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Full text of "The natural history of chocolate : being a distinct and particular account of the cocoa-tree, its growth and culture, and the preparation, excellent properties, and medicinal vertues of its fruit. Wherein the errors of those who have wrote upon this subject are discover'd; the best way of making chocolate is explain'd; and several uncommon medicines drawn from it, are communicated"

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Natural HISTORY 

C F 


- \ 


A Diftindt and Particular Account 

of the Coco a-Tree, its Growth 
and Culture, and the Preparation, Ex¬ 
cellent Properties, and Medicinal Vir¬ 
tues of its Fruit. 

Wherein the Errors of thofe who have wrote 
upon this Subject are difcover’d ; the Belt 
Way of Making Chocolate is explain’d ; 
and feveral Uncommon Medicines drawn 
from it, are communicated. 

---- - « -—i. 

5 tranflated from the lafi Edit i o n of the French, 
By R • BROOKES , M.D. 

The Second Edition. 


Printed for D. Bro wne, jim r . at the Black-Swan 
without Temple-Bar» M.dcc.xxv. 

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F the Merit of a Natural 
Hiftory depends upon the 
Frath of the Fa els which 
are brought to fupport it, 
then an unprejudiced Eye- 
Witnefs is more proper to 
write it, than any other F erf on ; and l 
dare even flatter myfelf that this will 
not be difagrecable to the Fublick, not - 
withflanding its Fefemblance to the par- 
. ticular Ereatifcs of Colmenero (i), Du- 
four (2), and feveral others who have 
wrote upon the fame Subjetl. Upon ex¬ 
amination, fo great a difference will 
appear , that no one can juftly accufe me 

(1) Be Chocoîatâ Indâ. 

^2) Du The, du CafFe, & du Chocolat. 

A 2 of 

iv F R E F A C E. 

of having borrow'd any thing from thefi 

This fmall Treatife is nothing hut the 
Suhftance and He fuit of the Observations 
that I made in the American Iflands, du¬ 
ring the fifteen Tears which I was obliged 
to fiay there, upon the account of his 
Majefif s Service, The great Trade they 
drive there in Chocolate, excited my Cu • 
riofity to examine more fir Oily than or¬ 
dinary into its Origin, Culture, ‘Proper¬ 
ties, and Ujes. I was not a little fur- 
prized when I every day difeovefd\ as 
to the Nature of the Plant, and the 
Cufioms of the Country , a great Number 
of Fails contrary to the Ideas , and Pre¬ 
judices, for which the Writers on this 
Subjeil have given room. 

For this reafon, I refolved to examine 
'every thing myfelf, and to reprefetit no¬ 
thing but as it really was in Nature, to 
advance nothing but what I had experi¬ 
enced, a?td even to doubt of the Experi¬ 
ments the/nflives, till I had repeated them 
with the utmoft Exaffinefs. Without thefe 
Precautiotzs, there can be no great Dé¬ 
pendance 071 the greateft Part of the 
Fails, which are prodziced by thofe who 
write zipozz any Hifiorical Matter from 
Me?norandums ; which, from the Nature 
of the Sub]ell, they cannot fully compre¬ 


P R ET AC E. y 

As for my Reafonings upon the Na¬ 
ture, Vermes, and ÎJfes of Chocolate, 
perhaps they may be fufpeÛed by form 
“People, becaufe they relate to an Art 
\which I do not profefs ; but let that be 
as it will, the Falls upon which they are 
founded arc certain, and every one is 
at liberty to make what other Inferences 
they like heft. 

As there are federal Names of Plants, 
and Perms of Art ufed in thofe Countries, 
which I have been obliged to make ufe of, 
and which it was jtccejfary to explain 
fomewbat at large, that they might be 
rightly under food ; rather than make 
frequent PHgreffions, and interrupt the 
jDifcourfe, I have thought fit to number 
thefe Perms, and to explain them at the 
lind of this Preatife : the Reader mufi 
therefore look forward for thofe Remarks 
under their particular Numbers. 



The Firfb Part. 

H A P. I. The "Defer iption 
of the Cocao-Tree. Pag. 2 

Chap. II. Of the Choice 

and Difpofition of the Place 
to plant a Nurfery. 10 

Chap. III. Of the Method of "Planting a 
Nurfery , and of its Cultivation, till 
the 'fruit comes to Maturity. 16 

Chap. IV. Of the gathering the Cocao- 
Nuts, and of the Manner of making 
the Kernels fweat , and alfo of drying 
them that they may he transported into 

Europe. 2 4 


The T A B L E. 


The Second Part. 

* V ^ y r ^ 

Of the ‘Properties of Chocolate . 38 

#• , • . , • — i a - t \ v.. . vi .~ - - - 

Chap. I. Of the old Prejudices againft 
Chocolate. ' . 3 9 

'•A'O.O ■ V. > ' C\. \v) * \? ' . ; '.',3 i 

Chap. II. ( 9 / the real Properties of Cho¬ 
colate. 44 

; . ' ■ 

Sect. I. Chocolate is very Temperate. 45 

Sea. H. Chocolate is very notirijhing, and 
of eafy ‘Digejiion. 47 

Sea. III. Chocolate fpeedily repairs the 
» diffipated Spirits and decayed Strength. 


Sea. IV. Chocolate is very proper to pre- 
ferve Health, and to prolong the Life 

•*- of old Men. 5 6 

The Third Part. 

Of the IJfes of Chocolate. 60 

Chap. I. Of Chocolate iti Confections. 6 1 

Chap. II. Of Chocolate properly fo called. 


Sea. I. Of the Origin of Chocolate, and 
the different Methods of preparing it. 




viii The TABLE. 

■* *> ... 't- - > • • 

The Method of preparing Chocolate ufed 
in the French Iflands <?/America. 67 

* i - :w « *> . ’• * • 

Sc â. II. Of the Ufa that may he made 
of Chocolate, with relation to Medicine. 


Chap. III. Of the Oil or 'Butter of Cho¬ 
colate. 74 

Remarks upon fome Rlaces of this Tr.ea- 
tife. 80 

% « f - ' » . : 

Medicines in whofe Compofition Oil ? or 
gutter of Chocolate, is made ufe of 91 

* - ■■ ' 1 T 

[fhe wonderful Tlaifter for the curing of 
all Kinds of Ulcers* ibid. 

An excellent ç Pomatum for the Cure of 
! Tettars , Ringworms, Pwiples , atid 
other deformities of the Skin* 94 

The Approbation of Monfieor An- 
dry, Gounfelior, Ledurer, and Regal 
Profeffor, Do&or, Regent of the Fa¬ 
culty of Medicine at Paris , and Cenfor 
Royal of Books. 

J Have read , by order of the Lord Keeper of the 
■* Seals, this Natural Hi (lory of Chocolate, 
and 1 judge that the Imprefion will be very necejfary 
and ujeful for the Publick. Given at Paris thi$ 5 th 
of April. 1719» 

T H E 



Natural HISTORY 

O F 


Of the Dev if on of this Treatife. 

Shall divide this Treatife on 
Chocolate into three Parts : 
In the Firft , after I have 
given a Defcription of the 
Cocao Tree, I fhall explain 
how it is cultivated, and 
give an Account how its Fruit is pre¬ 
pared : In the Seco7id , I fhall fpeak of the 
Properties of Chocolate ; and in the T 'bird* 
of its Ufes. 



1 The Natural History 


The Defcription of the Cocao-Tree. 

H E Cocao-'Tree is moderately tall 
and thick, and either thrives, or 
not, according to the Quality of 
the Soil wherein it grows : Upon 
the Coaft of Caraqua , for inftance, it 
grows confiderably larger than in the 
Iflands belonging to the Fre?ich . 

Its Wood is porous, and very light ; the 
T>arh is pretty firm, and of the Colour of 
Cinnamoii , more or lefs dark, according 
to the Age of the Tree. The Leaves are 
about nine Inches long, and four in breadth, 
where they are broadeft ; for they grow 
lefs towards the two Extremities, where 
they terminate in a point : their Colour 
is a little darkifh, but more bright above 
than underneath ; they are joined to Stalks 
three Inches long, and the tenth part of 
an Inch broad. This Stalk, as it enters 
the Leaf, makes a lirait Rib, a little rai¬ 

o/ Chocolate. 3 

fed along the Middle, which grows pro* 
portionably lefs the nearer it comes to 
the End. From each fide of this Rib pro¬ 
ceed thirteen or fourteen crooked Threads 

As thefe Leaves only fall off fucceffiver 
ly, and in proportion as others grow again, 
this Tree never appears naked ; It is al¬ 
ways flouriftnng, but more efpecially fo 
towards the two Soljiices , than in the 
other Seafons. 

The 'BloJJojnSy which are regular and 
like a Rofe, but very fmall, and without 
fmell, proceed from the Places from which 
the old Leaves fall, as it were in Bunches. 
A large Quantity of thefe fall off, for 
hardly Ten of a Thoufand come to good, 
infomuch that the Earth underneath feems 
cover’d over with them. 

Every ç BloJJ'om is joined to the Tree by 
a ilender Stalk half an Inch or a little 
more in length ; when it is yet in the 
Bud, it is one Fifth of an Inch broad, and 
about one fourth or a little more in 
length : when it was lead, in proportion 
to the Tree and the Fruit, the more 
ltrange it appeared to me, and more wor¬ 
thy of Attention (a)> 

■ l ■■ 1 ■■ ■ i | 111 j i n mi ——i ■ u i ——— i ■■■■ ■ ■ ■ ■■■ " , 

(a) Pifo fays (Montiff. Aromat. cap. iS.) that the Blof - 
forn is great and of a bright Yellow y Flos eft magnus & Ha¬ 
ve fcens inftar Croci. A modern Author has tranfribed this 
fLrror of Pifo; Floribus, fays he y magnis pentapetalis & fla- 
vis. Dale Pharmacologist, Pag. 441. 

B 2 When 

4 The Natural History 

When the Buds begin to blow, one 
may confider the Calix y the Foliage , and 
the Heart of the Bloffom. The Calix is 
formed of the Cover of the Bud, divided 
into five Parts, or Leaves, of a very pale 
flelh-colour. Thefe are fucceeded by the 
five true Leaves of the fame Colour, 
which fill up the empty Spaces or Par¬ 
titions of the Calix . Thefe Leaves have 
two Parts, the undermoft of which is like 
an oblong Cup, ftriped with Purple; on the 
infide, it bends towards the Center by 
the help of a Stamen , which ferves to 
fallen it ; from this proceeds outwardly, 
the other Part of the Leaf, which feems 
to be feparate from it, and is formed like 
the End of a Pike. 

The Heart is compofed of five Threads 
and five Stamina , with the Tijlilla in 
the middle. The Threads are lirait, and 
of a purple Colour, and placed over- 
againll the Intervals of the Leaves. The 
Stamina are white, and bend outwardly 
with a kind of a Button on the top, 
which infinuates itfelf into the middle of 
each Leaf to fuftain itfelf. 

When one looks at thefe final! Objects 
through aMicrofcope, one is ready to fay, 
That the Point of the Threads is like Sil¬ 
ver, and that the Stamina are Chryftal ; 
as well as the Viftitta, which Nature 
feems to have placed in the Center, either 


of Chocolate. 5 

to be the Primitive of the young Fruit, 
or to ferve to defend it, if it be true that 
this Embryo unfolds itfelf, and is pro¬ 
duced in no other place but the Baie. 

For want of obferving thefefmall Parts, 
as well as the Bulk of the Bioffom, K 
Plumier had no diftinct Knowledge of 
them, nor has he exaTly defignM them, 
any more than Monf. Emr ne fort, who has 
done them after his Draught ( b)• 

The Cocao-Erec almoft ail the Year 
bears Fruit of all Ages, which ripen fuc- 
ceffively, but never grow on the end of 
little Branches, as our Fruits in Europe 
do, but along the Trunk and the chief 
Boughs, which is not rare in thefe Coun¬ 
tries, where feveral Trees do the like; 
fuch as the (i) Cocoeiers, the ( t ) Apri¬ 
cots of St. Dotningo , the (3) CalebaJIjes 9 
the (4) Papaws, &c. 

Such an unufual Appearance would 
feem ft range in the Eyes of Europeans , 
who had never feen any thing of that 
kind -, but if one examines the Matter a 
little, the philofophical Reafon of this 
Difpofition is very obvious. One may eafi- 
ly apprehend, that if Nature had placed 
* fuch bulky Fruit at the Ends of the 
Branches, their great Weight muft necef- 

(1 b ) Appen. Rci Herbariæ. fag. 660. tab. 444. 

(0(2) (3) (4) See the Remarks at the End of this Treatife* 


• 6 The Natural History 

farily break them, and the Fruit would 
fall before it came to Maturity. 

The Fruit of the Cocao-Tree is contain¬ 
ed in a Husk or Shell, which from an ex¬ 
ceeding fmall Beginning, attains, in the 
fpace of four Months, to the Bignefs and 
Shape of a Cucumber ; the lower End is 
fharp and furrow’d length-ways like a 
Melon ( c ). 

This Shell in the firft Months is either 
red or white, or a Mixture of red and yel¬ 
low : This Variety of Colours makes three 
forts of Cocao-Trees , which have nothing 
elfe to diftinguifh them but this, which I 
do not think fufficient to make in reality 
three different kinds of Cocao-Nuts {d)> 

The Firft is of a dark vinous Red, chiefly 
on the fid es, which becomes more bright 
and pale as the Fruit ripens. 

The Second, which is the White, or 
rather is at firft of fopale a Green, that it 
may be miftaken for White ; by little and 

(c) Benzo fays they grow ripe In a TCear^ as well as others 
after him , Annuo Spatio maturcicit, Benzo memorante* 
Carol. Cluzio. /. c< Annuo juftam attingens Maturitatem 
Spatio. Franc, FLernavdes , apud Anton* Rech* In rtift. Xnd* 
Occidental, lib. 5. c. 1* 

(d) It feems hkely that the Spanifh Ah' hors who fay there 
are four Kinds of this at Mexico, have no better Foundation for 
the deference than this\ and AionJ. Tournefort had reafon to 
fay after Father Plumier, that he only knew one Kind of this 
Tree. Cacao Speciem Unicam novi. Append. Rei H§rb* 
pag. 660* 

of Chocolate. y 

little it aflumes a Citron Colour, which 
ftill growing deeper and deeper, at length 
becomes entirely yellow. 

The Third, which is Red and Yellow 
mix’d together, unites the Properties of 
the other two ; for as they grow ripe, 
the Red becomes pale, and the Yellow 
grows more deep. 

I have obferved that the white Shells 
are thicker and fhorter than the other, 
efpecially on the fide towards the Tree, 
and that thefe forts of Trees commonly 
bear moll. 

If one cleaves one of thefe Shells length¬ 
ways, it will appear almoft half an Inch 
thick, and its Capacity full of Chocolate 
Kernels ; the Intervals of which, before 
they are ripe, are fill’d with a hard white 
Subftance, which at length turns into a 
Mucilage of a very grateful Acidity : For 
this reafon, it is common for People to 
take fome of the Kernels with their Co¬ 
vers, and hold them in their Mouths, 
which is mighty refrefhing, and proper 
to quench Thirft. But they take heed of 
biting them, becaufe the Films of the Ker¬ 
nels are extreamdy bitter. 

When one nicely examines the inward 
Strudure of thefe Shells, and anatomizes, 
as it were, all their Parts ; one fhall find 
that the Fibres of the Stalk of the Fruit 
parting through the Shell, are divided into 


S The Natural History 

five Branches ; that each of thefe Branches 
is fubdivided into feveral Filaments, every* 
one of which terminates at the larger End 
of thefe Kernels, and all together refemble 
a Bunch of Grapes, containing from twenty* 
to thirty five fingle ones, or snore, ranged 
and placed in an admirable Order. 

