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Urban District of Caerphilly. 



PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT. 


ANNUAL REPORT 

1938. 


W. R. NASH. M.R.C.5., L.R.C.P., D.P.H., 
Medical Officer of Health. 


Printed by Order of the Sanitary Authority. 


Owen Jones, Printer and Stationer. Caerphilly. 



MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL. 


Chairman : 

Councillor T. R. Davies, J.P. 

Vice-Chairman : 
Councillor W. Howard 

Abertridwr Ward — 

Councillor W. F. Rowland, J.P. 
,, D. P. Thomas 

,, J. Roberts 

Caerphilly North Ward — 

Councillor Evan Phillips, J.P. 

,, T. R. Davies, J.P. 

,, W. D. Davies 

Caerphilly South Ward — 

Councillor M. V. Harding 

,, Evan Brinson, J.P. 

,, T. J. Coggins 

Trecenydd Ward — • 

Councillor William Davies 
,, Edwin Lewis 

,, George George 

Nelson Warl — 

Councillor T. Lewis 

,, Edgar Morgan 

,, Thomas Jenkins 

Senghenydd Ward — 

Councillor (Mrs.) I. Harris 
,, F. Parish 

,, William Howard 

Taffs Well Ward — 

Councillor Thomas Edwards, J.P. 
,, D. I. Edmunds 
,, J. Beddoe 

Ystrad Mynach Ward — 

Councillor John Roach 
,, W. A. Clark 

,, George Smith 


COMMITTEES. 


Health, Hospital and Public Cleansing: 
Committee. 


Chairmen- - 


Health — Councillor D. I. Edmunds 


Hospital — Councillor E. Phillips, J.P. 

Public Cleansing — Councillor Edwin Lewis 


Coui 


cillor W- F. Rowland, J,P. 
, Evan Phillips, J.P. 
W. A. Clark 

D. I. Edmunds 
(Mrs ) I. Harris 

E. Morgan 
Edwin Lewis 
T. J. Coggins 


Maternity and Child Welfare Committee. 

Chainnan — 

Councillor (Mrs.) L Harris 


Members — 

Councillor (Mrs.) I. Harris 
,, J. Beddoe 

,, T. Edwards, J.P. 

,, T. J. Coggins 

,, W. A. Clark 

,, G. Smith 

,, VV. I). Davies 

,, Evan Phillips, J. P. 

,, W. Howard 

,, E. Bi inson, J. P. 

,, T. Jenkins 

,, D. P. Thomas 

,, J. Roberts 

W. Davies 
,, E. Morgan 

,, E. Lewis 

CO-OPTED MEMBERS . 

rs. Trembath, Mrs. M. Jones, Mrs. S. E. Day, Mrs. K. Hugh 
Mrs. Wilmot, Mrs. G. Jones, Mrs. Povey, Mrs. T. Jones. 


5 


% 


Maternity and Child Welfare Sub-Committee. 

Chairman — 

Councillor (Mrs.) I. H arris 
Members — 

Councillor D. P. Thomas 
,, W. D. Davies 

„ T. }. Coggins 

,, William Davies 

,, Edgar Morgan 

,, T. Edwards, J. P. 

,, G. Smith 


6 


PUBLIC HEALTH STAFF. 


Medical Officer of Health : 

W. R. NASH, M.R C.S , L.R.C P., D.P.H, 

Deputy Medical Officer : (part time) 

J. S. BRIGGS, M.B. 

Consultant Medical Staff for Maternity and Child 
Welfare : 

Obstetrics - Professor GI LBE KT D. STRACH AN 
Paediatrics - A. G. WATKINS, M.D., M.R.C.P. 
Orthopaedic- A. O. PARKER, M.D., C.M. 

Medical Officer to Gynaecological Clinic : 

SYBIL MORGAN, B.Sc., M.R. C.S, L R C. P. 

Sanitary Inspectors : 

a.b. W. LLOYD JONES 
a. b. W. R. LIDDINGTON 

Inspector of Petroleum and Explosives : 
a.b. W. LLOYD JONES 

Health Visitors : 

c.e. E. DIXON 
a.c.e.f. C. THOMAS 
c e. E. JAMES 

Matron, Isolation Hospital : 
c d.e. K. OWENS 

Clerk: R. JAMES 

A. Sanitary Inspector’s Certificate 

B. Meat and Food Inspector’s Certificate 

C. State Registered Nurse 

n. State Registered Fever Nurse 
E. Certificate of Central Midwives’ Board 
f. Health Visitor’s Certificate 


Caerphilly Urban District Council. 


Annual Report of Medical Officer of Health. 


Public Health Department , 
Council Offices , 

Caeiphilly . 


To the Chairman and Members of the 

Caerphilly Urban District Council. 

Mrs. Harris and Gentlemen, 

I herewith beg to submit my Repot ton the health 
of your district for the year 1938 in accordance with 
the instructions of the Ministry of Health. 

The compilation of this Report has been done 
under difficulties and has been only possible through 
the devotion of the whole Health Staff. 

My thanks are due to Mr. Lloyd Jones, the Senior 
Sanitary Inspector for his great assistance in the 
Sanitary sections and to Miss Claudia Thomas for her 
work in connection with the organisation of the A. R. P. 
services during the past six months. The whole staff 
of this department have again to be thanked for their 
help and co-operation during the year under review 
and during the recent difficult periods. 

I am, 

Mrs. Harris and Gentlemen, 

Your obedient Servant, 

W. R. NASH, 
Medical Officer of Health. 


Summary of General and Vital Statistics. 


Area (Land and Water) 


12,931 Acres 


Population (Census 1931) 

Population Estimated mid 1938 

N umber of New Houses erected in 1938 

Total Number of Inhabitaied Houses- 

Estimated Number of Persons per 
occupied House 

Rateable Value - 

Estimated product of Id. Rate 


Birth Rate per 1,000 Registered - 

Deaths - 

Death Rate per 1,000 

Excess of Births over Deaths 

Deaths under one year 

Rate per 1,000 Live Births 

Deaths of Women in Child Birth : — 


35,760 

32,180 

Nil 

7,565 

4.2 

£109,405 

£391 

557 

590 

17.3 

417 

13 

140 

37 

66 

Rate 



Rate Rate 

Number per 1,000 per 1,000 
Live Births Total Births 


2 3.5 3,3 


Puerperal causes 
Comparability Factor 


1—21 


9 


* 


Deaths from Various Causes. 


Cancer 


Males 

21 

Females 

23 

Total 

44 

Tuberculosis Respiratory System 


8 

11 

19 

Tuberculosis-, other causes 


3 

3 

6 

Cerebro-Spinal Fever 


1 

1 

2 

Influenza 


3 

2 

5 

Diphtheria 


1 

0 

1 

Whooping - Cough 


0 

0 

0 

Cirrhosis of Liver 


0 

0 

0 

Other Liver Diseases 


2 

1 

3 

Appendicitis 


1 

1 

2 

Diarrhoea, under 2 years ... 


2 

1 

3 

Peptic Ulcer 


3 

0 

3 

Other Digestive Diseases ... 


n 

3 

4 

7 

Pneumonia, all forms 


16 

7 

23 

Bronchitis 


9 

1 1 

20 

Other Respiratory Diseases 


4 

3 

7 

Heart Disease 


65 

48 

1 13 

Cerebral Haemorrhage, etc. 


8 

8 

16 

Aneurysm 


0 

0 

0 

Other Circulatory Disrases 


6 

3 

9 

Diabetes "... 


1 

2 

3 

Acute and Chronic Nephritis 


6 

7 

13 

Senility 


15 

21 

36 

Puerperal Diseases other than Sepsi 

s .. 

0 

0 

0 

Congenital Debility, Premature Birth, 
etc. 

9 

8 

17 

Suicide 


o 

2 

4 

Other Violence .. 


17 

0 

17 

Other Defined Diseases 


21 

19 

40 

Diseases ill-defined or not known 


1 

0 

1 

Puerperal Septic 


0 

1 

1 

Scarlet Fever ... 


0 

1 

1 



228 

189 

417 


10 


* 


Distribution of Estimated Population and 
Inhabited Houses, 



Estimated 

Inhabitated 

Ward 

Population 

Houses 

Abertridwr 

4691 

1077 

Seng’henydd 

4575 

1102 

Nelson 

3101 

710 

Ystrad Mynach 

4939 

1170 

Caerphilly North 

4635 

1106 

Caerphilly South 

4700 

1139 

Trecenydd 

2507 

584 

Taffs Well 

3032 

677 


32180 

7565 


v . Compirative Table for 
Mortality Rate, and 
the past 13 

Birth Rate, 
Death Rate 
Years 

Infant 

for 


Birth 

Infant 

Death 


Bate 

Mortality 

Bate 

1926 

23 6 

96 

10 1 

1927 

20.7 

120 7 ... 

11.3 

1928 

21.24 

98.4 ... 

10.7 

1929 

17 87 

72 5 ... 

10.4 

1930 

17 1 

73.9 ... 

10.004 

1931 

21.8 

84 5 ... 

12 2 

1932 

17.3 

90.4 ... 

