which is Oxefer, where he was brought 
before the emperor, to hold a conference with him, on Palm 
Sunday. On hearing that the before-named abbats had come 
from England, the king showed himself courteous and afi'able 
to them ; making enquiries about the state of his kingdom 
and the fidelity of his subjects, and the health and prosperity 
of the king of Scotland, in whose fidelity he placed a very 
strong reliance : on which they testified to what they had 
heard and seen. A conference accordingly taking place be- 
tween them, the king made complaint of the treachery of his 
brother, John, earl of Mortaigne, on whom he had conferred so 
many favours and boundless honors, and who had thrown him- 
self into the hands of the king of Erance against him, and, 
having broken the ties of brotherhood, had made a league with 
death and a compact with hell. The king, though greatly 
afflicted upon this subject, suddenly broke forth into thesf:j 
words of consolation, saying, *^ My brother John is not the 
man to subjugate a country, if there is a person able to make 
the slightest resistance to his attempts." 

During his journey of three days, while on the road to meet 
the emperor, it was the admiration of all, how boldly, how 
courteously, and how becomingly he behaved himself, and they 
judged him worthy of the imperial elevation who so thoroughly 
understood the arts of command, and how, with uniform self- 
possession, to rise superior to the two-faced events of fortune. 
On a day named, after he had held a conference by messen- 
gers with the emperor, they were unable on that day to have an 

^ James v. 16. 



282 ANNALS OF llOGEE DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1192. 

interview with him, because the emperor had made of him 
many demands, to which the king had determined not to yield, 
even though his life should be perilled thereby. On the mor- 
row, however, while all were despairing, with joyous success 
ensued joyous consolation. 

For, on the emperor accusing the king of many things, and 
charging him with many misdeeds, both with his betrayal of the 
land of Sulia, and with the death of the marquis of Montferrat, as 
also with reference to certain covenants made between them and 
not observed by him, the king made answer with such frank- 
ness, such self-possession, and such intrepidity, that the em- 
peror thought him worthy not only of his favour and pardon, 
but even of his praise. For he raised the king when bending 
before him, and received him with the kiss of peace, and made 
a treaty of friendship with him, and, loading him with honors 
and succour (the people standing around and bursting into 
tears for very joy), made a promise that he would reconcile 
the king of England with the king of France. After this, 
with the mediation of the duke of Austria, the king of Eng- 
land promised that he would pay to the emperor for his libe- 
ration, by way of ransom, one hundred thousand marks. The 
emperor also promised that, if by his means the king of Eng- 
land and the king of France could not be reconciled, he would 
send the king of England home without exacting the money. 

In the same year, pope Celestinus, thinking that the king 
of France and the earl of Mortaigne, the brother of the king 
of England, were waging war against the king of England, 
wrote to the bishops of England to the following effect : 

The Letter of pope Celestinus to the a/rchhishops and bishops 

of England, 

'* Celestinus, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to 
his venerable brethren, the archbishops and bishops throughout 
England appointed, health, and the Apostolic benediction. 
"Whereas, for the purpose of repelling the injuries done to the 
people of Christendom, and wiping away that stain to our 
common faith which the pollutions of the pagans, in the cap- 
ture of the Holy Land, which has been named the inheritance 
of the Lord, had perniciously and violently imprinted thereon, 
and for cleansing the Holy City and the Sepulchre of our Lord 
from the abominations of the Saracens and others, who held 
possession thereof, as also for the purpose, with the assistance 



A.D. 1192. LETTEE OF POPE CELESTINUS. 283 

of the Divine mercy, of rescuing it from their power, the 
Apostolic See, remembering what was its bounden duty, sent 
its nuncios to different parts of the world, and letters of admo- 
nition, and, putting its trust in the Divine clemency, granted 
great indulgences to those proceeding thither; although, as 
your brotherhood may have perceived, to do this at its exhor- 
tations, very many manfully and duteously devoted themselves, 
and oftentimes, in parts beyond sea, so many of the faithful ones 
of Christ were for this purpose assembled together, that their 
multitude seemed in no slight degree to exceed the numbers of 
their antagonists, and also to be superior in resources and 
strength, they were still unable to effect much, or to make head 
against those who were fighting against them, because (as 
one may perceive from the result) the attempts and the actions 
of those who had set out for those parts were, in a great 
measure, displeasing unto the Lord. Wherefore, on the ground 
of their other offences, because they trusted not in God but in 
their own strength, and the fear of God was not before their 
eyes, by reason of their preconceived vanity, their heart was 
allowed to be darkened, that so they might do other things as 
well, which were by no means befitting, thus provoking against 
themselves, by their perversity, the Divine vengeance. But, 
inasmuch as the mercies of the Lord are manifold, although, 
in order to bend the refractoriness of the wicked, and to 
bow the necks of stiff-necked men, for the purposes of cor- 
rection He makes heavy the weight of his hand in admi- 
nistering discipline, and depresses that He ma}^ raise, and 
smites or scourges that He may heal, if, with due humility 
we return unto Him, fully chastened for our sins, and if 
we resolutely make it our purpose with more fervent zeal to 
observe for the future the commands of our Creator, we may 
then, mthout any hesitation, conceive hopes that He will 
more abundantly and more graciously assist us, and will, with 
His indulgence, grant us from heaven a full victory over the 
enemies of Christ ; so much so, that all the grievances which 
we have hitherto suffered may be committed to oblivion, 
all those being turned back, and falling with deserved confusion, 
who hate Zion, and have presumed to defile her with the pol- 
lutions of the heathen. When we consider, however, and 
examine the matter with diligence and earnestness, what was 
the nature of the threats which the Divine power pronounced 
against the people of Israel, when, according to promise, they 



284 AJfNALS OF ROGER DE HOYEDEN. A. D. 1192. 

entered the land above-mentioned, there cannot be a particle 
of doubt to present itself in this our examination why it is that 
our attempts thus begun on behalf of God have not been 
crowned with the hoped-for success. For they were told to 
abstain from the impurities and filthiness of the inhabitants of 
that land, and not to deem their vices worthy of imitation, 
which might redound to the ruin of themselves, but to observe 
the law of the Lord with firmness of purpose and with ever}^ 
effort of zeal and earnestness ; and that, if they should dute- 
ously and humbly obey these admonitions, one of them should 
conquer a thousand, and ten of them ten thousand. And this 
they shortly after became sensible of from a more assured ex- 
perience, inasmuch as a few of them slew a vast and almost 
infinite multitude of their enemies ; and, so long as they 
dutifully obeyed the Divine commands, there was not a city or 
a fortified place that was able to withstand their attacks, or by 
any resources or counsels to be rescued from becoming subject 
to their power. And yet, when their sons, who, as it is there 
said, * knew not the Lord,' had, in their rashness, begun to fall 
away from the observance of those things which in the promul- 
gation of the law had been enjoined them, then did their foes, 
rallying their forces against them, often subject them to their 
power ; whom once again, by the Divine aid, they conquered, 
when, being penitent for the excesses committed by them, and ac- 
knowledging their guilt, with pious devotion they humbly turned 
to God. And you may know beyond a doubt, that it was in con- 
sequence of the discords that arose, that the achievement of the 
hoped-for victory was taken away from the Christian chivalry 
by reason of the quarrels and frequent rancours that had sprung 
up in the army, and because they had made the flesh their arm, 
and had withdrawn their hearts from the Lord. If, then, it is 
our wish without great labour to obtain a glorious triumph in 
all things, with the downfall of our adversaries, let us not faint 
in spirit by reason of the grievances hitherto endured ; but, with 
all humility and contrition of heart, seeking the mercy of the 
Creator, to their lasting confusion we shall be enabled to hope 
agreeably to our deserts for a complete victory, in reliance upon 
the accustomed beneficence of the supreme mercy. Induced, 
therefore, by this consideration, we have entreated all the princes 
of the world, for the remission of their sins, that, out of regard 
for the Divine love and their own salvation, if any one has on 



V.D. 1192. LETTER OF POPE CELESTIXUS. 285 

my ground entertained feelings of rancour against another, and 
las despised the advice of man, he will for the Creator do 
iway with the same ; lest grounds for mutual dissension 
nay still exist, which have hitherto, as you are well aware, 
ieprived us of the achievement of victory, and have, without 
my advantage, brought the greater part of this multitude into 
3eril of death. And, among themselves, let them make it their 
3are, with all earnestness of mind, to consider the means by 
;v'hich, in the meantime, that little of the land, the portion of the 
Lord, which is still held under the sway of the Christians, 
nay be yet preserved unshaken, and without any fear defended 
igainst the attacks of the wicked, that so it may not fall into 
:he hands of the unbelievers ; and that, lastly, a multitude of 
the faithful may put themselves in readiness, who may with 
ill due and duteous humility proceed thither, and, conquering 
md utterly treading under foot the frantic might of those in 
possession thereof, liberate the land and the Sepulchre of the 
Lord. And further, inasmuch as there hence arises too abun- 
iant cause for tearfulness to ourselves and all Christian people, 
md we are bound in every way to be sorrowful and not to 
rejoice, so long as the land, on which have stood the feet of the 
Lord and where the sacraments of our salvation were revealed, 
is held in the occupation of the Gentiles, we do utterly forbid 
tournaments, which were invented for the sake of mirthfulness 
and for the exercise of the prowess of novices in the art of war, 
to the end that he who wishes to exercise himself may repair to 
that land, where the prowess of his mind and his body may 
both manfully and healthfully be proved. Let them also so 
make it their care to maintain unity, peace, and concord one 
with another, that there may be no one to wage war against 
mother, or to presume to avenge an injury with arms, but rather 
iet them make it their common study, what means may, through 
zeal and diligent attention, soothe all conflicting spirits. Eut 
if any one, a thing we do not believe, laying aside all fear of 
God and respect for ourselves, and through contempt for the 
iChristian faith, shall with any rashness presume to act con- 
trary hereto, then let him know that we do strictly command 
^'ourselves and the other archbishops and bishops to place under 
3cclesiasticai interdict the lands of such persons as shall think 
proper contumaciously to follow a course of this kind, as also, 
if there shall be a necessity, to place under the ban of excommu- 
nication their persons as well, and to cause both sentences to be 



286 ANNALS OF EOGEK BE HOVEDEN. a.d. 1193. 

inviolably observed. We do therefore by these Apostolic wri- 
tings strictly enjoin and command you, that you will prepare 
yourselves with all haste to fulfil what we have above men- 
tioned, all tardiness and hesitation laid aside, and will make it 
your endeavour throughout your dioceses, no delay or appeal 
being allowed, to put the same into execution. Given at St. 
Peter* s, at Rome, on the third day before the ides of January, 
in the second year of our pontificate." 

Eichard, king of England, being still detained in captivity 
by Henry, emperor of the Eomans, in order that he might 
escape from this captivity, by the advice of Eleanor, his mother, 
abdicated the throne of the kingdom of England, and delivered 
it to the emperor as the lord of all, and with his cap invested 
him therewith. However, the emperor, as had been pre- 
arranged, immediately restored to him, in the presence of the 
nobles of Germany and England, the said kingdom of England, 
to hold the same of him for ^ye thousand pounds sterling, 
yearly, payable as tribute ; and the emperor invested him 
therewith, with a double cross of gold. However, the said 
emperor, at his death, released Eichard, king of England, and 
his heirs from these and all other covenants whatsoever. 

In the year of grace 1193, being the fourth year of the reign 
of Eichard, king of England, Philip, Idng of France, was in 
Erance on the day of the ]!^ativity of our Lord, being the sixth 
day of the week, in great sorrow and confusion, because the 
seneschal of I^ormandy refused to deliver up to him his sister 
Alice ; he also frequently sent messengers to England, to John 
earl of Mortaigne, the king's brother, telling him how the king 
was detained in captivity, and would never escape from the 
custody of the emperor of Germany; adding, that if he would 
acquiesce in his wishes and designs, he would give him his sister 
Alice in marriage, and restore to him Noimandy, Aquitaine, 
andAnjou, and all the other territories beyond sea, that his 
father, Henry, king of England, had ever possessed, and would 
secure for him the kingdom of England ; lor Eichard, the king 
of England, was still kept in confinement by the emperor of 
Germany. 

Upon this, immediately after the Nativity of our Lord, 
John, earl of Mortaigne, the king's brother, crossed over to 
Normandy, upon whose arrival the seneschal of Normandy, 
and other faithful subjects of the king of England, went to meet 
him, and requested that he would come with them to a con- 



A.D. 1193. THE KIXG OF FEA ]\"CE VIOLATES HIS OATn. 287 

ference at Alencon, to treat on the affairs of the king and his 
liberation. To this he made answer, ^^If you will receive me 
as your lord, and swear fealty to me, I will come with you 
and will be your defender against the king of France ; but if 
not, I "wdll not come to you." On hearing this, the nobles of 
Normandy refused to obey him, or to swear fealty, trusting 
that by the help of God, their lord, the king of England, would 
return safe and sound. 

Upon this, John, the king's brother, repaired to the king of 
France and did homage to him for Kormandy, and for the 
other territories of his brother beyond sea, and for England as 
well, as some said. He also made oath that he would marry his 
sister Alice, and released to the king of France all claims upon 
Gisors and the whole of the Yexin, in JSFormandy ; on which 
the king of France gave to him, with his said sister, that part 
of Flanders which belonged to him, and swore to him that he 
would, to the utmost of his ability, assist in gaining England 
and the other territories of the king of England on his behalf. 
After this, the said earl of Mortaigne returned to England, 
bringing many foreigners with him ; immediately on which, 
the castles of Wallingford and Windsor were surrendered to 
him. The earl next came to London, and demanded of the 
archbishop of Rouen and the other justiciaries of England the 
kingdom, and the fealty of the subjects of the realm, assert- 
ing that the king of England, his brother, was dead. However, 
they did not place any confidence in his words. 

On this, being repulsed by the justiciaries and the other 
nobles of the kingdom, he withdrew, and, excited by indigna- 
tion, fortified his castles and fortresses, and in his hostility in- 
vaded the lands of the king, his brother. Accordingly, multi- 
tudes resorted to him, deceiving themselves ; on which, being 
scourged by the deserved retribution of God, they lost everything 
that they possessed. For the justiciaries of England and thefaith- 
ful subjects of our lord the king manfully resisted the said earl of 
Mortaigne, and inflicted upon him much loss; they also strength- 
ened with garrisons the seaports and all the maritime places, with 
such care, that the Franks and Flemings, and many others, who 
had promised their aid to the before-named earl, "did not dare 
to land in England. Some, however, of their number who did 
land in England, were taken prisoners and placed in chains. 

The king of France, also, unmindful of the oath which on his 
departure from the land of Sulia he had made to the king of 



288 ANXALS OF BOGER DE HOVEDEN. A.I). 1193. 

England, as to maintaining peace, entered I^ormandy in a hostile 
manner, and ravaged the king's territories with fire, and carried 
off much spoil. However, Eobert, earl of Leicester, who had 
shortly before returned from the land of Sulia, and the other 
nobles of ^Normandy, made a stout resistance against him. 

Id. the meantime, the above-named abbats of Boxley, and of 
Pont Robert, whom the justiciaries of England had sent in 
search of the king, returned to England after Easter, inform- 
ing them that peace had been made between the emperor and 
the king of England, on the day of the Supper of our Lord, 
upon the following terms : — ^' The king of England shall give 
to the emperor of the Eomans one hundred thousand silver 
marks as his ransom, and shall find fifty galleys, with all 
their equipments, and twenty knights for his service for one 
year:^' and stated that they themselves were present at the 
said treaty. 

After this treaty had been made, there arrived envoys from 
the king of France, who, on his behalf, defied our lord the 
king. To them the emperor immediately made answer, that 
whoever should molest the king of England would also ofiend 
the emperor himself; such great love and lasting concord had 
been established between them. And because the king of Eng- 
land made ofier to obey the demands of justice in the court of 
his lord the king of France, as to all matters with which the 
king of France or any other person of his party might charge 
him, the emperor attempted to have a conference held between 
him and the king of France, but it was not proceeded with. 
The king of England, on this, sent to England for ships, and 
for Alan Trenchemere, the pilot of his own ship, as also for 
hostages to be given to the emperor as a security for his per- 
formance of the treaty made between them. These commands 
he gave, and they were all complied with ; after which, Ro- 
bert de Tumham, one of the king's household, came to Lon- 
don, being sent to England with the king's armour. 

Upon this, all the principal men of the kingdom met to- 
gether, and laid siege to Windsor, the castle of the earl 
of Mortaigne. Geoffrej^ archbishop of York, Hugh Bar- 
d£)lph, the king's justiciary, the sheriff of York, and William 
de 8tuteville, assembling their forces, came to Doncaster, and 
fortified it. But when the archbishop of York wished to 
proceed thence, and lay siege to Tickhill, a castle belonging to 
the earl of Mortaigne, Hugh Bardolph and "William de Stute- 



A.D. 1193. THUCE WITH THE EAEL OF MOETAIGNE. 289 

ville would not agree thereto, because tliey were liegemen of 
earl John ; on which the archbishop of York left them, with his 
people, calling them traitors to the king and his realm. 

In the meantime, the king of France, with a strong hand, 
[^ntered I^ormandy, and laid siege to Gisors ; on which Gilbert 
ie Guascoil, who had charge of the castle of Gisors and the 
.•astle of Nefle, surrendered them both to the king of France, 
md became his adherent. However, he was despised among 
them for the treason he had been guilty of to his master the 
king of England, who had, in the fulness of his favour, sent 
iiim from Messina to take charge of the said castles. After 
this, the king of France came to Houen, and said to the inha- 
bitants of that place : ^' John, earl of Mortaigne, has done 
'lomage to me for England, and has given up to me Normandy 
uid all other lands on this side the sea ; and I have come hither 
.0 take possession of this city, which is the capital of the 
whole of Normandy ; allow me to enter peaceably, and I will 
jrove a kind and just master to you." 

To this they made answer : ^^ See, the gates are open ; 
'uter if you like ; no one opposes you." On which the king 
'eplied : ^^ I will speak to my people about it;" and then, 
ifter consulting his people on the • matter, declined to enter. 
Accordingly, the king of France being thus deceived in his 
lopes, retired from Eouen with his army, and burned his stone- 
ngines, twenty-four in number, which he had posted around 
he city : he also broke his wine- casks, and having poured 
orth all the wine, took his departure, sending word to the 
itizens that he would visit them with a rod of iron. 

The king of England still remaining in the custody of the 
mperor of the llomans, all people were surprised at his thus 
elaying ; and some, in consequence of the predictions of the 
arl of Mortaigne, who always predicted that he would never 
eturn, doubted about him and his ever returning. In con- 
equence of this, Walter, archbishop of Eouen, and the other 
jsticiaries of England, although they had compelled the earl 
f Mortaigne to surrender, and had nearly taken his castle of 
V^indsor, to which they had been laying siege, made a truce 
ith the earl of Mortaigne until the feast of All Saints, the 
istles of Nottingham and Tickhill remaining in the charge of 
le earl, as before. But the castles of Windsor, and of Wal- 
ngford, and of the Peak, were given into the hands of queen 
lieanor, the mother of the said earl of Mortaigne, and of some 

VOL. li, u 



290 ANNALS OF EOGER DE HOYEDEX. a.D. 1193. 

other custodians, who were to deliver them into his hands if 
the king, his brother, should not come in the meantime. When 
Hugh, bishop of Durham, who had in the meantime been 
laying siege to the castle of Tickhill, heard of this, he was 
greatly vexed, as he now felt sure of taking it ; but, by the 
command of the said justiciaries, he took his departure, leav- 
ing his task incomplete. 

Shortly after this, there came messengers to England with 
letters from the king, addressed by him to all the archbishops, 
bishops, abbats, earls, barons, clerks, and freeholders ; and by 
them the king humbly entreated that all persons, both clergy 
as well as laity, would give such assistance in ransoming him 
as should secure his grateful thanks to them ; and, in order that 
they might do this with the more full assurance, the emperor 
of the Eomans wrote in general terms to all the subjects of 
the king of England, informing them that their lord the king 
of England had come to an agreement with him as to the sum 
to be paid for his ransom ; but he did not state the amount of 
the sum. Our lord the pope Celestinus also wrote in like man- 
ner, in behalf of the king, to all the ecclesiastics of the king- 
dom of England, to the effect that the emperor and the whole 
of his empire would be placed under interdict unless the king 
of England were speedily liberated from his custody. He like- 
wise issued a command that the king of France and his king- 
dom should be laid under interdict unless he should desis 
from persecuting the king of England, so long as he remainec 
in the emperor's hands. Moved by these and other admoni 
tions of our lord the pope, and the whole of the cardinals, anc 
the advice of prudent men, the Roman emperor and the kinj 
of England became reconciled : on which the king of Englanc 
wrote to his faithful servants throughout England, to the fol 
lowing effect : — 

Tlie Letter of Richard, Icing of England, to queen Eleanor, his 
mother, and his justiciaries in England. 

'^Richard, by the grace of God, king of England, duke o 
JS'ormandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, to Eleanor, b; 
the same grace, queen of England, his much-loved mother, am 
to his justices, and all his faithful servants throughout Eng 
land, greeting. Be it known unto you all, that, after our be 
loved servants, the venerable Hubert, bishop of Salisbury, an( 
William, of the Church of Saint Mary, our prothonotary, ha 



\.D. 1193. LETTEE OF KING EICIIAED. 291 

lopartcd from ns, our most clearly beloved chancellor, "William, 
bishop of Ely, came to us, and, he faithfully negociating be- 
;ween our lord the emperor and ourselves, the result was, that 
¥e came from the castle of Trevelles, in which we were con- 
ined, to meet the emperor at Haguenau, where we were ho- 
lorably received by the emperor and the whole of his court. 
BLere, too, our lord the emperor and our lady the empress 
lonored us with many and various presents, and, what is of 
especial importance, a mutual and indissoluble bond of friend- 
)hip was foi-med between our lord the emperor and ourselves ; 
;\^hereby each of us is bound to aid the other against all living 
nen in gaining his rights and in retaining possession of the 
jame. For becoming reasons it is that we are prolonging our 
>tay with the emperor, until his business and our own shall be 
wrought to an end, and until we shall have paid him seventy 
;housand marks of silver. "Wherefore we do beg of you, and 
3y the fealty by which you are bound to us, do adjure you, 
iat you will use all earnestness in raising the said sum of 
noney, and that you, our justiciaries, who are placed above the 
)thers in our kingdom, will set an example to others ; that 
;o you may honorably and nobly aiford of your own means for 
)ur assistance, and also raise what you can on loan from 
)thers, in order that you may set an example to our other faith- 
ul subjects for doing the like. The whole of the gold and silver, 
dso, of the churches, you are with careful attention, and with 
i written inventory, to receive from the prelates of those 
churches ; and you are to assure them by your oath, and by that 
)f such others of our barons as you shall think fit, that full res- 
itution shall be made for the same. You are also to receive 
lostages from all our barons, in order that when our most trusty 
'hancellor, as soon as our business has been settled in Germany, 
.hall come to England, he may find the same hostages with our 
nuch-beloved mother,' that so he may with all expedition 
ransmit to us such of them as may have been agreed upon 
)etween ourselves and the emperor ; to the end that our libe- 
ation maj' not suffer any delay in consequence of the absence of 
he hostages and your neglect. Also, money there collected is, 
n like manner, to be delivered to our mother and such persons 
s she shall think proper. He whom, in the moment of our 
lecessity, we shall find to be prompt, in his necessity will find 
s a friend, and ready to reward ; and it will be more pleasing 
us if, in our absence, any person shall in any way assist us, 

V 2 



292 ANNALS OF EOGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1193. 

than if, in our presence, he should give us twice that amount 
of aid. We do also desire that the names of each of the nobles, 
and their subsidies which shall be made on the present occasion, 
shall be signified unto us under the seal of our mother, that we 
may know how far we are bound to return thanks to each. 
Know for certain that, if we were now in England, free and at 
our own disposal, we would give as great or a greater sum of 
money to our lord the emperor than we now give for obtain- 
ing the terms which, by the grace of God, we have gained : 
and, moreover, if we had not such sum of money in our posses- 
sion, we would deliver up to the emperor our own body until 
the said money should be paid, rather than that which has 
been agreed upon should be left incomplete. Under the golden 
bulla of our lord the emperor, our chancellor brings to you 
the attestation above-mentioned. Witness ourselves, at Ha- 
guenau, the thirteenth day before the calends of May." 

Accordingly, upon the authority of this letter the king's 
mother and the justiciaries of England determined that all 
the clergy as well as the laity ought to give the fourth part 
of the present year's ^revenue for the ransom of our lord the 
king, and to add as much from their chattel property, whereby 
the king would be bound to know whom he had to thank. 
They also exacted from each knight's fee twenty shillings, 
and from the abbeys of the Cistercian order and the houses 
of the order of Sempringham the whole of their wool for the 
current year, and the whole of the gold and silver of the 
churches, as the king by his mandate had directed. After 
this, his said chancellor came to England on behalf of our 
lord the king, bringing a letter from his lordship the em- 
peror, ratified by the golden bulla, and to the following effect : 

The Letter of the emperor Henry to the nobles of England^ on 

hehalf of king Richard. 

'* Henry, by the grace of God, emperor of the Eomans and 
ever august, to his loving friends the archbishops, bishops, 
earls, barons, nobles, and all persons throughout England to 
whom this present page shall come, greeting and good will. 
We have deemed it proper and reflecting credit upon our high 
estate, most earnestly to engage the whole of you in every way 
that we possibly can, to take those steps which are due to the 
honor of our most dearly beloved friend your lord Eichard, 
king of England, to the end that the constancy of your dutiful 



A. D. 1193. AltRlYAL OF THE king's CHANCELLOR IN ENGLAND. 293 

attacliment, and the merits of your fidelity, may not seem to be 
dead as regards his advantage, but rather may appear to live in 
obedience to himself and to his rule. Wherefore to all whose 
duty shall be proved to be sincere and pure to their said king 
in his absence, we shall return most abundant thanksgivings, 
wishing it to come to the knowledge of you all that his 
imperial highness is upon terms of concord and lasting peace 
with his royal nobleness. Wherefore, whatever shall be said 
to his disparagement, will be productive of annoyance and in- 
convenience to ourselves equally with him. Accordingly, to 
the honor and advantage of his duteous and faithful subjects, 
and to the condemnation and uprooting of those who molest 
him, we will always give our zealous assistance ; and, because 
in heart and soul we are united, shall always fully consider 
the acts of your king to be especially our own and those of our 
empire, and shall look upon injuries done to him as offered to 
ourselves and to our imperial crown ; nor, with the will of God, 
will we pass over the same without vengeance and the heavy 
punishment and destruction of those who have been guilty of 
the same. Given at Haguenau, on the thirteenth day before 
the calends of May.'* 

After this treaty of peace was made between the emperor 
and the king of England, the emperor proposed an interview 
between him and the king of France, for the purpose of effect- 
ing a reconciliation between him and the king of England, 
through the mediation of William, archbishop of Eheims, 
uncle of the king of France, and a kinsman of the king of 
England ; on which they appointed a day for an interview on 
the morrow of the Nativity of Saint John the Baptist, being 
the sixth day of the week, between Yaucouleurs and Toul. 

The king's chancellor, on his arrival in England, went to 
Saint Alban's with great humility, where our lady the queen, 
the king's mother, with the lord archbishop of Eouen, and the 
other justiciaries of our lord the king, met him. There also 
the said chancellor gave to the justices the golden bulla of the 
emperor, containing the indissoluble treaty made between his 
lordship the emperor with our lord the king, asserting that 
neither as justiciary, legate, nor chancellor, but as a simple 
bishop, he had come to England ; not as a dweller therein, but 
as a stranger ; indeed, as a messenger only from our lord the 
king. He also enjoined certain of the barons to accompan}^ 
him to the king, namely, Gilbert, bishop of Bochester, Sefrid, 



294 AlfNALS OF KOGEE DE HOYEDEX. A.D. 1193. 

l)ishop of Chicliester, Benedict, abbat of Burgh, Richard, earl 
of Clare, earl Roger Bigot, GeoiFrey de Say, and several others. 

Here, also, it was arranged in whose hands the money, 
when collected, was to be placed, namely, in the charge of 
Hubert Fitz- Walter, archbishop elect of Canterbury, the lord 
bishop of London, William, earl of Arundel, Hamelin, earl of 
Warenne, and the mayor of London, under the seal of our 
lady the queen, and the seal of the lord archbishop of Rouen. 
Here it may be remarked, that after the arrival of Hubert 
Fitz- Walter, bishop of Salisbury, in England, the monks of the 
metropolitan church of Canterbury met together, and elected 
as their archbishop the said Hubert, bishop of Salisbury. 
Against this election Hubert, archdeacon of Canterbury, ap- 
pealed to the Supreme Pontiff, both because the king was in 
confinement, as also because the bishops of England, whose 
duty it was to be present at the election, were not present at 
that election. 

