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Countp i^orougi) of ^outljampton. 


ANNUAL REPORT 

ON THE 

Health of the 


County Borough of Southampton 

AND THE 


Port of Southampton 


For the Year 1938, 

BY 


H. C. 


MAURICE WILLIAMS, 


M.K.C.S., L.K.C.P., D.P.H., 


Medical Officev of Health of the County Borough and Port of Southampton, 
Medical Superintendent of the Municipal Hospitals, 

Medical Officer to the Education, Public Assistance, 
and Mental Deficiency Acts Committees, 

Chief Administrative Tubercidosis and Venereal Diseases Offcer, 
Medical Referee to the Southampton Crematorium. 











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in 2018 with funding from 
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Count? iBorougt) of Southampton. 


A nnual Report 

ON THE 

Health of the 


County Borough of Southampton 

AND THE 

Port of Southampton 

For the Year 1938, 

BY 

H. C. MAURICE WILLIAMS, m.r.c.s., l.r.cp., d.p.h., 

Medical Officer of Health to the County Borough and Port of Southampton, 
Medical Superintendent of the Municipal Hospitals, 

Medical Officer to the Education, Public Assistance, 
and Mental Deficiency Acts Committees. 

Chief Administrative Tuberculosis and Venereal Diseases Officer, 
Medical Referee to the Southampton Crematorium. 


Soutf3ampton: 

SOUTHERN NEWSPAPERS. LIMITED, 45. 47 and 49. ABOVE BAR. 


MCMXXXIX. 









CONTENTS. 


PAGE 

General Observations ... . ... ... 7-12 

Statistical Summary . 13 

Health Services and Sanitary Circumstances ... 17 

Vital Statistics—Births, Deaths, and Infantile 

Mortality . 25 

Maternity and Child Welfare. 41 

Notifiable Infectious Diseases. 71 

Venereal Diseases ... 77 

Tuberculosis and Cancer. 85 

Municipal Hospitals and Laboratories . 117 

Mental Deficiency Acts and Mental Treatment Act 135 

Miscellaneous . ... 143 

B[ousinc ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 

Sanitary Services and Food and Drugs Acts. 165 

Port Health Authority . 195 


Detailed Index pages 253-255. 





3 


LIST OF COMMITTEES CONCERNED WITH THE WORK 

OF THE DEPARTMENT. 


HIS WORSHIP THE MAYOR (Councillor A. H. Powdrill). 

ex-officio Member of Committees. 

HEALTH COMMITTEE. 

Chairman : Alderman Mrs, L. M. Foster Welch, j.p. 

Alderman F. R. Brown, j.p. 

Alderman Mrs. B, Leach. 

Alderman T. H. Sanders. 

Alderman H. Vincent, j.p. 

Councillor J. Austin. 

Councillor G, H. Barendt, m.b., b.s. 

Councillor H. H. Castle, m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p. 

Councillor R, E. Edmunds. 

Councillor A. Effeny. 

Councillor Mrs. V. F. King, b.a. 

Councillor W. Lewis. 

Councillor T. A. Ponsford. 

Councillor E. Sakoschansky, m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p. 
Councillor Mrs, B, M. Sakoschansky. 

Councillor Mrs. R. M. Stonehouse. 


MATERNITY AND CHILD WELFARE COMMITTEE. 

Chairman : Alderman Mrs. L. M, Foster Welch, j.p. 

The Members of the Health Committee, together with the following 

co-opted Members :— 

Mrs, E. Harvey. Mrs. J. T. Robb, j.p. 

Mrs. R. Poulton. Mrs. E. M. Turnbull. 



4 


MENTAL DEFICIENCY ACTS COMMITTEE. 

Chairman : Alderman Mrs. L. M. Foster Welch, j.p, 
Alderman H. J. Blakeway. 

Alderman Mrs. B. Leach. 

Alderman T. H. Sanders. 

Councillor I. Baker. 

Councillor J. C. Dyas. 

Councillor Mrs. V. F. King, b.a. 

Councillor W. A. J. Newby, i.s.m. 

Councillor W. F. Penny. 

Councillor Mrs. B. M. Sakoschansky. 
Councillor Mrs. R. M. Stonehouse. 

Councillor W. C. Tomlins. 

Mrs. L. E. Millard Arnold, b.sc. 

Mrs. E. M. H. Morgan. 

Mrs. j. C. Reid. 

Mrs. E. j. Sleep. 

Mr. R. C. Ashby, c.b.e., j.p. 

Mr. C. H. Scruton. 

HOUSING COMMITTEE. 

Chairman ; Alderman W. D. Buck, j.p. 
Councillor R. N. Sinclair (Sheriff). 

Alderman P. V. Bowyer, j.p. 

Alderman Sir Sidney Kimber, j.p. 

Alderman Mrs. B. Leach. 

Alderman H. Vincent, j.p. 

Councillor G. B. Bascomb. 

Councillor P. W. Blanchard. 

Councillor T. F. F. Brook. 

Councillor H. H. Castle, m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p. 
Councillor Mrs. K. E. Cawte. 

Councillor A. E. Goulden, j.p. 

Councillor J. H. J. Matthews. 

Councillor J. E. Mitchell. 

Councillor Mrs. M. O’Higgins. 

Councillor G. E. H. Prince, o.b.e. 


5 


STAFF OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT. 

(A.) FULL TIME. 


Medical Officer of Health 

Deputy Medical Officer of Health 

Clinical Tuberculosis Officer 
Clinical Venereal Diseases Officer 
and Pathologist 

Senior Assistant School Medical 
Officer 

Assistant Medical Officers of 
Health 


Assistant Medical Officer of Health 
for Air Raid Precautions 

Resident Medical Superintendent, 
Borough Hospital 
Assistant Resident Medical Officer, 
Borough Hospital 
Junior Resident Medical Officer, 
Borough Hospital 
Resident Obstetric Medical Officer 
Resident Medical Officer, Isolation 
Hospital 

Junior Resident Medical Officer, 
Isolation Hospital 

Matron, Borough Hospital 

Deputy Matron, Borough Hospital 

Matron, Isolation Hospital 

Deputy Matron, Isolation Hospital 

Senior School Dental Officer 

School Dental Officers 

Chief Sanitary Inspector 

Chief Port Sanitary Inspector 

Senior Housing Inspector 

Senior Meat and Food Inspector 

Senior Factories and Shops 
Inspector 

Superintendent Health Visitor ... 
Supervisor of Midwives ... 

Chief Clerk 


H. C. Maurice Williams, m.r.c.s., 

L.R.C.P., D.P.H. 

G. E. B. Payne, m.d., m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., 

D.P.H. 

W. D. Beck, m.d., m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p. 

R. M. Warren, b.a., m.b., ch.b., d.p.h. 

G. D. PiRRIE, B.A., M.B., B.CH., M.R.C.S., 

L. R.C.P., D.P.H. 

Dora E. L. Bunting, m.d., d.p.h. 

E. A. Hoare, m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p. 

Ruby J. B. Slater, m.b., ch.b., d.p.h. 

S. C. Parry, m.a., m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., 

D.P.H. 

Surgeon Rear-Admiral R. W. G. 
Stewart, o.b.e., m.b., b.ch., b.a.o., 

M. R.C.P., D.P.H. 

M. K. Jardine, m.b., ch.b. 

P. J. W. Mills, m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p. 


D. R. Beaton, m.b., ch.b. 

J. Thomson, m.b., ch.b. 

Mary F. Brownlie, m.b., ch.b. 

Miss E. M. Hillier. 

Miss E. W. Ryder. 

Miss D. James. 

Miss M. E. Buckland. 

K. W. Eady, l.d.s. 

L. J. Haworth, l.d.s. 

H. E. Pickering, l.d.s. 

C. A. BlANDEN, B.D.S., L.D.S. 

W. J. Langford, Cert, r.s.i., r.p.c. 
W. H. J. Hurst, Cert, r.s.i. 

E. B. Rose, Cert, r.s.i. 

C. Birch, Cert, r.s.i. 

B. T. Tanner, Cert, r.s.i. 

Miss C. M. Ritchie, s.r.n. 

Miss F. E. Lambert, s.r.n., s.c.m. 

C. Masterman. 


J. L. RyCE, B.M., B.CH. 



6 


(B). PART TIME. 


Visiting Physician, Borough 
Hospital 

Visiting Surgeon, Borough 
Hospital 

Deputy Visiting Surgeon, 
Borough Hospital 

Visiting Obstetrician and 
Gynaecologist 

Consulting Orthopaedic Surgeon 

Visiting Anaesthetist, Borough 
Hospital 


D. Fisher, m.b., ch.b. (Glas.). 

H. J. Nightingale, m.s., f.r.c.s. (Eng.). 

S. N. Lytle, f.r.c.s. (Eng.). 

R. W. KnOWLTON, M.A., M.D., 

F.R.C.S. (Eng.), M.C.O.G. 

H. H. Langston, f.r.c.s. (Eng.). 

G. G. Havers, m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., d.a. 


Radiologist 


W. F. H. Ives, l.r.c.p., l.r.c.s., l.f.p.s. 


Ophthalmic Surgeon ... 
Aural Surgeon ... 
Psychiatrist 
Speech Therapist 


J. KeYMS, B.A., M.B., B.CH., B.A.O. 

A. Russell, m.b., ch.b. 

Sybil L. Yates, m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p. 
A. P. Tolfree. 


District Medical Officers :— 
No. I District 
No. 2 
No. 3 >» 

Nos. 4 and 5 Districts 

No. 6 District 

No. 7 

No. 8 

No. 9 

No. 10 


... P. O’Connell, l.r.c.p., l.r.c.s. 

... S. B. Chambers, m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p. 
... A. J. Grimston, m.b. 

... H. W. James, m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p. 

... C. B. Brownlie, m.b. 

... R. J. Vernon, m.b. 

... P. M. Roberts, m.b. 

... N. P. Pritchard, m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p. 
... W. A. Elliott, m.b. 


Public Vaccinators :— 


No. i District 
No. 2 ,, 

Nos. 3 and 4 Districts 
No. 5 District 
No. 6 


No. 7 
No. 8 


No. 9 


... E. A. Saunders, m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p. 
... J. E. A. Simpson, m.b. 

... T. F. COLFER, M.B. 

... C. B. Brownlie, m.b. 

... R. J. Vernon, m.b. 

... P. M. Roberts, m.b. 

... M. M. Wickham, m.b. 

... W. A. Elliott, m.b. 








7 


County Borough and Port of Southampton. 


ANNUAL REPORT 

OF 

The Medical Officer of Health. 


To THE Mayor, Aldermen and Councillors of the 
County Borough of Southampton. 

Mr. Mayor, Ladies and Gentlemen, 

In accordance with my statutory duty as your Medical Officer 
of Health, I have the honour to present for your information and 
consideration my Eighth Annual Report on the health and sanitary 
circumstances of the County Borough of Southampton for the year 
ended 31st December, 1938. 

During the year under review further advances were made in 
the development of the service, and I propose in this preface to 
call attention to the principal matters of interest contained in the 
body of the Report. 

Dealing with the vital statistics relating to the County 
Borough, it is of interest to note that there was an increase in the 
birth rate from 15.87 to 16.57, ^ decrease in the death rate 

from 12.4 to 11.86 per thousand of the population. Undoubtedly 
an improvement in the state of employment, with a consequent 
increase in the marriage rate, was responsible for the former, while 
the lower incidence and mortality from infectious diseases, par¬ 
ticularly the decrease in the number of deaths from influenza and 
tuberculosis, was responsible for the latter. 

The infantile mortality rate increased from 48.6 to 50.6 per 
thousand births. Although it is disappointing to record this slight 
increase, the Southampton rate for the year is still well below Die 
rate for the country as a whole. The Council provides facilities 
conducive to a low infantile mortality rate through its ante-natal 
and post-natal clinics, its maternity hospital, its welfare centres, 
and the liberal distribution of free milk. 






8 


Attention should be directed to the care of illegitimate infants. 
An improvement would undoubtedly take place if a scheme were 
instituted to replace the present system of foster homes. The 
choice of a foster home is at present made by the parent, and the 
payment is usually so small that a number of the foster mothers 
and homes are far below the standard desirable for the rearing of 
an infant. A register of approved homes, with a subsidy for those 
unable to pay the requisite amount, may be a solution, or as an 
alternative, an extension of the Babies’ Home at Hollybrook may 
meet the case. 

The deaths from cancer for the year again showed an increase 
on the previous year—326 as compared with 313. It is hoped 
that the Cancer Bill, at present before Parliament, and likely to 
become a Statute in 1939, will have a marked influence in bringing 
about a reduction in the suffering and deaths from this dread 
disease.. There will be an obligation upon Local Authorities to 
provide centres, or contribute towards centres already established 
for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. In Southampton 
we are particularly fortunate, as there is already established at 
the Royal South Hants and Southampton Hospital a fully- 
equipped centre for the treatment of cancer by means of radium 
and deep X-ray, and it will be the duty of the Council to see that 
facilities exist so that all who require such treatment can procure 
it without difficulty. Propaganda will play an important part in 
reminding the public that if advice and treatment are obtained 
on the slightest suspicion of a growth, the chances of a cure or 
amelioration are immensely increased. 

When the question of a new X-ray Department at the Borough 
Hospital was discussed, it was decided to limit the activities of 
this Department to diagnosis and superficial therapy, as it is 
recognised that the duplication of expensive apparatus to provide 
radiation by either radium or X-ray should be concentrated in 
one centre, with an expert Radium Officer and a trained staff. 

The maternal mortality rate for the year was 2.34 per thousand 
births, as compared with 1.69 in 1937. The Southampton rate is 
well below the rate for England and Wales. 

The year 1938 was free from any epidemics of influenza, and 
the deaths from this disease were 6, as compared with 63 for the 
previous year. There were no deaths from scarlet fever, i from 
whooping cough, and 6 from diphtheria. 

The work of the Isolation Hospital has been continued in a 
very satisfactory manner. There were 835 cases admitted, as 
compared with 908 in 1937. There was a considerable diminution 


9 


in the number of diphtheria cases admitted, and I believe that the 
extensive immunisation that is being carried out in the Borough 
is now having an appreciable effect in the incidence of this disease. 


The new pavilion for the treatment of tuberculosis, with an 
X-ray Department and an operating theatre, is proving of very 
great value. 

During the year an extension to the kitchen department was 
completed, and the Isolation Hospital can now claim to have one 
of the hnest kitchens of any institution of its kind. 


As to future programmes in connection with the Isolation 
Hospital, the Committee are considering the erection of a cubicle 
block of 24 beds. This cubicle block would prove a saving of 
nursing personnel, as at present, with a limited number of single- 
bedded wards scattered about the Hospital, it is difficult to nurse 
the numerous observation cases which are so frequently admitted 
to the Hospital, especially from the Port. Further, a cubicle 
block would have the advantage of providing a separate cubicle 
for many of the scarlet fever patients. There is sufficient evidence 
to show that the virulence in strain of the organisms responsible 
for this disease vary to such an extent that patients convalescing 
from the hrst attack frequently get re-infected with another strain 
of organism which produces all the signs and symptoms of the 
disease. 


Air Raid Precautions Medical Services. 

The Medical Services concerned with Civil Defence are yet 
another responsibility added to the multifarious duties of the 
Public Health Department. I feel conhdent that Medical Officers 
of Health and their staffs throughout the country have gladly 
accepted this additional responsibility as their contribution to 
National Service. 


One cannot, however, refrain from criticising certain aspects 
of both the central and local organisations which, unless amended, 
will lead to inefficiency. One recognises that Civil Defence is an 
emergency organisation which lacks the basis of past experience 
upon which to found a clearly dehned scheme, and that in these 
circumstances anomalies and supersessions of orders already issued 
are bound to occur. After making due allowance for these 
factors, however, there does not appear to be in operation a settled 
policy. One would be much more satished if one felt that the 


10 


many changes in instructions issued were the progressive 
amplification of detail based upon peace time experiments in 
different areas, instead of indicating mental vacillation. Unfor¬ 
tunately, this impression is generally held, and is having a 
marked prejudicial effect throughout the country. 


Another matter for criticism is the multiplication of bodies 
concerned in the general scheme. Committees are set up, often 
under different Authorities, to deal with various sections of the 
Medical Service. Most of these simply duplicate the work and 
attract personnel from one section to another. In fact, there is 
a complete lack of co-ordination. 


In my opinion, the voluntary service in its present state is 
not satisfactory. In making this assertion, I do not want it to 
be thought that I under-estimate the magnihcent work that has 
been, and is being, done by the voluntary workers. No one 
appreciates their efforts more than I do, but the scheme in its 
present form is full of defects which, under the strain of a 
National Emergency, might easily produce muddle, if not chaos. 


Under our present scheme there is no real control of 
personnel. What is needed is a system whereby each member 
has a contractual obligation. There should be, moreover, officers 
of various grades exercising control and authority over the rank 
and hie. Only in this way will there be an incentive to improved 
efficiency and consequent advancement in rank, and the formation 
of a properly trained and disciplined body. 


Venereal Disease. 

During recent years there has been a striking advance in 
the treatment of gonorrhoea since the introduction of the 
sulphanilamide group of drugs. Various preparations have been 
tried, and all have shown a higher percentage of cure obtained in 
a shorter period of time than the old methods of treatment by 
irrigation. The outstanding preparation from our own experi¬ 
ence appears to be M. and B. 693, and accordingly this form of 
treatment has been instituted in the Clinics administered by the 
Borough. The cost of these drugs is considerably more than the 
old methods of treatment, but the reduction in the time of attend¬ 
ance, together with the particularly high percentage of cures 
without complications, fully justihes the expenditure involved. 



II 


Tuberculosis. 

It will be observed from the detailed figures given in the 
section of the Report dealing with the Tuberculosis Department 
that once more the mortality rate from tuberculosis in South¬ 
ampton has fallen. 

In reviewing the work of this Department for the past hve 
years, one is impressed by the fact that the mortality rate has 
fallen each year. This is all the more striking when it is borne 
in mind that the decrease has been considerably greater than that 
for the rest of England and Wales. 


The work of the Tuberculosis Dispensary during the past 
five years has more than doubled, new equipment has been added, 
and a full-time Assistant Medical Officer has been appointed. In 
addition, the opening of the new Tuberculosis Pavilion at the 
Sanatorium has provided another 44 beds, together with an 
up-to-date X-ray apparatus, operating theatre, dental room, and 
every comfort a patient may wish. 


The provision of 48 semi-detached cottages on part of the 
Isolation Hospital land will greatly assist the department in 
providing accommodation for those patients at present suffering 
from tuberculosis and living in unsuitable dwellings. 


Housing. 

By the 31st December, 1937, all the houses included in the 
original and subsequent slum clearance programmes had been 
dealt with, and the last batch were in the course of demolition. 


Southampton has tackled its slum problem in an energetic 
manner spread over six years, and although there are many 
hundreds of houses still remaining below the standard fit for 
human habitation in the twentieth century, the Council never¬ 
theless can feel that the back of the problem has been broken, 
and many thousands of people are now housed in flats and houses 
which give them the conditions so necessary to decent and happy 
living. 


When one visits certain areas in the town, and remembers the 
narrow streets and dark courts and alleys where people lived 
and reared their families, and to-day sees in their place blocks of 
hats attractively planned, one appreciates that the Housing Act 


12 


of 1930 was one of the greatest reforms in the history of Public 
Health. Slum clearance is a means of eliminating from our midst 
breeding places of disease and misery. 

There was much opposition to the rehousing at Coxford 
of tenants from the Kingsland areas, but I would ask the critics 
to ascertain the views of the people rehoused on the outskirts. 
With a few exceptions they will find the tenants happy and 
contented in their new homes. These tenants would not return 
to the old conditions at any price. One cannot deny that the 
Housing Act did in a few cases cause hardship to owners who were 
solely dependent on the rents for their living. However, these 
were isolated cases, and any form of social reform must of necessity 
entail hardship upon a few for the beneht of the many. 

I would again like to record my very sincere appreciation to 
the Chairmen and Members of the Health, Maternity and Child 
Welfare, Education, Housing and Public Assistance Committees. 
One is encouraged to introduce matters which one considers to be 
of social beneht, knowing that if it can be shown that such is the 
case, the recommendations will receive the sympathetic and careful 
consideration of the Committees concerned. 

I am, Mr. Mayor, Ladies and Gentlemen, 

Your obedient Servant, 



Medical Officer of Health. 




13 


REPORT. 


STATISTICAL SUMMARY FOR THE COUNTY 
BOROUGH OF SOUTHAMPTON. 


Area (land and inland water). Acreage 
Area (including tidal water and foreshore) 
Census Population, April, 1931 ... 
Population, estimated (middle of 1938) 


9.599 

11,109 

176,007 

180,100 


Number of structurally separate dwellings (Census 1931) — 
Occupied ... ... ... ... ... 38,080 

Unoccupied on night of Census ... ... 1,125 


Total private families therein (Census 1931) ... 
Estimated numbers of structurally separate dwellings 
end of 1938 

Rateable value (March, 1939) 

Sum represented by a penny rate 


-39.205 

45.550 

46,668 

£1.632,255 

£6.345 


Births— 

Legitimate Males 1,476 
Illegitimate Males 73 


Females 1,367 
Females 69 


Total 2,843 
Total 142 


1.549 


1,436 Total 2,985 


Birth-rate ... ... ... ... ... ... 16.57 

Stillbirths IMales 56 Females 47 Total 103 

Stillbirth rate per 1,000 total births ... ... 33.3 

Deaths ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2,122 

Death-rate (crude) ... ... ... ... ... 11.8 

Death-rate (revised for age and sex incidence) ... 11.7 


Number of women dying in, or in consequence) from Sepsis i 
of, childbirth ... ... ... ...J other causes 5 

Deaths of infants under one j^ear of age per 1,000 births :— 
Legitimate 51.70 Illegitimate 28.17 Total 50.58 

Deaths from Measles (all ages) ... ... ... ... 5 

Deaths from Whooping Cough (all ages) ... ... i 

Deaths from Diarrhoea (under 2 }'ears of age)... 


7 










14 


Death-rate from Tuberculosis, Cancer and maternal mortality 
in Southampton and England and Wales during the year 1938 :— 


Per 100,000 Population. 

England and Wales. 
Southampton. (provisional rates). 


Respiratory 

Males. 

Females. 

Persons. 

Males. 

Females. Persons. 

Tuberculosis 

72.2 

49.6 

60.5 

65.0 

42.3 

53.2 

Other 

Tuberculosis 

6.8 

7-5 

7.2 

II.4 

9-3 

10.3 

Cancer 

182.9 

179.2 

181.OI 

165.2 

167.6 

166.4 


Maternal mortality (deaths primarily classed to puerperal 
conditions) :— 


Southampton— 

Puerperal 

Sepsis. 

Others. 

Total. 

Per 1,000 live births 

1.00 

1-34 

2.34 

Per 1,000 total births 

0.97 

1.29 

2.26 

England and Wales— 

Per 1,000 live births 

0.89 

2.19 

3.08 

Per 1,000 total births 

0.86 

2.II 

2.97 


POPULATION. 

The estimated population at the Census taken at midnight, 
26th/27th April, 1931, was: Males, 85,478 ; females, 90,529; 
giving a total population for the County Borough at that period 
of 176,007. These figures showed an increase of 15,013, compared 
with the previous Census taken in 1921, an average of 1,500 per 
year during the ten-year period. 

The present population of the County Borough, as estimated 
by the Registrar-General at the middle of 1938, is 180,100, an 
increase of 1,400 over that of the year 1937. 


The following table gives a summary of temperature, rain¬ 
fall and sunshine in Southampton during the year 1938 :— 




Summary of the Kecords of Temperature, Rainfall and Sunshine in Southampton during the year 1938. 
Abstracted from the Monthly Weather Reports of the Meteorological Office. 


15 





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General Provision of Health Services, 

and 

Sanitary Circumstances of the Area. 


B 


i8 


GENERAL PROVISION OF HEALTH SERVICES 

FOR THE AREA. 

The following particulars are inserted by the request of the 

Ministry of Health. 

Hospitals provided or subsidized by the Local Authority. 

A. (i) Borough Hospital. 

This Hospital, previously known as Shirley Warren Infirmary, 
was, on the transfer of the functions of the Poor Law Guardians 
under the Local Government Act, 1929, appropriated by the 
County Borough Council for the purpose of a General Hospital, 
and for the reception of the sick under the Public Health Acts. 
The administration and control of the Hospital were delegated 
by the Borough Council to the Health Committee. 

A detailed Report on the Borough Hospital is given on 
pages 118-126. 

(2) Isolation Hospital. 

This Hospital, known as the Southampton Isolation Hospital 
and Sanatorium, was opened in 1900, and is situated at Millbrook 
within the County Borough. 

The Hospital is constructed of brick, and stands on high 
ground, sloping to the south. The buildings consist of an entrance 
lodge, out-bathing station, mortuary, administration block, five 
pavilions, one of which was erected in 1905, laundry, ambulance 
block, disinfector, and other buildings. In addition to this 
accommodation there are two huts, containing 16 beds each, 
which were erected for the reception of military cases in 1916. 

The total number of beds provided for infectious cases is 
123, and 25 cots ; together with 92 beds for the treatment of 
Tuberculosis, as shewn under the heading, B (i) Tuberculosis. 

Provision has been made for any future extensions necessary, 
the buildings having been arranged with that end in view. The 
original site contained 10.25 acres, and in 1915 the Corporation 
acquired the adjoining land and buildings, which comprised an 
additional area of about 44 acres, making a total of 54.25 acres, 
but in 1937 the Health Committee transferred to the Housing 
Committee 4.5 acres for the building of 48 houses, leaving 
the present acreage of land belonging to the Health Committee 
at 49.75 acres. 


19 


(3) Small Pox Hospital. 

The Small Pox Hospital is situated at Millbrook Marsh, on 
a triangular piece of land 21.30 acres in extent. It is bounded 
on the south side by the Southampton Water, on the east by the 
new Docks Extension, and on the north side by the sewage works 
in the course of construction. Accommodation for 30 cases is 
provided in three huts, and one observation hut. Staff quarters, 
disinfection hut, laundry, and other offices are provided. 

The land has been divided into three portions : 5.68 acres 
for the Small Pox Hospital, 13.83 acres for sewage disposal 
works for the western district of the Borough, and 1.25 acres 
reserved for a recreation ground. A strip of land, 0.54 of an acre 
in extent, has been disposed of to the Southern Railway. 

(4) Royal South Hants and Southampton Hospital. 

This is a voluntary Hospital, containing 280 beds. The 
Southampton Corporation make an annual grant to this Hospital 
of £1,050. 

(5) Southampton Children’s Hospital. 

This is a voluntary Hospital for the treatment of children, 
and contains 55 beds. The Southampton Corporation make an 
annual grant to this Hospital of £250. 

(6) Free Eye Hospital. 

This is a voluntary Hospital of 26 beds, specialising in the 
treatment of eye conditions. The Southampton Corporation make 
an annual grant to this Hospital of £15 15s. od. 

B. (i) Tuberculosis. 

Ninety-two beds are available for the treatment of cases of 
tuberculosis in three pavilions set aside for this purpose at the 
Isolation Hospital. 

The new pavilion of 44 beds for the treatment of this 
condition was opened in 1937. 

Forty-five beds are also provided in the Borough Hospital for 
the treatment of tuberculosis. These beds are chiefly used for the 
treatment and isolation of advanced cases. 

(2) Maternity. 

A Maternity Unit of 49 beds, attached to the Borough 
Hospital, was opened during 1937. 


20 


Ambulance Facilities. 

(a) For Infectious Cases. 

Three motor ambulances, with the necessary staff for the 
removal of infectious cases, are provided by the Corporation. 

(b) For Non-Infectious and Accident Cases. 

Two ambulances are provided by the Health Committee, 
and are used for the removal of cases to the Borough Hospital. 

For non-infectious and accident cases, ambulances are 
provided by the Fire Brigade, the Red Cross Society, and the 
Public Assistance Committee. 


Clinics and Treatment Centres. 

The following Clinics and Treatment Centres are provided 
by the Local Authority :— 

Maternity Centre and Infant Clinic... No. 23, East Park Terrace. 
Ditto ... ... ... ... Sydney House, Bitterne. 


Welcomes for Mothers and Infants :— 

Sydney House, Bitterne. 

Holy Trinity Institute, Winton Street, Kingsland. 

Rechabite Hall, St. James’ Road, Shirley. 

Congregational Hall, Cobden Avenue, Bitterne Park. 

Eastern District Schools, Albert Road. 

Salvation Army Hall, Millbank Street, Northam. 

St. Mark’s Institute, Victoria Road, Woolston. 

Bowden Lane Mission, Bowden Lane, Portswood. (Monday 
and Thursday.) 

Congregational Schoolrooms, Bramston Road, Shirley. 


Tuberculosis Dispensary 
Ditto 

School Clinic (see separate Report) 
Ditto 

Ditto Branch 

Ditto Branch 

Treatment Centre for Venereal 
Diseases 

Ditto (Females) 

Ditto (In-Patients) 


... No. I, East Park Terrace. 
... Sydney House, Bitterne. 

East Park Terrace. 

... Sydney House, Bitterne. 

... Swaythling. 

... Shirley Warren. 

... East Park Terrace. 

... No. 23, East Park Terrace. 
... Borough Hospital. 


« • • 


21 


Professional Nursing in the Home. 

(a) General. 

Nursing is provided by the Queen Victoria Jubilee Nurses' 
Institute for cases brought to their notice by the Health Visitors. 
A grant is made by the Council to the Institute in aid of this 
work. Particulars of the work carried out by the Institute is 
given on page 49. 

(b) Infectious Diseases. 

Cases where proper isolation or adequate nursing arrange¬ 
ments cannot be provided in their homes are removed to the 
Isolation Hospital for treatment. Cases of measles, chicken pox 
and other diseases coming to the knowledge of the department are 
visited by the Health Visitors, and, if necessary, removed to the 
Isolation Hospital. Disinfection is carried out at the home after 
removal or recovery of cases, and the bedding and other articles 
removed to the West Quay Disinfecting Station. 

Midwives. 

The number of midwives practising in the area during the 
year was 49, all of whom are certificated midwives. 

On the 30th July, 1937, a Municipal Midwifery Service was 
commenced, and details are given on page 46. 

Maternity and Nursing Homes. 

The number of registered Nursing Homes at the present 
time is 24. 

Chemical Work. 

The chemical work is carried out by the Public Analyst in 
the Borough Laboratory. 

Legislation in Force. 

Local Acts dealing with Sanitary Matters : 

The Southampton Improvement Act, 1844. The South¬ 
ampton Corporation Act, 1910. The Southampton Corporation 
Act, 1931. The Southampton Corporation Act, 1937. 



22 


General Adoptive Acts. 

<% 

Public Health (Amendment) Act, 1890, except Part IV, 
Public Health (Amendment) Act, 1907. Public Health Act, 

1925. 

Bye-Laws. 

Common Lodging Houses; Houses let in Lodgings; 
Slaughter-houses ; New Streets and Buildings; Drainage of 
existing houses ; Tents, vans, sheds or other similar structures ; 
For the prevention of nuisances arising from snow, filth, dust, 
ashes and rubbish, and for prevention of keeping of animals 
on any premises so as to be injurious to health ; Spitting in 
public places ; Offensive Trades; Supervision and control of 
hairdressers’ premises. 


MORTUARY. 

A new Mortuary opened on the 4th February, 1936, 
situated adjoining the Disinfecting Station at West Quay, 
is well equipped and of modern design. 

A full description of this building was given in my 
Annual Report for the year 1935. 





23 


SANITARY CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE DISTRICT. 

The following particulars have been kindly supplied by the 
Waterworks Engineer :— 

Southampton Corporation Waterworks. 

The statutory area of supply of the Corporation’s Water 
Undertaking extends to 225 square miles, and includes, in addition 
to a large country district, the Boroughs of Southampton, Romsey, 
and Eastleigh. 

The whole of the present supply is derived from wells and 
adits in the upper chalk at Otterbourne, Twyford and Timsbury, 
where the Pumping Stations of the Undertaking are situated. 
The Corporation has powers to abstract water from the River 
Itchen at Otterbourne for water supply purposes, and to meet 
future requirements, the river supply will be used as may be 
necessary to augment the supplies from the existing wells. 

The water from the Corporation’s wells is a typical chalk 
water, clear and bright in appearance, free from solid matter in 
suspension, and having a total hardness of about 16° Clark’s scale. 
At each of the Pumping Stations the water is softened down to 
about 8° before distribution. All water is sterilised by means of 
the Chloramine process before being pumped to supply, and is 
submitted to frequent and regular examination. It is of a high 
degree of purity. 

During the year ended 31st March, 1939, the average daily 
consumption throughout the Corporation’s area of supply was 
10,086,000 gallons, with a maximum day’s supply of 12,547,000 
gallons. The estimated average daily consumption per head of 
population supplied during the year in question was 32.55 gallons, 
of which 21.30 gallons were used for domestic purposes, and the 
remaining 11.25 gallons for trade and other metered supplies. 

Samples of water are regularly taken from the various sources 
and submitted to bacteriological examination. 

The following table shows the number of samples taken, 
source, and the result of the examination :— 


24 


BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF WATER, 1938. 


Description 
of Water. 

Total 

Number 

of 

Samples. 

B. CoLi. in Samples. 

Absent in 

100 c.cs. 

Present in 

100 c.cs. 

Absent in 

50 c.cs. 

Present in 

50 c.cs. 

Absent in 

10 c.cs. 

Present in 

10 c.cs. 

Otterbourne— 






Well 

35 

16 

12 

4 

3 

Treated ... 

58 

56 

2 

Nil 

Nil 

Twyford— 






Well 

37 

22 

10 

4 

I 

Treated ... 

54 

53 

I 

Nil 

Nil 

Timsbury— 






Well 

38 

17 

10 

4 

7 

Treated ... 

55 

42 

10 

3 

Nil 

Distribution 






System 

47 

43 

3 

I 

Nil 


Work has recently been commenced in connection with the 
River Itchen Supply. By the Southampton Corporation Act, 
1931, the Corporation may take from the River Itchen up to 
10 million gallons of water per day at any time when they are 
supplying more than ii million gallons per day from their existing 
wells. 

The new Works, which will form the first instalment of the 
Scheme, will have a capacity of 3J million gallons per day, and 
will be completed in about two years' time : further extensions 
to the Works will be constructed from time to time as the 
demand for water increases. 

Water will be pumped from the river to purification works, 
where it will be softened, filtered and sterilised. After treatment 
it will be repumped to the various service reservoirs, and will be 
used for the general augmentation of the supply throughout 
the whole of the Corporation's area. 















VITAL STATISTICS, 


Births, Deaths and Infantile Mortality. 



26 


BIRTHS. 

The total number of births occurring among residents of the 
Borough was 2,985, as compared with 2,836 in the previous 
year. The actual number of births registered in the Borough was 
3,095> of which 179 were non-resident. 

The birth-rate was 16.5, which is an increase of 0.63 
compared with the previous year. The birth-rate in 1937 was 
15.87, as compared with an average of 16.6 for the previous 
ten years. 

The excess of births over deaths was 863, compared with 
619 in 1937 and 646 in 1936. 

The following were the birth-rates in the Municipal Wards 
during the year :— 


Bitterne & Sholing 

25-5 

Trinity 

... 17.6 

Bitterne & Pear Tree 

19.4 

Bevois 

... 13-3 

Shirley 

18.5 

Portswood ... 

... 13-3 

Northam 

16.1 

Newtown ... 

... 12.5 

St. Nicholas 

16.6 

All Saints ... 

9.6 

Millbrook ... 

15-2 

Town 

... 14.2 

St. Denys ... 

15-5 

Freemantle 

... 12.7 

St. Mary’s ... 

13.2 

Banister 

... 13-2 

Woolston ... 

15.2 




Of the total of 2,985 births, 1,549 were males and 1,436 
females. 

The number of illegitimate births recorded was 142, of 
which 73 were males and 69 females. 

The Notification of Births Act came into operation in the 
Borough on the 9th March, 1908. This Act requires any person 
in attendance upon the mother within six hours after the time 
of birth, to notify the Medical Officer of Health in writing of 
such birth within thirty-six hours of the birth having occurred. 










:: 


S o 
es 


<o 

C4 


3 


•oc^ — Q oaor^«ovs^»oc4—«o 


I 


BIRTH & DEATH RATES, PER 1000 OF THE POPULATION IN SOUTHAMPTON SINCE 1873 



































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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27 


The number of notifications of births received under the 
Notification of Births Act during the last five years are shown 


in the followine: table :— 
Notified by— 


1934 . 

Doctors and Parents ... 724 

Midwives ... ... 2,064 

1935 . 

524 

2.043 

1936 . 

736 

2,147 

1937 . 

519 

2,338 

1938 . 

482 

2,635 

2,788 

2,567 

2,883 

2.857 

3 >ii 7 

Percentage of live births 
notified ... ... ... 95.1 

92.9 

95-8 

97.6 

97-4 


DEATHS. 

The death-rate of the County Borough for the year was 
II. 8 per 1,000 of the population, being a decrease of o.6 
compared with the previous year. The average death-rate for 
the previous ten years was i2.o. 

The total deaths registered in the Borough amounted to 
1,962, of which 143 were non-residents. One hundred and 
sixty deaths of residents of the Borough occurred in other 
districts in England and Wales. 


The death-rate in each of the 

Municipal Wards 

per 1,000 of 

the population was :—■ 




St. Nicholas 

9.0 

All Saints ... 

... 12.3 

Bitterne & Sholing 

9-4 

Newtown ... 

... 12.0 

Bitterne & Pear Tree 

7-9 

Portswood ... 

... 10.6 

Shirley 

12.9 

Freemantle 

... 14.6 

Banister 

13-9 

Trinity 

... 14.5 

St. Denys ... 

12.9 

Bevois 

... 16.0 

St. Mary’s ... 

10.8 

Northam 

- 13-5 

Millbrook ... 

9.2 

Town 

... 17.3 

Woolston ... 





Of the 1,962 deaths registered in the Borough, 1,016, equal 
to 51.7 per cent., occurred in Public Institutions, compared 
with 45.5 per cent, in 1936 and 44.7 in 1935. 
















TABLE 1. 

Showing Population, Birth Rates, Infantile Mortality Rates and Death Rates in each of the Municipal Wards for the 

Year 1938, together with the Average Rates for the previous Ten Years 1928—1937. 


28 


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t Includes deaths from Small Pox, Enteric Fever, Scarlet Fever, Diphtheria, Measles, Whooping Cough, and Diarrhoea 

and Enteritis under two years of age. 









































29 


TABLE 2. 


'r.VHLK SlIOWINfJ- 
CLASSIFIKI) 


Deaths of Persons belonging to Southampton, 

ACCORDING TO AGES AND SEX FOR 10 A'EARS. 


AGES. 


SEX. 


in 


Year 

0 

to 

I 

1 

to 

2 

2 

to 

5 

5 

to 

15 

15 

to 

25 

25 

to 

35 

35 

to 

45 

45 

to 

55 

55 

to 

65 

65 

to 

75 

75 

to 

85 

85 

to 

95 

95 & 
Up¬ 
wards 

t/D 

75 

OJ 

e 

(V 

U. 

Total 

1929 

198 

36 

46 

53 

100 

98 

131 

265 

378 

458 

419 

127 

6 

1255 

1090 

2315 

1930 

184 

44 

50 

b8 

87 

109 

137 

235 

339 

411 

349 

92 

5 

1116 

994 

2110 

1931 

144 

29 

19 

34 

77 

88 

104 

225 

304 

438 

394 

121 

4 

1052 

929 

1981 

1932 

161 

40 

34 

39 

72 

97 

116 

238 

375 

439 

388 

128 

9 

1120 

1016 

2136 

1933 

165 

27 

20 

52 

71 

92 

III 

230 

354 

465 

413 

129 

2 

1098 

1033 

2131 

1931 

146 

16 

26 

50 

63 

108 

124 

216 

386 

460 

391 

117 

5 

1118 

996 

2114 

1935 

124 

17 

38 

46 

66 

89 

91 

211 

341 

495 

388 

108 

6 

1102 

gi8 

2020 

1936 

151 

29 

33 

48 

54 

82 

III 

216 

356 

507 

456 

119 

12 

1142 

1032 

2174 

1937 

138 

22 

20 

31 

68 

85 

II ^ 

190 

418 

527 

442 

141 

12 

1206 

999 

2205 

1938 

150 

8 

16 

29 

63 

82 

106 

192 

359 

493 

491 

127 

6 

1123 

999 

2122 



V !,f 


H I i>0: 

TABLE 3. 


Causes of Deaths in Southaaipton for 10 years, 1929 to 1938 , 


Cause of Death. 

1 

19291930 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

1938 

Enteric Fever 

3 

2 

• • • 

• ♦ • 


I 

I 

I 

I 

I 

Small Pox ... 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

... 

... 

. . . 

• . • 

• • * 

Measles 

I 

43 

I 

14 

6 

, 9 

3 

29 

. • • 

5 

Scarlet P'ever 

3 

2 

I 

... 

I 

I 

2 

• • . 

2 

... 

Whooping Cough ... 

29 

4 

14 

13 

7 

15 

6 

6 

6 

I 

Diphtheria ... 

23 

30 

12 

2 

9 

21 

36 

15 

10 

6 

Influenza ... 

93 

8 

43 

56 

50 

14 

14 

8 

63 

2 

Erysipelas ... 

5 

6 

I 

7 

I 

7 

2 

3 

2 

4 

Phthisis (Pulmonary Tuberculosis) 

200 

197 

154 

187 

159 

173 

148 

131 

129 

109 

Tuberculous Meningitis ... 

25 

16 

7 

14 

12 

10 

4 

5 

14 

9 

Other Tuberculous Diseases 

14 

10 

9 

11 

14 

7 

9 

10 

h 

4 

Cancer, malignant disease 

289 

286 

251 

305 

284 

284 

299 

325 

305 

317 

Rheumatic P'ever ... 

9 

10 

10 

8 

8 

7 

7 

8 

6 

7 

Meningitis ... 