I cannot help obfervirig here, what In- 
confiftency there is in the Accounts con¬ 
cerning the Number of Kernels in each 
Shell. ( e ) c Dampier<> for inlfance, fays 
there is commonly near a Hundred ; other 
Moderns (/) 60, 70 or 80, ranged like 
the Seeds of a Pomgranate. (g) ^Thomas 
Gage , 30 or 40 ; Cohunero ( h ) ïo or 12 ; 
and Ocxmelin (j) 10 »or 12, to 14, 

I can affirm, after a thoufand Tryals, 
that I never found more nor lefs than 
twenty five. Perhaps if one was to feek 
out the largeft Shells in the moft fruitful 
Soil, and growing on. the mold flourifhing 
Trees, one might find forty Kernels ; but 
as it is not likely oiae fhould ever meet 
with more, fo, on the other hand, it is not 

(1 e ) Anew Voyage round the World. ’Tom. I. Ch. 3. p. 69. 
(/) Pomet *s General Hijlory of Dnt gs y Book vii. Ch. xiv. 
pag. 205. Chômer* Abridgment of t tfual Plants . Valentin, 
Hift. Simplicium reform, lib. 2. 

(#) New Relation of the Eaft Indies. Tom. 1. Part 1. Ch. 19. 
(h) A curious Difcourfe upon Chocola te y by Ant. Colmenero 
de Cedefma, Phyfician and Chirurget n at Paris 1643. 

(0 The Rifiory of Adventures, Torn, 1* Pag. 423. 

/ pro- 

gf Chocolate. 9 

probable one Ihould ever find lefs than 
fifteen, except they are abortive, or the 
Fruit of a Tree worn out with Age in a 
barren Soil, or without Culture. 

When one takes off the Film that co¬ 
vers one of the Kernels, the Subftance of 
it appears ; which is tender, finooth, and 
inclining to a violet Colour, and is feem- 
ingly divided into lèverai Lobes, tho’ in 
reality they are but two ; but very ir¬ 
regular, and difficult to be difengaged 
from each other, which we fhall explain 
more clearly in fpeaking of its Vegeta¬ 
tion. ( k ) OexjHelm and feveral others 
have imagined, that a Cocao -Kernel was 
compofed of five or fix Parts flicking faff 
together ; Father ‘Plumier himfelf fell in¬ 
to this Error, and has led others into it(/)„ 
If the Kernel be cut in two length-ways, 
one finds at the Extremity of the great end, 
a kind of a longifh (;//) Grain, one fifth 
of an Inch long, and one fourth Part as 
broad, which is the Germ y or firft Rudi- 

(k) Ibid. 

(/) In multas veluti Amygdalas fifties. Tourne fort in 
Append. Rei Herb. Pag. 660. & Tab. 444. 

{m) 1 cant imagine upon what Foundation Oexmelin could 
ajjcrty that the Spaniards in the making of their Chocolate , 
ufed nothing hut this longijl) Grain , which he calls Pignon. 
Au Milieu defquelles Amandes de Cacao, eft, fays he „ 
un petit Pignon, quia la Germe fort tendre, & difficile à 
conferver ; c’eft de cette Semence que lesÉfpaniols font 
la célébré Boiflon de Chocolat. Oexmelin Hiftoire des 
Avanturers, Torn. i. pag. 4:3. He confirms more plainly the 
fame Fancy } Pag. 4 16. 



I o The Natural History 

ments of the Plant ; but in European Ker* 
nels this Part is placed at the other end. 

One may even fee in France this Irre¬ 
gularity of the Lobes, and aifo the Germ 
in the Kernels that are roafted and cleaned 
to make Chocolate. 


Of the Choice and JDifpofition of the 
Place for Planting Cocao-Trees. 

HpHE CocaoTree grows naturally in 
1 JL feveral Countries in America under 
the Torrid Zone, but chiefly at Mexico , in 
the Provinces of Nicaragua and Guati- 
mala, as alfo along the Banks of the Ri¬ 
ver of the Amazons («). Likewife upon 
the Coaft of Car aqua, that is to fay, from 
Comana to Cartagena (0) and the Golde7i 
I (land. Some alfo have been found in the 
Woods of Mart ini co. 


The Spaniards and Tort aguefe were 
the firft to whom the hidia?i$ communi¬ 
cated the Ufe of Cocao-Nuts 7 which they 

(») Relation of the River of the Amazons. 

(d) I have added this Explication^ becaufe Pomet makes it 
tome from Caraqua, of the Province of Nicaragua in New 
Spain, m hich is diflant from Caracas 5 or 600 Leagues , V. 
vii. Cha}; • xiv. 


0/Chocolate. ii 

kept a long time to themfelves without 
acquainting other Nations with it ; who 
in reality know fo little of it at this day, 
that fome 'Dutch Corfairs, ignorant of 
the Value of fome Prizes they had taken, 
out of contempt call the Merchandize into 
the Sea, calling it in derifion, in very in« 
different Spanish, Cacura de Carnero (/>), 
The Dung of Beafts. 

In 1649 (?) the Vert Iflands, they 
had never feen but one Tree planted, 
which was in the Garden of an Englifh- 
Man , an Inhabitant of the Illand of St. 
Croix (r). In 1655, the Car the ans (.r) 
lhewed to M. du Tarepet a Cocao-'Tree 
in the Woods of the Ifland of Martinico t 
whereof he was Governour. This Difco- 
very was the Foundation of feveral others 
of the fame kind, in the Woods of the 
Cape Sterre (?) of this Ifland. And it is pro¬ 
bable that the Kernels which were taken 
out of them, were the Original of thofe 
CocaoTrees that have been planted there 
fince. A Jew named Pic uj ami 11 planted 
the firft about the Year 1660. but it was 
not till twenty or twenty-five Years after, 

(tf) Thomas Gage, Tom. 1. Part 2. Chap. 19. Pag. 150. 

(^) Rochefort’i Natural Hijlory of the Antillocs. Book I* 
Chap. 6. Artie. 16. 

(r) Father Tertre' s Hi/?, of the Antilloes. Tom. 2. p. 184» 
(j) Thefe are the Savage Natives of the Antilloes. 

(t) That Part is call'd fo , which lies expofed to the Winds 
which come always from the Dsorth-Eaft to the South-Eafh 
That Part under the Wnd f is called BaiTe-TerrCo 

Ç 2 that 

IZ The Natural History 

that the Inhabitants of Martinico apply’d 
themfelves to the Cultivation of Cocao - 
'Trees, and to raife Nurferies of them. 

When one would raife a Nurfery, it is 
neceffary, above all things, to chufe a pro¬ 
per Place, in refpe£t of Situation, and a 
Soil agreeable to the Nature of it. 

The Place fhould be level, moift, and 
not expofed to Winds ; a frefh, and (if one 
may be allow’d the Expreffion) a Virgin 
Soil, indifferently fat, light, and deep. 
For this reafon, Ground newly cleared, 
whofe Soil is black and fandy, which is 
kept moift by a River, and its Borders 
fo high as to fhelter it from the Winds, 
efpecially towards the Sea Coaft, is pre¬ 
ferable to any other ; and they never fail 
putting it to this Ufe, when they are fo 
happy as to find any of this fort. 

I have faid, Ground newly cleared, that 
is to fay, whofe Wood is cut down pur- 
pofely for it ; for it is neceffary to obferve, 
that they at prefent plant their Nurferies 
in the middle of Woods, which have been 
fo time out of mind, and this for two 
weighty Reafons : The Firft, becaufe the 
Wood that is left ftanding round it, may 
ferve as a Shelter ; and the Second, be¬ 
caufe there is lefs Trouble in weeding or 
grubbing it. The Ground that has never 
produced any Weeds, will fend forth but 
few, for want of Seed. 



of Chocolaté. iy 

As for Nurferies planted in high Ground, 
the Earth is neither moift nor deep e- 
nough, and commonly the chief Root 
which grows direflly downwards, can¬ 
not pierce the hard Earth which it foon 
meets with. Befides, the Winds are more 
boifterous, and caufe the BlolToms to fall 
off as foon as blown, and when a little 
high, overturn the Tree, whofe Roots are 
aimoft all fuperficial. 

This is yet worfe on the Hills, whofe 
Defcent is too fteep ; for befides the fame 
Inconveniencies, the falling down of the 
Earth draws with it the good Soil, and 
infenfibly lays the Roots bare. 

One may therefore conclude that all 
thefe Nurferies are a long time before 
they bear, that they are never fruitful, 
and that they are deftroy’d in a little time. 

It is alfo proper that a Nurfery, as much 
as may be, fhould be furrounded with 
Handing Wood ; but if it is open on any 
fide, it fhould be remedy’d as foon as 
poflible, by a Border of feveral Ranks of 
'frees called Bananes { 5). 

Befides this, the Nurferies fhould be 
moderate in refpeft of Magnitude, for 
the Small have not Air enough, and are, 
as it were, ftifled ; and the very Large 
are too liable to Drynefs, and to the great 

(5) See the Jifth Remark at the End of the Treat'ife « 


14 *The Natural History 

"Winds, which, in America, they call Ou¬ 
ragans («). 

The Place of the Nurfery being chofen, 
and the Bignefs determined, they apply 
themfelves to clear it of the Wood. They 
begin with plucking up the little Plants, 
and by cutting the Shrubs, and fmall 
kinds of Trees, and felling the Trunks 
and larger Branches of others ; they then 
make Piles, and fet them on fire in all 
Parts, and fo burn down the largeft Trees 
of all, to fave themfelves the trouble of 
cutting them. 

When all is burnt, and there remains 
nothing upon the Earth, but the Trunks 
of the great Trees which they don’t trou¬ 
ble themfelves to confume, and when the 
Space is well cleaned, they make Alleys 
by the help of a Line, lirait and at equal 
Diftances from each other, and thruffc 
Sticks into the Ground of two or three 
Foot long, and 5, 6 , 7, 8, 9 or 10 Feet 
dillant, or at fucli a dillance that they 
defign to plant the Cocao-Trees, which 
they represent. Afterwards they plant 
Manioc in the empty Spaces, taking care 
not to come too near the Sticks. 

One may oblerve, that the Nurferies 
planted at the great Diftances of eight or 

(«) Thefe violent and outrageous Winds blow from all V oints 
of the Compafs in twenty-jour Hours . And this is one material 
thing to dijlinguijb them from the regular and common Winds of 
this Climate . 


of Chocolate. 15 

ten Feet, are a great deal more trouble- 
fome to keep clean in the firft Years, as 
we (hall obferve hereafter ; but then they 
profper a great deal better, bear more, 
and laft longer. > 

The Inhabitants, who have a great deal 
to do, and have but few Slaves, plant 
the Trees nearer, becaufe by this means 
they gain room, and they have lefs trouble 
to keep it clear ; when afterwards the 
Trees come to hurt and annoy each other 
by their Proximity, and they have had 
fome Crops to fupply their prefent Ne- 
ceflities : or ifotherwife, they are obliged 
to cut fome to give Air to the reft. 

On the Coaft of Caraqua , they plant 
the Cocao-Threcs at 12 or 15 Feet diftance, 
and they make Trenches to water them 
from time to time in the dry Seafons. 
They happily experienced the Succefs of 
this Practice at Martinico fome Years 

The Manioc (6) is a woody Shrub, 
whofe Roots being grated, and baked on 
the Fire, yield a CaJJavc, or Meal, which 
ferves to make Bread for all the Natives 
of America. They plant it in the new 
Nurferies, not only becaufe it isneceflary 
to fupply the Negroes with Food, but 
alfo it hinders the Growth of Weeds, and 
ferves to fhade the young Cocao-Threes , 
whofe tender Shoots, and even the fécond 

(6) See the Remark at the fixth Article . 


1 6 1 The Natural History 

Leaves, are not able to refill the fcorch- 
ing Beams of the Sun. For this reafon 
they wait till the Manioc fhades the Feet 
of the Sticks before they plant the Cocao- 
;Trees , in the manner that we fhal! de- 
fcribe in the following Chapter. 


Of the Method of Planting a Nur- 
fery , and to cultivate it till the 
Fruit comes to Maturity. 

O C J OF REES are planted from 

the Kernel or Seed, for the Nature of 
the Wood will not admit of Slips: They 
open a Cocao-Shell, and according as they 
have occafion, take out the Kernels, and 
plant them one by one, beginning, for 
example, at the firft Stick : They pluck it 
up, and with a fort of a Setting-Stick 
made of Iron, and well lharpened, they 
make a Hole, and turning the Iron about, 
cut off the little Roots that may do hurt. 
They plant the Kernel three or four Inches 
deep, and thru ft in the Stick they before 
had pluck’d up a little on one fide, to ferve 
as a Mark : and lb they proceed from 
Stick to Stick, and from Rank to Rank, 

till they ha 

N urfery. 

ye gone through the whole 


- of Chocolate. ■ 17 

It mud: be obferved, i. Not to platit 
in a dry Seafon. One may indeed plant 
in any Month of the Year, or any Moon, 
new or old, when the Seafon is cool, and 
the Place ready ; but it is commonly be¬ 
lieved, that planting from September to 
Chriftmas , the Trees bear more than in 
fome Months. 

2. Not to plant a?iy but the largeft 
Kernels , and Jfuch as are plump : For fince 
in the fined: Shells there are fometimes 
withered Kernels, it would be very impru¬ 
dent to make ufe of them. 

Tdo plant the great Ends of the 
Kernels lowermofl : This is that which is 
held by a little Thread to the Center of 
the Shell, when one takes the Kernel out. 
If the little End was placed downward, 
the Foot of the Tree would become crook¬ 
ed, neither would it profper ; and if it 
was placed fide ways, the Foot would not 
fucceed very well. 

4. Tfo put two or thrte Kernels at 
every Sticky that if by any Mifchance the 
tender Shoots of one or two are broken 
by Infefts, or otherwife, there may be 
one left to fupply the Deleft. If no bad 
Accident happen, you have the advantage 
of chufing the ftraiteft and mod: likely 
Shoot. But it is not bed to cut up the 
fupernumerary ones till that which is cho- 
fen is grown up, and, according to all ap¬ 
pearance, out of danger. 

' ' D * The 

i £• * 

1 8 c The Natural History 

• 1 . '£ ^ *' ' i * 4 

The Kernels come up in ten or twelve 
Days, more or lefs, according as the Sea- 
fon, more or lefs favourable, haftens or 
backens their Growth : The longiili Grain 
of the Germ beginning to fwell, fends 
forth the little Root downwards, which 
afterwards becomes the chief Stay of the 
Tree, and upwards it pufhes out the 
Shoot, which is an Rpiromy of the Trunk 
and the Branches. Thefe Parts encreafing, 
and difcovering themfelves more and 
more, the two Lobes of the Kernel a little 
feparated and bent back, appear firft out 
of the Earth, and regain their natural Po¬ 
ll lion, in proportion as the Shoot rifes, 
and then feparate themfelves intirely, and 
become two Leaves of a different Shape, 
of an obfcure Green, thick, unequal, and, 
as it were, fhrivePd up, and make what 
they call the Ears of the Plant. The 
Shoot appears at the fame time, and is 
divided into two tender Leaves of bright 
Green : To thefe two firft Leaves, oppo- 
fite to each other, fucceed two more, and 
to thefe a third Pair. The Stalk or Trunk 
rifes in proportion, and thence forward du¬ 
ring a Year, or thereabouts. 

The whole Cultivation of the Cocao - 
jfree may then be reduced to the Practice 
of two Things. 

