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•THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

NORTH CAROLINA 
RICULTURAL EXPERIMENT 
STATION 

R> Y. WINTERS, Director '$mS5 



THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE COLLEGE 
OF AGRICULTURE AND ENGINEERING 

AND 

STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

COOPERATING 



STATE COLLEGE STATION 
RALEIGH 




"HE FISCAL YEAR ENDING, JUNE 30, 1930 
1RESS REPORT FOR YEAR ENDING, 
DECEMBER U 1930 



North Carolina State Library 


# 


GIFT OF 



blorth Carolina State Library 
Raleigh 

FIFTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 







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OF THE 



NORTH CAROLINA 

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT 

STATION 



R. Y. WINTERS, Director 



THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE COLLEGE 
OF AGRICULTURE AND ENGINEERING 

AND 

STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

COOPERATING 



STATE COLLEGE STATION 
RALEIGH 




FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING, JUNE 30, 1930 

PROGRESS REPORT FOR YEAR ENDING, 

DECEMBER 1, 1930 



• • • 

• • • 



• • • • 



I • • • 






LETTER OF SUBMITTAL 

State College Station, 
Raleigh, N. C. 
President E. C. Brooks, 

North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering, 
State College Station, Raleigh, N. C. 
Dear Sir: 

I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of progress in 
agricultural research of the Agricultural Experiment Station of the North 
Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering and the North Caro- 
lina State Department of Agriculture. The report contains recommendations 
for strengthening research and a summary of results accomplished at the 
Central and Branch stations during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1930. 

Respectfully yours, 

R. Y. Winters, Director. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 



Raleigh, N. C. 
Honorable O. Max Gardner., 
Raleigh, North Carolina. 

My dear Governor: 

I take pleasure in transmitting to you the Fifty-third Annual Report of the 

North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station. The report records the 

accomplishments of agricultural research for the year ending June 30, 1930. 

The work of the past year has been conducted in accordance with the 

program approved by the Experiment Station Committee. 

Very sincerely yours, 

E. C. Brooks, President. 



EXPERIMENT STATION COMMITTEE 

(Appointed by Board of Trustees of College) 

D. J. Lybrook, Advance, N. C. 
Harry V. Latham, Belhaven, N. C. 

*W. D. Laroque, Kinston, N. C. 
J. S. Watkins, Virgilina, Va. 
W. A. Bullock, Red Springs, N. C. 
Dr. L. J. Herring, Wilson, N. C. 
David M. Buck, Bald Mountain, N. C. 

(Appointed by State Board of Agriculture) 
S. C. Lattimore, Shelby, N. C. 
W. A. Brown, Rocky Mount, N. C. 

E. G. Roberson, Leicester, N. C. 
P. P. Latham, Belhaven, N. C. 



♦Deceased. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Letters of Submittal _ 3 

Station and Joint Workers 4 

Staff of Workers 7 

Research Projects 11 

Director's Summary 21 

Report on Agricultural Economics 31 

Farm Organization and Management 31 

Investigations in Marketing Farm Products. . 35 

Report of Department of Agronomy "... 41 

Service to Farmers ...„..,.„... „ 42 

Soil Survey :. , „ 42 

Tobacco Fertilizer Recommendations 43 

Soil Chemistry 44 

Soil Fertility 47 

Tobacco Investigations €1 

Fertilizer Investigations with Farmers .'. €3 

Cotton Fertilization 67 

Cotton Variety, Breeding and Cultural Experiments....... 68 

Alfalfa and Red Clover Experiments........... 73 

Cereal Experiments 73 

Cotton Fiber Investigations 76 

Report of Department of Animal Husbandry........... 78 

Investigation with Beef Cattle, Sheep, and Swine 78 

Beef Cattle 78 

Sheep 79 

Swine 81 

Animal Nutrition Studies.. 85 

Soft Pork . ...85-87 

Feeding Cottonseed Meal to Cattle.... 88 

Factors Causing Lameness and Disease Among Swine 89 

Dairy Investigations 91 

Pasture Management 91-93 

Infectious Abortion 92 

Refrigeration Studies 96 

Report of Department of Botany ... 97 

Tobacco Mosaic 97 

Cotton Seed Treatments 100 

Plant Disease Studies , 101 

Plant Physiology 110 

Report in Home Economics..... Ill 

Report of Department of Horticulture 112 

Apple Investigations 114 

Peach Investigations 115 

Fruit Variety Tests _ „ 118 

Fruit Breeding ._ 119 



Page 

Small Fruit Investigations 120 

Investigations in Floriculture _ 122 

Vegetable Investigations 127 

Report of Department of Poultry 139 

Cost of Egg Production 139 

Crate Fattening . 140 

Studies of Pullorum Disease : 143 

Results of Short Tests 145 

Studies of Septicemic Diseases 146 

Report of Department of Rural Sociology 151 

Rural Community Organizations 151 

Report of Department of Zoology and Entomology _ 153 

Financial Statement 158 



OFFICERS AND STAFF 

OF THE 

NORTH CAROLINA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 
JANUARY 1, 1930 

E. C. Brooks President of the College 

I. 0. Schaub Dean of the School of Agriculture 

R. Y. Winters... Director 

C. B. Williams '. Vice-Director 

*F. E. Miller Director of Branch Stations 

F. H. Jeter , .Agricultural Editor 

A. F. Bowen Treasurer 

Agronomy 

C. B. Williams ........Agronomist 

L. G. Willis Soil Chemist 

J. R. Piland .Assistant Chemist 

H. B. Mann............ Associate in Soil Fertility Investigations 

A. S. Cline. ........Soil Fertility Investigations 

W. A. Davis ......................Assistant in Soil Survey 

E. F. Goldston..... ............Assistant in Soil Survey 

R. B. Devereatjx Soil Survey, in Cooperation with U. S. 

Department of Agriculture 

R. C. Journey Soil Survey, in Cooperation with U. S. 

Department of Agriculture 

F. O. Bartel ; Senior Drainage Engineer, in Cooperation 

with U. S. Department of Agriculture 
P. H. Kime .........Associate in Plant Breeding 

G. M. Garren .............. Assistant in Plant Breeding 

J. H. Moore ..^..................................................................Cotton Technologist 

E. G. Moss In charge Tobacco Investigations for the State Department 

of Agriculture and U. 8. Department of Agriculture 
R. Y. Winters Plant Breeder 

Animal Industry 

R. H. Ruffner .....Head, Animal Industry 

C. D. Grinnells ...Dairy Investigator 

J. E. Foster ...................Beef Cattle and Sheep Investigations 

E. H. Hostetler.. .....Beef Cattle, Sheep and Swine Investigations 

J. O. Halverson .'. ...........In charge Animal Nutrition 

F. W. Sherwood ...................Associate in Animal Nutrition 

F. H. Smith ....Assistant in Animal Nutrition 

Agricultural Economics 

jG. W. Forster „„ Economist 

J. G. Knapp Agricultural Economist 

R. H. Rogers.... .......... Associate Agricultural Economist 

W. B. Gooding .......Farm Management 



Botany 

B. W. Wells ...„ Botanist 

S. G. Lehman ,. Plant Pathologist 

R. P. Poole Plant Pathologist 

Horticulture 

J. H. Beaumont Horticulturist 

M. E. Gardner Associate Horticulturist 

Robert Schmidt Associate Horticulturist 

C. P. Williams Associate Horticulturist 

Poultry Husbandry 

B. P. Kaupp Poultry Investigator and Pathologist 

R. S. Dearstyne Associate Poultry Investigator and Pathologist 

W. G. Crowder Poultryman 

Rural Sociology 

C. C. Taylor Sociologist 

W. A. Anderson.. Sociologist 

Zoology and Entomology 

Z. P. Metcalf Entomologist 

B. B. Pulton Associate Entomologist 

Central Station 

P. E. Miller Director of Branch Stations 

R. J. Harris Foreman 

*Branch Stations 

Blackland Test Farm 

J. L. Rea, Jr Assistant Director in Charge 

Coastal Plain Test Farm 
Chas. Dearing Assistant Director in Charge 

Mountain Test Farm 
S. C. Clapp Assistant Director in Charge 

Piedmont Test Farm 
tP. T. Meacham Assistant Director in Charge 

Tobacco Test Farm 
E. G. Moss Assistant Director in Charge 

Upper Coastal Plain Test Farm 
R. E. Currin, Jr Assistant Director in Charge 



* Workers and Branch Stations under, authority of the State Department of Agriculture co- 
operating with the Agricultural Experiment Station in research. 
t Deceased. 



- 




1 







Dr. Herbert Bemerton Battle 
Director 1887-1897 



Dr. H. B. Battle, third Director of the North Carolina Experiment Station, 
died on July 3, 1929, at his home in Montgomery, Alabama. 

Dr. Battle served as Director of the Station from September 1, 1887, to 
July 1, 1897. During this period the scope of research work was enlarged 
by the addition of the Departments of Agriculture, Botany and Entomology, 
Horticulture, Poultry, Veterinary Science, and Meteorology, as well as by 
a substantial increase in personnel in the Department of Chemistry. This 
latter department, with a small experimental farm, comprised the entire 
Station when Dr. Battle assumed his duties as Director. He received both 
his Bachelor of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees from the University 
of North Carolina, after which, in 1882, he began a service of six years 
as assistant chemist to the Experiment Station. In 1887 he was elevated 
to the directorship. 

Dr. Battle relinquished the duties of Director in 1897 and entered com- 
mercial work. He organized and directed as president the Southern Chemical 
Company of Winston, N. C, during the year of 1897 to 1901. Later he was 
associated with the Southern Cotton Oil Company for a period. In 1906 he 
established the Battle Laboratories at Montgomery, Alabama, and was 
president of this concern until the time of his death. 

Dr. Battle was a man of excellent qualities and wide experience. He was 
a devout member of the Episcopal Church, and was always interested in 



and spent some of his best efforts in promoting the public welfare. He 
was the author of a number of books on chemical subjects and was a 
frequent contributor to chemical journals. His death is regarded as a 
great loss to the science of chemistry in the South, and the workers of the 
North Carolina. Experiment Station feel that a true man and a splendid 
worker has passed to his reward. 

In Memory of Dr. Edwin West Allen 

On November 11; 1929, agricultural research in the United States lost by 
death an eminent leader in the person of Edwin West Allen, Chief of the 
Office of Experiment Stations of the United States Department of Agriculture. 
The North Carolina Experiment Station has been the beneficiary of his 
wise policies, his thoughtful council, and his friendly interest. 



RESEARCH PROJECTS 

FARM ANIMALS 
Beef Cattle 

1. Beef cattle management studies in Eastern North Carolina. — Co-, 
operation Bureau of Animal Industry. 

2. Comparison of carbonaceous roughage for beef cattle. — Piedmont Branch 
Station. 

3. The quality of meat of native versus grade Hereford calves. — Black- 
land Branch Station. 

4. Comparison of tame grasses and native reed pastures for beef cattle. — 
Blackland Branch Station. 

5. Vitamin A studies with special reference to cottonseed meal feedings 
with young beef animals. — Central Station. 

Daisy Cattle 

6. Study of dairy cattle as a supplementary enterprise to cotton farming 
in the Piedmont section of North Carolina. 

7. Study of dairy cattle as a supplementary enterprise to cotton farming 
in the Piedmont section of North Carolina. 

8. Comparison of different sources of concentrates for dairy cattle with 
the purpose of utilizing homegrown feeds. 

9. Calf feeding studies. 

10. Comparison of silo wall preparations for the protection of tile and 
metal silos. 

11. Pasture fertilization with special reference to its returns of milk, animal 
maintenance and sod. 

12. A study of the effects of heavy grazing upon the maintenance of pasture 
sod and its effect upon pasture yields. 

13. Bovine infectious abortion. Methods of eradication and control. 

Sheep 

14. The value of a pure bred ram in the upgrading of native Eastern 
Carolina sheep. : 

15. Control oi; stomach worms in sheep by drenching. 

16. The efficiency of sanitary measures as means of controlling stomach 
worms in sheep. 

17. Comparison of returns from crops utilized in temporary pasture for 
sheep. 

18. Cost of raising lambs to marketable age. 

19. A study of methods of wintering the farm flock. 

Swine 

20. The cost and returns from two brood sows, one boar and their offspring. 

21. A study of the relation of the Vitamin A content of the Wenona ration 
to lameness of swine at the Blackland Branch Station. 



12 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agrj. Exp. Station 

22. The value of mineral supplements for swine. 

23. The use of cottonseed meal in the ration for fattening swine and for 

the maintenance of brood sows. 

24. The utilization of peanut gleanings for swine. 

25. Relation of quantity of salt and time of curing to quality of pork. 

26. Value of pastures for fattening pigs, (a) To determine if pigs grazed 

on permanent pasture will consume less concentrates than those in a 
dry lot when both are fed the same grain mixture, (b) To determine 
if permanent pasture will replace 50 per cent of the nitrogenous 
feed in the grain ration. 

27. Soft Pork Studies. To determine the hardening of varying the per- 

centage of cottonseed meal in the hardening ration. 

28. Utilization of sweet potato gleanings by swine in the commercial 

sweet potato producing area of the northeastern section of the State. 

Animal Nutrition 

29. Study of the components of Vitamin B complex in cottonseed meal, 

soybean meal and linseed meal. 

Poultry 

30. Experimental fattening poultry and capon production. 

31. Study of commercial plant management under North Carolina con- 

ditions. 

32. Cost of putting pullets into lay. 

33. Influence of cod liver oil on production and growth of poultry. 

34. The cost of broiler production with the battery brooder. 

35. Influence of meat meal versus milk upon production and health of 

poultry. 

36. Study of commercial plant management under North Carolina con- 

ditions. 

37. Pathological Hematology of the fowl. 

38. Investigations of septicaemic diseases among fowls in North Carolina: 

Studies of soil pollution with fowl typhoid under natural conditions: 
The tolerance of the domestic fowl to single vaccination with varying 
quantities of avin typhoid vaccine. 

39. Study of the intermittent reactor to the agglutination test for Pullorum 

disease (Bacillary White Diarrhea). 1. Continuation of study of 
fluctuations in serum titer of reactors on bi-monthly test. 2. Study 
of the "Negative phase" of the agglutination. 3. Soil pollution 
studies. 

40. A study of contagious diseases of chicks. 

FARM CROPS 
Cotton 

41. A study of the efficiency of certain concentrated fertilizers for the pro- 

duction of cotton on seven of the principal soil types of the Coastal 
Plain region. 



Research Projects 13 

42. A comparison of complete fertilizers of the same nutritive ratio and 

quality of plant food, but differing in concentration, when measured 
by stand and yield of cotton on Norfolk fine sandy loam. (Upper 
Coastal Plain Branch Station.) 

43. The influence of varying the rates and methods of applying concentrated 

complete fertilizers upon the stand and yield and quality of sweet 
potatoes grown on Norfolk loamy fine sand. (Outlying field Cur- 
rituck County.) 

44. Comparative efficiency of fertilizer of the same nutritive ratio but 

differing in concentration and source of materials for cotton on Cecil 
clay loam. (Outlying fields Catawba County.) 

45. A study of methods of applying concentrated fertilizers to cotton on 

Cecil sandy loam soil. (Central Station.) 

46. Comparative efficiency of fertilizers the same nutritive ratio but differ- 

ing in concentration and source of materials for cotton — 

(a) When applied as single and fractional applications. 

(b) When supplemented by rarer elements, such as magnesia, sulphur, 

copper, etc. 

47. On Norfolk sandy loam soil of Wayne County, and Cecil clay loam 

soils of Catawba County. 

48. A study of methods of applying fertilizer to cotton with special reference 

to their influence upon stand, quality and yield on Norfolk sandy 
loam. (Upper Coastal Plain Branch Station.) 

49. A study of cotton varieties and strains with special reference to new 

types that may be introduced into the cotton production program of 
the State. 

50. Cotton breeding with special reference to meeting the needs of manu- 

facturers of the State. 

51. Study of the inheritance and association of economic qualities in cotton. 

52. Cotton culture studies with special reference to the time of preparing 

the seed bed for cotton. 

53. Study of the value of different spacings in the row for cotton on Norfolk 

sandy soil. 

54. A study of the relation of certain physical properties of cotton fibers to 

spinning and cotton improvement. 

55. Control of seed borne infections. 

56. Fertilizer requirements for cotton grown on Georgeville clay loam and 

Appling sandy loam. (Outlying field Orange and Davie counties.) 

57. A study of the relation of phosphoric acid, nitrogen and potash ratio to 

early maturity and yield of cotton under boll weevil conditions. 
(Upper Coastal Plain Branch Station.) 

58. A study of the effects of varying the phosphorus ratio in a complete 

fertilizer upon the yield and maturity of cotton when the nitrogen 
and potash ratios are kept constant. (Outlying fields of Piedmont 
and Coastal Plain areas.) 

59. Efficiency of sources of nitrogen when compared in a complete fertilizer 

(10-4-4) and measured by the yield and quality of cotton produced. 
(Upper Coastal Plain Branch Station.) 



14 Fifty-Thlrd Annual, Report N. C, Agrl Exp. Station 

60. Comparison of sulphate of ammonia and nitrate of soda when used 

separately and when used together to supply equal quantities of 
ammonia in an 8-6-4 fertilizer for cotton. (Upper Coastal Plain 
Branch Station.) 

61. A study of plant responses to some ammonia-calcium ratios in fertilizers. 

(Central Station, Upper Coastal Plain Branch Station, and outlying 
fields.) 

62. A study of the effects of rate and time of applying muriate of potash 

upon the yield and quality of cotton and corn on Norfolk sandy loam, 
Portsmouth sandy loam, Cecil sandy loam, and Iredell loam soils. 
(Piedmont and Coastal Plain.) 

63. A comparison of the efficiency of sources of nitrogen when each are 

used as the sole source of nitrogen and in certain combinations of a 
complete fertilizer for cotton on Cecil sandy loam. (Central Station.) 

64. A comparison of the efficiency of ten sources of nitrogen when each are 

used as the sole source of nitrogen in a complete fertilizer for cotton 
and corn. (Piedmont Branch Station.) 

65. A study of the effects of varying the ratio of inorganic to organic 

sources of nitrogen in a complete fertilizer upon the yield and 
quality of cotton on Cecil clay loam, Cecil sandy loam, and other 
soils. (Central Station and outlying field.) 

66. A study of plant responses to some ammonia-calcium ratios in fertilizers. 

(Central Station, Upper Coastal Plain Branch Station, and outlying 
fields.) 

67. A study of the effects of rate and time of applying muriate of potash 

upon the yield and quality of cotton and corn on Norfolk sandy loam, 
Portsmouth sandy loam, Cecil sandy loam, and Iredell loam soils. 
(Piedmont and Coastal Plain.) 

Corn 

68. A study of methods of inter-cropping corn with soybeans, and its in- 

fluence upon the yield of corn and soybeans in current and succeed- 
ing crops. (Coastal Plain and Mountain Branch Stations.) 

69. A test of different methods of harvesting corn and its influence upon 

yield and quality of grain. (Central Station.) 

70. Fertilizer requirements for corn grown on Ashe loam, Ashe silty clay 

loam, and Cecil clay loam soils. (Outlying fields Burke, Avery and 
Buncombe counties.) 

71. Fertilizer requirements for corn and wheat grown on Toxaway loam. 

(Outlying field Transylvania County.) 

72. A study of sources and rates of application of different forms of lime 

for corn on peat soil when used with and without a complete fertilizer. 
(Blackland Branch Station.) 

73. Corn variety and strain studies for improving seed corn for North 

Carolina conditions. (Mountain and Coastal Plain Branch Stations, 
Central Station, and five outlying fields.) 



> ;,; ■ Research Projects v : ; ' :'?.*' Ife 

Forage Crops 

74. Soybean diseases. 

75. Fertilizer, lime and manganese, and other nutritional requirements 
' ' for soybeans grown oh Coxville silt loam. (Outlying field Pasquo- 
tank and Currituck counties.) 

76. Soybean breeding for increased yield and other desirable qualities, 

77. Soybean variety experiments. 

78. A study of the comparative value of American grown and imported 

Varieties and strains of alfalfa. 

79. A study of the cooperative value and adaptability of American grown 

and imported red clover seed. 

80. Comparison of spring seeding and fall seeding of red clover. 

81. Lespedeza variety, fertilization, culture and utilization studies. Co- 

operation Bureau of Plant Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

82. Comparison of grains, grain mixtures, grain and legume mixtures, as 

sources of forage and grazing crops. (Blackland Branch Station.) 

Peanuts 

83. Fertilizer requirements of peanuts and cotton grown in rotation on 

Norfolk sandy loam soil. (Upper Coastal Plain Branch Station.) 

84. A study of factors influencing the size, quality, growth and yield of 

Virginia peanuts. 

85. A study of the influence of certain dusts and sprays upon the growth 

and yield of peanuts on Norfolk sandy loam soil. 

86. A study of the effects of time and method of applying gypsum and 

ground limestone upon the yield and quality of peanuts. (Outlying 
field, Bertie County.) . . 

Small Grain 

87. Small grain varieties and strains for Mountain, Piedmont and Coastal 

Plain regions. 

88. Studies of wheat varieties and strains in relation to their resistance to 

leaf and stem rust. 

89. Study of the influence of different rates and dates of seeding oats upon 

the yield and quality of grain on Norfolk sandy loam. (Upper 
Coastal Plain Branch Station.) 

90. Wheat, oat, barley and rye seed improvement studies in relation to the 

requirements of different areas of the State. (Mountain, Piedmont 
and Coastal Plain regions.) 

91. Wheat rust control studies. 

Tobacco 

92. Variety and strain tests of tobacco with special reference to quality, 

yield and resistance to disease. (Tobacco and Coastal Plain Branch 

tvi ■ .:■■■ Stations.) - ; . 

93. A study of the effects of different sources of potash upon the yield and 
. quality of tobacco when used with and without dolomite and calcite 

! .•■-' .; , .•?•..:-:■• ;'■•.:. ; • . -1 .. ■■ •■ 



16 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agrl Exp. Station 

on Durham sandy loam. (Tobacco Branch Station, and Coastal 
Plain Branch Station.) 

94. A study of the effects of different sources of nitrogen upon the quality 

and yield of tobacco when applied alone and as a sole source of 
nitrogen in a complete fertilizer on Durham sandy loam soil. (To- 
bacco and Coastal Plain Branch Stations.) 

95. A study of the effects of magnesia upon the quality and yield of tobacco 

when applied in varying amounts to plats that receive a complete 
fertilizer on Durham sandy loam soil. (Tobacco Branch Station.) . 

96. A study of the effects of magnesia, sulphur, and chlorine upon the 

quality of tobacco when applied with a complete fertilizer composed 
of ammonium nitrate, di-calcium phosphate and potassium nitrate on 
Durham sandy loam. (Tobacco Branch Station.) 

97. A comparison of sulphate and muriate of potash as sources of potash 

in a complete fertilizer for tobacco when used with and without ap- 
plications of dolomite on Durham sandy loam. (Tobacco Branch 
Station.) 

98. A study of the fertilizer requirements for tobacco when grown in a 

three-year rotation with oats, cowpeas and rye on Durham sandy 
loam. (Tobacco Branch Station.) 

99. A study of the effects upon yield and quality of tobacco when grown 

with different combinations of cotton, corn, small grain, legumes, 
meadow and fallow to form three year rotations on Durham sandy 
loam. (Tobacco Branch Station.) 

100. A study of the effects upon yield and quality of tobacco when grown 

in a four-year rotation with crimson clover, corn, oats, cowpeas (for 
hay) and Sudan grass on Durham sandy loam. (Tobacco Branch 
Station.) 

101. To what extent can phosphoric acid and potash be used to correct the 

effects upon quality of tobacco when cowpeas are turned under on a 
two-year rotation of oats, cowpeas and tobacco, on Durham sandy 
loam. (Tobacco Branch Station.) 

102. A study of the efficiency of sanitary measures for the control of tobacco 

mosaic. 

103. A study of soil and plant treatments for the control of tobacco wilt, 

black shank and root rot. 

Japanese Mint 

104. Fertilizer and lime requirements for Japanese mint on Wilkes sandy 

loam (smooth phase). (Vick Chemical Company.) 

Crop Rotations 

105. Fertilizer and lime requirements for cotton, rye, corn, wheat and red 

clover when grown in rotation on Cecil clay loam. (Piedmont 
Branch Station:) 

106. Fertilizer and lime requirements for corn and soybeans grown in rota- 

tion, the soybeans being utilized for seed production in one series, 
and for hay production in another. (Upper Coastal Plain, and 
Blackland Branch Stations, in Okenee sandy loam and peat.) 



Research Projects 17 

107. Fertilizer and lime requirements for crops in a three-year rotation of 

corn, oats, vetch, soybeans (turned under), rye (turned under), 
soybeans (for seed) and rye (turned under) on Norfolk fine sandy 
loam soil. (Coastal Plain Branch Station.) 

108. Fertilizer requirements for crops in a three-year rotation of corn, oats, 

soybeans broadcast (turned under) and Irish potatoes on peat 
soil. (Blackland Branch Station.) 

109. A study of the yields and quality of succeeding crops when corn and 

cotton are grown continuously and when grown in combinations with 
each other and with legumes in two and three-year rotations. (Upper 
Coastal Branch Plain.) 

110. A study of yields and quality succeeding crops when cotton, corn and 

peanuts are grown continuously and when they are combined in two, 
three and four-year rotations. (Upper Coastal Plain Branch Station.) 

111. Studies of the efficiency of superphosphate, rock phosphate and basic 

slag as sources of phosphoric acid. 

112. Comparison of rock phosphate and superphosphate for corn and crim- 

son clover (turned under) in a one-year rotation on Toxaway loam. 

113. Rock phosphate and superphosphate compared as sources of phosphoric 

acid for corn, oats, wheat and soybeans grown in rotation. 

(a) When supplemented with normal amounts of nitrogen and potash. 

(b) When supplemented with stable manure. 

(c) When supplemented with potash and legumes turned under. 

114. Rock phosphate, superphosphate and Duplex Basic Slag compared as 

sources of phosphoric acid for corn, wheat and red clover in rotation. 

(a) The sources of phosphoric acid are supplemented with normal 

amounts of nitrogen and potash. 

(b) The superphosphate and basic slag applied in normal amounts and 

the rock phosphate applied in one, two, four, six and eight times 
the normal amounts. 

115. Studies of the efficiency of superphosphate, rock phosphate and basic slag 

as sources of phosphoric acid. 
1. Comparison of rock phosphate and superphosphate when applied to 
corn, wheat and red clover grown in rotation on Cecil clay loam. 
The superphosphate applied in normal, two, three, four, six and 
eight times the normal amounts. 

116. A study of the utilization of crops grown in rotation with cotton by two 

different methods. (Upper Coastal Plain Branch Station.) 

117. Fertilizer requirement for corn, wheat and soybeans when grown in 

a two-year rotation on Toxaway loam sojl. (Mountain Branch 
Station.) 

118. A study of the yields and quality of succeeding crops when corn and 

wheat are grown continuously and when grown in two and three year 
rotations with and without legumes on Porters loam. (Mountain 
Branch Station.) 

119. A study of the yields and quality of succeeding crops when wheat and 

corn are grown continuously and when grown in two and three year 
rotations with small grain and legumes on Cecil clay loam soil. (Pied- 
mont Branch Station.) 



.,13 Fifty -Third Annual RppQRi N* C. ; Agri. Exp. Station 

120. A comparison of limestone, burnt lime and hydrated lime when used 

with acid phosphate for crimson clover, soybeans, rye,, oats and vetch, 
. and cotton in a four-year rotation on Cecil sandy loam soil. (Central 

Station.) 

FRUIT INVESTIGATIONS 

121. Fruit variety studies, apples, peaches, plums, cherries, grapes, raspberries 

and strawberries for Mountain, Piedmont and Coastal Plain regions. 

122. Apple pruning studies. 

123. Fertilizer requirements for apples. 

124. Fruit breeding studies for the establishment of improved varieties and 

strains. 

125. Tests of the adaptability of ornamental flowering plants and shrubs to 

the soil and climatic conditions of North Carolina. 

126. Rotundifolia Grapes: Hybridization with other species. 

127. Rotundifolia Grapes: A study of quality character. 

128. A study of factors influencing the quality of fruits and vegetables in 

storage. 

129. Orchard management in relation to annual and alternate bearing of 

pecans. 

130. Tree performance of bearing pecans. 

131. Yield, grade and quality in the strawberry as affected by cultural and 

fertilizer practices. 

132. A study of food storage in the dewberry as influenced by pruning and 

fertilization, and its relation to growth and fruit production. 

133. A study of the carbohydrates and nitrogen reserves by the peach tree 

in relation to growth and reproduction. 

134. A study of food storage in the dewberry as influenced by pruning and 

fertilization, and its relation to growth and fruit production. 

135. Fertilizer and lime requirements for strawberries grown on Norfolk 

fine sandy loam soil. (Coastal Plain Branch Station.) 

136. Fruit breeding studies for the establishment of improved varieties and 

strains. 

137. Study of fruit bud formation in relation to annual and alternate bearing 

in the pecan. 

138. A study of soil conditions in the Chadbourn area that have been un- 

favorable to the growth and production of strawberries. 

139. A study of food storage in the dewberry as influenced by pruning and 

fertilization, and its relation to growth and fruit production. 

140. Dewberry diseases: 

(1) The cause of blight and measures of control. 

(2) The cause of root rot and measures of control. 

(3) A more efficient control for leaf spot and anthracnose. 

141. Study of the relation of pruning, thinning, soil moisture and soil fertility 

to growth and fruiting of the peach in the Sandhill region of North 
Carolina. 



Research Projects 19 



TRUCK CROPS 



142. Observation garden and trial grounds for the testing of new strains and 

varieties of^ truck crops. (Coastal Plain, Piedmont and Mountain 
regions.) 

143. The fertilizer requirements of truck crops grown in rotation. 

144. A study of lettuce "tipburn" with special reference to the resistance of 

selected strains. 

145. Potato breeding with special reference to the selection of seedling strains 

that are better adapted to the State from the standpoint of blight 
resistance, earliness and yield. 

146. A study of the influence of supplementing concentrated fertilizers with 

magnesia and other rare elements, when used for the fertilization of 
sweet potatoes on Norfolk loamy fine sand, Currituck County. 

147. Fertilizer requirements of early Irish potatoes on Bladen fine sandy loam. 

(Outlying fields Beaufort County.) 

148. Fertilizer and lime requirements for Irish potatoes, wheat and soybeans 

when grown in rotation on Toxaway loam. (Mountain Branch 
Station.) 

149. Potato breeding with special reference to the selection of seedling strains 

that are better adapted to the State from the standpoint of blight 
resistance, earliness, and yield. 

150. A study of factors influencing the quality of fruits and vegetables in 

storage. 

151. Sweet potato diseases in storage and transit, with special reference to 

their control with chemical treatment. 

152. Sweet potato diseases with special reference to the prevention of field 

infection. 

153. Sweet potato disinfection studies for the control of seed borne fungi 

that cause heavy losses in the field. 

154. Sweet potato diseases with special reference to their causal organisms. 

155. Peach bacteriosis. 

156. A chemical control study of wilt diseases caused by Fusarium lycopersici 

and Bacterium solonacearum. 

157. A study of corn earworm with reference to its control by natural and 

applied means. 

158. A study of control measures for the Harlequin bug. 

STANDARD OF LIVING STUDIES 

159. A study of community facilities upon farm family living conditions 

among white owner and tenant farmers in Wake County, N. C, 1929. 

160. A case study of factors in the family organization conditioning the 

living of farm owners in Wake County, North Carolina. 

SOILS 

161. The classification and mapping of North Carolina soils as a basis for 

soil fertility investigations and crop adaptation and other phases of 
land utilization. 



20 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C, Agri. Exp. Station 

162. A study of the chemical composition of certain soil types of the State. 

(Central Station.) 

163. The development and classification of the Durham series of soils. 

(Central Station.) 

164. Magnesia deficiencies of some representative sandy soil types of North 

Carolina. 

165. A study of muck soils with reference to factors which limit crop 

production. (Blackland Branch Station.) 

166. A study of depth of breaking and methods of culture in relation to crop 

stand and yields on peat soil. (Blackland Branch Station.) 

FARM MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING 

167. Methods and practices in the production of cotton and tobacco. 

168. Study of organization and management of farms operated by cropper 

labor. 

169. Cotton grade and staple estimates and primary market price studies. 

170. Organization and practices of cooperative marketing organizations in 

North Carolina. 

171. Farm organization and management in Johnston, Wayne and Wake 

counties. 

FARM MACHINERY 

172. The efficiency of 1, 2, 3 and 4-horse implements as compared with a 

tractor and plowing outfit. 

173. Efficiency of one-horse and two-horse cultivators in cotton production. 

(Central Station.) 



FIFTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

NORTH CAROLINA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

FOR THE 

YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1930 
R. Y. Winters, Director 



The workers of the Experiment Station are engaged in finding and pub- 
lishing facts which are useful to farmers. These facts may be results of 
simple tests, they may be conclusions from years of more careful study, or 
they may be facts gathered by other institutions that have been tested under 
North Carolina conditions. 

The work of the past year has been marked by the organization of groups 
of workers for a more thorough study of a few problems that are im- 
portant to the agriculture of our State. Experience has taught that un- 
favorable conditions surrounding an agricultural enterprise may be due to 
several causes. The isolation and study of a single probable cause may 
lead to incomplete or even faulty conclusions. A review of the problem 
by workers in related fields of research usually results in a more complete 
consideration of the probable causes and suggests more thorough procedure 
for solving the problem. In the search for a solution of the problem each 
cooperating worker assumes responsibility for a definite segment of the 
project with a clearly stated objective. 

NEW WORK 

The cooperation of agencies outside of the Station has made possible 
the starting of a few new projects and the extension in scope of certain 
projects already under way. 

The cooperation of the Division of Agricultural Engineering of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture has made possible a more thorough study of farm 
management problems, with special reference to the influence of farm lay- 
out, protection against soil erosion, more adequate buildings and equipment 
upon the farm business. 

New work has been started in the Chadbourn area of Columbus County 
for the study of soil conditions which have been unfavorable to the pro- 
duction of strawberries. This work is being done in cooperation with 
the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

As the results of research establish valuable facts, the testing of these 
facts under farm conditions becomes equally important. During the past year 
the research group in poultry diseases have cooperated with workers of the 
State Department of Agriculture in applying newly discovered facts for the 
control of white diarrhea among fowl. A more complete report of this work 
is contained in the report of the Poultry Department. 

The completion and publication of a portion of the studies for the control 
of sweet potato diseases has made it possible to start new work for the 
control of tobacco and tomato wilt. 



22 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agrl Exp. Station 



Soil Erosion Studies 

Cultivated and open idle lands in all sections of the State are subject 
to losses by washing. This is particularly true of the Piedmont region 
because of the large acreage of hilly and sloping land in cultivation. The 
money value of the loss from this source is difficult to estimate since it 
not only consists of thousands of acres of gullied fields, but also large 
areas from which has been removed millions of tons of the surface soil. 
Add to this the filling of power reservoirs and stream beds with its ac- 
companying impairment of natural drainage and one faces a problem which 
has already seriously handicapped our agriculture, and will in the near 
future become a serious problem to hydro-electric power developments. 




No. 11135. Statesville Erosion Farm, June 17, 1930 
Showing condition of land on west Coulter place lying between Moore and Little farms. 
This field had been idle for two years. 



Work on the problem has been made possible by a congressional appropria- 
tion to the Bureau of Public Roads and the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils 
of the United States Department of Agriculture for the establishment of a 
Soil Erosion Station in the Southeastern states. North Carolina is very for- 
tunate in having been selected for the location of this Station. After visit- 
ing all of the counties of the Central Piedmont region and examining pos- 
sible sites, a farm of 270 acres located approximately eleven miles west 
of Statesville, N. C, on Highway No. 10, was selected for this work. This 
farm was made available for the studies by the Statesville Chamber of 
Commerce and by cooperating citizens of Iredell County. 



, ;. •. Director's Summary 23 

A brief outline of the purposes of the research work now being installed 
at this station has been made by the National Committee on Soil Erosion. 

Program of Research for Soil Erosion Field Station 

"Study of run-off water and eroded material from varying slopes and 
soils to determine the plant food, organic matter, and soil losses, both 
dissolved and suspended. These studies to be made on both control 
plats and large field plats undergoing treatment for erosion control 
and water conservation. 

2. Study of the effects of various soil treatments and covers on soil 
porosity, water absorption, leaching and evaporation. 

3. Investigations on different slopes and soils to determine: 

(a) The rate of run-off and amount of erosion from terraced and un- 
terraced lands. 

(b) The effects of varying the vertical and horizontal intervals between 
terraces upon the run-off and rate of erosion. 

(c) The effects of varying the grade of terraces upon the rate of soil 
erosion. 

(d) The maximum permissible length of terraces with uniform or 
variable grade on different slopes and soils. 

(e) Means of preventing erosion at the ends of terraces. 

(f ) The effectiveness of terraces in conserving soil moisture during 
years of limited rainfall. 

(g) The Conditions uricier which various types of soil-saving dams 
built of different materials are most effective in correcting gullied 
lands. 

(h) The most economic methods of constructing terraces and soil- 
saving dams with different types of equipment and to devise more 
effective methods of construction and more efficient equipment. 

(i) The most effective methods of maintaining terraces and soil-saving 
dams. 

(j) The effect of terraces on farm operations and upon modern farm 
machinery when used on contours and across the terraces. 

(k) The effect of cultural operations upon erosion and the possibility 
of preventing or diminishing by improved methods. 

(1) The effect of various cover crops in reducing or preventing erosion 
when these are used in conjunction with terraces and without 
terraces. 

4. Study of crop yields resulting from the treatments. 

5. Study of the moisture behavior — absorption, percolation, depth of 
penetration, circulation, retention, and evaporation — as affected by 
various treatments, temperatures, salt content, in the control and ex- 
perimental plats, and experimental fields. 

6. Field studies of physical properties in relation to erosion in the vicinity 
of the station. 

7. Study of the disposition of erosional debris in the vicinity of the 
station. 

8. Study of effect of run-off from eroding and non-eroding areas at or near 
station upon flood peaks, flood duration, and volume of water passing 
down the smaller streams. 

9. Extend the survey of the relation of forest and range vegetation to 
watershed protection, erosion control and floods to other areas in the 
United States than the Mississippi Valley. 



24 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agrl Exp. Station 

10. By test plots under controlled conditions determine the relation of in- 
tensity of rainfall falling on different degrees and character of vegeta- 
tion upon the character, amount and rapidity of surface and sub-surface 
run-off and upon erosion. 

11. On experimental areas determine the influence of vegetative cover, 
(Timber, brush, or herbaceous growth) and its depletion or removal 
by fire upon the character and amount of run-off and erosion. 

12. Determine ways and means of preventing further erosion by re- 
establishing depleted timber, herbaceous or shrubby vegetation and/or 
replacing present vegetation with species that are of more value for 
watershed protection because of fire resistance." 

The results of this program should be of benefit to the agriculture of all 
sections of our State for they apply not only to the conservation and restora- 
tion of farm lands in our Piedmont and Mountain regions, but have a direct 
bearing upon portions of our Coastal Plain region that are subject to over- 
flow and poor drainage. 

The agencies cooperating in this project are the Divisions of Agricultural 
Engineering and Soil Investigations of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and the North Carolina 
Agricultural Experiment Station. 

The extent to which the results of this work will benefit North Carolina 
depends upon our contribution in support and technical personnel. The 
Federal Department of Agriculture is supporting the project liberally, but 
their responsibility extends over the entire nation. The results from the 
proposed studies will undoubtedly yield valuable information. Their ap- 
plication to farm practice will be a responsibility of State agencies. At 
present our Experiment Station does not have competent contact with this 
work because of lack of technical personnel and maintenance funds. 

NEW APPOINTMENTS 

The marketing research of the Department of Agricultural Economics 
has been materially strengthened by the appointment of Dr. Joseph G. 
Knapp as associate in marketing. Dr. Knapp was formerly connected with 
the Institute of Economics at Washington, D. C. 

SCOPE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM 

The present scope of the research program has arisen from unfavorable 
conditions surrounding the major farm enterprises, the need for new and 
undeveloped enterprises and from more or less temporary emergencies. Much 
time and money must be expended each year patching the results of poor 
farming. In times of high prices it is very natural to neglect practices that 
are essential to good farm management. The present economic conditions 
confronting cotton and tobacco growers will help to revise the cropping 
system and make adjustments in livestock. These changes will make pos- 
sible further shifts in the scope of research. 

The distribution or location of research activities in the State is determined 
by the location of the central laboratories and farm at the College, the 
branch stations of the State Department of Agriculture and outlying tempo- 
rary fields. The work at the Central Station consists of laboratory studies 



26 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 

and analysis and publication of data secured from work at the branch 
stations and outlying fields. The branch stations are distributed in seven 
area's of the State and are used to study farm problems peculiar to the 
regions in which they are located. Prom time to time problems arise at 
various points and under conditions that are not represented at the Central 
or branch stations. Tobacco diseases must be studied in the locality where 
they are most destructive; acute soil deficiencies must be studied where they 
occur; and unfavorable conditions surrounding such crops as peaches, 
potatoes and truck crops can best be studied on typical farms where the re- 
sults will apply. The accompanying map indicates the distribution of farm 
studies that are attempting to solve some of our many problems and the 
following list of projects will give some idea of the scope of the work. 

DIVISION OF PUBLICATIONS 

The Division of Publications concerns itself primarily in releasing to the 
press of North Carolina timely and authoritative information based on re- 
search work conducted by members of the Station staff and in the editing 
and printing of the bulletins and circulars prepared by Station members. 

