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A GLOSSARY 

OF THE 

TRIBES AND CASTES 

OF THE 

Punjab and North-West Frontier Province. 


Based on the Census Report for the Punjab, 1883, 
by the late Sir DENZIB IBBETSON, K.C.S.L, 
and the Census Report for the Punjab, 1892, 
by the Hon.. Mr. E. D. MacLAGAN, C.S.I., and 
compiled by H. A. ROSE. 


VOL. II. 

A.— K. 


ILabore : 

PEINTED AT THE *' CIVIL AND MILITAET GAZETTE PEESS, 
BY SAMUEL T. WESTON. 

Price Rs. 5-0-0, ^ 


1911 . 



4 


GLOSSARY OF THE TRIBES AND 
CASTES OF THE PUNJAB AND 
N. W. F. PROVINCE. 


Government 


Agents tor 


the salo of Punjab 
Publications. 


IN LONDON. 

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ON THE CONTINENT. 

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Paris. 

Martinus NijhopF; T’he Hague. 


IN INDIA. 

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Simla. 

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R. Cambray & Co., Calcuttg. 

Thacker & Co., Bombay. 

Higginbotham & Co., Madras. 

F. * Fisher Unwin, Calcutta. 

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Esplanade Row, Madras. 

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Superintendent, American Baptist 

Mission Press, Rangoon. 

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Office, Delhi. 

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Press, Lahore. 

Manager, Punjab Law Book Depdt, 
An^rkali Bazar, Lahore 

S. Mumtaz Ali & Son, Rafah-i- ’Am 
Press, Laliore [for Vernacular 
Publications only] . 

Manager, The Aryan Printing, Publish- 
ing and General Trading Co., Limit- 
ed, Lahore. 

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Proprietor, Nazair Kanun Hind 
Press, Allahabad. 

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Bombay. ’ 


PREFACE TO VOLUME IE 


This Glossary of the Tribes and Castes found in the Punjab, 
the North-West Frontier Province and tlie Protee.ted Territories 
on the North-West Frontier of India, is leased upon the works of 
the late Sir Denzil Charles Jelf Ibbetson, K.C.S.I., Lieutenant- 
Governor of the Punjab aud its Dependencies, and of the 
Hon’ble Mr. Edward Douglas Maclagau, C.S.l., now Secretary 
to the Government of India in the Revenue Department. Sir 
Denzil Ibbetson’s Report on the Punjab Census of 1881 was 
reprinted as Punjab Ethiioijraphy. Volume III of the present com- 
pilation will include the rest of tliis Glossary, and Volume I Avill 
comprise the valuable chapters of Sir Denzil Ibbetson s Report 
which deal with the Physical Description of the Punjab, its Reli- 
gions and other subjects, supplemented by the matter contained 
in tlie Hon’ble Mr. Maclagan’s Report on the Punjab Census of 


1891, and from other, sources. 

This Glossary embodies some of the materials collected in 
the Ethnographic Survey of India which was begun in 1900, 
under the scheme initiated by Sir Herbert Risley, K.C.I.E., 
C.S.l. , but it has iio pretensions to finality. The compiler’s aim 
has been to collect facts and record them in the fullest possible 
detail without formulating theories as to- the racial elements which 
have made the population of the modern Punjab, the growth of 
its tribes or the evolution of caste. For information regard- 
ing the various theories which have been suggested on those 
topics the reader may be referred to the works of Sir Alexander 
'Cunningham,* Bellewf and Nesfield.+ 

The Ceiisus Report for India, I90'i,'a,nd Tlio Races of India 
may also be referred to as standard works on these subjects. 


‘ It is in contemplation to add to Volume III, or to publish as 
Volume IV, a subject-index to the whole of the present work^ 

* Archxological Survey Reports : mort’i especially Vola II V and XIV for the Punjab. 
Also his Ancient Geography of India, The Bnidhist Periol, 1S71, 

i Rices of Afghaiiistjn zni Yusuf zai. , « jl ai1qVoVvo/1 IRSK 

X Brief vieiv of the Caste System of the North-Westeru Provui:es a nd Oudh : Allahabad, 


11 


tc^ether with appendices containing exhaustive lists of the 
numerous sections, septs and clans into winch the tribes and 
castes of these Provinces are divided. 

A few words are necessary to explain certain points in the 
Glossary, To ensure brevity the compiler has avoided constant 
repetition of the word “ District ” e. y., by “ Lahore ^ the District 
of that name must be understood tJius “ in l.ahore ” is equivalent 
to the “ in the District of Lahore,” but by “ at Lahore is 
meant “ in the city of Lahore.” 


The printing of the name of a caste or trilie in capitals in 
the text indicates that a reference to tlie article on that caste 
or tribe is invited for fuller information. Peferences to District 
or State Gazetteers should be taken to indicate tlie latest editio n 
of the Gazetteer unless the contrary is stated. References to a 
Settlempid Ueim't indicate the standard Report on the Regular 
Settlement of the District in the absence of any express • re- 
ference to an earlier or later report. 


Certain recognised abbreviations have also been used, e.y., 

J.R.A.S., for the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

J.A.S.B.j for the fJournal of the (Royal) Asiatic Society 
of Bengal. 

P.N.Q., for Punjab Notes and Queries, 1883-85. 
for Indian Notes and Queries, 1886. 

N.I.N.Q., for North Indian Notes and Queries, 1891-90. 
E.H.I.; for Elliot’s History of India. 


T.N., for Raverty’s Translation of the TahaqaU-Nasiri. 

In certain districts of the Punjab lists of agricultural tribes 
have been compiled by District Officers for administrative pur- 
poses in connection with the working of the Punjab Alienation 
of Laud Act (Punjab Act XIII of 1900), and these lists have been 
incorporated in the present Glossary for facility of reference. 

The two following extracts from an Address delivered by the 
a 0 , 11 euiiil Ibbetson on the Study of Anthropology iu India to 



• •• 

111 

the Anthropological Society of Bombay in 1890 are re-printecl 
here as of permanent interest and value : — 

“ Another scheme which suggested itself to me some years ago, and 
met with the approval of Sir Charles Elliot, would, T think, greatly simplify 
and lighten the labour of recording customs, but which I unfortunately 
never found leisure to carry out. It was to publish typical custom-sheets 
printed with a wide margin.* The printed portion would ^ive a typical 
set of, say, marriage ceremonies, divided into short paragraphs, one for 
each stage. The inquirer would note opposite each paragraph the depar- 
tures from the typical cpremonial which he found to obtain among tho 
people and in the locality under inquiry. The main lines of these and 
similar ceremonies are common to many tribes over a considerable area, 
and the system, which is of course capable of indefinite expansion, would 
save a deal of writing, would suggest inquiry, would be a safeguard against 
omissions, and above all, would bring differences of custom into prominenpe. 

****** 

“ And now I have come to the fourth and last lioad of my discourse, 
and you will, I am sure, be relieved to know that I shall be brief. What 
is the use of it all ? I must premise that no true student ever asks himself 
such a question. To some of you, I fear, I shall appear profane, but I take 
it that the spirit which animates the true scholar is the same in essence as 
that which possesses the coin- collector or the postage stamp maniac. He 
yearns for more knowledge, not because he proposes to put it to any 
definite use when he has possessed himself of it, but because he lias not 
got it, and hates to be without it. Nevertheless, it is a question which, if 
we do not ask ourselves, others ■will ask for us, and it behoves us to have 
our answer ready. In the first place, it is impossible to assert of any 
addition, however apparently insignificant, to the sum of human knowledge, 
that it will not turn out to be of primary importance. The whole fabric 
of the universe is so closely interwoven, mesh by mesh, that at whatever 
out-of-the-way corner we may begin unravelling, we may presently assist 
in the loosening of some knot which has barred the progress of science. 
What rhilistiiie would look with other than contempt upon the study of 
the shapes of fancy pigeons, of the markings of caterpillars and butterflies, 
and of the respective colourings of cock and hen birds. Yet from these 
three sources have been drawn the most vivid illustrations and the strong- 
est proofs of a theory the epoch-making nature of which we are hardly 
able to appreciate, because it has already become an integral part of the 
intellectual equipment of every thinking man. But we need not trust to 
the vagueness of the future for evidence of the value of our studies in 
India. They have already cast a flood of light upon the origin and nature 
of European tenures, and they have even modified the course of British 
legislation. I do not think it is too much to say that, had we known 
nothing of land tenures in India, the recognition of tenant right in Ulster 
would have been indefinitely postponed.” 

The scientific spirit which inspired the above remarks laid 
the foundations of all anthropological research in the Punjab and 

* This method was adopted in cairying out the Etlmograpliic Survey in these Provinces, 
H. A. R, 


IV 


North-West Frontier Province. The practical importance of an 
intensive study of the minutest data in the popular religion, 
folk-lore, traditions, survivals and superstitions cannot be easily 
exaggerated, and the present writer is convinced that nothing but 
a closer study of them will, for example, reconcile the apparently 
liopeless inconsistencies of the Punjab customary law. 


Glossary 

OP 

Punjab Tribes and Castes. 


A 

Abazaf, a section of the Yusufzai Pathans, found in Buner. 

Abba Khel, one of the six septs of the Baizai clan of the Akozai Yusufzai 
Pathdns, found in Peshdwar. 

Abbassi, the name of the ruling family of the Daudpotrds who are 
Nawilbs of Bahawalpur and claim descent from the Abbasside dynasty 
of Egypt : see Daudpotra and Kalhordi. 

Abdal, a small caste of Muhammadans found in Kjtngra . and the 
Jaswdn Dun of Hoshiarpur. The Abdels arc divided into 12 UUs 
or septs. The Abddls of Kangra do not associate with those of 
Sukhdr and Nurpur. The Abddls are beggars and wandering 
singers, performing especially at Kiijput funerals, at which they 
precede the body singing and playing dirges, hen or hirldp. In 
the time of the Rajas when any Rdjput was killed in battle and 
the news reached his home, they got his clothes and used to 
wear them while singing his dirge. Thus they sang dirges for 
Rtlm Singh, wazir of Nurpur, and Sham Singh, Atari wdld, who had 
fought against the British, and for Rdjd Rai Singh of Chamba. 
The Abdals now sing various songs and attend Rdjput weddings. 
They are endogamous. Abddl means ‘lieutenant* (see Platts* 

Hind. Dictrj,, s. v.) and is the name of a class of wandering 
Muhammadan saints.* Whether there is any connection between 
the name and the Chihil Abddl of Islamic mythology does not 
appear. For the Abdals in Bengal see Risley, People of India, 
pp. 76 and 119. . 

Abdal, an Arain clan (agricultural), found in Montgomery. 

Abdali, (1) a term once applied generally to all Afgluins {q. v.), but 
now apparently obsolete : (2) the name of a famous family of the 
Saddozai Pathdns which gave Afghanistan its 6rst Afghdn dynasty: 
Now known as Durrani, this family belonged to the Sarbani branch 
of the Afghdns, and is believed by them to derive its name from Abddl 
or Avddl bin Tarin bin Sharkhabun 6. Sarban 6. Qais, who received 
this name from Kwhdja Abd Ahmad, an abddlf or saint of the Chishtid 

* It is the plur. of badal, ‘ substitute,’ and the Abdal, 40 in number, take the fifth pkco 
in the Sufi hierarchical order of saints issuing from the great Qutb, Also called ‘BukabH,’ 

‘ guardians,’ they reside in Syria, bring rain and victory and avert calamity : Encyclopwdiu 

oj Isldm, 8. V. p. 69, 

t See Abdal supra. 


2 


Ah da Adam Ehel. 


order. Driven from their lands near Qandahar by the Ghalzai, the 
Abddli had long been settled near Herd,t, but were restored by Nd,dir 
Shah to their old home, and when Ahmad Shiih became king at 
Qandahdr his tribe served as a nucleus for the new empire. Influenced 
by a faqir named Sitbar Shd,h he took the title of DuiT-i-durr^n, 

‘ pearl of pearls.’ The two principal Abdali clans are the Popalzai, 
(to Avhich belonged the royal section, the Sadozai) and the Barakzai : 
M. Longworth Dames in Encycl. of Islam, p. 67. 

Abdalke, a Kharral clan (agricultural), found in Montgomery. 

Abdhut {avadhuta),* a degree or class of the celibate Gosains who live by * 
begging. They are wanderers, as opposed to the rnatddri or dsanddri 
class. See Gosain. 




Abhiea, the modern Ahir {q. 

Abhapanthi, one of the 12 orders or schools of the Jogis (j, v,). 

Abkal, a sept of Rd,jputs, descended from AVahgal, a son of Sangar Chand, 
16th Rdija of Kahlur. 

Ablana, (1) a Jat clan (agricultural), found in Multan : (2) a branch of the 

Kharrals, found in Montgomery and the Miuchin^bild nizdmat of 
Uahawalpur. 

Abjja an ancient tribe of J&t status found in Sindh and the BahiSwalpur 
State. It IS credited with having introduced the arts of agi’iculture 
into the south-west Punjab and Sindh in the proverb 

Karn haJchshe hiroY- 
Ahra bakhshe hal di or. 

ho'eafnfti'fc S'™ 

^ nnmero“in BahM^ur. 

Aclii, a JiSt clan (agricultural), found in Moltan. 

AiswANi, a Pathiin clan (agricultural), found in Amritsar 

Bannu!'’ “ M-nvat Fathins, found in 

intau^waf toy found 

eyes and a dress to which wonllpn conch shells for 

dancing they spread out. The attached that in 

the men a small drum shaned lil^p ^i ^ ^ tambourine, and 
-too n.en, two women and a’^bl-triorn^ 

Achuak, an agricultural clan, found i^ Shir 

Aohaej(a), see under Brahman: sjn. Mahabrahman. 

Adam Khel, one of the pi'Mif , 

said to be neither Glr\ior"sTm-l ‘'*0 Pathans • 

septs— Hassan Khel, Jawiki, Gaui* and AshrKheh' 

AVcldliUtcl is QilsO tllG UcllllG of~^l~VaT~~U - 

Grierson, IndiaD 


3 


Adan Sh/ihir^Ahangar. 

Adan Shahi, a Sikh sect or, more correctly, order, founded by Adan 
Shd,h, a disciple of Kanhyd Ldl, the founder of the Sewapantlus 
{q.v.). 

Adh-nath, one of the 12 orders or schools of the Jogis {q. v.). 

Admal, a sept of the Gakkhara {q. v.), 

Adpanthi, possibly a title of those Sikhs who adhere to the original 
{ddi) faith (or to the ddi-granlh) : cf. Cens'is Report, 1891, § 68, 
but see Adh-ndth. 

Advait, a Hindu sect which maintains the unity of the soul with God 
after death. 

Afghan, pi. Afaghina; syn. Rohilla or Rohela and Pathdn {q, v-). The 
earliest historical mention of the Afghans occurs under the year 
1024 A. D. (414-15 Hijri) when Mahmud of Ghazni made a raid 
into the mountains inhabited by the Afghani an— after his return 
from India to Ghazni— plundered them and carried off much booty.* 
Afghan tradition makes Kashighar or Shawdl their earliest seat, 
and the term Afghanistan or land of the Afghdns is said to bo, 
strictly speaking, applicable to the mountainous country between 
Qandahdr and the Derajdt, and between Jalaldbad and the 
Khaibar valley on the north and Siwi and Daclar on the south, 
but it is now generally used to denote the kingdom of Afghanis- 
tan. The Afgluins used to be termed Abdalis or Awdalis from 
Malik Abdal under whom they 6rst emerged from the Sulaimdn 
Range and drove the Kafirs or infidels out of the Kdbul valley. 
(See also s- v. Pa^han, Bangash, Dild,z4k). By religion the 
Afghans are Avholly Muhammadan and claim as their peculiar 
saint the ‘ Afghan Qutb,’ Khwdjah Qutb-ud-din, Bakhtidr, Kaki 
of Ush (near Baghdad) who probably gave his name to the Qutb 
Mindr at Delhi. 

AgaeI, Agri or Agaria “a worker in salt,’’ from dgara, salt-pan. The Agaris 
are the salt-makers of Rdjputdna and of the east and south-east Punjab, 
and would appear to be a true caste.t In Gurgaon they are said to 
claim descent from the Rajputs of Chittaur. All are Hindus, and 
found especially in the Sultdnpur tract on the common borders of Delhi, 
Rohtak and Gurgaon, where they make salt by evaporating the brackish 
water of the wells. Socially they rank below the Jdfs, but above Lohdrs. 
A proverb says : “ The ak, the jawdsa, the Agari and the cartman — when 
the lightning flashes these give up the ghost,” apparently because the rain 
which is likely to follow would dissolve their salt. Cf. Nungar. 

Aggarwal, a sub-caste of the Bdnids {q. i\). 

AgIe, a doubtful synonym of Agari {q. v.). 

Agwana, a Jdt clan (agricultural), found in Multdn. 

Ahangar, a blacksmith. 

* For fuller details see the admirable articles by Mr. Longworth Dames on Afghinisbln 
and Afrfdi in the Encyclopaedia of Isl4m (London : Luzac & Co.) now in course of pub- 
lication. 

t But the Agarfs are also said to be a mere sub-caste of the Kumhars, In Kumaon agari 
means an “ iroU-smelter ” : N. I. N. Q. I., §§ 214, 217. It is doubtful whether Agra derives 
its name from the Agaris, as there is an Agra in the Peshawar valley. For an account of the 
salt-industry in Gurgaon, see Ourgaon Gazetteer, 1884, page 67. 


Ahari-^A-hiT, 


4 



nizd'niat of Ndbha : 


Bhata. 

Chdhurwdl. 

Charan. 

Chancl^lia. 

Dekhta. 

Dahinwal. 

Pahmiwal. 

Dharoria. 

Dharuheria. 


Gahchancl. 

Gliaman. 


Gogal. 

Gotd,la. 


Panwill. 

Kathor. 

Sagaria. 


Hajipuria. 


Saiiingia. 
Samel will. 


Jb India . 
Junbal. 
Mahta. 
Mewal. 


Sandlas. 

Sd,rsut. 

Seudhi. 


The Aheris are almost all Hindus, but in the Plmlkidn States a few 
are Sikhs. Besides the other village deities they worship the goddess 
Masilni and specially affect Bilb^-ji of Kohmand in Jodhpur and 
K.hetrp^l. In marriage four gots are avoided, and widow re-marriage 
is permitted. All their rites resemble those of the Dhilnaks,t and 
ChamarwiL Brahmans officiate at their weddings and like occasions. 
The Nd,iks, who form a superior class among the Heris, resemble 
them in all respects, having the same gots and following the same 
pursuits, but the two groups do not intermarry or even take water 
from each other’s hands. On the other hand the Aheri is said to 
be dubbed Thori as a term of contempt, and possibly the two tribes 
are really the same. 

For accounts of the Aheris in the United Provihces, see Elliot’s 
Glossary. 

R. The name Ahir is doubtless derived from the Sanskrit ahhira, a 
milkman, but various other folk etymologies are current. J 

The Ahirs’ own tradition as to their origin is, that a Brahman once 
took a Vaisya girl to wife and her offspring were pronounced amat' 
sangya or outcast ; that again a daughter of the amat-sangyds married 
a Brahman, and that her offspring were called ahJiirs [i.e., Gopds or 
herdsmen), a word corrupted into Ahir. 


They *^e chiefly found in the south of Debli, Gurgilon, and Rohtak 
and the Phulkidn States bordering upon these districts, and in this 



kill the snake, but brought it out of the Junina, 


Ahir groups. 


5 


limited tract they form a considerable proportion of the whole popula- 
tion. 

The first historical mention of the Abhiras occurs in the confused 
statements of the Vishnu Purtina concerning them and the Sakas, 
Yavanas, Bahlikas and other outlandish dynasties which succeeded 
the Andhras in the 3rd century A. D. 

In the 4th century the Abhiras, Arjunflyanas and Miilavas are de- 
scribed as republican tribes settled in eastern Rajput/ina and Malwa.* 

They are divided into three khdnps or sub-castes : — 

(1) the Nandbansi, who call themselves the offspring of Nandd,, the 
foster-father of Sri Krishna.t 

(2) the Jdduhansi, who claim to be descendants of the Yddu, a 
nomadic race. 


(3) the Gudlhansi, who say that they are descended from the Gujila 
or ‘ herdsman ’ dynasty and the Gopis, who danced with the 
god Krishna in the woods of Bindraban and Gokal. 

The Jadubansi Ahirs are mostly found in the Ahirwatif and Haritina, 
while the Nandbansis and Gmtlbansis are found in Mathura and 
Bindraban. 


All three sub-castes are cndogamous and avoid four gots in marriage. 


The gots of the 

1 . Abhiry ii. 

2. Bachhwalyd. 

3. Balwan. 

4. Bhankaryd. 

5. Bhogwaryd. 

6. Bhunkaldn. 

7. Bhusaryd. 

8. Bhusld. 

9. Chatasya. 

10. Chura. 

11. Dabar. 

12. Dahiyd. 

] 3. Datarli. 

14. Dholiwdl. 

15. Dhundald. 
10. Dumdolyd. 

17. Harbald. 

18. Jadam. 

19. Jdnjaryd. 

20. Jarvval. 


Jddubansis are : — 

j 21. Jharudhyd. 

22. Kakrdlya. 

23. Kakudhya. 

24. Kalalyd. 

25. Kalgdn. 

26. Kdnkas. 

27. Karera. 

28. Khdlod. 

29. Kharotya. 

30. Kbarpara. 

31. Khatodhya from 
Khatode in Patidla. 

32. Khiswii, 

33. Khold. 

34. Khorryd. 

35. Khosa. 

36. Khurmya. 

37. Kinwdl. 

38. Kosalyd from Kosli 
in Rohtak. 


39. Lanbd. 

40. Lodiyd. 

41. Mahla. 

42. Mandhdr. 

43. Mitha. 

44. Mohal. 

45. Nagarya. 

46. Narbdn. 

47. Notiwdl. 

48. Pacharya. 

49. Sanp. 

50. Sonaryd. 

51. Sultdnya. 

52. Thokardn. 

53. Tohdnid. 

54. Tundak. 

55. Solangia, original- 
ly Solan ki Rdjputs. 


* V. A. Smith, Aiicient History of India, pp. 240 and 250. 

t Sri Krishna, through fear of R4j4 Kans, was changed for Nand’s daughter and so 
brought up by him. Nand was an Ahir ; Krishna, a Kshatrya. Jidii was the son ot Jagat, 
from whom Krishna was descended, and the Jadubansf also claim descent from him. 

t Another account says that the Ahi'rwati is held by the Jadubansf and Nandbansf, 
who smoke together, whereas the Gualbansf will not smoke with them (in spite of the 
latters’ inferiorit)’}. 

Tt is not easy to define the boundaries of Ahi'rwati. It includes Rew4ri and the country 
to the west of it ; R4th or Bighauta lying to the south-west of that town and apparently 
overlapping it since Narnaul appears to lie in the K4th as well as in the Alu'rwati. 


6 


Ahir origins. 


56 Blianotra, originally Nathawat Rajputs, from Amla Bhanera 
in Jaipur: their ancestor committed murder and fled, finding a refuge 
with the Ahirs : and 

57 Ddyar, originally Tun war Rajputs till 995 Sambat : the legend 
is that Anangpal liad given his daughter in marriage to Kalu Rdja of 
Dhdrdnagar, but her husband gave her vessels for her separate use, and 
she complained to her father. Anangpal would have attacked his 
son-in-law but his nobles dissuaded him, and so he treacherously invited 
Kdlu to his second daughter’s wedding. K^lu came with his four 
brothers, Pannar, Nil, Bhawan and Jagpdl, but they learnt of the plot 
and fled to the Ahirs, from whom Kdlu took a bride and thus founded 


the Ddyar got. 

Some of the Nandbansi gots are : — 

1. Bachhw61. 

2. Harbanwdl. 

3. Kaholi. 


4. 

5. 

6 . 


Khatban. 

Pacharyd. 

Rabar. 


7. Sanwaryd. 

The Ahirs again give their name to the Ahirwati dialect, which is 
spoken in the tract round Ndrnaul, Kanaudh and Kewdri. It differs 
little, if at all, from the ordinary Hindi of the south-east Punjab ; * * for 
a full account of it and its local varieties the reader must be referred to 
the Linguistic Survey of India, Vol. IX, pp. 49 — 51 and 233 — 241. 

The Ahirs are all Hindus, but in spite of their traditional connec- 
tion with Sri Krishna,t they affect Shivaji, Devi and Thdkarji. They 
also worship Bandeo, whose shrine is at Raipur in the Bawal nizamat 
of Ndbha and who is said to be a black snake : hence no Ahir will kill 
a black snake. In Saharanpur their marriage deities are Brahn and 
Bar deotas, but no traces of these cults are noted in the Punjab. J 


Ahir women dress differently to those of the Jdt tribes, wearing 
red and yellow striped gowns, with a shawl of red muslin. But in 
Jind they are said to wear a gown {lenghd) of blue cloth. 

Tli 0 Ahirs were probably by origin a pastoral caste, but in the 
.Punjab they are now almost exclusively agricultural, and stand in 
quite the first rank as husbandmen, being as good as the Kamboh 
and somewhat superior to the Jat. They are of the same social 
standing as the Jdt and Gujar, who will eat and smoke with them ; 
but they have not been, at any rate within recent times, the dominant 
race m any considerable tract. Perhaps their nearest approach to 
such a position was m the State of Kampnr near RewSri, Uose last 

" n? n u in 1857 and lost his state. His family 

still holds a,nyir and its members are addressed as Rao, a title which 
IS indeed grateful to every Ahir. wiiit.ii 

They are industrious, patient, and orderly; and though they 

:s;U b— 

onl tivators than hims elf. Thus they say i„ Rohtak : ^’^osUWie Wd 

* C. R. 1891, p. 263. — 

t Still, according to Mr. Maclagan Krishna i <5 fhoi,. 
they adopt Brahman or Bairagi gnriis, receiving from Vhem^’a^/^' V 
Knshna-mantra m return for a bhet or vuid of R<? 2 nr i t-anthi (necklace) and the 
JN. I. N. Q. IV§46l). 


V 


Ahir — Ahldwat. 


7 


village of the Ahirs) has fifty brick houses and several thousand 
swaggerers.” So in Delhi : “ Rather be kicked by a Kdjputor stutnble 

uphill, than hope anything from a jackal, spear grass, or an Ahir” ; 
and again: “All castes are God’s creatures, but three castes are 
ruthless, when they get a chance they have no shame : the whore, 
the B^nya, and the Ahir.” The phrase Ahir be-pir refers to their sup- 
posed faithlessness. But these stigmas are, now-a-days at least, wholly 
undeserved. 

Their birth, death and marriage ceremonies are like those of the 
Mfi,lis, Gujars and Jats. Kareivais permissible, but in Jind, it is said, 
a widow may not marry her husband’s elder brother and this is also 
the case in Gurgden, where some of the higher Ahir families disallow 
widow re-marriage in toto* * * § and hold aloof from other Ahirs. Like 
the Rdjputs the Ahirs recognise concubinage, and a father has a right 
to the guardianship of a concubine’s son (suretwdl), but he does not 
inherit. The Ahirs who disallow widow re-marriage also follow the 
rule of chundavandA 

They oat kachchi and paJcJci with all Brahmans and Vaisyas, but the 
latter do not eat /cac/ichi from them. They will eat kachchi with Rdj- 
puts, Jats, Hindu Gujars, Rors, Sunars and Tarkhans, while the latter 
cat also with the former. They do not eat fiesh.J 

In and around Delhi city the Ahir is also known as Gliosi and 
claims descent from Nandji, adopted father of Krishna (Kanhyaji). 
Anciently called Gwalas the Ahirs were called Ghosi after their conver- 
sion to Islam§, but any cowman or milkscller is also called ghosi. 
The principal Ahir or Ghosi gots are : — 

Mukhiall which ranks highest of all the gots. 

Charia (graziers). 

Ghur-charha (cavalry men) and Kasab. 

The Hindu Ghosi customs resemble those of the Hindu R/ijputg. A 
• Gaur Brahman officiates at the phera rite in marriage. The Ghosi 
have a system of panches and hereditary chaudhris. If one of the 
latter’s line fail, his widow may adopt a son to succeed him, or, failing 
such adoption, the panch elects a fit person. 

A very full description of the Ahfrs will be found in Elliott’s Races of the North-West 
Provinces, and also in Sherring, I, 332 H. 

Ahlawat, a Jat tribe, said to be descended from a Chauhd,n Rajput who 
came from Sambhar in Jaipur some 30 generations ago. From him 
sprang the AhlAwat, Olifin, Birma, Mare, and Jun J:i,ts who do not 
intermarry. The tribe is found in Rohtak, Delhi, and Karn^l. Its 
members worship a common ancestor called Sadu Deb. 


* P. C. L. II, p, 132. 

+ Ibid, p, 137. 

t Ibid. p. 138. 

§ The moaning appears to be that ahy Muhammadan tvho became a cowman by trade was 
called Ghosi, and that this name then became applied to any Ahir or Gwala, so that we now 
find the Hindu Ahir as well as his Muhammadan competitor commonly called Ghosi. 

11 Mukhia, ‘ spokesman,’ is also a title given to a leading member of the caste, but it does 
not appear to be equivalent to chaudhri. 


8 


Ahl-i-Hddls^^Ahm adzai. 


Ahl-i-Hadis, or “People of tlio Tradition/’ formerly styled WaMbfs 
from the name of their founder. The Ahl-i-H.adis are Musalman 
purists. “ They accept the six books of traditions as coliected by the 
Sunnis, but reject the subsequent glosses of the fathers and the voice 
of the church, and claim liberty of conscience and the right of private 
interpretation. They insist strongly upon the unity of God, which 
doctrine they say has been endangered by the reverence paid by the 
ordinary Musalman to Muhammad, to the Im^ms and to saints ; and 
forbid the offering of prayer to any prophet, priest or saint, even as a 
mediator with the Almighty. They condemn the sepulchral honours 
paid to holy men, and illumination of, visits to, and prostration before, 
their shrines, and even go so far as to destroy the domes erected over 
their remains. They call the rest of the Muhammadans “ Mushrik,” 
or those who associate another with God, and strenuously proclaim that 
Muhammad was a mere mortal man. They disallow the smoking of 
tobacco as unlawful, and discountenance the use of rosaries or beads. 
Apparently they insist much upon the approaching appearance of the 
last Imd,m Mahdi preparatory to the dissolution of the world. Politically 
their most important and obnoxious opinion is that they are bound 
to wage war against all inhdels. . The orthodox deny them the title of 
Musalmans.” 


A full history of the “Ahl-i-Hadis” is beyond the scope of this 
article. Its founder, Abdul-Wahhab, was born in Nejd in 1691 A. D., 
and his successors reduced the whole of Nejd and then overran the 
Hijaz. In 1 809 their piracies compelled the Government of Bombay 
to capture their stronghold on the coast of Kirman, and in 1-811-J8 the 
Sultan of Turkey beheaded their chief and reduced them to political 
insignificance. Their doctrines were introduced into India by Sayyid 
Ahmad Shah of Rai Bareli, originally a free-booter who, after a visit 
to Arabia, proceeded to the North-West Frontier, and there, in 1826, 
proclaimed a lihad or religious war against the Sikhs. His extra- 
ordinary ascendency over the tribes of the Peshfiwar Border and his 
four years’ struggle, not wholly unsuccessful, with the Durrfinis on the 
one hand and on the other with the Sikhs, and his ultimate defeat and 
death are described in James’ Settlement Report of Peshawar (pp. 
43-44) and more fully in Bellew’s Ristory of (pp. 83-102). 

1 atna is the head-quarters of the sect in India, but it has also colonies 
Buner ^ ^htana and Malka in Yusufzai beyond 

of 'The Wahabis in India ’ see three articles in 
Selections from the Calcutta Review', by E. J. O’Kinealy]. 

Ahl-i-Hunud, {i) Indians : lit. ‘people of the Indians’ (Ilunud, pi of Hindi 


AnLmvALiA, one of the Sikh misls founded by Jassa Sln^rh of Ahld a 

now r.p..oseated by the ruUo ot 

Ahmadzai, quo of the two main divisions of the Darwosh Khol Wazii^s. 


Ahmadzai — AkdlL 


9 


Ahmadzai, Amazai, one of the two principal clans of the Uslitaraua Patbdiis. 

Ahuja (1) a Jdt clan (agricultural), found in Multdn. (2) Also a section of 
the Dahra Aroras. 

Ahulana, one of the two great dharras or factions of the Jd^ found in 
Rohtak, etc. See Dahija. 

Aibak, a small sept found at Wahind Sarmana near Kahror in Multdn 
District which, despite its Turkish name, claims to belong to the 
Joiya tribe. 

Ainoke, a Kharral clan (agricnltural) found in Montgomery. 

AiPANTHf, a follower of the Aipanth, one of the Jogi orders. It is found 
in Hissar and Mast Nath, founder of the Bohar monastery in the iiohtak 
District, originally belonged to it. 

Aitle, a sept or clan of Kanets found in the Kaljun pargand (Patiala 
State territory), Simla Hills. 

Ajaei, ajjari, arydli, aydli, ajari/r. ajjar, herd, a goat-herd — in Kdwalpindi, 
Jhelum, etc. In Jhelum, it is the name of a sept of turbulent Awaus 
found in the village of Bhuchhal Kaldn. 

Ajudhia-panthi, (t) a Hindu Vaishnava sect, so called because Udm Chandar 
lived in Ajudhia (Oudh) ; {ii) a Vaishnava. The latter is probably the 
only correct meaning. 

Aka Khel, one of the eight principal clans of the Afridis. 

Akali. The sect of the Akdlis differs essentially from all the other Sikli 
orders in being a militant organization, corresponding to the Ndgds 
or Gosains among the Hindus. Their foundation is ascribed to Guru 
Govind^ himself, and they steadfastly opposed Banda’s attempted 
innovations. The term t is sometimes said to be derived from akdlU 
purusha ‘worshipper of the Eternal.’ But akdl means ‘ deathless,’ i.e., 
‘God,’ and Akdli is simply ‘ God’s worshipper.’ The Akdlis wear blue 
chequered dresses,^ and bangles or bracelets of steel round their wrists, 
and quoits of steel in their lofty conical blue turbans, together with 
miniature daggers, knives, and an iron chain. § 

In their military capacity the Akalis were called Nihang, || or reckless, 
and played a considerable part in the Sikh history, forming the Shahids 

* Govind Singh, the tenth and last Guru of the Sikhs, 1675—1708, 
t Murray’s Htfif. of the Panjab, i., p, 130; Cunningham’s Hist, of the Sikhs, p, 117. 
f Malcolm points out that Krishna’s elder brother, Bal Ram, wore blue clothes, whence he 
is called Nilarabari, or ‘ clad in dark blue,’ and Sitivas, or ‘ the blue clad ’ {Asintick 72c- 
searches xi, p. 221). 

§ Strict Akalis do not wear the jatd or top-knot, but some do. Those who do not only 
.use ‘ diir and lota ’ water and also smoko, which the jatd wearers may not do. Others, 
again, wear a yellow turban beneath the blue one, so as to show a yellow band across the 
forehead. The story goes that a Khatrf of Delhi (Nand Lsl, author of the Zindagindwa) 
desired to see the Guru in yellow, and Govind Singh gratified his wish. Many Sikhs wear tlio 
yellow turban at the Basant Panchmi. Acouplet erroneously ascribed to Bhai Gurdas says : 
Sidh, sujed, jo pnhne, 

Surkh, zarddc, soi Gurbhdi. 

‘ They who wear dark blue (the Akalis), white (the Nirmalas), red (the Udisis), or yellow 
are all brothers in the Guru. ’ 

II Ibbetson,§ 522. Cunningham (p. 379) says nihang.* naked ’ or ‘ pure ’ and it has that 
meaning litera lly (c/. Platts s. v.), but in Sikh parlance the word undoubtedly means 
‘ free from care,’ ‘ careless,’ and so ‘reckless,’ In Hinduism it bear 3 *its original meaning. 


lo 


Ahdli-^Ahezai. 


or first of tlie four dehras. At the siege of Multan in 1818 a few 
Akiili fanatics* carried the faussebraye by surprise, and precipitated 
the fall of that fortress. The career of PhuU Singh illustrates 
both their defects and their qualities. This great AkAli first came into 
notice as the leader of the attack on Metcalfe’s escort at Amritsar in 
1809. He was then employed by Ranjit Singh, who stood in consider- 
able awe of him, as a leader in the Indus valley, where he was guilty 
of atrocious cruelty towards the Muhammadan population, and in 
Kashmir. Finally, Phul^ Singh and his Akd-lis contributed to, or 
rather virtually won for Ranjit Singh, the great Sikh victory over the 
Yusafzais at Teri in 1823. In this battle Pbiil^ Singh met with a 
heroic death, and his tomb at Naushahra is now an object of pilgrimage 
to Hindus and Muhammadans alike. 

Under Phula Singh’s earlier leadership, and perhaps before his 
rise, the Ak^lis had become a terror to friends and foes alike, and 
they were dreaded by the Sikh chiefs, from whom they often levied 
contributions by force.t Ranjit Singh, after 1823, did much to re- 
duce their power, and the order lost its importance. 

The Akali headquarters were the Akal Bunga X at Amritsar, where 
they assumed the direction of religious ceremonies and the duty of 
convoking the Gurumatd,; indeed, they laid claim to exercise a 
general leadership of the Khd-lsa. Since Ranjit Singh’s time Anandpur 
has been their real headquarters, but their influence has to a large ex- 
tent passed away, and some of them have degenerated into mere 
buffoons. 


As an order the Akalis are celibate. They have, says Trumpp, no 
regular chief or disciple, yet cne hears of their Gurus, whose leavings 
are eaten by their disciples {seicak or chela). They do not eat meat 
or drink spirits, as other Sikhs do, but consume inordinate quantities 
of hhang. 

Literatdre.— The general histories of the Sikhs, see art. ‘ Sikh ’ ; J. C. Oman, Mystics, 
Ascetics and Saints of India, London, 1903, pp. 153, 198—201 ; A. Barth, Bcligions of India 

• 

A^azaj, {%) one of the principal branches of the Utmanzai Pathans, (m) a 
Black Mountain tribe, a section of the Isazai clan of the Yusufzai 
Pathans, whose modern history is described in the Hazara Gazetteer, 
1907, pp. 164— 182. 


AkerE, an agricultural clan, found in ShHipur. 

Akezai, a Path^n clan (agricultural), found in Montgomery. 


* They were headed by one Jassa Singh, called Mala (‘rosary ’) Singh from his 
c enied himself the use of bhang, the only intoxicating drug in use among the Akalis’ 

of Lahore, p. l«8. Prinsep, On the S%h rower in 

Rud PhOOlR jblUllh. thft AkAli' in ^ lurtni/>V»o«l •> -i 




f- I'- Os'*™ describe. 

rupees and in return receives sWe su^ar vvhil«^> piesents a few 

..loreaocil«si»a,.. Ws prS^^\I*^ci:S^,‘isT«“oi:olet “ 


Akhund Kkel^AU 8her Kkel. 


11 


Akhund Khel, the section of tho Painda Khel sept of tlie Malizai Yusufzai 
Pathans to which the Khdn of Dir belongs. It occupies the lower part 
of the Kashkar (Dir) valley, in which lies tho village of Dir. It owes 
its name to the fact that it was founded by Mulla Ilids or Akhund 
Bilba who acquired a saintly^ reputation. [This Akhund Biiba is 
not to be confused with the Akhund of Swdt, who was born in 1784 
of Gdjar parents in Buner or Upper Swat and as Abd-ul-Ghafur 
began life as a herd boy, but acquired the titles of Akhund and Buzurg 
(saint) by his sanctity. He married a woman of‘the Nikbi Khel.] 

Akhundzada, or Pibzada, a descendant of a saint of merely local or 
tribal reputation (as opposed to a Midn) among the Pathdns of Swdt 
and Dir. The descendants of MulH Mushki Alara rank as Akhundzadas 
because ho held that rank, otherwise they would only be Sdhibzddas 
{q. V.). 

Akkdke, a Kharral clan (agricultural), found in Montgomery. Cf. Akuk. 

Ako Khel, sept of the Razzar clan of the Razzar Path^ns, found in 
Peshdwar. 

Akora, the branch of the Khattaks descended from Malik Akor, who found- 
ed A kora on the Kabul river in the Peshdwar District in the time of 
Akbar. The Akora or eastern faction of the Khattaks is opposed to 
the western or Teri party. 

Akra, a tribe (agricultural) found in Jhelum [Gr., p. 126]. 

Akozai YusAezai, the tribe of Yusafzai Pathans which now holds Upper 
and Lower Swsit. Their septs hold this territory as follows, working 
upwards along the left bank of the Swilt river : the Raiiizai and Khan 
Khel hold Lower Swdt : while the Kuz-Sulizai (or lower Sulizai) compris- 
ing the Ala Khol, Musd, Khel and Babuzai ; and the Bar-Sulizai, com- 
prising the Matorizai, Azzi and Jinki Khels hold Upper Swat : Baizai 
is a generic term for all these septs except theRilnizai. Working down- 
wards on the right bank of the Swdt are the Shamizai, Sebnjni, Nikbi 
Khel and Shamozai in Upper, and the Adinzai, Abazai and Khadakzai, 
all, except the two last-named, known collectively as Khwdzozai, in 
Lower Swdt. The Akozai also hold most of Dir, tho Painda Khel 
holding the left bank and the Sultan Khel the right below Chutiatanr, 
while lower down the Sultan Khel holds both banks ; and below them 
again lie tho Nasrudin Khel and the Ausa Khel. 

Akuke, a great sept of the Joiyas found in Montgomery and Multdn, and 
also in Bahdwalpur State, in large numbers. 

Aldano, a sept of Kanets found in the village of Labrang in Kandwar 
(in the Bashahr State). 

ALiANf, one of the four clans of the Laghdri tribe of the Baloch, The chief 
of the Laghd,ris belongs to it. 

Ali Khanana, a clan of the Sid,ls : Chenab Colony Gazetteer, p. 54. 

Ali Khel, an affiliated hamsdya or client clan of the Orakzai Pathdns. 

Ali Sheb Khel, one of the four main clans of the SHinwari Pathans, when 
eastern sections are tho Khuja or Khwaja, Shekhmal, Asha, Jhrwal 
and Pisat. Other sections are the. Aotar or Watar and the Pakhel, 


12 


Alizai^AnsM. 


Alizai, Allezai, (1) ono of the five great clans of tlie Orakzai Patlidns. The 
name is now practically obsolete and the clansmen are known by the 
names of their septs, e. g., Sturi, And and Tazi. The two ast-named 
are Shias, (2) a distinguished family in Multan (see Gazetteer 1902, 
p. 163). 

Allazat, one of the principal branches of the Uimd.nzai Pathdns. Of ^ the 
three Utmdnzai branches (Akazai, Allazai and KanazaiHhe Allazai are 
most numerous in Hazara and comprise three cla,ns, Khushhiil-khilni, 
Said-khani and Taekheij. The leading families are by clan Said- 
klutni, the most important being that of KhaMbat, of which Mirzamdn 
Khiln, Sir James Abbott’s bravest and most loyal follower,, was a 
member. 

Alfah, a Muhammadan JJt clan (agricultural), found in Montgomery and 
Multdn. 

Allahdadi, a Baioch clan (agricultural), found in Montgomery. 


Alpial, a tribe of Muhammadan Rajputs found in Riiwalpindi where they 
hold the southern corner of tlie Fatah Jang tahsU. Their marriage 
ceremonies still bear traces of their Hindu origin, and they seem to 
have wandered through the Khushdb and Talagang country before 
settling in their present abodes. They are “a bold lawless set of men 
of fine physique and much given to violent crime.’’ 

Aluajia, a synonym for KaMl [q. v.). 


A'luwala, Aluwalia, A'luwaei (see Ahluwfilid). 


Alwer, a Kharral clan (agricultural), found in Montgomery. 

’Alwi, (1) a Jat clan (agricultural), found in Multdn. (2) — or Alvi, a 
branch of the Khokhars which claimed descent from the Khalifa Ali 
and is found in Bahdwalpuj*, Multan, Muzaffargarh and Ludhidna. 

Amazai, a section of the Utmdnzai Yusufzai Pathans, lying north of the 
Utmdnzais. Their territory marches with the trans-Indus territory of 
the Tanawali Khdn of Amb. 

Amlawat, a tribe of Jd^s claiming descent from Amla, a Rdjput : found in 
Jind. 


Amritsaria, a Sikh, especially one who worships at the Golden Temple 
in Amritsar. 

AnandI, a title found among Sannidsis. 


Andar, a Pathdo sept, which occupies most of the district south of Ghazni 
in Afghanistdn and is associated with the Musd Khel K^kar who are 
descended from an Andar woman. Probably Ghilzais. 

Andar, a Jdt clan (agricultural), found in Multdn. 

Andwal, a sept of the Dhund tribe, found in Hazdra. 


An oar, Angra, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Ansaui (pi, of ?mar, a helper),* lit. auxiliaries, was the title given to the 
believers of Madina who welcomed Muhammad after his flio-ht from 


* AnsArl appears to bo really an adjectival form from 


a astir, pi. of ndsir. 


Ansari — Arain. 


13 


Mecca,* and those who claim descent from these men style themselves 
Ansdri. One of the most interesting Ansdri families in the Punjabis 
that of the Ansilri Shaikhs of Jullundur. It claims descent from 
Khalid ‘ Ansiir ’ (Abu AyubJ, who received Muhammad in his house at 
Madina, through Shaikhs Yusuf and Siraj-ud-din (Shaikh Darwesli). 
From the latter Avas descended the Pir Roshan, founder of the Roshanias. 
These Ansar is are said by Raverfcy to be of Tajik extraction. They in- 
termarry Avith the Barkis or Barikkis of Jullundur Avho are Pathuns. 

AnsakI, a Jat clan (agricultural), found in Multan. 

Anuja, a Jdt clan (agricultural), found in Miilbin. 

Anwal, a Jdt clan (agricultural), found in Multdn. 

Aor-mar, a tribe of Afghans : see Urmur, 

ApA-PANTiTf, possibly a folloAver of Padraakar Bhdt of Banda, a courtier of 
the Mahratta chief, the Apa Sdhib, and a Avorshipper of the Ganges. 
The sect is mainly found in Rohtak and IJissiir. 

^Arab, a Jat clan (agricultural), found in Multan. [It is A*ery doubtful if the 
Arabs of the Census returns are true Arabs, though there may be a few 
Arab merchants, etc., found occasionally at such centres as I’eshdwar 
and Multan. It is possible that a certain number of Qureshis, Shaikhs 
and others return themselves as Arabs.] 

Arain, Rain (the latter form prevails in the Jumna valley), is a term which 
has at least Iaa'o distinct meanings : in the Sutlej valley and throughout 
the eastern plains the Arains form a true caste, but in all the rest of 
the Iavo Provinces the term is applied to any market-gardener and is 
synonymous Avith Baglibdn, Mdli, Maliar, and oven Jilt in the South- 
West Punjab. We are now concerned Avith the Arains as a caste. 

Almost to a man Muhammadans and strongly inclined to orthodoxy,t 
the Arain.s' claim to be immigrants from Uch and have some aflinities with 
the Kambohs. On the other hand some of tho Arain and Hindu Saini 
clan names are identical, and those not ahvays merely names of other 
and dominant tribes. From Uch they migrated to Sirsa and thence into 
the Pun^'ab. 

In Sirsa the Sutlej Arains meet those of tho Ghaggar. The two do 
not intermarry, but the Arains of the Ghaggar valley say they wero 
Rajputs living on the Panjnad near Multiln who wero ejected some 
four centuries ago by Saiyad Jaldl-ul-din of Uch. They claim some 
sort of connection Avith Jaisalraer. Till the great famines of 1759 
and 1783 A. D. they are said to have held all the lower valleys of tho 
Choya and Ghaggar, but after the latter date the Bhattis harassed the 
Suinrds, the country became disturbed, and many of the Arains emi- 
grated across the Ganges and settled near Bareli and Rdmpur. They 
marry only Avith the Ghaggar and Bareli Arains. The Sutlej Arains 

* See Muir’s Li/e of Muhammad, p. 18S-89 (abridged edition). The muhdj ar{ n -weTC iho 
refugees who accompanied Muhammad, but the two names are sometimes confuKed. For 
further details see Temple’s Legends of the Punjab, III. The Saints of Jalandhar and 
D. G. Barkley, in P. N. Q., II. 

t So much so that in Ambila the Shaikhs, though really often identical Avith the Rains, 
arrogate to themselves a much higher place in the social scale. 


14 


Arain groups^ 


in Sirsa say that they are, like the Arains of Lahore and Montgomery, 
connected by origin with the Hindu Kambohs. Mr, Wilson thinks it 
probable that both classes are really Kambohs who have become 
Musalmiliis, and that the Ghaggar Arains emigrated in a body from 
Multan, while the others moved gradually up the Sutlej into their 
present place. He describes the Arains of the Ghaggar as the most 
advanced and civilised tribe in the Sirsa district, even surpassing the 
Sikh Jdts from Patidla; and he considers them at least equal in social 
status with tlie J^ts, over whom they themselves claim superiority. 
The Arains of Ferozepore, Ludhidna, Ambdla and Hissar also trace 
their origin from Uch* or its neighbourhood, though the Hissar Arains 
are said to bo merely Muhammadan Mdlis. 

On the whole it would appear probable that the Arains originally 
came from the lower Indus and spread up the live rivers of the Punjab; 
and that at an early stage in their history a section of them moved 
up the Ghaggar, perhaps then a permanent river flowing into the 
Indus, and thei'e gained for themselves a position of some importance. 
As the Ghaggar dried up and the neighbouring country became more 
arid, they moved on into the Jumna districts and cis- Sutlej tract 
generally, and perhaps spread along the foot of the hills across the 
line of movement of their brethren who where moving up the valleys 
of the larger rivers. Their alleged connection with the Mails is probably 
based only upon common occupation ; but there does seem some reason 
to think that they may perhaps be akin to the Kambohs, though the 
difference must be more than one of religion only, as many of the 
Kambohs are Musalradn. 


In Ambdla the Rains are divided into two territorial groups, Multiini 
and Sirsawdld. The former regard themselves as Shaikhs and will not 
intermarry with the latter. 


The sections of the Rains in Jullundur, in which District they form 
more than 19 per cent, of the population, and in Kapurthala are : — 


Adan, ShAhpnr. 

Arki, Sialkot. 

Ragga, Gujr/it. 

Raghban, Bahdwalpur, 

Bardr. 

Bet or Bhat. 

Bhaddu, claiming to be Hindu 
Ri'ijputs from the Deccan. 
Bhohar. 

Bhambhani, Dera Ghfizi Klifln. 
Bhatti, Dera Glulzi Khan and 
Bahawalpur. 

Bhutta, Bahdwalpur. 

Bot.T 


Brahmin. 

Burji. 

Chachar. 

Chdbe, Sidlkot. 

Chandor, Sialkot and Maler Kotla. 
Chani^l, Siillkot. 

Chandpdl, Mdler Kotla. 

Chhanni. 

Chaughatta, Shahpur and Bahd,- 
walpur. 

Dabri. 

Dhanjun, Bahawalpur. 

Dhenga, Miller Kotla. 

Dhinga,t Sidlkot. 


the influence than to 

tThe Hot or Hut claim descent from Maluk (tutor of Jahangir who received a rrrant 
of land when Nurnialial was founded. ® ’’ leceivcci a grant 

t The Dhing^ claim to bo descendants of Fattu, son of Mitha, a Dhilriw41 Tat of DbnK 
Mngar. Fattu was converted to Islam in Akbar’s reign. Jat of Dhola 


Arain origins. 


Dhofc, Bahawalpur. 

Dole. 

Gailana, claiming Hindu-Rujput 
origin. 

Garhi, Gadhi 
Gandar. 

Gliabar, Bahawalpur. 

Gher, Sialkor. 

Ghilu, Sidlkot. 

Gilan, Maler Kotla. 

Gilin, Darbah. 

IladAvani, in Dera Ghiizi Klidn. 
Hasi. 

Indrai. 

Jan^la. 

Ja(n)jua,* Gujrat. 

Jhanjhuna, in Shilhpur. 

Jindran, Bahdwalpur. 

Jiya, Bahdwalpur.t 
Jutdla, Sidlkot. 

Karaboh, Bahdwalpur. 

Khatura, (Katuri in Bahdwalpur). 
Khohara, Gujrdt. 

Khokhar, Gujrat, Shdhpur and 
Bahdwalpur. 

Kir, Sialkot. 

Mahmania, Sidlkot. 

Maqsudpuria. 

Mandu. 


15 

IMetla, in Dera Ghdzi Khdn. 

Mirok, Bahdwalpur. 

Nadhi, Bahawalpur. 

Nain, Mdler Kotla. 

Nani (Guirdt). 

Padu. 

Parji. 

Pathdn, also a Kamboli section, 
Bahdwalpur. 

Quraishi. 

Kdlild. 

Rai or Rami. 

Ranbi. 

Sonkal, in Dora Ghdzi Khdn. 

Sahja, Bahawalpur. 

Saki. 

Salota. 

Sapal, in Sialkot. 

Sindhi, Bahawalpur. 

Sindhu. 

Sohad. 

Sohand. 

Tdrar, in Gujrdt. 

Thinda, Bahawalpur. 

Tind. 

Thanow, in Sidlkot. 

Thekri, Bahawalpur. 

Wdband in Gujrdt and Rawalpindi. 


In Gujrdt the Wahand, Khokhar, Baggd and Nain do not intermarry 
with the Kamboh and Khohara sections — whom they regard as 
inferior. 


The nucleus of this caste was probably a body of Hindu Sainf or 
Kamboh cultivators who were converted to Isldin at an early period. 
Thus in Jullundur the Arains say they came from Sirsa, Rania and 
Dehli and claim descent from Rai Jaj (grandson of Lau, founder of 
Lahore), who ruled Sirsa: that they were converted in the 12th 
century and migrated to the Jullundur Dodb about 300 years ago. 
But the Bhuttas claim descent from Raja Bhuta, fifth in descent from 
Rdja Karn and say they were forcibly converted even earlier — by 
Mahmud of Ghazni — and driven from Uch : — 

Uchh na ditc Bhiitiun chatd Basanti ndr, 

Dana, pdni, chukgyd, chdban motl hdr. 

‘ The Bhutas neither surrendered Uch, nor the lady Basantf, 

Food and water failed, and they had to oat pearls.’ 


* Janjua claims to be descended from a Hindu Rajput of Pindi Hlialtian. Milir Mardana, 
one of its ancestors, is said to have laid out the tehalimar Garden near Lahore, 
f Said to be really Kambobs, not Arains. 


16 


Arain — Arord. 


Tho Araios, apart from their orthodoxy, differ little in their customs 
and dress from the Muhammadans generally. In Multdn they prefer the 
blue vinjhld or waisteloth to tho white and those of one villa{?e (Jalla in 
Lodhnln taheil) are in consequence known as the nili jpaltan or ‘ blue 
regiment.* 

Akar, Aer, a tribe of Muhammadans of Jat status found in Dipdlpur tahsil, 
Montgomery District, where they are settled along the Lahore border on 
the upper course of the KhanwMi canal. They claim Mughal descent, 
yet say they came from Arabia, and are fairly good cultivators. Their 
ancestor came from Delhi, where he was in service 500 years ago, and 
settled in their present seat. By contracting marriages with J^ts they 
have sunk to Jtit status. In the Minchindbiid mgdmai of Bahawalpur 
they are to bo found intermarrying with, or giving daughters to, tho 
Wattus. Also found in Shdbpur, and classed as agricultural in both 
districts. 

Aebi, a Muhammadan clan, said co be of Arabian origin, which was, in 
Mughal times, given several villages round Multdn, but it has now to a 
large extent lost its hold of them. It is classed as Jdt (agricultural) 
both in Multan and Montgomery and is also found in the Ahmadpur 
East tahsil of Bahawalpur. ( 

Aek, atribe of Muhammadan J^ts, found in Jiud, whose .members are 
said to still revere their jathera Sain Dds* shrine, and to give their 
dhidnis Re. 1 at weddings in his name. 

AiiKE, an Arain clan (agricultural), found in Amritsar. 

AE 09 .A, or Rora as it is often pronounced, is the leading caste par 
excellence of the Jatki-speaking, or south-western part of the Punjab, 
i.e., of the lower reaches of the five rivers and, below their junction, of 
the Panjnad, extending through Bahawalpur into Sind. Higher up 
the courses of the five rivers the Arora shares that position with the 
Khattri. The caste is wider spread and far more numerous than the 
Bh^tia, but fully half the Arorfis of the Punjab dwell in the Multfin 
division and the Derajat ; though the caste is found, like the Khattri, 
throughout Afghanistan and even Turkestan. Like the Khattri again, 
but unlike the B^nia, the Arorfi is no mere trader, but will turn his 
hand to anything. He is an admirable cultivator, and a large 
proportion of the Aroras on the lower Chenab are purely agricultural, 
while in the Western Punjab ho will sew clothes, Aveave matting and 
baskets, make vessels of brass and copper, and do goldsmith’s work. 
Despite his inferior physique, he is active and enterprising, industrious 
and thrifty. “When an Aror^ girds up his loins (says a Jhang 
proverb), ho makes it only two miles to Lahore.”* ° 


In Bahtiwalpur the Aroras are very numerous and have the whole 
of its trade in their hands, dealing in every commodity and even 
selling shoes and vegetables. Some are contractors, bankers or money- 
lenders, and in the latter capacity they have now acquired a considerable 
amount of land by mortgage or purchase from Muhammadan owners 



'ruin, te munna 
irths of a kos to 


17 


• Arora groufu. 

though 40 or 50 years ago they did not own an acre of cultivated land. 
In tho service of the State more Arords than Miihammndana are 
employed, though the latter are nearly six times as numerous as the 
former. As several land-owniug families have been ruined ia their 
dealings with Arords such sayings* * * § as Kirdr howi ydr, (itishiiian dhdr 
na dhdr, “ he who has a Kirar for a friend, needs not au enemy,” are 
current in the State. t 

By religion the great majority of the Aroras are Hindus, but a good 
many are Sikhs. 

As a body the Arords claim to be Khattris and say that like them 
they ivere dispersed by Paras Rdm. Folk etymology indeed avers that 
when so persecuted they denied their caste and described it as aur 
or ‘other, * whence ‘ Arofa but another tradition, current in Gujrat, 
says they were driven by Paras Ram towards Multan near which they 
founded Arorkot. Cursed by a faq'ir ther town became desolate and 
the Arords fled by its three gates, on the North, South and "West, 
whence the three main groups into which they are now divided. But 
certain sections claim a different origin. The ruins of Arorkot are 
said to be near Rohri in Siudh.J 

The Arorn caste is organised in a very similar way to the Khattris. 
Its primary divisions are the genealogical sections, ns in all Hindu 
castes, but it has three or four territorial groups : — 

1. Uttarddhi, Northern. 

2. Dakhana or Dakhanadhain, Southern. | Sometimes classed as 

3. Dahrd, Western. | one group. 

4. Sindlii, of Sindh. 

Numbers 2 and 3 intermarry in some parts, but not in others. In 
Jhang they do not, but in Fdzilka they are said to have begun to 
do so. The probability is that tho Dakhana still take wives from the 
Dahrd group, as they used to do.§ 

The Uttaradln sub-caste appears to be absolutely endogamous east 
of the Indus, except in Bahdwalpur where it takes wives from the 
other three groups : in Hazdra where it occasionally takes them from 

* Kirir, a term applied by Muhammadans to any Hindu shop -keeper or trader, is by no 
means equivalent to Arorii, see s. v. Kirar. 

•f The justice of tho above quotation from the draft Gazetteer of the Bah4walpur Stale 
is disputed, and it is pointed out that the earlier Daudpotra rulers of Bahawalpur employed 
Aroras in positions of trust, and even appointed them to semi military office as Bakhshis or 
paymasters. At present the Aroras are losing ground, especially in the higher grades of the 
state service. 

J A correspondent, referring to the Arorhann Aoli, an Urdu pamphlet published by tho 
Khatri Samachar Press, Lahore, adds some interesting details. The pamphlet appears to bo 
ba.sed in a History of the Arorbans inNiigri and the Bhu Sutr (Origin of tho Worldl rurdn. 
In the latter is given a dialogue between Parasu Rama and Art, a Khatri, in which tlie latter 
stoutly refuses to oppose the Brahmans and wins Parasu R^,ma's respect, being advised by him 
to settle in Sindh. The pamphlet also ascribes a sectarian origin to the Arora groups, and 
declares that in 105 Vikrami social dissensions arose at Arorkot among the Aroras, so their 
“piirohit Gosain Pidh Bhoj convened a meeting at which tho upholders of the old customs sat 
to the north, the reformers to the sonth and the moderates or neutrals to the west. 
Accordingly the North of Arorkot was assigned to the conservatives and tho South to 
both the other parties, a fact which e.xplains why the Dakhan^s and "Dahras are sometimes 
regarded as one and the same. 

§ Punjab Census Report, 1883, § 514, 


18 


Arora traditions. 



on payment but not by exchange ; and in 


'I'lie Uttaradhi alone seem, as a rui 
divisions. 'J’lie Bari group consists ot 12 

Suh^groiq-) (i). 


as a rule, to have the Bdri*Bunjd,hi 


1. Gliuinai. 

2. Narule. 
8. Monge. 


4. Baz4z. 

5. Shikri. 


Snh-group {ii). 


6. Mancbande. 1 


7. Pasriclie. 


Suh-group {Hi). 


8. Kantor. 

9. Mdnak Table. 


11. Wadbwe. 

12. Setlii. 


10. Guruwdre. 

And o£ tliese numbers 1-7 intermarry, bat will only take wives from 
nnmbers 8-12, and there is a further tendency on the part of numbers 
1-5 to discontinue giving daughters to nuinbers 6 and 7. . 
south-east of the Puniab the Biri and Bunjalu groups exist both 
among the Northern and Southern Arorfis.t 

A list of the ArorA gots or sections will be found in Appendix I to this 


Volume. 


There are a few sections, e.g., Sachdeo, ^ Lund, Bazaz and others, 
which are found in more than one of the territorial groups. Iho Sethi 
section may possibly be the same as the Seth or Sethi Section of the 
Khattris. The Bassewnt or ropemakers are clearly by origin an occupa- 
tional section like the Bazdz or clothiers. 

The names endins? in jd are beyond all question patronymics. Others 
finch as Budhrajii or Bodhniji suggest a religious origin. 

The Gosain Mule-santio claim to be descendants of a Gaiir Brahman 
who came to the Jhansr District and assumed the name of the Guriiwilnl 
section, but became a devotee or gosain who converts. 

Other sections have various traditions ns to their origins : Thus the 
Niirangs say they were originally llnghbansis who denied their race 
when Paras Uiim destroyed the Khattris, with the words nd rag, ‘No 
Baghbansi.’ Ndrag became Narang. The Chikiir, a sub-section of tho 
Sachdeos are so called because on a marriage in that section sweet- 
meats were as plentiful as mud {chikur). Narulti is derived hom nirdld, 

‘ unique,’ because once a snake got into the churn when a woman was 
making butter, so tho men of this section never churn, though its 
women may. 

The Gogias or Gogas have a saying : 

Kliat khuh, hhar pdni, Tan tani parsing Gcgidni.’ 
i.e., they say to a wonld-be son-in-law: 

‘ Dig a well and fill it with water. Then marry a Gogiani. 

* '1 nuis-Iiichis Captain 0 llrien notes a solitary case of a girl of the Jam section (Uttari' 
dhO being given to a Knmbhar (Dakhana). 

f Sirsa Settlement Report, I88 t, p. lu. 


Arora, totem sections. 


1C 


As ill other castes some sections of the Aroras are credited witii 
inherited curative powers. Thus the Dalewanis of Jam pur can cure 
liydrophobia by spitting on a little earth and applying it to the bite. 
This power was conferred on their forbears by the blessing of their 
'pir, the saint of Daira Din PanAli. The Duds* * * § have an inherited power 
of curing a sprain in the back or loins by touching the part affected. 
The pain called chuk may also be cured by this section which uses the 
following charm : — ‘Dud sith hdri, iihidon hlidrt dari, hhaune chit 
(waist) karendd sari.' The charm is read over a cloth and this is then 
applied thrice to the part, a push being finally given to it to expel 
the pain. The power was conferred on Scfli Hari, the ancestor of 
the section, by faqirs. It is also said to bo essential that the patient 
should go straight home without looking back. The power is exercised 
gratis. 

A man of the Chugli got can cure ckuk or pain in the loinst by 
pushing the sufferer from behind. If a Chugh is not on hand, it is 
sufficient to go to his house and rub one’s back against the wall. 
Chugh may be derived from chuk, because the tribe has this power, 
but perliaps the idea is simply that a Chugh has power over chuk. It 
can also be cured by a family of Dhingra Arords of ]?djanpur who 
apply a part of their clothing to the part affected and push the 
patient thrice, or if none of them are present their house-wall is as 
efficacious as a Chugh. 


Several Arora sections are named after animals such as : — 


Babbar (? 1) in Montgomery. 
Chutdni,J bat. 

Gaba, calf. 

Ghirii, dove, Montgomery and 
Multdn. 

Giddar, jackal. 

Ghord<, horse, Dera Ismail Khan. 
Haiis, goose, Montgomery. 
Kukar,§ Kukkar, cock, Mont- 
gomery, Multan and Hissilr. 
Kukreja, cockerell, Dera Ismail 
Khan. 


Lumar, fox, Montgomery. 
Machhar, mos(iuito, Gujrat. 
Makkar, locust, Gujrat. 

Mendd, (?) ram or Mindha, long- 
haired, Montgomery. 

Nangidl, snake, Dera Ismail 
Khan. 

Ndg-pdl, Nang-pdl.ll 
Nangru. 

(?) Sipra, a serpent. 


Other sections are named from plants, etc., and are perhaps more 
likely to be totemistic. Such are 


Chawaldi, rice. 

Gerd, said to avoid the use of 
ochre, aerii, (in Dera Ismail 
Khd-n).*^ 

Gheia, fr. ghi, clarified butter. 


JandwtLni, named after the /and 
tree in Dera Ismail Khdn. 
Kasturia, said to a void the use of 
musk, kasturi, (Dera Ismail 
Khdn). 


* In Hissar this section of the Aroras may not wear blue Unghd (trousers), 

t A child born feet foremost can cure pain in the loins by kicking the part alTccted; 

t Chutini, bat : a child was once attacked by bats, which, however, left him uninjured. 
The section worships bats’ nests {charitchitti) at marriages. 

§ The Kukar will not cat fowls, but most Hindus have a prejudice against them as food 
and in this very caste the Mehndiratta have for the last 12 or 11 years refused to eat them 
too. 

II Nangpal does not appear to mean ‘snake,’ but protector or raiser of snakes. 


Arora customs. 


Miingi, a kind of tree (Hissar). 
Pabreja. a kind of plant ( Multdn) 
Rihc1,mb§ basil. 

Sdwi-buti, green-herb. 

Selani(?), lApal tree, Dera Ismail 
Klidn. 

Taneja,!! a kind of grass, tivan 
(Multan and Montgomery). 


Kathpal, wood or limber (Mont- 
gomery). 

Kataria,* dagger (Multdn). 

Khanl-jau, barley-eater. 

Lo^l, a vessel. t 

Maiiak-tahlia : said, in Hissar, to 
reverence the tcihli or shishciw 
tree. 

MehndiratU,]; henna : (Mont- 
gomery and Multiin). 

Taroja, tarri, ‘ a gourd ’ : their ancestor once had to conceal himselr 
among gourds, and they do not eat gourds. 

Veh-khani, Vid-khani poison-eater : fr. veh or vlii, 'poison’, in the 
Sindhi dialect as spoken in Bahdwalpur. I’ossibly arsenic is meant. 

With regard to the sections menlioned as existing in Dera Ismail 
Khan, it is'^distinctly said that each shows reverence to the animal 
or plant after which it is named, thinking it sacred. The animal is 
fed, and the plant not cut or injured. The Chawalas, however, do not 
abstain from using rice, or show it any respect. 

The women of the Uttarddhi group wear red ivory bracelets (and 
affect red petticoats with a red border, in Ferozepore), whence this 
group is styled Ldlchuriwald 

The Dakhand women wear white ivory bracelets (and also affect 
red petticoats, the lower part 'laced’ with hlack%). 

By gotra the Aroras, in Gujrat at least, are said to be Kushal, but 
their real gotra appears to be Kasib, ? Kishab or Keshav. 

At weddings the Ut'arddhis in Ferozepore are said to have a distinc- 
tive custom in the do rate jpliere, i.e., tlie boy’s party must reach the 
bride’s house on the afternoon of the 5th if the date fixed be the 6th 
or night of the 7th and the iiiilni must be on the 5th-6th. Dakhnas 
and Dahras must on the other hand arrive before or on the afternoon 
of the 6th and if the lagan be fixed for an early honr on the 6th the 
bridegroom and a Brahman go in advance for that ceremony, the 
wedding-party following so as to arrive in the afternoon. 

Widow marriage*^ is in theory reprobated, but in practice tolerated 
amoiiQ the A-roias, and in the south-west of the Punjab it is often 

* Has section has a legend that a dagger fell from a wall amongst a number of children 
w 10 weie playing beneath it, but did not hurt them. Hence the section became known as 
KuUna and worships the dagger, putting llowers before it at marriages. 

i presented it to their gur&. 

I Ihc Mchndiratta in Multan abstain from the use of henna, but so do other Hindus 

saJiS'e^^ol^ the /a./r blessed him 

Mnm”ome,w^ ''11, Jn'm n" '«»'^'7gourd) : or at least their women do, in 

of eimiloviiiti liis own / 7 ' tl>ey are. Khattris and that their ancestor instead 

m-Ss cX seated him on a kind of 

gicish caiiui tnanj w nonce came the name laneja. 

Pahra women arc said to have red petticoats with a green border These refined distinc- 
tions may possibly be observed in Ferozepore, but tliev -u-,. niu it* - 

that 111 some places Dahra women alone wear white md^DTk-lv.n^' ^ A , ^ 

colours. ocdi "nut, ana uakhanas spotted bracelets of both 

In MuzalTargarh widow re-marriage is not annroved nnU n i u 
defiance of the prejudice against it are called 


21 


Arora — Arija Savidj. 

Holemnizpd by tlio couple Pfoing out and clrcumambulatiiif' burning 
reeds. The Brahmans recognise widow marriage and assist at it, iu 
fact if it is solemnised without a Brahman, people refrain from eatitig 
or drinking with the couple for a short time. 

The customary law of the Aroras differs both from Hindu Law and 
the ordinary Punjab Custom. Jn its main features it resembles that 
of the Hindus generally in the south-west Punjab, and one of its 
distinctive features is the k'ciimi, an extra quarter share which goes to 
the eldest son. Many Arora sections allow sons by the wife of 
another caste provided she was married as a virgin, not as a widow, 
one-third of their fathePs property, two-thirds going to the sons by 
the other (Arordl wife. The position of daughters and sisters is more 
favourable than it usually is among Hindus under the Punjab Custom.* 

% 

Abwal, a Jat tribe, found in the Sangarh talisil of Uera Ghdzi Khdn Dis- 
trict. fiike the Maujothas and Sanghis it follows the Haloch customs 
in all matters connected with marriage, etc., thus differing from nearly 
all the other Jdt tribes of that tahsil. Also found in Multan, where it 
is classed as agricultural. 

Arya, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Akya Hawaj. — By far the most important modern Hindu sect in the Punjab, 
the Arya Hainaj was founded about i847 by J^atjdit Dayatiand JSaras- 
wati, a Bfahman of Kathiawdr. Born in 1824, Dayan'and had an 
ecjual aversion to idolatry and marriage, and after profound researches 
in Hanskritic loro ha founded a samdj or union at Lahore soon after 
1847 — and subsequently in the rest ot the Punjab. The latter 
part of his life was spent in travels in the United Provinces and 
itajpntdna. His attacks on existing Hinduism roused great antagonism. 
Ho insisted on a special interpretation of the Vedas and left behind him 
several works such ns the Vede Bhdahya, or translation of the Vedas, 
the Saiydrth Prakdsh in which the Arya religion is contrasted with 
others, and the Bhumka, an introduction to the study of the Vedas. 

“ The Arya or ' Vedic’ religion ”, writes Mr. Maclagan," is primarily 
the outcome of the solvent action of natural science on modem 
Hinduism. The members of the Arya Samaj ffnd the fantastical 
repro.sentations of the world and of man which are put forward in the 
eighteen Puranas to be inconsistent with natural science, and so reject 
their authority, looking on them as the outcome of the ignorance and 
craft of comparatively recent generations of Brahmans. The original 
and only authoritative scriptures iu the eyes of the Arya Samaj arc 
the four Vedas, and its professed aim is to restore the paramount 
authority of the Vedas by purging away subsequent accretions. Scrip- 
tures more recent than the Vedas and anterior to the Puranas (such 
as the Brahinanas, the six philosophic Darshanas, the ten Upanishada, 
etc.), are regarded ns explanatory of the Vedas and authoritative only 
where they are not contradictory thereto. The Vedas themselves con- 
stitute the only infallible revelation. — ^ The Vedas’, wrote Dayilnand, 

‘ are revealed by God. 1 regard them as self-evident truth, admitting 
of no doubt ami def'euding on the authority of no other book, being 

P unjdb Customary Lau\ XVIII, pp. vii, ix, xvii, cf, also lutrod., p. 8. 


22 


Arya Sanulj doctrines. 

ropresenteci in nature, the kiagdom of God/ The bases of the Aryan 
faith are the revelation of God in the Vedas and in Nature, and the first 
practical element in this belief is the iuterpretation of the Vedas in 
conformity witli the proved results of natural science. 

In the interpretation of the Vedas the Arya Sanidj finds itself at 
issue Avith the Sanskiitists of Europe, whose translation^^ represent 
the Vedas as the religious literature of a primitive people and, like the 
literature of other primitive peoples, quite regardless of, and inconsist- 
ent with, scientific accuracy. The Aryas contend that such a view 
arises from a mistaken literal translation of their scriptures, and that 
the earlier, and consequently more trustworthy, commentators having 
always refused to construe the Vedas in their literal sense, it is a 
mistaken view to suppose that they were originally composed Avith 
any meaning other than a metaphorical or derived one. FolloAving 
these principles, the Samdj not only defends the Vedic rishis from all 
imputations of pantheism and polytheism, but finds in their a\ ritings 
numerous indications of an accurate acquaintance with tlie facts of 
science. It holds that cremation, vegetarianism, and abstinence from 
spirituous liquors are inculcated by the Vedas, and inculcated to a 
large extent on purely scientific grounds. It liolds that tlie great 
religious rite of Vedic times, the agnihotra or homa sacrifice, is instituted 
Avith a view to rendering air and water Avholesome and subservient to 
health, and because ^ it plays a prominent} part in putting a stop to 
the prevalence of epidemics and the scarcity of rainfall.^ It is con- 
vinced that the latest discoveries of science, such as those of electricity 
and evolution, were perfectly Avell known to the seers Avho were in- 
spired to write the Vedas. 

While conceding this much to modern natural science, the Aryas 
refuse to see in it anything tending to materialism or atheism. Retain- 
ing their confidence in the Vedas, they have avoided the radical 
materialism of some of the earlier opponents of popular Hinduism. 
The Arya philosophy is orthodox, and based mainly on the Upauishads. 
The tenets of Daydnand, though leaning rather to the Shankya doc- 
trine, do not fit in precisely Avith any one of the six orthodox systems ; 
but these systems are all regarded by the Aryas as true and as differ- 
ent aspects of the same principles. The three entities of Dayanand’s 
philosophy are God, the Soul and ‘prahriti or Matter. Soul he regarded 
us physically distinct from God, but related to Him as the contained 
to the container, the contemplated to the contemplator, the son to the 
father. Soul enters into all animals and there are indications of soul 
in the vegetable kingdom also. In most of its details the Aryan system 
retains the terininology of the traditional philosophy of Hinduism. 
It maintains above all things the laAv of metempsychosis and places 
the aim of virtue in escape from the law ; but this moksh or beatitude 
is for au era [kalp) only, after the termination of Avhich the soul 
resumes its Avanderings. The localization of the Hindu paradises, 
Tarlok and iSwarg, is rejected : heaven and hell lie in the pleasures and 
sorroAVb of the soul, Avhether these be in this life or in the life to come. 

As a consequence of this doctrine it holds the futility of rites on 
behalf of the dead, and by this cuts at the root of that great Hindu 
inslitution, the srdddii. Like other Hindus the Aryaa burn the dead 


23 


Ary a Samaj aims. 

but for alleged sanitary reasons they employ spices for the burning. 
At first they took the -phul to tlio Ganges, but now they cast it into 
tlie nearest stream : tliey do noL call in the Acharaj, and they omit all 
the ceremonies of the kiryahann. At marriage they go round the 
sacred fire and walk the seven steps like the Hindus, but omit the 
worship of Ganesh. They generally employ Brahmans at weddings, 
but in several known instances these have been dispensed witli. The 
Samctj finds an efficacy in prayer [frarlhanp) and worship {iqiaftnd) : 
but it greatly limits the number of ceremonies to which it accedes any 
meritorious powers. It discourages entirely the practice of bathing in 
sacred streams, pilgrimages, the use of beads, and sandal-woo l marks, 
gifts to worthless mendicants, and all the thousand rites of popular 
Hinduism. Only those rites {sanskdraf<) are to bo observed which 
find authority in the Vedas, and these are IG in number only. Ido- 
latry and all its attendant ceremonies have, according to the Aryas, no 
basis in the Vedas and no place in true religion. Rdm, Krishna and 
other objects of popular adoration are treated euhemeristically as pious 
or powerful princes of the olden time; and in their salutation to each 
other the Aryas substitute the word ‘Namaste’ for the ‘ IR'im Ram’ 
of tli9 vulgar. 

Social and political aims of the Samaj. — The Aryas are careful to 
defend their religion from a charge of novelty : they regard it as a revival 
of an old and forgotten faith, the decay of which was due mainly to the 
Brahmans. 'I'he Arya theory of to-day is that the real Brahman is one 
who is a Brahman in the heart ; that the Vedas are not confined to one 
class ; and that all castes are equal before God. It is careful, however, to 
accept the existence of the four castes of ancient Hinduism ; it retains the 
sacred thread for the three superior castes, and by implication debars 
the Sudras from some of the privileges of the twice-born. In practice 
no Arya will marry with anotlier caste or eat with men of r.notlipr caste. 
The sect being almost entirely composed of educnted men and being 
based on theories unfitted to the understanding of the lower castes, tho 
right of Chuhras and the like to join its ranks has not, I understand, 
been put to the test. But the Samdj is said to have been successful in 
receiving back into Hinduism persons converted to Christianity or 
hluhammadanism and in reinstating such persons in caste. The Aryas 
do not regard the cow as a sacred animal, but follow Hindu prejudice 
in considering the slaughter of a cow more heinous than that of other 
animals : and in tlie anti-cow-killing movement the Samaj was to some 
extent identified with the movement, though less so in the Punjab than 
in the United Provinces. In other respects the social programme of the 
Samaj is liberal and anti-popular in the extreme. It sets its face 
against child- marriage and it encourages the remarriage of widoW'S. It 
busies itself with female education, with orphanages and schools, dis- 
pensaries and public libraries, and philanthropic institutions of all sorts. 
******** 

Tho Arya doctrines have been formulated in a series of ten somewhat 
wide propositions, and any person professing belief in the funda- 
mental principles of the Samiij is eligible for membership, and may, 
after probation, be admitted as a full member and obtain a vote in tho 
affairs of the society. Weekly meetings are held — generally on Sun- 
days, so as to admit of the presence of Government servants and 


24 


Ary a Samdj ’—Aujlct, 


pleaders— with prayofs, lectures on the Vedas and other subjects, 
hymns sung on tbe"^ Sdnia Veda system, and other miscellaneous pro- 
ceedings. At an annual meeting, a report is read and an Executive 
Committee with office-bearers appointed. Each local Samd/j is inde- 
pendent of the others : bat a considerable number of the local Samd-jes 
have voluntarily submitted to the Paropakdrini Sabha or Provincial 
Committee, which in a general way supervises the local centres and 
arranges for the due provision of tJpadeshaks or missionaries. The Arya 
Samd-j, though paying extreme reverence to the memory of Swdmi 
Daydnand, refuses to look on him or any one else as an infallible 
Guru ; and in the absence of any central control exercised by an 
individual, the organization above described has been very instru- 
mental in keeping the society together and preventing so far any 
RGi’ious schism in its ranks. A still more marked influence is un- 
doubtedly exercised by the Daydnand Anglo-Vedic College, which 
was founded in Lahore some time ago and has been conducted entirely 
on Aryan lines. The College, while preparing students in the ordinary 
subjects with considerable success for the university examinations, pays 
special attention to instruction in Sanskrit and Eindi, and imparts a 
certain amount of religious training by the institutions of morning and 
evening prayer in the boarding houses, and by the reading of extracts 
from the Satydrth PraMsh.” 

The above quotations show how inadequately the Arya Samdj is 
described as a sect. Since they were penned, in 1891, the Samdj has 
been divided on the question of the lawfulness or otherwise of 
animal foods and two parties have been formed, one the vegetarian 
or Mahatma, the other the flesh-eating or ^ cultured.* fl'lie former is, 
however, by no means narrow in its views, for it favours female educa- 
tion. The litter Itolds possession of the Daydnand College and is 
thence also called the Anarkalli or College party as opposed to the 
vegetarian or City party. 

Asandaut, syn. matddri, a degree or order of the Gosains. The term is 
applied to those settled in mats, as opposed to ahdhut. 


Asar, Asra, Jdt clans (agricultural) found in Mnltdn. 
Asial, a clan of the Manj Rajputs. 

Asra, see Asar. 

Asram, a title found among Sannidsis. 

Astawar, a title found among Sannidsis. 


Athanoai,, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in the south of Multdn tahsil, 
where it settled from Jammu in Mughal times. 

Attar, a dispensing druggist. “ Yon trof, fim , ii . , , 

’i i. nrugs Irom the riansnri, and 

take them to the attar to make up Ho nHo mol-o., 7^0 i i a 
ir 1 1 ^ op. lie also makes ni’a/i: and sherbets. 

Auguan, Aghwan, synonyms for Afghdn, [q. r.). 

Aujla, a tribe of Jdts descended from their eponym a Hajual Rdjpnt and 

fonnd ,n S.nlknt : aho fonm ,n Montgomovy wl.ero th«y are Mnl.a.nma- 
dans and classed as agricultural. ^ 


AulaTih^Awan. 


25 


Aulakh, Aurak, a Jilt tribe, whose head-quarters would appear to be in the 
Amritsar district, where they own a fenra/i of, originally, 12 villages, but 
they are found iu the northern Mdlwa, as well as in the Aldnjha. 
They are said to be of Solar descent, and their ancestor Aulakh lived 
in the Mdnjha. But another story makes their ancestor one Raja Lui 
Ldk, a Lunar Riijput. They are related to the Sekhu and Deo tribes 
with whom they will not intermarry. 

In Amritsar they give the following pedigree^: — 

Ram C bandar 

I 

Kasab 

I 

Dhaul 

I 

Raghupat 

I 

Ude Rup 

I 

Pura 

I 

Majang 

Markhanb 

I 

Goe 

I 

Mandal 

I 

Dhanich 

I 

Aulakh. 

This would make them akin to t'le Punnun. They are also found as 
a Jdt (agricultural) tribe west of the Rdvi as far as Leiah. In Mont- 
gomery they are both Hindu and Muhammadan. The Muhammadan 
Aulakh of Leiah have a curious tale. Complaint was made to Uum^yun 
that Pir Muhammad Riijan drank hhang, in defiance of the Quranic 
prohibition. So the emperor summoned the saint to Delhi and made 
him walk along a narrow path beset with poisoned swords, while a 
ferocious elephant pursued him. But as he walked the steel turned to 
water and one of his disciples killed the elephant with a single blow of 
his staff. Among the courtiers was Rdja Aulakh, a Punwar Rdjput, 
who at once embraced Islam. The saint returned to R^janpur, and 
Aulakh followed him, conquered the country from the Baiun tribe and 
gave it to the Pirs, on whom the emperor also conferred it in jdglr, 
though the Aulakh continued to administer it until about 175 years 
ago, when their power declined. 

Aurak, see Aulakh. 

Acre, an agricultural clan found in Sh^hpur. 

Adrakzai, a branch of the Afridis in Tirdh. See Orakzai. 

Awan. — The Awans are an iinportant tribe, exclusively Muhammadan, 
chiefly fournl in the Salt Range, where they possess an Aw.lnk/iri,* but 
also widely spread to the east, south and west of that tract. Extend- 

* There is also an Awankflri in Jullundur : Purser’s S. R., § 42. And in Hoshiarpur 
the AwAns hold a bdra in the Dasuya pargana on the high level plain near Mukerian 
P. N. Q. I., § 465. 


26 


Atadn ongi/ns. 


ing along the whole length of the Range from Jhelum to the Indus, 
they are found in great numbers throughout the whole country be- 
yond it up to the foot of the Sulerndns and the Safed Koh* ; though 
in trans-Indus Bannu they partly, and in Dera Ismail Kh^n wholly, 
merge in the Jats, a term which in those parts means little more 
than a nondescript peasant. In Peshdwar the Awdns are included 
in Vne hamsdya ov faqir class. In Kohd.t towards Khushalgarh they 
resemble the Awans of the Salt Range, but elsewhere in that District 
are hardly distinguishable from the Bangash and Nidzais among 
whom they live. 

The independent possessions of the Aw^ins in the Salt Range 
were once very considerable, and in its western and central portion 
they are still the dominant race. As a dominant tribe the eastern 
- limits of their position conicide approximately with the western 
border of the Chakwd,! and Find Dddan Khdn tahsils, but they have 
also spread eastwards along the foot of the hills as far as the 
Sutlej, and southwards down that river valley into Multan and Jhang. 
They formerly held all the plain country at the foot of the western 
Salt Range, but have been gradually driven up into the hills by 
Path^ns advancing from the Indus, and Tiwanas from the Jhelum. 

The word Awdn is not unplausibly derived from Ahwan, ‘helper,’t 
but various explanations of its origin are given. According to one 
tradition the Awans, who claim Arab origin, are descendants of Qutb 
Sh^h, himself descended from Ali, and were attached to the Mu- 
hammadan armies which invaded India as ‘ auxiliaries,^! whence their 
name. In Kapurthald a more precise version of their legend makes 
them Alwi Sayyids, who oppressed by the Abbassides, sought refuge 
in Sindh ; and eventually allied themselves with Sabuktagin, who 
bestowed on them the title of Awdn. But in the best available account 
of the tribe§ the Aw^ns are indeed said to be of Arabian origin and 
descendants of Qutb Shah, but he is said to have ruled Her^t and 
to have joined Mahmud of Ghazni when he invaded India. With 
him came six of his many sons : Gauhar Slid,h or Gorrara, who settled 
near Sakesar ; Kalan Shdh or Kalgan who settled at Dhankot 
(Kd.labd,gh) : Chauhan who colonised the hills near the Indus || : Khokhar 
or Muhammad Shah who settled on the Chenab: Tori^ and Jhajh 
whose descendants are said to be still found in Tirdh and elsewhere. 


♦ Raverty says an- kirs’ held the Karw^n darr a in Kurram, but none appear to be 

found now in the Kurram Valley : Notes, p. 82. 
t Another tradition is that wh^en Zuhair 'went forth to fight with Hasan, he left his wile 

m amdn or ‘ trust,’ whence her son’s descendants are 
Aw4n. A curious variant of this appears in Talagang where it is said that Outb 
Shah s descendant having lost all his sons was bidden by a saint to place his next born son 

taken mit alive chUd was 

^'lergetai; McCrindle’s Ancient 

§ By Mr. W. S. Talbot in the Jhelum Gazetteer IQO.'? nn l oq in.* tt j' e 

Cunningham’s theory that Janjusls and Awins were ’within’ hfsmnVoi f He disposes of 

Survey Reports, II 17 ff ) : and of Branret^s TheorTtha^he T I 

granU into the Punjab, are descended from Hadrian Greeks Mr TaIhof’*f^ 

Gangs and Munds who are generally reckoned as Awins but lo 

affiliated indigenous clans. ’ probably only 

II One of his descendants was Khattar, founder of the Khattars of Aftork 
u Possibly Tun is meant, and the Kurram VaUey is refS Vo i thek; locality. 


27 


Awdn groups. 

The originally Hindu character of these names is patent, and not 
explained away by the tradition that Chauhan and Khokhar took their 
mother’s name. 

In Gujrdit tradition gives Qutb Shah three wives, from whom sprang 
the Khokhars and the four muhins or clans of the Awans. By Barth, 

. his first wife, he had a sou named Khokliar : by Sahd, he had Khurara 
or Guraya : and by Fateh Khatuo, three sons — Kalgan, Chauhan and 
Kundan. 

These four clans are again divided into numerous septs, often bear- 
ing eponymous names, hut sometimes the names of Guiar, Jdt and 
other tribal septs appear. Thus in Sidlkot* * the Awans are said to 
be divided into 24 muhins. But in Gujrdt the Khurara clan comprises 
21 sub-divisions, including such names as Jdlap and Bhakri : the 
Kalgdn comprise 43 sub-divisions, including Dudial, Andar, Papin 
and others : the Chauhdns have three septs, Ludain, Bhusin and 
Ghuttar : and the Kundan Chechi, Mahr, Malka, Mayd,n, Puchal and 
Saroia. Few of these look like Muhammadan patronymics. 

Note. — The Awans in Kap-drthala are said to have the following gots : — Kalgan (really a 
muhin), Rai Dul, Ghalli, Jand, Bagewali, Jasp^l, Khokhar, Gobu or Gulistan, Harpiil 
andKhorJoti. 

The A wan septs give their names to several places-names, such as 
Golera in Rd,walpindi, Khiora (Khewra) in Jhelum, Bajdra in Sidlkot, 
Jand, etc. 

As claiming descent from Qutb Shdh the Aw4ns are often called 
Qutb-shahi, and sometimes style themselves Ulami. In Gujrdt they 
only marry inter se, refusing to give daughters even to the Chibbs, 
and not inter* marrying with the Khokliars. In Jhelum too “Aw^ns 
give their daughters in marriage to Awdns only as a rule, though 
there seems to be some instances of marriages with leading men of the 
Chakwdl tribes : it is said, however, that the Kalabdgh Mallik refused 
to betroth his daughter to Sarddr Muhammd Ali, chief of the Rawal- 
pindi Ghebas. In some families at least, prominent Awdns not in- 
frequently take to wife women of low tribes (usually having an Aw&n 
wife also), and this practice does not seem to meet with as much 
disapproval as in most other tribes of equal social standing : but 
ordinarily Aw^n wives alone are taken.t Certain families marry with 
certain other families only : and in all cases marriage is generally but 
not necessarily within the muhi/^ 


• The Customary Law of this District (Volume XIV) p. 3, gives the following list of A wan 

*ub*clans : — 


1 Bagw&l 

2 B4jra 

3 Biddar 

4 Chandhar 

5 Chhaila 

6 Dhingle 

7 Ghulie 

8 Gorare 


9 Harpal 

10 Jalkhnh 

11 Jand 

12 Jhan 

13 Khamhrc 

14 Kharana 

15 Malka 

16 Mandu 


17 Mangar 

18 Mirza 

19 Pappan 

20 Ropar 

21 Salhf 

22 Sangw41 

23 Saroya 
44 Wadh41 


Those in italics are returned as Khurara in Gujral. Nos. 2, 3, 0, 11, 14, 22 and 24 
are classed as Kalgan. 

t In Rawalpindi the children of a low-caste woman by ro Awan are not considered true 
Awinn, 


28 


Awan/-“Azdd. 

This passage is entirely consistent with the popular classification 
of the Awans as mminddr or yeomeo, in contradistinction to the saHic 
or gentry (Janjuas and Ghakkars), but on a level with the Mairs and 
other leading tribes of Chakwdl. 

The leading family among the Aw^ns is that of the Malik of Kd- 
Idbagh, and throughout the Jhelum Salt Range they have numerous 
rnaZi/cs/ notably Ltd Khdn of Nurpur in Find Dadan Khdn, head 
of the ShiM (descendants of Shihdn, a great malik in the latter 
part of the eighteenth century). 

Like the Kassars, Janjuas and KhokharSjbut unlike the Ghakkars, 
the Awtins have the institution ?)f sirdari, whereby the eldest son 
of a chief gets an extra share. In other respects their customs of 
inheritance are closely alike those of the other Muhammadan tribes 
among whom they live. In Sh^hpur and Jhelum, however, the 
Aw^ns recognize a daughter's right to succeed. 

In the Awd^n villages of Talagang tahsil all the graves have a 
vertical slab at either end, while a woman’s grave can be at once 
distinguished by a smaller slab in the centre.t 

An Awdn girl plaits her hair on the forehead and wears only 
ear-drops, this style being given up after marriage. J Betrothal is 
effected by the girl’s father sending a bard or barber to the boy’s 
home with a few rupees and some sweets : or no ceremony at all 
is observed. 

Avast, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Ayesh^, (heavenly), the name of the ruling family of Hunzad : for the 
legend of it: origin see Biddulph, Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh, 'p. 27 . 

Azad, '‘free”, a term applied to the le-shara or irregular orders of Isldm 
also called majzub ; opposed to sdlik. Also used as a synonym for 
Qalandar. Azdds hold that the shard or ritual law is only for the 
masses, not for those who have attained marifat or full comprehension 
ol the Godhead. 


• But Brandreth says the chief is called ‘ Rai,’ and his younger brothers and sons ‘ Malik.’ 
Settlement Report, § 49, p. 23. 
t P. N. Q. I., § 594. 

i Ibid. II, § 352. There is a histoiy of the Awans in Urdu, published by Dr. Ghulam 
Nabi of Lahore, 


29 


APPENDIX. 

M, Ami'n Chand’s History of Sidlkot gives a curious pedigree of the 
Awdns which is tabulated below : — 


MUHAMMAD 

I 

Zahi'r Q4sim* 

Ausl Shih— 15th in descent 


f— 

Qutb Shah 


(' 


I. 


Khokhar Jahan 


1 "I 

Golera Kulugan 
I (15 families.) 
Bindn 
1 

L 


r 


f 1 . r 

Pusu Hamir Tnr 

Progenitors of the Juhins of 
Si41kot.t f 




Wirj 

I 

Rai Rakh 

I 


I 


Mirza Malik 


■'I 


Saruba, 
(? Saroia.) 


r 


'"1 

Banjiir 

I 


Dengla Mandu Bharahwin Samduh 


'"I 

Singi 

I 


Kahambira. 


* Another account makes Ausl Shdh descended from Muhammad Khaifa, the Prophet’s 
son, by a woman of Janfr. 
t See article Jiin. 

In Sialkot the Awans are known under these 4 branches :—Gohera [there is a tract in 
the Rawalpindi District still called Guhera, (or Gohera) after this tribe], Kahambara, 
Dengla and Mandu. 



31 


B 

Bab —A Muhammadan Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery and 
Multan. 

Baba Lal Daryai, a sect, followers of a addhu whose shrine is on the Chenib 
in the Wazirabdd tahsil of Gujrdnw^.ld and who miraculously turned 
water into food. 

Baba Lali, a follower of one of several Babd Lais'. Bdba Ldl TahliwdU was 
a Bairdgi of Find D^dan Khdn who could turn dry sticks into ahtahnm 
{tahli) trees. Another Bd,ba L^l had a famous controversy with Dd,ri 
Shikoh.* Another Bdbd Ldl had his headquarters at Bhera, and yet 
another has a shrine in Gurd^spur. 

BisAR. — A small tribe allied to the Shar^nis — indeed said to be descended 
from a son of Dom, a grandson of Sheranai. They are divided into 
two main branches, Mahsand and Ghora Khel. The former are sub- 
divided into four and the latter into eight sub-divisions. 

The B^bars are a civilised tribe and most of them can read and 
write. t I’hey are devoted to commerce and are the wealthiest, quietest 
and most honest tribe of the sub-Sulaim^u plains. Edwardes called 
them the most superior race in the whole of the trans-Indos districts, 
and the proverb says ; ‘ A Bdbar fool is a Gandapur sage.’ Intensely 

democratic, they have never had a recognised chief, and the tribe is 
indeed a scattered one, many residing^ in Kandahar and other parts of 
Khordsdn as traders. A few are still engaged in the powinda traflfio. 
The B^bars appear to have occupied their present seats early in the 
]4tb century, driving out the J4ts and Baloch(?) population from the 
plains and then being pushed northward, by the IJshtarani proper. 
Their centre is Chaudwan and their outlying villages are held by J4t 
and Baloch tenants, as they cultivate little themselves. 

Babbar, a Jdt tribe in Dera Ghazi Kh4n — probably immigrants from the east 
or aboriginal — and in Bah^walpur, where they give the following 
genealogy ; — 

RAJA KARAN; 

Kamdo. 

I 

Fargo. 

I 

Janjuban. 

I 

Khakh. 

I 

r \ ^ — -'i 

Bahbar. Qabbar. Rabbar. Jhaggar, 

Babla, a section of the Bhfitias, to which belong the chaudhris of Shujabad. 
MultAn Gf., 1902, p. 166. 

Bachhal, a tribe of JAts, found in pargana Bhirug, NarAingarh tahsil, 
AmbAla ; descended from a Taoni RAjput by his JAt wife. 

Badah. — A JAt clan (a?ricnltura1) found in Multfin. 

* This sect is noticed in Wilson’s sects of the Hindus. 

t A Babar, the Amfn-ul-Mulk Nur Muhammad KhAn, was DiwAn-i«Kul-Mamlak4t to 
Taimur Shah and gave a daughter to Shah ZamAn Abdili. Four BAbar families are alio 
settled in Multan : Oatetteer, 1901-02, p. 1 61- 


32 


Badanah — Badu. 


Badanah, a Jdt clan (agriculturul) found ia Multan. 

Baddun, see Badu. 

Badecuh, a tribe of J^ts, claiming to be Saroa Rajputs by descent tlirough 
its eponyra and his descendant Kura Pal whose sons settled in SUlkot 
under Shah Jahan : also found in Amritsar. 

Bader, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multd,n. 

Badgujae, Bar-, a class (or possibly rank) found among the Brahmans, 
Rtljputs, Meos and possibly other tribes, as well as often along with 
Gujars. Thus the Bargujar Rajputs about Bhundsi in Gurgd,on border 
on villages held by Gujars, and in one village there Gujars hold most of 
the village and Bargujar Rd,jputs the rest. Similarly in Bd-sdalla near 
Punahd-na in Gurgdon Meos hold most of the village and Gujars the 
rest. (Sir J. Wilson, K.C.S.I., in P. N. Q. I., § 130). But according 
to Ibbetson, the Bargujar are one of the 36 royal Rdjput families, and 
the only one except the Gahlot which claims descent from L^wa, son 
of Rd,m Chandra. Their connection with the MandahJlr is noticed 
under Mandah^r. They are of course of Solar race. Their old capital 
was Rdjor, the ruins of which are still to be seen in the south of Alwar, 
and they held much of Alwar and the neighbouring parts of Jaipur till 
dipossessed by the Kachwd.lia. Their head-quarters are now at 
Anupshahr on the Ganges, but there is still a colony of them in 
Gurgdon on the Alwar border. Curiously enough, the Gurgdon 
Bargujar say that they came from Jullundur about the middle of the 
15th century ; and it is certain that they are not very old holders of 
their present capital of Sohna, as the buildinars of the Kambohs who 
held it before them are still to be seen there and are of comparatively 
recent date. 

Badhan or Pakhai, a tribe of Jdts, claiming Saroa Rdjput origin and 
descended from an eponym through Kala, a resident of Jammu. 
Found in Sid,lkot. 

Badhar, a Dogar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Badhadr, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur. 

Badhi, a sept of Kanets found in Bashahr. They also own pargana Ghd,r 
in Kuthdr. 

Badhi, the carpenter who makes ploughs and other rude wood-work among 
the Gaddis: (fr. hadhnd, to cut with an axe or saw). See Barhdi. 

Badi, a gipsy tribe which does not prostitute its women. The word is said 
to be a corruption of Bdzi-(gar) q. v. Cf. Wddia. 

Badohal, a tribe of Ja^s who offer food to their sati, at her shrine in Jasrdn 

m Ndbha, at weddings; also milk on the 9th sudi in each month. 
Found in Jind. 

Bado^ai,^ a Pathan family, found in Multdn the Derajat and Bahawalpur 

Badro, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Badu, Baddun, a gipsy tribe of Muhammadans, found in the Central Punjab 
chiefly m the upper valleys of the Sutlej and Beds. Like the Kehals 


Bad'll/-^ Bdhman. 


33 


they are followers of Imdm Shdfi* and by his teaching justify their 
habit of eating crocodiles, tortoises and frogs. They are considered 
outcast by other Muhammadans. They work in straw, make pipe- 
bowls, their women bleed by cupping and they are also said to lead 
about bears and occasionally travel as pedlars. Apparently divided 
into throe clans, WahUl, Dhar^ and Balara. They claim Arab origin. 
First cousins cannot intermarry. See Kehal. 

Badwal, a Rdjput clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Badte, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bagdae, a Baloch clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Baghban, Baghwan, the Persian equivalent of the Hindi word Mdli, 
meaning a ^ gardener,’ and commonly used as equivalent to Ardin 
in the Western Punjab, and even as far east as Lahore and Jullun- 
dur. The Baghb^ins do not form a caste and the term is merely 
equivalent to Mdli, Maliiir, etc. 

Baghela, lit. “tiger’s whelp,” one of the main division of the Kdthids, whose 
retainers or dependents they probably were originally. Confined to 
the neighbourhood of Kam^lia in Montgomery, and classed as Rdjput 
agricultural. 

Baghue, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur. 

Bagiyana, a Muhammadan Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bageah, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Bageana, a Baloch clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

BAG]ii,t (1) a term applied to any Hindu Rajput or Jat from the Bdgar 
or prairies of Bikaner, which lie to the south and west of Hissdr, in 
contradistinction to Deswala. The Bdgris are most numerous 
in the south of that District, but are also found in some numbers under 
tho heading of Jat in Sialkot and Patidla. In Gurdaspur the Bagri 
are Salahria who describe themselves as Bdgar or Bhagar by clan, 
and probably have no connection with the Bagri of Hissdr and its 
neighbourhood. (2) a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bahadaekk, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery : also a 
Joiya sept. 

Bahau, a Rdjput clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bahar, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bahi, a tribe of Pathans which holds a hdra of 12 villages near Hoshi^r- 
pur, (should be verified ?). 

Bahman, an Ardin clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 


*Itis said that in the time of the Prophet there were four brothers, Imam Azam, 
Imam Ilamil, lm4m Shafi, aud Imam Naik, aud Shaikh Dhamar, ancestor of 
the Badus waa a follower of ihia Im4m Shafi. Once Shaikh Dhamar killed a tortoise, an 
act which was reprobated by three of the brothers, but Imam Shafi, approving bis cou- 
ftnrt the Shaikh ate the animal whereupon the three Imams called him bad and hence his 
rlfisccndants are called Badu ! Such is the Badu legend, but the four Imams were uoj 
brothers nor were they contemporaries of the Prophet, and ilamil is a corruption of liampal. 

+ It is doubtful whether B4gri is not applicable to any Hindu fi om the Bagar. and 
not merely to R4ipuiB and J4ts. Tt is, however, specially applied to Jdts {q. v.). In Baha- 
walpur it is applied to any Ilindu or Muhammadan from Jaisalmcr or Bikaner 
speaks Bagri. 


who 


34 


Bahniwa I — Bahti. 


BahniwAt-, a tribe, found cbipfly in His^ar and Patidla. They are also 
found on the lower Sutlej in Motitgromery, where in 1881 they probably 
returned themselves as Bhatti Kcijputs, which they claim to be by de- 
scent. In Hissar they appear to be a Bdgri tril)e, though they claim to 
be Beswali, and to have been Chauhans of Sambhar in Kajputana whence 
they spread into Bikdner and Sirsa. Mr. Purser says of them:-— In 
numbers they are weak; but in love of robbery they yield^ to none of 
the tribes." They gave much trouble in 1857. In the 15th century 
the Bahuiwal held one of the six cantons into which Bikaner was then 
divided. 

Bahoke, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bahowana, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur. 

Bahrupia. — Bahru'pia is in its origin a purely occupational term derived 
from the Sanskrit hahu ‘many’ and nip a ‘form,’ and denotes an 
actor, a mimic, one who assumes many forms or characters, or engages 
in many occupations. One of the favourite devices of the Bahrupias 
is to ask for money, and when it is refused, to ask that it may be 
given on condition of the Bahrupia succeeding in deceiving the 
person who refuses it. Some days later the Bahrupia will again visit 
the house in the disguise of a pedlar, a milkman, or what not, sell 
his goods without beinor detected, throw off his disguise, and claim the 
stipulated reward. They may be drawn from any caste, and in 
Rohtak there are Chuhra Bahrupias. But in some districts a family 
or colony of Bahrupias has obtained land and settled down on it, and 
so become a caste as much as any other. Thus there is a Bahrupia 
family in Pd,nipat which holds a village revenue- free, though it now 
professes to be Shaikh. In Sialkot and Gujrdt Mahtams are commonly 
known as Bahrupias. In the latter District the Bahrupias claim con- 
nection with the Rajds of Chittaur and say they accompanied Akbar in 
an expedition against the Pathans. After that they settled down to 
cultivation* on the banks of the Chenab. They have four clans — 
Bathaur, Chauhdn, PunwAr and Sapawat — which are said not to in- 
termarry. All are Sikhs in this District. Blsewhere they are Hindus or 
Muhammadans, actors, mountebanks and sometimes cheats. The 
Bahrupias ^ of Gurddspur are said to work in cane and bamboo. 
The Bahrupia is distinct from the Bhand, and the Bahrupia villages 
on the Sutlej in Phillaur tahsil have no connection with the Mahtons 
of Hosbiarpur.t Bahrupias are often found in wandering gangs. 

Baiiti, a term used in tlio eastern, as Chang is used in the western, portion 
of the lower ranges of the Kiingra Hills and Hoshi^rpur as equivalent 
to Ghirth. All of them intermarry. 

Bahti, hill men of fairly good caste, who cultivate and own land laro-ely ; 
and also work as labourers. They are said to be degraded Rajputs. 
In Hos^ larpur (except Dasuja) and Jullundur they are called Bahti ; 
in Daauya and Nurpur Chang; in Kdngra Ghirth; all intermarry freely. 
In the census of 1881 all three were classed as Bithti. The Chan a- are 

also said to be a low caste of labourers in the hills who also ply as 
muleteers. ^ ^ 


# As cultivators they are thrifty and ambitious. They also make ImsketR 

ropo-nets — travggars, and chiJclias in Guirdt. ^ ^ UasKCtF, 

t r. N. Q. I., § 1034. 


ropes and 


85 


Baid-^Bairdgi. 

Raid, a got of the Oswal Bhfibnls, Muhull Brahmans and other castes : also 
a physician, a term applied generaly to all who practise Vedic me- 
dicine. 

Baidwan,* * * § an important Hindu-Sikh Jdt tribe in Ambdla. 

Bains, a Jat tribe, whose lipad-qnarters appear to be in Hoshidrpurf and 
Jullundur, though they have spread westwards even as far as Rawal- 
pindi, and eastwards into Ambdla and the adjoining Native States. 
They say that they are by origin Janjua Udjquts, and that their ances- 
tor Bains came eastwards in the time of Firoz Shdh. Bains is one of 
the 36 royal families of Wajputs, but T<>d believes that it is merely a 
sab-division of the Suryabansi section. 'J’hey give their name to Bais- 
wdra, or the easternmost portion of the Ganges- Jamna dodb. The 
Sardars of Alawalpur in Jullundur are Bains, whose ancestor came 
from Hoshidrpur to Jalla near Sirhind in Nabha some twelve genera- 
tions ago. 


The BAiRAGi. 

Baieaqi. — The Bairdgi (Vairagf, more corrc'ctly, from Sanskr, vairdgya, 
' devoid of passion,’) is a devotee of Vi^' nu. The Baintgis probably 
represent a very old element in Indian religion, for those of the sect 
who wear a leopard-skin doubtless do so as personating Nar Singh, 
the leopard incarnation of Vishnu, ]ust as the Bhagauti faqir imitates 
the dress,t dance, etc., of Krishna. The priest who personates the 
god whom he worships is found in ‘ almost every rude religion : while 
in later cults the old rite survives at least in the religious use of animal 
masks, ’§ a practice still to be found in 'I’ihet. There is, moreover, an 
undoubted pun on the word hhrdg, ‘ leopai-d ’, and Bairdcf, and this 
possibly accounts for the rvearing of the leopard skin. I'lie feminine 
form of Bairslgi, bairagan, is the term applied to the /on-shaped crutch 
on which a devotee leans, either sitting or stand'! ng, to the small 
enblematic crutch about a foot long, and to the crutch hilt of a sword 
or dagger. In Jind the Bairdgi is said to be also called Shdmi. 

The orders devoted to the cults of Rllra and Krishu are known 
generically as Bairdgis, and their history commences with Rdmdnuja, 
who taught in Southern India in the ll-12th centuries, and from his 
name the designation Ranidnaji may be derived. || But it is not until 
the time of R^radnand, i.e., until the end of the 14th century, that the 
sect rose to power or importance in Northern India. 

The Bairdgfs are divided into four main orders {mmvardas^ viz., 
Rdmtinandi, Vishnuswdmi, Nirndnandi and INlddhavachdri. 


* Fancifully derived from haid, a physician — who rescued a bride of the clan from 
robbers and was rewarded by their adopting his name. 

t The Bains hold a hdrah or group of 12 (actually 15 or 16) villages near Mahilpur in 
this Distriot. 

J Trumpp’s Adi-Granth, p. 98. 

§ Robertson Smith : Religion of the Semites, p. 437. 

II See Ibbetson, § 521 : where the Raminnjis are said to worship Mahadeo and thus ap- 
pear to brt Shaivas. Further the Bairagis are there said to have been founded by Srf 
Anand, the 12th disciple of RamAnand, The termination no appears to bo connected 
with his name. 

It is only to the followers of RamAnand or his contemporaries that the term Bairagf is 
properly applied. 


36 


The Bairdgi caste. 


Of these the first-named contains six of the 52 dwdrds* (schools) of 
these Bair%i orders, viz., the Anbhimandi, Dundaram, Agarji, TeMji, 
Kubhdji, and Ramsaluji. 

In the Punjab only two of the four sampardds are usually found. 
These are {i) the Rdmdnandis, who like the Vishnusw^mis are devotees 
of Rdmchandr, and accordingly celebrate his birthday, the R^ninaumi,1' 
study the Rdmayand. and make pilgrimages to Ajudhid: their insignia 
being the tar pundri or trident, marked on the forehead in white, with 
the central prong in red or white. 

The only other group found in the Punjab is {ii) the Nimanandi, who, 
like the MMhavaclidris, are devotees of Krishna. They too celebrate 
the 8th of Bhddon as the date of Krishna’s incarnation, but they study 
the Sri Madh Bhagwat and the Gita, and regard Bindraban, Mathra 
and Dwarkd,nitth as sacred places. On their foreheads they wear a two- 
pronged fork,J all in white. 

In the Punjab proper, however, even the distinction between Rama 
and Nira^-nandi is of no importance, and probably hardly known. In 
parts of the country the Bair^gis form a veritable caste being allowed 
to marry, and {e.g.) in Sirsa they are hardly to be distinguished from 
ordinary peasants, while in Karnal many (excluding the sddhus or 
monks of the monasteides, asi(/? a/, whose property descends to their 
spiritual children§) marry and their hindu or natural children succeed 
them. II This latter class is mainly recruited from the Jdts, but the 
caste is also recruited from the three twice-born castes, the disciple 
being received into his guru’s sampardd and dwdra.^ In some tracts, 
e. g , \n Jind, the Bair^gis are mostly secular. They avoid in marriage 
their own samparda and their mother’s dwdra. In theory any Bairdgi 
may take food from any other Bairdgi, but in practice a Brahman 
Bairdgi will only eat from the hands of another Brahman, and it is 
only at the ghosti or place of religious assembly that recruits of all 
castes can eat together. The restrictions regarding food and drink are 
however lax throughout the order. Though the Bairdgis, as a rule, 
abstain from flesh and spirits, the secular members of the caste certainly 
do not. In the southern Punjab the Bairdgi is often addicted to bhang 


To retui'u to the Bairdgis as an order, it would appear that as a 
body they keep the jata or long hair, wear coarse loin-cloths and 
usually affect the suffix Das. As opposed to the Sanidsis, or Ldl-pddris, 
they style themselves Sitd-padris, as worshippers of Sitd Rdm. 


It may be coHjectured that the Va’abhacharis, Bi'ganandis, and Ni'mi-Kharak-swimis are 
three of these dtoard^ : or the latter term may be equivalent to Nimanandi. Possibly the 
Sita-padris are rea ly a modern dwdra.^ The lladha-balabhi. who affect Krishna’s wife 
Padha, can hardly be anything but a divdra, 
t The 9th of Bhadon. 

“cai-nalion 

II It is not clear how property descends, e a it id dmVl i • 

descends on his death to his disciples, in Jind (just as it, does in property 

property inherited from the natural family devolves on the n itm-n evldrn 
hcrited from the yttni descends to the chela. In the Kaithal f ^ 

Bairagis who own the village of Dig are purely smd w Karnalthe agricultural 

crlmuZ to be re- 


37 


Bairdgi developments. 

As regards his tenets a Bairdgi is sometimes said to be subject to 
five rules : — (i) he must journey to Dwarka and there be branded with 
iron on the right arm :* * * § {ii) he must mark his forehead, as already 
described, with the gopi chandan clay : {Hi) he must invoke one of the 
incarnations of Krishna: (iv) he must wear a rosary of /mZsi : and (u) 
he should know and repeat some mantra relating to one of Vishnu’s 
incarnations. Probably these tenets vary in details, though not in 
principle, for each samparda, and possibly for each dwdra also. 

The monastic communities of the Bairdgl's are powerful and ex- 
ceedingly well conducted, often very wealthy, and exercise much 
hospitality. They are numerous in Hoshiarpur. Some of their mahants 
are well educated and even learned men, and a few possess a knowledge 
of Sanskrit. 

Baibaqi developments. 

The intense vitality of the Bairagi teachings may be gauged from the 
number of sub-sects to which they have given birth. Among these may 
be noted the Hari-Ddsis (in Rohtak), the Kesho-panthist (in Multdn) 
the Tulsi-Dasis, Gujranwala, the Murdr-panthisJ, the Babd-Ldlis. 

The connection of the earliest form of Sikhism with the Bairagi 
doctrines is obscure, but it is clear that it was a close one. Kalladhdri, 
the ancestor of the Bedi family of Una, was also the predecessor of 
the Braliman Kalladhari mahants of Dharmsal in the Una tahsil, who 
are Bairdgis, as well as followers of Ndnak, whence they are called 
Vaishav-Nanak-panthi. This community was founded by one Nakodar 
Dds who in his youth was absorbed in the deity while lying in the 
shade of a banyan tree instead of tending his cattle, and at last, 
after a prolonged period of adoration, disappeared into the unknown. 
Another Bairdgi, Edm Thamman, was a cousin of Nanak and is some- 
times claimed as his follower. His tank near Lahore is the scene of a 
fair, held at the Baisdkhi, and formerly notorious for disturbances 
and, it is said, immoralities. It is still a great meeting point for 
Bairagi ascetics. Further it will not be forgotten that Banda, the 
successor of the ISikh gurus, was, originally, a Bairdgi, while two 
Bairagi sub-sects (the Sarnddsi and Simranddsi§) are sometimes classed 
as Uddsis. 

A modern offshoot of the Bairdgis are the Charanddsis, founded by 
one Charan Das who was born at Dehra in Alwar State in 1703.1| His 
father was a Dhusar who died when his son, then named Eanjit Singh, 
was only 5. Brought up by relations at Delhi the boy became a 

* These brands include the conch shell (shank), discu® or chakkar, club or gada, and lotus. 
Besides the iron brands witdra, lit. fire-marks) water marks (st^armudra, lit. cold- 
marks) are also used. Further the initiatory rite, though often performed at Dw4rk4, may 
be performed anywhere especially in the guru's house. Some Biiiragfs even brand their 
women’s arms before they will eat or drink anything touched by them. 

t Probably worshippers of a local swinl or of Krishna himself. 

i Possibly followers of a Biiba Murar whose shrine is in Lahore District, or worshippers 
of Krishn MurAri, i.e., the enemy of Mur, a demon. 

§ Sometimes said to be one and the same. Simran D4s was a Brahman, who lived two 
centuries ago, and his followers are Gosai'n.*! who wear the tulsi necklace and worship their 
gurus bed. 

II Another account says ho became Sukhdeo’s disciple at the ago of 10 in Sbt, 1708, 
165 1 A. D. For a full account of the sect see Wilson’s quoted in Maclagan’s, Punjab Census 
Report, 1891, p. 121. 


38 


Bdirdgi’^Bajwd. 


disciple of Sukhdeo D^s, himself a spiritual descendant of Bi^sji, in 
Muzaffarnagar, and assumed the name of Charan D^. He taught 
the unity of God, preached abolition of caste and inculcated purity of 
life. His three principal disciples, Swdmi Ram-rup, Jagtan Gosdin 
and a woman named Shahgoleai each founded a monastery in Delhi, 
in which city there is also a temple dedicated to Charan Dd,s where the 
impression of his foot {charan) is worshipped.* His initiates are celibate 
and worship Krishna and his favourite queen Radha above all gods and 
goddesses. They wear on the forehead the joti sarup or body of 
flame,” which consists of a single perpendicular line of white ;t and 
dress in saffron clothes with a tulsi necklace. The chief scripture 
of the sect is the Bhagat-sagar, and the 1 1th day of each fortnight is 
kept as a fast. Charan Dds is believed to have displayed miracles 
before Nddir Shdh, on his conquest of Delhi, and however that may be, 
his disciples obtained grants of land from the Mughal emperors which 
they still hold. 

Bairwal, a tribe of Jats who claim to be descendants of Birkhraan, a 
Chauhd^n Rajput, whose son married a Jd,t girl as his second wife and 
so lost status, The name is eponymous, and they are found in the 
Bdwal Nizdmat of Ndbha, 

Baistola, a Jain sect : see Jain. 


Baizai, one of the two clans of the Akozai Yusafzai. It originally held 
the Lundkhwar valley, in the centre of the northernmost part of 
Peshawar, and all the eastern hill country between that and the Swilt 
river. It still holds the hills, but the Khattak now hold all the west of 
the valley and the Utm^n Khel its north-east corner, so that the Baizai 
only hold a small tract to the south of these last. Their six 
septs are the Abba and Aziz Khels, the Bdbozai, Matorezai, Musa 
and Zangi Khels. The last lies south of the Ilam range which 
divides 8wilt from Bnner. Only the three first-named hold land in 
British territory. 

Bajar, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bajarah, j-O cf tlij 15 Awan families descended from Kulugan, son of Qutb 
Sh^h: see History of Sifilkot, p. 37. 


Bajd, Bajju, a Rd-jput tribe found in Sidlkot and allied to the Baiwdi 
Jdts. •' 

Bajwa, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Sidlkot, Amritsar and Multdii, and 
as a Hindu Jdf clan in Montgomery. The Bd,jwa Jdts are of the same 
km as the Bajju Rajputs.J In Sidlkot they have the customs of rasoa 
or lagan and bhoja twixt betrothal and marriage. 

The jathera of the BSjvvi is BAbd M4nga, and he is revered at 

weddings, at which the rites of jandian and chhatra are also 
observed, 


The Bfljwa Jdts and Bajju Rdjpdts have given their name to the Bajwdt 
or country at the foot o the Jammu hills in the Si^llkot District. 
They say that they are bolar Rdjputs and that their ancestor Rdja 


* Clearly there is some connection here with the Vishnupad 
t It is also called simply samp, or " body ” of Bhagwan. 

I It might be suggested that ^v(^ is a diminutive form. 


or foot-impression of Vishnu ' 


39 


Bajwa—BaWfitiar. 

, Sbalip was driven out of Multan in the time of Sikandar Lodi. His 
two sons Kals and Lis escaped in the disguise of falconers. Lis went 
to Jammu and there married a Katil Rajput bride, while Kals married 
a Jat girl in Pasrur. The descendants of both live in the Bajwat, but 
are said to be distinguished as Bajju Kiljputs and Bdjwa Jd^s. 
Another story has it that their ancestor Jas or Hai Jaisan was driven 
from Delhi by Rai Pitora and settled at Karbald in Sidikot. Yet 
another tale is that Naru, RdjA of Jammu, gave him 84 villages in 
ildqa Ghol for killing Mir Jagwa, a mighty Pat-hdn. The Bajju 
Rajputs admit their relationship with the Bdjwa Jdts. Kals had a 
son, Ddwa, whose son Dewa had three sons, Muda, Wasr, and Ndna 
surnamed Cbachrah. Nana’s children having all died, he was told by 
an astrologer that only those born under a chachri tree would live. 
His advice was taken and Nana’s next son founded the Cbachrah sept, 
chiefly found near Narowdl. Tlie Bajju Rdjputs have the custom 
of chundavand and are said to marry their daughters to Chibh 
Bhau and Manhds Rdjputs, and their sons to Rajputs. The Bajju 
Rdjputs are said to have had till quite lately a custom by which a 
Mussulman girl could be turned into a Hindu for purposes of 
marriage, by temporarily burying her in an underground chamber and 
ploughing the earth over her head. In the betrothals of this tribe 
dates aroused, a custom perhaps brought with them from Multdn, and 
they have several other singular customs resembling those of the Sahi 
Jats. They are almost confined to Sidlkot, though they have spread 
in small numbers eastwards as far as Patiala. 

Bakarki, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in MuMn. 

Bakuar, a Rajput clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bakkhar, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur. 

Bakhri, a clan found in the Shahr Farid ildqa of Bahawalpur. They claim 
to be Sumras by origin, and have Cliaran bards, which points to a 
Rajput origin. They migrated from Bhakhkhar to Multdn, where 
they were converted to Islam by Gaus Baha-ud-Din Zakaria, and 
fearing to return to their Hindu kinsmen settled down in Multan 
as weavers. TTience they migrated to Nurpur, Pakpattan and other 
places, and Farid Khdn I settled some of them in Shahr Farid from 
Nurpur. They make lungis. (The correct form is probably Bhakhri). 

Bakhshial, a family of Wahora Khatris, settled at Bhdun in Jhelum, which 
has a titidition of military service. 

Bakhtiar, a small Pathdn tribe of Persian origin who are associated with the 
Mian Khel Pathans of Dera Ismail Khan, and now form one of their 
principal sections. 

Raverty however disputes this, and ascribes to the Bakhti4rs a 
Sayyid origin. Shiran, the eponym of the Shirami Pathdns, gave a 
daughter to a Sayyid Ishaq whose son by her was named Habib the 
Abu-Sa’id, or ‘Fortunate’ (Bakhtyar). This son was adopted by his 
step-father Mid,nai, son of Dom, a son of Shirdz. The Bakhtidrs haVe 
produced several saints, among them the Makhdum-i-’Alam, Khwdja 
Yahya-i-Kabir, son of Khwaja Bias, son of Sayyid Muhammad, and a 
contemporary of Sultan Muhammad Tughluq Shah. He died in 


40 


Bakhtiar^Balka. 


1333 A. D,, and his descendants are called Shaikhzais. Raverty says 
the Persian Bakhtiaris* are quite distinct from the Bakhti^rs. 

Bakhtmal sddhs, a Sikh sect founded by one Bakhtraal. When Guru Govind 
Singh destroyed the masands or tax-gatherers one of them, by name 
Bakhtmal, took refuge with Mtitd., a Gujar woman who disguised him 
in woman’s clothes, putting bangles on hia wrists and a nath or nose- 
ring in his nose. This attire he adopted permanently and the mahant 
of his gaddi still wears bangles. His followers are said to be also 
called Bakhshish sddhs, but this is open to doubt. The head-quarters 
of the sect appears to be unknown. 

Bal, a Jdt tribe of the Bi^s and Upper Sutlej, said to be a clan of the 
Sekhu tribe with whom they do not intermarry. Their ancestor is also 
said to have been named Baya Bal, a Rajput who came from 
Malwa. The name Bal, which means ‘‘ strength,” is a famous one in 
ancient Indian history, and recurs in all sorts of forms and places. 
In Amritsar they say they came from Ballamgarh, and do not inter- 
marry with the Dhillon. 


Bal, a Jd,t clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Balaqan, a tribe of Jats, claiming to be Jammu Rajputs by descent from 
their eponym. Found in Sidlkot. 


Balahab, in Gurgaon the haldhar (in Sirsa he is called daurd) is a village 
menial who shows travellers the way, carries messages and letters, and 
summons people when wanted by the headmen. In Karnd,! he is called 
lehhar^ ; but is not a recognised menial and any one can perform his 
duties on occasion. In Sirsa, Gurgaon and Karnal he is almost always 
a Chuhra, c/. Balwdl. 


Balahi, Balm, cf. haldhar . — In Delhi and Hissar a chaukiddr or watchman : 
in Sirsa a Chamdr employed to manure fields, or who takes to syce’s 
and general work, is so termed. 

Balbik, a sept of Kanets which migrated from Chittor in R^jputdna 
with the founders of Keonthal and settled in the latter State. The 
founders of Keonthal were also accompanied by a Chaik, a Salathiand 
a Pakrot, all Brahmans, a Chhibar Kanet, a blacksmith and a turi 
and the descendants of all these are still settled in the State or in its 
employ. 


Balfarosh, a synonym for Bhdt (Rawalpindi). 