Firft , To over look them during the 
firft fifteen Days ; that is to fay, to plant 
nevv Kernels in the room of thofe that do 


of Chocolate,- 19 

not come up, or whofe Shoots have been 
deftroyM by Infefts, which very often 
make dreadful Havock among thefe Plants, 
even when one would think they are out 
of danger. Some Inhabitants make Nur- 
feries a-part, and tranfplant them to the 
Places where they are wanting : but as 
they do not all grow, efpecially when they 
area little too big, or the Seafon not fa¬ 
vourable, and becaufe the greateft part of 
thofe that do grow languifh a long time, 
it always feem’d to me more proper to 
fet frefh Kernels ; and I am perfuaded, if 
the Confequences are duly weighed, it 
will be pra&ifed for the future. 

Sec07idly y Not to let any Weeds grow in 
the Nurfery, but to cleanfe it. carefully 
from one end to the other, and taking 
care, above all things, not to let any Herb 
or Weed grow up to Seed ; for if it fhould 
happen fo but once, it will be very diffi¬ 
cult thenceforwards to root thofe trouble- 
fome Guefts out, and to keep the Nurfery 
clean, becaufe the Cold in this Country 
never interrupts Vegetation. 

This Weeding fhould be continued till 
the Trees are become large, and their 
Branches fpreading, caft fuch a Shade as 
to hinder the Weeds from coming up; 
and afterwards, the Leaves falling from 
the Trees, and covering the Earth, will 
contribute to (tide them intirely. When 
this troublefome Bufinefs of Weeding is 

D 2 ended, 

2 o The Natural History 

ended, it will be fufficient to overlook 
them once a Month, and pluck up here 
and there thofe few Weeds that remain, 
and to carry them far into the Woods for 
fear of Seeds. 

When the Cocao-Threes are nine Months 
old, the Mcuiioc fhould then begin to be 
pluck’d up ; and it fhould be managed fo, 
that in three Months time there fhould be 
none left. There may be a Row or two 
replanted in each Alley, and Cucumbers, 
Citruls, and (x) Giraumonts may be fow’d 
in the void Spaces, or Caribcan Coleworts; 
becaufe thele Plants having great fpread- 
ing L eaves, are very proper to keep the 
Earth cool and moift, and to ftifle the 
noifome Weeds, When the Cocao-Threes 
come to fhade the Ground entirely, then 
it will be neceffary to pluck up every 
thing, for nothing then will grow beneath 
’em. > : 

The Cocao-Threes of one Year old have 
commonly a Trunk of four Feet high, and 
begin to fpread, by fending out five 
Branches at the top, all at a time, which 
forms that which they call the Crown of 
a Cocao-T*ree . It feldom happens that any 
of thefe five Branches are wanting, and if 
by any Occident, or contrary to the Order 
of Nature, it has but three or four, the 
Tree never comes to good, and it will be 

(#) Thefe are Citruls whofe Pulp is very yellow* 


of Chocolate. 21 

better to cut it off, and wait for a new 
Crown, which will not be long before it is 

If at the end of the Year the Manioc is 
not plucked up, they will make the Trees 
be more flow in bearing ; and their Trunks 
running up too high, will be weak, flen- 
der, and more expofed to the Winds. If 
they fhould be crowned, their Crowns 
will be too clofe ; and the chief Branches 
not opening themfelves enough, the Trees 
will never be fufficiently difengaged, and 
will not fpread fo much as they ought to do. 

When all the Trunks are crowned, they 
chufe the fineft Shoots, and cut up the 
fupernumerary ones without mercy ; for 
if this is not done out of hand, it will be 
difficult to perfuade one’s felf afterwards: 
tho it is not poffible but that Trees placed 
fo near each other, fhould be hurtful to 
each other in the end. 

The Trees are no fooner crown’d, but 
they fend forth, from time to time, an 
Inch or two above the Crown, new Shoots, 
which they call Suckers: If Nature was 
permitted to play her part, thefe Suckers 
would foon produce a fécond Crown, that 
again new Suckers, which will produce a 
third, (jc . Thus the Cocao-'Trees proceed, 
that are wild and uncultivated, which are 
found in the Woods of Cape St erre in 
Martir/zco. But feeing all thefe Crowns 
do but hinder the Growth of the firft, and 


Il The Natural History 

almoft bring it to nothing, tho it is the 
principal ; and that the Tree, if left to it- 
felf, runs up too high, and becomes too 
(lender ; they fhould take care every Month 
when they go to weed it, or gather the 
Fruit, to prune it ; that is to fay, to cut 
dr lop off all the Suckers. 

I don’t know whether they have yet 
thought it proper to prune, any more than 
to graft upon Cocao-H’rees : There is how¬ 
ever a fort of Pruning which, in my Opi¬ 
nion, would be very advantageous to it. 
Thefe fort of Trees, for example, have 
always ( fome more than others ) dead 
Branches upon them, chiefly upon the Ex¬ 
tremities of the Boughs ; and there is no 
room to doubt but it would be very pro¬ 
per to lop off thefe ufelefs Branches, paring 
them off with the pruning Knife even to 
the Quick. But as the Advantage that 
will accrue from it will neither be fo im¬ 
mediate, nor fo apparent as the Time and 
Pains that is employ’d in it; it is very pro¬ 
bable that this Care will be neglected, 
and that it will be efteem’d as Labour loft. 
But however, the Spaniards do not think 
fo; for, on the contrary, they are very 
careful to cut off all the dead Sprigs : for 
which reafon their Trees are more flourilh- 
ing than ours, and yield much finer Fruit. 

I believe they have not the fame care in 
grafting them, nor do I think any Perfon 
has hitherto attempted to do it : I am per- 


c/ Chocolate. 

fuaded neverthelefs, that the Cocao-Trees 
would be better for it. Is it not by the 
affvltance of grafting our Fruit Trees in 
feveral manners, (which were originally 
wild, and found by chance in the Woods) 
that they have at length found the Art of 
making them bear fuch excellent Fruit ? 

In proportion as the Cocao-Trees grow, 
the Leaves upon the Trunks fall off by 
little and little, which ought to fall off on 
their own accord ; for when they are en¬ 
tirely bare, they have not long toflourifh : 
The firft Bloffoms commonly fall off, and 
the ripe Fruit is not to be expected in lefs 
time than three Years, and that if it be 
in a good Soil. The fourth Year the Crop v 
is moderate, and the fifth it is as great as 
ever it will be ; for then the Trees com¬ 
monly bear all the Year about, and have 
Bloffoms and Fruit of all Ages. Some 
Months indeed there is almoft none, and 
others, they are loaded; and towards the 
Solftices, that is, in June and 'December , 
they bear molt. 

As in the Tempefts called Ouragans the 
Wind blows from all Points of the Com- 
pafs in twenty-four Hours, it will be well 
if it does not break in at the weakeft 
Place of the Nurfery, and do a great deal 
of Mifchief, which it is neceffary to re¬ 
medy with all poffible expedition. If the 
Wind has only overturn’d the Trees with¬ 
out breaking the chief Root, then the belt: 


24 Natural History 

Method that can be taken in good Soil, is 
to raife them up again, and put them in 
their Places, propping them up with a 
Fork, and putting in the Earth about it 
very carefully : By this means they will be 
re-eftablifh’d in iefs than fix Months, and 
they will bear again as if no harm had 
come to them. In bad Soil, it will be bet¬ 
ter to let them lie, putting the Earth a- 
bout the Roots, and cultivate at their 
lower Parts, or Feet, the bell: grown 
Sucker, and that which is neareft the Roots, 
cutting off carefully all the reft : The Tree 
in this Condition will not give over blof- 
foming and bearing Fruit ; and when in 
two Years time the Sucker is become a 
new 1 ree, the old Tree muft be cut off 
half a Foot diftant from the Sucker. 


Of the gathering of the Cocao-Nuts, 
and the Manner of making them 
fweat, and of drying them that 
they may be brought found into 

T H E Obfervations which we made 
in the firft Chapter, concerning the 
Alterations of the Colour of the Nuts, give 
us information of the time that they be¬ 

of Chocolate. 25 

come ripe. It will be proper to gather 
them when all the Shell has changed Co¬ 
lour, and when there is but a fmall Spot 
below which fhall remain green. They 
go from Tree to Tree, and from Row to 
Row, and with forked Sticks or Poles, 
they caufe the ripe Nuts to fall down, 
taking great care not to touch thofe that 
are not lb, as well as the Bloffoms : They 
employ the moft handy Negroes in this 
Work, and others follow them with Baf- 
kets to gather them, and lay them in 
Heaps, where they remain four Days with- * 
out being touch’d. 

In the Months that they bear mod, 
they gather them for a Fortnight together ; 
in the lels-fruitful Seafons, they only ga¬ 
ther them from Month to Month. If the 
Kernels were left in Shells more than four 
Days, they would fprit, or begin to grow, 
and be quite fpoiled (y) : It is therefore 
neceflary to fhell them on the fifth Day in 
the Morning at fartheft. To do this, they 
ftrike on the middle of the Shells with a 

( y ) For this reafor ?, when they would fend Coeao-Nuts to 
the neighbouring l[lands from Marti nico, that they may have 
wherewithal to plant , they are very careful not to gather them 
till the Tranfport Vejfel is ready to fail , and to make ufe of 
them as foon as they arrive. For this refon alfo it is not 
pojjible that the Spaniards, when they dejign to pr ferve ZVVf 
for planting , * fhculd let them be wither’d and perfectly dry , and 
that afterwards they fbould take the K-rnels of thefe f ime Nuts t 
and dry them very carefully in the Shade , and aft r all y raife 
a Nuefery with them , as Oexmelin r ports , Hiftory of Ad¬ 
venturers, Tom. 1. Pag. 424. 

B Bit 

l6 The Natural History 

^ v 

Bit of Wood to cleave them, and then 
pull them open with their Fingers, and 
take out the Kernels, which they put in 
Baskets, calling the empty Shells upon the 
Ground, that they may with the Leaves, 
being putrified, ferve to fatten the Earth, 
and fupply the Place of Dung. 

They afterwards carry all the Kernels 
into a Houfe, and lay them on a heap up¬ 
on a kind of loofe Floor cover’d with 
Leaves of ’Balize (7), which are about 
four Feet long, and twenty Inches broad ; 
then they furround it with Planks cover’d 
with the fame Leaves, making a kind of 
Granary, which may contain the whole 
Pile of Kernels, when fpread abroad. They 
cover the whole with the like Leaves, and 
lay fome Planks over all : the Kernels 
thus laid on a heap, and cover’d clofe on 
all fides, do not fail to grow warm, by 
the Fermentation of their infenfible Par¬ 
ticles ; and this is what they call Sweating, 
in thofe Parts. 

They uncover the Kernels Morning and 
Evening, and fend the Negroes among 
them ; who with their Feet and Hands, 
turn them topfy turvy, and then cover 
them up as before, with the fame Leaves 
and the fame Planks. They continue to 
do this for five Days, at the end of which 
they have commonly fweat enough, which 


(7) Ses the feve nth Note hereafter « 

of Chocolate. zj 

is difcover’d by their Colour, which grows 
a great deal deeper, and very ruddy. 

The more the Kernels fweat, the more 
they lofe their Weight and Bitternefs: 
but if they have not fweat enough, they 
are more bitter, and fmell four, and fome- 
times fprit. To fucceed well therefore, 
there fhould be a certain Medium obferv^ 
ed, which is only to be learnt by ufe. 

When the Kernels have fweat enough, 
they lay them out to air, and expofe them 
to the Sun to dry them, in the manner fol¬ 

They prepare beforehand, feveral Ben¬ 
ches about two Foot high, in an even 
Court appointed for that purpofe; they 
lay upon thefe Benches feveral Mats made 
of pieces of Reeds fplit in two, together 
with Bands made of Mahot Bark (8). Up¬ 
on thefe Mats they put the Kernels about 
two Inches in height, and move and turn 
them very often with a proper Piece of 
Wood for the firft two Days. At Night 
they wrap up the Kernels in the Mats,which 
they cover with Balize Leaves for fear 
of Rain, and they do the fame in the day¬ 
time when it is likely to rain. Thofe who 
are afraid of having them ftolen, lock them 

(8) The Mahot is a Shrub , <whofe heaves are round and 
feel foft like thofe of Guimauve; its Bark eafily comes cjf 9 
which they divide into long Slangs , which ferves for Packthread 
find Cords to the Inhabitants and Natives. 

E 2 There 

z8 c The Natural History 

There are fome Inhabitants who keep 
Boxes about five Feet long, and two broad , 
and three or four Inches deep, on purpofe 
to dry the Kernels : There is this Advan¬ 
tage in them, that in the greateft Rains 
and faddenefi: Showers, they may pre- 
fently be piled one on the top of another, 
fo that none but the top-moft will want a 
Cover ; which is foon done with the afore- 
faid Leaves, and an empty Box turn’d 
up-fide down. But that which makes the 
Ufage of Mats preferable, is, that the Air 
may pafs through beneath, between the 
Partition of the Reeds, and fo dry the 
Kernels better. Boxes whofe Bottoms are 
made like a Sieve with ftrong Brafs Wire, 
would be very excellent ; but then they 
mu ft be made in Europe , which would be 
a confiderable Charge. 

When the Kernels have fweat enough, 
they muft be expofed upon the Mats as 
much as neceffary : If Rain is forefeen that 
is likely to laft, it will be beft to let them 
fweat half a Day lefs. It is obfervable, 
that a few hours Rain at firft, inftead of 
doing any harm, makes them more beau¬ 
tiful, and better conditioned. In fair Wea¬ 
ther, inftead of this Rain, it will be pro¬ 
per to expofe them to the Dew for the firft 
Nights. The Rain of a whole Day or 
two will do no harm, if they are not co¬ 
vered before they have had the Benefit of 
the Sun, for a Day, or half a Day at leaft. 


of Chocolate. 

For after a Day’s Sun-fhine, they are to 
be wrap’d in the Mat, as before directed; 
but if it be half a Day’s Rain only, then 
they are only covered with ‘Balize Leaves 
in the Night, kept on with little Stones laid 
at each End : But if the Rain be too long, 
it makes them fplit, and then they will 
not keep long ; they therefore make Cho¬ 
colate of it immediately. 

If the Kernels have not fweat enough, 
or they wrap them too foon in the Mat, 
they are fubjeft to fprit or germe, which 
makes them bitter, and good for nothing, 

When the Kernels have been once wrap¬ 
ped in a Mat, and begun to dry, care mull 
be taken that they do not grow moift again ; 
they muft therefore be well ftirr’d from 
time to time, that they may be thorowly 
dry’d, which you may know by taking a 
Handful in your Hand, and (hutting it : 
if it cracks, then it is time to put them into 
yourStore-houfe, and toexpofethemtofale. 

Thofe who would gain a Reputation in 
giving out a good Merchandize, before 
they pack it up in Veffels, pick it, and 
throw’ afide the little, wither’d, and thin 
Kernels, which are not only unfightly, but 
render the Chocolate fomething worfe. 

Afterwards the Kernels of; the Cocao-Nut 
are dried in the Sun, before they are brought 
to Europe , and fold by the Druggitls and 
Grocers, who dillinguifh it into great and 
fmall, and into that of Car aqua , and that 



3 o The Natural History 

of the Trench Ifiands, tho with no good 
Foundation, for in the Places themfelves 
they make no mention of this Diftinrtion : 
It therefore feems likely, that the Mer¬ 
chants find their account in forting it, 
fince Kernels proceeding from the lame 
Tree, and from the fame Nut, are not 
always of the fame bignefs. It is indeed 
true, that if one Parcel of Kernels be 
compared with another, the one may 
confift of bigger than the other, which 
may arife from the Age or Vigour of the 
Trees, or from the Nature of the Soil ; 
but certainly there is no kind of Kernels 
which may be called Great, as a diftinft 
Kind, nor confequently no other which 
can properly be faid to be Small. 