In the same year, while the king of England was in the 
custody of the emperor, Saladin departed this life in the first 
week of Lent; upon which occasion the duke of Venice wrote 
to the said king of England to the following effect : 

The Letter of Dandolo, duhe of Venice, Balmatia, and Cherum,^ 
to Richard, king of England, on the death of Saladin, 

'^ To his most serene lord Richard, by the grace of God, 
king of England, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and earl 
of Anjou, Henry Dandolo, by the same grace, duke of Venice, 
Dalmatia, and Cherum, health, and sincere and duteous affec- 
tion. Know ye that it has been intimated to us from a source 
that can be relied on, that Saladin, that enemy of the Christian 
religion, is dead : and one of his sons, whom he is said to have 
appointed heir to the whole of his dominions, is at present in 
Damascus, while the other one is ruling at Babylon ^^ and 
Alexandria. His brother is in the vicinity of Babylon with 
a numerous army, and the greatest dissension exists between 
them. Earewell." 

In the meanwhile, as the time approached for the interview 
between the emperor and the king of France, the king of Eng- 
land found, through other signs, that if this interview should 
take place, the emperor and the king of France would form a 
confederacy against the archbishops of Cologne and Mentz, 

^^ Probably a misprint for Croatia. ^^ In Egypt ; the seat of the 

Faiimite Caliphs. 



A.D. 1193. TKEATT FOR THE RELEASE OP THE KING. 295 

and the dukes of Louvain, Lemberg, and Saxony, and many 
other chieftains and nobles who had conspired against the em- 
peror, on account of the death of the bishop of Liege, brother of 
the duke of Louvain, which had been contrived by the emperor. 
The king of England was also apprehensive that if this confer- 
ence should take place, he himself would without doubt be 
delivered into the hands of the king of France. Consequently, 
the king exerted himself to the utmost of his power that the 
conference might be broken off, and that peace should be made 
between the emperor and the said nobles. 

Accordingly, at his urgent entreaty, the emperor and the 
said nobles concluded between themselves a treaty of peace 
and reconciliation to the following effect : The emperor caused 
a great number of bishops, earls, and barons to make oath upon 
his own soul that he had neither commanded nor wished that 
the said bishop of Liege should be put to death, and that when 
he knew it, he was greatly grieved thereat ; and, by way of 
satisfying them, he restored to every one of the persons afore- 
said, who had conspired against him, all the castles that his 
father or he himself had taken from them ; on which they be- 
came reconciled, with the sole exception of the duke of Saxony. 
The interview, also, which was to have taken place between 
him and the king of Prance at Yaucouleurs was broken off, and 
did not take place. 

These matters being thus arranged, on the Friday next after 
the feast of the Nativity of Saint John the Baptist, the empe- 
ror came to Worms, where our lord the king of England then 
was. Here a conference was held between them for four days, 
at which were present the bishops of those parts, the dukes of 
Louvain and of Lemberg, and many earls and barons. Of 
the king of England's party, there were present the bishops of 
Bath and Ely ; and on the fourth day, which was the vigil of 
the Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul, there came to the king 
of England William Bruyere and Baldwin de Brun ; for as yet 
all quite despaired of the liberation of the king of Eng- 
land. But, by the mercy of God, on the day of the Apostles 
Saint Peter and Saint Paul, matters were finally arranged be- 
tween the emperor and the king in the following manner: 
*^Oui* lord the king will pay to the emperor one hundred 
thousand marks of pure silver, Cologne weight, and another 
fifty thousand marks of silver, instead of the assistance which 
lie was to have given the emperor in regaining Apulia. Also, 
the king will give the sister of Arthur, duke of Brittany, his 



296 AN2?ALS OF EOGEE DE HOVEUEN. 

nephew, in marriage to the son of the duke of Austria, 
and will set at liberty the emperor of Cyprus, but without 
restoring to him his empire ; and, in like manner, will libe- 
rate the daughter of that emperor, whom he will cause to 
be delivered up to the duke of Austria, as being her uncle. 
The said hundred thousand marks, our lord the king is to 
bring at his own risk to the borders of the empire, and so soon 
as they shall have entered any part of the empire, our lord the 
king shall freely and quietly return with a safe conduct to Eng- 
land.'' To this, the bishops, dukes, earls, and all nobles who 
were then present made oath upon the soul of the emperor : 
on which, the agreement was reduced to writing, as made be- 
tween the emperor and the king of England to the following 
eifect : — 

The form of the agreement made hetvjeen the e^nperor Henry , and 

Richardy king of England, 

'^ In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost, Amen. This is the form of the agreement made 
between our lord the emperor, ever august, and our lord 
Eichard, the illustrious king of England. Our lord the em- 
peror shall send his messengers with the messengers of the 
king of England, who shall proceed to London, and there re- 
ceive one hundred thousand marks of pure silver, Cologne 
weight ; which money, on being received by the messengers of 
the emperor, and duly weighed, shall be sealed in the presence 
of his messengers, and shall be escorted under .the king's 
charge through the territories of his kingdom ; so that if it 
shall chance to be lost in his kingdom, it shall be so lost at the 
said king's risk. After the said money shall have come to the 
borders of the empire, it shall be handed over by the messengers 
of the king to the messengers of our lord the emperor, who 
shall immediately there receive it, and if it shall happen to be 
lost within the territories of the empire, it shall be so lost at 
the risk of the emperor, and the king shall not be damnified, 
nor yet his hostages, therebj^ The king shall also give ano- 
tlier fifty thousand marks of silver to the emperor and the duke 
of Austria, and shall give hostages for the same, namely, to 
our lord the emperor, sixty hostages for thirty thousand marks, 
and to the duke of Austria, seven hostages for twenty thousand 
marks. And when the hundred thousand marks shall have 
been paid and ^(^ hostages given, the king shall be at liberty 



A.D. 1193. PEACE MADE WITH THE EIXG OF ERAJiJ^CE, 297 

to depart. But if our lord the king shall keep the promise 
which he has made to our lord the emperor as to Henry, the 
former duke of Saxony, the emperor will then release and dis- 
charge the king from payment of the said fifty thousand marks, 
and, for the king, will give to the duke of Austria twenty 
thousand marks ; and the king shall not be bound to give to 
the duke of Austria the seven hostages, or to the emperor the 
sixty. When, therefore, the king shall have fulfilled his 
aforesaid promise as to Henry, the former duke of Saxony, and 
shall have paid the said hundred thousand marks, he shall be 
at liberty to depart. Moreover, the king has caused oath to be 
Qiade upon his soul, that he will deliver his niece, the daughter 
[)f the duke of Brittany, in m.arriage to the son of the duke of 
Austria, within seven months after he shall have been set at 
liberty, and shall have returned into his own territory, and 
will send her to the entrance of the empire, if they shall 
think fit to receive her ; and if they shall not, he shall be re- 
Leased therefrom. Also, if the promise as to Henry, the for- 
mer duke of Saxony, shall not be fulfilled, the fifty thousand 
marks, remaining unpaid, shall be paid within seven months 
after he shall have been set at liberty, and shall have returned 
to his territory. When the king shall have been set at liberty, 
and shall wish to return, the emperor shall give him a safe 
conduct through his dominions to the limits of his empire, 
and in the harbour where he shall embark, so long as he shall 
there remain, and until he shall depart with a fair wind. More- 
Dver, all things, both in these as also in other familiar letters, 
sealed with the emperor's seal, vrlth reference to the contracts 
^hat have been made between them, each according to his own 
ability, will ratify and confirm, and will with good faith ob- 
serve. '^ 

When the king of France heard of this, he immediately 
ent word to earl John that he must take care of himself, for the 
levil was now let loose. Accordingly, earl John, understanding 
hat this was said in reference to the king, his brother, imme- 
diately crossed over from England to Normandy, and became 
xn adherent of the king of France, not daring to await the 
xrrival of the king, his brother, in England. After this, the 
dng of England sent William, bishop of Ely, his chancellor, and 
vVilliam Bruyere, and other discreet men to make peace on 
lOme terms or other with the king of France ; who accordingly 
nade a treatj^ of peace with him to the following efi'ect : — 



298 ANNALS OF llOGER DE HOYEDEN. a.D. 1193. 

The Form of the Treaty of Peace made hetween the kings of 

France and England. 

" Know all men to whom these present letters rhall come, 
that William, chancellor of Eichard, king of England, bishop 
of Ely, and legate of the Apostolic See, and, with him, 
William de Roches, John de Pratelles, and William Eruyere, 
have come to the king of Erance, on behalf of the king of 
England, with letters patent to the said king, in which it is 
stated that such terms as they shall agree to and conclude 
with him, the said king of England will fully ratify and con- 
firm. Wherefore they have agreed to the following effect, and 
have, on behalf of their lord the king of England, made the 
following covenants with the king of Erance. Eichard, king 
of England, agrees with his liege lord, the king of Erance, as 
to the whole of the land which the king of Erance has taken I 
from him and his subjects, and which is held by himself and 
his subjects, that he shall retain as much of the same as he 
shall think fit for himself and his people. And, as to earl 
John, the following shall be the terms agreed to. If the men 
of the king of England shall be able fully to make proof in. 
the court of our lord the king of Erance that the said John 
has sworn to obtain money for the liberation of the king of Eng- 
land, and has made agreement to that eifect, then the said John 
shall be held bound to pay the same ; also, the whole of the 
lands which he held, when the king of England, his brother, 
took his departure to go beyond sea, he shall hold, on both 
sides of the sea, as jfreely as he previously held the same ; ex- 
cepted always, that he shall be released from the oath which 
he made as to not entering the territory of England ; and, on 
this point, the said king of England shall give to the lord John 
security, both by himself and by the barons, ^^ archbishops, and 
bishops of his dominions, as also by the king of Erance. Eut, if 
the said earl John shall attempt to deny that the said letters 
were his, or that he swore to that efi'ect, the men of the king of 
England shall sufficiently prove in the court of the king of 
Erance, by fit and proper witnesses, that he did swear to obtain 
money to procure the liberation of the king of England. And 
if it shall be proved, as has been said, that the said earl swore 
to seek money for the liberation of the king, or if he shall fail 
in making his proof, then the king of Erance shall not interest 
^ By oath made by thein to that effect. 



A. D. 1193. TPvEATT OF PEACE WITH THE EING OF FRANCE. 299 

himself about earl John, if he shall think fit to make peace in 
relation to his own territory above-named. As to count Louis, 
the following shall be the terms agreed to : The king of Eng- 
land shall, according to the advice and to the satisfaction of the 
king of France and the archbishop of Rheims, assign to him a 
yearly revenue in his o^oi territory of five hundred pounds An- 
jouin, or more if more there shall be, and shall cause promise to 
be made to him on oath that he will render to count Louis the 
rights and services that his father rendered to count Theobald ; 
and the king of England shall repay to count Louis as much 
money as he retained after the death of count Theobald, and 
which he ought to have paid him. As to Hugh de Gurnay, the 
following shall be the terms agreed to : Hugh shall hold all 
the lands which he has anywhere held of the king of Erance, 
unless it shall so be that the said Hugh, of his own free 
will, and without compulsion, and without desertion of the 
king of Erance, shall wish to return to the king of England ; 
and the king of Erance shall be ready to interrogate the said 
Hugh thereon, without employing force and losing any rights 
of his own thereby. But, if Hugh shall be unwilling to re- 
turn to the king of England with the lands which he holds of 
the king of Erance, and shall wish to hold other lands of his 
in England and Normandy of the king of England, and not to 
receive anything in exchange for such land, nor to accede to 
any terms entered into by the king of Erance and the king of 
England relative thereto, then the king of England shall be 
bound to make to the said Hugh a reasonable warranty relative 
thereto. The count of Angouleme and his people shall be set at 
liberty, and shall safely return to his territory, and he and his 
people shall be in the same state in which they were before the 
war ; nor shaU he or his receive any detriment for anything that 
shaU have taken place during the war. The count of Perche 
shall hold his revenues in full in England, and the king of Eng- 
land and his people shall preserve the peace towards him. The 
count of Mellent shall again enjoy his lands in the territory 
of the king of England. When the king of England shall 
have made peace with the king of Erance, he shall do ser- 
vice and pay all lawful dues, in the court of the king of 
France, for every fee which he holds of him, in such manner 
as each fee is bound to pay. Also, the king of England shall 
pay to the king of France txventy thousand marks of silver, 
good and pure, Troy weight, payable to him in two years, 



800 AI^^NALS OF KOGEE DE HOVEDEIS'. A.D. 1193. 

at the following periods : at the end of the first half year, from 
the day of his liberation from the custody of the emperor, five 
thousand marks ; at the end of the next half year, from that 
period, five thousand marks ; at the end of the next half year^ 
from that period, Avo thousand marks ; and at the end of the 
next half year from that period, the remaining five thousand 
marks of silver. As security for the observance of all these 
covenants, the king of England shall deliver to the king of 
France Loches and Chatillon sur Saone, and to the archbishop 
of Rheims, Driencourt and Arches. These four castles also 
shall be maintained at the expense of the king of England on 
the following terms : William des Eoches, or he who shall be 
in his place, shall deliver to the king of Erance two thousand 
pounds Anjouin each month, which shall suffice for a month; 
and he shall always place in the said castles as much provisions 
as shall suffice for two months; in Loches, for eleven knights and 
a hundred and forty men-at-arms; in Chatillon, for four knights 
and forty men-at-arms. For Driencourt and Arches, the senes- 
chal of Normandy shall make arrangements for provisions and 
garrison according to the will and option of the archbishop 
of Rheims. In case all the aforesaid covenants shall be fully 
observed to the king of Erance, then, when five thousand 
marks of silver shall have been paid on behalf of the king of 
England to the king of Erance, the king of Erance shall re- 
store to him such one of the aforesaid castles as the king of" 
France shall think fit. And, again, when five thousand marks 
of silver shall have been paid on behalf of the king of England 
to the king of Erance, the king of Erance shall restore to him 
another such one of the aforesaid castles as the king of Erance 
shall think fit. Eut, if ten thousand marks shall be paid at 
the same time to the king of Erance, on behalf of the 
king of England, the king of Erance shall restore to him such 
two^^ of the said four castles as the king of Erance shall think 
fit. And, if fifteen thousand marks shall be paid at the 
same time to the king of Erance, the king of Erance shall re- 
store to him such three of the said four castles as the king of 
Erance shall think fit. And, if the whole twenty thousand 
marks shall be paid at the same time to the king of Erance, 
the said four castles shall be restored to the king of England. 
The king of Erance, however, shall restore not one of the said 
four castles unless the said covenants as to paying the afore- 
^ *' Domino," is clearly a misprint for " duo." 



A.D. 1193. TEEATY OF. PEACE WITH THE KING OF FRANCE. 301 

said sum of money, as to earl John, as to count Louis, as to the 
count of Angouleme and his people, as to the count of Perche, 
and as to the count of Mellent, shall be duly observed by him and 
bis. Also, when the king of France shall have received pos- 
session of Loches and Chatillon, and the archbishop of Eheims 
of Driencourt and Arches, the king of France will receive the 
king of England into his favour for the carrying out of the afore- 
said covenants, according to the tenor of this present instrument, 
and will entreat the emperor to set the king of England at 
liberty. The said chancellor, and William des Eoches, John 
de Pratelles, and William Bruyere, have also sworn upon the 
soul of the king of England that the king of England shall ob- 
serve the covenants which are contained in the present instru- 
ment, and that, when the king of England shall return, he shall, 
in his own person, make oath within a reasonable time after 
he shall have been summoned by the king of France, that 
be will observe the aforesaid covenants, and will give to him 
bis letters patent thereon. In addition to this, the four per- 
sons aforesaid, and with them the constable of JSTormandy, Eo- 
bert de Harpncourt, and Stephen de Longchamp, have made 
oath that, if the king of England shall not observe the afore- 
said covenants, they will, at Paris, place themselves in the 
custody of the king of France. Such of the archbishops, 
bishops, and barons of the territory of the king of England, 
as the king of France shall think fit, shall, when called upon, 
make oath that they will, at Paris, place themselves in the 
custody of the king of France, if the king of England shall not 
observe the aforesaid covenants, according to the tenor of this 
present treaty. And if the king of England shall chance to 
lie before the king of France shall have restored the said four 
castles, then the king of France shall restore the said four 
sastles to his right heir, in consideration of his performing the 
said covenants, according to the tenor of this present treaty, 
saving always the rights of the king of France. To the end 
that all the matters aforesaid may remain ratified and in- 
riolate, I, William, bishop of Ely, chancellor of the king of 
England, and I, William des Eoches, and I, John de Pratelles, 
md I, William Bruyere, have, by command of our lord the 
king of England, corroborated the same with the attestation 
of our respective seals. Done at Mayenne, in the year from 
the Incarnation of our Lord one thousand one hundred and 
oinety-three, on the eighth day before the ides of July/' 



302 AlS^NALS OF KOGEE DE HO^EDEIS-. A.D. 1193. 

In the same year, Eichard, king of England, while he was 
still in the custody of the Roman emperor, gave to Hubert 
Fitz- Walter, archbishop of Salisbury, the archbishopric of Can- 
terbury, to Savaric, archdeacon of Northampton, the bishopric 
of Bath, and to Henry Marshal, dean of York, the bishopric of 
Exeter ; also, to Master Philip of Poitiers, his clerk, the king 
gave the archdeaconry of Canterbury, to Henry, abbat of Glas- 
tonbury, he gave the bishopric of Worcester, and to the said 
Savaric, bishop of Bath, he gave the abbey of Glastonbury. 
Accordingly, on Henry Marshal, the dean of York, being elected 
to the bishopric of Exeter, Geoffrey, archbishop of York, who 
was at this time staying at Ripon, gave to his brother Peter 
the deanery of York, in presence of Hamo, the praecentor, 
Simon of Apulia, and a considerable number of his other 
clerks. But because the said Peter was at this time at Paris, 
and Richard, king of England, most urgently demanded 
that the archbishop would give the deanery to John, prior of 
Douay, brother of the Advocate of Bethune, the said arch- 
bishop, by the advice of his people, gave the deanery to Simon 
of Apulia, his clerk, and by this method evaded the king's 
request. 

But, some time after, the archbishop wanted to undo what 
he had done ; and told the said Simon that he had only given 
the deanery into his charge to be kept in behalf of his brother 
Peter ; on which the canons of the church of York, with one 
consent, elected the said Simon as their dean, though contrary 
to the wishes of the archbishop. In consequence, of this, the 
said archbishop, in order that he might please the king, gave 
to the aforesaid master Philip,^ clerk to the king, and one of 
his household, the said deanery ; on which a dissension broke 
out between the archbishop of York and his canons ; of which 
the following was the cause and origin. 

At the time when Richard, king of England, on his return 
from the land of Jerusalem, had been made prisoner and de- 
tained in Germany, and an agreement had been entered into 
between him and the emperor, as to obtaining his release by 
ransom, the king had, by his letters, especially entrusted to 
the archbishop of York the charge of his territories and the 
liberation of his person. On receiving this command, being 
moved with sorrow for his brother's captivity, he called upon 
those canons with whom he was most familiarly acquainted, 
1 Philip of Poitiers, archdeacon of Canterbury, before mentioned. 



A.D. ins. POPE CLEMENT SENDS THE PALL TO HUBERT. 303 

and whom he had enriched and exalted, and advised and en^ 
treated them to give the fourth part of their revenues towards 
^the liberation of the said king, as had been already done in 
other parts of the kingdom. To this they objected, and, getting 
the other canons to join their party, asserted that, in this ease 
and other similar ones, he was wishful to subvert the liberties 
of their church ; and accordingly withdrew from his acquaint- 
anceship, and all converse and communication with him. 

At this time, as already-mentioned, the deanery of the church 
of York was vacant, the presentation to which the archbishop 
asserted to belong to himself, while the chapter declared thnt 
the election lay in their hands. Consequently, an appeal was 
made on behalf of the archbishop to the Apostolic See ; but 
for all this, the chapter proceeded to the election of master 
Simon of Apulia as dean ; after which, the said Simon crossed 
over to the king, who, as previously mentioned, was at this time 
in Germany. Messengers were also sent by the archbishop to 
the Apostolic See for the purpose of urging the appeal, but 
so as to pass through Germany and see the king on their 
road. On their coming before the king and paying their re- 
spects to him, and declaring the causes of their journey, the 
king forbade either side going for this reason to the Eoman 
Court, and forbade the person who should attempt to do so, 
without his consent, to enter his kingdom, declaring that he 
woiild, without delay, effect a reconciliation between them. 

Accordingly, one of the messengers of the archbishop re- 
turned to him with, letters from the king, signifying that he 
was, with all haste, to come to him, as, indeed, he had pur- 
posed, but was hindered by circumstances of an emergent 
nature. For, in the meantime, the canons of York had sus- 
pended the great church from the usual celebration of Divine 
service, and the bells from being rung as usual ; on account of 
which the whole city was in commotion. They also stripped 
the altars, and placed a lock on the archbishop's stall in the 
choir ; they also locked up the door by which he entered the 
church when coming from his palace and chapel thither, and 
did many other things for the purpose of insulting him. 

Consequently, when he was just ready to embark, he returned 
to his church from the coast, and sent before some of his clerks 
to warn and command the servants of the church, to observe the 
ancient forms, and to perform the service therein ; but, setting 
at nought his warning and commands, they left the church 



804 ANNUS OF ROGER DE HOTliDEN. A.D. 1193. 

(^mpty, and deprived of the celebration of Divine service 
therein. 

In the same year, pope Clement sent the pall to Hubert 
Eitz- Walter, the archbishop elect of Canterburj^ In the same 
year, Philip, king of France, married Botilda,^ daughter of 
Waldemar, the former king of Denmark, and sister of Canute, 
the then reigning king of Denmark, at Amiens, on a Saturday, 
in the month of September ; and on the following day had her 
crowned and consecrated queen of France before the envoys 
of the king of Denmark who had escorted her to him, with 
the intention that the said king of Denmark might be induced 
to invade England with a naval armament. But, on the mor- 
row after the first night on which the said king of France had 
known his said wife, after having consummated the marriage, 
he wished to send her away. However, when he wanted to 
place her in the hands of the envoys of her brother, they de- 
clined to receive her, but departed in all haste and returned 
to their own country, while she remained in the hands of the 
king of France, her husband ; and, shortly after, a divorce was 
effected between them by William, archbishop of Hheims, and, 
upon the oaths of Eeginald, bishop of Chartres, Philip, bishop 
of Beauvais, Eobert, count de Drues, the count de ^N^evers, 
Walter, the chamberlain of the king of France, and many 
other persons, who swore that the said daughter of the king 
of Denmark was cousin of the earl of Hainault, whose daugTiter 
the said king of France had previously married. But the 
reason for the king of France acting thus, was, that he might ^ 
marry the daughter of the count Palatine of the Ehine, in 
Germany, the uncle of the before-named emperor of the Eo- 
mans. However, when she was offered by her father and her 
other relations to the king of France, she refused to have him ; 
and, by the advice of her mother, she married Henry, duke of 
Saxony, nephew of Eichard, king of England. 

In the meantime, Walter, archbishop of Eouen, and the 
other justiciaries of England, received for the king's ransom, 
from every knight's fee, twenty shillings, and the fourth part . 
of all the incomes of the laity, and all the chalices of the 
churches, besides the other treasures of tlie church. Some 
of the bishops, also, took from the clergy the fourth part of 
their revenues, while others took a tenth, for the ransom of the 
said king. The same was done throughout all the king's ter- 
- Roger of Wendover calls her " Ingelburg." 



A. D. 1193. LETTER OF RICHAED, KING OF ENGLAND. 305 

ritories beyond sea, and in this way they amassed an end- 
less amount of money. After this, the emperor's messengers 
came to London, and there received the greater part of the 
king's ransom by weight and measure, and delivered the same, 
under the attestation of their seals, to persons who were to take 
it to the borders of the empire, at the risk of the king of Eng- 
land. The said emperor also gave to the king of England 
the lands under- written : Provence, Vienne, the Yiennais, 
Marseilles, JSTarbonne, Arles-le-Blanc, and Laon-sur-Rhone, 
as far as the Alps, and whatever the emperor possessed in 
Burgundy, as also the homage of the king of Arragon, the 
homage of the count of Diziers, and the homage of the count of 
Saint Gilles. It deserves to be known that in these territories 
there are five archbishoprics and thirty- three bishoprics. It 
ought also to be known that the emperor was never able to 
establish his dominion over the said territories and subjects, 
nor would they, upon the nomination of the emperor, accept 
of any superior lord. 

The king of England immediately sent to England for queen 
Eleanor, his mother, and for Walter, archbishop of Rouen, and 
many other persons, to come to him in Germany, and appointed 
Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, chief justiciary in England. 
In the meantime, Henry, emperor of the Romans, by the ad- 
vice of the principal men of his empire, named as the day 
for the liberation of Richard, king of England, the second day 
of the week ensuing after the expiration of three weeks from 
the day of the Nativity of our Lord ; ^ on which the king of 
England wrote to Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, to the 
follo^\ing effect : — 

The Letter of Richard, king of England, to Hubert, arehlishop 
of Canterhury, on his liheratio7i, 

^* Richard, by the grace of God, king of England, duke of 
N'ormandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, to the venerable 
father in Christ, and his most dearly-beloved friend, Hubert, by 
the same grace, archbishop of Canterbury, health and the fuU- 
aess of his sincere affection. Inasmuch as we feel certain that 
70U greatly long for our liberation, and that our liberation will 
very greatly delight you, we do therefore desire that you should 
be partakers of our joy. Eor this reason it is that we have 
thought proper to make known to your affection, that his Iqrd- 
3 The next Monday three weeks. 

VOL. rr. X 



306 ANNALS OF EOGER DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1193. 

ship the emperor has appointed a certain day for our liberation, 
namely, the Monday ne;s:t ensuing after the twentieth day from 
the day of the Nativity of our Lord ; and on the Lord's day then 
next ensuing, we shall be crowned king of the kingdom of Pro- 
vence, which he has given unto us. Wherefore, we do send into 
England to you the letters patent of our lord the emperor rela- 
tive hereto, as also to the rest of our friends and well-wishers ; 
and do you in the meantime, to the best of your power, endea- 
vour to console those whom you know to love us, and whom 
you know to long for our release. Witness myself at Spires, 
this twenty-second day of September.'* 

The Letter of the emperor Henry to the nobles of England, on the 
liberation of Richard^ Mng of England, 

** Henry, by the grace of God, emperor of the Romans, and 
ever august, to his dearly-beloved friends, the archbishops, 
bishops, earls, barons, knights, and all the faithful subjects of 
Richard, the illustrious king of England, his favour and every 
blessing. We have thought proper to intimate to all and every 
of you, that we have appointed a certain day for the liberation 
of our dearly-beloved friend, your lord, Richard, the illustrious 
king of the English, being the second day of the week next 
ensuing after the expiration of three weeks from the day of the 
^N'ativity of our Lord, at Spires, or else at Worms; and we have 
appointed seven days after that as the day of his coronation as 
king of Provence, which we have promised to him ; and this 
you are to consider as certain and undoubted. For it is our 
purpose and our will to exalt and most highly to honor your 
aforesaid lord, as being our especial friend. Given at The- 
alluse, on the vigil of Saint Thomas the Apostle.'' 

But before this treaty was confirmed between the emperor 
and the king, the king sent William, bishop of Ely, his chan- 
cellor, and other envoys, into France, to earl John, his brother, 
and prevailed upon him to return to Normandy, and to swear 
fealty and peace to the king, his brother, against all men. The 
king also gave orders that all the castles of the honors which 
he had given to him, on either side of the sea, should be deli- 
vered up to him ; but their keepers, notwithstanding the king's 
writ, refused to deliver up to him any of the said castles. The 
earl, being enraged at this, returned to the king of France, and 
became his adherent ; on which the king of France delivered 



A.D. 1194, ENYOYS SEKT TO THE EMPEEOE OF THE EOMANS. 307 

to him the castle of Driencourt, and the castle of Arches, which 
were to have been delivered to William, archbishop of Eheims. 

In the same year, Berengaria, queen of England, Joanna, 
queen of Sicily, and the daughter of the emperor of Cyprus, 
came to Eome, under the charge of Stephen de Turnham, and 
were honorably received by our lord the pope, Celestinus, and 
the nobles of Eome ; and they stayed there nearly half a year, 
thj-ough fear of the emperor. When they departed thenee, 
our lord the pope gave them into the charge of Master Mellur, 
a cardinal ; on which they proceeded to Pisa, thence to Genoa, 
and thence to Marseilles. At Marseilles they were received 
by the king of Arragon, who paid them all due honor and 
respect, and escorted them to the borders of his kingdom, on 
which the count of Saint Gilles escorted them through his terri- 
tory ; and thus they arrived in Poitou. 