Balham, a Jat clan (agidcultural) found in Multan. 

Bali, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Bali, a section of the Muhials (Brahmansl • corr 
the South-West Punjab. 


to the Dhannapotras of 


BiLKi, ap agricultural clan.found iu Shdhpur ; holU in the east cf the 
Punjab IS used as equivalent to chela, for ‘ the disciple of a faqlr.’ 

* There is said lo be a sept of the Baloch of this nnmn i T" 

on both sides of the Panjnad Bahiwalpur and Muzaffargarh. 


tOr rchbar, probably from rd/itar, ‘guide.’ In Karnil is 
terra being applied to a sweeper who does this particular kind of 
a sweeper (or in default a Dhanank) will perform. 


no Balahar caste, the 
corvee— which no one but 


41 


Bdlmiki—Baloch. 


Balmiki, Valmiki.— The sect of the Chuhras, flynonymous with Baidsh^hi 
andLalbeffi, so called from Balmik, Balrikh or Bal^ Shah, possibly the 
same as the author of the Rdmdyana* Biilniik, the poef, was a man 
of low extraction, ^nd legend represents him as a low-caste hunter 
of the Ndrdak in Kama or a Bhil high way-man converted by a 
saint whom he was about to rob. One legend makes him a sweeper 
in the heavenly courts, another us living m austerity at Ohazm. 
See under Ldlbegi. 

Balo, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

BALOCH. Meaning op Baloch. 

The term Baloch is used in several difFe:ent wavs. By travellers 
and historians it is employed to denote {i) the race known to tl.em-elves 
and their neighboms as the Halocli, and {ii) in an exiend. d s^nse as 
includin^r all the races inhabiting the trreat geographical area sj'own on 
our maps as Balochistan. lu the latter sense it comprises the B. ahui^, 
a tribe which is certainly not of Bah ch origin. In the former sense it 
includes all the Baloch tribes, whether found in Persia on the west or 
the Puniab on the east, which can claim a descent, more or less pure, 
from Baloch ancestors. Two special uses of the term also require 
notice. In the great jungles below Thdncsar in the Karnal district is 
settled a criminal tribe, almost certainly of Baloch extraction, which 

will be noticed below page 55.t Secondly, throughout the I «n]ab, 
except in the extreme west and the extreme east, the term Baloch 
denotes any Muhammadan camel-man. Throughout the upper grazing 
crroundsof the Western Plains the Baloch settlers have taken to the graz- 
ing and breeding of camels rather than to husbandry; and thus the 
word Baloch has become associated with the care of camels, insomuch 
tliat in the greater part of the Punjab, the word Baloch is used for any 
Musalmdn camel-man whatever be his caste, every Baloch being supposed 
to be a camel-rnan and every Muhammadan camel-man to be a Baloch. 

Origins of the Baloch. 

Pottinger and Khanikoff claimed for the Baloch race a Turkoman 
origin and Sir T. Holdich and others an Arab descent. Bellew 
assigned them Rajput descent on very inadequate philological grounds, 
while Burton, Lassen and others have maintained that they are, at 
least in the mass, of Iranian race. This last theory is supported by 
Mr. Longwoi th Dames who shows that the Baloch came into their 
present locations in Mekran and on the Indian border from parts ot 
the Iranian plateau further to the west and north, bringing vyith t hem 
alangnaye of the Old Petsian stock, with many features derived from 
the Zend or Old Bactrian rather than the Western Persian. 


History of the Baloch. 


Dames assigns the first memion of the Baloch in hi“fory 
to the Arabic chronicles of the 10th century A. D., but Firdausi 
(c 400 A H ) refers to a still earlier period, and in his Shah-nnmaX the 
Baloches are described as forming part of the armies of Kai Kaus 


' "temple (in Leg^s of the Pnvjah, I. p. 529) accepts this tradition and says Balinikl 
is the same as Bala Shah or Nuri Shah Bala, but assigns to him the place next .0 

^ t Thfs group is also found in Ambala, and the GUoi Baloch of Lyallpur are also said to be 

“^t°So^Dames'but the text of the Shdh-ndma is very corrupt, and the reading Khoch “crest” 
cannot he relied upon implicity. 


42 


Baloch history. 


and Kai Khusrao. The poem says that the army of Ashkaah was 
from the wanderers of the Koch and Baloch, intent on war, with 
exalted cockscomb crests, whose back none in the world ever saw. 
Under NaushirwSn, the Ohosroes who fought against Justinian, the 
Baloch are again mentioned as mountaineers who raided his kingdom 
and had to be exterminated, though later on we find them serving m 
Nausbirwdn’s own army. In these passages their association with the 
men of Gil and Dailam (tlie peoples of Gildn and Adharbaijan) would 
appear to locate the Baloch in a province north of Karman towards the 
Caspian Sea. 

However this may be, the commencement of the 4th century of the 
Hijra and of the lOtli A.D. finds the Balus or Baloch established in 
Karmdn, with, if Masudi can be trusted, the Qufs (Koch) and the 
Zutt (Jatts). Tlie Baloch are then described as holding the desert 
plains south of the mountains and towards Makrdn and tlie sea, but 
they appear in reality to have infested the desert now known as the 
Lut, which lies north and east of Karmen and separates it from 
Khorasan and Sistan. Thence they crossed the desert into the two 
last-named provinces, and two districts of Sistan were in Istakhri’s time 
known as Baloch country.* Biloch raiders plundered Mahmud of 
Ghaznfs ambassador between Tabbas and Khabis, and in revenge his 
son Masud defeated them at the latter place, wliich lies at the foot of 
the Karmln Mountains on the edge of the desert. 


About this time Firdausi wrote and soon after it the Baloch must 
have migrated bodily from Karmdn into Mekran and the Sindh 
frontier, after a partial and temporary halt in Sistan. Witli great 
probability Dames conjectures that at this period two movements of the 
Baloch took place : the first, corresponding with the Saljuq invasion 
and the overthrow of the Dailami and Ghaznawi power in Persia, 
being their abandonment of Karmen and settlement in Sistan and 
Western Makran ; while the second, towards Eastern Makran and the 
Sindh border, was contemporaneous with Changiz Khan’s invasion and 
the wanderings of Jal41-ud-Din in Makran. 

• second movement the Baloch owed their opportunity of 

invading the Indus valley ; and thence, in their third and last 
^ portion of the race was precipitated into the Punjab 


It IS now possible to connect the traditional history of the Baloch 
emselves, as told in their ancient heroic ballads, with the above 
account. Like other Muhammadan race.'^, the Baloch claim Arabian 

yroplmt, «„d trom a fairy (par/). They consistemly 
place Iheir first seltlement, in Halab (Alepp,,), where they remained 
ant. , etdmsr with the s..ns of Ali and lak.ng part in tL banle of 
Karbala, they were expelled bv ^ ^ j 

Calinhs in fiSO A D Ti ^ a Second of tbe Omayvad 

Oahphs, in (,80 A.D. Thence they fled, first to Karmfin, and eventually 


Thoir settlements may indeed have extended info Wo ' ' n 

there is a considerable Baloch pooulation S! Khorasan Even at the present < 

Persia, 1892, i, p. 203>. Population as far north as Turbat-i-Haidari (Curze 


43 


Baloch history. 

to Sist^n where they were hospitably received by Shams-ud-Din,* 
ruler of that country. His successor, Badr-ud-Dui, demanded, according 
to eastern usage, a bride from each of ihe 44 bolaks or clans of the 
Baloch. But the Baloch race had never yet paid tribute in this form 
to any ruler, and tliey sent, therefore 44 boys dressed in girls’ clothes 
and fled before the deception coul I bo discovered. Badr-ud-Din sent 
the boys back but pursued the Baloch, who had fled south-eastwards, 
into Kech-Makrdn where he was defeated at their hands. 

At this period Mir Jaldl Khdn, son of Jiand, *was ruler of all the 
Baloch. He left four sons, Rmd, L^shdr, Hot and Kordi from whom 
are descended the Rind, Lashari, Hot and Korai tribes ; and a son-in- 
law, Murad, from whom are descended the Jatoif or children of Jato, 
Jaldl Khan’s daughter. Unfortunately, however, certain tribes 
cannot be brought into any of these 6ve, and in order to provide 
them with ancestors two more sons, Ali and Bulo, ancestor of the 
Buled/ii, have had to be found for Jalal Klidn, From All’s two sons, 
Ghazan and Umar, are descended the Ghazani Marris and the 
scattered Umr^nis. 

Tradition avers that Jalal Khdn had appointed Hind to the phdgh 
or turban of chiefship, but that Hot refused to join him in creating 
the dsrukh or memorial canopy to their father. ‘ Thereupon each per- 
formed that ceremony separately and thus there were five dsrokha 
in Kech.’ But it is far more probable that five principal gatherings 
of clans were formed under well-known leaders, each of which became 
known by some nickname or epithet, such as rind “ cheat,” hot, 
“warrior,” Lashilri, “ men ot Ldshar ” and, later, BuleiM, “ men of 
Boleda.” To these other clans became in the course of time affiliated. 

A typical example of an affiliated clan is afforded by the Doddi, a 
clan of Jd^ race whose origin is thus described : — 

DoddJ Sumra, expelled from Tha^ha by his brethren, escaped by 
swimming his mare across the Indus, and, half frozen, reached the 
hut of Sdlhe, a Rind. To revive him Sdlhe placed him under the 
blankets with his daughter Mud/io, whom he eventually married. 
“ For the woman’s sake,” says the proverb, “ the man became a Baloch 
who had been a Jatt, a Jaghdal, a nobody ; he dwelt at Harrand 
under the hills, and fate made him chief of all.” 'I'lius Dodd founded 
the great Dodai tribe of the Baloch, and Gorish, his son, founded 
the Gor>hdnf or Gurchdni, now the principal tribe of Dodai origin. 
The great Mirrdni tribe, which for 200 years gave chiefs to Dera 
Ghazi Khdn, was also of Doddi origin. 

* According to Dames there was a Shams-ud-Din, independent malik of Sist^n, who 
claimed descent from the Saffaris of Persia and who died in 1164 A.D. '^559 H.) or nearly 
500 years after the Baloch migration from Aleppo. Badr-ud-Dfn appears to be imknown 
to history. 

t It is suggested that Jatoi or ‘ husband of a Jat woman,’ just as bahnoi means ‘ husband 
of a sister,’ although in Jatoi the t is soft. 

f "Doda, a common name among the Sumr4s whose dynasty ruled Sindh until it was 
overthrown by the Sammas. About 1250 A.D. or before that year we find Baloch adventurers 
first allied with the Sodhfis and Jharejas, and then supporting Dodi IV, Sumra. Under 
Umar, his successor, the Bnloches are found combining with the Sammas, Sodhas and 
Jatts, (Jharejas), but were eventually forced back to the hills without effecting any perma- 
nent lodgment in the plains. 


44 


Baloch history. 


After the overthrow of the Sumr^s of Sindh nothing is heard of 
the Baloch for 150 years and then in the reign of Jam Tu^hlaq, the 
Sanimd, (1423 — 50), they are recorded as raiding near Bhakhar in 
Sindh. D.nibtless, as Datnes holds, Taitnur’s invasion of 1399 led 
indirectly to this new movement. The Delhi empire was at its weakest 
and Tfiimiir^s dnscendanrs claimed a vague suzi-reignty over it. Prob- 
ably all the Western Punjab was effectively held by Muf^hal in- 
tendants until the Lodi dynasty was established in 1451. Meanwhile 
the Langah IMjputs had established themselves on the throne of Multan 
and Shah Husain Langah (1469 — 1502) called in Baloch mercenaries, 
grantintj a j'igir, which extended from Kot Karor to Dhankot, to 
Malik Sohrab Dodiii who came to Multan with his sons, Ghazi Khan, 
Path Khan and Isrn^il Kh4n.* 


But the Doddi were not the only mercenaries of the Langdhs. 
Shdh Hussain had conferred the jdgirs of Uch and Shor(kot) on two 
Sammd, brothers, J4m Bayazid and Jam Ibrahim, between whom and 
the Dod4is a feud arose on Shdh Mahmud’s accession. The J^ms 
promptly allied themselves with Mir Chd.knr, a Rind Baloch of Sibi 
who had also sought service and lands from the Langdh ruler and 
thereby mused the Doddis’ jealousy. Mir Clidkur is the greatest figure 
in the heroic poetry of tho Baloch, and his history is a remarkable 
one. The Rmds were at picturesque but deadly feud with the Lashdris. 
Gohar, the fair owner of vast herds of camels favoured Chakur, but 
Gwaharam Lashdri also claimed her hand. The rivals agreed to decide 
their quarrel by a horse race, but the Rinds loosened the girths of 
Gwahardm’s saddle and Chdkur won. In revenge the Lashdris killed 
some of Gohar’s camels, and this led to a desperate 30 years’ war 
which ended in Chdkur’s expulsion from Sibi in spite of aid invoked 
and received from the Arghun conquerors of Sindh. Mir Ctidkur was 
accompanied by many Rinds and by his two sons, Shahzadt and 
Shaihak, and received in jdgir lands near Uch from Jdm Bayazid, 
Sammd. Later, however, lie is said in the leyends to have accompanied 
Humayun cn his re-conquest of India. However this may have been, 
he undoubtedly founded a military colony of Rinds at Satgayha, in 
Montgomery, at which place his tomb still exists. Thence he was 
expelled by Sher Shdli, a fact which would explain his joining 
Humdyun. 

At this period the Baloch were in great force in the South-West 
Punjab, probably as mercenaries of the Langah dynasty of Multdn, 
but also as independent freebooters. The Rinds advanced up the 
Chenab, Pdvi aruf Sutlej valleys; the Dodai and Hots up the Jhelum 
and Indus. In 1519 Bdliar found Dodais at Bhera and Khushab and 
he confirmed Sohrab Khan’s three sons in their possession of the 
country of Sindh. He also gave Ismdil Khdn, one of Sohrdb’s sons, 
the ancient pargana of Ninduna in tho Ghakhar country in exchange 
for the lands of Shaikh Bilyazid Sarwdni which he was obliged to 
surrender. But in 1524 the Arghuns overthrew Shah Mahmud Langah 


-amo to the U.rajH. Dera Falh 

kin. Firishta says he SrsI ini Jaced iS 


45 


Baloch organization. 

with his motley host of Baloch, Jdt, Rind, Dodai and other tribes, and 
the greatest confusion reigned. 

The Arghuns howevt-r submitted to the Mughal emperors, and this 
appt-ars to have thrown the bulk of the Baloch into opposition to the 
empire. They rarely entered the imperial service — a fact which is 
possibly explained by their dislike to serve at a distance from their 
homes — and under Akbar we read of occasional expeditions against 
the Baloch. But the Lashdris apparently took service with the 
Arghuns and aided them against Jdm Firoz — i-.ideed legend represents 
the Lashari as invading Guzerat and on return to Kachhi as obtaining 
a grant of Gundava from the king.* The Jistkdnis, a Lashari clan, 
also established a principality at Mankera in the Sindh-Sngar Doab at 
this time, but most of the Lashdris remained in Makrdn or Kachhi. 
Among the earliest to leave the barren hills of Balochistan were the 
Chdndias who settled in the Chdndko or Chandukd. tract along the Indus, t 
in Upper Sind on the Punjab border. The Hots pressed northwards 
and with the Doddis settled at Dera Ismdil Khdn which they held for 
200 years. Close to it the Kuldchis founded the town which still bears 
their name. Both Dera Ismail Khan and Kuldchi were eventually 
conquered by Pathans, but the Kulachis still inhabit the country round 
the latter town. South of the Jistkanis of Mankera lay the Doddis 
of the once gi’eat Mirrdni clan which gave Nawdbs to Dera Ghazi 
Khdn till Nadir Shah’s time. Further still afield the Mazaris settled 
in Jhang and are still found at Chatta Bakhsha in that District. The 
Rinds with some Jatois and Kordis are numerous in Multan, Jhang, 
Montgomery, Sbdhpur and Muzaffargarh, and in the last-named 
district the Gopdngs and Gurmanis are encountered. All these are 
descendants of the tribes which followed Mir Chdkur and have become 
assimilated to the Jatt tribes with whom in many cases they intermarry. 
West of the Indus only has the Baloch retained his own language and 
tribal organization. 

In the Derajdt and Sulaimdns the Baloch are grouped into tumans 
which cannot be regarded as mere tribes. The tuman is m fact a 
political confederacy, ruled by a tumandar, and comprising men of 
one tribe, with aflBliated elements from other tribes not necessarily 
Baloch. The tumans which now exist as organisations are the Marri, 
Bughti, Mazari, Drishak, Tibbi Lund, iSori Lund, Leghdri, Khosa, 
Nutkdni, Bozdar, Kasrdni, Gurchdni and Shambdni. Others, such as 
the Buled/ii, Hasani, Jakrdni, Kahiri, are found in the Kachhi territory 
of Kalat and in Upper Sind, with representatives in Bahdwalpur 
territory. 

The Bozdar tuman is probably in part of Rind descent, but the 
name means simply goatherd. They live in independent territory in 
the Sulaimdns, almost entirely north-west of Dera Ghazi Khan. 

The Bughti or Zarkdni tuman is composed of several elements. 
Mainly of Rind origin it claims descent from Gydnddr, a cousin of 
Mir Chakur. The Raheja, a clan with an apparently Indian name, 
is said to have been founded by Raheja, a son of Gyanddr. The Nof/tdni 


* The Maghassis, a branch of the 1 asharfs, are still found in Kachh Gundiva. 
t Chindias are also numerous in Muzafargarh and Dera Ismail Khan. 


46 


The Baloch tumans. 


clan holds the guardianship of Pir Sohri^s shrine though they hare 
admitted Gurchani to a share in that office, and before an expedition 
each man passes under a yoke of guns or swords held by men of the 
clan. They can also charm guns so that the bullets shall be harmless,* 
and claim for these services a share of all crops grown in the Bughti 
country. 

The Shambdnis, who form a snh’tuman, but are sometimes classed 
as an independent tuman, trace their descent to Rihan, a cousin of Mir 
Chakur, and occupy the hill country adjacent to the Bughti and ' 
Mazdri tumans. The Bughti occupy the angle of the Sulaiman 
Mountains between the Indus and Kachhi and have their head-quarters 
at SyahM (also called Dera Bibrak or Bughti Dera). 

The Buled/ii or Burdi tuman derives its name from Boleda in 
Maktan and was long the ruling race till ousted by the Gichki. It is 
also found in the Burdikd tract on the Indus, in Upper Sindh and in 
Kachhi. 

The Drishak tuman is said to be descended from one of Mir ChakuPa 
companions who was nicknamed Drishak or ‘ strong,’ because he held 
up a roof that threatened to crush some Lashdri women captives, but 
it is possibly connected with Dizak in Makr^n. Its head-quarters are 
at Asni in Dera Ghdzi Khd,n. 

The Gurchdni tuman is mainly Dodai by origin, but the Sydhphdd^ 
Durkdni are Rinds; as are probably the Pitafi, Jogdni, and Chang 
clans — at least in part. The Jistkanis and Lashdris (except the Gabolt 
and Bhand sections) are Lashd,ris, while the Suhri4ni and Holaw4ni 
are Bulei/iis. The Gurchd-ni head-quarters are at Ldlgarh near Harrand 
in Dera Ghazi Khan. 

KasrfiniJ (so pronounced, but sometimes written Qaisardni as 
descended from Qaisar) is a tuman of Rind descent and is the most 
northerly of all the organised tumans, occupying part of the Sulaimans 
and the adjacent plains in Deras Ghdzi Kh4n (and formerly, but not 
now), Ismail Khdn. 

The Khosas form two great tumans,^ one near Jacob4b4d in Upper 
Sindh, the other with its head quarters at B4til near Dera Ghdzi Kbdn, 
They are said to bo mainly of Hot descent, but in Dera Gh6zi Kh4n the 
Isani clan is Khetr4n by origin, and the small Jajela clan are probably 
aborigines of the Jaj valley which they inhabit. 

The Leghdri tuman derives its origin from Kohphrosh, a Rind, 
nicknamed Leghjlr or 'dirty.’ But the tuman also includes a Chandia 
clan and the Haddiani and Kaloi, the snh-tuman of the mountains, 
are said to be of Bozd4r origin. Its head-quarters are at Choti in 
Dera Ghdzi Kh4n, but it is also found in Sindh. 


following Baloch septs can stop bleeding by charms and touching the wounds, and 
used also to the power of bewitching the arms of their enemies The Bajini sept of 
theDurk4ni, the Jabrani sept of the Lashari, and the Girani sept of the Jaskini / among the 

Chitw^and’Fa^q^irs^^^^^^^ Hadiam Legharis, and, among the Khosas, the 

t A servUe tribe, now of small importance, found mainly in Muzaffargarh. 

J The Qasrams practise divination from the shoulder-blades of sheen nld Mnphal 
custom) and also take auguries from the flight of birds ^ ^ 

^§Jh6 Khosas also form a sub-tufna* of the Rinds of Shoran and a clan of the Lunds of 


Baloch tribes. 


47 


The Lunds form two tumans, one of Sori, with Its head-quarters at 
Kot Kandiw^la, the other at Tibbi, both in Dera Ghazi Khan. Both 
claim descent from Ali, son of Rihdn, Mir Chakur’s cousin. The Sori 
Lunds include a Gurcli^ni clan and form a large tuman, livinsr in the 
plains, but the Tibbi Lunds are a small tuman to which are aflBliated a 
clan of Khoaas and one of Rinds — the latter of impure descent. 

The Marri tuman, notorious for its marauding habits which neces- 
sitated an expedition against it only in 1^80, is of composite origin. 
The Ghazani section claims descent from Ghazan, son of Ali, son of 
Jaldl Khdn and the Bijar^nis from Bijar Phuzh* who revolted against 
Mir Cl)4kur. The latter probably includes some Pathdn elements. 
The Mazaranis are said to be Kherrdns, and the Lohard,nis of mixed 
blood, while Jatt, Kalrnati, Buled/ii and Hasani elements have 
doubtless been also absorbed. 

The Mazaris are an organised clan of importance, with head-quarters 
at Hojhan in Dera Ghdzi Khan. Its ruling sept, the Bd,l^ch4ni, is said 
to be Hot by descent, but the rest of the tribe are Rinds. The name 
is derived apparently from mazdr, a tiger, like the Path^n ‘ Mzarai.’ 
The Kirda or Kurds, a powerful Brahui tribe, also furnish a clan to 
the Mazdris. The Mazaris as a body (excluding the Baldcb^lnis) are 
designated Syd,h-ldf, or ‘Black-bellies.’ 

Other noteworthy tribes, not organized as tumans, are — 

The Ahmd^nist of M4n^ in Dera Ghdzi Kh4n. They claim descent 
from Gydnddrand were formerly of importance. 

The Gish kauris, found scattered in Dera Ismdil Khan, Muzaffargarh 
and Mekrdn, and claiming descent from one of Mir Chdkur’s Rind 
companions, nick-named Gishkhaur, But the Gishkhaur is really a 
torrent in the Boleda Valley, Mekrdn, and possibly the clan is of 
common descent with the Buled/ti.f 

Tdlpur or Talbur, a olan of the Legharis, is, by some, derived from 
its eponym, a son of Bulo, and thus of Buled/ii origin. Its principal 
representatives are the Mirs of Khairpur in Sind, but a few Talpurs are 
still found in Dera Ghazi Khdn. Talbur literally means ‘wood-cutter’ 
(fr. tdl, branch, and buragh, to cut). 

The PiMfis, a clan found in considerable numbers in Dera Ismdil 
Khan and MuzafFargarh.§ Pit^fi would appear to mean ‘Southern.’ 

The Nutkdni or NodhakAni, a compact tribe, organized till quite 
recently as a tuman, and found in Sangarh, Dera Gh^zi Khdn District. 

The Mashori, an impure clan, now found mainly in Muzaffargarh. [| 

The Mastoi, probably a servile tribe, found principally in Dera Gh&zi 
Khd,n where it has no social status. 

"fh® Phuzh are or were a clan of Kinds, once of great importance --indeed the whole Rind 
ribe IS said^ to have once been called Phuzh. They are now only found at Kolanah in 
Alekran, in Kachhi and near the Bolan Pass. 

clans are also found among the Lunds of Sori and the HnddWni Leghiria. 

Jlhe Lashari 8ub-fu«j«n of the Gurchani also includes a Oishkhauri sept, and the Dombkia 
have a clan of that name. 

§ Also as a Gurchini clan in Dera Ghazi Kh4n. 

The Bughtis have a Masori clan. 


48 


Baloch tribes. 


The Dashti, another servile tribe, now found scattered in small 
numbers in Deras Ismdil Khan and Ghdzi Khan, in Muzaffargarh and 
Bahdwalpur. 

^J’he Gopd,ng, or more correctly Gophang (fr. gophanlc, " cowherd ’), 
also a servile tribe, now scattered over Kaohhi, Dera Ismdil Khan, 
Multan and Muzaffargarh, especially the latter. 

The Hot (Hut) once a very powerful tribe (still so in Mekrd,n) and 
widely spread wherever Balochee are found, but most numerous in Dera 
Ismd-il Khiln, Muzaffargarh, Jhang and Multan. 

The Jatoi, not now an organized tribe, but found wherever Baloches 
have spread, i.e., in all the Districts of the South-West Punjab and as 
far as Jhang, Sh^hpur and Lahore. 

The Kor^i or Kauddi, not now an organized tuman, but found 
wherever Baloches have spread, especially in Dera Ismail Khiiu, Multdn 
and Muzaffargaih. 

The history of the Baloch is an instructive illustration of the trans- 
formations to which tribes or tribal confederacies are prone. The 
earliest record of their organisation represents them as divided into 44 
holaks of which 4 were servile. 

But as soon as history begins we find the Baloch nation split up 
into 5 main divisions. Rind, Lash4ri, Hot, Korai (all of undoubted 
Baloch descent) and Jatoi which tradition would appear to represent 
as descended frohi a Baloch woman (Jato) and her cousin (Mur4d). 
Outside these groups are those formed or aflBliated in Mekr4n, such 
as the Buled/iis, Ghazanis and Dmardnis. Then comes the Dod4i tribe, 
frankly of non-Baloch descent in the male line. Lastly to all these must 
be added the servile tribes, Gopdngs, Dashtis, Ghol5,s and others. In 
a fragment of an old ballad is a list of servile tribes, said to have been 
gifted by Mir Chakur to Bdnari, his sister, as her dower and set free 
by her : 

‘ The Kirds, Gabols, Gadahis, Td,lburs and the Marris of Kdhan — all 
were Chdkur’s slaves.’ 


Other versions add the Pachdlo (now unknown) and ‘ the rotten -boned 
Bozddrs.’ Other miscellaneous stocks have been fused with the 
Baloch— such as Pathjlns, Khetrd,ns, Jatts. 


Not one single tribe of all those specified above now forms a tuman 
or even gives its name to a tuman. We still find the five main divisions 
existing and numerous, but not one forms an organised tumnn. All 
five are less scattered or at least- broken up among the various 

tumam. Ihe very name of hohiJc is forgotten — except by a clan nf the 
Rind Baloch near S!bi which i« still styled the GliulAin (slave) bolah. 
Amon(r the Mams the clans are now called takar {cf. Sindhi takara, 
moa-tain), the mot. phalli, and the smaller snb-divisions 'rAwa. 
The tuman (fr Turkish tuman, 10,000) reminds us o( the Mughal 
hazara, or legion, and is a semi-political, semi-military confederacy 

Tribal nomenclature among the Baloch offers some points of interest. 
As already mentioned the old main divisions each bore a significant 
name The more modern tribes have also names which occMioiially 
look Ilka descriptive nick-names or titles. Thus Lund (Pers ) mean 


Baloch CiLstom. 


49 


knave, debauchee or wanderer, just as Rind does : Khosa (Sindhi) means 
robber (and also ‘ fever ^): Marri in Sindhi also chances to mean a plague 
or epidemic. Some of ihe clan-names also have a doubtlully totemistic 
meaning: e. gr., Syah-phad/i, Black-feet: Gul-pliad/i, Flower-feet (a 
Drishak clan) : Gan'la-gwalagh, small red ant (a Durkani clan) 
Kalphur, an aromatic plant, Glinus lotoides (a Bughti clan). 

Baloch Customary Law in Dera Ghazi Khan.* 

Custom, not the Muhammadan Law prevails- among the Baloch as 
a body but the Nutk^ms profess to follow the latter and to a large 
extent do in fact give effect to its provisions. Baloch often postpone 
a girl’s betrothal till she is 16 years of age, and have a distinctive 
observance called the hishi,'\ which consists in casting a red cloth over 
the girl’s head, either at her own house or at some place agreed upon 
by the kinsmen. Well-to-do people slaughter a sheep or goat for a 
feast; the poorer Baloch simply distribute sweets to their guests. 
Betrothal is considered almost as binding as marringe, especially in 
Rftjanpur tahsil, and only impotence, leprosy or apostasy will justify 
its breach. Baloch women are not given to any one outside the race, 
save to Sayyids, but a man may marry any Muhammadan woman, 
Baloch, Jat <ir even Pathdn, but not of course Savyid. 'I’lie usual 
practice is to marry wittiin ihe sefit, women beintr sold out of it if they 
go astray. Only some sections of the Nutkanis admit an adult 
woman’s right to arrange her own marriage ; but such a marriage, if 
effected without her guardian’s consent, is considered ^ black ’ by all 
other Baloch. Public feeling demands strong grounds tor divorce, 
at.d in the Jiimpur tah>il it is not customary, while unchastity is 
the only recognised ground in Rdjanpnr. Marriage is n<-arly always 
according to the orthodox Muhammadan ritual, but a form called 
(‘ giving of the person’) is also recognised. It consists 
in tlie woman’s mere declaration that she has given herself to her 
husband, and is virtually only used in the case of widows- The rule 
of succession is equal division among the sons, except iu the families 
of the Mazdri and Drishak chiefs in which the eldest son gets a some- 
what larger share than his brothers. Usually a grandson got no 
share in the presence of a fathoPs brother, but the custom now univer- 
sally recognised is that grandsons get their deceased fathers’ share,j; 
but even now in Sangarh the right of representation is not fully 
recognised, for among the Baloch of that tahsil grandsons take 'per 
capita, if there are no sons. As a rule a widow gets a life interest in her 
husband’s estate, but the Gurchiinis in Jampur refuse to allow a woman 
to inherit under any circumstances. Daughters rarely succeed in the 
presence of male descendants of the decessed’s grandfather equally 
remote, the Baloch of Rdjanpur and Jd,mpur excluding the daughter 
by her father’s cousin and nearer agnates ; but in Sangarh tahsil 
daughters get a share according to Muhammadan Law, provided they 


* From Mr. A. H Diack’s Customary Law of the Dera Qhdzi Khan District, Vol. xvi of the 
Punjab Customary Law Series. 

t The ftisfei is falling into disuse in the northernmost tahsil of Dera Ghizi Knan and 
among the Gopang along the Indus in Jampur. 

X A few Nutkani sections in Sangarh still say that they only do so if it is formally be- 
queathed to them by will. 


50 


Baloch custo7ns. 


do not make an unlawful marriage.* Where the daughter inherits 
her right is not exting’nishe'i by her marriai^e, but the Balofh in 
R^janpur t-ihsil insist, tnat if manie<l she si. all have mtirried within 
her I'abhei ’s phalli, or if unnuirried shall many witiiin it, as a condi- 
tion <>f li^ r sucC'^ssion. 'I'he resident son-in-law acquires no special 
riy^hts, but the daughter’s son in Jd-tupur and Rdjanpur succeeds where 
his mother would succeed. No other Baloch appear to recognise his 
right. When brother succeeds brother the whole blood excludes the 
half in Sangarh and Dera Ghd,zi Khan tahsils, but iu Jdmpur and 
Rdjatipur all the brothers succeed equally. Similarly, in Sangarh, the 
ass'udated brothers take half and tlie others the remaining half. 
Sisters never succeed (except in those few sections of tlie Nutkdnis of 
Sangarh wldch follow Muhammadan law). A step-son has no rights 
of succession, but may keep what his step-father gives him during his 
life-time, and, iu Sangarh and Hd^janpur, may get one-third of a natural 
sou’s share by Avill, Adoption is not recognis-d, except possibly 
among the Baloch of Sangarh, and those of Hd.janpur expressly forbid 
it. But adoption in the strict Hindu sense is quite unknown, since a 
boy can be adopted even if the adopter has a son of his own, and 
any one can adopt or be ad. pted. In Sangnrh, agnin, a widow may 
adopt, but only with the consent of her husband’s kinsmen. The 
adopted son retains all his rights in his natural father’s property, but 
in Sangarh he does not succeed his adoptive father if the latier have 
a son born to him aftei' the ad >ption (a rule curiously inconsistent with 
that which allows a man to adopt a second son). Except in Jd.mpur 
tahsil, a man may make a gift of the whole of his land to an heir to 
the exclusion of the rest, and as a rule he may also gift to his daugh- 
ter, her husband or son and to his sister and her children, but the 
Lunds and Leghd.ris would limit the gift to a small part of the land. 
Gifts to a non-relative are as a rule invalid, unless it be for religion, and 
even then in J^mpur it should only be of p .rr, of the estate. Death-bed 
gifts are invaliu in Sangarh an.! Jampur and only valid in the other 
two tahsils of Dera Ghiizi Khdn to the extent allowed by Muhammadan 
Law. Sons cannot eu force a partition, but in Sangarh their consent 
is necessary to it ; yet in that and the Dera Ghd,zi Kh^n tahsils it is 
averred that a fattier can make an unequal partition (and even exclude 
a son from his share) to endure beyond tiis life-time. But in Jd-mpur 
and Rdjanpur the sons are entitled to equal shares, the Mazdri and 
Drishak chiefs excepted. The subsequent birth of a son necessitates 
a fresh partition. Thus among the Bal.ich tribes we find no system 
of tribal law, but a mass of varying local usuage. Primitive custom 
is ordinarily enforced, and though the semi-sacred Nutkauis in Sangarh 
tahsil consider it incumbent upon them to follow Muhammadan Law, 
even they to do not give practical effect to all its niceties. 


^ Birth customs, riiQ nsus,] Muhammadan observances at birth are 
in vogue, ilie hang is sounded into the child’s ear by the nmllah six 
days aftm- its birth and on the 6th night a sheep or cattle are slaugh- 
tered and the brotherhood invited to a feast and dance. The child 


• But Ibo Khosas and Kasr^nis in this tahsil dr> imf i,, w . j . n 

unless their father bequeath them a share, and that sharfmust noUxSed theXre 


pible under Muhammadan Law, 


51 


BalocJi "kinship. 

is also named on this occasion. If a boy it is given its grandfather’s 
name, if ho be dead ; or its father’s name if he is doad: so too an uncle’s 
name is given if both father and grandfather be alive. Common names 
are Dddu, Bangui, Kambir, Thagia (fr. thagagh, to be long* * * § l’.ved), 
Drihan. 

Circumcision (shd'ie, tahor) is performed at the age of I or 2, by a 
tahorokh or circuoicisor who i'< a D >rnb, not a mnlldh or a Pirhain, ex- 
cept in the plains where a Pirhain is employed. In ttie hills a Haloch 
can act if no Dorab bo available. 'I'en or twei've rren bring a ram 
and slaughter it for a feast, to which the boy’s father (who is called 
the tahor wdzha*) contributes bread, in the evening : next morning 
he entertains the visitors and they depart. In the plains cattle are 
slaughtered and the brotherhood invited; Jiendr being also given — a 
usage not in vogue in tlie hills. 

Jhandy the first tonsure, is performed, pr'or to the circumcision, at 
the shrine of Saklii Sarwar, the weight of the child’s hair in silver being 
given to its mujdwars. 

Divorce {coWed sdwan aa weW as tildk) i-i effected in the hills by 
casting stones 7 times or thrice and dismissing the wife. 

Concubinage is not unusual, and concubines are called suret, but 
winzas are not known, it is said. The children by such women are 
called mretucdl and receive no share in their father’s land, but only 
maintenance durii\g his life-thne. These mrets appear, however, to 
hold a better position than the moUd or slave women. 

Terms of kinship. The kin generally are called shdd or hrdthari 
(brotherhood), brahmda)ih.. 

Pith.fhiru, fore-fathers. 

Father’s sister,— Father, pith ( x Mother, mdf A) — Father's brother, 
phuphi. I ndkho 

( "1 X 

Son, bachh or phusagh Daughter, jinkh trt§. 

X X j 

nashdr1[ or dakhdnX Son-in-law, zamdth Cousin, i.e., 

(Daughter-in-law) paternal uncle's child, 

I ndkhozdkht. 

Grand-child chhuh-zdkht 

Brother, ") Pmn I Sister, gwdr or gohdr x sirzdkht, i.e , sister’s husband. 

brdth, 6iVd|| ) t I 

X I 

Brother’s wife, nashdr. Sister’s child, gohar-zdkht 

The mother’s brother is mama as in Punjabi, but her sister is tri and 
her son tri-zakhl. 

In addressing relatives other words are used, such as oifea, father; 
addd (fem.-f), brother (familiarly). A wife is usually zdl, also dmrish. 

A step-son is patrdk, pazddagh or phizddngh (fr. phadha, behind, 
thu-^ corresponding to the Punjabi pizhhlag). A stnp- daughter is 
nafuskh.^ 

* Wdzho =Khu'ain or ma.ster. The fnther is 'lord of the tahor or purification.' 

t It will be observed that nashdr=son's or brother’s wife 

j Dakhdn or do/itmalso appe rs to mean brother’s wife. 

§ I ri thus equals mother’s sister or father’s brother's wife. 

II Bardtkar is a poetical form. 

^ Dames’ Monograph, p. 25. 


52 


Baloch mythology. 


A namesake is amndm and a contemporary amsan. Eq^ual y simple 
are the Balocli marriage customs. The youth gives shawls to his 
betrothed’s mother and her sisters, and supplies the girl herself 
with clothes till the wedding. Before that occurs mmsirels (dom) 
are sent out to summon the guests, and when assembled they 
make gifts of money or clothes to the bridegroom. Characteristically 
the latter’s hospitality takes the form of prizes—a camel for the best 
horse, money to the be4 shot and a turban to the best runner. The 
actual wedding takes place in the evening. Nendr or wedding gifts, 
the neota or tamhol of the Bunjab, are only made in the plains, but 
among the hill Baloch a poor man goes the round of his section and 
begs gifts, chiefly made in cash. Similarly the tribal chiefs and 
headmen used to levy benevolences, a cow from every herd, a sheep 
from every flock, or a rupee from a man who owned no cattle, when 
celebratino- a wedding. It is also customary to knock the heads of the 
pair together twice and a relation of them ties together the corners of 
their chddars (shawls). 


A corpse is buried at once, with no formalities, save that a 
mullah, if present, reads the jandza. Dry brushwood is heaped over 
the grave. 

Three or four days later the dsrokh'^ or sehd takes place. This 
appears to be a contribution also called pathar or mkanna, each 
neighbour and clansman of the deceased’s seciion visiting his relations 
to condole with them and making them a present of four annas each. 
In tht* evening the relations provide them with food and they depart. 


On a chief’s death the whole clan assembles to present gifts which 
vary in amount from four annas to two rupees. Six months after- 
wards the people all re-assemblo at the grave, the brushwood is removed 
and the grave marked out with white stones. 


Of the pre-Islamic faith of the Baloch hardly a trace remains. 
Possibly in Nod/i-bandagh [lit. the cloud-binder), suruamed the Gold- 
scabterer, who had vowed never to reject a request and never to touch 
money with his hands, an echo of some old mythology survives, 
but in Baloch legend he is tlie father of Gwahariim, Cli^kur’s rival 
for the hand of Gohar. Yet Chilkiir the Rind when defeated by the 
Lashdris is saved by their own chief Nod/i-bandagh, and mounted on 
his mare Phul (‘Flower’). 

The Baloch is as simple in liis religion as in all else and fanaticism is 
foreign to his nature. Among the hill Baloch mullahs are rarely found 
and the Muhammadan fasts and prayers used to be hardly known. 
Orthodox observances are now more usual and the Qurdn is held in 
great respect. F'aqirs also are seldom met with and Sayyids are 

* Also called mhanna, lit. ‘contributions.’ 

t See Douie, Bilochi-mhua, pp n4-(i5. But Dames {The Baloch Race, p. 37) translates 
dfirolh by memorial canopy, apparentlj' with good reason. Capt. Coldstream says: ^ Asrokh 
is a ceremony which takes place on a certain day after a death The friends of the deceased 
assemble at his house and his heirs entertain them and prayers are repeated. The cere- 
mony of daiiiarbandi ^ or tying a pa ri on the head of the decnased’s heir is then performed 
by his leading relative in presence of the guests. The date varies among the different 
tumans. In Dora Ghazi Khan it is generally the 3rd day after the death : in Balochistdn 
there is appearently no fixed day, but as a rule the period is longer,’ 


53 


Baloch legends. 

unknown.* * * § The Baloch of the plains are however much more religfious, 
outwardly, and among them Sayyids possess considerable influence 
over their murids. 

The Bugtis especially affect Fir Sohri (‘the red saint’) a Pirozdni of 
the Noc/Mnit section. This pir was a goatherd who gave his only 
gfoat to the Four Friends of God and in return they miraculously filled 
his fold with goats and gave him a staff wherewith if smitten the earth 
would bring fortli water. Most of the goats thus given were red 
{i.e., brown), but some were white with red ears. Sohri was slain by 
some Buled/iis who drove off his goats, but he came to life again 
and pursued them. Even though they cutoff his head he demanded his 
goats which they restored to him. Sohri returned home headless and 
before he died bade bis sons tie his body on a camel and make his tomb 
wherever it rested. At four different places where there were kahir 
trees it halted, and these trees are stdl there. Then it rested at the 
spot where Sohri’s tomb now is, and clo.so by they buried his daughter 
who had died that very day, but it moved itself in another direction. 
Most Baloches offer a red goat at Sohri’s tomb and it is slaughtered by 
the attendants of the shrine, the flesh being distributed to all who are 
present there. 

Another curious legend is that of the prophet Dris (fr. Arab. Idris) 
who by a faqir*s sarcastic blessing obtained 40 sons at a birth. Of 
these he exposed 39 in the wilderness and the legend describes how 
they survived him, and so terrified the people that public opinion 
compelled Dris to bring them back to his home. But the Angel of 
Death bore them all away at one time. Dris, with his wife, then 
migrates to a strange land but is falsely accused of slaying the king’s 
son. Mutilated and cast forth to die he is tended by a potter whose 
slave he becomes. The king’s daughter sees him, blind and without 
feet or hands, yet she falls in love with him and insists on marrying 
him. Dris is then healed by Health, Fortune and Wisdom and 
returning home finds his 40 sons still alive! At last like Enoch he 
attains to the presence of God without dyiug.J 

It must not however be imagined that the Baloch is superstitious. 
His nervous, imaginative temperament makes him singularly credulous 
as to the presence of sprites and hobgoblins in desert place, but he 
is on the whole singularly free from ii rational beliefs. His Muhamma- 
danism is not at all bigoted and is strcngly tinged with iShiaism its 
mysticism appealing vividly to his imagination. “ All the poets give 
vivid descriptions of the Day of Judgment, the terrors of Hell and 
the joys of Paradise, mentioning the classes of men who will receive 
rewards or punishments. The greatest virtue is generosity, the crime 
demanding most severe punishment is avaiice,” a law in entire accord 
witli the Baloch code. One of the most characteristic of Baloch 
legends is the Prophet’s Maiaj or Ascension, a quaintly beautiful 
narrative in anthropomorphic form § iCome of the legends current 

* There are a ccHisiderablrt number of Sayyids amonj^ the Hozd4rs. 

+ More correctly Nod/iakani, descendants of Nodhak, a diminutive of nodh, ‘cloud,’ a com- 
mon proper name among the Baloch. The word is corrupted to Nutknni by outsiders. 

t For the full version see The Baloch Race, pp. 169 — 1 75 where the legend of the Chihil 
Tan zidrat is also given. That shrine is held in special reverence by the Brahiiis. 

§ It is given in Dames’ Popular Poetry of the Baloches, pp. 157 — 161. 


54 


The Magassi Baloch. 

concerning Ali would appear to be Buddhist in origin, e.g.y that of The 
Pigeon and the Hawlc.* 

Music is popular among the Baloch, but singing to the damhiTOy a 
four-stringed guitar, and the savinday a tive-striuged instrument like 
a banjo, is contined to the Uombs. 'I'he Baloch himself uses the nar, 
a wooden pipe about 30 inches in length, bound rouud with strips of 
raw gut. Upon this is played the hung, a kind of droning accompani* 
ment to the singing, the singer himself playing it with one corner of 
his mouth. The effect is quaint but hardly pleasing, though Dames says 
that the nar accompaniments are graceful and melodious. 

The Magassi Baloch. 

The Magassi Baloch who are found in Multan, Muzaffargarh, Dera 
Ghdzi, Midnwd.li and Jhang.t appear to be a “ peculiar people ” rather 
than a tribe.J As both Sunnis and Sinus are found among them 
they do not form a sect. Most of them in the above Districts are 
murids or disciples of Mian Nur Ahmad, Abbd-ssi, of Rd.janpur in Dera 
Ghdzi Khdn, whose grandfather Muhammad Arif’s shrine is in 
Midnwd,li. The Magassis in Balochistd^n are, however, all disciples of 
Hazrat Ghaus Bahd,-ud-Din of Multd,n. Like all the murids of the 
Midn, his Magassi disciples abstain from smoking and from shaving 
the beard. Magassis will espouse any Muhammadan girl, but never 
give daughters in marriage outside the group, and strictly abstain 
from any connection with a sweeper woman, even though she be a 
convert to Isldm. At a wedding all the Magassi who are murids of the 
Midn assemble at the bride’s home a day before the procession and are 
feasted by her parents. The guests offer prayers § to God and the Midn 
for the welfare of the married pair. This feast is called shddmdna\{ and 


Ihid. p. 161. 

The Baloch of Jhang merit some notice. 


1 Rlnd-Madari-Gadf. 

2 Rfnd-Laghdri. 

3 Rind-Chandi4. 

4 Rind-Kernf. 

5 Rfnd-Gadhi. 

6 Bhand. 

7 Alm4ni. 

8 Gishkauri 

9 (Jop4ng. 

10 Gor4h. 


11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 


Gurmanf. 

Hfndrani. 

Hot. 

Jamili. 

Jfskini 

Jatof. 

Laghari. 

Lishari. 

I.on'. 

Marath. 


They are divided into the following septs 


21 Mi'rrani. 

22 Mirnana. 

23 Nntkanf. 

24 Parlh4r. 

25 Patafi. 

26 Sabqf. 

27 Shalobf. 

28 Galkale. 

29 Kurai. 

30 Mangesf, &c. 

Chandia, Kerni and Gadhf 
will take wives from other 


The Madarf-G4di Rfnds will not give brides to the Lagharf, 

Rind septs, from whom they receive them, but all these Baloch 

Muhammadans except the Sayyids. The Mangesi only smoke with men of their own sept. 

J In Balochistan the Magassi are said to form a fwman under Nawab Qaisar Khan, 
’ Magassi, of Jhal Magassi. They say that in the time of (Ihazi Khan many of them migrated 
into the present Sangarh tahsfl of Dera Ghazi Khan, but were defeated by L41 Kh4n 
tumanddr of the Qasranis and driven across the Indus, where they settled in Nawankot, now 
in Leiah tahsil Their settlement is now a ruin, as they were dispersed in the time of the 
Sikhs, but a he-adman of Nawankot is still regarded as their siTddT or chief 

§ In Multan these prayers are called dz{ and are said to be offered when the feast is half 
eaten. 

II In beiah a >‘hddmdna is said to be observed on occasions of great joy or sorrow All the 
members and followers of the Sarai or Abbassi family assemble and first eat meat cooked 
with salt only and bread containing sugar, the leavings being distributed among the poor 
after prayers have been recited. Every care is taken to prevent a crow or a dog from 


touching this food, and those who prepare it often keep the mouth covered up. 
is performed at the shrines of ancestors. It is a solemn rite and praye’ 
common. A boy is not accepted as a disciple by the Pir until he is circumcised,' and“‘ until 
he is so accepted he cannot take part m a shadmdna. 


A shddnidna 
prayers aie said in 


The Baloch criminal tribe. 


55 


precerles all the other rites and ceremonies. Contrary to Muhammadan 
usape a Ma^assi bridegroom may consummate his marriage on the 
very hrst night of the wehdiiijj’ procession and in tlie Imuse of the 
bride’s father. At a funeral, whether of a male or feniHle, the rela- 
tives repeat the four takhirs, if they aro Sunnis, but disciples of the 
Mfd,n recite the jannza of the Shias. Magassis, when they meet one 
another, or any other murid of the Midn Sdhib, shake and kiss each 
other’s hands in token of their hearty love and union. 

The Magassi in Leiah are Shias and like all Shias avoid eating tho 
hare. But the following customs appear to be peculiar to the Magassi 
of this tahsil : When a cliild is born the water in a cup is stirred 
witli a knife, which is also touched with a bow smeared with horse-dung 
and given to the child to drink. The sixth nigtit after a male birth is 
kept as a vigil by both men and women, the latter keeping apart and 
singing sihrd songs, while among the men a mirdsi beats his drum. 
This is called the chhati. On the 14th day the whole brotherhood is 
invited to assemble, women and all, and the boy is presented to them. 
The doyen of the kinsman is then asked to swing the cliild in his 
cradle, and for this he is given a rupee or a turban. From 14 paos to 
as many sers of gur and salt are then distributed among the kinsmen, 
and the boy is taken to the nearest well, the man who works it being 
giv^n a dole of sugar and bread or flour. This is the rite usually 
called ghari gharoli, and it ought to be ob-'^erved on the 14th day, 
but poor people keep it on the day after the chhati. The tradiiion is 
that «he chhatti and ghari gharoli observances are kept because 
Amir Hamza was borne by the fairies from Arabia to tho Caucasus 
when he was six days old, and so every Baloch boy is carefulv guarded 
on tho sixth night after his birth. Amir Hamza was, indeed, brought 
back on the 14th day, and so on that day the observances are kept 
after a boy’s birth. For this reason too, it is said, the bow is strung ! 
All wedding rites take place at night, and on the wedding night a 
couch and bedding supplied by the bridegroom are taken to the 
bride’s house by mirdsis, who sing songs on the way, and get a rupee 
as their fee. The members of the bridegroom’s family accompany 
them. This is called the sejhand. 

At a funeral flve takhirs are recited if the mullah happens to bo 
a Shia, but if he is a Sunni only four are read. The nimdz in use 
are those of the Shias. 

The Baloch as a ceiminal tribe. 

The Baloch of Karn4l and Amb41a form a criminal community* 
They say they were driven from their native land in the time of 
Nadir Sh^h who adopted severe measures to check their criminal 
tendencies, but they also say that they were once settled in the Qasur 
tract near Lahore and were thence expelled owing to their marauding 
habits. They give a long genealogy of their descent from Abraham 
and derive it more immediately from Rind, whose descendants, they 
say, are followers of the Imdm Shd6 and eat unclean things like the 
Awdns, Qalandars, Maddris and the vagrant Baloch who are known as 


56 


Baluch-^Bangdli. 

Hnburas. Grullu they insert in their genealogy as the ancestor of the 
Giloi Baloch. Speaking an argot of their own called Balochi^ F^rsi, 
they are skilful burglars atid wander great distances, disguised as 
faqirs ami butchers. When about to start on a plundering expedition 
sarddrs or chiefs are appointed as leaders, and on its termination they 
divide the spoil, receiving a double portion for thernsnlves. Widows 
also receive their due share of the booty. The Giloi Baloch of Lyallpur, 
however, claim descent from Sayyid “ Giloi,” a nickname said to mean 
‘‘ freebooter.” This tribe was formerly settled in the Montgomery 
District, but has been transplanted to two villages in Lyallpur and 
is settling down to cultivation, though it still associates with criminals 
in Ferozepur, Montgomery and Bahdwalpur. It now makes little use 
of its peculiar patois. 

Baluch, Bluch, a Pathdn sept, see Bluch. 

Balu-panthi — A small Bairdgi sub-sect. Bald, Thappa* or Bdld, Sdhib was 
a Bairdgi sddhu of Jd,t birth who lived in the Daska tahsil of Sidlko^. 

Balwatbah, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in MultAn. 

Bamba, an important tribe in Kashmir, and represented by two families in 
Hazdra: District Gazetteer, 1907, p. 34. 

Bam-maegi, Vamachari, ti:e ‘left-handed^ worshippers of Kali „ and the 
most notorious division of the Shdktiks. Said to have been founded by 
the Jogi Kanipa, chiefly recruited from Sanid,sis and Jogis, and to be 
found chiefly in Kdngra and Kashmir. As a rule their rites are 
kept secret and they are perliaps in consequence reputed to bo chiefly 
indulgence in meat, spirits and promiscuity. The Choli-maig and 
Bira]pani are more disreputable groups or sub-sects of the Bam- 
mdrgi. 

Bamozai, an Afghdn family, settled in Multdn, which came from Khor^sdn 
in the time of Ahmad Shah Abddli ; Multan Gazetteer, 1901-02, 

pp. 161 — 2 . 

Banaich, a Dogar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Ba-nawa, ? a synonym for be-naw4, g.v. 

Ba^ib, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Ba^ip, a Jdt clan (agi’icultural) found in Multan. 

Bandal, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Baijidechh, a J6t clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Banpejah, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Bandial, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Bangakh, see Bangash. 

Bangali, (1) a native of Bengal : (2) a vagrant tribe, probably akin to the 
S^nsis (with whom they certainly intermarry) and found chiefly in 
Kangra, whither they were probably driven from Hoshi^rpur by the 
passing of the Criminal Tribes Act. 


* This title suggests a Gurkha origin, as Thappa is a common title among tho Gilrkhas. 


The Bangash. 


57 


The Bangalis are a small group, hut are in constant communication 
with the Sapehras and other criminal tribes of the plains. They live 
by begging, exhibiting snakes, hunting and pilfering, but are probably 
not addicted to serious crime. Their camps are said to contain never 
less than 7 or more than 15 male adults. They make reed huts and 
can strike camp on the shortest notice, travelling with donkeys as 
pack-animals. Dogs are kept for hunting, and the Bangdii will eat 
any wild animal, even a hymua, but he eschews , beef or pork according 
to the prejudices of the people among whom he finds himself. There is 
said to be a special Bangali argot, known only to the tribe. Their women 
are prostitutes, as well as dancers and singers. Besides propitiating 
local deities the Bang^Hs are said to specially affect Sakhi Sarwar as 
‘ Lakhddtd, ’ and occasionally visit bis shrine at Dharmkot near Nasir^bdd. 
(3) The term Bangali is applied to Kanjar in some districts and in 
others to any Sapfida or snake-charmer in tho plains.* There is no 
evidence that (2) or (3) have any connection with Bengal. In Panjabi 
Bangdli means a braggart, as in hhukhkha Bangali, a boastful person. 

Bangash, Bangakh.! This is the name given to a number of Pat,hd,u 
tribes, formerly estimated to amount to some 100,000 families, as well 
as to the tract of mountainous country which they held. 1'his tract 
was once divided into Billa (Upper) and Pdin (Lower) Bangash and 
was thence called the Bangashat (in the plural) or Hhe two Bangash.’ 
The first historical mention of the Bangashat occurs in Babar’s Tuzuk, 
but the two tracts had long been under the control of the Turk and 
Mughal rulers of the Ghazni wi empire as the most practicable routes from 
Ghazni and Kdbnl into India lay through them. At a period when 
the Khataks and Orakzais are barely referred to, we find constant 
mention of the Afghans of Bangasb. Roughly speaking. Upper 
Bangash included Kurrarn and Lower Bangash tho country round 
Kohilt, but it is difficult to define accurately the shifting boundaries of 
the iumdn as it was called by the Mughal^. According tn the Ain-i- 
Akbari this tunidn formed part of the sarkdr and subah (province) of 
Kfibul. 

The Afghan tribes of Bangash were of Kurani (Karldrni) origin and 
the following table gives their traditional descent: — 

KARL.4RNAI. 

I 

Kakai (accond sou'*. 


Sulaiman. 


r 


1 


^ 

Sharaf-ud-Din, (called Shftak by 
the Afghi,nB). 

I , 

The liannuchis. 


Wazi'r, Bai. Malik Kakbaf Mir. 

The Baizai, descendants of Bai, and tho Malik-Miris or Miranzais, 
sprung from Malik Mir, were the parent tribes of the Afghdnsof Bangash, 
and to these were affiliated the Kdghzi, descended from Kdkhai or 
Kdghai, daughter of Malik Mir, by a husband of an unknown tribe. Tho 
Malik-Miris, as Malik Mir’s descendants in the male line, held tho 
chieftainship, but it subsequently passed to the Baizais. The latter 


* Because of the belief that charming is most successfully practised at Dacca in Benpal. 
There is or was a wild tribe in the rocks above Solon called V >ngali8« Sapehra and Sapadd 
are doubtful forms of Sapela, snake-charmer. 

t The Eastern (or rather Northern) Afghan form. 


58 


Bngash histor'ij . 


has several branches, the Mardo, Azu, Lodi and Sh^hu khels. The 
Miranzai khels are the Hassanzai, with the Badah, Khd.khd, and Umar 
khelx. A third branch, the Shamilzai,* apparently identical with the 
Kaghzi, produced the Latidi, Hassan Khel, Musa Khel and Isa Khel. 

Like the other Karl ami tribes the Afyhdns of Bangash were 
dif^ciples of the Pir-i-Hoshdn, and their attachment to that heresy 
brought about tlieir ruin, the Mughal government organizing 
constant expeditions against them. After the Khataks had moved 
towards the north-east from the Shuw^l range (in Wazirist^n),t the 
Baizai, Malik-Miris and Kdghzis then settled in the Upper Bangash, 
invaded the Lower (Kohdt) and, in alliance with the Kha^aks, drove 
the Orakzai who then held the Lower Bangash westwards into Tir^h. 
This movement continued till the reign of Akbar.| 

The history of the Bangash tribes and the part they took 
in the Mughal operations against the Roshdnias are obscure. Probably 
they were divided among themselves, § but those of them who had 
remained in Kurram appear to have adhered to the Koshdnia doctrines. 


After xVurangzeb’s accession in 1659, we find Sher Muhammad Khdn, 
of Koh^t, chief of the Malik-Miris, in revolt against the Mughals. He 
was captured, but subsequently released and became an adherent of the 
Mughals. Khushhd,! Khan the Khatak gives a spirited account of his 
little wars with Sher Muhammad Khan which ended in his own defeat 
and the final establishment of the Bangash in their present seats. 


Among the Bangash Pathdns of Kohat, betrothal {kwazda, ‘ asking’) 
is privately negotiated, the boy’s father taking the initiative. Then a day 
is fixed upon for the father and his friends to visit the girl’s father. At 
the latter’s house prayers are read and sweets distributed, the nikdh 
being sometimes also read on this occasion. But as a rule the girl simply 
puts on a gold or silver coin as the sign that she is betrothed. If the 
wedding is to be celebrated at no distant date, the rarmdna or bride- 
price is paid at the betrothal — otherwise it is not paid till the wedding. 
But a price is invariably expected, its amount varying from Rs. 100 to 
1,000, and the boy’s father also has to supply the funds for entertaining 
the wedding party on the wedding day. The day following the 
betrothal pitchers of milk are exchanged by the two parties and the 
milk is drunk by their kinsfolk. The boj’s father also sends the girl 
a suit of clothes and some cooked food on each Id and the Shabrat. 

On the day fixed for the commencement of the festivities sweets are 
distributed by the boy’s father among his friends and kinsmen and music 
is played, ihree days before the wedding comes the kenawo I hen the 
boy’s kinswomen visit the bride and observe this rite, which consists in 
stripping the bride of all her ornaments and shutting her up in a room 
by herself. Ihe next night the women visit her again for the kamsi 
khlaswaloi unplaitmg of her hair. For this the barber’s Avife receives 
a fee. On the third day the bridegroom gives a feast to all his friends 


♦ Also interesting HS having given birth to the Bangash Nawabs of Farrukhabad 
the UangVSSSefKohr I''"'"’ '””3 

I Some hundreds of them were deported into Hindustan. 


Bdnhor — Bania. 


59 


and fellow-villagers, and in the afternoon he and his friends don 
garlands. The neundra is also presented on this day. Then the boy 
and his wedding party go to the bride^s house, returning that same 
night if it is not too far away, or else remaining there for the night. 
On the fourth day in the mornine churi is given to the wedding party 
and coloured water sprinkled on them, some money being placed on the 
dish used f(.r the churi as the perquisite of the bride’s barber. After a 
meal the girls of the party, accompanied by the bridegroom’s best man 
[sanbhalnd) , go to a spring or well to fetch water in which the bride 
bathes. This is called ghari gharol, as it often is in the Punjab. 
Then the pair are dressed in new clothes and the nikdh is solemnized. 
Some parents give their daughter a dowry of cl 'thes and ornaments, 
called plarganai mdl or ‘ paternal wealth.’ On the next day but one 
after the wedding churi* is brought from the brid **s house to the bride- 
groom’s — an observance called tirah. On the seventh day, uwamma wraj, 
the bride is fetched to her house by her kinswome n, but three or four 
days later she returns to her husband, sometimes with more presents of 
clothes and ornaments from her parents. 

The Bangash of Kohdt are tall and good looking, they shave the 
head and clip the beard like the people of Peshdwar. Though neat in 
dress which is generally white, they have not much courage. The 
Shiah Bangasht are much braver. In Upper Miranzai the Bangash 
still affect the dark blue turban and shirt, with a grey sheet for a lungi, 
which were once common to the whole tribe— as Elphinstone noted. 
They shave the head and eradicate most of the hair on the chin and 
cheeks, leaving little but the ends of the moustache and a Newgate 
fringe. Young men often wear love locks and stick a rose in the 
turban — when they feel themselves irresistible. The mullds have not 
yet succeeded in preaching down the custom of clipping the beard. 
The Miranzai women wear the ordinary blue shift with a loose trousers 
of susi and a shirt, but the shift is often studded with silver coins 
and ugly silk work. Few other ornaments are worn. 

Banhob, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Bani, Bal, a female servant, a ddi. 

Bania.— The word hdnid is derived from the Sanskrit hanijya or trader ; 
and the Bdni4 by caste, as his name implies, lives for and by com- 
merce. He holds a considerable area of land in the east of the Pro- 
vince ; but it is very rarely indeed that he follows any other than 
mercantile pursuits. The commercial enterprise and intelligence of the 
cl«s8 is great, and the dealings of some of the great Bania houses of 
Uehii, Bikdner, and Marwar are of the most extensive nature. But 
the Bdnia. of th#> village, who represents the great ma«a of the caste, 
is a poor creature, notwithstanding the title of Mah^ijan or “ groat 
folk,” which is confined by usage to the caste to which he belongs. 


* Wheat flour cooked with ghi and dry sugar. 

t Those of Satnilzai dress in white with a coloured hingi and tnrbari of a peculiar 
pattern woven locally. In Upper Miranzai a peculiar tonic is worn — it is not verj 
long and about 13 inches below the collar is gathered into numerous pleats— which dis- 
tingaishes them from pardchas or Muhammadan shop-keepers. 


60 


The Bdnia organisation. 

He spends his life in his shop, and the results are apparent in his in- 
ferior physique and utter want of manliness. He is looked down upon 
by the peasantry as a cowardly money-grubber ; but at the same 
time his social standing is from one point of view curiously higher 
than theirs, for he is what they are not, a strict Hindu; he is generally 
admitted to be of pure Vaisya descent, he wears the janeo or sacred 
thread, his periods of purification are longer than their.s, he does not 
practise widow-marringe, and he will not eat or drink at their hands ; 
and religious ceremonial and the degrees of caste proper are so 
interwoven with the social fabric that the resulting position of the BaniS 
in the grades of rustic society is of a curiously mixed nature. The Bfinia 
is hardly used by the proverbial wisdom of the countryside : He 

who has a Bfinhi for a friend is not in want of an enemy;” and, 
“First beat a Biinid,, then a thief.” And indeed the Banid has too 
strong a hold over the husbandman for there to be much love lost 
between them. Yet the money-lenders of the villages at least have 
been branded with a far worse name than they deserve. They 
perform functions of the most cardinal importance in the village 
economy, and it is surprising how much reasonableness and honesty 
there is in their dealings with the people so long as they can keep 
their business transactions out of a court of justice. 

Organisation . — The organisation of the Biinitls is exceedingly obscure. 
They have certain territorial divisions, but there is also a true sub- 
caste, called Btira-Saini* in Gurgaon, which is said to be quite distinct 
from the others. They are descended from Chamdrs and at marriage 
the boy wears a mukat or tiara of ddk leaves, shaped like a basket, into 
which a piece of leather is fixed. 

The territorial groups are at least three in number. Of these the 
chief is the Aggarwdls, and there is a curious legend about their origin. 
Bd,shak Ndg had 17 daughters, who were married to the 17 sons of 
Ugar Sain, but these snake daughters of Bashak used to leave their 
homes by night to visit their pai’ents, and in their absence their hus- 
bands lived with their handmaidens, and descendants of these are the 
Dasa or Chhoti-sarn gots of the Bfini^s, each got taking its name from 
that of the handmaiden from whom it is descended. The children of 
Bfishak Ntvg^s daughters formed the 17 gotsf of the Aggarwal. Once 
a boy and girl of the Goyal got were married by mistake and their 


* From 'tiapb 12, nud fcrti, an array (Crooke’s Tribes and Castes cf the North-Western 
Provinces and Oudh /, p. 177.) 


f Cf. Punjab Census Heport, 1883, & 633 

1. Jfndal. 

2. TMindal. 

3. Gar. 

4. Eran. 

5. Dheran. 

6. Mital. 

7. Mansal, 

Of these Kansal and Banaal are named 


,, , i i , — nuns, a erass, anci bans, bamboo. 

those plants. The Mahwar are said to be descended from a 


The Aggarwal gots include : — 

8. Mangal. 

9, 

10 . 

11 . 

12 . 

13. 

14. 

from hans, 


Tahil. 

Kansal. 
Bansal. 
Mahwar. 
Goyal or Goil. 
Gond. 

a grass, and 


of Agar Sain who married a low-caste wife, 
Ah other account adds Seugal. 


and 

son 


so other Banias will not smoke with them. 


The Bdnia organisation. 


61 


Sub- caste 1. Aggarwdl 


descendants form the half-gfot called Gond,* so that there are 17^ gots 
in all. And again one of the sons of Ugar Sain married a low-caste 
woman and his descendants are the Mahwar got which cannot smoke 
with other Banias. The Aggarwal Mahdjans only avoid their own 
section in marriage (Jind). 

The second group is the Saralia, who are an off-shoot of the 
Aggarwdl and appear to have the same gots. 

The third group, the Oswal, appears to form a true sub-caste.t They 
strenuously claim a Pun war Rajput origin, but other Rajputs of 
various tribes joined them. They followed o*ie of their Brahmans in 
becoming Jains, in Sambat 422. 

Hence there are th.ree territorial groups or sub-castes, aud a fourth 
of lower status based on descent : — 

"Sub-groups:-— 

UaTa or Chhot!- ( West- 

8arn. ) ^ern Rdj- 

Sub-caste IT. Saralia, from Sarala. J 

Sub-caste III. Oswal, — from Osianagri— in Eastern Rajputana. 
Sub-caste IV. B4ra-Saini. 

Apparently there are, besides these territorial groups, cross-divisions 
of the caste based on religious differences. These seem to be Saraogi 
or Jain, Maheshri or Shaiva, Aggarwal-Vishiioi or Vaishnavas. 
But the Maheshri, who undoubtedly derive their name from Mahesli 
or Shiva, are not now all Shaivas, for one of their number was in 
consequence of a miracle converted to Jainism and so founded the 
Tahtar got of the Oswal, among whom the Kamilwat got is also 
Maheshri. It would appear that the Shaiva groups formed true sub- 
castes, for the Maheshri certainly do not intermarry with the Aggarwdl 
or Oswdl§ though Vaishnava and Jain Aggarw^ls intermarry freely in 
Gurgaon. 


1 




* Or Gand, cf. the Gand or impure section of the Bhitias. Hissar Gazetter, 1892, 
p. 137. In Jhelum the Good and Billa sections do not intermarry, being said to be 
descendants of a common ancestor. 

I The original Oswal gots are said to be 

1. Thaker, i 

2, Baphna (Rajput, by origin), ' 

3. Sankhli, 

4, Kamawat Pun war {Maheshri), 

6. Mor Rakh Pokarna.Sankla Punwar, j 
G. Kuladhar, Bribat Punwirs, 

7. Sri Srim, Sankla „ 

8. Srishtgota, Punwar, 

9. Suohanti, Punw4r, 

19, Kotari, or keepers of the treasnre-honse, 

but the last does not seem to be a true got, so that there were only 18 gots, as there still 
are among the Aggarwal. 

The B'lid are said to have been originally a branch of the Srishtgota and to have been 
BO called because Devi effected a miraculous cure of the eyes of a girl belonging to that 
section by causing a special kind of ah to grow, the juice of which healed them. 

X To which place the Aggarwils make annual jiilgrimages, as it is the ancient city of 
Agar or Ugar Sain. They also have a boy’s hair cut there for the first time. 

§ An account from Jfnd divides the Benias (like the Bh&bras) into the Srimal and 
Oswal groups, each with different gots : — 


10. Bahadur, Pnnwfir, 

11. Kanbat „ 

12. Baid, 

13. Tagu Srishtri, Sanklil, 

14. Bnrugotra, Bhatti, 

15. Dadu „ 

16. Chorbheria, Raghubansi, 

17. Kananjia, Rahtor, 

18. Chuichat. 


Chanalia. 

Bor&. 

Kanodia. 


Srimal gots. 

B&ngaria. 
Jfinfwil. 
T4nk. 


Oswil gots. 

Ranke. j Barabel. 

Dugar. I Bambh. 

Gadia. ' Nihar. 


02 The Bdnias in Bdwal-^Banjdra. 

d,g6rs^.doly from tho.e gweo ob^ !■» B^niae are repreaented by fourBroup.:- 

? AafLffsr W KhaadelwiI, (4) Mahdr, .rho raok m th.B order, each 

gVoup beiag a:ble to take water from the one above it, bat not wcr verBi. 

I t Tbo Aoaarwila of Bowal »;=4mo( in Mbha perform all the ceremonies observed 
f trn.Pt but they have a special custom of bonnpr the ears and 
t'^tiiZn boff maTe anf S This i? called pa™,a«. For thi. ceremony 
noses o > used at the lagan preceding a wedding in another family ; and 

'‘fb^rr/ wtdoh are orually ke?t in the pofoMfe charge to their own honse, 
carry the v » jayg The pandit fixes a wahurat or auspicious 

r e tthVrormg an%e perK^med; a^feast being given to Brahmans and 

T fins In tbTmse of a boy, he is made to sit on a be-goat whioh is borrowed for the 
rccaS' afd alms is pivef,' a present being alee made to the boy. In N4bha town 
some Aggarwal families perform this ceremony, but others do not. 

The Rustagi* group is found only in the Bawal nizdmat, in Gurgaon, 
BndaS^ BulandshaL and Gwalior. They are most strongly represented in 
rIwuI’ at Bhora in Rewari tahsil and at Barand in Alwar State, but probably do not 
1 000 families in the whole of India. Though in marriage they only avoid one 
exceed > naucity of the numbers the poorer members cannot get wives and 

^ H^liZarfier They sa/that Rohtasgarh was their original home and that their 
SagiTs derived from Roht^s. T^y have 18 yofs named after the villages which 
fu -o-iTiftllv inhabited They avoid widow re-marriage, but do not invariably wear 
the Agsarwalsdo^ They perform the first hair-cutting of a boy at Nagar- 
Dahni t Alwirlt the astul of Devi. They observe the milni, i.c. when the 
to nf a betrothed couple meet the girl’s father must give the boy s father from one 
parents o g ^nd the girl’s father must not visit the village where his daughter 

has been^betrothed until after the marriage under the penalty of paying the mtlnx, 
but mice paid it is not payable a second time. At the DewAli Rustsgis pay special 
ssTino tn their sati They are all Vaishnavas and also worship Gopi N4th. Fhe 
6ardfc must arrive the d'ay before the wedding, but they have no other special marriage 

customs. 

(ui) The Khandelw^ils are few in number. They have 72 gats, the pri^ipal one in 
xrivvVvo Qfote heim? the Baiolia. They claim to have come from Khatu Khandela in 
^ fhebSn thisToup also arrives the day before the wedding but the boy’s 

JXr has to fled th^barf himself on that day. Like the Ahirs the Khandelw41s on 
SeSdai dL have a special custom. The women of the bride’s family clothe the boys 
father in yeUow clothes and put a pitcher of water on his head, with a necklace of 
camel’s dung round his neck and compel him to go and worship the well just as the 
women do. He only escapes after much teasing by paying them from 11 to 51 n^ees. 
They do not wear the janeo, and as they are devotees of Bhagwan Das, Mahatma, of Tikha 
in the B4wal Th4na they do not smoke or sell tobacco. 

(iv) The Mahfir are few in number in Bawal. They have two gots Mawal and Kargas. 
They are Vaishnavas and specially reverence Hannman. 


Banjara.— This and the Labdna caste are generally said to be identical, t 
beiiiff called Banifira in the eastern districts and Labdna m the Punjab 
proper. But Banjdra, derived from hanij, ‘ a trader’, or perhaps from 
hdnji ‘a pedlar’s pack,’ is used in the west of tho Punjab as a generic 
term for ‘ pedlar.’ Wanj^ra {q.v.) is doubtless only another form of 

the name. 

The Banjara*! of the eastern districts are a well-marked class, of 
whom a complete description will be found in Elliott’s Races of the 
^ P., I, pp. 52 — 56. Tbev were the great travelling traders and 

carriers of Central India, the Deccan and Rdjputdna ; and under the 

* According to an account from Pataudi State the groups are Aggarwal, Rasangi, 
Maheeri Saraogi and Kalal, and in Gurgaon it is said that the Saraogi and Vishnav (sic) 
KAni&s do not intermarry though they can eat hachchi and pahlci with each other. 

^ t In Southern India the Brinjara is also called Lawanah or Lumb4na (fr. liin, Sanskr 
lavan, ‘ aalt’). See also under Multd^i. 


68 


Banjdra^Bannvchi. 

Afghan and Mughal empires were the commiBsariat of the imperial 
forces. A simile applied to a dying person is ; 

Banjdra han men phire liye lakrid hath; 

Tdn4a wdhd lad gaya, hoi sangi nahin sdth. 

‘^The Banjara goes into the jungle with his stick in his hand. 

He is ready for the journey, and there is nobody with him.” 

From Sir H. Elliott’s description they seem to be a very composite 
class, including sections of various origin. But the original Banjara caste 
is said to have its habitat in the sub-montane tract from Gorakhpnr to 
Hardwar. The Banjdras of the United Provinces come annually into 
the Jumna districts and Eastern States in the cold weather with letters 
of credit on the local merchants, and buy up large numbers of cattle 
which they take back again for sale as the summer approaches; and 
these men and the Banjara carriers from R^jputana are principally 
Hindus. The Musalman Banjaras are probably almost all pedlars. 
The headmen of the Banjara parties are called ndih (Sanskrit 
ndyaka, “chief”) and Banjaras in general are not uncommonly known 
by that nanae. The Railways are fast destroying the carrving 
trade of these people except in the mountain tracts. The word banjdra 
is apparently sometimes used for an oculist, and any Hindu pedlar is 
so styled. Synonyms are bisdti or manidr in the central, and lanati 
in the eastern districts, and, amongst Muhammadans, hhoja and pardcha. 
In Amritsar their gots are said to include Msnhds, Khokhar and 
Bhat^i septs, and they have a tradition that Akbar dismissed Chaudhri 
Shah Quli from his service whereupon he turned trader or banjdra. 

Bannuchi. — The hybrid branch of the Pathdns which holds the central 
portion of the Bannu tahsil, between the Kurram and Tochi rivers. 
This tract they occupied towards the close of the 1 4th century, after 
being driven out of Shawdl by the Wazirs and in turn driving the 
Mangal and Hanni tribes back into Kohat and Kurram. The Banndchis 
have attracted to themselves Sayyids and other doctors of Isldm in 
great numbers, and have not hesitated to intermarry with these, with 
the scattered representatives of the former inhabitants of their tract 
who remained with them as hamsdya, and with the families of the 
various adventurers who have at different times settled amongst them; 
insomuch that “ Bannuchi in its broadest sense now means all Muham- 
madans, and by a stretch, even Hindus long domiciled within the limits 
of the irrigated tract originally occupied by the tribe.” The descend- 
ants of Shitak, however, still preserve the memory of their separate 
origin and distinguish themselves as Bannuchi proper. They are of 
inferior physique, envious, secretive, cowardly, lying, great bigots, 
inoffensive, and capital cultivators. Sir Herbert Edwardea says of 
them : ‘ The Bannuchis are bad specimens of Afghans ; can worse bo 
said of any race ? They have all the vices of Pafhans rankly luxuriant, 
their virtues stunted.’ Their Isakhi clan, however, is famed for the 
beauty of its women. ‘ Who mariies not an Isakhi woman deserves an 
ass for a bride.’ 

Shitak, a Kakai Karlanri, by his wife Bannfi had two sons, Kiwi and 
Surani. The former had also two sons, Miri and Sami. To Miri’s 
lions fell the south, to Sami’s the centre, and to Surdni’s the north and 


64 Banot — Barar. 

west of Dand, the modern Bannu, which was named after Shitak’s wife. 
When Bannu became a part of the kingdom of K^bul the Bannuchis 
split into two factions, ‘ black ’ and ‘ white,’ which left them a prey to 
the Wazirs. 

Banot, a sept of Hindu Rajputs, which holds a hdrah or group of 12 villages 
near Garhshankar in Hoshidrpur. The Baiiotsay they are of the same 
origin as the Narus, and the name is said to mean ‘ shadow of the 
ban’ or forests of the Siw^liks in which they once dwelt. 

Bansi, a class of musicians, players on the pipe {bans) at temples and 
village shrines, but virtually employed in the same way as Halis or 
Sipis, in Chamba. 

Banwra, a Muhammadan Jd,t clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Banya-i, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Banyi, see Banya. 

Baoei, a tribe of Muhammadans, of J4t status, found in Montgomery. 

Bapar, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multd,n. 

Baphla, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Bappi, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multan : see Bosan. 

Bar, a Muhammadan Jat clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bar Mohmanh, see Mohmand. 

Baeai, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bakaiya, (Sanskrit, varajivi), an astrologer according to the Dharma Purdn, 
begotten by a Brahman on a Sudi4. But under the same name the 
Tantrd describes a caste sprung from n. gopd (cowheid) and a 
Tantravdya (weaver) and employed in cultivating betel (Colebrooke, 
Essays, 272-3). 

Bakakzai, a famous clan of the Abdd,li or Durrani Afghans which sup- 
planted the Sadozai family of that branch early in the 19th century. 
Its most famous members were Fath Khdn and Dost Muhammad his 
brother. The latter took the title of amir after Shdh Shujd’s failure 
to recover Qandahar in 1834 and founded the present ruling house of 
Afghanistan: (for its history see M. Longworth Dames in The Ency” 
clo'psidia of Islam, 1908). 

Barar, (1)^ a JdX clan (agricultural) found in Multan, and in Montgomery 
in which District it is both Hindu and Muhammadan : (2) a Hindu 

and Muhammadan Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Barar, an Arain clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bakaii, fern. Barfi, alow caste given to begging and roguery. In Jullundur 
the Barars make winnowing fans [chhaj], baskets, and sieves [chhanra) 
of reed. I hey also hunt with dogs. Their observances resemble those of 
the Chuhras. At a wedding one of the caste is selected to officiate, and 
he kindles the fire and makes the couple go round it. The bride’s 
parents keep the wedding party one or three days, feeding its members 
on rice, sugar and bread. On its departure the girl’s father gives her 


Barai — Barid. 


65 


a (marriage portion) dower. The women ainar songs, and the 
mon chant a ballad called g^tga. The Bardrs believe in Ldl Bet? and 
every Babi they <iffer him a rot of 2^ sf’rs with a fowl, boil, d and 
smotiiered in ghi. This is either ^iven to faqirs or enten by them- 
selves. Some of the caste are vagrants and form a link between the 
Sdnsis and Chulird,3. 

Baba^l, (1) 'I'he name of a caste of Jdfs around Bhatind^; Barar hatis, a 
person belonging to, or descended from, the Bardr caste. See under 
Sidhu Bardr ; (2) a clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Ba^lai^a, also called Barar and Bardri, a basUet-maLer and bamboo-worker 
in the higher hills who has also spread into the sub-montane tracts. 
He is not a scavenger by prt)fession though he is said to worship 
L^l Beg, the Chuhras’ deity. See Koli ani Nirgdlu, 

Barqhat, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amiitsar. 

Ba^hial, a sept de«:cended from Andeo Chand, son of Udai Chand 
fourteenth Rilia of Kahlur. Another account makes them descendants 
of Rdj^ A jit Chand’s younger son. 

Barhai. — A wood-cutter or carpenter in the hills (root badhnd, to cut, cf. 
Bddhi). In Kullu the Barhdis and B^dhis are the same, but not in 
K^ngra Proper. In Kullu they do not scruple to eat the flesh of dead 
animals. The Barhdis are not a separate caste, but Kolis or Ddgis 
that use the axe, and one of the Koli groups is returned as Barhdi. 
There is also a Barhdi tribe or clan among the Kathis of K^ngra. 

Ba^hi. — The synonym for Tarkhdn in the Jumna Districts. 'I'he B^rhi 
considers himself superior to his western brother the Kh^ti, and will 
not marry with him : his married women wear the nose-ring. Cf. 
Bidhi and Barhdi. 

Bari, a caste in Bd,wal who make pataJs and dihias* of leaves, while some 
are cooks to Hindu Wdjputs. Tliey Hre immigiants from Rkjput6na, and 
claim R^ijput oriKin to which their got names point. Tnese are Chauhtin 
(who are AsAwariast by persuasion), and others. 

In marriage they avoid four^ois, and also fellow-worshippers of the 
devi. Thus an Asflwaria may not marry an A8d,waria Chauhdn. At 
a wedding the p/ieras are not performed until the bride has put on 
ivory bangles— like a Rdjput bride. They affect Bhairon, eat flesh 
and drink liquor, but Hindu Rajputs will eat food cooked by them and 
though now regarded as Sudras they are admitted to temples. 

Baria, Varya, a Rdjput tribe, said in J.ullnndur to be Solar Riljputs 
descended from R^jd. Karan of the Mahabh4rat. Their ancestor 
Mai (!) came from Jal Kdhia in Pat'Ala about 500 vesra 
ago. Those of Sidlkot, where they are found in small numbers 
and rank as J4ts, not RAjputs, 8><y they are of Lu-ia'- Rajput 
descent. The tribe is practically confined to Pati6la and N^bha, and 
the name of the ancestor MmI, if common to the trib*",- looks as if they 
were not Bajputs at all. Another form of the name appears to be 
‘ War^Lh.* 1 he Wardh are descendants of Wardh, whose grandson 

* Fatal, a plate made of leaves (also a scresn, made of reeds), duna, a cup made cf loaves. 

Both are generally made from the leaves of the dndk tree, 
t Devotees of Asiwaria Devi, whose temple is at Sambbar in Jaipur. 


66 


Baridn^^Barwdld, 


Rd]! Banni Pdl, is said to have founded Bhatinda, after conquering 
Bhatner and marrying the daughter of its Rajd. Banui Pdl’s son 
Udasi was defeated by a king of Delhi but received sjagir. Bis son 
Sundar had seven sons, of whom the eldest founded Badhar in Ndbha. 
(Cy. Baridn). 

Baeian, a tribe of Jats, claiming to be Lunar Rdjputs of the Jaler, Sahi and 
Lakhi families— through its eponym whose descendant Tok settled in 
Sidlkot. (c/. Barid). 

Barik (? Barakki), a clan of Pathdns, claiming Arab descent. With the 
Ansdri Shaikhs they came from the Logar valley between Kdbul 
and Ghazni aTid settled at Jullundur. It includes the Guz,* Alidk and 
Babdkhel families and one branch of it is called Suddkhel. Elphin- 
stonet describes the Barakkis as a class of Tdjiks, mixed with the 
Ghiljia (Ghilzais or possibly Khilchis). The Barakkis are also 
described as a Tdjik people, speaking a language of their own, and 
Baverty notes that some Barakki Tdjiks also dwell among the 
Urmurs at Kaniguram in the Wazir country. For the connection 
of the Bdrik Pathans with Shaikh Darwesh see the article on the 
Roshaiiias. 

BabikkL (s. m.). A low caste of Muhammadans. 

Barka^idaj. (s. m.). Corrupted from the Arabic word Barqanddx. A police* 
man ; a constable ; a village watchman. 

Barkezai, a Pathdn clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Barlas, Barldsyi, a Mughal clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Babukzai (? Barak zai), a Pathan clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Barwala, Batwal. These two names, though probably of different origin, 
are used almost as synonyms, the former being more common in the 
Inwer bills and the latter iu the mountain ranges of Kdngra. But in 
Chamba tbe Barwdld is clearly distinct from the Batwdl, being a maker 
of mats and winnowing fans, and the name is probably derived from 
bard or barm, the kind of grass used for them. Battvdl or baticdr on the 
other hand means a tax collector, and batwdl is an ordinary peon of any 
caste, even a Brahman, though of course he may be by caste a Batwdl. J 
At the capital, Chamba, Barwdlds used to be employed as watchmen 
and thus went up in the social scale as Batwdls. In Kdngra however 
the Batwdl form a true caste, while Barwdld is little more than 
the name of an occupation. Both words correspond very closely 
with the Lahbar or Baldhar of the plains, and denote the village 
■watchman or messenger. In the higher hills this oflice is almost 


• For the Ghuz® Turks in Kurram see Raverty’s translation of the Tabaqdt-i-Ndsiri 
Cauhul, p. 315. 

Also see the Saints of Jalandhar in Temple’s Legends of the Punjab 

Dr. J. Hutchison notes regarding the Batwils of Chamba that they claim descent froa 

Siddh Kanen, a deified ascetic of whom they know nothing. Formerly employed as watch- 
men, a few are still enlisted in the State Police. _ Barwalas and Batwiils are all Hindus and 
have their own gotras, but Brahmans do not officiate at their weddings, which are solemnised 
by two literate men of the Their observances follow the usage of the locality in which 

they axe settled. Thus in Chamba the btyah or full wedding rite is observed as 

tod m <te 


Balwdl customs^ 


67 


confined to the BatwdlAs, while in the lower hills it is performed by 
men of various low castes who are all included under the generic term 
of Barw616. These men are also the coolies of the hills, and in fact 
occupy much the same position there as is held by the Chamdrs in the 
plains, save that they do not tan or work in leather. In Kdngra they 
are also known as Kirdwak or Kirauk, a word which properly means a 
man whose duty it is to assemble coolies and others for begdr or forced 
labour, and they are also called Satwdg or “ bearers of burdens.” Like 
most hill menials they often cultivate land., and are employed as 
ploughmen and field labourers by the lldjputs and allied races of the 
hills who are too proud to cultivate with their own hands. They are 
true village menials, and attend upon village guests, fill pipes, bear 
torches, and carry the bridegroom’s palanquin at weddings and the like, 
and receive fixed fees for doing so. In the towns they appear to be 
common servants. They are of the lowest or almost the lowest standing 
as a caste, apparently hardly, if at all, above the Dumna or sweeper of 
the hills ; but the Batwal has perhans a slightly higher standing than 
tho Barw^4. Indeed the name of Barwala is said to be a corruption of 
hahartcdZd or “ outsider,” because, like all outcasts, they live in the 
outskirts of tho village. 

At Batwdl weddings in Si^lkotthe learned among the Meerhs officiate. 
Tho Batwdls have Brahman priests, but they do not conduct their 
marriage rites : they also avoid contwet with them. ’I’he Ba^wdls 
marry their girls at an early age, but allow widow-remarriage, and that 
too without regard to the hnsband’s brother’s claims. Two gats only are 
avoided. Batw^ls* are menials. 

Birth observances. — Four or twelve months after the birth of a boy 
ritaii are observed as follows : — Loaves of bread fried in oil aje arranged 
in piles, seven in each heap, and the head of each family lakes a pile and 
distributes it among its members. Only those who belong to the got in 
which the birth has taken place can take part in this feast. Among the 
Jhanjotra the head of a boy or girl is not shaved till the child begins 
to talk. Sometimes a bodi is retained, as among Hindus. 

Their wedding ceremonies are thus described : — 

Four posts are fixed in the ground and four more placed over those. 
On these four latter two turbans, supplied by the fathers or guardians of 
the bride or bridegroom, are spread. Then the bride’s father places 
her hands in those of the bridegroom, saying : ‘ In God’s name I give 
you this girl (my daughter or relation).’ Then the pair, tho bride’s 
hands clasped in the bridegroom’s, walk round an earthen pitcher 
placed inside the four upright posts. This duly done, the marriage is 
coropleted.t On his way home the bridegroom has to wind some raw 
cotton seven times round a shrub. 

The Batwdls either burn or bury their dead. In either case on tho 
way to the ground they halt and place two balls of leavened barley 
bread at the shoulders, and two at the feet, of the corpse. Thirteen 

♦ The Batwils’ folk-etymology derives their name from heiwdl, ‘ son of a daughter ’. A 
RAja’s daughter became enceinte by an illicit amour and was expelled her father’s kingdom. 
A ChnhrA took her to wife, but her child founded tho BatwAl caste. 

t At weddings food is thrown to the crows — which birds the BatwAls are said to chiefly 
worehij^aad tmtil l^ey take the food the Batwila themselves will not eat. 


gg Barydr — Bashera. 

days after the death they teke to a Brahman a rupee ^ o£ 

v,heat flour, and these >'<> 

As among>t HuhIus hhajjan* is performed after » -he left 
of cotton cloth, knotted at, ihe four corners, are huug over the left 

Bhoulder, iu token of mourning, by the kin. 

The remains of a body are taken either to the Ganges or to Parmandal. 

The Batwdls are not allowed to sell ghi, nnd after a cow has calved 
they do not eat gh\ until some has been offered to a Brahman. 

In Si^lkot the Barw4l4 gots are 

Nandan 

Lakhutra Sangotra 

Lahoria Sargotra 

MoIuq or MoM-n Sindna 

Each of the Batwal gols in Si^lkot has its own temple, e. (/., the 
'jlianiotra at Ghulhe in Zafar??d.l tahsil : the Kaith at Amranwai in 
Sidlko^ : and theMoldn atGiHauwal^ in Zafarwal. The temple is simp y a 

mound of earth before which they prostrate themselves, each head o a 

family sacrificing at it a goat in honour of his eldest son. 

In Kapurthaia the Barwala gots are: — 

Badial 
Chakmak 
Chandgirain 
Chauhan 


bhagga 
Jhanjotra 
Kaith 


Phankriin 

Batrf 

Soner 


Dh4di 
Jhajriha 
K ahra 

. Pambilia i 

With the Chandgirain got the other BatwAls have no connection, and 
do not even smoke with them. Like the BatwAls the Barwdlds in Si^lkot 
employ Meghs, who rank liigher than the ordinary Meghs, as priests in 
religious and ceremonial observances. 

The Bar w aids make baskets iu Sidlkot. In Kapiirthal^ they are 
village watchmen and messengers. 

Babyar, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 


Barye, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Basan, an Ar^iri clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar : Basan in Mont- 
gomery. 

Basati, Basdtia, a pedlar ; a petty merchant. 

Babha; a synonym for Bhdnd, q. v. The term is applied to a jester or tumbler 
kept by weahhy men, also to an actor (and so equivalent to Bahrupia, 
especially in the Central Punjab). In Sialkot the Btishd is said to be 
a class of Pernas. The B^slias are usually Muhammadans, and though 
probably mostly Mirasis by origin will not intermarry with them. 
The term is also applied generally to any immoral person. Bashes 
are also cuppers and toy -sellers. 

Ba-sbara, ' regnlar : a term applied to the four great regular orders among 
the Snnni Muhammadans, viz., the Chishti, Qddm, Saharwardi and 
Nakshhaifdi, who all uphold Snfi-ism. Opposed to Be-shara*. 

Bashera, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 


* Worship. 


60 


Bashgdlt’^Bathmdnu. 


BashoXli, a tribe of the Siiih-poah K^Lbrs : see under K^lfir. 

BasukaRj a gfroup of non-Pathdn tribes which need to occupy the Panjkora 
Kohistdn or Kohistan-i-Malizai in Dir, the upper part of this Kohistdn 
being known as Bashkir and the lower as Sheringal, but the Baehkdr 
are now chiefly conflned to the tract of that name. The Basbkari 
language is said to be the same as the Garhwi. 

According to Biddulph the Bashkdrik, as he terms them, have three 
clans ; Mdlanor, Kutchkor and Joghior. The Bashkdrik name the 
months thus : — 


Hassan Husain 
Safar 

Param Ishpo (first sister) 
Dowim Ishpo (second sister) 

Bee under Torw^l. 


Tlfii Ishpo (third sister) 
Chot Ishpo (fourth sister) 
Sriepi (great month) 
Shokadr 


Boz 

Lokyiil (small festival) 
Miina (intervening) 
Ganyiil (great festival) 


Basi. a tribe of Ja^a, whose forebear Tulla has a mat at Gopalpur in 
Lndhiana. At the birth of a son, and also at the Diwdli, earth is dug 
. there in his name. 


Basua, a clan (agricultural) found in Shdhpur : Basrjie, a Jat clan (agri 
cultural) found in Amritsar. 


Bat, a- clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. Also a sept of Kashmiri 
Pandit, converted to Isldm and found in the north-west submontane 
Districts of the Punjab. 


Batahka, (c/. Patahar), a stone-mason, a carver or dresser of stone, in tho 
Kangra hills. In Kullu he is said to be a Koli who has taken to 
slate quarrying. In Chamba, however, they appear to form a true caste, 
working generally as stone-masons, but sometimes as carpenters or oven 
cultivators. In Gurddspur and Kdngra the word is synonymous with 

SAJ • 

Batakzai, a Pa^han clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Batab, a J6t clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Bat, Bath, a clan (agricult oral) found in Amritsar. Crowther gives the 
following list of the Bd,t septs : Bat, Dhol, Jhandol, Pophart, Khairo, 
Jhandher, Desi, Tatla, Anjla, Ghuman, Ghumdn, Khak,Dhawal, Janua,* 
Randher, Madri, Sadri, Hoti, Seti, and Kirbat, which may all inter- 
marry, so that a Bat sometimes may marry a Bdt- All these septs are 
said to be descendants of San-or Sainpd,!, who came from the Md,lwa 800 
years ago. They first settled at Odhyara in Lahore. Khair(a)’8 
descendants have two jatheras, BajpM and his grandson Shdhzdda, 
who fell in a fight with the Kang Jats at Khadur Sd,hib in Amritsar. 
The Bd.th are also found, as a Hindu and Muhammadan J^t clan in 
Montgomery. 

BXthekb, a sept of the Wattu Rajputs, found in Montgomery and Bah^walpur, 

Bathman6, a Brahman ai, of Bath mdna village in Dh4mi and one of the 
chief tribes in that State. With the Jamogi Kanets it gives the 
raj'tilak to the Ran^, and like them belongs to the Garg golra. Tho 
xoazir of the State nsually belongs to one of these two septs. 

• There is said to be a settlement of Januas (? Janjfias) ' beyond Peshiwar ’ who have 
become Muhammadans. 


70 The Bduria tribal system. 

BATf, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Battar, a Jdt sept. 

BAYTi, a Hindu Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bauria, Bawaria. The following is Sir Denzil Ibbetson’s account of the 
Bduria groups : — They are said to be divided into three sections i the 
Bidawati of Bikaner who trace their origin to Bid^wat in Jaipur, do 
not eat carrion, disdain petty theft but delight in crimes of violence, 
will not steal cows or oxen, aud affect a superiority over the rest ; 
the Jangali or K^lkamlia, also called Kdldhaballia — fr. dhahla, a skirt, 
the blanket, karnal, forming a petticoat, — generally found in the 
Jangaldes of the Sikh States, Ferozepore, and Sirsa, and whose women 
wear black blankets ; and the Kaparia who are most numerous in the 
neighbourhood of Dehli, and are notoriously a criminal tribe. The 
three sections neither eat together nor intermarry. The Kdlkamlia 
is the only section which are still hunters by profession, the other 
sections looking down upon that calling. The Kd.paria are for the 
most part vagrant ; while the Biddwati live generally in fixed abodes.” 

This account is amplified in an interesting account of the tribe by 
Mr. H. L. Williams of the Punjab Police. He gives the following 
table of their tribal system which is clearly based on the usual 
principle of territorial and other groups which cross-divide the natural 
sections* : — 


* As regards the BAurias in Lyallpur Mr. J. M. Dunnett writes ; — 

“ There is a further and occupational division among the Baurias. Non-cultivators sre 
Kspria, Gumria, and Gadera, while Kaldhablia, Deswalia, Dewawate and Labana are culti- 
vators. The division, I think, really means that some live by himting pure and simple, the 
others combining agriculture with it. At any rate the difference in izzat is so great that 
intermarriage between two divisions is imknown. Why Gadera, which must mean a shep- 
herd, is classed as non-agriculturist, while Lab^nas, who hunt pigs are classed as cultivators 
I do not know.” 


Desw&Ii (territoriftl) or Gomaria 1 . Rolkhi. 4 . Dbindal, 7 . Bahlavr. Chiefly found in CaltiTatore. 

(contemptuons, becanse they take 2. Makwina. 6. Sankhla, 8. Badwa. Ilari&na. 

food from the hands of Maham- 3 . Panw&r. 6. Bbiti or D 4 bi. 9 . Barg^jar. 

madans). 


71 


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Bduria beliefs. 

Besides the derivation from bdwar, a snare, which is tlie one usually 
given, Mr. Williams records other traditions as to the origin of the 
name ‘ Banria.' According to one the emperor Akbar demanded a 
dold from S^ndnl, Wdjil of t'hitoi^ and on the Uttec’s refusing, a battle 
was fought, in which some of the wuniots were engiged near a bdoli, 
or well. Those on the liiljput side were called Biiolias or Blwulias. 
A third explanation is that, after the capture of Cliiior, a young man of 
one of the tribes which bad taken to the jungles saw and lovei a 
Rjijput maid of good lineage. They were married, but the young man 
returned to jungle life and was called Baola (imbecile) by the bride’s 
relations for doing so, or on account of his uncouth manner. Mr. 
Williams’ account continues : — 

“ Tradition says that the Bawarias are descendants of Chdnda and 
Jora, and when Fatta and Jaimal, Rd,jputs of the Surajbans or Solar 
race, were joint Riijd,s of Cbitor, ShHhd;b-ud-din of Ghor assailed tha 
fortress. It was defended by the Rajputs and their feudal military 
classes, of whom the Bhils were the professional bowmen ; the Aheris, 
the skilled swordsmen ; and the Btlwarias, the baitdukchis^ or musket- 
eers. In this connection the Bdwarias, although claiming Rdjput 
origin, do not profess to have been the equals of the H^jput ruling 
class, but rather their vassals or feudatories. Some few Biiwarias 
still wear the Rajput badge of metal kara, or ring, on the right ankle. 

‘^Of the now outcaste tribes, whom the Bawarias recognize as having 
shared with them the defence of Chitor, the Gd-di Lohtirs, or wandering 
cutlers, are not only distinguished by the Rdjput clan designations and 
silver and metal karas, but openly proclaim that they are doomed to a 
wandering existence till the Rajput power is again established in Chitor. 

“ The Bidd.wati Bd-warias and others, whose place of origin is said to be 
Chhauni Bahddunln in Bikd,ner, claim to be descendants of Rdjd, Kasd,lu. 

“ Religion . — The religion of the Bawarias is ancestor worship com- 
bined with allegiance to certain deities who are common to them and 
other outcaste or foul-feeding tribes.” Mr. Williams then remarks that 
.several Bilwaria chms alTect Guga, many of their members wearing 
silver amulets with hi.s image in relief It would appear that the cult 
of Giiga is specially affected by the clans of Chauhd.n descent, as Guga 
was a Rajput of that tribe and is peculiarly the patron of all clans which 
claim Chauhdu origin. The Bhiitis and other groups also affect Guga, and 
such groups as worship him do not affect Devi. Mr. Williams adds ; — 

“ Rdm Deo, supposed to have been an incarnation of Krishnd, was 
the son of Ajmal, a Wdjput of Ranchhal. He is specially reverenced 
by the Panwd.r sept and several of the wandering tribes. Siirdlarly 
Ki'ili, Laltd, Masiini and other deities have devotees among tlie 
Bdvvarias. But the criminal members of the tribe make a special cult 
of Narsingh and pay their devotions to him in the following manner: — 
When planning a criminal expedition, a chirdgh filled with ghi is 
ignited and a live coal placed beside it, ghi and halwd, are added till 
both are in flame ; on the smoke and fumes, called horn, arising, the 
persons present fold their hands and make supplication, saying : ‘ He, 

* Similarly the Machhis or Jhiwars claim to have been artillerists in the Native Indian 
Arniie3,^and they also manufactured gunpowder, shot being made by the Lohars, 


74 


The Baurias in Gurgaon. 


Nar Singh, through thy blessing we shall succeed. Remember to protect 
US.’ The remains of the halwd are given to black dogs and crows. 

Worship of the Sun also obtains in some septs. The cenotaph of 
an ancestor named Jujhar at Jhanda, in Patiala, is visited for religious 
purposes.’^ 


In Gnrgaon and the tracts round that District the Baurias are divided 
into num(3ious groups. Of these the most important, locally, is the 
JaruUw^ld, or Laturi^,* * * § so called because its members wear long hair, 
like Sikhs.t This group is endogamous and includes 14 pois:— 


1 BadOUJAE. 

10 GangwdlJI 

2 Chauhan.J: 

11 Jaghotia.§§ 

3 PanwAe. 

12 Katoria. II II 

4 R.athaub. 

13 Kotia. 

5 Agotia.% 

14 Mewatia. 

6 Baghotia.il 

15 Bhatti ) 

7 Berara.^f 

16 Parwar > 

8 Chaond.** * * §§ 

17 Sangra ) 

9 Dabria.ft 

18 Jagonsa ^ 

19 Konja j 


in Labor*. 


m 


These 14 gots are strictly exogamous. Widow re*marriage [karao] is 
permissible ; but not marriage outside Ihe Jarul4wd,la group. Even 
marriage with a Rdjput woman, of a khanp from which the Baurias 
are sprung, is looked down upon, and the offspring are called Buret- 
wdl, as among the lld,jputs, or taknot. Such children find it difficult 
to obtain mates aiid, if boys, can only do so by paying heavily for 
their brides. Such men too are only allowed to smoke with pure Bdurias 
after the nari has been removed from the Miqqa. 


The addition to (or possibly overlapping) this grouping are a number 
of occupational groups, as follows : — 

1. Sehd,dariA,^^ skilled in entering (s/c) the burrows of the sell 
(porcupine) and found in Bhawd,ni, Hissar District. 


* But see HH below. 

t The Baurias do not appear to become true Sikhs but, probably because many of them 
wear lonsf hair, they are often said to be so. Reerardine the Baurias of Lvallnur Mr J 
M. Dunnett writes ; — 

“ They are, I find, all Hindus, out-castes of course, but still wearing the choti and 
burning their dead. In one Police station in anticipation of registration (as members of 
a Criminal Tribe) they had become Sikhs, but in no case had the pahul been taken before 
ordeis for registration had been issued. One man thus naively explained that he had all 
the feakA:as except the kachh, and I had really come before he could get that made. In 
their zeal they had even gone the length of wearing a sixfh kakka, called kanpnn, a small 
spade, with which they said the patdsha used in the pahul fe stirred.” 

X Sub-divided into 8 septs in Lahore, in wliich District thev rank highest. 

§ Of Panwar origin. 

il ? Bighotia, from Bighoto, but they are said to be named from Baghot a village in N4blia 
and to be descended from Jiitu Rdjputs. 

5f Beraia, so called from berar, a mixture of several kinds of grain ; the got i.s descended 
from a Panwar who married a woman of his own got bv kareiua 

** From Chaond, a viUage. ^ 

ft ^ grass foimd in the Jumna riverain lands whence they came ; the got 

claims Panwar or oven Chauhan origin. 

the Ganges: cf Gangwalia a group mentioned below. 

§§ Of Badgujar origin. 

. BbtA illl The Katorias claim Rathaiu' extraction. But it is also said that ihe Baurias who live 

"J n Jarulawala or Katoria and wear long hair, like Sikhs. The Baurias 

of the U ted Provinces are styled Bidkias. 

^ If Or Sehodliaria, 


The Bdurias in Gurgtten. 


75 


2. Telbechd, dealers in the' oil of the pelican and other birds, 
and found east of the Ganges. These have an off-shoot in the 

3. Bailia, a group which modestly claims Jhiwar-Kah^r oriein, and 
is distinguished by churis (or an iron bangle) worn on t le wris 

4. Ugarwa, an off-shoot of theB^ris who live by burglary. 

5. Bhaurjalia (mV, who use the haur [bdwar) or snare. 

6. Badhak or Badhakia, hunters, found in Bharatpur State, 

Mathra, etc. , 

7. Chirimdrs, bird-snarers, found in the same ti-acts.' 


Other groups are territorial, such as the 

1. Dilwdlis, found in Delhi and its neighbourhood. An off-shoot 

of this group is the Ndnwal which sells ropes. 

2. Ndgauria, from N^gaur in Jodhpur State. 

3. Bdgri, from the Bagar of Bikdner. 

4. Marus, from Marwdr. 

Other groups of less obvious origin are also found. Such are the— 

1 . Kdldhablia or Kaldhablia, who wear the black woollen cloak 
[Uamli) and are found in the Patiala State and to the west of 

Bhiwdni. 

' 2. Gangwdlia,* found in Jaipur State. 

3. H^burd, vagrants from the east of the Jumna. 

4. Gandhila, found on any riverain in the Punjab (? proper) and 


also east of the Jumna. 

Ahiria found in and about Hodal and Palwal. According 

* * . . . 1* . 1 A A 4-Iiq R.^ht'iqo anil A 


to a 


5 Ahiria, io«na m auu <vuvlau v, . • 

Braiimnn poroAit of the Ahiriaa at Hodal the BAurias and Ahtnas 
are descended from Goha, a Bhil, one of whose d^cendants married 
a Thaknr.t Her children by him became Alnr.as (Hem or Hen, 
lit a hunter), while the Bdurias are of pure Bhil blood. Closely 
allird to the Ahiria are the Badhaks. The Ahma and Bduria do 


not intermarry. 

The oonefc. who are chosen from the four khdaps and the Mewdtm 
rrrouT) are reesrded as leaders of the tribe. They form a pamhayat 
forl^’a pamhayat for caoh_ k/irinp) for the whole group. Offences 
are tried before tbe panchdyat which administers to the offender 
an oath on the Ganges or the Jumna : or he w made to advance 
five paces towards the sun and invoke its curse if he is guilty : but 
the most binding oath is that taken while plucking the leaf of 
n tree Fines go towards the expenses of the panchayat, and 

LyTullus to the panel Panchayats also solemnize the marriaps of 
widows and the fee then realised is paid to the widow s father-in-law. 

The Bduria sehrhs. 

Tradition avers that when a rani of Nimrdna married she was 
accompanied by five families of Rdthaiir Bdunns from whom are 
de Sed the present Rdthaur (? fiduriaa or) Rdjpnts. Hence th e 

• Not, apparently, the same as the ittrauh 

t Apparently named Karaul, and founder of the Slate of Karaul . 


The Bduria cults. 


Rdtliaurs* * * § regard Nimr^na as their Sehrh and worship Devi at her 
temple there. The Panwdrs have their sekrh at Kalidna near 
Narnaul : the Badgnjars theirs at Kanaund : and the Chauhans at 
Ranmoth near Mandnau (?) in Alwar. 

The Dabrias specially affect Masdni Devi t but the Bdurias as a 
whole have no distinctive cults and few special observances. Some 
of them wear the hair long in honour of Masdm Devi, Ijo whom a 
childless man vows that if a child be vouchsafed to him its hair 
shall remain uncut. Some Bd,urias also wear the patri, an ornament 
shaped like a jugni and made of gold ; in case of sickness prayer is 
offered through (sic) the pao,'b to the pitars, ‘ancestors,’ and on 
recovery the sufferer has a patri made and wears it round his neck. 
At meal times it is touched and a loaf given in alms in the pitars 
names. J Another charm is the devi kd ddnd, a few grains of corn, 
which are carried on the person and which, like the patri, avert all 
evil. 

The Devi at Nagarkot, Zd^hir Pir (Guga) and Thakurji ( ? Krishna) 
are other favourite deities of the Baurias, but the Sun god is also . 
propitiated in times of calamity or sickness. Fasts {hart) are kept 
on Sunday in honour of the Sun, and water thrown towards it. The 
janeo is never worn. For some reason not explained an oath on a 
donkey is peculiarly binding. Mr. Williams notes that Biiurias are said 
not to ride the donkey and to regard it with peculiar aversion. Oaths 
are also taken on the cow and the pipal tree. 

The Baurias are strict Hindus, refusing to eat anything, even 
ghi, which has been touched by a Muhammadan, though they will drink 
water from a bhishti’s skin, but not that kept in his house. Baurias 
will only eat meat procured by themselves or killed by jhatka. Pork 
they eschew, but not the flesh of the wild pig.§ 'ihe nilgai is regarded 
as a cow and never eaten, nor is the flesh of a he-buffwlo save by 
the Baurias of Shaikhdwati in Jaipur. As they are no longer per- 
mitted to possess swords they slaughter goats with the chhuri. 

In Lahore, where the Bdurias are said to be non-criminal, they have 
a dialect of their own called Ladi. Elsewhere their patois is called 
Lodi and is said to be understood by Bhils, Sdnsis, Kan jars and such 
like tribes. The Bd.wariah dialect is called Ghirhar, and sometimes 
Pashtu. 


* And the Katorias, as being of Rathanr descent. 

t Mr. Williams says : — ‘ Goats are offered to Devi and, at the time of oblation, water is 
sprinkled on the autmal’s head ; if it shakes its ears the omen is propitious and Devi has 
accepted the sacrifice.’ And Mr. Dunnett rvrites : — “ In Lyallpur the worship of a dcvi is 
admitted by all but the Songira Dharmwat who revere Bhairkiya and Narswer (Nar Sineh). 

The dcvi is worshipped in jungles at the sacred tree. At its roots a square is marked 
out with stones, ^d in the centre a hole is dug. A he-goat is then slain, and the blood 
poured into tlm Imle, the holy tree and the foreheads of the worshippers being also sprin- 
kled. Over the hole a hearth IS then constructed, on which the skull, the left fore-lec 
liver, kidneys and fat are biuned. The remainder is then cooked on the same hearth, and 
eaten by the worshippers. The ceremonial is of course based on the idea that the god is 
of the brotherhood of the tribe. ’ ° 

i ‘ ^Vhen anyone is in trouble, the cause is ascribed to his having angered a departed 
spirit, called to appease which some crumbs are fried in oil and put in a brazier 

before which all those present fold their hands and beat their brows.’ (Williams) ’ 

§ In some parts thcBauriaii will, it is said, eat the flesh of animals which have died a 
jisiturdi QC^tui 


Bduria ctistoms. 


77 


Birfh observances. — The child’s name is chosen by a Brahman. On 
the fifth day after birth the mother takes a lotahiW of water on her head 
to the nearest well, a Brahmani and Nain, with other women, accompany- 
ing her and sinking songs. She takes with her bhanjor (moistened grain) 
of grain or bojra and after worshipping the well throws some of the 
bhanjor j with a little water out of her lota and a makka brought by 
the Brahmsni or Nain into the well. The rest of the bhanjor is 
distributed among children. The mother is deemed purihed on the 
tenth day. Rathaur children arc tnken to th.") sehrh at Nimrana to 
have their heads shaved, but the Panwdrs, Chauhdns and Badgujars 
all take theirs to Masani Devi at Gurgraon. 

Weddmg Betrothal is not specially initiated by either side, 

but as soon as the negotiations have reached a certain stage the 
girl’s father, his Brahman or nai goes with the tika and even the 
poorest man con Arms the agreement by presenting a rupee to the boy. 
Well-to-do people give him a camel or gold eanings. 

Bauria men are, in their youth, sometimes branded. Most of their 
women are tattooed in one or more places on the face, viz., near the 
outer corners of the eyes, at the inner corner of the left eye, on the left 
cheek and on the chin : hence Bauria women are easily recognizable. 

Bdurias do not marry within their own got, and it is said that the 
bridegroom must not be younger than the bride, and that a blind or 
one-eye’d man must espouse a blind or one-eye’d woman ! In some 
tribes, adds Mr. Williams, fair women are only married to fair men, 
and the blackskinned, which form the majority, mate with one another. 

The girl’s father intimates the date fixed for her wedding by 
sending a written in Sanskrit, a.nd on the day fixed the 

wedding party goes to the girl’s house. The bridegroom wears the 
aehra and his forehead is smeared with haldi. The ceremonies are 
all in essence the same as those observed by the Rdjputs, except that 
no khera is named, for the simple reason that the Baurias have no 
fixed abodes. Weddings are, however, not solemnised by sending the 
patka or katdr in lieu of the bridegroom. Bduria brides wear a necklace 
made of horse haii* on which are threaded gold and silver beads. This 
is called sohdg sutra and it is worn till the husband’s death, when it 
is burnt with his corpse. 

On a man’s death his elder and then his younger brother have the 
first claim to his widow’s hand. Failing such near kinsmen a stranger 
may espouse her on payment of pichha, a sum assessed by the 
panches and paid by the new husband to the nearest agnate of the 
deceased’s father. 

Co-habitation with a woman of another caste is punished by not 
allowing the offender to smoke with the brotherhood, and the woman is 
regarded as a suret and her children as auretwdl even though she 
be a pure Rdjput by caste. Infidelity on a wife’s part is purged away 
by pressing a red hot iron into her tongue.* 

* Mr. Williams’ account of the Bawaria marriage customs is however different and runs 
as follows : — 

“ Each tribal sub-division is endogamous, and each got eiogamous to the father’s goi^ 
Marriage is permitted in the mother’s got ciclnding near relations. Marriage within th 


78 


Bduria sport. 

The observances at death differ in no way from those current 
among orthodox Hindus. The bones of the dead are taken to Garh 
Muketsar and there thrown into the Ganges. Mr. Williams however 
writes : — “The dead over seven years of age are burnt among most of 
the tribes, though some, as the Bidd^wati, practise burial. The corpse 
of a young person is draped with fine white cloth, of an old man with 
coarse cloth, and of a woman with turkey red. On the third day after 
a funeral, boiled rice is distributed among young girls. When a 
BAwaria wife is cremated her widower lights the pile. A father per- 
forms the same oflSce for a son, a son for a father, on failing such 
relationship, any near relative. On the third day following, the ashes 
are collected and rice is laid on seven pipal leaves and placed at the foot 
of the tree, certain persons being told to watch from a distance. If a 
crow eats the rice, it is a good omen ; but bad if a dog devours it. The 
period of mounrnig lasts twelve days. The ceremony of shrddh is per- 
formed in Assu, when rice is given to crows, the idea being to supply 
the necessities of the deceased in another world. 

Sporting Propensities. — A distinguishing feature of tliis people is 
their shikarring proclivities. In all parts of the Province they have 
dogs, large meshed nets for catching jackals and other vermin, and 
thong nooses for antelope. Where jungle is thick and game plentiful, 
sport sometimes takes the form of slaughter. Game is gradually 
driven into an enclosure formed by two lines of stakes, several feet 
apart, each tipped with a coloured rag and forming an angle at the 
apex of which are planted in several parallel rows the little bamboo 
stakes with slip knot thongs, looking in the distance like a patch of dry 
grass. The third side of the triangle is formed by the B4warias with 
dog and tom toms. When the beat begins, the line of beaters advances 

prohibited degrees of consanguinity is punished with excommunication up to a period of 12 
years, as among the Kuchband and other cognate tribes. The higher gots in the social scale 
are the Solkhi, or Sulankhi, Panwar, Choh4n, Bhiti, and Sankhla, and hence intermarriage 
witli them is sought after for the sake of their blue blood. 

Marriage and betrothal occur when both sexes have arrived at adult age. Sons may 
remain unmarried mthout incurring odium ; but, in the case of daughters, the panchdyat 
interferes and penalties are inflicted if too much time is allowed to pass. 

The ceremonies at betrothal — sdk or mangani — are simple. An emissary of the suitor 
meets, by appointment, the girl’s relatives and hands a sum ranging from Rs. 6 to 9 to tho 
senior male relative present, who pays the amount to the girl’s father. The suitor is then 
invited, if acceptable, to the evening meal, when the contract is made. An interval then 
passes before the date of manage is fixed, prenous to which the girl’s paternal uncle visits 
the suitor and gives him a rupee. Seven days before tho wedding, the same relative 
presents himself and ties black cotton tags roimd the youth’s ankles. 

Marriage is always by phera, as among tribes of the same category. On the day ap- 
pointed, four wooden pegs, a span long, are driven into the ground forming a square, a fire 
lit in the centre and cotton seed steeped in oil placed over it. A square copper coin (mansuri 
paioa) is put on the top of each peg. The couple circle seven times round the fire "with a 
knot tied in their garments, and the ceremony ends. A Brahman is usually present and 
receives a donation of Rs. 2 to 5, Rs. 24 to 100, according to the status of the parties is 
paid to the bride’s parents, who prepare an outfit of cooking utensils and clothing and 
return some of the rupees in a thdli, or brass vessel. The home-coming, or mukldwa 
ceremony comes last and consists in the bride’s b^eing sent to her husband’s house with a 
gift of a chadnr from her parents. 

Marriage by karewa is permitted and is the only form permissible to widows. It is 
availed of when a woman is destitute, or has no parents. A surviving brother is required 
to marrj’’ the widow, and, in default, she may claim compensation through a pnn^dyat 
When a widow marries, bracelets of lacquer are put on her and a fine of Rs. S imposed A 
woman convicted of adultery is disgraced and her chadar torn, the male accomplice beinc 
fined from Rs. 2 to 4 by the paiuMyat," ^ ^ 


Bawd — Belddr. 


79 


with great noise and howling, causing the game to gallop away until the 
line of stakes is reached, when scared by the coloured rags the animals 
glance aside and speed towards the apex, where a clear space appears 
with no visible obstacle but some tufts of familiar grass. In attempting 
to clear these, some antelope are caught in the thongs and thrown 
violently to the ground, when their throats are cut. 

Bawa, fern. Bawi (1), a title given to the male descendants of the first three 
Gui us of the Sikhs ; (2) a fakir or sddhii ; the head of an order of 
monks. 

Bawah, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Bawre, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Shdhpur. 

Bazaz, (1) a cloth-dealer; (2) a section of the Aroras. 

Bazid Khel, a section of the Jawaki Afridis found in Baizai, Kohdt. 

Baziqar, fr. Pers. bdzi, * play.’ The Bdzigar is usually a Muhammadan, 
the Nat a Hindu. Among the Bdzlgar both sexes perform, but 
among Nats only the males. Some say the Bdzigar is a tumbler and 
the Nat a rope-dancer, others that the former is a juggler and also an 
acrobat, the latter an acrobat only. In the Eastern Punjab the 
Bdzigar is termed Bddi. See Nat. 

In Ferozepur the Bdzigars have a shrine at Sadhaiwala, built in 
honour of an old woman who died not many years ago. Liquor is 
poured into a cup-shaped hole in this tomb and drunk. Weddings 
in families which affect this shrine are generally solemnised there. 
They have a K^ja, and his wife is ltdni. Both settle disputes without 
appeal and are almost worshipped, the latter being attended by a 
number of women who carry her long train. Bdaigar camps consist 
of reed huts pitched in legular lines. The ‘caste’ is said to be 
recruited from various castes, even Brahmans and Ja^s, but each 
sub-division is endogamous. The Bdzigara are in fact only an occupation- 
al group. 

Bed,* a section of the Muhidls. 

BEDA,t (1) a musician caste in Ladakh : see Ind. Art. 1901, p. 330 ; (2) the 
caste which supplies the potential victim who rides on the rope at 
the Bihunda sacrifices in the Upper Sutlej valley : see North Indian 
Notes and Queries, IV, § 144. 

Bedi, fem. Bedan [i.q., vedi), a section of the Khatrf caste to which Guru 
Ndnak, the founder of Sikhism, belonged. It is divided into two sub- 
sections, which intermarry. 

Begeke, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. Bkokb^ a sept 
of the Joiyas in Bah^walpur. 

BELDAR,/r. bel, mattock. One who w’orks in mortar, etc., with a hoe or a 
spade, a labourer whose work is to dig or delve. In the Western 
Punjab the term is appli^-d to the Od, q. v. 

* The San.skrit ambaiththd or vaidyd ^vulg. haidya, bed), a professor of medicine : begotten 
by a Brahman on a Vaisya woman. ( Colebrooke’s Essays, p. z72). 

t In Traill’s Statistical Account of Kumaon (reprinted from Asiatick Researches, Vol XVI 
in uffiriaL Reports on the Province of Kumaon, 1878) at p. 61 an account is pivon of the 
propitiatory festivals held in villages dedicated to MahAdeva. At these badis or rope- 
dancers are engaged to perform on the tight-rope or slide down an inclined rope stretched 
from the Bummit of a cliff to the valley beneath. The badis do not appear to be a caete. 


80 


Benach’^Bhdhra. 


I 


Benach, a Dogar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Be-nawa (? ba-nawa) (1) a doubtful syn. for ha^shara : (2) — or Bd-nawd,* 
according to Mr. MaclagHn one of the most prominent of the 
Be-shara, or unorthodox orders of Isldm, and said to be followers of one 
Khwdja Hasan Basri. The term is sometimes apparently applied in 
a loose manner to Qc'ldiri and Chisliti/agirs, but it is properly applicable 
only to a very inferior set of beggars — men who wear patched garments 
and live apart. They will beg for anything except food, and in 
begging they will use the strongest language ; and the stronger the 
language, the more pleased are the persons from whom they beg. Many 
of the offensive names borne by villages in the Gujrd^nwala District 
are attributed to mendicants of this order, who have been denied 
an alms. The proper course is to meet a Be-nawd, beggar with gibes 
and put him on his mettle ; for he prides himself on his power of 
repartee, and every Be-nawd, wears a thong of leather which he has to 
unloose when beaten in reply, and it is a source of great shame for him 
to unloose this thong {tasma khol dmd). The Be-na'wds appear to be rare 
in the west of the Punjab, and those in our returns are mainly from 
Karnal, Jullundur, Ludhidna and Hoshidrpur. 

Berag, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Be"SHARa, a term applied to the irregular or unorthodox orders of laldm 
whose followers, while calling themselves Musalmdns, do not accom- 
modate their lives to the principles of any religious creed : c/. dzdd. 
The Be-shara orders include the Be-nawd, Gurzmar, Maddri and Rasul- 
shahis. 

Besku, s.m. (K.), the watchman of harvested grain. 

Beta (incorrectly BATiA),a small outcaste group found in Spiti, correspond- 
ing to the Hesis of Kullu. They live by begging, making whips for 
the men and bracelets of shell for the women, and attending weddings 
as musicians along with the blacksmiths. Blacksmiths do not eat with 
them or take their women as wives. Merely to drink water out of an- 
other man’s vessel conveys no pollution in Spiti, and in the higher parts 
of the Spiti valley the hookah is also common to all : while in the lower 
parts Hesis are merely required to smoke from the bowl of the common 
pipe through a stem provided by themselves. 

Bettj, the synonym for Ddgi {q.v.) used in the Sardj tahsil of Kullu, 

Bethi, a Sayyid clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bhabha, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multdn : a sept of the Samwaa in 
Bahdwalpur. 

Bhabra, fem.Bhdbn,a caste ofthe Jainis, chiefly engaged in trade. The term 
Bhdbra appears to be of great antiquity, being found in an inscription of 
Asoka. The name is now fancifully derived from Bhaobhala, ‘ one of 
good intent, ’t but in Jullundur the Bhabrds attribute their name to 
their refusal to wear the janeo at the instance of one Bir Swdmi who 
thereupon declared that their faith {bhd) was great. The term Bhdbra 
however appears to be used by outsiders of any Bdnids, especially of 
the Oswals and others whose home is in Rajputdna, whether they 

* Be-nawa can be the only correct form, meaning “ M'ithout the necessaries of life ” a 
a mendicant. ’ 

f Bhao, motive, hhala, good 


81 


The Bhabra growps. 


are Jains by religion or nofc. Tliis would appear to be the case in 
Rd.walpindi, and in Sirsa the Sikh immigrants from Patidla certainly 
call the Oswal Bdnias Bhabras. 

The Bhd/brds of Hoshidrpur are an interesting community. As 
caste they have two groups, each comprising various gots or als, 
viz. : — 


Geoop I. — Oswals. 
Gots. 


Bhabhu. 

Liga. 

Ranke. 

Nahar. 

Lohra. 

Karnatak, 

Gadhia. 

Seoni. 

Baid. 

Mahmia. 

Tattar. 

Bhanddri. 

Duggar. 

Barar. 

Chatar. 


Group II. — Khanderwals. 


Gots. 


Bhaursa. 

Sethi. 


Seoni. 

Bhangori. 


