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So 


Bass Guitar 
Exercises 


dummies 


A Wiley Brand 











Refine your technique with 
300 bass guitar exercises 

F | E не 

| 1 Practice tempo, time signature, 
phrasing, and dynamics 








1% 1. ø Apply bass fundamentals 
to playing a groove 


Patrick Pfeiffer 


Professional bassist, composer, 
and bass coach 





Er 人 


< 


Bass Guitar 
Exercises 





by Patrick Pfeiffer 
Foreword by Mark Egan 


dummies 
A Wiley Brand 


Bass Guitar Exercises For Dummies® 


Published by: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774, www.wiley.com 
Copyright © 2020 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey 
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Contents аға Glance 


әне MC ——————— HH xi 
Introduction rm 1 
Part 1: Preparing to Ргасїїсе................................................... 5 
cHAPTER 1: Reviewing Practice Fundamentals. nn 7 
cHAPTER2: Warming Up Your Right and Left Напаб...................................... .. 15 
Part 2: Scales (Modes) and Сһогаѕ........................................... 29 
CHAPTER З: Playing Scales (Мойев).............................................2........ ... 31 
CHAPTER 4: Playing Mode 5едмепсев................................................ ..... 47 
cHAPTER 5: Working with Arpeggios......... sse 69 
СНАРТЕВ 6: Combining Seventh Chords ................................................. .. 83 
Part 3: Rhythm and the Сгооме.............................................. 97 
cHAPTER 7: Building the Groove 5Кке/еіоп ............................................. ..... 99 
CHAPTER 8: Accessing the Groove Арех.................................................... 111 
CHAPTER 9: Setting Up with the Groove Тай................................................ 119 
CHAPTER 10: Combining КһуШпв.......................................................... 129 
Part 4: Turning Exercises into Мивіс....................................... 139 
CHAPTER 11: Feeling the Eighth-Note сгооме............................................... 141 
CHAPTER 12: Working the Sixteenth-Note Сгооуе............................................ 151 
CHAPTER 13: Trippin’ ON Тпіріеіб...................................................4.22... .. 161 
Part 5: The Part оЁТепѕ....................................................... 167 
CHAPTER 14: Ten Essential Elements of a Great Practice 5ебіоп.............................. 169 
CHAPTER 15: Ten Famous Tunes That Incorporate the Exercises in This ВооК................... 173 
Part 6: Appendixes ............................................................ 177 
APPENDIX A: How to Use the Website ...................................................... 179 


Table of Contents 


РОКЕМОКО оа аа соси хі 
INTRODUCTION роне ее на Ee vi оаа og Ga Pac 1 
About This ВООК ака thes mn ebat pd Ree ED RE 1 
Conventions Used in This Воок............................................... 2 

What You're Not to Read eese анааан иаа ERE Ar dra 2 
Foolishi.Assumiptions. ОУ О касы бағалы УО О С Г О К 2 

How This Book Is Organized ................................................. 3 

Part 1: Preparing то: Practice 2, ысыла b's as monte к e lee йа ЖАЙКЫ КК ЫЗ 3 

Part 2: Scales (Modes) апа Сһогав........................................ 3 

Part 3: Rhythm апа the б(гооме......................................... 2... 3 

Part 4: Turning Exercises into Мивсіс........................................ 3 

Part5: The Partof Tens «see а Reeve p АН gne 3 

Part6 Appendixes-. s. а кекете ааа та ана балы А T Rte 4 
ThieWebsite.......oc rece reni qe ke osse bres RED PER dr de aiu qud 4 

Icons Used in This ВооК..................................................... 4 

Where to Go from Неге................................................. .... 4 

PART 1: PREPARING TO PRACTICE ........................................... 5 
снартек 1: Reviewing Practice Fundamentals .................................. 7 
How to Approach Practicing Your Ва55........................................ 7 

Dividing your practice time ................................................ 7 

The importance of noodling ............................................... 8 

Making a fool оҒуошгвеі................................................. 8 

Exercises for a Ғегйіте................................................... 8 

Gettirig Into: POSItIOrI. к нт тт eee a i ce RU RO pde ei a 9 

керт еее катет team ta aires en uota аена 9 

Positioning your һапаб.................................................. 9 

Tackling Могайой: қаласы eode RE RENDERE ESTE UNE PG ERAS 9 

Note names on the песк................................................ 10 

Traditional music notation and tablature .................................. 11 

USING the: BEI. uere i pe ede UR RTI Cot A Doce а UR О О С СГ 11 

Breaking down rhythmic notation ........................................ 12 

Chord notation... cracker ele RAI PE PG ub OY p aci e ы ed ce PL AR a 13 

снартек 2: Warming Up Your Right and Left Hands........................... 15 
Stretching without the 1п5їгитепї........................................... 15 

Getting a feel for each finger. eh 16 

Stretching your handS. men 16 

Getting blood into your Тіпсегіір........................................... 16 

Stretching your shoulders and your баск .................................. 17 

Crossing the Strings with the Right Напа..................................... 18 
Alternating up and raking аомп........................................ ... 18 

Referencing each бігіпр................................................. 19 

Exercising One: String atia Te, cris ER ано ьо RERBA 20 

Striking the staccato мау............................................... 20 
Accentimg:any повела ао 20 

Usirig упай: ее We as УО О О dre entere nu e PRU Г 21 


Table of Contents V 


Keeping the Left Hand 5їайїопагу............................................ 22 


Left-hand регтпибайопв................................2............. .... 22 
Walking SBIder uos teen жекей ка нна оле PLA aero aoe 24 
Gettirig а. рО. ааа а айы shales қайырады das 25 
Cutting down on excess finger поуетепе................................. 26 
Shifting the Left Напа.......................................2........... ... 26 
Shifting with any Гіпрег...............................................1.. 27 
Cutting down оп string поібе......................................2...... 28 
PART 2: SCALES (MODES) AND СНОКО................................... 29 
снартек з: Playing Scales (Моадеѕ)................................................ 31 
Playing the Primary Мой0ев................................................. 31 
Major scale — Іопіап................................................. ... 32 
Minor scale — Dorian iens eem tr eh reget АЗЫ ааа ына RR Rn 34 
Dominant scale — Міхоіудіап................................32............ 36 
Half-diminished scale — Іоспап........................................... 38 
Playing the Secondary Мойев............................................... 40 
Phrygian — The exotic minor саіе........................................ 40 
Aeolian — The natural minor 5сайе........................................ 42 
Lydian — Major scale with аїууапр........................................ 43 
Making MUSIC: : за Фа кке ee hand toda жала аа анаға ат Сама 45 
снартека: Playing Mode Ѕедиепсеѕ............................................. 47 
Lining Up Major and Minor Sequences in 12 Кеуб.............................. 47 
Getting into the та|огв............................................2..... 47 
Practicirnig mirior SEQUENCES hei vs eee айсы жа Wed eee E Аы D еу 53 
Playing Sequences in Triplet ЕҺУІНт...................................... . .. 58 
Major scale sequence — triplets and ѕесопаѕ .............................. 59 
Major scale sequence — triplets and (Пігів................................ 60 
Major scale sequence — triplets and ЁЁһѕ................................. 61 
Minor scale sequence — triplets and ѕесопаѕ .............................. 62 
Minor scale sequence — triplets and ћігаѕ ................................ 63 
Minor scale sequence — triplets and Ё#ћ5................................. 64 
String Crossings with Interval Ехегсісез....................................... 65 
Major scale sequence — referencing the гооб.............................. 65 
Minor scale sequence — referencing the гоої .............................. 66 
Dominant scale sequence — referencing the гоої. .......................... 67 
ROCKING OU cu "PR 68 
снартек ѕ: Working with Агревеіоѕ.............................................. 69 
Triads: Outlining the Нагтопу.............................................. 69 
Ма(ог:агревбі0в;.22-0 ое бомы QU re Rs ertt tete na n n tele Ұрын Жақау 69 
Minor: arpesglOS. xac ihe emere к РЫП A LE a a Red 71 
Diminished агревріов................................................. . . 72 
Getting Down with Chord Іпуегбіоп5.......................................... 73 
Major chord: inversioris;« ОО ОЛ ОО ГС О n RU RR da dade 73 
Minor chord їпүег$їОП$................................... eee ened 76 
Shifting with Two-Octave Агрерріов........................................... 77 
Two-octave major агрервіо5............................................1 78 
Two-octave.minor' arp ggi Sr. Wieck ee ern oen RO Rie nea ба аа o ds 79 
Using Triad Accompaniment іп a 5опв........................................ 81 


Bass Guitar Exercises For Dummies 


снартек в: Combining Seventh Сһогѓа5.......................................... 83 


Structuring Seventh Сһогав................................................. 83 
Major seventh агрервіов................................................ 83 
Minor seventh агрервіов................................................. 85 
Dominant seventh агреввіов............................................. 86 
Half-diminished агрервіов.............................................. 87 

Combining Seventh Chords апа Мойев........................................ 89 
Major seventh іопаійу.................................................. 89 
Major seventh groove, chord, and тоде................................... 89 
Minor seventh (опайіу..........................2.222222.2.................. 90 
Minor seventh groove, chord, and пюодав................................... 91 
Dominant seventh {опаЩу............. ccc cece cee rn 92 
Dominant seventh groove, chord, апа тоде............................... 92 
Half-diminished іопаійу............................2.2.222.2.2.............. 93 
Half-diminished groove, chord, and тойе ................................. 94 

Using Seventh Chords іп а 5опв............................................. 95 

PART 3: RHYTHM AND THE СКООМЕ........................................ 97 
снартек7: Building the Groove Skeleton ....................................... 99 

Playing with Eighth Мобев.................................................. 99 
Dotted quarter followed by an eighth .................................... 100 
Quarter notes. sies tee ce Cx aoo МА o AR c RT Nan ee eid 101 
Eighthi notes. slc ыла ыла А а ТЕТЕ аа EGG PNE RE 102 
Rockin’ out with а 5опр...........................2..2.2.2.................. 103 

Zipping with Sixteenth Мобев..............................................1 104 
Dotted eighth followed Бу авіхіеепір.................................... 104 
Sixteenth NOTES un ah auch sd аке а атаны ea RUE анық алыныз 105 
Getting all funked цр.......................................7Л............ 106 

Shuffling with Тгіріеіб................................................... . 107 
First and third notes іп айгіріеі......................................... .. 107 
First and second notes іп аігіріеі......................................... 108 
Trials, tribulations, and ігірібіс........................................... 109 

charters: Accessing the Groove Арех......................................... 111 

Isolating the Sixteenth МоТев................................................ 111 
Sixteenth-note groove apexes in реаї мо ................................ 112 
Sixteenth-note groove apexes in реаї їћгее............................... 113 
Sixteenth-note groove apexes in beat Ғоиг................................ 114 
The rise and fall of the apex етріге...................................... 114 

Isolating Triplets: иерей о ЫНЫ 115 
Triplet groove apexes in реабімо......................................... 116 
Triplet groove apexes in реаї їћгее ...................................... 116 
Triplet groove apexes in beat їоиг....................................... 117 
Having triplets cse cheese ey PER Rr br ua ei pad how deta RAPI Y Editus 118 

charters: Setting Up with the Groove Таійі.................................... 119 

Preparing a Groove with an Eighth-Note Ғеві................................. 119 
TWO- NOt SETUP «onc eser d Rees d жаа te yt e IRR дб 120 
Three-note вейір.................................2.............4... .... 120 
Foür-note Setup... ГТ йй ыо a P кр БН 121 
Anticipatory-SetUD м.а» кжжа кбй вк к кан кн ба байы ка кыкка TR E са Басады 121 
Tailing a song with ап eighth-note їее!................................... 122 


Table of Contents vii 


viii 


Approaching a Groove with a Sixteenth-Note Ғеві............................. 123 


TWO Motes etUD о ts Bs gate teats а лышы ы та Ry tu arson ee Ru eg 123 
Three-note бейир...................................................... 123 
Foúr Поет a E т 124 
Anticipatory SOLU Perriren dure eric ik ew ty a p bote e 124 
Song with funky tailing sixteenth-note Теві................................ 125 
Setting Up a Groove with a Triplet Еее ...................................... 125 
ПМО-ПОТЕЗЕШр una A а EE а p ad RE 126 
Three-note Setup. rrene 126 
Anticipatory SCLUP siis seem hee аа жасан қаласа 126 
Happy tails for a song т айгіріесТееі..................................... 127 
CHAPTER 10: Combining Rhythms ———————————— 129 
Mixing Triplets with Eighth and Sixteenth Мобев.............................. 129 
Scales in sixteenth notes and ігіріеіб..................................... 130 
Arpeggios in sixteenth notes and triplets ................................. 132 
Arpeggios and scales using sixteenth notes and triplets 
with a sixteenth-note вгооуе........................................... 133 
Arpeggios and scales using sixteenth notes and triplets with a triplet groove... .134 
Song using triplets and eighths, with bass playing the melody ............... 135 
Mastering the Master-Maker Etudes ........................................ 135 
Diatonic chord movement using eighth notes and ігіріеіз................... 136 
Diatonic chord movement using sixteenth notes and triplets................ 136 
The ultimate exercise ................................................... 137 
Song with a rhythmically complex ргооме. ................................ 138 
PART 4: TURNING EXERCISES INTO МОБІС............................... 139 
снартек 11: Feeling the Eighth-Note Сгооме.................................... 141 
Harnessing Country агоомев............................................... 141 
Traditional country Ба55.............................................. 141 
Contemporary country bass ............................................ 142 
Caught between a Rock and a Hard Ваѕ5 .................................... 144 
Pop goes the bass ріауег................................................ 144 
Rockin’ and гойЙіп...................2.222222............................. 145 
Embracing Worldly 56)іе5................................2...2.... ........... 146 
Һаглотте:йргеввае:. 35-ы кер ааа алаға жаза алыл ҰЙЫ ww зі» 146 
LOOPING Пай узэк et REY Guyane e ee dae eee eee a 147 
The whirled beat of world реаб......................................... 149 
снағтев 12: Working the Sixteenth-Note Сгооме.............................. 151 
Getting into.a FUNK еее e he E RR EE CI er y 151 
Traditional funk Ба5в..................................................... 152 
БипК-а-бі-рИПК,.; сезе кекс re кесе е ааа қан CC ка ққ еее кт, 154 
Funkifizing R & В/$ОШ|.............................. nn 155 
Be on Your Mettle with Меїа!...апа Prog ВосК.............................. 157 
Steeling yourself for теїа!.............................................. 157 
Progressing to prog госк...............................2.22.............. 159 
charter 13: Trippin’ ON Triplets ................................................... 161 
Shuffling the Eighth Notes... Hen 161 
Shifting into shuffle тоае.............................................. 161 
The slinking 6һи Ше..................................................... 162 


Bass Guitar Exercises For Dummies 


Swinging the Funk and Making It 5ууипК..................................... 163 


It don't mean a funk if it ain't got that 5ууипК.............................. 163 

Hipping and hopping .................................................. 165 

PART 5: THE PART ОҒТЕМ65.................................................. 167 
снартек 14: Ten Essential Elements of a Great Practice Session............ 169 
Inverting Triad Агреввіов.................................................. 169 
Arpeggiating Seventh Chords .............................................. 170 

Playing Scale Sequences with Grooves ...................................... 170 

Moving the Modes...» О Г О XH Lee e donee eg О 170 

Doing Right-Hand Ехегсізев................................................ 170 

Doing Left-Hand Ехегсізеб................................................. 170 
Practicing Master-Maker Ешіев.............................................. 170 
Grooving in а Genre/Style .................................................. 171 
Freebassing siete ie aha ҰРАР бб Ұқ кке E ақын 171 

Reading Bass Grooves .................................................... 171 


CHAPTER 15: 


Ten Famous Tunes That Incorporate the 


Exercises in This ВооК................................................ 173 

Weaving through Scales and Chords — Jaco Равісгінб......................... 174 
Perfecting the Groove Tail — Pino Раһадіпо................................... 174 

Inverting Triad Arpeggios — СІН Вигіоп...................................... 174 

Swinging the Triplets — Berry Oakley ........................................ 174 

Hitting the Groove Apex — David Нооа........................................ 174 
Arpeggiating the Triad — Paul МссСагїпеу. ................................... 174 

Nailing the Groove Skeleton — Anthony |асквоп.............................. 175 

Using the Seventh-Chord Arpeggio — George Рогќег, Јг. ....................... 175 

Running the Mode — Bernard Edwards ..................................... 175 
Mastering the Swunk — Francis "Rocco" Ргезйа............................... 175 

PART 6: APPENDIXES .. eco eee o OR dor e VOR E жа та or aa 177 
АРРЕМОІХ А: НОМУ to Use the М/ервйе............................................. 179 
Relating the Text to the Website Files ....................................... 179 

Stereo separation ..................................................... 179 
System:Regqulretmerts. иное не е Еа ае ен еар 180 

Tracks оп the Web раре.................................................. 180 
Troubleshooting ......................22222222........................... 186 


APPENDIX В: 


Extended Range Basses and Practice Goals...................... 187 


Table of Contents ix 


Foreword 


atrick Pfeiffer has done it again, and this time he has created a comprehensive and complete 
bass studies book for all levels of bassists. 


Bass Guitar Exercises For Dummies is a masterwork that presents not only what to practice but how 
to practice and includes an extensive amount of audio examples that you can play along with. 


You'll be able to practice scales, arpeggios, progressions, and grooves, all of which are the build- 
ing blocks of a great bassist. 


This book shows you how to incorporate these techniques and exercises into your own playing, 
and as a result, you'll make better music. 


Bass Guitar Exercises For Dummies is an invaluable resource for all bassists and should be in every 
bassist's library regardless of their level of ability. I wish I had this book 40 years ago! 


Thank you, Patrick, for the fine work. 


— Mark Egan 


Introduction 


ay down the groove with tight, focused notes and an irresistible feel. Flawlessly navigate the 
turbulent sea of rhythm and harmony. Ride the deep, articulate, sonorous sound waves of 
your bass guitar — and do it all with confidence, skill, grace, and joy. 


What if a book comes along that makes you a better bass player — no matter your present level — 
and streamlines your practice routine with efficient and effective exercises that cover all musical 
aspects of bass playing, including a multitude of techniques in all styles of music? 


This is that book. Bass Guitar Exercises For Dummies bridges knowing and doing, or, in the case of 
musicians, theory and playing. Sure, it’s important to memorize certain rules, like which scales 
to use with which chords, but it won’t do you any good unless you have the scales firmly embed- 
ded in your muscle memory, with your hands trained to reach automatically for the proper move. 


It’s also important to develop muscle memory to play arpeggios, rhythms, grooves, and melodies, 
and to establish the wherewithal to apply them to different styles. You find exercises in this book 
to help you smooth your shifts, your string crossings, your attack, and your dynamics — 
exercises that don’t sound like exercises at all because they’re written as musical pieces. After all, 
you want to play music. 


About This Book 


The exercises in Bass Guitar Exercises For Dummies go far beyond the conventional practicing of 
scales, arpeggios, and other etudes. These exercises are bass-specific. Playing scales straight up 
and down may be great for other instruments, but for bass players it doesn’t suffice. As a bassist 
you’re also responsible for rhythm and groove; thus, the scales in Bass Guitar Exercises For Dummies 
resolve harmonically as well as rhythmically. In fact, many of the scale exercises in this book segue 
straight into grooves that you can use in real songs. 


All the exercises are tried and true, truly the best stuff on earth. You can improve your playing 
literally within days just by doing the exercises. Of course, I don’t expect you to play all 227 or so 
etudes in one day! I group the exercises so that several address each issue, but in slightly different 
ways. For example, you get to work all four fingers of your fretting hand whether you’ re practic- 
ing permutations or shifting. 


Some exercises are short — only a measure or two — and some are quite lengthy, sometimes two 
pages. I encourage you to transpose each exercise into all keys, even if the exercise is presented 
in only one. The bass is symmetrical; therefore, your fingering doesn’t change, which makes 
transposing the music an easy task. 


At the end of this book you find a list of techniques, including the order in which to practice them. 
This is definitely not a book you need to read from front to back, in chronological order. In fact, 
after you read this introduction, I recommend that you skip to the last chapter to see why it’s 
worth practicing the exercises in Bass Guitar Exercises For Dummies. There you find examples of 
exercises applied to famous bass-heavy music, and I assure you, you'll recognize at least some of 
these songs. 


Introduction 1 


I don’t delve into theory very deeply. If you want to know more about a certain scale, groove, or 
musical style, you may want to look into Bass Guitar For Dummies, 2nd Edition (also written by yours 
truly and published by Wiley). Remember, Bass Guitar Exercises For Dummies is an exercise book. You 
get down and dirty and physical. You can listen to each exercise on the accompanying website at 
www. dummies .com/go/bassguitarexercisesfd (they sound quite cool) as you look at the nota- 
tion, the tablature, and in some cases the grid. Many of the fingerings and shifts (if applicable) are 
also indicated. Dive right in — I’ve got your back. 


Conventions Used in This Book 


I use a few For Dummies conventions in Bass Guitar Exercises For Dummies for consistency and to 
make it easy to follow. To start with, when I refer to the right hand I mean your striking hand, and 
when I refer to the left hand I mean your fretting hand. My apologies to southpaws everywhere. 
Left-handers should translate right hand as left hand and vice versa (Paul McCartney, are you 
reading this?). 


The fingering numbers are as follows: 1 for the index finger, 2 for the middle finger, 3 for the ring 
finger, and 4 for the pinkie. The fingering is indicated above the notes of the music notation. If 
you have to move your fretting hand out of position, I indicate this with the word shift between 
the fingering numbers. 


Higher and lower refer to the pitch, not the physical move. You move from high to low by moving 
your fretting hand on the neck away from the body of the bass and toward the tuning heads. For 
the striking hand, going from high to low means going from a thin string to a thicker string. It’s 
all about the pitch (did someone yell “strike”?). 


In the exercises, the music is printed with the standard music notation on top and the tablature 
below. If chords are present (for the songs), they’re indicated between the notation and the tab. 
Sometimes you also find a grid nearby to help you visualize the pattern for your fretting hand. 


What You’re Not to Read 


If you’d like to know why you’re doing what you’re doing in an exercise, then by all means read 
the accompanying text. If you’re familiar with a concept, go straight to the notation. I keep the 
text to a minimum (even though it’s a great outlet for my strange sense of humor). I guess you 
can say it's on a “need-to-know basses.” 


Foolish Assumptions 


2 


I assume you play bass and are somewhat familiar with the concept of scales and chords. You 
don't have to be an expert yet — this book is supposed to help you become that — but if you need 
help with the bass-ics, like tuning your bass or buying one, check out Bass Guitar For Dummies, 2nd 
Edition, which is also a great reference source, in case you have any questions about theory. I also 
assume you're ready to try some fun new material that'll help you fine-tune your bass- playing 
skills and make you an all-around better, more fluid bass player. 


Bass Guitar Exercises For Dummies 


I don’t assume you like every style of music that’s represented in this book, but I do assume that 
your favorite is among them. The exercises are aimed at the physical aspect of bass playing, so 
you can gain the proficiency necessary to play in any style. 


How This Book Is Organized 


I organize the bulk of the book into four distinct aspects of bass playing: scales (modes), arpeg- 
gios (chords), rhythm, and groove genres. Most important, this book shows you how to combine 
all these aspects into your own playing and to use them to make music. 


Part 1: Preparing to Practice 


This part is all about getting ready to make the most of your precious practice time, from stretch- 
ing to posture. You also find a little refresher course on the use of bass notation and tablature, as 
well as exercises to get the juices in your hands flowing for the workout to come. 


Part 2: Scales (Modes) and Chords 


Part 2 revels in the exciting world of scales and chords — from playing scales straight up and 
down to combining them with chord arpeggios and even with grooves. You can find some real ear 
candy in this part. 


Part 3: Rhythm and the Groove 


This part lays out all the different elements of a bass groove: the groove skeleton, groove apex, 
and groove tail. I address each element separately and include musical exercises using real 
grooves. You also find the so-called master-maker etudes here — serious exercises that combine 
triplets with eighth and sixteenth notes. 


Part 4: Turning Exercises into Music 


In this part you get to turn the exercises into real-life bass grooves. This part is all about using 
the right rhythm for the right style — from country to metal, from funk to reggae. You can accu- 
mulate a good basic repertoire of genre-specific grooves so that you sound like an expert at your 
next session. 


Part 5: The Part of Tens 


This wouldn’t be a For Dummies book without the Part of Tens. This part gives you the ten essen- 
tial elements of a complete practice session (along with your very own practice sheet), and you 
get to see how the exercises in this book are applied in real (and famous) songs. I did tell you that 
the goal of this book is to get you ready for the big leagues, right? 


Introduction 3 


Part 6: Appendixes 


Appendix A gives an overview of the audio tracks you'll find on the website at www. dummies . com/ 
go/bassguitarexercisesfd. Appendix B offers some information for those of you who play 
extended-range basses, and it gives you a handy worksheet that you can use to keep track of your 
practices. 


The Website 


The audio tracks that come with Bass Guitar Exercises For Dummies are tracks of me, your author, 
playing many of the exercises that appear in the book, including some pure performance pieces. 
Listen to the tracks for examples of how certain exercises should sound. Don’t forget that there’s 
room for improvising! 


Icons Used in This Book 


I don’t use many of the typical Dummies icons in this book, but when I do, it’s best to pay 
attention. 


This icon points out expert advice to help you become a better bass player. 


TIP 


Certain techniques are worth remembering. You may use this information again and again (within 
and without this book). 


REMEMBER 


m This icon alerts you to technical information that you may have missed or forgotten since you 
>” first started practicing bass guitar playing. 


TECHNICAL 
STUFF 


Where to Go from Here 


4 


Go straight to the last chapter (Chapter 15), where you can discover how these exercises can be 
applied to great music. That should give you an incentive to work through some of the other 
chapters. If I were you, I’d also check out Chapter 14 to explore the different elements of a great 
practice session. 


Other than that, just dip into each chapter to your heart’s content. You certainly don’t have to 
read (or play) through this book in a linear progression. If you’re working on getting comfortable 
with scales, go to Chapter 3. If you want to practice your arpeggios as music, check out Chapter 6. 
If you can’t wait to get your hands on some authentic grooves, jump to Chapter 11. And if you’re 
simply in a rough-and-tough workout mood and want to build up some strength and coordina- 
tion in your fingers, get it on with Chapter 2. 


Whatever you’re looking for in a practice routine, I’ve got you covered. I truly hope that this book 
enhances your life as a bass player and that you find countless hours of playing pleasure because 
of it. And when that big gig comes your way, please tell me all about it at my Web site: 
www. Sourkrautmusic.com. 


Bass Guitar Exercises For Dummies 


Preparing to 
Practice 


IN THIS PART... 


Before you start treating practicing as a chore, check out 
this part to discover how to make it fun, and above all, 
rewarding. You may never want to leave home again 
without having had a thorough practice session. You 
also get a review of some bass-ic fundamentals and a 
great selection of preparatory stretches and exercises 
that will have you blazing up and down the fingerboard 
іп no time. 


IN THIS CHAPTER 


» Planning your practice routine 





» Positioning your body and your 
hands 


» Reading notation, tab, and grids 


Chapter 1 


Reviewing Practice 
Fundamentals 


know you’re just as eager to get started as I am to get you going, but before letting you off the 
leash, Га like to make sure you get the most out of your practice time 一 in terms of skill as 
well as enjoyment. 


In this chapter you find tips on how to structure (and un-structure) your bass guitar practice ses- 
sions. Some material you’re probably familiar with, and other material may be brand-new, but all 
is very useful to your bass-ic well-being. 


How to Approach Practicing Your Bass 


Imagine it’s the beginning of a perfect day. You’re well rested and eager to play, and the only 
thing on your agenda is to practice bass. Alas, a perfect day indeed. You get comfortable in your 
bass space, tune your bass guitar, and then . . . and then you wonder how you should be spending 
your precious practice time. 


A primary reason for writing this book is to give you an arsenal of really useful exercises that are 
fun to play, sound musical, and above all make you a better bass player, so you never again have 
to wonder what to practice on one of those perfect days when your bass guitar is calling you. 


Dividing your practice time 


Organizing the time wisely in your practice sessions is one of the most crucial steps you can take 
to ensure a consistent, effective, and efficient practice routine. First, you need to choose how 
much time to allot yourself on any given day, and also how much time you can dedicate on a regu- 
lar basis (it takes more than one session to create a master). Instead of spending the entire prac- 
tice session slogging through technical exercises — bass gymnastics if you will — keep in mind 
that music is fun. Make sure you assign a good chunk of time for playing songs or just *noodling"; 
it's important. 


CHAPTER 1 Reviewing Practice Fundamentals 7 


8 


TIP 


REMEMBER 


My suggestion is to divide your practice time into thirds. Dedicate the first third to the physical 
warm-ups; the second to scales, arpeggios, and other theoretical stuff; and the last third to con- 
solidating the physical and theoretical workout into grooves and songs — or just noodling. 


If you’re able to practice for 30 minutes, start by warming up for 10 minutes with string crossing 
and finger exercises, then run scales and arpeggios for the next 10, and then play some fun stuff 
to fill out the final 10. If it’s a 15-minute session, your increments аге 5 minutes each. If you have 
exactly 23 minutes, then you may want to break out a calculator, or just wing it; don’t take this 
suggested schedule too seriously. 


The importance of noodling 


How important is it to do some noodling on your instrument after you practice all those scales 
and arpeggios? Very. It’s like playtime after your puppy’s obedience training. You gotta have fun. 
Besides, you often find that you have the best musical ideas when you’re just playing. Noodling — 
playing without any preconceived plan or goal — lets you get in touch with your creativity, a very 
important asset in a musician. 


Simply let your fingers roam and see where they lead you. Don’t worry about any of it making 
theoretical sense. Just discover what certain note combinations sound like, compose your very 
own groove, copy another groove you enjoy listening to, or even invent a whole new technique for 
playing bass. 


Making a fool of yourself 


When you practice, you want to be able to sound bad without passing harsh judgment on yourself. 
After all, you’re practicing to get better; therefore, you practice things you still need to work on, 
right? So be kind to yourself, keep your mood light and your frustrations at bay, and get ready to 
play some really foolish stuff. It’s fun. How do I know? Take a wild guess. 


When you take music too seriously, you can really crimp your joy of playing. It’s not that music 
shouldn’t be taken seriously — of course it should, but not all the time. Keep a playful element in 
your playing. 


Exercises for a lifetime 


Playing bass is an art that takes constant practice. It’s not as if you can quit playing a finger exer- 
cise after you finally master it. Your fingers would get rusty again pretty quickly. Don’t you have 
to keep exercising your body in order to stay fit? That goes for your fingers, too. 


Certain exercises in this book are sure to be in your personal practice routine for your entire bass- 
playing career. Others are exercises that you can revisit on a regular basis but that may not be part 
of your daily routine. Still others are useful for the occasional deviation from what you usually do, 
when you're just in the mood to play something different. 


None of the exercises in this book is a waste of practice time, but the “lifers” deserve your special 
attention. When I recommend that you play an exercise regularly, it may be a good idea for you to 
add it to your permanent practice routine. 


PART 1 Preparing to Practice 


Getting into Position 


Having a nice, comfortable space to practice іп 一 and even more important, being comfortable іп 
that space — needs to be on top of your “bass-desires.” Whether you sit or stand while practic- 
ing, you want to position your bass for your ease and comfort, so that your hands have complete 
access to the notes. 


Your posture 


I suggest always wearing a strap with your bass, regardless of whether you’re standing or sitting. 
This ensures that your bass guitar is always in the same position, and you get used to finding your 


way on it in a consistent manner. You need to be able to reach all the strings with your striking 
TIP hand (the hand that you strike the strings with, usually the right) and all the frets with your fret- 
ting hand (the hand you fret the notes with, usually the left). 


Be very careful not to stare at the front of your fingerboard (the part of your bass’s neck that holds 
the frets); your neck and wrists would be strained beyond comfort. Instead, look at the edge of 
the neck. 


Keep your back straight, your shoulders wide, and your arms loose. Don’t forget to breathe every 
once in a while. Whether you sit or stand, your bass should hang from your shoulders and rest 
firmly against your belly. If you’d like to review proper position and posture in detail, take a look 
at Bass Guitar For Dummies, 2nd Edition (Wiley). 


Positioning your hands 


Position your striking hand so that you can strike any string with minimal movement of your 
hand. In fact, I prefer to rest my thumb on a thumb rest or on the pickup. It gives me a great 
vantage point from which to measure the distance of each string by feel rather than having to 
look at it. This position is best for fingerstyle technique, which this book focuses on. Of course, if 
you’re really comfortable with pick playing or with slapping, you may want to use that technique 
to get yourself through these exercises. For more details on alternate right-hand techniques, you 
can refer to Bass Guitar For Dummies, 2nd Edition. 


You want to position your fretting hand to cover one fret per finger without causing any undue 
stress. By using one finger per fret, you set up your hand to execute by far the most musical fig- 
ures with minimal (if any) shifting. In case you do have to shift, it’s usually by one or two frets in 
either direction. This four-finger method gives your hand the consistency to play all patterns by 
feel rather than by vision. 


Tackling Notation 


Your bass guitar is the perfect instrument — perfectly symmetrical, gentle but authoritative in 
tone, expertly combining rhythm and harmony, and beautifully stating grooves as well as 
melodies. 


An interesting peculiarity presents itself on bass (and other stringed instruments). Each note 
written for piano can be played in only one spot. Not so on your bass guitar. The same written 
note can be played in three or four different spots on your fingerboard. This is why positioning 
your hand correctly is so important in playing the exercises in this book. 


CHAPTER 1 Reviewing Practice Fundamentals 0 


Note names on the neck 


Any scale and any arpeggio that you play on bass follows a precise pattern. The pattern never 
changes (except when using open strings). Only the starting point changes, dictated by the key. For 
instance, the C major scale feels exactly like the G major scale — both patterns are identical. The 
only difference is that you start the C major scale on C (at the 3rd fret on the A string) and the G 
major scale on G (at the 3rd fret on the E string). The following figure gives you a rundown of the 
names of the notes on your fingerboard. Note that they repeat at the 12th fret (the double-dot). 


























@ 

B E A D 
C F Ағ |в,  D# Б, 
О 
С# |р "|б В Е 
D G C F 

















e О 
Е А р G 
F Af|g, М бд, 
F# |б В Е А 
@ 
G C F A# |B, 











10 PART 1 Preparing to Practice 


Traditional music notation and tablature 


Throughout this book I combine traditional music notation with tablature, also called tab. Music 
notation shows you the note, octave, and rhythm of the desired tone, whereas tablature gives you 
the location on your bass guitar’s fingerboard. 


