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ROYAL EXOTIC NURSERIES, 




THE ART 

OF 



AT 

CHRIgTMAS AND OTHER TIMES- 



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JKanxtal of Uiwttnns, 

EDITED AND RE-WRITTEN 

BY 

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Rector of Little Braxted, Essex. 



Wttb flatus bn % fffcttor, atttr an Appatfe, 

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IHE GlTTV CENTER 
LIBRARY 



EXTRACT FROM 
PREFACE TO THE FORMER BOOK, 



The following pages are intended to serve as a plain practical 
compendium of the art of Garnishing Churches at Christmas 
and other Festivals. The principles of the art are briefly 
discussed, and the rules for applying them are given so fully 
that they will, it is hoped, suffice for the guidance of the most 
inexperienced amateurs. 

EDWARD YOUNG COX. 

October, 1868. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2014 



https://archive.org/details/artofgarnishingcOOgeld 



CONTENTS. 

— »** — 

PREFACE. 
CHAPTER I. —Introductory. 

PAGE 

Historical Notes, etc n 

CHAPTER II. 

General Principles; What to avoid, the Limits of Decoration, etc. . . 15 

CHAPTERS III., IV., V., VI., VII. 

The Making of Wreaths, Devices, Banners, Diapers, Temporary Screens, etc. 21-35 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Texts ; their Choice and Execution ......... 36 

CHAPTER IX. 

Emblems and Symbols — (1) The Name of Christ. (2) Other Sacred Emblems 
and Figures. (3) Emblems of the Angels. (4) The Apostles. (5) The Saints 
and their Flowers. (6) Shields. (7) Crowns. (8) Fleurs de Lys. (9) Colours 48 

CHAPTER X. 

Structural Decoration — Arches, Walls, Windows, Pulpits, Fonts and Screens 67 

CHAPTER XI. 

A Concise List of Materials ..... ...... 70 



APPENDIX. 

Containing Price List and Descriptive Catalogue of Materials used in Church Decoration. 



PREFACE TO THE PRESENT BOOK. 



Kindly Reader, 

One of the first difficulties in writing this hook, though (as is 
customary) the last encountered, was the character which I should assume- 
to you in the Preface ; whether Editor, Author, or Corrector. 

The publishers put into my hands some months ago the last edition ol 
the " Art of Garnishing," and requested me to "re-write" it, suggesting that 
my pencil as well as my pen should be used within the like wide range. 

In sending these sheets and plates to the printer with a view to their 
meeting your eyes, my reader, I send as the result of my labours, the 
" re-writing " and the " re-drawing " of nearly every page. Still how far my 
work is original (the writing at least) I scarcely know, for paste and scissors 
have been freely employed. 

Differences of style may here and there betray the patches on the 
garment, but as I have neither desire to take the praise of others nor to bear 
the blame, it may be well to state as far as possible what is new and what old. 

The historical notes are from the former book ; the list of texts in great 
measure, the directions for making wreaths, devices in straw, everlastings, 
applique work and so forth, are almost entirely old material. 

The " general principles " are altogether new* but it is to be hoped 
also true ; the rest of the book is more or less (rather more) original. The 
Drawings are nearly all fresh and with very few exceptions autograph ; here 
and there I have pasted on to a sheet a device or monogram from the old 
book, but in every such case whether the plate is wholly or partly old I have 
withheld my signature, in all other cases my monogram is to be found on 
some part of the plate. 

Anxious (as always) to avoid the charge of plagiarism I wish to draw 
special attention to Plates II. and III., of which I am justly proud; and to 
state that they are entirely original, and that they are not copied from the 
decorations at Grubbington-in-the-Clay (for I have never been there) ; but, 
though original, they are confessedly "very like." 

I must acknowledge my indebtedness — 

First to Messrs. Cox, Buckley & Co., the publishers of this book, for 
putting into my hands the materials on which this work is based, and for 
leaving " my hands free." 



* Save the last four paragraphs. 



viii. 

Secondly to Mr. Jas. Parker for the use of the figures of the nine 
orders of Angels on Plate XIII., which are extracted from his " Calendar of 
the Prayer Book Illustrated." 

And last but not least to my friend Mr. Brooks, who gave me the 
drawing of his beautiful Church at Northfleet on which to hang some 
garnishing, as a frontispiece to this work. 

Further than this I should perhaps state that many of the Emblems in 
Chapter IX. are borrowed from Husenbeth's " Emblems of the Saints ; " in 
fact the list (5) is taken mainly from that work, which indeed is a standard 
authority. 

The same may be said of Boutell's Heraldry, which I consulted when 
drawing the plate of the Cross. Many other books have been searched, my 
own sketch books among the number, and the result you have in your hands. 

It is far from perfect, but I have tried to do my best, and if you, my 
reader, will do the same you will improve upon it, and make the Sanctuary 
of God each holy tide that comes 

" More Glorious." 

ERNEST GELD ART. 

Little Braxted Rectory, 
With am, 

Trinity-tide, 1882. 



The Second Edition, 

Following so quickly in the steps of its predecessor, has but few changes 
or improvements. Before the third call is made I hope to prepare fresh 
Material and additional Plates. 



E. G. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



i. 

View of an Altar decorated for Christmas. 
II. 

Desecrated Church Furniture — Font, Pulpit, Lectern, and Altar Rails. 

III. 

What to avoid in decorating an Altar : — 
Fig. i. — The multiplication of the Cross, unconstructional Arcading, etc. 
Fig. 2. — The cumbering of the Holy Table. 

IV. 

A temporary Rood Screen of Lath, covered with Evergreens, etc. 

V. 

A side Screen to Chancel, various Wreaths, Texts, Banners, etc. 

VI. 

The treatment of blank Arches, Columns, and Window Sills. 

VII. 

Wall Diapers in Evergreens and Everlastings, etc. 
VIII. 

A Font decorated, i, 2, 3, 4 — Various methods of filling in plain Panels, 
whether of stone or wood. 5 and 6 — Screen suitable either for dividing a 
Baptistery, or for filling in a blank Wall at the West End of a Church. 

IX. 

A Pulpit and two Fonts decorated. 

Figs 1 — 9. — Various Devices for hanging upon the Walls. 
Fig. 10. — A Chancel Screen (adapted from an ancient Stone Screen). 

B 



X. 



X. 

The Emblems of the Passion of our Redeemer. 

Figs, i — 4. — The Evangelistic Symbols. 
Fig 5. — The Emblem of the Blessed Sacrament. 

XI. 

Various Sacred Emblems (described in the text). 
XII. 

The Heraldry of the Cross. 
XIII. 

Emblems of the Apostles and Angels, the Sacred Dove, and the Passion Flower. 

XIV. 

Crowns, Roses, Fleurs-de-Lys, and other Emblems. 
XV. 

Six different Suggestions for Temporary Dossals, with Evergreens and 

Hangings. 

XVI., XVII., and XVIII. 
Alphabets and Scroll Work. 

XIX. 

Texts and Illuminated Borders. 
XX. 

Various forms of Texts, Scrolls, and Legends for placing over Arches 

or on Walls. 

XXI. AND XXII. 

Banners and Bannerettes. 
XXIII. 

Various devices in Everlasting Flowers. 
XXIV. 

Frame Work for Font Covers, Metal Troughs, Crosses, Flower 
Holders, etc., etc. 

XXV. 

Sketches of Frames for Screens, Patterns of " Foundations " for Devices 
whether in Zinc or Card-board. 



THE ART 

OF 

^armsjmtg Cljurcljcs at Christmas 

AND OTHER FESTIVALS 



CHAPTER I. 

Introductory. 

The " Garnishing of Churches," of which this book treats, may, now-a- 
days, be fairly supposed to have passed the region of apology. If argument 
ever was necessary to overcome prejudice or rebut objections it is so no 
longer. The principle of Beauty in the House of the Lord is accepted on all 
hands, and it is, perhaps, rather needful to temper zeal with discretion than 
to soften opposition. 

To us of to-day, Christmas, Easter, and Witsuntide speak so naturally 
from the sanctuary where " the fir tree, the pine tree, and the box together 
beautify the place,"* that it requires an effort of memory to recall the days 
when, save a few ill-set sprigs of holly at Christmas, none of these things 
were known. 

It is then a question, rather, "How shall we decorate?" and not 
" Shall we do so ? " 

If indeed it is not unpleasing to God that the beautiful things of His 
Earth should be brought into His House, How shall they be so gathered 
together that " the place of His feet may be glorious ? " 



* Isaiah lx., 13. 



12 

All Church Decoration (architectural or otherwise) has a double 
purpose to serve — the glory of God and the edification of man. The first is 
secured if there be the intention of " an honest and good heart ; " the latter, 
unfortunately, cannot be, unless what is done accords with the rules of good 
taste. 

It is probably not too much to say that, in the sight of our Maker, it 
matters not what materials are used or how they are disposed ; but since men 
are greatly influenced, for good or ill, by what they see, we must so strive to 
work that every touch of the chisel, every spot of colour, every line of 
ornament, " cry out of the wall : " that there be sermons in stones, in glass, 
in wood, in flowers, and fruit and leaves. 

Such being the case, it is well nigh as important in temporary 
" Decorations," as in permanent ornament, that this end be kept in view ; 
that nothing may militate against the harmony of form and colour that should 
be found in every house, and above all in the House of Worship. 

True, mistaken perpetrations in stone and wood are more serious 
because more enduring; but bad taste, in however short-lived a manifestation, 
is, for the time being, equally painful, and if it be not too strong a word- 
demoralizing. 

We will suppose that our readers wish to decorate a Church for one of 
the Festivals ; the purpose of this book is to give hints that may help them 
in their good endeavours. But first, a few extracts in the shape of historical 
notes may not be out of place. 

Spenser, in his " Shepherd's Complaint," which appeared in 1579, says: 

" Youths folke now flocken in every where 
To gather May buskets and smeling breere, 
And home they hasten the posts to dight ; 
And all the Kirke pillars ere daylight 
With Hawthorne buds and sweet Eglantine 
And girlonds of Roses." 

In a lew words he manages to give a very complete idea of the mode 
in which Churches were garnished with various flowers in his day. The 
"posts" and pillars of the sacred building were to be decked with the 
fragrant blossoms of the White Thorn, with branches of Sweet Briar, and 
garlands of Roses. 

Christinas.-— Stowe, in his " Survey of London," which was first pub- 
lished about twenty years later (1598), says : — 

" Against the feast of Christmas every man's house, as also their parish Churches, were 
dressed with holme, ivy, bayes, and whatsoever the season of the year afforded to be green. 
The conduits and standards in the streets were garnished in the same manner." 

Here, again, the modern decorator may gain one or two useful hints. 
The quotation from old Stowe may serve to remind us that there are other 



13 

available materials at Chiistmas besides Holly — that the Ilex or evergreen 
Oak, the bay, laurel, rosemary, yew, and ivy may, even in mid-winter, be 
used to give a festive appearance to God's house. 

Perhaps one of the most striking evidences of the antiquity of the 
custom is the name of the evergreen shrub Holly — evidently a corruption of 
" Holy. In all probability the appellation is derived from the use of holly 
leaves and berries to adorn churches. The practice of decking sacred edifices 
with green boughs and flowers existed long before the Reformation ; but it is 
clear that the custom was not interrupted by that event. The passages 
above-cited are taken from authors who wrote many years after the separa- 
tion of the English Church from that of Rome, and after the revision of our 
Ritual and the adoption of our present Prayer-book. Several learned writers 
have collected interesting extracts from churchwardens' accounts in different 
parts of the kingdom, showing that during the sixteenth century flowers were 
frequently provided at the expense of the parishioners in adorning Churches. 

Among the ancient annual disbursements of S. Mary-at-Hill, in the 
City of London, is the following entry : — " Holme and ivy at Christmas Eve, 
iiijd." In the churchwardens' account of S. Lawrence Parish, Reading, 
1505, " It. payed to Makrell for the holy bush agayne Christmas, ijd." In 
similar accounts for the Parish of S. Margaret, Westminster, 1647, " Item 
paid for rosemarie and bayes that was stuck about the Church at Christmas, 
is. 6d." 

Coles, in his " Art of Simpling," 1656, says: — " In some places setting 
up of holly, ivy, rosemary, bayes, yew, &c, in Churches at Christmas is still 
in use." 

This passage, considering the date when it was written, is very 
remarkable. It shows that in the time of the Commonwealth, when the 
Puritan party was in the zenith of its power, old customs were not altogether 
abrogated. 

In Herbert's "Country Parson" 1657, (p. 56), the author tells us, 
" Our parson takes order that the Church be swept and kept clean without 
dust or cobwebs, and at great festivals, st rawed and stuck with boughs." 

A writer in the Gentleman's Magazine for May, 181 1, speaking of the 
manner in which the inhabitants of the North Riding in Yorkshire celebrate 
Christmas, says : " The windows and pews of the Churches (and also the 
windows of houses) are adorned with branches of holly, which remain till 
Good Friday." If this were really the " use of York," it is noteworthy, as 
common custom fixes Candlemas Eve as the time for removal of all Christmas 
decorations.* 



* Or Septuagesima Sunday, if that happen earlier than Feb. 2. 



Palm Sunday.— Newton, in " Herbal for the Bible," says, speaking of 
the palm: — "The common people in some countries used to deck their 
Churches with the boughs and branches thereof, on the Sunday next before 
Easter." In the churchwardens' account for S. Mary Outwich, London, 
1510 — ii, is the entry: - "First, paid for palme,* box, floures, and cakes, 
iiijd." In the accounts for All Hallows, Staining, " Item for box and 
palme on Palme Sundays ; item for gennepore for the Churche, ijd." 

Easter. — In the churchwardens' accounts for S. Mary-at-Hill is an 
entry: — " Three great garlands for the crosses, of roses and lavender; three 
dozen other garlands for the quire, 3s." In the churchwardens' accounts for 
S. Mary Outwich, London, 1525, " Paid for brome ageynst Easter, jd." 

Whitsunday.-- Collinson, in his " History of Somersetshire," speaking 
of the Parish of Yatton, says : — " John Lane of this parish, gent., left half an 
acre of ground called the ' Groves ' to the poor for ever, reserving a quantity 
of grass for strewing the Church on Whitsunday." Among the ancient 
annual Church disbursements of S. Mary-at-hill, London, is the following : — 
" Garlands, Whitsunday, iijd." 

Harvest Festivals. — It is to be feared that the custom of decorating a 
Church for a Harvest Festival will have to stand on its own merits, without 
such witness or support as antiquity supplies in regard of the Holy Days of 
the Calendar. 



* Probably not real palm, but the Salix, or Sallow, which generally flowers towards the 
end of Lent. 




<5 



CHAPTER II. 

General Principles. 

a. — The first and most obvious principle is this — a Church when 
decorated should be at least as fit for use as when unadorned. 

But, obvious as this would seem to be, a large proportion of the: 
decorations commonly in vogue cumber the ground, embarrass the clergy in 
their ministrations, and make each recurrent festival a source of anxious fore- 
boding. The most hopeful prospect often extends no further than a bare 
chance of being able to see the services safely through, without disturbance of 
the " decorations " falsely so-called ; for nothing that interferes with the use 
of a " garnished " place or object can rightly be said to decorate it, if deri- 
vations count for anything. 

It will be as well, therefore, in laying down some broad rules, to illus- 
trate them by a few fearful examples that may show " what to avoid," and 
we will begin with the Font. 

Since the present custom of the Church does not limit Baptism to 
Easter (or Whitsun) Eve, it stands to reason that a christening may occur on 
any day ; and, as the Prayer Book recommends " Holy Days " in preference 
to others, a direction coincident with the natural inclination of most folk, a 
" Decorated " Font will in all likelihood have to be used. 

But when we approach the Font, we find perhaps that the flat oak 
cover has been replaced by a tin trough filled with earth, and banked high 
with moss and flowers ; a prickly hedge surrounds it, which, on the removal 
of the superstructure, unwinds itself and falls to the floor, a tangled heap of 
brown paper, string and leaves. (See Fig. i, PI. II.) 

Or, again, we may find a plantation of flower pots, which entirely 
prevents the clergyman from approaching within a foot or two of the basin. 

Or else the Font (in disregard of the rubric) is found to be already full 
of water, stale and discoloured with decaying leaves, the result of a " floating 
cross " of lilies. 

Surely few words are needed to show the folly of such " decorations " 
as these. 

We will next come to the Reading Desk and Choir Stalls. Here a 
favourite device is to nail or glue round the edges of the bookboards a band 
of sharp leaves, which render it difficult to turn over a leaf of the Prayer 
Book without pricking our fingers. (Fig. 2, PI. II.) 



i6 



Another plan is to flank the sides of the stall ends with huge wreaths, 
and bunches of evergreens and flowers. These are specially perilous to the 
surplices of clergy and choir when they enter and leave the Chancel. 
(Fig. 3, PI. II.) 

The pulpit often suffers in the same way. The preacher pricks his 
hands, and catches his surplice, if for a moment he forgets " where he is." 
There is, moreover, an additional element of danger. Unless timely warning 
is given by churchwarden or sacristan, the preacher may unwarily raise or 
lower the pulpit desk ; then, as likely as not, a sharp twang of wire is heard 
(like the breaking of a harp string), and a shower of " all manner of things " 
falls down into the nave. (Fig. 4, PI. II.) The well-meaning decorator sits 
below, flushing with vexation, and complains as she leaves the church- 
" Why couldn't Mr. Dash leave the desk alone ? " To which the obvious 
retort would be — " Why could not Miss Blank have done so ? " 

The Communicants' Rail is intended to serve as a support for those 
who need it, either in kneeling or rising up. What, then, can be more dis- 
tracting to the Communicants at the most solemn moment than to find no 
place to rest the hand, save a ridge of holly or a bunch of fruit. What more 
unseemly than to retire from the altar with patches of cotton wool clinging to 
the knees, or with garments stained and spoiled by crushed flowers and 
berries. (Figs. 7 and 8, PI. II.) 

The Altar itseif is too often treated in a manner ill beseeming " God's 
Board." Sheaves of corn, plates of fruit, piles of grapes, hops, oats, and so 
forth are placed where nothing should ever be put save the bread and wine 
and the alms of the faithful presented at the offertory. (Fig. 2, PI. III.) 

The Lectern and Litany Desk (if there be one) suffer the fate of the 
Pulpit, and are dangerous and irritating to approach. (Fig. 5, PI. II.) 

It will be sufficiently clear to the reader that the foregoing remarks 
are based on fairly sound reasoning, and few will be found to deny that they 
are amply justified. 

Granting, however, that nothing should interfere with the use of the 
Church, or its furniture, there are divers other " Cautels," and if we may so 
say " Prohibitions " to be laid down. 

b. — Never on any account should a nail (or even a tin tack) be driven 
into either wood or stone. 

If you cannot make a Decoration stay in its place by the law of 
gravitation, or by the use of string and wire, take it away and find some other 
place for it. 

To drive nails into a rough plaster wall for the suspension of wreaths 
and so on is harmless, but to break the joints of a stone or marble pulpit, to 
riddle the edges and split the panels of oak stalls is not decoration but 
desecration. 



'7 

Let any one calculate the number of Festivals and the number of nails 
driven in each time, and it may easily be judged how long it will take before 
the ill-used object is completely destroyed. A century of such treatment 
would wreck the most substantial pulpit or font in existence." 

Another plan less destructive but almost equally disfiguring is to stick 
brown paper with glue or sealing wax on to the window-sills, font, pulpit, 
stalls, or Lectern, and upon this foundation to sew floral decorations. It 
should be unnecessary to remark that neither stone nor wood will endure the 
washing and scraping necessary for its removal without damage. 

c.--No " Decoration of the Decorated " should be allowed. If gilding 
the refined gold be superfluous, to cover up costly carving or marble inlay 
with bunches of leaves is ridiculous ; yet a common conception of the deco- 
ration of a stall end is to tie (or nail) on the oak " Poppy-head " a shapeless 
bunch of green. (Fig. 3, PI. II.) 

A Font, if carved, should be as much as possible "left alone." If a 
skeleton cover of galvanized wire be put upon it wreathed with flowers, well 
and good ; provided always that it is either easily removable, or else that it 
does not hinder a Baptism. But never cover carved crockets with moss, 
delicate tracery with flock paper, or angels with veils of evergreen. 

If, however, a Font or Pulpit be plain there can be no objection to 
wreaths and shields being suspended or tied, provided neither nails nor glue be 
used. If it is required to garnish a Square or Octagonal Font with such 
devices, nothing is easier than to put a plain wire hoop upon the top from 
which to hang them, or to tie a cord midway for securing them. The broad 
rule is — Decorate plain spaces but leave details to " tell their own tale." 
(Figs. 11, 12, 13, PI. IX.) 

D. — Another rule is this — Never, if possible, " break the lines" of the 
Architecture, especially those that are vertical. Hence it follows that the 
greatest care must be taken in wreathing columns or " splining" arches. 

Supposing a Church be a Norman or early Transitional building with 
thick short columns, heavy capitals, and square arches, it will be found that 
light spiral wreaths on the columns brighten them up, and that a spline 
covered with evergreens can be suitably bent into the square reveals of the 
arcade, while if the capital projects sufficiently all round, a thin ■ crown " of 
leaves will sit well upon it. (Fig. 1, PI. VI.) 

But the effect of treating the slender columns and the delicate arch- 
nioulds of a late-decorated or perpendicular arcade in the same fashion is 
nothing short of ruinous. 

e. — Never invent arcades or arched panels in impossible places, or on 



* One is commonly told that one tin tack makes such a small hole that it is invisible. So 
does a drawing pin, but the corners of a drawing board are reduced to the consistency of bran 
in a very few years. 

c 



i8 



blank walls where there is nothing to suggest them. (Fig. i, PI. III.) will 
probably be sufficient warning on this head. 

On the other hand a plain arch may be ".Cusped," or filled with 
tracery (Figs. 4, 5, 6, PI. VI.), if the style of the architecture be not violated — 
as by the insertion of an Early Cusp in a perpendicular opening, or of 
Geometrical tracery in a Norman arch. 

It will perhaps be better to consult some one with technical knowledge 
before venturing on such attempts. 

The same remark applies to Temporary Screens of light lath covered 
with foliage. (Pis. IV., V., IX.) 

Nothing can be more seemly than such screens if well designed ; no 
more admirable plan suggested than such experiments if a permanent screen 
be in view. 

Often it is impossible to foresee the general effect, or to forecast what 
lines of the building it will " cut," where it will clash with some existing 
detail or what it will hide, till such a " template " is erected. 

So, on the contrary, nothing will so effectually dispose of the objection 
frequently made by fractious churchwardens, or obstructive farmers, that 
" a screen " stops the view, and makes the Church " look small." 

As a general rule no screen ever does anything but make a Church look 
larger, and in nine cases out of ten, so far from stopping the view, it " carries 
it on " in a most happy manner, giving fresh beauty to what is already 
comely. On this head it is not beside the mark to call the reader's attention 
to the fact that a wild beast in the Zoological Gardens is perfectly visible 
though the screen of its cage is solid to the extent of nearly 50 per cent. 

So it is scarcely likely that half-a-dozen uprights in a width of 15 or 
20 feet will render the Chancel of a Church obscure. 

f. Never do more work than is necessary in the Church, and a fortiori 
in the Chancel. Avoid, so far as possible, making the Sanctuary a workshop 
or a lumber-room. 

If in the unconsecrated Temple during its building " no sound of axe 
or hammer " was heard, we may well think it unseemly that the sound of 
tools, the chatter of busy workers, and sometimes, alas, the wrangling of 
disputant decorators, should be heard in the Chancel of a Christian Temple. 
Therefore, all larger work necessitating hammering and entailing litter and 
rubbish should be done in the school, the vicarage, or the nearest house, and 
each article as it is finished brought into the Church for fixture. Or else, if 
there is no convenient place near at hand, let the vestry be used in preference 
to the nave, the nave or aisles in preference to the Chancel. Let all the 
workers honestly try to minimize the evil. 

o. If it be not an impertinence, the author would humbly suggest that 
nothing should ever be done which is likely to arouse prejudice without good 



*9 

cause. If, for example, it is known that half-a-dozen people will be troubled 
in mind by some emblem or text likely to be misconstrued, and which has no 
necessary bearing on the Feast or its services, charity, not to say prudence, 
would suggest the substitution of some other ornament. 

At the same time it must be admitted that no amount of forethought 
can insure immunity from offence. The Churchwarden who saw the sacred 
monogram p and complained of the excess of Popery, which unsatisfied 
with Pius IX., demanded Pius X., is, after all, but typical. 

h. As far as possible avoid sameness and feeble repetition. If the 
hoops or wire frames used at one festival are again employed try to vary 
their position as well as their vegetable or other covering. 

Who does not know the weary anticipation which awaits the re- 
appearance of a well-known interlaced triangle or vesica, or S. Andrew 
Cross, covered with blue flannel at Christmas, white at Easter, and red at 
Pentecost ; or of a dingy " Ter Sanctus," recurring with unfailing regularity 
upon the altar or screen ? A little ingenuity, a little extra thought would 
prevent such distasteful monotony. 

i. Avoid meaningless multiplication of symbols and emblems. 

If a Church is dedicated to S. Peter, do not let the cross keys meet 
the eye at ever)' turn ; if to S. Andrew, let the )( cross be varied by some- 
thing else. There are few saints but have two or more emblems. 