The Oswdl came originally from Osia in Jaipur, the Klianderwdl from 
Khandela in Jodhpur. As to the origin of the got names, Mahmia or 
Mairaia is derived from Mahm, the town in Rohtak, and was originally 
called Dhariwal. Seoni (which occurs in both the groups) is a Khatri 
clan. 'I'he Liga (who perform the first tonsure, or mundan, at home) 
came from Sultd.npur, in Kapurthala : the Tandwdi, of Tanda (? in 
Hosbi^rpur) are an al of the Bh^bhus, formed only a 100 years ago and 
not yet a got. The Nahar or ‘lions’ once drank the milk of a lioness 
and hail from Jaipur. The Gadhia are called Churria in R6jputdna. 
Most Bhabras cut their boys’ hair for the first time at Dadi Kothi (now 
called Kangar Kothi), their temple near Jaijon. MolSt of the Hoshidrpur 
Bh^brds are Oswals, of the Bhabhu and Nahar, those of BaUchaur being 
Gadhia and Nahar by got. Some Bhabras respect Brahmans and employ 
them on social occasions, at weddings and funerals, and for the shrddhs, 
though the Jain tenets forbid the shrddh observances. The Khanderwals 
alone appear to wear the janeo. In Jind the Jains are said to be 
recruited, from the Aggarwal,* Oswal, SrimM, and Khandelwal Bdnias, 
but the last three are also styled Bhd,brd,s — whether Jains or not. 
Jain Aggarwdls are said to intermarry with the Vaishnava AggarwMs 
in that State but not in KarnM. Another account from Jind states 
that the Oawdl are bisa, i. e., of pure descent, while the Srimal are only 
dasa, i. e.,t of impure descent, and that these two groups do not in- 
termarry. The OswM are also stated to avoid only the paternal got 


* An account of rather doubtful authority makes the Oswals and Khaudelwals only 
‘ Bhaos,’ the Bagri form of bhdi, ‘ brother ’ — and derives BhabrA from ihdo — because 
Parasnath was an Oswal of the ruling family of Osnagar. It makes the Aggnrwalas 
Saraogfs, i.e., silchit or disciples. Each group is said to be endogamous, i. e., BhAbris do 
not intermarry with SarAogis, 

t Another account says that both Oswal and Srimal contain htsa and dasa classes, the 
dasa being in a minority in both groups- 


82 


Bhachar — Bhagti. 

in marriage, while the Srimal observe the iom-got rule. On the other 
hand the Bhd,bras of Nabha are said to have two sub-castes : Oswdl, who 
observe the four-gro^ rule, and Kundewal (? Khandelwcll), who avoid only 
the paternal got in marriage.* And again in Maler Kotla the ‘ Bhdbrfls 
orOdwd-ls’ are said to avoid two gots. The Jain Bhdbrds are strictly 
monogamous, a second wife not being permitted during the life-time of 
the first under any circumstances. t For further information regarding 
the Aggarwii,!, Oswal, etc., see Bania, and for the Jain sectarian 
divisions see Jain. 

Bhachar, a Khokhar clan (agricultural) found ip Shahpur. 

Bhadah, a Jd,t clan (agricultural) found in Multldn, 

Bhaddar, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur. 

Bhadiar, a tribe of Jdts, in Sii£lkot, which claims Solar Eajput origin and 
is descended from its eponym. Atu, 7th in descent from him, 
came from Ajudhia and took service under the E.ajas of Jammu. 

Bhadko, an Arain clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar and Montgomery. 

Bhagar, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Bhagat Bhaqwan. See under Udasi. 

Bhagat, an agricultural clan found iu Shahpur. 

Bhagat-panthi. — A sect of the Nanak-panthis which appears to be quite 
distinct from the Bhagtis or followers of B^b^ Suraj of Chd,ha Bhagtdi 
in the Kahuta tahsil of Rawalpindi. It is found in the Bannu District, 
in Pah^rpur, and iu tahsil Dera Ismail Khan. Though they reverence 
the Granth, the Nanak-panthis observe the usual Hindu ceremonies at 
marriage or death, but tlie Bhagat-panthis do not. They take the 
Granth to their houses, and read certain portions of it at weddings. 
Marriage and betrothal cei’emonies may be performed at a dharmsdla, 
or the marriage may be celebrated by taking the Granth to the house 
and there reciting portions of it. No funeral rites are performed and 
the dead are buried, not burnt. Passages from the Granth are read 
for a few days after the death. And on occasions of marriage or death 
kardh 'parshad \s, distributed. There is no rule of ckhut or ^ touch,’ 
forbidding contact with other castes. The sect makes no pilgrimages, 
avoids idolatry, and performs no tdirddh for the dead. Daily worship 
is an essential duty and consists in recitations of the Granth at six 
atated hours of the day, viz., before sunrise, before noon, afternoon, 
before sunset, in the evening and at night. At worship they sit down 
eight times, rising eight times and making eight prostrations. This 
sect thus strives after pure Sikhism and freedom from Brahminical 
supremacy. 

B.haggo, a sub-division of Jdts. 

Bhagti, a Gosain sub-sect or order, sai<l to have been founded by Kanshi 
Ram, a brother of Sifindas. The latter was a Brahman Bairdgi whose 
son llann'lnand has a shrine, well-known in and about the Gujrdnw^ldi 
District, at Baddoke. His sect has many followers among the more 
respectable Khatris and Brahmans of liahore and its neighbourhood. 

* Till recently the Oswal of the Punjab avoided two fitofsin marriage, and the Dhundiaa 
among them still do so, but in 1908 a great assemblage of the Pujeias resolved that only 
the ])aternal gob need be avoided. 

■j- This is however said to be merely a connsel of perfection. 


83 


Bhaglid — Bhango. 

BHAGTiA, a musician who accompanies dancing hoys. 

Biiains, a Jd^ clan (agricultural) found iu Amritsar. 

Bhainsyi, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bhajoka, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur. 

Bbakhri ; see Bakhri. 

Bhakral, one of the group of tribes which hold considerable areas in 
the south-east of the Rdwalpindi District. The Bhakral are also found 
in some numbers in Jlielum and Gujrat. Like the Budhdl they 
probably came from the Jammu territory across the Jlielum. They do 
not approve of widow marriage. A lai-ge number of the tribe also 
return themselves as Pun war in Pdwal{)indi, and the tribe may be 
classed as Hajput. 

BhakrI; a Sayyid clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bbalar, a Jdt claa (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Bhalerab, a Jat clui (agricultural) foi>nd in Multdn. 

Bhalka, a sept of the Baloch in Sindh, Bahdwalpur, and Dera Ghdzi Khan 
said to be addicted to robbery. 

Bhallowana, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Bhaman, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bhambai, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bhamye, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bhand, Brand. — The Bhdnd or Naqqdl is the story-teller, joker, and 
buffoon, and is often also called Bdsha. The name comes from the 
Hindi hhdnda “ buffooning.^' He is separate from, and of a lower 
professional status than, the Bahrupia. B( tli are commonly kept by 
Rdjds* and other wealthy men like ihe jester of the early English 
noble, but both also wander about the country and perform to street 
audiences. The Bhdnd is not a true caste any more than the 
Bahrupia, and is probably often a Mirdsi by caste. Elliott seems to 
imply that Bahrupia is a caste and Bhdiiil an occupation; but the 
former statement is certainly not true in the Punjab. 

Bhandar, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bhandela, a minor caste found in Sirmur, and corresponding to the 
Sikligar of the plains. 'J'hey appear to have come from Marwdr in the 
Mughal times and retain their peculiar speech and intonation. Sikhs 
by religion, they are dealers in arras, etc , by occupation, and are said 
to be much given to crime. 

Bhai^der, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bhanggi, fem. Bha^'GOAN (also a woman who drinks hhang). A man of the 
sweeper caste : also a man belonging to the Bhanggi rnisl. 

Bhanqgia, fem. Bhanggeran, a dealer in hhang. 

Bbango, a tribe of Jd^s found in Sialkot which claims Solar Rdjput 
ancestry and is descendetl from its eponym, who came from Nepal. 
Also found in Amritsar (agiiculturalj ; and in Montgomery as a Hindu 
Jdt clan (agricultural). 

* Kadeh Bhind, known ns Kidir Bnklish, was n famons BhSnd, ■v^llo need to go frtRi 
one court to another. The MahArAja of Patiiila gave him a village. 


84 


Bhangu-~~ Bhard i. 


BHANGtJ, Bliangp:i5,* a J^t tribe which does not claim Rdjput origin. The 
Bhangu and Nol were among the earliest inliabitants of the Jhang 
District and held the country about Shorkot, the Nol holding that 
round Jhang itself before the advent of the Sidls, by whom both tribes 
were overthrown. Probably tlie same as the Bhango, supra. 

Bhaniwal, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bhanjra, a synonym for Domna in the lower hills of Hoshidrpnr and 
Gurd/ispur. He makes sieves, winnowing fans and other articles 
of grass and bamboo. Like the Sansois, Sarials and Daolis, the 
Bhanjr^s may be regarded as an occupational group of the Dumnds, with 
whom they intermarry. 

Biianot, a Rajput clan which occupies a hdrah or 12 villages immediately 
north of Garhshankar round Padrawa, Sd^lempur and Posi. The 
name is fancifully derived from han, because they once dwelt in the 
banot or shadow of the han or forests of the Siwd,liks, and they are 
said to have come from Bhatpur, a’ village close to that range not 
now held by them. They appear to have been an al of the N^rus. 

Bhaneanaye, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 


Bhanrae, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 
Bhanwala, a small Jdt clan in Jind, whose ^ai/iera is a Gosaiu. 


Bhao, a sept of Raghbansi Rajputs, found in Gujrat, immigrants from 
Ajudhia into Jammu and thence into the Gujrdt sub-montane. 
The name, which perhaps suggests a Rdjputana origin, is said to be 
derived from the fear {hhao) which the tribe inspired : but others 
say the Bhao were free-booters and hence earned the title. 

The Bhao rank high, and they, the Manhas and Jnral, greet one 
another ‘ Jai deo. ’ They also intermarry with the Chibhs of Kadhdle 
and^ Ambariala ; but not with the rest of that tribe, owing to an 
ancient feud. The first tonsure is performed at Kilit, a place ifi 
Samrd,la, in Jammu territory. 

Bhar, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 


Bhaeah, Bhaeah, two Jat clans (agricultural) found in Multitn : (possibly 
one and the same). ^ ^ 

Bhaeais— -The Bhardis who are scattered throughout these Provinces are 
also known as I irhain,t a name which is explained thus: 

(») One Bukan was a devotee o£ Sakhi Sarwar who one day aaid 

to him tujhepindi, the saint’s mouth has fallen on thee,’ whence 
the name Plrhai. ’ '^euoe 

(i») Another account says that after leaving Dhannkal, Sakhi Sayyid 
Ahmad wen to Mil Un and rested for a while at l4rahin, a pllce 
sonth of Sh^hkot, which was the home of his mother’s aicestors 
Ejhan Jto hycaste AtMn tinan Afghhn chief had a dauoUerto 
whose hand many of the bliAhkot youths aspired, but none were deemed 

mean drummer and is possibly connected with Bh-irtU n i also said to 

" aiai, »„iooKe: Tnm^s Indian. 


Bharat traditions. 


85 


worthy. One day, however, the Afghan invited Sayyid Ahmad to a 
feast and begged liim to accept his daughter in marriage. This offer 
the saint accepted, and the sihra below, which was composed on this 
occasion, is still sung with great reverence. The mirasi, however, 
neglected to attend the wedding punctually, and when he did appear, 
rejected the saint’s present of a piece of blue cloth, 1^ yards in 
length, at the instigation of the Jd^s and Pathans, saying it was of no 
use to him. Hearing this the Sayyid gave it to Shaikh Buddha, a 
Jdt who had been brought up with him, saving : “This is a hindi 
(badge), tie it round your head, and beat a drum. We need no 
mirasi, and when you are in any difficulty remember me in these 
words : — Daimji Rabdia sawdria, bohar Kali Kakki-wdlia — Help me 
in time of trouble, thou owner of Kdli Kakki ! You and your 
descendants have come under cur protection, pandh, and you shall be 
called pandhi.^’ This term became corrupted into Parahin in time. 
Thus the account contradicts itself, as the name is said to be derived 
from Parahin, a place. 

The term Bhardi itself is usually derived from chauki bharnd, lit. 
‘to keep a vigil,’ in which are sung praises of the Sakhi. But another 
and less simple account says that owing to his marriage Sayyid 
Ahmad incurred the enmity of the J^ts and Pathflns of Shdhkot and 
left that place for Afghdnistd-n, accompanied by Bibi Bai, Rdnd, Mian, 
and his younger brother. Twenty-five miles from Dera Ghazi Khd,n 
they halted. No water was to be found, so the Sayyid mounted 
his mare Kali Kakki and at every step she took water came up. His 
pursuers, however, were close at hand, and when they overtook him 
the Sakhi was slain, and buried where he fell. The spot is known as 
Nigaha and still abounds in springs. 

Years after Isa, a merchant of Bokhara, and a devotee of Sakhi 
Sarwar, was voyaging in the Indian Ocean when a storm arose. Isd 
invoked the saint’s aid and saved the ship. On binding he journeyed 
to MuMn where he learnt that the saint had been killed. On reaching 
Nigdh^ he found no traces of his tomb, but no fire could be kindled 
on the spot, and in the morning as they loaded the camels their legs 
broke. Sakhi Sarwar descended from the hill on his mare, holding 
a spear in his hand, and warned the merchant that he had desecrated 
his tomb and must rebuild it at a cost of lakhs. He was then to 
bring a blind man, a leper, and an eunuch* from Bokhd,ra and 
entrust its supervision to them. One day when the blind man stumbled 
near the tomb he saved himself by clutching at some kahi grass where- 
upon his sight was restored and his descendants are still known as the 
Kahi. 'I'he eunuch was also cured and his descendants are called 
Shaikh. The leper too recovered, and his descendants, the Kalang, are 
still found in Nigiihd. To commemorate their cures all three beat a 
drum, and Sakhi Sarwar appeared to them, saying : “ He who is my 

follower will ever beat the drum and remain barahi,f ‘sound,’ nor 
will he ever lack anything.” Hence the pilgrims to Nigd,hd became 
known as Bhardis. 

* For eunuchs as attendants at shrines see Burton’s Pilgrimage to Medina and Mecca, 
Vol. I, p. 371. 

t C/. Bhara in the phrase raho hnra bhara, ' remain green and prosperous or fruitful,’ 
P. by., p. 430, 


86 


Bhardi — Bharbhunja. 

Strictly speaking tlie Bharais do not form a casto, but an occu- 
■ pational ^roup or spiritual brotherhood which comprises men of many 
castes, Dogar, Habri, Ravvat, Dum, Rajput, Mochi, Gujar, larkhdn 
and last, but not least, Jdt. Tliey belong to the Muhammadan religion, 
but in mavriao'e they follow the Hindu customs. Thus a Jdt Bhardi 
may only marry a Jat woman, and in Ivdngra, it is said, she too 
must be a Bhardi. In Ambala, however, a Bharai may marry 
any Jdtni, and in Kapurthala it is said that, being Muhammadans, 
marriage within the got is permitted, and that Rdjput Bhardis 
may take wives from Jdt Bhardis. There appears indeed to be no 
absolute or even general rule, but the tendency apparently is for the 
Bhardis recruited from any one caste to form a separate caste of 
Bharais, marrying only in that caste, e.g., in Ludhidna the Jdt Bhardi 
only marries a Bhardi Jdtni, and the gots avoided are the same as 
among the Jdts. The Jdt Bhardis are numerous. They claim descent 
from one Gdrba Jdt, a Hindu attendant at Sakhi SarAvar’s shrine, ivho 
was in a dream bidden by the saint to embrace Isldm. On conversion 
he was called Shaikh Gdrba. The Jdt Bliardis have several gots : — 
Dhilloii, Deo, Rewal Garewdl, Mdu, Randhdwa, Jham, Karhi and 
Badecha. 

Marriage Dower. — The amount of mehr, given according to Muham- 
madan Law to the wife by the husband, never exceeds Hs. 32-6 ; while 
the minimum dowry given to the bride by her father consists of Rs. 21 
in cash and 5 copper vessels. 

Insig?iia.— The Bhardi’s insignia are a drum (dhol), beaten with a 
curiously-shaped stick, like a short crook ; a wallet (khallar) hung 
round the neck by a string. The stick and khallar are peculiar to the 
Bhardis. The standard of the Pirhais is a fringe [jagddhri) of tassels 
on a long pole. These fringes are presented by women as thank- 
offerings for the birth of sons and at weddings. They are supposed 
to be tied lound the forehead of the saint as they would be tied on a 
bridegroom’s forehead. 

Food. — It is said that in many places Bhardis eat only goat’s flesh, 
and that leprosy would afflict him who ate any other kind of flesh. 
But this restriction is certainly not universal. Beef is avoided, because, 
it is said, the Bhardis have many Hindu votaries. 

Bharai., a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bbaranch, a small Jat clan in Jmd who have the same Sidh as the Kale 

(q. V.). 

Bharat, a tribe, which gives daughters to the Jdlaps, found in Jhelum. 

Bhae Bhonchi, a class of Jogis who charm away scorpion stings. « 

Bharbht5njas— lit. one who roasts grain in an oven— form an 
occupational caste comprising only 4 gotn, viz.: — 

1. Jfidubansi .. (an Ahir got). 

2. Bhatndgar ) /. xr- 

3. Saksaini 1 ••• (t'^o Kayatli 

4. Bdsdeo* ... ... (a Brahman got). 


* Bascleo, father of Krislma, appears to have been worsliipped by the Ahfrs also. 


87 


Bhafhkunja groups. 

As the gots are bo few, only one got is avoided in marriage, but the 
caste is said to bo strictly endogaraous in Patiala, and outsiders^aro 
never a'lmitted into the caste. 

By religion Bliarbhunjas are both Hindus and Muhammadans. Like 
other Hindus the former invoke Sada Shiva wlien commencing work, 
as the shop is regarded as his fAurd .(platform). Subhd.i, another 
deofa, is also worshipped at weddings, sherbet and some copper pice 
being offered him, and cooked food distributed in his name. 

A Bharbhunja wife may not wear glass bangles or blue clothes or a 
nose-ring [laung). 

Bharbhunjas only make haris at weddings; and only eat food 
cooked by Brahmans. They wear the janeo, but permit karewa, the 
husband’s brother’s claims being recognised. They preserve an old 
system of local panchdyats, with hereditary chaudhris, in which all 
caste disputes are settled. At wetjdings, etc., the chaudhri gives the 
lag and receives 1^ shares in the bhaji. Bhafbhunjas mostly pursue 
their creed and calling, but some take to service. In appeai*ance they 
are dark and under-sized. 

In the Ndbha State the Bharbhunjas have two occupational groups, 
the Dhdnkuta or “ rice-huskers ” (from dhdn, rice, and kutnd) and 
the Malldhs or boatmen. These tAvo groups do not intermarry, or drink 
together, but they smoke from the same huqah Avith a different mouth- 
piece. The Malldhs use a large spoon, the Dhdnkutas a sharp crooked 
instrument, in parching gram. Both groups are found in the Bdwal 
Nizdmjit of this State. In the Phul and Amloh Nizdmats the Kdyasths, 
a sub-group of the former, claim origin from that caste, and it is said : — 
Fafhgiya jo Kayastha, warnd bhatti jhokan kViq : ‘He Avho acquires 
knoAvledge is a Kayastha, otherwise he is only fit to parch grain.’ Hence 
many Kdyasths have joined the Bharbhunja caste. In BdAval the 
Bharbhunja gots are named from the place of origin, e.g., Mandauria, 
from Maiidaur in Alwar, and Chhatagia from Chhdtag. ElseAvhere their 
gots are Jddu-bansi, Chandar-bansi, (claiming Hdjput origin) Bhatnagar 
and Chandan Katar, and of these the Bhatnagar again suggests 
Kdyasth affinities. The caste is endogamous, and four gots are 
avoided in marriage, but widow marriage is said to be only allowed 
in BaAval. Jdts, Gujars and Alnrs take water from a Bharbhunja’s 
hands, but Bdnias, Khatris and Brahmans Avill only take fresh water 
brought by him, not from one of his vessels. The gurus of the 
Bharbhunjas are always Brahmans and perform the phera. Their 
Avomen Avear no nose-ring, its use having been prohibited by a sati 
in each group. The Bliarbhunjas of B^Aval affect the cult of Bhairon, 
to Avhcm the Mallahs of Agra used to marry their daughters. Tradition 
says tliat the god once saved a boat from sinking and thenceforward 
the family married one of their girls to the god and left her at his 
shrine Avhere she .survived for dess than a year. But now only a doll 
of dough is formally married to the god. Other Bharbhunjns also 
reverence Bhairon, and their guru is Subhtln Sahib, Avhose shrine is 
in a town to the east. He is Avorshipped on the bhdi duj day in Katik. 

The Bharbhunjas of Phul and Amloh have a peculiar form of be- 
trothal contract. The bride’s father goes to the bridegroom’s and 
gives him 4 Mansuri pice, and the latter gives him tAvice as much in 


88 


Bharech — Bhargava JDhusar. 


return. This is called 'paua hatdnd or exchauge of presents, and the 
contract is then said to be irrevocable. If any one violates it without 
reasonable cause he is excommunicated by the chaudhris, bat may be 
re-admitted on payment of a fine which is spent for the benefit of the 
brotherhood. All the Bharbhunjas, except those of Bd,wal, wear the 
janeo. If a traveller or a wedding party of Bharbhunjas halts in any 
village the Bharbhunjas there are bound to entertain the whole party, 
otherwise they are excommunicated.* 

The Bharbhunja in Delhi claim to be Jaiswdl Rd-jputs, and have three 
gots, Jaiswdl (the highest), Kherw^ and Td-jupuria, which all intermarry 
and smoke and eat together. Each village has a chaudhH and of 
two chaudhris one is called chaukrdt. The chaudhri can only act with 
the advice of the 'panchdyat. Each chaukrdt has what is called the 
‘ half 'pagri ' and each chaudhri the ‘ full pagrij The chaudhri has 
jurisdiction over petty disputes within the caste. Fines ranging from 
Re. 1 to Rs. 100 are levied and the smaller sums spent on feast, 
while larger fines are expended on such public objects as guest-houses. 
Each chaudhri and chaukrdt gets double hhdji at weddings. 


Bhakech, (Barech more correctly), one of the branches of the Pathans. 
From it was descended the family of the Nawdbs of Jhajjar which was 
called Bah^durwati after the name of Bahfidur Khd,n, one of its members. 
The State of Bahddargarh (Dddri) also belonged to this family. 


Bhaeera, a term said to mean silver-smith, in the Simla Hills. The 
Bhareras intermarry with the Loh^rs. 

Bhargava Dhusae, Dhunsae, a sub-division of the Gaur Brahmans now 
mainly employed in trade or as clerks. They give themselves the 
following pedigree : — 

BRAHMA. 

Bhrigu X Paloma Raja Sarjaiti, a Kehatriya. 

Chiman rishi x Sukanya. 


r 

Pramata rishi x Gharlachi. 

I 

Ruru X Parmadabra. 

I 

Sonak. 


Aurab Raja Gadh, a Kshatriya, 
Rachik x ?atwati Raja Parsainjat. 
Jamdagnya x Ranuka. 


Parasurama. 


All the descendants of Bhrigu and Chiman were called Chimanbansi 
Bhargavas, and as Chiman the rishi used to perform his devotions at 
the hill of Arahak, near Rewiiri in Gurgaon, which is now called Dhosi 
those of his descendants who settled in that locality became’ known as 
Dhusars. Chiman ns/ii has an ancient temple on this hill and a new 
one was built in recent years. Adjoining these temples is a tank, the 
Chandrakup. The Dhusars have the following seven groups or gotras • 

* Popular legend distorts this descent in a curious way. It says that once Channn 
Brahman of Narnaul, took as his mistress a woman of menial caste, who bore him 7 sons and 
as many daughters. When asked to marry them he bade them appear on an amiwas with 
a cow and made each touch its different parts : so one touched its tail {puchal) and founded 
the Puchalar gotra ; another its horns (sing) and founded the Singlas aotra, and soon Each 
gotra has five parwaras, except the Kashib which has three or occasionally seven The Kashibs 
are thus known as triparwaras or saptparwaras and the other gotras as panchpai-waras 


Bhargava Dhuaar history. 


80 


[ Number. .1 

Name of the 

Rishi after 
whom the 
gotra was 
named. 

Real gotra. 

Current gotra. 

Partcars. 

Other parwars. 

1 

Batus 

B4tasus, Bats 

Bachehalas.. 

Bhargava, Chiwan, Apan- 
wan Aurab, Jamdagan. 

... 

2 

Batsi 

B4tsus ... 

B^chehalas 

Bhargo, Chiwan, Apanwan 
Aurab Bansi. 

Bachhal, Argan, Ba- 
tasth. 

8 

Bidas 

Bidsus ... 

Bandlas ... 

Bhargo, Chiwan, Jtpan- 
wan Aurab, Baind. 

• « • 

4 

Eaunsi ... 

Kilsus,Gir. 

itismad. 

Gaglash ... 

Bhargo, Chiwan, Apan- 
wan Aurab, Jamdagan. 

Kans, ‘Aurab, Jamad, 
Ganpat. 

5 

Kangain Pa- 
garhismad, 
Gargal. 

Gangayans, 

Garmagus 

Kuls. 

Kuchlas ... 

Bhargo, Cliiwan, Apan- 
wan Aurab, Jamdagan. 

GargU, Dhist, Mand, 
Chiwan, Vaisham, 
Mapus4t. 

6 

Goshtain en- 

Goshtains 

Golus en- 

Bhargo, Chiwan, Apan- 

Bhargo, Chiwan, Ja- 


titled Gala. 

entitled 

Galas. 

titled Galus, 
Golash 

wan Aurab, Jamdagao. 

mad, (ianpat. 

7 

Kashab ... 

Kashipoh... 

Kasbib ... 

Bhargo, Sait, Habia Sad- 
tasya. 

Kaghab, Rats, Bhar* 
go, Chiwan Apan- 
wan, Aurab, Jamad, 
Ganpat. 


The Dhusars afEect the Yaj^r Veda, the Madyandani salcha and the Katyani sutraj and 
invariably wear the sacred thread. Only the Brahma form of marriage is tolerated among 
them and in the choice of a bride the gotra and worshippers of the same kulievi (family 
goddess) are avoided. Widows never remarry. 

The Bhargava Dhusars claim to have given a long list of parohits and ministers to Hindu 
kings, from Chanda Bhargava who officiated at the sarp yog or serpent sacrifice originated by 
R4ja JamaijayatoHemu Shah, the Baqqal of Rewari, who revolted against Akbar, as the 
following table shows : — 

BHARGAVA PAROHITS AND MINISTERS TO HINDU KINGS. 


Name of parohit and 
minister. 

King. 

Yudhisterian 

era. 

Samvat Bik- 
ram. 

Christian 

era. 

Sanapat Bhargava '... 

1 

Sayanak 

1429 



1 

Mahipat Bhargava 

1 

to 

to 



1 

Siravidafc Bhargava and 

Suraj Sain 

1800 



their descendants. 





Jag Narain Bhargava and 

Birshah to 

1800 to 



his descendants 

Padhmal 

2251 



Samdat Bhargava and 

Murar Singh to 

2319 to 



his descendants 

Jit Mai 

2603 



Jal Narain Bhargava and 

Pal Singh to 

2532 to 



his descendants 

Bhagwant Kohi 

... 3097 



Sundarpal Bhargava 

R4ja Bir Bikramajit ... 

... 3110 



Indarp41 Bhargava and 

Samandarpal Jogi to ... 


135 to 


his descendants 

Bikramp41 


355 

298 A. n. 

Jaideva Bhargava and 

Tilok Chand to 


367 to 

310 to 

his descendants 

Kuar Sain 


674 

617 

Indroman Bhargava and 

Hari Sain to 

• • • • • 

579 to 

522 to 

his descendants 

Jaipal 


983 

926 

Sheo Narain Bhargava and 

Kaurp41 to 


1000 to 

943 to 

his descendants 

Pirthwi Raj 





(Rai Pithora) 


1199 

1141 


QQ Bharhi^Bhd^io>, 

Bhiehi, a tribe which claims descent^ from Gauj “ans^^ andj,bser™ 

;tri:rarfrur“^ Wor\ as’soulptors. etc (Found m aurg^on). 

BHAEoi, fern. Bbaeoia, s. m. one who attends travellers at a bharo. 

Bhaeth, an agricultural clan found m Shahpur. ^ 

Bhaeth. a R%ut sept found in GujrAt, descended from their eponym. 

Bhaewal, a J4t clan (agricultural) found in Multan 

Bhaewana, (1) a Muhammadan J at clan (aff ‘ 
^ gomery ; (2) a clan of the SMls, descended from Bhairo. 

Bhajtae. a ki clan (agricultural) found io Amritsar. 

Bha'F, see under Bliatt. 

Bsatb, an Aritin and lUipnt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 


Bhati, see Bdhti. , . * 

Bhati a Jat, Arain, Gujar and Rajput clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar, 
also a kt and Rajput clan found m Multan. 

Bhati a tribe of Hindu Rdjputs, chiefly interesting as being the ancestors 
of the Bhatti Rdjputs and the SiDHtJ Barar J^ts, as the following table 


shows 


bhati, brother of SUNRIJA. 


Jaisal. Dus41. 

Hindu BMtis, Jvmhfir or J4unra. 


r 


Batera. 

Sidhu Bar&r 
Jats, 


J 

I 

Achal 

r 

Barsi. 

Bhatti Rajputs. 


Ra]pal. 

Wattu R4jputs. 


[Fagan — Hissar Gazetteer, pp. 124, 127—129.] 

Bhatia.— A caste originally from the country round Delhi but more recently 
from Bhatner and the Rajputana desert, and claiming tobeRdjputs 
of Yadubansi race, one branch of which became rulers of Jaisalmir 
while the other took to commercial pursuits. The name would seem 
to sliow that they were Bh^tis (Bhatti in the Punjab) ; but be that 
as it may, their Rajput orierin seems to be unquestioned. They are 
numerous in Sind and Guzerat where they appear to form the leading 
mercantile element, and to hold the place which the Aroras occupy 
higher up the Indus. They have spread into the Punjab along the 
lower valleys of the Indus and Sutlej, and up the whole length of the 
Chendb as high as its debouchure into the plains, being indeed nriost 
numerous in Sialkot and Gujrdt. In these Provinces however they 
occupy an inferior position, both in a social and in a mercantile sense. 
They stand distinctly below the Khatri and perhaps below the Arora, 
and are for the most part engaged in petty shop-keeping, though the 
Bh^t'as of Dera Isma il Khan are described as belonging to a ‘ widely 
spread and enterprising mercantile community.’ They are often 
supposed to be Khatris, are very strict Hindus— far more so than the 
other trading classes of the Western Pun jtlb— eschewing meat and 
liquor. They do not practise widow-marriage. 


The Bhdtia sections. 


91 


The Bhdtia caste has 84* sections, called divided into two 

groups thus — 


Group I. — Bari — 

Sections. 

1. Bahia ■) 

?a > 


Status 


2. Dhagga >phdighar. 

3. Anda ) 

4. Baldha 

5. Jdwa 

6. Soni 


Chdrghar. 


Sections, 

7. Gandhi. 

8. Chachra. 

9. Chabak. 

10. Kandal. 

11. ’Ghanghal. 

12. Kore. 


Both Baldha and Jdwa claim to be chdrghar. All the above sections 
are of Bardghar status. It is hardly necessary to explain that 
dhdiqhar may not give daughters to any but dhdighar, though they may 
teke from Mrghar and ao on. A breach of this rule involves degrad- 
ation and heuce the same section may be both dhatghar and charghar. 

Group II. — Bunjahi, which comprises the remaining sectionst such 
as Bails, Chotdk, Dholia and Naida. 

There are no territorial groups, but the orthodox idea among the 
old men is that daughters should be given to the Western Bhdtids 
of Bhdhpur, Jhelum aud Dera Isma’il Khdn as they are of superior 
status to those in Gujrdt, while the Eastern Bhdtids of Sidlkot and 
Gujrdnwdla are considered inferior and wives are taken from them. 


It should, however, be noted 


Sijwila. 

Gandhi. 

Chachra 

Wadoja. 

Dhagga. 


i Sip. , 

(. An-Sip. 


Babla. 

Wanjak. 

Ra-rakha. 

Challhar. 

Rilla. 

Wattu. 


pur, they live in large rectangular 
houses. 

1. Rai Gijaria, from ^ „ 

2. Rao Haria, from Rai Han Singh, a 

3. ^^S?8apat. from S4pt4, » 

Mar war, the home of Bim4, a Bh4ti. The 
Bh4ti3 of S4pt4 were great devotees of 
Devi and as such held in great respect. 

4 Rao Paral-sauria. ‘ the sept of the five 

heroes,’ Jasaii, Rawalji, Nawal k,mgh, 
Jodhrai and Bir Singh who fell bravely 
fighting in Jaisahnir. Bahadar Singh 
belonged to this nakh. -All the above 
nofchs affect Devf. , 

5 Rai Ramayi. Agai-raj, brother of 
’ R4m Chandar was a great bhagat who 

was ever repeating Ram’s name. 

6. Rai Padamsi, from Padamsi BbAti who 
fell bravely fighting in battle. He had 
a son Udhe Rai. 


that in Bahdwalpur these groups 
appear to be unknown, but of the 
sections given in the margin the 
Sijw^la is the highest and the Rilla 
the lowest. The Bhd,ti^3 have a 
proverb ‘ dhan di wadi ai ’ or 
‘ wealth is greatness.^ In Bahdwal- 
hawelisy each comprising 30 or 40 

7. Rai Paloja, from Paleja a village, tho 
home of Parma Bhatl, in M4rw4r. 

8. Rai Ved (Waid), from Man Singh, son 
of Megh R4j Bhatf who was skilled in 
waidak (physic) : all the Bhatis who 
joined him became Rai by sept. 

9. Rai Surj'a, from Sura Bhatf who fell 
in battle. 

10. Rai Ditya, from Duta a village, the 
home of Arjan Bh4t>, a bhagat of Devi. 

11. Rai Gokal G4ndf, from Gokal Gindi 
of Multin under whom served Nawal, son 
of Rawal Bhati. R4wal fell in battle. 

12. Rai G4d4, from G4d4 BhAti, a bhagat 
of Hanuman. 

13. Rai Nae GAndi, from Wegh Raj, son 
of Jodh RAj. Megh Raj opened a shop 
at Bahawalpur, and was known as Niya 
GAndi. 


Oaod, the olbpring of BWtiis marrica to Aro« 
women or of widow remarriages. Tho Pushkama Brahmanls their parohi , 


The Bhdtia sections. 


92 

, 14, Rai Midia, from Medi a village, the 
home of Kumbha Bhati, who fell iu 
battle. He had a son Oga, who was a 
servant of Bahadar Ali, Nawab. 

3 5. Rai Unhachia, from chhe {six). Six 
families joined Desa Bhati, 

16. Rai Bdblla, from Bablla, son of Jodha 
Bhati, of Nigu village. 

17. Rai Panchal, from Panchalpuri, the 
home of Rai Bhim. 

18. Rai Gulgula, from Gulgula Bh^ti who 
was killed in battle. He had a son Man 
Bingh. 

19. Rai Subra, from Subra, the name of a 
haithak* of Bhatis. 

20. Rai Nagra, from Nagra, a village in 
Marwar. 

21. Rai Saraki, from Nawal Saraki, the 
name of those who sided with Nawal 
Singhf in a dispute about some custom 
which the Qazi decided in his favour. 

22. Rai Soni, from Son a village, whose 
spokesman was Ratan Rai Bhati. 

23. Rai Sopla, from Bhopat Singh Bhati. 

24. Rai Jia, from Jia Bhati who display- 
ed great courage in the army. 

25. Rai Mogia, from Mogia Bhati who fell 
fighting. 

26. Rai Dhadha, from Dhadhalu, a village 
of the Thati country. 

27. Rai Rika, from Rika Bh^ti, who fell 
fighting. He had a son Gassa. 

28. Rai Jidhan, from Jidhan Bhati, who 
was a great cultivator. 

29. Rai Kothia, from Kothiar, a village, 

30. Rai Kotha, from Kothapur, a village. 

31. Rai Dhawan, from Dhawan Rai, who 
was famed for his generosity. He had a 
son Megha. 

32. Rai Devla, from a famous Deval Bhati, 
who lived in the village of Ganth. 

33. Rai Jia, from Jia Chidak, a cultivator, 
who lived in the Marwar Thati. 

34. Rai Baura, from Baura, a village in 
the Thati. 

35. Rai Dhage, from Dhaga Bhati, who 
fell bravely in battle. 

36. Rai Kandhya, from Shuja Bhiti, who 
though his forehead was split in the Jai- 
salmir war, yet his trunk fought on for 
a long while. 

37. Rai Rathia, from Rithia Bhati, of 
Ratnir, a village in the Thati of Marwar. 
He was famous for his hospitality. 

38. Rai Kajrid, from Kajarya, a village 
towards Multin where Man Singh mukhia 
lived. He had seven sons, all called 
mukhias. 

39. Rai Sijw41a, who were proficient in 
archery. 

40. Rai Jabali, from Jabila., a village in 
Sindh. 

41. Rai Malan, from Malan, a family of 
Gogla village, whose members knew an- 
tidotes to poisons. 


42 Rai Dhaba. from Dhaba mukhia of 
Rori village, who raised camels there. 

43. Rai Uhiran, from Dhiran Bhati, who 
fell in battle He had a son Udhe Rai.^ 

44 Rai Bhagta, from Bhagtanand Bhati, 
who showed great valour in the Jaisalmir 
war, 

45. Rai Bira, from Bira Bhnti, who showed 
great valour in battle. He was a bhagat 
of Devi. 

46. Rai Thula, from Thula, a village of the 
Thati. 

47. Rai Sodhay4, from Sodha, a caste, 
Singh Mai Bh4ti having married the 
daughter of a Sodhi R4jput. 

48. Rai Buri, from Bura Bhati of Bakhar 
village. 

49. Rai Muchha, from Arjan Bhati, who 
was nicknamed Arjan Muchha, as he had 
long moustaches. He was a bhagat of 
Jasra Devi, and wore the 5 kes. 

50. Rai Tamboli, from Nanda and Niga, 
tambolis (betelnut-sellers). They were 
bhagats of Shiva. 

51. Rai Thikar. 

52. Rai Bisnaw, from Bisanwant Bhati, 
who was a man of great good fortune. 
He had 4 sons. All the members of this 
family specially worshipped Ram Chandr 
and in one year 107 sons used to be born 
to it. 

53. Rai Bhudria, from Bhudar, a Bhati. 

54. Rai Indhar, from Indhar, a branch of 
the Bhatis. 

55. Rai Dhadhal, from Dhadhala village, 
the home of Rama Bhati 

56. Rai Beg Chandr, from Bega and Chan- 
d4, Bhatis, who were customs collectors. 

57. Rai Bipal, from Bipal, the residence of 
Kunbha and K4na, Bhatis. 

58. Rai Potha, from the brothers Poth4, 
Parm4 and N4g4, Bh4tis. 

59. Rai Premia, from Prema and Parma, 
Bhati Rajputs of R4sa village. 

60. Rai Pfirdhaga, from Puradh, a yag, 
performed by Kana and Kumbha, Bh4ti8, 
who were followers of Guru N4nak. 

61. Rai Madhr4, from Madhr4 Bhati, a 
servant of a IOi4n at Multan, who gave 
much in alms. 

62. Rai Phar4s Gandi, from Pharas, the 
name of Jit4 Mai, Bhati, who had transac- 
tions with Maujud Khan in Mult4n. He 
had perfumes, oil and aitar. 

63. Rai Puri G4ndi, from Pare, a Bh4tf, 
performer of Raipul. 

64 Rai Jujar G4ndt from Jujar village, 
the residence of A jit Singh and Ranph4, 
Bh4tis, who sold perfumes. 

65. Rai Panwar, from Panwar, a branch of 
the Bhatf. 

66. Rai Prem4 Siij, from Prema and Suj4, 
the sons of Gondha, Bhati. 

67. Rai R8j4, from Raja, a village in 
M4rwar. 


* A room or building where male visitors are received. 

tNot apparently the Nawal Singh of No. 11. This Nawal Singh was in the employ of 
one Qutb Kh4n, 


93 


Bhafldn{-—Bhdtrd. 

9 • • 


68. Rai Parjia, from Parja, a caste. Rasan.l 
son of Bhim Singh, Bhatl. in a fight with 
robbers killed 100 of them, while on 
his side only two of his 5 sons and 6 
Bh^tls fell. 

69. Kai Kupwar, from Kapura, a Bhati, 
who attained a great age. 

70. Rai Dhadar, from Dhadar, a village 
in the Punjab. 

71. Hai Kartarya, from Kartarya, the 
family name of one Kani Bhati. 

72. Rai Gogla. 

73. Rai Kukar, from Kukar, a village in 
the Punjab. 

74. Rai Multani, from Multan where .Todu 
Rai, a Bhiti clothier and his family lived. 

75. Rai Chamaja, from Chamuja, a village. 

76. Rai Dhiya, from Dhiya, a village. 

77. Rai Karan Gota, from Kama, Bh4tf, 
who was called Kama after his gotar. 

Two of them, Mul Raj and Megh Raj, 
served with distinction under the Nawab 
of Bahawalpur. 

Bhatiani, a donkey owner in Dera Ghazi Khan, who also bakes bread 
while his womenfolk act as midwives. Said to be connected with the 
Kah^rs and Kumhd,rs. 

Bhati-dae, one on whom land is bestowed as bhati, i.e., a rent-free grant of 
laud given to a Brahman ov jdgir by a ruler. 

Bhati Wad, a tribe of Jd^s found in Siillkot which claims Solar Rdjput 
descent and originated in Ajudhia whence its eponym migrated to 
Amritsar, where it is also found as a Jdt (agricultural) clan. 

Bhat^ia. — L ike the Manidr, Banjara and others the Bhdtrd is a pedlar. 
He claims Brahman origin, and his traditions say that one Mddho 
Mai, a Brahman riahi, a singer and a poet, once loved and wedded 
Kdm Kundala, a dancing girl. From this pair are descended the 
Madhwas or Bhd,tras.* The latter word appears to be a diminutive 
of the Sanskrit bhafta, a hard. However this may be, a curious 
legend accounts for the BhAtrds’ location in the Punjab and their 
conversion to Sikhism. Madho was born and died in Ceylon,t but 
in the reigu of Babar, Guru N^nak visited that island, and there 
made a disciple of Changa Bha^ra, a descendant of Mddho. The 
Adi Granth records that 20 waunds of salt a day were required for 
Changa^s numerous followers, many of whom were converted to 
Sikhism and followed Guru Ndnak back to India. 

The Mddhw^s, however, did not at first settle in the Punjab. 
Originally they were to be found chiefly in the Dadra Des, along 
the banks of the Ganges in the Bijnor District of the United 
1‘rovinceH, where many of them are banjdras or pedlars by trade, 
some hawking cheap ornaments for women, others so-called Vedic 
medicines.! Thence they migrated into Hoshidrpur and Sisilkot, but 


78. Rai Nisat, from sat (juice) because 
Samun and Ramun extracted juice from 
wheat and made halwd of it, 

79. Rai Udesi, from Udhe Rai, the elder 
son of Parma. Bhatf. He had a bitter 
feud with his younger brother. 

80. Rai Budhiya, Bhoj Raj, Bh4tf, did 
Badh Pal’s work, had camels and hired 
them. 

81. Rai Balii, from Bal4ya-kar, a \illage 
in tlie Punjab which was the home of 
Bhan, son of Bhoj Raj. 

82. Rai Pawar, from Pawri village, the 
home of Prem4n and Parm4n. 

83. Rai Kfn4, from Kina (enmity). The 
family of M4s4 destroyed their enemy. 

84. Rai Kizi4, from K4zi. Ir .Mai, Bh4tf, 
who worked as a clerk imder a kdzi of 
Bahawalpur. 

85. Kai Mota, from Moti, daughter of N4ru 
Mai Soh4n4, a resident of Multan. 


* This tradition is said to be preserved in the Mah4bh4rata and Singh 4san Batfsi. In a 
pariodna of Maharaja Ranj ft Singh of 7th Asauj, 1866 Sambat, and now in the possession 
of a Bhatra of Dh4riw4l, the M4dhwas were exempted from the grazing tax. 

t A Sili temple, known as Dera Baba, was built in Ceylon to the Guru’s memory at the 
Madhwas’ original home. 

I Gullible patients are made to sign bonds for Rs. 50 or so, as the Bhatfa’s fee* 
jf they recover. 


94 


The Bhdt or Bhaii. 


they are now to be found in the great towns and places of pilgrim- 
age all over India, In Hoshiarpur the Bhdtrd,s are virtually all Sikhs 
(though children under 12 have their heads shaved) and here they 
pose as magicians, foretelling the future by gazing into a cup of oil. 
Thence they mainly frequent the Kd^ngra District. In Sialkot a moiety 
are true Sikhs, observing all the Sikh customs, and often posing as 
gurus, Akdlis or Nihangs when on their wanderings.* They prey on the 
credulity of the people by astrology. The other moiety are jatadhdris, 
but smoke, and generally assume the characteristic garb of the 
Udasis, pretending to be emissaries of certain temples and col- 
lecting subscriptions for them. After the Diwdli the Bhdtrd,8 set 
out on their tours, returning at the commencement of the rainy 
season. They travel in gangs generally of half-a-dozen or so, and 
the Sikhs are occasionally accompanied by their wives and 
daughters, for whose marriages they collect subscriptions. Various 
forms of swindling are practised by them and they earn large 
sums which they promptly squander on drink and gambling. 
Besides hawking small hardware for sale they pierce children’s noses 
and ears for rings,t like the Ramdiya of the eastern districts. 


The Bh^trds’ claim to Brahminical origin is borne out by the fact 
that they wear the janeo and tilak, and even at eclipses receive 
certain offerings, while standing in water, from each and every caste. 
They also practise palmistry {rekha). Other castes call them harar~ 
popo or Thags, and the higher Brahman groups disown them. 
Probably they are a branch of the Dakauts. 

The Bhdtras have 22 gots, of which 13 are found in Sialkot, viz. 


Bhains. 

Gamf. 

Kasha. 

Bhattf. 

Gojra. 

Lande. 

Bhotiwal. 

Kag. 

Lar. 

Digwit. 




Lohi. 

Rithor. 

Rod. 


Bhajt, fern. Bhatten, Bhattni, Bhdtni, Bhatani : dim. Bhatetd, : fern. 
Bhateti, the son or daughter of a Bhatt : also, contemptuously, any 
one of that caste. The Panjdbi form is Bhatt, but it is very commonly 
pronounced Bh^t> especially in the Hills. 


The organisation of the Hindu Bhd.ts almost baffles description, so 
fluid are its intricacies. 


In Hissdr are found two sub-castes, Brahm and a few Rdj. The 
former are clients of the Mah^jansJ, performing certain functions for 
them at weddings, &c.§ ; they wear the, /aneo, avoid widow marriage, 
and only eat food cooked by a Gaur Brahman ||, while the Rdj are land- 
holders and cultivators, receiving dues at Jdt weddings. 

The Brahm, Brahma or Brahun Bhdts are very widely spread, and 
always appear to stand higher than the other sub-castes or groups, 
which vary from place to place. Thus in Rohtak the other groups are 

♦Recently, however, some of them have taken to disguising themselves as Bairaci 
RddMs. Others, of Daska, make an indelible mark on their necks and call themselves 
Hosaini Brahmans, collecting alms from Muhammadans, 
t See p. 268 of Punjab Manufactures for the implements used, 
j And also of the Brahmans in Rohtak. 

§ They sing kdbiU in public when the bridegroom first sets out for his father-indaw’s 
house, receiving a rupee as then: fee on this occasion and also at the kdj of an old man 
11 Or Aggarwal Mahijans in Rohtak. 


95 


The Bhdt groups. 


three in number, viz., Jagrg^ or Tappaw^r,* * * § Chirant, and a fourth 
class, to which belonged Udd Bhdt.^ The Jaggds comprise the Bharia, 
Roria, Shakkarw^ld, Solanki and other gots. 

In Gurgdon on the other hand the Bh^t or Rai, as he is called, is de- 
scribed as a Mirdsi, and is divided into four cla88es§ : — 

j ( 1. Brahm Rai, Bh^ts of the Brahmans. 

\ 2. Bero ^Baro) Rai, of the Rdjputs. 

( 3. Rd.j Rai, who eat flesh and drink liquor. 

(4. Jag4, or genealogists : of whom I is superior to II. j) 

The Brahm group then extends right across the south of the Punjab 
into Mult4n, Dera Ghdzi Kh4n, Dera IsmaMl, Mi4nw4li and evenBannu • 
the group below them being called K4tim4r.il 

On the other hand in Multdn the Brahm Bhd,t8 are said to be divided 
into four classes : — 


Chandi Dds. Mahal. 

Jangd, Bhamb4. Sutrak. 

This group is also called Vateshar and regards itself as Bahrf or 
superior, while the Bunjdhis, who are not recognised as Brahm Bhi^s, 
comprise the following grois : — 


Agan-hotrf.** 
Chandan. 
Dharor. 
Ghanghar.** 
Guru Dat. 


Lakhnauri. 

Manjhor. 

Palsihar. 

Pali Palsihar. 


Dehi Palsihar. 
Shenor. 

Si pal. 

Sugerlu. 


The real grouping in Multan however appears to be into four func- 
tional groups, viz. : — 

1. Brahm, eulogists and genealogists. 

2. Vartishar, who live upon does payable at weddings and funerals 
for their services. At weddings they summon the brotherhood, and so 
on. At deaths they notify its members, and also procure' certain 


*Jaggi, so called because they rise early and seated on their patron’s roof recite his 
genealogy. TappawAr is not explained. “ 

t Charan, a wanderer, pilgrim : silver, dancer : Platts, sub voce 

t But another account says the Bhats include the foUowing classes r-Brahm (the only one 
found m Rohtak), Jagga, Raj and Charan, (already mentioned^ together with the Al on4 
and Garara. 

§ Apparently sub-castes : if not, I and II each form a sub-caste. But it is also said thnf 
the mirdsis of the Kijputs are called Rana or Ucharn Bhats. the Rinas being stow-tellera 
and eulogists, as well as genea ogists. And yet another account divides the Bhits into four 
classes :-(l , Rai Bh4^ or ‘ meister.singers.’ (2 1 Ranas “ heralds ” who used to act as etts 
as well as encourage the fighting men by their singing of legends, (3) Kathaks or musSs 
and (4) Jagaa or genealogists and story tellers, musicians, 

The following hibit from Gurgion describes the superiority of the Rai Bhits •— 

Hamin That, Eamin Bhatf, Hamin Bhaunra, Hamin Bhdg{ 

Eam{n bir Betdl, Hamin jangal ke jogi, ’ 

Knprd %<haren mdng harar bdndh mandar aren, 

Betdl kahen Bikram suno dev dan kirat karen 

Ti5d^and®sfdhfaV®'~^^^^““’ Chandiin, Kalia, Mirchal, Sair, 

*!I ]^t according to an account from MultAn the groups are four, viz • Brahm Varlesh 

war, Chandisar and Kutichar, each with functions of its own ' ’ 

"T® /ifssed as Brahm, in other words some of their members 
are of Brahm status, others only of Bunjihi rank. 


06 


The Bhdt groups. 


articles for tbe corpse. At fuuerals their females take part in the 
sidpd (mourning), being paid annas 2 per day. At a girl’s wedding they 
get Ue. 1-8, but at a boy’s only Re. 1, the sum which they also get 
at a funeral. Their perquisite on other occasions is called vel badhdi. 

3. The Chandisar live in tbe villages and live by begging. The 
Kdtimirs who used to be numerous in Multdn, are an off-shoot of 
this branch. 


4. The Kutichar are vagrant beggars. 

Accounts from Mi4nw4H, in which District the Bhdts are very few 
in number, give a threefold division of the caste, as follows 


i. Brahmi. 

ii. Khosld. 


jj ( ii. K4tim4r or Sheni Khel. 
? iii. Baddu. 


I performs ceremonies : II does not, though at weddings the K4tim4r 
sing songs of congratulation. The Baddu is virtually an out-C!«ste.* 

A second account points to the fact that the Bh4ts derive their origin 
from the Pushkarnd, Brahmans as well as from the S^rsut, and says the 
Pushkarn4 Bhd,t are equal in ststus to the S4rsut,t though the status 
of the sections varies, and a family whose widows marry outside the 
brotherhood is looked down upon. 

Lastly a third account gives the old functional gronps : the out who 
sing songs and recite chronicles ‘ in the afternoon ’J ; the Miigadh, who 
keep pedigrees of kings, and recount their deeds : the Windijdn, who 
teach princes ; and the Bh4t; or Jagak§ who sang songs in the early 
morning hours to awaken the king. Yet this same account divides the 
Bh^ts into Brahms and K4tim4rs. 


In Mnlt4n, tahsil Shuj^b4d, only the Brahm and K4tim4r groups are 
known. The former comprises 7 gots : Chandi Dds, Mahel, Sutrak, 
Changar, Paisa, Chandaria, and Channan, all of which are said to be 
Sdrsut gots and intermarry. The Kd,tim4r8, also said to be Sdrsuts, 
form a distinct sub-caste. They have, as a rule, no clients, and live 
by blackmail, but in Shujdb4d itself they receive fixed dues (from one 
to four annas a head at weddings). They still compose habits which 
the Brahm Bh^ts do not. 


In the accounts from Karn^l, Patidld. and KapurthaMll allusion is 


* The Baddd takes alms from Muhammadans, which other Bhats will not do. No other 
will eat with him, yet he wears the janeo. His corpse is not burnt like a Hindu’s, but is cast 
into a stream. It is to be regretted that no further particulars of this interesting group are 
given. 

t It is said that the gots are : — 


( Chandi Das, 
■ Gandhor. 
j Harar Rai. 


iHatiira 


/ Panian. 

POSHEASSA j 

, Cg hangar. 

I Kdtiindr' ? 

l^Thor, etc. 

j; Just as the Jaggi have a stated time for their recitations : see above. 

§ Not to be confused with the Jajik, who in Dera Ghazi Khan is a sewer of shrouds ; see 

infra. 

11 In Kapurthala to the Sdt is assigned the duty of reciting verses from the Purans • and 
to the Magadh that of eulogising the Surajbans, Chandrbans, etc., while to the Vandiian is 
allotted the recitation of chronicles, and eulogising Deo, rihhi, pitar and Haii hi rJndan 
whence they are designated Kabishars or bards. The latter also announce betrotbak 
forth the dowry at weddings, and so on. ’ ^ 


'Die Bhiit groups. 


97 


made to an older and apparently extinct organisation of the Bhd^ caste 
into three main groups, viz . : — 

1. Sut, reciters of myths. 

2. Mdo-adhs, chroniclers. 

3. Vandis, or Vandijan, who acted as advisers to Rdjds and as 
poets laureate. 

The Vandis alone are found in Patidhi where they are known as 
Brahmd, Bhd^s or Brahmd, Rais. They wear {\>:i janeo and retain their 
Brahminical gotras such as Konsal (in Kapurthald,), Bhardwdj, etc. 


In their internal grouping the Brahm Bhd,ts imitate the Khatri 
organisation, having two groups as follows : — 


1. Gun deo. 

2. Kataria. 

3. Pangau. 


I. — Bar!, or the 12 gots. 


4. Lakhau Sain. 

5. Dhur. 

d. Bisbel or -wel. 


7. Bhdrd,mal. 

8. Tdhu. 

9. Kalian. 


1 10. Phdg. 

1 1 . Chandi dds. 

12. Dhiran. 


and of these numbers 1 — 6 form a phd,ighar group, which avoids only 
one got iu marriage, (as indeed does the whole B^ri group, apparently) 
whereas the Bunjilhis avoid four. This latter group includes the 
following gots : — 


Bhulddia. Munohia. 

Malaunia. Saroha. 


Suri^n. 

Tetia. 


Tuhiinia, etc. 


On the other hand in Shdhpur the Bhdt are divided into Bunjdhfs 
and Khokhars, the latter suggesting the Khokharain group of the 
Khatris, thus : — 


I.— Bonjabis. 


II.— Khokhars. 


Section. 

Gotra. 

f Ayupotri. 

Bhdrdwdj. 

1 Dherru. 

iy 

Jandidds. 

Koshal. 

I Mdhal. 

yy 

tRai Pdl. 

yy 

^Sigarre. 

Kushab. 

Nadhipotre. 

Bhdrdwdj. 

1 Apat. 

Bdlash. 

^Jain. 

Vashist. 


Of these the Jain section will intermarry with any other, but 
from the above notes it is abundantly clear that the Bhdts are 
simply an offshoot of the Brahmans, being differentiated from them 
by function. And to explain their origin various legends have been 
invented. One is that when Janmeja celebrated a sacrifice he sum- 
moned the Gnur Brahmans and tricked one of them into accepting an 
offering of a diamond by concealing it in some pd7i. This Brahman 
became a Bhdf. Another, to whom Janmeja offered a gift, refused it 
and became a Taggd. Another is that Shiva was celebrating the 
marriage of his son, and giving alms to Jogis, Jangams, Sanidsis and 
Suthrds, who received them with a good grace. Thereupon the god 
asked if any would constrain him to give alms, and a drop of sweat 
falling from his brows to the ground the first Bhdt sprang from 


98 


Bhdt legends, 

it, with a Tcatdr in his hands, and uttered a habit which runs : — “ 0 
goddess K^likd, give the Bh^t a hatdr whose sight will cause a close- 
fisted man [shum] to flee. Let the Bhdt cleave him from head to foot 
with his katdr.” Shiva replied : — “0 Betal Rai, Bhdt, I would have 
given you the kingdom of the whole world had you not appeared thus. 
Now I grant you great influence and all will be terrified at your voice, 
but you will get what you may.^’ This habit, obtained from a Bhdt, 
would make all the Bhdts professional extortioners. A third tradition 
is that Brahmd ofl'ered gifts to Brahmans, but they all refused it, until 
one of their sisters’ sons accepted it and thus became a Bhdt. 

Two legends from the Simla hills also describe the origin of the 
Bhdts. The first explains how they acquired the power of reading 
men’s thoughts. Under Rdjd Blioj,* it says, lived Kdli Dds, a famous 
Bhdt who held that a man could say anything he wished in poetry, 
and so Kdli, the goddess, pleased with his devotion, conferred on 
him the power of thought-reading. The other legend goes further 
back, and describes how Rdjd Jaswantt had a wise counsellor in a 
woman Khankdli. Once when he was holding his court a,t Srinagar 
in Garhwdl the Rdjd of Mdrwdr, Jagdeo, came to see him. and found 
him and Khankdli in council. The lady veiled her face, explaining 
that as a man had come to that cowardly court she could not show her 
face before him. This reply naturally annoyed Jaswaut who declared 
he would give her 10 times as much as Jagdeo would bestow. Khankdli 
then went to Jagdeo’s tent ; but as he was at his devotions his Rdni 
gave her a dish full of gold coins and gems which Khankdli refused to 
accept, as she could take no alms from a woman. When the Rdjd 
came she presented him with a rupee, as a nazr, and said she was the 
wife of a Bhdt and had come to demand ddn (charity), which one of 
Rdjput blood could not refuse. He bade her ask a favour, and she de- 
manded his head, which the Rdjd at once cut off, and she carried it in a 
dish to Rdjd Jaswant. Tauntingly Jaswant asked what she had got 
from Jagdeo, who had fled from his own kingdom and sought a refuge 
with himself. In reply Khankdli showed him the head and demanded 
those of himself and his 9 sons in fulfilment of his vow, threatening him 
with the ruin of his kingdom if he refused. The king’s sons, his queen, 
and he himself, however, all declined to sacrifice their lives in fulfilment 
of the Rdjd’s rash promise. 

Khankdli then returned to Jagdeo’s tent. She had forbidden his 
queen to burn his body till she returned, and when she found the Rdni 
lamenting over his corpse she restored it to life and promised him the 
empire of all India. This he soon achieved. In the first encounter 
Jaswant was overthrown and Jagdeo seized his kingdom. Gradually 
he subdued all the petty chiefs in India, compelling them to pay 
6 annas in the rupee as tribute. From Khankdli and Kdli Dds the 
Bhdt chain descends. 

In Sirmur the Bhdts are by origin Brahmans, J but having adopted 
harewa they lost status and are now by occupation genealogists. 
Many, too, are cultivators and frans-Giri mairy with Kanets. The 

* Cf. Legends II, p. 1S3. 

I See Legends of the Punjab III, pp. 242, 252. 
f There is a Wateshar or liateshar group among the Brahmans also. 


09 


The Muhammadan Bhdt. 


Bhd^a of Ndihan retain Brahman customs, but those of the interior have 
adopteil those of the Kanets. With the Kanets the Bhdts furnish the 
Dewhs or priests to the temples. Trans-Giri there is a sub-division of 
the Bhhts called Deti, but the rest of the Bhhts do not intermarry with 
them and they are inferior to the other groups. 


The Muhammadan Bha^s. 

The Muhammadan Bhh^s are even fewer in numbers than the Hindu, 
and far less elaborately organised. In Hisshr, they date their con- 
version to Xlamgir^s reign, and still continue to minister to Mahhjans 
and other Hindus as well as to Mughals and Pirzhdas, but Shaikhs 
only fee them at a daughter’s wedding; as do also oilmen and weavers 
who give them 8 annas. But they get fees on the birth of a son. In 
Rohtak they have only three sections, Bijhdn, Sil Sahd and Gur Deva, 
of whom the latter recite genealogies and compose songs. 


Their patrons are Muhammadan Riijputs and Hindu Mahdjans, and 
they receive — 


Ceremony. 

Function, 

■ Fee. 

Girl’s betrothal 

The Bhat women sing songs and chant 
kabits. 

8 Mansurf takas. 

Boy’s „ 

The Bhat women sing songs and also the 
brotherhood. 

Re. 1 or as. 8 with takas. 

Girl’s 

Women sing bandhdwa 

8 takas for each. 

Birth of a son 

Sing congratulatory songs 

Re. 1. 


At weddings when the dower arrives the Bhats read out the list of articles and recite the 
following kabit . — 

Zar kibi sone gota kindri murassa moti kanchan chhahbhari hai, 

Kimkhdb atlas bdtvald jhurm Idt mehndi moti sut pda dhari hat. 

Bhukan rdtub hird pannd jardo jarat gird men chhuhdre sab ndr kdhin khar{ hat. 
Bandar sohdg bhdg bharijaiai khtlli phul jhari hai. 

In Shdhpur the Muhammadan BhA^s are divided thus 


Section. 


Gotra. 


I. 


"Church 

Panj. 

Samit. 

^Gudrdl. 


Koshal. 

if 


in Kaprdl, which is said to be purely endogamous and not to 
marry with any other Bhilt under pain of excommunication. The 
other four sections marry inter se. 


The Beat’s functions. 

The functions of the Bh^it differ in different parts of these Provinces. 
In the south-eastern districts he is not entrusted with any religious 
functions at all. Thus in Rohtak the Brahm Bhdts merely get 
annas 4 to 8 on the bridegroom’s departure at a wedding ; and the 
guests at a rich man’s funeral are invited through a Bhdt, who receives 
Re. I in cash, and a turban when the pagri is tied round the heir’s 
head. A Bhdt summons the kinsmen to witness an excommuni- 


100 


The Bhdt’s functions. 

cation or a re-admission into caste.* * * § As we go westward, however, the 
Bh^t’s functions become more definite, assuming at times almost a 
priestly colour, while his perquisites are correspondingly larger and more 
certain. Thus in Kapiirthal^ the Brahm Bh^t sings congratulatory 
songs at a betrothal, at the sclicl chitthi, at a chhota, tika, or marking 
of the bridegroom’s forehead, the mitni,'\ or meeting of the bride and 
bridegroom, at the lawdn or turins, the mittha bhdt and the chirkani, 
receiving a fee of annas 2 or so, together with other rails. 


After a death the Bhiit remains for 13 days in the deceased’s house 
and helps to procure what is required ; at a shdnt he gets a rupee; 
and at a such he gets a similar fee with certain clothes : — 


Ceremony. 

Function. 

Fee. 


'(1) Marriage procession ... 

Sing Manglachdr Tedbits 

1 or 2 annas. 

1 

t2) Pilra 

(3; Dowry • 

Ditto 

1 anna. 


Proclaim publicly the presents given 

4 aimas. 


as the dowry. 

Carry baskets (chhdhds) of dried 


(4) TVartstit ... 


fruits, etc., to the bridegroom’s 
father's house, and chant congra- 





tulations to the pair. 



'(1) Procession to the funeral 
pyre. 

(t) Sew the fea/aTiJ ... 

(u) Buy what is necessary for the 

2^ annas. 


deceased’s relatives. 



(2) Sidpdiov 1st four days .. 

(Hi) Sing in the procession. 

A. B hatni leads the mourning of the 

8 annas or a rupee. 


women of the brotherhood. 

2 (3) Dahdya ... 

On the tenth day the Bhatnf as- 

2 annas and 2 sers of 

s 


sembles the women in the house of 

wheat flour. 


(4) On the 13th day 

the deceased’s heirs. 

A Bhat assembles the male members 

1 anna. 


of the brotherhood, and the deceas- 
ed’s heir is proclaimed. 




(5) Dharm shdnt ... .., 

On the 17th day the shrddh is per- 

A meal of cooked food. 



formed. 



In the western districts the Bhd.tni fulfils the duties of a professional 
mourner. Thus in Shd,hpur she leads the mourning by the women 
of the deceased’s brotherhood for a fee of Re. 1, and in Dera Ghdzi 
Kh^n she does this for a wage of 2 ^ annas a day, besides what the 
relatives may give her. 

In Kdngra§ the only relic of the Bhd,t’s former functions is the 
making of kabits, and a proverb runs : — Bhdt ki bhet kabit, i.e., a Bh^t 
will always make a present of a kahit. Like the parohit and the barber 

* This account comes from the S4mpla tahsi'l of Rohtak, Elsewhere the Bh^ts merely 
sing congratulatory songs on auspicious occasions for a fee of four double-pice, raised at 
weddings to Be. 1-4-0. 

t They sprinkle the red coloured water on the white garments of the wedding guests. 

it But in Dera Ghazf Khan this is done by the Jajik. 

§ This is the account from Hamfrpur. In Nurpur tahsil Bhats merely visit the house of a 
newly married couple and receive a small fee, earning their living by cultivation. In 
Kangra tahsil they sometimes at a wedding get a fee called durbhia, which varies "from 
3 pies to 2 annas : they also get one at an investitm'e with the janeo, and at weddings the 
girl’s father gives his Bhat annas 2 and some cloth, while the boy’s Bh^lt gets Re. 1.4.0, but 
they perform no rites. ‘ ' ’ 


101 


Bhattahdr — Bhatti. 

they are looked upon as Idgis, but are virtually only employed as 
messeiit^ers at weldings, beiiijf p lid a tritii by the rejipient for the 
message {neondar). In the Hill States, however, ten or twenty Shd^s 
sometimes collect and recite kahits, receiving a sum of money, called 
rinj, which is divided proportionately among them, the Bhdt of the 
rdjd, who gives' it getting the lion’s share. In former times, it is said, 
they were compelled to work, but this is not now the case. Elsewhere 
the Bh^it is now, speaking generally, a cultivator or a servant to a 
Mabd,jan. 

The Rhdts act as parohits to the Kbatris, while their own parohits 
and pddhas are Sd.rsut Brahmans. 

BHATTAflAR,-HARA, fem.-lidri, Bhattiar,-d,rd,, a person who takes food to 
labourers in the field. 

Bhajti. The name Bhatti would appear to be unquestionably connected 
with Bhdt, Bhatt, Bhdti and Bhatiii, Bhatt bearing the same relation 
to Bhdt to Jat, kamm in Punjdbi to kdm, etc. As a tribe the 

Bhattis are of some antiquity, numerous and wide-spread. They give 
their name to the Bhattidna* and to the Bhattiorat tracts, as well 
as to various places, sucb as Bhatinda, Bhatner, Pindi Bhattidn and 
possibly tbe Bhattidt in Chamba. Historically the Bhattis first appear 
to bo mentioned in the Tdrikh-i-FiroZ’shdhi of Shams-i-ISiraj Afif, and 
the following notes are cnlled from the translation of that work in 
Elliott’s Hist, of India : — 

In tbe reign of Ald-ud-Din, Tughlik of Khurdsan obtained the 
district of Dipdlpnr, of which Abohar was a dependency. To Abohar 
were attached all the jungles belonging to the Mmi (Mina ?) and 
Bhatti tribes. Tughlik, anxious to ally his family with tbe native 
chiefs, heard that the daughters of Rana Mall Bhatti were beautiful 
and accomplished, so he sent the amalddr of Abohar to negotiate the 
alliance of one of them with his brother, Sipahsdldr Rajab. In his 
pride the Rana rejected these overtures, and so Tughlik proceeded to 
levy the outstanding revenue from the talwandis of the Bhattis with 
great severity. The Rdna’s daughter, Bibi Naila, hearing of this, urged 
her own surrender. ‘ Consider,’ she said, * that the Mughals have carried 
off one of your daughters.’ She was accordingly married to Rajab, 
assumed the name of Bibi Kadbanu, and became the mother of Firoz 
Shah -III in 1309 A. D.J 

In 1394 Sdrang Khan was sent to Dipdlpur to suppress the 
rebellion of Shaikhs Kbokbar. There he raised troops and, taking 
with him Rai Khul Chain BhaUi and Rai Ddud Kamfll Main (? Mfna), 
he crossed the Sutlej near Tirhdrah (Tibd,ra, in Ludhiana). § 

In 1389 we read of Rai Kamdl-ud-din Main (? Mina) and Rai Khul 
Chand Bbafti whose fiefs lay near Samana, being sent with Prince 
Humfiyun to raise troops at that fortress. H 

* See the art. Bhattiana in the Imperial Gazetteer, 

t In the Chiniot uplands north of the Chenab. 

± E. H. 1. Ill, pp. 271-2. 


102 


Bhatti clans. 

• • 

Tiraur found Bhatner under the rule of Rao Diil Chain,* a Rdjput, 
and probably a Bhatti. Curiously enough he is represented as having 
a brother named Kamdl-ud-din, and in one history Khul Chain is said 
to have been the Rai of Bhatner.t 

Again in 1527 we read of Mirza Kdmran’s coming from Lahore, with 
many horses and much wealth taken from the Bhattis and Khokhars.f 

The legends of the Bhattis are, however, silent on these events and 
ascribe the origin of the tribe to Achal through Barsi, who extended 
his dominions from the south to Bhatner, which they held until expelled 
from it by the Rdj^of Bikaner early in the 19th century. Then they 
spread over Bhattiana, which comprised the modern tahsil of Sirsa 
and the northern part of Fatehdibad. The tribe is now found princi- 
pally along the Ghaggar valley as far as Bhatner. 

Various other traditions are, however, current in different localities 
and of these the most probable is that which connects the Bhattis 
with Jaisalmir. The story current in Hissilr is that they were in very 
early times driven across the Indus, but returned and some 700 years 
ago dispossessed the Langdh, Joiya and other tribes of the country 
to the south of the lower Sutlej, and founded Jaisalmir, which State 
they still hold. Bhatti, the leader under whom they recrossed the 
Indus, had two sons Dasal and Jaisal. The former settled in Bhattiana 
and from him are descended the Sidhu-Bardr Jd,ts, the AVattu being 
also descendants of his grandson, Rajput. With this tradition may 
be compared the following detailed account of the Bhattis of Bahdwal- 
pur, in which State they have 15 principal clans • 

i. The Bhattis, or pure Bhattis, who are generally landowners 
or cultivators, though some are weavers and blacksmiths. 

ii. Pallor, found throughout the Lamma. 

iii. Chus. 

iv. Jogi and 

V. Janddni. 

These five septs are closely connected, do not give daughters out- 
side the group, and usually intermarry. 

vi. Shaikhra. 

vii. Chakar-Hulle : a small sept, of recent origin called Chakar- 

ullah or servants of God. 

viii. Lallu. 

ix. Bhdbhe : a small sept. 

X. Katesar : also a small sept, which rears sheep. 

xi. Kulyar or Kawalyfir which has an interesting history 

Kulyar was a son of Rdn4 Raj Wadhan, who had four other sons 
(1) Utterd,, (2) Nun, (3) Kdnjun, (4) Hatdr. The tradition is that the 

* The Zafam4ma has Chan, probably for Chand : or Chain may be due to some confusion 
between Sain and Chand. Timur explains that Rao means ‘ brave.’ (E H I TV nt> 422 6 
488-90.) ' ■ ' i ^ ‘ 

t E.H. I. IV, p. 84. 
i E. H. I. V, p. 37. 


108 


Bhatti clans. 

« • 

ancestors of R^j Wadhan lived in ancient times near Ghajni, whence 
they migrated to Delhi, which after a time they left for Bhatner. 
In the 7th century of the Hijra Rdj Wadhan together with his tribe 
left Rhatner and settled near Chhanb Kuly^r (now in tho Lodhrdn 
tahsil of Multdn), which in those days lay on the southern bank of 
the Sutlej and formed part of the dominions of Rai Bhuttd;, the ruler 
of a city, the greater part of which was destroyed by the Sutlej flowing 
over it ; but parts of its ruins are still to be seen on the riglit bank 
of the Ghdra (in tahsil Lodhrdn). Bjlnd, R^j Wadhan had a beautiful 
daughter whom Rai Bhuttd, desired to marry. The request was refused 
by Kulydr, the eldest son of R^j Wadhan ; and the result was that a 
sanguinary battle took place in which Rai Bhutta was slain. The 
tract of the country thus conquered by the Kulyd,rs became known as 
Chhanb Kulydr, which name it still retains. At this time Slier Sh^h 
Sayyid Jald-l was living in Uch, where R4nd Rdj Wadhan and his sons 
went to see him and embraced IslAm. R4j Wadhan remained Jat Uch, 
Utterd, occupied the ^ Vidh ’ (Bids)*, Nun began to live on the Rdvi, 
(and that tribe is now dominant in Shujdbdd tahsil), Kanjun at the 
Dondri Mari (?), and Kulydr made Chhanb Kulydr his residence. 
Hatdr was deprived of his share of the inheritance.t 

xii. Daragh. 

xiii. Sangrd : with a famous sept called Wdgi. In the 8th 

century Hijra the Sangrds migrated from Rdjputdna and 
settled in Kathdla, then a large town on the Gurang or 
Hariari, the ruins of which are still to be seen near Tibba 
Tdnwin-wdla. Kathdla was at that time held by the Joiyas. 

xiv. Mahtam : the Muhammadan Mahtams claim to be Bhat^is 

and say a mirasi once ironically called their ancestor 
‘ Mahtam, ’ or chief. They appear to be distinct from the 
Hindu Mahtams. 

XV. Bhet : who claim to have been Bhattis who accompanied 
Shaikh Hakim from Delhi, but are said by others to be 
Dhedhs or Menghwals, whom that saint converted. 

xvi. Markand, Bokha, Jhakhkhar, Dhandla, Phanbi, Birdr, 
Dadu, Kapdhi (cotton-workers and reed-cutters), and 
Kdhin, are nine clans descended from the same ancestor 
and they intermarry. Some are landowners, others tenants, 
but some are boatmen, and though Bhattis by origin they 
are regarded as of low status. 

On the south-east border of the Punjab the subject population of 
Bikaner is largely composed of Bhattis, and traditiunj almost always 

♦ The tradition is that in those days the Bias flowed separately to the north of Kahror 
towards Shuj4b4d. 

t The Mittru Bhatti of Multan say they came from Bikaner. 

f The Hissar tradition is very different and says that the 1 hattis are of tho J4tu family, 
and that like the Tnnwar Rajputs they trace their origin to remote antiquity. At some 
distant period, two person.^ named hhatti and fcumija are said to have come to this country 
from Mathra. The latter had no male issue, and his descendants (called Joiya Rtijputs) 
live in Sirsa. After some generations me of the family of the foim.er, nam»d hus^lu, 
became Baja — he had t\\o sens, Dusul and Jaisul. 'the latter became h’4]a of JaisaJmir, 
where his descendants still reign. The former remained in hhattiana— he had cnly one son, 
named Janra, who had several wive.® (all of other castes) by whom he had 21 tons, whose 


104 Bhatti traditions. 

• «> 

carries us back to the ancient city of Bliatner, which lies on the banks 
of the long since dry Ghaggar, in the territory of that State bordering 
on Sirsa. But in that tract, which corresponds to the old Bhatti^na, 
the Bhatti is no longer a dominant tribe and the term is loosely applied 
to any Muhammadan Jdt or Rdjput from the direction of the Sutlej, 
as a generic term almost synonymous with Rd,th or Pachhd,da. 

In the central Punjab, however, and towards the north of it, the 
Bha^tis, though scattered, hold strong positions. In Amritsar tradition 
avers that they have a Mong pedigree' beginning with Adam, 10th in 
descent from whom was Krishna, son of Jad, the sou of Jadam. And 
the present State of Kapurthalii was held by a Rajd, who sought the 
aid of Lakhanpdl and Harpal, sons of theRdna, Purab Chand, of Bhatner 
against his foes. Accompanied by Panpdl, a third son of the Rdn^ 
by a wife, tliey overran the neighbouring country; but the Raja 
refused to give them the share he had agreed to bestow upon them, 
so they put him to death and partitioned his kingdom, Lakhanpdl 
taking the Bhri Dod,b, Harpal that of the Bist Jdlaudhar and Panpdl 
the modern Ferozepur District, llai Viru, Lakhanp^l’s great-grandson, 
founded Vairowal in Amritsar some 540 years ago and his grand- 
daughter, a sister of Rai Mitha, was msirried to Rai Ibrahim of 
Kapurthald, himself a Bhatti and descended from Harpal. But after a 
futile attempt to subdue Rai Mitha, Ibrahim forbade intermarriage 
between the two branches. 

Kapurthald tradition is, however, quite silent as to Lakhanpal or 
Harpal, and, according to legends current in that State, Rai Ndnak 
Chand is said to have left Bhatner and settled in BhuHna, in that 
State. Three brothers Bliatti, Manj and Chauhdn founded the R4jput 
tribes so named, which settled in the Punjab only 14 generations ago. 

Nevertheless reciprocal marriage is confined to the Bhatti, Manj 
N^ru and Khokhar* tribes, which avoid marriage with the Chauh4n, 
Awdn, Nip41, Bajoha, Janjua, Punwdr, Vary^. 

The Khokhars and N^nis are regarded as foreign by race to the other 
Rdjputs, who all trace back their descent to R4j4 Salivahan who has 
a shrine at SHlkot- He is said to have been defeated by Im4m N4sir. 

In Gujrdt the Bhattis trace their first settlements back to Dulla 
Bhatti, R4jd. of Pindi Bhatti4n who was put to death by Akbar. All 
his family was in Akbar’s camp on the Jhelum, where they were kept 
in durance until released at the intercession of a faqir whose shrine 
is still pointed out at Chhapar on the bank of that river. Dulla’s son, 
Kam41 Kh4n was allowed to settle on the waste lands near Ghamdn, 
still a Bhatti village, while the rest returned to Pindi Bhatti4n.t 


descendants established different tribes, such as the Lakhiwdl, SidMi and Barar Jnts. Janra 
founded the town of Abohur, naming it after his wife Abho— by this wife he had three 
sons- Rdjpdl, Chun and Vhum the Wat^ Kjijputs are descendants of the first- the Mai 
lUjputs of the second— and the Nawab of Rania and his family, of the third. Inasmuch as 
the Bhatbs were more numerous than the rest, the country was called Hhatpina, The 
habits, manners and customs of Bhatti Rdjputs are similar to those of the Tunwar hkinuts 
Hissar Settlement Keport, p. 8, §§ 25, 20. 

* The Khokhars (alone) give daughters to Sayyids, 

f The tribal mirdsi gives the following pedigree of the tribe, which claims Maharaja Ran jit 


105 


A Bhatti pedigree. 


The Bhatti of the Gujrfinwdla Bdr, where they are the natural 
enemies of the Virk,” are descended from one Dhir, who eighteen 
generations ago left Bhatner, and settled in the Nur Mahnl jungles as 
a grazier and freebooter. His grandson went further on to tho banks 
of the R^vi, and his son again moved up into the uplands of Gujrdn- 
wdla. The modern descendants of these men are described as “ a 
muscular and noble-looking race of men, agriculrurists more by 
constraint than by natural inclination, who keep numerous herds of 
cattle which graze over the pasture lands of the B4r, only plough 
just sufficient to grow food for their own necessities, and are famous 
as cattle-lifters and notorious thieves.” The Bhatti of Gujrdnw^la 
enjoyed considerable political importance in former times, and they 
still hold 86 villages in that District. In Sidlkot the Bhatti claim 
descent from Bhoui seventh in descent from their eponymous ance>»tor 
Bhatti, who came to Gnjrdnwdla from Bikfiner, and thence to Sialkot. 
None of these Bhafti of the Bdr will give their daughters to the 


Singh as one of its scions : — 


PADAM RATH. 

I 


Wichar. 


r 


Sahnsi. 

Mnhar^,ja Kanjit Singh was 
descended from this branch. 


Bhanni. 


Kaji. 

V 


Shodi. . 

J 


Gujranw^Ia. 


r~ 

D&na, 

I 

Lakhira. 

I 

Chnhar. 

I 

Dhang. 

I 

Katho . 

I 

Nathu. 


Rai Pnthora. 
Qujrilowila. 


Bahlol, 


r 




Nam pal, Jarat. Gaundhar. Batanp&l. Sahnp£l. 


Gujrinwala. 


f 

Ato. 

V 


Tahsil Pbsliin. 


Amhar, 


Dhairvi. 


Pindi Bhatti4n. 


Ohs. 


r 


Karto. 


Seo, 


1 

Ghawnaj. 

Gujrinwila. 


Dehli and Bik&ner. 


■“1 

Bijli. 

I 

Farfd. 


M&sti. Daim. Da 
Pindi Bhatti4n. 


la. 


r ^ 

Mahammad Kh&n. Kam&l Khin, 

Pindi Bhatti&n. Qujrit. 

[another genealogy of the Bhattia see imder Silmil.] 


106 Bhatti Chane^Bhittanni. 

neighbouring J^t tribes, though they will take wives from among them 
without scruple.* In the Salt-range the Bhatti seem to hold a very 
subordinate position as Bhatti, though it may be that some of the 
innumerable Rajput tribes of that trad may consider themselves 
BhaUi, as well as whatever their local name may be. The Bhatti of 
Jhang hold the considerable Bhattiora tract north of the Chendb, 
They came first from Bhatner to the right bank of the Jhelum near 
the Shahpur border, and thence to Bhattiora. They are described as 
“ a fine race of men, industrious agriculturists, hardly at all in debt, 
good horse-breeders, and very fond of sport. They do very little 
cattle-lifting, but are much addicted to carrying off each other^s 
wives.^’ 

The persistence of the traditions which connect the Bhattis with 
Bikaner, Jaisalmer and the old fortress of Bhataer cannot be disre- 
garded. But for a fuller discussion of their origins see Rajpdt, 

Bhatti is also’(l) a Baloch clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery, 
as well as (2) a Muhammadan Kamboh clan (agricultural), and (3) a 
Muhammadan Skt clan (agricultural) in that District. 

Bhatti Chanb, BhattI Naul, BhattI Tahar, three Rdjput clans (agricultural) 
found in Montgomery. Cf. Bhdti Wad. 

Bhawana, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur. 

Bhbda, an agricultural clan found in Shahpurj 

Bhekh-dharI, bbekhi, a faqir, a sddhu: from bhekh, dress, disguise, and so 
^ a sect of Hindu fuqirs\ 

Bhidal, a Muhammadan Jat clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

BHiKHAEi, fem. -A^t, a beggar. 

Bhikkhak, bhichchak q,v. 

Bhin, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Bhindal, a tribe of .Tdts claiming Solar Rdjput origin, through its eponym, 
whose descendant Badar embraced Islam. It holds five villages in 
Sidlkot. 

Bhindae, a tribe of Jdts of the Lunar branch of the Lunar Rdjputs, through 
its eponym, who settled in the Punjab under Rai Tanar. Found in 
SidlkoL 

Bhisti, fem. -an, {hhistd, facetiously), lit., a dweller in Paradise, fr. Pers. 
hihisht ; a Muhammadan water-carrier. 

Bbittanni occupies a tract of hill country some 40 miles long by 12 to 16 wide, 
stretching along our border from the Marwat tahsil of Bannu to the 
Gfimal valley. Along the northern part of this line, it owns little or 

♦As among the Muhammadan Chibb, Manhas and other tribes, a Jitf who esponsea a 

Bhatti becomes a Bhattini by tribe according to the proverb Chhutti Raja Uhol Rdni : 

‘ Touched by a (a woman) becomes a KAni.’ ’ 

InJLndhiana the Shaikhs, a Bhatti clan, derive their name from Shaikh Chaohu a descend- 
ant of RAja Kanshan who accepted Islam and was granted the State of Hathur by th® 
Muhammadan emperors. For some other Bhatti clan names seo the Appendix. ^ 


107 


Bhojiya'^Bhojki. 

no land in the plains; to the south it holds a strip of very fertile 
country extending from the Takwdra along the hills as far as Dabbra. 
It has a few scattered hamlets m the Nasrdn country north of the 
Takwdra, and is also found in considerable numbers in the north-east of 
the Gumal valley. To the west the hill country of the Bhittannis is 
hemmed in by that of the Wazirs. The two tribes are generally more 
or less ut feud, though the Bhittannis, till recenily, never scrupled to 
assist Wazir robbers in their incursions into British territory. 

The Bhittannis live in small villages, generally hidden away in 
hollows. Their houses are mud and brushwood hovels of the poorest 
description, and sometimes they live in caves hollowed out of the 
rook. One of their principal places is Jandola, on the road leading up 
the T4nk zam to the Wazir country. 

The tribe is divided into three sections : Dhanna, Tatta and Wraspun. 
In the plains the lands of the Bhittannis were originally divided into 
numerous small divisions, known as ndlds. Bach nd/<f, as a rule, 
forms a single plot, owned by a number of families generally closely 
connected by birth. The waste land in each ndld is the property of 
the n did proprietors. Before land became valuable, the proprietors 
of the different used readily to admit men of their own sub- 

section to a share in the ndld lands*, and in this way, men, who had 
bef-ire lived exclusively in the hills, were coniinually settling in the 
plains. There has never been, therefore, any actmil division of the 
country on shares, and the present proprietors hold purely on a 
squatting tenure. The lands of the Wraspuns he to the uo.th, the 
'l^ltas to the south, and the Dhannas in the middle, ihe Dh annas 
own much less land than the other two sections, and fewer of them 
reside in the plains. The plain Bhittannis live in scattered kirns 
villages. The larger ndlds have separate kirns and headmen of their 
own, but more generally the people of several ndlds live togeibei in 
one kirri, under a common headman. 

Bhojiya, a Muhammadan Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bhojki, a term applied to the pujdris or officiants at the great shrines of 
Dbvi such as that of Jaw^latuukhi, that at Bliaun in tho Kangfa 
District, Naina Devi in Hoshidrpur, etc. The Bhojkis were said by 
Barnes to be not Brdhmans, thoutih they are the he* editary priests of 
these celebrated temples. They all wear tho sacred thread ; they 
intermarry among themselves alone, eat flesh, drink wine, and aie a 
debauched and profligate set ; the men are constantly in the Courts 
involved in litigation, and the women are notorious for their loose 
morality.” Colonel Jenkins writes of them: — “ I'lie Bhojkis are 
perhaps a unique feature of the Kdingra District. They claim to e 
Sdrsut Brahmans ; but if so, have certainly sunk in the social scale, 
as no ordinary Brahmans would eat kdchi rcisoi with them. -*-h6y 
appear to occupy much the same position as the Gangaputras o 
Benares, and the probability is that they are mereJogis who have 
obtained a reflected sanctity from the goddesses whose service they 
have entered. The name is evidently conneeted with the Sanskrit roo 
bhoj to feed,* and is taken from the n ature of their duties. Ihey 

* The term is probably derived from bhoj in the sense of * grant and the Bhojkii art 
probably merely benefic^ Brahman devotees of Devi. 


108 


Bhojudnd’^Bhular. 

intomiarry among thoniselves and with a class of Jogis called Bodha 
Pand'ts. Another account states that the Bhojkis of Bhaun do not 
give daughters to those of Jawdlamukhi or Naina Devi, thougn up 
to Sambat 1936 they used to accept brides from the lattf^r, whom 
they regard as inferiors. The Bhojkis of Bliaun now only intermarry 
among themselves, excluding their own got and the mother’s relatives 
up to the 7th degree. But they also intermarry with the Pandit 
Bodhas and the Bararas. The former are said to be Brdhmans, 
but both they and the Bararas take a deceased’s shroud, etc., like the 
Achdraj. The Bhojkis of Chintpurni are Brahmans and marry with 
Brahmans, and will not even smoke with those of Bhaun, etc.” 

Bhojdana, a clan of the Sidls. 

Bhola, a Muhammadan Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bholar, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar (same as Bhullar). 

Bhonah, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Bhoiveye, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bhotah, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Buotae, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multdn (same as Bhuttar). 

Bhoto, an ignorant hillman, a simpleton. 

Bhuchanqi, a title given to Akdlis : fr. hhiichang, a black snake. 

Bhukk, a Baloch clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery, Ferozepur, and in 
Bahawalpur, in which State they call themselves Jd^s. 

Bhukyal, mentioned in the Tabaqdt-i-Akbari as a tribe subject to the 
GakhHrs,^** but in the \Vaki’dt-i-Jahangiii they are said to be of the 
same stock and connected with the Gakhars, occupying the country 
between Kohtds and Hatyd, to which they give their name of BugidLt 

Bhulae. — The Bhular, Her, and Man tribes call themselves asl or 
“ original” Jdts, and are said to have sprung from theyat or “ matted 
hair” of Mahddeo, whose title is Bhola {‘simple’) Mahddeo. They 
say that the Mdlwa was their original home, and are commonly 
reckoned as two and a half tribes, the Her only counting as a half. 
But the bards of the Man, among which tribe several families have 
rispn to political importance, say that the whole of the Mdn and Bhular 
and half the Her tribe of Bdjputs were the earliest Kshatriya immi- 
grants from Rajputdna to the Punjdb. The head-quarters of the 
Bhular appear to be Lahore and Ferozepur, and the con 6 nes of the 
Mdnjha and Malwa; but they are returned in small numbers from 
every division in the Punjdb except Delhi and Rdwalpindi, from almost 
every District, and from every Native State of the Eastern Plains 
except Dujdna, Loharu, and Pataudi. The tribe is probably not a 
wholly homogeneous one. In Jind its Sidh is Kalan]ar, whose samddh 
is at Mdri, and to it milk is offered on the 14th hadi of each month • 
also cloth at a wedding or the birth of a son. In Sidlkot its Sidh is 
Bhora, whose khangdh is revered at weddings. In Montgomery the 
Bhular are Hindu and Muhammadan Jdts and classed as agricultural. 

Bh6n, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Shdhpur. 


• is.H. I. V., p. 2lr8. 


t Ibid Vi, p. 300. 


109 


Bhunid — Bthizai, 

Bnu^ipX, an aboriginal tribe, a man of that tribe. (P. D. 145). 

Bhut, a tribe found in the S4diqdb4d hdrddri of Bahdwalpur where 
they are landowners and tenants. They are formed from two distinct 
groups, one a Baloch, the other a Jdt sept, the former being few, and 
the latter numerous. The Bhut are possibly a branch of the 

Abrahs, with whom they intermarry, but they are also said to be a 
branch of the Bhatfis. 

Bhutar, M., a landowner. 

Bhdtha, a Jdf clan (agi'icultural) fouud in Shdhpur..* 

BeuTRi, a Jaf sept. 

Bhuts, a J4t sept. 

Bhu'H'a. — The Bhufta are said by the late Mr. E. O’Brien to have traditions 
connecting them with Hindustan, and they claim to be descended from 
Solar Rajputs. But since the rise to opulence and importance of 
Pirzada Alurad Bakhsh Bhutfa, of Mult4n, many of them have taken to 
calling themselves Pirzddas. One account is that they are immigrants 
from Bhutdn — a story too obviously suggested by the name. They 
also often practise other crafts, such as making pottery or weaving, 
instead of or in addition to agriculture. They are said to have held Uch 
(in Betidwalpur) before the Sayyids came there. They are chiefly found on 
the lower Indus, ChendbandJtielum, in Shahpur, Jhang, Multdn, Muzaf- 
fargarh, and Dera Ghdzi Khan. In Jhang most are returned as Rdjputs. 
The Bhuffd shown scattered over the Eastern Plains are perhaps mem- 
bers of the small Bhutnaor Bhutra clan of Malwa Jd^s. Bee also Butar 
and Buta. Maclagan describes them as a Jdt or Rdjput clan found in 
Multdn tahsil and allied to the Langahs, etc., Bhutfa, Langdh, Dahar, 
Shajrd and Naich, being said to be sons of Mahli in tne couplet : — 

Saghi, jihdndi dddi, Sodi jihdndi md, 

Mahli jdi panj futr — Dahr, Bhu\tdy Langdh, Naich, Shajrd. 

A branch of this clan at Khairpur near Multan is in the transition 
stage towards becoming Bayyid. 

According to the Bahawalpur tradition the Bhuffa are of the same 
stock as the Bhdfia.* When Dcwa Rawal, sister’s son of Rdjd Jajja 
Bhutfd, was building the fort now called Derawar Jajja in a fit of 
jealousy stopped its construction ; whereupon his sister who was married 
to a Bhdtia Rdjput thus addressed him : — 

Rdi Jajja Bhutia sen wain M bhain pnchhde, 

Kay a Bhutta haya Bhdtia Kot usdran de. 

“ His sister besought Rai Jajja, the Bhuffa : 

Whether thou art a Bhuf^a or a Bhdtia, let the fort be built.” 

Bhotta, an Arain clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bib, a small and humble (agricultural) tribe, holding one or two villages in 
Abbottdbdd tahsil, Hazdra district, and possibly connected with the 
Awdns. 

BiBizAi, a Pathdn clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

* The Bab4walpur traditions make the Bhatia (Jaisalmer family), the Bhut^s, Bhattis 
aud Wattes all one and the same family. 


llO Bihanggan^^^tshndi. 

Bihanggan, one who has not a 6xed abode, a faqir who subsists on alms. 

Bilai, a low Purbia caste of syces and grass-cutter. But see also under 
Chamdr. 

Bilaiti, fern, -a^i, a foreigner, a European or an Afghan. 

BilhXba, described as a donkey-keeper, the Bilhd,ra is really a branch of the 
' MalMl or Mohaua (boatmen) group, like theNihayaand Manabhari. 
In Bah^walpur they are cultivators as well as boatmen and own 
several villages on theChendib and Indus. They are also found as land- 
owners in Multan, Muzaffargarh and Uera Ghdzi. 

Bimbar, an Ardin clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bibajpani, a disreputable sub-sect of the Bdm-margi, q.v. 

Bishnoi,* Pahlad Bansi, (fr. Vishnu, one of the Hindu Trinity), a sect 
whose founder Jh^-mbaji lived towards the end of the 15th century. 
Tradition says that at Pinpasar, a village south of Bikdner, in 
the Jodhpur territory, lived Laut, a Rajput Punwdr, who had attained the 
age of 60 and had no son. One day a neighbour going out to sow his 
field met Laut, and deeming it a bad omen to meet a childless man, 
turned back from his purpose. This cut Laut to the quick, and he 
went out to the jungle and bewailed his childlessness until evening, 
when a faqir appeared to him and told him that in nine mouths he 
should have a son, and after showing his miraculous power by drawing 
milk from a calf, vanished from his sight. At the time named a child 
miraculously appeared in Laut’s house, and was miraculously suckled 
by his wife Hansa.t This happened in Sambat 1508 (A.D. 1451). 
For seven years the boy, who was an incarnation {autdr) of Vishnu, 
played with bis fellows, and then for 27 years he tended cattle, but all 
this time he spoke no word. His miraculous powers were shown in 
various ways, such as producing sweets from nothing for tne delectation 
of his companions, and he became known as Achamba (the Wonrier), 
whence bis name of Jhamba, by which he is generally known. After 
34 years, a Brahman was sent for to get him to speak and on bis 
confessing his failure Jhdmbaji again showed his power by lighting a 
lamp by simply snapping his fingers, and uttered his first word. He 
then adopted the life of a teacher, and went to reside on a sandhill, 
some thirty miles south of Bikaner, where after 51 years he died and 
was buried, instead of being burnt, like an ordinary Hindu. 

Another account of Jh^lmbaj^ says that — 

When a lad of five he used to take his father’s herds to water at 
the well, and had for each head of cattle a peculiar whistle ; the cows 
and bullocks would come one by one to the well, drink and go away. 
One day a man named Udaji happened to witness this scene, and, 
struck with astonishment, attempted to follow the boy when he left the 
well. He was on horseback and the boy on foot, but gallop as fast 
as he would he could not keep up with the walking pace of the boy. 
At last, in amazement, he dismounted and threw himself at his feet. 
The boy at once welcomed him by name, though he then saw him for 
the first ,time. The bewildered Udaji exclaimed Jhdmhaji (omni- 


♦ Pronounced Vishnoi in Bahawalpur and Bfkiner. 

I According to the Hisaar Settlement Report his parents were Lohut and Kesar, 


Bishnoi tenets. 


Ill 


scient), and henceforth the boy was known by this name. On attaining 
manhood, Jb^mbaji left his home, and, becoming a faqir or religious 
mendicant, is said to have remained seated upon a sandhill called 
Samrathal in Bikd,ner, for a space of 51 years. In 1485 a fearful famine 
desolated the country, and Jhdmbaji gained an enormous number of 
disciples by providing food for all that would declare their belief in him. 
He is said to have died on his sandhill, at the good old age of 84, and 
to have been buried at a spot about a mile distant from it.'' 

A further account says that his body remained suspended for six 
months in the pinjra without decomposing. '* 

The name Bishnoi is of course connected with that of Vishnu, the 
deity to whom the Bishnois give most prominence in their creed, 
though sometimes they themselves derive it from the 29 (bis-nau) 
articles of faith inculcated by their founder. In fact it was very 
difficult in our returns to distinguish the Bishnoi from the Vaisbnav 
who was often entered as a Baishnav or Bishno. The Bishnois some- 
times call themselves Prahlddbansis or PrahHdpanthis,* on the ground 
that it was to please Prahldd-bhagat that Vishnu became incarnate in 
the person of Jhdmbaji. The legend is that 33 crores of lieings were 
born along with Prahld,d and five crores of them were killed by the 
wicked Hirndkash, and when Vishnu, as the Narsingh avatar, saved the 
life of Prahldd and asked Prahldd to name his dearest wish, the latter 
requested that Vishnu would effect the salvation (muht) of the remain- 
ing 28 crores. To do this required a further incarnation, and Jhdmbajl 
was the result. 

Tenets of the Bishnois. — Regarding the doctrines of the sect. Sir 
James Wilson,t from whom I have already quoted, writes: — 

The sayings {sahd) of Jhambaji to the number of 120 were written 
down by his disciples, and have been handed down in a book (pothi) 
written in the Nd^i character and in a dialect similar to Bdgri, 
seemingly a Mdrwdri dialect. The 29 precepts given by him for the 
guidance of his followers are as follows : — 

Tis din sutak—pdnch roz ratwanti ndri 
Sera karo shndn — sil — santokh—suchhpydri 
Pdni — hdni — idhni — itnd lijyo chhdn, 

Dayd — dharm hirde dharo — garu hatdi jdn 
Chori — nindya — jhiith — harjya hdd na kariyo koe 
Amal— tamdku— hhang-^lU dur hi tydgo 
Mad — mds se dekhke dur hi hhdgo. 

Amar rakhdo thdt — bail tani nd bdho 
Amdshya barat — runkh lilo rui ghdo. 

Bom jap samddh pujd — bash baikunthi pdo 
Untis dharm ki dkhri garu batai soe 
Pdhal doe par chdvya jisko ndm Bishnoi hoe, 

which is thus interpreted : — “For 30 days after child-birth and five 
after a menstrual discharge a woman must not cook food. Bathe in 
the morning. Commit not adultery. Be content. Be abstemious and 
pure. Strain your drinking water. Be careful of your speech. Ex- 


* Bee also under Narsinghie. 
t Sirsa Settlement Heport, page 136. 


112 


Bishnoi observances. 


amine your fuel in case any living creature be burnt with it. Show 
pity to living creatures. Keep duty present to your mind as the 
Teacher bade. Do not speak evil of others. Do not tell lies. Never 
quarrel. Avoid opium, tobacco, bhang and blue clothing. Flee from 
spirits and flesh. See that your goats are kept alive (not sold to 
IVlusalmdns, who will kill them for food). Do not plough with bullocks. 
Keep a fast on the day before the new moon. Do not cut green trees. 
Sacrifice with fire. Say prayers. Meditate. Perform worship and 
attain Heaven. And the last of the 29 duties prescribed by the 
Teacher — ^ Baptize your children, if you would be called a true 
Bishnoi’.” 

Some of these precepts are not strictly obeyed ; for instance, 
although ordinarily they allow no blue in their clothing, yet a Bishnoi, 
if he is a servant of the British Government, is allowed to wear a blue 
uniform ; and Bishnois do use bullocks, though most of their farming 
is done with camels. They also seem to be unusually quarrelsome (in 
words) and given to use bad language. But they abstain from tobacco, 
drugs and spirits, and are noted for their regard for animal life, which 
is such that not only will they not themselves kill any living creature, 
but they do their utmost to prevent others from doing so. Conse- 
quently their villages are generally swarming with antelope and other 
animals, and they forbid their Musalmd,n neighbours to kill them 
and try to dissuade European sportsmen from interfering with 
them. They wanted it made a condition of their settlement, that no 
one should be allowed to shoot on their land, but at the same time 
they asked that they might be assessed at lower rates than their 
neighbours on the ground that the antelope being thus left undisturbed 
do more damage to their crops ; but I told them this would lessen the 
merit {pun) of their good actions in protecting the animals, and th6y 
must be treated just as the surrounding villages were. They consider 
it a good deed to scatter grain to pigeons and other birds, and often 
have a large number of half-tame birds about their villages. The day 
before the new moon they observe as a Sabbath and fast-day, doing no 
work in the fields or in the house. Tliey bathe and pray three times a 
day, — in the morning, afternoon, and in the evening — saying*^ Bishno, 
Bishno ” instead of the ordinary Hindu Rd.m Kdm.” Their clothing 
is the same as of other B6gns, except that their women do not allow 
the waist to be seen, and are fond of wearing black woollen clothing. 
They are more particular about ceremonial purity than ordinary Hindus 
are, and it is a common saying that if a Bishnoi’s food is on the first of 
a string of twenty camels, and a man of another caste touches the 
last camel of the string, the Bishnoi would consider his food defiled 
and throw it away.” 

The ceremony of initiation is as follows : — 

A number of representative Bishnois assemble, and before them a 
sddh or Bishnoi priest, after lighting a sacrificial fire {horn) instructs the 
novice in the duties of the faith. He then takes some water in a new 
earthen vessel, over which he pays in a set form {Bishno gdyatri), 
stirring it the while with his string of beads {maid), and after asking 
the consent of the assembled Bishnois, he pours the water three times 
into the hands of the novice, who drinks it off. The novice’s scalp 




Bishnai rites. 


113 


lock {choti) is then cut oti and his head shaved, for the liishnois shave 
the whole liead and do not leave a scalp-lock like the Hindus ; but they 
allow the beard to grow, only shaving the chin on the fatlier’s death. 
Infant baptism is also practised, and 30 days after birth the child, 
whether boy or girl, is baptised by the priest {sddh) in much tlie same 
way as an adult ; only the set form of prayer is diti'eient {garhh- 
gdyatri), and the priest pours a few drops of water into the child’s 
rcouth, and gives the child’s relatives each three handfuls of the cou- 
aecrated water to drink ; at tho same time the- barber clips off the 
child’s hair. This baptismal ceremony also has the effect of purifying 
the house which has been made impure by the birth [sutah].* 

The Bishnois intermarry among themselves only, and by a ceremony 
of their own in which it seems the circumambulation of the sacred fire, 
which is the binding ceremony among the Hindus generally, is omitted. 
They do not revere Brahmans,t but have priests [sadhs) of their own, 
chosen from among the laity. They do not burn their dead, but bury 
them below the cattle-stall or in a place frequented by cattle, such as a 
cattle-pen. They observe the Holi in a different way from other Hindus. 
After sunset on that day they fast till the next forenoon, when, after 
hearing read the account of how Prahldd was tortured by his infidel 
father Harnd,kash for believing in the god Vishnu, until he was deliver- 
ed by the god himself in his incarnation of thoLiou-raan, and mourning 
over Prahldd’s sufferings, they light a sacrificial fire and partake of 
consecrated water, and after distributing unpurified sugar iguf) in 
commemoration of PrahHd’s delivery from the fire into which he was 
thrown, they break their fast. Bishnois go on pilgrimage where 
JMmbaji is buried, south of Bikd,ner, where there is a tomb {mat) over 
his remains and a temple {rnandir) with regular attei^dants {pujdri). 
A festival takes place here every six months, in Asauj and Phdgan, 
when the pilgrims go to the sandhill on which Jhd,n:baji lived, end 
there light sacrificial fires (horn) oi jnndi wood in vessels of stone, and 
offer a burnt offering of barley, til, ghi and sugar, at the same 
time muttering set prayers. They also make presents to tho attendants 
of the temple, and distribute moth and other grain for the peacocks 
and pigeons, which live there in numbers. Should any one have 
committed an offence, such as having killed an animal, or sold a cow 
or goat to a Musalmdn, or allowed an animal to be killed when he 
could have prevented it, he is fined by the assembled Bishnois for the 
good of the temple and the animals kept there. Another place of 
pilgrimage is a tomb called Chhainbola in the Jodhpur country, where 
a festival is held once a year in Chet. There the pilgrims bathe in 
the tank and help to deepen it, and sing and play musical instruments 
and scatter grain to peacocks and pigeons.” 

The Bishnois look with special attention to the sacred /lom or sacrifice; 
it is only the rich who can perform this daily ; the poor meet together 

* But according to the Iliss^r Settlement Report, the ceremony of admission to the sect is 
as follows : — The priests and the people assemble together, repeat the pahnl-mantar over a 
cup of water, and give it to tho candidate to drink ; who thereafter goes round tho assembly 
and bows to all. His head is then shaved after the manner of the founder of the sect. 
According to his means he has to pay a certain sum of money (Rs. 5 to 500 is the limit), for 
the purpose of buying gram, which is then sent to the Samrathal sandhill in order to feed 
pigeons. 

f But in Fizilka the Bishnois are said to employ Brahmans for religious as well as 
secuilar purposes. 


114 


Bochah — Bodla. 


to carry oat the rite on the Amdvas day only. The gaenas or sddhs^ 
who are their priests and are fed and feed by them like Brahmans, 
are a hereditary class and do not intermarry with other Bishnois, 
nor do they take offerings from any but Bishnois. The Bishnois 
themselves are a real caste and were shown as such in the Census 
tables ; and the returns of the caste are much more to be relied on than 
those of the sect, for the reason given above, that many Bishnois by 
sect must have been shown as Vaishnavas, and vice versa. It is said 
that a member of any of the higher Hindu castes may become a Bishnoi, 
but as a matter of fact they are almost entirely or Kh^tis (carpen- 
ters) or, less frequently, Rajputs or Bdnias, and the Bd,nia Bishnois are 
apparently not found in the Punjab, their chief seat being Mur^ddbM, 
in the United Provinces. The man who becomes a Bishnoi is still 
bound by his caste restrictions ; he no longer calls himself a Jd-t, but 
he can marry only Jdt Bishnois, or he is no longer a Khdti, and yet 
cannot marry any one who is not a Kh3,ti ; and further than this, the 
Bishnoi retains the got of his original tribe and may not marry within 
it.t Karewa is practised among them, but an elder brother cannot 
marry a younger brother’s widow, though her brother-in-law or father- 
in-law are entitled, if she do not marry her dewar, to a payment called 
hhar from her second husband. 

There is not perhaps very much in the teaching of Jh^mbajf to 
distinguish him from the orthodox pattern of Hindu saints, and in some 
points his doctrine, more especially with regard to the preservation of 
life, is only an intensification of the ordinary Vaishnava tenets. But 
in the omission of the phera at marriage, the cutting off of the choH or 
scalp-lock, the special ceremony of initiation, and the disregard for 
the Brahmanical priesthood, we find indications of the same spirit as 
that which moved the other Hindu reformers of the period. 

Bochah, a Jd,t clan (agricultural) in Multdu. 

Bodla. — The BodHs are a small section of the Wa^tu Rd,jputsj; of the 
lower and middle Sutlej, who have for some generations enjoyed a 
character for peculiar sanctity, § and who now claim Qureshi origin 
from Abu Bakr Sacliq ; and many of them call themselves Qureshis. 
They still marry Waf^u girls, though they give their daughters only to 
Bodld,s. They were till lately a wholly pastoral tribe, and still hold 
a jdgir, the proceeds of which they now supplement by cultivation. 
They came up from Multan through Bahdwalpur to Montgomery, where 
they were described by Purser as lazy, silly, and conceited.” From 
Montgomery they spread into Sirsa, where they occupied the Bahak 
pargana which they still hold. They are credited with the power of 
curing disease by exorcism, and especially snake-bite and hydrophobia; 
they are recognised saints, and can curse with great efficacy. They 
have no relations with the other Qureshis of the neighbourhood, and 

* According to the Hissar Settlement Report the sddhs are priests and the thapun 
are secular clergy, generally elected by the people. Priesthood is not hereditary. In FizilkA 
it is said that Bishnois never employ a Bralunan if a Bhat is available. The BhAt too is a 
Bishnoi.. 

t In Fazilka the Bishnois are said to have 360 divisions : one named Roja meaning nUgai 
but no reverence is paid to that animal by the Rojas. Cf. Goraya. ’ 

I No Wanu would claim aflinity with the Bodlas, who are held in great respect in BfkAner 
as Parmeshivar ro sakko ro sakko, i.e-, ‘ Kin of Uod’s kith and kin.’ The use of Parmeshwar 
for All.ah points to a Hindu origin. 

I Bod/a in Western Punjdbi means ‘ simpleton *, and simplicity or lunacy is regarded a» 
asign of sanctity in the East. 


Bohra-^Bond. 


115 


their Wattu origin is hereby open to question, though they may 
possibly be of Qureshi extraction, but now so completely affiliated to 
the Wattus by constantly taking brides from that tribe as to be undis- 
tinguishable from them. Their power of curing snake-bites is con- 
nected with a historical fact. When the Prophet and his companion 
Abu Dakar left Mecca, they concealed themselves in a cavern, and 
there the devoted companion, in order to protect his master, tore his 
turban into rags and closed the holes with the pieces. One hole he 
stopped with his toe, and it was bitten by a snake. When the Prophet 
learnt what had occurred he cured it by sucking the wound, and the 
Sadiqfs sometimes seek to prove their descent from the first Caliph 
by claiming the power of curing snake-bite. There is also said to be 
a class of wondering gharishti faqirs called BodM. A Sanidsi sub-sect 
also appears to bear this name. Possibly the word is confused with 
Bhola, ‘simple’, an epithet of Mahd,dev. See also Qureshi. 

Bohea. — The Bohr^ includes two distinct classes : one Brahman money- 
lenders from Mdrwdr, who have settled in the districts on the Jumna, 
and acquired a most unenviable notoriety for unscrupulous rapacity. 
There is a rustic proverb : Bore kd Rdm Ram aisd Jam ka sandesd : 
“A Bohr^’s ‘good morning!’ is like a message from the angel of 
death.” These Bohrds appear to accept brides from B^uias, but do 
not give them daughters. 

In the hills any money-lender or shop-keeper is apparently called a 
hohrd (from the same root as beohdr ‘ trade and the word is used 
in the same general sense in the south of Rdjputdna and in Bombay, 
taking the place of the ‘ Bdoia ’ of Hindustan, though in Guzerat it is 
specially applied to a class of Shia traders who were converted to 
Isldm about 1300 A. D. [For the Muhammadan Bora see Wilson’s Sects 
of the Hindus, p. 170. They are represented in Multdn.] In the Punjab 
all the Bohrils are Hindus. In those Hill States in which Bohras are 
numerous, Banijls are hardly represented in the returns, and vice versa ; 
and both the Bdnia and Bohra are in the hills also known as Mahdjan. 
The Hill Bohrtis are said to be exceedingly strict Hindus, and to be 
admitted to intermarriage with the lower classes of Rdjputs, such as 
Rdthis and Rdwats. In Gurdtispur there is said to be a small class 
of traders called Boh rd,s who claim origin, and who are notorious for 
making money by marrying their daughters, securing the dower, and 
then running away with both, to begin again da capo. 

- Bojak, a Jd^ clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Bokhia, a Baloch clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery : also called Bokhe 
and found as cultivators and camel-breeders in Bahdwalpur. 

Bola, a Jdt clan (agricultural) fouud in Multan. 

BoMf, a Rdjput sept, according to the Punjabi Dicty., p. 166. 

Bonah, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multtln. 

Bo^t, Bona, fern. Bonai, a weaver of the Chamar caste. 

* Beames gives ^a■hora as the true form of the word. Wohra is a go' or section of the 
Muhammadan Khojas. It is fairly clear that the Bohras are connected in some way with the 
Khojas. In Mewar there are Muhammadan Bih)oras as well as Bora Brahmans. T he 
former are united under elected mullahs and are said to be Ilassanis by sect ; cf. Malcolm’e 
Eist, of Persia I, p. 395. Their chief colony is at Ujjain, See Memoir on Central India 
and Malwa, by MeJcoIiq, II, pp. 91-92. 


116 Bopahrae — Brahman, 

Bopaheae, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Boperai, a Hindu J^it clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bosan, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan, to the south of the Vains. 
Their ancestor is said to have been a disciple of Bahd,wal Haqq and 
to have received from him some of the land granted to him by the 
ruler of Multd,n. They came from Haidardbad in Sind and are also 
found in Bahd,vvalpur as landowners. The Bappis, with whom they 
intermarry, and Sangis are said to be of the same stock. 

Bot, an Arain clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Botak, BoT'fAE, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bozdar, an independent Baloch tribe situated beyond our frontier at the 
back of the Kasrdni territory. They hold from the Sanghar Pass on 
the north to the Khosa and Khetrd,n country on the south, and have 
the Luni and Musa Khel Path^ns om their western border. Those 
found in Dera Ghd/zi Kh^n live in scattered villages about Rd,janpur 
and among the Laghdri tribe, and have no connection with the parent 
tribe. The Bozdar are hardly of Rind extraction seeing that their 
pedigree only makes them descendants of a goat-herd who married 
Bdno, widow of Rind’s great-grandson, Shau Ali. They are divided 
into the DuMni, Ladwdni Ghuld,mdni, a suh-tnman, Chakrd,ni, Sih^ni, 
Shd,hwd,ni, Jaldl^tii, J^hr^ni and Rustam^ni clans. They are more 
civilized than most of the trans-frontier tribes and are of all the Baloch 
the strictest Musalmd,ns. Unlike all other Baloch they fight with the 
matchlock rather than with the sword. They are great graziers, and 
their name is said to be derived from the Persian huz, a goat. 

Brahman, (Panjiibi B^mhan, BAhman; fern. Bfimhani: dim. masc., Bamhanetd ; 
fern. Bamhanoti, a Brahman’s sou or daughter : cf. Bamhanau, Brahman- 
hood). 

The Brahmans in India are divided into two great geographical 
groups, the Utrahak, who live to the north of the Viudhias, aud the 
Uakshnat, who inhabit peninsular India to the south of that range. 
The former are further divided into 5 groups, viz . — 

1. S^raswat, (modernised Sdrsut). 

2. Kankubj. 

3. Gaur. )-Also called, collectively, Gaur, 

4. Utkal. I 

5. Maithal. J 

The southern groups* also number 5 and are : Darawar, Mahdrashtri, 
Sorashat, or Karn^ltik, Tailing and Gorjar.t Of these the only repre- 
sentative in tliH Punjab are the Pushkarnd. Brahmans, who sprang 
from the Mah^irMsliti i groan. f The mass of the Punjab Brahmans 

* Also called collectively, Darawar, from the saint of that name. Another account says 
the Darawar comprise the Maharashtr, Tailing, Gurjar, Dakhshani and Indrik : (Am^itsa^^ 
t Lest it be too hastily assumed that Gorjar, Gurjar or Gujar Brahmans have any 
connection with the Giijars, folk-etymology has suggested that the name is derived from 
gujjh, ‘ secrecy because their ancestor had once to conceal his faith. 

I But unlike the southern Brahmans the Pushkarnas observe ghtmghat (i, e,, their women 
veil their faces), but they have no garhha dhdn (pregnancy rite) and in other respects their 
customs are dissimilar. 


The Pushkamds. 


117 


are Sarsuts, but Gaurs are found in the eastern districts of the 
Province. But certain groups of Brahmans are neither recognised as 
Sdrsut nor as Gaur, or have become totally distinct from the Brahman 
community. Such are the Pushkarn^s, Muliials, described below, and 
the Bhojki, Dhakochi, Taqa and Taqu groups. 

The Pdshkaenas. 


It will be convenient to describe first the Pushkamds, a comparatively 
small and unimportant group found only in the south-west of the 
Punjab. They are divided into two territorial groups, (i) Sindhu, “ of 
the Indus valley,” and (ii) Mdrwari, of Mdrwdr, or Marechd. 

The Pushkamds claim to be 'parohits of all the ^Bhdt Kdjputs ’ who 
are divided into Bhdts, Bhattis and Bhdtids,* and are described by 
Ibbetson as more strict in caste matters than the Sdrsut. 

The Pushkamds are divided into two groups : Sindhu and Marechd, 
and are said to have 84 gots as given belowt : — 


I. — SiNDnn — 


■ 1. 

Tangsali. 

9. 

Bujru. 

17. 

Hars. 


25. 

Nangu, 

•2. 

Vi4s. 

10. 

Maulo. 

18. 

Chaawatia. 


26. 

Kall4.. 

3. 

Mattur. 

til. 

Gandriya. 

19. 

Muttur. 


27. 

Visha. 

■4, 

Kapta, 

12. 

Dhaki. 

20. 

Munda. 


■28. 

Batta. 

5. 

Prohat 

tl3 

Mutta. 

t21. 

Parhih4r. 


29. 

BUla. 

6. 

Machhar. 

14. 

Jiwanecha. 

t22. 

Kaudia. 

; 

•30. 

Wasu. 

t7. 

Wattu. 

t>5. 

Lapishia (Lapia). 

23. 

Ker4it, 


[31. 

Kar4d4. 

8. 

Matmi. 

16. 

Pania. 

t24. 

Vi4sr4. 


32. 

Chura. 




II, — Maeecha — 





1. 

Kakreja. 

14. 

Got4. 

27. 

Kopalia. 


40. 

R4mdev, 

2. 

Chullar. 

15. 

Gotma. 

28. 

Wachhar. 


41. 

Up4dhiye. 

3. 

Ach^,raj. 

16. 

Thakar. 

29. 

Mastoda. 


42, 

Achhu. 

4. 

Heda. 

17. 

Badal. 

30. 

Padoya. 


43. 

SheshdMr. 

5. 

Gajja. 

18. 

Dodha. 

31. 

Tojh4. 


44. 

Vegai. 

6. 

Kadar. 

19. 

Kovasthilia 

82. 

Vejha. 


45. 

Vidang. 

7. 

Keerla, 

•20 

Kaulo. 

83. 

Jhund. 


46. 

Hethoshii. 

8. 

Naula 

2l! 

Jabbar. 

34. 

Bura. 


47 

Somn4th. 

9. 

Kewlia. 

22. 

Dhagra. 

35. 

Nohora. 


48. 

Singh4. 

10. 

Teriwari. 

23. 

Pedh4. 

36. 

Mumatia, 


49 

God4n4. 

11. 

S4ndhu. 

24. 

R4ma. 

37. 

K4i. 


50, 

Kh4khai:, 

12. 

God4. 

25. 

Waheti. 

88. 

Karmana. 


51. 

Khanesh. 

13, 

Godanu. 

26. 

Meratwal. 

39. 

Ranga. 


52. 

Khoh4r4. 

This list is given in a book. In Mi'iinwjlli only those markodf are found. 



Daughter are generally given in marriage in one and the same 
family, and if possible to brothers, accordin to a very wide-spread 
custom. 


On the other hand in Balidwalpur the Marechd are described as 
pure Pusbkarnst and comprise 15 gots 


1. AcMraj. 

2. Bhori. 

3. ChhanganS. 

4. Gujjd. 

5. Kabta. 


6. Khidana. 

7. Kir4ru. 

8 Kullhd. 

9, Ludhdhar. 
10. Muchchan. 


1 1 . Pardhd. 

12. Ramde. 

13. Ranga. 
U. Wi4s. 
15. Wissa. 


* Incidentally this indicates that the Bhattis and BhAtiaa have a common origin — both 
come from the country to the south of the Punjab. There are said to be Bhit R&jputs in 
Jaisalmir. 

t It is said that the Pushkarns used to bo called Sri-Malis, that they rank below the 
Sarsut, Parikh and Gaur sub-castes, and are (only) regarded as Brahmans because of their 
skill in astrology. But they are by origin possibly Silrsuts who made Pushkar or Pokhar, 
the sacred lake near Ajmer their head-quarters. One section of them is said to have been 
originally Beld4rs or Ods who were raised to Brahminical rank as a reward for excavating 
the tank and it still worships the pickaxe, but this tradition is not now current in the 
Punjab. 


118 


Brahmans in the South’ West. 


Bora. 

Joshi 

It is distinct from t 


Next come the Dass4 or half-breeds and lastly the Sindhu with 2 

yotsx Mattar and Wattu.* j -i i. 

In Bah^walpurt mention is made of a sub-caste, called rariKii, 

which I cannot trace elsewhere. It has 6 gotsX 

Kathotia. Ppohit. 

Pandia. Tiw^ri. 

le Sdwanis. 

The Brahman ical Hierarchy in the South-West Punjab. 

Before describing the Sdrsut Brahmans it will be best to describe 
the organisation of the Brahmanical heirarchy in the South-West 
Punjab, where the Sdrsuts and Pushkarnds overlap, combining to 
form groups of beneficed and unbeneficed priests which are further 
attached to the different castes. 

The Wateshar . — The Wate8har§ are a group of Brahmans whose 
clientele is scattered, and who receive fixed dues from their patrons, 
irrespective of the services rendered to them. If they preside at a 
religious function they receive fixed fees in addition to their stand- 
ing dues. 

In Mid-nwdli the Wateshar class comprises the following sections 
of the Sdrsut|l and Pushkarnd Brahmans : — 

Kandi4,ra. 


1. Dhannanpotra ... | 


1 . 

ii. 


Lalri. 


♦ The Wattu got is the lowest of all: Brahmanon men Wattu, ghoron men tattu — “ Tho 
Wattu among Brahmans is what a pony is among horses,” 
t But towards Bikaner is a group known as Parik. 

I The sub-divisions of these sections are variously given thus : — 

S Ambruana, from Amar Nath, Bangildasf, from ” Rangil 
Dis,” Wajal, from Wajalji, Tejal from Tejalji, all fom: 
with Ram Nand, Machhindraji and Bhara Mai, sons of 
Sidh Bojh, the saint and eponym of the section. 

This section also includes the Dand-dambh, the nick- name apparently of some family 
earnt by curing an ox, as the name implies. 

The Samapotra also in- ) the Kalkadasani, Prayagdasi, ^ and all six sub-divisions are 
eludes i and ii, as above with ) Prithwi Mai and Shamdasi ) patronymic. 

The Samapotras are descended from Sidh Saman and perform a special worship on the 
Rikhipanchami, the 5th of the bright half of Bhadon. They also worship Hinglij devf at 
births, weddings and on the 3rd of the bright half of Baisikh. 

r Sidh Bhardw^.ji. 

Tho Bhardw4ja sub-divisions are ) Aror „ 

1 Kin jar „ 

CRatan „ 
f Sringi. 

( Sadha. 

( Takht. 
j Raj- 
1 Bakht. 

C Jan. 

For the correspondence between these sections and those of the Muhiil Brahmans see infra 
§ It has been suggested that Wateshar is derived from hirt, ‘ dues.’ It is doubtless the same 
word as V’riteswar, derived from uritti or virat. and may be translated ‘benehced.’ Thus the 
Wateshar form an occupatfoaat group and the description given of their sub-dmsions is 
certainly not absolute. 

II Among the Sirsut Wateshar the matrimonial relations are complicated The Sethpal 

marry with the Bhojipotra and Simepotra, if such alliances have been actually made in the 

past. If however they cannot obtain brides from these two sections they try to get them from 
the Bhardwija or Kathpil. Again the Dhannanpotra only take brides from sections 
Nos. 2—4, but give none to them. Under these circumstances it is not surprising to learn 
that the Bhojipotra and Samepotra sections used till recently to practise female infantieidA 
habitually. Lastly sections Nos. 6-7 are willing to efiect exchange betrothals with the 
Narainis, if no suitable match offers within this group of three sections which intermarrv 
The Pushkarni Wateshars also effect exchange betrothals as do the Shahri and Naraini 


Tho Katp41 are 
Tho Lalri are 


Brahmans in the South~ West. 


119 


2. Bhojfpotra 


4. 

6 . 

6 . 

7. 

8 . 


Simepotra 

Sethpil. 

Bhardwija 

Kathp^l 

Kandii,ra 


R4ma-Nanda 
Machi^na 
Bharojike > 
Maghw^ni j 
Wadhwdni 


intermarry with the Bharoge and Maghwini. 
„ „ Wadhwini. 

„ „ R4ma-Nanda. 

„ „ Machiina. 


Sindhu Pushkarn^ 


Of the Wateshar 
sections of Arords.* 


intermarry. 