9 

5 

2 

8 

5 

5 

4 

7 

7 

3 

Organic Heart Disease 

288 

314 

369 

350 

399 

417 

436 

461 

657 

582 

Bronchitis ... 

214 

124 

146 

117 

106 

96 

60 

61 

36 

lOI 

Pneumonia (all forms) 

Other Diseases of Respiratory 

I 80 

124 

186 

197 

172 

138 

117 

138 

158 

90 

Organs ... 

10 

17 

15 

10 

11 

14 

8 

19 

20 

163 

Diarrhoea and Enteritis ... 

25 

20 

14 

18 

8 

8 

13 

20 

14 

9 

Appendicitis 

15 

14 

14 

13 

12 

II 

II 

9 

9 

14 

Cirrhosis of Liver ... 

7 

7 

5 

8 

6 

8 

7 

7 

11 

10 

Alcoholism 

I 

2 

2 

... 

3 

. . 

. . 

I 

3 

. . 

Nephritis and Bright’s Disease ... 

107 

128 

104 

77 

102 

116 

99 

97 

71 

121 

Puerperal Fever ... 

Other Accidents and Diseases of 

6 

11 

4 

3 

3 

5 

4 

2 

I 

I 

Pregnancy and Parturition 
Congenital Debility and Malforma- 

8 

4 

1 

9 

8 

9 

12 

10 

4 

5 

tion, including Premature Birth 

82 

85 

60 

75 

79 

70 

60 

49 

71 

67 

\’iolent Deaths, excluding Suicide 

57 

75 

59 

64 

61 

70 

66 

72 

65 

93 

Suicide 

0 c; 

39 

30 

30 

25 

35 

35 

31 

28 

22 

Other Diseases 

587 

527 

497 

540 

580 

563 

557 

649 

506 

376 

Totals ... 

2315 2110 

1 

1981 

2136 

2131 

2114 

2020 

2174 

2205 2122 

1 









































































TABLE 4. 

Table showing Deaths from All Causes belonging to the County Borough of Southampton during the Year 1938 
(52 weeks ended 31st December, 1938), classified according to Diseases and Ages. (This Table includes deaths of 
“ Residents ” occurring in other districts, and excludes deaths of “ Non-Residents,” in accordance with the Rules of the 

Registrar-General). 


30 



















































































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TABLE 4.—Continued. 


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TABLE 4.—Continued. 


37 


























































































TABLE 5.—Causes of Deaths in the Municipal Wards during the year 1938 . 


38 


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COMPARATIVE STATISTICS RELATING TO SOUTHAMPTON AND 31 OTHER COUNTY BOROUGHS. 


County Borough of ... 

Southampton. 

Aberdeen. 

Birkenhead. 

Blackburn. 

Bolton. 

Bournemouth. 

Bradford. 

Cardiff. 

Coventry. 

Croydon. 

Derby. 

Dundee. 

East Ham. 

Gateshead. 

Grimsby. 

Huddersfield. 

Leicester. 

Middles- 

borough. 

Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne. 

Norwich. 

Nottingham. 

Oldham. 

Plymouth. 

Portsmouth. 

Preston. 

Southend- 

on-Sea. 

Stockport. 

Sunderland. 

Wallasey. 

Walsall. 

West Ham. 

Wolver¬ 

hampton. 

Population as estimated by Registrar- 
General, Middle, 1938 

180,100 

178,199 

144,400 

113,000 

169,400 

122,100 

288,700 

223,110 

213,000 

243,400 

139,000 

177,960 

129,500 

117,000 

92,320 

125,630 

263,300 

139,800 

291,300 

122,300 

278,300 

126,100 

211,800 

258,400 

113,200 

138,100 

134,800 

182,400 

94,220 

107,300 

254,900 

145,300 

Comparability Factor ... 

0.99 

... 

1.09 

1.03 

1.09 

0.75 

1.00 

1.06 

1.21 

0.96 

1.04 

1.0 

1.10 

1.13 

1.07 

1.03 

1.02 

1.18 

1.13 

0.92 

1.03 

1.12 

0.98 

0.99 

1.11 

0.91 

1.05 

1.12 

0.98 

1.12 

1.15 

1.08 

Per 1,000 

Population. 

_ 1 __ 

Birth Rate... 

16.57 

16.88 

17.0 

12.2 

13.5 

11.17 

13.51 

15.79 

17.0 

... 

14.2 

17.6 

14.1 

17.1 

17.4 

14.13 

14.71 

19.77 

16.1 

13.07 

15.57 

13.3 

15.6 

14.73 

15.60 

10.84 

14.35 

19.19 

13.7 

18.62 

... 

16.9 

Crude Death Rate 

11.86 

12.0 

12.1 

14.6 

13.1 

13.98 

13.78 

11.97 

9.8 

10.255 

11.6 

14.40 

10.6 

12.5 

11.4 

13.12 

11.21 

12.3 

12.4 

11.98 

12.72 

14.4 

12.2 

12.21 

13.01 

12.48 

13.03 

12.75 

12.9 

10.99 

10.86 

11.3 

> Death Rate as adjusted by Factor 

11.74 

12.1 

13.1 

15.0 

14.2 

10.485 

13.78 

12.68 

11.8 

9.844 

12.1 

14.40 

11.6 

14.1 

12.2 

13.51 

11.43 

14.73 

14.0 

11.02 

13.10 

16.13 

11.95 

12.09 

14.44 

11.35 

13.68 

14.28 

12.63 

12.30 

12.49 

12.2 

1 Death Rates per 1,000 Population from :— 

■ Small Pox 

... 

... 




... 




... 





... 

... 

... 


... 


... 








... 

... 

... 

... 

Measles 

0.02 

0.10 

0.20 


0.05 

0.0082 

0.05 


0.009 

0.033 

0.014 

0.40 

0.03 

0.16 

0.06 

... 

0.004 

0.01 

0.07 

0.033 

0.03 

0.063 

0.12 

0.04 

0.11 

0.029 

0.03 

0.04 


0.01 

0.08 

0.01 

Scarlet Fever . 

0.01 

0.006 

... 

0.02 

0.01 


0.01 

0.004 

0.009 

0.012 

0.007 

0.04 


... 

... 

... 


0.01 

... 

... 

0.01 

0.016 

... 

0.03 

... 

0.007 

0.01 

0.03 

0.02 


0.01 

• . . 

Whooping Cough . 

0.07 

0.18 

0.01 


0.0163 

0.04 

0.05 

0.014 

0.012 


0.03 

0.02 

0.09 

0.03 

0.01 

0.34 

0.02 

0.01 

0.033 

0.04 

0.008 

0.05 

... 

0.009 

... 

0.01 

0.03 

0.08 

0.07 

0.03 

0.06 

Diphtheria ... 

0.03 

0.11 

0.07 

0.08 

0.12 

0.0245 

0.08 

0.03 

0.019 

0.066 

0.043 

0.07 

0.07 

0.12 

0.03 

0.02 

0.125 

0.08 

0.08 

0.074 

0.01 

0.095 

0.07 

0.06 

0.053 

0.029 

0.12 

0.09 

0.14 

0.03 

0.08 

0.05 

Typhoid and Para-typhoid 

0.005 

0.006 




0.0082 

... 


0.005 

0.049 

0.014 

0.02 

0.007 

... 

... 

... 

0.004 

0.0007 


... 

... 

... 



... 

0.021 

0.01 

0.005 

0.01 

... 

0.01 

0.01 

Diarrhoea under two years... 

0.055 

0.12 

0.20 

2.88 

0.01 

0.0327 

0.08 

0.05 

0.080 

0.095 

0.094 

0.08 

0.06 

0.11 

0.10 

0.01 

0.065 

0.17 

0.18 

0.041 

1.0 

0.048 

0.02 

0.19 

0.035 

0.051 

0.10 

0.28 

0.08 

0.11 

0.15 

0.10 

Influenza 

0.03 

0.03 

0.07 

0.07 

0.14 

0.18 

0.09 

0.08 

0.160 

0.086 

0.072 

0.07 

0.07 

0.11 

0.02 

0.06 

0.076 

0.11 

0.08 

0.057 

0.07 

0.151 

0.02 

0.11 

0.09 

0.072 

0.12 

0.12 

0.06 

0.25 

0.06 

0.10 

< - 

Tuber¬ 

culosis. 

Pulmonary ... 

0.61 

0.38 

0.67 

0.68 

0.44 

0.434 

0.53 

0.86 

0.648 

0.487 

0.55 

0.62 

0.62 

0.98 

0.66 

0.42 

0.665 

0.94 

0.85 

0.51 

0.69 

0.63 

0.63 

0.63 

0.61 

0.5 

0.53 

0.77 

0.61 

0.60 

0.68 

0.67 

Other forms ... 

0.076 

0.10 

0.11 

0.14 

0.10 

0.114 

0.10 

0.13 

0.094 

0.082 

0.09 

0.20 

0.06 

0.17 

0.08 

0.10 

0.087 

0.15 

0.15 

0.049 

0.13 

0.12 

0.12 

0.11 

0.17 

0.042 

0.15 

0.10 

0.09 

0.06 

0.08 

0.10 

Infantile Mortality Rate 

50.6 

71.0 

75.0 

67.0 

44.0 

44.72 

58.0 

52.0 

56.0 


61.3 

77.0 

51.0 

66.0 

49.0 

66.0 

45.9 

75.0 

66.0 

35.04 

71.0 

61.27 

53.25 

60.15 

71.0 

34.0 

56.36 

67.0 

60.3 

64.6 


55.0 

Maternal 
Mortality 
per 1,000 
total Births. 

1 

From Sepsis ... 

1.00 

2.2 

0.78 

0.68 

1.65 

0.70 

0.49 

1.35 

0.828 



3.20 

0.52 

0.47 

1.80 

2.70 

1.25 

2.08 

1.03 

1.21 

0.44 

2.28 

0.58 

0.25 

1.70 

... 

... 

0.82 

0.77 

0.97 


1.57 

From other causes ... 

1.34 

2.2 

1.16 

3.41 

4.55 

0.70 

3.66 

2.44 

1.932 


0.97 

2.56 

1.57 

1.91 

4.20 

1.62 

1.25 

2.08 

2.27 

1.81 

1.33 


1.45 

2.03 

... 

2.567 

2.94 

3.03 

2.32 

1.93 


1.96 

Total. 

2.34 

4.4 

1.94 

4.09 

6.20 

1.41 

4.15 

3.79 

2.76 

... 

0.97 

5.76 

2.09 

2.39 

6.0 

4.32 

2.5 

4.17 

3.30 

3.02 

1.77 

2.28 

2.03 

2.28 

1.70 

2.567 

2.94 

3.86 

3.09 

2.90 


3.53 

























































































































































































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40 


INFANTILE MORTALITY. 

The deaths of infants under one year of age recorded 
during the year was 150, which is an increase of 12 deaths 
compared with the previous year. 

The infantile mortality rate in Southampton for 5 years 
during the periods from 1879 is shown in the following table :— 


Period. 


Infantile Mortality Rate. 


Average 5 years, 1897—1901 

... 159 

$9 

9 9 

1902—1906 

... 120 

99 

99 

1907—I9II 

... 108 

99 

99 

1912—1916 

... 86 

99 

9 9 

1917—1921 

... 76 

99 

9 9 

1922—1926 

- 59 

99 

9 9 

1927—1931 ... 

56 

9 9 

9 9 

1932—1936 ... 

52 


During the last five years the infantile mortality rate has 
been as follows :— 


1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

1938 


Infantile Mortality 
Rate. 

... 52 

42 

52 

... 4^ 

50 









Maternity and Child Welfare, 







42 


MATERNITY AND CHILD WELFARE. 

I (a). Midwives Acts, 1918-1936. Insurance Scheme. 

In connection with the Insurance Scheme, an expectant 
mother, who comes within the income limit, on booking her 
conhnement with a midwife, may send the sum of 7/6 for a first 
pregnancy, and 6/- for any subsequent pregnancy to the Medical 
Officer of Health, which will insure her against any liability that 
may be incurred by the services of a doctor being requisitioned 
by the midwife in accordance with the rules of the Central Mid¬ 
wives’ Board, after the expiration of one week of the date of the 
official receipt. 

The number of cases from whom the insurance fee was 
received under the Scheme during the year was 1,063, ^ decrease 
of 139 compared with the previous year, and a decrease of 306 
when compared with the number who insured in 1936. 

The following statement shows the working of the Insurance 
Scheme since its inauguration in the year 1927 and its cost to the 
Local Authority. It must, however, be borne in mind that if the 
Insurance Scheme had not been adopted, the cost to the Authority 
in the non-collection of fees paid would have been greater. 


(a) Insured Patients and Applications for Medical Aid. 


Year 
ended 
31st Dec. 

Births and 
Still Births 
attended by 
Mid wives. 

Ins 

ured. 

Numt 

er of 

No. 

Percent¬ 

age. 

Form A 
Notices 
Received. 

Percent¬ 

age. 

1928 

2265 

1024 

45-2 

779 

34-4 

1929 

2368 

1455 

61.4 

949 

40.1 

1930 

2420 

1636 

67.6 

1008 

41.7 

1931 

2182 

1516 

69-5 

995 

45-6 

1932 

2342 

1256 

53-6 

986 

42.1 

1933 

2053 

1234 

60.1 

906 

44.1 

1934 

2024 

1084 

53-5 

974 

48.1 

1935 

1976 

1184 

59-9 

1019 

51-6 

1936 

2179 

1369 

62.8 

989 

45-4 

1937 

2565 

1202 

46.86 

1353 

52.7 

1938 

2700 

1063 

39-37 

1043 

38-63 






















43 


(b) Receipts and Payments. 


Year 

ended 

31st 

Mar. 

Receipts 

from 

Insured 

Cases. 



Payments to Doctors. 



Non- 

Insured 

Cases. 

Total. 

Insured 

Cases. 

Non- 

Insured 

Cases. 

Total. 

Loss on 
Insurance 
Scheme. 


£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

1928 

123 

91 

214 

213 

295 

508 

90 

5 months 
only. 

1929 

294 

58 

352 

577 

164 

741 

283 

1930 

368 

38 

406 

721 

164 

885 

353 

1931 

391 

59 

450 

706 

126 

832 

315 

1932 

396 

49 

445 

693 

227 

920 

297 

1933 

421 

67 

488 

998 

366 

1364 

577 

1934 

408 

72 

480 

583 

243 

826 

175 

1935 

349 

20 

369 

661 

244 

905 

312 

1936 

374 

89 

463 

645 

301 

946 

271 

1937 

472 

126 

598 

657 

161 

818 

220 

1938 

440 

14 

454 

612 

371 

983 

172 


I (b). Inspection of Midwives. 

The number of midwives who notihed their intention to 
practise in the County Borough during the year was 49. 
The supervision of midwives is carried out by a qualified 
Inspector of Midwives appointed by the Council. The number 
of routine inspections made during the year was 130. 

The midwifery registers, ante-natal records, charts, etc., were 
well recorded and kept up to date. 

The wearing of caps, overalls, masks and gloves are advocated, 
to reduce the danger of infection. When a case of infection was 
reported, the midwife was immediately taken off and a Queen's 
Nurse put on to nurse the case. The midwife and her appliances 
were afterwards thoroughly disinfected by the Local Supervising 
Authority. 

The disinfection of a midwife who comes in contact with 
any form of infection is carried out at the Disinfecting Station, 
W'est Quay, a trained nurse being in attendance to supervise the 
disinfection of the midwife and her equipment. 























44 


Seventeen midwives were disinfected at West Quay Dis¬ 


infecting Station for the following causes :— 

Contacts with puerperal pyrexia ... ... 7 

Chicken pox ... ... ... ... ... i 

Pemphigus ... ... ... ... ... i 

Rashes ... ... ... ... ... ... i 

Contact with measles ... ... ... ... 3 

Impetigo ... ... ... ... ... ... I 

Breast abscess ... ... ... ... ... 2 

Diphtheria ... ... ... ... ... i 

Total ... 17 


Lectures.— During the year a course of post-certificate 
lectures was again arranged by the Secretary of the Local Mid¬ 
wives' Association, the Council contributing towards the cost of 
the fees of the lecturers. 


I give below a list of the lectures held, which were very 
interesting and well attended by the local midwives :— 


Mr. R. Knowlton 
Miss Liddiard, Mothercraft 
Training School 
Mr. R. Christie Brown 
Dame Louise Mcllroy 

Miss Doubleday 
Dr. Maule Horn 


Ante-natal Care.” 

‘‘ Breast Feeding.” 

" Difficult Labour.” 

'' Puerperal Sepsis and its 
Consequences.” 

" Domiciliary Midwifery.” 
‘‘ Toxaemiae.” 


The following are the particulars of notifications received by 
the Local Supervising Authority, and visits made in connection 
with midwifery work during the year :— 


N otifications— 

Intention to practise ... ... ... ... 49 

Sending for medical aid ... ... ... 1043 

Stillbirths ... ... ... ... ... 30 

Artificial feeding ... ... ... ... 44 

Death of infant ... ... ... ... ... 19 

Contact with infectious disease ... ... 17 

Puerperal pyrexia ... ... ... ... 56 

Ophthalmia neonatorum ... ... ... 22 

Laying out dead bodies ... ... ... 4 






















45 


Visits— 

By Inspector of Midwives— 

Routine inspection of Midwives ... ... 130 

Routine inspection of Maternity Homes ... 83 

By Inspector and Health Visitors— 

Special visits of enquiry ... ... ... 422 

The conditions for which medical aid was sought by the 
midwives during 1938 were :— 

Mother. 


Ante-partum haemorrhage 


41 

Post-partum haemorrhage 


18 

Premature, delayed or prolonged labour 


II6 

Mal-presentation 


20 

Retained placenta 


7 

Ruptured perineum 


162 

Threatened abortion or miscarriage 


28 

General condition unsatisfactory— 

Ante-natal 

3471 


During puerperium 

6x 

423 

Post-natal 

I5J 


Rise of temperature 

. . . 

22 

Albuminuria and high blood pressure 

. . . 

52 

Thrombosed or varicose veins 

. . . 

25 

Child. 

Premature birth ... 


II 

Dangerous feebleness 


II 

Malformation of infant 


7 

Tongue tie 


I 

Discharge from eyes 


44 

Pemphigus 


— 

General condition unsatisfactory 


51 

Still births 

• • • 

4 


Total ... 


1043 






















46 


I (c.) Midwives Act, 1936. 

The Midwives Act, 1936, under which the Corporation pro¬ 
vided a Municipal Midwifery Service for the district, came into 
operation on the 31st July, 1937. 


A complete report regarding the administration for this new 
scheme was given in my Annual Report for the year 1936. 


The following is a report of the work carried out under this 
scheme from the ist January, 1938, to the 31st December, 1938 :— 


Number of cases— 

Maternity 
Emergencies ... 

Midwifery 

Number of times doctor called in on Form '"A's 
for— 

Ante-natal 

Delivery 

Post-natal 

Infants 

Number of Forms ‘‘ B 

}} yy 

yy yy 

y y yy 

y y yy 

Number of cases of— 

Ophthalmia neonatorum 
Pemphigus neonatorum 
Puerperal pyrexia 
Still births 
Neo-natal deaths 

Number of patients removed to Hospital 
Number of times midwives disinfected ... 
Number of attendances by midwives at Municipal 
Clinics— 

Ante-natal . 

Post-natal . 

Infant welfare centres 


C 

D 

E ” 
F 


r ^ T? ^ > 


115 


531 - 1042 
874) 


332 

127 


199 



9 


II 



4 

12 

15 


4 

3 

II 

22 

15 

41 

28 


444 

53 

359 















47 


Form "A’s ” (for medical aid). 
Ante-natal— 

Referred to private practitioners 
Referred to Ante-Natal Clinic 
Albuminuria ... 

Miscarriages 

Ante-partum haemorrhage 
Labour— 

Delivery 

Post-partum haemorrhage 
Ruptured perineum ... 

Retained placenta 
Breech and footling ... 
Malformation ... 

Feebleness 
Puerperium— 

Rise of temperature ... 

AMricose veins 

Unsatisfactory general condition 
Eyes 

Post-natal— 

Unsatisfactory general condition 


Mother. Child. 

... i86 — 

••153 — 

..26 — 

.. 14 — 

..22 — 


71 — 

4 — 

98 — 

6 — 

15 — 

— 6 

— 9 

16 — 

2 — 

24 40 

— 23 

2 — 




Midwives' Fees. 

The number of applications received for the payment of 
midwives’ fees in necessitous cases during the year was not so 
great as formerly. In ten cases only were the fees paid during 
1938, as compared with nineteen in the previous year. 

Home Helps. 

The Sub-Committee appointed to deal with these applicants 
meet once a month, when applications for payment of women to 
carry out these duties, and look after the mothers and children 
during the lying-in period, receive sympathetic and careful 
attention, so that no mother is without the help required at 
this trying period. 












48 


During the past year 191 new applications were received and 
dealt with. Of these, 166 were granted, and 25 refused as not 
eligible. 

The usual period for which a Home Help is supplied is two 
weeks, but authority has been given to the Superintendent Health 
Visitor to extend this period on application and recommendation 
by the midwife for a further period, if it is found that extra rest 
and care is needed for the mother. 

Full particulars of the methods of procedure, duties and rules 
relating to Home Helps, etc., were given in the 1935 Report ; it 
will therefore not be necessary to repeat the information in this 
volume. 

Nursing Homes Registration Act, 1927. 

Quarterly inspections have been made of all the registered 
Nursing Homes, and these were found to be in a generally good 
condition, particularly the larger Nursing Homes. 

It was necessary, however, to call for certain repairs and 
alterations to be carried out in respect of some of the registered 
Homes. 

The following is a record of the action taken during the year : 

(1) Number of applications for registration ... 4 

Ditto withdrawn ... ... ... ... 4 

(2) Total number of Homes registered ... 24 

(3) Number of orders made refusing or cancelling 

registration ... ... ... ... nil 

(4) Number of appeals against such orders ... nil 

(5) Number of cases in which such orders have 

been 

(a) Conhrmed on appeal ... ... nil 

(b) Disallowed ... ... ... nil 

(6) Number of applications for exemption from 

registration ... ... ... ... nil 

(7) Number of cases in which exemption has 

been granted— : 

(a) Granted. ... ... nil 

(b) Withdrawn ... ... ... nil 

(c) Refused ... ... ... ... nil 



49 


Home Nursing of Cases. 

As in previous years, the Queen’s Institute of District Nursing 
has rendered valuable assistance in the nursing of cases at home. 
The Council make an annual grant to the Institute in respect of 
these services. 

The following table gives particulars of the conditions and 
number of visits carried out by the District Nurses on behalf of 
the Council :— 



No. of 

No. of 


Cases. 

Visits. 

Pneumonia 

... 19 

4II 

Tuberculosis ... 

••• 33 

1,183 

Complications of pregnancy 

••• 5 

90 

Miscarriages 

... 13 

95 

Puerperal pyrexia 

••• 3 

42 

Breast abscesses 

... 16 

398 

Contact infectious disease, etc. 

... 26 

404 

Influenza 

... 16 

128 

Measles 

... II 

84 

Measles with pneumonia 

I 

22 

Ophthalmia neonatorum 

••• 5 

82 

Chicken pox 

2 

16 

Pemphigus neonatorum 

... 4 

55 

Erysipelas 

2 

18 

Nursing of any other diseases 

in 


children under 5 years of age 

not 


mentioned above ... 

... 74 

634 


230 

3,662 


Puerperal Pyrexia. 

Under the new regulations, the term puerperal fever is no 
longer to be used. All patients sullering from this condition are 
now to be classed under the heading of puerperal pyrexia. 

D 












50 


The following is a list of the cases notified. 

and, as a result of 

investigation, the predisposing causes as far as 
were as follows :— 

can be ascertained 

Abortion ... 

I 

Albuminuria 

I 

Breast abscess 

2 

Breast (congested) 

I 

Bad tooth 

I 

Chest condition ... 

I 

Catarrhal jaundice 

I 

Endometritis 

II 

Flushed breasts ... 

12 

Localised infection 

2 

Lobar pneumonia 

2 

Mastitis ... 

2 

Pyelitis 

6 

Phlebitis ... 

2 

Phlegmasia alba-dolens ... 

4 

Retained placenta 

I 

Sapraemia 

3 

Thrombosis 

I 

Uterine cyst 

I 

Puerperal septicaemia 

I 


56 

Still Births. 

Ninety-five still births occurred during the year 1938, and, 
as far as can be ascertained, the predisposing causes were chiefly 


due to the following :— 

Septic toxaemia ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Drugs suspected ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Unavoidable accidents ... ... ... ... 2 

Uterine inertia ... ... ... ... ... 2 

Ante-partum haemorrhage with placenta praevia 4 

Carried forward ... ... 16 
















51 


Brought forward ... ... i6 

Malformation of cord ... ... ... ... 8 

Pelvic contraction ... ... ... ... 3 

Breech presentation ... ... ... ... 15 

Shock ... ... ... ... ... ... 6 

Twin pregnancy and malformation ... ... 3 

Mal-presentation ... ... ... ... 7 

Albuminuria ... ... ... ... ... 8 

Hyperemesis ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Causes unknown ... ... ... ... 8 

Ante-partum haemorrhage ... ... ... 7 

Diihcult labour ... ... ... ... 10 

Total ... 95 


Ophthalmia Neonatorum. 

Twenty-two cases of ophthalmia neonatorum were notified 
during the year 1938. 

Seven were notihed by medical practitioners, six from the 
Free Eye Hospital, and nine from the Borough General Hospital. 

Particulars of each case notified, showing the present 
condition of the eyes, is detailed in the following table :— 









OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM. Particulars of cases notified. 

(This Table is inserted by request of the Ministry of Health). 


52 


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OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM. Particulars of cases notified.—continued. 


53 




























54 


Consultant Services in the District. 

The Obstretric Consultant was called to the aid of private 
practitioners in i8 cases. 

Ante-Natal Clinics. 

A total of 172 cases were referred by private practitioners 
to the Consulting Obstetrician, this number being four times 
greater than that of the previous year. 

In addition, 129 cases were referred by midwives. 

The Ante-natal Clinics at East Park Terrace, Sydney House, 
and the Maternity Unit hold six sessions weekly. The attendances 
are more than last year. Patients booking for the Maternity Unit 
are still in the majority, but private practitioners sent 106 cases 
for consultation, and midwives sent 221 with Form “A’s."' 

At East Park Terrace the Dentists treated 357, and at Sydney 
House 86 ante-natal cases, and the Surgeon to the Ear, Nose and 
Throat Clinic saw a few. 

One thousand and forty-eight expectant mothers made 5,222 
attendances. 

Maternity Unit, Borough General Hospital. 

Details of the number of admissions and births in the 
Maternity Unit during the year are given under the heading of 
the Borough General Hospital later in the report. 

The number of births occurring at the Maternity Unit since 
its opening in May, 1937, has now exceeded 1,000, and the follow¬ 
ing is a clinical report of the Consulting Obstetrician on the first 
1,000 booked cases delivered in the Maternity Unit. 

Clinical Report of the First Thousand Booked Cases 
Delivered in the Maternity Unit. 

In-Patients. 

Throughout the report the cases are divided into two classes : 

A. Booked Cases. Patients having received ante-natal 

supervision either in the Hospital or in the Ante¬ 
natal Clinics. 

B. Emergencies. Cases sent in from outside doctors or 

mid wives. 


55 


The term District Emergency is used where a patient has 
received ante-natal supervision at a Clinic, and has been admitted 
to the Maternity Unit from the district for some abnormality. 
Unless where otherwise stated, these are included in the Booked 
Cases. 


Booked Cases ... 1,000 

Primigravida 

515 


Multigravida 

485 

Emergency Cases ... 147 

Primigravida 

64 


Multigravida 

83 


There were 19 sets of twins delivered, so that 1,166 babies 
were born, of which 1,089 were born alive, and 77 still born. 



PRESENTATIONS. 




Abnormal Breech. 



Occipito 

Uncom- Com- 

Face 

Normal. 

Posterior. 

plicated, plicated. 

Shoulder, and Brow. 

Booked ... 950 

14 

29 3 

I 3 

Emergency 116 

5 

14 6 

3 3 


COMPLICATIONS. 


Ante-partum haemorrhage— 

Booked. 

Emergency. 

A. Accidental 

... ... 

3 

. II 

B. Placenta praevia 

5 

. 21 

Post-partum haemorrhage 

21 

10 

Manual removal of placenta 

3 

. 4 

Albuminuria with toxic symptoms 

44 

. 19 

Eclampsia 

... 

2 

(1 District Emergency) 

. 5 

Puerperal pyrexia 

... 

49 

. 13 

Hydramnios 

... 

4 

2 

Caesarean section 


II 

2 



(1 Posthumous 
District Emergency) 


Prolapse of cord ... 

... 

7 

I 

Cardiac disease 

... 

4 

. 3 

Cases Treated in Hospital before Labour— 


Booked 

... ... 

. 135 


Emergency ... 

... ... 

. 17 



Twin Deliveries— 

Booked ... ... ... ... ... 15 2 Still born. 

Emergency. 4 i Still born. 








56 


Breech Deliveries, 

Uncomplicated.—Of the 29 booked cases, 6 babies were still born or died. 

Of the 14 emergency cases, 5 were still born. 

Complicated.—Of the 3 booked cases, 3 were still born. 

Of the 6 emergency cases, 4 were still born. 

Forcer Deliveries. 

Fourteen booked cases were delivered by the obstetric forceps, a rate 
of 1.4%. Eight babies were born alive and 6 still born. 

Seven emergency cases were delivered. Four babies were born alive 
and 3 still born. 

Placenta Previa. 

There were 5 booked cases with i still birth, and 21 emergency cases 
with 8 still births, and i infant died. 

Eclampsia. 

There was i booked case, i district emergency (baby still born), and 
5 emergency cases (2 still births). 

Maternal Deaths. 

Booked case ... i Puerperal sepsis. 

District emergency i Meningitis and septicaemia from otitis media 

(posthumous Caesarean section). 

Emergency ... 4 Two were admitted after delivery with post¬ 

partum haemorrhage and retained placenta, 
one following a twin pregnancy. 

One died from post-partum haemorrhage and 
retained placenta. 

One died from advanced pulmonary tubercu¬ 
losis. 

Blood Transfusion. 

Blood transfusion was given in 12 cases, viz. :— 

5 booked cases. 

6 emergency cases, 

I baby. 

INFANTS' REPORT. 

Seventeen infants died in the booked cases and ii in the emergency cases. 
Premature Infants. 

This includes infants below and up to 5|-lbs. in weight. 

Eifty-five premature infants were delivered in the booked cases, of which 
3 died, 22 premature infants were delivered in the emergency cases, 
and I died. 




57 


The most striking features of this report are the exceptionally 
infrequent use of the obstetric forceps, the results of the treatment 
of premature infants. The hgures for all the other complications 
are well below the general hospital average. 

With regard to the maternal deaths, half the number died 
from post-partum haemorrhage. 

Mothers’ and Babies’ Welcomes. 

These Welfare Centres continue to be well attended, and in 
some instances overcrowding occurs. 

Diphtheria immunisation is being carried out at most of the 
outlying centres. 

One of the Dentists has attended each of the Welfare Centres 
and examined the children over one year of age, giving advice to 
mothers where necessary regarding the children’s teeth. 

The number of individual children who have attended these 
Welcomes and the Central Clinics at East Park Terrace and 
Sydney House is :— 


Under i year ... 
Over I year 


1475 

3.176 


Total ... 4,651 


The Welcome at Bitterne has continued to be very well 
attended. A new feature, which began in 1938, has been to 
have available the services of a practising midwife who was able 
to see a limited number of mothers, referred to her by the doctor 
for special attention with regard to breast feeding. 

Appointments are made for the midwife to actually see the 
mother feed her baby, and to arrange for test weighing. She 
is then in a position to give detailed instructions and advise. 
This is of particular value to mothers with their hrst baby, and 
in many cases, I am convinced, prevented the baby being taken 
off the breast. The midwife also followed up a number of these 
cases with home visits during the week. 

A great difficulty is presented by the number of mothers who, 
in spite of being up and about at the usual time, do not attend 
the WTlcome till the baby is five or six weeks old, and have 





58 


already taken the infant off the breast. These cases come from 
all sources, including a number who have been in the Maternity 
Unit. 

The issue of medicines at the Welcome has been kept down 
to a minimum—Oil and Malt, Calciferol and Hyd. with Crete 
being the commonest preparations given. A number of infants 
attending the Welcome were selected for treatment with artificial 
sunlight. 

The attendances at Woolston Welcome have tended to pull 
up recently. I think this is largely due to many mothers pre- 
fering a longer walk to attend at Bitterne. 

Some attempt has been made recently to dust and tidy the 
rooms, but the premises remain dark and poorly ventilated. 

It has not been possible to arrange for test weighing of infants 
attending here or for special supervision of breast feeding, with 
the result that there are, I think, a higher proportion of artificially 
fed infants there than at Bitterne. 


Dispensing. 


The following are the particulars of the number of individual 
cases for whom medicines, etc., were dispensed in connection with 
the services at the various Clinics during the year :— 


Maternity and Child Welfare 
School Medical 
Tuberculosis ... 

Venereal diseases 
Orthopaedic ... 


... 8,993 

... 4,370 
• •• 3>36i 

••• 334 

15 


Total ... 17,073 


Table of Attendances. 

Four Voluntary Centres are doing excellent work in the 
Borough. The Welfare Authority makes a grant towards expenses, 
and individual cases are helped with free milk when eligible. 




The total attendances at the Municipal Welcomes are shown in the following table : 

Attendances at Welcomes. 


59 



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Infant Clinics. 

These are held at East Park Terrace and Sydney House both for minor ailments and welfare super- 
n. The Sydney House Clinic is primarily for children between one and five years. 

Nursing mothers receive treatment to enable them to continue breast feeding. They are also 


6o 


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62 


General Advice to Mothers. 

Under this heading are included cases seen by the Superin¬ 
tendent Health Visitor, and the Sister-in-Charge at the Maternity 
and Child Welfare Centre. Many problems are brought to them, 
and in some cases it is not only the mothers, but the father who 
calls for help and advice. 

The visits and enquiries made for information occupies a 
great deal of the time of those in charge. Information and advice 
is sought on various matters, all of which receive sympathetic 
care and attention. A considerable number of mothers attend 
for general hygiene advice who do not, or are not able, to attend 
the Welcomes. In addition, medical and social enquiries are 
made, and in such cases, if necessary, they are dealt with by 
reference to private doctors, hospitals, philanthropic agencies, etc. 

Mothercraft Classes. 

Mothercraft classes for expectant mothers have been com¬ 
menced at Sydney House, East Park Terrace, and Shirley Welfare 
Centre. These have proved very successful, and 579 attendances 
were made by mothers during the year. 

Clinic for Venereal Diseases in 
Women and Children. 

The routine blood test in the Ante-natal Clinics brought 
several unsuspected cases for treatment. The husband is inter¬ 
viewed when possible. More cases of acute syphilis have attended 
in 1938. They need much persuasion to continue treatment 
thoroughly when symptoms have disappeared. One child with 
third generation syphilis was seen. 

Several outside practitioners send patients with gonorrhoea, 
not of venereal origin, owing to the Clinic’s facilities for treatment. 

Gynecological, Post-Natal and Birth-Control 
Clinics. 

(a.) 23 East Park Terrace. 

The work in the Consultant’s Ante-Natal Clinic has again 
increased, and the material for teaching has been excellent. Pupil 
midwives have attended regularly, and a municipal midwife has 
been in attendance on each occasion. 

Eor the hrst time the hgures for the gynaecological and birth- 
control cases are given separately. A feature of the gynaecological 
cases is the relatively large number of patients referred for sterility, 
and investigation of results, so far, shows that success is obtained 
in 27%. 



63 


(b.) Sydney House. 

Since inception in 1935, the attendances at this Clinic have 
been doubled each year until they have reached a very large 
hgure. Despite some falling off of the post-natal cases, the 
attendances have increased again by a further 400, and the work 
has increased to such an extent that the staff of Health Visitors 
has been supplemented on each occasion by two of the six 
municipal midwives in the area, who attend in rotation. 

The municipal midwives, in addition to helping in the 
management of the Clinic, gain valuable experience and receive 
individual instruction. Only seven birth-control cases were dealt 
with at this Clinic, it being found impossible to deal with such 
cases, and all attending were referred to 23 East Park Terrace. 

(c.) Maternity Unit, Ante-Natal Clinic. 

The work of this Clinic is confined to cases residing in the 
Coxford and Upper Shirley areas, and fulfils a useful purpose in 
saving patients a long journey to the Central Clinic, and provides 
additional teaching material for the pupil midwives. 

Summary oe Attendances. 

East Park Terrace. 

Ante-natal : 

New . 

Old . 


Post-natal : 
New 
Old , 


Gynaecological : 

New ... 
Old ... 


Birth-Control : 

New ... 
Old ... 


2,898 


178 

1,187 


1,365 


55 

85 


140 


119 

863 


982 


49 

262 


311 









Summary of Attendances.— Continued. 
Sydney House. 

Ante-natal: 

New ... ... ... ... ... 189 

Old ... ... ... ... ... 969 


Post-natal: 
New . 
Old . 


15 

56 


Gynaecological and Birth-Control : 

New ... 

t^lcl ... ... ... ... 


35 

68 


Maternity Unit. 
Ante-natal: 

New ... 
Old ... 


56 

356 


1,158 


71 


105 


412 


1744 


Health Visiting in the Homes. 

The Health Visiting staff was augmented in September, 
1936, and now consists of eleven Health Visitors, who have a 
separate district allotted to each, in which they are responsible 
for all the branches of Public Health Work, viz.. Tuberculosis, 
School Medical, and Maternity and Child Welfare visiting, and 
Venereal Diseases visits. They are also responsible for the weigh¬ 
ing, measuring and cleanliness of the scholars in the schools in 
their respective areas. Each Health Visitor also attends the 
Infant Welfare Centre in the area allotted to her. There are 
also three permanent Health Visitors, who are employed whole 
time at the Clinics. 


In addition to the above, there are two relief Health 
Visitors who work, if necessary, in the Clinic, or on any district 
where there is a pressure of work, or in case of illness. The Port 
Aliens’ Nurse also visits special cases for investigation when her 
own work permits of this being done. 











65 


The Health Visitors also have a rota whereby each is on 
call for a week at a time for work at the disinfecting station in 
assisting in the disinfection of midwives or female contacts. 

The following is a record of visits made by the Health ^dsitors 
in connection with this branch of the Health Services during the 
year 

\dsits to expectant mothers ... ... ... i,555 

First visits to infants under one year of age ... 3,217 

Re-visits to infants under one year of age ... 12,950 

,, ,, children over one year of age and 

under school age ... ... 15,497 

Supervision of Foster Children under the Infant 
Life Protection Acts. 

In addition to the usual visits made by the Health Visitors 
to the homes of foster children, quarterly visits are made by the 
Infant Life Protection Visitors, and reports submitted to the 
Medical Officer of Health on each home visit. 

The following is a summary of the foster mothers and children 
coming within the scope of this department during the year ;— 

Number of persons on register ... ... 55 

Number of children in their care ... ... 67 

Grants of Free Milk, Cod Liver Oil, etc. 

During the past year 2,038 families received free or cheap 
milk, as compared with 1,935 for the year 1937. 

Cod liver oil and malt is also supplied, and, while this remains 
the staple nutrient preparation given in addition to milk, increased 
use of some vitamin concentrates issued as drugs has been made, 
especially where cod liver oil is not tolerated. 

Although cheap milk, i.e., at half the normal price has for 
some years been granted to certain families, there has been no 
actual scale of income in force in this connection. The Committee 

E 



66 


have during 1938 decided that cheap milk shall only be granted to 
applicants whose incomes are not more than 3/- per week above 
that for free milk. 

The following particulars show the number of persons in 
receipt of free fresh or dried milk at the beginning and end of 
the year. 


Number receiving fresh milk 31st December, 1937 

757 

,, ,, dried milk ,, 

)} > y 

303 

,, ,, fresh milk ,, 

„ 193S 

742 

,, ,, dried milk ,, 

y y y y 

309 


-1,051 

Sale of Dried Milk at Cost Price. 

Facilities are also granted to parents to continue obtaining 
dried milk, and malt and cod, liver oil at the various Centres at 
cost price after treatment is complete. They are also able to 
obtain some of the nutrient preparations for children at cost price. 

ORTHOPAEDIC CLINIC. 

The Orthopaedic Clinic is held every Wednesday afternoon. 
The second and fourth Wednesdays in the month are reserved for 
the more serious defects, when the Clinic is conducted by a 
Surgeon from the Lord Mayor Treloar’s Cripples’ Hospital, Alton. 
The remaining Wednesdays, under the supervision of one of the 
Assistant Medical Officers of Health, cover the minor defects. 

The Remedial Clinic plays a most important part in the 
success of the orthopaedic work. A fully qualified masseuse 
attends five mornings in the week to carry out the prescribed 
treatments. These include specialised remedial exercises, massage, 
sun-ray, radiant heat and electrical treatment. Unfortunately 
it has been found necessary to reduce the number of children 
recommended for remedial exercises, as there is not sufficient 






6 ; 


accommodation ; also most of the plaster work has had to be 
carried out at Alton owing to the present poor facilities at the 
Clinic. This will soon be remedied, on the building of the pro¬ 
posed new Orthopaedic Clinic. 


There was a case of acute anterior poliomyelitis, which 
requires special mention. This child was admitted to Alton with 
respiratory paralysis, and almost total paralysis of all four limbs. 
The recovery was complete. This case illustrates the value of early 
orthopaedic treatment. Satisfactory splintage is only possible in 
hospitals where there is a splint-maker attached. Contractures of 
the limbs develop rapidly in this disease, and, if once allowed to 
occur, recovery is seldom complete. Further, with regard to 
splintage, special care must be taken to prevent joint stiffness, 
and this can best be carried out under expert supervision. 