During the past year, there has been a significant increase of interest in 
scientific research and the Division has found that when the results of these 
investigations are properly prepared and presented, they will be eagerly ac- 
cepted for printing by the newspapers and will be read by a large percentage 
of the reading public. 

Another of the large daily newspapers has added a farm page this year. 
This paper, The Greensboro Daily News, serves a large clientele throughout 
the piedmont section and prints a full page of timely farm news each 
Monday morning. 

The press releases from this division are issued once a week, on Thursday, 
to the weekly newspapers of North Carolina, and every day in the week 
to the daily papers through the services of the Associated Press, the United 
Press, and Raleigh newspaper correspondents. By this means, the workers 
in the Division feel that the research work of the Station has been presented 
in a more satisfactory manner this year than in any previous period. We 
have definitely adopted the plan of sending one special feature story every 
Wednesday to six of the larger dailies. These articles are generally used 
as a feature on the farm pages the following Monday morning. ' A large 
percentage of the articles have been prepared by research workers. 

Attention should be called here to the excellent support which has been 
given this division since July 1 by the Poultry Department. This depart- 
ment has attempted a regular schedule of timely articles dealing with various 
phases of the poultry industry. Fully 50 per cent of these articles have 
been based on research work and they have been widely used by every 
paper to which they have been sent. 

Another service which the division attempts to render to the Experiment 
Station has been the advertising of publications as issued. A short item, 
giving an abstract of the publication is mailed to agricultural magazines, 
weekly newspapers and daily newspapers. The attention of the reading 
public is thus called to the fact that copies of these publications may be 






Director's Summary 27 

had free of charge by citizens of North Carolina on application to the 
Division. 

Extension Farm News, the house organ of the Extension Service, is also 
used for the purpose of distributing results of experimental research. This 
magazine goes to all extension workers including the county home and 
farm agents, all research workers, vocational teachers, boards of agriculture, 
and others engaged in the promotion of a better agriculture in the State. 
Around 3,500 copies of the Farm News is printed and distributed each 
month. 

According to the records in this office, eleven experimental bulletins of 
the Station were printed and distributed during the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1930. The total edition amounted to 29,500 copies. Of this number 
12,716 copies were distributed to a regular mailing list consisting of libraries, 
station directors, farm and home agents, vocational teachers, and to selected 
mailing lists of those interested in the subject matter discussed in a 
particular bulletin. 

It is a source of gratification to this Division that Technical Bulletin 38, 
"A Chemical Control of Sweet Potato Scurf," by Dr. R. F. Poole, of the 
Department of Botany, was awarded the blue ribbon for being the best 
technical bulletin published in the United States during the last fiscal year. 
This award was made at the last annual meeting of the American Association 
of Agricultural College Editors, held in Washington, D. C, this summer. 

The fifty-second annual report was issued in an edition of 1,500 copies and 
distributed to libraries, station directors and workers both in North Carolina 
and other states. 

In addition to these current publications for the year, individual requests 
from farmers and agricultural workers for bulletins and other informational 
matter issued prior to this year have been handled. The requests for the year 
have amounted to 61,578, making a grand total of 75,794 bulletins mailed 
from this office this year. 

The division has also been responsible for much service work. The as- 
sistant editor has given a considerable part of his time to looking after the 
printing of report forms, letterheads, envelopes, and other small printing 
needed for the Experiment Station staff. A total of 56,465 circular letters 
have been mimeographed or multigraphed for the Station workers, and 
13,450 of these have been mailed directly from the office. A permanent 
mailing list is maintained for the Station and is subdivided under subject 
matter heads. Much time has been spent with the heads of the various de- 
partments in going over proposed publications, advising as to the use of cuts, 
graphs, maps, and type sizes. 

The complete report of publications printed and distributed by the Ex- 
periment Station for the year ending June 30, 1930, is as follows: 



28 Fifty-Third Annual, Report N. C. Agrl Exp. Station 

GENERAL BULLETINS 

No. Title No. Copies 

268. Control of Oat Smut by Seed Treatment 3,500 

269. Farm Family Living in Wake County „. 2,000 

270. Farm Credit in North Carolina 3,000 

271. Credit Problems of N. C. Cropper Farmers 3,000 

272. Cost of Raising Pigs to Weaning Age 3,000 

273. A Chemical Control for Sweet Potato Wilt or Stem Rot 3,000 

274. A Control for Sweet Potato Scurf 3,000 

275. Migration of Sons and Daughters of White Farmers in 

Wake County, 1929 3,000 

REPORTS 
52. Annual Experiment Station Report 1928-29 1,500 

TECHNICAL BULLETINS 

37. Factors Influencing Living Conditions of White Owners and 

Tenant Farmers in Wake County 2,000 

38. A Chemical Control of Sweet Potato Scurf ..': 4,000 

TECHNICAL PAPERS 

34. The "Laws" of Serologic Race-Classification. 

L. H. Snyder. 

35. A New Species of Nemobius from North Carolina. 

B. B. Fulton. 

36. Availability of Manganese and of Iron as Affected by Applications of 

Calcium and Magnesium Carbonates to the Soil. 
H. B. Mann. 

37. Social Mobility Among Farm Owner Operators. 

W. A. Anderson. 

38. The Relation of Evaporation to Killing Efficiency of Soap Solutions on 

Harlequin Bug and Other Insects. 
B. B. Fulton. 

39. Notes on Oregon Orthoptera with Descriptions of New Species and Races. 

B. B. Fulton. 

40. The Feeding of Cottonseed Meal to Dairy Cattle. 

C. D. Grinnells. 

41. Ammonium Calcium Balance — A Concentrated Fertilizer Problem. 

L. G. Willis. 

42. A Contribution to the Knowledge of Neotropical Megachile. 

T. B. Mitchell. 

AGRONOMY INFORMATION CIRCULARS 

(1) No. 27. Some of the more outstanding research results in Agronomy 
of the N. C. Agricultural Experiment Station, by C. B. 
Williams. 



Directors Summary 29 

(2) No. 28. List of North Carolina Agronomy Research publications, by 

C. B. Williams. 

(3) No. 29. Preliminary report on two years' fertilizer experiments with 

early Irish potatoes on the farm of A. W. Baker, Aurora, 
Beaufort County, N. C, by J. J. Skinner, C. B. Williams ami 
H. B. Mann. 

(4) No. 30. Results of wheat variety tests at the Piedmont branch station 

farm, by G. M. Garren. 

(5) No. 31. Outline of fertilizer demonstrations with wheat in North 

Carolina for county agents, by C. B. Williams. 

(6) No. 32. Outline of fertilizer demonstrations with cotton in North 

Carolina for county agents, by C. B. Williams. 

(7) No. 33. Outline of cotton fertilizer field projects on Coastal Plain and 

Piedmont soils of North Carolina for schools of vocational 
agriculture, by C. B. Williams. 

(8) No. 34. Fertilizer recommendations for important crops of Agricultural 

Regions No. 1, by C. B. Williams, H. B. Mann and A. S 
Cline. . 

(9) No. 35. Fertilizer recommendations for important crops of Agricultural 

Region No. 2, by C. B. Williams, H. B. Mann and A. S. 
Cline. 

(10) No. 36. Fertilizer recommendations for important crops of agricultural 

region No. 3, by C. B. Williams, H. B. Mann and A. S. 
Cline. 

(11) No. 37. Fertilizer recommendations for important crops of agricultural 

region No. 4, by C. B. Williams, H. B. Mann and A. S, 
Cline. 

(12) No. 38. Fertilizer recommendations for important crops of agricul- 

tural region No. 5, by C. B. Williams, H. B. Mann and A. S. 
Cline. 

(13) No. 39. Fertilizer recommendations for important crops of agricul- 

tural region No. 6, by C. B. Williams, H. B. Mann and A. S. 
Cline. 

(14) No. 40. Fertilizer recommendations for important crops of agricul- 

tural region No. 7, by C. B. Williams, H. B. Mann and 
A. S. Cline. 

(15) No. 41. Fertilizer recommendations for important crops of agricul- 

tural region No. 8, by C. B. Williams, H. B. Mann and 
A. S. Cline. 

(16) No. 42. Summary of results of cotton variety experiments conducted 

during 1927, 1928 and 1929 and production and consumption 
of different staple lengths, by P. H. Kime. 

(17) No. 43. Varieties of cotton being recommended by county agents and 

vocational teachers of North Carolina, by P. H. Kime. 

(18) No. 44. Corn varieties recommended for North Carolina growers, by 

G. M. Garren. 

(19) No. 45. Timely suggestions for burley tobacco growers by E. Y. 

Floyd. 



30 Fifty-Third Annual Report, N. C. Agrj. Exp. Station 

(20) No. 46. Important factors in cotton growing in North Carolina, by 

P. H. Kime. 

(21) No. 47. Improved practices for producing tobacco of better quality, by 

E. Y. Floyd. 

(22) No. 48. How farmers of the State may have their soils examined and 

appraised, by C. B. Williams. 

(23) No. 49. I — Factors in soybean production. II — Variety recommenda- 

tions and characteristics, by P. H. Kime. 

(24) No. 50. Painting and whitewashing on the farm, by D. S. Weaver. 

(25) No. 51. How the North Carolina Soil Survey is being used to help 

farmers, by C. B. Williams. 

F. H. Jeter, 
Agricultural Editor. 



RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 

Research in agricultural economics during the year ending June 30, 1930 
was conducted along the lines outlined in last year's annual report. Atten- 
tion, however, has been given primarily to farm organization and the market- 
ing of agricultural products. The projects on farm credit started two years 
ago were completed during the year and the results published in two 
bulletins entitled "Farm Credit in North Carolina Its Costs, Risks and 
Management" Station Bulletin No. 270, and "Credit Problems of North 
Carolina Cropper Farmers" Station Bulletin No. 271. The active projects 
are: 

1. Farm Organization and Management in Wake County. 

2. Methods .and Practices in the Production of Cotton and Tobacco. 

3. A Study of Organization and Management of Farms Operated by 

Cropper Labor. 

4. Grade and Staple of North Carolina Cotton. 

5. Cotton Marketing and Price Study. 

6. Consumption and Production of North Carolina Cotton. 

7. Cooperative Marketing Activities. 

FARM ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT 

Ralph H. Rogers 
Associate Agricultural Economist, in Charge of Investigations 

For a number of years the Department of Agricultural Economics has 
been engaged in research relative to the organization and management of 
farms in typical agricultural areas of the State. The first project was 
started in 1924 and completed in 1925. The results of this investigation 
were published in Research Bulletin No. 1. In 1925 a similar project was 
formulated for the Lower Coastal Plain. Specifically, the data were collected 
in Craven County, The results of this study were published in 1927 in 
Station Bulletin No. 252 entitled "Profitable Farm Combinations." The 
work was continued in 1926 in Macon County, the agriculture of which 
is typical of the mountain areas. The results of this study were published 
in 1928 as Station Bulletin No. 260, "Systems of Livestock Farming for the 
Mountain Region of North Carolina." Investigations on the farm organiza-. 
tion and management problems in the northeast Coastal Plain were begun 
in 1927, with Northampton County being selected as the site for this study. 
The results have been tabulated, analyzed and a manuscript prepared. At 
the present time, the farm management problems of the Piedmont area are 
being investigated. This work is located in Wake County. 

As pointed out in our report of last year, the major objective of these 
farm management investigations is to determine for each important area 
of the State the combinations of crops and livestock which will yield the 
maximum long-time net returns. The combinations which have been sug- 
gested and presented in the various bulletins mentioned above have followed 
closely the organization and management of the most successful farms in 
the areas studied. In determining the net returns for these suggested 
organizations, normal yields and prices have been used rather than average 



32 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agrl Exp. Station 

yields and prices, or yields and prices for any particular year. This has 
been deemed advisable because a farmer in organizing his farm must do 
so on the basis of normal conditions. Minor changes in the organization 
may be made in light of anticipated annual changes in conditions, but 
fundamentally an organization must be built on yields and prices which 
are likely to be obtained over a period of years. These suggested systems 
of crop and livestock enterprises will furnish, it is believed, a practical 
guide to farmers in reorganizing their farms, and enable them to obtain 
through reorganization a better use of their resources. 

Farm Management in the Piedmont Area. The Wake County project was 
begun in 1929. During the first year 16 farmers cooperated in keeping 
complete or partial records of their farm business. Several of these farms 
have been selected for a more detailed study with the view of aiding them 
to reorganize their farms and to check the results of such reorganization. 
It is planned, before publication of the Wake County material, to conduct 
a general farm management survey of several dairy farms which supply 
milk to Raleigh and also some general farms in Wake County for the 
purpose of expanding the information obtained during 1929. The preliminary 
results of this study will be published in the near future, but the final 
results may not be available for several years, as it will take time to work 
out the plans of reorganization and to induce farmers to make the neces- 
sary changes. Six of the Wake County farms and seven in Johnston and 
Wayne counties form a basis of an additional study in the reorganization 
of the farms which is being conducted in cooperation with the Bureau of 
Public Roads. 

Methods and Practices in the Production of Cotton and Tobacco. This 
project was inaugurated February, 1930. The fundamental object of this 
project is to get material which will enable farmers to improve the methods 
and practices used in the production of these crops. To obtain the basic 
information, 36 farmers in Wayne and Johnston counties are keeping com- 
plete records on cotton production involving about 480 acres of cotton. These 
records provide for detailed information regarding the labor expended on 
cotton according to operations such as plowing, discing, picking, etc.; 
the yield, the amount of fertilizer and other material used in the production 
of the crop. In addition to the primary information an attempt is being 
made to obtain, in the case of each farmer, the reasons why certain practices 
and methods are used. The object of this is to discover, if possible, to what 
extent farmers rely on information as published in bulletins, papers, etc., 
as guides in the production of their crops and to what extent they depend 
upon custom and tradition. 

To obtain all the data which are needed to determine the cost of producing 
cotton and tobacco, it is necessary to have complete records on typical 
farms. In addition, therefore, to the records on cotton production, 16 of 
the 36 cobperators are keeping detailed financial records on the farm business 
as a whole. At least three years or longer will be required to complete this 
project in a satisfactory manner and to check the results of suggested 
changes in methods and practices. During 1931 the work will be ex- 
panded to include methods and practices used in the production of tobacco. 



Research in Agricultural Economics 



33 



Farm Reorganization Study. This project is being conducted in co- 
operation with the Bureau of Public Roads of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture. The purpose of the study is to determine the economic benefits 
to be secured on typical farms in the eastern Piedmont and western Coastal 
Plain area of North Carolina by means of a better physical development 
of farms, a better planned farming system and the use of modern equipment. 
Thirteen farms, six of which are located in Wake County and seven in 
Johnston and Wayne counties, have been mapped in a very detailed fashion 




Fig. 1. — A detailed map of one of the farms being studied in "Wake County. In 1930 this 
farm had 35 fields averaging 2.5 acres in size. No crop rotation system was followed. 
The reorganized plan calls for threa 5-acre fields to accommodate a 3-year tobacco 
rotation, three 15-acre fields for the major rotation of cotton, corn and legumes; 
and two 10-acre fields for a minor rotation of corn and soybeans and small grain, 
A rotated hog pasture is also provided. The new plan requires 11 fields instead 
of 35 and establishes a definite cropping system. 

by the Bureau of Public Roads. On these maps are shown the field divisions, 
crop areas, waste land, wood land, location of the buildings, etc. In addition 
to the foregoing, the maps show the present terraces, drainage lines and 
contour lines. The contour lines have been run at five foot intervals, and 
show the topographical features and indicate the possibilities of improving 
the farm layout. It is planned, after the first year's work, to develop for 



34 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exi\ Station 

these farms a better farm layout as well as farming systems which will 
utilize to better advantage the farmers' available resources. The Bureau 
of Public Roads will assist in this work especially in estimating the cost 
necessary for the important changes which must be made in the farm lay- 
out, as well as making suggestions as to the modern equipment necessary 
for economic production. When these plans are perfected, they will bo 
presented to the farmers who are cooperating and an earnest effort will 
be made to get them to make the necessary changes in their farm organiza- 
tion and management. This is a long-time project, as it will take several 
years to perfect the plans and to get the farmers to make the necessary 
changes. The results of this experiment will be available to other farmers 
in the area to which the study applies and they by reading the results, may 
make the changes in their own organizations which seem most desirable. 

The Organization and Management of Cropper Farms. The first part of 
this study dealing with the financial aspects of cropper-operated farms has 
been completed and the results published in a bulletin entitled "Credit 
Problems of North Carolina Cropper Farmers." The second part dealing 
with the actual organization and management of the cropper-operated farms 
is being developed. This study, when completed, will show how typical 
cropper-operated farms located in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina are 
organized and managed. The results will also show the cost of operating 
these farms and the normal net returns. In addition, it is planned to sug- 
gest systems of organization which will utilize more completely the avail- 
able resources than existing organizations do. Much work has already been 
done on this project and a manuscript will be prepared during 1931. 

Cost of Producing Strawberries. This project was started two years ago 
in cooperation with the U. S. Department of Agriculture and several straw- 
berry producing states. The field work was completed in 1928. During 
the past year the data have been tabulated, analyzed and the first draft of a 
bulletin prepared. A copy of the manuscript has been sent to the various 
states cooperating, for criticism and suggestions. A bulletin no doubt will 
be published during the year by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. This 
bulletin will cover all the important facts relative to strawberry culture 
in the important strawberry producing areas in the southeastern states. 

Cost of Producing Farm Products. Over a period of several years the 
Department of Agricultural Economics has been collecting data on farm 
organization and management. These data, in addition to having been 
used for the purpose of suggesting standard systems of farming, are useful 
also for determining the cost of producing farm products. During the past 
year considerable work has been done in assembling this material, with the 
object of preparing a bulletin on the cost of producing North Carolina farm 
products. This bulletin will deal with the theoretical aspects of the subject 
as well as the practical application of the data. The information will show 
the physical requirements for the production of all the important products 
produced in this State, and the variation in requirements from farm to farm. 
The bulletin should be useful in assisting farmers in economizing their re- 
sources as well as giving better understanding of the use and nature of 
cost data. 



Research in Agricultural Economics 



35 



INVESTIGATIONS IN THE MARKETING OF FARM PRODUCTS 

Joseph G. Knapp 
Associate Agricultural Economist, in Charge of Investigations 

Grade and Staple of North Carolina Cotton. Realizing that knowledge of 
grade and staple was necessary for further work in cotton marketing, the 
North Carolina Experiment Station in cooperation with the Division of 
Cotton Marketing, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, undertook two years ago an extensive study of this project. 
The basic data relative to grade and staple of cotton produced in this 
State were obtained through the cooperation of representative ginners. 
From the gins selected for study, samples were taken from all the bales 
ginned and classed according to official standards for grade and staple by a 
committee of specialists in cotton classing. 

The grade and staple reports for the 46 different gins for the 1929-30 cotton 
crop are grouped (Table 1) into the three distinctive cotton producing 
regions shown in (Figure 2); namely the (1) Tidewater, (2) Upper Coastal 
Plain, and (3) Piedmont regions. 

Region 1 shows a lower percentage of white middling and better cotton 
than do the other sections of the State. As to staple length this same region 
shows a larger average percentage of cotton under 7/8-inch, and a smaller 
percentage 15/16-inch and above. The data thus indicate that grade is lower 
and staple shorter in this region than in the other regions. 

Region 2 has considerably more cotton than Region 1 of white middling 
and better grade, and less cotton with staple under 7/8-inch. 

Region 3, the Piedmont area, has the largest percentage of cotton, white mid- 
dling and better and the least amount of cotton under 7/8-inch in staple length. 



TABLE 1 

Average Percentages of each grade and staple length Ginned in 
North Carolina by Regions of the State 1929-30 





Grade 






Staple 


Length 




Region 


White 
Middling 
and Better 


White 

S. L and 

L. M. 


Other 
Grades 


1 1/8" 
and 
Over 


15/16" 
and 

1 3/32" 


7/8" 

and 

29/32" 


Under 7/8" 


II 

III 


21.34 
57.22 
68.81 


57.86 
25.53 
10.20 


20.75 
17.24 
20.19 


.21 
.06 


18.31 
26.17 
27.26 


59.03 
64.93 
66.70 


22.64 
8.67 
5.98 







Consumption and Production of North Carolina Cotton. This project was 
designed for the purpose of obtaining detailed information on the nature 
of mill consumption of cotton and the character of the cotton produced in 
North Carolina. The information on mill consumption was obtained directly 
from mill operators of this State by questionnaires. The information on 
production was obtained from the U. S. Department of Agriculture. The 
preliminary data reveal in the case of 125 mills covering a three-year period 



Research in Agricultural, Economics 



37 



that approximately 70 per cent of their consumption of cotton was obtained 
from outside the State. This fact is readily explained when the mill re- 
quirements are compared with the character of pur production. The com- 
parison of these two sets of data shows that the State is producing a large 
amount of short staple cotton, while the mills in the State are consuming 
mostly cotton of longer staple lengths. These facts are presented in the 
following tabulations: 

Percentage of Cotton Production and Consumption in 
Staple Length Groupings 

Production Consumption 

1928-29 1928-29 

Under 7/8" 10.0% 2.2% 

7/8" and 29/32" 69.4 24.5 

15/16" and 1 1/8" 19.7 68.1 

1 3/16" and over 9 5.2 

All Staple Lengths 100.0% 100.0% 

Cotton Marketing and Price Study. The sources and methods used in 
obtaining the data for this study were described briefly in last year's annual 
report. These data on prices received by growers for cotton in eleven local mar« 
kets in North Carolina in 1928-29 have been analyzed in collaboration with the 
Division of Cotton Marketing, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, U. S. D. A. 
The results show that prices received by growers in these local markets 
varied so irregularly during the periods studied that it was not unusual to find 
that some farmers received considerably higher prices for the lower grades 
and shorter staples than other farmers received for the higher grades and 
longer staples in the same markets on the same days. 

The average premiums received by growers in these local markets for grades 
above Middling amounted to only a very small proportion of the premiums 




O 
-2- 
-4- 
-6- 
-&. 
-10- 
-12- 
-14 
-IQ- 
-IQ- 

Fig. 3.— 



Central Markets 



WHITE GRADES 

n. s.un. L.n. 



-Average grade difference paid per bale for cotton in local markets in North Carolina 
and in central markets, Season 1928-29. Minus ( — ) means a discount. 



38 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 



table 2 

Average Grade Differences Paid 1 for Cotton in Local Markets in North Carolina 

and in Central Markets, and Comparison of Differences Paid in Local 

Markets with Those Paid in Central 

Markets, Season 1928-2Q 2 





Local Markets 


Central 
Markets 


Variations 


White Grades 3 


Size of 
Samples 


A 

Average 
Differences 


B 

Average 
Differences 


A-B 


3. Good Middling 


(Bales) 

89 
1,584 
2,455 
784 
147 
32 
38 


(Dollars) 

0.10 

20 



—1.05 

—3 90 

—12.75 

—17.25 


(Dollars) 

2.00 

1.30 



—3 .50 

—7 20 

—11 .20 

—15.35 


(Dollars) 
—1.90 


4. Strict Middling 


—1.10 


5. Middling 





6. Strict Low Middling 


2.45 


7. Low Middling . 


3.30 


8. Strict Good Ordinary 


—1 55 


9. Good Ordinary 


—1.90 







1 Prices expressed in dollars per bale of 500 pounds gross. 

2 Basis Middling white ootton = 0. (Minus ( — ) means a discount.) 

3 Includes extra white cotton. 



TABLE 3 

Average Staple Premiums and Discounts Paid 1 for Cotton in Local Markets 

in North Carolina and in Central Markets, and Comparison of the 

Aver a je Premiums and Discounts Paid in Local markets 

with Those Paid in Central Markets, Season 1928-2J* 2 





Local Markets 


Central 
Markets 


Variations 


Staple Length 3 


Size of 
Sample 


A — Average 

Premiums and 

Discounts 


B — Average 

Premiums and 

Discounts 


A— B 


(Inches) 
13/16 and shorter 


(Bales) 

487 

3,583 

909 

169 

24 

11 

1 

1 


(Dollars) 

—0.55 



.15 

.25 

1 15 

2.00 

.80 

—1.15 


(Dollars) 

—2.50 


1.35 

4.10 

8.05 

10.85 

15.25 

26.25 


(Dollars) 
1.95 


7/8 





15/16. 


—1.20 


1 and 1 1/32. 


—3.85 


1 1/16 and 1 3/32 


—6 90 


1 1/8 and 1 5/32. 


—8 .85 


1 3/16 and 1 7/32 


—14.45 


1 1/4 and longer 


—27 .40 







1 Prices expressed in dollars per bale of 500 pounds gross. 
2 Basis 7/8 inch cotton = 0. (Minus ( — ) means a discount.) 
3 A11 grades of white cotton. 



Research in Agricultural, Economics 



39 



for these grades paid in central markets. The average discounts received by 
growers for Strict Low Middling and Low Middling Cotton were considerably 
less than those paid in central markets, while the discounts for Strict 
Good Ordinary and Good Ordinary were somewhat greater in the local 
market studied than in central markets. (Table 2 and Figure 3.) 

The average price received by growers for cotton with a staple length of 
13/16-inch and shorter was only 55 cents per bale less than that received 
for 7/8-inch cotton, whereas in central markets cotton with a staple length 
of 13/16-inch and shorter was penalized $2.50 or more per bale. The premiums 
received by growers for staple lengths longer than 7/8-inch amounted to 
only a very small part of those paid in central markets. (Table 3 and 
Figure 4.) 



Poplars 
per Bal£ 

26- 



22 

20 
Id 

16 
14 
12 
10 

a 

6 
4 
2 
O 
~Z 
-4 



:"™i 



Local Markets 
Central Markets 



%' 



i 



J 



1 



SI 



Staple Length In Inches 

S //6 \r\ I '/32 " \l'/l6 \ I Vi!L \l'/8"\ l S /3Z ' 



m 



% 



1 



I 



l¥*%,l%z' 















M 



/# 'V longer 



Fig. 4. — Average staple premiums and discounts paid per bale for cotton in local markets 
in North Caorlina and in central markets, Season 1928-29. (Minus ( — ) means 
a dicsount. 

In general, the average prices received by growers were higher in local 
markets where the cotton sold averaged higher in grades and longer in staple 
length than in local markets where the cotton sold average lower in grade 
and shorter in staple length. These differences in average prices indicate 
that growers were rewarded on a community basis for producing the higher 
grades and longer staple lengths and were penalized on a community basis 
for producing cotton of lower grades and shorter staple lengths. The 
failure to distribute these rewards and penalties on an individual bale basis 
offers a bonus to individual farmers for producing the kind of cotton re- 
sponsible for the lower average prices and penalizes farmers for producing 
the kind of cotton responsible for the higher average prices. 



40 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 

On the farm pictured above, the cropping plan was as follows: 

Crop Acreage Per Cent 

Cotton 30.34 34.2 

Corn 21.05 23.6 

Tobacco 4.71 5.3 

Hay 5.73 6.4 

Vegetables 3.66 4.1 

Idle 23.61 26.5 

Total 89.10 100.0 

Cooperative Marketing Activities. It is generally recognized that our pres- 
ent system of marketing farm products is defective. As a preliminary to a 
more intensive study of our marketing system as it affects the farmers, data 
were collected during the year of 1929-30 on the extent and nature of the 
State cooperative marketing activities. A partial survey of these activities 
shows that there is much cooperative marketing of an informal nature. In 
fact, according to reports received, there were over 100 instances of informal 
cooperative marketing carried on by farmers with the assistance of county 
agents and vocational teachers. Reports were received from 76 cooperative 
organizations in the State. Of these 43 were incorporated. These 76 associ- 
ations may be classified roughly as folloys. livestock, 12; poultry, 13; mutual 
exchanges, 13; truck, 17; purchasing associations, 6; credit or financing asso- 
ciations, 1; farmers federations, 4; state-wide cotton cooperative association, 
1; improvement associations (seed or soil), 3, and of miscellaneous character, 
6. A more detailed study of these organizations is plenned with the view of 
getting accurate information relative to the nature of the organizations and 
the methods of operation. When this information is collected and analyzed, 
it should be helpful in strengthening the present cooperatives and in assisting 
in the formation of other needed cooperative associations in the State. 

From the preliminary data obtained, it was possible to make an intensive 
study of two cooperative marketing associations in this State; namely, the 
North Carolina Cotton Growers Association and the Farmers Federation of 
Asheville. These two studies have been completed and are now in manu- 
script form. They shrow a great deal of light on the work that these asso- 
ciations are doing in this State. 

G. W. Forster, 
Head of the Dept. Agri. Economics. 



RESEARCH IN AGRONOMY 

During the year Agronomy research workers have devoted their efforts 
actively to the solution of some of the more pressing problems in soil 
chemistry and soil fertility, on crop rotation, plant breeding and to deter- 
mine the best methods of seeding and cultivation of various economic crops 
of the State. 

Work on the classification and mapping of soils of the different counties 
of the State has, as heretofore, gone forward aggressively. 

In the soil chemistry work, the investigations have mainly centered on 
a study of the magnesium supplies of representative Coastal Plain soils and 
the factors which influence its availability to crops. Considerable time has 
also been devoted to a study of conditions causing unfavorable crop growth, 
with particular reference to cotton grown on Norfolk sand. The results 
thus far obtained have shed much light on these important soil fertility 
problems connected with the most economic production of crops on some 
Coastal Plain soils. 

The results of field plat tests on the peat soils of the State have given 
striking indications of pecularities as to liming and fertilization that are 
not common to upland soils. 

These pecularities are being investigated more in detail and the results 
now in hand promise a clearer understanding of the limitations of these 
soils if not a practical means of increasing crop yields. 

The soil fertility field investigations, located on the Central and six 
branch station farms, have been continued along the same general lines 
as reported on in previous years. Outlying field work on various soil types 
in different parts of the State, mainly with cotton, corn, small grains, 
peanuts, soybeans, red clover, sweet potatoes and Irish potatoes, has been 
enlarged through special fellowship grants. Thirty new field experiments 
were started with cotton on eight soil types to study the value of ammo-phos 
as sources of phosphoric acid and nitrogen in a complete fertilizer. Seven 
outlying field experiments were started for the purpose of determining the 
effects of superphosphate upon the maturity of cotton, as indicated by the 
percentage open at the first picking. These, with the twenty-one regular 
outlying field experiments, make fifty-eight in all of this type of experiment 
on the farms of leading cotton growers in the main cotton-growing belt of 
the State. 

In the regular soil fertility experiments on the Central and branch station 
farms, as well as on outlying fields, one of the chief purposes of the work 
from the standpoint of growers of the State, is to establish the main plant 
nutrient deficiencies of the soils of these fields for best and most profitable 
crop growth and to determine how best to meet these deficiencies for each 
crop. In these experiments, particular attention is being given to a study 
of the relative value of the more common organic and inorganic carriers 
of nitrogen in fertilizers used on different soils for various crops, especially 
for cotton, tobacco and corn. 



42 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 

The experiments designed to study the value of different systems of crop 
rotation on Norfolk sandy loam at the Upper Coastal Plain, on Cecil clay 
loam at the Piedmont, and on Toxaway loam and Porter's loam at the 
Mountain branch station farms have been continued. Results thus far 
secured have shown that the use of proper crop rotations, including legumes 
for soil improving purposes, coupled with the right kinds of fertilization, 
for each crop, have been effective, in many cases, in economically increasing 
the yield of major crops in the rotations. 

The information supplied by the soil survey of the State and that from 
the soil fertility experiments have been jointly utilized in the preparation 
of a. series of eight circulars giving specific recommendations for the proper 
fertilization of major cro\)s grown on the different series of soils occurring 
in each of the eight agricultural regions. These recommendations are 
being used generally by growers of the State. 

SPECIAL SOIL EXAMINATION SERVICE FOR FARMERS 

The Department during the past three or four years, has maintained a 
soil identification and examination service for farmers and others. For 
each of the past two years, between twelve and fifteen hundred samples of 
soil have been examined. Before examination is made of any sample, a 
definite statement is secured from the owner with reference to the previous 
treatment of his soil; crops grown on it during the previous three years, 
with the fertilizer and lime treatments given; average yields secured; and 
any observed abnormalities of growth of crops on it. With this information 
at hand, coupled with data supplied by the examination in the laboratory 
and with results from field experiments on the same type of soil, it is pos- 
sible for the Department to give definite and reliable directions as to what 
fertilizer, lime or other treatment is best for the soil under normal con- 
ditions. The soil examinations frequently indicate the need of a change in 
the crops grown on the same. 

This service has been taken advantage of by large numbers of farmers, 
especially by those who are growing tobacco and cotton as major crops 
on their farms. It is not uncommon to have farmers drive into the Depart- 
ment from 100 to 150 miles bringing with them soil samples which they 
wish to have examined and appraised, and be advised as to the best analyses 
of fertilizers to use on them, as well as best sources of phosphoric acid, potash 
and nitrogen to purchase, and how and when to apply them for best results 
for their crops. 

PROGRESS OF SOIL SURVEY OF THE STATE 

The work in soil survey of the State, conducted in cooperation with the 
Federal Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, has progressed satisfactorily. Four 
men — two State and two Federal — have been engaged in the field work in 
mapping and classifying soils, and in preparing reports on the different 
areas being surveyed. 

During the year, Macon and Montgomery counties have been finished; 
about three-eights of Brunswick completed; and work has gotten well under 
way in Franklin County. Up to the present time more than three-fourths 



Research in Agronomy 



43 



of the counties of the State have been finished and reports on them have 
been issued. 

The reports prepared from these surveys have been in such demand by 
farmers, agricultural workers, and others that it has, in many cases, been 
impossible to meet calls for copies of them. 

These detailed surveys are necessary for the State to provide an inventory 
of its soil resources and to afford agricultural workers in soil fertility and 
crop production fundamental information for definitely planning and carry- 
ing out their work in the interest of farmers of the State. They are also 
necessary for supplying fundamental information to farmers so that they 
can apply in a definite way on their own farms the results of findings of 
Agronomy research on soils and crops of the State. 




Fig. 1. — Showing by shading the areas and counties of North Carolina which have been soil 
surveyed. 

FORMULATION OF TOBACCO FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS 

FOR 1931 



For a number of years this Department and the Agronomy Departments 
of Virginia, South Carolina and Georgia, and the Office of Tobacco Investiga- 
tions of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, have been preparing and issuing 
each fall fertilizer recommendations for the ( benefit of tobacco growers, 
and fertilizer manufacturers and dealers of the bright flue-cured, sun-cured 
and shipping belts of these states. These recommendations have met with 
hearty response and are now being quite generally followed as a guide in 
the manufacture and purchase of fertilizers for tobacco grown in the 
four states. 

The recommendations deal with the best amounts and proportions of plant 
nutrients to use per acre; best sources of phosphoric acid, ammonia and 
potash to use; and give directions for the practical incorporation of small 
amounts of magnesia and chlorine in the "fertilizer mixtures for the most 
satisfactory growth and quality of this crop on all tobacco soils. 



44 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agrl Exp. Station 

They are carefully formulated in conference from the collective experiences 
and observations of research and extension tobacco workers. 

TECHNICAL SOIL PROBLEMS 

Magnesia Deficiencies of Representative Sandy Soil Types of the Coastal 
Plain. The completion of three year's work on this project has resulted in 
an accumulation of data pointing to some interesting conclusions. If these 
data are substantiated by further work, they will be generally applicable 
to the types of soil used in the experiment. The results at hand support the 
following conclusions : 

There is at present no distinct evidence in the analysis of drainage waters 
of a depression in the solubility of soil magnesium consequent to the 
addition of calcite limestone but the growth and magnesia content of soy- 
beans grown on soils treated identically as were those in the lysimeters 
shows a decided depression in magnesia content as a consequence of heavy 
liming with calcite. 

The effects of chloride and sulphate of potash on the solubility of native 
and added magnesia show no certain differences referable to the two sources 
of potash but soybean plants show some very striking effects of the added 
potash salts. Most important of these is the decided superiority of the 
sulphate which is assumed to indicate a serious sulphur deficiency in these 
soils. This has been evident since the second year. With this unforeseen 
deficiency as a factor, the results indicating differences in the magnesia 
content of the soybeans grown with the two sources of potash are not to be 
interpreted at this time with any great degree of confidence. There is, 
however, one point of difference distinct enough to appear significant. 
Plants grown with sulphate of potash contain greater amounts of magnesia 
than those with the chloride except where magnesia is added in dolomite 
in which cases the relationship is reversed. This observation depends for 
its significance on the differences in the effects of the two salts with and 
without added magnesia, as otherwise any differences could be ascribed 
to the effect of sulphur deficiency as well as to differences in the solvent 
action of the anion. 

A Study of Plant Responses to Some Ammonia: Calcium Ratios in Fertil- 
izers. This work was based on the observation of apparent injury to cotton 
seedlings, following the use of concentrated fertilizers on sandy soils. The 
injurious component was found to be free ammonia resulting from the 
dissociation of diammonium phosphate used as a source of phosphoric acid. 

This injury could be controlled by admixtures of calcium salts. Magnesium 
salts were less effective. 

It appeared that the efficiency of the calcium salt in this respect was due 
largely to the neutralization of the free ammonia in the presence of the C0 2 
of the soil. 

This hypothesis could not be studied directly in the complete fertilizer 
mixtures so an investigation was made of the possibility of injurious con- 
centrations of free ammonia being formed by the ammonification of organic 
nitrogen in cottonseed meal, and the effectiveness of gypsum for controlling 
injury and neutralizing free ammonia. The effect of gypsum on the total 



Fig.2. /Immonjf/mtio/v Or Cotton <Sfeo Me/\l 

/6 lev Ntrf?oG£-# PeR /ic/r-e 

■ /V/r/r/irc iH Frec Ammon/* □ F/Jreo Art stoma 



Al/moee* 



70- 



70 



iSO- 




<* C 



1 











Va 


p 


^ 


i 








^ 



1 


3r 


J 


=2 


r^^ 


vt, 






^ 





■60 



-60 



■ 10 



-to 



-20 



■10 



fOsiK? 



QDAr<s /£D/ir<s 



!6DAr& eoO/ws 



F/q.3 AMMONincATioN OfCotton Seed Me/jl 

J<? Lbs NiTKOG£f</ Pet? /\cr£ 



Nitrate E3 Free Amhonia □ Fixed AMriONM 



Man 



70- 



40- 






S I ^ 



S 

S b s 



* £ £ 

~ 1 1 a 


10- 
30- 


1 


^ 


n 


20- 








to - 
O - 









1 



1 5 



i 
1 


% 


i 



1 


S 




1 







■ 



V £ -70 



^ 



fDAYd 



QChrd 



/£Day$ 



/6Day3 



ZOQays 



-60 
SO 
-fO 
-30 
SO 

-to 
- o 



16 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 



and free ainmonia in these cultures is shown in Figures 2 and 3. Injury 
to plants was almost exactly parallel to the concentration of free ammonia. 

Factors Influencing the Productivity of Muck Soils. This project has 
been studied with some amplification of the original plan. 




Fig. 4. — Root injury to cotton seedlings from the use of concentrated fertilizer. 




Fig. 5_ — Normal root-system development of cotton seedlings with the additional of con- 
centrated fertilizer and gypsum. 



Research in Agronomy 



17 



The work with copper and manganese shows a distinct response to ap- 
plications of six tons of lime broadcast and copper sulphate at 50 pounds per 
acre in the drill. Manganese was of doubtful value. 

In the unlimed soil, copper appears to be slightly toxic, with 2 tons of 
lime it is without effect while with the 6 ton rate of liming, copper is de- 
cidedly beneficial although with lime alone the yield at the 6 ton rate was 
inferior to that with 2 tons. 




Pig. 6. — Value of gypsum on Norfolk sand. Ten typical plants shown from field plats 
representing effect upon growth of each treatment. 

(4) Concentrated fertilizer alone. 

(5) Concentrated fertilizer with 10 per cent gypsum. 

(6) Concentrated fertilizer with 20 per cent gypsum. 

From the appearance of the plants it seems that the results of the cur- 
rent year will be in accord with those given above, but with greatly in- 
creased yields for all treatments. 

The use of superphosphate on these soils has decreased the yield of corn 
and soybeans. A preliminary test of the effect of the gypsum content of the 
superphosphate has been started using mono-ammonium phosphate as a 
source of phosphoric acid. Symptoms typical of superphosphate injury 
have appeared on the plat with the gypsum treatment while the plants grown 
on the gypsum free fertilizer are normal. 



RESULTS OF SOIL FERTILITY INVESTIGATIONS 

AT COASTAL PLAIN BRANCH STATION 

Soil Fertility Experiment (Norfolk fine sandy loam). This experiment 
was started in 1915 to determine the plant nutrient requirements of crops 



48 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agrl Exp. Station 



grown in a three-year rotation on this type of soil. The rotation followed 
is, corn; oats-and-vetch (for hay), soybeans (for soil improvement), rye 
(for soil improvement); and soybeans (for seed), rye (for soil improve- 
ment). The crops, grown for soil improvement, are not fertilized. To the 
others nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash are applied as nitrate of soda, 
superphosphate and manure salt in varying amounts and ratios. The fertili- 
zer treatments are made in duplicate series, one of which has received a 
broadcast application of ground dolomitic limestone every three years 
since 1917. 







£>>•*. 



(... ,.!._,. 









(b) 




;AV2*J& 



#£»w.:, 



Pi g> 7. — ( a ) Geological Terraces of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in North Carolina, (b) Area 
and distribution of soil types subject to manganese deficiency. Shaded areas are 
unsurveyed counties. 