Nangu. 

Lapiya. 

Parial. 

Tanksali. 

Mattap. 

Gandhria. 

Wasu. 

Wessa. 

Sohanat 

class each 


section is said to minister to certain 


* For instance the Kdthpdl Brahmans minister to — 

1. Gorwara, 2. Dhingpa, 3. Dang, 4. Madioi, 5. ChMbra, 6, Popli, etc. 

The Lalri minister to — 

1. Gera, 2. LuUa, etc. 

The Bkardicdj minister to— 

1. Hnja, 2. Makheja, 3. Anej4, 4. Tanejd., 5, Sarej4, 6. Fareja, 7 
8. Dhamija, 9. Sukhij4, 10. Nakp4, 11. Chugh, 12. Chhokri, 

14. N4ngp41, 15. Maindiratta, 16. K41r4, 17. Minocha. 

The Bhojpotrd minister to— 

1. Gambhir, 2. Batr4, 3. Chawla, 4. Khetarp41, 5. Gand, 6. N4rag, 7. Bill4, 8 
r4j4, 9. Rewari, 10. Chachr4, 11. Busri, 12. Virmani. 

The Parhihdr minister to — 

1. Kher4, 2. Khur4n4, 3. Bhugr4, 4. Machhar. 

The Nangd minister to — 

1. Chikkar, 2. Sachdev, 3. Gulati, 4. Hans, 5. Knr4bhatia, 6. 

The Sdmepotra minister to — 


Khanddja, 
13. Bathl4, 


Budh- 


17. Juneji, 18. 
Jatwam', 23. 


6. Wasudev, 7. Bhangar, 
12. Rihani, 13. Mandiani, 
Kawal. 19. Kansite Simare, 
Nandwanf, 24. Bajpotre, 


1. Kathuriye, 2 Edianijan, 3. Naroole, 4. Babar, 5. Dua, 

8. Hans, 9. Ghoghar, 1 0. Manglani, 1 1 . Piplani, 

14. Jindwani, 15. Pawe,.16. Salootre, 

20. Lakhbatre, 21. Bhutiani, 22. 

25. Danekhel with eleven others. 

The Lapshid minister to — 

1, Ch4wl4, 2. Kharband4, 3. Mongi4, 4. Khattar, 5. Kalncha, 6. Kurp4. 

The Dhannanpotra minister to — 

1. Dudej4, 2. Chotmurad4, etc. 

The Singopotrd minister to — 

1. Bajij, etc. 

The Sethpdl minister to Sapr4, etc. 

All these are sections of the Arop48. 

The Dhannanpotra minister to the Dawra, Bugga, Janji Khel, Danjri, Rohri, Madanpotre, 
Dhamija, Sanduja, Dthpa and other gets. 

Sabspt — 

I.— Bhojfpotra i 

Sh4mfpotra* ( u^termarry (and take wives from IT, HI, IV and 

ina^npotra \ v, just as U intermarry and take wives from 

Satp41 IV) 

Lalri* I 111, iv;. 

Singhupotra 
II. — Bhenda, 

Bh4rdw4ji, 

Kandiari, 

Kethupotra. 

KathpaU. 

Sh4mjipotra. 


* To this section belonged L41j{ Gosain. 


120 


Brahmans in the South- West. 


Of the Sindliu-Pushkarn^ Wateshar the Nangu minister to the 
Gurmalia, Kaura, Gulati, Sachdev, Cliikkar, Mungiya and Raon-khela 
and many other sections of the Aroras, and the Sajulia section of the 
Bhatid/S. The Lapiya minister to the Kharbanda, Ghawala, Mongid, 
Karre, Khattar and Kalache gots, and the Parial to the Khera, Bugra 
and Khurana, all sections of the Arords. The Tanksali* minister 
to the Nangpal, Mutrijd,, Dua (Seth Hari) ; the M attar minister to the 
Khurana, all Sateja Arords; the Gandhria to Mahesri Banias ; the 
Wasu to Bhatias; the Wesa to Mahesri Banias and the Sohana to 
Bhd-tids. 

The Astri have fewer patrons than the Wateshar, and the clientele of 
each is confined to one place, where he resides. If a Wateshar is 
unable to officiate for a patron an Astri acts for him, receiving fths of 
the fee, the balance of |ths being handed over to the Wateshar. 

The Astri sections in Mid,nwaH are — 

1. Ramdeh,t 2. Shason, 3. Bhaglal, 4. Ishwar, and 5. Dahiwdl. 


The Naraini is an immigrant group, and is thus without patrons, but 
if the Wateshar and Astri are illiterate, a literate Naraini is called 
in to perform any function requiring knowledge. As a rule, however, 
the Naraini only presents himself when alms are given to all and 


sundry. 

Patrons. 

1. Bambowal, 

2. Brahmi. 

3. Chanana ... G4rerf. 

4. Chandan ... Aneja Aror^s. 

6. Chuni ... Dhupar Aroris. 

6. Gaindhar... Chatkare Aror^s. 

7. Joshi ... Nakra. 

8. Kakrah ... Khurana and Taloja 

Aror^s. 


Patrons. 

9. Lapshah ... Khathar and Dhol. 

10. Ojha. 

11. Pandit. 

12. Pharande. 

13. Ramdeh ... Dhanija Aror^s. 

14. Soharan. 

15. Sutrak. 

16. Tilhan. 

17. Wohra ... Manocha Aroris. 


Only a Brahman may be an astri, a parohit or a thdni. He may also 
officiate as an Acharaj, a Bh4t, a Gosdin or a Ved-pdtr, (and so may any 
other Hindu), but if he does so he must not accept any dues for the rites 
performed. Only a Brahman can take sankalpa, no other Hindu. 


in.— Chun! 
Channan 
Sutrak 
Kikre 
Ramde 
Gaindhar 


BhagRl. 
Gan^har. 
Rughanpotra (or 
Nirath. 

Sethi. 

Mihli. 


Aganhotri ?). 


{Lapsha). 

rV. — Jhangan 
Tikhi 
MohR 

Kamrie ^ Brahmans of Khatris. 

Jetlf 

Bagge 

Sant 

V.— The Mahta Brahmans, whose sections are the Chhibbar, Dat, Mohan, Ved, Bali and 
Lau, do not act as parohits,^ but are engaged in agriculture, trade or service. Obviously 
those are the same as the MuhRls of the North-West Pimjab. * ^ 

* The Tanksalis are called Jhani and receive certain dues on marriage and Dharm Sand in 
the Hadd JaslRni, i.e., in the tract under the rule of the JaslRni BUoches. 

-j- Minister to the Danekhel section of the Aroyas. 


The Muhidl Brahmans, 


121 


A Brahman’s own religious observances aro performed by his 
daughter’s father-in-law, or by some relative of the latter, though he 
may, in their absence, get them performed by any other Brahman. A 
sister’s son is also employed. This is purely a matter of convenience, 
the relations of a daughter’s husband being entitled to receive gifts, 
but not those of a son’s wife. 


Thk Skcular Brahmans. 


The Muhidl Brahmans , — This group of secular Brahmans is said to 
derive its name from muhin, a sum of money given by them at 
weddings to Bhats and Jdjaks, varying from Rs. 5 to Rs, 7 or Rs. 12. 
The Muhid,ls are also styled Munhd,ls, and are said to be so called from 
muhin, a sept. But it is also suggested that the name is derived from 
mukhia, 'spokesman,* or ‘principal.’ By origin the Muhiills are cer- 
tainly S^rsuts and still take wives from that group in Gujrdt, while in 
Rtlwalpindi the five superior. sections (Sudh^n, Sikhan, Bhaklill, Bhog 
and K^lli) cf the Bnnj^hi Sd-rsuts used to give daughters to the Bhimwdl 
(BhibhAl) ‘Muhidl Sarsnts ’ and occasionally to the other Muhidl 
sections, though they refused them to the inferior sections of the 
Bunjdhis: Rawalpindi Gr. 1883-84, p. 51. 


Their organisation is on the usual principles and may be thusi 
tabulated : — 


Group I.— R.<ri. 


Section. 

1. Chhibbar. 

Datt 

Mohan, 

Ved or Raid 
B41i 


f i. Dablijiya. 

(i ii. (hn or common. 

««t ••• ••• ••• ••• 


j Setpal (Sahanp41). 
... Dhannanpotra. 


... Bliojipotr4. 
... LAlri, 


Group II.— Bunjahi. 


T.au Samepotrji. 

Ribhowal or BhibhAl; 


The Bdri group either intermarries or takes daughters from the 
Bunjdhi, but the two sections of the latter (Lau and Bibhowdl) 
can only marry inter se.* 


The BhAts eulogise the Muhials in the following verses 


The Datts are generous, and the Lau beggars, 
The Chhibbars arc Sardirs. 

The Raids dagger in hand 
Walk full of pride. 

The Bibho (Ribhowal) eat himb phal (a fruit), 
Mohan and Bali are chakddra. 

There are further sub-divisions, but among the Waid the Samba, among the Datt the 
Kanjruria, among the Bali the Khar^ and among the Chhibbar the Barra, are considered 
superior clans. 


Datt ddtei, Lau mangtd, 
Cnhibbar wich Sarddr. 
Wai'idn hath katdriydn, 
Chalde pabdn de bhdr. 
Bibho khdte bimb phal, 
Mohan Bali chnkddv. 


122 


• The Sdrsut Brahmans. 


The following table illustrates the origin of the sections and 

sub-sections : — 

mdhiAls. 


r 

Chhibbar. 
Sidh S6han. 

I 

Setpil (Bari). 


Baid. 

I 

Sidh Bhoj. 

I 

Bhojepotre. 


I 

Laii. 

1 

Sidh S4m. 


Shamepotre. f 
Kali 


Datt. 

I 

Sidh Chir, 

I 


BAli. 

I 

(Name of Sidh 
not known). 


c 




M4dho Das. Rama Nand. 

I, I 

Machhane. Ri,ma Nanduno. 


c 


Amni- 

wile. 


Bheru. 

wile. 


I 


■1 


Babe- Dand- 
wale. Dumbh, 


r 


Dhiru. 

1 


Chatid, 

I Phirnpotre 
Kundiare (Bunjihi). 
(Ranjahi), 


1 

(b). r 

Bhanan. Lalri 

(Bnnjihi). 


“'1 

Takht 

LiU’i 

(Bari). 


Dhananpotre (Biri). 


r ~ 

Chuniwal 

(Biri). 


I 

Tulumbiya, 

(Bari). 


Pritl^jwi Mai. 


I 


I 


Wadha Ram. Manghu Ram. 

I I . . 

Prithwi Malane. Wadhwini. Mangwani. 




"1 

id). 

Sit-pnria, 

(Bunjihi). 


Kilka Das. 

I 

Kilka Dasini. 


The descendants of the five Sidhs are further snb-divided into panchtolias 
(who give their daughters not less than 5 tolas of gold as dowry) and 
tritoliyas (who give not less than 3). The latter rank below the former. 

The origin of the Muhidls is thus desciibed : In Sainbat 200 
Vikrami the five Sidhs went to the Nannuthi Hill and there practised 
asceticism. About that time too the Khatris of the Aror family 
(now the Arords) and the other Khatris fell out, so the latter separated 
from the Aroras and became jajmdns of the Sidhs. Tlie Muhidls 
who did not attach themselves to the ArorAs refused to accept alms 
(dan) and are still purely secular. They are found chiefly if not 
exclusively in Rawalpindi (where many are Sikhs) ; in Jhelum and 
Shahpur as landholders or in service. All Muhidls may marry girls of 
Brahman families which are not Muhifil. 


A small group of secular Brahmans found at Hariiina, in 
Hoshidrpur is the Kanchan Kawal. They are also called Suraj Duaj 
(Sun-worshippers). Their ancestor came from Delhi as a kdnungo 
to Harid,na, whence they are also called Kdnungos. They can marry 
in the ndnkd’s got, avoiding only the father’s got. They do not take 
charity (ddn), and either take service or engage in trade or cultivation. 
If any one of them takes alms he is outcasted and they do not 
intermarry with him. 

Other purely lay groups of Brahmans are : the Dhakochi of the 
Dhund and Karr^l Hills in Hazara, who are also called Mahnjans : the 
Tagas of Karnd,!, who are Gaurs by origin and agriculturists by avoca- 
tion : and the criminal Tagus of the same District. 

THE SARSUT BRAHMANS. 

The S^rsut is essentially the Brahman of the Punjab, just as the Khat.i 
is distinctively a Punjab caste. The Sarsut, as a bodv, minister to all 
the Hindu castes, possibly even to those which are unclean and so stand 
outside the pale of Hinduism. Uoon this fact is based the leading 


Brahmans of the Rhatris. 


123 


principle of their organization, which is that the status of each section 
depends on the status of the caste to which it ministers. In accordance 
with this principle, we may tentatively classify the Sdrsut thus : — 

Sub-groiq) i . — Brahmans of Brahmans, called Shukla. 

Siib-group ii . — Brahmans of theKhatris — 


1. Panch-zati. 

2. Chhe-zati. 


4. 

3. 


Bunjdhis. 

Asth-bans. 


5. Khokharan.* 

6, Sarin. 


Suh-group m. — Brahmans of Arords. 

Sub-group iv . — Brahmans of Jd^s. 

Sub-group v . — Brahmans of inferior castes, e.g., the Chamarwd. 

Further, each of the sub-groups is divided into grades on the analogy 
of the Khatri caste system thus — 


1 . 

2 . 


Panchzdti. 
Bari. 


3. Bunjahi. 

4. Inferior zdtis. 


or 


Jetli. 

I Jhingm. 
Mohla. 
Kumaria. 
Trikha. 


Thus we may take the Shuklat Brahmans to comprise the following 
gots : — 

f Gallia "I 

I Malta I 

Panchzdti ...'{Kapuria r 

Bhaturia 1 

L . r. 

The Sdrsut Brahmans of the Khatris . — Tbe connection of the Khatri 

with the Sdrsut Brahman caste is peculiarly close. One tradition of its 
origin avers that when Parasu Edma was exterminating the Kshatriyas 
a pregnant woman of the caste took refuge with a Sdrsut. When her 
child, a son, was born, the Sarsut invested him with the janeo and 
taught liim the Vedas. Hence the Sdrsuts are invariably the parohits 
of the Khatris, and from this incident arose the custom which allow’S 
parohit ’^nd jajman to eat together. 

The boy manied 18 Kshatriya girls and his sons took the names of the 
various rishis and thus founded the gotras of the Khatris, which are the 
same as those of the Brahmans. This legend explains many points in 
the organization of the Sdrsut Brahmans in the Punjab, though it is 
doubtless entirt-ly mythical, having been intended to account for the close 
dependence of the Brahmans of the Sdrsut branch on the Khatri caste. 

Gioup I . — Panjzdti i. At the top of the social tree stand five sections, 

which are the parohits of the Dhaighar 
Khatris. This group is known as the 
Panjzdti or ‘five sections,’ and also as 
Pachhdda or ‘ western.’ It the Brah- 
mans followed the Khatri organization 
in all its complexity we should expect to find these sections constituting 
the Dhdighnr sub-group of a Bdri group, and they are, ii would seem, 
called phdighar-Lahoria, at least in Lahore. 

There are'also said to be two groups, each of 5 zdtis, which once formed 
themselves into endogamous cliques. 1'hese were : {i) Kalia, Malia, Bhaturia, 

* Probably this is correct. The Muhial having ceased to be Brahmans at all, no longer 
minister to the Khokharan-Khatn's and so a special group of Khokharan-Brahmans has had 
to be formed. 

t The Shuklas are beggars, who come from the east, from the direction of the United 
Provinces. They beg only from Brahmans, but aro not their parohits. They aro quite 
distinct from the Shukal of the Simla Hills. 


1 . 

2 . 

3. 

4. 

5. 


Mohla. 

Jetli. 

Jhingan. 

Trikha. 

Kumaria. 


V 

I 

I 

i- Group Panjzatior 
I Pachhada. 

J 


I 


124 


Brahmans of the Khairis. 

Kapuriaand Baggas, mid [ii) Jbingan* * * § Trikliat, Jetlij, Kumhria§. and 
Punbu.ll The last-named gut was, however, replaced by the Mohlasli, be- 
cause one of its members was discourteous to his daughter-in-law s people. 

The Bari group further, in addition to the Panchzd,tis, comprises the 
following 7 guts i Paumbu, Gangdhar,*^ IMartha, Sethi Chuiavaur, 
Phiranda and Purang. 

Group II. — Bunj^hi. This group contains several sub-g’roups whose 
relations to one another are obscure, and indeed the subject of con- 
troversy, They may be classified, tentatively, as follows ; — 

Sub-group i. — Asht-bans, with the following eight sections : — 


In Amritsar : 

or in Karndl : 


and in Patidld. 

( — 

J. 

■ " ^ 

Saiicl. 

r 1 

1. Sand. 

( 

1. 

Sand. 

2. 

Shori. 

2. Patak. 

1^. 

8uri. 

3. 

Patak, 

3. Joshi Mabrur. 

3. 

Patak. 

4. 

Mahrur. 

4, Joshi Malmai. 

4. 

Joshi Malmai. 

5. 

Joshi. 

h. Tiwanj. 

5. 

Joshi Mahrur. 

6. 

Tiwari. 

6. Kural. 

6. 

Tiwari. 

7. 

Kural. 

7. Regne. 

7. 

Kural. 

8. 

Bhardwaji. 

• • • 

8, 

Ratn Bhardwaj. 


Sub-group ii. — Bara-ghar or Bdra-zfiti (also called Bari) : — 


1. 

Sarad. 

7. 

Manati. 

In Hazara — Vajra. 

Sang. 

2. 

Bhanot. 

8. 

Bhambi. 

Vasdeo. 

Sudan. 

3. 

Airi. 

9. 

Lakhan Pal. 

Paonde, 

Majju. 

4. 

Kalie.tt 

10. 

Patti. 

Bhog. 

Sem. 

5. 

Parbhakka. 

11. 

Jalpat, 

lebar. 

Dhammi 

8. 

Nabh. 

12. 

Sahjpal. 

Ramdeo. 

Tara. 


• .Thingan is said to be derived from jhinga or jhanjh, a bell, because the sound of a bell 
was heard at its eponym’s birth. This got is supposed to be only 20 generations old. 
It has three sub-sections, Gautara, Athu and Nathu. Further, Nathu’s descendants are sub- 
divided into the less known sub-divisions of Chamnapati and Kanwlapati. The Jhingans 
gofra is bhardwaj ; their parvuras Bhrigu, Bharjan and Bhardwaj, their shdkhd Madhunjan 
and the Rig Veda their veda. At Dipalpur at the house of an ancestor. Baba Chhajjil, they 
hold a fair in Magh, at which the chila^ jhand, janeo and other rites are performed. Nathu’s 
descendants all wear a nath in the nose. 

t Trikha’s gotra is Farashar and it is sub-divided into the Palwarda, Aura and Dwija 
sub-sections. 

t The Jetli yofra is Vatsa, and its sub -sections are Vialepotra, Chandipotra, and Rupe- 
potra — all eponymous. The two former are replaced by Hathila and H arnpotra, according 
to another account. The Mihrotra Khatn's make them ofierings on the 12th of the light 
half of each lunar month. 

§ The Kumhvia gotra is also Vutsa and they too have three sub-sections. 

II Apparently the same as the Paumbu. below. 

^ fho Mohlaa gotra is Somastam, and its sub-sections are Dalwali, Shiv-Nancii and Akashi. 

Of the Vasisht gotra. They have five sub-sections, Veda Vyas, Gacgahar {sic), 
Gosain, Saraph, and Gaugawasbi, so-called because they used to lead bands of 
pilgrims to the Ganges. They were exempt from tolls under former governments. 
The Sariph (Surraf) were bankers. The Gosains had many jajmdng and the Veda 
Vyas wore learned in the Vedas. The Gangahars still perform their jhand or tonsure rite 
near the ruins of old Jhang, near which town they possessed a number of wells, each 
inscribed with their names. 

■ft Or Tawaria. At marriage they do not let the bride go to her father-in law’s house, 
but send instead a big gur cake wrapped in red clotL If however tho mukldivd ceremony is 
performed at tho same time us the wedding, they lot the bride go also, otherwise they send, 
her afterwards when her mulddwd is given. 

Ih'obably the same as the Bhabakkar, a got named after a llishi. Its members make 
a boy don the janeo (sacred thread) in his 8th year. Clad as a sddhu in a faqirs dress with 
the alfi or chola, the viirg-chhdla (deer-skin) and kachkol (a Wallet for collecting alms) ho 
begs from door to door and is then bidden to go to the forest, but his sister brings him 
back. 


Brahmans of the Khatris. 


125 


The Zdt’Wdle ; — 


Suh-group Hi. — Panj-zati ii. About 116 years ago the Brahmans 
of the five sections below used to give their daughters in marriage to 
the Dhdighar- Labor ia Brahmans ; — 


(1) Kalie. 1 (3) Kapurie. 

(2) Malie. | (4) Rhaturie. 


(5) Bagge. 


When their daughters ‘ began to be treated harshly in the housea of 
their fathers-in-law, these Brahmans {panjzat ov five sections) arranged 
to contract marriages only among themselves ^ and ceased to form re- 
lationships with the Dhaighar-Lahoiia. 

Suh-group iv. — Ghhezdt-wala. — Similarly several other sections of 
Brahmans gave up giving daughters to the Dhaighar-Lahoria Brah- 
mans, such as— 


(1) Pandit. 1 

(3) Dhunde, 

I (5) Dhan Kaji 

(2) Patak, 1 

(4) Gadhari. 

1 (.6 ) Chhukari. 

Suh-oroup V. — Panchzat-wdle iii — 


(1) Chuni, 

1 (3) Lamb. 

1 (5) Sarballie. 

(2) Babri. 

1 (4) Neule. 

* 

Suh-group vi . — 

Sat'Zdti — 


(1) Sajre. 

(4) Neasi. 

1 (6) Sardal. 

,(2) Punj. 

(3) Bandu. 

(6) Chuni. 

j (7) Anni. 


The above four sub-groups are called collectively Z^t-wdle. 

Sttb-group vii , — This comprises the remaining Bunjdhi sections. 

The Zdt-wdle stand higher than this last sub-group vii, in that 
they do not accept offerings from, or eat in the houses of, Ndis, 
Kaldls, Kumhd,rs or Chlumbas, whereas the latter do both. Moreover, 
the Asht-bans and Chhe-z^ti sub-groups claim to be superior in status 
to the B^ris, but some families of these two sub-groups stooped to 
give daughters to the latter sub-group, and were, therefore, excom- 
municated by the remaining families of the Asht-bans and Chhe-zati 
sub-groups, so that tl>ey lost status and formed a new sub-group called 
Bans-puj. This sub-group now gives daughters to the Asht-bans and 
Chhe-zati sub-groups, but takes its wives, it is alleged, from the Bdris, 

Thus the Brahman organization reflects the main outlines of the 
Khatri scheme, but, though on many points of detail our information 
is incomplete, it is certain that local conditions modify the organiza- 
tion. For instance in Bahilwalpur the Khatris are few, while the 
Aroras are numerous and influential, so that we find the following 
scheme ; — 


Sub-group i . — Five sections, Mohla, Jetli, Jhingran, Trikha, 
Kumaria. 

Hypergamous suh-group ii . — Five sections, Dhaman-potra, Baraa- 
potra, Bhoja-potra, Setpal, Takht-Lalhdri ; and 

Bj/pergamous suh-group Hi . — Seven sections, Lai lidri, Bills, Kaiidaria, 
KathpMa, Shangru-potra or Wed, Malakpura, and Bhenda. 

Of these three sub-groups, the five sections of the first are Brah- 
mans of the Khatris generally, not of the Dhdighar-Bdri Khatri? 
exclusively, while sub-groups ii and Hi are Brahmans of the Arorde 
in that part of the Punjab. 


126 


Brahmans of the Khatris. 

The rules of marriage. — Like the Khatris, the BuDjilhi Brahmans 
profess to follow the usual ‘ four-^o< ^ rule in marriage, but, precisely 
like the Dhdighar Khatris, the Zd;t-wale Brahmans avoid only their 
own section and the mother’s relations. At least this appears to 
be the usual rule, but it would be rash to say it is an invariable 
one. For example, the Bans-puj are an exception. The Asht-baus 
obtain wives from them, but if a father has taken a Bans-puj wife, 
the son may not : he must marry an Asht-bans or lose status. That 
is to say, the Asht-bans may only stoop to inter-marriage with the 
Bans-puj in alternate generations. 

Similarly the ^ ioar-got ’ rule is relaxed in other cases. Thus the 
Kancban-Kamal section of Hoshiarpnr are also called Suraj Doaj, 
(Sun-worshippers). Their ancestor came from Delhi as a gdnungo 
at Haridna ; hence they are called Qanungos. These Brahmans can 
marry in the ndnka got, avoiding only the father’s got. They do not 
take any dan (charity) and may either take service or engage in trade 
or cultivation. If any one of them takes to receiving charity, he is 
considered an outcast and they do not intermarry with him. 

The ages of marriage. — Among the Bunjdrhi Brahmans the age of 
betrothal is from 4-8 and that of marriage from 8-12 years in 
Rdwalpindi. It is, however, impossible to lay down any universal 
rules, as, generally speaking, the ages of betrothal and marriage 
depend upon the status of each family within the group^ as is the 
case among the Khatris. 

The revolt against hypergamy. — It will be seen how the lower sub- 
groups of the Khatris have endeavoured to shake off the yoke of the 
higher in matrimonial matters, A similar revolt against the position 
of the Dhdighar occurred amongst the Sarsut Brahmans. Aboqt 116 
years ago, says the account received from Amritsar, the Lahoria 
Dh^ighar used to take daughters from the Panj-zat n; but OAving to 
the ill-treatment meted out to the girls by the Dlidighar, they resolv- 
ed to discontinue the custom, and the three other groups of the Zat- 
w41e followed suit while the remaining Bunjahis continued to give 
wives to the Zdt-w^le, but no longer received them in return. The 
result was that the Bunjahis could not obtain wives and many fami- 
lies died out, so it avhs resolved by the Bunjahis that they should for 
the future break off all connection with the Zdt-w4le, unless any of the 
latter should agree to give them daughters in return. This was prior to 

Sambat 1932 when a second meeting at Amritsar renewed the compact. 

• 

It may be Avorth noting that in both castes the proceedings of 
these conferences were conducted in a formal manner, written agree- 
ments being drawn up, and the families which agreed to the de- 
mands put forward being entered in a register from time to time. 

The territorial groups. — Like the Khatris the Brahmans have terri- 
torial groups, but these groups do not usually correspond Avith the 
territorial groups of the former. For instance, the Brahmans of the 
Murree Hills are divided into two sub-castes — Pahdria and Dhakoohi, 
who do not intermarry or eat together. The Dugri Brahmans corre- 
spond to the Dugri Khatris of the Si41kot sub -montane, but they are 
said, on the ouo hand, to give daughters to the Sarsut, and, on the 


127 


* The Brahmans of Knngra. 

other hand, to intermarry with the Batehru group of Brahmans in 
Kangra. Allusions have been already made to the Pachbdda and* to 
the Lahoria, terms which seem to be applied exclusively to the 6ve 
highest sections who serve the Dbdighar Khatris. 

Tde Sarsut Brahmans op the Aro^iAs. 

The grouping of the Brahmans of the Arords has already been des- 
cribed in dealing with the Wateshars’ system, and they further are said 
to be thus divided ; 

r Bbojapotra. Sitp4l. 

Pancb-z£ti ... < Shamapotra. Takht Lalri.* 

( Dhannanpotra. 

fThe Panchzatis, together with the — 

I 6. Puchhrat. 10. Bhnrdwaji. 

Biiri ... ...-{7. Shingupotra. '11. Kathp41a.+ 

I 8. Malakpnra. 12. Kandhiara. 

l.,9. Khetapotra. 

But the most interesting territorial group of the Sdrsut is that of 
the Kdngra Brahmans whose organization shows no traces of the 
Khatri scheme, but reflects that of the Hindu Rajputs of Kdngra, and 
which will, therefore, be described at some length. 

The Brahmans op Kangra. 

The Sarsut des or jurisdiction extends from the Saraswati river in 
Kurukshetr to Attock on the Indus and is bounded by Pehowa on the 
east, by Ratia and Fatehd,bSd in Hissar, by Multdn on the south-west, 
and by Jammu and Nurpur, in Kangra, on the north. 

Thus the Brahmans of Kd,ngra, who are or claim to be Sarsut by 
origin, stand beyond the pale of the Sdrsut organisation, but they 
have a very interesting organisation of their own. 

We^find the following groups : — 

i. — Nagarko^ia. 

ii. — Batehru. 

iii, — Halbaha, or cultivating. 

Group I . — ^The Nagarkotia are the Brahmans of the Katoch, the 
highest of the Rdjputs, and they were divided by Dharm Chand, the 
Katoch R4j^ of K^ingra, into 13 functional sub-groups, each named 
ft er the duties it performed in his time. These are— 

i.— Dichhit, the Gurus of the Katoch, who used to teach the Gayatri 
mantra. 

ii.— Sarotari, said to be from Sanskrit saro ladh. Their duty was 
to pour ahoti or offerings of ghi, etc., into the hawan kund 
when a jag was performed. They had learnt two Vedas. 

iii.— Achdria, who performed the jag. 


* Tha Lalfi have five sub-sections : —Lai Lalfi, Visa Lalri, Takht Lnlfi, Ghaniyal 

Lalri and Raj Bnkht or Jan. r'-iv/'i 

t By gotra Shdmundal, the Kathpalas have four sub-sections, Surangu, Sidha, Gilkala 
and Fatbak. 


128 


The Brahmans of Kdngra, 

iv, — Upadbyaya, or Upadlii,* or ^ readers ’ of the Vedas at the jag, 

V. — Awasthi, those who ^ stood by ^ the halasov pitcher at the Muni- 
pursh, and who received the pitcher and other articles (of 
sacrihce). 

vi. — Bed birch, who made the hedi, or square demarcated by four 

sticks in which the halas was placed. 

vii. — Pundrik, whose duty it was to write the prescribed in- 

scriptions on the hawan kund. 

viii. — Panchkarn or secular Brahmans engaged in service bn the 

Rajd.s. They performed out of the six duties of Brah- 
mans, but not the sixth, which is the receiving of alms. 

ix. — Parohits, who were admitted to the seraglio of the Raja and 

were his most loyal adherents. 

X. — ^Kashmiri Pandit, literate Brahmans from Kashmir, who are 
found all over the Punjab. 

xi. — Misr,t said to mean ^ mixed,’ also Kashmiri immigrants, who had 
preserved their own customs and rites, but had intermarried 
with the Nagarkotia. 

xii. — Raina, who helped the rulers by their incantations in time of 
war. (Said to be from ran, battle-field.) 

xiii. — Bip (Bipr), now^ extinct in Kdngra. These were 'parohits of 
the Nagarkotia and of some of the Batehru. 

Of these 13 sub-groups numbers x and xi seem to be territorial 
rather than functional. One cannot say what their relative rank 
is or was. The first six are also called the six Ach.-lrias and were 
probably temple priests or menials of inferior status. The Bip pro- 
bably ranked high, and the Raina, or magic men, were possibly the 
lowest of all. The Khappari are also said to be found in Kangfa, but, 
no account from that District alludes to them. 

Group 11. — Batehru. — There are two sub-groups— 
i, — Pakkd Batehru. — With 9 sections — 

(1) Dind, (2) Dohru, (3) Sintu, (4) Pallialu, (5) Panbar, 
(6) Rukkhe, (7) Nd,g-Kharappe, (8) Awasthi-Chetu and 
(9) Misr-Kathu. 


* Bat apadhi is in Orissa translated ‘ title.’ Vide Tribes and Castes of Bengal, I, p. 161. 
Upadhyaya is, correctly speaking, qnite distinct from Upadhi. 

t It will be observed that the Misr (section) occurs in both the Batehru sub-groups 
and among the Nagarkotia, so that we have three sub-soctions — ■ 

(1) Kashmiri-Misr, Nagarkotia. 

(2) Kathir-Misr, Pakka Batehru. 

(3) Mali-Misr, Kachcha Batehru. 

Of these the last named are parohits of the Kashmiri Pandits, the Kashmiri-Misrs and 
the Rainas. 

The Nag (? section) are also thus found, for we have— 

(1) Nag-Pundrik, Nagarkotia. 

(2) Nag-Kharappa, Pakka Batehru. 

(3) Nag-Oosalii, Kachcha Batehru. 

It is explained that Kharappa (cobra) and Gosalu (? grass-snake) are nicknames im- 
plying contempt, as these sub-sections are of low status. But a comparison with the 
Brahmans of Orissa suggests a totemistic origin for these sections ; V. Tribes and Castes 
of Bengal, 1, p. 161. 

The Awasthi too are found m all three groups. 


129 


The Brahmans of Kdngra. 

ii. — Kaclichd, Batehru. — With 13 sections — 

(1) Tagnet, (2) Ghabru, (3) Suglie (Parsrdmie), (4) Chappal, 
(5) Ciiathwan, ((3) Awastlii-TIiirkanun, (7) Awasthi- 
Gargajnun, (8j Gliogare, (9) Ndg-Gosalu, (10) Mali-Misr, 
(11) Achariapatliiarj, (12) Pandit Bariswal and (13) 
Awasthi-Kufarial. 

Group III. — Halbaha. — The Ilalbahas have 29 gots or sections : — 

(J) Par.dit-Marchu, (2) Bhntwan, (3) Khurwal, (4) Gidgidie, 
(5) Lade, (6) PaVide-Koptu, (7) Pahde-Saroch, (8) Korle, 
(9) Awasthi-Chakolu, (10) Pandit-Bhangalie, (1 1) Narchalu, 
(12) Mahte, (13) Dukwal, (14) Sanhala, (15) Pahde-Daroch, 
(16) Pandore, (17) Thenk, (18) Pahde-Kotlerie, (19) Bagheru, 
(20) Bhanwal, (21) Bashist, (22) Ghutanie, (23) Mindhe- 
Awasthi, (24) Prohit-Golerie, (25) Prohit-Jaswul, (26) Hasolar, 
(27) Poi'Pahde, (28) Faiiarach and (29) Pharerie. 

Of these the first fourteen now intermarry with the Batehru, giving, 
and, apparently, receiving wives on equal terms. 

Hypergamy . — The Nagarkotia take brides from both sub-groups 
of the Batehru, and they have, since Sambat 1911, also taken brides 
from the Halbaha. The Batehru take wives from all the sections 
ot the Halbaha. When a Halbaha girl marries a Nagarkotia, she is 
seated in the highest place at marriage-feasts by the women of her hus- 
band’s brotherhood. This ceremony is called sara-dena and implies 
that the Halbaha bride has become of the same social status as the hus- 
band’s kin. Money is never paid for a bri^e. Indeed Barnes observed ; — ■ 

“ So far do the Nagarkotias carry their scruples to exonerate the bridegroom from all 
expense, that they refuse to partake of any hospitality at the hands of the son-in-law, and 
will not even drink water in the village where ho resides.’’ 

Social relations . — The accounts vary and the customs have, it is 
explicitly stated, been modified quite recently. The Nagarkotia 
may eat with Batehrus and liave even begun to eat kachhi from 
the hands of a Halbaha according to one account. According to 
another this is not so, and a Nagarkotia who has married a Halbaha 
girl may not eat at all from the hands of his wife until she has 
borne at least one child, when the prohibition is said to be removed. 

The Batehru and Halbaha section names . — These show an extraor- 
dinary jumble of Brahminical gotras {e.p., Bashisr.), functional and 
other names, so that the accuracy of the lists is open to doubt. 
It appears certain, however, that some of the sections are named 
from the tribes to whom they minister. Thus, we may assume, the 
Pahda-Kotleria are Pahdas of the Kotleria K^jputs ; the Parohit- 
Goleria and Parohit-Jaswal to be parohits of the Goleria and Jaswiil 
Rdjputs, and so on. This is in accord with the system, which lias been 
found to exist among the Sarsut of the plains, whereby the Brahman 
takes his status from that of the section to which he ministers. But 
status is also determined by occupation. Like the Gaddis and Ghirths 
of the Kdngra and Chamba hills the Brahmans of Kdngra have numerous 
als with vaguely totemistic * names. Thus among the Nagarkotia the 


* In Hissar there is a section of Brahmans, called or sheep- This is interesting, 

because on the Sutlej, at least in Kulla Saraj, there is a smsll caste called who are 

hereditary victims in the sacrificial riding of a rope down the cliffs to the river. Other* 


130 


The Brahmans of Kdngra. 


Pakkt'i Bateliru havotlie section called Kharappfl (or cobra) Ndg and the 
Kaclicliti Batehru, a section styled Ghoslu (a species of fish or possibly 
grass-snake) Nilg. Pundrik also appears to be a snake section. These 
snake sections are said to reverence the snake after which they are 
named and not to kill or injure it. 

In addition to these, the Batehrn (Pakkd and Kachchd,) have the 
following sections : — 

(i) Chappal, an insect ; no explanation is fortbooming. 

(ii) Sugga, a parrot ; no exi)lanation is forthcoming. 

(iii) Bhangwaria, fr. hht'uigar, a kind of tree. 

(iv) Khajnre Bogi’e : Date-palm Dogra, a section founded by a man who planted a gar* 
den of date-palms, and which originated in the Dogra countiy on the borders of Jammu. 

) Ghabrii, a rascal ; one w'ho earns his living by fair means or foul. 

In the Chaniba State the Brahmans form an agricultural class, 
as well as a hierarchy. Those in the capital are employed in the 
seiwice of the State or engaged in trade, while others are very poor 
and eke out a living as priests in the temples, or as pnrohits and even 
as cooks, but they abstain from all manual labour. Strict in caste ob- 
servances they preserve the ancient Brahmanical gotras, but are divided 
into numerous als which form three groups : — 

Group I. — .41s : Baru, Banbaru, Pandit, Sanju, Kashmiri Pandit, Koine,* Baid, Gautaman, 
Bugalan, Atan, Madyan.f Kanwan, Bodhran, Baludran, Bilparu, Mangleru, LakhyAnu, 
Suhalu, Nunyal, Nonyal, SungUl, Bhararu, Turnal, HaryanJ, and Purohit. 

Group LI— Als: Chhunphanan, Thulyan, Dikhchat, Osti, Pade, Bhat, Dogre, Pantu, 
Kuthla, Ghoretu, Pathania, Myandhialu, Mangleru, Katochu, Pande, Datwin, Dundie, 
Hamlogu, Bhardiathu, Gharthalu, Hanthalu, Gwaru, Chibar, Barare, and Datt. 

Group III. — Als: Acharaj, Gujrati, Gwalliu and Bujhru. 

The first group only takes wives from the second, and the first two 
groups have no caste relations with the third. 'Ldie Brahmans of 
Chainba town and Sungal§ disavow all caste connection with the 
halhdh or cultivating Brahmans who are hardly to be distinguished 
from the general rural population, though many act as priests at the 
village shrines and as Many Brahmans are in possession of 

sasa7is or grants of land recorded on copper plates. The hill Brahmans, 
both men and wonmn, eat meat, in marked contrast to those of the 
plains. In the Pdngi wizdrat of the Chamba State Brahmans, Rdjputs, 
d'hdkurs and Kathis form one caste, without restrictions on food or 
marriage. In the Kdvi valley, especially in Churah, and to a less degree 
in Brahmaur also, free marriage relations exist among the high castes, 
good families excepted. But in recent years there has been a tendency 
towards greater strictness in the observance of caste rules. |j 

wise traces of totemiam are very rare among the Brahmans of the plains, though in the 
eub-montane district of Ambala two are noted. Tliese are the Pila Bheddi or ‘yellow 
wolve!*,’ so called because one of their ancestors was saved a she-W'olf and so they now 
worship a wolf at weddings ; and Sarinho, who are said to have onco taken refuge under a 
sarin tree and now revere it. 

* From Kullu, so called because they came with an idol from that country. They are 
priests of the Lakshmi Narain, Pamodar and Radha Krishna temples. 

+ The Kanwfin are descendants of the Brahman family from which Raja. Sahila Varma 
of Chamba purchased tlic site of the present capital. 

X The Ilaryin are in charge of the Ilari Rai temple. 

§ The ancient Sumangala, a village now held entirely by Brahmans under a msan grant 
of the lOth century A.D They are descended from two immigrants, a Brahmach4ri and his 
rhcla, from the Kurukshetra. The two families intermarry and also give daughters to the 
Brahmans of Chamba town. 

II See the Chamba State Gazetteer by Dr. James Hutchison, pp. 130—132. 


The Brahmans round Smla. 


131 


The Brahmans op the low castes. 

As we have seen the Brahmans of the higher castes form a scries 
of groups whose status depends on that of their clients. On a 
similar principle the Brahmans of the castes which are unclean 
and so outside the pale of Hinduism form distinct sub-castes outside 
the circle of those who minister to the higher castes. 

These sub-castes are— 

I. — The Chamarwii. — The Brahmans of the Chanor sub-caste of 
the ChamJirs. 

11. — Dhanakwa.— The Brahmans of the Dhdnaks or Hindu weavers 
in Rohtak. 

III. — The Brahmans of Chuhr^s. 

Each of these three sub-castes appears to be now strictly endogamous, 
though the Chamarwa are said to have until recently intermarried 
with Chamd,rs. However, it seems clear that they do not intermarry 
• with the other Sdrsut Brahmans if indeed they have any claim to 
Sdrsnt ancestry. No Chamarwa Brahman may enter a Hindu’s house. 
According to a tale told in Ambdla, the origin of the Chamarwa 
Bralimans was this : — A Brahman, on his way to the Ganges to bathe, 
met Ram Das, the famous Cliamar hhagat. Rjiin Das gave him two 
cowries and told him to present them to Gangaji (Ganges), if she held 
out her hand for them. She did so, and in return gave him two kangans 
(bracelets). The Brahman went back to Ram Das, who asked him 
what the goddess had given him, and he, intending to keep one of the 
two kangans, said she had given one only ; but w'hen he looked for them 
they were not on his own body, but in the kunda (breeches) of Ram 
Dlls. Riim Das then gave him the bracelets and warned the lirahraan 
in future to accept gifts only from his descend ants, otherwise great 
misfortune would befall him. Accordingly his descendants only serve 
Cham^rs to this day. The Chamarwa are only parohits of theChamars, 
not gurus. They must not be confounded witli the masands who act as 
their guriis, though either a Chamarwa Brahman or a (Chamar) masand 
can preside at a Cliamar’s wedding. It is said that the Chamarwa is 
also called a Husain i Brahman. 

The Brahmans in thb Simla Hills. 

North and oast of Simla the Brahmans both Gaur and Sdrsut have 
three groups : Shukal, Krishan and Pujdri or Bliojgi, the two latter 
equal but inferior to the first. The Shukal are further divided into 
two occupational groups (i) those who hold granted by chiefs 

and who receive ample dues and (ii) those wlio receive little in fees. 
The former are generally literate and do not cultivate: they ob-erve 
the rites prescribed by the Shdstras. The latter are mainly agricul- 
turists and practise informal as vvell as formal marriage and ev’en 
polyandry. The former take wives from the latter, but do not give 
them. The Shukal group does not intermarry with the other two*. 

The Krishan Brahmans are also cultivators and accept almost any 
alms. They also practise widow remarriage and the rit custom. The 

* The Shukal are not stated to correspond to the Shukla, or to be Brahmans to Brahmans 
only. 


132 


Brahmans degraded hy function. 

PujAris or Bhojgls are temple-priests or chelas of a god. They appear 
to have only recently become a distinct group. Some are merely pujdris 
and accept no alms living by cultivation. These do not intermarry with 
the Krishan Brahmans. Others accept alms in the name of a deceased 
person and use the ghi with which idols are besmeared in Mdgh. They 
intermarry Avith the Krishan group. 

When Paras Ratu* a Gaur Brahman overthrew theRdjputs the Sdrsuts 
protected those of their women who survived and when the Rdjputs 
regained power they replaced the Gaurs by Sdrsuls. Paras Ram had 
extended his conquests as far as Nirmand in the Sardj tahsil of Kullu and 
there he established a colony of Gaur Brahmans in 6 villages, still held 
in mudfi by them. These colonists are now spread over Bashahr, Kullu, 
Sard] and Suket, and they are called Palsrdmi or Parasrdmi to this day. 

Both the Gaur and Sarsuts are also cross-divided into the Sasani, or 
beneficed, and Dharowar groups. t The former are priests or parohits 
of the ruling families, being supported by the rents of their lands and 
the dues received from their clients. The latter live by cultivation, but 
do not hold revenue-free grants. Neither group accepts alms given to 
avert the evil influence of certain planets or offered during an eclipse.J 

The Impure Brahmans. 

We now come to deal with the groups of Brahmans who exercise 
degraded or spiritually dangerous functions. In contradistinction to 
the iittam or ‘pure^ Brahmans discussed above — Brahmans Avho serve 
pure castes and fulfil pure functions — we find groups of Brahmans who 
exercise impure or inauspicious functions. These groups are known 
by various names, but in some parts of the Punjab, e.g., in Midnwdli, 
they are divided into two classes, the ^Madham, Mahd-Brahman or 
Acharaj.and the Kanislit. The Madham form a kind of ‘ middle ’ class 
performing functions which though unlucky and even unclean, are 
ritualistic. The Kanislit on the other hand are minor priests, whose 
rites are hirgely magical, rather than religious; and they include such 
groups as the Ved-patr, Dakaut and Sawani. 

* The tradition begins by asserting that the Gaur accompanied the Rajputs from the 
plains, and that the latter usurped the Gaur’s poAver. 1 hey then made the Gaurs their 
parohits, but annexed their principalities. Later Kankubj and Maithila Brahmans 
accompanied those Rajputs Avho escaped from the plains after the Muhammadan inA^asiona 
and found a refuge in the hills. 

t The DharoAvar intermarry with the Krishan brahmans of the Hills, and give daughters 
to the Sdsani and Shukal groups, but not to the Krishan group. ° 

J Jt must not be iinngined that this description exhausts the ramihoations of the Hill 
Brahmuns. Thus in Knmharsaiu we learn that there are Sarsut Brahmans, Jhtikhrd by 
family, descenclcd from Gautama rishi,fiud other families descended from Bhardwai 
rinhi. These latter cnme, some from Kashi, others from Sindh, and they intermarry inter 
.se or with BhardwiJj Brahmans settled in Bashahr. They worship Brahma, as Avell as 
Vishnu, Mahesh and the 10 incarnations. TJiese Bhardwaj, who are known as the four 
Brahman foZ.s, will not intennarry wi'h a class of Brahmans called Paochi because the 
latter have stooped to widow remarriage. Yot the Paochi is not the lowest group for 
below it are the Pujaras, also Sarsuts, wearing the jnneo, and affecting the various tiill 
(teotds, of who.se lands they are mostly hereditary tenants. Pujaras permit the bedani 
form of marriage, and also the rit system whicli is in vogue among the Knnets of the 
Simla Hills. They can also eat from a Knnet’s liands, hnt Paochi Brahmans will not eat 
from theirs. The Pujaras are numerous and fairly widespread from Suket to Keonthal 
and Bashahr, giving their name to one Pujarli village in the last-named State and to 
another in Balsan, ’ 


' Brahmans degraded ly function, 183 

The Maha-Brahman or Acharaj. 

Malid-Brahman is usually said to be synonymous with Achdraj, but, 
strictly speaking, tlio Mabd-Brahmans appear to be a sub-division of 
the Garagacbdraj'’^ or Achdraj. They are tbeinselves divided into two 
groups, Garg and Sonana. On the other hand in Kdngra the Acbdraja 
is said to be one of the two groups of Mahd-Brabmans. 

Of these the Dikhat has the following sections : — 

1 . Josi. 3. Sonami. 5. Tamuayat. 

2. Kandafi. 4. Sutrak. 

The Mabd-Brahmans are endogamous. They give alms in the name 
of the dead after death to Sanidsis, or occasionally to a daughter’s 
father-in-law. The Brahmans do not receive anything in return for 
performance of marriage ceremonies. 

In Kdngra they (and the Sdwanis) are said to have the Bdri and Bun- 
jdhi groups, and this is also the case in Midnwdli. in Kdngra the Achd- 
raj gots are — 

Asil. Badas, Parasar. Sandal, 

A noteworthy offshoot of the Acharaj are the Par-achdrajt, or 
Mahd-achdraj as they are called in Amritsar, J who accept those gifts 
from the Acharaj which the Achdraj themselves take from other 
Hindus after death. 

The function of the Mahd-Brahman or Achdraj is to accept the 
offerings made after a death in the name of the deceased. Originally 
the term achdrya meant simply a guide or teacher in matters spiritual, § 
and the process whereby it has come to denote a great sub-caste of 
‘sin-eating’ Brahmans is obscure. As a body the Achdryas trace 
their origin to the 5 Gaurs and the 5 Dardwars, asserting that those 
who accepted offerings made within 13 daysH of a death were excom- 
municated by the other Brahmans and formed a sub-caste. As the 
only occasion on which an Achdrya visits a house is at or after a death 
his advent is naturally inauspicious, and his touch is pollution. After 
he has quitted the house water is scattered on the floor to avert ‘ the 
burning presence of death,’ and, in Kdngra and Multdn, villagers 
throw charcoal, etc., after him. In the Simla hills the Mahd-achdraj 
occupies a special position. He is the parohit of the king, chief or 
wealthy people and represents the dead man and as his substitute is 
fed sumptuously for a whole year by the kin. In some places he even 
takes food from the hand of the corpse on the pyre, but this custom 
is dying out and it now suffices to bribe the Mahd-achdraj to eat to his 
utmost capacity, the idea being that the more ho eats the better it will 

* Garagji was a saint who composed the work on astrology called the Garag San^di which 
s said to be rare. ’ 

t In K4ngya the Par-acharaj are called Ojha and are Agam by got. In Kullu thev are 
known as Bhapachiirya. ^ 

tin Amritsar and Mianwali the Maha-acharya make the death -gifts to their danehters 
or sons-in-law : iu Kangra Saniasfs take these gifts in certain cases. In Siallwt the 
Achdraj make them to Saniasfs, or their own daughters, »>., the Maha-achdrai aDnears 
to be unknown. •' 

§ Especially one who invests the student with ’the sacrificial thread and instructs him 
in the Vedas, in the law of sacrifice, etc. ; Platts, IJ induct ani Dirty. 

II Or, in Kangra, for 11 days from Brahmans, 13 from Kshatrias,’ IG from Vaisyas and 31 
from Sudras, i.e,, during the period of impurity after a death. ^ 


134 


Dahaut Weather-lore, 


be for the soul.* Ordinary people, however, only feed an Ach^raj for 
13 days after a death, but Brahmans also receive food for the dead 
occasionally after that period. 

The Ach^raj, however, also officiates as a Wateshar in death 
observances. 

The Dakaut Brahmans. 

The Dakaut or Dak-putra derives his name from Paka,t a Brahman 
who founded the caste. Once on his way to the Ganges, Bhadli, a 
Kumhdrni,!; persuaded him to bathe instead in a pond, professing that 
she could get him bathed there in the Ganges. As soon as he 
touched the water he found himself by her enchantment in the river, 
so he made her his wife. Here we have an obvious allegory, 

A Dakaut of Midnwdli gives another version of this legend 

Dak was the son of Ved Viyd,s, the author of the Puranas, and 
was chosen in a Swdyambar as her husband by Bhandli. Bhancfli 
was the daughter of the Raja of Kashmir, who celebrated her 
Swdyambar with the condition that she should wed the man who 
answered her questions. Dak did so and married her. The Granth 
Bhandli in Punjdbi gives all Bhandli’s questions and Dak’s answers 
in verses of which the following are examples : — 

Edij andheri ashtami ode chand badlon chhdyd 
Chari jpahhi tarmali ganjar basni dyd, 

Poochho, parho Pandato vdcho Ved, Pordn 
Eh hi to pdni hhoo men eh hi to pari nashdn 
Nohdri to chdndni sunre hant same hd. bhdo 
Na barsi na goh hari na Poorab, Pachham vdo 
Bald bleva hharch har dharn najhali ghds. 

A rough translation reads : 

‘ What would happen if the moon be covered by a cloud on the 
eighth dark night of the moon in tlie month of Asdrh ? All the four 
sinns forebode the fall of rain. 

O 

* The Brahman who ate from a dead man’s hand was a Kashmiri. In by-gone days 
when a rdjd or wealthy man died his direct passage to Heaven was secured by the follow 
ing rite. His corpse was laid out on the ground and between it and the pyre, which was 
built not far off, was made a hearth on which khir (rice in milk) was cooked. This was 
placed in a skull, which was pot in the dead man’s hand, and thence the Brahman was 
induced to eat the khlr by a fee of Rs. 1,000 to Rs. 30,000, or the grant of a village. He 
thus became a Khappari (fr. khopri or kliapri, a skull), and he and his children after 
him were out-castes. Supernatural powers were attributed to them, and as they also 
pursued usury, they rapidly grew rich. After two or throe generations, however, the 
Khappari’s family could bo re-admitted into caste on payment of a fine, and so on. A 
plate or lota is said to have been substituted for the skull. In Mandi State a Brahman, 
who must be good-looking, is fed and dressed for a year like tho deceased RAja. At the ex- 
piration of the year he is turned out of the State, and goes to Hardwar.He must never look 
back on the journey, and is never allowed to return to the State, which pays him a pension. 

t In MianwAH the Dakauntri (sir) are said to be Suds by caste and descendants of Dak 
Bandlf, who composed a gmnth on astrology called the Bandli Granth. In Rohtak the 
Daks are said to be descended from Sahdec rinhi, a dacoit (whence their name) who 
composed the Sahdeo BhAdlf (Bhadli, his wife, was a sweeper woman). In this work natural 
phenomena arc interpreted to forecast the future ; e.g., Snkkar wdli bddli rahi sanishchar 
chde kahe Sahdeo: 'sun Bddli bin barse nahin jdc.’ i.G., “ If clouds appear Oil Friday 
and stay till Saturday, they will not pass away without rain.” In these verses Sahdeo 
usually addresses BhAdli. 

J In Gurgaon too Sahdeo is said to have met a sweeper woman who told him that the 
.auspicious moment had passed and bade him dive in a tank. He did so, and brought up 
first a gold bracelet and then an iron one. Thinking her an expert he married her. 


Dahaut functions. 185 

Ask tho i>an(lits to study tlie effects of this rainfall in tlio Vedas or 
Purunas. 

Tho results are that there will be no water left anywhere save 
a little in wells and in other low places (meaning that this in* * * § 
auspicious rainfall will be followed by a scctrcity of rain). 

If it does not rain and tho wind does not blow for 9 months what will 
be the result ? 

The land will have no verdure and it is better to leave it with bag and 
baggage.’ 

Piirab uthe hadli, pachham chale wd, 

'Pak hahe sun Bhandli manji andar pd. 

* If a cloud appear from the east and tho wind blow from tho 
west ; Dak would ask Bhandli to take her cot inside.’ 

Titar Ichanhhi badli ran maldi Ichd. 

0 wase, 0 ujre Jchdli hoi najd. 

‘A cloud like partridge feathers, and a woman given to eating cream ; 
the one will rain and the other bring ruin, without a doubt.’ 

Another story is that when Ram Chandar invaded Ceylon, both he 
and his enemy Rawana were under Saturn’s sinister influence, and 
before he crossed the strait which he had bridged Rd,m Chandar 
desired to give alms. But neither the Brahmans nor the Mahd- 
Brahmans nor the Bias, would accept them, and in answer to his 
prayer Brahma created a doll of grass, sprinkled sar jiwan* amrit 
over it by cutting Parbati’s little finger, and thus endowed it with 
life. Shivji and Durga bestowed on him veracity, the ya?teo and tho 
tilak, and Brahma bade him receive tho alms offered to Rdhu and 
Ketu, and to Saturn — whence he was also called Sanichari. 

The Dakaut, however, bears yet other names. As he knows a little 
astrology and can divine the evil influence of the planets, he is 
sometimes styled Jotgi ; in Rupar he is called Pdnda, and round 
Sirhind and Maler Kotla Dhaonsif. One group is called ArpopoJ 
because it is skilled in palmistry §. 

From Sidlkot comes a still more curious legend : Varah Mihr, a great 
astrologer from tho Deccan, came in tho course of his wanderings to a 
Gujar village. While discoursing to tho people his period of yoga 
ended, and he confessed that had he been at home that day his wife 
would have conceived and borne a son of marvellous intelligence. His 

* Whence the name Dakant dohl-d-put. In Gurgaon dak is said to mean ‘ wanderer,' 
In this District the Dak is said to be no true Brahman, but a singularly astute cheat whoso 
victims are mainly women. These he instigates to burn 7 tuvgas (thatched roofs?) of a 
hut on 7 succe.ssive Saturdays, in order to secure male issue. Or he sets husband and wife 
by the ears by declaring that their biirj or stars do not coincide, and that remedial measures 
must bo taken.' Seated among the women he looks at the hand of one and tho forehead of 
tmother : consults his pntrd or tnblo, counts on his finger-s, and then utters coramon- 
pl^o predictions. IIo knows hardly any astrology. On Saturday he goes round bogging 
with an idol of Sanishchar, and ho accepts a bulTalo calf born in Magh or a foal born in 
Sawan, or any black animal. 

fSee Punjabi Dicfy., p. 305. 

X Of. Ilarar-popo among the Bhatris, where it is said to equal ihng. In Karnal tho Arar* 
popD is desenbed as a beggar who may be a Gaur Braimian or a Chauhan (Rajput). 

§ The Bhojkis are quite distinct from the Dakauts, but owing to similarity of function the 
Dakauts are sometimes called Bhojki, e.g., in Jaipur. 


94 


The Bhdt or Bhatt. 


they are now to be found in the great towns and places of pilgrim- 
age all over India. In Hoshiarpur the Bhltrds are virtually all fSikhs 
(though children under 12 have their heads shaved) and here they 
pose as magicians, foretelling the future by gazing into a cup of oil. 
Thence they mainly frequent the Kd,ngra District. In Sialkot a moiety 
are true Sikhs, observing all the Sikh customs, and often posing as 
gurus, Akd-lis or Nihungs when on their wanderings.* * * * § They prey on the 
credulity of the people by astrology. The other moiety sre jatadhdris, 
but smoke, and generally assume the characteristic garb of the 
Udasis, pretending to be emissaries of certain temples and col- 
lecting subscriptions for them. After the Diwdli the Bhdtrds set 
out on their tours, returning at the commencement of the rainy 
season. They travel in gangs generally of half-a-dozen or so, and 
the Sikhs are occasionally accompanied by their wives and 
daughters, for whose marriages they collect subscriptions. Various 
forms of swindling are practised by them and they earn large 
sums which they promptly squander on drink and gambling. 
Besides hawking small hardware for sale they pierce children’s noses 
and ears for rings,t like the Ramdiya of the eastern districts. 


The Bhdtrds’ claim to Brahminical origin is borne out by the fact 
that they wear the janeo and tilak, and even at eclipses receive 
certain offerings, while standing in water, from each and every caste. 
They also practise palmistry [rekha). Other castes call them harar- 
popo or Thags, and the higher Brahman groups disown them. 
Probably they are a branch of the Dakauts. 


The Bhditras have 22 gots, of which 13 are found in Sialkot, viz. : — 


Bhains. 

Gamf. 

Kasba. 

Bhattf. 

Gojra. 

Lande. 

Bhotiwal. 

Digwil. 

Kag. 

Lar, 


Lohi. 

Rithor. 

Rod. 


Bhatt, fern. Bhatten, Bhattni, Bhdtni, Bhatani : dim. Bhatetd ; fern. 
Bhateti, the son or daughter of a Bhatt : also, contemptuously, any 
one of that caste. The Panjdbi form is Bhatt, il' is very commonly 
pronounced Bh^tj especially in the Hills. 


The organisation of the Hindu Bh^ts almost baflfles description, so 
fluid are its intricacies. 


In Hissdr are found two sub-castes, Brahm and a few Rdj. The 
former are clients of the MahdjansJ, performing certain functions for 
them at weddings, &c.§ ; they wear the janeo, avoid widow marriage, 
and only eat food cooked by a Gaur Brahman ||, while the Rdj are land- 
holders and cultivators, receiving dues at J^t weddings. 

The Brahm, Brahma or Brahnu Bhdts are very widely spread, and 
always appear to stand higher than the other sub-castes or groups, 

which vary from place to place. Thus in Rohtak the other groups are 


* Recently, however, some of them have taken to disguising themselves as Bairagi 
^dhus. Others, of Daska, make an indelible mark on their Hecks and call themselves 
Hosaini Brahmans, collecting alms from Muhammadans oa 

t See p 268 of Punjab Manufactures for the implements used. 

X And also of the Brahmans m Rohtak. 

§ They smg feabit* m public when the bridegroom first sots out for his father-indaw’s 


95 


The Bhdi grmtps. 


three in number, viz., Jagfg^ or Tappawdr,* Chirant, and a fourth 
class, to which belonged Udd. Bhdt.t The Jaggd,8 comprise the Bharia, 
Roria, Shakkarwdld, Solanki and other gots. 

In Gurgdon on the other hand the Bh^t or Rai, as he is called, is de- 
scribed as a Mirdsi, and is divided into four clas8es§ : — 

j ( 1. Brahm Rai, Bh^ts of the Brahmans. 

\2. Bero ^Baro) Rai, of the Rdjputs. 

-jy f 3. Rd.j Rai, who eat fiesh and drink liquor. 

1 4. Jagd, or genealogists ; of whom I is superior to II. |j 

The Brahm group then extends right across the south of the Punjab 
into Multdn, Dera Gh^zi Khdn, Dera IsmaMl, MI4nw4li and evenBannu ; 
the group below them being called K4tim^r.^ 

On the other hand in Multdn the Brahm Bh^^a are said to be divided 
into four classes : — 


Chandf Dds. Mahal. 

Jangd, Bhamb4. Sutrak. 

This group is also called Vateshar and regards itself as Bahrf or 
superior, while the Bunjdhis, who are not recognised as Brahm Bhdts 
comprise the following : — 


Agan-hotrf.** 
Chandan. 
Dharor. 
Ghanghar.** 
Guru Dat. 


Lakhnauri. 

Manjhor. 

Palsihar. 

Pali Palsihar. 


Dehi Palsihar. 
Shenor. 

Sipal. 

Sugerlu. 


The real grouping in Multdn however appears to be into four func- 
tional groups, viz. : — 

1. Brahm, eulogists and genealogists. 


2. Vartishar, who live upon does payable at weddings and funerals 
for their services. At weddings they summon the brotherhood and so 
on. At deaths they notify its members, and also procure certain 


♦Jaggi, so called because they rise early and seated on their patron’s roof recite his 

genealogy. Tappawir is not explained, 
t Charan, a wanderer, pilgrim : singer, dancer : Platts, sub voce. 
i But another account says the Bhats include the following classes -—Brahm ffhe nnlv 
found in Rohtak), Jagga, Raj and Charan, (already mentioned^, together with the Moni 
and Garara. 

§ Apparently sub-castes : if not, I and II each form a sub-caste. But it is also said that 
the n>{rd8{a of the Kijputs are called Kana or Ucharn Bh4ts, the Rinas being etorv tellers 
and eulogists, as well as genealogists. And yet another account divides the Bhats int.n fmir 
classes (1) Rai Bhat, or ‘ meistersingers.’ (2^ Ranas "heralds ” who used to act as envovs 
as well as encourage the fighting men by their singing of legends, (3) Kathaks or musiciaM,’ 
and (4) Jagas or genealogists and storj' tellers. ’ 

The following kobit from Gurgion describes the superiority of the Rai Bhits •— 

Eamin That, Hamin Bhatt, Hamin Bhaunra, Hamin Bhdg{ 

Bamin bir Betdl, Hamin jangal ke jogi, ’ 

Knprd %'haren mdng karar bdndh mandar aren, 

Betdl kahen Bikram suno dev dan kirat karen 

Chandiin, Kalii, Mirchal, Sair, 

^ But according to an account from Multan the groups are four, i-i*. .-—Brahm Vartesh- 
war, Chandisar and Kutichar, each with functions of its own. 

** These two yots are by some classed as Brahm, in other words some of their members 
are of Brahm status, others only of Bunjihf rank, 


06 


The Bhdt groups. 


articles for tbe corpse. At funerals their females take part in the 
sidpd (mourning), being paid annas 2 per day. At a girl’s wedding they 
get Ke. 1-8, but at a boy’s only Re, 1, the sum which they also get 
at a funeral. Their perquisite on other occasions is called vel hadhdi. 

3. The Chandisar live in tbe villages and live by begging. The 
Kdtim3,rs who used to be numerous in Multdn, are an off-shoot of 
this branch. 


4. The Kutichar are vagrant beggars. 

Accounts from Mi4nw4li, in which District the Bh^ts are very few 
in number, give a threefold division of the caste, as follows 


I 


I-'- 

(. 11 . 


Brahmi. 

Khosldi. 


II 


f-- 

( 111 . 


Khel. 


Kd.tim4r or Sheni 
Baddu. 

I performs ceremonies : II does not, though at weddings the K4tim4r 
sing songs of congratulation. The Baddu is virtually an out-c^ste.* 

A second account points to the fact that the Bhdts derive their origin 
from the Pushkarnd Brahmans as well as from the S4rsut, and says the 
Pushkarnd, Bhdt are equal in status to the Sdrsut,t though the status 
of the sections varies, and a family whose widows marry outside the 
brotherhood is looked down upon. 

Lastly a third account gives the old functional groups : the out who 
sing songs and recite chronicles ‘ in the afternoon ’J ; the Mdgadli, who 
keep pedigrees of kings, and recount their deeds : the Windijdn, who 
teach princes ; and the Bhdt or Jagak§ who sang songs in the early 
morning hours to awaken the king. Yet this same account divides the 
Bhdts into Brahms and Kdtimdrs. 

In Mnltdn, tahsil Shujdbdd, only the Brahm and Kdtimdr groups are 
known. The former comprises 7 gots x Cliandi Dds, Mahol, Sutrak, 
Changar, Paisa, Chandaria, and Channan, all of which are said to be 
Sdrsut and intermarry. The Kdtimdrs, also said to be Sdrsuts, 
form a distinct sub-caste. They have, as a rule, no clients, and live 
by blackmail, but in Shujdbdd itself they receive fixed dues (from one 
to four annas a head at weddings). They still compose habits which 
the Brahm Bhd^s do not. 

In the accounts from Karndl, Patidld and KapurthaldH allusion is 

* The Baddu takes alms from Muhammadans, which other Bhats will not do. No other 
will eat with him, yet he wears the janeo. His corpse is not burnt like a Hindu’s, but is cast 
into a stream. It is to be regretted that no further particulars of this interesting group are 

t It is said that the gots are ; — 

f Chandi Das, 

I Gandhor. 

Harar Rai. 


Sabsut «J ^ 


PUSHKABNA 


/ Panian. 

) Josi. 

1 Asur. 

C G hangar. 


see 


I KdtimdT’ j 

l.Thor, etc. 

I Just as ihe Jaggi have a stated time for their recitations : see above, 
tn/ra confused with the Jajik, who in Dera Ghazi Khan is a sewer of shrouds : 

allotted Iht tecitalion of chLicles, LneloSsia. “ 

whence they are designated Kabisbars or bS Ti,;S, ’ ,i ^ T TT''””' 

forth the dowry at wtddings, and so on. The latter also announce betrothals, set 


Tlie Bhdt groups. 


97 


made to an older and apparently extinct organisation of the Bhd^ caste 
into three main groups, viz . : — 

1. Sut, reciters of myths. 

2. Miigadhs, chroniclers. 

3. Vaiidis, or Vandijan, who acted as advisers to Rdjiis and as 
poets laureate. 

The Vandis alone are found in Patidldi where they are known as 
Brahmd, Bhdts or Brahmd. Rais. They wear thejaneo and retain their 
Brahminical gotras such as Konsal (in Kapurthald), Bhardwdj, etc. 


In their internal grouping the Brahin Blid^s imitate the Khatri 
organisation, having two groups as follows : — 


1. Gun deo. 

2. Kataria. 

3. Pangan. 

• o 


I. — Bari, or the 12 gots. 


4. Lakhau Sain. 

5. Dhur. 

t). Bisbel or -wel. 


7. Bhd>rd,mal. 

8. T^hu. 

9. Kalian. 


.10. Phdg. 

1 1 . Ghandi dd.8. 

12. Dliiran. 


and of these numbers 1 — 6 form a Dhdighar group, which avoids only 
one got iu marriage, (as indeed does the whole B4ri group, apparently) 
whereas the Bunjdhis avoid four. This latter group includes the 
following gots : — 

Bhulddia. i Manohia! Suridn. I Tuhd,nia, etc. 

Malaunia. j Sarqha. Tetia. I 


On the other hand in Shdhpur the Bhdt are divided into Bunjdhfs 
and Khokhars, the latter suggesting the Khokharain group of the 
Khatris, thus : — 



Section. 

Gotra. 


'^Ayupotri. 

1 Dherru. 

Bhdrdwdj. 

yi 

I.— Bunjabis. - 

Jandidds. 

Koshal. 

Mdhal. 



l^Rai Pdl. 


11.— Khokhars. < 

^Sigarre. 

Nadhipotre. 

Apat. 

^Jain. 

Kushab. 

Bhdrdwdj. 

Bdlash. 

Vashist. 


Of these the Jain section will intermarry with any other, but 
from the above notes it is abundantly clear that the Bhdts are 
simply an offshoot of the Brahmans, being differentiated from them 
by function. And to explain their origin various legends have been 
invented. One is that when Janmeja celebrated a sacrifice he sum- 
moned the Gaur Brahmans and tricked one of them into accepting an 
offering of a diamond by concealing it in some pan. This Brahman 
became a Bhdt- Another, to whom Janmeja offered a gift, refused it 
and became a Taggd. Another is that Shiva was celebrating ihe 
marriage of his son, and giving alms to Jogis, Jangams, Sanidsis and 
Suthrds, who received them with a good grace. Thereupon the god 
asked if any would constrain him to give alms, and a drop of sweat 
falling from his brows to the ground the first Bhdt sprang from 


98 


Bhdt legends, 

it, with a hatdr in his hands, and uttered a Jcahit which runs 0 
goddess Kdjlikdi, give the Bhdt a Jcatdr whose sight will cause a close- 
fisted man [shum) to flee. Let the Bhdt cleave him from head to foot 
with his hatdr y Shiva replied : — Betal Rai, Bhdt, I would have 
given you the kingdom of the whole woild had you not appeared thus. 
Now 1 grant you great influence and all will be terriBed at your voice, 
but you will get what you rnay.^’ This habit, obtained from a Bhdt, 
would make all the Bhdts professional extortioners. A third tradition 
is that Brahnid offered gifts to Brahmans, but they all refused it, until 
one of their sisters’ sons accepted it and thus became a Bhdt. 

Two legends from the Simla hills also describe the origin of the 
Bhdts. Tlie first explains how they acquired the power of reading 
men’s thoughts. Under Rdjd Bhoj,* it says, lived Kdli Dds, a famous 
Bhdt who held that a man could say anything he wished in poetry, 
and so Kdli, the goddess, pleased with his devotion, conferred on 
him the power of thought-reading. The other legend goes further 
back, and describes how Rdjd Jaswantt had a wise counsellor in a 
woman Khankdli. Once when he was holding his court a,t Srinagar 
in Garhwdl the Rdjd of Mdrwdr, Jagdeo, came to see him and found 
him and Khankdli in council. The lady veiled her face, explaining 
that as a man had come to that cowardly court she could not show her 
face before him. This reply naturally annoyed Jaswant who declared 
he would give her 10 times as much as Jagdeo would besto^v. Khankdli 
then went to Jagdeo’s tent ; but as he was at his devotions his Rdni 
gave her a dish full of gold coins and gems which Khankdli refused to 
accept, as she could take no alms from a woman. When the Rdjd 
came she presented him with a rupee, as a nazr, and said she was the 
wife of a Bhdt and had come to demand ddn (charity), which one of 
Rdjput blood could not refuse. He bade her ask a favour, and she de- 
manded his head, which the Rdjd at once cut off, and she carried it in a 
dish to Rdjd Jaswant. Tauntingly Jaswant asked what she had got 
from Jagdeo, who had fled from his own kingdom and sought a refuge 
with himself. In reply Khankdli showed him the head and demanded 
those of himself and his 9 sons in fulfilment of his vow, threatening him 
Aviththe ruin of his kingdom if he refused. The king’s sons, his queen, 
and he himself, however, all declined to sacrifice their lives in fulfilment 
of the Rdjd’s rash promise. 

Khankdli then returned to Jagdeo’s tent. She had forbidden his 
queen to burn his body till she returned, and when she found the Rdni 
lamenting over his corpse she restored it to life and promised him the 
empire of all India. This he soon achieved. In the first encounter 
Jaswant was overthrown and Jagdeo seized his kingdom. Gradually 
lie subdued all the petty chiefs in India, compelling them to pay 
6 annas in the rupee as tribute. From Khankdli and Kdli Dds the 
Bhdt chain descends. 

In Sirmur the Bhdts are by origin Brahmans, J but having adopted 
harewa they lost status and are now by occupation genealogists. 
Many, too, are cultivators and trans-Giri mairy with Kanets. The 

* Cf. Legends II, p. 183. 
f See Legends of the Punjab III, pp. 242, 252. 

J There is a Wateshar or liateshar grou]) among the Brahmans also. 


The Muhammadan Bhdt. 


99 


Bhd^s of Ndihan retain Braliman customs, but those of the interior have 
adopteil those of the Kanets. With the Kanets the Bhdts furnish the 
Dewds or priests to the temples. Trans-Giri there is a sub-division of 
the Bhdts called Deti, but the rest of the Blid^s do not intermarry with 
them and they are inferior to the other groups. 


The Muhammadan Bhats. 

The Muhammadan Bhd,ts are even fewer in numbers than the Hindu, 
and far less elaborately organised. In Hissdr they date their con- 
version to Alarngir’s reign, and still continue to minister to Mahdijans 
and other Hindus as well as to Mughals and Pirzddas, but Shaikhs 
only fee them at a daughter’s wedding ; as do also oilmen and weavers 
who give them 8 annas. But they get fees on the birth of a son. In 
Rohtak they have only three sections, Bijhd-n, Sil Sahd, and Gur Deva, 
of whom the latter recite genealogies and compose songs. 


Their patrons are Muhammadan Rajputs and Hindu Mahdjans, and 
they receive — 


Ceremony. 

Function. 

■ Fee. 

Girl’s betrothal 

The Bhat women sing songs and chant 
kabita. 

8 Mansurf takaa. 

Boy’s „ 

The Bhat women sing songs and also the 
brotherhood. 

Re. 1 or as. 8 with takaa. 

Girl's „ 

Women sing bandhdwa 

8 iakas for each. 

Birth of a son 

Sing congratulatory songs 

Re. 1. 


At weddings when the dower andves the Bhats read out the list of articles and recite the 
following kabit . — 

Zar kibi aone gota kindri murasaa inoti kanchan chhahhhari hai, 

Kimkhdb atlas bdwald jhurm Idt mehndi moH aut pda dhar{ hai. 

Bhukan rdtub hird pannd jardo jarat gird men chhuhdre aab ndr kahin khari hai. 
Sundar sohdg bhdg bharijaiai khilli phul jhari hai. 

In Shdhpur the Muhammadan Bhd^s are divided thus 


Section. 


Gotra. 



ChurAl. 

Panj. 

Samft. 

GudrAl. 


Koshal. 

91 


111 Kaprdl, which is said to be purely endogamous and not to 
marry with any other Bhdt under pain of excommunication. The 
other four sections marry inter se. 


The Beat’s functions. 

The functions of the Bhdt differ in different parts of these Provinces. 
In the south-eastern districts he is not eutrusted with any religious 
functions at all. Thus in Rohtak the Brahm Bhdts merely get 
annas 4 to 8 on the bridegroom’s departure at a wedding ; and the 
guests at a rich man’s funeral are invited through a Bhdt, who receives 
Re. I in cash, and a turban when the pagri is tied round the heir’s 
head. A Bhdt also summons the kinsmen to witness an excommuni- 


Funerals. Marriages, 


100 


The Bhdt’s functions. 


cation or a ro-admission into caste.* * * § As vve go westward, however, the 
Bhdt’s functions become more definite, assuming^ at times almost a 
priestly colour, while his perquisites are correspondingly larger and more 
certain. Thus in Kapiirthal^ the Brahm Bh4t sings congratulatory 
songs at a betrothal, at the suiu chitthi, at a chhotn tikcL, or marking 
of the bridegroom’s forehead, the mitni,'\ or meeting of the bride and 
bridegroom, at the IcLWun or turiiis, the Tnitthu bhut and the chiThcvn/i^ 
receiving a fee of annas 2 or so, together with other rails. 


After a death the Bhdt remains for 13 days in the deceased’s house 
and helps to procure what is required ; at a shant he gets a rupee ; 
and at a such he gets a similar fee with certain clothes : — 


Ceremony. 


Function. 


Fee. 


r (1) Marriage procession 

Pilra 

(3) Dowry • 

I (4) TFarjstit ... 


'(1) Procession to the funeral 
pyre. 


(2) Sidpd fov 1st four days .. 
■( (3) Dahdya ... 


(4) On the 13th day 


(5) Dharm shdnt 

L 


Sing Manglachdr Tcabits ... 

Ditto 

Proclaim publicly the presents given 
as the dowry. 

Carry baskets (chhdhds) of dried 
fruits, etc., to the bridegroom’s 
father’s house, and chant congra- 
tulations to the pair. 

(i) Sew the fca/anj ... 

(n) Buy what is necessary for the 
deceased’s relatives. 

(Hi) Sing in the procession. 

A. B hatni leads the mourning of the 
women of the brotherhood. 

On the tenth day the Bhatnf as- 
sembles the women in the house of 
the deceased’s heirs. 

A Bhat assembles the male members 
of thie brotherhood, and the deceas- 
ed’s heir is proclaimed. 

On the 17th day the shrddh is per- 
formed. 


1 or 2 annas. 
1 anna. 

4 annas. 


2 A annas. 


8 annas or a rupee. 

2 annas and 2 sers of 
wheat flour. 


1 anna. 


A meal of cooked food. 


In the western districts the Bhdtni fulfils the duties of a professional 
mourner. Thus in Shdhpur she leads the mourning by the women 
of the deceased’s brotherhood for a fee of Re. 1, and in Dera Ghd,zi 
Kh^n she does this for a wage of 2^ annas a day, besides what the 
relatives may give her. 

In Kdngra§ the only relic of the Bhdt’s former functions is the 
making of habits, and a proverb runs : — Bhat hi bhet habit, i.e., a Bhdt 
will always make a present of a habit. Like the parohit and the barber 

* This account comes from the Sampla tahsi'l of Rohtak. Elsewhere the Bhits merely 
sing congratulatory songs on auspicious occasions for a fee of four double-pice, raised at 
weddings to Be. 1-4-0. 

t They sprinkle the red coloured water on the white garments of the wedding guests. 

X But in Dera Ghazf Khan this is done by the Jajik, 

§ This is the account from Ilami'rpur. In Niirpur tahsil Bhats merely visit the house of a 
newly married couple and receive a small fee, earning their living by cultivation. In 
Kangra tahsil they sometimes at a wedding get a fee called durbhia, which varies from 
S pies to 2 annas : they a,lso get one at an investiture with the janeo, and at weddings the 
girl’s father gives his Bhat annas 2 and some cloth, while the boy’s Bh^t gets Re. 1«4.0, but 
they perform no rites. 


101 


Bhattahdr — Bhatti. 

they are looked upon as Idgis, but are virtually only employed as 
messeiii^ers at weldings, bein p lid a tridi by the recipient for the 
message {neoridar). In the Hill States, however, ten or twenty Blidts 
sometimes collect and recite kahits, receiving a sum of money, called 
rinj, which is divided proportionately among them, the Bhiit of the 
rd,jdi who gives' it getting the lion’s share. In former times, it is said, 
they were compelled to work, but this is not now the case. Elsewhere 
the Bhdt is now, speaking generally, a cultivator or a servant to a 
Mahdjan. 

The Rhdts act as parohits to the Kbatris, while their own parohita 
and pddhas are S^rsut Brahmans. 

Bhattahar,-hara, fem.-hd/ri, Bhattiar,-drd, a person who takes food to 
labourers in the field. 

BHATpr. The name Bhatti would appear to be unquestionably connected 
with Bhdt, Bhatt, Bhdti and Bhatia, Bhatt bearing the same relation 
to Bhdt as Jatt to Jat, kamm in Punjdbi to kdm, etc. As a tribe the 
Bhattis are of some antiquity, numerous and wide-spread. They give 
their name to the Bhattidna* and to the Bhattiorat tracts, as well 
as to various places, such as Bhatinda, Bhatner, Pindi Bhattidn and 
possibly the Bhattidt in Chamba. Historically the Bhattis first appear 
to be mentioned in the Tdrikh-i-FiroZ’shdhi of Shams-i-Siraj Afif, and 
the following notes are culled from the translation of that work in 
Elliott’s Hist, of India : — 

In the reign of Ald-ud-Din, Tughlik of Khurdsan obtained the 
district of Dipdlpur, of which Abohar was a dependency. To Abohar 
were attached all the jungles belonging to the Mini (Mina ?) and 
Bhatti tribes. Tughlik, anxious to ally his family with the native 
chiefs, heard that the daughters of Rdna Mall Bhatti were beautiful 
and accomplished, so he sent the amalddr of Abohar to negotiate the 
alliance of one of them with his brother, Sipahsdldr Rajab. In his 
pride the Rdna rejected these overtures, and so Tughlik proceeded to 
levy the outstanding revenue from the talwandis of the Bhattis with 
great severity. The Rdna’s daughter, Bibi Naila, hearing of this, urged 
her own surrender. ^ Consider,’ she said, * that the Mughals have carried 
off one of your daughters.’ She was accordingly married to Rajab, 
assumed the name of Bibi Kadbanu, and became the mother of Firoz 
Shah III in 1309 A. D.J 

In 1394 Sdrang Khan was sent to Dipdlpur to suppress the 
rebellion of Shaikha Khokhar. There he raised troops and, taking 
with him Rai Khul Chain BhaUi and Rai Ddud Kamdl Main (? Mina), 
he crossed the Sutlej near Tirhdrah (Tihdra, in Ludhiana). § 

In 1389 we read of Rai Kamdl-ud-din Main (? Mina) and Rai Khul 
Chand Bhatti whose fiefs lay near Saraana, being sent with Prince 
Humdyun to raise troops atHiat fortress. |1 

* See the art. Bhattiana in the Imperial Gazetteer, 

+ In the Chiniot uplands north of the Chenab. 

± E. H. 1. Ill, pp, 271-2, 


102 


Bhatti clans. 

• • 


Timur found Bhatner under the rule of Rao Dul Chain,* a Rajput, 
and probably a Bhatti. Curiously enough he is represented as having 
a brother named Kaniill-ud-din, and in one history Khul Chain is said 
to have been the Rai of Bhatner.f 

Again in 1527 we read of Mirza Kdmran’s coming from Lahore, with 
many horses and much wealth taken from the Bhattis and Khokhars.J 

The legends of the Bhattis are, however, silent on these events and 
ascribe the origin of the tribe to Achal through Barsi, who extended 
his dominions from the south to Bhatner, which they held until expelled 
from it by the Rd,jd,of Bikaner early in the 19th century. Then they 
spread over Bhattiana, which comprised the modern tahsil of Sirsa 
and the noi’thern part of Fatehdbad. The tribe is now found princi- 
pally along the Ghaggar valley as far as Bhatner. 

Various other traditions are, however, current in different localities 
and of these the most probable is that which connects the Bhattis 
with Jaisalmir. The story current in Hi8s5,r is that they were in very 
early times driven across the Indus, but returned and some 700 years 
ago dispossessed the Laogd,h, Joija and other tribes of the country 
to the south of the lower Sutlej, and founded Jaisalmir, which State 
they still hold. Bhatti, the leader under whom they recrossed the 
Indus, had two sons Dasal and Jaisal. The former settled in Bhatfiana 
and from him are descended the Sidhu-Bardr Jd-ts, the Wattu being 
also descendants of his grandson, Riijput. With this tradition may 
be compared the following detailed account of the Bhattis of Bahdwal- 
pur, in which State they have 15 principal clans • 

i. The Bhattis, or pure Bhattis, who are generally landowners 
or cultivators, though some are weavers and blacksmiths. 

ii. Pahor, found throughout the Lamma. 

iii. Chus. 

iv. Jogi and 

V. Janddni. 


These five septs are closely connected, do not give daughters out- 
side the group, and usually intermarry. 

vi. Shaikhra. 

vii. Chakar-Hulle : a small sept, of recent origin called Chakar- 

ullah or servants of God. 

viii. Lallu. 


ix. Bhdbhe t a small sept. 

X. Katesar : also a small sept, which rears sheep. 

xi. Kulyar or Kawalyfir which has an interesting history 

Kulyar was a son of Rdn4 Raj Wadhan, who had four other sons, 
(1) Utterd, (2) Nun, (3) Kdnjun, (4) Hatdr. The tradition is that the 


* The Zafarnima has Chan, probably for Chand : 
between Sain and Chand. Timur explains that R4o 
488-90.) 

t E. H. I. IV, p. 34. 


or Chain may be due to some confusion 
means ‘ brave.’ (E. H. I. IV, pp. 422-6, 


108 


Bhatti clans. 

• • 

ancestors of R^j Wadhan lived in ancient times near Ghajni, whence 
they migrated to Delhi, which after a time they left for Bha^ner. 
In the 7th century of the Hijra Rdj Wadhan together with his tribe 
left Rhatoer and settled near Chhanb Kulydr (now in tho Lodhrdn 
tahsil of Multdn), which in those days lay on the southern bank of 
tho Sutlej and formed part of the dominions of Rai Bhuttd, the ruler 
of a city, the greater part of which was destroyed by the Sutlej flowing 
over it ; but parts of its ruins are still to be seen on the right bank 

of the Ghdra (in talisil Lodhrdn). Rd-j Wadhan had a beautiful 

daughter whom Rai Bhuttd, desired to marry. The request was refused 
by Kulydr, the eldest son of Rdj Wadhan; and the result was that a 
sanguinary battle took place in which Rai Bhutta was slain. The 

tract of the country thus conquered by the Kulydrs became known as 
Chhanb Kulydr, which name it still retains. At this time Sher Shdh 

Sayyid Jaldl was living in Uch, where Rdnd Rdj Wadhan and his sons 
went to see him and embraced Isldin. Rdj Wadhan remained |at Uch, 
Utterd occupied the ' Vidh ’ (Bids)*, Nun began to live on the Rdvi, 
(and that tribe is now dominant in Shujdbdd tahsil), Kanjun at. the 
Dondri Mari (?), and Kulydr made Chhanb Kulydr his residence. 
Hatdr was deprived of his share of the inheritance.t 

xii. Daragh. 

xiii. Sangrd : with a famous sept called Wdgi. In the 8th 

century Hijra the Sangrds migrated from Rdjputdna and 
settled in Kathdla, then a large town on the Gurang or 
Hariari, the ruins of which are still to be seen near Tibba 
Tdnwin-wdla. Kathdla was at that time held by the Joiyas. 

xiv. Mahtam : the Muhammadan Mahtams claim to be Bhattis 

and say a mirdsi once ironically called their ancestor 
‘ Mahtam, ’ or chief. They appear to be distiuct from the 
Hindu Mahtams. 

XV. Bhet : who claim to have been Bhattis who accompanied 
Shaikh Hakim from Delhi, but are said by others to be 
Dhedhs or Menghwals, whom that saint converted. 

xvi. Markand, Bokha, Jhakhkhar, Dhandla, Phanbi, Birdr, 
Dadu, Knpdhi (cotton-workers and reed-cutters), and 
Kdhin, are nine clans descended from the same ancestor 
and they intermarry. Some are landowners, others tenants, 
but some are boatmen, and though Bhattis by origin they 
are regarded as of low status. 

On the south-east border of the Punjab the subject population of 
Bikaner is largely composed of Bhattis, and tradition J almost always 

* The tradition is that in those days the Bias flowed separately to the north of Kahror 
towards Shujabid. 

t The Mittru Bhatti of Multan say they came from Bikaner. 

tThe Hissar tradition is very different and says that the 1 hattis are of the Jdtu family, 
and that like the Tnnwar Rajputs they trace their origin to remote antiquity. At .>^0016 
distant period, two persons named Bhatti and humija are said to have come to this country 
from Mathra. The latter had no male issue, and his descendants (called Joiya Rajputs) 
live in Sirsa. After some generations cue of the family of the foim.er, nam« d husiilu, 
became Bajd — he had two sens, Dusul and Jaisul. 'the latter became Baja of JaisaJniir, 
where his descendants still reign. The former remained in Hhatfiana— hf> had enly ere sen, 
named Janra, who had several wives (all of other castes) by whom he had 21 tons, whose 


104 


Bhatti traditions. 

carries us back to the ancient city of Bhatner, which lies on the banks 
of the long since dry Ghaggar, in the territory of that State bordering 
on Sirsa. But in that tract, which corresponds to the old Bhatti^na, 
the Bhatti is no longer a dominant tribe and the term is loosely applied 
to any Muhammadan Jdt or Rdjput from the direction of the Sutlej, 
as a generic term almost synonymous with Rd-th or Pachh^da. 

In the central Punjab, however, and towards the north of it, the 
Bhattis, though scattered, hold strong positions. In Amritsar tradition 
avers that they have a Mong pedigree’ beginning with Adam, 10th in 
descent from whom was Krishna, son of Jad, the son of Jadam. And 
the present State of Kapurthalii was held by a Rajd, who sought the 
aid of Lakhanpdl and Harpal, sons of theRdna, Purab Chand, of Bhatner 
against his foes. Accompanied by Panpd;!, a third son of the Rand, 
by a d at wife, they overran the neighbouring country; but the Raja 
refused to give them the share he had agreed to bestow upon them, 
so they put him to death and partitioned his kingdom, Lakhanpd,! 
taking the Bd,ri Dod,b, Harpal that of the Bist Jd,landhar and Panpd,! 
the modern Ferozepur District. Bai Viru, Lakhanpd,rs great-grandsou, 
founded Vairowal in Amritsar some 540 years ago and his grand- 
daughter, a sister of Rai Mitha, was married to Rai Ibrahim of 
Kapurthald,, himself a Bhatti and descended from Harpal. But after a 
futile attempt to subdue Rai Mitha, Ibrahim forbade intermarriage 
between the two branches. 

Kapurthald, tradition is, however, quite silent as to Lakhanpal or 
Harpal, and, according to legends current in that State, Rai Nd,nak 
Chand is said to have left Bhatner and settled in Bhuld,na, in that 
State. Three brothers Bhatti, Manj and Chauhd,n founded the Rd,jput 
tribes so named, which settled in the Punjab only 14 generations ago. 

Nevertheless reciprocal marriage is confined to the Bhatti, Manj 
Ndru and Khokhar* tribes, which avoid marriage with the Chauhd,n, 
Awdn, Nipd,l, Bajoha, Janjua, Punwd,r, Varyd,. 

The Khokhars and Nd,rus are regarded as foreign by race to the other 
Rd,jputs, who all trace back their descent to Rd,jd, Salivahan ivho has 
a shrine at Sid,lkot. He is said to have been defeated by Imd,m Nd,sir. 

In Guird,t the Bhattis trace their first settlements back to Dulla 
Bhatti, Rd,jd, of Pindi Bhattid,n who was put to death by Akbar. All 
his family was in AkbaPs camp on the Jhelum, where they were kept 
in durance until released at the intercession of a faqir whose shrine 
is still pointed out at Chhapar on the bank of that river. Dulla’s son, 
Kam41 Kh4n was allowed to settle on the waste lands near Gliamdn, 
still a Bhatti village, while the rest returned to Pindi Bhattidn.t 


descendants established different tribes, such as the Lakhiu'dl, Sidhu and Barar Jats. Janra 
founded the town of Abohur, naming it after his wife Abho — by this wife he had three 
sons- Rdjpdl, Chun and Dhum the Wattu Hj'ijpnts are descendants of the first— the Mai 
Hajputs of the second— and the Nawab of Rania and his family, of the third. Inasmuch as 
the Bhattis were more numerous than the rest, the country was called Hhattiana, The 
habits, manners and customs of Bhatp Rdjputs are similar to those of the Tunwar H^inuts 
Hissar Settlement Beport, p. R, §§ 25, 20. 

♦ The Khokhars (alone) give daughters to Sayyids, 

I The tribal.mirdsi gives the following pedigree of the tribe, which claims Maharaja Banjit 


A Bhai\i pedigree. 


105 


The Bhatti of the Gujranwdla Bdr, where they are the natural 
enemies of the Virk,” are descended from one Dhir, who eighteen 
generations ago left Bhatner, and settled in the Nur Mahel jungles as. 
a grazier and freebooter. His grandson went further on to the banks 
of the R^vi, and Ids son again moved up into the uplands of Gujrdn- 
wdla. The modern deseendants tif these men are described as “ a 
muscular and noble-looking race of men, agriculturists more by 
constraint than by natural inclination, who keep numerous herds of 
cattle which graze over the pasture lands of the Bdr, only plough 
just sufficient to grow food for their own necewi^ifies, and are famous 
as cattle-lifters and notorious thieves.” The Bhatti of Gujr6nw^la 
enjoyed considerable political importance in former times, and they 
still hold 86 villages in that District. In Si^lkot the Bhatti claim 
descent from Bhoui seventh in descent from their eponymous ance-'^tor 
Bhatti, who came to Gnjrdnwdla from Bikaner, and thence to Sialkot. 
None of these BhatB of the Bdr will give their daughters to the 


Singh as one of its scions : — 


PADAM RATH. 


Wic 


tiar. 


r 


Sahnsi. 

Mnhar4ja Ranjit Singh was 
descended from this branch. 


Bhanni. 


Kaji. 

V 


Shadi. 


Gujranwila, 


r“ 

D&na. 

1 

Lakhira, 


r~—\ ^ ^ "I 

Xampal. Jarat. Gaundhar. Batanp&l. Sahnp£l. 


Gujrinwala, 


r* 

A to. 

V 


Tahsil Pbsliin, 


Amhar. 
^ 


Pindi Bbatti4n. 


Dhairvi. 

1 


f 

Ohs. 


Karto. 


Seo. 


1 

Ghawnaj. 

Gajr4nwiila. 


Dehli and Bikaner. 


Chnhar. 

I 

Dhang. 

I 

Katho . 

I 

Nathn. 


Rai Pntbora. 
Gujr4nwila. 


Bahlol, 


“1 

Bijli. 

I 

Farfd. 


Masti. Daim. On 
Pindi Bhattiin. 


la. 


r ^ 

Mnbammad Kh4n. Kamil Khin. 

Pindi Bhattiin. Qujrit. 

[another genealogy of the Bhattia sea under Bimil.] 


106 Bhatti Chane—Bhittanni. 

neighbouring tribes, though they will take wives from among them 
without scruple.* In the Salt-range the Bhatti seem to hold a very 
subordinate position as Bhatti, though it may be that some of the 
innumerable Rdjput tribes of that tract may consider themselves 
Bhatti, as well as whatever their local name may be. The Bhatti of 
Jhang hold the considerable Bhattiora tract north of the Chendb, 
They came first from Bhatner to the right bank of the Jhelum near 
the Shahpur border, and thence to Bhattiora. They are described as 
a fine race of men, industrious agriculturists, hardly at all in debt, 
good horse-breeders, and very fond of sport. They do very little 
cattle-lifting, but are much addicted to carrying off each other^s 
wives.^^ 

The persistence of the traditions which connect the BhaUis with 
Bikdner, Jaisalmer and the old fortress of Bhataer cannot be disre- 
garded. But for a fuller discussion of their origins see Rajpdt, 

Bhatti is also’(I) a Bnloch clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery, 
as well as (2) a Muhammadan Kamboh clan (agricultural), and (3) a 
Muhammadan Ski clan (agricultural) in that District. 

BhattI Chanb, BHATTi Naul, Bhatti Tahab, three Rdjput clans (agricultural) 
found in Montgomery. Cf» Bhdd Wad, 

Bhawana, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Bheda, an agricultural clan found in Shahpuri 

Bhekh-dhaeI, bhekhi, a faqir, a sddhu: from bhekh, dress, disguise, and so 
^ a sect of Hmdu fuqirs\ 

Bhidal, a Muhammadan Jat clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 
BHiKHAEi, fern, -a^i, a beggar. 

Bhikkbak, bhichchak q.v. 

Bhin, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Bhindal, a tribe of .Tdts claiming Solar Rdjput origin, through its eponym, 
whose descendant Badar embraced Islam. It holds five villages in 
Si^lkot. 

Bhindae, a tribe of Jdfs of the Lunar branch of the Lunar Rdjputs, through 
its eponym, who settled in the Punjab under Rai Tanar. Found in 
Sidlkof. 

Bhisti, fem. - an, {bhistd, facetiously), lit., a dweller in Paradise, fr. Pers. 
bihisht ; a Muhammadan water-carrier. 

Bbittanni occupies a tract of hill country some 40 miles long by 1 2 to 16 wide, 
stretchiug along our border from the Marwat tahsil of Bannu to the 
(jfimal valley. Along the northern part of this line, it owns little or 

♦As among the Muhammadan Chibb, Manhas and other tribes, a Jitf who esponsea a 

Bhatti becomes a Bhattini hy tribe according to the proverb Chhutti Rdja, te hoi Rdni : 

' Touched by a Raj^, (a woman) becomes a R4ni,’ 

In|Ladhiana the Shaikhs, a Bhatti clan, derive their name from Shaikh Ohachu, a descend- 
ant of R4ja Kanshan who accepted Islam and was granted the State of Hathur by tho 
Muhammadan emperors. For some other Bhatti clan names see the Appendix. ^ 


107 


Bhojiya’^Bhojki. 

no land in the plains; to the south it holds a strip of very fertile 
country extending from the Takwdra along the hills as far as Dabbra. 
It has a few scattered hamlets in the Nasrd-n country north of the 
Takwira, and is also found in considerable numbers in the north-east of 
the Gumal valley. To the west the hill country of the Bhittannis is 
hemmed in by that of the Wazirs. The two tribes are generally more 
or less at feud, though the Bhittanuis, till recently, never scrupled to 
assist Wazir robbers in their incursions into British territory. 

The Bhittannis live in small villages, generally hidden away in 
hollows. Their houses are mud and brushwood hovels of the poorest 
description, and sometimes they live in caves hollowed out of the 
rock. One of their principal places is Jandola, on the road leading up 
the Tdiuk zam to the Wazir country. 

The tribe is divided into three sections : Dhanna, Tatta and Wraspun, 
In the plains the lands of the Bhittannis were originally divided into 
numerous sinall divisions, known as ndlds. Each ndld, as a rule, 
forms a single plot, owned by a number of families generally closely 
connected by birth. The waate land in each ndld is the property of 
the ndld proprietors. Before land became valuable, the proprietors 
of the different nihis used readily to admit men of their own sub- 
section to a share in the ndld lands, and in this way, men, who had 
before lived exclusively in the hills, were continually settling in the 
plains. There has never been, therefore, any actual division of the 
country on shares, and the present proprietors hold purely on a 
squatting tenure. The lands of the Wraspuns lie to the uoi th, the 
Tattas to the south, and the Dhannas in the middle. The Dliaonas 
own much less land than the other two sections, and fewer of them 
reside in the plains. The plain Bhittannis live in scattered kirris or 
villages. The larger ndlds have separate kirris and headmen of their 
own, but more generally the people of several ndlds live together iu 
one /cirri, under a common headman. 

Bhojiya, a Muhammadan clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bhojki, a term applied to the pujdris or officiants at the great shrines of 
Devi, such as that of Jawdlamukhi, that at Bhaun in the Kangj-a 
District, Naina Devi in Hoshidrpur, etc. The Bhojkis were said by 
Barnes to be not Brdhmans, thous^h they are the hei editary priests of 
these celebrated temples. They all wear the sacred thread ; they 
intermarry among themselves alone, eat flesh, drink wine, and are a 
debauched and profligate set ; the men are constantly in the Courts 
involved in litigation, and the women are notorious for their loose 
mornlity.” Colonel Jenkins writes of them: — “The Bhojkis are 
perhaps a unique feature of the Kd,ngra District. They claim to be 
Sdrsut Brahmans ; but if so, have certainly sunk in the social scale, 
as no ordinary Bcd-hmans would eat kachi rasoi with them. They 
appear to occupy much the same position as the Gangaputras of 
Benares, and the probability is that they are mere Jogis who have 
obtained a reflected sanctity from the goddesses whose service they 
have entered. The name is evidently conneeted with the Sanskrit root 
bhoj to feed,* and is taken from the nature of their duties. They 

* term is probably derived from bhoj in the sense of ‘ grant ’ and the Bbojkli art 
probably merely benebc^ Brahman devotees of Devi, 


108 


Bhojudnd — Bhular. 

intomiarry among themselves and with a class o£ Jogis called Bodha 
Pand'ts. Another account states that the Bhojkis of Bhaun do not 
give daughters to those of Jaw^lamuklii or Naina Devi, though up 
to Sambat 1936 they used to accept brides from the latter, whom 
they regard as inferiors. The Bhojkis of Bliaun now only intermarry 
among themselves, excluding their own got and the mother’s relatives 
up to the 7th degree. But they also intermarry with the Pandit 
Bodhas and the Bararas. The former are said to be Brdhmans, 
but both they and the Bararas take a deceased’s shroud, etc., like the 
Achdraj. The Bhojkis of Chintpurni are Brahmans and marry with 
Brahmans, and will not even smoke with those of Bhaun, etc.” 

Bhojdana, a clan of the Sidls. 

Bhola, a Muhammadan Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bholak, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar (same as Bhullar). 

Bhonah, a Jd^ clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Bhoiveye, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bhotah, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Buotab, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multdn (same as Bhu^tar). 

Bhoto, an ignorant hillman, a simpleton. 

BnuCHANGi, a title given to Akdlis : fr. hhuchang, a black snake. 

Bhukk, a Baloch clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery, Ferozepur, and in 
Bahawalpur, in which State they call themselves Jdts. 

Bhukyal, mentioned in the Tabaqdt-i-Akbari as a tribe subject to the 
Gakhars,* but in the \Vaki’dt-i-Jahangiri they are said to be of the 
same stock and connected with the Gakhars, occupying the country 
between Kohtds aud Hatyd, to which they give their name of Bugidht 

Bhular. — The Bhular, Her, and Man tribes call themselves <xsl or 
“ original” Jdts, and are said to have sprung from the jat or “ matted 
hair” of Mahddeo, whose title is Bhola (^simple’) Mahddeo. They 
say that the Mdlwa was their original home, and are commonly 
reckoned as two and a half tribes, the Her only counting as a half. 
But the bards of the Man, among which tribe several families have 
rispn to political importance, say that the whole of the Man and Bhular 
and half the Her tribe of Rdjputs were the earliest Kshatriya immi- 
grants from Rajputdna to the Punjdb. The head-quarters of the 
Bhular appear to be Lahore and Ferozepur, and the con Ones of the 
Mdnjha and Malwa; but they are returned in small numbers from 
every division in the Punjdb except Delhi and Rdwalpindi, from almost 
every District, and from every Native State of the Eastern Plains 
except Dujdna, Loharu, and Pataudi. The tribe is probably not a 
wholly homogeneous one. In Jind its Sidh is Kalanjar, whose samddh 
is at Mdri, and to it milk is offered on the 14th badi of each month; 
also cloth at a wedding or the birth of a son. In Sidlkot its Sidh is 
Bhora, whose khdngdh is revered at weddings. In Montgomery the 
Bhular are Hindu and Muhammadan Jdts and classed as a.gricultural. 

BhOn, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Shdhpur. 

■ •"E.Il. I. V., p. “ T VI, p. 300 . — 


109 


Bhun4d — Bihitai, 

BnuijipX, an aboriginal tribe, a man of that tribe. (P. D. 145). 

Bhut, a tribe found in the S4diqdb4d kdrddri of Bahdwalpur where 
they are landowners and tenants. They are formed from two distinct 
groups, one a Baloch, the other a Jdt sept, the former being few, and 
the latter numerous. The Bhut are possibly a branch of the 

Abrahs, with whom they intermarry, but they are also said to be a 
branch of the Bhatfis. 

Bhutar, M., a landowner. 

Bhutha, a Jdf clan (agricultural) found in Shdhpur. 

Bhutri, a Jat sept. 

Bhuts, a J4t sept. 

Bhutta. — The Bhutta are said by the late Mr. E. O’Brien to have traditions 
connecting them with Hindustan, and they claim to be descended from 
Solar Rajputs. But since the rise to opulence and importance of 
Pirzdda Alurad Bakhsh Bhutfa, of .Multdn, many of them have taken to 
oaliing themselves Pirzddas. One account is that they are immigrants 
from Bhutdn — a story too obviously suggested by the name. They 
also often practise other crafts, such as making pottery or weaving, 
instead of or in addition to agriculture. They are said to have held Uch 
(in Balidwalpur) before the Sayyids came there. They are chiefly found on 
the lower Indus, ChendbandJlielum, in Shahpur, Jhang, Multdn, Aluzaf- 
fargarh, and Dera Ghdzi Khan. In Jhang most are returned as Rdjputs. 
The Bhuffd shown scattered over the Eastern Plains are perhaps mem- 
bers of the small Bhutnaor Bhutra clan of Malwa Jdts. Bee also Butar 
and Buta. Maclagan describes them as a Jdt or Rdjput clan found in 
Multdn tahsil and allied to the Langahs, etc., Bhutfa, Langdh, Dahar, 
Shajrd and Naicli, being said to be sons of Mahli in tne couplet : — 

Saghi, jihdndi dddi, Sodi jihdndi md, 

Mahli jdi j)anj putr — Dahr, Bhutta, Langdh, Naich, Shajrd. 

A branch of this clan at Khairpur near Multan is in the transition 
stage towards becoming Bayyid. 

According to the Bahawalpur tradition the Bhuffa are of the same 
stock as the Bhdfia.* When Dewa Rawal, sister’s son of Rdjd Jajja 
Bhutt^, was building the fort now called Derawar Jajja in a fit of 
jealousy stopped its construction ; whereupon his sister who was married 
to a Bhdtia Rdjput thus addressed him : — 

Rdi Jajja Bhutta sen wain ki hhain piLchhde, 

Kay a Bhutta kaya Bhdtia Kot usdran de. 

“ His sister besought Rai Jajja, the Bhuffa: 

Whether thou art a Bhutta or a Bhdtia, let the fort be built.” 

Bhotta, an Arain clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bib, a small and humble (agricultural) tribe, holding one or two villages in 
Abbottdbdd tahsil, Hazdra district, and possibly connected with the 
Awdns. 

BiBizAi, a Pathdn clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

* The Bahiwalpur traditions make the Bbatia (Jaisalmer family), the Bhuttas, Bhattis 
and Wattes all one and the same family. 


lid Bihanggan^^^ishndx. 

BiHAij^GGAN, one who has not a fixed abode, a faqir who subRists on alms. 

Bilai, a low Purbia caste of syces and grass-cutter. But see also under 
Cham^r. 

Bilaiti, fern, -a^j, a foreigner, a European or an Afghan. 

BilhXka, described as a donkey-keeper, the Bilhdra is really a branch of the 
Malldl or Mohaua (boatmen) group, like theNihayaand Manabhari. 
In Bahd;walpur they are cultivators as well as boatmen and own 
several villages on theChend.b and Indus. They are also found as land- 
owners in Multan, Muzaffargarh and Uera Ghdzi. 

Bimbae, an Ardin clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bieajpani, a disreputable sub-sect of the Bdm-margi, q.v. 

Bishnoi,* Pahlad Bansi, (fr. Vishnu, one of the Hindu Trinity), a sect 
whose founder Jh^imbaji lived towards the end of the 15th century. 
Tradition says that at Pinpasar, a village south of Bikdner, in 
the Jodhpur territory, lived Laut, a Rajput Punwdr, who had attained the 
age of 60 and had no son. One ’day a neighbour going out to sow his 
field met Laut, and deeming it a bad omen to meet a childless man, 
turned back from his purpose. This cut Laut to the quick, and he 
went out to the jungle and bewailed his childlessness until evening, 
when a faqir appeared to him and told him that in nine months he 
should have a son, and after showing his miraculous power by drawing 
milk from a call, vaidshed from his sight. At the time named a child 
miraculously appeared in Laut’s house, and was miraculously suckled 
by his wife Hansa.t This happened in Sambat 1508 (A.D. 1451). 
For seven years the boy, who was an incarnation [autar] of Vishnu, 
played with his fellows, and then for 27 years he tended cattle, but all 
this time he spoke no word. His miraculous powers were shown in 
various ways, such as producing sweets from nothing for tne delectation 
of his companions, and he became known as Achamba (the Wonder), 
whence his name of Jhamba, by which he is generally known. After 
34 years, a Brahman was sent for to get him to speak and on bis 
cotifessing his failure Jhdmbaji again showed his power by lighting a 
lamp by simply snapping his fingers, and uttered his first word. He 
then adopted the life of a teacher, and went to reside on a sandhill, 
some thirty miles south of Bikaner, where after 51 years he died and 
was buried, instead of being burnt, like an ordinary Hindu. 

Another account of Jhimbaji says that — 

“ When a lad of five he used to take his father’s herds to water at 
the well, and had for each head of cattle a peculiar whistle ; the cows 
and bullocks would come one by one to the well, drink and go away. 
One day a man named Udaji happened to witness this scene, and, 
struck with astonishment, attempted to follow the boy when he left the 
well. He was on horseback and the boy on foot, but gallop as fast 
as he would he could not keep up with the walking pace of the boy. 
At last, in amazement, he dismounted and threw himself at his feet. 
The boy at once welcomed him by name, though he then saw him for 
the first ,time. The bewildered Udaji exclaimed Jhdmhaji (omni- 


♦ Pronounced Vishnoi in Bahamralpur and Bfkdner. 

f According to the Hiasar Settlement Report his parents were Lohut and Kesar, 


Bishnoi tenets. 


Ill 


scient), and henceforth the boy was known by this name. On attaining 
manhood, Jbimbaji left his home, and, becoming a faqir or religious 
mendicant, is said to have remained seated upon a sandhill called 
Samrathal in Bikdner, for a space of 51 years. In 1485 a fearful famine 
desolated the country, and Jli^mbaji gained an enormous number of 
disciples by providing food for all that would declare their belief in him. 
He is said to have died on his sandhill, at the good old age of 84, and 
to have been buried at a spot about a mile distant from it.” 

A further account says that his body remained suspended for six 
months in the pinjra without decomposing. 

The name Bishnoi is of course connected with that of Vishnd, the 
deity to whom the Bishnois give most prominence in their creed, 
though sometimes they themselves derive it from the 29 (bis-nau) 
articles of faith inculcated by their founder. In fact it was very 
difficult in our returns to distinguish the Bishnoi from the Vaishnav 
who was often entered as a Baishnav or Bishno. The Bishnois some- 
times call themselves Prahl4dbansis or Prahlddpanthis,* on the ground 
that it was to please Prahldd-bhagat that Vishnu became incarnate in 
the person of Jhdmbaji. The legend is that 33 crores of lieings were 
born along with Prahl^d and five crores of them were killed by the 
wicked Hirndkash, and when Vishnu, as the Narsingh avatar, saved the 
life of Prahldd and asked Frahldd to name his dearest wish, the latter 
requested that Vishnu would effect the salvation (mulct) of the remain- 
ing 28 crores. To do this required a further incarnation, and Jhdmbajf 
was the result. 

Tenets of the Bishnois. — Regarding the doctrines of the sect. Sir 
James Wilson,t from whom I have already quoted, writes: — 

“ The sayings (sdbd) of Jhambaji to the number of 120 were written 
down by his disciples, and have been handed down in a book (pothi) 
written in the Nd^i character and in a dialect similar to Bdgri, 
seemingly a Mdrwdri dialect. The 29 precepts given by him for the 
guidance of his followers are as follows : — 

Tis din sutak—pdnch roz ratwanti ndri 
Sera karo shnun — sil — santokh — suchh pydri 
Pdni — hdni — idhni — itnd Ujyo chhdn. 

Dayd — dharm hirde dharo — garu hatdi jdn 
Chori — nindya — jhiith — harjya bdd na kariyo koe 
Amal— tamdku — bhang — lit dur hi tydgo 
Mad — mds se dekhke dur hi bhdgo. 

Amar rakhdo thdt — bail tani nd hdho 
Amdshya barat — runkh lilo nd ghdo. 

Bom jap samddh pujd — bdsh baikunthi pdo 
Untis dharm ki dkhri garu batdi soe 
Fdhal doe par chdvya jisko ndm Bishnoi hoe, 

which is thus interpreted : — “For 30 days after child-birth and five 
after a menstrual discharge a woman must not cook food. Bathe in 
the morning. Commit not adultery. Be content. Be abstemious and 
pure. Strain your drinking water. Be careful of your speech. Ex- 


• See also under Narsinghie. 
t Sirsa Settlement Report, page 136. 


112 


Bishnoi observances. 


ainine your fuel in case any living creature be burnt with it. Show 
pity to living creatures. Keep duty present to your mind as the 
Teacher bade. Do not speak evil of others. Do not tell lies. Never 
quarrel. Avoid opium^ tobacco, bhang and blue clothing. Flee from 
spirits and flesh. See that your goats are kept alive (not sold to 
Musalmdns, who will kill them for food). Do not plough with bullocks. 
Keep a fast on the day before the new moon. Do not cut green trees. 
Sacrifice with fire. Say prayers. Meditate. Perform worship and 
attain Heaven. And the last of the 29 duties prescribed by the 
Teacher — ‘ Baptize your children, if you would be called a true 
Bishnoi ’J’ 

Some of these precepts are not strictly obeyed ; for instance, 
although ordinarily they allow no blue in their clothing, yet a Bishnoi, 
if he is a servant of the British Government, is allowed to wear a blue 
uniform ; and Bishnois do use bullocks, though most of their farming 
is done with camels. They also seem to be unusually quarrelsome (in 
words) and given to use bad language. But they abstain from tobacco, 
drugs and spirits, and are noted for their regard for animal life, which 
is such that not only will they not themselves kill any living creature, 
but they do their utmost to prevent others from doing so. Conse- 
quently their villages are generally swarmiug with antelope and other 
animals, and they forbid their Musalm^n neighbours to kill them 
and try to dissuade European sportsmen from interfering with 
them. They wanted it made a condition of their settlement, that no 
one should be allowed to shoot on their land, but at the same time 
they asked that they might be assessed at lower rates than their 
neighbours on the ground that the antelope being thus left undisturbed 
do more damage to their crops ; but I told them this would lessen the 
merit {pun) of their good actions in protecting the animals, and th6y 
must be treated just as the surrounding villages were. They consider 
it a good deed to scatter grain to pigeons and other birds, and often 
have a large number of half-tame birds about their villages. The day 
before the new moon they observe as a Sabbath and fast-day, doing no 
work in the fields or in the house. Tliey bathe and pray three times a 
day, — in the morning, afternoon, and in the evening — saying “ Bishno, 
Bishno instead of the ordinary Hindu Rd,m Hdm.” Their clothing 
is the same as of other Bdgns, except that their women do not allow 
the waist to be seen, and are fond of wearing black woollen clothing. 
They are more particular about ceremonial purity than ordinary Hindus 
are, and it is a common saying that if a Bishnoi’s food is on the first of 
a string of twenty camels, and a man of another caste touches the 
last camel of the string, the Bishnoi would consider his food defiled 
and throw it away.” 

The ceremony of initiation is as follows : — 

A number of representative Bishnois assemble, and before them a 

or Bishnoi priest, after lighting a sacrificial fire (hom) instructs the 
novice in the duties of the faith. He then takes some water in a new 
earthen vessel, over which he prays in a set form [Bishno gdyatri), 
stirring it the while with his string of beads [mdld], and after asking 
the consent of the assembled Bishnois, he pours the water three times 
into the hands of the novice, who drinks it off. The novice’s scalp 


> 


Biahnoi rites. 


113 


look [choti] is tlien cub uH and hia head shaved, for the Ihshnois shave 
the whole head and do not leave a scalp-lock like the Hindus ; but they 
allow the beard to grow, only shaving the chin on the father’s death. 
Infant baptism is also practised, and 30 days after birth the child, 
whether boy or girl, is baptised by the priest {sddh) in much the same 
way as an adult ; only the set form of prayer is dilfeient {garbh- 
gdyatri), and the priest pours a few drops of water into the child’s 
mouth, and gives the child’s relatives each three handfuls of the con- 
secrated water to drink; at the same time the -barber clips off the 
child’s hair. This baptismal ceremony also has the effect of purifying 
the house which has been made impure by the birth {sutak).* 

The Bishnois intermarry among themselves only, and by a ceremony 
of their own in which it seems the circumambulation of the sacred fire, 
which is the binding ceremony among the Hindus generally, is omitted. 
They do not revere Brahmans, t but have priests {sadha) of their own, 
chosen from among the laity. They do not burn their dead, but bury 
them below the caitle-stall or in a place frequented by cattle, such as a 
cattle-pen. They observe the Holi m a different way from other Hindus. 
After sunset on that day they fast till the next forenoon, when, after 
hearing read the account of how Prahldd was tortured by his infidel 
father Harnfikash for believing in the god Vishnu, until he was deliver- 
ed by the god himself ixi his incarnation of the Lion-man, and mourning 
over Prahldd’s sufferings, they light a sacrificial fire and partake of 
consecrated water, and after distributing unpurified sugar {guf") in 
commemoration of Prahlad’s delivery from the fire into which he was 
thrown, they break their fast. Bishnois go on pilgrimage where 
Jlifimbaji is buried, south of Bikdner, where there is a tomb (mat) over 
his remains and a temple {mandir) with regular attendants {pujdri). 
A festival takes place here every six months, in Asauj and Phdgan, 
when the pilgrims go to the sandhill on which Jhdnibaji lived, and 
there light sacrificial hres (horn) o^ jandi wood in vessels of stone, and 
offer a burnt offering of barley, til, ghi and sugar, at the same 
time muttering set prayers. They also make presents to the attendants 
of the temple, and distribute moth and other grain for the peacocks 
and pigeons, which live there in numbers. Should any one have 
committed an offence, such as having killed an animal, or sold a cow 
or goat to a Musalmiln, or allowed an animal to be killed when he 
could have prevented it, he is fined by the assembled Bishnois for the 
good of the temple and the animals kept there. Another place of 
pilgrimage is a tomb called Chhambola in the Jodhpur country, where 
a festival is held once a year in Chet. 'Phere the pilgrims bathe in 
the tank and help to deepen it, and sing and play musical instruments 
and scatter grain to peacocks and pigeons.” 

The Bishnois look with special attention to the sacred /lom or sacrifice; 
it is only the rich who can perform this daily ; the poor meet together 

* But according to the Hissir Settlement Report, the ceremony of admission to the sect is 
as follows : — The priests and the people assemble together, repeat the pahul-mantar over a 
cup of water, and give it to the candidate to drink ; who thereafter goes round the assembly 
and bows to all. His head is then shaved after the manner of the founder of the sect. 
According to his means he has to pay a certain sum of money (Rs, 5 to 500 is the limit), for 
the purpose of buying gram, which is then sent to the Samrathal sandhill in order to feed 
pigeons, 

t But in Fizilka the Bishnois are said to employ Brahmans for religious as well as 
secuilar purposes. 


114 


Bochah — Bodla. 


to carry out tlie rito on the Amdvas day only. The gaenas or sddhs* 
who are their priests and are fed and feed by them like Brahmans, 
are a hereditary class and do not intermarry with other Bishnois, 
nor do they take offerings from any but Bishnois. The Bishnois 
themselves are a real caste and were shown as such in the Census 
tables ; and the returns of the caste are much more to be relied on than 
those of the sect, for the reason given above, that many Bishnois by 
sect must have been shown as Vaishnavas, and vice versa. It is said 
that a member of any of the higher Hindu castes may become a Bishnoi, 
but as a matter of fact they are almost entirely or Kh^tis (carpen- 
ters) or, less frequently, Kdjputs or Bd,nias, and the B^nia Bishnois are 
apparently not found in the Punjab, their chief seat being Mur^ddbd/d, 
in the United Provinces. The man who becomes a Bishnoi is still 
bound by his caste restrictions ; he no longer calls himself a but 

he can marry only Bishnois, or he is no longer a Khd,tf, and yet 
cannot marry any one who is not a Kh3,ti ; and further than this, the 
Bishnoi retains the got of his original tribe and may not marry within 
it.t Karewa is practised among them, but an elder brother cannot 
marry a younger brother’s widow, though her brother-in-law or father- 
in-law are entitled, if she do not marry her dewar, to a payment called 
hhar from her second husband. 

There is not perhaps very much in the teaching of Jh^mbaji to 
distinguish him from the orthodox pattern of Hindu saints, and in some 
points his doctrine, more especially with regard to the preservation of 
life, is only an intensification of the ordinary Vaishnava tenets. But 
in the omission of the phera at marriage, the cutting off of the choH or 
scalp-lock, the special ceremony of initiation, and the disregard for 
the Brahmanical priesthood, we find indications of the same spirit as 
that which moved the other Hindu reformers of the period. 

Bochah, a Jdt clan (agricultural) in Multdu. 

Bodla. — The BodHs are a small section of the Wa^tu Rajputs J of the 
lower and middle Sutlej, who have for some generations enjoyed a 
character for peculiar sanctity, § and who now claim Qureshi origin 
from Abu Bakr Sadiq ; and many of them call themselves Qureshis. 
They still marry Waftu girls, though they^ give their daughters only to 
Bodies. They were till lately a wholly pastoral tribe, and still hold 
a jdgir, the proceeds of which they now supplement by cultivation. 
They came up from Multan through Bahd.walpur to Montgomery, where 
they were described by Purser as ‘^lazy, silly, and conceited.” From 
Montgomery they spread into Sirsa, where they occupied the Bahak 
pargana which they still hold. They are credited with the power of 
curing disease by exorcism, and especially snake-bite and hydrophobia; 
they are recognised saints, and can curse with great efficacy. They 
have no relations with the other Qureshis of the neighbourhood, and 


According to the Hiasar Settlement Report the sddhs are priests and the thamin 
are secular clergy, pnerally elected by the people. Priesthood is not hereditary. InF4zilk4 
It. is said that Bishnois never employ a Braliman if a Bhat is avaUablo. The Bh4t too is a 
Bishnoi.. 

+ In b azilka the Bishnois are said to have fiGO divisions : one named Roja meaning nilgai, 
but no reverence is paid to that animal by the Rojas. Cf. Goraya. as/. 

I No VVattu would rZatni affinity with the Bodlas, who are held in great respect in BlkAner, 
as Parn,eshwar ro sakko ro sakko i.c, ‘ Kin of God’s kith and kin.’ The use of Parmeshwar 
for Allah points to a Hindu origin. 

§ Bodia in Western Bunjabi means ‘ simpleton and simplicity or lunacy is regarded as 
asigu of sanctity in the Bast. f j j e, « 


Bohrd-^Bond. 


115 


their Wattu origin is hereby open to question, though they may 
possibly be of Qureshi extraction, but now so completely affiliated to 
the Wattus by constantly taking brides from that tribe as to be undis- 
tinguishable from them. Their power of curing snake-bites is con- 
nected with a historical fact. When the Prophet and his companion 
Abu Bakar left Mecca, they concealed themselves in a cavern, and 
there the devoted companion, in order to protect his master, tore his 
turban into rags and closed the holes with the pieces. One hole he 
stopped with his toe, and it was bitten by a snake. When the Prophet 
learnt what had occurred he cured it by suckliig the wound, and the 
Sadiqfs sometimes seek to prove their descent from the first Caliph 
by claiming the power of curing snake-bite. There is also said to be 
a class of wondering gharishti faqirs called Bodld,. A Sani^si sub-sect 
also appears to bear this name. Possibly the word is confused with 
Bhola, ‘simple’, an epithet of Mali^dev. See also Queeshi. 

Bohea. — The Bohrd includes two distinct classes : one Brahman money- 
lenders from Mdrwdr, who have settled in the districts on the Jumna, 
and acquired a most unenviable notoriety for unscrupulous rapacity. 
There is a rustic proverb : Bore kd Ram Ram aisd Jam ka sandesd : 
“A Bohr^’s ‘good morning!’ is like a message from the angel of 
death.” These Bohr^s appear to accept brides from Benias, but do 
not give them daughters. 

In .the hills any money-lender or shop-keeper is apparently called a 
hohrd (from the same root as heohdr ‘ trade and the word is used 
in the same general sense in the south of Rdjputdna and in Bombay, 
taking the place of the ‘ Bdnia ’ of Hindustan, though in Guzerat it is 
specially applied to a class of Shia traders who were converted to 
Isldra about 1300 A. D. [For the Muhammadan Bora see Wilson’s Sects 
of the Hindus, p. 170. Tlipy are represented in Multan.] In the Punjab 
all the Bohr^s are Hindus. In those Hill States in which Bohras are 
numerous, Banids are hardly represented in the returns, and vice versa ; 
and both the Bdnia and Bohra are in the hills also known as Mahdjan. 
The Hill Bohrds are said to be exceedingly strict Hindus, and to be 
admitted to intermarriage with the lower classes of Rdjputs, such as 
Rdthis and Rdwats. In Gurddspur there is said to be a small class 
of traders called Bohrds who claim Jdt origin, and who are notorious for 
making money by marrying their daughters, securing the dower, and 
then running away with both, to begin again da capo. 

• Bojak, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Bokhia, a Baloch clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery : also called Bokhe 
and found as cultivators and camel-breeders in Bahdwalpur. 

Bola, a Jdt clan (agricultural) fouud in Multan. 