The Kernels that come to us from the 
Coaft of Caraqua , are more oily, and lefs 
bitter, than thofe that come from the 
French Ifiands, and in France and Spain 
they prefer them to thefe latter : But in 
Germany , and in the North (Tides fit 
penes Autoreni) they have a quite oppofite 
Tarte. Several People mix that of Cara¬ 
qua with that of the Ifiands, half in half, 
and pretend by this Mixture to make the 
Chocolate better. I believe in the bottom, 
the difference of Chocolates is not confi- 
derable, fince they are only obliged toen- 
creafe or diminirti the Proportion of Sugar, 
according as the Bitternefs of the Kernels 
require it. For it muft be conlidered, as 


of Chocolate. 31 

we have already faid, that there is but 
one kind of Cocao-T’rec , which grows as 
naturally in the Woods of Martinico , as 
in thofe of the Coaft of Caraqna , that 
the Climates are almoft the fame, and 
confequently the Temperature of theSea- 
fons equal, and therefore there cannot be 
any intrinfick Difference between thefe 
Fruits of any great moment. 

As to the outward Difference that is 
obferved, it can arife from nothing but the 
Richnefs of the Soil, or the contrary; 
from the different Culture, and from the 
Care or Negligence of the Labourers and 
thofe that prepare it, from the time of 
its gathering, to the time of its Delivery, 
and perhaps from all three together. It 
is to be obferved at Martinico , that the 
Cocao-Threes profper better in fome Parts 
than others, merely from the Difference 
of the Soil, being more or lefs rich, or 
more or lefs moift. 

I have had the Experience of one of my 
Friends, concerning what relates to the 
Cultivation and Preparation of this Tree 
and its Fruit, which demonftrates that 
they may add to its Value. This Gentle¬ 
man, with a great deal of Application 
and Thought, found out the way to pre¬ 
pare the hneft Merchandize of the Ifland, 
which was prefer’d by the Merchants to 
all the reft, and bore a greater Price than 
that of any of his Neighbours. 


32, j The Natural History 

The Kernels of Caraqua are flattifh, 
and for Bulk and Figure not unlike our 
large Beans. Thofe of St. ‘Domingo, Ja¬ 
maica, and Cuba, are generally larger 
than thofe of the Jntilloes. The more 
bulky the Kernels are, and better they 
have been nourifhed, the lefs Wafte there 
is after they have been roafted and 
cleanfed, which fome Years ago was an 
Advantage to thofe of Caraqua. But at 
prefent, by the Regulation from the 
Month of Jprily 1717, the Kernels of our 
Colonies pay but Two-pence Duty for 
Entry, whereas Foreigners pay always 
Fifteen : Thefe thirteen Pence difference 
make fuch ample amends for the fmall 
Wafte, that there is a great deal of reafon 
to hope, that for the time to come, there 
will be none but the Curious, and People 
that do not value the Expence, that will 
make ufe of the Chocolate of Caraqua, 
by way of preference to that of the 
Fretzch Iflands, and that the Cheapnefs of 
the latter will double the Confumption at 

The beft Cocao-Nuts have very brown 
firm Shells, and when the Kernel is 
taken out, it ought to be plump, well 
nourifh’d, and fleek; of the Colour of a 
Hazle-Nut on the outfide, but more in¬ 
clining to a Red within; its Tafte a little 
bipter and aftringent, not at all four or 


o/" Chocolate. 33 

mouldy (z). In a word, without any Smell, 
and not worm-eaten. . 

The Fruit of the Cocao-Tree is the 
mod oily that Nature has produced, and 
it has this admirable Prerogative, never 
to grow rank let it be ever fo old, 
which all other Fruit do that are analo¬ 
gous to it in Qualities ; fuch as Nuts, Al- 
monds , Tine -Apple - Kernels , Tiftachoe 
Nuts, Olives, &c. 

There are alfo imported from America * 
Cocao-Kernel-Cakes of about a Pound 
weight each ; and as this Preparation is 
the firlt and principal in the Compofition 
of Chocolate, it will be proper to add here 
the Manner of making it. 

The Indians , from whom we borrow 
it, are not very nice in doing it ; they 
roaft the Kernels in earthen Pots, then 
free them from their Skins, and after¬ 
wards crufh and grind them between two 
Stones, and fo form Cakes of it with their 

The Spaniards, more induftrious than 
the Savapes , and at this day other Na¬ 
tions after their Example, chufe out the heft 
Kernels (a), and the moft frefh : Of thefe 

( z] ) It gets this Tjfle either ly being laid in a moifl Place 9 
or by being wet by Sea-Water in the Pajfage. 

{a) As the Kernels are never fo clean , bat there may be Stones , 
Earth , and bad ones among them ; it will be necejfary , before 
they are ufed , to fift them in a S eve that will let thefe things 
fafs through t while it retains the Kernels, 

F they 

The Natural History 

they put about two Pounds in a great Irori 
Shovel over a clear Fire, ftirring them 
continually with a large Spatula , fo long 
that they may be roafted enough to have 
their Skins come off eafily, which fhould 
be done one by one ( b\ laying them a- 
part, and taking great heed that the rot¬ 
ten and mouldy Kernels be thrown away, 
and all that comes off the good ones ; for 
thefe Skins being left among the Choco¬ 
late, will not diflolve in any Liquor, nor 
even in the Stomach, and fall to the bot¬ 
tom of Chocolate-Cups, as if the Kernels 
had not been cleanfed. 

If one was curious to weigh the Ker¬ 
nels at the Druggifts, and then weigh 
them again after they are roafted and 
cleanfed, one fhould find that there would 
be about a fisth Part wafted, more or lefs, 
according to the Nature and Qualities of 
the Kernels ; that is to fay, if you bought 
(for example) 30 Pounds, there would re¬ 
main entirely cleanfed, near tw’enty-five. 

All the Kernels being thus roafted and 
cleanfed at divers times, they put them 
once more to roaft in the fame Iron Shovel, 
but over a more gentle Fire, and ftir 

( b ) The Artijls , to make this Work more expeditious y and to 
gain time> put a thick Mat upon a Table y and fpread the Ker¬ 
nels upon it as they come hot from the Shovel y and roll a Holler 
of Iron over them to crack and get off the Skins of the Kernels ; 
afterward they winnow all in a fplintcr Sieve y till the Kernels 
become entirely cleanfed . 


of Chocolate. 35 

them with the Spatula without ceafing till 
they are roafted all alike, and as much as 
they ought to be; which one may dif- 
cover by their Tafte, and their dark- 
brown Colour, without being black. The 
whole Art confifts in avoiding the two 
Extremes, of not roafting them enough, 
and roafting them too much ; that is to 
fay, till they are burnt. If they are not 
roafted enough, they retain a difagreeable 
Harfhnefs of Tafte ; and if they are roaft¬ 
ed fo much as to burn them, befides the 
Bitternefs and ill Tafte that they contra£t, 
they lofe their Oilynefs entirely, and the 
beft part of their good Qualities. 

In Fra72cej where they are very apt 
to run into Extremes, they are mighty 
fond of the burnt Tafte, and the black 
Colour, as if they were proper Marks of 
good Chocolate, not confidering that, 
Quantity for Quantity, they may as well 
put fo much Charcoal as burnt Choco¬ 
late. This Opinion is not only agreeable 
to Reafon and good Sente, but is alfo 
confirmed by the unanimous Content of 
all that have written on this Subject ; and 
I can affirm, that it is authorized by the 
univerfal Confent of all America . 

When the Kernels are duly roafted, and 
well cleanfed, they put them into a large 
Mortar to reduce them into a grofs Pow¬ 
der, which they afterwards grind upon a 

F 2 Stone 

The Natural History 

Stone till it is very fine, which requires a 
more particular Explication. 

They make choice of a Stone which 
naturally refills the Fire, not fo foft as to 
rub away eafily, nor fo hard as to endure 
polifhing. They cut it from 16 to 18 
Inches broad, and about 27 or 30 long, 
and 3 in thicknefs, and hollowed in the 
middle about an Inch and a half deep. 
This Stone fhould be fix’d upon a Frame 
of Wood or Iron, a little higher on one 
fide than the other : Under, they place 
a Pan of Coals to heat the Stone, fo that 
the Heat melting the oily Parts of the 
Kernels, and reducing it to the Confidence 
of Honey, makes it eafy for the Iron Rol¬ 
ler, which they make ufe of for the fake 
of its Strength, to make it fo fine as to 
leave neither Lump, nor the leaft Hard- 
nefs. This Roller is a Cylinder of po- 
lifhfd Iron, two Inches in diameter, and 
about eighteen long, having at each End a 
wooden Handle of the fame Thicknefs, 
and fix Inches long, for the Workman to 
hold by. v 

When the Pafte is ground as much as is 
thought neceflary, they put it hot in 
Moulds made of Tin, where they leave 
it, and it becomes hard in a very little 
time. The Shape of thefe Moulds is ar¬ 
bitrary, and every one may have them 
made according to his Fancy ; but the 
cylindrick ones, which wall hold about 2 



(^Chocolate. 37 

or 5 Pounds of Chocolate, feem to me to 
be moft proper • becaufe the thicker they 
are, the longer they keep good, and may 
be commodioully held when there is oc- 
cafion to fcrape them. Thefe Rolls ought 
to be wrapped in Paper, and kept in a 
dry Place : it fhould alfo be obferved, 
that they are very fufceptible of good and 
ill Smells, and that it is good to keep them 
5 or 6 Months before they are ufed. 

Now the Kernels being fufficiently rubb’d 
and ground upon the Stone, as we have 
juft directed, if you would compleat the 
Compofition in the Mafs, there is nothing 
more to be done, than to add to this Pafte 
a Powder lifted thro a fine Scarce, com- 
pofed of Sugar, Cinnamon, and, if it be 
defired, of Vanilla CO, according to the 
Quantities and Proportions, which we 
fhall teach in the Third Part of this Trea* 
tife ; and mix it well upon the Stone, the 
better to blend it and incorporate it to¬ 
gether, and then to fafhion it in Moulds 
made of Tin in the form of Lozenges of 
about 4 Ounces each, or if defired, half a 

(0 What this is, you will find hereafter . 




Natural HISTORY 

O F 



Of the Properties of Chocolate. 

E have hitherto treated of Cho¬ 
colate, as it were, fuperficially, 
and as it prcfents itfelf to our 
Senies. We come next to ex¬ 
amine its intrinfick Qualities, 
and to feareh into its Nature: As far as we 
can, we will difcover what Reafon, join’d 
to long Experience, has taught us concern¬ 
ing the falutary Properties of this Fruit» 


History of Chocolate. 39 


Of the old Prejudices again[i 

Chocolate . 

T O proceed more methodically, and 
with greater Clearnefs in our En¬ 
quiries concerning Chocolate , it feems 
proper to fet People right about the Pre¬ 
judices which a falfe Philofophy has inftih 
led into moft Authors who have wrote 
upon this Subject ; the Impreffions where¬ 
of, are yet very deeply ingraven in the 
Minds of a great Number of People. 

The Spaniards , who were firft ac¬ 
quainted with Chocolate after the Con- 
queft of the new World, have laid it down 
for an undoubted Truth, that Chocolate 
is cold and dry, participating of the Na¬ 
ture of Earth. They have fupported this 
Determination neither with Reafon nor 
Experience ; nor do they know from 
whence they learnt it ; perhaps they have 
taken it upon the Words, and from the 
Tradition of the Inhabitants of the Coun¬ 
try. Let that be as it will, it is natural 
from falfe Principles to draw falfe Con¬ 
clurions, of which the two principal are as 


40 TOte Natural History 

The firft is, That Chocolate being by 
Nature cold, it ought not to be ufed 
without being mixed with Spices, which 
are commonly hot, that fb they might, 
both together, become temperate and 
wholefome. This was the Jargon and 
Praftice of thofe Times, for the farfie* 
Reafon the ancient Phyficians erroneoufly 
imagining that Opium was cold in the 
fourth Degree, never fail’d to corred this 
pretended Coldnefs in their narcotick 
Compofitions, with Drugs extremely hot, 
as Euphorbimiy Telliioryy Pepper y &c. 

Their fécond Conclufion was, That Cho¬ 
colate being dry and earthy, and from 
thence fuppofed to be of a ftyptick and 
aftringent Quality ; if it was not corrected, 
mu ft neceffarily breed Obftrudions in the 
Vifcerciy and bring on a Cacochimy, and 
a great Number of other incurable Dif- 

Thefe Prejudices have from the Spa - 
niards pafs’d into other Nations. To prove 
this, it will be unneceffary to cite a great 
Number of Authors, for whoever has read 
one, has read them all, the later having 
done nothing but copy the former ; they 
have even fometimes improved their 
Dreams, and exaggerated this pretended 
Coldnefs of Chocolate, and at length 
pufh’d the Matter fo far, as to make it a 
kind of cold Poifon ; and if it was taken 



of Chocolate. 41 

to Excefs, it would bring on a Conftxmp- 
tion (1). 

“ Mexiaci frigct nativa Cocai Fern- 
ic pertes-, tantoq\ excedit Frigore ut inter 
a noxia ne dubitem glandes cenfere Ve- 
“ nenaF Thom. Strozzæ de Mentis potu 
feu de Cocolatis Opificio , lib. 3. 

‘ Hinc fiquis folo Cocolatis Fomitc 
<c Vitam extrahat , atq\ ajfueta neget 
u Cibi Frandia, feiifim contrahet exfac - 
u to mar cent e in Corpora FabemF 

It is not very extraordinary that People 
who are more ready to believe than to 
examine , (fuch as the World is full of) 
fhould give into the unanimous Opinion of 
fo many Authors 4 ? and it would be ftrange 
if they were not carry’d down by the 
Stream of a Prejudice fo general. But I 
cannot fufficiently admire that Chocolate 
being fo much decryM, has not been en¬ 
tirely laid afide as unfit for Ufe; without 
doubt there was nothing but the daily 
Experience of its good Effects, which 
could fupport it, and hinder it from giv¬ 
ing way to Calumny. 

Now to overturn this old Syftem, it is 
fufficient, in my Opinion, to obferve with 
how little Skill and Penetration they then 
treated of the whole Natural Hiftory ; one 
ought not to be amazed that they have 

rr _ ■ tv r . * if r f r ^ rr -cf - ^ - y r . , Ml i m , , ^ 

(•*) ïjifHrü' Rimrd, Rfclkrr ad Hùrtad. ad Append, cap. 


; * G affirmed 

41 'The Natural History 

affirmed Chocolate to be cold and dry, in 
an Age when, for Example, they could 
fay Camphire was cold and moifl, which 
is a kind of Refin, from whence one Drop 
of Water cannot be extrafled, whofe fharp 
Tafte, and penetrating Smell, joined to 
the extreme Volatilityand Inflammability 
of its Particles, even in Water itfelf, are 
fuch evident Signs of its Heat, that it is 
difficult to conceive upon what account 
they perfuade themfelves of the contrary. 

The Qualities of Chocolate are not in¬ 
deed fo remarkable, nor fo aftive, as thofe 
of Camphire; but, with the leaft Atten¬ 
tion, one may eafily difcern, that the 
Quantity of Oil that it contains, and the 
Bitte rnefs that is perceivable in Tailing, 
are not the Marks of Coldnefs, fince all 
Bitters are efteem’d hot, and fince Oil is 
a Matter very near a-kin to, and neceflary 
for Fire. This is very near the Reafoning 
of a celebrated Phyfician at Rome (2) 
againft the old Opinion : As for me , fays 
he, I am of a?iother Judgment ; I believe 
that Chocolate is rather temperate than 
cold, and I refer my felf to the Decifion 
of every ingenious R erf on that will be at 
the pains to tafte a?td examitie it . 

Thefe Reflections will be farther con¬ 
firmed in the firil Section of the following 

(2) Paulus Zachias , de Malo Hypocondriaco, Lib. 2. 
Cap. 15. 