It is encouraging to hnd that most of the cases with congenital 
deformities—such as club-foot, spinal malformation and congenital 
dislocation of the hips—are being sent to the Clinic as early as 
possible. In such cases, the sooner treatment is instituted the 
more perfect will be the result. 


Cleft palates are treated at Alton by a Surgeon who is a 
specialist in plastic surgery. The operation is carried out as soon 
after six months of age as possible, provided the general health of 
the infant is satisfactory. This early closure of the cleft before 
the child starts speaking ensures more or less normal speech. 


Mild flat-foot and rickets still continue to head the list in 
respect of numbers. Under treatment, these defects usually dis¬ 
appear within six months to a year. 


There were 34 cases admitted to Alton during 1938, and 45 
cases discharged. 



68 


The following table gives details of the defects treated during 
the year :— 

Congenital—Talipes equino-varus ... ... ... ... 15 

Calcaneo valgus ... ... ... ... 2 

Calcaneo cavus ... ... ... ... ... 2 

Talipes calcaneo valgus ... ... ... i 

Torticollis ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Dislocation of hip ... ... ... ... 7 

Spine ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Pseudo-coxalgia ... ... ... ... 6 

Other forms ... ... ... ... ... 25 

Traumatic—Old fracture ... ... ... ... ... 7 

Sprained ankle ... ... ... ... ... 3 

Dislocation ... ... ... ... ... o 

Scarring ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 

Other forms ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Adolescent slipped epiphysis ... ... ... 2 

Others—Kyphosis ... ... ... ... ... ... 48 

Scoliosis ... ... ... ... ... ... 56 

Poor posture ... ... ... ... ... 33 

Pes planus ... ... ... ... ... ... 231 

Pes cavus ... ... ... ... ... ... 17 

Hallus valgus ... ... ... ... ... 14 

Other foot deformities ... ... ... ... 15 

Other forms ... ... ... ... ... ... 27 

Rickets-—-Genu valgum ... ... ... ... ... 114 

Genu varum ... ... ... ... ... 9 

Other forms ... ... ... ... ... 14 

Active ... ... ... ... ... ... 7 

Inflammations—Arthritis ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Osteomyelitis ... ... ... ... 2 

Other forms ... ... ... ... 4 

Paralysis—Erb’s birth palsy ... ... ... ... 3 

Infantile ... ... ... ... ... ... 29 

Congenital spastic paralysis ... ... ... 16 

Tuberculosis—Spine ... ... ... ... ... ... 6 

Hip ... ... ... ... ... ... II 

Upper limb ... ... ... ... ... 3 

Lower limb ... ... ... ... ... 7 

Various other conditions ... ... ... ... ... 16 


783 




















ANALYSIS OF ATTENDANCES AT THE ORTHOP/EDiC CLINIC, 1938. 
















































































Notifiable Infectious Diseases. 


72 


THE INCIDENCE OF NOTIFIABLE INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 


The following is a total of the notifications received during 
the year, also the rate per i,ooo of the population : 



Notified. 

Rate per 1000 
of Population. 

England and 
Wales. 

Small Pox ••• ••• 

0 

0.00 

... 0.00 

Diphtheria 

... 125 

... 0.69 

... 1.58 

Erysipelas 

... 47 

0.26 

... 0.40 

Scarlet Fever 

... 182 

... 1.01 

... 2.41 

Enteric Fever and Para-Typhoid 

Fever ... ... ... ... 9 

... 0.049 

... 0.03 

Puerperal Pyrexia 

... 55 

... 17.81 

... 14.42 

Cerebro-Spinal Fever 

2 

... O.OI 

• • • 

Encephalitis Lethargica ... 

2 

... O.OI 

• • • 

Ophthalmia Neonatorum 

27 

9.04 

* * • 

Pulmonary Tuberculosis ... 

... 245 

... 1.36 

• • • 

Other Forms of Tuberculosis 

23 

... 0.12 

• • • 

Pneumonia 

70 

... 0.38 

... 1.10 

Malaria 

• • • 

0.00 

• • • 

Poliomyelitis 

6 

... 0.033 

• • • 

Polio-Encephalitis 

... — 

0.00 

— 

Dysentery ... 

23 

... 0.12 

• • • 


8i6 


*The rate for Puerperal Pyrexia is calculated on the number of live 
births and still births registered, and Ophthalmia Neonatorum on live births 

registered. 


The death-rate per i,ooo of the population from the diseases 
specified above for the past five years is shown in the following 
table :— 


Small Pox 

1934 

.000 

1935 

.000 

1936 

.000 

1937 

.000 

1938 

.000 

Scarlet Fever ... 

.006 

.oil 

.000 

.oil 

.000 

Diphtheria 

.119 

.203 

.085 

.056 

•03 

Enteric Fever ... 

.006 

.006 

.005 

.005 

.005 

Measles ... 

.051 

H 

0 

• 

.163 

.000 

.027 

Whooping Cough 

.085 

•034 

•034 

.044 

.005 

Diarrhoea and Enteritis 
under 2 years of age... 

•045 

.068 

•II3 

.084 

.038 














The following table shows the number of notifications received of Infectious Diseases, which have been classified in age groups 

and Municipal Wards. 

CASES OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES NOTIFIED DURING THE YEAR, CLASSIFIED IN AGES AND LOCALITIES_ 


73 



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74 


The following table shows the number of cases of notifiable 
disease recorded in the Borough during the past five years :— 


Disease. 

1934. 

1935. 

1936. 

1937. 

1938. 

Small Pox 






Scarlet Fever ... 

582 

357 

328 

241 

182 

Diphtheria 

741 

787 

348 

267 

125 

Enteric Fever 

5 

13 

10 

16 

9 

Puerperal Fever 

9 

6 

4 


< < 

Puerperal Pyrexia 

30 

22 

29 

) 


Erysipelas 

73 

64 

54 

65 

47 

Cerebro-Spinal Fever 

3 

2 

2 

2 

2 

Poliomyelitis ... 

6 

— 

I 

I 

6 

Ophthalmia Neonatorum ... 

23 

38 

18 

28 

27 

Encephalitis Lethargica 

2 

— 

I 

— 

2 

Pneumonia ... 

83 

64 

72 

112 

70 

Malaria 



2 

— 

— 

Dysentery 

I 

— 

— 

I 

23 

Polio-Encephalitis ... 

— 

— 

I 

— 

— 

Totals ... 

1,558 

1,353 

870 

772 

548 


There were 400 visits and re-visits made to houses in 
which infectious diseases occurred, and inquiries were made 
relative to the probable source of infection, and the isolation 
of the patient. Information was also given concerning the 
precautions necessary to be taken to prevent the spread of 
disease, and in the case of Measles advice as to treatment and 
nursing of patients where a doctor was not in attendance. 


SMALL POX. 

No case of Small Pox was notified in the Borough during 
the year. 


SCARLET FEVER. 

The number of cases of Scarlet Fever notified during the 
year amounted to 182. 

The number of cases notified and deaths resulting from the 
disease for the past five years were:— 




Cases. 

Deaths. 

Percentage. 

1934 

• • • • • • 

... 582 

I 

O.T7 

1935 

• • • • • • 

••• 357 

2 

0.56 

1936 

• • • • • • 

... 328 

0 

0.00 

1937 

• • * • • • 

241 

2 

0.80 

1938 

• • • • • • 

... 182 

0 

0.00 



































75 


CEREBRO-SPINAL FEVER 


Two cases of cerebro-spinal fever were notified during the 
year. 


DIPHTHERIA 


The number of notifications of diphtheria received during 
the year relating to residents of the Borough was 125, com¬ 
pared with 267 in 1937. 

Six deaths occurred from the disease, giving a case 
mortality of 4.8. 

The number of cases notified and deaths recorded during the 
past five years are shown in the following Table :— 


Cases. 


Deaths. Percentage. 

9 3-15 

21 2.83 

36 4-57 

15 4-31 


1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

1938 


286 


741 

787 

348 

267 


10 


O 3.74 

6 4.8 


125 


1 



r ■ 

L .»av3i 

r I' .1,'*. .. 
















Venereal Diseases. 



78 


VENEREAL DISEASES. 

The year 1938 was the sixth year of the re-organised scheme 
for the treatment of venereal diseases in the County Borough. 
A comparison between the numbers of new patients dealt with in 
the year under review, and the average number for the five 
preceding years is set out in the following table :— 



Average for 

5 preceding 
years. 

1938. 

Syphilis 

169 

196 

Soft chancre 

14 

31 

Gonorrhoea ... 

400 

501 

Non-venereal disease 

271 

CTn 

0 

CO 

Total attendances 

••• 36,438 

• •• 32,507 


It will be seen that all branches of the work have increased, 
which points to a realisation on the part of the general public of 
the necessity for prompt examination and treatment in these 
conditions and of the dangers consequent upon their neglect. 
This year the number of patients reporting at the Clinic who were 
found not to be suffering from venereal disease is well above the 
average. Most of these patients report of their own accord to 
reassure themselves of freedom from disease, and it is gratifying 
to note that so many members of the public show themselves so 
ready to make use of the facilities afforded by the Clinics for 
advice on such conditions. 


Types of Disease. 

The increase in acute syphilis shown last year has been 
maintained, there being 49 male cases and 10 female cases, as 
compared with 36 and i in 1936, and 62 and 6 in 1937. The 
further increase in female cases is due to the routine investiga¬ 
tion of those who have been possibly infected from male cases 
attending the Clinic. 





79 


The total new cases of all classes of syphilis constituted 

i 8.5%- 

The percentage figure for soft chancre remains as last year 
at 2.9%, the number of cases being dealt with having risen 
from 28 to 31. 

Gonorrhoea, with a figure of 501 cases dealt with, represent¬ 
ing 47.3% of fho total of all cases, shows a considerable increase 
over previous years. The larger proportion of these cases are 
infected abroad, but examination of contacts of those infected 
locally has been carried out as a routine. 

Non-venereal cases, with 29.2% and a total of 309 cases, 
show an increase over the average for previous years. 

During the year there were 23 cases of ophthalmia neona¬ 
torum notified. 

As in the previous year, defaulters from treatment have been 
followed up by letter, and, in the event of this failing, wherever 
possible by an actual personal visit by a Health Visitor. 



Return relating to all Persons who were treated at the Treatment Centres at East Park Terrace 

Southampton, during the year ended 31 st December, 1938 . 


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Return relating to all Persons at the Treatment Centres at East Park Terrace, Southampton. —Continued. 


8i 



























































































































































Return relating to all Persons at the Treatment Centres at East Park Terrace, Southampton.—Continued. 


82 


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Statement showing the services rendered at the Treatment Centres during the year, 
classified according to the areas in which the patients resided.^— Continued. 


83 


I 


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143 

35 

404 

308 

890 

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1 

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: : : : 


<N 


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Tf 

r> 

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: : : 

-- 

<N 


Totals 

brought 

forw’d. 

CO oa CD 

CO cr> 

—< CO (N 

833 

31926 

3356 


ho 

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O 

u 

o 


a 

o 

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to'rt 

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Pathological Examinations made in the Southampton 
Municipal Laboratory during the year ending 31st December, 1938. 



Number of Tests in respect of patients 
under care of :— 

Nature of Test. 

Treatment 

Centres. 

Hospitals 
and other 
Institutions. 

Private 

Practitioners. 

Microscopical— 




For detection of spirochetes 

nil 

nil 

nil 

For detection of gonococci... 

2168 

42 

98 

Other tests for diagnosis or 
treatment of venereal 
disease 

nil 

nil 

nil 

Serum Tests— 




For Wassermann reaction... 

1608 

809 

70 

Other tests for syphilis ... 

... 

... 

... 

For gonococcal infection ... 

151 

6 

10 

Cerebro-Spinal Fluid Tests— 




Wassermann reaction 

45 

21 

I 

CeU count 

45 

21 

I 

Globulin 

45 

21 

I 

Colloidal 

nil 

nil 

nil 

Others 

nil 

nil 

nil 

Cultures 

nil 

nil 

nil 

Other Tests for diagnosis or 
treatment of venereal 
disease 

nil 

nil 

nil 

Totals ... 

4062 

920 

181 














































Tuberculosis and Cancer» 



86 


TUBERCULOSIS. 

Mortality. 

The mortality from tuberculosis during the year 1938 was 
the lowest on record for Southampton. The deaths from 
pulmonary tuberculosis totalled 109, a decrease of 19 compared 
with the previous year. The deaths from non-pulmonary tubercu¬ 
losis were 13, compared with 19 the previous year. This gives 
the total deaths as 122, against 146 for 1937. 

The mortality from pulmonary and non-pulmonary tubercu¬ 
losis for the last six years is shown in the following table :— 


Non- 


Year. 

Pulmonary. 

Pulmonary. 

Total. 

1933 . 

... 159 

26 

185 

1934 ... 

... 173 

17 

190 

1935 ••• 

... 148 

13 

161 

1936. 

... 131 

15 

146 

1937 . 

... 127 

19 

146 

1938 ... 

... 109 

13 

122 


The deaths from tuberculosis occurred in the following forms : 
pulmonary, 109 ; spinal, 2 ; peritonitis, 2 ; meningitis, 9. 

This gives a death rate per 100,000 of the population from 
pulmonary tuberculosis of 60.5, and for non-pulmonary tuber¬ 
culosis 7.2, and for all forms of tuberculosis 67.7. 

The following are the comparative mortality figures during 
1938 in Southampton and England and Wales per 100,000 of 
the population :— 

Southampton. England and Wales. 
Respiratory Tuberculosis ... 60.5 ... 53.2 

Other Tuberculosis ... 7.2 ... 10.3 


Notifications. 

The number of primary notifications of tuberculosis received 
during the year was 283. In addition, 46 came to the notice 
of the Department other than by formal notification. The 
Tuberculosis Department encourages notification in the earliest 
and most curable stage of the disease. It is quite wrong to delay 
notification until tubercle bacilli appear in the sputum. 















oo 

m 


o 

I- 

ro 

OO 


Z 

o 

h- 

Q_ 

z 

< 

X 

h- 

D 

o 

oo 


























































































































































































































t 


Tvr ■'. ■> 

y . 





I*' i 
Kf ' 




*. 




/ 


i 





f. 


t 







^ ^ * h % 


1 


1 


» 



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I 


( 




> 



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A. 


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i-. 

1 ' 


«$> % 














87 


The following table shows the year of notification of those 
who died of pulmonary tuberculosis during 1938. 


1938 ... 

... 23 

1932 . 

5 

1937 ••• 

... 17 

1931 . 

4 

1936 

... 15 

1930 . 

3 

1935 

9 

1928 . 

I 

1934 

6 

1927 . 

2 

1933 ••• 

2 

1922 

I 



Not notified 

20 


Dispensary Register. 

On 31st December, 1938, there were 3,195 names on the 
Dispensary Register. One thousand eight hundred and eighty-six 
were of definitely tuberculous patients, and 1,309 were of those 
under observation, or in whom the diagnosis had not been 
completed. 

The following table shows the distribution of the above 
patients :— 



Pulmonary. 


Non-Pulmonary. 


Total. 



Adults. 

Children. 

Adults. 

Children. 

Adults. 

Children. 


M. 

F. 

M. 

F. 

M. 

F. 

M. 

F. 

M. 

F. 

M. 

F. 

Definitely 













Tuberculous 

657 

660 

221 

182 

53 

45 

40 

28 

710 

705 

261 

210 

Diagnosis not 













completed 

. . . 

• • • 

. . . 

. . . 

. . . 

. . . 

. . . 

. . . 

371 

465 

247 

226 


On 31st December, 1938, there were 501 sputum positive 
cases of tuberculosis on the register. They were recognised as 
suffering from tuberculosis in the following years :— 


Previous to 1928 

17 

1928 

II 

1929 . 

6 

1930 . 

12 

1931 . 

14 

1932 . 

31 


1933 

••• 34 

1934 ••• 

80 

1935 ••• 

62 

1936 

... 67 

1937 ••• 

75 

1938 

... 92 


Total 


501 









































88 


(Ministry of Health Form T. 137.) 

PUBLIC HEALTH (TUBERCULOSIS) REGULATIONS, 1930. 

Part 1. —Summary of Notifications during the Period from the 

1st January, 1938, to the 31st December, 1938, in the 
Area of the County Borough of Southampton. 


Formal Notifications. 


Age Periods. 

Number of Primary Notifications of new 
cases of Tuberculosis. 

Total 

Notifications 

(including 

duplicates). 

o 

to 

I 

I 

to 

5 

5 

to 

lO 

lO 

to 

15 

15 

to 

20 

20 

to 

25 

25 

to 

35 

35 

to 

45 

45 

to 

55 

55 

to 

65 

65 & 
up- 
w’rds 

Total 

(all 

ages) 

Pulmonary— 














Males 

— 

2 

20 

9 

17 

r2 

26 

16 

20 

15 

3 

r4o 

149 

Females 

— 

I 

19 

19 

7 

lO 

23 

13 

7 

6 

— 

105 

109 

Non-Pulmonary-— 














Males 

— 

2 

5 

2 

2 

3 

— 

I 

— 

I 

— 

16 

16 

Females 

— 

I 

I 

1 

I 

2 

I 

— 

— 

— 

— 

7 

9 


SUPPLEMENTAL RETURN. 

Part II. —New cases of Tuberculosis coming to the knowledge of 
the Medical Officer of Health during the above-mentioned 
period, otherwise than by formal notihcation. 

















































89 

Supplemental Return— Continued. 


The source or sources from which information as to the above- 
mentioned cases was obtained are stated below: — 


Source of Information. 

No. of 

Cases. 

Pulmonary. 

Non- 

Pulmonary. 

Death Returns from Local Registrars 

23 

10 

Ditto Transferable Deaths from Registrar 

General ... ... ... ... ... ... 

— 

— 

Posthumous Notifications 

3 

— 

“ Transfers ” from other Areas (other than trans¬ 
ferable deaths) ... 

10 

— 

Other Sources ... 


— 


NOTIFICATION REGISTER. 

Part III. 



Pulmonary. 

Non-Pulmonary. 

Total 

Cases. 

Number of Cases of Tuber¬ 
culosis remaining at the 
31st December, 1938, on 
the Register of Notifi¬ 
cations kept by the 
Medical Officer of Health 

Males. 

Females. 

Total. 

1 Males. 

1 

Females. 

Total. 

1156 

1056 

2212 

196 

161 

357 

2569 

Number of Cases removed 
from the Register during 
the year by reason of:— 

I. —Withdrawal of Notifi¬ 
cation ... 








2.—Recovery from the 

Disease 

■— 

1 

I 


— 

— 

I 

3.—Death ... 

65 

47 

112 

5 

6 

II 

123 

4.—Transferred to other 
areas, lost sight of ... 

2 

8 

10 


— 

— 

10 


* Patients who do not attend the Dispensary are included in this table. 

































90 

The Tuberculosis Dispensaries. 

The Clinical Tuberculosis Officer, with his assistant, conducts 
the work of the two Dispensaries, which are situated at i East 
Park Terrace, and Sydney House, Bitterne. At Sydney House two 
sessions are held weekly, one on Monday evening and the other on 
Thursday morning. Sessions are held at East Park Terrace on 
Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Eriday mornings, and on 
Thursday evenings. The evening sessions are intended mainly 
for those whose work prevents their attendance in the day time. 
Tuesday morning is devoted, to the examination of children, and 
in order to reduce the risk of infection to a minimum, the depart¬ 
ment is disinfected by means of formalin on Monday evenings. 


A brief summary of the work of the two Dispensaries is shown 
in the following table :— 


Dispensary. 

New 

Patients. 

Contacts. 

Others. 

Total. 

East Park Terrace... 

676 

293 

8386 

9355 

Sydney House 

225 

98 

2795 

3118 

Total 

901 

391 

11181 

12473 


Health Visitors. 

Eourteen Health Visitors are attached to the Municipal Clinics. 
The Tuberculosis Department shares with the other branches of 
the Public Health Department the services of these nurses. Eor 
obvious reasons, this is a better scheme than allocating one or 
two nurses for this particular branch of work. 

Each week approximately ten notihed cases are given to the 
fourteen District Health Visitors. In the case of newly notified 
patients, a detailed environmental form is completed. Important 
information is thus obtained on points relating to the prevention 
of the spread of tuberculosis in the houses of the notified cases, and 
the Health Visitor is an invaluable asset in keeping the department 
in personal touch with its patients. As a result of information 
furnished by these nurses, patients whose health is seen to be 
deteriorating, and who perhaps happen to be defaulters, are 
written for. In many instances a spread of the disease has been 
found, and further institutional treatment recommended. 
















91 


No complaint was received during the year concerning the 
work of the Visitors. This is conclusive proof of their tact and 
ability in dealing with a disease about which many patients are 
somewhat reticent or evasive. 

During the year Health Visitors paid 5,012 calls in connection 
with the Tuberculosis Department. 


New Patients. 

New patients are seen at any of the sessions at both Dis¬ 
pensaries. During the year 901 were examined, which is an 
increase of 32 on the year 1937. 

The number was made up as follows :—Males, 312 ; females, 
340 ; boys, 134 ; girls, 115. 

About 99% were referred from medical practitioners. There 
is no law against a patient presenting himself for examination 
without a doctor’s letter, but it is the policy of the department 
to obtain such a letter whenever possible. It is felt that the good 
relations which exist at present between the department and 
medical practitioners should not be strained by any suggestion 
of encroachment. 

A new case is examined systematically. The various parts 
of the body as well as the chest are examined clinically. An 
appointment for an X-ray is made, and a sputum test carried 
out, whenever possible. At the conclusion of the investigation 
a report and chart is sent to the patient’s medical practitioner, 
stating the diagnosis when possible, and suggesting disposal or 
treatment. In a few cases it is impossible to arrive at a diagnosis 
at the Dispensary, and the patient is then asked to enter the 
Borough Hospital or Sanatorium for further investigation. 

The following table shows the result of the investigation of 
the new cases :— 

Number Definitely Non- 

Examined. Tuberculous. Doubtful. Tuberculous. 

901 ... 227 ... 460 ... 214 


Contacts. 

The examination of contacts is perhaps one of the most 
important branches of the work of a Tuberculosis Department. 
By a systematic examination of contacts, the primary source of 
infection is often found when a case is referred from a household. 


92 


Also other early cases are sometimes found where there has been 
no suspicion of tuberculosis, at least, not sufficient to prompt 
the suherer to seek medical advice. It is therefore clear that by 
early recognition many patients are saved a long illness which 
often ends in death, if therapeutic measures are carried out early. 

The contacts examined are drawn from the homes of notified 
cases. Also, when a death has occurred from tuberculosis, the 
occupants of the household are asked to attend for an examination. 
Although a letter is sent out with each appointment explaining 
briefly the reason and value of contact examination, no pressure 
is used to force people to attend. 

The number of contacts examined during the year was 391. 
This number is less than that for 1937, which also was less than 
that for 1936. At first sight this might suggest a faulty system 
in contact appointments, but a closer analysis of the figures show 
that two other reasons explain this. Firstly, contact examination 
was undertaken seriously in 1934. In that year the number 
examined was 781, against 41 in 1933. Subsequent years have 
reduced the field from which contacts are drawn, and, furthermore, 
tuberculosis in Southampton is becoming limited to certain 
families. This is seen by the constant presence of members of the 
same family in the Sanatorium at the same time. Although 
numerous examinations are made on contacts from time to time, 
they only count as contacts on their initial examination, and, if a 
further case is subsequently notified in that house, the contacts, 
when re-examined, are counted only as attendances. Comparative 
figures supplied by the Ministry of Health show that contact 
examination in Southampton is two-and-a-half times as high as 
the average for other county boroughs. 


The following table shows the work and result of contact 
examination :— 



Adults. 

M. F. 

Children. 

M. F. 

Total. 

Definitely Tuberculous 

3 

2 

— 

2 

^ 1 


Diagnosis not completed ... 

48 

87 

70 

62 

267 

^ 391 

N on-T uberculous 

35 

44 

19 

19 

117 



It is gratifying to see the large proportion of adults who 
submit themselves for examination as contacts, because it is in 
this section that unsuspected sputum positive cases are likely to 
be found. 













93 


TUBERCULOSIS. 

New Cases and Mortality, 1938. 

Including cases coming to the knowledge of the Medical Officer 

of Health during the year. 

(Inserted by request of the Ministry of Health.) 



■ 

New Cases. 

Deaths. 

Age 

Period. 

Pulmonary. 

Non-Pulmonary. 

Pulmonary. 

N on- Pulmonary. 


M. 

F. 

M. 

F. 

M. 

F. 

M. 

F. 

0—I 

• . • 

• . • 

I 

. . * 

« • • 

• . • 

I 

• • • 

1—5 

2 

I 

4 

4 

... 

I 

2 

4 

5—10 

20 

19 

6 

I 

... 

... 

I 

... 

10—15 

9 

19 

2 

I 

... 

... 

... 

... 

15—20 

17 

8 

2 

2 

3 

I 

... 

I 

20—25 

14 

13 

3 

2 

4 

10 

I 

I 

25—35 

28 

26 

I 

I 

9 

14 

I 

... 

35—45 

22 

17 

I 

I 

14 

10 

... 

I 

45 — 55 

24 

10 

... 

... 

17 

3 

... 

... 

55—65 

16 

8 

1 

... 

II 

5 

... 

... 

65 ) 

and V 
up’ds. J 

6 

2 

... 

... 

5 

2 

... 

... 

Totals 

158 

123 

21 

12 

63 

46 

6 

7 


Domiciliary \hsiTS. 

The Clinical Tuberculosis Officer visited 92 patients in their 
homes during the year. Visits were made only at the request of 
the patient’s doctor, and generally in consultation with him. 

It is the policy of the Clinical Tuberculosis Officer not to 
visit patients except in a consultative capacity for a medical 
opinion. It is taken for granted that the information concerning 
the patient’s environment, which is essential to the department, 
can be obtained equally as well by Health \hsitors, who are 
specially trained in this work. 















































94 


Sputa Examinations. 

The sputum of new patients and contacts is examined when 
possible, also in old patients from time to time, in order to 
determine the progress of the disease. Even in undoubted cases 
of active pulmonary tuberculosis, it is sometimes necessary to 
examine the sputum on more than one occasion before tubercle 
bacilli are found. It is quite wrong to delay diagnosing pulmonary 
tuberculosis until bacilli are found. In miliary tuberculosis it is 
very rare to hnd bacilli in the sputum, and their presence generally 
means that a part of the lung has ceased to be miliary and is 
changing into a cavity. The sputa of dispensary patients is 
examined at the Municipal Laboratory. Medical practitioners 
also make use of this laboratory for the specimens from their 
patients. The sputa of patients in the Sanatorium are examined 
by the Assistant Tuberculosis Officer at that Institution. 


The following table shows the numbers examined during the 
year :— 


At Laboratory from T.B. Dispensary 
,, ,, ,, Doctors 

,, Sanatorium 


511 

664 

361 


1536 


The number of sputum positive cases on the register at the 
end of 1938 was 501, against 457 for 1937. 


Radiographic Examinations. 

The Tuberculosis Department is fortunate in possessing an 
up-to-date X-ray plant at the Sanatorium, with a Sister-Radio¬ 
grapher in charge. Both Dispensary and Sanatorium patients 
make use of this apparatus. Skiagrams are taken as a routine 
of all new patients. Many adult contacts, and children as well, 
are X-rayed. Serial skiagrams of all the notihed patients are 
taken. These provide a permanent graphic record of a patient's 
progress. The scope of the work of the department includes chests, 
bones, joints and kidneys. Several skiagrams have been taken of 
chests after the introduction of lipiodol. This is a substance which 
is opaque to X-rays, and its presence or absence in a bronchus 
aids in diagnosis. 

The following are the sessions at which the Sister-Radio¬ 
grapher attends the Sanatorium :— 

Tuesday afternoon and evening. 

Wednesday afternoon. 

Eriday morning and afternoon. 




95 


At the beginning of the year there was a session on Tuesday 
morning. Many patients found that to visit the Sanatorium for 
the purpose of an X-ray meant the loss of half-a-day’s work. 
Accordingly, to overcome this, the Tuesday morning session was 
replaced by one in the evening. The Wednesday session is useful 
for those who take their half-day on Wednesdays. 

The following table shows the work of the X-ray Department 
during the year 1938 :— 

Films in connection with Dispensary and 

Sanatorium ... ... ... ... ... 2598 

Screen examinations ... ... ... 1040 

Total ... 3638 

Skiagrams are interpreted by the Clinical Tuberculosis Officer 
on Tuesday and Friday afternoons, at 4 o’clock. 

On Tuesday and Friday afternoons the Sanatorium is becom¬ 
ing increasingly used by medical practitioners, who bring their 
patients to see the Clinical Tuberculosis Officer, and at the same 
time a skiagram is taken. Within a few minutes the practitioner 
is able to see the wet film, and consequently has a first-hand 
knowledge of his patient. 

After-Care. 

On discharge from the Sanatorium, patients are requested to 
attend the Dispensary. Insured patients are referred to their own 
doctors for treatment, but are asked to attend from time to time 
for the purpose of keeping records up to date. Dependants and 
non-insured patients are given medicinal treatment at the Dis¬ 
pensary, if their means are too scanty to allow the services of a 
medical practitioner. Patients receiving special treatment are 
given this at the Dispensary in accordance with a Memorandum 
of the Ministry of Health. Quarterly reports concerning insured 
patients who are too ill to attend the Dispensary are furnished 
by practitioners. This system is gradually dying out, as it is 
realised in the interest of the patient and his family that hospital 
treatment is best. 

Extra Nourishment. 

The treatment of tuberculosis necessitates a long period of 
unemployment, and consequently the richer man will do better 
than the poorer one, other things being equal, because he can 
afford more nourishing food. In poverty the most essential articles 





g6 


of diet, the so-called protective foods, are the hrst to be reduced, 
and a vicious circle is produced. In order to assist these poorer 
people, the Clinical Tuberculosis Officer can recommend a supply 
of nourishment. In most cases this takes the form of two pints 
of milk daily, and one pound of butter weekly. About 50 patients 
are continually in receipt of this. This scheme is intended for 
wage earners, who are likely to improve sufficiently to resume 
work. A few exceptions to this rule are made. Patients in 
receipt of Public Assistance can receive a further allowance on 
production of a medical certihcate. 

Re-Housing of Infectious Cases. 

In the Report for 1937 it was stated that 48 houses were 
soon to be built for this purpose on Redbridge Hill. The houses 
are now built, the majority of them being occupied, but, unfortu¬ 
nately the department was only able to provide 12 of these houses 
for tubercular patients, owing to the fact that they were built 
under a slum clearance subsidy, and the remaining houses were 
required for the rehousing of tenants from clearance areas. The 
site, construction, and close proximity of these houses to the 
Sanatorium makes them in every way desirable for the rehousing 
of tubercular families, and it is hoped that as houses become 
vacant on this estate which are at present occupied by non- 
tubercular patients, consideration will be given to patients 
suffering from this disease but who are now living in un¬ 
desirable dwellings. 

Tuberculosis in Children. 

Although what is understood by the lay mind as Con¬ 
sumption ” is almost conhned to adolescents and adults, many 
children suffer from toxaemia and general ill-health, due to a 
tuberculous infection. 

This is obvious even to the lay mind when the disease attacks 
the glands in the neck, because visible glands of greater or lesser 
size are seen or felt. 

When tubercle bacilli are inhaled by a child, a state of affairs 
impossible to prevent in a house where one member is sputum 
positive, they become caught up in the tissue of the lungs. Usually 
no serious lung disease results, because the bacilli are carried to 
the glands at the roots of the lungs. 

The subsequent health of such a child depends on the 
behaviour of these glands and their action on the tubercle bacilli. 



97 


If a child so infected appears, owing to the lack of resistance, 
to be deteriorating, a period in a Sanatorium school is suggested 
to the parents. It is not possible at present to send every infected 
child away, and only the more toxic ones are given this benefit. 

The Council provide 30 beds at the Berks and Bucks Joint 
Sanatorium for this purpose. The average stay for each child 
is six months. 


The following table shows the work on children during the 

year 


Definitely Non- 
Tuberculous. Tuberculous, Observation. 


New Cases— 


Boys 

• . . • . • . . • 

25 

... 

42 

67 

Girls 

... 

24 

... 

33 

58 

Contacts— 
Boys 




19 

70 

Girls 

... 

2 

... 

19 

... 62 

Total Number on Register— 

Boys 

261 



247 

Girls 

... ... ... 

210 

... 

— 

226 


The greater part of the work on Tuesday mornings is devoted 
to children, and the close co-operation of the School Medical 
Service and medical practitioners with the department is very 
encouraging. 


Dental Treatment. 

The services of the Dental Clinic are placed at the disposal 
of patients attending the Dispensary. This applies only to non¬ 
insured patients. 

A Dental Surgeon visits the sanatorium every other Saturday 
throughout the year. 

Institutional Treatment. 

The institutions provided for the treatment of adults are :— 

Borough Sanatorium ... ... ... 92 beds. 

Borough Hospital ... ... ... 45 beds. 

For the treatment of children, the Council provide places in :— 

Berks and Bucks Sanatorium School, 

Peppard Common ... ... ... 30 beds. 

Lord Mayor Treloar’s Cripples’ Hospital, Alton, 
for orthopaedic cases. 

G 






98 


The following institutions receive occasional patients from the 
Borough, the expense being wholly or partly borne by the Council: 

Royal Sea-bathing Hospital, Margate. 

Papworth Village Settlement, Papworth. 

Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Middlesex. 

The following table shows the number of patients in the 
various institutions on ist January, 1938, the number admitted 
and discharged, the deaths and the number in on 31st December. 


Institutions. 

No. on 
ist Jan., 
1938. 

Admitted. 

Discharged. 

Died. 

No. on 
31st Dec., 
1938. 

Borough Sanatorium 

86 

282 

251 

30 

87 

Borough Hospital ... 

30 

118 

96 

31 

21 

Berks and Bucks 
Sanatorium School 

25 

62 

57 

• • • 

30 

Papworth 

3 

... 

I 

• • • 

2 

Royal Sea-bathing 
Hospital, Margate 

. . * 

5 

I 

I 

3 

Alton Institution 

12 

7 

8 

... 

II 

Totals ... 

156 

474 

414 

62 

154 


In the Sanatorium the therapeutic side of tuberculosis is 
up to date. 

In spite of the various operative methods of reducing the 
movement of a diseased lung, long periods of rest in the open 
air with nourishing food is still essential. 

The principle of all operative procedures on tuberculous 
lungs is to lessen the movement which takes place on respiration. 
The chief ways in which this is brought about is by introducing air 
into the pleural space, known as artihcial pneumothorax ; by 
paralysing the half of the diaphragm on the affected side, known 
as phrenic evulsion ; or by removing parts of the ribs on the 
affected side, the so-called operation of Thoracoplasty. 

The following table shows the work done in this respect 
during the year 1938. 





















99 


Artificial Pneumothorax. 

Patients receiving treatment on ist January, 1938 39 

Successful inductions during the year ... ... 35 

Unsuccessful inductions during the year owing 

to pleural adhesions ... ... ... 3 

Patients who entered the area ... ... ... 3 

Patients in whom the treatment was suspended 
because they were cured, or maximum 
benefit had been obtained ... ... ... 7 

Patients who died ... ... ... ... ... 5 

Patients receiving treatment on 31st December, 

1938 ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 65 

Refills ... ... ... ... ... ... 2210 

In a few instances a patient has been admitted to the sana¬ 
torium with fluid in the pleural space due to tuberculosis. This 
has been replaced by air, and the case converted into one of 
artificial pneumothorax. 

The operation of air replacement has been done on a few 
occasions when fluid has developed in the course of artificial 
pneumothorax treatment. 


Phrenic Evulsion. 

Three patients were subjected to this operation during the 
year, all being successful. 

Thoracoplasty. 

No patient was subjected to this operation during the year. 
Medicinal Treatment. 

This has kept abreast of modern views. The use of gold salts 
has been employed more or less as a routine on patients in whom 
collapse therapy has been contra-indicated, and where the state of 
the patient’s lungs and general condition seemed to warrant this 
form of treatment. The more recent preparations of gold salts 
appear to be less toxic than the older ones, and fewer complications 
have been noted during the year. 

Calcium has been increasingly used, and an intravenous 
injection has often appeared to have had a marked beneficial 
effect. 

In the latter half of the year Mtamin C. was claimed to 
act beneficially in tuberculosis, and this view has been confirmed 
by its use in the sanatorium. 



100 


The value of a good well-balanced diet has not been over¬ 
looked, and the construction of a large, up-to-date kitchen in the 
sanatorium has brought about improvement in this respect. 

The Clinical Tuberculosis Officer visits the Borough Hospital 
once a week, and the Sanatorium four times a week. The Assistant 
Tuberculosis Officer, who is resident in the sanatorium, visits 
the patients daily and conducts various pathological tests as a 
routine on the patients. 

Silicosis and Ashestosis (Medical Arrangements) Scheme, 1931. 

Under the above Scheme, which was issued by the Home 
Office, every employer engaged in an industry or process included 
in the First Schedule to the Scheme is required to arrange for the 
initial examination of any workman engaged by him within 
two months of his commencing to be employed in the industry 
or process, and any workman found at such examination to be 
suffering from tuberculosis or otherwise failing to reach the 
standard of health and physique prescribed must be suspended 
from employment in the industry or process. 

The Clinical Tuberculosis Officer is authorised by the Council 
to carry out the initial examinations of workmen engaged in the 
industry, for which the Home Office pay a fee of 6/- for each 
examination to the Local Authority. 

PnUic Health (Prevention of Tuberculosis) Regulations, 1925. 

These Regulations give local authorities power to require 
tuberculous employees, who are in an infectious state, engaged 
in the milk trade, to discontinue their employment or occupation. 

It was not found necessary to take any action under these 
Regulations during the year. 

Public Health Act, 1936 —Section 172. 

This section gives power to local authorities to enforce any 
person suffering from tuberculosis of the respiratory tract, who 
is in an infectious state, without proper lodging or accommodation, 
and who is a serious risk of infection to other persons, to be 
removed to a suitable hospital or institution. 

No action was taken under this section during the year. 
Classification. 

For statistical purposes, cases are divided up according to 
the classification suggested by the Ministry of Health :— 

1 . All patients are grouped according to age and sex, those 
under the age of 15 being classed as children. 



lOI 


II. Classification into pulmonary or non-pulmonary. 

III. Patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis are divided 

into :— 

Class T.B. minus.—Those in whom tubercle bacilli have 
not been found in the sputum. 

Class T.B. plus.—Those in whom tubercle bacilli have 
been found in the sputum. 

This latter class is again further sub-divided into :— 

Group I. Cases with slight constitutional disturbance 
and with the disease limited to the apex of one lobe 
only. 

Group 2. Cases which cannot be included in groups 
I or 3. 

Group 3. Cases with profound systemic disturbance with 
marked impairment of function, and with httle chance 
of recovery. 

IV. Patients suffering from non-pulmonary tuberculosis are 

classified according to the site of lesion. 

The tables given are those suggested by the Ministry of 
Health, and adopted for the sake of uniformity throughout the 
Service. 

The results of treatment are described by the following 
terms:— 

Quiescent.—Cases which have no signs of active disease. 

Arrested.—Cases which have been quiescent for at least two 
years. 

Cured.—Cases in which the disease has been arrested for at 
least three years. 

Improved.—Cases where the general condition is better. 

No material improvement.—All other patients. 


The following Tables are prepared in the form prescribed by 
the Ministry of Health. They show the work carried out at the 
Dispensaries, and a record of patients admitted to and the results 
of treatment of patients discharged from the Borough Sanatorium 
and Hospital during the year 1938. 



TUBERCULOSIS SCHEME. (Ministry of Health, Form T. 145). 

(A) Return showing the work of the Dispensary (or Dispensaries) during the year 1938 , 


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■Number of Cases on Dispensary 
Register on December 31st:— 

(а) Definitely Tuberculous ... ... 657 660 221 182 53 45 40 28 710 705 261 210 1886 

(б) Diagnosis not completed ...... — — — — — — — — 371 465 247 226 1309 
























































































TUBERCULOSIS SCHEME.— Continued. 

(A) Return showing the work of the Dispensary (or Dispensaries) (luring the year 1(^38.—Continued. 


103 


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fB) Number of Dispensaries for the treatment of Tuberculosis (excluding centres used only for special 
forms of treatment). 

Provided by the Council ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 

Provided by Voluntary Bodies. Nil. 


































104 


TUBERCULOSIS SCHEME.— Continued. 


(C) Number of Beds available for the treatment of Tuberculosis on 
the 31st December in Institutions belonging to or provided 
by the Council. 


Name of Institution. 

For 

Pulmonary 

Cases. 

For 

Non-Pulmonary 

Cases. 

Total. 

Adults. 

Children 
under 15. 

Adults. 

Children 
under 15. 

Southampton County Borough 






Sanatorium ... 

92 

— 

— 

— 

92 

Southampton Borough Hospital 

45 

— 

— 

— 

45 

Berks and Bucks Joint Sana- 






torium, Peppard Common ... 

— 

30 

— 

— 

30 

Lord Mayor Treloar Cripples’ 


As 


As 


Hospital, Alton 

— 

required 

— 

required 

— 

Royal Seabathing Hospital, 



As 



Margate 

— 

— 

required 

— 

— 

Papworth Colony, Cambridge 

As 

required 

— 

As 

required 



Royal National Orthopaedic 



As 



Hospital 

— 

— 

required 

— 

— 


(D) Return showing the extent of Residential Treatment and 
Observation in the Borough Sanatorium, the Borough 
Hospital and other Institutions for which the County 
Borough Council have an arrangement. 




In 

Ad- 

Dis- 

Died in 

In 



Institu- 

mitted 

charged 

the 

Institu- 



tions on 

during 

during 

Institu- 

tions on 



Jan. ist. 

the year. 

the year. 

tions. 

Dec.31st. 



(I) 

(2) 

(3) 

( 4 ) 

( 5 ) 


Adult Males ... 

3 

7 

10 

— 

— 

Number of doubt¬ 
fully Tuberculous 

Adult Females... 

I 

3 

4 

— 

— 

Cases admitted for 
observation. 