BoMf, a Rdjput sept, according to the Punjabi Dicty., p. 166, 

Bonah, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Bo^i, Bona, fern. Bonai, a weaver of the Chamar caste. 

* Beames gives nv./icra as the true form of the word. Wohraisa go' or section of the 
Muhammadan Khojas. It is fairly clear that the Bohras are connected in some way with the 
Khojas. In Mewar there are Muhammadan B(h)oras as well as Hora Brahmans. I he 
former are united under elected mullahs and are said to be Ilassanis by sect ; cf. Malcolm’e 
But, of Persia I, p. 395. Their chief colony is at Ujjain. See Memoir on Central India 
and Malwa, by M^colm, II, pp. 91-92, 


116 


Bopahrae — Brahman. 

Bopahrae, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Boperai, a Hindu J^t clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bosan, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multdn, to the south of the Veins. 
Their ancestor is said to have been a disciple of Bahd,wal Haqq and 
to have received from him some of the land granted to him by the 
ruler of Multdn. They came from Haidar^bad in Sind and are also 
found in Bahd,walpur as landowners. The Bappis, with whom they 
intermarry, and Sangis are said to be of the same stock. 

Bot, an Arain clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

BofAB, Buttar, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Bozdar, an independent Baloch tribe situated beyond our frontier at the 
back of the Kasr^ni territory. They hold from the Sanghar Pass on 
the north to the Khosa and Khetrd.n country on the south, and have 
the Luni and Musa Khel Path^ns on their western border. Those 
found in Dera Ghdzi Kh^n live in scattered villages about Rdjanpur 
and among the Laghdri tribe, and have no connection with the parent 
tribe. The Bozdar are hardly of Rind extraction seeing that their 
pedigree only makes them descendants of a goat-herd who married 
Bd.no, widow of Rind^s great-grandson, Shau Ali. They are divided 
into the Duld,ni, Ladw^ni Ghuldm^ni, a sub-^w77ia7i, Chakirini, Sihdni, 
Shdhwdni, Jald.l^ni, Jdfird,ni and Rustanrini clans. They are more 
civilized than most of the trans-frontier tribes and are of all the Baloch 
the strictest Musalmd,ns. Unlike all other Baloch they fight with the 
matchlock rather than with the sword. They are great graziers, and 
their name is said to be derived from the Persian huz, a goat. 

Brahman, (Panjd,bi B^mhan, BAliman; fern. B^mhani: dim. masc., Bamhanet^ ; 
fern. Bamhanoti, a Brahman^sson or daughter : cf. Bamhanau, Brahman- 
hood). 

The Brahmans in India are divided into two great geographical 
groups, the Utrahak, who live to the north of the Viudhias, and the 
Uakshnat, who inhabit peninsular India to the south of that range. 
The former are further divided into 5 groups, viz.~— 

1. Siiraswat, (modernised Sdrsut). 

2. Kankubj. 

3. Gaur. i»Also called, collectively, Gadr, 

4. Utkal. I 

5. Maithal. J 

The southern groups* also number 5 and are : Darawar, Malidrashtri, 
Sorashat, or Karn^ltik, Tailing and Gorjar.f Of these the only repre- 
sentative in tliH Punjab are the Pushkarnfi Brahmans, who sprang 
from the MahfirMsliti i group,! The mass of the Punjab Brahmans 

* Also railed collectively, Darawar, from the saint of that name. Another account says 
the Darawar comprise the Maharashtr. Tailing, Gurjar, Dakhshani and Indrik : (Am^itsa^^ 
+ Lest it bo too hastily assumed that Gorjar, Gurjar or Gujar Brahmans have any 
connection with the Gujars, folk-etymology has suggested that the name is derived from 
gujjh, ‘ secrecy because their ancestor had once to conceal his faith. 

t But unlike the southern Brahmans the Pushkarnas observe gJmnghat {i. e,, their women 
veil their faces), but they have no garhha dhdn (pregnancy rite) and in other respects their 
customs are dissimilar. 


The Pushka/mds. 


117 


are Sarsuts, but Gaurs are found in the eastern districts of the 
Province. But certain groups of Brahmans are neither recognised as 
Sdrsut nor as Gaur, or have become totally distinct from the Brahman 
community. Such are the Pushkarn^s, Muliials, described below, and 
the Bhojki, Dhakochi, Taqa and Taqu groups. 

The Pdshkaenas. 


It will be convenient to describe first the Pushkamds, a comparatively 
small and unimportant group found only in the south-west of the 
Punjab. They are divided into two territorial grcraps, (i) Sindhu, “ of 
the Indus valley/’ and (ii) Mdrwari, of M^rwd,r, or Marech^. 

The Pushkarnds claim to be 'parohits of all the ‘Bhdt Rdjputs ’ who 
are divided into Bhdts, Bhattis and Bhdtids,* and are described by 
Ibbetson as more strict in caste matters than the Sdrsut. 

'i’he Pushkarnas are divided into two groups : Sindhu and Marechd, 
and are said to have 84 gots as given belowt : — 


I.— Sindhu — 


1. 

Tangsali. 

9. 

Bujru. 

17, 

Ears. 


■25. 

Nangu. 

•2. 

ViAs. 

10. 

Maulo. 

18. 

Chaawatia. 


26. 

KallA. 

3. 

Mattur. 

til. 

Gandriya. 

19. 

Muttur, 


27. 

VishA. 

■4. 

Kapta. 

12. 

Dhaki. 

20. 

Munda. 


■28. 

Ratta. 

6. 

Prohat 

tl3 

Mutta. 

t21. 

ParhihAr. 


29. 

Billa. 

6. 

Machhar, 

u. 

Jiwanecha. 

t22. 

Kaudia. 

1 

■30. 

Wasu. 

n. 

Wattu. 

tl5. 

Lapishia (Lapia). 

23. 

KerAit. 


[31. 

KarAdA. 

8. 

Matmd. 

16. 

Pania. 

t24. 

ViAsrA. 


32. 

Chura. 




II. — MaeechA — 





1. 

Kakreja. 

14. 

GoU. 

27. 

Kopalia. 


40. 

Ramdev. 

2. 

Chullar. 

15. 

Gotma. 

28. 

Wachhar. 


41. 

UpAdhiye. 

3. 

Achdraj, 

16. 

Thakar. 

29. 

Mastoda. 


42. 

Achhu. 

4. 

H eda. 

17. 

Badal. 

30. 

PAdoya. 


43. 

SheshdhAr. 

5. 

Gajja. 

18. 

Dodha. 

31. 

TojhA. 


44. 

Vegai. 

6. 

Kadar, 

19. 

Kovasthilia 

82. 

Vejha. 


45. 

Vidang. 

7. 

Keerla. 

' 20 

Kaulo. 

83. 

Jhimd. 


46. 

HethoshiA. 

8. 

Naula 

2l! 

Jabbar. 

34, 

Bura. 


47 

SomnAth. 

9. 

Kewlia. 

22. 

Dhagra. 

35. 

Nohora. 


48. 

SinghA. 

10. 

Teriwari. 

23. 

PedhA. 

36. 

Mumatia. 


49. 

GodAnA. 

11. 

Sdndhu. 

24. 

RAma. 

37. 

KAi. 


50. 

KhAkhay. 

12. 

God4. 

25. 

Waheti. 

38. 

Karmana. 


51. 

Khanesh. 

13. 

Godanu. 

26. 

Meratwal. 

39. 

Ranga. 


52. 

KhohArA. 

This list is given in a book. In Midnwdli only those markedf are found. 



Daughter are generally given in marriage in one and the same 
family, and if possible to brothers, accordin to a very wide-spread 
custom. 


On the other hand in Bahdwalpur the Marechd are described as 
pure Pushkarnst and comprise 15 gots : — • 


1. AcMraj. 

2. Bhori. 

3. ChhanganS. 

4. GujjA. 

5. Kabta. 


6. Khidana. 

7. KirAru. 

8 Kullh4. 

9. Ludhdhar. 
10. Muchchan. 


11. Pardhi. 

12. Bamde. 

13. Ranga. 

14. Wids. 

15. TFissa. 


* Incidentally this indicates that the Bhattis and Bhdtias have a common origin — both 
come from the country to the south of the Punjab, There are said to be Bhdt Rdjpnts in 
Jaisalmir. 

t It is said that the Push karns used to bo called Sri-Malis, that they rank below the 
Sarsut, Piirikh and Gaur sub-castes, and are (only) regarded as Brahmans because of their 
skill in astrology. But they are hy origin possibly Sdrsuts who made Pushkar or Pokhar, 
the sacred lake near Ajmer their head-quarters. One section of them is said to have been 
originally Belddrs or Ods who were raised to Brahminical rank as a reward for excavating 
the tank and it still worships the pickaxe, but this tradition is not now current in the 
Kmjab. 


118 


Brahmans in the South-West. 


Bora. 

Joshi. 

It is distinct from t 


Noxt C01H6 the Dassd or half-broods and lastly tliG Sindhu with 2 

yots: Mattar and Wattu.* * * § i j -i v. 

In Bahdwalpurl" msntion is mado of a sub-castG^ callod Ir ariKii^ 

which I cannot trace elsewhere. It has 6 gotsX 

Kathotia. I Parohit. 

Pandia. j Tiwi.ri. 

le Sdwanis. 

The Brahmanical Hierarchy in the South-West Punjab. 

Before describing the Sdrsut Brahmans it will be best to describe 
the organisation of the Brahmanical heirarchy in the South-West 
Punjab, where the Sd-rsuts aud Pushkarnds overlap, combining to 
form groups of beneficed and unbeneficed priests which are further 
attached to the different castes. 

The Wateshar . — The Wateshar§ are a group of Brahmans whose 
clientele is scattered, and who receive fixed dues from their patrons, 
irrespective of the services rendered to them. If they preside at a 
religious function they receive fixed fees in addition to their stand- 
ing dues. 

In Midnwdli the Wateshar class comprises the following sections 
of the Sdrsutll and Pushkarnd Brahmans : — 

KandiAra. 


1. Dhannanpotra ... | 


1 . 


ii. Lalri. 


* The Wattu got is the lowest of all: Brahmanon men IPatttt, ghoron men tattu — “The 
Wattu among Bralimans is what a pony is among horses.” 

f But towards Bikaner is a group known as Parik. 

X The sub-divisions of these sections are variously given thus : — 

r Ambruana, from Amar Nath, Rangildi.sf, from ” Rangil 

Bhojipotra is said to include N D4s,” Wajal, from Wajalji, Tejal from Tejalji, all four 

i, ii and iii as in text and 1 with Ram Nand, Machhindraji and Bhara Mai, sons of 

C Sidh Bojh, the saint and eponym of the section. 

This section also includes the Dand-dambh, the nick-name apparently of some family 
earnt by curing an ox, as the name implies. 

The Samapotra also in- ) the Kalkadasani, Prayagdasi, ^ and all six sub-divisions are 
eludes i and ii, as above with ) Prithwi Mai and Shamdasi ) patronymic. 

The Samapotras are descended from Sidh Saman and perform a special worship on the 
Rikhipanchami, the 5th of the bright half of Bhadon. They eiIso worship Hinglilj devi at 
births, weddings and on the 3rd of the bright half of Baisikh. 

r Sidh Bhardwiji. 

The Bhardw^ja sub-divisions are ) Arof „ 

1 Kinjar „ 

C Ratan „ 

( Sringi. 

I Sadha. 

( Takht. 
j Knj. 

1 Bakht. 

C Jan. 

For the correspondence between these sections and those of the Muhi^l Brahmans see infra. 

§ It has been suggested that Wateshar is derived from birt, ‘ dues.’ It is doubtless the same 
word as Vriteswar, derived from, vritti or virat. and may be translated ‘beneSced.’ Thus the 
Wateshar form an occupational group and the description given of their sub-^\dsions is 
certainly not absolute. 

II Among the 84rsut Wateshar the matrimonial relations are complicated. The Sethp41 
marry with the Bhojipotra and Simepotra, if such alliances have been actually made in the 
past. If however they cannot obtain brides from these two sections they try to get them from 
the Bbardwaja or Kathpal. Again the Dhannanpotra only take brides from sections 
Nos. 2—4, but give none to them. Under these circumstances it is not surprising to learn 
that the Bhojipotra and Samepotra sections used till recently to practise female infanticide 
habitually. Lastly sections Nos. 6-7 are willing to effect exchange betrothals with the 
Narainis, if no suitable match offers within this group of three sections which intermarrv 
The Pushkami, Wateshars also effect exchange betrothals as do the Shah’ri and Naraini 


The Katp41 are 
The Lalri are 


Brahmans in the SotUh- West. 


119 


2. Bhojfpotra 


R4ma-Nanda : intermarry with the Bharoge and Maghwini. 
Machiina 
Bharojike 


4. 

6 . 

6 . 

7. 

8 . 


S^mepotra 

Sethpil. 

Bhardw^ja 

Kathpii 

Kandii,ra 

Lalpi 


Maghwini 

Wadhwdni 


Wadhwini. 

Rilma-Nanda. 

Machiina. 


Sindhu Pnshkarn^ 


Of the Wateshar 
sections of Arords.* 


intermarry. 


Nangu. 

Lapiya. 

Parial. 

Tanks ali, 
Mattar. 
Gandhria. 
Wasu. 

Wessa. 

Sohana, 

class each 


section is said to minister to certain 


• For instance the Edthpdl Brahmans minister to — 

1. Gorwara, 2. Dhingfa, 3. Dang, 4. Madin, 5. Chhabra, 6. Popli, etc. 

The Lalri minister to — 

1. Gera, 2. LuUa, etc. 

The Bhardwdj minister to— 

1. Hnja, 2. Makheja, 3. Aneji, 4. Tanej4, 5. Sarej4, 6. Fareja, 7. Khanduji, 
8. Dhamija, 9. Sukhij4, 10. Nakpi, 11. Chugh, 12. Chhokri, 13. BathU, 
14. N4ngp4I, 15. Maindiratta, 16. K41ri, 17. Minocha. 

The Bhojpotrd minister to— 

1. Gambhir, 2. Batra, 3. Chawla, 4. Khetarp41, 5. Gand, 6. N4rag, 7. Bill4, 8. Budh- 
r4j4, 9. Rewari, 10. Cliachr4, 11. Busri, 12, Virmani. 

The Parhihdr minister to — 

1. Kher4, 2. Khur4n4, 3. Bhugr4, 4. Machhar. 

The Nangd minister to — 

1. Chikkar, 2. Sachdev, 3. Gulati, 4. Hans, 5. K'ur4bhatia, 6. 

The Sdmepotra minister to — 

1. Kadiuriye, 2 Khanijan, 3, Naroole, 4. Babar, 5. Dua, 6. Wasndev, 7. Bhangar, 
8. Hans, 9. Ghoghar, 10. Manglani, 11. Piplani, 12. Rihani, 13. Mandiani, 
14. Jindwani, 15. Pawe,,l6. Salootre, 17. Jimeji, 18. Kawal. 19. Kansite Sunare, 
20. Lakhbatre, 21. Bhutiani, 22. Jatwani, 23. Nandwani, 24. Rajpotre, 
25. Danekhel with eleven others. 

The Lapshid minister to — 

1. Ch4wl4, 2. Kharband4, 3. Mongi4, 4. Khattar, 5. Ealncha, 6. Kurf4. 

The Dhannanpotra minister to- 
ll Dudej4, 2. Chotmurad4, etc. 

The Singopotrd minister to — 

1. Bajij, etc. 

The Sethpdl mini ster to Sapr4, etc. 

All these are sections of the Aror48. 

The Dhannanpotra minister to the Dawra, Bugga, Janji Khel, Danjri, Bohri, Madanpotre, 
Dhamija, Sanduja, Uthra and other gots. 

Saespt — 

I.— Bhojfpotra J 

Sh4mfpotra* [ intermarry (and take wives from H, III, IV and 

inan^npoira \ v, just as U intermarry and take wives from 

1 I'')- 

Singhupotra 
n, — Bhenda, 

Bh4rdw4jf, 

Kandiari, 

Kethapotra. 

K4thpaU. 

Sh4mjipotra. 


* To this section belonged L41j( Gosain. 


120 


Brahmans in the South- West. 

Of the Sindhu-Pushkarnd, Wateshar the Nangu minister to the 
Gurmalia, Kaura, Gulati, Sachdev, Chikkar, Mungiya and Raon-khela 
and many other sections of the Aroras, and the Sajulia section of the 
Bhatids. The Lapiya minister to the Kharbaiida, Chawala, Mongid, 
Karre, Khattar and Kalache gots, and the Parial to the Khera, Bugra 
and Khurana, all sections of the Arords. The Tanksali* minister 
to the Nangpal, Mutrijd, Dua (Seth Hari) ; the Mattar minister to the 
Khurana, all Sateja Aror^s; the Gandhria to' Mahesri Banias ; the 
Wasu to Bhatias; the Wesa to Mahesri Banias and the Sohana to 
Bhdtids. 

The Astri have fewer patrons than the Wateshar, and the clientele of 
each is confined to one place, where he resides. If a Wateshar is 
unable to officiate for a patron an Astri acts for him, receiving fths of 
the fee, the balance of |ths being handed over to the Wateshar, 

The Astri sections in Mifi,nwali are — 

1. Ramdeh,t 2. Shason, 3. Bhaglal, 4. Ishwar, and 5. Dahiw41. 

The Naraini is an immigrant group, and is thus without patrons, but 
if the Wateshar and Astri are illiterate, a literate Naraini is called 
in to perform any function requiring knowledge. As a rule, however, 
the Naraini only presents himself when alms are given to all and 
sundry. 




Patrons. 



Patrons. 

1. 

Bambowal. 


9. 

Lapshah 

... Khatbar and Dhol. 

2. 

Brahmi. 


10. 

Ojha. 


3. 

Chanana ... 

G4reri. 

11. 

Pandit. 


4. 

Chandan ... 

Aneja Aroris. 

12. 

Pharande. 


6. 

Chuni 

Dhupar Aroris. 

13. 

liamdeh 

... Dhaheja Avox&s. 

6. 

Gaindhar... 

Chatkare Aror4,s. 

14. 

Soharan, 


7. 

Joshi 

Nakra. 

15. 

Sutrak. 


8. 

Kakrab ... 

Khurana and Taloja 

16. 

Tilhan. 




Aror^s. 

17. 

Wohra 

... Manocha Aroris. 


Only a Brahman may bo an astri, a 'parohit or a thdni. He may also 
officiate as an Acharaj, a Bhdt, a Gos4in or a Ved-p6tr, (and so may any 
other Hindu), but if he does so he must not accept any dues for the rites 
performed. Only a Brahman can take sanhalpa, no other Hindu. 


in.— CMiii 

Channan 

Sutrak 

Kikre 

Barade 

Gaindliar 


BhagKl, 

Gan^har. 

Rughanpotra (or Aganhotri ?). 
N^rath. 

Sethi. 

Mi:hl4, 


{Lapsha), 

rV. — Jhangan 
Tikh4 
Mohli, 

Kamrie ^ Brahmans of Khatrfs. 

Jotli 

Bagge 

Sant 

V.— The Mahta Brahmans, whose sections are the Chhibbar, Dat, Mohan, Ved, Bali and 
Lau, do not act as parohits, but are engaged in agriculture, trade or service. Obviously 
those are the same as the Muhi^,ls of the North-West Pimjab. ^ 

* The Tanksalis are called Jhani and receive certain dues on marriage and Dharm Sand in 
the Hadd Jaskini, i.e., in the tract under the rule of the Jaskk,ni Biloches. 

I Minister to the Danekhel section of the Aropas. 


The Muliidl Brahmans, 


121 


A Braliraan^a own religious observances aro performed by his 
daughter's father-in-law, or by some relative of the latter, though he 
may, in their absence, get them performed by any other Brahman. A 
sister’s son is also employed. This is purely a matter of convenience, 
the relations of a diiughter’s husband being entitled to receive gifts, 
but not those of a son’s wife. 


The Secular Brahmans. 


The Muhidl Brahmans, — Thi.s group of secular Brahmans is said to 
derive its name from muhin, a sum of money given by them at 
weddings to Bhats and Jdjaks, varying from Rs. 5 to Rs. 7 or Rs. 12. 
The Mnhi^ls are also styled Munhiils, and are said to be so called from 
muhin, a sept. But it is also suggested that the name is derived from 
muJchia, * spokesman,’ or ‘principal.’ By origin the Muhid,ls are cer- 
tainly Sdrsuts and still take wives from that group in Gujrdt, while in 
Rawalpindi the five superior. sections (Sudhiin, Sikhan, Bhakliil, Bhog 
and K^li) of the Bnnjtlhi Sdrsuts used to give daughters to the Bhimw^l 
(Bhibhd,!) ‘ Muhid,! Sdrsnts’ and occasionally to the other Muhidl 
sections, though they refused them to the inferior sections of the 
Bunjdhis: Rawalpindi Gr. 1883-84, p. 51. 


Their organisation is on the usual principles and may be thusi 
tabulated : — 


Group I. — B.<ri. 


Section, 

1. Chhibbar, 

Datt 

Mohan, 

Ved or Baid 
Bill 


f i. Dablijiya. 
i ii. dm or common. 


j Setpal (S,'lhanp41). 
... Dhannanpotri. 


... Bhojipotr4. 
... LAlri, 


Group II.— Bunjahi. 


T.au ... ... ... ... ... ... ... Samcpotrii. 

Bibhowal or BhibhJil; 


The Bdri group either intermarries or takes daughters from the 
Bunidhi, but the two sections of the latter (Lau and Bibho^vdl) 
can only marry inter se.* 


Tho Bhits eulogise the Muhials in the following verses : — 


‘ The Datts are generous, and the Lau beggars. 
The Chhibbars aro Sarddrs. 

The Raids dagger in hand 
Walk full of pride. 

The Bibho (Bibhowal) eat limb phnl (a fruit), 
Mohan and Bali are chakddrs. 

There are further sub-divisions, but among the Waid the Samba, among the Datt the 
Kanjruria, among the Bali the Khara and among the Chhibbar tho Barra, are considered 
superior clans. 


Datt ddftt, Lau mangtd, 
Cnhibbar wich Sarddr. 
Waiddn hath katdriydn, 
Chalde pabdn de bhdr. 
Bibho khdte bimb phal, 
Mohan Ddli chakddr. 


122 


‘ The Sdrsut Brahmans. 


The following table illustrates the origin of the Muhial sections and 
sub-sections : — 

mdhiAls. 


Chhibbar. 

Sidh Sdhan. 

1 

Setpdl (Bari). 


Baid. 

1 

Sidh Bhoj. 

I 

Bhojepotre. 


Lau. 

I , 

Sidh Sara. 


I 

Datt. 

I 

Sidh Chdr. 

I 


Sharaepotre. f 

Kali Dhiru. 


C 


"I 


Mddho Dda. Rama Nand, 

I I 

Machhdne. Rdmfl Nanduno, 


(' 


Arard- 

wile. 


1 


■1 


Bheru- Babe- Dand- 
wdle. wale. Durabh, 


Chaiid. I 

I Phirnpotre 

Kandiare (Bunjdhi). 
(Bonjahi). 


"I 

(b). 


B4li. 

I 

(Name of Sidh 
not known). 

I 

r 1 


Bhanan. Lalri Takht 
(Bnnjdhi). Ldll’i 
(B4ri). 


Dhananpotre (Bdri), 


Chuniwal 

(Hdri). 


I 




Pritkwi Mai. WadhuRam. Manghu Ram. 

I I I 


'1 


Tulumbiya, (d), 

(Bari). Sit-pnria, 

(Biinidhi), 


K4lka Daa. 


Prithwi Malane. Wadhwdni. Mangwani. Kalka Dasdni. 


The descendants of the five Sidhs are further snb-divided into pdnchtolias 
(who give their daughters not less than 5 tolas of gold as dowry) and 
tritoUyas (who give not less than 3). The latter rank below the former. 

The origin of the Mnhifils is thus desciibed : In Sambat 200 
Vikrami the five Sidhs went to the Nannuthi Hill and there practised 
asceticism. About that time too the Khatris of the Aror fatnily 
(now the Arords) and the other Khatris fell out, so the latter separated 
from the Aroras and became jajmdns of the Sidhs. The Muhidla 
who did not attach themselves to the Aroras refused to accept alms 
(dan) and are still purely secular. They are found chiefly if not 
exclusively in Rawalpindi (where many are Sikhs) ; in Jhelum and 
Shahpur as landholders or in service. All Muhidls may marry girls of 
Brahman families which are not Muhifil. 


A small group of secular Brahmans found at Harifina, in 
Hoshidrpur is the Kanchan Kawal. They are also called Suraj Duaj 
(Sun-worshippers). Their ancestor came from Delhi as a hdnungo 
to Haridna, whence they are also called Kfinungos. They can marry 
in the nd^ikd’s got, avoiding only the father’s got. They do not take 
charity (dan), and either take service or engage in trade or cultivation. 
If any one of them takes alms he is outcasted and they do not 
intermarry with him. 

Other purely lay groups of Brahmans are : the Dhakociii of the 
Dhund and Karrfil Hills in Hazara, who are also called Mahajans : the 
Taqas of Karn^l, who are Gaurs by origin and agriculturists by avoca- 
tion : and the criminal Tagus of the same District. 

THE SA'RSUT BRAHMANS. 

The Sdrsut is essentially the Brahman of the Punjab, j ust as the Khatt i 
is distinctively a Punjab caste. The Sar.su t, as a body, minister to all 
the Hindu castes, possibly even to those which are unclean and so stand 
outside the pale of Hinduism. Uoon this fact is based the leading 


Brahmans of the R hatris. 


123 


priHciple of their organization, which is that the status of each section 
depencis on the status of the caste to which it ministers. In accordance 
with this principle, we may tentatively classify the Sdrsut thus : — 

Sub-group i. — Brahmans of Brahmans, called Shukla. 

Sub-group ii. — Brahmans of theKhatris — 


1 . 

2 . 


Panch-zati. 

Chhe-zati. 


4. 

3. 


Bunjiihis. 

Asth-bans. 


5. Khokharan.* 
G. Sarin. 


Sub-group lYi. — Brahmans of Aror4s. 

Sub-group iv. — Brahmans of J4ts. 

Stib-grottp V. — Brahmans of inferior castes, e.gr., the Chamarw^. 

Further, each of the sub-groups is divided into grades on the analogy 
of the Khatri caste system thus — 


1 . 

2 . 


Panchziiti. 
Bari. 


3. Bunjahi. 

4. Inferior zutis. 


Thus we may take the Shuklaf Brahmans to comprise the following 
gots : — 

f Gallia 

I Malta I 


Panchziti 


Kapuna 

Bhaturia 


or 


J 


I Jetli. 

1 Jhing^n. 
{ Molila. 
j Kumaria. 
I Trikha. 


The Sdrsut Brahmans of the Khatris. — The connection of the Khatri 
with the S4rsut Brahman caste is peculiarly close. One tradition of its 
origin avers that when Parasu Edma was exterminating the Kshatriyas 
a pregnant woman of the caste took refnge with a Sdrsut. When her 
child, a son, was born, the Sarsut invested him with the janeo and 
taught him the Vedas. Hence the Sdrsuts are invariably the parohits 
of the Khatris, and from this incident arose the custom which allows 
parohit andyajwjaa to eat together. 

The boy manied 18 Kshatriya girls and his sons took the names of the 
various rishis and thus founded the gotras of the Khatris, which are the 
same as those of the Brahmans. This legend explains many points in 
the organization of the Sdrsut Brahmans in the Punjab, though it is 
doubtless entirely mythical, having been intended to account for the close 
dependence of the Brahmans of the Sdrsut branch on the Khatri caste. 

Gioup /. — Panjzdti i. At the top of the social tree stand 6ve sections, 

which are the ptxrohits of tlie Dhaighar 
Khatris. This group is known as the 
Panjzdti or ‘ five sections,’ and also as 
Pachhdda or ‘ w’estern.’ It the Brah- 
mans followed the Khatri organization 
in all its complexity we should expect to find these sections constituting 
the phdighar sub-group of a Bdri group, and they are, it would seem, 
called phaighar-Lahoria, at least in Lahore. 

There are^also said to be two groups, each of 5 zdtis, which once formed 
themselves into endogamous cliques. 'I'hese were : {i) Kalia, Malia, Bhaturia, 

* Probably this is correct. The Muhial having ceased to be Rrahmana at all, no longer 
minister to the Khokharan- Khatris and so a special group of Khokharan-Brahmans has had 
to be formed. 

t The Shuklas are beggars, who come from the east, from the direction of the United 
Provinces. They beg only from Brahmans, but are not their parohits. They are quite 
distinct from the Shukal of the Simla Hills. 


1 . 

2 . 

3 . 

4 . 

5 . 


Mohla. 

Jetli. 

Jhingan. 

Trikha. 

Kumaria. 


{-Group Panjzati or 
I Pachhada. 

J 


124 


Brahmans of the Khatris. 


Kapuriaand Baggas, and (n) Jhingan* Trikhat, Jetljj, Kuinliria§. and 
Punbu.II The last-named got was, however, replaced by the MohlasH, be- 
cause one of its members was discourteous to his daughter-in-law s people. 

The Bari group further, in addition to the Panchzdtis, comprises the 
following 7 gots i Paumbu, Gangdhar,*^ ilartha, Sethi Chuiavaur, 
Phiranda and Purang. 

Group II. — Bunj^hi. This group contains several sub-gToups whose 
relations to one another are obscure, and indeed the subject of con- 
troversy, They may be classified, tentatively, as follows 


Sub-grouf i. — Asht-bans, with the following eight sections: — 


In Amritsar : 

or in Karndl : 


and in Patiala. 

(— 

1. 

> 

Saiid. 

1. 

Sand. 

r~ 

1. 

Sand. 

2. 

Shori. 

2. 

Patak. 

2. 

yuri. 

3. 

Patak. 

3. 

Joshi Mahrur. 

3, 

Patak, 

4. 

Mahrur. 

4. 

Joshi Malmai. 

4. 

Joshi Mnluiai. 

5. 

Joshi. 

5. 

Tiwanj. 

5. 

Joshi Mahrur. 

6. 

Tiwari. 

6. 

Kural. 

6. 

Tiwari. "fl 

7. 

Kural, 

7. 

Regne, 

7. 

Kural. 

8. 

Bhardwaji. 


• • • 

8. 

Katn Bhardwaj. 


1 . 

2 . 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6 . 


Suh’growp ii. 

Sarad. 

Bhanot. 

Airi. 

Kalie.Jt 

Parbhakka. 

Nabh. 


— Bara-ghar or Bdra-zati (also called Bari) : — 


7. Manan, 

8. Bhambi. 

9. Lakhan Pal, 

10. Patti. 

11. Jalpat. 

12. Sahjpal. 


In Hazara — Vajra. Sang. 

Vapdeo. Sudan. 

Paonde, Majju. 

Bhog. Seni, 

Ishar. Dhammi, 

Ramdeo. Tara. 


♦ Jhiugan is said to be derived from jhinga or jhanjh, a bell, because the sound of a bell 
was heard at its eponym’s birth. This got is supposed to be only 20 generations old. 
It has three sub-sections, Gautam, Athu and Nathu. Further, Nathu’s descendants are sub- 
divided into the less known sub-divisions of Chamnapati and Kanwlapati. The Jhingans 
gotra is Bhardwaj ; their paruuras Bhrigu, Bharjan and Bhardwaj, their shdkhd Madhunjan 
and the Rig Veda their veda. At Dipalpur at the house of an ancestor, Baba Chhajjil, they 
hold a fair in Magh, at which the chila, jhatid, janeo and other rites are performed. Nathu’s 
descendants all wear a noth in the nose. 

t Trikha’s gotra is Parashar and it is sub-divided into the Palwarda, Aura and Dwija 
sub-sections. 

X The Jetli gotra is Vatsa, and its sub- sections are Vialepotra, Chandipotra, and Rupe- 
potra — all eponymous. The two former are replaced by Hathila and H arnpotra, according 
to another account. The Mihrotra Khatris make them ofierings on the 12th of the light 
half of each lunar month. 

§ The Kumhria gotra is also Vatsa and they too have three sub-sections. 

11 Apparently the same as the Paumbu. below. 

•ir fhe Mohlaa gotra isSomastam, audits sub-sections are Dalwali, Shiv-Nandi and Akashi. 

Of the Vasisht gotra. They have five sub-sections, Veda Vyas, Gangahar (sic), 
Gosain, Saraph, and Gatigawashi, so-called because they used to lead bands of 
pilgrims to the Ganges. They were exempt from tolls under former governments. 
The Suriph (Sarraf) were bankers. The Gosains had many jajmdns and the Veda 
Vyas were learned in the Vedas. The Gangahars still perform their jhand or tonsure rite 
near the ruins of old Jhang, near which town they possessed a number of wells, each 
inscribed with their names. 

ft Or Tawaria. At marriage they do not let the bride go to her father-in law’s house, 
but send instead a big gnr cake wrapped in red cloth. If however the mukldwd ceremony is 
perfonued at the same time us the wedding, they let the bride go also, otherwise they send, 
her afterwards when her mukldwd is given. 

:|;J Probably the same as the Bhabakkar, a got named after a Rishi. Its members make 
a boy don the janeo (sacred thread) in his 8th year. Clad as a sddhu in a faqir's dress with 
the alfi or clwla, the mirg-chhdla (deer-skin) and kachkol (a wallet for collecting alms) ho 
begs from door to door and is then bidden to go to the forest, but his sister brings him 
hack. 


Brahmans of the Khatris. 


125 


The Zdt-ivdle : — 


Suh-group Hi. — Paej-zati ii. About 116 years ago the Brahriians 
of the five sections beloAV used to give their daughters in marriage to 
the Dhdighar- Lahoria Brahmans : — 


(1) Kalie. 

(2) Malie. 


(3) Kapurie. 

(4) Rhaturie, 


(5) Bagge. 


When their daughters * began to be treated harshly in the houses of 
their fathers-in-law, these Brahmans or five sections) arranged 

to contract marriages only among themselves ^ and ceased to form re- 
lationships with the Dhaighar-Lahoiia. 

Suh-group iv. — Chhezdt-wala.- — Similarly several other sections of 
Brahmans gave up giving daughters to the Dhaighar-Lahoria Brah- 
mans, such as — 

(1) Pandit. I (3) Dhunde, I (5) Dhan Kaji. 

(2) Patak, I (4) Gadhari. 1 (6 ) Chhukari. 

Sub-group v. — Panchzat-wdle iii — 

(1) Chvni. I (3) Lamb. | (5) Sarballie. 

(2) Rabri. • (4) Neule. * * 


Suh-group vi. — Sat-zdti — 

(1) Sajre. (4) Neasi. j (6) Sardal. 

,(2) Punj. (5) Chuni. : (7) Anni. 

(3) Bandu. 

The above four sub-groups are called collectively Zdt-wdle. 

Suh-group vii . — This comprises the remaining Bunjdhi sections. 

The Zdt-wdle stand higher than this last sub-group vii, in that 
they do not accept ofi'erings from, or eat in the houses of, Ndfs, 
Kaldls, Kumhdrs or Chlumbas, whereas the latter do both. Moreover, 
the Asht-bans and Chhe-z^ti sub-groups claim to be superior in status 
to the B^ris, but some families of these two sub-groups stooped to 
give daughters to the latter sub-group, and were, therefore, excom- 
municated by the remaining families of the Asht-bans and Chbe-zati 
sub-groups, so that they lost status and formed a new sub-group called 
Bans-puj. This sub-group now gives daughters to the Asht-bans and 
Chhe-zati sub-groups, but takes its wives, it is alleged, from the Bdris. 

Thus the Brahman organization reflects the main outlines of the 
Khatri scheme, but, though on many points of detail our information 
is incomplete, it is certain that local conditions modify the organiza- 
tion. For instance in Bahtiwalpur the Khatris are few, while the 
Aroras are numerous and influential, so that we find the following 
scheme : — 


Sub-group i . — Five sections, Mohla, Jetli, Jhingran, Trikha, 
Kumaria. 

Hypergamous suh-group ii . — Five sections, Dliaman-potra, Sama- 
potra, Bhoja-potra, Setpal, Takht-Lalh^ri ; and 

Hypergamous suh-group m.— Seven sections, Lai hdri, Bias> Kandaria, 
Kathpala, Shangru-potra or AVed, Malakpura, and Bhenda. 

Of these three sub-groups, the five sections of the first are Brah- 
mans of the Khatris generally, not of the Dhdighar-Bdri Khatri? 
exclusively, while sub-groups ii and iii are Brahmans of the Arorde 
in that part of the Punjab. 


126 


Brahmans of the Khatris. 

The rules of marriage. — Like the Kliatris, the Buuj^hi Brahmans 
profess to follow the usual ‘ four-gro< ^ rule in marriage, but, precisely 
like the Dhdighar Khatris, the Zdt-wale Brabraans avoid only their 
own section and the mother’s relations. At least this appears to 
be the usual rule, but it would be rash to say it is an invariable 
one. For example, the Bans-puj are an exception. The Asht-bans 
obtain wives from them, but if a father has taken a Bans-puj wife, 
the son may not : he must marry an Asht-bans or lose status. That 
is to say, the Asht-bans may only stoop to inter-marriage with the 
Bans-puj in alternate generations. 

Similarly the ^ four-got ’ rule is relaxed in other cases. Thus the 
Kanchan-Kamal section of Hoshiarpnr are also called Suraj Doaj, 
(Sun-worshippers). Their ancestor came from Delhi as a qdnungo 
at Harid-na ; hence they are called Qanungos. These Brahmans can 
marry in the ndnha got, avoiding only the father's got. They do not 
take any dan (charity) and may either take service or engage in trade 
or cultivation. If any one of them takes to receiving charity, he is 
considered an outcast and they do not intermarry with him. 

The ages of marriage. — Among the Bunjdhi Brahmans the age of 
betrothal is from 4-8 and that of marriage from 8-12 years in 
Rawalpindi. It is, however, impossible to lay down any universal 
rules, as, generally speaking, the ages of betrothal and marriage 
depend upon the status of each family within the group, as is the 
case among the Khatris. 

The revolt against hypergamy. — It will be seen how the lower sub- 
groups of the Khatris have endeavoured to shake off the yoke of the 
higher in matrimonial matters. A similar revolt against the position 
of the phd,fghar occurred amongst the Sarsut Brahmans. Aboqt 116 
years ago, says the account received from Amritsar, the Lahoria 
Phdighar used to take daughters from the Panj-zat n j but owing to 
the ill-treatment meted out to the girls by the Dlidighar, they resolv- 
ed to discontinue the custom, and the three other groups of the Zat- 
w4le followed suit while the remaining Bunjahis continued to give 
wives to the Zdt-wdle, but no longer received them in return. The 
result was that the Bunjahis could not obtain wives and many fami- 
lies died out, so it was resolved by the Bunjahis that they should for 
the future break off all connection with the Zdt-wdle, unless any of the 
latter should agree to give them daughters in return. This was prior to 
Sambat 1932 when a second meeting at Amritsar renewed the compact. 

It may be worth noting that in both castes the proceedings of 
these conferences were conducted in a formal manner, written agree- 
ments being drawn up, and the families which agreed to the de- 
mands put forward being entered in a register from time to time. 

The territorial groups. — Like the Khatris the Brahmans have terri- 
torial groups, but these groups do not usually correspond with the 
territorial groups of the former. For instance, the Brahmans of the 
Murree Hills are divided into two sub-castes — Pahdria and Dhakoohi, 
who do not intermarry or eat together. The Dugri Brahmans corre- 
spond to the Dugri Kliatris of the Siillkot sub-montane, but they are 
said, on the one hand, to give daughters to the Sarsut, and, on the 


127 


• The Brahmans of Knngra. 

other hand, to intermarry with the Batehru group of Brahmans in 
Kflngra. Allusions have been already made to the Pachb^da and* to 
the Lahoria, terms which seem to be applied exclusively to the five 
highest sections who serve the pi)d,ighar Khatris. 

Tbe Sarsut Brahmans op the AeoijAs. 

The grouping of the Brahmans of the Arords has already been des- 
cribed in dealing with the Wateshars’ system, and they further are said 
to be thus divided : 

r Bbojapotra. Sitpal. 

... < Shamapotra. Takht Lalri.* 

( Dhannanpotra. 

f The Panchzatis, together with the — 

I 6. Puchhrat. 10. Bhnrdwaji. 

...-{7. Shingupotra. '11. Kathp41a.t 

1 8. Malakpiira. 12. Kandhiara. 

(_9. Khetapotra. 

But the most interesting territorial group of the Sdrsut is that of 
the Kdngra Brahmans whose organization shows no traces of the 
Khatri scheme, but reflects that of the Hindu Rajputs of Kdngra, and 
which will, therefore, be described at some length. 

The Brahmans op Kanq^a. 

The Sarsut des or jurisdiction extends from the Saraswati river in 
Kurukshetr to Attock on the Indus and is bounded by Pehowa on the 
east, by Ratia and Fatehd,b4d in Hissar, by Multdn on the south-west, 
and by Jammu and Nurpur, in Kangra, on the north. 

Thus the Brahmans of Kdngra, who are or claim to be Silrsut by 
origin, stand beyond the pale of the Silrsut organisation, but they 
have a very interesting organisation of their own. 

We^find the following groups : — 

i. — Nagarkopa. 

ii. — Batehru. 

iii, — Halbaha, or cultivating. 

Group 1 . — The Nagarkotia are the Brahmans of the Katoch, the 
highest of the Rdjputs, and they were divided by Dharm Chand, the 
Katoch Rajd of Kdngra, into 13 functional sub-groups, each named 
ft er the duties it performed in his time. These are — 

i.— Dichhit, the Gurus of the Katoch, who used to teach the Gayatri 
mantra. 

ii. Sarotari, said to bo from Sanskrit saro ladh. Their duty was 

to pour ahoti or offerings of ghi, etc., into the hawan kund 
when a jag was performed. They had learnt two Vedas. 

iii. — Achdria, who performed the jag. 


Fancb.z4ti 

B4ri ... 


* The Lalpi have five sub-sections: — Lai Lalfi, Vias Lalri, Takht Lalfi, Qhaniyal 

Lalri and Raj Bukht or Jan. n-ii./’i 

t By gotra Shdmundal, the Kathpalaa have four sub-sections, Surangu, Sidha, Gilkala 
and Fathak. 


128 


The Brahmans of Kdngra. 

iv. — Upadhyaya, or Upadlii,* or ^ readers ^ of the Vedas at the Jag. 

V. — Awasthi, those who ^ stood by ^ the kalas or pitcher at the Muni- 
pursh, and who received the pitcher and other articles (of 
sacrihce). 

vi. — Bed birch, who made the hedi, or square demarcated by four 

sticks in which the kalas was placed. 

vii. — Pundrik, whose duty it was to write the prescribed in- 

scriptions on the hawan kund. 

viii. — Panchkarn or secular Brahmans engaged in service bn the 

Rajds. They performed five out of the six duties of Brah- 
mans, but not the sixth, which is the receiving of alms. 

ix. — Parohits, who were admitted to the seraglio of the Raja and 

were his most loyal adherents. 

x. — ^Kashmiri Pandit, literate Brahmans from Kashmir, who are 
found all over the Punjab. 

xi. — Misr,t said to mean ‘mixed,’ also Kashmiri immigrants, who had 
preserved their own customs and rites, but had intermarried 
with the Nagarkotia. 

xii. — Raina, who helped the rulers by their incantations in time of 
war. (Said to be from ran, battle-field.) 

xiii. — Bip (Bipr), now extinct in Kdngra. These were parohits of 
the Nagarkotia and of some of the Batehru. 

Of these 13 sub-groups numbers x and xi seem to be territorial 
rather than functional. One cannot say what their relative rank 
is or was. The first six are also called the six Achdrias and were 
probably temple priests or menials of inferior status. The Bip pro- 
bably ranked high, and the Raiua, or magic men, were possibly the 
lowest of all. The Khappari are also said to be found in Kaiigj-a, but, 
no account from that District alludes to them. 

Group 11. — Batehru. — There are two sub-groups— 
i, — Pakkd Batehru. — With 9 sections— 

(1) Dind, (2) Dohru, (3) Sintu, (4) Pallialu, (5) Panbar, 
(6) Rukkhe, (7) Ndg-Kharappe, (8) Awasthi-Chetu and 
(9) Misr-Kathu. 


* Bnt apadhi is in Orissa translated ‘ title.’ Vide Tribes and Castes of Bengal, I, jd. 161. 
Upadhyaya is, correctly speaking, qnite distinct from Upadhi. ’ 

t It wiU bo observed that the Misr (section) occurs in both the Batehru sub-groups 
and among the Nagarkotia, so that we have three sub-sections — 

(1) Kashmiri-Misr, Nagarkotia. 

(2) Kathu-Misr. Pakka Batehru. 

(3) Mali-Misr, Kachch4 Batehru. 

Of these the last named are parohits of the Kashmiri Pandits, the Kashmiri-Misrs and 
the Rainas. 

The N4g (? section) are also thus found, for we have— 

(1) Nag-Pundrik, Nagarkotia. 

(2) Nag-Kharappa, Takka Batehru. 

(3) Nag-Oosaln, Kachcha Batehru. 

It is explained that Kharappa (cobra) and Gosalu (? grass-snake) are nicknames im- 
plying contempt, as these sub-sections are of low etatus, Bnt a comparison with the 
Brahmans of Orissa suggests a totoraistic origin for those sections ; V. Tribes and Castes 
of Bengal, I, p. ICl. 

The Awasthi too are found in all three groups. 


129 


The Brahmans of Kdngra. 

ii. — Kachchd Bateliru. — Witli 13 sections — 

(1) Tagnet, (2) Ghabru, (3) Suglie (Parsrdmie), (4) Chappal, 
(5) Ciiathwan, (6) Awasthi-Thirkamiii, (7) Awasthi- 
Gargajiiun, (8j Gliogare, (9) Ndg-Gosalu, (10) Mali-Misr, 
(11) Acliariapathiarj, (12) Pandit Bariswal and (13) 
Awasthi-Kufarial. 

Group III. — Halbalia. — The Halbahas have 29 gots or sections : — 

(J) Pandit-Marchu, (2) Bhntwan, (3) Khurwal, (4) Gidgidie^ 
(6) Lade, (6) Pahde-lioptu, (7) Pahde-Saroch, (8) Korle, 
(9) Awasthi-Chakolu, (10) Pandit-Hhangalie, (1 1) Narchalu, 
(12) Mahte, (13) Dnkwal, (14) Sanhala, (15) Pahde-Daroch, 
(16) Pandore, (17) Thenk, (18) Pahde-Kotlerie, (19) Bagheru, 
(20) Bhaiiwal, (21) Bashist, (22) Ghutanie, (23) Mindhe- 
Awasthi, (24) Prohit-Golerie, (25) Prohit-Jaswal, (26) Hasolar, 
(27) Poi'Pahde, (28) Fanarach and (29) Pharerie. 

Of these the first fourteen now intermarry with the Bateliru, giving, 
and, apparently, receiving wives on equal terms. 

Hxjpergaviy. — The Nagarkotia take brides from both sub-groups 
of the Bateliru, and they have, since Sambat 1911, also taken brides 
from the Halbaha. The Bateliru take wives from all the sections 
ot the Halbaha. When a Halbaha girl marries a Nugarkotia, she is 
seated in the highest place at marriage-feasts by the women of her hus- 
band’s brotherhood. This ceremony is called sara-dena and implies 
that the Halbaha bride has become of the same social status as the hus- 
band’s kin. Money is never paid for a bri'le. Ind<md Barnes observed : — 

“ So far do tho Nagarkotias carry their scruples to exonerate the bridegroom from all 
expense, that they refuse to partake of any hospitality at the hands of the son-in-law, and 
will not even drink water in the village where he resides.’’ 

Social relations. — The accounts vary and tho customs have, it is 
explicitly stated, been modified quite recently. Tho Nngarkotia 
may eat with Batehrus and have even begun to eat kacJihi from 
the hands of a Halbaha according to one account. According to 
another this is not so, and a Nagarkotia who has married a Halbaha 
girl may not eat at all from the hands of his wife until she has 
borne at least one child, when the prohibition is said to be removed. 

The Batehru and Halbaha section names. — These show an extraor- 
dinary jumble of Brahminical gotras {e.a., Bashisr.), functional and 
other names, so that the accuracy of the lists is open to doubt. 
It appears certain, however, that some of the sections are named 
from the tribes to whom they minister, llius, we may assume, the 
Pahda-Kotleria are Palidas of the Kotleria Biljputs ; the Parohit- 
Goleria and Parohit-Jaswlil to be parohits of the Coleria and Jaswdl 
R4jputs, and so on. This is in accord with the system, which has been 
found to exist among the Sdrsut of the plains, whereby the Brahman 
takes his status from that of the section to w’hich he ministers. But 
status is also determined by occupation. Like the Gaddis and Ghirths 
of the K'^ngra and Charnba hills the Brahmans of Kdngra have numerous 
als with vaguely totemisLic * names. Thus among the Nagarkotia the 


* In Hiaaar there ia a section of Brahmans, called Bli(5(la or sheep- This is interesting, 
because on tho Sutlej, at least in Kullu Sarij, there is a sni»ll caste called Bh4d/li who are 
hereditary victims in the aacriheial riding of a rope down the cliffs to the river. Other* 


ISO 


The Brahmans of Kdngra. 


Pakk-'i Bateliru havotlie section called Kharappil (or cobra) N% and the 
Kaclicliil Bateliru, a section styled Ghoslu (a species of fish or possibly 
grass-snake) Niig. Pundrik also appears to be a snake section. These 
snake sections are said to reverence the snake after 'which they are 
named and not to kill or injure it. 

In addition to these, the Batehrn (Pakka and Kachchd.) have the 
following sections : — 

(i) Chappal, an insect ; no explanation is fortbcoming. 

(ii) Sugga, a parrot ; no explanation is forthcoming. 

(iii) Bhangwaria, fr. bhdngar, a kind of tree. 

(iv) Khajure Dogre : Date-palm Dogra, a section founded by a man ivho planted a gar- 
den of date-palms, and which originated in the Dogra countiy on the borders of Jammu. 

Ghibru, a rascal ; one who earns his living by fair means or foul. 

In the Chaniba State the Brahmans form an agricultural class, 
as well as a hierarchy. Those in the capital are employed in the 
service of the State or engaged in trade, while others are very poor 
and eke out a living as priests in the temples, or as purohits and even 
as cooks, but they abstain from all manual labour. Strict in caste ob- 
servances they preserve the ancient Brahmanical gotras, but are divided 
into numerous als which form three groups : — 

Group I. — Als : Baru, Banbaru, Pandit, Sanju, Kashmiri Pandit, Koine,* * * * § Baid, Gaulaman, 
Bugalan, Atan, Madyan,t Kanwan, Bodhran, Baludran, Bilparu, Mangleru, Lalchyinu, 
Suhalu, Nunyal, Nonyal, SungUl, Bhararu, Turnal, Haryanf, and Purohit, 

Group II. — Als : Chhunphanan, Thulyan, Dikhchat, Osti, Pade, Bhat, Dogre, Pantu, 
Kuthla, Ghoretu, Pathania, Myandhialu, Mangleru, Katochu, Pande, Datwin, Dundie, 
Hamlogu, Bhardiathu, Gharthalu, Hanthalu, Gwaru, Chibar, Barare, and Datt, 

Group III.— Ais: Acharaj, Gujrati, G'vvalliu and Bujhru. 

The first group only takes wives from the second, and the first two 
groups have no caste relations with the third. Tdie Brahmans of 
Chaniba town and Sungal§ disavow all caste connection with the 
halhdh or cultivating Brahmans who are hardly to be distinguished 
from the general rural population, though many act as priests at the 
village shrines and as Many Brahmans are in possession of 

sdsans or grants of land recorded on copper plates. The hill Brahmans, 
both men and women, eat meat, in marked contrast to those of the 
plains. In the Pdngi xoizdrat of the Chaniba State Brahmans, Kcijputs, 
tl'hdkurs and Rath is form one caste, without restrictions on food or 
marriage. In the Rilvi valley, especially in Churah, and to a less degree 
in Brahmaur also, free raai’riage relations exist among the high castes, 
good families excepted. But in recent years there has been a tendency 
towards greater strictness in the observance of caste rules. 1| 

wise traces of totemiam are very rare among the Brahmans of the plains, though in the 
eub-montane district of Ambala two are noted. These arc the Pila Bheddi or ‘yellow 
wolven,’ so called bccanae one of their ancestors W’as saved by a she-w’olf and so they now 
worship a wolf at weddings ; and Sarinho, who are said to have onco taken refuge under a 
sarin tree and now revere it. 

* From Kullu, so called because they came ■with an idol from that country. They are 
priests of the Lakshmi Narain, Damodar and Rfidha Krishna temples. 

t The Kanwan arc descendants of the Brahman family from which Raja S4hila Varma 
of Chamba purchased tlic site of the present capital. 

J The Ilarydn arc in charge of the llari Rai temple. 

§ The ancient Sumangala. a village now held entirely by Brahmans under a fdsan grant 
of the Idth century A.D They are do.sccnded from two immigrants, a Brahmachd-ri and his 
fbcia, from the Kurukshetra. The two families intermarry and also give daughters to the 
Brahmans of Chamba town. 

(1 See the Chamba State Gazetteer by Dr. James Hutchison, pp. 130—132. 


The Brahmans round Simla. 


131 


The Brahmans op the low castes. 

As we have seen the Bralimans of the higher castes form a series 
of groups whose status depends on that of their clients. On a 
similar principle the Brahmans of the castes which are unclean 
and so outside the pale of Hinduism form distinct sub-castes outside 
the circle of those who minister to the higher castes. 

These sub-castes are — 

I The Chamarwii. — The Brahmans of the Chanor sub-caste of 

the Cham^rs. 

II. — Dhanakwa.— The Brahmans of the Dlidnaks or Hindu weavers 
in Rohtak. 

III. — The Brahmans of Chuhr/is. 

Each of these three sub-castes appears to be now strictly endogamous, 
though the Chamarwa are said to have until recently intermarried 
with Chamdrs. However, it seems clear that they do not intermarry 
with the other Sdrsut Brahmans if indeed they have any claim to 
Sdrsut ancestry. No Chamarwa Brahman may enter a Hindu’s house. 
According to a tale told in Ambdla, the origin of the Chamarwa 
Brahmans was this : — A Brahman, on his way to the Ganges to bathe, 
met Ram Das, the famous Chamar hhagat. Riiin Das gave him two 
coteries and told him to present them to Gangaji (Ganges), if she held 
out her hand for them. She did so, and in return gave him two hangans 
(bracelets). The Brahman went back to Ram Das, who asked him 
what the goddess had given him, and he, intending to keep one of the 
two hangans, said she had given one only; but when he looked for them 
they were not on his own body, but in the hunda (breeches) of Ram 
Das. Rdm Das then gave liim the bracelets and warned the Brahman 
in future to accept gifts only from his descend ants, otherwise great 
misfortune would befall him. Accordingly his descendants only serve 
Chamdrs to this day. The Chamarwa are only parohifs of theChamars, 
not gurus. They must not be confounded with the masands who act as 
their .giwriis, though either a Chamarwa Brahman or a (Chamar) mnsnnd 
can preside at a Chamar’s wedding. It is said that the Chamarwa is 
also called a Husain i Brahman. 

The Brahmans in thb Simla Hills. 

North and oast of Simla the Brahmans both Gaur and Sdrsut have 
three groups: Shukal, Krishan and Puj^ri or Bhojgi, the two latter 
equal b^ut inferior to the first. The Shukal are further divided into 
two occupational groups (i) those who hold granted by chiefs 

and who receive ample dues and (ii) those wlio receive little in fees. 
The former are generally literate and do not cultivate: they ob-erve 
the rites prescribed by the Shdstraa. The latter are mainly agricul- 
turists and practise informal as well as formal marriage and even 
polyandry. The former take wives from the latter, but do not givo 
them. The Shukal group does not intermarry with the other two*. 

The Krishan Brahmans are also cultivators and accept almost any 
alms. They also practise widow remarriage and the rit custom. The 


* The Shukal are not stated to correspond to the Shukla, or to to Brahmans to Brahmans 


132 


Brahmans degraded hy function. 

Pujdris or Bhojgis are temple-priests or chelas of a god. They appear 
to have only recently become a distinct group. Some are merely ptij arts 
and accept no alms living by cultivation. These do not intermarry with 
the Krishan Brahmans. Others accept alms in the name of a deceased 
person and use the ghi with which idols are besmeared in Mdgh. They 
intermarry with the Krishan group. 

When Paras Ram* a Gaur Brahman overthrew the Rajputs the Sdrsuts 
protected those of their women who survived and when the Rdjputs 
regained power they replaced the Gaurs by S^rsuts. Paras Ram had 
extended his conquests as far as Nirmand in the Sard.j tahsil of Kullu and 
there he established a colony of Gaur Brahmans in 6 villages, still held 
in mudfi by them. These colonists are now spread over Bashahr, Kullu, 
Sard] and Suket, and they are called Palsrdmi or Parasrdmi to this day. 

Both the Gaur and Sarsuts are also cross-divided into the Sssani, or 
beneficed, and Dharowar groups. t The former are priests or parohits 
of the ruling families, being supported by the rents of their lands and 
the dues received from their clients. The latter live by cultivation, but 
do not hold revenue-free grants. Neither group accepts alms given to 
avert the evil influence of certain planets or offered during an eclipse.J 

The Impuee Beahmans. 

We now come to deal with the groups of Brahmans who exercise 
degraded or spiritually dangerous functions. In contradistinction to 
the uttam or ‘pure’ Brahmans discussed above — Brahmans who serve 
pure castes and fulfil pure functions — we find groups of Brahmans who 
exercise impure or inauspicious functions. These groups are known 
by various names, but in some parts of the Punjab, e.g., in Midnw^li 
they are divided into two classes, the Madham, Mahd,-Brahman or 
Acharaj, and the Kanisht. The Madham form a kind of ‘ middle ’ class, 
performing functions which though unlucky and even unclean, are 
ritualistic. The Kanisht on the other hand are minor priests, whose 
rites are hirgely magical, rather than religious; and they include such 
groups as the Ved-patr, Dakaut and Sawani. 

* The tradition begins by asserting that the Gaur accompanied the Rajputs from the 
plains, and that the latter usurped the Gaur’s power. 'J hey then made the Gaurs their 
parohiis, but annexed their principalities. Later Kankubj and Maithila Brahmana 
accompanied those Rajputs Avho escaped from the plains after the Muhammadan invasions 
and found a refuge in tho hills. 

t The Dharowar intermarry with the Krishan Rrahmans of the Hills, and give daughters 
to the Sasanf and Shukal groups, but not to the Krishan group. ^ 

f It must not be imagined that this description exhaosts the ramidcations of the Hill 
Bratmiiins. Ihns in Knmtiarsain we learn tliat there are Sarsnt Brahmans, Jhakhrii by 
family, descended from Gautama ris/u‘, and other families descended from Bhardwai 
rishi. These latter came, some from Kilshi, others from Sindh, and they intermarry infer 
se or with Bhardwaj Brahmans settled in Bashahr. They worship Brahma, as well as 
Vishnu, Maliesh and the 10 incarnations. Tliese Bhardwdj, who are known as the four 
Brahman fobs, will not intermarry witli a cla.s.s of Brahmans called Paochi because the 
latter have stooped to widow remarriage. Yet the Paochi is not the lowest group for 
below it are tlie Pujaras, also tSarsnts, wearing the janco, and affecting the various hill 
(fcohis, of whose lands they are mostly hereditary tenants. Pujaras permit the beda ‘ 
form of marriage, and also tho rit system which is in vogue among the Kanets of the 
Simla Hills. They can also eat from a Knnet’s hands, but Paochi Brahmans will not e t 
from theirs. The Pujaras are uumcrous and fairly widespread from Suket to Keonthal 
and Bashahr, giving their name to one Pujarli village in the last-named State and to 
another in Balsan. ’ ^ 


i Brahmans degraded hy function, 183 

The Maha-Brahman or Acharaj. 

Malid-Brahman is usually said to be synonymous with Achdraj, but, 
strictly speaking, tlio AI ah a- Brahmans appear to be a sub-division of 
the Garagachdraj'* * * § ^ or Achdraj. They are tiiemselves divided into two 
groups, Garg and Sonana. On the other hand in Kangra the Achdraja 
is said to bo one of the two groups of Mahd-Brahmans. 

Of these the Dikhat has the following sections : — 

1. Josi. 3. Sonami. 5. Taiuuayat, 

2. Kand^ff. 4. Siitrak. 

The Mahd-Brahmans are endogamous. They give alms in the name 
of the dead after death to Sanidsis, or occasionally to a daughter’s 
father-in-law. The Brahmans do not receive anything in return for 
performance of marriage ceremonies. 

In Kdngra they (and the Sdwanis) are said to have the Bdri and Bun- 
jiihi groups, and this is also the case in Midnwdli. In Kdngra the Achd- 
raj gots are — 

Asil. Badas, Parasar. Sandal. 

A noteworthy offshoot of the Acharaj are the Par-achdrajt, or 
Mahd-achdraj as they are called in Amritsar, j; who accept those gifts 
from the Acharaj which the Achdraj themselves take from other 
Hindus after death. 

The function of the Mahd-Brahman or Achdraj is to accept the 
offerings made after a death in the name of the deceased. Originally 
the term achdrya meant simply a guide or teacher in matters spiritual, § 
and the process whereby it has come to denote a great sub-caste of 
‘sin-eating’ Brahmans is obscure. As a body the Achdryas trace 
their origin to the 5 Gaurs and the 5 Dardwars, asserting that those 
who accepted offerings made within 13 days|| of a death were excom- 
municated by the other Brahmans and formed a sub-caste. As the 
only occasion on which an Achdrya visits a house is at or after a death 
his advent is naturally inauspicious, and his touch is pollution. After 
he has quitted the house water is scattered on the floor to avert ‘ the 
burning presence of death,’ and, in Kdngrra and Multdn, villagers 
throw charcoal, etc., after him. In the Simla hills the Mahd-achdraj 
occupies a special position. lie is the parohit of the king, chief or 
wealthy people and represents the dead man and as his substitute is 
fed sumptuously for a whole year by the kin. In some places he even 
takes food from the hand of the corpse on the pyre, but this custom 
is dying out and it now suffices to bribe the Mahd-achdraj to eat to his 
utmost capacity, the idea being that the more he eats the better it will 

* Garagji was a saint who composed the work on astrology called the Qnrag San^dd which 
s said to bo rare. ’ 

fin Kangra the Par-acharaj are called Ojha and are Agam by got. In Kulln they are 
known as Bhapachiirya. ^ 

:in Amritsar and Mianwali the Maha-acharya make the death-gifts to their daughters 
or sons-in-law : in Kangra Saniasis take these gifts in certain cases. In Siallwt the 
Achdraj make them to Saniasis, or their own daughters, »>., the Maha-achdrai auDcara 
to be unknown. ■' 

§ Especially one who invests the student with *the sacrificial thread and instructs him 
in the Vedas, in the law of sacrifice, etc. ; Platts, IJinduKtcini Dicfy. 

II Or, in Kangra, for 11 days from Brahmans, 13 from Kshatrias, 16 from Vaisyas and 31 
from Sudras, i.e., during the period of impurity after a death. ^ 


134 


DaJcaut Weather-lore, 


be for the soul.* Ordinary people, however, only feed an Ach^raj for 
13 days after a death, but Brahmans also receive food for the dead 
occasionally after that period. 

The AcMraj, however, also officiates as a Wateshar in death 
observances. 

The Dakaut Brahmans. 

The Dakaut or Dak-putra derives his name from Daka,t a Brahman 
who founded the caste. Once on his way to the Ganges, Bhadli, a 
KumhdrnijJ persuaded him to bathe instead in a pond, professing that 
she could get him bathed there in the Ganges. As soon as he 
touched the water he found himself by her enchantment in the river, 
so he made her his wife. Here we have an obvious allegory. 

A Dakaut of MidnwdK gives another version of this legend 

Dak was the son of Ved Viyds, the author of the Puranas, and 
was chosen in a Swdyamhar as her husband by Bhandli. Bhandli 
was the daughter of the Raja of Kashmir, who celebrated her 
Swdyamhar with the condition that she should wed the man who 
answered her questions. Dak did so and married her. The Granth 
Bhandli in Punjdbi gives all Bhandli’s questions and Dak’s answers 
in verses of which the following are examples : — 

Ear andheri ashiami ode chand hadlon clilidyd 
Chari pahhi tarmali ganjar hasni dyd, 

Foochho, parho Pandato vdcho Ved, Pordn 
Eh hi to pdni hhoo men eh hi to pari nashdn 
Nohdri to chdndni sunre hant same hd, bhdo 
Na harsi na goh hari na Poorab, Pachham vdo 
Bald hleva hharch har dharn najhali ghds. 

A rough translation reads ; 

‘ What would happen if the moon be covered by a cloud on the 
eighth dark night of the moon in the month of As^rh ? All the four 
signs forebode the fall of rain. 

* The Brahman who ate from a dead man’s hand was a Kashmiri. In by-{»one days 
when a rdjd or wealthy man died his direct passage to Heaven was secured by the follow 
ing rite. His corpse was laid out on the ground and between it and the pyre, which was 
built not far off, was made a hearth on which khfr (rice in milk) was cooked. This was 
placed in a skull, which was pot in the dead man’s hand, and thence the Brahman was 
induced to eat the khir by a fee of Rs. 1,000 to Ra. 30,000, or the grant of a village. He 
thus became a Khappari (fr. khopri or khapri, a skull), and he and his children after 
him were out-castes. Supernatural powers were attributed to them, and as they also 
pursued usury, they rapidly grew rich. After two or three generations, however, the 
Khappari’s family could bo re-admitted into caste on payment of a fine, and so on. A 
plate or lota is said to have been substituted for the skull. In Mandi State a Brahman, 
who must bo good-looking, is fed and dressed for a year like the deceased RAja, At the ex- 
piration of the 3'^ear he is turned out of the State, and goes to Hnrdwar.He must never look 
back on the journey, and is never allowed to return to the State, which pays him a pension. 

t In MianwAK the Dakauntri (sic) are said to be Suds by caste and descendants of Dak 
Bandli, who composed a grant h on astrology called the Banclli Qranth. In Rohtak the 
Daks arc said to be descended from Sahdec rinhi, a dacoit (whence their name) who 
composed the Sahdeo BhAdli (Bhadli, his wife, was a sweeper woman). In this work natural 
phenomena are interpreted to forecast the future ; e.g., Svkkar ivdll hddli ruhl sanishchar 
chde kahe Sahdeo: ‘sun Bddli bin barse nahln jdc.’ i.Q,, “ If clouds appear on Friday 
and stay till Saturday, they will not pass away without rain.” In these verses Sahdeo 
usually addresses BhAdli. 

J In Gurgaon too Sahdeo is said to have met a sweeper woman who told him that the 
^inspicions moment had passed and bade him dive in a tank. He did so, and brought up 
first a gold bracelet and then an iron one. Thinking her an expert he married her. 


Dahaut functions. 185 

Ask the ]jandits to study tliG effects of tliis rainfall in tlio Vedas or 
Puninas. 

The results are that there will be no water left anywhere save 
a little in wells and in other low places (meaning that this in- 
auspicious rainfall will be followed by a scarcity of rain). 

If it does net rain and the wind does not blow for 9 months what will 
be the result ? 

The land will have no verduro and it is bettor to leave it with bag and 
baggage.’ 

Purah tithe hadli, pachham chale wd, 

1)ah hake sun Bhandli manji andar pd. 

* If a cloud appear from the east and the wind blow from the 
west ; Dak would ask Bhandli to take her cot inside.’ 

Titar hhanhlu hadli ran maldi khd. 

0 wase, 0 ujre hhdli Jcoi na jd. 

* A cloud like partridge feathers, and a woman given to eating cream ; 
the one will rain and the other bring ruin, without a doubt.’ 

Another story is that when Ram Chandar invaded Ceylon, both he 
and his enemy Rawana were under Saturn’s sinister influence, and 
before he crossed the strait which he had bridged Rdtu Chandar 
desired to give alms. But neither the Brahmans nor the Mahd- 
Brahmans nor the Bias, would accept them, and in answer to his 
prayer Brahma created a doll of grass, sprinkled sar jiwan* * * § amrit 
over it by cutting Piirbati’s little finger, and thus endowed it with 
life. Shivji and Durga bestowed on him veracity, the ja^teo and the 
tilak, and Brahma bade him receive the alms offered to Rahu and 
Ketu, and to Saturn — whence he was also called Sanichari. 

The Dakaut, however, bears yet other names. As he knows a little 
astrology and can divine the evil influence of the planets, he is 
sometimes styled Jotgi ; in Rupar he is called Pd,nda, and round 
Sirhind and Mdler Kotla Dhaonsif. One group is called Arpopof 
because it is skilled in palmistry §. 

From Sidlkot comes a still more curious legend : Varah Mihr, a great 
astrologer from the Deccan, came in the course of his wanderings to a 
Gujar village. While discoursing to tho people his period of yoga 
ended, and he confessed that had he been at home that day his wife 
would have conceived and borne a son of marvellous intelligence. His 

* Whence the name Dakaut d<ihM-put. In Gurgaon dak is said to mean ‘ wanderer.’ 
In this District the Dak is said to be no true Brahman, but a singularly astute cheat whoso 
victims are mainly women. These he instigates to burn 7 tungas (thatched roofs?) of a 
hut on 7 successive Saturdays, in order to secure male issue. Or he sets husband and wife 
by the ears by declaring that their burj or stars do nob coincide, and that remedial measures 
must bo taken.’ Seated among the women he looks at the hand of one and tho forehead of 
another : consults his pntrd or tnblo, counts on his fingers, and then utters common- 
place prediction.s. lie knows hardly any astrologj'. On Saturday ho goes round bogging 
with an idol of Sanishchar, and ho accepts a buffalo calf born in Magh or a foal born in 
Sawan, or any black animal. 

fSee Puniuhi Dieftj., p. SO.*). 

t Cf, Harar-popo among the Bhatrds, where it is said to equal thng. In Karnal tho Arar- 
popo is described as a beggar who may be a Gaur Braiiman or a Chauhati (Rajput). 

§ The Bhojkis arc quite distinct from the Dakauts, but owing to similarity of function the 
Dakauts are sometimes called Bhojki, e.g., in Jaipur, 


Vahaut functions. 

hostess asked him to form a temporary union with her daughter-iudaw 
on the condition that her child should belong to him. So Dak was 
born. Years after J^ak had to be surrendered to his father despite 
his attachment to his mother’s kin, but on the road home he saw that 
the corn in one field was mixed with stalks of a different kind like 
those in one close by. His father, however, taught him that those 
stalks belonged not to the sower but to the owner of the field* ; and 
Dak applying the analogy to his own case compelled his father to 
restore him to his mother’s kinsfolk. He founded the Dakauts. 

None of these variants quite agree with the account of the Dakauts 
given in the Karndl Gazetteer, 1890, which runs : — 

The Dakauts came from Agroha in the Dakhan. Raja Jasrat 
(Dasaratha), father of Ramchandra, had excited the anger of Satnrday 
by worshipping all the other grahas but him. ISaturday accordingly 
rained fire on Jasrat’s city of Ajudhia. Jasrat wished to propitiate him, 
but the Brahmans feared to take the offering for dread of the conse- 
quences; so Jasrat made from the dirt of his body one Daka Rishi who 
took the offerings, and was the ancestor of the Dakauts by a Sudra 
woman. The other Brahmans, however, disowned him ; so Jasrat 
consoled him by promising that all Brahmans should in future consult 
his children. The promise has been fulfilled. The Dakauts are pre- 
eminent as astrologers and soothsayers, and are consulted by every 
class on all subjects but the dates of weddings and the names of children, 
on which the Ganrs advise. They are the scapegoats of the Hindu 
religion ; and their fate is to receive all the unlucky offerings which no 
other Brahman will take, such as black things and dirty clothes. 
Especially they take the offerings of Wednesday, Saturday, and Ket, 
They are so unlucky that no Brahman will accept their offerings, and 
if they wish to make them, they have to give them to their own sister’s 
sons. No Hindu of any caste will eat any sort of food at their hands, 
and at weddings they sit with the lower castes ; though of course they 
only eat food cooked by a Brahman. In old days they possessed the 
power of prophecy up to 10-30 a.m. ; but this has now failed them. 
They and the Gujr^tis are always at enmity, because, as they take 
many of the same offerings, their interests clash. 

In Kfingra a confused variant of this legend makes Dak the astro- 
loger’s son by a Jat girl, and Bhiindli the daughter of a RdjiS,, whom 
Dak won in a swdyamhar a, answering all her questions by his art. 
Their son was Bojru. 

Another variant makes Garg give a miraculous fruit to the daughter 
of Gautama riahi. She eats it and vomits up a boy, who is in con- 
sequence called dak (vomiting). 

In the Simla hills two legends regarding the origin of the Dakauts 
are current. According to the first the birth of Saturn ,t decreased the 
Sun’s light and power of illumination, so a Brahman propitiated the 
planet. Saturn was so pleased that he bade the Brahman ask a boon 
and agreed to become his pupil. He also proclaimed his intention of 
persecuting mankind unless placated by constant worship atid devotion 

* The theory of paternity in Hindu Law is based upon a closely similar idea. 

I Hindu mythology avers that the Sun lost a sixteenth of his power on the birth of 
Saturn, bia eon. 


187 


The Bojrue. 


His ovll inflaencG was to last for 7^ years, but lio assured the Brahman 
that ho should be kept in comfort provided ho and liis descendants 
worshipped the god. The Dakauts are his descendants. 

The other story is that the Brahman fell under Saturn’s evil influ- 
ence. He was instructing a king’s daughter, and in the room was a 
wooden peacock which swallowed its pearl necklace. The Brahman 
was suspected of its theft and kept in custody for 2^ days when, 
Saturn’s influence ceasing, the necklace was disgorged by the bird and 
his innocence proved. When he reproached the god Saturn coolly told 
him that he was lucky in getting off with 2^ days’ instead of the full 
term of 7^ years of illduck. 

In the Kdngra hills the Dakaut is usually called Bojrd*. Bojru 
means thought- reader and in olden times the Bojrus practised black 
magic, not astrology, Now-a-days they practise palmistry. 

In Kiingra the Bojru or Dakaut groups are said to be 3G in number ; 
of these the following are found in that District ; — 


1. Subdchh. 

3. 

Bachh, 

2. Pariisar. 

4. 

Gol. 

In Kdngra tahsil— 



Shakartari ... Machh got. 

1 Mallian 

Bawalia . . . Ndgds 

got. 

' Bhuchal 

In Hamirpur tahsil — 



Shakartilri. 


1 Gaur. 

Lalian. 


1 Gora. 


5. Panus ? Tdnus. 

6. Nagds. 


• • • • • • 

... Nagds rjot. 


The Pakauts in Mianwdlf are said to be Vasisht by gotra. 

In the Punjab the Bojrus are called Teli-rajds, because they rub their 
bodies with oil, wear clothes soaked in oil and make a t'lkd of vermilion 
on their foreheads. They mostly beg from women, and carry about 
with them an image of Jawalsmuklu who lives, they say, in Kdngra, 
and declares her acceptHnee of an offering by burning one half of it 
with her fiery tongue. Women are induced to give rings and clothes to 
the idol in return for dhtip and sandhur sanctified by the goddess’ touch. 
Small-pox is cured by applying the sandhur to the patient or burning 
the dhiip before him. The Tcli-rdjas also tell fortunes by the samudrik. 

The Dakauts have 36 gots or sdsans like the Gaurs including the 
following : — 

Gosi, Ghosf. Faria, Peria. 

Jol. Rai. 

Knyastha. 

Kant, 
alia n. 

Mahar. 

Malpian. 

Fagoshia. 

In Jind five gots are found, viz., Raike, (which stands highest of all), 
Pagoshia, Lalan, Paryd and Gorya. All these intermarry. 


Agarwal 
Chhalondia. 

Dhakari. 

Uadhigoria. 

Gangora. 

Ginia. 

Uor, Gaur, from Gaiiv in 
Bengal. 


Vaid. 

Satwal. 


* And the name dahiut is said to be derived from dak, a small drum, which the Bojrus 
beat on Saturdays, when begging ; but it is also said that Dak was the son of Garg rish{ hj 
a Kumh4rni. They also beat a small drum over one’s head to drive away evil. 


138 


A « 

The Sdwanis. 

Of tlie 3G sdsaiis' 30 are found in Ndblia (where they are called 
Jotffis) and the other l5 form the sub-caste called the Purbia or Eastern 
J)akauts who are of inferior status* * * § These two sub-castes eat and 
drink together, but do not intermarry. Betrothals are negotiated by 
MirdsiS, not by JShus. In marriage 4 gets are avoided, t and karewa 
is allowed. None of the 5 pure Brahman groups certainly, oi any 
other Brahman, it is said, will eat with the J)akaut or smoke with 
them : nor will Banids do so. 

These Dakauts take offerings [dan) and alms {pnn). They accept 
child yd dans, as well as those made to Sanichar (Saturn), Ketu and 
Eahu. They also bog on Saturdays, receiving oil and coppers^ from 
Hindus. When begging they carry an iron image of Saturn. ^ These 
dans are supposed to bo karurX (hard, inauspicious) and to bring evil 
influences on the recipients, whence the proverb : 

Kdl Bdgar so iipje, hurd Brahman se hoe. 

‘ Famine comes from the Bdgar, and evil is done by the Brahman.* 

In Rohtak they live by palmistry and by begging, especially on a 
Saturday on which day they beg for oil,§ soap, coppers, a goat, 
he-buffaP, camel, horse, black grain, or other mean gifts. Some of 
them make a p/i-erii or ‘tarn,’ by going through a fixed number of 
lanes and repeating a fixed number of sentences at each door at a certain 
Ijour — usually early in the day. Besides gifts of oil made before bathing 
on a Saturday, Dakauts take gifts of iron, oil, salt, sweets, clothes, 
etc., weighed against persons who are under the influence of Saturn. 

The Pakauts observe all the Brahmanical ceremonies, and have 
Brahmans of their own. On the birth of a son they perform the 
ordinary Brahmanical rites, the ndm-karan, chaul karan, anna-p)rdsna, 
chura-karan, and ttpnayan karan. Their betrothal, wedding and 
general rites are also like those of other Brahmans. 

The Dakauts study astrology in the Bhadri Chhand and other Hindi 
chhands, sometimes also from Sanskrit works. 

The Sawani or Sanwni Brahmans. 

Another term equivalent to Dakaut or Vedwd is Sdwani, a Brahman 
who in Gurgaon interprets natural phenomena or the voices of birds 
and animals to forecast the future. The Sawaius appear to come from 


* Because it is said they eat flesh and drink liquor, which the Jotgis eschew. But the 
real reason would appear to be that they will accept certain offerings which a pure brah- 
man would not take, such as those made to avert the influence of Kahii and Ketii. 

The Dakauts have also the Brahmanical gotms, Bhardwaj, Bashist, etc., (Nabha). 

t Only one f5d.sa?i- is avoided according to the Nabha account. 

X Dakauts, however, do not accept offerings made on the dead. These go to the Acharaj 
or Maha-Brahman. 

§ In Ferozepore they beg for oil of rapesecd in small quantities almost as of right, 
singing 


“ Oil and copper go together, he who 
therewith worships Saturn will be for 
ever happy.’’ 

Well-to-do Hindus pour a little oil into a vessel, enough to reflect their face in, and give 
it to the Dakaut. This ensures them long life. 


Tel Idmhe kd mel, 
Chhaniclihar mandwe, 
Sadd sukh pdu'e. 


T/ifl Ved-^dtn. 


139 


Lucknow, but tlio name is known as far west as Dera Ismdil Khan and 
Bahdwalpur.* 

The Ved-pats BiiAQMANS. 


It is not easy to say definitely what the Ved-piltr is. The word 
itself would certainly appear to mean ‘Wossel of the Vedas,” and thoso 
of tho Ved-patr wlio study the Vedas and expound them to disciples 
are styled Ved-pathis.t Others, it is said, merely perform the aapindi 
and pind-clihedan harm on the r2th day after a derih, but these rites 
are usually pei formed by an Achuraj. 


In Gurgaon the Ved-pdtrs accept alms at eclipses and are also 
known as Gnjnltis, and this is the case in Sitllkct too, but in Amritsar 
tho Ved-pdtr ranks below the Gujr^tis and traces his descent from Ved 
Datt, the son of the Gnjntti fealideo by a Sudra woman. The Ved- 
pdtr is also called Vedwa, and the Dakauts are an inferior branch of the 
Vedwas, being descendants of I)ak who married Patli a Mlechh woman. 
The Vedwd/S take chlunji-patrX and other forbidden gifts, such as cocks 
and goats ; but the Dakaut is on an even lower plane for he accepts 
buffaloes, male or female, horses, etc., while standing in water. 

In Bannu the Gujniti is said to be also known as Ved-patr, which 
again is equivalent to l.)ak, or in Kashmir and the hills to Bojru; in 
Peshd-war and Kohat to Fandit or Madho ; in Dora Isindil Khdn to 
Sawani ; and in Lahore, etc., to Dakaut. Dak, a Bjahman, is said to 
have married Bhadli, a courtezan, and from them are descended tho 
Daks, whoso rjotra is Kaplash, their gots being — 

fBakhar. f 

I Dag\va. I Bakar. 

In Bannu Tahir. In Dera Ismail KMn ... Vedpal. 

I I’atiwil. I Brahmi, etc. 

bRathor. t. 


The Dakauts accept unlucky offerings, such as satana (7 kinds of 
grain mixed), oil, iron, goats, buffaloes and chhdyd-jxitr on Saturdays 
and eclipses. They also practise palmistry according to the Samndrak 
Shastras, and swindle women, whom they frighten by means of charms 


* In Alianwali the Sawanfs are saiJ to live bj’’ astrology and magic, divining evil 
influences by moans of two iron pegs in a cup, in some obscure way, after tho manner of tho 
Jogis and Muhammadan Doris. In Bahiiwalpur tliey are described as wandering out-castes, 
descended from a Brahman by a sweeper woman. Khatris, Aroras and other Brahmans will 
not associate with them and they accept black gifts at eclipses etc. 

t See riatts, p. 1208. Platts does not give Ved-patr, but both in Gurgaon and Rolitak pdtr 
is declared to mean “ vessel.” 

t The ^Vedwji takes alms on Saturdays, Sundays and Tuesdays, also when tho sun passes 
into Rahu and Ketu, as well as to avert their influence at any other time. 

Offerings to Brahmans are divided into bar or graha, for the days of the week, and the 
two grahin for Rahu and Ket, the two demons who cause eclipses by attacking the sun 
and moon. These two are parts of a demon (rdJ;shasa), who, when sitting at dinner with 
the gods and demons drank of tho neofar of the gods instead of the wine of the demons. 
The sun and moon told of him, and Bhagwan cut him into two parts, of whicli Fahu in- 
cluding the stomach and therefore the nectar, is tho more worthy. 'When any body wishes 
to offer to Brahmans from illness or other chuso, ho consults a B.uhman who casta 
hiS horoscope and directs which offering of tho seven graham should he made. The grahins 
are more commonly offered during an eclipse, that to Rahu being given at tho beginning 
and that to Ket at the end of the transit. 'J'he Gaur Brahmans will not take any black 
offerir.gs, such as a buffalo or goat, iron, sesame {til) or urd, black blankets or clothes, 
salt, etc., nor oil, second hand clothes, green clothes; nor gatndja, which is seven grains 
a piece of iron in them ; tliese belonging to the grahe whose offeiings aro 
forbidden to them. An exception, however, is made in favour of a black cow. 


140 


The Dasaurias and Bids, 


writtGii on papov in invisible ink. These practices are, however^ said to 
be confined to Dakauts from K^ngra. 


The Dasauria Brahmans, 

nie Sanrias or Dasaurias* * * § practise exorcism in the following way : — 
Four or more are called in and they apply fumes to the patient’s 
nostrils, while lie sits on his feet, reciting meanwhile charms like this : 
Le bulare mere hhalna, ae apni laher sarnbhdl, “ Jump up, my sturdy 
one come in your ecstasy.” What with the heat and the strong scent 
theVatient perspires freely, and this operation is repeated twice a day 
until his senses return. The exercisers get Rs. 5 or 1 0 as their fee. 
The patient is fed on almonds and cMiriA The solemnity of the rite is 
sometimes enhanced by performing it on a burning ground.^ 

A few Saurias are found in Rohtak where they work wonders with 
charms. They can thrust a sword through a man without hurting 
him, and bring sickness on an enemy. In Gurgaon§ by collecting a 
dead man’s bones they magically obtain full control over his ghost, and 
to defeat them one of the bones should always be hidden. In Si41kot 
they are exercisers, but also haunt burning-grounds. 

The Gujrati or Bias Brahmans. 


The Gujrd,ti ia a territorial group, which immigrated from Guzerat. 
Gujrati Brahmans also bear the following professional titles : — 


1. Bias, moaning updeshak or preacher. 

2. Joshi, for Jotashi, astrologer. 

3. Pandaji, =Pan(i»ta. 

4. Mahta or chief. 

5. Bawal or itinerant sddltii.II 


G. Tanvari, or one who has performed a 
karma kand of ten sanskdrs, directed 
others to perform them and himself 
acted as a priest at those rites, 

7. Janji, or family priest, who used to act 
as a go-between at betrothals, as the 
Nais now do. 


The GujriUi Brahmans also have 4 main groups which rank in the 
following order : — 

. T n. Vadanigar H 3. Andich or PaliArh 

Sub-caste i. ^ 2. ]s’,igar or Visalnagars.** 4, Bararia or SrimAli. 

Of these groups the Vadandgar are the py (family priests) of the 
Ndgars, whose daughters they take in marriage and with whom they 
eat both kaclichi and jmkki. The Nagars, however, cannot take 
Vadanagar girls in marriage. Both these first two groups avoid any 
intercourse with the two last. The Bdrarias are the Bias of the 
niehi-sharan or lower grade ; because Bdrar married a girl of his own 
family. 

The relations of the Gujrati to other Brahmans are curiously 
contradictory at first sight, but perfectly logical in reality. Owing to 
their strictness in religious observances, and their purity in food and 

* The practices here ascribed to the Saurias are also said to be characteristic of a Sarsut 
Bub-caste, called Channan. 

+ Wheaten bread kneaded with ghi. 

1 But in Miiinwali a group of the Sarsuts called Channan performs this. 

§ The form in Gurgaon is Sevra and in Amritsar apparently Sarorei. 

H These occupations are not now followed, ne( essarily, by those who bear these titles. 

% The Vadanagar are said to take their namefrem A adauogii, a town east of Baltan. 
Prom Yisal town, but see the text. 


The Husaima. 


141 


areas they rank as the highest* of all the Brahman groups, and confer 
the aahirhdd or benediction on the Gaur and the hArsut. In spi 0 
of this they are all looked down upon for taking ihe chhayaf (shadow), 
qrahant (eclipse) and tula ddn^ (offerings) : that is to say, they are 
despised for taking upon themselves tho sins of the community. 

In marriage two gotras are usually avoided, but sometimes only one 

is excluded. Exchange marriages are very common At a redding 

tho biidegroora wears a sihra or chaplet only, not a crown [maur). 
The pair are dressed like Shiva and Pilrbati in silk.H 

At weddings tho Ndgars worship Shiva tho destroyer, nnd at 
funerals Vislmu the nourisher, a curiously perverse reversal of the 
oniinary rule. Shiva is their Mt-deu,a. They observe the ten karm, 
of Shiva, and are guided by tho rarxann-mmxm or Jmmm-sutra. 


The Gujrditi Sfofms are : 

Gargas. 1 | 

Gautam. 1 Kashiva. I 

The Gujrdti are said to have no gots. 

The flusAiNi Brahmans. 


Piri«ar. 

Sandra*. 


The Husaini Brahmans are Hindus, wear the Janeo and mark the 
tiUk on their foreheads, but they beg from Muhammadans and not 
froin Hindfis, and narrate the story of Uazrat Imam “ 

they are called Husaini. They say they were originally Bhdt ' 

and^ have some of their oof. s;—Gappe, Bliilkar, Unde, Gdre, Bargopah 
Kati Chat Chiit, Babat,'^Bhfirndw4ii, Diingrmtr, and many more. 11 ey 
marry in their own caste, avoiding 4 gots in marriage. They cannot 


— '• n / /.ndirorl Viv Oaur or SHTSUt Braluniins i nor nny Hindu 

* They do not eat kachchi or pahlci ^ people of such pure Itindu castes 

caste; bht they may take «weet stull cooked m Bias Brahmans, .-ho 

as the Gaur and Sarsut Brahmans, and the Banias ine^^J Brahmans; they are 

came from Guzerat are in they meet him, while they will not eat 

always fed first; and 

ordinary bread from his hands They are manspicions 

will not eat on the 13th day, it They wi 1 

offerings. To them appertain especiallj B if washed, 

not take oil sesame, Roats or S''*’®" offering to Kaliu made by a sick person, 

buffaloes, and satvdja They “ ®P and gives it to a Gnirati, or who weighs himself 

who puts gold in ghi, looks at his face in it R ^ bnff do which has been possessed 
against satndja and rnakos to the top of a house (often no difficult feat 

by a devil to that degree that he has got J are given 

in a village), or a foal dropped in would take them. Every harvest the Gnjrati 

to the GujrAti as being nnlncky. No G^ • ^ threshing floor, just as does the Ganr. 

takes a small allowance Cseorhi) of fT^V^/^hness the giver looks at his reflection in some 
t The chhdyd-ddn is so called because in sicki^^ss m^^ ^ 

pH poured into a bronze cup (katori). H he is 

‘ Wre 

Iharni-bidhi dtin of black cloth ® ^ i .-a jji a cocoanu't, and ornaments. It must 

t The grahn.ddn comprises gold, A"^hrtank at Thanesar. Grain, clothes 

given by the offerer standing m the uater ot me lauA 

cows may be given at home. . jght in grain or coin. It is made by 

§The tuld.ddn is an offering equal to ones wcigiu t, 

wealthy people on their birthday. ^ke Krishna and R6dha. The nihra is a bridal 

11 Other Hindus are, it is said, dressed li e bridegroom. Krishna as a 

chaplet, the maur or mnkat is a P'''P®T, ^hiva or Mahadeva had no maur, even at hia 

wearer of the latter is called Mukldhari. .^hi n^his is interesting, but it leaves the 

wedding, whereas Krishna always wears the mukat. Ihis is inieresimg, 

use of the crown at weddings unexplained. 


be 

or 


142 


The Religion of the Brahmans. 

marry witli BhiU Bralimaas, but take water from their hands and vice 
versa. They are ignorant of their own religion and do not worship in 
viandars, but their janeos are made by Brahmans ; and auspicious times 
for weddings, etc., are fixed by them. They have the same customs as 
other Hindus, and believe in their pantheon. Their own tradition is 
that Yazid’s troops on their return, after cutting off Imdm Husain’s 
head, stopped in Rdhab, their ancestor’s home at Bdthowdl in the 
Siulkot District, and placed the head in his house. In the morning, 
finding the head to be that of the Prophet, he kept it, and gave the 
soldiers his own son’s head instead, but they discovered that it was 
not the same as the one they had brought. So Eahab cut off all his 
seven sons’ heads in succession and gave them to the soldiers. Since 
then Husainis beg from Muhammadans. 

The religion of the Beihmans. 

The Brahman, even the Hiisaini, is almost always a Hindu, but a 
few have become Sikhs. Conversion, however, does not appear to 
have created any new divisions in the caste, though it has had a 
disruptive influence in the following case ; — The Ihltak section, of 
the Sarsut Brahmans has two sub-divisions, Machhi-klnlnd and 
Khir-kln'u.tl. The former are parohit.s of the third Guiu of the Sikhs 
(Guru Araar Dtis), who was a Baishnav (abstainer from meat and 
drink). The second Guru (Angadl used to eat meat and fish. In 
order to follow the second Guru’s habit and yet maintain his Baishnav- 
ship, the third Guru gave a fish at the bhnddan (head-shaving^ 
ceremony of his son to his paro/wY, and so his descendants are called 
Machhi-khtln^s (fish-eaters) to this day. And the descendants of the 
third Guru at a son’s hhaddan at their temple at Gondwdl in Amritsar 
give a fish, made of gram -flour and boiled in oil, to their parohit (a 
descendant of the original Machlu-khflntl) instead of a live one. The 
ceremony, however, no longer called hhaddan — since shaving the head 
is prohibited among the Sikhs — and in its stead, the custom is to make 
the boy wear his hair long like a Sikh’s, whereas before that the boys’ 
hair was cut and plaited like a girl’s. 

Brahm-chari,* a religious student ; a Brahman from the time of his investi- 
ture with the Brahmanical thread until he becomes a house-holder; 
one who studies the Vedas under a spiritual teacher; an ascetic, a 
class of Hindu Siidhus. 

Brok-pa, Hiighlander,’ a term applied to the Shin element in Biiltistan : 
Biddulph, Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh, Ch. IV. 

BijeAk, a J^it clan (agricultural) found in Multan and in Balulwalpur. 

Buen, a dat or Rdjput clan found in Multdn tahsil, where they Avero settled 
by Sluihzdda Murad Bakhsh, governor of Multdn, under Shdh Jahdn. 

Bddb, a Baloch clau (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bodheke, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Bddhwal, a clan (agricultural) found in Shdhpur. 

Budli, Budui, the people, now extinct or absorbed, which held the country 
from Nangralnir to the Indus prior to the Afghan immigration ». They 
were divided into several tribes and are described by the Akhund 
Darweza as Kiifirs, but he does not refer to them as Buddhists. 


* I]armh or Band, in, is cciniptd fum the fcrthiil i\cid Eialv.a, 


143 


4 

Bughti — Bumrg. 

Bughtf, BuGTr, also called Zarkanni, an organized Balocg him an wliicli occu- 
pies the angle between the frontiers of the Punjab and Upper Sindh. 
Its clans arothe Raheja, No^hani,* Masori, Kalphur, Phong or Mondrdni 
and Shambani or Kiazai. The last, which is an almost inde})endent 
section, separates the main tribe from our border; while the Marri lie 
still further west. The Bugti a,re made up of various elements, chiefly 
Rind, but claim descent from Gytlndar, son of Mir Chakur, whose 
son Raheja gave his name to one of its septs, though the name has an 
Indian sound. The No^/uini clan has supernaturM powers (see p. 46, 
supra) and the Shainbiini form a snh-tu7nan, which is son)etimes con- 
sidered distinct from the Buerti. This tnman has its head-quarters at 
Syahilf, formerly Marrao or Dera Bibrak (fr. hivarogh, a chief), also 
called Bugti Dera. 

Buhar, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar : also in the Bahdwalpur, 
Bikdner and Jaisalmer States, and in Sindh, as well as scattered over 
Multan and Muzaffargarh. They are labourers, tenants and camel- 
breeders in the South-West Punjab and intermarry with the Dahas, 
Palydrs and Parhtirs, all branches of the Punwar stock. 

Buir, a Mahtam clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

BuKHAEi, a Sayyid clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar : see Sayyid. 

Bokneea, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

BulecZ/h (Buledi, BuleZ/ii, Burdi), an organized Baloch tuman in Dera Glnizf 
Khan, also found near the Indus in Upper Sindh, in the tract called 
Burdika, and in the Kachhi territory of Kalat. 

Buna, Buniya: see Chamtir. 

Buba, a small Jd-t clan, found in Jind. The samadh of its jathera is at 
Kallu Kotli in Patitila, and it is worshipped at weddings. 

ButjiANA, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Shdhpur. 

Bukaras. — The Buraras, originally named Hojali, are claimed by some 
as a Samma sept, but otlu'rs say they are a separate tribe. Their 
tradition is that they are descended from a R:ija of Girntlr near 
Junagadh, who migrated to Sindh and was converted to Ishlm. The 
saint who converted him gave him a hur (Ar. for cloak,'’) whence 
their name. They have three septs: — 

(i) Bhojri or Bhojri-pat)as, found in Bahilwalpnr and Bikaner, and 
the highest in status, (ti) Sathia, and (iu) Jokhia. 

Bubish : see Yashkun. 

Burra, a Jat tribe, found in Dera Ghazi Khan and Bahdwalpur. The title 
of Jdm is pre6xed to their names and it is probably of Sindhi origin. 

Buta, a J^t tribe, apparently confined to Hoshi.'irpur. Possibly the same as 
the Bhutta of the Western Plains or the Buttar of the Sikh tract. 

Bdtaba, fr. hut, a stone. A caste of stone-cutters, found in the Kdngra hills, 
who used to be employed on the forts and temples of that tract. Barnes 
described them as idle and dissipated. 

Butter, a small J^lt tribe found chiefly on the Upper Sutlej said to be 
descended from a Surajbansi Rajput who came from the Lakki jungle 
and settled first in Gujriinwdla. Also found as a Hindu Jtit clan (agri- 
cultural) in Montgomery. 

Bdzoeg, a title meaning ‘saint,’ acquired for instance by the Akhund of 
Swdt in addition to that of Akhund. 


* With two clans Zemakani or Durragh and Pherozani. 



f 


US 


C 

Notm. — O wing to the confasion between Ch and Chh—whioh I'a not confined to writinga 
in English — and that between J and Ch, which is frequent in Urdu writing, the articles 
under this letter are not all warranted to be correctly placed, 

CHABELDAs(f), -PANTHi; a petty sect, founded by an Arofa disciple of Shdniii, 
nametl Chabeldas, whose shrine is at Makhowdl Kalan in the Sanghar 
tahsil of Dera Ghdzi Khan. Its tenets differ little from those of 
Shamji’s followers. See Shdmddsf. 

Chachar, an agricultural clan, found in Shahpur and Multdn, classed as Jat 
in the latter District. In Bahilwalpur the Chdchafs claim Mughal 
origin and they pixiduce tables tracing their descent from Timur whom 
they connect with Abbds, cousin of Husain, son of Ali. But tradition 
says that the Surar, Subhdgo, Silro and Chachar tribes were once slaves 
of Ritja Bungd Ibli, raja of AmrkoC and that Jiim Jhakhar redeemed 
them, and there is a saying ; 

Surar, Suhliago, SUro, cliauthi Chdcharid, 

Anda hd Jam Jhakhare hd hdhndn Bimga Ra. 

" Surar, Subhago (or Subhdga), Silro (or Silni), (these three) and a 
fourth tribe, the Clulchar Avere tho slaves of Bungii Bai ; it was Jdm 
Jhakhar who brought thorn,” (offccting. their emancipation from Bungd 
Rni}. 

The Chdchars have several septs : — Rai-dc, the highest in status ; 
Rahniiini, whose ancestors were klialffaa of Ghaus Bahd-ud-Din Zakariya : 
hence they are also called Shaikh-RahmAni, and some sanctity still 
attaches to the sept ; Ndrang, Jugdna, Jhunjha, Chhutta, Gureja, 
Rukana, Kalra, Mudda, Duwdni, Dohija, Gabnini, Muria, Kharyani 
and Zakriiini or followers of Ghaus Bahd-ud-Din Zakariya. 

The whole tribe, however, are follow’ers of that saint and never 
become disciples of any but his descendants. Clulchar is also an Ariiin 
clan in the Punjab. Cf. Chachhar. 

Cbachhar, an Ardin clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

ChadXna, a Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Ghappha, (?) a sept of Khatris and of Jdts. 

Chaddrar, the correct form of Chhddhar {q. v.). 

Chaddu, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Shdhpur. 

Chadhar, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur, ^lultaii and Montgomery 
(Muhammadan). It is classed as Jdt in the two latter districts. Doubt- 
less the same as the Chhddhar {q. v.). 

CHApwf, an Ardin clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Chahak, a doubtful synonym of Chahng. 

^ Cbahang, see Chdhng. 

Chahar, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amntsai. 


146 ChdUl-^Chakl 

Chahal, or more correctly Chfiliil.— One of tlie largest J^t tribes in tlie 
Punjdb. They are found in greatest numbers in Pati^ila, but are very 
numerous in Amb^ilaand Ludliidna, Amritsar, and Gurd^spur, and extend 
all along under the hills as far west as Gujr^mwdla and Sifllkot. It is 
said that Kaja Agarsen Surajbansi had four sons, Chd,hil, Clilnna, Chima, 
and Stllii, and that the four Jilt tj-ibes who bear these names are 
SjU'ung from them : (yet they intermarry). Their original home was 
Mhlwa, whence they migrated to the Punjab. According to another story 
their ancestoi’ was a I’unwar Eiijput called Eikh, who came from 
the Deccan and settled at Kahlur. His son Birsi married a Jd,t woman, 
settled at Matti in the Mhlwa about the time of Akbar, and founded 
the tribe. 

In Amritsar the Chiihil say that Chhhal was a son of Ed,jd, Khang, 
who once saw some fairies bathing in a tank. He seized their clothes 
and only restored them on condition that one of them became his 
bride. One Ichhr^in was given him, on condition that he never abused 
her, and she bore him a son, but one day he spoke harshly to her and she 
disappeared.* But to this day no Chdhil ever abuses his daughter ! Settled 
first at Kot Gad^na near Delhi, the Clidhil migrated to Pakhi ChdliiMn 
near Ambdla and there founded Eala Joga or Jogarla in the Mdlwa. 

The Clulhil affect Jogi Pir, originally Joga, son of Eajpdl, who is said 
to have been killed, after fighting with the Mughals even when he had 
been decapitated. Jogi Pir is their clihara {? jalhera), and a fair is held 
in his honour on the 4th naiirdtra in Asauj. In Jind the Chdhil 
claim descent from Bala, a Chauhdn Edjput who took a Jdt wife, and 
so lost caste, but he acquired influence by accepting offerings made to 
Guga, and Chdhils, whatsoever their caste, still take these offerings.t 
In Jind the Chdhil worship Khera Bhumia. 

They are probably, says Mr. Fagan, Bilgris, originally settled in 
Bikdner. 

Chahal, a Hindu and Muhammadan Jdf clan (agricultural) found in 
Montgomery. 

CiiAONG, Chang, a minor agricultural caste, found in the western portion of 
the lower ranges of Kdngra and Iloshiarpur. In the Dasuya tahsil of 
the latter district they own some \’illages, but are generally tenants. 
The term appears to be a purely local synonym of Bdhti or Ghirth. 
The Ch^ng is quiet and inoffensive, diligent and a good cultivator, like 
the Saini of the plains. 

Chain, a sept of Brahmans, hereditary priests of Kconthal. 

Chatna, a small tribe, classed as Jdt, in Dera Ghazi Khdn. 

Chak, (1) a Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar, (2) a sept of Jdfs 
to which Ednjha is sometimes said to have belonged. f 

Chaki, Ciiakani, the hlultani equivalent for Teli or oilman. 

* Through an opening in the roof— and so Iho Chiihil do not make openings in their roofs 
to this day. 'J’hey also avoid wearing red clothes ; and, till recently, at any rate did not 
use baked bricks in their houses— a relic of the time when they were nomads, probably 
f In Jind tahsil it is indeed said that the fit juris of Giiga are generally called chdh'il • in 
Sangrur they aie known as lhagats. In Tatiala Chnhil is said to have been born of a hill 
fairy : and Balnnd Jogi Pir ia worshipped as their jathera. 

I PanJAbi Dicty,, p. 179, 


Chaharhe-^Chavidr. 


147 


CHAKAnKE, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Chakoea, a clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Chakealawi, fr. Chaknila a village in Mi^nw^li : a new sect, which 
rejects more than half the Qunin, founded by one Ghulain Nabi of 
Chakrala, whose followers call themselves Ahl-i-Qurdn, i.e., believers 
in the Qunin only. Tt rejects all the other traditions of the Prophet. 
Its founder has now changed his name to Abdullah as he objected 
to being called ghuhim (servant) of the Prophet. '-'He believes that the 
Quran is the only book which lays down what is required of a true 
Muslim and that the other subsidiary books and sayings of Muhammad 
are of no account. He has accordingly devised a new form of prayer 
which is distinct from that prescribed by the Prophet . 

His followers are numerous in the ShtlhbSz Khel and Ydru Khel 
villages of the Mianwdli tahsil, as well as in Dera Ismail Kluin and 
Lahore. A monthly journal called the Ishdat-ul-Quran used to bo 
published by Shaikh Chittu, a leading adherent of the sect in Lahore. 
As the sect did not thrive at Lahore its founder has now settled in 
Dera Ismail Khiin. 

Chamal, a Jdt clan (agi’icultural) found in Amritsar. 

Chamain, a tribe of Gujars, claiming descent from a Tunwar Rdjput by a 
Gujar mother. They came from Delhi and are very old inliMbiranta of 
the Karndl District, having possibly been expelled from Delhi by Sher 
Shdh. Chamain is probably only a local appellation. 

Chamae, Chamidr, fern. Chamari, -i4ri. 

The Chamtir is the tanner and leather--worker of North-Western In- 
dia,* and in the western parts of the Punjflb he is called Mochi whenever 
he is, as he generally is, a Musalmdn, the caste being one and the same. 
The name Chamar is derived from the Sanskrit charviahira or ‘Gvorker 
in hides.^’ But in the east of the Punjilb he is far more than a leather- 
worker. Ho is the general coolie and held labourer of the villages; and 
a Chamar, if asked his cast-e by an Englishman at any rnto, will 
answer " Cbolie ” as often as “ Chamdr.^t They do all the heg-xr, ov 
such wmrk as cutting grass, carrying wood and bundles, acting jis watch- 
men, and the like ; and they plaster the houses with mud when they 
need it. They take the hides of all dead cattle and the flesh of all cloven- 
footed animals, that of such as do noc divide the hoof going to Chuhr^s. 
They make and mend shoes, thongs for the cart, and whips and other 
leather work; and above all they do an immense deal of hard work in 
the flelds, each family supplying each cultivating association with the 
continuous labour of a certain number of hands. All this they do as 
village menials, receiving fixed customary dues in the shape of a share 
of the produce of the fields. In the east and south-east of the Punjab 
the village Charaars also do a great deal of weaving, which however is 
paid for separately. The Chamars stand far above the Chuhn'i.s in social 


• Sherring has a long disquisition on the Chamar caste, w’hich appears to be much mor« 
extensive and to include much more varied tribes in Ilindu&tan ihin in the Punjab. 

f Why is a Chamar always addressed with “ Oh Cbamiir he " instead of “ Oh Chamar,” 
as any other caste would be ? 


148 


Chamdr synonyms. 


position, aijcl some of tlieir tribes are almost accepted as Hindus.* They 
are generally dark in colour, and are almost certainly of aboriginal 
origin, though here again their numbers have perhaps been swollen by 
members of other and higher castes who have fallen or been degraded. 
The people say : 

Karid Brahman, got Chamdr 
In Tie sdth na utrie 'par. 

“ Do not cross the ferry with a black Brahman or a fair Chamar/^ 
one being as unusual as the other. Their women are celebrated for 
beauty, and loss of caste is often attributed to too great jiartiality for 
a Chamari. 

The traditional origin of the Chamars is that Chanu (or Chanwe) and 
Banu were two brothers: the former removed a cow’s carcase with his 
own hands and so Banut out-casted him.J In Kapurthala, however, 
another version is current, and according to this Gdt told his brother 
Met to remove a carcase and then declined to associate with him for 
doing so, and the Mirasi who witnessed the incident, took Gdt’s part. 
From Mat are descended the Chamars, 


Synonyms . — It is difficult to say what are the real s37iionym8 of Chamar. 
The term Chuhra-Chamar is often used to denote the group formed by 
the two castes, just as Mochi-Juh'iha is used, but it does not imply that 
the two castes are identical. Just as the Muhammadan Chamar is 
styled Mochi so the Sikh Chamar is called Ramdasia [qq. v.). In Sirsa 
a Chamdr is called Meghwdl as a compliment, but opprobiously he is 
styled Dhed§ or Dherh, a term applied to any Mow fellow’. The 
‘ Meghwal’ claim descent from Megh-rikh who was created by Narain. 


Groups . — The Chamilrs are divided into several sub-castes. In the 
Eastern Punjab there appear to be at least five true sub-castes which 
do not intermarry. These are in order of precedence : — ■ 

i. Chdndor, said in Delhi to trace its origin from Benares, possibly 

from some association with Kabir. It is the principal sub- 
caste in Hissdr, including Sirsa, and its members do not tan, 
leaving that to the Chamrangs and Khatiks, and working only 
in prepared leather. See also under Meghwdl. 

ii. Raiddsi or Rabddsi, named after Rai Dds Bhagat, himself a 

CliKindr, a ccntemporary of Kabir, and like him a disciple of 
Rdmdnand. It is the prevalent sub-caste in Karndl and its 
neighbourhood. 

. iii. Jatia, found in greatest numbers about the neighbourhood of 
Delhi and Gurgdon. They work in horse and camel hides 
which are an abomination to the Chdndar, probably as havincr 
the foot uncloven; and are perhaps named from the wordja? 


* The Chamars will eat food prepared by any tribe except tlie Kt.akrob (Cbnhra) Kaniar. 
SansiandNat. Sinokirifr is only all' wed amonur themselves and they will not eat or 
drink from a Dhobi, a Bum or a Nilyrar (indi<ro dyer). [KuniHlJ. 

t Hanu or Baiiwe here would appear to l)e thoVpunym of the IJania caste which is said 
to still worship an av and a ramhi at weddings. 

J A Dum witnessed the occurrence, and 80 to this day no Chamar will eat or drink 
from A Dum or Mirasi s hands. 


mr ni^?- Provinces, though closely allied 

TTitli the Chara 4 r. The Dhed is also a large tribe in Kadih and Sindh, also called Bhambi. 


The Chavidr suh-casies. 


149 


a camel-grazier. On tlie other hand, they aro said to obtain 
the services of Gaur Brjihmans, which would put them above 
all other Chamars, who have to bo content with the minisatrtions 
of the outcast Chamarwa Brahman. 

iv, Chambar, the prevalent sub-caste further west about Jullundur 
and Ludhitlna. 

V. Golia, lowest of all the sub-castes, indeed Golia is the name of 
a section of many menial castes in the Eastern Punjdb, and 
in almost all cases carries with it an inferior standing in the 
caste. 

Further west, in Ndbha, the sub-castes are, however, said to be four 
in number, viz, 

1. Buna (Bunia). 

2. Chamar. 

3. Oharoarwaj 1 i i. i i • 

4. Chanbai-M } who touol. UDcIean things. 

The Buna appears in Ludhiana as tho Bunia, a Sikh Chamdr, who 
having taken to weaving ranks higher than the workers in leather. 'J'he 
Bahtia* is also said to be a Sikh Chamar who has taken to Aveavinff, 
but many Rahtias are Muhammadans. 

Territorially tho Chamars in PatiMa are divided into two groups which 
do liot intermarry and thus form sub-castes. These are the Bagri, or 
immigrants from the Bagar, found in tho south-east of the State, 
and the Desk 

Among the Desi iu Patiala two occupational groups are found, viz., 
the Chamars who make shoes, and the Bonas, the latter sub-caste 
being weavers of blankets by occupation and Sikhs by religion. 

Tho Jind account divides the Channlrs into 5 sub-castes, viz., Rdm- 
ddsi, Jati4, Chdmar (sic), Pdthi and Raigar, but it is not clear Avhether 
these are occupational or territorial or sectarian groups. The Nabha 
account says they are divided into 4 groups, viz., Clianwar, Jatid, 
Bahmnia (?) and Cldmar (sic). The Ch^nwar are .-igHiii divided into 
two subcastes (?), Chan war proper, who are Sultanis by religion and 
Avorkers in leather; and the Bonas (or blanket-weavers) Avho are Sikhs 
of Guru Govind Singh. The Bonas are not found in the south-east. 
The Jatias (descendants of Jatti, Avife of R.smdsls) are found only in 
tho south-east and are regarded as inferiors by the Chanwars, who do 
not drink or smoke Avith them. A curious story is told of the origin 
of the Jatias, connecting the name Avith jharit (pubes). No ChanAvar 
Chamar would give the Jatia.s’ forefather a girl to wife, so he married 
a Chuhra’s daughter, but the j heras were not completed when a dispute 
arose, so tlie Chuhras and Jatias performed half the pheran outside and 
the rest inside ilie lionse until recently, i'he Jatia tan horse and camel 
hide, while the Chanwars of Bdw.il oidy tan the skins of kine, which 
the Jatid.s refuse to touch. 


* In Sirsa the word seems to be applied to ttic members of any low caste, such as Chamar 
or Chuhra. Mr. AVilson, however, had never heard the word usal. Iu Patiala it is said to 
be applied t > a Sikh Chamir. 


150 


Chamdr gots. 


The Bahmnia also claim descent from a wife of lldmdas, and wear the 
janeo and thus assert their superiority over other Chamdrs, but they 
are nut found in Nabha. 

The Bildi is apparently the village messenger of the Delhi division, 
lie is at least as often a Chuhra as a Chainar, and ought perhaps to be 
classed with the former. But there is a Chamd;r clan of that name who 
work chiefly as grooms. 

The Dusddli is a Purbi tribe of Chamd-rs, and has apparently come 
into the Punjdb with the troops, being returned only in Delhi, Lahore, 
and Ambiila, 

Of the above groups it is clear that some are true sub-castes based 
on occupation, while others like the Buna are merely occupational 
groups which may or may not intermarry with other groups. This differ- 
entiation of the groups by occupation is most fully developed in the 
eastern and sub-montane tracts, where the Chamars form an exceedingly 
large proportion of the population and are the field-labourers of the 
villages. But in the central districts their place in this respect is 
taken by the Chuhra. In the west, too, the leather-worker, like all 
other occupational castes, is much less numerous than in the east. 
The weaver class, on the other hand, is naturally lea,st numerous in 
the eastern Districts, where much of the weaving is done by the leather- 
working castes. And, when the Chamdr sticks to leather-working in 
the eastern Districts, he is apparently dubbed Chamrang or Dabgar, 
just as in the Punjdb proper a Chamdr who has adopted Isldm, and 
given up working in cow-hide becomes a Mussalmdn Khatik tanner. 


The gots or sections of the Chamdrs are very numerous, and somo 
of them are large. They include the Chauhdn and Bhatti gots^ 
(numerous in the central and eastern Districts, especially Ambdla) and 


Badhan. 

Bains. 

Batoi. 

Bhdti. 


Ghameri. 

Hir. 

Jdl. 

Kathdna. 


Mahmi. 

Phundwdl. 

Sindhu. 


Of these eleven gots all but the Kathdna are found in the Jullundur 
division. 


The Chamdrs are by religion Hindus or Sikhs. 

Owing to the fact that the famous bhagat Rdmdds was a Chamdr 
by caste, many Chamdrs are Rdmddsiast by sect, and of this sect again 
some are also Sikhs. 


Rdmdds was a descendant of Chanu. His mother, Kalsia, was child- 
less, but one day a faqir came to her and she gave him flour, in return 
for which he promised her a son. On his return his guru cross-ques- 
tioned him, as he was unable to pronounce the name ‘ I’armeshwar,' and 
learning of bis promise declared that, as no son had been bestowed on 
Kalsia in her destiny, thefagir himself must be born to her. !So he 


* The two most numerous gots among the M ochis also, 't hey may of course have adopted 
these got names from the Rajputs, as Bains and Sindlni may have been borrowed from 
the Jats. 

fTheRamdasia also claim descent from Ramdas. The Ramdasia (Sikhs) take the 
pahul from Chamars and drink amrit at their hands. Tlio Mazhabi take them from the 
sweepers’ hands. (Kapurthala), 


Chamarwd^Chandl 


151 


was reborn as RilmcKa, who is called Eaidas in Bdwal. As j'*® 
was a Chamdri lie refused her breasts, until his jiui bade 
One day when placed by his mother at a spot wheie Ra na JNand used 
to pass, he was touched by that teacher’s sandals, 

out was told by him to be silent and repeat Mm Kdm. ihus 

supernatural power bestowed upon him. 

Contrary to the Chamrirs’ customs Uamdas wore a janeo, sounded _ a 
conch and^ worshipped idols. The llraliuiaiis apiioaled to the magis- 
trate ’whereupon Kamdits cast the idols into a taiv, but they returned 
to him whereas the Brahmans failed in a similar tost. Again, cuttm 
his neck ‘open Rdmdds exhibited 4 pinros, of gold, silver, copper and 
thread typLl of the 4 yuyas. Thenceforth he was known as a 

famous hhagat-^ 

Chamdr women wear no nose-ring, but among the ^unas it is worn 
bv married women, not by widows. The Chdrimara of Bdwal do not 
Jear'gold nose-rings, and all the Chamars of that locality avoid 
clothes^dyed in saffron, and the use of gold. They also use beestings 
only after offering it to the gods on the amdwas. 


Also 


Chamahwa Brahman, the Braliman of the Chamars : see Brahman, 
a sub-caste of the Chanicirs in Niibha {see Chamar) . 

Chamrial, a H^liput sept (Hindu) of the first grade -deriving its name 
from Chamba State : cf. Maudidl, Jaswdl, Pathania, etc. 

Chamer, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Chamang, the caste or class which- in Kandwar works in leather, correspond- 
ing to the Chamar of the plains. 

Chameanni, or Pdra Chamkanni, a small tribe of Ghokia Ehel Pathans, 
found in Kurram. 

CuAMRANG, (a synonym of Chamdr, chiefly retnrncd from Patidla and 
Sidlkot), the tenn clmmraiip is probably a purely occupational term. 
The chamrang docs not stain or dye leather but only tans it: fr. 
rangnd (which as applied to leather nicans to tan ). the chamremg 
moreover only tans ox and buffalo hides, and does not work in tho 
leather which he tans. By casto he is probably always a Ghanidr 
In Delhi the term appears to be practically a synonym for Khatik 
(<t n. 1, but tho Khatik is, strictly speaking, a earner, not a tanner, and 
a hlnhammadan, while the chamrang is a Hindu. In Gu]i-4t also 
the chamrang is identical with tho Khatik. 

CnAMYE, an Ardiii clan (agricultural) found iii Amritsar. 

Cbanal or probably Channdl, from Clidnddla, whom all Sanskrit authorities 
rep’resent as b^otten by a Siidrd on a Braliman. His occupation ,8 
carrying out corpses, executing criminals, and other abject offices 
for the public service.t The menial class of Kdng,a and Hand, , 
corresponding to the Dagi i n Kullu and the Ivoli m the biinla Hills, 

♦ In jfod the llamdAiias are the dominiint Rroup and form a sub-CRste which has 9gots 

Mahi. Buiuim, 


Borwal. 
Chauhan. 

Goru. 

t Colebrooke, Essays, 274. 


Mahi. 
Sanydr. 
Laria. 


Sidtilm, 
Linh-mdr. 
Lokra. 


152 Chanan-^Chandyi, 

the Chanels in Kdngv^ appear to he inferior to the Kolis of that Dis- 
trict, and some of them at least will not touch dead cattle, or mix on 
equal terms with those who do. On the other hand, in Kullu Sard,] 
some of the Chanals rank below Kolis. Ddgi-Chanal is a very common 
term for the caste : and in Kullu it appears to include the Nar. Yet 
a Chandl of Mandi State will not intermarry with a Ddgi of Kullu. 
The Chaniil is also found in Chamba, where the proverb goes : Channl 
jetjia, Rdthi hanefha, ‘ The lovi cahte is the elder and the Rdthi the 
younger brother,’ doubtless pointing to a tradition that the Chanal 
represents an earlier or aboriginal race. See the articles on Ddgi and 
Koli. 

Chanan, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Chananyi, a Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

CirANBAL, a Jdt clan (agidcultural) found in Amritsar. 

Chanpal,-ni, an outcast, one of lowcasto. Punjdbi Dicty., p. 187. See 
Chandl. 

Chandak, a Muhammadan Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery 
and Sidlkot. Cf. Chandarh. 

Chandarh, a Jdt sept, found west of the Eavi : Punjabi Dicty., p. 187. 
Doubtless = Chddhar or Chhadhar, {q. v.) 

CiiANDAESEVi, syii. Parbhu Kdyasth ; one of the two classes of Kdyasthas 
{q. V.) — found in the Deccan. 

Chandbar, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Chandel. One of the 36 royal (Rdj put) races, and fully described in Elliott’s 
Races of the N,-W. Provinces. It is not impossible that they are the 
same stock as the Chancldl, outcasts where subjects, Rdjputs where 
dominant. They are returned chiefly from the Simla Hill State of 
Bildspur. Rdjput tradition in Karndl avers that the Chandel once held 
Kaithal and Sdmdna, but were driveu towards the Siwdliks by the 
Mandhdrs. It would be interesting to know how this lowest of all the 
Bdjput races finds a place among the Simla States, and whether the 
ruling family of Bildspur is Chandel. 

CnANDEB, a Muhammadan Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Chandia, (1) a Baloch tribe : see Baloch : (2) Chdndia, a Jdt clan (agricul- 
tural) found in Multdn. ° 

Chandia, a sept of Rdjputs, found in Kahlur and descended from Gainbhxr 
Chand, younger son of Pahar Chand, 24th Rdjd of that State. 

Chandla, a Bdjput sept, of the second grade, said to be found in Hoshidrpur. 
Probably = Chandel (a), q. v, ^ 

Ciiandear, a Bdjput clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. Doubtless = 
Chhddhar. 

Chandu, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur and in Multdn. In the 
latter District it is classed as Jd^. 

Chandor,-war, an' Araiu clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery and 
Amritsar. 

ChANDIIj a Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 


Chang — Ghannar. 


153 


Chano, see dialing. 

Changala, a Jilt clan (agi'icultural) found in Multi'ui. 

Changgar, fern. - 1 , -iilin, ni (dilianggar in Multiini). Tlio dianggars are 
outcasts of probably aboriginal ilescent, wlio are most iiiimeroiis in (jiiinit, 
Amritsar, Lahore, Ferozejmr, and Fai-idkot, but especially in Sialkoy 
and they say that their ancestors came from ihe Jammu hills. 1'hoy 
aro originally a vagrant tribe who wander about in search of work ; 
but in the neighbourhood of largo cities they arc settled in colonies. 
They will do almost any sort of work, but are largely emjtloyed in 
agriculture, particularly as reapers ; while their women are very generally 
employed in sifting and cleaning grain foi- rain -dealers, d’hey are all 

Musalmiins and marry by nikdh, and say that they were converted by 
Shams Tabriz oi|Multan, wdio l ade their ancestor, a Hindu Ihijput, support 
himself by honest labour and husk the wild sawdnh in the jungles because 
it was good {cJianga). Their clans are said to be Phulan, diauhnn, 
Manilas, and Sarohe.* Their women still wear petticoats and not drawers ; 
but these are blue, not red. They are exceedingly industrious, and not 
at all given to crime. They have a dialect of their own regarding which, 
and indeed regarding the tribe generally, the late Dr. Lcitner ]mblished 
some interesting information. He says that they call themselves not 
Changgar but Chubna, and plausibly suggests that Changgar is derived 
from chlidnna to sift. It has been suggested that Changgar is another 
form of Zingari ; but Dr. Leitner does not support the suggestion. 

Changri, a sept of Kanets which holds Pheta and half Dharuth parganas 
in Kuthtir. 

Cdani, a Dogar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

CiiANKAE, a JtH clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Chann, an agricultui-al clan found in Shahpur. 

Channar, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Lodhran tahsil, Multiiii District. 
They are said to be connected with the Jhakkars and oilier tribes 
in the couplet : — 

Jhakkar, Channar, Kanjun, Nun teatcra, 

Ilin Edne Shaitan de panje hujh hhard. 

All these five clans assume the title of liana. In Hahaw’alpur ihey 
are also called Cbannun-di and aro found cliiefly in ihe kdo'ddriti of 
Bahiiwalpur and Ahmad})ur East, as cultivators, and in the liohi, as 
landowners and cattle-breeders. Their septs are : Admani, Ham, W isal, 
Bhojar, and Bhar]>al, said by some ot the tribe to bo descended from Pir 
Channar, but the more general belief is that the Pir never married and that 
the Chaiinars are descended from his seven brothers, sonsof Ilai Saiidhila. 
ddie Chaiinars are, however, believed to be an offshoot of the IMahrs. 

Channar Fir.- — Four miles from Derawar, on a hillock, is the tomb of 
Pir Channar, or Chaiian Ihr, son ot Bai Saiidhila. Sayyid Jahil visited the 
city of the Bai, now in ruins some three miles off, and asked if there was 
any Muhammadan in the city, male or female. He was told tbax tbero 
was none and he then asked if any woman was pregnant. 'J'be Bai said 
his wife was, and the Sayyid then ordered him to em])loy a Muhammadan 
midwife for the child ^YOuld be a saint. 'When the child was I'orn the Bai 

* Or, in Kapurlhalu Bbullar, Bbatti, Chauhan, Tiir and Kbokbar. 


154 Channozai — Chaudhridl. 

exposod liiin on tlio liillock, but a cradlo of santal wood descondod from 
heaven for the child. Seeing tliis Kai Sandhila endeavoured to take 
the child out of the cradle, but failed, as, whenever he approached, the 
cradle rose in the air. When the child grew up, he accepted Makhdum 
Jahanidn as his Pir, and as he was brought up in poverty so his tomb 
is especially efficacious for the rearing of children. The Channar tribe 
is descended from the seven brothers of the Pir. Both Hindus and 
Muhammadans frequent the shrine, rot or thick bread and meat 
being eaten by both as brethren. Hindus are not polluted by contact 
with Muhammadans at the shrine. 

ChannozaI, a Patluin clan (agTi cultural) found in Montgomery. 

CiiANON, a Jclt clan (agricultural) found in Multjin. 

Chanwal, returned as a Riijpiit sept in Hoshidrpur. 

CiiANWAN, a Jii^ clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Chafpaeband, Ohhapriband. See Chuhr^. 

Charan. Cf. Bhd,t. 

CaARAN-DAsi, a modern offshoot of the Bainlgis, for an account of which 
see pages 37-38 above. 