Chocolate. 43 

Chapter, where we (hall experimentally 
demonftrate that Chocolate is a Subftance 
very temperate, yielding foft and whole- 
fome Nourifhment, incapable of doing any 
Harm. And if this intrinfick Coldnefs is 
no more to be feared, it mu ft be own’d, 
that it will be henceforward ridiculous, 
if not pernicious, to join it with hot acrid 
Spices, more likely to alter and deftroy 
its good and real Qualities, than to correct 
the bad ones which it has not : I never- 
thelefs do not doubt but the Pleafantnefs 
of the Smell, and the favourite Tafte of 
feveral agreeable Spices, being pretty much 
liked in this Mixture, will have their Par- 
tizans ; who, more delighted with a pre- 
fent Gratification, than afraid of the in- 
fenfible Prejudice that thefe Ingredients 
bring to their Health, will not refoive to 
leave them off. Tho thefe will be no 
longer the Correctors of Chocolate, yet 
they will ferve to feafon it, with which 
they will pleafe their Tafte, without trou¬ 
bling themfelves with the Confequencesv 
But thofe Perfons who will give them¬ 
felves the trouble of thinking, and are 
more tradable and lefs fenfual, will wife¬ 
ly abftain from fuch Extreams, and their 
Moderation will not be unattended with 
Benefit. Health is fo valuable a Bleffing, 
that the Care to gain and preferve it, 
ought to fuperfede any other Cemfidera- 
tion, p 

G 2 As 

44 Nhe Natural History 

As to the pretended ObflruTions which 
Chocolate is faid to oceafion from its 
aftri&ive Quality, they are fo far from 
being afraid of it in America, that they 
have found by Experience a Verrue direft- 
ly contrary to it ; for feveral young Wo» 
men, fubjeft to the Whites, have been cu¬ 
red of this Diftemper, by eating a Dozen 
CccBfc Kernels for Breakfaft everyMorning. 
It is well enough known that ObftiuQdons 
are the Caufe of this DiTeafe, which in- 
(lead of being encreas’d by Chocolate, 
were entirely taken away. 

Then as to thofe lirange Diforders which 
are faid to arife from its immoderate Ufe, 
we fhall bring in the Sequel fo many 
Fads direftly contrary to thefe Chimeri¬ 
cal Fears, that all Perfons of good Senfe 
will be difabuled, and convinced of the 
falutary and wonderful Properties of this 
Fruit; which (hall be the Subject of the 
following Chapter. 

' 9 ' 


Of the real Properties of Chocolate. 

W I THOU T talking in the Dia¬ 
led of the c Peripateticks , about 
the Qualities of Heat and Coldnefs, now¬ 
adays fo much decry’d, it will not be 
difficult to prove that Chocolate is a Sub- 


of Chocolate. 45* 

(lance, i. Very temperate. 2. Very non- 
rithing, and of eafy Digeftion. j 3. Very 
proper to repair the exhaufted Spirit sand 
decayed Strength. 4. Laftly^ Very fuita- 
ble to preferve the Health^ and prolong 
the Lives of old Men.' Thefè four Arti¬ 
cles fhall be fufficiently demonftrated in 
the four following Sections. 

' Sect. I. 

Chocolate is very ‘Temperate. 

\T O T H I N G is fo great an Argu¬ 
aiment that Wheat? Rice , Millet , and 
JJIcfnioc, are falutary and temperate, as 
their being ufed by whole Nations toge¬ 
ther. If any of thefe Subdances had any 
predominant evil Quality, it would foon 
appear to the Prejudice of the Health of 
Numbers ; the People who lubfift upon it, 
would foon leave it off as a very dange¬ 
rous and hurtful Aliment. 

One may reafon much after the fame 
manner with refpeft to Chocolate. The 
Natives of New-Spain , and of a great 
part of the Torrid Zone of America have 
always ufed it as a Delicacy ; and at this 
day all the JR nr op can Colonies which are 
eftablifh’d in thole Countries, make a 
Confumption of vaft Quantities of it : 
Thefe People ufe it at all Times, and in all 
Seafons, as confiant daily Food, without 
regard to Age, Sex, Temperament, or 


46 The Natural History 

Condition, without Complaint of having 
received the leaft Prejudice from it ; they 
find on the contrary that it quenches 
Thirft, is very refreshing and feeding; 
that it procures eafy quiet Sleep, and pro¬ 
duces feveral other good Eftefts, to fay 
nothing of thofe we are going to treat of 
in the following Se&ions. I could produce 
feveral Inftances in favour of this excellent 
Nourishment, but I Shall content myfelf 
with two only, equally certain and deci- 
five in the Proof of its Goodnefs. The 
firft is an Experiment of Chocolate’s being 
taken for the only Nourishment, made by 
a Surgeon’s Wife of Martinico : She had 
loft by a very deplorable Accident her 
lower jaw, which reduced her to fuch a 
Condition, that She did not know how to 
fubfift ; the was not capable of taking any 
thing Solid, and not rich enough to live 
upon Jellies and nourishing Broths. In 
this Strait Site determined to take three 
Difhes of Chocolate, prepared after the 
manner of the Country, one in the Morn¬ 
ing, one at Noon, and one at Night. 
(There, Chocolate is nothing elfe but Cocao 
Kernels difiblved in hot Water, with Su¬ 
gar, and feafon’d with a Bit of Cinnamon.) 
This new way of Life Succeeded fo well, 
that She has lived a long while Since, more 
liyèiy and robuft than before this Accident. 

I had the Second Relation from a Gen¬ 
tleman of Martinico , and one of my 


of Chocolate. 47 

Friends, not capable of a Falfity. He 
allured me, that in his Neighbourhood, 
an Infant of four Months old unfortu¬ 
nately loft his Nurfe, and its Parents not 
being able to put it to another, refolved 
through Nec^ffity to feed it with Choco¬ 
late ; the Sudcefs was very happy, for the 
Infant came on to a Miracle, and was 
neither lefs healthy nor lefs vigorous than 
thofe who are brought up by the beft 

The Inferences that may be drawn from 
thefe two Hiftories are evident, and de- 
monftratively prove that Chocolate has 
neither any intemperate nor hurtful Qua¬ 
lity ; I fhall therefore fay no more upon 
them, leaving every one to make his own 
proper Refledions. 

S E C T. II. 

Chocolate is very nourifhing and of 

eafy Digeflion. 

T HIS Proportion is a neceflary Con- 
fequence of the foregoing, eftablifh- 
ed by Fads which I have juft related; 
and we have Experiments as convincing 
of its eafy Digeftion, and the Goodnefs of 
the Chyle that it makes ; but it needs no 
other Proof than the good Condition it 
puts thofe in, who ordinarily make ufe of 


48 The Natural History 

A learned TLngliJhmatz has carried his 
Commendations fo high concerning this 
particular Property of Chocolate, that he 
has not fcrupled to affirm in a Differtation 
that he has publifh’d upon this Subjeft, 
That one Ounce of Chocolate contains as 
much Nourifhment as a Pound of Beef. 
As much out of the way as this Affertion 
feems to be, one may eafily conceive, that 
any Aliment is capable of yielding more 
plentiful Nourifhment, if compar’d with 
any other, not only in refpeft to the Quan¬ 
tity, büt- alfo with relation to the Timè 
that the Stomach takes to digelt it. 

Phyficians are not agreed about the 
Caufes of Digeftion, but are divided into 
two Opinions, each of which is fupported 
by the Writings of very eminent Authors; 
convinced of my own Inability to decide 
the Controverfy, which alfo requires a 
large Field to expatiate in, I fhall not un¬ 
dertake to defend either Fermentation-or 
Trituration ; But it will be fufficient to 
fay, in two Words', that thefe Opinions 
are not abfolutely incompatible (1) : it 
perhaps will not be difficult to make a fort 


(1) The Tranftator of this Treatife, who Is a Phyflcian, 
thinks it proper to obfcrve, that the Opinions about Digeftton, are 
deficiently related by our Au hoy ; for they aye chiefly four ? Tri¬ 
turation, Fermentation, Heat, and by a Menftruum, 
Which are fo far from being incompatible, that three-of them 
neceffarily concur to promote Digeflion", to wit, Heat, and a 
Menftruum or Liquor, and Trituration, or the Motion or 


of Chocolate. 49 

of an Alliance or Agreement between 
them, by uniting whatever is plain and 
evident in the two Syltems, and reject¬ 
ing what is otherwife ; and from hence 
Form a third, which will be nothing but 
the Union of the uncontefted Parts of the 
other two. 

Thefe two Caufes undoubtedly concur 
in the Alteration that the Aliment under¬ 
goes in the Mouth ; for the Saliva that 
mixes with it in Maftication, and dilutes 
it, cannot be deny’d to be an admirable 
Ferment (2); and the Tongue which 
moves it, and the Teeth which grind*it, 
and break it, muft be own’d to be the 
firft Inftruments of Trituration. 

Now fince Nature is commonly uniform 
in her Operations, and fince there is a 
great deal of reafon to fuppofe that Nature 
compleats Digellion by the fame means 
that fhe has begun it, let us fuppofe it is 
really fo for a Moment, and apply it to 
the prefent Subjeft, and then we (hall fee 
by what Evidence Chocolate ought to be 
of an eafy Digefiion. 

rubbing of the Coats of the Stomach : For it is plain , if the two 
former are abjent , there can be no Digejiion , and without doubt 
the lajt does ajjiji ; but which is the principal , I Jim 11 not take 
Upon me to determine * 

(2) Our Author feems here either to m'Jlake Ferment for 
Menftruum, or to make them fynonymous Terms : With this 
Allowance y his Reafcring is undoubtedly juji ; but as jor a Fer» 
ment , in the ufual Senfe of that Wordy it may j'JUy be qnejli* 
oned whether there be any fuch in a Human Bodj 4 

H ' In 

50 ‘The Natural History 


In the firft place, bitter and alkaline 
Subftances, fuch as thefe Kernels, are fto- 
machick and analogous to the Saliva and 
the Ferment which diiTolves the Aliment 
in the Stomach ; how then can it be of 
hard Digeftion with thefe Qualities ? 

In the fécond place, if one confiders 
attentively the Kernels as they are roafted, 
broke, and ground extremely fine upon a 
Stone, afterwards melted and dilfolved in 
boiling Liquor, which ferves as a Vehicle 
for it ; it then feems very likely that the 
Stomach will not have much Labour left 
to do. In fhort, by it Digeftion is more 
than half finilhed. 

Experience confirms thefe Reafonings 
very much, for the Digeftion of Chocolate 
is foon brought about without Trouble, 
without Difficulty, and without any fen- 
fible rifing of the Pulfe; the Stomach 
very far from making life of its Strength, 
acquires new Force. And I can farther 
fay, upon my own Knowledge, that I have 
feen feveral Perfons who had but weak 
Digeftion, if not quite fpoiled, who have 
been entirely recovered by the frequent 
XJfe of Chocolate. 



of Chocolate. 51 

Sect. III. 

Chocolate fpeedily repairs the difji- 
pated Spirits and decay’d Strength. 

I F Chocolate did not produce this 
Effe£t, but only as it is very nourifh- 
ing, it would but have this Property in 
common with the moft juicy Aliments, 
and fuch as are moft proper to furnifh a 
good Quantity of Blood and Plenty of 
Spirits : but its Effects are far more fpee- 
dy; for if a Perfon, for Example, fatigued 
with long and hard Labour, or with a 
violent Agitation of Mind, takes a good 
Difh of Chocolate, he fhall perceive al- 
moft inftantly, that his Faintnefs fhall 
ceafe, and his Strength fhall be recovered, 
when Digeftion is hardly begun. This 
Truth is confirmed by Experience, tho* 
not fo eafily explained by Reafoning, be- 
caufe Chocolate fenfibly appears to be 
foft, heavy, and very little difpofed by 
any active Quality to put the Spirits in 
motion ; however, being refolved to neg- 
left nothing that is likely to unfold the 
Caufe of an Effect fo wonderful, I under¬ 
took one day the Chymical Analyfis of 
Chocolate, and altho* prejudiced that I 
fhould difcover nothing this way but a 
fuperficial Knowledge, yet I was willing 

H 2 to 

51 The Natural History 

to flatter myfelf that my Enquiry would 
not be wholly fruitlefs. 

I cieanted fixteen Ounces of Kernels 
without burning them, I ground them in 
a Marble Mortar, and afterwards put 
them in a Glafs Retort well luted ; I pla¬ 
ced it in a Reverberatory Furnace, and 
fixed to it a large Receiver ; and after 
having luted the Joints well, I gave it the 
firft Degree of Fire. 

The firft that afcended was pure 
Phlegm, which dropt for about two Hours ; 
a little white unfituous Matter fwam on 
the top of it. 

The Fire being augmented, the Drops 
became red, and congealed as they fell 
into the Receiver; this lafted about two 

The Fire being again augmented, the 
Receiver was filled with white Clouds, 
which I faw refolve into a kind of Dew, 
white and umftuous, which was partly 
Spirit, and partly a white Oil ; the red 
Drops however continued to the End, 
which was about two Hours and a half. 

This Operation let me know that Cho¬ 
colate contains two kinds of Oil ; the one 
Red and Fixed, which congealed it felf 
on the fide of the Veflel ; and the other 
White and Volatile, which proceeded from 
the white Clouds, and relblved itfelf on 
the other fide of the Receiver. 


o^Chocolate. 53 

On the Morrow after, having un luted 
the Receiver, and having placed it in 
*Balneo Mari<e> to melt the congealed 
Matter, I was agreeably furpriz’d to fee 
the VefTel immediately fill’d with white 
Clouds; I very much admired the Vola¬ 
tility of this Un&uofity, and I was fully 
convinced, that Chocolate contained that 
volatile Oil fo highly efteemed in Medi¬ 
cine, and that one need not go farther 
to feek the Caufe of the fpeedy Repara¬ 
tion of the fainting Spirits ; which is con¬ 
firmed by the daily Experience of thofe 
that ufe Chocolate- 

Having feparated the Spirit by filtring 
through brown Paper, I divided the bu- 
tirous Matter into two Parts : I put one, 
without any Addition, into a little Glafs 
Cucurbit, which I placed in a Sand-Heat 
to re£lify it, and by this Operation I got 
an Oil of an Amber Colour, fwimming up¬ 
on a little Phlegm, or Spirit (3). 

I melted the remaining Part, and ha¬ 
ving incorporated it with quick Lime, I 
put it into a little Glafs Retort luted, and 
put Fire to it by degrees. There firft came 
over a clear Oil, the white Clouds fuc- 
ceeded, and at length the reddifh Butter. 
Having unluted the Recipient, and put all 
in a little Cucurbit in a Sand-Heat, the 

(3) Our Author feems to make Phlegm and Sprit fynonymous 
Terms in Chymijlry, 



54 *Tbe Natural History 

white Clouds yielded an Oil of an Amber 
Colour ; and having augmented the Fire, 
there came over a little red Oil, but no 

The Amber-coloured Oil is nothing elfe 
but the white volatile Oil, coloured a lit¬ 
tle by the V iolence of the Fire : As for 
the red Oil, it feems to be the Remainder 
of the red Butter, fit to be exalted. Thefe 
two Oils will not mix together ; for the 
red, more fixed than the other, always 
gets to the bottom. Mr. Hoyle * faid he 
extracted from Human Blood, two Oils 
very like thofe above mentioned ; and this 
Conformity of Subftances, very much con¬ 
vinces me of the great Analogy I always 
fuppofed to be between Chocolate and 
Human Blood. 

As for the Spirit, it has nothing very 
difagreeable either in Tafte or Smell, it 
does not fenfibly ferment with Alkalies, 
nor alters the Colour of blue Paper ; afi. 