Corn, oats-and-vetch and soybeans have responded best to fertilizer con- 
taining nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash. For corn, the addition of 
nitrogen has been found to be most important for this soil. The response to 
increased increments of this nutrient has been greater on the unlimed than 
on the limed series. This is undoubtedly due to the fact that a greater 
growth of cover crops had been made and turned under on the latter series. 
An average of the results throughout the duration of the experiment, indi- 
cates that an application of about 400 pounds per acre of a fertilizer mixture, 
analyzing about 6 per cent phosphoric acid, 2 per cent nitgrogen and 4 
per cent potash is the most economical proportion for oats-and-vetch for hay, 
Increasing single nutrients in this complete mixture did not seem to ma- 
terially increase the yield, however, larger yields were obtained with in- 
creasing rates of application per acre of the complete mixture. 



Research in Agronomy 



4!) 



Soybeans have responded best to complete fertilizer mixtures containing 
relatively high percentages of potash and low nitrogen. 

The yields of corn and soybeans have been decidedly larger on the limed 
than on the unlimed series of the experiment. The use of lime has not 
increased the yield of oats-and-vetch but it has affected the proportion of the 
two crops in the hay produced. That from the unlimed series has consisted 
largely of oats, while that from the limed series was primarily made up of 
vetch. 

Although the yields of corn were greater on the limed than on the unlimed 
series, the amount of corn-root rot was much greater on the limed end. 




Fig. 8. — Showing five leaves from manganese-deficient soybean plants from the soil type 
experiment at the Coastal Plain Branch Station farm. The larger and darker 
leaflet of each leaf was simply dipped in a 1/1000 solution of manganese sulphate 
which resulted in a rapid correction of the chlorotic condition of the treated leaflets. 

When measured by the number of affected stalks broken over, the amount 
of this disease on the unlimed series varied from to 15 per cent, while on 
the limed series it ran as high as 75 per cent on some of the plats. 

The severity of this disease also varied indirectly with the amount of 
potash contained in the fertilizer mixtures applied. The limed plat, re- 
ceiving no potash, had 75 per cent of the stalks broken over, but with the 
use of 6 per cent potash in the mixture, the infection was reduced to ten 
per cent. 

All the legumes grown on the limed series of this experiment have shown 
a chlorotic condition of the apical leaves at some stage during the growth 
of the crop. The severity of this condition varied somewhat with the fertili- 
zer treatment, but it has not as yet apparently affected their yields. This 



50 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 



chlorosis has been shown to be due to manganese deficiency and is closely 
associated with heavy applications of lime. 

Soil Type Experiment (Dunbar fine sandy loam). In this experiment, a 
three-year rotation of corn; oats-and-vetch, soybeans (for soil improvement) 
and rye (for soil improvement) ; and soybeans (for seed) and rye (for soil 
improvement) is being followed. 

Each crop in the rotation to be harvested receives annually the same 
amounts of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash as would be removed by 




Fig. 9. — Soybean plants showing typical symptoms of magnesium, potassium and manganese 
deficiencies. 

(1) Magnesium deficiency appears as a chlorosis of the basal leaves and is ag- 
gravated by heavy applications of calcitic lime. 

(2) Potash deficiency is characteried by marginal chlorosis of the leaves and a 
tendency of the leaves to cup. 

(3) Manganese deficiency causes a chlorosis of the apical leaves and results from 
neutralization of the acidity of manganese-deficient soils. 

normal crops. These constituents are also applied singly and in double and 
triple combinations of the other constituents. The fertilizer treatments are 
run in duplicate, one series receiving 2,000 pounds of ground dolomitic 
limestone broadcast every three years, the other being left unlimed. 

The results from this experiment clearly show the necessity of a complete 
fertilizer for corn, oats-and-vetch, and soybeans grown on this type of soil. 
The use of lime, in the quantity applied, has not proven profitable for the 



Research in Agronomy 51 

crops. Corn, grown on the limed series, has been badly affected with root- 
rot, the crop on plats receiving potash, however, showing partial immunity. 
Only a very small percentage of the oats seeded with vetch survive on the 
limed series, the hay on this consisting almost entirely of vetch. A chlorotic 
condition of the apical leaves of soybeans grown on the limed series has 
been found. This condition occurred on all the plats except the one which 
received phosphate in the form of Duplex basic slag, on which the plants 
had a normal green color in both series. Since this plat had received con- 
siderable amounts of iron and manganese in the basic slag which the other 
plats did not get and was the only one not chlorotic, it would seem that the 
chlorosis was probably due to a deficiency of one of these elements. Soil 
samples were taken from one of the unfertilized and unlimed plats for pot 
culture work and from the results of this work it was shown conclusively 
that the chlorosis was due to a deficiency of manganese caused by excessive 
liming. (See Soil Science, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 117-141, 1930.) 

AT UPPER COASTAL PLAIN BRANCH STATION 

Nitrate of Soda — Sulphate of Ammonia Experiment with Cotton (Norfolk 
sandy loam). This experiment was designed to compare the efficiency of 
nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia when used singly and in various 
proportions with each other as sources of nitrogen in a 8-6-4 fertilizer mixture 
for cotton. An average of the results of two years indicate that there is very 
little difference in the efficiency of these two sources in supplying nitrogen 
in a complete fertilizer on this type of soil. Deriving part of the nitrogen 
from each source gave slightly larger yields than when either material was 
used as the sole source of nitrogen. 

Concentrated Fertilizer Experiment (Norfolk sandy loam). Indications 
from the work of two years with these materials are that they are no 
more toxic to young cotton seedlings grown on this type of soil than are 
ordinary commercial fertilizer mixtures. Based on increased yields per 
acre, the concentrated fertilizer mixtures are as effective as the less con- 
centrated mixtures made from superphosphate, manure salt and nitrogen 
derived from nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia. 

Fertilizer Ratio and Quantity Experiment (Norfolk sandy loam). This 
experiment has been run continuously in cotton from 1923 to 1928, at which 
time it was revised to include peanuts in a rotation of cotton and peanuts. 
Its object is to determine the effect upon stand, growth, maturity and yield 
of cotton and peanuts of applications of different quantities and proportions 
of phosphoric acid, nitrogen and potash on a fertile field. 

Varying the percentage of phosphoric acid from 6 to 12 per cent, the 
nitrogen from 3 to 7 per cent, and the potash from 2 to 6 per cent in a 
complete mixture has had little effect upon the average yield of cotton. 

The results of one year with peanuts have not shown any material in- 
crease from the use of any fertilizer mixtures being tried out. 

Old Rotation Experiment (Norfolk sandy loam). This field consisting of 
two series, one limed and the other unlimed, has been run in one, two and 
three-year rotations with and without legumes since 1910. The two-year 
rotation with legumes was better than continuous cropping of either cotton 



52 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 



or corn. The greatest increased yields, however, were secured with a three- 
year rotation with legumes and a complete fertilizer. 

Some of the results from this field have been published in N. C. Station 
Bulletin No. 255, issued in 1928. 

New Rotation Experiment (Norfolk sandy loam). There are thirteen 
different rotations run in duplicate series in this experiment which was 
started in 1924. On the north series, the crops are being fertilized with 
those mixtures previously found best by the Department for each crop; 
while on the south series, the crops are fertilized so that at the end of any 
rotation all plats will have received additions of the same amounts of nitro- 
gen, phosphoric acid and potash. A study of the value of one-, two- three- 
and four-year rotations, with and without legumes, is being made. To date, 
of all the crops in the rotations, corn and peanuts have responded most in 
increased yields to the rotations. In the following table is given the 1929 
yield of corn, following six different rotations: 



Rotation 


Number of 
Years of 
Rotation 


Crops 


Yield— Corn 
Per Acre- 
Bushels 


1 


Continuous 

Continuous 

2 Years 

2 Years 

3 Years 

4 Years 


Corn 


30.6 


2 




32.2 


3 


Corn 


34.2 


4 


Corn, with crimson clover and rye; Cotton, with 


37.8 


5 


Peanuts, followed by crimson clover and rye; 


51.9 


6 


Corn, with cowpeas; Rye (for seed); Soybeans 
(for seed); Cotton, oats- and- vetch; Oats-and- 


56.7 









Study of Sources of Nitrogen (Norfolk sandy loam). This experiment was 
started in 1925 to compare the relative efficiency of inorganic and organic 
nitrogen carriers when each was used as the sole source of nitrogen in a 
complete fertilizer. All fertilizer treatments are made in duplicate, one 
series being limed and the other unlimed. Results of this experiment are 
reported in the N. C. Agricultural Experiment Station Report for 1929. 
The results for this year were very similar to those previously recorded. 

Time and Method of Fertilizer Application (Norfolk sandy loam). The 

object of this experiment, started in 1928, is to determine the effect of dif- 
ferent times and methods of applying the fertilizer upon the stand, growth 
and yield of cotton. Duplicates of each treatment are made, and both series 
were fertilized with 1,000 pounds per acre of an 8-4-4 fertilizer mixture. In 
series 1, all the nitrogen is derived from nitrate of soda, and in series 2, it is 
derived equally from nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia and cotton- 
seed meal. Superphosphate and muriate of potash were used as sources 
of phosphoric acide and potash in both series. 

The injury to the young seedlings was greater on series 1 than series 2. 
Applying the fertilizer 10 days before planting gave better control of the 



Research in Agronomy 



53 



fertilizer injury in 1929 than did any other method being tried. This season, 
however, the amount of injury on both series was very light. 

General Fertilizer Experiment with a Rotation of Corn and Soybeans 
(Okenee fine sandy loam). This experiment was started in 1926 to determine 
the best fertilizer for corn, soybeans (for seed), and soybeans (for hay), 
and to show the effect upon the succeeding crop of corn of picking soybeans 
for seed (remaining parts being turned back for soil improvement) versus 
cutting them for hay. 

The resulting differences in yield of corn fertilized in different ways, 
following two methods of harvesting soybeans are very marked as shown 
by the results for two years given below. 



Fertilizer 


Yield in Bushels of Corn Per Acre Following 




Formula 


1927 


1929 


Pounds Per Acre 


Soybeans 
Picked 


Soybeans 
Cut for Hay 


Soybeans 
Picked 


Soybeans 
Cut for Hay 


600 
600 
600 
600 
600 
No Fert. 


6-6-0 

0-6-4 

6-0-4 

6-6-4 

6-6-4-L 

0-0-0 


49.7 
54.9 
27.7 
52.8 
44 1 
26.9 


31.0 

46.7 
26.2 
40.5 
41.5 
19.2 


54.4 
63.1 
34.2 
60.6 
58.3 
29.1 


28.6 
43.6 
16.4 
43.3 
42.2 
12.5 


Average Yit 


,ld Per Acre 


42.7 


34.2 


50 


31.1 



From these results, it is evident that the difference in the fertility of the 
two series in favor of the one on which the soybeans are picked is becoming 
greater each year. The percentage increase in yield of corn on the soybean- 
picked series was 25 per cent in 1927 and 61 "per cent in 1929 greater than on 
the series in which the soybeans were cut and removed for hay. 

Fertilizer and Dusting Experiment with Peanuts (Norfolk sandy loam). 

The object of this experiment is to determine the influence of fertilizers 
and certain dusts and sprays upon growth, maturity, quality and yield of 
peanuts grown in rotation with cotton. There are two sections of the field 
consisting of 40 plats each. Cotton and peanuts are rotated on the two 
sections which are divided into two series of 20 plats each. When in 
peanuts, series 1 is fertilized uniformly with 400 pounds per acre of an 
8-2-4 mixture, while series 2 is left unfertilized. There are eight special treat- 
ments and two checks, so in each series the treatments are duplicated, 
which gives quadruplicate plats of the special treatments as follows: 

(1) Limestone — 400 lbs. per acre in the drill at planting time. 

(2) Gypsum — 400 lbs. per acre in the drill at planting time. 

(3) Check — No special treatment. 

(4) Limestone — 400 lbs. per acre in the drill at planting time. 
Gypsum — 400 lbs. per acre on ground, not on foliage, at blooming 

time. 



54 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agbi. Exp. Station 



(5) Limestone — 400 lbs. per acre in the drill at planting time, 
Gypsum — 400 lbs. per acre on the foliage at blooming time. 

(6) Gypsum — 400 lbs. per acre on foliage at blooming time. 

(7) Sulphur — 94 lbs. per acre on foliage at blooming time. 

(8) Check — no special treatment. 

(9) Bordeaux — 100 gals, on foliage at blooming time. 
(10) BaC0 3 — 50 lbs. on foliage at blooming time. 

The section in cotton each year is fertilized uniformly in the drill at 
planting with 800 pounds per acre of a 10-4-4 mixture. 

The shedding of nuts per acre was determined by picking up the peanuts 
on each plat after digging. Although there was more shedding on the 





Fig. 10. — Showing effect of methods of handling previous crops of soybeans upon the growth 

of a crop of corn following, both crops being unfertilized. 
(Upper view) Two previous crops of soybeans cut and removed for hay. 
'(Lower view) Two previous crops of soybeans picked for beans and other parts of the 

plants turned into the soil. (Corn photographed June 21, 1930 at Upper Coastal Plain 

Branch Station.) 

fertilized series, there was only a small difference in the percentage of 
shedding on the two series. The special treatments had very little effect 
upon the amount of the shedding. 

Leaf spot was decidedly more prevalent on the unfertilized series. These 
plants never appeared as thrifty as those receiving fertilizer treatments. 



Research in Agronomy 



55 



The grade and class of the nuts produced was determined according to 
the U. S. Standard Grades and showed that the fertilizers applied helped 
to improve the grade of unshelled peanuts but the class, as determined by- 
shelled nuts, was better on the unfertilized series. 

It is impossible to draw any definite conclusions from the results of the 
one year as to the effects of the special treatments. 

Utilization of Crops (Norfolk sandy loam). This experiment, being con- 
ducted in cooperation with the Department of Animal Husbandry of this 
Station, was designed to compare crop yields, financial returns and effects 
upon fertility of the soil of following two methods of utilization of crops. 
A three-year rotation of corn and soybeans; cotton, with crimson clover 
and rye; soybeans followed by crimson clover and rye, is being followed. 
By the first method all crops are hogged-off except cotton, while by the 
second method certain crops are harvested, while others are turned under 
for soil improvement. 



Field No. 


Utilization of Crops 


1927 

Corn Per 

Acre 

Bushels 


1928 

Seed Cotton 

Per Acre 

Pounds 


1929 

Soybean Hay 

Per Acre 

Pounds 






22.0 

24.5* 

23 2* 


562 
565 

456 


2560 


2 


NPK— Hogged off 




;? 


NPK— Hogged off, 80 per cent of 
fertilizing value of feed deducted 


Hogged off 









'Yields estimated by harvesting a fraction of each acre as plats were bogged off. 
AT BLACKLAND BRANCH STATION (Muck) 

General Fertilizer Experiment. This experiment was designed to de- 
termine the value of commercial fertilizers used in varying amounts and 
proportions, and to compare the efficiency of various phosphate carriers 
used on crops on this type of soil. A three-year rotation of corn; oats, 
soybeans for soil improvement; and Irish potatoes is being followed. There 
are three series of plats in the experiment so that each crop is grown every 
year. 

Phosphoric acide in the form of either Duplex basic slag, rock phosphate or 
superphosphate in a complete fertilizer has not materially increased the 
yields of any of the crops. Potash is the most essential constituent for the 
production of crops on these soils as shown by the average results for seven 
years given below. 



Fertilizer 
Treatment 


Corn Per Acre 
Bushels 


Oat-and-Vetch 

Hay Per Acre — 

Pounds 


Irish Potatoes 

Per Acre — 

Bushels 


None .. „ 


17.3 
14.8 
44.8 
36.4 


2,985 
3,281 
4,721 
5,263 


69 5 


NP 


72 7 


NK 


141 2 


NPK 


173 







56 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 

Corn grown on the plats, not receiving potash, was infected practically 
100 per cent with root-rot. On plats fertilized with potash, it was not nearly 
so severe. The addition of nitrogen or phosphoric acid has not been found 
to materially increase the yields of any of the crops over no fertilizer 
treatment. 

Lime Experiment. This experiment was begun in 1917 to compare the 
relative efficiency of hydrated lime, marl and ground limestone when ap- 
plied at the rate of one, two, three and four tons per acre of calcium carbon- 
ate equivalents. A report of the efficiency of these materials is given in the 
1929 Annual Report of the N. C. Experiment Station and shows them to 
rank as follows in order of efficiency: ground limestone, hydrated lime, and 
marl. 

The use of 300 pounds per acre of an 8-2-4 fertilizer has increased the 
yields of corn when used with one, two, three and four tons per acre of 
ground limestone. However, when used without lime the yields have been 
decreased. 

Cultural Treatment of Corn and Soybeans. This field is divided into two 
series, each of which is rotated in corn and soybeans. There are eight 
one-fifth acre plats in each series, prepared each year as follows: 

(1) Plowed 8" deep, level, not rolled. 

(2) Plowed 8" deep, level, rolled. 

(3) Disked 4" deep, level, rolled. 

(4) Disked 4" deep, level, not rolied. 

(5) Plowed 8" deep, ridged, not rolled. 

(6) Plowed 8" deep, ridged, rolled. 

(7) Disked 4" deep, ridged, rolled. 

(8) Disked 4" deep, ridged, not rolled. 

The results obtained in this experiment in 1929 were practically reversals 
of those secured during the previous three years. The 1929 season was 
extremely wet and the corn cultivated on a ridge produced an average yield 
of 36.3 bushels per acre against 19.8 bushels per acre where the corn was 
cultivated flat. When these results are averaged with those of previous years, 
however, the flat cultivation is slightly better. 

This work indicates that no increased yields of corn can be expected from 
rolling this soil before planting. Plowing eight inches deep versus disking 
4 inches has shown deep plowing to be neither injurious nor very beneficial. 

General Fertilizer Experiment — Rotation of Corn and Soybeans. A two- 
year rotation of corn and soybeans is being followed in this experiment, 
which was started in 1928. There are two series of 26 plats each. Nitrogen, 
phosphoric acid and potash are supplied by nitrate of soda, superphosphate 
and manure salt, singly and in several double and triple combinations to 
determine the best fertilizer mixture each for corn and soybeans. 

When in soybeans, the south series is cut for hay while the north series 
is picked for seed, the remaining parts of the legume being turned back 
into the soil for its improvement. The results of one year with corn, follow- 
ing these methods of harvesting soybeans, indicate that there will not be 
the great difference in yields of corn on the two series as has been the case 
at the Upper Coastal Plain farm. This year, the average yield of corn f ollow- 






Research in Agronomy 57 

ing soybeans cut for hay was greater than when they were picked for 
seed. 

Potash, when used alone or in combination with nitrogen or phosphoric 
acid, materially increased the yield of corn. Nitrogen and phosphoric acid 
with potash were ineffective. 

AT MOUNTAIN BRANCH STATION 

Soil Fertility Experiments with Corn (Toxaway loam). On Field A in 
1929, in a three-year rotation of corn, wheat and soybeans, the best yield was 
obtained with a 7-3-3 mixture, using 400 pounds in the drill per acre. The 
plat limed every three years at the rate of one ton of ground limestone per 
acre gave an increase of 16.8 bushels over the corresponding unlimed plat. 
Omitting phosphoric acid from the fertilizer mixture resulted in a greater 
decrease in yield than did omission of either nitrogen or potash. Absence 
of potash caused least decrease in yield. Profitable increases in yields were 
obtained by increasing rates of application up to 800 pounds per acre. 

With Irish Potatoes (Toxaway loam). In this experiment on Field B on 
which Irish potatoes are grown in rotation with wheat and soybeans for 
hay, the following have been some of the essential findings as an average 
of the results of the past five years: 

(1) In comparing sulphate of potash, muriate of potash and kainit, each 
as sole sources of potash, in 800 pounds per acre of an 8-4-6 fertilizer mixture, 
muriate of potash has shown to be the best carrier of potash. The average 
yields have been 113.4 bushels for muriate; 109.6 bushels for sulphate; and 
98.8 bushels for kainit. 

(2) The use of dolomitic limestone at the rate of 2,000 pounds per acre 
broadcast every three years reduced the quality and yield per acre, 11.5 
bushels without fertilizer and 13.7 bushels per acre with 800 pounds of an 
8-4-6 mixture. The potatoes on all plats receiving an application of lime- 
stone were badly affected by scab. 

(3) In a comparison of 400, 800 and 1,600 pounds of an 8-4-6 mixture per 
acre in the drill at planting, the average yields were: 

(a) For 400 lbs. — 89.9 bus. per acre. 

(b) For 800 lbs. — 109.6 bus. per acre. 

(c) For 1,600 lbs.— 115.6 bus. per acre. 

These results indicate that for average market conditions, the use of about 
800 pounds per acre will be the most profitable quantity to use on this type 
of soil in the mountains. 

(4) The use of a complete fertilizer has given much more profitable 
yields than has the use of any single or any combination of two plant 
nutrients. Results have indicated that of the singles, ammonia and phospho- 
ric acid appear to be much more deficient in this soil than is potash. The 
use of 800 pounds of an 8-4-6 per acre has given on an average of 2.86 times 
the yield secured where no fertilizer was used. 

With Soybeans (Toxaway loam). In this experiment, the following are 
some of the practical results thus far secured: 



58 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 

(1) In a comparison of three sources of potash used in 400 pounds per 
acre of a 12-2-4 fertilizer mixture, kainit proved decidedly most efficient, 
with an average yield of 5,710 pounds per acre of dry hay. Muriate of 
potash was second best with a yield of 4,798 pounds, and sulphate of potash 
least satisfactory with a yield of 4,535 pounds. 

(2) In using dolomitic limestone at the rate of 2,000 pounds broadcast 
every three years, its use alone more than doubled the yield, increasing 
it by 2,875 pounds per acre. Used with complete fertilizer, its use gave 
an increase in yield of 2,345 pounds per acre over complete fertilizer used 
alone. 

(3) In comparing the relative value of the use of 200, 400 and 800 
pounds of a 12-2-4 mixture per acre in the drill at planting, the yields were 
increased as the application increased, but the most profitable application 
has been found to be about 400 pounds per acre. 

(4) In using single constituent alone, the responses were best for phospho- 
ric acid. 

(5) The use of a complete fertilizer has given larger yields than has 
the use of any singles or doubles. Used at the rate of 400 pounds per acre, 
with the potash derived from kainit, it has more than doubled the yield of 
dry hay, the increased yield being 2,695 pounds of dry hay per acre. 

With Wheat (Toxaway loam). With this crop, grown in rotation with 
Irish potatoes and soybeans for hay, the following results have been secured 
as an average of four years' results: 

(1) There has been found to be very little difference in the value of 
sulphate of potash, muriate of potash and kainit as sources of potash in a 
complete mixture, the difference being slightly in favor of muriate and 
kainit. 

(2) Dolomitic limestone, used broadcast at the rate of 2,000 pounds per 
acre every three years, has more than doubled the yield of wheat where no 
fertilizer was used; but when used with complete fertilizer its use only 
increased the yield 2.8 bushels per acre over what was secured by fertilizer 
used alone. 

(3) In using complete fertilizer analyzing 7-3-l 1 / £, used at the rates of 
200, 400 and 800 pounds per acre at seeding time, the most profitable returns 
were secured from the 400-pound application. 

(4) A complete fertilizer has been found to be more profitable than either 
single or double constituent applications. 

Relative Value of Several Sources of Phosphoric Acid (Toxaway loam). 

In this experiment conducted on Field G, red clover was the crop for 1929 
in a three-year rotation of corn, wheat, and red clover. Red clover died 
out badly in the spring and soybeans were substituted as the legume. 
Superphosphate, rock phosphate, soft phosphate and Duplex basic slag were 
used as the sources of phosphoric acid for comparison. Results thus far 
secured with soybeans were in line with those of previous years, both 
with corn and wheat. Superphosphate proved the best source; Duplex basic 
slag, second; soft phosphate, third; and rock phosphate, fourth as shown 
below. 



Research in Agronomy 



59 



Fertilizer Treatment 
Per Acre 


Source of Phosphoric Acid 


Soybean Pay Per 
Acre — Pounds 


400 lbs. 8-1-4 




4,613 


400 lbs. 8-1-4 




4,402 


400 lbs. 8-1-4. 


Soft Phosphate 


4,245 


400 lbs. 8-J-4 ... 




4,063 









These plats are arranged in three series with the same fertilizer treat- 
ment for each series. One series is limed every three years at the rate 
of one ton of ground limestone per acre. In 1929, the limed series gave an 
increased yield of 1,557 pounds of soybean hay over the corresponding un- 
lime-d series of plats. A third series has all the nitrogen derived from stable 
manure. This latter series has given an increased yield of 1,551 pounds 
of hay over the comparable series having nitrate of soda as the source of 
nitrogen. 

Soil Type Studies (Toxaway loam). These field studies consist of experi- 
ments in a four-year rotation of corn, oats, wheat and soybeans. Fertilizers 
are applied in amounts equal to the plant constituents removed by maximum 
crops. On a portion of the plats, the nitrogen is supplied by crimson clover 
grown as a winter cover crop and turned under. The phosphoric acid is 
supplied from two sources for comparison — superphosphate and rock phos- 
phate. Results with soybeans for hay in 1929 showed greater yields from 
the use of rock phosphate where double the amount of phosphoric acid was 
used. The corn yields of 1929 showed a slight increase from the use of 
rock phosphate, but averages over a seventeen-year period have shown 
the superiority of superphosphate as a carrier of phosphoric acid on this 
soil. 

AT PIEDMONT BRANCH STATION (Cecil Clay Loam) 

Soil Fertility Work. This work is being conducted to show the chief plant 
food needs of the Cecil soil series; to find the best proportions of the 
fertilizing constitutents for crops adapted to the Piedmont region; and to 
study the effects of deficiencies upon the growth and yield of crops. Three 
separate fields are used in the study and the rotation was so started that 
three of the four crops of the rotation in the rotation system appear on 
the three fields every year. The four-year crop rotation used in this ex- 
periment is as follows: 

1st year — Cotton, rye (cover crop). 
2nd year — Corn, wheat (in fall). 
3rd year — Wheat, red clover, 
4th year — Red clover. 



One-half of all plats are limed broadcast with one ton of ground limestone 
applied every fourth year. Cotton, wheat and red clover occupied the fields 
in 1929. Results secured were, in the main, in harmony with those of previous 
years. When only one plant nutrient was applied, phosphoric acid gave the 
highest yield, with nitrogen second in importance. Potash gave least response 



60 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agrl Exp. Station 

in yields, but proved quite efficient in aiding in controlling nutritional 
troubles. Cotton, following clover, was badly affected with rust, especially 
on the limed series of the plats. A high potash percentage in the fertilizer — 
5 to TV 2 per cent — prevented the rust, while a high percentage of phosphoric 
acid seemed to augment it, particularly on the limed series of the field. 

The addition of lime, phosphoric acid, and potash was necessary for the 
successful growth of red clover. On the unlimed series of the plats, red clover 
failed except for those plats which received liberal applications of phospho- 
ric acid and potash. On the limed series, applications of phosphoric acid 
alone gave greater yields of red clover hay than did applications of either 
nitrogen or potash alone. 

Superphosphate vs. Rock Phosphate. In this study of the comparative 
value of two phosphoric acid carriers, the results with red clover for the 
past year continued to show that superphosphate is a more efficient carrier of 
phosphoric acid than is rock phosphate, when both are used in quantities 
carrying equal amounts of phosphoric acid. 

Nitrogen Carriers. This experiment is designed to compare the relative 
value of the more common sources of nitrogen when used in a complete 
fertilizer for corn and cotton. A two-year rotation of cotton and corn is 
used. Results with corn in 1929 show a ranking for the year as follows: 
nitrate of ammonia, sludge, urea, cottonseed meal, nitrate of soda, calcium 
cyanamid, leuna-salpeter, and sulphate of ammonia in the order given. 
Nitrate of ammonia has led with corn for the past two years. 

Crop Rotation. The crop rotation work consists of a field study of the 
value of one-, two- and three-year rotations, with and without legumes 
(cowpeas, soybeans, and red clover), the fertilizer crop-applications being 
the same for each crop as it appears in the rotations. One-half of all plats 
are limed every fourth year with one ton of ground limestone "broadcast 
per acre. On the unlimed half in 1929, continuous cropping of wheat 
gave an increased yield of 8.7 per cent over a two-year rotation of corn 
and wheat, without a legume; while the two-year rotation with a legume 
gave an increased yield of 18 per cent over continuous cropping. Wheat, 
in the three-year rotation of wheat, red clover, and corn, gave an increased 
yield of 32.6 per cent over continuous cropping of this crop; and an in- 
creased yield of 12.3 per cent over the two-year rotation, with a legume. 
For the limed half of the field, continuous cropping of wheat gave an in- 
creased yield of 64.1 per cent over the two-year rotation, without a legume; 
and an increased yield of 8.6 per cent over the two-year rotation, with a 
legume. The three-year rotation gave an increased yield of 22.6 per cent 
over continuous cropping of wheat; and an increased yield of 33.1 per cent 
over a two-year rotation with a legume. Comparative results for continuous 
cropping and the two-year rotations on both the limed and unlimed halves 
are for this year at variance with the. averages of past years. 

AT CENTRAL STATION (Cecil Clay and Sandy Loam) 

Best Proportion of Organic to Inorganic Nitrogen for Cotton. Three 
sources of inorganic nitrogen — nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia and 
leuna-salpeter — are being used in this study of the value of varying propor- 



Research in Agronomy 61 

tions with cottonseed meal as the organic source for cotton. In 1929, a 
proportion of 65 per cent nitrogen from nitrate of soda and 35 per cent 
from cottonseed meal gave the highest yield of seed cotton per acre. In the 
sulphate of ammonia series, a proportion of 80 per cent nitrogen from 
sulphate of ammonia and 20 per cent from cottonseed meal gave the 
largest yield. In the leuna-salpeter series, a ratio of 80 per cent nitrogen 
from leuna-salpeter to 20 per cent from cottonseed meal gave best yield. 

Sources of Lime. In a comparative study of the value of burnt lime, 
hydrated lime and ground limestone, applied every fourth year at rates 
equivalent to one, two and four tons of calcium corbonate per acre, soy- 
beans for seed; rye, corn; oats-and-vetch (for hay), soybeans for seed; 
cotton and crimson clover (for hay) are grown in a four-year rotation on 
the plats, with soybean vines and rye used for soil improvement. All plats 
are fertilized with equal amounts of phosphoric acid from 16 per cent super- 
phosphate. No nitrogen and potash are used. 

Yields with soybeans for seed in 1929 were highest from an unlimed check 
plat. The second highest yield was obtained from the use of two tons of 
burnt lime per acre. Yields from one ton of ground limestone ranked 
third. The one-ton rate per acre proved most efficient for hydrated lime 
and ground limestone, while the two-ton rate was most efficient for burnt 
lime. The four-ton rate of application gave the lowest yields in all cases. 
The soybeans showed much evidence of potash deficiency, especially on the 
heavily limed plats. 

COOPEEATIVE TOBACCO INVESTIGATIONS 

All the research work noted below is being conducted in cooperation with 
the Office of Tobacco Investigations of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
The research investigations with this crop were started on Durham sandy 
loam at the Tobacco Branch Station at Oxford in 1911; on Norfolk sandy 
loam on the Upper Coastal Plain Branch Station near Rocky Mount in 1927; 
and on Porter's loam, near Swannanoa, on the Mountain Branch Station 
in 1930. The work being conducted at the Tobacco and Upper Coastal Plain 
Branch Station farms is with flue-cured bright, and that located at the 
Mountain farm is with burley tobacco. 

The work at Oxford consists of something over 400 plats, on which dif- 
ferent fertilizer materials and various combinations of these materials are 
tested including C. P. materials. The effect of chlorine, sulphur, calcium 
and magnesia on tobacco is being studied. More detailed studies of nitrate 
of soda and cottonseed meal with relation to the time of application and the 
rate of absorption are being carried on at this farm. Other work consists 
of crop rotation, effect of different crops including the legumes on tobacco, 
potash and nitrogen tests. 

The work at the Upper Coastal Plain Station, near Rocky Mount, in 
Edgecombe County consists of over 200 plats on which fertilizer tests, crop 
rotation and varieties are being studied. 

At the Mountain Station, located in Buncombe County, some simple 
fertilizer and variety tests are being made with burley tobacco. Black root 
rot (Thielavia basicola) is common on soils that grow burley tobacco and 
for that reason resistant strains were used. The first year's indications 



62 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 

show that magnesia will give additional yield and quality, also that phospho- 
ric acid is very essential to be added for best paying yields. 

Some progress has been made each year. At the same time new problems 
are continually coming up which need the attention of investigators. 
All phases of the tobacco work are studied, but up to the present more 
has been done on the nutritional and variety problems than on others. Dur- 
ing the past three seasons, special emphasis has been placed on the study of 
diseases which are becoming more numerous each year. The plant patholo- 
gist has given his entire time to the study of the tobacco disease problems 
for the past three summers. Special work with mosaic has been done. 
Beginning with the season of 1930 a two-acre field which was badly infested 
with Black root rot (Thielavia basicola) was leased and 87 selections and 
varieties were planted on this field. Some of these varieties were of the 
burley type and some of the cigar-binder type, which had proven to be 
resistant in Kentucky and Wisconsin. These varieties were resistant in the 
tests made at Oxford, but were not desirable types for flue-cured purposes 
as was expected. Fortunately, however, two selections of flue-cured tobacco 
have shown considerable resistance this year. These selections will be 
subjected to more severe tests next year and if they continue to show 
resistance, seed for distribution will be available. 

Variety Work. This work, which consists of selection and breeding, has 
been continued. Over 40 selections were tested this year as to their com- 
parative yields and values. A large number of so-called varieties have been 
tested during the past few years and discarded on account of their low 
yield value. The results up to the present time indicate that Cash, White 
Stem Orinoco, Jamaica and Bonanza are the four best varieties for cigarette 
tobacco. The White Stem Orinoco is the most desirable for thin sandy soils; 
Cash for heavy and more fertile soils; and Jamaica and Bonanza may be 
classed as intermediates. 

Fertilizer Tests. A large number of plats have been used in making tests 
with different fertilizer materials and combinations both at the Tobacco and 
Upper Coastal Plain Stations. Different sources of phosphates, nitrogen 
and potash have been used. A number of the synthetic nitrogen carriers have 
been used alone and in combination. Urea has been one of the best in this class, 
but in practically all cases, a mixture of different materials supplying the 
nitrogen has given better results than has any individual source. For this 
reason it is recommended that as much as 50 per cent of the nitrogen for 
tobacco fertilizers be derived from organic materials of vegetable or animal 
origin. In practically all tests with potash the more liberal applications 
have proven to be beneficial. 

Curing. Observations have been made relative to the arrangement of 
the furnaces and pipes in tobacco curing barns, and a number of different 
types of furnaces have been tested with different arrangements of the 
pipes. The observations so far show that more uniform heat control may 
be had by using more pipes or flues in the barn than are now being used. 
With well constructed barns built of wood or fire-resistant materials such 



Research in Agronomy 63 

as concrete blocks or clay tile, and the use of increased pipes well placed 
in the barn, the fuel consumption as well as the fire hazard may be materially 
reduced. 

FERTILIZER RESULTS FROM OUTLYING SOIL-TYPE FIELDS 
WITH FARMERS OF THE STATE 

With Peanuts on Norfolk and Coxville fine sandy loams (Bertie and Hert- 
ford counties). The experiment in Bertie County followed cotton on a 
rather fertile Norfolk soil, while the one conducted in Hertford County 
followed corn on a Coxville soil, low in fertility. The results thus far 
secured seem to show that fertilizers are profitable for peanuts when grown 
on a poor soil following a crop that has not been heavily fertilized, and that 
little or no response is secured from their use when the peanuts are grown 
on very fertile soils. Results indicate that potash is the most essential 
constituent in the fertilizer for most profitable production of this crop. The 
use of 300 to 400 pounds per acre of gypsum, applied uniformly on the 
foliage of the plants at blooming time, has been found to be profitable, 
especially so in dry seasons. The use of lime only under the crop hag 
resulted in an increase in yield on Coastal Plain soils having a pH of less 
than 6.0. 

On Ashe loam (Burke County). The 1929 results with corn conform 
closely with the averages for 1927 and 1928. Withholding phosphoric acid 
from the fertilizer mixture has had more effect in decreasing yields than has 
the leaving out of the mixture either nitrogen or potash. Absence of potash 
in the mixture resulted in no material decrease in yield of corn. Increasing 
the rate of fertilizer application above normal has given a good increase in 
yield. The beneficial effects of liming two years previously have been shown 
also in the results secured this year. 

On Toxaway loam (Tryansylvania County). On this field, a study is being 
made to determine the best proportions and amounts of nutrients for the 
growth of corn and wheat, both when limed and unlimed. Results with corn 
for 1929 have shown a beneficial effect from the use of lime on this soil, 
having a pH value of around 5.2. Increasing the percentage of phosphoric 
acid in a complete fertilizer had most effect in increasing yields, nitrogen 
ranking next in importance. Varying the potash percentage in the mixture 
had least effect upon yields. Dividing the application of nitrogen has given 
a small increase in yield over applying all of it at planting time. 

Wheat yields for the past year were strongly affected on this field by the 
fertilization of the preceding crop, so no reliable deductions can be made 
from this year's results. 

On Appling sandy loam (Davie County). The trend of results with cotton 
on this type of soil for 1929 are in line with those for 1927 and 1928. Five 
per cent potash in a complete fertilizer has proved thus far the best por- 
•centage in the mixture for this crop. Kainit proved to be a slightly better 
source of potash in a complete fertilizer in this year's results as is shown 
fcelow. 



64 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agel Exp. Station 



Fertilizer Treatment 
Per Acre 


Source of Potash 


Yield Seed Cotton 

Per Acre — 

Pounds 


600 lbs. 10-5-3 


Kainit 


1,680 


600 lbs. 10-5-3 




1,650 


600 lbs. 10-5-3 




1,620 


600 lbs. 10-5-3 




1,120 









Of several sources of nitrogen being tested, calurea showed the highest 
yield of cotton and superphosphate proved the best source of phosphoric 
acid in 1929. 

Profitable increases in yield of seed cotton were obtained by increasing 
the rate of application of fertilizers up to 900 pounds per acre. 

On Wilkes sandy loam (Guilford Comity) and Congaree silt loam (Watauga 
County). The work with Japanese mint was begun in 1928 in cooperation 
with the Vick Chemical Company of Greensboro, for the purpose of develop- 
ing a profitable crop adaptable for small mountain areas and to determine 
the plant nutrient needs of this crop for best growth. Liming has proven 
beneficial in promoting vegetative growth. The chief deduction to be drawn 
from the 1929 results is the value of high potash fertilization. 

The largest yield of oil was secured on the Guilford field by the use of 
a 10-7-16 fertilizer mixture and on the Watauga field from 15-6-6 and 10-4-4 
mixtures. The highest percentage of menthol in the oil was obtained when 
a 15-9-6 mixture was used on the Guilford field, and a 10-2-4 mixture on the 
Watauga field. 



SOIL TYPE FERTILITY FIELD EXPERIMENTS IN COOPERATION WITH 
THE FEDERAL BUREAU OF CHEMISTRY AND SOILS 

Time and Method of Fertilizer Application (Norfolk loamy fine sand (Cur- 
rituck County) ). This experiment, with Big Stem Jersey sweet potatoes 
has been conducted to determine the best means and time of applying ferti- 
lizer to this kind of potatoes when grown on light sandy soils. Great dif- 
ficulty has frequently been experienced in the past by farmers in getting 
the sprouts to live after using large amounts of fertilizer at or just before 
transplanting the sprouts. The results secured in this experiment indicate 
that the difficulty can be largely, if not entirely, overcome by applying the 
fertilizer after the plants are set and have taken root. Applying one-half 
of the fertilizer before transplanting and one-half later has been found to 
eliminate most of the injury. However, when the entire application is made 
after transplanting, the injury is entirely overcome and the yields are in- 
creased thereby. 

Fertilizer mixtures made up with low grade potash salts, such as kainit, 
have been found to be much more injurious than when the potash is derived 
from muriate of potash. Urea, as a source of nitrogen in a complete fertilizer 
has not been found to be as injurious to the young plants when applied at 
transplanting time as was nitrate of soda. 



Research in Agronomy 65 

Fertilizer Experiments with Irish Potatoes (Bladen fine sandy loam in 
Beaufort County). These experiments include a study of the effects upon 
yield of early Irish potatoes of the following factors: 

(1) Of varying quantities per acre in the drill at planting of 7-5-5, 6-7-5 
and 7-5-7 mixtures, and of the 7-5-5 used one-half before planting and the other 
half as a side application after the potatoes had established a stand. 

(2) Of varying percentages of potash from to 10 per cent in a 6-7-0 
mixture used at the rate of 2,000 pounds per acre in the drill just before 
planting. 

(3) Of each of three common sources of potash (muriate, sulphate and 
manure salt) in a 6-7-5 mixture. 

(4) Of varying percentages of nitrogen in a 6-0-5 mixture. 

(5) Of varying sources and proportions of mineral and organic nitrogen 
in a 6-7-5 mixture, using cottonseed meal as the organic and nitrate of soda 
and sulphate separately as the inorganic sources. 

The following have been the findings under the various phases of this 
project as a result of work of the past three years: 

(1) In a comparison of 1,600, 2,000, and 2,400 pound-applications per acre 
in the drill 2 to 4 days before planting the largest yields were secured from 
the use of 2,000 pounds. 

(2) A mixture, analyzing 6-7-5, has given slightly larger yields during two 
out of three years than either a 7-5-5 or a 7-5-7 mixture. 

(3) Where the fertilizers were applied one-half before planting and one- 
half after the potatoes were up, a larger yield was secured in all cases, 
except one, where the fertilizers were all applied before planting the 
crop. 