Tablature shows you what fret to press, and on which string, in order to get the desired note. The 
following two figures show you how the strings of your bass guitar correspond to the lines of the 
tablature staff and how the notes in music notation correspond to the frets on each string. 

























































































































































































































































































G 
Т D 
A A 
В Е 
== 
5 ЕГ i. ie be ia [e debe РО?” 
= % еә = fave Е“ = 
#/ Ab 
Е Е FG G САР А АРВ с с» D pDjE E Е БО а GH 
ГТ e 4 4 2 3 4 4 Н 4 і 
ГВ e 1 2 3 4-4 5 6— 6 78 9—9. 19 41—11——1 
9 4 2-2 3 4—4 5 6—6 7 & 9-9 40 11—14 42 +3. 44-14 45 46—46 
be т jebe е £f 
-— be 2» еіе be e te 
9 = ша — LI LI LI | 
А АВ B c СШ p РВ Е Е ryG с СУАР А АВ B C 
[T 2 3 3—1—* 5 6 6 T 8 8. 9. 19 11—414 42 43 43 14—1—15—15 46— 47 
T 8- 8—9 40 4t 42 43—13 44 45—46 I—17—1—18—18 49 20—20 24--22--1 
ЕЁ 42- 43—43 44 45 46-15 44 48-15 49- 20 24-24 22 23—23 24 | 
17 18—18 19 20 21—21 22 23—23 24 





















































Using the grid 


The grid represents the bass neck, looking at it head-on. I use the grid when I want you to see a 
pattern — for example, the shape of a scale or an arpeggio. You can visually remember the pat- 
tern; it doesn't change. The open circle represents the root of a scale or chord, and the black dots 
are the scale and chord tones. Take a look at the next figure to see the different parts of a grid. 


CHAPTER 1 Reviewing Practice Fundamentals 11 


12 


Strings -一 -一 一 | 


Root 
















№ у 

















Frets 


Breaking down rhythmic notation 


Rhythm is such an important factor in playing bass that I treat it as an integral part of the exer- 
cises in this book. An excellent source for a detailed explanation of how to work with different 
rhythms is Bass Guitar For Dummies, 2nd Edition. The following figure gives you a rundown of the 


different possible rhythmic combinations in one beat. 





n dd Tone 


Fingering 




























































































































































































































































































= 5 қ 

3 1 2 = = J z 
一 一 一 a = 一 ` У 

S Е Е: а-а: а. 2:7 

E ы аа Еа ағаға т-ға 

=}: г 5: г т y - у ҒА * 2-—7 
Lo pM —= == А. 

XE ж ba ж № N — | 7 mm 学 SS “7 
= -— s 4 жж а 57 ГЕШ ШИ fa s эру ae ot 4a iw E; 
* = 

Экез ан аа іа ына ен еі егіз 

3; 3 3 1 | 3 e 3 1 Ep 1 FE = =. 

=; 23 — — + o v =; = g y 





















































PART 1 Preparing to Practice 





TIP 


The next figure shows you how notes that last longer than one beat аге represented in music 
notation. 


































































































| | 
—= === | 
=== == 





As the following figure shows, you сап also tie one note to the next, thus extending its length by 
adding both notes together. 

















9 . ч Е = 一 | "ES - | VE RIEN 




















Chord notation 


The idea behind chord notation: write a little, describe a lot. Instead of writing “Use the Mixolyd- 
ian mode on C and outline a dominant tonality with the root, 3rd, 5th, and flat 7th," you can 
instead simply sum it all up as “C7.” 


You can extract two types of information from a chord symbol: the chord tones of the harmony 


and the scale tones of the mode. The following figure gives you examples of some of the most 
commonly used chord symbols, along with the corresponding chord tones and modes. 


CHAPTER 1 Reviewing Practice Fundamentals 13 

















Chord Symbol Chord Tones Mode 














































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































z e e. Ф- 
95 су - т z Ра ө т е = | 
с Root 39 5th lonian 
2 4 5 
ЕТ 2 5 2 3 5 
8—3 3 3 5 | 
Chord Symbols Chord Tones Mode 
= е e e e 
x z > = e | 
СМ? CMaj Ста) Root 3га 5th 7th lonian 
lt 4 2 4 5 
PET : 2 5 г ; 2 з 5 l 
Chord Symbols Chord Tones Modes 
и о be 2 be be е 
EX = ра s hw. e > e | 
Сш С- Root >3rd 5th Dorian Aeolian 
т 2——3 5 3 5 
5 3 5 3 5-5 
ЕЁ 3 3 $ 3 5 6 3 5 $ | 
Chord Symbols Chord Tones be Mode be 
= 
Ә-ә bæ z ole е Е z | 
Cm C7 Root Рза 5th 7th Dorian 
ГІ z 3 А 7 2 3 5 
8—3 3 6 3 5 6 
Chord Symbol Chord Tones Mode 
Y be e be # 
z z т 
Ex = = г > г ] 
b 
с Root 3rd 5% nh Mixolydian 
T 3 2 3 5 
2 5 2 3 5 
ЕЁ 3 3 3 5 | 
Chord Symbols Chord Tones Mode 
В be Е bas be be * 
I9: x ж Pe | 
Се C109 Cmzboa Root "3rd 5th >7th Locrian 
T - 3 3 5 
[Аз 3 6 ы 3 4 6 Ы Ы | 























Occasionally you encounter chord symbols that use numbers other than 7 — 6, 9, 11, ог 13. Treat 
any chord that doesn’t have a major or minor symbol in front of the number as a dominant chord 
and use the Mixolydian mode with it, with one exception. If the number is 6, treat the chord as a 
REMEMBER Major chord and use Ionian (note that you treat the Со, C11, and C13 exactly as you would the C7). 


14 PART 1 Preparing to Practice 


IN THIS CHAPTER 


» Stretching your muscles 





» Articulating with the right hand 


» Shifting the left hand 


Chapter 2 
Warming Up Your Right 
and Left Hands 


o you know that feeling when it’s time to get up after a much-too-short night of sleep, and 
you stumble to the bathroom, trying not to knock over everything that’s not bolted down? 
That’s what your fingers feel like when you first pick up the bass for your daily practice routine. 


Warming up is a form of waking up to the task at hand, whether it’s an athletic activity or playing 
a musical instrument. To play at the height of your ability, you first want to take your hands 
through all the motions you encounter when playing bass. 


This chapter leads you through the moves your hands need to make in order to be in full control 
of your instrument, whether it’s crossing the strings with your right hand, shifting with your left, 


or employing individual finger independence. A warm-up doesn’t have to sound pretty; it’s for 
getting the stumble out of your fingers. You certainly sound a lot better after a proper warm-up. 


Stretching without the Instrument 


Developing strong fingers and a strong back keeps you in optimum shape and gives you the endur- 
ance to play for hours without getting cramps or getting fatigued. You also want to be comfortable 
carrying the weight of the bass on your shoulders while still moving your arms comfortably. 


Here are some exercises to get you started before you even touch your bass. 


CHAPTER 2 Warming Up Your Right and Left Hands 15 


10 


FIGURE 2-1: 
Pressing the 
fingers to the 
thumb. 





Getting a feelfor each finger 


Developing your fingers is а top priority for playing bass. You want to keep your fingers curved 
and playing on the fingertips without the knuckles collapsing. What do fingers in proper playing 
position feel like? 


Take the thumb and index finger of your left hand and press the tips lightly together, as if you’re 
flashing someone an “OK” sign (see Figure 2-1). Now increase the pressure on the tips. You can 
feel how the knuckles want to collapse, but don’t let them. Maintain the shape of the “O,” and 
keep all the joints in your fingers well-rounded. After holding the index finger and the thumb 
pressed together for about 20 seconds, release them and repeat this same exercise with your 
middle finger and thumb, followed by your ring finger and then your pinkie. After completing this 
exercise with your left hand, repeat it with your right. 


Stretching your hands 


A muscle can only contract; it can’t stretch on its own. In order to keep your muscles limber and 
loose, you need to stretch them out every once in a while. 


Put your right and left hands together, palm to palm, finger to finger, as if you were praying (see 
Figure 2-2). Then spread your fingers wide while keeping your hands firmly together. Keep them 
spread, and gently bring your elbows up while keeping your hands at chest level. Your wrists 
should end up at about a 90-degree angle to your arms. Hold this position for about 20 seconds, 
and then release. 


Getting blood into your fingertips 


One of the worst moves you can make with your hands is to shake them as if you’ve hit your fin- 
ger with a hammer while nailing a picture of your favorite bassist on the wall. Shaking your hands 
from the wrist can do some serious damage. A much more gentle and effective method of “shak- 
ing” is the “flick.” 


PART 1 Preparing to Practice 


FIGURE 2-2: 
Keeping the 
hands together. 


FIGURE 2-3: 
Fingers 

behind thumb (a) 
and then 
pastthumb (b). 





Imagine you're flicking something off the tip of your thumb with your index finger. That's kind 
of the motion you're going for in this exercise, which is illustrated in Figure 2-3. Make a very 
loose fist by angling your thumb against your fingernails. Press the fingers against your thumb 
as they try to straighten, and finally, let them flick past the thumb. 





Stretching your shoulders and your back 


Your average bass guitar weighs between 7 and 11 pounds, and if that doesn't sound like much 
initially, you feel a lot less happy about those pounds after a four-hour jam with no breaks. Before 
subjecting your shoulders and your back to the weight of your bass, stretch them out. 


Lift your right arm straight up, and then bend your elbow until your hand comes to rest between 
your shoulder blades. It's almost as if you're trying to scratch an itch in the middle of your back. 
Next, bring your left hand behind your back at your waistline, and reach up to touch your right 
hand. If you're flexible enough, you can grasp the fingers of your right hand with those of your 
left. If you're not, dangle a strap from your right hand and grasp it with the left (see Figure 2-4). 
Hold this position for about 20 seconds (don't forget to breathe), and then repeat the exercise in 
reverse — left on top, right on bottom. 


CHAPTER 2 Warming Up Your Right and Left Hands 17 


FIGURE 2-4: 


Using a strap to 
join hands behind 


the back. 

















Crossing the Strings with the Right Hand 


18 


The right hand is responsible for striking the string — not only setting off the vibration that 
produces the sound, but articulating it, too. With all that in hand (pun intended), you want your 
right hand to be as coordinated as possible when it comes to finding the proper string. 


Your left hand is the one that chooses the notes to play, and you tend to be much more aware of 
the left hand than the right. In fact, you’re likely to pay hardly any mind at all to the right, which 
means you need to train it to function on its own. 


Alternating up and raking down 


In playing fingerstyle, the right-hand concept for crossing strings is pretty straightforward. As 
the following figure shows, when you travel from the low to the high strings, you alternate 
between the index and middle fingers in striking the string. When traveling from the high to the 
low strings, you strike with the same finger. This exercise knocks your right hand into shape in 
no time. Pay very close attention to the right-hand finger combinations, as they’re key to this 
exercise. 


PART 1 Preparing to Practice 


Right Hand 
Fingering: 




















oq 






























































LÀ 
LB 1: 

















Referencing each string 


Naturally, you won't always go straight up and down the strings of your bass. In fact, very often 
you find yourself coming back to the same string. This next exercise helps you maintain the dis- 
cipline of alternating your right-hand fingers on the way up and raking with the same finger on 
the way down, no matter how many strings are in play. Again, pay very close attention to the 
right-hand fingering in the following figure, and take it slowly at first. The speed comes later — 


no worries. 


Right Hand 
Fingering: 








2p 































































































ВЕ. 


中 































































































中 


中 
































中 


中 


中 























(Бра 







































































中 





PPL 


中 


中 


中 


中 


中 








ө 


Ф 


> 


中 


中 































































































中 


中 





























中 


中 


中 


In both of the previous exercises, you don’t use your left hand at all; the exercises аге played оп 
the open strings. In this way you can really hone in on the right-hand finger combinations. These 
are far from the prettiest exercises, so keep your volume kind of low. 


CHAPTER 2 Warming Up Your Right and Left Hands 


19 


Exercising One String аса Time 


20 


When you strike a string, you want to have control of several key things: speed, note duration, 
accents, and dynamics. All these factors are controlled largely by your right hand. The follow- 
ing exercises help you develop the skills to exercise some intricate details with your right 
hand. 


Again, leave the left hand out of it. This is purely a workout for the right. The strings are vibrating 
freely, so keep your volume down. 


Striking the staccato way 


Staccato means detached. Instead of letting a note ring until you strike the next one, stop the 
vibration of the string, and silence the note before playing another. Believe it or not, despite 
the relatively slow tempo of the next exercise, it’s actually a great speed exercise, as you have 
to get your alternating finger ready to strike the next note immediately following the initial 
strike. 


Strike the E string with your right-hand index finger, and immediately stop the vibration of the 
string with your right-hand middle finger (see the following figure). Then strike the E string with 
your middle finger, and immediately silence it with your index finger. Repeat this on all strings, 
and make sure you keep an even space between each note. 


Right Hand 
Fingering: 
1 (2) 2 (1) 1 {2} 2 (1) 1 (2) 2 (1) 1 (2) 2 (1) 1 (2) 2 (1) 1 (2) 2 (1) 1 (2) 2 (1) 1 (2) 2 (1) 


BE SSS е? ET | 






















































































г | 
ГА 
LB 








Accenting any note 


When you want a note to stick out in a crowd (of notes), you want to accent it, or play it louder 
than the others. This may sound easy at first, but you soon realize how much of Western music 
is dominated by the downbeat at the beginning of each measure. Refer to the following figure, 
and take your time playing each note, especially the in-between notes on the offbeats. Make sure 
you clearly accent the notes you intend to accent (by striking them harder), and play the non- 
accented notes more lightly. Sometimes, it’s more of a challenge to play the quiet notes than the 
accented ones. 


PART 1 Preparing to Practice 





























——— сағыла шш сады 
SS - ө o ө o ө ө o ө ө ө ө ө ө ө ө 
> > > > 














mm 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 



































国医 | 





三 = = = = = = = 







































































































































































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Using dynamics 


The official term for music that gets gradually louder or softer is crescendo or decrescendo (respec- 
tively). As a bass player, part of your job is to keep the rhythm steady. It’s no easy task to hold a 
steady beat when you also have to build the musical phrase to an eardrum-shattering crescendo 
(or bring it down to a whisper). The challenge in the following exercise is to keep the tempo rock- 
steady as you manipulate the volume (dynamics) of the notes. You must use a metronome with this 
exercise; without it, you can’t be sure your speed is constant. 


CHAPTER 2 Warming Up Your Right and Left Hands 21 











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mm 










































































The two lines beneath the music indicate a crescendo (the lines diverge) or a decrescendo (the 
lines merge). Pace yourself, as you don't want to max out halfway through, only to find that you 
need to notch it up some more. 


Keeping the Left Hand Stationary 


22 


REMEMBER 


You can reach all your notes most efficiently if you keep your left hand in one position. You want 
to have complete control of every finger in position on your fretboard. Think about it. You use 
your index finger all the time (and the middle finger if you live in one of those dynamic metropo- 
lises with lots of rude people), but when was the last time you used your ring finger to call an 
elevator (or your pinkie to insult the guy in the car who just cut you off)? 


On the occasion when you do have to shift, you want to make it as smooth as possible, with the 
least string noise and with no interruption of the music's flow. This next series of exercises can 
get your left hand ready for such moves. 


Left-hand permutations 


The following exercise is, in all likelihood, one of the most important exercises you can ever 
learn, a definite “lifer.” You can feel your hand getting into a whole new mode of proficiency after 
completing this series. Left-hand permutations give you all the possible finger combinations you 
encounter in one position. The following figures (a and b) show how to play the exercise on the 
lowest four frets, but be sure to move it to other areas of your fingerboard after you have a handle 
on it. 


PART 1 Preparing to Practice 




















































































































































































































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СНАРТЕК 2 Warming Ур Your Right and Left Hands 23 


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8 -------: - 43 - 


Walking spider 


The wonderful bassist John Patitucci made part of this following exercise — the walking spider — 
a household name among bassists. Your left hand has to feel where the strings are without your 
looking directly at the fingerboard. In addition, you need to keep your notes even and balanced, 
no matter what string you're playing on. You can see that the leaps are pretty significant, so take 
it slowly at first. Also, make sure you keep your left hand loose; don't overstretch. The right hand 
may struggle at first to strike all the right strings, but with a little practice you can gain fabulous 


benefits from this exercise. 


PART 1 Preparing to Practice 



















































































































































































































































































Getting a buzz 


How misleading а heading сап be, eh? This isn’t about anything but playing bass. This exercise 
helps you determine how much pressure it takes to get a good note out of your instrument, and it 
was largely developed by the excellent bass player Gary Willis. Referring to the following figure, 
you slowly press the E string down at the 1st fret while striking the string with the right hand. As 
your left-hand finger approaches the fret, the string starts to buzz. The string begins to buzz just 
before you put enough pressure on it to get a clean note. After you get the buzz, increase the pres- 
sure on the string incrementally, until the sound is clean and clear. Go back and forth between 
buzz and clean note to learn how little pressure is necessary to produce the note. Do this with all 
fingers on all strings, and feel how your left hand lightens up as a result. 
































































































































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CHAPTER 2 Warming Up Your Right апа Left Hands 25 


Cutting down on excess finger movement 


For speed and dexterity, you want to play your bass with as little excess motion as possible, espe- 
cially from your left-hand fingers. If you find that your fingers are flying off the fretboard instead 
of staying close to the string, the following dead-note exercise is great for keeping them close and 
ready for action. The less distance you put between your fingers and the string, the faster they’re 
able to return to the string to play the next note. (When you watch really good bass players, you 
can hardly see what notes they’re playing; their fingers seem not to move at all.) In this exercise, 
the notes are played in triplets (the fingers of the right hand alternate in striking the notes), and 
they’re strategically placed so that you can check whether you’re doing the exercise properly. 


All the notes in this exercise are played on the 5th fret on open strings. Play the first note of each 
triplet so it rings out clearly, using the assigned finger. Staying in the same position, play the next 
two notes as dead notes by lightly resting all your left-hand fingers on the string at the same time 
to mute it. Don’t let the string reach the fretboard anywhere. If done properly, you get a dead 
thud; if only one finger touches it, you hear an annoying harmonic. This trains your fingers to 
keep close by and leads to your playing with much more ease and efficiency. Of course, you won’t 
be as exciting to watch on a music video, but you'll sound great. 


1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 

































































































































































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Shifting the Left Hand 


26 


A key skill for any successful bass player is to be able to reach any note in an instant along the 
entire fingerboard. Shifting smoothly and accurately with the left hand allows you to play a wide 
array of note combinations. 


Of course, nothing is worse than shifting in search of just the right note and ending up with a 
really annoying hiss from the motion of the fingers on the strings. The exercises in this section 
help you coordinate the left-hand movement flawlessly. 


PART 1 Preparing to Practice 


Shifting with any finger 


You never know which finger you’ll end up using at the end of a musical phrase, so it’s a good 
idea to be prepared to shift with any finger. The following series of exercises helps you develop 
good shifting habits for any finger. By far, most of your shifts are one- or two-fret shifts. There- 
fore, these exercises concentrate on “close-quarters” movements. Play them with a metronome, 
because you don’t want to slow down or speed up when shifting into a new position. Each little 
segment starts on the click and ends on the click. 


In the following figures, the ascending, one-fret-shifting exercise is followed by the ascending, 
two-fret-shifting exercise. 















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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1—2—3—4—5 1—2—3—4—5 
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ГВ +2345 +2345 
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ГВ 1—2—3—5—8 +2345 
+ 235 1—2—3—4—8 


Of course, you can't just keep shifting up — you need to be able to get down as well. The following 
figures show the one-fret-shifting exercise coming down, followed by the two-fret version 
descending. 




































































































































































































































































shift shift shift shift shift shift shift shift 
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| | 一 一 一 一 一 
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> > 
P ей a 
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ГА 54321 5 432+ 
ГВ 5—4—3—2—1 5—4—3—2—1 
5—4—3—2—1 5—4—3—2—1 
shift shift shift shift shift shift shift shift 
43/32 1 4 3032 1 а 332 1 4 313 21 414 321 241432 1 41432 1 443 21 
= к=== Pebe sbs == 
| | | 
> > 
вы ж 
ГТ 54 32+ 5432 
ГА 54321 5 432+ 
ГВ 5 432+ 5 432+ 
5—4 3—2 + 5—34—3—2—t 























CHAPTER 2 Warming Up Your Right and Left Hands 27 


28 
























































































































































































































































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be 32,1 4 43 2111 43 21I1 43 2111 раз аар 43 212 1 аз 212 т аз 2121 
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> > e. > > 
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ГВ 6—5—3—2—1 6—14—3—2—1 
6—5—3—2—1 6—4—3—2—1 




















Cutting down on string noise 


When you move your left hand along the string to get to a new position, you want to minimize the 
sound of your fingers scraping along the string by slightly lifting them off. You can train your left 
hand by doing this next exercise. 


Referring to the following figure, play the 4th fret of each string with a different finger. This gives 
you a chance to tell whether all your notes sound even. Your hand has to shift into a new position 
each time you use a different finger. Listen for any string noise, and keep it to a minimum. This 
exercise isn’t easy, but the good news is that after you have control of this movement, every other 
shift is a piece of cake, comparatively. 



























































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= 3 ых 3 3. қт M ңы omm ееееееееееее | 
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mt mM mM omm eeococoooooono — 
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PART 1 Preparing to Practice 


Scales (Modes) 
and Chords 


IN THIS PART... 


Scales: They're not just for fish anymore. In fact, this part 
shows you some really cool ways to make this backbone 
of music to be your new best friend. They're a great 
workout partner for your hands to boot. You discover 
how to combine scales and chords, how to resolve them 
rhythmically, and most important, how to apply all this 
new information to real music. After all, that's why you 
practice in the first place, right? 





IN THIS CHAPTER 


» Playing primary modes for chords 


» Practicing secondary modes for 
chords 


» Putting it all together to play a 
modal song 


Chapter 3 
Playing Scales (Modes) 





REMEMBER 


ost music is based on scales, which are also called modes. By memorizing scale patterns, 
you can have all kinds of musical phrases at your fingertips — literally. 


Each kind of scale consists of a unique pattern of notes on your fingerboard, and each is consis- 
tent, no matter what fret you start on. The trick to developing speed and fluidity in your bass 
playing is to practice each mode repeatedly until your hand recognizes the pattern without your 
having to think much about it. 


In this chapter, you discover the best fingering for the most commonly used scales. As a bass 
player, one of your primary responsibilities is to provide the groove for a song. To do so effectively, 
you have to be able to reach any note in the scale pattern related to that groove’s tonality. Your 
groove usually works well within one octave (root to root), so you need to be very comfortable 
playing each note in that octave. After you work your way through these exercises, you can apply 
your newfound skill to real music at the end of this chapter. 


It’s all about the pattern. As you memorize each of the scales, you can simply start the pattern 
of that scale anywhere on your fingerboard and know that it never changes, whether you start on 
C, F, or any other key. 


Playing the Primary Modes 


The four most commonly used chords in music are major, minor, dominant, and half-diminished. 
You want to first concentrate on practicing the modal patterns that coincide with the harmony of 
these chords. The four modes that fit best over them are called Ionian, Dorian, Mixolydian, and 
Locrian. Sounds fancy, right? Your mission, should you choose to accept it, is to memorize the 
pattern of each of these four modes and the chord it’s linked with. 


Using your fretting hand, you start the major and dominant modes (Ionian and Mixolydian) with 
your second finger and the minor and half-diminished modes (Dorian and Locrian) with your 
index finger. You can begin the scales on either the E or A string, and remember that these scales 
are meant to be moved around the neck. Try starting them on different frets, each of which 
represents a different key. 


CHAPTER З Playing Scales (Modes) 31 


32 


Throughout this book, I present each scale pattern as а neck diagram, as well as in music notation 
and in tab; each exercise is shown in music notation and tab. You can use any figure as a refer- 
ence, because the objective here is to get you comfortable with the pattern. 


Major scale — lonian 


The major scale is also known by its formal name, the Ionian mode, and is used for — oh, wait, let 
me guess — yes, the major chord (see the following figure). Start this scale using your second 
finger on either the E or the A string and let ’er rip! You may find it very useful to memorize the 
fingering pattern first to help you through this scale. This one has no shifts — simply start with 
your second finger and follow the pattern. 





Check out the following figure for Ionian fingering, musical notation, and tab. Notice how 
the scale always starts on either the E or A string. (You need three strings to complete the scale 
without shifting.) 






























































Fingering 
2 4 1 2 4 1 3 4 
= 
e 
: e Е 
9 - Ф е | 
2 4 5 
Т 2 3 5 
ЕЁ 3 5 
Нн 
7 9 10 
ЕЁ ? 8 10 | 
8 19 











The most efficient way to make the Ionian mode (or any mode, for that matter) your own is to 
play its pattern, beginning on any fret of the E or A string, and then to shift it up or down by one 
fret at a time. For example, play the scale starting on B, then C, and so on. This re- inforces the 
pattern for your fingers rather than your having to worry about note names. See the following 
figure for fingering for 12 ascending major scales, in music notation and tab. 


PART 2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 


TRACK 1, 0:00 

















































































































































































































































































































































































































=== > ke be Lied TTL... 
Ф. Ф Ф 
- ө 2-4 „ы 2-і” b= рә” 
G 7 A A в» 
H 2— 4—5 3—5—6 4—6—31 5—}— 8 
ГВ 2——3——5 3—4—6 45? 5——6——8 
3-5 4—5 5—74 6—8 
2 4 1 2 4 1 3 4 2 4 1 2 4 1 3 4 JEN ML 
— n ө e ese ete е 
Fete Е РЕ РЕСЕ анаа . CL 
| —— | 一 —ÉÁ 
L—— — —— 
В С с? 
FT 2-4-5 3—5—6 t-i 
A Н RE ED мек. PNE IE DER SE aec denn a ЕВА НЕЕ 
[B ;一 
2 4 1 2 4 1 з14 2-3. 2. 4X Жыз 4 24 12 4 1013 > 2 4 1 2 4,1 9380 
Е) а еже езе е оа LLL еселе ЕЕ 
—— — 
E> E F ЕЁ 
5—7—8 5 3 7—9 8—19—1 
H 5-5-% 573 3—8—319 эн 
LB $$ 7—9 8—10 9—1 | 























After you have a solid handle оп this exercise, try the same scale descending, starting on the high- 
est note and going to the lowest note (see the following figure). This time your Ionian mode starts 
on the G or D string. Again, work this scale under your fingers by shifting it one fret at a time. 


TRACK 1, 0:11 



































































































































бен 1 4 2 А я 3 P Т 4 4 3 1 4 > 3 1 4 
2 1 4 2 
tttetets Lf? ө өр 2 fiel E uM 4 t feel. 2 
расына tg Тү Ее: ер n 
ЕЁ Е Е E? 

| +—#—#8 9—9? 9—8—6 8—31—5 

НА 41—39—8 9—8—7 9—1—8 8-5-5 

ГВ 1—9 9—8 8—7 8—6 












































































































































































































































р с — с M 
HM $—5—3 542 
54 43 532 #6 
ЕЁ 7—5 6—4 5—3 9 一 7 6 
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& % 4441474 аа Г азы 4& ®1 4 *.— 4 4 q,» 4 $ 4d * 2 
Г > [Ime 
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Т в 1—5 7 一 6 一 4 53 542 | 
ЕЁ 4 一 6 一 5 54 6 一 4 一 3 5—3—2 
5 7 6 一 4 5-2 














When you’re comfortable with the descending scale, combine ascending and descending and start 
them on different frets along the fingerboard. The following figure has fingering for the 12 
ascending and descending major scales in music notation and tab. 


CHAPTER З Playing Scales (Modes) 33 


34 


TRACK 1, 0:23 















































































































































ЫҢ 
| 
| 















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































оз-оз 4 403404 44%. Ы та 
2 ‘bee eet f * ө „|1 КЕ 2 4 1 өе fteteress 2 1 4 2 
9 e эк 
— T — ABA LÁ 
——— ———— — ——— | 
Е FË 
T 了 一 9 一 1 一 一 9 一 了 8—3149—1 1—19—8 
вю 10—8 7 8—9—H 11—9—8 
ЕЁ 8—316 Hi 3—H H—3À | 




















Repetition and consistency аге the all-important ingredients to becoming completely comforta- 
ble with the scale patterns, so keep at it. 


Minor scale — Dorian 


The Dorian mode is especially important for bass players. Two different minor scales, the Dorian 
and the Aeolian modes, are used in playing, and for different purposes. The Dorian mode is pri- 
marily played in minor grooves and single-chord solos and fills. Because the bass is a groove 
instrument, the Dorian mode is your primary minor scale. The Aeolian mode (also called the natu- 
ral minor scale) is used when playing melodies in a minor key. 


PART 2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 


Take a look at the grid and the music in the following figure. Note that you begin the scale with 
your index finger. Of the seven different scales in this chapter, the Dorian mode is the only one 
requiring а shift, albeit a very small one. After playing оп the lower two strings in position, you 
need to shift your fretting hand toward the headstock by one fret and play the subsequent note 
with your index finger. 


Dorian 




































































4 

9 1 3 4 1 5 shift 1 bà P 

B oe 

: > | 

2 3 5 
H 3 5 6 ы ы | 
т 
H Е = 7 в % | 
$ 19 + 








Play the Dorian mode in every position by moving the entire pattern from one end of your finger- 
board to the other, one fret at a time. Always start the pattern on the E or A string when you’re 
playing an ascending scale (see the following figure). 


TRACK 1, 0:45 
































































































































ae 1 sit 1 p Am 4 
13 410314 2 4 103 4 311,214 14224 sit 2 4 13 а 1 31112 
— — —"| ps өре e 
| > viele е 
99 s -* wie Бө ape! oie ө = e- LIL——— 
—— 
A-Dorian B?-Dorian B-Dorian C-Dorian 
1 2-4 2— 3—5 
em 4—5 = 5—6—8 2—4 РЕ 1—3—5 
UB 5--- $5 8—9 

















When you’re comfortable with the ascending Dorian mode, play it descending, starting with your 
pinkie on the G or D string (see the next figure). 


CHAPTER 3 Playing Scales(Modes) 35 


TRACK 1, 0:56 


















































































































































4 2 113 1 4 3 1 4 È 113 1 4 3 1 4 2 UT 3 1 4 3 1 4 2 1 3 1 4 3 1 
e bebe m о еі m 9b , 

9 s. oe 62929 „ ы ote ЕР e а 
= ри ө Ф 
A-Dorian B>-Dorian B-Dorian C-Dorian 

4— 32—3 5--З 
Ho 5 5 4—2 5—3 
ГВ 3-5 8—6 5—4—2 +53 
875 9—8—6 








After you firmly establish the Dorian pattern in your hands, refer to the following figure and play 
the scale in both directions, ascending and descending, moving the pattern one fret at a time. 



















































































































































































































































































TRACK 1, 1:07 
shift 
1 3 4 1 an 2 4 4 2 "RUP 1 4 3 1 a | 3 4 1 | 2 4 2 1 ji 1 4 3 1 ji 
3 1 
Е gs pee eis ав ж елер "js. + 
9 9L ы a ее . 3|. = 2e 5. 
A-Dorian B?-Dorian 
"RD + 5+ Е as 2—6—% 8-5- "EP 
[B 5 у g 75 59 5-%- 
i js ^in lE shift 4 a sin 
1 3 4 3 1 2 4 4 2 1 3 1 4 3 1 1 3 4 1 311 2 1 3 1 4 3 1 
— 1 o e өзі AM the Ф 
9 Ф - ө-Р P Ф 
— e—-£ — — е 
L— — 
B-Dorian C-Dorian 
HT 和 一 一 一 一 一 一 一 2—3—5 5—3—2 
НА 2-4 4—2 3-5 5—3 
ГВ 245 5--4-? 3—5—6 6—5—3 














Тһе reason you move each pattern chromatically (опе fret at a time) is to lock your hand into the 
muscle memory for each scale so that you don’t have to think about which notes you’re playing. 
Give your hands a chance to settle into the pattern first before doing any more advanced 


TIP patterns. 


Dominant scale — Mixolydian 


The dominant scale, or Mixolydian mode, is the most commonly used scale for bass grooves. You can 
think of it as a major scale with a lowered seventh. Like every “major-ish” scale, you start this 
pattern using your middle finger. Get your fingers (and ears) familiar with this pattern; no shifts 
are necessary or desired. The following figure shows the fingering for the Mixolydian mode in 
neck diagram, music notation, and tab. 


36 PART2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 


Mixolydian 










































































4 
2 4 1 2 4 1 2 4 
= Ф. Г 4 9 
9: z e e 
2 3 5 
T 2 5 
- 5 
H 了 8 40. 
FÉ 了 10 
% 





After you have the ascending Mixolydian scale under your fingers, shift it all over your finger- 
board by moving it from one fret to the next (see the following figure). Always start on the E or A 


string. 


TRACK 1, 1:30 


sbe ғ 


























































































































4 
| ө БЕ наннан | 
: zie E PE Eid ш Жы 
9 өт = —— De 9 — өт” Е æ т — 
A-Mixolydian B^- Mixolydian B-Mixolydian C-Mixolydian 
H 45? С... ! в 
[B53 6—8 








CHAPTER 3 Playing Scales (Modes) 


37 


The next step is to play the Mixolydian mode descending, moving the pattern from fret to fret 
(see the following figure). Start on the G or D string with your pinkie. 


TRACK 1, 1:42 


A 1 Яя ЕЕ 14 2 4,2 4 4 32. 1 A4 2 4 2 1 4 Phe 
二 етке тво 2 
atte 















































































































































DI ” 72е о LL e 
—— “= — 2e SS 二 
A-Mixolydian Bp-Mixolydian B-Mixolydian C-Mixolydian 

T 43—2—34 5— 3—2 
7—5—4 8——6—5 421 5--3-2 
ЕЁ 7—5—4 8--5-5 4—2 5—3 
s 8—6 


You may wonder why I ask you to first play а scale ascending and then descending, before putting 

both ascending and descending together. The reason is simple. You need to train your hands to be 

able to play a scale in reverse (descending) without having to go up (ascending) first. Music 
TIP moves that way sometimes, and you need to be ready. 


Finally, study the next figure, which combines the ascending and descending moves, and play 
your Mixolydian mode pattern all over your instrument. 