Children 

— 

8 

5 

— 

3 

Total 

4 

18 

19 

— 

3 


Adult Males ... 

61 

201 

160 

33 

69 

Number of 

Adult Females... 

45 

142 

129 

27 

31 

Patients suffering 



from Pulmonary 
Tuberculosis. 

Children 

32 

78 

64 

I 

45 

Total 

138 

421 

353 

61 

145 


Adult Males ... 

4 

15 

17 

I 

I 

Number of 

Adult Females... 

3 

9 

8 

— 

4 

Patients suffering 
from non-Pulmon¬ 
ary Tuberculosis. 

Children 

20 

II 

17 

— 

14 







Total 

> 

27 

35 

42 

I 

19 

Grand Total 

169 

474 

414 

62 

167 




























































105 


TUBERCULOSIS SCHEME.— Continued. 


(F) Return showing the results of observation of doubtfully 
Tuberculous cases discharged during the year from the 
Borough Sanatorium. 


Diagnosis on 
discharge 
from observation. 

For Pulmonary 

T UBERCULOSIS. 

For Non-Pulmonary 

Tuberculosis. 

Totals. 

Stay under 

4 weeks. 

Stay over 

4 weeks. 

Stay under 

4 weeks. 

Stay over 

4 weeks. 

M. 

F. 

Ch. 

M. 

F. 

Ch. 

M. 

F. 

Ch. 

M. 

F. 

Ch. 

M. 1 F. 

Ch. 

Tuberculous ... 

1 

1 

— 

— 

4 

— 

2 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

i 

5 1 — 

1 

1 

2 

Non-Tuberculous 


2 

1 

4 

1 

1 

— 






1 

4 3 

2 

Doubtful 

j 

j — 

1 

— 

1 

— 

1 


— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

1 1 

1 

Totals. 

1 

I 

3 

1 

i 

i 9 

1 

4 







: 

10 i 4 

5 






























































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TUBERCULOSIS SCHEME.—Continued. 


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TUBERCULOSIS SCHEME.—Continued. 


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II3 

CANCER. 

There has been since 1933 an arrangement by which patients 
from the Borough Hospital, who are considered suitable for radium 
treatment at the Regional Radium Centre, viz., the Royal South 
Hants and Southampton Hospital, are transferred there for review 
by the Radium Officer and one of the surgeons at the Hospital. 
If suitable for radium treatment, they are retained there. If, on 
the other hand, they are not considered suitable, they are returned, 
to the Borough Hospital. 

Wdth regard to the number of patients admitted to the 
Borough Hospital during the year 1938, out of a total of 156, 
55 patients were admitted after previous treatment at the Royal 
South Hants Hospital. Of these, 17 had received radium treat¬ 
ment at the Royal South Hants Hospital, i at the London Cancer 
Hospital, and i at the Middlesex Hospital. Of the remaining 36, 
18 had been operated on for types of carcinoma which were not 
suitable for radium treatment, e.g., gastro-intestinal carcinoma, 
while the remaining 18 had been referred to this Hospital either 
because they were inoperable or had refused operation. 

On the other hand, of the 87 cases admitted direct to this 
Hospital without previous advice or treatment at another Hospital, 
7 cases were referred to the Royal South Hants Hospital for radium 
treatment by arrangement, with varying superficial sites for treat¬ 
ment. Of the remaining 80 cases, 22 underwent operations in this 
Hospital, while the remaining 58 consisted of cases who had either 
been previously operated on in the Borough Hospital and had 
developed recurrences, or who were considered too old and too 
degenerated to justify operative risks, or cases which were too 
advanced to be operable, and had had no previous advice or 
treatment. 

Dr. Tavlor, the Radium Officer at the Roval South Hants 
Hospital, kee])s in touch with the Resident Medical Superintendent, 
and obtains re]:»orts in order to follow up any patients who have 
received radium treatment at the Royal South Hants Hospital, 
and who have afterwards been transferred to this Hospital. 


II 



The following table shows the death-rate per i,ooo of the 
population from Cancer in the Municipal Wards during the year 
1938, and, for comparison, the death-rate for the year 1937 :— 





Death-rate, 

Death-rate, 


Ward. 


1937 - 

1938. 

I. 

Town 

... ... 

2.27 

1.77 

2. 

St. Mary’s 

... ... 

1.75 

1.28 

3 - 

Northam... 

... 

2.10 

1.80 

4 - 

Trinity ... 

... 

2.31 

1.77 

5 - 

Newtown 

... 

1.81 

1.85 

6 . 

All Saints 

... 

1.30 

1-73 

7 - 

Bevois 

... 

3-32 

2.55 

8. 

Banister 

... 

1.58 ... 

2.88 

9 - 

Freemantle 

... ... 

2.01 

2.50 

10. 

Millbrook 

... 

1.36 

1-33 

II. 

Shirley ... 

... 

1.39 

2.59 

12. 

Portswood 

... 

2.23 

1.48 

13 - 

St. Denys 

... 

2.74 

1-53 

14 - 

Bitterne and 

Pear Tree 

0.83 

1.49 

15 - 

Bitterne and Sholing ... 

I.5I 

0.95 

16. 

Woolston 

• • • « • • 

1.50 

2.41 

17 - 

St. Nicholas 

• • • • • • 

0.78 

1-59 


Borough 

• • * • • • 

1.71 

1.81 











II5 

Deaths from Cancer during the year 1938, showing the parts 
of the body primarily affected. 


Situation. 

Number. 

Situation. 

Number 

Buccal Cavity and Pharynx. 

Respiratory Organs. 


Tongue 

10 

Lung 

18 

Jaw . 

3 

Mediastinum 

2 

Mouth 

I 



Pharynx ... 

I 

Larynx 

5 

Cheek 

I 

Criead 

2 

Palate 

2 


— 

Antrum 

I 


27 

Lip 

2 




21 

Uterus and Female Genital Organs. 



Uterus 

24 

Digestive System and Peritoneum. 



Stomach ... 

52 

Ovary 

4 

Rectum 

32 


28 

Pancreas ... 

... 10 



Colon 

27 

Breast . 

... 32 

Gall Bladder 

4 


— 

Inguinal Glands ... 

I 



Abdominal 

I 

Male Genito-Urinary Organs. 

Liver 

14 

Bladder 

9 

Ventriculi... 

3 



CEsophagus 

5 

Prostate ... 

... 8 

Bowel 

3 

Penis 

2 

Kidney 

2 


— 

Gastric 

4 


19 

Intestines ... 

2 



Pelvis 

... I 



Peritoneum 

I 

Unclassified 

23 

Pyloric 

4 



Caecum 

3 



Sigmoid 

4 



Hepatic Flexure ... 

I 



Splenic Flexure ... 

I 



Duodenum 

I 




176 



























V 




Municipal Hospitals 

and 

Municipal Laboratories. 


ii8 


BOROUGH HOSPITAL. 

The Borough Hospital, previously known as the Shirley 
Warren Poor Law Infirmary, was appropriated under the Local 
Government Act as a General Hospital under the Public Health 
Acts, and the administration of the institution was transferred 
to the Health Committee. 

The hospital consists of four male pavilions of eight wards, 
and four female pavilions of seven wards. In addition there are 
in each pavilion, on an average, four side wards containing three 
or four beds. 

On the male side of the hospital, St. Michael’s Pavilion 
consists of a lower ward in which acute surgical cases are exclu¬ 
sively treated, the side wards being devoted to the treatment of 
boys over 5 and under 16 years of age, and an upper ward, to 
which chronic or inoperable surgical cases are periodically trans¬ 
ferred from the lower ward. These wards are visited on three 
days a week by the visiting surgeon. Shirley Pavilion consists 
of a lower ward in which acute medical cases are treated, and 
an upper ward to which chronic medical cases are drafted as 
occasion arises. In the side wards, boys of over 5 and under 16 
years of age are treated for acute medical conditions. The Visiting 
Physician controls the treatment of patients in these wards on 
his visits three days a week. Portswood Pavilion consists of 
a lower ward in which senile and bed-ridden patients are treated. 
The patients in this ward are almost all over 70 years of age. 
The upper ward is exclusively confined to the treatment of 
advanced pulmonary tuberculosis, the majority of which cases 
have at some time or another been under the care of the 
Tuberculosis Officer and have therefore received treatment at 
the Municipal Dispensary. Finally, in St. John’s Pavilion, the 
lower ward is now in full working order as a tonsils and adenoids 
ward. The day room has been converted into a well-equipped 
theatre, and the ward is exclusively used for these cases. They 
are admitted on a Thursday afternoon, operated upon on Friday 
morning by an Aural Specialist, and discharged on the following 
morning. This arrangement has worked admirably. The upper 
ward is reserved for male venereal cases requiring hospital treat¬ 
ment, and skin diseases. The clinics are held by the Resident 
Medical Superintendent on four days a week in a well-equipped 
and up-to-date treatment room. The Venereal Diseases Officer 
visits the hospital one afternoon a week, when he reviews the 
cases and works in co-operation with the Resident Medical 
Superintendent. 



On the female side of the hospital, Holyrood Pavilion 
consists of one ward containing eight beds, and was up to April, 
1937, the maternity ward. Since the opening of the Maternity 
Unit, Holyrood Ward is now used for septic puerperal cases, and 
it is admirably equipped for this purpose. St. Lawrence 
Pavilion is the female surgical unit, and on the lower ward 
acute surgical and gynaecological cases are treated. This section 
is under the care of the visiting surgeon and visiting gynaecologist. 
The upper ward is devoted to the treatment of female venereal 
cases and skin diseases. The clinic is under the charge of the 
Resident Medical Superintendent, who works in co-operation with 
the ATnereal Diseases Officer who reviews the cases once a week. 
It also has a well-equipped treatment room similar to that on 
Upper St. John's Ward. All Saints’ Pavilion is devoted to the 
treatment of acute medical cases in the lower ward, while the 
upper ward is used for chronic medical cases. This pavilion is 
under the charge of the visiting physician. The lower side wards 
are reserved for female staff patients. St. Mary’s Pavilion 
consists of a lower ward for the treatment of children up to 5 
years of age and an upper ward, which is used for female senile 
cases. 

The new Maternity Unit was opened on 29th April, 1937, by 
the Chairman of the Health Committee, Alderman Mrs. L. M. 
Foster W’elch, j.p. The Unit is divided into five sub-units, 
namely ;—Reception, lying-in, combined labour and operating 
sections, isolation section, and an ante-natal out-patient clinic. 
This is an up-to-date building, most tastefully decorated and 
admirably equipped for the most recent advances in obstetrical 
procedure. 

Finally, there is a well-equipped general operating theatre and 
X-ray and massage department. The chief operating day is on 
Thursday morning, but urgent operations may prove necessary 
on any day and at any time during the week. Two sessions for 
X-ray examinations are held by the Visiting Radiologist on 
Monday and Thursday afternoons. The patients undergoing 
X-ray examination are selected partly from hospital in-patients 
and partly from tuberculous out-patients selected by the Tuber¬ 
culosis Officer from his dispensary patients. 



120 


An Almoner’s Department was commenced at the hospital 
in May, 1937, and Miss E. A. Crane was appointed to the position 
of Almoner. Miss Crane left the hospital in March, 1939; 

Mrs. E. Burke has been appointed in her place. 

Two ambulances are now housed at the hospital for day and 
night service, and three ambulance drivers were appointed for 
this purpose. 


Massage Department. 

This department is under the charge of a fully-trained and 
certihcated masseuse, who treats cases of fracture, dislocation, 
palsy, contracture, etc., selected by the medical officers. A certain 
number of out-patients are also treated in this department. 


Operative Surgery. 

As will be seen from Table E, 679 operations were successfully 
performed during the year. Of this number, 348 were tonsils and 
adenoids, mastoid operations, etc., performed by the Aural 
Surgeon. 


Anesthetics. 

Since the appointment of the Visiting Anaesthetist, the 
anaesthetic equipment in the hospital has been brought up-to-date 
both in the main hospital theatre and in the Maternity Unit. 
The Visiting Anaesthetist attends the hospital on two sessions a 
week, and also at any time for emergency or special operations. 


Maternity Unit. 

During the year 787 patients were admitted to the Unit. 
There were 630 live births, and 36 still births. 


Senile Patients. 

During the year 1938, out of a total number of 559 deaths, 
210 were over 70, and 347 were over 60. Between the age 
of I and 20, there were only 16 deaths. 



TABLE A.—Table showing the classification of the accommodation for sick, maternity and mental 

cases, and the number of beds occupied on the 31st December, 1938. 


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122 


TABLE B. 

Statistics relating to the year ended 31st December, 1938. 

1. Total number of admissions (including infants born 

in hospital) ... ... ... ... ... ... 3,878 

2. Number of women confined in hospital ... ... 653 

3. Number of live births ... ... ... ... ... 630 

4. Number of still births ... ... ... ... ... 36 

5. Number of deaths among the newly born [i.e., under 

4 weeks of age) ... ... ... ... ... 12 

6. Total number of deaths among children under one year 

(including those given under No. 5) ... ... 18 

7. Number of maternal deaths among women admitted 

to hospital for confinement ... ... ... 3 

8. Total number of deaths ... ... ... ... ... 559 

9. Total number of discharges (including infants born in 

hospital) ... ... ... ... ... ... 3,384 

10. Duration of stay of patients included in Nos. 8 and 9 

above, whose stay was for the following periods — 

(a) Under four weeks ... ... ... ... 3,199 

(h) Four weeks and under 13 weeks ... ... 533 

(c) Thirteen weeks or more ... ... ... 211 

11. Number of beds occupied during the year :— 

(a) Average, 328 ; (b) highest, 371, on 4th 

March, 1938 ; (c) lowest, 259, on 29th December, 

1938. 

12. Number of surgical operations under general anesthetic 

(excluding dental operations) ... ... ... 644 

13. Number of abdominal sections ... ... ... ... 84 

Out-Patients. 

During the year, 1,919 patients passed through the Out- 
Patients' Departments of the Borough Hospital, as under :— 

Ante-natal cases ... ... 56 cases. 356 attendances. 

V.D. cases ... ... ... 10 ,, 102 ,, 

Massage and X-Ray ... — 1,461 ,, 


Totals ... 66 


1,919 







123 


TABLE C. 


Classification of In-Patients who were discharged from or who died 
in the Institution during the year ended 31st December, 1938. 



DISEASE GROUPS. 

Children 

(under 16 years 
of age). 

Men and 
Women. 


Dis¬ 

charged. 

Died. 

Dis¬ 

charged. 

Died. 

A. 

Acute infectious disease 

i8 

I 

I 

3 

B. 

Influenza 

I 

• • • 

7 


C. 

Tuberculosis— 

Pulmonary ... 


I 

62 

30 


Non-pulmonary 

3 

• . 

16 

I 

D. 

Malignant disease 

• • 

. . 

57 

106 

E. 

Rheumatism— 

(i) Acute rheumatism (rheumatic 
fever) together with sub-acute 
rheumatism and chorea 

11 


10 



(2) Non-articular manifestations of 
so-called “ rheumatism ” (mus¬ 
cular rheumatism, fibrositis, 
lumbago, and sciatica) 



4 



(3) Chronic arthritis 


• • • 

23 

I 

F. 

Venereal disease 

7 

• • • 

68 

5 

G. 

Puerperal pyrexia 

. . . 

42 


H. 

Puerperal fever— 

{a) Women confined in hospital ... 




I 


(b) Other cases 


• • • 

• • • 

* • • 

I. 

Other diseases and accidents connected 
with pregnancy and childbirth 



82 

2 

J. 

Mental diseases— 

(a) Senile dementia... 



2 



{b) Other 

I 

• . . 

9 

• • • 

K. 

Senile decay 


• • • 

13 

15 

L. 

Accidental injury 

7 

... 

86 

15 

I 

M. 

n respect of cases not included above — 

Diseases of the Nervous System and 
Sense Organs 

41 

8 

44 

II 

N. 

,, ,, Respiratory System ... 

415 

14 

210 

37 

O. 

,, ,, Circulatory System 

21 

2 

148 

185 

P. 

,, ,, Digestive System 

53 

27 

194 

25 

Q. 

,, ,, Genito-urinary System 

32 

• • • 

80 

59 

K. 

,, ,, Skin ... ,,, ... 

29 

I 

107 

4 

S. 

other diseases ... 

11 

• • • 

78 

5 

T. 

Mothers and infants discharged from 
maternity ward— 

Mothers ... 



757 



Infants ... 

634 

... 


... 


Totals 

1284 

54 

2100 

505 































124 


TABLE D. 

Classification of number of deaths occurring at the different age 
periods between 1st January and 31st December, 1938, 


I. 

Above 

90 years 

of age ... 

... 

... 

8 

2 . 

Between 80 and 

90 years 

... 


70 

3. 


70 

80 

99 • • ♦ 



132 

4 - 

9 9 

60 „ 

70 

99 • • • 



137 

5. 

9 9 

50 „ 

60 

99 • • • 



78 

6. 

9 9 

40 

50 

99 • • • 



42 

7 - 

9 9 

30 

40 

99 • • • 



20 

8. 

9 9 

20 „ 

30 

9 9 • • * 



12 

9 - 

9 9 

10 „ 

20 

9 9 • • * 



8 

10. 

9 9 

5 ,, 

10 

9 9 • * • 



0 

II. 

9 9 

I „ 

5 

9 9 • • • 



8 

12. 

Under 

I year 

• • • 




18 

13 - 

9 

4 weeks 

• • • 



Total 

26 

559 


TABLE E. 

Operations performed at the Borough Hospital from 
1st January to 31st December, 1938. 


1. Abdominal sections (not including those under No. 4) 84 

2. Operations on Bones and Joints— 

(a) Amputations ... ... ... ... ... 5 

(b) Other Operations on Bones and Joints ... 19 

3. Genito-urinary Operations ... ... ... ... 18 

4. Gynaecological Operations ... ... ... ... 70 

5. Operations on Ear, Nose, and Throat— 

(a) Tonsils and Adenoids ... ... ... ... 280 

(b) Mastoids... ... ... ... ... ... ii 

(c) Miscellaneous ... ... ... ... ... 57 

6. Dental Operations ... ... ... ... ... 35 

7. Miscellaneous and minor Operations, including Skin 

grafts, incisions, and drainage of abscesses, etc.... 100 

Total ... 679 




















125 


X-RAY AND ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT, 
BOROUGH HOSPITAL. 

This scheme provides a complete Department with X-ray 
and Actinotherapy Units, on a site to the north east of the 
existing hospital corridor opposite Portswood Ward Block. 

The elevations have been designed in a simple and straight¬ 
forward manner giving good proportion and dignity, wdth ample 
window space and maximum of light and ventilation. 

The surrounding garden lay-out has been kept in mind and 
flower boxes are introduced flanking the out-patients' entrance 
which will considerably enhance the amenities. 

Access from the hospital is by means of a corridor opening 
off the existing corridor opposite Portswood Ward, while the 
out-patients' entrance is from the service road opposite the Nurses' 
Home Annexe. Patients from either approach gain access to 
the waiting room with possible seating for fifty, and lavatory 
accommodation for both sexes. 

The main radiographic and screening room is equipped 
with a combination shockproof radiographic and screening table 
in addition to screening gear and high tension generators for 
; specialized investigations in the gastro-intestinal tract and short 
time radiography respectively. A simple radiographic table is 
provided to enable the mobile unit to be used for simple radio¬ 
graphy as well as a dental chair and unit for dental X-ray work. 
A small wash-up and wcc. opens off the main radiographic room 
for the preparation of barium meals, etc. 

The dark room communicates with the main radiographic 
room by means of a light lock and is equipped with built-in 
developer units, safelights, light-proof him container and cassette 
pass box giving direct access to the main radiographic room. 
The washing tank passes through the wall into the him drying 

i room equipped with a him drying cabinet and packing bench, 
enabling films to be viewed while wet if urgently required without 
interrupting work in the dark room. 

1 

d 






126 


A room equipped for superficial therapy is provided with 
direct access to the service corridor adjoining a fully protected 
operator’s cubicle, the latter having a special observation window 
which permits the transmission of sound but not X-rays. The 
electric generator and transformer room is provided with an 
automatic cut-out switch on the door. 

The sister-radiographer’s office and radiologists’ consulting 
room, the latter equipped for stereoscopic viewing and radical 
examinations, are provided in close proximity to the waiting 
room. 

A plaster room also equipped for clinical photography is 
incorporated in the Department, while the radiant heat and 
massage room is equipped with five cubicles for massage, radiant 
heat, ultra-violet, infra-red, intensive ultra-violet applied locally, 
and electra-therapy respectively. Eight changing cubicles are 
planned to cater for a fluctuation of cases attending the various 
units of the Department. 






iMASSACf 


POLLUX 


KROMAYCff 


5UPE I 


CIA4 


O 


dark 

room 




B-a 

RA >Y 


MAIN RADIOGRAPHIC AND 


TH 


RECORDS 


PL.iS ER 


screening ROOM 

□ □ 


TT 


STAFF 


METERSI LINEN 


©ectbo* I 

□@AI*V i 

B i RADIANT HEAT 


CONSULTING 

ROOM 


STE 


WAITING ROOM 

ME^ n' l IZH] □ 1 I I I 


radiograph 


'AND MASSAGE 


COUNTY BOROUGH OF SOUTHAMPTON 
BOROUGH ENGINEER'S DEPT. 


X-RAY 


DEPARTMENT 


S. C. STANTON M.INST. C.E 
BOROUGH ENGINEER. 


BOROUGH 


HOSPITAL 

20 30 

-L 1 —1 OF FEET 


H.C.MAURICE WILLIAMS 
MEDICAL OFFICER OF HEALTH 


SCALE 









































































































































































127 


ISOLATION HOSPITALS. 

The total number of cases admitted to the Isolation Hospital 
during the year was 835, compared with 908 in 1937, and 1,079 
in 1936. 

The majority of cases of diphtheria were of a mild type, but 
there were a few cases admitted with symptoms indicative of an 
infection of the gravis type. 

The low incidence of diphtheria is due to two factors, namely, 
a large proportion of individuals had developed immunity during 
the epidemic period following an attack of the disease, and also 
the extensive immunisation of children that has been undertaken 
during recent years. 

^Try few cases of immunised children are found to be carriers 
of diphtheria, and of the immunised children admitted to the 
Hospital following a positive culture, only a few have shown 
dehnite physical signs of the disease. 

The facilities afforded on Pavilion 8 for the treatment of 
tuberculosis continue to be appreciated by staff and patients. 
There is now an X-ray session for the out-patients one evening 
each week, and the in-patients are greatly benefitting by the 
open-air treatment—sleeping-out on the verandah when the 
weather permits. 

Pavilions i and 3 North and South were painted during the 
summer. This completes the interior decorations of all the wards 
during the past four years. 


The Huts continue to form the centre for the recreation of 
both the patients and the staff. 


Disease Admitted. 

1929 

i 93 oji 93 i 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

1938 

Small Pox ... 

_ 

*1 

_ 

I 

... 

_ 

_ 


_ 


Scarlet Fever 

320 

303 

0 

00 

M 

142 

440 

505 

206 

229 

194 

144 

Diphtheria ... 

373 

418 

230 

214 

274 

692 

717 

373 

319 

143 

Scarlet Fever and Diphtheria 

— 

I 

3 

3 

3 

I 

17 

21 

4 

— 

Enteric Fever 

19 

24 

11 

15 

11 

13 

IQ 

15 

19 

14 

Tuberculosis 

224 

222 

178 

197 

152 

186 

159 

167 

205 

280 

Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis 

2 

4 

4 

10 

12 

2 


I 

3 

3 

Measles and German Measles ... 

74 

65 

6 

66 

24 

64 

12 

146 

31 

112 

Chicken Pox 

25 

II 

22 

3 

rS 

46 

28 

22 

II 

54 

Mumps 

12 

2 

3 

5 

7 

47 

3 

4 

29 

7 

Erysipelas ... 

2 

— 

2 

24 

36 

25 

8 

19 

36 

25 

Pneumonia... 

— 

— 

— 

9 

30 

— 

2 

t20 

fi 

1 

Inliuenza ... 

— 

— 

— 

14 

34 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

Encephalitis Lethargica ... 

I 

— 

— 

2 


— 

I 

— 

— 

— 

Whooping Cough ... 

— 


I 

30 

11 

30 

3 

29 

27 

20 

Poliomve litis 

— 

_ 

— 

3 

4 

2 

I 

I 

— 

3 

Other Diseases 

14 

4 

3 

8 

4 

3 

6 

32 

30 

29 

Totals 

1066 

1055 

643 

746 

1060 

1616 

1182 

1079 

908 

835 


* For observation. f With Measles. 






























128 


Scarlet Fever. 

One hundred and forty-four cases of scarlet fever were 
admitted during the year compared with 194 cases in 1937. On 
the whole the type of disease continues to be mild, and at no time 
during the year did it assume epidemic character. 

One mastoid operation was performed by an outside surgeon 
on a patient who had developed mastoiditis after being nursed 
at home during the first four weeks of the disease—it was a 
straightforward case and recovered. 

The use of the Prontosil type of drug has been continued, 
and has somewhat superceded the use of anti-streptococcal serum 
due to the good results obtained. 

No deaths have occurred during the year from scarlet fever. 
Diphtheria. 

One hundred and forty-three cases of diphtheria were 
admitted compared with 319 cases in the previous year. Fewer 
cases were admitted during the summer than ever previously 
recorded. Again it should be emphasised that the gravis type 
cases are not receiving medical attention quickly enough—they 
are often far advanced before a doctor is called in. 

Six deaths occurred, two of which were children from outside 
the Borough. 

The use of anti-diphtheria serum in the early stages of the 
disease is encouraged. There is now a very concentrated refined 
serum on the market which has proved to be very beneficial both 
as regards the amount to be injected and the reactions afterwards 
A free supply of this is given to medical practitioners on request 
to the Public Health Department. 

There were several cases of laryngeal diphtheria notified, but 
fortunately all cleared up without the necessity of the operation 
of tracheotomy being required. 

No mastoid operations of diphtheria patients were performed 
during the year. 


129 


Measles. 

One hundred and nine cases of measles were admitted 
compared with 22 cases in the previous year. The increase was 
due to a fairly violent epidemic in the town with a resultant 
increase in complications, especially of the lungs, resulting in four 
deaths. There was also an increased number from the Port due to 
one vessel arriving with 23 cases on board amongst the families 
of the soldiers. 

The use of convalescent serum has not been tried out here 
yet, but there is hope that a supply will be available for the next 
outbreak. It is the intention to collect as much as possible from 
the convalescent patients in Hospital in order to have it made 
up by the manufacturers for our use in the future. 

Erysipelas. 

Twenty-five cases of erysipelas were admitted compared 
with 35 cases in the previous year. This shows a decrease on the 
previous two years. 

^lost of the cases have been of the facial type, the use of 
Prontosil has been very efficacious and has reduced the stay in 
Hospital considerably. One death occurred. 

Enteric Eever. 

Fourteen cases of enteric fever were admitted compared 
with 24 cases during the previous year. 

Although of a fairly severe type, there were no fatal cases. 
The patients admitted were chiefly from the Port and the sur¬ 
rounding districts. 

Whooping Cough. 

Twenty cases of whooping cough were admitted compared 
with 27 cases during 1937. As in previous years most of these 
cases came from the Childrens’ Homes. One child died, having 
developed broncho-pneumonia as a complication. 

J 



130 


Cholera. 

The notification of a suspected case of cholera necessitated 
the hurried opening of the Small-pox Hospital at Millbrook 
Point. 

The patient, a steward on an air-liner, had travelled from 
India, and was isolated until he had been proved negative. 

Anterior Poliomyelitis. 

Although some districts in England were visited in epidemic 
form by this disease, Southampton had only a few sporadic cases. 
Two of these cases developed grave respiratory symptoms, which 
necessitated removal to hospitals possessing an iron lung. One 
of these children was taken to the Lord Mayor Treloar’s Hospital, 
Alton, and the other to the Great Ormond Street Hospital, London. 
In both these cases artihcial respiration had to be carried out by 
the Medical Officer from the Isolation Hospital throughout the 
journey to Alton and London. One child made a satisfactory 
recovery, and the other died the day following admission to the 
Great Ormond Street Hospital. 


ISOLATION HOSPITALS. 


131 


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Cases Isolated for Treatment during the Year 1938— Continued. 


132 



































133 


MUNICIPAL LABORATORIES. 

Laboratory investigations under the Public Health Scheme 
have been carried out at the Municipal Laboratory, No. 23 
East Park Terrace, as for several years past. 

The details of the work carried out are enumerated under 
the following summary :— 

Bacteriological Laboratory, Municipal Dispensary, 

23 East Park Terrace. 

Diphtheria— 

Swabs cultured and examined ... ... ... 2,110 

Sputa— 

Specimens submitted by :— 

Medical Practitioners ... ... ... ... 664 

Tuberculosis Dispensary ... ... ... 511 

Typhoid Group— 

Agglutination test for T.A.B. ... ... ... 75 

Abortus, melintensis, dysentery, etc. ... ... 14 

Fseces ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 142 

Blood cultures ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Cerebro-Spinal Fever— 

Cerebro-spinal fluids ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Contact swabs ... ... ... ... ... ... 14 

Vincent’s Angina— 

Smears ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 68 

Body Fluids— 

Pleural fluids, etc. ... ... ... ... ... 58 

Urine Examinations— 

Full examinations (cultural) ... ... ... ... 438 

Clinical ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 23 

Gonorrhoea— 

Specimens from medical practitioners ... ... 98 

Specimens from Borough Hospital ... ... ... 78 

Smears (V.D. Clinic) ... ... ... ... ... 2,168 

Gonococcal complement fixation reactions... ... 151 

Syphilis— 

Wassermann reactions ... ... ... ... 1,609 

Cerebro-spinal fluid (cell count) ... ... ... 45 

Cerebro-spinal fluid (Pandy’s reaction) ... ... 45 



134 


Dark Ground Examinations— 

(1) For spirochsete pallida 

(2) For trichomonas vaginalis 

Anaemias— 

Full examinations 


119 

123 



Miscellaneous Examinations— 

Examination of milk (fresh and tinned) 
Guinea-pig inoculations 
Smears from rats (b. pestis) 

Faeces: occult blood ... 

Other examinations 


32 

54 

104 

89 

210 


Details relating to pathological examinations made at the 
Municipal Faboratories, are given in the table on page 84. 


Bacteriological Faboratory, Isolation Hospital. 

The following bacteriological examinations were made at 
the Laboratory at the Isolation Hospital:— 


Specimens from patients in Hospital ... ... 2,112 

,, ,, ,, ,, „ positive ... 44 

,, ,, „ „ ,, negative ... 1,966 

„ „ „ ,, ,, Hoffman 53 

,, „ „ „ ,, strep. ... 13 

„ ,, „ ,, ,, query ... 36 


Specimens submitted by medical practitioners ... 244 


y > 

y y 

y y 

y y 

y y 

y y 

y y 

y y 

y y 

y y 

y y 

y y 

y y 

y y 

y y 


Direct Smears 


,, positive 10 

,, negative 223 

,, Hoffman 9 

,, strep. ... I 

,, query ... i 

12 


Tuberculosis Department. 
Sedimentation tests ... 
Tuberculosis smears 
Gold injections 


743 

361 

1.253 



Mental Deficiency Acts. 
Mental Treatment Act. 


The Southampton Mental Welfare Association. 






136 


MENTAL DEFICIENCY ACTS, 1913-1927. 

The obligations placed on the Local Authority to make 
provision for the care and treatment of the mentally defective 
have been fully reported upon in previous Reports. 

Under the Joint Agreement, dated the 12th June, 1931, made 
between the County Boroughs of Southampton and Bournemouth, 
and the County Council of Hampshire, accommodation is provided 
for those persons who require care, protection and treatment at 
the Coldeast Colony and the Tatchbury Mount Colony. 

At the former institution accommodation is provided for 
women and children of both sexes, and at the Tatchbury Mount 
Colony males only, from the age of 16 years, are received. 

During the year 15 petitions were presented to the Justices 
and orders obtained under the Acts. Of this number seven were 
males and eight females, of whom nine were classified as feeble¬ 
minded, two as imbeciles, and four as idiots. These were dealt 
with as under :— 

Admitted to institutions— 

Coldeast Colony ... ... ... 3 males. 

8 females. 

Tatchbury Mount Colony ... 4 males. 

15 

In addition to those cases for whom orders were obtained, a 
considerable number were examined, but not found suitable to be 
dealt with under the Acts. 

Twelve cases were notified by the Local Education 
Authority to the Local Control Authority during the year, of whom 
three were sent to institutions, and nine were recommended for 
statutory supervision and placed under the care of the local 
voluntary Mental Welfare Association. 

Where defectives show progress and improvement, the 
question of granting licence on prolonged leave of absence is 
considered, either to take up work, or with the idea of enabling 
the defectives to obtain some form of employment to improve 
their mental stability and become useful members of the com¬ 
munity. Some of the cases are in useful employment and doing 
well. Before a patient is granted leave of absence from the 
institution, investigations are made on the home conditions, and 
what care, supervision and protection would be available if leave 
were granted. These reports are submitted to the Visiting Com¬ 
mittee of the institution. Reports as to the progress of those 
on licence are made from time to time, and particularly where 
the licence is due for reconsideration. 



137 


Thirty-two defectives were granted leave of absence on 
licence from the institutions and three from guardianship during 
the year. Twelve were returned to the institutions and the 
licences revoked. 


One variation order was obtained in respect of a defective 
under guardianship. 

Four deaths of defectives occurred during the year, viz., one 
male and three females at the Coldeast Colony. 

Three defectives absconded during the year from Coldeast ; 
one was returned, but in spite of enquiries the other two are still 
absent from the institution. 


During the year two defectives were discharged from under 
the Mental Deficiency Acts. 


The following is a summary of the patients for whom the 
Local Authority are responsible in institutions, under guardianship, 
and those on licence at the end of the year :— 


(A.) In Institutions. 

(i) Coldeast Colony. 

Males over 16 years ... 

Males under 16 years 
Females over i6 years 
Females under i6 years 


19 

14 

69 

12 

— 114 


(ii) Tatchbury Mount Colony. 

Males over 16 years ... 


58 


(iii) Other Institutions. 

Royal Earlswood Institution— 

Females ... ... ... ... ... 2 


(B.) Under Guardianship. 

(i) Brighton Guardianship or other approved Guardian. 

Males ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Females ... ... ... ... ... 4 

— 8 


(C.) Under Licence. 

(i) To care of parent or other approved person. 

Males ... ... ... ... ... ... 19 

Females ... ... ... ... ... ii 


30 




138 


Where it is not considered advisable to proceed under 
the Mental Deficiency Acts, the defectives are placed under the 
care and supervision of the Southampton Voluntary Mental 
Welfare Association. This Association follows up the cases and 
visits them regularly, submitting reports on their progress, the 
conditions under which they are living, and information as to 
cases in which further action would be advisable under the Acts, 

The Association works in close co-operation with the Depart¬ 
ment, visiting, obtaining and submitting reports as desired on 
defectives who are on licence, or cases where it is proposed to 
present a petition for an order under the Acts. Their services 
are much appreciated. 

The number of cases under statutory and voluntary super¬ 
vision at the end of the year was :— 

Statutory Supervision. 

Males ... ... ... ... ... ... 96 

Females ... ... ... ... ... 99 

- 195 


Voluntary Supervision. 

Males ... ... ... ... ... ... 121 

Females ... ... ... ... ... 130 

- 251 


Training. 

The male patients at the respective institutions receive 
training in gardening, farming, carpentry, bootmaking, etc., and 
the female patients in useful work, such as needlework and other 
suitable domestic work, having regard to the capabilities of the 
defective as dehned by the Medical Superintendent. 


MENTAL TREATMENT ACT, 1930. 

This Act, which came into operation on the ist January, 
1931, is designed to bring within the range of treatment cases 
in the earliest stages of mental illness. The Act is largely based 
on the findings of the Royal Commission, and the main principles 
embodied in it may be summarised as follow :— 

(i) The preventive treatment of incipient mental illness by 
the provision of Out-Patient Clinics, and extended 
facilities for voluntary treatment. 






139 


(2) To assimilate the treatment of mental illness to that of 
other forms of illness by— 

{a) Provision under which certain cases may 
be temporarily placed under care and treatment 
without certification. 

(Zj) The opportunities afforded by associating 
the General Hospitals (municipal and voluntary) in 
the treatment of mental illness. 

(3) Extended provision for after care, and for systematised 
research into mental illness. 

(4) Dissociation of the treatment of mental illness from the 
Poor Law. 

(5) Various alterations in terminology, reflecting the more 
enlightened view now taken in regard to mental 
illness. 

The duties and powers of a Local Authority include :— 

(i) To investigate the needs of their area, and to take such 
steps as they think necessary to provide and main¬ 
tain suitable accommodation for the reception of 
temporary patients. 

provide Out-Patient Clinics for treatment either 
gratuitously, or on such terms as they think fit, of 
persons suffering from mental illness. 

make provision for after-care of patients who have 
undergone treatment, and to contribute to the funds 
of voluntary associations formed for that purpose. 

undertake research, and to make contributions 
towards bodies engaged in research in relation to 
mental illness and treatment. 

Section I of the Act provides that any person who is desirous 
of voluntarily submitting himself to treatment for mental illness, 
and who makes an application in writing for the purpose to the 
person in charge of an institution, may, without a reception 
order, be received as a voluntary patient into any hospital, 
nursing home, or place approved by the Board of Control. In 
the case of minors under the age of 16 years, a medical recom¬ 
mendation by an approved medical practitioner is required. 

Section 5 of the Act provides that a person who is suffering 
from mental illness and is likely to benefit by temporary treat¬ 
ment, but is for the time being incapable of expressing himself 


(2) To 

( 3 ) To 

( 4 ) To 



140 


as willing or unwilling to receive such treatment may, on the 
written application of the husband or wife, or by a relative of 
the person to whom it relates, or, on the request of the husband 
or wife or a relative, by a duly authorised officer of the Local 
Authority, be received as a temporary patient for the purpose 
of treatment. 

An application for temporary treatment of a patient under 
Section 5 must be accompanied by a recommendation signed 
by two medical practitioners, one of whom must be approved by 
the Board of Control, and the other must be the usual medical 
attendant of the patient. 

A Mental Treatment Clinic is held at East Park Terrace, 
Southampton, at 2 p.m., on Monday of each week, at which a 
mental specialist from Knowle Mental Hospital attends for the 
purpose of examining, guiding and assisting patients who are 
suffering from some minor mental trouble. The work of the 
specialist is very highly appreciated, and the Clinic is considered 
to be one of the finest, if not the finest, in the country. Patients, 
when it is considered advisable, are invited to enter Ravenswood 
House as voluntary patients. Ravenswood House is in the grounds 
of the Knowle Mental Hospital, and has been set aside for the 
reception of voluntary cases under this Act. They are kept 
entirely apart from the certified cases under the Lunacy Act, and 
are treated as visitors with every freedom of action on their part, 
with the care, attention and advice of those in charge. In con¬ 
nection with the voluntary section at Knowle, there is a Clinic 
at which the patients attend, and by so doing come in constant 
contact with the specialist, who is able to mark the progress made. 
Patients may also be admitted to Ravenswood House through the 
relieving officers. 

During the year 132 new patients attended at the Municipal 
Clinic, and, with old patients, made 779 visits during the year. 

Fifty-one voluntary patients were admitted to Ravenswood 
House during the year. 


THE SOUTHAMPTON MENTAL WELFARE ASSOCIATION. 

The Southampton Mental Welfare Association report further 
progress in the work done at the Occupation Centre run by the 
Association at 5, Cranbury Terrace. A Commissioner of the 
Board of Control inspected the Centre in November and stated 
in her report that :— 


“ I was much pleased by what I saw of this well-conducted 
Centre to-day. The premises are well suited to their 
purpose and facilitate the proper classihcation of the 
defectives who attend. There were 24 at the Centre 
to-day and I saw them at work and play. I was glad 
to hnd that since the previous visit half the garden 
had been asphalted and much of the physical training 
can now be conducted out of doors. The activities 
of the Centre continue as before and the standard 
of handicrafts is really very good. The percussion 
band is very popular and I was able to hear to-day 
how well they played. During the summer the whole 
Centre went to the seaside near Bournemouth for 
a week. This was in the nature of an experiment 
and succeeded very well." 

The camp proved a great success, and it is hoped to repeat 
the experiment again this year. It is our object to treat the 
children at the Centre as much as possible like normal children, 
and to give them conhdence in themselves. Until recently the 
majority of our children had never been on holiday, but last 
year they could compete with their brothers and sisters (who in 
the ordinary schools enjoy a period of camping), and at the same 
time receive training in the community life, as well as deriving 
beneht from the open air. 

This Association undertakes the general care of mental 
defective persons in the Borough, and during the past year more 
than three thousand visits have been paid to homes. 

Parents and guardians of our patients are becoming less sus¬ 
picious of the social worker, and apply more often to the Associa¬ 
tion for help and advice in dealing with those under their care. 
It is gratifying to hnd that the amount of prejudice against 
recognising mental defect is lessening, resulting in an ever-widening 
: interest among the general public. The recognition of mental 
I defect on the part of the parents proves of great assistance to the 
mental health visitor, who is unable to help in any way those who 
resent her visits. 

Perhaps one of the most pleasing results of the year is the 
great number of patients who are on licence from institutions, 
and who are satisfactorily holding jobs in domestic service and 
other suitable work. The social worker when visiting the em¬ 
ployers of these defectives has been amazed by the untiring 
patience devoted to their training, and the sympathetic under¬ 
standing extended because of their defect. 


















Miscellaneous. 


144 


VACCINATION. 

The whole of the duties under the Vaccination Acts, together 
with all officers engaged in the work, were transferred to the 
Health Department in accordance with Section 2 of the Local 
Government Act, 1929. 

The Borough is divided into nine vaccination districts, a 
Public Vaccinator (doctor) being appointed to each district, with 
the exception of districts Nos. 3 and 4 which are combined. 
Separate Public Vaccinators are also appointed for the St. Mary 
Street Institution, Borough Hospital, and Children’s Homes. 
There are two Vaccination Officers appointed, each having a 
separate district. 