In the year of grace 1194, being the second year of the cap- 
tivity of Eichard, king of England, the said Eichard was still 
in the custody of the emperor of the Eomans, at Spires, in 
Germany, on the day of the N^ativity of our Lord, which took 
place on a Saturday ; and there he remained until the time of 
his liberation which the emperor had appointed for him, that 
is to say, the second day of the week after the expiration 
of three weeks from the day of the Nativity of our Lord. After 
the emperor had arrived there, together with the archbishops, 
bishops, dukes, and nobles of his empire, and had discussed 
at length the liberation of the king of England, there came to 
the emperor envoys from the king of France, and envoys from 
John, earl of Mortaigne, brother of the king of England ; and 
they made offer to the emperor, on behalf of the king of Erance, 
of fifty thousand marks of silver, and on behalf of earl John of 
fifty thousand marks of silver, on condition that he should 
keep the king of England in his custody until the Eeast of 
Saint Michael the Archangel next ensuing; or, if the emperor 
should prefer it, they would pay him at the end of every month, 
so long as he should detain the king of England in his custody, 
one thousand pounds of silver ; or, again, if the emperor should 
prefer it, the king of Erance would give him one hundred 
thousand marks of silver, and the earl John would give him 
fifty thousand marks of silver, on condition that he would de- 
liver up to them the king of England, or at least detain him 
in his custody for the space of one year from that time. Be- 
hold, how they loved him ! After hearing them, the emperor 

X 2 



308 ANNALS OF ROGER DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1194. 

put off the day of the liberation of the king of England, and 
appointed another day for his liberation, namely, the day of 
the Purification of Saint Mary, and at Mentz. 

In the meantime, Geoffrey, archbishop of York, on the 
eighth day before the Nativity of our Lord, came to York, and, 
by the advice of prudent men, appointed ministers for the 
metropolitan church of York, which he found deserted, in 
order that they might, as was fitting, perform Divine service 
in the said church. And this was accordingly observed, until 
the canons and their chaplains, by means of the influence 
and violence of the laity, were restored. After this, four of 
the chief men of the church, who, in consequence of the sus- 
pension of service in the said church, had been excommunicated, 
crossed over to the king who was then set at liberty, and, re- 
ceiving permission from him, because he was angry that the 
archbishop had not come as he had been commanded by him, 
set out for Eome. Against them, deputies were also sent thither 
by the archbishop. 

Each side accordingly appearing in presence of pope Celes- 
tinus, the election of the dean was discussed at great length, and 
after due deliberation, as it was acknowledged to have taken 
place after appeal duly made, it was therefore to be annulled, 
or rather to be pronounced as having been null and void. Our 
lord the pope, also, being wishful for the present to avoid pro- 
nouncing a decision in the matter, w^hether the presentation 
to the deanery of right belonged to the archbishop or to the 
chapter, relying on his own power, the extent of which it is 
lawful for no one to question, saving always for the future the 
rights both of the archbishop as also of the chapter, gave the 
deanery to the before -named Simon of Apulia, and confirmed, 
and with his golden ring invested him with the same. 

This matter being thus disposed of, they immediately pro- 
ceeded to slander and accusations against the said archbishop, 
declaiing that he was a violent spoliator of themselves and 
the other clergy, a dishonest extortioner, that he had with 
an armed band broken open the doors of churches, had simo- 
niacally divided and retained in his own hands ecclesiastical 
benefices, that he had paid no regard to appeals, and had set at 
nought the privileges of the Eoman Pontiff, and, to express it 
in a few words, asserted that he quite despised his duties as 
archbishop, and was devoted to hawking, hunting, and other 
military pursuits. For these, and for other reasons, they sought ^ 



A.D. 1194. LIBERATION OF RICHAED, KING OF ENGLAND. 309 

to depose him ; and they in especial, whom he had enriched 
with the greatest honors, and with inestimable wealth and 
revenues in the church of York, and beyond what, with due 
regard to God, he ought to have done. Of such it is, that the 
Lord saith, ^^ I have nourished and brought up children, and 
they have rebelled against me.'"* Therefore, let them beware, 
lest the just Judge despise them, and lest with the traitor 
Judas they be condemned to hell. 

These allegations being made, our lord the pope wrote to 
Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, and his fellow judges, that if there 
should be any to accuse the archbishop on these charges, they 
should carefully hear what was alleged on either side, and 
after enquiry into the truth thereof, send their report, sealed 
with their seals, to the Apostolic See. But, if no accuser 
should appear, and the archbishop should be attacked by pub- 
lic rumour, they were to call upon him to clear himself by 
the testimony of three bishops and as many abbats. Eut, as 
the archbishop had appealed before the citation of the judges, 
and had proceeded on the road for the purpose of urging his 
appeal, the said judges, in accordance with the contents of the 
rescript of our lord the pope, assigned him a space of three months 
for the said appeal, appointing the calends of July as the day for 
his appearance. The archbishop, however, did not appear at the 
time so named, both on account of the king's prohibition, as also 
by reason of the unwholesomeness of the atmosphere that then 
prevailed at Rome. His clerks, however, who were at this 
time staying at the court of Eome, alleging the above as the 
causes of his absence, obtained of the pope, that whatever had 
been done against the archbishop in the meantime, after his 
appeal, should be revoked, as being null and void ; because it was 
not his fault that he had not come to the court of Eome; and 
the time on which he was to present himself in the Apos- 
tolical presence was fixed by our lord the pope, upon the 
octave of the feast of Saint Martin, then next ensuing. Eut 
because not even then he appeared in the Eoman court, either 
personally, or by sufficient proxj^, he was at the JSTativity of 
our Lord next ensuing, suspended from the performance of all 
episcopal duties. 

The liberation of RicJia/rd^ Icing of England. 
In the meantime, Henry, emperor of the Eomans, with the 

^ Is. i. 2. 



310 ANNALS OE ROGEK DE HOVEDEN. A. D. 1194. 

nobles of his empire, and Eichard, king of England, with queen 
Eleanor, his mother, Walter, archbishop of Eouen, William, 
bishop of Ely, his chancellor, and Savaric, bishop of Bath, met 
at Mentz, on the Purification of Saint Mary, and, a con- 
ference being there held as to the liberation of the king of 
England, the emperor wished, in his eagerness for the money 
which the king of France and earl John had offered him, to 
recede from his agreement. Bringing with him the envoys from 
the king of France and the envoys from earl John, in whose 
number was Eobert de Nunant, brother of Hugh, bishop of 
Coventry, he delivered to the king of England the letters of 
the king of France and of earl John for him to read, wtich 
they had sent to prevent his liberation. On seeing and read- 
ing these, the king was very much disturbed and confused, 
and despaired of his liberation. 

Accordingly, by his summons, the emperor convened on this 
subject the archbishops of Mentz, Cologne, and Saltzburg, the 
bishops of Worms, Spires, and Liege, the duke of Suabia, , 
the brother of the emperor, the dukes of Austria and Lou- 
vain, the count Palatine of the Ehine, and the other nobles 
of the empire who had been sureties on behalf of the emperor 
between Mm and the king of England for his performance of 
the articles agreed upon between them. These boldly appeared 
before the emperor, and reproved him most severely for attempt- 
ing in so shameless a manner to recede from his agreement, 
and prevailed upon him to release and dismiss the king of Eng- 
land from his custody : a stipulation, however, having been 
made that the king of England should deliver to the emperor 
Walter, archbishop of Eouen, Savaric, bishop of Bath, Bald- 
win Wac, and many others of his earls and barons, as hos- 
tages for the payment of the remainder of the money due 
for his ransom, and for his keeping the peace towards the 
emperor and his empire, and all the lands of his dominions. 

Accordingly, the archbishops of Mentz and Cologne delivered 
him, free and released by the emperor, into the hands of his 
mother Eleanor, on the day before^ the nones of February, 
being the sixth day of the week, an Egyptian day, or what 
the people of modern times call an unlucky day ; and so, upon 
an unlucky day, the Lord restored him to liberty. On the said 
king asking Eobert de Nunant, brother of Hugh, bishop of 
Coventry, to be one of his hostages, Eobert made answer that 

^ The 4th February : other writers say that it was the 2nd February. 



AD. 1194. LIBERATION OF RICHARD, KING OF ENGLAND. 311 

he was a liegeman of earl John, and, therefore, declined to he a 
hostage for him ; at which the king being incensed, ordered him 
to be seized and thrown into prison, which was accordingly 
done. 

On the same day on which the king was set at liberty from 
the custody of the emperor, he sent one Salt de Bruil, as his 
messenger, to his nephew, Henry, count of Champagne, in Sulia, 
and the other Christian princes, informing them of the day of 
his liberation ; and that, if God should grant him vengeance 
against his enemies, and peace, he would come by the time. ap- 
pointed to succour them against the pagans. He also promised 
to the said Salt de Bruil that he would give him lands to the 
value of forty pounds on his return from the land of Sulia. 
On the same day, the king, by his letters, summoned Hugh, 
bishop of Coventry, to appear in his court, and to take his 
trial before the bishops, because he himself was a bishop, and 
before certain laymen, because he held under him a layman's 
office, upon the charges that were made against him. 

On the same day, the emperor of the Eomans, and the arch- 
bishops, bishops, dukes, and counts of the empire, joining in a 
letter in common, and appending their seals thereto, sent word 
to the king of France and to earl John, immediately upon 
sight of the said letter to restore to the king of England the 
castles, cities, fortresses, towns, lands, and all other things 
which they had taken from him, while he had been in the 
custody of the emperor ; and, unless they did so, they were to 
know for certain that they would aid the king of England to 
the utmost of their power, in recovering everything that he 
had lost. After this, the king of England made promise of, and 
by his charters confirmed, to certain archbishops, bishops, 
dukes, and counts, and many of the barons of the empire, yearly 
revenues, for their homage and fealty, and aid against the king 
of France. He accordingly received the homage of the arch- 
bishop of Mentz, the archbishop of Cologne, the bishop of 
Liege, the duke of Austria, the duke of Louvain, the marquis 
of Montferrat, the duke of Nemburg,^ the duke of Suabia, the 
brother of the emperor, the count Palatine of the Rhine, the 
son of the count of Hainault, the count of Holland, and many 
others, saving always their fealty to the emperor. 

It ought also to be known that the king of England was in 
captivity with the emperor during a period of one year, six 
weeks, and three daj^s. 

^ Probably meaning Mecklenburgh. 



312 ANNALS OF ROGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1194. 

On the king being set at liberty, all who were present shed 
tears of joy. The emperor then gave to the king a safe con- 
duct as far as the port of Antwerp. On the king reaching 
Cologne, the archbishop of Cologne received him with joy; and, 
in his delight at his liberation, celebrated the follovdng mass : 
— ^* Nunc scio vere^ quia misit Dominus angelum suu7n, et 
eripuit me de manu Serodis, et de expectatione plehis Judceoruniy^ 
&gJ And, when the king took his departure thence, the 
said archbishop escorted him as far as the gate of Antwerp, 
where the river Rhine falls into the sea.® On the king arriving 
at this place, he embarked on board the galley of Alan Trenche- 
mere, in order that in it he might more easily pass among the 
islands ; but each night he left the galley and went on board 
a large and very fine ship which had come from Rye, and lay on 
board of it at night, and then, in the daytime, returned on board 
the galley, until he arrived at the port of Swiene, which is 
in rianders, in the territory of the count of Hainault, having 
been four days on his voyage from the port of Antwerp to the 
port of Swiene ; and he made a stay of five days in the port of 
Swiene. On the sixth day, about the third hour, he left the 
port of Swiene ; and, on the day after, about the ninth hour, 
landed in England, at the port of Sandwich, it being the third 
day before the ides of March, ^ and the Lord's Day. 

In the meantime, there came into England, not long before the 
king's arrival, Adam, of Saint Edmund's, a clerk, and one of the 
household of earl John, being sent by him to England with 
letters for the purpose of fortifying his castles against the king, 
his brother. Having come to London, and it being in his 
power to cross over without any hindrance, he went to the 
mansion of Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, and dined 
with him; where he uttered many boasts about the prosperous 
circumstances of his master, and the familiar acquaintanceship 
that existed between the king of Erance and his master, and 
mentioned that the king of Erance had delivered up to him 
the castle of Driencourt and the castle of Arches, which were 
to have been placed in the hands of the archbishop of Rheims, 
according to the terms of the writing above-mentioned, and 

7 " Now I know of a surety that the Lord hath sent his angel, and hath 
delivered me out of the hand of Herod, and from all the expectation of the 
people of the Jews." Acts xii. 11. The commencement of the introit on 
the feast of Saint Peter and Saint Paul. 

8 Our Chronicler is at fault in his geography here. ^ The i2th March. 



A.D. 1194. THE BISHOP OF DUEnAM LEVIES AN AEMT. 313 

said that he would have deKvered stU more to his master, if 
his master had had men in whom he could place confidence. 

The consequence was, that with these and similar boasts he 
exasperated the lord archbishop of Canterbury, and all who 
heard these speeches ; but still, from respect to the table, no one 
laid hands on him. However, after dinner, when the before- 
named Adam was on his return to his lodging, the mayor of 
London laid hands on him, and detained him, and took pos- 
session of all his documents, in which were contained the com- 
mands of earl John, and gave them up to the archbishop of 
Canterbury. On the following day, having convened in his 
presence the bishops, earls, and barons of the kingdom, he 
shewed them the letters of earl John, and the purport thereof ; 
immediately on which, by the common consent of the council 
of the kingdom, it was decided that earl John should be dis- 
seised of all his lands in England, and that his castles should 
be besieged ; which was accordingly done. 

On the same day, Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, Hugh, 
bishop of Lincoln, Richard, bishop of London, Gilbert, bishop 
of Rochester, Godfrey, bishop of Winchester, the bishops of 
Worcester and Hereford, and Henry, bishop elect of Exeter, 
together with the abbats and many of the clergy of the pro- 
vince of Canterbury, met together in the chapel of the Sick 
Monks at Westminster, and pronounced sentence of excom- 
munication against earl John, and all his abettors and advisers, 
who had disturbed the peace and kingdom of the king of Eng- 
land, or should disturb the same, unless, desisting from their 
hostilities, they should come to give him satisfaction. They 
then appealed to the presence of our lord the pope, against 
William, bishop of Ely, in order that he might not in future 
discharge the duties of the legateship in England, and, confirm- 
ing their appeal with their seals, sent the same to our lord the 
king, and then to the Supreme Pontiff, for his confirmation. 
This appeal was made on the fourth day before the ides of 
February, being the fifth day of the week. 

Upon this, all the persons who had charge of the siege of 
the castles belonging to earl John, returned to their homes. ^^ 
Accordingly, the bishop of Durham, to whom had been en- 
trusted the siege of the castle of Tickhill, levied a large army 
in Yorkshire and Northumberland, and other parts of his limds, 

^0 This seems contradicted by what follows, unless we take " patrias 
suas " to mean " their respective districts." 



314 ANNALS OF BOGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1194. 

and laid siege to it. Earl David, also, brother of the king of | 
Scotland, with Eanulph, earl of Chester, and the earl of Ferrers, 
with a great army, laid siege to Nottingham castle. The ai'ch- 
bishop of Canterbury, also, with a large force, laid siege to 
Marlborough, which was in a few days surrendered to him, 
safety to life and limb being granted to the garrison. In like 
manner, the castle of Lancaster, of which Theobald Fitz waiter, 
his brother, had charge in behalf of earl John, was surrendered 
to him ; Saint Michael's Mount, in Cornwall, was also surren- 
dered to him, which Henry de la Pomeroy, after expelling the 
monks, had fortified against the king ; and the said Henry, on 
hearing of the king's arrival, died of fright. 

These three castles, however, Marlborough, Lancaster, and 
Saint Michael's Mount, were surrendered before the king's 
arrival ; while the other two, namely, !N'ottingham and Tick- 
hill, made a stout resistance to the besiegers. But, on 
hearing of the king's arrival, the people in the castle of 
Tickhill, with the permission of the bishop of Durham, sent 
two knights to see if the king really had returned, and to offer 
their castle to him. The king, however, refused to receive it, 
unless they would place themselves at his mercy, without any 
exception ; and accordingly they returned, and told Robert de 
la Mare, the constable of the castle, and the rest of the garrison, 
the king's intentions. Upon this, after conferring with the 
bishop of Durham, who had promised them safety to life and 
limb, they surrendered to him, in the king's behalf, the castle 
of Tickhill. 

The garrison, however, of the castle of Nottingham did not 
send any of their number to meet the king. The king, being 
consequently much exasperated, came to Nottingham on the day 
of the Annunciation of our Lord, being the sixth day of the 
week, with such a vast multitude of men, and such a clangor 
of trumpets and clarions, that those who were in the castle, on 
hearing and seeing this, were astonished, and were confounded 
and alarmed, and trembling came upon them; but still they 
could not believe that the king had come, and supposed that the 
whole of this was done by the chiefs of the army for the purpose 
of deceiving them. The king, however, took up his quarters 
near to the castle, so that the archers of the castle pierced thei 
king's men at his very feet. The king, being incensed at this, 
put on his armour, and commanded his army to make an assault 
on the castle ; on which a sharp engagement took place between 



A.D. 1194. THE BESIEGED IMPLOKE THE KInVs MEECY. 315 

them and the people in the castle, and many fell on both sides, 
killed and wounded. The king himself slew one knight with 
an arrow, and having at last prevailed, drove them back into 
the castle, took some outworks which they had thrown up with- 
out the gates, and burned the outer gates. 

On the same day came thither Hubert, the archbishop of 
Canterbury, having his cross carried before him. Geoifrey, 
archbishop of York, however, did not have his cross carried, but 
made complaint to the king about the archbishop, who had 
caused his cross to be carried in the diocese of York. When 
the archbishop of Canterbury heard this, and saw that the arch- 
bishop of York did not have his carried, he made answer, *' I 
carry my cross throughout the whole of England, and I ought 
to cany it, as being primate of the whole of England ; whereas 
you do not carry your cross, and, perhaps, you ought not to 
carry it ; and therefore, matters standing as they do, I make 
appeal to my lord the pope." 

On the twenty-sixth day of the month of March, the king 
of England ordered his stone-engines to be put together, hav- 
ing come to the determination that he would not make another 
assault on the castle until his engines of war had been got in 
readiness ; but he ordered gibbets to be erected near the castle, 
on which he hanged some men-at-arms of earl John, who had 
been taken prisoners outside of the castle. 

On the twenty- seventh day of the month of March, Hugh, 
bishop of Durham, and those who were with him at the siege 
of the castle of Tickhill, came to the king at Nottingham, bring- 
ing with them the prisoners who had been taken in the castle 
of Tickhill ; on which the king went forth to meet them. On 
seeing the king the bishop of Durham dismounted, and the 
king, in like manner, went to meet him and embraced him ; 
after which, remounting their horses, they repaired to the siege. 
On the same day, while the king was sitting at dinner, Ealph 
Murdac, and William de Wendeval, constables of the castle oi 
Nottingham, sent two of their companions to see the king ; who 
after having seen him, returned to the castle, to tell those 
who had sent them what they had heard and seen respecting 
the king and his preparations. 

When William de Wendeval and Eoger de Montbegum 
heard of this, they went forth with twelve others, from the 
castle, and threw themselves upon the king's mercy, and re- 
turned to the castle no more. On the twenty-eighth day of 



316 ANNALS OF EOGEK DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1194. 

March, throngh the mediation of the archbishop of Canterbury, 
Kalph Murdac, Philip de Worcester, and Ralph de Worcester, 
his brother, and all the rest who were in the castle, surrendered 
the castle to the king, and threw themselves on the king's 
mercy, for life, and limb, and worldly honor. 

On the twenty-ninth day of March, Richard, king of Eng- 
land, went to see Clipston and the forests of Sherwood, 
which he had never seen before, and they pleased him greatly ; 
after which, on the same daj^, he returned to IN'ottingham. 
On the thirty-first day of March, being the fourth day of the 
week, Eichard, king of England, held the first day of his 
council at JSTottingham, at which were present queen Eleanor, 
the king's mother, Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, who 
at that council sat on the king's right hand, Geoffrey, 
archbishop of York, who sat on his left hand, Hugh, bishop 
of Durham, Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, William, bishop of Ely, 
the king's chancellor, William, bishop of Hereford, Henry, 
bishop of Worcester, Henry, bishop of Exeter, Johia, 
bishop of Whitherne, earl David, brother of the king of Scot- 
land, Hamelin, earl of Warenne, Ranulph, earl of Chester, 
William, earl of Eerrers, William, earl of Salisbury, and 
Roger Eigot. 

On the same day, the king dispossessed Gerard de CamviUe 
of the castle and shrievalty of Lincoln, and Hugh Eardolph 
of the shrievalty of Yorkshire, and of the castle of York, and 
of Scarborough, and of the custodianship of Westmoreland, 
and set up all the offices before-mentioned for sale. Ac- 
cordingly, after the chancellor had offered to give the king for 
the shrievalty of Yorkshire, the shrievalty of Lincolnshire, 
and the shrievalty of Northamptonshire, one thousand five 
hundred marks at the beginning of the agreement, and every 
year an additional hundred marks for each of the said counties, 
Geofirey, archbishop of York, offered the king three thousand 
marks for the shrievalty of York, and every year an additional 
hundred marks ; on which, the chancellor being outbid, the 
archbishop obtained the shrievalty of York, and accordingly 
became a servant of the king, and threw himself into the 
king's power. 

On the thirty-first day of the month of March, that is to 
say, on the day before, the calends of April, the king of Eng- 
land held the second day of his council, at which he demanded 
judgTQent to be pronounced against earl John, his brother, who. 



A.D. 1194. COMPLAINTS AGAINST THE AECHBISHOP OF TOEK. 317 

against the fealty which he had sworn to him, had taken pos- 
session of his castles, laid waste his lands on both sides of the 
sea, and had made a treaty against him with his enemy, the 
king of France. In like manner, against Hugh de I^unant, 
bishop of Coventry, he demanded judgment to be pronounced, 
who, being aware ^^ of their secret plans, had devoted himself, 
and had given his adherence to the king of France and earl 
John, his enemies, devising all kinds of mischief to the injury 
of his kingdom. Judgment was accordingly given, that earl 
John and the bishop of Coventry should be peremptorily cited, 
and if they should not come within forty days to take their 
trial, they pronounced that earl John had forfeited all rights 
in the kingdom, and that the bishop of Coventry would be 
subjected to the judgment of the bishops, because he him- 
self was a bishop, and of the laity, because he had been a sheriif 
under the king. 

On the calends of April, being the first day of that month, 
the said king of England held the third day of his council, on 
which he enacted that there should be granted to him, out of 
every carucate of land throughout the whole of England, the 
sum of two shillings, which, by the ancients, was called 
Temantale.^^ He then commanded that every man should 
render to him the third part of a knight's service, according as 
each fee would bear, in order to make preparations for crossing 
over with him to J^ormandy He then demanded of the monks 
of the Cistercian order all their wool for the current year ; but 
as this was to inflict a grievous and insupportable burden upon 
them, they made a pecuniary composition with him. 

On the second day of the month of April, being Saturday, 
he held the fourth and last day of his council, upon which all, 
both clergy as well as laity, who wished to make complaint to 
him of the archbishop of York, made their complaints, which 
were many in number, as to his extortions and unjust exac- 
tions; the archbishop of York, however, gave them no answer. 
After this, by the advice and artifices of the chancellor, as it 
is said, Gerard de Camville was arraigned for harbouring some 
robbers, who had plundered the goods of certain merchants 

1^ ** Conscium " appears to be a mistake for '* conscius," 
12 Holinshed calls this " Tee men toll," or " Theynae toll." There is 
some doubt as to the origin of the name, whether it is derived from " tene- 
mentum," or, more probably, from the Saxon, meaning " a toll paid by ten 
men," or " decenniers," the whole of which would amount to a pound. — 
See vol. i. p. 650. 



318 ANNALS OF ROGER J)E HOVEDEN. a.D. 1194. 

going to the fair of Stamford ; and it was said that they had 
set out from his residence for the purpose of committing the 
robbery, and after committing it, had returned to him. They 
also accused him of treason, because he had reftrsed to come 
at the summons of the king's justices, or take his trial as to 
the aforesaid harbouring of the robbers, or produce them 
before the king's justices ; but made answer that he was a 
vassal of earl John, and would take his trial in his court. 
They also arraigned him for having taken up arms, and aiding 
earl John, and others of the king's enemies, in taking the castles 
of Tickhill and !N'ottingham. Gerard de Camville, however, 
denied all these charges which were so made by them against 
him ; on which they gave pledges to follow their suit, and 
Gerard de Camville gave pledge to defend himself by one of his 
freeholders. 

On the same day, our lord the king appointed as the day of 
his coronation, at Winchester, the close of Easter. On the same 
day, the king also proceeded to Clipston, to meet the king of 
the Scots, and gave orders that all who had been taken at the 
castle of jS'ottingham, the castle of Tickhill, the castle of Marl- 
borough, the castle of Lancaster, and at Mount Saint Michael, 
should come and meet him at Winchester the day after the 
close of Easter. On the third day of the month of August, 
namely, Palm Sunday, the king of England stayed at Clip- 
ston, and the king of the Scots at Worksop, on account of the 
solemnity of the day. On the fourth day of the month of 
April, the king of England and the king of Scotland came to 
Sewell. On the fifth day of the month of April, the king of 
England and the king of Scotland came toMalton, where the king 
of Scotland demanded of the king of England the dignities and 
honors which his predecessors had enjoyed in England. He 
also demanded that the earldoms of l^orthumberland, Cumber- 
land, and Westmoreland, and the earldom of Lancaster, should 
be given up to him, as of right enjoyed by his predecessors : 
to which the king made answer, that he would satisfy him ac- 
cording to the advice given by his earls and barons. 

On the sixth day of the month of April, the said kings 
came to the house of Peter the Eorester of Eutland. On the 
seventh day of the month of April, the said kings came to 
Gaindinton. On the eighth day of the month of April, the 
said kings stayed at Gaindinton, out of respect for the day of 
the Preparation^^ of our Lord. On the ninth day of the month 

*3 " Parasceue," — Good Friday. 



t 

A.D. 1194. CHAETER GRANTED TO THE KING OF SCOTLAND. 319 

of April, on the vigil of Easter, the said kings arrived at 
^Northampton ; and on the tenth and eleventh days of the 
month of April, the said kings stayed at Northampton, where 
the king of England, taking counsel with his bishops, earls, 
and barons, after due deliberation in the council, made 
answer to the king of Scotland that he ought on no account to 
do what he had requested as to Northumberland, and especi- 
ally in those times, at which nearly all the powerful men of 
the kingdoms of the Franks were at enmity with him. For, 
if he were to do so, it would seem that this was rather the 
effect of fear than of affection. 

However, in the presence of his mother Eleanor, Hubert, 
archbishop of Canterbury, Hugh, bishop of Durham, Jocelyn, 
bishop of Glasgow, and many others, both clergy and laity, 
of both kingdoms, the king granted, and by his charter con- 
firmed, to William, king of the Scots, and his heirs for ever, 
that whensoever they should, at his summons, come to the 
court of the king of England, the bishop of Durham and the 
sheriff of Northumberland should receive them at the river 
Tweed, and should, with a safe conduct, escort them as far as 
the river Tees, and there the archbishop of York and the sheriff 
of York should receive them, and escort them, with a safe 
conduct, to the borders of the county of York, and so, by the 
respective bishops and sheriffs, they should be escorted from 
county to county, until they should have arrived at the court of 
the king of England ; and that, from the time that the king of 
Scots should enter the territory of the king of England, he 
should have daily from the king's purse one hundred shillings 
for his livery ; and when the king of Scotland should have 
arrived at the court of the king of England, so long as he 
should be staying at the court of the said king of England, he 
should have daily thirty shillings for his livery, and twelve 
wastels^^ for the lords' table, twelve simnels for the lords' 
table, ^^ and four gallons of wine for the lords* table, and eight 

i'* Wastels were a peculiar kind of delicate bread, probably something 
like the rusks of the present day. " Dominicus" is added to describe the 
quality, as probably meaning that these articles of provision were to be of 
the best kind, and suited for the lords' table. 

15 Simnel cakes were probably so called from being made of *' simila,'* 
the finest wheat flour. There were the " siminelli sali," and the " simi- 

Inelli dorainici," the inferior, and the best bread, the latter being unfer- 
raented. They were made in the shape of plates, or cups, and were some- 
times marked with the figure of the Virgin Mary. They are made in 
Shropshire at the present day. 



320 ANN^ALS OF EOGER DE HOVEDEN. a.d. 1194. 

gallons of household wine, two pounds of pepper, four pounds 
of cinnamon, two stone of wax or else four waxen links, 
forty long and thick lengths of best candle, such as is used by 
the king, and eighty lengths of other candle for household pur- 
poses : and that, when he should wish to return to his own 
country, he should be escorted by the bishops and sheriffs from 
county to county, until he should have arrived at the river 
Tweed : and should in like manner have daily one hundred 
shillings from the purse of the king of England for his livery. 

The charter of this grant and confirmation of the king of 
England was delivered to William, king of Scotland, in the 
town of Northampton, on the second day of Easter, by the hand 
of William, bishop of Ely, the king's chancellor. 