So with the cross of Christ, the most sacred, yet, at the same time, 
the most vulgar of ornaments. Far too often it is used simply as a dernier 
ressort when invention fails. " Oh, put a cross," is an easy solution of a 
difficulty; but it is not reverent, nor is it edifying to see the symbol of re- 
demption scattered broadcast. Specially should this be borne in mind on the 
altar. If there is one cross upon the ledge no other is needed. Fig. i, PI. III., 
which is little if anything exaggerated, shows the length to which this evil 
will run. 

k. Never put cut flowers in places where they will wither, unless they 
are easily accessible, and can be renewed ; else befo - e the " Octave " of Easter 
or Whitsunday is past they will be a sorry spectacle, and unsavory withal. 

Whenever possible try to contrive that they may stand in water. 
Narrow zinc troughs, made to fit the window sills, little " cones " for bunches 
of choicer flowers are not expensive, and even if they were would be well 
worth their cost. (See PI. XXIV.) Growing flowers or even small shrubs in 
pots may fitly be introduced in larger Churches ; either standing on the flooi , 
in niches, or on wall brackets where they exist. 

l. Let there be a due proportion, " The better the day the better the 
deed." Do not let the great festivals of our Blessed Lord be overshadowed 
by some local feast as a village anniversary or a harvest festival. 



20 



So, too, on each several feast let the same principle be kept in view. 
As each part of the sacred building has its use let it be garnished suitably 
and with due regard to the other parts. 

Do not let the less sacred be more ornate than the more holy. Let the 
Porch lead to the Nave, the Nave to the Chancel, and that to the Sanctuary 
of the Eastern End. So with regard to the architecture, small aisles or tran- 
septs should not distract attention from the central line of the building. 

So, too, with regard to the designs used. One should not by its 
discord or strong colouring throw another into the shade. There should be, 
in a word, unity of plan and harmony of detail. As Ruskin in his " Seven 
Lamps of Architecture," observes " Our building, it it is well composed, is 
one thing, and is to be coloured as Nature would colour one thing — a shell, a 
flower, or an animal ; not as she colours groups of things." 

m. Lastly, before entering upon details, it is advisable to suggest 
the desirability of making all the arrangements in good time, and for this 
purpose a meeting of those interested in the decorations should be called 
some weeks before Christmas or Easter to arrange a definite scheme on which 
to proceed ; and, if possible, a leader should be appointed, whose opinion 
should be final on all matters of detail. 

It is also desirable to give members of the congregation the oppor- 
tunity of contributing towards the decorations. This can be done either by 
a notice saying to whom contributions may be sent, or by having a box to 
receive them placed in the Church. 

As soon as the general plan and details have been decided upon, what- 
ever devices, banners, texts, or other materials are required should be 
ordered from the decorator, so as to prevent the possibility of delay 
occurring. 



Let all Things be done Decently and in Okdek. 



21 



CHAPTER III. 



On thk Making of Wreaths and Other Floral Ornaments. 



In all Churches, whether more or less elaborately decorated, wreaths 
are the staple garniture; therefore a few hints on the various ways in which 
they may be arranged, and the mode of constructing them, will no doubt be 
acceptable. Large boughs, to cut which would injure the trees, are not 
required ; only small pieces, such as the gardeners when trimming would throw 
away, are wanted, as these only can be used to produce the effect desired. 
Almost all evergreens are suitable ; but holly, by custom and by its association, 
should be extensivelv used at Christmas and all other winter festivals ; so the 
lovely white hawthorn should be used on the feast dav of SS. Philip and 
James, or other spring festivals. Ivy, yew, fir, and box will also be iound 
very useful. In many positions the long runners of Ivy, thickened out by 
extra leaves being wired on, will produce a good effect and be quickly made. 

The more usual plan is to fasten the evergreens with twine to a thin 
rope ; and the most convenient and expeditious plan to adopt is to have the 
rope of the necessary length, stretched across the room at a convenient 
height (say rather more than three feet from the floor), and to have a quantity 
of evergreeen sprigs assorted in heaps of different kinds, also a supply of 
small bunches of holly berries, and (if it is intended to use them) of everlasting 
flowers, arranged on a table close at hand. Begin by disposing a few of the 
sprigs round the rope, and fasten them on with twine ; arrange the next 
bunch so that the stalks ma}- not be seen, and twist the string round them, 
tying a knot to prevent its slipping away. This should be continued until 
the rope is covered ; and care should be taken to use, as far as possible, a 
variety of tints of green, interspersed with bunches of hollv berries and ever- 
lastings, as also to keep the thickness of the wreath uniform. The bunches 
of holly berries, it large, may be divided, by splitting them through the stalks. 
It is desirable to wear gloves to protect the hands when making holly 
wreaths. 

There is one objection to the use of twine for fastening the evergreens 
to the rope in the way described above, viz., that unless it is frequently looped 



22 

or tied, as well as wound round the twigs of which the wreath is formed, 
they are apt to get disarranged in moving and fixing, by the twine slipping. 
This can be avoided by using either fine iron or copper wire in lieu of twine ; 
the wire will bend with the wreaths, and consequentlv not allow the evergreens 
to get misplaced. 

Another plan is to make the wreaths flat instead of round ; the best 
way of accomplishing this is to use a stout string or whipcord, instead of a 
rope foundation — to have twigs cut with rather longer stalks than usual, and 
to fasten them with wire in the way described above ; but arranging the 
various pieces spreading out instead of bound close to the string ; when 
arranged in this way, care should be taken that the choicest pieces are placed 
so as to show well on the face of this flat wreath. 

A wreath made in this manner is more pliable, and consequently for 
some parts of the work, more easily arranged than when so thick a founda- 
tion as rope is used ; but it must not be forgotten that massive pillars 
require much thicker wreaths than those of lighter proportions ; and care 
must be taken that all the leaves, &c, are directed upwards. This is a point 
that should be constantly kept in mind, as frequent mistakes are made in the 
matter. 

An amateur, who has had great experience in Church decorations, has 
kindly given a description of the method which he employs for wreath- 
making. 

This gentleman considers that it is far preferable to use a stout wire 
as the ground whereon to fasten the wreath, and fine brass wire for binding 
on the foliage, &c. He uses the wire over his knees, having the uncovered 
part on the left side and the completed work falling to the right. In this way 
as much as 100 feet may be made in a length, and the everlastings, or any- 
thing else that may be wished to be interwoven with the wreath, can be 
inserted as the work progresses. In this manner a wreath can be made 
either very fine, as of a single spray of box, or very thick, according to the 
purpose for which it is required. 

The following plan of constructing the wreaths will perhaps be found 
to be more easily worked by ladies than either of the foregoing, and quite as 
effective : — Instead of the wire or cord groundwork, procure some green 
worsted binding, and stretch it tight across a table, and then sew thereon 
the twigs, flowers, and berries, arranged in the same way as previously 
described. This will give a rather broad and flat wreath, which will look 
very well, particularly when used for decorating large columns. 

Wire ribbon, i.e., a wire foundation, covered with cotton, can be pro- 
cured, either black or white, and this makes a capital foundation for wreaths, 
as the leaves can be sewn on in the same way as on to worsted binding. 

For wreaths to fit into the carved mouldings of an arcade, the best 



2 3 

groundwork is a thin wooden lath, which, if cut to the exact length required, 
will, when decorated and put into its position, require no fastening, as the 
natural spring of the wood will keep it in its place. A thin iron rod treated in 
the same manner can be bent to the required shape, and would answer equally 
well. In fixing wreaths, and in fact all temporary decorations, it is of tin- 
greatest importance to use as few nails as possible, and where used they should 
be put in with the greatest care, as it is most unsightly when the decorations 
are taken down, to leave the plaster, or brickwork, disfigured. It is to be 
hoped that enough has been said already on the question of stone and wood- 
work to render any further remarks here unnecessary. One only exception 
to the rule which defends wood from nails, may perhaps be fairly made in the 
matter of beams and rafters. If for instance, in a village Church there are large 
beams crossing the nave at the wall-plate, it may not be found a bad plan to 
drive in large nails at regular intervals for the hanging of evergreen wreaths 
and leave them there. Thus — 

Beam. 



* - • 




In many positions a thin wire hook or staple, such as is used by bell- 
hangers, can be driven into the walls without doing any damage, and these 
will often be found to be convenient for fixing the wreaths or devices. For 
minute work, such as fonts, &c, moss wreaths are suitable, as they are very 
pliant. 

So it is a good plan to leave a few nails, staples, or whatever is used 
for fixing the decorations, in places where they are always required when the 
building is decorated ; as, if small, and at a height from the ground, they 
would not be observed. For wreaths round the capitals of columns, it is found 
to be a good plan to use a band of hoop iron with a hole punched in each end. 
This forms the groundwork for the wreath, and is bent to encircle the column. 
The ends are then fastened by a piece of string or wire. A better plan is to 
have the hoop iron, above described, fastened in the centre of a band of per- 
forated zinc about three inches wide. This will enable a breadth to be given 
to the wreath which its position requires. Where there is a projected mould- 
ing on which this band can rest, no other fastening is required ; but where 
this is not the case it is better to have a hole punched in the centre of the hoop 
iron as well as at the ends, so that it can be fastened on each side by a piece 
of string, which should be tied round the column. 

A flexible wreath hanging freely suspended from two points assumes, 
by its own weight, the curve which mathematicians call the catenary. It is 
one of the most beautiful curves in nature, as any one will acknowledge who 
has observed the graceful droop of the chains of a suspension-bridge, or, on 



2 4 



a smaller scale, of a cord hanging between two points, and not taut. The 
catenary is capable also of great variety. The droop may be very small com- 
pared with the horizontal span, so that the curve is flat and open ; or, on the 
other hand, it mav hang down so as to present the form of a narrow pendant 
loop. When the wreath is readv. all that remains to be done is to hang it 
over the points of suspension. No framework is needed, and the form natu- 
rally assumed is one which art would not improve. 

Perhaps one of the very simplest and most easily constructed kinds of 
decoration is a horizontal series of plain and equal festoons ; this may be 
continued all round the nave, either above the windows of the aisles, or the 
interior arches — or both. 

Another form of festoons, slightly more complicated, is that of a 
double series intersecting each other as in the annexed diagram — 




Another variation of the same idea consists of a series of festoons, one 
under the other ; the summits of the lower series of curves being coincident 
with the lowest points of the upper series — 




Such a treatment is suitable for large blank brick walls if time and 
materials sufficient are forthcoming. If wreaths of this sort be used, the 
courses of the brickwork give place for the nails (which need only be small, 
and if at XX small bunches of white or yellow everlastings be placed, the 
effect will be very bright and happy. 



25 



CHAPTER IV. 

Devices in Evergreens. 

For forming devices, either entirely of evergreens, or of evergreens with 
the addition of a few everlasting flowers, perforated zinc- is perhaps the best 
ground-work. The plan to be adopted for fixing them is as follows : — First 
procure the materials required, viz., the devices proposed to be decorated, cut 
out in perforated zinc, a supply of evergreen leaves, and very small sprays of 
evergreens, some stout needles, and strong thread of a dark colour— that used 
for sewing carpets or ordinary black thread will do. 

Commence sewing on the leaves and sprays at the bottom of the device, 
taking care that the thread fastens the leaves down across one of the veins, 
and that the stalks are as far as possible covered by other leaves. For 
devices that are intended to be fixed at a slight elevation, small leaves should 
be used, and the work should be done as neatly as possible ; but for those 
that are to be fixed at a considerable height, larger leaves will be more 
effective. Devices consisting entirely of evergreens have a somewhat heavy 
appearance, which is greatly relieved by small bunches either of holly berries, 
or of the coloured everlasting flowers being introduced in different parts of 
the design, in the way indicated on some of the illustrations in this book, 
and described in the next Section. 

Those who have a knowledge of drawing will find it best to make a 
sketch of the device in the first instance, and then with a little colour, to 
ascertain in what position it will be best to introduce the flowers. Very 
effective devices can be formed by having the centre illuminated in colours, 
and the outer part formed in evergreens. 

Another plan for forming the devices in evergreens is to have a ground- 
work of stout iron wire, which is, of course, less expensive. The leaves can 
be either tied on with thread, or better, bound on with the fine wire used by 
artificial flower makers. The wire groundwork, however, does not give the 
same breadth to the design, and the leaves cannot be arranged so well, except 



* Or galvanized iron wire or hoop, made to the required shape. 



26 



in the case of very large devices, where the leaves could be attached by the 
stalks to the wire frame in such a way as to spread out. 

Where devices are fixed against the light as in the case of a temporary 
(and tentative) Dossal, which comes above the ledge of the east window, it 
will be requisite to stop all light passing through, as, if this is not done, the 
effect will be considerably spoiled. As good a manner as any of doing this is 
to fasten some waterproofed paper at the back ; this can be procured at 2d. 
per yard and is impervious to light. See Figs. 1 — 9, PL IX., Figs. 2, 3, 
PL XV. 



2 7 



CHAPTER V. 



Devices in Everlasting Flowers, Berries and Moss. 



For working with the everlasting flowers most people prefer a ground- 
work of perforated zinc cut out to the required shape, as the stalks can be 
put through the holes and fastened behind, either with cotton, or by pasting 
or glueing stout brown paper over the back. Another plan is to have the 
ground-work shaped out of cardboard or of a thin piece of wood, which 
should be either covered with paper or painted, and on this the flowers, cut 
from the stalks, are fastened down either with glue, very thick gum, or shoe- 
makers' paste. 

Melted gelatine will be found more useful than gum arabic for fixing 
the flowers and berries. The gelatine can be spread over the device, and the 
flowers laid on ; but for berries it is best to dip them in a saucer containing 
the gelatine. 

Supposing either of the above plans to be adopted, the worker should 
procure the device selected, cut out to the required size, and then lay it down 
on a piece of plain paper, and with a pencil trace the shape. Then remove 
the zinc, and with water-colours try the effect of the various shades it is pro- 
posed to use ; for it should always be borne in mind that it is not requisite to 
adhere to one colour only with these flower decorations. Thus, a star, 
instead of being all yellow, may have the principal part yellow, and an orange 
centre, and a line of red around the outside edge. 

A double triangle may have one yellow, edged with red, and the other 
white, edged with blue. The designs given on Plate XXIII. indicate this 
arrangement. 

By trying the effect on paper in the way suggested, one is much more 
likely to get a satisfactory result, and it will also save time in arranging the 



flowers. 



The gnaphaliunis can be procured in the following colours: — 



Yellow, 

White, 

Green, 



Spotted Yellow, 
Crimson, 



Lilac, 
Pink, 

Orange or Light Red, 
Black, 



Spotted Red, 

Blue, 

Piolet, 

VURPLF, 



28 



as well as some others. It should be remembered that they are real flowers 
dried (and in some cases dyed), not artificial, as some people erroneously 
imagine. 

The larger varieties of everlasting flowers (helichrysum) are grown in 
several colours, and these are used in conjunction with the gnaphaliums with 
very good effect, but not alone. 

White Cape Everlastings are very effective for decorations. Before use, 
the seed in the centre should be removed, and they should be warmed by 
steam or in front of a fire, opened out flat, and turned face downwards, 
leaving the back uppermost. When used in this way, a comparatively small 
number are required. They are also used the other way, much closer together. 
The Cape silver leaves are also very effective. 

There are also many very beautiful grasses, too often disfigured by 
being dyed bright blue or red, but easily to be obtained an naturel; these are 
useful and legitimate substitutes for flowers in the winter season, and may 
even be placed in vases on the altar without incongruity. 

Natural Flowers. 

Where real flowers are used, arrangements must of course be made 
for the stalks to be kept moist, and this can very easily be done by water 
contained in little zinc tubes, which can be soldered in any position on to an 
iron Irame bent to the required form ; or these zinc tubes (formed as cones, 
and made with a hook) can be hung on to any part of the decorations required. 
A drop of thin gum in each of the flowers will preverlt them falling to pieces 
as soon as they otherwise would. The stalks also can be dipped in hot 
sealing-wax. For flower vases a useful frame is made in zinc, which enables 
the decorator to make an effective bouquet with a small supply of flowers ; 
an illustration of this and of other useful contrivances lor similar purposes 
will be found on Plate XXIV. Primroses for Easter decorations can be kept 
very well by having the stalks stuck in wet clay. 

In some positions, as for instance round the base of the font, the best 
plan to adopt is to have troughs of zinc, to hold the water, and to have 
floating in them boards perforated with holes ; these can be covered with 
moss, and the stalks of the flowers passed through the holes to the water. 

When flowers in pots are used, a convenient and effective plan is to 
place them in hanging wall baskets, concealing the pots with moss, or to 
place them upon brackets as already described in Ch. II. 



2 9 



CHAPTER VI. 

Illuminated and other Devices. 

These can be prepared either in oil or water-colours, on card-board, 
calico, or prepared cloth. The device should either be procured from the 
decorator, set out ready for illumination, or a full-sized drawing should be 
made, and then traced upon the substance to be illuminated. The best way 
of tracing it is to prick holes all round the outline, and then la}' it down on 
the prepared cloth or other material, and with a little whitening,* tied up in 
a piece of muslin, dust it over. On removing the drawing it will be found 
that the whitening, which has passed through the pin holes, will show the 
outline, which will enable the worker to sketch the device easily with a black- 
lead pencil or chalk. When this has been done, the colours and gold should 
be filled in in the same manner as described in Chapter VI 1 1, for illuminating 
texts. 

Most monograms and devices look well when surrounded by a wreath, 
composed either of evergreens or of everlasting flowers, or of the two com- 
bined. See Figs, on PI. IX., etc. 

An easy waj' of preparing effective devices with an illuminated centre 
and a flower and evergreen border, is to procure the device cut out in 
perforated zinc, and fix the illumination painted on prepared cloth in the 
centre, and then surround it with flowers or evergreens. 

A simple and effective way of forming devices is to sketch out with a 
black-lead pencil, on either prepared calico or cardboard, the outline of the 
monograms, crosses, or other ornaments selected, and then fill them in with a 
rich deep red in oil colour. This on the white ground, surrounded with a 
wreath of evergreens, interspersed with everlasting flowers and berries, will 
be found to have a very pleasing appearance. The monograms and crosses 
shown on Plates XL, XII., XIII. are suitable for this.purpose. 

A great variety of designs for illuminated monograms, crosses, and 
devices are given in the illustrations. 



* Or if the ground be white, powdered " blue," or brick-dust beaten fine in a mortar will 
serve equally well. 



3° 

Rice Devices. — Letters and devices can be formed by having cut out 
cardboard patterns, and having steeped some gum tragacanth in water to a 
jelly, putting a layer of large Carolina rice on the pattern with it, and when 
dry, adding another layer, and so on as required. They can either be left 
white, or coated red with sealing wax dissolved in spirits of wine. 

Applique, 

Of which we have no thoroughly English synonym — is used to express 
the art of laying one material upon another to form a pattern, figure, or any 
other work that may be desired. 

It will thus be seen that " applique work " opens a large field for the 
display of taste and ingenuity, especially by the lady decorator, as it embraces 
work in almost every conceivable material, from coloured paper to the richest 
silk, velvet, or even cloth of gold. As Mulready, when asked the secret of 
his great success in colouring his pictures, said, " Know what you have to 
do," so we say, the great object of the amateur decorator should be to secure 
unity — i.e., to make out of many things one perfect whole. And the first 
thing is to have the required device set out in full size ready for working, and 
to decide upon the materials and colours of the various parts. 

To enable such of our readers as would wish to apply themselves to 
this applique work to prepare the materials selected for the purpose, we 
cannot do better than give the following extract from " Church Embroidery," 
by Mrs. Dolby :— 

" To Prepare Velvet, Cloth, and Cloths of Gold and Silver for Applique. 

" Strain a piece of rather thin holland of about is. per yard — not Union — tightly in a 
frame, and cover it all over with ' Embroidery Paste,' carefully removing even the most minute 
lump from the surface. Upon this pasted holland, while wet, lay the piece of velvet or other 
material of which the applique is to be, smoothing it over the holland with a soft handkerchief, 
to secure its even adhesion everywhere. If there be a necessity for drying quickly, place the 
frame upright at a distance of four feet from the fire, holland side to the stove. But it is always 
best, if possible, to prepare the material the day before using, that it may dry naturally, the 
action of the fire being likely to injure some fabrics as well as colours. 1 he velvet, when 
perfectly dry, will be found tenaciously fixed to the holland, and may be removed from the 
frame. 

" Now the entire design, or that portion of it intended to be formed of this material, is 
to be pounced through its pricked pattern on the holland side of the velvet, and traced correctly 
with a soft black-lead pencil ; then cut out with sharp strong nail scissors, and it will be ready 
tor applying to the article it, is designed to ornament." 

The embroidery paste alluded to is made in the following manner : — ■ 
Take three table-spoonfuls of flour, and as much powdered resin as will lie 
on a shilling ; mix them smoothly with half a pint of water, pour into an iron 
saucepan, and stir till it boils. Let it boil five minutes ; then turn it into a 
basin, and when quite cold it is fit for use. 



3i 

If the device is intended to be worked upon velvet, cloth or other 
material, the groundwork should be stretched upon a frame, and the orna- 
ments, prepared in the way described, tacked thereon in their proper 
positions. This, of course, requires great care, so that the ornaments 
or letters may be all straight and symmetrical ; for as one false note 
spoils the melody of a song, so one ornament or letter not properly in harmony 
with the others will spoil the effect of decoration. All the ornaments having 
been tacked on and ascertained to be in their proper places, they should be 
sewn on and edged with an outline of dark cord ; or if the ornaments should 
be of a dark colour, with tracing braid, either white, gold colour, or red and 
gold, as will best contrast with the work. 

If, however, the device is formed of coloured paper, all that it is necessary 
to do is to cut out the various parts or pieces in the desired tints, and paste 
them on the groundwork. 

In all cases a dark line should be run round the ornament. 

Much labour is thrown away, however, in forming devices or texts 
in coloured paper, as they have always a very meagre look ; and the same 
time devoted to them on painted or prepared cloth would produce a work of 
a much better sort. 

Banners. 

These are often made of paper or calico, and when of small size and 
simple design, they look sufficiently well. They can be hung at intervals 
beneath the cornice of the aisle roofs, or in the spandrels of the arcades ; but 
it should be borne in mind that good rich flags of silk or cloth are suitable 
objects to hang at any time on the walls of the sanctuary ; and as they can 
easily be worked by amateurs, or bought at the ecclesiastical warehouse, 
it is better to have a few such banners in addition to the smaller bannerettes. 

If possible, actual embroidery of needlework should form their orna- 
ment, but if that be found too costly, applique work should at least be used. 
On Plates XXI. and XXII. some 40 designs are given, and several appear 
on other plates. 

Straw Devices. 

There are several different ways in which straw can be applied to 
decorations. The easiest, and at the same time the most effective plan, is to 
use the straw tissue which can be procured in sheets 17 inches x 6^ 
inches or 21 inches x 8^ inches. The letters or devices are then cut out to 
the required size and mounted on the groundwork with thin glue. A coloured 
flock-paper or cotton-velvet ground, with inscription or ornament in straw 



3 2 



tissue is very effective. Another plan is to use the straw plaits which can be 
procured in hanks of long lengths and various widths ; but care should be 
taken to get a good pliable quality, as most sorts are brittle, and crack or 
break when bent about much. 

The letters or devices to be formed with these plaits should be first 
cut out in cardboard, and then the straw sewn on to them. The straw 
can be applied either flat or in high relief, according to the taste or skill of 
the decorator. 

A third plan of working in straw is to procure whole straws, sold in 
bundles, and to split them with a small tool which is made for the purpose, 
and with these to form the required design. 



\ 



33 



CHAPTER VII. 

Wall Diapers, Temporary Screens, etc. 

A wide and legitimate field is often open to the decorator at the east 
end of the chancel and other large wall spaces. 

" Wall diapers," formed ot evergreens and flowers, may well be placed 
against the east end of the chancel, either on the north and south sides of the 
altar (with a temporary reredos over it), or else covering the whole of the 
east wall to any height that may be convenient. See Plates I., VII., VIII. 
and XV. 

These diapers can be made either entirely of stout iron wire, or a com- 
bination of wooden laths, or strips of perforated zinc and wire. An infinite 
variety of designs can be arranged in tins manner from the simple lattice to 
the most elaborate set patterns, filled with emblems and devices. 

Those of a simple character look very well if laid on a groundwork of 
the white buckram calico. For others, more elaborate, unglazed cotton of 
various colours can be used, either with or without the white, to vary the 
background, according to the requirements of the design. 

For diapers of an elaborate character the whole of the groundwork 
could be cut out of sheets of perforated zinc, and on this material they can 
be more readily worked, and more easily fixed. Effective wall diapers can 
also be made by having the simple lattice pattern very open, covering it with 
evergreens, and illuminating, in oil colours or gold, small ornamental devices 
on the groundwork. When there is no reredos, an effective dossal can be 
formed, either in stuff with ornaments in applique, or in calico or prepared 
cloth, illuminated. See Plate XV. 

A temporary screen, as has ahead)- been said, affords a very good 
opportunity of trying the effect of a more lasting structure. 

A few upright posts (say 2 inches x 1 inch), a cross beam of the same 
thickness, a few laths and barrel hoops are all the materials necessary for 
its construction, and with the expenditure of a little time and trouble, a really 
architectural effect may easily be obtained. The arches are formed by 

E 



34 

segments of the barrel hoops, and the inner cusps* are made by cutting a thin 
hoop half through, and then bending it backwards thus £ 

The whole can be covered with moss and box, or other evergreens, 
taking care that the uprights are kept square and trim, with no loose sprigs 
projecting. Crockets, bases, capitals and mid-bands can fairly be repre- 
sented by small bunches of foliage, flowers or berries. The lower part or 
" wall " of the screen had better be filled in " solid," with serge, cotton twill, 
or any other suitable fabric, divided into panels with strips of evergreen. 
Screens of this kind may be placed both across the chancel arch and on either 
side of the choir, if openings exist. 