The particulars in the following table are supplied by the 
Registrar General. It will be noticed that the number of births 
shown differs from those recorded as belonging to the Borough ; 
the births in this table refer to all children born and registered 
in the Borough, and include therefore children residing in other 


towns. 




145 


The following table is a record of the Vaccinations carried out 


in Southampton since 1916 :— 


Year, 

Births. 

Success¬ 

fully 

Vaccin¬ 

ated. 

Died 

Un vaccin¬ 
ated. 

Insus¬ 

ceptible 

to 

Vaccin¬ 

ation. 

Declar¬ 
ations of 
Cons¬ 
cientious 
objection 

Postponed 
and where¬ 
abouts 
unknown or 
removed 
to other 
districts. 

Percentage 
success¬ 
fully Vac¬ 
cinated. 

1916 

2773 

1243 

189 

6 

1083 

252 

44.8 

1917 

2430 

1057 

161 

3 

983 

226 

43.5 

1918 

2532 

1002 

172 

12 

1000 

346 

39-6 

1919 

2565 

1062 

157 

10 

1034 

302 

41.4 

1920 

3210 

1283 

165 

8 

1413 

341 

40.0 

1921 

t 287 i 

1117 

155 

14 

1320 

265 

38.9 

1922 

t26oi 

1082 

148 

9 

1161 

201 

41.6 

1923 

t 2474 

1231 

113 

4 

905 

221 

49-8 

1924 

3166 

1502 

163 

7 

1202 

292 

47.4 

1925 

3262 

1440 

156 

4 

1401 

261 

44-1 

1926 

3153 

1354 

139 

11 

1373 

276 

42.9 

1927 

3003 

1283 

125 

15 

1317 

263 

42.7 

1928 

3096 

1391 

113 

9 

1398 

185 

44.9 

1929 

3145 

1311 

147 

19 

1499 

169 

41.7 

1930 

3205 

1466 

146 

7 

1.514 

182 

42.1 

1931 

3073 

1370 

no 

9 

1433 

151 

44-5 

1932 

3081 

1338 

122 

II 

1431 

179 

43-4 

1933 

-:i 7 

1203 

135 

II 

1404 

164 

41.2 

1934 

2837 

1197 

116 

II 

1408 

105 

42.2 

1935 

2779 

1256 

119 

II 

1244 

149 

45-2 

1936 

2856 

1313 

126 

II 

1239 

167 

46.0 

1937 

2937 

1341 

115 

7 

1302 

172 

45-7 

1938 

3095 

1796: 

* 

♦ 

I 3 i 8 t 


♦ 


* FitJures not yet available. t Old Borough only. 

J These figures do not relate to the births registered in 1938, but are the numbers of 
certificates of successful primary vaccination of children under 14, and declarations of 
conscientious objection actually received in 1938, irrespective of the dates of birth of 

the children to whom they relate. 


K 

































146 


SOUTHAMPTON CREMATORIUM. 

During the year ended 31st December, 1938, 411 cremations 
were carried out at the Southampton Crematorium, representing 
a decrease of 82 compared with the previous year. 

Deceased persons belonging to Southampton who were 
cremated numbered 82, being 19.9 per cent, of the whole, and 
an increase of 5 compared with 1937. 

The annual figures since the opening of the Crematorium 
in July, 1932, are as follows 1932, 77 ; 1933, 193 ; 1934, 299 ; 
I935> 359 ; 1936, 416 ; 1937, 493 ; 1938, making a total of 
2,248 in approximately years. 

The decrease last year was due entirely to the opening of 
the Bournemouth Crematorium at the end of March, as 229 
cremations were carried out there in 9 months, which suggests 
that the figure for Southampton would otherwise have approached 
600. 

In Great Britain, as a whole, 16,312 cremations were carried 
out in 1938, representing a net increase over the previous year 
of 2,187 equal to 15.4 per cent. 

The total number of cremations carried out since the opening 
of the hrst Crematorium at Woking in 1885 is 131,615. 

The steady progress made by the cremation movement 
generally is indicated by the fact that in hve years the increase 
has been from 24 crematoria and 7,471 cremations in 1933, to 
47 crematoria and 16,312 cremations in 1938. 

A scheme of cremation assurance introduced in 1935 by the 
Cremation Society is making an increasing appeal to those of 
moderate means who, by the payment of small w^eekly premiums, 
are enabled to provide in advance for their ultimate cremation. 




147 

Appended are statistics of districts and disposal of remains :— 
COMPARISON OF DISTRICTS TABLE. 



1938. 

July, 1932—Dec 

Southampton ... 

82 


423 

Bournemouth ... 

56 


562 

Portsmouth 

67 . 


333 

Hants ... 

155 


614 

Dorset ... 

22 


216 

Wilts (including Salisbury) 

15 


63 

Sundry ... 

14 . 


37 


411 


2248 

DISPOSAL OF 

REMAINS 

TABLE. 



1938. 

July, 1932—Dec 

Scattered in Garden ... 

266 

. • ... 

1432 

Taken away by friends 

128 


729 

Deposited in Columbarium ... 

7 

• • • • • 

44 

Buried in Southampton Cemeteries . 

10 

• • • • • 

40 

Waiting Instructions ... 

— 

• • • • • 

3 


411 ... ... 2248 


SURVEY OF THE DEAF-BLIND IN SOUTHAMPTON. 

Under the auspices of the “ Southern Regional Association 
for the Blind," Miss Allison recently completed a comprehensive 
survey of the deaf-blind persons in Southampton, and the follow¬ 
ing are extracts from the Report submitted. 

The following report and attached statistical statement is 
based on an investigation which was carried out in Southampton 
on 19th, 20th and 21st April, 1939, with the co-operation of the 
Association for the Blind and the IMission for the Deaf. Full 
information was obtained about all the cases from the Home 
Teacher, and a number of the cases were visited in their own 
homes. Enquiries were also made at the Institutions in the 
district. 

































STATISTICAL STATEMENT. 


148 


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25.7 per hundred thousand of total population. 


































150 

Classification. 

The cases have been classified according to degree of disability 
along the lines laid down by the Deaf-Blind Welfare Committee of 
the National Institute for the Blind. 


Category I includes those who were born deaf or lost their 
hearing in infancy to such an extent that they were unable to 
agquire natural speech. Apart from the fact that they cannot 
speak intelligibly, communication with such people is usually 
rendered very difficult by their limited knowledge of language. 
Category II includes blind persons who are totally deaf, but who 
can express themselves in a normal manner, though their speech 
almost invariably deteriorates after a time. Category III groups 
together the blind who are partially deaf in varying degrees. It 
is impossible to sub-divide further, and difficult even to arrive at 
a “ minimum standard of deafness which can be applied to 
persons in this category, for, failing scientific measurement, the 
only practical test is response to the human voice under ordinary 
conditions. Some of the cases may only hear words shouted into 
their ear and even then have difficulty in understanding ; others 
can hear a clear raised voice addressed directly to them up to a 
distance of about 3 feet (or possibly even further in the case of 
a familiar voice), but even this degree of deafness excludes a 
person from any general conversation, and means a serious 
handicap in family and social life. In addition, the nervous 
strain of constantly trying to hear is considerable, and the danger 
of accident to blind persons is intensified. Category IV includes 
deaf persons with highly defective vision who are not actually 
blind, or who were not certified as such at the time of this 
investigation. 


Examination of Statistical Information. 

The 46 deaf-blind of all categories in this area represent a 
proportion of 14.85 per cent, of the blind population, and 25.7 
per hundred thousand of the total population in the Borough. 
This is an unusually high proportion, and it may be worth noting 
that eight cases are known to have near relations who are either 
deaf or blind. As in most areas, the majority of the deaf-blind 
are middle-aged or elderly, and are unemployable. Of the eight 
cases who are under 50 years of age, three are employed, one is 
in training, and arrangements are now being made for two others, 
one of whom is only 18 years of age, to receive training. The 
two remaining cases are married women, both over 40, whose 
mental capacity would in any case prevent them from benehting 
by instruction. 



Arrangements for the Care of the Deaf-Blind 

IN Southampton. 

The Mission for the Deaf. 

As this organisation covers the whole of Hampshire, the 
Missioner is unable to visit the deaf-blind regularly himself, but 
he co-operates with the Blind Welfare Association, and is available 
for consultation with regard to individual cases. 


Blind Welfare Services. 

The Home Teacher for the blind, who is responsible for the 
welfare of all the unemployable blind in the district, is greatly 
handicapped by the fact that she has no assistance and a very 
large number of cases on her register. It is obvious that she is 
unusually capable of dealing with the difficult problems which 
cases of the double defect give rise to, but that she simply has 
not the time to give them the attention that they require. With 
a register of over 300 cases, it is inevitable that she should be 
kept almost fully occupied in dealing with new cases, clerical work, 
teaching, and attending to the needs of those cases which demand 
urgent attention of one sort or another. She has managed to do 
a fair amount of teaching, and has put suitable cases in touch 
with the Deaf-Blind Helpers’ League, but regular routine visiting 
is impossible, and some cases are only visited at intervals of from 
four to five months. 

Practically all the deaf-blind are in receipt of domiciliary 
assistance, and in most cases the grant is taken to the home by 
a voluntary worker, but some of these workers do not know the 
Manual x\lphabet, and are unable to have any conversation with 
the deaf-blind person they are visiting. There is a real need in 
this district for voluntary workers who are willing to learn the 
Manual Alphabet, and to devote some time at frequent intervals 
to the deaf-blind, some of whom have very little contact with the 
outside world and live very lonely lives. It is suggested that 
the Committee of the Association should give this matter their 
serious consideration, and endeavour to recruit a panel of volun¬ 
teers, each one of whom would “ adopt ” a particular deaf-blind 
person, take him or her out for walks or drives, talk to them, tell 
them the news of the world, and give them as much companionship 
as possible. 



152 


It is suggested also that special social meetings should be 
arranged for the deaf-blind of this district. They are cut off from 
the enjoyment of ordinary social activities, and even from those 
organised for the beneht of the hearing blind and the seeing deaf, 
but experience in other areas has proved that they do enjoy 
meeting each other. Moreover, it does them a great deal of good, 
as, apart from the excitement of a regular outing, the well-adjusted 
help the more backward ones and are themselves stimulated by 
being able to help others. In Sheffield, where the numbers of 
deaf-blind are about the same as those in Southampton, a class 
was started at fortnightly intervals, primarily for the purpose of 
teaching hnger-spelling and pastime occupations, and it was so 
successful that it is now being held every week. In a great many 
towns the meetings are purely social, and are held at least once a 
month. In Sheffield the problem of transport is solved by the 
corporation lending two cars for the afternoon of the classes, but 
in some other areas organisations, such as Toe H and Rotary, 
have made themselves responsible for transport. It is considered 
that in Southampton it should be possible to run, at any rate, 
a monthly social by purely voluntary effort. A weekly or fort¬ 
nightly class would demand the presence of a Home Teacher, and 
until the Home Teaching staff has increased, it would not be a 
practical proposition. 




HOUSING. 


154 


HOUSING. 

During the year the original programme of Slum Clearance 
as decided upon by the Committee was completed, except for the 
rehousing available on the Redbridge Hill Estate. This pro¬ 
gramme included 1,077 houses, of which 407 houses formed the 
subject of three Ministry of Health Inquiries during the year. 
Included in this latter number were Kingsland No. i Compulsory 
Purchase Area, comprising 297 houses, and Cook Street Com¬ 
pulsory Purchase Area, 51 houses. It was originally intended to 
rehouse some occupiers in the Kingsland area on the same site 
by a process of transference from the houses to be demolished 
to new flats or maisonettes on the rebuilt portion of the area. 
Unfortunately, unforeseen delays occurred which prevented 
rebuilding, and it became necessary to rehouse the occupants 
of Kingsland at Coxford. It is interesting to note that though 
some opposition existed against removing to a district considered 
by some occupiers so far from places of work and leaving old 
associations, this was overcome by persuading the families to visit 
the site and view the houses before hnally refusing the houses 
offered. Many had been led to believe the site of the new houses 
to be much farther out of the town than is the case, and, after 
viewing, the objections ceased, and an analysis of displacements 
proved that 90% went voluntary to the new houses without any 
other inducement from my department. 


Cannon Street No. 1 Clearance Order. 

This area included 17 houses, viz.. Nos. 16, 18, 20, 22, 24^ 
26, 28, and 30 Cannon Street ; 6, 7, 8, and 9 Vincent Grove ; 

3, 5, 7. and 9 Vincent Street. 

The houses were damp from penetration and rising dampness. 
The staircases and passages were dark, the internal arrangement 
of the rooms bad, and the height of the rooms low. 

None of the houses were provided with ventilated food cup¬ 
boards. All the houses were characterised by disrepair and 
sanitary defects. Roofs sagged with loose and slates off, and 
large portions of the roof were covered with rusty corrugated 
iron sheeting. The rain water pipes and guttering were defective, 
walls were fractured and bulging, and ceilings sagged dangerously. 
Woodwork was decayed, and yard pavings defective and 
inadequate. 

The area was represented on 21st October, 1936, and an 
Order made i8th May, 1938. A Ministry of Health Inquiry was 
held on i8th October, 1938, and the Order conhrmed on 30th 
December, 1938. 



155 


Cannon Street No. 2 Clearance Order. 

The area included 8 houses, viz., 8o, 82, 84, 86, 88, 90, 92, 
and 94 Cannon Street. All the houses were damp from penetra¬ 
tion and rising dampness, and no efficient sub-floor ventilation 
existed. The height of the rooms was low and the staircases 
dark. All were without ventilated food cupboards. 

The houses were characterised by disrepair and sanitary 
defects, which rendered them unfit for human habitation. 

The area was represented on the 21st October, 1936, and 
an Order made i8th May, 1938. A Ministry of Health Inquiry 
was held on i8th October, 1938, and the Order conhrmed 30th 
December, 1938. 


Cannon Street No. 3 Clearance Order. 

The area included 6 houses, viz., 69, 71, 73, 75, 77, and 79 
Cannon Street. The houses were damp from penetration and 
rising dampness. The ground floors at the rear of the houses 
were level or below the adjoining ground. Staircases were 
awkward, winding and dark, and led from living rooms. The 
height of the rooms was low and the window areas small. All 
the houses were characterised by disrepair and sanitary defects. 
Roofs sagged and were very defective. Walls were bulging, 
fractured and dangerous ; yard pavings were defective and 
inadequate. The woodwork of floors, doors and windows was 
decayed and defective. 

The area was represented on 20th April, 1938, and an Order 
made 20th July, 1938. A Ministry of Health Inquiry was held 
on i8th October, 1938, and the Order conhrmed on 30th December, 
1938. 


Cannon Street No. 4 Clearance Order. 

The area included 4 houses, viz.. Nos. 55, 57, 59, and 61 
Cannon Street. The houses were damp from penetration and 
rising dampness. Staircases were narrow and dark, and the 
height of the rooms low. Window areas were small in relation 
to floor areas. Two taps in yards were shared by four houses. 
All the houses were characterised by disrepair and sanitary defects. 

The area was represented on 20th April, 1938, and an Order 
made 20th July, 1938. A ^linistry of Health Inquiry was held 
on 18th October, 1938, and the Order confirmed on 30th December, 
1938. 




Redcar Street Clearance Order. 

The area included lo houses, viz., Nos. 3, 5, and 7 Regent’s 
Grove ; 9, ii, 13, 15, 17, 19, and 21 Redcar Street. The houses 
were damp from rising dampness and penetration. The ground 
floors of 9 houses were below the level of the adjoining ground. 
The w.c.s of 5 houses were not readily accessible in some instances, 
being 40 feet from the house. Staircases were dark and winding, 
height of rooms low. All the houses were characterised by 
disrepair and sanitary defects. 

The area was represented on 20th April, 1938, and an Order 
made on 20th July, 1938, and confirmed on 20th December, 1938. 


Waterhouse Lane Clearance Order. 

This area included 9 houses, viz.. Nos. 41, 43, 45, 47, 49, 
51 j 53 » 55 > 57 Waterhouse Lane. The floors of the ground 

floor rooms were below the level of the adjoining ground. Five 
of the houses had no secondary means of access. All the rooms 
were low, with small windows, stairs were dark, and the houses 
were in a state of disrepair and with sanitary defects. Roofs 
sagged with broken slates. Dampness was evident through the 
absence of damp-proof courses and also from penetration. Wood¬ 
work of floors and windows was perished. Walls were bulging 
and fractured. Ceilings sagged dangerously, and yard pavings 
were defective and inadequate. 

The area was represented on 20th April, 1938, and an Order 
made i8th May, 1938. A Ministry of Health Inquiry was held 
on i8th October, 1938, and the Order confirmed on 30th December, 
1938. 

Stratton Road Clearance Order. 

This area included 4 houses, viz.. Nos. 46, 48, 50, and 52 
Stratton Road. The houses were damp from penetration and 
rising dampness. Staircases were dark and winding. All the 
rooms were low and window area small. None of the houses were 
provided with ventilated food cupboards. Roofs sagged badly 
and were very defective, with bulging walls and sagging ceilings. 
The ground floors at the rear of the houses were below the level 
of the adjoining ground, and were without efficient sub-floor 
ventilation, with inadequate and defective yard paving. All the 
houses were characterised by disrepair and sanitary defects. 

The area was represented on 20th April, 1938, and an Order 
made on 20th July, 1938. A Ministry of Health Inquiry was held 
on i8th October, 1938, and the Order confirmed on 30th December, 
1938. 



157 


The Drove (Coxford) Clearance Order. 

This area included 5 houses, viz., Nos. 6a, 7a, 8a, 10, and 12 
The Drove. All the houses were damp from penetration. The 
walls of the houses were bulging and fractured with defective 
slate hanging. The height of the rooms was low, the staircases 
dark and awkward, with window areas small. All were in a bad 
state of disrepair and with sanitary defects. Roofs sagged, wood¬ 
work was decayed and ill-fitting, floors were sunken with in¬ 
efficient ground floor ventilation. All were without ventilated 
food cupboards. 

The area was represented on 20th April, 1938, and an Order 
made on 20th July, 1938. A Ministry of Health Inquiry was 
held on i8th October, 1938, and the Order confirmed on 30th 
December, 1938. 


Exmouth Street Clearance Order 

The area included ii houses, viz.. Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 20, 
21, 22, 23, and 24 Exmouth Street. The roofs were defective 
and in some cases sagging. The ground floors in 8 of the houses 
were below the level of the adjoining ground. The walls were 
bulging, and uneven settlement had occurred. Efficient sub-floor 
ventilation was absent or inadequate. Dampness from penetra¬ 
tion and rising dampness was serious. Staircases were dark, 
rooms low, and with small window areas. Two houses were 
without sinks, and all food cupboards were damp and unventilated. 

The area was represented on 20th April, 1938, and an Order 
made on 20th July, 1938. A ^Ministry of Health Inquiry was 
held on i8th October, 1938, and the Order confirmed on 30th 
December, 1938. 


Lower Canal Walk No. 2 Clearance Order. 

This area comprised 3 houses in an advanced state of dis¬ 
repair and with sanitary defects. Serious dampness was evident 
through the absence of damp proof courses and penetration. The 
staircases were dark and without handrails. Roofs defective and 
with bulging and defective brickwork. 

The area was represented on 21st July, 1937, an Order made 
on 15th December, 1937, and confirmed on 5th August, 1938. 




158 

COMPULSORY PURCHASE ORDERS. 

Kingsland No. 1. 

This area comprised 228 unfit houses and 51 fit houses, 
together with stores, garages and workshops, and the business 
of a tallow factory, mineral water factory, slaughterhouse and 
stables. 

The streets were narrow, varying from 20 to 25 feet in width. 
Twenty-nine houses were situated in courts. Of the 228 unfit 
houses, 12 were back to back, 4 without through ventilation, and 
183 had no secondary means of access. Twelve shared water- 
closets, 75 had w.c.s not readily accessible ; loi houses were 
without sinks, 9 had sinks in yard, only, and 15 shared common 
sinks ; 125 houses had no internal water supply and 36 shared 
common taps ; 20 houses shared coppers in exposed yards. All 
the unfit houses were in an advanced state of disrepair associated 
with sanitary defects. The ground floors of 139 houses were level 
or below the level of the adjoining ground, and had inefficient 
sub-floor ventilation. In 212 instances the height of the rooms 
was low, in some cases being only 6 feet, and containing small 
windows. The roofs of the houses in most instances were sagging, 
and with defective chimney stacks and rain water gutterings. 
Walls were bulging and brickwork perished. Serious dampness 
was apparent from rising dampness through the absence of or 
defective damp-proof courses and from penetration. Staircases 
were dark, winding, and in many cases dangerous. Floors were 
unsound, and the woodwork of doors and windows decayed. 
Ceilings sagged, and in many instances were dangerous. Plaster 
to walls had become perished, and in many houses was verminous. 

The area was represented on 14th January, 1937, and an 
Order made on 20th October, 1937. A Ministry of Health Inquiry 
was held on ist February, 1938, and the Order confirmed on 
2ist April, 1938. 

Cook Street. 

This area included 51 houses, 44 of which were unfit, together 
with 5 shops and 2 dwellings. 

The streets were narrow, 3 houses were back to back, 3 had 
no through ventilation, 34 were without secondary means of 
access. In five instances the water supply was shared, and 22 
had no internal water supply. Twenty were without sinks and 
II had sinks in yards. In five cases the w.c. was shared, and 
the water-closets for 25 of the houses were not readily accessible. 
The height of rooms was low and window areas small. 

The ground floor level of 26 houses was below the level of 
the adjoining ground, and sub-floor ventilation w^as absent or 
ineffective in 35 houses. 



159 


The staircases in 25 houses were winding with low head 
room. Disrepair and sanitary defects characterised the houses, 
roofs were defective, serious dampness existed through the absence 
of efficient damp-proof courses and also from penetration ; walls 
bulged and plaster work was perished. Ceilings sagged danger¬ 
ously. Wood floors were sunken, and woodwork of windows 
decayed. 

The area was represented on 17th February, 1937, and an 
Order made on 15th December, 1937. A Ministry of Health 
Inquiry was held on 5th April, 1938, and the area and the Order 
confirmed on 25th July, 1938. 


INDIVIDUAL UNFIT HOUSES OUTSIDE OF 
CLEARANCE OR COMPULSORY PURCHASE ORDERS. 


During the year 23 houses were found to be unfit, and not 
capable at a reasonable expense of being rendered fit. The 
Housing Committee in 21 instances resolved to have demolition 
orders made on 21 houses, and in two cases undertakings were 
accepted that such work would be executed as would in their 
opinion render the houses fit for human habitation. 

The following particulars shew the progress made in Slum 
Clearance to the end of December, 1938 :— 


i 




1 

I 


I 


Number of 
Houses in 
programme 

to date. 

Number dealt 

with and 

demolished on 
December, 

1937 - 

Number 

dealt with 

and 

demolished 

during 

1938. 

Total 

number 

dealt with 

and 

demolished. 

Number of 

Houses in 

confirmed 

areas not 

demolished. 

1077 

657 

194 

851 

226 

Number of insani¬ 
tary houses not 
included in 

Clearance 
or Compulsory 
Purchase Orders. 

178 

118 

31 

144 

34 


Number of persons displaced from Clearance and 
Compulsory Purchase Orders to December, 
1938 

Number of persons displaced from insanitary 
houses ... ... ... ... ... ... 


3876 

490 


I 

i 














i6o 

The following is a summary of houses completed for 


occupation from 
year 1938 :— 

the date of 

the 

Armistice 

to the end 

of the 

Year. 


Erected by 
Council. 

Erected by 
Private 
Enterprise. 

Total. 

1918 to date of Census, June, 1921 

209 

90 

299 

1921 June to end of year 


232 

II 2 

344 

1922 



178 

261 

439 

1923 



50 

383 

433 

1924 



— 

636 

636 

1925 



— 

821 

821 

1926 



71 

776 

847 

1927 



437 

568 

1,005 

1928 



196 

836 

1,032 

1929 



644 

896 

T 540 

1930 



503 

901 

1,404 

1931 



614 

712 

1,326 

1932 



430 

616 

1,046 

1933 



118 

732 

850 

1934 



156 

839 

995 

1935 



202 

873 

1,075 

1936 



26 

949 

975 

1937 



321 

894 

1,215 

1938 



401 

1474 

1,875 




4,788 

13.369 

18,157 






















i6i 


HOUSING STATISTICS. 

The following particulars are given in the form required 
by the Ministry of Health. 

1. Inspection of dwelling-houses during the year :— 

(1) (a) Total number of dwelling-houses inspected for 

housing defects (under the Public Health 
or Housing Acts) ... ... ... ... 5>045 

(b) Number of inspections made for the purpose ... 9,7^7 

(2) (a) Number of dwelling-houses (included under 

sub-head (i) above) which were inspected and 
recorded under the Housing (Consolidated) 
Regulations, 1925 ... ... ... ... i,334 

(b) Number of inspections made for the purpose ... 1,661 

(3) Number of dwelling-houses found to be in a state 

so dangerous or injurious to health as to be unfit 

for human habitation ... ... ... ... 17 

(4) Number of dwelling-houses (exclusive of those re¬ 

ferred to under the preceding sub-head) found 
not to be in all respects reasonably fit for human 
habitation ... ... ... ... ... ... 1,219 

2. Remedy of defects during the year without service of 

formal notices :— 

Number of defective dwelling-houses rendered fit 
in consequence of informal action by the Local 
Authority or their officers ... ... ... 68 

3. Action under statutory powers during the year :— 

A. Proceedings under Sections 9, 10, and 16 of the 
Housing Act, 1936 :— 

(1) Number of dwelling-houses in respect of which 

notices were served requiring repairs ... 351 

(2) Number of dwelling-houses which were rendered 

fit after service of formal notices :— 

(a) By owners ... ... ... ... ... 34S 

(b) By Local Authority in default of owners nil 



i62 


B. Proceedings under Public Health Acts : 

(1) Number of dwelling-houses in respect of which 

notices were served requiring defects to be 

remedied... ... ... ... ... ... 868 

(2) Number of dwelling-houses in which defects were 

remedied after service of formal notices :— 

(a) By owners ... ... ... ... ... 863 

(b) By Local Authority in default of owners nil 

C. Proceedings under Sections ii and 13 of the Hous¬ 

ing Act, 1936 : 

(1) Number of dwelling-houses in respect of which 

Demolition Orders were made ... ... 17 

(2) Number of dwelling-houses demolished in pur¬ 

suance of Demolition Orders ... ... ... 26 

D. Proceedings under Section 12 of the Housing Act, 

1936 : 

(1) Number of separate tenements or underground 

rooms in respect of which Closing Orders were 
made ... ... ... ... ... ... nil 

(2) Number of separate tenements or underground 

rooms in respect of which Closing Orders were 
determined, the tenement or room having been 
rendered fit ... ... ... ... ... nil 

Housing Act, 1936. Part IV. Overcrowding. 

A. (i) Number of dwellings overcrowded at the end 

of the year ... ... ... ... ... 650 

(2) Number of families dwelling therein ... ... 671 

(3) Number of persons dwelling therein ... ... 3,697 

B. Number of new cases of overcrowding reported dur¬ 

ing the year ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

C. (i) Number of cases of overcrowding relieved during 

the year ... ... ... ... ... ... 33 

(2) Number of persons concerned in such cases ... 189 

D. Particulars of any cases in which dwelling-houses 

have again become overcrowded after the Local 
Authority have taken steps for the abatement of 
overcrowding ... ... ... ... ... nil 




SOUTHAMPTON CORPORATION 
SLUM CLEARANCE 



173 

BELL 

STREET. 1 



CHALLIS 

COURT. 1 


Ul 

UNION 

PLACE. 1 


KEY TO DIAGRAM. —Figures in rectangles and squares represent Houses in Areas ; figures on lines the 
Persons displaced from these Areas. Circles represent Rehousing Accommodation : hatched circles 
represent Rehousing Accommodation already Erected and Occupied. 


915 


NEW HOUSES ERECTED AND OCCUPIED TO DECEMBER, 1938 

ACCOMMODATING 

NUMBER OF HOUSES IN CLEARANCE AREAS ... 1045 = 4156 ) 
NUMBER OF UNFIT INDIVIDUAL HOUSES 26 = 105 J 

NUMBER OF HOUSES IN CLEARANCE AREAS ON FAMILY BASIS 32 
TOTAL NUMBER OF INDIVIDUAL UNFIT HOUSES . 


4261 PERSONS 


144 


















































































































































































i63 

DETAILED LIST OF INSPECTIONS MADE UNDER 

THE HOUSING ACT, 1936. 

During the year 1,334 houses were inspected under the pro¬ 
visions of the above Act. 


The following is a list of Roads, Streets, etc., in which 
systematic inspection was carried out, the number of houses 
inspected, and the number of notices served :— 


Street or Road. 

Number of 
Houses. 
Inspected. 

Number of 
Notices 
served under 
Housing Act. 

Number of 
Notices 
served under 
Public 
Health Acts. 

Albert Road 

96 

5 

31 

Ailsa Lane 

7 


7 

Bath Road 

35 

19 


Belgrave Road 

112 

18 

92 

Belvidere Terrace (part of) ... 

30 

II 

— 

Bishop's Road (part of) 

50 

4 

37 

Cambridge Street 

19 

4 

I 

Dean Road (part of) ... 

7 

2 

— 

Drummond Road 

25 

— 

23 

Duke’s Road ... 

92 

33 

— 

Dyer Road 

21 

2 

12 

Elm Street 

17 

3 

4 

Empress Road 

95 

30 

2 

Foundry Lane (part of) 

33 

4 

22 

Furze Road 

5 

— 

5 

Glebe Road 

20 

6 

— 

Gordon Terrace 

10 

— 

5 

Grove Street (part of) 

79 

66 

7 

Highlands Road 

17 

2 

8 

Hill Street 

16 

7 

3 

Ivy Road (part of) 

22 

— 

15 

Kent Street 

29 

6 

— 

Kentish Road (part of) 

20 

2 

17 

Keswick Road 

II 

— 

10 

Kingston Road 

18 

4 

4 

Lake Road 

20 

7 

— 

I don Street 

18 

6 

5 

Manor Farm Road (part of) ... 

12 

— 

12 

Maple Road 

23 

16 

— 

Maytree Road ... 

15 

9 

— 

Nelson Road ... 

26 

2 

2 

Oriental Street 

21 

6 

5 

Pear Tree Road 

20 

3 

8 

Peel Street 

24 ' 

22 

—• 

Queen's Road ... 

24 : 

12 

— 

Queenstown Road 

32 

2 

11 

Richmond Road (part of) ... 1 

36 1 

— 

20 

Salem Street ... 

17 1 

5 

— 

Union Street ... 

29 

3 

7 

Victoria Street 

29 

10 

— 

Wellington Road 

19 

— 

10 

Western Terrace 

31 j 

I 

— 

Wharncliffe Road 

20 ! 

— 

3 

White’s Road ... 

32 

19 

— 

Totals 

U 334 

351 

388 
























164 

OVERCROWDING. 

Owing to the delay in rebuilding on the acquired Compulsory 
Purchase area sites, the only overcrowding abated during 1938 
was that accomplished by the displacements of overcrowded 
families from Clearance Areas, and abatements brought about 
by a reduction in the numbers of certain families, e.g,, marriages 
and deaths, or by the acquisition of larger privately-owned 
accommodation by an overcrowded family. 

In the rehousing of displaced families from Compulsory 
Purchase Areas, 16 instances of overcrowding were abated in 
suitable alternative accommodation, and a further 6 will be abated 
in rehousing overcrowded families from confirmed Clearance 
Areas. 

It is not possible without a new survey to know the true 
state of overcrowding, as the figures change almost daily, these 
being influenced by births, deaths, marriages and changes. 

Generally it seems from investigation that sub-tenants 
with a small family of one or two children are able to uncrowd 
themselves by finding larger accommodation, but the larger 
families remain still overcrowded through the difficulty of finding 
alternate accommodation being too great or because they are 
content to await the offer by the Local Authority of suitable 
accommodation. 

During the year, 25 new cases of alleged overcrowding were 
reported and investigated. Of these, three were found over¬ 
crowded according to the standard laid down in the Act and 
were sent warning letters, but no statutory action was taken 
owing to the inability to offer any alternative accommodation. 

Measuring for the supply of permitted numbers continues 
to be necessary both for new houses and existing ones. Many 
houses too large to be considered as working class in the survey 
are being converted into small flats, and have to be measured, 
and this applies even more to smaller types of houses so converted, 
where the permitted number has already been given for the 
whole of the house and now has to have two or more permitted 
numbers. The total applications from owners for these numbers 
to December was 10,680. 



Sanitary Services 

and 

Food and Drugs Acts. 


i66 


SANITARY INSPECTION. 

The following summary shows the particular work carried 
out under the various Acts administered by the Department, and 
nuisances abated during the year :— 

General Inspection of Houses and re-visits ... ... 5,562 

Inspections on complaint ... ... ... ... ... 1,330 

,, under the Housing Acts ... ... ... i,334 

Re-visits under the Housing Acts ... ... ... ... 1,661 

Inspections of Factories ... ... ... ... ... 679 

,, of Workshops and Workplaces ... ... 537 

,, of Bakehouses ... ... ... ... 532 

,, under the Shops Act ... ... ... ... 2,358 

,, of Slaughterhouses ... ... ... ... 2,832 

,, of Butchers’ Shops ... ... ... ... 1,924 

,, of Sausage Factories ... ... ... ... 497 

,, of Wholesale Stores, Markets, etc. ... ... 1,195 

,, of Fish Shops ... ... ... ... ... 804 

,, of Horse Flesh Shops ... ... ... 32 

,, of Dairies, Cowsheds, and Milkshops ... 990 

,, of Ice Cream Factories ... ... ... 344 

,, of Common Lodging Houses ... ... 222 

,, of Houses let in Lodgings ... ... ... 64 

,, of Courts and Alleys ... ... ... ... 62 

,, of Stables, Yards, Mews, etc. ... ... 59 

Visits re Infectious Disease ... ... ... ... 400 

Preliminary Notices served for the Abatement of Nui¬ 
sances ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 868 

Legal Notices served for the Abatement of Nuisances ... 118 

Drains tested with smoke ... ... ... ... ... 20 

,, tested with water ... ... ... ... ... 69 

,, tested and found defective ... ... ... 3 

Premises drained to the public sewer ... ... ... 67 

Drains cleared and repaired ... ... ... ... 277 

,, reconstructed ... ... ... ... ... 15 

,, intercepted and ventilated from sewer ... ... 14 

Inspection chambers provided to house drains ... ... 22 

Ventilating shafts provided to house drains ... ... 4 

Water-closets reconstructed ... ... ... ... 53 

Urinals reconstructed and provided with means of flushing i 

New pans fixed in water-closets ... ... ... ... 135 

Water laid on to closets for flushing ... ... ... 57 

Bath, sink wastepipes, etc., disconnected from drains ... 53 

Sanitary sinks fitted in houses ... ... ... ... 225 

Damp walls of houses remedied ... ... ... ... 406 

Houses cleansed and whitewashed ... ... ... 463 







Roofs of houses repaired ... ... ... ... ... 526 

Eaves, guttering and stackpipes repaired ... ... 145 

Window sashes made to open ... ... ... ... 7 

Flooring, windows, etc., made to open ... ... ... 2,544 

Yards paved and drained ... ... ... ... ... 56 

Yard paving repaired ... ... ... ... ... 171 

Sanitary dustbins provided to houses ... ... ... 497 

Courts re-limewashed ... ... ... ... ... 2 

Nuisances from keeping animals, etc., abated ... ... i 

Manure and offensive matter removed ... ... ... 25 

Cesspools abolished ... ... ... ... ... ... 67 


DISINFECTING STATION. 

The following is a list of articles disinfected at the steam 
disinfector. West Quay :— 


Beds and Mattresses 


• •• 3.132 

Bolsters and Pillows 


... 4,929 

Blankets and Quilts 


... 6,862 

Sheets 


2,212 

Counterpanes 


1,016 

Books 


377 

Sundries 


... 11,562 

Total ... 

... 

... 30,090 

RATS AND MICE DESTRUCTION 

ACT, 1919. 


During the year the Local Authority thought it advisable to 
appoint a rat-catcher. A total of 1,558 visits was made by him 
to farms, stores, refuse tips, and other places likely to be infested 
with rats (in connection with the duties imposed under the Rats 
and Mice (Destruction) Act, 1919). 

The number of rats found and destroyed was 766. 

NATIONAL RAT WEEK. 

The Annual National “ Rat " Week was held from 7th 
November to 12th November, and the following methods were 
employed for the extermination of rats :— 

Notices were published drawing the attention of the public 
to their liability under the Rats and Mice Destruction Act, and 
inviting those concerned to apply to the Health Department for 
advice and assistance. ]\Iany communications were received. 




















i68 


The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries’ bulletin on “ Rat 
Extermination ” was available to anyone seeking information, 
and was also distributed. Rat poisons were in some instances 
supplied, and the persons desiring to use these were instructed in 
their effective use. 

Gassing with '' Cyanogas ” was carried out in dealing with 
harbourages isolated from dwelling-houses, on private tips, and 
any premises where this method of destruction could be used with 
safety. It is estimated that 50 rats were killed during the week 
as a result of gassing. 

As in previous years, the co-operation of the Borough Engineer 
has resulted in the laying of poison baits in the sewers, and, as a 
result, it has been reported that a large number of dead rats have 
been washed through the sewers to the sewage disposal stations. 

I have every reason to believe that the “ Rat Week ” has 
been very effective. The actual number of rats known to have 
been destroyed as the result of trapping, gassing and from poisons 
is 306. 


MERCHANDISE MARKS ACT, 1926. 

Eour hundred and eighty-two visits were made to shops, 
markets and hawkers’ trucks, to see that the provisions of the 
Act were carried out. 


DRAINAGE UNDER THE NEW BUILDING BYE-LAWS. 

During the year 910 plans were submitted, of which 803 were 
approved and 107 disapproved. 


The approved plans comprise :— 
Dwelling-houses 
Alterations 

Miscellaneous buildings, shop fronts, etc ... 
Sewers, etc. 

Work completed :— 

Houses ... ... ... ... ... ... 

Alterations 

Miscellaneous buildings 

Number of inspections during progress of work ... 
Number of drains tested and retested 


1.013 
199 
176 
24 

T174 

135 

102 

4>8o3 

2,048 


169 


WORK CARRIED OUT UNDER THE PUBLIC HEALTH ACT, 
1936, IN RELATION TO THE GIVING OF NOTICE WITH 
RESPECT TO THE REPAIR AND ALTERATION OF 
DRAINAGE OF EXISTING BUILDINGS. 

During the year 151 notifications were received regarding 
the repair and alteration of drainage in compliance with the 
above Act. 

The following works were carried out and supervised by the 


Department after notification :— 

Premises drained to the public sewer ... ... ... 67 

Drains reconstructed ... ... ... ... ... 12 

,, cleared and repaired ... ... ... ... ... 36 

,, ventilated ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Intercepting traps fixed ... ... ... ... ... 14 

Inspection chambers constructed ... ... ... ... 22 

New pans fixed ... ... ... ... ... ... 42 

New soil pipes fixed ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Bath, sink wastepipes, etc., disconnected from drains ... 15 

New traps fixed ... ... ... ... ... ... 28 

Sanitary sinks provided ... ... ... ... ... 24 

Water-closets reconstructed ... ... ... ... ... ii 

Water laid on to closets ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Cesspools abolished ... ... ... ... ... ... 67 

Urinals reconstructed and provided with means of flushing i 


OFFENSIVE TRADES. 

The following offensive trades are carried on in the Borough : 
Gut Scraper i. Tallow Melter i. Tripe Boiler i, Dealers in Rags, 
Bones, etc., 8, Fish Friers 51, Dealer in Animal Skins i. 

Bye-laws relative to offensive trades were strictly enforced 
during the year. 

In one instance permission to establish the trade of a fish 
frier was refused. The aggrieved person appealed to the Court 
of Summary Jurisdiction. The appeal was dismissed. A further 
appeal to the Quarter Sessions against the decision of the Justices 
was allowed, and the applicant has established his business. 


HOUSES LET IN LODGINGS. 

There are seven houses in the Borough registered under the 
Bye-laws relating to Houses Let in Lodgings. 

Eighty-four visits were made, and the houses generally were 
kept in conformity with the Bye-laws. 











170 


COMMON LODGING HOUSES. 

There are six Common Lodging Houses in the Borough with 
registered accommodation for 390 persons. 

Applications for registration were made previous to the 31st 
December by the registered keepers, in accordance with the pro¬ 
visions of the Southampton Corporation Act, 1910. 

Two hundred and twenty-two visits were made during the 
year, and the premises generally were kept in a satisfactory 
condition. 

SUPERVISION AND INSPECTION OF MEAT 
AND OTHER FOODS. 

In carrying out the systematic inspection of food, the follow¬ 
ing visits were made to premises where food is prepared, stored, 
or sold :— 


Slaughterhouses 

. . . 

• • • 

2,832 

Butchers’ Shops 

• * • 

• • • 

1,924 

Sausage-making Premises 

. . . 

• • • 

497 

Wholesale Stores, Markets, 
Trucks, etc. 

Hawkers’ 

IT 95 

Fish Shops 

• • • 

• • • 

804 

Ice Cream Factories 

• • • 

• * • 

344 


SLAUGHTERHOUSES. 

There are 7 Registered and 18 annually Licensed Slaughter¬ 
houses in the Borough : although in the majority of instances of 
old construction, they are kept generally in a satisfactory 
condition. 

Slaughtering is carried on four or five days per week at 10 
slaughterhouses, and about two days per week at the other 
slaughterhouses. 