12.04 

1933 

1945 

85.16 ... 

13.40 

1934 

20 5 

61.79 .. 

12 5 

1935 

19.5 

77 7 ... 

12.6 

1936 

17 3 

76.0 

11 5 

1937 

19.04 

69 0 ... 

13.7 

1938 

17.3 

66 0 ... 

13.0 


Vital Statistics. 


The estimation of the population made by the 
Registrar General again appears to be lower than an 
estimate made from general observations, empty houses, 
knowledge of drift of population, etc. would asset it. 

There is a discrepancy between the number of 
registered births and the number of notified births, 
after allowing for necessary transfers, and this matter 
is being taken up with the local Registrar of Births 
and Deaths. 

It will be seen that the various causes of death are 
distributed much as usual and call for no further 
comment. 


GENERAL PUBLIC HEALTH 

There is some improvement in the general and 
social conditions of your area, owing to increasing 
employment at the collieries, quarries and factories, 
and the demand for labour at new factories which are 
coming into production. 

The Treforest Trading Estate has further 
developed ; a metal factory at Trecenvdd has come into 
full production; a new factory for the distillation of 
oils from coal tar is in production at Caerphilly ; an 
emergency works at Taffs Well has been opened, and 
the Nantgarw Colliery has been restarted, which will 
no doubt absorb considerable labour in due course. 
I hese represent the major industrial developments in 
your area, and are affecting the economic, social and 
health conditions for good. 

The amount of unemployment considerably 
diminished during the year 1938. The number re- 


12 


* 


ceiving unemployment assistance dropped at the 
Caerphilly Unemployment Assistance Board from 2500 
in January, 1938 to 2000 in December, 1938. This 
represents a percentage of approximately 6.2 of the 
population in receipt of unemployment assistance — a 
low figure. The Ministry of Labour also confirm 
this. 

However ic must be remembered that “the poor 
are always with us” in South Wales, whether employed 
or not, owing to the low standard wage rates existing. 
Th is is the perpetual brake to ideal social and health 
conditions. 


Laboratory Facilities. 

Duiing 1938, there were 420 diphtheria swabs 
examined at the County and City Laboratory, Cardiff. 
All but a very small percentage were taken at the 
Energlyn Isolation Hospital, as it is the custom for 
many general practitioners to send a patient to the 
hospital for this sole purpose. Nose and Throat swabs 
are taken from all patients admitted to the hospital 
suffering from Scarlet Fever, as a matter of routine. 
Twelve virulence tests were carried out, and of these, 
ten samples proved to bedvirulent, thus considerably 
reducing maintenance charges in these cases. 

There were 14 water samples taken from wells, 
springs and swimming pools, and 35 milk samples 
from all parts of the area. 

The cost of this service was ^85. 


Ambulance Facilities. 

The Council have purchased a new ambulance 
exclusively for Infectious Disease, and this is now 
completely satisfactory. 


13 




The Miners’ Federation provide an ambulance for 
the workmen’s medical scheme at Abertridwr, and 
have an arrangement with the Order of St. John at 
Llanbradach. 

Private ambulances are hired at Abertridwr and 
Senghenydd through a contributory ambulance fund, 
and at Caerphilly, ambulance facilities are provided 
out of the Sick Fund. Apart from the above, there is 
no co-ordination of services, and the position is still 
unsatisfactory from a point of view of street accidents, 
and of sick people not within the scopes already 
mentioned. An ambulance maintained by the Council 
for general purposes is still a necessity. 

The cost of ambulance service for expectant 
mothers to Glossop Terrace, etc. was £ 22 and the cost 
for street accidents was £ 6 . 

Nursing in the Home. 

Nursing Associations, supported by voluntary 
contributions and small weekly subscriptions, and 
employing a nurse available for all subscribers are 
established in every ward in the area. 

In the Abet* Valley, Llanbradach and Caerphilly, 
in addition to the voluntary associations, there are 
schemes sponsored by the Miners’ Federation. 

An organised scheme for the whole area, co- 
ordinated and supported financially by the local 
authority, would prevent waste of effort, and more 
efficient nursing for all. 

Treatment Centres and Clinics. 

The Welsh National Memorial Association have a 
clinic for the supervision of domiciliary treatment of 
Tuberculosis. Other work is undertaken at the 
Central Clinic at Pontypridd. 


Treatment for Venereal Disease is carried out at 
Central Clinic at Pontypridd under the Glamorgan 
County Council. 

The Clinics and Centres under the Maternity and 
Child Welfare services will be mentioned under that 
heading. 


Hospitals — Public and Voluntary, 

The general hospital needs of the district are still 
met by : — 

(a) . Caerphilly Miners’ Hospital 

(b) . Cardiff Royal Infirmary 

(c) . Llwynypia Municipal Hospital 

(d) . Central Homes, Pontypridd 

There have been no developments 01 changes in 
the services provided by the above Hospitals. There 
is lack of co-ordination ; and the proposed changes and 
developments at the Caerphilly Miners Hospital are 
still under consideration. 

The scope of Maternity and Child Welfare work 
was not extended during 1938, and it is difficult to see 
how it could be with the existing staff. I he only 
exception to this is the Home Help Services, and this 
is referred to later. 

The Clinics are held as follows : — 

1st Monday — Llanbradach Ante-Natal 
1st Wednesday — Abertridwr Infant Centie 
1st Thursday — Senghenydd Ante-Natal 
2nd Monday — Llanbradach Infant Welfaie 
2nd Wednesday — Senghenydd Infant Welfaie 
2nd Thursday — Caerphilly South Ante-Natal and 
Infant Welfare 


3rd Monday — Abertridwr Ante-Natal 
3rd Wednesday — Abertridwr Infant Welfare 
Taffs Well Infant Welfare 
Caerphilly North Infant Welfare 
3rd Thursday — Trecenydd Ante-Natal and Infant 
Welfare 

Nelson Ante-Natal 

4th Monday — Llanbradach Infant Welfare 
4th Tuesday — Taffs Well Ante-Natal 
4th Wednesday — Caerphilly North Ante-Natal 
Senghenydd Infant Welfare 
4th Thursday — Nelson Infant Welfare 

The Ante-Natal Clinics have again been well 
attended. Out of a total of 590 notified Births, there 
were 553 or 94% expectant mothers attended the Ante- 
Natal Clinics The total number of examinations 
conducted during the year was 1,389, and I must again 
thank the County and private midwives for their 
co-operation. 

The Maternal Mortality Rate during the past 8 


years is as follows : — 

Mnternal Death Rate 

YliAR. 

per 

1,000 Births. 

1930 

2.8 

1931 

2.6 

1932 

11.1 

1933 

10.3 

1934 

8 4 

1935 

8.9 

1936 

3.2 

1937 

1.6 

1938 

3.5 


Maternal Mortality Rate for England and Wales, 1937—3.1 
„ ,, „ * i „ 1938—2.97 

The following table shows the amount spent on 
additional nourishment for expectant and nursing 
mothers and children up to five years of age. 


16 


* 



1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

1938 

Fresh Milk .... 
Dried Foods . 

£720 

£687 

£696 

£725 

£893 

£702 

£546 

£874 

£854 

£889 

Total .... 

£ 1,407 

£(,421 

£\ ,5 1 5 

£1.420 

£1,743 


The gram ting* of additional nourishnent is made 
on economic grounds only for infants up to one year. 
After this, additional nourishment is granted on 
medical and economic grounds. 


During the year, the Council decided to contract 
for Tuberculin Tested Milk only, and all milk supplied 
under the Maternity Scheme is in cartons and of this 
grade. Samples are submitted for chemical and bac- 
teriological examination at frequent intervals, and have 
all proved satisfactory. Pasteurised milk was not 
available in sufficient quantity, but in any case it is 
hoped there will be no change in the present policy on 
this matter. The supply of Tuberculin tested milk in 
part account for the increased expenditure in 1938. 


The income scale applied by the Council is as 
follows : — 


1 in Family 

2 in Family 

3 in Family 

4 in Family 

5 in Family 

6 in Family 


13/- per head 
10/9 per head 
8/9 per head 
8/3 per head 
8/- per head 
6/9 per head 


after Rent 
Deduction 


Foi the past twelve months, the Council have 
received 120 packets each of Ostermilk, Ovaltine and 
Marmite every month for distribution to expectant 
mothers. This was provided bv the Joint Council of 
Midwifery, and I am very definitely of the opinion that 
this supplementing of expectant mothers’ diet has been 
the means of preventing complications during labour, 
and the puerperium, and has helped to improve the 
general conditions of the newly born infant. 


17 




The Council supplied medicines to a cost of £25 
at the Clinics, and these, although of a simple nature, 
were of great benefit. I would particularly mention 
the advantage we have noticed in giving iron to 
expectant mothers suffering from anaemic conditions. 

The other drugs used were simple ointments, aperients, 
expectorants, etc. 

During the year, there were 10 cases attending 
the Ante-Natal Clinics requiring further examination, 
owing to exceptional conditions. These were referred 
to Professor Strachan. The total cost of this service 
during the year was £62. 