Charhoya, Charho^,* (the fern, in Multilni is said to be chhh ’ ohi , P. Dicty,, 
pp. 195, 226). 

The Charhoa is the Dhobi and Chhimba of the MulMn division and 
the Derajift and not unseldom carries on the handicrafts of the LiHri 
and Bangrez also. In his capacity of washerman he is, like the Dhobi, 
a recognised village menial, receiving customary dues in exchange for 
which lie washes the clothes of the villagers. He is also found in 
Bahawalpur, in Gujr^lt (where he is described as a dyer in reds), and in 
Peshawar. See Dhohi. 

Chasti, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdu. 

Chatera, in M. chatrera, see Chitera. 

Chatratii, a Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar and Montgomery, 
in the latter District they aro both Hindu and Muhammadan. 

CiiATTA, see nest. 

Chattha. — A Jat tribe apparently confined to Gujranwala, in which district 
. they hold 81 villages. They claim to be descended from Chatta, a 

grandson of Prithi Rai, the Chauhiin King of Dehli, and brother of the 
ancestor of the Cliima. In the lOth generation from Chatta or, as other- 
wise stated, some 500 years ago, Dahru came from {Sambhal in Morada- 
biid, where the bards of the Karnitl Chauh^ins still live, to the banks of the 
Chenab and married among the .Jjit tribes of Gujn'tnwala. They were 
conv'erted to Islam about IGOU A. D. They rose to considerable politi- 
cal importance under the Sikhs; and the history of their leading family 
is told by Sir Lepel Griffin at p ages 402 ff of his Punjab Chiefs. 

Chattarsaz, an umbrella-maker: probably to be included among the Tarkhans. 

Chatyal, a Ja( clan (agricultural) found in Mult4n. 

Ohaudhrial, a faction or party which is opposed to the Zamindilr (also called 
Chaudhri) party iu the ChakwM tahsil of Jhelum. Broadly speaking 


[ Cf . the halochi ;ar£odha, clothcs-washer. 


Chaudri — Chauhdn. 


155 


tho Chaudliriills are the representatives of the old taluqdars, whereas 
tlie Zainludars represent the new men put in during fcikh rule. The 
former is the more numerous and powerful, but the latter is more 
united. Alarriages between members of these factions are much more 
rare than man-iages between members of different tribes. These fac- 
tions have ramifications which extend into Find Dadan Khan tahsil, 
across the Shdhpur Salt Rayge and down into the Shdhpur plains. For 
a full account sec the Jlielum Gazetteer, 1904, pp. 126-tf. 

Chaudri — (t) A tribe found in Babtiwalpur. They have four main septs, 
Janjdni, Jasrdni, Samd^ni, and Dhadilni. They say that their original 
name was Saluki,(?) Saliuki. iii) a faction: i.q. Zanunddr : see 
Chaudhridl. 

Chauqiiatta, (1) a Alughal clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar; (2) a Jdt 
clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Chadhan, a great Riijput tnbe, one of the Agnikulas, and also one of the 86 
(royal) ruling races. Tod calls them the most valiant of the whole 
Rajput race, and to them belonged Ihrthi Raj, the last Hindu ruler of 
Hindustan. Before the seat of their power was moved to Delhi, Ajmer* * * § 
and Sarnbhar in Jaipur seem to have been their home. After their 
ejectment from Delhi they are said to have crossed tho Jumna to 
Sdmbhal in AlurJdabad, and there still dwell the genealogists and bards 
of the Chauhan of the Nardakt of Karmtl and Ambala in which Districts 
they have retained their dominant position more than elsewhere in tho 
Punjab. 

The Chauhans in Ambala claim to belong to the Bachas got and to 
bo of Surajbansi descent. In this District they hold J 69 vdlages, and 
their traditions give them the following pedigree and history 

Bivja Nanak Rao, took Sambhal in MuradabAd, 

I 

Ralla-k\ind. 

1 

liana narr.af ; in the 5th p:eDoration founded 
rnndri and llnbri, c. A, D. 



Augha, ancoetor llantha.§ 

of the Adhoa | 

KAjputs. Subh llnl. 


* The Ambala traditions mention Alal-knndor-pnri us their eeat before Ajmer was 
founded. They also add that HAna liar Rai founded Jundla in the PAnipnt tahi-fl ; thence 
the Chauhan spread northwards. In KarnAl their chaudhridts are Gumthala, RaoSambhli, 
Habri and, chief of all, Jundla. 

t For the ChauhAn migrations and their conquest of the Tundirs see tho article on 
BAjpnts. 

f Rana Ilarra also had four illegitimate sons, by a Rorni, a Gujari, a JAtniand a HnjAmni 
respectively. The latter's son, Kawal Haj, founded a hdra, or group of 12 villages, of 
Rajputs : the JAtni’s son, Bhadhi, was the ancestor of the Mndhnl Jats who hold two 
haras, one in Kalsora in ThAnesar, the other in SahArnnpur. But the KarnAl tradition is 
diflerent. It assigns to RAnA Harmi two Rajput wives and five of inferior status, viz., a 
Rorni, whose descendants form the Dopla got of the Rors. a JAtni, a Gujari, a Jogin and a 
Nain. The descendants of the two latter are the RAjputa of MustafAbAd purgava in JagAdhri 
tahsil, while the JAtni’s and Gujari’s progeny appear to have settled enst of tho Jumna. 

§ Hantha or RAntA was the son of IlanA Har Rai’s old age and his step-brothers 
disputed his legitimacy. So he appealed to the king of Delhi and his mother said that she 
had fed the RAnA on dolah, a fish supposed to possess aphrodisiac (jualitias. The king 
declared that RAntA’s sweat would smell of the fish if he were legitimate. He fulfilled the 
test and was declared legitimate. 


156 


Chauhdn — Chdula. 


liantha’s dcscendauts drove the Koli Rajputs across the Tangri^ where 
they may still be found. 'J'ilok Chand, son of Siibh Mai, his descendant, 
retained 84 out of the 109 Chauh^Ln villages — the cliaurdsi ; while Subh 
Mahs second son, Mdnak Chand, turned Muhammadan and took the 
^mchdsi or 85 remaining. Jagajit, 8th in descent from Tilok Chand, 
was Guru Govind Singh’s antagonist c. 1700 A. D. In 1756 his 
gi-andson, Fateh Chand, with his two sons Bhup Singh and Chuhar 
Singh, fled from Alimad Shtih Durnini into Kotaha where 7,000 Chauhdns 
were massacred by the imperial forces under the Rai of Kotaha. 


In IUssiir the true Chauhans are immigrants and may be divided into 
two branches, the Nimraiia* and Sidhmukh or, as they call themselves, 
Baiu Thai. Tlie Nimramis who are descendants of Raja Sangidt, a 
great-grandson of Chahir Deo, brother of Pirthi R4j, are sub-divided into 
two clans. Rath and Bagauta, both of whicli came from Gurgdon, the 
former tracing their origin to Jatusana. The 
appear to be connected with Bighota.t 

The Bara Thai had a group of 12 villages neai* Sidhmukh in Bikaner, 
close to a famous shrine of Guga. 

The Sohu and Chotia Pachadas claim Chauhdn descent. 


name Bagauta would 


The Chauhans own a few villages to the south of Delhi city and have 
a small colony near Jakhauli in Sonepat tahsil, but in this District 
they have adopted widow remarriage and are disowned by their fellow 
Rajputs, but they are the best cultivators of the tribe, and otherwise 
decent and orderly. 

In the central and some western Districts the Chauhdns are found 
classed indifferently as Rajput or Jat, e. g., in Sidlkot.j; 

In Amritsar they are classed as an agricultural tribe (Rajput, Jat and 
Gujar), and they are also so classed in Montgomery (Rajput and Jat) 
and in Shdhpur. 

In Bahdwalpur the Chauhdns have three clans : — Khdlis ; Hamshira 
[found mainly in Uch pci7Ji;dri — they claim that Muhammad Husain, 
their ancestor, was Akbar’s foster brother [liamsldr] , but others say they 
are Hushnnras not Ilamshiras] ; and Khichchi, who claim to be 
descended from Khichchi Khdn, ruler of Ajmer 700 years ago, and say 
their ancestor founded Shergadh in Montgomery. Few in number they 
are confined to the kdrddri of Khairpur East, where they are carpenters 
and khatik-s' by trade, though in Multdn they are well-to-do landowners. 


Numerous Jdt and other tribes comprise Chauhdn sections or have 
sections which claim Chauhdn descent, indeed it would be difficult to 
name a large caste in the Punjdb which has not a Chauhdn section, e.g. 
sre Chamdr. The Kichi and Varaich are also numerous Chauhdn 
clans in the Punjdb. For the general history of the Chauhdns and 
their organisation see Ri1 jput. 


CHAUf'A, Chdwala 


lit. a preparation of rice : a section of the Aroras. 


» is a small stato, a feudatory of Alwar, and ruled by a Chaiihan family 

t Tlion mennons four tract.s as held by the Alanofc Obanhins, viz. Hath Bmhota 
Dhnnfilioti and Chandwar. Of these, Rath, the largest, lies mostly in Alwar but it 
Includra Narnaiil, Jtow in ratiala territory. Bfgbota lies north of Rath, and Dhundhoti 
between Bighota and ITariana. 

;}: Punjab Customary Law, XIV, p. 2. 


Chaxms — Chet-rdmi. 


157 


CnAWAS, an agi'icultural clan found in Slialipuv. 

ChaweKx\, an agricultural clan found in Slullipur. 

Chechi, a Gujar clan (agi-icultural) found in Amritsar. 

Chela, (z) a disciple ; {ii} a sept of the Sitlls, q. v . ; [lii] a fein. diminutive form 
(chelri) is used in the sense of ‘ witch ^ or ‘ malignant female spirit.^ 

Chemiya, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Chenji, li) a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar, (n) a sept of the 
Gil Jdts, apparently confined to Hosliiiirpur. 

Chet-rami. — The name of a sect founded by one Chet Rdm, an Arora of 
Buchhoke, which is still the central sanctuary of the sect, though its 
monastic headquarters are outside the Taxali Gate at Lahore. Chet Ram 
became a disciple of Mahbub Shah, a Jahili faqir, of the Chishtia sect. 
After his death Chet Ram slept upon his tomb and there had a vision 
of Christ which is described in a Panjdbi poem, partly composed by him, 
partly by his successors or followers. On his death in 1894 Chet R.lm 
Avas cremated and his ashes drunk in water by his enthusiastic dis' 
ciples. Before dying he had designated the site of a future Chet-rdmi 
town to be called Isapuri or ‘ Jesus’ town,’ and there his bones and 
those of Mahbub Slidh are to find their eventual resting-place. Re- 
garding the creed of the sect Dr. II. D. Griswold writes:* — ‘^The 
Chet-rdmi sect holds a double doctrine of the Trinity. There is 
the Christian Trinity consisting of Jesns, the son of Mary, the 
Holy Spirit, and God, which is found in the Chet-rdmi creed. 
There is also what might be called a Hindu Trinity consisting of 
Alliih, I’armeshwar, and Khudd. Alldh is the Creator, Parmeshwar, 
the Preserver, and Khudd, the Destroyer. This idea is, of course, 
based upon the Hindu doctrine of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva as 
Creator, Preserver and Destroyer, respectively. The three potencies 
of the universe, namely Alldh, Parmeshwar, and Khudd have their 
counterpart in the human body, which, from this point of view, is a 
kind of microcosmos. There is a generative part corresponding to 
Alldh, a nourishing part (the breast) corresponding to Parmeshwar, 
and a destroying part (the head) corresponding to Khudd.” The 
Chet-rdmis frequently carry a long rod surmounted by a cross, on 
which is inscribed their confession of faith. Some form of baptism 
also appears to bo practised, but they distinguish between the external 
and internal rite, and are said to have four kinds of outward baptism, 
Avith Avater, earth, air and fire. Earth-baptism is used Avhen a lay 
member tears off his clotlies, casts dust upon his head and becomes 
a Chet-rdmi monk, to mark his renunciation of the world. The monks 
are the clergy of the sect, the theory being that 40 persons are ahvays 
to subsist on alms and preach the doctrines of Chet Rdm. These 40 
are called chelas and are addicted to intoxicating drugs. The sect is 
probably not very numerous, arid it is said to be persecuted by both 
Hindus and Muhammadans, though, when a chela begs of a Hindu ho 
does so in the name of Rdm, and Avhen from a Muhammadan in the 
name of Alldh and Muhammad. All castes, even the loAvest 
are recruited, but caste distinctions are at least so far obserA'ed that 

* In an exhaustive Paper read at the Mussoorie Conjerence, 1901, Avhich the curious reader 
may consult for further details and parallels. 


158 


Chhahala^Chhddkar, 

r,-|U) I 

cacli caste of converts eats separately. Three melas arc lield annually 
at Buclib.oke, one on Poh 1st (January) in memory of Mahbub Shilh’s 
death, another on Jetli 29tii (May — June) to commemorate that of 
Chet Kara, and the third on Sawan 18th (July — August) in memory 
of one Malang Shah, of whom nothing appears to be known except 
that he was a friend of Mahbub Shah. 

Chhabala, see ChhabihwMe. 

CiiHABiewALE, a term applied to the Khatri devotees of Shd,mji. His Gandia 
Jdt devotees are called Bang Rangita and his Chandia Baloch worship- 
pers are styled Chhabala — ‘both, though still Muhammadans, presenting 
offerings to his descendants. (For an account of the Hindu revival in the 
south-west Punjab under Bairdgi influences, by the Gosains Shdmji and 
his successor LMji, see Census Hep., 1891, pp. 127-9. 

Chhabei, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Chhadhar. Found along the whole length of the Chend,b and Riivi 
valleys, but far most numerous in Jhang, where they for the most 
part regard themselves as Rdjputs, the Chh^idhars claim to be descended 
from Rajd, Tur, Tiinwar. They say that they left their home in 
Rdjputdna in the time of Muhammad of Ghor, and settled in Bahawalpur, 
where they were converted by Sher Shdh of Uch. Thence they came to 
Jhang, where they founded an important colony and spread in smaller 
numbers up the Chendb and Rd,vi. Steedman describes them as good 
agriculturists, and less given to cattle-theft than their neighbours, 
Mr. B. D. Maclagan spells the name Chaddrar, which is undoubtedly 
the correct form, and writes : — 

“ The Chaddrars are Tunwars. Their chief tribes in the Sandal Bar 
are the Rajokes, Kamokes, -Jappas, Buns, Pajikes, Deokes, Ballankes, 
Sajokes, etc. The Chaddrars of the B^^^ are said to have expanded 
from Dhdban, a small rahna or encampment south-west of Khurijinw^la. 
The Buns of .Awi'inwala in the Bar say they have been there for seven 
generations. At Bajla rahna there is a separate class of Luns or 
Lunas called Bala Buns, who celebrate marriages, wash the dead and 
so forth, and act more or less as mullas ”, 

The following genealogy of the Chaddrars is given by sunirdsi of the 
tribe in the Hdfizabad tahsil : — 

Pandu. 

. 1 . 

Gar j an, 

I 

Bhiu. 

J 

Balfsar. 

j 

Mandlik. 

I 

Tiinwar. 

I 

Anak. 

I 

Jodh, 

.1 

Raji Ravilan, 

I 

Chaddrar. 


Chaddrar latlads, 


159 


The same mirdsi also gave the following c7i«p or ballad regarding 
the great deeds of tho Chaddrar : — 


Datdr agge Mir Braham, 

Park lichdr sunded ne : 

Tur tau-dna hoed. 

Jits kul Tdrd pded ne ; 

Rdjd khdb hhald Ravllan. 

Jis Dilll Kot handed ne ; 

Dilll Kot handhd ne kaisd 
Jo khutba sachch parhded ne. 

Diid jo maiddn ditto ne 

Chaddrar ndm dharded ne. 

Dhare ndm te vaddhe agj6. 

Alldh Nabi dchded ne. 

Bdkim d, hakdmat kiti. 
hulk sard kankded ne. 

Chhatti Painti te Lundke 
Dainra ghar dhoded ne. 

Bannhi hatth Nakodar lijd 

Diniar des nin'ded ne. 

Peihle jd Gagidne hathi. 

Phir Lahdur pauhnchded ne. 

Kharrald ndl pea jdl jhagrd, 

Takhto Kharral hatded ne. 
hlodd de Chiniot leone. 

Zor changerd Ided ne. 

Malik Macche Khdn kuttho ne. 

Ragrd rok rullded ne. 

Urdrpdr hukm Chaddrar dd. 

Sidld di kurid bercd ddl chikded ne, 

Ajjdn, Cha, Sultana ydge 

Bdgar rdh ghalded ne. 

Vijjar, Vise bdn chdyo 

Sir chattr Nabi jhulded ne. 

Uambi nadi Chitrdng vasde, 

Bakhrd purd pded ne. 

Japped ne bhi rutbd chokhd, 

Daftar ivdle karded ne. 

Dinglidn Bulghdn Bilochdn. 

3/dr Biloch vnnjdcd ne. 

Chulhe te ral vandi de saphard. 

Sdr gardhi khdcd ne. 

Mirjd Dhir hoed kurerd : 

Baggd shih chirded ne. 

Nithar, Kdld, Valid, Mallu mani gdwd : 
Jauro takht machded ne : 

Jithe salt shahid akatthe hoe, 

TJthe duddh pided ne. 

Is kul te ddtd Nura, 

Oahna, Jdni, Vdchi, Ibrahim Eaqqdni. 

Jas Mir Frdhim gded ne. 


Saith the Mirasi Ibrahim to the gonerouB, 
He pronocuces as follows : — 

‘ Tunwir then became strong. 

From which family Tara was born j 
K4ja Ravilan was a 6ne hero. 

Who built the fort of Delhi ; 

He builc Delhi Fort so 
That his name a certainty was sounded 
in the Khutba. 

Secondly, when he had cleared a wide 
space (empire), 

He fixed the name of Chaddrar. 

Ilis name was established and grew from 
day to day. 

He worshipped God and his Prophet. 

A ruler came and ruled. 

The whole country called for help. 

The Chhattis-Paiutis and tho Lun country. 
Carried rupees to the home of the Chad- 
drars. 

With only half a hand the Chaddrars took 
Nakodar 

And made the Diniar-des do obeisance. 
First they went to Gagiana (in the Bar) 
and settled. 

Then they reached Lahore. 

When they quarrelled with the Kharrals, 
They stripped the Kharrals of their throne. 
With a pu.sh of the shoulder (t.e., with a 
certain amount of trouble) they took Chiniot, 
They used more force. 

They killed Malik ilacche RhiSn. 

They harried and destroyed him. 

The Chaddrars were rulers on both sides 
of the river (Chendb), 

They put the Sials’ daughters on rafts and 
draeged thorn away. 

They cleared a wide road of (t.e., dis- 
persed) 

Ajjun, Chi and Sultin the rebels. 

When Vijjar and Vise (Chaddrars) grew 
to wisdom 

Tho Prophet held his canopy over them. 
Hambi (a Chaddrar) lived on tho Chitrang 
nadi. 

And divided his sliare fully. 

The Jappas’ line was also good, 

And separated off a share. 

They met the Bulghan Biloches. 

They boat and defeated the Biloches. 
They fed in common, but their share was 
divided. 

They fought to their hearts’ content. 
Mirza, son of Dhir, was a stalwart man ; 
Ho struck tigers (with his sword). 

I sing of Nithar, Kald, Dallu and Mallu: 
They also held power : 

Where seven martyrs were together (i. e., 
among enemies), 

There they gave them milk to drink 
(killed them). 

Of this family were tho generous Nur, 
Gahna, J^ni, W^chu and Ibr^ihim the 
Ilaqqdni, 

I, Ibr^hfm, have snng this praise. 


160 ' 


ChhaJjit^Chhalapddr, 


The Ritjoko Chaddrars once got hold of a Mughal emperor’s 
elephant and yoked it to a well at a place near Khuri^nwjtla, still 
called the Hilthi Theh. The following chap on the subject was given 
by the Mir^si at Shaikh Sd,bu : — 


Malik DddA hah chdi, 

Jiidra Rdja ris de. 

Vann haddal kdled ! 
hdthi led ne khans 
Mahdioat ne mdred. 

Ildtld Akbar Bddshdh de, 

lithe chare dhdmni, Lahdur kamdnd. 

Rdjd ke Rdjoke, 

Sundh vaddhke khuhe jutte ddnd. 


Malik Dadu (a Rajoke Chief) lifted his arm, 
Indra Raja became envious, 
hain, 0 black cloud ! 

He seized the elephant 
And killed the mahaut. 

It was an elephant of the emperor Akbar’s, 
Here it grazed on dhaman grass, in Lahore 
on sugar-cane. 

The Rajokes, descendants of Raju, 

Cut off its trunk and yoked it to the well. 


Cbhajju, Chhajju-pantei. — A sect which exhibits a curious combination of the 
Hindu and Muhammadan creeds among the lower oi’dei’S. It is said to 
have been founded by Chhajju, a hhagat of Lahore, who lived alx)ut the 
time of Aurangzeb.* His followers burn their dead, but do not throw the 
ashes into the Ganges ; they take them to a place called Parnaji, in Bundel- 
khand, where they bury them. They believe in the divine mission of Mu- 
hammad, but have no social intercourse with the Muhammadans. One of 
their sacred places is Malka Hans, in the Pakpattan tahsil of Montgomery, 
where their mahant, Lachhman Das, lives, and their sacred book is kept 
in a kind of temple. It is called the KuL Jama Barup, is written in 
Bhdsha, and its doctrines are based on a mixture of Hinduism and the 
Qurdn. They also have adherents at Qabula Tibbi and Harappa, and 
are said to be strong vegetarians and teetotallers. 

Chhajr.L a tribe of Jdts who claim descent from the royal race of the 
Bhattis of Jaisalmer. They came to Multd-n under Rao Kehar, a chief- 
tain of their own, and settled there. Kehar is a name of note in Bhatti 
annals. One Kehar was contemporary of the Khalifa-ul-WaKd, a.d. 
713.t He and his sons advanced the Bhatti kingdom of Jaisalmer. 
Another Kehar ruled Jaisalmer in the sixteenth century, and his son 
conquered all the Multdn country up to the Indus. The Chhajrds 
marry their daughters to their own tribesmen only, but receive the 
daughters of other Jdt tribes in marriage. 

Chhajka, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multdn tahsil. 

Chiiaju, a Muhammadan Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

CmiA Khang, a caste found in Spiti (from chlia, ‘ owner ’ and Jchdng, ‘ land ’). 
But according to Sir James Lyall khang means ^ house ’ or ‘ household,’ 
not ‘ land. ’ Zing means land : cf. Chdhzang. 

CiiHALA, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 


Chhalapdars. a small community of some 10 houses in Delhi, who say that 
they came from the Mewat iu Mughal times and that in the United 
Provinces they are known as Mujdwars.J Shaikhs Mujawar and 
Qalatidar were their ancestors, and so the latter’s descendants are 
called Qalandars. But this seems to be an absolute fable. That they 
came from the Mewat may be conceded, but, in spite of what they 

* Chhajju’s c/iau6dra is a conspicuous edifice near the Divinity School at Lahore The 
local histories describe him as an Arora who worked miracles in that city, but not as 
having founded a sect. Chhojju-panLhi would appear to bo a local term’for the more 
general term ‘ParnAmi’ (g.v.). 

f Wahd was Khalifa from 705—15 A . d. : Elliot’s Bint, of India, I, p. 428. 

$ Ar. lit.’ a neighbour.’ Ihe word is used in India to detoie an att’endn’r t at ashriue 


161 


Chhalapddr rites. 

say, it is probable that they are Hindu converts to IsHm, and that in 
their former faith they were temple musicians or wandering minstrels. 
On the conversion of the Mewdt their deities were overthrown, but the 
spirit of idolatory which remained, and is not yet quite extinct, set up 
Muhammadan pirs in their stead, and they found employment in dedi- 
cating themselves to these saints. But it is doubtful whether they 
were ever really attached to the shrines of the saints to whom they 
are dedicated, viz., Khwd.ja Moin-ud-Din of Ajmer, Badi-ud-Dm 
or Mad^r Siihib,* or Saiyid Sdldr Masaud Glia'zi, known as the 
‘ BilM Miydn.’ The Mujawars belonging to these shrines are of 
authenticated descent and certainly of higher status than the 
Cbhalapdars, who derive their name from chhalap, the musical 
instrument which they carry and which is in itself a sign of low 
social status.. That they call themselves Mujdwars may bo taken 
as a mere attempt to claim a higher origin, though they certainly 
take upon themselves certain duties connected with the anniversaries 
of their saints, especially at Delhi, where they are to be seen 
wandering from house to house as harbingers of the approaching 
ceremonies, and singing songs to the accompaniment of the chhalap 
in praise of their saints. The anniversary of the first-named saint, 
who is the most reverenced of them all, is held at Ajmer from 
the 1st to the 6th of Rajab, when thousands from all parts of India 
gather at Ajmer. When there were no railways, people used to start 
on this journey weeks and even months beforehand, so that the 
month preceding Rajab actually came to be called ‘ the month of 
Khwdja Moin-ud-Din.' On the 14th, 15th, and 16th of this month 
large numbers from the Mewat, and the countryside generally, assemble 
at the Qutb, 11 miles frem Delhi (which, as the name signifies, is the 
shrine of Khwaja Qutb-ud-Din, the chief disciple of the Ajmeri 
Khwdja) for three days, which are observed as great holidays. On the 
16th this groat concourse forms a huge caravan which sets out on its 
way to Ajmer. Even now the journey is mostly performed on foot, 
though bullock carts are also employed, 'chiefly for the women. The 
sight is picturesque and interesting, young and old being dressed in 
their best attire ; trains of chhaJcras (country carts) which carry the 
thousands of women and children, singing to the accompaniment of 
drums, fl^utes and all kinds of instruments. A conspicuous feature of 
the procession is the rod and green banners and flags, called chharidn 
(lit. * sticks’), to which the three days’ gathering at the Qutb owes its 
name of the chharion kd mela or ^fair of the flags’, which are 
moi’o precisely called Khwaja ji ki chharidn. In the preparation and 
erection of these flags and in the ceremonies connected with them 
the Chhalapdars are the principal actors. The flags look like so many 


* On the first day of Jamadi-ul awal, also called the month of Madar, when the banners 
or chharidns of Mad4r were erected under the walls of Delhi the Chhalapdars, accom- 
panied by a band of drummers, used to appear with Madar’s banner before the emperor 
in his court of private audience, and on their arrival he came out of tho palace and his 
attendants used to give them trays of malidah, tho Chhalapdars in return placing a baddi 
or garland on the emperor’s body in memory of the Saint Madar. Prayers were then 
offered in the name of the saint and the malidah was doled out to all present. After this 
the king gave the Chhalapdars a standard from tho top of which hung a cloth called 
pharaira, embroidered with gold (called task or tamdmi, etc.) to tho loose ends of which 
were attached silver cups or katoras. This standard was given to tho Chhalapdars in order 
that it might be presented at the convent of Madar Sahib in tho king’s behalf. 


Chhalapddr rites. 

standards, distinguishing the various bands and contingents whieb forai 
the great Kliwaja’s camp or laohkar. Tliey arc gaudily draped, have 
guilded tops, and are garlanded with flowers, which have peculiar 
names. The cloth, and even fragments of it, after having been once 
twisted round the stick are considered to be not only sacred, but 
possessed of healing virtues, and are eagerly sought after, especially 
by mothers who cause them to be worn by their children, if sick or 
otherwise in danger, in order to get them cured. They collect women 
of their kith and kin, form a proce3sion headed by the men beating 
drums, and follow them singing the Khwaja’s praises, till they reach 
one of these flags, to which they make ofl'erings of sweetmeats, pice 
and cowries and sometimes even rupees, the whole being the per- 
quisite of the Chhalapdars, who are in proprietary charge of the sticks. 
A portion of the sweetmeat, after it has been offered, is returned to 
those who bring it and also distributed among any others present. 
Sometimes this ceremony is performed at the house of the child^s 
parents, in which case the Chhalapdd-r takes his stick or flag there and 
ihe rite is gone through midst the singing of the child’s relatives and 
with great festivities. In some cases the ceremony of putting on the 
garlands and draping a child in the cloth of a flag is repeated yearly 
during its minority, or until the term of years, for which its parents had 
vowed to perform it, has expired. 

For three days the scene at Qutb is most noisy and the din of the vocal 
and instrumental music of innumerable processions passing through 
the streets and crossing each other is enhanced by the noise and rowdy- 
ism of the jumping Darweshes called Qalandars. In front of every 
shop and place where a rustic family is staying during the fair, as well 
as around every stick or flag erected by Chhalapddrs, groups of these 
Qalandars may be seen marking time with their feet which movement 
by degrees rises into high jumps. Their chorus,* while they are thus 
jumping, is— 

Mast Qalandar ! Allah hi degd ! ! 

Tdmhe kd paisa ! Allah hi degd ! ! 

Dndh malidah ! Allah hi degd ! ! 

Vham Qalandar ! Dudh malidah ! ! Allah hi degd ! ! ! 
and so on. 

O Darwesh free and drunk ! God will give it ! Copper coin ! God 
will give it! Milk and malidah \ God will give it I Jump Qalandar I 
God will give milk and malidah I (lit., a sweet dish).” 

This is repeated again and again until the shopkeeper or the person 
or family addressed, gives them something in cash or kind taking 
which they move on to jump before others. 

In all the songs sung by the Chhalapdiirs, and others generally, on this 
occasion the Khwiija’s praises are the principal theme. The following 
which forma the burden of a popular song is given here as a speci- 
men : — 

Merc dil darydo Khwdja ! Tore jhalare pte Idgi hai hhir. “My bounti- 
ful river-like Khw<lja ! Look what a concourse of people (with eager 
prayers) has assembled at thy y7/aZam.”t 


* Sung in a loud and euiphatio voice. 

t Jhalara is a large spring at the shrine of the Khw£ja at Ajmef. 


163 


Chhdligar-^Chhaner, 

The second fair of flags is held in honour of Madir Sdhib below the 
walls of the fort or rod palace of Shah Jaluiu in Delhi. It is similar to 
the one described above, with this differowo, that it is less at^nded 
and the flags are taken to the tomb of the saint at Makkmpur. One of 
the songs (or sohlds as they are called) sung by the Chhalapdars which 
refers to Madar Sahib is Lei to chaloji bdlama Makkinpur ? In this 
song a newly married girl implores her husband to take her with him to 
Makkinpur. These fairs are especially popular among the women. 

The third fair is held in honour of ‘ Bala Miydn ’ Saiyid SdMr Masaud 
Ghdzi, who is said to have lost his life in one of the early wars of the 
Musalmitns with the idolatrous Hindus. He was young and about to 
be married, but fought bravely and died in the hour of victory. As 
in the case of the second fair, the chharidn are erected under 
the walls of the Delld Fort. One of the songs sung in praise of Saiyid 
SMdr runs '.—Herd nit banra 8dldr bald ! Bald merdjdgo nd : ‘‘My 
bridegrootn ever young, the young Salar, why does he not awake ; 

The Chhalapddrs say they have no chaudhri, but a panchdyat system 
is in vogue among them. A transgressor is punished with a fine of 10 or 
12 aniiES with which swGGtmcats ei'g purchasGci and distributed among 
• the panchs. In extreme cases he is punished by temporary excom- 
munication. Marriages are confined to the community. Ihe nikafi is 
in vogue, but the bride’s dower does not e.xceed the legal minimum 
under Muhammadan Law. The ceremonies connected with birth 
• and marriage, such as sachaq, chauthi, etc., and those observed till 40 
days after death are the same as those of the other Delhi Muham- 
madans. Widow remarriage is not unlawful, and a deceased brother s 
widow may be taken in marriage. Some of the Chhalapdd,rs’ songs are 

(1) Sung on the bridegroom’s side:— Eary die lane pe main 
chun chun ivdrun gi kalydn ! Merd jiwe hana ! Apne Harydle bane pe 
main etc. “ I will pick the choicest flowers and shower them upon my 
dear bridegroom, the beloved of God ! May he live long ”* 

(2) Sung on the bride’s side :—Meri acchchi bano sohdg banri ! “ My 
good, and of her husband most beloved, bride ! 

(3) Sung at a birth.— Ai/e Idl re tere hath men jhunjhuna. “ 0 my 
pretty little baby, with a rattle {jhunjhuna) in thy hand.” 

One of the ceremonies observed prior to birth is held when the 
woman has been enceinte for 7 months. It is called sath wansa or the 
custom of the 7th month.’ 

The Chhalapddrs say that they also sing the praises of Saiyid Ahmad, 
surnamed Kabir. 

Chhaligar, a syn. for Bazigar, used in Sidlkot. 

Ctthamia, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multi'in. 

Chhana, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar and Multdn. 

Chhanb, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Chhaner, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 


1 64 Chhangar-^Chhamng. 

Chhanqar, M. = Changar, q. v. 

Chhant, an agricultural clan found in Slidhpur. 

CnnAPERA, a synonym, rarely used, for Cliliiipegar or Clilnmba, q. v, 
CnnATHA, Chhatta, see Chatha. 

CiiHATTA, a tribe of Muliammndans found in Montgomery and, as Jats 
(agricultural), in Amritsar. Probably identical with the Chatta. 

Chhazang. — A terra confined in the Punjab to the Buddhists of Spiti, among 
whom caste was said to be unknown. It includes all the land-owning 
classes of Spiti, where everybody except Hesis and Loh^rs owns land. 
The Chhdzang are by nationality Tibetan, or as they call them- 
selves, Bhoti, and Chdhzang means the laud-holding class, and the people 
towards Tibet, Ladd,kh, and Zanskdr are known as Chhdzang. It 
appears to be used in a very wide sense to mean all who speak Bhoti, 
just as Monpa means ‘ the people that do not know,^ that is, the 
Hindus. 

Mr, A. H. Diack, a high authority on Spiti thus described the 
tribal system in that country, where four grades of society are re- 
cognised : — 

“ (i). Jo or Tso.* — This is a title enjoyed for his lifetime by one who 
marries the daughter of any high-class family, such as that 
of the None of Spiti or the Thakur of Lahul, or any family 
of equal importance in Ladakh or Tibet. 

(ii) . Lonpo . — This term is applied to the class not so high as the Jo 

or as low as the Chhd.-zaug. Lonpo means ‘ minister’ and 
is an hereditary title and oflSce. Lohrag aud Da-tong-kar- 
po (Dhongrukdru) are said to be synonyms for Lonpa. 

(iii) . Chhd-zang. — The word means ‘ middle-class, ’t [‘good 

position ’] as opposed on the one hand to ‘ Tarap,’ or high- 
class, such as members of the family of the Nono of Spiti, 
and on the other to ‘ Marap,’ or ‘low class,’ which includes 
the blacksmiths, Hesis, etc. 

(iv) . The word means ‘ teacher,’ and is probably the des- 

cription given of himself by some wandering Tibetan 
pilgrim. There was some difficulty in ascertaining the 
‘caste’ of Tibetan pilgrims at the census of 1891. They 
treated the question as a joke, and returned themselves 
as “ stones,” or articles of wearing apparel,^ and the like. 

Tribal distinctions are recognized in Spiti, the chief being the 
following (1) Nandu, (2) Gyazhingpa, (3) Khyungpo, (4) Lon-chhenpo, 

* See under Nono for the precise meaning of this term. Mr. Diack also added that the 
same name is borne by the lady whose marriage lias invested her husband with the title 
but the feminine form is generally jo- jo. The chil Iron of the union do not enjoy the title' 
Jo and Tso (Cho) are synonyms. This however is contradicted by later information from* 
Spiti. (See under Jo.) 

t Mr. Diack refers to the Census Report of 1881, § 662. and apparently accepts the 
derivation (given therein) fr. zangr ‘ land,’ ckdh ‘ owner.’ But ‘ land ’ = rhtTia and 
‘ owner ’ is dagpo in Spiti, and the derivation appears to bo untenable. ’ 

J Uaing family names, probably. 


165 


Social grades in Spiti. 

(5) Heair, and (G) Nyekpa.* Marriage is forbidden within the clan but 
one clan intermarries freely with another. A woman on marrying is 
considered to belong to her husband’s clan and the children of both 
sexes are of the clan of the father. The tribes [ru’wa] are not 
local ; members of each may be found in any village. The members, 
phaihat, of the clan, wherever they may live, inherit in preference 
to the people of the village, in default of natural heirs. The Lon- 
chhen-pas and the Gyazhingpas are considered somewhat superior 
to the others, but my informant, a Spiti man, says that in his country, 
as elsewhere, wealth is the real criterion of respectability.” More up 
to date information shows that Mr. Diack using (no doubt) a Ldhula 
interpreter has confused Lahula and Spiti nomenclature : the true 
class distinctions are these — 

Ladakh. Ldhul. SpUi. 

I.— Royal or noble r(gyalrig8) ... Joriera Nono. 

II. — Upper oflBcial class ... rjerigs ... Lonrigs or Lon- Lonpo. 

chhonpo. 

ni.— Farmers or yeomen ... hfmangrigs) ... h(mangrig8) ... Chhazang. 

All these three classes are Nangpa or Chajang, 'insiders.’ All 
below them are styled Pipas in Spiti, Chipas in Ldhul, or Tolbeyrigs 
in Ladakh. 

Mr. Francke describes the Spiti people as divided into three main 
classes : Nono, Chajang and Pipa. The older accounts averred that 
only in the lower parts of Spiti must menials provide their own stems 
for the common hitqa, which in the upper part was used by all without 
distinction of rank. This is now indignantly denied, and, it is said, 
a nangpa or commoner will carefully remove the stem from a nono^s 
(noble’s) pipe and ‘ start ’ it with his mouth. As a fact any one, except 
a ppa, may use an ordinary man’s pipe, and the nonos admit that if the 
stem were used by an inferior it would only bo necessary to wash it. 
The tendency is, however, for etiquette to become stricter. Just as 
the Lahulas have advanced an utterly unfounded claim to bo Kanets 
by caste, so the people of Spiti, in tho presence of Hindus who 
pride themselves on^ their caste rules, pretend to caste distinctions of 
their own. 

As to the clan system, it must bo borne in mind that tho thing most 
necessary to ensure in the Buddhist world is that when a man dies 
there shall be some one ready to prepare his body for burial. Persons 
reciprocally bound to perform the last ofhees for each other arc called 
phuspun (father-brotherhoods), as well as phaihat, as they are in 
theory of the same r?t’u'a,t as it is called in Spiti. From this origin 
have sprung the clans which are found in every grade of society. 
Such are the Stond-karpo, the Rumpu, the (b)Lonchhenpa or ' great 
ministers,’ the Khyung-buba, the (r)Gyansheba and the Dreba, all 
found at Dhankar. Even the fipa class has clans. In marriage the 


* For an explanation of these Tibetan clan names see Tibktan. 

I The word means ‘ bone ’ and ia pronounced riispa in Ladakh. 


166 


Chhaiar-^Ghhimbd, 


^bone^ must be avoided, just as in Kullu and the Simla Hills the 
haddi Ted ndtha is the exogamous limits It almost goes without saying 
that the ‘ bone brethren ’ ot phaibat inherit in preference to any one 
outside the clan. 

Chitatar, a tribe of Muhammadan J^its found in Gnjrat. Its eponym came 
from Uch, but his real name is unknown. As a child he visited his 
maternal grandfather’s house and was weighed against slices (chhatarj 
whence his nickname. 

CnTiECHOAR, an Arilin clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

CnoELAE. A small clan of Jd^s whose principal settlement is Chhelar in 
the Niirnaul tahsil of Nabha. They revere Bhagwan Dds, a Hindu 
saint of Mukla in that State, and shave their children at his shrine. 
They avoid tobacco. 

Chhibbar, (1) a section of the MuhiM Brahmans ; (2) a sept of Kanets, who 
give their name to the Chhibrot pargana of Keonthal, to which State 
they migrated from Chittor in R^jputiina with its founders. Cf. Balbir. 

Chhibi, Chhibu, syns. of Chhimbd,. 

Chhimba. The Chhimb^, Clihipi or Chhimpi, called Paungar or Oharhoa in 
Dera Ghdzi Khdn, is by occupation a stamper or dyer, but he also turns 
his hand to tailoring or washing. Hence the caste includes the Darzis 
or tailors, the Lildris or dyers, and the Dhobis : * * * § also the Chhjtpdgar.t 
By religion the Chhimbds are mainly Hindus and Muhammadans. 

The Chhimba is properly a calico-printer, and stamps coloured 
patterns on the cotton fabrics of the country, and he is said occasionally 
to stamp similar patterns on paper, but he can hardly be distinguished 
from the Dhobi. Besides printing in colour, lie dyes in madder, but as 
a rule, in no other colour. He is purely an artisan, never being a 
village menial except when a washerman. In some places, though 
not in all, Chhdpegar is used to distinguish those who ornament calico 
with patterns in tinsel and foil only. 

The Hindu Clihimbds are divided into two sub-castes, which may not 
intermarry, but may eat and smoke together. J These are the Tank 
and Rhilla. And in Patidla the Hindu Dhobis are said to form a third 
sub-caste. § 

The following legend explains the origin of the two former sub-castes 
At Pindlapur in the Deccan lived one Bd-mdeo, who one night enter- 
tained Krishna and Udhoji, but, as the latter was a leper, the villagers 
ejected them. They were in mdyavi form, and at midnight both of them 
vanished, leaving Bdmdeo and his wife asleep. Udhoji hid in a shell 
[sipi), and when Bdmdeo went to wash clothes he found the shell and 
placed it in the sun. It produced the child Ndmdeo who was fostered 


* Sh^hpur. 

■j- See below. 

J In Patiala the Hindu Dhobi gots are not separately Riven, Bnd it is said that the Tank 
print cloth, while the Rhillaa are tailors and the dhoUs washermen. 

§ But in Maler Kotla the Tank claim to be of higher status than the RhiJIa, and do 
not even eat or emoke with them. 


The Chhimhd gets. 167 

Bdmdeo’s wifo. Namdeo taught his son -Tank, and Rhilla, his 
daughter’s son, the arts of dyeing, printing and washing clothes.* * * § 

Territorially tho Hindu Chlumbils have various divisions, e.g., in Sialkot 
they are divided into tho Lahori and Dogra sub-castes, which are 
said not to intermarry and which have separate gots.f In Amritsar too 
is found a Lahori group, which is also called Chhapagar or Nawandhi-l; 
It is looked down upon by tho other Chhimbd.s, who avoid all social 
relations with its members, because at weddings, it is said, they make a 


cow’s image of flour and shoot arrows at it. 


• 

1 

The Lahori gota are : — 





1. Pharwaiu. 



3. 

Takhtar. 

2. Bagri, 



4. 

Dcd. 

The Dogra gota are 

: — 





1. Karaku. , 

5. 

Rihania. 


9. Chebhe. 

2. Panotra. 

6. 

Pabe. 


10. Bhumral. 

3. Dowathia. 

7. 

Saragra. 

Bagri. 


1 1 . Tanotra. 

4. -Andh. 

8. 




Tlie Hindu Chhimbiis have few or no special observances at births, etc. 
In or near Delhi after childbirth, if the child bo a son, the mother wor- 
ships at a well to which she is taken 1 5 days after her confinement, accom- 
panied by the women of her quarter of the city who sing songs as they 
go. The mother does obeisance to the well, and throws some sweet stuff 
and rice into it. 

Hindu Chhimbds never grind turmeric, except at a wedding. They 
will not make haris, and their women avoid wearing kdnch bracelets 
and the use of henna. 

Tho Hindu Chhimbi1,s§ observe the ordinary Hindu rites, but Namdeo, 
tho famous hhagat, is their patron saint, for no better reason than that 
he was himself by caste a Chlnmbd. Accordingly they pay yearly 
visits to his dera at Ghaman near Amritsar, and offer him a nipco and 
ndrial at weddings. Sikh Chhimbds appear to favour tho tenets of 
Guru R^m Rai.. 

Tho Muhammadan Chhimbiis havo several territorial divisions, e. g., 
in Patiillall there are three, the Sirhindis (endogatnous), the Deswdls 
and Mult^inis,^ who intermarry, as is also the case in Jind. In Gurg^lon 
the Desi Chhimbds are said to be converts from the Tank and Rhilla 


* But in the Miler Kotla version it is said that originally the Chlumbas were a 
homogeneous caste, until Namdah (-deo) Chliimbi took unto himself two wives, one a 
Chhfmba woman, the other of another caste. From tho former sprang the Tank, from the 
latter tho Khilla. Hence tho Tank assert their owu superiority as they are pure 
Chhfmbas, while the Bhilla are not. 

t But the Bagri is found in both groups. 

t Nawandhi = of low degree. 

§ In Gurgaon Hindu Ohhinibas, who are very superstitions, worship a Muhammadan’s 
grave, real or supposed, calling it a Sayyid’s grave, offering a cock in tho Sayyid’s name 
or a dish of boiled rice at hie grave, lest their domestic peace be disturbed. 

II In this State the Muhammadan Dhobis are said t.o havo Hvo sub-castes — Lahori, 
Sirhindi, Multani, Purbia and Deswal. Of these the two latter only are found in the State. 
They do not intermarry. The Deswal sections are: — Goriyi, Chauhan and Kanakwil — all 
Bajput clans. 

^ For some of their eeotions see the Appendix. 


168 


Chhina'^Chhut. 


sub-castes, while the Multanis are of the Inroi clan which dwelt in the 
Indus valley and took to printing calico. 

In Leia the saint of the Chlnmbas is All, the dyer, who is said to have 
been a pupil of Liuqmaii and to have invented washing and dyeing. 
Before beginning work they invoke him saying: — Pir ustdd Luqmdn 
hakim, hikmat da hddshdh, Ali rangrez, chart rahe deg ; i. e., ‘ Luqmdn 
the physician is the priest and teacher, the king of craft, and Ali is 
the dyer. May his bounty endure for ever.’ 

Most Muhammadan Chhimbds are Sunnis, but in Karor some few are 
Shias. 

The Muhammadan Chhimbas have a loose system of panchdyats, and 
in Dera Ghdzi Khdn elders or mahtars are elected by the caste. 

The women of the Muhammadan Chhimbds and Dhobis wear no 
laung (nose-ring), no ivory or glass bangles, or blue clothing. The 
Muhammadan Chhimbds will not make achdrn or haria ? and avoid 
building a double hearth. 

CHHiNA, an agTicultural clan found in Shdhpur: also classed as Jdt, (agricul- 
tural) in Amritsar. The Chhina are undoubtedly distinct from the Chima 
Jdts of Sidlkot and Gujrdnwdla, though the two tribes are frequently con- 
fused. That there are Chhina in Sidlkot appears from the fact that the 
town of Jamki in that District was founded by a Chhina Jdt who came 
from Sindh and retained the title of Jd,m, the Sindhi equivalent for 
Chaudhri. Yet if the Chhina spread up the Chen^b into Sidlkot and the 
neighbouring Districts in largo numbers, it is curious that they should 
not be found in the intermediate Districts through which they must have 
passed. The Chhina are also found in jMidnwMi and in Bahawalpur 
kState. In the latter they are mainly confined to the Minchind,Md 
kdrddri, opposite Pakpattan, and there have throe septs, Tfireka 
Mahramka and Azainka, which own land. Other septs are tenants. 
Their genealogy gives them a common origin with the Wattus : — 

Ucbchir. 


Jay-Pal. Raj-Pal. 

I I 

Chhina. Wattu. 

Pheru, 18th in descent from Chhina was converted to Islam by Bdwa 
Farid-ud-Din of IMkpattan. The Chhinits are courageous and hard- 
working, but they are also professional thieves, though they will not 
steal from Sayyids, or ?n?ra6-is, dreading the abuse of the latter. 
I’hough a small tribe in comparison with the Wattus they will not allow 
the latter to got the upper hand, and if they steal one butfalo from the 
Chhinas, the latter endeavour to retaliate by stealing five from the Wa^us. 

Chhinba, fern, -an see Chhimba, P. Dicty., p. 225. 

Chholiana, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Chhon, CiinoNi, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Cuuo?,i, a Gujar clan (agi-icultural) found in Amritsar. 

CfiHUL, or Jhijl : a synonym for Malldb, used in Hoshiarpur. 


169 


The Chihli feudal system, 

Chibh. — A Rdjput tribe coiiGned^ in tlie Punjiib, to the northern }X)rlion 
of Gujrdt under the Jauiinu Hills, but also found in the liills above 
tliat tract which belong to the Kashnur Slate. Jt gave its name to 
the Chiblui,!, the hill country of Kashmir on Ihe left bank of the 
Jhelnm river along the llaziira border, though it appears to no 
longer occupy those hills. The Chibh claim to be an offshoot, 
at least in the female line, of the Katoch of Kangia, aud their eponyin 
Chibh Chand is said to have loft K.lngra 14 centuries ago* and settled 
at Maghloi’a near Bhimbar in the Jammu Hills, receiving from Raja 
Sripat of Bhimbar his daughter’s hand, with part ot his country as her 
dower.t 

The first of the tribe to become a Muhammadan was one Sur 
Sadi, who died a violent death in Aurangzeb’s reign. He is 
still venerated as a martyr, and the Muhammadan Chibh offer 
the scaly) locks of their male children at his tomb, till which ceremony 
the child is not considered a true Chibh, nor is his mother allowed 
to eat meat. 

The Chibhs had at one time or another a very curious and interest- 
ing feudal organisation, survivals of which are still traceable in its 
social gradations. Succession to the throne of the Bliimbar kingdom 
was governed by the rule of primogeniture, but, younger sons had a 
right to a share and so it would seem that the raj was divided into four 
mandi* — Mahlot, Bunddla, Kahawalidn and Rajal, and each of these 
great fiefs was held by a “ prince of the blood, the eldest son being 
liiijd of Bhimbar. Hence the raj always remained in the family of the 
Ghanij'dl Chibhs, descendants of Ghani Khdn, grandson of Shddi Khdn, 
the ancestor of all the Muhammadan Chibhs, who is identified with the 
martyr Sur Sadi. 

The rdj also contained four strongholds, garhs, viz., Dewa, Butdld, 
Ambaridl and Kadhdla. These garhs were distinct from the mandifi 
and were in charge of the Ghaghiill, descendants of Ghani Khdn’.s 
cousin. Their precise relation to the mandis is by no means clear, 
but both garhs and mandis owed allegiance to the Hdjd ; though their 
holders collected their own revenue and were independent in the 
management of their estates. But whatever the precise nature of 
the mandis and garhs may have been, there were also minor fiefs, 
which were bestowed on younger sons : these were 84 in number, at 
least in theory, and were called dheris. The dheris again were classed 
as dheri did, i.e., a fief with a few villages attached to it, and dhcri adnd 
or one which had no dependent villages. 

Accordingly the Chibhs are divided into three grades, Mandi^l, GarhiAl 
and DheriiU, but now-a-days it is difficult to say who are Mandid,! and 
who Garhid,!, though feeling still runs high on the point. Further 
the Ghanid,l3 are all regarded as standing high, since they once held 
the rij, though some have now slender moans, and they will not give 

* Tradition makes Chibh Chand’s father, Nahar Chand, Raja of Kingra, a contemporary 
of Taimiir, but the Chibhil (Jhibhal) was already known by that name to Taimur’s his- 
torian. 

I A variant says that the Chibhs are of Persian descent. Na’m&n, a descendant of Dir4h, 
son of Bahman, ruled Khurisdn, and his descendant, Gauhar Shah, came to the Deccan and 
married Nahir Chand’s daughter and their son was named Ahdar Chand, a Hindu. Hit 
descendant Nihir Chand became Reji of Kangra. 


170 


The Childsis. 


daughters to others. The Samwd,lias, MhLnd,s and Malkd,nas are also 
regarded as superior for unknown reasons, and either intermarry or 
seek matches for their girls among the Sayyi'ls or Gfakkhars whom they 
admit to be their superiors. Lastly the Chibhs descended from Shd-di 
Khi'in have 14 septs, mostly named after eponyms: — 

1 . Rupy41, descended from Rup Khdn. 

2. Barwdna, from Baru Kh4n. 

3. Daphrdl, from Daphar Khdn. 

4. Dhurdl, from Dhaur Kh^ln. 

5. Darwes4l, from Darwesli Khd,n. 

C. Jaskdl, from Jaisak Kh4n. 

7. MaindiU, from Jal4l Din, Kid,3 Din and Bhur^ KhK,n, 

8. Bd-rdnshdliia, from Bdr^in Kh4n. 

9. Samwdlid,, S 

10. Miiind,, > from Muhammad Kh/in. 

11. Malkdnfl, J 

12. Malkdl, from Malik Khdn. 

13. Ghaniydl, from Ghani Kh4n. 

14. Ghaghial, from Ghaghi Khdn. 

Chilasi, an inhabitant of Childs, which is a canton comprising six valleys 
in the Indus Kohistan. Its inaccessibility has given the Chilasis a 
spirit of independence and a distinctive character among all the Kohistan 
communities. 'I'hough but somewhat recent converts to Isldm they are 
more fanatical than any other Dard community, and being Sunnis, every 
Shia who falls into their hands is put to death, without the usual alter- 
native of slavery. Once subject to Gilgit, the Childsis were notorious 
for slave-raiding and they once repulsed a Sikh expedition from Kash- 
mir. In 1851 they were however subdued by that State and now give 
no trouble to its government. The love of music, dancing and polo, so 
general in the Indus Kohistdn, is unknown in Childs. Tradition says 
that the whole of Shinkdri was once ruled by a Hindu rdjd, Chachai by 
name, from Childs, which, on his death without issue, became divided 
into republics, as it is now. Later, a civil war between two brothers, 
Bot and Matchuk, ended in the expulsion of the latter’s adherents, and 
the Bot6 are now the most prosperous family in the canton. Tradition 
also preserves the name of Naron, the old tutelary deity of Childs. Each 
village is independent and has a number of elected elders, jushteroa, 
but they are the servants, rather than leaders, of those whom they re- 
present. The elders are mostly occupied in the details of the village 
administration, but all matters are discussed in the sigas or public 
meeting, whose decision is announced by them. If several villages 
combine to hold a sigas, each appoints ajushtero, and after the general 
discussion, which is as open as that at a village a loud whistle i.s 
given, after which none but the representative jushteros are permitted 
to speak. The elders’ decisions about land disputes are respected, 
but criminal justice is administered by the mullahs, who profess to 
follow the Muhammadan Law, but who are really guided by ancient 
custom, which is very strong in some villages. Murder is rare and is 
generally regarded as a tort to be avenged by the nearest relation. 
The blood feud is however not allowed to continue indefinitely and 
after a time the parties are made to swear peace on the Qurdn,— 
Biddulph, Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh, pp. 17 and 18, 


ChiUss-^Chishti. m 

Chiliss, a group of some 200 families, so called by their neighbours, but 
styling themselves Gab’s, found scattered in the Kohi tract in the 
Indus Kohist^n. Originally, say their traditions, settled in Buner, they 
migrated to Swat and thence to the Indus in vain attempts to escape 
conversion to Islam. They are looked up to by their neighbours and 
occupy, as a rule, the best land in the country. Probably an ofE- 
shoot of the Torw^lik, they doubtless derive their name from Ch^hil,^ 
the principal village in Torwal : Biddulph, Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh, 
pp. 10, 69. 

Chima.— One of the largest Jd.t tribes in tho Punjd,b. They say that some 
25 generations back their ancestor Chima, a Chauh^n Rajput, fled from 
Delhi after the defeat of Rai Tanurat (Prithi Rilj), by Muhammad of Ghor, 
first to K^ngra in the Delhi District and then to Amritsar, where his 
son Chotu Mai founded a village on tho Be^s in tho time of Ala-ud-diu. 
His grandson was called Rana Kang, and the youngest of his eight 
sons, Dhol (tho name appears among tho Hinjra), was tho ancestor of 
their present clans — Dogal, Mohtil, Nagd,ra and Chima. Tho Chima 
have the peculiar marriage customs described under the Sdhi J4ts, and 
they are said to be served by Jogis instead of Brahmans, but now-a-days 
Bhania purohits are said to perform their ceremonies. They are a 
powerful and united tribe, but quarrelsome. They are said to marry 
within the tribe as well as with their neighbours. The bulk of tho 
tribe embraced IsHm in the times of Firoz Sh^lh and Aurangzeb, but 
many retain their old customs. They are most numerous in Sid,lkot, 
but hold 42 villages in Gujnlnw^la, and have spread both eastwards and 
westwards along tho foot of tho hills. 

It is noteworthy that tho tribe takes its generic name from its young- 
est clan, and is descended from Dhol, a youngest son. 

Another genealogy is— 

Rai Tandra. 

I 

Chotu Mai. 

Chima (4th in descent). 

r 1 

Audhan, Audhar. 

Ravan, founded Chima, 

The Sidlkof, Pamphlet of 1806 makes them Soinabansi Rdjputs, 
claiming descent from Rama (sic) Gaiij. It also says they follow the 
chundavand rule of inheritance. 

Chima, a Hindu and Muhammadan J4t clan (agricultural) found in Mont- 
gomery. 

CniMNE, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

China, a Muhammadan Jat clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

China, see Chhina. 

Chishti. — The Chishtis are by origin one of tho regular Muhammadan 
orders. They trace their foundation to one Abu Islulq, ninth in 
, succession from Ali, the son-in-law of Muhammad, who migrating 


* But Chiliss also occurs as a proper name in llurjia : I6td, p. 27. 
t Sic : for Pithora, 


The Chishti sect. 


from Asia Minor, settled at Chislit, a village in Kliuriisan and 
became the teaclier of a large body of Musalmdns.* One of his 
successors, Khwaja Muin*ud-din Chisliti, a native of Sanjar in Persia, 
migrated to India in the time of Ghid,s-ud-<lin Balban, settled in Ajmer 
and established the order in India. His A:/taZ'i/a or immediate successor 
was Khwaja Qutb-ud-din Bakhtidr Kdki, who is buried near the 
Qutb Miiiclr at Delhi, f and his successor was the celebrated Baba 
Parid Shakarganj, whose shrine is at Pakpattan in Montgomery. The 
surname of this saint is said to be derived from the fact that, owing 
to the purity of his body, all he ate became sugar : if we may trust 
another story, ho “ nourished himself by holding to his stomach wooden 
cakes and fruits when he felt hungry, lliis miraculous but inexpensive 
provender is still preserved.” An immense fair is held at his shrine 
each year, and the object of every pily:rira wbo attends is to get through 
the narrow gate of the shrine on the afternoon or night of the 5th 
Muharram. Tlie saint is adored by Hindus^ as well as Musalmdns, 
and to be a disciple of B^bd Farid does not necessarily imply being 
a Chishti; and, again, the descendants of this saint and his relations, 
carnal or spiritual, have formed themselves into a separate caste of 
men who are found on the Sutlej in Montgomery and who, though 
bearing the name of Chishti, are now in all respects an ordinary 
lay caste, quite apart from the religious order of the same name. 

Baba Farid had two disciples : one of these was Ali Ahmad surnamod 
Sdbir, whose shrine is at Pi ran Kaliar near Rurki, and whose followers 
are known as Sdbir Chishtis ; the other was the celebrated and 
mysterious Nizdm-ud-din Aulia (1232-1324 a. d.), around whoso tomb 
are collected some of the choicest monuments of ancient Delhi, and 
whoso disciples are known as Nizdmis. 


The Chishtis in repeating the profession of faith lay a peculiar 
stress on the words lUalldhn, repeating these with great violence, and 
shaking at the same time their heads and the upper part of their 
bodies. The sect is said to bo specially affected by Sliias, and it is 
distinguished by its adoption of vocal music in its religious services. 


The members of the order are worked up by these religious 
to a hio'h pitch of excitement, and often sink down exhausted. 


songs 


a nign pircii oi exenement, anil otten siiiK clown exiiausteil. They 
frequently wear coloured clothes, especially clothes dyed with ochre or 
with the bark of tlie acacia tree. Their })rincipal shrines in the 
I’linjc'ib are the tomb of Nizam-iid-din Aulia at Delhi, the khdngdh 
of Miraii Blu'k in Ambala, the shriiio of Baba Farid at Pakpattan, and 
the khdngdh of Hazrat Sulaim^-n at Taunsa in Dora Ghazi Klijfn. 


In Bahawalpiir the Chishti sect has in modern times shown great 
vitality. Shaikh Taj-ud-din Chishti was a grandson of Farid-ud-din 
Shakar-gaiij and his descendants founded tho village of Chishtian in 
tliat Stale. His shrine is also called Uoza Tj'ij Sarwar. Many tribes 
accepted Islam at his hands, os-j)ocially tho Sodha and Rath, and this led 
to war with the Raj]nits of Bikanei’. The saint on going forth to battle 


* “Tho Cliishti or Chi«litia is an order of Muhammadan /tJ 7 /rs founded by Banda NawaZ 
who i.s buried at Kalbargah ." — Vunjub Census Report, 1881, Section 618. 

f See the iuteriwting account of tliis saint given in the late Mr. Carr Stephen’s Archxoloav 
of Delhi, p. 17-t i^eqq. Ho is tho patron saint of the Afghans, 

In CUirgaon llio shrine of Shaikh Ahmad Chishti is maiuly frequented by Hindus. 


The Chishti revival. 


173 


pitched a flag on top of his houso and told his woinen-folk that as long as 
tho flag stood thoy would know he was safe. Unfortunately the flag 
was accidentally knocked down and tho women prayed for tho earth to 
swallow them up as the saint had commanded. Their prayer was grant- 
od and thoy were engulfed, only tho edges of their shawls remaining 
outside. A tower was built on the spot and at it women still make vows. 
One of tho women, however, a Bhatti by tribe, did not join in tho prayer 
and was not engulfed, but made her escape. Hence the Chishtis do not 
maiTy Bhatti women to this day. Near this shrine, at tho tomb of 
Khwiija Nur Muhammad, stood five largo jand trees, called I’anjan 
Pirdn de jaiid, or the jaiid trees oi tho live pirs. Under their shade 
Bawa Nilnak once sat and prophesied that he who should obtain 
possession of it would indeed bo blessed, for it was a part of paradise. 
Muhammadans hero sacrifice goats and sheep after oli’ering prayers for 
rain. Hindus offer a covering of chintz for tho restoration of health, 
and sugar and boiled grain for rain. 

The Ghishti revival. — The decay of the movement headed by Bawa 
Farid Shakar-ganj had become marked, when Khwsija Nur Muhammad 
Qibla-i-Alim, a Bunwar Rijput of tho Kharral tribe, revived it. This 
saint was a disciple of Maulana Fakhr-ud-din, Muhib-ul-Nabi, of Delhi. 
He had miraculous powers and once saved tho sinking ship of one 
of his disciples,* his spirit being able to leave his body at will. Ho 
had promised another disciple to pray for him at his death, 
and though ho pre-deceased him, ro-appearod in the flesh and fulfilled 
tho promise. It would seem that in a sense tho rise of tho Chishti 
sect marks an indigenous revival of Islam, under religious leaders 
of local tribes, instead of tho older Sayyid families. Thus tho Baloch 
tribes on tho Indus aro often followers of tho Chishti saints, but 
even tho Sayyids of both branches recognize their authority. 

Tho four chief khalifas of Qibla-i-Alim were, Nur Muhammad II, of 
Hfijipur or Narowala, in tahsil Bajanpur, Qazi Muhammiul Arpl, of 
CliAcharau Sharif, Hafiz Muhammad Jamal, Multaiii, and Khwaja 
IMuhammad Sulaimaii Khfin, of Taunsa Sharif, in tahsil Sanghai-. Khali la 
^Muhammad Aqil was a Qoraishi and ono of his descendants. Shaikh 
Muhammad Kora, founded the religious tribe of that name. MnhaTiimad 
Aqil’s shrine was at Kot Mithan, but, when Kanjit Singh conciuered tho 
Denijfit, Khwaja Khuda Bakbsh, Malibub Ilahi, his descendant, settled 
at Chacharfin Sharif, which may now bo regarded as the head- quart er of 
the Bahawal[)ur State religion. Muhammad A(jil displayed many 
miracles and in his old age, owing to his spiritual enlightenment, had no 
shadow ; so ho used to come out of his house on dark nights only, in order 
to conceal his sanctity. A cloth [lungi) which passed through his body is 
kept as a relic to this day. One of his khalifas was Maulvi Sultan Mahmud 
whoso shrine is at Khan Bela. This saint was fond of viisai, a kind of 
bread, of fowls and of snuff, in his lifetime; so these aro offered 
at his shrine — a clear instance of anthropolatry — very similar are 
the offerings mtido to Birs. Tho Sufis, or devotees of tho Chishtia 
sect, have a number of songs {kdfis) which they consider tho food of 
the soul. Their principal poets aro Budha Shah, Ghulam Sluih, a 

*Cf. the story of the Sikh Giini Kam Rai given at eection 32 of the Punjab Census Iteport, 
1902. 


174 


Chitragupta-hansi — C hitrdli. 


Sindlii, and Khwil]’a Gliul^m Farid, late sajjdda-nisMn of Cliacharj^n 
Sharif. The Chishtis, generally, are devoted to music. Outwardly the 
followers of tho sajjoda-nctshins of Chdcharftn are distinguished by a 
special head-dress, the Chachanln-wala top, or hat, which is shaped 
nice a mosque and is about 15 inches high, covering the ears and 
neck. 

As a caste the Chishtis appear to be absorbing tho Naqshbandis, many 
of tho Qadrias and other Sufi sects, especially in the south-east Punjab. 
Like tho Bodlas tho Chishtis were till lately wholly nomad. They take 
Ihijput girls to wife. There is a saying — “ You can tell a Chishti by 
his squint-eye ” ; but tho origin of the saying is unknown. 

CHiTRAQorTA-BANsi, ono of tho two classGs of tho Kayasths q. v., found in 
Northern India. 


Chitkali,* * * § an inhabitant of tho State of Chitral. Tho Chitralis are divided 
into three classes — Adamzd,das, Arb4bzcldas and Faqir-Miskin. Tho 
first-named are divided into some 23 clans including the Katoe, the 
family of the Mihtar of Chitral, whence it is also called Mihtari. The 
other AdamzMa clans are-— 


Khushwakte.ti ] 

Raza, I 

Muhammad Beg6, 
Sangale. f 

Kushamad^. i 

Khaniye. 1 

Burushe. 

Zundre or Rouos. 


Atam Bege. 
Mazbe. 
Mirasiye, 
Khoshal Bege. 
Khashe. 

Munfiat Khaue. 
Bayike, 

Qabile. 


Shighniye. 

Dachman^. 

Khoja. 

Byuriye. 

Roshte. 

Kisrawe. 


From the ]Iono§ families the ivazirs are generally, but iwt always, 
chosen. Tho Konos are most numerous in Yassin, Mastuj and Chitral, 
and are found, though in decreasing numbers, as one goes eastward, in 
Nitgar, Gilgit, Punyal, etc. In Nagar and Yassin they call themselves 
Kara or Ilaraiyo, in Wilkhdn and Sarikul Khaibar-Khatar, and in Shigh- 
nan G aibalik-Kliatar. Wherever found they are held in great respect, 
'rhree principal traditions as to their origin exist, (1) that they descend- 
ed from Zun, Rono and Ilarai, the three sons of Sumalik who ruled in 
Mastuj before the Shd-hrei dynasty of the Shins was established ; (2) that 
they are of Arab descent, from Muhammad Hanifa, son of Ali ; and 
(3) that they came from the ancient principality of R4jauri, near Punch, 
and are descended from three brothers, Sirang, Surung and Khangar 
Phututo. In appearance generally taller than the other inhabitants of 
Chiti’iil, with rather high cheek-bones, oval faces not thickly bearded, and 
fairly developed features, some of them resemble high-class Rajputs in 
type. They give daughters to the ruling families, and the children of 


* Chitriil, Chitrar or Cliitlar, as it is also called, will be found described in the Imperial 
Gazetteer. 

I The Khushwaktd were rulers of Mastiij and conquered Yassin. Descendants of th« 
Kfttore and Khuahwakt^ families are alike called Mihtarjao or Mihtarbak, i.c. sons of 
Mihtars. 

X Called collectively Shah Sangale : descended from the common ancestor and founder 
of the Katori and Khushvvaktd families. 

§ Rono appears to bo unquestionably the same word as Rana, the change from d to o 
being very common. Philological speculation might suggest the following equivalents: 
Sumalik = Siwalik; Zun = Jun, the aborigines of Si4lkot; Khutar = Kshatriya, Khattri, 
or Khattar (in Rawalpindi). 


Classes in Chitrdl. 


175 


such mniTiages can succeed to all the honours of the father’s family. They 
all give daughters to Sayyids, and the Zundre of Chiti*iil do not refuse 
them to the Pathdns of Dir. In their turn, however, they take wives 
from both Shins and Yeshkuns, and the children of such wives rank 
ns Ronos and, if daughters, can marry into ruling families. Occasionally 
Ilono women are given to Shins and Yeshkuns, but this is a penalty for 
misconduct when they cannot find husbands in their own class. Hiding 
families give daughters born of slaves or concubines to Ronos, but not 
those born of lawful wives.* 


The Arb^bzfidas and Faqir-Miskin are really one and the same, but 
the latter are the very poor class, some having barely sufficient to live on. 
The Kho, who inhabit the whole of Kashkar Bfilfi, the Lut-kho and 
Arkari valleys and the main valley down to Drosh, are by class Faqir- 
Miskin. They call the country Kho also, and divide it into Turi-kho 
(Upper), Mul-kho (Lower) and Lut-kho (Great). They speak Kho-wfir, 
and are divided into classes such as the Toriye, Shire, Darklulno and 
Shohfine, but have no caste distinctions. The Yidgoal are also classed 
as Faqir-Miskms, as are the Kalash and Bashqali Kfifirs, Dangariks, 
Gabr, and Sifih Posh — all broken tribes subject to Chitnll. 


The Arbfibzfidas are really well-to-do Faqir-Miskin who have been 
rewarded for services to the Mihtar. Coolies and ponies arc furnished 
for his service by both these classes, the Adamzddas being exempt, and 
this corvee falls very heavily on them. 


The Ashima-dek (or more coiTectly Hashmat-diak), according to 
Biddulph. is a large class, ranking below the Zundre and comprising 
the following clans : — 


Atam Beg6. 
Bain>ni Beg6, 
Baiyeke. 
Barshintak. 


Dashmannd. 

Jikan6. 

Kashd, of Kaah, in Badaklisban. 
Koshial Beg6. 


Zadimd. 

M4j6. 

Shankd. 

Shighnie (of Shiglinan), 


The term Hashmat-diakf signifies food-giver, and this class is bound to 
supply the Mihtar and his retainers with 8 sheep and as many kharwdrs 
of wheat fi’oni each house whenever he passes through their villages, 
but it pays no other revenue. 

In the valley below Chitral, scattered among the villages, a number of • 
the meaner castes are found, as in the Gilgit and Indus valleys. They are 
called Ustfids or “artificers” and include Dartocho (carpenters), Dargere 
(wooden bowl makers), Kulfile (potters), Dorns (musicians), and Mochis 
(blacksmiths). The two latter rank below the rest and only intermarry 
among themselves. The other tliree intermarry without restriction 
inter se, and occasionally give daughters to the Faqir-Miskin class. 
Ustfids are not found in Kdshkdr Bdlfi or Lut-kho. 


Tlie physical characteristics of the Chitrdlis vary little. In appearance 
the men are light, active figures from 5' 5" to 5' 8" in height. Thoufrh 
well made they are not, as a rule, remarkable for muscular development, 

* It is unnecessary to point out the analogies presented by the social system in Cliitril 
to that which prevails in Kangra, as described by Sir James Lyall in his Settlement Report 
on that District. 

I From hashmat or ashmat, food, given to the Mihtar and his servants when they are 
travelling, by the Arbibzada class. 


176 


Dress in Chitr6l. 


presenting in this respect a marked contrast to the Tartar races, and, 
despite their hardy, simple lives, they seem unequal to any prolonged 
physical effort. 'J'lieir constitutions also lack stamina and they succumb 
easily to disease or change of climate. This want of physique is 
strongly marked in the Shins. In disposition tractable, good-tempered, 
fond of merry-making, the Chitritlis are neither cruel nor quarrelsome 
and readily submit to authority, though the Arbd,bzdda class compares 
unfavourably with the older tribes, having been guilty of cmelties in war. 

The women are pleasing-looking when young, but not particularly 
handsome. The Khos of Faqir-Miskin status, however, are Indo-Aryans 
of a high type, not unlike the Shins of the Indus about Koli, but better 
looking, having oval faces and finely-cut features, which would compare 
favourably with the highest ty]:)es of beauty in Europe. Their most 
striking feature is their large, beautiful eyes which remind one of 
English gypsies, with whom they share the reputation of being expert 
thieves. They are also proud of their unusually fine hair. The Chitral 
women used to be in great demand in the slave markets of Kdbul, 
Peshdwar and Badakhshdn. The fairest complexions are to be seen 
among the Burish of Yassin and Hunza where individuals may be found 
who might pass for Europeans, and red hair is not uncommon. 

In Chitrdl, as in some of the valleys to the westward, many customs 
have in part disappeared under the influence of Isldm. 

The usual dress in Chitrdl, as in Yassin, Hunza, Ndgar, Sirikot, 
Wdkhdn, etc., is a loose woollen robe, for which those who can afford it 
substitute cotton in summer. This is of the same cut as the woollen 
robe, but has quilted edges, worked round the neck and front with silk 
embroidery. When first put on the sleeves, which are very full, are 
crimped in minute folds, right up to the neck, giving the wearer 
a clerical appearance. Boots of soft leather are also worn. As in 
Wdkhdn and Sirikot the men wear small, scanty turbans, not the 
rolled cap of Gilgit and Astor. The women wear wide trousers, over 
which is a loose chemise of coarse-coloured cotton stuff, fastening in the 
middle at the throat, and coming down to the knees. The opening is 
held together by a circular buckle, from which hangs a curious 
triangular silver ornament called peshawez, that varies in size 
according to the circ urn stances of the wearer. Round the neck are 
generally one or two necklaces of silver beads with oval silver medallions, 
and a piece of carnelian or turquoise set in them. They also wear a 
loose woollen cap, generally of dark colour such as brown; but this 
kind of cap is now confined to women of the lower classes residing in 
the upper valleys, and ChitiAli women of the better classes wear 
embroidered silk caps. In the Shin caste unmaiTied women are 
distinguished by a white cap, which is never worn by married Shin 
women. 

Both men and women wear numbers of charms, sewn in bright- 
coloured silk, and suspended from the cap or dress by small circular 
brass buckles. Some of the buckles are very tastefully worked. A 
curious kind of cloth is sometimes woven out of bird’s down. That of 
wild fowl and of the great vulture (G. himulayensis) is most generally 
used. The down is twisted into coarse thread, which is then woven like 
ordinary cloth. Robes made of it are very warm, but always have a 


CiLstoms in Chitrdl. 


177 


fluffy uncomfortablo look, suggestive of dirt. They are only made in the 
houses of those in good circumstances. The pashm of the ibex is also 
in groat demand for warm clothing, but it never seems to lose its strong 
goaty smell. 

When young tho men shave the wholo top of the head from the fore- 
head to the napo of tho nock, tho hair on both sides being allowed to 
grow long and gathered into a single largo curl on each side of tho 
nock. Tho board is kept shorn.* * * § Youths of tho better class only shave 
tho top of tho head for a breadth of two inches in front, tapering to half 
an inch behind. Those who cannot boast long locks dress their hair 
into numerous small cork-screw ringlets all round tho head — an ancient 
Persian fashion. t On the approach of middlo ago tho whole head is 
shaved in orthodox Muhammadan fashion and the board allowed to grow. 
Tho effect of the long-flowing locks reaching to the waist is often ex- 
tremely picturesque. 

Tho mode of salutation between equals, on meeting after a prolonged 
absence, is graceful and pleasing. After clasping each other, first on one 
side and then on tho other, hands are joined and each kisses the other’s 
hand in turn. AVhen the meeting is between two of unequal rank the 
infei’ior kisses tho hand of the superior and he in return kisses the for- 
mer on the cheek — in the ancient Pei’sian fashion, j; 

In Chitral and Yassin, as in Shighnan, Badakhsh^in, Wakhdn, Gilgit 
and Hunza§ a chiefs visit to a chief is celebrated by the kuhah, an 
observance thus described by Biddulph : — “On arrival, the visitor is con- 
ducted to the Shawaran,ll and the followers of both chiefs show their 
dexterity in firing at a mark set up on a tall pole, from horseback, while 
galloping at speed. After this a bullock is led out before the guest, 
who draws his sword and does his best to cut its head off at a single 
blow, or deputes one of his followers to do so, and the carcase is given 
to his retinue.” 

In the Khowar tongue the term “ uncle” is applied to the brothers of 
both father and mother without distinction : but aunts on tho mother’s 
side are styled “ mother ” which may point to polygamy as the ancient 
custom of tho Khos.^ hlarriago of a widow with the husband’s brother 
is common, though not compulsory. 

Cases of uifidelity are extremely common, and tho men show more of 
the jealousy of their wives usual in older Muhammadan communities. 
In case of adultery tho injurod husband has the right to slay the 
guilty couple when he finds them together, but should he slay the one 
and not the other he is held guilty of murder.** When conclusive 
proof is wanting in a trial before the wazir, guarantee is taken for the 


* These fasliions have also been adopted by the Baltis in Baltislan. 

f Biddulph cites Rawlinson’s Ancient Monarchies, IV, 

t Biddulph cites Strabo, Bk. XV, Ch. 3, 20. 

§ In Nigar it is customary to kill the buffalo with au arrow. 

II Polo ground : so-called in Shino. In Chitrali it is called jindli. 

^ Maulavi Ghulam Muhammad however notes that the mother’s sister is onllsd bm*’, 
This is the rule in Sarikul and Wakhan as well as south of the Hindu Kush, 


178 


Chitrdli games. 

future by the accused placing his lips to the woman’s breast, and so 
sacred is the tie of fosterage thus created that it has never been known 
to be broken. The husband has however a right to both their lives.* * * § 

The custom of fosterage is maintained among all the ruling families 
of the states of the Hindu Kush and its ties seem stronger than those of 
blood kinship. When a child is born it is assigned to a foster-mother 
and brought up in her house, so that frequently the father does not see it 
till it is six or seven years old.f The fortunes of the foster-mother’s family 
aro unalterably bound up with those of the child and should exile be 
his lot they accompany him. On the other hand if he rises to influence 
his foster-father is generally his confidential adviser and his foster- 
brothers are employed on the most important missions. 

Friendship too is commonly cemented by the milk tie. If a woman 
dreams that she has adopted any one, or a man dreams that ho has 
been adopted by any woman, the tie is created in the manner, 
already described as in vogue to make the woman fafew to the man. 
Not many years ago this custom was very common, though it is falling 
into disuse.! A young couple at marriage sometimes induce a friend 
to become their foster-father, and the tie is ratified when they eat 
together : both being seated opposite each other, the foster-father, 
seated between them, takes a piece of bread in each hand and 
crossing his arms puts the bread into their mouths, taking care 
to keep his right hand uppermost. Marriage between foster-kindred 
is regarded as incestuous. Among the Hashmat-diak the tie of fosterage 
is formed in a peculiar way, for in order to strengthen tribal unity it is 
customary for every infant to be suckled in turn by every nursing mother 
of the clan. In consequence there is a constant interchange of children 
going on among the mothers. 

Polo is the national game and is called ghdl in Chitrdl where 
it is played in a special way. Shooting from horse-back at a gourd 
filled with ashes, or at a small ball, hung from a pole 30 feet high, 
is also practised. Dancing is the national amusement, several different 
steps being in vogue, each with its special air. Almost all these 
commence slowly, increasing in pace till the performer is bounding 
round the circle at top speed. In Chitrd,! and Yassin the Hashmat-diak 
affect to despise dancing, but the rulers keep dancing-boys for 
their amusement. Singing is common and the Khowar songs, which 
aro mostly amatory in character, show a more cultivated taste than 
those in the Sliina tongue, the music of the language and the better 
rhythm of the verso entitling them to the fii-st place in Dard poetry. § 

The ChitiAlis are noted for their swordsmanship, which has o-ained 
many a victory over matchlocks. 

* But if ho does not kill them and intends to divorce his wife, or if his wife or daughter 
has been enticed away by some one, ho can take as compensation some or all of the 
seducer’s property. This form of divorce is called in Shina fito pharc bdJc, i c. words uttered 
while turning his back towards the assembly, as by turning his back ho signifies his accent- 
ance of compensation, ° ^ ' 

+ The Raj 4 of Bashahr observes a similar custom. 

! Milk from a w^oman’a breast is esteemed a sovereign remedy for cataract and other 
cye-diseases. Its use establishes the nulk-tio for ever afterwards 

§ In Gilgit Hunza and Nigar the songs are generaUy of a warlike nature and celebrate 
the deeds of dilTcrcnt princes. 


179 


Chitrdli fealivaU, 


Tlie Cliitrjil calendar is computed by the solar year, commencing 
with the winter solstice ; but the months take their names from pecu- 
liarities of season or agricultural operations : — 


1 . Thungshal or Thhongshal (longl 

2. Phheting (oxtromo cold). 

3. Ariyin (wild duck). 

4. Shahdagh (black mark).* * * § 

5. Boi (sparrows). 

0. Ronzak (trembling— of the 
growing corn). 


7. Yogh(full). 

8. Miizho Was (middle). 

9. Poiyaniso (the end). 

10. Kholkrerai (threshing). 

11. Kishman (sowing). 

12. Chhanchori (leaf-falling). 


The Muhammadan calendar is, however, coming into use, especially 
among the tiashmat-diak class. Tho Muhammadan days of the week 
are used, but Friday is called Adinna. 

In Chitrd,! the new year festival is called Dashti. It corresponds 
to the Nost of Yasin, Gilgit, Hunza, Nd,gar, Ponyal, Astor and Gor, 
but no bonfires are lit as in those territories. J 

At the commencement of the wheat harvest the Phindik,§ as it is 
called in Chitral, is observed. The day having been fixed with reference 
to the state of the crop, the last hour of daylight for the preceding 
ton days is spent in dancing on the shawaran. At dusk on the evening 
before the festival, a member of every household gathers a handful 
of ears of corn. This is supposed to be done secretly. A few of 
the ears ai’e hung over the door of the house, and the rest are roasted 
next morning and eaten steeped in milk. The day is passed in the 
usual rejoicings, and on the following day harvest operations are com- 
menced. As some crops are always more forward than others, and 
ready to bo reaped before the appointed day, no restriction is placed 
on their being cut ; but to oat of the grain before the festival would 
provoke ill-luck and misfortune. 

Next comes the Jastandiktlik |1 or “ devil-driving ” which celebrates 
the completion of the harvest. When the last crop of the autumn 

has been gathered, it is necessary to drive away evil spirits from 

the granaries. A kind of porridge called mul is eaten, and 
the head of the household takes his matchlock and fires it into 
the floor. Then, going outside, he sets to work loading and firing 
till his powder-horn is exhausted, all his neighbours being similarly 

employed. Tlie next day is spent in the usual rejoicings, part of 

which consists in firing at a sheep’s head set up as a mark. 

A festival called Binisik, “ seed- sowing ” — somewhat similar to the 
Chilli of Gilgit and the Thamer Bopan or “the Tham’s sowing” of 
llunza and Niigar — takes place in Chitriil ; but the present ruling 


* In allusion to tho earth’s appearance when the snow melts. 

t Nos moans ‘ fattening,’ and alludes to the slaughtering of cattle which takes place. The 
first day is one of work, and is devoted in every household to dressing and storing 
the carcases of bullocks, sheep, and goats slaughtered a few days previously. This is 
done by drying them in a particular way, so that they remain fit for foul for several 
months. This is necessary because the pastures have become covered with snow and 
only sufficient fodder is stored to keep a few animals alive through the winter. 

I In Chilas and DArel, too, no bonfires are in vogue at the Daikio, as this festival is 
there called. 

§ Called Ganoni in Gilgit and Sh&gat in Wikhan. 

il The Domenike or " smoke -making ” of Gilgit. 


180 


The Chilli festival in Gilgit. 

class havinfy never identiGed themselves with their humbler subjects, 
the ruler takes no part in it.* The following account of the Chilli 
festival in Gilgit is contributed by Maulavi Glmlani Muhammad, author 
of The festivals and Folklore of Gilgit : — 

At night a big goat called asirkhan ai mugar (the goat of the kitchen) 
was killed at the Bit’s house and a feast prepared by cooking about a 
maund of rice and two of Gour. The baking of the bread was com- 
menced by an unmarried girl, on whom a gift [khillat] of a chddar (head 
cover) of longcloth was bestowed, but the other women took up her 
task. In former times a big loaf, called hi ai tiki (the loaf of seed), of 
a maund of flour, was also cooked on a fire made of straw, and distri- 
buted, half to a man of the Katchalat family, a fourth to the yarfa 
(the Rajd's grain collector), and a fourth to the Hiljd’s ploughmen. But 
ou this occasion three loaves (two of 20 sers each and one of ten sers) 
were prepared. The big loaf was about seven feet in circumference 
and four inches thick. One of them, with 24 sers of flour, was given to 
the Katchata in the morning, and the other two were divided equally 
between the yarfa and the ])loughmen in the afternoon. The local 
band played all through the night with dancing and singing. At 
10 in the morning the people of Gilgit, Barmas, etc., assembled at 
the Bii’s house where a durhar was observed, i.e., some ghi, chilli leaves 
and seeds of the wild rue were placed on an iron pan, beneath which 
a little fire was made in order to fumigate the air with its smoke. 
The bandsmen and the man who had brought the load of chilli 
branches from the jungle, were then each given a khillat of a muslin 
turban. A khillat of a turban and a choga (cloak) was also given to 
Ghulam, one of the Katchata family, whose face was then rubbed 
with flour, a small loaf of bread mixed with ghi being given him to 
eat. According to custom while eating this he ought to have bellowed 
like an ox, but this rite was not observed. A maund of wheat was also 
put in a leather bag. The procession was ready to proceed to the 
Rd’s field by about 11-30. The bag of grain was loaded on the 
Katchata, one man took the iron pan used in the Duban, and another 
took the two big loaves, the one uppermost being covered with about 
four sers of butter with a pomegranate placed in the middle, while two 
chilli branches were stuck in the butter round the pomegranate. Two 
men carried a he- and a she-goat, while the remainder of the procession 
hadbranches of chilli in their hands; and the procession, with the band 
playing in front, started for the RjI’s field where the sowing was to be 
commenced. 


♦In Yasin this festival is accompanied by a curious custom. The charvelu is mounted 
on a good horse and clad in a robe of honour given him by the Mihtar. In this way 
he is conducted to the polo ground, where all seat themselves while the' music strikes 
up, and the tarangfah gallops twice up and down the ground. Should any accident happen 
to him, such as either himself or hia horse falling, it is regarded as a presage of mis- 
fortune to the whole community, and of speedy death to himself. In order to avert evil, 
be and his family observe the day as a solemn fast. 

f -A- family of Gilgit, which in ancient times became such a source of danger to the chief 
of Gilgit, that it was attacked and massacred to a man, only a pregnant woman managing to 
csc&p6 towards Darel, After this the crops of Gilgit did not flourish for several years, and 
a dany&l (soothsayer) said that its fertility depended on the Katchata family and that until 
a m^ of that clan was brought there to commence the seed-sowing the crops would never 
flourish. After a great search the son of the woman who had escaped towards Darel was 
found and brought to Gilgit. On his return the crops gave a good outturn. 


181 


Chohang-^C^oMM. 

The Katchata then took from a leather bag one after the other 4 
handfuls of wheat, in each of which lie mixed a masha of gold-dust, 
and gave them to Hiijd Ali Dad Khfin, who throw the first handful 
towards the west, the second towards the east, the third to the 
north and the fourth to the south. Then the Rd himself ploughed 
throe turns in his field with a pair of bullocks which were ready on the 
spot. The waz'tr of Gilgit ought then to have ploughed three turns but 
this was omitted. The band then commenced playing and two grey- 
beards of good family, with swords and shields in their hands, jumped 
forward and began to dance amid joyous cheers from the people. This 
dance is called achhmh meaning ‘ prestige ’ or ‘ pomp,’ and is intended 
to awaken the deity of prestige Meanwhile a he-goat was, according 
to custom, killed by a man of a Rono family. This goat is called 
achhushai vingar, i.e., ‘ the goat of the deity of pomp ’ and is sacrificed 
in his honour. Its head and two of its feet were separated and two 
men, one with the head and the other with the two feet in their hands, 
came forward and danced amid the rejoicings of the people. All the 
flesh of the goat was, as is customary, given to the people of Barmas 
village to prepare a feast. A she-goat, called the yadeni ai ayi, i.e., 
‘ the goat of the deity of drums,’ was then killed and given to the bands- 
men. The procession then started back to the Rajii’s house where the 
feast cooked at night was .served. The Rdj.'i had to give some bread 
to the niotabars and the bandsmen from his own dish. This custom 
is called ishpin ; after that the people started for the nhawaran (polo 
ground) to play polo and make merry. After polo the people again 
went to the Rji’s house and dined there. The Katchata commenced 
ploughing his fields the same day, while the other zaniinddrs did not 
commence work on their fields till the next day.”* 

Chohang, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Chohar, a Dogar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

CuoKAni, a Jilt clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 


* The corresponding Thorail festival of Puniiil is thus described by the Maulavi ; — 

“ A very interesting ceremony known as tlie Thomil used to be observed every year at 
Sher Killa, the seat of the Uajii of Punial, before seed-sowing. On tho day it was to bo 
observed, the people visited the KAjii in his Fort and got from him 10 or 20 scrs of flour, 4 
or 0 sers of ghi and one big goat. The flour was made into broad thin leaves on which 
the ghi was placed. Tho preliminaries were observed in the Fort. All the persons present 
hold in their hands a small branch of tho holy juniper tree, and those possessing guns 
brought their weapons with them. From tho gate of the Fort, tho Raja attended by his 
people marched out to the open fields among their shouts and cries, a band playing various 
war-tunes. The assembly then gathered in an open field, and the cooked leaves were 
presented to the R4ja who tasted one of them. The rest was then distributed among all 
present. After the feast prayer was mafle for an abundant crop. Tho goat was then 
killed, and leaving the carcase behind, its head was brought before tho assembly and 
being greased with butter, flour was sprinkled on it from tho forehead down to tho nose. 
The head was then placed at some distance as a target to be fired at. Tho firing was opened 
by the Raji who was followed by his motahars and any other who possessed fire-arms. 
^^^losoever hit the head was liable to contribute a chalar of country wine. When this 
target practice was over, the assembly dispersed after a nati dance, which was given by a 
motabar of the R4ja, who used to present him with a turban. In tho evening tho goat’s 
flesh was roasted and enjoyed with the wine contributed by those who had hit its head in 
tho day. Only the people of Sher Killa had tho right to share in this merry-making, no 
one else from other villages of Punial being even allowed to attend it. A few years ago 
this ceremony was discontinued, but it was revived this year (1910).’’ 


182 Chohar^Chuhrd, 

Chokar, Chhokar, a Gujar tribe, found in Karnd,!, where they have long been 
settled. Immigrating from beyond Muttra they once held a chauhisi, 
or group of 24 villages, with Namaunda as their head-quarters. 

CnoKHiA, a Muhammadan Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

CnoNiYA, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

CiioNPRA, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

CnoPRA, a Khatri section. 

Chosar, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn, 

CiioTA, a Mahtam clan (agricultural) found in Montgomer}'. 

CiioTiA, one of the clans of the Pachddns {q. v.). They claim to be Chauhdn 
Ihijputs by descent from their eponjm, Chotid. Most of them are 
Muhammadans and only a few Hindus. 

Chowah, Chowan, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Chuchkana, a clan of the Sidls. 

Chdhal, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Chuhan, (? Chauhdn) a sept of Baurias, claiming Chauhdn descent, found 
in Ferozepur. They avoid the use of oil in lamps, and use ghi instead. 
After the wedding a girl seldom revisits her parents’ home, and if 
in consequence of a quarrel with her husband’s people she does do 
so, and dies in her paternal home, her parents are bound to find 
another bride for her husband in her stead. Fornication in this sept 
is punished with excommunication and re-admission to the caste only 
permitted on payment of a fine, but even that does not remove the stigma. 

Chdhra. — The sweeper or scavenger, and hence the out-caste, par excellence, 
of the Punjab, whose name is popularly supposed to be a corruption 
of Sudra.* It has many synonyms, but few of them are precisely 
the exact equivalent of Chuhrd,. Thus a Chamdr is, probably by 
origin, a Chuhra who works in leather, but the Chamars appear to 
form almost a distinct caste, though both the castes are placed in the 
same rank and lumped together in the popular phrase Chuhrd,-Chamar, 
just as Mochi-Julah^ is used to denote collectively the two castes 
which bear those names. As a scavenger or rather as a ‘ sweeper up 
of dust ’ the Chuhra is termed Jchdk-roh. As a domestic he is 
ironically t styled Mihtar or ‘chieftain’: as a worker in leather 
he is called a Dlicd (lit. ‘ crow ’), as a weaver he is styled Megh, 
at least in Siillkot, in which district the Meghs however form to all 
intents and purposes a separate caste: and as an executioner he is 
known as Jallad. Further as a tanner the Chuhra is called a 
Khatik in the Eastern Punjab, and as a breeder of swine he is known 
as a Hdli. These two groups appear to form distinct castes or at 
least sub-castes which rank below the Chuhrii proper. The Khatiks 
have a sub-group called Basur. 

Change of religion also involves the adoption of a new title and 
the Chuhra on conversion to Sikhism becomes a Mazbi or Mazhabi, 

* Ouco Balmik, foiinclor of tho caste, arrived late at a feast given by a Hhagar^d 
found only fragments of it loft. These he devoured and earned the naine of Chuhra or 
‘ one who eats leavings.’ 

t But in Gurgaon mihtar is used as equivalent to chaudhri and the term may be origin- 
ally free from any taint of irony. ^ ” 


183 


The Chuhra groups. 

while one who embraces Isldm becomes a Musalli,^ or in the south-west 
of the Punjab a Kurtana,t or he may ever aspire to bo entitled Dindar : 
indeed in the villages of the Pachhdda Rdjputs of Sirsa the people who 
remove filth are called Dinddr-Khdkrob and they follow Muhammadan 
observances, being even admitted to smoke with other Muhammadans. 
Bhangi is also used, but not very correctly, as a synonym for Chuhra. 

The Chuhrds’ relations to other castes vary considerably. They are 
distinctly superior to the Sdnsis, from whom alone they will not eat 
in Ndbha. But in Gurgaon they are also said to L-ok down upon the 
Changars or Dhias, who are makers of winnowing sieves, and they 
are said to refuse food from the Dhdnak’s hands too, though their 
claim to superiority is a doubtful one. The Clmhnls are split up into 
various groups : 

Territonal. 

Deswali — of the Gangetic plain. Sotarwala— of the riverain lands. 

Bdgri — of the Great Indian Desert. Jangalke — of the Jangal tract. 

Various other divisions exist, being recognised by the Chuhras them- 
selves if not by others. Such are : — 

1. Balmiki. J 2. Ldl-Begi. 

These two are really identical, Ldl Beg having been Bdlmik’s disciple. 
Both terms are thus equivalent to ^ disciples of Bdlmik or Ldl Beg.^ 

The gots of the Chuhras are numerous and some are wide-spread. 
Various origins are claimed for them. Thus the Bohat, found in 
Gurgaon, claim to be Punwdr Rsijputs, and the Sd,rwd,n, also of Gurgaon, 
to be Chauhd.ns. There is also a Chauhd,n got, south of the Sutlej. 

In Rohtak the Lohat also claim to be descendants of one S^njhar 
Dd,9, a Rdijput, while the Baohdr say they are Punw^r Rajputs from 
Dh^ranagri in the Deccan and that their ancestors immigrated into 
that District with the Kiiyaths. These two gots do not intermarry with 
Changars, and lay stress on the necessity for marrying a girl before 
she is 15 or 16. They regard BMmik as God’s brother and revere him 
as their prophet with a Muhammadan ritual, reciting prayers [namaz) 
in a line headed by an imam, and prostrating themselves with the 
words : — Bdlmih hafi, Bdlmik shaft, Bdlmik mu’dfi, holo momno wohi ek. 

The Pail-powd,r got, in Rohtak, also claims Rajput origin, saying 
that a Rdjput woman who was pregnant threw in her lot with the 
Chuhrds. Her son was called a Pail-pow^r on account of her descent. 
This got reveres Guru Ndnak, does not employ Brahmans, and gets its 
weddings solemnized by one of its own members. But it buries its dead. 

The original division, Dr. Youngson was informed, was into Lute, 
Jhae, and Tengre, the Lute being Manhd.s Rajput, wandering Dogrds ; 
the Jhde, Dhde or Silhi being named from their founder, who, when 
a child, slept beside a hedgehog [seh) ; and the X^ngi'C being makers 
of winnowing-sieves, living in the desert, and named Tengre on account 
of their pride. Besides the three original divisions, there aro Goriye, 
so called from the fact that their founder was born in a tomb [gor). 

* Musalli may be defined as a Chnhra converted to Islam who has abandoned hardtn 
food, eating only haldl. The MusalHs do not intermarry with the Chuhras, or at least 
only take daughters from them. 

t Kurtana or Kotana is said to be derived from llindi kora, ‘whip,’ anitanna ‘to 
stretch,’ and thus to mean ‘ flogger,’ because sweepers were employed as executioners by 
Muhammadan rulers. 


184 


Chuhrd genealogy. 

They hail from Dolhi. Tbo foundor was Sh^h Jah4n^s son. Ho was 
also called Kand4r4, because he spoke harshly.* 

Next come : Path^n, originally from K4bul, in Akbar’s time. There 
were three brothers, of whom Hhagdnd, was the eldest. They entered 
the country as /agus, or prs. Gil; from Chakr4ri in Gujrdnwdld. A 
tree sheltered the fitst of the name in a time of rain : and in Dora 
Ghazi Khali the section respects bricks. Bhatti ; from the Bar in 
Gujranwala, Piiidi Bhattian, Dulla being their chief. Sahotrd; in 
Akbar’s time Sahotra was thrown to the tigers, but the tigers did not 
injure him. In U-era Ghdzi Khan the Sahotra section respects the 
lion. Socni Bhunnhlr ; descendants of Ilhj^ Karn, the Brahman, who 
gave away I 5 maunds of gold every day before he ate his food. 

Then follow Laddar; Khokak, who are said to avoid eating the heart 
of a dead animal in Montgomery, while in Dera Ghdzi Khhn they do not 
eat hharta or things roasted on the fire ; Khonje, Kaliane, Ratti, Mathi, 
Burt, Mome (in ilciqa Moma near Gondhal). The Moini are said to be 
descended from Biilmik. Hauns, Chapriban (in Khak beyond Lahore, 
makers of wicker-work), Ghussur, Balhim, Labanfif, Nahir. 

The Dum, the Chuhrd, the Mirasi, the Machchi, the Jhiwar, and the 
Changar, are all of the same origin. They claim to be indigenous iu the 
Sialkot District, at least as far as the older divisions are concerned. 

In the time of the Pandavas and Kauravas there were four sons of 
Kanwar Brahma, viz., Puraba, Parthd, Siddhra, and Prdshtd, the last 
being also called Jhaumpra, from living in a jungle. There are other 
names applied to him and to his successors, such as Ghungur Beg, Ail 
Maluk, Lai Bdg, Pir Chhota, Bdhnik, Bdla. The following genealogical 
tree was given, but 1 presume it is a very uncertain one : — 

A Gbnkalogt. 

Prashfca. 

1 ■ 

Kalak Daa, and his wife Silawanti. 

I 

Alif. 

I 

Eighteen generations, all jdngli. 

B4li RikhI and his house. 

1 

Bamrik. 

I 

Bal. 

* Another version (from Montgomery) is that Jhata, Jhaba, Tingri and Athwal were 
four brothers, probably Muhammadans. Of these Jhata became a follower of Baba Farid, 
aipl his descendants, called Jliatas, continued to observe the Muhammadan law (i.e., did 
not become C huh ras). Jhaba’s and Tingra’s descendants worked as Chuhras, and are 
known as Jhais (Chuis) and Tingras, respectively. Of Athwal’s progeny some remained 
Muhammadans, while others became Chuhras and are now known as Athwal Chuhras. 

The Jhaba (Jhai or Chai) section is closely associated with Multan. When that city 
was founded, tradition assorts that the king commenced to build a fort which collapsed 
as fast as it was built, iho spot was held by the Jh4ba Bhangis. one of whom offered 
himself as the fort’s foundation-stone, and is said to bo still standffig in the Khani Burj 
of the Fort. Some people regard this hurj as a place of pilgrimage. The Jhai— possibly 

owing merely to his fortunate name— was sacrificed to ensure victory in battle Jhaya 

sandhi faich wandi, which ia OKiAaincd to moan, if a living Chuhra bo built into a thick 
wall of burnt brick before going to War, victory is assured. 

In Tarn Taran tahsil, Amritsar District, Brahma’s son, Chuhra, had throe sons Lata 
Jhaba, and a pichhlag named Tingru, from whom arc descended tiie 2^ original sectioni of 
the caste. 


ANdTPTBB GeNEAWOTOB KoBSINAUA. 


185 


I 

Sidhri. 


Att. 

I 

Patt, 

I 

Adia and wife V^shni. 

. I 

Sadda Saddijiva and wife Govittrf. 

I 

Ghnng and wife Surang!y4. 

I 

Dhand and wife Sil4 Sakat. 

I 

Nil Kanth and wife Gd Atma Devi. 

I 

Kanwar Brahmi and wife Burhadji or Jaatrf. 



Bh4rfch4. Praah^, alao called Jhanmpr4, lat Inoarnation, and wife Man84 Dirf. 
Ad Gupal and wife Bhilni, 

I 

Sankdawar and wife Sadawanti, 2nd Incarnation. 


I I 

Unesh Deota. Mngat Qosiin and wife Dhanwantf. 

I . 

Ganf Rikh and wife Naurangd4, 

I>ay4l Rikh and wife Mangl4n. 

Jal Bhigan and wife Pavittar4n. 

I 

Angaeh Deot4 and wife Sat want! , 

I 

Agganwar and wife A8n4, 

Sankh Pat or Santdkh and wife J489 Vartf, 3rd Inoarnation. 

J. 

B41a Rikbi and wife Sham Rup, 4th Inoarnation. 

Bfr Bararik and wife Rajwantl, 6th Incarnation. 

I 

Ball and wife Nan Cbandr4n. 

I 

Iswar B4la and wife Man84, 6th Incarnation, 

Balmik and wife Mahdn, 7th Incarnation, 


Ud Rikh. Budh Rikh and wife Sa1ik4n. 

Marwar Did4ri and wife Dayali. 

Nur Did4ri and wife A84wanti. 

I 

Sh4m Snrand4 and wife Snrgfin, 8th Incarnation. 

I 

Sham Barbarf and wife Lachhmi. 

I 

Sri Rang 8h4m and wife Rajwanti. 

Sati and wife S4Io. 

I 

Sh4h Safa and wife Siv4n. * 

J 

Arj4n and wife Arf4n. 

i 


186 


A Chuhrd genealogy. 


A 

I 

Pir S4val and wife Jafar&n. 


Asa and wife Janatan. Qasa. 

Ahir Maluk and wife Sikiawati. 

I 

Ghungar B6g and wife Nasarin, 

I 

Biz Bdg and wife Sadiqan. 

Bar^hhf Beg and wife VarsAn, 

, I 

Lai Bdg and wife Patilin, 9th Incarnation. 

I . . 

Bal4 Sher (also called Pir Jhdti, the wrestler) and wife Amdlikan, iOtb Inoaraation. 
Sada B^la Lil Kh^n and wife Roshanin. 

Pfr LhaganA and wife Nnr Dfvanf. 

I, 

Shah Sura and wife Gussan. 

! 

I" i ^ i 

Mahi Sh4h. Dargahi Shah. Shah Akhlas and wife Lacbhmi. 


I 

Ghasit^ Shah. 


I I 

Yira Shih. S6vi. ShAh and wife Sarsi, 

I 


Saram Shah. 

i 

Karam Sb^h. 

I 

Fazl Shah. 


I 

J4n) Shah. 

I 

i 

Lan^ar Sb4h 


Arpar Sh4h. 


Arif Sbih. 


Falel Shah. 


• I 

I Zabardast Sh4h. Chngatti Murad 

Mohammed j Shah. Shah. 

Shah. 1 j I 

I *Karim *Qutab 


Qasim Shah. Shah. 


I 


I 


*Sard4r Sh4h. 

I 


*Sult4n Shah. 


Shah. Rahm Sh4h. Umar Sh4h. 

I 


I 


Fath Shah. *Bahadur Sh4h. *N4dir Sh4h 
B41a is a name given to the leaders. 


Jaw4hir Sh4h. 

i 

Alim Sh4h. 
*Alif Shah. 


Bar4Sh4h. 

' I 

*Jamiat Sh4h. 


♦Gauhar Sh4h. 

j I 

^ *Hakim Shah. *Fath Sh4h. •Bah4wal Sh4h. 

A THIBD GbiNEALOGY FROM (MaLER KoTLA) IS — 

Ak41 Purakh {i.e., God). 

I 

Mahadeo Sri Mah4raj. 

Bikhi Deo. 

I 

Rikhi Deo. 

I 

Anaada. 

I 

Sahad Rikh. 

I 

' Sandokh Rikh. 

I 

Balmik or Balnik. 


* Presenc repreBentatiyea. 


187 


A roCRTH Gcnialoot. 


Bald Bhdh Santokh Rile\ dd, 
Santdkh Rikh Shardp Dit Rikh dd, 
Sh/irdp Dit Rikh Aindk dd, 

Aindk Rikhi dd, 

Rikhi Bikhi dd, 

Bikhi Mahddtv dd, 
llahddiv Bhagwdn Aut Khandi dd, 
Aut Khandd Alakh Purkh dd, 
Alakh Purkh 8akt dd, 

Bakt Agam dd 


Bali Shah is son of 6ant6kh Rikh, 

Santdkh Rikh is son of Sharap Dit Rikh, 
Sharap Dit Rikh is sou of Ainak, 

Ainak is son of Uikhf, 

Rikhi is son of Bikhi, 

Bikhi is son of Mahaddv, 

Mahaddv or Shiv is son of Aut Kbanda, 

Aut Khanda is son of Holy Person, 

Holy Person is son of Almighty Power, 
Almighty Power is son of the Unknowable.* 


Another version is that Bhdrthd, Sadhara, Paratnd and Purba were 
four Brahman brothers, and when their cow died they made Purba, the 
youngest, drag away tlie carcase, first promising to help him in his task, 
but eventually out-casting him for doing it. In Dera Ghd,zi Khan 
Urga, Bh^rga, Sidhra and Frastd,, also called Chhauinpra, are given as 
the four brothers, and the following verses are current : — 


(»■) Alldh chitthi ghalli hai, sab khol bidn, God sent a letter, setting forth all things : 

Ithe gid manke hun, kidn karin abhmdn ? ‘ Hereunto you submitted, why do you repine 

Qokhri U aike sabi kardi arydn. The cow was cast out by one of you, why then 

do you plead, 

Atdn Brahman janam di gal jami tanydn. That “we are Brahmans by birth,” ye who 

wear the jamof tied with strings.’ 

The last couplet is also given thus : — 

Qokhri uti daki kardi arydn, ' They are all arguing over the cow : — 

Aidn Brahman janam de gal jdmi tanydn. (Sa)dng) “ We are Brahmans by birth, though 

we wear the jdmd fastened with tags.” ’ 

Further these two verses are sometimes added - 


Vte charkhane dorili larydn, 

Rabbd I Sdde bha di galldnmushkil banian, 

(tt) Alaf Alldh nun ydd kar bandidn we dhun 
surjanhdr, 

Chugdi chardi gokhri ho pdi murddrd. 

Hue deote akathe joke karin pukdrd, 

Tusin Brahman zdt de ki bangai bhdrd, 

Tusdde pichhdn kaun hai jisdd maqsad 
bhdrd, 

Bdde pichhdn Chhaumprd ji$dd maqsad 
bhdrd, 

Hukm hdgid Chhaumpfe ‘jdsati murddra,' 

Usne dhanak cha^hdi, gokhri jd pat pichh- 
wdrd. 

Ayd gokhri satke kahe : ‘ diobachan hamdrd' 

Chaukidn sddidn dur ho terd nich tifdrd. 


Wearing too the chicken cloth, 

0 Lord ! ‘ We are in great distress.’ 

‘ Remember God, 0 Man ! Praise be to him, 
the Creator and Protector of mankind I 

The cow fell dead while grazing 

The gods assembled and exclaimed : — 

“ Ye are Brahmans by caste, yet in what 
distress are ye fallen ! 

Who is there among ye, of high purpose f ” 

" Chaumpra is of us and his purpose is high,” 

Chaumpri was bidden to cast away the 
carcase. 

He drew his bow and the cow was thrown far 
away. 

After throwing it away he came back and 
said “ ^^w fulfil your promise." 

(But they said “ Begone from our hearths, 
thou art now an out-caste." 


The following stanza is also current in Dera Gh^zi Khan : — 


(Hi) Tun, Sdhtb, ghar Bdhmandn merd janam 
dedi. 

Khdke sdnpal pid, ekd thdli rasdl, 

Chaumpra age Rab de kart rajdi 
Khabrdn ghallin tordidn, ho m&nh dhardi, 

Merd janam did nich ghar men, sun band- 
nawdzd. 


Thou, God, hast given me birth in a Brahman’s 
house. 

I was brought up with others, eating together 
with them in the same di.=h. 

Chaumpra prays before God : — 

'Thou hast sent mo tidings from afar — now 
come before me. 

Thou hast given mo birth in a low house, hear 
me, my Lord. 


+ »®°®ah’gy given at p. 630 of The Legends of the Punjab, Vol. III. 

T me Jdmd ii the long oter- garment, fattened with tags instead of buttons 


186 


Chuhrd origins. 

Grant me followers and grant me funeral 
prayers— (or 

Forgive my followers and also forgive us for 
not having funeral prayers). 

The Hindus do uot allow us to come near 
them, and Muhammadans will not read our 
funeral prayers. 

Who will bear me up— hearken ! 0 Lord ! ’ 

God says : ‘ Chaumpra ! be wise ! 

I will make two rivers to flow of the things 
which are forbidden by the two religions 
{i.e., one of the carcases of cows and the 
other of the carcases of pigs). 

I will make heaven across them and show it to 
you. 

Ram (Hindus) and Rahim (Muhammadans) 
will conceal themselves. 

A great fire will be burnt in hell at about lO a.m. 

(t.e., when the sun is li bamboo high). 

God says : ‘ Chaumpra, now will I send thy 
followers to Heaven.’ 

God has written a letter and given it in the 
hands of Chaumpra : — 

‘ Thou hast to cari^' out this carcase — it is your 
fate.’ 

Origins. 

Various legends have been invented to explain the origins of the 
Chuhra caste as a whole and of its different groups. Most of these 
carry its history hack to BAlnnk as its progenitor, or, at least, its patron 
sainL Hence it is necessary to recount, in the first instance, what 
current tradition has to say of Balrnik. 

One legend avers that Bdlmik used to sweep Bhag wan’s courtyard, 
and that the god gave him a robe, which he did not put on but buried 
in a pit. When asked by Bhagwan why he did not wear it, Bdlmik 
went in search of it and found in it a boy whom he took to BhagwAn. 
The god directed him to rear the boy, who was named LM Beg. 

Bdlmik is said to mean, ‘ born of the balni/ or serpent’s hole. 
Bdlraik W'as a Bhil, a race of' mountaineers, who used to rob and kill 
travellers passing through the forest. One day seven Bishis journeyed 
by, and when Balrnik attacked them, they asked him why he did so, as 
they had nothing worth stealing. He replied that he had vowed to kill 
all whom he found in the forest. 'J'he Rishis then enquired if he had 
friends to assist him if captured. Whereupon he asked his parents 
and wife if they would help him in case of need, but they declared they 
would not. BMinik then told the Rishis he 'was friendless, and they 
urged him to give up his evil Avays, and to repeat ‘ mard, mard/ 
continuously. But rapidly recited ‘ mard, mard’ sounfis like ‘Ram, 
Rdm,’ and as he thus repeated food’s name, his .«ins w^ere forgiven him. 
By the end of 12 years his body was covered with dust and overgrown 
with grass, the fiesh being decomposed. Once more the seven Rishis 
passed by and heard a faint voice repeating ‘ Ram, Ram,’ under a covers 
ing of clay. This they removed, and, having re-clothed his bones with 
flesh, called him Billmik, as one who had come out of a serpent’s hole. 

1 . Tabds and Totems. 

The Gil will not eat hatdun, the egg-plant [hhatd ha.rt) : the lAid do 
not eat hare or rabbit : the Kanar^ (?) abstain from cloves : the Sahotre 
refuse to look on a tiger ; at marriages, however, they make the image 


ummai hahhsh, ndle halclish jandzd. 


Hindu vere dwan na dewen, Musalmdn na 
parhen jandzd. 

ileri Icaunsiffdt lharegd, sun gharih-nawdzd. 
Alldh dkhe Chaumprid tun ho sydnd. 

Do tnazhab de nim dd main darydo vagdnd. 


par jannat bandhi sahmnd vikhdnd. 

Ram te Rahim ne chhip chhip bahnd 

Sawd neze din Idkar hd'd do'zakh dhdnd, 

Alldh dkhe Chaumprid ummat teri ndn rich 
jannat pahUnchand, 

Alldh chitthi likhi he, hath Chaumpre phardi. 
Tunhi ishd satnd ji tainun di. 


Chuhra panchdyats. 189 

of a tigor which the women worship : the Bhatti will not sit on a bench 
of boards or bricks : no Chuhr^ will eat b-eh, or hefigehog. 

The Siirwan Chuhras do not dye cloth with kasumha, saffron, and 
will only use thatch for their roofs. In tlie Bawal nizdmat of Ndbha 
they also wear no gold ornaments, thinking this tabu to be imposed 
on them by their sati. In Dera Ghazi Kbdn the different sections 
reverence different animals, i.e., the Sahotd, respect the lion, the 
Athwal or Dtliwdl the camel, and one section the porcupine, while bricks 
are said to bo revered by the Gil, men bowing and ;vomen veiling their 
faces before them. Thus the JSindhu muldn or got respects indigo : the 
Kandidra respects the horned rat ; while the Khokhar got is said to avoid 
eating hharta, i.e., anything roasted on a fire.* The Khokhar got is 
also said to abstain from the flesh of dead nnimals as well as from 
eating the heart, which all other C'huhrds will eat. 

The flesh of the hare is also avoided by Ctm liras generally — a tabu 
explained by the following legend : — Once a Chuhra by chmice killed 
a cnlf, and hid it under a basket, but its owner tracked it to the 
Chuhra’s house. 'I'he Chuhra declared that the basket contained a 
hare, and when it was opened it was found that the calf had turned 
into a hare — so from that time all the Chuhras have given up eating 
haie. Some, however, do not abide by this rule. In Kdngra it is said 
that once a hare sought Balnnk’s protection, and thus the tabu arose. 
In Montgomery the avoidance of hare’s flesh is ascribed to the influence 
of the Makhdum Jahanidn of Sher Shdh, those who are not his 
followers disregarding the prohibition. In Dera Ghazi Khdn the 
current legend is that once Biild, Shah, the ancestor of the Chuhras, 
and Mulltih Nur, the Mirasi, were in God’s dargdh, or court. The 
latter asked Bdld Shdh not to sweep, whereupon a quarrel arose and 
Bdld Shah struck the bard with his broom, knocking out his right eye. 
Mullah Nur appenled to God and produced a hare as his witness — so 
now the sweepers do ni>t eat hare’s flesh. In Gurgaon, however, the 
prohibition is said to be conflned to the Sus Gohar got, or, according to 
another account, to the Balgher got. In Mdler Kotla it is confined to the 
Sahota got. About Leiah, women are said to eat the hare, but not men* 

2. Governing Body. 

Their representative assembly, or governing body, is the Painch, 
Punch, Panchayat, the members of which are chosen by the people, 
and the head of which, i.e., the Pir Panch or Sar Panch, is selected 
by the other members. I have heard them speak of a khariianch too, 
i.c. , the most troublesome meuiber of the panch! The office of the 
ptr panch is held permanently, and is even in some cases hereditary. 
It the pir is unable to preside at the meetings his place may be taken 
by a earbarnh, or substitute. For the time being. The settles 

disputes of all sorts, havinir to interfere especially in rnaiters of mar- 
riage and divorce ; it also looks after the poor. It punishes offenders 
by excommunication, hukka pnni band, and also by imposing fines 
of 20, 40, 100 rupees, or even more. The punishment of excommuni- 
cation, of being baradari se judd, is a heavy one, pointing to tho fact 
that the people, valuing so highly the opinion of their fellow-men. 


• This seems impossible. Bharthd is possibly intended. It is a preparation of the 
hrinjal {hatdun) made by roasting it in hot aehes: Waya Singh’s Panjabi Dictionary : s. v. 


190 


Chuhrd marriage rules. 

aro aniBiiablG to tlio niloa of thoir socioty by roason of sanctions 
affecting tbeir standing in tho society. All over tb© Punjdb tlie 
dearest thing to a Pan]4bi is his ’izzat, i.e., the estimation in which 
he is lield by his fellows. In the south-east of the Province the 
Chuhras have chabiUras or places of assembly at several towns, such 
as H^nsi, Hissdr, Barw^la, Sirsa and Bhiwani. Bach chahutra is under 
a chaudhri, who in Gurgaon is styled mihtar. The chaudhris preside 
over 'panchdyats at which all kinds of disputes are decided, and also act 
at weddings as mukhias or spokestnen. In Ndblia the chaudhris are 
indeed said to exercise supreme authority in caste disputes. 

3. Roles of Inteemarriage. 

They do not marry within their own section, but they take wives 
from all the other divisions. Marriage with a wife’s sister is permitted 
after the death of the wife. Marriage with the wife’s mother, or wife’s 
aunt, is not allowed. Two wives are allowed ; the former of whom is 
considered the head, and has peculiar rights and privileges. The 
wives live together in the same house. Mari’iage takes place when 
the girl is about 7 or 8, a,nd even 5 years of age. 

Marriages are arranged by the ndi (barber), the chhimhd (washerman), 
and the mirdsi (village bard and genealogist). The consent of the 
parents is necessary in all cases, except when the woman is a widow, 
or independent of her parents. Girls are never asked whom tliey will 
marry, or if they are willing to marry. They would not give an ex- 
pression of their wishes, as they say, sharm ke mare, for shame. There 
is no freedom of choice in the case of young persons marrying. 

A price is paid by the bridegroom’s family, the amount of it being 
settled by the two contracting parties. It becomes the bridegroom’s 
property after mai’riage. An engagement to marry may be broken 
off in the case of a defect or blemish in either the man or the woman, 
and divorce may be obtained after marriage by a regular “ writing of 
divorcement.” Divorced wives marry again. Children of different 
mothers inherit on equal terms, and all assume the father’s section. 

Widows remarry, but they have no price. Tho widow of an elder 
brother may marry a younger brother, and the widow of a younger 
brother may marry an elder brother. A widow marrying out of her 
husband’s family takes her children with her. 

4. Food. 

It is difficult to say precisely what animals the Chuhras really avoid, 
and probably the prohibitions against eating any particular animal are 
loose, varying frotn place to place and under the pressure of circum- 
stances. Chuhras in GujriiD will eat dead animals, i.e., those which 
have died a natural death ;* also tho sahna (lizard) and wild cat, but 
not the jackal, fox, goh (lizard), or tortoise: yet one group lives chiefly 
on the tortoise and is called kuchenidnda. Hence the Chuhras are 
superior to the St'insis who eat jackals, etc., and inferior to the Musallis 
who have given up eating the flesh of animals which have died a natural 
death. In Sidlkot the Chuhrds are said to avoid pork and only to eat 
flesh allowable to Muhammadans, but they may eat hardm flesh as well 
as haldl. 

* TbuB in Montgomery it ia aaid ull Chuhvas, except the Khokhars, xyill eat the flesh of 
dead animals 


Chuhrd ohservancea. 191 

II.— DOMESTIC CEREMONIES. 

Birth and Pregnancy. 

In accouoliement the woman sits, with one woman on each side of her, 
and one behind her. The ddi, or midwife, sits in front. No seat is 
used. When the child is born the midwife places h<^r head on the 
stomach of the mother to press out the blood, and with her feet and 
hands presses (dabdli) the whole body. The ddi and women relations 
attend durinpf and after confinement. 

As an expression of joy at the birth of a child a string of shirin, or 
acacia leaves, is hung across the door. Green symbolises joy and bless- 
ing, vtuhdrikhddi. The leaves of the ahh, a plant with poisonous milky 
juice, are thrown cn the house to keep away evil spirits. If the child 
is a boy, born after two girls, they put the boy in a cloth, which they 
tie at both ends as a sort of cradle, and then they lift the child through 
the roof, while the nurse says : — Trikhal ki dhdr d-gai, i.e., ‘ the third 
time thrives.’ Gur is given to the friends, and ten days after that a 
dinner, to which the relatives are invited. At the end of days the 
mother is over her separation, and resumes cooking. 

Adoption. 

Adoption of children is common, but with no special ceremonies. 

Initiation. 

A man of any other caste can be admitted into the Chuhra caste after 
the following initiatory rite has been performed : — The would-be convert 
asks the Chuhra headman of the place to fix a day, on which all the 
Chuhras assemble at the than of Bdimik. At the time and dat*' appointed 
the dhddhis of Balmik go there, prostrate themselves and sing praises 
to God and Balmik, with accompaniments on the rabdna and dotdra. 
'I’he khidmatgdr, or attendant at the shrine, lights a. jot, or large lamp 
filled witli ghi and gogal at the candidate’s cost, as well five o; dinary 
lamps filled with ghi. He also prepares churmd of wheat or other 
grains according to the candidate’s means, with ghi and gur in the 
name of God and Bdlmik ; boiling, too, 1 J ser« of rice in an iron pan 
in the name of Balmik’s orderly. When all these things are placed 
in front of the than in Dera Ghdzi, the Chuhras assembled say 

Sihdhe! Bdli didn karin kardhidn, le dwin than de age, 

Jo koi mane tainu ndl sidaq de usnu har shdkhd phal lage. 

Awen dekh nahin bhulnd oh roze hage, 

Teri viatti dd buki mania dhar dargdh de age. 

Baki ute main devdn brdtdn jitcen banaydn din te rdtdn, 

Bolo momno ‘ ek sach paun dhani.’ 

“ Make halwa, 0 Sihdhas (Chuhnis) in Bdli’s honour, and bring it 
before his shrine. 

Whosoever adores thee in sincerity, prospers in every way. 

Be not misled by whited domes, 

A handful of his (or thy) earth is acceptable to the Almighty. 

I will bring thee offerings on a camel’s back as often as day 
follows night, 

Declare, ye believers in God, that the One True God is Master of 
the Winds.” 


192 


Chuhfd betrothals. 

The candidate is then admitted into the caste. He is made to eat 
a little churma and rice out of the kardhi, drink some water and 
smoke. The rest of the churmn is distributed among the other Chuhfas 
and he is declared a member of the caste. 

In Rohtak Bd,lmiki sweepers admit a man of any caste into the 
Chuhrd. ranks, except a Dhd,nak, a S^nsi or a Dhia. The recruit is 
merely required to prepare IJ sers of rnaUda and, after placing it under 
Bdlmik’s banner, worship the saint. The followers of Ndnak admit 
converts of every caste into their ranks. 

In Gurgaon the rite of initiation is a revolting one and is thus de» 
scribed : — 

Over a rectaygular pit is put a chdrpdi, and beneath it the candidate 
is seated in the pit, while the Chuhrd,s sit on the r.\diydi. Each bathes 
in turn, clearing his nose and spitting,* so that all the water, etc., falls 
on to the man in the pit. He is then allowed to come out and seated 
on the chdrpdi. After this all the Chuhr^s wash his body and eat with 
him, and then ask him to adopt their profession. 

An initiate appears to be called Bhangi, or in Gnrgaon Sarbhangi. 
The latter, it is said, may smoke and eat with the Chuhrds, but are not 
admitted to intermarriage with them. 

Betrothal. 

When a betrothal takes place, the Idgi, the marriage functionary and 
go-between, goes to the house of the boy’s parents, taking with him 
sugar and dates for the inmates. He states the purpose of his visit, 
and there is placed before him five or ten, or more, rupees, of which 
he takes one and goes. If the people are very poor they intimate to 
the Idgi how much he should take out of the heap. Returning to the 
house of the girl’s parents he makes his report, describing the boy, his 
prospects, circumstances, and so on. 

A Idgi now goes frora^ the boy’s residence, carrying clothes and 
jewels for the girl. He himself is presented with a turban (pagri) and 
songs are sung by the womankind. The binding portion of the cere- 
monies is where the turban is given to the Idgi before witnesses. 

In two, three, four, or five years, the girl’s parents send the Idgi to 
say that it is time for the marriage. If the parents of the boy find it 
convenient, they declare that they are ready, and instruct the Idgi to 
ask the other house to send a nishdn, hahdchd, bahord, which is a present 
of three garments, one to the mirdsi, one to the ndi, and the third to 
the chuhra who lights the fire. There is gur also in the basket contain- 
ing the clothes, and this is distributed to the singing girls and others. 
The idgi receives a rupee or two, and goes back with the news that the 
bahocha has been accepted. Then a treivar ^ a present of seven garments 
is prepared, and sent from the girl’s residence, a white phulkdri (embroi- 


• Chuhrfis think that the dirt of their own bodies purifies others and they so remore 
it with their own hands. If a man follows their occupation but does not undergo the 
ordeal described above they do not treat him as a Chuhra or effect any relationahin 
with him. 