TRACK 1, 1:54 










































































































































































































































































e ра еа 
9 Ф ote z L—— LT ote эр т е — — и е oe 
A-Mixolydian Bb- Mixolydian 
H Eco tot R$ yg go oap es 
57 3—58— —6—8 86 
2 4 1 2 4 1 PME > 2 1 4 2 1 4 ? 2 4 1 2 4 Ы» p Фр > 4 2 1 4 2 
5 өй” з=” wie в ГЕРЕ e"? =_= 
—— ——É— ө LA— —-—— 
—— — 
B-Mixolydian C-Mixolydian 
т т 5,53 2 
1 02 4 4 一 2 一 235 5—3—2 
ЕЁ 24 4235 53 




















There, now don’t you feel dominant? 


Half-diminished scale — Locrian 


The unique sound of the half-diminished is a minor with a lowered fifth, and the scale to play 
over it is the Locrian mode (which also includes a flatted second and flatted sixth). Start this scale 
with your index finger on the E or A string. No shifting is necessary; just get your fingers used to 
the proper position and your ears to the dissonant sound of it. You know the drill — get to know 
your pattern. The following figure shows the fingering for the Locrian mode in neck diagram, 
music notation, and tab. 


38 PART 2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 


Locrian 













































































1 3 
1 2 4 1 2 be = 
99 bs рт e | 
3 5 
т | : Е | 
ГВ 3 4 6 
Е “= 
UB 8 4 + 








When you have а solid grip (pun intended) on the pattern, move it all over the fingerboard, one 
fret at a time, and always start each scale with your index finger on the E or A string as you play 
the ascending Locrian mode (see the following figure). 


TRACK 1, 2:17 




































































































































































1 2 4 1 i 4 1 3 1 2 4 1 2 4 1 3 1 2 4 1 2 4 1 3 1 È 4 1 2 4 1 3 
: e е ba be. m 20 ө pe f 
pr „ре ее pee eo — ө е = Pe" — 
—— 

A-Locrian B>-Locrian B-Locrian 5-44 C-Locrian Я 

НА 5? #8 2— 3—5 34+ 
В 55 5 73 235 345 
5——6——8 5--5 


Now play the same scale descending. Move it all over the fingerboard, one fret at a time, starting 
on the G or D string with your ring finger (see the following figure). 


TRACK 1, 2:29 

































































































































































4 dE^dh do Xs X3 301 4 2 1 4 2 1 3 1.4 2 1 4 2 1 3 1.4 2 1 4 2 1 
> m bebo! | aT = == eb 
2 6” Ф. "bs 
9 22 өэ; Е rotates me a 4 | row 
—— | 
A-Locrian Bb-Locrian B-Locrian C-Locrian 
4-2 5—3 
H—-—5 8—5 5—3—32 $—á4—3 
6—5 g y 5 3 ə 543 
в 6 5 9 3 6 


CHAPTER 3 Playing Scales (Modes) 39 


Finally, refer to the following figure as you combine the ascending and descending Locrian mode 
and, you guessed it, move ’em all over the fingerboard. 


TRACK 1, 2:40 




















































































































































































































































































































— — —— bo babe e be ——— 
99 э © =“ 6 ө baba! >ө bebe 
wpe = 20—529 LLL Е-е ҙә 
A-Locrian B>-Locrian 
H 5? 3—5 6—8 8—6 
HÉ 5-%-. 55 55.5 4-:% 
:-5-е 3-5- 579 yj 
1 2 4 1 2 4 1 3 3 1 4 2 1 4 2 1 1 2 4 1 2 4 1 3 3 1 4 2 1 4 2 1 
—— ее == 2242624 6 be = 
Dar 
9 еее — —— еее 2 —— === е 
L— —— 
B-Locrian C-Locrian 
H 2—3—3À5 5—3—2 45 = TE 
- 3-5 5—3—2 344 5+3 























Playing {Пе secondary Modes 


Тһе secondary modes are the scales you use less often as a bass player, because of the nature of 
the groove (which is the primary bass focus). Even so, you want to know these scales well so you 
can play smoothly through melodic material, such as melodies or riffs and fills. 


The secondary scales are the Phrygian mode, the Aeolian mode (also called the natural minor scale), 
and the Lydian mode. They work very well as connecting tissue between the primary modes. You 
get to play them as a connecting function a little later in this chapter, but for now it’s time to 
make them your own. 


Phrygian — The exotic minor scale 


The Phrygian mode fits over a minor chord but adds a bit of an exotic flavor to the mix. Familiarize 
yourself with the following pattern, and get used to the somewhat unusual sound. 


40 PART2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 


Phrygian 




































































1 2 4 1 3 4 1 3 
*9 
bæ e - be be 
9 - pe | 
3 5 
Т 3 5 6 | 
ЕЁ 3 4 в 
H 8 10 
ЕЁ 8 10 n" | 
8 9 + 











Move the Phrygian all over the fingerboard. Practice this scale by playing it ascending and then 
descending (see the following figure). 


TRACK 1, 3:03 





































































































































































































































































































1 1 1 3 
10204 3 4 1 t 1 2 4 $ 4 d s 1 2 4 за 1 з 12041214155 
Sp a ЕЕ 
— ——— 
A-Phrygian B?-Phrygian B-Phrygian C-Phrygian 
2—4 3—5 
FL 5 6—8 2—4—5 3—5—86 
ГВ 5—1—8 6 8 9 235 346 
5—6—8 6 73 
TRACK 1, 3:15 
3 1.4 3 1.4 2 1 3,1 4 3 1,45 2 1 301 4 3 1,45 2 1 301,4 3 1 4 2 1 
= 5 m——— LIT PPM ~ ер „2 
E ә whe IP rahe °з „| | —- ы e 
一 — 
A-Phrygian В»-Рһгуріап B-Phrygian C-Phrygian 
FT 42 53 
АР 5 8—6 5—4—32 $553 
ГВ 4-5 9—8—6 5—3—2 6—4—3 
8—6—5 y ye 




















CHAPTER 3 Playing Scales (Modes) 41 


Now, refer to the following figure as you combine ascending and descending. 


TRACK 1, 3:27 































































































































































































































































































e e 
9 о же ж ә Бө ре pe! 95 
A-Phrygian B?-Phrygian 
Т s plys e—e 8—6 
ЕЁ 5——;——8 + 5—5 4-:-% 
6—8 8——6——5 579 9—7—% 
: 1 2 4 1 3 М А з 3 M а 3 14 2 1 12 4 1 3,4 p PA -bi 4 3 1 4 2 1 
eo abe fie в 20222 ЕЕ =————©—#5н—» 
== е] 
B-Phrygian C-Phrygian 
5 5 
СІ 2—4——5 5-4 3—5—5 3 
H-B—3—3—5 5—3 345 643 




















Aeolian 一 The natural minor scale 


The Aeolian mode is the scale you most often use when playing melodies in songs that are in a 
minor key. Unlike the Phrygian mode, the Aeolian mode sounds very, well, natural. The following 
figure shows the fingering for the Aeolian mode in neck diagram, music notation, and tab. 


Aeolian 







































































1 3 4 1 3 4 1 3 
e 
9: = = зе ss | 
e 
3 5 
H 3 5 5 l 
ГВ 3 5 6 
i | - : » | 
[B 8 18 44 








42 PART2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 


Play the ascending Aeolian mode and move it one fret at a time, starting on either the E or A string 


(see the next figure). 


TRACK 1, 3:50 




















































































































103 4 4 3 103 13 4 з 4,1 3, 1 3 4 1 а тз 13 4 1 3,4 р E" 

3 ao er ре ера е osteo = £e eos ® — 
ө 
z LL Li LL—— 
A-Aeolian B?-Acolian B-Aeolian C-Aeolian 
2—4 3—5 

Т 5—3 6—8 2-4-5 3—5—6 
FÉ 5-3 8—9 2--4-5 3-5-5 

5 7—8 6——8— 9 























Do the same with the descending scale (refer to the following figure). 











TRACK 1, 4:02 





























































































































еу: % 1 ы 3 1 NL HB CIN 3 1 4 ar 1 4 3 1 3 p 4 3 4 3 1 >} А Е 4 3 1 

= еә 5 Pow ig se ote . | —Ó ә 

—— —— —S— —S—. € 
A-Aeolian B^-Aeolian B-Aeolian C-Aeolian 

Т 4—2 5—3 

a 7 5 #75 mm 9 8 e ы 5--4-? em 653 

LB 8-- 9—8—6 























Finally, combine the ascending and descending Aeolian mode (see the next figure). 


TRACK 1, 4:14 



















































































































































































































































































1 3 4 1 3 4 Ж 3 3 1 4 3 1 4 3 1 1 3 4 4 1 3 3 1 4 3 1 4 3 1 
eee ee р NE TV MR И 
VÀ 24” == Е ө pe æ- Pew be 

A-Aeolian B?-Aeolian 
5 7—8 s T 875 8—3 ырк. ышы 9—8—6 
[B zc 7 g 75 6—8—8 $—§—+ 
1 3 4 1 3 4 1 3 3 1 4 1 4 3 1 1 3 4 1 4 1 3 3 1 4 3 1 4 3 1 
= zeo о ~ > оь 
9 oie s о —— — T = eis - e zm е | e: е 
— а] 
B-Aeolian C-Aeolian 
CT 2—1*—14 —2 3—5 5—3 
НА 245 5—4—2 3 6 553 
上 全 一 2 一 4 一 5 5-4-? 3-5-5 $—5—3 




















Lydian — Major scale with a twang 


The Lydian mode is a major scale with a bit of an edge. Get the pattern under your fingers before 
moving it anywhere else. The following figure shows the fingering for the Lydian mode in neck 
diagram, music notation, and tab. 


CHAPTER 3 Playing Scales (Modes) 


43 


44 


Lydian 










































































= 9 

9 А. Е | 

2 4 5 
Т 2 4 5 

| 全 3 5 

Ly 
7 n m 

ЕЁ т 8 % l 

8 1 


Now, move the pattern all over your fingerboard. Be sure to keep your fingering consistent. Refer 
to the following figures as you go up, down, and then combine the two. 


TRACK 1, 4:36 









































































































































5 2 4 1 3 4 1 3 p 2 4 1 : 1 3 4 ier be 4 2 4 1 3 4 > >. oe 
= 56 e s Ef 
- 18% — ре % — L—— HÀ 
A-Lydian -Lydian B-Lydian C-Lydian 
ГТ + 2-4 
НА 57 —8 +34 2 5 
ГВ 4—6 5-- 24 3-5 
8 











PART 2 Scales (Modes) апа Chords 














TRACK 1, 4:49 























































































































































































































































































































































































































i 42301-43 ала рь A 1 s 4 3 1 42 аз Е 431 а 2 
Е ur A 了 二 生产 本 
A-Lydian Bp-Lydian B-Lydian C-Lydian 
LT 4 一 3 一 5—4— —2 
ГА 1—6—4 875 5—4—2- 
ГВ 754 4-2 5—3 
7—5 
TRACK 1, 5:01 
2 4 13 4 1 3 4 4 3 1 2 4 1 314 а 3 1 4 3,1 4 2 
(9 —m ж. Ptr ts “тт. эре be Ф > аан е ОНЦ 
siste t LL LLL Бә * * 45s 
A-Lydian B?-Lydian 
mi METE 4—6—+ 1—6 —4 = 7—8. 8——371——5 аз 
[B 53 -- 1 8-6 
- 2.4 1 3 4 1| 3 5 а 3 1 4 2 4 1 di. z Ыы 40314 2 
9: шей” е — — е 
—————— Е f 
=——— — 
B-Lydian C-Lydian 
ГТ 4 3—4—1—4—3—1 2— 4——5 5—4——2 
ГА 1—3—4 4 2 5—4—2 
LB 2—4 3-5 5—3 




















Making Миѕіс 


It’s time to use your modal knowledge to play а song. In the following piece, you can reach 
all your notes for the melody in one position. You can either play it down low in the bass range 
or take it up an octave (just follow either tablature). Wherever you decide to play this melody, 
it’s based on the C Ionian mode. Start with your middle finger on the C of the A string and have 


fun with it. 


CHAPTER 3 Playing Scales (Modes) 


45 


46 






































































































































































































































































































































S Throughout Optional | 
1 2 2 4 
— 
Ex z J = і .*— —* 
— 
С Ат Е 
Le 2 
В 3 3 5 
т 
44 
ГА 15 15—17 
1 4 2 2 1 4 4 1 2 
: = e 
D ГЫ z = = = 
—_—— 
C F F 
T 
ba 5 2 223 
-B 5 
т 
-a 17 14 15 
15 45 m m 
LB m 
4 1 3 4 1 4 1 1 4 1 
Е ө e e е » e 
9 к=— e 
— 
Em F G Am 
2—4 5 E 2 
1-5 5 2 2 
ЕВ 5 
14—16 + 44 + 
ГТ 5 5 m M 
HB 4r 
2 4 1 4 2 
= 72 = 
9: б ге 1 
Dm Em F с G) 
Тз 5 $ ] 
ЕЁ 5 3 Б 
14 
Hs + D 
CB " 15 - 


PART 2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 


IN THIS CHAPTER 


» Playing major and minor sequences 





» Tackling triplets 
» Practicing interval exercises 


» Progressing to a progressive 
rock tune 


Chapter 4 
Playing Mode Sequences 


f you’ve practiced the seven modes (scales) in Chapter 3 as diligently as I think you have, you’re 

now ready to combine the major and minor scales in various sequences. Sequences are standard 

musical patterns that use notes from the modes; they give a musical piece enough predictabil- 
ity to make it memorable, but not so much as to make it boring. 


The advantage of practicing sequences is that it prepares your fretting hand to move quickly into 
the optimal position to reach a large range of related notes. And, of course, they sound musical. 
It’s so much easier to practice something you actually enjoy listening to. 


In this chapter, I introduce some major and minor sequences. These interval exercises give you 


practice in skipping notes in the scale. After you’re comfortable with the sequences, you’re ready 
to let loose with the progressive rock music at the end of the chapter. 


Lining Up Major and Minor Sequences in 12 Keys 


Modes always line up in a certain sequence. If you’re playing in a major key, the sequence starts 
with the Ionian mode and is followed by the Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Aeolian, and 
Locrian modes. 


On the other hand, if you’re playing in a minor key, you begin the same modal sequence starting 


with the Aeolian mode, followed by the Locrian, Ionian, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, and Mixolydian 
modes. 


Getting into the majors 


Skip the major speeches and get down to these major exercises in the major sequence for you 
major players (not a minor matter). 


CHAPTER 4 Playing Mode Sequences 47 


48 


The basic major scale sequence 


The exercise in the following figure simply lines up all your modes from Chapter 3 in sequence. 
Observe the fingering and the shifts — they’re indicated above the notes. You shift into position 
for each scale. 


Though this alignment of related scales looks pretty useless for learning how to play in a band, 
practicing the following exercise is very important and practical. It gets your fingers and ears 
ready to respond with the correct note choices related to the key of the musical piece you’re 


playing. 


Even though I present you with only one key in this example, you can, and should, play this 
sequence in every key. Only in the keys of E and F do you have to resort to using open strings (and 
thus to using a different initial pattern). All other keys follow the exact same pattern; just start 
REMEMBER Оп the appropriate fret for each key. 


The following example is in the key of G major, ascending. 


TRACK 3, 0:00 


shift shift shift shift 
1 3 4 1 3 | 1 2 a la 2 4 1 3 4 1 3 2 4 3 4 
= 






































































































































































































































1 3 4 
| 
Рани Za B анан еш se же 45 e 
ж wae me 
9 J 2-4” e -* 9 e 9 9 те p- 
шыны нені 
G-lonian A-Doria n B-Phrygian C-Lydian 
HE 2 4 5 4—5—31 7—9 7—8—9— 
ГВ 2—3—5 5—7 7— 9—318 3——9—319 
3-5 5-- 2—8—318 8—H 
"E А з shit 4 1 3 p 
2 а 1 2 а 1 Bp li 3 4 1 3 9 » $1 2 14 р 5 e ete = 
= 14 е 9 
om ppt Peer H | 
= 
D-Mixolydian E-Aeolian F#-Locria n 
45 7—9 з-н 42 
Le 4——+ = ив 
ГВ 5 7 + 9—10 39——19—312 























The beginning of the sequence looks a little different in the keys of E and F major (see the follow- 
ing two figures). 



































































































































































































































— 
Eu edd кы aaa aaa | 
jede SS 
E-lonian F#-Dorian G#-Phrygian Etc. 
H +—2 4 4—5 l 
H 0 2 4 24 4657 
924 245 457 5 
ua shift shift shift 
1230 1 3 о 2 3 14 3 4 4 Bt 2 4 | 2 4 1 3 4 1 І 
2 hoe = > 2-4 be -»—9—* е - 
2-47 1-2. 52-.27--......... ———— 2%- 
F-lonian G-Dorian A-Phrygian Bp-Lydian Etc. 
т 2 
о ? 3 2—3—5 2—3—5 
ЕЁ 9 + 3 t 3 5 十 3 5 + 























What goes up must come down. The next figure shows the descending version of the G major 
modal sequence exercise. 


PART 2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 


TRACK 3, 0:21 

































































































































































































































































P 142, te 104 03 4 И" shit, | i 
T е. ра. еее бе». 53d foes,’ 1 а о 
ә: Шаа. === = Не РЕ æ e se 
—___ ж — Ó——| 
G-lonian F#-Locria n E-Aeolia n D-Mixolydian 
| #—н— 1—9 9—7 3— 5—4 
НА 12109 12 109 197 7-5-4 
ГВ 12—19 12—19—9 49—97 7—5 
4 3 1 4 3 1 4 1 4 2 q4 hift shift 1 4 3 shift 
з 1 4 2 3 15 2 тз 1 1 
©) бе Ф. е o ee, ө- | m ӘНШЫЩ 
5 ge Ф. 40 ө е | 
—— = И - —-—— -- <> 
C-Lydian B-Phrygian A-Dorian 
Т юз 9 一 了 54 
ЕЁ 49+ %-- 3-5 
19 8 199—8. 7 8 1 5 3 











Listen carefully to what you're playing. This is a great ear-training exercise as well as a great 
finger workout. 


Major scale sequence — scale sequence to the third 


The next exercise provides you with ample opportunity to practice crossing strings while playing 
a major scale sequence. The sequence in the following figure — ascending C major scale to the 
third — is often used in musical pieces. 


TRACK 4, 0:00 
















































































2 4 1 2 44341371 4 
4424124124242 41341 фт of ete o 
е е7 өе 2 
г =e ее. eee 2020 к== 
29274-26. ө 2 - — шы — 
B ыы == ГЕ 
7—9—+ 
ЕТ + 7—9 了 一 9 一 1 一 了 一 9 一 Ht 3—19- 19 
ГА 7 2—8— —31—8—19—1—8—19— edn 16 | 
tn 8—19- 




















As always, move this pattern through all 12 keys; it's compact enough that you don't even have to 
worry about open strings — or shifts, for that matter. The descending C major scale sequence 
appears in the next figure. 


TRACK 4, 0:09 


1 4 1 2 4 2 4 1 4 2 


1 1413 4 2412124 
3 i 2 
=== РЕР ооо тосот о а + = | 


































































































Do you notice how nicely this exercise resolves rhythmically? Rhythm is an essential part of play- 
ing bass, and you now get to connect this pattern to a C major groove, shown in the next figure, 
to make some cool music. In a band, the bass player virtually never stops playing. The groove you 
play with this major scale outlines the same major tonality. Practice the groove first before con- 
necting it to the scale. 


CHAPTER 4 Playing Mode Sequences 49 


TRACK 4, 0:19 

























































































Ф 2 1 sı 2 ж з а4 1 2 Фа -1 2 93557 7 - 
99 sS ө ө ө e -- РР 
е æ 
LLL Е Е Е і 1—2 
m m 48 7 一 1 m E m 3—19 
HB 7 7—8 8— 9310 1 7 8 в 9 30 

















After you can play the groove smoothly, connect it seamlessly to the major scale sequence, and 
then return to the groove to finish the exercise. The following figure is the C major groove com- 
bined with an ascending and descending major scale to the third. Alas, it sounds like music! And 
don't forget, you can play this in any key. 




























































































ф = 
Th - 
№ 
Mh - 

























































































































































































2 7 1.9 7.9 9 7 9 1 910 
ЕН 了 - 32—8—19—3——8—19 8 | 1 10 
аю 8—19 10 
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 
Ф 2 1 -1 2 e: 31 Fw? ж. .1 2 9235357 1 ж 
9 * 本 一色 ебе 2 6—0 ебе 
== ЕЕЕ. АЕ M ЕЕ —— 














































































































































































































50 PART 2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 


Major scale sequence — scale in fifths 


A similar exercise to the preceding one is the next sequence, using an interval of a fifth to start 
the line. It shifts out of position and sounds much more far-flung. Check out the following two 
figures — an ascending C major scale in fifths and a descending C major scale in fifths. 


TRACK 6, 0:00 









































































































































































































































4 shit 4 2 
1 4 301 3 1|2 ж 1 2 
y aa a 5104 a ES ae gs л ee э ee „Г = - 
тө p o е е 
9 t 三 三 三 三 下 一 一 一 一 一 一 = | 
к== 
ГТ 7 3—7 9—9 12-%-5 
А + 9—7 10—9—7 49—97 18-5 19 19 
ГВ 19—8—3 9—8 7 19—8 19 
8. 19 
TRACK 6, 0:09 
аа а, 
2 = 1 3 тд 1 4 4 
- з e > 3 3 34 1 4 
= fe trt. ferite, ШЕ ЛЕ RN NUM E В. 2 
а мыт LT = z z e i— | 
ке ——— е 
ГТ 12—10—39 18—9—7 9—7 F 
[LA 9 4 7 19 18-5 9—9 9—7 7 
LB 19 8. 7 18 10—8 48--5-5 
48 8 8. 




















Notice that the groove that connects the ascending and descending segments is the same опе you 
use in the preceding exercise. When you put it all together, you get the little beauty in the follow- 
ing figure (watch out for the shifts). 


CHAPTER 4 Playing Mode Sequences 51 

















































































































































































































шың 
i 
$ 
i 
$ 
i 
i 
由 
i 




















































































































































































































































































































Т 1 1 в 40 10 10 7—10 
ЕЁ + + 8 8———9——319 + + $ 8. 3——1- 
в в 
4 2 ast 4 3 з 1 
2 еебезе | 4 T4 a 403 
Е *- *9 т ж 4 2 1 3 101 4 1 4 4 
*9 + e Фе е e Oe s 2 2 ж 2 2 2 1 
e * f Р = - .- 
T 12—18——3- 10—9—+ 3——1 + 
Le 3 7 % 9—8 +99? 3 一 了 + 
ГВ 48 8 7 16 19-5 18--Ы 
18 $ 
2 9i Ф 12 ei) 5 - ? әт s: Ф: за ve 
E * » „г ЕР * » oe ote | 
" [LL L——— ——— — 一 一 a eM 























Move the exercise through all 12 keys and feel the blood pumping through your fingers. Make sure 
you keep the shifts consistent. 


52 PART Scales (Modes) and Chords 


Practicing minor sequences 


So that the minor matter of the minor tonality isn't a major obstacle, here's a selection of minor 
patterns for a major workout. 


The basic minor scale sequence 


It's time to line up your modes in a minor key. The good news is that the overall sequence is 
exactly the same for both the minor and major modes. The only difference is that you start the 
minor mode sequence from the root of the Aeolian and then line the modes up from there: from 
Aeolian to Locrian, Ionian, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, and back to Aeolian (see Chap- 
ter 3 for more on these modes). 


The example in the following figure is in the key of G, but you can use this same pattern in all 
12 keys by moving it to the appropriate fret. Only in the key of E do you have to change the initial 
pattern to an open-string pattern. All other keys follow the exact same pattern; they just start on 
REMEMBER different frets. 





TRACK 8, 0:00 
































































































































































































































shift 
13 4 1,4 01 03 ba # 4 10, аз 204 14-404 4 314 4 & ao 3X ра € 
— T Y od * 
5; p ole e 1 — — hs e * ° = | > оре - оре 1 
PETI, ==, ape = ре == 6 74 == 
А — 
G-Aeolia n A-Locria n Вр -Іопіап C-Dorian 
ЕТ 3—5 5+ 5 эн | 
ГВ 3-56 568 568 8—10 
з 5 6 5 6 8 6-8 8 30 0 
shift 4 
4 shift 142.5 | 
$03 4 301 345 1 5$ 5, 401 9, ра. „ 112 4 abe £ 
= е7 fF ег 2.4.7 
EET LLL LLL | 
— ———= 
D-Phrygian Bb-Lydian F-Mixolydian 














5 7 8 5 F 8 + 8——19 
5 6 8 6 9 8——18 




















Б» 





The beginning of the ascending sequence looks a little different іп the key of E minor, as shown 
in the next figure. 

























































































9  — e. p Ф. we = - N 
二 和 п 
E-Aeolia n F#-Locrian G-lonian Etc. 
































CHAPTER 4 Playing Mode Sequences 53 


54 


The following figure shows the descending segment of this exercise. 

















TRACK 8, 0:21 


















































































































































































































































i do 9 2402014 
1 i 4 Па з 1 з 
* the e eho з 1 "epe. * wb 1 4 4 be 2 ebe $3 od a3 a zi. 301 4 2 ane 
Ф - + Ф Ф 
Ex E е Ф Py 2 o 
一 Ó— — I 
G-Aeolia n F-Mixolydian E,-Lydian D-Phrygian 
E 18 38—8—3 Ре #4542 
大 13—12—18 8—31 5—3—34 5—3—34 
ГВ 434210 9—8 5 
hift 
4 2 04 shitty ice з i 2-1 ..4: 3 3 1 а 2 1 4 2 ү эн 
eb Ф l yet шч be е Ы m e —ÓMM 1 
9: LC. e oe Ро | 
е ы 2e ——__ 2. © 
— 
C-Dorian Bb-lonian A-Locria n 
5— 3——2 3—2 2 
H — 5+ {o l 
ГВ 5—3 5—34 5+ Е 3 























Listen carefully to the sound of the sequence to give your ears a workout while your fingers are 


slaving away. 


Minor scale sequence — scale sequence to the third 


Practicing the minor version of the scale sequence to the third provides a great opportunity for 


you to work your fretting hand. 


To avoid any shifts, start this scale with your pinkie on the E string, which twists your hand into 
perfect fretting position. You don't even have to think about it — your hand does it 


automatically. 
TIP 


Carefully check out the fingering for the exercise in the following figure — the ascending C minor 


scale to the third. 





TRACK 9, 0:00 
















































































==. 2442 414 2 41(2 4 1,245 1? $ed DO 1 2be а рч 
z ере oto? г 
J 二 е fL LLL ——— — | 

















5 
5—6—8—5—6—8 6 


шын 




















PART 2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 


Move this pattern through all 12 keys. It’s compact enough to be played without shifting or 
resorting to open strings. The next figure shows the descending sequence. 


TRACK 9, 0:09 


212414121 ^ 


222? о 5» t „| „ t = | 
SS ЕЕ ЕЕЕ 











































































































Listen to how this exercise rhythmically resolves, just like its major counterpart. When you add а 
C minor groove to this, you can move seamlessly between the scale and the groove. The groove 
you play in this exercise outlines a minor tonality and looks like the next figure. 


TRACK 9, 0:20 

























































































s 14 ат 2123 bh | ва Ф а 1 Жа 2 9 LE № 
99 DE > ө-ө = = Жа жаша ote | 
LES == = 一 一 一 
Т m 46 8—19 m 40 46 № 
ЕВ 8 8——9—318 8 8——9—18 
8—H m в н н 




















Work оп this groove until you can play it smoothly. Then practice connecting it seamlessly to the 
minor scale sequence and finally returning to the groove to finish the whole thing. 


Note, however, that you need to shift between the groove position and the scale position — and 
it's quite a shift. You can't start this exercise below the Ath fret of the E string. Pay close attention 


to the shifting move in the next figure. 
REMEMBER 


CHAPTER 4 Playing Mode Sequences 55 


3 3 TT 3 3 КИЕ, EE 
1 @ 4 e 4 1 *9 1 e © 1 人 4 $9! *9! be + 












































































































































































































































T 5 5 7 5 7 8 7 
5-6 в 6—8 8 
ЕЁ 5 5 5 6 8- 5 5 8 5 $ 8. 
8 в 
shift shift 
uh 4 ат 名 1 2 z b. Ж 4 >a ат Ф таз р 3 
т oe ote 2. ze 


































































































































































































5 
LE m m = m +8 40 8 一 18 
Е 8 8——9——40 8 эт 
--н 4 8 н н 
10381401 3 4 0: 9 ! 2 4 shift 
oft e ә e того! 5 1402 Ж 2 4 1 2 1 2 4 1 4 1 1 
E 9 9 
D- LL сЕ LLLI ее» ро 
SSS l M 
spe 5—7 5 
H— 8 58 Бе 5 5—5 5 
ЕН 8 5 Без 5 55 5 
8 
1694 Ф а 1 212 3 be > 1 >. Ф а 1 ао = 
se 6—2 еее 





































































































Practice this іп all keys following the pattern. Enjoy 一 it’s a very useful exercise for real-life 
playing. 


PART 2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 


Minor scale sequence — scale in fifths 


The following two figures show the ascending and descending C minor scale in fifths. 
Playing the minor version of the scale in fifths requires you to reposition your fretting hand; start 
this sequence with the index finger on the E string. Note the shift right at the beginning and be 


ready for it. Follow the fingering in the chart and take your time getting the feel of this; it can be 
REMEMBER Very tricky. 



























































































































































































































































E 
3 4 та 1 4 
палаз ра ра amont бе» fta. t. 
= fe pe 2те z = 
> = Co = === === = | 
к = == 
19 12—19 
FL m 1240 4312-10 43-12-40 +340 
ГВ 140—8 н-"- 13—11—16 T-n 13 一 1 43 
8 11—16 + 43 
TRACK 12 
1 eb: sabe 3 аа 3 1 4 ioi Р shit 
== fe tette! г > 4 вре? 2.513 4311214 1 
== = LL e =. е “= = 
a = = 
т 42-10 m 
19 43 13 一 12 вю 12—18 19 
FÉ 43 + +8- 43 і-н 1 一 1 一 1 ++ +8—8- | 
m + m " ГВ 














The groove that connects the ascending апа descending segments, shown in the next figure, is 
the same one you use in the preceding exercise. The shift feels slightly different, however, because 
your hand is positioned farther up the fingerboard. Pay close attention to the fingering for the 
shifts, and take your time. The best part, besides this being an extraordinary exercise for your 
hands, is that you can play it in any key. 


CHAPTER 4 Playing Mode Sequences 57 


3 3 3 1 3 3 1 3 
1264 4 1 9; 3 be ө 1 п ра 9s 1 e 1 2 3 b. we 

























































































































































































































































































ші 4 19 19 8——19- 19 19 19 8——19 
ЕВ 8 8——9—36 8 8——9—346 
8. + 44 & 44 + 
hift 3 bi b. pope e ds CAM 
kj 1 4 Ж. e 5146 еее 
тз та зраз 152 b. 2 1 4 e 2 1 @ 955,77 ө > feo 
= e е-е 
DE "ie г f—e нш = == f к=== 
Т 19 12 一 1 
H 46 12—10 13—12—10 431248 13 
ГВ 19—$ 11 一 19 一 一 4 эн 13- 一 1 48 13—11 13 
8 11—19 + 13 
3 3 4 103 3 3 3 1 379) 
e 1 4 Ф 4 1 ө 1 2 3 be wo 1 $9. e 1 e 1 2 be 9 
ө еі т o—e ote 
和 三 三 生生 生生 === SO Lm | 
= = 































































































































































































































































































Playing Sequences in Triplet Rhythm 


A cool way to vary the rhythm is to play a scale sequence in triplets (three equal notes in one beat). 
In this section, you play both major and minor scale sequences with triplets, gradually increasing 
the distance between notes. 


58 PART2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 


Major scale sequence — triplets and seconds 


The following figure is an ascending C major sequence that uses the interval of the second with a 
triplet rhythm. 


TRACK 14, 0:00 

























































































1 
2 а 2 4 1 а 10201024 240140131 5 03 а 
9 peter eee Е H = 
E— Е 一 一 3 3 3 3 3 
3 3 Е 
+ 
H + 7 一 9 一 一 9 一 0 一 9 一 1 а | 
ГВ 了 + т ——8—— 18——8——18— н 
8——19——8——16— ——19 


The next figure shows the descending version. 


TRACK 14, 0:06 
ote eee tet 


SS LI е е „|= H = 
3 
























































e 
w 
- 
w 




















+ 
1 — —10—— 8——19—7—— —8 





Wait a minute — is that a rhythmic resolution I hear? Oh, yeah! Well, in that case, add a nice little 
groove to the exercise and get the full benefit of playing bass. 


The groove to use is, of course, a C major groove in triplets, and this one sounds kind of bluesy. 


The following two figures show the groove with the root on top and then the groove with the root 
on the bottom. 


TRACK 14, 0:13 































































































4 2 2 
- 2 1 1 2 2 3 4 1 1 2 2 3 4 
- я г.а 
9 ө f se е z z ө æ 4e e se е | 
3 3 3 3 3 Т) 3 3 
т 
в + + 4 4 5 46 + + + + 4 46 
8 8 8 
TRACK 14, 0:20 
2 2 
EX = : : = = д» z 9 = z к» = д» z | 
“一 一 — 一 一 3 一 一 — 一 一 = 3 
3 3 
| 
LA А = + П 8 8 5 48 i А 了 7 8 8 3 40 | 














CHAPTER 4 Playing ModeSequences 59 


00 


Putting it all together should be а breeze — well, maybe. Connecting these exercises to grooves 
takes them beyond the realm of exercise and into the world of real music. 

























































































































































































1 4 
2424346121242 41H TEL TERE ws 542112 23 8 1 12 2 3 4 
== 
VE oro wr НЕЕ PEE ETE өле е 
ыш SS s: oe р 
7 
Т 7 7.9 7 9 09 10 9-30 
LB 7 тю 18 7— 1—8— —8—9—318 7— 1—8——8— 9—318-] 
810-810 —10 8 8-4 
4 9 4 3 53 143 4 1 2 4 22 4 2 2 4 
Preeto 2 cra 21244144241 | 1 жит 
DELL 24... т s. "ier өйө | 
9 к= ш РР [= fc = 一 = 一 
3 3 3 3 3 = 34 3 з 上 3 3 3 
3 3 3 3 3 
7 
H—* юра + 
ГВ 18 19—8—10—8—7—8—17 F 7—1—8——8—9—318 7——1—8——8—9—19—] 
10— —10—8—10—1— —8—8 8—8 








Play this exercise in all keys to get the most benefit from the workout. 