The number of cases admitted to Glossop Terrace 
for complications of labour, or for other treatment 
during the expectant period, increased considerably 
during the year. 'There were 58 such cases treated at 
a cost of £788. This may seem a high figure, but the 
number so treated represents 9.8% of the notified 
births. It is not uncommon for 25% of births to be 
treated in Hospital ; in many areas in South Wales. 

The H ome Help Service is extending and Home 
Helps were provided in 8 cases during the year. 'The 
difficulty at the moment is in securing suitable persons 
to act as Home Helps in certain parts of the area. 
The loss of Unemployment Assistance Benefit or 
Public Assistance acts as a deterrent to many persons 
who would be suitable, as they consider that they still 
have their own domestic work to perform as well as 
the prescribed Home Help duties. This is a matter 
which could be sympathetically considered. 

The consultant paediatric service has again been 
of great value. Eight cases were referred to Dr. 
Watkins at a cost of £19. I have no doubt that this 
arrangement has again saved child life particularly in 
their second year. 


18 


* 


Institutional Provision for Mothers and Children 

The arrangements for treatment of complicated 
cases of labour at Glossop Terrace has already been 
referred to. Some cases have been admitted to 
Llwynypia County Council Hospital. 

Skin conditions have been treated as in-patients at 
the Central Homes, Pontypridd, and some children 
have been treated at Cardiff Royal Infirmary as 
in-patients, on the recommendation of Dr. Watkins. 

There is a great need for a hospital for cases of 
malnutrition, and lowered general conditions following 
infectious disease etc. and such an arrangement for a 
combination of areas would be of great value. 


Health Visitors. 

The duties of the Health Visitors remain much the 
same as for many years past. At the present time, 
there is very little more done than the return of Form 
M. 235/1., as far as tuberculosis is concerned. There 
should be a closer co-operation between the Health 
Visitors and the Area Sisters of the Welsh National 
Memorial Association. This would at least ensure, 
that the tuberculosis register is a record of facts, not a 
conglomeration of names of persons, some, of whom 
are tuberculous, and many of whom are definitely not 
tuberculous. This will be referred to later in this 
report. 

One whole day per week is spent by Health 
Visitors in the sale of Infant Dried Food at each 
clinic. I am of opinion that their time could be better 
spent, if less highly trained persons were allotted to 
this task 


19 


There were no admissions to the register during 
1938, and at the end of the year the position was as 
follows : — 

Petek W. Shell, c/o Mr. E. Felix, Fernleigh Bungalow, Penyrheol. 
(Removed from Register 1 2tli April, 1938, having attained 
the age of 9 years). 

Wm. Dennis Grundy, c/o Mr. and Mrs. Warner, 3, Graig Terrace, 
Senghenydd. 

Colin H. Wise, c/o Mrs Buther, 59, Coedybrain Road, Llanbradach 

Supervision of children placed with Foster-parents 
is strictly controlled, and the Health Visitors are 
constantly watching for any children who may come 
within the meaning of the Act. 


ARRANGEMENT FOR— 

(i.) Dental Treatment. 

The Income Scale for the provision of free milk 
is applied, and those expectant mothers within this 
scale are provided with dental treatment and if 
necessary with dentures free of charge. 'Those outside 
the scale pay a fee of 3/6d. for extractions etc. and are 
provided with dentures at an extremely favourable rate. 
'The maximum, payable for full upper and lower 
dentures is £\ 5s. Od. Children under 5 years are 
invariably provided with dental treatment free of 
charge. These arrangements are made with the 
Glamorgan County Council, and treatment is carried 
out at the School Clinics of the Education Committee. 
During 1938 the cost of this service was £ 90 . 

(ii.) Orthopaedic Treatment. 

Orthopaedic cases are referred from the Infant 
Welfare Clinics to the School Clinics of the Glamorgan 
Education Committee, held at the Caerphilly Miners’ 
Hospital. They are seen by the Medical Officer in 


charge who may refer them to the Orthopaedic 
Consultant, Mr. Parker. Mr. Parker attends this 
clinic monthly, when cases may be admitted by him to 
the Prince of Wales Hospital, Cardiff. The Education 
Committee make a charge of 7/6d. per case which is 
borne by the Authority. A special income scale is 
applied when orthopaedic appliances are required or 
treatment at the Prince of Wales Hospital is 

recommended. During 1938, theie were 52 new cases 
seen, four were admitted to the Prince of Wales 
Hospital at a total cost of £96 

(in,) Removal of Tonsils and Adenoids. 

Children for whom this treatment is recommended 
at the Infant Welfare Clinic, are referred to the Tonsils 
and Adenoids Clinic of the Glamorgan Education 
Committee held at the Caerphilly Miners’ Hospital. 
The charge made is 7/6 d . for the examination, or £\ 
Is. Od. for examination and operation. The arrange- 
ment is unsatisfactory as practically every case 
referred to this clinic has been refused operation, and 
parents who are outside the income scale are charged 
a fee for examination, when it is known that the 
general policy is so conservative. 

(iv. ) Ophthalmic Treatment. 

All cases are referred from the Infant Welfare 
Centres to the Glamorgan Education Committee 
Clinics, and glasses are supplied at very reasonable 
terms. 

1 he detailed statistics of the clinics in each Ward 
is as follows : — 


21 


ABERTRIDWR WARD. 


Total attendances at Ante-Natal Clinics 212 

Average ,, ,, ,, ,, 19.2 

Total attendances at Infant Welfare Clinics 1,123 
Average ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 51.1 

Number of Infant Deaths under 1 year .... 2 

Number of Infant Deaths attended Clinic 2 

Number of Neo-Natal Deaths 4 

Number of Neo-Natal Deaths where Mother 

attended Ante-Natal Clinic .... 0 

Number of Still-Births .... 8 

Number of Still-Births where Mother at- 
tended Ante-Natal Clinic .... 4 


Percentage of Children Breast Fed .... .... 62% 

Percentage of Children Breast Fed and Artificially Fed 9% 

Percentage of Children Artificially Fed .... ... 29% 


SENGHENYDD WARD. 


Total attendances at Ante-Natal Clinics .... 302 

Average ,, ,, ,, ,, .... 27.4 

Total attendances at Infant Welfare Clinics 1,420 
Average ,, ,, ,, ,. ,, 64.54 

Number of Infant Deaths under 1 year .... 5 

Number of Infant Deaths attended Clinic .... 5 

Number of Neo-Natal Deaths .... 1 

Number of Neo-Natal Deaths where Mother 

attended Ante-Natal Clinic .... 0 

Number of Still-Births .... .... 7 

Number of Still-Births where Mother at- 
tended Ante-Natal Clinic .... — 4 


Percentage of Children Breast Fed .... .... 64% 

Percentage of Children Breast Fed and Artificially Fed 10% 

Percentage of Children Artificially Fed .... .... 26% 


* 


22 

TAFFS WELL WARD. 


Total attendances at Ante-Natal Clinics .... 36 

Average ,, ,, ,, ,, 33 

Total attendances at Infant Welfare Clinics 347 
Average ,, ,, ,, ,, 28.91 

Number of Infant Deaths under 1 year .... 2 

Number of Infant Deaths attended Clinic .... 1 

Number of Neo-Natal Deaths .... 0 

Number of Neo-Natal Deaths where Mother 

attended Ante-Natal Clinic .... 0 

Number of Still-Births .... .... 2 

Number of Still-Births where Mother at- 
tended Ante-Natal Clinic .... 1 

Percentage of Children Breast Fed .... .... 80% 

Percentage of Children Breast Fed and Artificially Fed 11% 

Percentage of Children Artificially Fed .... .... 9% 


TRECENYDD WARD. 


Total attendances at Ante-Natal Clinics .... 160 

Average ,, ,, ,, ,, ... 14.16 

Total attendances at Infant Welfare Clinics 714 
Average ,, ,, „ ,, ,, 59.5 

Number of Infant Deaths under 1 year 4 

Number of Infant Deaths attended Clinic .... 3 

Number of Neo-Natal Deaths .... 2 

Number of Neo-Natal Deaths where Mother 

attended Ante-Natal Clinic .... 2 

Number of Still-Births .... 3 

Number of Still-Births where Mother at- 
tended Ante-Natal Clinic .... 3 

Percentage of Children Breast Fed .... 69% 

Percentage of Children Breast Fed and Artificially Fed 13% 
Percentage of Children Artificially Fed .... .... 18% 


23 


CAERPHILLY SOUTH WARD. 


Total attendances at Ante-Natal Clinics .... 131 

Average ,, ,, ,, ,, .... 11.16 

Total attendances at Infant Welfare Clinics 380 
Average ,, „ „ ,, ,, 31.66 

Number of Infant Deaths under 1 year .... 3 

Number of Infant Deaths attended Clinic .... nil 

Number of Neo-Natal Deaths .... 1 

Number of Neo-Natal Deaths where Mother 

attended Ante-Natal Clinic .... 1 

Number of Still-Births .... 1 

Number of Still-Births where Mother at- 
tended Ante-Natal Clinic .... 1 

Percentage of Chiidi en Breast Fed .... 78% 

Percentage of Children Breast Fed and Artificially Fed 9% 

Percentage of Children Artificially Fed .... — 13% 


CAERPHILLY NORTH WARD. 