The various plates on which such screens are drawn will doubtless 
serve as sufficiently suggestive of what may be done in this direction. 



Temporary Dossals. 

On Plate XV. six examples of such decorations are given, a brief de- 
scription of which may, perhaps, be required ; as it is impossible for an un- 
coloured drawing to speak for itself in such matters. 

i. Shows a Dossal of evergreen framework, the background being 
made of serge, cotton twill, or any other fabric, white or coloured. The cross 
and monogram are cut out in stout cardboard and covered with coloured 
paper or holly berries, or everlastings, or " straw tissue." The side curtains 
are of serge, lightly embroidered in crewel or other work. 

ii. Shows a " Reredos " of a more ambitious nature, made in lath or 
wire work (as before described under the heading of Screens), the panels 
being painted by hand. This is intended to act as a "template" for a per- 
manent Reredos ; so that from this experiment one may judge whether height 
and shape suit the Church. 

in. Is also executed in lath work, the whole background filled in with 
serge or cotton (as above) in different colours, the text on cartridge paper or 
prepared cloth. 

iv. Is the same, except that the panels of the " Reredos " are filled in 
with painted devices. 

v. Shows a dossal cloth, either worked by hand or woven, the side 
wings being of lath work and cotton twill. For the lower " dado " use a dark 
shade, say of maroon red, and powder it either with devices in everlasting 
flowers, or with fleurs-de-lys, or quatrefoils, or roses, cut out in cardboard 



* Greater " truth " in the curves can be obtained by having the cusps and finer tracery 
made of stout galvanized wire or hoop iron. 



35 

and painted. The window ledge is banked up with evergreens neatly packed, 
two pots of flowers marking the ends of the Dossal. 

vi. Is of a more permanent character, being (save the text) altogether 
executed in tapestry or embroidery. 

The writer has thought it needless to multiply examples, for the many 
designs of wall diapers, shown on the plates, may all be worked in for such 
purposes. Those on Plate VII., for instance, are simply shown under an 
arcade for the sake of making the designs hang together. 



36 



CHAPTER VIII. 
Texts. 



The 82nd Canon of 1603, among other directions, requires that there 
be " chosen sentences written upon the walls of churches in places con- 
venient." 

Appropriate texts and legends are among the most effective of festival 
decorations, as also they are valuable " silent preachers,"" in the more per- 
manent form contemplated by the framers of the Canon. 

The best known of these is the Decalogue, which, with the Creed and 
Lord's Prayer, was formerly of almost universal occurrence in Parish 
Churches, but not in Cathedrals or Collegiate Churches. The reason of this 
is clear. In days when books were scarcer even than readers, it was most 
convenient that those things which " every Christian should know for his 
soul's health " should be ever before his eyes. Until a comparatively recent 
date these sentences were boldly printed in black and white, and were legible. 

In the earlier days of the Tractarian and Ecclesiological movement, 
many people failing to find ancient precedent for this custom, framed the 
commandments in a " reredos," and by dint of illumination and " com- 
pression " made them as good (or bad) as non-existant. 

In the next stage of architectural progress the commandment's were 
banished, and at the present time but a small percentage of new or restored 
churches possess them. 

The argument against them is (a) they are not mediaeval, and con- 
sequently if over the altar they are out of accord with a Gothic reredos. [b) 
They are no longer needed, since all men have books. 

But, on the other hand, while they are ordered by the Canon, it is 
perhaps hardly wise to omit them, and there is certainly one very appropriate 
position which they may well occupy, i.e., in that part oi the church where 
the children sit, be it west or east. There is a special fitness moreover if 
they are put near the font, so that the prayer, faith and obedience of the 
baptised may stand to them as a constant reminder of their Christian 
profession. 



37 

Beyond these well-known "texts" there are many others which are 
equally suitable for temporary or lasting decoration. Any one of the can- 
ticles may be written continuously round the walls or on the cornice; the 
Benedictus or Magnificat, the Benedicitc or Te Deum will never weary the eye 
or heart of the reader. 

So for a Harvest Festival the Psalm Jubilate may be divided into 
short verses and placed in the window sills round the church, so too with 
Pss. cxlvii., cxlviii., cl. 

Or in Lent the Miserere or De profit ndis may be used in the same way. 

Shorter texts (or even single words) may be placed on scrolls or in 
panels edged with foliage, and placed over doorways, at the sides of the east 
window, over the altar or at the entrance to the chancel ; or shields 
"inscribed" may be hung on the walls in the spandrels of an arcade, or 
sometimes on the columns themselves, if they be very solid or square. 

It is a question, not lightly to be settled or taken as universally applic- 
able, whether these texts should be in Latin or English, and whether 
(whichever tongue is chosen) they should be written in Roman or Gothic 
lettering. 

Possiblv it may be thought to be unadvisable to employ aught but 
English in country places, while Latin may be used in town. This point the 
writer will not attempt to discuss. 

As to the condemnation of the Gothic character on the score of 
illegibility, it should be remembered that a large number of titles and headings 
in ordinary books and newspapers" are so written, that there is certainly not 
a railway station or hoarding but has several such inscriptions in the way of 
advertisement ; and as there is no question of which is the more beautiful, it 
seems a pity to throw away the old text, and by so doing render its chances 
of survival smaller. 

Suppose, however, a mission room in London with nothing ecclesias- 
tical in its form of furniture save the altar; there, without question, good 
bold Roman type will tell the tale most readilv. 

There are various modes of forming texts for temporary decorations. 

The plan usually adopted by amateurs as the simplest, is to cut the 
letters out in coloured paper, and gum or paste them on a groundwork of plain 
or different coloured paper or cloth. 

In order to form the letters well, it is best to procure an alphabet cut 
out in cardboard to the required size ; and by laying the letters down on the 
paper, ami running a line round them, the proper shape will be obtained, 

* It may interest the readers to know that the following newspaper headings contain the 
whole alphabet from a to z. — Morning Post, Daily News, Queen, Field, Exchange and Mart, 
John Bull, East Kent Advertizer. 



38 



when they can be cut out with either a knife or a pair of scissors. Letters 
printed on paper can also be procured ; these will save a good deal of time 
and insure their being of a right shape. 

When the letters have been cut out, they should be fixed on the 
groundwork that has been prepared for them. 

In order that texts may look well, it is absolutely essential that all 
the letters should be upright and properly spaced out ; and to insure this, the 
material on which the letters are to be fixed should be arranged on any long 
bench or table — a school desk for instance will serve very well. 

The letters should all be laid out in their proper places before any of 
them are fastened down. It is a good plan to rule a few pencil lines at the 
top and bottom of the letters ; and in fixing them, to insure their being 
upright, either to use a T" or set square, or what will answer as well, a square 
piece of cardboard laid on the pencil line, so that its edge will give a right 
angle. The necessity of keeping the letters both upright and equidistant 
must be strongly urged. It frequently occurs that decorations, which have 
evidently cost much time and attention, are completely spoiled by want of 
regularity. 

After the letters have been fixed on the groundwork they should be 
surrounded by a border. This may be made either of evergreens, with ever- 
lasting flowers introduced in the manner described on another page, or the 
text may be first surrounded with a border cut out of coloured papers, and 
then may have an outer border of evergreens, &c, beyond the coloured one. 
See Plate XIX. 

Another plan is to procure borders painted on strips of buckram calico ; 
these can be used for the same purpose, and admit of a great variety of 
designs being used. 

Where paper texts, as above described, are not considered sufficiently 
rich in appearance, the following more elaborate plan is suggested : — Procure 
some white glazed buckram calico, and cut it to the required size (if fastened 
on a board, so much the better), then take pieces of coloured cloth, or what 
is better, cotton velvet, of the colour preferred, and cut the letters and 
borders from them in the same manner as directed for paper texts, then paste 
or glue them to the calico or other groundwork, surrounding the whole with 
borders prepared in the manner indicated above. The embroidery paste, 
a receipt for which is given on page 30, is the best material to use for the 
purpose. 

Very effective texts may be prepared by covering a board with green 
leaves, and then forming letters upon them in white cotton wool. Great care, 
however, must be taken, if this plan is adopted, to get the letters quite even, 
as, owing to the nature of the materials, it is somewhat difficult. The letters 
should first be cut in cardboard, then the cotton wool put on and cut to shape ; 
if sprinkled with " crystal frost," the appearance is greatly improved. 



39 

Another way is to prepare the hoard with evergreens as above described, 
and form the text with roses, camellias, or any other flowers which can be 
procured, so that the principal letters might be red, the remainder white ; in 
the same manner that red and black are used in illuminating decorations in 
oil colours. 

A plan frequently adopted is to cover cardboard letters with evergreens, 
and fasten them to the wall separately ; but the objection to this plan is, that 
there is a great risk of defacing the plaster by the number of tacks or nails 
that would have to be used in fixing. The better plan is to use a board that 
has been covered with white or coloured paper, and then, when the letters 
have been put on, to surround the whole with a narrow border, consisting of 
small sprigs of box or other evergreens, of which the leaves are quite small. 
The advantage obtained by this plan is that the board can then be suspended 
in the required position upon two nails, which, besides avoiding the risk of 
injury to the walls above alluded to, also saves a great deal of time and 
trouble in fixing. 

The various methods above described for making texts are all appli- 
cations of the principle of cutting out one material and laving it on another ; 
but where the aid of painting is attainable, a much larger field is open, and 
greater variety of treatment, both as regards design and colour. 

For those who have not had much experience in illuminated deco- 
rations, it is best to procure pots of colours already prepared for use, which can 
be thinned with a little turpentine if found to be too thick. 

The best groundwork for these decorations is "prepared cloth," a 
material which is painted and prepared for decorations in the same way as 
canvas for oil painting. 

Decorations done on prepared cloth, if carefully rolled round wooden 
rollers when put away, will last for years. 

When a cheaper material is required, white glazed buckram calico can 
be used, the process of painting being the same as on the prepared cloth. 

When the material on which the text is to be written has been extended 
on a board or table, and the text spaced out, so as to obtain the proper 
distances between each word, the cardboard letter previously described should 
be laid upon it, and marked out with a black-lead pencil, care being taken to 
get a clear and distinct outline, and to keep the letters regular. 

This being done, the next process is to fill in all the letters with their 
proper colours, using a camel hair, or sable brush, and putting only enough 
paint to cover the groundwork. 

Should any of the letters or ornament be required to be gilt, the leaf 
gold is the best to be used, and the most durable. It is sold in books, and in 
order to apply it properly, a gilder's cushion, knife, and brush, are required, 
as well as gold size. The gold size should be laid on the parts to be gilt, 



4° 

and when it is almost dry, it should be breathed upon to ensure its being 
sufficiently "sticky;" then layout a leaf of gold on the cushion and cut it with 
the knife to the required size. This should be taken up with the gilder's brush 
and applied, care being taken that the parts are well covered with the leaf ; then 
rub them gently over with a piece of cotton wool to remove all superfluous 
gold. An outline of black or red round the gold greatly improves the ap- 
pearance of the gilded letters or ornament. " Transfer gold leaf " has been 
lately introduced, specially for amateurs' use ; it is mounted on paper and can 
be cut with scissors to the required size. The work to be gilt is sized in the 
usual way, and the sheet laid upon it : the paper will peel off and leave the 
gold. 

If the texts are not intended to be kept from year to year, and gold leaf 
is considered either too expensive or too troublesome to be used, bronze 
powder can be substituted. The work should be prepared with gold size in 
the way before described, and the powder, which will only adhere to the parts 
sized, may then be dusted on. 

When gold leaf is used, a good effect is produced by having a shaped 
patch at the commencement of the text, on which to place its initial letter ; 
and the introduction of some fine lines of ornament, in the style adopted in 
the old illuminated missals, will still further enrich it. 

A new material for decoration has been introduced during the last few 
years, called crystal frost. This is made of crystal glass, which, in its molten 
state, possesses great ductility. When in this state it is blown into exceedingly 
thin globules, which immediately burst and produce the frost. 

It can be used in a variety of decorations, and will adhere, without any 
preparation, to silk, paper, &c. The best way of applying it, however, is to 
use a little clear liquid gum ; but the smallest possible quantity of gum should 
be used, and the "frost" not applied till it is nearly dry, only just sticky. 
Another very effective material is the " Gold Metal " Powder, which is applied 
in the same way as the " frost," saving that the size should be much stronger. 

Letters or devices cut in cardboard or paper, and covered with the 
crystal frost, if placed on a dark coloured groundwork of either cotton velvet, 
cloth, or calico, are very brilliant. 

Straw Tissue. — This material is very effective, and is the most easily 
worked of any of the methods of using straw. It is sold in sheets, and consists 
of split straws mounted on a paper backing and rolled flat by machinery. 
Any texts or devices can easily be cut in this with a knife, and when mounted 
on flock-paper or other dark background, produce a telling effect with very 
little trouble. When large devices are required, the sheets can be joined, and 
when up, the joints will hardly be noticed. Glue or paste is the best material 
for mounting the straw tissue with, and a heavv weight should be placed on it 
till it is dry. Letters and devices can be procured cut out in straw tissue 
ready for mounting. A greatly improved effect is gained by using this straw 



tissue in the same way as gilding would be used in permanent decorations, as 
a ground on which to paint outlines in black or other dark colour. 

Imitation coral letters can be made in the way described under the 
head of rice devices, on page 30. 

Letters formed of everlasting flowers can be made so as to produce a 
good effect, as the colours available give the decorator the opportunity of 
arranging them in a variety of ways. 

One of the simplest, and at the same time most telling Texts is made 
by simply painting in water colour (upon continuous cartridge paper) the 
whole lettering in black, dividing the words with finely traced ornament in 
red, and treating the capitals, of which there should be as few as possible, in 
the same manner. See Pis. XVI., XVII., and XIX. 

The reason for using few capitals is this : each letter that rises above 
the others breaks the continuity of the "legend," and without due cause 
obtrudes itself upon the eye. In Latin inscriptions not even the name of 
God was written with a capital. In English we could hardly be content to 
use a small g. 

If the initial and other capital letters are painted in red or blue, the 
body of the inscription should still be in one colour. Nothing is more 
destructive of "repose" than to see a text which tries to exhaust the paint 
box by its variety of hues ; unless, indeed, the symbolism of colours is held 
as de fide. 

Figs. 1 and 2, PI. XVII., show the type of letter to be used for " cut 
out "' texts in cardboard or other material. Fig. 3 shows the way in which to 
enlarge the letters to twice the size. By the same method, of course, they can 
be made 3, 4, or 6 or 8 times larger if it is needed. Four alphabets of small 
letters and three of capitals are given on Pis. XVI., XVII., and XVII 1., for 
" hand painting." 

These directions do not pretend to exhaust the whole subject of 
"Textual Decoration," but are simply intended to serve as hints; the reader's 
ingenuity will enlarge upon them, and it is to be hoped in so doing — improve. 
Many amateurs are to be found to whom they are wholly superfluous. 

There is one caution to be given, however, in the matter of curved texts 
or legends, such as are placed over arches, frequently with the result of setting 
on edge the teeth of those who see them. It is of absolute necessity that a text 
round an arch should follow its lines. When making (or ordering) such a text, 
« it is simply useless to expect that it will " fit," unless the 
1 radius of the curve is discovered. Some people imagine that 
; to measure the length of the curve from a to a gives a sufficient 
! measurement : a moment's thought will dispel this illusion. 
/ [ It is necessary to discover the "centres," of an arch, i.e., the 

f : .• points from which the curves are struck. 

F 



4 2 

Fig. 1099 c, PL XX., will perhaps render this more clear. Supposing that 
a text is required to fit close on to the outside moulding, or "label," or else to 
come up to the edge of the splay, if there be no label moulding, or wherever it 
is required to come, let that be the curved line from t to u (on either side). It 
is required to find the points *a and *b (i.e., the radius from *a — w). If the 
arch is not too wide, stretch a lath or thin oard across from t to t (being 
sure that the arch does begin to curve there +), then stick in a bradawl 
with a string attached to it and " try " the radius by sweeping the loose 
end round the arch ; by a few trials and shifting the bradawl backwards 
and forwards, you will discover *a and *b. Tt is then necessary to measure 
the distance between these two points, or between s and either of them. 

Then put down the measures, *a to ^b, or *A to t, and t to t ; and, if 
the arch is truly built, no more is needed. For the sake of corroborative 
evidence, however, it will be as well to measure from s to u, and from u to t. 

These being true, the text will fit ; otherwise, it is hopeless. 

For other arches, " segmental " or four centred, a carpenter had better 




be called in to strike the centres, as. they are not so easily discovered by the 
amateur. 

Another plan, which indeed is the only one practicable with large 
arches, is to fix nails at t t and u. Having done this, stretch a string round 
the points of the triangle thus formed; then measure t to t, t to u (on both 
sides), and from u drop a line down to the centre of the string t — t and 
measure that ; then measure from w to x on the centre of the curve, and from 
these measures the arch can be drawn out on a floor with sufficient accuracy. 

A List of Texts is here given, which may be of use in suggesting " Words 

in Season." 



FOR ADVENT. 



He cometh to judge the earth." 

Prepare ye the way of the Lord." 

Behold, thy King comeih unto thee." 

Be ye also ready. The Son of man cometh." 

The Son of man shall come in His glory." 

O come, O come, Emmanuel." 

Leva Jerusalem, oculos tuos." 

Veni Domine visi'tare nos in pace." 

Tu es qui venturus es." 

The night is far spent, the day is at hand." 

The Lord is at hand." 



" The day of the Lord so cometh as a thief 

in the night." 
" The day of Christ is at hand." 
" Behold, He cometh with clouds; and every 

eye shall see Him." 
" Surely I come quickly ; even so, come, 

Lord Jesus." 
" He shali come again in His glorious 

majesty to judge both the quick and the 

dead." 

" Behold a virgin shall bear a son." 



f Sometimes the spring of an arch is somewhat above the line of the capitals. 



43 



FOR CHRISTMASTIDE. 



' There shall come a Star out of Jacob and 

a Sceptre shall rise out of Israel." 
' The right hand of the Lord bringeth 

mighty things to pass." 
' The people that walked in darkness have 

seen a great light." 
1 Unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is 

given." 

' His name shall be called Wonderful, 
Counsellor, the Mighty God, the Ever- 
lasting Father, the Prince of Peace." 
' There shall come forth a Rod out of the 
stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow 
out of his roots " 

The Lord, Our Righteousness." 

The Desire of all nations shall come." 

Behold thy King cometh." 

The Sun of Righteousness shall arise with 
healing in His wings." 

Thou shalt call His name JESUS." 

Emmanuel ! God with us." 

Hosanna to the Son of David." 

Hosanna in the highest." 

The day-spring from on high hath visited 
us." 

Behold I bring you glad tidings of great 
joy." 

Unto }ou is born this day a Saviour, which 

is Christ the Lord." 
Glory to God in the highest, on earth peace, 

good will toward men." 



•' Gloria in excelsis Deo et in terra pax 

hominibus bonae voluntatis." 
'• Videbitis regem regum procedentem a Patre 

tanquam sponsum de thalamo suo." 
" Venite adoremus." 

" Hodie nobis de coelo pax vera descendit." 

'.■ Verbum caro factum est." 

" The Consolation of Israel." 

" A Light to lighten the Gentiles." 

" The Word was made flesh and dwelt 

among us." 
'■ God sent forth His Son." 
" God manifest in the Flesh." 
" The Author of Salvation."* 
" The Finisher of Faith." 
" We love Him because He first loved us." 
" Now is come Salvation and Strength." 
" King of kings and Lord of lords." 
" The root and offspring of David, and the 

bright and Morning Star. 
•• God of God, Light of Light, Very God of 

Very God." 
" God and Man : one Christ." 
" Thou art the everlasting Son of the Father." 
•' Thou art the King of Glory, O Christ." 

(The Circumcision. ) 

" His name was called Jesus." 

" Circumcision is that of the heart." 

'• Oleum effusum nomen tuum." 



FOR EPIPHANY. 



The people that walked in darkness have 

seen a great light." 
ITe shall bring forth judgment to the 

Gentiles." 

The Lord shall be thine everlasting life." 
The Gentiles shall see Thy righteousness.' 
The Gentiles shall come unto Thee from the 

ends of the earth." 
Venit lumen tuum Jerusalem." 



" Omnes venient aurum et thus deferentes. 
Alleluia." 

" We have seen His star in the East, and are 

come to worship Him." 
•' When they saw the star they rejoiced." 
" They presented unto Him gifts ; gold, 

frankincense, and myrrh." 
•■ A light to lighten the Gentiles." 
" Reioice, ye Gentiles, with His people." 



44 



FOR 

' The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit." 

' God be merciful unto us." 

1 Have mercy upon us, O Lord." 

' Fili dei miserere mei." 

' Parce nobis Domine." 

' De profundis clamavi." 



LENT. 

" Let the wicked forsake his way." 
" His mercy is on them that fear Him." 
" Have mynde, have mercy." 
" By thy fasting and temptation, good Lord, 
deliver us."* 



FOR GOOD FRIDAY. 



' He was despised and rejected of men." 
' With His stripes we are healed." 
' He was wounded for our transgressions." 
: It is finished." 

' He humbled Himself to the death of the 
Cross." 

: Thou hast brought me into the dust of 

death." 
' Deus meus respice in me." 
' His own self bare our sins in His own body 

on the tree." 



" By Thy Cross and Passion, good Lord, 

deliver us." 
" By Thy precious death and burial, good 

Lord, deliver us." 
" Behold, and see if there be any sorrow like 

unto my sorrow." 
" Is it nothing to you all ye that pass by ? " 
" O, my people, what have I done unto you." 
" They crucified Him." 

" They shall look on Him whom they have 
pierced." 



FOR EASTER. 



I know that my Redeemer liveth." 
The Lord is King for ever and ever." 
He is risen." 

The Lord is risen indeed." 
I am the Resurrection and the Life." 
This Jesus hath God raised up." 
He whom God raised again saw no corrup- 
tion." 

Christ was raised again for our justification." 

If we be dead with Christ, we believe that 
we shall also live with Him." 

Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us, 
therefore let us keep the feast." 

Now is Christ risen from the dead, the first- 
fruits of them that slept." 

As in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall 
all be made alive." 



" O death, where is thy sting ? O grave, where 

is thy victory." 
" Death is swallowed up in victory." 
" Our life is hid with Christ in God." 
" I am He that liveth, and was dead; and, 

behold, I am alive for evermore." 
" Lord of lords, King of kings." 
'• Alleluia ! Alleluia ! Alleluia ! " 
" Alleluia ! for the Lord God omnipotent 

reigneth." 

" He is the very Paschal Lamb which was 

offered for us." 
" Haec dies quam fecit Dominus : Exultemus 

et laetemur in ea. Alleluia." 
" Resurrexit." 
" Pascha nostrum." 



* So for Lent and Passiontide any of the penitential verses of the Litany may be fitly used, either in Latin 
or English. 



45 



FOR ASCENSIONTIDE. 



Thou hast crowned him with glory and 

honour." 
The Lord'sitteth a King for ever." 
Thou, Lord, art Most High for evermore." 
He was received up into heaven, and sat 

on the right hand of God." 
Videntibus illis elevatus est." 



" The Son of man, which is in heaven." 

" He was taken up, and a cloud received 

Him out of their sight." 
" He ever liveth to make intercession for 

us." 

" Thou sitten at the right hand of God." 
" He ascended into heaven." 



FOR WHITSUNTIDE. 



The Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost." 
They were all filled with the Holy Ghost." 
The Holy Ghost fell on all them that heard 

the word " - 
•The Spirit beareth witness, because the 
Spirit is Truth." 
Spiritus Domini replevit orbem terrarum," 
■ Spiritus qui a Patre procedit ille me clari- 
ficat." 



•' Thou only, O Christ, with the Holy Ghost, 
art most high in the glory of God the 
Father." 

" The Holy Ghost came down as at this time 

from heaven." 
" The Holy Ghost, the Lord, and giver of 

Life." 

" Veni Creator Spiritus." 



FOR TRINITY SUNDAY 



Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God Almighty, 

which was, and is, and is to come." 
Not three Gods, but one God." 
Qualis Pater, talis Filius, talis Spiritus 

Sanctus : Haec est Fides Catholica." 
Unitas in Trinitate, et Trinitas in Unitate 

veneranda." 
The Father is God, the Son is God, and 

the Holy Ghost is God." 



" Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and 

to the Holy Ghost." 
" O holy, blessed, and glorious Trinity, three 

persons and one God." 
" Gloria Patri et Filio et Spiritui Sancto : 

Sicut erat in principio et nunc et semper : 

et in saecula saeculorum." 



FOR HARVEST 

• While the earth remaineth, seed-time and 

harvest shall not cease." 
' Man doth not live by bread alone, but by 

every word that proceedeth out of the 

mouth of the Lord." 
' The earth is the Lord's, and the fulness 

thereof." 

• Thou visitest the earth, and blessest it ; 

Thou makest it very plenteous." 

• Thou crownest the year with Thy good- 

ness." 

• Bless the Lord, O my soul, and forget not 

all His benefits." 



iANKSGIVING. 

'■ Wine that maketh glad the heart of man 
and bread which strengthened! man's 
heart." 