(4) Varying the potash from to 10 per cent, derived from muriate 
of potash, 6 per cent has given best results on this type of soil in a 6-7-0 
mixture. 

(5) Of the three sources of potash (muriate of potash, manure salt, and 
sulphate of potash) in 2,000 pounds per acre of a 6-7-5 mixture, muriate of 
potash has given the largest and manure salt the poorest yield in each of 
the three years. 

(6) Varying the ammonia from to 10 per cent, derived equally from 
nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia and cottonseed meal, the results secured, 
as a whole, up to this time have shown that the most efficient content of 
ammonia is 6 to 8 per cent in a 2,000-pound per acre application in the drill 
at planting of a 6-0-5 mixture. 

(7) As sole sources of ammonia in a 2,000-pound application per acre of 
a 6-7-5 mixture, nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia have each given 
practically the same yields. Urea and ammonium phosphate have, on an 
average, given larger yields than has either nitrate of soda, leuna-salpeter or 
sulphate of ammonia. 

(8) In a study of various proportions of organic (cottonseed meal) and 
inorganic nitrogen (nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia) in a 2,000- 
pound drill application of a 6-7-5 mixture, the following results have been 
secured where the inorganic content varied by increments from 50 to 100 
per cent of the total per cent of ammonia in the mixture: 

5 



66 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agkl Exp. Station 

(a) In the nitrate of soda series, the largest yield has been obtained where 
the ammonia was derived 35 per cent from cottonseed meal, and 65 per cent 
from nitrate of soda. 

(b) In the sulphate of ammonia series, the largest yield was secured where 
the ammonia was derived 20 per cent from cottonseed meal and 80 per cent 
from sulphate of ammonia. 

Soil-Deficiency Experiment with Soybeans (Bladen fine sandy loam in 
Currituck County). This experiment was planned and started to determine 
the effect of commercial fertilizers, lime, and special treatments upon the 
yield and quality of soybeans when grown on this type of soil on which in 
previous growth they had shown pronounced malnutrition symptoms. 

Fertilizer mixtures, containing relatively high percentages of phosphoric 
acid and potash, materially increased the yields over the unfertilized plats. 
The addition of 100 pounds per acre of manganese sulphate to the fertilizer 
alone gave only slight response for the use of the manganese. Limestone 
was the most effective material added in increasing both the yield and 
quality of the beans in this soil. When the sulphate of manganese was used 
with the limestone, it was decidedly more profitable than when used alone. 
The largest average yields were obtained, however, when complete fertilizer, 
limestone and sulphate of manganese were applied together. 

Concentrated Fertilizer and Time-of-Application Experiment with Cotton 
(Norfolk sandy loam in Wayne County). One year's results from this experi- 
ment show that concentrated fertilizer * mixtures, used at the equivalent 
rate of 900 pounds per acre of an 8-6-4 mixture, were just as effective in pro- 
moting crop yields as was a mixture made up of ordinary commercial 
materials. Dividing the application of concentrated fertilizer, applying one- 
half just before planting and one-half after chopping, was not only less 
injurious to the young cotton seedlings but resulted in the production of 
larger yields of the crop than when all the concentrated fertilizer was ap- 
plied before the planting of the crop. 

On Cecil clay loam at Central Station. In this experiment, four different 
fertilizers — two concentrated mixtures and two with equivalent amounts of 
plant-food from commercial' mixtures — were applied to the soil in various 
ways, both ten days before planting and at planting time. One purpose in 
this experiment was to study the effects upon germination of cotton seed 
resulting from the different methods of applying the various mixtures. Re- 
sults for 1929 have shown an increase of 13.6 per cent in missing hills for 
the concentrated mixtures over what was secured where commercial mixtures 
were used. The commercial mixtures have given an average increase in 
yield of 18.9 per cent over the concentrated mixtures. Applying the fertili- 
zers — both concentrated and commercial — 10 days before planting gave 2.5 
per cent better stand than did applying them at planting time. An increase 
of 1.1 per cent in yield was secured by applying all mixtures 10 days before 
planting over applying them at planting time. 

On Cecil clay loam in Franklin County. This experiment was designed 
to study the best proportion of inorganic and organic nitrogen in complete 
fertilizers for the production of cotton on this soil type. Nitrate of soda, 
sulphate of ammonia and leuna-salpeter are each used in a separate series 



Research in Agronomy 



67 



as sources of inorganic nitrogen; and cottonseed meal as the source of 
organic nitrogen in all series. 

Results for 1929 show that the highest yield of seed cotton was obtained 
in the nitrate of soda series when all the nitrogen came from nitrate of soda, 
and a proportion of 25 per cent nitrate of soda and 75 per cent cottonseed 
meal gave the second highest yield. In the sulphate of ammonia series, 
the highest yield was obtained from the plat deriving all its nitrogen from 
the sulphate of ammonia, while a ratio of 65 per cent nitrogen from sulphate 
and 35 per cent from cottonseed meal gave the second highest yield. In 
the leuna-salpeter series, a proportion of 90 per cent inorganic nitrogen and 
10 per cent organic gave the largest yield; while one having 65 per cent 
of its nitrogen from leuna-salpeter and 35 per cent from cottonseed meal 
ranked second in yield. 

INCREASED LABOR EFFICIENCY IN COTTON PRODUCTION 
BY USING COMPLETE FERTILIZERS 

Assuming an average labor requirement of 128 hours per acre to produce 
cotton, the following has been found from field experiments to be the 
average increase in labor efficiency on six types in the Coastal Plain and on 
four types of soil in the Piedmont section of North Carolina in the produc- 
tion of fertilized cotton over the crop unfertilized, as measured by yields: 





Yield Seed 


Yield Seed 


Increased 


Times 




Cotton Per 


Cotton Per Four 


Labor 


Increased 


Provinces and 


Acre — Pounds 


of Labor— Pounds 


Efficiency 


Labor 


Soil Types 




















tilization 


by Use of 




Unfertilized 


Fertilized 


Unfertilized 


Fertilized 


—Per Cent 


Fertilizers 


(1) For Coastal, Plain: 














Dunbar fine sandy loam__ 


1,320 


2,262 


10 3 


17.7 


72 


1.72 


Portsmouth sandy loam.. 


904 


1,800 


7.1 


14.1 


99 


1.99 


Ruston sandy loam 


761 


1,771 


5.9 


13.8 


134 


2.34 


Wickham fine sandy loam 


342 


1,080 


2.7 


8.4 


211 


3.11 


Norfolk sandy loam 


536 


1,540 


4.2 


12.0 


186 


2.86 


Marlboro sandy loam 


690 


1,495 


5.4 


11.7 


117 


2.17 


Averages 


759 


1,659 


5.9 


13.0 


136.5 


2.37 






(2) For Piedmont: 














Cecil fine sandy loam 


595 


1,378 


4.7 


10.8 


130 


2.30 


Davidson clay loam. 


550 


1,270 


4.3 


9.9 


130 


2.30 


Georgeville silt loam 


415 


1,160 


3.2 


9.1 


184 


2.84 


Appling sandy loam 


287 


1,107 


2.2 


8.6 


291 


3.91 




462 


1,229 


3.6 


9.6 


183.8 


2.84 







By deducting 300 pounds seed cotton produced by the fertilizers used on 
the different types of soil to pay for the cost of the fertilizers the net increase 
in the labor efficiency on an average, from the fertilized over the unfertilized 
cotton, has been found from experimental data to be increased 1.80 times 
lor Coastal Plain -and 2.01 times for Piedmont soils of the State. 



68 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agrx. Exp. Station 



CROP VARIETY, BREEDING AND CULTURAL EXPERIMENTS INCLUD- 
ING TECHNICAL COTTON FIBER INVESTIGATIONS 

COTTON BREEDING 

Inheritance of Seed-coat Characters in Cotton. During the past several 
years, the inheritance of the smooth, fuzzy-tip, and fuzzy characters of cotton 
seed have been studied. Strains, self-pollinated for several generations, 
and homozygous for these characters were used in making crosses. 

The smooth seeded strain, isolated from the King variety, was entirely 
devoid of fuzz on the seed. The fuzzy seeded strain, also isolated from 
this same variety, was covered with a thick coat of short greyish-white 
fuzz. The seed of the fuzzy-tipped strain bore a small tuft of short fuzz 
on the tip end of the seed but was otherwise smooth or naked. 

Cross : Smooth Seed X Fuzzy Seed. The seed of the Fi plants were smooth, 
and in the F 2 716 smooth-seeded plants and 254 fuzzy-seeded plants were 
produced, giving an approximate ratio of three smooth to one fuzzy. 

Cross: Fuzzy-tip X Fuzzy. The Fi plants all produced fuzzy-tipped seed, 
while in the F 2 24 plants produced fuzzy-tipped seed, 18 plants fuzzy seed, 
and 6 plants were barren. The fuzzy-seeded F 2 plants produced only fuzzy- 
seeded plants in the F 3 plants. Four fuzzy-tipped F 2 plants produced in 
the F 3 generation 76 fuzzy-tipped plants and 22 fuzzy-seeded plants, indicat- 
ing a 3:1 ratio with the fuzzy-tip character dominant. 

Cross: Smooth Seed X Fuzzy-tip Seed. All plants in the Fi generation 
bore smooth seed. In the F 2 generation 187 plants bore smooth seed, 45 
fuzzy-tipped seed and 21 fuzzy seed, this being close to a 12:3:1 ratio. 

The above findings suggest the following genetic constitution of the parental 
families: 

Smooth parent SStt 

Fuzzy-tip parent ssTT 

Fuzzy parent - sstt 

Smooth is dominant to all types of fuzz. The fuzzy-tip character is domi- 
nant to complete fuzziness but is recessive to the entirely smooth condition. 
This hypothesis was borne out in the F 3 generation of the cross smooth X 
fuzzy-tip (SStt X ssTT). Nine genotypes would be expected in the F 2 
generation of this cross, three (SSTT, SSTt, SStt) of which would produce 
only smooth-seeded plants in the F 3 generation. One (ssTT) would produce 
only fuzzy-tip seed, one (sstt) fuzzy seed and the other four (SsTT, Sstt, 
SsTt, ssTt) would segregate, giving 4 different ratios. There was no means 
of distinguishing between the three genotypes which produced only smooth 
seed, unless further breeding work were done, using known testers. All 
other expectations were fulfilled, as is shown by the results given in the 
following table: 



Research in Agronomy 69 

Segregation in the F 3 Generation of the Cross— Smooth X Fuzzy-Tip (SStt X bsTT) 



Character of F2 Plants 


Segregation in F3 Generation 


Phenotypes 


Genotypes 


Smooth Seeded 
Plants 


Fuzzy-Tip 
Plants 


Fuzzy-Seeded 
Plants 




SStt 


t 452 

166 
324 
403 








SSTt 






SSTT 


49 
91 






SsTT 






SsTt. 


33 




Sstt 


119 




ssTT 


33 

298 






ssTt 




102 








329 













Cotton Improvement. Selection work for higher quality of staple, better 
yields, and better adaptation to boll-weevil conditions of the Mexican variety 
is being continued on the Central Station and at the Upper Coastal Plain 
and Piedmont branch station farms. A large number of plant-to-row 
progenies are grown each year, and strain tests, including the more 
promising pedigree strains, are conducted. Several of these strains have 
shown marked improvement over the parent variety in yield, uniformity of 
staple, and plant characters. In strain tests with high and low fertilization 
on the Upper Coastal Plain branch station, some strains were found better 
able to utilize heavy fertilizer applications than others. 

Seed of new pedigreed strains were distributed to farmers the past season 
and larger amounts will be available another year. 

During the season of 1929, crosses were made between several strains of 
the Mexican variety. The F^ generation of these crosses are being grown 
during the summer of 1930. Some of these crosses appear to have more fruit- 
ing vigor than the parents. Excessive vegetative growth which might be 
expected in the Fj, plants resulting from some of these crosses did not 
show up, due probably to dry weather conditions as none of the cotton 
made a large growth this season. 

Cotton Variety Experiments. Results of variety experiments conducted 
during the past three years show that the improved varieties, producing a 
staple length of 1 to 1 1/16 inches, have given largest money returns per 
acre. These length are in greatest demand by the mills of the Southeast as 
well as by the export trade. The highest yielding varieties producing a 
staple length of 1 to 1 1/16 inches are the Mexican strains, Cleveland Nos. 884, 
5 and 20-3. The lighter foliaged varieties, such as Carolina Foster, are 
especially adapted for use on the heavier soils of the lower Coastal Plain 
section of the State. The Wannamaker-Cleveland "Standard" was the heaviest 
yielder in the short staple group. 

"Wilt Resistance. Fusarium wilt of cotton is very prevalent on the sandy 
soil types in certain areas of the State. Tests have been conducted in several 
localities to determine the resistance of different varieties to this disease. 



70 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N, C. Agri. Exp. Station 



Varieties bred for wilt resistance and also non-resistant varieties were in- 
cluded in these tests. These varieties showed much variation in suscepti- 
bility in 1929 as may be seen from the data contained in the following table: 

Cotton Variety Experiment on Wilt-Infested Soil (Norfolk Sand-Sandhill Phase 

Richmond County 



Variety 


Yield Lint 

Cotton 
Per Acre 


Staple 
Length — 

Inches 


Per Cent 
Wilted Plants 
on August 28 


Healthy 

Plants Per 

100 Feet 




198 
140 
224 
275 
65 
96 
125 
161 
180 
143 


7/8 

15/16 

5/8 

5/8 
1 

7/8 

1 to 1 1/16 
1 to 1 1/16 

15/16 


6.7 
40.3 

4.2 

3.6 
58.7 
52.9 

8.8 
30.7 

7.3 
26 2 


116 


Miller 


61 


Cook 307-6 


152 


Cook (Rhyne Bros.) 


136 


Cleveland 5-2 


29 


Cleveland (local) 


30 


Super-Seven No. 4 


62 


Lightening Express 


62 


Mexican 6-1-9 


73 


Rowden No. 40 


72 







The soil on which this experiment was conducted was also badly infested 
with nematodes, an examination of wilt-infected plants showed that in a large 
percentage of the plants the wilt organism entered through a nematode injury 




Fig. 11. — Showing relative wilt-resistance of Mexican 58, Coker-Cleveland 884, and Rhyne- 



Cook varieties of cotton grown on Norfolk sandy loam in Wayne County. 

following were the per cent of wilt infected plants on September 17, 1930: 

Mexican 58 (left) 9.5 

Coker-Cleveland and 884 (center) 87.8 

Rhyne-Cook (right) 1.4 



The 



Research in Agronomy 



fl 



spot. Nematodes are found on most of the wilt-infested soils, and the tol- 
erance or resistance of varieties to nematodes is evidently as important a 
consideration as is resistance to the wilt organism. Vigorous growing vari- 
eties, while not bred for wilt-resistance, held their leaves until, the bolls 
opened, although the plants showed infection. 

Peanut Variety Experiment, Results secured in 1929 in this experiment 
show that the largest yields were obtained from Improved Spanish, followed 
by the N. C. Bunch, Virginia Bunch and Jumbo Runner varieties in the order 
named. The value per acre of the nuts produced would depend on the market 
price for each type. The yields, per cent of hand-picks, grade, etc., are given 
in the following table: 



Peanut Variety Experiment at the Upper Coastal Plain Branch Station 





Yield- 
Pounds 
Per Acre 


Per Cent 

Jumbo 

Hand picks 


Per Cent 

Fancy 
Handpicks 


Shelling 
Per Cent 


U. S. Grade and Class 


Variety 


Grade 


Class 


Jumbo Runner (Hancock). 
Jumbo Runner No. 5-24-3. 
Virginia Runner 


1,440 
1,215 
1,410 
1,485 
1,770 
1,830 


47.3 
51.4 
27.3 
32.0 
16.0 


8.0 
8.5 
22.0 
21.1 
22.3 


64.5 
66.5 
65.8 

66.0 
66.8 

71.2 


1 

2 
2 
5 

1* 


B 
A 
A 


Virginia (Jumbo) Bunch.. . 
N. C. Bunch 


A 

A 


Improved Spanish 2B 













*No. 1 grade for Spanish Peanuts. 

Peanut Spacing Experiment. Results from this experiment with the Vir- 
ginia Bunch variety planted in three-foot rows showed best yields from 4-inch 
spacing, one plant to the hill; and from 8 and 12-inch spacings, two plants 
to the hill. Reduced yields and many one-seeded pods were secured from 
spacing of 2 plants every 4 inches. Best yields were secured from the Jumbo 
Runner variety with 2 plants in the row, 12 inches apart; 2 plants 16 inches; 
1 plant 12 inches apart; and 2 plants 8 inches apart, respectively. The closer 
spacings produced more of a determinate pod growth than did the wider 
spacings. The very thick spacings (4 inch, 2 plants to the hill) was not 
found to be desirable due to reduced yield, many one-seeded pods and an 
excessive top growth, which might prove to be objectionable during a 
dry season. 

Peanut Breeding'. Selection work for higher yield and better quality is 
being carried on with the Virginia Bunch variety at the Upper Coastal branch 
station farm. 

Soybean Varieties. Tests, including a large number of varieties, were 
conducted at the Central Station and at four of the branch station farms 
during the summer of 1929. The highest yielding varieties for seed and 
hay on the three farms representing the Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and Moun- 
tain sections of the State are given in the following table: 



72 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agrl Exp. Station 

Highest Yielding Varieties of Soybeans for Seed and for Hay 





Yield of Seed 


Yield of Hay 


Farm 


Variety 


Bushels 
Per Acre 


Variety 


Pounds 
Per Acre 




Tokyo 


21.6 
19.2 
17.8 
17.3 


Otootan 


4,910 


(6 years average) 




4,535 
4,348 








Mammoth Yellow 




4,148 








Coastal Plain Farm (Willard) 


Herman 


25.5 
25.3 
23.2 




5,380 




Tokyo 


Biloxi 


5,080 




Mammoth Yellow 




5,020 












23,0 
22.5 
21.3 


Herman 




(8 years average) 


Southern Prolific 



















Other promising varieties are the George Washington, a medium early 
non-shattering type; the Chiquita, a good hay variety; and the Dixie, an 
early, heavy seed producer which is adapted to the Upper Piedmont and 
Mountain areas. A large number of new introductions have been tried out 
during the past few "years. Some have shown considerable promise but 
none have shown up superior to these varieties now being grown by farmers 
of the State. The more promising of these strains at the present time are 
Nos. 59853 and 71597. 

Soybean Breeding. Selection work with natural hybrids from the Biloxi va- 
riety has been in progress for several years. These hybrids are apparently 
crosses between the Biloxi and Mammoth Yellow varieties, as some of the 
segregates show pod and leaf characters similar to the Mammoth Yellow 
variety. In progeny rows, which segregated for pod color, those plants which 
•bore light yellow pods similar to the Mammoth Yellow shattered badly, while 
plants bearing dark brown pods like the Biloxi did not shatter. 

A strain has been isolated which has the plant, leaf, pod and non-shattering 
characters of the Biloxi variety but which produces yellow seed. 

Lespedeza Variety Experiments. Results of one year's work on the Coastal 
Plain branch station farm and in tests on private farms indicate that the 
Kobe and Tennessee No. 76 are best for hay, with Common as a third choice. 
Korean made a very poor growth in v all tests in the Coastal Plain but does 
much better in the Piedmont, and for the higher elevations of the Mountain 
section of the State is better adapted than either of the other three. 

Crotalaria Experiments. Thirty strains of Crotalaria, representing thirteen 
species, were grown on the Coastal Plain branch station farm during 1929. 
The most promising species were found to be the Cericea, Incana, and Striata. 
The yield of green material from these were 15, 13% and 11 tons, respectively.- 
Drifferent strains of the same species showed marked differences in growth, 
earliness and adaptability. This crop has been found to be very promising 



Research in Agronomy 73 

for soil improvement purposes, particularly for the light sandy soils of the 
Coastal Plain section of the State. 

EXPERIMENTS WITH ALFALFA AND RED CLOVER 

In Cooperation with the Bureau of Plant Industry of the U. S. Department 

of Agriculture 

Alfalfa Experiments. Variety and source-of-seed experiments have been 
carried on at the Piedmont branch station farm since 1927. Utah, Kansas, 
and Dakota grown seed of the common variety have given uniformly good 
results. The Grimm variety has, too, been found to be well adapted and 
has produced good yields; however, farmers are not justified in paying the 
higher prices asked for these seed, since the common variety is sufficiently 
winter-hardy for this climate. The Hairy Peruvian and other seed from 
the southwest have usually been found to winter-kill badly. 

The French strains, tested thus far, have been about equal to the American 
seed in hay-yielding capacity. Seed from South Africa and the Argentine 
Republic are somewhat subject to winter-killing, but produce good yields, 
provided they get through the first winter without damage to the stand. 

Red Clover Experiments. The Tennessee Anthracnose-resistant variety 
has given a better stand and larger yield than has seed of any of the im- 
ported varieties. Some of the French seed have given a good stand and fair 
growth, others were poor. The use of seed from other foreign countries 
resulted in poor yields generally. 

Spring seeding has given slightly better stand and growth than has fall 
seeding. 

CEREAL EXPERIMENTS 

The accumulated effects of continued selection is the most that has been 
accomplished during the past season. Outstanding results in improving cereal 
crops will come as a result of time an patience, and careful and continuous 
effort. A few definite results, however, have been obtained during the year 
which are noted below. 

Corn. Variety tests of corn are now being conducted on four of the station 
farms — the Mountain, Piedmont, Central and Coastal Plain— this season clos- 
ing a five-year continuous period of the tests. When the present crop has 
been harvested, dependable recommendations should be possible of the most 
suitable varieties for growing in each of the main soil provinces of the State 
represented by these farms. 

The Biggs' Two-ear variety, as improved by field selection on the Mountain 
branch station farm, led in the variety test during the year. Because of its 
excellent qualities it has attracted the favorable comment of many leading 
corn-growers in the vicinity of the farm. 

Weekley's Improved, the variety selected for further improvement at both 
the Piedmont and Tobacco branch station farms, has been improved, too, to 
such a stage as to receive the favorable consideration of growers of both 
sections. Both farms have received more orders for seed during the year 
than they could fill. A large seed firm in an adjoining state was so favorably 
impressed with the high-yielding qualities of this variety that it purchased 
considerable seed during the year from one of the farms for planting a field 



74 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 



on one of its seed-propagating farms. The plan of the Department is to 
develop this variety until it will easily take rank as a leading variety adapted 
for use in the Piedmont section of the State. 

One of the most noteworthy corn tests undertaken this year was the one 
on the Mountain branch station farm to determine what variety is best adapted 
to poor land, which is a question frequently asked by farmers. To find an 
answer to this query, a variety test was conducted on a piece of poor land 
without fertilization, using five varieties — Hickory King, a comparatively 
poor yielder on fertile land; Biggs' Two-ear, the variety grown on the Moun- 
tain station farm; Jarvis's Golden Prolific, a yellow, medium yielding variety; 
Cocke's Prolific, a white medium yielding variety; and Big Corn, a single- 
eared, rank growing, late maturing variety. The results from this test are 
given below. 




Rank 



Yield Per Acre- 
Bushels 



Hickory King 

Biggs' Two-Ear 

J arris* Golden Prolific 

Cocke's Prolific 

Big Corn 



10.4 
8.6 
8.4 
8.1 
4.5 



These varieties with eight others were included in the regular variety 
test which was located on fairly fertile bottom-land. The yields and rank in 
the regular test, of the same five varieties carried in the poor-land test, are 
given below. 




Hickory King 

Biggs' Two-Ear 

Jarvis* Golden Prolific. 

Cocke's Prolific 

Big Corn 



25.2 
38.1 
28.6 
25.2 
37.2 



Although it will require more than a single test to furnish adequate data, 
yet the contrast in the results of the two tests of a single year are very 
suggestive. 

Among the experiments being conducted with interested corn growers, in 
addition to those conducted on the Station farms, was one which contained a fea- 
ture of special interest. An ear-to-row-test was conducted with D. A. Kiser in 
Gaston County. When the field selections were made of ears to plant in the test, 
a stalk was found with four well developed ears. The two best were saved for 
planting in another test. The row planted from the higher yielding ear pro- 
duced 64. 5 per cent more pounds of ears than the row planted from the lower- 
yielding ear from the stalk. This data seems to indicate that there is quite a 



Research in Agronomy 75 

difference in merit in individual ears even when they are grown on the 
same stalk. 

Wh«at. Four varieties of wheat are being carried in the variety tests on 
both the Piedmont and Mountain branch station farms. Average yields for 
eight consecutive years have now been obtained with Pulcaster, Gleason, Purple 
Straw and Leaps Prolific varieties. These are not the only varieties carried 
in the tests, but their yields are to be taken as standards by which other 
varieties are to be measured. There are so far two outstanding observations 
from the results of the tests on both farms, which are as follows: 

(1) The Fulcaster variety, or some improved strain of it, has always lead 
in the tests on both farms. 

(2) The popular notion, quite generally held by growers, that an early 
maturing wheat will in a series of years outyield a later maturing one, is 
not borne out by the results thus far obtained. Purple Straw, the early 
variety carried in these tests as a standard, has yielded on the Mountain 
farm, in an eight-year average, 3.2 bushels per acre less than the late 
maturing Fulcaster, which difference amounts of 13.6 per cent less yield for 
Purple Straw. On the Piedmont farm, Fulcaster has out-yielded, for the 
same length of time, the early maturing Purple Straw by an average of 2.5 
bushels per acre, which amounts to an increase of 8.9 per cent in favor of 
the Fulcaster variety. Further investigations, however, are necessary to be 
conducted before definite conclusions may be safely drawn on this point, 
but the facts thus far in hand are in favor of the use of the better of the 
later-maturing varieties. 

A test of different dates of seeding of the Fulcaster variety seeded at the 
rate of 6 pecks per acre has been made on the Mountain branch station farm 
for the past three years. The dates of seeding, with average yields for each 
date are given below. 



Date of Seeding 


Average Yield Per Acre — Bushels 




20.9 




19.0 




26.1 




20.9 




11.9 









These results clearly indicate tha*, about October 15 is the best date for 
seeding wheat in the mountain area of the State. 

The most outstanding feature of the wheat work for this year consists in what 
is being attempted rather than in what has been accomplished. Selection 
work for seed improvement was begun in 1929. The head selections made 
in the field that season were planted in five-foot rows that fall. A total of 
1058 of these head selections were planted, consisting of oats, barley, rye 
and of different varieties of wheat. The oats and barley were fewest in num- 
ber. The oats were all winter-killed. After rigid elimination, 97 selections 
were made from the five-foot rows for further testing in rod rows during 
the season of 1930-1931. Also, about 1100 new head selections were made 
from the 1930 crops of wheat, rye and oats for planting in five-foot rows during 



76 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 

the coming fall. These selections all together may lay the foundations for 
the material improvement of the small grain crops of the State. The work 
now in force probably equals that of any of the other southern stations. 

The rust resistant work with wheat has been continued in cooperation with 
the Department of Botany of this Station and the Bureau of Plant Industry 
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. At this time, ten selections of especial 
promise from the standpoint of yield and resistance have been made for further 
trials in rod rows at the Mountain branch station farm. It is planned, too, 
to seed a large number of these rust-resistant strains on the Piedmont branch 
station farm during the coming fall. 

Oats. The old problem is still with us of finding a high-yielding strain 
of oats that will not freeze-out during the winter. All the varieties of oats 
under experiment on the Piedmont farm were winter-killed during the past 
season, except the Lee, which survived with an estimated stand of sixty per 
cent. The Fulghum variety has proven the best yielder of all varieties so 
far tested at the different branch stations when it is able to survive the 
winter, but it is very subject to winter-killing. On the Mountain branch 
station, where only spring seeding is practiced, it is especially promising. 
An effort is now being made to develop by selection a cold-resistant strain. 
The Lee variety, developed by cereal workers in the Federal Bureau of Plant 
Industry, has proven so far the best winter oat for fall seeding in the Pied- 
mont area of the State. 

COTTON FIBER INVESTIGATIONS 

The following projects have received attention during the year: 

(1) A study of fiber diameter or "fineness" is being made in order to note 
any difference in the diameter of fibers from strains and varieties of cotton 
having the same length of staple. 

No measurements have been made during the current year. Samples of 
cotton have been obtained from several varieties and strains grown at the 
Arkansas station and further studies will be made this year on these. 

(2) A study of the uniformity and length of staple from pure strains of 
the Mexican variety grown at this station. 

The average length, modal length, uniformity and per cent of waste of fibers 
from each promising strain were accurately measured. Significant differences 
were found in the 1928 crop, and the strains having an inferior staple were 
discarded. Material was saved from the crop of 1929 and measurements will 
be made during the coming winter. Samples will be saved, too, from the 
crop of 1930 for a continuation of the laboratory investigations. 

(3) Studies concerning the relation of drag and other fiber properties to 
yarn quality are being made in cooperation with the Bureau of Agricultural 
Economies of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. Two lots of cotton show- 
ing contrast in drag were spun into yarns by H. H. Willis, Senior Cotton 
Technologist, Clemson College, S. C. The physical properties of the fibers 
from these cottons are being measured by this Department and a complete 
report will be ready at an early date. 

(4) The effect of different combinations and amounts of fertilizing con- 
stituents upon the physical properties of fiber from cotton grown on different 
soil types is being investigated each season. This work was started in 1927 



Research in Agronomy 77 

and measurements have been made of material from the crops of 1927 and 
1928. Material was saved from the crop of 1929 and will be secured from 
the 1930 crop for measurements during the coming year. A report on the 
data secured for a period of years will be made at a later date. 

Before closing this report I wish to commend most heartily each of the 
individual workers for his faithful and unselfish services in carrying forward 
the different lines of research of the Department. The information secured 
in this research intelligently applied in farming operations of the State 
should lead to the more general adoption of agricultural practices which will 
result in the more economic production of crops of better quality, and aid 
materially in bringing about a more contented and fuller rural life. 

C. B. Williams, 
Head Department of Agronomy. 



RESEARCH IN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 



BEEF CATTLE, SHEEP AND SWINE INVESTIGATIONS 

Earl H. Hostetler, in Charge 
f John E". Foster, Assistant 

Ralph E. Nance, Assistant 

BEEP CATTL/E PROJECTS 

1. Quality of Meat (Blackland Branch Station, Wenona, N. C). 

(In cooperation with Bureau of Animal Industry and other State Experiment 

Stations) 

The plan of work for this project has been changed so that the animals 
will be finished when approximately two years of age rather than as yearlings, 
therefore, no slaughter data are available for this year's report. 

Improvements in physical equipment has been made so that each bull will 
be with his respective group of cows only during May, June, and July of each 
year. This definite breeding period will eliminate the factor of age in the 
animals that are to be finished for market. 

The native cow herd is divided into two groups during the breeding season 
but during the other nine months they are all grazed or fed together. The 
two bulls, namely, pure bred Hereford and native, are separated only during 
the breeding season. 

2. Vitamin A Studies (Central Station Farm). 

(In Cooperation with Dr. J. O. Halverson) 

Six two year old steers were used in this trial with one being slaughtered 
at the beginning of the feeding period as a control and the other five being 
fed a ration of cottonseed meal, cottonseed hulls and beet pulp. Three steers 
were allowed to die, one developed pneumonia, and the other was cured by 
adding cod liver oil to the ration after he had lost his appetite and developed 
symptoms similar to those developed by the three steers that died. 

(See Dr. Halverson's report for details of project.) 

3. Comparison of Carbonaceous Roughages (Piedmont Branch Station, 

Statesville, N. C). 
Thirty head of two- and three-year old steers were purchased in Western 
North Carolina for this second year's work in comparing cottonseed hulls 
with corn stover as a roughage for steers that are to be fattened for market. 
The steers were divided into two equal groups and received the following 
average daily ration for a period of 114 days. 



Average Daily Ration 


Group 1 


Group 2 


Shelled Corn 


8.65 
8.65 
13.21 


9.28 




9.28 








10.77 









Research in Animal Husbandry 79 

Groups 1 and 2 were both full fed, with 421 pounds of shelled corn, 421 
pounds of cottonseed meal and 634 pounds of cottonseed hulls being required 
to produce 100 pounds of gain in Group 1, while in Group 2, 452 pounds of 
shelled corn, 452 pounds of cottonseed meal and 524 pounds of corn stover 
were required, The gains in the two groups were quite similar with the 
steers receiving cottonseed hulls making an average daily gain of 2.08 pounds 
and those receiving corn stover making an average daily gain of 2.06 pounds. 

SHEEP PROJECTS 

1. Control of Stomach Worms by Sanitation (Central Station Farm). 

As was reported last year, the ewes were divided on January 23, 1929, into 
three equal groups of eight ewes each. Group I was the check lot and did not 
receive the sanitary measures practiced with Group III. Neither were the 
lambs in this group drenched as in Group II. Groups I and II were grazed 
on permanent pastures while Group III was allowed only temporary pastures 
that had not been grazed previously. 

The drenching for the lambs in Group II was started on June 12. At this 
time Group I contained 9 lambs averaging 54.33 pounds, Group II 9 lambs 
averaging 59.56 pounds, and Group III 8 lambs averaging 45.13 pounds. 

All of the lambs were weaned on July 10, and from June 12 to October 2 
the lambs were weighed every two weeks and .those in Group 11 were drenched 
every four weeks. 

The wether lambs in each group were slaughtered at a weight of approxi- 
mately 70 pounds, also at this time post-mortem examination was made for 
stomach worms. 

It was found that the lambs slaughtered in Group I contained considerably 
more stomach worms than those in either of the other groups. Of the lambs 
slaughtered from Group III none contained many worms although most of 
them did contain a few. The degree of infestation of the lambs slaughtered 
in Group II seemed to vary closely with the length of time that had elapsed 
since their last drenching. When only a few days had elapsed they were 
found to be practically free from stomach worms, but when nearly a month 
had elapsed they were almost as wormy as the lambs slaughtered in Group I. 
The degree of infestation of lambs slaughtered from the same group at the 
same time also varied considerably. This was most pronounced on June 26th 
when two lambs from Group III were examined. No stomach worms were 
found in Lamb No. 69 while Lamb No. 79 contained a considerable number. 
The former was also 39 days older than the latter. 

During the period from June 12 to October 2 three lambs in Group I died, 
apparently from stomach worms, and a number of others became unthrifty. 
The largest lamb in Group II died on June 19th, from hemorrhagic septicemia, 
and an old Hampshire ewe from Group III died on June 29th from an unknown 
cause, but no lambs died from stomach worms except in Group 1. 

2. Upgrading of Native Eastern North Carolina Sheep (Central Station Farm). 
A total of 12 ewes in addition to the pure bred Shropshire ram, were used 

in the project this year. Six of the ewes were the original Eastern North 
Carolina stock, three were first cross two year olds and three first cross year- 
lings. All wether lambs* had been slaughtered when of sufficient size to be 
marketed. E'ach of the six original ewes and one of the two year old ewes lambed 



80 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agrl Exp. Station 

during the early part of 1930^ At lambing time, the six native ewes averaged 
75 pounds in weight, while the two year old ewe weighed 121 pounds. All 
twelve ewes were sheared on May 15, 1930. The fleeces from the six native 
ewes averaged 2.87 pounds each, with an average staple length of 2.29 inches, 
those from the three 2-year-olds averaged 6.83 pounds, with an average staple 
of 3.42 inches in length, and those from the three yearlings averaged 6.17 
pounds, with an average staple length of 3.83 inches. 

When the three first cross two year old ewes are compared with their dams 
it is found that the use of a pure bred ram has increased the weight 50 per 
cent, the weight of fleece 138 per cent, and the length of staple 49 per cent. 
There has also been a decided improvement in the conformation of the first 
cross ewes and in the quality of their fleeces. 

3. Control of Stomach Worms by Drenching (Piedmont Branch Station). 
The work this year was started at the Piedmont Test Farm on June 10, 

1929 with 10 grade Hampshire ewe lambs. Group I was drenched at 28 day 
intervals and Group II at 14 day intervals. Both groups were kept off feed 
for about 20 hours before drenching and off feed and water for about 6 hours 
after drenching. 

At the start of the test both groups averaged 57.20 pounds. At the end of 
the first 28 day period the lambs in Group I averaged 61.60 pounds and those 
in Group II 64.40 pounds. During this period Group I made an average gain 
of 4.40 pounds or an average daily gain of .16 pounds, and Group II an average 
gain of 7.20 pounds or an average daily gain of .26 pounds. 

For the 112 days, from June 10 to September 30, that the lambs were on 
test those in Group I made an average gain of 20 pounds, or an average daily 
gain of .18 pounds, while those in Group II made an average gain of 29.20 
pounds, or an average daily gain of .26 pounds. The more frequent drench- 
ing showed an average gain of 46 per cent more for the entire period. 

The six most desirable and best grown lambs were selected to be retained 
in the flock when the trial was closed. When this selection had been made 
it was found that four of these six lambs were from Group II. The other 
lamb in Group II was healthy, but was born later than the others and was 
too small. The other three lambs in Group I were lacking in vigor and one 
had been losing weight since August 5th. 

4. Comparison of Temporary Pastures (Central Station Farm). 

Twelve ewes were used for this work and they were divided into two equal 
groups, with each group containing three mature and three yearling ewes. 
Their average weight at the beginning of the test was 108 pounds. Sudan 
grass and soy bean pastures were compared but, as it was necessary to close 
the trial on August 9, so that the ewes could be bred, and the pastures were 
not ready until July 10th, data covering a period of only 30 days were obtained. 
During this time the group on Sudan pasture made an average gain of 8.33 
pounds, while the group on soy bean pasture made an average gain of 20 
pounds. In other words, both groups were furnished ample grazing during 
the period, but the soy bean group gained two and one-half times as much 
as those in the Sudan group. 



Research in Animal Husbandry 81 

5. Cost of Raising Lambs to Marketable Age (Upper Coastal Plain Branch 
Station). 

Eleven grade ewes and a pure bred Dorset ram were used in this test, with 
the ram being allowed to run with the ewes during the breeding season from 
August 1 to November 15. During the rest of the year the ram and ewes 
were kept separate. 

The Upper Coastal Plain Station is completely fenced and this work was 
planned so as to use crop gleanings, cover crops and pastures that had here- 
tofore returned little or no revenue to the farm. 

Ditch banks, fence rows, fence corners and untillable lands in the fields 
that were being cropped were used by the flock until the spring crops were 
planted. The flock was then maintained on available native, tame or tempo- 
rary pastures until sufficient crops had been harvested so that crop gleanings 
and cover crops were available. However, the pastures grazed by the sheep 
were not of sufficient size or quality to be of particular value to other kinds 
of livestock. 

During the winter when inclement weather made it desirable for the flock 
to be kept under shelter, soy bean hay and grain were fed. These feeds were 
also given, in addition to the crop gleanings and cover crops, during the 
lambing season, and as soon as the lambs were of sufficient size to eat grain 
they were fed a grain mixture from a lamb creep until they were ready to 
be marketed. 

It was found that when the above plan was followed only 130 pounds of 
soy bean hay and 112 pounds of grain mixture were consumed per ewe during 
the year, and with the hay charged at $30.00 per ton and the grain mixture 
at 2 cents a pound, the tota.1 cost for the flock, exclusive of pasture and glean- 
ings, was only $50.28, or an average of $4.19 for the eleven ewes and one 
ram. The returns from the flock consisted of 12 lambs and 94 pounds of wool. 
Prices for wool and lambs during this year were much lower than the previous 
season, but even with the wool selling for only 20 cents per pound and the 
lambs $10.50 per hundredweight, the average return per ewe amounted to $5.37. 

SWINE PROJECTS 
1. Mineral Supplements (College Farm). 

Data were obtained on two phases of this experiment, namely: "Comparison 
of Mineral Supplements for Fattening Pigs" and for "Brood Sows." Due to 
some necessary changes in physical equipment it was impossible to start the 
fattening pigs on test until they had attained an average weight of 132 pounds, 
therefore, in order to slaughter them at weights approximating 200 pounds, 
the trial was closed at the end of a 41 day feeding period. The results show 
that when pigs having the above initial weights were used that the mineral 
supplements were of no benefit. 

Four groups, of 11 pigs each, were used in this trial, and all were self fed 
free choice on shelled corn, fish meal, and mineral, excepting Group 1, which 
did not receive any mineral. The mineral mixture in Groups 2 and 3 con- 
sisted of ground limestone, superphosphate and salt, while a commercial 
mineral mixture was fed to Group 3; dolmitic limestone was used in Group 
2 and calcific in Group 3. 



82 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 



The average daily gains for the four groups of pigs in their respective 
order were 1.68 pounds, 1.63 pounds, 1.60 pounds, and 1.53 pounds, while the 
feed required to produce 100 pounds gain in the respective groups was 377 
pounds, 399 pounds, 428 pounds, and 427 pounds. 

The sow herd was divided into two groups with Doth being fed the same 
grain mixture, but in addition Group 1 was fed a mineral mixture consisting 
of calcitic limestone, superphosphate and salt, while Group 2 received a com- 
mercial mineral mixture. 

Five sows in Group No. 1 farrowed an average of 9.8 pigs to the litter, with 
an average birth weight of 2.3 pounds. An average of 5.6 pigs per litter 
were raised and the average weight per pig when weaned was 29.2 pounds. 

In Group 2 an average of 9.7 pigs per litter were farrowed and 7.0 raised. 
The average birth weight was 2.5 pounds and the average weaning weight 
28.9 pounds per pig. 

2. Cottonseed Meal for Fattening Pigs (Swine Research Farm). 
Twenty-two pigs were divided into two groups and self fed free choice for 

a period of 78 days. Both groups received shelled corn and mineral, but 
Group 1 was fed fish meal alone as the protein supplement, while that for 
Group 2 consisted of a mixture containing 2 parts of cottonseed meal and 1 
part of fish meal. 