REMEMBER 


Major scale sequence — triplets and thirds 


Using the same triplet rhythm, you can play intervals of thirds. The distance between the notes is 
a bit larger, but the concept is the same. The following figure shows the ascending C major 


sequence in triplets. 


TRACK 16, 0:00 
















































































Е — a0 5 30 2 7? 5 . 4 5 * РА е! 
D ГЫ 2 e е 

BE ы Ре d E= = === == == і = | 
-一 3 一 一 一 = 3 3 3 3 3 

T 7 9 7 

7 9 +1 9 9—19 18 

ЕЁ + 8. 7—39—31 8. 8—16 19 | 

в 8 一 1 m 








The next figure gives the descending C major sequence in triplets and thirds. 


TRACK 16, 0:06 













































































* -. 555 Lao: 3 1 5 3 -= , 
-= с ө ы 
EIL reet. i = 
3 P Е РЗ E == а 
T 9 子 
Д1 9—9 8—1—1—31 9 7 
ГВ 19 19— 8 8——31—19—31 $ 7 
19 19— 8 7— —8 

















And in the following figure you use the same groove from the previous exercises — which you've 
practiced diligently, right? 


PART 2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 





























































































































































































































1 2 4 1 3 1 
FE 2117223 МАГЕ 12 23 4 
а ө ге == = ообо ж ебе 
9 === 二 — a == 
—а— = 3 3 3 3 3 3 о Ug з 63 3 3 
-T 9 7—19—7—89 suo — Tae 
[一 一 一 一 7—10—7—8— 8-10 —10 ез ee 3 p ЗЕ € 
434 1 3 4 211 
a 1 таза 1 4 222 з. 4*5 t 3 4 
РРР „ ө 2.21 14240 EE к= 12 2 mm 1 2 
г 
9 = Ра ә oo oe phe sF rer 
SSS ул = Сз == 
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 
9 + 
ГТ 49— —19—9 9—1—19—1 9 | 
ЕЗ 36— —19—5 8—7—0—7 8 + 了 一 和 3—3—8—8—89—48—| 
48— —19—8 158 8 8—8 

















Would you like to venture a guess as to how many keys I'd like you to play this exercise in? All of 
them? You're quite right. 


Major scale sequence — triplets and fifths 


The final major sequence in this study of intervals features the fifths. This exercise makes use 
of the same triplet rhythm and groove from the previous two sections. This time, however, you 
need to prepare yourself for a shift within the sequence. In the next two figures, which show 
the ascending and descending sequences, follow the fingering very carefully and be consistent 


in all keys. 


TRACK 18, 0:00 













































































































































































3 4 3% 
2 4 1 1 1 2 2 ^ өз 1 епт І 
р; z—— = z е 2? f ө =? юе е i E у 
= = = ЕЕЕ | 
— = = 3 3 3 3 3 
3 3 d 
7 3 10 9 
т 9 40 了 - 3—4 40 
ЕВ m + 1—8 = 38 | 
8 8—10 10 
TRACK 18, 0:06 
y 4 
shift 3 
* * io! 3 € 3 | өі 4 р 4 2 Ds 21 3 у а 1 a4 2/95 1 2 
9 e © ө е ө e e 7 
кее —— e e г л = 
Е = ÉL | 
8 3 3 3 3 з = 
H 9 了 
Н-в 10—39 4-7 7 10 E 7 
ЕВ 40 40—38 8—7 了 0—7 
30 10—8 8 








Now, check out the next figure and connect the exercises to the groove for the rhythmic 
resolution. 


CHAPTER 4 Playing Mode Sequences 61 








































































































































































































š 4 1 3 ME PNE 
2424141 epte ЗАИР t miii s toma ia as i 
9 e.t ont t? T шь = == ==: 
一 一 LJ = = ш 
== == CI 3 3 3 3 3 а 3 cr5 з 3 
3 3 
т ; 3 39 244 
7 9 m эм m 
FH + 一 2—1—8—8—3—1 32—1—8—8—35—3 
8— —8—9— H в в 
4 
s 4 3 
20213ө3,ө14! 4 3 1 2 2 Е: 
юз? 4 4 4 
ete е 2 Жа rA ЕЖ =" DUM. --! 12 23 
Әкеме a жены eee eee 
3 3 3 3 = = -з- "3 3 3 z air 3 3 
3 
РА 4 я 
Т wwe ss7 7 40 9 7 
Hi вов ШЕ! 2—1—8—8—5—1 2—1—8—8—5—4—| 
н-ə. + + 








Play this exercise in аП keys, please 一 апа епіоу! 


Minor scale sequence 一 triplets and seconds 


Тһе minor version of the triplet-rhythm scale sequence follows the same concept as the major 
version, but you put your fretting hand in a minor scale position. Start with your pinkie on the 
E string as you play the exercises in the following two figures — an ascending and a descending 
C minor sequence in triplets. 


TRACK 20, 0:00 















































































































































3 1 
& o0 € 0 2 2 5565 ә 
(9 —————— 2 f z 
„Р, 2?” L—— === ЕЕЕ Б r 
= mim zm 3 3 3 3 3 
H 5 5—$ 5 € 8 $ 8 ИЕР J 
[B- 9 1-9 0$ 5$ ВЫ & 
TRACK 20, 0:06 
ЕЕ ЕЕ 
= == "Бә т = 
3 3 3 3 3 == == 一 一 
T 5 7 5 5- 
ГА 8 8 686 5 65 5 
ГВ 8. 8 6 86 5 6—5 5 
8 6——в 














And now, to add the groove to the sequence and rhythmically resolve it, reposition your fretting 
hand to play the triplet groove with the root on top as it appears in the following figure. 


TRACK 20, 0:13 



























































3 
-ө- 1 4 4 1 1 2 4 4 1 
— 
9 ра æ Ф. e $e т г 2 æ дө Ф te е | 
= = — == 3 —— == 5 
T 40 
ЕЁ 8 8 9- 8 8 8- 9 e 
$ 4 4 8 8 + 44 











62  PART2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 


Now play it with the root on the bottom, as in the next figure. 


TRACK 20, 0:19 

































































1 Ш 4 4 1 1 2 忆 4 4 1 1 2 
EX = = Ф o— te - ze e—— te | 
C; =- Е 一 一 с-з = —3 = 
3 3 
Г | 
8 8 9 30 8 8 E 30 
[B 8 8 н н 8 в н н 











Finally, combine the groove with the sequence іп the exercise and you create a beautiful combi- 
nation that properly prepares you to play great music. As you play the sequence in the following 
figure, watch the shifts into and out of the groove, and follow the fingering diligently. 



































































































































































































































1 1 3 3 
4/3 4 0» 2 1 2 4 2 414142 1 2,52 4 9 9 9 фта ап 
z ое o e 
9: Ре | ре: = sie өсе 
т 22 02202 „== e E x dL. = 
== S m 3 3 3 3 3 3 = 3 3 зген 3 3 
ГТ 5 7 
ГА 5- 5556868 $ 8—]—19 
ГВ 5 5 6 56 8 68 8 8 8—9—19 889% 
$ $ 8—11—1+ 8—8—11—1 
131,4 1424 3 2 LM ‚11 
 # юу ө 2 1 1414 2 4 2 12 4 44 21 4 41 1 2 4 41 1 2 3 
D f е-е r= 
=== Гого, = ә. 2t = РР] 
3 3 3 3 人 = == BS 2-5 B= з 3 
[T 5—1—5 
ГА 8- 8686565 5 
ГВ 8 8—6—8—6—5—6—5 5 88 949 889% 
& 6 8—8—11—1 8—8—11—11 











As always, the key to success is . . . all keys. 


Minor scale sequence — triplets and thirds 


It's time to increase the distance between the notes. This next sequence of exercises works on 
your thirds in a minor scale. Your hand remains in the same position, with your pinkie on the 
root. The following two figures show the ascending and descending C minor sequence in triplets 
and thirds. 


TRACK 22, 0:00 



















































































4 
4 2 4 4 1 4 за thy 1 
4 1 2 4 12 4 1 1 2 2 P + 
LE оо „ж? po 了 е е o 
em — —s = == —— | 
гг = = Е E Е p 3 
3 3 
5 55 
H 5 6— — —5— —8——5— —$ 6$——8— — —8 
Ау в в 








СНАРТЕК 4 Playing Моде Sequences 63 


TRACK 22, 0:06 
















































































4 1 3 1 
1 4 4 4 2 
EPI bo t o „Ре tot? = = ‘ i 
二 е е Pe = | 
3 3 3 3 2 к= m— 1-9-- 
3 
В у= 6 5 | 
ЕЁ $ 8—5 $——5——8——5 5 
в єв 

















The next figure inserts the same groove from the previous sections. Make sure you observe the 
shift and the proper fingering. 


































































































































































































4 hift 
4 2 4 1,4 про 513 3 11 A 
EE a a £59 ват à 4 i dou 
z .. #2 "= е өсе = ze өзг f) 
2 =p or Ft — = ы # 2-4 Р 29 
2-22. 
H s sese ee o i ttie 
Е 6———5—8—5—6— —6—8— e 8-8-9-9 8—8—9—419- 
чи 381444 
4 3 hift 
прет 43 L2 4 2 1 4 42 21: 1 3 1 1 3 
P ebef est пре! 42 21 1 441 1 2 3 441 13 2 
= Ф e ө РЧ өзе m 
DE = т —— EU ө a - ae == 2Р1 rr] 
3 3 3 3 Р = == Саг Сај = 3 3 LgJ x = = 
5—8—5 7 5 
Le 8— —85—6— —6—5—8—5— e 
HB 8—6— —6—5—8—5— e 8—8—9—40 еее 
ев 8 4444 8—8 1444 

















Move the exercise around at will, all over the fingerboard, while keeping the pattern consistent. 


REMEMBER 


Minor scale sequence — triplets and fifths 


Then there’s that rather large interval, the fifth. It’s too important an interval to ignore, so buckle 
down and get ready to tackle the fifth in triplets. You need to position your fretting hand to start 
the sequence with the index finger on the E string and to prepare yourself for a shift right at the 
beginning. See the following two figures for the ascending and descending sequences. 


TRACK 24, 0:00 































































































shift 1 3 4 1 54 Р 

палар а раа жа з елт араа „ж „= „ 

2 r Eust L— == = | 
к == 
= ЕЕЕ ЕЕЕ 3 3 8 3 
3 3 3 
10 12 

LE m 12 m 19 133—146 
ЕН 10 n 13 10 юм ив 1 

8 8—10 10—n 1—13 з 

















64 РАВТ2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 


TRACK 24, 0:06 







































































3 
4 3 shi 
ре В 
РЕ РА 22-2. е x = | 
к== 
3 а 3 Е 3 a теді т ты 
19 
| 天 一 +8 13 12 19 
LB 13 13—11 11—19. 19 13 + 19 
13 143—141 131—349 8—8 1——8 

















Now, connect the sequence to the groove for the rhythmic resolution. Watch out for the shift, and 
keep in mind that you have two grooves — one with the root on top, the other with the root on 
the bottom. 































































































TRACK 25 
3 
i 3 4 1 PEE | 
resp pers жа ТЕ ЖЕЛЕ ЛЕН toga tieg xoa a ЭТ 
е # = Ж г | 
9 2—02 = ж 00е ее 
s- pe T? -= m mmm === Le | Га ағ”! == 
== == 一 一 3 3 3 3 3 3 = 3 3 Са = 3 3 
9- 42 
40 42 43- 49- 435-46 
ГВ 19 44 43 49 49-14 44-43 43 8 8 9% 8--8-9-Ң 
8- 8—19- 49—44 4113 43 8—11—1 8—8—11—14 














































































































т 
= = = = 
3 3 3 Шеше == C343 3 Сз =5 3 
3 3 3 3 
5-4” 43 42 4e 
ЕЗ 43 нон 43 44 40 8—8—9—49. 8-8-9-- 
43—— 13-4 441-409— —19—8— 441 9 944-44 8—8-44-44 

















After you have a solid handle on it, please move it to all the other keys. 


String Crossings with Interval Exercises 


A great way to practice the string-crossing motion for playing grooves on bass is to practice 
interval exercises. These exercises help you locate any interval in relation to the scale’s root. 
When you play grooves, you often leap from one note to the next, skipping the in-between notes 
that make it sound like a scale. 


The following exercises help develop your hands so that you’re able to play large intervals with- 
out losing track of the scale’s root. Crossing the strings is the trickiest part of this, so the benefits 
of these exercises are knowing the intervals you’re playing and being able to maneuver through 
the harmony without having to play every note in the scale. 


Major scale sequence — referencing the root 


In this exercise you get into position for the major scale and play the root, followed by each of the 
scale tones, one at a time; you’re referencing the root between each note. The following figure 
shows the ascending sequence. 


CHAPTER 4 Playing Mode Sequences 65 


00 


REMEMBER 


TRACK 26, 0:00 










































































| 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 - 2 
Ош Е г * Е | 
B nd е nd 
ЕЕЕ ЕЕЕ ЕЕ 
T 2 3 2- 4 5 
ГА 3 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 
Т + 9 10 
ЕЁ + 8. 19 
8 38 & в $ & 8 8 $ 











Just in case you like playing grooves with the root on top (and who doesn't on occasion), the next 
figure shows the descending part of this exercise. 


TRACK 26, 0:05 













































































Wow, that's some string-crossing, isn't it? You can see that this exercise is as much a workout 
for your right hand as it is for your left. 


Minor scale sequence — referencing the root 


Here's the minor version of the exercise. 
You need to keep your hand in groove- playing position, which means you start the sequence on 
the E or A string with your index finger. One small shift is required — you know the deal with the 


Dorian mode. 


The next two figures show the ascending and descending sequences. 


TRACK 26, 0:11 


> 

































































3 1 4 shift 2 
1 = 1 1 j : 2 2 2 Бе 2 - 4 
це- 
-* 
2 E 2 т т т | 
Е Е =] 
3 Е 2- 3 5 
HB—3 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 | 
FT 
E a Р 7 $ 19 | 
8. 19 8. + 8. 8 8. 8 8. 8 











PART 2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 


TRACK 26, 0:17 


$e 




































































ЕЕ» 
LB 














This exercise is a real workout for the shift, as well as for the fingering, isn’t it? It’s well worth 


the effort, though. 


Dominant scale sequence — referencing the root 


This is a groove exercise series, so there’s no way the dominant scale can be ignored. The follow- 
ing two figures show the ascending and descending Mixolydian sequence, referencing the root. 


TRACK 26, 0:22 
















































































1 

_ 2 2 2 2 网 2 KA 2 ж 2 

г 9 
9 ж Ф z | 

— — === 

т : 2 3 5 
B 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 
H 
ГТ Е 7 в m | 
LB в в в в в 








TRACK 26, 0:27 
















































































Notice that you can start these scales on either the Е or А string, making this exercise ideal for 


playing grooves. 


CHAPTER 4 Playing Mode Sequences 67 


Rockin’ Out 


And now it’s your turn to put all these exercises to good use. The song in the following figure is 
in a progressive rock style and utilizes sequences and grooves found in the exercises in this chap- 
ter. Make sure you follow the fingering indicated in the music so that you don’t have to shift your 
left hand unnecessarily. It’s very common for the bass player to play unison or harmonized 
sequences with the guitarist in this style and then immediately slip into a groove pattern without 
missing a beat (pun intended). 






















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































13 413 4 1 3 4 3 * 41 39,432 1 Іі тя 41$ 3 152 4 4 ®Ъ порт ат 
= = ---2 оре me 
Ә: e! ө ооо оо ооо 0 ore өс өөө өз | 
Dm Dm с Dm с 
EE 5 5—L——5—:—8—1 
-B—5——8—5——8 7-8 8 5— 55555} 5 555, 5--5-5-5-5-5-:Б5Б5Б5Б5 
8—8 8 
31,4313 4 3 1,4 3 1413 1 43 14 3 4 1 3 10101010101 11414 4 
2 e 
5) ере о е-е ер Crore tl т е в oe 
т і = ооо # Ф| Ф s © - 
= ү = = —— 
Dm C в» Пт 
7—5 T5 5 
H 8-75-79 875-557 8-75 5-7 
ГВ 8 8—7 —8 5—5 55 5—5 LEN EE EN DT RR 
io & i *X 4.21 1 1 1 1 4 4 241 241 42142 1 11 1 11 1 1 1 1 4 4 
— 
9 PPE Ee 
o_o p 2 8 8 2 S © S p yl | 2 Р Ф Ф ФР Ф Ф Ф m 
т LI ыы 
= = —— 3 3 3 3 = = — 
Dm C в От © 
H 5--6-8-6-5 
[B 5 5 5 5 5-5 Pave tes ae 8—6-1—5 5—5—5 5—5 LAESA: E 



























































































































































中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 





Nb 
У 


68 РАВТ2 Scales (Modes) апа Chords 


IN THIS CHAPTER 


» Playing triads as arpeggios 





» Getting used to chord inversions 
» Expanding to two octaves 


» Applying arpeggios to a song 


Chapter 5 
Working with Arpeggios 


riads are the basic note structure in harmony. A triad consists of three notes — the root, 

third, and fifth of any chord. When playing a triad, you convey whether the chord is major, 

minor, or diminished, but not much else. Yet you can cover a lot of range on the fretboard 
via triads; they serve to get you from a low note to the next octave quickly and smoothly. 


Playing triads as arpeggios (notes in a chord played one at a time) is an age-old way to develop 
musical prowess. You hear everyone from accordion players to jazz pianists, from classical to pop 
and beyond, practicing triad arpeggios to enhance their technique as well as their ear. 


Triads: Outlining the Harmony 


When you practice triads, you usually add the octave root at the end of the triad sequence. In the 
following exercises, you get to work on your “triad-athon” skills by playing arpeggios. You first 
get a firm grasp on the consistent pattern of each type of triad, and then you apply each in a 
musical setting. 


Major arpeggios 
The major triad forms the minimal outline of a major tonality and is embedded in no less than 


three different modes: the Ionian, the Lydian, and the Mixolydian (see Chapter 3 for more on 
these modes). 


Start this arpeggio using your middle finger, and make sure you have a total of three strings to 
complete the arpeggio. Take a look at the grid and the music in the following figure. 


CHAPTER 5 Working with Arpeggios 69 


70 


Major 



































































































































Ф Ф 
1 1 
О О 
2 2 
өс eo 
4| |4 4 |4 
Major Triad starting on the E string: Major Triad starting on the A string: 
2 1 4 4 2 1 4 
z г 
加 e ғ 
э=_===; | 
5 
LE 5 2 5 
[B 2 5 3 | 


After you’re completely sure-fingered, move on to the exercise іп the next figure, which leads you 
through all 12 keys. Keep your fingering consistent throughout when you shift to the next posi- 
tion for each new arpeggio. Play the exercise in triplet rhythm so that it resolves rhythmically. 


TRACK 28, 0:00 











































































































































































































































































































































































































4 4 
(9: 2 m 511 ЫЕ ората 02-41. 11844. 
5 ө ө е = е В” ео т 
Ф * e рә f а ае е 
Ф Ф Se rm = = 
L3 "=ч 3 3 [一 3 一 3 3 3 [一 3 一 3 
C А р» А 
HT 5 6 
СА 5 2-5 5-2 6 3-6 63 7 
ГВ 25 52 3 3 з 6 $ 3 4 4 43 74 
3 3 4 4 5 5 
4 à bei 4 
2 19 £3 0d 2 0 þe! 12 2 he от? 21 .^ 12 2.22... 
9 one = -* = ж dede = айт z 
AL рө ө = — ot ө = — 
3 3 — 3 3 3 — 3 3 3 
D В ph E^ i B E E 
H 47 1—4 8 5—8 8-5 3 65% 5-6 
Ls 5 5 5—8 8—5 6 6 6 9 9% 7 7 
6 6 7 7 
4 Í 4 "NUT 4 
"ИГИ ЛЛ? ЕЛЕК А етеу: 2 eect: 24, eres? Ё „#51 
| - г.д 
9 21” т - Ф- te өле oie ."— 
= —= — = — 
— 3 3 3 —; 3 3 3 -з 8 
C Е D> а» р 
I Е ii 
10 тю 104 n" зи 118 2 
ЕЁ = 48—# в 8 8—n 448 9 3 орз 
8 8 9 3 10 ж 























PART 2 Scales (Модеѕ) апа Chords 


REMEMBER 


You don’t have to limit your arpeggios to the positions indicated in this exercise. Go ahead апа 
explore the range of your bass. Just make sure you always start on the E or A string with your 


middle finger. 


Minor arpeggios 


The minor triad forms the outline of the minor harmony and is part of the Dorian, Phrygian, and 
Aeolian modes. The difference between the major and minor triad is only one note, the third, but 
it makes for a completely new hand position — and sound. 


Take a look at the grid and the music in the following figure. You can see that you play the minor 
arpeggio starting оп the E or A string, with your index finger on the root. 











со ~ 























Міпог Triad starting оп the Е string: 


1 


4 


3 


Minor 

















О 
1 
өс 
3 |3 
e 
4 




















Minor Triad starting on the A string: 


1 


4 3 


фе 











D. 





Ex 


























2e 























= 














Practice the triad іп the designated positions first, and then make sure to move it into other areas 
of your fingerboard. If you keep the fingering consistent you can play it anywhere without any 


difficulty. 


When you feel comfortable with the fingering, continue on to the exercise in the next figure, in 
which you play the minor triad arpeggio in all 12 keys. Feel free to move past the indicated posi- 
tions; just keep the fingering consistent. 


CHAPTER 5 Working with Arpeggios 


71 


TRACK 28, 0:16 






































































































































































































































































































































































































































3 
BEF == 2 4 1 a ә” + 1 1 4 一 241 和 1 一 一 ?4 1 
ре [© „>. e e Ф 
4 pe ө = "TE e fe = f. 
fI DONC MENS CC I RN MNT roger a 
Gm Cm 5 G*m сіп Ат 
5 4 4 5 5 7 
ГА 4 4 3-5 53 5 5 4? 3—4 $ $ 
3—6 6—3 4—7 7—4 5—8 8—5 
2*3 2 3 2 2 y 2 4 23.) : hc 
1 555 ft 4 1 14,7, 4 1 Ly 4t. 1 1 4 e^ 531 аре 4 
9 2 ре Бө?® е tet? 5. 2 ө ЕЁ 
— ы >e — е — 5 е — = 
3 3 — 3 3 3 — 3 3 3 
Dm 3 D^m Ет Вт Ет А 
H 6 6 8 7 1 4 8 8 
LB 3-8 8-5 + + 5-9 4-5 + 8 + 19-7 
++ se 1—% 9—7 
з з 
з 2 9? з 2 пе 2 233 
142 »° 1 | өрә eg. 1414441 ES 4 1 1.2 * oa 
Ф е E: е е te? е E o 
9 one = е j z emm LL e =. Ф 
-7 3 3 3 = 3 3 3 —= 38 
Cm Fm б сіп F*m РА Пт 
H 48 4 9 44 10 48 42 
ГВ 9 9 8-н 11—8- 19 19 9—12- 12-5 ++ + 
эн 1—8 342 42-9 493 вв 


Diminished arpeggios 


The diminished arpeggio occurs far less frequently than its major or minor counterpart, but it 
creates an interesting sound. It’s embedded in only one mode, the Locrian. 


The grid and music in the following figure show you how to play the minor arpeggio starting on 
the E or A string, with your index finger on the root. Now get your hands dirty! 






































































































































Diminished 
О о 
1 1 
Ф Ф 
2 2 
О 
3 3 
Ф Ф 
4 4 
Diminished Triad starting on the Е string: Diminished Triad starting on the A string: 
1 4 2 3 1 4 2 3 
я ра = 
: be ра 
= T | 
т 5 
ГА 5 4 | 
ГВ F © + 3 5 


PART 2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 


Work the diminished arpeggio as written initially, but then expand by starting on other frets. Just 
make sure that your fingering is consistent and that you start on the E or A string. 


When you can play this arpeggio solidly, move on to play it in all keys, as shown in the following 
figure. 


TRACK 28, 0:34 























































































































































































































































































































































































































1 4 2 3 2 3 2 4 2 3 243 2 4 2 3 2 
GE = 2 1 1 РЕВ 1 4 1 ME 1 1 — o 4 1 
4 pe ео е --- 2. ды fie. fa e ® æA - 
2-82 = — 3 tLga- ~~ =з 3 L-g— “т 
бо Co қ сю Cio И А9 
5 4 4 6 5 5 1 
ГА 4 4 3-6 63 5 5 47 7—4 6 6 
3 6 $ 3 43 74 58 85 
4 3 Pa ME з, 
1 VE EE 14? 44. 1,4 iei $54 244 Жы „> өз 
9 229 = be —* = 2i. = = 
=e De - p — 9 Ф = — 
3 3 n x r 3 3 — > 3 3 
pe З pho Ebo " Bo Eo 
H .-% 8 7 7 9 ..% 
Ha 8—5 7 1 69 5-6 8 8 7% 19-7 
5-9 3—5 —в 44 
3 22? 3 2 3 
P e 2 2 
ат ‘betes! 1 4 te 7 4 1 1 Liens, Же о 
: g-—. ө > wit e te? e 2-2. 
9 -z = a === fe = — е 0 
-3 3 3 3 一 5 3 3 3 -— 3 
Со po i сї F#o 5 pe 
H 10 3 9 т 10 10 12 
ГВ 9 3 8—H 1—8 + 40 9—1 9—8 он 
8—H 1—8 9—12 42-9 18—15 19—18 























You’re not limited to the positions shown in the exercise. They just help you cover all the keys. 
Feel free to play any of these exercises in other positions as well. 


Getting Down with Chord Inversions 





REMEMBER 


Inverting a chord means to put one of the chord tones other than the root on the bottom. In other 
words, if you play a regular C major arpeggio starting on the root (C, E, G), you may choose to play 
the same chord inverted, starting it on the third (E, G, C) or the fifth (G, C, E) of the chord. It’s 
the same chord but with a different note in the bass. 


You use inversions to make a chord sound interesting and unexpected, or to help you move 
smoothly through a chord progression. Either way, it’s a good idea to have inversions solidly 
under your fingers . . . and in your ears. 


You can invert a chord whenever the spirit moves you, but sometimes you find a chord inversion 
specifically indicated in a musical chart. Inversions are written as two letters with a diagonal 
slash between them. The top letter represents the chord; the bottom letter represents the bass 
note. 


Major chord inversions 


In the following exercise you get to play the triad in root position, then play it with the third of 
the chord in the bass, and finally play it with the fifth in the bass. At the end of each phrase you 
restate the bass note along with the root to get your ear used to the sound. 


CHAPTER 5 Working with Arpeggios 73 


When playing an inversion, always keep track of the chord’s root. 


REMEMBER The following figure leads you through the entire range of your bass — all keys and every fret, 
even the very top ones. You may have some challenges in reaching the top frets of your bass at 
first, but in time and with repetition, getting to them becomes much easier. 


When you start in E or F, you need to use some open strings (not to worry, they’re clearly marked). 
You play all the other keys with consistent fingering: You play all chords with the root in the bass 
using one pattern, all inversions with the third in the bass using another, and all inversions with 
the fifth in the bass using yet another. Just make sure you follow the fingering. 

















































































































лт 
Іт 
4M 
LE 
1 
A. 
| 
„> 
tel | fs 
А. 
um 
һ- 
% = 
h = 
А - 
“(|ы 
A. 



































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































4 
1 0 3 3 2 3 3 3 124 1 4 4 ? 4 1 4 ө% 1 2 2 
эң == СС gt NR 225% tt 
L4 == Ё = = к= —R E 
F F/A F/C 
3— 3 3 ЧЕЙ 09 ЗИ 3 юз 
ГА 
оз з 90 3 8 8 8 
LB 1 1 5 5 8 8 
1 4% 3 4 4 4 2 1 4 1 2 2! ta NES 5 
Е а 43 нф Па rule o, o 
: 5 e e ie Ф. e fe га > 
d == 7 — 7 = 一 
ЕЁ Fiat ЕЗ/С? 
3 3 3 
2 4 4 4 4 ы 4 4 ии 
B 1-4 41 4 4 9 5 9 
2 2 5 6 3 9 
4 
201957534 А 4 4 p 4 1 a А 2 
e = „ 1 7 4 2 2 efe,’ 4 2 2 еге о 2 : 
i = e e е e e 
2-7” ^^ г шшш 2- = ә 
(9 G/B G/D 
4 474 12 
Lk 5 5 5 5 5 5 3—4 4-9 
ГВ 25 5 2 5 5 10 10 10 
3 3 1 7 10 10 
4 
4 4 4 
3 21 1 1 be 1 
21 ef. 4042 А 4 ты! 2 4 2 РЕ: 2 
зе = е ze = 
== 一 — 
Ab АМС Ab/Eb 
5 5 8 5 13 
FA Б Б Б в 6 6 10—13 13—10 
ГВ 3-6 6 3 6 6 n и n 
4 4 + 8 + 44 
4 
4 4 4 
4 3 д 1 EE" 1 ә 1 2 
4 4 2 2 pS 2 
= (t. o 1? He We, 4, 3 e c ee 
г 
А A/c# AJE 
T 6 6 9 6 4 
7 1 1 7 7 7 1—4 ми 
ЕЁ + +— + + 42 42 42 
5 5 9 g 12 1 


74 PART2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 




















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































4 
аа 4 1 - 2 2! 2 2 , 2 2 
2.1 = e cd 2 4 zb е-е в: 5 2 be е TS e 2 е 
П 9 
ETE -=n am ==" -= 
EB — 
ВР B/D B/F 
了 2—1—3 15 
H 8 8 в в в в 12—15 1512 
ЕВ 5—8 8—5 8 8 13 13 13 
6 6 10 10 B B 
4 
aga a 4 2 2 2 ‘tete! 2 2 
giu 465412 2 „г 4 2 „йе Е е. г 
te He e Hote > $e Ф 
9 : =e So = — 2 
В B/D* B/F* 
8 8—1H—8 16 
ЕТ 9 9 3 9 9 9 э в 16 13 
ЕВ Е 9 6 g 3 +4 +4 м 
+ + н н 14 14 
4 
Q5 3 4 4 2 1 p 2 2 2 j sts) 2 
2 1 -— 12 > 1 2 EPs?! „ 2» г»: + 
z z ж 
о == uL 
— 
C C/E C/G 
9 8—12—3 47 
Lk m % m њ 48 % м9 9—8 
ЕВ 7.30 “7 10 10 15 15 15 
8 8 2 42 5 m 
4 
4 а hø ^ 
a 3 4 4 2 tbe 1 : 2 2 betel. 2 
2 еее. 12 ж bette? б ж 2 be f fe? ә 
Ф e o be e 
9 е 0° == —— = к=== p 
— 
р» РЫЕ Dh/Ah 
т 40 юз 48 
Т. " " " " м " 15 18 18 15 
Hs 8—9 1—8 н н 16 16 16 
5 5 m 43 16 16 
4 
ан а 4 24) PE 2.2... 2 
2 2 2 г 
2 1.6.41, æ ‚+ elef e... 2 ett “ес e 
[5 fe 2 — fe m—— 7-2 Е 7? 
= 
— 
р D/F# D/A 
+ мн 1 
ші 42 m 12 12 42 m 19—18 19 16 
ЕВ 3 7 7% 12 12 m m m 
40 1 м m 7 7 
4 
5 ара ^ 
4 4 4 2 2 2 2 тро Eø! 2 2 
: * a 12 be е belt = е ^ ø 









































































































































VE 
Y 
Г: 
| 
i 
| 
| 


= 


CHAPTER 5 Working with Arpeggios 75 


76 


Minor chord inversions 


All the basic rules for playing major chord inversions apply to playing inversions of minor chords. 
Remember to keep track of the root; play it at the end of each phrase to reinforce the sound in 
your ear. You play an open string only in the key of E; other than that, it’s all patterns. The next 
figure leads you through minor inversions in all keys and positions. 


















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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(а) 


PART 2 Scales (Modes) апа Chords 



















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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Shifting with Two-Octave Arpeggios 


One of the great challenges of playing a bass guitar is getting out of position and into the second 
octave. The trick is to simply treat each shift as a move into another position. You can cover great 
distances by moving via two-octave major and minor arpeggios. 


The following couple of exercises help you play through the entire range of a four-string bass 
guitar and get your hands accustomed to the precise small shifts necessary to complete each 


arpeggio. 


CHAPTER 5 Working with Arpeggios 77 


Two-octave major arpeggios 


When you shift from one position to the next while practicing two-octave major arpeggios, make 
sure you don’t take your eyes off the index finger of your left hand. The shift is only a distance of 
two frets, which means your hand moves by two frets. The notes, however, are four frets apart, 
TIP but by aiming the shift with the index finger and then pressing the actual note with the ring finger 
for the major arpeggio, you only have to negotiate the relatively small distance of a two-fret shift. 


Take a look at the grid for the two-octave arpeggio in the following figure. Pay close attention to 
which fingers are used for the notes. The pattern never changes. The only time you use an open 
string is when you play the E major arpeggio (you start it on the open E string). Make sure your 
shifts are precise and accurate. This is one of the great exercises that really gives you control of 
the entire range of your bass guitar. 


Major 


















































78 PART2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 


The next figure gives you the entire workout for two-octave major arpeggios. The shifts are the 
same throughout. Take your time getting used to the feeling in your hands 一 it’s well worth it. 
You find yourself reaching the higher notes with much more surety after working on this for 
a while. 


TRACK 31, 0:00 


shift, shift shift АЗМ git (Continue shifting pattern throughout) 












































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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Two-octave minor arpeggios 


The minor version of this two-octave arpeggio exercise is remarkably similar to the major. The 
shift still requires a move of the same distance 一 two frets if measured by the distance traveled 
by the index finger. The only difference is that after shifting, you press the note with your middle 
finger instead of your ring finger. 


Check out the fingering grid for the two-octave minor arpeggio in the following figure and get 
used to the motion (and the sound). 


CHAPTER 5 Working with Arpeggios 79 


Minor 









































As with the major version, you use an open string only when playing in E. All the other keys follow 
exactly the same pattern, по matter where on the neck you play them. Тһе shifts аге indicated іп 
the next figure for the first couple of measures. Follow this pattern for the rest of the exercise. 