% Pluribus abhinc Annis cum Sanguincm conveuiente 
admodum digeftione, præparafl'em, 6c folicitc diftillatos 
Liquores fupereffluentes fiamma lampadis re£Hficaflem : 
Inter alia duo obtinui olea diverfi omnino Coloris, quo» 
rum alterum Flavedinem, aut pallorem Succini, alterum 
vero intenfiffimam Rubedinem imitabatur ; illud autem 
ingeniofis etiam, lynceifq; Spe&atoribus, miracuii inftar 
erat, quod licet ambo hæc Olea ab eodem fanguine 
emanancnt, forentq; pura fatis 6c limpida, non tantum 
diftinHis in Maffis fibi invicem fupra innatarent, fed it 
agitatione commifcerentur, paulatim fefe mutuo iterum 
extricarent, ut Oleum 6c Aqua. WJforia Sanguinis Hu¬ 


of Chocolate.- 55 

ter fome time, it grows a little acid, and 
taftes a little tartifh. ; > 

Having calcined the Caput Mortimm. 
which is of a violet Colour, and filtred 
and evaporated the Lixivium, as is ufual ; 
Î got nothing from it but a kind of Cyn- 
der, a little faltifh, and in fo fmall a quan¬ 
tity, that I did not give myfelf the trouble 
to reiterate the Calcination, Diflolution, 
Filtration, and Evaporation ; for I fhould 
hardly have got five or fix Grains of fixed 
purified Salt. 

I curioufly obferved, that neither in the 
Heads, nor in the Receivers, there did 
appear any figns of a volatile Salt : 
However, M- Lemery allures us *, that it 
contains a good deal; but it is plain he 
took his Opinion upon truft, for had he 
made the Experiment, he is too ingenious 
to be miftaken. 

One may then conclude from thefe two 
Obfervations, That Chocolate is a mix’d 
Body, that has the leaft Quantity of Salt 
enters its Compofition. 

* Traité de Drogues, Pag. 127. 


S E C T. 

5 <* The Natural History 

■ '* i i \ . : ? 'it \ ' 

Sect. IV. 

Chocolate is very proper to preferve 
Health , and to prolong the Life 
of Old Men. 

/ V ? ■ ■ f * - > -4 . > 

' ' •- • * .• a . , , - I l 

B EFORE Chocolate was known in 
Europe, good old Wine was called 
the Milk of old Men ; bat this Title is 
now apply 'd with greater reafon to Cho¬ 
colate, fince its Ufe has become fo com¬ 
mon, that it has been perceived that Cho¬ 
colate is, with refpeâ to them, what 
Milk is to Infants. In reality, if one ex¬ 
amines the Nature of Chocolate, a little 
with refpeft to the Confutation of aged 
Perfons, it feems as though the one was 
made on purpofe to remedy the Defeats of 
the other, and that it is truly the Eanacea 
of old Age. 

Our Life, as a famous Phyfician f ob- 
ferves, is, as it were, a continual growing 
dry ; but yet this kind of natural Confump- 
tion is imperceptible w an advanced Age : 
when the radical Moifture is conlumed more 
fenfibly, then the more balmy and volatile 
Parts of the Blood are diffipated by little 
and little, the Saks difengaging from the 

t Bagiivius in Edit. Lugd. 170p. Pag, 4 '«4. Vivere 
enim noftrura ficcelTere eft. 


^Chocolaté. 57 

Sulphurs, manifeil themfelves, the Acid 
appears, which is the fruitful Source 
of Chronick Difeafes. The Ligaments* 
the Tendons, and the Cartilages have 
fcarce any of the Unftuofity left, which 
render’d them fo fupple and fo pliant in 
Youth* The Skin grows wrinkled as well 
within as without ; in a word, all the 
folid Parts grow dry or bony. 

One may fay that Nature has formed 
Chocolate with every Vertue proper to 
remedy thefe Inconveniencies. The vola¬ 
tile Sulphur with which it abounds, is 
proper to fupply the Place of that which 
the Blood lofes every day through Age, 
it blunts and fheaths the Points of the 
Salts, and reftores the ufual Softnefs to 
the Blood, like as Spirit of Wine united 
with Spirit of Salt, makes a foft Liquor 
of a violent Corrofive. This fame ful- 
phurous Un&uolity at the fame time 
fpreads itfelf in the folid Parts, and gives 
them, in fome fenfe, their natural Supple- 
nefs ; it bellows on the Membranes, the 
Tendons, the Ligaments, and the Carti¬ 
lages, a kind of Oil which renders them 
fmooth and flexible. Thus the Hquili • 
brhtm between the Fluids and the Solids 
is in fome meafure re ellablifh’d, the 
Wheels and Springs of our Machine mend- 
ed, Health is preferved, and Life pro¬ 
longed. Thefe are not the Conlequences 
of Philofophical Reflexions, but of a thou- 

I fand 

5 $ The Natural History 

land Experiments which mutually confirm 
each other; among a great Number of 
which, the following alone fhall fuffice. 

There lately died at Martinico a Coun- 
fellor about a hundred Years old, who, 
for thirty Years part, lived on nothing but 
Chocolate and Bifcuit. He fometimes in¬ 
deed had a little Soop at Dinner, but ne¬ 
ver any Fifh, Flefh, or other Viftuals: 
He was, neverthelefs, fo vigorous and nim¬ 
ble, that at fourfcore and five, he could 
get on horfeback without Stirrups. 

Chocolate is not only proper to pro¬ 
long the Life of aged People, but alfo of 
thole whofe Conftitution is lean and dry, 
or weak and ca cochi mica 1, or who ufe 
violent Exercifes, or whofe Employments 
oblige them to an intenfe Application of 
Mmd, which makes them very faintifh : 
to all thefe it agrees perfeftly well, and 
becomes to them an altering Diet. 

On the contrary, I would not counfef 
the daily Ufe of it to fuch who are very 
fat, or who are wont to drink a good 
deal of Wine, and live upon a juicy Diet, 
or who deep much, and ufe no Exercife 
at all : In a word, who lead a delicate, 
fedentary, and indolent Life, fuch as a 
great many People of Condition at Taris 
are ufed to. Such Bodies as thefe, full 


of Chocolate. 59 

of Blood and Juice, have no need of ad¬ 
ditional Nourishment, and the Diet will 
fit them better which is mentioned in 
Ecclefiaft. Plentiful Feeding brings Dif- 
eafes , and Excefs hath killed Numbers ; 
but the tetnperate Man prolongs his 
Days * 

* Chap, xxxvii. V. 53 8c 34. In multis Efcis erit Infir- 
mitas, propter crapuJam multi obierunt : Qui autem ab- 
ftinens eft, adjicit Vitam, 



Natural HISTORY 

O F 



Of the Vf es of Chocolate. 

H E common Ufes of Chocolate 
may be reduced to three: it 
is put in Conférions ; it is ufed 
in Chocolate, properly fo call’d ; 
and there is an Oil drawn from 
it, to which they give the Name of But* 
ter. I fhall treat of them diftindly, in 
the three following Chapters. 


History of Chocolate. < 5 i 


* ► • ■■ ! .ft w , . » . 

Of Chocolate in Conférions, 

T HEY chufe Cocao-Nuts that are 
half ripe, and take out the Kernels 
one by one, for fear of fpoiling them ; 
they then lay them to foak for fome Days 
in Spring Water, which they take care to 
change Morning and Evening : afterwards, 
having taken them out and wiped them, 
they lard them with little Bits of Citron- 
Bark and Cinnamon, almoft as they make 
the Nuts of jR men. 

In the mean time, they prepare a Sy¬ 
rup of the fineft Sugar, but very clear ; 
that is to fay, wherein there is but little 
Sugar : and after it has been clarified 
and purified, they take it boiling-hot off 
the Fire, and put in the Cocao-Kernels y 
and let them lie 24 Hours. They re¬ 
peat this Operation fix or feven times, 
encreafing every time the Quantity of 
Sugar, without putting it on the Fire, or 
doing any thing elfe to it : laft of all, 
they boil another Syrup to the Confidence 
of Sugar, and pour it on the Kernels well 
wiped and put in a clean earthen Pot ; and 
when the Syrup is almoft cold, they mix 

w r ith 

6l The Natural History 

with it forae Drops of the E(fence of 

When they would have thefe in a dry 
Form, they take them out of the Syrup ; 
and after it is well drained from them, 
they put them into a Bafon full of a very 
ftrong clarify’d Syrup, then they immedi¬ 
ately put it in a Stove, or Hot-Houfe, 
where they candy it. 

This Confeftion, which nearly refem- 
bles the Nuts of Rouen, is excellent to 
(Lengthen the Stomach without heating 
it too much; for this reafon, they may 
fafely be given to thofe who are ill of a 

A ; •: 


Of Chocolate , properly Jo called. 

I N treating of this Liquor, we have 
two things to examine : The Firft is, 
the Original of Chocolate, and the dif¬ 
ferent Manner of preparing it : The Se¬ 
cond, the Medicinal Ufes that it is proper 
for ; which fhall be the Subjeif of the two 
following Se&ions. 


of Chocolate. 6$ 

Sect. I. 

Of the Original of Chocolate , and 
the different Manners of prepa¬ 
ring it. 

C HOCOLATE is originally an A- 
merican Drink, which the Spaniards 
found very much in ufe at Mexico , when 
they conquer’d it, about the Year i^o. 

The Indians , who have ufed this Drink 
time out of mind, prepared it without 
any great Art ; they roafted their Ker¬ 
nels in earthen Pots, then ground them 
between two Stones, diluted them with 
hot Water, and feafon’d them with ’Pi¬ 
mento (i) : thofe who were more curious, 
added Acbiota (2) to give it a Colour, 
and (3) Attolla to augment its Subftance. 
All thefe things joined together, gave to 
the Compolition fo ftrange a Look, and 
fo odd a Tafte, that a Spanifh Soldier faid, 
it was more fit to be thrown to Hogs (4), 
than prefented to Men; and that he could 
never have accuftomed himfelf to it, if 
the want of Wine had not forced him to 
it, that he might not always be obliged 
to drink nothing but Water. 

■ - •mi t ■ ^ 1 mi 11 n a rir up n 1 t i a —mtstmm 

CO (O (?) $ ee the Remarks 8, 9, and 10. 

(4) Porcorum ea verias Colluvies quam hominum 
Porio. Benzo «pud Clujtnm Exoticorum Lib.Cap. 28. 


< The Natural History 

The Spaniards (5) taught by the Mexi¬ 
cans , and convinced by their own Expe¬ 
rience, that this Drink, as ruftick as it ap¬ 
peared to them, neverthelefs' yielded very 
wbolefome Nourilhment ; try’d to make 
it more agreeable by the Addition of Su¬ 
gar, fome Oriental Spices, and Things that 
grew there, which it will be needlefs to 
mention, becaufe the Names of them are 
not fo much as known here, and becaufe 
of fo many Ingredients, there is none con¬ 
tinued down to us but Vanilla ; in like 
manner, that Cinnamon (6) is the only 
Spice which has had general Approba-' 
tion, and remains in the Compofition of 

Vanilla is a Cod of a brown Colour 
and delicate Smell ; it is flatter and longer 
than our [French) Beans, it contains a 
lufcious Subftance, full of little black Ali¬ 
ning Grains. They muft be chofen frefli, 
full, and well grown, and care muft be 
taken that they are not fmeared with Bal- 
fam, nor put in a moift Place. 

The agreeable Smell, and exquifite 
Tafte that they communicate to Choco¬ 
late, have prodigiufly recommended it; 
but long Experience having taught that 
it heats very much, its Ufe is become lefs 

(5) Hæc olim Cocoîatis crant Exordia 5 c Artis prima 
Rudimenta. P. Thom<& Strozzœ de Mentis potio. 

(6) See the nth Remark. 


^Chocolate. 6 $ 

frequent, and thofe who prefer their 
Health more than pleafing their Senfes, 
abftain from it entirely. In Spaizi and 
Italy , Chocolate prepared withou t Vanil¬ 
la, is called at prefent Chocolate of Health', 
and in the French Ifiands of America? 
where Vanilla is neither fcarce nor dear, 
as in Etirope, they do not ufe it at all, 
though they con fume as much Chocolate 
there as in any other Place in the World. 

However, a great many People are 
prejudiced in favour of Vanilla, and that 
I may pay a due Deference to their Judg¬ 
ments, I fhall employ Vanilla in the 
Compofition of Chocolate , in the beft Me¬ 
thod and Quantity, as it appears to me ; I 
fay, as it appears to me, becaufe there are 
an infinite Variety of Taftes, and every 
one expeTs that we fhould have regard 
to his, and one Perfon is for adding what 
the other rejefh. Befides, when it is 
agreed upon what things to put in, it is 
not poffible to hit upon Proportions that 
will be univerfally approved ; it will there¬ 
fore be fufficient for me to make choice of 
fuch Things as the Majority are agreed 
upon, and confequently which are agree¬ 
able to the Taftes of moll. 

When the Chocolate Pafte is made pret¬ 
ty fine upon a Stone, as I have already 
explain’d, they add Sugar powdered and 
paffed through a fine Searce; the true 
Proportion is the fame Weight of Sugar as 

K of 

66 The Natural History 

of Kernels, but it is common to put a 
quarter part lefs of the former, that it 
may not dry the Pafte too much, nor 
make it too fufceptible of Impreflions 
from the Air, and more fubjeft to be 
eaten by Worms. But this fourth Part is 
again fupply’d, when it is made into a 
Liquor to drink. 

The Sugar being well mix’d with the 
Pafte, they add a very fine Powder made 
of Va?zilla and Cinnamon powdred and 
fearced together. They mix all over 
again upon the Stone very well, and then 
put it in Tin Moulds, of what Form you 
pleafe, where it grows as hard as before. 
Thofe that love Perfumes, pour a little 
Elfence of Amber on it before they put it 
in the Moulds. 

When the Chocolate is made without 
Vanilla, the Proportion of Cinnamon is 
two Drams to a Pound of Pafte ; but 
when Vanilla is ufed, it fliould be lefs by 
one half. As for the Vanilla, the Pro¬ 
portion is arbitrary ; one, two, or three 
Cods, and fometimes more, to a Pound, 
according to every one’s Fancy. 

Thofe that make Chocolate for Sale, 
that they may be thought to have put in 
a good deal of Vanilla, put in Pepper, 
Ginger, çÿç. There are even fome People 
fo accuftomed to thefe Taftes, that they 
will not have it otherwife ; but thefe 
Spices ferving only to inflame the Blood, 


of Chocolat e. 

and heat the Body, prudent People take 
care to avoid this Excefs, and will not 
ufe any Chocolate whofe Compofition they 
are ignorant of. 

Chocolate made after this manner, has 
this Advantage, that when a Perfon is 
obliged to go from Home, and cannot ftay 
to have it made into Drink, he may eat 
an Ounce of it, and drinking after it, 
leave the Stomach to diffolve it. 

In the Antilloes they make Cakes of the 
Kernels only, without any Addition, as I 
have taught at the End of the firft Part 
of this Treatife ; and when they would 
make Chocolate of them, they proceed in 
the following Manner. 

The Method of making Chocolate 
after the Manner of the French 
] (lands in America. 

r HEY fcrape off with a Knife from 

1 thefe Cakes aforefaid (t), what 
Quantity they pleafe, (for Inftance, four 
large Spoonfuls, which weigh about an 
Ounce) and mix with it two or three 
Pinches of powder’d Cinnamon finely 
fearced, and about two large Spoonfuls 
of Sugar in Powder (2). 

( 1 ) Or rather grate it with a flat Grater , when the Cakes 
are fo dry that they will not he fo eafly /craped with a Knife. 

( 2 ) Becaufe if it was in a Lump , it would weigh mere than 
double the Quantity of /craped Chocolate, 

K 2 


68 The Natural History 

They put this Mixture into a Chocolate- 
Pot with a new-laid Egg ($) 7 both White 
and Yolk ; then mix ali well together 
with the Mill, and bring it to the Con¬ 
fidence of Liquid Honey, upon which 
they afterwards pour boiling Liquor (4), 
(Milk or Water, as is liked belt) at the 
fame time ufing the Mill that they may 
be well incorporated together. 