The performance of the pigs in the two different groups was quite similar, 
since Group 1 made an average daily gain of 1.67 pounds and required 408 
pounds of feed to produce 100 pounds of grain, and Group 2 made an average 
daily gain of 1.66 pounds and consumed 401 pounds of feed for each 100 pounds 
of gain produced. However, the profit was greater for Group 2 because of 
the lower cost of the cottonseed meal. The pigs in Group 2 consumed, during 
the 78 day period, an average of .58 pound of cottonseed meal daily per pig, 
and of the total feed eaten, 8.72 per cent was cottonseed meal. 

A summary of previous work at this station shows that the daily gains 
were increased 11.3 per cent, the feed required (exclusive of minerals) was 
decreased 2.8 per cent, and the profit increased 29.4 per cent, when a mixture 
containing equal parts of cottonseed meal and fish meal was used as a protein 
supplement to corn for fattening pigs instead of fish meal alone. 

The cottonseed meal feeding work has been expanded this year to include 
9 per cent of cottonseed meal in a ration for brood sows, but as yet no results 
are available. 

3. Cost of Raising Pigs to Weaning Age (All Stations). 

The results from this project were published in Station Bulletin No. 272 
in May, 1930. 

4. Study of Factors Causing Lameness and Disease Among Swine (Blackland 

Branch Station and Swine Research Farm). 

(In Cooperation with Dr. J. O. Halverson) 
Difficulties have been experienced over a period of five years with fall 
farrowed pigs at the Blackland Branch Station when they are being finished 
for the spring market, on a ration of white corn, fish meal and mineral. It 
had been the practice at this station when this condition appears to allow 
the pigs to fiave access to green rye pasture, in order to bring them to a good 



Research in Animal Husbandry 83 

marketable weight in satisfactory condition, but in order to study the prob- 
lem more intensively seven pigs, together with sufficient feed for them, were 
shipped to the Swine Research Farm near Raleigh. (See report of Dr. J. O. 
Halverson for results in detail.) 

5. Comparison of Protein Supplements (Blackland Branch Station). 

One hundred and thirty-four pigs were used in two seperate feeding trials 
to compare a mixture of equal parts of soy bean oil meal, fish meal, and 
cottonseed meal with fish meal alone as protein supplements to corn for 
fattening pigsi. The first trial continued for 69 days with the pigs in both 
groups having average initial weights of 82 pounds. At the end of the feed- 
ing period the pigs receiving fish meal alone weighed an average of 20S 
pounds, while those receiving the mixed protein averaged 218 pounds per pig. 
The pigs in the second trial were started on feed with average initial weights 
of 96 pounds and at the end of a 68 day feeding period those receiving fish 
meal alone weighed an average of 219 pounds, while those from the mixed 
protein group averaged 231 pounds. 

When the results from the two trials are combined it is found that the 
pigs receiving the protein mixture made 9.15 per cent greater gain at a cost of 
3.12 per cent less per 100 pounds gain than those pigs that received fish meal 
alone as their protein supplement. 

6. Quantity of Salt for Curing Meat (Central Station). 

(In Cooperation with Miss Mary E. Thomas) 

Certain pieces of pork, when prepared for the table, are declared by the 
consumer to be too salty. The question then naturally arises as to whether 
too much salt was used in the **cure" or whether the meat was left in "cure" 
too long. 

The following data were obtained from an experiment planned so as to 
gain information on this question. Thirty-six pieces of pork were divided 
into three equal groups before being put into the "cure." Three pounds of 
brown sugar and 3 ounces of salt petre were used to each 100 pounds of meat 
in each group, and in addition 8 pounds of salt was added to the "cure" 
for Group 1, 12 pounds for Group 2, and 16 pounds for Group 3. Each of 
these groups was again divided so that one-half of the meat in each group 
was left in the "cure" three days per pound and the other one-half four 
days per pound. 

When the curing and smoking processes had been completed, all of the 
meat was allowed to age for 30 days before being sampled. Two uniform 
samples were then taken from each piece, one being fried and tasted by a 
committee of five judges, and the other being parboiled and analyzed for 
salt by the "Standard Salt Test." 

The results from both the judging committee and the chemical analysis 
show that the pork that was left in the "cure" the greatest length of time 
and that which was cured with the larger amounts of salt, showed the greatest 
saltiness when prepared for consumption. The amount of salt, however, 
was not necessarily a true indication of the palatability, since some of the 
bacons containing the most salt were preferred by certain of the judges, but 
in every case the hams and shoulders containing the lesser amounts of salt 
were more desirable. 



84 Fifty-Third Annual Retport N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 

The pieces that were left in "cure" three days for each pound of meat had 
an average salt content of 5.16 per cent, while those that were left four days 
per pound had an average salt content of 6.32 per cent. Those pieces that 
were cured with 8 pounds, 12 pounds and 16 pounds of salt contained, re- 
spectively, 5.22 per cent, 5.84 per cent, and 6.28 per cent of salt. 

7. A Study of Utilization ©f Crops (Upper Coastal Plain Branch Station). 

(In Cooperation with Agronomy Department) 

Three one acre plats are used in this project, with each one being planted 
to a three year rotation of corn, cotton, and soy beans. This year all plats 
grew soy beans and on two of these the soy beans were harvested with pigs 
and in the fall were seeded to Abruzzi rye, which was grazed by sows and 
their suckling pigs. The three plats were planted and tilled in an identical 
manner, but the crop from Plat 1 was harvested by hand and no pigs were 
allowed on it, that from Plats 2 and 3 was harvested by pigs. Plats 2 and 3 
received the same kind and amount of fertilizer, but on Plat 3, 80 per cent 
of the fertilizing constituents of the feeds fed the previous year were deducted 
from the amount of fertilizer applied. 

Six 70 pound pigs were used in each of the Plats 2 and 3, and in addition 
to the soy beans each group was fed a 2 per cent ration of shelled corn daily 
and self fed free choice fish meal and mineral. The pigs were kept on the 
soy beans for 98 days and during this period those in Plat 2 made an average 
daily gain of .85 pounds and consumed 321 pounds of concentrates for each 
100 pounds gain. 

During the month of October, after the soy beans had been harvested, 
Abruzzi rye was seeded in each of the three plats. 

From February 14 to April 1, or 46 days, the rye in Plat 2 was grazed by a 
sow and four suckling pigs, while in Plat 3 another sow and her four pigs 
were allowed to graze the rye in this plat. 

Corn, fish meal and mineral were fed in addition to the rye pasture to both 
groups^ The sow and her four pigs in Plat 2 consumed 549 pounds of con- 
centrates and gained 160 pounds during the 46 day grazing period, while those 
in Plat 3 consumed 572 pounds of concentrates and gained 147 pounds. 

8. Value of Permanent Pasture for Fattening Pigs (Swine Research Farm). 
The work on this project was continued this year with 45 pigs having 

average initial weights of 54 pounds. They were divided into three equal 
groups and were all full fed a ration of corn meal, wheat shorts, fish meal 
and mineral. Group 1 was confined in a dry lot, while Groups 2 and 3 were 
each allowed one-half acre of orchard grass pasture in addition to their con- 
centrates. The ration for Groups 1 and 2 was identical, but for Group 3 
the ration contained only one-half the amount of high protein feeds (shorts 
and fish meal) as that in the ration for the other two groups. 

The pigs in each group were continued on feed until they had attained an 
average weight of 200 pounds. It required 91 days for the pigs in Group 2 
to reach this weight, while 96 days were necessary for the pigs in both Group 
1 and Group 3. 

The amount of grass consumed was estimated by weighing the grass clip- 
pings from an ungrazed area in each plat and comparing this weight with 



Research in Animal Husbandry 85 

that of clippings from an equal area that had been grazed. It was found by 
this method that the pigs in Group 2 consumed 1911 pounds of grass and those 
in Group 3, 1895 pounds. 

Not only did the pigs in Group 2 require fewer days to reach the prescribed 
weight, but they also consumed less feed per unit of gain. The average daily 
gain for the three groups in their respective order was 1.55 pounds, 1.61 
pounds, and 1.55 pounds; the total feed required per 100 pounds gain was 
354 pounds, 348 pounds and 369 pounds; and the cost per 100 pounds gain 
was $9.04, $8.88, and $9.27. 

9. Soft Pork (Swine Research Farm). 

(In Cooperation with Dr. J. O. Halverson, Bureau of Animal Industry and 
other State Experiment Stations) 

The Soft Pork work was continued this year for the purpose of gaining 
further information on the value of cottonseed meal in the hardening ration 
for pigs that have previously been fed peanuts. Thirty-six pigs, representing 
two weight classes, were selected for this work,, thirteen being started on their 
experimental feed with initial weights of approximately 35 pounds, and twenty- 
three with initial weights approximating 60 pounds. Sixteen additional pigs 
were used in order that their carcasses might be compared with those from 
pigs that had been fed cottonseed meal. Eight of these were fed a peanut 
ration throughout the trial and the other eight received a corn ration for the 
same period. The results from the carcasses of pigs that had been fed cotton- 
seed meal following peanuts were not as satisfactory this year as during the 
three previous years, in that, according to the physical grading, eleven of 
the carcasses were either soft or medium soft. However, the chemical analysis 
of the back fats indicated that all carcasses were either hard or medium hard. 

Samples of ham taken from representative carcasses did not show any con- 
sistent differences in palatability. 

ANIMAL NUTRITION INVESTIGATIONS 

J. O. Halverson, In Charge 

The work this past year has been concerned chiefly with four projects: 
that of hardening peanut-fed pigs by the use of corn, tankage, mineral mixture 
and cottonseed meal; a study with steers of the relation of vitamin A to the 
feeding of cottonseed meal; a study of factors causing lameness and death 
among pigs at the Blackland sub-station at Wenona when corn, fish meal and 
mineral mixture are fed growing pigs in fattening for market; a study of 
the components of vitamin B complex in peanuts and its by-products, and 
the study of the effect on the albino rat of the ration on health, reproduction 
and ability to rear young. 

The project, "a study of the components of vitamin B complex in the peanut 
and its products," is nearing completion. The data is being prepared for 
publication. A manuscript, "The Investigations in the Feeding of Cotton- 
seed Meal to Cattle," has been completed and is in press. There is also in 
preparation with Mr. Earl H. Hostetler a pamphlet on "The Feeding Value 
of Peanuts to Growing Pigs." 

At the spring meeting of the American Chemical Society, two papers were 
given by F. W. Sherwood and the writer: The Distribution of Vitamin B 
and Its Components in the Peanut, and The Toxicity of Cottonseed Meal. 



86 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agrl Exp. Station 



Work is being done on the estimation of gossypol in cottonseed meal on 
sale in the State. The past winter considerable time was spent by Mr. F. H. 
Smith in modifying the method for the estimation of minute amounts of 
gossypol that are present in the meal. It was desired to obtain a method 
which would accurately estimate these small amounts. Work on the method 
has been practically completed. 

NATIVE FORAGE PLANTS OF EASTERN NORTH CAROLINA 

Chemical analyses of two native plants of the eastern swampy part of the 
State have been made. These are Reed Grass, Arundinaria tecta, and the 
Sensitive Joint Vetch, Aeschenomene virginica. The reed grass grows densely 
in the low lying areas of this part of the State. It is used to a limited extent 
to pasture cattle and work stock. Two samples were taken, one at Wash- 
ington, N. C, which consisted of both the stems and blades of the upper portion 
of the plant. The other was taken in the black land area at Wenona. It 
consisted chiefly of the blades of grass with some stems. The analyses are 
given in the table below. 

The sensitive joint vetch is a tall annual plant of the legume family, native 
in Virginia, the Carolinas and along the coast to Florida. In the lake bed 
of Lake Mattumuskeet, an area of seven to eight thousand acres, it has found 
a luxurious habitat. The plant grows about five feet tall, is of a deep green 
color. The lower part is woody and the stem hollow. It is said to be 
palatable to grazing cattle. 

A green sample was submitted for analysis. This was divided into two por- 
tions, the upper half which contained the leaves, and the lower half, a woody 
fibrous portion which contained no branches or leaves. 

It was desirable to ascertain its feeding value in nutrients. This was done 
and is reported here as a matter of record. 



Reed Gkass (arundinaria tecta) 



Per Cent 


Water 


Ash 


Crude 
Protein 


Fiber 


Nitrogen 

Free- 
Extract 


Fat 




7.4 
10.0 


7.7 
7.0 


10.1 
14.8 


32.8 
29.9 


37.5 
34.0 


4.6 1 




4.3 1 







Sensitive Joint Vetch (aeschenomene virginica), at New Holland 




Upper Half 


62.1 
60.9 


2.4 
1.5 


7.0 
2.6 


13.2 
20.8 


14.4 
13.7 


1.0 




0.5 







1 Contained a green colored pigment, chlorophyll (?). 

The analysis shows that the dry blades and the upper portion of the stem 
of the reed grass contain good nutrients, protein, fat and ash. 

The upper half portion of the green sensitive joint vetch also contains con- 
siderable protein, the usual amount of fat and ash and not an unusual amount 
of fiber compared to the lower woody portion which contained one-fifth fiber. 



Research in Animal Husbandry 



87 



The upper portions of these native plants show good feeding value in nutri- 
ents for grazing cattle. 

SOFT PORK 
(In Cooperation with Mr. Earl H. Hostetler) 

This work has been continued in the same manner as in previous years. 
Limited amounts of shelled peanuts were fed for six weeks to 44 pigs. Eight 
additional pigs received corn throughout the experiment, while eight of the 
44 pigs received all the peanuts that they would consume throughout the 
experimental period. These graded oily. 

The hardening ration fed, following shelled peanuts for both weight classes 
of 35 and 60 pound pigs, was the same for all pigs. This is given in Table 1. 
In Table 2 are given average results of the Year's work. It is seen that the 
chemical grading is satisfactory and in agreement with the results of the 
previous years when cottonseed meal was used to harden pigs on a corn 

TABLE 1 
Data on Feeding and Rations 





Method of Feeding 


Weight 


Pounds Fed 


Ration — Peanuts* supple- 


Lot 


Initial 


Final 


Change 


P'nts , 


Corn 


mented followed by: 


A 
B 
C 


Individually fed. 

Individually fed 

Lot, hand fed 


40 
64 
37 
60 
66 

62 

64 


217 
225 
221 
231 
225 

229 

228 


83 
98 
80 
101 


75.9 
71.0 
95.1 
88.8 
193.5 


383.9 
367.4 
431.4 
386.0 

525.2 
452.3 


Corn, tankage and C. S Meal 
Corn, tankage and C. S. Meal 
Corn, tankage and C S. Meal 


D 


Lot, hand fed 


Corn, tankage and C. S. Meal 


F, 




Peanuts supplemented 


F 




throughout 

Corn supplemented through- 
out 

Corn, tankage and C. S. Meal 


G 


Lot, self fed 


101 


73.3 









• Salt and mineral mixture was supplied with all rations. 



TABLE 2 
Average Results of Chemical. Fat Data 







Average 


M. Point 


Iodine No. 


Refractive Index 


Average Grade 


Lot 


No. 

Pigs 


















No. 






















Back 


Kidney 


Back 


Kidney 


Back 


Kidney 


Chemical 


Physical 


A 


3 


44.6 


46.7 


62.6 


55.8 


1 .4596 


1 .4587 


Hard 


Med. Soft 


B 


3 


44.9 


47.2 


62.8 


54.3 


95 


86 


Hard 


Med. Soft 


C 


10 


45.5 


47,2 


58.5 


54.9 


92 


87 


Hard 


Med. Hard 


D 


10 


44.9 


. 47.0 


60.3 


56.1 


94 


87 


Hard 


Med. Hard 


E 


8 


Solid 1 


Solid 1 


96.9 


98.0 


638 


638 


Oily 


Oily 


F 


8 


36.0 


43.0 


60.3 


52.5 


95 


81 


Hard 


Hard 


G 


10 


43.1 


45.2 


62.0 


56.5 


94 


87 


Hard 


Med. Hard 



x At 1° C; One semi-solid. 
2 At 1° C: Four semi-solid. 



88 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agrl Exp. Station 



ration. The results of the constants of the back and kidney fats when the 
corn ration alone without cottonseed meal was fed, were not so uniform. 

The results are satisfactory and in agreement with that of the three pre- 
ceding years except the judging data, which are not in agreement with the 
chemical grading. 

The average melting points of the back and kidney fats (Table 2) where 
cottonseed meal is fed following peanuts in Lots a, b, c, and d, are pronounced 
compared to those of Lot f, where corn is fed throughout without cotton- 
seed meal. 

STUDY OP VITAMIN A IN RELATION TO FEEDING COTTONSEED MEAL 
AND HULLS IN LARGE AMOUNTS TO CATTLE < 
(In Cooperation with Mr. Earl H. Hostetler) 

This project has been continued in an effort to show that the deficiency of 
vitamin A in a ration consisting of cottonseed meal, hulls, and beet pulp with 
mineral mixture, causes sickness in cattle. 

The steers were fed cottonseed meal, hulls, beet pulp, and mineral mixture 
with the results given below, Table 1: 



table 





Disposition 


Days 


Changes 
in Ration 


Weight 




Steer No. 


Initial, 
Pounds 


Final, 
Pounds 


Gain or 
Loss, % 


6 


Slaughtered 


At Start 
165 
164 
185 
454 
366 


Stock 
None 
None 
None 
Various 1 
Various 2 


680 
825 
745 
835 
835 
815 


720 
650 
720 
940 
1,330 
923 


5.9 


3 


Died _ 


—21.2 


4 


Died 


—33.6 


5 


Died. 


12.6 






59.3 


2 


Died 


13.3 









x On basal ration 186 days when became sick and taken off; then fed cod liver oil 52 days though 
sick 82 days; upon recovery put bank on basal ration for 95 days when became sick; began feeding 
cod liver oil for 115 days. Recovered and slaughtered. 

2 On basal ration alone 219 days when became sick for 60 days; then placed on pasture 30 days. 
Upon apparent recovery placed second time on basal ration for 26 days. Caught a cold, became sick 
and died 30 days later. 

BIOLOGICAL DATA 

On the basal ration of cottonseed meal, hulls, and beet pulp with mineral 
mixture three steers died (Tables 1 and 2); Nos. 1 and 2 became sick. One 
of these, No. 1, was cured by the feeding of cod liver oil, while No. 2 never 
fully recovered. The livers of all these steers were fed to rats suffering with 
ophthalmia. These rats responded according to the ration that had been 
fed to the steers. When alfalfa hay or cod liver oil had been fed and the 
steers cured, vitamin A was found to be present in the liver. When the steers 
were fed the basal ration alone no vitamin A in the livers of the steers could 
be detected. 



Research in Animal Husbandry 



89 



TABLE 2 
Biological Data on Liver of Steers 



Steer No. 


Ration Fed 


Vitamin A in Liver 


6 






1 






2 






3 






4 




None present 


5 




None present 









Nine lots of young growing rats have also been fed cottonseed meal with 
various adjuvants. Where vitamin A was not added to the cottonseed meal, 
the rats did not grow normally. Their livers were, in some instances, fed 
to rats suffering from vitamin A deficiency for the purpose of detecting the 
presence of vitamin A storage. 

The cottonseed meal fed experimentally and meals taken on the open market 
were also analyzed for their content of gossypol. These meals will also be 
tested for the presence of vitamin A by feeding them to rats suffering from 
vitamin A deficiency. 

The feeding to rats of cottonseed meal supplemented in various ways has 
confirmed the deficiencies in cottonseed meal. Minerals and vitamin A are 
lacking in the meal and possibly other factors. 



STUDY OP FACTORS CAUSING LAMENESS AND DISEASE AMONG SWINE 

AT THE BLACKLAND BRANCH STATION, WINONA 

(In Cooperation with Mr. Earl H. Hostetler) 

Pigs at the Blackland Test Farm fed white corn, fish meal and minerals 
for fattening, may quit eating, develop lameness, and in some cases, die. The 
disease appears sporadically, more often in the spring from the fall farrowed 
litters. It is known that green rye pastured a few days by the afflicted pigs 
will cure them. 

Weaned pigs and feed from this section of the State were brought up to 
the Central Station, where seven pigs were fed and kept on concrete pavement 
with the results given below. 

table i 

Results — Wenona Pig Experiment — 9/13/30 
Ration: White Corn. Fish Meal, Minerals 



Pig 
No. 


Disposition 


Nutritive Supplements 

Or Changes Made 

in the Ration 


Vitamin A Content in Liver of Pigs 


j 


Died... 




None — Rats died with ophthalmia 
Present — Rats cured of ophthalmia 
Present — Rats cured of ophthalmia 
None— Rats died with ophthalmia 
Present— Rats cured of ophthalmia 


2 


Slaughtered 




3 


Slaughtered (injured foot)-. 
Died... 


+ Cod liver oil 


4 




5 


Slaughtered 


Yellow corn substituted.. 

+ Cod liver oil, 2 ozs., 
later alfalfa meal and 
4 ozs. C. L, 


6 


Still living _ 




Died 




7 




None — Rats died with ophthalmia 



90 



Fifty-Third Annual Repobt N. C. Agel Exp. Station 



TABLE 2 
Condition, 9/13/30, op Garner Farm Pigs After 235 Days Feeding 



Pig No. 


Condition 


Nutritive Supplements or Changes Made in the Ration 


8 






9 






10 






11 


Off-fed and dizzy 


None 









Later four weaned pigs from the Central Station were fed this same ration. 
In about the usual time, these pigs behaved in a similar manner. Then 
yellow corn or alfalfa meal was substituted or added to the ration. This 
resulted in a marked improvement in the condition of the pigs. Their appe- 
tite returned and they began to gain in weight. These pigs are now being 
fed as shown in Table 2. 

The addition of cod liver oil or the substitution of yellow corn to the ration 
alleviated the sickness of five of the pigs. The livers of these pigs fed to 
vitamin A deficient rats, caused them to respond, depending upon whether 
or not the Wenona pig ration had been supplemented with substances con- 
taining vitamin A. 

Six lots of rats have also been fed the Wenona pig ration. In some cases 
yellow corn has been substituted for white corn or cod liver oil has been fed 
with and without dried brewer's yeast. 

The effect of the addition of cod liver oil to the ration could be demonstrated 
by the presence of vitamin A in the livers of the rats to which these supple- 
mented rations had been fed. The presence of dried brewers' yeast in the 
ration prolonged the duration of life and of growth of the rats, but it did not 
take the place of cod liver oil. 

The fish meal fed to the pigs on this ration was found to be deficient in 
vitamin A. 

This experiment is still in progress. Further work must be done in order 
to prove that vitamin A is the chief deficiency and that when this is supplied, 
this defect of the ration and its effect upon the pigs, will be corrected. 



THE COMPONENTS OF VITAMIN B OF RAW PEANUTS AND 

PEANUT MEAL 

(In Cooperation with Dr. F. W. Sherwood) 

The study of the distribution of the components of vitamin B complex in 
the structural parts of the Virginia Runner Peanut has been completed. The 
study with commercial peanut meal is almost completed. The data are being 
prepared for publication. 



Research in Animal Husbandry 91 

STUDY OP THE EFFECT OF THE RATION ON THE ALBINO RAT IN 

RESPECT TO HEALTH, REPRODUCTION AND ABILITY TO 

REAR YOUNG 

(In Cooperation with Dr. F. W. Sherwood) 

The peanut ration without the use of green feed or liquid whole raw milk has 
been continued. Its object is to produce normal reproduction and to formulate 
a dry ration which will give good vigorous young. The past year two changes 
have been made: that of using eight per cent dried beef liver without the 
use of 16 per cent ether extracted wheat embryo middlings, and that of adding 
to the ration 7.5 per cent dried brewer's yeast. 

To date, October 17, 1930, these two rations, with these changes, have given 
F x and F 2 generations. The previous ration (192 F) was reported in detail in 
the Fifty-second Annual Report of the N. C. Agricultural Experiment Station, 
1929. The F 8 generation has been produced on this ration and F n on Ration 
192 Modified. 

Fair sized young, although somewhat small compared to our stock young, 
have been produced during the nursing period. As soon as they begin 
to eat the ration, they overcome this stunting effect. 

The cereal ration, 193 C, without the use of green feed and liquid, raw 
whole milk has been modified to 193 D and 193 E. Ration 193 E consists of 
omitting 4 per cent wheat germ middlings and adding 4 per cent dried brewer's 
years. Ration 193 D was given in the Annual Report of last year. The 
F 4 generation has been produced on Ration 193 D and F x to date on Ra- 
tion 193 E. 

DAIRY INVESTIGATIONS 
(C. D. Grinnells, in Charge) 

The research work in dairying is a continuation of the studies reported last 
year. The pasture data collected during this season is very promising when 
we consider the adverse conditions they were subject to in the way of limited 
rainfall. Some small additions and improvements have been made to the 
dairy equipment during the year. 

DAIRY CATTLE PASTURE MANAGEMENT STUDIES I 

Heavy early grazing is considered by many to be an important factor in 
preventing the development of a good sod. This study is a comparison of 
heavy early grazing with medium early grazing. Two comparable plats are 
grazed as follows: 

Plat I is being grazed by four cows. (Normal or medium grazing.) 

Plat II is being grazed by five cows. (Heavy grazing.) 

At the end of the grazing season Plat I (medium grazing) appears to be 
in a much better condition than Plat II (heavy grazing). Piatt II, however, 
improves much when not pastured and at the beginning of the next pasture 
season there is much less variation in the two plats than there appeared to 
be in the fall. 

The following is a description of the two plats at the end of the pasture 
season on November 4th, 1930: 

Plat I. (Medium grazing.) The sod in this plat carries a greater percentage 
of orchard grass than Plat II. It also has a good proportion of blue grass 



92 Fifty-Third Annual, Report N. C. Agrl Exp. Station 

and red top. Both plats carry a good amount of clover, but the turf is largely 
made up of grasses and appears to be more dense in Plat I. There is a very 
thin scattering of Bermuda in both plats. The sod is in excellent condition. 

Piatt II. (Heavy grazing.) This sod is made up of a good percentage of 
blue grass, red top and orchard grass. It is closely grazed but the sod is even 
and covers the land well. The clovers appear thin at the present time. This 
plat also shows a small percentage of lespedeza. Both plats received the 
same grass mixture at the time of seeding. These two plats were pastured 
for 199 days. This makes a total of 796 cow days on Plat I and 995 cow 
days on Piatt II. 

This is a cooperative project with P. H. Kime of the Agronomy Division. 

BOVINE INFECTIOUS ABORTION 

This is the continuation of the study of a plan to control and eradicate 
Bovine Infectious Aborton or Bangs Disease. 

The project was started with twenty-five to thirty representative dairy herds. 
The data shows that complete segregation plus good sanitation will bring 
good results. One of the big handicaps in making greater progress is a lack 
of confidence in the agglutination test. In a great many cases the irreg- 
ularity charged to the test is due to a difference in the breeding state of the 
individual in question or to a lack of proper and permanent identification of 
the animal tested, thus enabling a correct identification on the sample. 

In cooperation with Dr. William Moore and Dr. L. J. Faulhaber, Veterinary 
Division of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture. 



CORN SILAGE 

Corn Silage Versus Sorghum Silage 
Milk and Butterfat Produced Daily Per Cow 





Ration 


Milk 


Butterfat 





Pounds 


Per Cent 


Pounds 




18.1 
18.1 


3.95 
3.82 


.716 




.692 







The feeding trial covered a period of 120 days. The corn silage was of 
poor quality, the grain being very limited in quantity and quality. The re- 
sults at this station appear to indicate that sorghum silage is of superior 
quality to corn silage when both are raised under similar conditions on 
poor land. 

DAIRYING AS A SUPPLEMENTARY ENTERPRISE 

This is the continuation of the study of dairy cattle as a supplementary 
enterprise to cotton farming in North Carolina. 

The cropping plan has been partly changed and instead of continuing a 
three year rotation of corn, soybean hay and cotton on fields Nos. 1, 2 and 3, 
and the check plots Nos. 5, 6 and 7, the hay land is to be seeded one-half to 
soybeans and one-half to lespedeza. The only change in the original cropping 



Research in Animal Husbandry 



m 



plan, therefore, will be from corn, soybean hay and cotton, to corn, hay and 
cotton with the hay land devoted to soybeans and lespedeza. 

The livestock plan was changed and the number of head of stock to be 
carried on this project is to be increased from 4 to 6 head, as stated in the 
original outline, to 8 head. This number will comprise 5 cows, 2 heifers, 
and 1 calf. This herd is being managed under conditions that can be equaled 
by any farmer. The data from the study will therefore be comparable to 
farm conditions. During the last year the herd has been made up of 6 cows 
in their first lactation and two heifers. The first lactation periods have not 
yet been completed, but to date the herd average for these immature cows 
is 230 pounds of butter fat. 

This is a cooperative project with the Farm Management and Agronomy 
Departments. 

DAIRY CATTLE PASTURE MANAGEMENT STUDIES II 

This is a continuation of the study of an Intensive System of Grassland 
Management under Southern conditions. A good turf is considered necessary 
for an efficient use of commercial fertilizer. This study is being conducted 
on land that is typical of the waste land of the State and the sod was not of 
a good character at the start. With this system of management the marked 
improvement in the character of sod has been noted. 

The following table shows the plant food per acre to each plat: 







N 


P2O5 


K 2 


Platl 




iook 

100^ 


75 
75 


37J4 


Plat 2 






Plat 3 _. 


Check 
Basic 




Plat 4 . 




75 
75 
75 


37J4 


Plat 5. .. 


79M 

5sy 2 


37^ 
37H 


Plat 6 




Plat 7.... 


Check 




Plat 8 


37J4 


75 


37M 









This is a cooperative project with P. H. Kime of the Agronomy Division. 
/S t oc 

J/JfO 

/Q.Z7Z 
9.1/6 m JtX/t 

SMI 



/&0OQ 



5,4/S 



6JZ6 



Sooa 






1076 



I 



1 Z 3 4 5 6 7 d 

Eifthi Pfot: Dairy Cdtt/e Pasturt Management Stis<//'es JT. 

Fig. 1.— Yield of milk in pounds per two. and a half aqre plots during- the 1930 pasture, 
season, showing the influence of paesture fertilization upon milk yields. 



94 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agrl Exp. Station 



5.94 
540 5.4/ 



4.59 



5 91 



3.87 



3.66 



Z.94 



381 



1 18 



347 



Z3/ 



Z./6 



1.01 



4.Z4 



3 6/ 



3.58 



/.2S 



33/ 



Z.86 



Z-91 



Z.Z8 






£* 



I 



JAH ?EB MAR APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV. DEC. 

RALEIGH, RC. Percipitatjon Sums ■" for soyean i878-i^7 c=3 fot- i53o. 

Fig. 2. 

MOUNTAIN BRANCH STATION 

DAIRY HERD DEVELOPMENT 

This is a continuation of the study of herd development when young sires 
with pedigrees indicating production are used. 

This herd completed its fourth yearly record on December 31, 1929, with 
a yearly average production of 376 pounds of butter fat per cow. Eight cows 
are now on official test and their records to date are very promising. 



20000 




/$JMH> 



/opoo 



5,000 



lot 1 z 3 4 5 

Tive Plot: Dairy C<$We Pttiure Management 1 Sft/<//'es 2H. 

Pig_ 3 # — Yield of milk in pounds per three acre plots during the season, showing the 
influence of pasture fertilization upon milk yields. 



Research in Animal Husbandry 



95 



DAIRY CATTLE PASTURE MANAGEMENT STUDIES III 

The intensive system of grassland management has many features which 
should make it very practical under Western North Carolina conditions. 

This study was started this spring with five three-acre plats; three with 
complete fertilizer, one basic and one check plat. The sod in these plats, 
with the exception of Plat 4, is in excellent condition. Due to very unusual 
moisture conditions the amount of grazing on these plats was limited during 
July and August. 

The following table shows the plant food per acre for each plat: 







N 


P2O5 


K 2 


Plat 1 




24 
24 
15 


48 
48 




Plat 2 








Check 
Basic 




Plat 3. 






Plat 4 




48 
48 


24 


Plat 5 


24 
15 

15 


24 






Top dressing 













Asst. Director S. C. Clapp and Dairyman Harry Coulter have put forth un- 
tiring efforts in starting and properly executing this project and no small 
amount of credit is due them. 

This is a cooperative project with P. H. Kime of the Agronomy Division. 



4.30 



397 



3.95 



3 /0 3J5 



/■/« 



067 



3.01 



3.43 



17Z 



Z36 



Z.% 



4.16 



4.Z3 



IJZ 



3.04 



178 



3.Z0 



Z.75 



Z.Z3 



/■00 






44 



I 



JAN. FEB. MAR APRIL MAY JU/SE JULY AUG SEP! OCT. HOY DEC. 

ASHV!LUL,RC. Fercipitaiion Sums ™" for soy&rn \887-isn t=3 for 1930 



COASTAL PLAINS BRANCH STATION 

The herd development work at this Station is being continued. The yearly 
average production for 1929 was 346.49 pounds of butterfat per cow. 

Three official records were completed during the year and five cows are on 
official test at the present time. 



96 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agrl Exp. Station 



SUMMARY OF DAIRY REFRIGERATION STUDIES 
September 6, 1930 

The data taken at this Station shows a much greater efficiency in mechanical 
refreigeration than by the use of ice. The milk is shipped a distance of 40 
miles by rail to a milk plant. The local Board of Health's bacterial count 
of this milk at time of arrival at plant averaged 64,000 per oc. previous to 
the installation of the mechanical unit or when ice was used. In 1927, after 
the installation of this unit, the bacterial count dropped to 21,000 per cc; during 
1928 it was 14,000 per cc, and during 1929, 17,700 per cc. In addition, mechan- 
ical refrigeration required less work in handling, was more sanitary, gave 
a drier storage, and a lower temperature, which could be controlled. 





1925 
Ice Cost 


1926 
Ice Cost 


1927 
Cost per Cur- 
rent KWH @4c 


1928 
Cost per Cur- 
rent KWH @4c 


1929 
Cost per Cur- 
rent KWH @4c 


Cost of Ice as 
compared 
to current.. 


43,600 $218.00 


40,400 $202.00 


2418KWH $96.72 


2381 KWH $95.24 


2839KWH $113.56 


Average 
Bacterial 
Count 


55,200 per c. c. 


64,000 per c. c. 


21,000 per c. c. 


14,000 per c. c. 


17,700 perc c. 



The above cost data compare expenditures for ice and current but do not take into consideration 
charges to depreciation, interest, or service. 

This project is conducted in cooperation with W. L. Clevenger, of the Dairy Manufacturing 
Section. 

THE VALUE OF FLY REPELLANTS IN MAINTAINING SUMMER MILK 

PRODUCTION 

The study is a continuation of some work conducted in 1927 to determine 
the efficiency of fly repellants as measured by the effect of their use in milk 
production. 

In this trial the spray used was one sold with conservative recommenda- 
tions as to value in increasing milk production. 

This season has been unfavorable for fly breeding and the fly problem was 
not as great as usual. Daily observations in pasture did not show a marked 
difference in number of flies on the sprayed and unsprayed groups. When 
the two groups were placed in the barn to be milked the unsprayed group 
were covered with approximately six times as many flies as the sprayed group. 

This project will be continued for two more trials. 

The sprayed group showed a very slight increase in milk over the un- 
sprayed group. 

R. H. Ruffner, 
Head, Animal Husbandry. 



RESEARCH IN BOTANY 

DIVISION OF PLANT PATHOLOGY 

S. G. Lehman, in Charge 

Tobacco Mosiac. This disease causes large annual losses to the North 
Carolina tobacco grower. The losses are not so obvious as with certain 
other diseases to tobacco; nevertheless, they are very real. Tobacco plants 
having this disease are not killed outright, but suffer such losses in weight 
and quality of the cured leaf as to reduce the gross value of the crop by as 
much as 50 and 60 per cent in cases where the disease starts early and occurs 
on all the plants. Several such extreme cases and a great many of a less 
degree of severity were seen during the 1930 growing season. 

A number of field and greenhouse tests have been made for the purpose of 
collecting facts which may have a bearing on control of this disease. Some 
of the conclusions drawn from the tests thus far made are as follows: 

(1) The virus of tobacco mosaic is usually not destroyed in the process 
of flue curing. Tests made of diseased leaves taken from barns at the end of 
the curing period show the virus to be alive in some of the leaves and still 
capable of producing disease in growing plants. For this reason care should 
be taken to prevent tobacco refuse, even though it has passed through the 
heat of the curing barn, from coming in contact with young tobacco plants. 
In tests simulating the tobacco curing process, but run in an incubator in the 
laboratory, little or no inactivation of the virus resulted in leaves thoroughly 
dried by gradually raising the temperature to 158 degrees F. and holding it 
there for 47 hours. Raising the temperature and holding it at 142 degrees F. 
for ZV2 hours, then at 190.4 degrees F. for 19 hours, reduced but did not com- 
pletely destroy the ability of the virus to produce disease. 

(2) The virus of mosaic is present in the small rootlets of diseased plants 
as well as in the leaves. It is apparently present also in the soil about the 
roots of mosaic plants. This is indicated by a test in which soil collected 
from beneath the roots of living mosiac tobacco plants was screened and 
potted. Six out of 10 plants in this soil became infected, while check 
plants set in uninfested soil remained free of disease. 

(3) The mosaic virus was still alive after 4 months in soil which had been 
inoculated by adding juice pressed from fresh diseased leaves. Following 
inoculation the soil was stored in 10 one-gallon jars and kept at a moisture 
content suitable for good plant growth. 

(4) A large number of diseased tobacco plants of the 1929 crop which had 
stood in the field over winter were examined the following spring (April 22). 
On about one per cent of the plants the roots were found to be in a semi- 
living condition. The tissues were turgid, succulent, just beginning to turn 
brown, but not black and decayed as was the case with roots obviously dead. 
In many cases a part of the root system was showing the semi-living condi- 
tion while the remainder was dead and blackened by decay. It is doubtful 
if these live or semi-live roots could have formed suckers, but their condition 
was strong indication that the mosaic virus was still alive in them. When 
young tobacco plants were inoculated with juice pressed from these roots a 
high per cent of them developed mosaic. The mosaic disease also developed 



98 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 

on plants inoculated with juice pressed from dead roots, but in this case the 
per cent of disease was comparatively low. Where tobacco follows tobacco 
without an intervening crop it will be better to plow up and cut the roots into 
the soil as soon as the tobacco crop is off. This will promote their early death 
and decay, bring about the more rapid depletion of the mosaic virus in the 
soil, and reduce the chances of disease appearing in the succeeding crop. This 
conclusion is corroborated by the result of a test conducted at Raleigh in a 
field which had 100 per cent of mosaic in 1929. In this test 4 per cent of mosaic 
occurred on a plot where the stalks and roots stood over winter and were 
plowed into the ground in the spring. On other plots of the same test mosaic 
occurred as follows: Less than 0.4 per cent where the stalks and roots were 
cut into the soil in the fall, less than 0.7 per cent where stalks and roots were 
removed from the land in the fall, and less than 0.7 per cent where the stalks 
and roots were removed from the land in the spring. The plants set in this 
field came from a mosaic free bed and great precautions were taken to prevent 
infection of these plants in the operations of transplanting and cultivating. 
It is believed that the disease which did occur entered the plants by contact 
with the soil or with old, diseased plant materials in the soil. 

The growth of a single crop of tobacco highly diseased with mosaic does 
not necessarily mean that the soil of that field has become highly infested. 
This is shown by the test just described. No tobacco had grown on this land 
previous to 1929. This crop was inoculated artificially so that 100 per cent 
of mosaic occurred. In 1930 not over 4 per cent of mosaic occurred on any 
plot. Considerably more than this would have been expected had a high 
degree of soil infestation occurred. 

Passage of the virus of mosaic from the soil into the roots of tobacco 
plants apparently occurs through wounds. Tobacco plants growing in pots 
with their roots spreading among leaf, stem and root material taken from 
mocaic plants overwintered in the field did not become infected although 
they were allowed to grow until ready to bloom. At the conclusion of the 
test the mosaic virus was still alive in the old root and leaf material originally 
placed in the pots. At the time of starting this test the soil used in the pots 
was passed through a screen to remove all but the smallest insects. The soil 
was not disturbed from the time the plants were set until the end of the 
test. In the field there is, of course, abundant opportunity for root wounding 
in the activity of soil inhabiting insects and in cultivation. 

The exercise of special care to prevent accidental inoculation of tobacco 
plants in the operation of transplanting is a highly important precaution in 
the control of tobacco mosaic. This is illustrated in Table I, which gives 
the per cent of mosaic which developed in several lots of plants handled in 
different ways at transplanting time. The use of snuff by workmen in pulling 
plants (Lot 2) from mosaic free beds resulted in considerable mosaic in the 
field by topping time, while plants (Lot 1) pulled by workmen not using 
tobacco developed little mosaic. A very high percentage of mosaic developed 
on the plants (Lot 3) which had been pulled while occasionally dipping the 
hands into a tea made from dry diseased tobacco leaves. When plants which 
had been handled with mosaic infested hands were dipped in lime water (Lot 
4 ) considerably less mosaic developed than on undipped plants. However, 
the plants were so badly injured that the treatment cannot be recommeded. 



Research in Botany 



99 



TABLE 1 

Showing the Relation Between the Method of Handling Tobacco Plants 

at Pulling Time and the Occurrence of Mosaic in the Field 



Lot No. 


How Plants were Handled at Time of Pulling from the Bed 


Per Cent of Mosaic 
Occurring in the Field 




27 Days 


56 Days 


1 







4.9 








2 


Workmen chewing snuff and occasionally spitting on hands 


3 


13.1 


3 


Hands dipped occasionally in a tea made from diseased tobacco 
leaves..- . . 