With so many private slaughterhouses, ante-mortem inspec¬ 
tion of animals awaiting slaughter is impossible, neither is it 
possible to examine every carcase. All cow carcases and their 
organs are subjected to a detailed examination, and the majority 
of pig carcases and organs are also examined. Steers, maiden 


lyi 

heifers, sheep, lambs and calves are examined according to circum¬ 
stances. Slaughtermen always incise the submaxillary glands of 
pig carcases in the slaughterhouse, this practice being in fact 
incorporated in the routine of dressing. 


SLAUGHTER OF ANIMALS ACT, 1933. 

Eight licences or renewals of licences to slaughter animals 
were issued during the year, but there were actually io6 persons 
holding licences to slaughter, as these are granted for a period 
of three years. 


PUBLIC HEALTH MEAT REGULATIONS, 1924. 

Eight hundred and thirty-three pig carcases were “ marked ” 
in accordance with the provisions of the above Regulations. A 
fee is charged for the examination and marking " of these 
carcases, which are exported to Jersey. £2^ 9s. 6d. was received 
and paid into the Borough funds during the year. 


Carcases or Parts of Carcases Condemned. 



Cattle, 

exclud¬ 

ing 

Cows. 

Cows. 

Calves. 

Sheep 

and 

Lambs. 

Pigs. 

Approximate number killed 

1,150 

1,250 

8,500 

10,100 

32,000 

Diseases other than Tuberculosis : 






Carcases condemned ... 


3 

I 

14 

35 

Tuberculosis only : 






Whole carcases condemned ... 

II 

52 

I 

... 

30 

Part carcases condemned 

5 

35 

... 

... 

7 qtrs. 
167 heads 

Carcases passed for food from 
which a Tuberculosis affected 
organ has been removed, and 
which are not included in the 
above 

8 

233 

... 

• • • 

24 


From the above table it will be seen that approximately 25% 
of slaughtered cows are affected, more or less, with tuberculosis, 
2% of bovines other than cows, and 0.7% pigs. 


I 

















172 


The chief reasons for the condemnation of pig carcases, other 
than tuberculosis, were : Swine erysipelas, 19 ; swine fever, 4 ; 
jaundice, 3 ; and oedema, 3. 

All diseased carcases and organs are sent as soon as practicable 
after condemnation to the Corporation destructor, where they are 
destroyed by hre. 

The following is a summary of diseased or unsound meat 
destroyed during the year :— 


BEEF. 

Sixty-six whole carcases, 40 quarters, 394 livers, 214 heads 
and tongues, 321 lungs, 118 hearts, 108 mesenteries, 96 skirts, 
86 tripes, 2,737-lbs. sundry pieces. 

Total weight—51,880-lbs. 

VEAL. 

Two whole carcases, 4 plucks, 20-lbs. sundry pieces. 

Total weight—156-lbs. 

MUTTON AND LAMB. 

Fourteen whole carcases, 35 plucks, 387-lbs. sundry pieces. 
Total weight—1,287-lbs. 


PORK. 

Sixty-hve whole carcases, 7 quarters, 167 heads, 296 plucks, 
237 sundry pieces. 

Total weight—9,886-lbs. 


FISH. 

Two hundred and forty-hve boxes dry fillets, 115 boxes wet 
fillets, 259 boxes kippers, 246 boxes haddock, 182-lb. bloaters, 
3,724-lbs. herrings, 3,542-lbs. mackerel, 966-lbs. sprats, 569-lbs. 
skate, 630-lbs. megrims, 210-lbs. witches, 420-lbs. dabs, 350-lbs. 
lemon soles, 119-lbs. plaice, 1,092-lbs. whiting, 140-lbs. codfish, 
224-lbs. conger, 252-lbs. bream, 176-lbs. mullet, 480-lbs. mixed 
fish, 560-lbs. roes, 192-lbs. mussels, 240-lbs. periwinkles, 54-lbs 
crabs, 162-lbs. lobsters, 61 tins prawns, 44-galls, shrimps, 448-lbs. 
salt dry codfish. 

Total weight—25,791-lbs. 





173 


TINNED FOOD. 

One hundred and eighty-one tins of meat, 112 tins of fish, 
578 tins of milk, 503 tins of fruit, 164 tins of vegetables, 19 tins 
of soup, 3 tins of eggs. 

Total weight—2,268-lbs. 

MISCELLANEOUS FOODS. 

353-lbs. turkeys, 341-lbs. fowls, 8-lbs. quail, 142-lbs. rabbits, 
i8-doz. eggs, 40-lbs. pears. 

Total weight—886-lbs. 

Total weight of foodstuffs condemned and destroyed during 
the year—92,154-lbs. 

The above food was voluntarily surrendered after inspection. 
In one instance only was it necessary to seize the carcase of a sow, 
which was condemned and destroyed by the order of a Justice of 
the Peace. 


FOOD AND DRUGS ADULTERATION ACT, 1928. 

During the year 613 samples were taken by the Sanitary 
Inspectors and submitted to the Public Analyst. 

One hundred and ten were purchased in accordance with the 
Act, and 503 were submitted as test samples, 170 of the latter 
being milk. 

Proceedings were taken in five cases, convictions obtained 
in three, and the other two cases were dismissed, the magistrates 
accepting the plea that the milk was sold as yielded by the cow. 




174 


Article. 

Number of 
Samples. 

Genuine. 

Adulterated. 

Ammoniated Tincture of Quinine 

4 

I 

3 

Arrowroot 

6 

6 


Aspirin 

3 

3 

— 

Baking Powder 

6 

6 

— 

Bicarbonate of Soda 

3 

3 

— 

Biscuits 

7 

7 

— 

Bismuth Lozenges 

o 

o 

3 

— 

Blauds Pills 

3 

3 

— 

Borax 

3 

3 

— 

Boric Ointment ... 

I 

I 

— 

Brandy 

I 

I 

— 

Butter 

i8 

18 

— 

Camphorated Oil ... 

3 

3 

— 

Castor Oil ... 

3 

3 

— 

Cheese 

12 

12 

— 

Cocoa 

6 

6 

— 

Coffee 

6 

6 

— 

Cream 

12 

12 

— 

Cream of Tartar ... 

3 

3 

— 

Custard Powder ... 

6 

6 

— 

Eucalyptus Oil 

3 

3 

— 

Gin 

I 

I 

— 

Glauber Salts 

3 

3 

— 

Golden Svrup 

I 

I 

— 

Gregory Powder ... 

3 

3 

— 

Ice Cream ... 

59 

59 

— 

Ice Cream Powder 

I 

I 

— 

Jam . 

5 

3 

2 

Lactose 

3 

3 

— 

Lard 

12 

12 

_ 

Lemon Curd 

6 

6 

_ 

Liquorice Powder 

3 

3 

— 

Malt Vinegar 

6 

6 

— 

Margarine ... 

27 

27 

— 

Meat 

2 

2 

_ 

Meat Pie ... 

I 

I 

— 

Milk . 

277 

261 

16 

Milk, Condensed ... 

12 

12 

— 

Mineral Water 

7 

7 

_ 

Nux Vomica 

3 

3 

_ 

Olive Oil ... 

3 

3 

_ 

Pearl Barley 

3 

3 

— 

Pepper 

6 

6 

— 

Peroxide of Hydrogen ... 

3 

3 

— 

Rice 

3 

3 

_ 

Rum 

2 

2 

_ - 

Sausages 

i6 

15 

I 

Seidlitz Powder ... 

3 

3 

_ 

Suet 

3 

3 

■ 

Sugar 

I 

I 

. 

Tea 

6 

6 

_ 

Tincture of Iodine 

3 

2 

I 

Tinned Fruit 

3 

3 


Whisky . 

12 

10 

2 

Zinc Ointment 

_ 

2 

2 

— 

Totals 

613 

588 

25 

































The following Table shows the number of articles analysed which were found to be adulterated, 

and the result of proceedings. 


175 



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176 


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177 


PUBLIC HEALTH (SHELLFISH) REGULATIONS, 1934. 

The Order made by the Council of the County Borough of 
Southampton in 1936, prohibiting the taking of cockles, winkles 
and mussels from the foreshores of Southampton Water, is still 
in force, and during the year six persons were prosecuted by the 
County Authority for having collected shell-hsh from the pro¬ 
hibited area in their possession. 

MILK SUPPLY. 

There are 6 registered dairy farms, with approximately 230 
cows, including 127 in an attested herd. 

The milk from the ordinary herds was sampled twice for 
T.B. during the year, and 18 samples were taken. The samples 
were tested microscopically and by means of guinea pig inocula¬ 
tion. Two samples of milk produced by herds situated outside 
the Borough were also examined. 

The results of the examinations of samples were as follows :— 

The two " outside ” samples and 17 of the samples produced 
within the Borough gave Negative T.B. results. One sample 
(a bulk sample from 16 cows) was shown, by guinea pig inocula¬ 
tion, to contain T.B. 

Samples from individual cows were taken. Two cows were 
slaughtered following this test, and were found to be affected with 
tuberculosis. 

bull died of anthrax at one dairy farm, but, fortunately, 
no other animals contracted the disease. 

There are 32 registered dairies and 6 milk bars in South¬ 
ampton. There are a number of small shops where a few 
unopened bottles of milk are sold. 

Nine hundred and ninety visits were made to registered 
premises during the year, and 272 samples of milk were taken 
in the streets in course of delivery, and at schools and at public 
institutions. 

The approximate daily consumption of milk in Southampton 
is 14,000 gallons per day. This implies that an average of 0.5 
pints of fresh milk per day is consumed per person. The milk 
supply consists of 80% pasteurised, 5.5% sterilised, 1.5% tuber¬ 
culin tested (raw milk), and 13% ordinary raw milk. 

M 



MILK (SPECIAL DESIGNATIONS) ORDER, 1936. 

Summary of samples taken under the above Order during the 
year 1938 :— 




Complied 

Did not comply 


No. of 

with the 

with the 

Designation. 

Samples 

“ prescribed 

“ prescribed 


examined. 

conditions.” 

conditions.” 

Tuberculin Tested ... 

56 

54 

2 

Pasteurised ... 

127 

105 

22* 


*Two samples showed 18.2 and 14.3 Blue Units, the remaining samples 
exceeded the maximum Bacterial Count. 

Sixteen samples which did not comply with the conditions 
were bottled at two dairies. Both licences were suspended. In 
one case the licence was later revoked, in the other case the 
dairyman concerned occupied new premises, and, after a series 
of satisfactory samples had been taken, the suspension of the 
licence was removed. 

During the year the following licences under the Order were 
granted :— 

I licence to produce and bottle Tuberculin Tested milk. 

I licence to bottle Tuberculin Tested milk. 

5 licences to sell Tuberculin Tested milk. 

4 licences to Pasteurise milk. 

10 licences to sell Pasteurised milk. 

I supplementary licence to sell Tuberculin Tested milk. 

I supplementary licence to sell Pasteurised milk. 


FACTORIES ACT, 1937. 

This Act came into force on the ist July, 1938. It replaced 
the Act of 1901, and contains many new and extended provisions. 
The previous allocation of duties as between the Factory Inspec¬ 
torate and Local Authorities is continued in outline, though such 
duties are extended in some respects. 












179 


One of the most important alterations effected by the new 
Act is the abolition of the old distinction between “ factory ” and 
“ workshop/’ The term “ factory ” now applies to all premises 
coming within the scope of the Act. Distinction is drawn for 
certain purposes between factories where mechanical power is 
used and factories where mechanical power is not used. This 
report, however, covers the last six months of the operation of 
the old Act, and therefore contains some reference to workshops 
and workplaces. These dehnitions are retained in the tabulated 
statements for purposes of convenience, as well as to allow of more 
detailed information being given, but they will, of course, disappear 
from subsequent reports. 

Under the Act of 1901 certain defects were treated as nuisances 
within the meaning of the Public Health Acts. The new Act 
changes this procedure, as it contains its own operative pro¬ 
visions ; failure to observe these renders the responsible person 
liable to a penalty upon summary conviction. The tabulated 
statement of Defects Found and Remedied includes those defects 
dealt with as nuisances up to the commencement of the new Act. 

The Secretary of State is continuing, for the present, the 
practice of sending to Local Authorities a form on which par¬ 
ticulars of the administration of Parts I and VIII of the Act 
can be returned. These tables are included in the Report. It 
will be seen that Table I differentiates between factories with 
mechanical power and factories without mechanical power. This 
has necessitated a revision of other tables in the Report, which 
contain references to workshops, etc., for the reasons mentioned 
above. 


FACTORIES ACT, 1937. 

SUMMARY OF VISITS DURING YEAR i 
Factories 

Workshops and Workplaces 

Bakehouses (including Factory Bakehouses) 


93S. 

679 

537 

532 


Visits re sanitary matters ... ... ... ... 2,545 


Total 


••• 3>949 





i8o 


Reports received from H.M. Inspector of Factories during 
the year, viz. :— 


Nature of Report. 

No. 

Sent in. 

Action Taken. 

Absence of sanitary conveniences 

2 

Sanitary conveniences pro¬ 
vided on verbal notice. 

Sanitary defects 

Contraventions of the Sanitary 
Accommodation Regulations, 

4 

Defects remedied. 

1938 ... 

3 

Conditions remedied on ver¬ 
bal notice 

Total ... 

9 



During the year eight notifications were sent to H.M. 
Inspector of Factories of failure to affix the Abstract of the Act. 
Officers of the District Council are required to give this notice 
by Section 128 of the Act. 

Sixteen workrooms have been measured during the year. 

BAKEHOUSES. 

There are 74 Bakehouses on the Register of Factories. Seventy 
of these were in use at the end of the year. They give employment 
to 282 males and 32 females, in addition to those employed outside 
the factories as shop assistants, roundsmen, etc. 

Five hundred and thirty-two visits of inspection have been 
made during the year. Thirty defects were found, and were 
remedied on verbal notice. 

All occupied Bakehouses were re-limewashed twice during 
the year, in accordance with the provisions of the Factories Act. 


In addition to the foregoing, 2,545 visits have been made 
during the year, comprising revisits to factories, investigation of 
complaints, taking of samples of rag flock and ice cream, and 
various other matters. Three hundred and forty-four visits of 
inspection have been made to ice cream premises under Section 127 
of the Southampton Corporation Act, 1931. 



















i8i 

HOMEWORK. 

(Factories Act, 1937, s. no.) 

During February 33 lists were sent in containing the names 
and addresses of 66 Outworkers, and during August 34 lists, with 
the names and addresses of 135 Outworkers. 

Of the 135 names received in August, 19 occupied premises 
registered as factories under the Factories Act, 1937, the 
remainder (116) being employed in their own homes. Of these 
latter, 131 work on wearing apparel, i on upholstery work, and 
3 on curtain making. 

The names and addresses of the Outworkers living outside 
the Borough have, in accordance with Section no (2) of the 
Factories Act, 1937, been notified to the Authorities of the dis¬ 
tricts in which they reside. 

Sixty-one visits of inspection have been made during the 
year. There have been no instances of Homework being carried 
on in unwholesome premises. 




i 82 


FACTORIES.—DEFECTS FOUND AND REMEDIED. 
The number of defects found and remedied during the year 
was 235, viz. :—Factories 78 ; Workshops and Workplaces 127 ; 
Bakehouses 30. 



Factories. 

Workshops. 

Workplaces. 

Bakehouses. 

Totals. 

Drains cleared or repaired 

4 

• • • 



4 

,, manhole covers renewed or repaired 

• • • 

* • • 

I 


I 

Sanitary conveniences provided to premises 

2 

• • « 

3 

• • • 

5 

Water Closets :—pans cleansed 

2 

I 

6 

I 

10 

,, ,, new pans fixed 

I 

• * « 

I 

2 

4 

,, ,, cisterns, flush pipes. 






etc., fixed 

• • • 

I 

• t • 

• • • 

I 

,, ,, intervening ventilated 






spaces provided 

I 

• • • 

I 

• • . 

2 

,, ,, seats, doors, floors, or 






roofs repaired 

4 

2 

6 

3 

15 

,, ,, cleansed and limewashed 

9 

4 

9 

5 

27 

,, ,, screening provided 

8 


• • • 

• * • 

8 

Accumulations of rubbish removed... 

8 

4 

15 

5 

32 

Premises limewashed ... 

16 

12 

26 

4 

58 

Smoke nuisances abated 

I 

• • • 

I 


2 

Roofs repaired 

2 

• • • 

I 

I 

4 

Walls repaired 

I 

• • • 

7 

• • • 

8 

Ceilings repaired 

3 

I 

• • • 

I 

5 

Floors repaired 

3 

• . . 

2 

I 

6 

Doors repaired... 

• . • 

I 

2 

• • • 

3 

Rainwater stacks repaired ... 

2 

• • • 


• • • 

2 

Additional ventilation provided 

I 

• • • 

• • • 

I 

2 

Floors cleansed 

4 

« • • 

I 

4 

9 

Sink wastes fitted or repaired 

3 

• • • 

4 

2 

9 

New sanitary dustbins provided 

3 

3 

12 

... 

18 

Totals ... 

78 

29 

98 

30 

235 


THE RAG FLOCK ACTS, 1911 and 1928. 

There are no premises in the district in which rag flock is 
manufactured. Bedding manufacturers and upholsterers obtain 
their supplies from factories outside the Borough. Inspections 
are made and samples taken under Section i (5) of the Rag Flock 
Act, 1911. 






































i83 


Eight samples were taken during the year and submitted to 
the Borough Analyst, the results of the analyses being as follow :— 


No. of Sample. 

Result of Analysis. 

I 

Chlorine as Chlorides, 7.5 parts per 100,000 

2 

>> y> 5 • 0 ,, ), 

3 

>) >> II. 2 ,, ,, 

4 

)' >> 7*5 )» >> 

5 

») >> 11.2 ,, ,, 

6 

lx 

00 

7 

>> ,, ^-75 )> )) 

8 

)) )) 10. 0 ,, ,, 


Note. —The limit of Chlorine permitted by the Act is 30 parts per 100,000. 


SHOPS ACTS, 1912 to 1936. 

During the year 2,358 visits of inspection were made under 
the Acts, and the following prosecutions were taken for con¬ 
traventions :— 


Date. 

Initials of 
Defendant. 

Nature of Offence. 

Result. 

10/1/38 

A. J. S. 

Selling non-exempted articles after closing 

Fined 20/- 



hour 

••• ... ••• « 

• • • . • 


21/3/38 

J. F. 

Selling non 

-exempted articles on 

half-day 

Fined 20/- 

16/5/38 

W. T. G. R. 

Selling non-exempted articles after closing 

Fined 5/- 



hour 

••• ... ••• 

• • ... 


16/5/38 

A. G. H. 

Ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

Fined 20/- 

13/6/38 

F. K. 

Ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

Fined 10/- 

11/8/38 

W. T. L. 

Ditto 

ditto 

ditto 

Fined 40/- 


In addition, 245 verbal warnings were given to various shop¬ 
keepers for infringements of the Shops x4cts, and of the various 
Closing Orders in operation in the Borough. 




















184 


The two following Tables are inserted by request of the 

Secretary of State. 


FACTORIES. 

1 .—INSPECTIONS FOR PURPOSES OF PROVISIONS 

AS TO HEALTH. 

Including Inspections made by Sanitary Inspectors. 


Premises. 

(I) 


Number of 


Inspections. 

(2) 

Written 

Notices. 

(3) 

Occupiers 

prosecuted. 

(4) 

Factories with mechanical power 

1,152 

... 

• . 

Factories without mechanical power 

537 


... 

*Other premises under the Act (including 
works of building or engineering 
construction, but not including out¬ 
workers’ premises) 

59 



Totals 

1,748 

• • 

• . . 




*Electrical Stations are reckoned as Factories. 
















2.—DEFECTS FOUND. 



Nun 

aber of Defects. 

Number of 

1 Defects in 
respect of 
which Pro¬ 
secutions 
were 

instituted. 

( 5 ) 

Premises. 

(I) 

Found. 

(2) 

Remedied. 

( 3 ) 

Referred 
to H.M. 
Inspector. 

( 4 ) 

Want of cleanliness (s. i) ... 

58 

58 



Overcrowding (s. 2) 

... 

... 



Unreasonable temperature (s. 3) ... 

I 

I 


... 

Inadequate ventilation (s. 4) 

4 

4 

... 

... 

Ineffective drainage of floors (s. 6) 

6 

6 

... 


/ insufficient 

Sanitary unsuitable or 

9 

9 

... 

... 

Conveniences -j defective 

(s. 7) not separate for 

48 

48 

... 

... 

i sexes 

13 

13 

... 

... 

Other Offences 

(Not including offences relating to 
Homework or offences under 
the Sections mentioned in the 
Schedule to the Ministry of 
Health (Factories and Work¬ 
shops Transfer of Powers) Order, 
1921, and re-enacted in the Third 
Schedule to the Factories Act, 

1937). 

116 

116 



Totals ... ... 

1 

1 

255 

255 

1 

... 


3.—OUTWORK IN UNWHOLESOME PREMISES. 
Section 108 of Act of 1901 ; Section 111 of Act of 1937. 





















i86 


MANUFACTURE OF ICE CREAM. 

The following is a report on the samples of ice cream taken 
during the 1938 season, together with copies of the Analyst's 
reports. 

The total number of samples taken was 59, of which 23 
(or 39%) satished the bacteriological requirements for Grade 
“ A " milk. All the samples taken, with the exception of eight 
from the large manufacturing firms, are from local manufacturers. 
Every sample of the large firms’ products was found to conform, 
easily to the old Grade ‘ A ” standard. Thus, taking into account 
only the locally manufactured samples, the percentage complying 
with our comparative standard is reduced to 29.5. It has to 
be remembered, however, that many of these samples were taken 
in circumstances where indifferent results were to be expected. 
They cannot, therefore, be regarded as an accurate index of 
the bacteriological standard prevailing in locally manufactured 
ice cream. 

As in previous years, the variations in the percentage of 
milk fat found in the locally manufactured products is remarkable. 
The average fat content in the 51 samples taken from local makers 
was 3.28%. This figure approximates to the presumptive standard 
for milk, and it indicates what is known to be the case, namely, 
that the small manufacturer relies solely upon the milk he uses 
for the fat content of his product. The highest fat content was 
10.22%, the lowest 0.57%. 

Samples of the large firms’ products, on the other hand,, 
show a consistently high fat content. The average for six samples 
(not including two so-called “ water ices ”) was 10.36%, the 
highest being 15.0%, and the lowest 10.36%. 

The general standard of premises in the Borough where ice 
cream is manufactured is somewhat improved compared with 
previous years. The enforcement of more strict conditions in 
regard to registration, together with several refusals and re¬ 
vocations of registration by the Health Committee, appear to 
have had a marked effect. A very considerable amount of time 
has been spent in explaining the causes and methods of prevention 
of bacteriological contamination, particularly in those cases 
where a bad sample has been obtained. 


187 


Reference to the list of samples taken during the season dis¬ 
closes the fact that the heaviest contamination is almost invariably 
found in ice cream which is manufactured via a hot mix. This, 
of course, includes all the Italian manufacturers, who maintain 
the superiority of their method over the cold mix. These people 
are exceedingly difficult to deal with. Information has to be 
given, and explanations made, in the simplest of terms, while 
owing to their very imperfect rendering of English, information 
is only extracted from them after patient questioning. The hot 
mix appears to be a fetish with them, and they meet any criticism 
with the argument that the boiling of the mix sterilizes it. They 
seem to be quite unable (or unwilling) to recognise the obvious 
danger of the long cooling process involved. 

An unfortunate feature of the hot mix method of manufacture 
is that the maker will not completely cover the mix during cooling 
saying that “ the steam must be let out,’' but this attitude is 
frequently qualified by the provision of a cover of muslin cloth. 
In a prolonged exposure, even under the least dusty conditions, 
this muslin or gauze is found to admit dust to some degree, and 
uncovered buckets of mix which have stood to cool for some 
time have been found to contain a deposit of dust particles quite 
visible to the naked eye. 

From the point of view of bacteriological contamination 
the hot mix, with its long atmospheric cooling and protracted 
“ aging,” is definitely a bad method, and the most that can be 
done is to insist upon the careful sterilization of equipment and 
the exercise of the utmost care to keep the mix free of dust or 
flies during cooling. Evidences of the careless and the dirty 
methods of pre-war days are still present with some of the Italian 
manufacturers, and very few of their premises or methods are 
completely satisfactory. 

Referring to the hot mix, I would direct particular attention 
to letter ” I ” in the appended table of samples. The maker 
happens to be one of the few English manufacturers of a hot mix 
and allows his mix to cool from 12 to 24 hours after boiling. 
For experimental purposes, sample No. 3 was taken immediately 
after boiling, while sample No. 4 was taken from the same mix 


approximately twenty hours later. The development of con¬ 
tamination during the cooling period is very noticeable, and is 
illustrative of the difficulty of dealing with this type of 
manufacturer. 

The cold mix is rapidly gaining in popularity amongst small 
manufacturers. This is due in great measure to the cheap and 
good quality proprietary powders on the market. Efforts have 
been continuously made to urge upon makers of the cold mix 
the advisability of using pasteurised or sterilized milk, and most 
of them have adopted this suggestion. I would specially direct 
attention to letters ‘‘ P," “ Q,” '' R ” and S,” in the attached 
table as examples of what can be done by the small manufacturer 
using a cold mix and exercising ordinary care. 

The increase in the use of electrically operated refrigerating 
machines by small shopkeepers seem to be tending to an increase 
in the number of small manufacturers, but, at the same time, 
these machines eliminate a good deal of handling and materially 
assist in the reduction of bacterial contamination. 

Appended will be found a list of manufacturers whose premises 
and methods are unsatisfactory. It is suggested that unless 
radical alterations are made in their premises and methods, 
the revocation of their registration should be considered. All 
these have been visited several times, and much time has been 
spent in endeavouring to impress upon them the importance 
of taking some practical steps to produce a more consistently 
clean product. In addition, a list is given of manufacturers 
upon whom it is proposed to keep particular observation during 
coming seasons. They have all provided some bad samples 
and their methods call for some careful supervision. 




Total 

Index Type of Bacterial Count B. Coli Fat Remarks re Premises, Methods of Manufacture, etc. 

Letter. Mix. per c.c. Positive in. Content. 


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Count? Porougf) of Southampton. 


Annual Report 

ON THE 

HEALTH 


OF THE 

PORT OF SOUTHAMPTON 


For the Year 1938, 


i 


H. C. MAURICE WILLIAMS, m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., d.p.h., 

Port Medical Officer of Health and Medical Inspector of Aliens. 
















STAFF OF THE 

SOUTHAMPTON PORT HEALTH AUTHORITY. 


*H. C. Maurice Williams, m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., d.p.h., 

Port Medical Officer of Health and Medical Officer of Health for 
the County Borough of Southampton. 

*G. E. B. Payne, m.d., d.p.h. 

Deputy Port Medical Officer of Health and Deputy Medical Officer 
of Health for the County Borough of Southampton. 

*S. Chalmers Parry, m.a., m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., d.p.h. 

Assistant Port Medical Officer of Health, and Assistant Medical 
Officer of Health for the County Borough of Southampton. 

* (Also acts as Inspector of Aliens.) 


W. H. J. Hurst, C.R.S.I. Certificate Meat and Foods. 

Chief Port Health Inspector. 

§ C. P. C. Parker, C.R.S.I. Certificate Meat and Foods. 

Food Inspector. 

fP. Mansfield, C.R.S.I. Certificate Meat and Foods. 

Assistant Port Health Inspector. 

JE. Matthews, C.R.S.I. Assistant Port Health Inspector. 

T. J. Richards, C.R.S.I. Certificate Meat and Foods. 

Assistant Port Health Inspector. 

fT. C. H. Rogerson, C.R.S.I. Assistant Port Health Inspector. 

fW. S. Bruce, C.R.S.I. Assistant Port Health Inspector. 

Miss D. C. E. S. Flaherty, S.C.M. 

Holds Health Visitors’ Certificate of the Royal Sanitary Institute. 
Aliens’ Inspection Nurse. 

A. E. Gardner, Clerk. 

W. Gayton, Launchman. 

f B.O.T. Master Mariner’s Certificate. 

I B.O.T. Chief Engineer’s Certificate. 

§ Certificate Naval Architecture. 





197 


Southampton Port Health Authority. 


ANNUAL REPORT 

FOR THE 

Year ended 31st December, 1938, 

By 

H. C. MAURICE WILLIAMS, m.r.c.s., l.r.c.p., d.p.h., 

Port Medical Officer of Health and Medical Inspector of Aliens. 


To THE Chairman and Members of the 
Port Health Committee. 

Madam Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen, 

I have the honour to present my report on the Port 
Health Service in Southampton for the year 1938. 

The Port and Harbour of Southampton are controlled by 
the Southampton Harbour Board as constituted bv the South¬ 
ampton Harbour Act, 1913. 

The Port Health Authority, which was permanently con¬ 
stituted by an Order of the Local Government Board, dated 
June 8th, 1893, is " the Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses of the 
Borough of Southampton acting by the Council." It exercises 
Port functions in waters abutting upon the County Borough 
of Southampton, the Urban Sanitary District of Fareham, and 
the Rural Districts of New Forest, Romsey and Stockbridge, 
and Winchester. 

Since the first day of October, 1935, when the Southampton 
Port Sanitary Order, 1935, came into force the Southampton Port 
Sanitary Area was further increased, and the IMayor, Aldermen, 
and Burgesses acting by the Council are constituted permanently 
the Port Sanitary Authority for the district. The new area is 
now defined :— 

A straight line from Stone Point to Fast Lepe Buoy, 
thence in a straight line to Gurnard Ledge Buoy, thence in 
a straight line to a point one cable north of Egypt Point, 





198 


thence in a straight line to Prince Consort Shoal Buoy, 
thence in a straight line to Old Castle Point Buoy, thence 
in a straight line to the most northerly point of Ryde Pier, 
thence in a straight line to the junction of the Western and 
Southern boundary of the Portsmouth Port Sanitary 
Authority, thence in a straight line to the most southerly 
point of the pier of the Southern Railway at Stokes Bay, 
thence in a straight line to the Lee Point Sewer Buoy, 
thence in a straight line to Hill Head ; together with the 
waters of those parts of the said Customs Ports within such 
limits, and all docks, basins, harbours, quays, wharves, 
creeks, rivers, channels, roads, bays, and streams within 
those parts of the said Customs Ports, and the places which 
may from time to time be appointed as the Customs 
boarding station or stations for those parts of the said 
Customs Ports, and the places for the time being appointed 
for the mooring or anchoring of ships for those parts of the 
said Customs Ports under any regulations for the preven¬ 
tion of the spread of diseases issued under the Authority 
of the statutes in that behalf and for the purposes of any 
such regulations as aforesaid shall also extend to any ship 
which in pursuance thereof or of any directions given 
thereunder shall be moored or anchored at the place 
appointed thereunder as aforesaid, or which shall be on 
its way thither. 

During the year 1938, 2,693 vessels entered Southampton 
from foreign ports, as compared with 2,681 in 1937. There has 
been a big increase in the number of flying-boats entering the 
Docks during 1938. The Imperial Airways use Southampton 
Docks now as their principal station for Empire traffic. Since 
ist July, 1938, the Public Health Aircraft Regulations of 1938 
have been applied to all aircraft arriving, and a comprehensive 
questionnaire is completed by the Captain of the aircraft, giving 
details of all the persons arriving, including a statement of their 
health, particulars of their ultimate destination and previous 
movements. 

Reference is made in the Report to a suspected case of cholera. 

In 1938 a number of Jewish refugees arrived in the s.s. 
" Manhattan ” and s.s. ‘‘ Washington.” Detailed medical 
examinations were carried out before they were allowed to land. 

A certain number of aliens were also examined on arrival in 
the Port from the International Brigade in Spain. After medical 
examination they were permitted to proceed via London to their 
destination. The general health of passengers and crew on vessels 




199 


arriving during the year has been exceptionally good, and it is 
pleasant to record that in a Port of the size and significance of 
Southampton that I am able to report yet another year free from 
any major infection necessitating any dislocation of traffic. 

I wish to take this opportunity of thanking the Chairman 
and Members of the Port Health Committee for their kindness 
and support, and also to the various Government and Port 
Officials for their ready co-operation with the Department in 
carrying out the work entrusted to the Port Health Authority. 

I am. Ladies and Gentlemen, 

Your obedient Servant, 




0 



Port Medical Officer. 







200 


PART I. 


Sections I to VII, Tables A to J, are prepared in the form and 
sequence requested by the Ministry of Health in Memo. 174/S.A. 

Part II gives in further detail the work connected with Port 
Health Administration. 


Section I.—AMOUNT OF SHIPPING ENTERING THE PORT 

DURING THE YEAR 1938. 


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201 


Section II.—CHARACTER OF TRADE OF PORT. 

TABLE B. 

(A) Passenger Traffic during 1938 . 



Places out of Europe. 

Con- 

Channel 

Islands. 

Trans¬ 

migrants. 

Number 

of 

Passengers. 

ist 

Class. 

2nd 

Class. 

Tourist 

Class. 

3rd 

Class. 

tinent of 
Europe. 

Inwards 

14.379 

24.975 

32,351 

15.423 

179.703 

90,826 

1,180 

Outwards 

12,267 

42.540 

36,597 

25,020 

174.674 

87,611 

6,931 


Note.— The figures given in the above table are exclusive of the 
number of persons travelling on pleasure cruises between the United 
Kingdom and places out of Europe, as particulars of this class of travel 
of these passengers are not required to be furnished. 


(b) Cargo Traffic. 

Principal Imports: Meat, butter, cheese, cocoa, coffee, grain, 
sugar, fruit and vegetables, hides, skin, and wool. 

Principal Exports : Manufactured articles, machinery, etc. 

(c) Foreign Ports from which Vessels Arrive. 

Ports in Europe, North and South America, Asia, Africa, 
Australia, and various other Ports throughout the world. 


Section III.—SOURCE OF WATER SUPPLY. 

(a) For the Port. (b) For Shipping. 

The water supply to the Port and for vessels is the same as 
supplied to the Town of Southampton. This water is derived 
from deep wells sunk into the chalk at Otterbourne, Twyford, 
and Timsbury. 

Samples of water are taken from time to time to ensure that 
the supply is chemically and bacteriologically pure. 

The Southampton Corporation supplies water to the whole of 
the Docks, and mains are available at every berth for supplying 
the vessels. 

There are hydrants for the supply of water at the Town Quay, 
Shell-Mex and Agwi Jetties, and at the wharves at Fling, Reel- 
bridge, and on the River Itchen. 

For vessels which do not berth, there are seven water boats 
equipped for supplying fresh water. 




















202 


fc) Number of Water Boats and their Sanitary Condition. 

There are three water boats exclusively used as such, namely : 
Ariel, 20 tons ; Aquator, 200 tons ; and Test, 80 tons. 

In addition, the following are equipped for this purpose, and 
are used if required as water carriers :—Beaulieu, 18 tons ; 
Flying Kestrel, 154 tons ; Haulier, 60 tons ; and Romsey, 100 
tons ; they are primarily used as tugs. 

All these boats have been kept under strict supervision during 
the year, and were found to be in a satisfactory condition. 


Section IV.—PORT SANITARY REGULATIONS, 1933. 

I. Arrangements for dealing with Declaration of 
Health.” 

The following routine has continued to work satisfactorily 
throughout the year :— 

(a) That where a vessel is first boarded by an officer of the 

Port Health Authority, that officer shall retain the 
” Declaration of Health,” and leave an " All Clear ” 
Certificate on board for the Customs Officer. 

(b) That where an officer of Customs and an officer of the 

Port Health Authority board a vessel together, the 
latter officer shall take the “ Declaration of Health,” 
and hand the “ All Clear ” Certificate to the Customs 
Officer. 

(c) That where a vessel is first boarded by a Customs Officer, 

that officer shall take the '' Declaration of Health,” 
and forward it to the Port Health Authority as soon 
as possible, and the officer of the Port Health 
Authority receiving the ‘‘ Declaration of Health ” 
shall sign a receipt, if required. 

Where a vessel has been boarded by an officer of H.M. Customs 
prior to the visit by an officer of the Port Health Authority, a 
form is left with the Master indicating the condition reported on 
the “ Declaration of Health,” and stating whether the vessel has 
been :— 

(a) Granted full pratique. 

(h) Granted modified pratique. 

(c) Or detained for inspection by the Port Medical Ofiicer. 


203 


Vessels which trade exclusively within the “ Home Trade " 
limits are not required to present a " Declaration of Health ” 
but the Southampton Port Health Authority request th,em 
to complete a Blue Medical Certificate, giving essential par¬ 
ticulars regarding infectious disease (actual or suspected) on 
arrival. 


2. Boarding of Vessels. 

All vessels which berth within the Docks, and all vessels 
anchoring elsewhere and landing passengers by tender at this 
Port, are boarded on arrival by an officer of the Port Health 
Authority and H.M. Customs. 

Other vessels which berth outside the Docks are boarded by 
H.M. Customs, and, if requiring attention, are dealt with later by 
the Port Health Authority. 

All vessels which arrive from any foreign port or seaboard 
which is included in the list prepared pursuant to the provisions 
of Article ii, and any vessels which have had a case of infectious 
disease during the voyage are visited by one of the Port Medical 
Officers. 

Regular rounds are made by the staff in the Port Health 
launch to deal with vessels which anchor in Southampton Water, 
or in the Rivers Itchen and Test. 

The flying of distinguishing flags on the Port Medical Officer’s 
launch has been continued, and has facilitated the work of board¬ 
ing vessels lying outside the Docks. 


3. Notification to the Authority of Inward Vessels 
REQUIRING Special Attention (Wireless Messages, 
Land Signal Stations, Information from Pilots, 
Customs Officers, etc.). 

The Minister of Health, by notice published in the " London 
Gazette,” 31st October, 1933, declared that the provisions of 
Article 6 of the Port Sanitary Regulations, 1933, shall apply to 
the Southampton Port Sanitar}^ district as from ist February, 1934. 

The section in question reads as follows :— 

” 6. (i) Where the Minister has by notice published in the 
‘ London Gazette ’ declared that the provisions of this Article 
shall apply to any district specified in the notice, the Master of 
any foreign-going ship fitted with a suitable wireless transmitting 



204 


apparatus, on approaching such a district from a foreign port, 
shall, if any person on board has symptoms which may be indicative 
of infectious disease other than tuberculosis, or if there are any 
circumstances requiring the attention of the Medical Officer, send 
to the Port Health Authority a wireless message embodying such 
of the information set out in the Second Schedule to these Regula¬ 
tions as are applicable. 

“ (2) Any wireless message so required to be sent so as to 
reach the Port Health Authority not more than twelve, and not less 
than four hours, before the time at which the ship is expected to 
arrive in the district. 

‘‘ (3) Any wireless in wireless code delivered to the Port Health 
Authority shall, unless otherwise provided in the notice published 
pursuant to paragraph (i) of this article, conform with the section 
relating to the 1931 International Code of Signals." 

Arrangements have been made for the reception (and 
de-coding, if necessary) of wireless messages sent direct to the 
Port Health Office in the Docks, and the telegraphic address 
of ‘‘ Portelth Southampton " has been registered by the Post 
Office. 

Wireless messages are also received through agents approved 
by the Port Health Authority. Before this approval is given, 
however, agents are required to furnish evidence that they possess 
facilities for receiving such messages at all times of the day or 
night, and can undertake prompt transmission to the Port Health 
O&e of any messages received by them relating to the state 
of health on board. 

The following agents, having satisfied these requirements, 
have been approved as agents for the purpose of Article 6 of the 
Regulations :—Anglo American Oil Co. ; B. Ackerley & Co. ; 
Canadian Pacific Company ; Coast Lines Limited ; Cunard White 
Star Limited ; Escombe McGrath & Co, ; Kellar Bryant & Co. ; 
Haswell & Co.; McGregor, Gow & Holland; T. Meadows & Co.; 
W. H. Muller & Co. ; R. & J. H, Rea, Ltd., and Wainwright Bros, 

The following Companies elected to send their messages direct 
from the vessels to the Port Health Authority :— 

Southern Railway Company ; Dawson Bros., Ltd. ; Elders 
& Eyffes, Ltd. ; General Steam Navigation Company ; Royal 
Mail Lines, Ltd. ; Union-Castle Company ; Sandell Bros. ; J. 
Horn & Son ; Stephenson & Clarke, Ltd. ; and Stewart & Esplen, 
Ltd. 



205 


From 1st January to 31st December, 1938, the following 
wireless messages were received from incoming vessels :— 

(a) Direct, 209 (82 being in code). 

(b) Through agents, 630. 

H.M. Customs advise the Port Health Authority of any 
cases of sickness which come to their notice on outlying vessels. 

4. Mooring Stations Designated under Article 10 : (a) 

Within the Docks, (b) Outside the Docks. 

The following ‘‘ Mooring Stations ” have been established 
with the concurrence of the Customs and Harbour Authorities, and 
the consent (where necessary) of the Minister of Health:— 

Inner Mooring Stations. 

(a) For vessels bound for the Southern Railway Docks, for 

Agwi Jetty, or for Shell-Mex Jetty.—The usual place of 
mooring, subject to the vessel being moored at least 
six feet from the quay or jetty. 

(b) For vessels bound for places in the Southampton Port 

Sanitary Area other than those specified at (a)—• 
Between H^dhe Pier and the Pilot Cutter Moorings in 
Southampton Water. 

Outer Mooring Stations. 

(a) For vessels not exceeding 500 feet in length.—Between 

Hamble Spit Buoy and Shell-Mex Jetty in South¬ 
ampton Water. 

(b) For vessels exceeding 500 feet in length.—At Stokes Bay. 

5. Particulars of any Standing Exemptions from the 

Provisions of Article 14. 

In view of the comprehensive arrangements in force at this 
Port to secure that incoming vessels are met on arrival by an 
officer of the Port Health Authorit^L the only standing exemption 
to Article 14 applies to vessels which berth outside the Southern 
Railway Docks, and reads as follows :—“ That healthy vessels 
from an infected port should be allowed to proceed to their own 
berth and to unload, but the Medical Officer of Health should 
be informed as soon as possible. That, in the event of the ship 
being unhealthy, the Customs Officer will notify the Port Health 
Authority at the earliest possible moment and detain the ship." 