Chuhrd weddings. '1S>3 

dered shawl), a chdh or chop (a red cotton shawl with a silk embroidered 
a chdli (bodice), a kurtd (jacket), a daridi (narrow silk cloth), a 
lungi or sdya (a check cloth or petticoat), two pagris (tnrbans) and one 
chddar (sheet or shawl). The jacket has a gold button, bird, and three 
silver ones called allidn, and gold, or gold and silver lace, wifh the 6gure 
of a man embroidered on the right breast or shoulder. This present 
18 sent to the boy^s residence, where the garments are spread out on a 
bod to give the inmates and friends an opportunity of seeing them. 
The Idgi takes with him also gur, patdsse (sweets), and'a rupee as ropnd, 
which he gives to the bridegroom. This ropnd may be seven dried 
dates, and other thing's. The boy^s hands are dyed with niaindt (henna) 
to signify joy. Again rupees are placed before the Idgi, of which he 
takes as many as he has been instructed to take. He then says that 
such and such a day has been fixed for the wedding and goes back to tell 
the bride’s friends that the day is appointed. On this occasion songs 
are sung by the boy’s sister and mother. 

Eight or nine days before the wedding they have what they call »idt 
pdnd, that is, they take ghungnidh (wheat roasted in the husk) to the 
quantity of five or six pardpi, which they put in the boy’s lap. This he 
distributes with gur to his friends, of the same age as he is, seated on a 
basket. Wheat is distributed to the other friends, perhaps as much 
as four or five maunds, with gur. The boy is anointed with oil as 
many times as there are days before the marriage, and a song is sung 
by his friends. 

The ndi anoints the bridegroom to make him sweet. The ointment 
is made of the flour of wheat and barley, hachiir (a drug), khardal 
(white mustard), chaihal charild (a scent), and oil. This preparation 
is called batnd. 

When the boy is taken off the basket they bind a gdnd (ornament) 
or hangnd (bracelet) on his wrist, which consists of an iron ring, a 
cowrie, and a manka (string) of hack (glass) beads. They put a knife 
into his hand at the same time. All this is to keep off the evil spirits. 
The same operation is performed on the girl by her friends ; only she 
puts on a kangni (wrist ornament) or churi (bracelet of iron), instead 
of taking a knife in her hand. 

Betrothal takes place at any time from five years of age and upward, 
the consent of the parents only being necessary. If the betrothal 
is cancelled, the painch arranges the amount to be repaid, and 
recovers it. 

When the wedding day approaches, a big dinner is given in the 
boy’s home on a Wednesday, the entertainment extending to Thursday 
morning. This is called mcl. 

The hharjdi, or some other relative, with his wife, goes to the well 
for a jar of water, which they carry between them. With this water 
the 'iidi washes the bridegroom on a basket. His hair is washed 
with buttermilk and oil. Seven chapnidh (unburnt earthen plates) 
are placed before him. These he breaks with his feet. His uncle on 
the mothet’s side gives him a cow, etc., and the bride’s uncle gives 
the same to her. The bridegroom puts on his new clothes, the old 


194 


Chuhrd weddings. 

ones being appropriated by the oidL After his uncles have sung, his 
sister sings and gives him his clothes. 

He is then dressed on a rug after his bath ; the sdfd or turban is 
placed on his head, over which the sehrd, or garland of flowers, is 
thrown and saffron is sprinkled on his clothes. 

A tray is put down with a rupee in it, representing 101 rupees. 
On the rupee gur is spread, while they say, Jagat parwdn supri so 
dharni, Ikotr sau rupaid ghar dd ; “According to the custom which 
binds us like religion, We lay before you 101 rupees of our own 
house.’^ 

Then into the tray is put the tambdl or neundrd, i.e., the contribution 
given by wedding guests to defray the expenses of the festival. At 
each succeeding marriage one rupee more is given, or the same sum 
is given each time, if it is so arranged. ySundrd is given in the girl’s 
home as well. This custom of giving at each other’s wedding is a 
very binding one. Whoever receives neundrd. from his guests must 
pay back in neundrd one and half or ' double the amount at their 
wedding feasts. 

The party now gets ready to go to the bride’s home. The bridegroom 
is seated on a mare, or, if poor, he goes on foot. He is accompanied 
by the sarhdhld, or bridegroom’s friend, generally seated behind him 
on the same animal. On their way they give a rupee to the headmen 
of the villages they pass. This is for the poor. Fireworks blaze as 
they proceed, while the drums and other noisy instruments of music 
announce the coming of the bridegroom, who sits under a paper 
umbrella, or canopy, which has been made by the fireworks-man. 
This last-named individual gets money also on the way — a rupee or 
so. As they approach the bride’s village the women and girls of the 
village come out, singing, to surround the whole party with a cotton 
thread, as if they had made prisoners of them all. 

Meantime the bride has been dressed, and songs have been sung by 
her friends. 

Having arrived at the village they rest in a garden, or go to the 
ddrd, or traveller’s rest-house, w’hile dinner is being prepared. A 
largo tray is brought out {changer Idl) with sugar in it. The Idgis put 
some into the bridegroom’s mouth, the rest being divided among the 
guests. The sarhdhld, or bridegroom’s friend, and the others prepare 
to go to the bride’s house with the beating of drums. The two parties 
meet and salute one another. The bride’s father gives a cow or a 
buffalo, but if he is poor he gives a rupee, which the mirdsi, or village 
bard, gets. Nearing tho house they find the way obstructed by a stick 
{kuddan) placed across the path by the mehtars, or dg hdlnewdle, (fire- 
lighters). They must be paid a I’upee before the party can proceed. 
They reach another gate formed by a red cloth held by women. This 
is chunnL The bride’s sister receives a rupee at this stage. Tho 
/if, ot\//uVar (water-carrier), brings a vessel of water, and says, 
“ Mere kumh dd lag deo, Give the price of my earthen water jar.” 
He also receives a rupee. 

The marriage party now dine, while tho women of the marriage 
party sing. 


195 


Chuhrd weddings. 


While the party dines outside, the lard (bride^oom) and the sarhdhld 
(friend) p;o inside the house. A chhdnani (a sort of sieve for cleaning 
flour or wheat) is placed over the door with a light burning in it. 
The bridegroom strikes this with a sword or knife seven times, knockin» 
it down, light and all, with the seventh stroke. The sarhdhli, or bride’s 
friend, comes with a handful of oil and gur which she holds firmly, 
while the other girls tell the bridegroom to open the hand with his 
little finger. This he tries to do, but the sarhdhld advises him to use 
his thumb and press more forcibly. When her hand is opened, she 
rubs the bridegroom’s face with the mixture. The, young lady also 
spits rice in his face — phnrkra. The bridegroom is then drawn into 
an inner room by means of a pair of trousers {piejdma) twisted round 
his neck. He has to give the girls a rupee before they let him go. 
They place a small tent made of reeds [ghdrdheri) like a tripod, on a 
piri (stool), and in it kujidh (small lamps and vessels) made of dough. 
One of these is lit, and the bridegroom is asked to put cloves into the 
little kujidh. ’ 

They then take a tray and put it on a cup (katord). This they 
call tilkan. All the girls press down the tray on the cup with their 
hands one above another, telling the bridegroom to lift it up. Ho 
tries to do so but cannot, and the sarhdhld with his foot overturns it. 
This is the signal for the girls to give gdli (abuse) to the sarhdhld : they 
pull his hair, slap him, push him about, and generally ill-treat him until 
the bridegroom at his cries for help asks them to desist. 

They deny having beaten him, and treat them both to sweets [laddu 
and pardkridh) and sugar which they call hejwdri or hdjiri. The bride 
is now admitted and seated. They throw bits of cotton wool on her, 
wiiich he picks off. He takes off her troubles, as it were. They throw 
them on him also. Daring these observances the girls sing at intervals. 

The bridegroom now walks seven times round the bride, and the 
bride seven times round him. He lays his head on hers, and she hers 
on him, after which she kicks him on the back. The others follow 
suit. It goes hard with the unhappy bridegroom then. They seize 
his chddar (shawl), and tie two pice in it. The bride then fastens it 
tio-htly round his neck, meaning by this that he is captured and is 
hallan jogd nahin ^unable to move). He recites the following 
couplet : — 

Main khatdngd, fun khdin. I will earn money, and feed you. 

Meri galdn patkd Idhin. RemOTO the shawl from my neck. 


The bride then takes off the chddar, but they tie it to the bride^s 
shawl {gand chattrdvd) , meaning that they are now one. 

The girl is bathed, the barber’s wife {nain) braids her hair, then she 
aits on a [fdkrd) basket under which is a light. Two pice are placed 
under her feet. The one that gives the bath gets the pice. The uncle 
gives the girl a cow, etc. Of the earth wetted with the water of the 
bath some is thrown to the ceiling. The mother passes before the girl 
a large bask^-t made of reeds seven times. This is called khdrd langdi, 
and she then sings : — 


Khdrd chiliar machittar, 
Khdrd addiyd, 

Khdre ton utdr^ 

Mamma vaddhiyd. 


The basket is of divers colours, 
And I sit on the basket. 

Take me off the basket, 

Great uncle. 


V. 


196 


Chuhrd weddings. 

The girl is taken away, and the bridegroom gives the barber’s wife a 
rupee. 

The Idgi is now sent to bring the clothes that the bridegroom has 
brought for the bride. Jewels hIso he brings, and she is fully dressed. 
These jewels are various — for the nose, hulak, laung, nath ; ear, 
dandidh, pattar, chauiike, bale ; neck and throat, hass, harnel, takhtidh ; 
iovehe-dd, chikkdn, chaunk, phiil ; arm, piddn, bdwatta,^ churd, gokhru, 
kangan ; fingers, chhdp or chhalld, drsi ; foot, panjebdii, karidn. 

The bride is now ready and comes to be married. She is seated 
and the Brahman (or the Maulavi) is called. Four poles are stuck in 
the ground fastened together, with green branches above. The 
Brahman (or Maulavi) reads a service, and two pice are handed seven 
times. The Brahman says : Sutto; eki, meki, neki teki,pd6 dhangd, and 
snaps the pice. 

The bridegroom goes round the bride seven times, and she round him 
seven times under the green canopy. The Brahman gets four annas 
in pice, and one rupee. The married pair sit ou a bed or seat, while 
the bride’s people bring him clothes, which he puts on over the ones 
he has. The mirdsi seizes his turban, and retains it until it is redeemed 
with a rupee. The parents are next called, and water is brought to be 
sprinkled over the hands of the married pair. She is thus given over 
to him. They rise from the chdrpdi, and go inside, throwing backward 
over their heads barley and cotton seeds which had been placed in their 
laps. They do not take away all the blessing. 

A trewar (21 or 12, etc., pieces) of clothes is now given (khat), all 
shown to the assembled guests, and vessels also seven, viz., thdl 
(platter), chhannd (metal drinking vessel), loh (large iron baking pan), 
^ard/ii (frying pan), deyc/a’ (pot), karchhi (ladle), dhaknd (lid). There 
are 21 kalle, or scones, placed in the basket of clothes. The Idgis 
who take this away receive presents of money. The bridegroom’s 
father gives alms to the poor at this point, and there is much crying 
and weeping as the bride prepares to leave her home. 

The bride is put into the doli (palanquin), and the bridegroom’s 
father throws money on it, which goes to the poor. 

The bridegroom’s party return home carrying the bride with them. 
At the bridegroom’s house all the women sing at intervals. When 
they reach the house the mother is at the door. 

The mother has a cup of water in her hand, which she waves round 
the heads of the mariied couple. She then attempts to drink it seven 
times, the bridegroom preventing her. At the seventh time she drinks. 
Then they enter the house, and the bride is placed on a mat. All the 
bridegroom’s relations are called, and a large vessel called a pardt is 
brought, in which is a mixture of rice, ghi and sugar cooked. This is 
gotkundld. The women seat themselves and of this they take a morsel 
and each puts a little in the bride’s mouth. She, sharm he m&re (out of 
shame) refuses to take it, but they insist as they are her relations. 

The women all partake. They call this bharmddld, i.e., union with 
the family. If they do not have this meal, they do not admit the other 
party to family privileges. 


The Chuhrd tnukldvil. 


197 


After this the bride remains two days more in the house, and on the 
third and fourth day the women again gather. They take a pardt 
(tray) in wliich they put water and milk, or kachchi lassi, and in 
another vessel they put dtd (meal). In the meal they put pwr and ghi, 
mixing them together (gulrd). Into the tray of milk and water they 
make the bride put her heel, and in it the bridegroom washes her foot. 
The bridegroom now f)uts in his foot, and she is told to wash it. This 
\8 shagun. The bride unties her g and (wrist ornament), which is so 
securely fastened that they sometimes draw it over the hand, while 
they sing. It is thrown into the pardt of milk ^nd water. Then the 
bridegroom unfastens the bride’s gdnd. 

It is placed in the vessel next. They are fastened together. The 
nain {Idgin) takes both and turns them round in the water seven times. 
She drops them in the water seven times, the bride and the bridegroom 
grabbing at them. The one that succeeds the oftener in getting hold 
of them first wins — the caste therefore wins. This is done amid great 
laughter. Only women are present, besides the bridegroom. 

The flour, ghi and sugar are then divided amongst them. Other 
songs are sung when the bride first comes to the house. The girls also 
express their opinion of the dowry in a song. 

Moklava, or the Home-coming op the Bride. 

Next day the bride goes back to her father’s house, and there is sent 
after her kachchi pinni, or kachchi hhdji, which is rice flour with sugar. 
She returns to her husband’s home in six months, or two years, or 
three, when there is mukldva, as sending home a wife is called. She 
brings a suit of clothes for her husband, one for her mother-in-law, 
and one for her father-in-law. She wears kach, i. e., glass bracelete, 
because she is still kachchi (unripe) j not pakki. She now resides in 
her husband’s, her own house. Various songs are sung on this occasion. 

A few branches of the Chulipls, including the Sotarwala, celebrate 
marriages by the Muhammadan nikdh, but the great majority observe 
the Hindu phera. The following is a specimen of the songs {chhand or 
shlok) sung at a phera : — 

Pahl'in smirdn ek Unkdr, 

Duje guru Ganesh, 

Tije smirdn ddh Bhiwani, 

Sat dip nu kund jdnL 
Atvdn ke dil tdni sanwdre, 

Tin log ke kdraj sdre ; _ 

Magh pati pith panchami , 

Kaho hed ke sdj. 

Jis din gaurdn ar ndye, 

Chanda charhe ugds ; 

Ndm lijiyo Ganesh kd, 

Bo sdjan nistdr. 

Gaydra din se lagan chaldya, 

Le hokar gurudwdre pati sab parwar 
Ghar ghar turi mewa bichdr, 

Do Pdn^i bakhshish. 


198 


Chuhrd buryings. 

One or two customs observed by the Chuhrds at marriages deserve 
notice 

On the evening when the bridegroom sets out for the bride’s house, 
his mother cooks 10 sers of rice sweetened with gur, and invites all 
the women of the community to eat each a mouthful of it. They 
then ask her to ,a:ive them a chhdj (a sieve for winnowing grain) and a 
doi (wooden spoon), and she at once does so. Two or three of the 
women, one of whom is wearing a ghaghm (the lower part of a 
petticoat) instead of a frock, get on top of the house with the chhdj and 
the doi, and the woman in the ghaghrd sings an obscene song at the 
top of her voice, beating the chhdj after every stanza so violently 
that it is broken to pieces. This custom is termed pharuhd (foolery). 
It is an indispensible observance at a wedding. 

Last but not least comes the rite of admitting the bride into the 
bridegroom’s got which is done in this wise: — 

Two or three days after the bride’s arrival her mother-in-law 
prepares a maund and ten sers of sweet rice and serves it up on a 
large tray. Seven sohdgans (women whose husbands are alive) are 
invited, and they eat with the bride out of the tray. Uuless this is 
done she is not considered a real member of the got. 

Bigamy is permissible, that is to say, a man whose wife is barren or 
who only gives birth to girls, may take a second wife. But he cannot, 
at least in Mdler Kotla, take a second wife if he has a son, under 
penalty of excommunicatiou, nor can he take a third wife while the 
other two are with him. 

Divorce is practised. 


Death and burial. 

The Chuhras generally bury their dead. When a person is dying 
they call in the Muhammadan priest to read the sahdni, but if it is in 
a Hindu village where there is no mulla nothing of this nature is done, 
except that in some cases they lift the sick man on to the ground.* This 
they call satthar.\ The dead are carried to the grave on a bed, bound 
in a shroud made of cloth, which is tied at the head and the feet like 
a sack, and in the middle. The body, after being washed with soap 
and water, is dressed in a jacket, a cap, and a sheet, or in two sheets, 
and is sprinkled with rose water. In the grave the shoulder is placed 
towards the pole star, and the feet to the east. If it is that of a young 
person they put a black blanket over the bier, if of an old person a 
red one. This is called hhes. The priest sits on the west side and 
looks towards the east. He recites a prayer, and they repeat it after 
him. This is jandza. One rupee, called is given to the priest 

* In Maler Kotla the Chuhras bury the dead, like Muhammadans, hut on their way to 
the grave the carriers of the bier change places as among Hindus. And on their return 
they pick up straws and break them, saying, ‘ God bless the dead and protect those left 
behind’, while the /agfr, who usually accompanies the parties, recites verses of Guru 
Ninak, like a Sikh. Three days later the deceased’s nearest relative feeds the men who 
carried the bier, and on the 17 th day he distributes food to the poor and to unmarried 
girls. 

t Satthar, lit., a couch. 

J Askdt, probably for mkdt, alms, 


199 


The Chuhrd creed. 


on the Qurdn. A cloth called jde namaz is also given. The blanket 
becomes the property of the mirdsi. The face of the dead is not placed 
downwards. 

If a very old person dies, his friends make a mock mourning: bat 
their grief is really very great for a young person. 

They (the women)* stand in a circle ; the mirdsan (wife of the 
family bard) stands in the centre. She sings mournful tunes, the 
other women following her. They beat their legs, breasts and fore- 
head with their hands in time to the dirge. Nothing could be sadder. 
The woman that leads repeats the alahni, and the other women beat 
the breast, thus making sidpd. 


Purification Rites. 

» 

• After child-birth a woman is unclean for 21 days. In the period of 
menstruation she does not go to a well, and after it she washes her 
clothes and bathes. After a funeral all who may have touched the 
dead body or the grave must bathe. 

Many Chnhras reverence sangharyf in order that sanghat or trouble 
may be averted. 

Sanghar kd vart . — They have a special favour for Vaishnu D^vi. 
They put mehndi on girls’ hands, and tie a mauli, or cotton bracelet, 
round their wrists, feeding the girls also in the devi’s name, that the 
children may be preserved. 

Devi dd vart— On Thnrsflay night they have darud,t praying for 
the dead. They pour water into a cup, and take bread in their hands. 
They eat a little, drink a little, and give the remainder to a child. 
They have no special days. 

IIL— RELIGION. 

(ct). — T he Dedication of a Temple to Bala Shah. 

The principal goddesses- or df'via of the Hindus, e. g., Kdli Ddvi, 
appear to be of low caste. This is especially noteworthy. 

When a shrine is made to Bdld, the Chuhrds make a mound of earth 
in which they bury a gold knife, a silver knife, a copper knife, the head 
of a goat, and a cocoanut, all bound in Ij yards of red cloth. Having 
leveled the mound, or rather dressed It and made it neat and tidy, 
they raise on it a sort of altar ot mud, in which they make three niches 
for lamps. Having put oil in the lamps and lighted them they place 
them in the niches. Goat’s flesh is cooked, of which part is eaten and 
part distributed to the poor. A chela performs the sacrifice, after 
which they all eat together. 

The order of religious ceremony is as follow's : — A basket (changera) 
is placed near the mud altar, which resembles a raised grave more 
than anything else, and in the basket there is churmdh, made of flour, 
butter and sugar. In front of the altar the chela burns ghi >vith spices, 
such as camphor. He sprinkles the assembled company with lasst 


* The women ro half-way towardi the graveyard weeping and mailing, 
t Sanghar is the pod of the jand tree, which is used as a vegetable by the poorer clawes, 

especially in times of scarcity. 

J Xlarud /dtia— obsequies. 


200 


Chvhrd lays. 


(butter milk or rather whey) for cooling purposes. Five pice are put 
in the ghi, which become the chela’s, as a fee. Silver or gold is put 
in a cup of water and the water is sprinkled on the people. This is 
called chandd. The chela stands before the altar, the people standing 
behind him, while he recites a dedicatory litany. 

The ChuhrdiS have a lofty conception of B^lmik, and believe that 
when he honoured the earth with his existence all the regions of 
heaven and earth were illuminated as described in the following 


verses, current in Mdler Kotla : — 

Uth Mata Maindwanti* * * § sutie, Babe Bale lid 
autdr. 

Dhamak pari Paitdl men : chhuti gardghobdr. 

Charidn di Kumbd te Khwdjd di pukdr ! 

Kuhidn, machh, chirhore, ud ud mange mds 
tandue. 

Chher chhiri Qanesh di Derd Ghdzi Khdn. 

Jotdn jalen akds ud ud baithke jagd lie 
masdn. 

Munh kajiale {kandiale=curb) sdr de kakki 
keli de aswdr. 

An khare Godhan tapashi Darbdr. 

Kundt san de lagdm die, ankan sankan kdn. 

An kharote Godhan tapashi band kharotd 
hath, 

Chhcrdn de agwdn iibal mange, hun bal 
mange sandeh dd. 

Dhidn kaj'dhi churma aur bakre-sakre uiahi 
ik ! 


Arise, mother Mainawanti, from slumber, 
Baba Bala has been incarnated. 

A trembling has come upon Paital, the dust 
has come oli. 

Armies have come from Kumbaf shouting 
forKhwdja! 

Kuhidn, 1[ machh, chirhore and tandue\ fly 
and demand flesh. 

The war of Ganesh has been declared at 
Dera Ghizi Khan. 

The heaven was illuminated with lamps, the 
burnt dead have been revived. 

Riding on a brown mare with iron curb in 
her mouth. 

Godhan, the hermit, has come at the door. 

The brihe of the mare is of hempen rope and 
her ears decorated with ankan sankan.^ 

Godhan, the hermit, is standing with his joined 
hands. 

The leader of the armies applies for more 
strength. 

I offer kardhi churma\\ and goats. He is 
the One ! 


The two following songsl are sung in honour of Giljhapra, one of the 
titles by which Lai Beg is known : — 


Bism illdhir Rahmdn-ir- Rahim ! 

Bir par dast Pir Murshid dd, sdbit rahe 
yaqin. 

Harm to Karima ! 

Rdm to Rdhima ! 

Neki tdn Nekdhil di, 

Azmat tdn Azdzil di. 

Dauf tdn Isrdfil di. 

Zamin de daliche : asmdn de samete : simat 
simal tu. 

Bddahdhat Muhammad di ujmo barkat dco ! 
Ap itiqdd de mdltk, zikar sune the sdre. 
Khair tdn Alldh Ta'dla di, Nis Ta'dld di. 


In the name of God, the most merciful and 
compassionate ! 

Be on thy head the hand of the priest, the 
spiritual ^de ; be thy faith perfect. 

Bounty (springs) from bountiful God ! 
Compassion** from the Compassionate ! 

There is no goodness like that of Nikahil.ff 
There is no glory like that of Az^ziT.jj 
There is no swiftness like that of Isr8fil,§§ 
Even beneath the earth, even on the summit 
of the heavens : thou art found everywhere. 
Empire is Muhammad’s, the Bestow^er of 
greatness and blessing ! 

Thou art the sole master of the faith, who 
hadst heard everything. 

Welfare comes from God, the Most High. 


* Mother of Gopichand. 

f Probably the name of a place. 

± These are animals, but of what kind is not known. 

§ An ornament worn by horses. 
j| A kind of sweet cooked food. 

^ The first of these songs is clearly a variant of the Dedicatory Litany given by Dn 
Youngson. ^ ' 

** “ Ram,” a corruption of “ Raham ” ” compassion.” 
ft Nik4hll, for Mik4il, the archangel Michael, 
ft Azasil, the fallen angel, now called Shaitan. 

§4 Israfll, the archangel who will sound the trumpet to destroy tho whole world on the 
last day. 


201 


Chuhrd lays. 


Daman Bibi Fatima de. 

Chhatar tan Dilli dd. 

Tuba tan Makke dd. 

Ajmer tan Zindd Khudjd Mauj Din di. 

Eazrat Kdti Katalmin manukh tan de. 
Awwal amdn ik nastu. 

Dom amdn do nastu. 

Tidram amdn ta nastu. 

Chdram amdn liy nastu. 

Awwal Fir Asd. 

Dom Fir Hazrat Khwdjd Khdsd. 

Sojn Fir Safa. 

Chdram Fir Dddd Qiljhaprd, 

Fet nun rotl tan nun kaprd ! 

Nezd to ditmdun ! 

Sadd sadd bdnkrd jdun ! 

Fir merd jamid ; sab pirdn lar pdyd. 

Jhaggd topi Mai Gaurjd** leke pahndyd. 

Yeh mubdrkl Alldh Nabi nun di. 

Wdh wdhji mere shdh di sdmali, bel bahut 
si barhdi. 

Bale Shdh Nuri. 

Haidar Shdh Nuri. 

Habbut Ta'dld Nuri. 

Maula Mushkil-kushd Ddkhddkh Nuri. 

Takht bakht Rabbul Almin Nuri. 

Bdld Shdh Nuri kiMe hete ? 

Amir Shdh Nuri de befe. 

Amir Shdh Ntiri kihde bete ? 

Haidar Shdh Nuri de bete. 

Haidar Shdh Nuri kihde bete ? 

Rabbut Ta’dld Nuri de bete. 

Habbut Ta'dla Nuri kihde bete ? 

AJauld Mushkil-kushd Ddkhddkh do bete, 

• 

Mauld Mushkil-kushd kihde bete? 

Takht bakht Rabbul Almin Nuri de bete. 
Wdh wdh ji Sat Jug men ki bhdnd bartdyd ? 

Sonne dd ghat, tonne dd mat : 

Sonne dd ghord, sonne dd jord, 

Sonne di kunji, sonne dd tdld, sonne de kiwdr 

Dakkhan munh mori, uttar munh diwdr 
Ldo kunji kholo kiwdr 
Le mere sachche Dddd Fir de diddr 
Shahanshah be partvdh, 

Wohi ik Alldh, 

Tere ndm dd palld, 

Tu zdhir ndm ik Alldh 
Wdh I wdh ! ji ! Tretd men kyd bhdnd 
bartdyd ? 

Chdndi dd ghat, Chdndi dd mat : 

Chdndi dd ghord, Chdndi dd jord, 

Chdndi di kunji, Chdndi dd tdld, Chdndi 
di kiwdr 


The skirt* * * § *• of Fatima (is most trustworthy). 
There is no crown like that of the Delh 
empire. 

There is no tabdf like that of Makka. 

Ajmer belongs to the ever-living Khwaji 
Maujdfn.+ 

Ilazrat Kati Katalmin of manukh 
The iirst faith is the first 7rastu.| 

The second faith is the second nastu. 

The third faith is the third nastu. 

The fourth faith is the lipf of nastu. 

The first I’lr is Asa.§ 

The second Pir is tiis Majesty Khwajii Khasa || 

The third Pi'r is Safa.^j 

The fourth Pir is father Giljhapra. 

Bread is to the belly, clothing to the body. 

I bend the spear ! 

I go joyfully for ever and ever. 

My Pir has been born and committed to the 
charge of all the ?irs. 

Mother Gaurja put on him a jhaggd and a cap. 
Congratulation to God and the Prophet, 
flow excellent it is, my Lord ! Thou hast 
greatly increased my Saint’s progeny. 

The god-like Bale Shah. 

The god-like Haidar Shah. 

The god-like Habbut Ta’nla. 

The god-like Maula Mushkil-kushaff Dakhdikh. 
The Heavenly Preserver of the Worlds, (Lord 
of) throne and wealth. 

‘ Whose son is Bala Shah Nuri ? ’ 

‘ (He is son) of the god-like Amir Shah, ’ 

‘ Whose son is the god-like Amir Sh4h ? ' 

‘ Of the god- like Haidar Shah.’ 

‘ Whose son is the god-like Haidar Shdh ? * 

‘ Of the Heavenly Habbut Ta’ala.’ 

‘ Whose son is the Heavenly Habbut Ta’ala f ’ 

‘ Of the god-like Maula Mushkil-kushd Dikh* 
dakh.’ 

‘ Whose son is Maula Mushkil-kusha ? ' 

‘ Of the Heavenly Preserver of the Worlds.’ 
How excellent, sir ! How was a vat used in 
the Sat Jug ? 

Golden waterpot, golden dome : 

Golden horse, golden clothes. 

Golden is the key, golden is the padlock, and 
golden are the door-leaves. 

Entrance to the south, wall to the north ! 

Bring the key and open the door. 

Behold my true Father Saint, 

The independent King of Kings, 

He alone is the one God, 

In Thy name is my refuge. 

Thou art evidently one God. 

How excellent, sir ! How was a vat used in the 
Treta ? 

Silver waterpot, silver dome. 

Silver horse, silver clothes. 

Silver is the key, silver is the padlock, and 
silver are the door-leaves. 


* Lit. skirt, so ‘ protection.’ 

t Meaning unknown. 

J The correct name is Mnin-nd-T)fn Chishti. 

§ Asa=Isa, .Joans Christ. 

II Khwaji Khizr. 

^ Saf4, it is not known who this 9af4 was. 

*• PArbati, wife of Shiv, 
tt Remover ©f difficulties. 


202 


Chuhrd lays. 


Uttar munh morl, dahkhan munh dtwdr, 

Ldo kunji kholo kiivar, 

Le mere sachche Dadd Pir de dtddr, 
Shdhonshdh be partvdh, 

Woh{ ik Allah. 

Tere ndm dd palld, 

Tu zdhir ndm ik Allah. 

Kijo khairsald. 

Jumld fuqron kd ishq Alldh. 

Wdh ! wdh ! ji ! Dwdpar Jug men kyd bhdnd 
bartdyd ? 

Tdmbe dd ghat, tdmbe dd mat : 

Tdmbe dd ghord, tdmbe dd jord, 

'Idmbe di kunji, tdmbe dd tdld, tdmbe de 
kiwdr 

Purab munh mori, pachham mukh diwdr, 
Ldo kunji kholo kiwdr, 

Lo mere sachhe Dddd Pir de diddr, 
Shdhanshdh be parwdh, 

Wohi ik Alldh. 

Tere ndm dd palld, 

Tu zdhir ndm ik Alldh I 
Wdh ! wdh ! ji ! Kal Jug men kyd bhdnd 
bartdyd, 

Milti dd ghat, mitti dd mat : 

Mitti dd ghord, mith dd jord, 

Mitti di kunji, mitti dd tdld, mitti de kiwdr, 

Paohham munh mori, purab munh diwdr, 
Ldo kunji kholo khvdr, 

Lo mere sachhe Dddd Pir de diddr, 
Shdhanshdh be parwdh, 

Wohi ik Alldh. 

Tere ndm dd palld, 

Tu zdhir ndm ik Alldh ! 

Wdh ! wdh ! ji ! Ldlo Ldl karenge nihdl 
Ghari ghari de kdtenge kdl, 

Ldl ghord, ldl jord : 

Ldl kalghl, Idlnishdn, 

Ldl tambu, ldl pahiliudn, 

Ldl mai.ldn, 

Sonne di tokri ; rupe dd jhard ; gal phulon 
de hdr. 

Jd khare hole sachhe Sdhib de Darbdr 
Kijiye chhutkdrd, 

AH sdhib Paighambar Duldul sangdrd : 
Khobar hui Ddnon nu kifd dilkdrd. 

Yd Pirji, merd bhi dil kartd hai jang men 
chalungd kardrd. 

Chungi to niwdld. 

Sarsabz rahe dumdld. 

Arash pe kurushmcn dhuni pd baithe, Nuri 
Shdh Bdld. 


Arash te uttard ghard tua pidld, 

Hukm hud 8a7ndli Beg nu pi gayd, hud 
matwdld. 

Sirarid, Dgatid, sahnd bidd karnd ikkindrd. 

Sdr di chhari Multdn di kujndii, indal hasti 
zard ambdri. 


Entrance to the north, wall to the south, 

Bring the key and open the door. 

Behold my true Father Saint, 

The independent King of Kings, 

He alone is the one God. 

In Thy name is my refuge, 

Thou art evidently one God. 

Grant us welfare. 

All the saints loA-'e God. 

How excellent, sir ! How was a vat used in 
the Dwapar Jug? 

Brazen water-pot, brazen dome : 

Brazen horse, brazen clothes. 

Brazen is the key, brazen is the padlock and 
brazen are the door-leaves. 

Entrance to the east, wall to the west, 

Bring the key and open the door, 

Behold my true Father Saint, 

The independent King of Kings, 

He alone is the one God, 

In Thy name is my refuge, 

Thou art evidently one God ! 

How excellent, sir ! How was a vat used in the 
Kal Jug ? 

Earthen water-pot, earthen dome : 

Earthen horse, earthen clothes. 

Earthen is the key, earthen the padlock and 
earthen the door -leaves. 

Entrance to the west, wall to the east. 

Bring the key and open the door. 

Behold my true Father Saint, 

The independent King of Kings, 

He alone is the one God, 

In Thy name is my refuge, 

Thou art evidently one God ! 

How excellent ! Ldlo Lai will exalt us, 
tHe) will remove the difficulties of every 
moment. 

Red is the horse, red are the clothes : 

Red is the plume, red is the standard. 

Red is the tent, red is the wrestler. 

Red is the field. 

Of gold is the basket, of silver the broom : 

garland of flowers on the neck. 

(He) attends the court of the True Lord : 
Release us. 

The prophet Ali equipped his Duldul :* 

The giants heard of it and made a noise. 

0 Lord ! I too have a desire, I will certainly 
march bravely in the battlefield. 

Chungi to niwala.l 

Dlay the dumdld remain green. 

By the Throne of God on the Arsh the god-like 
Bala Shdh lighted fire and sat there (extort- 
ing compliance with what he wanted from 
^ God). 

From Heaven came down a pitcher and a cup, 
An order being given to Sdmali Beg, he drank 
it up and was intoxicated. 

0 ! Siraria ! Ugatia ! Dismiss and avert our 
difficulties. 

Of sdl.X the stick, the bow from Multdn ; the 
tuskless elephant, and yellow (golden) seat 
with the canopy. 


• The name of Ali’s horse, 
t Meaningless phrase. 

I Th« sdl tree is the shorea robuata. 


Chuhrd lays. 


203 


Ai Dadd Ldl Beg sachche Sat Our Wali di 
Rarodri, 

Ao Miydn Ldl Khdn Darbdri. 

Sattar do bahattar bald twnhdre panje tale 
mdri ! 

Chhdnunge dudh dd dudh, pdni dd pdn{, 

Tofhd wa kaldud, bhet hai tumhdrl ; kuchh 
kijo madad hamdri. 

Shdh detakht, Multdn dl kumdn, huhd hasti, 
zard auihdri, 

Ai Dddd Ldl Beg sachche Sat Our Wali di 
, smi’dW. 

Ao Miydn Ldl Khdn Darbdri, 

S<im'ar di shahidi Hazrat dd kalimd pak. 

“ T,d ildha ill-illdho; Mohammad-ir-Rasdl-ul- 
laho.” 


Came riding on the Father Ldl Beg, the true 
Saint and Prophet, 

Welcome. 0 Lai Khan, thou courtier. 

Seventy plus two, i.e., seventy-two evils (were) 
destroyed under thy hand ! 

Thou wilt separate water from milk.* 
Provisions and a silk skein are offered to thee, 
vouchsafe us a little help. 

On the royal throne, with the Multan bow, in a 
golden howdah, on a tuskless elephant, 

Came the Father Lai Beg, the true Saint and 
Prophet. 

Welcome, O Ldl Khaji, darbdri, 

By the testimo.sy of Sarwar, by the holy 
Kalimd of Muhammad. 

None is worthy of being worshipped but God ; 
and Muhammad is His Prophet. 


(2). Another runs as follows ;■ 

Awwal Pir Asd. 

Dom Pir Khdsd, 

Som Pir Sdfd. 

Chdram Pir Oiljhaprd. 

Hare dd mal, jitd dd pahilwdn, sarjan 
ummat pni ! 

Sachche Shahe kald tikdi. 

Jis din Mirdn Shdh janamid, chauddn 
tahaq hoi rushndi ! 

Thdpi mili Muhammndon ! 

BaCidi mili Paighambron ! 

Jhotdjamid han-khande men ; chhutdphird 
Dargdh loich maqtulon bang sundt, 

** Kholo bdivnn topi chird ” ; hurdn mangal 
gdi. 

Tale bage jivdd Dariydo, jithe pire ashndn 
lagdi, 

JJchche daliche satranjidn, jithe pire mdl 
pdi. ' 

Sone dl tokri ; mpe dd jhdru, 

Ki khandi hai tokri ; ki khar.di hai jhdru ? 
Tokri khandi hai “ pdk dar pdk ; ’’ 

Jhdrd khandi hai “ khdk dar khdk." 

Jhdru jharmidn dil kar safd ! 

Le borid ah de dere nd jde. 

Kds di kunji ? Kds dd tdld ? 

Kaun hai kholnaivdld ? 

Ishq di kunji, prem dd tdld, 

Jtbrdil hai kholnewdld ; 

Wohi ik hai. 


The first Pfr is Asd. 

The second Pi'r is Khdsd. 

The third Pir is Safd. 

The fourth Pir is Giljhaprd. 

The friend of the defeated, the hero of the 
victorious, (he) has followers of repute ! 

The true saint has done this miracle. 

When Miran Shdh was born the fourteen 
regions were illuminated ! 

He received a pat from Muhammad ! 

lie was glorified by the Prophet! 

The raalo-buffalot wa.s born in the wilderness 
and strayed in God’s court : from the slain a 
call was heard, 

The virgins of Paradise sang joyfully "Kholo 
bdu'an topi ch{rd.''X 

Below flows the life-giving river where the 
saint bathed. 

Above were spread carpets and rugs whereon 
the saint was seated. 

Golden is the basket ; silver is the broom. 

What says the basket ; what says the broom ? 

The basket says “ pure and clean " : 

The broom says “ dirt and dust." 

Sweep with the broom, clean the heart ! 

Take the mat and go to his dwelling. 

Of what is the key ? Of what is the lock P 

Who is the opener ? 

Of ‘ love ’ is the key, of ‘ love ’ is the lock : 

Jibrafl is the opener ; 

He is the One. 


All now seat themselves, and then the ghi having been burnt and hom 
thus offered, the churmdn, made of 0our, sugar and ghi, is distributed 
to the wor.shippers. 'I'he changerd, or basket, is carried round. Some 
of the churmdn is given to the dogs, some to the crows, some to the 
cows, some to the old women, and then the people eat, beginning with 
the most wealthy and resf)ectable. The wrestler for Shd,h Eli gets a 
share. The remainder is given to friends in the neighbourhood who are 
absent. A collection of money is also taken. 

While they are seated, two stools are placed by the altar, and near 
them four cakes of dried cowdung are lighted, so that the drummer 


* To separate water from milk, i.e., to administer the highest justice, 
t The male-buffalo denoting Ldl Beg. 
j This phrase means ‘‘spread the 52 turbans.” 


204 


The Chuhrd 'priests. 

may dry his rdhhnnci (tambourinG) whon it bGComGs limp. It boing 
GVGning th© two chelcis sing to tho rcihhuna (tambourinG) and th© dotard 
(fiddl©). 'I'hG drum is heated until it gives a ringing sound when 
beaten, tlie dotdra goes (as one of the men expressed it) hiti, bin, bin, 
bin, the rabhdna, gham, gharn, gham, gham, and all are ready. Bulanda 
comes and say^s, “ Fir Bashk is here and so is Ndnak, but where is the 
lame man ? He is lying in the house, is he ? What will he be able to 
tell to-morrow mornitig?” The farmers gather round and ask them 
whntthey are singing. They answer : “ Let us sing the five attributes 

of God, and then we shall have leisure to speak to you.'” 

The chelas get their fees and go. Every year after the crop is 
gathered in Hdr, they go through this service, with the exception of the 
making of the shrine, the btitti on the thard (the altar on the platform). 

IV.— RELIGIOUS BELIEFS. 

(a). — P riests. 

With respect to their priests, whose names are Bdla Shdh, Markhande. 
Midn Surd, Lai Beg, Bnlnnk, Jhaumpra, Pir Jhotd, Gungar Beg, Ail 
Maluk, they look on them as autdrs (incarnations) of the one Bala, 
Jhaumprd in one of these traditions is called by Alif Chdla, the tenth 
incarnation. 

The priests are called pir, and do duty at marriages and funerals. At 
marriages the mirdsi (bard) places a diva, lamp of dtd (dough) in a 
clean place and the people bow before it, while he says that the jot, or 
light of their ancestors, is being burnt. 

Their /agiV,9 or sddhus are fc'hdh Maddri, Naushahiyd, Nangeshdhiya, 
Yatimshdhiya, Bairdgi. The Shdh Maddriya has a lit, or bodi, and a 
rosary. The Nangeshaliiya have long hair plaited with hor kd dudh 
(the milk of the banyan tree) and washed with earth. They bind it 
rovind the head with a cord of wool, and wear over it a turban of yellow 
cloth. They wear a large bead over the forehead. They go naked for 
twelve years, having the person smeared with ashes. 

The Bairdgi is dressed much like the Nangeshaliiya, but he carries a 
bairdgah, or prop, on which he sits. 

The Naushdhiya has the hair united. He wears a rosary, and on the 
wrist an ornament called a gnjrd. His clothes are yellow — whatever 
he has of clothes. 

The Yatimshdhiya is like the Baird,gi. 

The faqirs' work is to expel evil spirits with their mantras (incanta- 
tions). 


{b ). — Articles of faith. 

The tenets of their religion are especially — 

1. Sin is a reality. 2. There is on© God. 3. Btild. is a mediator, 

Sdddi fciifc ter4 agge, Our cry is to thee ; 

TeH Mk dhur Dargd4.—Am{a. Thy cry reaches the presence of God. 

4. They sacrifice an animal, and also present offerings of corn, gur^ 
ghi. It is cooked and placed on the shrine. It is called hafahi, ' * 


205 


Chuhrd beliefs. 


The gydni, chela or priest, stands in front, the congregation behind 
him. When the gydni (knowing one) says, ‘ Bolo, momino, sarhgati! 
they say, ‘ Amin^ sarbgati/ i.e., ‘ let all have salvation.’ The victim 
sacrificed is a fowl or a goat according to their jneans. It is called 
AlUh dd Ndm (God’s Name). The food is distributed and eaten, and 
the panj sifateh (five attributes) are sung. 

5. The spirit returns to God. 

6. There will be a resurrection of the body. 

7. There will be judgment. 

8. There are angels. 

The priests of the Chuhr/is are recruited from various sources. Thus 
in many parts of Gurgaon weddings are performed by pddhas, who 
will eat vvith Chuhras, though they are probably degraded Brahmans 
by caste, like the Cbamarwd. See also Lalbeqi. 


(c). — S hrines. 

The shrine in a village always faces the east. Its shape is a dome, 
or, as they say, gdo dum hi shakal (like a cow’s tail), upright. There 
are only latnps in it, no idols. The name of the shrine is Bd,lii Sh4h. 


(d). — R ites. 

They have no secret rites. Their shrine is worshipped on Thursdays, 
sacrifices are offered, and also churmdn (a sweetmeat made of bread 
crumbs mixed with butter and sugar), and the gydni prays. It is only 
at the consecration of a new shrine that the head of the animal sacrificed 
and knives are buried under the shrine. The shrine is built on the 
sacrifice and sacrificial weapons, as a foundation. 

There is no ceremony for admission among the Chuhrds, except 
participating in the hardhi. 


(e). — S acrifices. 

The animal sacrificed is a fowl, a goat, and perhaps a cow. 

The gydni, or a Muhammadan mulla, offers the sacrifice. 

The sacrifice is offered not near the shrine but at a little distance 
from it. It is cooked and eaten. They also burn ghi, rdl or scented 
resin,* and guggal (a gum, used as incense). This is called horn. 

When a child is born, he is brought on the twenty -first day and 
offered or consecrated to B^lmik, and called Bdlmik kd bor. He is a 
nazar, or offering. 


(/). — Fetishism. 

Belief in spirits is general. A spirit may attach itself to a roof and 
break it, or to a well and throw a man in, or to animals and they will 
attack and injure man. A had ruh (an evil-spirit) may meditate mischief 
and God sends a warning. This is called sahhawak (of good intent,. 

Good spirits attach themselves to wood and other things, especially 
cooking vessels. They bring blessings. 

Fields are haunted and may accordingly be barren. 


• Rdl, resia of the Shorea robusta. 


206 


Chuhrd beliefs. 


ig) . — Ancestor-wobship. 

Tho Clmlir^s fear the spirit of a woman who dies in childbirth, 
because she has become a chtirel, a witch that is to be dreaded. Faqirs 
have power over spirits and receive information from them of the 
designs of the spirit world. 

Bad dreams come from the dahdi (the pressure) of an evil spirit. To 
drive the evil spirits away Balmik’s name is taken. Sickness is caused 
by bad ruJi led sdyd (the shadow of an evil spirit). Faqirs and jpirs 
drive away spirits with karaund, jhdr phunkf (conjuring). 

Ghosts of the dead haunt houses, burial grounds, etc. They come as 
little boys with white hair. Not long since in this neigbourhood two 
children strayed from home in the grey dawn and were seen by some 
of the villagers, who, not recognising them as children of the village, 
were terrified at the sight of them, believing them to be ghosts. I 
understand that the children ran some risk of being treated harshly, if 
not killed, as evil-intentioned ghosts. 

Churels have tlieir feet pointing backwards. They have long paps 
which they throw over their shoulders. Their hair is long, and face 
beautiful. A dyer was returning home one day, when he met a churel, 
who accompanied him to his house. She was very attractive, for she 
concealed the marks by which he would have recognised her. But at 
night, when it was time to put out the light, she did it with her hand, 
which she stretched to such a distance that the dyer in terror found 
he had a churel by his side. He would have given the .alarm, but she 
threatened him and gave him a rupee. The faqir found Ixer out, how- 
ever, being sob to do it by the dyer’s friends. Usne use qdbu karliyd 
(he caught her). She then asked for her rupee and disappeared. 

If a woman dies before giving birth to her child, she certainly 
becomes an evil-spirit. When they bury her, they put a nail through 
her hands and her feet, and put red pepper on her eyes. They place a 
chain round her ankles and so bury her. On the way home they sow 
seti saroh (white mustard) that it may blind her. They have tuna for 
her, i.e., charms, otherwise she would come and hurt every one in the 
house. “ This is a fact,” said my informant emphatically ! 

At a certain stage of the incantations the chela says, “ Are you 
going ? ” The spirit says, Yes, but I want a fowl, a goat, a piece of 
cloth, etc.” This is given, and the bad spirit goes. 

There are several kinds of spirits, churel, bhiU, khavis, jinn, ded, pari. 
The churel we have described. The par is are chureds when they come 
in companies. K faqir, who dies within his twelve years of faqiri, 
becomes a bhut, or a khavis, or a jinn, or a deo. If he dies in his forty 
days of fasting, when he comes to eat one grain a day, he becomes a 
khavis or a jinn, or a deo. 

Totems. 

Lauhg (clove) t is the name of one of the ancestors in the clan of 
Goriyd. It is especially revered. 


* Lit. ‘sweep away.’ 

■|* Lit, ‘blow away.’ 

:J: Also a nose stud or orna menfc. 


Chuhrd omens and oaths. 


207 


Among the Gils, the haingyan {egg plant) is particularly noticed. 
The chiefs name was Parth, so they do not eat the part* (rind) of the 
haingyan. 

Women never take the name of their zdt (caste) on their lips. 

V.~SUPERSTITIONS. 

Omens and Names. 

If a Chuhrii goes on a journey and meets a mirdsi, he goes back. 
If some one calls after him ho goes back. The braying of a donkey 
meeting him is a good omen. If a washerman meets a man beginning 
a journey, it is sufficient to send him back, certain of failure if he goes 
on. Some men are known to carry good fortune, and are sent out to 
meet travellers. 

A Chuhrfi never steps over a broom. The broom that is used to sweep 
corn is hung up on a nail in the house. That for ordinary use is placed 
on a grave, but never upright. 

Children are frequently given names arising out of superstitions : thus, 
Kaka is used as a first name. Ghasitd means dragged, that is, dragged 
over a dust heap, ruri. Kuril has the same meaning. As the name is 
one of dishonour, tho evil-eye will not fall on the children that bear it. 
Likar means having half of tho head shaved, and the other not ; this is 
to keep the child alive. Nathu means having a ring in the nose, to 
hold him and keep him from going away, i.e., dying. 


Oaths, magic and witchcraft. 

The oath by Biila Shdh is used. 

The practice of magic arts is confined to faqirs and pirs. It is the 
sauhrief that bring evil-spirits. A person possessed is cured in the 
following manner : — The /a^ir takes a drum, a thdli or platter and a 
ghard, or earthen jar. The platter is placed over the jar, and the whole 
is called gharidl.t Tho faqir beats the drum, another person beats the 
gharidl, and others sing. The sick person shakes his head, and when 
the music (?) ceases they ask him questions: “ Who are you ?” “ I am 
so and so,” he replies. “ How did you come into this state?” “Such 
and such a one put me into this state.” “ Who bewitched you ?” “ So 

and so.” “ What did he get for doing it ?” “ So many rupees.” “ For 

how long are you sick? “ I have to be sick so many days, and then 
die.” They play and sing again. After a time the sick man perspires 
and recovers. The evil-spirit goes with the perspiration. 

A curious and repulsive cure is used among Hindus and probably 
others. It is called jari or masdh. An unmarried person dies, and his 
or her body is burnt at the burning ghat. AfaqirUikea some of the 
ashes from the burning pile, goes to tho hills for a certain plant, and 
makes bread of these two ingredients on a g-ave. The bread is made 
into pills, one of which is given ton naked childless woman. She gives 
the pill ill a drink to her enemies, and herself has a child. Her barren 
condition was caused by an evil-spirit. Masdn means demon, and burn- 
ing-place among Hindus. 


Maya Singh’s Panjabi Dictionary, p. 877. 
f Sauhrd,— i, lit. (1) pareuts-in-law ; (2) simpleton, wretch. 

J Qharidl, lit. a gong. 


208 


Chuhrd social customs. 


Jhundd is an iron whip which a faqir beats himself with for the 
sake of another, so that the evil-spirit in him may be troubled and flee. 
They also burn oil in a tavd (iron dish). The /a^fr puts his hand in 
the hot oil and pours it on his person. The evil-spirit feels it, but the 
faqir does not. The faqir also beats his body with a millstone. After 
the sick man recovers, the /agfr takes a fowl, kills it, dips a string in 
its blood, knots the string, blows on it, and finally binds it round the 
sick man’s neck, assuring him that the evil-spirit will not come again. 
If the man goes where there is impurity [sutah) the virtue in the string 
disappears. 

Dreams are from evil-spirits, and the Chuhras fear them. To dream 
that a person who is dead is cutting flesh, is an intimation that there 
will be a death in the house. Muhammadan Sayyids give the ta’wi% (a 
charm) to keep away dreams. 

The evil eye is universally believed in. Some men are very injurious 
in this way. If a man with the evil eye looks at any one taking food, 
sickness follows. To cure this, the sick person asks a bit from the 
evil-eyed man when he is at a meal. The morsel given acts as a cure. 
When a cow is sick, and gives no milk, they give her a bit of the 
evil-eyed {Jbad nazr) man’s food. 

Sorcerers and witches act on their victim by making a figure of him 
and torturing the figure by inserting a needle into it. The torture 
reaches the person who is personated. Nails and hairs are carried 
away to be subjected to pain that the original owners may be tormented. 
They are carefully thrown away when cut off, lest any enemy should 
get possession of them. Women are especially careful in this parti- 
cular. 

Sickness is caused by evil spirits. 

Ceremonial prohibition or taboo. 

The Chuhrds never touch a Gagra, or a San si, gipsy. Women and 
children do not go near graves. The daughter-in-law never mentions 
the father-in-law’s name. Chuhras do not eat monkeys, or snakes, or 
jackals, or rats. 

Aqricultdral superstitions. 

Crops are cut on a Sunday, Monday, or Friday, and sown on a 
Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday. 

If the Chuhyds bum a slip (winnowing sieve or fan) in a village, the 
farmer is injured. It is a curse — the curse of the poor. 

Social customs. 

The household eat together, but the women eat after the men. If 
men eat after women they are injured, because women are weak of 
intellect. 

^ Yd jiifh ya jhiith, dondh miqsdn pahuchdude ‘Food touched by 
others and falsehood are both injurious.’ They use shardh (strono- 
drink), opium {afim, post, bhang) and charas. Drunkards are despiscef. 

Customs of social intercourse. 

In salutation, they say pairie^ pah to the great, the answer beino* terd 
hhald kare Khudd. Also mathd teknd, saldm, 


Chuhrd vocations. 


209 


Customs bearino ok social status. 

They eat paJcki among themselves, and kachchi with Gagre and 
Sdnsia. They smoke only among themselves. No c£^ste above them 
eats with them. 

VI.~OCCUPATION. 

The original work of the Ciidhras. 

They were the tanners of the village communities, and used to live 
in huts at a distance from the \dllage, the walls of which were made of 
bones, and the roof of skins. When an animal died, the Hindus beat a 
drnm to let them know that they must come and carry off the dead 
body. Five rupees was the fee given and also a shroud. The 
Chuhras took off the animaFs hide and ate its flesh. Sweepino^ was 
also their work. 

Formerly, when a Hindu died, the Chuhrils received a sheet or 
Jcafan (t-hroud), and they still receive clothes. In the old days they 
got five rupees at the Hindu burning-place, and exacted it with clubs. 
If a cow dies on a Hindu’s land they call it dushnn, and the Hindu 
who takes the cow’s tail to the Ganges to be purified is beaten there by 
a Chuhra with a shoe. 

VII.— RELATIONS TO LAND. 

Nowadays their work is farm service. They are landless day- 
labourers on the farm. They are divided into — 

(1) 'I'he dthri, who gets a maund of wheat for every mdni at the 
harvest ; also odds and ends. He has ghundidn, pit de ddne, the barley 
that is sown in a strip round the wheat field; wheat sown by the water- 
course ; bread twice a day ; clothes and shoes twice a year; tobacco; 
vearetables aiiil wood : 

O 

(2) The sep khulU, who receives three-quarters of a maund for every 
mdni, and bread daily if ho goes to a distance to work ; and 

(3) The Wife, who takes away dung from the farmyard, and receives 
half a maund of corn. 

It was cow-bnryiug that led to their i.'jolation. They say the Mdchlff, 
the Jhiwar, th^ Chuhrd, the Ciiangar, and the Mirdsi are all of the 
same caste, but have different occupations. 

Tliere is a story told of the Chuhras by Muhammadans and others 
that does not reflect to their credit. They are believed to be inclined 
to be uppish and to fore:et past favours, being ungrateful, and are 
supposed to work best when they are well beaten, otherwise they take 
advantage of the kindness of their masters. I give this only as the 
opinion of their neighbours. 

'rhe story is that once oti a time the king of the Chuhrds met Moses, 
who was on his way to talk with God.* ihe king of the Chuhrds a.sked 
Moses to carry a petition to God from him, that he might be enabled to 
take the usual tax from people passing through his territory. Moses 
accordingly presented the king’s petition, but God said, “ Moses, you do 

* They and others call Moses Mihtar Musa; mihtar being a title of distinction, although 
used mostly for the Chuhras. 


210 


Chunian^Churdhi. 


not know what you are doing, you do not know this people. They will 
turn oil you, and dishonour you in the end.” But Moses persevered, 
and obtained for the Chuhrd king what he desired, viz., that he should 
levy taxes on travellers. The next time Moses passed that way he 
was accosted in a most humiliating manner. “ Oh Musrf, are you the 
• man that carried a petition for me ? You must pay the dues.” “ Did 

I not tell you, Moses,” said God, “ that you would bring dishonour on 
your head. They have no gratitude.” 

IX.— THE TRADITIONS OF THE CHUH^lAS. 

The Chuhrds have oral traditions which they recite at their gather- 
ings. If a ChuhiA wishes to learn them, he becomes the disciple of some 
one who is in possession of them, i. e., who can repeat them from 
memory. I heard, however, that there was a book of the ChuhrAs in 
Gujrdnwala District, but I was unable to obtain it, as the owners had 
the idea that I would use it to their disadvantage. 

Chunian, a Muhammadan Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery, 

Chueahi is the generic name for the people of the Churdh wizdrat, in Chamba 
State, who include Brahmans, Rdiputs, Thdkurs, Rdthis, and the follow- 
ing low castes : — Hdlis, Kolis, Sippis, Barwd,las, Loh^rs, Chamdrs, 
Dumnas, Rihdras, Chandls, Meghs, etc. The low castes are all endog- 
amous. 

Tradition makes the Thd-kurs descendants of the old R4nd,s, or petty 
chieftains, who held Chamba, prior to the foundation of the State by the 
Rdjds, and the H^lis, its oldest inhabitants. It also makes the Brahmans 
immigrants from Brahmaur and the Rd,jputs from the plains ; but the 
Rdthis preceded these two castes, having been expelled from the Dugar 
countiy by Gugga Chauhdn — a curious legend. 

Marriage among the Churd,his is adult, and women are allowed every 
license before marriage. Three degrees on either side, counting from 
the grandparents, are avoided, but otherwise there are few restrictions, 
Brahmans intermarrying with Rdthis, by both forms of marriage, and 
also with Rajputs and Thdkurs. Polyandry is not recognized, but polygamy 
is, and the first or head wife {hari lari*) is given Rs. 6 wdien a second 
wife is admitted into the house. This fee is called jethv:ag}i'\. 

The observances at betrotlial are simple. The initiative is taken by 
the boy’s people, and the binding rite consists in the boy’s agents placing 
eight Chambfl coins, worth nearly 2 annas, in the plates used for enter- 
taining the bride’s ruharus or representatives, and giving one rupee 
for ornaments to the girl. 

Marriage is of three kinds.^ In the superior form, called jandit, the per- 
liminaries are as follows : — Some six months before the wedding the boy’s 
father or brother goes to the girl’s house with one or two friends and giv^es 
her father Rs. 7 and a goat as his idg^. A rupee is also given to the 
bride to buy ornaments, and this is called handhd dend\\. If the parents 

♦ Lari = 

f Lr.jeiha. eldt^r and u:dgh, a share, 

IJandi (/dni = marriage), ja7idi appears to be a diminutive. 

§ Lag, a custon.sry due. 

II Bandhd = jewelleiy. 


Weddings in Churdh. 


2ll 


agree, an auspicious day is fixed for the wedding, andaday before it two 
messengers {dhdrmi* * * § ) from the bride’s house come to fetch the boy, who 
wcji’ships the family deva or devi. Next day, accompanied by a few friends 
and one of the dhaniu, he goes to the bride’s house. One of the boy’s 
menial Hd,li8 accompanies him, carrying the badhdif, a present of two 
mdnisX to her father. This Hdli is called putridr^. On his 

arrival at the entrance the boy worships the kumhd\\ (a vessel fall of 
water) ; throwing two copper coins into it and then seating himself on a 
blanket placed near the wall. The bride’s sister now has a mimic fight 
with him and does not let him sit down till he has paid her two annas. 
This is called bishk^. She then fetches the bride and seats her by the 
boy whose future brother-in-law brings a vessel of boiled rice which he 
and the boy’s brother scatter over the fioor. This is called bhdt 
chingdna* * * §§ '^ . The pair are then seated, as a re the guests, and a feast with 
songs and dancing follows. The bride’s dowry called sudjtt is then given 
to her by her parents. In the afternoon the boy’s party returns to his 
house with two or three of the girl’s friends, and the bride herself and 
other men and women of the bride’s party. Before leaving the threshold 
of the bride’s house the ceremony of drtiXX is performed, a lighted lamp 
being waved four times round the head of the pair by a priest, who 
recites verses from the SukUmber and Deo LilA. At the boy’s house this 
observance is repeated, and the kumbh worshipped by the bride and 
bridegroom, at the door. Then the boy’s mother lifts up the bride’s veil 
and presents her with a rupee or half a rupee according to her position. 
This is called ghundu^^ khard karnd. After this a feast is eaten and 
another feast given on the following day, and songs and dances performed. 
The binding portion of the ceremony is when drti is waved round the 
couple’s heads at the boy’s house. At his wedding the boy wears a high 
peaked cap like a Gaddi’s, but not a sehra\\\\. 

Within a month after the marriage the married pair pay a visit to the 
wife’s parents and make them a small present. This observance is 
called har-p/ieraHH. 

Widow remarriage is recognised. Formerly the widow was obliged to 
many one of the deceased husband’s brothers, but now this is not the 
practice. She can choose her own husband within her own caste or 
sub-division. This union is solemnized by an inferior form of marriage 
called sargudhi***. There are no dhdmu, and the bridegroom simply 
goes to the woman’s house with his putridr and brother. The handhd is 
given as at a regular wedding, but drti is not performed, and there is less 
feasting and the cost is much less. The binding ceremony in this form 
is when an ornament is put on her, usually a nose-ring. 


* DhHmu, fr. dham a feast: dhdmu =« guest, 

t Badhdi, fr. barhna, to increase, 

f Mdni, a measure. 

§ Putridr, from putt, a son. 

WlKumhh = a neW ghard full of water. 

^ Bishk, fr. bishnd = baithnd, to sit down. 

•* Chingdna, to scatter. 

■Il-iSud;, dowry : fr. ewd, red. 

ti Aril, to swing routid anything from right to left, 

§§ Ohundu-thddar, a bride’s head-dress. 

ml Se/ir.x, bridegroom’s bead-dress. _ t n^A 

Hdr-phera, fr Bar, God, and phernd, to go ; to visit m the name of God. 
Sarjudhi, fr. «ar, head (hair) and gudhna or gundhnd, to plait. 


Marriage in Ghurdh. 

A quiet form of sargudhi marriage is calleJ garth chdra*. The lag, 
etc., are all rendered as in the other form, but on an auspicious day the 
bridegroom accompanied by his sister simply goes to the bride’s house, and 
at the entrance worships the kumbh. H e then seats himself on the blanket 
in the usual way, and the girl is seated next him by her mother. After ^ 
eating the couple take leave of the girl’s father and proceed to the boy’s 
liouse where the kumbh is again touched. This second worship of the 
kumbh makes the marriage binding. 

The third and lowest form of marriage is the bandhd ludndf in which a 
widow, who is to marry her husband’s brother, is married to him on the 
kiriu day, i.e., 7th to the 1 1th or 13th day after the first husband’s death. 
She puts aside her late husband’s ornaments and puts on his brother’s, in 
token that she accepts him. A he-goat is sacrificed at home to the de- 
ceased husband and a small feast usually given. The widow’s parents need 
not attend, but they are entitled to a lag, called bakrd, as being the price 
of a goat. If the widow wishes lo marry a stranger, he must pay the 
bakrd of one rupee, and Re. 1-8 or Rs. 3 as chadydU% to hei’ parents. An 
auspicious day after the kiria karm period is ascertained ti’om a jotshi,^ 
and the ornaments changed as described above. 

Lastly a man who elopes with a girl can, after a certain interval, open 
negotiations with her fatliei’, and if he assents, pay him Rs. 7 and a goat as 
compensation. This observance is termed lag rit\\ and operates as a valid 
marriage. If 

The custom of gharjawdntri or service in lieu of a money payment for 
a wife, is common among all castes in the State, especially in the Churah 
and Sadr wizdrats. The term of service is usually three or seven years, 
and the marriage may take place at any time if the girl’s father is agreeable. 

A husband may divorce his wife if he cannot get on with her. The 
divorce is complete if the husband receives back his ornaments and says : 
^‘1 have divorced you, Rdjd ki durohi**/' i.e., on rhe Raja’s oath. The 
husband also breaks a stick in her presence. Divorced wives can 
remarry if they like. 

In succession all sons, even bastards, if recognized by the father, 
succeed on equal terms, but the eldest son gets the best field as his 
jethwdgh ; the second son gets a special implement, sickle, sword or axe 
as his hathidr, while the third gets the family house as his mulwdher. 

The son {rand put) or daughter {rand dhidft) of a widow bom in 
her husband’s house has all the rights of her deceased husband’s own 
children. It is, however, essential that the widow should continue to live 
in her husband’s house and the child be begotten therein. 


* ‘ The custom (chara) of the poor.’ 

f Ludnd = to put on aa a dress. 

Chadydli, fr. chadnd = chorna, to let go. 

^ Jotshi, an astrologer. 

II Jilt = custom. 

Marriage customs diJIer considerably in the eastern and western portions of Chuidh, and 
the above description chiefly applies to the eastern half. In the western half the bydh 
or full marriage rite, according to orthodox Hindu custom, is the rule, and the mnai is 
uncommon ; but the other forms are as above. 

** Durohi = oath 

|t Band = widow, and dhid — daughter. 


Tenures in Churdh. 


218 


A 1 dead Hindus except children not yet tonsured are burnt. Tho 

bnfno- placod towards tho north and the hands on the chest, tho face 

thfi fl . 'i’he Hindu rites are, in essentials, observed but 

the place ot the achdraj is taken by the Bh^t. ^ 

for nine or thirteen days tuourning is observed, only one meal 

a day, called upas* being eaten, and on the day on which niourniuff is to 
cease, a suit of good woollen clothes (which are prepared beforehand in 
anticipation ot death and worn on festival days) is given to tho priest 
who presides over the obsequies. Sixteen balls of rice are prepared 
and offered to the deceaseds ancestors and niially removed and 
thrown into the nearest stream. The relations of the deceased also 
w^h their clothes and a lie-goat is kiUed. 'I'hen a feast is given to the 
relations and the mourning ends. This feast is usually given by the 
deceased s wife s parents. Ceremonies are performed and balls made 
and offered after one, three and six months, a year and four years, to 
the deceased. At the latter, i. e., at the end of the fourth year, called 
clmbarkt, the ceremonial is done on a big scale. 


The obsequies of any man who dies childless are done in the same way 
but if he brings any calamity on the household an effigy is made and 
placed near a spring or on the roof of the house or in some good place 
and worshipped by offering him a cap, bread, and an earthen pot of ghi 
which are finally worn and eaten by the man who is supposed to have 
been affected by him. Tho spirit of the person who dies a violent death 
is appeased by taking an earthen pot full of boiled ghi, a pitcher full of 
water, and a goat to the spot where he met his death, aud the goat is 
killed thei-e and his head and tho vessels rolled down the hill. This is done 
ontlle_pa?^^f/Jr^4, i.e., on the kiria harm day. The people perform sarddh. 
Ceremonies are also performed for tho propitiation of ancestors in 
general, t 


The Chunlhis are zaminddrs and hold land on two forms of tenure. 
Those who pay half its produce are called ghdrdX and those who pay a 
fixed share of gram, etc., are called mudydri.^ The half share is alone 
divided after deducting the seed for the next crop. Occiqiancy tenants 
are not allowed any special privilege in tho shape of remission of rent or 
favourable rates. The Cliurdhis are primarily and essentially cultivators, 
but many of them own flocks of sheep and goats with which, like the 
Gaddis, they visit Pd,ngi in summer and the low hills in winter. 

The Churdhis worship the deities on the following days 

Shiv — Sunday, Monday and Thursday. 

Sakti — Sunday, Monday and Tuesday. 

Nag or Mahal — Thursday and Saturday. 

Kailu — Tliursd ay. 

Kyelang — Sunday aud Thursday. 

Sitla — Sunday, Tuesday and Thursday. 

Chaund — Tuesday, Thursday and Sunday. 


* Dpds = fast. 

t Men who have died childless are propitiated by putting garlands of Sowers and a red 
woollen cap on their effigies on the Sankrdnt aud Udns days, 
i Ft, ghdr = half. 

9 Fr. muda, a fixed amoout. 


'214 


Churdhi festivals. 


To Shiv are offered a chola or woollen coat, a sheep, charms of silver 
oblonpf in shape worn round the neck, a nddi (a silver-arch ornament 
shaped like a drum). These offerings are taken by the head of the 
family, and the ornaments are worn by him out of respect for Shiv and 
to avert his wrath. To Sakti Devi are offered, as elsewhere, a goat, 
trident and cakes. The offerings to a are an iron mace {khanda), 
a crooked iron stick [kundi), (these are left at the shrine), a sheep and 
cakes (these are divided among the priest, chela and worshipper, and 
eaten). To Kailu are offered a red cap, an iron mace and a kid. The 
cap and part of the kid go to the priest, the rest to the worshipper. 
Kyelang’s offerings are a mace, a goat and a red cap. Sitla's offerings 
are a goat and cakes like the Devils. Chaund gets cakes, and occasion* 
ally a goat is also sacrificed at her shrine. 

Churd,his make a pilgrimage to Manmahesh in Bh^don or in Asuj, on 
the Drub Ashtami day. 

Blocks of wood or stone which are supposed to possess some super- 
natural attributes are worshipped. When a deity is to be set up for the first 
time and consecrated, a Brahman's presence is necessary. The priests 
preside at shrines; and in dwellings the elder members of the household. 
Priests are not selected from the Brahman class only, but from all the 
other castes except low castes. Brahmans, Rajputs, this andyiiakkars 
are eligible to hold the position of a priest. • 

The following are some of the festivals observed in Church 

1. Bisw^, on 1st Bais^kh, at which pindH or balls of grain are eaten 
with honey and ghi or gur. People also collect together tor singing and 
dancing, this being the Hindu New Year’s Day. 

2. F atrom ki sankrdnt*^ on 1st Bh4don, held in memory of their 
ancestors. Flour is mixed with water, salt and spices and spread on 
bhuji leaves, called patroru, and eaten. 

3. Mdsru, held on the same day as the Drub Ashtami at Manimahesh 
in honour of Shiva — that is, on the eighth day of the light half of 
Bhadon. It is accompanied by dancing. 

4. Several of the ordinary melas observed in the capital, such as 
HoH, Diwd/li, Lohri, etc,, are also held in Church. 

5. Chhinj, or wrestling matches, associated with the Lakhd4ta cult, 
are held annually in every pargana of Churd,h. 

CSORERA, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

CHfifilGAR : (i) a maker of bracelets, called in the west Bangera or Wangri- 
gar. Also called sometimes Kachera or glass- worker, the Churigar 
generally makes bracelets of glass or lac, which are sold in the east by 
the Manitlr, and in the west by the Bangera. The Chdrigar also makes 
bracelets of bell-metal or any other material except silver or gold. 
The term is probably merely an occupational one, and in the east of the 
Punjab practically synonymous with Manidr. (2) A J4t clan (agricul- 
tural) found in Mult4n. 


Banhrdnt ob flrit dftj ol the month. 


215 


D 

Dabb, Dab, a clan (agricultural) found in Multdn and Sh^hpur. 

Dabeeah, a Kaniboh clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar, 

Pabgae, a low caste who make kuppis for oil and ghi. They prepare 
the raw hides themselves. The term is, at least in these Provinces, a 
purely occupational one, but the dabgars are principally recruited 
from the Chamdr caste, and, in Sidlkot, from the Khojds and Chuhrds 
firlso. By metathesis the term becomes budgciT» 

Dabkaya, Dahaya, cf . Katay4, a gilder, a beater of •.vire. 

Dachchi, a clan of the Bhattis of the Sdndal Bdr, who are said to marry 
with the Chaddrars, but not with the Bhagsiri or JandrdJjes, though the 
latter also are both Bha^ti clans. 

Dadd, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Dadd^jke, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Dadi, a sept of Rajputs, descended from Chhatar Cliand, 3rd son of Par^ 
Chand, 31st Rdja of Kahlur or Bilaspur State. 

Dadi, see under Dawai. 

Dadpotra, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multan (doubtless Ddud- 
potra, q. v.). 

Dadea BeAnij a Rdjput clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery, 

Dadu, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Dadupanthi, — Founded by Dd,du,* a Gaur Brahman, who died in 1703. The 
Dddupanthi sect is usually divided into three orders : — 

(i) NdgaSjt found in the villages about Jaipur : they wear the 
choti or scalp-lock, and ornaments, and are wrestlers, fencers 
and on occasion warriors ; 

(li) the Viraklas,!: who wear ochre-coloured garments and do not 
live in houses ; 

• Didu was born at AhmadibAd in Guzerit, whence he miprated to NarAina 50 
miles south-west of Jaipur and now the head-qnnrters of the sect. At the gurMwdra 
hero the Didupanthi's assemble in Phigaii and thence go to Sambhar where a fair is 
held on the anniversary of Dadu’s death. Regarding his birth, tradition avers that an aped 
Brahman had »io son, but one day God, in the guise of an old man, told him in response to 
his prayers, that he would find floating on the river a box containing a male child, snckiug 
its toe. He did so, and his wife’s breasts miraculously filled with milk, so that she 
was abl8*to suckle the child. When the boy was 10 years old, the aged man again appear- 
ed to the boy and gave him some betel from his own mouth, whereby all secrets were 
revealed to him, and the old n-an then named him D4dli Jfv, bidding him remain 
celibate and found an order of his own. D4dli then exclaimed ; Dddit gaib mahin gur 
dev mild, pdyd ham parshdd, Mastak meri kar dharyd dekhd ogam agdd. “ By chance I 
found a gurd ; he gave me pnrshdd and laid his hands upon my head, whereby all secret! 
were revealed to me.” Didii’s death is assigned to Sbt. 1760 (1703 A.D.) ; but he 
is also said to have been 6th in descent from R4m4nand. If so he flourished in 1600 
A. D. Other accounts make him contemporary with Dar4 Shikoh, others with Govind 
Singh. According to Vacanliffe, Sikh Religion, VI, p. 140, the D^ddpanthfs place Dadd’s 
death at the same time and place as Kabir’s. 

t Ndgais said to be derived from Sanskrit ndguaka, naked, but there is the usual play 
on the words nanpa (naked) and ndgr, snake. The Nigds are mercenary soldiers in 
Jaipur and other States of Rijputana but are not known in the Punjab. See below 
also. 

f Virakta simply means ascetio. Mr. Maolagan says the celibates ot to-day wear 
white, shave the beard and moustache, and wear necklaces, with white round caps, to 
which is attached a piece of cloth which hangs down the back clearly the kapdH, 


216 


The Dddupanthis. 

{Hi) the Uttradhas, who shave the head with the beard and mons- 
tache,* wear white clothes, and generally practise as physi* 
cians; besides 

(iv) the secular Dddupanthis, who are called Bistardharis. 

D^du is said to have had 52 disciples who established as many deras 
or resting places.f ^'he head of each dera, the deraddr, presents 
contributions to the gaddi-nashin or incumbent of the guru-dwdra at 
Nardin^l, who is elected by a conclave of the deraddrs. The sect is 
recruited from the Brahman, Kshatriya, Rdjput, Jdt and Gujar castes, 
but never from those of menial rank.J As a rule children are initiated. 

Dddu composed a book called the Dddu Bani, of 5,000 verses, some of 
which are recited by his followers, after cheir ablutions every morning. 
In the evening drti is performed to it by lighting lamps and reciting 
passages from it.§ Dddu forbade idolatry, built no temples, || and 
taught the unity of God. In salutation his votaries use the word Sat 
Rdm, the “ True God.” But, in spite of Dd-du’s denunciation of idolatry, 
his hair, his tumbd (cup), chold (gown) and kharsun (sandals) are 
religiously preserved in his cave {guphd) at Sd,mbhar.^ 

Before a gurti admits a disciple the privations and difficulties of jog 
are impressed upon him, and he is warned that he will have to 
remain celibate, live on alms, abstain from flesh and stimulants, and 
uphold the character of his order. In the presence of all the sddhus 
the guru shaves off the disciple’s choti (scalp-lock) and covers his head 
with the kapdlt (skull-cap), which Dddu wore. He is also given a 
kurta of bhagwd (ochre) colour, and taught the guru-mantra which he 
must not reveal. The rite concludes with the distribution of sweets. 

On a guru’s death the usual Hindu rites are observed, and on the 
17th day a feast is given to the sddhus. A fine tomb is sometimes 
erected outside the dera, in memory of the deceased, if he was wealthy. 

Although the Dd,dupanthis proper are celibate, both men and women 
are admitted into the community, and a great many have taken to 
marriage without ceasing to be D^dupanthis. These form the bistar- 
dhdri or secular group, which should probably be regarded as a 
separate caste. Many of them are merchants, especially in grain, and 
wealthy. 


■* The Uttridhi have a gurd at Rathia in Hiasar. See below. 

I Of these 62 disciples, Raijab, Gharib D&s and Sundar Diis were the chief. Raijab 
was a Muhammadan ; it is said that Muhammadans who follow Dadn are called Uttradhi in 
contradistinction to the Hindu Dadiipanthfs who are Called Nagl. But the N4g( is 
clearly the N4ga already described, and Uttradhi can only mean “ northern.” 

The second, Gharib T)4s, comoosed many hymns, still popular among Hindus, but his 
followers are said to be mostly Chamdrs, who cut the hair short snd wear cotton quilting. 
Bundar Dig composed the Snkyd, a work rfsembling the Sikh Oranth. 

JBut see the foregoing foot-note. The followers of Gharib Das, at any rate, elude 
Oham^rs, and Mr. Maclagan adds that many adherents of the sect aro found among the 
lower castes. 

§ According to Wilson the worship is addressed to Rama, the deity negatively described 
lntheVed4nta theology. 

II Now.templfes aro built by hie followers who say that they worship ” the book ’’ in them. 
^ Mr. Maclagan adds *. ‘‘ In fact, the doctrine of Dadn is sometimes described as 

pantheistic. It is contained in several works in the Bhasha tongue which are said to 
include many of the sayings of Kabir. Accounts of the gurd and bis followers are given 

in the Jaim-lila,'* 


2l1 


Dadwdl — Ddgi. 

Dadwal. — The Rajput clan to which belongs the ancient ruling family of 
Datdrpur, but said to take its name from Ddda in Kdngra on the 
Hoshi^rpur border. The Rd,nds of Bit MAnaswil, or tableland of the 
Hoshidrpur Siwaliks were Dadw^,l Rajputs, and the clan still holds 
the tract. 

The Dadwd-ls are found in the neighbourhood of Datdrpar, the seat 
of their former sovereignty, and on the south-west face of the Siw5,lik8 
in Hoshi^rpur tahsil near Dholbjiha and Janauri or Jankipuri, its 
ancient name, which is still used. Jdnak was an ancient Surajbansi 
ruler. The Dadwdls are a branch of the Katoch'and do not intermarry 
with them, or with the Golerid>3 or Sibd-yas on the ground of a common 
descent. They have an interesting local history which describes how 
they wrested the tract round Datdrpur from a Chdhng rdni. 

The Dadwdls have several ais or families, whose names are derived 
from their settlements, such as Janaurach, Dholbdhia, Datdrpuris, 
Fatehpuria, Bhdmnowdlia, Khangwarach, Naruria, Rdmpurfa, etc. 
Datdrpur is their chief village, but they have no system of chhnts 
and rnakani^, (For their history and the septs which inte marry with 
them see the HosJiidrpur Gazetteer, 1904, pp. 48-9.) 

DafrIna, an agricultural clan found in Sh4hpur. 

Dagar, a J4t tribe, numerous in Delhi and Gurg4on, and with a small 
colony in Rohtak. 

Dagi, Dagoi, (from do gf/i,* a blemish ; the word daghiis a term of abuse 
in Kullu), a generic term for an impure caste in Kullu. Koli is 
hardly a synonym, though, according to Ibbetson, these two words, 
together with a third, Chandl, are used almost indifferently to describe 
the lower class of menials of the highest hills. The Koli of the 
plains is easily distinguishable, by his locality, from the Koli of the 
hills. The former is probably nothing more than a Chamar tribe 
immigrant from Hindfist^n ; the latter, of Kolian origin. The two 
would appear to meet in the Siwdliks. Cunningham believed that 
the hills of the Punjab were once occupied by a true Kolian race 
belonging to the same group as the Kols of Central India and Behar, 
and that the present Kolis are very probably their representatives. 
He points out that dd, the Kolian for water, is still used for many 
of the smaller streams of the Simla hills, and that there is a line of 
tribes of Kolian origin extending from Jabbalpur at least as far as 
AlMhdbdd, all of which use many identical words in their vocabularies 
and have a common tradition of an hereditary connection with work- 
ing in iron. The name of Kullu, however, he identiBes with Kuiinda, 


* But according to the late Mr. A. Anderson “ The popular explanation of the word 

Daei is that it is derived from ddg cattle, because they drag away the carcasses of dead 
cattle and also eat the flesh. If a man says he is a Koli, then a Kanet turns round on 
him and asks him whether he does not drag carcasses ; and on his saying he does, the 
Kanet alleges he is a Dagf, and the would-be Koli consents. There are very few in 
Kullu proper that abstain from touching the dead. There are more in Sar4j, but they 
admit they are called either Dagis or Kolis, and that whether they abstain from touching 
carcasses or not. all eat, drink and intermarry on equal terms. It is a mere piece of 
Xtationforaman who does not touch the d^ to say he will not intermarry with 
the family of a man who is not so fastidious, ^s is a soc^ distmcUon, a°d 
also indicates more or less the wealth of the mdividual who will not touch the dead. 


and thinks that it has nothing in common with Kol. KoM, the 
ordinary name for any inhabitant of Kulld, is a distinct word 
from Koli and with a distinct meaning. 

The names Koli, Ddgi, and Chandl seem to be used to denote almost 
all the low castes in the hills. In the median ranges, such as thos© 
of Kdngra proper, the Koli and Chandl are of higher status than 
the Ddgi, and not very much lower than the Kanet and Ghirth 
or lowest cultivating castes j and perhaps the Koli may be said to 
occupy a somewhat superior position to, and the Chandl very much 
the same position as, the Chamdr in the plains, while the Ddgi 
corresponds more nearly v?ith the Chuhra. In Kullu the three words 
seem to be used almost indifferently, and to include not only the 
lowest castes, but also members of those castes who have adopted 
the pursuits of respectable artisans. The interesting quotations from 
Sir James Lyall give full details on the subject. Even in Kdngra 
the distinction appears doubtful. Sir James Lyall quotes a tradition 
which assigns a common origin, from the marriage of a demi-god 
to the daughter of a Kullu demon, to the Kanets and D%is of 
Kullu, the latter having become separate owing to their ancestor 
who married a Tibetan woman, having taken to eating the flesh 
of the yak, which, as a sort of ox, is sacred to Hindus ; and 
he thinks that the story may point to a mixed Mughal and Hindu 
descent for both castes. Again he writes : The Koli class is 

“ pretty numerous in Rdjgiri on the north-east side of pargana 
“ Hamirpur ; like the Kanet it belongs to the country to the east of 

“ K^ngra proper. I believe this class is treated as outcast by other 

Hindus in Rdjgiri, though not so in BiHspur and other countries 
“ to the east. The class has several times attempted to get the Katoch 
“ Rdj4 to remove the ban, but the negotiations have fallen through 

“ because the bribe offered was not sufficient. Among outcasts the 

‘^Chamars are, as usual, the most numerous.” Of pargana Kdngra he 
writes : “ The Ddgis have been entered as second-class Gaddis, but 
“ they properly belong to a different nationality, and bear the same 
^‘relation to the Kanets of Bangdhal that the Sepis, Badis, and Hd-lis 

(also classed as second-class Gaddis) do to the first-class Gaddis.” 
So that it would appear that Ddgis are more common in Kdngra 
proper, and Kolis to the east of the valley ; and that the latter are 
outcast while the former claim kinship with the Kanet. [Kang^a 
Report, § 67, pp. 66 and <32 ; 113 shows that in Kullu at 
least the Dagi is not a caste). Hali -is the name given in Chamba 
to Ddgi or Chandl; and the Hdlis are a low caste, much above 
the Dumna and perhaps a little above the Chamar, who do all sorts 
of menial work and are very largely employed in the fields. They 
will not intermarry with the Chamdr. See also Koli. 

The late Mr. A. Anderson, however, wrote as to the identity of Dagi 
and Chandl “ In Kullu proper there are no Chandls, that is, there are 
nono who on being asked to what caste they belong will answer that 
they are Chandls ; but they will describe themselves as Dagi-Chandls 
or Koli-Chandls, and men of the same families as these Ddgi-Chandls 
or Koli-Chandls will as often merely describe themselves as Dd^fs or 
Kolis. In Kullu Ddgi, Koli, and Chandl mean very nearly the^same 
thing, but the word Koli is more common in Sardj and Chandl is 


Dahd’^Dahba, 


219 


scarcely used at all in Kullu ; but Chanils are, I believe, numerous 
in Mandi, and in the Kdngra valley. A Ddgi who had been out of 
the Kullu valley, told me he would call himself a D^gi in Kullu, a 
Chandl in Kangra, and a Koli in Pldch or Sard], otherwise these local 
castes would not admit him or eat with him. Again and again 
the same man has called himself a Ddgi and also a Koli. If a Kanet 
wishes to be respectful to one of this low caste he will call him a Koli, 
if angry with him a Ddgi. A Chanal of Mandi State will not 
intermarry with a Kullu Ddgi. In some places as in Mandli Jcothi, 
Kanets smoke with Ddgis, but this is not compaon in Kullu, though 
the exclusiveness has arisen only within the last few years, as caste 
distinctions became gradually more defined .... A Chamdr in Sard] will 
call himsolf a Ddgi, and men calling themselves Kolis said they would 
eat and drink with him. They said he was a Chamdr merely because 
he. made shoes, or worked in leather. Most Ddgis in Kullu proper 
will not eat with Cbamars, but* in some places they will. It depends 
on what ha*s been the custom of the families.” 


Daha, a Rdjput clan (agricultural) found in Multdn, Kabirwdld tahsil, 
Dahd (Ddhd), also a Jdt sept, found in Dera Ghdzi Khdn. Like the 
Parhdr(s) Jd^s, and their Mirdsis the Mongla and Sidhar, they are 
said to eschew the use of black clothes or green bangles. 


Dahal, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Dabalo, Dahalo, two Jdt clans (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

DahamraI, Dahamraya, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found iu Multdn. 

Dahan, one of the principal clans of the Jd^s in Karnal : head-quarters at 
Shahrmalpur. , 

Dahan, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Dahang, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Dakar, a Jdt tribe, akin to the Langdh, foand in Multdn (agricultural). 
pAHAR, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. ' 


Dahar, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. In Bahdwalpur they 
hold an important position. Their descent is traced from Rdjd Rawan, 
ruler of Mirpur Mathila, near Ghot-ki, who was converted to Isldm by 
Sayyid Jaldl and was by him named A.rair-ud-Ddhr, or “ Ruler of the 
Age.” Once rulers of part of Sindh, the Ddhr power decreased in the 
time* of the Langdh supremacy, and in Akbar’s time they were address- 
ed merely as Zaminddrs, but the Ndhars conceded many privileges 
to them and those were maintained by the Ddudpotrds on their rise to 
power. The Ddhrs are closely connected with the Gildni-Makhduras 
of Uch, to whom they have, it is said, given eighteen daughters in 
marriage from time to time. (For further details see the Bahdwalpur 
Gazetteer.) 


Dahab, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Dahawa, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Dahba, a Muhammadan Jdt tribe found in Gujrdt. It claims Janjda Rd]>at 
origin and descent from one Khoga, a servant of Akbar who gave him 
a robe of honour and a gray {ddhh) horse whence its name. 


220 


Dahima—DaMyd. 


DahimAj a group of Brahmans, found in Hiss^r. 

Dahiya — (1) A J^t tribe found on the north-eastern border of the SAinpla 
and the adjoining portion of the Sonepat tahsils of Rohtak and Delhi. 
They claim to be descended from Dahia, the only son of a Chaubdn 
Rajput named M^nik Rai, by a Dhankar Jdt woman. This is probably 
the Manik Rai Chauhan who founded H^nsi. Another account makes 
their ancestor Dhadhij, son of Haria Harpd,!, son of Prithi Raja.* 
Another trailition derives the name Dahiyd, from Dadhrdrd, a village 
in Hiss^r, which it thus makes the starting place {nikds) of the tribe. 
The Dahiyd. is one of the 36 royal tribes of Rdjputs, whose original 
home was about the confluence of the Sutlej with the Indus. They 
are possibly the Dahiae of Alexander. 

(2) A faction, opposed to the Ahul^na, said to be named after the 
Dahiy^ Jats. These two factions are found in Kamal, as well asin Delhi 
and R"htak. The Ahuldna faction is headed by the Ghatw^l or Malak 
Jrtfs, whose head-quarters are Dher-ka-Ahuldna in Guh^na, and who 
were, owing to their successful opposition to the Rajputs, the accepted 
heads of the Jats in these parts. Some one of the emperors called 
them in to assist him in coercing the Mandahd,r Hd,jputs, and thus the 
old enmity was strengthened. The Dahiy^ J^ts, growing powerful, 
became jealous of the supremacy of the Ghatw^ls and joined the 
Mandah^rs against them. Thus the country side was divided into two 
factions; the Gujars and Tagas of the tract, the Jagl^n Jdts of thapa 
Naultha, and the Latmdr of Rohtalc joining the Dahiyd,s, and the 
Huda Jdts of Rohtak, and most of the Jats of the tract except the 
Jdgliins, joining the Ahuld,na8. In the Mutiny, disturbances took place 
in the Rohtak District between these two factions, and the Mandah^rs 
of the Nardak ravaged the Ahulanas in the south of the tract. The 
Uahiyd, is also called the Jd^, and occasionally the Mandahar faction. 
The Jdts and Rajputs seem, independently of these divisions, to 
consider each other, trihally speaking, as natural enemies. This 
division runs right through Sonepat and more faintly through Delhi 
tahsil, and is so firmly rooted iu the popular mind that Muhammadans 
even class themselves with one or the other party. Thus the Muham- 
madan Gujars of Panchi Gdjian call themselves Dahiyas and so do 
all the neighbouring villages. 


* Jn Delhi the legend is that Haria Harpal, being defeated in battle by the king of Delhi 
took refuge in a lonely forest which from the number of its trees he called Ban auta -now 
corrupted into Barauta— in Rohtak. There he ruled and his son Dhadhij after him. Dhadhij 
one day in hunting charced upon a certain pond or tank near Pogihala in the same district 
where the Jat women had come together to get their drinking water. Just then a man 
came out of the village leading a buffalo-calf with a rope to the pond to give it water The 
animal either from fright or frolic bounded away from the hand of its owner, and he gave 
chase but. in vain. Neighbours joined in the pursuit, which was nevertheless unsuccessful 
till the animal in its headlong flight came across the path of a Jalni going along with .wo 
gharras of water on her head. She quietly put out her foot on the rope which was traifine 
along the ground and stood firm under the strain which the impetus of the fucritive gave 
The calf was caught, and Dhadhij looking on with admiration, became enamou-ed of the 
stalwart comeliness of its captor. Such a wife, he said, must needs bear a strong race of 
sons to her husband, and that husband, notwithstanding the fact of her already beinp 
married he forthwith detennined to be himself. By a mixture of cajolery thrLts and 
gift-making he obtained his desire— and the Jatni married the Kshatri prince Bv her 
he had three sons— Teja, Sahja, and Jaisa. Dhadhij gave his name to the Dahiyas and 
his children spread over the neighbouring tracts, dividing the country between them— 
Teja’s descendants live in, Rohtak ; Sahja’s partly in Rohtak and partly in 12 villages 
of Delhi ; while Jaisa 8 descendants live iu Rohtak and in IG villages in Delhi ° 


Dahko~“Dalo. 


221 


The AhtilAna tradition traces their origin to Riljputdni. Their 
ancestor was coming Delhi-wards with his brothers, M6m and S6m, in 
search of a livelihood. They quarrelled on the road and had a deadly 
fight on the banks of the Ghdt^ naddi. M6m and S6m, who were on 
one side, killed their kinsman and came over to Delhi to the king there 
who received them with favour and gave them lands : to Som the tract 
across the Ganges where his descendants now live as Rajputs. M6m was 
sent to Rohtak, and he is now represented by the Jil^s there as well 
as in Hd,nsi and Jind. The Rohtak party had their head-quarters at 
Ahul^na in that district, and thence on account. of internal quarrels 
they spread themselves in different directions, some coming into the 
Delhi district. 

Dahko, a clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

DahlolI, a clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Daho, a Jd,t clan (agricultural) found in Mult4n. 

Dahoka, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Dahon, a J4t clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Dahonda, a J4t clan (agricultural) found in Mult4n. 

Daheala, a J4t clan (agricultural) found in Mult4n. 

Dahrija, a J4t clan (agricultural) found in Mnlt4n. 

DaIr, a J4t clan (agricultural) found in Mult4n. 

Dak, Dakaut, Dakotea; see under Brahman. 

Dal, a J4t clan (agricultural) 'found in Mult4n. 

Dalal, a J4t tribe found in Rohtak. It claims R4thor Rfijput origin, and its 
traditions say that, 28 generations ago, one Dhanna Rao settled at 
Silauthi, and married a Badgujar Jat woman of Sankhaul near 
Bahiiduro’arh, by whom he had four sons — Dille, Desal, Man and 
Sahiva.* From these sprang the four clans of Dalai, Desw41, M4n and 
Sew4gt Jats, who do not intermarry one with another. The Dal41s are 
hereditary enemies of the Dahiya Jdts. 

DalanI, a J4t clan (agricultural) found in MuMn. 

Dalel, a Dogar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Daleo, a small J4t clan, found in Ludhiana. They say that Jagdeo had five 
sons : Daleo,’ Dewal, Ulak (Aulak), MalanghJ and Pamar. Now R4j4 
Jail Pangal promised a Bh4tni, Kangalf by name, 10 times as much 
largesse as Jagdeo gave her. But Jagdeo cut off his head. The 
Bhitni, however, stuck it on again. Still, ever since this clan has had 
small necks ! 

Dallawalia, the eighth of the Sikh misls or confederacies, which was 
recruited from Jd^s. 

Dalo, Dalo, two (?) Jdt clans (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

» Or Dalla, Deau, Mao and Sewa were the sons of Khokhar, a ChauhAn BAjput who 
married a JAt wife, according to the Jind account, 
f Or Sawal in Jfnd. 
t? Bftilang. 


222 Damai—Darugar, 

Damai, a GurkM clan in the Simla Hill States, who do tailor^s work, and 
are thought a very low caste. 

Dammar, (m.) a tribe of Jd^s, originally called Ldr, immigrants from Sind. 
They affect the Sindhi title of Jd,m and claim to be superior to other 
Jdts in that they do not marry daughters outside the tribe ; but the 
rule is often broken. 

Dandan, a Rajput clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Dandi, {i) a clan (agricultural) found in Multan, (m) also a Sany^sf 
sub-order. 

Dandial, an agricultural clan found in Sb^hpur. 

Dandi WAL, a Jdt clan, claiming Chauh^n descent, which emigrated from 
Delhi via Jaisalmir to Sirsa : found in Hissdr, and also in Jmd State. 
In the latter it affects the jathera and jandidn worship, and has as its 
sidh a Pir whose shrine is at Beluwdld, in British 'I’erritory. At the 
birth of a son, they offer to his samddh a piece of gur, a rupee and 
some cloth which are taken by a Brahman. 

Danqabah, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Pa^igabik, lit. ‘cow-people’ : (i) a small tribe, confined to four villages in 
Chitr5,l and said to speak a language cognate with Shina. I’hough 
long since converted to Isldm, the name Dangarik would seem to show 
that they were Hindus originally ; [ii] a terra applied to all the Shina- 
speaking people of Chitrd,! and the Indus Kohist^n generally, 
because of the peculiar aversion of the Shins, which is only shared 
by the Dangariks and K^ldish Kdfirs, for the cow and domestic fowls.— 
Biddulph’s Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh, pp. 64 and 113. 

Da^^iok, an Ar4in clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Danna — see Wargara. 

pirTWAR, a clan (agricultural) found in Multfin. 

DaolI, a hill caste of Ddmnd status who work for gold in streams in the low 
hills {e.g., about Una) ; in the high hills {e.g., K4ngra) called Sansoi, 
and corresponding to the Khirs who are the gold workers of the plains. 
Cf. daula, ddula, a washer for gold. 

Dabah, a Dogar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Dakain, Dren, see Mallah. 

Dard, a term applied by the Mair to the tribes of the Indus Kohistdn who 
live oh the left bank of that river ; Biddulph’s Tribes of the Hindoo 
Koosh, p. 12. 

DabQABE, wooden bowl makers, see Chitrdli. 

Darqh, a clan (agricultural) found in Mult4n. 

Dabol, Daeoli, a sept of Rajputs descended from Mi4n Kela, a son of 
Sangar Chand, 16th R4j4 of Kahlar. 

Dabtochi, carpenters, in the valley below Chitrdl, and in the Gilgit and 
Indus valleys : see Chitrfili. 

Dab^gab, a maker of gunpowder. This term and its synonyms include 
yariouB cfisteB ; always Muhammadans. 


Darmh^Datye. 228 

Darvesh.-— D anreah means one who begs from door to door {dar door ”). 
But the Darvesh of our Census returns are a peculiar class found mainly 
in Bat^la and Pathdnkot and in Amritsar and Kapurthala. They culti- 
vate a little land, play musical instruments, beg, make ropes, go to a 
house where there has been a death and chant the praises of the 
deceased, hang about mosques, and so forth. They are hardly ascetics, 
yet the small number of women seem to show that they have not yet 
formed into a separate caste, and are still recruited from outside. 
Elsewhere, e. g. in Gujr&t, they are poor scholars who seek instruction in 
mosques and^ live on alms or by begging from doqr to door, resembling 
the tdlib‘ul~ilm o{ the frontier. Sometimes they are employed as bdngxa 
at mosques, or in other minor posts. 

Darvesh Khel. — The Utmd-nzai and Ahmadzai clans (descendants of Mus^ 
Darvesh) of the Wazir Pa^hans (gr. v.). 

Darzi. — Hindi syn. siiji, a purely occupational term, there being no Darzi 
caste in the proper acceptation of the word, though there is a Darzi 
guild in every town. The greater number of Darzis belong perhaps 
to the Dhobi and Chhimba castes, more especially to the latter ; but 
men of all castes follow the trade, which is that of a tailor or sempster. 
The Darzis are generally returned as Hindu in the east and Musalm6n 
in the west, 

Das (a) — (a) Sanskrit ddsa^ a- mariner ; according to the Purdn, begotten by 
a Sudrd on a Kshatriya. The Sdstrd and Tdntrd give a different origin 
(Colebrooke’s Essays, p. 274) ; (b) D4s, the appellation common to Sudr^s. 
cf. Karan. 

Dasa, fr. das, * ten,' as opposed to Bisa, fr. bis, ‘ twenty ' : half-caste, as 
opposed to one of pure descent — see under Bdnia. In Gurgaon the 
term is applied to a group, which is practically a distinct caste, of 
Tagas who have adopted the custom of widow remarriage, and so lost 
status, though they are of pure Taga blood : Punjab Customary Law, 
11, p. 132. 

Dashal, fr. Dashwdl, ‘ of the plains,’ is a poup of Rajputs found in 
the Simla Hills. To it belong the chiefs of Ghund, Theog, Madh4n 
and Darkoti, four baronies feudatory to Keon^hal State. It is 
asserted that the Dash^ls once ranked as Kanets, wearing no sacred 
thread and performing no orthodox funeral rites ; and a fifth DashA 
sept is still only of Kanet status. This latter sept gives its name to 
Dashauli, a village in Punar pargana of Keonthal. 

Dashti, once a servile tribe of the Baloch, now found scattered in 
small numbers through Deras Ghdzi and Ismdfl Kh4n and Muzaffargarh. 
Possibly, as Dames suggests, from one of the numerous dashts or table- 
lands, found throughout the country. 

JpASPAL, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multan, 

Dasti, Dashti (from dasht, * wilderness ’). — A Baloch tribe of impure de- 
scent. See under Baloch. 

Da-tong-kar-po, DBONGRtJ-KARfi : See Chdhzang. 

Datys, a Lab4na clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 


224 The Ddudpotras. 

Daubpotra. — T he sept to which belongs the ruling family of Bsihawalpur. 
It claims to be Abbdssi* * * § and is practically confined to Bahd,walpur and 
the neighbouring portions of Multan, part of which was once included 
in that State. 

The Dd,udpotra septs trace their descent from Muhammad Khdn II, 
Abbdsi, loth in descent from Ddud Khdn I. Muhammad Khdn II had 
three sons : — 

(1) Firoz or Piruj Khdn, (2) Arib (or Arab) Khd,n, ancestor of the 
Arb^ni sept, and (3) fsab Kh^n, ancestor of the Isbdni or Hisbdni sept. 

The descendants of Piruj Kh^n are known as Pirjdnis, Firozdnis or 
Pir Pirjd-nis and to this sept belongs the family of the Nawdbs of 
Bahd,walpur. A sub-sept of the Pirj^nis is called Shamd,ni, from Shah 
Muhammad Khdn. 

The Arb^nis have five sub-septs ; Mus^ni, Rukndni or Rukrd,ni, 
Rahindni, Jambr^ui and Bhinbr^ni, all descended from eponyms (Mus^ 
Khd,n, etc.). The Musd-ni have an offshoot called Kandd,ui. The 
Isbinis have no sub-septs. 

A large number of sub-septs also claim to be Dd,udpotra though they 
are not descended from Muhammad Kh^n II. Thus the Achrd,nis claim 
descent from Achar, a son of Kehr. Kehr was brother to the wife of 
Channi Khdn, father of Ddfid Khdn I, and founded the Kehrdni sept, 
which has seven main branches : — 

Achrd,ni. 

Hal^ni. 

Bakhsh^ni."^ 

JamAni. I 

Mundhd.ni. ^These five are knownf collectively as Panj-p^re. 

MaruMni. | 

Tayyibani. J 

A number of other septs also claim to be Ddudpotra, but their claims 
are often obscure, disputed or clearly untenable. Such are the Nohani, 
Zoraia, Kardni (who claim to be Kehrdnis), Ronjha or Ranuhja (a sept 
of the Sammas), and Chandr^ni (who intermarry with the Arbdnis and 
therefore are presumed to be Arbenin). The Wisrdni,t Muldni, 
Thumra,§ Widdni, K5,lra, Jhunri, Bhanbhdni, Hakrd and Kat-bal|I are 
spurious D^udpotras. 

* For the origin of this title see the Bahdwalpur Gazetteer, 

t -pare, is said to mean ‘ -fold,’ but cf. the Panj-pare among the PathAns, also the 
Panj-pao of Multan. 

f The Arhani and Isbani DAudpotras do not recognise the WisrAnis. The former declare 
that four families of the Abra (g. v.) tribe migrated from Wfsarwah in Sindh in the time 
of Naw4b Muhammad Bahawal Khan II. The Abras gave one daughter in marriage 
to BalAwal Khan, PirjAni, a second to an Arbani family, and a third to an Isbini, 
and asked their sons-in-law to admit them among the Daudpotras, so that they might 
be entitled to all the privileges which the Dandpotras enjoyed. This was granted and they 
were called Wisrani Daudpotras (from Wisharwah). 

§ The story goes that once Muhammad Bahawal Khan III happened to see one Nur^ 
Kharola with his head shaved. A shaven head being generally looked down upon, the 
Naw4b remarked in Smdhi (Which he always spoke), ho disso thora, ‘ look at that bald 
head,’ and so they were nick-named Thumra. They are really Kharolas (converted sweepers) 
by caste. 

II Originally Jats of low status (there is still a sept of Mohanas which is known by 
this name). They give their daughters in marriage to any tribe while the Daudpotras 
are particularly strict in forming alliances. 


Ddudzai-~~Ddwari. 


225 


For a full account of the Ddudpotra septs, whose modern develop- 
ments illustrate the formation of a tribe by descent, aflfiliation and 
fiction, reference must bo made to the Bahawalpur Gazetteer. 

Daudzai. — The Pathan tribe which occupies the left bank of the K6bul river as 
far down as its junction Avith the Biira. Like theMohmand, the Daudzai 
are descended from Daulatydr, son of Ghorai, the progenitor of the 
Ghoria Kliel. D^ud had three sons, Mandkai, Rldmur, and Yusuf, 
from whom are descended the main sections of the tribe. Mandkai 
had three sons, Husain, Nekai, and Bd,lo, of whom only the first is 
represented in Peshdwar. Nekai fled into Hindnsttin, while Balogs few 
descendants live in parts of TirMi. Kalid-i-Afghdm, pp. 167, 168, 179, 
182. A. N., p. i., iii. 

Haul, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Daula, an Ardiii clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Dadlat Khel. — One of the four great tribes of the Lohiini Pathd,ns* which 
about the beginni)ig of the 17th century drove the Marwats and Mid,n 
Khel out of 1'ank, Their principal clan was the Katti Khel ; and under 
their chief, Katiil Khdn, the Daulat Khel ruled Tank in Dera Ism^Lil 
Khd,n, and were numerous and powerful about the middle of the 18th 
century. They accompanied the Durrdni into Hindustan, and brought 
back much wealth. But since that time the Bhitanni and other tribes 
have encroached, and they are now small and feeble. The Naw^b of 
Tiink, the principal jdgirddr of the District, is a Katti Khel. Raverty 
described them as Udis or nomads dwelling to the north of the Sulaiman 
Range from Daraban town on the east to the borders of Ghazni on the 
west, along the banks of the Gonial, each clan under the nominal rule 
of its own matik. Though their principal w-ealth consisted in flocks 
and herds they Avere engaged in trade, importing horses from Persia 
and majUha into Hindustan, and taking back with them piece-goods 
and other merchandise for sale in Kabul and Kandah^lr. They used to 
pay ushr or tithe to the dynasty at K^bul, but were not liable to 
furnish troops. 

Dauleke, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Daura, a messenger : cf. Baldhar. 

Dauri, see Diiwari. 

Dautannj, Dotanni, aPathdn clan, numbering some 700 fighting men, which 
inhabits the Wdno valley and the country between the Waziri hills 
and the Gumal. Their lands are comparatively fertile, growing rice 
and cereals. They are on good terms Avith the Wazirs, and are well- 
to-do, carrying on a profitable trade with Bokhara. They bring down 
mstim, chakmas, and charras. They have three kirris in British 
territory, near Katmalana and in the Kaliin tlaqa. About a third of 
them are kdfila folk and have no kirris. They own about 3,500 camels. 
They leave their flocks behind in the hills. They come and go along 
with the Midn Khels, though forming separate caravans. 

Dawari.— Living on the fertile alluvium of the Tochi valley m Nor- 
thern Waziristan, the Diiwaris or Dauris have no necessity to culti- 

* Really only a clan of the Mirn'i Khil, thi Dailat Khol p.-actically absorbed that tribo 

and gave its OAvn name to it. 


226 


Dawari septs. 

vate very strenuously or to mig^rate. Hence they are lacking in 
military spirit,* unenterprising and home-staying, and a Dawari, even 
when outlawed, will not remain away from the valley for more than 
a couple of years. 

Their descent is thus given : — 

DAWAB, EPONYM. 


Tappizai. Mallizai. 



12 

*S 

w 


There are also two disconnected sections, Malakh and Amzoni. The 
Idak sub-section also does not claim descent from either of the main 
branches. The Malakh are a mixed division, including the Muhammad 
Khel, Idak Khel, Pai Khel, Dihgans, Land Boya and Ghazlamai. 
The latter sept includes three or four Sayyid houses which claim 
descent from Dangar Sahib. The Dihgans are quite a distinct sept, 
coming from Afghanistan. The origin of the Malakh is the common 
Afghd,n story of a foundling. Some Durranis abandoned a boy in a 
box, and as Dangar Pir found him he brought him up, calling him 
Malakh because he was good-looking. 

The Amzoni comprise the following septs: — Chiton, Umarzai, Kurvi 
Kalla, Raghzi Kalla, Urmur Kalla, Ahmad Khel, Ali Khel, Path Khel, 
Bai Khel, Khatti Kalla, Kharri Kalla and Aghzan Kalla. 

Amzon, the ancestor of these septs, is said to have been a Shammai 
Khostwdl who mixed with the Dawaris. But the Path Khel and Bal 
Khel are known to be Wazirs, and the Urmur Kalla are by origin 
Urmurs of Kdniguram. 

The Darpa Khel consist of Darpa Khels, Panakzai and Kbozi, and of 
these the Panakzais are Momit Khel Ddwaris while the Khozis are 
Akhunds. As regards Darpa Khel himself it is said that he was a 
Khostwal, but others say that he was a Dum of Tanis. 

The Idak sub-section is composed of three different septs, 
Taritas, Madira, and Malle Khels, who agreed to settle in one village 
on the Id day, whence the village was named Idak. The Malli Khel 
are Turis, the Taritas are Kharotis, while the Madiras are Katti Khels. 

The Tsori are stated to be Khattaks. Of the Hassu Khel, the Shinki 
Khel are the offspring of a baby found near the iShinki Kotal or pass. 
Tlie Mosakkis are said to be Bangash Haidar Khels. Urmuz and 


• But to this rule the Malakh form an exception, being much like the Wazirs, pastoral, 
migratory and not keeping their women secluded. ’ ’ 


DdwarVcustoTtis. 


227 


Shammal are descendants of Tir who was an Isakhel, but another story 
is that he came from the Wurdak country. All the rest of the septs 
are D^waris proper. 

Personal appearance. — The use of the spade in cultivating the stiff 
soil of the valley has made the D^wari a very broad-shouldered, 
muscular man, not very tall, with thick legs and arms, heavy in gait 
and slow in his movements. 


Personal habits. — The vices of the Dilwaris are sodomy and charas- 
smoking. The latter habit is said to be on the increase. The Ddwaris 
are by repute the laziest and dirtiest of all the Waziristdn tribes. Cut 
off from the outside world, they had no inducement to cultivate more 
land than would ensure a supply of grain till the next harvest and 
their habit of greasing their clothes with ghi makes them filthy to a 
degree. There are no professional washermen in the valley. 

The Ddwaris used to be famous for their hospitality, which took the 
form of wasliing a guest’s hands, spattering his clothes with ghi, and 
scattering the blood of a goat or sheep ostentatiously on the outer walls 
of the house as a sign that guests were being entertained, ihey were 
also steadfast supporters of their clients’ or hamsdyas^ rights a’ld true 
to their engagements. They are now said to be losing these qualities. 

Ornaments. — Dawari men used to dye the right eye with black anti- 
mony and the left with red, colouring half their cheeks also in the same 
way.* The men (but not the women! used also to wear coins sewn on 
the breast of their cloaks as is commonly done by Ghilzai women. 

Medicine.— The only treatment in vogue is the common Path^n one 
of killincr a sheep, the flesh of which is given to the poor, aud wrapping 
the patient in the skin. This is the remedy for every disease and even 
for a wound. Its efficncy is enhauced by the prayers recited by a 
mullah, who also used sometimes to give amulets to, or sometimes 
merely breathe on, the sick man. 

Cultivation.— Osying to the heavy nature of the soil the ^ 

used, all cultivation being done by the im, a spade with a long 
Wheat barley, maize aud inferior rice with, m a few villages, millet 

^d munj; are sown. Fruit-trees are grown only near the 

trees and^ cultivation used to be confined to the area commanded by t e 
firearms possessed by each village. 

Crafts.— The DtLwaris practise the weaving of coarse cloth, rude 
carpentry and blacksmith’s work, caiqienters being the 
known ^These ‘are employed to make doors for the houses, which are 

mere huts, built by the people themselves. 

Social „r 3 ani.a«on.-TI,e as is usual^^mong ““tv™ 

PatMn tribes, are intensely ^ followinti among their own 

little luBuenee unless they have a s o and much under the 

relstions. The DAwarls are fanatical ™ right to 

influence of mullahs who exercise a iri^^^ther ceremonies, 

exclude a man from the religious wedding 

Mamagt Cusloms.—&.3 among i pathan tribes. When the 

customs are much the same as among other Patimn triDea_ 


♦ For a 


'somewhal simUar custom «0 Ih. /ndiae Antnuary. 1906 p. 213. 


228 Ddwari marnage. 

parents are agreed that their son and daughter, respectively, are suited 
and shall be roarried, a day is fixed and the bridegroom’s kinsmen go 
to the bride’s guardian’s house taking with them sheep, rice and 
Rs. 30 Kabuli with which to feast the bride’s relatives and friends. 
The marriage contract is then ratified, the two young people are 
formally betrothed, and the price to be paid by the bridegroom for the 
bride is fixed. The bride’s guardians may ask any price they like, as 
there is no fixed scale of prices in Ddwar, and unless the guardians are 
amenable and remit a portion of the money demanded, the sum demanded 
by them for the girl must be paid. The price thus paid is taken by the 
girl’s guardian, who is of course her father, if alive — if not her brother, 
and if she has no brother, then by the relation who is by custom her 
wdris.* The guardian, however, sometimes gives a portion of the price 
to the girl to fit herself out with ornaments, etc. Some few years ago a 
determined effort was made by ihemaliks and mullahs of Lower Dawar 
to have the price of girls in Dawar fixed at Rs. 200 for a virgin and 
Rs. 100 for a widow. This they did because they thought that many 
Daw'aris were prevented from marrying owing to the high prices de- 
manded by guardians, which sometimes ran up to Ks. 1,000 and more, 
and showed a tendency to increase rather than decrease. The majority 
of the maliks were in favour of the proposal, and as a test case the 
mullahs attempted last year to enforce the new custom on the occasion 
of the marriage of the sister of the chief malik of Tappi. Public 
opinion, however, was too strong for the reformers and a serious riot 
was only prevented by the intervention of the authorities. The usual 
reference to the Political Officer on the subject was, of course, met 
with the reply that, although he was glad to hear of the proposal, yet 
he could not and would not interfere in what was a purely domestic 
question for the Ddwaris themselves to settle. The subject was then 
allowed to drop and now, as before, everyone can put what fancy 
prices they like on their girls. The husband has no claim on the 
girl until this ceremony (known locally as lasniwai or clasping of hands) 
has been performed. 

The next ceremony is thatjof nikah which is the consummation of 
the marriage. 

In Ddwar and Wazirist^n boys and girls are betrothed at the ages 
of 8 and 6 respectively, and the marriage is consummated at their 
majority. Should the husband die after the lasniwai aud before the 
nikah, the girl becomes the property of his heirs, and one of them can 
either marry her or they can give her in marriage elsewhere, provided 
that she is given to a member of the same tribe and village and that 
the parents consent. If the parents do not consent, then they can 
buy the girl back again by returning all the money received for 
her, and are then free to marry her to whom they please. Simi- 
larly a widow is married by one of the deceased’s heirs, or they 
may arrange a marriage for her elsewhere. She must, however, 
be supported by them until she marries again, otherwise she is 
free to marry as she chooses, and they are not entitled to exact money 

* No money is given to the mother of the girl, except when she is a widow and has 
been turned out by her late husband’s heirs, and has alone borne the cost of the 
girl’s upbringing. 


Custom in Ddwar. 


229 


for her. As a nilo the bride and bridegroom are much of an age, but 
occasionally here as elsewhere some aged David takes his Abishag to 
his bosom. These are not as a rule happy marriages. The expenses of 
a wedding in W aziristdn are fairly heavy. A wealthy man w’lll spend 
as much as Ks. 1,500 or evt-n hs. 2,000 Kdbuli. An ordinary well-to-do 
man spends some Rs. 500 and a poor one Rs. 200 Kabuli. There 
are no restrictions on intermarriage between Dawaris and Wazirs. 
T^hey iiite! marry freely, and the majority of the bigger Dawar maliks 
have a Wazir wile, and the W azir maliks living in Diiwar have 
generally at least one Dd, wari wife. As a rule Dawaris do not give 
their daughters to those living far awhy, which is probably due mostly 
to the fact that those living far oft do not come and ask for them, but 
content themselves with something nearer home. The Mullah 
Powindah who lives at Kamjuram has a Ddwari wife of the village of 
Idak, but this is an exception, and probably due to the fact that be- 
fore our occupation and his rise to power, he used to live during the 
six months of the cold season in Idak. There is no law or custom 
regarding marriage. 

Inheritance. — The ordinary Muhammadan laws hold good in Ddwar 
with regard to inheritance. 

Customary Law in Dawar. 

General. — With regard to offences against the human body, the 
general principle of the customary penal law in iJawar may be said 
to be that of “ an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.” For murder 
the penalty is death ; for bodily injury, bodily injury of a similar 
nature. Nevertheless the Ddwari, though like every other Pafhdn, has 
his price, whereby his wounded body or side may be salved ; and for 
most oft'ences a fixed sum is laid down by playing which the offender 
may satisfy the wrath of the party offended. The amount actually 
paid, however, depends largely on the strength and intluence of the 
opposing parties, the weaker usually having to go to tho wall, being 
mercilessly fleeced if the offending party, and having to be content 
with little or nothing if offended. As a general rule, for purposes of 
calculating compensation a woman is considered as equal to half a 
' man, and a Hindu is equal to a woman. Children over two years 
old are considered men or women, according to sex, for purposes 
of assessing compensation. Customary law in Dtlwar only takes 
cognisance of the actual deed accomplished and not the intention 
of the offender ; for instance, there is no such thing in Dd,war, 
as attempted murder. If the man is merely wounded in the attempt 
compensation is only paid for the hurt actually caused. Again there 
is no such thing as letting a man off because he killed another 
man accidentally. Accident or no accident, the man is dead and the 
penalty must be paid either in cash or kind. The right of self-defence 
is recognised, but in no case does it extend to the killing or perma- 
nent maiming of the person against wdiom it is exercised, not even if 
he be attempting to commit murder. Should he be killed compensation 
must be paid to his kins, and if permanently maimed to himse . 
Hevenge is, if possible, taken on the actual offender [badiddr) while le 
lives. But after his death his brother inherits the feud and aftci im 
the murderer’s other heirs. If he leave no such relatives, liis section is 


230 


Criminal Law in Ddwar. 


responsible, if tbe injured party belongs to another section. If the 
offended party kill a relation of the actual badiddr, while he is still alive, 
Ks. 100 must be paid as compensation. If the offender and his brothers 
die without revenge having been taken, and the inheritance falls to a 
relation, that relation can, if he wishes to escape the feud, renounce the 
heritage with the feud attached to it. 

The tendency among the Dawaris as among the Wazirs is to exact the 
blood penalty, but if a man is afraid, he can get the village elders and 
go and kill a sheep before the house of the offended party (a cere- 
mony known as ndnowati and have the compensation assessed and 
the case settled in that way. 

Murder . — In Ddwar, as far as the consequences of the deed are 
concerned, there is no difference between murder and the accidental 
killing of a man or woman. The penalty is the same in either case. 
The punishment is death at the hands of the murdered man’s relations, 
or if they cannot inflict it themselves, at the hands of assassins hired 
by them. 

A murder can, however, be compounded on the intervention of the 
village ytVg'a by the payment of a sum varying from Rs. 1,000 to 
Rs. 1,200 in cash. In some cases a woman is given in marriage to a 
relative of the murdered man by the murderer, in which case the price 
of the woman is agreed upon between the parties and deducted from 
the amount of compensation to be paid. If both of the parties do not 
compound the offence willingly, but one is forced to do so by the 
other, or both are forced to do so by the village or tribal jirga, then 
compensation is only paid in cash. The amount of compensation paid 
for a woman is in all cases half that of a man, and the amount paid 
for the murder of a Hindu is the same as that for a woman. There are 
four exceptions to the law that the death or hurt of a man or woman 
must be avenged by the relations, either by taking a life or by taking 
money in compensation. The exceptions are — 

(i) If a man is accidentally killed ’or hurt in a nandasa (the name 
given to the local dance at the Id) : unless it can be prov- 
ed that the man who killed the other had a feud or any 
grudge against the deceased, 

(n) If any one be accideutally hurt or killed in the stone-throwing 
which sometimes accompanies a wedding : provided always 
that there is no grudge or feud. 

{Hi) At a tent-pegging match if a rider warn the bystanders that 
his horse is unmanageable, no claim lies against him if 
any one is injured. 

{iv) If a mai^ cutting wood from a tree warn people sitting under 
the tree, he is not responsible for any accident that may 
occur from falling branches. 

If a person is injured by a runaway hoi’so or other animal, the animal 
is usually given in compensation. The burden of proof of any injury 
being accidental is on the party who inflicts it. A council of elders is 
summoned at his expense, and if he can satisfy them that it really was 
an accident, they assess the compensation as they think fit. All feuds 
are suspended whilo the parties are out with a tribal lashkur or chigha. 


Criminal Law in Dawar, 


231 


The rates of compensation for a female are the same as those for 
a male, as also are those for Hindus, but in the Malakh ildqa the 
rates for women are only half those for men, and Hindus are con- 
sidered equal to women. 

. * 

Under the custom the punishment for a hurt is a hurt of similar 
nature to that inflicted, i. e., for the loss of a limb the punishment id 
the loss of that limb; for a wound, a similar wound ; for a nose or ear 
cut, a nose or ear cut. There is, however, a scale of compensation* 
fixed by which nearly every form of hurt can be compensated. This 
scale is as follows : — 

For the permanent total disablement of an arm or a leg, Rs. 500. 
If the disablement be not quite total then the compensation is Rs. 250, 
and if it bo only slight Rs. 120. 


For the loss of one eye 

Ditto both eyes 

The rates for the loss of 'fingers are — 

Thumb 
1st finger 


2ncl 

3rd 

4th 


)l 

if 

f$ 


Rs. 

250 

500 


50 

40 

35 

30 

20 


The compensation for cutting off a nose is from Rs. 500 to Rs. 600. 
Ears are paid for at Rs. 100 a piece. The compensation for a wound is 
Rs. 10 to Rs. 100 according to its nature, and that payable for teeth is — 

Rs. 

Front, upper or lower loO 

Further back 50 

Back teeth 25 


Adultery. — l^J the parties are caught in the act, both may be killed, but 
in the Malakh and Tappizai ildqas (where a woman is considered half 


* Id the MalHkh ildqa the scale is suDsewhat different, though for permanent disable- 
ment of a limb it is the same. 

Bs. 

For the loss of one eye 500 

„ „ both eyes 1,000 

Compensation for fingers : — 









First joint. 

Second 

joint. 

Third joint. 








Rs. 

Rs, 

Rs. 

Thumb 

« • » 

* ■ • 

• •t 

• • • 

■ • • 

■ • • 

130 

250 

• 4 • 

1st finger 

• • • 

• •• 

• •• 

• 1 

• • • 

• • • 

30 

60 

120 

2nd ,, 



• • • 

. • 


• • • 

65 

30 

15 

3r(i ••• 


... 

• • • 

• •• 

• •• 

• • • 

35 

17-8 

8-8 

4tll at* 

... 

1 1 

« • t 



• •• 

25 

12-8 

6-4 


The compensation for a wounded nose is Rs. 85, or if cut off entirely Rs. 500. 

A wound in the face more than one finger in breadth is Rs. 85, but if on any other 
part it is only Hs. 12-8 per finger breadth. 

For teeth the compensation is-- 

Two front, upper or lower ... ... 100 each 

Next two, „ tlO „ 

Back teeth, „ oO „ 


232 


The Ddwi Pathdns. 

a man) the woman alone can be killed and the man’s foot cut off, and 
if the man is killed half the compensation for his murder must be 
paid. This is the invariable rule in the Malakh ildqa. 

For rape the man may be killed, and for an assault with intent to 
outrage a woman’s modesty he may be killed and half compensation 
paid, or his foot may be out off. For house trespass in order to 
commit adultery the man’s nose or ear may be cut off, and if the hus- 
band suspects his wife of being a consenting party, he may kill her. 

The penalty for elopement or abduction is death or Rs. 1,000. Should 
a woman go wrong and become a bad character the husband may cut 
off her nose and divorce her. Should she then marry again he is 
entitled to no compeusation. 

Offences against 'property . — The punishments for burglary, robbery 
and theft are all much the same. The amount stolen, with compensa- 
tion for the damage done and the expenses of the suit are recovered, 
plus a village fine of Rs. 40 to Rs. 200^ according to the offender’s 
means. If no damage i» done and no property stolen, only the village 
fine is recovered. 

Arson . — In cases of arson the risker is referred to the village jirga 
which, if the offence is proved, realises a village fine of from Rs. 100 
to Rs. 200. Compensation is also realised and paid to the offended 
party.t Should loss of life result from the fire, the penalty for murder 
who perishes in the flames, is exacted in addition, for every person. 

Gutting of crops . — Compensation for the damage done is paid; as well 
as a fine of Rs. 5 if the offence is committed by night, and Rs. 2 
or Rs. 3 if the offence is committed by day. 

Dawi, a tribe of Ghorgasht Path4ns, descended from D4wai, son of D4nai, 
and so akin to the Kakaii, Naghar and Parni. The Dawi live in the 
tract held by the last named, occupying Sangdr or Sang-Mandali, and 
the Zarghun Darra or ^ green valley.’ D4wai had two sons, Domarah 
and Homarah and adopted three more, viz., Khwardai, Zamar and 
Samar, according to the most authentic account, but other traditions 
omit the two last-named. The story goes that Dawai espoused the 
widow of a Sayyid of Khujand, and adopted her son by him. His 
name was Hasan, but in his youth he was notorious as a robber [ghal). 
He repented, however, of his misdeeds and became the disciple of a 
saint of Mult4n, Tuarried a Path4n wife and had four sons, Musa, Ali, 
Sikandar and Balil, whose descendants are known as Hasani or Khundi 
{lit. protected), a corruption probably of Khujandi. The Hasani, being 
of Sayyid blood dwell among other tribes as their spiritual guide, and 
Shaikh Hasan Dawi,t one of the most famous of them, attached himself 
to the Shaikh-ul-Islani Baha-ul-Haqq-wa-ud-Din Zakaria§ of Multdn, 
and was buried at a spot between Tul and Sambar. His tomb is still a 
place of pilgrimage and tales of his power of thought-reading are 
still told. Another Dawi saint was Shaikh Neknam, and a third 

* In the Malakh ilaqn the fine is Ra. 60 and in Bangar Khel Rs. 100. 