51.1 


78.8 








4 


Same as Lot 3 but plants dipped in lime water after pulling 


18.9 


44.8 


5 


Plants dipped directly into a tea made from diseased tobacco leaves. - 


82.3 


99.3 



Resetting plants in the exact place from which mosaic plants had been 
removed resulted in a high percentage of disease in the resets. Out of 80 
plants reset in this manner 36.2 per cent developed mosaic within 30 days. 
Only 3.6 per cent of 96 plants reset in places from which no mosaic plants had 
been removed became diseased. 

The operation of cultivating spreads mosaic extensively after the plants 
have reached such a size that the leaves rub the traces as the plow passes. 
This is indicated by a test in which a three row plat of healthy plants was 
located between two other plats set to' inoculated plants. The results of this 
test are given in Table II. The 43.6 per cent of mosaic occurring on Plot 2 
at the end of 55 days (topping time) was carried to it from adjoining plots in 
the operations of cultivating and hoeing. 



TABLE 2 
Showing Spread of Mosaic from Diseased Plots to an Adjoining Healthy Plot 



Plot No. 


Treatment of Plants at Setting Time 


Per Cent of Mosaic at 
Different Times After Setting 




21 Days 


27 Days 


55 Days 


1 




66.7 


85.8 


100 








2 










43.6 








3 


Plants inoculated 


32 5 




98 6 









In two tests adults of the white fly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) common in 
greenhouses were transferred to young tobacco plants after they had been 
feeding for some time on mosaic plants. In a similar test tobacco flea beetles 
(Epitrix sp.) were used. Neither insect transmitted mosaic from diseased 



100 



Fifty-Third Anxual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 



to healthy plants. The beetles ate one or more large holes in leaves of all 
the plants to which they had been transferred. 

Tobacco Seed Bed Surrey. In cooperation with the office of Mycology and 
Plant Disease Survey of the United States Department of Agriculture a large 
number of tobacco seed beds were surveyed in the past spring by G. W. Fant 
and the writer. A report summarizing the results of this survey was pub- 
lished in the Plant Disease Reporter, Volume 14, page 98-100, under date of 
June 15, 1930. A survey of field diseases was also made in a number of 
eastern counties of the State. A report of this survey is being prepared for 
publication. 

Cotton Seed Treatments. Cotton seed treatment tests were made again this 
year. Thirty-four different materials or combinations of materials were 
used. The very dry soil conditions which prevailed during the 1930 planting 
season operated to render differences between treated and untreated seed 
generally less striking than those obtained last year. However, Ceresan 
and certain allied dusting materials gave material increases in number of 
seedlings and improved the uniformity of stand. These improvements were 
more pronounced on cotton planted medium early than on cotton planted late. 
Table III gives results of a test at Raleigh in which dusted and undusted seed 
were compared at different rates of seeding. When planted at the same rate 
per acre the dusted seed gave better stands than undusted seed. In general, 
the differences were such that ly 2 bushels of dusted seed produced as good a 
stand of seedlings as 2 bushels of undusted seed. One-half bushel or more 



TABLE 3 
Cotton Seed Treatment Test Central Station Farm, Raletgh — Summer 1930 
Showing (1) effect of seed treatment on stand of seedlings and (2) the possibility 
of saving seed by dusting before plants 





Rate of Seeding 
Bushels Per Acre 


Number Seedlings Per 100-Foot Row 1 


Seed Treatment 


Seed Planted— April 16 


Seed Planted— May 2 




2 


274 


387 






D us ted 


1 


181 


245 






Dusted 


1H 


340 


338 






D us ted 


2 


431 


513 






None 


2 


270 


363 






Dusted _ ... -- 


1 


238 


259 






Dusted 


m 


341 


365 








2 


490 


404 








2 


286 


336 







l The numbers given are averages of three 100-foot rows. Count made June 4. 



Research in Botany 101 

of seed per acre could have seen saved by dusting. In fact in this test one 
bushel of dusted seed per acre gave sufficient plants for a complete stand. 

Delinted seed planted at Raleigh on April 16 gave a poorer stand than un- 
delinted seed. However, delinted seed dusted with Ceresan produced a better 
stand of seedlings than undusted, undelinted seed. Delinted seed planted 
May 2, when the soil was drier and probably also warmer than on the earlier 
planting date, produced more seedlings per foot of row than undelinted seed. 
Dusted, delinted seed planted at this date gave a somewhat better stand than 
undusted, delinted seed. Delinted seed planted in a thoroughly warm and 
very dry soil came up much more promptly than undelinted seed. 

The 1930 crop has not been picked at the time of this writing. In the har- 
vested crop of 1929, increases as high as 294 pounds seed cotton per acre were 
obtained by dusting. 

Cereal Smuts. The oat smut control work was continued, using 18 different 
treatments. Rod row plantings were made at several times in the period ex- 
tending from October to March. Dry formaldehype, Smuttox, Ceresan, and 
Corona Oat Dust (Improved) gave very good control of loose smut. None 
of the four preparations used above caused marked seed injury in the season 
just past. 

Two covered smut tests with wheat were put in cooperatively with workers 
of the United States Department of Agriculture. One of these was a test of 
covered smut control by use of chemical dusts. The other was a test of the 
resistance of certain wheat varieties to covered smut collected in different 
regions of Eastern United States. 

Wheat Rust. This project is cooperative between the Departments of 
Botany and Agronomy of this Station and the United States Department of 
Agriculture. Numerous varieties and selections are being tested for yield 
and notes are being taken relative to resistance to leaf and stem rust. A 
number of head selections have been made from North Carolina grown Leaps, 
Purplestraw, and Fulcaster. None of these have proved to be strikingly re- 
sistant to leaf rust. 

Soybean Diseases. A number of seed treatments were made for control 
of frogeye. These seed were planted under closed muslin cages to prevent 
infection from wind blown spores of the causal organism. The seed were 
planted late and the final notes have not been taken at this time. 

PLANT DISEASE STUDIES 

R. F. Poole, in Charge 

Peach Bacteriosis Control Studies. A project was begun in 1929 having for 
its purpose a detailed study of the bacterial disease of the leaf, twig and fruit 
of peaches and plums because of the heavy loss caused by this disease in the 
commercial areas, especially to the marketable value of the fruit. In studying 
a problem of this type it seems advisable that the greatest amount of attention 
should be given to the causal organism, especially as to how it lives over from 
one year to another, how is it affected by seasons, how spread in an orchard, 
and what chemicals inhibit its growth. The results of these studies may 
readily be used in the practical control of the organism, Bacterium pruni. 



102 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 



Cankers obtained from Abundance plums and from peaches produced pure 
cultures of the organisms throughout the winter. The organisms were well 
protected in pockets near the pith of the twigs. In studying the cankers on 
both peach and plum during the season of 1929, it was quickly determined 
that they were so abundant that they could not be entirely removed by the 
pruning processes, which are now about as heavy as is advisable. Cankers 
on the plum were so numerous that most of the bearing wood would be removed 
were attempt made to remove the infected or live cankers. The cankers were 
not as abundant on the peach, but extremely heavy pruning would be neces- 
sary to get all cankers. In orchards where the cankering is not severe, these 
studies indicate that much of the cankered wood can be removed without 




Fig. 1. — Bacterium pruni infection of Elbevta peaches in which heavy excretions of gum 
were abundant this year. 



seriously interfering with the maintenance of sufficient bud producing wood, 
but conclusions of canker removal as a means of control could not be prepared 
from these studies. 

The conditions were favorable for greater wood growth this year than for 
the past three years. There was a heavy production of foliage and fruit in 
most orchards. Infection was greatly suppressed as compared to amounts 
observed during the two previous years when the greatest amount of infection 
was observed on the fruit on the highest branches that was exposed to a 
southwestern exposure. This year, infection was most noticeable well to the 
inside of the tree on water shoots somewhat protected by heavy foliage. The 
first fruit infection was most severe in the vicinities of cankers. 



Research in Botany 103 

The spreading activities of the organism were not clearly defined. Peaches 
borne on branches below on the same level and above cankers were infected, 
mostly uniformly. In many instances peaches on the same spur showed 
greater infection than others. The symptoms of infection were quite variable 
on the peach. Some showing a dry, corky, scab effect, other spots being 
watery with unbroken tissue. Gummosis was especially prominent on all 
types of spots (see figure 1). 

Leaf infection was first observed the latter part of May, one month later 
than the first fruit infection. Defoliation was not nearly as severe at any 
time during July and August as for the same period during the past two years. 
Trees on outer edges of orchards showed more defoliation than those some 
distance in the orchard. 

All commercial varieties grown in this area were attacked, but some were 
much more resistant than others. Hiley Bells, Georgia Bells, Greensboro, 
Mayflower, Carmen, Early Rose, and seedling varieties were only slightly 
attacked. The early Elberta was more resistant than the strain maturing 
two weeks later. The Hale variety was most severely infected of all varieties. 

Trees disease with crowl gall, caused by Bacterium tumefaciens ; roo knot, 
caused by Heterodera radicicola; and root rot, caused by Ar miliaria mellea, 
were very prominent during the year, more so than in other recent years. 
Studies of bacteriosis infection on these trees in comparison with infection 
on healthy trees showed greater fruit and leaf infection on the trees that 
were not affected with the root diseases. • Spots on both leaf and fruit of 
trees affected with the root diseases were somewhat similar to those caused 
by bacteria, but were diagnosed as physiological, since the Bacterium pruni 
did not develop in the tissues. Arsenic spray was not more severa on 
weakened trees, but the effects were more pronounced as to spotting and 
defoliation than on trees that were not affected with the root diseases. 

A large number of chemicals were tested on peach foliage during the sum- 
mer of 1929. Various strengths and combinations were used. During these 
studies some results were obtained on strengths of chemicals that could be 
applied safely to the foliage. The copper compounds, among others, were 
discarded, because of the complete defoliation obtained with any strength. 
In these tests the leaves turned yellow about three weeks after the copper 
compounds were used in both dust and liquid form. Defoliation was complete 
after six weeks. Manganese sulfate 1-1000 and zinc sulfate 1-1000 caused 
severe injury to both leaf and foliage when used without lime. Ferrous 
sulfate 1-1000 caused severe leaf spotting, but only slight defoliation. Calcium 
sulfate up to 20 pounds to 50 gallons of water did not injure the plants. Heavy 
applications of collodial sulfur, finishing lime, potassium permanganate 1-500, 
emulsified cresol 1-200, emulsified phenol 1-200 and others caused no injury. 
These were used in 1930 as a basis for spray control experiments. 

Tests were conducted in four orchards. The Hale variety was used in the 
tests on the R. W. King orchard at Raleigh. The Elberta variety was used 
on the Evans farm at Fayetteville, Pate orchard at Laurel Hill, and Donaldson 
orchard at West End. The number of applications were five on the King 
orchard and six on the other three. The amount applied was two gallons per 
tree. The results show some reduction as compared with checks of all sub- 
stances used, including zinc sulfate with lime and calcium caseinate 8-8-50. 



104 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 

5-4-50, 8-4-50, 5-3-50, and 4-4-50 strengths, collodial sulfur five pounds to fifty 
gallons, potassium permanganate 1-1000, emulsified cresol 1200, emulsified 
phenol 1-200 and finishing lime twenty pounds to fifty gallons. Further tests 
with these same materials will be continued, since combinations of such com- 
pounds as colloidal sulfur at the rate of five pounds to fifty gallons of water 
with emulsified cresol and phenol compounds at the rate of one to two hundred 
showed promising reduction of infection. It will be necessary to conduct 
further tests in years more favorable to the development of bacteriosis before 
conclusions can be drawn. 

Tobacco and Tomato Wilt Studies. The wilts caused by Bacterium solan- 
acearum were more severe during the past summer than during the two 
previous years. The high temperatures prevailing during the summer months 
seem to be associated with the greater losses for both tomatoes and tobacco. 
The disease of tobacco, called Granville wilt, was found in many parts of the 
State, Tfut continues to be more severe in the Granville and Durham series of 
soils. The prevalence of the fungus wilt caused by Fusariwm lycopersicii was 
also observed throughout the State and frequently appeared in the same fields 
with the bacterial wilt. 




Pig 2. — Bacterium solaiiacparum. Infection first occured on long roots near the ends. 
The organism worked through the conductive vessels to the stem and then outwards into 
the roots. 

Cultures of the causal organisms of these two diseases were isolated and 
purified during the year. A sweet potato decoction medium of 250 grams 
sweet potato in a liter of water was found to grow both organisms very satis- 



Research in Botany 



105 



factorily. This medium is being used for studying the effects of chemicals 
on inhibiting fungus growth in order to establish the toxic ones. 

Field tests were conducted with tobacco and tomatoes in areas where Bac- 
terium solanacearum had previously caused heavy loss. The tests were made 
with various chemicals, which were applied to the roots and stems just before 
transplanting into the field. Zinc sulfate and lime 50-50-50, hydroxymerculi- 
chlorophenol 1-5, 1-10, and 1-20, copper carbonate 18 per cent, Bordeaux 
mixture 20-20-50 and 4-4-50, collodial sulfur 5-50, ground sulfur as a heavy 
dust, and lime as a heavy dust were applied to the roots and stems. The re- 
sults showed that Bordeaux mixture, the zinc sulfate plus lime mixture, 




Fig. 3. — Phytophthora nicotianae. Breda de Haan, causing black shank reported from 
Forsyth and Stokes counties, where the spreading activities of the fungus have become alarm- 
ing. The symptoms from a distance are very similar to the Granville wilt caused by 
Bacterium solanacearum, which is the cause of heavy annual losses of tobacco in counties 
nearby. 



hydroxymercurichlorophenol and sulphur all delayed infection slightly, but 
none gave satisfactory control, due to infection occurring mostly in the roots 
some distance from the stem and those parts of the root system and stem 
treated during the transplanting season. These studies clearly show that 
plant treatment alone will not solve the control problem, because the lateral 
roots frequently become infected ten inches away from the stem (figure 2) 
and since the organism works rapidly in the vascular bundles, it readily reaches 
the stem without coming in contact with the chemicals placed on roots and 
stems when transplanted. 

Tests conducted with soil treatment brought out a possible practical approach 
to the control of the disease. The hydrogen-ion reaction in the area of the 



106 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 



root system was adjusted to pH 4.0 and pH 5.0. This reaction reduced in- 
fection 75 per cent in an area where the untreated checks showed 100 per 
cent killed plants. Plants died on the check plots at an early date, but plants 
killed on the treated plots reached maturity in nearly every instance before 
infection was observed. It will be necessary that this treatment be repeated 
on various soils and over a period of years before the necessary details 
can be finished on the value of the high acid reaction as a means of developing 
a practical control. 

Plants treated with sulfur and set in soils infected with Thielavia basicola 
showed that a sufficiently high hydrogen-ion reaction was not obtained im- 
mediately after transplanting to completely arrest the disease, but some 
reduction in infection was obtained in these studies. The sulfured plants 




Fig. 4. — Leptostheria conisthyrium can blight of dewberries. Fungus first attacked spurs 
and worked downwards into tissues below new canes causing them to wilt just before the 
berries were ripened. 



recovered and grew more rapidly than the untreated plants, indicating that a 
high acid medium combined with sulfur may give a more definite control. 

The black shank disease (figure 3) caused by Phytophthora nlcatianae 
was found to be causing loss in fields in Forsyth and Stokes counties. It 
is spreading rapidly, aided by water, plows, tools, and shoes. Evidence on 
the history of the disease in this area obtained from County Agent Pou and 
growers indicate that it was first observed about 1910. 

Dewberry Disease Control. Further studies on the control of Leptosphaeria 
coniothyrium by cutting all canes below the soil showed that a reduction of 
the losses from this organism is readily obtained by this practice. The results 
show that the plants cut at the soil line did not affect the yield of bearing canes, 
but plants cut from one to three inches below the soil greatly suppressed the 



Research in Botany 107 

formation of bearing canes, although a complete control of the disease was ob- 
tained. Where the pruning was made 10 to 12 inches above the soil, the disease 
caused much injury, since many canes died when the organism attacked the old 
canes below the point where the new canes developed from the old ones 
(figure 4). When old canes were cut below the surface new canes developed 
and these remained healthy throughout the season. The canes that wilted 
because of the disease always produced berries that were premature. The 
inferior berries were most pronounced near the end of the harvest period. 

Further studies and observations in fields located in the sand hills of Moore, 
Richmond, and Scotland counties clearly indicate that the causal organism 
of the cane blight confines its activities to those parts above the soil. The 
disease was found on canes three and four feet above the soil, but the greatest 
amount of infection occurred just above the soil. The evidence concerning 
natural infection indicates that the fungus begins as a saprophyte on the 
spurs left after pruning. It works into the live tissues slowly. 

Plantings in which the canes were cut below ground after harvest from 
the beginning continue to show less infection than those where canes were 
cut above ground. Cutting the canes above ground any year was found to 
be favorable for heavy infection. 

Prevention of Field Infection of Sweet Potatoes. Under this project the 
investigation of plant treatment with chemicals for the control of scruf, soil 
stain, rust, or mottle caused by Monilochaetes infuscans was undertaken. A 
large number of chemicals were used in these studies, but the preliminary 
results with organic mercury and sulfur compounds which were reported in 
the Fifty-second Annual Report suggested a concentrated study of these com- 
pounds on both plant and fungus, which were conducted in the laboratory 
and field. 

Tests were conducted on farms in different parts of the State, and on several 
soil types, including Congaree silt loam, Cecil sandy loam, Durham sandy 
loam, Norfolk sandy loam, and Granville sandy loam. Diseased plants 
were used in all tests. These were readly grown from diseased potatoes. 
The plantings and cultural phases were the same as that followed by growers 
for the crop in the locality. The Nancy Hall, Porto Rico, and Yellow Jersey 
varieties were used. 

When ground sulfur was dusted on roots and stems of diseased plants just 
before transplanting the disease was controlled on all soil types. The diseased 
tissues of treated plants were sloughed off, and both stem and potatoes were 
healthy at harvest. The control was obtained because the sulfur oxidized 
to sulphuric acid on the diseased parts, and the acid reaction killed the fungus 
before it could spread to the potatoes. The reaction was as high as pH 3.0 
on some stems without causing damage. Yields were not affected, because 
check plants that were not sulfured produced equally as well as sulfured 
plants. The average results from the sulfur treatment in tests on all farms 
gave 5 per cent potatoes badly diseased, 10 per cent slightly diseased, and 85 
per cent healthy for sulfured plants (figure 5), in comparison with 43 per cent 
badly diseased or completely blackened, 44 per cent slightly diseased and 
only 13 per cent healthy for plants which were not sulfured (figure 6). These 
results are published in Technical Bulletin Number 38, under the title of "A 
Chemical Control of Sweet Potato Scurf." A popular bulletin Number 274, 



108 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 

on "A Control for Sweet Potato Scurf," was also published during the year. 
Bulletin Number 273 on "A Control for Sweet Potato Wilt or Stem Rot," in 
which the data given was obtained from studies of this project was also pub- 
lished. Other results from studies on this project were published in the 
Fifty-second Annual Report. 

Sweet Potato Disinfection Studies. After conducting an exhaustive study 
of treating scurfed sweet potatoes with various compounds of different 
strengths and used for various periods of treatment, conclusions are obtained 
that suggest that seed treatment cannot be lied upon to effect a practical con- 
trol. The chemicals used did not penetrate the periderm sufficiently well to 
destroy the fungus, which was found imbedded in the form of sclerotial bodies 
intracellularly arranged. Partial control was obtained, but the long period of 
growing the plants was later found to be favorable for the organisms to reinfect 
much of the surface, and contamination was also found to be a serious problem 
to contend with when somplete control was not obtained. 

These studies indicate that a 1-1000 mercuric chloride treatment for 15 min- 
utes or a 10 per cent hydroxymercurichlorophenol solution of 1-10 strength are 
the most effective treatments, considering injury to sprouting caused by 
stronger solutions and other effective compounds. 

A complete report of these studies and conclusions are published in Tech- 
nical Bulletin Number 38. 

Seed treatment studies on, the control of the black rot disease, caused by 
Ceratostomella fimbriatum were started. Copper compounds including 20 per 
cent copper carbonate used as a dust, copper acetate 1-100, and Bordeaux mix- 
ture 20-20-50 were found to be very effective in inhibiting infection. For- 
maldehyde 1-100 strength also gave promising reduction of infection, but the 
results obtained with the mercury compounds were not as encouraging. 

Sweet Potato Storage Studies. Further observations were made on sweet 
potatoes produced in storage and transit. Black rot caused by Ceratostomella 
fimbriatwm was found to continue as the most destructive disease in storage 
and soft rot caused by Rhizopus nigricans was most severe in transit and re- 
handled potatoes after harvest, and especially during the shipping period in 
the early part of the year. A brown rot due to a Sclerotinia species caused 
some loss in both banks and storage during the latter part of the storage 
period. Other -rots were observed, but were of no serius economic importance. 

Inoculation studies were conducted with the black rot organism just before 
storing for the purpose of verifying the observations reported last year, when 
the disease was found to develop soon after storage, indicating that the spores 
were spread during harvest and storage. The laboratory studies showed that 
infection was very great following spore dissemination during harvest, and 
that the development of the disease was' rapid during the first few days after 
storage. This explains in part the inefficiency of the present methods of 
curing on the control of this disease in the various methods of storage. 

Much progress was made in these studies by developing a method for in- 
creasing the spore inoculum, which was not readily obtained in test tube 
cultures. Raw potatoes were sliced into cross section, rinsed well in sterile 
water, inoculated with a pure culture of the organism, and maintained in 
moist chambers at room temperature. Conidia spores developed abundantly 



Research in Botany 109 

over the surface. These proved to be very satisfactory for inoculation pur- 
poses, giving more uniform infection than ascospores. Since high moisture 
content is necessary for satisfactory infection, the moist chambers were used 
for determining the effect of many chemicals on inhibiting infection and 
controlling the fungus. This procedure eliminated those compounds, of little 
or no control value, that would otherwise require much time if the practice 
of seed treatment was carried out with them. 

The formaldehyde and copper compounds of the many compounds used were 
found to be most effective in inhibiting infection of Ceratostomella fimoriatum. 
Potatoes inoculated and then treated with these chemicals showed that prac- 
tical control is possible with weak solutions of the above compounds. 

Studies on Limiting 1 Factors of Fungus Growth. When Monilochaetes in- 
fuscans, Rhizopus nigricans, Ceratostomella fimoriatum and Fusarium 
oatatatis causal organisms of scurf, soft rot, black rot, and stem rot, 
respectively, were grown on media prepared from plant decoctions and 
synthetically there was no difference observed in the ability of the fungi 
to attack the potato. Excellent microconidia of Fusarium oatatatis were 
obtained on sweet potato decoction of 250 grams in a liter of water with agar 
added. These microconidia were best suited for inoculation studies. Moni- 
lochaetes infuscans produced an abundance of spores on the same medium 
either with and without agar, when the hydrogen-ion range was between 
pH 5.0 and pH 7.0. 

Studies on soil types as to the prevalence of diseases of the sweet potato 
indicate that there is a definite relation of the soil type to the presence of 
the organism. The stem rot, or wilt of sweet potatoes, causes heavy loss on 
Norfolk Sassafras, Granville, Durham and Cecil sandy soils, but is of 
no importance on heavier types of soils. When plants of susceptible varieties 
are inoculated with the causal organisms and transplanted in clay and rich 
loams the disease develops just as severely as on the sandy soils. When 
susceptible plants were transplanted in soils of these types twelve months 
after inoculating the soil, wilt or stem rot occurred only in the light sandy 
soils. This indicates that the heavy soils may not be favorable for maintain- 
ing the life of this particular fungus. 

Studies on the Causal Organisms of Sweet Potato Disease. Further inocula- 
tions were made with Fusarium oatatatis on Triumph, Red Brazil, White 
Yam, Yellow Yam, and Southern Queen varieties, which were resistant to 
infection in field tests. The Triumph and Red Brazil varieties continued to 
show resistance but were attacked during periods when the temperature 
reached 27 to 30 degrees Centigrade. These two varieties showed greater re- 
sistance to drought conditions than did other varieties. 

Wilt or stem rot of sweet potatoes is found on light sandy soils where the 
Fusarial wilts of other crops are also most prevalent. Cultures of causal 
organisms of tomato, watermelon, cowpea, cabbage, cotton, and soybean wilts 
were isolated from these plants in areas near where the stem rot of sweet 
potatoes was found. When the Nancy Hall and Yellow Jersey varieties were 
inoculated with these organisms negative results of infection were obtained, 
indicating that the species of Fusaria attacking other crops in the same areas 
are distinct from Fusarium oatatatis. 



110 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 

All studies with Monilochaetes infuscans and Ceratostomella fimbriatum 
indicate that the sweet potato is the only host of these parasites in this area. 

PLAKT PHYSIOLOGY 

D. B. Anderson 

1. Studies were made to determine the influence of CaSo 4 dusts upon the 
transpiration rate of peanuts and other plants. The rate of transpiration 
was determined from dusted and undusted plants. The leaf areas of experi- 
mental plants and of controls was accurately measured and the rate per 
sq. dem. of leaf area in each case was calculated. Results were plotted in 
the form of curves with temperature, relative humidity, and standard evap- 
oration also plotted. Results are not entirely complete, but indicate that 
dusting the leaves of plants with calcium sulfate has but little effect on the 
rate of water loss from the leaves. 

2. Studies upon the structure of the upper epidermal cell wall of peanut 
plants were made. These studies revealed the presence of abundant crystals 
of calcium oxalate in the outer wall of the epidermal cells. Stomata are about 
equally abundant on the upper and lower leaf surfaces. The presence of such 
calcium oxalate crystals in the cell wall is evidence that calcium is not de- 
ficient in the leaves. It is probable that the calcium sulfate dust does not 
stimulate the plant thru the absorption of the calcium-ion by leaf tissues. 
The outer epidermal wall shows the presence of cutin, pectic compounds and 
cellulose. 

3. Microchemical studies have been made upon the structure of the outer 
epidermal cell walls of several plants characteristic of the sand hills. These 
epidermal walls show no uniformity of structure. Layers of cutin, pectic 
compounds and cellulose occur in different positions and in different relation- 
ships to each other in the different epidermal walls. There seems to be no 
correlation between this plant habitat and epidermal cell wall structure. 

B. W. Wells, 

; Head, Department of Botany. 



RESEARCH IN HOME ECONOMICS 

Research in Home Economics was organized October 1, 1929. The purpose 
of this work is to conduct research which will furnish further information 
regarding how farm families live. The Division of Home Demonstration 
Work of the Extension Service is attempting to raise the standard of living 
of farm families, and is therefore particularly interested in securing data 
regarding living conditions and needs of farm families on which to plan 
future programs. 

The Department of Research in Rural Sociology has previously made inves- 
tigations of farm family living in Wake County. It has studied the rela- 
tionships between income, size of farm, farming experience, size of family, 
production of food and fuel for family use, and schooling of farm operators, 
and their effect upon the proportion of food and fuel, clothing, personal items, 
advancement, home and household goods, automobile. The" Department is 
now completing a study to analyze the influence of community factors and 
institutions on the determination of the proportion of the expenditures used 
for various elements of family living.. As a further step in understanding 
and interpreting the conditions underlying farm family living in Wake County 
there was need for a detailed case study of a few successful farm owner 
families from the standpoint of family organization. It is this study that 
has been undertaken by the research workers in Home Economics. 

The families have been selected in two ways. Some have been chosen from 
those included in one of the recent sociological surveys of Wake County men- 
tioned above. Others were among those suggested by the county nurses, 
home demonstration agent, farm agent and school principals as being suc- 
cessful not only from the standpoint of farm and home management, but 
also that of happy family life. The families selected have children of school 
age or under. As a whole those families who have been approached have 
been interested and cooperative. Each family selected will be visited a 
minimum of eight times in order that the research workers may become well 
acquainted in the home. 

This type of study is somewhat new in rural social research and must be 
tried out carefully step by step. . It is hoped that through these case studies 
will come an analysis of underlying factors conditioning farm family living 
in Wake County. 

Myra deHaven Woodruff, 
Associate in Home Economics Research, 

October 20, 1930. 



RESEARCH IN HORTICULTURE 

Commercial horticulture in North Carolina has made the greatest develop- 
ment in the Coastal Plain and Tide Water, the Mountains and in the Sand- 
hills areas of the State. The Coastal Plain and Tide Water area is charac- 
terized by early Irish potato, sweet potato, strawberry and truck crops and 
is by far the largest and most important horticultural section. A conspicu- 
ous field floral industry is also developing in this area. The Mountain Sec- 
tion is characterized by the late Irish potato and apple crops, although truck 
and small fruit growing are becoming increasingly important. The Sand- 
hills form that area in the south central portion of the State in which the 
peach, watermelon and dewberry are the outstanding crops. With the ex- 
ception of the Sandhills and a few scattered counties of the Piedmont, where 
more or less isolated and individual efforts are proving highly successful, 
commercial horticulture is largely confined to the Coastal Plain and the 
Mountain sections of the State. 

Commercial processing such as canning, cold packing and the like is of 
minor importance at the present time. Consequently with the exception of 
such crops as late Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, late cabbage and apples which 
may be held in storage, the crops are marketed "fresh." The hazards of 
production and of marketing are greater, therefore, than if adequate means of 
disposing of surpluses existed. The department is studying the developments 
and problems arising from the canning, cold packing, quick freezing and 
pickling of fruits and vegetables in the light of the possible future develop- 
ment of such industries in the State. The immediate problems of the industry, 
so far as they relate to the activities of the Department of Horticulture, are, 
however, those of production and to a lesser degree storage, refrigeration, 
and transportation. 

The problems of production arising as they do from so large and varied a 
group of crops as those in horticulture have almost infinite ramifications. 
Those receiving some attention by the Department of Horticulture and the 
more important methods of attack may be conveniently outlined without re- 
gard to crop and without particular regard to completeness as follows : 

I. Crop improvement: 

A. Tests of foreign seed and plant introductions. 

B. Fruit, vegetable, flower and shrub variety tests. 

C. Plant breeding investigations. 

D. Introduction of new varieties. 
II. Improving quality and yield per acre: 

A. Rotation, succession and companion cropping, intercropping. 

B. Soil improvement; fertilization, green manuring, cover cropping. 

C. Pruning, thinning and harvesting. 

D. Pollination and fruit setting. 
III. Storage and transportation: 

A. Factors affecting storage or canning quality. 

B. Factors affecting quality at destination; i.e., refrigeration, pre- 

cooling, quality at harvest, etc. 



Research in Horticulture 113 

IV. The measurement and estimation of the factors influencing plant 
growth and reproduction: 
Hardiness. 

Fruit bud formation. 
Yield and quality. 
Moisture requirement. 
Nutritive requirements. 

Many of these problems have to do with field or orchard management, con- 
sequently solutions are to be sought largely in the sections where the crop 
and the problems are important. To this end the Department, in addition 
to carrying on active work at a number of the Branch Stations, is establish- 
ing various experiments and tests by cooperative arrangements with growers, 
where the results at the nearest Branch Stations would not seem directly 
applicable. 

For a number of years such an arrangement has been in operation with 
Mr. J. P. Herring, at Wilmington, and is being enlarged and extended this 
year to carry on additional and more intensive work on strain and variety 
testing and fertilization of vegetables. Mr. James T. Albritton, Calypso, 
North Carolina, in one of the most important trucking counties, is cooperat- 
ing with the Department in conducting an experiment with strawberries. 
There is no branch station at all comparable to the Sandhills, where the com- 
mercial peach area is found.. Consequently for a period of years certain 
investigations with dewberries and peaches have been conducted by cooper- 
ative arrangements with growers in this section. We are especially indebted 
to Mr. Z. V. Pate, Laurel Hill, and to Mr. Von Canon, West End, Mr. Hurd, 
Pinehurst, and Mr. Derby, Jackson Springs. Recently the peach investigations 
dealing with fertilization, soil management and the physiological reactions of 
the tree under Sandhills conditions have been considerably extended through 
the cooperation of Mr. Richard Lovering, Jackson Springs, and through the 
cooperation of the U. S. D. A. Office of Horticultural Crops and Diseases. 
The Piedmont and Mountain Branch Station farms are located in horticul- 
tural sections, although climatic and soil factors are not always favorable 
for study of certain specific problems. It has become necessary to conduct 
certain phases of the potato improvement work at the higher altitude of Avery 
County and a phase of the apple fertilizer work in Surry County. Thus at 
the present time, in addition to the work being conducted at the Central 
Station and four of the branch stations, work is being conducted at five co- 
operative stations. With the exception of the northern coastal plain, experi- 
mental work has been established in all of the important producing centers 
of the State. 

In addition to the more or less simple treatments of problems relating to 
production, certain problems are of such nature and importance as to require 
careful and detailed methods of analysis. Such a problem is the measurement 
and interpretation of factors influencing maturity, rest period and hardiness 
of the peach tree; the moisture and nutrient requirements of the tree to carry 
a crop of fruit of the desired quality, size and color; the effects of defoliation, 
size of crop, soil moisture, pruning, thinning and fertilization on growth and 
reproduction. Such a problem requires not only careful field measurements, 
but also through chemical and physical or other laboratory treatment. Find- 



114 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 



ings from such methods of attack should not only have important bearing on 
practical orchard management, but also would add to the growing fund of 
scientific knowledge of the physiology of crop plants. Another example will 
serve to illustrate the many methods of attack on the growers' problems. The 
yield and quality of white potatoes has not been materially improved in the 
last thirty years. Aside from frost, drouth, hail and other weather conditions, 
largely outside of human control, early and late blight and mosaic diseases 
are tremendous factors affecting yield. Considerable improvement in natural 
yielding ability is possible. The commercial types of potatoes have many 
vine or tuber defects that might be improved. All of these characters, disease 
resistance, yield and quality are heritable characteristics. The Department 
of Horticulture, in cooperation with the Office of Horticultural Crops and Dis- 
eases, is undertaking to combine these characteristics in one or more adapted 
varieties by plant breeding methods. Improved varieties would not only tend 
to reduce the costs of production, but would release a certain amount of land 
from annual production which could be used for other money or soil im- 
provement crops. 

Detailed reports of progress on these projects follow: 



APPLE INVESTIGATIONS 

Apple Pruning' and Training, M. E. Gardner, Leader. 

Having been conducted for eleven years, this project is beginning to yield 
significant results. 

The season of 1929 was not conducive to high yields due to the fact that 
frost and cold weather occurred during the blooming and pollinating periods. 
However, satisfactory yields were obtained as shown "in the accompanying 
table. 

Effect of Severity of Pruning on Yield 





Average Yield in Bushels Per Tree 


Variety 


Light Pruning 


Medium Pruning 


Heavy Pruning 




3.57 


1.60 








Rome. 


3.40 


3.59 


.79 


Stayman Winesap 


4.34 


3.72 


2.89 






Winesap 


7.78 


7.63 


3.23 



There was much aphis injury on lightly pruned trees, particularly Winesap. 
This was probably due to both dense foliage and improper timing of sprays. 
The trees have maintained uniform vigor and only one tree in the entire 
experiment has died. This was due to field mouse injury and was detected 
too late to remedy by bridge grafting. 

Beginning in 1931, all fruit picked from the experimental plots will be care- 
fully graded to determine the percentages of the various grades resulting 



Research in Horticulture 115 

from pruning treatments. It is likely that with heavier yields the grade of 
fruit will become of considerable importance. 

A summary of the eleven years results on this project is in process of 
preparation. 

Apple Fertilization, M. E. Gardner, Leader. 

The status of this experiment is the same as last year. However, a careful 
check has been made of growth response as indicated by trunk measurements, 
but no very significant differences are apparent. This condition can prob- 
ably be attributed to two causes; a naturally fertile soil, and the fact that 
the trees are young and have not as yet undergone severe strains in bearing 
heavy crops of fruit. 

PEACH INVESTIGATIONS 

Peach, Physiological Studies of Growth and Reproduction, C. F. Williams, 
I. D. Jones, J. H. Beaumont, Leaders. 

Hardiness. The plots used from 1926-1929, primarily for the study of winter 
injury have been discontinued and replaced by a more complete experiment 
on nutrition in the peach. These new plots have received differential fertilizer 
treatments during the past season and records of growth, yield, etc., have been 
secured. Samples of representative trees from plots receiving different treat- 
ments have been collected at regular and critical periods for chemical analysis. 
These will be used in a study of the food reserves of the tree in relation to 
duration of rest period, winter injury, growth, and fruit setting. 

Data on the older plots are now complete and are being tabulated and cor- 
related. The results of this work will be presented elsewhere. In general, 
trees receiving nitrogen applications in addition to the regular fertilizer 
show greater percentages of total nitrogen and lesser percentages of the 
carbohydrate fractions throughout most of the year than trees receiving 
the regular fertilizer alone. This condition relative to carbohydrates is 
reversed in late winter and early spring, more starch and non-reducing sugars 
being present in the treated trees. This is correlated also with an increase 
in vegetative vigor in the spring. The growth and fruiting behavior of the 
trees has likewise been observed so that the chemical and growth relations 
can be correlated. Facilities have recently been provided whereby it will 
be possible in future work to determine the approximate hardiness of material 
by artificial freezing. 

Nitrogen Assimilation. Preliminary studies on the absorption and assim- 
ilation of nitrogen have been made. Seedling peach trees grown in pots and 
held at different temperatures indicate that they will assimilate nitrogen 
during dormancy, if temperatures are above 40 degrees F. The seedling trees 
were treated with and without nitrate of soda, half of each treatment being 
held in the greenhouse. Samples were taken during January, 1930, and 
analyzed for amino nitrogen, organic and ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen 
and total insoluble nitrogen fractions. These studies will be cotinued for it 
would seem that root activity during the winter months in southern latitudes 
would be of considerable importance. 



116 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 



Peach, Factors Influencing Yield and Quality, J. H. Beaumont, C. F. Williams, 
M. E. Gardner, Leaders. 

Peach Fertilization in the Piedmont. As outlined in previous reports, this 
experiment was established to determine the effect of quickly available nitro- 
gen on growth and fruiting of peach trees under Piedmont conditions. Nitrate 
of soda has been used as the source of nitrogen. 

The trees receiving no fertilizer since planting have shown a steady, but 
gradual, decrease in vigor as indicated by short terminal growth and a lack 
of spur formation on the older wood. However, they have continued to pro- 
duce reasonably well as will be shown by the accompanying table. The orchard 
is in its seventh growing season. 



Comparison of Fertilized and Unfertilized Trees 





No Nitrogen 
Average Yield, Bushel— Per Tree 


Nitrogen 
Two- Year Aver- 
age, 1928-1929 




1928 


1929 


Two- Year 
Average 




Hiley 


1.70 
2.00 
1.65 
1.75 
.94 


.60 
,85 

1.30 
.83 

1.37 


1.15 
1.42 
1.47 
1.29 
1.15 


3.37 


Belle 


2.61 


Elberta 

Hale 


3.12 
3.00 




2.31 








No. 1. — Georgia Belle which has received an annual and increased amount of nitrate 
of soda since planting. Same age as Nos. 2 and 3. 



Research in Horticulture 



117 




■ill 

".ill 



No. 2. — Seven year old Elberta tree which has received no fertilizer. Contrast tree 
condition with Hale. (No. 3.) 




No. 3. — Seven year old Hale which has received no fertilizer. 



118 Fifty-Thikd Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 

It has been assumed in this work that nitrogen is the limiting factor in the 
Cecil clay soils of the Piedmont area. Apparently this is true. However, 
there is need for a more comprehensive study of the effect that nitrogen as 
well as other plant food elements have in the economic production of peaches 
in this region. 

Peach Pruning. This experiment is now in its seventh season and is yield- 
ing some significant contrasts. As outlined in previous reports, the purpose 
of the work is to determine the effect of heavy and light pruning on tree per- 
formance under Piedmont conditions. 

Trees receiving the heavy pruning treatment have been handled uniformly 
since the beginning of the experiment. Heavy thinning has been practiced 
together with the heading back of 50 per cent all new growth. 

The last three years, an attempt has been made to determine, as nearly as 
possible, the best method of handling the trees receiving the light treatment. 
Indications are that uniform light pruning every other year is necessary. 
In 1927 and 1928 practically no pruning was done. In 1929 it was necessary 
to cut tops back into two and three year old wood and curb rangy branches. 
No tipping was done but centers were opened. Light pruning continues to give 
largest yields of fruit of good color and size at least pruning cost. 

Peach Fertilization and Orchard Management in the Sandhills. This project 
was begun in 1930 with the cooperation of Mr. Richard Lovering, Hoffman, 
N. C. A block of 900 Elberta trees 8 years of age and apparently quite uniform 
in size and yielding ability was selected. The planting plan of this orchard 
made it possible to lay out 40 seven-tree blocks, which would eliminate most 
of the missing trees and mixed varieties. The blocks are surrounded on all 
sides by buffer rows. Trunk circumferences were taken and from these 
measurements the plots were paired in such a way that the average of each 
pair would be approximately equal to the average of all trees and still secure 
random soil distribution. The effect of time and rate of application of nitrate 
fertilizers is the major objective. The times of application are as follows: before 
bloom, June drop, after harvest, and as trees enter dormancy. The rate varies 
from a total of ly 2 to 6 pounds of nitrate of soda per tree. The orchard is 
covercropped in alternate middles with vetch, which is fertilized with 300 
pounds per acre of a complete fertilizer analyzing about 8 P 2 5 — ZV 2 N — 4 K 2 
except on certain plots that did not receive P 2 5 , K 2 or both. The vetch 
may be given a light top dressing of Na No 3 in early spring. 