Total attendances at Ante-Natal Clinics .... 244 

Average ,, ,, ,♦ ,, ... 22 2 

Total attendances at Infant Welfare Clinics 580 
Average ,, ,, ,, «• »» 52.7 

Number of Infant Deaths under t year .... 2 

Number of Infant Deaths attended Clinic .... 2 

Number of Neo-Natal Deaths .... 1 

Number of Neo-Natal Deaths where Mother 

attended Ante-Natal Clinic .... nil 

Number of Still-Births — .... 7 

Number of Still-Births where Mother at- 
tended Ante-Natal Clinic .... — 4 

Percentage of Children Breast Fed — - — 78% 

Percentage of Children Breast Fed and Artificially Fed 3% 

Percentage of Children Artificially Fed .... .... 19% 


NELSON WARD. 


Total attendances at Ante-Natal Clinics 84- 

Average „ „ ,, ,, .... 7.7 

Total attendances at Infant Welfare Clinics 365 
Average ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 32.2 

Number of Infant Deaths under 1 year .... 2 

Number of Infant Deaths attended Clinic .... 1 

Number of Neo-Natal Deaths .... nil 

Number of Neo-Natal Deaths where Mother 

attended Ante-Natal Clinic .... nil 

Number of Still-Births .... .... 4 

Number of Still-Births where Mother at- 
tended Ante-Natal Clinic .... 2 


Percentage of Children Breast Fed .... 7l% 

Percentage of Children Breast Fed and Artificially Fed 2% 

Percentage of Children Artificially Fed .... .... 27% 


LLANBRADACH WARD. 


Total attendances at Ante-Natal Clinics .... 274 

Average ,, ,, ,, ,, - 24 9 

Total attendances at Infant Welfare Clinics 784 
Average ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 35.6 

Number of Infant Deaths under 1 year .... 5 

Number of Infant Deaths attended Clinic .... 4 

Number of Neo-Natal Deaths .... 3 

Number of Neo-Natal Deaths where Mother 

attended Ante-Natal Clinic .... 2 

Number of Still-Births .... .... 2 

Number of Still-Births where Mother at- 
tended Ante-Natal Clinic .... .... 1 

Percentage of Children Breast Fed .... .... 65% 

Percentage of Children Breast Fed and Artificially Fed 7% 
Percentage of Children Artificially Fed 28% 


25 


Table of Infant Mortality Rates, 1938. 


GLAMORGAN (ADMINISTRATIVE COUNTV). 



Total 

Deaths 

Rate per 

District 

No. of 

under 

Thousand 

Administrative 

Births. 

1 year 

Live Births 

County 

10,921 

656 

60 

Urban Districts ... 

8,233 

511 

62 

Rural Districts 

2,688 

145 

54 

England and Wales 

— 

— 

53 

Urban Districts. 

Aberdare 

582 

30 

51 

Barry 

551 

17 

31 

Bridgend 

156 

7 

45 

Caerphilly 

557 

37 

66 

Cowbridge Borough 

14 

1 

71 

Gelligaer 

685 

38 

55 

Glyricorrwg 

179 

12 

67 

LI wch wr 

386 

22 

57 

Maesteg 

411 

36 

88 

Mountain Ash 

568 

26 

49 

Neath Borough 

468 

28 

60 

Ogmore and Garvv .. 

405 

20 

49 

Penarth 

202 

1 1 

54 

Pontypridd 

551 

48 

87 

Porthcawl 

78 

3 

38 

Port Talbot 

708 

54 

76 

Rhondda 

1,678 

121 

70 

Rural Districts. 

Cardiff 

417 

15 

36 

Cowbridge 

182 

9 

49 

Gower 

Llantrisant & Llanwit 

138 

7 

51 

Fardre 

410 

18 

44 

Neath 

643 

45 

70 

Penybont 

462 

27 

58 

Pontardawe 

436 

24 

55 


May 12th, 1939. 


4 


26 

GENERAL SANITATION 
Water Supply. 

The water supply for the greater portion of the 
area, is piped and provided by the Rhymney Valley 
Water Board. The quality and quantity are both 
completely satisfactory and the water is under 
bacteriological control. 

The Taffs Well Ward is supplied by the Pontypridd 
and Rhondda Joint Water Board, and the supply here 
is under bacteriological control, and is completely 
satisfactory as regards quality and quantity. 

During the year water mains were extended from 
the public supply to Rhiwddare Farm. Notices have 
been served to continue this supply to nearby 
cottages. 

The Hamlet of Groeswen is still without an 
adequate and wholesome supply. Steps have been 
taken to provide such supply from the public main, 
which is in existence here, and has never been used. 
It is hoped that the coming year will see this remedied. 

Drainage and Sewerage. 

Arrangements for drainage, sewerage, and sewage 
disposal remain as before. The Rhymney Valley 
Sewerage Board, and Pontypridd and Rhondda 
Sewerage Board, provide means for collection and 
disposal of sewage, except at Nelson where it is dealt 
with by the Council Sewage Works. All are quite 
satisfactory. The bacteriological reports on the 
effluent of the Nelson Sewage Works were again 
invariably satisfactory. 

Rivers and Streams 

The Pollution of rivers and streams is completely 
due to colliery activities and no action was taken 
during the year with a view of diminishing this 
pollution. 


27 


Cesspits and Closet Accommodation. 

During the year, 21 cesspits were cleaned, and 
this is satisfactory, as far as it is possible. The work 
is done by contract. 

There has been no conversion from conservancy 
systems into water carriage systems. There are 3 
privy middens somewhat near a centre of population, 
and it is proposed to instal proper water carriage 
systems here, in the near future. The remaining 
conservancy systems are confined to farmhouses, out- 
lying and temporary dwellings. 


Public Cleansing. 

Refuse collection and disposal is still done partly 
by direct labour and partly by contract. 

The type of vehicles remain unsatisfactory, but 
the Council are applying for sanction for loan to pur- 
chase the low-loader type of vehicle. It is hoped that 
there will be no further difficulties over the provision 
of suitable types of vehicles, and that the elimination 
of this work by contract will be proceeded with. 


The tips for refuse disposal are well managed and 
tipping is well controlled, with the exception of a tip 
at Abertridwr. Here, the configeration of the land 
makes it difficult to control tipping in the best manner. 
The result is that the tip is unsightly, but in view of 
the fact that it is at a considerable distance from 
dwelling houses, it is not at present prejudicial to 
health. The scarcity of suitable tipping sites makes 
it difficult to provide a better, 


28 




Sanitary Inspection cf the Area. 

The extent of the work done by your Sanitary 
Inspectors may be gauged by the following list of 
investigations made by them during the year, This is 
entirely apart from their duties under the Housing 
Acts, Inspection of meat, etc., and the comprehen- 
siveness of their work ensures healthy environmental 
conditions, and good wholesome food for everyone. 

Inspections made under the Public Health <\ct 2861 

Investigations and Visits in cases of Infectious 

Diseases ... ... ... 763 

Revisits to Unabated Nuisances .. ... 1456 

Premises Disinfected ... ... ... 455 


The following visits and inspections were made 
in connection with the following : — 


Water Supply ... 

956 

Drainage 

739 

Stables and Piggeries 

104 

Offensive Trades 

22 

Fried Fish Shops 

67 

Common Lodging Houses ... 

13 

Tents, Vans, Sheds 

375 

Factories' 

484 

Workshops 

32 

Bakehouses 

99 

Public Conveniences 

104 

Places of Entertainmeut 

51 

Refuse Collection and Disposal 

791 

Rats and Mice Destruction .. 

67 

Schools 

77 

Shops 

1602 

Miscellaneous Sanitary Visits 

567 




29 


(ii.) Shops and Offices. 

During the year fires were provided in a large 
grocery store. No prosecutions were undertaken as 
far as the Sanitary provisions of the Shops Act, 1934 
were concerned. Offices are few in number in the 
area, and all complied with the provisions of the above 
Act, and also Public Health Act, 1936. 

(iii.) Camping Sites, 

There are no Camping Sites in the area. 

(iv.) Smoke Abatement. 

It was not necessary to take any action relating 
to smoke abatement. 


(v.) Swimming Baths and Pools. 


(a.) Public Swimming: Baths. 

There is a large public swimming pool at the 
Caerphilly Recreation Ground, which is owned by the 
Caerphilly Urban District Council. This is chlorin- 
ated by means of a modern plant. The bath is used 
during the Summer months and chemical and 
bacteriological analysis of the water are made each 
month it is in use. Typical analyses are as follows: — 


Lab. Ref 

Date Received 
Description of Sample 

Bacteria developing per m.l. at 37°C 

B. Coli absent from .... 


18.177 

18/7/38 

Swimming' Pool, 

R V.W.B. Supply 


18 

50 m.l. 