"He maketh peace in thy borders, and filleth 
thee with the finest of wheat." 

•• Honour the Lord with thy firstfruits ; so 
shall thy barns be filled with plenty." 

" The harvest is the end of the world, and 
the reapers are the angels." 

'• The bread of life." 

" In due season we shall reap if we faint not." 
" O all ye gieen things upon the earth, bless 
^ e the Lord." 



4 6 



FOR SCHOOL FEASTS'. 



The fear of the Lord is the beginning of 
wisdom." 

Train up a child in the way he should go ; 
and when he is old, he will not depart 
from it." 

Remember now thy Creator in the days of 
thy -\outh, while the evil days come not, 
nor the years draw nigh when thou shalt 
say, I have no pleasure in them." 



" Suffe the little children to come unto Me, 
and forbid them not : for of such is the 
kingdom of God." 

" Feed my lambs." 

'• Children, obey your parents in the Lord : 

for this is right." 
" Keep innocency, and hold fast the thing 

w hich is right, for that shall bring a man 

peace at the last." 
•'Come ye children and hearken unto Me: 

I will teach you the fear of the Lord." 



Besides the texts here given there are scores, indeed hundreds, of 
others equally appropriate to the various seasons of the Church or special 
occasions. There are also many texts appropriate to the various parts of 
the Building. As for example — 



THE 

" This is none other than the House of God, 

and this is the gate of Heaven." 
" I will offer in His tabernacle sacrifices of 

joy." 

" The Lord preserve thy going out and thy 
coming in." 



PORCH. 

" Enter into His gates with thanksgiving, 
and into His courts with praise." 

" Peace be within Thy walls." 

'• I was glad when they said unto me, Let us 
go into the House of the Lord." 



THE FONT. 



" Suffer the little children to come unto Me, 
and forbid them not : for of such is the 
kingdom of God." 

" In nomine Patris et Filii et spiritus 
sancti." 

" Petite et accipietis." 

" Spiritus ubi vult spirat." 



" He that believeth and is baptized shall be 

saved." 
" Repent and be baptized." 
" One Lord, one Faith, one Baptism." 
" Ye must be born again." 
'• Haurietis aquas in gaudio de fjntibus 

salvatoris." 



There is also the quaint Greek text, reading indifferently from left to 
ight, or vice verso 



N I # O N A N O M H M A M H M O N A N O # I N 



Which the writer has seen Englished, thus— 



" Wash off my sins from every part, 
Not only face, but hands and heart.' 



47 



It is evident that on any part of the Chinch there may be sacred words, 
which will emphasize the purpose for which it was designed. The following 
additional examples may suffice. On the chancel gate — 

•' Majestas domini per viam portae." Ezek. xliii. 4. 
On the Retable (or elsewhere), this quaint device — 

9? OS- NGUIS BlRUS '[ RISTI HlILCEDINE ^AVIT 
H Sa M Ch M L 

Or, •• Delici^ mcx cum filiis hominum." 

These and countless other texts, either from Holy Writ or the Services 
of the Church, may be written and read with profit. 

When casting about for a suitable text for any given Festival, if one is 
not found in the foregoing list, read the Services for the day in the Prayer 
Book, and either in Lessons, Psalms, Epistle, or Gospel some words are sure 
to occur " eloquent to the understanding." 

It has not seemed needful to give the textual references " chapter and 
verse." A Cruden's concordance will supply the omission, should any text 
happen to be unknown to the reader. 



4§ 



CHAPTER IX. 

SOME EMBLEMS OR SYMBOLS 

Used in Decoration of the Church. 

It is manifestly impossible in a work of this size to give a complete list 
of all the emblems of Christ and his Saints, or of the countless symbols in 
which the faith of Christians has found expression. A few of the more 
common and better known are here set forth with such explanations as seem 
needful. Nearly all of them are figured on Plates X — XIV. 



I. 

The Holy Namf.. 

The two sacred names, official and personal of our Lord, as every one 
knows, are XpioTOs 'Irjaovs. 

How and why these two Greek names became represented and mis- 
represented in religious art by the various symbols employed from the days 
of the catacombs to these days of " decoration " is not so well known. 

In old " Uncial " MSS. the names read (i), and as 
contractions were frequently employed the same names 
are as likely as not to stand (2) written with three letters 
i.e., the first two and the last (of each word), j q 
or with (3) simply the first and last letters, or 
(4) with the first hvo of each. ( ^) 

The sign of Constantine the "Labarum" as it is called, is a monogram 
formed by the two first letters of the name Xpiaros. Of this there are almost 
innumerable varieties, for example of which these may suffice. 



I H C O T C 
XPICTOC 
11) 

I H LHC 

xp xFc 

(4) (2) 



49 



In early times the name of Christ preponderated (naturally), since the 
name Jesus was not yet separated from common use and did not so clearly 
point to the Divinity. 

Later on the tendency was in a direction exactly contrary, and Jesus 
prevailed. 

It would appear that during the transitional 
period when the Greek names were becoming 
Latinized the seeds of error were sown. 



I 



r| The example here given (from an old coin) 

iPASX JLCCS^I-^-j is a curious example of the process of crystal- 

lization, and it is the more remarkable that the 
IL/fe^tf same coin bears upon its reversed side the words 

MA N.oYHA 
fc xc 

Here we have C = X, C = S, T? = H, L = A, 
yet all seemingly interchangeable. 

As the old Sigma was much more like C than S it was accounted 
I H C for emblematical purposes equivalent, and the two names 

XPC ^) appeared (5) in Roman lettering. Later on in Mediaeval 
times they were written in black letter (6). But it is to be supposed, that some 
, j ^ person of moderate information was aware that the letter C 

(6) really represented S ; accordingly the monogram was written 

r I Ij s 

The Renaissance found the B and preserved the letter while changing 
the type, giving us the familiar Jesuit monogram (7). 

*jk"A"/* Tradition has not handed down the name of the ingenious 
s^^JL derivator who translated this monogram into the words Icsus 
S£ TPTQ Hominum Salvator, which is about as reasonable (on anti- 
cs, quarian grounds) as the English rendering of a small child — 

^feKJiS^ 1 Have Suffered - 

( 7) To return, however, a few centuries ; the Ij was evidently 

too much for them, and, accordingly, the scribes who wrote the name of Jesus 
in full, left it there " stranded " between the other letters — tljfSUS. They 
knew that Jerusalem was written with H, and that S. Jerome had the same 
letter in his name, Ijimtsalfttt — IjIfrOltprtUIS, and, therefore, perhaps they 
felt it unfitting to write the greater name more scantily ! Accordingly, the 

G 



5° 



name was all but universally written Iliesus, not only in Latin, but also in 
English and French, until in Post-Reformation times, the h gradually dropped 
out as it had crept in. 

When the sacred name is introduced into mediceval decoration, it should 
be spelt in the middle age fashion, tljfSUS, iljc, Uj5. or i'pc, whereas in 
Renaissance work it should be written (in Roman letters) I.H.S. or X.P.C. 
Or if the symbols are preferred, thus : — 



5' 



II. 

OTHER SYMBOLS OF OUR LORD. 
Agnus Dei. 

Under this figure the Redeemer is constantly described in the Old 
Testament, as well as the New ; and the Lamb was adopted in the earliest 
ages of Christianity as the type of our Lord, the most ancient perhaps being 
the figure of the lamb standing on a mount with the four rivers flowing from 
it. Some examples unite with the lamb the attributes of the Good Shep- 
herd — viz., the crook and vessel of milk. Or the lamb is shown " as it were 
slain," either standing upon the altar, as in the famous picture of the adora- 
tion of the lamb, or lying upon the " book with the seven seals." The Agnus 
Dei is depicted with the peculiar nimbus of the Divinity, and carrying the 
cross, with the banner of the resurrection. Fig. i, PI. XI. 

Alpha and Omega. 

The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet are constantly used 
with the monogram of our Lord's name, with the cross, or as separate devices. 
Fig. 6c, PI. XI. 

Anchor. 

The anchor is the emblem of hope, the cross-beam giving it a Christian 
signification as the emblem of faith. The heart, the emblem of charity, com- 
pletes the symbols of the three graces. Fig. 12, PI. XL, etc. 

The Cross— ( See Plate XII.) 

" Among the first Christians, the instrument of God's suffering and 
" man's redemption, the Cross was made the chief emblem of their Faith, the 
" chief mark of their Community, their Standard and their Watchword." * 



* Hope's Historical Essay on Architecture. 



52 

This " Sign of the Son of Man " on earth has taken many forms, nor 
is it easy to decide which was the shape of the " True Cross," since the 
aravpos (or stake) used for crucifixion was not of necessity formed crosswise. 
Great difference of opinion has existed on this point. 

Many have thought that the cross on which our Lord redeemed us was 
the " Tan," while others maintain that the Latin cross is the cross of Christ. 

(a) The Tau, or Egyptian Cross, is, without doubt, pre-Christian, and 
may well have the name given to it by Didron, the " Anticipatory" Cross. 
Tradition gives this form to the wood carried by Isaac, and to the pole on 
which the brazen serpent was suspended. 

The words of Ezekiel, ix., 4, " Transi in medio Jerusalem et signa 
Tau super frontes virorum " are thus referred to by Tertullian — " Ipsa enim 
litera graecorum Tau nostra autem J species crucis." This type of cross, 
however, is usually given to the malefactors in representations of the cruci- 
fixion, partly, it may be presumed, because no " accusation " is shown. 

The Labarum of Constantine is the J cross surmounted by a crown, 
containing the monogram of Christ, answering to the title which surmounted 
the actual cross of Christ, and which, according to the Roman custom, would 
be carried separately, declaring the name of the person to suffer and the 
cause of his punishment. To the horizontal bar of the Labarum was sus- 
pended a purple curtain resplendent with jewels. Our Lord is often repre- 
sented in paintings of the resurrection carrying a cross bannered in a similar 
manner. 

(b) The Latin Cross is to us of the West naturally the most familiar 
formf. and either on this (or the Tau) our Lord doubtless hung. Hence it is 
called the Cross of the Passion. 

(c) The Greek Cross differs from the Latin Cross, in having its four 
arms equal, instead of the lower being longer than the other three. 

(d) The Cross of Calvary is the Latin Cross, mounted on three steps, 
figuring Faith, Hope, and Charity, which words are sometimes found inscribed 
on the steps, "on the greatest of which is Charity- 

(e) The Cross Flenrie is, as the name implies, one with floriated ends. 
The Hymn, Lustra sex, aptly expresses the wish to show the tree changed 
from that of shame to that of glory. 

Crux fidelis, inter omnes 
Arbor una nobilis : 
Nulla talem silva profert 
Fronde flore germine. 

(e*) The Cross Fleurettee. 

t And, alas, by familiarity treated with contempt, being thought a fit adornment for watch 

chains and umbrellas ! 



53 

(/) The Maltese Cross was borne by the Knights Templars, as also by 
the Knights of S. John. 

(g) The Patriarchal Cross has a double cross bar. 

(h) The Papal Cross has a triple one. 

Other heraldic varieties used in " Blazonry " are — 



(*) 


The 


Saltire or Cross of S. Andrew (and S. Patrick). 


U) 


The 


Pointed Cross. 


(*) 


The 


Cross Quadrate. 


(I) 


The 


Cross Quarter pierced, or quarterly pierced (/*). 


(in) 


The 


Cross Moline. 


(«) 


The 


Cross Patonce. 


(o) 


The 


Cross Pommee. 


(P) 


The 


Cross Urdee. 


(?) 


The 


Cross Crosslet.. 


(r) 


The 


Cross Fitchec (i.e., sharpened at the base). 


(s) 


The 


Cross Pa tee. 


(0 


The 


Cross Botonee (or trefoiled). 


(») 


The 


Cross Potent (u* the same rebated). 


(v) 


The 


Cross Fourchee. 


(w) 


The 


Cross Recercelee. 


(*) 


The 


Cross of I una or Irish cross. 



Besides these there are others formed by the different heraldic 
" border " lines, e.g., (y) and (z), are respectively engrailed and ragulee. 

Any "charge" or device used in decoration may be represented cross- 
wise, or " in cross." Thus, four crowns, or crosses, or stars, or fleurs-de-lys 
may be so arranged. 

The smaller crosses, shown on Plate XII., and numbered i — 10, are 
examples of various oriental varieties, mostly of early date. 

The Candle Stick (Fig. 7, PI. XI.), with seven lights, is often found in 
early times. In later ages men preferred to " realise,'' and such a seven- 
branched light was in use on the altar of Durham Cathedral until compara- 
tively recent days. 

The Hand. — Dextera domini (Fig. 31, PI. XIV.), is not unfrequently 



54 

found in ancient work. It is a suggestive emblem of Him who so often used 
His own hand to bless, and who now sitteth " at the right hand of the 
Father." 

The Fish, which is indeed rather a " rebus " than an emblem, was very 
early employed to figure to us Him who made His disciples " Fishers of 
men ;" but, secondarily, it was used to refer to Christians, who, like fish, live 
by water, as Tertullian says, " Nos pisciculi secundum i\dvv nostrum in aqua 
nascimur." The explanation of this anagram is sufficiently well-known 
^Iqvovs Xpiarbs Qeov Tibs X(OTi)p. Hence comes the symbolic use of the 
shape in Christian architecture, called the vesica piscis, (Fig. n, PI. XI.) 
the bladder of a fish having somewhat this form. 

Three fishes interlaced are the common emblems of Baptism (Fig. 10, 
PI. XI.) 

The Lion is commonly (though possibly erroneously) taken as a symbol 
of Christ, the " Lion of the Tribe of Judah." 

The Peacock is taken by Martigny and others as an emblem of the 
Resurrection. S. Augustine speaks of it as figuring immortality, and says 
that its flesh is incorruptible ! 

The Pelican (Fig. 2, PI. XI.) shows us the love of Christ in leaving us 
the Sacrament, wherein " Our souls may be washed in His precious blood." 
The Pelican was supposed, in ancient times, to pierce her breast, either to 
feed her young or else to restore them when bitten by serpents. 

The Phoenix (Fig. 3, PI. XL), though not of Christian origin, was 
readily adopted, in very early times, as a type of the Resurrection. 

The Passion. Emblems of the suffering of Christ were very common 
111 later mediaeval times, either singly on shields or in groups. Carved or 
painted they are to be met with in bosses, screens, stall ends, windows ; in 
fact, in almost every position. 

The common emblems are the following: — 



(a) 


The cross. 




(*) 


The five wounds. 


(c) 


The lantern, the swords and staves, the cock. 


(d) 


The whips 


, rods and scourges, and the pillar. 


w 


The spear, 


the reed, the basin and sponge. 


(/) 


The crown 


of thorns. 


(g) 


The vesture and dice. 


(h) 


The three 


nails, the pincers, and the hammer. 




The ladder. 


U) 


The label 


I. N. R. I. | 



Most of these will be found figured on Plate X. 



55 

The Passion Flower was never represented in early art for the simple 
reason that it was unknown. On its first introduction to Europe it was 
supposed to be a "pious fraud" of the Jesuits, and its symbolism too com- 
plete to be true ! 

The only conventional representation (and one of the earliest, with 
which the writer is acquainted) occurs in the "Tableau de la Croix" 
published in 1651. This, slightly altered, is drawn on PI. XIII. (Fig. 14). 

The Pome ranate (Fig. 23 and 24, PL XIV.) is taken either as a symbol 
of Christ's Royalty or of Immortality. It is shown either just opening and 
disclosing the wealth of seed within, or it is "voided" and filled with 
the monogram of our Lord. In 14th and 15th century embroider)' it is 
perhaps the commonest "flower." 

The Rose and the Lily do not appear at first to have been used witli 
any special reference to Christ — the Rose of Sharon and the Lily of the 
Valley; and when the brilliant scarlet hue of the said "lily" is taken into 
account, the modern lily of the valley is scarcely its legitimate representative. 
The Rose was in later times, however, a favourite device ; several are figured 
on PI. XIV. Fig., 20 and 21, are en soleil, i.e., with the glory of the sun. 

The Star of Bethlehem (Fig. 13, Plate XI.) is one of the commonest 
and best known of Christian emblems. Usually it has five points, sometimes 
seven (Fig. 14), and occasionally 9 (Fig. 8), when, however, it would more 
properly typify the nine-fold gifts of the Holy Spirit. 

The Sun (Fig. 9, Plate XI.) was often used in mediaeval decoration, 
probably to typify our Lord— Sol jnstitice. Its use (with the moon) in repre- 
sentations of the Crucifixion is too well known to need more than mention. 

The Ship or Ark (Fig. 5, PI. IX.) is the emblem of the Church of 

Christ. 

The Stag was a favourite emblem in mediaeval times of the "desire" of 
Christians for the Sacraments. 

The Blessed Sacrament. The emblem in mediaeval times was the 
chalice with the circular bread (Fig. 5, PI. X.), and perhaps no better or 
more scriptural one could be devised than "the cup which we bless, and the 
bread which we break." 

The Good Shepherd. Under this guise our Blessed Lord was repre- 
sented in the first three centuries, after which time the image died out, and has 
rarely, if ever, been reproduced until within the last few years. 

The Vine is another ancient emblem of Christ (the True Vine), but it 
has never been much used since the fifth century ; save in purely decorative 
form, as in running foliage in wood and stone carvings, where it is far from 
probable that any reference was intended. 



56 

The common nineteenth century symbols of the sacrament, the "wheat 
and the grapes," do not appear to have any sure foundation in antiquity. 

The " Whale " of Jonah is another early emblem of Christ in his 
resurrection. 

The Wise Men's Offering of Gold, Incense and Myrrh, as also their 
three crowns, are Epiphany or Christmas symbols. 

The Blessed Trinity. 

The Triangle, or two interlaced Triangles, or again three Circles or a 
trefoil are sufficiently common emblems, but the most striking is the beautiful 
figure shown on Plate XI. (fig. 21 ). 

The octagon is the symbol of regeneration, the circle of eternity- 

The Holy Spirit is shown by the Dove (Fig. 1, PI. XIII.), or by the 
Flames of Pentecost ; so also by the seven foil, or by the seven lamps. 

No representation of the Almighty Father was ever attempted in the 
purer days of Christian Art ; and although many late examples exist wherein 
the first person of the Blessed Trinity is shown with long beard and crowned 
with, the Papal Tiara, it is enough to refer to such without attempting to 
reproduce them. 



III. 

EMBLEMS OF THE ANGELS. 

" The companions of St. Michael." 

According to S. Dionysius and common tradition there are nine orders 
of angels, divided into three choirs. 

i. Councillors. (Fig. 16, PI. XIII.) 

(a) Seraphim. Shown covered with eyes. 

(/;i Cherubim. With six wings, standing on wheels. 

(c) Thrones. Shown with a throne or tower. 



57 

(ii) Governors (Fig. 18.) 

(a) Dominations. Shown with ;i sword, triple crown, sceptre, orb or 

cross. 

(b) Virtues. Shown in full armour, with crown or censer. 

(c) Powers. Shown holding a baton, or chaining devils. 

(iii) Messengers (Fig. 17.) 

(a) Princedoms. Holding a lily. 

(b) Archangels. 

S. Michael trampling on the devil, or with a pair of scales. 

S. Raphael, with a pilgrim's staff, or fish and wallet. 

S. Gabriel, with a lily, or with a sceptre and shield, bearing 
the name of the B.V.M. 

S. Uriel, a scroll and book. 

(c) Angels. Shown bearing scrolls, shields of the passio , musical 

instruments, etc. etc. 



IV. 

EMBLEMS OF THE EVANGELISTS AND APOSTLES. 

(a) The Four Evangelists. 

S. Matthew, the Angel. (Fig. 1, PI. X.) 
S. Mark, the Lion. (Fig. 2.) 
S. Luke, the Ox. (Fig. 3.) 
S. John, the Eagle. (Fig. 4.) 

Sometimes these four are united in one, as described in the " Apoca- 
lypse " of Ezekiel, where the " Living creatures " had the " face of a man, an 
ox, a lion, and a flying eagle." 

These same symbols have been applied also to the four archangels, the 
four doctors of the Western Church, and the four great prophets; but their 
use is now so generally confined to the Evangelists, that little uncertainty is 
likely to arise as to their meaning, if employed in Church decoration. 

H 



5« 



(b) THE EMBLEMS OE THE TWELVE APOSTLES 

Will be found described under their names in § V. ; one of each is repre- 
sented on a shield on Plate XIII. (see Figs. 2 — 13.) These emblems here 
given are not the only ones ; in fact, many of the twelve apostles counter- 
change their emblems, and it is best to add the names, as in the examples 
figured. 



V. 



5. Agatha. 
S. Agues. 
S. A i da 11. 
S. Alban. 
S. Alphege. 
S. Ambrose. 
S. Andrew. 
S. Ann. 
S. Ansel in. 
S. Anthony. 



EMBLEMS OF THE SAINTS. 

Breasts in a dish, an eye in pincers. 
Lamb on a book. Lamb and palm. 
A stag. 

Cross and square cap and sword. 

A chasuble full of stones. 

A scourge, a beehive. 

A cross saltire or a frame like a V. 

The B. V. M. as a child by her side. 

A vision of the B. Y. M, and infant Saviour. 

A crutched staff and bell, a pig with bell round its 
neck, a torch and bell, the devil in goat's form. 



SS. Aqnila and Priscilla. Shoemaker's tools and tent. 

S. Athanasius. An open book, two columns. 

5. Augustine of Hippo. An inflamed heart, an arrow, an eagle, a child 

with spoon or shell by the sea shore. 

S. Augustine of England. Banner of the crucifixion, baptising King Ethelbert. 

S. Barbara. A tower and palm, or chalice. 

S. Barnabas. S. Matthew's gospel in the hand, three stones. 

,S'. Bartholomew. A Maying knife and a book. 

vS. Basil. (Ml A lioness. 



5'J 



5. Benedict. 

S. Bernard. 

S. Blaize. 

S. Boniface. 

S. Brice (or Britins). 

S Bridget (of Hilda re J. 

S. Catharine. 

S. Cecilia. 
S. Chad. 
S. Chrysost&m. 
S. Christopher. 

S. Clement. 

S. Coliiinha of Iona. 

S. Crispin. 

S. Cuthhert. 

S. Cyprian. 

S. Cyril. 

S. David. 

S. Denis or Dionysius. 

S. Dominic. 

S. Dorothy. 

S. Dnnstan. 

S. Eth'elburga. 

S. Edmund King. 

S. Edmund Bishop. 

S. Edward, King & Martyr 

S. Edward, Confessor. 

S. Elizabeth. 

S. Elizabeth of Hungary. 

S. Erasmus. 

S. Ethcldrcda. 



\ cup on a book with serpent, a raven, a pitcher, 
a ball of fire. 

The instruments of the passion, a white dog, a 
beehive. 

Crozier and book, a wool comb, a pig's head. 

Hook pierced with sword, a scourge. 

Carrying burning coals in his cope. 

A flame over head, an oak tree. 

A wheel set with spikes, hailstones descending on 

her torturers. 
An organ, a violin, a harp, a wreath of red roses. 
Shown holding a church in his hands. 
A beehive, chalice on Gospels. 

The Hoi)- Child borne on the giant's shoulder, a 
lantern. 

Mitre, double or triple cross, anchor, a fountain. 
A bear's den. 
Shoemaker's tools. 

The head of S. Oswald, swans, and otters. 
Gridiron and sword, books of magic burning. 
The B. V. M. appearing. 
A dove on the shoulder. 

Mitred head carried in the hands or on a book. 

A lily, a star on his forehead. 

Basket of fruit (and flowers). 

The Devil caught by pincers, a troop of angels. 

The instrument of the Passion. 

Arrows piercing him, arrow and sceptre. 

The Holy Child. 

. Dagger and cup, dagger and sceptre. 

A sceptre, a ring held in left hand, a purse hanging 
from right arm. S. John's Gospel. 

Shown Saluting the B. V. M. 

A triple crown, a basket of bread, and flagon of wine. 
A windlass (with entrails wound round it). 
A crozier and crown of flowers 



6o 



S. EnurcJius (or Evortius). 
S. Fabian. 
S. Faith. 

S. Francis of Assist. 
S. Genevieve. 
S. George. 
S. Giles. 

S. Gregory, Thaumaturgus 
S. Gregory Nazianzen. 

S. Gregory the Great. 

S. Helena. 

S. Hilary of Poictiers. 

S. Hubert. 

S. Hugh. 

S. Ignatius. 

S. James the Great. 

S. James the Less. 

S. Januarius. 

S. Jerome. 

S. Joanna. 

S. John, Baptist. 

S. John, Evangelist. 
S. Joseph. h 

S. Jtule. 
S. Lambert. 
S. Laurence. 
S. Leo. 
S. Leonard. 
S. Lucia u. 



S. Lucy. 



A dove on the head. 

A block at which he kneels, a dove, etc. 

An iron bed, book, and bundle of rods. 

A crown of thorns, the stigmata. 

A shepherdess spinning. 

A dragon slain by him with spear. 

A hind, an arrow. 

Devils driven out of a temple. 

Shown reading, Wisdom and Chastity appearing 
to him. 

Double barred cross, triple cross and tiara, A 
vision of Christ in his passion on the altar. 

The "True Cross," Church of Jerusalem in her 
hand. 

An island with serpents, a child in a cradle. 

A stag (on a book), a crucifix between its horns. 

A swan. 

In chains exposed to lions. 

A pilgrim's staff, shell, hat, and wallet. 