In the year from the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ 
1 194, which was also the fifth year of the reign of king Eichard, 
on the twelfth day of the month of April, being the third day 
in Easter week, Eichard, king of England, departed from 
!N'orthampton, and proceeded as far as Selveston ; and Hubert, 
archbishop of Canterbury, and Hugh, bishop of Durham, pro- 
ceeded to Brackley, where was a lodging prepared for the bishop 
of Durham, which he had held for thirty years past at the 
award of the marshal of king Henry. When his entertainment 
had been prepared, the servants of the king of Scotland came 
up and attempted to expel the servants of the bishop, but were 
unable. However, they purchased provisions for the king, and 
prepared the same in a house belonging to the same estate. 
When the bishop of Durham came thither, and was told 
by his people what had taken place, he was determined 
not to move a step thence, but boldly entered his lodging, and 
ordered the tables to be set. While he was at dinner, Hubert, 
the archbishop of Canterbury, came and ofiered him his lodg- 
ing, and advised him to leave that one to the king of Scot- 
land, and quit the house. 

When the king of Scotland, at a late hour, returned from hunt- 
ing, and was informed of what had happened, he was greatly 
offended, and refused to go there, but ordered all that had been 
prepared for him to be given to the poor, while he himself went 
to the king at Silveston, and made complaint to him of the 
insult he had received from the bishop of Durham ; on which, 
the king, being greatly vexed, censured the bishop of Durham. 

On the thirteenth day of the month of April, the king came 
to Woodstock. On the fourteenth day the king came to Eree- 



A.D. 1194, THE SECOND COEONATION OF KING EICHAED. 321 

mantle. On the fifteenth day of the month of April, the king 
of England came to Winchester, and on the same day dispos- 
sessed Godfrey, bishop of Winchester, of the castle and county 
3f Winchester, and of the two manors which the bishop 
iiad bought of him before his departure for Jerusalem, and 
Df a great part of his inheritance. On the sixteenth day of 
the month of April, after dinner, the king of England left 
:he castle of Winchester for the priory of Saint Swithin, and 
ay there that night, and took the bath ; and he sent word to 
eoffrey, the archbishop of York, not to come next day to his 
3oronation with his cross, lest there might happen to be a dis- 
pute between him and the archbishop of Canterbury. Because 
le was forbidden to carry his cross, he declined to be present at 
he king's coronation. 

The Coronation of Richard, Icing of England y after his liberation. 

On the seventeenth day of the month of April, being the Lord's 

lay, and the octave of Easter, there being assembled in the church 

f Saint Swithin, Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, John, arch- 

)ishop of Dublin, Hugh, bishop of Durham, Hugh, bishop of 

Lincoln, Ei chard, bishop of London, Gilbert, bishop of Eochester, 

William, bishop of Ely, Sefrid, bishop of Chichester, Henry, 

ishop of Exeter, William, bishop of Hereford, and the bishops 

f Worcester, Saint David 's and Bangor ; and, many of the 

.bbats, clergy, and people being there present, Eichard, king 

f England, arrayed in royal robes and having a crown of gold 

n his head, proceeded from his chamber, carrying in his 

ight hand the royal sceptre, on the top of which was a re- 

resentation of the cross, and in his left hand a wand of gold, 

»n the top of which was the figure of a dove. On his right 

and walked William, bishop of Ely, his chancellor, and on his 

eft Eichard, bishop of London. A procession' also preceded 

hem in due order, of archbishops, bishops, abbats, monks, and 

lerks. The earls also, and barons, and knights, and a great 

.1 altitude of the common people, followed the king. A canopy 

.f silk, supported on four lances, was carried over the king, 

y these four earls, Eoger Bigot, earl of ITorfolk, William, 

arl of the Isle of Wight, the earl of Salisbury, and the earl of 

•"errers. Three swords also, taken from the king's treasury, 

vere borne before the king, one of which was carried by Wil- 

iam, king of the Scots, while Hameline, earl of Warenne, 

;arried another, and Eanulph, earl of Chester, carried the third ; 

VOL. n. T 



322 A^^NALS OF EOGER DE HOYEDEN, a.d. 1194. 

in tlie middle of them walked the king of the Scots, with the 
earl of Warenne on his right hand, and the earl of Chester on 
his left. And thus, wearing the crown, he was led into the 
metropolitan church of Saint Swithin up to the altar ; where, 
falling on his knees, he devoutly received the henediction from 
Hugh, archbishop of Canterbury, and was then led to his seat. 
Eleanor, the queen's mother, was seated with her maids of 
honor on the northern side of the church, opposite the king. 
The archbishop of Canterbury also celebrated the mass ; and 
the king was led by the before-named bishops to the offertory, 
and was then re- conducted to his seat. 

After the celebration of the mass, the king was re-conducted 
to his chamber, the procession going before him in the order 
above stated. Having taken oif his more weighty vestments 
and his crown, the king put on lighter garments and a lighter 
crown, and then entered the refectory of the monks to dine 
there ; on which the before-mentioned archbishops and bishops, 
with the king of Scotland, and the earls and barons, took their 
seats at table, each according to his rank and dignity, and 
feasted magnificently. The citizens of London, having made 
the king a payment of two hundred marks, served in the cellars, 
notwithstanding the claim of the citizens of Winchester. The 
citizens of Winchester, however, served in the kitchen. On 
the same day, at a late hour, after dinner, the king returned 
to his mansion in Winchester castle. 

On the eighteenth day of the month of April, being the day 
after the king's coronation, Jollan,^^ brother of Henry^^ de la 
Pomeroy, was accused of having traitorously taken part in the 
capture of Saint MichaeFs Mount, in Cornwall, and he chose 
raFther to be banished from England than take his trial on the 
charge in the king's court. On the nineteenth day of the month 
of April, Hugh, bishop of Durham, of his own accord, no one 
compelling him so to do, gave up to the king the county of 
^Northumberland, with its castles and other appurtenances; 
and the king ordered him to deliver the same to Hugh Bar- 
dolph. 

When William, king of Scotland, heard of this, he imme- 
diately offered the king of England fifteen thousand marks 
of silver for Northumberland and its appurtenances ; saying 
that earl Henry, his father, held it by gift of king Henry the 

^^ V. r, John. '^ The word "regis" after this word is superfluous,, 

and evidently a typographical error. 



A.D. 1194. KECOXCILIATION OP THE BISHOPS. 323 

Second, and that after him, king Malcolm, his son, held it in peace 
for five years. Upon this, the king of England, after taking 
counsel with his people, made answer to the king of Scotland 
that he would give him the whole of ]N'orthumberland, except- 
ing the castles, for the said sum ; but the king of Scotland 
declined to receive it without the castles. On the twentieth 
day of the month of April, the king of England caused the more 
wealthy persons to be separated from the rest of those who had 
been taken prisoners in the castles of Tickhill and Nottingham, 
and the other castles of earl John, and to be placed in prison 
to be ransomed ; while the others he let go, on their finding 
sureties that they would appear at his summons, and abide by 
the judgment of his court ; on which each of them found sure- 
ties for a hundred marks, if he should not return to the court 
of the king. 

On the twenty-first day of the month of April, William, 
king of the Scots, again made an attempt to see if he could in 
any way obtain the earldom of Northumberland with the 
castles ; but it did not suit the purpose of the king of England 
to trust him with any castles. However, he gave him hopes 
of obtaining them at a future time, after his return from Nor- 
mandy. On the twenty- second day of the month of April, 
being the sixth day of the week, William, king of Scotland, 
left the court of the king of England, sorrowful and in con- 
fusion at the repulse he had there received. On the same day, 
the king of England left Winchester, on his way to the sea, 
for the purpose of crossing over, on account of the unfavour- 
able reports which he had heard from Normandy, and lay at 
Waltham. 

On the twenty-third day of the month of April, the king of 
England remained at Waltham, and Geofirey, archbishop of 
York, came thither to the king, and caused his cross to be 
carried before him. On this, Hubert Eitz-Walter, archbishop 
of Canterbury, greatly complained to the king ; but the king 
made answer that the matter was not one for him to decide, but 
rather our lord the pope. On the same day, the king restored 
to Geoffrey, archbishop of York, Baugy and.Langis, in Anjou, 
and by his charter confirmed the same. 

On the twenty-fourth day of April, the king made peace and 
a final reconciliation between Geofirey, archbishop of York, 
and William, bishop of Ely, his chancellor, as to all the mat- 
ters in dispute between them, both the arrest of the arch- 

Y 2 



324 ANNALS OF EOGER DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1194. 

bishop of York, at Dover, as also the expulsion of the chancel- 
lor from England, upon condition that the said bishop of Ely 
should, at the summons of the archbishop of York, make oath, 
at the hands ^® of one hundred priests, that he had neither 
ordered nor desired that the said archbishop of York should be 
arrested. After this reconciliation was effected, on the same 
day, the king departed from Waltham, and proceeded to Ports- 
mouth, for the purpose of crossing over, and queen Eleanor, 
his mother, with him. 

On the twenty-fifth, twenty-sixth, and twenty- seventh days 
of the month of April, the king was stajdng at Portsmouth. 
On the twenty-eighth day of the month of April, the king 
left Portsmouth, and proceeded as far as Stansted, for the 
sake of hunting ; but, after his departure, the Welch and the 
Brabanters had a hostile meeting, and slew one another. On 
the twenty-ninth day of April, the king returned to Ports- 
mouth, for the purpose of quelling the dissensions of the 
Welch and the Brabanters, which was accordingly done. 

On the thirtieth day of the month of April, and the first day 
of the month of May, on the feasts of the Apostles Saint Philip 
and Saint James, the king was staying at that place ; which 
appeared to him to be very tedious. On the second day of the 
month of May, being the second day of the week, the king 
ordered all his fleet to be laden with men, horses, and arms, 
and, against the advice of his mariners, entered one of his 
long ships, hoping to be able to sail across ; and although the 
wind was unfavourable, he refused to return. The other ships, 
however, remained in harbour, while the king and those with 
him were tossed about on the waves ; for there was a mighty 
tempest, and their hearts became fearful. On the following 
day, the king returned to the Isle of Wight, and then to 
Portsmouth. After a stay there and in that county of eight 
days, on the ninth day, being the fifth day of the week, and 
the feast of Saint J^ereus, and Saint Achilleus, and Saint 
Pancratius, the Martyrs, he again embarked on board of his 
ships with his army, and passed over to Normandy, and 
landed at Harfleur with a hundred large ships, laden with war- 
riors, horses, and arms : on which he immediately hastened to 
Vemeuil, to which the king of Prance had laid siege. On hearing 
of his approach, the king of Prance, without the knowledge of 
his army, left the siege of Verneuil on the vigil of Pentecost, after 
having made a stay there of eighteen days at the siege. In the 

1^ One hundred priests making oath with him to this effect. 



A.D. 1194. CONFEEENCE WITH A YIEW TO PEACE. 325 

meantime, John, earl of Mortaigne, the king's brother, returned 
to the king his brother, and through the mediation of queen 
Eleanor, their mother, the king and he became reconciled : 
but the king refused to restore to him any castle or lands. As 
to the army of the king of France, which he had left besieging 
Verneuil, on seeing that their king had taken his departure, 
his troops followed him on Monday, in the week of Pentecost. 

The king of England, b^ing full of activity, and more swift 
than the discharge of a Balearic sling, on hearing that the king 
of France was laying siege to Yerneuil, hurried on to that 
place with all haste, and on not jGoiding the king of France 
there, pursued his retreating army with the edge of the sword. 
The king of England then hastened to Yerneuil, and fortified 
the parts that were most unprotected. After so doing, the 
king hastened to Montmirail, to which the people of Anjou 
and Maine were laying siege ; but, before he arrived, they had 
taken it and levelled it with the ground. 

The king of England next hastened with all speed to the 
castle of Loches, passing by the castle of Tours, where he re- 
ceived two thousand marks from the burgesses as a volun- 
tary gift. The knights of I^avarre, however, and the Bra- 
banters, laid siege to the castle of Loches. The chieftain 
and leader of these was Aufuns, son of Sancho, king of !N'a- 
varre, and brother of Berengaria, queen of England ; but he 
did not lead them as far as Loches, for, before he had arrived 
there, word was brought to him that his father, the king of 
Navarre, was dead ; for which reason he returned to his coun- 
try, and was received as king by the people of that kingdom. 

On the king of England arriving before the castle of Loches, 
he there found the before-mentioned I^avarrese and Brabanters, 
amid watchings, and hunger, and other hardships, labouring 
in vain at the capture of that castle : on which, immediately 
with his own men and the others who were there, making as- 
Isaults upon it day and night, he at length took it by forco of 
[arms, and captured in it five knights and four-and-twenty men- 
at-arms, on the second day of the week after the feast of Saint 
I Barnabas the Apostle. 

In the meantime, messengers from the king of France ap- 

I pointed a conference with the seneschal, and constable, and 

nobles of I^ormandy, at Pont d' Arches. Accordingly, en the 

day appointed, Y^alter, archbishop of Eouen, together with 

the said seneschai., constable, and nobles, came to the place ap- 



326 ANNALS OF EOGER DE HOVEDEN. a.d. 1194. 

pointed for the conference, and with them awaited the arrival 
of envoys from the king of Erance ; but to no purpose. The 
king of France, with no small army, came before a small 
castle, four miles distant from Rouen, called Fontaines, and 
laid siege to it ; and after labouring at the siege for four days, 
more than could be conceived, he at length took it, and it was 
levelled with the ground. 

In the meantime, earl John, the brother of the king of Eng- 
land, with Eobert, earl of Leicester, and many other barons, had 
met at Eouen ; but as they had no one under whose guidance 
in especial to act as they would under our lord the king, and 
because they were much inferior in numbers and strength to 
the king of Erance, they did not dare attack that king. Eut 
when the king of Erance had destroyed the above-mentioned 
castle, and was on his road thence, he found the earl of Leicester 
off his guard ; he having gone forth from Eouen by night for 
the purpose of laying an ambush against him, and made a 
rash sally into the lands of Hugh de Gournay for the purpose 
of laying them waste ; upon which, with a few of his men, 
he was made prisoner by the king of Erance. 

After this, by the common consent of both kings, William, 
archbishop of Eheims, the count de Nevers, the count de Bar, 
master Anselm, the dean of Tours, and many others, on behalf 
of the king of Erance, and Walter, archbishop of Eouen, and 
seneschal and constable of Normandy, and many others, on 
behalf of the king of England, met near the Yal Eodol, on the 
sixth day of the week after the feast of Saint Earnabas the 
Apostle, for the purpose of making a truce between the said 
kings. Accordingly, after a long deliberation held between 
them, they at length agreed to the following terms : — 

The king of England (it being in nowise against the will of 
the king of Erance) was to hold all the lands that he then held 
in his own hands, and in like manner the king of Erance was 
to hold in peace the castles which he had taken or then held ; 
and, in the meantime, they were each to be at liberty to fortify 
and strengthen all the fortresses which whole and unhurt he 
then held in his hands ; but those that had been destroyed, 
neither was in the meantime to be at liberty to rebuild. Eut 
if any other person besides them should wish, in rebuilding his 
castle, to build houses that had been destroyed or burnt, he 
was to be at liberty unmolested to make all provision for him- 
self, either in erecting buildings, or in getting in crops of 



A. D. 1194. THE FREI^CH AEMY PUT TO FLIGHT. 327 

corn, or other fruits of the earth. It was also agreed that all 
churches and ecclesiastical persons who, by the ravages of the 
said war, had been deprived of their property or incomes, 
everywhere throughout the territories of both kings, should 
have full compensation made them. 

But, because the king of Prance wished that all those who 
had adhered to him or to the king of England should be in- 
cluded in the said truce, so as to receive molestation from 
neither of them, as also, that no one of those who had changed 
sides, should be subject to hostile proceedings, the truce was 
broken off. For the king of England was unwilling to violate 
the customs and laws of Poitou, or of any other of his terri- 
tories, in which, from ancient times, it had been the custom 
of the nobles to settle their own disputes with the sword. 

Accordingly, the matter being broken off, they all separated 
who had begim the said conference, and from that day the 
said kings became still more hostile, and with greater violence 
made attacks on each other with ravages and excessive confla- 
grations. The king of Erance came to the city of Evreux, and 
utterly destroyed it, and levelled its churches, sparing neither 
age nor sex, and carrying off the relics of the saints. This he 
did because the citizens of Evreux, having left him, had re- 
turned to their duty and allegiance to their lord the king of 
England. After the king of Erance, having destroyed the city 
of Evreux, was on his departure thence, and had appeared before 
a town called Ereteval, the king of England came to Yendome, 
to lie in wait for him ; and, as that place was not surrounded 
by a wall, or suited for defence, the king ordered his tents to be 
pitched outside the town ; and in them he awaited the approach 
of the king of Erance, who had sent him word that that day he 
would visit him with a hostile band, as unconcernedly as if he 
had been shut up within walls. The king of England joyously 
receiving his message, sent word back to him that he would 
wait for him, and, if he should not come, would pay him a 
visit on the follftwing morning. On the king of Erance hear- 
ing this, he did not visit the king of England that day. 

Accordingly, early next morning, the king of England or- 
dered his troops to arm, and went forth for the purpose of en- 
gaging with the army of the king of Erance : on hearing of 
which, the king of Erance and his army fled before the face 
of the king of England, who pursued them ; and, in the flight, 
many of the troops of the king of Erance were slain, and many 



328 ANNALS OF KOGEll DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1194. 

taken prisoners. Vast treasure of the king of France was also 
taken, with the furniture of the king's chapel, and the papers 
of all the subjects of the king of England who had deserted 
him and become adherents of the king of France and earl John. 

In the flight, how^ever, the king of France left the multitude 
and entered a certain church, at a distance from the high road, 
for the purpose of hearing mass ; but the king of England, not 
knowing that the king of France had concealed himself, still pur- 
sued his course, breathing forth threats and slaughter against 
the men of the king of France, and sought him, that he might 
either put him to death or take him alive. 

Being informed by a certain Fleming that the king of 
France had now got to a considerable distance, the king of 
England was deceived thereby, and proceeded on a horse of the 
greatest swiftness a little beyond the territories of France and 
!N'ormandy; on which his horse failing him, Marcades, the 
chief of his Erabanters, gave him another horse. However, the 
king of England, not meeting with the king of France, re- 
turned to Yendome with a vast amount of booty in prisoners, 
and horses, and large sums of money. After this, the king 
proceeded to Poitou, to attack Geoffrey de Eancon and the vis- 
count d'Angouleme, w^ho had gone over to the king of France 
and earl John against him, and he defeated them : on which, 
he wrote to Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, to the following 
effect : — 

'^Eichard, by the grace of God, king of England, duke of 
iN'ormandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, to the venerable 
father in Christ, Hubert, by the same grace, arohbishop of 
Canterbury, primate of all England, greeting. Ejiow that, by 
the grace of God, who in all things has consideration for the 
right, we have taken Tailleburge and Marcilliac, and all the 
castles and the whole of the territories of Geoffrey de Eancon, 
as also the city of Angouleme, and Neufchatel, Munciniac, 
La Chese, and all the other castles, and the whole of the 
territories of the viscount of Angouleme, with all things 
thereto appendant and appurtenant. The city of Angouleme 
and the borough we took in a single evening ; while on the lands 
which we have captured in these parts, we have taken full three 
hundred knights and forty thousand armed men. Witness, 
myself, at Angouleme, on the twenty-second day of July.*' 

In the meantime, some members of the household of the 
king of France and of that of the king of England, by the 



A.D. 1194. LETTEK OF DEOGO, ANSELM, AIs^D UESIN. 329 

consent of both kings, met between Yernueil and Tillers, for the 
purpose of a conference, in order to treat upon a truce between 
them ; on which an agreement was made between them upon 
the terms hereafter stated. 

The Letter of Drogo and Anselm on the truce made letween the 
Icings of France and England. 

" Drogo de Merlot, constable of Prance, Anselm, dean of 
Saint Martin at Tours, and TJrsin, chamberlain of our lord the 
king of Erance, to all to whom these present letters shall come, 
greeting. Know ye, that, by command of our lord Philip, 
king of France, we have made oath, and have, as his envoys, 
by our hand pledged our faith, that our lord the king of France 
shall observe the truce as here underwritten, and the covenants 
of the said truce. Now, the said truce has been made on the 
following terms : — Our lord the king of France, God so dis- 
Dosing him, at the prayers of the cardinal and of the abbat of 
isteux, grants to the king of England and his people a truce, 
and further grants that he may, if he shall be so disposed, for- 
tify Meubourg, Driencourt, Concas, and Breteuil. The other 
Fortresses which were dismantled in the war, either by the 
king of France or by their own people, shall not be repaired 
luring the time of this truce, unless it shall so happen that 
:hey are repaired during a p^ace which shall be made between 
:he king of France and the king of England. The king of 
France and his people shall be in all respects in the same posi- 
ion as to their tenures in which they were on the day on which 
he truce was made. As to the Yal Eodol, the following shall 
)e the terms agreed on : The king of France shall hold the Yal 
iiodol in such manner as he has hitherto done, that is to say, 
Jlodol itself, and the whole of that town, with the churches; 
Iso Lovers, Aquigenere, Laire, and the other places as far as 
laie Malherbe, and as far as Pont d' Arches. But from Haie 
ialherbe and beyond, and from Pont d' Arches and beyond, 
hall belong to the king of England. Also, as to all the for- 
resses which the king of France shall hold on the day of 
his truce, it shall be agreed as follows : the king of France 
hall, during the continuance of the truce, fortify, or destroy, 
r buTU the same if he shall think fit; and he shall be at liberty 
act according to his will and pleasure as to all the lands 
7hich he holds. The king of England shall in like manner 
Ditify, or destroy, or burn all the fortresses which he shall 



330 ANKALS OF EOGEE DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1194. 

liold on the day of this truce; but the king of England 
shall not be at liberty to fortify any one of the fortresses that 
have been dismantled by the king of France or by his own 
people, with the exception of those four which have been men- 
tioned above. Further, the king of France includes in this 
truce all those vf'ho before the war were more liegemen of him- 
self than of the king of England ; as also these [places] which 
were [held by] vassals of the king of England, whom we will 
here name : Arches, and Driencourt, as the king himself now 
holds the same and his people ; the county of Auge, as he now 
holds the same and his people ; Mortemer, and the lands which 
William de Chahou holds ; the lands of the earl of Eoulogne, 
which he held on the day on which the truce was made ; 
Hugh de Gournay, and Aumarle, and the feud of Beauvais 
and its lands, as he now holds the same ; Neumarch^ and 
the lands thereof, as William de Garland and his people now 
hold the same ; Gisors, and Yexin, in JS^ormandy, as the king 
of France and his people now hold the same; Yernon and Gal- 
lon, and the lands thereto belonging, as the king of France 
and his people now hold the same ; Pascy and the lands thereto 
belonging, as the king and his people now hold the same ; Hers 
and Marcilliac, and the lands thereto belonging, as the king 
and his people now hold the same ; Loy and the lands thereto 
belonging, as the king and his people now hold the same ; E^o- 
vancourt and the lands thereto belonging, as the king, and earl 
Eobert, and his people, now hold the same ; Thiellerie and the 
lands thereto belonging, as the king, and Gervaise, and their 
people, now hold the same ; Nevelon and his people, and Fret- 
teval and the lands thereto belonging, as they now hold the 
same ; the count of Bruttie, and his people and lands, •If he has 
any, as he now holds the same ; the count of Angouleme, and 
his people, his lands, and his fee, as he now holds the same ; 
also, John de Eouvere, Baldwin de Aquigny, and the count 
of Mellent, and his lands, as he now holds the same : both 
the lands aforesaid, as also the people that are upon them; 
and the said truce shall remain in force for one year from the 
feast of All Saints next ensuing. The king of France has men- 
tioned all the persons aforesaid by name, because he wishes 
the king of England to mention by name those men of con- 
sequence whom he shall wish to be comprehended in the truce, 
within a period of fifteen days from the said truce : for if, after 
the fifteenth day from the said truce being made, he shall wish 
to name any, the king of France will decline to include them ; 



V.D. 1194. LETTEE OP LEOGO, AKSELM, AN^D TJESllS'. 331 

md if they shall confess that they have aided the king of Eng- 
and, they shall be included in the truce. All supporters of 
}ither side within fortified places shall also be included in the 
Tuce. The king of France has chosen two arbitrators, and, in 
ike manner, the king of England two, by whose award, or by 
:hat of the greater part of them, if either of the kings shall take 
my thing from the other, or any one of their subjects shall do 
50, reparation shall be made for the same within forty days 
^herefrom. And the said arbitrators shall make oath on the 
loly Evangelists, that they will neither for love, hate, fear, 
lor reward, be guilty of any omission, but will with good faith 
nake their award. And if it shall so happen that any seizure 
?ha,ll be made beyond the Loire, in the direction of Bourges, 
then the arbitrators shall meet between Exodun, and Chateau 
Elaoul, for the purpose of compensation being made, and the 
arbitrators of the territory in which the seizure shall have been 
naade shall summon the other arbitrators ; and they, on hearing 
the summons, shall with good faith meet on fitting days at one 
Df the places above named ; and if any seizure shall happen to 
06 made on this side the Loire, in the direction of I^ormandy, 
then the arbitrators shall meet between Yernueil and Tillers, 
for the purpose of compensation being made. And if there 
?hall happen to be any misunderstanding between the arbi- 
trators, then Master the legate of the highest standing, ^^ shall, 
«dth good faith and at peril of his soul, enquire into the truth 
thereof, and shall pronounce upon him who shall refuse to 
make satisfaction for the seizure and the offence, sentence of 
3Xcommunication, all right of appeal being withdrawn, and 
shall place his lands under interdict. But if the evildoer shall 
belong to the territory of the king of Erance, then the king of 
France shall, in good faith, aid in obtaining reparation for 
the same, without any loss to himself ; and the king of England 
shall do the same, in good faith, as to his subjects. If the 
king of France shall make any aggression upon the king of 
[England, or the king of England upon the king of France, 
jthen the cardinal shall place an interdict upon the lands of the 
party making the aggression, if he shall refuse to make amends 
For such aggression, at the award of the arbitrators, or the major 
part of them. Eichard, king of England, and his people, shall 
hold their lands on this side the Loire, towards l^ormandy, in 
the same manner in which they were holding them on the day 

^^ The legate of France or of Normandy. 



332 ANNALS OF EOGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1194. 

on which the truce was made, and beyond the Loire they shall 
hold them in the same manner in which they held them on 
the day on which he and his people were able, within so many 
lawful days, to hear of the truce being made.'^^ The king of 
England includes in the truce all those who were more liege- 
men of himself than of the king of Prance before the truce. 
As to the prisoners, it shall be thus agreed on both sides : those 
prisoners whom the king of Prance detains, shall be rescued 
upon giving such security as they shall offer, if it shall so 
please the said king ; but if it shall not please him, then his 
arbitrators shall upon oath declare what security shall be 
given in addition thereto, in order that the king of France 
may be secure that the prisoner will return to the custody 
of the king of France fifteen days before the end of the truce, 
if the prisoner is then alive ; and the same shall be done 
as to the prisoners of the king of England by his arbitrators. 
All these things both kings shall swear to observe with 
good faith, and shall make oath at the hand of the cardinal; 
and they shall give their letters patent as to keeping and observ- 
ing the aforesaid truce and covenants. Before us, on part of 
the king of France, Gervaise de Chatillon has made oath and 
sworn, on behalf of the king of France, that this truce shall 
be observed ; such persons also shall make oath, both clergy as 
well as laity, subject to the arbitration of the umpires, as 
the king of England shall require. In addition to which, be 
it known to you that we who have sworn to this agreement 
for a truce, have hereupon had letters patent on behalf of the 
king of France for the confirmation of the same, expressing 
that whatever we shall ordain as to observing the truce, that 
same he will ratify and confirm. Done between Vemueil and 
Tillers, in the year from the Word made Incarnate one thousand 
one hundred and ninety-four, on the twenty-third day of July." 
After the king had crossed over, on Hugh, bishop of Dur- 
ham, returning home, Hugh Eardolph demanded of him the 
earldom of Northumberland, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and the 
castle of Bamborough, which the said bishop had promised 
to the king that he would deliver up. However, the bishop 
delayed doing this, because his messenger, by whom he had 
made offer to the king of two thousand marks of silver for 
retaining the said earldom and the above-mentioned castles, 
had not yet returned. When he returned, he brought with 
20 Probably a certain distance being reckoned for each lawful day. 



\.D. 1194. APPEAL OF THE CANOXS OF TOEK. 333 

him a letter from the king, by which the king informed Hugh 
Bardolph that if the said bishop of Durham should give him 
security for the payment of the said two thousand marks, he 
was to deliver to the said bishop the before-named earldom, 
together with the castles. 