Afterwards they put the Chocolate-Pot 
on the Fire, or in a Kettle of boiling 
Water ; and when the Chocolate rifes, 
they take it off, and having well mill’d 
it, they pour it into the Difhes. To make 
the Tafte more exquifite, one may, before 
it is poured out, add a Spoonful of Orange- 
Flower Water, wherein a Drop or two 
of Elle nee of Amber has been put. 

This Manner of making Chocolate has 
fever a 1 Advantages above any other, and 
which render it preferable to them all. 

In the fir ft place, one may affert, that 
being well managed, it has a very agree¬ 
able Smell, and a peculiar Delicacy in the 
Tafte ; befides, it paffes very eafily off the 
Stomach, nor leaves any Settling either 
in the Chocolate-Pot, or in the Difhes. 

(5) The oily parts of the Chocolate would not readily unite 
with the aqueous or watry Parts of the Liquor, without the 
Intervention of the Egg, which ferves as a common Bond , with- 
out which this Drink would not have a good Head. 

(4) The Proportion of Liquor fhould he about eight Ounces , or 
balj a Pint } to one Ounce of Chocolate» 


0 ^* Chocolate. 6 <) 

In the fécond place, one has the Satis¬ 
faction to prepare it one’s felf to one’s 
own Tafte, to encreafe or diminifh at 
pleafure the Quantities of Sugar or Cin¬ 
namon, and to add or leave out the 
Orange-Flower Water, or Effence of Am¬ 
ber ; and, in a word, to make any other 
Alteration that fhall be mod agreeable. 

In the third place, they make no Addi¬ 
tions thatdeftroy the good Qualities of the 
Kernels ; it is fo temperate, that it may 
be taken at all Times, and by all Ages, 
in Summer as well as in Winter, without 
fearing the leaft Inconveniency : Whereas 
Chocolate feafon’d with Vanilla , and o- 
ther hot and biting Ingredients, cannot 
but be very pernicious, efpecially in Sum¬ 
mer, to young People, and to dry Confti- 
tutions. The Glafs of cold Water that 
they have introduced to drink before it, 
or after it, only ferves to palliate the Ef¬ 
fects for a Time; for the Heat that at¬ 
tends it, will manifeft itfelf in the Blood 
and Vifcera , when the Water is drain’d 
off and gone, by the ordinary ways. 

In the fourth place, a Dim is fo cheap, 
as not to come to above a Penny. If 
Tradefmen and Artizans were once aware 
of it, there are few who would not take 
the Advantage of fo eafy a Method of 
Breakfafting fo agreeably, at fo fmall a 
Charge, and to be well Supported till 


yo T^he Natural History 

Pinner-time, without taking any other 
Suftenance, Solid or Liquid. 

Sect. II. 

Of the Vf es that may be made of 
Chocolate v:ith relation to Medicine. 

I Have always imagined it would be a 
very great Advantage to Phyfick, if 
Medicines could be adminiftred to fick 
People under an agreeable Form, and a 
familiar Tarte; and the Artifice itfelf of 
giving any thing under the appearance and 
name of fomethipg that is delicate, is not 
without its Benefit : People afflicted with 
Diftempers, have enough to do to fupport 
their Pains, without the Inconveniency of 
diftaftful Remedies ; however, it would 
be no fmall matter to fpare them the 
Averfion they have to every thing that is 
called a Medicine ; and when there is a 
Neceflity for fuch, Chocolate may ferve 
for very proper Diet, and an excellent 
Vehicle, wherein to take a Medicine at 
the fame time. 

Theie have been my Thoughts for fome 
Time, and I can affirm that a happy Sue- 
cefs has often confirm'd my Opinion. I 
could wifh that this Effay, imperfect as 
it is, might ferve to waken the Attention 
of fome ingenious Phyfician, who would 
nive himfelf the trouble to handle this 


of Chocolate. 71 

Matter with greater Accuracy than my 
fmall Penetration will permit me to do. 

1. How many People negleffc to purge 
themfelves, and are fo obftinate as to re- 
fufe to do it, when they have the greateft 
need of it, and this becaufe of the great 
Diftafte they have for ordinary Medicines? 
Will it not be of the greateft Service to 
teach them to purge themfelves after a 
delightful Method, and even, if it was 
necelfary, to purge them without their 
knowledge? To do this, you need only 
mix 20 or 2 6 Grains of Jalap in Powder, 
(more or lefs, according to the Age and 
Strength of the Perfon) with fo much 
Powder of Cinnamon as is common for a 
Difh of Chocolate, and to give this Difih 
as if it were ordinary Chocolate. I have 
had great Experience of this, it is a good 
Purge without Griping; lèverai have mif 
taken the Effect for the Benefit of Nature 
only, being entirely ignorant of the officb 
ous Deceit which I made ufe of for their 
fakes. What Advantages may not there 
be drawn from this Method of Purging 
apply’d to Children, who are fo backward 
to take any thins that has the leaft il! 
Tafte? •’ 

2. The Preparations of the Cortex , both 
Galenical and Chymical, have not lue» • 
ceeded. Its Infufion in Wine, heretofore 
fo much cry’d up, contains but a part of 
the Vertue; for the Fœces , or the Bark 


yz The Natural History 

that remains at the bottom of the Bottle, 
has Strength enough to cure the intermit¬ 
ting Fever. Thus after a thoufand fruit, 
lefs Trials, it is now given again in Sub- 
ftance, reduced to a very fine Powder, 
which is either made into '■Bolus's , or ta. 
ken in Water. This Pradice however is 
attended with feveral Inconveniences; for 
a great many People, efpecially Children, 
cannot fwallow it in Bolus's. The fame 
Inconveniences follow the other Way of 
taking it in Water, and is neither lefs 
troublefome, nor lefs naufeous. 

To avoid all this, a Dram of the Cortex 
reduced to a fine (i) Powder, and finely 
fearced, and afterwards ground dry on a 
Porphyry, with the Cinnamon defigned 
for a Difh of Chocolate, and mixed in the 
Chocolate with more Sugar than ordinary, 
may be taken without the leaft Relu&an- 
cy, and, if neceffary, without being per¬ 
ceived : The Perfon will be nourifhed at 
the fame time much better than with 
Broth, which is eafily corrupted by a fe- 
verifh Stomach ; neither will the Particles 
of the Cortex offend the Stomach, being 
wrapped up by the Unftuofity of the- 
Chocolate. I have cured Intermittent Fe- 

(l) This , if true y overturns what has leen faid about the 
Mechanical Cure of art Ague , by Quincy, who pretends that 
the Vertue of the Cortex lies in its Texture } which this Prepara¬ 
tion dejiroys , 


of Chocolat e.' 

vers after this manner, nor did it ever 
fail of good Succefs. 

5. The moft elaborate Preparations of 
Steel, are not one jot the better upon that 
account ; the fimple Filings have more Ver- 
tue than was ever extorted from this Me¬ 
tal by any Preparation : there is neverthe- 
lefs an Inconveniency in the Ufe of them, 
becaufe all the Particles of the Steel uni¬ 
ting together, by their Weight, at the 
bottom of the Stomach, form a kind of a 
Cake, which fatigues it, and makes it 
very uneafy. 

To remedy this* after the Filings have 
been ground into a very fine Powder upon 
a Porphyry ; you muft mix it with the 
Cinnamon, when you make your Choco¬ 
late* and it is certain that the Particles of 
the Steel will be fo divided and feparated 
by the Agitation of the Mill, and fo en¬ 
tangled in the Chocolate, that there will 
be no danger of a future Separation, 
Befides, the aromatick Particles of the 
Cinnamon, and the alkaline ones of the 
Chocolate, will not a little add to the 
Strength and Operation of this Remedy, 

4. After this manner may you mix 
with the Chocolate the Powders or Milk* 
pedes , Vipers , Earthworms, the Livers 
and Galls of Eels, to take away the dif- 
tafteful Ideas that the Sick entertain againft 
thefe Remedies. 

L 5. The 

74 T&f Natural History 

5. The Ufe of Milk is a fpeeifick Re¬ 
medy for the Cure of feveral Diftempers, 
but by Misfortune there are but few 
Stomachs that can bear it, and feveral 
Methods have been try’d to find out Help 
for this Inconvenience. Without troubling 
myfelf to mention or examine them, 
will it not be an eafy and natural 
Method, to hinder the Milk from curd¬ 
ling on the Stomach, to pour a hot Difh 
of Chocolate upon a Pint or Quart of 
Milk ? The butirous Parts of the Milk 
and Chocolate, are in reality analogous 
to each other, and very proper to be 
United for the fame Purpofe ; and what 
is bitter and alkaline in the Chocolate, 
ought neceffarily to hinder the curdling 
of the Milk in the Stomach. It is eafy 
to confirm by Experience the Reafoning 
upon this fort of Chocolated Milk. 


Of the Oil or Butter of Chocolate. 

HOCOLATE Kernels are a Fruit 

very oleaginous, but the Oil is very 
clolely united with the other Principles, 
that it requires a great deal of Labour to 


of Chocolate. 75 

feparate it, and to make it pure. The 
three common Ways to extra& Oils, are 
by Diftillation, Expreffiqn, and DecoCtion; 
we rçjeât the firft as being very imper¬ 
fect, becaufe the Violence of the Fire 
alters the Nature of all Oils that are ex¬ 
tracted that way. The Succefs will an- 
fwer no better by Expreffion, becaule that 
which is got will be very impure and in 
very fmall Quantity. There then remains 
no way but by DecoCtion, to draw out this 
eflential Oil that we are in queft of, which 
is the true and the only way, for it gives 
it in its utmoft Purity without any Alte¬ 

They take Chocolate that is roafted, 
cleaned, and ground upon the Stone, 
they throw the Pafte into a Pan of 
boiling Water over a clear Fire ; they 
let it boil till almoft all the Water is con- 
fumed, then they pour more Water upon 
it till the Pan is full ; the Oil afcends to 
the Top in proportion as the Water cools, 
and grows to the Confidence of Butter. 
If this Oil is not very white, it needs 
only be melted in a Pan full of hot Wa¬ 
ter, where it will be difengaged and pu¬ 
rified from the red and'terreftrial Parti¬ 
cles that remain. 

At Martinico this Oil is of the Con¬ 
fiftence of Butter, but brought into firatice, 
it becomes almoft as hard as Fromage, or 

L 2 French 

7 6 Natural History 

French Cheefe, which melts neverthelefs, 
and becomes liquid with a moderate 
Heat : it has no very fenfible Smell, and 
has the good fortune never to grow 
rank ; I have feme of it now by me, that 
has been made this fifteen Years. One 


Year, when Oil of Olives failed us, we 
ufed that of Chocolate during the Time 
of Lent. It is very well tailed, and very 
far from being hurtful ; it contains the 
moll: elfential and moft healthful Parts 
of the Chocolate. 

I had the Curiofity to examine it by a 
Chymical Analyfis ; I put three Ounces 
into a little Glafs Cucurbit placed in the 
Heat of Afhes, there drop’d from it an 
oily Liquor, which congealed as it fell 
down, and which did not differ from 
the Butter that I have deferibed, but 
by a light Impreffion made upon it by 
the Fire* I only obferved, that there was 
at the bottom of the Receiver, two or 
three Drops of a clear Liquor, which 
tailed a little acid, but very agreeable. 

As this Oil is very anodyne, or an 
Eafer of Pain, it is excellent, taken in¬ 
wardly, to cure Hoarfenefs, and to blunt 
the Sharpnefs of the Salts that irritate 
the Lungs. In ufing, it mull be melted 
and mix’d with a lufficient Quantity of 
Sugar-Candy, and made into Lozenges, 
which muft ' be held in the Mouth as 


o/Chocolate. 77 

long as may be, before they melt quite 
away, fwallowing it down gently. 

Oil of Chocolate alfo taken feafonably, 
may be a wonderful Antidote againft cor- 
rofive Poiions. 

Its Vertues are no ways inferior, if ufed 
outwardly. : 

1. It is the beft and mod natural ‘Po¬ 
matum for Ladies to clear and plwnp 
the Skin when it is dry , rough , or fhri- 
vcl% without making it appear either 
fat or fhining* The SpatiiJJj Wo 7 iicn at 
Mexico , ufe it very much, and it is high¬ 
ly efteemM by them. If it is thought 
too hard, it may be foftened with Oil of 
Ben, or Oil of Sweet Almonds, cold 

2. I am perfuaded if the antient Cuf- 
tom of the Greeks and Romans, of a- 
nointing their Bodies with Oil, was revi¬ 
ved, there is nothing would anfwer their 
Expectations better, in augmenting the 
Strength and Supplenefs of their Muf- 
cles, and preferving them from Rheuma- 
tifms and other torturing Pains. The 
leaving off this Practice, can be attribu¬ 
ted to nothing elfe but to the ill Smell 
and other Properties that attended it ; 
but if Oil of Chocolate was ufed inftead 
of Oil of Olives, thofe Inconveniences 
would be avoided, becaufe it has no 
Smell, and dries entirely into the Skin : 
nothing certainly would be more advan¬ 

78 The Natural History 

tageous, efpecially for aged Perfons, than 
to renew this Cuftom, which has been 
authorized by the Experience of Anti¬ 

j. Apothecaries ought to make ufe of 
this preferably to all others, as the Bafis 
of their Apople&ick Balfams ; becaufe all 
other Oils grow rancid, and the Oil of 
Nutmegs, though whiten’d with Spirit of 
Wine, always retains fomewhat of its na¬ 
tural Smell, whereas Oil of Chocolate is 
not fubjefb to any of thefe Accidents. 

4. There is nothing fo proper as this 
to keep Arms from rufting, becaufe it 
contains lefs Water than any other Oil 
made ufe of for that purpofe. 

5. In the American Iflands they make 
ufe of this Oil to cure the Piles ; fome 
ufe it without Mixture, others melt two 
or three Pounds of Lead, and gathering 
the Drofs, reduce it into fine Powder, 
and after it is finely fearccd, incorporate 
it with this Oil, and make a Liniment of 
it very efficacious for this Difeafe. Others 
for the fame Intention mix with this Oil 
the Powder of Millepedes , Sugar of Lead, 

1 '‘Pompholix , and a little Laudanum . 

Others ufe this Oil to eafe Gout Pains, 
applying it hot to the Part, with a Com- 
prefs dip’d in it, which they cover with a 
hot Napkin. It may be ufed after the 
fame manner for the Rheumatifm. 

, 6. Laftljf 

of Chocolate. 79 

6 . Laftly , This Oil enters the Compo- 
fition of the wonderful Plaifter, and the 
‘Pomatum againft Tetters. Yôu will find 
their Defcription and Properties among 
the Remarks at the End of this Treatife. 

■I,; i ' 





( 8o ) 

K J 


Upon fome Places of the 

T reatise upon Chocolate. 

Remark I. 

Coco-ftree is the fame as 
Palm-Tree fo famous in 
Baft-Indies ; its Fruit is 
’d Coco , and care flhould 
taken that it be not con¬ 
founded with Cocao. I make this Re¬ 
mark, becaufe I find that William Dam- 
pier very improperly calls (a) Coco’s Cocao- 
Nuts, and the Tree that bears them a 
Cocao. - 

(a) New Voyage round thoWirld, Tom- i. Chap. io. 

R E- 


■Remark s,- & c . 

_ i j « ' V-- » i j ii-. / ;> ? C * r: i » 

FT fl j [ F*i«' v if f . ) _> 

Remark II. 