A fuller's club, a saw. 

A heated oven, a vial of blood. 

A cardinal's hat, a lion. 

An ointment box. 

A lamb on book, a garment of camel's hair, a locust, 
a head on a dish. 

A cup with serpent coming out, an eagle. 

A rod blossoming with lilies, a carpenter's square 
(or tools). 

A boat, a club, an inverted cross, a halbert. 
A lance or dart in his hand, a palm branch. 
A gridiron, a bag of money. 
On horseback, Attila and soldiers kneeling. 
An ox, chains and crozier. 

Shown in prison, consecrating the B. S. on his 
breast. 

Eyes in a dish (or on a book), a sword through her 
neck. 



S. Lukt 



An ox, a painting of the B. V. M. 



S. Margaret. 

S. Margaret of Scotland. 

S. Mark. 

S. Martin. 

The Blessed Virgin Man 

S. Mary Magdalene . 
S. Matthias. 

S. Matthew. 

S. Monica. 
S. Nicholas. 

S. Nicomede. 
S. Oswald, King. 
S. Pancras. 
S. Patrick. 

S. Paul. 
S. Perpetua. 
S. Peter. 

S. Philip. 

S. Poly carp. 
S. Prisca. 
S. Remigius. 
S. Richard. 
S. Rupert. 
S. Sebastian. 
S. Simon. 
S. Stephen. 

S. Sylvester. 



61 

A dragon chained. 

Shown visiting the sick, holding a black cross. 
A lion, a fig tree. 

A goose, a beggar receiving half the Saint's cloak. 

The lily, the marigold, the Crowned M. R., the 
Fleur-de-Lys, the Ark of the Covenant, the 
serpent's head beneath her feet, &c. 

A box of ointment, a skull. 

A halbert or lance, a stone, a sword held by the 
point. 

An angel, a dolphin, a money bag, a battle axe, a 
square, &c. 

A handkerchief and open book. 

Three children (in tub), three golden balls, an 
anchor. 

A club set with spikes. 
Sceptre and cross. 
A sword and stone. 

Serpents at his feet, a fire before him, the "trefoil"' 
or shamrock. 

A sword (and book), three springs of water. 
A wild cow. 

A key, or two keys, one gold and one silver, a 
cock crowing, an inverted cross. 

A basket, two loaves and a cross, a spear and 
double cross. 

A pile of wood in flames. 

A lion (or two lions), an eagle, a sword. 

Carrying holy oils. 

A plough. 

A salt box. 

A bunch of arrows, the same piercing him. 

A fish (or two fishes), an oar, a fuller's bat, a saw. 

Stones in a napkin, in Dalmatic or in hand, or 
one on the head. 

Constantine being baptised, an ox, a double cross, 
a tiara. 



62 



S. Swithuu. 

S. Thomas, Apostle. 

S. Tliomas a Becket. 

S. Thomas Aquinas. 

S. Ursula. 

S. Valentine . 

S. Vcdast. 

S. Veronica . 

S. Vincent. 

S. William of Norwich. 
S. William of York. 
S. Winifred . 



A shower of rain. 

A spear or lance, a square, shown also touching 
the sacred wounds. 

Pallium, archi-episcopal cross, sword across the 
back of his head. 

A star or sun on the breast, chalice and host. 

An arrow, a dove, a book. 

A priest bearing a sword 

A wolf with a goose in its mouth. 

The handkerchief with the Saviour's face. 

An iron hook, a gridiron, a crow. 

A crucified child, three nails. 

An archi-episcopal cross. 

A head carried in her hands. 



A List of certain flowers appropriated to the various days in tin- 
calendar is here given, extracted from a book by W. A. Barrett, entitled, 
" Flowers and Festivals." 



JANUARY 



i. The Circumcision. Laurustinus, Vibur- 
num times. 

6. The Epiphany. Common Star of Beth- 
lehem, Ornithogalum. 

8. S. Lucian, P. M. Common laurel, 
Lauras. 

13. S. Hilary, B. C. D. Barren strawberry, 

Frag aria steritis. 
18. S. Prisca, V. M. Four-toothed moss, 

Bryum pellucid 'uni . 

20. S. Fabian, B. M. Large dead nettle, 

Lamium garganicuni. 

21. S. Agnes, V. M. Black hellebore or 

Christmas rose, Helleborus nigcr, 
Flore albo. 

22. S. Vincent, D. M. Early willow grass, 

Draba verna. 
25. Conversion of S. Paul. Winter hellebore, 
Helleborus hy emails. 



FEBRUARY. 

M. 



Snowdrops, 



2. Purification B. V. 

Galanthus nivalis. 

3. S. Blasius, B. M. Great watei* moss, 

Fontinalis antcpyrctica. 
5. S. Agatha, V. M. Common primrose, 

Primula vulgaris. 
14. S. Valentine, B. M. Yellow crocus, 

Crocus mcesiacus 



24. S. Matthias. Mezereon, Daphne mcz- 

ereum. 

MARCH. 

1. S. David, Abp. C. Leek, Allium porrum . 

2. S. Chad, B. C. Dwarf cerastium, Cer- 

astiutn pcnnilum. 
7. S. Perpetua, M. Early daffodil, Nar- 
cissus pseudo, Narcissus simplex. 
12. S. Gregory, B. C. D. Channelled ixia, 
Ixia bttlbocodium 

17. S. Patrick, B. C. Shamrock, trefoil, 

trifolium repens. 

1 8. S. Edward, K. M. Great leopard bane, 

Donuricum pardalionetcs. 
21. S. Benedict, Abb. Herb bennet, Gcuon 
urbanum ; and way bennet or wild 
rye, Hordetim murinum; also, bulbous 
fumitory, Fumaria bulbusa. 

25. The Annunciation. Marigold, Calendula 

officinalis. 

APRIL. 

3. S. Richard, B. C. Evergreen alkanet, 

Anchusa sempcrvirens. 
\. S. Ambrose, B. C. D. Meadow orchis, 
Orchis mascula. 
S. Alphege, Abp. M. Ursine garlic. 

Ilium Aursinum . 
S. George, M. Harebell, Hyacinthus 
Honscriptus. 
25. S.Mark. Clarimond tulip, Tulipa praco.x ■ 



19 



23 



63 



MAY. 

i. S. Philip. Red tulip, Tulipa Gesneri. 
3. Invention of the Cross. Poetic narcisse, 
Narcissus poeticus. 

19. S. Dunstan, Abp. C. Monkshood, Aeon- 

Hum Napcllus. 

26. S. Augustine, Abp. C. Rhododendron, 

Rhododendron pontic urn. 

27. Ven. Bede. P. C. Yellow bachelor's 

button. Ranunculus acrisplenus. 

JUNE. 

1. S. Nicomede, P. M. Single yellow rose, 

Rosa lutca. 

5. S. Boniface, B. M. Three-leaved rose, 

Rosa sinica. 

11. S. Barnabas. Midsummer daisy. Chry- 
santhemum leucantkemum. 

17. S. Alban, M. Feather grass, Stipa 
pen nata. 

24. Nativity of S. John Baptist. S. John's 

wort, Hypericum pulchrum. Tutsam, 
Hypericum Androsamum. Chrysan- 
themum, also gooseberries. 
29. S. Peter. Yellow rattle, Rhinanthus 
Galli. 

JULY. 

2. Visitation B. V. M. White lily, Lilium 

candidum. 

15. S. Swithun, B. C. Small cape marigold, 
Calendula pluvialis. 

20. S. Margaret, V. M. Virginia dragon's- 

head, Draeoccplialus virginianum. 
22. S. Mary Magdalene. African lily, Aga- 
panthus umbellatus. 

25. S. James. S. James' cross, Amaryllis 

formosissima. S. James' wort, Senecio 
Jacobcea. 

26. S. Anne. Common chamomile, Mat- 

ricarica chamomilla. 

AUGUST. 

1. Lammas Day, i.e., " S. Peter adVincula." 
Stramony, Datura stramonium. 

6. Transfiguration. Common meadow saf- 

fron, Colchicum autumnale. 

7. Holy Name of Jesus. Common amaranth, 

Amaranthus hypochondriasis. 
10. S. Lawrence, D. M. Common balsam, 

Impatiens balsama. 
15. Assumption B. V. M. Virgin's bower, 

Clematis vitalba. 
24. S.Bartholomew. Sunflower, Helianthus 

annuus. 



28. S. Augustine, B. C. D. Golden rod, 

Soli dago virgurea. 

29. Beheading of S. John Baptist. S.John's 

wort, Hypericum clodes. 

SEPTEMBER. 

1. S. Giles' Abb. S. Giles' orpine, Sedum 
tcLphinm. 

7. Enurchus, B. C. Starvvort, Callithrix 

autumnalis. 

8. Nativity, B V. M. Bryony, our Lady's 

Seal. Red berried bryony, Bryonia 
dioiea. 

14. Holy Cross Day. Blue passion flower, 

Passijlora carulca. 
17. S. Lambert, B. M. Narrow-leaved 

mallow, Malva angustifolia. 
21. S. Matthew. Cilcated passion flower, 

Passijlora cilcata, 
26. S. Cyprian, Abp. M. Starwort, Aster 

tripolium. 

29. S. Michael and all Angels. Michaelmas 

daisy. Aster tradescanti. 

30. S. Jerome, P. C. D. Golden amaryllis. 

Amaryllis aurea. 

OCTOBER. 

1. S. Remigius, Abp. C. Lowly amaryllis 
or S. Remy's lily, maryllis Ahumilis. 

6. S. Faith, V.M. Late feverfew, Pyrethrttm 
scrotin um. 

9. S. Denys', B. M. Milky Agaric, Agar- 

icus lactijlorus. 

17. S. Etheldreda, Q. V. C. Ten-leaved sun- 

flower, Helianthus decapetalus. 

18. S. Luke. Floccose agaric, Agaricus 

Jloccosus. 

25. S. Crispin, M. Flea-bane starwort, Aster 
conizoides 

28. SS. Simon and Jude. S. Simon, late 
chrysanthemum. Chrysanthemum scro- 
tinum. S. Jude, scattered starwort. 
Aster passi floras. 

NOVEMBER. 

1. All Saints. Sweet bay, Laurus nobilis. 
Dark red sunflower, Helianthus atro 
rubens. 

6. S. Leonard, D. C. Yew, Taxus baccata. 
11. S. Martin, B. C. Weymouth pine, Pinus 
strobus. 

13. S. Britius or Brice, B. C. Bay. Laurus 
poeticus. 



64 



15. S. Machutus, B. C. Sweet colesfoot, 

Tussilago fragrans. 

17. S. Hugh, B. C. Free stramony, Datura 
arborca. 

20. S. Edmund, K. M. Red stapelia,.Srrt/>t7/(; 

rufa. 

22. S. Cecilia, V. M. Trumpet-flowered 

wood sorrel, Orchis tubiflora. 

23. S. Clement, B. M. Convex wood sorrel, 

Uxalis convexula. 

25. S. Catherine, V. M. Sweet butter bur, 
Petasites vulgaris. 

30. S. Andrew. S. Andrew's cross, or com- 
mon ascyrum, Ascyrus vulgaris. 



DECEMBER. 

6. S. Nicholas, B. C. Nest-flowered heath, 

Erica nidiflora. 
8. Conception, B. V. M. Abor vitas, Thuja 

Occident alls. 
13. S. Lucy, V. M. Cypress abor vitas, 

Thuja cupressoides. 
zi. S. Thomas. Sparrow wort, Erica pas- 
serina. 

25. Christmas. Holly, Ilex bacciflura. 

26. S. Stephen, Proto-M Purple heath, 

Erica purpurea. 

27. S. John. Flame heath, Erica fiammea- 

28. Holy Innocents or Childermas. Bloody 

heath, Erica cruenta. 
31. S. Sylvester, B. C. Genista heath, 
Erica genistopha. 



MOVABLE FEASTS. 



Passion Sunday. Christ's thorn, Paliurus 
aculcatus. 

Palm Sunday. Common palm, Christi 
Plianix dactylifcra 

Maundy Thursday. Laurel-leaved passion 
flower, Passiflora rubra. 

Good Friday. Long-sheathed anemone, 
Anemone Pulsatilla ; also called pas- 
sion flower. 

Easter Eve. Spear-leaved violet, Viola lactea. 

Easter Day. White lily, Liliutn candiduni . 



Rogation Sunday. Rogation flower, Polygala 
vulgaris. Common milkwort. 

Ascension Day. Lilies of the valley, Con- 
vallaria majalis. 

Whitsun Day. Columbine, Aquilcgia vul- 
garis. White thorn, Primus spinosa. 

Trinity Sunday. Herb Trinity, Viola tricolor; 
also called Pansy, Violet, Heart's-ease. 
Common white trefoil, Trifolium re- 
pens. 



VI. 
SHIELDS 

Are the commonest vehicles for emblems. Whether from a sense of being 
suitable for the use of the Church " Militant," or from the encroachments of 
Heraldry on Church decoration, is uncertain. The Shield is capable of an 
infinite variety of shaping, from the early three-cornered form to the grotesque 
escutcheons, which used to glare upon our childish eyes from the hatchments 
suspended on Church walls, whenever " a great man was dead." 

On Plate XIII. the Emblems of the Twelve Apostles are, for con- 
venience, charged on Shields of various designs, arranged, more or less 
chronologically, as regards their shape. Fig. i, on which the Sacred Dove 
is drawn, shows the typical early English Shield (which was sometimes, 
however, much longer). Figs. 2 and 4 show shapes a trifle later, while the 
rest in a descending scale, carry us to the 16th century ; further than this it 
is not advisable to venture. 



65 



VII. 

CROWNS. 

So distressing are the common forms, that the writer has thought it 
worth while to make a somewhat extensive collection of examples, ranging 
from iioo to 1500. Some of these are sketched from Parker's Glossary, 
some from Viollet le Due, and some from other sources. They may all be 
depended on as " authentic," and it is hoped they will commend themselves 
to the decorator as decidedly preferable to the spiky articles too commonly 
in use. 



VIII. 

FLEURS-DE-LYS. 

Of these, five examples are given on plate XIV., Figs. 25 — 29 ; it is 
probable, however, that the Parish Church in which the reader worships, will 
provide as good, or better examples. 



IX. 

COLOURS. 

The writer must plead to a certain amount of scepticism in the matter 
of symbolism as applied to colour : it is commonly said that each colour has 
its meaning, and that the mediaeval artists never used colour save with due 
regard to its significance — Credat Judaeus ! However, there is some truth in 
the belief, and as regards the "liturgical" colours,* commonly used at the 
present time, there is little obscurity. 

White signifies rejoicing, purity, and light ; hence it is used at 
Christmas and Eastertide, on Trinity Sunday, and on Feasts of the Blessed 
Virgin, etc. 

Red shows Divine Love, fire and blood, hence its use on Whitsunday 
and on Martyrs' Feasts. 

Purple or Violet is the colour of mourning and penitence, and, there- 
fore, it is used in Advent, from LXX. Sunday to Easter Eve, on Ember 
Days and Vigils, Rogation Days, and on the Feast of the Holv Innocents 
(save on a Sunday, when red is used). 

Green is the colour of repose, and is used in Trinity season and after 
Epiphany, for whatever " blank " time there is before LXX. 

*No venture must be made on the thin ice of " Sarum colours," a subject tempting, no 
doult, but too vast to be treated, save in a separate book. 

I 



66 



Blue is the colour of the Blessed Virgin ; it is also called the colour of 
heaven. 

Gold, they say, signifies glory. Aptly enough ; but why grey should 
figure " innocence falsely accused," the writer is at a loss to explain. 

A few words must be added on the heraldry of colour, which is specially 
important when emblems are placed upon shields. 

The heraldic " colours " are five — 

Red (gules), blue (azure), green (vert), black (sable), purple (purpure). 

The " metals," two — 

Gold (or), and silver (argent). 

And with regard to their use, the rule to which attention must be drawn is 
this :— a metal must not be put upon a metal, nor a eolour upon a colour. 
Hence if a shield is blue a red cross must not be put upon it ; nor if it is 
silver (i.e., white) must anything be charged on it in gold ; but a red or blue, 
or green ground must be charged with gold or silver, and a gold or silver 
ground with colour. 

Care should be taken to avoid a meaningless, or too meaning, use of 
heraldic figures, " bars," " chevrons," etc. ; and above all take care what is done 
with a bend K \ V which, when reversed, is the mark j 7/1 of illegitimacy. 





The writer once saw it hung up as an appropriate decoration opposite the tomb 
of a nobleman, whose first ancestor had that stain on his escutcheon. 



67 



CHAPTER X. 

STRUCTURAL DECORATION. 

i. — Arches and Columns. 

A few examples are given on PI. VI., showing the various treatments 
suggested. After all, however, it must be considered in each case how the 
object lends itself to ornamentation. Observation and experience are the 
only sure guides ; and a few failures at first will lead to success sooner or later. 
The cautions in Chapter II. will, it is hoped, preserve the decorators from 
the man)/ pit-falls into which their predecessors have been snared. The 
frontispiece of the book shows perhaps how far it is advisable to go in this 
direction. 

Bear in mind that just as plain spaces and not ornament are to be 
covered, so in an arch or column it is always a hollow or receding, and not a 
projecting member, that invites foliage. 

Sometimes it is safe, when the columns are tall, to form a dado about 
3 feet 6 inches high, by sewing light serge or cotton tightly round the column, 
on the top of which a light cresting of leaves, or a decorated border may be 
tied. 

2. — Wall Spaces. 

Whatever words might be said on this matter have been fully antici- 
pated in the earlier pages of the book, and the reader can refer to them. 

3. — Window Sills 

Can be very effectively decorated by procuring a board about an inch thick, 
cut to the shape of the sloping sill, and having it perforated with holes all 
over about two inches apart, and sticking sprigs of evergreens into these 
holes, covering the board with moss. Another plan is to fit boards into all 
the window sills, and cover them with moss or leaves, and form a text in 
everlasting flowers to run all round the Church. 

Texts on the same plan can of course be formed in various ways, such 
as in straw tissue on a flock ground ; or if it is preferred, a device, instead of 
a text, may be placed in the centre of each window sill on the groundwork 
of leaves or moss. 

The texts can also be illuminated in colours on calico or cartridge 
paper, and surrounded with wreaths of evergreens. See Figs. 7, S. 9. PI. VI. 



68 



Here it is desirable to remark that wherever damp moss, or any other 
material likely to leave a stain on the stonework, is used, it will be requisite 
to put waterproof paper, or something of a like nature, underneath it. For 
this reason the French dried moss is generally preferable for decorative pur- 
poses, and it is also a better colour. For various suggestive sketches see 
Plate VII., Plate I., &c. 

4. — Screens 

Had better be left alone as much as possible. Metal is damaged more or less 
certainly by contact with damp leaves. Wooden screens are hard to decorate 
without the use ol nails. 

It is often feasible, however, to lay a wreath of evergreens along the 
top beam, or to stretch a text along the whole length. Troughs filled with 
moss and flowers can be set at the foot of the panelling, and sometimes the 
panels themselves (if plain) may be thus decorated. See PI. VIII., Fig. 1 — 4. 

Cut out panels in cardboard exactly the size required, and ornament 
them with illumination, or applique work, as may be preferred : to fix them in 
their places, "spring" in thin laths of wood in front of them, and they will 
be as firm as if they were nailed. Roses or other flowers in the zinc cones 
already mentioned may be hung at intervals, but little in the way of 
" wreathage " had better be attempted ; if the uprights and arches are well 
proportioned as they stand, they will not be improved by being thickened 
with leaves. 

5. — Pulpits 

Require special care, and so much depends on their form and design, that it 
is impossible to give any very definite hints for their decoration ; narrow 
wreaths stitched on to canvas, or fixed to wire, may be perhaps safely put 
round the heavier mouldings. Flowers may be suspended, and the base 
surrounded with flowers in pots. See Fig. 13, PI. IX. 

6. — Fonts. 

Great variety may be obtained by the use of different " covers " of 
wirework, wreathed with foliage. If the font be plain, it is very easy to fasten 
bands round the bowl, and to decorate the base with growing flowers. If the 
font stand on steps, these may be well banked with moss (using waterproof 
paper), and decked with flowers ; texts and devices being perhaps introduced 
formed of everlastings. Three examples are given of ancient fonts. Figs. 
11 and 12, PI. IX., and Fig. 7, PI. VIII. 

7. — Altars 

.Should never be touched ; if it be the custom in a Church to use Frontals of 
different colours then the covering will be sufficient decoration. Vases filled 



6 9 



with flowers can be placed upon the ledge at the back ; and ferns, flowers 
and small shrubs placed on either side, provided always that they do not, by 
blocking up the space, hinder the clergy in their ministrations. PI. I. shows 
an altar with the fullest decoration advisable. 



8. — Communion Rails, Stalls and Lecterns. 

These, in the opinion at least of the writer, are best unadorned, for 
the reasons set forth in Chapter II. If any ornament is introduced it should 
be of the slighest possible description. 

These directions read as very meagre ones it must be admitted, but so 
much depends on the character of the building that few rules of universal 
application are to be laid down. The writer in conclusion can only say : — 

" Sit Modus in Rebus." 



7° 



CHAPTER XI. 



Materials. 



All particulars as to materials and ready-made decorations will be 
found in the Appendix. It may be advisable, however, in this place to set 
down a list, capable of considerable expansion, of such things as are likely to be 
required by the amateur church decorator. To begin with evergreens. Of 
the holly, which is by custom the principal one used, there are sixteen 
varieties, the common one being the Ilex Aquifolium. 



Holly. 

Variegated Holly. 

Ivy (the smaller variety). 

Laurel. 

Box. 

Yew. 



Fir (in its various varieties). Privet. 

Arbor Vita;. Myrtle. 

Portugal Laurel. Cypress. 

Arbutus. Bay. 

Laurustinus. Rosemary. 

Ferns. Moss. 



Materials for forming Wreaths. 



Evergreens, as previous list. 
Everlasting flowers. 
Imitation Holly berries. 
Rope. 

Stout string. 
Fine twine. 

Stout iron or topper wire. 
Fine do. do. 



Reel wire (as used by artificial 

flower-makers). 
Needles and thread. 
Hoop iron. 
Deal laths. 

.Scissors (best tied by a long tape 
to wrist or waist when in use). 
Pocket knife. 



Pliers (for wire). 
Hammer. 
Nails and tacks. 
Frame for decorated font cover. 
Bands of perforated zinc. 
Letters of do. ' do. 
Zinc and iron clips for capitals 
of columns. 



For Evergreen or Flower Devices. — The groundwork cut out in 
perforated zinc in addition to the foregoing. 

For Worked and Painted Devices.— Full sized models of mono- 
grams, crosses and devices. — These are best procured cut out in cardboard, 
unless the amateur has sufficient knowledge of drawing to set them out 
himself. 



Cloth (in various colours) 
Cotton-velvet do. 
Cotton-wool. 
Cartoon paper. 
Coloured papers. 
Coloured flock papers. 



Gold paper. 

Silver paper. 

Straw tissue. 

Prepared (painted) cloth. 

Prepared calico. 

Paints, prepared for use. 



Gold leaf. 
Gold size. 
Paint brushes. 
Straight rule. 
Set square. 
Compasses. 



For large circles, a nail or pin driven in at the point from which the 
circle is struck, with a string of the required length (having a pencil attached), 
revolving round it, forms a good substitute for compasses. 



flat* 



ABCDEP0HUK 
LMNOPQRBTUV 

WXYZ abcdef^ijhl 
mnopqrstuvwxyz* 

HHIIIVVVIVIIVfflKX 

abr t pfs^ii Winn opqF^fal) 




i 



APPENDIX. 



CONTAINING 

A Description and Illustration of a few of the Materials used in Church 
Decoration to be obtained at 

Messrs. COX, SONS, BUCKLEY & Co.'s ESTABLISHMENT, 

28 & 29, SOUTHAMPTON ST., STRAND. 



N.B. — The Prices have been carefully revised, and in a great many cases 
a reduction has been made on the various Articles, and new 
Designs and Materials introduced . 



DETAILED PRICE LIST OF MATERIALS 

Will be found at the end of the Book, and for any other Materials and 
Prices required apply for Messrs. COX'S Decoration Catalogue, 
which is forwarded free on Application. Customers are particularly 
requested to mention when Ordering from this Book, as otherwise any 
Number quoted is taken us applying to the Decoration Catalogue, 
which varies from the Art of Garnishing. 



COX, SONS, BUCKLEY & COMPANY. 



A Department is reserved for supplying Ladies with silks, crewels, &c, required for 
ecclesiastical and domestic needlework, an Artist being specially engaged in designing and 
sketching for this department. Lessons in Art needlework are given when required. 

attD Stone Cartmtg. 

Special attention is given to work in the Carving Studios, Statuary and finer decorative 
details being executed with all the \vell-known skill of the Flemish Carvers, at their 
" Atelier" in Flanders. 

JKefad Work. 

Hammered and Forged Screens, Chancel Rails, Standards, &c, are executed in iron, brass 
and " rose metal," or combined metals, w ith the skill and taste characteristic of the school 
of Quentin Matsys. 

Jltattttii (Blass mh itorattfo f3amthtg. 

The Figures for Subject Windows are designed by Artists who have studied this branch 
of Art, both in the Renaissance School of Painters, and in the more distinctly Mediaeval 
School. The increased demand for Windows painted from the Cartoons of these gentlemen, 
in which the correct principles of the old glass are combined with good drawing, is a great 
encouragement to the firm. 