The above arrangements have been found to work satis¬ 
factorily, and no further standing exemptions are contemplated. 


2o6 


6 . Experience of Working Article i6 . 

The provisions of Article i6 have given rise to no difficulty, 
and have been willingly observed by all concerned. 

Permits are issued by the Port Medical Officer on the 
application of Shipping Companies for employees to board 
incoming vessels for the purpose of conveying and distributing 
mails, etc., prior to the vessel being released from control under 
the Port Sanitary Regulations, 1933. 

These permits would be withheld in the event of serious 
infectious disease being present. 

Our practice of requiring addresses of passengers landing at 
Southampton from all vessels, except those which have called 
exclusively at North Atlantic ports during the voyage, has been 
continued throughout the year. 

The declaration of address and notification of change of 
address system, advocated by the Association of Port Sanitary 
Authorities, has been adopted for contacts disembarking at this 
Port. 


7. (a) Premises and Waiting Rooms for Medical 

Examination. 

Premises and waiting rooms for medical examinations are 
provided in connection with the rooms used by the Immigration 
Officers ; on the larger vessels using this Port, adequate facilities 
for medical examination are usually available on board. 

(b) Cleansing and Disinfection of Ships, Persons and 
Clothing, and other Articles. 

Disinfection of quarters is carried out in all cases of infectious 
disease by the staff of the Port Health Authority, or by the 
Shipping Companies under their supervision. 

Formalin spray is the method employed together with 
thorough cleansing. Should fumigation be required, this is 
carried out, under the supervision of the Port Health Authority, 
by firms of chemists who specialise in this work. Contacts 
requiring disinfection are taken to the Disinfecting Station at West 
Quay, where fully-equipped bathrooms are available. Clothing 
and other articles are also dealt with at this station by means 
of steam disinfectors. 



207 


(c) Premises for the Temporary Accommodation of 

Persons for whom such Accommodation is required 
FOR THE Purpose of the Regulations. 

No special accommodation is set aside for this purpose, 
but this could be speedily arranged, should the occasion arise, 
at the Borough Hospital (500 beds), or at one of the hospitals 
for infectious disease. 

(d) Hospital Accommodation available for Plague, 

Cholera, Yellow Fever, Small Pox, and other 
Infectious Diseases. 

The following Hospitals provided by the Southampton 
Corporation are available for cases or suspected cases of infectious 
disease arriving at this Port :— 

(1) Isolation Hospital, Millbrook—171 beds are available for 

these cases. 

(2) Small Pox Hospital, Millbrook Marsh, providing accom¬ 

modation for 30 cases. 

(e) Ambulance Transport. 

The three motor ambulances provided by the Corporation are 
available for the Port for the removal of cases of infectious 
disease. Ambulances provided by the Borough Hospital and 
the Red Cross Society are also available for non-infectious cases. 
The motor launch provided by the Port Health Authority is 
adapted for the transport of two stretcher cases. 

(f) Supervision of Contacts. 

The procedure for ascertaining passengers’ destinations has 
been described in dealing with the working of Article 16, and the 
Medical Officer of Health of the district to which such passengers 
are proceeding is informed by letter, giving necessary particulars. 
Contacts remaining in the Borough are kept under observation by 
the Medical Officer of Health. 

The same procedure applies to seamen who are paid off in 
this Port. 

8 . Arrangements for Bacteriological Examination of 
Rats for Plague. 

All rats caught or found dead about docks or on vessels are 
brought to the Port Health Office, where they are examined, 
and a proportion submitted to post-mortem examination by the 
Medical Officers, specimens being forwarded to the Municipal 
Laboratory for microscopical and cultural examinations. 



2o8 


9. Arrangements for other Bacteriological or Patho¬ 
logical Examination. 

This work is carried out by the Pathologist at the Municipal 
Laboratory. 


10. Arrangements for the Diagnosis and Treatment of 
Venereal Disease among Sailors under Inter¬ 
national Arrangements. 

The treatment centre at the corner of New Road and Cardigan 
Road, Southampton, is a separate building, devoted entirely to 
treatment of venereal diseases, and provides all facilities for 
treatment for sailors under the International Convention. 

The centre is under the charge of a full-time Venereal Diseases 
Medical Officer and Pathologist, and facilities are provided for 
daily treatment. The clinic enjoys the co-operation of Ships’ 
Surgeons and Shipping Companies, who accept certificates of 
fitness to resume duty issued by the Venereal Diseases Medical 
Officer. 

Cases of venereal disease on board vessels in the Port, coming 
to the notice of the Port Medical Officers, are referred to the clinic 
for treatment, and leaflets, giving particulars of the facilities 
available, are left by the Port Health Inspectors on board vessels 
visited by them. 

Notices giving particulars about these diseases are renewed 
regularly, and are fixed in all the public lavatories about the Docks. 


11. Arrangements for the Interment of the Dead. 

The Port shares the facilities of the town for this purpose, 
the Corporation providing Cemeteries and a modern Crematorium. 

The Municipal Mortuary at West Quay Esplanade is 
available as required. 

12. Other Matters, if any, requiring or receiving 

Attention. 

As required by Article 2, a complete list of infected ports 
and seaboards is compiled each month by the Port Medical Officer 
of Health, and six copies forwarded to the Chief Preventive 
Officer, additions or amendments being notihed weekly. Copies 
are also supplied to the Inward Pilots, and the Manager, South¬ 
ampton Airport, and Imperial Airways Ltd. 


209 


PSITTACOSIS. 

The Parrots (Prohibition of Import) Regulations, 1930, 

The importation of any bird of the parrot species is prohibited 
by these Regulations, unless for consignment to the London 
Zoological Society, or by special permission of the Minister of 
Health, and enquiries are made on all incoming vessels as to 
the presence of any bird on board. 

Notifications are received by the Port Health Authority of 
any cases coming to the notice of H.M. Customs. 

During the year no cases of attempted smuggling of birds 
into the Port were detected. 

The following table shows the action taken during the year 
under these Regulations :— 

One hundred and eighty-one parrots arrived on 35 vessels 
at this Port. Of this number 134 were imported under license 
of the Minister of Health, 10 were surrendered and destroyed, 
28 proceeded in vessels, i was re-imported, and 8 were 
re-exported. 

It has been observed that parrots imported into this 
country with permission of the Minister of Health, are attended 
to on most vessels by the chief butcher in the room where food, 
etc., is prepared. 

The cages are placed either on or hung above the table 
at which the butcher carries out his daily duties ; this in itself 
is a bad practice, for should the birds be suffering from psittacosis, 
there is a possibility of the crew being infected and so conceivably 
the passengers. 

It would appear that no action in this matter will be taken 
until such an outbreak of psittacosis occurs which can be traced 
to this practice. It would be better for Shipping Companies 
to provide a specially warmed room in a suitable place on the 
ship where the birds could receive attention. 


o 



210 


TABLE C. 

Cases of Infectious Disease landed from vessels. 


Disease. 

Number of cases 
during 1938. 

Number of 
Vessels 

Average 
number of 
cases for 


Passengers. 

Crew. 

concerned. 

previous 
five years. 

Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis ... 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

.2 

Chicken Pox 

8 

7 

14 

13.6 

Diphtheria ... 

I 

4 

5 

5.0 

Dysentery 

7 

• • • 

5 

15.8 

Enteric Fever and Para- 
Typhoid Fever 

I 

4 

5 

9.2 

Erysipelas 

I 

I 

2 

1.8 

Influenza 

I 

I 

2 

15.2 

Measles 

34 

4 

II 

26.8 

Mumps 

4 

... 

4 

7-4 

Pneumonia ... 

13 

6 

17 

24.2 

Poliomyelitis... 

I 

... 

I 

i.o 

Scarlet Fever 

2 

... 

2 

5.8 

Tonsillitis 

8 

16 

16 

15.4 

Trachoma 

2 

• « • 

2 

.2 

Tuberculosis 

160 

3 

53 

120.6 

Venereal Disease 

58 

61 

69 

69.8 

Whooping Cough 

10 

... 

6 

5.2 

'X' oXods ••• ••• ••• 

311 

107 

214 

— 
























2II 


TABLE D. 


Cases of Infectious Sickness occurring on vessels during the 
voyage, but disposed of prior to arrival. 


Disease. 

Number of cases 
during 1938. 

Number of 
Vessels 

! 

1 Average 
number of 
cases for 


Passengers. 

Crew. 

concerned. 

previous 
, five years. 

1 

i 

Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis ... 


2 

2 

.2 

Chicken Pox 

I 

2 

3 

4.2 

Diphtheria ... 

... 

2 

2 

1.4 

Dysentery 

• . • 

• • • 

• • • 

.6 

Enteric Fever and Para- 
Typhoid Fever 

• • • 

5 

5 

3.4 

Erysipelas 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

.6 

Influenza 

• • • 

I 

I 

.2 

Measles 

42 

I 

8 

II .2 

Mumps 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

1.8 

Pneumonia ... 

6 

5 

II 

10.6 

Polio myelitis... 

... 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

Scarlet Fever 

2 

• • • 

2 

1.2 

Tonsillitis 


• • • 

• • « 

•4 

Trachoma 

• • • 

• • « 

• • • 

• • • 

Tuberculosis 

5 

I 

4 

8.8 

Venereal Disease 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

.8 

Whooping Cough 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

I.O 

Totals 

56 

19 

38 

— 


























212 


Section V.—MEASURES AGAINST RODENTS. 

1. Steps taken for Detection of Rodent Plague : (a) In 

Ships in the Port, (b) On Quays, Wharves, Ware¬ 
houses, ETC., IN THE VICINITY OF THE PORT. 

All vessels entering the Port are inspected for indications of 
rat infestation, and all rats caught on ships or about the Docks 
are examined by the Staff at the Port Health Office, a proportion 
being selected for post-mortem and bacteriological examination. 

2. Measures taken to Prevent the Passage of Rats 

BETWEEN Ships and the Shore. 

The following regulations are enforced in the case of all 
vessels from infected ports, grain carrying ships, or vessels 
showing evidence of rat infestation, and have been voluntarily 
adopted by practically all the shipping companies in the case 
of other vessels :— 

(1) That the ship be so moored that at no point is she 
less than six feet from the quay or wharf. 

(2) That all ropes, warps, etc., used for mooring the ship 
be fitted with canvas rat-guards, two feet long, the same to be 
daily coated with tar, or fitted with shields or discs ; all such 
rat-guards when fitted to be clear of ship and quay, and readjusted 
with rise and fall of the tide. 

(3) That no gangway, shoot, plank, etc., connecting the ship 
with the shore, except that which is in actual use, be permitted ; 
and that any gangway, shoot, plank, etc., while connecting the 
ship with the shore, and not in constant use, shall have a man 
in attendance day and night. The gangway shall be provided 
with a light from sunset to sunrise. 

(4) Booms and other appliances provided for the purpose 
of keeping the ship in position, and connecting the ship with the 
quay, shall be kept coated with tar parcelling at least three feet in 
length, and the tar renewed daily. 



213 


3. Methods of Deratisation of : (a) Ships, (b) Premises 

IN THE VICINITY OF DoCKS OR QUAYS. 

(a) On Ships. 

(1) Trapping and poisoning.—Regular trapping on board 
ship is carried out by the Shipping Companies, the majority of 
whom employ professional rat-catchers. Poison baits have been 
used in several instances during the year as an accessory method. 

(2) Fumigation.—There have been no vessels entering the 
Port during the year which have necessitated fumigation owing 
to rat prevalence. 

It is the practice, however, for several Companies to carry 
out fumigation annually for the purpose of freeing the ships from 
cockroaches or other vermin. Fourteen such fumigations were 
carried out by firms of contracting chemists by the following 
fumigants of the Hydrocyanic Acid Group :—Liquid Hydro¬ 
cyanic Acid (6), H.C.N. Zyklon B (4), Hydrocyanic Acid Liquid 
and Discs (i), and Hydrocyanic Acid (Galardi) (3). 

Deratisation Certificates were asked for by the Companies 
in each case, and the work was therefore supervised and approved 
throughout by the Port Health Authority. 

(b) Premises in the Vicinity of Docks and Quays. 

The Southern Railway Company employ two full-time rat¬ 
catchers about the Docks, warehouses, etc., the methods employed 
being trapping and poisoning. 

4. Measures taken for the Detection of Rat Prevalence 

IN Ships and on Shore. 

Systematic inspection is carried out for rat traces and 
harbourage on all vessels, quays, wharves, and warehouses. The 
systematic measures which are carried out for the destruction of 
rats, referred to in the previous section, resulted in only 1,420 rats 
being caught (340 on vessels and 1,080 on shore). 


214 


5 - Rat-Proofing. 

(a) To what extent are docks, wharves, warehouses, etc., 

rat-proof ? 

(b) Action taken to extend rat-proofing. 

(a) and (b). The standard of rat-proofing of the sheds, 
wharves, and warehouses is, generally speaking, satisfactory. 
Practically all sheds are of metal construction, the floors being 
of concrete, surfaced with tar-paving ; the few remaining sheds 
which are of wooden construction have been floored with concrete. 

During the year the new Docks Extension has been regularly 
utilised for passenger and cargo traffic. All buildings on this 
extension have been constructed on the most modern principles 
to prevent rat harbourage. 

(c) In Ships. 

Schedules of work to correct or protect rat harbourage and 
runs were served and complied with in the case of 37 vessels 
requiring Deratisation Exemption Certificates. 




RATS DESTROYED DURING 1938. TABLE E. 


215 





^ I-l 

o o 

+j <n 

: et • ! 

o 

• I I 


M M 

* 

• rH 





; CO ; m ; 

Q 

• M . M • 

> 

o o 

o 

; t ^ 

Iz; 

. M , M . 


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< 

H 


in 

W 

CO 

O 

w 

W 

Q 

in 

W 

> 

< 

K 

co' 

a 

CO* 

w 

o 

O 

Q 

h-H 


o 

O 

IZI 

IZI 

Sept. 

• p-i • M • 

• * • 

• M . M . 

Aug. 

' o • o • 

. M . M . 

t—) 

: (s : (M ; 

. M . M . 

June. 

lo in 

; CO : ro : 

. M . M . 

May. 

CO CO 

• M • M • 

I M ; M I 

April. 

... 

i 

on 

... 

on 

i 

Mar. 

lO VO 

• 0^ * O' • 

• • • 

Feb. 

122 

i 

122 

1 

Jan. 

• M 1 1 

I M I M I 

Number of Rats. 

T^lo plr 

••• *•* 

Brown ... 

Species not recorded ... 

Examined 

Infected with Plague ... 


Of the above number of rats caught in Docks, etc., the number caught in the New Docks was 707. 
* The totals in E and F of Rats examined include 110 Bacteriologically examined. 


















































TABLE G. 

Measures of Rat Destruction on Plague “ Infected ” or “ Suspected ” vessels from Plague-infected ports 

arriving in the Port during the year 1938. 


216 


Number of such 
Vessels on which 
measures of Rat 
destruction were 
not carried out. 

8. 

05 

M 

N 

Number 
of Rats 
killed. 

7- 

0^ 

HH 

H 

Number of such 
Vessels on which 
trapping, 
poisoning, etc., 
were carried out. 

6. 

0 

Number 
of Rats 
killed. 

5 . 

Nil 

Number of 
such Vessels 
fumigated 
by H.C.N. 

4- 


Number 
of Rats 
killed. 

3 . 

Nil 

Number of 
such Vessels 
fumigated 
by S.O.^^ 

2 . 

Nil 

Total number 
of such 
Vessels 
arriving. 

I. 

M 

05 

IN 


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217 


Section VI.—HYGIENE OF CREW SPACES. 

As in previous years, regular inspection of crew spaces has 
been made, and the Board of Trade have been informed of 
structural defects which require attention. 

In 1937 the Board of Trade issued a new pamphlet entitled 
“ Instructions as to the Survey of Master’s and Crew Spaces.” 

" The new Instructions are based on modern standards, 
and in many respects the advance as compared with the 
present Instructions is most striking, although we recognise 
that for several years the present Instructions have repre¬ 
sented the basic minimum requirements, and that the 
majority of shipowners and shipbuilders have provided 
accommodation in excess of the standards laid down. As 
examples of the improvements which have been made, we 
would mention the increase in the prescribed height of the 
accommodation, the general increase in the amount of 
headroom provided being about 9 inches ; the provision of 
separate accommodation for different ratings ; improve¬ 
ments in the equipment of the sleeping rooms ; the provision 
of wash places and bathrooms, drying rooms, and privy 
accommodation ; the provision of hospital facilities on all 
foreign-going ships over 2,500 tons ; and improvement in 
lighting, ventilation and heating.” 

The table embodying particulars of inspection during the 


year is given below :— 

Defects 

found. 

Qjmplied 

with. 

Accumulation of rubbish, stagnant water, etc. 

8 ... 

8 

Dampness in crews’ quarters 

I ... 

I 

Defective ventilation 

5 ••• 

3 

,, radiators or steam pipes in crews’ 



quarters 

4 ••• 

4 

,, ports ... ... ... ... ... 

17 ... 

9 

,, bunks ... 

8 ... 

7 

,, floors in wash-houses ... 

I ... 

I 

,, or missing wash-basins 

I ... 

— 

,, or missing messroom tables ... 

I ... 

I 

,, or absence of food lockers 

19 ... 

9 

,, or missing doors to crews’ quarters 

13 ... 

8 










2 i8 


Defective or missing clothes lockers 

Defects 

found. 

I 

Complied 

with. 

I 

,, or missing seats to wxs. 

15 

... 12 

,, or missing doors to w.cs. 

2 

2 

,, or absence of flushing apparatus to 

w.cs. ... ... ... ... 

46 

... 33 

,, or obsolete trough closets 

II 

... 4 

,, w.c. pans ... ... ... ... 

I 

I 

,, or missing stoves 

26 

... 13 

,, deck-heads, decklights and hawse 

pipes ... ... ... ... 

28 

... 15 

Insanitary crews’ quarters 

34 

... 26 

,, food lockers ... 

12 

... 12 

,, provision rooms, etc. 

7 

... 5 

,, w.cs., wash-places, etc. 

90 

... 79 

Water tanks defective 

5 

2 

,, ,, in dirty condition ... 

II 

... 6 

,, ,, defective lids or hlling pipes, etc. 

24 

... 14 

Ship’s stores in crews’ spaces 

4 

I 

Verminous quarters 

23 

... 14 

Dirty holds 

4 

... 4 

Smoke nuisances from ships 

6 

... 6 

Totals 

428 

... 301 

on 232 Vessels. 

on 174 Vessels. 


Nuisances were abated on 21 vessels in respect of notices 
served in 1937. 


TABLE J. 


Nationality of 
Vessel. 

Number 
Inspected 
during 1938. 

Defects of 
original 
construction. 

Structural 
defects through 
wear and tear. 

Dirt, vermin, 

and other 
conditions 
prejudicial to 
health. 

British ... 

2,451 

I 

194 

180 

Other Nations ... 

956 

— 

12 

41 




















219 


Section VII.—FOOD INSPECTION IN THE PORT. 

Report on the Working of the Public Health (Imported Food) 
Regulations, 1925 (to 31st March, 1938); Public Health 
(Imported Food) Amendment Regulations, 1933 (to 31st 
March, 1938) ; Public Health (Imported Food) Regulations, 
1937 (as from 1st April, 1938) ; Public Health (Imported 
Milk) Regulations, 1926; Public Health (Preservatives, etc., 
in Food) Regulations, 1925 to 1927; and the Public Health 
(Meat) Regulations, 1924. 

The inspection, examination, and the control of all food 
stuffs landing in the Port is carried out under the above Regula¬ 
tions, and, as in previous years, the valuable assistance rendered 
by the Officers of H.M. Customs and Excise, the Southern Rail¬ 
way Company, Shipping Companies, Shipping Agents, Meat and 
Fruit Importing Companies, has considerably facilitated the 
carrying out of the varied duties appertaining to the Regulations. 

The amount of food stuffs landed in the Port during the year 
was 472,671 tons, and consisted of the following articles :— 

Fruit. —Country of origin : South Africa, South America, Cen¬ 
tral America, West Indies, United States, Canada, Jaffa, 


Azores, 

Channel 

Islands, etc. 




Tons. 


Tons. 

Apples 

... 

... 18,153 

Oranges 

••• 75.547 

Apricots 

... 

243 

Pears 

... 13,442 

Bananas 

... 

... 11,423 

Peaches 

... 1,603 

Currants 


2 

Pineapples ... 

... 2,964 

Grapes 


• •• 14.635 

Plums 

... 5,804 

Grape Fruit 


... 16,124 

Tomatoes ... 

... 32,144 

Lemons 


1,291 

Fruit, not otherwise 


Litches 


60 

specified 

980 

Melons 


451 



Naartjes 


133 

Total 


Nectarines ... 

• • • 

150 

... 195.149 


















220 


Vegetables. —Country of origin: Continent, Channel Islands, 
South Africa, Canary Islands, etc. 




Tons. 


Tons. 

Beans 


719 

Parsnips 

• •• ••• xx 

Broccoli 

• • • 

... 1,499 

Peas 

... ... ... 268 

Carrots 

Lettuce 


107 

121 

Vegetables, 

specified 

not otherwise 

... ... 354 

Onions 

* • 

... 4,472 


Total ... 7,551 

Potatoes.— 

-Country 

of origin 

: Channel 

Islands, Continent, 


etc.—20,741 tons. 


Fish. —Country of origin : South Africa, Newfoundland, etc. 
—1,340 tons. 


Meat. —Country of origin: South America, South Africa, 
Australia, New Zealand, etc. 





Tons. 



Tons. 

Beef 

... 

• * « 

35.541 

Meat, not otherwise 
specified 

• • * 

99 

Beef Cuts ... 

• • • 

• • • 

718 




Offal 

• • • 

• • • 

1,244 




Pork Cuts... 

• • • 

... 

329 

Total 

• • • 

54.651 

Sheep and Lambs 

... 

16,720 




Provisions.— 

-Country of origin 

: United States, Canada, 

South 

America, 

South Africa, Continent, Australia, etc. 






Tons. 



Tons. 

Apple Pomace 



52 

Ground Nut Kernels 

• * « 

95 

Apricot Kernels 


• • • 

98 

Lard 

• • • 

908 

Bacon 


« • • 

27 

Macaroni 

* • • 

II 

Butter 


• • • 

7,018 

Meats, Boxed and Canned 

718 

Beer 


• • • 

395 

Mineral Waters 

« • • 

54 

Cider 


• • • 

235 

Milk, E. and P. 

• • • 

1,144 

Coffee 


• • • 

1,040 

Preserves 

« • • 

719 

Cocoa 


* • • 

5 

Poultry 

• . . 

127 

Cheese 


•. . 

3.019 

Quaker Oats 

• « • 

736 

Corn Flakes 


•.« 

430 

Sugar 

• • • 

1.459 

Confectionery 


• • • 

149 

Spirits 

• • • 

797 

Cereals 


• • • 

721 

Tea 

• • • 

518 

Chestnuts ... 



27 

Walnuts 

• • • 

172 

Canned Goods, 

not 

other- 


Wines 

• • • 

6,714 

wise specified 

• • • 

380 

Oil, Cocoanut, etc. 

• • » 

12 

Eggs 

«• • 

• • • 

3.029 

Oil, Olive ... 

• • • 

81 

Fruit, Canned 


• • • 

1,638 

Oil, Whale. 

. • . 

1,002 

Fruit, Dried 


• • • 

7.933 

Provisions, not otherwise 


Fruit Pulp ... 


• • • 

272 

specified ... 

• • . 

194 

Force 


« « « 

83 




Fat 


« • • 

886 

Total 

• • • 

43.610 

Fruit Juice 


• • • 

712 






























221 


Grain and Grain Offals.— Country of origin * South America, 
South Africa, Canada, Continent, Australia, etc. 




Tons. 


Tons. 

Bran 

... 

... 2,249 

Middlings 

... 2,668 

Barley 


... 14,952 

Oats 

2,007 

Cotton Cake 


739 

Oil Cake 

... 189 

Cotton Seed 


8,248 

Pollards 

... 3,898 

Flour 


... 4,206 

Rice 

31 

Hominy Chop 


... 2,340 

Seeds 

339 

Linseed Cake 


... 1,159 

Wheat Germ 

... 604 

Linseed 


... 2,016 

Wheat 

... 44,701 

Maize 


... 36,821 

Grain, not otherwise 


Maize Meal ... 


... 3.125 

specified ... 

... 1,236 

Meal 

... 

... 18,101 

Total 

149,629 


Notices Served During the Year under the Public Health 
(Imported Food) Regulations, 1925 (to 31st March, 
1938) ; and the Public Health (Imported Food) 
Regulations, 1937 (as from ist April, 1938). 


Form E (notice for special examination) ... ... 172 

Permission to remove after examination ... ... 170 

Notice to have destroyed after examination ... ... 2 

Notice to export after examination ... ... ... — 

Form C (notice to sort) ... ... ... ... ... 7 

Permission to remove after sorting ... ... ... 7 

Form A (notice to surrender) ... ... ... ... 223 

Condemnation Notes issued (food destroyed) ... ... 488 

Condemnation Notes issued (food used under 

guarantee for non-edible purposes) ... ... ... 7 




















Quantities of Meat Landed in the Port for the Year 1938. 


222 










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223 


Offal. 

All offal has been subjected to a percentage examination at 
the time of landing, and, where deemed necessary, the more 
detailed inspections have taken place in the Cold Stores available 
for this purpose. 

The customary practice of defrosting a small percentage of 
consignments, in special circumstances, has been carried out, and 
from 1% to 5% of all importations of beef tongues have been 
defrosted for detection of actinomycosis and missing sub-maxillary 
glands, etc. 

Canned Goods. 

Importation of canned foods for the year amounted to 
174,614 packages. 

Two thousand hve hundred and forty-two tins of canned 
goods were condemned for “ blown " or other unsatisfactory 
condition. 

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samples submitted for analysis have been satisfactory. 

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coincide with the examinations made by H.M. Customs and 
Excise, as numerous consignments are of a dutiable nature ; this 
method facilitates the working of the Customs and Public Health 
Regulations. 

The Public Health (Imported Milk) Regulations, 1926. 

There have been no importations of milk during the year. 

The Public Health (Meat) Regulations, 1924. 

Under Part \T (Transport and Handling) inspection of all 
meat conveyances has been systematically made, and general 
supervision of the handling of meat in ships, cold stores, cargo 
sheds, etc., has been carried out. 

Caseous Lymphadenitis. 

A uniform examination of 5% of consignments of mutton 
and lambs (42-lbs. in weight and over) is still carried out ; and, 
as formerly, if 2% of the 5% are found to be affected with the 
disease, the whole of the next consignment is detained until all 
necessary examinations have been completed. This procedure 
necessitated the detention of sixteen consignments during the 
year. 

The examination of mutton and lambs entering the Port 
has revealed 0.33% of affected carcases (on a 5% examination 
basis), this shows a slight increase on last year’s figure. 

The incidence of Caseous Lymphadenitis in imported mutton 
can still be considered as slight, and there is every reason to 


224 


believe that a rigid examination of carcases is still carried out in 
the abattoirs of the exporting countries. 

It is of interest to note that during the year a consignment 
of Argentine lambs, numbering 778 carcases, discharged at the 
Port were subjected to the normal 5% routine examination. This 
examination revealed 7.7% affected carcases, an additional 5% 
examination shewed 16% affected carcases—making a total of 
nine carcases affected—it was deemed necessary to examine the 
balance of the consignment remaining in Southampton, and a 
further ten carcases were found to be affected. 

As is customary in circumstances such as these. Medical 
Officers of Health of other towns to which parts of this consignment 
had been despatched were notified, in order that they could take 
any action considered necessary. 

The result of the examination carried out on this particular 
consignment caused some concern to the exporting authorities, 
and at their special request ten of the affected carcases were 
re-shipped under guarantee to the Argentine for research purposes. 

One million seventy-five thousand three hundred and ninety- 
one carcases of sheep and lambs were landed during the year, 
7,755 carcases were examined, 41 carcases were condemned— 
30 being destroyed by burning, 10 returned to Argentine for 
research purposes, i released under guarantee to be rehned for 
non-edible purposes. 


Country 

of Origin. 

Mutton. 

Lambs. 

Carcases 

Landed. 

Carcases 

Examined. 

Carcases 

Condemned. 

% Affected. 

Carcases 

Landed. 

.... . 1 

Carcases 

Examined. 

Carcases 

Condemned. 

j % Affected. 

Australia 

2,599 

134 

2 

1.49 

199,827 

253 


• * • 

New Zealand ... 

96,563 

4.852 

6 

0.12 

640,921 

606 

2 

0-33 

South Africa ... 

7.446 

372 

• • • 


26,847 


. . . 

... 

* South America 

1.564 

78 

• • • 

... 

99.624 

1,460 

31 

2. II 

Totals ... 

108,172 

5.436 

8 


967,219 

2,319 

33 

• • • 


* Total number of lambs examined and found affected includes 340 
carcases examined, and 16 carcases found to be affected after a special 
examination carried out in addition to the normal routine 5% examination. 






















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24 j Damsons ... Canada ... ... Arsenious Oxide 0.12 parts per million. Sample satisfactory. 

! (1.4 parts per million limit.) 
























227 





















Samples of imported food taken during the year for bacteriological examination. 


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229 


Arsenious Oxide on Fruit. 

Routine inspection of all fruit consignments arriving from 
overseas is carried out, and where evidence of spray deposit 
is observed, samples of the affected fruit are submitted to the 
Borough Analyst for analysis ; the consignment from which the 
sample is taken is detained until the result of the analysis is 
available. 

During the year lo samples of fruit and tomatoes were 
analysed, none of these exceeded the tolerance hgure of 1.4 parts 
per million of arsenious oxide. 


Treatment of Oil-tainted Frozen Carcases by Ozone. 

During the year a practical demonstration of deodorisation 
by an '' Ozone " method afforded an interesting subject in im¬ 
ported food control by this Authority. 

A consignment of New Zealand frozen carcases, consisting 
of sheep, lambs and pigs, were discharged at this Port. At an 
early stage of unloading, it became apparent that one of the 
refrigerated holds had become seriously affected by an oil fuel 
leakage from a tank supply pipe. 

Approximately 14,000 carcases were carried in this hold, 
and upon test it was found that oil taint had permeated the 
fat and tissues of the carcases involved. At a later stage of 
discharge it w'as found that the lower hold was flooded by oil 
to a depth varying from three to six inches—some 800 carcases 
in the bottom-most tier were contaminated by direct contact 
with oil fuel—these were left in the hold for removal and sub¬ 
sequent condemnation at the vessel’s terminal port. 

The whole of the oil-tainted consignment, numbering 13,400 
carcases, was discharged into the International Cold Storage & 
Ice Company’s premises, situated in the Docks, and were there 
detained by this Authority for deodorisation. 



230 


The least affected carcases, numbering 5,756 and 4,069, were 
stowed in chambers loA and 12A respectively, whilst the more 
seriously affected carcases, numbering 3,609, were stowed in 
chambers lA and 3A respectively. Special care was taken in 
storing—battens being placed between each tier to ensure a free 
circulating atmosphere. 

Ozone generators manufactured by the C. & R. Research, 
Ltd., were installed in each chamber, and were kept working 
continuously during the whole of the deodorisation period, which 
according to requirements extended from just over three weeks 
in the case of the least affected carcases, to nearly seven weeks 
in the case of the more seriously tainted carcases. 

Briefly, an ozone generator consists of a dielectric material 
separating two electrodes. When a high tension current is applied 
to the electrodes, the dielectric prevents a direct arcing between 
the electrodes-—this results in a building up of a high electrostatic 
charge which dissipates in a peculiar electrical phenomena known 
as “ brush discharge." The energy dissipated by this discharge 
converts oxygen into ozone—that is, oxygen in its two atom 
molecule state, becomes triatomic. 

Ozone is the most powerful oxidising agent known, and not 
only deodorises, but actualty destroys the organic matter causing 
the taint. 

Visits were paid to the International Cold Stores by officials 
of the Port Health Authority at regular intervals during the 
treatment of the carcases ; each visit shewed a marked diminution 
in oil taint present in the affected carcases. 

Subsequently the carcases in chambers loA were released 
from detention after 26 days treatment. Carcases in chamber 
12A were released after 32 days treatment—the more seriously 
affected carcases were released after 47 days treatment. 

The consignment which was deodorised comprised one of the 
largest ‘‘ tainted " meat cargoes ever discharged at the Port, and 


231 


credit must be given to the efficiency of the generators used— 
as in this case a totally unsaleable cargo of some value was recon¬ 
ditioned to a normal condition ; free from taint and as far as 
could be ascertained also free from any other tissue abnormality. 


Coffee Beans Affected by Larv^, 

During the year it was necessary to condemn by a Magistrates' 
Order a consignment, consisting of six hundredweights of coffee 
beans, described on the landing manifest as " Old Brown Menada 
Coffee.” 

On the lirst examination at the time of landing the beans 
were found to be of old appearance, a large percentage of beans 
had been attacked by larvae, and together with general con¬ 
tamination by dust, etc., from larvae borings. 

The consignment was detained and a sample was submitted 
to the Borough Analyst for a general and microscopic examina¬ 
tion. The result of this examination shewed that 36% of the 
beans had been attacked by larvae, and gross contamination by 
larvae excrement was evident. 

On the admission of the merchant concerned, that he had 
no practical method of reconditioning the beans before baking 
and grinding into coffee, the consignment was judged to be unht 
for human consumption. 

The merchant was afforded the opportunity of a voluntary 
surrender, and upon refusal the beans were seized by the Authority 
and condemned as unht for food. The consignment, after con¬ 
sideration, was destroyed by burning. 




232 


Imported Food Condemned. 


The total amount of food condemned during the year was 316 tons, 
II cwts. and 26 lbs. Surrenders were voluntary in all except one instance, 
where it was necessary to call in a Magistrate to condemn the unsound food. 


Description. 

Original 

Packages. 

Loose Articles. 

Weight Condemned. 

No. 

Descript’n. 

Description. 

Tons. 

Cwts. 

Qrs. 1 

Lbs. 

Anchovy Fillets 






i 


(Canned) 

48 

Tins 

... ... ... 



2 

25 

Apples 

I 

Barrel 

... ... ... 





Apples 

624 

Boxes 

... ... ... 

II 

3 

2 

18 

Apricots 

7 

Trays 

... ... ... 

1 


3 

14 

Apricots (Dried) 

3 

Boxes 

... ... ... 



2 ' 

19 

Apricot Pulp 








(Canned) 

118 

Tins 

... ... ... 


7 

I 

17 

Bananas 

. . ♦ 

• • . • • » 

Quantity of loose 

54 

10 

0 

0 

Beef 

9 

Quarters 

Quantity of Cuts 


14 

0 

3 

Beef Offal 

• • • 

... • • * 

Quantity of loose 



3 

19 

Beef (Canned) 

6 

Tins 

... ... ... 



I 

7 

Cabbage 

78 

Bags 

... ... ... 

1 

17 

I 

18 

Carrots 

31 

Bags 

Quantity of loose 

I ! 

17 

0 

0 

Cauliflowers ... 

50 

Crates 

_ 


2 

0 

26 

Confectionery 

I 

Box 

... ... ... 



I 

0 

Coffee Beans ... 

6 

Bags 

... ... ... 


6 

0 

0 

Cucumbers 

30 

Billets 

... ... ... 


I 

2 

20 

Grapes 

23 

Boxes 

... ... ... 





Grapes 

I 

Barrel 

... ... ... 


3 

2 

15 

Grapefruit 

435 

Boxes 

Quantity of loose 

16 

5 

3 

0 

Greengages 

85 

Boats 

... ... ... 

I 

0 

3 

0 

Kippers 

266 

Boxes 

... ... ... 

I 

13 

I 

0 

Lambs 

33 

Carcases 

... 


13 

I 

14 

Lamb Offal ... 

9 

Pails 

Quantity of loose 



3 

II 

Lamb Cuts 


... ... 

Loose 




6 

Lemons 

12 

Boxes 

... 


9 

0 

0 

Lettuce 

100 

Crates 

... ... ... 


6 

I 

0 

Loganberries 








(Canned) 

12 

Tins 

... ... ... 




14 

Mandarines 








(Canned) 

2293 

Tins 

... ... ... 


13 

I 

14 

Melons 

54 

Boxes 

Quantity of loose 


17 

3 

20 

Nectarines 

I 

Box 

... ... ... 




15 

Onions 

163 

Bags 

... ... ... 





Onions 

20 

Cases 

... ... ... 

5 

0 

3 

10 

Oranges 

5465 

Boxes 

Quantity of loose 

205 

; 12 

I 

14 

Passion Fruit 

21 

Boxes 

... ... ... 


i 2 

0 

0 

Peaches 

2 

Boxes 

... ... ... 




20 

Pears 

485 

Boxes 

... ... ... 

8 

12 

2 

i 0 

Pears (Canned) 

38 

Tins 

... ... ... 



2 

13 

Plums 

46 

Trays 

... ... ... 





Plums 

174 

Boxes 

... ... ... 


1 



Plums 

13 

Boats 

... ... ... 

I 

1 ^5 

2 

18 

Pork 

I 

Pig’s head 

... ... ... 

i 

i 

1 


' 9 

Pork Offal 

• • • 

... « . • 

Loose ... 

1 



4 

Pork and Beans 








(Canned) 

26 

Tins 

... ... ... 


1 


26 

Poultry 

• . . 

... ... 

Quantity of loose 


2 

3 

17 

Prunes 

5 

Boxes 

... ... ... 


1 

2 

15 

Sheep 

9 

Carcases 

... ... ... 


4 

0 

: 18 

Raisins 

3 

Boxes 

... ... ... 



2 

: 19 

Sultanas 

17 

Boxes 

... ... ... 


17 

0 

1 ^7 

Tomatoes 

3 

Boxes 



i 


1 

Tomatoes 

106 

Boats 

... ... ... 





Tomatoes 

25 

Billets 

... ... ... 

I 

13 

2 

1 0 

Tomato Puree 

I 

Tin 





7 

Total 

... 

. 

... 

316 

II 

0 

26 
























































233 


Method of Disposal. 


Method of Disposal. 

Tons. 

Cwts. 

Qrs. 

Lbs. 

Dumped at sea 

241 

15 

2 

12 

Burned ... 

63 

9 

I 

14 

Pig food 

II 

I 

3 

4 

Non-edible refining 



I 

15 

Returned to Owners for research 





purposes 


4 

0 

9 

Total ... 

316 

II 

0 

26 


TABLE XIII. 


Table showing for comparison the food stuffs condemned 
during the years 1913 to 1938 :— 


1913 

1914 

1915 

1916 

1917 

1918 

1919 

1920 

1921 

1922 

1923 

1924 

1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 

1930 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 
193^ 


Tons. 

Cwts. 

Qrs 

99 

15 

I 

53 

II 

0 

22 

18 

I 

28 

4 

3 

586 

7 

2 

538 

9 

0 

79 

15 

3 

324 

I 

0 

91 

8 

3 

30 

8 

0 

26 

9 

I 

80 

5 

0 

158 

0 

2 

90 

10 

2 

58 

2 

3 

129 

15 

3 

97 

12 

0 

136 

18 

2 

136 

0 

2 

230 

4 

I 

80 

2 

I 

118 

2 

2 

130 

0 

2 

269 

0 

2 

891 

0 

2 

316 

II 

0 


Lbs. 

5 

19 

4 

25 
8 

7 

6 

4 

22 

10 

22 

27 

19 

15 
24 

18 

4 

27 

9 

26 

26 

5 

16 

11 

23 

26 

























234 


PART II. 


PASSENGER TRAFFIC DURING 1938. 

The number of vessels entering the Port of Southampton 
during the year was 15,880, being a decrease of 866 compared 
with the previous year. The net tonnage of these vessels 
amounted to 13,013,105 tons, compared with 13,340,292 in the 
year 1937. 

The number of passengers arriving in the Port from countries 
outside Europe was 87,128, a decrease of 22,020 compared with 
the previous year, and the number embarking was 116,424, a 
decrease of 19,891 compared with the total in 1937. 

In addition to the above, 296 vessels arrived in Southampton 
Water and Cowes Roads to disembark passengers, and also to 
embark passengers, particulars of whom are not included. 

The number of passengers landed by tender in the Docks 
from these vessels amounted to 23,268 during the year. 

Thirty-two transports also arrived in the Port, and landed 
7,269 crew and 41,732 military passengers and troops ; the 
statistics relating to these vessels not being included above. 

The passenger traffic during the years 1937 and 1938 between 
ports in England and places outside Europe, and not within the 
Mediterranean Sea, is given in the Board of Trade Journal as 
follows :— 


TABLE I. 

NUMBER OE PASSENGERS. 


Port. 

Inward. 

Outward. 

Total. 

1937 - 

1938. 

1937 - 

1938. 

1937 - 

1938. 

Bristol 

2,044 

2,535 

2,187 

2.037 

4.231 

4.572 

Plymouth 

29,376 

28,869 

113 

361 

29.489 

29,230 

Liverpool 

35.782 

29,384 

47.417 

46,058 

83.199 

75.442 

London 

48,049 

45.685 

44.956 

47,289 

93.005 

92,974 

Southampton 

109,148 

87,128 

136,315 

116,424 

245.463 

203,552 






















235 


Information regarding passenger movement to and from the 
United Kingdom has been obtained from the Board of Trade 
returns, which show that the total number of passengers who 
arrived in the United Kingdom from places out of Europe during 
the year 1938 amounted to 221,699, a decrease of 31,261 when 
compared with the year 1937. 

The total number of passengers who embarked at the various 
ports in the United Kingdom for places out of Europe are shown 
as 241,049, a decrease of 20,780 when compared with 1937. 

Our work and interests are, however, more concerned with 
those who land at this Port. The number of passengers who 
arrived at the Port of Southampton from places out of Europe 
during the same period amounted to 87,128, showing a decrease 
of 22,020 compared with the year 1937. 


The number of outward passengers who left Southampton 
for places out of Europe was 116,424, as compared with 136,315 
who embarked at this Port during 1937. 

TABLE II. 