80  PART2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 


TRACK 31, 0:27 


shift shift Wh shit ні (Continue shifting pattern throughout) 4 


























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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Using Triad Accompaniment іп а Song 


Triads are very popular in accompanying world beat tunes, such as reggae and African music. The 
structure of a triad contains enough information to tell the listener (and the musicians) whether 
achord is major or minor but not enough information to limit the note choices of a singer or solo- 
ist. Try this next tune, and, if you find it sounds familiar, don’t be surprised. This pattern has 
been used in countless songs. 







































































2 1 4 2 1 4 | 1 4 | 4% 1 4 PA 2 1 4 
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B 5 5 























CHAPTER 5 Working with Arpeggios 81 


IN THIS CHAPTER 


» Playing seventh chords 





» Weaving seventh-chord arpeggios 
with modes 


» Applying arpeggios and modes to 
grooves 


» Performing seventh-chord grooves in 
a song 


Chapter 6 
Combining Seventh Chords 


eventh chords are a hybrid between a triad (root, third, and fifth) and a mode (scale). Seventh 

chords consist of four notes: the triad plus the seventh note of the related mode. These 

chords run smoothly and easily through the harmony. Their sound signals exactly which 
harmony is being played, leaving no doubt as to whether you’re in major, minor, dominant, or 
half-diminished (for more details on harmony, triads, and modes, check out Bass Guitar For 
Dummies, 2nd Edition). 


Seventh chords in combination with modes are the backbone of bass grooves and solos. With just 
a few notes you can signal the harmony with perfect clarity. Modes are inextricably linked with 
their seventh chords; you have to be in full control of both to play satisfying and meaningful 
grooves. 


Structuring Seventh Chords 


You can play each of the main seventh chords — major, minor, dominant, and half-diminished — 
without shifting, as long as you have three strings to work with. Your bass has four strings 
(unless you play a five- or six-stringed bass), which means you start the seventh chords on either 
the E or A string to complete them without shifting. 


The best way to get comfortable with the structure of each of the chords is by playing repetitive 
exercises throughout the range of your bass. These are the same chords you hear played on guitar 
and keyboard instruments; on those instruments, each chord is played as a stack of notes, all at 
once. Bass players integrate the notes of a chord, one at a time, into a groove. 


Major seventh arpeggios 


A true major seventh chord is actually less common in modern music than you may think. You do 
encounter one occasionally, perhaps in a very syrupy ballad, but most of the time you groove on 
a dominant chord. The major pattern does occur frequently in a melody line, however, so you 
don’t want to be caught unprepared when a major seventh shows up. Get ready. 


CHAPTER 6 Combining Seventh Chords 83 


You start the major seventh arpeggio with your middle finger. Make sure you have three strings 
including your starting point to complete it. Check out the grid and the music in the following 























































































































figure. 
Major 
e e 
1 1 
О О 
2 2 
e e 
3 3 
e O eo 
4 4 4 
2 1 4 3 4 2 1 4 > а 
[5 J = te - = - 
г 
4 5 
К Е : 4 5 Е 2 5 




















When you’re on solid ground with the fingering and sound of the major seventh chord, starting 
on either the E or A string, take a stab at the exercise in the next figure, which gets you through 
all 12 keys and then some. Keep your fingering consistent throughout by shifting cleanly to the 
next position for each new arpeggio. Play the exercise using sixteenth notes to resolve it 






















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































rhythmically. 
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84  PART2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 


© 


REMEMBER 


Don’t limit your arpeggios to the positions in this exercise. Explore the range of your bass, mak- 
ing sure you always start on the E or A string with your middle finger. 


Minor seventh arpeggios 


The minor seventh chord is a very common tonality in a groove. You could say it’s a great place 
to hang, at least musically. 


Take a look at the grid and the music with the fingering in the following figure, and you see that 
you can play the minor arpeggio starting on the E or A string with the index finger on the root. 




















































































































Minor 
О Ф О Ф 
1 1 1 1 
О eo 
3 3 3 |3 
Ф Ф 
4 4 
i 1 4 3 1 3 1 4 3 be = 
EX Е = = ө = 
H 5 3 5 ғ 5 5 Ы 




















Play this pattern as shown, and then make sure you move the arpeggio to other frets as well. Keep 
the fingering consistent as you roam along your fingerboard. 


When you’re comfortable with the fingering, continue to the next figure and exercise your hands 


by playing the minor seventh arpeggio in all 12 keys. Move the pattern around on your fretboard 
and keep the fingering consistent. 


CHAPTER 6 Combining Seventh Chords 95 


80 


TRACK 33, 0:24 


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Dominant seventh arpeggios 


As is the case with the minor seventh, the dominant seventh is a mainstay of groove playing. Its 
pattern is structured like a major seventh, but the last note in the pattern is lowered by one fret. 


Study the grid and the music in the following figure, and get your hand into position to start this 


pattern with the middle finger on the root. Start on the E or A string. 


























































































































Dominant 
Ф Ф 
1 1 
P e C Ф 
2 2 2 2 
eo eo 
4 4 4 |4 
2 1 4 2 4 2 1 4 ра 2-2 
9: ө © е Ф Е Е 
oe 
H 2 5 3 5 ғ 2 5 : ы 














PART 2 Scales (Modes) апа Chords 





After getting used to playing this pattern as shown, make sure to move it to other frets as well. 
Keep the fingering consistent. 


Continue to the next figure for a workout on the dominant seventh arpeggio in all keys. Move the 
pattern around and keep the fingering consistent. 


TRACK 33, 0:51 


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Half-diminished arpeggios 


The half-diminished arpeggio is even less frequently used than its major counterpart in a groove, 
but it shows up often as a short melodic pattern. Played alone, the harmony sounds almost eerie. 


== A note about the half-diminished: It’s called а half-diminished because you lower only the fifth of 
V a minor chord and leave all the other notes intact. (In a full diminished chord, on the other hand, 


tecnica, the seventh is lowered twice and sounds like a sixth, or the seventh isn’t used at all.) 


STUFF 
Study the grid and the music in the following figure. The pattern is reminiscent of a minor chord, 
but with the fifth (the third note in the sequence) lowered by a fret. 


CHAPTER 6 Combining Seventh Chords 87 


88 


Half-Diminished 
































О e О e 
1 1 1 1 
e e 
2 2 

О C 
3 3 
e e 
4 4 




















































































































Get your hands used to the shape by playing it as written, and then expand it by playing the half- 
diminished arpeggio starting on other frets. Make sure your fingering is consistent and that you 
start on the E or A string with the index finger. 


When you can play this pattern fluently, take it to all keys, as shown in the next figure. 


TRACK 33,1:16 



































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1 42 1 3 
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Don't limit yourself to the positions shown in the exercise. Feel free to play any of these exercises 
in any other position as well. 


PART 2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 


Combining Seventh Chords and Modes 


TIP 


If you remove every other note in a mode you get a seventh chord. By the same token, if you add 
a note between each note of a seventh chord, you get a mode. Modes and seventh chords are inex- 
tricably linked, especially for bass players. 


In a great bass groove you find notes from both the seventh chord and the mode. The bass line 
usually weaves in and out, between chord and mode, to keep the groove moving and interesting. 
These next few exercises are great for getting used to applying seventh chords and modes to 
grooves. 


Major seventh tonality 


When listening to a piece of music, notice that the modes and chords don’t just go up and down — 
they weave through the harmony. You want to play the seventh chords and their corresponding 
mode flawlessly so that you can extract notes from their regular up-and-down order to create an 
interesting bass groove. 


The exercise in the following figure leads you through a major seventh arpeggio, followed by an 
Ionian mode (for more on modes see Chapter 3), and then a weaving of all the notes, out of tra- 
ditional sequence. Finally, the exercise resolves to the root in the last measure. 


This figure shows how to play the exercise only in C or G, but by consistently following the fin- 
gering you can transfer this pattern anywhere on your fingerboard. 


Starting on the 
A String: 




























































































































































































3 4 3 1 3 4 403 
2 1 id т 5 s 5 3 і 4 4.2 * 2 o. € 0 өші t % 2 ы 2 
* 9 * 
Ә т e Е æ өсу 
— — —————; 
4-5-- 45 5+ 2 
H 2——5 5—2 2——3——5 2—3 5 
-B—3 3——5 3 5 3 
Starting on the 
E String: 
a 4 9 4 i 22431, 4. 4 4 
QE 840) а а 1020,4 3 ТТ гт: 
# ГЫ — + 
9 a PELA o sae se ое = | 
Ф = е e 9 e т ө 
H жы ttg 2-5-5 LR жат; 2 2—3 = 5 | 
[B 3 3——5 3 5 3 

















Major seventh groove, chord, and mode 


To create the most lifelike application of the seventh chord and mode into a groove, I composed 
the special exercise in the next figure. The groove is a typical R & B-flavored pattern and is 
extremely useful. 


CHAPTER 6 Combining Seventh Chords 89 


90 


А – 
$ > 







































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































This exercise sequence is lengthy and thus is shown only in two keys (to demonstrate the pattern 
starting on the E as well as the A string). You can move it into any key by starting it on a different 


fret and following the same fingering. 


Minor seventh tonality 


The minor version of the weaving exercise starts with the index finger, and it feels quite different 
from the major version. Its primary focus is on combining the seventh-chord arpeggio with the 
mode and then weaving through the notes. You use an Aeolian mode for this particular sequence, 


so you don’t need to shift with this pattern. 


In the following figure you get to play a minor seventh arpeggio followed by an Aeolian mode, and 
then you weave through all the notes in a crisscross pattern across the strings. The exercise 


resolves rhythmically and harmonically on the root in the last measure. 


This exercise is shown in C and G. Starting on either the A or E string, feel free to use the same 


fingering beginning on other frets to cover the other keys. 


PART 2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 


Starting on the 





































































































































































































A String: 和 nae d "e 
3 3 1 3 4 3 
1 4 3 be г.‘ 103 = 5 be be 9 1 the 4 r NE 1 
9: е = Ф гел 
Е = 
— —— 
3——5——3 3——5 5——3 
H 5 5 3——5——86 3——6——5 
-B—3—5 6 356 3 6 5 3 
Starting on the 
E String: 
3 1 1 3 1 4 4 3 3 
1 4 3 1 з 4 1 3 4 1 ЕСІ 3 14 1 | 
ө 2 > <a т = Ба 
П . Ф. | а e 79 | | П E Ф 
E oe = © ө De — e oe o 
LR 5 ла 5 3-5-5 NE = 3-5 | 
В 6 3—5—% 3 6 5 3 




















Minor seventh groove, chord, and mode 


The next figure shows you the most common use of this combination by incorporating the minor 
seventh arpeggio and its mode with ап R & B groove іп minor. The groove сап be applied in many 
playing situations that require a minor harmony. 

































































































































































































































































































































































































































































11441 3134153 4 431113513,1 41 1144 13 131441 13,1 5 
GE 全 = bos 22% Фе. 755,60 тш = bere тш = be, 
be Prt be = 一 ee 
к ш —— == == = ELEM 
СІ 6 68-6 68 $—8 6 
ЕВ 6 一 6 一 8 8 6—8—3 6——5—&8 $——86—8— e 
5-46-55 6 一 9 368-9 $$ 99 6 一 6 一 9 9 
313, аз 1% 1 4з тзт уз 3 44 1 13,1 3 1014401 131,113 r 
(ote, = Fee erem TEUER dE 
"s “=== — bee — ре 
=== == == ші == 
НЕА $55 8—8 6—8 6—8 | 
E 8 8 9-86 56 6 
353 +5 33 6—6—9—9 Б 
TET ры" 13,413 351p 1 3113 
ааа! bes ii рее твід зл bee- 11,44 11113 әре |1441! „ре 
е LII. = === wee — estt = 
ЕЕ = == ЕЕ 
т 6 5 #5 5 6—8 6 
Т в 8 8 $3 55 6——5—8— H 
上 合 一 6 一 9 6 一 9 368-9 $55 93 $5353 


















































































































































- i 8 8 9—8—6 os 6—6—6—8. ы 6—6—6—8 меты | 
ГВ 9-56-59 9—8—6 9—9 6——6—9—9 6 




















After you can play the exercise comfortably as written, go ahead and move it to other areas of your 
fingerboard. 


CHAPTER 6 Combining Seventh Chords 91 


92 


Dominant seventh tonality 


Dominant is, along with minor, the most common chord played in grooves. Note how similar this 
exercise is to the major version; only the seventh is lowered. Make sure you keep your hand in one 
position while playing this pattern. 


In the following figure you play a dominant seventh arpeggio followed by a Mixolydian mode, and 
then you weave a line using notes from both. The weaving helps you stay within the pattern, even 
when you're not playing the notes іп a traditional ascending or descending sequence. This exer- 
cise finishes on the downbeat of the last measure. 


After you know this exercise cold and your playing is hot, move it to other frets, starting on the E 
or A string. 


Starting on the 






















































































































































































A String: "E Q2 4 Pa 
2 1 4 e 4 1 2 4 1 2 4 be © 2 ее! 2 і а 2 
EX = Ф e 
= = ө a æ 9—1x» 
Е Я ао 5а ЕЕ. LLL LC 
3——5——3 2——3——5 5—3 2 
ЕТ 2-5 5—2 $——3——5 2—3 5 
ГВ 3 3 5 3 5 3 
Starting on the 
E String: 
4 2 2 4 2 1 1 4 4 
RP Ма” 1 аа 1020,4 204 ——— 2 
ө е == Р е | 
ө ө 
222 =e Е = == 
Т 3—5——3 2— 3——5 5—3 2 | 
ЕЁ 3-5 5-2 2—8—5 2—3 5 
3 3 5 3 5 3 











Dominant seventh groove, chord, and mode 


The rather lengthy exercise in the next figure lets you apply the seventh chord and its mode to a 
groove. It’s very useful to know how to play an arpeggio or a scale starting from the top down, 
which makes this exercise series particularly challenging. 


PART 2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 




































































































































































































































































1 2 4 4 
2 211 2414 21412. 2412,4 412 2 21 2 241 22112 2414 
ө ө == 22% 

ж = =ч. ө 2 [= хата, = 一 s” 
92 le. шш z bet one beet? — beet? f 
H 5 6—8-6 5—6—8 5—8 5 
ГВ 5—5 6—8 8 5—8 8—5 5—6—8 558 55558 8 

6—6 $ 6—8 5-6 5-6 
A acero 259344 4.242 404 ME. rit 

2 1 Fes ро. 2) 01,2 23 2 211 2 24 2 
.* 9 TE e => = = 

在 е = = ——— “一 一 























































































































































































































































































































4 1 2 1 
212111222 te 1! реро o 1,41 2 ett 22112? PU 2 2111 72 一 ete 
еее ЕЕ z еі þe == ea EN 
= === == ЕЕ ЕЕ 
5 6——8—86 5—6—8 5—8 5 
H 5—5—6 6—8. $ 5—8 8-5 5—5 5—5—6 6—8 5—5—6- 6—8 $ 
ГВ 6—6 6 6—8. 6—6 6—6 
Жу 242 «а 4 4 
beheiti , 1 еже» a bera t oe аа P и, 
[2 e EE РЕ = EI pe == | 
== = LL === 
8—5 6—8—6—5 & 5—8 5—8. 
ЕТ. 8-5 5-5 5—5——5—6—6——8- 5—5—6—6—6—8- 
ГВ 6 8-6 6 6 | 











When you сап play this exercise solidly, move it to other areas of your bass. Go for it 一 you know 
you want to! 


Half-diminished tonality 


It’s a very rare occasion indeed when you have an extended groove on a half-diminished tonality, 
but every now and then (especially at Halloween), you do encounter it. You don’t want to breeze 
through major, minor, and dominant, only to falter on half-diminished and fully diminish your 
standing with your peers. 


You can get comfortable with the half-diminished arpeggio, the Locrian mode, and the weaving 
of the notes in that harmony by sharpening your skills with the following figure. Stay in position 
and get used to the unusual sound of the harmony. 


It may be half-diminished, but it wants to be played over the full range. You know what to do. 


CHAPTER 6 Combining Seventh Chords 


93 


94 


Starting on the 


























































































































































































































A String: 134, баз 304 : 
EN 2 be 9» ы 4 iocum we cd be be е 1 the 4 1 be 25, 2 1 
BE bee em e Pe |o 
e = == 
— —— 
3——5——3 3-5 5—3 
H 4 4 3——4——86 3—6——4 
上 全 -一 3 一 6 в 3 6 4 3 
Starting on the 
E String: 201 1 3 1 4 4 2 2 
кыы = 3 1 , i 002 5 3 4,0 04030 ? 1 | 
EEE] —— 
ө ө | e ө 
ө ө s o” - ө | 
9 s е 2---% s Ф - = 
HT 
3—5—3 3-5 53 
ЕВ 4 4 3——4——8$ 3——6——4 | 
3-5 6 3--4--6 3 6 + 3 




















Half-diminished groove, chord, and mode 


The next figure shows you the groove, arpeggio, and mode for the half-diminished tonality. It 
feels and sounds mighty strange, but only because you’re not used to it, yet. In any case, it’s a 
great workout. 
















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































ЖА; {шї ата т, 413 ро 855 1 11 11 441 121, 
= == : EE == == jæ 
D eeri regent lens 三 -后 三 和 < 

ыы m zm m — 
H s 5—8—5 5—8 6—8 Б 
Е 677 7 7 67—89 667 667—7 
6 一 6 一 9 9 6 一 9 567-9 6 一 6 一 9 9 55 953 
31, 2131 кі "%4 з 3 4.4 1 121 3 10404401 12 1 3 i 
ее ире оја ещ Деке СЕ | 
a te stele et re 
= 9. iw — ze. e^ — Че 
H—-—s #5 -). 6—6 6—8 
E т 7 95 ву 6—67 
4-55 975 93 5 93 6 
1 12yta ЫТЫ: ‚241% бозлы? 1014201; 
E 7209 = ie ОСО Фе 11 44 _ tete 1 Жы -ө- 
DETTI ete е “ө — He et?" 
Е ЕЕ m === 
т $ #5 +8 6—8 $ 
-T 6 67 —1 7 т 679 6—67 669—9] 
|B 8 6 99 > 9673 565 953 55 953 
3 Tey 1 1 4 3 3 i 12 1 3 ‚з 12 1 3 
4 4 . 4 4 
Беде», 14 ete 2, Де т 4 = іе 1 UN => г | 
BE Pet Lt, шалыс ы ЕЕ Ee | 
== == 
т во 55 8 8 = -. 
1 7 7 3—1—6 56? 6—67 
A 4-55 3—1—6 4-9 $ в 93 6 























When you can comfortably play the exercise in the positions shown, go ahead and move all over 
the fingerboard. Keep your left hand in position . . . and don’t keep making faces (I know it sounds 
strange). 


PART 2 Scales (Modes) and Chords 


Using Seventh Chords іп а Song 


Seventh-chord grooves are frequently played in songs that have long sections in a single har- 
mony, usually minor or dominant. When you play a groove for such a section, it’s up to you as the 
bass player to make it interesting. Keep in mind that you play only one harmony, using only one 
note at a time, so you have to do some good weaving to make it interesting. Enjoy playing the 
funky little song in the next figure, and make a weaver proud. 

































































































































































































































































>: 202 2--- 4 1 1 4 @ 1 à z Q à 4 135 35 А 
2 
©) 2 2 ее * o ý * e » te 2 05 ө 
| so қаш 5-5 Ё 
D7 
т + 5-5 5 4—4 4 5 了 
T 7 БР 7 
FB 5-5 
54 2 2 202 М» 5 1 1 а ша алша ааа 20: 
> > * М 2 x 2225 > 
[Jm 590 ГР —— | 
D7 
T 7 7 5-5 5 4—4 4 5 7 
-T 了 %-Х-4-%-5-5-З-7 7 
5—5 
shift shift shift 
11 3 3 Шаа 341 3 4 1 33 TI 34 1 3 11 33 lx 34 1 3144442 2 | 
e ® e е 一 一 一 
9 =z ot 39. e Fi =e sez. Ф = D ELE е 
ss = Uf 20 Jf ө ө m = 
1 一 2 一 2 = ФФ г 
Bm’ A G C 
HT 4-42 4-42 4-42 
I 4— 32—4 o ча 
[全 一: 5 22 5 22 5 3 




















CHAPTER 6 Combining Seventh Chords 95 


Rhythm and the 
Groove 


IN THIS PART... 


Groove, baby, groove! That's what the bass is all about. 
In this part, you finally get a real guide for a groove 
workout that covers all the common genres and styles. 
You get to establish the groove skeleton, hit the groove 
apex, and establish the next round with the groove tail. 
You also get to combine the different rhythms with 
chords and scales through the highly efficient Master 
Maker etudes. Of course, all this is topped off with songs 
for each groove style. 


IN THIS CHAPTER 


» Hammering out eighth notes 





» Nailing sixteenth notes 


» Cementing triplets 


Chapter 7 
Building the Groove Skeleton 


rooves are the bread and butter of bass players. The bass groove is the backbone of just 
about any contemporary popular song. It signals the song’s tonal center, genre, tempo, 
and general feel. 


The groove consists of three main elements: the groove skeleton, the groove apex, and the groove 
tail. The groove skeleton (the first two notes) is by far the most important element of them all, 
setting the mood for the entire piece. Some grooves even consist of the groove skeleton alone. In 
this chapter I show you how to keep the music interesting for yourself and everyone around you. 


Playing with Eighth Notes 


Each groove skeleton defines a specific feel and genre. You usually use the eighth-note groove 
skeleton in a rock or pop genre, but you can also funk it up by following the eighth-note groove 
skeleton with a sixteenth note or two. 


Three types of groove skeleton use the eighth-note subdivision: the dotted quarter-note followed 
by an eighth, two quarter notes, and two eighth notes. The harmonic structure is almost identical 
in each of the grooves in this exercise series, requiring only minimal alterations for each groove 
sequence. 


The first measure of each exercise consists of the groove skeleton alone; the next is a groove in a 
blending pattern that reaches below the original root (used when you don’t want to attract atten- 
tion to yourself), followed by a bold pattern rising above the original root (used to make a strong 
statement), and finishing up in the last measure with a syncopated complex pattern. Notice that 
you can play all these very different patterns using the same groove skeleton. 


The following exercise warms up your ears as well as your hands to the sound of the eighth-note 
subdivision. 























































































































2S ЕЕ = Г ЛЕШ 9-9 9 9 9 9 v9 э 99 9 э 9 9 v э 9-9 9s) 9 9 9 v 








CHAPTER 7 Building the Groove Skeleton 99 


100 


Dotted quarter followed by an eighth 


А dotted quarter followed by an eighth note is one of the most commonly used grooves by bass 
players. You can hear it on countless pop songs, country hits, folk tunes, and whatnot. Just listen 
to Sting’s “Fields of Gold” and the Beatles’ “Ticket to Ride.” 


This exercise is a real-life experience of working a groove, not just playing it. You start out by just 
playing the groove skeleton. Then you add notes to it that are below, which creates a blending 
groove. After that, you notch it up to a bold groove by adding notes above the original root. Finally, 
you add more notes and syncopated rhythms (rhythms that don’t fall where you expect them to) 
to create a complex groove. 


All these grooves are very useful, and I urge you to practice them in different keys. The notes are 
ambiguous, meaning they can fit over a minor chord as well as a dominant, your most commonly 
used tonalities (the blending groove can fit over the major chord as well). Check out the notation 
in this exercise and get a grip on the grid. 






































Blend/Low Bold/High Complex 
eo О e ОФФ 
Ф О eo 















































TRACK 43, 0:00 






































9I т == | == Fa Е • Е =e |: ы: | 






























































中 
中 
=== 
中 
中 
中 
== 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 





PART 3 Rhythm and the Groove 


Quarter notes 


A groove that uses two quarter notes as а groove skeleton sounds more rock than рор. It gives you 
a very clear indication of the tempo and feel of the tune and is more “in the pocket” than the 
dotted quarter. 


For easy comparison, all the grooves in this exercise series use pretty much the same harmonic 
structure. Га call it dominor (a combination of dominant and minor . . . do we have a new 
term here?). Just check out the grid in conjunction with the notation in this exercise and enjoy 
playing it. 









































Blend/Low Bold/High Complex 
eo 2 e C e e 
e e € eo 









































= be te, | 


а =a 


О " . . . 3 5 3 
A | 3——3 | 3——3 3 | gy 977 | za ш | 
ГВ . gi ig 3 5 5 918 918 . 

































































| 





[| 


=> — |p a N j 















































Play this pattern as shown, and then make sure you move the groove to other frets as well. Keep 
the fingering consistent as you roam along your fingerboard. 


CHAPTER 7 Building the Groove Skeleton 101 


Eighth notes 


You can use the eighth-note groove skeleton for driving rock songs as well as for some 
funk grooves, depending on the notes you use following the groove skeleton. If you follow with 
a simple eighth-note pattern (as in the blending version of this groove), it’s rock; with a 
syncopated sixteenth-note pattern (as in the complex version), it’s funky. 


This grid, once again, incorporates notes that are fairly neutral. (What did I say? Dominor? 
The term is growing on me.) The notes are in a position in which you don’t have to shift your 

















































































































hand at all. 
Blend/Low Bold/High Complex 
eo C e ee 
Ф Фо өс 
TRACK 43, 1:08 
: = Ең k= = өте == re а 
ex T = Jl: zia Se ые ы ‚Ре г = 












































a 
| 



































中 
中 
=== 
中 
中 
中 
中 
—= 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
一 一 一 | 





102 РАКТЗ Rhythm and the Groove 


Rockin’ out with а song 


Move the groove patterns into other areas of your fingerboard. They’re extremely useful — so 
useful, in fact, that you get to apply them in this hot little number, a rocker using an eighth-note 


groove skeleton. 









































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































= ~ 
y; = = s— s 二 
ег oe e o т 
.—* е 2 一 一 
D A 
T 
НА =. = = pi e 
LB 5—7 了 %-5 
22-5 = 
z X г o oH Ф. E = 
EX е se “= s p = -e— —e | 
= — === = == Е == 
G А D 
Т ых 了 4—4 l 
Ls 5—31 了 5 —5— y 5 5— —5 
5—# 了 1—5 
ж 
e e — е-е 
te o ө-ө ө ө- cd P ө- 9—-—9 @ Фәр ғ 
ar г 2 #0 9 
EE jæ ші ші — 24 = rf = 
= ын.) = к о = 
F*m Bm Fim G A 
H x 4—4 4 
I—— 4 ~ 4 4 4—X 4—|—5——5—X 5 8—31—31 
FB 4-7 4 4 4 4 5—1 4 
= —~ 
—— == === = 
D A 
H— = : z + р 4—3 = 
[B > d sp т 5 
— = 
I. 7 е-е es e —— = 
Ә: т 2e Ф „ә 2- ө ө | 
一 z= z --- 
с А D 
T 5 5х 了 aea 
[一 -«ч 7 5 5-Х 5 5 5 
E 5—3 了 %-5 














СНАРТЕК 7 Building the Groove Skeleton 


103 


Zipping with Sixteenth Notes 


104 


Sixteenth notes аге the funky part of the groove skeleton family. You usually employ them іп 
accompanying funk tunes, or tunes that are supposed to have a funky flavor, like R & B and soul 
songs. 


Sixteenth-note subdivisions include two main types of groove skeletons: the dotted eighth note 
followed by a sixteenth, or two sixteenth notes. You can create more variations, but they’re rarely 
used. 


As with the eighth-note version, you first play the groove skeleton alone, then in a blending pat- 
tern that dips below the original root. Next, you play it in a bold pattern soaring above the original 
root, and finally in a syncopated complex pattern, using the same groove skeleton for all the dif- 
ferent patterns. 


The following exercise warms you up with the sixteenth-note subdivision. 














р ЕЕ: 

















Dotted eighth followed Бу а sixteenth 


Countless great grooves use this groove skeleton. It implies the sixteenth-note feel without the 
frenzy of starting the groove with sixteenth notes. Instead, you play a dotted eighth note and then 
follow it with a sixteenth to knock the feel into this complex rhythmic pattern. This groove skel- 
eton makes for grooves that sound easy but are challenging to play cleanly. 


Study the grid and the music in the following exercise. The patterns are once again harmonically 
ambiguous, so you can use them over a multitude of chords — minor, dominant, and even 
major — if you use the blending version. 


PART 3 Rhythm and the Groove 


© 


REMEMBER 


Blend/Low Bold/High Complex 
























































TRACK 45, 0:00 


ӘЧ = {a= жетіс == ye = 12222. tfi 
3-5 

















































































































ЕЕЕ TE Jr 5 3 Wr got» og gs 
BEN 3—3 HH 3 








Get familiar — no, get very comfortable — with the rhythm and the grid of the grooves in this 
exercise, and then move them to different frets. 


Sixteenth notes 


Starting a groove with two sixteenth notes is certainly the most aggressive and edgy way to lay 
down a funky groove, but keep in mind that the notes you don’t play are just as important as the 
notes you do play. This holds true in any type of groove but is particularly important in a 
sixteenth-note groove. 


The harmonic choice is once again a noncommittal ambiguous groove that fits beautifully over 


minor as well as dominant chords (okay, shall I coin it minominant?). Pay close attention to the 
space between the notes in this exercise. 


CHAPTER 7 Building the Groove Skeleton 105 


100 










































































































































































Blend/Low Bold/High Complex 
e Oo О e О © Ф 
Ф Фо Фо 
TRACK 45, 0:35 
е | * я > 
= ш.ш ЗЕЕ, m tse X, pet = 
See = Wm F 二 -上 | “ШЕ y : 
pm Jat ae Se Аса er LR 
- и: 5-5 3 3—5—3—— 3—5 3 - 
В: ЧЕ 33 == 33 ы ы 33 xs i | 














Getting all funked ир 


Now it’s high time to get funky, so let that inner James Brown loose and get down with the 


number in the following figure, a song using a sixteenth-note groove skeleton. 


































































































































































































































































































ЕЕ === т a t fis. 
Py 三 三 三 于 三 三 三 三 三 三 三 三 ЕЕ 引 
ЕТ < 5—2 2-5 = iE RU NONE E S 5—2——3— —32—5 = S UNS сё ыы 
ГЕ === 35 3——3 $1 4 
O =F 

pey pr = ss r pp 2--” — 
РЕ = oe oe = = ж-а ж 

Ет Вт Ет с р 
H 2—2 2 2—2 2—2 2 
ГВ 2—2 2-2 3—3 3-5 

ae 

ЕЕ Е eS eters 

= -- — —— D x —  — 

т ЖЕ — е —= 

G с G C 
HE ов S EIE Aol—t 5-2--2--2-5 LER: c 
[人 一 一 3—3 = 3—3 














PART 3 Rhythm and the Groove 





shuffling with Triplets 


TIP 


If sixteenth notes аге the pushy, aggressive part of the groove skeleton family, triplets are their 
laid-back cousins. Triplets always give the groove a swing (or shuffle) feel, even if it’s a bit funky. 


The two most common groove skeletons in the triplet format use the first and third notes, or the 
first and second notes, of the triplet in beat one. Of course, the rest of the measure has to adhere 
to the triplet format as well. Get into the triplet mode by playing the notes in the following 
exercise. 



















































































































































































First and third notes in a triplet 


When you play the first and third notes of a triplet as a groove skeleton, you’re playing the most 
common shuffle rhythm in the world. Thousands of blues tunes use it, along with countless other 
shuffle songs. The following exercise should sound very familiar to you. 


Make sure not to let the notes ring for too long. This type of groove is often played on old bass 
strings — old as in, “They came with the bass, which I inherited from my great-granddad.” You 
wouldn’t have a lot of sustain on strings like that; to sound authentic, you want to simulate that 
sound. 
































































































































Blend/Low Bold/High Complex 
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CHAPTER 7 Building the Groove Skeleton 107 


First and second notes in atriplet 


Using the first two notes of the triplet in beat one as the groove Skeleton gives you a very interest- 
ing, shuffle-funk feel. It's not as common as the previous shuffle feel, but it's highly effective 
when you get a solid grip on it. 


This exercise gives you a nice workout for the groove skeleton, using the first two notes of a tri- 
plet, and it includes some very useful grooves, to boot. The harmonic structure is very flexible and 
doesn’t commit you to either minor or dominant, which means you can use it for either. The extra 
note toward the end of the complex groove is simply a leading tone to the final note and not really 
part of the scale, but it serves the flow of the notes rather well. 


























Blend/Low Bold/High Complex 
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TRACK 47, 0:34 














































































































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108 PART3 Rhythm and the Groove 


Trials, tribulations, and triplets 


Triplet rhythm is right at home іп the blues genre, and the blues genre is home to all kinds of 
trials and tribulations. Get in the mood for the blues with the following exercise using triplets. 
























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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CHAPTER 7 Building the Groove Skeleton 109 


IN THIS CHAPTER 





» Executing sixteenth-note groove 
apexes 


» Tackling triplet groove apexes 


Chapter 8 
Accessing the Groove Apex 


magine that you’re looking at a pond, and on that pond you see a row of ducks swimming. But 
wait! What’s that? In the midst of the ducks, a turkey is flailing away, trying its best to stay 
afloat. Think you’d notice the turkey? You bet. 


A groove apex is kind of like that turkey in the row of ducks. It sticks out, makes a statement, grabs 
your attention. The groove skeleton lays out the genre, tempo, style, and tonal center of a groove, 
whereas the groove apex gives it character. 


You have to be in full control of all the subdivisions in each beat of a measure. You need to place 
a groove apex precisely, in order to create the greatest effect. This chapter shows you clearly how 
to plant the groove apex within each of the subdivisions and lets you hear how much it adds to the 
groove. 


Isolating the Sixteenth Notes 


A groove apex is quite often the note farthest removed harmonically from the root of the initial 
groove skeleton. It’s what you hear as the high point of the groove. Determining which note is the 
groove apex is subjective — it’s open to interpretation. The groove apex can be above or below the 
initial root. 


In the following exercise series, you get to start with the same solid eighth-note groove skeleton 
and then practice placing the groove apex on each sixteenth of the remaining beats (on beats two, 
three, and four), using notes above and below the initial root. 


You need to shift your hand when switching from playing the upper apex groove to the lower, but 
then you get to stay in position for each groove. The notes of the grooves for each exercise remain 
the same, except for the groove apex, so you can really hear and appreciate the difference that 
each makes. 


CHAPTER 8 Accessing the Groove Apex 111 


Sixteenth-note groove apexes in beat two 


You can place a groove apex in four different places in beat two: on the two, the e of two, the and 
of two, and the a of two. Each one gives the groove a different feel, and though some may sound 
familiar to you, others may sound exotic and are a challenge to play. 