REMARKS .... Satisfactory 


Number of Sample 
Date of Analysis 
Appearance in two-foot Tube 
Reaction 

Nitrogen as Nitrates 
Saline (or “Free” Ammonia 
Microscopic Examination of the 


B. 18178 
July 19th— 21st. 
Pale Green, Clear 
Acid P. h = 5.0 
Fair amouut 
.096 


Sediment .... Trace only 

REMARKS — The chemical and microscopical characters 
are satisfactory, excepting that the water is of faintly 
acid reaction. Residual free chlorine=l part per 
million. 


4 


30 

(b ) Private Swimming: Pools open to 
the Public. 

There are three such pools situated at : — 

(i.) SENGHENYDD. 

This is a small swimming pool which is filled from a mountain 
stream. The water is thus continually changed. There is no 
chlorination. A paddling pool is associated with this. All 
samples prove satisfactory on analysis. 

(ii.) ABERTRIDWR. 

There is a paddling pool here for the use of children. Samples 
during the year were satisfactory, but it is apparent that this may 
not always be so, owing to the danger of pollution of the spring. 
It may be necessary to recommend chlorination. 

(iii.) TAFFS WELL. 

There is a swimming pool here which is fed by a thermo- 
mineral spring It is a big pool and is satisfactory from every 
point of view. 

(iv ) LLANBRADACH. 

The swimming pool here is a large modern structure, conducted 
on excellent lines. It is fed by a mountain stream, which is filtered 
and chlorinated. The samples are always good, and the amount 
of residual chlorine always satisfactory 


Eradication of Bed Bugs. 

The number of Council Houses found to be 
infested was 40, and the number of private dwellings 
reported as being infested was 75. In all Council 
houses the method of disinfestation was : — 

(a) Stripping, (b) painter’s blow lamp, (c) application 
of solution, ^(d) creosoting floor boards, (e) redecoration and 
all were treated by one or mote of these methods, with 
satisfactory results. 

In the case of privately owned dwellings advice was 
given, and in exceptional circumstances a supply of solution 
D was provided. 


31 


Apart from inspection of the belongings of prospective 
tenants by the Sanitary Inspector, prior to becoming- tenants, 
no action is taken, except to refuse acceptance of such people 
as tenants. 

The work is carried out by the local authority, and 
advice is always available, at the Health Department for the 
prevention of infestation. 

4. Schools. 

The Sanitary circumstances and the water supply 
of all schools are satisfactory with one exception. 

At Mill Road, Caerphilly, Infant Schools, the 
main exit is at the rear of the premises with a view of 
preventing’ the children getting on heavy traffic laden 
roads. The exit opens on an ash covered back lane, 
and this is undrained, resulting in water to a depth of 
2 and 3 inches collecting, wherever there is much rain. 
This in turn renders the water closets immediately 
beneath unsatisfactory and impossible to use. It is 
recommended that this lane be properly made up, and 
drained, in the interests of the health of the school 
children, and to prevent the water closets becoming a 
nuisance. 

Active immunization against diphtheria is available 
to all school children on application to this depart- 
ment. 

5 Disposal of the Dead 

It will be necessary in the near future to increase 
the land available for burial purposes at the Penyrheol 
Cemetery. Similarly churchyards throughout the area 
are rapidly being filled. It is estimated that there are 
500 burials per annum, and in the interests of health 
the advantages of cremation should be made more 
readily known. 

Cremation is the more sanitary method of disposal 


32 


♦ 


of the dead ; the cost when all is considered is no 
more and may be less ; the aesthetic considerations 
weigh considerably, whilst the increasing use of land 
for burials would be checked, if cremation were more 
widely adopted. 

In view of these facts, it would be of benefit 
if facilities for cremation were made more widely 
known, and the question of facilitated cremation might 
be considered by local authorities, inasmuch as 
ordinary burial is subsidized. 

There is an excellent crematorium at Pontypridd, 
administered by the Pontypridd Burial Board, but the 
future should provide a crematorium for the Rhymney 
Valley. 


HOUSING. 

The following is a detailed list of the work done 
by your Health Officers on Housing in your area : — 

1. Inspection of Dwelling-houses during the Year : — 

(1) (a) Total number of dwelling-houses inspected for 

housing defects (under Public Health or 
Housing Acts) .... .... — 1339 

(b) Number of Inspections made for the purpose.... 2567 

(2) (a) Number of dwelling-houses (included under sub- 

head (l) above) which were inspected and 
recorded under the Housing Consolidated 
Regulations. 1925 and 1932 — — nil 

(b) Number of Inspections made for the purpose.... nil 

(3) Number of dwelling-houses found to be in a state so 

dangerous or injurious to health as to be unfit 

for human habitation.... — — 33 


33 


(4) Number of dwelling-houses (exclusive of those 
referred to under the preceding sub-head) 
found not to be in all respects reasonably fit 
for human habitation .... 6 

2 . Remedy of Defects during the Year without service 

of formal Notices 

Number of defective dwelling-houses rendered fit in 
consequence of informal action by the Local 
Authority or their officers ... .... 26 7 

3 . Action under Statutory Powers during the Year : — 

(a) Proceedings under sections 9, 10 and 16 of the 

Housing Act, 1936 : 

(1) Number of d welling-houses in respect of which 

notices were served requiring repairs .... 17 

(2) Number of dwelling-houses which were ren- 

dered fit after service of formal notices : — 

(a) By owners .... .... .... 16 

(b) By Local Authority in default of owners 1 

(b) . — Proceedings under Public Health Acts : 

(1) Number of dwelling-houses in respect of which 

notices were served requiring defects to be 
lemedied. 250 

(2) Number of Dwelling-houses in which defects 

were remedied after service of formal notices ; — 

(a) By Owners .... 246 

(b) By Local Authority in default of owners nil 


34 


(c) . — Proceedings under sections 11 and 13 of the 

Housing Act, 1936- 

(1) Number of dwelling-houses in respect of which 

Demolition Orders were made .... 2 

(2) Number of d welltng-houses demolished in 

pursuance of Demolition Orders .... nil 

(d) . — Proceedings under Section 12 of the Housing 

Act, 1936 : 

(1) Number of separate tenements or underground 

rooms in respect of which Closing Orders 

were made . .. .... .... 3 

(2) Number of separate tenements or underground 

rooms in respect of which Closing Orders were 
determined, the tenement or room having been 
rendered fit .... .... nil 

4 . Housing Act, 1936 — Part IV. — Overcrowding: — 

(a) . — (i) Number of dwellings overcrowded at the 

end of the year .... .... 71 

(ii) Number of Families dwelling therein .... 7l 

(iii) Number of persons dwelling therein 466 

(b) . — Number of new cases of overcrowding re- 

ported during the year .... nil 

(c) . — (i) Number of cases of overcrowding relieved 

during the year .... 29 

(ii) Number of persons concerned in such 
cases 


176 


35 


The overcrowding position is presented in the 
following report of your Chief Sanitary Inspector. It 
will be seen that the position is not at all unsatisfactory. 

Housing Act, 1936 —Overcrowding Survey. 

Public Health Dept , 

Council Offices, 

Caerphilly. 

22/7/38. 

To the Chairman and Members of the Health Committee. 
Mrs Harris and Gentlemen, 

Housing- Act, 1936. 

Report on the Overcrowding Survey. 

I beg to report on the recent survey made under the above 

Act. 


Abertridwr Ward 

4 

Senghenydd Ward 

3 

Trecenydd Ward 

12 

Caerphilly North Ward 

,.. 21 

Caerphilly South Ward 

11 

Ystradmynach Ward 

5 

Nelson Ward 

10 

Taffs Well Ward 

5 

Total 

71 


The percentage of overcrowding in your area is now 1.03% 
Previous surveys showed the following : — 

OVERCROWDED 



1936 

1937 

1938 

Abertridwr Ward 

19 

6 

4 

Senghenydd Ward 

27 

11 

3 

Trecenydd Ward 

50 

11 

12 

Caerphilly North W’ard ... 

20 

32 

21 

Caerphilly South Ward ... 

17 

11 

11 

Ystradmynach Ward 

34 

14 

5 

Nelson Ward 

9 

10 

10 

Taffs Well Ward 

10 

5 

5 


186 

100 

71 


36 


r 


Percentage of overcrowding in each Ward : — 



1936 

1937 

1938 

Ahertridwr Ward 

1.6% ... 

.55% ... 

.37% 

Senghenydd Ward 

2.2„ ... 

.92,, ... 

■ 27„ 

Trecenydd Ward 

1 9„ ... 

1.4,, ... 

2 09,. 

Caerphilly North Ward ... 

3.9., ... 

1.1,, ... 

2.14,, 

Caerphilly South Ward ... 

23,, ... 

1.2„ ... 

1.3,, 

Ystradmvnach Ward 

2 4,, ... 

1.1,, ... 

.45,, 

Nelson Ward 

1.14 

1 5,, - 

1 . 5 ,, 

Taffs Well Ward 

1.4„ ... 

.79,, ... 

.79,, 

Total Overcrowding ... 

2 2% ... 

1.4% ... 