On the king's letter being delivered to Hugh Eardolph, he 
accordingly made answer to Hugh, bishop of Durham, say- 
ng: ^* If you wish me to act according to the king's com- 
aiands, deliver up to me the castles and the earldom, and I 
^ill re-deliver them to you, as the king has commanded, if 
you give me security for the receipt of these two thousand 
marks, on behalf of the king." To this the bishop of Dur- 
ham replied : " There is no need for me to deliver them to 
vou to deliver them to me again, as I have got them, and 
hold them in my possession." On hearing this, Hugh Ear- 
iolph immediately sent word to our lord the king, what answer 
He had received from the bishop ; at which the king being 
incensed, ordered the bishop of Durham to be disseised of 
the castles and the earldom above-mentioned, and the two 
thousand marks to be demanded of him. The king also, 
m the fury of his anger, ordered the bishop of Durham to be 
iispossessed of the manor of Sedbergh, with the knight's fees 
and wapentake which the said king had given to Saint Cuth- 
bert and the Church of Durham, and the said bishop, as a pure 
and perpetual alms-gift, and by his charter had confirmed the 
same, in manner previously stated; which was accordingly done. 

In the meantime, the canons of the church of York, making 
complaint to the archbishop of Canterbury, the king's jus- 
ticiary, of the injuries that had been done them by the arch- 
bishop of York, the archbishop of Canterbury, by the royal 
authority with which he was invested, sent to York, earl 
Roger Bigot, William de Warenne, William de Stuteville, 
Hugh Bardolph, William Bruyere, Geoffrey Habet, and Wil- 
liam Fitz-Eichard, a clerk, to hear the dispute between the 
archbishop of York and his canons, and to settle the same 
as justice should require. Having accordingly come thither, 
and heard the appeals of the canons, and the answer of the 
[archbishop and his adherents, they ordered the men of the 
iarchbishop Avho had been charged with robbery, to be seized 
and thi-own into prison. And although the archbishop was 
ready to give his warranty for what they had done, he 
still was unable to bail them. After this, they summoned 



334 ANNALS OF EOGEK DE HOVEDEX. A.D. 1194. 

the archbisliop to come and receive their judgment, and, be- 
cause he refused, they dispossessed him of all his manors, with 
the sole exception of the manor of Eipon, to which the arch- 
bishop had retired ; after which, they caused the canons to be 
reinstated in their stalls of which the archbishop had dispos- 
sessed them. On their departure, they appointed "William de 
Stuteville, and Geoffrey Haget, to exercise supervision in York- 
shire over the archbishop and his shrievalty. 

Shortly after, in the month of September, justices itinerant 
were sent in the king^s behalf throughout each of the counties 
of England, and proceeded, in giving their judgments, in con- 
formity with the tenor of the heads hereunder stated. 

THE rOEM^o OF PROCEDURE IIST PLEAS OE THE 
CROWJS^ OE THE KING. 

'* In the first place, four knights are to be chosen from out 
of the whole county, who, upon their oaths, are to choose two 
lawful knights of every hundred and wapentake, and these two 
are to choose upon their oath ten knights of every hundred or 
wapentake, or, if there shall not be knights sufficient, free and 
lawful men, in order that these twelve may together make in- 
quisition on each of the following heads in every hundred or 
wapentake. 

Heads of Pleas of the Crown of the King. 

'* Of Pleas of the Crown, both new and old, and all those 
which h-^ve not yet been concluded before the justiciaries of 
our lord the king. Also, of all Recognizances and aU Pleas 
on which summons has been issued before the justiciaries, by 
writ of the king or of the chief justice, or which have been 
sent before them from the supreme court of the king. Also, of 
Escheats, what these now are, and what they have been, since 
the king set out on his expedition to the land of Jerusalem, 
and what there were at that time in the king's hands ; and 
again, what there are now in his hands or otherwise ; and of 
all Escheats of our lord the king, if they have been taken out 
of his hands, how, and by whom, and into whose hands 
they have come, and of what kind, and if any person has had 
any profits from the same, and what they are, and 'what 
was the value thereof, and what is the present value ; and if 
there is any Escheat, which belongs to our lord the king, 
which is not at present in his hands. Also, of Churches which 
20 The text of Wilkins has been followed here. 



A.D. 1194. PLEAS OF THE CEOW:^-. 335 

are in tlie gift of our lord the king. Also, of Wardships of 
children, which belong to our lord the king. Also, of Mar- 
riages^^ of maidens, or of widows, which belong to our lord 
the king. Also, of Malefactors, and their harbourers and 
abettors. Also, of forgers. Also, of Murderers of the Jews, 
who they are, and of the pledges of Jews so slain, their chat- 
tels, lands, debts, and writings, and who has the same ; and 
how much each person owes them, and what pledges they had, 
and who holds the same, and how much they are worth, and 
who has the profits thereof, and what they are ; all the 
pledges and the debts of the Jews so slain are to be seized for 
the king ; and those who were present at the murder of the 
Jews, who have not made a composition thereon with our 
lord the king, or with his justiciaries, are to be arrested and 
are not to be liberated except by our lord the king, or his 
justiciaries. Also, of all Aids given for the ransom of our 
lord the king, how much each person promised, and how 
much he has paid, and how much is still due from him. 
Also, of the adherents of earl John, and such of them as have 
made a composition with our lord the king, and such as have 
not Also, of the Chattels of earl John or his adherents, which 
have not been converted to the use of our lord the king ; and 
how much the sheriffs and their bailiffs have received; and who 
has given anything contrary to the ancient customs of the king- 
dom. Also, of all the Lands of earl John, of his Demesnes, 
and Wards, and Escheats, and his gifts, and for what reason 
the same were given to him, and all the gifts to earl John 
are to be seized for our lord the king, except those which 
have been confirmed by the king. Also, as to the Debts 
and Fines which are due to earl John, and for what causes ; 
and all the same are to be demanded on behalf of our lord 
the king. Also, of Usurers, and the Chattels of such of them 
as are dead. Also, of Wines sold contrary to the assize, and of 
false measures for wine as also for other things. Also, of such 
Crusaders as have died before setting out for the land of Jeru- 
salem ; and who possesses their chattels, and what they are, 
and to what extent. Also, of Grand Assizes, which are of lands 
a hundred shillings in value or less. 

Also, in every county there are to be three knights chosen, 
and one clerk, who are to be keepers of the Pleas of the Crown ; 

2^ *' Maritagiis," the right of giving them in marriages and receiving a 
tee for the same. 



336 AN^'ALS OF EOGEK DE HOVEDEIS". a.D. 1194. 

and no sheriff is to be justice in liis slirievalty, nor yet in any 
county which he has held since the first coronation of our lord 
the king. Also, an inventory is to be made of all the Cities, 
and Boroughs, and Demesne Lands of our lord the king. 

Also, the said justices, together with the bailiffs of "Wil- 
liam of the Church of Saint Mary, Geoffrey Fitz-Peter, "Wil- 
liam de Chimelli, "William Brucre, Hugh Bardolph, and the 
sheriff of each place, are to cause the knights mentioned on 
the roll to be summoned in their respective counties, to appear 
at a time and place which they shall signify to them, and to 
make them swear in their presence that they will use all their 
lawful endeavours to restore the Lands and Escheats belonging 
to our lord the king, and to value the same to the advantage 
of our lord the king, and not through hatred, favour, or regard 
for any person, to omit so to do. And the said knights be- 
fore-named shall, upon their oath , make choice of twelve lawful 
knights, or free and lawful men, if knights shall not be found for 
the purpose, in the different parts of each county on the circuit of 
the said justices itinerant, as shall seem expedient; who shall, in 
like manner, make oath that they will use all their lawful endea- 
vours to restore, and to value and establish the rights of Ward- 
ship and Escheat in those parts, and will give their counsel 
and assistance to advantage the king therein, as before-men- 
tioned. The said jurors shall also, upon oath, choose from free 
men as many and such as they shall think necessary for the 
performance of the aforesaid business of our lord the king 
as to Escheats and "Wardships, in such manner as may be best 
done for the advantage of our lord the king. It is also to 
be known, that the said Wardships and Escheats shall be 
made good out of the revenues arising therefrom up to the 
feast of Michaelmas, as also from the revenues at that time 
due ; and, if they shall not suffice, then the deficiency shall 
be supplied by a toll of our lord the king : it being under- 
stood that those who hold the said Wardships and Escheats 
to farm, shall, after the feast of Saint Michael, answer for 
the same thenceforward as for farms in husbandry. And 
as for those who shall hold the said Wardships and Escheats 
to farm, our lord the king shall give them warranty for 
the same from year to year until the termination thereof; 
so that, although our lord the king should give any of them 
to any person, the farmer shall still hold his farm, to hold 
the same by farm till the end of the year, by paying to 



.D. 1194. PLEAS OF THE CBOWN. 337 

im to whom our lord the king shall have so given it, the rent 
rhich shall be due from him for the same until the end of the 
ear. The right to the escheat, however, which he shall have 
given is to remain with our lord the king, unless our lord 
lie king shall have given it by name. The farmer, when he 
hall give up his farm, is to have all his stock which he shall 
ave placed upon the farm, and all his propertj^ over and above 
he property of the king there, freely and without diminution, 
'hey shall also have letters patent of our lord the archbishop, 
ontaining the tenor of the charter of our lord the king made 
elative thereto. 

Most diligent enquiry shall also be made what is the rental 
ssessed upon each manor in demesne, and the value of all 
ther assessments in the said manors, and how many caru- 
ates there are, and how much they are each worth, not 
stimating them at a fixed value of twenty shillings only,^'* 
ut, according as the land is good or bad, whether the value is 
kely to increase or decrease. Those persons who shall take 
hese farms shall stock their farms as already mentioned, ac- 
lording to the sum named as to the revenues of the escheats 
nd wardships. Enquiry is also to be made with how many 
xen and plough horses each carucate ought to be stocked ; 
nd how much stock, and to what amount each manor is able 
) support ; and the result thereof is then to be speedily and 
istinctly reduced to writing. The price set upon a bull shall 
e four shillings, and upon a cow the same, upon a plough- 
orse the same, upon a sheep with fine wool ten pence, upon 
sheep with coarse wool six pence, upon a sow twelve pence, 
nd upon a boar twelve pence ; and when the farmers give 
p their farms they shall be answerable in the aforesaid sums, 
• in animals payable for the same, at the option of the farm- 
's ; and when all the aforesaid stock shall be placed thereon 
id duly valued, they shall all be enrolled openly and dis- 
nctly, and the register thereof shall be deposited in the ex- 
lequer. From this assize are to be excepted bishoprics and 
beys, and lands of barons who are nearly of age. Also, let 
iquiry previously be made, by the oath of the parties aforesaid, 
; to all wardships and escheats which are not in the hands of 

® Probably the rental of each carucate, or plough land of one hundred 
res, was assessed at twenty shillings, for the purpose of collecting the 
rucage or land tax levied thereon. 

VOL. II. z 



838 ANNALS OF llOGER I>E HOTEDKN. a.D. 1194. 

oiu' lord the king, and thoy aiv to bo takon possession of by 
oiir lord the kiug, iuid doidt with us othor liuids and osohoat^. 

JlfOiU as to the Jews. 

All debts and pled^rt's of Jews are to l>e enrolled, as also 
their lands, houses, rents, and possessions. Any Jew who 
shidl make eonooidment of any one of tliese thinirs, shall for- 
feit to oiu' lord the king his body, as also the thing eoneealed, 
and all his possessions, and all his chattels; and no Jew shall I 
ever be allowed to reeover what he has so eoncealeii. Also, 
let six or seven places be appointed at w*hich they shall make 
their loiuis, and let two lawful diristians and two lawful Jewa 
and two lawful scribes be appointed, and in tlieJT pivsenee, and 
in that of tlie clerks of AVilliam of tlie Clmreli of Saint Mary 
and of "NVilliiuu de Chimelli, let such loans be made, and let a 
deed describing the loim be made, alYer the manner of tm inden- 
tiuv. One part **^ is to remain in the himds of the Jew, scided 
with his soid. to whom the money is paid, while the other pjj 
is to remain in the common chest : on which theiv t\re to 
thive locks ; whereof the two Clmstians are to keep one key, 
tlie two Jews another, and the clerks of ^N'illiam of the Cliiir^ 
of Saint Mary and of Master William de Chimelli the third 
as also three scids, those who have tlie keys setting there 
their seids. The clerks idso of the two AViUiams atbn^Siud 
to have a register contiuning copies of idl the deeds, imd 
the deeds are idtored so sl\;ill the register be alteivd. F 
each deed shall be paid three pence ; a moiety thereof by th 
Jew, and a moietv by him to whom the money is lent : of whic 
the two scribes are to have two pence, and the keeper of th 
register the third : and, for the future, no loim slnill li 
made, no payment made to Jews, no idtenition of tlie deeds^ , 
except in presence of the persons aforenamed, or tlie majcM 
part of them, if aU shall be imable to be present. The sair 
two Chi'istiims also are to have a register of receipts for p: } 
ments made henceforth to Jews, iind the two Jews lU'e to luiN i 
one, and the keeper of the register one. Also, everj* Jew sluil 
make oatli upon his register that he will cause all his debts 
pledges, rents, and all his property and possessions to be i n 
rolled, and that^ as above stated, he will not conceal anything 
and that, if he shall be able to Iciirn that any one ha^ con 
coaled any thins:, he will secretly disclose the same to x\u 
'^ The scripff the other part being the rescr^t. 



fe 

D. 1 194. TOUEXAMEXTS TO BE HELD IN ENGLAND. 339 

idges sent to them, and that forgers of deeds and clippers 
f money, when he shall know of such persons, he will give 
iformation against, and detect the same, and the like with re- 
ard to the deeds so forged. 

Also, inquisition shall be made relative to the holdings of 
nd seizures made by all bailiffs of the king, both justices as 
'ell as sheriffs, and constables, and foresters and their servants, 
jice the time of the first coronation of our lord king Eichard, 
nd why such seizures were made, and by whom ; and of all the 
lattels, gifts, and promises made on the occasion of seizure 
P the lands of earl John and his supporters ; and who re- 
ived the same, and what they were, and what delay was 
lused by command of Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, at 
lat time the king's chief justice." 

In the meantime, Richard, king of England, having settled 
is affairs in Poitou to his satisfaction, returned to Anjou, and 
ned all his bailiffs, that is to say, forced them to pay a fine ; 
id did the same in Maine. After this, he came into iS^ormandy, 
id was vexed with what had been done in relation to the 
uce above-mentioned, and imputing it to his chancellor that 
lis had been done through his agency, took away from him 
seal, and caused a new seal to be made, and had pro- 
am ation made throughout all his territories, that nothing 
ould be held as ratified that had been done by means of 
s old seal, both because his chancellor had wrought more in- 
screetly with it than was becoming, as also because that 
al had been lost when Eoger Malchine, his vice-chancellor, 
as drowned at sea, before the island of Cyprus. The king 
30 gave orders that all persons who had charters should come 
renew the same with the new seal. 

The king also ordered tournaments to be held in England, 
d by his charter confirmed the same ; upon condition that 
hoever should wish to tourney, should pay him a sum accord- 
g to the terms underwritten, namely ; an earl was to give, 
r permission to tourney twenty marks of silver, a baron ten 
arks of silver, a knight, holding land, four marks of silver, 
■d a knight, not a landholder, two marks of silver ; and the 
ng gave orders that no knight should come near the places 
here the tournaments were held unless he had first paid him 
e said sum of money. The charter of this grant the king 
livered into the custody of WiUiam, earl of Salisbury; 
d Hubert Eitz- Walter, the king's chief justice, appointed 

z 2 



340 ANNALS OF EOGER DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1194. 

his brother, Theobald Fitz -Walter, to be collector of this 
money. 

In the same year, Eoger, the son of Tancred, king of Sicily, 
whom his father had caused to be crowned king of Sicily, and 
who had married the daughter of Tursac, emperor of Con- 
stantinople, departed this life ; after whose decease, king 
Tancred caused his son William, brother of the said king 
lloger, to be crowned king of Sicily. Shortly after this, the 
Said Tancred died : on hearing of which, Henry, emperor of 
the Romans, assembling a large army, entered Apulia in the 
beginning of the month of August, and subdued it, and, fifteen 
days before the feast of Saint Michael, took Salerno by storm ; 
and because the people of Salerno had behaved treacherously 
towards him, as above stated, in delivering the empress Con- 
stance into the hands of king Tancred, to avenge the said be- 
trayal he either put to death all the more powerful citizens of 
that citj^, or else condemned them to exile, and put up their 
wives and children for sale to his troops. He also found in the 
great Tower there a large treasure, valued at two hundred 
thousand ounces of gold, and his army was enriched by the 
spoils of the people of Salerno. After this, the emperor pro- 
ceeded to the city of Amalfi, which was immediately surren- 
dered to him ; and, while he was staying there, all the cities 
of Apulia were surrendered to him, three of which he levelled 
with the ground — Salerno, Spinchola, and Polichore. 

Before the feast of All Saints, he came to the city of Mes- 
sina, in Sicily, with such honor and glory, that it had never 
been heard of any person entering that territory with greater 
honor and glory. Here he was honorably received by the 
archbishops, bishops, earls, and barons of the kingdom of 
Sicily, and departing thence proceeded to Palermo; having 
arrived at which place, the queen of Sicily, formerly the wife 
of king Tancred, and Eichard de Therne, her brother, surren- 
dered to him the palace of the king of Sicily, as also, king 
William, son of king Tancred, the widow of king Eoger, 
daughter of Tursac, emperor of Constantinople, and the king's 
treasure of gold and silver inexhaustible, which the kings of 
Sicily had laid up. After this, all the cities and fortresses of 
the kingdom of Sicily were delivered up to him, and the ad- 
miral Margarite surrendered to him the castle at the port of 
Palermo, on which the emperor gave him the dukedom of Du- 
razzo, the principality of Tarento, and the principality of La 



.U. 1194. SWERE CHOWKED KING OF NOEWAT. ' 341 

[are. There also came to the before-named emperor of the 
oomans all the pagans and Jews who were in the kingdom of 
icily, and, paying him certain sums, remained in the king- 
om of Sicily, each in his own place, in the same condition in 
^hich he had been before. 

The emperor then caused himself and the empress Constance, 
is wife, to be croT\Tied at the city of Palermo, in presence 
nd with the consent of the archbishops, bishops, and princi- 
al men of the kingdom. The emperor then caused the bodies 
i king Tancred and king Roger, his son, to be disinterred, and 
Doiled them of their crowns and sceptres, and other royal 
rnaments, saying that they were not kings by right, but 
ither usurpers of the throne, and holders thereof by violence, 
he emperor next gave in marriage to Philip, his brother, duke 
f Suabia, the above-mentioned daughter of Tursac, emperor 
f Constantinople, and put out the eyes of king William, son 
I king Tancred, and had him emasculated. 

In the same year, the citizens of Eome elected fifty- six sena- 
)rs, and placed them in authority over themselves : whereas, 
reviously, they had had but a single senator, w^hose name 
'as Benedict, a worthy man, who had ruled over them two 
ears, and after him they had had another senator, who was 
iiUed John Capuche, and had similarly reigned over them an- 
ther two years ; in whose times Eome was better governed than 
■; the present day, in the time of the fifty- six senators. 

In the same year, Swere, prince of K'orway, contrary to the 
rohibition of our lord the pope, had himself crowned king of 
orway ; on hearing of which, Eustace, archbishop of Dron- 
leim, chose rather to go into exile than be present at his co- 
nation ; he accordingly departed, and the said Swere, son 
' Siward, king of Norway, gave orders that all the bishops of 
orway should meet together at Bergen, on the feast of the 
postles Saint Peter and Saint Paul, for the purpose of crown- 
g him. Among these was the bishop of Wie, whose name 
as Nicholas. He declared that he was unwilling to be present 
i the coronation, because of the absence of the archbishop ; on 
3aring which, Swere caused the bishop to be seized, and to 
; bound on the sea- shore on a small eminence, so that the 
aves of the sea, flowing on, nearly entered his mouth ; upon 
hich, the bishop being terrified, assented to the wishes of 
.vere Birkebain, and crowned and consecrated him king at 
Drgen, on the feast of the Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul, 



o42 ANNALS OF EOGEK DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1194. 

the bishops, Martin of Bergen, Eric of Stavangre, Thore of 
Burgunde, ^^ and Absalom, being present and assenting thereto. 
On the same day, when the said Swere, the king and priest, 
was dining in regal state with the bishops and principal men of 
his kingdom, he caused the head of Siward, the son of Adestan, 
the former king of Norway, to be cut off, and to be brought 
before him and his guests, as they sat at table. It is worthy 
of remark that this Swere Birkebain conquered fifteen kings in 
fifteen naval battles, and slew them, with all their followers, 
before he was able to secure the crown ; their names were as 
follows, — king Magnus, king Borgher, king Siward, king 
Ordus, king Guthrum, king John Cuvelung, king Belue, king 
Zether, and six others, with the aboye Siward, son of Adestan. 
It also deserves to be known, that it is the custom of the 
kingdom of Norway to the present day that every one who 
is known to be the son of any king of Norway, although ille- 
gitimate, and the issue of a bondwoman, has equal right to 
lay claim to the kingdom, of Norway with the son of a king 
legally married, and being the son of a free woman ; the con- 
sequence of which is, that there are battles going on between 
them without ceasing, until one of them is conquered and 
slain. 

The same year, a little before the feast of Saint Michael, 
there came to York, Hamo, prsecentor of the church of York, 
Geoffrey de Muschamp, archdeacon of Cleveland, and Master 
William Testard, archdeacon of Nottingham, who had gone to 
Kome with Master Simon of Apulia, and Ealph, the arch- 
deacon of the "West Eiding, relative to the injuries which 
Geoffrey, archbishop of York, had inflicted on them and their 
fellow- canons, he having excommunicated them and all who 
held communion with them, and, on their appeal to the Su- 
preme Pontiff", laid an interdict on their churches. They 
also brought with them letters of absolution both from the 
excommimication and the interdict, and letters for the re- 
stitution of what had been taken from them ; undertaking the 
execution of which at the mandate of pope Celestinus, Hugh, 
bishop of Durham, came to York, and on Saint Michael' s day 
celebrated mass in the mother church there, declaring be- 
fore the clergy and the people, that the sentence which Geof- 
frey, archbishop of York, had pronounced upon his canons 
and those holding communion with them was null and void. 

2* Perhaps meaning Alborg. 



A. D. 1194. LETTER OF KICHAED, KING OF EiS^GL AND. 343 

But Ralph, the archdeacon of the West Eiding, died while on. 
his return from Eome ; on which, Geoffrey, archbishop of 
York, gave his archdeaconry, first, to his own brother, Peter, 
and afterwards to Peter de Nunant. The said archbishop 
then making appeal against his canons and their acquisitions, 
crossed over from England to IN'ormandy, to Eichard, king of 
England, his brother, and obtained from him a letter to the 
following effect : — 

The Letter of Richard, Icing of Englayid, on the reconciliation of 

the archhish<yp of York. 

*' Eichard, by the grace of God, king of England, duke of 
!N^ormandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, to his dearly 
beloved and faithful subjects, William of the Church of Saint 
Mary, and Hugh Bardolph, greeting. We do hereby inform 
you, that Geoffrey, archbishop of York, our brother, has come 
to us, and over and above those thousand marks which he 
paid us in England, has done our will as to the other thousand 
marks ; and, as he has informed us by a certain person, 
would willingly have before this made satisfaction for the 
debt if he had been able so to do, and has long been greatly 
^Txed that he has thus long delayed so to do. Accordingly, 
we have received him into our favour and protection, and 
have granted him in the fullest manner our kind interest 
in his behalf. We have also sent our messenger to Eng- 
land with his messenger, to the end that he may see in what 
way he makes satisfaction to us for the remaining thou- 
sand marks ; for he has made a promise to us that he will 
satisfy us thereupon as soon as he possibly can. Wherefore 
we do command you to make restitution to him of his lands 
and all his property in full, without delay ; and whatever of his 
rentals or of his property shall have been sold on account of 
the said debt, whatever of the same we have had, you are 
reasonably to set off' the same against the residue of his debt ; 
and if any part thereof shall have been sold at a less price 
than it ought, either through love or hatred for any person, 
you are to cause reparation to be made for the same by those 
who have so done, and the same to be credited to the arch- 
bishop on account of his debt. His men also who have been 
taken or detained, both clergy as well as laity, you are to 
cause to be held on bail and set at liberty without delay, ac- 
cording to the custom of England. Also, you are not to allow 



344 ANNALS OF BOGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1194. 

the lay power to disturb him in exercising his right of ec- 
clesiastical censure throughout the whole of his archiepis- 
copate, as in reason he ought. You are also to compel the 
men of Beverley to make good the injuries they have done 
him, and to do towards him what they are bound to do, 
and what they have been accustomed to do to his predeces- 
sors. Witness myself, at Mamerz, on the third day of No- 
vember.'* 

The said archbishop of York also obtained another letter 
from our lord the king to the following effect : — 

** Eichard, by the grace of God, king of England, duke of 
Normandy and Aquitaine, and earl of Anjou, to William, of 
the Church of Saint Mary, and Hugh Bardolph, greeting. 
Know ye, that we have learned, that at the time of the death 
of our father, without our command and consent, Geoffrey de 
Muschamp obtained letters under his seal to hold the arch- 
deaconry of Cleveland ; and William de Stigandby and Master 
Erard, similarly obtained letters to hold prebendal stalls in 
the church of York, which were then vacant, and at our dis- 
posal. Wherefore, we do command you, without delay, to 
deprive the persons aforesaid of the archdeaconry, and the 
said prebends, and exact from them whatever they have re- 
ceived, since they have so fraudulently and surreptitiously 
gained possession of the said revenues. Witness myself, at 
Mamerz, on the third day of November." 

Oh shameful disgrace ! " 'Tis base for the censurer to be 
himself convicted of the fault." ^^ Eor the said archbishop, 
while still chancellor of the king, his father, had that seal 
in his own possession ; by means of which the said arch- 
deaconry and those prebendal stalls had been given to the per- 
sons before-named. 

In the same year, John Belesme, archbishop of Lyons sur 
Rhone, resigned his archbishopric ; and, being content with a 
revenue of one hundred pounds sterling belonging to the arch- 
bishopric of Lyons, lived an unspotted life, pleasing to God 
and man, to the end of his existence, in the house of Clairval. 

In the same year, while Leopold, duke of Austria, was still 
remaining under the sentence of excommunication which our 
lord the pope had pronounced upon him for the captivity of 
Kichard, king of England and, not repenting thereof, the Lord 

25 ** Turpe est doctori, cum culpa redarguit ipsum.'' The reason for his 
saying this, is shown in the following lines. 



A.D. 1195. HENRY CROWNED KING OF SICILY. 345 

scourged his territories in the following manner. In the first 
place, all of the cities of his dominions were destroyed by 
tire, and yet the cause of none of these fires was known. In 
the second place, the adjoining country was overflowed by an 
inundation of the river Danube, in which ten thousand per- 
sons or more perished. In the third place, whereas all the 
earth in the middle of summer ought to, and usually does, pos- 
sess vitality, at that period the whole of his territory, contrary 
to the usual and ordinary course of things, became parched 
up. In the fourth place, when the seeds of corn ought to have 
shot up into blade, they were changed into worms. In the 
fifth place, the most noble persons in his dominions were smit- 
ten with a mortality. 

Although the Lord had smitten his territory with plagues 
so many and so great, he still was unwilling to repent, but his 
heart was hardened, so much so, that he took an oath that all 
the hostages of the king of England whom he had in his hands 
should undergo capital punishment, unless all the covenants 
were speedily performed which the king of England had made 
with him. Consequently, Ealdwin de Bethune, who was one of 
those who had been given as hostages to the duke of Austria 
for the ransom of the king of England, by the common con- 
sent of the hostages, was sent to the king of England to 
declare to him the duke's purpose; and, on his arrival, the 
king, taking compassion on them, delivered to him the sister of 
Arthur, duke of Brittany, and the daughter of the emperor of 
C^^rus, to escort to the duke of Austria ; the sister of Ar- 
thur for the purpose of being married to the son of the duke 
of Austria, and the daughter of the emperor of Cyprus to be 
delivered into the hands of the duke. 

In the year of grace 1195, being the sixth year of the reign 
of Eichard, king of England, the said king Eichard was at 
Eouen, in Xormandy, on the day of the I^ativity of our Lord, 
which feU on the Lord's Day, being intent on supplying 
himself w4th all things necessary, in money and men, against 
Philip, king of Erance. Eor the truce which had been agreed 
upon between them as to last until the feast of AU Saints 
was far from observed, the subjects of both kingdoms making 
excessive ravages. On the same day of the JN'ativity of our 
Lord, Henry, emperor of the Eomans, was crowned at Palermo, 
in Sicily, with the crown of the kingdom of Sicily. 

In the same year, before the Nativity of our Lord, on the 



346 ANIMALS OF EOGEE DE HOTEDEN. a.B. 1105. 

day of Saint Stephen the Protomart^T, when the heart of 
Leopold, duke of Austria, was hardened, nor could he soft- 
ened hy means of the plagues previously mentioned which 
the Lord inflicted on his territories, the Lord scourged his 
body in the following manner. Having convened the elders 
of his territory to celebrate the festival of the [N'ativity of 
our Lord, while the said duke was on his road, on Saint 
Stephen's day, to take recreation with his knights, his horse 
fell upon him and crushed his foot, in such a manner that the 
bones, being broken on both sides, projected through the middle 
of the skin, and were exposed to the extent of the palm of 
one's hand : the surgeons, however, when they came, applied 
to the foot what they thought best for it. On the follow- 
ing day the foot was found to have turned black, and to be in 
such a state that it ought, in the opinion of the surgeons, to be 
taken off; but, upon his ordering this to be done, there was 
not a person found to acquiesce in his wishes : for no one dared, 
or could for sorrow, lay a hand on his master. 