Listen to how a small sixteenth-note displacement can really give a groove fresh life. Make sure 
you play each apex exactly where it’s notated — no fudging. The harmonic content is ambiguous 
and fits over dominant and minor (yes, it’s a dominor). The first measure is an upper groove apex, 
meaning it rises above the initial root. It’s followed in the next measure by a full-fledged groove 
incorporating the upper groove apex. The third measure includes a lower groove apex, which in 
turn is followed by a full groove using the same groove apex. 


These grooves are very useful — the different groove apex exercises here help you solidify your 


mastery of all the subdivisions in each beat. This first figure helps you nail down all the possible 
apex choices for beat two. 


TRACK 49, 0:00 





112 




























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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PART 3 Rhythm and the Groove 


Sixteenth-note groove apexes in beat three 


As with beat two, іп beat three you can play an upper or a lower groove apex in four different 
places, but notice the difference in the feel of each groove. The groove skeleton remains the same 
and so does the harmonic structure, but the groove fills in notes on beats two and four, leaving 
beat three solely for the groove apex. 


In the following figure, you start with the upper groove apex and then continue with the lower, 
working your way through all the subdivisions in beat three. 


TRACK 49, 2:06 


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CHAPTER 8 Accessing the Groove Apex 113 


114 


Sixteenth-note groove apexes in beat four 


The next figure covers all the possible places for a groove apex in beat four. This one can be tricky 
because the groove apex is getting very close to the downbeat of the next measure, so keep it 
nicely isolated. Beats two and three are now filled with notes, keeping beat four isolated for the 
groove apex. 


Once again, you can place a groove apex in four different places within beat four — just keep a 
firm sixteenth-note count. 


TRACK 49, 4:12 
























































































































































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The rise апа fall of the арех етрїге 


It’s time to apply the groove apex іп a real piece of music. The following song is based on six- 
teenth notes, just like the previous exercises, and it’s funky. 


PART 3 Rhythm and the Groove 





































































































































































































































































































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Isolating Triplets 


When you’re playing in a musical genre that utilizes triplets, you of course need to make sure 
your groove apex adheres to the rhythm of triplets. Thus, you can place a groove apex on three 
different parts of each beat: on the first note of a triplet, on the second, or on the third. 


CHAPTER 8 Accessing the Groove Apex 115 


110 


In the next exercise series, you start each groove with a groove skeleton on the first and third 
notes of the triplet in beat one, followed by the groove apex. Then you incorporate the groove apex 
into a full groove. 


Your left hand stays in position for each groove so you can concentrate on getting the groove apex 
right. 


Triplet groove apexes in beat two 


In the following series, the groove apex is placed on the first, second, or third note of the triplet 
in beat two. Check out how the rhythmic feel drastically changes when you move the groove apex 
by one triplet note. The harmony of the groove is ambiguous, and you can find great use for these 
grooves, whether you’re playing over a minor or a dominant chord. 


As with the sixteenth-note version, the triplet groove apex exercise boasts an upper as well as a 
lower groove apex, and each one is followed by a real-life groove to demonstrate that particular 
apex. In this figure, make sure to get the triplets nice and even. 


TRACK 51, 0:00 
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Triplet groove apexes in beat three 


The next figure demonstrates the upper and lower groove apex on each of the triplet subdivisions 
in beat three. The groove skeleton is consistent, and the structure of the grooves is consistent 
throughout the exercise (with the apex moving, of course). Beats two and four are filled with 
notes, and beat three keeps the groove apex isolated. 


PART 3 Rhythm and the Groove 


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Triplet groove apexes in beat four 


The groove apexes on the triplets in beat four are depicted in the following exercise. Be very aware 
of how close they’re getting to the next downbeat, and remember to keep them isolated. Just a 
short jab with the apex can give your groove a powerful effect. 


TRACK 51, 3:12 




































































































































































































































































































































































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CHAPTER 8 Accessing the Groove Apex 117 


118 


Having triplets 


It just wouldn’t do not to put the triplet groove apex to good use іп а shuffle, which is, of course, 
a song type that uses triplets. In the following exercise, check out how the groove apexes are 
accented and really make it interesting for the listener. 






































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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PART 3 Rhythm and the Groove 


IN THIS CHAPTER 


» Playing eighth-note grooves 





» Returning to sixteenth-note grooves 


» Shuffling through triplet grooves 


Chapter 9 


Setting Up with the 
Groove Tail 


ignaling to your fellow band members the beginning of each new groove, and what root 

you’re approaching, is essential to keeping everyone on the same page — and in harmony. 

You accomplish this with the groove tail, or the back end of a groove; it’s not just something 
that’s tacked on without thought. 


The groove tail occurs in the last beat of a measure and is your tool to get you to the beginning of 
the next groove smoothly and efficiently, leaving no doubt about where you’re headed. A proper 
groove tail also helps you set up a new chord or a new section in a song. It’s a signal to the 
musicians and listeners alike. This chapter provides you with some cool exercises to gain an 
understanding, and get control, of the groove tail. I’m sure by the end you'll be wagging your own 
tail with exuberant joy . . . if you have one. 


Preparing a Groove with an Eighth-Note Feel 


The kind of groove tail you use depends on several factors: the feel of the groove you’re heading 
for, the number of notes you want to use to set up the next groove, and the harmony of the 
groove. The more notes you fit into the last beat of the groove (the usual place for the groove tail), 
the more urgency you create to get to the beginning of the next groove. 


In all the exercises in this chapter, I use the same groove so you can compare the effect that each 
of the different groove tails has on the transition from the end of one groove to the beginning of 
the next. Check out the groove grid in the following figure, and bear in mind that this grid dem- 
onstrates the position of the notes for the basic groove used in all the exercises in this chapter; it 
doesn’t include the notes in the groove tails. The groove tail changes with each new groove, and 
you need to follow the music and the tab for that. 


CHAPTER 9 Setting Up with the Groove Tail 119 


120 



































The exercises in the next four figures show great choices for groove tails in an eighth-note feel. 
The first exercise uses two notes for the groove tail, the next uses three notes, and the one after 
that uses four notes, followed by the final exercise using anticipations. The grooves all start with 
a groove skeleton that uses two eighth notes, and the harmony is a hybrid between dominant and 
minor, which means you can use it for either (dominant plus minor equals dominor, which is pro- 
nounced do-mee-nor). 


Two-note setup 


The first selection of groove tails consists of two notes (see the notation in the following figure). 
You can hear how the notes move inexorably toward the downbeat of the next groove. 


In the first two grooves, the groove tail approaches the next groove from below the root of the 
groove; the third groove’s tail approaches from above the root. Both are excellent choices for a 
groove tail. 



































































































































Three-note setup 


When you want to use three notes in your groove tail, you need to combine eighth and sixteenth 
notes. The notes you choose have to move with a common purpose and should all go in one direc- 
tion, meaning they usually ascend or descend in a sequence. It’s all about direction and flow. 


PART 3 Rhythm and the Groove 


REMEMBER 


REMEMBER 


In the next figure, the first two groove tails approach from below, and the third approaches from 
above. You want to get used to the sound and feel of each. 




















































































































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Though this exercise is only shown іп one key, you may want to play it in other positions on your 
fingerboard. Just keep the position of the notes consistent relative to one another. 


Four-note setup 


Using four notes in your groove tail means you have to use four sixteenth notes in the last beat of 
your groove — no rhythmic flexibility here. This is the busiest type of groove tail, and it definitely 
conveys a sense of urgency to get to the new groove (see the following figure). 


The trickiest part of a four-note groove tail is to keep your tempo consistent. Don’t slow down 


when playing all those sixteenth notes in the groove tail, and don’t speed up when you play the 
eighth notes of the next groove skeleton. 




















ebe е t == = bebe bet 。 ett 
ste 





































































































Anticipatory setup 


If you want to create the ultimate urgency in your groove, use your groove tail to anticipate the 
downbeat of the next measure, thus merging the groove tail with the groove skeleton of the 
next bar. 


This technique requires complete control of the downbeat, so make sure you have a solid handle 
on the previous three exercises. 


An anticipatory approach lands you on your destination note (in this case, the root note that is 
expected on the downbeat of the next measure) before the downbeat. You play the note when it’s 
not expected, and you don’t play the note when it is expected. This technique gives the music a 
kick, like a roller coaster that suddenly drops toward the ground when you least expect it. 


CHAPTER 9 Setting Up with the Groove Tail 121 


The following figure provides some great choices for anticipatory groove tails. When you play 
them with a drummer, it’s a good idea to share your plans for an anticipatory groove tail so you 
can coordinate it together. 



























































































































































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Pey Е bebe >= E LI rele E = Безе фе s 
8 6 6 806 6 8 6 

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Tailing a song with ап eighth-note feel 


The next figure — a song using groove tails that lead to eighth-note groove skeletons — 
demonstrates how the groove tail sets up the next groove, even when it’s in another tonality. The 
groove tail always adheres to the next groove; it always leads you to the next measure, the next 
downbeat, and the next harmony. 









































































































































































































































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122 PART 3 Rhythm and the Groove 


Approaching a Groove with а Sixteenth-Note Feel 


The grooves in this section all have a sixteenth-note feel. A dotted eighth note followed by a six- 
teenth can only be subdivided with a sixteenth-note count — thus the term sixteenth-note feel. 


The notes in the grooves in this section are all indicated on the grid in the first figure of this 
chapter. Notice that the rhythm is getting a bit busier. In a sixteenth-note feel you often have 
more notes per measure than in an eighth-note feel. The first three beats of each groove are 
identical (down to the dead note at the end of the phrase in beat three), so you can get the full 
experience of how the groove tail changes things up. 


Two-note setup 


To successfully transition from two eighth notes in this groove tail to the dotted eighth and six- 
teenth notes of the next groove skeleton, you want to subdivide your count for both into sixteenth 
notes. Keep the groove skeleton very tight — this is one of the more challenging rhythms. 


The next figure provides an array of groove tail setups for your funky grooves. You can approach 


the next groove from above or below — just follow the examples and get used to each different 
sound. 


е Det tee АИ Pgh PT 
—— = БаР 


















































































































































Get very comfortable with the rhythm and the grooves in this exercise and then move them to 
different frets. 


Three-note setup 


When you use three notes in your groove tail, you automatically combine eighth notes and six- 
teenth notes, which makes getting into the next sixteenth-note groove skeleton a little easier. 
The groove tail in the following figure approaches the new root from below as well as from above. 
It requires you to shift your hand out of position, so be sure to get right back into position for the 
next groove. 


















































































































































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БЕ Te eae nanea G Ze == | 
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CHAPTER 9 Setting Up with the Groove Tail 123 


124 


Four-note setup 


Setting up a groove with a sixteenth-note feel that uses only sixteenth notes makes perfect sense. 
You hit each of the sixteenth-note subdivisions in that last beat (your groove tail) and then fall 
right into the next sixteenth-note groove skeleton. 


When practicing the exercise in the next figure, make sure you keep up the tempo with all those 


sixteenth notes flying around. Work out the fingering in the groove tail so you can get your hand 
smoothly back into groove position. 


























































































































EE E T ge — шіні pee pete 
Heec КЕ “Ses 一 一 一 一 aie 一 一 一 一 6—8—X—6—8 | 


























Move the grooves with their groove tails all over your fingerboard. You never know where your 
next groove is going to show up! 


Anticipatory setup 


In the following figure you get to exercise your anticipatory groove tail . . . I guess you were 
anticipating that, right? The first two groove exercises anticipate the next groove by an eighth 
note; the third exercise anticipates the next groove by a sixteenth note. 
Be very aware of where the downbeat is — you have no room for error. 
A groove with a sixteenth-note feel that employs anticipation is the ultimate in playing an 
aggressively forward-moving groove. It’s one of those grooves that seems to be getting faster and 


faster (without changing the tempo, of course). 


Get some inspiration for anticipation and make sure to move it to other keys when you’re ready. 


























































































































Е: 
E 8 $ 8 
ГЕКЕ” 5—8 6—8—Х—@ TET 6—8 5-8-Х cx = 6—8 | 























PART 3 Rhythm and the Groove 


Song with funky tailing sixteenth-note feel 


The next figure lets you connect different chords with different groove tails in a song format. 
Notice how the groove tails always aim toward the next groove. Listen to how each groove tail has 
its own personality, even though the grooves are all very similar. 


































































































































































































































































































e е £ —~ 
& y5 0 e е-е 
(9: 9” 7 Е ee “==” 
— | 一 一 一 一 一 一 | 
Em Вт 
H que 3 pem qo 2— u— 
LB + — 7 2-2 2—5 
= Ри t 97 is е-е 
9 - a ө — е?” Ты --2- 
с G 
2—5 2— 5 
5 2- 2—5 2--5--5 
上 一 :一 3 ==, 5 
=; ee e е Е 
D- =s Jp o ie т e 
Am B7 
E 
ГА 5-і 5— 7—9 7 9 9+ 
[B > ш — + т ? э 
et ae 
— = кН РР 
ЕЕ ЕЕ а ТЕТЕ == ] 
Ет B7 
E 7—9 
上 全 一 ?一 x — 5 =] 














Setting Up a Groove with a Triplet Feel 


When you're heading into a groove with a triplet feel, you want to set it up with . . . you guessed 
it, a triplet groove tail. A triplet feel separates each beat into three equal parts. The shuffle is home 
to the triplet feel, and you can find scores of blues tunes (and other styles) that use this feel. 


The note choices are all the same for the exercises in this sequence, and you can find them on the 


grid in the first figure in this chapter. The groove tails give you quite a selection to choose from, 
and all of them lead to the next groove. 


CHAPTER 9 Setting Up with the Groove Tail 125 


126 


Two-note setup 


The first two groove tails іп the exercises in the following figure have an identical rhythm, which 
makes the setup fairly easy: Just stay in that rhythm. The third groove uses notes two and three 


of the last triplet to set up the next groove skeleton; set it up with a dead note on the first note of 
the triplet to give the line an easier flow. 


You encounter a couple of dead notes in this groove. They help to move the bass line along 
smoothly without awkward silences. Just be sure to keep them thuddy. 



























































































































































3 
- be uy b е е b „ре. = 2-4 ре. -e 
EX = L De whe De - s. “рө De = — — LE | 
— — [一 和 一 
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 
-T $98 x 82 Ж хе хх 
Ae 6 4 5 $ $ - 4 $ $ | 








Three-note setup 


When you want to use three notes for your groove skeleton, you need to play every note in the last 


triplet of the groove. This is a common approach for a shuffle groove and gives the line a nice 
flourish while setting up the next measure. 


The groove tails take your hand out of position, but you want to make sure to shift back into posi- 
tion for the next groove. The triplets may take a bit of getting used to, but this is a great rhythm 
to groove on. Go ahead and exercise the grooves in the next figure. 


















































































































































E De + "te 2t е De = E et == Des = E et 一 
Sel = — ЄїСӨ— Pete —— LL we || 
== 3 3 3 3 3 = 3 3 
































Anticipatory setup 


And now for something completely new and fresh: an anticipatory groove tail in a triplet rhythm. 


Make sure you have a really good handle on triplets before attempting to anticipate the next 
downbeat, and subdivide every beat into three equal parts. 


PART 3 Rhythm and the Groove 





REMEMBER 


The triplet groove is generally more of a laid-back style of grooving (think the blues), but by 
anticipating the next downbeat you can give it the same urgency of a funk groove. Use the follow- 
ing figure for a good triplet workout. 





















































































































































3 
^f. орж. Бе ba m. -3- be robe? £ > 
DE ams e SS ee 7 pe SS Бө?” ЕЕ SSS ee z- 
3 3 3 "з 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 
ГТ : X—5—8 s x Ы 9 : x х—6—8- i X—5—38 
LB 5 5 4 5 5 5 4—5 5 5 5 























Happy tails for a song in a triplet feel 


For a real-life application of the triplet groove tail, check out the next figure. Note how the groove 
tails all sound different, despite the similarity of the grooves. 


Always bear in mind that the sole purpose of the groove tail is to get you to the next groove. 









































































































































































































































































































































































































































3 3 3 3 3 3 — 
9 = Saas = oe р = = Фа жеу ы o 19-bs w= 
ә — = ә ‚== — = s= Е 
E 3 3 3 3 3 
T 4 4 3—3À 1—2—3 sa 3—4 
ES 3—1—2—3 3 3—1—2—3 8—1—3—3- 
тт at 1—1 1—1 
3 
S bacis 3 be bz x cd 3 3 3 
9 z = Ipaa © re е; zi ze 19b 
ө рөгө |7 7 ропе Ф e 
з 3 一 一 3 3 “оз X EE ” 
ВР 3 F7 3 3 
T 3—4 3-1 
А зы; каш. 3—1—2—3 $c sH 
LB тт 1—4 3 
=e oo 3 be be» TAL 4 Er = _ = 
9 z - + L7] rus г” “/ = = 6- az REI П a а oe ss s | 
= =o ope = == oe 4e] 
feu p F 3 3 C7 
T 5——3 3——34 
Lx 5 3—1 3——1 
[一 :一 sly 4 +3 3 —2-|—3— —3—3— —3—3——3 























CHAPTER 9 Setting Up with the Groove Tail 127 


IN THIS CHAPTER 





» Combining eighth and sixteenth 
notes with triplets 


» Playing exercises that help make you 
a master 


» Using rhythmic variety in a melody 


Chapter 10 
Combining Rhythms 


etting into a consistent rhythm and staying there — playing there — is pretty straight- 

forward. You count off to play in a sixteenth- or eighth-note feel, or a shuffle in a triplet 

feel, and at the end of the tune, you take a bow to roaring applause, never having left the 
sanctuary of that particular feel. However, at times you come across melodies or musical ideas 
that don’t fit neatly into a row of sixteenth notes or a sequence of triplets. Sometimes the coolest 
melodic ideas combine triplets and eighth or sixteenth notes. 


Playing two very different feels in one groove requires special skills. You need to be able to think 
of eighth- and sixteenth-note rhythms and triplets simultaneously and to switch from one to the 
other smoothly and effortlessly. 


This chapter introduces you to some unusual exercises that help you gain a solid foundation in 
combining the different rhythms into the same musical sequence. 


Mixing Triplets with Eighth and Sixteenth Notes 


Mixing triplets (three equal parts of something, in this case of a beat) with doublets (two equal 
parts of something) is more common than you may think. You usually experience it in music that 
has a swing feel but is notated in a regular eighth-note feel. In a vast amount of music written in 
a straight eighth-note feel, you can hear an underlying swing in the bass groove — even in funk 
and rock. 


Making your music swing means gaining control of both the triplet and doublet rhythm and also 
being comfortable with them together in the same phrase. The biggest challenge you face is 
switching instantly and making the transitions from one to the other as smooth as possible; these 
are skills that you develop only through practice. 


CHAPTER 10 CombiningRhythms 129 


The following figure is a warm-up exercise in which you get to play different subdivisions of 
doublets and triplets, moving from one to the other. The number of hits per beat (quarter note) 
gradually increases and then decreases, and you get used to the feel of each rhythm and its 
transition. 


TRACK 67, 0:00 TRACK 67, 0:04 TRACK 67, 0:08 






























































































































































Quarter Notes Eighth Notes Eighth-Note Triplets 
Fe еее еее Weer rere ee eo oe: 
3 3 3 3 
TRACK 67, 0:12 TRACK 67, 0:16 
Sixteenth Notes Sixteenth-Note Triplets 









































Бероев || 
— MH —Á— = 








TC 00000 ө ө ө ө ө ө о ө ө ө ө ө ө ө ө ө ө 0 | 
| 
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 


TRACK 67, 0:24 


Sixteenth-Note Triplets Sixteenth Notes 





















































еее ро рорро ооо рооооо | ооо ооо ооо ое | 


3 3 3 















































TRACK 67, 0:28 TRACK 67, 0:32 TRACK 67, 0:36 
Eighth-Note Triplets Eighth Notes Quarter Notes 
ОЧ еее еее T. ө о ө ө o o o T. е 9 е 引 











































































































3 3 3 3 


Scales in sixteenth notes and triplets 


Scales are ideal for practicing sixteenth-note and triplet rhythms. Playing a scale from root to 
root (octave) provides you with eight notes. Playing these eight notes equally divided over the 
course of one measure means you’re playing eighth notes. It also means you finish the scale 
before hitting the downbeat of the next measure, which is the most important beat for bass 
players — that’s where you usually want to play the root note of a groove. 


If instead you play four notes of the scale as sixteenth notes (one beat) and three as triplets (one 
beat), you can rhythmically resolve your scale by landing with the root on the next downbeat. The 
following figure shows you a great little workout using different combinations of triplets and 
sixteenth notes for major, minor, dominant, and half-diminished scales that all resolve rhythmi- 
cally with the root on a downbeat. 


130 PART3 Rhythm and the Groove 


Move these exercises to different positions on your fingerboard after you’re comfortable with 
each of the scales’ combinations. Just think of the convenience of practicing scales and rhythms 
at the same time. 





TRACK 68, 0:00 














































































































































































































































































































































































































Major 

z ete. s? tee 

oe Fe = 2e e|- y p sr "f E LL Ct. - | 

3 > кесті 3 

T че Ща 

НА 235 53-2 2-3-5 53-2 

HB—3—5 5-9 -5--ББОЫ 3-5 5——3— —3— 3——3 
TRACK 68, 0:16 

Minor 

9 .. eT e. ==” леса E. 9l. т | 

— —À 
к=== 3 = == 3 

T 3 3—5—3 

LÀ 3-5-% $—5—3 3-5-% 553 

8—5 6 5] 3 3 3 —3 3—5—6 6—5——3——3——3——3 
TRACK 68, 0:32 

Dominant 

= өре е es 2.4474. > 

Iur E e - - Ре == O o s s s | 

== 3 — — 3 
3 3 
H 238—523 3 3 $33 jag t Ro gy. 
HB—3—5 5-[—3-—3— —3— —3 35 213—883 

















TRACK 68, 0:48 


Half-Diminished 


| Pee | ө 0 es 

oer frt. — tere -.9 9 ж 
= === 8а === | 
зай 





























































































































беры: — 3 
5—3 3—5—3 
H 6 一 4 一 3 3—4—6 6—4—3 
LB 348 8—4—1—3— —3——3——3 345 6-4-3--5--5-5 





СНАРТЕК 10 Combining Rhythms 131 


132 


Arpeggios in sixteenth notes and triplets 


Playing triad and seventh-chord arpeggios is perfect for practicing the switch from triplets to 
sixteenth notes. The triads have three notes, and by playing them in triplets, you land on the next 
beat with the root. The seventh chords have four notes, which lets you land on the following beat 
with the root if you play sixteenth notes. 


Of course, the best part about this exercise is that you get to practice your arpeggios while solidi- 
fying your rhythmic feel. Check out the following figure for the politically rhythmically correct 
arpeggios. Make sure to use a metronome with all these rhythmic exercises. Move the arpeggios 
all over your fingerboard, but stay in position for each sequence. 


TRACK 69, 0:00 











































































































Major 

==” == 三 三 二 二 三 三 ct | 
一 一 = == == m c 7 0000 
Иа == 一 一 一 一 一 一 一 一 一 一 一 一 一 l 




















TRACK 69, 0:12 


ЕЕ = = LL 5 Е | 














































































































H 2—5 5-2 2-5 145; 2—5 5—2 | 











- TRACK 69, 0:24 
Міпог 















































































































































































































































_ 7f „ре f е, о > 
P= == == ые 全 = | 
— ——-—  — — —— — —31 
3 3 
T —5 5 3-5 $—3—— з--5-2 
ГА 3-5 58; 3—9— 6—3 3—9— без | 
—— TRACK 69, 0:36 
Half-Diminished 
e „г = bs bm % Фе, ере * | 
一 一 mE z == =“ SS 





- 
中 
中 
Ф 
中 
中 
中 
Ф 
中 
中 





4 4 4 4 4 4 
[全 一 :一 — ea 3- - 3- 6—3 | 




















PART 3 Rhythm and the Groove 


Arpeggios and scales using sixteenth notes апа 


triplets with a sixteenth-note groove 


The ultimate in working with mixed rhythms is playing an exercise that combines triad and 
seventh-chord arpeggios, plus scales to rhythmically resolve into a groove. The example in the 
next figure does all this. Its groove has a sixteenth-note feel. 


Your challenge is to play a smooth transition from the groove to the triplet rhythm, but you won’t 
have much difficulty because the arpeggio in triplets is such a common sound. The scale goes past 
the octave root and on to the next note in the scale, the ninth. Observe the indicated shift and you 
can move through it easily. This example covers major, minor, and dominant scales. 








TRACK 70, 0:00 





























































































































































































































































































































































































































it 
4 3 4 3 1344211, 2 4 
21 1 920231" ото бт 24124 ete 52104 112 3 4 1 - 
: - - г 2 г 2 et “2. = Ф 
Ө: = 本 s ser d - s p- >” s eie | 
-— T 三 = 一 一 一 一 =—= = 
т 5 454 2451542 25 
А 25 52 25 5 235 532 22 3 45 
8—3 3 3-5 5-| 3 
TRACK 70, 0:12 
Minor 131 shift 41314 shift 1 1 3 
14134143) we? 14 13 41 1 55 е» 3 1/1 4 3 =: 1 ! *3 * 
= г 2 г 2 г 2 e "e » 9 
ӘХ zm a? = = ө А — | 
— == == == == = 
3 3 
5 3—5—3 7% 3-5 
H 5 5 5 5 в рез + 4-5 
8—3 6 一 3 一 6 35 6 6 5|3 3 66 | 
at an TRACK 70, 0:24 
Dominant ala 2 4 
214 54 410,144, ра 291 ‚12 4 ИУ -t 244, 1 ee 34 1 
Ф == 
: ө Let e € Ф s siet? f 
[2—- ” etfi тоо р ut | 
= 
5 53 ты 25 
ЕТ 2—5 5—2 2—5 5 s 5 一 3 一 2 e 4-5 
[全 一 3 3 35 5 3 | 

















CHAPTER 10 Combining Rhythms 


133 


134 


Arpeggios and scales using sixteenth notes 
and triplets with a triplet groove 


When you divide the scale of the preceding exercise into triplets and sixteenth notes, you can slip 
easily into a triplet groove instead of a sixteenth-note groove. In addition, you save yourself a 
shift by playing the scale only up to the octave root. 


Take a look at the following figure and note how similar this exercise is to the preceding 
опе... until you get to the descending part of the scale and the groove. Note, too, that I use the 
Aeolian mode as the minor scale, so you don’t have to shift at all. 





TRACK 71, 0:00 












































































































































Major 2 жа 

214%541;:14%өзі! 24124 9.5 ? 12 '—i: то 23 4 
UU rer erre TEL Ure eri 

IL 

= 38 peto 2 == SS 9 05 
T 4 4—5—4 2—4—5—4—2- 
Т 2—5— ББ 5—2 23-5 532 223—345 
ГВ 3 3 3—5 5 3 3 




















‘ater TRACK 71, 0:12 






































































































































131 4131 4 
14 tbe 2 4 1 4 tae за 4.342175 „= 2 tag 1 ШЕ Ж” 3 52 3 
Der eee tbe aaa eer eee 
3 OS SS з oe з °з 
T 3 3 ==» 
А 5 5 5 5 5+ 6 一 5 一 3 3 3-4 5 
8—3 $35 5 --- 3-5 $ 




















TRACK 71, 0:24 



































































































































Dominant 4 a у 24a, 

21 e : 121 ое Е 1 24124 sbe М бу, 2 P $5 23 с 
E z z” РЕ» e € s” те - сж! os 9. ojo | 

=Z = m. LL 
一 一 r „== ==<— === E — > = m Е 

HT 3 353 ев 
А 2—5 5-2 2-5 5-2 23-5 5—3—2 2 2—3 3—4 5 
HB—3 3 3-5 5-3 3 














PART 3 Rhythm and the Groove 


Song using triplets and eighths, 
with bass playing the melody 


You’re most likely to encounter a combination of triplets, eighths, and sixteenths when you play 
a melody on your bass. The famous song “Donna Lee” (recorded by the inimitable bassist Jaco 
Pastorius) is a great example of a melody that combines triplets and eighth notes. The following 
figure shows a song that requires you to go back and forth between triplets and eighth notes. 


























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































A 
ei „бе о e be. fe = x» 
9 = 1 = 5 = J = Y LO t LL zz t г. 
可 
Gm D/F# F C ЕР р От Е 
ГТ 12 44 416—12—10—2 
А 12 12 12 12 + 19 19 
ГВ 10—13 эн 
+8 43 13 13—189 
+ + ge > se + 
„ „йе 2 ж. Oe Ф = e be Pet ее o et e | fet 
Өе — == = 5-0 Е 
3 3 3 3 
Gm D/rt F e EP D Gm 
42 + 16—12—10—3 12 15—15—12 12 12 
H. 12 12 12 12 13—13—190—13- +3 12 12—+5- 45-42-45 
ГВ 10—13 
freee feb. be ө ef: s» t. e (efe р 
99 7 r«-— ыы — — + + oe el A f = 
3 , 3 3 
F ЕР D? Gm D/F* F C 
42 44 19—12—10—3——9 
15—12 12 12 132—313 13—15—13—12 12 42 42 42 18— 
LB 15 15—13 19—13 10—13 
19 
ре. Phete 6 о һе thet oot * ре. Phete > 
5: е 2-6 Ре > e > 
3 Е 可 3 3 3 
ЕР р” Ст ЕР р” Gm F ЕР р” Gm 
ГТ 11—19 19 18 171—319 19 19 11—19 19 
LB 13 13—16 18 10—13 13 13—19- 18 10—13 13 13—16 19 
13 13 13 


























Mastering the Master-Maker Etudes 


A master-maker etude is an exercise that helps turn you into a master bass player. It's not exactly 
for the faint of heart. This type of exercise combines chords, scales, triplets, doublets, and move- 
ment over your entire fingerboard. 


Bear in mind that after you master an exercise in one key, you can easily transfer it to another key 
by simply shifting to a new beginning note and keeping the pattern intact. This section includes 
a combination of exercises from previous sections in this book (arpeggios and scales); before long 
you'll be able to play the master- makers with ease. 


CHAPTER 10 Combining Rhythms 135 


Diatonic chord movement using 
eighth notes and triplets 


The exercise in the next figure features а seventh-chord arpeggio in eighth notes followed by а 
triad in triplets, both moving diatonically through a major tonality. To accomplish this, you 
maneuver through several shifts, and by the end you will have traveled quite a range of your bass. 


The overall meter of the exercise is 3/4, so your melodic sequences resolve properly. Practice the 
pattern first until you have it under your fingers. Then move on to work out the rhythmic transi- 


tions between the eighth notes and triplets. 



























































































































































































































































3 
1 4 
2 1 2 * 1 
1 shift 4 shift 4 e 9. 2 
4 2 
230553 1524402435 wet 2 2 1 ә 0 то г е - 
[9: =. - га e 
E 三 三 Е ЕЕ 
ь 3 3 3 3 
3 
FT 7 10.9 1416 
А 9—31 9 9—7 5—12 10 15 эн 
ГВ 7.39 8 7—9 8—19 ем 15 
в +8 
3 
1 
4 2 40; 
1 2- 4 1 4 3 1 
2 е С е о 2 Фе 1 shift 4 3 shift 4 3 
9 1 1 4 
ө е e „ ә» жег ffe’ i? е в 1 2 
Ф. E е 
SSS SS SS SSS SS Se | 
nus — 
3 3 3 3 
HT в и 
А мн 45 м-н-в в 7—19—3 
上 全 一 上 4? 45 47-4 —12—345 44 8 9—7 
17 13 151-10 8 




















Diatonic chord movement using 
sixteenth notes and triplets 


The exercise in the following figure is a faster version of the preceding one, using sixteenth notes 
and triplets. The chord structure and harmonic sequence are the same. 


With this rhythmic combination, you play in 4/4 meter. Remember to move this pattern (as well 
as the others) into different positions on your fingerboard so you can get comfortable with the 


entire range of your bass. 






























































































































































































































































a ©З 
2 4 
2 1 > 1 
104 4 222404 өте 2 
20! 4 3 0 2: 8 0 4 3 €. го 5 . ft о 111 о fe о 
e е 
Р e 
9 = eo — и И 
4 es —ҥ===—— Z 
3 3 3 3 
T 7 103 4-16 
8-7 8 0—7 зв 10 15 ян 
ЕЁ = 8 2—38 8 一 18 эн E 
8 19 
3 1 
4 2 4 2 
1 eo 4 1 4 3 1 
2 еге 2 o- q4 hift 1 4 3 shift 4 3 
etf felettfte Ре 4 14 2 pe 4 1 2 
e e ө 
= == — е e X 
—— M ÁÀ 
3 3 3 3 
I 1614 
мн 15 Woods 4-9 7 0 9 
ЕЁ 45 + 45 я-н 2—5 + 8 3—3 
+ 43 15—319 8 








These exercises require quite a bit of string-crossing and shifting, giving your hands a good 
workout. Playing them is a great way to get yourself ready for some challenging music. 


136 PART3 Rhythm and the Groove 


The ultimate exercise 


For the ultimate master-maker exercise, take a shot at the tune in the following figure. It features 
eighth notes, eighth-note triplets, sixteenth notes, and sixteenth-note triplets, and it combines 
triads, seventh chords, scales, and a groove. 