+ In the Malakh ilaqa double compensation is paid, 
j Not to be confused with Hasan Dawi, the progenitor of the tribe. 

§ The ‘ Saint of Multan ’ who died in 1265-6 at the age of 100. He was disciple of 
the Shaikh-ul-Kdinil, Shahab-ud-Din, son of Abn-Hifz, Umar-ua-Saharwardi, 


288 


Ddya-~“De8wdli. 

Shaikh Tldji Abu Ishdq, who was accounted an Afghan because hia 
mother was an Afghan. He was a contemporary of Sultan Sher Shdh 
and dwelt at Kaithal. 

Daya, a synonym for Mdchhi in Multan, fern, ddi (so called because women 
of the Machhi caste act as wet-nurses). Cf. Vaidehd. 

Dayal, a Rajput clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Dedfia^, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Deiigan, Difiqan, Dihqan, an Iranian (Tdjik) tribe (or rather class, as the 
word means husbandman) which is represented by ‘the Siialmanis of the 
Peshdwar valley. Raverty says that the Chaghan-Sarai valley on the 
west side of the Chitrdl river also contains several large Dihgdn villages 
which owe allegiance to the Sayyids of Kunar. 

Dehia, one of the principal clans of the Jats in Karndl. It has its head- 
quarters at Ludhidna and originally came from Rohtak. Probably the 
same as Dahia. 

Dehr, a Muhammadan Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Deo, — (1). A title of several ancient ruling families, used as an aflBx, like 
Chand or Singh. It was thus used by the old dynasty of Jammu. 

(2). A tribe of Jdts which is practically confined to the Sidlkot 
district where they regard Sankatra as one of their ancestors and have a 
highly revered spot dedicated to him, in the town of that name, in 
tahsil Zafarwal. They claim a very ancient origin, but not Rdjput. 
Their aticestor is said to be Mahdj, who came from “ the Saki jungle ” in 
Hindustan. Of his five sons, Sohdl, Kom, Dewal, Aulakh and Deo, the two 
latter gave their names to two Jdt tribes, while the other branches dis- 
persed over Gujrdnwdld and Jhang. But another story refers themto Rajd 
Jagdeo, a Surajbansi Hdjput. They have the same marriage ceremony 
as the Sahi, and also use the goat’s blood in a similar manner in honour 
of their ancestors, and have several very peculiar customs. They will 
not intermarry with the M4n Jd^s, with whom they have some ancestral 
connection. Also found in Amritsar. 

Deoania, a Jdt tribe found in Sialkot and apparently distinct from the Doo. 

Deora, a sept of Kanets descended from a son of Tegh Chand, third son of 
Rdj^ Kahn Chand of Kahlur. 

Deowana, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Derija, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

DesI, (i) of the country, fr. des, country ; (ii) of the plains, as opposed to 
pahdri, of the hills : cf. P. Dicty., p. 287 ; (iii) a Jd,t clan (agricultural) 
found in Multan. Cf. Deswdli. 

Dbswal, ^ men of the country,’ a Jilt tribe, sprung from the same stock as 
the Dalai. They are most numerous in Rohtak, Gurgaon.and Karmll. 
In Mew4r and Ajmer, Musalm^u Rlijputs are callei Daswill, and are 
hardly recognised as ItFijputs. 

Deswala, a territorial term sometimes applied to certain J^t tribes as opposed 
to Pachhamwdla. 

DeswalI, opposed to Bdgri, q.v. 


234 


Dewa — Dhamdn. 


Dewa, a title given in Sirmur to Kanet families -which perform priestly duties 
in the deotas* temples. A Dewa will generally marry in a Dew^l family 
and a Negi in a Negi family. The Dewiis rank below the Bh^its and 
above the Dethis, and are intimately connected with the deo^as. whom 
they serve : e.g., the temple of Mahasu must be closed for 20 days if 
there is a birth or death in the Dewars family — see the Sirmur Gazetteer, 
pp. 42—44. Gf. Karan. 

The form of this designation in the Simla Hills appears to be dinwdn. 

Dewal, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Dewala, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multdn. 

Dewar, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Mult4n. 

Dhaba, Dabha, Dhabi, Dibha, syns. of Dhobi, q.v. 

Dhabba, a Khatri sub-division. 

Dhadah, a tribe of Jd,ts, found in Kapurthala, whither it migrated from Delhi. 

Dhadhi, Dhadi, a musician, singer or panegyrist; fr. dhdd, a kind of 
tabor. In the Deraj^t, however, the Dh^ldi only chants and never, it 
is said, plays on any instrument : he is also said not to intermarry with 
the Dum. In Multd,n he is a panegyrist, if given alms ; if not, he curses. 

Dhakar, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Dhaekar, a Mahtam clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

DHAKKtJ, an agricultural clan found in Shhhpur and Montgomery. Classed 
both as Rhjput and Jht in the latter district. 

DeAKOcer, a sub-casfe of Brahmans in the hills of Hazd,ra, which allows 
widow remarriage. It does not intermarry or eat with the Pah4ria, the 
other sub-caste of Brahmans in these hills. 

Dhala, a caster of metals. 

Dhalan, a small Jdt clan found in Bdwal (Ndbha State!. They derive 
their origin from Ilaj4 Dhal, a Tunwar ruler of Hastinapar, who 
lost caste by marrying a foreign wife. 

Dhali, a Jat clan (agricultural) found iu Amritsar. 

Dbali, a tribe of Muhammadan Jdts, found in Gujrdt, where its founder a 
Bhatti Rhjput,^ obtained a grant of land from Akbar in exchange for a 
fine shield, dhdl, which he possessed. 

Dhaliwal, see Dhariwal. 

Dhalon, a Jat clan (agricultuial) found in Amritsar. 

Dhamali, a class of Muhammadan faqirs (= Jaldli). fr. d/iama7, leapino- and 
whirling. ^ 

Dhaman, an endogamous occupational sub-caste of the Lohdr-Tarkhdn 
castes, fr. dhaund ‘to blow' the bellows. The Dham^in are black- 
smiths, as opposed to the Khatti or ‘ carpenter ' sub-caste. The 
Dhamdn is by far the largest group among the 'I'arklidns and forms 
a true sub-caste in Sirsa, in Hoshidrpur (in which district the Dliamdns 
and Khattis will not eat or smoke together) and probably throuo-hout 
the eastern districts, as far north as Gujrdnwdla. The Dhamdns 
include the Hindu Suthars, q . v . 


Dhamra—Dhari. 


235 


Dhamra, an agricultural clan found in Shalipur. 

Dhanak, a caste, essentially of Hindust^in and not of the Punjab proper, 
and confined to the south-east of the Province. W ilson derives the 
names from the Sansk. dhanashka, bowman, but the Dhdnaks of the 
Punjab are not hunters and only differ from the Chuhrds in that they 
will not remove nightsoil, though they will do general scavenging. In 
villages they do a great deal of weaving also. The Chuhrds are said to 
look down on them, but the)' are apparently on an equality, as neitfier 
will eat the leavings of the other thoufjh each will eat the leavings 
of all other tribes except Sdnsis, not excluding even Khatiks. 
There are, practically speaking, no Sikh or Mussalmdn Dhdnaks, 
and their creed would appear to be that of the Chuhras The only 
considerable tribe the Dhauaks have returned is Ldl Guru, another 
name for LiU Beg, the sweeper Guru. But they are said to burn their 
dead. They marry by phera and no Brahman will oflBciate. 'I'hey also 
appear to be closely allied to the Pasis.^ See Lalbegi. 

Dhanda, a small clan of Jats, found in Jind. Their jathcra is Swdmi 
Sundar Das, at whose samadh milk is offered on the 12th sudi every 
month : beestings also are offered, and, at weddings, a lamp is lighted 
there. 


DeAiypsAirAE, a Jiit clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Dha^jqe, an Araiu clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Dhanial, a tribe of Riljput status which belongs to the group of hill tribes 
of the Salt-range Tract. It is from them that the Dhani country m the 
Chakwal tahsil of Jhelum takes its name ; and there appears still to be 
a colony of them in those parts, though they are now chiefiy found in 
the lower western hills of the INIurree range, being separated from tho 
Satti by the Ketwal. They claim to be descended from Ali, son-in-law 
of the Prophet. They are a fine martial set of men and furnish many 
recruits for the army, but were always a turbulent set, and most of the 
serious crime of the surrounding country used to bo ascribed to them. 
Many of them are of Jdt status. 

Dha^ijon, an An'un clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. ^ Also a 

clan in that District and in Montgomery. In the latter it is both liman 

and Muhammadan. 

Dhankak, a .Tat tribe of tho same stock as the R4thi. They are almost 
confined to Jhajjar tahsil in Rohtak, and are perhaps nothing moro 
than a local clan of the Rttthi tribe. 


Dhanoe, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 
DhanpaI, a jpogar clnn (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 


DnAijjpi, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 


Dha,b, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Dhari, a bard (Monckton’s 8. R, Gujrdt, 53), doubtless DnAPi, q.v 


* In Karnil they are regularly employed in weaving, 
take it to the fields, and get a cluipatti a day from eao i 


oy also collect cow-dimg and 
house and a little at harvest. 


236 


Dhdriwd l^DhauncTidk. 


Dhariwal. — Tlio Dhdriwdl, Dhd,m- or Dhdliwal, (or, in Karndl, Phor) Jd,ts, for 
the name is spelt in all three ways, are said to be Bhatti Rajputs, and 
to take their name from their place of origin Dhard,nagar. They say that 
Akbar married the daughter* of their chief, Mihr Mitha.t I’hey are 
found chiefly on the Upper Sutlej and in the fertile district to the west, 
their head-quarters being the north-western corner of the M^lwa, or 
Ludhidna, Ferozepur, and the adjoining parts of Patidla. Mr. Brandreth 
describes them as splendid cultivators, and the most peaceful and con- 
tented portion of the population of the tract. Akbar conferred the 
title of Midn on ‘Mihr Mitha and gave him 120 villages round Dhaula 
Kdngar| in jdgir. The Uhdriwdl have undoubtedly been settled in 
that part from an early period, and the south-east angle of the Moga 
tahsil is still called the Dhdliwal tappa. Mitha’s descendants are still 
called Midu, but they are said not to have been converted to Islam 
though for several generations their leaders bore distinctly Muham- 
madan names. However this may be Mihr Mitha is now their sidh 
with a shrine at Lallawala in Patiala, and on the 2nd t^udi of each 
month sweetened bread and milk are offered to it. In SiMkot. however, 
their sidh is called Bhoi and his seat is said to be at Janer§ Fatta. 

The Dhd,riwM are divided into two groups, Udhi or Odi and Moni 
or Muni (who alone are said to be followers of Mihr Mitha in Gujrd,n- 
wd,la). 

Dhaekhan, a synonym of Tarkhdn (q.v.) throughout the South-West Punjab. 
In Jhang they are all Muhammadans and have Aav^o, Bharmi, Bhatti, 
Dhddhi, Gilotar, Jan]uhd.n, Kari, Khokhar, Sahdrar, "S^hte and Sikl 
septs. The latter when the first tonsure of a child is performed, cook 2| 
bhasaris or cakes, each containing 1 J sers of wheat-flour, and of these 
the eldest of the family eats one, the second is given in alms and the 
third {\) is eaten by the girls of the family. 

Dhaeukra, a group, practically a sub-caste, of Brahmans found in Gurgaoii, 
who have Ijecome out-castes because they adopted the custom of widow 
reraarriage.il The name may be derived from d/iareZ, a concubine, or 
dharewa, marriage of a widow. They are Gaurs. 

PHAsf, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Dhaul, an agricultural clan found in Sh^hpur, and, as Muhammadan Jd,ts, 
in Montgomery. 

DhadEka, an agricultural clan found in Shd-bpur. 

Dhap^j (Dhawan), a Khatri got, see P. Dicty., p. 804. 

DhauNCHAk, one of the principal clans of the Jats in Karn^l, with its head- 
quarters at Binjhaul. Intermarries in Rohtak. 


♦ As her dower 100 ghumaos of land were given her at Kangir and this land was trans. 
ferred to Delhi and kept as the burial ground of the Mughal emperors ! 
t Mihr or Mahr, ‘ chief,’ and Mitha, a name uiikno-wn to Akhar’s historians 
i Dhaula, the ‘ white ’ house or palace. Kangar is in Vatiala territory to the south-east 
of Moga. 

§ Janer is described by Cunningham, Arch. Survey Reports XlV, 67—69. 

11 Punjab Customary Law, II, p. 132, 


Dhaugri-^DhUlm. 


237 


Dhadgei, see DnoaKr. 

Dhawna, a Riijput clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Dhed, a tribe of Jdts found in Multan, whero they settled in Akbar’s time. 

Dhed, lit. a crow ; a leather- worker. 

Dheph, Dherh, Dhed, (see above). A synonym for Chamdr. The term is 
however, used for any ‘low fellow,’ though especially applied to a 
Chamd,r. In the Punjab the Dhedh is not a separate caste, as ic is in 
-Bombay and the Central Provinces. 

pHE.NDYE, a Gujar clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar, 

Dhee, a tribG of Jdts claiming Solar Rajput origin through its eponvun 
and his descendant Harpdl who settled near Kalanaur and thence it 
migrated into Sidlkot. 

Uhesi, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Dhidba, an Ardin clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Dhiduana, a clan of the Sidls. 

Dhila, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Dhillon, Dhillhon. — JTie phillon* is one of the largest and most widely dis- 
tributed Jdt tribes in the Punjab, especially in the Sikh Districts. 
Their head-quarters would appear to be Gujrdnwdla and Amritsar ; but 
they are found in large numbers along the whole course of the Sutlej 
from Ferozepur upwards, and under the hills to the east of those two 
Districts. The numbers returned for the Delhi District are curiously 
large, and it is doubtful, whether tliey really refer to the same tribe. 
Like the Gordya they claim to be Saroha Rajputs by origin, and to 
have come from Sirsa. If this bo true they have probably moved up 
the Sutlej, and then spread along westwards under the hills. Rut 
another story makes them descendants of a Surajbansi Rdjput named 
Lu who lived at Khdrmor in the Mdlwa, and held some office at the 
Delhi court. They are said to be divided into three great sections, the 
Bdj, Saj and Sduda. 

Another pedigree is assigned them in Amritsar. It makes Lu (Loh 
Sain) son of Rdja Karn, thus : — 

SURAJ (Sun). 


Karn, born at Karn Bas in Bulandshahr. 



Loh Sain. Ghatar Sain, Brikh Sain. Chaudar Sain, 

1 

Dhillon. 

Kuril’s birth is described in the legend that Rnjd Kauntal had a 
daughter Kunti by name, who was married to Rajji Pjindav. War- 
bhdshd rikhi taught her a mantra by which she could bring the sun 
under her influence and by its power she bore Karn who became Rdja 
of Hastindpur. When Pdndav renounced his kingdom after the battle 
at Kuruchhetar and Rajd Karn had been killed in the battle, Dhillon 

* Folk-etymology connects the name with dhilla, ' lazy.’ It is also said to be derived 
from a word meaning 'gentle.’ 


238 


Dhindso/^Dhiruke. 


left Hastindpur and settled in Wangar near Bhatinda, where his 
descendants lived for 10 generations. Karn is said to have a temple at 
Amb on the Ganges, where he is worshipped on the Chet chaudas. In 
Sidlkot the Dhillu jathera is Ddud Shdh, and he is revered at weddings. 
The Bhangi misl of the Sikhs was founded by a Dhillon, Sirddr 
Ganda Singh. In Amritsar the Dhillon do not marry with the Bal 
because once a mirdsioi the Dliillons was in difficulties in a Bal village, 
and they refused to help him, so the Dhillons of the Mdnjha do not even 
drink water from a Bal’s hands ; nor will the mirdsis of the Dhillon 
intermarry with those of the Bal. In Ludhiana at Dhillon village there 
is a shrine of the ivihfd jathera, who is called Bdbaji. Gur is offered to 
him at weddings and he is worshipped at the Diwali, Brahmans taking 
the offerings. 

Dhindsa, a Jd,t tribe, which would appear to be confined to Ambdla, Ludhiana 
and the adjoining portion of Patidla. They claim to be descended from 
Saroha Rajputs. In Jind their Sidh is Bd^b^ Harn^m D^s, a Bairdgi of 
the 17th century, whose shrine is at Kharidl in Karnal. Offerings are 
made to it at weddings. In Sialkot the Dhindsa also revere a sati’s tomb. 

Dhing, an agricultural clan found in Shahpur. 

Dhinwar, Dbimar. — The word Dhinwar is undoubtedly a variant of Jhinwar,* 
while the term Dhimar is a corruption of it, with possibly, in the Punjab, 
a punning allusion to the custom described below. The Dhinwar is 
confined in the Punjab to the tracts round Delhi, where the word is also 
applied to any person of dark complexion. The Dhinwars are divided 
into two groups, one of which makes baskets and carries pdlkis, works 
ferries and is in fact a Kahar. Many of this group are fishermen or 
boatmen, and call themselves Mallahs, while some are Bharbhunjds. 
The other group is so criminal in its tendencies that it was once pro- 
posed to proclaim the Dhinwars a criminal tribe, but violent crime is rare 
among them and though they wander aff over the Punjab, disguised as 
musicians, beggitig, pilfering and even committing burglary or theft on 
a large scale, many of them are cultivators and some even own land. 
The Dhinwars of Gurgdon once used to marry a girl to Bhaironji, and 
she was expected to die within the year. The Dhimars do not own the 
Dhinwars as the latter are notorious thieves. No Hindu of good caste 
will take water from a Dhin war’s hands, though he will accept it from 
a Dhimar. (The latter caste appears to be the equivalent of the Jhinwar 
in the United and Central Provinces). See also under Jhinwar. 

Dhirmalia, the second oldest sect of Sikhs. The Dhirmalia owe their origin 
to Dhirmal,t who refused to acknowledge Guru Har Rai, his younger 
brother, as the Guru. The sect has an important station at Chak Rd,m 
Dds in Shdhpur, where the Bhais descended from Dhirmal own the 
village lands. They ha-ve a considerable following, chiefly of Khatris 
and Aroras. Bdbd Bar Bhdg Singh, another member of the family, has 
a shrine at Mairi, near Amb in Hoshidrpur. The sect has no special 
tenents differentiating it from the Ndnakpanthis. 

Dhirdkb, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

* For cf. rijha, cooked, for ridhi : hajha hM, for bdndhd hdd, tied ; rujjha for 

ruddhd, busy, and otter examples. ’ 

+ NotthesecondsonofR4mdas, the 4th Guru, as sometimes stated, but of Gurditta. the 

Udasi who never became Guru, 


Dh obi^Dhotar. 


289 


Dhobi, perhaps the most clearly defined and the one most nearly approaching 
a true caste of all the Menial and Artisan castes. He is found under 
that name througlioufc the Punjab, but in the Derajdt and the Multdn 
Division he is undistinguishable from the Charhoa. He i« the washer- 
man of the country, but with washing he generally combines, especially 
in the centre and west of the Province, the craft of calico-printing, 
and undoubtedly in these parts the Dhobi and Chhiraba castes overlap. 
The Dhobi is a true village menial in the sense that he rece’ives a fixed 
share of the produce in return for washing the clothes of the villages 
where he performs that office. But he occupies this position only 
among the higher castes of landowners, as among the Jdts and castes 
of similar standing the women generally wash the clothes of the family. 
The Dhobi is, therefore, to be found in largest number in the towns. 
His social position is very low', for his occupation is considered impure ; 
and he alone of the tribes which are not outcast will imitate the Kumhdr 
in keeping and using a donkey. He stands below the Ndi, but perhaps 
above the Kumhar. He often takes to working as a Darzi or tailor, 
and in Peshdwar dhohi simply means a dyer {rangrez). He is most 
often a Musalmdn. His title is harita or hhalifa, the latt er being the 
title of the heads of his guild. 

The Dhobi sections appear to be few. They include : — 


1 . 

2 . 

3. 

4. 


Agrai. 
Akthra. 
Bhalam. 
Bhatfi. 


5. 

6 . 

7. 

8 . 


Kamboh. 

Khohhar. 

Kohdns. 

Mahmal. 


9. 

10 

II. 


Rikhari, 

Ldrli. 

Lippal. 


(Those italicised are also Chhimba and Charhoa (jots. Nos 1, 3 and 
9 being also Charhoa gots). The Hindu Dhobis in Kapurth^la say they 
are immigrants from the United Provinces and preserve four of their 
original seven grois, Magia, M{irwd,ir, Balwar and Kanaujia, while 
the Muhammadan sections are said to be Galanjar, Mohar, Role, Sangdri, 
Saukhar and Satal- 

Dhoda, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Dhodi Bhandah, Khatar, Namonana and VVair, four Rajput septs (agricul- 
tural) found in Multd,n. 

Dhoqri, the ironsmiths, miners and charcoal-burners of the Barmaur lurzarai 
of Chamba State, where, when holding land as tenants, they are, like 
other low-castes, termed jhumridlu, lit. ‘ family servants’. In Kullu 
territory all say the term dhogri is applied to any Daghf or Koli who 
takes to iron-smelting : cf. Chhazanq for the Dhongru Ksiru in Spiti. 

The name is probably connected with dhaukni, etc., ‘bellows,’ and 
dhauna, ‘ to blow the bellows. ’ 

Dhol, a tribe of Ja^s, found in Kapurthala, whither it migrated from the 
East, beyond the Jumna, after settling in Amritsar : see also Dhaul, 

Dhori, a (agricultural) found in Sh^hpur. 

Dhot, a Kamboh clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar and Montgomery — 
in the latter both Hindu and Muhammadan. 

Dhotar, a Jdf tribe, almost entirely confined to Gujrdnwala. They are mostly 
Hindus, and claim to be descended from a Solar Rajput who emigrated 
from Hindustan or, according to another story, from Ghazni, some 20 
generations back. 


240 JDTiudhi — Dhund. 

Dhudhi, Dhudhij a tribo of Mubammadans found in Pdkpattan talisil, 
Montgomery district; and akin to the Paths, In this district it is 
classed as Ihijput, 3 At, Ar^in, and in Shdhpur as 3A\. In Montgomery 
the Dhudhi hiutidna rank as Rajputs. 

Dhudhial, an agricultural clan found in Sh^hpur. 

Dhudhi, a small clan of Punw^r Rajputs found with their kinsmen the Rathor 
scattered along the Sutlej and Cliendb. Their original seat is said to 
have been in the Mailsi tahsil of Mult^U; where they are mentioned as 
early as the first half of tlie 14th century. When the Delhi empire was 
breaking up they .spread along the rivers. One of them, H4ji Sher Mu- 
hammad, was a saint whose shrine in Mult4n is still renowned. They 
are said to be “ fair agriculturists and respectable members of society.’* 

Dhddi, a Jitt tribe found in tahsil Mailsi, district Multan, and formerly, in 
the 13th century, established iu the extreme east of it. 

Dhul, an agricultural clan found in Shd,hpur and, as Rdjputs, in Montgomery. 

Dhul, one of the principal clans of the Jats in Karnal, with its head-quarters 
at Pai. 

Dhdllu Bhatti, a Rajput clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Dhund, the Dhund with the Satti, and Ketwal, occupy nearly the whole of 
the Murree and Hazara Hills on the right bank of the Jhelum in the 
Hazd-ra and Rd,walpmdi districts. Of the three the Dhund are the most 
northern, being found in the Abbott4b4d tahsil of Haz4ra and in the 
northern tracts of Rawalpindi, while below them come the Satti. 
Andwd,! appears to be one of the Dhund clans. They claim to be 
descendants of Abbas, the paternal uncle of the Prophet ; but another 
tradition is that their ancestor Takht Khd,n came with Taimur to Delhi 
where he settled; and that his descendant Zorab Kh4n went to Kahuta 
in the time of Sh^h Jahan, and begat the ancestors of the Jadw41, 
Dhund, Sarrd-ra, and Tand,oli tribes. His son KhaUra or Kulu Rai was 
sent to Kashmir, and married a Kashmiri woman from whom the Dhund 
are sprung, and also a KetwM woman. From another illegitimate son of 
his the Satti, who are the bitter enemies of the Dhund, are said to have 
sprung ; but this tho Satti deny and claim descent from no less a person 
than Nausherwan. These traditions are of course absurd. Kulu Rai is 
a Hindu name, and one tradition makes him brought up by a Brahman. 
Colonel Wace wrote of the Dhund and Karrd,! : ‘^ Thirty years ao>o their 
acquairrtance with the Muhammadan faith was still slight, and thouo-h 
they now know more of it, and are more careful to observe it, relics "of 
their Hindu faith are still observable in their social habits.” This much 
apfiears certain that the Dhund, Satti, Bib, Chibh, and many others 
are all of Hindu origin, all originally occupants of the hills on this part 
of the Jhelum, and all probably more or less connected. Among the 
Punwdr clans mentioned by Tod, and supposed by him to be extinct are 
the Dhoonda, Soruteah, Bheeba, Dhund, Jeebra, and Dtioonta ; and it 
is not impos-jible that ttiese tribes may be Punwd,r clans. The history of 
these tribes is given at pages 592 //of Sir Lepel Griffin’s Punjab Chiefs. 
They were almost exterminated by the Sikhs iu 1837, Colonel Cracroft 
considered the Dhund and Satti of Hi'iwalpiudi to be a treacherous 
feeble, and dangerous population,’ and rendered especially dangerous by 
their close connection with the Karral and Dhund of Hazara. ^ He says 


Dhunia — Dilazdh. 241 

that the Satti are a finer and more vigorous race and less inconstant 
and volatile than the Dhund, whose traditional enemies they aro. Sir 
Lepel Griffin wrote that the Dhund ‘Diave ever been a lawless untract- 
able race, but their nonragre is not equal to their disposition to do evil.” 
On the other liand, Major Wace described both the Dhund and KarrM as 
attached to their homos and fields, which they cultivate simply and 
industriously. For the rest their character is crafry and cowardly.” 
Both tribes broke into open rebellion in 1857, and the Dhund were 
severely chastised in Rawalpindi, but left unpunished in llaziira. 
Mr. hi. B. Steedman said : The hillmen of Rdwa/pindi are not of very 
fine physique. They have a good deal of pride of race, but are rather 
squalid in appearance. The rank and file are poor, holding but little 
land and depending chiefly on their cattle for a livelihood. They have 
a great dislike to leaving the hills, especially in the hot weather, when 
they go up as high as they can, and descend into the valleys during the 
cold weather. They stand high in the social scale.” In Ilazilra the 
local tradition makes two of the two main Dhund clans, Chandial and 
Ratniiil, descendants of two Rdjput chiefs who were descended from Gahi, 
ruler of a tract round Delhi. To this day they refuse to eat with other 
Muhammadans or even to allow them to touch their cooking vessels. 
At weddings they retain the Hindu custom, whereby tho hardt or pro- 
cession spends 2 or 3 days at the house of the bride’s father, and various 
other Hindu social observances. They rarely marry outside the tribe, 
but polygamy is fairly common among them.* Mr. H. D. Watson 
describes them as physically rather a fine race, and intelligent, bub 
factious and unscrupulous. 

DfiiJNiA, a synonym for Penja {q. v,). See also under Randera. 

Dhunsae, Dhusar, see under Bhargava Dhusar. 

Dhdssa. — A daughter of Guru Har Rai married a Gend Khatri of Pasrur, 
named Amnr Singh, whose descendants aro called dhussas or intruders, 
but no sect of this name appears in our Census tables. 

Dihadkae, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Dilazak, an important Pathan tribe. 

Tho Dilazak were the first Afghan tribe to enter the Peshdwar valley, 
and the Akhiind, Darweza, avers that they came first into Nangrahdrt 


*E. Mollof,inP..Y. Q.II, §281. a • . ^ - 

t The Dilazaks first entered Nangrahar from the west or south-west and, prior to iimur s 
invasion settled in the Peshawar valley, allying themselves with the Shalmam's. In Bihar’s 
time and’ under Akbar they held Wilasau and the eastern part of Bajaur. They assigned the 
Uoaba to the Yusufzais and ilandars and they in turn to tho Gagyanis, but the latter were defeat- 
ed by the Dilazaks. Upon this the Khashis, headed by Malik Ahmad, the Mandar chi£, atteck^ 
the Dilaziks and drove them out of all their territories north of the Kabul river. The Khahls 
and Mohmands then induced Kitnran to attack the Dilaziks and he evpellei them^ from Pesh - 
war and all their possessions west of the Indus (c loSd-dV Subsequently (c. ] i 

Kaiu Malik Ahmad’s successor, formed a great confederation of Khashi tribes and defeated the 
Ghwaria Khel, headed by the Khalils, at Shaikh Tapiir in l 54 <-5o, Khan Kaju s pawer may be 
gauged from the fact that he had at one time a force of iso.ooo men unler his command and his 
authoritv was acknowledged from Nangrahar to the Marigalla pass, and from Ui^cr ■ 

Pindi and Kilibagh .Uam Kh.in Gakhar is said to have been his feudatory. Three or four 
years later in 1552 Ilumiyun reached Peshiwar, which fortress he found in nuns, am < pp 
Sikandar Khan the Cossack (Qa..ak) its governor. Soon after 1552 

Bagram and there invested wikandar, but havino: no artillery or ,• . u. divided 

to raise the siege. Khan Kaju’s Mulla or chief priest and minister was bhaikh M.ili who divided 

the conquered lauds among the Khashis. 


242 


Dinddr—'Dirmdn. 


from the west and passed on eastward before the time of Timur. Enter- 
ing the vale of Peshawar they formed an alliance with the Shalm^ms, 
who were then bubject to tlie Sultdn of Swdt, and subdued or expelled, 
exterminated or absorbed the other tribes which held the valley. Thus 
they occupied the eastern jDart of Bajaur, and their territory extended 
from the Jinde river to the Kd/ldpani and the hills of Swat. The 
Shalrnanis held the Hashtnacrar tract, but all the lands from Btijaur 
to the Indus north of the Kdbul and south of it as far as the Afridi 
hills, were Dilazak territory when the Khashi Pathdns appeared on 
the scene. That branch of the Afghan nation had been expelled from 
their seats near Kabul by Mirza Ulugh Beg, B^bar’s uncle, they ap- 
plied for aid to the Dilazdks and were by them assigned the Shabkadr 
Do-dbah or tract between the two rivers. 

Accordingly the Yusufzai and Mandar tribes of the Khashis settled 
in the Do-dbah, and some under the Mandar chief, Mir Jamdl Amanzai, 
spread towards Ambar and Danishkol, while many Mandars and some 
of the y usufzais pushed on into Bdj:iur. Then they came into collision 
with the Umr Khel Dilazaks, who held the Chaudtiwal valley, and defeated 
them with the loss of their chief, Malik Haibu. The Yusufzai, Mandar 
and Khalil* then divided Bajaur among themselves, but soon fell out 
and in the end the Khalils were crushed in a battle fought in the Ilindu- 
raj valley. Tlie Khalils never again obtained a footing in Bajaur. 

Meanwhile the Gagi^nis had attempted to set a footing in Bdjaur 
but failed and besought Malik Ahmad Mandar for aid. He assigned 
the I)o-4bah to them, but they soon found cause of quarrel with the 
Dilazaks, and even with the Yusufzais and Mandars also. In 1519 
the Gagidnis brought Rdbar into the Hashtnagar tract, ostensibly 
against the Dilazdks, with whom the Yusufzai and Mandars left them 
to fight it out. In the result the Dilazdk completely overthrew the 
Gagianis. The former were elated at their victory, and thus aroused 
the jealousy of Malik Ahmad, who formed a great Khashi confederacy, 
including various vassals of the Yusufzai and Mandar. In a great 
battle fought in the Guzar Bud, between Katlang and Shahbdzgarhi, 
the Dilazaks were defeated with great loss, but in the pursuit Ahmad’s 
son Khdn Kaju chivalrously allowed the Dilazdk women to escape across 
the Indus. He subsequently received the hand of the daughter of 
the Dilazdk chief, and the political downfall of the Dilazak was 
thereby sealed. As good subjects of Bdbar they were obnoxious to 
Mirza Kamrdn, and this doubtless accounts for the failure of all their 
attempts to retrieve their position, since they were only finally overcome 
after much severe fighting. In alliance with Kamrd,n the Khalils 
sought to despoil the Dilazdks of their remaining lands, and by 1534 
they had obtained possession of the country from Dhaka to Attock, 
together with the Khyber and Karappa passes. 

DiNDAK, ‘possessed of the Faith’: a term applied to a Chuhra, Chamdr 
or any other low-caste convert to Islam. Better class converts are 
called Naumuslim, Sheikh or somewhat contemptuously, Sheikhra. Cf. 
Klnqah. 

Dirman, (a corruption of Abdur-rahrafln) an Afghtln sept of the KsAGiANi tribe. 

* The Khalil.'? had quarrelled with the other tribes of the Ghwaria Khel and quitted th 
northern Qandahar territory to occupy the Lashura valley in Bajauv, some time previouslyo 


Diwdna — Dod. 


243 


Di\VANA.--Tbe third oldest sect of the Sikhs. To Guru liar Rai, or perhaps 
to G^urfi Kiim Dds, must be ascribed tlie origin of the Diwiina Sadhs 
or “ Mad Saints,” a name they owe chiefly to their addiction to ex- 
cessive consumption of hemp drugs. Fcunded by Biihl and liaria 
witl) the Guru s permission the order is but loosely organised, and is 
recruited mainly from the J^its and Chamars. Its members are for 
the most i)art non-celibate. Outwardly these Sadhs keep the hair 
uncut and wear a necklace of shells, with a peacock’s feather in the 
'pagri. They fellow the Adi Granth and repeat the true name.* Sikh 
history relates that one of the sect who attempted forcible access to Guru 
Govind Singh was cut down by a sentry, whereupon Ghudda, their 
spiritual guide, sent 50 men of the sect to assassinate him. But of these 
48 turned back, and only two proceeded to the Guru, without weapons, 
and playing on a sarangi ; and instead of killing him they sang to him. 
He gave them a square rupee as a memorial. (Macauli^* : tSikh Re- 
ligion, V, p. 218). They are maiuly returned from K4ngra district. 

DiWAE, a family of Gadhioks, settled at Dalwdl in Jhelum. 

Dod, a Rdjput tribe found^ in Hoshidrpur. The Dods are almost entirely 
confined to the Bit tract in the Siwdliks, their head being the Rdna 
of Manaswdlt. The Dods are Jadav or Chandr-bansi by origin, 'tra- 
dition avers that they once fought an enemy 1^ times as numerous as 
themselves, and so became called Deorha, whence Dod. The clan once 
ruled ill Orissa, whence Deo Chand fought his way to Delhi, defeated 
its rulers, the Turs (Tuuwdrs), and then conquered Jaijon : — 

Orisa se charhiya Raja Deo Chand Barydhan Tika ae. 

Tur Raja auliydn jo thake fauj rachae, 

TAr chhadde nathkejo mil baithe hai, 

Dod Oarh Mukteear men jo mile chdre thdon , — 

‘ Raja Deo Chand marched from Orissa. The Tur Raja collected a large army in order to 
meet him, but fled before him. The Dods occupied Garh Muktesar and the places round it.’ 

Thus Deo Chand came to Jaijon and ruled the Dodba. His descend- 
ant Jai Chand gave his name to Jaijon. The Dod Rdjtl was, however, 
defeated by a Rdj:! of JaswJn, and his four sons separated, one taking 
Jaijon, the second Kungrat, the third hlJnaswal Garhi and the fourth 
Suroa. Jaijon and Saroa were subsequently lost to the Dods, and after 
their defeat by Jaswdn they sank to the status cf rdnas, losing that of 
Rdjas. Of the 22 villages dependent on Kungrat, none pay talnkdnri 
to the rdna who is a mere co-proprietor in Kungrat, as the family lost 
its position during the Sikh rule. The Rlina of M^naswdl, however, 
maintained his position under the Sikhs and holds most of the 22 
Mi'inaswiil villages (Bit = 22) in jdgir, his brothers holding the rest. 

Another account runs thus : — 

Four leaders of the tribe migrated from Udaipur to Garh Mandil, l,10u years ago, and 
thence to Garh Muktasar. Thence Jodh Chand seized Jlanaswal, expelling Hira, 
leader, whose tribe held the tract, 40 generations ago. Bana Chacho Chand, the lath Kan a, 
was attacked by the Katoch ruler, but his brotlier Tilok bingh (Tillo) defeated hirn a 
Mahudpur in Cna, and Tillo’s shrine at Bhawani is reverenced to this day. In bamoal 
Raiia Jog Chand repelled a Jaswal invasion. Rana Bakht Chand annexed Bhalan, “ 

dependent villages, in Una. His succcfsor. Rain Chand, repelled a Jaswal army u 

* Maclagan, § 101. Tlie Diw4na Sadhs appear to be a sect of the Milwa with head- 
quarters at Pir-pind in . . Tir in 

t But the Manj Rijputs have a baiya in Bit Manaswil, according to Mr. Coiusiream ui 

Punjab Kotes and Queries I, § 465. 


244 


Dodai — ^ogar. 

Bliagwan Singh Sonkhla who was killed, and in his memory a shrine at Khardli was 
erected. A treaty now deiined the Jaswal and Dod territories. Under Mian Gulab Singh, 
regent during /'chal Chand’s minority, Nadir Shah is said to have visited the tract and 
ordered a massacre of the Rasali people, but the Rana obtained from him a grant of Bathri, 
then a Jaswdl village. RjinaJhagar Chand, however, espoused the Jaswals’ cause, when 
they were attacked by Sansar Chand of Kaugra in lt'04 A. D., and repulsed him. On 
Ranjit Singh’s invasion of the Manaswdl plateau, the Rana w'as confirmed in his possessions, 
subject to a contingent of 15 horse. The rule of inheritance was primogeniture, mitigated by 
a system of lopping off villages as fiefs for younger sons, many of whose descendants still 
hold villages, thus redming the size of the estate. 

The Dods are also found as a Muhammadan Jat clan (agricultural) 
in Montgomery. 

Dodai, once an important Baloc'h tribe, but not now found under that 
name. Its most important representatives are the Mirrdni of Deras 
Ghdzi and Ismtiil KhCin, and Jhang, and the most important clans 
of the Gurcliiini. 

Dodhi, a Gaddi milkman, in Gujriit. 

Dour, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

PoGAR, fern. Dogarni. — The Dogars of the Punjab are found in the upper 
valley of the Sutlej and Beas above the lower border of the Lahore 
district, and have also spread westwards along the foot of the hills into 
Sidlkot. There are also considerable colonies of them in Uissar and 
Karndl. 'I'he Dogars of Ferozepuv^ where they hold the riverside 
almost exclusively from 20 miles below to 20 miles above the head- 
quarters of that District, were thus described by Mr. Brandretli : — 

‘‘ In my account of the Ferozepur ildqa I have already alluded to the 
Dogars, who are supposed to be converted Chauhd,n* Kdjputs from the 
neighbourhood of Delhi. They migrated first to the neighbourhood of 
Pdk Pattan, whence they spread gradually along the banks of the 
Sutlej, and entered the Ferozepur district about 100 years ago. The 
Ferozepur Dogars are all descended from a common ancestor named 
Bahlol, but they are called Mahu Dogars, from Mahu the grandfather 
of Bahlol. Bahlol had three sons,t Bambu, Langar and Samrnu. The 
Dogars of Ferozepur and Mullanwilla are the descendants of Bambu ; 
those of Khai the descendants of Langar ; the descendants of Sammu 
live in the Kasur territory. There are many other sub-castes of the 
Dogars in other districts along the banks of the Sutlej, as the Parchats, 
the Topuras, the Chopuras, etc. The Chopura Dogars occupy Mamdot.J 
Ferozepur Dogars consider themselves superior in rank and descent to 

* {Ferozepur Gazetteer, 1888-9, pp. 15-16) gives a full account of the Dogar 

history in that District and on p. 56 he says that the Dogar claim to be Punwar, as w^eil as 
Chauhan, and are probably a section of the great PhatU trite and closely allied to the 
N.AIPAL. The Manj traditions say that the Dogars are descended from Lumra (? fox) Avho, 
like Naipal, ^Yas one of Rana Ehuti’s sons. They thrust aside the AVattus to the west 
and the Naipils to the east, ai d pi ol ably subdued the Machhis, Mallohs anil other inferior 
tribes, assuming the position of sccial superiors rather than that of actual cultivators, and 
alTecting the title of birdar. 

t P’rancis {Ferozepur Gazetteer, p. 56) gives a dillercut account. He fays that Mahu had 
two sons Sahlol (wlipse descendants live on the Kasur side of the Sutlej) and Bahlol. 
From Bahlol sprang four branches, Khamki, Phaimaki, Ullaki and Kandarki. The Phaimaki 
hold Khai and will not give daughters to other branches which they consider; inferior. 
Infanticide was formerly common amongst them. 

I Francis says^ the sections mostly locateu in Marndot are the Mattar, Chhini, Rupal, 
Dhandi and Kbamma, as we-l as the Chopra, 


245 


The Dogars. 

the other sub-castes. 'I’hey are very particular to whom they give 
their daughters in marriage though tliey take wives from all the other 
families. At one tinie infanticide is said to have prevailed among 
them, but i do not think there is much trace of it at the present day. 

“Sir Henry Lawrence, who knew the J3ogars well, writes of them 
that ‘they are tall, handsome, and sinewy, and are remarkable for 
having, almost without exception, large acquiliue noses ; they are 
fanciful and violent, and tenacious of v/hat they consider their rights, 
though susceptible to kindness, and not wanting in courage ; they 
appear to have been always troublesome subjects,^ and too fond of their 
own free mode of life to willingly take service as 'soldiers. The Jewish 
face which is found among the Dogars, and in which they resemble 
the Afghans, is very remarkable, and makes it probable that there is 
very little Chauh^n blood in their veins, notwithstanding the fondness 
with which they attempt to trace their connection with that ancient 
family of Ri'ijputs. Like the Gujars and Naipills they are great thieves, 
and prefer pasturing cattle to cultivating. Their favourite crime is 
cattle-stealing. There are, however, some respectable persons among 
them, especially in- the Ferozepur ildqa. It is only within the last few 
years that the principal Dogar-s have begun to wear any covering for 
the head ; formerly the whole population, as is the case with the poorer 
classes still, wore their long hair over their shoulders without any 
covering either of sheet or turban. Notwithstanding the difference of 
physiognomy, however, the Dogars preserve evident traces of some 
connection with the Hindus in most of their family customs, in 
which they resemble the Hindus much more than the orthodox 
Muhammadans.^’ 

Mr. Purser wrote that^they arc divided into two tribes, one of which 
claims to bo Chauhlin and the other Punwar Rdjputs, and he noted 
their alleged advent from Pak Pattan, but not their previous migra- 
tion from Delhi. If they ever did move from Delhi to the Montgomery 
district, it can hardly have been since the Ghaggar ceased to fertilize 
the intervening country, and the date of the migration must have been 
at least some centuries back ; and the Dogars of Hissm* camo to those 
parts from the Punjab, probably from the Sutlej across the Sirsa 
district. The Dogars of Lahore and Ferozepur are essentially a 
riverside tribe, being found only on the river banks : they bear the 
very worst reputation, and appear from the passage quoted above^ to 
have retained till lately some at least of the habits of a wild tribe. 
Their origin was probably in the Sutlej valley. They appear to have 
entered th°e Ferozepur district about 1760 A.D., and during the next 
forty years to have possessed themselves of a very considerable portion 
of the district, while their turbulence rendered them almost independ- 
ent of the Sikh Government. In 1808 we recognised the Dogar 
State of Ferozepur, and took it under our protection against Ranjit 
Singh ; but it lapsed in 1835. 

T’ho Ritjput origin of the pogars is probably very doubtful, and is 
strenuously denied by their Rdjput neighbours, thongh Sir Donzil 
Ibbetson believed that Dogar, or' perhaps Doghar,* is used in some 

* Doghar means two waterpots, one carried on top of the other. Ihe d is soft. In Dogar 
it is hard. 


246 


Dogli — Dolili. 

parts of the Province to denote one of mixed blood. Another derivation 
of the name is doghgar or milk qj an.* The Dogars seem to be originally 
a pastoral rather than an agricultural tribe, and still to retain a strong 
liking for cattle, whether their own or other people^s. They are often 
classed with Gujars, whom they much resemble in their habits. In 
Karntll, Lahore and Ferozepur they are notorious cattle-thieves, but 
further north they seem to have settled down and become peaceful 
husbandmen. They are not good cultivators. Their social standing 
seems to be about that of a low-class Rajput, but in Sirsa they rank as 
a good agricultural caste, of equal standing with the Wat^us. They are 
practically all Musalmd7is, but in Karnal their women still wear the 
Hindu petticoat; and in marriage the mother’s got is excluded. In 
Jullundur they marry late, and are said to have marriage songs 
unintelligible to other tribes. Some of the largest Dogar clans are 
the Mattar, China, Tagra, Mdhu and Chokra. 

According to an account obtained from Kapurthala the Dogars were 
originally settled at Lakhiwal, near which was fought a battle between 
the Man] and Bhatti Rajputs, the Dogars siding with the latter. The 
Manj were, however, victorious and expelled the Dogars from Lakhiwal, 
but for generations no Dogar would drink from the hands of a Manj. 

The Dogar septs in Kapurthala are: — Dasal, from Lakhiw3;l: founded 
Dasal which was destroyed by the Sikhs, who had been plundered by 
the Dogars in their flight from Ahmad Shah Abdali ; Bd,jvva, or Hatrd, 
from Sundru ; RipH, Nainah, Mattar, Asar all from Lakhiwal. 

Other gots are the Sid hi, Banch, D^re, Chhane, Khame, Mabhi, Mh,hu, 
Daddd, Dhandi, Gug, Dher, Tote, Kohli, Fade, Sanapi, Jakhra, Katwdl, 
Chhohar, Chopri, Ghangi, Wali, Wisar, Khari, Sombar, Ilsar, Johde, 
Kotordal, Gosal, Saurai, Dhaurai and Gamload. 

In Montgomery the Dogar -Khiwa, -Mahu and -Mittar rank as three 
agricultural Rajput clans. 

Dogli. — A term applied to the offspring of a Rajput man by a Gaddi woman 
in Kdngra. Cf. Dogald, a mongrel. (The d is soft). 

Dog R A, a term applied to any inhabitant of the Dugar des.t whatever his 
caste, but more especially to the Hindu Rajputs of that region. Brah- 
mans also are included in the term, as are Rathis and 'I’hakkurs (as 
Rdjputs), but not Ghirths or Kanets.| 

According to Drew {Jammu and Kashmir Territories, pp. 43 et seq.) 
there are two lakes near Jammu, the Saroin Sar and Mdn Sar, and the 
country between them was called in Sanskrit Drigarhdesh or the 
country between the two hollows. This was corrupted into Dugar. 
Drew divides the Dogras of the Jammu hills into Brahmans, Pdjputs 
(including the Mitins and woiking Rajputs), Khatris, Thdkars, Jilts, 
Banyas and K(ijrars (petty shopkeepers), Nais, Jiurs (carriers), Dhiy4rs 
(iron-smelters), Meghs and Dums. 

Dohli, a drummer (player on dol) in Gujnlt. 

* In Ilissar the Dogars have a vague tradition that they camefrom the hill called Dogar in 
Jammu. 

f Des here does not appear to mean ‘ plain,’ but simply tract, 
f See Bicglcy’s Dofjran {Class Hand-hooks jor the Indian Army, 1899). 


247 


Dolat — Drigs. 

Dolat, Duliiat, a clan of Jjlts found in N/vbha, Pa^iilla and Ferozepore.* Rai 
Khanda, their ancestor, is said to have held a jdgir near Delhi. His 
brothers Ragbirand Jagobir were killed in Nadir Shah’s invasion, but 
he escaped and fled to Siuna Gujariwtila, a village, now in ruins, close 
to Sunam, and then the capital of a petty state. He sank to Jat status 
by marrying his brother’s widows. The origin of the name Dolat is 
thus accounted for. Their ancestor’s children did not live, so his wife 
made a vow at Naina Devi to visit the shrine twice for the tonsuro 
ceremony of her son, if she had one. Her son was accordingly called 
Do-lat (from lat hair). 

Dolat, a Jat clan (agricultural) found iu Amritsar. 

Dom, Dome, fem. dombdni, Bah, a bard, minstrel ; see Dum. In Dera Ghilzi 
Khdn the doms or mirds'is are a low class of Muhammadans Avho used 
to keep horse-stallions and still do so in the Bozddr hills. 

Domarah, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multd,n. 

DoMBKi, DoMKi. — Described in ballads as ‘ the greatest house among the 
Baloch,’ and of admittedly high rank, the Domki are still called the 
Daptar (Pers. daftar) or recorders of Baloch gt^nealogy. But owing 
to this fact and the similarity of name some accuse them of being 
Doms, and a satirist says : ‘The Dombkis are little brothers of the 
Dorns.’ The name is however probably derived from Dumbak, a 
river in Persia. . Their present head-quarters are at Lahri in Kachhi. 

Domra, a young bard : a term of contempt, but see Dumrd. 

Dosali, a small caste found in Hoshidrpur, but not east of the Sutlej.f 
Its members make dishes of leaves, often of ^a^t>ar leaves for Hindus 
to eat of. At weddings their services are in great request to make 
leaf platters, and that appears to be their principal occupation. They 
sew the leaves together with minuto pieces of dried grass straw, 
as is done in the Simla Hills by Dumnas. The Dosd,li is deemed an 
impure caste, and Rtijputs, etc., cannot drink from their hands- But 
it is deemed higher tlian the Sarera, or the Bhanjr^l, but below the Bdhti 
or Ghirtli, and near the Chhimba. The Dosdli rarely or never marries 
outside his own caste. 

Dotanni, see Dautanni. 

Dotoen, see Thakur. 

Doye, an Arain clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Drakhan, Bal., a carpenter; contrast drashk, a tree. 

Dren, see Mallah. 

Drigs, a tribe of Jdts found along the Chen^,b in Multd;n. Thev attribute 
their origin to Kech Makr^,n and were probably driven out of Sind late 
in the 15th century settling in Bet Kech in Akbar’s time. They are 
entitled Jd,m. 


* But their Sidh and Pi'r is Didiir Singh, whose shrine is at Mard Khera in Jmd. 

I Ibbetson indeed describes the Uosali as a hill caste, somewhat above the Clinm-ir, or 

rather aa an occupational gioup, deriving ita name from dusa, the small piece of straw 

used to pin loaves together. But the Dosalis are also found in Amritsar where thoj have a 
tradition that their forebear used to c.arry a lantern before the emperor, whence he was 
called Missali. This menial task led to his excommunication, and the name was corrup e 
into Dosali. 


248 


Drishak — Dnigpa. 


Diushak, aro the most scattered of all the Baloch tumans of Dera Ghdzi Klidn, 
many of their villages lying among a Jdt population on the bank of the 
Indu< ; and this fact renders the tuman less powerful than it should, be 
from its iiuinhers. They hold no portion of the hills, and are practically 
conHncd to the Ghazi district, lying scattered about between the 
Pit(/k Pass on the north and Sori Pass on the south. The tribe 
belongs to the Rind section ; but claims descent from Hot, son of 
Jaldl Khdn. Its sections are the Kirmdni, Mingwani, Gulpadh, 
Pargdni, Arbdni, Jistkdni and Isanani, the chief belonging to the 
first of these. Their head-quarters are at Asni close to Rajanpur. 
They are said to have descended into the plains aftei* the Mazdri, or 
towards the end of the 17th century. 


Drugpa, ‘ red-cap ' (but see below). — A Buddhist order. Like its sister order 
the Ningmapa, from whom they appear to be distinct, the Drugpa was 
founded about 750 a. d. by Padamsambhava, who is known in Ldhul as 
^Guru’ or Guru Rinpoche. Padamsambhava visited Mandi, Ganotara, 
Ldhul, Kashmir and both the Bangdhals, but died in Great Tibet.* One 
of his great doctrines was called Spiti Yoga, and he may have developed 
it in Spiti. A sorcerer and exorcist, he helped to degrade the faith by the 
most debased Tantraism, but he merits admiration as a great traveller. 

The name Drugpa possibly means, according to Mr. Francke, the 
* Bhutia order, the Tibetan for Bhutan being Drukyul or Drugyul and for 
a Bhutia ^Drugpa.’ The Bhutdn church is governed by a very great 
Ldma, who is almost a Pope in himself.t In Spiti his title is given as 
Dorji Chang, but in Laddkh he is known as N(g)a(k)wang Namgial. 
The Bhutdn Ldma appears to rule the following religious houses in 
Western Tibet : — 


(i) Dariphug and 

(ii) Zatulphug in the holy cir- 

cuit of Kailas, 

(hi) Jakhyeb in Take Mdna- 
sarowar, 

(iv) Khojarndth, 

(v) Rungkhung and 

(vi; Do. in the Upper Karndli 
river, 

(vii) Garrdzong, near Gartok, 
(viii) Iti. 


(ix) Ganphug, 

(x) Gesar and Sumor in the 

Daba dzong. According to 
a Spiti manepa (preacher) 
bis lieutenant m Tibet is 
known as the Gangri 
Durindzin, or GyalshokpaJ 
and his influence is widely 
spread. He is or should 
be appointed for a term of 
three years. 


In L4hul there are two distinct >ects of the Drugpas : — 

1. The Zhung Drugpas (Middle Bhuteas) or Kargiutpa (Tantraists). 
This sect has 3 Ldhula communities all connected with the parent com- 
munity at Hemis ; only one Ldhula house boasts an abbot {khripa), 
[pronounced thripa] and he is appointed by the abbot of Hemis. The 
head monastery is at Dechen Choskor near Lhassa. 


* Padamsambhava was an Indian monk who became a great friend of the Tibetan emperor 
Khrising bte btsau (pron. Treshing detsam), who extended his empire from the Chinese 
frontier to Uilgit. 

t Sherring describes the curious Ibratoa administration which rules one of the most 
sacred regions of Tibet independentb , and sometimes in defiance of the Lhassa authorities • 
Western Tibet, p. 278. ’ 

I Dashok, according to Sherring, op. cit, and the Kangr Donj4n of the Gazetteer of 
the K4ngra District, Part II. 


Dnh{r-—Ditvi, 


249 


n 1?^ Zhun Drngrpag acknowledge the sazerainty of the pope or 
Dalai L4ma of BlmUlu and in December 1909 the abbot of Uemis 

Skoshok Stag Psang Has Chen passed through Kullu to attend the 
Jill u tail Dalai Lama s court. 


2, Hlondrugpa, tn-onounced Lodrugpa (the Southern Bhiiteas). There 
are no less than twelve houses of this order. All are subordinate to 
Stagna (pron. 1 akna) in^Laddkh and that house again is subordinate to 
Hhutiln. ihe abbot of .Stagna appoints the abbot of the ancient house 
of Guru Ghuntdl or Gandhola which was foundr.d by Guru Rinpoche 
himself, and the Gandhola abbot appoints the other Laliula abbots of 
the order. He sends an annual tribute of Rs. 30 to Gangri Durindzin 
through the abbot of Stagna. The Drugpas of Ldhul thus keep up their 
connection with Bhiitdn. Orders appointing or relieving an abbot are 
supposed to be signed in Bhutdn, and when the ritual dancing at 
Krashis (Taslii) Dongltse (at R.yeIon 2 [) was revised a brother was sent 
to Bhutdn to learn the proper steps, instead of to the much less distant 
Drngpa monastery at Hemis in Laddkh.* 

Like the Ningmapas the Drugpas are distinguished for their low 
moral standard and degraded superstitions which are little better 
than devil-worship. The brethren are allowed to marry and their 
children {huzhan or ‘ naked boys ’) let their hair grow till they 
enter the community. 


DdbIr, a weighmau, in Muzaffargarh. 


Duhlar, an agricultural clan found in Shdhpur. 

Dukpa, Lo-dukpa, the Buddhist sect to which all the monks in Ldhul and 
the monks of the Pin monastery in Spiti belong. Its peculiarity is that 
no vow of colibacy is required of, or observed by, its members, who 
marry and have their wives living with them in the monasteries. The 
sect wears red garments and is subject to the Dharma Rd^d of Bhutdn, 
in which country it is most numerously represented. The Nyingmd is 
the sub-divisiou of the Dukp4 sect to which the monks of Pin and 
the families from which they are drawn belong. The word merely 
means ‘ ancient,’ and they appear to have no distinguishing doctrines. 
(Apparently the same as the Nyitnapa sect of § 252 of Census Report, 
18^). But see Brugpa and Ningmapa from Mr. Francke’s accounts 
of those orders. 


Dum, or less correctly Dom : fern. Dumni, dim. Dumrd. According to Ibhetson 
the Dum is to be carefully distinguished from the Dom or Domrd, the 
executioner and cor]).se-burner of llindustdn, who is called Dumna in the 
l.ills of Iloshiarpur and Kdngra. But in Chamba the Diimnd is called 
Dum and in the Hill States about Simla he is a worker in bamboo.t 
According to Ibbelson the Dum of the plains is identical witli the 
MiRASi, th-» latter being the Muhammadan, Arabic name for the Hindu 
and Indian Dum. But though tlio Dums may overlap the Mirdsis 


* Tt i.s not, however, certain that atJ Dramas are subject to Bhu. an ■ y ^ 

separate sect called lilondukpa (Hlo meaning amr Nameial • Dicty. 

house It was founded, he says, in the i5th century by ^ Bhutin in 

of We^tern Tibet, Lahor^, 1890, p. 83. Possibly there was a reformation fiom BhutSn m 

I In^aya^Singh’s Punjabi Dicty. § Ddmai. is said to — ‘a species of bee. 


250 


Dtm’^Dumnd. 


. and be iu common parlance confused with them, they appear to be, in 
some parts of the Punjab at least, distinct from them, and the Mird,sis 
are beyond all question inextricably fused with the Bliiits. In 
GurgJlon the Duin is said to be identical with the Kanclian, and to be 
a Mir:Isi who plays the tahla or sarnngi for prostitutes, who are often 
hlirdsi girls. Such Duiiis are also called bharwa (pimp) or sufardai. 
Dum women as well as men ply this trade. But another account irom 
the same District says tliat the Dum is the mirdsi of the Mir^sis ; and 
that he gets his alms from the menial castes, such as the Jhiwar, 
Dakaut, Koli, Cbamtlr, Bliangi, JuMh^ and Dhd,nak. In Lahore too 
they are described as quite beyond the Mirilsi pale, as the true Mird,8is 
will not intermarry with them nor will prostitutes associate with them, 
though, like the Bhands,* they sing and play for them when they dance 
or sin^ professionally. In fact they rank below the Chuhrd;. So too 
in Ludhidna tliey are distinct from and lower than the MirdiSi. 

In Dera Ghd,zi Khdn tlie Dum or Lang^ are said to be an occupa- 
tional group of the Mirasis, and to be the mirdsi of the Baloch tribes. 
In other words they are identical with the Dom or Domb, whose name 
means minstrel in Balochi. 

Dumna.— The Dumnd, called also Domra, and even Dum in Chamba, is the 
Chuhrd, of the hills proper, and is also found in large numbers in the 
sub-montane tracts of Kangra, Hoshi^rpur and Gurdd,spur. Like the 
Chuhrd, of the plains he is something more than a scavenger; but 
whereas the Chuhi4 wotks chiefly in grass, the Dumna adds to tins 
occupation the trade of working in bamboo, a material not available 
to the Chuhr^. He makes sieves, winnowing pans, fans, matting, grass 
rope and string, and generally all the vessels, baskets, screens, furniture 
and other articles which are ordinarily made of bamboo. When he con- 
fines himself to this sort of work and gives up scavengering, he appears 
to be called Bhanjra, at any rate in the lower hills, and occasionally 
Baridl. 'I'he Dumna appears hardly ever to become Musalrn^n or Sikh, 
and is classed as Hindu, though being an outcast he is not allowed 
to draw water from wells used by the ordinary Hindu population. 

TheDumniL is often called Dum in other parts of India, as in Chamba; 
and is regarded by Hindus as the^type of uncleanness. Yet he seems 
once to have enjoyed as a separate aboriginal race some power and 
importance. Further information regarding him will be found in 
Sherring (I, 400) and Elliott (I, 84). He is. Sir Denzil Ibbetson con- 
sidered, quite distinct from the Dura-Mirasi. 

D(jmna, a low sweeper caste, a'so called Bhanjrd, in the hills and in Gurdfls- 
pur, Jnllundur and Hoshiarpur. They make chiks, baskets, etc., of 
bamboo and do menial service. Apparently the term is a generic one, 
including Barwaliis, Batwdls, Daolis and Saiisois. Hut in Lahore, where 
the Dumna is also found, he is described ns distinct from the Batwdl, 
and as a Hindu who is yet not allowed to draw water from Hindu wells. 
Some of the Duinmis will eat from a Muhammadaids hands. Their 
clans are Kalotra, Mangln, Pargat, Drahe and Lalotra. The word is 
probably only a variant of Dum. 

* The Dum ranks below the Bhand also. The latter are skilled in hhandar a practise of 
which the Dnm is ignorant. It consists in absorbing all the water iu a large bath and 
ejecting it through the ears, nostrils or mouth. 


Dumrd — Dutanui, 


251 


Dumra, Domra, dim. of Dum, q. v. In the hills the term is applied to any 
low caste which works as tailors, masons or carpenters, or in bamboo. 

Dun, a tribe of Jdts, found in Jind, and so called from duhna, to milk, be 
cause they used to milk she-bulfaloes. 

Dund Rai, a tribe of Jdts which claims Solar Rdjput origin through its 
eponym who settled in the Mdnjha and his descendant Hari who 
migrated to Sidlkot. 

Durrani, see Abddli. 

Dosadh, Dosdd, a Purbia tribe of Chamdrs. They are the thieves and 
burglars of Behdr where also the c/iawAjiddrs have been drawn from 
this class from time immemorial. 

Ddsanj, a Hindu Jdt tribe found in Ferozepur, whom tradition avers that 
Saroia, Jdt, had five sons, Sdngha, Mallhi, Dhindsa, Dhillon aud Dusanj, 
epouyms of as many gots. , 

Ddtanni, see Dautaniu. 



/ 


253 


F. 

Faizullaporia, the sixth of the Sikh inisls or confederacies, which was 
recruited fi*oni Juts. 

Faqartadari, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Faqik, pi. FUQAHA, ‘ poor/ a incndicant (Arabic). The U^vmfaqtr compre- 
hends at least two, if not three, very bill'erent classes, exclusive of the 
religious orders pure and simple. Mwiiy of these are of the highest 
respectability; the members are goiiei ally colleCLVd in monasteries or 
shrines where they live quiet peaceful lives, keeping open house to 
travellers, training their neophytes, and exercising a wholesome influ- 
ence upon the people of the neighbourhood. Such are many at least 
of the Bairagis and Gosains. Souie of the orders do not keep up 
regular monasteries, but travel about begging and visiting their 
disciples; though even here they generally have permanent head- 
quarters in some village, or at some shrine or temple where oue of their 
order officiates. So too the monasterial orders travel about among 
their disciples and collect the ofi'eriugs upon which they partly subsist. 
There is au immense number of these men whoso influence is almost 
wholly for good. Some few of the orders are professedly celibate, 
though even among them the rule is seldom strictly observed; but most 
of the Hindu orders are divided into the Sanyogi and Viyogi sections 
of which the latter only takes vows of celibacy, while among the Musal- 
man orders celibacy is seldom even professed. Such, however, as live 
in monasteries are generally, if not always, celibate. The professed 
ascetics are called Sadhs it Hindu, and Firs if Musalmdn. The Hindus 
at any rate have their neophytes who are undergoing probation before 
admission into the order, and these men are called chela. But besides 
these both Hindu and Musalman ascetics have their disciples, known 
respectively as seicak and murid, and these latter belong to the order 
as much as do their spiritual guides ; that is to say, a Kdyath clerk 
may be a Bairagi or a Pathdn soldier a Chishti, if they have committed 
their spiritual direction respectively to a Bairdgi quriL and Chishti ‘pir. 
But the Muhammadan Chishti, like the Hindu Bairiigi or Gosilin, may 
in time form almost a distinct caste. Llany of the members of these 
orders are pious, respectable men whose influence is wholly for good. 
But this is far from being the case with all the orders. Many of them 
are notoriously profligate debauchers, who wander about the country 
seducing women, extorting alms by the threat of curses, and relying 
on their saintly character for protection. Still even these men are 
members of an order which they have deliberately entered, and have 
some right to the title which they bear. But a very large portion of 
the class who are included under the name Faqfr are ignorant men of 
low caste, without any acquaintance with even the general outlines of 
the religion they profess, still less with the special tenets of any parti- 
cular sect, who borrow the garb ot the regular orders and wander 
about the country living on the alms of the credulous, often hardly 
knowing the nanus of the orders to which the external signs they wear 
^\•oul<l show them to belong. Buch men are mere beggars, not ascetics; 
and their numbers arc unfortunately large. Besides the occu^tions 
described above, the Faepr class generally have in their hands he 


254 


Faqir miskin — Firdusi. 

custody of petty shrines, the menial service of village temples and 
mosques, the guardianship of cemeteries, and similar semi-religious 
offices. For these services they often receive small grants of land 
from the village, by cultivating which they supplement the alms and 
offerings they receive. 

The subject of the religious oi-ders of the Hindus is one of the greatest 
complexity ; the cross-divisions between, and the different meanings of, 
such words as Jogi, Saniasi and Sadh are endless. See also Bharai, 
Chajjupanthi, D^dupanthi, Jogi, Sanid,si, Udilsi, etc., etc. 

Faqir miskin, see under Chitrdli. 

Faqrakh, a Jat clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 

Faruka, an agricultural clan found in Sliahpur. 

Fattiana, one of the principal branches of the Sid,ls of Jhang. 

Fkrozke, a Kharral clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Firdusian, a sect or order of the Suns, founded by Shaikh Najm-ud-Din 
Firdus. 


255 


G 

Ga.bare, Gaware (also called Maliron, from their principal village), a group 
of some 300 families found in certain villages of the Kohi tract in the 
Indus Kohistdn- They speak a dialect called Gowro and have a tradi- 
tion that they originally came from Rdsliung in Swat. — Biddulpli’s 
Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh, p. 10. 

Gabhal, a Muhammadan Jd.t clan (agricultural) found in Montgomery. 

Gabib, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multi'm. 

Gabr, or, as they call themselves Narisati,* a small 'tribe found in a few 
villages in Chitral. Possibly the Gabrak of Bd-bar’s Memoirs, their 
language differs o.)nsiderably from that of the Gabare of the Indus 
valley. The Chitrdlis speak of them as a bald race, and they certainly 
have scanty beard«. Sir G. Robertson describes them as all Musal- 
mdns of the Sunni sect, who have a particular language of their own 
and are believed to have been anciently fire-worshippers. 

The Gabr has no very distinctive appearance except that one 
CK’casionally sees a face like that of a pantomime Jew. There are one 
or two fair-visaged, well-looking men belonging to the better class, 
who would compare on equal terms with the similsr class in Chitral : 
they, however, are the exception, 

The remainder, both high and low, seem no better than the poor 
cultivator class m other parts of the Mehtar’s dominions, and have a 
singularly furtive and mean look and manner. 'I’lie women have a 
much better appearance. They dress in loose blue garments, which 
fall naturally into graceful folds. The head is covered with a blue 
skull-cap from which escape long plaits of hair, one over each shoulder, 
and two hanging down behind. White metal or bead neck and wrist 
ornaments contrast well witli the dark blue material of their clothes. 
At a short distance these women are pleasing and picturesque. 

The Hamgul Kdfirs are als'^ spoken of as Gabars or Gabarik, but 
they have no relationship with the Gabr. 

Gadaraii, a J^t clan (agricultural) found in Multi'm. 

GadarI, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Amritsar. 

Gadaria, the shepherd and goatherd of Hindustdn. Almost confined to the 
Jumna zone in the Punjab, the Gadaria has, even in that part of the 
Province, almost ceased to be distinctively a shepherd, as the 
cultivating classes themselves often pasture their own flocks, and has 
become rather a blanket weaver, being indeed as often called Kambaha 
as Gadaria. The Gadarias are Hindu almost without exception. 

Gaddi Gadi. — (I) The Muhammadan Gaddis of Delhi, Karndl and Ambdla 
area tribe found apparently in the upper cZod6 of the Jumna and Ganges. 
Closely resembling the Ghosi, they are perhaps like bim a snb-di vision 
or offshoot of the Abirs,t and are by hereditary occupation milkmen, 

♦ Fr. Nurgnt, one of the so-called Gabr villages in the Kunar valley. It 
Birkot, and by the Kafirs Sat rgran, Nnrsut being ita Chitrali name.— T'la Kafirs oj 
Hindoo- Koosh, p. 265. 

I There is also a Gaddi tribe among the Sainis- 


256 


Ihe Hill Gaddis. 


bnt in Karnal, where they are most numerous^ they have settled down 
as cultivators and own several villages, though they are poor husband- 
men. (2) The Hindu Gaddis of Chamba and Kdngra are hillmen. 
Like the Kaiiets, Meos and other congeries of tribes they are com- 
posed of seveial elements. Indigenous to the Brahmaur wizdrat of the 
Chamba State (hey have spread southward across the Dhaula Dhdr into 
the northern part of Kdngra Proper, and they give their name to the 
Gaderan, a tract of mountainous country with ill-defined b;)undaries 
lying on both sides of the Dhaulii Oluir, and their speech is called 
Gddi. 

In Chamba they number 11,507 souls, but these figures do not include 
the Brahman and RAjput sections which return themselves under their 
caste nauies. The majority are Khatris. 

The Gaddis are divided into four classes; (^) Brahmans, (u) Khatris 
and RA]puts who regularly wear the sacred thread, (Hi) ThAkurs and 
RAthis who, as a rule, do not wear it, and [iv) a menial or dependant 
class, comprising Kolis, RihAran,* LnliArs, BAdliis, Sipis und Halis, 
to whom the title of Gaddi is incorrectly applied by outsiders as inhabit- 
ants of the Gaderan, though the true Gaddis do nob acknowledge them 
as Gaddis at all. 

Each class is divided into numerous gotras or exogamous sections, 
but the classes themselves are not, strictly speaking, exogamous. Thus 
the Jhunun gotar of the Khatris intermarries with (? gives daughters 
to) the Brahmans; and the Brahmans of Kukti regularly intermarry 
with the other groups. Similarly the yaueo-wearing families do not 
object lo intermarriage with those which do not wear it, and are even 
said to give them daughters (menials of course excepted).! 

In brief, Gaddi society is organised on the Rajput hypergamous 
system. 

The Gaddis have traditions which ascribe their origin to immigration 
from the plains. Thus the Chauhan RAjputs and Brahman Gaddis 
accompanied Raja Ajia Yarma to Chamba in 850-70 A. D., while the 
Churahan, HarkhAn, Pakhru, Chiledi, Manglu and Kundail Rajputs 
and the Khatris are said to have fled to its hills to escape Aurangzeb^s 
persecutions. These traditions are not irreconcilable with the story that 
Brahmaur, the ancient Brahmapura, is the home of the Gaddis ; for 
doubtless the nucleus of their confederation had its seats in the Dhaula 
DhAr, in which r’ange Hindus have from time to time sought an asylum 
from war and persecution in the plains. 

The Brahman, RAjput, Khatri, ThAkur and RAthi sections alike 
preserve the Brahminical gotra of their original tribe. But these 
gotras are now sub-divided into countless als or septs which are appa- 
rently also styled gotras. Thus atnong the Brahmans we find the Bhats 
from the Bhaitiyat luizdrat of Chamba, and Ghungaintii [ghungha, 
dumb), both als of the Kaundal gotra. The Brahman sept-names 
disclose none of those found among the SArsub Brahmans of the Punjab 

* A small caste or group of menials, employed as navvies. See footnote on page 259 
bolow^* 

f It is indeed stated that no distinction is now made between families which do, and those 
which do not, wear the janeo ; but in funner times the Rajiis used to confer the janeu on 
R4tlu3 in return for presents and services— and so some of them wear it to this day. 


Gaddi al names. 


257 

plains, so completely do^ the Gaddi Brahmans seem to have become 
identified with the Gaddi system. Many of the als bear obvious 
nick-names, such as Chadhu, cross-legged;* * * § Dundu, one-hand- 
ed ;t Tanju and landetu, cat’s-eyed ; j Bhangretii, squicter; § 
Chutanbru, debauchee; || Ghunain, one who speaks through his nose ; 
Jukku, gambler ; ** * * Mard,ntu, one who fled to the plains to escape 
cholera, mari ; Jirgh, dumb ; tt Nansain, adopted by a mini or grand- 
mother ; Sasi, one who lived with his mother-in-law. Litkar, lame; 
Timaretu, squinter; §§ Chupetu, reticent. 

Otlier names denote occupations not bv au^. means Brahminical : 
Sundheta, seller of assafcctida [sundha) ; Falihan” sharpener ;|||| Bardan* 
archer ; Sahdhrdutu, once a sail or wealthy man who became bank- 
rupt (d/tamnht) ; Sipainu, tenant of a Sipi menial; Banefu, a Rdnd’s 
tenant ; Adhkdru, a physician who left his patients uncured {adh, half : 
karu, doer) ; Saunpolu, seller ot saunf, aniseed ; Langhe, ferryman ; 
Jogi ; Lade, a trader to Ladakh ; Khuthlu, kuth-seWer ; Jhunnu, 
idler ; *** Phangtain, dealer in fhamh, wool. 

Totemism does not exist, unless Guarete, ‘born in a j/wdr or cowshed,’ 
and Sunhunu, from one who had a tree in front of his house, 

could be regarded as totemistic sections. 

In Kangra one got — Paunkhnu — is said to provide imroliits for all the 
other Brahman Gaddis. The Brahmans in Kangra, it is said, inter- 
marry with the Jhund got of the Gaddi Khatris. 

Among the Rcljputs we find the Ordidn, ‘ ill-wishers ttt Ranydu, 

‘ sqiiinters ’ and Misdn, ‘ pig- nosed ’ ; §§§ all als of the Bachar gotar : 
Kurralu, ‘ brown-haired,’ |||||| and Dinran, ‘ black,’ als of the Dewnl 
andUttam gotars respectively. Very doubtful instances of totemism are 
Phagdn ‘ bran ( iihak) eater * (Bhardwdj) ; Khuddu, ‘ eater of parched 
maize’ (Sunkhydl) ; Ghoknu, ‘ shooter of doves ’ — ghug (Dewal) ; Rikhdn- 
tu, ‘ boar-killer ’ (Atar) ; Chakor, ‘ purveyor of chikor to the Riljds 
(Ambak) ; Kadfln, ^ sower of fcadw or pumpkins’ (Bhdrdwdj) ; Pakhru 
‘ bird-shootor ’ (Bisistpal). 

A few als refer to occupations ; Charu, fr. chdr, ' headman ’ (Bhar- 
dudri) ; Garhaigu, ‘ keeper of a stronghold,’ garh (Atar) ; Baidu, 

‘ physician ’ (Kondal) ; Makratu, ‘ boxer ’ ;**** Ghingain, ‘ seller of 

ghi: 

Others again are fanciful: Tharrotu, from an ancestor who threat- 
ened to drag his adversary before the thara or couit at C'hamba; 
Dakiydn, from one who used to dance with ddkiv, Hdli, women: or 
uncomplimentary, e.g., Kliolu, greedy ; Jhurjdu, idle ; Rohaila, noisy ; 
Jhibidn, mad ; Chutrainya, deba uchee ; Mukhrdn, stammerer ; Gulrdn, 
liar; Judr, liar; Kuhainta, hunch-back; Kangru, scold; Jhirru, 


* Fr, chudda, buttocks : cf. chaclha, 
‘ sedentary,’ also an al name, 

t Fr. dundd, one who has lost a hand. 

^ Fr. tandd, cat’s-eyed. 

§ Fr. bhingra, squint. 

II Fr. chut, debauchee. 

*[1 Fr. gnnna, speaking through tlie none. 

** Fr . jud, gambling, 

tt Ft. firingar, dumb, 

it Fr. latid, lame. 


§§ Fr. tlrid. squint, 
llll Fr. pallid, to sharpen. 

Fr. bari, arrow 

b’r. jhurnd, to idle or to meditate. 
■ ft Fr. orda, evil. 

::++ Fr, rfna, a squint, 

§§§ Fr. mina, snout. 
lillll Fr. kerra, brown. 

Fr. dnnia, black. 

*»** Pj. muka, fist. 


258 


Qaddi totems. 


tease; Amlaitii, opium-eater; Dharambar, pock-marked. In K^ngra 
tlio Agasni got of Rdjput Gaddis is said to be really an offshoot of the 
Jariill Rdjputs. 

Among the Khatris, no trace exists of the section-names current in 
the plains. We find occupational names : Sdhnu, shopkeeper {sdh) ; 
r’adhotaru, from one who lived on a plain (padar) ; Rusahri, cook ; 
Charhain, climber ; Nakletu, mimic ; Sundhu, dealer in assafoetida ; 
Bangete, a physician who powdered zinc {hang) ; Mogu, dealer in coral ; 
Dhanchu, fr. one who lived with his flocks {dhan) ; Panjaru, wool- 
comber ; Ghanlti, water-miller : with two inexplicable names ; Drudhain, 
one who recovers stolen millet from mouses’ holes; and Druhru, one who 
so recovers walnuts — fr. drudh, druhri, a mouse’s hole ! Other Khatri 
aZs (so-called f/ois) in Kangra are : Bhundu, Bhakhu, Badan, Bhatelu, 
Bihan, Bilnlntu, Chadlu, Chaledi, Chapetu, Chugainti, Dagnin, Galoti, 
Korilru, Jhurain, PhAtu, Magletu, Rahlu, SAlnu, Sundhu, Targain, 
Thakleq, Thosaru, and Thakru. None of these names are found among 
the Khatris of the plains, as Barnes appears to have been informed. 
But just as among the Brahmans of the hills, e. g. in Chamba, we find 
the ancient gotras broken up into countless als, so too among the Gaddi 
Khatris it may well be that the old sub-divisions have been forgotten 
among the crowd of al names. Other als found in Chamba follow. 

Traces of totemism can hardly be said to exist in Gohaina, killer of a 
lizard {goh) ; Bersain, * one who fetched her trees for his flocks ’ ; Potu, 
one who ate sheep’s entrails (pota) ; Thapliag, one who ate wheat-cakes 
{thoplu) ; Sarwd,n, planter of a cypress {Pers. saru !) ; Phakolu, one 
who was poor and ate phak, ^ husks.’ 

One or two curious names are : — Sanglu, carrier of a sacred chain 
{sangal) ; Sanjuan, maker of offerings {sanj); Mangnesu, beggar. 

Mere nicknames are Kalsain, Kaletu and Kaldri, ‘ black ’ ; Lateti, 
lame; Phingaletu, crippled,* Kiari,t blind; Ghusu,| boxer, Tatangru§ 
and Kachingar, dumb. 

Among the Rdthis the als would seem in a few cases to be really 
totemistic : Murdib^tar, * born under a mardZ tree,’ the ulmus Walli- 
chiiina. Sinuri, ‘ born while it was snowing’; Salbainu, ^ born while 
locusts were at Kugti’; K^ute, ^born under a rai or silver fir’; 
Jotain, born in the Surai pass, jot. 

Most of the names are however merely nicknames, e.g., Jamuhdn, 
clumsy (yam) ; Tanan, deaf; Dhageta, cragsman; Dapher, lazy, etc. 
Some are derived from events, e. g., Harokar, said to mean one ostra- 
cised for slaying a brother by his blood-kin {har, bone). 

Religious names also occur : Japaintu, from jap, repetition: Faqir, 
beggar; Jogian, from a jogi ancestor. 

Occupational names are : Phakru, maker of combs for cleaning wool, 
Ghorn (royal) groom; Ghuletu, wrestler; Bhajretu,I| porter; G^hri, 
Alpine grazier; Addpi, collector of blankets (ddp) in which part of the 
revenue was paid; Lunesar, salt-dealer; Kdihngheru, trader in combs 
{Icdnghu) ; Palnu, sharpener! of sickles. 


■* fr. phingola, cripple, 
f Fr. kdna, blind. 

% Fr. guthu, fist. 


§ Fr. tattd, dumb. 

II Fr. bhdra, load. 

! Fr. palni, to sharpen. 


Oaddi dresB, 


259 


In KAngfa the RAthi als are said to be Barjati, KuUi, Ghardti (a 
Khatri al in Chamba), and Sakhotru. The Hdjda used to confer the 
janeo on Rdthis in return for presents and services, and this is why some 
of them still wear it. 


Among the Thakkurs of Kdngra are the Bardu, Harelu, Janwdr, 
Miirthdn and Siuri als. Other ah whose members do not wear the janeo 
(and are therefore presumably Thakkur too) are the Baghretu, Ghdri, 
Tutdri and Ugharetu. & > j 

The Gaddis are an interesting people, and offer a striking contrast in 
several respects to the other inhabitants of Chamba. The costume of 
the (Jaddis, both men and women, is characteristic and striking. The 
old head-dress of the men is of a peculiar shape, with a flap round the 
margin, and a peak -like proiection in the centre, said to represent the 
RaildiS of Muni Makes. I he flnp is tied up for ordinary wear, but let 
down over the ears and neck in time of mourning, as well as in severe 
weather. The front is often adorned with dried flowers or b“ads. 
But this head-dress is falling into disuse, save on special occasions 
its place being taken by the pagri. On the body a pattu coat 
called chola, reaching below the knee, is worn. It has a deep collar, 
which hangs loose in two lappets in front, and in the sowing the 
wearer stows away various articles, such as a needle and thread, pieces 
of paper and twine. The chola is tightened round the waist by a black 
rope worn as a waist-band. This is made of sheep’s wool and is called 
dora. Above the waist-band the coat is loose, and in this receptacle 
the Gaddi carries many of his belongings. On the march a shepherd 
may have four or five lambs stowed away in his bosom, along with his 
daily food and other articles. The legs are generally bare, but many 
wear patU'i paijdraas, loose to the knees for the sake of freedom in 
walking, but fitting tight round the calf and ankle where it rests in 
numerous folds. Shoes are in common use. From the girdle hang a 
knife, a flint box and steel and a small leather bag, in which the wearer 
carries money and other small articles. The hill people are all fond of 
flowers, and in the topi or pagri may often be seen a tuft of the wild 
flowers in season, red berries, or other ornament. The chief ornament 
is the tahit, a square silver plate of varying size covered with carving 
and hung from the neck. Gaddi women wear a dress like that of the 
men, made of pattu and called cholu. It hangs straight, like a gown, 
from the neck to the ankles, and round the waist is the woollen cord 
or dora. A cotton gown of a special pattern is now common and is 
called ghundu. It is worn in the same way as the chain. The head is 
covered with a chadar, and the legs and feet are bare. The Gaddi 
women wear special ornaments, of which the chief is the galsari, and 
sometimes a tabit, similar like the men. They also wear heavy brass 
anklets, called ghunhare which are peculiar to the Gaddi women.* Tho 
Gaddis say that they assumed tho garb of Shiva and Pilrvati when they 
settled in Brahmaur which they call Shiv-bhumi or Shiva’s land, 
but it is not their dross alone that makes them conspicuous. Iheir 
whole bearing is characteristic, conveying an impression of .sturdy in- 
dependence which is fully borne out by closer contact with them. They 
are robust of frame, and accustomed to exposure in ab weathers owing 


• Brass nnkletfl called rtTidru, aie worn hy Gaddi children to ward off the evil eye, 
and to- prevent them from crying. They are made by the menial caste, named r.Adra, 
which ia itaelf supposed to have the power of injuung children by sorcery. 


260 


Qaddi Weddings, 

to the migratory life so mariyof them lead. In their manners they are 
frank and open, deferential to their superiors and yet manly and dignified. 
They delight in festive gatherings, and are fond of singing and dancing— 
the latter in a style peculiar to themselves. Their women are pleasing 
and comely, and have the reputation of being also modest and chaste. 
The Gaddis are a semi-pastoral and semi-agricultural tribe,and own large 
flocks of sheep and goats, which are their chief source of wealth. With 
them they go far afield, the summers being spent in the higher 
mountains of Piingi and Ldhul ; and the winters in the low hills bor- 
dering on the plains. This duty the male members of the family take 
in turn, the others remaining at home to tend the cattle and look after 
the farm work. Many of them own land on both sides of the Dhaula 
Dhdr, and reap the winter crop in Kdngra, returning in spring to cut 
the summer crop in Brahmaur. On the whole they are better shep- 
herds than farmers, and perhaps for this reason they are the most 
prosperous agricultural class in the State. The yearly exodus to Kangra 
takes place in October and November, and the return journey in April 
and May. With an appearance of candour and simplicity, the Gaddis 
have the reputation of being good at making a bargain ; hence the 
saying iu the hills — 

Gaddi mitr hhola, 

Denda tap to mangda cJiola. 

The Gaddi is a simple friend. 

He offers his cap, and asks a coat in exchange.” 

The Gaddi wedding customs merit special notice. 

In betrothal the boy’s parents or guardians send their parohit to 
negotiate for a girl about whom they have information, and he brings 
back her parents’ reply. If it is favourable the boy’s parents send 
two or more respectable men to the girl’s home to complete the bar- 
gain. Then if it is clinched, two of the boy’s family go with the 
parohit to perform the ceremony. If the betrothal is dharma puna 
this consists in the bride’s father giving the parohit a bunch 
of drub grass with four copper coins or more, if they please, 
to be handed over to the boy’s father in token that the alliance 
is accepted. The yarohit hands over the drub, and the coins are 
returned to the parohit with a rupee added by the boy’s father. The night 
is spent at the bride’s house, and after a meal her father gives the boy’s 
father 8 copper coins and these he places in a vessel as a perquisite to 
the servant who cleans it. In a betrothal by exchange (^oZa) the first 
observances are the same,but when all go to finally complete the alliance a 
grindstone and siZ with 3 or brorisoi gur, supdri, hihan and roliydn* are 
placed before the party and then the parohit places supdri, hihan and 
roUydn in the skirt of his sheet and puts them on thesiZ. Before tapping 
them on the sil with the grindstone he receives 4 annas from the boy’s 
father and mentions the names of the boy and girl whose alliance is to be 
formed, and then taps them. After this the supdri, etc., are placed in a 
vessel, Avith the balls of gur broken up, and distributed to those present 
after the girl’s father has taken a bit. The elder members of the girl’s 
family do not take any as it would be contrary to custom. The boy’s father 
puts He. 1-4 in this vessel and this is made over to the bride’s parents 


Roliyan red colour for marking the Uta on the forehead : iihan, cpiiarder, 


261 


Gaddi Weddings, 


who get jewellery to that amount made for her. After this the bride 
appears before the boy’s father and he gives her a rupee. The rest of 
. the ceremony is exactly as described above, but in tins case the coins put 
in the vessel come out of the boy’s father’s pocket. The ceremony in the 
other house is performed in exactly the same way, though not on the same 
day for the sake of convenience. A propitious date is not fixed, but a 
lucky day is desirable, and Tuesday, Friday and Saturday are considered 
unlucky. 


After having the date for the wedding fixed by a farohit tv/o men 
are sent to the girl’s people with a bcr of ghi to notify them of the date, 
and if they approve ot it messengers from both sides go to the parohit 
and get him to write the lakhnoteri. Fur this he is paid 8 Chamba coins 
or 4 annas in cash, rice and some red tape (dori). At the wedding itself 
the sumhurat rite is first performed by worshipping Ganpati, kumhh * and 
the nine planets and then the tvpdri (a mixture of turmeric, flour and 
oil) purified by mantras is rubbed on the l)oy. Three black woollen 
threads are also tied round his right wrist to protect him from the evil 
eye. He is then taken out into the court-yard by his mother, with part 
of her red sheet thrown over his head, to bathe. At the bath the black 
thread is torn off and he is led back by his mother. Next he must up 
set an earthen lid, containing burning charcoal and mustard placed at 
the entrance to the worshipping place, and this must be thrown away 
so as to remove any evil influence which he may have contracted in the 
court-yard. The parohit then ties nine red cotton threads round the 
boy’s right wrist and gives him ghi and gur- to taste. 'J'hepe wristlets 
are called kangana. This is preceded by tlie tel-sand ceremony. Again 
Ganpati, Brahma, Vishnu, kumhh, dm t and the nine planets are Avor- 
shipped, and then a he-goat is sacrificed to the planets by the boy, its 
blood being sprinkled on the sdndori [hagar grass rope) and muuj mala 
(a ring of bagar). The sdndori is then spread round the room along the 
cornice and the bridegroom made to don a white dhoti or sheet round 
his loins, to put flour mundras {jogi's ear-rings) iu his ears, sling a satchel 
over his shoulder, tie a black woollen rope round his chests and cover his 
buttocks with an animal’s skiu, suspend a.fanani (bow for carding wool) 
to the black rope and take a tirnhdr stick in his riglit hand with a 
Brahminical thread tied round his right thumb. This dress is assumed so 
that he may appear a regular (ascetic). After this the presiding 
priest asks him; Svhy hast thou become a jogiV His answer is ‘to 
receive the Brahminical cord.’ Then he is further interrogated by the 
priest as to what kind of cord he requires, i.e., one of copper, brass, sdver, 
gold, or cotton, and he asks for the latter. The priest then sends him to 
bathe at Badri Narain, Trilok N^th and Mani-Mahesha, and these sup- 
posed baths are taken in turn by dipping his hands and feet in, and 
pouring some water on his face from, a vessel put ready for the purpose 
in the doer-way. After these ablutions the pretended begs, first of 
Ids relations and then at the house, and they give him a piece of bread 
and promise him cattle, goats, etc., according to their means. In conclu- 
sion the priest asks him whether he wishes to devote himself to jdtera 


* Kumbh. A small pitcher filled with water, is placed over a handful of rice ami peach 
leaves or a few blades of drub are put into it. It is worshipped exactly hke 
t Dia, A small earthen lamp with a burning wick is placed over a 
worshipped like the others, 


handful of rice and 


262 


Gaddi Weddings, 

(worldly business) or mdtera (an ascetic life) and he invariably answers 
‘ to jdtera* and then the priest makes him take off his jogi’s clothes, 
receiving 4 annas as his fee for this. The cattle, etc., which the rela- 
tions promised to the boy go to him and not to the priest. 

This over, the boy is made to sit on a wicker basket, or a sheep-skin 
bag for carrying grain (called hhalru), and a dagger is placed on the 
mu 7 ij mala* above his head. Then the people pour oil over his head, 
with a few blades of ^rass {drub), taken from a vessel containing oil 
and held by his mother’s brother or in his absence by her sister. After 
this the bridegroom fits an arrow to the fanani (bow) and shoots it at 
the head of the dead goat which is placed over the nine planets, thereby 
pretending to slay them. Tho rite of tasting gur and ghi by the boy 
ends this ceremony. The bridegroom is then dressed. He wears a 
white 'pagri (turban) and kuwd, a red ludncha, and a white patka 
with gulhadan suthan and & jault thrown over the shoulders. The 
present; {suhdg-paidri) is then arranged. It consists of a kharhds,'^ 
ludncheri, ghagru, § nau-dori, |1 ungi,* * § ^ chundi,** kdngi, manihdr, 3 
rorfs o/ dates, grapes, almonds, rice a. id 7 luchis, and these are 
carried by the parohit to the bride’s house, with the procession. The 
boy is then veiled with a purified veil {sehra) by his mother’s brother, 
his brother’s wife puts antimony on his eyes, and his sister fans him. 
After this the boy gets up and the drti is then waved thrice from right 
to left over his head by the parohit, and his mother throws three round 
cakes {luchis) on three sides of him. The drti must be sanctified by 
mantras before being used at the door. After this the boy’s father 
gives him the tarr.hol (present) of Re. 1, and 4 copper coins, the latter 
being the parohit^s fee. The boy then gets into a doli in the court- 
yard and his mother gives him her breast to suck. The pdlki is then 
carried by four bearers to the entrance, beneath the woollen parrots call- 
ed toran, which the boy, his mother and the parohit worship, and then 
the bearers present the boy with a kumhh filled with water and he puts a 
copper coin in it. The bridal procession, consistiiig of the male mem- 
bers of the house and friends, dressed in their best clothes and preceded 
by tom-toms, goes to the bride’s house. On arrival the boy with his 
followers is put up in a house other than the girl’s, or camps out in the 
open air. The boy’s father or uncle, with one or two more, then takes a 
basket full of round cakes to the bride’s parents : this is called 
hatpartana. They return from the bride’s house, after eating 
something and putting 4 copper coins in the plate, and rejoin the 
procession. This observance is called juth pdL Two respectable men 
are also deputed to the bride’s parohit, to settle the amount he will 
take for performing the rites at the lagan, and then rejoin the camp. 
The hoy's parohit then proceeds to the biide’s house to deliver the 
hars2<7iitt (bride’s) dress to her. The harmhi consists of a white 
sheet {dupatta), ludncheri, ghagaru, nandori,niigi, kangi (comb), (articles 

* A small ring or wreath made of lagar grass, 

t All those are articles of dress, 

J Khnrhds, a dopatta of white cotton cloth : Uiancheri, the bride’s dress. 

§ Qhagru, coloured cloth for a shirt. 

(1 The Hou-dori or ‘ 9 doris ’ are red cords, four on either side at the back of the head 
plaited into the hair and converging into a ninth thick dord which hangs down the back. 

5] Ungi, of iron with which tho hair is parted in front : the hnigi is a comb. 

Ch'undi is an antimony holder for the eyes, worn on the back of the head.* 

■ft It will be observed that the bars&hi consists of the same articles as the svMg.fatdri, 


Gaddi Weddings, 265 

of attire), chundt, 3 balls of gur, cocoa, dates, grapes, almonds, 1 ser of 
rice and 9 3 wheat cakes, 7 purw of chandan chura,* roliydn, 

kesar y sandhur , nahan{y\ tnuth and supdri+. The priest then comes back 
to conduct the bridegroom and his followers to the bride’s house with 
tom-toms playing. The boy i'j received at the entrance by his mother- 
in-law who performs the drti ceremony over him, waving it seven times 
over his head with her right hand, holding her left over his turban. 
Four turns are taken from the boy’s right to his left and three in 
the reverse direction. Three cakes, ])laced in the plate with the 
drti are also thrown out towards the court-yard. The priest 
gives 4 c/iqA:Z/j (copper coins) to the boy who then places them in the 
drti after clasping his hands before it. The mother-in-law then re- 
tires, while the father-in-law comes to the spot and placing a patka 
(white cloth) round his own neck, washes and worships his son-ui-law’s 
feet. The boy’s priest gives a diuia (leaf-plate) with some rice, a wal- 
nut, drub and flowers into his hands. Both the palms are held up- 
wards, with both thumbs joined, and held up in his hands by the father- 
in-law who brings the bridegroom into the verandah while the mantras 
are being recited. After this the bride is brought to the place and 
made to stand a foot from him, face to face with the bridegroom. 
The priest then takes hold of the boy’s neck with his right hand and 
of the girl’s with his left and makes their shoulders thrice touch each 
other, first pressing the boy’s right to the girl’s left. Tl.ia is called 
chdn par chdn. After this two torches are held on either side of them. 
Seven small pieces of mdlti (jasmine) twigs are then put in the girl’s 
hands, she drops them into the boy’s hands and he breaks them one 
by one, placing them under his right f(wt. This breakieg of the twigs 
is called chiri. It is preceded by giving hihun into the hands of the 
couple and they blow it at each other. This goes by the name of fariiri. 

The pair are next made to sit down and the boy’s father-in-law offers 
sankalap, that is gives his daughter aAvay, and then washes the couple’s 
feet as they sit before him. Certain minor rites, called chichdri,^ are 


* Sandal-wood chips. 

t A sweet smelling root t muth, the root of a kind of grass. 

t Supdri betel-nut : kesar — saffron. 

^ Chichdri. Two or three blades of drub are tied together with red cotton thiead and 
placed in a cup of green leaves. Then a chakli (copper coin), Ot, rice, roliydn (turmeric), 
some flowers, water and a walnut are also placed in it. This cup is put In the bridegroom’s 
hands and his father-in-law’s hands are laid over them. The priest then recites some 
mantras, after which the dr7ib is taken up by the father-in-law and with it he sprinkles 
Water from the cup thrice over the heads of the pair. This is called the pahla bishlar or 
first ehdr. This is repeated, but the second lime some blades of grass, kesar (saffron) 
sarvdn shadhe and flowers are thrown into the water. While the priest recites mantras 
the father-in-law sprinkles water on the couple’s feet. This second rite is called pdda. 

The third or argh ceremony is similar, but this time the mixture is made of dhainy til, 
drub and rice, and after reciting mantras it is sprinkled over the boy’s head. 

The fourth cMr is called dtia bishtar and is an exact repetition of the first cMr. 

The fifth c/idr (rjclima/ii) is solemnised by putting water, til, and rice in a cup which is 
placed on the ground as was done in the other chdrs^ but at the end o f the ceremony the 
priest thrice throws a few drops of water from the cup on to the father-in-law s hands, and 
the boy and they drink it from his hands. ..... 

The sixth and last c/idr is called The cup is filled with milk, and ric^ 

and put in the boy’s left hand ; he daubs the four fingers and thumb of his right hand with 
it and then lifts his hand towards his mouth and, putting it again into the cup, sprinkles 
its contents on the ground. This cup is then taken by one of the bridegroom s jan (one 
who has come with the procession) and given to the tom-tom player. This jan returns to the 
bridegroom and after being purified by mantras is allowed to mix again with the other men 


264 


Gaddi Weddings. 

now performed by tlie bridegroom and his father-in-law. Then 
Ganpati * * * § Braliina,t Vishnu j. Kiirabh, diet and the nine planets are 
worsliippoch After this one end of the girl's sheet is held out by her 
brother and on this rod tikka is sprinkled thrice by the boy. Simi- 
larly the boy’s waist-band is held out and anointed by the girl. The girl 
then holds up her hands ; and into them 4 copper coins, a walnut, drub, 
flowers, til and rice are thrown by the priest and then the boy is made 
to lay his hands over hers. The priest then takes part of the bride’s sheet 
and wraps both pairs of hands in it by running a tape [dori) round it. 

The girl’s father then performs the kanid-ddn (giving the girl 
away) with the proper mantras. At its conclusion the girl’s maula 
(mother’s brother) touches her wrapper with a copper coin and it is 
then unknotted, the things in the girl’s hands being taken by the 
boy and given to the parohit. The giir and ghi is then tasted and 
this concludes the cerpinony called lagan. The girl now retires, but 
the boy remains to go through another rite called the manihcir.^ After 
doing the drti over the bridegroom, the tape with the betelnut is then 
put on the boy’s left toe and he is required to pierce the nut with 
his dagger. This done, the priest takes the tape up and throws it over 
the boy’s head, passes it down to his heels and under his soles, and 
then ties it round thepagfri. The boy is then drawn by the inanihdr 
by his mother-in-law and led inside the house to the kdmdeo.\\ The 
girl is also brought there by her brother and dressed in the barsuht 
clothes and placed by the boy’s side before the picture. Penally the 
remaining 7 doris of the barsuhi are handed over to the boy by the 
girl’s mdmi (mother’s sister) ; he places them on the bride’s head and 
then her hair is combed and arranged with these doris by her mami 
and the following song is sung : — 

SARGU^WHI SONG. 

Kim gori baiilii sir kholi, hor 
Kun haithi pith gheri, 

Gaura baithi sir kholi, hor 
Isar bai^hd pith gheri. 

“ Who is that beautiful girl sitting with her hair dishevelled ? 

Who is sitting with his back turned ? 

Oh, Gaura is sitting with her hair uncombed, 

Isar (Shiva) is sitting with his back turned.” 


* Ganpati is represented by a walnut in a green cup, placed before the boy under the canopy 
on a heap of rice. It is given a copper coin— Ganpati being thus invoked to keep off mishaps, 

t Brahma’s effigy is made of a few blades of drah, which are turned down twice, the 
ends being fixed in cow-dung and placed in a green cup. He is then similarly worshipped 
as being the Creator of the universe. 

I Vishnu is represented and worshipped like Brahma, but the blades are only turned 
down once from the centre in his case. Vishnu is worshipped as being the first Cause and 
the Protector of the universe. 

§ Mnnihir—'^ine walnuts (the nine planets) are put on rice and worshipped and their 
blessing invoked. There must bo a separate handful of rice for each of the walnuts. A 
bored copper coin, a betelnut and a cotton dnri (three cords about l i spans long) — all these 
together are called rn a ni/uir— but the ceremony is performed by taking the boy out to tlia 
doorway and there he takes out his dagger from the waist and touches the coin with its 
point, protending to bore it. '1 he string is then passed through the bored coin and put in 
a rudni (grain measure) and then the mu Hi/uir is sanctified and tied round the boy’s head* 
dress by his mother-iu-law at the gate-way after the drti. 

I) A picture. 


265 


Gaddi Weddings. 

After this the boy’s jaul (shoulder-band) and tlio bride’s kharvds 
(sheet) are knotted together and the bride is carried by her maternal 
uncle {mania) to the canopy where the wedding is to be celebrated. 

Under this canopy (Laid) they are placed, on bamboo baskets covered 
wit,h woollen cloths, facing east. The bridegroom sits to the right of 
the bride and in front of the sacred tire {homa or havan). The bride’s 
father then washes the couple’s feet; after which Ganpati, Navagirah, 
Brahma, Visimu, Kuinbh, Sat Rishi, Chaur Vedi, Chaiir-disa (the four 
quarters) and Chaur-updes (the four elements) are worshipped in due 
order, to ward off mishaps. This is followed by placing fried barley 
in a chhaj (sieve) which is brought to the haid. First, the bridegroom 
takes a handful of this grain ami puts it on three different spots, while 
the bride’s brother keeps wiping it away with his right hand as fast as 
it is put down. This is repeated, but the second time the bride’s 
brother puts the grain down and the bridegroom wipes it away. This 
is called khedni and is done to break the tie of relationship, if 

any exists, between the contracting parties. After this khila kkedni 
the boy’s father puts 4 annas into the and the bride’s brother 

takes off the red piece which he has worn on his head during the cere- 
mony and puts it in the chkaj too. It is then removed and the 4 annas 
are claimed by the boy’s brother-in-law. Then the britie’s brother’s 
wife comes and grinds turmeric [haldar) on the sil and sprinkles it wet 
on the feet of tlie pair, three times on each. She receives 4 takas, i.e., 
16 copper coins, for performing this rite. Then the couple are made 
to stand up and walk round tlie sacred 6re four times from right to 
left. The bridegroo.u keeps his right hand on the bride’s back all the 
while. After each turn they are made to halt near the baskets and 
their feel are worshipped, by throwing til, drub, milk, and red colour, 
etc., by the bride’s father, and at the end the bride’s brother worships 
the couple’s feet in the same way. These four rounds are called 
chdrldt, and constitute the binding rite in the wedding. At the chdrldi 
two women sing the following song : — 

CHARLAl SONa. 

Pahlia Idjdria phirde kiidnre, 

Ddjia Idjdria phirde Isar Gauraja, 

Trijia Idjdria anjan dhrir Idi, 

Ghauthia Idjdria anjan tori nahsa, 

** In the first round of the Idi go bachelors, 

In the second rouud of the Idi go Ishwar and Gauraja. 

In the third round they lot the anjati^ drag on -tlie ground 
In the fourth rouud the ditlha (bridegroom) broke it and 
ran away. 

The bride and bridegroom now change seats anil sit faemg each 
other. The bride then h'^lds up her hauls and in them a green leaf 
cup (dani) containing s )m 3 walnuts, rice, II iwers, 4 coins, etc., is placed 
by the prinst. The bridegroom covers the bride s h inds with his hands 
and then the priest unknots the manihdr from the boy’s pagri and puts 

* Parched grain. I t Winnowing fan. 

+ In the tnvrriag 3 cere.miy tin b^y wjxrs a long strip of cloth round his shoulder and 
the girl a kharvds (coloured sheet) over h 5r hea 1. the^o are tied together when of 

do tho chdrldi and tho knot Which fastens them together is called anjan. 


2()6 


Gaddi Weddings. 

it on tlieir hands. The bride’s father then takes til, drub, rice, flowers 
and copper coins and the sankalajp is performed to the recitation of 
mantras. After this he places 4 copper coins and a rupee in the vessel 
containing water, turmeric, milk and curd and sprinkles the mixture 
on the baid (canopy). This is called sdj iidna or giving of dowry. The 
bride’s mother’s brother then comes and touches the boy’s and girl’s 
hands with a ser of rice and a copper coin, and then they are released, the 
onanihdr being given to the girl to be put round her neck. The rice 
and coin go to the priest. After tliis all the girl’s other relations and 
friends give her presents, either in cash or in kind, according to their 
social position. These presents are then divided thus : — To the bride’s 
and hridegroom’s ])aro]Lits 2 annas each; to the bride’s 2>dZH-carriers 4 
annas; to the bridegroom’s the same; and to the carpenter {hddhi) who 
erects the temple and the canopy {baid} 4 annas also : to the bride’s 
musicians 2 annas ; and to the bridegroom’s 4 annas. After this the 
bride’s paroMt counts the things received in dowry, receiving for this 8 
ooppe]’ coins, with four more as dehl (door-way) for acting as the family 
priest. Of the residue a fourth goes to the bride and a tenth of the re- 
mainder is appropriated by her priest. The balance with the canopy is 
then given by the bride’s father as sanhalap to the boy’s father and forms 
part of the paraphernalia. After this the gotra-chdr mantras are read 
and fried rice is thrown towards the couple by both the priests. Each 
gets 4 annas for reading the gotra-chdr. This is followed by making 
the fathers of the couple sit under the canopy, and a blade of drub is put 
by the bride’s priest into the girl’s father’s hands. He holds it between 
the tips of his middle fingers at one end, the other end being similarly 
lield by the boy’s father. The bride’s father then says : asrnat kania, 
tusmat gotra,” meaning “our girl passes to your got.” The ends of the 
blade are then reversed and the bo^’s father says: tiosmat kania, asmat 
gotra,” meaning “ your girl has come into our got.” At the conclusion 
the bridegroom comes to the end of the canopy where he receives ruldr 
(salutation with a present) from his mother-in-law and the other elderly 
women of the bride’s house. The mother-in-law gives a rupee in cash 
and 4 copper coins, the others only copper coins, and without receiving 
this gift from the women it is not etiquette for him to appear before 
them. The boy touches the bride’s mother’s feet in token of her giving 
him this privilege. The ceremonies at the bride’s are now over and the 
bride is taken in the pdlki, with all the paraphernalia, followed by the 
bridegroom, his followers and friends, to his house. 

Song sung on the bride’s arrival at the bridegroom’s house— 

Soi ipichaik) aunde-jo ddar de — jdnde-jo bhaU mdr ; 

Ballare j'inde-jo mochar-mdr — bhale bhale ddar, 

“ Receive the soi (those who come with the bride) with courtesy 
and on their departure give them a good thrashing. 

Give to this liallar (bastard) a shoe-boating, this is good treatment 
for him.” 

On arrival at the door-way the following song is sung 

ATELAI SONG. 

Ham ku pujna kun. gori ai, 

Ham ku pujna Gaura ai, 

Bam ku pujdeputri phal mangde. 


Gaddi Weddings. 


267 


Who is that beautiful girl who has come to worship a pome- 
granate troo ? 

It is Gaura who has come to worship, 

While she is worshipping she is praying for a son.” 

Then the drti is presented by the boy’s mother and she also gives the 
bride a rupee. Next the pair are conducted to the kdmdeo (picture on 
the wall), and Ganpati, etc., are worshipped, after which they are both 
made to go four times round the earthen lamp {<iiwa) and Jciimhh (pot 
containing water), tape and a bunch of pomegranate. This circum- 
ambulation is called the athldi (eight rounds). 

After this the bridal veil is taken off by the parohii and the imitation 
birds on the veil are given to the priest, the brothers of tlie couple and 
their newly acquiretl mitras (brothers made by sacred observance). 
Having done the athldi the bride and bridegroom’s wrist threads are 
loosened by tvvo men who thus become brothers. These threads were 
put on by them at the commencement of the preliminary observances. 

At the conclusion the bridegroom receives presents [tamhol) from the 
men and women, and similarly munhsdni from the women is received 
by the bride for unveiling her. Songs are sung by the women on these 
occasions. 


The following feast-song is sung at the bridegroom’s house: — 

Kuniaye chauka pdya, kuni dhotore hath pair, ^ ^ 

JaniiB chiuhd pdyci^ soi dhotovi hath 'paity datohi Rcitti Rairif 

Bhat parithd, mds parithd, upar parithe tdre mdre,^ 

Bhate mdse khde na jdne soi, hahin kdrdi hdre hdre. 

“ Who has smeared the floor with cowdung; who has washed the 
hands and feet ? 

The ian (followers of the bridegroom) have done it, the so» (fol- 
lowers of the bride) have washed their hands and feet; we 
appeal to Mm (for the truth of our statement). 

Boiled rice has been given, meat has been given, over them havo 
been given small pebbles, 

The 6oi know not how to eat rice and meat, tho sister expresses 
surprise (by saying) * hdre hdre'.” 

Four feasts are given in the boy’s house to the = Ist, on the 

day of the oil ceremony; 2nd, on the morning on which the procession 
Lrts to the bride’s hoLe; 3rd, on the day the procession returns home, 
and 4th, on tho morning on which tho bridegroom receives presents. 

The 6rst two feasts are given at the brido’s house 
the guests of the girl and the last two on the marriage day to tho bride 
groom and his followers and to tho bride’s guests. ^ ; .i 

Another form of marriage called hjijkya is saving ex- 
ceremony is gone through only at the bride , 

** The Gaddis also practise the form of fir^e 

solemnised by burning brushwood and circuiranibulating the g 


268 


Gaddi Death Ctistoms. 


times hand in hand, or with the bride’s sheet tied to the boy’s girdle. 
It is admissible in cases where a girl’s perents have consented to her 
betrothal but refuse to carry out the marriage, and is sometimes done 
forcibly by the bridegroom ; or in cases in which a girl elopes with her 
lover. No priest or relative need attend it. 

Widow remarriage is permitted, except among the Brahmans. Tbe 
rite is called gudani or jhan jar dr a and also choU-dori and is solemnised 
tlius: — The pair are made to sit down by the dkca and Icumhh, with 
some dhiip burning. They worship both these objects, then the bride- 
groom places a dori (tape) on the widow’s head and another woman 
combs her head and binds her hair with the tape. A-fter this the bride- 
groom places a nose-ring (hdlu) in the woman’s hand and she puts it on. 
This is the binding portion of the ceremony. A feast is given to guests 
and relation's and songs are sung. If no priest presides at the ceremony 
the karnbh, etc., worship is dispensed with, but the tape and ring cere- 
mony is gone through and the guests, etc., feasted. A widow used to 
be compelled to marry her husband’s elder or younger brother, but the 
custom is no longer enforced by the State. 

Divorce is permitted by mutual consent, but there is no special form. 
A divorcee may remarry. 

Sons, whether by a wife married for the first time, or by a widow or 
divorcee remanded, succeed, but illegitimate sous do not, unless they 
are adopted in default of legitimate sons or heirs. 'I'he eldest son gets 
an extra share, caWed jaithund, but he has contra to pay a propor- 
tionately larger share of any debts. Among the sons the property is 
otherwise divided mundavand, i. e., equally, except in Kdugra, where the 
chundavand rule prevails among that small part of the tribes, which ori- 
ginally came from the southern side of the upper Rdvi in Chamba.* 

The Gaddis also have the custom whereby a widow’s child (chaukandhn) 
born at any time after her husband’s death succeeds to his property, 
provided that the widow has continued to live in his house and has 
worn a red dori (tape) in the name of his chula (oven) or dardt (axe). 
Cases have even occurred in which the widow has retained her late 
husband’s property without complying with these conditions, though 
the Gaddis consider her rights disputable. 

Gaddis burn their dead. Lepers and those who die of hihar, a kind 
of typhus, are first buried, but their corpses are exhumed after three 
months and burnt. The ceremonies performed are the same as for those 
who are burnt. The body is placed on the funeral pyre with the head 
of the deceased to the north, and all the jewellery and the blanket, which 
is thrown over it when on the bier, are taken off and the body burnt. 
A copper coin is placed by the pyre as the tax of the land on which f 
the body is burnt. Fire is first applied to the pyre under the head by 
the nearest relative and the other gotris (blood relations). The parohit 
joins the relations in this observance, but no ceremonies are observed. 
The light is applied after going round the pyre once from left to right! 
On the 10th day after the demise the dcispindi ceremony is performed 

» Sir J. B. Lyall’s Kangra Settlement Report, § 74, quoted in P. C L 11 p 183 
t In allusion to the idea that the Muhammadans own the world,’ Hindus the skv and 
that the owners’ land must not bo used unless paid for. 


269 


t^dddi Beliefs. 


by the nearest blood relations, with the aid of the ‘p^^rohit. Other rela- 
tions wash their clothes and bathe on this day and remove the kamhal 
which is spread to receive the mourners. On the 12th day, at night, a 
he-goat is sacrificed in the decensed’s name. This goat is given to the 
parohit. Next morning fiv'O pinds (balls of rice) or one supindi are 
again offered to the deceased by the chief mourner, to the recitation of 
mantras by the parohit. Tlie clothes, utensils, cash, etc., are given to 
him. On the I4th day the deceased’s relations on the wife’s side come 
to the house in the morning and give a feast to tho brotherhood. A 
goat is killed for this feast and the mourning ceas^s from this day. At 
the end of the third month oblations are again offered to the deceased 
and the occasion is signalised by a feast to the brotherhood. All the 
offerings made in this ceremony go to the parohit who presides over it. 
Similar ceremonies are gone through at the end of the sixth month and 
the 1st and 4th years. 

If buried the body is laid flat in the grave with the back 
on the ground and the palms of both hands folded on the chest. The 
head is kept to the (north). Children and females are buried in 
the same way. When burnt the ashes are collected, together with 
tho seven bones of the finger, knee and ankle joints, on the day the 
corpse is burnt. They are brought to the house in a piece of masru * 
and kept for ten days in the clothes in which the deceased breathed 
his last and in the room in which he expired. After tho daspindi 
they are washed in honey, milk, clarified butter, cowdung and hilpatri 
peed and then dried and deposited in a small wooden box, wrapped in 
‘the piece of r?ia.9r7i and buried in a recess made in the w’all of the 
house, with a coating of barley and mustard over it. They should be 
taken to Hardwar to bo thrown into the Ganges as soon as the family 
has collected sufficient funds for the journey, and at most within four 
years. 

The religion of the Gaddis presents some interesting features. As 
we have seen the Gaddis are by preference Shaivas,t but their worship 
is catholic to a degree. Thus on Sundays and Thursdays Niigs and 
Sidhs are worshipped, on Sundays alone Kailung, Devis on Tuesdays, 
and on Thursdays ‘ Birs.’ 

To the Nitgs, ahri or beestings, male kids or lambs, and ora (the 
first-fruits of all crops), incense and small cakes are offered ; and to 
the Sidhs a sack, a stick of rose-wood, a crutch, sandals and rot or 
thick bread. 

To the Devis are offered vermilion, hmdli (brow-mark), sahi (a red 
chddar), dora (waist-rope), snr (a coarse spirit), and a goat. 

To the Birs a he-goat, a chola or thick woollen coat, a waistband, a 
white conical cap {chukanni topi) and fine bread. Kailu Bir, the numen 
of abortion, is only worshipped by women. Kailung is a hiiig, and 
the father of all the Nags. He is worshipped, as is Bhiva, under the 


* The cloth in which the corpse is wrapped. 

f As the verse goes 


Qaddi chdrda hheddn 
Oaddin dindi dupa. 
Qaddi jo dinda hheddn 
Qaddin jo dindi rufa. 


The Gaddis feed their flecks : 

The Gaddins offer incense (to Sha), 
To the Gaddfs he (Shiva) gives she 
And to the Gaddins, beauty. 


27() • Oaddi godlings. 

« 

form of the dardt or sickle, wliicli is always carried by a Gaddi 
when shepherding his flocks. Then there is the worship of autars. 
An autar is the spirit of a person who has died childless and causes 
sickness. To propitiate this spirit the sick person dons clothes, which 
are made for him with a silver image of the deceased, and he then 
worships the autar idol (which is always set up near a stream).* 

The clothes and image are worn “ in token of the deceased.” 
Autars are said to have been admitted inlo the category of the deities 
owing to their evil influences on men and women. They are propiti- 
ated also on the Amd,was and Puranmdshi days. 

Autars also appear in dreams and warn people that they will carry 
them oil to the next world. To scare away the ghost in such a case 
jamanwdla is performed, 4 feaZi’s, offerings of ghunganidn (boiled maize), 
nettle baths, and bran bread being offered four times by night. 

But these do not exhaust the list of beliefs. Batdl is the sprite of 
springs, rivers and wells, and khicheri, sodden Indian corn, 3 balls of 
suhdL (moss), 3 of ashes, 3 measures of water, a pumpkin or a flour- 
sheep are offered to him. 

To joginis or rock spirits, 3 coloured grains of rice, 5 sweet cakes, a 
loaf, a flour-lamp with a red wick, 3 kinds of flowers, 3 pieces of dhup, 
and a she-goat are offered with prayers. Rdkshanis and handsats 
would seem to be the same as joginis. Chungu is the demon found 
on walnut and mulberry trees and under the karangora shrub. He is 
worshipped with a cocoa-nut, a chuhora (handle of a plough), almonds, 
grapes, milk and a loaf of 5 paos with his effigy in flour (a basket on 
his back), a four-cornered lamp of flour on the bread, and a piece of 
dhup. 

Giinga, the disease-spirit of cows, is propitiated by setting aside a 
tawa of bread in his name until the final offerings can be made. 
Then a piece of iron, something like a hockey-stick, is made, and the 
deity taken into the cattle-shed where ho is worshipped by the sacred 
fire on a Thursday, A he-goat is killed and a few drops of the blood 
sprinkled on tho iron. At the same time cakes are offered and some 
eaten by one member of the household, but not by more than one or 
the scourge will not abate, and the rest are buried in the earth. Every 
fourth year this deity is worshipped after the same fashion. Kailu is, 
it seems, peculiar to tho Gaddis, or at least to Chamba. Early in 
pregnancy tho woman puts aside 4 chaklis, (the copper coin of Chamba) 
with her necklace in the name of Kailu. Two or three months after 
delivery the parohit, with the woman, worships the demon by putting 
up a large stone under a walnut or kainth tree, which is sanctified by 
reciting certain mantras and then w^orshipped. A white goat (which 
may have a black head) is then offered up to the demon, by making an 
incision in its right ear and sprinkling the blood over a long cloth, 2^ 
yards wide by 9 or 12 yards long, and chaklis and some bread are also 
offered to the demon. 

Finally the woman tastes a piece of pit r, and places it on the cloth, 
which she then wears until it is worn out, when a new one is made and 


* When first set up tlie idol is woishipped with prayers and the sacrifice of a he-poat or 
ghcep. Dhain and khichtji aie also placed before it and then eaten by the aviof's iclatives. 


Gadgor-^Gadgor. 2*1 \ 

purified in the same way before being worn. The Ceremony may be 
l)eriormed at the woman’s house, in which case the cloth alone is used as a 
symbol of the deity. The goat is returned to its owner with the four 
coins. No other woman may use this sheet, which would cause her 
divers bodily ills. 

1 loughing, sowing and reaping should be begun on the lucky days — 
unclay, luesday and Ihursday. If tlie wheat does not grow on aterraced 
held the plough is not put on it again that year until a goat has been 
sacriBced there, and neglect of this rule will result in a death in the 
family. When new ground is to be broken up the -parohit must be asked 
to namo the day and a ho-goat sacrificed before the plough is put to it. 
13ut instead of this sacrifice, some people take four young girls to the sjiot 
and there wash their feet, mark their foreheads with red and give them 
gtir to eat before they begin to plough. And the first fruits ofsuch laud 
are always offered to the dtolci before being used. The godlings associ- 
ated with cMnia, maize, wheat, pulse and barley are Devi? Chaund, 
Kailung, Kathura Nagand Saiidholu Nag respectively. 

The chief fairs are seven in number, viz., the JSasua on 1st Bais^kli, 
the Patroru on 1st BhaHon, the Sair on IstAssauj, the Lahori (cr Lohri) 
on 1st Mdgh, and the Uholru on 1st Chet. The dates of the Sliibrdt 
(in Phdgan on varying dates) and of the Holi (in Phagaii or Chet) vary. 
The first four festivals are celebrated by games and dances, but there 
are differences. At the Basua piiidiris or flour cakes are eaten with ghi 
and honey. At the Patroru a cake of a vegetable called siid is eaten : 
only young girls dance. At the Sair bahrus are cooked : and at the 
Lohri khichri or rice and ddL At the Idoli khaddas (parched maize) aro 
eaten, the fire is worshipped at night and a performance called fcarn held, 
songs being also sung. At the Dholru again lyindiris are eaten, but 
amusements are rarely allowed. There seems to be no aniiuwl feast of 
dead. Shiva and the Dev is are sacrificed to on a Shibratri. 

The seasons for worship are : — Chet, ^lilgrimages to Bawan and 
Jawdlaji in Kangra. 

Bhadon and Asauj, pilgrimages to the shrines of Narsingh, Hari-har, 
Lakshmi Devi, Ganesh, Kailung — all in Brahmaur ; and in Bhddon only, 
as a rule, to Maui Mahosha. Shiva is not worshipped at any particular 
season. 

The low-castes in Brahmaur are chiefly Kalis, Kolis, Lohdrs and Rihd* 
rds, with a few Sippis and Bddhis. All those are described in their 
proper places. An obscure group is the Bararu, sometimes called Blulfs, 
who are described as Gaddis, and hold among them the same position 
as Brahmans do among other Hindus. The name appears to be connected 
with hardri, a thorny shrub. 

The Gaddi salutations are as follows : — .Among Brahm^ins, nama/^kdr 
to Brahmans from others, 'pairi paiina to which they reply asir hachan. 
Rdjputs g[\e jaijai to one another and receive it from those beneath them ; 
responding with rdm ram. Khatris, ThakuTS and Rathis offer ludrki to 
one another and receive it from the low-castes, giviug in reply rdm ram. 

QadqeR, an agricultural clan found in IShdhpur. 

Gidoob, a Jdt clan (agricultural) found in Multan. 


272 


Gadha-^Gadun, 


Gadha (?) shepherd, cowherd ; also called rawdnrl in Peshd,war. 

Gadhi, a term of contempt said to be applied by Nihangs (Akd,hs) to those 
who smoke. 

Gad hiok, a tribe small in numbers, bat intelligent and enterprising, found in 
a few villages of the Uentral Salt Range. Their traditions assert 
that their ancestor Mahta (Jhandd Rai came from Mathra to Dellii and 
entered the Mughal service under Babar, who employed him with Rdja 
Mai Janjiia to drain the eastern Dhaniii tract in the Salt Range. 
Gharka Kassar and Sidhar Manilas afterwards aided them to colonise 
the tract, and Babar granted Ghandu Rai a percentage in the revenue of 
the Dhanih and other tracts in tlie Salt Range. Humdyun granted 
Kdli orKalik Dds, son of Ghandu Rai, a sanad * (dated 1554) of 30,000 
tankas for the improvement of the Kahun tract and the family also 
received sanads from Akbar and Aurangzeb. In the latter's reign one 
branch of the tribe was converted to Islam, but most of its members 
are still Hindus. Gadhiok is said to be a corruption of gaddi-hok, 
on its ancestors having presented 31 gaddis at a hukdi (the announce- 
ment of the presents brought at a wedding). The Gadhiok usually 
marry among themselves, but some intermarry with Khatris of the 
B4ri group, though never with Bun jd his. In neither case is widow 
marriage allowed. Their Brahmans are of the Nauli got and at a 
boy's munnan or head-shaving the father or head of the family himself 
decapitates a goat with a sword and gives the head, feet and skin to the 
Naule parohits of the tribe, though they do not eat flesh and other 
Brahmans would not touch such offerings. The skin, etc , are sold. 
A similar observance is in vogue at the janeo investiture. Gadhioks 
eat flesh at weddings, a usage contrary to local Hindu custom. At 
the rnunnan of a first-born son the custom found among some other 
Khatris is followed and the mother flees to the house of a neighbour 
who plays the part of her parents. Her husband would bring her back 
again, and remarry her by the dukdja or ‘ second wedding ’ which costs 
about half as much as the first. Gadhioks avoid touching weighing 
scales, t at least in theory, and also usury, but one or two families, not 
admitted to be descendants of Kdli Dds or true Gadhioks, have no such 
scruple. No Gadhiok will wash, set out on a journey or begin a new 
task on a Thursday — the day on which their ancestor left his original 
home. Hindu Gadhioks eat and drink with Khatris : Muhammadans 
with any Muhammadan save a Mochi or Musalli. The latter style them- 
selves Shaikh : while the Hindus generally use the title of Mahta, but 
the family of Oalwdl is styled Diwdn, Mulrdj, one of its members having 
been governor of Hazdra under the Sikhs, The sa^nddh of Kdli Dds 
is a conspicuous object at Kallar Kahfi,r. The Gadhioks have many 
kahits, apparently in a down-country dialect, and now claim Rdjput 
origin or status, but they are probably of Khatri eitraction as their 
intermarriage with that caste shows. 

GAof, a Baloch clan (agricultural) found in Shahpur : see also under Garri. 

Gadun, or Jadun, as they are called indifferently, are a tribe of 
Pa^hdns found in Hazdra and in Attock. They claim descent from 

* This sanad contains a reference to the Bagh-i-Safa established at Kallar Kahir by 
Babar and mentioned in his Memoirs. 

I Implying that retail trade is considered d