Passengers who arrived in the United Kingdom from places 
out of Europe, distinguishing the class of travel, during the years 
1937 and 1938 




Inward. 




Second 




Ports. 


First 

and Cabin 

Tourist 

Third 

Total. 



Class. 

Class. 

Class. 

Class. 


Liverpool ... 

f 1938 

5,411 

7,181 

6,950 

9,842 

29,384 

1 1937 

5,856 

9,001 

8,298 

12,627 

35,782 

London 

I 1938 

19,119 

6,372 

15,833 

4,361 

45,685 

i 1937 

18,146 

7,178 

16,914 

5,811 

48,049 

Plymouth ... 

f 1938 

11937 

7,397 

7,542 

10,726 

11,703 

6,266 

6,214 

4,480 

3,917 

28,869 

29,376 

Southampton 

( 1938 

i 1937 

14,379 

16,017 

24,975 

32,292 

32,351 

40,669 

15,423 

20,170 

87,128 

109,148 

Bristol 

( 1938 

2,387 

144 

— 

4 

2,535 

t 1937 

1,976 

65 

— 

3 

2,044 

Glasa:o\v 

i 1938 
i 1937 

60 

50 

2,852 

2,888 

6,427 

6,769 

11,505 

10,713 

20,844 

20,420 

Londonderry 

i 1938 

1 1937 

- 

15 

46 

200 

178 

797 

592 

1,012 

816 

Belfast 

/ 1938 

i 1937 

112 

41 

451 

707 

1,023 

1,412 

2,634 

3,178 

4,220 

5,338 

Other Ports 

J 1938 

11937 

1,701 

1,528 

207 

28.). 

65 

113 

49 

62 

2 022 

I’,987 

Total, all Ports... 

f 1938 

50,566 

52,923 

69,115 

49,095 

221,699 

11937 

51,156 

64,164 

80,567 

57,073 

252,960 



















236 


TABLE III. 

Passengers who left the United Kingdom for places out of Europe, 
distinguishing the class of travel, during the years 1937 and 1938 :— 


Ports. 


Liverpool ... 

London 

Plymouth ... 

Southampton 

Bristol 

Glasgow 

Londonderry 

Belfast 

Other Ports 

Total, all Ports... 


f 1938 
11937 
i 1938 
11937 
(1938 
11937 
I 1938 
11937 
i 1938 

11937 

11938 
11937 
i 1938 

11937 

11938 
11937 
(1938 
11937 

i 1938 
11937 


; 


Outward. 



i 

First 

Second 
and Cabin 

Tourist 

Third 

Total. 

Class. 

Class. 

Class. 

Class. 


13,962 

11,131 

8,713 

12,252 

46,058 

13,092 

11,459 

9,949 

12,917 

47,417 

19,950 

5,510 

20,687 

1,142 

47,289 

17,739 

7,056 

18,592 

1,569 

44,956 

62 

no 

137 

52 

361 

55 

12 

42 

4 

113 

12,267 

13,728 

42,540 

36,597 

25,020 

116,424 

49,535 

43,254 

29,798 

136,315 

1 2,030 

7 

— 

— 

2,037 

2,177 

10 

— 

— 

2,187 

72 

2,292 

6,306 

9,479 

18,149 

52 

2,520 

6,928 

9,099 

18,599 

— 

23 

154 

602 

799 

— 

36 

218 

746 

1,000 

48 

602 

1,158 

1,689 

2,398 

4,206 

20 

836 

2,865 

5,410 

4,598 

939 

47 

162 

5,746 

4,512 

999 

122 

199 

5,832 

52,989 

63,154 

73,799 

51,107 

241,049 

’ 51,375 

72,463 

80,794 

57,197 

261,829 


Note. —The figures given in the above tables are exclusive of persons 
travelling on pleasure cruises between the United Kingdom and places out 
of Europe, as particulars of the class of travel of these passengers are not 
required to be furnished. 

Of the total of 462,748 passengers outward and inward in 1938, 44 
per cent, were recorded at Southampton, 20 per cent, at London, and 16 
per cent, at Liverpool, as compared with percentages of 48, 18 and 16, 
respectively in 1937. The predominance of Southampton as a passenger 
port was not, therefore, quite so marked in 1938 as in the two preceding 
years. 

Glasgow accounted for about 8| per cent, of the total in 1938, and ']\ 
per cent, in 1937. About 29,000 passengers disembarked at Plymouth 
both in 1938 and 1937, "^^he proportion of the total inward passengers rising 
from 12 to 13 per cent. 

Of the numbers travelling on pleasure cruises to places outside Europe, 
about three-quarters in both years embarked at Southampton or Liverpool, 
and most of the remainder at London. 




























237 


Class of Travel.— The aggregate number of passengers (outward 
and inward) travelling in the tourist and the third class represented about 
31 and 22 per cent, respectively of the total traffic both in 1937 1938. 

The proportion in the first class was rather greater in the latter year 
(22 per cent, as against 20 per cent.), while there was a corresponding 
change in the opposite direction in the proportion travelling second and 
cabin class (25 per cent, as against 27 per cent.) 

Passengers Travelling in Foreign Ships. 

Non-European Countries. 

The number of outward and inward passengers (British and aliens) 
who travelled between the United Kingdom and places outside Europe by 
vessels under foreign flags in 1938 was 88,179, or 17.4 per cent, of the total 
passenger movement, as compared with the record number and proportion 
(103,169, 18.3 per cent.) in 1937. Excluding persons travelling on pleasure 
cruises, the proportion carried by vessels under foreign flags was about 
20 per cent, in 1937, ^9 cent, in 1938. The increase in the pro¬ 

portion of passengers travelling in foreign ships—it was about 81 - per cent, 
in 1927 and 1928—has been due in part to an absolute decline, largely 
associated with the emigrant traffic, in the numbers travelling in British 
ships, and in part to some increased preference for travel in the large 
German and French liners. The latter was not, however, the case in 1937 
or 1938, and the reductions in numbers and proportion travelling in 
foreign ships last year was due, primarily, to the smaller number of 
passengers in German and French liners. 

Passenger Movement between the United Kingdom and the Continent. 

For the present purpose, movement to and from the Channel Islands and 
all ports within the Mediterranean Sea is grouped with movement to and 
from the “ Continent ” ; and the latter expression is used with that 
connotation throughout this section. It may be noted that the passenger 
movement, by ship direct, between the United Kingdom and ports on the 
IMediterranean and Black Sea is only about per cent, of the total 
movement between the United Kingdom and the Continent, as above 
defined. Some information as to the passenger traffic with the Channel 
Islands is given in table IV. 

The following table shows the number of passengers of all nationalities 
who left the United Kingdom for the Continent, and the number who arrived 
in the United Kingdom from the Continent, including the numbers travelling 
on pleasure cruises to the Mediterranean and to other parts of Europe, in 
each of the years 1936, 1937, and 1938, distinguishing the number of persons 
who travelled by sea and by air, and showing the principal British ports of 
arrival and departure. 


238 


TABLE IV. 

Passengers by Sea and Air between the United Kingdom 
AND THE Continent (including the Channel Islands). 


Port. 


Outward. 



Inward. 



1936. 

1937. 

1938. 

1936. 

1937. 

1938. 

Principal Channel 
Ports ;— 







Dover ... 

494,128 

632,025 

255,815 

569,025 

478,303 

603,929 

548,125 

Folkestone 

179,848 

249,423 

216,864 

302,322 

285,281 

Southampton * 

158,756 

170,678 

174,674 

162,425 

180,195 

179,703 

Newhaven 

113,038 

190,475 

193,068 

119,026 

187,336 

190,195 

Weymouth 

55,832 

62,716 

65,399 

51,999 

57,187 

59,874 

Other Ports :— 







Harwich 

188,151 

211,882 

196,552 

187,676 

213,691 

201,981 

Rochester 

56,849 

106,931 

117,374 

56,440 

107,600 

115,151 

London 

58,348 

59,717 

56,808 

64,530 

66,163 

62,159 

Shoreham 

24,747 

24,821 

25,535 

22,725 

24,642 

26,139 

Tyne Ports 

21,771 

22,941 

28,171 

21,971 

23,582 

29,173 

Hull . 

13,221 

15,695 

15,585 

13,716 

16,517 

16,776 

Other ... 

43,518 

34,370 

37,284 

44,156 

33,280 

36,796 

Air Stations t 

86,612 

95,274 

99,347 

92,628 

100,641 

108,241 

First Quarter 

143,099 

210,192 

178,211 

155,807 

210,998 

200,691 

Second Quarter ... 

344,283 

391,448 

426,249 

346,211 

397,155 

419,403 

Third Quarter 

808,795 

1,056,813 

1,015,808 

842,496 

1,093,478 

1,051,056 

Fourth Quarter ... 

198,672 

224,887 

207,977 

187,945 

215,454 

188,444 

Total ... 

1,494,849 

1,883,340 

1,828,245 

1,532,459 

1,917,085 

1,859,594 


* Including the numbers of passengers embarked or landed off Cowes, 
t As reported by the Air Ministry. 


Traffic at Individual Ports.- —The five ports on the English Channel 
which are separately specified in the above table accounted for about 68 per 
cent, of the entire passenger movement to and from the Continent in 1938, 
while 30 per cent, of the outward and inward passengers embarked or 
disembarked at the port of Dover alone. Of the total decrease in the num¬ 
bers travelling in 1938 as compared with 1937, ^ 3 -^ ^tie largest reduction 

(119,000 occurred at Dover, but there were also substantial decreases in 
the traffic at Folkestone (23,400) and Harwich (27,000), and a smaller 
decline at London (6,900). The increase of 18,000 recorded for Rochester 
is almost wholly in respect of the number of cheap day and week-end trips 
made to the Continent via Southend, Margate, Ramsgate and East Coast 
ports, while the numbers shown under Shoreham, which increased by about 
2,200, relate to pleasure trips from Brighton, Eastbourne and Hastings. 
Passenger movement via the Tyne ports increased by 10,800, and the 
figure for “other” ports showed an increase of 6,400; there were also 
increases at Newhaven (5,500), Weymouth (5,400) and Southampton (3,500) 
but little change in the numbers travelling via Hull. 













































239 


The number of passengers who were carried to and from Calais and 
Boulogne via Dover and Folkestone showed a decrease of about 17,500 
outward and of 14,600 inward in 1938 as compared with 1937, 'the figures 
being as follows :— 

Outward. Inward. 

1937- 1938. 1937- 1938- 

473.921 456,393 479,434 464,828 


The numbers of passengers who were carried to and from the Channel 
Islands via Southampton and Weymouth by sea, and the numbers carried by 
air, in 1937 ^.nd 1938 were as follows :— 


Port. 

Outward. 

Inw 

^ard. 

1937 - 

1938. 

1937. 

1938. 

Southampton 

... 89,028 

87,611 

92,029 

90,826 

Weymouth 

... 60,193 

60,739 

54.291 

55.216 

Air Stations* 

••• > 15.735 

16,683 

18,088 

18,497 


*As reported by the Air Ministry. 


Traffic to and from the Channel Islands by sea and air was about the 
same in the aggregate in 1938 as in 1937, “the numbers travelling by sea 
decreasing by 1,149, and those carried by air increasing by 1,357. 












RETURN OF SHIPS’ TONNAGE, PASSENGER ARRIVALS, Etc., for THE YEARS, 1929-1938. 


240 



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CP 

CP 

CP 

CP 

CP 



M 

M 

H 

H 

M 

H 

H 

H 

H 

H 


The above figures include Troops and Passengers arriving by H.M. Transports. 
























241 

INFECTIOUS DISEASE. 

The cases of infectious disease reported by vessels on arrival 
at Southampton are shown in Table VII, which includes all cases 
reported on the bills of health on both H.M. Transports and other 
vessels. 

Many of the cases reported on Transports were cases from 
India, China, and the Mediterranean stations, and these cases 
proceeded to Netley Hospital or Haslar Hospital for discharge, 
on furlough, or otherwise. 

The following table shows the disposal of cases of infectious 
diseases landed at this Port, and to which of the Town Council’s 


Hospitals the case was removed 

Cases 

Notified. 

Cases removed to 
Isolation Borough 

Hospital. Hospital. 

Chicken Pox 

26 

12 

— 

Diphtheria ... 

7 

5 

— 

Dysentery ... 

Enteric Fever and Para-Typhoid 

II 

' 

' " 

Fever 

13 

5 

— 

Influenza 

13 

— 

— 

Erysipelas ... 

2 

I 

— 

Measles 

121 

34 

— 

Mumps 

15 

3 

— 

Malaria 

29 

— 

4 

Pneumonia 

33 

— 

8 

Pyrexia of unknown origin ... 

10 

I 

2 

Scarlet Fever 

7 

2 

— 

Tonsillitis 

31 

I 

12 

Trachoma 

2 

— 

I 

Tuberculosis 

172 

— 

9 

Venereal Disease 

161 

— 

22 

Whooping Cough 

12 

3 

— 

Totals 

665 

67 

58 


In addition, three cases of Measles ex trains, refused per¬ 
mission to embark, removed to Isolation Hospital. 

The above cases are included in the total of infectious cases 
reported by vessels which arrived in the Port shown in Tables 
VII and VIII. 


Q 








.,242 

OTHER INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 

As requested by the Ministry of Health last year, all 
refugees from Spain are subjected to medical inspection, and 
the same method has been continued. 

The number of passengers examined was :— 

Passengers. 
British. Alien. 

From Lisbon, etc., Marseilles and Havre ... 883 224 

From Spain ... ... ... ... ... 211 90 


DANGEROUS DRUGS. 

No certificates were issued under the Dangerous Drugs (3) 
Regulations, 1923, during the year under review. 


TUBERCULOSIS AMONGST SEAMEN. 

As in previous years, a record has been kept of the cases of 
tuberculosis amongst seamen arriving at this Port. Nine of the 
cases were distressed British seamen ; the remainder occurred 
in the ships’ personnel who had signed on as members of the 
ships’ crew. 

Approximately 42 per cent, of this number occurred amongst 
the seamen and engine room ratings ; the remaining 56 per cent, 
occurred amongst the catering department. 

Below is a table showing the distribution and type of 


tuberculosis reported amongst the ships’ personnel:— 


Rating. 

Pulmonary. Non-Pulmonary. 

Total. 

Deck Department— 

Seamen (D.B.S.) 

2 

• • • • • • 

2 

Deck Boy 

I 

• • • • • • 

I 

Catering Department— 

Steward (D.B.S.) 

5 

« • • • • * 

5 

Pantryman 

I 

• • • • • • 

I 

Waiter ... 

I 

• • • « ♦ • 

I 

Laundryman 

I 

... — 

I 

Engine Room Staff— 

Fireman 

... — 

• « • 31 • • • 

I 

Fireman (D.B.S.) 

2 

• • • • • • 

2 

Total 

13 

I 

14 


243 


SUSPECTED CASE OF CHOLERA. 

One of the Imperial Airways’ liners arrived at Southampton 
on Sunday, the 14th August. The Boarding Medical Officer was 
present when the flying-boat arrived, but no report of any sickness 
was given to him by the captain. But, on the 17th August, a local 
doctor reported a suspected case of cholera in a man who worked 
as a steward on this air liner. A direct film of the faeces showed 
that there were vibrios present, so the patient was removed to 
the Isolation Hospital. The Ministry of Health were informed, 
and one of their medical officers visited the patient and took 
specimens of the faeces. The organisms were found after culture 
to be of a non-pathological group. The patient was kept in 
hospital until complete recovery. 

In previous annual reports I have drawn attention to the 
grave danger of major infectious diseases being introduced into 
this country as a result of persons travelling by air. Although 
the case referred to above may not appear very alarming, yet an 
outbreak of cholera in this country would give rise to alarming 
consequences, and this suspected case shows how necessary it is 
for the Port Medical Officers to be particularly careful in their 
examination when a person arrives on a flying-boat who may 
only be slightly ill. 

As a result of this occurrence, a complete set of forms has 
been introduced for use by the Imperial Airways when passengers 
arrive from foreign ports. They are to be used by each aircraft. 
Form “ A ” is a declaration of health, to be signed by the Captain 
of the craft. Form " B ” has been drawn up with a view to 
ascertaining the passenger’s ultimate destination in this country, 
and also contains a list of the various places he has stayed in 
fourteen days previous to his arrival. The reason for the latter 
is because a passenger from India may land at, say, Marseilles or 
Alexandria, and then be conveyed by a different aeroplane from 
that port, so that it is useless to use the starting point of the 

aeroplane as a guide. 


244 


TABLE VIL INFECTIOUS AND OTHER DISEASES. 
Table showing the number of cases reported on vessels 
arriving in the Port of Southampton, and how they were dealt 
with during the year 1938 :— 


How DEALT WITH. 


Disease. 

Total Cases reported. 

Removed to Borough 
Hospitals or Nursing 
Homes. 

Removed to Naval 
or Military Hospitals. 

Landed at other 

Ports before arriving 

at Southampton. 

Proceeded in Vessels 

to other Ports. 

Landed at South¬ 

ampton, but did not 
proceed to Hospital. 

Died at Sea. 

Convalescent on 

Arrival. 

Accidents ... 

35 

16 


2 

6 

10 

I 

• • • 

Abscesses 

5 

3 



♦ • • 

2 

• • « 

« • • 

Alcoholism 

2 

2 



• * • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

Appendicitis 

19 

13 



I 

4 

I 

• • • 

Apoplexy 

16 

• • • 



I 

• • • 

15 

• • • 

Bronchitis 

15 

7 



• • • 

6 

2 

• • • 

Cancer 

14 

3 



• * • 

6 

5 

• • • 

Cellulitis ... 

8 

4 



I 

2 

I 


Cholera ... 

I 





• • • 

• • « 

I 

Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis 

2 

• • • 


2 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

Chicken Pox 

26 

12 


3 

4 

3 

• • • 

4 

Diabetes ... 

I 






I 

• « • 

Diarrhoea 

2 



... 

I 

I 

• • • 

• • • 

Diphtheria 

7 

5 


2 

• • • 

• ♦ « 

» » • 

• • • 

Dysentery 

II 

• • • 

6 

• • • 

I 

I 

• ♦ • 

3 

Eczema 

Enteric Fever and 

14 

I 

6 

... 

... 

6 

• • • 

I 

Para-Typhoid Fever 

13 

5 


5 

2 

• • • 

I 

• • • 

Erysipelas 

2 

I 


• • • 

• • • 

I 


• • • 

Gastritis ... 

12 

8 


2 

2 

• • • 

• ♦ • 

• • • 

Glandular Swellings 

2 



• • * 

I 

I 

» • • 


Heart Disease 

27 

4 


• • • 

I 

I 

21 

• • • 

Influenza 

13 


I 

• • • 

4 

I 

I 

6 

Insanity ... 

21 

9 

I 


I 

10 

• • • 

• • • 

Malaria ... 

29 

4 

12 

I 

3 

2 

7 

• • • 

Measles ... 

121 

34 

• • • 

43 

6 

4 


34 

Mumps ... 

15 

3 

• • • 

• • » 

5 

I 


6 

Nephritis... 

I 

I 

« ♦ • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 


• • • 

Pneumonia 

33 

II 

5 

2 

I 

3 

9 

2 

Paralysis 

2 

2 

« • • 

• • • 

• • • 




Pleurisy ... 

6 

3 

I 

* • • 

I 

I 



Poliomyelitis 

I 


I 

» • • 

• • • 

• « • 



Pyelitis ... 

2 

2 

• • * 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 



Pyrexia ... 

10 

6 

I 

2 

I 

• • • 



Rheumatism 

8 

I 

2 

• • • 

• • • 

4 

I 


Scarlet Fever 

7 

2 

... 

2 

2 



I 

Tonsillitis 

31 

13 

3 

... 

4 

8 


3 

Tuberculosis 

172 

12 

128 

5 

3 

23 

I 


Trachoma 

2 

2 






Venereal Disease 

161 

24 

27 

• • • 

39 

68 


3 

Whooping Cough 

12 

7 


• • • 


3 


2 

Other Diseases ... 

66 

26 

I 

... 

7 

21 

II 

• . . 

Totals 

947 

246 

195 

71 

98 

193 

78 

66 


























































245 

TABLE VIII. 

INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 


Reported on vessels arriving in the Port of Southampton during 

the 10 years 1929—1938 :— 


Disease. 

1929 

1930 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

1938 

Cerebro-Spinal 

Meningitis 

I 

4 

I 

• * • 

• •• 


• • • 

I 

I 

2 

Cholera 

• • • 

• * • 

• • • 

... 

• • • 

... 

• • • 

• • « 

... 

• • • 

Diphtheria 

10 

13 

12 

12 

3 

6 

9 

6 

7 

7 

Enteric Fever and 
Para-Typhoid Fever 

51 

27 

21 

20 

13 

13 

21 

15 

15 

13 

Measles 

40 

43 

28 

38 

29 

36 

48 

153 

41 

121 

Plague . 

• • • 

... 

• • • 

... 

... 

... 

... 

• • • 

... 

• • • 

Scarlet Fever 

13 

6 

10 

15 

6 

3 

17 

5 

6 

7 

Small Pox ... 

... 

• • • 

... 

4 

I 

• • • 

I 

... 

... 

... 

Tuberculosis ... 

137 

183 

133 

162 

149 

109 

109 

156 

137 

172 

Typhus Fever 

... 

• • • 

• • • 

... 

• • • 

... 

... 

... 

• • • 

• • • 


DEATHS AT SEA. 


Seventy-eight deaths at sea 

were reported to have occurred 

vessels on their voyage 

to Southampton : — 


Accidents 

I 

Heart Disease 

... 21 

Appendicitis ... 

I 

Influenza 

I 

Apoplexy 

15 

Malaria 

... 7 

Bronchitis 

2 

Pneumonia 

9 

Cancer 

5 

Rheumatism ... 

I 

Cellulitis 

I 

Tuberculosis ... 

I 

Diabetes 

I 

Other Diseases 

... II 

Enteric Fever or Para- 




Typhoid Fever 

I 




FUMIGATION OF VESSELS. 

Arrangements for the carrying out of fumigation of vessels 
as required under the Port Sanitary Regulations, 1933, are made 
by the Shipping Companies themselves, who employ hrms 
specialising in this class of work. The fumigation is supervised 
by the Port Health staff in order that the appropriate certihcate 
may be given. 

Details of the vessels fumigated will be found in the following 
table. 


































246 

TABLE IX 


FUMIGATION OF VESSELS. 

The following table gives particulars of the vessels fumigated 
under the supervision of the Port Health Authority. 


Date. 

Vessel. 

Fumigant used. 

Rats found 
after 

Fumigation. 

8/1/38 

"Asturias” 

H.C.N. Galardi 

Nil 

15/1/38 

"Duchess of Richmond” 

H.C.N. Zyklon 

Nil 

26/2/38 

"Almanzora” ... 

H.C.N. Galardi 

Nil 

19/3/38 

"Montcalm” 

H.C.N. Zyklon 

Nil 

28/5/38 

” Empress of Britain ”... 

H.C.N. Zyklon 

Nil 

12/6/38 

” Neuralia ” 

H.C.N. Liquid 

Nil 

14/6/38 

"Dilwara” 

H.C.N. Liquid 

Nil 

16/6/38 

” Dunera ” 

H.C.N. Liquid 

Nil 

20/8/38 

” Nevasa ” 

H.C.N. Liquid 

Nil 

12/11/38 

” Aquitania ” ... 

H.C.N. Liquid and Discs. 

Nil 

19/11/38 

" Empress of Britain ”... 

H.C.N. Zyklon... 

Nil 

19/11/38 

"Franconia” 

H.C.N. Liquid 

Nil 

3/12/38 

“Franconia” 

H.C.N. Liquid 

Nil 

3/12/38 

"Atlantis” 

H.C.N. Galardi 

Nil 



H.C.N. Galardi ... 3 




H.C.N. Liquid ... 6 



Total—14 Vessels. 

H.C.N. Zyklon ... 4 

Nil 



H.C.N. Liquid and 




Discs. ... ... I 



TRANSPORTS. 

Thirty-two transports arrived at Southampton during the 
year, and all vessels on the '' infected ’’ list were boarded and 
examined on arrival, in conjunction with the naval and military 
authorities at this Port. 

Details of the ships will be found in Table X on the following 
page. 

















247 

TABLE X 


Statement showing the number of H.M. Transports which 
arrived in the Port during the year 1938, the ports from which they 
arrived, and the number of military passengers and troops landed 
at Southampton. 


Date. 

Vessel. 

Whence. 

Crew. 

Troops and 
Passengers. 

7/1/38 

“ Nevasa ” 

Karachi 

235 

1,321 

12/1/38 

“ Dilwara ” ... 

Hong Kong ... 

207 

1,565 

18/1/38 

“ Neuralia ” ... 

Bombay 

238 

1,317 

24/1/38 

“California” 

Haifa 

321 

1,719 

3/2/38 

“ Somersetshire ” 

Karachi 

193 

1,479 

13/2/38 

“ Dilwara ” 

Alexandria ... 

209 

1,502 

20/2/38 

Dorsetshire ” 

Hong Kong ... 

198 

1,331 

25/2/38 

“ Lancashire ” 

Karachi 

214 

1,450 

7/3/38 

“ Nevasa ” 

Bombay 

237 

1,332 

17/3/38 

“ Dunera ” 

Shanghai 

207 

1,518 

17/3/38 

“Neuralia” ... 

Bombay 

237 

1,307 

20/3/38 

“ Dorsetshire ” 

Malta 

197 

1,471 

22/4/38 

“ Dorsetshire ” 

Alexandria ... 

195 

1,238 

25/4/38 

“Lancashire” 

Karachi 

213 

1,353 

5/5/38 

Nevasa 

Bombay 

234 

1,135 

5/5/38 

‘ ‘ Dilwara ” 

Hong Kong ... 

207 

1,423 

6/5/38 

“ Somersetshire ” 

Shanghai 

194 

1,236 

13/5/38 

“ Dunera ” 

Karachi 

208 

1,464 

15/5/38 

“ Neuralia ” ... 

Bombay 

239 

1,194 

21/5/38 

“Lancashire” 

Alexandria ... 

212 

472 

24/5/38 

“ Dorsetshire ” 

Alexandria ... 

195 

1,215 

30/7/38 

“ Lancashire ” 

Malta 

213 

978 

25/9/38 

" Nevasa ” 

Alexandria ... 

236 

1,208 

13/10/38 

“ Aquitania ” 

Port Said 

510 

623 

27/10/38 

“ Neuralia ” ... 

Haifa 

239 

930 

30/10/38 

“ Somersetshire ” 

Karachi 

195 

1,469 

9/11/38 

“ Dorsetshire ” 

Bombay 

196 

1,465 

4/12/38 

‘ ‘ Dilwara ” 

Singapore 

207 

1,557 

10/12/38 

"Lancashire” 

Chinwangtao 

215 

1,357 

15/12/38 

"Dorsetshire” 

Alexandria ... 

194 

1.473 

20/12/38 

"Nevasa” 

Karachi 

236 

1,330 

22/12/38 

“ Neuralia ” ... 

Karachi 

238 

1,300 


32 


7,269 

41,732 


DISINFECTION. 

Disinfection was carried out by the Port Health Authority 
on 68 vessels, and 4,355 articles of bedding and other effects, 
including three packages of passengers’ effects, were removed to 
the Disinfecting Station at West Quay or to the Isolation Hospital. 





























248 


Nine contacts with infectious disease were bathed and dis¬ 
infected at West Quay, and two on board ship. 


OIL TANKERS. 


During the year one hundred and sixty-six oil tankers 
arrived in Southampton Water to discharge or load oil fuel or 
spirit at the oil wharves at Fawley or Hamble. 

The vessels came from the following ports :— 


Abadan 

Aruba 

Aalborg 

Antwerp 

Amsterdam 

Ambes 

Algeria 

Baton Rouge 

Bayonne 

Batum ... 

Baytown 

Balik Papan 

Curacao 

Constanza 

Copenhagen 

Fecamp 

Gothenburg 

Ghent ... 

Goteborg 

Havre 


. ... ... 23 

Hamburg 

. 14 

Houston 

I 

. Helsingfors 

2 

La Guira 

I 

Las Piedras 

I 

Nyborg 

I 

Nantes 

I 

Odense 

. 3 

Port Arthur ... 

I 

Paulliac 

I 

Puerto Mexico 

I 

Rouen 

. 23 

Rotterdam 

. 4 

San Pedro 

2 

Singapore 

. ... ... I 

Sandefjord 

I 

Tampico 

. ... ... 2 

Trinidad 

I 

Talara ... 

. 7 

Total ... 


1 

2 
I 

4 

27 

1 

2 

I 

1 

2 

1 

2 

12 

4 

3 

I 

1 

7 

2 

166 























249 


General Summary of Inspections carried out by the Port Health 
Staff, and other Statistics, during the Year 1938. 

Steamers (from foreign) visited ... ... ... ... 1,468 

Motor vessels (from foreign) visited ... ... ... 469 

Sailing vessels (from foreign) visited ... ... ... i 

Flying boats (from foreign) visited ... ... ... 380 

Steamers (from coastwise) visited ... ... ... ... 596 

Motor vessels (from coastwise) visited ... ... ... 464 

Sailing vessels (from coastwise) visited ... ... ... 29 


Total steam, motor, sailing vessels and flying boats visited 3,407 


Number of British vessels visited ... ... ... ... 2,451 

Number of British vessels re-visited ... ... ... 2,494 

Number of foreign vessels visited ... ... ... ... 956 

Number of foreign vessels re-visited ... ... ... 271 

Total vessels visited 3,407. Total vessels re-visited 2,765 -- 

Total ... 6,172 


Number of vessels found in satisfactory sanitary condition 3,175 
Number of vessels found in defective sanitary condition 232 


Number of crew arriving (from foreign) ... ... ... 475,619 

Number of passengers arriving (from foreign), including 

troops ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 443,972 

Number of crew arriving (from coastwise) ... ... 34,091 

Number of passengers arriving (from coastwise) ... 52,464 


Total number of crew and passengers arriving (including 

troops) ... ... ... ... ... ... 1,006,146 

Number of passengers landed from 117 tenders in South¬ 
ampton Water ... ... ... ... ... ... 2,348 

Number of passengers landed from 296 tenders in Cowes 

Roads and Stokes Bay ... ... ... ... 20,920 


Total number of passengers landed from 413 tenders ... 23,268 


Total number of passengers landed from 380 flying boats 3,333 
Number of rats captured, examined, and destroyed ... 1,760 

Number of rats found on 70 vessels from plague-infected 

jpo rts ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ir 

Number of vessels on which Rat Orders were served ... 212 

Number of vessels where disinfection was carried out by 

the Port Health Authority ... ... ... ... 68 

Number of articles of bedding, etc., disinfected, inclnding 

20 packages of effects, etc. ... ... ... ... 4,355 

Number of contacts bathed and disinfected ... ... 9 

Specifications for rat-proofing work required on vessels 37 





















250 


TABLE XI. 


Showing number of vessels inspected, including re-visits, with 

percentage of defects. 


Year. 

Vessels from 
Foreign 
visited. 

Coasting 

Vessels 

visited. 

Total 

Inspections. 

Number 

found 

defective. 

Percentage 

defective. 

1929 

3,818 

670 

4,488 

92 

3-54 

1930 

3,923 

775 

4,698 

77 

2.78 

1931 

4,362 

1,357 

5,719 

99 

3-09 

1932 

4,140 

1,163 

5,303 

115 

3.16 

1933 

3,828 

1,409 

5,237 

126 

4.29 

1934 

3,726 

1,412 

5,138 

131 

4.39 

1935 

3,727 

1,264 

4,991 

108 

3.80 

1936 

4,171 

1,218 

5,389 

107 

3.66 

1937 

4,627 

1,078 

5,705 

201 

6.42 

1938 

4,968 

1,204 

6,172 

232 

6.80 


TABLE XII. 


Table showing the number of vessels visited, nationality, 
description, and number found defective during 1938, not 
including re-visits. 


Nationality. 

Steam. 

Motor. 

Sail. 

Flying 

Boats. 

Total. 

Defective. 

American 

71 

I 



72 


Argentine 

I 

• • • 



I 

« • • 

Belgian... 

14 

• • • 



14 

5 

British ... 

1,392 

650 

29 

380 

2,451 

198 

Danish ... 

9 

36 



45 

4 

Dutch ... 

54 

138 



192 

6 

Egyptian 

2 




2 

2 

Esthonian 

3 

• • • 



3 

I 

Finnish ... 

7 

... 



7 

2 

French ... 

83 

3 



86 

• • « 

German... 

372 

44 



416 

• • • 

Greek ... 

4 

I 



5 

3 

Italian ... 

2 

I 



3 

I 

Latvian 

2 

• • • 



2 

• • • 

Lithuanian 

2 




2 

• • • 

Norwegian 

20 

25 



45 

4 

Panamanian 

I 

7 



8 


Polish ... 

I 




I 

... 

Portuguese 

25 

• « • 



25 

3 

Roumanian 

I 

I 



2 


Russian 

I 




I 

I 

Swedish 

17 

5 



22 

I 

Yugo-Slav 

2 




2 

I 

Totals 

2,086 

912 

29 

380 

3,407 

232 













































251 

ALIENS’ ORDER, 1920. 

The introduction of the Aliens' Order in 1920 necessitated 
that a Medical Officer be available for duty when passengers 
conveyed by vessels are landed at the Port, Southampton 
being one of the approved ports at which aliens may land. 

Many aliens arrive from the Continent by Channel steamers 
which arrive daily in the summer months between 6 a.m. and 
7 a.m. ; other Steamship Companies who land aliens are the 
Royal Mail Lines, Cunard White Star, Union-Castle Company, 
etc., the vessels making regular calls at the Port, but at uncertain 
hours. 

The inspection of aliens is carried out on board the large 
vessels on their arrival, those aliens requiring a more detailed 
medical examination being sent ashore to a room specially 
provided in the Docks. 

The following figures show the amount of work carried out 
in connection with the inspection of aliens during the year : — 

I. (a) Total number of aliens (excluding alien seamen) 

landed at the Port ... ... ... ... 42,547 

(b) Aliens refused permission to land by the Immi¬ 

gration Officer ... ... ... ... 86 

(c) Transmigrants ... ... ... ... ... 1,180 

(d) Total number of aliens arriving in the Port ... 43,813 

(e) Number inspected by Medical Inspector ... 43,305 


(/) Number subjected to detailed examination 

by Medical Inspector ... ... ... 508 

2. Certificates issued :— 

{a) Lunatic, idiot, or mentally defective ... ... 6 

{b) Undesirable for medical reasons ... ... i 

(c) Physically incapacitated ... ... ... ... — 

{d) Suffering from acute infectious disease ... ... 9 

(e) Landing necessary for adequate medical 

examination ... ... ... ... ... — 

(/) Transmigrants ... ... ... ... ... i 


3. (a) Total number of vessels carrying alien passengers 1,496 

(^) Number of such vessels dealt with by Medical 

Inspector ... ... ... ... ... 1,272 





252 

TABLE A. 


Analysis of aliens landed. 


Residents returning ... 

• • • • • • 

1,809 

In transit 

• • • • • • 

••• 4,873 

Visitors 

• • • • • • 

... 29,165 

Business 

• • • • • • 

... 4,107 

Diplomatic 

• • • • • • 

497 

Seamen 

• • • • • • 

106 

Contract seamen 

• • • • • • 

438 

Ministry of Labour Permit (M.L.) :— 

{a) Males 

• • • • • • 

406 

(h) Females 

* * * • • • 

589 

(c) Children 

• • • • • • 

54 

Aliens coming to settle not holding M.L. permits :— 
{a) Males 

418 

(&) Females 

• • • • • • 

417 

(c) Children 

• • • • • • 

212 


TABLE B. 

Classification of aliens referred to the Medical Inspector by the 
Immigration Officer for detailed examination. 

(i) Holding Ministry of Labour permits ... ... i86 

(ii) Intending to take up employment and remain in the 

country over three months ... ... ... —■ 

(iii) Intending to make their home in the country ... — 

(iv) Students coming for educational purposes ... ... — 

(v) In regard to whom there is any mention of health as 

a reason for their visit ... ... ... ... 4 

(vi) Who appear to the Immigration Officer:— (a) Not 

to be in robust health ; (h) to be mentally or 
physically abnormal or sub-normal; (c) to be 
dirty in their person, or {d) are selected for 


special reasons ... ... ... ... ... 66 

(vii) Seamen travelling as passengers ... ... ... 9 

(viii) Number of certificates issued... ... ... ... 17 


Certificates issued in respect of alien members of ships’ 

crew who are landed for hospital treatment, etc. 18 












253 


INDEX. 


BOROUGH REPORT. 

PAGE. 

Air Raid Precautions Medical Services 

9-10 

Ambulance 

20 

Analyst ... 

21 

Ante-natal Clinics 

. 54. 62 

Births 

26-27 

Birth Control Clinic 

62 

Borough Hospital 

18, 118-126 

Cancer ... 

14,113-115 

Cerebro-Spinal Fever ... 

. 75 

Clinics 

. 20 

Cod Liver Oil, Grant of 

. 65-66 

Common Lodging Houses 

170 

Consultant Services 

. 54 

Deaths ... 

. 27-39 

Diphtheria 

. 75 

Disinfecting Station 

167 

Dispensing 

. 5 « 

Drainage and Building Bye-laws 

... 168-169 

Factories Act, 1937 

... 178-181 

Factory and Workshop Acts ... 

182, 184-185 

Food Inspection 

170 

Food and Drugs (Adulteration) Act, 1928 

. 173-176 

General Advice to Mothers 

62 

General Observations (Medical Officer of Health) ... 7-12 

Gynaecological Clinics ... 

61-62 

Health Committee 

. 3 

Health Services 

18-22 

Health Visiting 

. 64-65 

Home Helps 

. 47-48 

Home Nursing ... 

. 49 

Houses Erected 

160 

Houses let in Lodgings ... ... 

169 

Housing ... 

...11-12, 154-164 

Housing Committee 

. 4 

Infant Clinics ... 

60 

Infantile ^lortality 

. 40 

Infectious Diseases 

21, 72-75 

Inspection of Meat 

170 

Insurance Scheme 

. 42-43 

Isolation Hospitals 

18, 127-132 

Laboratories 

. 133-134 

Lectures 

. 44 

Local Acts 

21 

Manufacture of Ice Cream 

. 186-193 























254 


INDEX—continued. 

Maternal Mortality 


PAGE, 

14 

Maternity and Child Welfare ... 


19, 42-69 

Maternity and Child Welfare Committee 


3 

Maternity Unit 


••• i9> 54 

Mental Deficiency Acts, 1913-1927 ... 


... 136-138 

Mental Dehciency Acts Committee ... 


4 

Mental Treatment Act, 1930 ... 


... 138-140 

Mental Welfare Association, The 


... 140-141 

Merchandise Marks Act, 1926 


168 

Meteorological Summary 


15 

Midwives ... ... .... 


21 

Midwives’ Act, 1936 


... 46-47 

Midwives’ Fees ... 


47 

Milk—Free 


... 65-66 

Milk (Special Designations) Order, 1936 


178 

Milk Supply 


177 

Mortuary 


22 

Nursing Homes Registration Act, 1927 


21, 48 

Offensive Trades 


169 

Ophthalmia Neonatorum 


••• 51-53 

Orthopaedic Clinic and Treloar’s Hospital 


66-69 

Population 


14 

Post Natal Clinic 


62 

Public Health (Meat) Regulations, 1924 


... 171-173 

Public Health (Shell Fish) Regulations, 1934 

177 

Puerperal Pyrexia 


... 49-50 

Rag Flock Acts, 1911 and 1928 


... 182-183 

Rats and Mice Destruction Act, 1919 


... 167-168 

Sale of Dried Milk at Cost Price 


66 

Sanitary Circumstances of District ... 


... 23-24 

Sanitary Inspection 


... 166-167 

Scarlet Fever 


74 

Shops Acts, 1912 to 1936 


183 

Slaughterhouses 


... 170-171 

Slaughter of Animals Act, 1933 


171 

Small Pox 


74 

Small Pox Hospital 


19 

Southampton Crematorium ... 


... 146-147 

Staff of Public Health Department ... 


5-6 

Statistical Summary ... 


... 13-14 

Still Births 


50-51 

Supervision of Foster Children 


65 

Survey of the Deaf-Blind in Southampton 


... 147-152 

Tuberculosis 

II, 

14, 19, 86-112 

Vaccination 

• • * 

... 144-145 

Venereal Diseases 

• • • 

10, 78-84 











255 


INDEX—continued. page. 

\"oluntary Hospitals ... ... ... ... ... 19 

Water Supply ... ... ... ... ... ... 23-24 

Welcomes ... ... ... ... ... ... 57-60 

Work carried out under Southampton Corporation 

Acts and Bye-laws ... ... ... ... 169 


X-Ray and Electrical Department, Borough Hospital 125-126 


PORT HEALTH REPORT. 

Part I. 


Food Inspection 

. 219-233 

Hygiene of Crews’ Spaces 

... 217-218 

Infectious Diseases 

... 210-211 

Limits of Jurisdiction 

... 197-198 

Port Medical Officer’s Observations ... 

. 197-199 

Port Sanitary Regulations, 1933 

... 202-208 

Psittacosis 

209 

Measures against Rodents 

... 212-216 

Shipping entering the Port 

200 

Staff of the Port Health Authority ... 

196 

Trade of the Port 

201 

Water Supply, Source of 

... 201-202 

Part II. 


Aliens’ Order, 1920 

. 251-252 

Dangerous Drugs 

. 242 

Deaths at Sea ... 

. 245 

Disinfection 

... 247-248 

Food Stuffs condemned 

. 233 

Fumigation of Vessels 

. 245-246 

Infectious Diseases 

241-242, 244-245 

Inspections carried out 

. 249-250 

Oil Tankers 

00 

Other Diseases ... 

. 242, 244 

Passenger Traffic 

. 234-240 

Suspected Case of Cholera 

. 243 

Transports 

. 246-247 

Tuberculosis amongst Seamen 

. 242 

























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