Mural Painting executed on damp-proof materials. 

Jlarbk Mork. 

Arrangements have been made to have Marble Monuments, &c, manufactured at Carrara, 
where, owing to the facility of selecting blocks at the Quarries, the Marble used is superior 
to most of that worked in England, and the lower price of labour enables us to supply 
marble works on most moderate terms. 

Estimates for every description of work will be gladly furnished, at as low a scale of 
charges as possible. 

Messrs. COX, SONS, BUCKLEY & Co., allow a Discount off the Goods in all Depart- 
ments on Orders of not less than 20s. value, and all Goods of not less than £5 will be 
delivered carriage paid within a radius of four miles. 

5 per Cent, for Cash within Fourteen Days. 
Accounts due net in Three Months. 

These Terms must be strictly adhered to, and the discount cannot be allowed after the 

time has elapsed. 



Show Rooms -28 and 29, SOUTHAMPTON STREET, STRAND, LONDON. 
Stained Glass Studios-43 & 44, MA I DEN LA NE, adjoining. 
Manufactory— ESHER WORKS, ESHER STREET, WESTMINSTER. 

A Catalogue of each Department can be had on Application, 

Post Free. 



2 



: — continued . 



CARDBOARD LETTERS & PATTERN ALPHABETS. 



Letters cut out in Cardboard, as Patterns, or to form 
Texts. 



No. Height. 


Plain. 


Colrd. 


Gilt. 


500 or 502, 4 in., per doz. 


1/6 


2/6 


I/O 


„ 6 ,. 


2/0 


3/o 


6/0 


,, 8 ,. 


2/6 


4/0 


7/6 


.. 10 ,, 


4/0 


5/6 ; 


IO/6 


,, 12 ,, 


5/0 


• 7/0 


14/0 


501 ,, 6 ,, 


2/6 


3/6 


6/6 


,, 8 ,. 


3/o 


4/6 


8/0 



Letters out out in Coloured Paper, ready for Mounting 
as No. 500. 

4 in. high . . . . 1/0 6 in. high .... 2/0 per doz. 



If in Gilt Paper. 
4 in. high .... 1/6 6 in. high .... 3/0 per dc 



PATTERN ALPHABETS of either of the above charged as two dozen letters, or 3d. 
extra, post free. Letters under 4 inches high charged as 4-inch letters. 

Letters Printed on Paper assorted. Printed Alphabets. 



No. Height. 


Plain. 


Colrd. 


Gilt. 


No. 


Height. 


On Paper. 


Cardboard, 


500 or 502, 4 in., per doz. 


0/6 




3/o 


500 or 502, 


4 in. 


I/O 


1/6 


500 or 501, 6 ,, ,, 


I/O 


1/6 


4/0 


500 or 501, 


6 ,, 


2/0 


3/0 


500 8 ., 


1/6 


'2/6 


6/0 


500 


8 ,, 


3/o 


4/6 



Any Text or Printed Alphabet sent post free for two stamps extra. The above are the 
only Printed Alphabets and Letters kept in stock ; other sizes or patterns would have to be 
written by hand, and the prices would be the same as for Letters cut in Cardboard. 

PERFORATED ZINC LETTERS for forming Texts in Berries, Everlasting 
Flowers, &c. ; these being durable the Texts can be varied from time to time by getting a 
few extra letters. 

No. 503 and 503A, 4 in. high, 4/0; 6 in., 6/0; 8 in. 7/6; 10 in., 9/0; 12 in., 12/0 per dozen. 

FROSTED WOOL LETTERS, mounted on Card, as No. 500, 6 in. high, 5/0 ; 8 in. high 

6/0 per dozen. 

IMITATION CORAL LETTERS, as No. 500, 8 in. high, 14/0 per dozen. 

STRAW TISSUE LETTERS, as No. 500, 4 in. high, 3/0; 6 in. high, 4; 6 per dozen. 

GOLD METAL LETTERS, as No. 500, 4 in. high, 4/0; 6 in. high, 5/6 per dozen. 

Any Colour Flock Paper Letters or Frosted Card Letters, same price as that quoted for 
Straw Tissue. 

For other style letters see Plate XVI. and XVII. in " New Art of Garnishing." 



2 



TEMPORARY SCREENS 

(In wood). 

For covering with Evergreens, Devices, &c, 12 feet long, y feet high, No. 497, go/-, 4y8, 
70/-, 499, 100/-. Estimates given for other sizes. 



MONOGRAMS, CROSSES, DEVICES, &c, 

(Cut out as Groundwork for Flowers, Berries, &c.) 

In Perforated Zinc. ' In Cardboard. 



No. 


1 ft. 

: High. 


1 ft. 6 in 

High. 


2 ft. 

High. 


2 ft. (i in 
High. 


3 ft. 
High. 


1 ft. 

High. 


1 ft 6. in. 
High. 


2 ft. 
High. 


12 ft. 1; in. 

High. 


8 ft, 
High 


504 


I/O 


1/6 


2/6 


3/6 


5/o 


0/8 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


506 


1 6 


2/0 


3''° 


4/6 


5/6 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


507 


1 6 


2/0 


3/0 


4/6 


5/6 


1 0 




2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


508 




2/0 


3/0 


4/6 


5/6 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


509 


r/o 


2/0 


2/6 


4/6 


5/6 


0/8 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


512 


1/0 


2/0 


2/6 


4/6 


5/6 


p S 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


513 


2/6 


3/o 


4/0 


5/6 


7/0 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/6 


5/o 


514 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


5/o 


6/0 


1 6 


2/0 


3/o 


4/0 


5/0 


516 


1/0 


2/0 


2/6 


4/6 


5/6 


0/8 


I/O 


1 6 


2/0 


2/6 


517 


2/6 


3/o 


4/0 


5/6 


7/0 


2/0 


2 '6 


3/6 


4/6 


5/o 


521 


2/0 


3/o 


3/6 


5/6 


6/6 


1 6 


2/0 


3/o 


4/0 


5/0 


5 2 2 


2/0 


2/6 


3/o 


5/o 


6/0 


1 6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/6 


524 


2/0 


2/6 


3/0 


4/6 


5/6 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/6 


525 


2/0 


2/6 


3/o 


5/o 


6/0 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4 /6 


526 


2/0 


2/6 


3/o 


5/o 


6/0 


, 6 


2/0 


2/6 


3 6 


4/6 


529 


2/0 


3/o 


4/0 


5/6 


7/0 


1/6 


2/0 


3/o 


4/0 


5/o 


530 


2 6 


3/o. 


4/0 


5/6 


7/0 


j 0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/6 


5/o 


532 


2/6 


3/o 


4/0 


5/6 


7/0 


2 0 


2/6 


3 6 


4/6 


5/o 


537 


2/6 


3/o 


4/0 


5/6 


7/0 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/6 


5/o 


539 


2/6 


3/o 


4/0 


5/6 


7/0 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/6 


5/o 


545* 


1 6 


2/0 


3/o 


4/6 


5/6 


1/0 


1/6 


' 2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


55o 


I/O 


2/0 


2/6 


4/6 


5/6 


0 8 


1/0 ' 


1/6 


• 2/0 


2/6 






In Straw Tissue. 




In Cardboard covered with Gold Metal 


5°4 


1/0 


1/3 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


1/0 


1/6 


2/3 


3/6 


5/o 


506 


1/3 


2/0 


2/6 


4/0 


5/0 


1/6 


2/6 


3 '6 


5/o 


6/0 


507 


1/3 


2/0 


2/6 


4/0 


5/o 


1/6 


2/6 


3/6 


5/o 


6/0 


508 


1 5 


2/0 


2/6 


4/0 


5/o 


1 6 


2/6 


3/6 


5/o 


6/0 


509 


1/0 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/6 


1/0 


2/0 


3 0 


4/6 


6/0 


512 


1/0 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/6 


1/0 


2/0 


3/° 


4/6 


6/0 


5 r 3 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


5/o 


6/0 


2 6 


3/6 


4/6 


6/0 


7/6 


5 J 4 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


5/o 


6/0 


2/6 


3/0 


4/o 


5/6 


7/0 


516 


1/0 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/6 


I/O 


2/0 


3/o 


4/6 


6/0 


5 X 7 


2/0 


3/0 


4/0 


5/o 


6/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/6 


6/0 ' 


7/6 


521 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/0 


5/o 


2/6 


3/° 


4/0 


5/o 


6/0 


522 


2/0 


2/6 


3/o 


4/6 


5/6 


2/6 


3/o 


4/'o 


5/o 


6/0 


524 


2/0 


2/6 


3/o 


4/6 


5/6 


2/6 


3/0 


4/0 


5/o 


6/0 


525 


2/0 


2/6 


3/o 


4/6 


5/6 


2/6 


3/o 


4/0 


5.0 


6/0 


526 


2/0 


2/6 


3/o 


4/6 


5/6 


2/6 


3/o 


4/0 


5/o 


6/0 


5 29 


2/0 


2/6 


3/0 


4/o 


5./o 


2/6 


3 0 


4/0 


5/o 


6/0 


53° 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/0 


6/0 


2/6 


3 0 


4/6 


6/0 


7/6 


532 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/0 


6/0 


2/6 


3/o 


4/6 


6/0 


7/6 


537 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/0 


6/0 


2/6 


3 0 


4/6 


6/0 


7/6 


539 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/0 


6/0 


2/6 


3/o 


4/6 


6/0 


7/6 


5 45 a 


i/3 


2/0 


2/6 


4/0 


5/o 


1/6 


2/6 


3/6 


5/o 


6/0 


550 


I/O 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/6 


1/6 


2/0 


3/o 


4 /6 


5/6 



Devices in Crystal Frost on Cardboard same price as that quoted for Straw Tissue. 
For further Designs see Plate xxii. in "New Art of Garnishing." 



3 — continued. 

MONOGRAMS, CROSSES, CROWNS, DEVICES, Ac.-"*****. 



Straw Tissue Crowns. 



No. 


8 in. 
Wide. 


1 ft. 
Wide. 


1 ft. 6 in. 
Wide. 


2 ft. 
Wide. 


2 ft. 6 in. 
Wide. 


8 in. 
Wide. 


1 ft. 

Wide. 


1 ft. 6 in. 

Wide. 


2 ft. 
Wide. 


2 ft. 6 in. 
Wide. 


55 1 


I/O 


1/3 


1/6 


2/3 


3/° 


I/O 


1/6 


2/6 


3/o 


4/0 


552 


1/0 


1/3 


2/6 


2/3 


3/o 


I/O 


1/6 


2/6 


3/o 


4/0 


553 


i/3 


2/0 


1/6 


3/0 


3 '6 


1/6 


2/0 


3/o 


3/6 


4/6 


554 


1 '0 


i/3 


i/e 


2/3 


3/o 


I/O 


1/6 


2/6 


3/o 


4/0 


555 


0/8 


1/0 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


I/O 


1/3 


2/0 - 


1 2 /6 


3/o 


556 


i/3 


2/0 


2/6 


3/0 


3/6 


1/6 


2/0 


3/'o 


3/6 


4/6 



Cardboard Crowns covered with 
Gold Metal. 



The above prices are for Flat Crowns, if made Circular they would be three times 

as much as quoted. 









In Straw Tissue. 




In Cardboard, covered with Gold Meta 


No. 


6-in. 
High 


1 ft. 

High 


1 ft. 6 in 
High. 


1 2 ft. 

[High 


■ 2 ft. 6 in 
High. 


3 ft. 
High. 


6-in. 
High. 


I ft. 

High. 


1 ft. 6 in 
High. 


2 ft. 
High. 


2 ft 6 in 
High. 


3 ft 
High 


557 


0/6 


I/O 


1/6 


2/3 


3/o 


4/0 


1/0 


1/3 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 




558 


0/6 


1/0 


1/6 


2/3 


'.3/o 


4/0 


I/O 


r/3 


1/9 


2/3 


3/o 


4/6 


559 


0/6 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


0/9 


1/0 


1/6 


2/0 . 


2/6 


3/6 


560 


0/6 


I/O 


j/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


0/9 


1/0 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


561 


0/6 


1/0 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


o/g 


1/0 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


562 


0/6 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


1 % 


1/0 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


563 


0/6 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


0/9 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


564 


0/6 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


; °/9 


1/0 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


565 


0/6 


1/0 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


°/9 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


566* 






3/0 


3/6 


4/6 


6/0 


8/0 




3/6 


4/0 


5/0 


6/6 


9/0 


567* 






3/0 


3/6 


4/6 


6/0 


8/0 




3/6 


4/0 


5/0 


6/6 


9/0 


568 






2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/6 


. 6/0 




3/o 


3/6 


4/6 


5/6 


7/6 


569 






2/0 


3/o 


4/0 


5/o 


6/0 




3/o 


3/6 


4/6 


5/6 


7 /6 


57° 






2/0 


3/o 


4/0 


5/o 


6/0 




3/o 


3/6 


4/6 


5/6 


7/6 


57 1 


0/8 


1/6 


3/o 








I/O 


2/0 


3/o 








572 


0/8 


1/6 


3/o 








I/O 


2/0 


3/o 








573 


0/8 


1/6 


3/o 








I/O 


2/0 


3/o 








574 


] 




1/6 


3/o 


4/0 






I/O 


2/0 


3/o 


5/0 






575 






1/6 


3/o 


4/0 






1/.0 


2/0 


3/o 


5/0 






576 






I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 




' I/O 


1/6 


20/ 


2/6 


3/6 


Nn. 




1ft. 

Wide 


1 ft. 6 in. 
Wide. 


2 ft. 
Wide. 


2 ft. 6 in. i| 
Wide. | 


1ft. 

Wide. 


1 ft. 6 in. 1 2 ft. 2 ft. 6 in. 
Wide. Wide. Wide. 


577 






2/0 


2/6 




3/o 


4/0 


1 


2/6 


3/6 


4/6 


5/o 


578 






2/6 


3/o 




3/6 


4/6 




3/o 


4/0 


' 5 


'0 


5/6 



The above centres to Devices Nos. 566 and 567 are cut separate, other Monograms 

substituted. 

For other Devices, see Plate XII. in new edition of "Art of Garnishing." 



may be 



MONOGRAMS, CROSSES, CROWNS, DEVICES, &c, 

(Cut out to shape as Groundwork for Flowers, Evergreens, Berries, &c.) 





Perforated Zinc Crowns. 






Cardboard Crowns. 




No. 


8 in. 
Wide. 


1 ft. 

Wide. 


1 ft. 6 in. 
Wide. 


2 ft. 

Wide. 


2 ft. 6 in. 
Wide. 


8 in. 
Wide. 


1 ft. 

Wide. 


1 ft. 6 in. 

Wide. 


2 ft. 
Wide. 


2ft.(>in. 
Wide. 




I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/C 


0/8 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/0 


552 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


0/8 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


553 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/6 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/0 


554 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


. 3/o 


0/8 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


555 


I/O 


i/3 


1/9 


2/0 


2/6 


0/6 


0/9 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


556 


16 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/6 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/0 



The above Prices are for Flat Crowns, if made Circular they would be three times as 

much as quoted. 



In Perforated Zinc. 



No. 


6 in. 
High, 


1 ft. 
High. 


1 ft. G in. 
High. 


2 ft. 
High. 


2 ft. (i in. 
High. 


3 ft. 
High. 


B in. 
High. 


• 1 ft. 
High. 


1 ft. 6 in. 
High. 


2 ft. 
High. 


2 ft. 6 in. 
High. 


3 ft. 
High. 


557 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3> . 


5.'0 


0/6 


1/0 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


55« 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


5/o 


o/9 


0/9 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


3/o 


559 


1/0 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/6 


0/6 


0/9 


I/O 


1/6 


2 


/o 


3/o 


560 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4:6 


0/6 


0/9 


I/O 


1/6 


2 


/o 


3/o 


561 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/6 


0/6 


0/9 


1/0. 


1 6 


2/0 


3/o 


562 


1/0 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4 /6 


06 


0/9 


1/0 


1/6 


2/0 


3/o 


563 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/6 


0/6 


0/9 


1/0 


1/6 


2 


/o 


3 /o 


564 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4 /6 


0/6 


0/9 


1/0 


1/6 


2 


/o 


'3/o 


565 


1/0 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/6 


0/6 


0/9 


1/0 


1/6 


2 


/o 


3/o 


566* 




3/6 


4/6 


6/0 


8/0 


1 0/0 




2/6 


3 /o 


4/0 


5/0 


7/'° 


567* 




3/6 


4/6 


6/0 


8/0 


10/0 




2/6 


3/o 


4/0 


5/0 


7/0 


568 




2/0 


2/6 


■3/6 


4/6 


6/0 




1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3 


/6 


5/o 


569 




2/6 


3/o 


4/0 


5/6 


7/0 




2 0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/6 


5/o 


570 




2/6 


3/o 


4/0 


5/6 


7/0 




2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4 


/6 


5/o 


57 1 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 








0/4 


1/0 


1/6 










572 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 








0/6 


I/O 


1/6 










573 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 








0/6 


I/O 


1/6 










574 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 






0/9 


I/O 


1/6 


2/0 








575 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 






0/9 


1/0 


1/6 


2/0 








576 




1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


3/6 


4/6 




0/9 


I/O 


1/6 


2 


/o 


3/0 


No. 


1 ft 

Wide. 


1 ft. 6 in. 
Wide. 


•2 ft. 
Wide. 


2 ft. 6 in. 
Wide. 


1 ft. 
Wide. 


1 ft. fi in. 
Wide. 


2 ft. 
Wide. 


2 ft. 6 in. 
Wide. 


577 


1 


/6 


3/6 


4/6 


6/ 


3 




1/6 


2/6 


3/6 




3/6 


57« 


3/o 


4/0 


5/0 


5/ 


3 




2/0 


3/o 


3'6 




4/0 



In Cardboard. 



* The above Centres to Devices Nos. 566 and 567 are cut separate ; other 

Monograms may be substituted. 
For other Devices see Plate XII. in new edition of " Art of Garnishing." 



4 — contin tied. 

BORDERS ON PREPARED CALICO H AN D- PAI NTED. 

Nos. 588, 3 inches wide Plainly, 1/0 per yard. 

.. • ■ • • . . Richly, 1/2 

589 .. Plainly, 1/0 

■■ .. Richly, 1/2 

•■ 59° ,, .. . . . . Plainly, 1/0 

, 591, 2 inches wide Plainly, 0/10 

•• - •■ Richly, 1/0 

■592 ,. ,. Plainly 0/8 

■• •■ • • • • • • Richly, 0/10 



BORDERS OF STRAW TISSUE. 

(Mounted on Flock Paper.) 

As 593 or 595, z| inches wide 1/6 per yard. 

As 594 or 596, 2 J 1/2 ,, 



STRAW TISSUE TEXT. 

On Crimson Flock, or other coloured Flock Grounds, mounted on thick Paper 
11 inches wide, with Letters as 582, and Borders in coloured Flock and Straw Tissue 
as 593. 594. 595. or 596, at 1/6 per foot, without borders 1/- per foot. 



GOLD METAL TEXTS. 

Cardboard letters, covered with Gold Metal (very brilliant), can be supplied 
mounted on Flock, in similar way to Straw Tissue. Letters same style as 582, with 
borders as 593, 594, 595, or 596. 

6 feet long, 11 inches wide, with not more than 14 letters in text, 14/-. 
9 " •• 11 - ■■ .. 20 ., ,, 21/-. 



Designs for Dossals, Reredoses, and Altar Hangings, see Plate XV. in New Edition 

of " Art of Garnishing." 



4 



ILLUMINATED TEXTS. 



On Prepared Calico. 



On Prepared Cloth. 





Plainly Illuminated 
in Colours. 


Richly Illuminated 
in Colours and Gold. 


Plainly Illuminated 
in Colours. 


Richly Illuminated 
in Colours and (iold. 


No. 579 


at per foot 


I/O 


1/3 


1/6 


2/6 


.. 580 




I/O 


1/3 


1/6 


2/6 


., 581 




0/10 


I/O 


i/3 


2/0 


.. 582 




0/10 


I/O 


i/3 


2/0 


.. 583 


9 feet 


20/0 


25/0 


32/0 


40/0 




12 ,, 


25/0 


31/0 


38/o 


45/o 


.. 584 


9 feet 


20/0 


25/0 


32/0 


40/0 




12 ,, 


25/0 


31/° 


38/0 


45/o 



Nos. 579 and 580 may have Borders, as Nos. 585, 587, 588, 589, or 590. 
Nos. 581 and 582 ,, ,, ,, ,, 586, or 592. 



ILLUMINATED BORDERS. 

Prepared Calico or Prepared Cloth, 11 inches wide, with borders, ready for amateurs 

to fill in any Texts required. 



Prepared Calico. 



Prepared Cloth. 



585, Plainly Illuminated . 


1/6 per yard. 1 


Plainly Illuminated, 


2/0 pe 


,, Richly 


1/10 


Richly 


2/6 


586, Plainly 


i/4 


Plainly 


1/10 


„ Richly 


1/10 


Richly 


2/4 


587, Plainly 


. 1/6 


Plainly 


2/0 


„ Richly 


1/10 


Richly 


26 


588, Plainly 


1/10 ,, 


Plainly 


2/3 


„ Richly 


. 2/2 


Richly 


2/10 


589, Plainly 


1/10 „ 


Plainly 


2/3 


„ Richly 


. 2/2 


Richly 


2/10 


590, Plainly 


1/10 „ 


Plainly 


2/3 


„ Richly 


2/2 ,, 


Richly 


2/10 



yard. 



579 



551 



ROHr*R( ■ ElBHtinPSS 



550 



.53S 



it ON * HIGH 



535 



j s a a » 'i a 




555 



5Z7 



55 H 



559 



590 



^91 



59+ 



59J 



195 



592 



596 



5 



IN "ART OF GARNISHING, " PLATE XX. 



ILLUMINATED SCROLLS AND ARCH TEXTS. 





On Prepared Calico. 


On Prepared Cloth. 




Plainly 
Illuminated in 
Colours. 


Richly Illuminated 
in Colours and 
Gold. 


Plainly 
IllnimiiiitGil. 


Richly Illuminated 
in Colours and 
Gold. 


No. 1096, 3 ft. by 2 ft. 


IO/6 


12/6 


15/0 


1 8/0 


5 ft- by 3 ft- 


13/6 


16/0 


18/0 


21/0 


.. 1097, 3 ft. by 2 ft. 


IO/6 


12/6 


15/0 


18/0 


5 ft by 3 ft. 


13/6 


16/0 


18/0 


21/0 


,. nog or 1 1 10, with 










1 e\ts, 3 it. by 2 it. 


8/6 


IO/6 


13/0 


15/0 


5 ft. by 3 ft. 


10/0 


12/6 


15/0 


18/0 


., iogSor 1 102 3 ft. high 


7/6 


9/6 


12/0 


14/0 


., 5 


1 0/0 


12/6 


15/0 


18/0 


., 7 


15/0 


18/0 


21/0 


25/0 


1 104, 5 ft. long 


8/0 


10/0 


13/0 


16/0 


7 


10/0 


12/0 


14 '6 


18/0 


,, 1105, 7 


9/0 


10/6 


14/0 


17/0 




11/0 


12 6 


15/0 


19/0 


., noi, 7 


7/6 


1 0/0 


12/0 


14/6 


9 


9 0 


12/6 


15/0 


18/0 


., 1099, per foot 


1/2 


1/6 


2/0 


2/6 


,, 1099A, 1099B, 1099c 










with Texts, per foot 


I/O 


i/4 


1/10 


2/4 



Any sizes can be supplied at proportionate prices 



6 



ILLUMINATED DEVICES, &c. 

(On Prepared Cloth, Prepared Calico, or Straw Tissue.) 











Prepared Calico. 


Prepared Cloth. 


Straw Tissue. 


No. 








l'lainl v 
Illumi- 
nate d. 


Eichly 
Illumi- 
nated. 


Plainly 
Illumi- 
nated. 


Illumi- 
nated. 


On Flock Paper 
Grounds, Mounted 
on Cardboard. 


597- 598. 599- 


or 600 


12 ins. 


3/6 


46 


4/0 


5/o 


4/0 







10 




4/0 


5/0 


5,o 


6/6 


5/6 





., 2 tt. 






5/0 


6/0 


6/6 


8/6 


7,6 


„ 


. 2 ft. 


6 




6/0 


7/6 


8/6 


12/6 




601 




18 




7/0 


8/6 


8 0 


IO/6 


10,0 




. 1 ft. 






8/6 


10/6 


96 


12/6 


12/0 


602 




18 




7/0 


8/6 


8/0 


10/6 


10/0 


» 


. . 2 ft. 






8/0 


10/0 


9/6 


12/6 


11/6 


603 or 604 


ii 


ins. 


high 


10/0 


12/6 


11/0 


'3/6 


8/6 




. 2 ft. 






n/6 


14/0 


12/6 


15/0 


10/b 




. 2 ft. 


6 




13/0 


15/6 


14/0 


16/6 


12/6 




.. 3 ft- 






!5/° 


1 7 /6 


16/0 


18/6 


15/6 


605, 606, 607, 


or 608 


6 




3/6 


4/0 


4/0 


5/° 


3'6 






8 




5/o 


6/0 


5 6 


6/6 


5/6 


11 11 11 




12 




7/o 


9/6 


8/0 


10/6 


96 


609 or 610 




i2ins.high 


4/0 


5/o 


4/6 


5/6 


4/6 






18 




6/0 


7/6 


6/6 


8/0 


7/6 




2 ft. 