The sixteenth-note triplets are extremely effective if you want to play a flashy lick. You have 
six evenly spaced notes per beat when you play sixteenth-note triplets. You need to shift, in 
the minor version of this exercise, but not in the major or dominant. Enjoy this one — it sounds 
really cool. 











































































































































































































































































































Major А "o "UIS 
ЕИ Е ocho 1% ee. t i DROSUS ЖЫМДЫ жете i ЕНСЕ НЕ Б 
9 : ttu Rt. 
— 3 一 一 к= 3 3 3 3 ж Bm 
21—5—3 
Т % 8—19—8 7 一 9 一 1 397 y] 
FÉ в 9—7 7 一 18 9—7 7 一 8 一 1 98 78 
8 8 8—16 40—8 
4 4 3 4 4 4 4 
* 2 1 е! 2 4 23 54 ө 2» өс 12 24 ЗИ 
9 —e— 9 o o o 
9 е-е т обе pe e ee | 
LE m—— mj 一 一 3 | 一 一 3 
To m 8 一 9 一 39 m эн 
ЕВ 了 -% в 8 一 9 一 40 了 7 一 8 в 8 一 9 一 1 
8 46 8 46 
Minor shift 2 shift 
3 13/1, а bel tz т" 1 
143354143), № 4 азат? o £^? ее 3o 4 doa № 7$ 
= o- 
(9: „= =” = о еле е L— ress 





































































































































































































Тю m 8 一 9 一 和 
[B ви " m 8 " " m 








3 2 3 
1 1 1 1 1 1 
= t vier eo 1 е! pie rie 


























































































































































































































Dominant 4 1 3 1 
ШР, 442 14. атов танта "ES 
1 *9 1 = 4 ө- = 4 1 
ja te xt ee ee Е te et 
= 2 
3 3 3 
7 9 3 
ЕТ 10 8—10—8 7—8—10 987 = 
H8 7—0 9—7 7—9 10—37 7 19—8—7 7—18 
+ 8 9—9 49-9 
4 4 4 4 4 2 3 4 
Ф 2 1 е 12 14 23 Б/® 35: wt 9c ia ЖОК е 
: я ө o o eis eit я s o e size 
9 =f fe E z e е = | 
Шеш å- = 3 3 = e N 一 一 了 
He 36 8 9 一 18 49 48 5—9 
ГВ 1 7 в в в 9 № 7 + $ 9 
8 +0 8 18 














CHAPTER 10 Combining Rhythms 137 


Song with а rhythmically complex groove 


Combining sixteenth notes with sixteenth-note triplets works best in a groove. Go ahead and 
apply all your newfound chops in the tune in the following figure. 








































































































































































































“ 
ғ 
% 
i 
im) 
һ 
№ 
“ 
ғ 
% 
i 








































































































































































































138 PART3 Rhythm and the Groove 


Turning Exercises 
into Music 


IN THIS PART... 


You don't want to “funk ‘til the cows come home" or 
“rock out with some shuffle.” Part 4 is chock-full of 
ways to practice each genre so that you can play it 
authentically. If you've done your homework апа have 
practiced the other parts of this book, then this is your 
reward: grooves and songs in, well, perfect harmony. 


IN THIS CHAPTER 


» Going up country 





» Playing pop and rockin' out 


» Digging world beat 


Chapter 11 


Feeling (һе Eighth-Note 
Groove 


rooves come in three main categories: grooves with an eighth-note feel, those with a 

sixteenth-note feel, and those with a triplet feel. A groove’s feel is defined by its groove 

skeleton — the first two notes you play in a groove. In playing a groove that has an eighth- 
note feel, you signal to the listener that you most likely are playing in rock style. 


This chapter outlines which styles call for an eighth-note feel by the bassist (that’s you). So, as 
they say, rock on, and in this case, don’t make it too funky. 


Harnessing Country Grooves 


When you play bass in a country band, or even just play a country tune, you may think your job is 
simple, but that’s not true. Country bass players may not play a lot of notes, and the note selec- 
tion may be predictable, but they can speak volumes with those few notes. 


Complete control of every note, including articulation and note duration, is the trademark of any 


good country bassist. Quite simply, precision is a necessity, because with so few notes to play you 
don’t have anywhere to hide a bad one. 


Traditional country bass 


When you think of traditional country music, the names Johnny Cash, Patsy Cline, and Kenny 
Rogers come to mind. The song tells a story, and you don’t hear the bass getting in the way of the 
melody. In fact, you’d probably notice the bass only if it were to drop out all of a sudden. 


CHAPTER 11 Feeling the Eighth-Note Groove 141 


Traditional country bass lines usually consist of the root and the fifth of each chord,with an 
occasional walk leading to the next chord. The following figure shows notation and tab for the 
template of a typical bass line in this style. 


TRACK 77, 0:00 



















































































Country 
Do SS bp SSS к р SS S| 
H 3 қ 3 3 3 " 3 n 2 | 


When you play а country song, of course, you need to negotiate through more than one chord. 
Take a look at the chord progression in the next figure for some typical country music. 


TRACK 77, 0:08 





























































































































Country 

E Sr Sa ae Se re ee ғаға ае ыға 
A F#m D A E E7 А 

H 2 2 4 à 4 4 5 2 2 2 я 2—2—4 2 





































































































D B —LEHULeHRLEEHUHER 








































































































































































































Е ЕЕ ЕЕ ЕЕ ЕЕ 
Вт D Е А р 
Hs 2 5 5 ы 2 = 2 Е ы : = 5 5 5 м | 


Contemporary country bass 


Country music has become a fertile field of music, and many of its recent songs sound awfully 
close to rock or pop, getting more and more complex. In fact, the example in the following figure 
is what you’d expect the bass to play in a contemporary country groove. This line is replenished 
with dead notes, sixteenth notes, and even syncopation. 


142 PART 4 Turning Exercises into Music 





Contemporary Country 








TRACK 78, 0:00 























































































































о Е шен == Е Е == === 
Т р See 
| 
[А+ хз 3—3 хз 3—3 хз 3 3——3—3 = 











For а contemporary country song, try the bass groove shown in the next figure. Notice that you’re 
still concentrating on playing the root of each chord, but your approach is much more rhythmic. 
As always in country, make sure to stay out of the way of the melody. 











TRACK 78, 0:16 






























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Contemporary Country 
: ағаш = =I 
ee ee EHE SSeS 
D A Bm 
H 
LB o5 ы E 55 5 х5 зы =. з з x3 35 
= Em = = = 
(9 РРР "EET i өө ө ЕЕРЕЕ: ЕЕ 
D A Bm 
H 
8—5 — 5 х5 pe z = 22 х2 3 а = = 
— == = == EA — === 
-a 
A Bm G D A Bm A 
H 
i EE 2X2 А 5 X5 = 2—02 з з Хз ЕЕ er 
ЕЕ = == = == 
9 = Е a EE: ФЕ» е өх 23 = = zm ==: — ә ө < «- 
D A Bm G D 
H 
LB 5 5 5— ys = 3 хз 5:05 X—5 3 3—— 3-3 5 
D m a = ра oó » $3 
ралар ЕЕ ЕЕ лала ста сасады 
D A Bm G Em G A G 
LE 2—32 5 X—5 fum 5 X—5 
[B 5 5 5 X—5 2—2 з хз 
: : SS ae 
9 = Ет = ot r a a дни лш. = ae Eu t Е: -—-: шю х жа | 
р А р 
E | 
LB 5-5 к= 55 5 X5 gt] T ES 5 &— —BX—5 52 
СНАРТЕК 11 Feeling the Eighth-Note Groove 


143 


Caught between а Rock and a Hard Bass 


144 


As for noncountry music styles that require an eighth-note feel, two major categories stand out: 
pop and singer/songwriter styles, and the rock music genre. The pop and singer/songwriter for- 
mat is a style you definitely want to familiarize yourself with. After all, pop is short for “popular.” 
When you play in a pop format, keep this in mind: keep it simple, silly. 


A pop tune is all about the melody and the lyrics, the stuff you can sing back when someone asks how 
that tune goes. (Only bass players sing back the bass line, and they're usually met with blank stares.) 


Pop goes the bass player 


Many of the early singer/songwriters didn't even use bass players for their performances, but these 
days they see, or rather hear, the valuable contributions a good bass player can add to their music. 
The following figure is your template for the bass groove in the pop and singer/songwriter styles. 
Note that you don't embellish your groove until the end of a long phrase, usually on the fourth bar. 


TRACK 79, 0:00 




































































Pop/Singer-Songwriter 

z N N N N — 
9 ж: - - t ж: --- H ж z a: - = | 
A 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 | 




















А song in these styles may challenge you with a complex chord progression. As you play the exer- 
cise in the next figure, stick with the root, remember to lead with your fills only every fourth 
measure, and, per usual, stay out of the way of the vocals. 














































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Pop/Singer-Songwriter 
= N k N м 
EX k N өе ө o а-а |. а. —s.- K ө:ө ә ба 
ыы i В i р i espe oe i i d + 
Е Am Dm C B с Е с 
[人 Е 555 3—3—3— | 1 3——3—3 тя: 3— 335-3 
z Ke k N 
[2 23 1 = i e At i е z 23 i be ee i жж 2i рө. 49 1 
F Am Dm C G в» C C/B? 
H 
Вг уу CHEER 5-5 зс Rcs a ++ 3——3—3 ++ 
S 5 S ^ қ 
ЕЕ ot A i - ete ope а SS шыш: 
Am B F Am Dm Gm C с/в» 
H 
B == + ЕЕ ЕЕ 555 ; 3——3—3 келч 
қ N қ о т----ң 
9 ER booa 1 at e ^T i рө oe i sss? я e рө ө | 
Ат В C Dm B C EPB/D C СВ? Am C 
Т 
ЕЁ -- 3—3—3 555 -- в 3 3 | 
555 6 5-6 



































PART 4 Turning Exercises into Music 


Rockin’ and rollin’ 


Rock styles in music are unthinkable without a strong bass part. You usually concentrate on play- 
ing one specific groove pattern and move it from one chord to the next, adding plenty of embel- 
lishments every other measure, or thereabouts. 


The following figure is a good example of a bass groove in rock style. Just don’t forget to give it 
some attitude as you play. 


TRACK 80, 0:00 





Rock 











|] 
% 
% 

| 
\ 
% 

Ц 






































































































































中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 





In its purest form, rock consists of three chords, although many rock tunes have more. You can 
go through many a rock progression by playing the music in the next figure. Just don’t forget that 
attitude! 


TRACK 80, 0:14 














































































































































































































































































































































































































Rock PR 
е өз? Ф ot 
z0 ojo © ж гіт БИШ 9-—9le е foe zo 
DES LL a e 一 一 一 一 = Ре 
=== — == mj 
Е? Е? 
T 5 7—9 spy 
6 6 7 7 8 9 9 9575 6 6 7 7 8 9 79 5 
ЕЁ 3—3 5—4 2—5 
*? ot 
— e = = өөө ff ое 一 
Jj 和 人 af о» acit = zz 
- АЕ ш = = s — p ш.ш = 
A’ Е? 
т spo 
НА 4 5-1 Е ЗВ 8—5 
ГВ 4 4 5 5 6 了 т 7—3—5—3 了 一 了 7—5 
5-5 3 
= — = = E ele ө se- oto ғғ 
D EET =: ЕЕ Е ——M = =a] 
— == — Я = 
B7 р? E B7 
H 8—5—31—31—8—8—]-9—31—8—31—89—1—5 
ГВ 6—6—3—31—8—39—|—5—5 2-2 - 7—5 
7—7 455 5 

















CHAPTER 11 Feeling the Eighth-Note Groove 145 


Embracing Worldly Styles 


146 


World music refers to traditional music of a culture, usually played by indigenous musicians. 
As such, you can plainly see that this is a vast subject — as vast as the globe, in fact. 


What really matters is that you're prepared to play a proper bass groove for any world music 
you're likely to encounter. With this in mind, I concentrate on presenting you with a workout that 
includes reggae, a couple of Latin styles, and a common African style. 


These reggae and African styles may seem unusual choices to be lumped in with country, rock, 
and pop, but they're all part of the eighth-note groove family. So are numerous other world beat 
styles. 


The harmonic structure of common world beat styles is usually pretty simple, but the rhythm is 
a whole new bass-ball game. You play rhythms that leave unusual spaces where you wouldn't 
expect them. 


Ramping up reggae 


The typical reggae bass groove is straightforward: root, fifth, with an occasional third and 
seventh, and with other scale tones thrown in as needed. In reggae you play the unexpected 
rhythm, leaving some downbeats open, after leading up to them. 


You find many different reggae bass lines; the following figure gets you started with a typical 


example. Keep fills and embellishments sparse when playing this style, and make your sound 
dark and your notes short. 


TRACK 81, 0:00 





Reggae 























































































































中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 
中 











Reggae songs сап have quite complex chord sequences, while the same rhythmic theme persists 
throughout. The next figure is an example of a reggae chord progression with a consistent rhyth- 
mic theme. 


PART 4 Turning Exercises into Music 


TRACK 81, 0:14 







































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Reggae 
— — 
jie «ee = 1 = e т ? = 1 s * s е 
— — 一 一 — 
Em С р Ет С D 
H Бо 3——5——3 2 Бо 3——5——3 2 
— —- m 
Lm T 7 o e—9 = Ы = “Ге ө =_= ент (шен 7 o 
=a y == иа ЕЕ. == оу = 7 
G C Bm D G 
H 
ГВ у урса в 2—1——3 әсі 3—} 5535 сас сз 5 
— = к == = N = 
DEDE IEEE wa EI oe Ф = oe ot ее ots 
Е = = = 7 
С Вт р р D 
HT 
ЕЁ 7 一 7 一 5 一 7 2 一 | -3 一 3 222 3—]—5—5—3—5 5—5—3—5 3—]—5—5—3—5 5 
ЕҢ K = K 
9 -= SS ee гч = Sa te r == 
өө ую = . 6926 = ae 
G с р с с р Ет 
T 
ЕЁ = 3--5-5 23-3 3—5—5 РБ 2 
3 3 +3 4 3 3 人 一 3 F 
NS KE к А 
ее КЕ у ре ee ее = 可 
ЕЕ ж е. = га z г. xt = GJR s ж 2. = 
с D G с р с с р 
HT 
ЕН 3—3 3—5—5 2 3—3 3—5—5 2 3—3 3—5—5 




















1— —3—3—31—3 1——3—3—1—3 + 





Looping Latin 
Latin bass grooves come in two main varieties: on-the-beat and off-the-beat. Both are part of 


the eighth-note groove family. The on-the-beat variety is often flavored with a bit of a rock edge, 
as in some Santana songs. 


CHAPTER 11 Feeling the Eighth-Note Groove 147 


Take а peek at the following figure for а common on-the-beat Latin bass line. Keep your finger- 
ing of the groove consistent; all the notes are within easy reach. 











TRACK 82, 0:00 


e— o 









































7% 
е 























= 














н 


==— 

















шың 




















When you move a bass groove from chord to chord, be sure to retain your hand pattern through- 
out the chord changes so the groove feels familiar in every new position. Practice this by playing 
the on-the-beat chord progression in the following figure. 











TRACK 82, 0:13 

















































































































































































































































































































Latin 
te te 
uicti tt меке вари 
| — CE C == 
— 4-4-5-4 МЕКЕН Жы; 
== $ я $ - А 4---5-4 - + —* 
чы — LE e Е ЕЕ -—e—y-— — 
сіп Fm 
т 4--5-4 4— 4— 5——4 yry 8--9-н-- 
ҒА А $ я 6 Я н = m 
- іт eit o + te je eie e je ete e 
DE 7” 一 = dest * e 5 — = ; I — | 
i-e 
# # # 
E oe BM gb EA a 
А я $ 4 * | 














The next figure shows you an off-the-beat Latin bass groove. At first glance you may think that 
this groove is the easier line to play, compared to the previous example of an on-the-beat groove, 
but you may well find this to be the more difficult of the two. You want to keep the beat steady as 
a rock while avoiding playing beat one of each measure. 











TRACK 83, 0:00 





























TER 
































中 


























PART 4 Turning Exercises into Music 


You need to anticipate the next chord when you’re playing an off-the-beat Latin bass groove іп а 
song. Check out the next figure and get into the groove. 


TRACK 83, 0:09 



































































































































































































































































































































Latin 
Ә: ) S Y 
==; Ес = 
Ат E/GË 
H 
[B , 2 7 4 : 
: 5 
2 =“ Р е te Ф И 
Am Е Е E/GË 
ГВ 7 8 F 7 ; i ? 5 
ЖШС 
_ к 6 2 © » P amus 
Fa jj crf 2 р 
От В Е 5 
т 
СА 8 9 7 
ГВ z à 5 7 
> N к 
9 б 9 е z - mi J г 2 2 z е | 
Ат 了 Е 
{ | 
ГВ 7 8 i 7 ; 7 == 7 














Тһе whirled beat of world beat 


World beat has as many styles as there are cultures, literally ranging from obscure individual 
African tribal celebrations to the German polka big bands (what a thought . . . a polka big band). 
The international grooves you’re most likely to encounter are bound to have African flavors and 
are fusions of African and Western forms of music. 


With this in mind, take a look at the exercise in the following figure. It’s a world beat groove 
that’s been around the world. 


TRACK 84, 0:00 





World Beat 





























a --” РЕ ЕЕ ЕН zem m. == = == 







































































Т 2 > 5 2 s 5 2 p 5 
НА 3 3 3 5 





CHAPTER 11 Feeling (һе Eighth-Note Groove 149 


The best way to approach playing a world beat bass groove is to form the triad of each chord апа 
to use syncopation (you can-can find exercises for both in this book). The chord progression is 


usually simple and very repetitive, as in the next figure. 































































































REMEMBER 
TRACK 84, 0:10 

World Beat 

г 2 __ 
Е а есен а 1 

D G D A 

4 4 7 

H м 4 4 F 5 5 4 4 + : 1 A Е | 














150 РАКТА Turning Exercises into Music 


IN THIS CHAPTER 


» Playing that funky music 





» Applying sixteenth-note grooves to 
metal and prog rock 


Chapter 12 


Working the Sixteenth-Note 
Groove 


ou use sixteenth-note grooves when the music you’re playing requires a bit of funk — a 

good funk, mind you. The main styles that lend themselves to sixteenth-note grooves are 

funk (of course!), R & B/soul (such as Motown and James Brown), metal, and prog rock 
(progressive rock). 


to play with great rhythmic accuracy, but you also have to choose each note very carefully. This 
chapter gives you a good idea of which notes typically work for the common sixteenth-note 
REMEMBER Styles. 


(5) When you subdivide a measure into sixteen even parts using sixteenth notes, you not only have 





Getting into a Funk 


Anytime you play a funk tune, the surest way to signal the funkiness, right from the start, is to 
put a sixteenth-note feel into your groove skeleton. The first two notes set the mood for the rest 
of your groove — you want it funky, right? 


The two clearest choices for a groove skeleton in a funk style are two sixteenth notes or a dotted 
eighth followed by a sixteenth note. You can play in a funk style without starting with either of 
these rhythms, but starting with them makes your intentions undeniably clear — you intend to 
play the funky way. 


CHAPTER 12 Working the Sixteenth-Note Groove 151 


Traditional funk bass 


When you think of funk bass, you may think of the slap technique, in which you slap the strings 
with your right-hand thumb and pop them with your index finger, as Larry Graham and Flea do 
it. But bear in mind that funk can also be played using fingerstyle (Francis Rocco Prestia’s style 
is a classic) or even with a pick (check out Bobby Vega). 


W Funk is defined by rhythm, note choice, and attitude, not by any particular technique. 
REMEMBER Traditional funk tunes stay on one chord or include only a very few. The groove itself is usually 
so busy that it provides enough musical motion to keep your ear (and your feet) occupied. Take a 


stab at the typical funk groove in the following figure, which shows notation and tab for a groove 
starting with two sixteenth notes. 


Keep the notes short, sharp, and rhythmically precise (especially on the offbeats), and let the 
music get under your skin. 
TIP 


TRACK 85, 0:00 











































































































When you play a funk song, the chord changes are usually minimal, meaning that you stay on one 
chord at a time for long periods of time. However, the song usually has a “B” section that con- 
trasts with the “A” section (see the song in the following figure). 


152 PART 4 Turning Exercises into Music 











TRACK 85, 0:08 

































































и Е eee s. 
ote 4 “7 E = ate 
D7 
и — 4—6 
345 5--5--3--5 5--Х 3-4 
5--3-5 


































































































































































































= == -— = 
e y e ө ө 429; Ф Хх - 
=== е 
р? 
3—4 
3—4—58 5 35 5--Х as 
535 
= = 
: = — == P 44: = 
.-- —— Pe e PES ——= 7 oe ete 
Gm? 
8— 5— —X——3——3 
1—3 3—3 ++ 
+2133 ыз 







































































"e 





























% 

% 

% 
$ 




































































































































































++ 2-3 3—4 
1—2 3—3 3—5 
== ЕЕ ЕЕ _ 20Р 

ЕЕ ЕЕ ЕЕ: Е ЕЕ ie 
Е F — - Ф 
р? 
2—9 —4 
3—4—5- 5—5—3—5 5——X 3—4 
5—3—5 
== = ЕАК 
elt iti 2:07 оох | 
7 = 9 9 9 
D7 
2—3—4 | 
3-.-5 5--5--5-5 5--Х 3—4 
5 3—5 














CHAPTER 12 Working the Sixteenth-Note Groove 153 


154 


Funk-a-di-gunk 


Another way to play an immediately recognizable funk groove is to start with a dotted eighth note 
followed by a sixteenth. To get the feel for this, all you have to say is “funk-a-di-gunk” at a con- 
sistent speed. Your first note is on the “funk” (the dotted eighth), and your second note is on the 
“gunk” (the sixteenth). Try the exercise in the following figure for a very effective groove with 
this kind of groove skeleton. 


Make sure to keep both starting notes sharp, precise, and consistent. Also, be very conscious of 
each space where you don’t play any note. Space in funk is as solid as a brick. 


TIP 


TRACK 86, 0:00 





Funk 








өте 


GU = НЕН ы ERI 























































































































Ав with almost еуегу funk song, the сһога changes аге few апа far between, with only а bridge 
Section added for contrast. The following figure guides you through some static harmony. 


PART 4 Turning Exercises into Music 





Funk 














TRACK 86, 0:14 





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































- be DEO =—— = 
С = Е > = рә 8 
ph? ЕУ 
К “70% ; 6—6 6 4-5 
В+ 3—4 5—5 4 
be ткш m= 
Баз .-- z ha —$ vs — sw x Е. De —o 
= = Еа 52-7. == — 
p» Eb? 

H : + ss 7 .- = #8 
Er 2-4-? 7 === ==> ==» 
= =n == >: == >= 

Gm? Gm’ 
[ 工 3 
Ls Р a aE г Е ы + 3 
人 SS SSS SS 
= = = 2: =n == a 
Gm? Gm? 
A = gg 75 Е p Ы 1 3 
i b ни ЖЩ = 
pum oe 5 pj ы ЕЕЕ poe 
L— ES ELI ; е 2-2. 4 
Вр? ЕМ 
ГТ в 
ЕВЕ 5—56 7 .- =, Е. 
| Ь — == m = 
ә e == A FI -— =” 2e = | 
Вр? E» 
T в 
ЕЁ - 5—56 + $———5 Е po. | 

















Funkifizing К & B/soul 


R & B/soul is a genre that, these days, encompasses a variety of music. Generally, the songs are 
characterized by a funk rhythm but with a mellower attitude and more chord changes. The music 


is sort of like pop on steroids. 


When you play an R & B/soul bass groove, you want to make it sound easy, even though you may 
well be sweating to keep all the notes going. It’s busy without being overbearing. For a good 
example, check out the following figure, which uses a dotted-eighth and sixteenth note groove 


skeleton. 


CHAPTER 12 Working the Sixteenth-Note Groove 





150 


REMEMBER 


PART 4 Turning Exercises into Music 





























TRACK 87, 0:00 


























R&B/Soul 
Гк SSS SS SS ee шет 000 
=== 44.4 |a = 


























As you play the syncopated grooves for R & B/soul tunes in all their syncopated glory, make sure 
you anticipate the next chord (arrive early). Doing so gives the music a strong forward momentum 


and is a defining attribute of this style. 


Play along with the tune in the following figure and discover how a typical R & B/soul song 


sounds, at least from the bass player’s perspective. 














TRACK 87, 0:11 

















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































R&B/Soul 
| =_= be 一 = = be — RR === 
[Dive ey z0 иги : aa ae 
—= oo e 2-е L ==; = = L t = 
ЕР EMG Ab В Ст B АР B 
Т 6 х 6 
ГА 5—5 x x x x 3—5 3 3 X—4 X—4 x 3X 
3 — 5 3-6 4 3—5 
E ра e za ЕЗ ҙе Num гы = = = > be zh > 
ЕУ E = af , s = a De = рө z ә ө 2 
ЕР EÞ/G Ab В Ст В АР В 
= 5—5 x x 5 x x 3-5 3 3 Хх + E ы x x + 
LB 3 4 Б 3-6 + А 3— — 
sh = be be 2 = be be 
Paes z 6 2 аш F z 
е” pee s e- с = ve 
ж Fs = шкі; е, =? = 
Ет B/G A в» Еш Бус Ab сов 
К 3 3 6 : 6 8 s 3 3 & 6 ы & 3 з - + 
ГВ + + + 5 3 4 3 4 4 
= m- FE 
tauri be = е б=т ГО be „фо IT 
a Pe af = аў pe =7 bs e 
= E и Р Ф. y -——— —.e s. oS mx 
ЕР ЕМС D> A ЕР B/G рь Ab Bb 
= — | 
ГВ 6—6 X 3 x 4 x т + в 3 А 6 6 X 3 3 4 x P Р 














Ве on Your Mettle with Metal... and Prog Rock 


Within the hard rock family of musical styles you find metal and prog rock (progressive rock), both 
famous for their blistering sixteenth-note style. Despite the fact that both styles are part of the 
same subcategory, one is quite different from the other. The patterns in metal include repetitive 
notes: You strike the same note repeatedly before moving on. Prog rock, on the other hand, 
requires you to move through sophisticated harmony, often at breakneck tempo, and sometimes 
even to change meters in the process. 


As you play these grooves, try to remember that it’s not about the hair; it’s about the fast and 
furious attitude . . апа sixteenth notes. 


Steeling yourself for metal 


Your role as the bassist in a metal band is to make the music heavy (as in heavy metal) and loud. 
You may want to reserve the loudness part for the big stage rather than your apartment, but you 
should mentally prepare yourself for some serious sonic onslaught. 


Most important, you need the chops to keep up with the busy bass riffs. You can play with a pick 


or your fingers — whatever keeps you fast and steady. Make sure you have the stamina to keep 
up with the metal groove in the following figure for at least three to five minutes. 


TRACK 88, 0:00 




























































































И Есі ЕЕ шы ЕЕ — 
9: > ара aa ee ee eee . .] 
H 

Аз зза 34 Г зу уз зн =] 

















The songs in metal music аге most often in а minor key, follow а minor progression, and дийе 
often include some rather jagged harmonic twists, mixed with bass and guitar unison riffs. The 
next figure gives you a bit of insight into what a metal tune may sound like . . . oh, and watch the 
volume! 


CHAPTER 12 Working the Sixteenth-Note Groove 157 


TRACK 88, 0:08 
























































































































































































































































































































































Ст Ab G Cm Ab 











































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































中 





158 PART 4 Turning Exercises into Music 


Progressing to prog rock 


Prog rock сап be а real bass slugfest. Sinuous bass lines that wind their way through complex 
chord progressions keep you on your toes as you negotiate fast passages and, occasionally, odd- 
meter measures. 


Try playing the prog rock bass groove in the following figure slowly at first, as the string crossing 
is challenging. After you’re comfortable with it, bring it up to tempo — that is, play it fast. 


TRACK 89, 0:00 











Prog Rock 











































































































[2 е 
oe е 
De > е рв ә 
= LL "umm = и * 
ГТ p ЕЕЕ. 5 + 5 у= = t | 
上 一 + 5 + 3 t 5 
3 + 3 3 





Most tunes give the bass player the freedom to create a bass line, as long as it’s related to the 
tune’s chords. In contrast, many of the prog rock tunes you encounter as a bass player are 
through-composed, meaning that your bass line is much more precisely defined and consistent. 
Needless to say, playing them requires plenty of rehearsals and practice. Take a look at the next 
figure for an example of what a prog rock bass part in a song looks (and sounds) like. 


CHAPTER 12 Working the Sixteenth-Note Groove 159 


100 














TRACK 89, 0:10 


















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Prog Rock 
cR „© о * ot Pa af e 22 NEP ES _ 
9e oe oe и 
P GEL. Cx LJt' II = = 
Е? А СВ ғ А СВ E А CB 3 B’ 
т 5 + g + 5 5 4 3 
9 了 了 3 了 了 5 了 5-42 
4 5 了 了 5 了 5 了 532 2 
5 +87 5 87 5 +87 5-3-2 
A A- 2- 。 一 、 
= — eft 2” m = I et ө == z — eft а” = tff 5 
so #2 2 = 
== мет Lc E = === 一 3 = 
E7 А CB Е А CB E А св 3 
9 了 5 了 5 4 54 —2 
H ой 7 ptg : ы. "RU 532 
5 +87 5 т 5 787 
= р = р 
ә: е е ое э # е s—ce—» 
pr Le — — nd — — Pe 
Gr C? 
ЕЕ G 4 = =й ш 3——4 5 
Hi 3—3 3—3 + 
eh = 
е Ф stipa Ë е 7e s x*——ie— 9 
=_= =s == = 22 
[一 一 一 一 一 一 | =——= [一 一 一 一 一 一 | — 一 | 
С? С! 
5—3 3 5—3 
5 52 3—4 5 5—2 3—4 5 
3—3 3—3 1 
bə be be “= -— E be bt be. * bhe Ha 一 > e 
= 一 一 === SS 
| <= БЇТ 
=” 5а” 5—7 р? Ыла g ж т тт 8 
Hi 6—6 6—6 4 
b b 
| be tbe о TU £ be tbe " 
ЕЕ ЕЕ жы" i 
E —— a EEE 
ЕР ЕР 
8—6 6 +5 
- + 8——5 Б + $ + -5 
Aee $ 
#2- S9 ef ~ 
s case ot егч = oft Ф rm 2 Ё .--.-” 7 5r 
А oe ote bo өөө oe ө ә == | 
ө ө 
= = : шық = m з = 
E? A CB ғ A CB E A CB 
3 7 9 т 4 т 542 
8 了 了 5 4 了 8 了 5-42 
1 5 了 了 5 了 5 т 5-32 l 
5 +87 5 +84 5 та 








PART 4 Turning Ехегсіѕеѕ into Миѕіс 


IN THIS CHAPTER 





» Shuffling along with eighth-note 
triplet grooves 


» Swunking and hopping with 
sixteenth-note triplet grooves 


Chapter 13 
Trippin’ on Triplets 


hen you think of triplet grooves, you probably think of good old blues — you know, 

sitting on the front stoop and lamenting your lot in life. Well, not so fast! Triplets are 

used for much more than just the blues, and it would behoove you to get a grip on this 
special rhythmic figure. 


Triplet grooves are also commonly used for shuffle, swunk (funk grooves with a shuffle feel, as in 
shuffle-funk), and hip-hop. This chapter presents some cool choices you can try out the next time 
someone in your band doesn’t want to play so square. 


Shuffling the Eighth Notes 


Anytime you hear one of those lopsided grooves just ambling along, chances are you’re listening 
to an eighth-note shuffle, the most common of the triplet styles. If you have any aspirations of 
joining a blues or rockabilly band, this groove style must be in your bag of tricks. 


The two most common forms of eighth-note triplet grooves are the driving shuffle and the slow 
blues. In the driving shuffle style, you play the first and third notes of the triplet during the first 
beat. In the slow blues style, you play one note on beat one and then initiate the triplet feel on the 
second beat. 


Shifting into shuffle mode 


You can play a very effective shuffle groove by simply striking the same note twice during each 
beat. In fact, that’s the most common approach to the shuffle style. Feel is everything in a shuffle, 
so I advise you to spend some time getting a good rhythm going, even on just one note. 


The way I notate eighth-note triplet grooves is just one of the methods you encounter in reading 
music. This method shows you most clearly the three subdivisions of each beat. Listen to the 
exercise in the following figure before playing it to get into a shuffle mood. You can hold the first 
note of each beat until you strike the next note. How you feel it is really up to you. 


CHAPTER 13 Trippin’onTriplets 161 


TRACK 90, 0:00 





































































































Shuffle 3 be 3 be 
*9 = e + *9 e 
EX =; = =; ==" =; = = s ġo F | 
——— LLLI — ЖС 
3 3 3 3 3 3 
5 5—3 3 5 5—3 3 
Т 5 5 45 
H— 3 3 3 














When you play an eighth - note shuffle, it’s often a blues. The following figure shows notation and 
tab for a typical blues using the eighth-note shuffle groove. This song alone can get you through 
many, many hours of jamming. 


TRACK 90, 0:07 




















































































































































































































































































































Shuffle 
r3, г-3-1 Г38-1г-3- L3 71-34 
сз ре pbe 2,52. 292 Г8-11-8- з) ере 2.2. с-з ре ере ei 
E Ба = - = = = = = bæ o be = ІНІ КІШ жана = E жю x = = 
ELA DS 3-3 E ы =_= = = e — 
ЕР? АМ EP? E» 
T 8--8- 6-5 8--8- 5-5 8——8——6——8$ 
ГА 5 т 8 8 6 6—4 4 Е Ре 5 & 8 Р n 8 +H 
LB 4-4 
bees ~3 4 3 bow [3—3 
3 4034-385 -3- 3 23. г-3-1 35 -3-/Ф Өре ej? -3- the e, Pi 
DE ги ера 
LI L7] = C7 ч № = = = L7] v. = *; чу v». “/ L7] “/ 
hba Е = = —— un n Шамші m — | 
АР АМ EP EP 
T 8-5 8—6—6 
ГА 6 6—4—4 6 6—4 4 8 8 $ +H 
ГВ 6—6 8--6|-6-6 ..ө 
4+ 4—4 



























































































































































3 37-35 3 | 133-33 -34 Phe thea 3 1871 3 3 

ә: “/ L7] 7 ө. г a L7] 1 “/ Cm № CI a 1 чу 7 

рег ө be 29! ө 000000 | 

Bp» АУ Ер? ВР? 

8—6—6 

H 8 ве в 6 6 4 4 в в 8 в 
ГВ 8-4 661-66 

5-5 + 6—6 6—6—6—6—6—6 











Тһе slinking shuffle 


The slow blues is another common triplet-groove style, a sort of very slow shuffle. The feel is a 
bit different because you don’t define the triplet rhythm until the second beat. You can also refer 
to this style as a twelve-eight pattern (four beats with three eighth notes in each beat). 


You want to have a really solid handle on your slow triplet feel for this style. The slow blues is far 

more difficult to play slowly while keeping a steady tempo than it is to play fast. Don’t let the 

tempo slow down. It may sound (and feel) laid back, but it really keeps moving. Take a stab at the 
REMEMBER  eXercise in the following figure and settle into this feel. 



















































































TRACK 91, 0:00 

Shuffle Аа ue А —3— bs К 
р; —= - 3 = E У | 
H - 2 р 3 3 2- а - > Е 3 3 2 5 | 

















162 РАВТ4 Turning Exercises into Music 


The song you play in the next figure is yet another blues using a triplet groove. You often hear 
people refer to this style as gutbucket blues — a slow, usually sad rendition of a tough life. Please 
keep in mind that you don’t have to actually live the life of a blues artist. Just read this book, listen 
to the audio tracks on the website, and pretend. 