IjG vUJ ; eA i J R i j U J v : j 

T HEY have tranfported thefe great 
Trees from St. Domingo to the 
Ve?2t Iflands ; their Leaves being almoit 
round, are firm and fo fmooth, that one 
would think they had been varnifhed. 
Their Fruit are fometimes as large as 
one’s Head, and their Skins very thick : 
When that is taken off, the Pulp is very 
near the Colour, Smell, and Tafte of our 
Apricocks; in the Middle there are four 
Stones as big as Pullets Eggs, which are 
difficult to feparate from the Fruit. They 
are eaten with Wine and Sugar ; they 
make alfo very good Marmalade. 

Remark III. 

r*f. : C'J ■ ; ^ • ’V; : J v hi 

s ^ t 

r | MI E Cfllebajh -Tree is nigh as large 
JL as the Apple-Tree; it fupplies the 
Natives and Negroes with Buckets, Pots, 
Bottles, Difhes, Plates, and feveral other 
Houfhold Utenfils. One cannot defcribe 
the Shape nor Bignefs of Cakbajhes , fince 
there are fome of the Size of a Pear, and 
others as large as the greateft Citrons ; 
and befides, there are long, round, ova* ? 
and of ail Fafhions. The Fruit, which 

M is 

8 2, Remarks, &c. 

is green and fmooth upon the Tree, be¬ 
comes grey as it dries; within, it is full 
of a white Pulp, of no ufe at all, which 
they take out through a Hole ; the Shells 
they put to feveral Services. The Bark 
is about one Fifth of an Inch thick, but 
very hard, and difficult to break. 

Remark IV. 

T H E c Pap aw -Tree is pretty uncom¬ 
mon as to its Make; its Trunk is 
ftrait, but hollow, and of fo tender aWood, 
that it is eafily cut down with a Hedging- 
Bill ; it is about four Yards high, without 
any Branches; its Leaves much like thofe 
of our Fig-Trees, but twice as big, and 
are joined to the top by Stalks of a Foot 
and a half long, and hollow like a Reed. 
They being about thirty in number, grow 
at the top of the Trunk all round about 
it ; the lowed: are ripeft and largeft, they 
are green, and of the bignefs of one’s Fift, 
The Pulp, which is but half an Inch thick, 
is like that of a Melon, but of a fweet 
faintilh Tafte ; but it ma,kes a pretty good 
Confection, of a fine green Colour, 

There is another kind of Tapaw- Tree, 
whofe Fruit is as large as a Melon, and 
better tafted than the former. 

R E- 

R E M A R K S, &C. 85 

Remark V. 

T HE Banane is a fort of Plane, 
whofe Root is a great round Bulb, 
from whence proceeds a Trunk, green and 
fmooth, fix Feet high, as thick as one’s 
Thigh, and without any Leaf. On the 
top of it grow about twenty Leaves, a- 
bout a Foot and a half broad, and about 
five Feet long ; but fo tender, that the 
Wind tears them from the Middle to the 
Sides, into Slangs like Ribbons : From the 
Center of thefe Leaves grows a fécond 
Trunk, more firm than the reft of the 
Plant : upon this grows a Clufter of about 
forty or fifty Bana?ies , fometimes more, 
fometimes lefs. A Ba7iane is a Fruit as 
thick as one’s Arm, about a Foot long, 
and a little crooked. They gather this 
Clufter green, and hang it up in the 
Ceiling ; and as the Bananes grow yel¬ 
low, or mellow, they gather them. When 
this Clufter is taken away, the Plant wi¬ 
thers, or they cut it down at the Root ; 
but for one Trunk loft, the Root fends 
forth five or fix more. 

Befides thefe Ba?ianes , there is a Fruit 
call’d Banane'Figs ; but the Plants that 
produce them are very little different : 
The Figs are much lefs than the Bananes , 

M 2 being 

S 4 Rem ar t s, & c . 

being but four or five Inches long. The 
Fig is more delicious, but the Banane is 
thought to be more ^vhble'fome, and the 
Pulp more folid. They roaft them upon 
a Grid-Iron, or bake them in an Oven, 
they eat them with Sugar and the Juice 
of an Orange. The Banane done in a 
Stew-Pan in its own juice, with Sugar 
and a little Cinnamon, is excellent. 

Remark VI. 

AN. IOC is a Shrub very crooked, 

and full of Knots, its Wood is 

tender and brittle, and the Branches are 
eafily broke off into Slips : There are fe- 
veral, and different Colours, fome more 
forward and fruitful than others. Com¬ 
monly they are pluck’d up in a Year or 
thereabouts ; and there is found at every 
one, feveral plump Roots, without any 
fenfibie Fibres, more or lefs thick, accor¬ 
ding to the Kind and the Goodnefs of the 
Soil. Thefe Roots are wafh’d in a good 
deal of Water, to free them from the 
Earth ; and after they are fcraped with 
a Knife like wiki Turnips, they grate 
them ; that is to fay, they rub them hard 
upon great Copper Graters, which the 
French call Grages , juft as they do Quin¬ 
ces to get out the Juice, This grated 


R È M A R K S, Çÿc. 8 5 

Manioc is pot! in the Prefs in Sacks made 
of coarfe Hetwp, or Ru flies, to get out 
the fuperfluous Moifture, which is not 
only unwholefome, but poifonous. This, 
thus prefs’d, they take from the Sacks, 
and pafs it through a coarfe Sieve called 
Hibichet ; they afterwards bake it two 
feveral ways, to make what they call 
Caffave, or Meal of Manioc . 

In the firft place, when they would 
make the Cajfa-ve, they fpread the lifted 
Manioc upon a Plate of Iron over a clear 
Fire, which they tapping down with 
the Ball of their Hands, make a broad 
Cake about half an Inch thick, and two 
Feet in diameter; and when it is baked 
on one fide, they turn it on the other : 
and if they would keep it any time, they 
dry it in the Sun. 

In the fécond place, when they would 
make what they call the Meal, they put 
the Manioc , grated, preffed, and fifted, as 
before, upon a great Copper Plate four 
Feet in diameter, with a Brim five or fix 
Inches high, and placed upon a Brick Fur¬ 
nace : They ftir it continually with a 
wooden Spatula, that it may not flick 
and be baked all alike. This Meal re- 
fembles Bread grofly crumbled, and may 
be kept a long while in a dry Place. The 
Natives do not trouble themfelves to 
make the Meal; they only eat Cajfave, 


m R E M ARKS, C. 

which they bake every day, becaufe, when 
it is hot, it is more agreeable and pala¬ 

If they leave the expreffed Juice of 
Manioc to fettle, it lets fall a Facula to 
the bottom, called Mouffache , which they 
afterwards dry in the Sun : it is as white 
as Snow, of which they make very good 
Cakes, called in thofe Parts, Craque¬ 

TheLaundrefles ufe this Fœcula inftead 
of Starch, to ftarch their Linnen. Some 
Inhabitants mix one Third of this with 
two Thirds of French Meal, and make 
Bread that is very white, and well 

Remark VII. 

T fir ft fight, one would take a j&a- 
Hze-Tree for a they are lb 

like each other : there is, however, this 
difference between them, That the Leaves 
of the jRalize -Tree are not fo tender, and 
apt to be tore ; for this reafon, they ferve 
the Natives for Table-Cloths and Nap- 
kins, as well as the Negroes, and fome of 
the Planters that live in the Woods. 
Sometimes they ferve as Umbrella’s to. 
Shade them from the Sun, or Showers of 
Rain, that furprize them. 


R E.M ARKS, £fc. 87 

The Hunters have great alfiftance 
from this Plant ; for fometimes finding 
themfelves prefled with Thirft, in Places 
at fome diftance from Rivers or Foun¬ 
tains, they give the Trunk of a Palize 
a Slafh with a Knife, and immediately 
hold their Hat, or a Cup, which catches a 
clear, good, and cool Water, even in the 
greateft Heat. > 

Remark VIII. 

P IMENTO, called alfo Jamaica- 
‘Pepper, has been brought into 
France , where it grows, as in America , 
in pyramidal Cods of three or four Inches 
long : they are at firft green, then yellow, 
afterwards red, and laft of all, black. 
They pickle them in Vinegar, as they 
do Capers and little Cucumbers. There 
are in America feveral other Kinds of 
Pimentoes , and efpecially one that is 
round, and as red as a Cherry. This is 
the hotteft of all, it fetsthe Mouth all on 
fire ; for which reafon it is called the 
mad Pimento. The Natives eat nothing 
without Pimento , it is their univerfal Sea- 
foning, it ferves them inftead of Salt, and 
all Oriental Spices. 

8S R e mark s, i&c, 

j. t r r jf t f ; ; * . , 

-U; ! ' ' - Î-SJ ftl' ‘ 

; .nf 1 h m*k 

Remark IX. 

-- *-»• , -i r v * i ... 

: ' V, ; , ; v : J S JJ] > £,j ill' V- ; l 

A C HOT? E is beff known in France , 
under the Name of Roucon-, and is 
a fort of Red which the Dyers and Pain¬ 
ters make ufe of. It is the favourite Co¬ 
lour of the Savages, which they are very 
careful of planting in their Gardens, that 
they may paint their Bodies every Morn¬ 
ing, which they call Roacomug. 

Roticou is planted of a Kernel much 
after the fame manner as the Cocao-Frcc. 
The Shrub that is moft like it in Europe, 
is the Lilach, or the Arabiatt Bean. Its 
Leaves, of the Shape of a Heart, are 
longifb, pointed, and placed alternately ; 
its Bloflbms grow in Bunches at the end 
of the Boughs, they are white, mix’d 
with Carnation, like the Flowers of the 
wild Rofe-Tree. In the middle, there is 
a Tuft of yellow Stamina with red Points ; 
when thefe Bloflbms fall off, there ap¬ 
pears tawny Buds, befet with fine Prickles : 
Thefe Buds grow to be Shells, which, 
when ripe, open on the upper fide, and 
difcover within, two Rows of Pippins, al- 
moft like little Peas, cover’d with Vermi¬ 
lion, which flicks to the Fingers, when 
touch’d, and leaves the Pippins quite, when 
wafh’d with warm Water. The Water 


R E MA RK S, Çfc. 89 

being fettled, they pour it off gently by 
degrees, they dry the Colour in the Shade 
that fell to the bottom of the Veffel; and 
this is the true Roacoti, without any Mix¬ 
ture. The Phyficians in thefe Parts pre- 
fcribe it to cut and attenuate thick and 
tough Humours, which caufe difficulty of 
Breathing, Retenfion of Urine, and ail 
forts of Obftruftions *. 

s y 

- Rem a r k X. 


A TOLLA is a kind of Gruel which 
they make with Meal of Maife, 
(which is the fame as our Indian Corn, 
or Turkey Millet.) The Mexicans fea- 
fon it with Tifnento) but the Nuns and 
SpaniJJo Ladies, inftead of c Pime7tto , ufe 
Sugar, Cinnamon, perfumed Waters of 
Amber, Musk, In thefe Parts, they 

make the fame Ufe of Jtolla , as of the 
belt Rice in the Levant* 

Remark XL 


O N E ought to chufe the fmalleft 
Cinnamon, the higheft coloured, 
and of the molt biting Tafte, as well as 
fweet and fpicy, becaufe a great Part is 

* Thomas u age, Tom, 1. P-’t a. 14a. 

N full 


90 Remarks, 

full of Pieces, from whence they have 
drawn the Effence, and has neither any 
Colour nor Tafte, but that of the Wood. 
To help and amend both, there needs 
only a Clove to be ground in the Mortar, 
with an Ounce of Cinnamon. This Spice 
is beft that comes from the Eaft'Indies> 
it has nothing of Acrid in it, and con¬ 
tains an oleous Volatile, which agrees 
very well with that of Chocolate. Cin¬ 
namon alfo has always kept its Place in 
all the Compofitions of Chocolate. 





(91 > 


In whofe Compofirion 

Oil or Butter 

o F 


Is made ufe of 

ST Toe Wonderful Plaijler for the 
Curing of all forts of Ulcers. 

AKE Oil-Olive a Pound, Ve¬ 
netian Cerufsy in Powder, half a 

Put them in a Copper Pan, or a * 
glazed Earthen one, upon a clear moderate 
Eire, ftirring them continually with a 

N 2 wooden 


9 t Medicines compofi id 

wooden Spatula till the Mixture is be» 
come black, and almoft of the Confidence 
of a Plaifter, ('which you may know 

by letting fall two or three Drops upon 
a Pewter Plate ; for if they grow cold im¬ 
mediately, and do not ftick to the Fingers, 
when touched, it is done enough.) Then 
muft be added. 

Of Rees Wax cut in little flits , an 
Ounce and a half. 

Oil or gutter of Chocolat an Ounce. 
Ralfam Gapivi , an Ounce and a half 

When they are all melted and mixed 
together, the Pan rnuft be taken off the 
Fire ; and ftirring conftantly with the 
Spatula , you mutt add the following In- 
gredients, reduced into a fine Powder fe- 

parately, and then well mixed together. 


Lapis Galaminaris, heated in the 
Fire, and then quenched in Lime- 
Water, and ground upon a Porphy¬ 
ry, one Ounce. 

Myrrh in Drops , l 
Aloes Succotrinej (of each two 
'Round Rirthwort , f Drams. 
Florentine Orris , j 
Camphire , a Dram. 

, . ; {. ... I. . c - U *’, 


of Chocolate, Çfc. 95 

When they are all well incorporated 
together, they mu ft cool a little, and 
then be poured upon a Marble to be 


I have feen fuch furprizing Effects from 
this Emplaifter, that I am almoft back* 
ward to mention them, left they, fhould 
feem incredible. It cures the moft ftub- 
born and inveterate Ulcers, provided the 
Bone is not carious: for in this Cafe, left 
you fhould lofe your Labour, you muft 
begin with the Bone, and then apply the 
Piailler. The Place muft be drefs’d Morn¬ 
ing and Evening after it is clean’d with 
Lime Water, and wiped well with a 
Linnen Cloth. 

The fame Piailler may ferve feveral 
Times, provided it be wafhed with Lime 
Water, wiped with a Rag, and held to 
the Fire a Moment before it is apply’d. 

I exhort charitable People to make this 
Piailler and give it to the Poor, efpecially 
thofe that live in the Country ; they will 
draw down a Thoufand Bleffings in this 
Life, and the Lord will recompence them 


94 Medicines compofed 

An excellent Pomatum for Ring¬ 
worms , T ettarsy Pimples , and 
other Deformities of the Skin. 

T A K E Flowers of. Brimftone (a), Salt 
Petre purified, of each Half an 
Ounce ; good White Precipitate (b), two 
Drams ; ‘Benzoin or Benjamin, a Dram. 

Beat the Benjamin and Salt-Petre a 
good while in a Brafs Mortar, till they 
are reduced into a very fine Powder, 
then mix the Flower of Brimftone and 
White Precipitate with them, and keep 
this Powder for Ufe. 

At Martinico when I had occafion to 
make ufe of it, I incorporated it with 
Butter of Chocolate ; but in France , I 
fubftitute the beft-fcented JeJfamijz Po¬ 
matum : This Smell, joined with that of 
Benjamin, correâs the Smell of the Brim* 
ftone, which fome Perfons abhor. 

I cannot fuificiently recommend this 
Pomatum , which always fucceeds well, 
and I have often found it beneficial when 
every thing elfe faiPd. 

(a) To wit, thofe that are made in Holland, if they can 
he got. 

(b) To know if the Precipitate he goody you may do thus ; 
Tut a little upon a live Coaly if it flies away , it is good\ if it 
flays behind) it is nothing but powder d Cerufs } or fome fuck 


of Chocolate, &c. 95 

You muft not wonder if on the firft, 
and fometimes the fécond Day, the Tet- 
tar feems more lively, or the Completion 
more dull ; it is a fign that the Malignity 
is drawn out, and that the Seeds of it are 
deftroy’d : you mult therefore take heed 
of defifting, for the Skin in a little Time 
will be render’d as even and fmooth as 
you can defire. 


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