7/6 


9/0 


8/0 


1 0/0 


9/6 


*6u to 618 




4 
6 












4/6 pei do/. 

6/0 


*6ig to 622 




4 

6 












3/o 
4/0 


*623 and 624 
„ 




4 

6 












4/o 
5/o 


'625 to 628 




8 


. wide 


2/6 


3/6 


3/0 


4/0 


1/6 






12 




3/o 


4/0 


3,6 


4/6 


2/6 






18 




4/0 


5/0 


4/6 


5/6 


3/o 


629 to 635 




12 ins. high 


2/6 


3/o 


3/o 


4/0 


3/0 






18 




3/6 


4/0 


4/0 


5,o 


4/0 


I. 


. . 2 a. 






5,o 


6/0 


5/o 


7/0 


6/0 


636 and 637 




12 




3/o 


3/6 


3/6 


4/0 


3/6 


,, 




18 




4/0 


5/° 


4/6 


6/6 


5/6 


,, 


2 ft. 






5/6 


6/6 


6/0 


IO/O 


7/6 


638 and 639 




18 




7,0 


8/6 


8,0 


10/6 




,, 


2 ft. 






8/6 


10/6 


9/6 


12,6 






2 ft. 


6 




10/6 


13/0 


11/6 


1 I 5/° 




640 and 641 




18 


,. high 


7/0 


8/0 


7/6 


9/6 






2 ft. 






8/0 


10/0 


9/° 


11/0 






2 ft. 


6 




9/6 


12/0 


10/6 


i3''o 




642 




12 




6/0 


7/6 


6/6 


8/0 


7/6 






18 




7/0 


1 8/ 6 


8,0 


10/6 


10/0 




2 ft. 






7/6 


! 12/0 


n/o 


13/0 





A or B Diapers in Plaited Straw, and Straw Tissue, 
on Crimson Flock Paper grounds, mounted on thick Paper 22 ins. wide, 5/6 per yard. 
Materials for own making up can be supplied. 
*From 611 to 628 are Straw Tissue Unmounted. 



7 



ILLUMINATED CROSSES & DEVICES. 



Prepared Calico. Prepared Cloth. 



No. 




Plainly 
Illuminated 
in Colours. 


Richly 
Illuminated 
in Colours and Gold. 


Plainly 
Illuminated 
in Colours. 


Richly 
Illuminated 

in f}fllnnr« nnrl flrilH 
i±i uuiuuia .11. <t viuitl. 


643, 18 in 


High. 


1 0/0 


I5/ 0 




Io/O 


„ 2 ft. 




12/6 


1 1 /o 


10/6 


I2/0 


644, 18 in. 




Q 6 


14/0 


^A 5 


IO/O 


„ 2 ft. 




12/0 




1 1/6 


T -» 'ft 


645, 18 in. 




10/6 


1 5/° 


14/0 


Io/O 


,, 2 ft. 




1 3/0 


12/6 


1 1/6 




646, 18 in. 




10/6 


i 5/° 


I4/0 




,, 2 ft. 




13/0 


12/6 


1 1/6 


I 3/° 


647, 18 in. 




10/6 


rrjrt 
1 j/ u 


I4/0 


I O/O 


„ 2 ft. 




1 3/0 


I3/O 


1 2 jo 


I5/0 


648, 18 in. 




1 1 /o 


I5/0 


I4/6 


l8/0 


,, 2 ft. 






12/6 


1 1 /o 


I4/O 


649, 18 in. 




10/6 


I/l/6 


I4/0 


I7/0 


2 ft. 




1 3l° 


io/6 


y/ u 


1 1 /o 


650, 18 in. 




9/0 


I 3/° 


1 1/6 


15/°' 


2 ft. 






18 '0 


17/0 


21 jo 


651, 2 ft. 




16/0 


Z4/U 


25/ 0 




, 3 ft 




210 


18/O 


17/0 


21 /o 


652, 2 ft 




16/0 


24/0 


2 5/° 


2o/0 


„ 3 ft. 






I7/O 


16/0 


20/0 


653, 2 ft. 












„ 3 ft. 




20 /o 


6/6 


5/6 


7/6 


654, 18 in. 




5/0 


1 0/0 


S/O 


11/0 


„ 2 ft. 




7/6 


10/0 


8/O 


11/0 


655, 18 in. 




7/6 


12/6 


11/0 


13/6 


„ 2 ft. 




10/0 


10/0 


9/0 


IO/6 


656 and 658, 18 in. High 


8/6 


12/6 


11/0 


I4/0 




2 ft. 


10/6 


6/6 


5/6 


7/6 


657, 18 in. 


High 


5/o 


10/0 


8/0 


11/0 



Prices for Devices 648, 650, 654, 656, and 657, includes any suitable Monogram for 
centres. 

See Plate XII., XIII., and XIV. in new Edition of "Art ot Garnishing" for other 
Devices, Emblems of Apostles, and other Saints. 

Any of these Devices can be had either larger or smaller, at proportionate prices 



8 



ILLUMINATED BANNERS AND DEVICES. 



No. 


Prepared 

• 

Plainly 
Illuminated 
iu Colours. 


Lalico. 

Richly 
Illuminated 
in Colours 
ami Ciold. 


Prepared Cloth. 

Plainly T „ Eie . h1 ^ ^ 
Illuminated 1 Dominated 

in Colours. 1 ln ™ 0 " r , s 
and Gold 


Straw Tissue 

Ou Flock Paper 
Grounds 
Mounted on 
Cardboard. 


659, 2 ft 


4 ins 


bv 1 ft 


6 ins. 


5/6 


7/0 
/ / 


7/0 


9/0 


■ 

oy O 


3 ft 


0 


,, ' 1 ft 


10 ins. 


7/6 


o/6 


8/6 


12/0 


I I/O 


660, 2 ft 


4 


.. 1 ft 


6 ins. 


7/6 


q/o 


9/o 


12/6 


I 0 


.. 3 ft 


0 


., 1 ft 


10 ins. 


9/6 


ti/6 


IO 6 


14/0 


I 2; O 


66l, 2 ft 


4 


1 ft 


6 ins. 


IO/6 


12/0 


12/6 


15/0 




,. 3 ft 


0 


., 1 ft. 


10 ins. 


12/6 


14/0 


14/0 


18/0 




662, 2 ft 


4 


., 1 ft 


6 ins. 


s/6 


7/0 


7/0 


9/0 


o/O 


.. 3 ft 


0 


.. 1 ft 


10 ins. 


7/6 


q/6 


8/6 


12/0 


I I/O 


66 j, 2 ft 


4 


., 1 ft 


6 ins. 


6/6 


8/0 


7/6 


10/0 


.. 3 ft. 


0 


.. 1 ft. 


10 ins. 


8/6 


1 0/6 


9/0 
8/6 


12/6 




664, 2 ft 


4 


., 1 ft 


6 ins. 


8/0 


10/0 


1 1/6 




.. 3 ft- 


0 


.. 1 ft. 


10 ins. 


10/0 


12/0 


11/0 


13/0 




665, 2 ft 


4 


.. 1 ft 


6 ins. 


4/6 


6/0 


5/o 


7/0 


5/° 


.. 3 ft. 


0 


,, 1 ft. 


10 ins. 


6/0 


7/6 


6/6 


9/0 


8/6 


666, 2 ft 


4 


, 1 ft. 


6 ins. 


9/6 


11/6 


10/6 


12/0 


oy 0 


.. 3 ft- 


0 


.. 1 ft. 


10 ins. 


12/0 


I4/0 

TV 


12/0 


15/0 


r 3/° 


667, 2 ft. 


4 


., 1 ft. 


6 ins. 


10/0 


I l/6 


11/0 


13/0 


.. 3 ft- 


0 


,, 1 ft. 


10 ins. 


12/0 


I3/6 


13/0 


16/0 




668, 2 ft. 


high 




• - 


d/o 


S/o 


5/o 


7/0 


5/° 


• • 3 








7/0 


9/0 


8/0 


10/0 


8/0 


669, 2 








s/o 


6/6 


6/0 


8/6 


7/0 


• • 3 








8/0 


10/0 


9/0 


12/0 


1 0/0 


670, 2 








10/0 


12/0 


1 1/6 


14/0 


• ■ 3 








12/6 


15/0 


14/0 


17/0 




•• 4 








1 t/o 


18/0 


16 6 


21/0 




671, 2 








11/0 


13/6 


12 6 


15/0 




• • 3 








13/6 


16/0 


i5,'o 


18/6 




•• 4 








16/6 


19/0 


18/0 


25/0 




672, 2 








12/0 


14/6 

TV 


13/6 


16/0 




.. 3 








14/6 


I7/0 


16/0 


20/0 




• ■ 4 








18/0 


2l/0 


20/0 


28/0 




673. 2 








1 1/0 


j/ 


12/6 


15/0 




• ■ 3 








13/6 


16/0 


15/0 


18/6 


;; 


4 








16/6 


10/0 


18/0 


25/0 




674, 2 








10/6 


I 3/0 


12/0 


14/6 




•• 3 








1 3/0 


16/0 


14/6 


18/0 




•■ 4 








16/0 


18/6 


17/0 


23/0 




675, 2 ft. 


4 ins. 


by 1 it. 


6 ins. 


3/6 


J/ v 


4/6 


6/6 




., 3 ft. 


0 


. 1 ft. 


10 ins. 


4/6 


6/0 


5/o 


7/6 


7/0 


676, 2 ft. 


4 


, 1 ft. 


6 ins. 


3/0 


4./0 

T/ 


3/6 


5/6 


4/ u 


.. 3 ft- 


0 


. 1 ft. 


10 ins. 


4/0 


5/0 


4/6 


6/6 


6/0 

8/6 


677, 2 ft. 


4 


. 1 ft. 


6 ins. 


5/6 


7/0 


7/0 


9/0 


.. 3 ft- 


0 


. 1 ft. 


10 ins. 


7/6 


9/6 


8/6 


12/0 


1 1/6 


678, 2 ft. 


4 


, 1 ft- 


6 ins. 


3/6 


5/0 


4 /6 


6/6 


5/o 


., 3 ft. 


0 


, 1 ft. 


10 ins. 


4/6 


6/0 


5/o 


7/6 


7/0 


679, 2 ft. 


4 


, 1 ft. 


6 ins. 


3/6 


5/0 


4/6 


6/6 


5/o 


.. 3 ft. 


0 


., 1 ft. 


io ins. 


4/6 


6/0 


5/0 


7/6 


7/0 


680,681, 682, 683, i2ins. square 


2/0 


3/0 


2/6 


3/6 


2/0 






18 „ 




3/6 


5/0 


4/0 


6/0 


3/6 


684, 685, 14 ins. high 




2/6 


3/6 


3/o 


4/0 


2/6 




20 






4 /6 


6/0 


5/o 


7/0 ! 


4/0 



GOLD METAL. 

The Banners and Devices (excepting Nos. 666 and 677), that are priced for Straw Tissue 
can be had in Gold Metal on Flock Grounds at prices half as much again as that quoted for 
Straw Tissue. 



IN "ART OF GARNISHING." PLATE XXI. 

ILLUMINATED BANNERS. 



Prepared Calico. Erepared Cloth. 



No. 


Plainly 
Ilium i iuxt td 
in 
Colours. 


Richly 
IHuiiiinfitt'tl 
in Colours 
and Gold. 


Plainly 
Illiuuinfttsd 
in 
Colours. 


Richly 
Illuminated 
in Colours 
and Gold 






by 1 ft. 




7/0 


8/6 


8/6 


10/6 


n f t 


0 ins 


by 1 ft 




8/6 


10/0 


io/o 1 


12/6 


1038 2 ft 




by 1 ft. 




8/0 


10/0 


9/6 


12/0 


* ft 


0 ins 


by 1 ft 


10 ins. 


1 0/0 


12/6 


12/0 


14/6 


jQyy 2 ft 




by 1 ft 




1 0/0 


12/0 : 


12/0 


14/6 


^ ft 


0 ins. 


by 1 ft 


10 ins. 


12/6 


I5/o 


14/6 


18/6 


T05Q 2 ft 


4 ins. 


by 1 ft 


6 ins. 


7/0 


8/6 


8/6 


10/6 


3 ft 


0 ins. 


by 1 ft. 


10 111s. 


8/6 


10/0 


10/0. 


12/6 


IO23, 2 ft. 




by 1 ft 


(3 ins. 


8/0 


9/6 


9/0 


11/0 


3 ft 


0 ins. 


by 1 ft 


10 ins. 


10/0 


12/0 1 


• 11/6 


14/0 


I022 2 ft 




by 1 ft 


6 ins 


8/0 


9/6 


9/0 


11/0 


3 ft 


0 ins 






10/0 


12/0 


11/6 


14/0 


IO76, 2 ft 




by 1 ft 


6 ins. 


12/0 


14/0 


13/6 


15/0 


^ ft 

11 J 


0 ins. 


bv 1 ft 


jo ins. 


I5/0 


18/0 


16/6 


20/0 


toSo 9 ft 




by 1 ft 




I O/O 


12/0 


12/0 


14/6 


5 ft 


0 ins 


by i ft 




12/6 


Wo 1 


14/6 


16/6 


1 040 , 3 ft - 




by 1 ft 




20/0 


25/0 


24/0 


29/0 


, ft 


6 ins 


hv i ft 
uy 3 11 








30/0 


40/0 


io 4 ! • 3 ft. 




by 1 ft. 




2I/0 


26/0 1 


25/0 


3°/° 


1 ft 
4 it- 


f ins 


hv 3 ft 


0 ins 






35/o 


45/o 


io 4 2 > 3 ft- 




by 1 ft 




■ 30/0 


35/0 


33/o 


40/0 


a ft 


6 ins. 


bv ^ ft 


0 ins. 






55/o 


70/0 


1074, 3 ft. 


0 ins. 


by 1 ft 


10 ins. 


I8/0 


21/0 


20/0 


26/0 


,. 4 ft- 


6 ins. 


by 3 ft 


0 ins. 






28/0 


35/o 


1047, 3 ft. 


0 ins. 


by 1 ft 


10 ins. 


28/0 


33/0 


3i/o 


38/0 


„ 4 ft 


6 ins. 


by 3 ft 


0 ins. 






50/0 


63/0 


1043, 2 ft 


4 ins 


by 1 ft 


6 ins. 


1 0/0 


12/0 


12/0 


i 4 /6 


,. 3ft 


0 ins 


by 1 ft 


10 ins. 


12/6 


15/0 


14/6 


16/6 


1044, 2 ft 


4 ins. 


by 1 ft 


6 ins. 


8/0 


9/6 


9/0 


11/0 


., 3ft 


0 ins 


by 1 ft 


10 ins. 


10/0 


12/0 


n/6 


14/0 


1045, 2 ft 


4 ins. 


by 1 ft 


6 ins. 


9/0 


11/0 


1 0/0 


13/ 0 


„ 3 ft 


0 ins 


by 1 ft 


. 10 ins. 


12/0 


15/0 


13/6 


15/0 


1046, 2 ft 


4 ins 


by 1 ft 


6 ins. 


14/0 


16/0 


15/0 


18/0 


,. 3 ft 


0 ins 


by 1 ft 


10 ins. 


17/0 


20/0 


18/6 


22/0 



Most of these Banners would be suitable for Applique on Cloth, Satin, or Silk 
Damask, &c, or Illuminating on Silk ; prices for same sent on application. An idea of 
price can be obtained by referring to the following page. 

The quotations for Banners do not include Poles or Cord. Cross Poles, painted Blue 
with gilt ends, including Cords, are 3/6; or with coloured ends, 2/6 each. Upright 
Poles, 8 feet long with gilt ends, 4/0; or with coloured ends, 3/6 each. 



io — continued. 
IN "ART OF GARNISHING," PLATE XXII. 



ILLUMINATED BANNER S.— continued. 









Prepared Cloth. 


Prepared Calico. 


No. 






Plainly 
Illuminated 
in 

Colours. 


. Richly 
Illuminated 
in Colours 
and Gold. 


riauuy 
Illuminated 
in 

Colours. 


Richly 
Illuminated 
in Colours 
and Gold. 


IO34, 2 ft 


6 ins. by 1 ft. 


4 ins. 


3/6 


4/6 


4/6 


6/0 


„ 3ft 


6 ins. by 1 ft. 


10 ins. 


5/o 


6/6 


1 6/6 


8/6 


IO35, 2 ft 


6 ins. by 1 ft. 


4 ins. 


4/0 


5/o 


5/o 


6/6 


„ 3 ft 


6 ins. by 1 ft. 


10 ins. 


5/6 


7/0 


7/o 


9/6 


I307, 2 ft 


6 ins. by 1 ft. 


4 ins. 


5/o 


6/6 


6/0 


7/6 


,. 3 ft 


6 ins. by 1 ft. 


10 ins. 


6/6 


8/0 


8/0 


10/6 


1 307 A 2 ft. 


6 ins. by 1 ft. 


4 ins. 


5/o 


6/6 


6/0 


7/6 


3 ft- 


6 ins. by i ft. 


10 ins. 


6/6 


8/0 


8/0 


10/6 


1036, 2 ft. 


6 ins. by 1 ft. 


4 ins. 


4/0 


5/o 


5/o 


6/6 


„ 3 ft- 


6 ins. by 1 ft. 


10 ins. 


5/6 


7/0 


7/0 


9/6 


1037, 2 ft. 6 ins. by 1 ft. 


4 ins. 


3/6 


4/6 


4/6 


6/0 


„ 3 ft- 


6 ins. by 1 ft. 


10 ins. 


5/o 


6/6 1 


6/6 1 


8/6 



Nos. 1034, r °35. 1036, 1037, can be supplied in Straw Tissue mounted on Crimson 
Flock backed with Cardboard, 30 ins. by 15 ins., at 7/0 each. 

Nos. 1307 or 1307A, 9/0 each. 



In quoting Numbers for Orders, please state Number of Page also. 



APPLIQUE BANNERS. 



No. 


Plain or Diagonal 
Cloth. 


Satin Cloth. 


Silk Damask or 
Corded Silk. 


1032, 4 ft 


long 


25/0 


30/0 


35/o 


„ 6 ft 


long 


35/o 


42/0 


, 48/o 


•033. 4 ft 


long 


12/6 


15/0 


18/0 


i i, 6 ft 


long .>••>;-/ 


I5/o 


icS/o 


2l/o 


1306, 4 ft. 


long 


3O/0 


35/0 


42/o 


•,. 6 ft. 


long 


42/0 


48/0 


56/0 


1326, 4 ft. 


long 


30/0 


35/o 


42/0 


„ 6 ft. 


long 


42/0 


48/0 


56/0 


1320, 4 ft. 


long 


42/0 


5o/o 


56/0 


„ 6 ft. 


long 


63/0 


75/o 


84/0 



IN "ART OF GARNISHING," PLATE XXII. 



ILLUMINATED BANNERS. 













Prepared Calico. 


Prepared Cloth. 


No. 










Plainly 
Illuminated 
in 
Colours 


Richly 
Illuminated 
in Colours 
ami Cto1(1. 


Plainly 
Illuminated 
in 

Colours. 


Richly 
Illuminated 
in Colours 
duel ' '1 1. 


IO23, 2 ft. 


4 


ns. 


by 1 ft. 


6 ins. 


8/0 




n/fi 
9/0 


12/0 


.. 3ft 


0 


ins. 


by 1 ft. 


10 ins. 




li/O 


I20 


. h/6 


IO26, 2 ft. 


4 


ns. 


by 1 ft. 


6 ins. 


8/0 




9/0 


11/0 


.. 3 ft- 


0 


ins. 


by 1 ft. 


10 ins. 




12/0 


T T /fi 


14/0. 


1327, 2 ft. 


4 


ins. 


by 1 ft. 


6 ins. 


I 


14/0 


I 3/° 


15/0 


.. 3 ft 


0 


ins. 


by 1 ft. 


10 ins. 


1 5/0 


18/0 


16/6 


20/0 


1028, 2 ft. 


4 


ins. 


by 1 ft. 


6 ins. 


0/6 


II 0 


10/6 


14/0 


„ 3 ft 


0 


ins. 


by 1 ft. 


10 ins. 




13/° 


T O /fi 


I o/O 


1075, 2 ft. 


4 


ns. 


by 1 ft. 


6 ins. 


12/0 


14/0 


1 1 j/p 


I5/ 0 


.. 3 ft. 


0 


ins. 


by 1 ft. 


10 ins. 


1 ^/o 


18/0 


16/6 


200 


1078, 2 ft. 


4 


ins. 


by 1 ft. 


6 ins. 




14/0 


T 3/fi 


15/0 


.. 3 ft. 


0 


ins. 


by 1 ft. 


10 ins. 


T c: In 
1 Jl u 


18/0 


! j6/5 




1029, 2 ft. 


4 


111s 


by 1 ft. 


6 ins. 


q/o 


7/0 


6/0 


8/0 


,. 3 ft 


0 


ins. 


by 1 ft. 


10 ins. 


7/0 


o/n 


8/0 


10/0 


1311, 2 ft. 


4 


ins. 


by 1 ft 


6 ins. 


q/o 


1 1/0 


1 0/6 


14/0 


.. 3 ft- 


0 


ins. 


by 1 ft. 


10 ins. 


1 1/6 


1 ^/o 


1 2/6 


18/0 


1030, 2 ft. 


4 


ins. 


by 1 ft. 


6 ins. 


6 jo 


8/0 


7/0 


0/0 


„ 3 ft. 


0 


ins. 


by 1 ft. 


10 ins. 


8/0 


1 0/0 


9/0 


11/0 


1031, 2 ft. 


4 


ins. 


by 1 ft. 


6 ins. 


7/o 


8/6 


8/0 


1 0/0 


.. 3ft 


0 


ins. 


by 1 ft. 


10 ins. 


9/0 


11/0 


1 0/0 


12/6 


1032, 3 ft. 


0 


ins. 


long . 




5/o 


7/0 


6/0 


8/0 


„ 4 ft 


6 


ins. 


long . 




7/6 


10/0 


8/6 


13/0 


1326, 3 ft. 


0 


ins. 


long . 




6/0 


8/0 


7/0 


1 0/0 


„ 4 ft 


6 


ins 


long . 




8/6 


11/0 


9/6 


14/6 


io33. 3 ft 


0 


ins 


long . 




4/0 


5/0 


5/o 


6/6 


„ 4 ft 


6 


ins 


long . 




6/0 


7/0 


7/0 


9/0 


1320, 3 ft 


0 


ins 


long . 




7/6 


9/6 


8/6 


10/6 


,. 4 ft 


6 


ins 


long . 




10/0 


12/6 


11/6 


15/0 


1306, 3 ft 


0 


ins 


long . 




6/0 


8/0 


7/0 


10/0 


„ 4 ft 


6 


ins 


long . 




8/6 


10/6 


1 

10/0 


12/6 



1 1 

IN "ART OF GARNISHING." PLATE XXIV. 

ZINC FLOWER-HOLDERS, TROUGHS, Ac. 

{ These can he made in any Size or Shape wished.) 

1203 Zinc Altar Cross, with Water Troughs for Flowers, 16" high, 10/6; 20" high, 14 - 

24" high, 17/6, 30" 21/, 36" 25/ each. 

Zinc Trough Letters as No. 500, 6" high, 19/- doz., 8" 25/- do/., 10" 30/- doz. 

1204 Zinc Hanging Flower Cross, 12" 3/6, 18" 5 '- each. 

1206 Zinc Flower Trough, of superior make, 12" 2/-, 18" 4/-, 20" 5/-, 24" 7/6, 30" 96 each. 
Inferior quality, at a lower price, can be supplied, but is not recommended. 

1207 Zinc Flower Trough, 12" 5/-, 15" 6/6, 18" 8/- each. 

1212 Zinc Flower Trough, 10" diameter, 3/6, 12" 4/6, 15" 6/6, 18" 8/6 each. 

1213 Zinc Flower Trough, 18" long, 2/6, 24" long, 4/-, 36" long, 7/- each. 

1215 Zinc Hanging Flower Monogram, 16" long, 6'- each. 

1216 or 1216A Zinc Hanging Letters to form Text Monograms, &c, 8" 24/, 10" 30/-, 

12" 36/- per doz. 

1217 Wire Frames, with Zinc Flower Tubes for Vases, 4/6 each. 

1218 ., ,, , .. ,, 4/6 ,, 

1219 Zinc Flower Holder tor Vase, with springs at back for background of evergreens, &c, 

large size, 6/6; medium, 5'-; small, 4/- each. 
i2igA Zinc Trough Flower Holder for Vase, with springs at back for background of ever- 
greens, &c, large size, 6/- ; medium, 5/- ; small, 3/6 each. 

1220 Zinc Hanging Flower Holder, unpainted, 1/6; painted green, 2/6; or with gilt 

fleur-de-lys, 6/- per doz. 
Zinc Hanging Flower Holder, larger size, unpainted, 3/- ; painted green, 4/6 ; or with 
gilt fleur-de-lys, 10/ per doz. 

1221 Zinc Hanging Flower Holder, plain. 15/- doz. ; illuminated, 24/- per doz. 

1222 .. ,, ., ., ,. 15/- ,, ,, 30/- 

1223 .. .. .. ., ., 21/- .. ,, 30/- 

1224 , ,, ,, „ „ 21/- ,, „ 35/- 

WIRE FRAMES. 
(As Ground Work for Decoration. J 

1225 & 1226 12" diameter, 1/6 each. 
T & W 12" 2/-, 18" 2/9, 24" 3/6 each. 
X 12" 1/., 18" 1/6, 24" 2/- each. 