TRACK 91, 0:12 


















































































































































































































































































































































































































































Slow Shuffle 
一 3 一 一 3 一 [一 3 一 г-8-1 
DE Шелл тесты Rel Lahr. LL P. we 
рө рө й рө рө 1 
— n — M — “ыы, — À 
-— 3 3 -— 8 3 -— з 3 -— 3 3 
B» ВР ВР Вв” 
Т 6 一 6 一 5 6 一 6 一 5 6 一 6 一 5 6 一 6 一 5 
ЕЁ 5—8 8 5—8 $ 5—8 $ 5—# в 
6 6 6 6 
Aet te C3 SE fe 3 фо e Зо oe 
Е 0 за 天 一 а сены 
_ — LL 一 一 一 一 一 一 pe 一 一 一 一 一 一 也 — а ЕЕ 
3 3 3 3 - 3 8 = 5 3 
ЕУ Ер? ВР p» 
T 6 6 5 6 6 一 5 
5—8 a 58 8 6 6 一 5 5 65 
HÉ $ $ 5—8 в 5—# в 
6 6 
374 
abe Pee “3 be es А r3 be. ob =з... 
= e e 
Ex = = = — = = — = = #000000. © | 
a ыы Б -— ы, E m — — 
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 
Е? ЕУ ph? F 
I в +65 4-- 
НА 730 т 5—8 8 з 6 6|3333333 з 
[一 6 4 4-5 














Swinging the Funk апа Making It Swunk 


TIP 


At first you may think swing and funk are incompatible, but upon further examination you find 
that one of the hippest ways to funk things up is to swing it, using sixteenth-note triplets. This 
is also one of the densest styles you can play, with six subdivisions per beat instead of the four 
used in a regular sixteenth-note funk rhythm. 


The sixteenth-note triplet funk, or swunk, is unique — completely unlike any traditional feel. You 
can find it in some modern jazz-funk tunes or in hip-hop beats. It’s essential that you and the 


drummer feel the music the same way, as it’s one of the more advanced grooves both of you can 
hook up with. 


It don't mean a funk if it ain't got that swunk 
By playing a funk with sixteenth-note triplets, you give the music a bit of a swampy sound. New 
Orleans funk is played with a swing. Jaco Pastorius’s “Liberty City" is an example of this feel as 


well. It's very difficult to play and even more difficult to read. 


Before you get into the swunk groove in the following figure, I highly recommend listening to the 
track on the website. Funk with a swing isn't something to read — it's something to feel. 


CHAPTER 13 Trippin’ on Triplets 163 


104 








Swunk 








TRACK 92, 0:00 













































































The song іп the next figure is ап example of what a typical swunk tune looks like. You play the 
repetitive groove in the first section, feeling good, and then go on to the middle section, still feel- 






































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































ing good. 
TRACK 92, 0:12 
Swunk 
г3- № > r34 r34 3 r3 е А r34 3—1 
BE + = + = æ г 9 е æ z = xy е = ғ - ay = L7] e е 
= = 2-5 -- a uL uu 
Am? 3 3 3 Am! 3 3 3 
5 5 
Hi 7 5 X $ 575 7 5 a 575 
[B 5 5 ш els s ы 8 
3 
3 г3- е c32 [3—1 3 г3- е гӛ- mA 3 
99 5 --- ша” = z “-ө > z 5 7—ø = = z е ет 
Е = == = LB I m = а = 二 2.-- 
Ат! 3 2d 3 Am? 3 З 
Т 5 5 3 5 5 
Hi 7 75 хз 575 7 т 5 хз 
5 5 801506 3 3—X 
9 T [3 ө > гӛ- r34 3 [732-9 А 3 - 3-1 
. D = =_= 7 e Ф L ші oy 7 o Ф. 
=, == = = == = =, == = 人 一 一 == 
Am! 3 3 3 Am? 3 3 3 
5 5 
Hi 7 5 X È 575 1 5 a 575 
[B 5 5 т ТБ 5 8 
3 
LCD €, r34 " r34 3 c9, r34 z аша ER 
Ex T = -7 æ 7 eo 2 o æ 7 Шеш ө-7 æ 
= 3 == = z2— = o 
Am? 3 3 Am? 3 
5 5 
E. 7 Tg хз 575 7 5 X 
[B 5 5 2 els 5 3 3—Xx 
r343 7-3-1 32 8 r34 == 7-3 r34 34 8 r33 „25 ыт 
9 ----е Ех 2 29-2 z o o4 o Ех Е ө ө s 
c ug. == — Lu a = 
D? 3 3 p? 3 
ЕТ 3——3—2 3 3 2 
A 55 5 5 X 2 5 3|5 5 5 5 X 2 5 3 
2 2—3 2 2-5 
г8ӛ- гӛ- 34 3 r34 „2а r3- 三 号 一 | 32 8 г3- == 
Ое = © == 
е-е os 7 ee ЕЕ И .-ө..- os у = ж 
LJ lt 5.4. — LE uj. —= -= 
D7 8 D7 3 
Hi 55 5 5 xs 5 5 5 5 255825 
[B ^7 2 2—3 к= 2 2—3 
3 r34 № ә r34 г3- 8 r33 9 р г-3 71 3—1 
г еее. | tte Xe £4 
=, == zd 21—24 8-8] 
Ат? 3 3 Am? 3 3 3 
I Ы s 
LA 了 "ұ- a 55 + 1735 a 5—1—5 
[B 5-5 8 L5 5 8 
3 
3 г3З- №» r34 г3-1 3 г 9 r34 3 8 
= e Ф == 
Ә 7 ey æ 7—@ oe = —#—==щш е7 f | 
= ts SS SS SS SS => SS Se 
Ат? 3 3 3 Am? 3 3 
5 5 
К 7 ғұ ҰЗ 575 7 "ғұ X | 
LB Ы a 3 3—X 














PART 4 Turning Exercises into Music 


TIP 


Hipping and hopping 


Generally, the bass grooves you encounter іп hip-hop music have а triplet sixteenth-note feel. 
(Again, it’s all about the feel.) Making electronic samples sound more human by adding your bass 
to the mix provides a wonderful opportunity for you to improve on the feel of machines. 


When you take a peek at the groove in the following figure, bear in mind that hip-hop grooves are 
challenging to read. It’s much better to listen to the recording first and then read the notation to 
see where you play the notes on your bass. Keep an eye on the 3 that signals a triplet. If you don’t 
see a 3, play it as a regular eighth note. 


TRACK 93, 0:00 













































































Hip Hop Funk 3 3 2 3 
г3-1 ө — r3 № — — 
oan = хы Ал ee = 
z = шш — 7 Бө P = шш - — Бө . 
3 3 
Be в в | 
8—3 3.3 Xx—3 3 3——3 - 1 





In hip-hop tunes, you often find an overall sixteenth-note triplet groove in the main section of 
the song, followed by a section that features lots of space and sound effects, for contrast. The 
song in the next figure gets you hoppin’ on the right foot. 


TRACK 93, 0:10 






















































































































































































































































































Hip Hop 
3 3 
9 Қ шош е d ті = = is = k = е т = = 一 
E RN Я => fs 
Am 
К 1— —3 
[B 5 5-5 x—3 5 5-5 x—3 3 
37 3 3 37 3 3 
加 = e = = —= id — == 
ж — >= е Ф —= Senat Ф ө 
Ат 
- 7 + 
[B 5 и в хз 5 1 = X—3 3 
Dj == т Е: == 
м m "m 
Am 
Hr 
ГА 
[B 5 5 5 5 
``. m um m 
- , 3 4 raci o 3 - 
D = = т = = = қ = = * = æ = = = — | 
= 5 => = 
Ат 
Hr 
-A E 了 
Вв 5 : ur— хз 5 ғұ; X—3— —3 | 








CHAPTER 13 Trippin' оп Triplets 165 


The Part of Tens 


IN THIS PART... 


Part 5 is the famed “Part of Tens” section, and no 
Dummies book leaves the press without it. Here you 

can discover why you practice what you practice. First, 
you get your very own practice regimen that will make 
you the ultimate bass player. You also get to see how 
other famous bass players have used the concepts in 
this book to create some magnificent music for bass. And 
now it’s your turn. 


IN THIS CHAPTER 





» Getting maximum results from your 
practice 


» Designing your own workout routine 


Chapter 14 


Ten Essential Elements of a 
Great Practice Session 


© 


TIP 


ou may wonder how on earth you can possibly fit all the exercises in this book into your 

practice routine. It’s simple — you can’t, at least not all at once. The secret of an extremely 

effective practice session is that it covers all aspects of playing without wearing your hands 
(and your patience) to shreds. 


Another important aspect of a great practice routine is that you design it with you in mind. You 
design your own, adding and subtracting exercises as you become a more skillful player. Quite 
simply, you keep rotating in and out of your practice routine exercises that essentially address the 
same aspect of playing. 


Finally, the sequence of the different exercises is also crucial, and in this chapter I give you a fab- 
ulous template (based on more than 30 years of research, trial, and success) for your own routine. 
This sequence gets your workout into balance. You start with medium-to-difficult exercises, fill 
in difficult ones in the middle, and sprinkle in easy ones. That way you don’t start out with just 
the easy exercises and run out of steam by the time you reach the hard ones. 


You can keep track of whichever exercises you do by filling in the practice chart at the end of this 
chapter (I suggest you make a copy, or 20). So get ready . . . basses loaded . . . go! 


Inverting Triad Arpeggios 


Choose an exercise from Chapter 5. Just pick one of the figures; you can pick another the next 
time. Any of these will open not just your hands (given all the string crossings) but also your ears. 
Indicate the exercise and the tempo in the appropriate column in the practice chart. 


CHAPTER 14 Ten Essential Elements of a Great Practice Session 169 





Arpeggiating Seventh Chords 


Now choose an exercise from Chapter 6. If you’re really brave and you have the basic seventh- 
chord structures down cold, pick an exercise that also involves the scale, like one of the “weave” 
patterns later in that chapter. Enter the exercise in the practice chart, including the tempo you’re 
playing, and move on. 


Playing Scale Sequences with Grooves 


Pick an exercise from Chapter 4. The scale sequence exercises, followed by a groove, are a definite 
step up in the difficulty factor. The results are simply fabulous (and sound pleasant, to boot). Note 
the exercise and tempo in your chart and go to the next element. 


Moving the Modes 


Choose an exercise from Chapter 3. You now get to take a bit of a breather by playing the modes 
in a linear fashion and thus embedding them into your memory banks. Write the mode and exer- 
cise into your chart, and don’t forget to note the tempo. 


Doing Right-Hand Exercises 


Turn to Chapter 2 and select one of the exercises that emphasize your right hand. Your right hand 
(the striking hand) gets to work out while your fretting hand takes a breather. Really concentrate 
on the hand you’re working. Log the exercise and tempo into your chart and move on to the next. 


Doing Left-Hand Exercises 


Turn to Chapter 2 and select one of the exercises that emphasize your left hand. Personally, I feel 
the best one is the left-hand permutation etude, but don’t forget about the others. Mark the exer- 
cise into your practice chart with the appropriate tempo and go on. 


Practicing Master-Maker Etudes 


Choose an exercise in Chapter 10. Needless to say, the master-maker etudes are there to challenge 
you, so look at this as your grand finale in terms of the workout. You’re now combining rhythms, 
scales, chords, and grooves in one very dense exercise. Write down which one you tackle and 
don’t forget to note the tempo. Then move to the next. 


170 PART5 The Part of Tens 


Grooving in a Genre/style 


It’s reward time. Choose a groove іп а particular style from Chapter 11, 12, or 13. This part of the 
routine should be pleasant, so enjoy rocking out, exploring country, getting funky, or shuffling to 
your heart’s content. Just make sure to keep track of which style you practice so you can rotate 
them all. Note the exercise in your chart and continue. 


Freebassing 


Huh? Yes, you read that correctly. At this point you simply play whatever comes to mind. It could 
be a solo, a groove, a song — whatever. The point is to have a period in your practice routine dur- 
ing which you can fully express yourself without judgment or restrictions. Some great stuff can come 
out of such “freebassing,” so feel free to take notes on your practice sheet (mode, tonality, style, 
tempo) and move on. 


Reading Bass Grooves 


Finally, pick any of the songs or grooves from this book and practice reading the notation. You can 
use the tab as a crutch at first, but get used to looking at the notes and knowing what a certain 
phrase sounds like. Keep it short, especially at first, but do it often. After you master reading, you 
can get a lot of information from all kinds of books and sheet music. 


CHAPTER 14 Ten Essential Elements of a Great Practice Session 171 


Bass Practice Routine 





Warm-up 


Etude 


Tempo 





Arpeggio Inversions 





Seventh-Chord Arpeggios 





Scale Sequences with Grooves 


Modes 





Right-Hand Etudes 





Left-Hand Etudes 





Master-Maker Etudes 





Groove 





Free Bass 








Reading 











172 PARTS The Part of Tens 








IN THIS CHAPTER 


» Discovering how the exercises аге 
used in the real world 





» Finding out about fantastic bass 
players and their music 


Chapter 15 


Теп Famous Tunes 
That Incorporate the 
Exercises in This Book 


hy do I tell you to do the exercises in this book? So you can become a better bass player? 
Increase your technical and musical ability? Of course, that’s a big part of it, but there’s 
more. You can use these exercises to play music, songs, and grooves. 


The exercises in Bass Guitar Exercises For Dummies are based on real-life music. As you practice 
them, you’re honing your skills to play songs. What better way to demonstrate this concept than 
by showing you examples of ten famous and successful tunes that incorporate exercises from this 
book as bass lines? 


In this chapter you find a list of ten fabulous bass players playing ten unforgettable songs. 
Hear for yourself why you’re putting in all the hard hours practicing the exercises I show you. 


Unfortunately, copyright laws don’t let me quote these songs in this book or copy them to the 
website, but I do provide you with a link to them from my Web site: www. sourkrautmusic.com. 
TIP 


From here you can discover, or rediscover, these bass gems and listen to them from a whole new 
perspective. 


CHAPTER 15 Ten Famous Tunes That Incorporate the Exercises in This Book 173 


Weaving through Scales and 
Chords — Jaco Pastorius 


Jaco Pastorius’s performance on “Come On, Come Over” (from his self-titled album) is a stunning 
example of a groove that weaves through the tonality while leaving the fretting hand in position 
(see Chapter 6). When you listen to the recording, wait for the chorus (which comes about 
56 seconds into the tune) to hear Jaco manhandling the groove, sprinkling it with some tasty dead 
notes (see Chapter 2) along the way. 


Perfecting the Groove Tail — Pino Palladino 


Paul Young’s hit “Everytime You Go Away” contains a terrific example of groove tails (see 
Chapter 9), executed to perfection by bassist Pino Palladino. His bass part is an integral part of 
the song and is a beautiful example of how the bass can contribute mightily to a hit. 


Inverting Triad Arpeggios — Cliff Burton 


The song “Anesthesia (Pulling Teeth)” by the metal band Metallica is probably one of the most 
famous bass performances by the legendary Cliff Burton. This bass solo is constructed primarily 
of triads and their inversions (see Chapter 5) and is a classic. 


Swinging the Triplets — Berry Oakley 


Berry Oakley, bassist for the Allman Brothers Band, gives a perfect performance on the famous 
blues tune “Stormy Monday,” playing a beautiful triplet rhythm in his groove (see Chapter 13). 
You can just feel each note oozing with the blues. 


Hitting the Groove Apex — David Hood 


The unforgettable hit “ГІ Take You There" by the Staple Singers features an excellent example 
of how the groove apex (see Chapter 8) can take a song to a whole new level of perfection. 
David Hood’s performance of this irresistible bass line is a classic that all bass players need to 
check out. 


Arpeggiating the Triad — Paul McCartney 


Perhaps the most famous of all bass players, Paul McCartney of the Beatles is the performer of a 
groove constructed of triads (see Chapter 5) straight up and down. The song is the well-known 
*Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da.” 


174 PART5 The Part of Tens 


Nailing the Groove Skeleton 一 
Anthony Jackson 


Master bassist Anthony Jackson’s performance of “For the Love of Money” by the O’Jays is a 
perfect example of a consistent groove skeleton (see Chapter 7) that drives a powerful groove and 
makes a song absolutely funky. This song thrives on the bass part. 


Using the Seventh-Chord Arpeggio — 
George Porter, Jr. 


George Porter, Jr., bass player for the famous New Orleans funk band the Meters, lays down one 
of the coolest examples of a seventh-chord arpeggio (see Chapter 6) in his groove for “Cissy 
Strut.” The descending minor seventh arpeggio is the groove theme, and the song is representa- 
tive of the special funk that’s native to the Crescent City. 


Running the Mode — Bernard Edwards 


One of the giants of the disco era, the group Chic and its bass player Bernard Edwards landed a 
massive hit with “Good Times,” in which Edwards builds the famous bass line on a simple Dorian 
mode (see Chapter 3). Who said playing scales has to be boring? 


Mastering the Swunk — Francis “Rocco” Prestia 


The West Coast-based horn band Tower of Power rightly has a stellar reputation for having one 
of the absolute funkiest rhythm sections on the planet. Anchored by bassist Francis *Rocco" 
Prestia, they display a fabulous swunk groove (see Chapter 13) on their tune “Pocketful of Soul.” 
Pure ear candy. 


CHAPTER 15 Ten Famous Tunes That Incorporate the Exercises in This Book 175 


Appendixes 


IN THIS PART... 


Appendix A explains how to use the audio files on the 
website and lists all of its tracks. Appendix B provides a 
little extra info on extended-range basses and ends with 
a weekly practice goal sheet that you can copy and use 
to keep track of your progress as you become more 
proficient playing the bass. 


How to Use the Website 


ou can hear almost every example of music in Bass Guitar Exercises For Dummies on the web 
page that corresponds to this book at www. dummies. com/go/bassguitarexercisesfd. The 
text in the book explains the different techniques and styles, the figures show you exam- 
ples in music notation, and the web page demonstrates how the examples sound when played 


correctly. 


Having the web page loaded and then playing the appropriate examples as you read about them 
in the text is a great way to experience this book in all its glory. When you hear an example that 
you just have to try, grab your bass and play it. If the example is beyond your grasp, go to an 


TIP earlier section and work out your technique. 


Note: If you’re using a digital version of this book, go to www.dummies.com/go/bassguitar 


exercisesfd for access to the music tracks. 


Relating the Text to the Website Files 


Every musical example in this book has a small black bar (the track bar) that tells you where the 
example is located on the track list. The track bar gives you the track number and the start time (in 
minutes and seconds) for each example. You can then cue up the track on the web page to hear it. 


If you’re searching for an example within an audio track, use the cue button of the cue/review 
function (also known as the fast forward/rewind control) of the media player to go to the specific 
time, indicated in minutes and seconds, within that track. When you get on or near the start time, 


release the cue button and the example plays. 


If you want to play along with the audio track, give yourself some extra time by cueing up a few 
seconds before the desired example starts (for example, in the case of Track 18, 0:33, you may 
want to cue up to Track 18, 0:28). Given the few extra seconds, you have time to toss the remote 


TIP and get your bass into playing position before the music starts. 


Stereo separation 


All the songs feature bass, guitar, and drums and are recorded in what’s known as stereo split; the 
bass is recorded on only one of the channels, the left. In the examples, you can hear the entire 
band if the balance control on your stereo is in its normal position (straight up). If you want to hear 
more of the bass, just turn the balance control to the left. If you feel that you can hang with the 
guitarist and drummer alone, just turn the balance control all the way to the right. You can then 


play to your heart’s content with just you playing the bass parts. 


Stereo split works on your computer as well. Just find your system preferences and go to the 
sound tab. In this tab, you should come across the output and be able to pan your stereo sound 
left or right. You need to have external speakers or headphones hooked up to your headphone 


jack. 


APPENDIX A How to Use the Website 


System Requirements 


Make sure your computer meets the minimum system requirements shown in the following list. 
If your computer doesn’t match up to most of these requirements, you may have problems using 
the software and files on the website. 


2» APC running Microsoft Windows or Linux with kernel 2.4 or later or a Macintosh running 
Apple OS X or later 


>» An Internet connection 


>» А web browser 


Tracks on the Web page 


The following list shows the tracks on the Web page, along with the track times and chapter 
numbers that match up with them in the book. 


Enjoy listening and playing along! 















































Track Time Chapter 

1 0:00 Ch. 3 
0:11 Ch. 3 
0:23 Ch. 3 
0:45 Ch. 3 
0:56 Ch. 3 
1:07 Ch. 3 
1:30 Ch. 3 
1:42 Ch. 3 
1:54 Ch. 3 
2:17 Ch. 3 
2:29 Ch. 3 
2:40 Ch. 3 
3:03 Ch. 3 
3:15 Ch. 3 
3:27 Ch. 3 
3:50 Ch. 3 











180 PART6 Appendixes 














































































































Track Time Chapter 
4:02 Ch. 3 
4:14 Ch. 3 
4:36 Ch. 3 
4:49 Ch. 3 
5:01 Ch. 3 
2 Ch. 3 
3 0:00 Ch.4 
0:21 Ch.4 
4 0:00 Ch.4 
0:09 Ch.4 
0:19 Ch.4 
5 Ch.4 
6 0:00 Ch.4 
0:09 Ch.4 
7 Ch.4 
8 0:00 Ch.4 
0:21 Ch.4 
9 0:00 Ch.4 
0:09 Ch.4 
0:20 Ch.4 
10 Ch.4 
11 Ch. 4 
12 Ch. 4 
13 Ch. 4 
14 0:00 Ch. 4 
0:06 Ch. 4 
0:13 Ch. 4 
0:20 Ch. 4 
15 Ch. 4 
16 0:00 Ch. 4 
0:06 Ch. 4 
17 Ch. 4 
18 0:00 Ch. 4 
0:06 Ch. 4 
(continued) 


APPENDIX A How to Use the Website 


181 


(continued) 


































































































Track Time Chapter 
19 Ch. 4 
20 0:00 Ch. 4 
0:06 Ch. 4 
0:13 Ch. 4 
0:19 Ch. 4 
21 Ch. 4 
22 0:00 Ch. 4 
0:06 Ch. 4 
23 Ch. 4 
24 0:00 Ch. 4 
0:06 Ch. 4 
25 Ch. 4 
26 0:00 Ch. 4 
0:05 Ch. 4 
0:11 Ch. 4 
0:17 Ch. 4 
0:22 Ch. 4 
0:27 Ch. 4 
27 Ch. 4 
28 0:00 Ch. 5 
0:16 Ch. 5 
0:34 Ch. 5 
29 Ch. 5 
30 Ch. 5 
31 0:00 Ch. 5 
0:27 Ch. 5 
32 Ch. 5 
33 0:00 Ch. 6 
0:24 Ch. 6 
0:51 Ch. 6 
1:16 Ch. 6 
34 Ch. 6 
35 Ch. 6 











182 PART6 Appendixes 














































































































Track Time Chapter 
36 Ch. 6 
37 Ch. 6 
38 Ch. 6 
39 Ch. 6 
40 Ch. 6 
41 Ch. 6 
42 Ch. 6 
43 0:00 Ch. 7 
0:35 Ch. 7 
1:08 Ch. 7 
44 Ch. 7 
45 0:00 Ch. 7 
0:35 Ch. 7 
46 Ch. 7 
47 0:00 Ch. 7 
0:34 Ch. 7 
48 Ch. 7 
49 0:00 Сһ.8 
0:33 Сһ.8 
1:03 Ch. 8 
1:33 Ch. 8 
2:06 Ch. 8 
2:39 Ch. 8 
3:09 Ch. 8 
3:39 Ch. 8 
4:12 Ch. 8 
4:45 Ch. 8 
5:15 Ch. 8 
5:45 Ch. 8 
50 Ch. 8 
51 0:00 Ch. 8 
0:32 Ch. 8 
1:02 Ch. 8 
1:35 Ch. 8 
(continued) 


APPENDIX A How to Use the Website 


183 


(continued) 





































































































Track Time Chapter 
2:08 Ch. 8 
2:39 Ch. 8 
S Ch. 8 
3:44 Ch. 8 
4:14 Ch. 8 
52 Ch. 8 
53 Ch. 9 
54 Ch. 9 
55 Ch. 9 
56 Ch. 9 
57 Ch. 9 
58 Ch. 9 
59 Ch. 9 
60 Ch. 9 
61 Ch. 9 
62 Ch. 9 
63 Ch. 9 
64 Ch. 9 
65 Ch. 9 
66 Ch. 9 
67 0:00 Ch. 10 
0:04 Ch. 10 
0:08 Ch. 10 
0:12 Ch. 10 
0:16 Ch. 10 
0:24 Ch. 10 
0:28 Ch. 10 
0:32 Ch. 10 
0:36 Ch. 10 
68 0:00 Ch. 10 
0:16 Ch. 10 
0:32 Ch. 10 
0:48 Ch. 10 
69 0:00 Ch. 10 











184 PART6 Appendixes 














































































































Track Time Chapter 
0:12 Ch. 10 
0:24 Ch. 10 
0:36 Ch. 10 
70 0:00 Ch. 10 
0:12 Ch. 10 
0:24 Ch. 10 
71 0:00 Ch. 10 
0:12 Ch. 10 
0:24 
72 Ch. 10 
73 Ch. 10 
74 Ch. 10 
75 0:00 Ch. 10 
0:15 Ch. 10 
0:31 Ch. 10 
76 Ch. 10 
77 0:00 Ch. 11 
0:08 Ch. 11 
78 0:00 Ch. 11 
0:16 Ch. 11 
79 0:00 Ch. 11 
0:17 Ch. 11 
80 0:00 Ch. 11 
0:14 Ch. 11 
81 0:00 Ch. 11 
0:14 Ch. 11 
82 0:00 Ch. 11 
0:13 Ch. 11 
83 0:00 Ch. 11 
0:09 Ch. 11 
84 0:00 Ch. 11 
0:10 Ch. 11 
85 0:00 Ch. 12 
0:08 Ch. 12 
(continued) 


APPENDIX A How to Use the Website 


185 


(continued) 





















































Track Time Chapter 
86 0:00 Ch. 12 
0:14 Ch. 12 
87 0:00 Ch. 12 
0:11 Ch. 12 
88 0:00 Ch. 12 
0:08 Ch. 12 
89 0:00 Ch. 12 
0:10 Ch. 12 
90 0:00 Ch. 13 
0:07 Ch. 13 
91 0:00 Ch. 13 
0:12 Ch. 13 
92 0:00 Ch. 13 
0:12 Ch. 13 
93 0:00 Ch. 13 
0:10 Ch. 13 
Troubleshooting 


If you have trouble with the website, please call Customer Service at 877-762-2974 (outside 
the U.S.: 317-572-3993) or send e-mail to techsupdum@wiley.com. Wiley Publishing, Inc., will 
provide technical support only for installation and other general quality-control items. 


186 PART6 Appendixes 


Extended Range Basses 
and Practice Goals 


hroughout this book, I give you all kinds of exercises to elevate your bass playing, and all 

the exercises fall within the range of a four-string bass guitar. But alas, what are you to do 

if your particular bass exceeds the string count and sports one or even two additional 
strings? No worries! This appendix addresses the notation of so-called extended range basses by 
showing you not only the location of every single note on their fingerboard but also what each 
note looks like in regular music notation. 


The following figures deal with five- and six-string basses and how the tab and the notation 
relate to the actual frets on the fingerboard. You can then play the exercises in this book in new 
positions. Note that the fingering doesn’t change at all; the relationship among the notes remains 
the same on extended range basses, just as it does on four-string instruments. 


APPENDIX В Extended Range Basses and Practice Goals 187 


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APPENDIX B Extended Range Basses and Practice Goals 


190 


4-string Bass Guitar 


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6-string Bass Guitar 


4-string Bass Guitar 


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You can also find a weekly practice goal sheet at the end of this appendix, which I suggest you 
copy. Just fill in the exercises and songs you’d like to improve upon for the week, fill in the goal 
(for example: “Play exercise at 90 beats per minute,” or “Know ‘Donna Lee’ by heart”), and then 
track your progress through the course of a week (seven days last I checked, despite the Beatles’ 
claim of “Eight Days A Week"). By the end of the week you can see how close you came to achiev- 
ing your objective. Then you can either repeat the exercise and up the ante or find a new goal to 
work on. Make sure you enjoy the journey — and don't be too hard on yourself. 


If you run out of practice sheets or yours got worn out because you were so enthusiastically 


thumbing through these pages, you can always get more by visiting my Web site at 
www. Sourkrautmusic.com to download the latest practice sheet. 


APPENDIX B Extended Range Basses and Practice Goals 1091 


TECHNIQUE DAY 1 DAY2 |DAY3 |DAY4 |DAY5  |DAY6 IDAY7 GOAL 














PERFORMANCE 
































192 PART 6 Appendixes 


About the Author 


Patrick Pfeiffer is a professional bassist, composer, clinician, author, and bass teacher in New York 
City. He earned his bachelor’s degree in music from Arizona State University and his master’s 
degree in jazz studies from the New England Conservatory of Music, where he studied with famed 
bassist Miroslav Vitous. Pfeiffer’s solo CD Fruits and Nuts (recorded with his group Phoenix) earned 
stellar reviews and a recommendation from Bass Player magazine. Besides performing and record- 
ing, Pfeiffer teaches bass guitar at the world-renowned Katie Agresta Studio in New York and 
gives clinics on rhythm-section playing for bassists and drummers throughout the United States. 
His former students include Adam Clayton of U2, Jean-Louis Locas of Cirque du Soleil, Mark Wike 
of the Bogmen, Alec Such of Bon Jovi, and Nick diPierro of Her & Kings County. Other former 
clients include Red Ant Records, Polygram, and Arista Records. 


Pfeiffer has performed and/or recorded with George Clinton, Jimmy Norman, Phoebe Snow, Slam 
Stewart, Paul Griffin, Bernard Purdie, Babatunde Olatunji, Sheila Jordan, George Russell, Marga- 
ret Whiting, Joe Lovano, Carlos Alomar, Hernan Romero, the Marvelettes, the KMA Allstars, and 
the Gary Corwin Dream Band, to name a few. 


Besides Bass Guitar Exercises For Dummies, Pfeiffer is the author of the international bestselling Bass 
Guitar For Dummies (ist and 2nd editions, published by Wiley), as well as Improve Your Groove: The 
Ultimate Guide for Bass (published by Hal Leonard) and Daily Grooves for Bass (published by Carl 
Fischer). 


Pfeiffer is cofounder of Bass Remedies, Inc. (www.bassremedies.com), a company offering not 
only Internet-based video lessons but also live bass seminars featuring today’s bass stars. 


Dedication 


This book is dedicated to the love of my Ше, my beautiful, lovely Lisa Ann Herth Pfeiffer. 


I am buoyed by your love and balanced by your Reiki. 


Authors Acknowledgments 


My love and heartfelt gratitude to my wife and Reiki Master Lisa for her love, strength, wisdom, 
healing, and support whenever I find myself immersed in yet another big bass project. Your 
beautiful Reiki sessions are the reason I’m still standing tall after writing three books in two 
years. A huge thank-you to my wonderful friends: my tireless pre-editor Crissy Walford, a 
wonderful advocate for bass players and the English language; and Nick diPierro for the nightly 
bombing runs of special art. It is my supreme privilege to have two amazing musicians on the 
recording of this book’s CD: Michael D’Agostino on drums and Sean Harkness on guitar. An 
additional thank-you to Michael D’Agostino for also expertly recording and mixing the CD in his 
professional studio. Special thanks to Shawn Setaro for proof-playing my exercises. I am very 
grateful for the love, encouragement, and support I’ve always gotten from my parents, Ursula 
and Wilhelm Pfeiffer. Parents everywhere should help their kids follow their dream, even if it 
means having a musician in the family. Mine did. 


My utmost respect and thanks to the amazing For Dummies crew: Tracy Boggier, Natalie Harris, 
Alicia South, Todd Lothery, and all the people behind the scenes whom I never got to meet but 
who gave vital contributions toward the creation of this book. You all are a powerful team, and I 
am grateful for the long hours you’ve put in to make sure this book is the best it can possibly be. 
It has been a privilege and a pleasure to work with you. I hope you can implement some of my new 
terminology for future music books (such as BEOMD: By End Of Musician’s Рау... anytime before 
sunrise the next day). A special thanks to Marla Marquit Steuer for pointing the right folks in the 
right (my) direction, and a big thank-you to my incredible agent Bill Gladstone. I am indeed 
privileged to be associated with you. Thanks to all the people at Waterside Productions. I’d also 
like to thank the great Will Lee: You have been instrumental in my career and a wonderful inspi- 
ration. To my students, past, present, and future: I’m grateful for every lesson you teach me and 
every lesson you take from me. A special thanks goes to my brothers Andreas and Mark for their 
encouragement and support. I’m proud of you. 


I’m very grateful to my teachers: Hilmar Stanger, Bruce Amman, Robert Miller, Dennis Sexton, 
Frank Smith, Chuck Marohnic, Jeff Andrews, and Miroslav Vitous. I carry your lessons with me. A 
special thanks goes to Reiner Hoffmann — you gave me my start in the bass world by gifting me 
your bass; to Michael Tobias for building my precious MTD basses; and to Jason DeSalvo, Joey 
Lauricella, and Vinny Fodera of Fodera basses. I’m very grateful to Michael Carolan for giving my 
music a chance to be heard by the world, Lawrence Green for getting me started in New York, and 
Katie Agresta for so many things. You are incredible friends whom ГП never forget. Thank you, 
Adam Clayton — you never cease to amaze and inspire me. Thanks to Julie Hanlon, Dee Behrman 
(my coach), Loys Green, Mike Visceglia, and Ronal Sanchez. 


I am grateful to the beautiful people who are no longer with me but whose love and support have 
left an indelible imprint on my life: Marjorie Herth, Sandy Green, Paul Griffin, Gary Corwin, Mike 
Kissel, Bill Evans (the bass player), and Lance Berry. 


And a very special thanks to LuLu for being a source of unconditional love and to Juba Muk- 
tananda (may I one day be as good a person as you think I am already). 


A special thanks to Gurumayi Chidvilasananda of the Sidha Yoga Foundation and to Daisaku Ikeda 
and the SGI family. 


Publisher’s Acknowledgments 


Project Editor: Natalie Faye Harris Cover Photo: © jjwithers/Getty Images 
Acquisitions Editor: Tracy Boggier Production Editor: Tamilmani Varadharaj 
Copy Editor: Todd Lothery 


WILEY END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT 


Go to www.wiley.com/go/eula to access Wiley’s ebook EULA.