1 03% 


It will l>e seen that the highest percentage of overcrowding is 
in the Trecenydd, Caerphilly North and Caerphilly South Wards, 
but it is the temporary dwellings that are mainly responsible for 
this I lie Committee are endeavouring to clear these places, and 
until such dwellings are removed, the overcrowding figures will 
always remain high in these particular wards. 

The present position shows : — 

Trecenydd ...12 overcrowded includes 3 temporary dwellings 

Caerphilly North. ..21 overcrowded includes 16 temporary dwellings 
Caerphilly South .11 overcrowded includes 3 temporary dwellings 


Total ...44 overcrowded includes 22 temporary dwellings 


Percentage of Overcrowding, excluding temporary dwellings, 
is as follows : — 


Trecenydd 
Caerphilly North 
Caerphilly South 


1 5% 
.51% 
.97% 


I am happy to mention that having regard to various over- 
crowding figures published for similar areas, the overcrowded 
position in your area compares very favourably. 


Yours faithfully, 

W. LLOYD JONES, 

Sanitary Inspector* 


37 


Tents, Vans and Sheds. 

Further progress was made with the evacuation 
and demolition of these unsanitary dwellings. The 
position at the end of the year was as shown in the 
following report of your chief Sanitary Inspectoi. 


Public Health Department, 

Council Offices, 

Caerphilly. 

4/3/38. 


To the Chairman and Members of the Health Committee. 

Mrs. Harris and Gentlemen. 

I beg to report on the position of temporary dwellings in your 

area. 

The following 29 have been inspected 1 1 of which have been 
demolished, 8 vacated and the remaining 10 are still occupied : — 


Dwellings Occupier Visited by Action 

The Bungalow, back of St.Cenydd Tee., Senghenydd...Pat Kelly ...Committee ...Demolished 


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LLOYD JONES, 

Sanitary Inspector. 


40 




The number of temporary dwellings remaining to 
be dealt with how number 80, and it is hoped that 
these will be considerably reduced during 1939. The 
resolution of this Council that temporary dwellings 
will not be tolerated has been rigidly enforced, and the 
great progress made is in no small measure due to the 
devotion of the Chairman and Members of the Health 
Committee and the late Chairman of the Housing 
Committee. 


INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION OF FOOD. 


The detail of work done by your Solitary 
Inspectors in connection with milk production are are 
follows ; — 


No pasteurised milk is produced in the area, but 
the following vendor producers supply Tuberculin 
Tested Milk under license by the Glamorgan County 
Council : — 

Mr. A. H. Pritchard, Ener^lyn Farm, Caerphilly. 

Mr. A. E. Edmunds, Ty Isaf Farm. Caerphilly. 

There are three producers of Accredited Milk 

Messrs. J. J. Phillips, Garth Farm, Abertridwr. 

Mr. S. Thomas, Pen-y-Waun Farm, Nelson. 

Mr. }. P. Pardoe, Hendredenny Hall, Caerphilly. 

Two milk vendors are licensed to sell Tuberculin 
Tested Milk, and fourteen vendors are licensed for the 
sale of Pasteurised Milk. 


(a) Milk Supply. 


Number of Cowsheds in the area 
Number of Inspections at Cowsheds 
Number of Dairies 
Number of Inspections of Daires 


99 

112 

117 

166 


41 


Your Inspectors took 35 samples of milk for 
analysis during the year of which 7 are unsatisfactory 
from a bacteriological point of view. Under the Food 
and Drugs (Adulteration) Act 1928, the police took 37 
samples. Of these are samples proved to be un- 
satisfactory from the chemical analysis and the vendor 
was duly prosecuted and ordered to pay costs. 

No tubercule bacilli were found in any milk 
produced or sold in your area, but chemical examin- 
ation by an Inspector of the .Ministry of Agriculture 
showed one animal which was produciag milk to be 
suffering from Tuberculosis, and this was slaughtered. 

The number of samples of milk not bacterio- 
logically pure i.e. seven out of thirty-five samples 
represent a high percentage, and I am of opinion that 
this could be obviated by more frequent inspections 
by your Sanitary Inspectors. No transport is yet 
available for this important work, and the area is too 
wide, and the farms too distant for the Inspectors to 
pay more frequent visits. However, it appears that 
some provision will be made in the near future to 
enable them to attend to milk productions more 
frequently than they have been able to, hithertofore. 

(b). Mfeat* and other Foods 

There were 196 visits of inspections made to the 
42 Butchers’ Shops in your area. Weekly visits were 
also paid to the meat stalls in the open markets at 
Caerphilly and Senghenydd. In these open markets 
the meat sold is of the frozen type ; is cheap, and is of 
good quality of its type. The meat is sold from vans, 
which comply with the Meat Regulations 1924 : and 
meets a definite need in the district. This applies to 
many other articles of food sold at these markets. 

The public abbatoirs at Taffs Well and Abertridwr 


42 




remained open during the year, but the near future 
will see the closing of the former, owing to the lack of 
slaughtering conducted by the local butchers on these 
premises. 

Private Slaughterhouses still exist at 

Nelson, in the occupation of Mr. John Jones. 

Pwllypant, in the occupation of Mr. Richard Thomas. 

Pontygwindy Road, in the occupation of Mr. John Jones. 

Energlyn Farm, in the occupation of Mr. Arthur Morris. 

Watford Fach Farm, in the occupation of Messrs. M. A. 

Emanuel . 

There are 33 licensed slaughtermen in your area, 
and your Inspectors report most satisfactorily on their 
standard of work. 

The following is a summary of the inspections 
made : — 


Vis 

;its 

to 

Slaughterhouses 

.... 

1125 

Vis 

its 

to 

Shops and Stalls 



839 

Vis 

its 

to 

other Premises .... 



19 

Vis 

its 

to 

Butchers’ Shops 

.... 

196 

Vis 

its 

to 

Fishmongers 



85 

Vis 

its 

to 

Grocers 

.... 

121 

Vis 

its 

to 

Greengrocers 



207 

Vis 

its 

to 

Cowsheds 



112 

Vis 

its 

to 

Dairies 

... 

1 66 

Vis 

its 

to 

Ice Cream Premisea 



56 

Vis 

its 

to 

Restaurants 

.... 

24 

Vis 

iits 

to 

Hawkers’ Carts 'and 

Barrows 

55 


The approximate weight of diseased or unsound 
meats and foods surrendered and destroyed is as 
follows - 


Beef 

Mutton .... 

Pork 

Offals 

Imported Beef 

Rabbits 

Hake .... 
Pearl Barley 


361 lbs. 

1 12 lbs. 

779 lbs. 

385 lbs. 

162 lbs. 

36 carcases. 
60 lbs. 

4 lbs. 


Carcases Inspected and Condemned 



Cattle 

exclud- 

ing 

Cows 

Cows 

Calves 

Sheep 

and 

Lambs 

Pigs 

Number killed .... 

145 

37 

118 

2056 

985 

Number inspected 

144 

37 

115 

1973 

1 

985 

All Diseases except 
Tuberculosis — 

Whole carcases condemned 

i 


i 

3 


Carcases of which some 
part or organ was con- 
dem ned 

13 

7 


13 

11 

Percentage of the number 
inspected affected with 
disease otner than tuber- 
culosis 

9.02 

18 9 

— 

.81 

1.1 

Tuberculosis only — 

Whole carcases condemned 





3 

Carcases of which some 
part or organ was con- 
demned 

4 

9 



18 

Percentage of the number 
inspected affected with 
tuberculosis 

2.7 

24.3 

— 

— 

2,1 


44 


* 


(c). Adulteration of Food. 

Glamorgan Constabulary, 

“F” Division, 

Ystrad Mynach Office, 

26th August , 1939. 


Dr. Nash, 

Council Offices, 

Caerphilly. 

Dear Sir, 

During the year the following samples and actions 
as stated were taken in the Caerphilly Area : — 

Foods & Drugs (Adulteration), Act, 1928. 

37 Milk 

8 Butter 

8 Margarine 

1 Raisin 

2 Fruit Cordial 

3 Sauce 

1 Sultanas 

3 Jam 

1 Jam Roll 

1 Mincemeat 

1 Fullcream Milk 
I Jelly 

1 Fresh Cream 

1 Lard 

2 Rice 

1 Paste 

1 Tapioca 

2 Pearl Bailey 

2 Sausage 

1 Sponge Cake 

4 Bacteriological samples for examination 


82 Total 


45 


The samples were certified genuine and equal to 
the required standard, with the following exception; — 

F. 193. Milk. 8% added Water. 

New Tredegar Police Court. 

Dismissed P.O. Act and pay £4 4 0 costs. 


(d). Contagious Diseases of Animals Acts. 

I beg to report an outbreak of Foot and Mouth 
Disease occurred at Tontailvr Farm, Nelson, on 30th 
December, 1938, when a shorthorn cow kept at the 
Farm and owned by Mr. Edgar Morgan, Tontailwr 
Farm, Nelson, was found to be infected. 

I he animal was inspected bv the Officials of the 
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries and duly 
certified. 

Restrictions were immediately put into force, and 
Farmers, etc. warned of the outbreak. An area of 15 
miles of the infected place was declared to be a Foot 
and Mouth Disease Infected area. 