At length, he sent for his son and heir, and begged and com- 
manded him to cut off his foot, and put an end to his pain ; 
and, on his refusal as well, he sent for his chamberlain, who 
being compelled so to do, the duke himself, with his own hand, 
held an axe close to the bone of the leg, while the chamber- 
lain, wielding a mallet, after three blows, with great difficulty, 
cut off the foot; the surgeons, however, after applying re- 
medies, on visiting him the next day, found in him no hopes of 
life. The duke, being consequently reduced to despair, caused 
the archbishops, bishops, and great men of his dominions, who 
had come to be present at the festival, to be assembled together ; 
and, on asking to be absolved from the sentence which our 
lord the pope had pronounced against him, for the injuries 
which he had done to the king of England, was answered by 
the whole of the clergy that he could, under no circumstances, 
procure absolution, unless, by making oath, he should give secu- 
rity that, as to the said injuries, he would abide by the judg- 
ment of the Church ; and, unless others of the chief men of 
his dukedom should join him in the said oath : and if he should 
be overtaken by the common destiny of man, they would use 
their exertions in every way that satisfaction might be made 
to the Holy Church, in order that the judgment of the Church 
might not be carried out with respect to him. Accordingly, being 
absolved through means of the judgment of the Church, he ordered 



A. D. 1195. ENQIJIRY liSTTO CASE OF THE AECHBISHOP OF YORK. 317 

all the hostages of the king of England that he had in his pos- 
session to be set at liberty, and forgave the sum of money 
owing to him from the king of England. After his decease, 
his heir, "svith some of the nobles, opposed the things before- 
mentioned being done; on which, the clergy would on no 
account allow the body of the duke to be buried : consequently, 
his body was kept above ground for eight days, until all the 
hostages given by the king of England had been set at liberty ; 
some of whom, on their coming to England, related all these 
things as what they had seen and heard. They also asserted 
that, at their departure, there was produced and offered to them^ 
four thousand marks and more, money belonging to the king of 
England, to be brought back ; but that, on account of the perils 
of the journey, they had not dared on any account to take 
charge thereof. 

All these things were done by God, that He might abase the 
haughty, and manifest His power before mortals ; and when 
He pursues with His deserved vengeance the injuries done to 
Him and His, we are to believe that the same has happened 
not only for our sakes, but also to assert His power ; nor must 
we boastfully ascribe to ourselves what has been wrought solely 
by the mercy of the Lord. In the meantime, when Baldwin 
de Bethune had come near the territories of the said duke 
of Austria, and heard of his death, he did not proceed any 
further, but returned to the king of England, and brought back 
the ladies before-named, and restored them to the king. 

In the same year, Walter, archbishop of Eouen, gave to 
Philip, king of Erance, one thousand pounds of money Anjouin 
for the ransom of his lands, which the said king of Erance had 
taken possession of during the war ; and, at the same time, Eo- 
bert, earl of Leicester, offered to Philip, king of Erance, for his 
ransom, one thousand pounds sterling, and to release him from 
all claim for ever, by himself and his heirs, to the castle of Passy 
with ail its appurtenances, and to ask a confirmation of the same 
from our lord the pope, and a confirmation from the king of 
England. But, as there was not yet an end of the war between 
himself and the king of England, he put off for the present the 
consideration of the offers which the earl of Leicester had made 
him. 

In the same year, in the month of January, being the Lord's 
Day next after the octave of the Epiphany, Hugh, bishop of 
Lincoln^ Master Winmer, archdeacon of Northampton, and 
Hugh, prior of Pontefract, to whom our lord the pope, Ce- 



348 ANNALS OF EOGES DE HOTEDEN. A.D. 1195. 

lestinus, had entrusted the charge of enquiring into the ex- 
cesses of which Geoffrey, archbishop of York, was accused by 
his canons of the church of York before the pope and cardinals, 
arrived at York, and proceeded in conformity with the man^ 
date of our lord the pope ; which was to the following effect : 

The Letter of pope Celestimcsy directing an inquisition to he 
made into the alleged excesses of the archbishop of York, 

*^ Celestinus, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to 
his venerable brother, the bishop of Lincoln, and his dearly 
beloved sons, the archdeacon of Northampton, and the prior of 
Pontefract, greeting. Jesus Christ, the mediator between 
God and man, whose foresight in His ordinances is not deceived, 
has willed that the source of the discipline of the whole 
Church, and the direction of the holy Church of Rome should 
be reserved for Himself, and that all other [churches] should 
also be subject to His government and supervision : that so, 
the plenitude of power being expressly reserved unto Him, 
it may belong to Him to correct the excesses also of other 
[churches], and, with the authority of the Apostolic sway, 
approve of what is done in a manner deserving of praise. 
Wherefore, inasmuch as by Divine providence we have been 
chosen to the governance thereof, it is our wish so to love our 
brethren and fellow-bishops, with due considerateness and dis- 
cretion, that we may not seem to prefer their affection and 
friendship to the duties unto which we are called ; and the 
more especially, as love has its limits, and each is bound to 
love the man, but not the errors of the man. And whereas, 
it has come to our hearing, from the information of the clergy 
and the chapter of the church of York, and the testimony of 
our dearly beloved sons Eobert of York, and Eoger of Selby, 
and of eleven other abbats of the Praemonstratensian order, 
seems manifestly to declare the same, that our venerable bro- 
ther, Geoffrey, the archbishop of York, disregarding the oaths 
of the office entrusted to him, being uselessly engaged in 
hunting, hawking, and other military pursuits, has given 
neither hand nor thought since his promotion to the ordina- 
tion of the clergy, the dedication of churches, or the cele- 
brations of synods, nor yet has pronounced a blessing upon 
any abbat, although with sufficient indiscretion he has accus- 
tomed his tongue at his own pleasure to pronounce male- 
dictions against and to excommunicate both clerks and abbats ; 



A. D. 1195. LETTER OF POrE CELESTINUS. 349 

the liberties and approved customs of his church he nullifies 
and subverts ; appeals which are wont to be the refuge of the 
oppressed, he has, to the injury of the Roman See, brought into 
contempt. Many, because they have made appeals to our- 
selves, he has ordered to be thrown into prison and placed in 
irons ; the beneficed clergy of his church, after appeal made 
to us, he has spoiled of honors and benefices, and some of the 
canons, despising their appeal, he had subjected to excom- 
munication. In his presence, the privileges of the Roman 
Pontiffs are utterly deprived of all authority ; and he, who 
otherwise would probably have been safe by pleading our 
privileges in his presence, loses the benefit of the protection 
he thereby hoped to gain. "When it so happens that any one 
has been restored to a church or^^ possession by the judges de- 
legated by our authority, the person by whom the said judg- 
ment is to be put in execution, he immediately looks upon as 
an enemy. Indeed, many so restored, he has reduced to des- 
titution; and entering their churches by force, by means of his 
servants, is said to have broken down the doors of the churches, 
and to have by violent means expelled them. Many persons 
also he has perniciously made to incur the danger of perjury, 
withdrawing them by means of violent compulsion from the 
obedience which by oath they had canonically promised his 
archdeacons to observe. Still more, attacking the greater 
church with a multitude of armed men, he has caused the 
doors of the chapter-house to be broken open by force and 
carried away ; the property of the canons, and that of many 
other persons who had deposited their possessions in the 
church as in a treasury, he has caused by violence to be 
withheld from them ; respecting all which matters, the chap- 
ter of York has made appeal to our presence. "We have also 
understood from the testimony of the persons before-named, 
that sometimes when churches have been vacant, he has not 
admitted fit and proper persons when presented by those to 
whom the presentation belongs, but has given the same to 
either youths or persons of bad character, thus discharging the 
duty both of him who presents and of him who institutes ; or 
else at his own sole wiU he causes them to be vacated, in 
order that their revenues may be applied to his own use, and 
that which was intended for the sustenance of some worthy 
clerk, he does not hesitate to retain in his own hands. They 
26 «< Ut" is probably a misprint for " aut. 



o 



50 ANNALS OF llOGER DE HOVEDEN. a.D. 1105. 



have also stated in addition, that, whereas spiritual gifts 
ought to be bestowed without reward and without corrupt- 
ness, frequently, when he gives a benefice, he either splits 
it into two parts, contrary to tlie canonical statutes of the 
church, or else retains upon it a new and unusual charge ; 
many, too, who have been excommunicated or suspended, hf3 
has absolved, through the intervention of nothing else than 
money. In his sight, religious and honest men are despised 
and contemned ; while low and suspected persons easily ob- 
tain his familiar acquaintanceship and favour. Wherefore, if 
such is his mode of life, and among such is his conversation, 
it is to be feared lest he may prove to the flock entrusted to 
his charge, rather a rock of offence and a stumbling-block, 
than an example of erudition, or a solace or protection against 
spiritual wickedness. Wherefore, inasmuch as the things that 
have been here stated, demand the care of an enquiry, we 
have thought proper to entrust to your discretion, in which 
we have full confidence, the enquiry into these matters, 
giving you, by these Apostolic writings, our commands forth- 
with to repair to the church of York, and, convoking the 
abbats, priors, and other ecclesiastical persons of the diocese of 
York, to make diligent enquiry whether he has thus negligently 
and perniciously treated the church and province of York. And 
if, upon the matters above stated, lawful accusers shall come 
forward, you are to hear what they shall think proper to 
allege against the aforesaid archbishop, and, after diligently 
hearing and learning the same, to make it y9ur care to 
transmit to us their attestation, enclosed under your seals, 
assigning to the parties a fitting time within which, being 
sufficiently instructed thereon, they are to appear at the 
Apostolic See, there to receive, the Lord so providing, what 
is directed by the canons of the Church. If, however, ac- 
cusers shall not be forthcoming, and if public report shall be 
in his disfavour, then you are, by our authority, to call upon 
him to clear himself by [the oaths of] three bishops and as 
many abbats, all obstacle of appeal removed. And if he shall 
chance to make any default therein, you are to cause him to 
be suspended from his archiepiscopal duties and administra- 
tion, and to appear in the Apostolical presence, to the end 
that, the Lord instructing him, he may there be taught how it 
befits him, and those like him, to minister in the house of 
the Lord. And if the said archbishop shall think fit to allege 



A.D.I 195. EXQUIRY INTO CONDUCT OF THE AECflEISHOP OF YOKK. 351 

anything against them, you are to hear the same as well, and 
to transmit it to us, enclosed under your seals, in order that a 
determination may, in due conformity with the canons, be come 
to thereon. Moreover, if the said archbishop shall, for the pur- 
pose of eluding our mandate, before your citation shall reach 
him, have interposed an appeal, or have commenced his jour- 
ney on his way to the Apostolic See, you are to appoint him 
a time within three months, upon which he is to be bound, in 
his own person, to appear in our presence. And if he shall 
fail so to do, you shall, by our authority, from that period, 
pronounce him suspended from all pontifical duties, and from 
the administration of the archbishopric, all power of appeal 
set aside. And if you shall be unable all of you to take part in 
carrying out these instructions, then any two of you shall carry 
out the same. Given at Saint Peter's, at Eome, on the sixth day 
before the ides of June, in the fourth year of our pontificate. '^ 
Accordingly, upon the authority of these letters, the said 
bishop of Lincoln and his colleagues came to York for the pur- 
pose of making the said enquiry, and, having summoned before 
them in the cathedral church, the abbats, priors, and ecclesiasti- 
cal personages of the diocese of York, proceeded, according to the 
tenor of this Apostolic mandate, to make diligent enquiry upon 
all the heads which were contained in the said writing. Many 
abbats, priors and other persons of good character, accused the 
said archbishop on all the above heads, in presence of the 
clerk and people of the household of the said archbishop, who 
excused him as far as they could, and said that before their 
citation the said archbishop had made an appeal, and had set 
out on his road to the Supreme Pontiff : alter hearing whom, 
the said bishop of Lincoln and his colleagues, attentively hearing 
the accusations of the adversaries of the archbishop of York, 
and having committed the same to writing with all care, had 
the same transmitted to the Supreme Pontiff, enclosed under 
the testimony of their seals, assigning the archbishop a time 
within three months, in obedience to the precept of the Supreme 
Pontiff ; and of their own kindness they gave him an additional 
term of six weeks, within which he was personally to appear 
in the Apostolical presence : adding, that if he should not 
do so, he was to know that he was from thenceforth suspended 
from all pontifical duties by the Apostolic authority, as also 
from the administration of the archbishopric. They also 
assigned to the adversaries of the archbishop a time at the 



352 AXNALS OF EOGEE DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1195. 

beginning of the calends of June, by which, having made all 
sufficient preparations, they were to present themselves at the 
Apostolic See, there to receive, the Lord so providing, what is 
adjudged by the canons of the Church. 

Accordingly, the aforesaid adversaries of the archbishop 
appearing at Rome in the presence of our lord the pope, at 
the time named, urgently made accusation against their 
archbishop ; but the archbishop did not come at the time ap- 
pointed, both by reason of the king's prohibition, and the 
pestilence which at that time prevailed at Eome. His clerks, 
however, appeared at the given time at the Roman court, and 
alleging these as the causes of his absence, obtained that 
whatever had in the meantime been done against the archbishop 
since his appeal, should be repealed as null and void : and the 
pope then appointed as the time for his coming to Rome, the 
octave of Saint Martin next ensuing. But because not even 
then did he make his appearance at the Roman court, either 
himself or by a sufficient proxy, at the feast of the Nativity 
of our Lord next ensuing, he was suspended from all episcopal 
duties. 

During the before-mentioned meeting of abbats, that took 
place at York, to oppose the archbishop, Roger, abbat of Selby, 
died, and was buried at Selby ; and, at the presentation of king 
Richard, was succeeded by Richard, prior of the same house, 
who received his benediction from Hubert Pitz- Walter, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, at this time, legate of all England. 

In the same year, while the king of England was staying at 
Chinon, in Anjou, certain assassins, fifteen in number, came 
to the king's court. But when they attempted to approach the 
king of England, for the purpose of killing him, some of them 
were taken and made prisoners, on which they stated that the 
king of France had sent them to assassinate the king of England ; 
but the king of England pretending not to know that these had 
been the designs of the king of France, deferred pronouncing 
judgment upon them, until such time as their associates should 
have been arrested. 

In the same year, in the month of February, Master Si- 
mon of Apulia, dean of the church of York, returning from| 
the parts beyond sea, with the plenitude of the king's favour, 
and his confirmation of his appointment to the deanery of the I 
church of York, on his approaching the city of York, there 
went forth to meet him the clergy and people of the city in 



A. D. 1195. HUGH, BISHOP OF DUKHAM, DIES, 35^ 

great multitudes ; among whom were some of the household 
of archbishop Geoffrey, namely, Master Otui and William de 
Bonville, and two others, who forbade the said dean, on behalf 
of our lord the pope and the archbishop of York, to approach 
the iDother church as dean thereof, until the dispute which 
existed between the archbishop and himself, as to the said 
deanery, should have been duly disposed of by the Eoman 
Pontiff", and appealed thereon to our lord the pope. And be- 
cause the said dean would not desist from his purpose, they 
laid violent hands on him ; but being immediately excommu- 
nicated themselves, on account of this violence, they allowed 
him to go ; on which he proceeded on his way and came to the 
mother church, and the canons of the church received him in 
solemn procession, this taking place on the Lord's day next 
before the beginning of Lent : and, at the beginning of Lent, 
Hugh, bishop of Durham, came to York, and confirmed the 
sentence of excommunication pronounced upon those who had 
laid violent hands upon the dean. While the said bishop of 
Durham was on his road thence to London, and had arrived at 
Doncaster, he fell ill, and being unable to proceed any further, 
was carried by ship to his vill of Hoveden. 

In the same month of February, in the country of the king 
of Scotland, died Gregory, bishop of Eoss, who was succeeded 
by Reginald, surnamed '^ the Lean,'' a monk of Melrose. It is 
stated, that in the cathedral church of the bishopric of Eoss, 
which is called Eosmarein, Saint Boniface, the pope who was 
the fourth from Saint Gregory, was buried. About this Boni- 
face we read in the Ecclesiastical histories, that he prevailed 
upon Phocas Caesar, the emperor of the Eomans, to present the 
Temple at Eome, which was previously called the Pantheon, 
to the church of God; and, after banishing therefrom the 
abominations of Devils, he dedicated it in honor of the blessed 
Mary, the Mother of God and ever a virgin, and of all the Saints, 
appointing that festival to be celebrated every year, at the be- 
ginning of the calends of November. 

In the same year, in the month of March, on the third day 
of that month, being the sixth day of the week, Hugh, bishop 
of Durham, departed this life, at his vill of Hoveden, and was 
buried at Durham, in the chapter house of the monks ; but 
before his body had entered Durham, Walter de Perlington 
delivered to Hugh Bardolph the castle of Durham, and hung 
up the keys of the castle over the shrine of Saint Cuthbert. 

VOL. II. A A 



354 ANNALS OP ROGER DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1195. 

Rodolph de Stavely inconsiderately rushing on for the purpose 
of seizing them, fear suddenly came upon him, and, going back, 
he hung up the keys over the shrine where they previously 
were ; but before leaving the church, by the judgment of God 
he was scourged with a severe attack of illness, and died in a 
few days after. The said keys, however, were afterwards 
delivered by the hands of the prior and of the monks to Hugh 
Eardolph, who made oath that he would faithfully keep them 
to the honor of Saint Cuthbert and the king. After this, Hugh 
de Ferlington delivered to Hugh Bardolph the castle of Nor- 
ham, by command of the king's justiciary. 

In the meantime, at the instance of the canons of York, 
pope Celestinus wrote to the following effect to Eoger de Lei- 
cester and Winemer de Northampton, archdeacons of the church 
of Lincoln: — 

The Letter of pope Celestinus against Geoffrey , a/rchhishop of 

York, 

^* Celestinus, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to 
his dearly beloved sons, Haimo, dean of Lincoln, Eoger de 
Leicester, and Winemer de Northampton, archdeacons ap- 
pointed in the diocese of Lincoln, health and the Apostolic 
benediction. Our most dearly beloved sons, Simon, the dean, 
and the chapter of the church of Saint Peter at York, have 
informed us that, after appeal made to us, the clerks of the 
chapelof our venerable brother, the archbishop of the said church, 
and some other persons, have been intruded into the cathedral! 
church of the said city, to the great prejudice of the canons, 
the vicars and clerks of the said church being excluded there- 
from, for the purpose of ministering therein, and, contrary to 
the ancient and approved custom, usurping the places and stalls 
of the clergy in the choir and chapter, have presumed to contravene 
the regulations of the church. Wherefore, wishing, as is right 
and proper, to put an end to presumptuous acts of this nature, 
we do by our precept, by means of these our Apostolical writings 
command, that, if what we have before stated is true, you will 
compel these presumptuous persons, by force of ecclesiastical 
censure, all power of appeal being taken away, in your pre- 
sence to make due satisfaction for these matters to the church 
of Saint Peter, and the canons thereof. You are also to cause 
reparation to be made for the losses which shall appear to have 
been inflicted by the same clerks upon the aforesaid chapter in 



\.D. 1195. HUGH, BISHOP OF COVENTEY, IS PARDONED. 355 

mch manner as shall be just. And if you shall not be able 
ill of you to take part in the performance hereof, then two of 
rou are to carry out the same. Given at Saint Peter's, at 
Rome, on the second day before the calends of June, in the 
fourth year of our pontificate." 

Accordingly, on the authority of these letters, the said dean 
)f Lincoln and his colleagues appointed for the parties a time 
md place, first at Torkesey, and next at Avechester, where, in 
;heir presence, they proved the losses of the priors and canons 
)f the church of York, which they had sustained by the arch- 
Dishop of York and his intruders, to be of the value of one 
;housand marks of silver. 

In the same year, Eichard, king of England, forgave his 
)rother, John, all the wrath and displeasure he felt towards 
lim, and restored to him the earldom of Mortaigne, the honor 
)f Eye, and the earldom of Gloucester, and all the appurte- 
lances thereto belonging, with the exception of the castles : 
md, instead of all his other earldoms and lands, the king gave 
lim eight thousand pounds of money Anjouin per annum. 

In the same year, the Supper of our Lord approaching, on 
Fohn, bishop of Whitherne, the sufiragan and deputy of Geof- 
rey, archbishop of York, coming near to York, that he might 
:here, according to usual custom, consecrate the chrism and the 
)il at the Supper of our Lord, the dean and clergy of the church 
)f York refused to receive him. Consequently, he went to 
Jewell, and there consecrated the chrism and oil at the Supper 
)f our Lord, and delivered them to the officials of the arch- 
)ishop to distribute to the churches in the archbishopric. It is 
3ven said that Geoff'rey de Muschamp, archdeacon of Cleveland, 
-eceived the chrism and oil, and immediately threw them upon 
I dunghill. However, the other canons of the church of Saint 
Peter declined to receive any part thereof, but sent to Hugh, 
iishop of Lincoln, to obtain the oil and chrism of him ; they 
kvere deceived, however, in their expectations : for Peter, arch- 
ieacon of Lincoln, brother of archbishop Geoftrey, forbade the 
)ishop to give them the oil and chrism, and appealed on the 
natter to the Roman Pontiff. 

In the same year, the king forgave his wrath and displea- 
;ure against Hugh, bishop of Coventry, and restored to him the 
>ishopric, for five thousand marks of silver, which he paid to 
lim ; but Robert, the brother of the said bishop, died in the 
custody of our lord the king, at Dover. 

aa2 



356 ANNALS OF EOGEE DE HOYEDEN. A.D.1195. 

In like manner, our lord the king forgave his brother Geof- 
frey, archbishop of York, his wrath and displeasure, and re- 
ceived him with the kiss of peace ; in consequence of which, 
the said archbishop being beyond measure elated, so exaspe- 
rated the king by his insolent speeches, that he ordered him to 
be deprived of his archbishopric and the shrievalty of York. 
Would that the archbishop had read the warning of the philo- 
sopher, who says : ** Stir not the fire with the sword. '^ The 
Lord, also, inculcating humility in us, says, by the mouth of 
His Apostle, ^^ Servants, be obedient to your masters in the 
Lord.^'-^ I say not only to the wise and modest, but also 
to the morose: '*Be ye subject to the king as pre-eminent, 
and to his ministers sent by him for the punishment of the 
wicked and the praise of the good. Behold the ships ! large 
though they be, and are threatened by mighty winds, by a 
small helm are they turned round, wherever the intention oi 
him who steers shall guide them : so, too, though the tongue 
is a small member, it leads to great results. Behold ! the fire, 
however small, how great the wood it can burn ! The tongue 
is truly a fire, and from the tongue all iniquity is carried into 
effect, which pollutes and inflames the whole body ; and no 
one is able to control the tongue, but he who is wise and cir- 
cumspect. Therefore, let us circumcise our hearts ; for, from 
the uncircumcised heart proceed fornications, adulteries, mur- 
ders, thefts, false- witness, blasphemies, contentions, and strifes, 
and the like to these, which are the things that defile a man f^ 
and on the contrary to this, out of the clean and circumcised 
heart proceed charity, cheerfulness, peace, patience, long- 
suffering, kindness, benignity, meekness, fidelity, modesty, 
continence, chastity, and other things like unto these, which 
are the fruits of the soul, and lead it unto God its Creator, for 
*out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh,'^ 
whether it be good or whether bad.'' 

In the same year, there came a hermit to king Richard, 
and, preaching the words of eternal salvation to him, said : 
'^ Be thou mindful of the destruction of Sodom, and abstain 
from what is unlawful ; for if thou dost not, a vengeance worthy 
of God shall overtake thee." The king, however, intent upon 
the things of this world, and not those which are of God, was 
not able so readily to withdraw his mind from what was un- 

28 Eph. vi. 5, not quite correctly quoted. 

29 According to St. Matt. xv. 19, and St. Mark, vii. 21, 22. 
^ St. Matt, xii 34. St. Luke, vi. 45. 



A.D. 1195. KING RICHAKD AMENDS HIS CONDUCT. 357 

la-wfiil, unless the revelation should come to him from above, 
or he should behold a sign. Tor he despised the person of his 
adviser, not understanding that sometimes the Lord reveals to 
babes the things that are hidden from the wise ; for the lepers 
announced good tidings to Samaria,^^ and the ass of Ealaam 
recalled its master from the unlawful way. Wherefore, the 
hermit, leaving the king, went his way, and hid himself from 
before his face. In process of time, however, although the be- 
fore-named king despised the admonition of the poor hermit, 
still, by the inspiration of the Divine grace, he retained some 
part of his warning in his memory, having faith in the Lord 
that He who recalled the publicans and the Canaanitish woman 
to repentance, in His great mercy would give to him a penitent 
heart. 

Hence it was, that on the Lord's day in Easter week, the Lord 
visited him with a rod of iron, not that he might bruise him, 
but that he might receive the scourging to his advantage. Eor 
on that day, the Lord scourged him with a severe attack of 
illness, so that, calling before him religious men, he was not 
ashamed to confess the guiltiness of his life, and, after receiving 
absolution, took back his wife, whom for a long time he had 
not known : and, putting away all illicit intercourse, he re- 
mained constant to his wife, and they two became one flesh, 
and the Lord gave him health both of body and of soul. Oh ! 
happy the son, whom, in this pilgrimage, the father's severity 
chastens for his correction, and not for his destruction ! For 
the father corrects his son sometimes in kind words, and 
sometimes in harsh, that, by the one means or the other, he 
may recall him to do what is right. And thus, in the furnace 
of justice does the Lord try His gold ; there does He in 
adversity prove His holy one, that He may promote him to a 
crown. Truly, great and inexpressible are the works of the 
Lord, and His mercies are over all His works. For this king, 
over whose head his iniquities had passed away, was adopted 
by Christ as His son, and turning from his wickedness unto the 
Lord, was received by Him as a son. 

For God, in whose hands are the hearts of kings, and who 
turneth them whichever way He thinketh fit, instilled it into 
the heart of the king, that he should so quickly change his life 
and conversation for the better : for, rising early every day, he 
first sought the kingdom of God and its justice, and did not 

3^ Alluding to 2 Kings, vii. 



358 ANNALS OF EOGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1195. 

depeirt from the church until, after the usage of the Church, 
the whole of the Divine service had been performed. A glo- 
rious thing indeed is it for a prince to begin his daily actions, 
and to finish them in Him who is the beginning without 
beginning, and who judges the limits of the earth. 

The said king, mindful also of those words which say, 
•' Blessed is he that considereth the poor and needy ; the Lord 
will deliver him in time of trouble, "^^ ordered each day, many 
poor to be fed, both in his court, as also in cities and in his 
vills, whom he daily increased, according as there was need. 
For there was a great famine in this land, and the poor resorted 
to him that they might be fed. By the example of such, is 
faith confirmed, hope upraised, charity nourished, humility 
protected, devotion increased, and a desire to do good excited. 
The said king also caused many chalices of gold and silver to 
be made, which he distributed among the churches, from which 
their chalices had been taken for the purpose of paying his 
ransom. ^^Woe unto that man through whom the offence 
Cometh ;"^^ for it ought not to be imputed to the king that 
through him those chalices had been given for his ransom, but 
rather it ought to be laid to the charge of those who gave such 
counsel to him, inasmuch, as **Evil communications corrupt 
good manners,"^'* and we read in the Gospel,^^ "Wherefore he 
hath the greater sin who hath delivered me up unto thee.^' 

In the same year, pope Celestinus, at the prayer of Eichard, 
king of England, appointed Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, 
legate of the whole of England ; on which occasion, the said 
pope T\Tote to him to the following effect : 

The Letter of pope Celestinus on the legateship of Hubert^ 
archhishop of Canterbury. 