Data on trunk circumference, date of maturity, yield, size and color of fruit, 
terminal growth, primings and the like will be secured each year. 

FRUIT VARIETY TESTS 

Fruits. Several new varieties of grapes and peaches have been added to 
these tests. Also a number of varieties of Japanese persimmons have been 
budded on Diospyros virginiana stocks. Another shipment of plant materials 
has been received from the Office of Foreign Seed and Plant Introduction 
for test at the Central Station, and was planted on a very desirable plot of 
ground secured through the cooperation of the State Department of Agriculture. 



Research in Horticulture; 11^ 

Data are being collected on varietal adaptation and response of the various 
plants under test to the varying soil and climatic conditions existing in the 
State. 

Strawberry. Over a four year period at the Mountain Station, Premier 
(Howard 17) and Warfield have given the highest yields of any of the seventeen 
varieties under test. A three year average gives Warfield 4,300 quarts per 
acre and Premier 3,600. This average includes yields recovered in 1926 when 
the drought caused adverse weather conditions. In 1928 Warfield produced 
7,575 quarts and Premier 5,640 quarts per acre. 

Both of these varieties are being recommended for Western North Carolina 
conditions. Warfield will not produce when planted alone due to the fact 
that it is pistillate, but when planted with Premier in alternate rows, it will 
fruit satisfactorily. Furthermore these two varieties have not been affected 
by seasonal fluctuation nearly so much as have most of the other varieties. 

Blakemore (U. S. D. A. 659) has been added to the variety test and U. S. D. A. 
655 will be added also. 

FRUIT BREEDING 

Dewberry Breeding. Of the 1927 crosses, two individuals of the Young 
by Austin spineless cross have been saved for further trial and use in breeding. 
One of these is spineless and the other almost so. Eight of the Young by 
Lucretia cross of the same year have also been saved for further observation 
and breeding. One of the best of these is almost spineless. Plants have been 
selected for resistance to cane and leaf diseases, yield, quality and firmness 
of fruit. 

Crosses of Cumberland and Latham raspberry with the Rubus coreanus 
type have given many vigorous healthy plants. It is of interest to note that 
there is a considerable range in the character and number of spines, from 
very few to many. These crosses should fruit in 1931 and are being watched 
with interest. 

During the 1930 season Young was selfed, crossed with Austin spineless, 
and with a spineless seedling of Young and Austin spineless. A quantity of 
seed was secured in the first two crosses, and a few in the third. Very little 
pollen was available of the spineless seedling due to cold injury to the canes 
the previous winter. 

Peach Breeding. The objectives of this project are to secure peach varieties 
of the season or earlier than Elberta, resistant to "Bacteriosis" caused by 
Bacterium pruni, and having the desirable commercial characters of yield, 
vigor and shipping quality. 

Observations have been made of the relative disease resistance of commercial 
varieties. It is planned to use resistant varieties in crosses with Elberta and 
in other combinations. The Yellow Elberta (which is probably Early 
Elberta) has proven to be disease resistant, is a trifle earlier than Elberta 
and is extremely vigorous and high yielding. Seed of this variety and 
of E'lberta were saved from isolated trees in a commercial orchard 
where there was great likelihood of their having been either self or cross 
pollinated with the variety desired. The seedlings will be grown at Raleigh 
and transplanted in the Sandhills. It is hoped that weather conditions will 
be more favorable and that it will be possible to make large numbers of hand 
pollinations next year. 



120 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 



SMALL FRUIT INVESTIGATIONS 

Dewberry, Factors Influencing Growth and Fruiting, C..F. Williams, Leader. 
More work was done on the method and degree of pruning than other phases 
of this project during the past year. This is summarized in the following 
table: 

Production of Fruiting Canes of Dewberries as Affected by 
Pruning in Different Ways 





Treatment 
Pruned July 1, 1929 


Average Number Canes Per 
Plant— March, 1930 


Location 


Canes More 

than 3 Feet 

Long 


Canes 

Shorter 

than 3 Feet 


No. Dead 
Canes 




All canes cut at the top of the crown. 

Mature canes cut at the surface of 
ground. Spring canes cut about 
12 inches above the ground 

Mature canes at ground level, spring 


1.6 

7.2 

2.8 
7.0 
7.7 


5.8 

3 

4.3 
4.5 
4.0 





Coastal Plains Station 


3 




Mature canes at ground level, spring 


2 




Mature canes at ground level, spring 


1.1 









Canes were severely injured by cold during the winter of 1929-1930, which 
accounts somewhat for the large number of dead canes. In the Sandhills 
cutting the canes at the top of the crown greatly reduced the number of canes, 
but did reduce the number of diseased canes. At the Coastal Plains Station 
spring canes that were left for fruiting the following season were badly injured 
in handling during the summer of 1929 and the results indicate very little 
concerning this type of pruning. Yields of fruit were so severely affected 
by adverse conditions of drought that they are not included. Further tests 
including other treatments have been started this year. 

No appreciable differences have been secured with fertilizer treatments. 

Strawberry, Study of Yield and Quality as Affected by Different Fertilizers, 

R. Schmidt and J. H. Beaumont, Leaders. 

The original plan of this project has been outlined in previous reports of 
this Department and of the Department of Agronomy. The project as out- 
lined was discontinued following the crop season of 1930. However, the 
Department of Horticulture has expanded the strawberry investigations and 
has established an experimental plot on the farm of Mr. James T. Albritten, 
Calypso, North Carolina. (See cut.) This, therefore, constitutes the final 
report of the old project and the preliminary report of the new project. 

Unfavorable weather during the past two years, an ununiform stand of 
plants, and irregularities in the field on which the experiment was laid out 
have made it extremely difficult to make accurate comparisons between the 
28 different fertilizer treatments. In order to overcome certain of these dif- 



Research in Horticulture 



121 



Acuities each 1/20 acre plot was divided into 3 sub plots of 1/200 acre area, 
as nearly typical of the entire plot as possible. Each 1/200 acre plot was 
harvested separately. This has made it possible to compare adjacent plots 
with a greater degree of accuracy, although the probable error for the experi- 
ment as a whole cannot be determined. 

Certain studies of yield, growth, estimated yield, grade and quality of the 
plants and fruit from these plots have been made. The coefficients of corre- 
lation between the more important characters have been calculated and are 
presented in the following table. In each instance the average of 3 sub plots 
of 1/200 acre area has been used. 



Relationships Between Yield and Fruit and Plant Characters 



Yield 1929— Yield 1930 

Yield 1929— Estimated yield 1929. 
Yield 1929— Estimated vigor 1929. 
Yield 1929— Grade of berries 1929. 



r 


= 


.630 


db 


.077 


r 


= 


.745 


zfc 


.067 


r 


= 


.937 


dfc 


.016 


r 


= 


.318 


=h 


.021 



The correlation coefficient of measured yield of the same plots in successive 
years is not as large as might be expected and indicates that the yields have 
not been uniformly affected by the weather or other conditions, the time 
and amount of fertilizer application remaining constant. It would be unwise 
therefore to compare the yields of these plots on a basis of one or even two 
years yield records, assuming that the soil was uniform. 




: >m 




" : -:W-Wm 







Strawberry experiment on the farm of Mr. James T. Albritten, Calypso, North Carolina. 



122 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 

Just before harvest in 1929 individual plant records of estimated number 
of berries or yield and relative vigor of individual plants were taken. The 
coefficients of correlation of these two characters with the actual yield in 
1929 are the 2d and 3d coefficients given in the table. The first coefficient 
indicates that such a determination gives a fairly accurate estimate of yield, 
although it is subject to considerable error and is not to be recommended 
in place of actual yields. There seems to be a marked relationship between 
the size or vigor of plants, however, and actual yield. To all intents and 
purposes this character might be used instead of yield to estimate the differ- 
ence between plots. The relation between total yield and grade of berries as 
measured by the percentage of berries at the height of the picking season, 
indicates that there is no strong tendency for high yielding plots to run to the 
larger sizes of berries. 

Percentages of diseased and soft berries in samples from plots receiving 
extremes of fertilizer treatment and from which the greater differences in 
condition would most likely appear, are inconclusive. In almost every in- 
stance, the variation in the three sub plots was as great or greater than the 
difference between any two plots receiving different treatment. It must be 
concluded, therefore, that the care exercised in picking is probably more 
important in influencing rot, disease and carrying quality than possible differ- 
ences due to type and kind of fertilizer used. No differences in color or 
flavor were noted. 

INVESTIGATIONS IN FLORICULTURE 

Tariety Tests with Floral Crops, G. O. Randall, Leader. 

During the fall of 1928 and the spring of 1929 a series of variety tests was 
undertaken with the following outdoor-grown floral crops: roses, herbaceous 
perennials, tulips, narcissi and iris. The results of these tests, while not 
considered conclusive, indicate sufficient cause for preference of certain va- 
rieties. Notes have been taken on general adaptability of the different crops 
to local conditions. These include data on rate of growth or vigor, resistance 
to disease, and climatic adaptability. Following are the results obtained with 
the different crops under observation: 

ROSES 
No. Varieties No. Shoiving 

in Test Promise Names of Those Shoiving Promise 



63 24 



Dutchess of Wellington, H.T.* 

Mrs. W. C. Egan, H.T. 

Padre, H.T. 

Red Radiance, H.T. 

Pink Radiance, H.T. 

Chas. K. Douglas, H.T. 

Gruss an Teplitz, H. T. 

Miss Cynthia Forde, H.T. 



H.T. Abrev. for Hybrid Ten, 



Research in Horticulture 



123 



No. Kinds 
in Test 



No. Showing 
Promise 



ROSES— Continued 

Names of Those Shoiving Promise 

Ideal, P.i 
Edith Cavell, P. 
Gruss an Aachen, P. 
Georg Arends, H.P.2 
Ulrich Brunner, H.P. 
Magna Charta, H.P. 
Henry Nevard, H.P. 
Pink Grootendorst, R3 
Rugosa, R. 
Agnes, R. 
Dr. Huey, C* 
Silver Moon, C 
Paul's Scarlet Climber 
Christine Wright, C. 
American Pillar, C. 
Dr. W. Van Fleet, C. 



86 



35 



PERENNIALS 

Erysimum pulchellum 
Arenaria montana 
Sedum acre 
Cerastium tomentosum 
Gypsophila repens 
Dianthus caesius 
Dianthus deltoides 
Teucrium chamaedrys 
Veronica spicata 
Anthemis tinctoria 
Linum flavum 
Geranium sanguineum 
Statice latifolia 
Gaillardia grandiflora 
Aquilegia, long spurred hybrids 
Achillea ptarmica 
Pyrethrum roseum 
Stokesia cyanea 
Geum coccineum 
Salvia azurea grandiflora 
Achillea filipendulina 
Agrostemma coronaria 
Platycodon grandiflorum 
Physostegia virginiana 
Anchusa italica 



1 P. Abrev. for Polyantha. 

2 H.P. Abrev. for Hybrid Perpetual. 

3 R. Abrev. for Rugosa. 

4 C. Abrev. for Climber. 



124 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 



PERENNIALS— Continued 

No. Varieties No. Shoioing 
in Test Promise 



Names of Those Shoioing Promise 



54 26 



Lythrum roseum 
Coreopsis lanceolata 
Papaver orientale 
Eryngium planum 
Chrysanthemum maximum 
Digitalis gloxiniaeflora 
Helianthus rigidus 
Thermopsis earoliana 
Lathyrus latifolia 
Hibiscus moscheutos 

TULIPS 

Early Single 
Kaiserkroon 
Prince of Austria 
Couleur Cardinal 
Roosvandekema 

Early Double 
Couronne D'or 
Schoonoord 

Darwin 
City of Haarlem 
The Bishop 
Homere 

Prince of Wales 
Herodiade 
Clara Butt 
President Harding 
Mr. Farncombe Sanders 
Pride of Haarlem 
Painted Lady 
Prince of the Netherlands 

Breeder 
Feu Ardent 
Wm. the Taciturn 
Bachus 
Annie McGregor 

Cottage 
Bouton D'or 
Inglescombe Yellow 
Pride of Inglescombe 

Dutch 
Belle Irlandaise 



Research in Horticulture 125 



No. Varieties No. Showing 

in Test Promise 

8 .7 



19 10 



NARCISSI 

Names of Those Shoioing Promise 

Van Waveren's Giant 
King Alfred 
Emperor 
Sir Watkins 
Grand Soleil d' Ur 
Barri Conspicuous 
Poeticus ornatus 

IRIS 

Bearded 
De Neuilly 
Archeveque 
Germanica 
Kochi 

Beardless 
Gold Bond 
Koki-No-Iro 
Iphigenie 

Spanish 

Cajanus 

King of the Blues 
■ 

Reconnaissance 

VARIETY TESTS WITH FLORAL CROPS UNDER GLASS 

Many of the new varieties of roses and carnations were originated in the 
North and all of them were given their first trial there, where the climatic 
and growing conditions are quite different from those in North Carolina and 
other southern states. Variety tests and culture of the newer varieties of 
greenhouse roses and carnations in comparison with older standard varieties 
commonly grown in this section should be of value to the growers of the State. 

With these objects in mind, tests of the following greenhouse varieties of 
roses and carnations were undertaken during the year as a part of the above 
project. Each year the newest varieties are to be added to the trial and 
those proving unsatisfactory in comparison with standard varieties will be 
discarded as quickly as possible. 

ROSES 

Five plants, standard stock, of each of the varieties of roses shown in the 
following table were included in the test: 



126 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 

Average Yield Per Plant — By Months 



Variety 



Killarney 

Pernet 

J. Hill 

L. M. Stewart 

Talisman 

Gaiety 

Rapture . 

Butterfly 

D. E. Helen.. 

Rosehill 

Briarcliff 

Matchless 

Premier Sup.. 

Premier 

Pierson 

Templar 

E. G. HilL... 



Sept. 



Oct. 



2.0 
1.6 
5.8 







(i 
4 
4.2 
4.6 
4.2 
6 
4.0 
4.2 
3.4 
6.2 



Nov. 



3.6 
3.0 

.6 
2.2 

.6 
1.2 
1.4 

.6 
1.4 
1.2 

.2 

.8 
1.2 
1.6 
1.4 
1.2 



Dec. 



6.6 
2.4 
3.2 
2.0 
6.2 
2.2 
3.4 
3.6 
2.4 
3.2 
3.6 
4.0 
4.2 
4.4 
3.0 
4.2 
4.2 



Jan. 



Feb. 



March 



7.2 
1.4 
1.4 
2.6 
6.4 
2.6 
4.6 
4.6 
2.2 
3.8 
4.6 
5.6 
4.6 
4.4 
5.2 
6.2 
5.0 



\.pril 


May 


Total 

Aver. 


8.0 


1.6 


44.4 


4.2 


.4 


22.4 


4.6 


1.6 


24.0 


4.2 


.6 


22.4 


6.0 


1.2 


37.0 


3.0 


.4 


19.2 


3.6 


3.6 


27.0 


4.4 


2.2 


28.8 


3.2 




15.4 


2.6 


1.2 


22.8 


4.4 


.8 


24.8 


3.6 


2.6 


26.0 


4.2 


3.0 


31.0 


4.8 


2.0 


30.0 


3.4 


1.6 


28.2 


4.2 


1.4 


28.0 


4.8 


1.6 


31.8 



CARNATIONS 
The minimum number of plants used for any one variety was fourteen. 
Variety Test of Carnations 



Variety 



No. Cut 



Betty Lou 

Early Dawn 

Fairy Queen 

Hilda 

Harvester 

Ivory 

Laddie 

Maine Sunshine. 

North Star 

Pink Abundance 

Radiolite 

Red Matchless. _. 

Sunglow 

Spectrum 

Senator 

Ward: 

White Matchless. 



182 
159 

47 
156 
133 
106 
131 
106 

91 
114 

99 
162 
222 
121 
131 
189 
114 



Yield 

Per 

Plant 



6.2 
7.5 
3 3 

11.7 
9.5 
7.5 
4.6 
7.5 
6.5 
8.1 
4.9 
5.5 

10.6 
8.2 
9.3 
5.5 
8.1 



Average 
Length 
of Stem 



19.49 
20.51 
22.07 
15.98 
19.42 
19.47 
21.47 
20.02 
18.17 
18.27 
22.12 
17.27 
17.18 
19.85 
19.87 
18.77 
18.00 



Percentage 
Weak 
Stems 



3.8 

19.5 

4.3 

8.9 

22.5 

10.4 

0.0 

31.1 

10.9 

0.0 

1.0 

6.8 

6.8 

41.3 

13.0 

11.1 

8.7 



No. Splits 



A comparison of the yields by months during the first year of roses and 
of the total yields of roses and carnations indicates that certain varieties are 
outstanding. Others are naturally poor yielders or perhaps they require special 
or detailed handling. A great deal of work needs to be done on the factors 
affecting growth and yield not only of greenhouse floral crops, but also of 
those grown outdoors. 



Research in Horticulture 



li'' 



VEGETABLE INVESTIGATIONS 

Final Report of Field Plot Experiments and Observations on the Cause of) 
Lettuce Tipburn, Robert Schmidt, Leader. 
In 1924 a series of experimental plots were laid out to study the effects pro- 
duced by different combinations of fertilizer on the growth and amount of 
tipburn of letture plants. The variety Big Boston was used and standard 
field cultural practices were followed. Results indicated that fertilizers have 
nothing to do with tipburn except as they affect the growth of the lettuce 
plant. The percentage of plants developing tipburn was approximately the 
same on all plots in which the treatments induced rapid growth and produced 




Lettu 



Plots 



large heads of good quality, while on plots where the treatment retarded the 
growth of the plants to a marked degree very little tipburn occurred. For 
example, heavy applications of stable manure produced the largest heads of 
the best quality and a high percentage of tipburn, absence of phosphorus in 
the fertilizer resulted in sickly plants which produced very few heads, none of 
which developed tipburn, and absence of potash produced soft, unmarketable 
heads and very little tipburn. 

In 1925 a survey of 17 large fields was made to study the amount of tipburn 
occurring under different cultural and soil conditions. The fields were visited 
at least three times and some four times each. Fields of different soil types 
and growers using different fertilizer combinations were selected. In most 
cases the lettuce was transplanted, but in one large field the seed was sown 
and no mineral nitrates were used. In this field tipburn injury was severe, 
being approximately twenty-five per cent. In another field where nitrate of 



128 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 






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Research in Horticulture 



129 



soda was used as a top dressing only one per cent of tipburn developed. For 
this particular season tipburn injury was worse on stiff soils than on loose 
soils. A careful analysis of the data does not reveal any apparent relation- 
ships between different fertilizer combinations, top dressings, the use of min- 
eral or organic nitrogen and the amount of tipburn. 

In 1926 an effort was made to determine, if possible, the cause of tipburn 
or the conditions under which it developed. Atmometers were placed on the 
lettuce beds to determine the relative daily evaporation. Maximum and mini- 
mum thermometers at the surface of the ground gave daily temperature 
readings in the open. A hygrothermograph was used to get a record of 
humidity. Weather observations were also made. Daily average wind velocity 
was secured by means of an anemometer. 




Shaded Plot 



A section of a 2-row bed was shielded from winds by standing 12-inch boards 
on edge. A section of bed was shaded with burlap. One 2-row bed was kept 
thoroughly irrigated by turning water in the furrow between the rows. One 
bed was kept sprayed with bordeaux mixture and another with lime water. 
Other beds received treatments of basic slag, nitrate of soda and ammonium 
sulphate. 

Observations and records were begun just before the plants began forming 
heads. Each head in the plots was examined daily and tipburned plants were 
marked with a small stake and recorded. Tables 1 and 2 show records 
of the years 1926 and 1927, during which seasons a high percentage of tip- 
burn occurred. 



130 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 



TABLE 2. — Effect of weather and different 















April 












1927 


15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


Maximum Tempera- 
ture F_. 


80 
42 
63 
69 
17.9 

2.1 

59 


92 
42 
97 
65 
21.8 

3.1 

64 


101 
48 
98 
54 
22.3 

2.6 

71 


99 
51 
91 
45 
36.2 

2.2 

72 

78 












94 
46 
91 
46 
29.2 

2.8 

72 

79 












96 
60 
92 
53 
40.3 

5.4 

76 

81 



1 


1.6 
.8 

. 



95 
56 
95 
50 
41.0 

4.1 

78 

82 



4 


2.4 



.9 


83 
48 
93 
96 
13.5 

6.0 

65 


74 
32 

92 
38 

27.2 

5.6 
62 


85 
28 
93 
37 
21.3 

1.2 

64 


75 
34 
93 
48 
19.0 

1.8 

61 


89 


Minimum Temperature 
Humidity — Midnight _. 

Humidity— Noon 

Evaporation— grms 

Average wind velocity, 

Mile 

Highest soil tempera- 


31 
93 
36 
34.3 

2.7 

68 


Head temperature at 
1 P. M. 


73 


Rainfall — Inches 

Per cent Tipburn: 


























.01 











.23 


10 

1.3 
10.3 
10.8 
10.4 

5.4 
.9 


.01 













5 

2 

.7 
5.5 
4.7 
4.3 
4.7 
2.7 




1.8 
3 

.7 
1.6 
2.3 
1.2 
4.7 
1.8 







Irrigated plot... 


2 




.7 


Nitrate of soda plot.. 


1.6 



Bordeaux Spray 






Check.... 




































Remarks: 



(1) Most plants went to seed without heading. 

(2) Heads large and early. 

(3) Heads large but late. « 

(4) Heads early but small. 

(5) Heads medium. 

(6) Spray injury. 

(7) Heads medium to large. 

(8) Heads medium. 

(9) 28 soft heads— 24 tipburned. 



Research in Hobttcul.tuke 



131 



treatments on lettuce tipburn 





April 












May 










u 








- 




















Ifl 


27 


28 


29 


30 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


u 


94 


93 


94 


100 


83 


88 


95 


99 


103 


96 


95 


96 






45 


50 


46 


54 


46 


33 


42 


45 


59 


56 


60 


47 






83 


84 


96 


87 


90 


92 


96 


95 


96 


94 


94 


92 






34 


35 


38 


35 


35 


38 


34 


42 


54 


56 


54 


54 






62.7 


43.3 


47.9 


65.3 


47.0 


37.0 


48.3 


39.0 


174 


19.0 


23.6 


28.5 






6.4 


3.0 


6.3 


3.7 


4.6 


2.0 


2.9 


3.3 


1.6 


1.3 


3.0 


2.3 






72 


72 


74 


79 


69 


72 


76 


76 


78 


74 


74 


74 






82 





85 



85 



67 



76 



81 



83 
.04 


84 
.45 


76 
.01 













.01 

































1.8 


3.5 


1.8 








58(1) 








1 








2 





11 


7 


12 


1 


2 


4 


100(2) 


2 





4 7 








2.7 





.7 


.7 


4.7 


4.7 


5.3 


4.7 


150(3) 


.8 














2.4 


2.4 


3.9 


9.5 


6.4 


4.6 


3.2 


1.6 


126(4) 


.8 


.8 











1.6 





3.1 


5.4 


11.6 


10.1 


2.3 


2.3 


129(5) 


12 














3.1 





4.9 


2.5 


3.1 


13.5 


4.3 


6.8 


163(6) 


3.4 





4.7 








2.7 





4.7 


8.1 


8 8 


6.7 


2 


6.7 


148(7) 

















4.5 


5.4 


1.8 


10 


8.2 


10.9 


3.6 


3.6 


110(8) 

58(9) 


























. 





132 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 



KESULTS AKD DISCUSSION 

The results seem to indicate an association between relative humidity and 
tipburn. Taking the 1927 observations, the greatest numbers of affected 
heads were noted on April 22d, 24th, May 4th, 5th, 6th and 8th. Of these 
days, April 22d and May 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th were showery and the evapora- 
tion was relatively low. It may be significant that on the days when much 
tipburn occurred on practically all of the plots, the evaporation of water 
from the atmometers was considerably less than on the day or days immediately 
preceding. Thermometers inserted in lettuce heads on the hottest days 
showed a maximum temperature of 85 degrees F. for the season. Soil tem- 
peratures were lower, the highest being 79 degrees F. The highest tempera- 
ture in direct sunshine on one of the beds at the ground was 103 degrees F. on 
May 5th. This was a showery day, the evaporation was low and the tipburn 
injury was rather high. 

In order to bring out the association of maximum daily temperature and 
daily evaporation with the amount of tipburn, correlations were worked out 
for the irrigated plot for 1926 and 1927 according to a working formula given 
by Hayes and Garber.* 

Only two of these correlations are significant in the light of their probable 
errors. The negative correlation r = — .551 ± .111 indicates a decided 
relation between low evaporation from the atmometers and the percentage of 
heads tipburned on the same day. There is also a relation between the daily 
maximum temperature and the percentage of tipburn the following day, 
though this factor is apparently somewhat less important than is evaporation. 



TABLE 3. — Relation of daily maximum temperatures 


and daily evaporation to lettuce tipburn 




Year 


Tipburn 
Same Day 


Tipburn 
1 Day Later 


Tipburn 
2 Days Later 


Irrigated Plot: 

Daily Maximum Temp- 


1926 

1927 
1926 
1927 

1926 
1927 


r= .028 =fc .155 

r= .201 db .153 
r = _ .498 db .116 
r = _ .551 ± .111 

r = _ .484* d= .122 
r = _ .719 ± .075 


r = .072 ± .158 

r = .396 sfc .134 
r=-f- .091 ± .158 
r = _ .100 =b .157 




Daily Maximum Temp- 
erature 

Daily Evaporation 

Daily Evaporation 

Nitrate of Soda Plot: 

Daily Evaporation 

Daily Evaporation 


r= .221 ± .151 
r= .280 d= .151 
r= .058 db .158 











The data in tables 1 and 2 show further that irrigated and nitrate of soda 
plots tipburned early, apparently because they headed early. The highest 
percentages of tipburn occurred on these plots also. The shade on the shaded 
plot was too dense for the proper development of the heads. However, out 
of 28 heads formed, 24 were affected with tipburn, indicating that direct light 
or heat from the sun's rays may not be a primary cause but rather that the 
humidity which was doubtless higher under the shade was of greater im- 
portance. Other treatments had no visible effects. 



Breeding Crop Plants, McGraw Hill, N. Y. 195 



Research in Horticulture 133 

SUMMARY 

During the year 1925 the greater tipburn injury occurred on the heavier 
soils. Tipburn was not visibly influenced by fertilizer combinations, top 
dressings, the use of organic or mineral nitrogen, or the method of planting, 
except as it is associated with growth. Irrigation tends to increase tipburn 
injury. Greater injury occurs in periods of low evaporation immediately 
following periods of high evaporation. 

CONCLUSIONS 

From the above results it would seem that field control of lettuce tipburn 
by cultural methods or fertilization is doubtful. Injury can be reduced by 
using methods which will retard the growth of the plants, but since this will 
produce lettuce of poorer quality, it is not desirable. Some varieties are less 
susceptible to tipburn than others, but again these varieties are not so desirable 
for market. 

Since 1925 attention has been directed to the possibility of isolating adapted 
strains of the Big Boston variety which will have greater resistance to tipburn. 
This work is in progress and a number of promising strains have been isolated. 

Potato Breeding', J- H. Beaumont, M. E. Gardner and R. Schmidt, Leaders. 

This project, begun in 1929 in cooperation with the U. S. D. A. Office of 
Horticultural Crops and Diseases, is a study of potato improvement. The 
object is to combine in one or more adapted varieties the characters of high 
yield, earliness, late blight and mosaic disease resistance and desirable 
commercial qualities. Breeding stock was secured through the kindness of 
Dr. F. A. Krantz, Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station, Dr. Donald 
Reddick, New York (Cornell) Agricultural Experiment Station, and from 
Dr. William Stuart, Senior Horticulturist, Bureau of Plant Industry, Wash- 
ington, D. C. During the year the inbred lines secured from these sources 
were continued, selfed seed of a number of disease resistant varieties and 
strains was secured, and a number of cross pollinations were successful. This 
seed will be grown next year and genetic and plant breeding studies of the 
different types of material will be made. 

During the year approximately 10,000 seedlings were grown at the Mountain 
Station from crossed seed secured from Dr. Stuart. In .addition approximately 
300 tuber selections of breeding value were grown from which selfed or crossed 
seed were secured and further tuber selections made. In all more than 500 
tuber selections of breeding or of commercial value were made from this 
material, which will be continued in small plots next year and undergo 
further selection. 

Four of the more outstanding seedlings produced by Dr. Stuart were tested 
for yield and earliness at the Lower Coastal Plain Branch Station and seven 
of them at the Mountain Branch Station. These were grown in systematically 
replicated twenty-five hill plots. The results as an early crop at the Coastal 
Plain Branch Station are given in the following table. Those for the Mountain 
Branch Station are not yet available. 



134 



Fifty-Thikd Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 



Yield of Selected Seedlings and of Standard Varieties at 


the Coastal Plain 




Branch Station 


the Spring of 1930 












Yield U. S. 




Variety 


Total Yield 
Pounds— Per 25 Hills 


Yield U. S. No. 1 
Pounds— Per 25 F. ills 


No. 1 
Pounds 
Per Acre 


PerCent Culls 


S 41914 


28.06 =fc 1.01* 


24.88 ± 1.04 


13,895 


11.3 


S 41956 


26.94 ± 0.97 


16.25 =t 0.68 


9,075 


39.7 


S 42667 


27.94 ± 1 01 


27.19 =fc 1.14 


15,185 


2.7 


S 42672 


28.25 ± 1.02 


27.00 ± 1.13 


15,079 


4.4 


Irish Cobbler .... 


19.54 ± 0.53 


18.32 db 0.59 


10,231 


6.2 


Green Mountain 


23 75 ± 0.86 


22.94 =t 0.96 


12,812 


3.4 



The results of the first year's test indicate significant differences in total 
yielding ability between Irish Cobbler, Green Mountain and the 4 seedlings. 
The two seedlings 42667 and 42672 yielded more U. S. No. 1 tubers than 
Irish Cobbler and Green Mountain, although the differences for Green Moun- 
tain are not as significant as those for Irish Cobbler. The two seedlings 
41914 and 41956, and especially the latter, tended to nobbiness and a large 
percentage of these were classed as culls. 

Seedling 42667 matured only slightly earlier than, and seedling No. 41956 
with Green Mountain, while seedlings 41914 and 42672 matured approximately 
midway between Green Mountain and Irish Cobbler. Seedling No. 42667 seems 
to be quite outstanding in tuber characters, as well as yielding ability. The 
tubers were uniformly large, chunky, white, very shallow eyed and smooth. 

Vegetable Fertilizer Project, Robert Schmidt, J. H. Beaumont, Leaders. 

This project is intended both as a study of the fertilizer requirements of 
various vegetable crops and as a study of size of plot best suited for this work. 

In the fall of 1929 a crop of spinach was planted on one-half of the two 
acre field allotted to this study and a crop of cabbage on the other. Both 
were failures because of insufficient fertilization or excessive rainfall, or both. 
In the spring of 1930 a crop of Irish potatoes followed the cabbage and a 
crop of early sweet potatoes followed the spinach. The yields were low, 
though the sweet potatoes, requiring much less fertilization to produce a 
crop, gave a satisfactory yield. It was the original plan to secure these yields 
of crops in rotation for the first two or more years, using only a light side 
dressing of nitrate of soda as a maintenance fertilizer, in order to have a 
record of the behavior of the individual plots before differential fertilizers 
were applied and to avoid surplusses of mineral nutrients in the soil. In 
order to continue these studies which have been delayed by adverse weather 
conditions, a uniform application of a fertilizer analyzing 4 per cent phos- 
phoric acid, 2 per cent nitrogen, and 2 per cent potash will be made to all 
succeeding crops until the fertilizer plot work is begun. It is not anticipated 
that the residual effects of such a minimum fertilization will materially in- 
terfere with future results. 



* Probable error secured by "Deviation from the mean method." See Hayes and Garber, 
Breeding Crop Plant*, pp. 79—84, 1927. 



Research in Horticulture 



135 































■ ■ ■■:;■ ■ 


1 1 


■ ktf*? 8 *^ ' ' ■ 










■• .•■■■■ 






. 






W m% ' 


Jgp| 


Jill 












. .Jfr'. 




p:;;||«ies|l||ii 


•111-/ 


WSi$M : ' : i : [, 







Fig. 1. — PARENTS. Table Queen-White Bush 





gi&iii 

W-^z^^i&-'- 



Fig. 2. — First Generation. 



136 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 




Fig. 3. — Second Generation. 



Research in Horticulture; 137 

Vegetable Trial and Observation Garden, R. Schmidt, Leader. 

Variety tests were carried on at Raleigh with squash, cucumbers, canta- 
loupes, tomatoes, sweet corn, lima beans and peppers. 

Of seven varieties of bush squash, Golden Summer Crookneck and Giant 
Crookneck gave the best yields. Summer Crookneck is also becoming in- 
creasingly popular on the markets. 

Seven varieties of slicing cucumbers and seven varieties of pickling cucum- 
bers were compared for yield and earliness. Of the slicing type, Kirby and 
Green Pack were earliest, while Imperator and Green Pack were the heaviest 
yielders in number of fruits. Imperator is a long cucumber, averaging 10 
to 12 inches, while Green Pack is short, averaging 5 to 7 inches. Of the 
pickling cucumbers Early Green Cluster was the heaviest yielder, closely 
followed by Extra Early Green Prolific. 

Twelve of the leading varieties of cantaloupes were planted for comparison. 
Golden Champlain was earliest, but seemed to be very susceptible to wilt and 
the vines soon died. Early Knight was also a total loss because of heavy 
infections of leaf spot and some wilt. The heaviest yields were given by 
Hale's Best and Sugar Rock, which were also fairly early maturing varieties. 

In the sweet corn variety tests, the Kessler, a new variety from Indiana, 
showed much promise. 

Tomatoes and peppers were so badly affected with bacterial wilt that com- 
parisons could not be made. 

Of the lima bean varieties, only two small seeded varieties, Henderson's 
Bush and Philadelphia, set a crop. All the large seeded varieties failed to 
set more than a few pods, although the plants made a good growth. The 
failure to set a good crop of pods is a common occurrence for the large seeded 
varieties in this locality.. 

In the season of 1928 a few hills of Table Queen and White Bush squash 
were planted in adjacent rows. No other varieties of squash were in the 
vicinity. In 1929 a few volunteer squash plants came up on this same plot 
of ground. One hill of two plants was allowed to remain. These plants re- 
tained the running habit of the Table Queen, while the fruits were white like 
the White Bush with a shape which was a combination of the two varieties 
as illustrated in Figures 1 and 2. Seed was saved from one representative 
fruit and several hills planted in the spring of 1930. The resulting second 
generation progeny are shown in Figure 3. 

This is an illustration of what may happen in the home saving of seeds of 
squashes, pumpkins, cucumbers and melons, unless care is taken to segregate 
varieties so that cross pollination cannot take place. 

J. H. Beaumont, 
Head, Department of Horticulture. 



RESEARCH IN POULTRY 

COST OF EGG PRODUCTION WITH TWO FLOCKS RECEIVING A SINGLE 
SOURCE OF ANIMAL FEED AND A DOUBLE SOURCE 

This project is a continuation of a series of experiments on the value of 
animal feeds from various sources. These experiments have been conducted 
at the Coastal Plain Branch Station at Willard, N. C, in cooperation with the 
North Carolina State Department of Agriculture. The flocks under study- 
started with 150 adults and pullets and were, as far as could be practically 
determined, of equal health and productive capacity. 

The mash fed in flock 1 consisted of bone meal 4 lbs., sodium chloride 1 lb., 
meat meal 20 lbs., pulverized oats 20 lbs., wheat middlings 20 lbs., corn meal 
25 lbs., and wheat bran 10 lbs. 

The mash was left in the hoppers before the birds at all times. 



TABLE 1 
Flock i 



Month 


No. 
Birds 


No. 
Eggs 


Per 
Cent 
Pro- 
duced 


Mash 
Con- 
sumed 


Cost 

of 
Mash 


Grain 
Cons. 


Cost 

of 
Grain 


Pounds 

Feed 

to 

Produce 

Dozen 

Eggs 


Feed 
Cost 
Per 
Dozen 
Eggs 


Deaths 


Amount 
Animal 
Protein 
Con- 
sumed 


1929 
November.. 


150 


638 


14.1 


468 


14.93 


567 


14.17 


19.5 


.548 





51.4 


Decern ber._ 


150 


897 


19.3 


431 


13.75 


738 


18.45 


15.6 


.430 


2 


47.4 


1930 

January 

February. .. 

March 

April 


148 
148 
148 
145 


1,527 
2,100 
2,634 
2,361 


33.2 
50.6 
57.4 
54.3 


656 
624 
586 
489 


18.89 
17.97 
15.82 
13.69 


569 
581 
681 
470 


13.31 
13.60 
16.21 
10.86 


9.6 
6.8 
5.7 
4.8 


.253 
.180 
.147 
.125 




3 
6 


72.0 
68.6 
64.0 
53.7 


May. 


138 


1,983 


46.3 


430 


12.04 


683 


15.78 


6.7 


.168 


2 


47.3 






June 


136 


1,578 


38.6 


360 


10.19 


566 


13.07 


7.0 


.177 





39.6 


July 


134 


1,045 


25.6 


369 


9.63 


472 


9.86 


9.6 


.223 


5 


40 5 






August 


129 


767 


19.8 


389 


10.50 


352 


8.80 


11.5 


.300 


5 


42.7 


Totals 




15,530 




4,802 


137.41 


5,679 


134.11 


8.1 


.210 















Flock 2 received the following mash mixture: corn meal 25 lbs., wheat 
middlings 16 lbs., pulverized oats 16 lbs., wheat bran 10 lbs., meat meal 55 per 
cent protein 10 lbs., dried milk 30 per cent protein 18 lbs., bone meal 4 lbs., 
table salt 1 lb. 

Grain mixture for both flocks consisted of corn 50 lbs., heavy oats 30 lbs., 
and wheat 20 lbs. 



140 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 



One pint of grain mixture was fed to each twelve birds in the litter in the 
morning and the same in the evening. 

The results of this experiment are shown in Tables I and II, the study being 
presented on a ten months basis due to the fact that the beginning of the 
twelve months poultry year at this Station is being shifted from November 
1st to October 1st and this report is issued before September records can 
be figured. 

TABLE 2 
Flock ii 



Month 


No. 
Birds 


No. 
Eggs 


Per 
Cent 
Pro- 
duced 


Mash 
Con- 
sumed 


Cost 

of 
Mash 


Grain 
Con- 
sum- 
ed 


Cost 

of 
Grain 


Pounds 

Feed 

to 

Produce 

Dozen 

Eggs 


Feed 
Cost 
Per 
Dozen 
Eggs 


Deaths 


Amount 
Animal 
Protein 
Con- 
sumed 


1929 
November.. 


150 


678 


15.1 


532 


23.40 


567 


14.17 


19.4 


.665 





58.5 


December.. 


148 


1,086 


23.7 


518 


22.79 


799 


19.98 


14.5 


.472 


2 


56.9 


1930 
January 


147 


1,671 


36.6 


606 


25.45 


559 


13.08 


8.3 


.277 


1 


67.0 


February 


146 


2,117 


51.8 


540 


22.68 


578 


13.53 


6.3 


.205 


1 


59 4 


March 


147 


2,565 


56.2 


510 


19.18 


690 


16.42 


5.6 


.166 


2 


56.0 


April 


144 


2,330 


53.9 


449 


16.70 


628 


14.51 


5.5 


.161 


1 


49.3 




143 


1,929 


43.5 


478 


17.78 


599 


13.84 


6.7 


.197 


7 


52.8 






June 


132 


1,517 


38.3 


285 


10.60 


569 


13.14 


6.7 


.188 


3 


31.3 


July. 


126 


1,133 


29.6 


289 


11.04 


476 


9.95 


8.1 


.222 


6 


31.7 


August 


120 


935 


25.6 


354 


13.88 


420 


10.50 


9.9 


.312 


5 


39.0 


Totals ... 




15,961 




4,561 


183.50 


5,885 


139.12 


7.9 


.242 















Analysis of the tables shows the following: (1) a tendency for higher egg 
production in the flock being fed animal protein from two sources; (2) it took 
0.2 pounds more feed to produce one dozen eggs in the flock fed the single 
source of animal protein, but the feed cost to produce one dozen eggs was 
$0,032 greater, in these studies, in the pen fed two sources of animal protein 
than for the pen fed the single source. 

Mortality was higher in Flock 2 than in Flock 1, but in no way could be 
ascribed to the feeding. 



EXPERIMENTS IN CRATE FATTENING 

These experiments were conducted to determine the relative efficiency of 
two types of fattening rations fed to finish off broilers. A total of thirty- 
four lots of birds, consisting of 838 birds, were fattened in this experiment. 



Research in Poultry 



141 



am, i — i — i — i — I i I i r 

F0UND5ofFEED NECESSARY 
toPROOUCE ONE DOZEN £665 



&- 



s 






fi?or&/VS-DRl£DMLK*#oM£/ITM£fiL 



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CENTS 



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PtOTE/tiS-O&EOMJLK/MoAjE/irAt&U: 



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These birds are designated as Lots 1 and 2. The ration fed Lot 1 consisted 
of the following: Corn meal 40 lbs., pulverized oats 40 lbs. meat meal 20 
lbs. Lot 2 was fed corn meal 38 lbs., pulverized oats 38 lbs., meat meal 10 
lbs., dried milk 14 lbs. Both lots of birds were fed all they would clean up 
in about thirty minutes three times a day. The feed was mixed to a batter 
with water. 

The results of this experiment are shown in Tables 1 and 2. 



142 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 



TABLE l 
Lot i 



Pen No. 