21 cattle, 10 pigs and 32 sheep on the infected 
premises were destroyed, and 8 cattle from the 
adjoining “Peters Fields” we also slaughtered. 

Restriction notices were served on a number of 
persons in close proximity to the outbreak. 

The restrictions were withdrawn oil 7/3/39. 

Yours faithfully, 

HOWELL REES, 

Superintendent. 


46 


% 


PREVENTION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE. 
Notifiable Diseases (except Tuberculosis). 

The following Table shows the number of cases 
of notifiable diseases, the number admitted to Hospital 
and the number of deaths. 


Disease according- to 
Notification 

Cases 

Notified 

Admitted 
to Isolation 
Hospital 

N umber 
of 

I )eaths 

Small Pox 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

Scarlet Fever 

268 

263 

1 

Diphtheria 

65 

65 

1 

Typhoid and Para Typhoid 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

Pneumonia (Acute Primary 
and Influenzal) 

12 

Nil 

23 

(all forms) 

Cerebrial Spinal Fever 

X 

1 

2 

Opthalmia Neonatorum 

2 

Nil 

Nil 

Hrysipelas 

7 

2 

Nil 

Dysentry 

1 (Sonne) 

1 

Nil 

Puerperal Fever .. 

1 

1 

1 

Puerperal Pyrexia 

12 

11 

Nil 


Table of notified cases distributed in Age Groups. 



Scarlet 

Fever 

Diphth- 

eria 

Pneu- 

monia 

Cerebral 

Spinal 

Fever 

Erysip- 

elas 

Under 1 year 

2 

1 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

1—2 

10 

4 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

2-3 

27 

5 

Nil 

Nil 

Nli 

3—4 

29 

6 

Nil 

1 

Nil 

4—5 

28 

2 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

5 — 10 

100 

30 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

10—15 

45 

11 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

15—20 

7 

2 

3 

Nil 

Nil 

20-35 

9 

3 

1 

Nil 

2 

35—45 

9 

1 

3 

Nil 

2 

45— 65 

1 

Nil 

5 

Nil 

3 

Over 65 

42 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 


268 

65 

12 

1 

8 


47 


Distribution as to Scarlet Fever and Diphtheria 

in Wards. 



Scarlet Fever 

Diphl 

theria 



Case Rate 


Case Rate 


Cases 

per 1 ,000 

Cases 

per 1,000 


notified 

Population 

notified 

Population 

Abertridwr 

62 

16 1 

5 

1.06 

Senghenydd 

18 

0.7 

19 

3 9 

Trecenydd 

32 

12.5 

14 

5 4 

Caerphilly N. 

32 

6.8 

11 

2.3 

Caerphilly S. 

44 

9.2 | 

4 

0 8 

Taffs Well 

23 

7 4 | 

2 

0.6 

Ystrad Mynach .. 

31 

6.2 

7 

1.4 

Nelson 

26 

8.8 

3 

9.9 


268 


65 



Scarlet Fever and Diphtheria incidence in the 
past 13 years. 



Scarlet Fever 

Diphtheria 


Cases & 

Deaths 

Cases & 

Deaths 

1926 

12 

1 

79 

2 

1927 

35 

Nil 

152 

6 

1928 

69 

Nil 

76 

6 

1929 

150 

1 

135 

st 

3 

1930 

132 

Nil 

164 

8 

1931 

56 

Nil 

33 

1 

1932 

111 

Nil 

70 

8 

1933 

255 

Nil 

159 

3 

1934 

195 

1 

167 

7 

1935 

73 

Nil 

174 

12 

1936 

48 

Nil 

122 

10 

1937 

205 

Nil 

68 

1 

1938 

268 

1 

65 

1 


48 



(d). Chemical and Bacteriological Examination 

of Food. 

In the absence of an outbreak of food poisoning, 
this work is done by the Glamorgan County Council, 
through the County Police, at the Cardiff and County 
Laboratories. 


(e). Nutrition 

Apart from the periodical lectures by the Health 
Officers to the Mothers in the Infant Welfare Clinics, 
no other steps have been taken to increase the know- 
ledge of the public on this subject. 


Visits to Factories and Workshops. 

The Sanitary Inspectors report details of their 
visits to Factories and Workshops as follows : — 




Number 

Inspections 

made 

Bakeries 



27 

1 09 

Hairdressers 


27 

37 

Blacksmiths 



6 

6 

Boot and Shoe Repairers 


37 

35 

Botanic Breweries.... 



2 

9 

Carpenters 


16 

1 5 

Dressmakers and Milliners 


1 5 

2 1 

Fried Fish Shops .... 

— 

32 

94 

Ice Factories 


1 

1 2 

Monumental Masons 


5 

5 

Motor and Cycle Repairers 



14 

86 

Rag Assorters 


3 

1 36 

Tailors 


2 

2 

Hide and Skin Mart 


1 

22 


49 


Scarlet Fever. 

The beginning* of the year showed a slight 
epidemic generalized throughout the area, and the 
cases occurring in the first quarter accounts for the 
inciease in incidence. The disease was again of a mild 
type, though one death occurred. In this case the 
general resistance was almost negligible owing to 
severe malnutrition. 

In many cases no rash was seen, but there was a 
severe streptococcal infection of the throat, with a 
typical tongue in most cases. Anti-Streptococcal was 
administered in a great majority of cases, and I am 
convinced that this has obviated complications and 
reduced materially the stay in hospital. The use of 
sulfonamide in selected cases has also been of great 
value in this direction. 

Diphtheria. 

The number of notified cases of diphtheria showed 
a further slight decline, and the number of deaths 
occurring was one. The disease appears to be mainly 
of the “mitis” type and with very few exceptions 
the cases are admitted on the first or second day of 
disease. 

Cases are admitted to hospital on suspicion, which 
in my opinion is satisfactory, but these infected cases 
are also notified as suffering from diphtheria. 
Notification without confirmation gives a totally false 
picture of the prevalence of diphtheria. Of the 65 
cases notified as suffering from diphtheria, only 35 
proved to be such, bacteriologically and clinically, 
i.e. just over 50%. The remedy is for general prac- 
titioners to be supplied wich anti-toxin for suspected 
and other cases of diphtheria, and for them to notify 
and recommend admission to hospital when the 
diagnosis is bacteriologically confirmed from swabs 
taken by themselves. The obvious cases would be 


50 




immediately admitted without waiting’ for bacterio- 
logical investigation. This would give a much better 
idea of the prevalence of the disease and would save 
maintenance charges at the Isolation Hospital. 

Active Immunization 

This was again available during the year, but it 
was not found practical to inaugurate a publicity 
campaign. However 140 children were protected 
during the year, and of these 114 were school. The 
prophylactic used was (Alum Precipited) Toxoid 
(Wellcome). Previous experience showed that immu- 
nization bv one injection resulted in a high percentage 
of schick positive reactors. On reverting to the two 
injection method, the percentage of positive reactors 
was negligable. 

Cerebro Spinal Fever 

All cases of meningitis were admitted to the 
Cardiff Royal Infirmary. I f the meningococal infection 
is confirmed, they are admitted to the City Isolation 
Hospital, Canton, Cardiff, and the maintenance 
charges are borne by this authority. There were two 
such cases during the year. 

Puerperal Pyrexia. 

Fifteen cases of Puerperal morbidity were treated. 
Two were confirmed, bacteriologically as septicaemia, 
and as pyelitis, and the others were classified as 
pmerperal pyrexia, due to various mixed infections. 
Sulphonamide was used in most cases, and in some 
anti streptoccal serum was administered. 

Tuberculosis 

It was not necessary to take any action relating to 
persons suffering from Pulmonary Tuberculosis, em- 
ployed in the milk trade under the Public Health 
(Prevention of Tuberculosis) Regulations 1925, nor 
under Section 62 of the Public Health Act 1925, nor 


51 


section 172 of the Public Health Act 1936, relating to 
the compulsory removal to Hospital of patients 
suffering from tuberculosis. 

Notification of tuberculosis is most unsatisfactory. 
The number of cases on the Tuberculosis Register is 
no indication of the number of persons in this area 
suffering from this disease. A general practitioner 
notifies that, in his opinion, a person is suffering from 
Pulmonary Tuberculosis or Tuberculous Adenitis or 
any other form of the disease. This may or may not 
be confirmed by the Tuberculosis Officer of the Welsh 
National Memorial Association, but no intimation is 
received at this Office either wav No intimation is 
received that the Tuberculosis Officer regards a case 
as cured. The only notification received is that a 
person has died from tuberculosis, and this information 
is obtained from the Death Returns received from 
the Registrar of Births and Deaths. The result is 
that the Tuberculosis Register as a record is valueless. 
It is cluttered with the names of persons, not suffering 
from Tuberculosis, those cured of Tuberculosis, and 
worst of all with the names of persons who have died 
of some other disease. 

The following table shows the number of new 
cases, and mortality from Tuberculosis during 1938: — 

Aga Pario Js New Casas Deaths 



Respir- 

Non- 

Respir- 

Respir- 

Non- 

Respir- 


atory 

atory 

atory 

atory 


M. 