" Celestinus, the pope and bishop, servant of the servants of 
God, to his venerable brother, Hubert, archbishop of Canter- 
bury, legate of the Apostolic See, health and the Apostolic 
benediction. That sincerity in its duteousness and in its 
established faith, which the church of England has always 
maintained towards the holy Church of Home, has, as we fully 
trust, flourished once again under your energy and prudence, 
and has received an acceptable increase of tranquil fervour 
Eor such an opinion of your brotherhood has gone forth to the 
Church of Eome, that by the odour of your good works we are 
^ Psalm xli. 1. '^ St. Matt, xviii. 7. 34 1 Cor. xv. 33. ^^ St. John, xix. 11, 



A.D. 1195. LETTEE OF POPE CELESTINUS. 359 

refreshed, and are strengtliened by the vigour of the constancy 
which you manifest ; so much so, that we may now more openly by 
our deeds disclose the confidence we have placed in your probity. 
"Wherefore, at the entreaty of our most dearly beloved son in 
Christ, Richard, the illustrious king of the English, and all the 
suffragans of the church of Canterbury, that the church of 
England might have a legate from the Apostolic See, for its 
own advantage, as also that of the kingdom ; as also, in con- 
sideration of the feelings of devotion which we entertain towards 
the church of Canterbury for the merits of its glorious martyr, 
and out of respect for your virtues and honesty, we have given 
our assent and favour to their prayers; and this in especial, 
l:>ecause we believe that it will greatly conduce to the advan- 
tage of the Church and of the kingdom if she receives such a 
person, acting in the above-named kingly office, as the urgent 
prayers of the said king and of others pronounce you to be, 
in commendation of the meritoriousness of your life, and of 
your devotion to the faith. Therefore we do for the honor 
of God, for the safety of the church of Canterbury, and 
for the peace of the whole kingdom of England, all excep- 
tions or privileges granted to our venerable brother, Geoffrey, 
archbishop of York, or to his church, or any other, notwith- 
standing, grant unto you the office of legate, enjoining you by 
these Apostolic writings, to receive the same with the humility 
of fraternal obedience, and, in accordance with the powers 
granted you by heaven, for the purpose of amending the things 
that require amendment, and of enacting what requires to be 
enacted, to apply the hand of diligence to the exercise of 
the authority of the legateship : so observing in all things, 
with ready dutifulness, the respect due to your mother, the 
Boman Church, that, through the profitableness of the ministry, 
which with joy she entrusts to you, you may, by your acts, 
render her even more joyful. Given at the Lateran, on the 
fifteenth day before the calends of April, in the fourth year of 
our pontificate.'* 

The said pope Celestinus wrote also to the following effect 
to Geoffrey, archbishop of York, and all the bishops, abbats, 
priors, and others, appointed prelates of churches throughout 
the kingdom of England : — 

^ ** Celestinus, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to 
his venerable brethren in Christ, the archbishop of York, and 
all bishops, abbats, priors, and others, appointed prelates of 



360 ANNALS OF KOGEK DK HOYEDEN. A.D. H95. 

churches throughout the kingdom of England, health and the 
Apostolic benediction. The inscrutable depths of the Divine 
wisdom have established the Holy Church throughout the 
breadth of this world, and have, in its inimitable foresight, so 
willed its rule and governance to be carried out, that, for the 
purpose of its healthful governance, many should be associated 
in the care thereof, although, for the purpose of establishing 
ecclesiastical unity, the Eoman Church has received the fulness 
of power therein. Eor it has willed that, in accordance with 
what is said by the Prophet in reference to the Church, some 
should be born unto the fathers, who, being appointed princes 
over the earth, might by the merits of their virtues, and by the 
words of doctrine, train those ignorant of the faith, when more 
advanced, to righteousness. Wherefore, the holy Church of 
Eome, to which Church the Lord has given rule over the others, 
has, in her motherly care, had regard for the others from the 
beginning, and has with a laudable practice, hitherto used all 
watchfulness, that she might from different parts of the world 
appoint prudent men to undertake the ministry of them, whose 
authority and doctrine, under the control of the Roman Pon- 
tiff, may minister to churches far distant those things which he 
himself is not able. Accordingly, we, who, insufficient as our 
merits may be, have been raised to the lofty elevation thereof, 
following in the footsteps of our forefathers, so endeavour with 
the help of God to perform the duties enjoined on us in 
reference to the neighbouring churches, that a due and proper 
foresight may not be withdrawn from those, from 'which, by 
distance, we are far separated. Wherefore in especial, looking 
with the eye of our fatherly regard at the present state of the 
English Church, for its safety and for its especial advantage in 
Christ, we have, by the common advice of our brethren, decreed 
that our venerable brother, Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, 
in whose merits and virtue, wisdom and learning, the whole 
church rejoices, taking upon himself the duties of the legate- 
ship, shall, at will, perform our functions to the honor of 
the Church, and the safety and peace of the entire realm, 
throughout the whole kingdom of England, all exceptions or 
privileges granted to you or to your church, or to any other 
brother archbishop, notwithstanding. Therefore, by our au- 
thority, we do command the whole of you, through these 
Apostolic writings, to show to him all due reverence and 
honor as legate of the Apostolic See, and humbly to receive 



A.D. 1195. THE pope's legate aeeives at toek. 361 

his healthful warnings and commands, and to obey the same, 
steadfastly observing the things that, by the authority of the 
legateship, which by the will of the Lord he holds, he shall 
think fit and proper to ordain. Given at the Lateran, on the 
fifteenth day before the calends of April, in the fourth year of 
our pontificate.'* 

Accordingly, upon the authority of these letters, the said 
archbishop of Canterbury, legate of the Apostolic See, sent 
to York Master Peter, the prior of Bineham, in E^orfolk, and 
Master Gervaise, with the letters of our lord the pope, and letters 
from himself to the canons of York, and to the officers of the 
archbishop of York, sending word to them, that he should 
shortly come thither on the authority of his legateship, for the 
purpose of amending the things that required to be amended, 
and of enacting the things that, with the sanction of the Lord, 
required to be enacted; and he commanded them, convoking 
the clergy, to show to him, as the legate of the Apostolic See, due 
honor and obedience, adding, that he had already pronounced 
sentence of excommunication upon all those who in this respect 
should contravene the mandates of our lord the pope. He also 
sent, relative thereto, his letters patent to Simon, the dean of 
York, instructing him, if he should find any rebellious against 
the said mandate of our lord the pope, to denounce them as ex- 
communicated. Accordingly, both the canons, as also the officers 
of the archbishop of York, answered the messengers of the le- 
gate, that they would receive him in his character of legate of 
the Apostolic See, but not as archbishop of Canterbury, or pri- 
mate. 

The legate arrived at York, on the feast of Saint Barnabas 
the Apostle, being the Lord's day, and was received by the 
clergy in solemn procession ; and, being escorted to the church 
of the Cathedral See, on the Monday following caused assizes 
to be held by his servants, of all pleas of the crown of the 
king, and of novel disseisin and of mort d' ancestor ; while he 
himself and his officers held pleas of spiritual matters. On the 
following day, being the third day of the week, the legate pro- 
ceeded to the abbey of Saint Mary of York, and was there re- 
ceived in solemn procession by the monks of the said church. He 
then entered the chapter-house of the monks, and on the monks 
making complaint to him that Eobert their abbat could not, by 
reason of sickness, and his bad state of health, discharge his 
duties to the house, he removed him from his pastoral charge. 



362 ANNALS OF ROGER DE HOTEDEN. A.D. llfS. 

and from the government of tlie house, protesting against the 
same, and appealing thereon to the Supreme Pontiff. 

On the two following days, namely, the fourth and fifth days 
of the w^eek, there being assembled in the church of Saint Peter 
at York, Simon, the dean of that church, Hamo, the praecentor, 
William Testard, and Geoffrey de Muschamp, the archdeacons 
of JSTottingham and Cleveland, John the chancellor, and Eobert, 
the prior of Beverley, together with some of the canons of the 
said church, and nearly all the abbats, priors, officers, deans, 
and parsons of the churches of the diocese of York, the legate 
sat installed in an elevated place, and held a full sjmod ; in 
which he enacted that the following statutes should be ob- 
served. 

The Decrees of the Synod of Yorh, 

'^ Whereas, among the other Sacraments of the Church, the 
host of salvation is pre-eminent in importance, therefore 
ought the devoutness of the priesthood to pay the more earnest 
attention thereto, that the same may be made with humility, be 
received with fear, and be dispensed with reverence ; and the 
minister at the altar ought to be certain that the bread and 
wine, and water, are placed ready for the sacrifice, nor should 
it be celebrated without a literate minister officiating thereat. 
Care is also to be taken, that the host is kept in a clean and 
fair pyx, and is received on each Lord's day." 

*^ As often as a communion is to be celebrated for the sick, 
the priest in his own person, in a clerical dress befitting a Sa- 
crament so important, is to carry the host, a light going before 
him, unless the inclemency of the weather, or the difficulty of the 
way, or some other reason shall prevent it ; because the mys- 
tery of the mass is frequently found to be corrupted, either by 
errors in the writing, or through the age of the books, so as 
not to be able to be distinctly read. 

'^ The attention of the archdeacon is also to provide that in 
each church the canon of the mass is compared with all dili- 
gence, with a true and approved copy thereof. 

"We do also forbid any priest through cupidity to enjoin any 
layman when he comes to receive absolution, to have masses 
performed ; and we have thought proper to forbid that any 
priest shall make a bargain for the celebration of mass at a 
stated price, but he is to receive that alone which is offered at 
the mass. 



A.D. 1195. DECEEES OF THE SYNOD OF TOEK. 363 

^^ We do also enact, that in baptism not more than three spon- 
sors shall receive a child from the holy font, two males and 
one female a male child, and two females and one male a female 
child. 

" Also, where a child, the fact of whose previous baptism is 
unknown, is found exposed, whether with salt or whether with- 
out salt,^^ it is to be baptized, since ' that is not known to be re- 
peated which is not known to have been already done.' 

'' We do also decree, that, unless under the pressure of great 
and urgent necessity, no deacon shall baptize, or shall dispense 
the body of Christ to any person, or shall impose penance on 
one making confession ; as, according to the tenor of the canons 
of our forefathers, antiquity determines to have these things of 
right to belong to the order of the priesthood. 

** According to the tenor of the same institutions, we do also 
enact, that as often as a priest is called upon to baptize a child, 
or to conomunicate with a sick person, he shall not presume to 
be guilty of delay. 

^^ Whereas, in the house of prayer, which is called ^The house 
of God,' there ought to be nothing unbecoming, nothing left 
unprepared, we do order that the parsons and vicars of churches 
shall make it their object to provide, in proportion to their 
incomes received, according as reason demands, and approved 
custom requires, in order that those churches which stand in 
need of repair may be repaired. 

** Also, Divine service is to be performed with the furniture 
suitable to that service. 

"Also, the sacrament of the Eucharist is to be celebrated with 
a silver chalice, where there are means for so doing ; and as the 
time for carrying out this ordinance, we do appoint one year 
from the beginning of our legateship ; and if, in the meantime, 
this ordinance shall not have been carried into execution, we 
do decree that before the expiration of that time our order shall, 
out of the revenue of the churches, be carried into effect. 

^^We do also enact, that clerks who have received the tonsure 
from the bishops, shall retain that tonsure and shorn head ; 
and if they shall neglect to retain the same, then they are to be 

^ By the decrees of the church, salt was ordered to be placed about 
the persons of children exposed, signifying that they had not been bap- 
tized. Judging from the present enactment, it seems to have been con- 
sidered that no confidence could be put in the observance of this order ; 
and, indeed, it was not likely that those who exposed their children, would 
be very particular about their welfare in another existence. 



364 AXi!^ALS OF EOGER DE HOYEDEN. A. D. 1195. 

compelled so to do by deprivation of their benefices, if they 
have any ; and as for those who have not any benefices, let 
them, whether they will or no, be shorn by the archdeacon or 
by the deans. 

** We do also command that priests shall not go in hoods with 
long sleeves, but rather in vestments suited to their order ; that 
in the same degree in which they excel others in dignity of 
station, they may more fully set the pattern and example of 
propriety. 

^^ Inasmuch as the Scripture testifies that he is blessed *who 
shaketh his hands from holding of bribes,' ^^ attention must be 
paid with earnest zeal that justice is done without reward, and 
no one is to presume to receive any reward whatever for doing 
the same in causes ecclesiastical, or for withholding it, or for 
accelerating it, or for deferring it, that so at the fitting time 
the just Judge may give him the reward of justice. 

^* Inasmuch as tithes are the tribute of souls that stand in need, 
and are bound to be given in obedience to the command of 
God, it is not for him that pays them to diminish the same. 
We do therefore enact, that of those which are yearly renewed, 
the due and customary tithes shall be paid entirely and in full ; 
so that in the first place tithes are to be given without any dimi- 
nution to the Church, and after that, out of the remaining nine 
parts, the wages of the reapers and of the other servants are to 
be paid at discretion. 

^*The profession of religious sanctity demands that monks and 
canons regular and nuns should be kept religiously and in obedi- 
ence to rules. To the end, therefore, that all opportunity of going 
astray may be taken away from them, we do forbid that they 
shall hold those revenues to farm which go under the name of 
obediences,^^ or shall go upon distant pilgrimages, or beyond the 
monasteries, without a certain and reasonable cause, and they 
are not to go without the society of other persons whose cha- 
racter is assured and beyond all doubt. Also, as to nuns, we 
do especially add, that they are not, without the society of 
the abbess or prioress, to go beyond the precincts of the mo- 
nastery. 

'*We do also, in addition, forbid any layman to take any church 

*7 Isaiah xxxiii. 15. 

38 '< Obedientiae'^ was the name given to cells, farms, and granges that 
paid certain rentals to abbeys, and were often presided over by monks 
delegated for that purpose from the abbey. 



A.D. 1195. DECREES OF THE SYNOD OF YORK. 365 

or tithes to farm, whether solely, or whether in partnership 
with a clerk. 

'* That the dishonesty of calumniators, and the wickedness of 
rash swearers may be checked, through fear of the Divine judg- 
ment, we do order that, for the future, every priest, three times 
in the year, with candles lighted and bells ringing, shall 
solemnly excommunicate those who, in recognizances and other 
matters of testimony, shall have knowingly and wilfully been 
guilty of perjury, and those who shall wickedly cause others 
to be guilty of perjury, and shall on every Lord's day denounce 
them as excommunicated ; to the end that the frequent repetition 
of the malediction may withdraw those from their iniquity, 
whom the accusation of their own conscience does not deter 
therefrom. But if they repent of their perjury, let them be 
sent before the archbishop or bishop, or, in the absence of the 
archbishop or bishop, general confessor of the diocese, for the 
purpose of receiving absolution from him. But in cases where 
persons are in the last extremity, penance is to be suggested, 
and not to be enforced; and they are to be strictly enjoined, if 
they shall survive, to go before the archbishop or bishop, or, in 
the absence of the archbishop or bishop, the general confessor 
of the diocese, to the end that due penance may be imposed 
on them. 

^^ Because it is the word of the Lord, ' If any priest shall sin, 
he will make my people to sin,'^^ and * A wicked priest is the 
ruin of the people,' the excellence of so high an order requires 
that priests should abstain from public drinkings, and from 
taverns, and that those who are bound by a vow of chastity, 
should by no means give way to acts of uncleanness. We do, 
therefore, forbid them to have harlots in their houses, or, when 
expelled therefrom, in fraud of our enactments, to have access 
to them in the houses of others. But if they shall persist in 
their uncleanness, and the superiors, concealing it, shall not 
bring the same to the notice of their prelates, they shall be sus- 
pended from their duties ; but those who, inflamed by zeal 
for God, have told the prelates of their excesses, shall obtain 
the favour of the Divine blessing. 

'' Also, the punishment of those who publicly keep harlots, 

shall be as follows : as being infamous, they shall be disabled 

from making accusation against others, and from bearing 

3^ These words do not appear in Scripture ; though, of course, the 
meaning of them is to be found there. 



366 ANNALS OF ROGER DE HOVEDEN. A.D. 1195. 

witness : but if, not even throiigli a fear of this punishment 
they shall come to a sense of their duty, then let them know 
that they shall be suspended from their offices and benefices. 

** A person who is suspected of a crime by common report, or 
by probable tokens, is to be admonished in a friendly manner 
by the superior of the place, a first, second, and third time, 
to amend his life ; and if he shall not do so, then the superior, 
taking with him two or three others, to whom the common 
report in his disfavour is known, shall rebuke him for the same ; 
and if even then he shall not seem to be changed for the better, 
let it be told unto the Church, that is to say, let him be accused 
in the chapter, in order that, being convicted, or having con- 
fessed, he may be canonically punished. But if he cannot be 
convicted, then let him be called upon to make canonical purga- 
tion of himself ; so however, that the number of his witnesses 
may not exceed twelve, within which number, more or less may 
be received according to the condition of the person, and the na- 
ture and extent of the infamy, according to the opinion of those 
giving judgment. And forthwith, on the first day on which he, 
who is under the stigma of infamy, shall be in a condition to 
exculpate himself, let the purgation take place, that, through 
fear of vexation arising from delay, money may not be ex- 
torted. This and the above enactments we have made, saving 
in all things the authority and dignity of the Holy See.'' 

At this synod, also, Master Peter De Dinant demanded full 
restitution to be made to him of the archdeaconry of the West 
Riding, which Geoffrey, archbishop of York, had given him, 
instructing the chapter of York, by his letters, to receive and 
instal him; on which Simon, the dean, and the chapter of 
York, made answer, that the archbishop could not give that 
archdeaconry to an}^ one, because he had delayed to present to 
it beyond the time appointed by the statute of the council of 
the Lateran, in which council pope Alexander the Third enacted 
that Avhen it shall happen that prebends, livings, or any offices 
shall be vacant in any church, they shall not remain too long in 
a state of suspense, but shall, within six months, be confeiTcd 
on persons who shall be able worthily to discharge the duties of , 
the same. And if the bishop, when the presentation shall be- 
long to him, shall delay to present, then be it performed by the 
chapter ; and if the election belongs to the chapter, and, within 
the time prescribed, it shall not so do, then let the bishop, with 
the aid of the Lord, and with the counsel of religious men. 



A.D. 1193. KOBEET, ABBAT OF TOTTEIS^AT, IS DEPOSED. 367 

perform that duty : or in case all shall happen to neglect so 
to do, let the metropolitan of the bishops, with the aid of the 
Lord, dispose thereof, without any gainsaying on their part. 

Accordingly, on the authority of this enactment, and under the 
protection of the privilege granted to the church of York by the 
indulgence of pope Celestinus the Third, the said dean and chapter 
of York asserted that to them belonged the presentation of the 
aforesaid archdeaconry, and of the other benefices vacant in the 
church of York, to which their archbishop had not presented 
within the time fixed by the council of Lateran. Eut the 
deputies of the archbishop of York, namely. Master Gerard de 
Rowelle, and Master Honorius, made appeal against this pri- 
vilege, and renewed the appeal which their lord the arch- 
bishop had made on his departure, in regard to the state of 
bis church, before the legate and the whole synod ; and al- 
though in that privilege it was stated to be one without appeal, 
the legate still deferred to the appeal of the deputies of the 
archbishop of York. 

In the same year, William, king of the Scots, fell ill at a 
vill of his, the name of which is Clackmannan, and named 
Otho, son of Henry, duke of Saxony, and nephew of Eichard, 
king of England, his heir to the kingdom of the Scots, upon 
condition that the said Otho should marry his eldest daughter, 
and take her with the kingdom. Although the king had a 
great many who consented to his wishes herein, still earl Patrick 
and many others opposed them, saying, chat they would not 
receive the daughter as queen, because it wab not the custom 
in that realm that a woman should possess the kingdom, 
so long as there was a nephew, or brother, of her race, who 
might, according to law, possess the kingdom. However, shortly 
after, by the mercy of God, the king of the Scots recovered from 
his illness, abiding in the same determination that he had 
made, as to giving his daughter in marriage to the said Otho, 
together with his kingdom. 

In the same year, Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, legate 
of the Apostolic See, and justiciary of the whole of England, 
deposed Robert, abbat of Tournay, he protesting against the same, 
and appealing to the presence of our lord the pope; and 
he kept him in prison and in irons for a year and a half, at 
Gloucester, In the same year, the said archbishop, as jus- 
ticiary of the whole of England, sent throughout England a 
iorm of oath to be taken as follows : 



368 AN^NALS OF EOGER DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1195. 

** That all subjects of the kingdom of England, shall, to the 
best of their power, keep the peace of their lord the king ; 
that they shall not be thieves or robbers, nor yet harbourers 
of them, nor shall in any way abet them ; and that whenever 
they shall be able to know of any malefactors of that cha- 
racter, they shall, to the best of their ability, endeavour to tal:e 
them, and deliver them up to the sheriffs, and they shall 
on no account be liberated but by our lord the king, or his 
chief justice : and if they shall not be able to arrest them, they 
shall give notice of them, whoever they may be, to the bailiffs 
of our lord the king. When a hue and cry is raised for the 
pursuit of outlaws, robbers, thieves, or the harbourers of 
such, all shall join in pursuit of them to the best of their abi- 
lity ; and if they shall see any one, and it shall be clear that 
he has not joined in the said pursuit, or that he has, without 
permission, withdrawn himself therefrom, they shall take such 
same persons, as though they were the offenders, and deliver 
them to the sheriffs, not to be set at liberty, but by the king, 
or by his chief justice. 

*^ Also, the knights who are appointed for that purpose, shall 
make all persons of their respective districts, of the age of fif- 
teen years and upwards, appear before them, and shall make them 
swear that they will keep the peace of our lord the king, in 
manner above-mentioned, and that they will not be outlaws, 
robbers, or thieves, nor yet harbourers of them, nor will in 
any way abet them ; and that they will, in manner above 
stated, make full pursuit of them, and, if they shall take any 
one in the commission of an offence, will deliver them to 
the knights placed over them in their respective districts and 
for that purpose appointed, who shall deliver him into the 
custody of the sheriff ; and in like manner, on a hue and cry 
being raised for the purpose of pursuing the said offenders, if 
they shall see any person, or it shall be known to them that 
any person does not join in the pursuit, or if he shall, without 
leave, withdraw himself from the pursuit, they shall take 
him as the offender, and deliver him to the aforesaid knights, 
for the purpose of being delivered into the custody of the 
sheriff, as though he were the offender himself ; and he shall 
not be liberated, except by the command of our lord the king, 
or his chief justice." 

Accordingly, for the purpose of carrying out these orders, 
select and trustworthy men were sent throughout all the 



A- D,1195. CONFERENCE OF THE KINGS OF FEANCE AND ENGLAND. 369 

counties of England, Avho, upon the oaths of trusty men, ar- 
rested many in their respective neighbourhoods, and put them 
in the king's prisons. Many, however, being forewarned 
thereof, and having bad consciences, left their homes and pos- 
sessions, and took to flight. 

In the same year, after the N^ativity of Saint John the Bap- 
ist, Henry, emperor of the Eomans, sent to Eichard, king of 
England, a massive crown of gold, of great value, as a token 
)f their mutual affection ; requesting him, by the fealty which 
:ie owed him, and as he took an interest in his hostages, that 
;hey might not come to harm, to make a hostile invasion of the 
territories of the king of France, on which the emperor him- 
self would give him ample succours for the purpose of avenging 
;he injuries done him by the king of France. However, the 
^ing of England, fearing that in this message there might be 
5ome treacheiy lying concealed, sent to the emperor, William, 
Dishop of Ely, his chancellor, for the purpose of enquiring 
^vhat kind of succours, and when and where the emperor would 
^ive him aid against the king of France. For it was well 
inown to the king of England that the said emperor, above all 
:hings, desired that the kingdom of France might become sub- 
ect to the Eoman empire ; while, on the other hand, the king of 
England conjectured that if an alliance were formed between 
he emperor and the king of France, the whole would redound 
:o his own detriment. 

Accordingly, the king of France, being aware that the chan- 
jellor of the king of England would pass through his territory, 
ittempted to take him ; but being deceived in his expectations, 
sent word to the king of England that there was an end to the 
:ruce ; immediately on which, the armies of both, engaging, did 
:he greatest damage on both sides in the destruction of men, 
md in ravages and conflagrations. The king 'of France, how- 
ever, seeing that he could in nowise defend himself against the 
iing of England, destroyed many castles in JS'ormandy, which 
:he king of England soon after rebuilt, and rendered still 
stronger than they had been before. 

However, one day, before the destruction of the castle of 
V^al Eodol, the said kings came to hold a conference near that 
3astie ; but while they were holding it, a great part of the 
walls of the castle fell, through the operations of the miners 
oi the king of France ; seeing which, the king of England left 
the conference, and made an attack upon the army of the king 

VOL. II. B B 



370 ANNALS OF EOGER DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1195. 

of Erance ; on wliicli the king of France and his men took to 
flight, and while he was crossing a bridge, the bridge fell 
down, and he himself with his people was almost drowned in 
the river Seine. However, at last, with great difficulty reach- 
ing the opposite side, he pitched his camp there on the banks 
of the river ; on which, the king of England returned to the 
castle of Hodol, and took many of the household of the king of 
France, and then levying a large army from all his territories on 
both sides of the sea, entered the territories of the king of 
Prance in many places, and made a great slaughter of those 
who resisted, reaped the standing corn though not yet ripe, 
rooted up the vines and fruit-bearing trees, and burned the 
towns. 

In the same year, on the occasion of the dissensions that 
existed between Philip, king of Prance, and Eichard, king of 
England, Boyac El Emir Amimoli, emperor of Africa, with a 
large army, entered the territories of the Christians of Spain, 
and defeated them, and took their cities, castles, and fortresses, 
and destroyed them ; he also defeated Alphonso, king of Castillo, 
in a pitched battle, and after he had driven him from the field, 
besieged him in his city of Toledo ; but being able to effect 
nothing there, withdrew with his army. 

When the king of Prance and the king of England came to 
hear of this, they met to hold a conference upon making peace 
between themselves, and came to an agreement to the fol- 
lowing effect : Louis, son and heir to the king of Prance, 
was to marry the sister of Arthur, duke of Erittany, the niece 
of the said king of England ; and the said king of England was 
to quitclaim to them and to their heirs Gisors, and JN'efle, and 
Eaudemont, with the Norman Vexin, Yernon, Ivery, and 
Pascy, and was also to give them twenty thousand marks of 
silver, while, on the other hand, the king of France was to quit- 
claim to the king of England all that he demanded of him in 
the county of Angouleme, and was to restore to him the county 
of Aumarle, the county of Auch, the castle of Arches, and 
many other castles which he had taken from him in JS^ormandy 
and other of his territories in the war. 

All these arrangements, however, were delayed until the 
octave of All Saints, in consequence of the prohibition of the 
emperor of the Eomans, who forbade the king of England to 
make peace with the king of Prance, unless with his advice 
and consent. Moreover, at the same conference, the king of 



A.T). 1195. IIETUIIN or THE EN70YS OP THE KING OF ENGLAIS^D. 371 

England restored to the king of France his sister Alice, whom 
he shortly after gave in marriage to John, count de Pontif. 

In the meantime, the pagans, laying waste the territories 
of Sancho, king of Portugal, came to the abbey of Alcobaca, 
and slew the monks of the Cistercian order, who were there 
serving God, and those who offered resistance to them. 'Next 
going thence, they came to another house of the same order ; 
on which the monks, coming forth to meet them, fell at the 
feet of the pagans, asking for life and mercy ; and the pagans, 
taking compassion on them, granted them their lives ; and, hear- 
ing of their life and conversation, praised them, saying that 
they would wish to be saved with that order, if they only had 
women ; for it must be known that the especial religion of the 
pagans is sensuality. 

In the same year, Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, gave to Eichard, 
king of England, one thousand marks of silver, for the pur- 
chase of the freedom of the church of Lincoln ; for the king, 
according to the custom of his English predecessors, demanded 
yearly of the bishop of Lincoln, one mantle furred with sable, 
and, for the release of all claims for ever on the part of the said 
king and his heirs of the said mantle, the said bishop of Lin- 
coln gave to the before-named king the said sum of money, and 
received from the king his charter quitclaiming the same. 

In the meantime, William, bishop of Ely, and the other envoys 
of the king of England who had been sent to the emperor, re- 
turned, stating that that form of peace which had been agreed 
to between him and the king of Erance did not please the 
emperor, because it seemed disgraceful to the emperor that the 
king of England should quitclaim anything that Avas not in his 
power ; and for the purpose of recovering v/hat the king of 
England had lost in consequence of his captivity, the emperor 
forgave him the sum of seventeen thousand marks of silver for 
his ransom. Accordingly, the time for the conference approach- 
ing, which the king of England and the king of Erance had 
agreed on, to be held between them near Yerneuil on the octave 
of All Saints, the king of England made haste, the hour for the 
conference being at hand, to have this interview with the king 
of Erance : however, William, archbishop of Eheims, came to 
meet him, and told him, on behalf of the king of Erance, that 
there was no necessity for him to be in such haste, because 
the king of Erance was still in consultation with his people. 
Accordingly, the king of England believed him, and returned 

B B 2 



372 AWSiALS OF EOGER DE HOYEDEN. A.D. 1195. 

to the place from which he had set out ; and, having waited 
until the ninth hoiir, he declined to wait there any longer, but 
approached, in order that he might hold the conference with 
the king of Trance. On this, Philip, bishop of Eeauvais, said 
to him, in presence of the king of France, '^My master the 
king of France charges you with breach of faith and perjury ; 
because you swore and gave your word that you would come 
to-day at the third hour, and did not come, therefore he de- 
lies you ;" accordingly, the conference was broken up, and 
each king returned into his own territory. 

The third day after this, the people of the king of France 
made fierce ravages in JSTormandy, and in the other territories of 
the king of England, attended with great tumult ; and coming to 
the town of Dieppe, which the king of England had built 
sliortly before, they burned it, and the ships in the harbour, to 
ashes by discharging Greek fire against it. After this, Philip, 
king of France, after many and various casualties of war, came 
with his army to Issodon, and took the castle. On this being 
told to the king of England, who at this time was staying in 
Normandy, at Yal Eodol, laying aside all other matters, he made 
three days' march into one, and came to Issodon, and entered 
his castle which the king of France had been besieging ; upon 
which a numerous multitude of troops flocked to him from 
every side. 