No. 
Birds 


Date 
in 
1930 


Date 
out 
1930 


Days 
Fed 


Wt. 

in 


Wt. 

out 


Gross 
Gain 
Lbs. 


Indivi- 
dual 

Gains, 
Lbs. 


Gross 

Gain, 

Per 

Cent 


Lbs. 
Feed 
Con- 
sumed 


Cost 

of 
Feed 


Feed 
Cost 
Per 
Lb. 
Gain 


3 


24 


2/10 


2/19 


9 


28 


38 


10 


0.41 


36.0 


39 


1.09 


.109 


5 


24 


2/18 


2/27 


9 


32 


44 


12 


0.50 


37.5 


51 


1.43 


.119 


7 


24 


2/24 


3/5 


9 


37 


49 


12 


0.50 


32.4 


48 


1.34 


.111 


9 


24 


3/3 


3/12 


9 


39 


50 


11 


0.45 


28.2 


57 


1.60 


.145 


11 


24 


3/10 


3/20 


10 


39 


51 


12 


0.50 


30.7 


50 


1.40 


.116 


13 


24 


3/17 


3/28 


11 


39 


51 


12 


0.50 


30.7 


56 


1.57 


.130 


15 


24 


3/24 


4/4 


11 


37 


51 


14 


0.48 


37.8 


46 


1.29 


.092 


17 


24 


4/4 


4/10 


8 


38 


52 


14 


0.48 


37.0 


44 


1.23 


.087 


19 


24 


4/7 


4/17 


11 


45 


56 


11 


0.45 


24.4 


62 


1.74 


.158 


21 


32 


4/15 


4/24 


9 


58 


75 


17 


0.53 


29.3 


64 


1.79 


.105 


23 


24 


4/22 


5/1 


9 


47 


59 


12 


0.50 


25.5 


60 


1.68 


.140 


25 


24 


4/29 


5/1 


10 


41 


74 


15 


0.62 


36.5 


58 


1.62 


.108 


27 


22 


5/5 


5/16 


11 


46 


53 


7 


0.32 


15.2 


59 


1.65 


.235 


29 


24 


5/13 


5/23 


10 


41 


56 


15 


0.62 


36.5 


52 


1.46 


.097 


31 


24 


5/27 


6/5 


9 


45 


62 


17 


0.71 


37.7 


55 


1.54 


.090 


33 


24 


6/2 


6/11 


9 


43 


59 


16 


0.66 


37.2 


61 


1.71 


.106 


35 


22 


6/16 


6/26 


10 


43 


54 


11 


0.50 


25.2 


40 


1.12 


101 


Totals 17 


412 








698 


934 


218 


0.53 


31.2 


902 


25.26 


.116 













DISCUSSION 

Weights in and out between the two lots show only a very slight difference, 
that of thirteen pounds. The individual gain was 0.530 pounds in Lot 1 as 
compared with 0.555 pounds in Lot 2. Lot 1 consumed three pounds of feed 
less than Lot 2, the gross cost of feeding being 7.36 less in Lot 1 than in Lot 2. 
The feed cost per pound gain in Lot 1 was $0,116, while in Lot 2 it was $0,141. 
These figures indicate that in these experiments where meat meal is used in 
fattening as a single source of animal protein, it produces nearly as heavy 
gains and at a cost of $0,025 per pound less. This does not detract from the 
fact that the added milk in Lot 2 produced a better type of edible meat than 
those in Lot 1, which should pay a premium on a discriminating market. 



Research in Poultry 



143 



TABLE 2 
Lot ii 



Pen No. 


No. 
Birds 


Date 
In 


Date 
Out 


Days 
Fed 


Wt. 
In 


Wt. 

Out 


Gross 
Gain, 
Lbs. 


Indivi- 
dual 
Gain, 
Per 
Cent 


Gross 

Gain, 

Per 

Cent 


Lbs. 
Feed 
Con- 
sumed 


Cost 

of 
Feed 


Feed 
Cost 
Per 
Lb., 
Gain 


4 


24 


2/10 


2/19 


9 


25 


34 


9.0 


0.375 


36.0 


39 


1.40 


0.155 


6 


24 


2/18 


2/27 


9 


34 


48 


14.0 


0.583 


41.2 


53 


1.91 


0.136 


8 


24 


2/24 


3/5 


9 


37 


48 


11.0 


0.460 


29.7 


51 


1.84 


0.167 


10 


24 


3/3 


3/13 


10 


37 


50 


13.0 


0.540 


35.1 


56 


2.02 


0.155 


12 


24 


3/10 


3/20 


10 


39 


53 


14.0 


580 


35.9 


50 


1.80 


0.128 


14 


24 


3/17 


3/28 


11 


39 


57 


18.0 


0.750 


46.0 


57 


2.05 


0.113 


16 


24 


3/24 


4/8 


11 


37 


48 


11.0 


0.460 


30.0 


45 


1.62 


0.147 


18 


24 


4/2 


4/10 


8 


37 


52 


15.0 


0.625 


40.5 


45 


1.62 


0.108 


20 


24 


4/7 


4/17 


11 


45 


56 


11.0 


0.460 


24.4 


61 


2.20 


0.200 


22 


32 


4/15 


4/24 


9 


52 


69 


17.0 


0.530 


32.6 


63 


2.27 


0.133 


24 


24 


4/22 


5/1 


9 


51 


63 


12.0 


0.500 


23.5 


61 


2.20 


0.183 


26 


24 


4/29 


5/9 


10 


41 


56 


15.0 


0.625 


36.5 


58 


2.09 


0.139 


28 


24 


5/5 


5/16 


11 


46 


58 


12.0 


0.500 


26.0 


56 


2.02 


0.168 


30 


24 


5/13 


5/23 


10 


48 


62 


14.0 


0.580 


29.1 


53 


1.91 


0.136 


32 


24 


5/27 


6/5 


9 


42 


58 


16.0 


0.670 


38.0 


55 


1.98 


0.123 


34 


24 


6/2 


6/11 


9 


44 


58 


14.0 


0.580 


31.8 


61 


2.20 


0.157 


36 


24 


6/16 


6/26 


10 


42 


57 


15.0 


0.620 


35.7 


41 


1.48 


0.098 


Totals 17 


416 








696 


927 


231 


0.555 


33.2 


905 


32.61 


0.141 













STUDY OF THE INTERMITTENT REACTOR TO THE AGGLUTINATION 

TEST FOR PULLORUM DISEASE 

(Bacillary White Diarrhea) 

This project was conducted under Adams funds and has been under investi- 
gation for the past three years. Prior to the present fiscal year the objects 
of the investigation centered around the frequency and cause of the inter- 
mittency in reaction to the agglutination test by carriers of pullorum disease. 
Later the investigation shaped itself into a suggested method of testing at 
short intervals, being based on experimental findings brought out in the in- 
vestigation. This system was adopted by the North Carolina State Depart- 



144 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 

ment of Agriculture during the testing season of 1920-30 with very effective 
results. 

Major findings in this investigation and in the application of the short in- 
terval method of testing are as follows: 

PREVALENCE OF THE INTERMITTENT REACTOR 

In the experimental foundation flock of reactors under study (Flock 1) 12 
or 44 per cent of 27 birds reacted intermittently to the test. (On this flock 
bi-monthly tests have been run for thirty-six months, the same type of organ- 
isms being used as antigen during that period of time.) Breeding reactor 
on reactor, in flock 2, we find 19, or 73.1 per cent of 26 birds, now under test 
for nearly 24 months in flock 2 as intermittent reactors. Again breeding 
reactor on reactor, we find 18, or 69.2 per cent of 26 birds in Flock 3 as in- 
termittent reactors. In the short interval testing conducted in North Caro- 
lina this year on 37,893 birds, 1,859 birds, or 34.8 per cent of 5,053 reactors, were 
negative on the first test and would have been passed as negative birds if 
only a single annual test had been applied. This latter per cent is in rel- 
atively close agreement with the experimental findings cited, considering 
the fact that routine work on large numbers does not admit of as exacting 
technic as is necessarily applied in experimental work. 

Analysis of the results of field work as cited above show no great difference 
in the per cent of intermittent reactors as far as age or sex are concerned, 
which is in close agreement with our experimental findings. Breeding re- 
actors experimentally apparently shows no constant genetical factor active 
in the reproduction of intermittent reactors as we have obtained both con- 
stant and intermittent female; and intermittent male with a constant female; 
a constant male with a constant female ; and an intermittent male with an in- 
termittent female. Likewise, there apparently exists no relationship between 
the positive and the negative phase of the test and the delivery of infected eggs 
as individual studies show that approximately the same relative ratio of deliv- 
ery of infected eggs is maintained during the positive and the negative phase 
of the test. 

As to comparative per cent of infected eggs delivered by the constant re- 
actor and the intermittent reactor, the following results indicate that appa- 
rently there is no definite relationship between the above and the serum titer 
of the reactor. 

DELIVERY OF INFECTED EGGS 
Intermhttent Reactors 

ist year - 4,030 eggs 658 positive 16.37c positive 

2nd year 1,530 eggs 282 positive 18.4% positive 

Total 5,560 eggs 940 positive 16.9% positive 

Constant Reactors 

1st year 2,772 eggs 416 positive 15.0% positive 

2nd year 1,352 eggs 248 positive 18.3% positive 

Total 4,142 eggs 664 positive 16.1% positive 



Research in Pour thy 145 

The results of these tests, while admitting the fact that under the best of 
conditions, such analyses do not return 100 per cent results, give rise to the 
belief that as the reactor matures the per cent of infected eggs delivered 
increases. 

Results of a study of the negative phases on intermittent reactors show 
that the duration of this phase in 117 instances in which birds were tested 
at fifteen-day intervals was: 1 period, 50, or 42.7 per cent; 2 periods, 17, or 
14.5 per cent; 3 periods, 21, or 18 per cent; 4 periods, 7, or 6 per cent; 5 periods, 
8, or 5.1 per cent; 6 periods, 6, or 5.1 per cent; 8 periods, 6, or 5.1 per cent; 
9 periods, 1, or 0.9 per cent; 11 periods, 1, or 0.9 per cent. With 
a flock tested for 12 months at 30-day intervals showing 58 negative 
phases, 31, or 53.4 per cent, were of one period duration; 8, or 13.8 per cent, 
were for two periods; 9, of 15.5 per cent, for three periods; 3, or 5.2 per cent, 
for four periods; 6, or 10.3 per cent, for five periods;; 1, or 1.7 per cent, for 
six periods. These figures further emphasize the lack of safety brought 
about by accrediting on the single annual test. Season apparently exerts 
no influence on these negative phases, and while there may exist a tendency 
for stabilization of positive tests as the birds mature, in a few instances the 
numbers of such are so small as to be practically negligible. 

In the work cited above only one intermittent reactor was studied, in which, 
if tested every 30 days, would not have been positive in a 1:25 dilution in 
six tests, and it is on the basis of the above findings that the short interval 
method of testing was adopted in North Carolina. 

DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIBODIES IN PROGENY OF REACTORS 

It is of interest and practical importance to note the development of anti- 
bodies in the progeny of reacting birds. In such studies conducted at this 
Station 116 birds were bred from reacting birds and were autopsied at or before 
six months of age on account of lack of personnel to carry studies further. 
Of these only 26, or 22.4 per cent, were negative to the agglutination test at 
six months, and of the 26 negative birds 4 showed lesions of pullorum infec- 
tion and yielded cultures of S. pullora. If these 90 birds which proved to 
be positive to the agglutination test in six months were tested monthly from 
the age of two months on in a dilution of 1:25, 33, or 36.7 per cent, would have 
been removed in two months; 72, or 80 per cent, in three months; 82, or 91.1 
per cent, in four months; 88, or 97.9 per cent, in five months, and 90, or 100 
per cent, in six months. This study further emphasizes the value of testing 
at short intervals. 

RESULTS OF ONE SEASON'S TESTING AT SHORT INTERVALS IN 
NORTH CAROLINA 

Testing under this system was commenced in September, 1929, with 327 
flocks, involving over 40,000 birds. Of this number, 47 flocks dropped out 
of the testing or were discontinued for violation of rules. The results are 
as follows: 41 flocks, containing 4,399 birds, were accredited on two suc- 
cessive negative tests; 68 flocks, containing 6,178 birds, were out on three 
tests; 89 flocks, containing 7,056 birds, went out on four tests; 29 flocks, 
containing 4,300 birds, were out on five tests; 1 flock, with 58 birds, went out 
on six tests; leaving 49 flocks on the 15th of April, containing 1,479 birds, 



146 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 

still not accredited. Of these, 23 flocks had one negative test when the work 
was discontinued. In short, the status of flocks under test at the present 
time, when shortage of funds has necessitated discontinuance of testing, is 
as follows: 231, or 82.5 per cent, of 280 flocks have been accredited; 33, or 
11.8 per cent, have one negative test; and 16, or 5.7 per cent, are still positive, 
having had five or six tests. 

MORTALITY FIGURES ON CHICKS HATCHED FROM BLOOD-TESTED 

FLOCKS 

Lack of personnel made it impossible to properly follow up this work at 
the hatcheries, but from card returns from North Carolina poultrymen the 
following reports are given on chicks from these birds: 

SHORT INTERVAL TESTING PLAN USED (1929-30) 

Number blood-tested chicks purchased this year 24,383 

Number died from disease , 1,174 

Per cent loss, 4.8 per cent. 

Number non-blood-tested chicks purchased this year (1929-30) 6,075 

Number died from disease 2,526 

Per cent loss, 41.5 per cent. 

Non-tested chicks purchased last year (1928-29) 25,911 

Loss 11,239 

Per cent loss, 31.3 per cent. 

ANNUAL TESTING PLAN USED 

Number tested chicks purchased last year (1928-29) 15,860 

Loss 2,978 

Per cent loss, 18.8 per cent. 

SUMMARY 

In conclusion, we consider this work still in the embryonic stage. We 
will still have unexplainable outbreaks of pullorum disease when least ex- 
pected and when every indication points against such, even when we have 
accredited hatcheries. It is hoped, however, that if we can maintain our gain 
of this year and vigorously push ahead for five more years that North Carolina 
will be fairly well supplied with relatively safe breeding centers as far as 
pullorum disease is concerned. 

Notation: The Experiment Station wishes to make acknowledgment of 
the splendid and efficient cooperation afforded by Dr. William Moore, State 
Veterinarian, and his personnel, in lending every aid in contributing toward 
the accumulation of experimental information. The field work is carried out 
in its entirety by the State Department of Agriculture, the efficiency of this 
work being reflected in results obtained. 

INVESTIGATIONS OF SEPTICEMIC DISEASES AMONG FOWLS 
Studies of Fowl Typhoid 

This project is carried out under Adams funds and for the past year specific 
investigational work has been conducted on soil pollution and the immunity 
produced by vaccination against fowl typhoid. Results obtained are listed— 



Research in Poultry 



147 



duration of immunity produced by vaccination against avian typhoid by using 
the single, double, and triple vaccinations, as measured by the macroscopic 
agglutination test. 

Single Vaccination : Eighteen vigorous S. C. Rhode Island Reds, including 
two males, were vaccinated against avian typhoid on October 21, 1929. These 
birds were April hatched and received 1 c.c. of a standardized saline vaccine. 
No antibodies against E. sanguinaria were observed in a preliminary agglutina- 
tion test. Agglutination tests were made of the bird's serum against a 
specific antigen of E. sanguinaria, the same strain being used for the antigen 
as the vaccine. The serums were also run against an antigen of 8. pullora 
as a check of cross-agglutination properties. Results of these tests showed 
antibodies present in a dilution of 1:25 or greater for the duration of time 
as shown in Table I, Column 1. 

Double Vaccination: Eighteen birds similar to those treated with the 
single vaccination and including three males were given two vaccinations 
of 1.0 and 1.5 c.c. respectively, the same vaccine as noted above being used. 
These birds were negative to the agglutination test prior to vaccination. The 
duration of a positive serum in a dilution of 1:25 or greater is shown in column 
2, Table I. 

Triple Vaccination: Sixteen birds, similar to those in the single and double 
vaccination tests and including one male, were vaccinated three times at 
seven-day intervals with dosages of 1 c.c., 1.5 c.c, and 2 c.c. of vaccine, re- 



TABLE 1 

Showing the Number of Weeks After Vaccination Against Avian Typhoid 
that Positive Agglutination Tests are Obtained 



Week After 
Vaccination 


One 
Vaccination 


Two 
Vaccinations 


Three 
Vaccinations 


First, Second 
and Third Tests 


1 cc— 18 Birds 


1 cc and 1.5 cc, 7 Days 
Apart — 18 Birds 


1 cc, 1:5, 2 cc 7 days 
Apart — 16 Birds 




No. Birds 


Per Cent 


No. Birds 


Per Cent 


No. Birds 


Per Cent 


1 










1 


6.2 














2 


1 


5.5 


1* 


5.5 


7* 


43.7 


3 


6** 


33.5 


6* 


33.5 


2* 


12.5 


4 


8 


44.0 


5* 


27.8 


3 


18.8 


5 


2 


11.1 


2 


11.1 


3 


18.8 


6 


1 


5.5 


1 


5.5 


















3 


16.7 

















* Birds withdrawn from test for artificial infection work while positive at time of artificial infec- 
tion work. 



148 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 

spectively being used, the same vaccine being employed as above. The 
duration of a positive serum in a dilution of 1:25 or greater is shown in column 
3, Table I. 

DISCUSSION OF TABLE I 

From a practical standpoint, it is apparent that there is no outstanding 
benefit, as far as the immunity demonstrable by agglutination tests is con- 
cerned, in vaccinating the birds twice or three times. Considering the fact 
that all birds received the first vaccination on the same date, the antibody 
content in the serum of the greater per cent of birds vaccinated in Groups 
I, II, and III ran out in the 1:25 dilution on four weeks after the first vaccina- 
tion. In Group I one bird gave a positive test up to six weeks after the 
initial vaccination. In Group II three birds were positive eight weeks after 
the initial vaccination and in Group III three birds were positive eight weeks 
after the initial vaccination. 

As noted in Table I, six birds were withdrawn from each of the three groups 
of vaccinated birds and artificially infected with E. sanguinaria (Allen) in 
thirty, sixty, and ninety-day intervals after vaccination. The results of 
these artificial infection studies are listed as follows: 

SUMMARY OF ARTIFICIAL INFECTION STUDIES OF BIRDS HAVING 
SINGLE VACCINATION 

Of two birds infected thirty days after vaccination, both developed clinical 
typhoid, but threw off the disease. 

Of two birds infected sixty days after vaccination, one bird resisted the 
infection for three weeks after succumbing, but died of the disease. The 
second bird showed only a slight elevation of temperature on one day, but 
no clinical symptoms of typhoid. 

Of birds infected ninety days after vaccination, one bird resisted the infec- 
tion for sixteen days before succumbing to the disease, while the second 
showed no symptoms of typhoid in any form. 

SUMMARY OF ARTIFICIAL INFECTION STUDIES OF BIRDS HAVING 

TWO VACCINATIONS 

Of two birds inoculated thirty days after vaccination, both birds died of 
avian typhoid, although one bird resisted the disease for twenty weeks. 

Of two birds inoculated sixty days after the second vaccination, neither 
showed clinical typhoid. 

Of two birds inoculated ninety days after the second vaccination, the first 
died of typhoid after resisting the disease for ten days, while the second con- 
tracted and resisted the disease for nine days, at which time its condition 
necessitated its disposal. 

SUMMARY OF ARTIFICIAL INFECTION STUDIES OF BIRDS VAC- 
CINATED THREE TIME'S 

Two birds inoculated thirty days after third vaccination showed slight 
elevation of temperature and maintained a high positive serum titer against 
typhoid until the present time (forty weeks after inoculation). 



Research in Poultry 149 

Of two birds inoculated sixty days after the third vaccination one showed 
a slight elevation of temperature for half a day, while the second showed no 
clinical symptoms of typhoid. Neither of these birds succumbed to the disease. 

Of two birds inoculated ninety days after the third vaccination, one showed 
definite clinical typhoid and the second no indications of it. Neither bird 
died of the disease. 

RANGE INFECTION STUDIES 

At pen 5 in the disease plant a yard was set aside for soil pollution studies. 
This ground was virgin soil, having never before been ranged by chickens. 
On October 21st nine birds having received a single vaccination against avian 
typhoid were placed on this range. On October 28th nine birds having re- 
ceived two vaccinations were placed on this range, and on November 4th eight 
birds having received three vaccinations were added to this flock. Of these 
birds 22 were vigorous Rhode Island Red pullets and four Rhode Island Red 
cockrels. 

INFECTING THE SOIL 

On November 12th the pen was seeded with five quarts of the specific strain 
of E. sanguinaria used in these studies (Allen). This was a 24-hour bouillon 
emulsion and proved virulent on two negative check birds. On November 14th 
five White Leghorn pullets and one Buff Orpington were added to the pen 
as check birds, these birds not having received any prophylactic vaccination. 

On November 28th Artificial Infection Bird 1, which had shown clinical 
typhoid, was added to the pen, it probably being in the carrier stage. On 
December 24 Artificial Infection Bird 2, which had shown severe typhoid on 
infection, was added to the pen, it being without doubt in the carrier stage. 
On December 2d there was an abundance of sulphur colored droppings on the 
dropping boards. On December 5th Bird 8 was placed in Pen 5, though this 
bird did not show clinical typhoid on inoculation. On this same day the 
Buff check bird died, the organism of typhoid being recovered. On December 
12th Birds 13 and 14, both showing suspicious elevations of temperature on 
artificial infection, were placed in Pen 5. On December 29th and 30th Birds 
4 and 5 were taken to Pen 5, Bird 4 showed severe clinical typhoid, having a 
temperature of 109.7 degrees when placed in the pen, and dying in pen on 
January 10th of typhoid. Bird 5 showed no evidence of typhoid during 
artificial infection studies or later. On January 3d Birds 9 and 10 were added 
to the pen, neither of these birds showed clinical typhoid during artificial 
infection studies or later. On January 9 and 10, Birds 15 and 16 were added 
to Pen 5, these bird not reacting strongly to artificial infection, but 15 suc- 
cumbed to peritonitis on January 23d. On January 26th Birds 5 and 6 were 
added to the pen, these birds not reacting to inoculation of E. sanguinaria. 
On February 5th Bird 5 died of typhoid, while Bird 6 maintained its health. 
On February 16th Bird 17 was taken to the plant in the carrier stage, it 
showing a temperature of 109 degrees. This bird died in the pen on March 
12th of typhoid. Bird 18 was taken to the pen on February 10th, this bird 
not showing or contracting clinical typhoid. 



150 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 

SUMMARY 

The pen was populated and seeded as noted at the beginning of this study. 
Six negative check birds were added, 18 birds were taken from the pen and 
artificially infected. Of these 15 were returned, probably in the carrier stage. 
Of these returned, two died of typhoid and one check bird succumbed. Of 
the remaining five check birds, two died of causes other than typhoid and 
of the eight birds vaccinated and not artificially infected, not one showed 
any evidences of typhoid. The range studies were discontinued on the 1st 
of June and from July 15th until August 1st forty Rhode Island Red cockrels 
from eight to ten weeks old were ranged on this run with no takes from 
typhoid. 

R. S. Dearstyne, 
Head, Poultry Department. 



RESEARCH IN RURAL SOCIOLOGY 

Within the last year the Department of Rural Sociology has continued to 
work on the two projects which were under way at the time of our last annual 
report, namely: (a) "A Study of One Hundred and Fifty-four Rural Com- 
munities in Seven Typical North Carolina Counties," and (b) "A Study of 
the Influence of Community Factors Upon Family Living Among White Farm 
Owner and Tenant Operators in Wake County, North Carolina." 

During the year the third bulletin, by Dr. Anderson, developed out of the 
two standard of living projects conducted in 1926-27 and 1927-28, appeared 
in March, 1930, as Technical Bulletin No. 37, entitled, "Factors Influencing 
Living Conditions of White Owner and Tenant Farmers in Wake County." 

There also appeared in June, 1930, the first bulletin on the present standard 
of living project. This bulletin was by Dr. Anderson and Mr. Loomis and 
was entitled, "Migration of Sons and Daughters of White Farmers in Wake 
County, 1929," No. 275. 

The manuscript on the Rural Community Organization Bulletin will be pre- 
sented by January 1, 1931. 

The next bulletin, the manuscript for which is about two-thirds completed, 
will be "A Study of the Rural Churches of Wake County, North Carolina 
and the Analysis of Their Influences Upon Influence of Farm Family Standards 
of Living." 

The rural church bulletin will be followed by similar bulletins on the rural 
school, rural stores, rural health agencies, rural recreational agencies and 
general community agencies. 

The final analysis of the present project of the standard of living will consist 
of an attempt, by means of institution and agency indexes, to measure the 
total influence of community life upon farm family standard of living. 

The Department will attempt to complete the next three of these standard 
of living bulletin manuscripts by July 1, 1931. 

It is the purpose of the Department, with the assistance of R. W. Green, 
who originally worked on the project, to bring to completion a manuscript on 
"Membership relations and problems in North Carolina Farmers' Cooperatives." 

The Department has no recommendations to make at this time concerning 
future projects due to the fact that the data now at hand will take more than 
the remainder of this year for completion. 

RURAL COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS IN SEVERAL TYPICAL NORTH 
CAROLINA COUNTIES 

A study of 154 and an attempt to the factors making for their success or 
failure. 



152 



Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 



Manuscript completed in from 30 to 60 days. 

Data presented under following headings. 

Description of areas studied and methods used. 
Purposes and objectives of organizations studied. 
Membership in organizations. 
Meetings of organizations. 
Programs of organizations. 
Projects of organizations. 
Overhead affiliations. 
Finance of organization. 
Difficulties and problems encountered. 

Data from supplementary schedules on leadership in and prob- 
lems of organization. 
The relation of the organizations to types of farming, roads and 

historical factors. 
Summary and conclusion. 



Section 


I. 


Section 


II. 


Section 


III. 


Section 


IV. 


Section 


V. 


Section 


VI. 


Section 


VII. 


Section 


VIII. 


Section 


IX. 


Section 


X. 



Section XL 



Section XII. 



II 

A number of case studies of typical organizations selected from the 154 
analyzed in Part I. 

Carl C. Taylor, 
Head, Department of Rural Sociology. 



RESEARCH IN ZOOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY 

The research in the Department of Zoology and Entomology is centered 
around the study of insects and other animals of economic importance and 
around the taxonomy of certain insect groups. In general, the work on tax- 
onomy is carried on by members of the teaching staff who have no regular 
time for research but use odd hours during the week for this work. Taxonomic 
work lends itself to such irregular hours because it can be laid aside at any 
time. Economic studies cannot be pursued at odd hours in this way for 
economic work requires careful and detailed attention at specified times. 

The economic studies have been concerned with the corn ear worm, the 
harlequin bug and the corn root worm, the wintering of bees and a survey 
of the honey plants of the State. In the corn ear worm project, we have 
studied principally the factors which influence the mortality of the insect 
during the pupation period in the soil. 

In the studies of the harlequin bug the chief emphasis has been placed on 
the use of trap crops and methods of handling these crops for the control 
of this important pest of cabbage and collards. 

The rotation experiments on the corn root worm have been continued at 
the Coastal Plains Test Farm. The extreme dry weather during the spring 
effected the breeding of this insect to such an extent that no conclusions can 
be drawn from this year's work. 

In studying the factors which influence the wintering of bees it has been 
determined that it is desirable to give protection to bees in our climate and 
that the most successful colonies are those that contain young one-year-old 
queens. 

The survey of the honey producing plants will eventually show the regions 
of the State best adapted to commercial honey production and will also influ- 
ence beekeeping practices. 

The taxonomic work has been concerned chiefly with the leaf cutter bees, 
the Homoptera and the crickets. A thorough revision of the leaf cutter bees 
of North and South America is in progress. 

The studies of the Homoptera have been concerned chiefly with the prep- 
aration of the various volumes of the catalogue of the insects of the world, 
and the studies of collections from different regions of the world. 

The studies of the crickets has dealt principally with the habits, ecological 
relations and systematics of the crickets of North America. 

Brief reports by the project leaders are appended. 

One project, project No. 22, Studies in Human Inheritance, has been dis- 
continued due to the resignation of Dr. L. H. Snyder; and one new project, 
Project No. 26, The Genetics of Habrobracon, has been added. 

PROJECT REPORTS 

Project Jfo. 1. Biology of the Homoptera, Z. P. Metcalf, Leader. 

This project has been concerned chiefly with the morphology and systematics 
of this group. A thorough study of the head has been made and is nearly 
ready for publication. A study of the embryology of the periodical cicada 
is in progress. Special studies on large collections of these insects from 



154 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 

Cuba, East Africa, Central America and Madagascar have been made and 
these studies will be published at an early date. 

The first volume of the catalogue of the Homoptera of the world is about 
ready for the press, and good progress is being made on the other volumes. 

Project No. 3. The Corn Root Worm, Z. P. Metcalf, Leader. 

Careful studies have been made of the life history of this pest. These 
studies show that egg laying begins by mid March and continues to mid Sep- 
tember. Hibernating females mate during the fall and commence to lay 
eggs as soon as the weather warms up in the spring. Records were kept on 
192 females that laid eggs. These females laid a total of 15,414 eggs, or an 
average of 80 eggs per female. One female, however, laid a total of 284 
eggs. Most of the eggs are laid during the month of April. The eggs hatch 
in 7 to 8 days on the average. The larval stage varies from 20 to 50 days, 
depending on temperature, moisture, food supply, and perhaps other factors. 
The pupal stage requires 8 to 9 days. 

The rotation experiments at the Coastal Plains Test Farm have shown uni- 
formly less damage on the rotated plats. The percentage of damage this 
past year was so small that it is not safe to draw any conclusions. The small 
percentage of injury was due, undoubtedly, to • the abnormally dry spring 
months. 

Project No. 4. Corn Ear Worm, B. B. Fulton, Leader. 

Work on this project centered mainly on the pupation period in the soil. 
Starting with the first worms found in corn ears in July, a total of over two 
thousand worms were reared to maturity and placed in cages set in the ground. 
Each cage received worms maturing over a period of several days. A record 
was kept of the moths emerging in the cages. 

Moths emerged within a month from nearly 70 per cent of the larvae placed 
in cages up to the middle of August. The percentage of moths emerging 
the same season from larvae pupating during the last' half of August dropped 
off rapidly to 13 per cent in the last five days. There was an increase to 25 
per cent for larvae pupating in the first half of September, followed by a 
further decrease to an average of less than 6 per cent of moths emerging from 
pupae formed in the last half of September. None were obtained the same 
year from October pupae. 

During the summer of 1930 the infestation of ear worms was so severe 
that almost no ears escaped in the experimental plats. "Weekly counts of 
eggs on fresh corn silks give an indication of the relative abundance through- 
out the season. The first counts on July 2 showed 45 per cent of the ears 
with eggs on the silk with an average of .9 egg per ear. This increased the 
next week to 73 per cent infestation and then dropped down to 27 per cent 
on July 19. From then on, there was a rapid increase in infestation to 100 
per cent of the ears on August 8. The peak in the number of eggs deposited 
was reached August 19 with an average of over 18 eggs per mass of silks. 
There was then a gradual decrease in eggs deposited on fresh silks until the 
last count on September 24, when 53 per cent of the ears showed eggs with 
an average of .8 per ear. 



Research in Zoology and Entomology 155 

Project No. 6. Wintering of Bees, F. B. Meacham, Leader. 

This project has been under way for the past six years and as the results 
vary so much from year to year, it seems advisable to continue this work. 

During the past year, a report was given on this subject before the North 
Carolina Academy of Science. Data for the last two seasons have been 
assembled and the results compare favorably was previous years. During 
1928-29, fifteen colonies were used in the experiment and, contrary to previous 
results, the unprotected colonies made a very good showing. The next sea- 
son's results are in favor of paper packing, but this can be accounted for 
by the fact that only a good representative colony was used for the record. 
Ten colonies during 1929-30 were used for records. The results for this season 
seem to favor the case packing method. 

The conclusion from these experiments is that there is an advantage in 
giving the apiary added protection during the winter and that it would pay 
the small beekeeper to give this protection where many colonies are below 
the standard for successful wintering without protection. Young year-old 
queens give better results in the spring than older ones. 

Project No. 7. A Survey of the Honey Producing Plants of the State, 

F. B. Meacham, Leader. 

This is a continued project and a large amount of data has been assembled. 
Reports are coming in from different parts of the State. Several reports col- 
lected by a former worker have been turned over to the present leader and 
they were a valuable addition to our records. To date, thirteen reports from 
scattered areas in the Coastal Plain section of the State have been received. 
Seventeen from the Piedmont section and eighteen from the Mountain section. 
These include information about thirty-five different honey plants as to their 
blooming dates and honey production. Some of the leading honey plants 
of eastern North Carolina are tupelo gum, gailberry, huckleberry, and black 
gum. The most important from the Piedmont region are tulip poplar, alsike 
clover, sweet clover, vetch, and persimmon. For the Mountain section, the 
leading plants are sourwood, clovers, basswood, and tulip poplar. Numerous 
other plants in all sections show a great variation in the amount of surplus 
nectar produced. 

The blooming dates of some of the plants from eastern sections have been 
tabulated and the following are representative examples: black gum, from 
May 3 to May 22; gailberry, May 10 to June 10; blackberries, April 30 to 
May 30. From such information, we are able to manipulate our bees so as 
to secure the maximum crop of honey from the plants when they bloom. 

Project No. 8. The Bees of North Carolina, T. B. Mitchell, Leader, 
i Some additional material was collected during the past year and, therefore, 
some additional data concerning the occurrence and flower-visiting habits of 
native bees was obtained^ Collections were made chiefly in the vicinity of 
Raleigh, Wilmington, and Marion, representing three quite distinct types 
of habitat. 

Project No. 20. The Taxonomy and Biology of the Leaf-cutter Bees, T. B. 

Mitchell, Leader. 

The revision of this genus of bees (Megachile) as it occurs in North America 
is considerably nearer completion than at this time last year, and it is hoped 



156 Fifty-Third Annual Report N. C. Agri. Exp. Station 

that the manuscript will be finished by the end of the present fiscal year 
(1930-31). A paper describing 107 species new to science from South America 
was completed, and was published by the American Entomological Society, 
(Transactions Volume 56). The study of this South American material was 
of much value in determining the range of subgeneric groups represented in 
North America, and it is hoped that a more complete survey of the South 
and Central American species may be accomplished after the knowledge of 
the North American species has been brought up to date. 

Project No. 24. Harlequin Bug', B. B. Fulton, Leader. 

The results of two summers' work on the effect of contact insecticides on 
the harlequin bug have been published as Paper No. 38 of the Journal Series. 
Tests of various known contact insecticides on the harlequin bug, Murgantia 
histrionica, brought out the fact that certain soap solutions are very effective, 
but only under conditions of low evaporation. Further experiments under 
known rates of evaporation show that the efficiency of soap solution is indi- 
rectly proportional to the rate of evaporation. The addition of hygroscopic 
substances did not materially increase the effectiveness. Tests with several 
kinds of soap on two other species of insects show that the relationship is 
probably a general one. Plantings have been made for further experiments 
with trap crops. 

Project jVo. 26. The Genetics of Habrobracon, C. H. Bostian, Leader. 

In the parasitic wasp, Habrobracon juglanclis, virgin females produce only 
males, while mated females produce both males and females. The conclusion 
has been drawn that all males come from unfertilized eggs. This conclusion 
was proved to be untenable. From the cross of recessive orange-eyed females 
by related black-eyed males, there appeared orange males and black, hetero- 
zygous females, as expected, and in addition, a few black males which must 
have received their eye color from the male parent. 

Such biparental males have been produced in the last few years in a great 
variety of crosses of females recessive for traits by males having the domi- 
nant traits. Several important facts have been learned concerning the pro- 
duction of these biparental males : 

1. Biparental males are produced only in crosses involving related stocks. 

2. The proportion of biparental males to biparental males plus females 
ranges from to not more than 10 or 15 per cent. 

3. Over 80 per cent of all biparental males tested have proved sterile. 

4. The offspring produced by the few fertile biparental males have been 
very abnormal and completely sterile. 

5. There is no evidence of intersexuality among the biparental males. They 
are normal males in both appearance and instincts. 

6. Higher temperatures (about 86° F.) produce a larger percentage of 
biparental males than lower temperatures (about 60° F.). 

7. Biparental males are probably diploid. 

8. Attempts to increase the proportion of biparental males by selection have 
been successful, indicating that the tendency to produce biparental males is 
hereditary to some extent. 

This investigation aims to throw some light on the question of sex-deter- 
mination in Habrobracon. These experiments are primarily concerned with 



Research in Zoology and Entomology 157 

attemptsto explain why biparental males are produced only in related stocks, 
and to learn more about the inheritance of the tendency for producing the 
biparental males. 

In addition, some time will be devoted to testing mutations which occur in 
Habroracon, and in determining the linkage relationships of the genes for 
such mutations. 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS 

The following contributions to scientific journals by members of the staff 
should be noted. 

The Relation of Evaporation to Killing Efficiency of Soap Solutions on the 
Harlequin Bug- and Other Insects, by B. B. Fltlton, Journal of Economic 
Entomology 23: 625-630. 

A New Species of Nemobius from North Carolina, by B. B. Fulton. Entomo- 
logical News 41 : 38-42. 
A description of Nemobius sparsalus n. sp. from a salt marsh at Carolina 

Beach, North Carolina. 

Contribution to the Knowledge of Neotropical Megachile with Descriptions 
of New Species, by T. B. Mitchell. Translations of the American Ento- 
mological Society 56: 155-305; plates 10-14. 

Nomenclature, by Z. P. Metcalf, Science 72: 318-319. 

On the whole, the research work of the Department of Zoology and Ento- 
mology has progressed in a satisfactory manner, considering funds and per- 
sonnel available. 

Z. P. Metcalf, 
Entomologist. 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT 

The following is a certified statement of the receipts from the Treasurer of 
the United States, supplementary funds from the State Department of Agri- 
culture, and sales from the Station farms, with a record of their disbursement: 

The North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, 

In account with the United States Appropriation, 1929-1930. 

Dr. 

Hatch Adams P urn ell 

Fund Fund Fund 
To receipts from the Treasurer of the United 
States, as per appropriations for the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1930, under acts of Con- 
gress approved March 2, 1887 (Hatch 
Fund), and March 16, 1906 (Adams Fund), 

and February 24, 1925 (Purell Fund) $15,000.00 $15,000.00 $60,000.00 

Cr. 

Salaries $12,913.00 $12,300.00 $39,384.70 

Labor 122.12 450.10 5,444.22 

Stationery and office supplies 16.58 138.37 287.62 

Scientific supplies, consumable 41.96 690.51 1,068.87 

Feeding stuffs 146.43 4,185.40 

Sundry supplies 155.28 205.06 516.34 

Fertilizers 26.40 9.15 215.06 

Communication service 5.55 2.62 87.94 

Travel expenses 1,617.56 515.24 4,250.88 

Transportation of things 91.87 44.77 236.40 

Publications 1,924.64 

Heat, light, water and power 79.77 119.51 

Furniture, furnishings, fixtures : 27.29 562.64 

Library 58.81 

Scientific equipment 188.42 943.43 

Livestock 45.89 

Tools, machinery, and appliances 9.68 152.27 626.56 

Buildings and land .' 50.00 39.00 

Contingent expenses 2.09 



Total $15,000.00 $15,000.00 $60,000.00 

The North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, 
In account with Farm and Miscellaneous Receipts. 

Dr. 

State Department of Agriculture $60,000.00 

Sales : 15,537.14 

Special endowments, industrial fellowships and similar grants 7,163.84 

Miscellaneous 537.06 



Total $83,238.04 



Financial Statement 159 

Cr. 

Salaries $40,733.50 

Labor 8,568.48 

Stationery and office supplies 830.37 

Scientific supplies, consumable r 509.66 

Feeding stuffs , 6,163.64 

Sundry supplies 1,931.81 

Fertilizers 1,641.28 

Communication service 943.01 

Travel expenses 9,291.12 

Transportation of things 594.60 

Publications 547.50 

Heat, light, water and power 862.13 

Furniture, furnishings and fixtures 415.78 

Library 682.79 

Scientific equipment 91.07 

Livestock 2,545.00 

Tools, machinery and appliances 1,227.15 

Buildings and land 1,191.35 

Contingent expenses 463.14 

Unexpended balance 4,004.66 

Total $83,238.04 

We, the undersigned, duly appointed auditors of the expenditures from 
Federal appropriations reported herein, do hereby certify that we have exam- 
ined the books and accounts of the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment 
Station for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1930; that we have found the same 
well kept and classified as above; that the balance brought forward from the 
preceding year was nothing on the Hatch Fund, nothing on the Adams Fund, 
and nothing on the Purnell Fund; that the receipts for the year from the 
Treasurer of the United States were $15,000.00 under the Act of Congress of 
March 2, 1887, $15,000.00 under the act of Congress March 16, 1906, and 
$60,000.00 under the act of Congress of February 24, 1925, and the correspond- 
ing disbursements $15,000.00, $15,000.00, and $60,000.00; for all of which proper 
vouchers are on file and have been by us examined and found correct, leaving 
balances of nothing, nothing, and nothing, respectively. 

And we further certify that the expenditures have been solely for the pur- 
poses set forth in the acts of Congress approved March 2, 1887, March 16, 
1906, and February 24, 1925, and in accordance with the terms of said acts, 
respectively. (Signed) 

R. Y. Winters, 

Director of the Experiment Station. 
A. F. Bowen, 

Financial Officer of the Institution. 
A. S. Brower, 
(S ea l) Comptroller. 

Attest : 

A. F. Bowen, 

Custodian of the Seal. 



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STATE LIBRARY OF NORTH CAROLINA 



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