F. 

M. 

F. 

M. 

F. 

M. 

F. 

b— 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

t — 

0 

0 

0 

0 

i 0 

0 

0 

0 

5 — 

1 

0 

0 

1 

I 0 

0 

0 

0 

1 5 - 

1 

2 

2 

3 


0 

0 

0 

25- 

4 

4 

0 

4 


3 

1 

0 

35 — 

2 

4 

0 

0 

1 3 

3 

1 

1 

45 — 

3 

2 

0 

1 

1 2 

4 

1 

2 

55 - - 

4 

4 

1 

1 

1 2 

0 

0 

0 

65 — 

2 

0 

0 

0 

i o 

1 

0 

0 


17 

16 

1 3 

10 

8 

1 1 

3 

3 


Prevention of Blindness. 


No action was taken for the prevention of blind- 
ness or for the treatment of persons suffering from any 
disease or injury of the eyes. 


Air Raid Precautions 

Du ring the year Air Raid Precaution Schemes 
were inaugurated in your area. The Casualty Service, 
which came within the province of The Public Health 
Department, has shewn satisfactory results. We now 
have a basic personnel being trained in various 
directions, and recruitment to this service continues. 

The Miners’ Hosp : tal has been scheduled by the 
Lord Privy Seal as a Casualty Clearing Station, and 
the Out-patient Department of the Fixed First Aid 
Post, minor structural alterations to the latter building 
will be necessary should an emergency arise. We 
have, also, two reserve First Aid Posts, one at St. 
Peter’s Church Hall, Senghenydd, and the other at 
the Clinic, Trecenydd. In view of the fact that you 
shortly intend building two permanent clinics, one at 
Abertridwr. and one at Llanbradach, I would suggest 
the stiuctural standard of these buildings should meet 
the requirements of the memorandums issued by the 
Ministry of Health on Air Raid Precaution emergency 
medical services, so that these premises may be 
suitable for the Air Raid Precaution Service in their 
respective areas. 


53 


+ 


REPORT OF CASUALTY SERVICE. 


Fixed First Aid Posts— 

Out-patients Department, Miners’ Hospital, Caerphilly. 

This post is staffed by the B.R.C.S. Detachment. 
Caerphilly, augmented by National Service Volunteers, 
Caerphilly area. 

First Aid .... 40 Women 

Clerical .... 12 Women 

Pharmacist .... 1 Woman 

Reserve First Aid Post— 

Trecenydd Infant Welfare Centre. 

This post is staffed by the B.R.C.S. Llanbradach 
Women’s E^etachment and Penyrheol Order of St. 
John Men’s Detachment augmented by National 
Service Volunteers from Trtcjnydd area. 

I rained and taking Training — 

First Aid .... 20 Women 

Reserve First Aid Post— 

Sengfhenydd Infant Welfare Centre. 

This post is staffed by the B.R.C.S. Women’s 
Detachment and Order of St. John Men’s Detachment, 
augmented by National Service Volunteers in the 
Abcr Valley. 

Trained and taking Training — 

First Aid .... 20 Women 

Clerical .... 7 Women 

First Aid .... 6 Men 

First Aid Mobile Medical Unit stationed at 
First Aid Post, Miners’ Hospital. 

Doctor .... — .... 1 

Trained Nurses .... .... .... 2 

Trained Ambulance Driver and Attendant 1 


54 


1 


First Aid Mobile Parties stationed at Council Offices. 

1st Party, B.R.C,S. Men’s Detachment. 

6 Trained Men. 

2nd Party, Order of St, John Men’s Detachment. 

4 Trained Men. 

3rd Party, Order of St John Men’s Detachment 

4 Trained Men. 

Recruiting for Reserves. 

First Aid Mobile Party Depots — 

Staffed by The Order of St John Detachment 
Trained Men. 

St. John’s Ambulance Hall. Abertridwr. 

2 Parties (4 Men per Paity). 

2 Reserve Parties, 

Slaughterhouse, Taffs Well. 

1 Party 

1 Reserve Party. 

Church Hall, Llanbradach 

1 Party 

Recruiting for Reserve Parties. 

Social Service Centre, Nelson 

St. John Men’s Detachment, Nelson. 

Staffing the Depot. 

There are 27 Women Ambulance and Car Drivers 
who commence their Anti-Gas training on the 7th 
June. These drivers have been assigned to the 
Casualty Posts and Depots in their respective area. 

Ambulances and Vehicles earmarked by the Chief Constable 
for Casualty Service — 

Council Office, Caerphilly .... 3 

Ambulance Hall, Abertridwr .... 3 

Church Hall, Llanbradach 1 

Social Service Centre, Nelson .... 2 

Slaughterhouse, Taffs Well 


First Aid Points— 

SENGHENYDD— 

Mrs. Downing-, Uuiversal Office House, Senghenydd 
TRECENYDD— 

P.C. Jones, Police Station, Trecenydd 

Telephone, Police Private Line 

CAERPHILLY— 

Mr. Bennett, 85, Mill Road, Caerphilly 
Telephone, Caerphilly 2 1 78 

Mr. W. R. Harris, Hay Merchant, The Twyn, Caerphilly 
Telephone, Caerphilly 2 1 69 

Mr. T. J. Coggins, Plas Watford, Caerphilly 
Telephone, Caerphilly 3 1 52 

PWLLYPANT— 

Mr. W. Corbett-Williams, Pwllypant House, Pwllypant 
Telephone, Llanbradach 8 


YSTRAD MYNACH — 

Mr Hinton, Troedyrhiw Farm, Lower Ystrad Mynach 
Telephone, Hengoed 103 


Mr. R. Davies, Bryn Mynach Farm, Ystrad Mynach 
Telephone, Hengoed 73 


NELSON — 

Sgt. Watkins, Police Station, Nelson 

Telephone, Police Piivate Line 

TAFFS WELL— 

Sgt. Stevens, Police Station, Taffs WeM 

Telephone, Police Private Line 

NANTGARW — 

P.C. Hocking, Police Station. Nantgarw 
Telephone, Police Piivate Line 


I 


56 

Factories, Workshops and Workplaces. 


1.— INSPECTIONS. 

Number of 

Number of 

Number of 

Premises 

Inspections 

Written 

Notices 

Occupiers 

prosecuted 

Factories, with Mechanical 




Power 

118 

3 

.... nil 

Factories, without Mechanical 




Power 

389 

1 1 

nil 

Other Premises ... 

9 

nil 

nil 

Total 

516 

1 4 

nil 


2. — DEFECTS 

Particulars. 

FOUND. 

Number of Defects - 

Referred 

Found Remedied to H.M. 

Prose. 

Want of Cleanliness .... 

12 


12 

Inspector 
nil .... 

cutions 

nil 

Overcrowding 

— 

.... 

— 

— 

— 

Unreasonable Temper- 

ature 

— 

.... 

— 

— 

■ — 

Inadequte Ventilation 

— 

— — 

— 

— 

— 

Ineffective Drainage of 

Floors 

— 

.... 

— 

— 

— 

Sanitary Conveniences: 

Insufficient 

1 

.... 

nil 

— 

— - 

Unsuitable or defective 

2 



2 

— 

— . 

Not separate for sexes 

nil 



nil 

— 

— 

Other offences 

— 

.... 


.... 

— 

Total 

15 

.... 

14 

... — 

nil 


Outwork in Unwholesome Premises. 


NATURE OF WORK. 
(1) 

Instances 

(2) 

Notices 

served 

(3) 

Prose- 

cutions 

(4) 

Wearing Apparel — 

Making - , etc. 

Cleaning and Washing 
Household Linen 
Lace, Lace Curtains and Nets 
Curtains and Furniture Hangings 
Furniture and Upholstery .... 
Electro-Plate .... 

File Making 

Brass and Brass Articles .... 

Fur Pulling 

Cables and Chains 

Anchors and Grapnels 

Cart Gear .... .... .... 

Locks Latches and Keys .... .... 

Umbrellas, etc. 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

Artificial Flowers .... .... 

Nets, other than Wire Nets 

Tents 

Sacks 

Racquet and Tennis Balls .... 

Paper, etc., Boxes, Paper Bags 

Brush Making 

Pea Picking 

Feather Sorting 

Carding, etc., of Buttons, etc. 

Stuffed Toys 
Basket Making 
Chocolates and Sweetmeats 
Cosaques, Christmas Crackers, Christ- 
mas Stockings, etc 

Textile Weaving 
Lampshades 

Total 





BYE-LAWS. 


The Council have the 

respect to : — 

The Cleansing of Footways 
and Pavements 

N uisances 

Common Lodging Houses 

Slaughter Houses 

Offensive Trades 

Nuisances in connection 
with the Removal of 
Offensive or Noxious 
Matters 

Tents, Vans, etc. 

Cemeteries 


following Bye-Laws with 

7th November, 1894 
8th November, 1894 
8th November, 1894 
8th November, 1894 
8th November, 1894 

__ 8th November, 1894 
16th July, 1907 
__ 27th January, 1930 
__ 2nd April, 1930 


New Streets and Buildings