Y 12" 2/-, 18" 2/9, 24" 3/6 each. 
Z 12" 1/-, 18" 1/6, 24" 2/- each. 

FONT COVER FRAMES. 

(As Ground Work for Decoration. ) 

1227 3-ft. high 12 4-ft. high 16/ each. 

1228 3-ft. high 13/-, 4-ft. high 16/6 each. 

1229 3-ft. high 14/-, 4-ft. high 18/- each. 
1230A 4-ft. 6" high 15/-, 6-ft. high 18/- each. 
1230B 4-ft. 6" high 13/6, 6-ft. high 16/6 each. 
1231A 3-ft. high 14'-, 4-ft. high 18/- each. 
1231B 3-ft. high 13/-, 4-ft. high 16/6 each. 

U 3-ft. high 7-/, 4-ft. high 10/6 each. 



I 2 



ALTAR VASES. 

(In Polished Brass). 



Height. 



3\ 



1/6 



3/6 



4 6 



6/o 



7S9 
79o 
'768 
701 
792 
793 
794 
795 
796 

797 
798 
784 
799 I 
Soo 
801 
802 
803 
804 
805 
806 
807 I 
808 
809 
810 

775 
811 
812 

813 
814 
776 

815 ! 

N.B. — Any of the Plain 
of the Patron Saint 

device. 



5/6 



5/6 



i/e 



7/ 



7/< 



13/6 



10/0 
16/6 



8 

in. 


1 8 * 

in. 


9 

in. 


10 
in. 


12 
in. 


REMARKS. 


1 0/ 0 










- — _ 






35/° 


















enamelled . . 16/0 






38/o 






do. . . 48/0 




10/6 








do. .. 15/6 






20/0 








iO/o 










do. .. 15/6 






12/0 


16/0 


25/0 










40/0 






10/6 
















36/o 






do. . . 45/0 


14/0 
















40/0 






the price includes the 






13/6 






engra\ ing 




20/0 










16/0 


















45/o 




illuminated 






18/6 












24/0 










24/0 








brass with copper bands 








40/0 












60/0 




engraved and embossed 








48/0 
















illuminated 








40/0 












25/0 




6^in. 8in. lOin. 


7/0 






10/0 




engraved 6/6 9/0 13/0 




30/0 








brass and copper 



5/ 



Vases can be engraved or enamelled with the emblem or flower 
of the Church in which they are to be used or any other suitable 



*3 



Crested 
Pans 



CAN DLESTICKS. 

(In Polished Brass). 



Height. 



No. 

i go 
igi 
ig2 
'93 
194 
!95 
ig6 

197 

ig8 
186 
igg 
200 
201 
202 
203 
204 
205 
206 
207 



1/3 
2/0 



1/6 
2/9 



2/3 
3/3 



2/6 



5/o 
3/o 



3/o 
4/0 



3/6 



3/6 
4/6 



7/6 



8/3 

4/6 

5/9 



15/0 
'i" only 



15/0 
21/0 



10/6 ! 13/0 
8/6 .. 



30/0 

14/6 

18/6 

8/6 

ig/6 



.14 

in. 



16/0 



7/o 

8/8 



12/0 



20/0 



15/6 
24/0 
26/0 
30/0 



10/6 
11/6 



208 


3 


Light Branch to fit No. igi Candlestick . . 


• • 5i" high 


Plain. 
.. 3/6 


Crested 

5/o 


>' 


5 


,, ,, No. igi ,, 


■ ■ 7" 


.. 6/0 


7/6 


n 


7 


>> >! i) No. igi ,, 


10" ,, 


. . 10/0 


1 1/6 


2og 


3 


») ji >i n • • 


10" ,, 


.. 10/6 




210 


3 




10" ,, 


.. 14/0 




211 


3 




10" ,, 


.. 18/6 




212 


5 


,, ., with Base complete 


• ■ 16" ,, 


-. 30/ 0 




2I 3 


5 




. . 16" ,, 


.. 52/6 




214 


7 




• • 24" „ 


. . 126/0 




215 


3 




10 1" ,, 


.. 40/0 





25/0 



24/0 



16 


18 


24 


in. 


in. 


in. 


18/6 


2l/o 






55/0 






70/0 




20/0 








25/0 






80/0 


1 10/0 




32/0 


55/0 


80/0 








9O/0 


120/0 




65/0 


84/0 




38/0 


63/o 




40/0 


65/o 



Candle Shields — In Zinc from 1 to 5 shillings. 
In Polished Brass, with Engraved or Painted Emblems, from 4 to 10 shillings. 



ALTAR CROSSES. 

(In Polished Brass.) 



No. 


Inches 
High. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


No. 


I aches 
High. 


1 

£ s- 


d. 


31 


22£ 


5 


5 


0 


30 


12 


1 6 


0 


33 


21 i 


4 


10 


0 




18 


1 J 18 


0 


35 


33 


1 2 


0 


0 










25 


21 


2 


10 


0 


32 


12 


1 4 


0 




24 


3 


0 


0 


>1 


18 


1 16 


0 


30 


3° 


*3 


r 3 


0 










24 


21 


3 


3 


0 


34 


12 


1 4 


0 


37 


30 


9 


9 


0 




18 


1 16 


0 


14 


6 


0 


8 


0 












>- 1 


0 


9 


6 


38 


12 


1 1 


0 


" 


S| 


0 


11 


0 


» 


18 


1 12 


0 


" 


12 


. 1 


15 


0 












18 


2 


10 


0 


39 


12 


1 1 


0 




21 


3 


3 


0 


'• 


18 


1 10 


0 


>> 


24 


3 


13 


0 










" 


3" 


5 


0 


0 


40 




0 1 Io 


0 


" 


36 


7 


10 


0 


" 


18 


1 5 


0 


4 2 


24 


9 


0 


0 










» 


30 


12 


0 


0 


4i . 


' 12 


1 4 


0 


43 


21 
2 4 


3 
4 


r 5 
J 5 


0 

0 




18 


1 16 


0 


44 


36 


15 


15 


0 


These prices are for Hanging Crosses, 
but Bases can be made to any of them at 


22 plain 


24 


5 


5 


0 


a small extra cost. 








3° 


7 


0 


0 


Nos. 38, 39 & 


40 can be made in 


,, jewelled 


24 


5 


15 


0 


smaller sizes if required. 






30 


7 


17 


0 


Sketches of other Crosses in stock can 
be sent on application. 


45 


24 


7 


7 


0 











15 



ALTAR DESKS. 



No. 




£ 


s. 


a. 


81 


Oak or Ebony Board, with Polished Brass Stand, &c. 




18 




82 


Do. do. do. 


2 


c 

J 


Q 


93 


Do. do. do. 


2 


l8 




94 


Do. do. do. 


2 


I 5 




83 


Polished Brass 


3 


3 




84 


Do. 




5 


0 


8 5 


Do. 


j 


J 
J 


0 


86 


Do. 


j 


0 


0 


63 


Do. 


2 


l8 




87 


Do. 


A 
T 


IO 


0 


88 


Do. small size 


I 


IO 


0 




Do. with a sexagon case 


I 


18 


0 


80 


Do. ,, „ 


J 


3 


0 


QO 


Do. ,, ,, 


A 
T 


4 


0 


gi 


Do. „ „ 


A 
T 


I A 


6 




Do. ,, 


A 


4 






Do. ,. 


e 
J 


5 




96 


Do. „ 


2 


IO 


0 


97 


Do. „ „ 


2 


IO 


0 


98 


Do. „ „ 


2 


5 


0 


99 


Do. „ „ 


4 


0 


0 


100 


Do. ,, „ 


5 


5 


0 


101 


Oak or Walnut 


1 


1 


0 


102 


Do. .. •• 


1 


3 


0 



Other Designs, with prices, can be sent on application. 



MATERIALS FOR ILLUMINATED DECORATIONS. 



Boxes of Colours, mixed and prepared for use, No. i, ys. 6d. ; No. 2, 10s. 6d. 

No. 1 contains 6 pots of colour, red, black, blue, w hite, green and brown, 1 bottle of 
turpentine, and 6 brushes. 

No. 2 contains, in addition to the foregoing, -> larger brushes, one bottle of gold size, one 
of liquid gold, and one of liquid silver ; or, if preferred, 2 books of gold leaf 
instead of the liquid gold and silver. 

Pots of Colour, prepared for use, vermilion, is. 6d. ; other colours, is. each. 
Gold Size, f° r applying leaf gold or bronze powder, 6d. per bottle. 

Gold Leaf. — Best quality, is. 6d. per book. Transfer gold leaf, specially prepared for 
Amateurs' use, 2s. per book. Bronze Powder, 6d. per packet. 

Bessemer's Gold Paint, large bottles, 3s. 6d., liquid, 6d. ; small bottles, with liquid, 
is. 6d. 

Crystal Frost, iod. per packet, 6 packets for 5s., or 12 packets for gs. 6d. ; post free, is. 
per packet. This material is used in a great variety of decorations. The best way of applying 
it to silk, paper, &c, is with a little clear liquid gum ; but the smallest quantity of gum 
should be used, and the frost not applied till it is very nearly dry, just sticky. 

Gold Metal, is. per small packet, 6 packets for 5s. 6d., or 12 packets for 10s. 6d. ; is. 6d. 
per large packet, 6 packets for 8s. 6d., or 12 packets (or 16s. Cardboard Letters or Devices 
covered with this material are very effective. It can be applied by using Gold Metal Size, 
which should be melted in the oven, or the pot placed in hot water. Apply it with a camel 
hair-brush, and while wet sprinkle on the metal, and shake off the surplus when dry. 

Gold Metal Size, gd. per pot. 

2J per Cent, for Cash within Six Weeks. 
Frosted Cardboard, 24-in. x 20-in. is. 6d. per sheet, or in gold metal, 3s. od. per sheet. 
Frosted Cartoon Paper, ioi-in. wide, iod. per yard. ,, do. is. 3d. per sheet. 

I3j-in. ,, is. id. ,, ,, do. is. 8d. ,, 

18-in. ,, is. 6d. ,, ,, do. 2s. 3d. ,, 

Frosted Wool Letters, mounted on card, 4-in. high, 5s. ; 6-in. high, 5s. 6d. ; 8-in. high, 
7s. per dozen. 

Camel Hair Pencils, good quality, with sticks, assorted sizes, 2s. 6d. per dozen ; large 
camel hair brushes, for filling in colour, 6d. each. 
Sable Pencils, 6d. and is. each. 

Gilder's Kit. — For using leaf gold ; consisting of cushion, knife and brushes, 3s. 6d. 

Extra Stout Zinc. — Painted with four coats of colour, and prepared for decoration, is. 
per square foot. Zinc tablets can be prepared to any size or shape required, and the writing 
and ornaments set out on them ready for Amateurs to illuminate. 

Prepared Cloth. — 3-ft. g-in. wide, stone colour, prepared on one side ready for decora- 
tion, 3s. 6d. per yard, or cut to any size, 5d. per square foot. Crimson or Blue, prepared on 
both sides, 3-ft. g-in. wide, 4s. 6d. per yard, or 6d. per square foot. Other colours, painted 
to order, 5s. 6d. per yard. 

Prepared Calico (white). — Superior quality, 37-in. wide, is. per yard. 

PLAIN AND COLOURED PAPER AND CARDBOARD. 

Stout Cartoon Paper (white) — 4-ft. 6-in. wide, is. per yard. For texts ioj-in. wide, 3d. 
per yard ; i3:V-in. wide, 4d. per yard ; 18-in. wide, 5d. per yard. If cut to special widths, the 
prices will be id. per yard more. If tinted by hand any light shade, ioJ-in. w ide, gd. ; 
i3J-in. wide, is. ; 18-in. wide, is. 3d. per yard. 

Cartoon Paper, mounted on linen, 5-ft. wide, 4s. 6d. per yard. 

The " Cartoon Paper" is very superior to " Lining Paper" for decorative purposes. 

Stout Lining Paper. — Width, 22-in., is. 4d. per piece ; 30-in., 2s. per piece. 

Plain Cardboard, in sheets, 24-in. by 20-in., 5s. per dozen ; 30-in. by 22-in., 7s. per dozen ; 
26-in. by 26-in., gs. per dozen. Cardboards, 30-in. by 20-in., covered with crimson or blue 
flock-paper as groundwork, 2s. 6d. each. 

Coloured Paper, good quality, 22-in. wide; crimson, 5d. per yard, 4s. 6d. per piece of 12 
yards ; blue or violet, 5d. per yard, 4s. 6d. per piece ; black, 5d. per yard, 4s. 6d. per piece. 
Inferior qualities can be supplied, but are not recommended for decorations. 

Flock Paper (plain), of good quality, 2ii-in. wide, crimson, maroon, black or green, with- 
out any pattern on it, for backgrounds or cutting out, is. per yard, or lis. per piece of about 
12 yards. Scarlet, sky or peacock blue, olive green or stone colour, is. 2d. per yard, or 
12s. 6d. per piece. 

New Patent Linen Paper, superior quality, in crimson, scarlet, blue or green, 36-in. 
wide, is. per yard. 

Imitation Gold Paper, iSA-in. by isJ-in., or Silver Paper, 2i£-in. by 16^-in., good 
quality, is. per sheet, us. per dozen sheets. 

Waterpoof Paper (black), 20-in. wide, 2d. per yard; is. gd. per piece. 

Straw Boards, used as a groundwork for covering, 33-in. by 25-in., 6s. per dozen. 



FABRICS, &c, FOR DECORATIONS. 

Cotton Velvets, 22A-in. wide, good quality, in white, crimson or violet, 2s. gd. per yard. 

Stamped Velvets, with gold or silver metal grounds, ig-in. wide, 5s. 6d. per yard. 

Cloth, 2 yards wide, suitable for decoration, crimson, 10s. 6d. per yard; white or gold 
colour, superior quality, 18s. per yard. 

Diagonal Cloth, 50-in. wide, best quality, crimson, green, white, blue, violet or maroon, 
5s. gd. per yard. 

Rich Corded Silk, 27-in. wide, 17s. 6d reryard. 

Plain Cloth Of Gold, cheap quality, 21-in. wide, 7s. 6d. per yard. 

Rich Geometric Pattern Damask, 21-in. wide, gold, 18s.; silver, 14s. 6d. per yard. 

Laces for trimmings, Irom 6d. per yard. 

Coloured Unglazed Cotton, specially made for decorations, 31-in. wide, dark crimson, 
blue or pink, is. per yard; fine holland, 36-in. wide, is. per yard. 

Worsted Binding. — Green or any other colour, is. gd. per dozen yards. 

Worsted Cord, in any two colours, 4d. per yard. 

Worsted Tassels, small, for banners, 6d. each. 

Tracing Braid, for out-lining, gold or crimson and gold, is. per dozen yards. 

White Cotton Wool, in sheets, best quality, gd. ; second quality, 6d. per sheet. 

Straw Tissue. — Messrs. Cox, Sons. Buckley & Co., have had a large supply of this 
effective material for decoration prepared ; the sheets, 17-in. by 6J-in., are 5d. per sheet, or 
4s. 6d. per dozen ; 21-in. by 8j-in., 8d. per sheet, or 7s. per dozen sheets. The Tissue can 
easily be cut out to form letters, &c. A sample sheet post free, small, 6d. ; large, iod. A 
dozen sheets post free, small, 4s. gd. ; large, 7s. 4d. 

Straw Borders, various patterns, is. per hank of about 12 yards. 

Plaited Straw, J - |. \ and f-in. wide, in bundles, is. each ; post free, is. 2d. 

Straw Piping, for borders, is. 8d. per dozen yards. 

Straw Daisies, 2s. ed. per 100. 

White Frosted Plush, for cutting out Devices, Texts, &c, very sparkling, 28-in. wide, 
4s. 6d. per yard. 

Felt Backing for Texts, &C, 12-in. wide, 6d. per yard. 

15-in. ,, 8d. 
18-in. ,, iod. 
Under 12-in. wide will be charged the same as 12-in. 

EVERLASTING FLOWERS (GN APH ALI U MS.) 

The large and increasing demand for these flowers for Church Decorations enables Messrs. 
Cox, Sons, Buckley & Co., to supply them in the full-size bunches, about 8 or g-in. diameter, 
as received from abroad (not reduced in size, as is frequently done), at the following prices : 







Per Doz. 






Per Doz. 




Per Bunch. 


Bunches. 




Per Bunch. 


Bunches. 




s. d. 


s. d. 




s. d. 


s. d. 


Yellow 




9 0 




. 1 6 


17 O 


White 


.. ..16 


17 0 


Orange or Light Red . 


1 0 


II 6 




I O 


11 6 


Blue 


1 6 


17 O 


Crimson 


16 


17 0 


Violet 


1 6 


17 O 


Lilac 


I 6 


17 0 


Purple 


. 1 6 


17 0 


Pink 


1 6 


17 0 









Mixed bunches, all colours, is. 6d. per bunch. 



A bunch of either of the above forwarded free by post, on receipt of the price, with four- 
pence extra for postage. The Everlasting Flowers are sent in paper parcels, unless other- 
wise ordered. If wanted to be sent in a box (to avoid the risk of being crushed), is. for each 
dozen bunches, or a less number, to be added to the remittance. 

The monotony produced by the use of evergreens only for wreaths, &c, is much relieved 
by the introduction of a few everlasting flowers. 

LARGE EVERLASTING FLOWERS AND WREATHS. 

Helicbrysums. — Small bunches mixed, 6d. per bunch. Fine assorted colours, 4d. per doz. 

Cape Everlastings. — These beautiful white dried flowers are very effective for decora- 
tions. When used, the seed in the centre should be removed, and they should be warmed by 
steam, or in front of a fire, and opened out flat, and turned face downwards, leaving the back 
uppermost. The price, which has been reduced, is 3s. per hundred ; or post free, 3s. 3d. 
They can be had in crimson, scarlet, green or violet at the same price. Opened and pressed 
ready for use, is. per 100 extra. 

Cape Silver Leaves 4«- 6d. per hundred. These also are very effective for decorations. 

Wreaths of Immortelles, plain yellow, is. 6d., 2s ,2s. 6d., 3s. and 4s., according to size. 

These can also be supplied with Inscriptions in Black Flowers, or any Inscription wished 
can be added in Metallic Letters. 

Wreaths of Immortelles, Dried Flowers and Grasses, mixed, 6-in. diameter, 4s. 

S-in. diameter, 6s. 6d. ; io-in. diameter, gs. each. See also Nos. 763A and 764A, page 11. 

Bouquets of Dried Flowers and Grasses, for Vases, 2s., 2s. 6d. and 5s. each. 
Bouquets of Dried Cape Everlastings, of a superior quality, 5s. each. 



IMITATION HOLLY BERRIES AND LEAVES, AND DRIED MOSS. 

Imitation Holly Berries, 4 d - P er gross; 3s. 6d. per dozen gross; 50 gross, 14s. A 
sample gross forwarded, post free, on receipt of six stamps. 

Green Holly Or Ivy Leaves, small size, is. per gross, or 10s. 6d. per dozen gross; large 
size, is. 6d. per gross, or 16s. per dozen gross. Superior quality, mounted on wire, small 
size, is. 6d. per gross, or 17s. per dozen gross ; large size, 2s. 6d. per gross, or 27s. per dozen 
gross. 

Variegated Holly Leaves, mounted on wire, 2s. per gross, or 22s. per dozen gross. 
White Frosted Holly Leaves, mounted on wire, 2S. 6d. per gross. 

Variegated Frosted Holly Leaves, mounted on wire, 2s. gd. per gross. 

Imitation Wreaths. — Wreaths, one yard long, made with the above leaves and Berries, 
Green Holly or Ivy, is. each, or us. per dozen ; Variegated Holly, is. 6d. each, or 17s. per 
dozen. These Wreaths are fuller, and contain many more leaves and berries than those 
ordinarily sold. 

Imitation Coral Letters, as No. 500, 8-in. high, 14s. ; 6-in. high, 12s. per dozen. 
French Dried MOSS, 4d. per packet, or 3s. 6d. per dozen packets; post free, 6d. per 
packet. 

IMITATION FLOWERS. 
White Camellias, 2S. 6d. per dozen. 

Pink Camellias, 3 s per dozen. 

Imitation Roses (linen), White, 6s. per dozen; Pink, 6s. per dozen. With Buds and 
Leaves, White, 7s. 6d. per dozen ; Pink, 7s. 6d. per dozen. 

Imitation Camellias (linen), White, 7s. per dozen ; Pink, 7s. per dozen. With Buds 
and Leaves, White, 10s. per dozen ; Pink, 10s. per dozen. 

Passion Flowers, of superior make, large size, 3s. 6d. each; small size, 3s. each. 
White Lillies, of superior make, large size, with leaves, 2s. each; natural size, is. each. 
With Buds and Leaves, is. 6d. each. 

Camellias, of superior make, with leaves and sprays of Ferns, 2s.; Bud, is. 3d. each. 
Crosses, 18-in. high, made up with these Flowers and Buds, 21s. each. 
Wreaths, 12-in. diameter, made up with these Flowers and Buds, 21s. each. 
The above Crosses and Wreaths are very beautiful, and equal in appearance to real 
flowers. 

Linen Daisies, large size, is. 3d. per dozen. 

Geraniums, in Sprays, 7s. 6d. per dozen ; Pansies in Sprays, 7s. 6d. per dozen. 

FRESH CUT FLOWERS. 

Messrs. Cox, Sons, Buckley & Co., undertake commissions to procure these at the current 
market prices. 

SUNDRIES. 



Per Bundle. 

s. d. 

Stout Brass or Copper Wire . . . . 10 
Fine do. . . . . 09 



Per Bundle. 

s. d. 

Stout Iron wire o 6 

Fine do. o 4 



Fine Wire, as used by artificial flower-makers, Black, 6d. per reel ; Green or Silver, is. 
per reel. 

Perforated Zinc, 6d. per square foot ; or cut in strips, i-in. wide, 3d. per yard ; or i-in. 
wide, 5d. per yard. 

Hoop Iron Clips, with a band of perforated Zinc, can be supplied to fit any sized 
columns, so as to avoid driving nails into the stone caps, i-ft. diameter, or less, is. 6d. ; 
i-ft. 6-in., 2s. ; 2-ft., 2s. 6d. ; 2-ft. 6-in., 3s. ; 3-ft., 3s. 6d. 

Brass Pins, with steel points (similar to large drawing-pins), for fastening up Texts or 
Devices, 7d. per dozen, or 6s. 6d. per gross. 

Fine Pointed Black Tacks, 4 d - per packet. 

Needle Points, for fixing, 6d. per packet. 
Copper Tacks, 9 d - per packet. 

Laths, 6-ft. long, i-in. wide, 2s. per dozen; 6-ft. long, ij-in. wide, 2s. 6d. per dozen. 

These Laths will bend easily, and can be screwed together to form any length. 
Frames, cov ered in Cloth, Cotton, Velvet, Twill, or Flock-paper as a groundwork supplied 
to any shape and size required. 



OTHER WORKS 

BY THE 

REV. E. GELDART. 



A SHORT EXPLANATION 

OF 

THE CEREMONIES OF THE HOLY EUCHARIST. 

Translated from tlie Latin, with Notes and Preface. Price, is. 
London: MASTERS & Co. 



THREE HYMNS WITH PLAIN SONG- MELODIES. 

Price, Threepence. 

"The last two will be found useful in Churches where the Music of the Celebration 
is Gregorian." — Church Quarterly. 

" 1 O food that weary pilgrims love ' has an original melody by the Editor which is 
very simple, truly Gregorian, and thoroughly suited to. the words." — Church Times. 

London: MASTERS & Co. 



MISSA DE SANCTIS. 

Second Edition. 

A Plain song Service for the Holy Communion, composed by the Rev. E. GELDART. 

Price, Threepence ; Organ Parts, Two Shillings. 

"Shows that the author understands what is pure Gregorian in music. It 

will be found eminently useful." — Church Times. 

London: NOVELLO & Co. 



®Ij£ GUjnrdj Afloat anil in ^artilma. 

Notes of Travel. By the Rev. E. GELDART. Price, Twopence. 

London : HAYES. 

THE PHYSICIAN AND PRIEST ON COMMON GROUND. 

A Paper read before the Guild of S. Luke. Printed by request. Price, Fourpence. 

London: PALMER. 



MEMORIAL CARDS. 

Designed by the above. Price, 2d. each , 14s. per 100. Lithographed in Red and Black. 

London : MASTERS & Co. 




3£ 




COX, 
SONS 
&Co. 

Irdfsiastiral Starito?: 

28,SOUTHAMPTONST 
STRAND, LONDON. 

State, kato + # Clerical 
f{oh M)m % Sate. 



BE 



OHjurrlj of (Bnglanb 
WORKING MEN'S SOCIETY. 

^ List of Tracts and Publications 

ON SALE AT THE OFFICE, 

3, TAVISTOCK STREET, W.C. 



NEW TRACTS FOR THE TIMES. 

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To the Men of England (An Appeal), i '6 per ioo. 

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IN THE PRESS. 
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The Holy Catholic Church. 

Facts and Fictions of Deceased Wife's Sister Bill. 
Others to Follow. 

SPECIMEN PACKETS CONTAINING 11 ASSORTED LEAFLETS. 

Price 6d. 

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Lord Bishop of Ely. Price 2d.; 1/6 per dozen. 

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H. J. Spence Gray. Price 3d.; 2/6 per dozen. 



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It can be borne and digested by the most delicate; 
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