The king of France, being greatly terrified at his arrival, 
asked permission to depart thence with his army without mo- 
lestation, which being refused him, he requested^ to have an 
interview with the king of England, and the same accordingly 
took place. At this interview, through the mediation of the 
archbishops, bishops, and many of the men of either party, an 
oath was taken by both sides, to the efiect that, from that day, 
that is to say, from the Saturday next after the feast of Saint 
^N^icholas, they would agree to peace and reconciliation between 
themselves, and their subjects, and territories, until the feast 
of Saint Hilary next ensuing ; at which time, they would meet 
at Louviers, for the purpose, in a larger assemblage of their 
subjects, of making peace and a final reconciliation between 
them. And as the JN^ativity of our Lord was close at hand, and 
the said kings had not in those parts means enough to suffice 
for the expenses of royalty, during such a high festival, they re- 
turned into their respective territories. The king of England 
proceeded thence to Poitou, where he was at the feast of the I 



A.D. 11 '25. THE KING OF DENMAEK COMPLAINS TO THE POPE. 373 

^Nativity of our Lord, which fell on the second day of the 
week. 

In the meantime, Alphonso, king of Castille, levying an 
army, and having faith alone in the mercy and goodness of 
God, fought a hattle with the army of the Pagans, and defeated 
lliem, and slew the greater part of them with the sword, and 
drove the rest from his territories. 

In the same year, the canons of the church of York often 
and repeatedly pressed Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, to pronounce 
sentence of interdict and suspension upon Geoffrey, archbishop 
of York. For it was known that the said archbishop had not 
made his appearance in the presence of our lord the pope, at 
the time appointed for him so to do. The bishop of Lincoln, 
however, made answer to them that he would rather be sus- 
pended himself than suspend the archbishop ; on hearing 
which, the before-named canons sent messengers to Eome, to 
pope Celestinus, complaining that the bishop of Lincoln, and 
his other judges delegate, had not proceeded according to the 
tenor of the Apostolic mandate. 

In the same year, Henry, bishop of "Worcester, departed this 
life, and was succeeded in the bishopric by John de Coutances, 
|dean of the church of Eouen. In this year, also, died William 
^e Fortz, earl of Aumarle, and was succeeded in the earldom 
jj Baldwin de Bethune, at the presentation of Eichard, king 
of England ; w^ho also married the countess of Aumarle. In 
this year, also, died Isaac, the former emperor of the island of 
yprus, whom Richard, king of England, had taken. 
In the same year, also, died Guido, the former king of Jeru- 
salem., to whom Eichard, king of England, had sold the island 
3f Cyprus; after whose decease, his brother Aymer became 
?uler of Cyprus. 

In the same year, Philip, king of Prance, took to w^ife the 
laughter of the duke of Genest, in Germany ; on which, Ca- 
lute, king of the Danes, brother of the before-mentioned Botilda, 
{ueen of the Pranks, made complaint to pope Celestinus, of the 
njury which the said king of Prance had done to his sister, in 
laving divorced her without a cause being known for his so 
loing. He also made complaint against William, archbishop 
)f Eheims, who, without the Apostolic authority, sitting in 
udgment, had effected the divorce between the said king of 
France and Botilda his wife, witho.ut enquiry into the cause, 
tie also made complaint against Stephen de [N'oyon, Philip, 



0/4 ANNALS OF EOGER DE HOTEDEN. A.D. 119G. 

bishop of Beauvais, Eeginald, bishop of Chartres, Guido, bishop 
of Orleans, and Eotrod, bishop of Chalons ; and against Robert, 
count de Drues, Louis, count de Blois, Theobald, count de 
Champagne, and Stephen, count de JN'evers ; also, against the 
barons, Simon de Castelane de I'lsle, Peter de Mainil, and 
Walter, chamberlain of the king of Prance, who had made oath 
before the archbishop of llheims, that the said Botilda, and the 
daughter of the earl of Hainault, who had been the wife of the 
said king of Prance, were so closely related in consanguinity, 
that the said king of Prance ought on no account to, nor indeed 
could, take the said Botilda to wife. But, although the said 
king of the Danes was ready to prove that they had borne false 
testimony against her, and that the said divorce was null and 
void, and ought not to hold good, still, on account of his good 
understanding with the king of Prance, pope Celestinus de- 
clined^^ to listen to him relative thereto. 

In the year of grace 1196, being the seventh year of the 
reign of Richard, king of England, the said king was at Poitou, 
on the day of the J^ativity of our Lord, which fell on the se- 
cond day of the week ; and on the same day, Hubert, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, justiciary of all England, and legate of 
the Apostolic See, was at York, being sent, on the king's be- 
half, to hold a conference with William, king of the Scots, on 
the subject of contracting a marriage between Otho, son of 
Henry, duke of Saxony, and nephew of Richard, king of Eng- 
land, and his daughter Margaret. Por there had been an agree- 
ment made between Richard, king of England, and William, 
king of Scotland, that the said king of Scotland should give to 
the before-named Otho his daughter Margaret in marriage, 
with the whole of Lothian ; and that the king of England 
should give to Otho, and the daughter of the king of Scotland, 
and their heirs, the whole of Northumberland, and the county 
of Carlisle ; and that the king of England should have in his 
charge the whole of Lothian, with its castles ; and the king of ^ 
Scotland should have in his charge the whole of [N'orthumber- 
land, and the county of Carlisle, with its castles. But, because 
the queen of Scots was at that time in a state of pregnancy, 
the king of Scotland was unwilling to abide by the said agree- 
ment, hoping that the Lord would give him a son. 

^ Roger of Wendover, however, says that the pope pronounced the 
divorce to be null and void, and gives a copy of this ApostoUc letter to 
that effect. 



II 



A. D. 1193. LETTER OP POPE CELESTINUS. 375 

In the same year, on the fifth day of the ^Nativity of our 
Lord, Bertram, prior of the church of Durham, met Hubert, 
archbishop of Canterbury, at Alverton; and there, in his pre- 
sence, elected Master Philip, a clerk, and one of the household 
of the king of England, bishop of Durham. 

In the same year, pope Celestinus, at the urgent request of 
the envoj^s of the dean and canons of York, wrote to the fol- 
lowing etfect to Simon, dean of the church of York. 

The Letter of pope Celestinus to Simon, dean of Yorkj on the 
administration of that diocese, 

" Celestinus, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to 
his dearly beloved son, Simon, dean of York, health and the 
Apostolic benediction. Whereas, insufficient as we are, the 
government of the universal Church has been, by the favour 
of the Divine grace, entrusted to ourselves, and we are bound 
in everything to take due precautions against casualties, and 
to provide for the interests of the same, so are we bound with the 
greatest care to use all precaution that churches may not incur 
any injury in things temporal or spiritual, in those matters on 
w^hich it is our object to consult their honor and convenience. 
And w^hereas, on considering the merits of persons, and dili- 
gently examining into the same, a person may, according to 
the merits of his actions, be found deserving to be suspended 
by us from the exercise of his dignity, and to be removed for a 
time from the prelacy of churches, to the end that matter may 
not be furnished to private persons, placed under his pastoral 
care, for speaking ill of him, and that all occasions for litiga- 
tion may be removed ; we are still bound in such case to pro- 
vide them with a person w^ho shall know how to decide the 
disputes of those engaged in litigation, and to correct the ex- 
cesses of those subject to him, and, so far as the duties of his 
office will allow, to love and cherish them with all affection. 
Wherefore, inasmuch as, his deeds so requiring and his con- 
tumacy demanding it, for abusing our patience, and not ceasing 
from his iniquities, nor yet presenting himself before us within 
the term, mercifully, by our indulgence, granted him, the arch- 
bishop of York has been, by our authority, suspended both 
from the use of the pall, from the discharge of Episcopal duties, 
and from all ministration, in things spiritual as well as 
temporal, and from the receipt of all profits thereof ; we have 
thought proper, on the authority of these presents, to show 



376 ANNALS OF EOGEE DE H0VEDP:N. A.D. 1196. 

oiir indulgence to your discreetness, that thereby, with the 
sanction of the canons residing in the church of York, you may 
be enabled to correct the excesses of the clergy of the diocese 
of York, and canonically to settle the disputes of clergy, as well 
as laity, in the diocese of York, engaged in litigation, which 
require to be terminated by ecclesiastical judgment ; that so, 
all power of appeal taken away, you may be able to smite him 
with canonical rigour who shall think fit herein contumaciously 
to oppose you, until such time as, in our solicitude, it shall 
have been otherwise provided for the Church. Therefore, be it 
lawful for no man to infringe upon this page of our conclusion 
so made, or, with rash presumption, "to contravene the same : 
but if any person shall dare attempt so to do, let him know 
that he will incur the indignation of Almighty God, and of 
Saint Peter and Saint Paul, the Apostles. Given at the Lateran, 
on the tenth day before the calends of January, in the filth 
year of our pontificate.'* 

Another Letter of pope Celestinus relative to the same matter. 

*' Celestinus, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to 
his dearly beloved sons, all the abbats, priors, archdeacons, 
deans, and other clergy, and to the earls, barons, and other 
persons in the province of York appointed, health, and the 
Apostolic benediction. How mercifully the Eoman Church has 
dealt with the deeds of the archbishop of Tork, is easily to be 
seen, if you, with due care, consider the tenor of our letters 
which both parties have at difierent times obtained from the 
Apostolic See. Por when, our dearly beloved sons, the dean and 
chapter of York, and not a few of the abbats, priors, and other 
prelates of the church in the kingdom of England established, in- 
forming us thereon, it had come to the hearing of our Apostolate 
that the said archbishop, neglecting the duties of his Apostolic 
ofiice, was involved in secular afikirs, and not in his sacred duties, 
not in ordaining the clergy, not in dedicating churches, not in 
holding synods, not in pronouncing benedictions on abbats, but, 
on the contrary, was giving the whole of his attention to hunting 
and hawking, and was engaged in other things which were dero- 
gatory in no slight degree to the pontifical office entrusted to 
him and to his honor, we did not immediately form a judgment 
against liim, but thought proper to entrust the enquiry into 
these reports to our venerable brother the bishop of Lincoln, 
and our dearly beloved sons the archdeacon of Northampton and 
the prior of Pontefract, calling upon the said archbishop, under 



A.D. 1196. LETTER OF POPE CELESTIXUS. 377 

penalty of suspension, if those things which had been signified 
unto us should be established, or, if the same should not be 
lawfully proved, then through canonical purgation, which we 
had caused to be prescribed to him with three bishops and as 
many abbats, to withhold him from such excesses, and thereby to 
recall him to the path of truth. 'But, inasmuch as the said 
archbishop, before the citation of the said judges had reached 
him, had made appeal to the Apostolic See, the said judges, in 
accordance with the tenor of our letters, indulging him with a 
space of three months, were careful to assign the same to him 
as the period within which he was not to delay the prosecu- 
tion of his said appeal. And further, after the said archbishop 
had commenced his journey for the purpose of coming to the 
Apostolic See, fearing lest, through the inclemency of the wea- 
ther, some danger might befall his person, when by letters and 
messengers he begged us mercifully to extend the time that had 
been granted to him, we, assenting to his requests, and ima- 
gining that on that account he would more speedily repent of 
his excesses, as he had found us so propitious and ready to listen 
to his prayers, appointed until the octave of Saint Martin last past 
as the time for presenting his appeal for the purpose of exculpat- 
ing himself; giving it as our command, nevertheless, to the 
aforesaid judges, that, if by such time the archbishop should 
have neglected to present himself before us, in such case they 
were from that time to proceed in his cause according to the 
tenor of our letters, and make it their object to carry out the 
instructions given them therein. And whereas the said time 
has now expired, and he has neither come to the Church of 
Eome nor sent any proxy in any way to make excuse for his 
absence, and, in consequence thereof, considering his disobe- 
dience and contumacy, we have thought proper to suspend him 
fi'om the use of the pall, and from the performance of his pon- 
tifical duties, and from all ministration in tilings temporal 
as well as spiritual, and from the receipt of profits, giving 
orders by our Apostolic writings to the aforesaid judges, pub- 
licly to announce throughout the whole diocese and province 
of York, that he has been suspended by us. Wherefore, we 
do command the whole of you, by these Apostolic writings, that 
you will not henceforth presume to make answer to the said 
archbishop or to his officers, either in matters spiritual or tem- 
poral But if it shall happen that any questions shall arise 
between any of you in the diocese of York, wliich ought to be 
settled by ecclesiastical judgment, you are to take the same 



378 ANNALS OF llOGEK DE nOVEDEN. A.D. 1196. 

questions for the hearing of our dearly beloved son, Simon, 
dean of York, and to receive his judgment thereon with humi- 
lity and firmness ; knowing that we, in accordance with the 
customary mercy of the Apostolic Sec, have shewn indulgence 
in appointing the said dean, that, with the advice of the canons 
residing in the church of York, he may correct the excesses of 
the clergy, and may settle such questions of them and the laity 
in the diocese of York as require an ecclesiastical decision. 
Given at the Lateran, on the tenth day before the calends of 
January, in the fifth year of our pontificate." 

Another Letter of the same pope on the same suhject, 

'* Celestinus, the bishop, servant of the servants of God, to 
his venerable brother, the bishop of Lincoln, and his dearly 
beloved sons, the archdeacon of JN'orthampton and the prior of 
Pontefract, health and the Apostolic benediction. Inasmuch 
as the holy Eoman Church, being founded with perpetual stabi- 
lity upon an immoveable foundation, that is to say, upon a stone 
squared and true, the Truth, thus speaking of Himself — ' Upon 
this rock will I build my church,'*^ has, through the merits of 
Saint Peter, received the governance and primacy over all 
other churches, the Lord commanding the chief of the Apostles, 
* If thou lovest me, feed my sheep ;' '^^ and has received ju- 
dicial power not only over bodies, but over souls, the same 
Chief of the Apostles hearing it said by the Lord, * Whatever 
thou shalt bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven^ ^^ — we, 
whom not our own merits, but the Divine mercy alone, has 
summoned to the elevation of the Supreme Pontificate, if we 
wdsh to form our judgments with true and prudent delibera- 
tion, and not to abuse the power to us entrusted, ought, so far 
as human frailty Avill permit us, to follow the example of him 
by whom the Apostolic See was founded, and from whom she 
has received the care of the other churches, and the fulness of the 
power of binding and of loosing. Por God is wondrous above all 
things, and inscrutable are the depths of the divine wisdom; and 
yet, although incomprehensible are His judgments, and unsearch- 
able His ways, still, from the things that.He works among us here 
below, if we look upon them aright, He suggests to us and the 
other prelates of the churches something for imitation in the 
form of His judgments ; inasmuch as, when, according to the 

41 St. Matt, xviii. 18. 42 gt. John, xxi. 16, 17. 

*^ St. Matt. xvi. 19, xviii. 18. 



A.D. 119G. LETTER OF POPE CELESTINT7S. 879 

account contained in the Gospel, he gave orders for the bar- 
ren tree in his vineyard to be cut down, that it might not 
cumber the ground, he prefaced the same, saying : ^ Be- 
hold, these three years I come seeking fruit on this fig-tree and 
find none ; therefore cut it down ;'^^ we, though but the least, 
and subject to the defects of human frailty, considering the 
same with constant meditation within ourselves, on hearing 
the excesses of the archbishop of York, and the rumours of 
his disgraceful mode of life and his frivolous conversation 
being repeated in the hearing of ourselves and of our brethren, 
we did not immediately form a judgment against him, but, 
after the manner of Him whose mercies are beyond the rest of 
His works, ceased not, by multiplied letters and mandates, 
to exert ourselves, for no small period of time, for his correc- 
tion, that the barren tree might shoot forth to fruit, and recover 
the vigour which it had lost ; at one time, by our admonitions, 
recalling him to the ways of salvation, at another, by threats 
of suspension from his duties and benefices, deterring him from 
the paths of his iniquity and error, as, indeed, we believe is 
manifest to yourselves, who have known the whole circum- 
stances of the case, and the whole process of these matters, in 
the order in which they have taken place. And whereas it 
has come to our hearing, from the information of the clergy 
and the chapter of the church of York, and the testimonies of 
our dearly beloved sons, Eobert of York, and Eoger of Selby, 
and eleven other abbats of the Praemonstratensian order, seem 
manifestly to declare the same, that Geofirey, archbishop of 
York, disregarding the oaths of the office entrusted to him, 
uselessly occupying himself with hunting and hawking, and 
other military pursuits, has, since his promotion, given neither 
hand nor thought to the ordination of the clergy, dedication of 
churches, or the celebration of synods, nor yet has pronounced a 
benediction on any abbat, although both against clergy and abbats 
he has accustomed himself indiscreetly to let loose his tongue, 
at his own will and pleasure, for the purpose of uttering male- 
dictions and pronouncing sentence of excommunication. The 
liberties and approved customs of the Church he nullifies and sub- 
verts, appeals, which are wont to be the refuge of the oppressed, 
he has, to the injury of the Eoman See, brought into contempt, and 
many persons, because they have made appeal to ourselves, he 
has ordered to be thrown into prison and placed in irons. The 

*■» St. Luke, xiii. 7. 



380 ANNALS OF llOGEli DE nOYEDEN. A.D. 119G. 

beneficed clergy of the church, after appeal made to us, he has 
spoiled of dignities and benefices, and some of the canons, des- 
pising their appeal, he has subjected to excommunication. In 
his presence the privileges of the lloman Pontiff's are utterly de- 
prived of all authority, and he who, under other circumstances, 
would probably have been safe by pleading our privilege in his 
presence, loses the benefit of the protection he thereby hoped to 
gain. When it so happens that any one has been restorai to a 
church or possession by the judges delegate through our autho- 
rity, the person by whom the said judgment is to be put in exe- 
cution, he immediately looks upon as an enemy. Indeed, many 
so restored he has reduced to destitution, and entering their 
churches by means of his servants by force, is said to have 
broken down the doors of the churches, and by violent means 
expelled them. Many persons also he has perniciously made to 
incur the danger of perjury, withdrawing them by means of 
violent compulsion from the obedience which by oath they had 
canonically promised his archdeacons to observe. Still more, 
attacking the greater church with a multitude of armed men, 
he has caused the door of the chapter house to be broken open 
by force, and to be carried away ; the property of the canons, 
and that of many other persons who had deposited their posses- 
sions in the church as though in a treasury, he has caused to 
be violently withheld from them ; respecting all which matter the 
chaplain of York has made appeal to our presence. We have 
also understood, from the testimony of the persons before-named, 
that sometimes, when churches were vacant, he has not ad- 
mitted fit and proper persons when presented by those to whom 
the presentation belongs, but has given the same to either 
youths or persons of bad character, thus discharging the duty 
both of him who presents and of him who institutes ; or else 
at his own will and option, he causes them to be vacated, in 
order that their revenues may be applied to his own use ; and 
that which was intended for the sustenance of some worthy 
clerk, he does not hesitate to keep in his own hands. They 
have also stated, in addition, that whereas spiritual gifts ought 
to be bestowed without reward and without corruptness, fre- 
quently, when he bestows a benefice, he either splits it into 
two parts, contrary to the canonical statutes of the church, or 
else retains upon it a new and unusual charge ; and many who 
had been excommunicated or suspended, he has absolved through 
the intervention of nothing else than money. In his sight 



A. 11. 1196. LETTEK OF POPE CELESTINUS. 381 

religious and honest men are despised and condemned, while 
low and suspected persons easily obtain his familiar acquaint- 
anceship and favour. Wherefore we, hearing of rumours so 
disgraceful, not once but many times, and that by the letters 
both of the aforesaid parties as also of others in the kingdom 
of England and in the province of York, after having frequently 
given ear thereto, wishing to withhold him from these ex- 
cesses, and to recall him to the performance of the duties of the 
pastoral office, have thought proper to entrust to you the in- 
quiry into these reports, that convening the abbats, priors, 
and other ecclesiastical persons of the diocese of York, you 
might make diligent enquiry on the matters aforesaid, and if 
lawful accusers should come forward against him, after hearing 
what is alleged on the one side and on the other, reducing the 
deposition of the witnesses to writing, make it your duty to 
transmit to the Apostolic See their attestations, signed with 
your seals, assigning to each party a fitting time within which 
to present themselves before us, for the purpose of hearing sen- 
tence pronounced. We also remember that there was inscribed 
in the some letters, that in case of accusers not being forth- 
coming, and if public report should be in his disfavour, you 
were, all obstacle of appeal removed, to call upon him to 
clear himself with [the oaths of] three bishops and as many 
abbats. And if he should chance to make any default 
therein, you were of our own authority to denounce him as 
suspended from all pontifical duties, and the management of 
the archbishopric. But inasmuch as the said archbishop, be- 
fore he was cited by you to a hearing, as he informed us 
Dy his letters and his deputies, had thought fit to appeal to 
the Apostolic See, and you assigned him the calends of January 
as the term for prosecuting the said appeal, being disposed to 
be considerate of his exertions and expenses, and fearing that 
if he should come to the city in the hot season, some danger 
might result to his person from the inclemency of the weather, 
as soon as it had been intimated to us that he had set out 
upon his journey, for the purpose of coming to the Apostolic 
See, and was prepared to make answer on the offences im- 
puted to him, we, in accordance with the wonted benefi- 
cence of the Apostolic See, thought proper to put off the 
time of making his appeal from then until the octave of 
Saint Martin last past, suspending all that had been deter- 
mined on against him until the said time, and recalling to its 



S82 ANNALS OF ROGEE DE HOVEDEN. A.D. UOO. 

former state whatever had been done by lis or by others after 
appeal made to us on presentation of his first letter. "We did 
also, by our Apostolic writings, distinctly command you, that 
unless he should present himself before us, on the octave of 
Saint Martin, according to the form of our first commission, in 
such case, all obstacle of any gainsaying or appeal whatsoever 
removed, you were on no account to delay to proceed against 
him. But inasmuch as the before-named archbishop, abusing 
our patience, has neither come to the Eoman Church, nor sent 
any proxj^ to excuse his absence, even when in our mercy, 
we made it our care to wait for him no small time beyond 
the period that had been appointed for him, although he 
seemed to have made confession as to the changes, in neglecting 
to appear before us, we have only thought proper to suspend him 
from the use of the pall, and from the execution of all episcopal 
duties, and from the administration of all matters, spiritual as 
well as temporal, and from the receipt of the revenues of the 
church of York, and of that province ; that so, at least, coming 
to a proper sense, from the pertinacity of his iniquity, he may 
not require the censures of canonical severity to be exercised 
against him with still greater rigour. We do, therefore, by 
these Apostolic writings, command your discretion, and en- 
join that you will publicly announce him as suspended by us 
throughout all the churches of the diocese and province of 
York, strictly enjoining all the clergy and laity of that pro- 
vince, in our name, not to presume to make answer to the said 
archbishop, or to his ofiicers, in matters temporal or spiritual, 
until we shall have thought proper to come to some other deter- 
mination as to the said archbishop. We do also command and| 
will, that it shall be announced by you in the diocese of York,! 
that, if any questions shall chance to be mooted between any 
persons, which ought to be determined by ecclesiastical decision, [ 
they are to take the same for the hearing of our dearly belovec 
son, Simon, the dean of York, to whom, in conjunction with^ 
the council of the canons residing in the same church, we both 
entrust the correction of the excesses of the clergy, and the 
decision of controversies existing between both clergy and 
laity, and humbly to receive his judgment, and strictly to ob- 
serve the same. In addition to which, all provisions, which on 
the authority of our letters, before our second notification had 
reached you, you have prudently and reasonably made in matter? 
relative to the said archbishop, both as to the restitution of what 



A.D. 119G. DErEITATION OF TnE AliCHBISHOP OF YOEK. 383 

has been taken away by him, as also other matters, we have 
thought proper to remain in force, as fully ratified by us ; and 
we do command you, relying upon our authorization, to repair 
to the church of York, according to the tenor of our first letters, 
both for the purpose of enquiry into these evil reports, and for 
making restitution to the canons of the things of which they 
have been deprived, and to proceed therein, appeal or absence of 
the aforesaid archbishop, or any letters hitherto obtained to the 
prejudice of our first letters, notwithstanding. And further, on 
the authority of these presents, we do enjoin you, that you 
pronounce to be utterly null and void the sentence of excom- 
munication pronounced upon certain canons, vicars, clerks, and 
servants of the canons of the church of York, by the said arch- 
bishop, after appeal made to us ; taking care, however, for the 
sake of greater precaution, to absolve the said canons; and others 
named in the said sentence, by the authority of the Apostolic 8ee. 
Also, all those who have rashly laid hands upon Benedict, clerk 
of the above-named dean, Walter, the priest, llichard de Semare, 
and the five clerks of Cavel, and other clerks of the church of 
York, or have commanded violence to be used against them, you 
:ire to pronounce, all power of appeal removed, to be placed under 
the ban of excommunication, until they shall have made fitting 
satisfaction to those who have sufi'ered this injury, and have 
3ome, with the testimony of your letters, to the Apostolic See, 
for the purpose of there obtaining absolution. If all of you 
shall be unable to take part in carrying out these injunctions, 
'.hen any two of you may carry out the same. Given at the 
Lateran, on the tenth day before the calends of January, in the 
ifth year of our pontificate/' 

Accordingly, upon the authority of these letters, the officers 
f the archbishop of York were deprived, although Hubert, 
irchbishop of Canterbury, the legate of the Apostolic See, had 
gain given them leave to continue in performance of their 
luties, after having first suspended them because they had re- 
cused to entertain him at York, as legate. All power was, there- 
ore, according to the tenor of the Apostolic mandate, handed 
)ver to Simon, the dean of York ; and the king's servants put 
n the royal purse all the property and possessions of the said 
xrchbishop. 

In the meantime, Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, wrote 
the officers of the archbishopric of York, to the following 
effect : — 



384 ANNALS OF KOGEE DE HOTEDEN. A.D. 119G. 

TJie Letter of Hubert^ archhisliop of Canterlury^ to the officers of 

the archhishopric of York, 

'' Hubert, by the grace of God, archbishop of Canterbury, 
primate of all England, and legate of the Apostolic See, to his 
dearly beloved sons in Christ, the officers of the archbishopric 
of York, health in the Lord. We have received letters from 
our lord the pope to the following effect : — ' Celestinus, the 
bishop, servant of the servants of God, to his venerable brother 
Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, and legate of the Apostolic 
See, health, and the Apostolic benediction. On your part it 
was alleged, in our presence, that there are many in England 
who have assumed the cross of our Lord, in order that they 
might visit the sepulchre of the Lord, and give opportune aid 
to that holy land upon which had stood the feet of our Lord ; 
and although they are in a position to be able to fulfil their 
vow, still, to the danger of their souls, they are withholding 
themselves therefrom. There are some also, who, although 
they have assumed the cross, are still unable to fulfil the vow 
they have undertaken in such manner as they ought, in conse- 
quence of poverty, infirmity of body, or other just cause. But, 
inasmuch as your brotherhood has thought proper to consult 
us with reference to what was to be done with these, we do, 
on the authority of these presents, give you for answer, and by 
these Apostolical writings enjoin you, that all those who have 
taken such vow as above-stated, and have means enough to 
enable them to do the same, unless they shall have a just 
reason to prevent them from so doing, you will, by ecclesias- 
tical censure, all power of appeal removed, compel to perform 
the vow which they are said gratuitously to have made. Eut 
as to those who, through poverty and infirmity of body, or^ 
any other just impediment, are unable, as they ought, to fulfill 
a vow which they are known to have taken, we do will that i 
when the truth as to these matters shall have been declared^ 
unto you, enjoining on them a suitable penance, you shall give^ 
them leave to remain; strictly enjoining them that, as soon as 
full liberty shall have been given them of carrying out their'^ 
vow, they are without delay not to postpone doing the same, ii 
Eut as to those who, on account of infirmity, you shall be satis-:i 
fied cannot possibly, under any circumstances, in their ownv 
persons fulfil their vows, let tliem send one fit and proper per-^ 
son, or more (according as their means will allow), beyond 



A.D. 1196. LETTER OF TBE AECHEISHOP OF CANTEKBUEY. 385 

sea, at their own expense, to serv^e for one year or more at tlieir 
will, there to serve in obedience to Jesus Christ. Given at the 
liUteran, on the second day before the ides of January, in the 
iifth year of our pontificate.' Therefore, inasmuch as it is a 
perilous thing to vow and not to perform, since the result of 
vows that have been solemnly made and not performed, is both 
the anger of the Lord, and the rise of offences in His house, we 
do, on the authority of the letter which we have transcribed, 
by our precept, command you forthwith to make diligent and 
anxious enquiry throughout each parochial church of the arch- 
bishopric of York respecting those who, having assumed the 
cross for the purpose of repairing to the sepulchre of the Lord, 
have not performed their vow so made to the Lord ; forbidding 
universally under thr